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Full text of "The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and ..."


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John Raw) ings 














•Aden, poblldHd la ik 

i^nzoa by Google 













Du,iiz=db,Google ■ 

Capyrfght, in Ibf Uaiud SuUi gf AoBitn, 191 


The Eacydopitfa Briumilci Comfaayi 





A- B. K ALnm Baiton Rimule, F.R.S., F.L.S., M.A., D.Sc. f >>•«■ 

KHpcr«(ilKDtpaniBaitaCBiiuoy,BriiuhMiiKuiii. ^miWT. 

A. B. B. A. E. HoDCnTOM. 

I ud Cburdi KiBiiry. Yorkiliin Uoilnl [udtpcndi 
Uyxm Edu^xiocul Service 

H Xi* Kim (Ri 

A. K. I. AxTBCi EvEiETT Smn.KY, F.R.S.. M.A., D.Sc. 

Fellow ud Tuiiic si Chr«'> Ci^IImc. Cambridic. Rtada In Zaolocy. Cambiidn i 

Univinily. i<iint-l>bliil at the Camtrulti Kaltral UiUcry. I 

KW.r. AlMiT Fkmuci POLLtro, M.A., F.R.K15T.SCIC. 

PnliMoi of Eniliih KiiiDry in Lhc Unixnily dI Landon. Ftliow oC al] Sol 

CoUkc, OiTard. AwBanl Ediiar at the Diel'maiy it Salimii Biapapky, ■'■ 

lool. LolhAii PriKnun tOKloid). 1691. Atxuld Prittaun, '°-° ' - 

£iii^ wiiftf On FioMUr SomuM : Ilnrj VIII. ; Tkamai Cm 
A. C*.* Rev. Ai.cxAin>Ei Coidon, M.A. 

LKturer « Church Hittoty in the Uavniir «( Maacbmti. 
A. H. B. AiiHUE Hehkv Bfllen. 

Fomiikr of tbt ShilinpHr* Hmd fnu, Stiariort-iiii-Avoii. I -. 

>/ OU £iii<uik n*^; i-Trlo/rM ttf Smg Bttb iflU Ettmbilict A^; Age 
A. B^ Sm A. Roimni-ScHiNDLEx, CLE. 

Ccnenl in the Fcnua Amy. AulbBT of EtUtr» Ftriiait Irak. 
A. H. Bb. AiTHUi Haultoh SHns, M.A., F.S.A. 

Ktcpcr 0/ th* D*p»rm»enl o< Cr«k ancl Ronud AnlHjiijtiH 
Munbrr of lhc Impcrul Ornun Archamlaci^ [luutbilc. 
Cmk Sii-lfluii in lit BriliA Uouum; &c 

Rev, Alexahsei J. Cueve, M.A. 

»__, .._'_ ..^ ,^ 

e RqiMW e( Madn* Uaivaiin'. ' 

idSuOiUti; Bnil: Cw- 
nejuanii, la/y-ii^H. t Pl^f nffl Aim. 

A. I* AoemiE LoMcwoM. ^ f 

ProTcKir it Ihe Co1lt(F de Fnncr, Knctor of lhc tcolt da Miuui CtudEi. 
Chtvalicr of the U^ of Honour. Mcmbtr of iht liutiiuic Auihnr sf Cit- \ Blob: CtuMikip ej. 
rnfUt d( Ai Gutilt a* VI. lUtk; Ascwnnli rdaliji >■ uhU Ji C^n^pH U il 

A. lb. His Auce Hetnill. 

Author of fo«u; ^oiir J>mi«; Hf JUifitn igf £^/(4WNhr £u^; Ac 
A. ■. 0. BiBl AcNU Makv CtEXKE. 

S« the bioirapbkal anidc; Clieki, A. U. 
A. R. AiTiED Newton, F.R 

Sac tht biognphica 
A.t.(L AlAH SuifUEKLV Cole, C.B. | 

ForrMrly Au'ilant Sccmiry. Board of Eduealion. Soulh Kfluintton. Anlborcl J 

OnaiafMia £iirfMi* 5tUt: CtutttttM Tapalry. Emkni4iry, liu mi EBtlimn'] 

Tiaila in Viaati and AlhM Ununm; Ac I 

A.T.a4. Sa AnTMon T. QmLLH-CouCH. J 

S« itae biutraphiul anicle: Quiu.i>-Couca. Sir A. T. ' ' 

A. W> H,* AiTMUit ' 

'A«i»pl B Bli»t, thowintall UririMual co mi awM n. a; 











Atnio WiLuiH FoLuw, H.A. f 

Ahuwii Knper of Prinud Boob. Brilkli Muhub. FtOn el Ka^t Cnlktb m^,^ 
LondDii. Hon. Sccnury. Bibliiinuihkxl Sodcly. Ediloi nl Btati mir^ Batti-l ! "■, 
—J =.u,.' -■-_ '~-u*<Jiig. ti( III iitrnrj. OiicC Edilgr «( tbi " Ooba " ""^ * 


Adviw on Frirolaim to the Adminlty, Rone OAcr. Indii OCc*. Corpcntioii of 

London, ind Pon o( London Authoniy. Proidcnt of the Society of Cheiraul < BIIUiL 

Utiutuy, Menbor ol Ibe Csundi o( Uh OwBucal SocHly. McintKr of Council ol 

InRjlBWof ChMiiury. Alitllor ' "- "— ""— ' "■-' -" ■- 

PriimtU: Cltimical TcOiu^; d 
Oun.13 BEuoNT, D. ts. L., Lttt.D. (Oios.). 

Sh tbc bioinpUal uticLci BllUHT, C 
Cnn. J. R DkVENPOiT, F.S.A. 

Anttint to the Knptr of Printed Booh. Britii 

DccofitJve Booiibindtnn. Sodery of Arte Autbi 

fn^JiU Emtmimi BvttUUiiiti: HtOary if Iti 
Hon. Cauoll Djivokoh Wucbt. 

5a iht b<oinpUci] uikk: Wucm, C a 
Cxum EvEUTT, M.A.. F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S. 

Fonoeriy Scbolu of Mifdaln CoU^e, OilonL 
C E. AiEii- 

Formcrly Tkt Tima Cornnondnl !a Bimot Ains. 

' ■a.rSS4-'~- 

Sn CsAKLEi NoiTON EocccHii Eliot, K.C.H.G.. C.B., M.A., LL.D.. D.C.L. r 

Vice-ChlnecTlorofShelHcldtJnlueiiily. Fonnerly FdlovotTrinilv College, Oilont. 
H.H.'i ConiniHiancc ind Comnunder-in-Chler foi the Briiiih Eiii lUrica Pro-'j < 
tBrtonle; Agenl mnd ConKiT-General nl Zancblr; nnd CoBKil-CeDerzl for Certnaci 
Eul Africa, 1900-19(14. Aiubaml TiirkryiMEiiraft;UatnfrmllitFBreatl:Ac, ^ 

Hov, Ch)kui Ehok Shtth. /« 

S« ibc biocnptiictl utidc: SaaiS, CS4>Ui Eaoftr. ( 

Chules Hose, D.Sc. T 

FmiKrly Divisaiul Riudiiil ind MesibH' o( the Supitaie Gnndl d Smnwmk. J •■ 
Auilxii d( a DacritUt Ataniit ^ lit JTuuhIi if Strnta, ud nimcnnu ttpm in I 
■cientific journ«l«, L 

CluRvt ICiho SaoRiEK. f 

> Editor of the 5M<», Author ot OarlaUt Brna ani ie Cirdi; TU BrtntliA Bt 

Liji and LtlUri; Ac. 1. 

Ceaiu* LtnailDGE Kincstoid, M.A., F.B.Hln.S.. F.S.A. f 

AiHitanl Secretary to tlie Board ol Edudiion. AiKlior of ZJ/( ^ flnr; V. Editor-' 
of Qlmidu al LuUn ud Stow'a S*m) tj Lmdf. I 

Crustuh PrtSTxi, D. ts. L. 1 

~ ' ' ' • F, PuiL Chevalier o( the Letkn oT HoDour AuihorofJ 
_ >. » , . n. jj mmfin tAluu u la Irfrnda di 

-.IT Seeiiihcion. D.l , 

x- of Phyvoiofy. UBiveniiy 

M.D., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. f 

--, .,. , li Liveniool. Fcnicn Mudier o( Acadenila] BnlK Fknulctf' 

... „ .ienna, BnuMl>.C«tincen, Ac. Author g( TiW /■Ircroiiw ,tdHiii ^Ikl 

JVenviK SjuMin. I 

Uajoi-Geneim. Sii Cbailei Wnuuf Wuwm, K.C.B., K.C.H.C., F.ILS., RX. f 
Secretary Id iIk North Amcrfean Boundary Connuluion. iSsft-iSfi^. BritlthJ riMaiM Muuta fs Mrfl 

'-- — ■-■■ ■■- ■— ■-- "- ndaiy Commluion. I>ireciSJ3>.Beial of Ibel '*""™ i« r"'- 

rccIor-Ceneml tt Milliai -■ • - ' 

[illiary Ei 

.•llaiid and 

( ifik Ctmurj; Ac 

. iry,U.S.A. AulhocofJ ' 

rn^ CmailMlinel Tlmry; SeUaiomi 1 I 

1 iIk North Amcrfean Boundary 

- - er on the Servian BDundaiy Com 

Ordnance Survey, tflSfr-iB^a. DimtoC'CcneL^p « ...,-.. 
1S9S. AMliorOCFnmXeniltlCtanMmiLi/niUrtaim 
DuKCjtN Blaci MacDOH«u>, M.A., D.D. 

Professor of Semitic Laniuisei. Hanford Theological 

Dadapmtmi of UuiliiK fMniy. ' ' ' " 

/rm /»■ KkaUMM. JUi'luu kuil 

DCHCTWm Ckaeles Bocuiei. . 

Author dI Hiilarw nf Bdwium: Em^nd and Jtanla {« CMmI ,!({•! aUffry ^i 

Ckiiui; Lijt mf CtrdM; India im •'-- — ' ''- '- ' 

David Cioal THOiaoit. , _ —..._.,. 

Formerly Editor of the An JhuhL Author of TTu Bndun Jltrit; TU gtr l ■ ■ » ■ ■{ iNmt. HlUH KlIfbL 

Scla^«SPa,<dB,:LiIii^"Piu":LiI,tJBn<tli: lie ' 


Ballkil College, Oxford. Author of Eiuyi s*i> JIaiial Amtjiii: Fenptuinj Tlfj I 
Claintal CoMtBU. Tilt CeUitrt Variatium, lod inalyas «( many other cLuacal I 1 

n«ly Driliah \^t«.C«uiil u Sa 
•-im-. Ijlt gf Emilia CatUlar. 



I. a. 









Dmoii. Lusni Taoiut. 

StipDidiuy MaiiMnlc far ^MmriM 
miHuiKi u tbcubour CwnminicB ud 

Itsv- DdguS Hacfadvih, ma. 

■nd RboHhlL Parmcrty Ataiunt Cur 
1 . , ^ ,^,jj^ L,^ Commiwioi 

li, Hifhpip. Director of the Londo 

Eknmt BAimi. M.A. 

Fdlow (4, ind Ltrri 



K of Maun CnUcft. Cnvei 

Antbor if £i/j{(u]t Bast iVdMi ; KUuUica IluHisfcno ; 

E*inn HtiTLEV CouuDec. M.A. 

BaDid College, Oatixd. Ediur of Byrem' 

Sn EDWAtD H. BmnniT, But., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. li^i). 

M.P. loc Bocy St Edmuiidi, 1847-1S51. Aiahor at A Hiumy if Aiuinl dtpafkyt 

Eun HovuL Mnnn. M.A. 

Lraartr ud AniuM Ljbmrlin, ind fomnt)' Fdisw of F 
Cambridcb Uajvcnily Lecturer in FkloeofTophy. 

i; LdJm tf Sarnad TtjUr CtU- 

e CtOtft. 

nO^nut ^iZsn 

Sodtl) «/ D)lrl ami Ci 


BiTTutcr-at-Laur, Middk Temple. Jiii».«ljl<ir ' 
tltbtJnmiliiCsmtanilmLipilalnm. AutlMii 

Eammo Owin M.B., F.R.C.S., ILD., B.Sc. 

livFm'ty. Hiad o( Oirniic 
iBler. Eiamiiwr in Dvein 
anial 1^ D}cinl:J)tc. Edllr 

Stafl of Ntm Vati TVOnw 

ith Sir John Mudondl. C.B 


I Ho^ul, 

amw3^ Aiiaumjif^'Srttiir SaAaO. 


SpedaJ LccIuRT in Partucueee Utenture In tbe Ualvenlly c 
DKiHUdoc. PortupicK Order of S.Tluuo, Cormpondinf Mi 
a — r • =-i— cei. Liibon CeotrapH—' = — '■•'- •- =■- 

gl Londga, Maocbeite 

X, M.A., D.D.. D.C.I., C.B., C.V-0. 

in Partucueee Utenti 

.. . pi«c Order of S.Tluu„ , ^ ..._... ^j_. 

Acedrmy of Sciencee. Lnbon Geocraphiol Society, Ac. EiuaiAer la iSxiugiKVt 

id Mailef of Etai 

. _. . , wtM^iU^Wdlm'.liui 

FuHX Bimux. 

OpuinR.N. FonimAdviKFtuMippuV 

r*i Fbwi in J»p«n. Editor gf the Xwi - 

ivlici ae [jBpcfial EoginceiiDi Collc^, Tokyo. Aul 
FlANi Dtwsoii At»ii$, D.Sc., Ph.D., F.K.S., P.G.S. 

" ' -■■- '^— -riy of ApiJiftd Scitnct. »nd Lojan PmfcBor of GeolDgy, McCiH- 

uuLfcaL Fioidcflt of C^oadian Mining Iniliiuie. 
a PAasoNi, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S,, F.R.Ammiap.lHST. 

Vkt-Pmidcnt, Anatoniical Society of Cmt Britain and lielaad. Lecluiei 

Anatomy at St Thoniat'i Hnpiial and the London ScKod< of Medicine fot Woi 

Fonnerly EvantincT in tlw Univenitja of Cambridge, Aberdeen. LeiKkin ud 

mingham; and Hunterian FnfcHorat tbe Royal College of Surg«ui& 

Deal of ibe Faci 

tn Kaitho. Tokyo- Correipondi 
"' t—merly ProteiKir -' " 


Ftaxas HuETRi, Pb.D. (1B4C-1SM). 

FonnFriy Mtiikal ChIK of TIti Timii. Auth 

Primmftl Ufuni Liunumtim 111 KulM- '-- 

lb ruiiri. Edilot of Crul Ituiieiav. 
Sot FiANCis J. Camfbeu., IX.D., F.R.C.S., F.5.A. 

Principal, Royal Normal Collcte foe Ibe BliKl. Nl 

Pa(Kt> <» tkc EducatiDO of the BEiad. 

BI«ni»D: Blank Vnh; 

Bout: UidiiiU. 



F. B. C. 




0. 0. p.* 





FUKCU John Havimteld, M.A., LL.D., F.S.. 

. .„_. .. , .n Ike Univenity si Oilon]. Fdlow at 

ui»cHiuW College. Fellow ol the Bnlah Acvfeiny, FomHrly CU>h, Stuckir' - 

rmorindLibrarianoIChriuCliiircJi.Oiiord. FonTtLcclulT- ' '" ■■- 

Df MiHWfnphi oa Roaaa HiHory, especially Roiuq DfiUil 

FB*Npt_Luwii,n( GuFmH, MX, ?h.D., F.S.A. 

Reulu in ^v^oloi, , 

.Gemun ArchMroloeial Vni]iEute. the SodM Ah 

Ciro. A ■ ^^ ' ■ ~ ■ - 

Papyri i» 

tiK Arrkvolorirai Svwty uid 
i. Hon. Member oLlmpeful 
lue.ind thelniiiiutEiyiiiiiii. 
fkii; OlahtM ^ IhiDimiHc 

il inkle: LucxU). Sik F. J. D. 
Fuinc R. Caha. 

Aulhor ol 5nitl AJrialrem (b Cruf TtikuOe Umu 
FsAMCiE Richard Uauhiell, C.U.G. 

Urut.-Col. R.A. (■■■'--"■ 

iSqg. Miliiaiy An 
Oiifnil Surdiitam: 

I'lish Schoof of Archaeology, AtbenL Feltow ol IGng'i 

Colksc, Cambrkjgb 
FaiDEUci WnuAM Maituiiid, LL.D. 

Sec the blocnphical >r1idc'. MAJTI.AND, F. W. 

Ceoice A. BouiEHCEi, D.Sc,, Ph.D., F.R.S, 

InchiiECofllitCaUmlouiiIRepiirniiidFul , _. 

MuKutB. Vkc-Pindeni ol the ZoolDjical SouHy ol 

Rev. Geoice Edkuhihoh, M.A., F.R.Hm.S. 

FoRwIy F^la> >ad Tutor of Bniemxe ColleiF. Oxiord. Ford'i Lcclun 
iqio. Eniploytd by Briiiah Covernrnent in preparation c^ tlie BritJth Ca 
B--.:.t. r...^...v 1 1 B.;.;.t. CniaBa-ftraiUaq bwinduy atbjtta 

EM, rt.m.lHST.L.t., T.i^a- 

at Uedamual HaoMint of UiOiri^ 


_._ ,.. _. ....nlific and tcchftio] rt, 

printed by the Cajudiaa Govemineal. 
Sli Geouie D. TAtnUAH Counz. 

S« the bioinphiia] anick: Goldii, Sie C. D. T. 
Georce Wasiqnctoh Caile. 

See the biocnphical utide; Cable. G. W* 
Rev. GumTBEs Wheelee THATCireit, M.A., B.D. 

Warden of Camden Collen. Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor IB Hebcew 

Old TcMamcDl HiSory at Mauheld College, Oaferd. 
Rekiv BKADLty, M.A., Ph.D. 

JoinlH^itorolthe ffflsfnifoh Dklawy (Oiford). Feflow ol the Driliih Acadt 

Auihsrsf rt(5Mryi^ataK*il TU Uaiinft Engiik-.&c 
HnCH Chisrolh, M.A. 

FociDBlySchoUrof CorpuiChriiliColIrgt, Oilord. Editor el tbc lltli Editic 

the Eiuidrfutiia BriUnia. Co-cdilor ol tlie loth tdilioa. 
Snt HnCH Cdailes CurroiD, K.C.M.C. 

Colonial Swrttari - ■ 

Rnfdcnt, Pahang. 

of Sl-Jia IM Brn 

Rev. HtPKiVTE Delebaye, S.J. 

Bollandial. Joint-editsr ol tlK ^da Jautonub 
Rekei Fuim. 

An Critic, CmW ia Btam Aril (PatitJ. 
Sii Hunt HAHII.TON JanNsioM, K.C.B.^ C C.H.G. 

,. Ceylon. Ftllow of the Royal Cofoniaf Imlitule. Foixierly 
Colonial Secretary. Trinidad and Tobuo, iooi-ioot. Author 
n H^manUr, Firlier India; it. JaQl-aullKK ol A Diaintry 


'k.Su H. H. ■ 

Bclllib Zul AMm. 

BoUtU: Hillary (h fariti 

BnbiBl: duty; 

BnuUi HiUtry (h tart). 

BitUh CtioBkk (fc>ar4. 
Bnxn, CeBsl d*. 



HtXKV Pe«CIV*1. BlCCAl f ^t. , . 

' Author olrkiVijivHtf lit CUM 10 CnnriMA \Mbot, J 

Btmv StDAiT loNu. MA. r 

FonnBly Ftllov ind Tutor of Triiiny CtAlktc, CWord, ikI Dircdoc of Ihr Britiih J 
"SchDol It Rome- Mnnbcr ol Iht Gcnun iBpcria] Archa«l«icAl Liutitutc, I 
Author of rib JIsn»£«^pf, Ac I 

RimT WiLUAU Cauesi Davd, M.A. 

Fctlow ind Tulor oC BilLnl CMrgc. Oiford. Fdlow at AH Souli' Cotlip. Oitnnl, ] 

J. A. r. H. 

iS9]-t9ai. Author o< CtvfanHfH.&q^Miil 
H. WicsKAit Steed. 

CoTRipaiideiu o( rW nna il Rome (lt9J-i9M) 
Jomr Aleundci Fulleb Mutuhd. M.A., F.S.A 

Mu(i»l Cntk of Tke Timii. Author o( Z.i/( o/5(tewn: 

ok: Wumi </ Gnuii Uuic; £i(luk i/iiu m If Him 
li tfaidd. Editor of tba new cdilioa oC Crsi 









J. P. Pi. 

iiW MriMiu udj<>lt>ii 

« Allen Howe, B.Sc. 

um ol Pnctial CcolDcy, LoDdoa. 
he Duly Cknwitk. Author of Tin . 

Swinym' AHOciulan. Author ol QtaMUm. 
\. W Coimn-Ckxi. 

Author ol Eiayi n AH; Ac. 
LUES David Bouicriek, MA., F.R.G.S. 
Cona|ioaikn( ol TU Timti in South-Eutmi 

SecTTtary uid Uhnria 

LLT, LiTT.D,, F.R.Hui.S. 

Cilmaur Profmor ol Spannh Languan and Liunnm, Uvtnml Uidvtrdly. 
Norrnan MicCiA Larturrr, Cainbridn iTninnilv. FcUcnr ol (he Briliah Atadmy. 
KniihtConiwiidn'oI the Order olAlpbaaHiXll. tjafliatdl A Bitltryal Spamtk 

Sni Judfl CEotoi Scott. K.C.I.E. 

SuprHntnidFnt and Pditical Officer. Southtra Shu 
Tin Upf Burma GOMMr. 
IK HoucE KooHD. M.A., LL.D. (EiUn.). 
Autlnr ol Fimiltl E<iilni4; Sladia i» Punit 
F>*v— "■- 

XtrtiiBt 4Di 


Clinit'i CollegF, Cainbridit. LKturrr on Modem UWorv le the Cambridn Unl- 
wniiv Local Lmitn Syodkatr. Autlnr ol lilt >/ ttaptltim I.; Hifilmmic 
Saiditi; Till DvitQpmriil ^ Hi EmrtfiBm fl*linu; Tim Li}t ^ Pill; kc 

iarolQuRB'tCoiren. Oilonl. Lecturer in Gulo, Ei 
■iiy oTGndon}. Jant-cdilor of Grgte'i HiiUry^tirim 

Kiv. JoxH PumKn- Peteo, Pb.D., D.D. 

CJuon Rcwtenllny, Calhednl ol New York. Fonxtty ProTtaa 
the Univtnitif of ftniwylveiila Diicclor o( the Uiii— ~«- f..~ 

Isaia. i8«S-i«as, Auihn o( Nifpitr, or =-"— 
fBMralu; JCripMra, Mrbnm ad Ontliaii. 






f^rotnphrr to (he CHlofial 

EdinbuTBh Un.vcTBiv. NciirMHl 

MddaJUM ot ibc CcoMficaL Soctcly ol Lomloo. 
JuiEi Tavui Milton, M I C.E f 

Chifl Erginm- Surveyor ID Lloyd"! RrgiBry ufShippTiii. VIn-IVtiIdfnt, In«)tiitc J . 

ol NjviI AiThiiccii. Member d( Council. WitulcallilinrKEBtinan. Aulborl' 

oJ nuoy papers on Marine EnBineenni lubjcctt. L 

TuiES Tkoibon Skotwell, Pit D 1 . 

FcafoKir a( HiRoo <i> Coloinbhi Unimcy, New York Cty. 1, 

Canain J. Whmlv Dixon, R.N. f ■ 

Niutfcd A_cHor [D Coun o( Ammt 

Mcdwiy Fleet Krtem. 



* 1906. Psnolr Sul Conpuads, \ \ 

Authsc e( ^uMTil uif U( fwadWm ^ (to Ctrmtm 

Oueen'i (_ , 

SnoittinK Schubr of Widhim Colleie. OilonL MuAnAi 
AutttDt d Kuca io Ciuu m4 kii Snam. 

iBonltao* (h|N L-VlU. 

lUaf iki Oreitiua, it. 
CoDNT LDtiow, Litt.D, (Own.), Ph.D. (Pngoe), P.R.S.S. 

ChinibefUla a( H.M. Ihc Emperor of Auuiia, Klif of BobemU. Hoo. Member llhWtfi; Biiltn and 1Mb* 
o( Ibc Rnyil Society di Uliraiun. Member a( the Bobcmiia Aadcmy, Aci tan 
Authoc of Butonu.- A% Hiotntat Sttuk; Tlu HuMnuu ^ Subiiu flliWu 
Uclure, (Moid, 1904): ThiLiUcfi Tima p! /.U »iu; Ac ' 

LatnuncE Bihvom. 

See the UognpUeil inide: Bumm, L. 
Loun DsonSNE. 

Sm Ike bc^nphlol ittide: DucHnm, L H. Ol 
Lulu Fudeuc Scon, K.C., H.A. 

New College, OiTwd. Jainc Han. SecnUuy of Istenulunu] Miritti 

LtvBOM FuNca VturoM-HikcomT, ICA., M.Ihst.CE. (iSj^i^o;). 

[N'ofenor tl QvU Ennanrle* u Univenity CsUtic, LondaB. iWi-ioov , -- 

Menber of Jiirr lor Civil EneiBeiriK T^rit EibUlka, l«oa Anibw ol Xaari Ct 
«d C^iuJl:»artei>rieiil£)HliiC»d£ji(iH(riii(«>I^MHCniffK(in; Ac. ^ 


DarT^iTer, Middle Temple an 

Ac M.P. for North Wtsim 

Lkonud Juns Spehcek, HA. 

»__, ■_ r* . _/»■? — -uirm. niaru._ ,..,.„, .^„ 

F, CambndR. ud'HiikneH Sd^r. 
ELLIOT 01 Ebe Mintnuopeai dfaroiifv. Author qf EnBlithtnailatioDi of *' "' 
Fntlm SKma and it. BrHxn'i ifuMm; Kdiitm. 

), F.CA. 
nl of Ecooomic* aiul Polilia' " 

■■Ci ^op^tor^Bf r Ac 

iaenloCy, Natural IKdary Mt 


If oiu CAnEB, PH.D. (Ldpoig). 

Chief Rabbi at the Sephirdic Coaimunitiei nl Englind. 
ConglcB, 1898. 1S99. 1900. llcheSer Lcctun- "-' — ' 

'" ^ '. ArtglO'Jeviih AaocUtion. Author of HiJU 

itrnti A fitm Hitrrw fi ' ■ ~ - — 


Cwnr. UtHma Liputt. 

i.zea by Google 



B Ad. 







iMtm JicqnM litxaa Pumr. f 

FatlDeil* Airhiviil ID Ilie FmKh Nalinu) Aldtrn*. AmdEuTVl tbe loidtaEC si I »j_ ,. i. ^ ,. 

Fnncx^admyiitMmJuid PsHliur Scicncn). Autinw nit' laduiliii iM iii en < WI^II»-I»-C-UNM; 
Frmndm-Qtmat-.tttAnairittleanMiiattHieiiiu; FTiifMi I ^ I, crmiHi Bttr- BAna, OMkn oL 

IfoLiKim St Jobh. 


CaVHaoml Anlhmpelatlit In SoulhoD Iflfala. CeWmn mB m M 
SociM d'AmlinMxlcicie do Puii. Autkor iJ Timtlil Trmaitnuii; 
Mtritv mAaiiMiitK. 

OiWjUV BAajtMi F.S.A. r 

Hoii. CcniakifiH to ScudiiifCouaal of ttaHoBoiinble Society o(tlicB*nactut.-< tttOtr. FamilT. 
Editcc d tbe Aiiaaar, tfo^stoi. L 

"*»■"""• {tSLfSI 

OuDf MtcNiB FUEimcH Hmucl, 7K.D., LL.a, F.ILS. f 

Ftii<twir of MKbinia ind Hubmiuia in tbc Ccnint TaAiucii CdBrgc ot ihr Oty . 
tnS Cnkli of Londoo Inuitute. Author o( Kidfri ni Jtatori; Cnp*"^ njHw; 

Pnxci Fmt ALCtuvrrca Kxoronm. 

See the biafTiplual uticie: KiorOTUH, P. A. 
Pm> Caulms Mncstu., M.A.. D.Sc., LL.D., F.tLS. 

SeottMy to the ZoolofiolSpciriyDl London, l'-- •— " .- »■— 

Ijsj. Fwnirner in ZonlBgy lo 

Hiiililen Culk^. C 

Coll™ oT PI 
[]' c( toodsB, 

PhywMne, itfi-it^i, 1901- 

« and CluBiaJ Lectum. at Emmuud Collite. CUibildiF. ud VninniCy ; 

er in Cooiparative Philii)o(y. Ute SeciHuy c< the CuibridgF Ptuldocicd ' 

Socieqi. AaOm tl Manual 1^ Cemtamii—PliiUliciiAe. 
Paul 6 KOHOoy. 

An Crilic of tbc Otumrr IDd the Daly UaO. Fondrrly Edilor si tlH AlHlt. 
Auln otriHdrm WalUr Cram; Vdal^ua, Uj, and Ifgrl; Ac 

PmuT Scmsiowm, Pk-D., F.Cb. 

"--'--■'~- --■■ ■— -' " — -— "BBber rf Cbmrnili™ ol SodWy o( 

ChFmiaU Ind I 

luMry. Autbi 
>Utiliing. Ac 

ituu at Bm 

ui wtida a« tbe CbcatKcy u 

PiTiK WniuH Claydim (d. 1901]. 

Formniy l^nidcnt, InitituIE of I«mun>If, Londoo, Utenry Edttv o( tlw 
Dody JVnl. Aullw el SeintHlk iln and Kditim raafkri; En/fond nte £iiri|. 
BaaianiS^i: Earij LiU ^ Samnd Kapri: Riffrt cat ka CtnttMtararitt; Emtfatd 
ndtr ill Caaliiim ; Ac 

RaBUT Ahchel, 

AichniM 10 ibe Deputucst de IXne. 

BiWal lit ui Mi brh 4 

St John'! CMcft, Ctat 

It I. Foexx, r2.S. 

Fauii Uammali, lUftila inJ Btii, ■■ jjriliil JlwoMi &c 

Kmeu Kam Bun (d. iqoo). 

Aaiiunl Ubnhin. Briibh MuKum. iHi-iqdb. AiUlnr O^Seaniitm 

Ptlilital HiMn tf Dammaik, JVn» ohI A-^nh 'J'jr'iwi Tl. fin* Amo^, J S^fS-ZTlLr^^^* 
till It nU: Salanic Earati: lialViliaii UiiUrtalPiliiMi and Riuna from rtSa I Bopl'; BIMM, nr; 




RontT PniE, filMllw 

Pnf«v of MinlDf Id CdiiraUi UnlnrBCr, Kn Yofc \ Boitas. 

X»Ti FonAunM, D. is I~ r 

Sccnury to the Ecok da Chuta. Homwy Libnriu to the BibliMbtqw ) 



iltbor of Gmmy tg 
■■■nil; CW^At 

, , -^ IsmHy FcHov, CtnviUc'iDd C*iii> CoDtp, 

Ptlmiii* EiiilenlicKi Fund. EumirKr in HEtna 
ily, iwi-iwl. Council of Royil Atiitic Socklv, ' 
• < Anmait IvcripHiaa'. TU Urn if Wohi and 

SiDHIT COLVIN, M.A., tnr.D. 

S(* Um bJoFjphkal utick: Cotmi, Smnr. 
Vttconwr St Ctui. 

Satkc bidinphical utide: iDmuxniv; lit Ejtu.or. 
SiMRT Hoiruo Vum, UX, D.Sc, F.ILS., F.L.S. 

Sberudiu Pnltwc of Bounv, OiTud Uninr^iy. Fdla> al Mudilen Collcn. 

ABIbxef tom n Ib PhjiuLa ^ Plaili; TatBet* r] Btbatj; Ac 
Smvlet LAyt-Foots. U.A., Lnr.D. 

Farmaly Prrfmar aL Arabic, Dublin Uidvcnily. and Eumlncr In (he Univenlty 

Mtnbcr of tb* ktaaiU^ ComaWoa f« 5k Pmrvaiian of the Mo^mcnli oT 

Arab Art, ftc. Ailbot of £ " ' ' " 

farbj; &fr*; nrteyiftc. E 
Sahuii. lUwioit Gumm, U,.D., D.C 
Sec tbc t»afn|il>ic*l aiticle: Camhnsi, 


Gcnnu Aithacciicaical Inditate. FDmerly Scbolir of ChrAI Church, Oijord.' 
CnMti FdlDw, TB97. Coniniton Piiioiu, 1906. Anlhat e( Tit Oatwiad 

_ __.. . mSuic Ofior f' the Loion (4 1 

/MmMWuo/ Fraaia and Ditirmat!; ta M.P. (or BIkUub, I' 
Tboiui GiEOoi Bioon. U.D., F.R.S, 


ir at Phytiotofy in ttc Univenitii at Toronto. Author of B 

Su Tboiui HoMMxrou) Homes, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.G., D.Sc. 

Supmntoidnt, Fmnticr Survey), India. itf>-i8«S. Cold MrdalllM. R C.S.. 

Londoii, iSSt. Autlwr tt Tin Indian Agrdrrfml: 7^ Cmfnu */ Aka Xiu'i 

Award; loiia; TltH; ftc 
Tbokas Sectqiuc. M.A. 

Uciunr in HiworVi EaH London and BliVtack CaOtta, Uolvnuiy ot London 

SUohopc Pnieinani OxTvdi lUI'r- AidaUiif Efiiliv nf Dvb^man dT Nalittrarl 

Bifpapkf, 1091-1901, Autbi 

S« the biocnpbical anidc; WtTn-Dgnon, T. 
T. W. Ran DAvnit, LL.D.iTh.I). 

PmfeiKr at Compuitive Re"'-' 
Ten Society. FiDlini o( the 

Aiblic Society, ieS]-i»oi. .._. .. 

Earfy eaddUmn StddUil India; Di^atmiuli 


ety. Frihn o( the Britiili Audcmy. Ski 

Aitalle Sodely. ieS]-i»oi. Author of XmUIuh^.! 




Pdlow at Mardilen Collne. Oifonl. Pnilnisr o 

CoUwe, Umpelw. lUo-l&Bl. Author of CxiA 4a , . r 

iln rui; Giadr u Cn%dih>aU; Caiili M Smoaiatd: 71a Alpt ta Ham atd 
HiHary; «c EdiKr of the Alpin, Jannal, ■•—•■- «- 



Author ol Uiifnt Eartft;.^ 
W, B.* Wliuui BujioK, M.A„ F.C.S. 

Chairman, Joini CooimiiiH i]f Potury MinubctiDen I'Citii Bifttin, 
£a^k SImrwan awf £iirMiit*B»; Ac. 

W.B.&* WlUiAK BmclaV SqoIm, ma., F.S.A., F.R.C.S. 

AiaiHant in nhaiie at Printed Muilc. Britith Muealn. Hon, Sieieti 
Purcell Sodety, Fnrmeriy Muilcal CiitJe ol IF ' ~ 
andCML Editor s( ^irj-i Jtfau 







■dSutboluiL E^Her el JaMeU Ruin, 
, F.ILS., UJmt.CE^ U-ImrJI-E., 

>. AaUridWrmmiltlmeridtacmiBiiiii 
kt TBiiMiB Rome. 
WlLLUH R. Luio, D.Sc. 

BukB- Pnitiaer of Cnptoaume Botuy. UnlvBaiy c< MuriiaMr. AmIhc gf . 

Pipcn <» BMuicl] Subject*. incIlufiBf Mocp"^- ■■ "'- •■-- ' " '— 

PtEndofihytB uad GyiaiKii]laitH, in *'^"*^*^ 

Wiuiut Bmi Wnmui, M.A. 

W MpipbiikfjF ud life biincy «( BiyophrM, 

Trinity CoU^ Cu^xidi*. Cud Editor if tb> KiU. 
W. J. HnHMlH. 

]>ut Soiior Cnod Dactn ol PnoBHaoa d Entfud, 1*74. Hoa. ^aiw Wwden 

of Gnjid Lod|a oi Egypt. QudicE lad Echu, A& 
RiCBT Riv. WiLUUi LiwuHCB, D.D., IX.D. 

Biibnp of MHHcliiiKtt*. AnhBC of Sirfj i^ fUli'ls Brnb; lift ^ Ag«r 

WiLLUH Lawioh Ciaht, U^ 

rhiiJiMut <d CoioniaJ Hytoiy. Qutea'i Univtridty. Kinnton. Cmdi. FamHly 
Bdl L<clui« in Celomil Hulory, Oiford Uuvcnitv. Edits J Auiif Uh Frin 
Cmtca (Cuudiu Serin). 

WiLLLut Lieu Reuwih Catsi Ol'i'iSgj}. 

Krf''OC ol i>Kj»a«u* 0/ /i^-' *■-■ ''- *- 


E : Romm, DAMim Gaiuu. 

W. R. LEiat", F.SJ,. 

Prinapi] dl the Ccnlia] School oT Arttund Ci 
Author of AnkiUOan, Mjaitiim ami UyU 

WiLunoH Wauu, Ps-C, D.D. 

ProltH of Chuccb Hi«n>r. y>tc UiL 

'---' "- -' -hU( t/inltJ 5w«: Tat S^wmtHn; . 

ithor clBIHtrjtf lit Craptts- 
-'■*mCMm:L. "^'^ 

CSlf<«c' Oifonl. Sub-Rnctor. lUi-i^at-^CUrDcdLKiii 

WtuiiH Waidi Powm, U.A. 

Fdlow (4 Liacoln CBLhvc Oifonl. Sub-Rnctor. IUi-iW(. CUTotd 1 
Ediaborih Univmiiy. 190S. AMiiai tt TU CUjSlalt i/lti Cmla and 
TU Ktami Ft^iKili if Ikr KipaUkaa Firiai-.ac. 

WiuiAii WAun Rociwxu, Lie Teeol 
nl^nr d Oiuiea HiMoty. U» 

n Theolo^al SemJury. Hew Yotfc. 






MSKlldH (tlw IDC. rdilliyapkatii. ■ Dontd tribe af AMcu 
" Antx," of Hunitjc origin, dwcUlnf in the cuurn put ol [be 
Nnbiui doen. In ibe middle ifa Ibey were koown ii Bcji 
(«.!.]. *ad they ue the meet chenctoiMk of the Nnbiu 
" Areln.'' Wiib the Abibd» uid Hedmdoi tbn repnieiu tlie 
Bleminya of dunce] wilien. LiDguiMlc*]lyend|cosrapUally 
tbe BuhidD loRD e conDecting Upk between the Hemitk popuU- 
tjom ud the t^yptluu. Nomlaelljr tbey ue Hehonuoeduie. 
Tbejr, howEvo', piaave khik oon-Idunk rdtgloui pimctlce*. 
mod aiahit tncei of uilmil-wanhip In Ihcir rule of sevn 
kCliiic the lapcBl cc the putiidge, whidl ue nguded u 

BUBOP, ns SORT BOWUr (i7W-iS{5), EnjUih muainl 
campoeei, wu bran in I.auloD en tlM i8(h of Navemlxr 1786. 
He received hit utinic tninli| from FMndeco BiuichI, uid in 
iSa4 wrote tbe nude to ■ piece oiHed AMidiiia, whkh wu 
peifomicd it UeigUe. Hii ant coopoiitJoo wu tbe miuic to 
tbe bellet o[ Tamotait ctSaJaut, prodaceiioiie&U Ihir King'i 
tbeUic Tbii proved jucceuful, and wu followed within two 
jai3 hj leveiil othen, of which CaraOaaa, a paolominiic 
ballet, wrillen for Dmiy Line, mey be oimaL In 1809 bil but 
open. Tin Clrcauian'i Siidt, wu produced (I Dtmy Lane; 
but unforlumtely tbe iheaire wu bumed down tllet one pa- 
foimuice, and the Kore of the work periled in the flunca. Hii 
neat woii of imponann, the opera of TAc Uamac, wtitlen for 
the Lfceum in lEio, esublished bii rcpuiaiioD, and probably 
■ecuted for bim an appointment for three yeari u compoeet for 
Covenl Cardia theatre. TbenumerouiwoAi — opeiu, builctlu. 
canlatai, incidental muiic to Shahcipeare'i playi, lie— which 
he compcsed while in tbii position, art is great part forgoiicn. 
The raou nicceufiil wei«-74c Virpn sf llu Sun (1813), TAe 
ifiJIfl' and Uii/ni(iSt3),CiiyVMnen'>iian(mf.StriK (1816), 
Uaid I/aria* and Clari, Introducing the will-biown air of 
" Home, Sweet Home " (iS]i). In iSis Bohop wu induced 
by EUiston to transfer bia aervkvA from Covent Garden to the 
rival bouie in Druiy Lane, for which he wrote with unuiual care 
(he opera of AlaJdin, intended 10 compete with Webet'i Otcrm. 
comrainiaacd by the other boiue. The reiult wii a faHun, and 
with AladiiH Bitbop'i career h an operatic tanqiMer may be 
laid to doM. On the foimaiioD of the Phitbarmoaic Sodely 
{i8ij} Blibap wai appointed one oi tbe dirtctam, and be took 
liii tnm a* coodoctor of iu concerti doting the period when that 
office wuhehlbydiflerentmuiidaufntotatlDD. IniSjohewu 
appointed mualcal dinclor at Vauiballi and it wai in the counc 
of Ibii engigenienl tliat be wrote tbe popular lOng " My Preity 
Jane." Hit laeied canuu, Tli &nd Day. wai written for tbe 
P h QhafiDonlc Sodtty and performed in iSjj. In iSjQhewaa 
made bachdor in mntic at Oatnd. In 1S41 he wu appointed 
M the Ibid chair of nuiiic in the nnivenlty of Edinbiulh, but 
IV. a 

be redgned the office in 1S4J. He wai knighted in 184a, beiij Ibe 
fint mu^dan who ever received tlut booeut. In 1848 ha luo. 
ceeded Dr Crotch In tbe chair of muaic at Oxford. Tbe DMifa 
for the ode on tbe occuioB of tbe Initaltation of Lord Deifay m 
chancellor of tbe unlvcrdty (iSsj) proved to be Ua lait wvk. 
HedledoathejotbefApriliSssInlin ■'-■-' 

_. (pprctKiate an 

harmony !• alwayi pure, aiinple Ind n .__ 

BIlHCff.UABtLLi (1831^1904), Eo^iihlnvdler and author, 
daughter «[ tbe Kev. Edward Bird, tedot o( TattmhaU, Cbahjn, 
vu bom in YorUhlre on (he ij(b ol October iSji. laabdla 
Bird began to tnvd when ahe waa twenty-two. Her Cut book. 
7i<£nf{iiAiMiiusMi JiMRcaOgjejiGOuiiledolbetcane^ODd- 
ence during a vitit to Canada undertaken for her health. She 
viiited the Rocky Uountaini, the South Pidfic, Auaiialia and 
New Zealand, piixludng aome brightly written booki of tiavd. 

Iraveli in Aua: UtiitOeii Tnuti in Japan (1 vola., i38o), 
Joumeys in Persia and Kurdistan (1 vols., >8qi), Arnont t4e 
Tibdant (1B94). Kerea and htr SatUunts (i vots., iS»e), Tim 
Yantlu VaUty and Biynd (1899), Ckimst Ficlurcs (190a). 
She married in iSSi Dr John Biitu^, an Edinburgh phyiioan, 
and waa left a widow in 1SS6. In iSgi she beume the first lady 
fellow ol Iht Royal Ceogiapbicil Sodety, and in i«oi she rode a 
thousand mila in Morocco and the A tluMountaina. Shediedin 
Edinburgh on (he jrh of October (904- 

See Anna M. Sloddirt. Thd Li}i ifttatdbi Bird (l»o6). 

BIIHOP (A.S. bisaif. Iron, Lai. cfisaipat, Gr. hlrannt, 
" overlooker" or "overjeer"), in certain bnncho ol the 
Chiisiian Church, an ecdesiutic conicciiled or let apart to 
pttforra(sitainqiiriiui]functions,andlaeieiciseovenigh( ewer 
(lie lower dergy [priesii or preabyten, deacona, tic). In (be 
Caibolic Church bishops take rank at the head of the lacetdotal 
hierarchy, and have certain ^iliitual powei) peculiar to (heir 
aSt«, but cplnion baa long been divided aa to whether tbey 
conttitute a acparaie order or form merdy a Ugher degree of 
tbe ^der of prieala tfirda saetrdotinm)^ 

In tbe Roman Catholic Church tbe bitbop bdongi to tbe 
higbeat «der of the hierarchy, and in thit reelect it tbe peer even 

le pope, whoa 
By the decree of the coundl 
yean of age, of legitimate 
learning and virtue. Th< 

h, and nf approved 

rthod of his aelection vaiica 
. In France, under tbe Coocotdal, iha 
the republic tbe preaideot-'had tb* right 


. TIku 

u of Ami 

fiivirU) Spain and Portugal, la loiiie couDtria Uw biihop 
ii elected by the oithediil chapler (as in Wunlembcr(), or by the 
bjabopi ol tbe praviaca (ai in Ireland). In cthen. ai in Great 
Britain, the United State! of America and Bel|iuin, tbe pope 
■elect* one out d[ a litt submitted by tbe cbapier. In all caiei 
the nominatloD or electioD i) subject to conlinniiiion by tlie 
Holy See. Before thii i> granted Ok candidate i> lubmiilcd to 
a double etamhutlon a* lo hii Eloesi. Cml by a papal delegals 
at hit pl«c« of residence (prBcmm infcnuiilirui In parlitm 
dtcli), and afterwards by the Roman Congregation of Caidinali 
auigned for thli puipote (pmcami clalimii dtfinilitia in euria). 
In the event of both prooise* proving satisfactory, the bishop- 
elect is Qinfirmed, preconized, and so lai pionrotcid that he is 
alloved to exercise the lights of Juiisdiction in his see. He can- 

{p^alai mdinii) until bi] contention, which ordinarily takes 
|jac£ vitfiin three monthsof his cohfirraatfon. The bishop is con- 
tectated, alter taking the oath of fidelity to the Holy See. 
and subscribing the profession of faith, by a bishop appointed 
by the pope for the purpose, assisted by at least titro other bishops 
or prelates, the main features of the act being tbe laying on of 
hands, the anouiting with oil. and the delivery of the pastoral stiB 
andotberiyinbols of the office. Afterconsccraiion the new bishop 
It loleinDly enthroned and blesses the assembled congrrgation. 
The ptUtUi ardinit of the bishop is not peculiar to tbe Roman 
Church, and. in general, it claimed by all bishops, whether 
Oriental or Anglican, bclongini to churches which have retained 
Ihe Catholic tradition it this rt«pect. Besides the full lunctions 
of the preibyterale, or priesthood, bishops have the sole right 
<i) to confer bcdy orders, (i) to administer confirmation, (3) to 

ot ulensih (churches, churehywdj. altars, 4c.), (s! to give the 
bcnedictlMi to abbots and abbesses, (A) to anoint kings. In 
the matter of their ri^ts of jurisdiction, however, Roman 
Catholic bishops differ from others in their peculiar mponslblllty 
to the Holy See. Some of their potters of legislation and sdmlni- 
itntion they possess modi jm/riu In virtue of their position as 
diocesan bishops, others Ih^ enjoy under spedat faculties 
anted by the Holy See; but all bishops are bound, by an oath 

taken at the ti 
intervals [vijilve ra 

in, 10 go to Rome 

runt) to repon in pcrsoOj 

T the cardinals; 

Tbe Roman bbhop ranks Imrai 
be is styled rcHrenfuniniu, tatuiHSimus ot txatissimui. In 
En^sh the style is "Right Reverend"; the bishop being 
addnssed as " my lord biihop." 

The insignia [fmlificalia or pontificab) of the Roman Catholic 
bishop are [■) a ring with a Jewel, symboliilng fidelity to the 
church, (i) the pastoral stall, (jl the pectoral cross. (4) the 
vestments, consisting of the caligae, stockings and sandals, tbe 
tnniclc. and purple gloves, fs) the mitre, symbol of the royal 
priesthood, (6) the throne (colWra), surmounted by a baldachin 
or canopy, on the gospel side of the choir in the cathedral church. 

The si^riiual [unction and character ot Ihe Anglican bishops, 
allowing for the doctrinal changes effected at the Reformation. 
, ^ ^ are similar to those of the Roman. They alone can 
administer the rite of confirmation, ordain priests 
■nd deacfina, and eaerdse a certain dispensing power. In the 
established Church of England the appruntment of bishops 
is vested eHcctively in the crown, though the old form of election 
by the cathedral chapter is retained. They must be teamed 
presbyters at least thirty years ol age, bom in lawful wedlock, 
and ol good life and behaviour. The mode of appointment is 
regulated by ij Henry VIII. c 30. re-enacted in i Eliubeth 
t. I (Act of Supremacy 1558). On a vacancy otcotting. the 
dean and chapter notify the king thereof in chancery, and pray 
leave to bake election. A licence under the Great Seal to proceed 
to the election of a bishop, knorm as the fonff d'ldirr, together 

is thereupon sent to the dean and chapter, who are bound under 
the penalties of Fratmtiriin to proceed within twelve days to 

the election ol the person named in IL In the event of Ihelt 
refusing obedience or neglecting to elect, the bishop may be 
appointed by letters patent under the Great Seal without the 
form of election. Upon the election being reported to the crown, 
a mandate issuefl from the anwn to the archbishc^ and metro 
politan. requesting him and commanding him to con£nD the 
election, and to invest and consecrate the bislK)p.elect. Tliere- 
upon the archbishop issues a commission to his vicar-general to 
eumine lonnally the pncess of tlie election of the bishop, and 
to supply by his authority all defects in matters ol form, and 
to administer to the tHshop.elect the oaths of allegiance, ot 
supremacy and of canonical obedience (see CoNnuiAIIDN or 
BiSHDFs). In the disestablished and daughter Churches the 
etcctioD is by the ^nod d the Church, as m Ireland, or by > 
diocesan convention, as in the United Stales oC America. 

In the Church ol England tbe ptieika srdi'itb is conlerred by 
oinsecration. This is usually carried out by an archbishop, 
who is asaisted by two or more bishops. The essential " form " 
ol the consecration is b the limultanooUB " laying on oC bands " 
by the consecrating prebtes. Alter this tbe new bishop, irha 
has so iar been vested only in a locbet, retires and puts on the 
rest ol the episcopal habit, via. the chimere. After consecraiion 
Ihe bishop is competent to nercise all the spiritual lunctions ol 
hfs olSce; but a bishopric in the Established Church, being ■ 
barony, is under the guardianship of the crown during a vacancy, 
and has to be CDnlctred aliesh on each new holder. A blshi^, 
enjoyment of Ihe lemporalilles of hk 

e, Indudi 


s, before 

homage to the king. TYii is itone 1 
survivuig elsewhere only in Ihe conferring ol Ihe M.A. degree at 
Cambridge. TIk bishop kneels before the king, places his hands 
between his, and recites an oath of temporal alle^ance; he 

jurisdiction they exerelse for the most part Ihmugh if 
slstorial courts, or thtou^ commissioners appointed ui 
Church Discipline Act of 1840. By the Ocrgy Discipline Act 
ol iSgiit was decreed that the trill of clerks accused of unfitness 
to cxerdse the cure of souls should be belore the consistory court 
with five assessors. Under the Public Worship Regulation Act 
of 1874, which gave to churchwardens and aggrieved parishioners 
the ri^t to institute proceedings against the clergy for breaches 
of the hw in the conduct ol divine service, a discretionary ri^t 
was reserved to the bishop to slay proceedings. 

The bishops also eif rche a certain jurisdiciion over marriages, 
inasmuch as they have by the canons ol the Church ol England 
a power of dispensing with the proclanution of barms before 
marriage. These dispensations are termed marrfage licences, 
and their legal validity Is recognised by the Marriage Act ol iSij. 
The bishops had formerly jurisdiction over all questions touching 
the validity of marriages and the status of married persons, but 
this jurisdiction has been transferred hum the conslstorlal 
courts of the bishops to a court ol the ciown by tbe Matri- 
monial Causes Act of 1857. TVy have In a similar manner 
been relieved ol thdt Jurisdiction in testamentary matters, and 
in matters of defamation and of brawling in churches; and the 
only jurisdiction which they continue to eiercise over the 
general laity is with repm] to ifieir use of the churches and 
churehyards. The churchwardens, who are representative 
olSceis of the parishes, are also executive officers of the bishops 
in all matters touching the decency and nrdcr of tbe charchci 
and of the charchyard!, and they are responsible to the bidwpa 
for the due discharge of their duties; but the abolition of church 

^ has relieved the churchwardens of the rr 

ot Iheir 1 

connected with the stewanlship of Ihe 
church funds of thdr parishes. 

The bishops are still authorlied by law to dedicate and set 
apart buildings for the tolemniiailon ol divine service, and 
grounds for the performance ol burials, according to the rites 
ot tbe Church ol En^and; and such buQdlngi 


isid (Rxindl, atttr tliCT bivc been dotr ranMcnUd tcconlini 
la li«, cannot be diveiUit U ■ny tcculu puipoM ocqit ludei 
the uitboTky of u ut of puliusnt. 

TIm bbbopi ol EBgbBd hue abs jurbdlrtJon te mmine 
deili who nay be pmeDtol Is benefices witliin their respective 


le by tbe 9stb cj 

lelvei oi tbe suffidency al adi 
dak wiiu'n tmny-dgte days, sfts «Ucb time, If tbey bive 
Dot Rjected bin u baiiflicienlly qulified, they in bound to 
JBlitBie hiiB, or to BonsB him, si tbe cue may be, to the 
benefice, tad thempOBtosend ttdr msodile to tbe ucbtncan 
to fndnet Um lato tbe tenponlkit* tf tbe benefice. When 
tbe bg*gp hhatdf b patron •! a benefice iritUn Us avn diocese 
bebempanendtocdataadeiktott, — In <nbei mnls. to conFei 
AoatbedeAwithomtheUtterbelBCPRiHitedtohiin. Wbeie 
lb* dcft bfaoelf bpUnaoI the liirlog, tbe Ushop nuy bstitnte 
Ina OB his on petllimL (Sea BiMmci.) 

As spiritml peen, UAopa of tbe CkonA of EntJsnd have 
(ml^ect to tbt Bmltatkni (Uted below) ststs in the Uoinc of 
Lord*, thDOfh wbcAei aa banat or ia their ii^riluiil chuacKr 
basbMaanultaof diipute. nc latter, boirever, would irnn 
to b* tbe caae, alncea Udwp was entitled to hit writ of anmmoDs 
after cooirautloa *nd before doini honete For hb birony. 
Doubts bavtes been nbed whether a Ujhop of tbe Church ol 
En^aod, belni s lord o( paiUaneal, cduM raign hii 
U[^i House, oftboufb se ^ ^ 

of the btfibops of Loadon and I>u 
declaring that 00 the resfcnstlon of 
their inpeclJve metropolitans, tbos 
■s lords of puliiineul. and their so 
•.r provided by law ' 

liam, WIS passed la iSs^, 
bcjr sees bnng accepted by 
bishops should ccs^ to kIl 
L should be &Ucd up in (he 
se of tbe avoidance of a 

bishopric In i86g the BisJwpa' Roignstic 
It pmvkded that, on any bishop dcuring to retire on account oi 
ace or Inc^jadty, the lovereifn should be empowered to declare 
the aee void by an order in councO, the retiring bishop or sich- 
bMiop te be secured tbe use of the episcopal tesidena for life 
and 1 pension of one-third of the revenues of the see. or £ioeo, 
whichever sum should prove the larger. Other teclioai defined 
the proceedings for proving, fa caae of need, tbe Incipiciiy of a 
Issbop, provided for the ippolatment of coadjuton and defined 
Iheir sUlus (PhUlirnDrt I. 8i). 

In view of the necessity Tor fncreadng the episcopste in the 
191b century and (he objection to the consequent Increase of 
tbe spiiitDsl peers in the Upper House, il was finally enacted by 
Ibc Bishoprics Act of 1S7S (hst only the archbishops and the 
bi^ops of London, Winchester and Durham should be always 
cnlitled 10 writs lummonlng them to the Houx o( Lords. The 
rot ol the twenty-five seats ere filled op, as a vacancy occurs, 
according (a seoioriiy et conseciatioa. 

Bbhopa ol the Church of England rank In order of precedency 
inmei&tely above harona. They may marry, hut their wives >i 
BDCh enjoy no title or precedence. Bishops are addressed as 
" Ri^t Reverend " and have legally the style of " Lord," 
which, as in the case ot Rorasn Cstholic Inshops in England, 
to extended to all, wbetha mSmgans (v holders of colonial 
bJshopriCB, by courtesy. 

Tbe in^gnla of the Anf^ican Udwp ate the rochel and the 
chimeie, and the epiicopBl throne on tbe goipd ride of the 
cfaancd of the cathedral diurch. The use of tbe nutre, pastoral 
staS and pectoral crosa, which had linen into tomplete disuse 
by the end d tbe rSth century, hat been now very commonly, 
thotigh not universally, levlved; and. in wrae casea, the inter- 
pretatiDB pot upon tJie " Ornaments rubric " by the modem 
High Church acbod has led to a more cnmidcle revival ol the 

In the Onhodoi Church of the East and lie various con>. 
■nmions springing from it, the fMatat ertinit of the bishop i> 

the same aa in the Western Church. Among his 
p|^^2a CinallficatlonB the most peculiar is that he must be 

unmarried, which, since the secular priests are com- 
fdled lo marry, aHaOa hit bdooglnc to tba " Uiii dctgy'" or 

tnonhs. The indgnU irf an oriental UAap, with oon^derabla 
variatioo In Ions, are esaentiiSy tlic same ai those ol tbe 
Catholic West. 

Betides bishops presiding over definite sees, there have been 
from time immemorial in the Christian Church bishops holding 
thdr Jurisdiction in subordinition to the bishop of the 
diocese. (OTheoldealollhese were the obrefiice^ *^ 
(riTt x^fxi* hwi^nvTOil, i.t- coiutry bishops, who were a^k^^ 
delegated by the bishops of the dties in the early 
church to esewi se jurisdiction in the remote towns and viSsges 
as thcK irere (onvcrted fmm paganism. Thdr functions varied 
' "* t tiaa and places, and by some it has been held that 
Orlglnaily only presbytera. In any case, this class of 
Ushopa, which had been greatly curt^ed in the Eut in hj>, 343 
by the coundl of I^odicea, was practically ertinct everywhere 
t^ the lolh cenlDry. It anrvived longest in Ireland, whete !n 
1151 a aymd, presided over by tlie papal tegate, deoeed that, 
after the death of tbe eiistlng holders of tlie office, no mare 
should be conseaated. Tlidr place was taken by arcfa-pnabyten 
and rural deans, (3) Tlie Episiopi reponarii, or gentium, were 
■imply DiiisiDBary tdsfaops without definite sees. Such were, 
at the ouiset, Bduifaoe, the apottle of Germany, and Willibrord, 
the apcAle at (he Fririana. (j) Biahope in forrihu iufdaium 
were oripnally those who had been erpelled from their sees by 
the pagans, snd, while retaining their liUis, were appointed to 
biBbopa in their work. In later times the custom 
:mting hisfaopa lor thia purpose, or merely as an 
honorary distinction, with a title deriwi fran some plue once 
included widun, but now beyond the bounds of Christendom. 
(4} CpaijaUr ilsJiafi sie such u are anwinted to anat the 
bishop of (he diocese when incapacitated by infirmity or by other 
causes From lulfilling his functions slone. C^oadjutmi in the early 
churdi were appointed wi(h a view to tbar succeeding to tho 
; but this, though common in practice. Is no longer the rule. 
the Chuich of England the appointment and ri^ts of CO- 
utor bishops were regulated by (he Biibopa' Resignation Act 
i86g. Under this act the coadjutor bishop has the right of 
cession to the see, or in the case of the archiepucnpal aeei 
and those ol LoodoD, Winchrsler and Durham, to the aee 
vacated by (lie bishop, translated From another diocese to fill 
the vacancy. (5) Snjraica tiiliefi Itfitapi aiSnt""' <" 

pontifical fum 


by infirmity, public aSaira 
irch the appointnent of tbe 
(he petition of the hiibop, 

Qtenancc The suffragan is given a 
thai of archbish(H>, and the same 


le tlatui si suBisgan biibopa was regulated 
r Vm. c. 14. Under this gutnte, which, 
inoperative, was amended arid again pal 
iSragani' Nomination Act oF iSgS, every 
arcnoisnop ana nisn^i, heing disposed to have a suffragan to 
assist him. niay name two honest and discreel qnritual petaons 
lor (he crown 10 give to one of (hem the title, name, style and 

having made choice of one of such persons, is empowered to 
prcHBt him by letters patent under the great seal to the metro- 
politan, requiring him to consecrate him 10 the same name, 
dde, style and dignity of a bishopj and the peisoo so conse- 
as(ed is (liereupon entitled lo eierdse, under a commlation 
from the bishop who haa nominated him, such authority and 
jurisdiction, witinn (he diocese of such bishop, as shall he given 
to him by the commission, and no other. 

The title of Ushop survived the Reformation in certain of the 
Lutheian churches of the cootinent, in Denmark, Norway, 
Finhmd, Sweden and Transylvania; it waa tem- 
ponrily restored In Pnisaialn 1101, lor the coronadon ,,,„,, 
oF King Fmlrrich I., again between 1S16 and rB40 by 
FitdeiickWiUiattIIL,andlaNaMaufniStI. In tbeae lattcf 


aitt, totitvtt, the title luihap ii equivalent to that d( " tapa- 
intmleiit/' the form mnt gcacnlJy employed. The Luthenu 
bUhop», u a nile^ do not poueu or dum unbroken *' kpoiLolic 
■uixcitioD "; those of Flnlsad ud Sweden ue, bowevei, an 
eicepiion. The Luthenm bishop! of TnmylvinU tit, with ilic 
Romu and Orthodoi biihopi, ia the Huoganao Upper Home. 
In lonH caici the KCuUtuation o( epiicopal prindpalitJei 
■I the RelorniatioD kd to the luivival of the title ol biihop u > 
purdy leculu diltinction. Tlui the lee of Osiabrflck (Oum- 
bujgh) wM occulted, from the peace ^ Westphalia to i8oj| 
iliemalely by a Catholic and a Proteitant prince, fiom 176* 
lo iSoi it was held by Frederick, duLe of York, the lait prince- 
biah^. Similarly, the bishopric of Schwertn nirvived as a 
Proteitant prince-bishopric until 164S, vheo il irai fiaslly 
icculariud and anneied to Mccktcnbuttl, and the see of LQbeclc 
was bctd by Proteitant " biahapt '' itoax ijio till iu aimeution 
to Oldenburg m 1803,^ 

In other Proteitsnt communities, c.f. the Honviant, the 
Methodist Episcopal Church and the Mormon*, the afhce and 
title of bishop have survived, or been created. Their lunciioni 
and ilatui wiU be found dctciibed in the atcousu of tbe Mvenl 

Llranly claisea AtieI> „ 

any proper k^ aaM): 

rllcl«0«D««, HOLVlVssT- 

Enuoracr. (W.A.P.) 

BBBOP AITCKUHD, ■ market town in the Elihop Auckland 
parlitBtentarydivisioaafDuihan, England, II m, S.S.W. oI the 
dty of I>Dr)iam, the junction of tevenl branches of the North 
Eaalera railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 11,969. It i> 
beautifully litnated on an eminence near tbe confluence ol the 
Wear and the Gaunleaa. The pariah church Is i m. distant, at 
Auckland St Andrews, ■ fine crudlonn structure, [ormeriy 
cc^te^tc,iostylemain]yEarly English, but with earlier portions. 
Hk palace of the biihops of Durhajn, which stands at the north' 
esslcndof the town, is a spadous and splendid, though inegular 
pile. The site oF the palaccwas first chosen by Bishop Anthony 
Beck, tn tbe time of Edward L The present bulldjng covers 
■bout s acies, tmd is surrounded by a park of Soo acres. On the 
Weu 1) a, above Bishop Auckland there is ■ small and very 
•ndent church at Escoffib, massively built and lapeting from the 
bottom tipwud. It is believed to date from the 7th century, 
and tome of tbe nona are evidently from a Roman building, 
one be»ring an instription. These, no doubt, came from Bin- 
chcster, a short distance up stream, where rmuLins of a Roman 
fort ( Vinnia) are tractable. JI guarded the great Raman north 
mad from York 10 Hadrian's walL The Industrial population 
of Bishop Auckland is prlndpally emfJoyed Is the ndghboiuing 
collieries and iron works. 

BISHOPS CASTLB, a market town and rnnnidptl borough 
in the southern parliamentary division of Shropshire, En^and; 
the terminus of the Bishop's Castle light railway from Craven 
Arms. Pop. (1901) 1378. It Is pleasantly situated in a hilly 
district to the east of Oaa Forest, climbing the flank and occupy- 
ing the summit of an eminence. Of the castle of the bisbopt 
of HerrfoRl, which gave the town Itt name, there are only the 
slightest fragments remaiidng. Tlie town bu tome agricultural 
It is goveraed by a mayor, 4 tldenaen ud I] aninciUon. 


■s CaMie » 

. Included In the 1 

tiAop-s C^... ... 

wgedrolhceharch of Hereford be.-, 
bit called Lydbnni Caitlc. was bi 

Hereford bctmea loSs 

lor ol LydboTy, which 
Conqunt TlKCantc, 

* Thetitle prince-bishop. ittacberiinAmtiia to the lees of Laibach, 
Stckau. Cuik. Briieo. Trent and Lavani. anil in Pnltiia to that of 

in Bbbop's Caatte. whkb'Ua pi_„__ 

t ma meriaL Tea yean lattr be iccijved a rran frm Riehaid II. 
ol a market every Wedneiday ami a (air od the Jnd of Nawnber 
aadtwadanfoUawing. AlthoiKh tbeunwasovideatlyabanuth 
by tbe litb cvntory, since the buiimnii an oieKioned as early as 
i>^, Il has no charter cariier than tneincoriioration charter grunted 
by Queen Eliubeth in 1571. Tin was oonfirnied by Juoee I. in 
iGir and by James it. in itM. In 1584 Biihop'i Canle nturncd 
two member s to parUamant, and was lepiaeuod until 1S3*, whca 

BUaOP nORtPOSD^ a market town in the Rettr<»d pirlli 
mentaiy division of Hcrtloidahin, England; jsi m. N.N.E. 
from London by tin CambridgElintof the Great Eailem railway. 
Pop. of urban distikl (1901) 714}. It ik* <m the rivet Start, 
dcoe to the county bonndaiy with Enei, and bat ■alet-con- 
munication with London thimigh tbe Len and Stott MtvtgMioa. 
The church of St Michael, itandlag high above the valley, it > 
fine embattled Perpendicular bDOding with wi Mu ti lowtr a^ 
ipin. The high school, fonMrly tbe grainnu ichool, was 
founded in the time of Ellobcth. Here vera cdncated Sir 
Henry Cbauncy, an early hlttotitm ol HertlonUhiie (d. 1719), 
and Cedl Rhodet, who int bent at Bishop Stanford Ib lia. 
There are a Nonconf onnitt grammar tduol, a dioceaui trainiiic 
and other oduci "' 

BefoRCheCoBqueMthemanei'Df Bishop Stortfordii said tohava 
bdoftiedtoEddeviilieFau'iWileofHafDkCwhoKildit Is I be bUtsp 

.. , __.._ , . ._ ,. _.. - . a w WiUtam the Conqueror. 

and with it gave the biriup a 

Thetownnowpnm—«BBeariyiiininiMaH8acli»nera,aiKlal though 
both Chauney and Salnna in their histurica of HenfonUin tute 
that It waa created a borough by efaarter of Kui^ John In 1206, the 
charter cannot bow be foood. The ftnc mention ol Biihop Stanford 

allowed to lapse and haj 

piivilege was then 

BI8KRA, a town of Algeria, in the anondittenent of Batna, 
depulment ol Constantine, ijom. S.W, of the dty of Conttantint 
and .connected with It and with PhilippevUle by tail It lie* ia 
the Sahara j6o ft. above the sea, on the right bank of the Wad 
Biikra, a river which, often nearly dry for many monthl in tbt 
year, becomca a mighty torrent after one or two daya' rain in 
winter. The name Biskra applies to a union of five or siji 
villages of the usual Saharan type, scattered through an oatia 
i m. tn length by leaa than i m. broad, and separated by huga 
gardens full of palm and olive trees. The house* tie built of 
hardened mud, with doom and roof of polni wood. The foieiga 
tctUemcnt is on the north of the oasis; it consists ol a bnud 
main street, the rue Berthe (fiam which a lew side streets brandi 
at tight angles), lined with European houses, the whc^ in tbt 
style of a typical French winter resort. ■ beautiful public garden, 
with the church in tbe ccntie, an aiiode, a pretentious asoirit 
in pseudo-Moorish style with entrance guarded by tcm-cotta 
lions, some good shops, a number ol excellent hotels and cafte, 
a casino, dubs, and, near by, a atrcct of dandng and singing 
gicb of the tribe of Walod-NolL East of the public garden Is 
Fort 5t Germain, named after an o£6ccr killed in the InsuErectian 
ol the ?*»'rTiB in iS49^ it ia capable of resisting any attack of 
the Arabs, and extensive ciu>ugh to shelter tho whole of (ha 
dvil population, who took refuge therdn during the Ecbcllion ol 
TS71. It contains barracks, hospital and government offices. 
To the south-east Ues the Villa Landon with magnificent gardens 
lUltd with tropical plants. The population (i90t} of Iha chiet 
settlement vat 4>tS, of the whole oasis 10,413. 

From November to April the climate of Biikr* is delightfuL 
Nowhcie hi Algeria can be found mon genial temperature at 
dearer skiea, and while m Hunmer the tbemoBKter often 
registers no* F, in the shade, and 90* at night, the pure dryness 
of lit air in ' ■ "^' ■ - ■ ■ 




at high cold wiod* In vtatcr. Thoa iriiuli cauw < CTD p n»M Bti 
w tvw u j6*, bal the IB(M RidiBt, oa ui avance ol ten ytm, 

In the a 

o (ndt Ino, of wUA about 

bong oUrs, pomcffaaMCiuid 

of the onk s tb« old kubak «r dtwU. 


la iSw tbe due d'AnoJc occDIiied tUa fott, aitd hoe, SB llM 

dWu o( the iilb af Uay of that jnar, tlu U Bwa wko locBcd 

thg French puriwn ««, with oob aiaptioD, mummi by 

Anta. Intli«[aituBafew6a(iiMnIiof KoaUBWOck— alltbat 

Bkkia b th« isi>tlil of th« 2ibaa ^unl of Zib), « nee of 
mind Babei and Anh ari(in, wbaie viUtcca extend tram the 
awnboDdciimadheAQmathaShatUdrit. Theae vilbae*. 
boat in «nci dKUd «*at th* dcaut, aeatla ia vovei <ii dMe- 
pafaa and fruit tree* a>d wavin) Bdda of bar)^. Tht omM 
IntenMiDf iilt*(a f> that of Sidi Okba, i> M. KMilh-eaat cf Biakn. 
It h built «tb>ra*a of am ttofynada of lUB-dried bricks. -Ihe 
■MMinc ii «IB*ie. *ith a flat looCnippmted on ciir coluiiua, and 

u tlu tomb of Sidi Okba. th 

not lilt 

idcT al the Arabs who in the it( 
d Africa for Islua Iiom Egypt 
to Tao'ipcr. Sidi ^ba wii'kiUed by tbe Bttbcn Dear thii plici 
in AJ>. 6S1. Ob hit biob i> tbc [n>ciiptlaa in Cu&c chancien, 
"TUiii thelombof Okba,iaDaf l>Ii.a. May God ban mercy 
Bpon him." No older AiaUc buaiptioa ii known 10 eiiit b 

UILST, a village of Suitiy, Entftad, )} m. N.W. of Woking. 
The lanea oi the Ni(ianal Rifle Aieociatioa <rer« tiaufemd 
fiom Wimbledon bcie In i3go. (See RiTLX.) 

doke oI Laucnbuis (iSis-iS^tl), German lUieiman, vu born 
tm Iba lat of April 1S15, at the ounor-hoinc of Scbsnhamen, 
hi> falber'i eeat in tbc mark of Bncdenburg. tbe family hu, 
aince tbe 14th century, belonged to the boded E'n'n'i and oiany 
nemben bad held high ofbcc la tbe kingdom of Pruiiia. 11^ 
hther (d. iS45),of whom he alwayiipakewiib much iflccllon, 
wai a qoiEt. imminmiri man, who leiiied from the irmy in 
eaity Ufa aitb tbe rank of captain of civaJiy (Jtiflmeuler). His 
Botfacr, a daugblcr of Mtncktn, ciblocl iccTCiaiy to the king, 
■tai a woman of Arong chancla and ability, who bad been 
brought op at Berlin under the "Aufklliung," Her ambition 
waa ontred In her loiu, but Biunaick in hit rccoUcctloni of hii 
childhood naued the InSueocca of matcmil tendemcsi. There 
were leveral cbildrva of the marmge, which look place in 1806, 
but all diedb) childhood eicept Betnhard (tSis-iSgj}, Otio, 
and one (iiln, Malvioa (b, 1S17}, who married in 1B4J Oscar 
von Amim. Yonng Blainarck was educated in Berlin, first at a 
private tchool, then at ibe gymna$ium of tbe Graue Klostcr 
(Ctey Frius). At the age of sevenleen he went to the university 
of Gsitingen, where he tJK^X s little over a year; be joined the 
corps of the Hannoverana and took a leading part in the sodol 
Ufe of the students. He complcled bit studies at Berlin, and in 
' ' , which admitted him to tbe public 



la-Chapelle in sdminislralire 1 . 
then was InDiIertcd to PaUdam and tbc judicial side. He won 
retired from Ibe public service; be conceived a gteal distaste 
for it, and had tfaawii himself defective In discipline and rcgu- 
larily. In iSjo. after bis molhcr's death, be undertook, with 
Ui bralher, Ibe numogemenl of the family eatatcs in Pomerania; 
al this lime most of the estate iltacbed to SdiDnhiuKn bad 
to be sold. In iSu, alter the nMrmfc of bit sister, he went to 
Eve with his father at Schilnbausen. He and bis biotbei look 
■n active put in local affairs, and In 1846 he was appdnted 
DiUUuiupliiuiiH, an office in which he was respaiuible lot the 
care of the dykes by which the country, in tfie neighbourhood 
of tbe Elbe, was prnerved from inundation. During these yean 
be travelled in England, France and SwiUeriand. The influence 

le time inciii^ In hold liberal opinions on govern- 

of tbe nejghbovring counlzy gentlencn be acquired tboec iliunf 
ptindpfcl to favnii of monairhiral foverament as tbe Bxpresslon 
of th* Cbriwiin «*ie, of which ha was to become the most cele- 
bmed upeoent. Hia lahgiaDB oinvictiooi were Wrengihcncd 
hy hh Mrriair to JohaiiBa vm FuHkamer, wtaicb took pUca 

In th* lann ycai bs aaaed public lifc^ being cOoeen ai 
■ubatitDU lor tbe rvre«olBtlve of the lower oobiUljr of hii 

. _ Bedin. Ha took Ua leat with Jmj 

vigour and originality with which bo defcndtd the 

LUierala. When the levahitlaa broke Out In the bdlowjng you 
he ofiered to bring the peuantr of SchflnhiMMa to Bcriln ia 
order to defend the king aplmt tbe rerolulioiaiv party, tai ia 
tbe last meeting of the estates voted ts a mlooijty of two acainit 
tbe addresa thanking the king for granting * oonslituiion. He 
did not ill ui any of tbe anembUes ninunoned during Ibe revolu- 
lionaiy year, but took a very active port in the formation of a 
union of the Conservative party ,.and was one of the founders of 
tbe Krataaliai, which hai linci [hen been tbe organ of the 
Monarchica] party In Prussia. In the ikw parliameal which was 
elected at the beginning of rB4g, be sat (or Brandenburg, and 
was one of tbe most frequent and nust incisive ^leakoa of what 
was called the Junks' party. He took a prominent part In the 
diicusalons on Ibe new Prussian constitution, alvayi defending 
tbe power of Ibe king. His speeches of ihlt period sluw great 
debating ikiQ, combiud with strong originality and imaginaiion. 
His constant theme waa, that the party diipulei were a struggle 
for power between the forces of revolution, which derived their 
strengtb from tbe Gghten on the barricadea, ud tbe Ouittian 
monarcbyj and that between these opposed principles no com- 
praroiie was possible. He took also a considerable part in ih« 
debates on tbe foidgn policy of the Ptutiian govemmenti 
he defended the government for not accepting tbe Frankfort 
constitution, and opposed the policy of Kadowiu, on the ground 
that the Prusuan king would be subjected to the conlnl of a 
non-Prussian parliament. The only thing, be said, that had 
come out of the revolullnnary year unhitined. and bad saved 
Prussia from dissolution and Cpcnna.ny from anurchy, was tbe 
Pru^ian army and the Prussian dvit service; and in the debate* 
on foreign policy he opposed the numerous plans tor bringing 
about ihe union of Germany, by lubjecling tbe croim and 
Prussia to a common German paiUanunt. He bad a teal in the 
parliament of Erfurt, but only went there in order to oppose tha 
coDiIilution which the parliament had framed. He foresaw 
that Ibe policy of tbe goverrunenC would lead it into a position 
when it would have to fight against Austria on behalf of n con- 
stitution by which Prussia ilsell would be dissolved, and lie was, 
therefore, one of the few prominent politicians who defended 
the complete change of front which, followed the tuireadet of 

It waa probably bis ipcedies on German policy which induced 
the king lo appoint him Prussian representative at the reatortd 
diet of Frankfort in iB^i. The appointment was a ,^^^^^ 
bold one, as he was entirely without diplomatic ea- ^SjJ^J^^ 
perience, but be jusllfled tbe confldence placed In hlsL 
During the eight years be spent at Frankfort he acquired an 
unrivalled knowledge of Gerinan poUtlci. He was olteli used 
for Important misslonl, as In 1851, when be was tent to Vienna. 
Ha was enlruttcd with the negotiations by which Ibe duke of 
Auguilenbuis wss persuaded to asMut to tbe arrangements by 
which he resigned bit claipu to Scbleswig and Hobldn. The 
period he spent at Frankfort, however, was of most Importance 
because of the change it brought about in bit own political 
opinions. When he went to Frankfort be was tlill under the 
influence of tbe extreme Prussian Contervalivet. men tike the 
GcrlacbSj who regarded tbe malntcrunce of tbe principle of Iba 


o OD the put ol Anftrii M hnmhla Pni^ lad 
dcgndc ber fmm ihe posltian of u equal powtr, and ' 
Jeilousy of Priasl» «niOBg the (nulleT " - - ■- 
Of irbom owed \heit thiDoci to the Pi 
Siioay and Bidcn, hid cnahed the 
Cimc lo tbc conclusion tbil if Pnitii* mi lo rcfxla the pohloD 
ihe had lut she mut be pnputd for the oppoeitloii of Aiotria, 
and most iirenphcn bcndf by alliuoa with other powen. 
The •nlidaritjr of Con»rviIrve interaK ippcired to hia now ■ 
dusenm fiction. AI the time of Ibc Ctiinean War be advocated 
alUaace with Riusa, and it waa to a great otcnl 
hb advice that Prussia did not Join the ircslem power 
mrdi ho urged a good undenlandtng with Napoleon, but his 
adWce ma net by the Imuperable objection of King Fiedettdt 
Wniiam IV. lo any alliance with a ivier o( revolutionary ori^. 
The change of ministry which followed the establishment 
of a regency Id i8s; made it desiral^e to appoint a 
at Frankfort, and (a iBjS Bimarik was appointed . 
■t Si Petersbuig, wheie he remained for four ycaia. During 
this period he acquired »nie knowledge of Russian, and gained 
the »*rtn ngard of the iiir, aa well as of the dowagcr-impres 
hersell a Piuuian princess. During the Crsi two yean be ha 
little infiuence on the Piussiin govrmment ; the Liberal minislei 
dismuled his known opinions oo pariiamentaiy goveminen 
and the n»narcbica] feeling of the prince regent was offende 
by Bitmarck'i avowed readiness for alliance with the Ilaliai 
and his disregard of the tights of other princes. The failure i 
the mlniiliy, and the estrangement between King WQliain an 
the Liberal party, opened to him the way to power. Roon, 

I iS6i, wi 

iti old fr 


thencctoiwaid kept closely 

led ol the condition ol aHairs in Berlin. On several 
ins the prospect of entering the ministry was open to him. 
ithing came of It, apparently because he required a free 
n foreign aFlain, and this the king was not prepared to 
m. When an acutecrislsaroacout of thereluialof parlia- 
in iMs, to vote the money itquired for the reoiginiialion 
the king and Roon had curried through, 

ip his mind lo 

lerlin; but 

3 appoint him, ailhougb he felt that Bismarck 
was tne only man who had the courage and capacity for con- 
doning the struggle with parliament. He was, therefore, in 
June, made ambassador at Paris as a temporary eipedienl. 
TliBre be had the opportunity for renewing Ihe good under- 
alanding with Napoleon which had been begun in itS7- He also 
paid a short visit lo England, but it docs not appear that this 
bad any political mulls. In September the parliament, by a 
■■ • ■- -. ...... J jj^^ j^^^ hnving 

n for help, a 

Bismarck to B«lin and appointed him minisier-preaidcnt and 
foreign minister. 

Bitmatck's duty as mlnisler was lo cany on the goremment 
against tlie wishes of the Lower House, to as to enable the king 
m^^^^ ^^ Complete and maintain Ihe reorganized army. The 
^^^^ opposition of the House was supported by Ihe country 
and 1^ a lar^ party at court, including the queen and crown 
priaee. The indignation which his appointment caused was 
JDlense; be was known only by the reputation which in his 
early years he had won as a violent ultra-ConsetviIive, and the 
appreheflsloni were increased by his Sni speech, in which he 
(aid that the German question could not be sciilcd by speeches 
•nd paiHamenlary decrees, but only by blood and iron. His 
early fall was predicted, and It was feared Ihai he might bring 
down the monarchy with him. Standing almost alone he 
succeeded In the task he had undertaken. For four yean he 
ruled without a budget, taking advanuge of an omission in the 
conililulion which did not specify what was to hippen id case 
(he crown and the two Houses could nolagreeonabudget. The 
conlUct «f the miniaten and the House astuoied at timet the 

>By loMCef to tttcnd tha ilttiiiVr l^ Blmarck chtlkafttl 
VIrIow, raa ol Ui sti on gu t appoBniti, to ■ dad, which, 
however, did not lake place. In iSji be bid fought a dud Mitla 
|4HBbi|ainilGaoi|*OD Vindt*,apolftiealappaBe»t. lojnne 
tMj, ai aooB as pailiamat hnd risen, BittnudL pnUUbed 
ofdlnaDcea GDntnUing the liberty of the press, •Ucli. though In 
Bconrdance with the letter, Mcmad opfnted ta the inuatioos of 
the conailliitlao, am) it wu on this oCOiiioa thai tho down 
prince, Utheno • iHeat opponent, puUldy iIImhIiHiI hiauell 
fiom tho poHcy of Ui blhcr^ mUMcn. Bimurck depeaikd 
lor hia poiition soMf on Iho c o nMntc e ol the klog, and the 
ntecMlly lor ■'•^—"■^ Uam\tt a^lat the aUempti ta dealroy 
thfa oonfidoico nddcd ptaxty to Cht mi^JtIi m iiimim of hb natiue. 
Ho wia, however, re^y i-Jif«— u- lor hta i^goation noH 
be followed by ■ Ubeml nitiistTr, ptiUuntntur coiuol over 
the army, and pnbaUy the abdlcattaa of tbc Ung. Not only, 
therefore, was be aecore in the contlnuaBceof the Utit^ rapport, 
but he had also the complete contiol of [oreigD aSalio. Thua 
he oould afford to Ignore thaolEiiJaa of the House, and the king 
was obliged to acquieace In the policy ol a mjnistet to whom ho 
owed so mndL 

He soon give to the policy of the monirtAy ■ naoluiioii 
which had long been wuting. When the emperor of Aoitrii 
loned a meeting of the GeraiBn prince! at Frank- 
> <fiicBU 1 teform of the oaofedenlioni Bltmaick Sg?* 
lubtcddiatthekingofFluniinnatBotBlteiid. He 
remained iwiy, ind bis abatnoe in itidf made the coogrcM 
tmaviUiog. Tliere can bo no doubt thtl Inwn the time be 

the long struggle for supremacy in Germany between the house ol 

Habsburg and the house of Hohencolleni. Before he was able 

complete his preparation) for this, two unforeseen occurrence! 

mpletely altered the European situltjon, and caused the 

nllici 10 be postpotied for three yents. The fin! was the 

iihreak of Rtnlllon In Poland. Bismarck, an Inheritor ol the 

fcr Prussian traditions, and recoDecting how much of the 

mnessof Prussia bad been gained at Iheeipenseof ihePole*, 

cred his help to the tsar. By this he placed himseU' in opposi- 

in to the universal feeling of western Europe; no act of hli 

[ added so much to the repulsion with which at this time he 

IS regarded as an enemy of Kbeity and rijht. He won, however, 

the gratitude of the tsar and ibesuppoit ol Russia, whidi In the 

neit yeais was to be of vital service to him. Even mote setions 

were the difficulties arising in Dcnmstk. On the death of King 

Frederick VII. in i86j. Prince Fiederick of Augusrenhuij came 

forward as claimant to the duchies of Schleswig and Holstdo, 

rhich had hitherto been Joined to the crown of OenmarL He 

in^y supported by the whole Germ 



ich Imperiously 
manaco uiaL ue v^nnan aucmes saoum oe rescued fmm 1 
rcign yoke. Prussia was bound by the treaty of London of 
51, which guaranteed the iotcgilly of the Danish monarchy; 
have disregarded this would have been to bring about ■ 
llition against Germany similar to that of 1S5T. Uoieover, 
held that it wotild be of no advantage to Prussia to create a 
w German itite; if Denmark were to lose the duchies, be 
sired that Prussia should acquire them, and lo recogniie the 
Auguslenbuig claims would make this Imposiibte. lUs resist- 
-'le national desire made him appear 1 traitor to hii 
To check the agitation he turned fnr help to Austria; 

D aflisi 

support of Auguilcnburg, bi 

the ground that the king of 
uenmara nau viui.ira ui> jiiumue not to Oppress his Cermait 
subjects. Austria continued to act with Prussia, and, after the 
defeat of the Danes, it the peace ol Vienna the soverdgiily ^ 
the duchiea was surrendered lo the two alliea— ihe first step 
towards annexation by Prussia. There is no part of Blsnuick'a 
diplomatic work which deserve* ludt careful itudy w thete 


tmiU. Watdcd u b* su by anntkB tnnrdc* mt bone and 
AbtoAd, A liofle false Hep would have brou^hL niJD tnd diignce 
^>i3 hidascir; tbc (rowing rational cxdumcDt would have UuM 
tlirou^all resminl, and a^n^aiBftecD yean before, Gcnnuiy 
divided and uoorgaDued would bavc bad lo opilulale lo ihe 
ordcn of lonign powm (see ScuixsvKrHoiSTEiH Qi/unoN), 

gldct policy. Foe [be neil dgbtetn aioiuht b« *u eccu|>icd 
^^ ^^ in pieparini hr war wiih Auairia. Fot Uia oar be 
^2il^ wai alone rdponiible; he uodcnook it deliberaLely 
ai Ux only mean* of aecuiing Piuaaian aicendancy 
in Gamany- Tbe actual came ol diapule wai the dj^ioiJLion 
of tbc coivliieTTd duchica, for Austria now wiabed to put Augui- 
tcibuig is u duke, a plan to whicb BiioHrck would not assent. 
la i86s a piovisiooal anangcmcnl^waa nude by the tre»ly of 
Caatdo, hu BisnurcL was not yet ready. He would out risk a 
■ar ndeaa he was cenaiD of success, and for thit he lequiird tbc 
aJliaiKz of Italy and Fnnch supporli both he eecured durini 
the next ycai. In October iMs be vbi'ted Napoleon at BiiiriU 
and Fuit. No {ornial lieaty wa* made, but Napoleon proraitrd 
lo Rganl tavounbly aa CIIauiM of Pniuian powei in Gcroiaoyi 
*hife BitBiaick kd the enipcror to believe that Prussia would 
help him in eKlendlng the Itontier ol Ftnnce. A treaty of 
aliiuce with Italy was airan^ in the spring of iB^; and 
BiiQurck then with much difficulty overcame the reluctance 
of the kiac to embark in a war with hia old ally. The results 
of the waj entirely justified his calculations, f^russiat Uiougli 
opposed by all the Geiman states eicept a few pibia'palitici 
in tbe north, completely defeated all her enemiei, and at tbc end 
of a few weeks the whole of Ceimany lay at her leet. 

Tbewarol iU« is more than that of 1S70 the crisis of undem 
Cermao histoty. It finally settled tbc controversy which had 
^^^^^ begun more than a hundred yean before, and left 
^2^^"^ Prussia the dominant power iD Cermany. It deter- 
mined that the unity of Germany should be brought 
■boQt not by revolutionary means as in 1S4S. not as in 1849 had 
been attempted by voluntary agreement of the princes, not by 
Austria, bm by the sword of Prussia. This waa the great work 
of Bismarck's lile; be had ojmpletcd the prognunme fote- 
■hadowed in hii early speeches, and finished the work of Frederick 
tbc Great. It ii aUo the lumiug-point in Biimaick's own life. 
Slaving aecured the dominance ol the crown in Prussia and of 
Prmsia in Germany, he could afiord 10 make a recondliation 
with the parties which hod been his chief opponents, and turn 
to tbcm for help in building up a new Germany. Tbe settlement 
of 1S6& was peculiarly his work. We must notice, £nt, how in 
•Ruging the terms of peace he opposed the king and tbe mUi- 
U17 ivrly who wished te advance on Vienna and annci part of 
Auttriin Silesia; with greater loreiighi he lookrd 10 leuewini 
the old friendship with Austria, and insislcd (even with the 
threatof resignation} that no territory should be demanded. The, 
Mutbem states be treated with equal moderation, and thereby 

Ihem. On the other band, in order to secure the complete control 
ol North Germany, whicb was hi! immediate object, he required 
Ibat tbe whole ol Hanover, Hcsse-Caisel, Haae-Nassau arid the 
city af Frankfort, at well aa ibe Elbe duchlea, should be absorbed 
to Prussia. He then formed a separate confederation of the North 
Cennan states, but did not attempt to unite Ibe whole of Gct- 
tnaay, partly because of the inttnial dillicultie* which this would 
have produced, partly because it would ^ve brought about a 
war with Frantt In tbe new confedemlion be became sole 
mpoDsiUe minister, with the title ShiIii- /f unkr; this pcaitioti 
he held til] j£oo, in nddition to his former peat of premier 
tiiinisler. In 1S71 tbe title was altered lo Kiula-KeiaUr. 

The TKondllatioa with the Prussian pnriiammt he effected 
by bringing In a bill of indeninily for the money which had been 
■pent without leave of parliament. The Radicals still continued 
tbeir uppositioa, bat he Utereby made powiUe the formation 
et ■ large party ol modenie Ltbersls. who thenceforward 
npporled him in his new Nationalist policy. He 

(BmAiUt) dcctcd by imlvnMl ntBnfc. Thit.wu the cUiS 

demand of the revolulioaisls in ilafii it was one to which in 
bis cariy life be had been strongly opposed. 'Kia eifKricnco 
at Frankfort bad diminished bis dislike of popular repreaealatioia 
and it was probably 10 the advice e( Lassalli that his adopiioa 
ol univensl suSnge was due. He fini publicly pnqxacd it 
l\M before tbe war; by cwryjog ii oui. notwithstanding the 
appRbensions of many liberal patiiidani, be placed tbe dc» 

Up to ig66 he had always appeared to be an opponent of the 
Natiooal |>any in Germany, now he became tbdt leader. Hii 
next taak was to complete the work wbicfa wu hall-finilbed, 
audit was this which brougbiabouttbeiecoiid of tbe great wait 
whicb be undertook. 

The telaiion) with Napoleon tU. form one of tbe most fnter- 
etting but Dbicural episodes in Bismarck's career. We havt 

against co-openiioa with Fnnce. He found Napoleon ^^"^ 
witling to aid Pcusiia at he had aided Piedmont, and Asbk 
was ready to accept his uiisiance. There was this 
diffocDce, that he asked only for neutrality, not aneed usiit- 
■ncB, and it is improbable tlui he ever intended to alienate any 
German territory; he showed himsdi, however, on more than one 
occasion, ready to discuD plana for extending French territory, 
on tbe side ol Belgium and Swiueiland, Napoleon, wb« bad 
not aolidpated the njNd success of Prussia, after the battle ol 
KOniggrUta at tbe request of Austria f^une lorward as mediator, 
and then were a few days during whicb it was probable that 
Ptusiia would have to meet a French attempt to dictate terms 
of peace. Bismarck in (his cri^ by defcuing to the emperor 
in apficannce avoided the danger, but he knew that be had 
been deceived, and the cordial understanding was never renewed. 
Immediately after an armistice bad been arranged. Benedetti, at 
' the French gt 

I of Germ 

This Bismarck pi 

in tbe left bank of tl 

ilused. ( 

e Rhine, 

Benedetti then 
tuhmitling a dnft treaty by which Fiance was ti 
Pruuia in adding the South German states to the new con- 
federation, and Germany was to support France in the ani»aa- 
tion of Luxemburg and Belgium. Bismarck discussed, but did 
not conclude the treaty; he kfipt, however, a copy of liie draft 
in Benedclli's handwriting, and published it in Tin Timet in 

En^nd. The failure of the scheme made a contest with France 
ioevitable, at least unless the Germans were willing to forgo tbc 
purpose of completing the work of German luilty. and during 
the next foiu- yean the two nations were each preparing for the 
(trug^e, and each wauhlng to take the other at a disadvantage. 
It it necessary, then, lo keep in n' 

preceding th 


[S70. In ]S67 there waaadiqiutc regarding 
Luxemburg. Bismarck then produced tbe 

It woe, a challenge to Fnnce by the whole of Germany. 
During the nen three yean the Ultnunonlane patty hoped to 
bring about an anti-Prussian levolutioh, and Napideon waa 
working lor aa alliance with Auatiia, 1 ' " 

Rs well informed as 

I chancel 

: negotiations, for b« 
le Hungarians. Tbe 



le eagerly welcomed Ihe opportunity of gaining 
Spain, tod tuppotled by al) the means in hii 
made by Uarthal Prim that Prince Lc^iold of 
Quid bechoien king of that country. It wasonly 

itt hit wBl to accept The Defotiationa was 

Miried out irilli the gmtett teatef, but u n 

■Dce mi made known iht Fnnch (c 

didind Out tGc p 
Kt Vudn, but on 
uuiier to inquiria denied 

wii nrcoury, be^uu it would have aused K bad ImproiJon 
Id GenDany h&d be gone lo nr with Fnace [a lupport ol tbe 
pTTDCc'i cudidature. The king, by iccchdDg Benedctd at Ema, 
depac ted from the polky of reierve Biimarck bilniaU uiopted, 
uid Biimaick (who had now gone to Beriio) liiuiid bimdl In 
• potitioD of auch difficulty that he conlempbled roigMlkn. 
lit French, however, by duDginc and oteDdinf their dcoMUida 
oahlcd him to tnd a ctUM of wu of ludi ntture that IIk 

vholt ol Gcnoaay wxild be luiMd (ffdnM FrCBcb 
ity ■ f atxn3*ic">- France aiked for * letter of apdasy, 

and Benedettl penonaUy requaud Irom the king 
t, laoinite that he maid never aUnw the candidature lo be 
fEBumed. Biamarck published the lelegnm fa which this 
iDTormation uui the ttfuial of tho king were conveyed, but by 
omittiof part of the telegram made It appear thai the 10)001 
and refuul had both b«en connyed in a moit abrupt (onn than 
had icalijr lieen ttwcaae.' But enn apart from thii, the pnbllcs- 

•nut have broaght aboot a war. 

In the campaign ol 1870-71 Biuurck accotnpanted the htad- 
quutera of the amy, ai he had done in |SA6. He was present 
at the battle of Gravelolto and al the aurrender of Sedan, and 
it waa on Ihs moitilng of the Ind of September that he had 
bit famoui ineeting with Naptdeon after the lutrendet of the 
■mperor. He accompanied the king to Parii, and tpait many 
montha at VtruiUe*. Here he wai occupied chiefly with tlw 
arrangementa for admitting the aouthera Ma tea to the ctwfedeta- 
tlon, and the etubUahment of the empire. He also underwent 
much aniieiy Icat ibe eSorU of Tbien lo bring about an iniet- 
(erence by the nnlral powert might be aucceuful. He hul to 
any on the Mgotialioai with (he Fnnch prejiminary 10 the 
nrrcnder of Parii, and to cdIoki upon tbem the Ceiman Unu 

For fiignuKfc'i political oner after 1S70 we omt refer to 
the arlick Qeuunv, (or be wu thenceforward entirely aburbed 
lUvMn. ^ ''" 'B'i'* ^ '>'* country. The foreign policy he 
controlled abairiutely. AachanceUorhe«aire3p<nttiblc 
for the whole internal potky of the empire, and his iafluencc it lo 
be icen in every department of itate, espedslly, however, in the 
great change of policy after iS;S, During the earb'er period the 
alrangenent fiom the Conservallvet, wbich had begun hi 1866, 
became very niarkcd, and brought about a violent quarrel with 
many of bla old (iltiidi, which culminated In the celebrated 
Arain trtaL He incnned much oiiicHm during the iiiuggte 
with the Koman Catholic Churdi, and In 187] he waa ibot at 
ud all^tly wounded by a youth catted RuUnUBn, who pro- 
fttud 10 be an adherent of the Clerica] patty. Once before, hi 
1866, just before the outbrtik of war, hia life bad been attempted 
by a young man tailed Cohen, ■ native of Wdrttemberg. who 
■iihed to aave Ccmany from a tntiicidal war. In 1871 he 
tetlied irom the proldency of the Praniu mlnlatiy, but returned 
after a tew moDtbL On leveial occuioni he oSetnJ to retire, 
but the emperor always refuacd his consent, on the last time with 
the wonl " Never." In 1877 he took a long leave of absence for 
teumoothi. Riabcallhatthittimewu very bad. In ia78be 
piMided over tba congrtM of Berlin. The followtog yean wtie 
cblcfly occnpkd, betide* loreigu aflali*, «4iich were atwayi hit 
fnt can, with taDportant commadat idOma, and be held at 
(hia time alto tbe oBce ol Pruniui niniiter of trade In addition 
M liii other posts. Dniiac tUi pcrwd Ui relatlont with the 

> II wat not tin Dianv yean later that our knowkdie of ibeae 
•nni (which it KiU ineomplcte] wu enabliihedi la Illu the 
pubUcadila ol the menwin of Iht kinf o( Rumania •bowed: what 
Iwd Mtketta been denied, that Bimirck had uktn a leading pan 
in urging the deetioo of the nriuei Kaheruollern. It wan in 1801 
tbal toe language iwd by Siuiurck KimieU made It Mmuiy foe 
the Cermta goveBinent lo pabliib the ofi^nailonn ' 

alttB "nty miatUactofjr. >imI at bo time M he 
o proaecutions In the law-courts in order to Injure 
hia opponenla, so thai the expraaion Bumarck-BtUHipmc wa* 
invented. He was engaged al ihlt time in a grent ilruggle with 
ibe Soctal-DemocnlB, whom be tried to crush by eiceptbmal 
penal lawK The death ol the emperor Wllllara In 1SB8 made a 
•eriou* difference In hit ponftion. He had been bound 10 Un by 
a iong terra of kiyal aetvice, whidi had been rewarded with eqital 
loyally. Forhit relationa to the emperon Frederi 

columna of the Hamimr^ NadritUm, oused an open breach 
between him and the empetor; and the new cfaaucellor, Count 
Caprivi, hi a drcubr despatch wbich waa afterwaidi pnlAahad, 
warned all Cemon envoy! that no real importance must be 
attached to what he astd. When he visited ^^euna for Us son"! 
wedding Ibe Cerman ambaoador, Prince Reuat, wat fi>rbldden 
lo take any notice ol hin. A recondliaiion was effected In |8«]. 
In 1S9S hileighllelh birthday was celebrated with great enthuj- 
asm; the Relchitag alone, owing 10 the opposition of the Oerkab 
and the Sodaiisii, relused lo vote an addnxs. In tSqi he had 
been elected a mcmlier of the Beidatag, but he never took Ui 
■est. He died at Fiiediidisruh on the jistofjuly 1S08. 

Bismarck was made a count In iSis; In 1S71 he received the 
rank of FUrsl (prince). On hit reliresient the emperor created 
hlradukeal Lauenburg, hut he never used the title, which was nnt 
inherited by his son. In iBM he received f6o,ooo as hit share of 
the donation voted by the Reichstag for the victorious generals. 
With Ihishc purchased the estate ol Vanin In PomeraniB, which 

Schanhausen. In 1871 the emperor prcarnted him with a large 
partof LhedomitnsofthediHhyofLaucnbuTg. On his seven Lieth 
birthday i luge sum of money (£170,000) was raised by pnlilit 
subscription, of which hall wat devoted to tepurcha^ng the 
eitate ot SchSnhaioen for him, and the ml was used by him to 
establish a fund forihe assislince of schoolmatlen. Aa a young 
man he wai an oRicer in the Landwehr and militia, and In addi- 
tion lo hii dvil hDnoim be was eventually rabed to the rank 
of gentnl. Among the numerous OTdera he recdved we may 
mention that he was the first Protestant on whom the pope be- 
stowed the order of Chtitti this was done afier the cessaiion ol 
the Kulturkampf and the reference of the dispute with Spain 
concerning the Caroline Islands to the arbitniinn ol the pope. 

Bismarck's wife died in 1844- He left one daughter and two 
sons. Herbert (1844-1504), the elder, was wounded at Hais-le- 

, afterwards en 

lis fail 

Hi the fon 


3i). IniSSihcbecami 

for foreign affair 
of the negotitdc 

clary of state for fordgn 
to the Kelchsiag, but had 
IS made secretary of state 
in minister. He conducted many 
It Britain on cnlonial affairs. He 

la his father, 

In 1853 w. 

■gain elected to the Reicbstag. He married Countess Hargarele 
Iloyos in i8«), and died on the i8lh of September 1904. He 
left two daughtert and three sons, of whom the eldeal. Otto 
Chtislian Archibald (b. iSflj), lucceeded lo the princely title. 
Tire second son, V^helm, who was president nf the province of 
Prussia, died in looi. By his wife, Sybilla von Amlm-KrOcblen- 
dorfl, he IefithTeedau^tenaiidason,CouDtNIkDlaus(b. 1896). 
AuTBO aiTlEa.— The literature on Blamaitli'i life ii very ettemive, 

booki. The Btit plan belonEi 10 hit own works. Thac jncludo 
hia own memolra. publiihsd after hit death. Diidtr the title fiafanjbfli 
—J Ermummrn; then ii an Engliih uanilalin^ Simarbk.- Ut 
ijinii Biul Xnuiiiimci (Londoa, 189B). They are inconpletK 

it^jCKiioaf aa 

cs are of the greatest Importance both for ilia character a'nd for 
tl hlttofy; n) ihe nunMcoua edlilaai thai by Hant Knlil. ia 

voli. (Stntton, IIV*-I»M). t* tkffhMi Ihm it ■ chap • 
lUcteiB'i IMmritltiUittUt. BwBudi wt« (H idnimtali L 
ibm <d U* priviM kttan have bE« ihiUi 
- L.- 1 ■■ -vr. ■ .. > „^ k^ u..„^ If ,04i Hit h 



.v».»-. Jii out b* Horn KohL ... 

■1 ku >i(* KR (Hdiliilwl by Prim HcAen fiiwHitk jSti 
looo). A tniBlaiian of ■ loilll kIkum of [lw cciviw Int 
publU«d iD U7* by F. M««. Of rot ™lu. foe th. ywr 
iS^ H the csrmpiMdeiicc ntb Genen] L. v. Ccriach, wJi 
bi«cdit«JbvHon(Kc>hl(vdal.,eBmB.i«9]). AidicM 
soliiical knen vm ilu piibliihad undir tbm iitle PdiMtIt 
u <n JstrMiJ^p-IJdeUadad.. Bsilln. Iteo). 0( fv 
inpouaa sn t^ coUkiimu of dnpuclw aiiil nuc Mpcn 

VvCkiiMliHiilU da f drilrii flinniHi. vkicb •» put of tho coUtc- 
IK l>fnBn. Thn contua full iidbnna(i« M BUiurek'i com- 
■wcal policy, includi^ > oambcr of JniportaM «in piixn. A 
neful bimI csllKtivq ia liut by Lndwli K*ha. Bumank. mm 
taMiicLi Litn. «c [J voU.. Berdo. |S7»-||«|}, which indiKlaa 
Soioo froB kttcn. (pnOiB ud nnitaiw (iticlEL Thae 
«Ik«>o» hin only bosn poaubk owiof to Ibe citrcine gcneimty 
~ ' ~' ' ihoiiwIinpBniuiiildMpubUcatioBofdonniciiu; 

Kd D havt » Mott*. A tuU aDcounl of the dipls- 
01 i86t to i««t t> ci<CB by Sybd ia 0W Scp>Iii/aM 
<ti (Huiucl^ iSt9-iB9^)._wiiticD_wllh ihr help at 

D odiicd a ictia o) votki in vhich 
vii>wi and coDVenaiioBt an ncorried: 
inequal viluF. Tbcy an Biimaick ani 

ipnuH'itr fiiOai Biimant. Hat riutjiiprdiiti, aiaiJ Biimartk 
mmd du Diplomatem. SeleclHjni rrom thnc have b«n publiibnd in 
Enoti^ by Charlo Lowe. Tki TaUtKUk 0/ /■';«« Biimarck. and by 
SM«y Wliiinun, Qiibithiwm mil fliiiMrt*. By far the fullot 
riidc to Bunurch'i lile it Horn Kohl'i fWil Bumank. Rt%tiln 
B riiur nuKUfiWUiiVa Bicptpkii (Leipiic. 1S91-1B91), whicb 
conuin a ncoid of Biinurck'i anio» on ocG day. with nfenacci 
to and enincti from hii leiien and •psKhe*. For (he wacb of 
Moriii BuKh. which contain (ciphic pictum of hi> daily life, aee 

nKohi tl 

t, iS97-l>W). Hen- V. Po«chin«H- ab- 
k PargtHillt, Of Cerman biograahiea ir 
iutn. Biinorci kW Him ZA'I U volt.. Mu 

(i8aS): Heyck. 

' "—iriki (Lcipti|. 190: 

','!^_'',.r^J-* '5 

» by Cfliaiie* Lowe 

I. CtuiiikU B. 

■ 1900. 1 
biiKn;A>e> by Cliarle* Lowe, Bimatck. a P, >»/ 

OwSinS^Hlitioh in 1 vol.. i«9S). by J*™ HeadU by 

F.Sieanx (Philadelphia. 190a}. A inerut bibtiogra on 

Biunarck up to isu ii Paul SdiuUe and Otto i<oUer'( Bismvck- 
Uurattr [Leipiii, il»6). (J.W.HlJ 

BlUtARCX, Lhi capita] oF Konb Dakota, U.S.A., and ihe 
emmty-Kai ol Buileigh county, on the E. buk o[ the Miisouri 
livei, ID Ihe S. cenlnl pnii of the uale. Pop. (iSqo) ii&6i 
('CooJwttOf whom 746 men (oteigti.bonii(ioos) W3i('giDl 
uai. It iaon the main lioeol the Notlhem Pacific, tod on Ihe 
Jl Sle Marie rail wiyi; and steamboats 

Hilmapolit. St Paul & Sa 


. The city ii about i6jo [l 


a i;.S. Ii 

aScCi a U.S. lurveyoT-genail' 

U.S. wealheciUlioD; about a mile S. of the ciiyli Fort Lincoln, 

■ UaitHl Sulci army pott. Biimarck ia the hcadquanera foi 

uvi^Iioa of the nppei Miiiouti rivrr, ii lilualed in a good 

•gricullunl re^on. and has a large wholesale trade, ahipping 

train, hides, fun, wool and coil. It was founif 

«u chailcied a* a city in 1876; from iSSj to 

capital of Dakota Teititoiy. on the division at 

tbc capital ol North Dakota. 

BISMARCK ARCHfPELAOO, the coDective lume of a luge 
oumbei ol islaadi lying N. and ti.E. of New Guinea, between 
I* and 7°S.,aiid ltd' and i;3° £., belonting 10 Germany. Thn 
htial 'island ia New Ponennia, and the archipelago also 
bidudet New Mecklenburg. New Hanover, with tnall attendant 

Dutb [1 

Damed in honour of the first dumctUoi of the German ei . . 
after a Gcman prolectonte had been declared In 1SJ4. <Sea 
AouMt-TT Ulumds, New MEcuunmo, Niw PonnMUM, 
Nrw CDtMtA.) 

msMtlLAH, an Arabic eidamatioa, meuing " In the nain« 
of God." 

BISMUTH, a nutalllc cbemical etementi symbol Bi. atomic 
weight »8-s<0-ia). It m* probably nnknown 10 the Gretka 
and Romans, but during Ihe middle ages it became quite familiar, 
notwithtunding its frequent confiulon with other metili. In 
14JO Basil Valentine refcired to it by the name " wlsmut," and 
characieri«d il as a metal: »Die year) later Paracetaui (ertned 
It " wisinut," and. In tlluilon to Its brittle nature, affirmed It 
to be a"butard'' or "half-metal"; (jcorgfua Agricola used 
th* loin " wiumiuh." latinised to " bltemutiun." and also the 

loiperfeclly undentood; and the Impure ipedmens obtained 
by Ihe early chemitti ciplain, hi lome measure, it* confuilon 
with (In, leadi, antimoDy, anc and other metalii in ijgj 
Andreas Libivlua confused It with -antimony, and In 1675 
NIcolai Lcmery with sine These abscuritiei began to be finally 
cleared up with the researches of Johann Heinrich Pott (i6«i' 
1777)1 ■ PupU ol Stahl. published in hit Eiacilai'mui cktmUat 
it WunaOka Ujiq), and of N. GeoHioy, inn ol Claude Joseph 
Ceoflrsy, whoso cmtrlbutlao to our knowledge of thk meiat 
appear^ [a the Uimtint 44 FaiaUmit franfiiiu for 17JJ. 
Torbem OIdI Bergman relnvettigated In properties and deier- 

O^ttula, ooDtains tha Cnt fair^ accura 

Orti and Uineralt, — The ptindpil w 
the native meul, wbicli it occavonally met wiin aa a mineraj, 
uBunlly in tetlcolated and arborescent ahapea or at foUated 
and granular massea with * crystalline Incture. Although 
bismuth is readily obtained in fine cryitals by anifidal 
means, yet natural oyslals are ran and usually indistinct: 
they belong to the tbombobedral lyttem and a cube-like 
rbombebtdron with fotertadai angles of 91' 10' It the predomi- 
nating fona. There it a perfect cleavage perpendicular 10 the 
trigooil ails of the cryt talt; the fact that only two (oppoaite) 
camett of the cube-like crystal) can be truncated by cleavage 
at once distinguishes them from true cubet. When not tami^ed, 
the mhietil has a silver-white colour with a tinge of red. and the 
lustre It metallic Hardness a-2); apecific gravity ^-70-0-83. 
The slight variation* in specific gravity are due to the preieDa 
of cmali uBounu of anenic, >nb>hur or tellurium, or to eacleecd 

Bismuth occurs In mctaUiferant vdns traversing gndu 01 
day-tlatc, and is usually antociated with met of silver and cobalt. 
Well-known locsUtiet are Sduteeberg in Suony and JouUmsthal 
in Bohemia! at Ihe (onner It baa been found at arborescent 
groups penetrating brown laqMr, vUch material hat occasionally 
been cut and poIUied for tmtU oniamenlt. The mineral hat 
been found in some Cornish miiiei and it fairly abundant Id 
Bolivia (near Sorata, and at Tasna la Potoii]. It It the chief 
commercial source of bismuth. 

The oxide, bismuth ochre, Bi^ and the lulphlde. bltmutb 
glance or bismnlhile, are alio at conunerdai Importance. Th« 
former Is found, generally mixed with iron, copper and arsenic 
oxides, in Bohemia, Siberia, Cornwall, France (Ueymac) and 

and hydrate. The hydnled carbonate, bismutite. Is of iel* 
importance; It occurs In Cornwall, Bdivla, Arizona and else- 

Of the rarer bismuth minerals we may notloa the foDowfigr— 
the complex sulphides, coftpcr bismuth ^ance or wittkbenite, 
BiCuiSi. silver bismuth glance, bismuth cobalt pyritci, bismuth 
nickel pyrites or saynite, needle ore (pairinlle or aiUnite), 
BiCuPbS.. empleciiie, CuBlS,. and kobeUiie, BiAtFb.S.1 the 
sulphotellurida totradymite) the aekaide (uanajuatita, BltSci, 


Oe buk tcDuTate umtiolu, BEttOIpiT«Oi; the Olattt 

eolytile and tgtkolitt, BlitSiOJii asd the unnyl m ' 
vJpoiliie, Bi(UO,UOH).(AiO,).. 

"■uewfj.— Biimuih ii nirmctnt Irom It* am by dry, 

■swidint upon tht 
. Tbs dfy 


•perfk hoi bi 

li imn fitquMUly pnaued. (or Ihe « 

lod (ulphidc. inciher wiih ihe low i 
nndcn il ponible [a efltci * R*dy ■ 

udbility of tin «ide 
)Q of the fiwu] 

d Mot RuioHl hi Ihe 
Kltciofy, ilaa tha ealne 
additioa of icduciw ani 
it or ulphJife. In tlw U,_^.. 
ined cylindrical ntoni; and the 
Er end! the nakliRt being remoi 

Iten metal ia tipped at iha 
from the upper end. The 
tmaon pcoceiB la inierapiy camea ou in crucible fumaeet ; afaali 
fumaeea an unaaiiafaciuy ea acsooni of iha dwintaintini action 
ol the laoltln Inniuth on the [utnac* Unintf. 

Sutphuieltcd iKaari uoctted, either with or nithout a preliniiuiv 
cakhaation. with metallic ironi caldncd orea may be anieltcd with 

•Mur JBihcaiiicltia(a((BleBa(ieeLiAD), ihacacbea raduciinany 
aiidc. citbtr pnKai Dnrnally In ihe ore or produced in the calcina- 
lion. and ihe iron conblnio( irllh the aulpfaur of tha bivnulhlle. 
A certain amouat of bimBlIi nriphaie I> alnra lonngd durlne ihe 
calcination: ihia i> ubieauenijy teduced to tha Hiphlde and 
■Icioiately to the mMal ia llie (uuon. Cakinaiien in reverberaiory 

with the addition of about J % of coal, Hme. aoda and Huoripar, 


weat layer of em a 


wbldi the biimuth h preaent aa 
out wiih hydrochloric acid, or, 

Jloy, the aolvent 

fhe aotulioo oF 

oxido or carbonate, era diwlvei 

K ihe iHimuih ii lo be eitracied 

enployed it oaa ttiia or ilrong aulphuric ad 
metallie chloridet or autphatea >a obuined ii p 
the inclalEie biamuih Altered, waahed with irate-. j-*-*«. -» »»-— 
bts and finally fuied In fraphite craeiUe*, th* MHfacc beio( pro- 
tected by a layer of chareogj. Auoihec onxoa comiKi in addinj 
vater to the loluiiaa and u prHipiutin[ tha biunulh aa oxy- 
cUoride. which ia then convrrtrd into the metal. 

contaminated 1^ anenic, aiilj^ur. irwi. nickeT. cobalt and aniimodr. 
and aometimei with lilver or gold. A dry method of purlfi^iion 

bulk of the other impuritiea, A better ptoc aa a la to iwnel t the meial 
inctticibletwitbthtidditionofcgttitinrcliniaiaienta. ThedettHaof 
t hi* proceaa vary very nniidervbly, haaf condiiiooed by the riinijinii 
tion of the impure metal and the practice of particular worVa- The 
wet ref nina pr oc ei a it more lediout and eapentlve, and ft only 
enptionairy (mi^oyed, at In the caie of (mpartnt tht pure metal 
ot iti ialta lor pharmaceatieat or eheaiinl purpuiWi The baiie 
mtiate it the tak aeneraUy pnpated. ajid. In fanval ovtlia^ the 
pnum conuaii in ditiolvini Ihe metal In nliric acid, addiiv nier 
to the toliitlan, boilini the precipitated baile niinle with an alkali 
10 remon Ihe anenic and lead, diiaolvlnt the teiadue la nitric add. 
and npndpilatiiH at baiic nittala with water. ]. F. W. Hampe 
prepued clienihanii pure biitnuih by (iiifnc tha metal with todium 
ctininale and tulphur. diHolvln* the biamuth tulphide ao farmed 
In nitric acid, preclpltatiat the biimuth at the baile niiratCi re- 
dlaaatvtat Ihia tail In nlifle acid, and then preeioilatini with 
amnonia. The biaraoth bydmida to obtained la aoally nduced by 

/•'(^riiu.— Biamuih laa wry brilile metal iHth a white cry«»t 

luta in ihombohHliii bekiiwini to the hei 
inietfacial (nalei of S}' til. Accortfirw to 
Rnh and Siedter (2«I. A »r. Oitm. >9. p. 1« 
i-ySIu; Robena and WrighiKn give Ihe ■ 

?"EmtdJikra';ij iVs'lc.' C. Pe'raon); 
Ticmai Diimuin mcltt ti wi* (Ledebur), and electmlytie 
iilh at (64* (Clatien). 1 1 vapoiim in a vacuum at 291*. and lit 
ni'poinl, under amuapharic pmHin, it between to«o* and 

* (T. Camclley and W. C. Willitnit). Re(nault deiermined in 

eao*aiHt too* Mbta«)0«i I 

give the valuao' 03055. Ita thermal conductivity 

electrical conductivity [■ apprcKlr 

ejecttic propertlea render it eapcc 
of ihermepAH. 

The metal oiidizea very tlowty In ity air at srdinary temperatorea. 
buliomewhai moRMapidly in moiMau' or when heated. InihelaK 
ca« it becomei coaled with a giryiah-black layer of an oiid* 
(dioiidr{?)J. ataredheat the layer conutii of the irluidn (SiiOi), 
and it yelknr or trsen in the caae ol pure biimuth. and violet or bloe 
if impure; at a bri|hi red heat it buma wiib a Uultb Same 10 the 
trioude. BiiRiuth combinet directly itlth iht haleienh and the 
ekmcntt of the lulphur mup. It ittdlly di«eh«tln oktic add. 

r' , and hot nilpSurie add, but tardily In hot bydrochlotic 
• piTcipitated aa th* metal from tolutioiia ol Ita nlii br 
Ikalit and alhaline earthi. liae, tron, copper. Ac. 
la that "■— — . " 

n in chemical 1 ~ 
mpenant diMine 

o hydrofu eompMod 

1 niercitry h (ormtamahania. Biimulh [i a compoiKnl of many 
\n alloya cEuncteruetfby their low f uiihiliiy and eipantion In 
iAcatiaa: many of iben are uaed la iha ana (ice Ftniui 

Canhwadt.— Biimulh forma four oxidet. of (rtiicb Ihe trioiide. 
DliOi. it lb* moat important Thii compound ociun lo nitoieaa 
bitnuth ochre, and may be pnpaird artificially by midiani tbe 
metal at a red heat, or by beatinf the carbonate, ciirale or hydnla. 
Thut obtained It ii ■ ydlow ponler. loluble in tbe mineral aeidt 

ihen Ihe ncituiion la diluted. It meha to 

„..-. aeidt 
fe^liih-biiwn liquid. 

which iobdifiei ton yellow civatalUne namon cooboi. The hydrate, 
Bi(OH)i. ia obtained aia white powder by additsMitih toa talution 
of a b^mulb aali. Bianuih dloidde, BiO orliidOi, ii aid to be 
formed by the limited oaitlation of tbe metal, and at a brcnm pre- 
cipiut* Iv adding niied aolutlaai of biunuih and itannDucblaildt* 
toaiotutionafCBuitiepolaih. BiimuthUiroi<de,ai(Oi.aomeilmt* 
termed bitmuth tiiimuthttt, iiobtained by nieltin|falimiith trfaalda 
with potatb. or by lanitini bbmulh trloiid* with fxiuA ._■ »..^ 
liun chlorite. It u alio (om-.ed by oiidinn 
■utpeftdcd in camtic potath with chlorine, tbe per 
eimultaneotnly: oiirlation and potauiuni ferric^ —..... „„ 
the tettoxlde (Hamer and Vanino, 2fll. ,<«». Onn., t9a4.M, pjSi 
Tbe hydrate. Bi^.3H,0,iaalaokiiovn. SLavth pehtoilde.^h 
il obtained by heatintbtauibic acid, HBiOi, to ijo* Ciihiaacid 
(in tbe form of iii Mitt) being the pmduct «f the caBiiniied widation 
of an alkaline aolutinn of biamuth trieaidc. 

BiimuthiormiiwDChioridea: BiChand BiQ.. The dichlorida, 
BiCt it obtained at a brown cr>ilalHn* powdtr by fuuna the metal 
with the tilcblorkle, or in a corrent of tMoiine, or by beating the 

il with calomel u 15a*. Water dccsnpoaei it to setallic 

luth and the oxychlgiidb EiOCL Biamuth trichloride. BiCU 
obulopd by Robert BoyK by beating the metal with corroaivr 
imate. Il \t the bnal product of burning Uimuth ia an ciceia 

ing binnutb tricudde 
■nioiide being form-l 
cyanide timely gi 

yeUow eryitahi^ bi 

rith witer, and doubl 
Cortmid.— Tbe bi 


f/itnUi. — The nomul ~ 

,1 chloride. Bimnk Ir. 

e powder, Mnii>M»^awtdr. BiBr^ goklea 

■ in^lS* ?^r heir 
Inrrring oiyhaloiil* 


litnie. Bi(N0,}r9H 
ric priimtby evapa 

NOi}i-SHiO, b obtained In 

_, , by evmponting a tohiiicm ol 

acid. The action of^waiet on tiAioluiion pro. 

ducaa cryttalline precipitate of bMie nitrate, probably BI(OH),KOi. 
though it variet irith the amount of water empIo>ed. Thia pn- 
cipitale comlltinei the " magiuerv ol bltmuth or " lubnirrait of 
biamuth " of pharmacy, and under the name of pearl while. Uant 
" 'ipafiu or fiw d( 6rd baa long been uted ai a eoamnic 

nlftUii, — Bitmutk combinn directly with anlphur to lor«i a 

ilpMde. HA. and > triudphide. BiSt. tha latter coaipaund 

' ■ "■ ■ ■ iiinexnH. A hydtvted ditulphide, 

^ng lulphuTTttfd hydrCigen inn ■ 

and ttannoui chlvide. Piwautli 

being ri>rnied when the iulphr- '- 
BiS.;2HiO. It obtained by | 



CTIrd hyArotto 

•uMiuMnd hydntca iats « loliitiiiii of ■ bimNli nil. It w 
wly nlabk id nitric Kid. Whea hcand id md* h aHim ibe 

ciyHillincIoniialbumuihilB. BumuihComutevcnlinyulphidn: 
BiiOvS coailitutei Ihc milicnl kiRluuu found al Ibe Zavadinskl 
ni« ia ib( Allai ^BitOiSi aad aW>>S bavc beca inpunJinifdaUy. 

Biuiolh wlphan, Bii(SOJ^ !■ abtalacd u a vUte pmrdcr br 

diaaMat the n^ or aulptaalc la CBBcesEnted nhiEiiric add. 

Wutf dSMnpoH ii, _(iv>iv • baiic lalt. Bii(SO.)(0(qt. wUcb « 

■mint lina (B»)£Ob Othiir bwie «lta am kaowa. 

Bimnitli (onaa compovndi lipulu to the trinilpbMe wiib ilit 

' lium and icnjiiimi. lb* trittlaridt coiMkuiM ilu 

' ' BliTck 

iJ bbaiutk nay be detaelail by tica(la( t!ie 

iHHio wiin noaa of taruiic tH, pauib and ataaaam chloride. 

jxecipkaie or dark olontioa of b^uth oxide bciiv fonaod evca 

r&en only dk part of biimulh li innciit in so^eoo ol witer. Tke 

Hilphide prccipitatM from biapimh «![* by aufphgr- 

ia inaDhible ia ammoniuni aulpliide, but ii rndi^ 

fkacid. The iMUl OB ba laihicBd by mafneiiuai. 

IB, ina. tin, copper and ea b e t aa faa Lis hypo- 

n aud froia acid aolutlinia or Ima alialine oaealiy 

laldrhydc. ta av>ntiutiv« euiBaliona It b nnerally nitlied 
aa oiide. after pimpitaticin aa aul^iidt or cvGaDate, or Is the 
■euUic forv, radarad aa above. 

PtarManfaty.— Tha slu of twnath are feeUy antlvplic^ 
Takaa iaieraiUy tb* •ubnitnle, comiin into contact with water, 
imda to decompoic. sraduaily libcratins nitric acid, ofv of the moat 
powvrfuJ aniiaeptict. Ttie pliyiical pTDpertke of (be povdcr 
aba (ive it a aiDd aKrii^eat actioa. Then are no fsnote 

ncra jvalici;— TIk fabaitrate af binmnb la Innliiable iacelain 
OKI of dyqirpua. and uill nxire aotably aa la diarrhoea- It orei 
iu viluF ID (be decompoaillaB deacribed above, by meaas ol which 
a powerful aaiiaeplie action la aafely and eotitlnuouily exerted. 
71v* ia hvdbr a of cr druf . It nay be given iadrachoi don with 
Impunity. It coloara th« Itecca black oniaa to the lonnatim of 

. . . II o( Unnoth 
le onborbombic ayateto 
oawitli aiibnitc (SbA},wbich ii doatly Toemble) 
ni looaa iotcriadng afgiegatci of adcnhr 
lal (aca (only In a rin^ loatance ha* a 
d cryilal been obaerved), or aa mawei with a Milted 
or niHiMs atnctnrB. An Impoitaat character h the perfect 
dfa*afe In me direcUon paialld to the leisili of Ihe ntedlcB. 
Tbc coloui b tead-grey JwHgniwj to tin-wliite and oltflD wflh a 
jrilowiah or iridooent tamith. Tba haidneaa b >; specific 
fnvily A-a-frj. Binnuthitc occiua at leveral h>ca1Itica in 
ComnB and Bolivia, often In "t™^'''™ with native bisoiulh 
and ti»«iaai Other localitlei are known; for Intlance, Brandy 
Gill in Caldbatt FcUa, Cnmboland, when with molybdenite and 
apatite il ia embnlded In whita qoarli. The mineral waa known 
to A. Cnotadt b 115S, and vai named WmvlhlBC by F. 5. 
findant In iSji. Tbia name, whldi li alio uitd in the : 


a (biamotb oildc) and Usmulih 
(buic bbmutb caiboaau), aape^y aa the latter baa alio been 
■Bed ia Iha brm bbnmtbils. Tbe name biimnUi-i^nee 01 
bwnolbehnpdlB forlba qndea imder taofclenitkm b free from 
Ihiaobitctiaa. (UJ.S.) 

SISKT*. ■ (nt^ of ndn motnda, abont i m. leag and t ' 
•ide. coMiMlnf ol a namber of low rfdpi, nowhere eiceeding . 
It. ia helibt, iyinf In tbe Jeiireb, nniewhat nearer lo tbe Tigrfa 
than tba Eupbataa, ibow a day's )oamey to the aonth^ut of 
Nlppat.aliltkbelo«3)*N.andabout4s'4>/E. Eiavatlont 
Gooducted ban lot wb montba, from Chrblnaa of 190] to June 
1004, lot tha Bii*«rrit)> cd CUciga, by Dr Edgar J. Binki, 
proved Ifcat (beat mounda cnvered Ihe ilte of the andent diy of 
Adib (Ud-Nun), Utbeno known only from a brfel mention of ■ 
Data* in tba inttndBCIiop 10 the Khimmuiabl code (c. 115a a.c 
Tbtci^«aad*ldcdlni«lwopartibjraanaJ, on an iibnd In 
which atood tba ttnple, E-mach, with a iiUBre;, or iiage tower. 
It waa vrUmOr odb* a dt7 «< wntidCTable hnponasce. but 

dcMTted at ■ very tally period, atnot li« mfaM foond daaa to ll» 

X ol tbe Duondi belong to Dungi and Ut Gnr, kin^ of Ur 

in Ihe caitier part of the third milkniiiiim aux Immedialdy 
bdow thtir, ■( at NiKwr, veic tound tbe rcmiini of Maimm-S^ 
and Sar-gon. c. joao a«. Below tbeae there were aiill n ft. 
ol atratificd itmaius, conMituting aeven-dgblba of tbe total 
depth of ttie mini. Boides tbe remalos of buQdings, walla, 
(lavei, &C., Dr Banki diKovercd a larBe nombci of iniciibed 
day tablet! of a vciy early period, brotue and atone tablctit 
brmuc implementa and the like. But the two cuat notabla 
diicoveriea were a complete atatue In white marble, apparently 
tbe moatindenC yet found in Babylonia (now In thcmpMUDiia 
Conitantinople), bearing Ihe imcrtption — "E-ntach, King 

cODiiEtiDg of great quajitilies of Eiagnienti of vaica hi laatbie, 
alibastet, ODyx, pMphyiy and graniCe, aoma ol wUch were 
ribediandotbenengiavedai^linlaidwlUi tvmyand predout 
a. 0- P- Pa-) 

[IOf, tba name of tbe MU afalhi fpecia of European nld 
01, Bei (Aiim) Agaanu, known in Rnialin 1* utr. Together 
with tbe nearly allied New World animal known In Eumpe aa 
Ibe {North) American bluD, but In ita own country a* " buSak," 
and Kienli&ally ai Bei (BiMtn) UHm, the bbon rtprawnta a 
group of the 01 tribe dii^gni^ied Inm other ipede* by Iho 
greater breadth and convciily ot tlw lordiead, rapeiiOT length 
of limb, and the longer ipina] ptocewei of the doinl veitcbrae^ 
which, with the powerful miocln attached (ot the aqiiioit ol tba 
mn^ve head, form a piotubcnnce or bomp on tbe iboolden. 
Tbe biionihive aim fourteen painotilb^wUte (he OHnmoDOi 
has only IhirteeiL Tbe forehead and nea ot both Qtedca aie 
covered with long, ihany lui' 0' a dark blown coknu; and in 
vinter the whole of the Deck, iboulden and hump are rimHariy 
doibed, >o ai to form a Cvrly, Idled mue. TUs mane hi the 
Euiopeu ipedei dliappean in lumnter; bm la tbe Ameikan 
bison it b to a conridoable exUat pctalitent. 

The bison rt now the hrgeit European qnadtttped, meaturing 
about 10 iL kmg, exdndve of tbe tail, and ilanding noily 6 ft. 
hi^ Formerly It waa alnmduit tbioughont Europe, aa Is 
pnnd by tbe foofl remalm of Ihia or a doiely aUed form found 
on the continent and in England, anodated with those of tbe 
extinct mammotb and rblnocenia. CaoiT mentions Ibe bbon 
as abounding, along with tbe extinct auroclu or wild ox, in the 
forest! of G^naany and Belgium, where it appears to have beeti 
occanoniUy captured and afterwards exhibited ative In the 
Roman amphiiheatrea. Al that period, atid long after, it seema 
to have been common throughout central Europe, aa we learn 
from Ibe evidence of Herbentein in tbe i6tfa century. Nowidayi 
bison aiT ftmnd in a truly wild condition only in the forests of the 
Caucasus, where they are specially piotecled by the Russian 
government. Tbere Is, however, 1 berd, lomewhat In tba 
condition of park-anlmals, in the forest of Byelovitsa, In LithU' 
ania, where It b protected by the tsar, but nevcrthctesa b 
gradually dying out. In 186] the Lithuanian tJsona numbered 
over iiaD,bnt by 1871 they had diminished to s9S,andbi 1S91 
then were only 491. The prince of Pkta has a imall bod at 
Promniti, hu Silesiin estate, founded by the |^t of a buU and 
three cows by Alutndei IL in 185J, Us herd being the •onne 
of the menigetle supply. 

Bison feed on a coarse anmaHc graM, and kowie on {hs 
Itsvo, shoots, bark end twigs of Irces. 

The Amcrlan bi»n b dutlnguisbed from Ha Eutopean Gonrin 
by the lolfowing among other feattucs: Tbe h!ad-<[uanna an 
weaker and faU away more suddenly, while the withers are 
proportionately hi|^. Espcdilly chaiaclerbtic is the great 
mass of brown or blackish brown hair dolhing tbe head, neck 
and foTTpart of the body. Tbe shape of the skull and boms I> 
also differenli Ihe horns themselves being tbortcl, thicker, 
blunter and more sharply curved, white the fdrebesd of tba 
skull b more convex and Ihe sockets of Ihe eyes are more 
dbtlnctly tubular. Tlib species formerly ranged over a third ot 
North America in ccunitess numbers, but b uow piactlc^y 
cxlhicl, Tbe great bud was separstcd into a nortbem and 


nathcm dIviiioD ^ tbc comiletlai of the Unloii P«d fie nihny , 
Aui tht unuil rate of cknnictim from iSv M >87S )u* b«D 
eitimaud U >,joo,aiio ksuL In tSSo the camplecian of the 
NanhenPtdGcnihnyleduiUi Mtack upoo Ibe iwiiheni berd. 
The lut a( tlK Diksu bJMBt *«« dettroyeii by lodiiD] in iSSj. 
leaving then kn tlun loos wild individiuili Id Um UniLcd 

A count which mi coDcluded it the end of Febnuiy i^aj, 
pot the DiiIDbn of cqitive bines ll iiig, dI which 969 were In 
ptrki and MKdasIal girdeiB is the United Slain, 41 in Canada 
ind 109 In Earope. At ihe unit time ic wu atimatad that 
there wen 34 wild hiioo In the United States and 600 in Canada. 

In Englaad smsll herds are kept by the duke of Bedfoid at 
Woburn Abbey, Bedfoidshin:, and by Ui C. J. Leyliud it 
UVnentiHi Csitle. NoitfauBbeilind, 

Tva nets of the Aineiic*a bium have been disCinguiihed — 
the typicai prsirie form, and tbe woodland lacc, B, bim 
allmlmiau; but the two lie very limilar. (R. L.*) 

BISftUB (a French word of unknown 
~ V"],a tenaforoddsgivenin the. 


in cookery, 

BIUBLU GBOROB EDWIH (iSj9- )i Ameilctn sculptor, 
•01 of a quanynuD and marble-cutter, wes bom at New Preston,. 
Connecliciit, OB the i6Ib of February 1S3Q. During the Qvil 
War be tcived ts a private in the ijrd Connectknt voluntetn 
in the Depuunent of ibe Gulf (iMa-iUi), and on being 
muttered out became «ning usislant paymuta la Ihe South 
A ilnntic squadron. At (he doBOof ibc vai he Joined bl> father 
lubuiiacM. He itudicd Ibe utoftculptuieabmad in 1815-1876, 
and lived much in Psiii dutiag the yean iSSj-iSge, with 
occasional vtsiti to America. Among his mot* imparlaol works 
irt Ihe toldien' and wlon' Dooument, sndaitalueof Colonel 
It Wstirhuty. Cot 


1 SarstO) 

, New Yorl 

Trinity churchyard, New York City; ol Colonel Abraham de 
P^ter in Bowling Green, New York City;ol Abraham Lincoln 
at Edinburgh; oE Bums and " Higbluid Miry," b Ayr, 
Scoilsnd; of Cbancelloc James Kent, in the Congressional 
library, Wsibington; and ol Prtaident Anhui In MadisOD 
Square, New Yoik City. 

BISSEST, or Bisgextdi (Ltt. bit, iwkej taliu, siilh), the 
day iciercalated by the JuUiii calendar in Ihe Februiuy of every 
lourih year 10 nuke up the >ix hoiin by wbicb Ibe tolar year was 
eOTupuledloeictediheyear o( 365 dsy*. The day was insetted 
alter the 14th ol February, i.e. the 6tb diy bcfne the cslcnds 
(ttl) of Much; Ihcre wss comequently, besides the KHxt, or 
^lh before the calends, the Ui-uiliii or " tecond ililh," out 
ijtb of February. In modem usage, with Ihe eiception el 
ecclcsisitical aJcndars, ihe intercalary day is added fnr con- 
venience at Ihe end ol Ihe month, and yean in which Fcbniaiy 
bai ig days are called " biiicitile," or leap-years. 

BISTR& the French name of ■ brown paint made Iiom the 
•001 of wood, now largely superseded by Indian ink. 

BIT (from Ihe verb " to bile," either In Ibe sense of ■ piece 
Ulten oS, or an act of biting, or a thing thai biles or ii biltcn), 
geneially, i piece of anything; the word is, however, used in 
varioui>peclslienses,illderivsblefrom lis nrjgin, either literally 
or mcupboiically. The moil common of these are (1) its use 
« tht ntmeof various tools, «.|.cenlre-bit;(j) a horse's "bit." 
or the melat mouth'picce ol Ihe bridle; (j) In money, ■ small 
sum ol money of varying value (e.(. threepenny-bit), capedally 
in Ihe Wai Indies and souihem Unlled Suies. 

Brratlll, a town in Ihe Cawnpore district of the Unlled 
Provinces of Indis, 11 m. N.W. of Cawnpore cily. Pop. (ijoij 
7173. It iachieSy nouble lor Its conneiion wlih Ihe mutiny ot 
lSS7. The last ol the peshwas, Bsji Rao, was banlgtied to Bilhur, 
and hit adopted son. the Nana Sahib, made the lown Ui head- 

wss aptnred t^ 
c Nam's palaces 
(BJiwia), 1 

Havelock oil tlu tfth ot Jlily 

*s were destroyed, 
ancleal dislrict In the K.W. of 
PropOdtis, the Tbradaa Boipona 
and ihe Eniine. Accordiag IB Slnha it wm bounded on tha 
E. by the river Sangarius; but the more commonly received 
division eiteuded It to the Pariheoiiu, which separated IL Irom 
Faphlagonia, thus caoiprising the district inhablled by the 
MariandynL On the W. and S.W. it was eepanted from Myila 
by the river Rhyndaciu; and 00 tile's. It adjdned Phrygl* 
Eplctetus and Galitli. It Is In great put occupied by moun- 
liins and Eorots, but has valleys and diittktt near Ibe tea-coait 
of gretl [ctUlity. The moai important nunntain range If the 
(w-csUed) " Myslati " Olympus (7600 ft.}, whldi towers above 
Brasa and is dearly visible as far away as Constantinople (70m.). 
Its BUmniiU ate covered with soow [at a grcAt part al the year. 
East of this the range now called Ala-Dagh extendi (orahora 
room. [nKB the Sangarius to Papblagonia Both of these eangt* 
belong to that border of mountains which bounds the great table- 
land of Asia hlinor. The country between them and the coast, 
covered with forests and traversed by few lines of route, it still 
Imperfectly knowiL But the brasd tract which projects toward* 
Ihe west as far as the shores of Ihe Bos)ioru3, though hniy snd 
covered with forests— the Turkish Aghslcb Dcniil, or "The 
Oceanof Trees"— isDotlravcraedbyanymountainchain. The 
west cmist Is Indented by two deep inlets, (1) Ibe northernmost, 
the Gulf of Imid (anc. Gulf ol Attacus), penetrating between 
40 and ;a m- Into the interior as far as Iimid (anc Nicomedia), 
separated by an iaihmus of only about 15 m. from the Black 
Sea; (1) the CuU of Uudania or Gemlik (Gulf of Clus}, about 
ij m. long. At lis eilremiiy is situated the small town of 
Gemlik (anc. Cius) at the moulh of a valley, communicating 
with (he lake ol Iiolk, on which was situated Nicsea. 

The principal rivers are the Sangarius (mod. Sa^ria), which 
travenea the provi nee from •outhlananh;tlic Rhyndacus, which 
separated it irom Mysia; and the Billieus (Fdiyis), which lisei 
in the Ala-Dagfa, about jo a. from the sea, and alter Bowing 
by B<di [anc. Clandiopidis) falls into the Euiine, doss to the 
njins of the ancient Tium. about 40 m. nottb-east of Hoadea, 
having a eoune of more than 100 bl The Parthenins (mod. 
Barlao). Ibe boundary of the prorince lowaidi the east, is ■ 
much leu oonsideitlile stream. 

Tbe naturalreBourceaof BithyniaarestlU Imperfectly developed. 
It* vut Idresis iMold furnish an afanoat IneihaotliUe toj^y 
oC tjmba, if rendered accessible by roads. Coal also is known 
to exist near EregU (Ueneica). ^le vslleyi towards the Black 
Sea abound In fnilt Ueei ol all kinds, while the valley of tlw 
Sangarius and the plains near Brusa and Isnik (Nicaea) are 
lerlile and well cultivated. Eilensive plantations of mulberry 
trees supply the silk for which Bmsa has long been oelebmlcd, 
and which is manufactoted then on ■ largo lole. 

According to aadent authoi* (Hetodotus, XcntqihOB, Sinbo, 
Ihe), (he Bldiynian* were an immigrant ThraeiBa tribe. The 
existence of a Ulbe called Thyni In Thrace is well attested, anit 
Ibe two cognate tribes of the Thynl and Blihynl appear to have 
leltled timultueouily In the adjoining paila ol Asia, where Ihcy 
tttpelled or inbdiMd the Uyilans, Caucones, and other petty 
Uibet. the Mariandynl alooe maintaining themselves In Ihe north- 
east. Herodotus mentionstfae Thyni and Bitfayni SI ciistingiida 
by side; but ultimately the hltet must have become the mors 
impoiUnt, u they ^ve thdr name to lbs country. They wcra 
incotporaled by Crnesui with Ibe Lydlan monarchy, with which 
they lell under the doninioD ol Persia (J46 B.C.), and were 
induded In the lalrtpy of Phiy^a, which compelled all Ihe 
countries up 10 the HeUespoat and Bosporus. But even before 
Ibe oinquest by Aleiudei Ihe Bithynian* appear to have 
asserted their indqiendence, and successfully maint^ned it 
under two native princea, Bas and ZipoeUa, Ihe last of ^mho 
trantmittcd his paver to his ion Nicomeika I., the first tq 
assume Ihe title of king. This monarch lounded Nicomedia, 

(i]S-ijo B.C.), as w 

erily. • 

i* L. 


B n. (i49^t B.C.). Ibe tiDidom at 
Siihynla held ■ roruidenble place unong the minor monmrdua 
■ ■ ■ - x the 1*M king, Nicoin»d« 111. 


Knalc. he bcquealhed hii 
to tbc Rddusi (;4 B.C.). Bilbynia now btomc 
■ Romui pnvina. lu limiu ven Irequenlly vuied, and it 
vu commoDly luuud lor tdmimtlnUve purpaset with the 
praviace of Pontiu. Till* wu the lUtc of thingi in the time nl 
Tnjui. Klwa the younger Pliny wu ippointed governor of 
the combined provincei (io]-ios *J).), i, drcumstince lo 

RoQua pTovincul admiDiitntioD. Umler ihe Byxantine empire 
Bithynii vu Agaui divided i;i(a two provinces, separated by the 
Singiriui, to the west ol wtiich the name o( BiLhyaia wai 

The oosl important dtiea were Nicomedii and Nicaea. which 
diipated wilb one another the rank o[ capitat. Both ol thcM 
were founded after Alciander the Gmt; but at a much earlier 
period the Creeki had established on the coast the colonies of 
Qua (afterward] Prusias, mod, Cemlik); Chalcedon, at the 
CDtrance of tbe Bo^orus. nearly opposite Cooatantlnoplc; and 
Heradea Pontics, on tbe Euaine , atuut iio m. cost of the Bos- 
ponis. All Iboe nne lo be Sourishing places of liade, as also 
Pnuaat the foot of M. Olympus (seeBaus*). The only other 
places of [mporuoce at the present day are Iimid (NIcomedia) 
and Scutari. 

Stt C.Takt. AtU ttiM*" IPvii, iil»): C. FtoDt, CilalK M 
BtHjufc (Parih iMi): W. von Diett ui Piirrma-«i iftHbi'iMRii, 
ErUniiuvhaft. ii« (GoUa. i«9S). (E. H B.; F. W. Ha!) 

■ITLtt, or Brnit (Ann. Pagluik), the chief town of a vilayet 
tf Ibe same name in Asiatic tnukey, utuated at an altitude of 
4700 ft.. Id Ibe deep, nairow valtcy of the Biilis Cbai, a tribuUry 
of the Tigti*. The main part of the town and tbe baiaan an 
crowded alongside the ilicam, while lubutbs wilb scatleied 
botuet among orchard* and gaidcna eiiend up two tributary 
■treamt. The houtei are maul ve and welt hililt of a lolt voiunic 
tufa, and with tbur courtyards and gardens climbing up the 
Ullside* afford a striking picture. At the Junction of two 
ftreams In the centre of tbe town Is a fine old oille, Jurtly 
tmned. which, according (0 local tradition, occupies the site 
tX a fortress built, by Ateiandcr the Great. It is ajiparenlly 
an Arab buDding, as Arabic iascriplioni appear on the walls, but 
as tbe town itands on the principal highway between the Van 
plateau and the Mesopolamian pluin it must always have l«en 
«( slntegk importance. The baoan arc crowded, coveted 
acnn wilb brandies in summer, and typical of a Kurdish town. 
Tlte pspublion numbers Jj.ooo, of whom about 11,000 are 
Armenian* and the remainder arc Kurds or of Kurdish descent. 
Kordiib bey* lad sheiks have much influence in the lonn 
and wiM mountafai disiricis adjoining, white the Sasun moun- 
tains, ibe leenaof successive Armenian revolutions of late years. 
are WM (ar ofl to tbe west. The town was ruled by a scmt- 
indepmdou Kurdish bey asbteas igj6. There ate 'some fine 
old moaque* and tatdrcntt (colleges) . and the Armenians have a 
large BHnastny and churehei. There are Briiisb. French and 
Xnauan coniul* In the town, and • bmnch of the Amr 
Uisiaa with achools is ealablished also. The cliratte b heallhy 
and Ibe thermometer rarely (alls below o* Fihr., but Iher ' 
heavy aaowfall and tbe narrow streets are blocked for son 
Boolha in the year. 

A good toad nmi southward down the pass, passing a 
few miles wme large chalybeate and sulphur springs. Roads 
alio kad north 10 Unsta and Erierum and along the lake to Vai 
Postal coouBunicitioa la through Enerum with Ttcblzan<! 
Tobacco o< an Inferior quality is largely grown, and the chii 
Industry is the weaving ol a coaria red doth. Maona and gui 
tra^canth are ^so collected. Fruit ii abo plenlUul, and there 
arc many vineyard* doae by. 

The Bitb vilayet comprim a vnr vailed sectioa o( Asiatic 
TnckeTi aa ft indudea the KuA phin and tbe plalesa countn 
weat of Lako Van. aa well aa a laise extent of wild mountaii 

4* inhabiitd by torbnlent Kindi aad Araenlant on ejtlitt 
I the eential town of Billii. abo some of tbe lower caunlry 
Sairt along the left bank of tbe m^n ttnam of ibc Tigrfa. 
Tbe mouDUins have been little eaplortd, but ate believed (o 
be rich in mlxtala. iron, lead, copper, trace* of |otd and many 
mineral iptinga arc known to eiiit. (F. R. M.) 

"OXTO (anc Saliuilt}. a town and episcopal lee of ApaUs, 

Italy, in tbe province ol Bail, 10 m. weat by suan tramway 

iraBati. Fop. (1901) jo.61;. Iiwasa place oi no importaBOe 

classical timei. It* medieval wtUt are itiU preterved. lis 

thcdral is one of the finest examples of the Romancfltiue archi- 

:tureDlApulia. and has escaped damage from later restoralionL 

The pabuo Sybs'Labini tus a fine Renaissance court of i^i. 

BITSCH (Ft. BiUlit), a town ol Cetminy. in Alsace-Lonaina, 

on the Horn, at the foot of tbe oorthcm slope ol tbe Vosgea 

between Hagcnau aud SaatgemUnd. Pop. (i«bs) 4000. There 

are a Roman Catholic and a FiotHlant church, a cIuticaltdHiol 

and an academy ol forestiy The industries include (hoe-making 

and watch-making, and there is some trade In grain and timber. 

The town ol Bilsch, which was formed out of the villages ol 

Rohr and Kaltenhauscn in tbe 17th century, derives ita name 

from the old stronghold (mentioned in 1171 as Bylis Caslrum] 

atandingonarocksODietse ft. above Ibe town. Thit had king 

given its name to the countship ol Bilsch. which was originally 

in the possession of the dukes ol Lorraine. In 1 197 it passed by 

marriage W Ebethsrd I. ol Zweibmcken, ' 

n 156*. w 


passed with that duchy to France in 
town rapidly increased in popubtion. Tbe citadel, which had 
been constructed by Vauban on the site of the old tasdc after 
the capture of Bitsch by the French in 1614, had been destroyed 
when it was restored lo Loiraine in t6«S. This was restored 
and slrenglhencd in i;4ointoatorlreas that proved impregnable 
in all succeeding wars. The attack upon it by the Prussian* 
in 170J was repulsed; In 1S15 they had to lie content with 
blockading it; and ia 1S70, though it was closely invested by 
the Germans after the battle of WSrlh. it held out until the cad 
of the war. A large part ol the fortification is eicavatcd in the 
red aandstooe rock, and rendered bomb-proof; a supply of 
water is secured to the garrison by a deep well in the inte^io^ 

sculptor, was bom in Vienna on the 6th ol December 1S67. 
After studying art there. In igSo be removed 10 the United 
Stales, where he became naturalized. In America he gained 
great popularity as a sculptor, and in 1906-100; was presi- 
dent of the National Sculpture Society, New York. Among 
bis principal works an: the Aslor memorial gates, Trinity 
cburcb, New York; " Etementa Controlled and Unconlrollcd,'- 
on the Administration Building at tbe Chicago Eiposilion; 
a brge relief, " Triumph of Civiliiation." in the waiting-room 
of the Broad Street station of the Pennsylvanb railway in 
Philadelphia; dccoisliona for the Dewey Naval Arch in New 
York City; the " Sundard Bearet*," at the Pan-American 
Eiposition grounds; a ^tllng statue and a bust of Dc Pepper, 
provost of the University of Pennsylvania; and the Villard 
and Hubbard mi ■»■-■-' ,. , . . * 

nof G 

Lclpiig by rail, on the river Muldc, 
and an important junction ol railway* from Leipalg and Halle 
to Berlin. Pop. (1900) 11.839. It manufactures dnin-pipcs, 
papcr-rooGng ami machinery, and ha* saw-mills. Several 
coal-mines are In Ihe vicinity. The town was buDi by a colony 
ol Flemish immigrants In nsj It was captured by the land- 
grave o( Mdssen in 1476, and bdonged thenceforth lo Saiony, 
until It was ceded to Pni5»a in 1B15. Owing lo Its pleasant 
situation and accesaltnliiy. it has became a favourite residence 
of businesamenof Leipzig and Halle. 

BITTBRUira (Rlaiaa ameras). a llltle Carp-ULe fSsta ol 
ccniral Europe, belonging to Ihe Cyprinid family. Id il we 
have a remarkable Instance of symbiosis. Tbe genital papilla 
ol the female acquirea a gteai development during the bKcdio' 
aeason and becomes produced Into a tube neattv >a long aa 


bb ttscU; Ibb ten M an ovipnitoT bjr mara ol Hliich ihc 

compaia lively (ew anil lirgc egg] (j milUmclrea in diamclti' 
•R iniroduccd ihrougb ihc giping nlvcs bcTwctn ihc branchiic 

Ihcit h«t ibout a month bicr. The nwIluK reciprocaln by 
throwing oH iis embryos on Ihi pani.I fish, in ihe Ma ot which 
they remain encyiicd for some lime, ibe period ol nprodi 
ol the fishand-musd coinciding. 

BITTEKH. a genus of Hading birds, betonging to Ihe ( 
A'dtidat, camprising several species closeEyalJied to (he herons, 
(lam whicb Ihey diller chiefly in [heir shaitcr neck, the back of 
which is covered with down, and the front wtih long feathers, 
which can be raised at pleasure. They arc solitary birds. Icefjucnt- 
ing countries possessing eitensive swamps aitd marshy grounds, 
temaining at test hy day, conccjled among the rced» and hushes 
ol their haunt!, and seeking their food, which coniisis of fish, 

common biiletn(fl<pJoiiniji/i//orij) is nearly i! laige as Ihe heror 
and is widely diiiributed over [he eastciri heniisphefe. Former!. 
il was common in Biilain, but extensive drainage and perteculion 

have greatly diminished its numbers and II is now only an un- 
certain visitor. Not a winter passes without its appearing in 
some numbers, ^hen its uncommon aspect, jLa large si«e, and 
beautifully pencilled plumage cause it to be regarded as a (real 
priu by tbe lucky gun-bearer la whom il falls a victim. Its 
value a* a delicacy for the table, once so highly esteemed, has 
long vanished. Ttit old lable of this bird insetting its beak into 
■ teed Di plunging it into the ground, and so causing the booming 
totind with which [i> name will be alivays associated, is also 
ciploded, and nowadays Indeed so Tew people in Britain have 
ever heard its loud and awlul voice, which seema to be uitcied 
only in the breeding-season, and Is therefore unknown in acounliy 
wbere it no longer breeds, that incredulity as to its booming al 
all has la some quarters succeeded the old belief in ihii as in 

days of falconry was siiictly preserved, and aSoided excellent 
tpoit. It sits crouching on the ground during the day, with its 
bill pointing in the air, a position from which It is not easily 
roused, and even when it takes wing, iti flight is neither swill 
nor long sustained. When wounded il requites to be approached 
with caution, as it will then attack either man or dag with lu 
long sharp bill and its acute daws. Ii builds a rude nesi among 
Ihe reed* and flags, mil ol the naterials which uinouiid il, and 

the female lays lour or Gra cj 
Ihe breeding season il utiera 
probably deiivcs lis generic i 

speckled wi 
species, a 

s found throughout 

nailer than I 

le European 

of North America, ll also occurs in Britain ai an 
Iraggler. Il it distinguishable by its uniform greyish- 
brown primaries, which want the lawny ban Ihat chararieriie 
B. i lillar ii, both species are good earing. 

BnTEIIH (from " bluer "), the mother liquor obtained from 
sea-water or bn'ncs after the separation of the sodium chloride 
(common salt) by cryHalliution. It contains various mag- 
nesium sails (sulphate, chloride, bromide and iodide) and il 
■employed commcrcully for ihe manufactute of Epsom salt) 
(magnesium sulphate] and bromine. The same term is applied 
to a RiiiluK of iiuBssia, iron sulphate, CKCufiu iiitfifiii, tiquorice. 
Sic. used in idulleniing beer. 

BITTERS, the name given to iromatiied (generally alcoholic) 
beverages conlsinlng a biiter substance or substances, used ai' 
ionics, appetiiers or digestives. The bitierness is imparted by 
such sulnlances as bluer orange rind, genti • ' • 

Juniper, ci 

re Ihe Bnei 

lion witn tne oitler principles, alcohol and 
I are prepared by simple maceiaiion and 
(see LigucuBs), oiben by the mon corn- 
process. Those prepared hy the latter 

substance which has been used to 

sold under t 

give them ihe predom „.. .. „ 

or peach bitten, &c. The alcoholic strength of bitten varies, 
but is generally in the neighbourhood of 40% of alcohol Some 
bluer*, although possessing ionic properties, may be regarded 
as beverages pure and simple, notwithsianding the fact that ihey 
are seldom consumed in an undiluted state; othen again, are 
obviously mcdicimil picpaniions and should be treated as such. 
BITUKEK, the name appUed by the Romans to the variout 
descriptions of natural hydrocarbons, the word pdreltHm not 
being used in classical Latin. Inits widest sense il 


scriptions of tt!riil, 
■UuniU or «,-«, 

lie, ilali 

It solid fo 

en asphalt and the more liquid kinds of crude pelroleum, 
rm nuffAs (Latin) is frequently employed. The bitumens 
;l commercial imporiance may be grouped under Ihe three 
igs of (i) luilitral jdj, (i) ftUiJnm, and (j) ai/lcJf, and 
: found fully described under these titles. In the scriptures 

ing may be quoted:— In Genesis ii, j, we ate tokJ lhat in 
lilding of tbe lowei of Babel " slime had thry for ncnar." 
1 Cenesii xlv. 10, lhat the vale of Siddim "was full o( 
slime-pits," the word iftaw in the latter quotalloo from our 
cin appearing ai bilumtn In Ihe Vulgate. Herodotus allude* 
ie use of the bitumen brought down by Ihe la. a irUnitary 
le Euphrates, as mortar id building the walls of Babylon. 
loTus, Cunius, Josephus, Bocharl and others make linilar 
Lion of this use of bitumen, and Vitntviiu ItUt us that it 
employed in admiiture with clay. 

ita various forms, liiiumen is one of ibe moal widely dla* 
lied of subsiaocei. It ocean, though sonetlmes only in 
small quantity, in almost every part of the ^obe. and Ihrough- 
'e whole range of gcolotical slrala, from tbe Lamcntian 
to the most recent memben of the Quaieniary period. 
Although the gaseous and liquid lorms of bitumen may be re- 
garded u having been formed in the strata in which Ihey are 
found or as having been received into such itiata shortly alter 
inilion, the semi-solid and solid varieties may be cansidered 
have been produced by the oxidalion and evaporation ol 


tfM pemlonn ac«|ihc Ami undarl7tii( et hctia ^aerni 
iifBiia bto oibn itnti, « into Suum *bcK timovberit 
KtioB lad kiu of tbe man volitilc noMituenlt an Ukc pUa 
II ikouU, bovcvR, be lUtcd tint then it too* difliitnce o( 
esitioa ms b> ibe prcdM nuDiKr of prodacUon of Mme of the 
nlid lonm a( bitutani, ud apeciilJr ofmikcritii. (B, R.) 

■mntlBB, a Celtic paople, ■ccordini to Livy (v. 34} the 
nDit pomrlul hi Giul In the time of Tinnzbiui Priiciii. At 
lame period unknown ibey iptii op into two bmidiet — BllnHitt* 
Csbi ud Biiuriga Vivisd. TIm BMiae fa uippoud to mean 
(filler " mien of the wortd " or " petpetnil Un^" 

The Biturigci Cubi, called ilmpljr BiRsiie* by Caesar. Is 
■hcae dDH they acknowledged the topremaiy of the Aedui, 
iahibited the nxxtem dioceM at Bourjet, Indudini the depart- 
Deau at Cher aad Indic, and partly that of AlUer. Tbetr chief 
loiria nete Avahcum (Bouiga), AigCDtomigiu (AiteDton-mr- 
Cietuc), NerioiBagus (N(rii-lei-Baiiii), Noviodanum (periiap* 
VilUicj, At the time of the nbellion of Veidnflctarli (ji •.«.), 
Avarinm, after a desperate rtalstaiice, mi taken by asuult, 
md (bi inhabitant! pul to Ibe iwonL In the foDowlog year, 
tb> BittuigH (ubmiited ID Caetar, and ondn Aufuitv* they 
«at inmponted (in il B.C.) in Atioitanfa. Pliny (ffaf. Bill, 
h, io«) ipaka of them ai liberi, wUch poinn to tbeii eDJoytng 
■ attain amount of independence under Ronun government. 
The Strict contained a Dumber of iron vorkj, and Caem tayi 
t^ wett akiUed in driving giUerlti and mining operatiana. 

Tbe BItnrlgei Viviid occupied the itiip of land betveen the 
■a ud (be left bank of the Garonne, compriiing ttie greater 
pirt el the modem departinent of GliDcde. Ttieic capital wai 
Butdigala (Bordcaui), even then a pUce of coniideiable import- 
aare and a vine-giowlng centit. Like the Cubl, they alw lie 
oiled Iiten by fSaj. 

See A. Dcijardlfii. Clareftlt lililerlsai It b Catit rtmatm, H 

BI)fi)! A. LADgBoa. CHptfkii dt b Csitit an YP lOdt 
: £ Kolde. AU^Mcte S/waiiiciaat T. IL Halaiei, 
i CnifWU t! CoW (itf9). 
MTZIDI. ALIUCHT (iTor-iBMl. SiriM aoveilit, ben Imtnre 
br hit pen bum of " Jeremiaa Collhelf," mi botn oa tba 4th 
of October iT97*t Uoni, vberc hit faibn vaa paitot. In iick4 
the heme «U mmred to Uucnitoif, a villafe in the HfmeiP 
EmaenlhaL UeiB yaong fiitxiui grew up, ncdviag hit eailjr 
cdwaiiDn and casHrting with the boy* d the village, ai wdl aa 
helping hii lather to cidiivate hit glebe. In iSi > he went to 
csmplele hia educalico at Bern, and in iBio wai received aa a 
pauu. Id 1811 be viiiled the univenity of COLtingen. but 
leiumed luina in 18^3 te act aa hii father"! ■— f«'»nf On hli 
fuher't death (1614) beveot Inlha aama c^iadty to Hetaogcn- 
bacluee. and lalet to Bern (iBiq). Early in iSji he Mnt aa 
Muuant to the aged paiUK of the village of LBtaeUah. In the 
Upper Emmenlhal {between Langnau and Borgdorf), being iOon 
•tecied hit auctenor (iSji) and mairyiiig one of hia grand- 
digghien (iSjj). He ipent the rest of hia life there, dying on 
tlw imd of October ig54,andlcavingthteediildteii(the«onwai 
a fuiot, the two daughun married puiora). Hit tnt work, 
Ihe SannifNIcf, appeared in iSj;. Ii purported to be the life 
of Jereniiai CotibcU, narrated by himtelf, and thii naae waa 
lua adopted by the anihor aa hia pen name. It li a Ihing 
pinure of Bemeie («-, itriclly ff— ^"-(r, Enunenthal) vfllage 
Hfe, iniE to aatuie, and not atlemptlig to tfon over lu defWtt 
~ ii aniticn (Ilk* the leit of hli wothi) in the 

It Biulta ml not (hke Aueibacb) ■ petnnt by bhth, but 
beknged to tbe ediuatad daaaei, ao thai be reptodncei what he 
kid leen aod Itamt. and not what he had himielf penwuUly 
tipeiienceiL The book *u a great ineceat, aa It wn a piclum 
<l nat life, and not of fandfuUy beribboned ifith^entury 
vilUgen. Among hii later taJet are tbe Itidtn ■ad FreuJtit 
BKi .StJ^faunUen ((Sjg-itM). C/Jf ^ir Kfioll (1S4O. with ita 
centiBuation, f/Viikr />di*lcr (1849). ^iw SUiJuMfs (1843- 
it4i}, KeUtl ill CravMUUr USij), DU Kaitrci indtr ViMJrndt 
(i«jo1, and the ErMuiist tinei SilmUttiaiieri (1854). " 
faUitbed alao icveral volume! of ihoncr laleL ^le 

dnwted to aome et Ua wrhtap la the echo ef local ptfStlcal 
conlnvenlea, for Bitiiui wai a Whig aod itron^y oppoied to 
tbe Radical party In the canton, whidi carried the day in il4t. 

« by C Manuel, In the Berlin edilion of Bitiiui'i 
i^ 'W'J. • " 

(Beriin. ifcij, and'by J. A™ 
Sommlimi BimiKitr Biifn. 

ill., giving the origjnat 

BIVOUAC (a French wigcd goieiaUy mU la have been Intto- 

nlD vol 1. 

, BiMpapHitm. Hi. — > 

It Bedio. ias6-iIoi, whik ..._., . 

"- - niwiedat Ben, 180-1900 (edjiia 

mgom canying t^M. CoDRmt Uvoiua, however, an tiytag 
to the health of men tod hpem, and tUt method o) quartcriag 
It never employed except wbeo tbe mUlaiy ritoitlon demiBdi 
cDtKeDtiatkin and readhieM, Thui the ontpoata would often 
have to bivouac whHe the main body of the army lay in bi||eta. 
BIWA. a lake in the pmiBca of Ond, Japan. It meaiurci 
jd m. hi length by 11 m. to extreme breadth, hai an arM of i3o 
iq. m., li abont jjs ft. afaova na-fevd, and haa an almme 
depthfif loBW jDoh. TbnaaiaafewimallldaiidilDtbebfce, 

Tradition aBagea that Lake Bim ud the mountain of FnJI 
wen pradnced alnmttiDeoiBly by an eartbqaaka in igd i.e. 
On the watt «( tbe lake tbe mooUalB HW-ian and Hifa-yama 
ilope dsiwnalmoM M to mugln, and oa the ei" ~" 
exwndi tgwiida the beanditfat o( tbe fg 

dnlned by ■ river lowing ant of Iti to 

In cenne into the tt* at Onka. TUm livcr bean in McctMun 
the ntinei al SeM-pwn, Ujl-^m ud Yodo^Ka. Tlw laka 
aboundi with bh, and ibe beauty of Itt acentiy li lemarfcable. 
SobU Meenboatt ply cnaMantly to the pointi of chkf inteteai, 
and ammd itt ihoiei an to be vlawed the Om1-ma*akkti, or 
" ei^t lanibcapet of 0ml "; namely, tbe lake lOvering nndei 
an autumn moon aa one looki down liom Itbiyunn; the mow 
at eve on Ilir»-yama; the ^w of miKI at Seta; tbe povei 
and daa^c temple of UiI.dBa aa the evening beO loimdi; boati 
•ailing home Iiom Yabait; doodlem peaki at Awaiui rain at 
Hl^htfall Over KiTiiiki; and wild geeie iwe^tng down to 
Kalala. TliclakclacoiuicctedwilhKyotobyacanalcanitructed 
in tlgo, and la (hot brought Into water communicaiion with 

BlZKh miO (ilir-iSfj), Italian aoMler, wai bom on t^ 
nid of Onebei iSii. While itilt a boy be waa compelled by 
hit paienit to embrace ■ maiillme cueer. After numetoua 
adventurei he ntumed to Italy In iM, joined the Clovlna Italia, 
and,on4ih NavemberiS4T, made hlandfooupicuoua at Genoa 
by Klnng the bridle o( Charlet Albcrft hone and dying, " Fata 
[he Tidno. Sire, and we are all wHb ysv.? He foo^l Ihnngh 
the campaign of 1848, beeame captain under Garibaldi at Rome 
In ig4«, taUngpriwDen u entile French battalion, and gaining 
the pild medal for military valour. In itsv he commanded a 
Ctiibaldian battalioB, and gained the military aon of Savoy. 
Joining the Manala expedition In i860, he turned the day in 
favour of Garibaldi at Calatafi^ wai wounded at Palermo, but 
rec o veted in lima (a holege Reggio in Calabria [irit of Auguit 
iMo), and, thou^ again wounded, took part in the battle of 
Vdtumo, wbei* Ui kg waa broken. Elected deputy in 1S61, 
he endeavouKd to KCoBdle Cavour and CaribaldL In iSM, at 
the head of the aeventh diviiion, he covered the Italian retreat 
from Cuilom, Ignoring the Auitriin luramons to luntnder. 
Ciealed lenalor in February iSro, he wai in the following 
September given command of a diviiion during the movement 
ai^nu Rome, look CWitt Vetchia. and paitidpated in the 
general attack upon Rome (leih September 1870). He died of 
cholva at Achln Bay In Sumatra nrmH for Bauvia, whiIbB he 



BIZERTA (proptrly p 
leipotl ol TuniiU, in ];" 
Next 10 Toulon, Biicni 

tud foot In oammiad ol ■ MBimetcUl expedition C idth Dcumber 


Ben Zcrti Fr. Aucrk), 
o' E, Pop. ibout iipOec 
t impoiUnt uval port o 
rrance in lue Mcaitcnucan. It occupjd > commMxlui, 
ilntcgica] position In the MiTOwBt pan of the Mi, being 714 m 
£. ol CibnJiar, iiftS m. W.N.W. ol Port Slid. i<o m. N.W. of 
MaIU.ud4'em.S.bYE.oCToulon. Iiisbom. by rJ] N.N.W. 
of Tunii. Tlve toum ii built aa the iharc* of the Mcdliemnoa 
»t the point when the Lake of Bfi«na enieit the la thiougk 1 
DituraL channel, the mouth of ushich hai bttu cualiud. Tlic 
modem town Ua Almost entirely on the north side of thu canaL 
A litlk farther north an the ancient citadel, the nlled " Arab " 
town and the old haiboui(di»ued). Tl» pmcnl outer haiboui 
coven about joo aciei and ii lotmed by tvo converging jettiei 
and ■ bnaltwater. The nonh jeuy is 4000 ft. long, llie east 
ielly jjooft., aod the bieakvatei — irhich pn>tcct> the poil from 
the prevalent north-east windi — 1300 ft, long. The entrance to 
the canal is in the cenin of the outer hubdtir. The canal ii 
lAoo It. lone *nd 787 ft. wide on the luifaix. It* binlu an 
lined with quays, and ihipi drawing 16 ft of water aa moor 
aloripide. At the end of the canal la a large comtnerfia] 
harbour, beyond which the chaniKl opens into the lake — ip 
reality an arm of the Bea-^roughly circular iu form and covering 
about so vf. m., two-thirds ol ila vaten having a depth of jo 
to 4a (L The lake, which tneichaDt veucis an not allowed 
to entct, contains the naval pert and artenal. Then ii ■ 
torpedo and submarine boat station on the north aide of the 
channel at the entrance to the lake, but the principal naval 
works an at Sidi Abdallah at the south-west comer of the 
lake and 10 m. from the open sea. Hen is an enclosed basin 
covering iij acres with ample qiuytge, diy docks and every- 
thing necessary to the iccomnodatian, repair, reviciuatliag and 
coaling of a numerous fleet- Barracks, hospitals and water- 
works have been built the military lown, called FertyviUe, 
being self-contained. 

FortiBcaiions have been built (or the protection o( the port. 
They comprise (a) the older works surrounding the town; (t) A 
group of coast batteries on the high ground of Cape Biierta or 
Guardia, 4 m. nonh- north-west ol the town; these are gniuped 
round a poweilu! (on called Jebel Kcblr, and have a command 
of jeo to 800 ft. above eea-kvel; (c) another group of batteries 
on the narrow gmund between the sea and the lake to the east 
oi the towni the highest of three is the Jebd Tuila battery 
tfi5 ft. above sea-level. 

The Lake Or Bueita, called Tinja by the Arabs, abooads in 
excellent bsh. especially mullets, the dried loe of which, called 
Mi'fs, is largely eiported, and the fishing Industry eaployi a 
large proporiioD oi the inhabiunt*. The western ihote of the 
like b low, and in many places Is covered with olive tree* to the 
water's edge. The south-eastern shore* are hilly and wooded, 
and behind them rises a range of picturesque hill*- A narrow 
and shallow channel leads from the western side of the lake into 
another sheet of water, the Lake of Ishkul, so called from Jebel 
Ithkul, a hill on its southern bank 174a ft. high. The Lake of 
Uhkul is nearly u luge ai the &ist lake, but is very shallow. Ita 

re genet«l1y sweet. 


Tyriaa colony. Hippo 
Khich, by means ol a 
north-eait wind, was 

>r Disnhyios, the hai 
spacious )»er, protecting it (mm t 
tendered one ol the safest and finest 
became • Soman ci^ny, and was conquered by the Arab) in the 
7th century. The place thenificr wa* subject either to the 
rulcnofTunisorof Consiantinc, but the citiien* werenoted for 
itrevolts. TVy threwin ihelrloi (c. tiio) wiihibe 
lir-ed-Din, and subsequently received a Turkish 
(orrison. Biierla was captured by the Spaniirds in I5JJ, but 
not king afterwards came under the Tunisian government. 
Centurici of neglicl followed, and the ancient pott was almost 
choked iqi. though the value ol the fisheriei saved the town Irom 
utlB decay, lu strategical importance wai one ol the causes 

which led to the occupation of TuidiU by the Frewk In iSSl. 
In ifigo a concenion for a new canal and harbour was granted 
to a company, and five years later the new port was fomudly 
opened. Since then tbe canal has been widened arid deepened, 
and the iwvsl port at Sidi Abdallah created. 

BIZer IAlexandm ClULt LtopOLDi QEOROBS (iS]8-t87s), 
French musical composer, was bom at Bougival, near Pari); on 
the IJth of October 1838, the son of a singing-masler. He 
displayed musical ability at an early age, and was sent to the 
Paris Conservatoire, where he studied uiider Haltvy and (peedily 
distinguished hinuell, carrying off priies for organ and lugue, 
and fiAJlly in iSs?, after an incBccluaf attempt in the previous 
year, the Crand Prii de Rome for a cantata called Clerii tl 
ClelUdt, A success of a different kind also befell him at this lime. 
Ofleabach, then manager o( the ThUlre des Bouaes-Psrisiens, 
had organized a competiUon for an operetta, in which young 

LccDcq, each of them writing an operetta called Docteur Miradr, 
After the three yean spent in Rome, an obligation imposed by 
the French government on the winners of the £nt prise at the 
Conservaloire, Buet returned to Paris, when be achieved ■ 
repulatioD *) ■ pianist and accompanist. On the ijrd ol 
September iMj his £nt opera. La Plcitmrt it ftrlts, rta 
brought out St the Thfitn Lyrique, but owing possibly to the 
somewhat uninteresting nature of the story, the opera did not 
enjoy a very long mn. The qualities displayed by the composer, 
however, wen amply recognized, allbougb the music was stated, 
by some critics, to eihibit traces ol Wagnerian influence. 
Wagnerism at that period wts 1 sort of spectre that haunted the 
imagioatiDD of many leading memben of the musical press. Ii 
sufhced for a woik la be at all out of the csmmoo (or the epithet 
" Wagnerian " 10 be applied to it. The term, it may be said, 
was intended to be condemnatory, and it was applied with little 
understanding as lo its real meaning. The score of the Plii—rt 
it trrtit contain* *eve«l charming numben; its dreamy 
melodies are well adapted 10 Bt a story laid In Eastern clime*, 
and the music nveals a decided dnmitic lempenment. Snme 
ol its dances an bow usually introduced into the lounh act d 

On the jrd of June 1865 Biael married a daughter o( his old 
master, Halivy. His second open. La Jctit FOit 4t Ptrtk, 
produced at the Tbiltre Lyrique on i6th December 1U7, **■ 
scamly a step in advance. Tbe libretto was louiKled on Sir 
Walter Scntl** novel, but the opera lacks unity ol style, and iu 
pages are marred by CDnceuioiu to tbe vocalist. One number 
has survived, tbe characteristic Bohemian dance which has bceri 
interpolated into tbe fourth act of Conwu. In hia third opera 
Biiet relumed to an oriental subject, Z>iiimf(*, a one^ct opera 
given at the Optra Comique on the iind of May ig; 1. is {zrUair 
one of his moat individual eBorta. Again were accusations ol 
Wagnerism burled it the composer's head, and Djamiiik did not 
achieve the success it undoubtedly deserved- The composer was 
more fortunate with the inddenlal music he wrote to Alpbonie 
produced in October J871. 
snged in the (orm ol suites, 
!n-n»m. Rarely have poetry 
and imagination been so welt allied as in theae ciquiiite page^ 
which seem to reflect the sunny skies o( FroveiHZ. 

Biiet's masterpiece, Carmen, was brought out at tlw Optra 
Comiqueonthejtdof MarchiSTj. It was baaed on a version by 
Meilhu; and Hal^ ol a study by Prosper Mirimie-~in which 
the dramatic element was obscured by much dcsciiplivc writing. 
The detection Ol the drama underlying this psycbological 
narrative was in iltell a brilliant discovery, and in reconstruciing 
the story in dramatic farm the aulbon produced one of tbe most 
lamous llhntii in the whole nnge of opera. Still more striking 
than the libretto was (he music composed by Biiet, In which the 
peculiar uk of the fluie and of the lowest lutes ol the harp 

imben froi 

e months 1 

T the production ol 

ulramaheanaBeciion. Beloici 



«f knowtng thit Carmtn h»i been Knpwd Tar pndiiclloii it 

Vicnni. AMcr Ihc Auilriin npilal (urne BruueJt, B<:Tj;n and, 
in 187S. London. whrnCarwuimlinueU QUI at KcrMnjaly'i 

BJOHHEBORO (Finniih, Pfri). 1 dislrict to>m of Finland, 
pnn-ince of Al»- BjSrnclnrg, on Ihc E. com ol Ihe CaJI o\ 
Bothnia, at the mouth of the Kumo. Ul 51° S' N.,lans. (&°o' E. 
Pop. (1901) i6,o5j, moa\y S«Tda, Lwie vnicli unnot enter 
its roadsind. and 111^ at RlEsO, The lawn has ihipbuilding 

■nd has 1 total tnde ol over 16,000,000 inarlii, the chief upon 

UBninOH. uamnriERHE (iSjT-igio), Nonreglan poet, 
nDvrLisi and dnmalitl. *is born on the Blh of December iSji 
at ihe larniilead of Bjttrgcn. in Kvtkne, In Ostcrdal, Norway, 
fn 183^ his laibrr, who had been pastor ol Kvlkoe, was trans> 
fttnd lo the parish of Norsset. in Romsdol; in iliis romoniic 
dislrict Ihe childliDod of DjBmson was spent. After some 
learhing at the nrighbouiing town of Moldc, he wu sent at the 
■ge of seventeen Id a itrlf.known school in Christionia to study 

and indHd he had written verses from his eleventh year, lie 

began to work as ■ Joumaliit. especially u i dramiiic criiie. In 
iSj; appeared 5)riin*ie5ii/iiil-*«i, the first of Bjttmwn's peasant- 
novels; in 185S this was lallowed by Aria, in i8(k> by A Haffy 
Baj. and in iB^ by Tlu Fiihn UaUen. The« srB the ni«t 
important specimens of his bonit-Jorlatltinier or peosant.taks — 
a section of his iiieriry work which has made d profound im- 
pressionfn hisown country, and liaa made him popubr through- 
out Ihc world. Two of the tales. Ana and SyaiiK Si>:baHtn, 
offer perhaps finer eumples of the pure peasatit.)tOTy than are 
to be found eliewheie in Dterature. 

BiOmson wis aniious " 10 creale 1 new uga in the light of ihe 
peisini," IS he pui li, and he thought thli jhould be done, not 
merely in prose ficiion, but In nitiond dramas or Jolit-stykitr. 
The euliest of Lhese wasi one.act piece the sant □! which Is laid 
{n the I ith century. BrPttm Ikt Balllrt. wrrllen In 185s. but not 
produced until 1857. He was especially influence i( this time 
by the study of Biggesen and Oehlcnschliger, during a visit to 
Copenhagen 1856-19J7. Briaten iJa Baata was followed by 
loiar tlKUa in iSjS, and Kint Svtrri in 1S61. All these cfTons, 
however, were fir eicelled by the splendid trilogy of 5i{iipd lit 
B/atari, which Bjfimsan issued in iSdi. This raised hfm to the 
front nnk among the younger poets of Europe. His Sigurd Ihe 
Crutadfr should be added to the category of these heroic plays, 
■tlhough it wti not printed- until ig;i. 

At the dose of 1857 BjQmson had been appointed director of 
the ibeiTte at Bergen. 1 post which he held, with much ^oumal- 
Islic work, foriwoyeirs. when he retumctl 10 lheci(Htll. From 
iSte 10 lUj he Invelled widely ihroughoui Europe. Early in 
lB6s he underlook the managcnienl of the Christiinii theatre, 
ud brought out hi) popular comedy of Tkr Heuty UarritJ and 
lus rominlic tragedy of Uary Slitan In SiiHleiid. Although 
BjBrnson ha* introduced into his novels ind playi sonp .of 
eitraocdinary beauty, he wis never a very copious writer of 
vcne; in 1870 he published his Pmhu owf Saitp and the epic 
cycle called Arnljal CtHitu: the Utter volume contiini the 
rnignificent ode colled "BergliDt," B}Omson's final contribution 
to lyrical poetry. Between igo* and 1S74, hi Ihe very prime of 
life. Bfomton displiyed 1 slackening of the fntelleclual forces 
very lemirkible in a man of bis energy; he w«s Indeed during 
these yean mainly occu^Hed with politics, ind with his business 
u 1 Ihcalricil miniger. This wis the period of BJIInuDn's most 
Eery pmpaginda is 1 ndicil agiutoi. In i8;i he began to 
supiileinent his joumilislic work in this direction by delivering 
lectures over the length and breadth of the oorihera countries. 
He poaMssed to a surprising degree the arts of the orator, com- 
Uned wiib a magottccnt physiol prestige. From \S^i to ig;A 

BjBmson wu absent from Norway, and fo the peace of voluntas 

a dramatic author began with A Baahupby and Tkr E^unr la 

le puUisbed another n 

say on 


. Ccpiair 

Irica'l pby, r*« 
U I hough these 

episode ol the war of Italic 

Extremely anxious to obtain 

concentrated his powers on 

(1879), which raised a violeni 

Hue Sfilcm, was produced 1 lew ■ 

playsof Bjarnson'ssecond period wi _ 

Ihcm (etcepi A Bankruflcy) pleased on the boardt. When once 

more he produced a social drama, A CannUrt, in iSSj, he waa 

unable to persuade any manager to stage it, except in a modified 

form, IhtHigh this ptay gives the full measure of his po«'er as a 

dramatiiL In the autumn of the same year, Bfdmson publishctl 

a mystical or symbolic drama Btyttid mr PriKn, dealing with 

the abnormal features of religious excitement with eiliaordinary 

force; this was not acted unlit 1899, when it achieved a great 

Meanwhile, BjDmson'i political attitude had brought upon 

Germany, returning to Norway in iSSi. Convinced that the 
theatre was practically closed to him, he turned bock to the 
novel, and published in 1S84, flue' are Flyint in Taam and Fori, 
embodying hb theories on heredity and education. In 18S9 ha 
printed another long and still mote remarkable novel, In Cod's 

irhich is 

. The 

omedy, Ceepafliy an 

iiotics, of a more or lesi didactic chancier, dealing with startling 
points of emotional experience, were collected in 1894; among 
litem those which produced ihe greatest setisation were Dust^ 
Umhtr'i Handi. and Ahmltm't Iloh. Later plays were a 
political tragedy called Paul Lautl cad Tera Pa/ibat (iS^fl), 1 
second pan o! Btyond our Pmm (iSds). Labiremus (1901), Al 
SUrhne (ii)oi), and Dat/onnil (1904). In iSjjg, it the opening 
of the National theatre, Bjnmson received m ovition. and his 
■tga-drsmi of Sicurd iIk Crmaitr wu performed. 

A subject which interested him greatly, ind on which he 
occupied his indefatigable pen, wis the question of the bmde-. 
mad, the adopting of 1 national Imguage-lor Norway distinci 
the damt-ncrti (Dano-Noraegim), in which her liteiaturr 

-3 hltherlc 


blind him to the fatal folly of 
such a proposal, and hii lectures and pimphlets against the miIbJ- 

linguige in this dangerous moment. BjOmson was one of Ihe 
original members of the Nobel committee, ind uis re-elected In 
igoo. In 1903 he was awarded the Nobel ptiie for llieniure. 
BJSmionhad done is much is any other man id rouse Norwegian 
national feeling, but in igo3, on the verge of the rupture between 

lo the Norwegians. ' He wu an eloquent advocate of Fan- 
Germanism, and, writing to the Fifara In igoS, he outlined a 
Pan-Cerminlc illiince of nonhem Europe and North Ameiica. 
He died on the ]6Ih ol April 191a. 

Str^iaTnton'tSamltde VafrtolCopenhiBen, i9Di>-iaoi. iivoli.v- 
1-1. "—I, gj Bilnaljrrm Bjimien (1994, Se.l, edited by Edmund 
.. enncbi, Criliai Slmlia ('899)! E- Tiwot, Li dram, 
. 3 r, .,,.-... i„H»„ (,^,1; Chr. Collin. 

u 11 pfneni available: and B. Hatvonen, 

(IMJ). {£. G.) 


British civil servant, eldest son of Sir Fiederick Leinin Rogers, 

lib But. (wbon tat Mcceeded in the baronetcy la iSsi), wu 


bon isLmloa oa ihc jut o( luniaiy iSii. He wwcdaatcd 
■( EUn ind Orid CoUcfc, Oifoid. when be Ud ■ briUiut 
ctner, viiumif the Cnvta Univenity •clMbnbip, uid Ukioi 

■ double Gnt-cUu in dmici and nnHhenalk^ He became 

■ lellow of Olid (iBjj),uidinHitbe Vineiiaa icholirahip (1834). 
uid lellowiluii (1&40]. He wu called to Ibe bar in jSj?, biu 
sever pnctiied. At (chool aad at Oifard be wai a conumporaiy 
ol W. E. Gladstone, and at OiTord he began a Uleloni fiiendahip 
with J. B. Newman and R. W. Church; hli dauical and literary 
taitcs, and bi> combioatioii ol libcraliun In politia nitli Hith 
Churcb vien ia religJon, together with hii good uda] pootioo 
and Inlcrouag character, made him an admired member of iJieir 
drck*. Foi two or three yean <ia«i-i&M) he wrote [or Tlu 
Timci, and be helped to found Tit Guanlua in ifL(6: be also 
did » good deal to assiat tlie Tractarian movement. But he 
eventually Milled dowu to the tiie of a govemmcnt official. He 
bcsan in 1S44 » legiattir of JaiDt^iock compaoiet, and b iii(6 
beaiDc commisaioner of laodi and emipatioo. Between i8j; 
and iSj9 be was engaged in govemnteat mtiaioiii ahioad, (oD- 
Bccted wiib colonial qucsiioni, and in 18&0 be wai appainled 
peTmaneDt under-Kcretary of state for the tolonks. Sir Frederic 
Itogera was (be guiding spirit o( the colonial eSce under lix 
nuxesaive aecreuria of atate, and on his reilremcnl in 1S71 
«>4 raised to the peerage as Baron Blachford of Wiadome, a 
Illk taken from his place in Devanibin. He died oa the aut 




A voliune ol his IcRm, edited by C. E. 

aq iDtcnting Life, partly autobioc'aphicaL 

BLACL ADAH (i;g4-iaK), Scottish publisher, foniidcr of 
tlv him of A. & C Black, Clu aon of a builder, wu bom in 
Edinburgh on the 30th of February i/tU. After serving his 
appicnlictship to the booIueUing trade in Edinburgh and 
London, be began business for himself in Edinburgh in ifio8. 
By iSa6 be was lecognixed as one ol the pnndpaJ bocksellera 
in the dly; and a few yean later be ma joined in buiiness by 
Ui nephew Chariea. lie two most important events ctHinecred 
with die Uuoiy of the Sim wcie the publication ol the 7th, Sih 
ud ^ cdithmi ol the En^ydopaedia Brilnania, and the 
pardiuc of the atock and copyriiht of the Waveitey Novels. 
The copyriglit of the Eiteyciapaidut passed into the handt of 
AdaraBlackandalew [rieodiih i8>7. In 1B51 the him bought 
the copyright of the Waverley Novels for £17,000; and in iSdi 
diey became ibe prapiielon ol De Quincey's woits. Adam 
Black wa) twice lord provost ol Edjdbut|b, and lep mea teJ 
the dty in psriiunenl from 1S5G to 1865. He tttued from 
butinenm 1S65, and died on the 14th of January 1874. He was 
succeeded by hia sons, who removed their bualoeu in iSoj to 
hoodoo. Tbcn ii a bronie statue of Adam Bbdi in East 
Plinca Street Gardens, Edinburgh. 

Set iirminn iff Aiam BiaO, edited by AloaodK NKhoIsoa 
(ind ed.. Edinbuigh. igSj). 

lawyer and statesman, «aa bom in Slony Cmk towiuhqi, 
SointrBet county, Pennsylvania, on the loth of January iSio, 
He was largdy self-educated, and before he was ol age was 
admitted to the Pennsylvania bar. He gradually became one 
ollhc leading American lawyers, and in 1851-1857 was a member 
ol the lupreme court of Fennsylvinii (chief-Jujtic* 1851-1854). 
In 1857 he entered Prcajdcat Buchanan*! cabinet aa attorney- 
geo«al of the United Sutes. In this capadly Ik successfully 
contested the validity ol the " Calilomia land daims "—claim* 
to about lu.oeo iq, m. of land, fraudulently alleged to have 
been granted to laDd-grabbcn and otbcis by the Mexican govern- 
mcnl prior to the close of the Mexican War. Fiom the 17th of 
December i860 to the alh ol March 1S61 ha was aecrelary of 
state. Perhapa (he m«t biSuential ol President Buchanan's 
o&dal advtiert, be denied Ibe conititutionalily of secession, 
and urged that Fort Sumter be properly reinforced and defended. 
" For ... the vigorous astetiion al last in word and m deed 
thai the United Slates is a nalion," says James Ford Rhodes, 
' for pointing out the way in whidl the authority ol the Fedeial 
■ovcmmenl mighl be eiadied without Inliinging ob the ri^ta 

c prindple ol fiic. 

o( the stalci, the gmtitude tt the AncikaA pe«^ i> dot t« 
Jeremiah S. Black." He became reporter to the Supreme Court ^ 
of the United Statea in 1861, hut after publishing the reports 
lor the yean i8£i and 1869 be resigned, and deWed biioseU 
almoat esdusively to hia private practice, appeaiisg ia lucli 
important cases before the Supreme Court ai the one known ai 
Ex~ParU UiUiian, in which be ably defended the light cd triaj 
by juiy, the UcCaidlc case and the Uniud Slain r. BIjtm d 
af. After the Civil War he vigorously opposed the Congresdonal 
[Jan of reconstructing the late Confederate states, and ^'"^rif 
drafted the message of President Johuaa. vetwng the Ream- 
atruction Act ol the and of March 1867. Black was also lor a 
short time counsd for President Andrew Johnsoo, in his trial 
en the anide of impeachment, before the United Slates Senate, 
and for William W. Bdknap [ 1 K19- iBgo), jecteUiy of war fiam 
1S69 to 1S76, who in 1S76 waa impeached on a diar^ of oor- 
ruplion; and with others he represented Simud J, TIMea 
during the contest lor the presidency between iLlden and 
Uayes (see Electoiil Cquuheioh). He died at Biockie, Penn- 
sylvania, on the 1 glh ol August iBSj. 

See Eiayi awl Seeuiti of Jirtmiali S. Bled, n 
SluU- (New Votk. iBSsi. by his son. C F. BUck. 

BLACK. JOSEPH (i7i8-i7w>, Scottish chemist and pbyaidit, 
was bom in 1718 at Boideaut, where his lather — a native d 
BelftsI but of Scottish descent — was engaged in the wine trade. 
At the age of twelve he was seat to a grammar schoai in Belfast, 
whence be removed in 1746 to study raedidne in Glasgow. 
There be had William Cuilen for hia imtiuctoi in cbcmistiy, and 
the relation between the two toon became that oi professor and 
assistant rather than ol master and pupiL Tlie action ol llthon- 
ttiptic mcdidnes, especially lime-water, was one ol the queations 
ol the day, and through his investigations of this subjist Black 
was kd to the chemical discoveries associated with his name. 
The caustidly of alkaluw bodies waa explained at that time as 
depending on the praence in them 01 the plil 

" phlogiitDn "] quicklime, for i , . . 

taken up phlogiaion, and when mild alkalia such la sodium or 
potassium carbonate were cauiiidied by its aid, tl 
wa> supposed to pass from it to tbem. Black thi 
the contrary caustidiatlon meant the loss of p 
proved by loss of weight; and this something be found to 
" air," which, because it was £xed in the substance before it waa 
cnuxiiciicd, he spoke ol as " fixed air." Taking Hugiiena iifta, 
which he distinguished frotn limestone with which it had pi& 
viously been confuted, be showed that on being heated It kit 
wdtjit owing IB the escape of this filed air (named carbonic add 
by l.avoisier in 1781). and that Ibe weight was regained wbcn 
the taldned product waa made to reabsorb the fixed air with 
which il had parted. These investigations, by which Black MX 
only gave a great impetus to the diemistry of gases by deariy 
indicatiiig (be existence ol a gas distinct from oimmon air, but 
also antidpated Lavoisier and nwdcm chemistiy hy his liipal 
lo the balance, were described in ibe thesis Di JniHeri acidt « 
Ljbir orlo, tt naptesia alba, which he presented for his doctor's 
degree io 1754: and a fuller account of tbem was read before 
the hfedical Sodety ol £dinbiugh in June 1755, and published 
in the following year u Eipaimaib apm mapKiia, laittHmu 
and lome etJur aikaiint snbsiiaua. 

It is curious that Black lell to atlKts the detailed study of this 
" fixed air " he had disoovercd. Probably the eapUiiatian ia 
pressure of other work. In I756hc succmied Calleoaslecturer 
In cbcmistiy at Glasgow, and waa also appointed pnleaor of 
anatomy, thou^ that post he was glad to exchange for the chair 
of medidne. The prcpaialiou ol lectures thus took up nuch of 
his lime, and he was also gaining an extensive practice ai a 
phyaidan. Moreover, bis attention was engaged on studies which 
uliimaidy led 10 hia doctrine of latent beat. He noticed that 
when ice melts it takes up a quantity of heat without undergoittf 
any change ol temperature, and he argued that this heat, which 
as was usual in his time he knked upon as a subtle fluid, must 

ibincd with Ihc particles of io 

'- - This hypothesis I 



idatthceBdoTiTSi. In 1764. «Uh th« 
•id of liii UHiuiK, Williun Irvine (i74}-i7S7), he Innher 
mcMued the latent heat ol ueuD, thoo^ nol very MauaMy. 
Ttui docuine of lilem heal he uughl in hii lectures [lom 1 761 
«pvmfa. end in April 176a he dcvcribed hit work to a Litenry 

oi il, ulliuothen.nicliu J. A. Dduc, were ible to claim tbe 
credit olhiiresuLtL to tbc coune ol hit inquirieibealiorwticed 
thai difiereat bodiei in eqtul nuHO require different iizHniatB 

10 allowed ttut equal uiditioni 

liquid ot bit tbennomelen. In 1766 he lucceeded Cuilen in the 
thMjj of choBBtiy in EdlnbaT^ where he devtited priftically 
all kit time to tbe prepaiatioii of hii lecluica. Never very 
voboM, hia Eiealth giaduaDy became weaker and uillmatel; ka 
wai reduced to the condition of a valetudinarian. In T79S ho 
received the aid of a coadjutor in hli profeiionhip. and Ivo >u» 
UiB 1» lectuied tor Ibe lail linM. He died In Edinbutgh on Ihg 
Mh of December 1799 (not on the t61h of November a* Malni 
in KoUion'i life). 

Aa a icicntilic invcilifalor, Black m* RXUplctiMii (or the 
carefulness ol hii work and his caution in drawing concluitons. 
Koldlnf that chemistry hid not aiuintd the nnk ol a science — 
hii kctura dnii with ihe "eUcFtiof heat and niiituit"~he had 
u almost iDorhid botroi oi hasty grncialiiation or i>f anything 
that had thr [ircteuioni of a fully fledged tystem. This mental 
attitude, combined with a cendn lack of Initiative and the 
wtakncn of hii health, pnbably prevented hin from doing full 
juiiict 10 hii splendid powcn of eiperlmtntal roeanh. Ar«tt 
frooi Ibc work already mentioRed be pubtlihed only Iwo papers 
doribg Ida Itfe-lime— "1^ supposed effete of boiling on water, 
I* dispoaing ft to Ineu more readily " {PUl. Trani.,i}js).*iui 
" An analy^ of the waten of the hot iprinp in Iceland " 
(rr»iii.KB7.S«. £d.. 1794). 

supplerncnicd by those of aonie of hii pupils, and publialKd whh 

drfnxni 'I 




BLACK. WILLIAM C1S41-18QI), British noveliit. n* bom 
at Glasgow on the qth of November 1841. Hii ear^ ambition 
was to be a painter, but he made no way, and soon had reconne 

10 journalism for a living- llewalat first employed In newspaper 
o&cea in Glaigow, but obtained a post on the Uermni Slar In 
London, and at once pi«ved himself a deicriptive writer of 
acepiional vivacity. During the war between Pnusia and 
Austria in Ji66 he replesmled the Uemint Star at the front, 
and was taken prisoner. This paper shortly afterwards failed, 
and Bkck Joined the editorial sUfI of the Daily Itrwu. He also 
edited the Eiai*intr, at s time whca that periodical was already 
meribimd. Alter his first succbs in ffciion, he gave up Joumsl- 
iim. and derotcd hinaell enlirdy to the producUoD o( novels. 
For neatly thirty yean he wu succcsalul Id retaining tb* popular 
favour. He died at Biighlon on the loUi ol December itgS, 
■rithout having opfrieDced any of that reaction ol the jutiiic 
laste which so often foUows upon cons^cuDus sacceuei in fiction. 
Black's first novel, yaiui Mirli, published in tSft*, was a com- 
^ew failure; bii Kcond, Lm at Uaniett (1868), attracted 
but very slight attention. /<■ SM Allifl {1869) and KUmttty 
(1S70) marked a gnat advance onhisEnl work, but In 1871 A 
Daa^mr tj Huk suddenly railed him to the height ol popularity, 
and he followed up this Hctm by a string of favoarito. Among 
the best ol his books are Tht Sirangi Adcrnturcs tf a Pkaltil 
(1B71): A Priiiaa if TkMU (1R74); Ujikaf VMil (1876): 
UuUti <^ Dan (1878); WkiU Wop (1880); Sfmit (i88«): 
iliii); DnaU Stan] BtimrmUii,i):Hitl^<iiC«taimU«-)*y, 
■nd If iU £efin ( I SgS). Black vaia tboroughgiring ^urUinin, 
paiticulariy lend of fishing and yachting, and his best s 
are Ibese which are laid amid the bresy mounuins of his t 
land, or upon tbe deck ol a yacht at lea off iti wild coast- 

id although this m 

descriptions of Such scenery are simple .and |rfctm«Ml«. He 
ru a woid^nter nibcr than a sludml of human nature. 
Ill women are stronger titan hi* men, and aawng Ibera 
re many wayward and lovable cteaturts;' but subtlety ol 
ituitiini playi no part in his charactetiatlon. Black also 
oniributed 1 life of Oliyer Cotdimilh M the Eitifiih Utn 0/ 

BUCK APB, a sooty. Mack, ihorttalled, and long-faced 

repmcnlative of the macaqun, inhabiting the island of Celebes, 

' grneraHy regarded ai forming a genus by itielf, under the 

e o( CyntpUhaiu Bipr, but lomelimcs relegated to tbe rank 

subgenus of Uacacia. The nostrils open obliquely at some 

distance from the end of the snout, and tbe head carries a crett 

of long htir. There are several local races, one ol which was 

long regarded u a s^Hrate species under the name of the Moor 

macaque, Uacattu mnmi. (See FniMirES.) 

BLACKBALL, 1 token used for voting by ballot agalnil the 

ectna of 1 candidate (or membenbip of a club or other 

oociatlon- Fomeity while and black billi about the liic ol 

plgeom' eggs were used napectivrly to renrcsent votes lor and 

generally obsolete, tl 

landverb. The nilesof most ciLbspiovIde that astated 
proportion of " blackballs " shall exclude candidates proposed 
'>r election, and the carididaies so eiduded arc said to have been 
Uackbillcd "1 but the ballot (f.i.) ia now usually conducted 
by a method hi which tbe fivounble and adverse votes are no} 
distinguished by diifcient ccdeiired bails al alL Either voting 
iployed, or balls — of mblch the colour baa na 
n cast into diftcient Fomparlinents of a ballol- 
is they are favourable or adverse to the candidate. 
BiutiLE, known botaoically as JCatii* 
fmliutm (natural order Rosacae), 1 native of tbe north tem- 
perate legfon of the fHd Worid, and abundant in tbe British 
Islet as a copse and hedge-plant It b characteriicd by it> 
prickly stem, leaves with usually three or five ovate, coarsely 
toothed stalked Icallcta. many of which peralit through tbe 
winter, white or pink Rowers In terminal cluslera, and black or 
red-purple fruits, each consisting of numerous succulent drupdt 
crowded on a dry conical receptacle. It b a moit variable 
plant, exhibiting many more or less distinct forms which are 
regarded by different autboriliei as sufo-spccici or qtedei 
In America several fooni of the native blackberry, Suha 
niptbaziHj ((omjeily known ai R. ttilonii). aie widely cultivated; 
it b descrihisd ai one oi tbe most Important and crafitable of 
For details see F. W. Card Id L H. BaHey'i CyeiBMd&i d/.|]iuTfail) 

BUCKBIRD (Timtai mmda). the name commonly given to 
a well-known BriUsh bird of the Turdidat family, for which tbe 
indent name was ousel («.i.), Anglo-Samn Idt, equivalent o( 
the (German Amt^, a (orm of the word found In several old 
Engiisb books. The plumage of the male <i of a uniform black 
colour, that of the female viifoui ihadei of brown, while the bQI 
of the male, especially during the breeding seuoa. is of a bright 
gamboge yelloif. The blackbird ii of a iby and restless dls- 
pasitlon, courting concealment, and rarely seen In flocks, or 
otheinise than lingly or In pain, and taking flight when itatiled 
with a sharp ibrlll ay. It bulldi 111 nnt in March, or early in 
April, In thick tiuihei or in ivy-clad trees, and usually rears at 

coanegnstand moss, mlicd with earth, and plastered Internally 
with mud, and here the Female lays from four to six eggs of a 

. The blackbird feeds chiefly 

ol tl 

ily chipping 

stones; and though It is generally regarded as an enemy of the 
garden. It ii probible that the amount of damage by it to the 
Itoit is largely compensated for by its undoubted scrrka as 
a vetoin-kiUer. The notes of the blackbird are rich and lull, 
but inonotononi la compared with tho« <d the song-thrash. 
Like many other singing birds it Is. in the wild itate, ■ 


Dwckini-btRl, bsviiit htm heird ta Imilatc (he aang tt iHc 
nighilngile. the cnwing ol ■ cock, mid evm iht ocklini o( 
hen. Is confinenirnl ii an be Uuglii lo whitUe a vuiety of 
luRB, and even lo imiute ihe human voice. 

The blackbird it (ound in every eounliy < 
breeding— allhougli larely— beyond the aitiii 
easiem Ati* *i welt as in Nonh AIHca and ihe 
In men puu ol iu raose i[ ii mlgniary, and in Briuin 

pai&ing viuton. Allied speciei inhabit DKHt paru o( 
ucepling Afiica MUlh of the Sahara, New Zealand and Aiutnlia 
proper, and North America. In umeof these tJie Lcgi 
the hill are yellow oi orangei and in a lew both kici aie gkiuy 
black. The nng-ouaet, TMrdus totquelits, hai a tiark bill 
conqiicuout ahiTe go^el, whence in name. It i> rarer 
more local than the camiaaa blackbird, and occuii in £n^ 
only a) a temporary tpHng and autumn viiitor. 

BLACK BUCK {AililepicenUBtra). the Indian Antelope, the 
ule ipeciei of ila fenua. Thit antelope, widely diauibtited in 
India, with the eiception of Ceylon ' "' - . -■ 

Bay of Bengal, ilanda about ji ' 
general hue ii brown deepening 

and inner aitlH oF limba pure white, as arc ue muacle anca coin, 
and in area round the eyes. The homa are long, ringed, and 
(oim ipinli with [rom three to live lutna. The tioe is smaller 
in liie, yellon-iah-fawo above, and this hue oblainl also In young 
nales. These antelopes frequent giuiy diilrint and are usually 
n herds. Coursing black-huck with the cbecia (f.>.) li 

Ji age lo black; chest, bcily 



British judge, was bom in Selkirkibite in iSij. and educated at 
EtuD and at Trinity College, Cambridge, uking high nuihe- 
outicil honour* in itjj. He was called to the bar in iSjS, and 

employed himiell in reporting and editing, with T. F. Ellis, eight 
volumes ol the highly-steemed EUit and Blackburn reporti. 
Kii deficiency in all the mote brilliant qualities ol the advocate 
atmott confined his pticiice lo commeidal cases, in which he 
obtained coniidefable employment in his circuit; but he con- 
tinued to belong to the outside bar, and was so little known to 
the legal world that his promotion to a puisne judgeship in the 
court of queen'i bench in iSjQ was at first iKrihed to Lord 
Campbell's pariialJLy for his countrymen, but Lord Lyndhui^t, 
Lord Wenileydale and Lord Crinnorih came lorward to defend 
Ihe appointment. Blackburn himiell \> said to have thought 
Ihil a county court Judgeship was about to be oSeitd bim. 
■rhich he had resolved to decline. He soon proved bimKll one 
of thetoundetl lawyers on the bench, and u hen he was promoud 
to Ihe court o[ sppea! in 1876 was considered the highest 
luihoriiyon common law. In tSjIS he was made alord of appeal 
and a lilepeer Both in this capacity and as judge of the queen's 
bench he delivered many Judgments of the highctt importance, 
and no decisions have been received with grtaier respect. In 
1886 he was appointed > member of the commlision charged 
ID prepare a digest of the criminal Uw, but retired on account 
of indisposiiion in the loUowitig yen He died at his country 
residence, Doonholm in Ayrshire, on the Sih oF January liqb. 
He wu Ihe author ol a valuable work on the £a s/ Salti 

5ecn> riwf.ioih of January iggftiE. Manson. finilderjBf «r 

BLACXBDBM. JOMATHAH fc. i7oo-(. i;6j), American 
portrait painlec, was bom in Connecticut. He seems to have 
been Ihe ion ol a painter, and to have had a studio in Boston in 
I7ja-i;fij| among hi* patrons were many Important early 
AmericAD families. Including the Apthorps, Amorys, Bullinchet, 
t. Ewlngs, Saltonsialls, Winlhropa. Wintlowi and Oiisc* 

ol B 

!of hi 

>taiy of Leiington, Massac hutel is. and of the Massa- 
chuseiu Historical Society, but most ol them are privately 
owned and art acattered over Ihe country, the mafority being in 
Boston. Jidin Singleton Copley was hi* pupil, and it is said 
that b* Gnatly left kis iludio in Bottoa, through jeakusy lA 

Copley's 1 


He wu ■ _ 

■og attributed to 
ILACKBUflN, a vunicipaL < 
borouih el Lancashire, England, iro m. N.W. by N. fi 
London, and id N.I4.W. fnm Manchester, gervid by ine 
Lancasfain & Vorkshire and the London & North Western 
railways, oiib several Imes from all parts of the county. I^p. 
(i8«i) 110,064; (iooi)i>7.6i6. It hes m the valley of a slmun 
called Id early Umei the Blackebum, but sow known aa the 
Brook. TbebilUinlhe vidniiy riieU)some«oolt.,aBdaaioac 
Blackburn tanks Ugh in faeuily o( 

uuildings comprise a large town hall (iBs6), market house, 
eachange, county court, municipal o&cta, chamber of ouBMiercp, 
free bbrary, and, outside Ihe town, an [oGtmaiy. lliere an an 
Etiiabcihan grammar school, in modem buiktiofi (1884} *ad 
an excellent technical schooL The Coqwntioa Park uid Queen'i 
Park are well laid out, and contain omaneiul watoi. Tlwic !■ 
an efficient tramway service, connecting the town with DarwHI, 
Jm.soulh. The cotton industry emi^oyathousatldiodqiaative*, 
the imn trade is also very considerable, and many an cngafed 
in the making of machines; but a fonnec vooUen manubcture 
is almost eiiincL Blackburn's qicciaUty in the eotton induatiy 
is vTaving. Coal, lime aod biilding stone are tbundut In tha 
neigfabouibood. Blackburn received a charter of EBcatponiioB 
in laji. and Is governed by a, mayor, 14 aldermen and 41 
councillon. The county borough was created in iMS. The 
pariiamentary borough, which tetutna two rannbcn^ ia co- 

and Darwen divisions of the county. Area, 7431 acres. 

BhickbuTn is of considerable antiquity; Indeed. Ihe 6th 
century is allocaled to the original foundation o( a church on the 
lite of the present parish church. Of anoiberchurchon ihissite 
Cranmci wa» rector after the Reformation. Blarkbum was (or 
some time the chief town of a district called Blackbumshire, and 

1 early ta the ceigo of EUiabcth ranked as a flourishing market 


r i;th century it beoime la 

ipenedrd b] 

Blackburn greys." In the 
i8lh century the ability ol certain natives ol Ihe town greally 
fostered its cotttm Induitiy; thus Jam« Hargreavet ben 
probably invented his spinning jenny about 1764, though the 
operatives, fearing a reduction of labour, would have none of it, 
ind forced faim to quit the town for Noltiogham. He was in thi 
employment of Robert Fed, grandfather of the prime minbter 
if that name, who here instituted the factory system, and as the 
lirector of a large business carefully fostered the impmcnwat 
if methods. 
Set W A. Abnin, HiUnrj ^ BlwUnm (Blackburn, 1897). 
BLACKBURHB. FKAHCU (1781-186;), lord chanceller of 
:reland, was bora at Great Footalown, Co. Meath, Ireland, on 
he tith of November 1781. Educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin, he was called to the Engttsh bar in iSoj, and practised 
lilh gml skKceas on tba home circuit. CaDed to the Irish bar 
n iSii, he vigorously administered the Insurrection Act in 
.imerick for two yean. eSettuolly retioHng order in the district, 
n 1816 be became a letieani^i.law. and in rSjo. and again, 
n 1841. was atlomey-geneul for Ireland. In 1841 he became 
naater of the rolls in Ireland, in 1846 chief-justice of the quern's 
bench, and in iSsi (and again in 18M] lord chancellor of Ireli>d. 
In iSsfi he was made a lord Justice erf appeal in Ireland. He is 
-emembcird as having praaeculed O'OinneU and presided at 
Lhe trial at Smith O'Brien. Ue died on the 17th ol Seplenber 
BLACKCOCK frrlrito tttrix). the English name given lo a Wtd 

IS Ihe grey hen and the young as poults. In site and i^uma-' 
he two seaes offer a striking contrast, the male weighing about 
I lb. its plumage lor the most pan ol a rich glossy black shot 
■rith blue and purple, the lateral tail feathers curved outwards so 
a* 10 Form, when raised, a Ian-like crescent, and the eyebrows 
destitute oKeaibers and ol a biighlvciniilion red. Tbe Itmale, 


no the olhet hud, nigb* only i lb, Jli pluouuc ii ol i runct 
blown colour IriEguliily biiied wiih bbck, niid iu uiJ faihrn 
■re but slightly [orkcd. The miJn )n polygamous, and dkiiing 
~ ~ ' '' ' rdjri^ LD Aocki apart 



each KlMIing a locality lor iucll. Irom which it drives oB all 
iatrudtn, and vhen morning and tvcning it irtkt to attract the 
other Bci by a dttplay of iu beautiful pluoiatf, which at ihi* 
laion ittaios its greflcil perlcctiun, ud by a peculiar cry, 
which Stiby dcKriba u " a crowing note, and aaulher limilar 
10 the Doiae made by the whetting ol a scythe-" The negt, 
composed of a few stalks oE gnast is built on the grouud, UMuliy 

It of a low bu^h or a tuft ol till grass, and here 
OBI lix to icn cggi of a diityyellow colour 
. brown. The bticLcock then rejoins hit male 
le Icmjic is left to perform the labours of 
in; hci young brood. The plumage ol both 
e that ol the female, but after moulting the 

!5 gradually assume the m 

cntd, a 

>l plun. 

old female binjs 
assuming, to a greater or less eitent, the plumage of the male. 
The blackcock is very generally distributed over the highland 
districts of Dorthero and central Europe, and in tome pant ol 
Asia. It is lound on the principal heaths In Ihesauthol England, 
but is specially abundant in the Hi^Uands of Scotland. 

BUCK COUNTRY. THE. a name commonly applied to a 
district lying principally in S StaRordshire, but extending into 
Worcestershire am] Warwickshire, England. Tliis il one of the 
chief manufacturing centres in the United Kingdom, and the 
name arisa Irom the effect of numerou* collieries ind [umaces, 
which darken ibe lace ol the distiici, the buildings and the 
atmosphere. Coal, ironMone and day are mined in close 
proiimity, and every ion ol iron and ilecl goods Is produced. 
The district e« tends 15 m. N.W. Irom Birmingham, and includes 
Smetbwick, West BromHch. Dudley, Oldbury, Sedgley, Tipton. 
Bilsion, Wedneibury, Wolvcihampion and Walsall as its most 
important centres. The teaseless activity o( the Black Country 
is most readily realized when it is traversed, or viewed from such 
an elevation as Dudley Castle Hilt, at night, when (he ^ace of 
lurnaces appears ia every direction. The district is served by 
numerous bianchel of the Great Western, London & North 
Western, and Midland railways, and is intersected by canals. 

i( physics 

ol the Castle Hill 

•lib R 

ineU at Dud 

, Thus, lork* In * ipedtlty at 


the at 

or by the 1 

of the t 

n, produced by 

BLACKFOOT (5<iiiia), a Iribc and confederacy of Nonb 
nmeiican Indiaos ol Algontiuian stock. The name is eiplained 
ai an alluuon to their legging being observed by the whites to 
have beccme blackened by marching over the freshly bumol 
prairie. Their range was around the headwaters of the Missouri, 
from ihe Yellowstone northward to the North Saskatchewan and 
westward to the Rockict. The confederacy consisted ol three 
tribea, the Blacklool or Siksika proper, the Kaina and the 
Picgan. During the early yean ol the 19th century the Black- 
west, numbering some 40,000. At the beginning of the jolh 
century there were about }aoa, some in Montana and some in 

&:e J«, 

)■; C. li'atl 

('876): / 

BLACK PORBBT (Cer. Sckwarzwvld; the Silta Uariina and 
ibnob<i of the Romaosl, a mountainous district of soulh.west 
jermanv. havinx an area of 1044 sq. m., of which about Iw^ 
chy of Baden and the remaining third 

descend, and running parallel to, and forming (be counterpart it 
the Vosgcs beyond, it slopes more gently down 10 Ihe valley ol 
the Neclur in Ihe north and to that ol the Nagold (a tributary ol 
the Ncckar) on the nonh-east. Its total length is loom., and its 
breadth varies from 36 m. in Ihe south to ii in the centre and tj 
in the north. The deep valley ol the Kiniig divides il laterally 
into hali-es, of which the snuthem, with an average elevation ol 

mostly lie towards the western side. Among them sre IheFeld- 
berg(4Sg3fi.l.iheHenogcnham (4600), the BliisslinE(4i«o)and 
the Blaucn (jSio). The northern hall has an average height of 
1000 ft. On the east side are several lakeSHaitd here Ihe majority 
of the slirams take their rise. The contlguralion of Ihe hills i> 
mainly conical and the geological formation consists ol gneb*. 
granite (in the south] and red sandstone. The district Is poor in 
minerals; the yield of silver and copper has almost ceased, but 
there are workable coal scams near Ollenburg, where the Kiniig 
debouches on the plain. The dimate in the higher dijlriels is 
taw and the produce b mostly confined to hardy eercals. such as 
oats. But the valleys, especially those on the western side, are 
warm and healthy, enclose good pasture land and furnish Trulls 
■nd wine in rich profusion. Tlicy are clothed up to > height of 
aboul HXBft. with luxuriant woods of oak and beech, and above 
these again and up to an elevation of 4000 ft., surrounding the 
hiUs with a dense dark belt, are tbe forests of fir which have given 
the name to Ihe districL The summits of the highest peaks are 
bare, but even on them snow Kldom lies throughout the summer. 
The Black Forest produces eicellent limbec, which is partly 
sawn <D the valleys and partly exported down Ihe Rhine in logs. 
Among other industries are the manufactures of watches, cbcks, 
toys and musical instruments. There are numerous mineral 
springs, and among Ihe watering places Baden-Baden and 
Wildhad are famous. ThelownaotFreihurg.Ra5tBit,OI!cnbur| 

ns ol the in 

s, are the chief 

id is opened op 
in lines In (he 
lecied with the 
Mctcd by Ihe 



■nEdbabn From OffcnbDij to Stagen^ from whiCb varioiu 

BLACK HAWX [Ma'kiUvimshcki'U, " Blick Spuni' 
Hiiwi ■■|,(i;6t-i8j8, Aratrir»nlndi»nwimorof thcSaukuii 
Foi Iribn. WIS bom it the Siult village on Rock river, our th 
Wiisissippi, in i^fi;. He was a mtmbcr of the Thunder geoi o 
the Sauk trib«, ind. (hough neiihci an hrrcdiiiuy nor in elected 
chief, wu for some lime the lecotniMd mr leader of Ibe Sauk 
isely bloodlbinly and 

ilhe A 

lely ai 



a the n 

!arly ai 1804, by 1 [reaiy 
oub on ihe 3rd of November, they agreed to thi 
:Iura for ID aOBuily of tiooo. Briliih influcncei were Kill 
Irong in tlie-upper Miuiuirpi valley and undoubudly led Blgck 
lawk and ihc chieliof ihc Sauk and Foi confedency 10 npud' 
le Ihia agreement of 1S04. and lubiequi^lly lo enter into tb 
jn^Iracy of l^cumich and take partwith the British In Ihewi 
I 1811. The ireatin of 1815 U Fonage des Sloui (wilk the 
oin} and of 1816 at St Louis (with the Sauk) lubilanliatly 
rneiHd thai of 1804. Thai of 1K16 was signed by Bbck Hai * 

leclared, b 

I iSji Chiel Keokuk ai 

1 nujocity of the two nations rrosicd the river, that (he 
of the chiefs had been obtained by Iraud. In 1830 a £njiJ treaty 
wu aigned 11 Praiiie du Chien, by which all title to the lands irf 
the Sauk and Foies east of the Mississippi was ceded 10 the 
govern men t, and provision was made for the immediate opening 
of the icaci to Ktilen, Black Hawk, leading ihe piny in opposi- 
tion to Keokuk, al once refused to accede to this cession and 
threatened to retalbte if his lands weir invaded. This pre- 
cipittted what ii known a* the Black Hawk War. Settlers began 
pouring into the new region in iheeailygpringof iSji.and Black 
HawkinJunealUckcd several viUages near the Illinois-Wisconsin 
line. Alter massaciing several isolated families, he wa> driven 
oH by 1 force of Illinois militia. He renewed his attack 

following year 

I, but al 

in Heights. 

1 defeated (iisl of July) 
in the Wisconsin river, opposiie Prairie du 
c, by Michigan volunieeis under Colonels Henry Dodge and 
james D. Henry, and Hoeing westward was af[aia derisively 
defeated on Ihe Missisuppiai themouihof Ihe Bad An river (on 
the ist and ind ol August} by General Henry AlLinsoo. His 
band was completely dispersed, and he himself was captured by 
a party of Winnebagoes. At Fort Armstrong. Rock Island, on 
the iiitof September, a Imly was signed, by which a lirjp: tract 
of Ihe Siuk and Foa Icrrilory was ceded 10 Ihe United States; 
and the United Stales granted lo them ■ reservation of 400 sq. m., 
Ihc payment of t lo.oeoa year for thirty years, ami the settlement 
of certain iradeis' claims apinst the iribt With several 
warriors Black Hawk was sent to Fortrss Monroe. Virginia, 
■here be was conlined for a few weeks; ifierwatds be was 
taken by the govetnmcnl through the principal Easicm cities. 
On his release he settled in 1S37 on the Sauk and Foi reservation 
m the Des Moina river, in Iowa, where he died on the 3rd of 
~ ibcr 1S18. 

e Frant E. Stevemh Tlit Blact nn/k War tChfcago, 1003I; 
- - ..-.,. ... - ii H„k War " in veTiii. 


R. G. Thwaiin, " The'sioTToMhi" 


be alack H 


™» {Cint 

BUCKHEATH, an open common in the south-east oj London, 
England, nuinly in the nielropolitan bonnigh of Lewisham. 
This high-lying tract was crossed by the Roman Walling Street 
from Kent, on a line approjiimuiirg lo thai of Ihe modem 
Shooter's Hill; and was a rallying ground of Wat Tylcr(i38i}, 
of Jack Cade fuse), and ol Andlcy. leader ol Ihe Cornish rebels, 
deleaied and capluted here by the troops ol Henry VII. in 1407. 

the return of Henry V. from the victory of Agincourt, the fbrroal 
neeting between Heniy VIII. and Anne of Clevei, and that 

■nd Charte* IT. His 

intn>ductKni into EngUod of the game of flolf la traditionally 
placed here in i6og, and attributed 10 King Jimei I. and hta 
Scottish followcn. The common, Ihe area of which is 16] acn 
is still used for this and other puiiraFS. For ibe residenliil 
disirici 10 which Blickheaih gives name, see Lewisham. 

BLACK HILia. an isoUled group of mounuina, coveiing an 
area of about 6000 sq. m. in the adjoining cornets of South 
Dakoli and Wyoming, U.S.A. They rise on an average some 
7000 ft. above their base, the highest peak, Hamcy. having an 
altitude above the sea of 7316 ft. They are drained and in large 
partendoscd by the North (or Belle Fourcbe) and South forks of 
the Cheyenne river Cat wbote junction a fur-tiading post was 
esublished iboui 1830); and are surrounded by tcmi-arid, 
alkaline plains lying 3000 to jjeo fL above the tea. The mass 
has an elliptical shape, its long axis, which extends nearly 
N.N.W.-S.S.E.. being about i» m. and its shorter axis about 
40 m. long. The hills are formed by ■ short, broad, anticlinal 
fold, which b Bat or nearly so on its summil. From this fold 
ified beds have in targe part been : 

biving b 


ircly eroded fi 

uss. The edges of these are novr fotjnd encircling the n 
ad forming a series of fairly continuoua rims of hogbaeka. 
he carboniferous and older straiiliFd beds siill cover the west 
illof the hills, while from Ihe east half ihcy bave.been removed, 
iposing the granite. Scientific eiploialion began la 1849, and 
rslemiiic geological investigation about 1S7S. Rich gold 
lacers had already been discovered, and in 1^75 Ibe Sioui 
idians within whose tenitoiy the hills had tmiil then been 
eluded, ntre removed, and the taodi were open (0 white 
:ltlen. Subsefiuenlly low-grade riuarli nines Heic found and 
iloped, and have furnished a notable put of the gold supply 

■ the I 

1 187s f 

vely small in comparis 

01). The 
with that ot 

many other fields, bi 
of great value working low-grade ore. The silver product Sam 
-"7fl to 1901 was about t4,iujxx>. Deposits of copper, tin, 
>n and tungsten have been discovered, and a variety of other 
ineral pn>ducis (graphite, mica, spodumene, cool, petroleum, 
&c.). In sharp conlrott lo the surrounding plains lie climate il 
Hibbumid, especially in tlie higher Harney region. There is an 
ibundance of fertile soil and magnificent grazing land. A third 
if ihe total area is coveted wilb forests of pine and other trees, 
nhich hive for the most part been made a forest-reserve by the 
lalionalgovemmcnl. Jagged crags, sudden abysses, magnificent 
anyons, forests wilb open parks, undulating hills, mountain 
irairies, tmks of weathering and erosion, and the enclosing line* 
>f the successive hog-backs sSord scenery of tcmarkable variety 

Lnd Sylvan Lake, in the high nurantain district, is an important 

See the publicalions of the Uuiied Suies Ceoloccal Survey 
(npecially Profnuonal Paper No. M. Emornic Kivinrat «/ Ikt 
Nartlun Blmk llilli, 1904), and of Ihe South Dakou School of 
No. 4. containing a hisrory and lhblH»rapliy at 
irigaCkins); alnlt. 1- Dodge, Tlu BluM HiOt: 

A Uiot 

. (New 

, 1876). 

BUCKIE, JOHN STUART (180Q-1E95), Scetlish scholar and 
lan of letters, was bora in Glasgow on the i8lh ol July 1809. 
[e was educated at the New Academy and alterwaids at the 
farischal College, In Aberdeen, where his father was manager 
f the Commerical Bank. Alter alleoding classes al Edinbutgh 
Iniversiiy (18J5-181S), Blackie spent three years at Aberdeen 
I a student ol theology. In iSighc nenl to CerTnany,and after 
ludying al CKttiingen and Berlin (where he cane under the 
ifluence of Heercn, Ottlried MUllet, Schleiermacher, Neindec 
and BOckh) he accompanied Bunsen to Italy and Rome. The 
years spent abroad extinguished his former wish to enter the 
Church, and at his father's dcure he gave himself up 10 Ihe study 
ihidilready.in 1814, been placed in i lawyer's office, 
emaincd there six monihs. By the lime he «ai 
member of the Faculty of Advocates (1834) he had 
acquired a atnog love of the classics and a tasw for ktlera ig 


■octal A imuUtfoa of fail, which be publiilwd in iKj^, 
mel wilb anuidcoihle juccm. After «yt«ort"OQtdMulioiy 
lilcniy work he bu {May iSjgl >p[>>inted la Ihc ncwly- 
iudiultd chiii of Muiunily (Latin) [d the Muiichil Collide. 
Dilficultiet iroK is the ny of bik inMllitian, owing to Iheiclion 
o[ the Pmbyteiy on bis nfuiing to tign unreservnlly the Cao- 
Iciuin o[ Ftilh; but llieu weit eventually oveccnme, and he 
took up hii duties as profeaur in November 1S41. In the 
following year he inariied. From the BiA his profesaorial 
lectures were coospicuoui tor the unconventional enthusiasm 
with which he endeavoured to revivify the study of the cUuici; 
and bis growing reputation, added to tbe altentiOD ciciled by a 
trsDiUtion of Aeschylua whidi he published ia iSso, ied ic his 
appointment ia iSji to the professorship ol Creek at Edinburgh 
UnlvcrHl;, in succHuon to George Dunbar, t post ithfcb he con- 
tinued to hold foe thirty yean. Be was somewhat erratic in his 
methods, but his Iniuies were a (rlumph of inOncDtlal person- 
ality. A Jounxy to Creece in 1S5J pnaipted bia nsty On Iti 
JUt^f laiitiup ^ (lb t>«b, a favourite ihemeof his, opcciilly 
in his tatel years; be adopted for himKlI a modern Greek 
pronuodation, and before his draih he endowed a travelling 
scbolaiship to enable sludenU to learn Greek at Athens. Scottisb 
nationality was another soorte of enthusiasm with him; and in 
this cnnneiion he displayed real sympathy with HiEhland home 
life and the pievances of the crofters. Tbe foundation of the 
Celtic chair at Edinburgh Univcnity was mainly due Id hii 
eBorts. In ^iie <a the many call) upon bis time be produced 
a considetible amount ol literary woHi, ujually on claaucal 
or Scot tish tahjecls. including some poenu and songs of no mean 
order. He died in Edinburgh on the ind of iilaith tSg;. Btackie 
wu ■ Radical and Scottish nationalist in politics, but of a 
[eaileuiy independent type; he was one of the "characters" 
ol Ihc Edinburgh of the day, and was a well-kt»wn figure a« he 
went about in his plaid, worn tJiepberd-wlse, wearing a broad- 
brimmed hat, and carrying 1 big slick. His published works 
iodude (hetidn sevenl voluroci of vetse) Htmtr and He Iliad 
(iMe), Bulniaining the unity o( the poems; Four Pkaiti if 
Utrtti: SKTOla. AriilK^. Ckriaitntlj. UliliUHaHisM (iStO: 
Elnj « Sdf-CMlltre US^^)■, Hotiu Hdlalau (1874)1 TMr 
Lnpatf s«i IMtratHrt ^ On Steaiik Hithlomli (1S76); TMi 
Kataial HiHwy tf AUuism (1S7;); TJh Wist Un i4 Croc 
(1877); Uj Sirmnt (iHi); A\Uma <i£Si); Tlu Wiii'm 
tf CttilK (iSSj); Tkt ScMiik HigUandirs and Uu Lini Lawt 
(i88j); mi ij Bom (i8S«); SaUi^h Smg (1SS9); £•»>■ « 
Sutialt M Utral and Social InltTot (1890); ChSniimilj and 
Ikt Idtai if Buinaiiily (iSgj). Amongst his political writings 
may be meolkmed a pamphlet On Daaaertcy (18(7}, On Fmm 
4 Cttnimatf (i847), and Pelilical Trexli (iSAS). 
See Ann M. Sladdan. Jitn Staart SlmtH <iS9S); A. Stedart- 

,. ..„ MlmfJ.S.BbuHt.'mhnnmiipnciUianliatiy, 

■ " ■ irr BUdtmiigs). 

A in the east of the county of 
ROM and Cramaity, Scotland, bounded N, by Cromarty Finh, 
E.byHacayrinh,S.bylnnerUoTayrulb(otnrthDf iBvetaei*} 
and Beinly Firth, and W. by the river Cooon and ihe pariah ol 
Unay. It k ■ dlaDMod-ahapcd peninwla jutting out from Ihp 
■'iilr''f~) h ■ BORh-caMailjr diiectkui, the konget aiii, from 
Hob ol Old statkm la tbe South SutorM the enttanct to Cromarty 
Firtb, BKasurlng 10 bl, and the iboitet, bom Ftrryioa PDinI 
to Cnigton Poii^ diie DOtth and Mmth, ii tn., and it baa a coait- 
&waijiB. Orlgiull)rcalledATdsitana(A(Gaclk»if,belght: 
m«asi*. aoik, " Ibe mmik'i hd^t," (ton in oU rdigtoa bonx 
00 tlic tody-iiaoded ridfe of Mulbuk), it derived iti coMoiDaiy 
■uioe from the tact that, atece ioow diws not Be fn wistc 
pramontoiy looln blaA while tbe iarreundinf eonntiy fi white. 
Within Its limits >R comprised the pariakea of Urquban and Uigle 
Wester. Kilkunan, KnockbaiB (Gaelic n«. hill; Un, ■' ' ' 
Avocb (proa. Andi). Rosemarkie, Resolia (Gaelic rvAtia 
Ktmit, " cape of tbe light ") or Kirkmichael and Cmnarty, 
Bbck Isle bnuh of the Highland railway runs from Muir of Ord 
to FoatniM: atcamcia connect Cromarty with Invergnnloa and 
IB with luvenoa; and then aa fcRin, 

the loiitheni coast, at North Xesaoci (far Jnvenitsi) and 

anoniy (for Fort George), and, on the northern coast, at 

Alcoig (lor Dingwall], Newhallpoint {for Invergordon), and 

irty (for Nigg). The principal lowna are Cromarty and 

ae. Rosehaugh. near Avoch, belonged to Su- George 

Mackeniie, founder of the Advocates' library hi Edinburgh, 

amed tfie sobriquet of " Bloody " from his penccuiion ol 

ovenaDlcra. Bcdcastle, on tbe shore, near Killeamaa 

1, dates from 1179 and fs said to have been the earlieil 

inhaUled bouse in tbe north of Scotland. On the forfeiture of 

caridom of Rosa it became a rnyal castle (being visited by 

*n Maty), and afierwaidi passed tot a period into the hand* 

he Mackeniiea of Gaitloch. The chief iodustriei ate agri- 

ure — hl^ farming flouhslus owing to the great fertility ol 

peninsula — sandstone-quairying and Gsheriea (mainly from 

Avoch). The whole district, though bcking water, is pictuieaque 

and was once forested. The Idulbuie ridge, the bigheil point 

rhich is SjS ft. above tbe sea, occuoiea this centre and is the 

only elevated ground. Aniiquaiia 


IS fort 

narly pi 


}, Scottish poet, Ibe 
n 01 a tiricJilayer, was Dom at Annan, in Dumfriessliiic, in 
'II. When not quite sii months old he kist his sif^t by tmall- 
tx. and his career is brgely bicrcsting as that of one who 
hievcd what he did in spile of blindness. Shottly after his 
lather's death in 1740. some of Blscklock't pocmt began to be 
handed about among his acquab tanas and friends, who arranged 
I a1 the giammar-schoof, and subsequently at 
Edinburgh, where he was a student of divinity. 
His first volume of Plena wu published in 1746. In 1754 he 
depuly librarian (or the Faculty of Advocate*. I7 the 
kindBest of Hume. He was evenlually estranged from Hume, 
anddcfendcd JimcsBealtie'saltBCkoE that philosopher. Black- 
' ' IS among the Erst friends of Bums in Edinburgh, being 
the earliest to recognize his genius. He was b 1761 
otilained minuter of the church of Kirkcudbright, a poulioa whidi 
he KNHt rr^gned; b 1767 the degree of doctor b divinity was 
conferred on him by Maiischal CoUegc, Abcidceii. He dkd on 
tbe 7ih of July 1791. 
Anedirionofhis poeisi in T793 contatns a Bfe by Henry Mackeniie. 
BLACKHAIL, a term, b English hiw, used b three qiedal 
meanings, at diSerenl times. The asaal derivation of the 
second half of the word Is f mm )4onDBo Fr. iwsJJJe (mcdalia; cf. 
" medal "), small copper cob; the ffew Engliili Diaianary 
derives from " mai] " {?.».), meaning rent or tribute. (1) The 
primary meaning ol " blacluDaD " was rent paid b labonr, grain 
or baser metal (i.e. motiey other than aicrling money), called 
ttdilits nifri, b contradistinction to rent paid m sOver or white 
money (moCnei Nancha). (1) In the northern connlies of Eng- 
land (NorlhumberlaDd, Westmorland and the bishopric of 
Durham) it signified a " " ' ' 

booten In n 

:acled fr 

it Immunity fi 

I small 01 

By a lUIule 01 losi 11 was maoe a Iclony without benefit 
of clergy to receive or pay such trihnic, bnl the practice 
lingered until tbe unwn of Engbnd and Scotland hi 1707. 
(3) The word now signifies eatorlion of money or property by 
threati of tibel, presecutbn, eipoiuie, la. See such beading 
■s CoEKOOH, Consnucv, Exnnmoif, and anthorilies quotd 
under CuiniiitL Law. 

BUCXKOHB, UR BICHARD (c. iSso-1719). EngTah phy- 

itjo. He was edu aled at Wcstmbsler school and St Edmuod 
Ftall. Oiford. He was for uaie limra schoolmaster, but finally, 
after graduating tn medicine al l^dua. he settled in practice 
aa a physician In Londoa. He aupporicd the principles of the 
Revolution, and was accordingly knitted in 1697. He held 
the oSica of physician in ordinary both to William IIL and 
Aone, and died oo tbe ftb of October 1719. Blsckmoit bad ■ 



passion foe wriiing epics. Prince Arlkur, an tttniil Pttm in 
X Boekt appeared in i6qs. and wis Foltowcd by ili other loii| 
peemi bcfoie 171J. Of these CrtaliiH . . . (1711), • philo- 
■ophic poem Intended ID refute the ilheiim of Vanii^, Habbrs 
and Spinou, md Id unteld Ihe jntdlectuil philosophy of Locke, 
WM the most favourably received. Dr Johnson anlicipiled that 
tU> poem would transmit Um author to posterity " among the 
fini favourites of the English niUM," while John Dennis went 
■0 far a) to describe it ai "a pbiloMphical poem, which has 
equalled that of Lucretius in the bciuty of ill vcrsiEcation. and 
infinitely lurpaascd it in the solidity and strength of it* reason- 
ing." lliese opinions have not been justiEed, for Ihe poem, 
like everything else that Blackmore wrote, is dull and tedious. 
Hii Cttnlim appear! in Johnson's and Andction's collection* 
of Ihe Btitiih pocli. He left also works on medidiu and on 
(heolagical subjecti. 

novelist, was bom on the 7th of June 1S15 ai Longworih. Bcrk> 
shii«, of which village his fiiher was curate in charge. He was 
educated at Blunddl'i Khool, Tiverton, and £icter CoUcge, 
Oilord, where he obtained a scholarship. In 1847 he took a 
second class in classics. Two years later he entered as a student 
at the ftliddle Temple, and was called to the bar in iSii. His 
first publication was a volume of Pattniby UdaMtr (1854), which 
showed no particular promisci nor did Ihe succeeding volume, 
£^ia(igjj), suggest that Blackmore had the makings of apoeL 
He was nevertheless tnthuaiastic in his pujsuil of liuialurci' 
and when, a few yeaislater, the complete breakdown of bis health 
tendered it dear that he must remove from London, be dclci' 
mined to combine b literary lilc in the country with a business 
career as a market-gardener. He acquired larid at Teddinslen, 
and set earnestly towoili, thelilriaty fruits of bia new surrouod- 
inp being a translation of Ihe CewjHi, published in 1861. Jn 
1S64 he published his &tBl novel, Clara Vauikan, the teeriis 
ol which Wert promptly rccngniicd. Craioik Nmrll (iSdfi) 
foUowed, bul it was in 1864 that he suddenly sprang into lame 
with.Li>ma Dsotu. Tbisfinestory was a pioneer in the romantic 
revival', and appearing al a laded hour, it was presently rccog- 
nieed as a work ol singular charm, vigour and imaginatioa. Ill 
success could scarcely be repeated, and though Blackmore wrote 
many other capiul stories, ol which Ihe best known arc Tlie 
Uaid 0/ Sttr (i37>). CirultuiU (188a), Pirlycrta C1891), Tola 
frm lit TtlliHt Hbilu (i&jti) and DarUl (iS«7). he will always 
be remembered alniosl eidusivcly as the author of Lariu Dtnt. 
He continued hia quiet country bfe lo the last, and died at 
TeddiaglOD on the 10th of January 1900, in his sevenly-fiftli 
year. Lama Oaoru has Ihe trueout-ol-door atmosphere, is ahot 
through and tbiough with adventurous spirit, and in its dramatic 
nomenisshowi both vigour and intensity. The heroine, though 
she is invested withqu^tiesof fatry which are scarcely human, 
is an idyllic and haunting figure; and John Kidd. Ihe bluH 
bero, is, bath in purpose and achievement, a veritable giant of 
romance. The alary is a classic of the West country, and the 
many pUgrimage* that are made annually to Ihe Doone Valley 
(the actual characteristics of which differ materially from the 
descriptions given in Ihe novel) art entirely inspired by the 
buoyant iinagi nation of Richard Blackmore- A memorial 
window and tablet to his memory were creeled in Eaelet 
cathedral in [904. 

BUCK MOnKTAtH, a mountain range and district oa the 
Haiara border ol the North-Wesl Frontier Province of India. 
It is inhabited by Yusafisi Paihans. The Blade Mounuin itself 
has a total length ol >;!□ jom., and an avenge heigbt of Soooft. 
above the sea. It rises from the Indus basin near ihi village of 
Kiara, up lo its watenhed by Sruddur; ihcnce it runs Dorth- 
west by north lo the point on the crest known as Cbitlabut. 
From Chitiabul the range runs due north, finally descending by 
two large spurs to the Indus again. The trib^ which Inhabit 
the weslem lace ol the Black Mountain are the Hasuniais (1300 
fighting men), the Akuaii( Ii6j fighting men) and Ihe Cbagat- 
lais (4S90 fighting men), all sub-sections ol Ihe Yusabai Fathans. 
It was Id tUs disuict that the Uindoatani Fanalica had their 

stronghold, and they were rcsponiible Tor muA ol the Daren 
on Ibis part of the border. 

The Bbck Mountain is chleBy DoUble for four Biillsh 

I. Under Licul.-Cotonel F. Mackesoo, In 1851-51. against 
the Hassaniais. The occasion was the murder of Iwo British 
cusiorai officers. A forco ol jSoo Biitiih troops traversed their 
couniiy, del I raying their villages and grain, S:c 

>. Under hfajor-Gcneral A. T. Wilde, in r868. The occa^on 
was an attack on a Brilish police postal Oghi in the Agror Vall^ 
by all three tribes. A force ol ii,jso British troops entered the 
country and the tribes mode submission. 

3. The First Haiara Expedition in iSSS. The cause was the 
consiant raids made by the tribeson villages In British tcmtory, 
culminating in an attack on a small Biitish detachment, in which 
two English ofGcers were killed. A force of ii.joo Briiisb troops 
traversed the country of the tribes, and severely punished them. 
Punishment was also inflicted on the Uindoslaiu Fanatics of 

4. The Second Haiara Eipediiion of iSgi. The Black 
Mountain tribes fired on a force within British limits. A force 
of 7JOO British troops traversed the country. The tribesmen 
made their submission and entered into an agreement with 
government 10 preserve the peace ol the border. 

The Black &[ounlain tribes took no pact in the general Irontier 
tiling ol 1807, and alter the disappearance ol the Hindostaoi 
Fanau'cs they sank into comparative unimportance. 

BLACKPOOL, a municipal and county borough and seaside 
resort in the Blackpool parliamentary division of Lancashire, 
England, afi m. N. of Liverpool, served by the Lancashire gi 
Yorkshire, and London & North Weslem railways. Fop. (|8«|) 
15,846; (1901} 47J46. The town, which is quite modern, 
contains many churches and chapels of all denonunstioDs, ■ 
town hall, public libraries, the Victoria hospital, (bcee piers, 
theatres, ball-rooms, and other places ol public amiuemenl. 
including a lofty tower, rtsemblivg the Eifiel Tower of Paris. 
The munici^tyinaintains an electric train service. Tbettare 
haudHmc promenades along the sea front, which cummand b>e 
views. Eilensive wotka upon these, afording a sea iront 
unsurpassed by Ibat af any Eoi^ish watering-place, wen com- 
pleted hi 1905. ' The beach is sandy and the bathing good. TIm 
borough was created ia 1876 (comity borough, 1904). and is 
governed by a mayu, 11 aldennen and 56 coundUon. Area, 
eiciusive of foreshore, 3496 acres; iiujuiimg foreshore, 4144 

BLACK ROD (more fully, " Gcatlemati Usher ol Ihe Black 
Rod"),ano{rieialof IheHouieofI.arda,inslilutedini3SaL Hia 
sppouitmenl is by royal letters patent, and his title is due to his 
staff of office, an ebony stick lurmoimted with a gold lion. He Is 
a personal attendant of the sovereign in the Upper Home, and 
Is also usher of the order of the Carter, bebig doorkeeper at 
the meetings of the knighis' chapter. He it respootibk for the 
malnUnance of order in the IlouM of Lords, and on him falls the 
duty of arraling any peer guilty of breach ol privilege or other 
offence of which the Houu takes cognisance. But the duly 
whichbtingshimraost into prominence is that of aum mooing the 
Commons and their speaker to the Uppd House to hear a sfieecb 
from the throne or the royal assent given to bills. U the 
sovereign Is present In parliament. Black Rod commandi ibe 
attendance of the pntlemen of the Commons, but when lords 
commissioners represent the king, he only iaira such attendance. 
Black Rod Is on such occssioDS the ceotrsl figure ol a curious 
ceRiDOfiy ol much bistoiic significance. As soon as the attend- 
ants of the House of Comouns are aware of bis approach, they 
doae the doors in bis face. Black Rod then siiikea three times 
with his staff, aud on being asked '*Who Is then?" nplles 
" Black Rod." Being then admitted he advances 10 the bar of 
the House, makes three obeisances and says, " Mr ^leaker, Ihe 
king commands this boooursble House to attend his majesty 
immediately in Ihe House ol Lords." This formalily origiiiated 
in the fanoui attempt of Cbaries L to arrest the five membtn,- 
Hampden, Pym, HiJles, Hesilrige and Strode, ia 164 s. Indignanl 


■t tUa brcKh ot iKlvikEi, iIk Hmuc of Commeu hu «vti lincc 
■Miatuned iu lisht oT fmdom o( ipcedi *Dd unictemipLeil 
dcbau by the doaing of ihc d«n on the kiDgfi Rptoenutive. 

BLACK SEA (or Euxuit; uc, Pmiu Euiirna ),' a body of 
wsui lyins aliiKBl cnlircly bciwcca the Utiluda 41* and 43* N., 
but eiundiiic to ibout 47° N, ucarOdeua. ItuboundcdN. by 
(he sauthern coast ol Riusii; W. by Riunmii, Tuikey and 
Bsltariai S. and E. by Alia Minor. The northera boUDdaty 'a 
btolwD Bl Kerrch by » itnit entering into ths Sea oi Aiov, and 
al tbt junction of ihe westeni and »ulhcm boundaiy i* the 
Botponu, nhich unito the Black Sea with the Mcditenanean 
(hiDUKh the Sea of Marmon and Ilie Dardaoellei. The 100- 
lathom Line h about 10 to io id. from the shore except in the 
■onh-irul coTOM betweeq Vanu, and Sevatiopd, whne it 
eitendi ita m. teswaidi. The fiieitett depth ii lojo falhomi 
{1117 Ruoiai) fathoms} near the centre, there being only one 
basil). The iteepcst incUae outside too fathom* ii to the south' 
east of the Ctimea and at Anutlia; the incline to the greater 
depths is also sleep oS the Caucasus and between Trebizond and 
Baium. The conditions that prevail in the Black Sea are very 
different Itom those of Ihc Medilenaaein ot any other lea. The 
existence ot sulphuietlcd hydrogen in great quantities below 100 
lathoRis. the eaiensive chemical preclpitatioo of calcium cai- 
boaate. the stagnto t nature of its deep waters, and the absence of 
deeivsea life are condition) which make it Impossible to discuss it 
along with the physical and bloloscal conditions of the Mediur- 

The depths of the Black Sea are lifeless, higher organic life not 
being known toetist below too fathomi. Fosiilifetou) cemalni 
of Drtiima. CardlioH and other molluscs have, however, been 
dredged up. which help to show that conditions formerly eiisted 
In the Black Seasimilar to those that exist at the present day in 
the Caspian Sea. According to N. Andruiov, when the um'on of 
the Black Sea with the Mediieiranean through the Bosporus took 
place, salt water rushed into it along the bottom of the Bosporus 
and killed the fauna of the lea saline waters. This gave lise to 
a production of sulphuretted hydrogen wbicb is found in the 
deposits, as well as in the deeper waters. 

Observations in temperaluie and salinity have only been 
taken during summer. During summer the lutfaix salinity of 
tbe Black Sea is from i- 70 to 100% down to je fathoms, wbereaa 
in the greater depths it atuins * salinity of i'is%. The 
tcoiperatute is rather remarkable, there being an inictmediate 
cold layer between ij and JQ bthoms. This is due to the 
poking of the cold surface water (which in winter reaches 
treeaing-poiot) on to the top of the denser more saline water of 
the greater depths. There is thus a minimum citculation in the 
greater depths causing there unifonnity of temperature, an 
absence of Ihe circulation of oxygen by other means than 
diSuuon, and a protection of the sulphuretted hydrogen from 
the oddatlon which takes place in homokigous situations In the 
open ocean. The tempeiature down to i; fathoms is from jS-j° 
t0 46'i*F., and in the cold layer, between 3j and 50 fathoms, is 
from 46->*to«-s*F., rising again in greater depths to 48- J°F. 

The S/a «/ itarmcra may be looked upon as an arm of the 
Aegean Sea and thus part of the Mediletranean proper. Its 
salinilyiscomparable to thatof the eastern basin of the Mediter- 
ranean, which is greater than that of the Black Sea, viz. 4%. 
Similar currents exist in tbe Bosporus to those of the Strait of 
Gibiallar. Water of less salinity Sows outwards from the Black 
Sea as an upper current, and water of greater saluuty from the 
Sea of Marmoia flows into the Black Sea as an under-current. 
This under-current flowstowacdsCapeTarhangut, where it divides 
into a left and tight t»anch. The leli branch is appreciably 

sweeps past the Crimea, strikes the Caucasian shore (where it 

comer of tbe Black Sea), and finally djapcrses Sowing westwards 
along tbe oartheni coast of Asia Minot between Cape Jason and 

' The early Creek aaviiaton nve it the epthet of nsnw, f.K 
mdritnU/ to urniien. Gui as Crrtk co'oaict sprani up on the 
•bona this was changed to ^un'nu, Iricndly to Mranttri. 

Slnope. Thiscuirent cauaes a warmer dimate where It strikes. 
So marked is this current that it has to be taken into account in 
the navigation of the Black Sea. 

The Sta 0/ Ata is eicccdingly shallow, being only about 6 
fathoms in its deepest part, and it is laigely influenced by the 
rivet Don, Its water is considerably freshet than the Black Set, 
varying fiom 1-5; too'£S%. It Ireeiei mote leaddy and is not 
a3ected by tbe Mcdite>r9.nFan current. 

See N. Andrusov " Ph/sical ExploralloB al the BlackSea," la 
Ctopafkial Journal, vol. 1. p. 49. 

BLACK SEA (Kuss. Chmonumkaya), a military district of 
the province of Kubaa, formerly an independent province of 
Ttanscaucaua, Kussia; it includes the luiTOw strip of land 
along the N.E. coast of the Black Sqi from Novorossiysk to 
tbe vicinity of Fitsunda, between the sea and the ctesi ol tfae 
main range of the Caucasus. Area, >3,}6 sq. m. Pop. (1S9;) 
54,iiSi (1906, estimate) 71.900. It Is penetrated by Dumetovs 
spuisf^ this tange, which sltilie the sea abruptly at tight angles 
to the coast, and in many cases plunge down into it sheer. Oning 
to its loulbein expoiute. its sheltered position, and a copious 
lalnfall, vcgctotion. In part of a sub-tro{»ca] character, grows 
in great prafusion. In consequence, however, of the moun- 
tainous chatactcr of the region, it is divided into a large number 
of more or less Isolated districts, and there is tittle intercourse 
with the country north of the Caucasus, the passes over the range 
bemg few and difficult (see Caucasus). But since the Kusiiins 
became mastetsof this region, its former inhabiunts (Circassian 
tribes) have emigrated in thousands, so that the country is now 
only thinly inhabited. It is divided into three districts — 
Novorossiysk, with tbe town [pop. in iSg?, i6,ioS] of the same 
name, which acts as the capiul of the Black Sea district; 
Velyamlnovsk; and SochL Novotossiysk is connected by rail, 
at the west end of the Caucasus, with the Rostov- Vladikavkaz 
line, and a mountain road leads from Velyamlnovsk (ot Tuapse) 
to Maikop in the province of Kuban. 

BLACKSTONB, SIR WIUIAX (17IJ-T7B0}, English jurist, 
was bom In London, on the loth of July i;]]. His parents 
having died when be was young, his eariy education, under the 
care of his uncle, Dr Thomas Bigg, was obtained at the Charter- 
house, from which, at tbe age of fifteen, he was sent to Pembroke 
College, Oiford.. He was cnteied in the Middle Temple in 1741. 
In 1 744 be was elected a fellow of All Souls' College. From this 
period he divided his time between the imivenity and tbe 
Temple, where he took cbambcn in order to attend the law 
courts. In 1746 he was called to the bar. Though but littlo 
known ot distinguished as a pleader, he was actively employed, 
during his occasional realdencs at the univeiaity. in taking part 
in the Internal management of his college. la May 1749, as a 
small reward for his setvices, and to give him fuitfaer oppot- 
tunltlc* of advancing the interests of the college, Blackstone was 
appointed steward of its nunois. In the same year, on the 
resignation ot his uncle, Seymoui Richmond, he was elected 
tecorder of the borough (^ WaUingford in Berkshire. In 1750 he 
became doctor of civil law. In 1753 he decided to rcLire from 
London work to his fellowship and an academical lite, slill con- 
tinuing the practice of his piofeuion as a provincial counsel. 

His lectures on the bws of England appear to have been an 
early and favourite idea; for in the Michaetmaa teim immedi- 
ately after he abandoned London, he entered on the duty of 
leadhig them at Oxford; and we are told by the aulbor ol hii 
lilt, that even at their commencement, tbe high eipectationi 
f ntmed from the acknowledged abilities of the lecturer attracted 
to these lecturcsa very crowded dass of young men of tfae first 
famine*, chatsctets and hopes. Bentham, however, dcclaice 
that he was a " formal, ptedse and affected lecturer— just what 
you would eipect from tbe character of his writings — cold, 
reserved and wary,eihibitbigafri^dprlde." It wis not till the 
year 1758 that the lectures In the form tbey now bear were read 
in the univenlty. Blackstone. having been unanimously elected 
to the newly.founded Vinerian professorship, on the )jl)i of 
Octobei read hit (iist Introductory lecture, afterwards prefixed 
to the first volume of fais celebrated Cimmtnttria. It is doubtful 


•bether ihe Ca 

welt arigtnzlly inlcndtd {or the 
t inpolcct ind incorml aqua biving gat h 

. . ■ pinlcdcdilion o[ ihcm being either published 

tr prcpATiog for pubUciIion in trclind, tbe lulfaor tfamisbt 
proper to pHat a correct edition hiinicLF, And in November 1765 
published the fir^ voluine, under the title of Cemmailaria ph 
ikt Lamt ef Engliixd. The nmumng p>ru of the woA wen 
given to the world in Uie count ol the four (ucceedins yein. 
It nuy be remarked thit befoK thii period Ibe tepulalioD whidi 
bi$ lectuna hod dcicrvedJy acqitited for him had induced him 
to resume pnctjcein London; tnd^conlraTy to the genenJ order 
of iht proiession, he who bad quitted the bar for in academic tifc 
was sent back from the college lo the bar anlh a considerable 
incrrase of buslnesa. Ke was likewise elected to parlianent, 
firat for llindon. and afterwardi for Westbuiy in Wilts; but in 
neither of these departments did he equal iheeipectatlon) which 
his writing b«d raised. The part he took in the Middlewi 
election drew upoD him many iliacki u well ai a levcre anim- 
adversion from the caustic penol" Junius." This ctrcumstance 
probablystrengihened the avenlon he professed to parliamentary 
aitendaiKx. " where," he uid, " amidst the rage of contending 
panies, a man of moderation must eipcct to meet with no 
quarter from any side." In 1 770 he declined the place of solid toi- 
general; but tharily aftecwatds, oa the promotion of Sir Joseph 
Vales to a seat in the court of comnon pleag. he accepted ■ seat 
on the bench, and on (he death ol Sir Joseph succeeded him 
there also. He died on the 14th of February 17E0. 

The design of the Camwiailariti Is exhibited In his Gril Vinerian 
lecture printed In. the iatroductioo 10 (hem. The author there 
dwells on the importaDce of ooblemen. gentlemen and educated 
persons generally being well acquainted with the laws ol the 
country; and his Irratise, accordingly, ii aa far as possible a 
popular CBposilion ol the laws of England. Falling into the 
common error of Identifying the various meanings of the word 
taw, be advances from the law of nature (being cither the revealed 
or the inlerred will ol Cod) to municipal law, which he deEn« 10 
be a rule ol civil conduct prescribed by the supreme power in a 
state commanding what is right and prohibiting what it wrong. 
On this definition he founds the division observed in the Ctm- 
mnlaria, Theobjecisoflawarerightiand wrongs. Rightiare 
either rights of persons or righti of things. Wrongs arc cither 
public or private. Thew four headings form respectively the 
aubjects of the four books of the Commeuiariei^ 

Blackatone wu by no means what would* now be called a 
adenlific Jurist He has only the vaguest possible grasp et the 
elementary conceptions ol law. He evidently regards the law 
of gravitation, lh« law Ol nature, and the law ol England, as 
dilletent eiamplct of (he same j>iJncip1e~Tas rules of action or 
conduct imposed by a superior power on its subjects. He 

derive their validity from their ccnformity 10 the so-called law 
of nature or law of God. " No human laws," he says, " are of 
any Validity if contrary to this." His distinction between rights 
of persons and rights of things, implying, as it would appear, 

mitundcrstanding oF the technical terms of the Roman law. 
In distinguishing between private and public wron^ Tcivil 

division. Austin, who accused him of following sbvishly the 
method ol Hale's ,4 luJyiii g/(b£as, declares that he " blindly 
adopts the mlstakesoi his rude and compendious model; missing 
invariably, with a nice and autprising infelicity, the pregnant 
but obscure suggestions which it proAered to his attention, and 
which would have guided a discerning and inventive writer to 
in arrangement comparatively just," By ibe want of precise 
and dosely-deGocd terms, and his tendency to subitiiuic loose 
literary phraset, be falls occasionally into irrrconcilable contra- 
dictions. Even In discussing a subject ol such immense Import- 
ance as equity, he hardly ukes paina to discriminate between 
the legal and papular senses ol the word, and, from the small 

be wouLj scarcely teem to have realited its (rue pati(ian in the 


Subject, hi 

scieoli Be order, 
and tne power 01 load exposition possessetl by the antluT 
demand emphatic recognitioo. Blaekstone'l defects si a juiiU 
are more conspicmus ia his treadncnt of tbe undeHying ptinciplts 
and fundaneBtal diviiioiu ol ibc law thaa Id his account of ita 
substantive pHndples. 

Bhckstone by no means confioa bimsdf to ibe work Af ■ 
legal commentator. It ia his busioess. especially when he touchea 
on the framework of sodety. to find a basis in history and reason 
for all the most characteristic English institutions. There is not 
much either of philosophy or fairness in this part of his work 
Whether through the natural conservatism of a lawyer, or 
through hia own timidity and subserviency as a man and a 
palitidan. he is always found to be a speciou defender of the 
eiiitiog order of Ihio^ Beolham accuses him of being the 
enemy of all reform, and (he imscnipulous champion of every 
form of professional chicanery. Austin says that he truckled 
to the sinister Interests and mischievous prejudicea of power. 
and that he Battered the overweening conceit of the Engli^ its 
their own institutions. He displays much ingenuity in giving a 
plausible form to common prejudices and fallacies; but it ia by 
no means clear that he was not imposed upon himself More 
undeniable than the political fairness of the treatise is its merits 
as a work of literature. It is written la a most graceful and 
attractive style, and although no onranunity of embellishmeni 
has been lost, the language is alwayssimple and dear Whether 
it is owing 10 its literary graces, or to its success In Battering the 
prejudices of the public to which it was addressed, the inAiience 
' '' ' ' 'n England has been ertraordinary. Not lawyers 

only, and lawyers perhaps even less t 

an others, accepted it ai 

society in England much the same service as was rendered 10 

he pec^le ol Rome hy (he publica 

unknown laws. It is more correct to n 

gard it as a handbook ol 

he law for Uymen than as a legal (>ea 

(ise: and as the first snd 

only book of the kind in England it has 

been received with some- 

what indiscriminating teverence. It 

is certain thai a vast 

amount ol the constitutional lentimen 

of the country has been 

nspired by its pages- To this day Bla 

ckatone'i criticism of the 

English const! Ill lion would probably express (he most profound 

political eooviciions of the majority 

of (he English people. 

Ang alter it has ceased 10 be ol mu 

h practical value as ao 

auihomy in the courts, it remains the 

arbiter of all public dis- 

On such occasions (he 

s strictly as il they were 

a code. It is curious toobserve how mu 

imed more at presenting 

a picture intelligible to laymen than a 

recording the prindplei 

of tbe tiw with technical accuracy of d 


Set also the article Eholish Law. 

BUCK VEII. in the Roman Cathol 

c Church, the «mb<d<a 

which all il 



It short, and her bridal 
habit. Her wedding, 
it is buried with her. 

as spouse of the Church. Al[erwardi she presides . 
breakfast, at which a bride-cake is cut. She thus Dia 
10 all her friends, and having previously taken the whi 
the betrothal, she now assume -■ ■ ■ ' 
the world and ill pleasures. 1 
robes sreeichanged lor the SOB 
ring, however, she continues 1 

BLACKWATBH, the name oF a number ol rivers and streama 
In England. Scotland and Ireland. The Blackwater in Eski, 
which rises near Saffron Walden. has a course ol about 40 m. (o 
(he North Sea. The most imporunt river of the name ia in 
southern Ireland, rising in the hills on the borders of the ctiuDtiei 
Cork snd Kerry, and Bowing nearly due east for the gmier part 
of its course, as lar as Cappoquin. where it turns abruptly south, 
ward, and discharges through an- estuary Into Youghal Bay. 


paimi very betutiful. 

HACXWUBB nvta. > dbeua ocnnut In tnpiol 
aMsUia utS tlt ewhew, wUth it oflcn chwrt with maUin 
[fi). ll B chancteriisl by [mtukr (tbrik pannyim. uiiini- 
panifd by rifan, UiaiB vwnitiiic. jauddke ud humogloliinurii 
[ftaboa). It hu 1 vide (cofnpkicil diltribiiiian, iodiidiag 
tniikil Alrica. paru o[ Aiii, tbe Wal India. iIh Kulhan 
QsJlcd Suio, -lad— is Europe — Gr«c<. Sidly uid Sardinli; 
but itm rai^ ii not coeiiciuivc wiih nukiit. Miluul 
ff-lf bxve ocaaioDtlSy been fauod in tbe blood. Some 
luUuriiiei believe it la be cauied by the tittBivc tue of 
qoiaifw, EAkeo to combit malahL Tlia [heory bu bad the 
lapport <4 Kodl. but it il not genenlly uxepleiL tl it were 
COfTtct, one would capect bluliinler level to be regularJy 
imv«kntiniiulirUlcciuntri«uid lobe more or tencocmcinive 
witb tbe'ine of quiniae. which a not at aU the caie. It often 
'le cbumclerutic bbcic vomit ol 
lackwiier lever, while the black 
ic ii equally rare in 
ibe lornwr. Acconiing to tbe modem wbool ol tropical para- 
■tolocy- bbckwater levrr a neither a form of malaria nor 
produced by quinine, bat a qieciftc diieaM due to a protozoal 
paruilc akin to ihitl which causa the redwater fever of cattle. 
BUGKWBU. THOMAS (i;ni-i;5;). Scottish daulcal 
Kbolar, wai boni at Aberdeen on the 4th of August i/or. He 
tB^ tbe decree of M.A. at the kfiriwhal CoUtge in 171S. He 
wu appoinled prnfeHor of Greeli in (T13, and wu principal 
d tbe iutitutior iron 1748 until bii death on the Sth of March 
1IS7. In I7J5 hil hni work, An inquiry uu r<le Life tad 
Ufriiiati ef Hemv, wai published anonymously. It was re- 
printed in ijj6, and followed (In 1747) by Pronji nj lii Enfuiry 
bK* Htrntr"! Li/t ami Wriiiiiir. a Iraulation of the copious 
iwhichhad previouslyappe»red. This 
In Ibe ciuscs of the superiariiy of Homer 
bopeeoedediM foUowed him, shows cnmidenble 

.. lOtaini atiny curioui and interesting details; 

bn iu mint of mnhod nude Beatley uy that, when he bad gone 
tktnfb half oi it, b« had foc|otl«i tht beenning, and. when 
be bad (unshed the rcadini «f it, be had foisotlm the whole. 
BUctinell's next woefc (abo fnUithed tnoaymously in 174S) 
■a* faUn Cnutmliif Uytluiegj, In 17]! he took the degree 
ol doctor of laws, and in the foUowing year published the first 
nlume of Utmnrt mj iIk Cml ■/ Autiaim; the second volume 
ap]>earcd in 175], tbe third in 1764 ((»epaied lor the press, after 
NackweU'ideiib,brJohnMills}. This work shows considerable 
ariginality and erudition, but ii even more unmethodical than 
hit eaiUer writings and full of unnecHury digressions. Black- 
well bw been aUed the rcMoter of Greek litrnture in the north 
id qualiiia were somewhat spoiled by 
which (iposed him to ridicule. 
■ (i7;6-i8j4). Scollisb publisher, 
foooder of the fm at WiiUtn Blackwood k Sons, was bom of 
hombla patenti at Edabnrgb on tbe Mth of November t776. 
At the age ol fourMen be wai appienlieed 10 a linn of booksellers 
in EiSnbufh, and be toUowed hli calling alw in Glasgow and 
LoHtM lor several yean. Keturning to Edinburgh in 1804. he 
ofitaieii a Aap in Siiutli Bt<d(e Succt (or the lale of old, rar 
and cotiau* hooka. He ondettook the Stoitisb agency for Joh 
Muniy and other London puWdiers, and gradually drifted int 
publishing on hit own account, removing in tSi6 10 Princt 
Street. On tbe itt of Apra 1817 was issued the first number of 
the EdMvik UmUy Mogoii'iu, wMch on in seventh DTimbct, 
ban the name ol Bloctmid u the leading part of the title. 
" t(ap." as this mapzinesoon came to be called, was the organ 
ol the Scottish Tory parly, and touod it gathered a host of 
able wtilen. William Blackwood died on the rfith of September 
itl4,aiidwutiKCMdedbytabtwoBani, Akanderaad Robctl, 

who added a Londna brancfa to tbe fm. In 
Blackwood died, and sbonly iltenrards Robert. 
A younger biotber, John Dtackwood (iSiS-iRtq). ntccceded 

Blackwood, wbo continued in the Arm until hia death in t86T. 
Id tUi the maior's elder ion, WiUiam Blackwood (b. iSjA). 
wu taken into pannenhip. John Btackuiiiod was a mm of 
strong personality and great business discemoient; it was in the 
pages of his mag tine that Cleorgc Eliot's first iiories, Stma 
a/ Clirial Lift, appesied. He also inaugunled the " Ancient 
Cluslci lot En^ith readers " seriei. On bis death Mr Williain 
"' ' ' (as left in sole coninri of the business With him 

his nephews. George William and J. H. Black. 

Major Ceofge Blackwood, who was killed at 

igm . (1)47-18911). the fiiU t<ra v. 
If Mrs Olinbant; the third, dealiitf 1 
diughier. Mn Cenld Portet. 

■LADDER {from A.S. tUUin, 

WSImm Bbuhmoi and Hi 
ilumM <if khich ■L-eie wniicn 
'ith Joha Blackwood, by hii 

I Get. - 

ir]. the I 

used for any simifsi sac. such as the gall-bladder, the swim- 
bladder in fijbes. or the small vesicle in various seaweeds. 

bladder in man {lor the anatomy see Ubihabv Svstth). bang 
the temporary reservoir of the renal secretion, and, as such, 
containing the urine Far longer or shorter periods, is liable to 
various important affections. These are doll with in the first 
pan of this article. The diseases gf the pmsiale are so intimately 
allied that they are best considered, as in the subsequent section, 
as part of tbe same subject. 

Diitoai ej lit Bladder. 
Cystbii. or infUmmstlon of the bladder, which may be acute 

organisms, which gain access cither from the urethra, 

the kidneys or the blood-stream. It is easy to see how ^ 
tbediptococci ol gonorrhoea may infect the Uadder-mtmbrahe by 
direct eitcnsion of the inflimmation, and how the badlli which 
are swarming In the neighbouring bowel may find access to the 
urethra or bladder when the intervening tissues have been 
rendered peoeliable by a wound or ~ 

cr the bladder by way of the vulva 
islurbanc. ' ' 


le fun 

bladder, such as enlargement of tbe prostate, stricture of the 
urethra, atone, or injury, may cause cystitis by preparing the 
way for bacilliry invasion. The bacilli of tuberculosis and ol 
typhoid fever may set up cystitis by coming down into the 
bladder from the kidneys with the urine, or they reach It by 
the blood-streim, or invade it by tbe urethra. Another way ol 
cystitis being set up is by the introduction of the genu ol 
suppuration by a caibclct or bougie sweeping them in from tbe 
urclhni or the instrument itself may be unsteriliied and dirty 
and to may inimduce them. It used formerly to be thou^t that 
net or cold was enough to cause inllammitioool the bladder, but 
the probability is that this^acis only by lowering tbe teeistuica 
of the lining membrane of the bladder, and preparing it lor the 
invasion of the germs which were merely waiting for an oppor- 
tunity. In Ibe ssme way, gout or injury may lead to the lurking 
bacilli being enabled to effect their attack. But in every case 
diicase-germs are the cause of the trouble, and they may be fouod 
in the urine. The first effect of ic ' 

nitable. : 

1 may be very painful and may be aocoD- 
Irom the overloaded blood-voKls of the 
In addition to blood, pus is likely to be 
lichbythistimelsalkalini ' ' 



ry bol hip-Uth. WteD ti 


back to bed, 

proof mAtcjiaL, should be pL&ced over ihe lover pan of the 

■bdomtn. The diti theukl be milk (diluted wtih hot oi cold 

ihodd be aUixitd. II Lhe urine isicid, UcuboniLeoliodiiniy 
be given, or ciliale of soda; il illuliiie, unilnipine— i derivaUve 
d loraiic aldehyde — may prove a useful urinary diiinleclanl. If 
theslrainingand dislreu ace great, a suppository of lorjafnin 
of morphia may be introduced into the rectum every two or three 
houn. The bowels must be kepi freely open. If iheurine is foul, 
3e bladder should be frequently washed out by a solt calheler 

K three 

othct end, weak and abundaot hot Imitnii of Sasitos or Condy'a 
fluid being used. 
Ckrvitic cyitUis is the coadiUon left wbeD the acute symptoms 

acute condition. If the cystitis is very ininiclabfe, refusing to 
yield 10 iut irrigations, and to washlnp with nitrate of silvei 
hlioa, il may be advisable to open lhe bladder from the fnnt, 
and to explore, treat, drain and rest iL 

In tubercMlna ejUilis there is added to the tyaftona the 
diicoveiy o( the bacilli of tuberculosis in the urine, and cysio- 
scopic enminalian may reveal the presence of lubcrcks oI the 
mucous membraneorcven of ulceration. ThcpalicnL is probably 
iovng weight, and he may present toci of tuberculosis at the back 

lymphatic gland. Tnaimtra is rebcUioiu and unpromising. 
Wuhings and lolioni give but tcmpotaiy relief, and if the 
bladder is opened for rest, and loc a more direct imtmcnl, the 
germ] of suppuration may enter, and. working in conjunction 
with the bacilli, may cause great havoc. Koch's tuberculin 
treatment ihould certainly be given a trial. This consists of the 
injection into the body ol an emulsion of dead tubercle bacilli 
which have been steiitiicd by heat. As a result of this injection 
the blood sets to work to form an "opsonin" — a protective 
nuterial which so modifies the diseasc-ecrms as to render Ihcm 
lUiaclive to the white corpuscles ol the patient's blood (phago- 
eylesl, which then seize upon and destroy them. Sic A, E. 
Wright hasdeviscdidclicale method of cxaminaLionof the blood 
(the calculation of the opsonic indei) which tells when the 
tuberculin injections should be resorted to and when withheld 
(see Blo<o). 

CnlciitiiiiidCraK/.— Uricacidlsdeposlledfromtheurineeiihcr 
u small crystals rescmUingcsyFiine pepper, or else. In combina- 
m^^ lion with soda and ammonia, a&an amortJlous " briik- 
^'"' dust " deposit, ». hi ch, on cooling, leaves a red stain on 
the bottom of the vessel, soluble in hot water. These substances 
are derived from the disinicgraiion ol nitrogcniied food taken in 

BOf d 

. Theyoc 

r iherctore in fevers, in 

Sling di 

I of a 

If these eierciset have been accompani 

lion that (he eicess of water from the 

lUn rather than by the kidneys. The 

is in accordance with the amount of hut developed and wi 

done in the body.and corresponds with the dust and ashes ral 

supposing that the uric acid dtbris continues to be eicessive, 
lisli ol the formation of ctnal or vescal calculi becomes consid 
abk. and il may be advisable to place the paiieoi on a rcslric 
nllrogeniied diet, ID Induce him to drink large quani iiics of wai 
and to keep his bowels so loose with watery biaiives, such 
Epsom salts or sulphate of soda, that the waste products ol 
' ' re madetoescapebylhebowelsratherthanbylheki' 

In ad 

mo the salts ju 


of blue 


te of linn 


lining ol tbe bladder from either the bo»ei, the urethra or the 
blood-stream; undergoing cultivation there they break up tbe 
urea into carbonate of ammonia and so render tbe urine alkaline. 
This alkaline urine deposits its phoqihalet, which tight upon the 
calculus and enccusl it with a mortary shell, which may go on 

the nucleus of a calculus is a chip of bone or a blood-dot, or some 
foreign substance which has been introduced into the bladder. 
Sooner or later the urine becomes alkaline and the calculus ia 


ialUnsout,anilmHy be deposited in the kidney 
If the crystals ma together in the kidney there 
may either remain in thai organ or may Slid 
bladder, where it may remain to forai the m 
vesical calculus, or, especially in the case ol 
while stiU small, escape from the bladder dun 

chemical ccHistitucnii 


k the urethra and give rise fo sudden retentiorie 
duling a metal " sound." the surgeon may strike the 
d if It happens to be near the bladder be may push it 
subsequently cpmove It by crushing. Bui if il hasmade 
lome distance along the uielhta, so that he can feel It 
outside, he should remove it t^ a dean IncisiaD. 

irriet the nervea of the mucnii 

, The in 


piece of grit under the eyelid causes a couti 
running from the eye. So the urine, if allowed to stand, gi 
a copious deposit. During micturition the contncting blad 
bruises its congested blood-vessels against tbe stone, » IJ 

in the bladder give: 

id of tl 

iptsuddenfy to stop the flow of urine during laictur 
Tbe association ol any of ihoe sympionu leads the suijeon 
to suspect the presence of a stone in the bladder, and he amfimts 
his auspicions by introducing a xlHider stcd rod. a "aoond." 
by which he strikes and feels the stone. Further confirmation 
may be obtained by the help of the X-rays, or, in tbe adult, by 
using a cystoscope. In a child the stooe may often be fell 
by a inger in the rectum, the from of tbe bladder being 
pressed by a hand on the lower pan of the abdooien. The 
cyslmcept Is a straight, hollow metal tube about tbe die 
of a long cedar pencil, which the surgeon inlrodBCcs into the 
adult bladder, which has already been filled with warm boradc 
Iniion. Doun tbe tube run two line wires which contmt a mlaate 
electric lamp at the bladder end of the Inilrument. At that end 
also is a small glass window which prevents the fluid escaping 
by the lube, and also a prisma at the other end ol the lube is 
rye-piece. By the use of this slender speculum the practiied 

» the J 

ol tl 

pill will prove helpful. A course of treatment at Conlrtltville 
oc Carlsbad may be laken with advantage 

Alkaline urine is unable lobold the phosphates of immoBii 
magnesis in solution, so they an deposited in abundance either in 
the kidney or bladder. If the voided urine is allowed to stam 
tatlglats they link to the bottom with pus and mucus in a cloudy 1 

ol the bladder, 
■I malignant growths. He can al» watch tbe urine 
le bladder by the openings of the ureteri. and deter- 
whicb kidney blood or pus is coming 
tmtnt of stone In the bladder is governed by vacioua 
Speaking generally, the surgeon prefers to intmducc 
' and crush the stone inlo small tcagmenti. and then 
It the frigmenls by using a full-sized, bollow metal 
nd an india-nibber wash-boltle. Even in duMnn 
ion may generally be adapted with nicceia, ibc atone 
lied 10 atoms and tbe iragmmts being wuhad gyt u 




the hit Willi cM|k But IF the Wsne 111 very hud OH (u 
mnc o( the ojalite of Em* alcuU), or il it ti very laTje. < 
ihe bliddn or liie pnuute gland li in ■ iiatc ol idvar 
dotue. or iS Ihe uielbri ii ml raoiny cnoosli U> idmii ini 
DimU of ideqwle cilibn, the cnuhtng ofKnlkm UiOfli 

iiUoMMy.'— Culling foe ilone hu been long pnciued; 
igp 10 ibe hcginnini of Ihe igih cnituiy it « 

by 1 lew men, who, bolder than Iherr coi 
qjedally woiked *( thit opention and had 
■I ikilful liiboinniiiU. FitienU neat long aisium lo dc 
ifienlcd on fay then, ind cmiin of Ihe oldci lurgcoBS, u 
Witlilin Chnelden, perforeied ■ lirge number of openlioni 
wfth menl eicdleni rriulu. The opention wii fay la inciaion 
bom the penocum. aid i* oidiniriJy (pokeo of ai lalaal lilbo- 
tomy. It WM aplcndidly deiigned, md gave good reuilti, 
cspecilUy in children. But it is now a llung of the pu[» having 
llinoil entirely given ptaie lo ihe Jiiti or mpra-pMbU t^ralion. 
lo the high opention the patient, being duly prepared, ii placed 
■pon fail back and Ihe bladder ii wubed out wiUi hot boracic 
iMion. and mhen Ihe lotioB rtlums iiuiie dean a £na] jajaiion 
■a made uniil the bladder is felt ti^ng above ihe pubet. Thca 
the iodJa-riibfaer tufac is removed from the silver catheter fay 
whkh Lhe injection has been made, and the end of the catheter 
il plugged fay 1 ^gol. An incision is then made in the middle 
line of the abdomen over the bladder region. The incision must 
be kept is low as posuble» so ihat Ihe bladder may be reached 
below the periloneum, which, higher up, gives il in eittnul. 
leroui coat. As the Uiddec is approached. 1 good many veins 
■re Ken 10 be in the v^y, tome of which have la be wounded. 
The bladder-wall is recognized by 

lort turn, is piued inla the bladder; the ntirUot, toll 

icic lotion, iiituched to the aiheter, ind 1 few ouca 

of ihe fluid are eiprewed (rom the aspirator into the bladder by 
squeeiing Ihe lubber ball. When the pressure is Uken oS the 
bsU. it dilites and draws the fluid oui of the bladder, ajid with 
le of Ihe delritui, which falli into the trap. Thii ii re- 
pealed until all the fragments have been removed. After Ifie 
operation the patient sometimes suSen from discomfort. His 

for a few days. If the pain be severe, it can geDcnilly be relieved 

. side of Ihe n 

^pthsof ihc pdvis. 

finger introduced 

poiilioo of the stone, or ilonn, ind the removal is effected 
by special fOTCept. Bleedirig having ceased, the bladder-wound 
k pully or eniirdy chned by sutures and allowed to fall into 
the pelni. the catheter hiving been removed. It is advitable 
10 leave a dninige tube in the abdominal wound lor a while, 
10 that if urine leaks from the bladder-wound it may find a 
mdy escape to the dressings. 
iiltWi^aiy. — Litbolrity consists of two pans— the crushing 

■ic now carried out *( one " lilting." oithoui an Interval being 
lUowed beloeen Ibem, u wis lormerly the praaice. and the 
Ictia " lithi^paiy " designilei this method. The polient 
hiving been anaeslhetized. 10 01. ol hot boracic lotion are ia- 
lected.ind the crushing inslninHnl. the lilholiile. is then passed 
BIO the btidder. The lithotritehas twoblad 
a " female," the biter Icncstrated, the former 
iare nolcbed. When Ihe stone is hied betwi 
icrrw is oird, and grelt pcesEore 11 applied 
and coBtinuoBsty to the Ilone. The Utbotrii 
toBgh WeeL to that haidiloncs may bccrushedwiiboul danger 
of ibtiBttniaieni breakingorbending. Care auit be taken D 
to catch the blidder-will with ihe litholrile. This dangei 
■vended by raising the point of the lilbotiite immediately after 
gnipblg llie uone ud before crushing. The none breaks ' 
Ivo or Biore pieces and these fragments must be cru&hed, 
by me, udIH they are powdend hne enough 10 escape by the 
lufe evaniling cilheier. If ihe stone be large and tiard, ' " 
IB Imr or tongrr iTuy be required to crush il sufi^cienlly 
Wbea the nrieon liih lotiichiny more Large pieta. the pre- 
nuiption 11 that Ihe ilone hai been thoroughly bivkea ug 
Tbe htbottite It then withdnwa and (be delritui i> wubed Ok 
by u " iipiruor." which caniitit of 1 

en the blades lh< 
evenly, gradually 

:al being used al liter perioda in thi 
T, With the eye very neu the end ol 

. The I 


bladder Icrjiabte, Ihe lurgcoo should insist on his tenuining 
least a week; in ihoie cuei which go on tivouribly 
the pitientl are won able to perform Ihelr ordinary duties. 
Fatal teiminiitions, however, do now and again occur trom sup- 
piEHlaa of urine, the result of Ibe old-standing kidney disease 
which to often complicates these cases. 

To Bripde-SuiEeon Lfeutenanl-Cotonel Dennis Francis 
Kcegan, of the Indian Medical Service, !s due the fact that Ihe 
opcralion of crushing and promptly removing all Iragmenls of 
a vesical calculus is as well suited for boys as for men. In entire 
opposition lo long-slawling European prejudicei, Keegan'i 
operation l> bow firmly and permaoenily esubliihed. The ok) 
operalioti (Chortden't) o( culling a tlone out through the 

^ ' 1 boy^i bbdder is now seldom resorted to, and it a 

boy is found 100 large or loo hard to lend itself 10 

1 a boy ■ small liihotriie hat. of course, to be uted, 
. be ol the very besi English make. The operatiaa 
lone with the utmost genilencsi ind thoroughnets, 
clt of the cru^hKl slone being lefl in the bladder, 
vise the piece left becomes the nudeiu of a f reih itoDC 

ni thin operative 

nd Ihe trouble recurs. 

The trealmcnl of vesical calculi by other 
irgery is ol Utile value. Atlempls have 
lem by inlenul remedies, 01 by the injcclion of chemical 
genu into the bladder; but, although such methods have for 

lime been apparently successful, ihey have invariably been 
lund warlhlcu for removing calculi Dnce actually lormed 
[eveilhelcss, much can be done towards ^nniiiii{ Ihe lotmaiion 
I calculi in those who have a tendency to Iheir formation, by 
lieniion lodiel, fay liking proper eierciie.and by ihe internal 
dminislrallon ol drugi. 

Xn^u'I iJ ikt^bMJti nay be caused bv a kick or blow ov« the 
icTunol ihe pelviL II die rupture is in 


id lelt up periloniliv, whtrh ii more than likelr to pnvt fatal 
iheiui^eon knows |}wl the bladder » rupiuied he slwukf operate 
once in order to provide etcape lor the urine, and iko to sew up 
le real. It Ihc pouibility of the bladder being ruptured be even 
itpecled. Ihe surgeon should pan a calheier. Perhaps he diawi 
I an ounce or two ol bfood-suined urine Thia makei him douUv 
ispicious. so he iniKIa into Ibe bladdei 
' warm boracic kKm. and, leiving it tl 

dsurca ibc iraounl which be iaable ■ —^-„ _ _ . 

! linds thai a ccnain anwuni is lost br ii assured dial a kaVaee 
IS taken plan and he at once proceeds lo aprraie II only ife 
lagrtotii il made prompilv. ind the openiion ii 11 ooct uaderiake*, 

K ulei of ra^ule'J u!i?drr endel'laully 

ViUnl rfiimr of iKe bladder ia iniuceni; Ihal is 10 ay, it doe* 
Dt ipraad 10 the neiiHbnurinE ttrucium or implicate the lymphatic 

,.-T. Ti-..:ii: i—J«,TMncbed,lUanienloump.oc™e» which, 

hebladder. Real m Ihe unne like •Biintd. 

„„., ." lilcEd, 

of Ihe ehancierlnic teaturw of the 
livaK. and when liaimeati of the " leaweed " aie foaod in the 
irine the diaaaoH iseEu If the Maddei is opened fron the Iioal, 
u alieady described, ihe villi may be nipped ofl by ipcdil fonxpa 
lod Ibe diacajc pBrmaoenlly cuiod 




vnB leiKibilitir. audi u kpufikiy. e 

(be bladder lod in 

■U tfitasM of tlx bbddH Ii ilmni ihnyi ibi nny fom 

miKon noXaiK ol tlv Aoor n«r Ihc upcninj oTDrK □( 
'>, ud, vorrytni thll iviuory nervra, ciutH imtabiLily ol 

- -a the urMkn. Che bcnnl, tht kiSntyi 

4ftBdcyitilia«t«L0. Whea uktrdtictn lui ukcn 
fKta. uiuDu uu.iii> in ihe urine, aiid Ihe |«iieni— genmllii beyond 
nUddlc Hfe — tuiTen dull or Uncinatint piiiit. EveniunJIy ihc 

The piTfleiKE irf Ibr snvth auy be deicrnuned by Hunding tht 
btidder, by the cyitcHEspe. ■nd by Ihe fhi^ in th> irctunu II 
tbeinwlh invtde* theoullet^ntentknlcl unDrmay occur» ind the 
•uneon may be compcUed to open the biidder rrom the Iront ol the 

tbe bladder witli bot batacic lotioB may ^ve [nat relief. Tbr 
matnien a( cancer ol tb* bladder by opetitioB (t, u ■ rule, un- 
tttialactary, b e ca m e of the cloie pnnunily ol the growth to tbe 
umoa and to the rccium. If. however. Ehe dideaie were iKcwnued 
early ihI had ddi invadrd (he neaghbounnt Arudurn. and if it 
■WT upon the upper or tbe anlcTHr part of the bUddrr, ira removal 
night be hopeTuiry underuken. 
Uyfvlrt^y and DiiaiatiBn.-'Wtm theie ii loi«~ 

,j,,j,mjjg- .- .i_ a 1 ..^.. .. : : c .1. .. 

tUckened. the mufcular fibtet Ini 
oondiliDn ii kfUKn aa " 
Mdpanied by diittatitn ol 

Panlyiii ol Ibt Madder b a want ol amni 
DuKular Gbree of tbe Uadder-walL It may i 
whereby the ■ptaal cord b lacerated or peeatec 

V puiial paialyaiL It it due 

■hrvement of Ihe pnttaie. Tbe patieiil ia unaUe to empty the 
ladder, and ihe cundiiion of alony eeii incrcaiinglii wone. 

li paplyu and atony die iodicalion ii carefully u 

re of tbe urethra, c 

caln the aenie ol water b^ng puaed aea ill. 

cnion Ihat the bladder b atrudy full, the eh 

cauied by an obetrucdoa cnenal to the bladder. (.(. tnhrpd pm- 
ataie or itrklure of Ibe imthim; a calculua may produn ihe con- 

Df the miciuHiinii-cenin k^ the uleof betladoiiDa or ttry^nine 
internany. and of a bUfter or faradiini eitenially over Ihe lumber 
Tejion. and every effort ahould be made a traiu the rhrld to paei 
warer ai staled timet and regular iuiervalt. la Ibe adult thecauie 
which pmducet tbe overnlblenioB muit be renuned if poetible; 
but. aa a rule, the pattern hat to be provided with a earhcter, which 
he ran paH before the bladder baa filled lo overfiowine. A vfl 
Heiible catheter thoukl be liven In preference u a rigid or icmr- 
fifid one. The bnl form it tbe rtd-rubber calheier. and he thould 
be taught the need of keepinf i( abaolulefy clrqn- In the cate of 

rkilHrm I nniiilinmr* ,J .,..» iw.bi Irritability: In tdullt it DCaBt 

preputitl adhealona. OccaiiDnally not a dropctf uiin 

or a liiile pasea and then a luddrn ttoppage oceuhi, ^.k unnw: ■■,( 

retention of urine. Tbe tmuble can lonietimet be cured by iht 
removal of irriiatbif cautet. and in thete caaee, aa well at in Aoer in 
which DO auchcauae can be ditcovmd, "•»■**""" '*^ »■'"'* •">"^''* 
thij« di/Bcult 

nicutt let which have given rite lo Ihc palient'i wont fail 
ly lime be ihouM Ian in perform the aclof micturiiio 

" ■- hut ahould quielly wail (ore little belo™ mi 

RtguLuity in the timet of making water li 

ay occur In paralyrii of the bladder, or in 

. Thediatei^hiadde^anbeldlaiaroiind^ 

wben. and perhapa Teaching lo the levri of the 

' ' et ■ duU oon. When tb 

puihed ihinugh the abdomlatl wall inio the bladder. Tht point d 
puncture in the abdominal wall it in tbe middb line a lew inchet 
above the lymph/iit pubia. The bladder may be emptied in Ihia 
way very many timet m the aame penoa with ooly good reaulL 

Dutaiu a/ PrtiUU Cla^ 
Hie pntUIe gland tnay becomeacatelyiiillBiiKdiatbeTenll 
of Ibe backward enenskin ol goDotrhoeal [nfianunatjon ol Ihe 
urelhra; it may alio be altacked by the germa of otdinazy 
BuppuralloD aa well aa by the bacilli of tubcrculoaiL A auddea 
enlargeinenl of a large ^and lying agalnit the outleia of tbe 
Uaddei and tbe bowel cenden inictuiitHin iliffimlt. painful or 
imponible. and Inteifert* with defiecatkm. Pie«aure of the 
•eat of the diair upon the perineum also cauK) dislnsa. m the 
maniiUiidcwiyiaodoa Ibe edge of Ihc Kit. If abtomfonni, 
it tbould be incited liom the perineum; if allowed to run hi 
counc il may bunt into tbe bladder, the urethn or tht rectum, 
and tet up lerioua complialioD. llie Ueatmcnl of ptMtalitIa 

i fon 

If n 

muit be kcpl freely open, and frc 

demarul), a moiphia tuppostoty 

Cknwk pnrtolitii it a legacy from 
gonorrhoea. Tbe enlargement jivea rii 
fulm in Ihe perineum. iniuGilily of 
urethnj ditchaxge. Manual exanunata 
targe, hard mut in frvnl of the bladder 

be ihtioduccd ii 

of Ibe bladder, and a 

. The patient 


of ih'e nuuaie'. Thconwioiiar^utag^ii 
■ large rneul bougie, the uae of weak lolbniof niirarf of ulvfr. ih> 
admiiuttniioB oTquinine and imn. and the applies 
lolheperineum, may be tried at drcunuancet direct 

shouldkadaquielUfe. free from RirvaleadtnBent- 

cycle.<iding, rough garnet and alcohol thoiUd be avoided 

EMiarxtmaU a/ tkt frostatt cxtata in ■ conaitkrable profiortkia 
of tncn of about tiityyeara of age and onward, it combta aj •■ 
uncontrolled growth of the noimal muscular and glandtUar 
ttaiue of the prottate. inlerfeiing with, cr abaolutely atoppinc 
the outflow of the uzine. Gently pmhing tbe Uadder upwanli 
and backwarda, it iureaaea the length of the urethia, ao that 
in order to draw oB retained urine the catheter mutt brIongB 
than ordinary, btil inaamnch aa there it no actual oarrowiiig ol 
the patiage il nay be of full calibie. He beak aboiild be wdl 

Ihe ihick, ring^ike aaaa ol 
ucouiiei 01 uie bladder, Ibete ia difficulty in 
became Ibe muKubr Utddtf wdl ii dov 

e bolgei tip bt thi 
ms bdilDd it, fren 

lo dislodge the atagnint uiine. 

Brine b retained. As the el 

floor of the bladder, a pouch or I 

whlth the muscular wall is ui 

This keeps up conatant irriu 

decomposition find their way thither, cyitltia acts In and lb« 

palienl't condition becomea leriouf, not only beaine of (be riak 

Id which hit lired and irriiiied kidneyi are tubmitltd, but 

because of Ihe possiUliiy ol a pboaphatie stone bring tonacd in 

the bladder. The seriousness of enlargement of the pratal* 

does not depend upon Ihe slat of the growth so much as upon Ibe 

inability of Ibe ptiient lo empty hb bladder completely. 


itlsn the 

limpcrltnt. The upUnuiod is 

«d to t aiuU pi«e of (he ilaad 

: nur-ny. Robeit M^ll of 

iprt-puble operaiion 


wluch protnidet Likea tongue id 

L«dt •»• the fint i(irt»n to , ,.- , . 

chia uia(ue4il» pncHt 6i mfW pnMaXK frowui. _AIter»in.> ■■>« 

BRIhii, but Ibcy bad not met with much tuccm. 
WbM the utieoii hu nude eiit the tii<irni:c ot in cnLiTXtnKRt 
' ' le.UieiienthiiiEbuilbd toKhatntcntthuiiiterfrcn 

'- ' ' - '. To ds thii. be uki the patient to 

_ . bk, ud then witb due prccautiom 

. aoit catheter and mcamrea the amount of urine which be 
rawa off — half an ounce, an ounce, two ouncet. however miKh 
be. It ia thk " restdual urine " which cauaea tJK annorance 
< danger of enlaifed proatata. wid nnleia amniementa z*n 
la for Ka refuhi withdtmwal aariouB trouble ia almoat certain 
n. Tht paaBBE o( a huie catheter may have the effect ol as 
Dpcniajr up the vatet^way that , it any rate Itira time, the initability 
s( the Madder naif oeaae, la which caae the patient may be intruded 



he reniiar paaong of a luncatl 

bladder with hot boiaSc lotion ia 

Of hen the idea oTleft 

napcct a regubr 

3 great hardiblp, while to 

. , ■ catheter li(e" appeara 

, -,.—-. , ^vini for a time been patiently carried ODt, ia iound 

DM «ily aewdy Iryliif but inatly diaappointini. 

In mat people tbe ¥cn nnc puiinf of a catheter aeta up a local 
and cooatitutioBal disturbance, the bladder boing rendered irritable 
wid inloieraDI, tbe tempeniture foiiu up, and fhiveriaBS and 
penptntion nuirifeftlne themfldvn. Thiaconditlni waiformerTy 
calkd "catheter levei,''and wa* looked upon ta idmethlni myt- 
(criow *>d pecdhar. It ia now generally uadentood to be the 
icault of vpcic inoculation d the interior of the bUdder- 

Laitly, in other penoni ihe paMing ot the catheter !• attended 
with H much diAculIy, dtilrcu or bleeding, that nmcthing mote 
bdpf ul and eSeetoal !• nigeotly called lor. 

Oftralat TrtalatiU, — Ii bu long beta knawD ihit large 
Itusoun of tfat ulCTU Moclioin dwindle if (be ovulei are 
Ten»vtd by operation, and Profcuor WiUiim White o[ Fhib- 
dclphii thought that prostatic grawihi might be limilarly 
inlluenccd by the removal of the tcslicln. Beyond quciiion 
cotuideiable improvemeDt has followed tbh openlioB in caio 
of cnbrgemeDt of the pmtate, especially where the enlargement 
•eemcd 10 be general, lott and vascular. A rimlUr Ihougb 
perhaps a slower effect li produced when Ibe duct of the testis, 
the vas defeniu, is divided on each itde of the body. II Iheit 
is no gnat urgency about llie case this trtitTBent may well be 
tried, the blAddcr being all the whDe duly emptied liy atheler 
and washed t>y irrigation. But if tbe case is uigeni, then being 
diBiculIy or bleeding with the pusing of the catheter, tbe 
bladder being excessively irritable and the urine foul, a more 
radical measure is needed. The best operation ia that upon the 
lines laid down by Robert M>Gil}, who opened tbe bladder 
through (he anterior abdominnt wall and removed that part ol 
the prostate gland which was blociiing the water-way. M'Cilfs 
operation *o» improved upon by Eugene Fuller of New York, 
•ho. in iSoi, published a full account of his procedure.' Raving 
opened the bladderfrom the front (is in supra-pubic lithotomy). 
he inlioduced his left Indei fmger info the rectum and ihnist tht 
prostate gland towards the right indei finger, which was (hen in 
the bbdder. With the nail of (ha( finger, or with the end of a 

bladder and the capsule of the gbnd, and then shelled out the 
mass of new tissue which had caused the prmtitic enlargement. 
This operation is called " prostatectomy," which means the 
lemoral ol the prostate gbnd. The pnMiaie gland, however, is 
botrtmoved. but only a muscular and gbndubr mass (adenoma). 
*hich, growing within the proilalic capsule, encircles the 
orethra and squectes the original gbnd tissue out of existence. 
Following on the lines of M<Cill and Fuller. P. J. Freyer has done 
nctUent work in Entfand towards placing this operation upon 
» sound basis. 
Subsequently to t)ie openlton the bladder enjoys complete 
> Diutm >f lit CnOe-mniary Syiltm. by Eugene Fuller, M.D. 
(Loodoa and^lew Ywk. 190a). 

and necdfol real, and (he UdneyB, vUch previouily *tre in » 

condition of perpetual ditturbaoce, improve bi working power. 
The wound in (be bladder add In the abdominal wall gradually 
closes; the hinction of the bbddet rttums, and the patient fa 
som able to go back to bit usual occupation in greatly Improved 
health and vigour. Tht operation ia, necessarily, a serious one, 
and the age ol the patient, ibe condition of his bbdder, of bis 
kidneys, and of bit blood-vessels, require to be taken into con- 
liderationi idH, the operation ^ves an eicellenl account of 
itaeU in statistics, and if a practical' surgeon advises a patient (o 
accept it* risk* his couttsd may well be followed. 

ifo/Mm) JiusM ■/ fjlt priiiliilr ii diiiingultbed front Knile 
gkadularenlarpiDent'bylhe rapidity of iiagmvih. by the Ireenev 
of the bleeding which iLaaudated with tbe iniroductiop of a catheter, 
and by the marked wuting *hich the individual , undeigoei. Un- 
fortunately, by (he lime that the canceroui nature ol the disease » 
(teKaiidy tec(«iiiaed, the proqiect ol relief being affccded by opera- 

BLADDEB-WORT. tbe name given lo a tubourged water 
plant, (/'ricnlaria nJfORi, irith Gncly divided leaves upon which 
ate boine amall bbdden provided with Irap-door eiuiancci 
which open only inward). Small crustaceans and other aquatic 
anioufa push tbeli way into the bbddera and ate unaUe 10 
eicape. The producu ol the decay of the oiginiimi thus 

captttred are absorbed into the plant by tur-shaped hairs which 
line (he interior of the bbdder. In this way the pbnt is supplied 
with iii(rogenous food from the animal kingdom. Bladder-wort 
bears small, yellow, two-liiqied flowers on a stem which riles above 
the surface ol the water. It is found in pools and ditches in the 
British Isles, and is widely distributed in the north tem|>crate 
tone. The genus contains about (wo hundred qiedei in tropical 

BLADES, WILUAH (i8)4'i8^), English printer ud Iriblio- 
grapher, was bom at Clapham, London, on tiK ith of December 
1S14. In iSto he waa apprenticed to his father's printing 
business In London, being subsequently talcen into partnership. 
The firm was afterwards ktwwn as Bladea, East & Bbdex. 
His Interest in printing led him to make a stody of the volumes 
piwlund by Caiton's press, and o! the early history of printing 
inEngbod. His U/i End Typstraphy of WiUiam CoKm, 
Ettglani't Fi-il PHultr, was published in igei-i363. and the 
tnndusion* which he net forth were arrived at'by a careful 
examination ot types Id the early books, each dasi of type being 
traced from its flTSl use to the time when, spoilt by wear, it 
passed out of Caiton'a hands. Some 450 volumes from the 
Caiion Press were thus carefully ctnnpared and classified in 
chnmobglcal order. In 1S77 Bbdes took an active part in 
organising the Caxton edebsallon, and strongly tiipporled the 
foundation of the Library Association. He waa 1 teen coUecior 
of old books, prints and medals. His publications rebte chiefly 
to the early history of printing, the Eiumlti ef BaeJii, hit most 
popular work, bring produced in iSSi. He died at Sution in 
Surrey on the iHh of April lAgo. 

BLAENAVON. or BLAEnAT0M,an urban district In the northern 
pariiamcntarydivisionof Monmouthshire, Engbnd,i;m.N. by 
W. of Newport, on the Cnat Western, London & North Westeia 
and Rhymney taifways. Pop. (iqoi) io.86g. It lies In the upper- 
tnost part of the Alan Lwyd valley, at an elevation exceeding 
loDO ft., in ■ wild and mountainous dinricl, on the rastcra 


edse ol tbc ircal owl >nd iron mlnini nglan of Clunorgindiire 
•nd Uonmouthibirt Then are vciy eitiniivc inin ud iml 
worlu, with blait fumico uid roiling milii is ihe diiUicI, wbkti 
employ the bige induitrial population* 

BUSOVyESHCHBHSK, i town ol E«t Siberia, diiel town at 
the Amur govemmenl, on the left bank of Ihe Amuit neer iU 
confluence with Ihe Zeyt in js° ij'N, lit.ind 117*38' &.latl|., 
fiio m. by river above Khabarovik. Founded in iSjfi, tbc town 
had, in igoo, J7,]es inhabitants, and ii the leilor ibebilhopof 
Amur and Kamchatka. There ate steam Bdui-duUb and tton- 
worki. ll ii a centre lot tea eipatted to Ruuia, Callle biauibt 
Innn Transbaikalia and IMongcliafonhe Amur, and lor grain. 

BUUKIE, WILUAM OARDEH (1810-1899), Sottish divine, 
»» bom on the jth of February 1810, at Aberdeen, where hli 
father had been the lirit provoit of the rcfoimed corpontion. 
Alter iiudying at tbe Marischal College, where Aleiaiider Bain 
and David Iklauon were among hii coniemporarics, he wtBI In 
i8jg to Edinbuigh to compleU bii theological courae under 
Tbomu Chalnxn. In 1841 he was preKnted to the living of 
Drumblade by Lord Kinlore. with wboK family be wtis con- 
nected. The Diiruptiancontrovenyreacheditidimaiimmedi- 
atdy afumrd*. and Blaikie, whose lyrapathieJ were CDlirely 
with Qutmrri. wai orK o( tbe 474 minbtcn who signed the deed 
of demiunn and give up Ihdr livingt. He wai Free Church 
mmtiter at PUiig, between Edinbuigh and Leith, fiom 1844 to 
1868, Keenly intemtcd Is quntiom of Mcial itform, hii Gril 
publicatioD WBi a pamphlet, which «■ aflowanb enlirged into 
a book called EiUtr Dayijor WorUnt Pctfl*. Jl recdved public 
commentbiion from Lot4 Broughats, and 60,000 copiei were 
lold. He formed an auociallon for providing better homes far 
working people, and the Pilrig Mix&l Buildings wen erected. 
He olio undertook the ediionhlp al the Fra Chunk Uaiaiint, 
and then that of the JVsrIjk BHIisk Rainr, which he unicd on 
uniH liti. In iBd4 be wai ukid to uodenike Ihe Sceltiih 
editorship of the Suiiisy llafonne, and for this msguine much 
Df his most duiracttiiitic liieiaiy walk «■* done, especitUy is 
the ediiDtit! nates, then a new (eatun In magulDe lileraiuit. 

In igiS Blaikie was called to the chair of tpologciio and 
piitoni theatogy at New College, Edinburgh. In dealing iiilh 
the latter subject he wai lecn at his very beit. He had 
wide eiperieoce, a comprehensive grasp of facts, ibundint 
sympathy, an exlensve knowledie of men, and a great tapidty 
for teaching. In 1870 he was one of two nprueutatives chottn 
from the Fi(« Church af Scotland to attend the united general 
■sscmbly of the Presbyterian churches of the United Suuei. 
He pfolongHl his visit to make a thorough acquaintance with 
Americu Preibyttrianlsm, and this, followed by a similar tour 
in Europe, fitted him to become the real founder of the Presby- 
lerian Allisno. iluch of ha strength in the liier yean of lile 
was given CD this work. In i8qi he was eleclrd to Ihe chairman- 
ship ol the geunl assembly, the last of the modetitora who had 
entered tbe church before the diuupiion. In 18117 he resigned 
tiis proletuTibip, ind died on the iiibof June 1844. 

Bliikie wu an ardent philanthropist, (nd >s ictive and 
intelligent temperance reformer, in days when this wis far from 
easy. He raised ;Ci4,oooIor the relief of the Waldcntiui chuichei. 
Althoughbe ' . . - 

■e ccdeiiiil 
al growth or 


eye fc 

Moody tc 

•mphaiixed the need 
Lg a sign level oi spiritual life. He weUcned 
stland, and the cvangeli&t made hli headquarters 
witn mm auring his first visit. His best books sre Tht tl'ffri 
j/ lid Uitiiiliy—A Uaaual 0/ HemUHie and PaUoril Tkteloiy 
(1S7J); Tkt Boaki ef Savtuil in the Eiptuilur,' Biblt ScrUi 
(i vols.); Tki Pcrimat Lijt 0/ DatiJ ^inHjUone (iggolj After 
Filly Van (iS^j), an account of the Disruption Movement 
in the form of letters of a grsndlalher; Tiimai CMmiri 
I1896). {D. Mm.) 

BUtKB. JAMBS OILLESPJE (tgjo-ig^j). Americin suta- 
miB, was bom in West Broansville, Pennsylvania, on the 31SI of 
January igjo, ol sturdy Scottish -Irish slock on the side of his 

{1741-1804). who during tbe War 6l ladtpendcKC temd ia 
the American army, fmra 1778 to rjgj as commlisaly-genenl 

of the Norlhem Department. With many early evidences o( 
literary capacity and political aptitude. J. C. Blaine graduated 
at Washington Coilcge in WaihingKHi, Pennsylvania, in 1847, 
and subsequently taught succoslvtly to the Uiliiary Institute, 
Ctorgeionn, Kentucky, and In the Institution for the Blind al 
Philadelphia. During this period, also, he tludied law. SettJln( 
in Augusta. Mnioc. in 1834, he became editor of the Ktniuiit 
Jnnuil, and subsequently af Ihe FtrlUni AJtrtiiir. But hs 
editorial i-ork wu soon abandoned for 1 mon active public 
career. He was elected lo the loucr bouse of the state tegislst urt 
in t8j8,aad served four years, the last Iwou^ieakcr. He also 
became chalmtao of the RepublicaB state commlltcc in i8tf, ind 
far more than twenty yean petsonally directed every campaign d 
his party. 

In 186] he wu elected to Congress, serving ui the House 
Ihineenycan [December ig«3 to December 1876), followed by* 
little over four yean in the Senate. He w» chosen ^leakeiof the 
House in 1869 and served three terms. The House ais the fit 
irenaforhis political and piitiamentary ability. He wata ready 
' ' ' ' " ' " of resoum, and deitenjus in con- 


,e talent. 

from the Unioti occupied the chief alleiition of Congress lor 
several years, and Blaine bore ■ lesding pitt hi framing and 
discussing them. The primary qucstian nbltd to the basis of 
lepresenlatian upon which Ihey should be itslortd to tbeir full 
rank in the political system. A powerful section contended ihal 
the bisis should be the body of legal voters, on tbe grousd Iba) 
the South could not then secure an increment of political power 
on account of the emancipated bliclii unless tbcH blacks were 
admitted to paliiical rights. Blnine, on the other hand, con- 
d that representation should be based on populilion instead 
:<n. as being fairer to the Konh, where the ratu of voters 
I widely, and he insisted that it should be lafeguardcd by 
ity for impartial suflnge. Thb view prevailed, and the 
eenth Amendment to the Constitution was substantially 
e'l proposition. In tbe isme spirit he opposed a scheme ol 
,ry govemmcnls for the southern il»l(«, unless associated 
a plan by which, upon the acceptance of prescribed eon- 
a, they could niease themselves froni military rule and 
le dvil government. lie was Ihe &rst in Congress to t^ipose 
Liim, w^hich giined momentsry and widespread favour in 
that the public debt, pledged in coin, should be paid in 
greenbacks. The protection of naturalized cittaens who, on 
return 10 their native laod, were subject to proieculioa on 
charges of disloyally, enlisiedhisatiiveinlerestarid support, and 
the agitation, in which he wu conspicuous, led 10 the treaty ol 
1S7D between the United Sutci and Great Britain, which placed 
adopted and native ciiitens on the same footing. 

As the prtsldeniiil Section of 1S76 a[^roached, Blaine wu 
clearly the popuLr favourite of hii party. His chance for 
securing the nominatinn, however, was materially lessened by 
persistent charge which arere brought against him by the 
Democtalt that u a member ol Congress he had been guilty ol 
(omiptioB in his rebtions with the Little Rock & Fort Smith and 
the Northern Pacific railway*.' By the majarily of Republicans, 
at least, he wu considered to have cleared himself complculy, 
and in the Republican national convention he missed by only 
twenty.cight voles the nomination lor prcudent, being finally 
boten by a combination of the lupporters of aU the other 

w»s unabsted. Currency legislation wu especially promioeBt. 
Blaine, who had previoiisly opposed greenback Inflation now 
resisted deprecis ted silver coinage. He was the earnest chimpian 
of the advancement of American shipping, and advocated 
Isberil suhiidica, insisting thit the policy of protection should be 
applied on lea u well ai on land. The Republican nstionil 

fervidly asseverated hii denial 



(M«<MlDB«(lB80.dMd>dt>M«MBtbl . . 

of Blunc *Bd GoenI U. & Gnst— John Shcrmu ol Ohio alu 
'1a (oUonfaw— MraMlcd tbraoik thiny-tli 

4 PnBdmt Cu&kl wd 

JB ol the oluet br Pnidait ClKUer A. ArUnu, he 

bcld the "ffi^ oolj UBlH PtrwihiT lUi. Hii bticf lervlGa vu 

Ameiicu coDtinenti he noil 
which,aftcTbeiii|UTMifMfM, mifniitntedl . 
He alio aooiht to wcure ■ Riodi6c*tloa of the CUytoa-Bslwci 
Imty, tai in u atcnded conopaodeact with the Britiih 
CmnuneolitcoDiIyiuened the policy of wuuhuivo AmtiJcui 

Albiatk ad Pudfic oceuu. 

With uDdinuzuihed bold Da the iizugiu.tioa tad devotion of 
bit foUowen be m nomiiutai foi president in ita*. Alui * 
heated onvui, is shich be nude i Kiiei of biillijint ipeedte^ 
be wu bealcD by a aurow maigin in Nev Voik. By muy, 
including BUine bimKlT, the delut vu iltribuled to Ibe eSecl 
ot ■ phraie, " Riioi, Konunism and Rebellion," lued by a 
cleriyiniui. Rev. Samuel D. Buichard (iSii-iSgi), on Ibe >glb 
ol Oirlobei l £84, in Blaine's presence, to cbaractcriie abat, in hit 
opinion, the Democntic parly stood for. The phraae wu not 

altitude loward the Roman Calliobci, laige numbcn ol wtioDi 
■re supposed, in coniequence, la have wiihdnim Ibeir support. 
Refusing to be a presidential candidate In iSSS, be became 
aecretary ol tUle under President Harrison, and resumed hii 
woA -hich had been in temjpled nearly eight years before. The 
PaA-Amrfican congress, then projected, now met in Washington, 
and Blaine, as lis master spirit, presided over and guided lu 
debbentlon Ihmugh iu session ot five manlbi. Its 

Shaping Ih 

IT irdpTOdty in trade, 

lariB legislation (or this policy, Blaine BcgoUated a 
r o( nclpfocity tieiiiei which augnMnied ihe eom- 
mace ol his caunlty. He upheld American rights in Samoc, 
pursued a vigwoui diplomacy with Italy over Um lynching of 
eleven luliant, aQ eicepl three of Ibem American naluraliied 

altitude during the itralned lelaliou between the United Stales 
and Chile (growing laigely out ol the kilting and wounding ol 
AmericSB aaihm of the U.S. ihip " Baltimore " by Chilean m 
Valpaniso oa Ihe i6lh of Octaber 1S41), and cairied on wiih 
Gnat BiilalD • resolute coatraveny over tlie teal fisbctiea of 
Bering Sea, — adJSerenceafterwatdoeiltedbyarbltntiaii. He 
migoed on (be 4th ol June I tfi, 00 the eve of tbe meeting ol Ihe 
Scpuhliean national coavention, wherein hia name was IneBectu- 
ally UKd, and te died at Washington, D.C, on thi i;th of 

Doling hk kler yean ol lefaun he mile TwaUy Yiert aj 
Cntrat (1U4-1U6), a billlianl hiatorieal work in two volumes. 
Of lingulalty alert lacultiet, with a remarkable knowledge ol ibe 
inn and liistoiy of hi) coonlry. and an eitnotdinary memory. 
his muterlul takst lor poHtica and ttate-craft, logttber with 
bis captivating manner and engaging penmality, give biir, lor 
nearly two decades, an uniivalled hold upon the fealty and 
affectim ol his party. 

Sec tlie Bif'pij ^ J""' G. Slaiw (Norwich. Conn., tS^j) by 
htiry AUiaU Dodr ("Gail Haiailnn''). sod. in (he -'Am^ican 
SutemcD Seiiei." Jaim G. Bttiu (BcBoii. loos) by C. E. Bun- 
wood; aUsUnBhiiie'*irfIKr><i9D8). (C E. S.} 

auamUMt Bsm uuat DncsorAT di (utt-isso), 

French natoraliM, was born at Arques, near Dieppe, on Ihe 
■ ilhol Septembo' 1777, Aboul iitfi he went to Paris to study 
pointing, but he ultimately devoted hlmsell Is nalnnl history, 
and attracted the atlentioo of Baroa Covltr. for whom be 
ly Jectured al the CoUtge de Franca and at Ibe 

AthaB«ua- IniSiibewualdedbyOivterloobiainOiechntr 

of UBiomy and toology b Ibe Faculty ol Sdencti at Paris, but 
aubaequeoUy an ati«ngemEnl grew up between the two men 
and ended in open eomily. In 1S15 BlaiovOle was admitted 
a member ol the Academy of Scicncoi and in iRjo be was 
appofntad to succeed J. B. Lsniarck ia the duir of aaluni 
tdsloryal the musaum. Two years later, on tbe deaib of Cuvier, 
ho obtained Ihe chaii ol comparaiive analooiy, which be con- 
tinued 10 occupy lot Ibe ^ace ol eighteen years, proving bin- 
•ell no nsworthy successor Is his great teacher. Ue died at 
Faiti on Ihe lit of May iSja Besides many tepaiate memoira, 
be waa the author of Frtiramt fmt tumUt dubitalin mllk»- 
ijfw im tin* oouul ('itt>)\ OMtpafkit m iaaipiiim 
icimtpatki^at eomparit dm ifutialt, Ste. (i8]^iSi4); ^dUH 
framtaiu (laii-rSjo); Cfari j* fkytitltpt ttnlrtU tl eamfarle 
(i8]j)i Uanad dt malaalatU a i4 anckylulept (iSas-iBij); 
BiiUm du icieKu lU fKr^oainw (iS45)- 

BLUR, FRABCU PRBTON (i;«t-tg76). Americas Journa- 
list snd p<ditidan, waa bom at Al^ngdoa, Virginia, on the t Jib 
of April I7gi. He removed lo ILeDtucky, graduated at Trantyt 
vaoia Doiversiiy in iBii, look to journalism, aod was a 
csotiibuior lo Amos Kcodall'i paper, Ibe Ai[hi, at Frank- 
lort. In iSjo, having become an ardent (oUower of Andrew 
Jackson, he waa made editor of the Washington Ctoie, ihe 
tecDgniaed organ of the Jackson party, la this capacity, and 
as a member of Jackson's " Kiicheo Cabinet," he long eiericd 
a powerful influence: the C«f« was ihe administraiioa organ 
until 1&41, and the chief Democratic otgin until 184;; Blair 
ceased In be Its edilor io 1S49. In 1S48 he actively supported 
Mittin Van Buren, the Free Soil candidate, for the presidency, 
and in 1851 he supported Franklin Pierce, hut soon afterwards 
helped to organiie Ibe new RepubLcan parly, and presided 
at lis prelitninary convention al I^itsburg, IVnnsylvania, in 
February iSsS, He was bflueotisl in securing the nomination 
of John C. Fitmont at Ibe June convention (iSjfi), aod ot 
Abrabani Uncoln In i860. Aller Lincoln's re-election b 1U4 
Blair Iboughl thai bis lonner dose perianal relatlant with the 
Confederate leaden might aid in bringing about a ccuatlOD of 
hostilities, and with Ltocoln'g cocxnt went unofficially 10 
Richmond and Induced Presidtnl JelTerioa Davis to appdnt com- 
missioners to confer with rtpresenuiives ol the United Statea. 
This resulted in the [utile " Hampton Roads Conference " ol the 
3rd of February 1865 (see LmcoLji, Abeaoah). After the Ciidl 
War Btair became a supporter of President Johnsoo'i recoa- 
llructjon policy, and eventually rejoined Ihe Democralic party. 
He died at Silver Spring. Maryland, on the igib of October 1870. 

His son, MoKTCOUEBT Blau (iSij-ifI8j), politician and 
lawyer, was bora bi FnnUin county. Kenlucky, on the lotb ol 
May iSii. He graduated al West Point In 1835. but, after a 
year's service In the Seminole War. left the army, studied law, 
and began practice at St Louis, MistnuH. After serving at 
United Slates district atlomey (1RJ9-1S43), as mayor ol SI 
Loud (iB^i-iB^j). and as Judge of the coutt of common plea* 
(iB«3-i84o), he removed to Maryland (iSj)). and devoted 
himseli 10 law practice principally in Ihe Federal aupreme courL 
He was United Elates solicitor in the court of claims from rSjj 
until i8s8, and was associated with George T. Curtis at counsei 
for the ptainllfl In Ihe Dred Scott oie in 1857. In iMohe took 
an iciJve pari in the ptesidenibU campaign in behalf ol Lincoln, 
In whose cabinet he waa poatmaner-genetal from i£6t until 
September ift64, when be resigned at a resull ol the boslililjr 
of the Radical Republican [action, wbo stipulated that Blair's 
reilrement should follow the withdrawal of Fremont's name as 
a candidate for the prealdential nomioation in that year. Under 
his adminisiratiaB luch reforms and btipiovements as ihe 
establishment of free cily delivery, the adoption of a irHney 
order system, and the use of raQway null on were insllluled 
•— the last having been suggested by George B. Armslrong 
(d. 1871), ol Chicago, who from 1S64 until his death was general 
superintendent ol the United States railway msU KTVka. 
DiHering Irom the Republican party on the reconstruction policy, 
Blaii pve hii adbenmct lo the DcBKicraiic party after th* OiS, 



Wu. BediedUSavaSpctD(,Uu^uid,ODlhe tTtbdfJnly 

Aaotber Kin, Fmhcm PunoH Bun, Jon. (i<)>--iBl5)> 
kUio uid poliliol laiet, wu bora at LcimgtMi, Kentuckj, 
« ihe igtb of Febniuy iSii. After KndiutiDg >t Prlncetan 
In 1841 be pncijsed Uw in St Lonii. and lata scmd la Ibc 
Hnicu Wir. He iru ardently vppoKd to Ibe citcniioii of 
■Uveiy ud lupporUd Mirtio Van Bu»B, the Fm Soil c*n- 
didaie For the pKudency io 1S48. He Mrved from iSji to iSjO 
In the Miuouri lejiilature u i Fiee Soil Deraocnl. In iBje 
Joioed the Republiatn piny, and in 1857-1860 and 1S61-1K1 
■u ■ merabef of Congma, where be proved an able debater. 
ImiBcdiitel)' ifta South Carolina'] leccsloo, Bldr, believing 
that the (outticrD kldm vere planning to tiny Miiwuri into 
the movemeni, began active effoiu to prevent it and penonaUy 
orgasiied ud equipped * Kcret body of 1000 men to be ready 
(or the emergeacy. When hoitilitje* became Inevitable, acting 
b conjunction with Ciptiln Qatet General) Nathaniel Lyon, 
be suddenly tranifcrred the iimi la tbe Federal arsenal at 
St Louii to Alton, Illinois, aod a few days later (May lo. lS6t) 
turrounded and captured a force of stale guardl which had 
been sutloned at Camp Jickion in tbe suburbi of St Louit wiib 
tbe in teotion of leiiing the aneniL This action gave the Fcdetil 
caiiM a dediive initial advantage In Misuuri, Blair was pro- 
moted brigadier-general of vclunteen in August iSOa and a 
nujcr-general In November 1S63. In Congress as chairman of 
tbe icaportant mitiliry afiain cominiliee bii services were ol 
Ihe greatest value. He commanded a division in tbe Vicksburg 
campaign and in tbe Sgbiing about Chattanooga, and was one of 
Sherman's corps commanders in tbe final campaigns in Georgia 
and the Carolina!. In 1S66 like his father and brother he 
apposed tbe Congresiioail reconiiniclion policy, and on that 
issue lelt Ibe Republican parly. In 1&6B he was the Demo- 
Seymour. In 1S71-18;] be was a United States Knator from 
Miuouri. He died in St Louis, on the Sth of July i8;i. 

BLAin, HnOH (171S-1800), Scottish Freshylerian divine. 
■ai bom nn the 7th of April 1718, at Edinburgh, where bii 
fathei wu a mercbaat. Entering the university in 1730 he 
graduated M.A. in i7jgi hi* thesis, Dt FiMJatHtjUit el Obilta- 
lifnt Ufii NalMrtt, contains an outline of the moral principles 
afterwards unfolded in hi* sermons. He wu Ucetued to preach 
in 1 741. and a tew months later the carl of Leven, hearing of bis 
eloquence, presented him 10 the parish of Collesiie in Fife. In 
1 74} he was elected to tbe second charge of the Canongate church, 
Edinburgh, where he mioiitered until removed toLjidy Yeiter's, 
one of the diy churches. In 1754. In 17J7 the uolvenily of 
St Andrews conferred on him the degree of D.D., and In Ibe 
following year be was promoted to the High Church. Edinburgh, 
tbe moil Important charge in Scotland. In 1759 be began, 
under tbe patronage of Lord Karnes, to deliver a course of 
lectures on compoution, tbe success of which led to the foundation 
of a chair of rhetoric and Mia ItOtii in the Edinburgh Univenily. 
To this chaii be wu ai^nied in ^^&l, with 1 salary ol £70 1 

S^ar. Having long talien Interest in the Celtic poetry of tbe 
ighltndi, he published in 17AJ ■ Uuditoty DuitrUtitii on 
Uacpherson's Oiiian, the authenticity ol which be maintained. 
In t]77 the first volume of bis Serivrm appeared. It wu 
succeeded by four other volumes, all of whicb met with Ihe 
greatest success. Samuel Johnson praised them warmly, and 
tbey were translated Into almost every language of Europe. 
In 1780 George ID. conferred upon Blair a peniion of tno a 
year. In 178J be retired from his professorship and published 
bia Uclura tn JiAeioric. which have been frequently reprinted. 
Be died on tbe >7th of December 1800. Blair belonged to the 
"moderate" or latiiudinarian party, and hit Sament have 
been critidied as wanting in doctrinal defiaitenesa. His works 
display little ottginality. but are written in ■ Bowing and 
ebborate style. He is remembered chiefly by the pla« he fills 
Inihcliieratureofhlatime. £/sir'i5(n<ignii]a typical religiDus 
book of the period that preceded the Anglican revival- 
Sec J. Hall. AcHnin ifLiJiafd Wrilut' tf H%[!> Blair (Itaj). 

(1A56-174JI, Amerioii dMne and cdnn- 
m Scotland, probably at Etfinbuigh, in tbji. 
K. at Edinburgh University tn 1S73. was 
benetual In the Episcopal Church in Scotland, and for > tins 
wu rector of Cninstoa Parish in tbe diocese of Edinburgh. In 
16S] be lelt Scotland for England, and three yean later wu sent 
by tbe Uibop of London, Henry Compion, u a missionary to 
Virginia. He soon gained great influence over the colonists both 
in ecdeslutical and in civil affairs, and, according to Prof, Moses 
Coit Tyler. " probably no other man in Ihe colonial time did so 
much for Ihe Intellectual life of Virginia." He wu the minister 
of Benrlco parish from leSj until 1694, of Ihe Jamestown church 
fiom 1694 until 1710, and of Bnilon church at Willlimsbutg 
from 1710 until his death. From 1689 until his death bewai Ihe 
commissary of the bishop of London for Virginia, tbe highest 
ecclesiasiiol position In the colony, his duties consisting " in 
visiting tbe parishes, Qirrectlng the Uves of Ihe dergy, and 
keeping them orderly," In 169], hy tlie appointment of King 
William m., he became a member ol the coundl of ViTpnU, 
of whicb be was for many years Ibe president. Largely because 
of charges brought against them by Blair, Governor Sir Edmund 
And™, Ijeutenant -governor Francis Nicholson, and Ueuteiunl- 
govemor Aleiander Spotswood were removed in 1698, 170J and 
iTii respectively. Blair'a greatest -service to the colony wai 
under, and Ihe president from ifiij uniH his 
ge of William and Mary, (or which he himself 
secured a charter in En^nd. "Thus, James Blair may be 
called," says Tyler, " the creator of the healthiest and most 
eiienslve intellectuat Influence that was fell in ifie Soulbem 
group of colonies before tbe Revolution." He died on the iStb 
of April I743i and was buried at Jamestown, Va. He published 
a collection of (17 discounei under the title Our SaiianT'i 
DniiuSrrmm in IkiUnnI (4 vols., 1711; second edition. i7ja), 
and, In coUaboialion with Henry Hartwell and Edward Chilton, 
a work entitled Tlu Frisna Slel€ tf KiVfiiiia oikI lie CeiUf 
(1717; written in ifiQj), probably the best account of the 
Virginia of that time. 
See Daniel E. Motley's l!fi rf iTomniiiory /sihi Bkir (SaltimoR, 
101 ; series luo. Ka._>p. at ihe John. Hopkins Univerailv SiudJc* 

Irred u lb 

I Hialoii 

k. IS78). 

A ituiory of Anu 

BUIB, ROBERT (ifi4«-i746), Scottish poet, ddat son of 
the Rev. Robert Blair, one of the king'a chaplains, wu bun at 
Edinburgh in 1609. He wu educated at Ediabutgh Univeralty 
and In Holland, and in r7j< was appointed to tbe living ot 
Alhclstaneford In East Lothian. He married in i7]8 Isabella, 
daughter of Professor WilUan Law. Hie posaeseion of a imall 
loitune gave him leisiire for bia favourite purauita. ^rdenlng 
and the study of English poets. He died at Athelstanefoid on 
the 4th ot Februaiy 174*. His only considenble woA, r*e 
Crow (i743)> is a poem written in bknk verse of great vigour 
and (reshneii, and la much less conventional than its ghximy 
subject might lead one to eipecl. Its religious subject no doubt 
contributed to Its great popularity, especially In Sootlaod; but 
the vague it attained was Justified by its picturesque Imageiy 
and occasional felicity of cipcestian. It Inspired Williani Blake 
to uniieruke a seties of Iwdve iUnslrative dtsignti which veit 
engraved by Louis Schiavonetti, and published lo iloS. 

" ' Wogranhicaljntroduetion prtliaed to hitPmtietlWtrll, 

by Dr Robert A 

,a Us Putt tf Gnat BrUain, 

BLAIR ATHOLL (Gaelic Uiti-, "a plain"], a village and 
parish of Penhahire, Scotland, jsJ m. N.W. of Perth by the 
Highland railway. Pop. (1901) 367; of parish, 1711. It ts 
situated at the confluence of Ihe Tilt and the Garry. Tbe oldest 
part ol Blair Cutle. a seat of tbe duke of Aiholl, dates from 
iifig; u restored and enlarged in 1869-1S71 from the plau ol 
David Bryce, R.S.A., it is a magnlGccnt eumple of the Scottish 
baronial style. It wu occupied by tbe marqucu of Uonirosc 
prior to the battle of Tippermuir in 1(44, stormed by the Cmni- 
welliam la i6s3, and garrisoned on behalf of James H. In iA8«. 
The Young Pretender suyed in It in 174S1 and tbe duke ol 


11740. The body of VbcouDt Dondic, convejcd 
Utber fran Ihc baltkMd el KUIhauUc, «u burial 1b the 
cborcb o( Old BItIr, in whkh ■ Dooumail *ii cncted lo hEs 
Bcmory in itlo by Ihc jlb duke sf AlbolL The iroundi 
nnounditit the (utie ut aiDong the nxat beuUful hi ibe 
Highkiub. A foU ownc hu beta laid dowD uulk-cut o( Ibt 
Tilliie. belwKD ihc tiilvky and th« Girry, ind every SepUnbet 
1 (rear diiphy of Kiihlind (imM I* held. Ben-y-^oe (jfiyi ft. 
hi^), Ibe Keoe of (he hunt givm in ijtQ by Uw eirl of AlboB 
ia honour of Jima V. Ind the queen domier, may be cHmbcd 
by w«y of Fender Bum, a lefi-hand tribuUry o( ibe Tilt. The 
fan* of Fender, near the old bridge of Till, are tdipHid by the 
lalli of Bruar, * a. out of Blair Alboll, fermtd by the Bniar, 
■Ucb riataf in Ben Dtug (3304 fi-), Sain into the Gtcry kfter 
in impetiMHU awrie of le m. 

■LAIBSOVRU, ■ vaila bargfa at PeithsUre, Scotland, 
■Itnilcd OB the Eifcht. Fop. (tfoO sni- It i> ihe teiminui 
al > bnnch tint of Ifat CaledeDJan railway front Coupar Angua, 
Inm •hich It it 4I n- dlatant. and it iS m. N. by E. of PertK by 
imA. Tbt torn ii enlireiy oiodeni, and owti itt pcopaa to the 
mier-poiRr tupplied by the Eriiht for niun and juie bctotiei. 
There ate alio aawmaii, bretKriea and • lar(c lactoty lor bee 
aiipliaiKxa. Sin'bcrriea. nipbtnia aad other fnriti are 
luicly iRivB in ihe oeighbouihoBd. A park mi pcnenlcd to 
tbc ton in ilgi. On Uie left bank of Ihc EfichI, opfnaiie 
BlaiiCDwiie. with which it ii conneitled by a fourarched bcidge, 
itasd* the town and policx burgh of Rattiay (pop. toio), when 
tbete an Bai and iuie milli. Donald Caifill the Covenaoter, 
who wai cietuLcd et Edinburgh, wai a native of Ihc raritb. 
Fourmilea well ol Blairgowrie, oo the coach nad to Donkdd, lie* 
Loch Clunie, of aom* inicreit hiaierically. Ob a ciatiiMi ia the 
lake are the ruin* of a unall cailk which belonged lo Jamei 
<" the Admit able "} Crichion. and Ihe latfc mottad near Ibe bch 
■at the li le of the caiik in wlikh Edwaid L lodfcd OB ODB ol hii 
Scotlith eipedilioni. 

BUKB. EOWAIU) (iSjj- ), IriitCanadian ititctman, 
ddeil ton of WiUian Hume Blake ot Caibel Gnnre, Co. Calway, 
who aniJed in Canada In iSji, and then becamea diatinguitbcd 
lawyer and chancellai of Oniario, vu bora on the ijlh of 
Oclober iSii at Adelaide in Uiddlciei county. Ontario. Edo- 
oilcd al Upper Canada College and the univenily of TonotOt 
Blake wu called 10 the bar in 1S5A and quickly olrtaintd a good 
ptactice. becoming Q.C. in 1S64. In 1M7 he wai elected member 
far Wnt Duihuc in the Dominion pariiament, and for South 
Bruce in the ptDvindal legiilatUR, in which he became leads 
of Ihe Liberal oppotiiioD two yean lata. On ibe defeat of John 
Sindfr''* Uacdooald'i govemmenl in iS;i Blake became priot 
oiijutter of Ontario, but leugned thit office the aame yeat lo 
(Oiuequence of the abulition of dual repreieBtatian. HedecUned 
tbc tctdei^ip ol the Liberal party In the Dominion parliament, 
but. having uken an active pari in biingingabout tbeonrthrow 
of Sir John llacdonatd'i miniiiry in iS)), joined tho Liberal 
cabinet <rf Alexander Uackmie, though witboM portfolio or 
aaUiy. Impaired health loon compeUcd him to redtn, and lo 
take Ibe voyage to Eun^; oo hii ntum b i8;5 be rejoined 
the cabinet ai miniiier oi luiucc, in which office It fell to Mm to 
take Ihe chief part In liamlng Ihe conilitution ol the lUpmne 
court of Canada. Continued ill.hallh compelled him b 1B77 
apintoieek reit in Europe, having Gnt BChangcd thapoitfollo 

During bia ibiena the Libenl gnvetnment wai driven Itom 
power by tlu clectioni of 1S7S; and Blake himself, haviag 
bilcd to Mcure n.eleciion, wu for a abort lime without a teat 
la pailiament. From iSSoIoiSS7hcwuleaderoftheappoaItion, 
being lucceeded on hit reiignaiion of the potilion ia iba latlei 
year by Mr lalUrwaidi Sir) Wilfrid Lauiicr. In tSgi be btcame 
a mcmberof I he B rilith Kouie of Coomom as an Iriifc Nallooaliit, 
being (Ircled for South Loogfoid Bui be did not fulfil the 
eiwecuiioai which had been fonned 00 the itcen(tb of hi* 
■--'--lovtiy-- ' - ^..— 

Uarfant, dangler id Bodamb Cnqn, fat UAop «l • 


See John ChaiVi l>nl. TU laa rutj Ymn: CamaU Smit tl 
Vmin 4/ ilti vob.. ToroMo, laSlj; ]. &. WlUim, Sir WilfrU 
latriii and lit LiUrai Par^ [1 vda., Loadon. igof}. 

BUUn, ROHBT (iskkiAst), EngliA pariliiBenlarian and 
admin], *aa born al Bridgwaltr is S wneric ta hiro. Tfaa day ol 
Ui birth ii not koowo, bnl be mt bapdanl on the I7lh ol 
Septemba ijM. Blake waa lb ddcit ko of a wdl4Mlo 
meicbaBl. arid lecdrcd hit eariy educalloB at the gnnmar 
acluol of Bridgwater. In idij he wu lent to Oifbrd, entering 
at Gnl SI Alban'i Hall, bnt removing aftarvanb to Wadbam 
CoUegc, then recently founded Be remalBRl *t tht tuifvtnliy 
tin i6ji, bul failed 10 obtain aayooUeie pufcn n n rt. Nothbgii 
known of hi* life with certainty for llw nnl IflctD yeara. An 
anonynwa* Dutch wriur, b the HtOaiMiclK Mtrtat^ {t<5*). 
ttptatnti Um ai nyin( Ihat ha had Brcd b Schiedam ** fin Ive 
tx all yean " b U> yoMli. H* dotditloi engaged fn tnde, and 
appaitntly with nRia. When, after etevea yean of UngiUp 
withoul parifamenti, a pariiamnit wai lammoned to Beet b 

Thli paitiamenl. named " the Short," waa dimolved b three 
weckt, and tlte ixreer of Blake ai a politician wai mpended. 
Two yean liler Ilie Inevitable coofllcl brgan. Blake dedared 
fee the Pariiamest, and lerved nnder Sir John Horwr. In 1643 
he wa> eolnuted with ibtcoinniandaFonfraf iheforuolBiiilo). 
Hill Im uoully held dmlog Ibe licge ol the town by Prince 
Rnpen, and earned Ibe approval of parllaraeoi by refusing lo 
■urtcDder U* pott lIU dniy tnlormed of ilw capliulatioB. In 
■644 he gained Ugh diftlnctloo by the lentalc defence of Lyme 
b Donenhii«k Tat ilefe wa* i^td on iht tjrd of May, and ob 
ihe Sib ol July Bkke look Taunton by nupciK, and itotwltb- 
itandbg 111 imperfect dcfeMci and inadrqvale nippBn, beM Ibe 
town for the ParUamtnt againir two iletei by Ibe Royaliils 
until Jtdy 1(45, when it wa* rdined by Falilai. In ifi^s he 
n^atend parliament at Biemher for Tannton, wben the Ko^litt 
Colonel Windham wai eipdad. 

He adberrd 10 the Paifiamcntary party after the king's death, 
and vithb a month (Ftbmaiy 1649) waa appointed, wilb 
Colooela DtiB and Fopbam, to the command of the Beet, nnder 
the title of Genetal of the Sea. In April he vu aect In punuit 
of Prince Rupert, who with the Royaliit fleet had entered the 
baibosr of Kfauale In Inland. Theie he blockaded the prina 
for ill monlbti and when ihe latter, Fn want of provfslort^, and 
bopelea of nUef, inrceeded in making Ut octpe with the fleet 
and b reachbg Ihe Tagua, Blake folbwed hira thither, and again 
blockaded him fnriomemOBlb*. The king of Portugal refming 
permhlioo lor Blake to attack U* enemy, Ibe taltti made re- 
piiiabby hUing on the PortDgucae SecI, richly laden, retunlng 
from BriiiL He captmod icnnteen ihipi and burnt thm, 
biinging hit piina bome without moleitition. After revictual- 
Ibg hii fleet, be lallod agaia, captmed a Frendi man-of-war, and 
thni ponntd Pilnee Rupert, who had been aiked to go away 
by Ibe PoDBiBeie and had entend the Mediterranean. Id 
November idso Blalm dcatreycd the bulk ct the Royalist 
■qnadnm near Cartagena. The Ihanki of parlkment wcrr voted 
to Blaka, and he mxlved a grant of £ioao. Re wu contbiued 
In hli ollica of admiral and general of the tea; and b Hay 
followbg he took, hi oonfaoctton with Ayicue, Ihe SdDy Iilandi. 
For lUa aeivica tha thiAkt of parliament were agab awarded 
bim, and be wta aoon after nude a member of the council of 

In i4si war bnke out with tho Dutch, who had made groit 
prepoiatloni for Ihe conflict. In March Ibe command of the 
fleet waa given to Blake for nine monlhi; and b the middle al 
May Ibe Duicb fleet of forty-five ihipi, led by their great admiral 
Troop, appeared b the Down^ Blake, who had only twenty 
iMpa, lalled to meet them, and the battle took place off Dover 
00 Ibe iQtb of Hay. The Dutch wen defeated b an engagement 
of four 01 Eve boon, leat two ahipi, and withdraw under covet 
of darhneat. Attempt* al accommodation *eie made tnr the 
tUle*,but IbeylaDed. Eiilyb July war wta brmallydediRd, 



. ud ia Uk nne mcnlli Bltki nptnm) t. Iiise put ol the Duldi 
Gihny-flHi md iht iwtlve men-ol-irir ihii formtd their convoy. 
On the iSih of Scpiember Blake uid PcnaagiiociKOunlcred Ihe 
Dutcb Bret, now comniindcd by De Ruylcr ud De Wilt. oS 
the Kmlitb Knock, defeated it. lad ch^ised it for 1*0 days. 
The Dutch look refuge in Coree. A Ihiid battle wts fought 
Bear the end ol November. By ihis tioie the shipi undei Blakt't 
command had bef reduced in number to foity, and neaily the 
ball o( these »ere uselea foe want of seamco. Tromp, who 
had been icinatated in command, appeared in the Ddwju, with 
a Sect of dghty ihipj besida len fiisliips. Bbke, tievenheleB, 
liiked ■ batlle-oa DuogtMii. but was defeated, and wiilidnw 
into the Thamei. The EnilBh Seet having been nfilied, put 
to lea again in Febiuuy lisa and on the iSih Blake, at the 
bead of eighty ahips, encountered Tromp in ths Channel. The 
Dutch force, (ccording lo Clarendon, numbeitd loa ihipt ol 
*ar, but according lo the official reports of the Dutch, only 
Mvcnty. Tha battle was severe, and continued tbtoogh three 
day*, the Dutch, however, retreitlnf, and taking refvge in the 

severely wounded. The three English admiraii put to Ka again 
ia May; and on the jrd and 4th of June another bailie was 
fought neai the Nortb Foreland. On Ihe fint day Deio uid 
Uoak Wire repulsed by Tronip: but on Ihe second <ky the solea 
were turned by the arrival of fiUke, and the Dutch retrealed to 

ni-bcalth now compelled Blake to nlirt from the icrvice lor 
■ time, and he did not appear afain OD the KM foi about eighteen 
months; meanwhile he aat as t member of the Liltle Parliuaent 
(Barebonei's}. In November ills4 be *u (elected by Cromwdl 
to conduct a fleet to the Mediterranean to cud compeasaiion 
from thedukeoITuscany,iheknighu^Milta,aad the piratical 
■tatei of North Africa, for wrongs done to Engliah merchants. 
This mission he executed with hia accostomed aptrit and with 
complete success. Tunis alone dared to resist hts demands, and 
Tunis paid the penally of the destruction of iti two fortresMs 
by English guns. In the winter of 1655-1656, war being dcdaied 
■Bunst Spain, Blake was sent to cruise oS Cadis and the Deigh- 
bouiing coasts, to intercept the Spanish sfiii^iiag. One ol his 
captains captured a pan ol the Plate Sett In September 1656. 
In April 1A57 Blake, then in very ill health, suffering from 
dropsy and scurvy, and anxious Ig have assistance in his arduous 
duliea, heard that the Plate Seet lay at anchor in the bay ol 
Santa Cnu, In the island of TcnetiSe. The poaition.was a very 
slroDg one, delcnded by a castle aod several forts with guns. 
Under the shelter ol ibese lay a Seet of sixteen ships drawn up 
in crescent order. CaptainStaynervuordered to enter the bay 
and fall on Ihe fleet. Thishedid. Blakelollowed him. Broad- 
tides wen poured into Ihe castle and the lotts at the mme time; 
and soon nothing was left but ruiiwd walls and charred itagmenls 
ol burnt shipi. The wind was blowing hard into the bay; hut 
mddeniy, and foctunatcty for the heroic Blake, it skilled, and 
carried him safely out to sea. " The whole action." says Clar- 
endon, "was so incredible that all men who knew the pbce 
wondered that any sober man, with what coumgs soever en- 
dowed, would ever have undeit>ken II ; sad they could hardly 
persuade Ibemselvta to believe whal they had done; white 
the Spaniards comforted themselves with the belief that they 
were devila and not men who had destniyed them tn such a 
manner." Tbe English lost one ship and 100 men killed and 
wounded. The thanks ol parliament were voted to officers and 
men; and a very coatly jewel (diamond ring) was presented to 
Blake, "as a testimony," says Cmmweil in his letter of lolh 
June, "ol out own and the parliament's good acceptance of 
your ctniage In this action." " This was ihc last action ol the 
brsve Blake." 

Aliei sgain craisiag far a time oS Cadii, his health tailing 
more atui more, he was compelled to make homeward* belare 
the summer ma ovn. He died at aea, but within sight of Ply- 
month, on the i;th of August 1657. Mis body was brought to 
Idndon and embalmed, and alter lyini in state at Greenwich 
House was inlcmd with great pomp4ad •olmnl ly Id Westmlnstei 

Abbey. In 1661 Chtcle*n.ordeted the eihumatioiof BUc^ 
body, with Iho« of tbe mother and daughter of Cromwell ud 
several others. They were cast out of the abbey, and wtie 
reburicd in the churchyard of St Margaret's. " But that re^td," 
Bays Johnson, "which was denied bis body has been paid to hia 
belter remains, his name and hit mcmoiy. Nor has any writer 
dated to deny him die praise of inliepidity, bonetty, Donlempt 
of wealth, and love of his country." Clarcodon best* the loUow- 
ing testimony (o his excellence as a commander^—" He WIS tbe 
&tst man that declined the old track, and made it appuenl llut 
the science might be altnined in leas time than wu imagined. 
He was the Hist man that broughtsbipstoconiemntastlesonthe 
shore, which had ever been thought very formidable, but werv 
discoverrd by him lomakea noise onl^ and to fright thoacwbo 
could be rarely hurt by them." 

A me af Blske is included in the work entitled Um. Ea^H ant 
Fortirw. DTjoha*Hiwnieashartlileolhin.and>n iSuanpeamt 
Hepworth Uion's luDer narrative. Stttrl Blaki. Ai<i^"i iiiil 

be found in Ihe l^lm mi Ptttn SlIiaititltAt fira DiOck War, 
edited by S. R. Cardinr lor (bl Navy Riconls Society (igas-lftn-) 
BLAKE, WILLIAM {rjST-tS}?). English poet and painter, 
was born in London, on the iSlh ol November 175;. Kit father, 
JimcsBlake.kepiahosier'tshop in Broad Street. Golden Squarei 
und from the seamy educaiioo which the young artist received, 
it may be judged that the circumstances of the family were not 
very prosperous. For the facts of William Bkke's early life 
tha world is indebted to a hltle book, called A Falka't 
Ucmalri OK a Child, written by Dr Malkin In 1806. Here we 
leam that young Blake quickly developed a latte for design, 
which bis father appears to have bad suffidenl IntellTgenea to 
recognise and assist by every means In his power. At the sge of 
ten Ihe boy was sent to a drawing school kept by Henry Para 
In Ihe Strand, and at the same time he was already cultivating 

rooms, where he wna known as the " iiiLle conninsseur," Here 
be began to collect prints after Michetangtto, and Raphael, 
DUrei and Ileemskerk. while at the school in Ihe Sliand ha 
bad the opportunity of drawing from the antique. After four 
years ol'lhis preliminary instruction Blakeentered upon another 
branch of art sv ' ' ...... 

, and with hi 

yeara. His apprenticeship had an important Ixariii 
artistic education, and marks Ihe department of art m whKB 
he wax made technically prohcicnL In 1778, at the end of his 
apprentlcesbip.be proceeded to tlte school of the Royal Academy, 
where he continued bis (uly study from the antique, and hid 
for the first time an opportunity of drawing from the living model. 
This Is Id brief all that is known of Blake's artistic education. 
Tbst be ever, at tbe academy or elsewhere, syslematicany 
studied painting we do not know; but that he bid already 
begun the practice ol water colour lor himself >■ atcertslned. 
So far, hawFver, the course ol his Ininlng in art schools, and 
under Basirc, was calculaled lo render him proficient only as a 
draughtsman and an engraver. He had learned how Lo draw, 
and he had mastered besides the practical diBicultiesof engraving, 
and with these qualiiicaiions he entered Dpoahiscamr. In 17S0 
he exhibited a picture in the Royal Academy Exhibition, con- 
jectured to ha vc been executed in water colour and he continued 
to crailribute to the annual tihibiUons up to the year iSeS. 
In 1 78> he matTicd Cstherine Boucher, the daughter of a mttltet- 
gardener at Batteisea. with whom he lived always on aSectioiute 
terms, and Ihe young couple after their maidage estabHtbed 
themselveB in Green Street. Leicester Fields. Blake had already 
become acquainted with some of the rising artists of U* tine, 
amongst them Siothard, Flaxman and Futeli, and he now began 
to tee something of literary society. At Ihe bouse of Ihe Rer. 
Henry Mathew, in Ralhhooe Plate, be used lo recite and sodw 
times losing poems of his own compoaitlon, and It was throu^ 
Ihe inSuence of this geDtleman, combined with that of Flaxman, 
that Blake'a first volume of poetry wat printed and pnbtlBlied in 
17S3. Fnim this time forward tbe artist came befon tin 
■rorld i> a double capodty. By education as w^ at natha 


mIoH, be wu plcdied 
Statin, thouih tbty ire on 
■ boy, *re no Ins dccitii 

Uk fife of ■ painter, ud thor pMlicat 

! oFtni no more Ihin (he mlenncn ot 

In milking Blake u > future 

For ■ vfeSe Ihe two (ffu ire cihibiud fn auodatian, Tto 
Oe dose of hii KTe Blakcnntlnuedtoprhitaodpuhlijii, tiM i 
maanct of U> OWD, the invcntloRi <i( kb vene Olujlralcd by 
■t^IBBl dedgns, but tbire 'a a ccniin period in bii career vbca 
(he unioB tt the t*o gift) b pecoEariy clow, and when Ihcir 
(erricclooMaDOIliccBunqualiotiable. In 1784 Blake, moving 
from Cnen Street, K[ op in eonpisy wiihafelloir-pupii, Farkcr, 
•s printacDer and engraver next to his father's house in Broad 
Street, Golden Square, but in 1787 this partnership was severed, 
taS he established an independent buuucss in Poland Sucel. 
Una Iron) this bouse, and in i;S7, tliat tbc Senii of iHiutna 
ven published, a work that must always be remarkable for 
beauty both of verse and ol design, is well *a for the lingular 
nethod by wbidi the two were combined and eiprrsitd hy Ih* 
artist. Blake became In fact his own printer and publisher. 
He engraved upon copper, by a proms devised by hinaeU, both 
the teil bI his poems and the surronnding decorative design, 
■ad to the page) printed From the copper plaies an ippioptlate 
eoJouFre^ wii afterwards added by hand. The poetic geiuui 
already discernible In the first volume of Patltel Slalcka Is 
bm more dedalvtly eipresjed, and some of the longj in this 
Tvlume deserve lotake rink with the best things of Ilieir kind In 
DVT literature. In an age ol enfeebled poetic style, when Wards- 
wcrrth, with more weighty apparatus, had as yet uarcely begun 
his reform of En^sh versification, Blake, unaided by any con- 
temporary Influence, produced a work of Fresh and living beauty; 
and if the 5'ngl e/ Imettna established 

11 to the ' 

also something more. For the fuB develop- 
: pgwen we have to wait till a later dale, 
exhibits a Just and original understanding of 
■rative beauty. Each page ol these poems 
, tuH of invention, and ollen wnught with 
the ntmoit delicacy of workminsMp. The artist retained to 
the end litis feeling for decorative effect ; but as time went on, 
he considerably enlarged the imi^native scope of his work, 
and decoration then became the condition rather than the aim 

Kotwjthstanding the distinct and predou* tpiaUtlea of thh 
T«lBine, it attiscted but slight attention, a Fad perhapa not very 
wonderful, when the system of publicalion is taken Into accounL 
Blake, however, proceeded with other work of the same kind. 
The same year he published Tlu Bfot i^ TM, more decidedly 
mystic in III poetry, but scarcely leu beautiful as a piece of 
ahiminatkni Tit tffininii ej Beavn end Hdl followed in 
i7«o-, and in iigj there are added Til Celt) c/Pvadist, Tlu 
Vtrtnr fl/l*e Oaa(*fari af AHieti, and tome other " PropheUi 
Sookl." It becomes abundantly dear on reaching this point 
in his career that Blake's ntteiances cannot be Jud^ by ordinary 
ruto. The JmgJBffiifiTieiKe, put forth In 1794 IS a companion 
to the earlier Snigio//ini«rii«,are for the most pan InteBigihle 
and coherent, but In these Intervening works c^ prophecy, as 
Ibey werr called by the author, we get the £n( public eipreisloa 
of that phase of his chaiacter and of his genius upon whidt a 
charge of Insanity has been founded, the question whether 
Blake waa or was not mad seems likely to remain in dispute, 
but there can be no doubt whilever that be wasil dlderent 
periods ol fab lih under the Influence of illusif 

' sanity as t 
ffd, it Is equal 

invobcd Id the itjcctionolUi work on this ground. Tbegresi 
•I Blake's ailDd is em better titabUAed than Its fruity, ar 
~ ig the woA tfcil be has left we must remember 
ot by any mental de 
« dearly dtattngublitd from hb EeUow*. With 
m e( the Smii tl BtfiritmiK^t't poetic c 


(d far at least ai ordinaiy readers are coacemeil, may be said to 
close. A writer of pcophecy bo continued lor many years, but 
Ibe works by which he ii bat known in poetry are those earHer 
and simpler cfibrts, supplemented by a few pieces taken from 
various sources, some of which were of later produciion. But 
although Blake the poet ceases In a general sense at this date, 
Blake the artist Is only just entering upon his career. In the 
5Mgf tl Imtara and Exftriem, and even bi some of the 
earlier Bttki tj Tnfkaj, the two gifts worked together in 
perfect balaooe and harmony; but at this point the luprcmacy 
of the ariiitie faculty asserts Itself, and for the retnalndtr of ha 
life Blake waa prHmlnenily a de^gner and engraver. The 
labour of poetloi] compeeltion continues, bvt the ptwduct 
passes beyond the range of general compiebension; wUle, with 
ipparent LxsnibteDcy, Ihe work of the artist gains steadily (n 
itiength and coherence, and never to tbe last ksci Ita bold vpoa 
he understanding. It may almost be said without exaggeralfoii 
that his earliest poetic work. The 5nigr o/ Iriiucaut. and neariy 
hi* latcit eSort In design, the iUustntioni to Tkt Bttt tf Job, 
nd moat admirable product* it 
. ilonishing enough at fint right, 
quite beyond a posalble explanation. As Blake advanced in hil 
poeliccareer, be was graduaBy hindered and finally overpowered 
tendency that was most lerviceaUe to him In derign. His 
uiion to substitute a symbol for a conception, to make an 
Image do duty for an Idea, became an Insuperable obitade to 
Bterary euccos. He endeavoured constantly to treat the 
Lterial of verse aa If It could be moulded into 


with tl 

le result that ai Ihe ideas It 

depth of D 

his poetic gifts became graduiBy more Inadequate to the task 
of interpretation. The earU'er poems dealing with Ampler 
and put forward at a time when the bent of the artist^ 
< not strictly determined , do not snSer from this dlKcnlly ; 
iboliim then only entichci an idea of no IniellecliMl 
IntriCMy; bat wlien Blake began to concern himself with 
profomider pioblema the want of a more logical understanding erf 
language made Itiell itrfUn^y ipparenL U Us ways of thought 
and mode* of woritminiUp had not been developed with an 
Intendty abnost morbid, he would probably have been able to 
dktingidik and keep separate the double functiani of art and 
UtenlBie. Asitis.hDwever,heremainsasaneitrtmeilluitr«tioo 
of tbe ucesdincy of the artistic faculty. For this tendency lo 
tnnsliteideumlolnuge, and Id find forevety thought, however 
umple or sublime, a precise and sensuous form, it e[ the essence 
of pure artistic invention. Ii this be accepted as the dominant 
bent ot Biske'i genius, ft Is not so wnndcrrful that hli work In 
art shoflld have strengthened hi proportion as his poetic power* 
' ' " ■ rhether the oplanation (itis£es all the requite- 

I of the ca 

t, the fac 

looked by any student of Blake's career. 

In i7ij6 Blake was activdy employed In tliework of Illuitratiotl. 
Edwards, a bookseller o( New Bond Street, projected 1 new 
edilioo of Young's Nitia TkmiUi, and Stake was dieaen to 
iltuilrate the work. It wasto have been Issued In parts, but for 
some reason not very dear the enterprise failed, and only a 
first part, induding forty-lhree designs, wat given to the world. 
These designs were engraved by Blake himself, and they art 
Intensting not only for their own merit but for the peculiar 
system by which the niusiration has been associated with the 
text It was afterwards discovered that the artist had executed 
originil designs in water-colour for the whole letloi, and these 
drawing!, 537 hi number, form one of the most tntereitlng 
records of Blike's genius. GUchriit, the painter's bIogn;dier, 
in commenting upon the engraved platei, regrets Ihe abaenc* 
of colour, " ibc use of which Blake 10 well understood, to tetiev* 
his ^mple design and give it ilgnlficance," and an examinatioa 
ol the origbal water-colour drawingt Fully lunnrti the Justin 
of his criticism. SoiHi after Ihe publkattoo of tbli work Blake 
waa Introduced by Flaxman to the poet Hayley, arhl In the year 
ilot be accepted the suggestion at the litter, that be should 
take up hit residence at Felpham in Suiaca. The mild and 


uaUik poM bad phnatd to vritc > life of Cowper, tad for lie 
fUauntloa of tfak uid othet vorki be Kugtit Bhke't btlp uid 
compuiionihipk The nndena it Fdphim contiDiKd lor (luce 
yctn. puUy plouul ind puUy irkumi to BUe, bul ippu- 
colly net veiy prsttiUc [o the pnnre ii ol hii in. One oi tbe 
uuKQiMKei of bit ■Uy ni ■ milidoiu piwcution 
■et OD fool by ■ commoo loldiK vboiii Blake bad 
efecUd Iran hii sardeni but a dur lerioui dianback 
iaoBuinf iniiaiion nlddi the paintci Kema (o bare experienced 
f rom UMdalioD wilb Hayley. IoiIla4BlakeRtun>cdloLimd(iIi, 
to take up hit nsldeou in South Meulton Street, and ai the 
tndi ol hu roideiux ia Felpham, be publiibed. in the duduct 
aliudy described, Uw pcophetk book* calM the JriaaUm, 
TlHEmamiiwxiJIJitCiaMAlbieti.iuiUillai. TheEntoftbCK 
ii >. very notable peifonnaixz in reprd lo aniitic iovtnUon. 
MiDy of tbe de^gtu stand out Irom ibe text in coin[dete In- 
dependence, and UE DOff and iben of tlie veiy fineit <iuality. 

In (he yeaiB 1S04-1S0J Blake 'eiecuted « uijet of dealjiii' 
in iUuiiraiion ol Robert Blair'i Tlu Crati. of nucb beawy and 
gtandeiu, though thawing urongn traca of imiUtioD of Italian 
art than any earlier production. TIkk doigna were purchued 
fiom the artist by an advenluroui and unsoupuknia publisher, 
Cromck, for the paltry nim of £11, and aflemidi publithed in ■ 
■eria ol engravinp by SchiavonettL Doinle the HI Irealnenl 
Blake received in Uie malter, and the other eviti, including 

of a dcbiga illusiniing tbe Canterbury Pilgrimi, vhich hii 
■uodation with Cromek involved, the book gained loi him a 
larger amount of popularity than he at any other time KCured, 
Slolhard'i picture ol the Canterbury Pilgrinu wai uhibiled in 
1807, and in iSog Blake. In emulation ol hia rival'a tucceu, 
luving himiell painted in waier-coloui n piclun of the same 
lubjccl , opened an eihibi lion, and diew up ■ Dtttriptat Calaltiul, 
curious and intcteatinc and containing * very valuable crilkiam 
9f Chaucer. 

The remainder of the artiii'i life it not outwardly eventful. 
In iSij he foimed. through the introducUon of George Cumbei- 
laod of BriiK^ a valuable Crieud^p »ith John Linndl and other 
riling water-colour painlcn. Amongit the group Blake lecmi 
to have found special sympathy in the lodely of John Vartcy, 
who. himielf addicted to astrology, encouraged Blake to cultivate 
his gift ol inspired vision; and il is probably to this influence 
thai we art indebted for several curious drawings made from 
viiioni, e^Kcially tbe celebiaied "ghost of a Sea "and ihcveiy 
buRtorous portmit of the builder of the Pyramids. In i&it 
Blake removed to Fountain Court, in the Strand, where he died 
on the nth ol August 1817. The chief work ol these last years 
was the splendid series of engraved designs in illustration of the 
book ol job. Here we find the highest ima^native Qualities 
of Blake's art united to the technical means ol eipression 
which he best undcratood. Both the invention and thcengraving 
■tt in all ways remarkable, tod the series may laiilybcdled in 
fuppoit of 1 very high estimate ol his genius. None of his works 
Is without the trace of that peculiar ajtislic instinct and power 
which seizes the pictorial element of ideas, simple or sublime, 
and translates them into the appropriate languj^ ol sense; 
hul here the double faculty finds the hap[uat exercise. Tbe 
grandeur ol the theme is duly reflected in the umple and sublime 
images ol the artist's design, and in the presence ol these plates 
we are made to feel the power of the artist over the expresaional 
resources of human form, as well as his sympathy with the 
imaginative significance ol bis subject. 

A life of Bbke. with triecttoni Imm his workt. by Alemder 
Cflehtin. was published In 1B63 (new ediiioa by W. C. RobetiaiD. 
■906); In igMTA. C. Swinburne publiibed a ciitiol eny oa hii 
■•niui. reniariaUc (or a luU eumlnation of the Pmphetic Books. 
aad in 1874 William Micluel Roiietti pubUsbed a menHir prrGied 
(Dsnediifoftofihtpacms. tnlSB]appcuedn>H'i>nti(fK'd/MM 
Blat. «i;.«< by e. J. EUb and W: IC \ma. But for a long lime 

IxS. The inl o( Ibe poenu m finally edlted'wiih 
~! and Ibenugbnca by John Sampaon In his ediiina 

"-•■■ ■ >. which iHu nscued Bbke fnm the 

us ediicH Sea abo »( IMn tj 

all the ediioi 

< FkiubI Kail 

th,. Wctbr 

by A. G. B. Ruiadl (i906):ud Bwil di 


piioier, WIS bom in New York, do the 151b of Octobv, 1)47. 
He graduated at ibe College ol tbe Qty ol N«w York in 1(67. 
lauthewutdf-uu^laiidDuifcedlyMilinaL VntailMKallb 
necetsltaled tbe abaodoiunent of bit pnfenloa, he waa ■ dwm 
prolific worker, bit lubjecti Indttdingptomaol North Ameikui 

Indian Fisherman"; "Ta-wo-kob: or Grde IhtBce"; 
"Silvery Moonlight"; "A Waterfall by Moonlight"; "Soli- 
tude"; and "Moonlight on Long Islsad Sound." 

BLAKEHEV, WILUAM BLAKE1IS7, BuoN (i«79-i;6i), 
British soldier, was bora atMouot Blakeney in Uaaiil. in i£7i. 
Destined by his lather lor piAtics, be toon showed ■ decidnl 
preletence lor a nulitary carter, and at the ageof ej^leen beaded 
the tenants in defending the Blakeney eatate against tlie Rap- 
pareet. As a volunteer be went to the war In Flanden. and al 
the siege of Venlo in 1701 won his comniissioo. He served as 
a subaltern throughout Marlborough's carnpaigni, and ia said 
to have been the first to drill tnx^ by signal ol drum or colour* 
For nuny years alter the peace of Utrecht he tetved oniBticHl, 
and was tiily-five years ol age before be became a colomd. 
Thia neglect, which wu said to be due to the boalilily ol Lord 
Vemey, ceased when the duke of Richmnnd waa appointed 
colonel of Blikeney's tegmeni, and thcncefotward his advanoe 
was rapid. Brigadier-general in the Cartagena d^vditioii ol 
1741, and major-general a lillte later, be distinguished UmseU 
by his gallant and succeaslul defence of Stirling Castle against 
the Highlandcn in 174J. Two years later George II. made him 
lieutenant-general and lieulenanl.gavemot of Minorca. The 
governor of that island never tet foot I" it, and Blakeney wu 
Left in command (or ten years. 

In I7SS tbe Seven Years' War was preluded by a swift descent 
of the French on Minorca. Fifteen IhousttEUl troopa under 
marshal the due de Richelieu, escorted by a strong aqaadroo 
under the marquis de la Gallisonni^re, landed on the island 00 
the lEth of Apnl, and at once began the siege of Fort St Philip, 
where Blakeney commanded at most some 5000 loldieta and 
HOikmen. The defence, m spite ot crumbling wills and rottc4 
guD plitfonnSi had already lasted a month when a British fleet 
under vice-admiral the Hon. John Byng ai^eared. La GalUsott- 
niire and Byng (ought, onthe jolh of May, an indecisive battle, 
alter which the relieving squadron sailed away and Blakeney 
was lelt to his fate. A second expedition subsequently appeared 
oS Miaorca, bul it was then too Ute, for alter a heroic resistance 
of sevFniy-one days the old general had been compelled to 
surrender the fort to Richelieo (Aptil 18-June iS, 1756). Only 
the ruined fortifications were the piiie of tbe victors. Blakeney 
and his little ginison were traniported to Gibraltar with aboolu te 
liberty to serve again. Byng was tried and executed; Bbkeuy, 
oD his return to England, lound bimidf the hero ol the nation. 
Rewards came (leely to the veteran. He wa* made colonel of 
the Enniskillen tegimeat of infantry, knight of the Bath, and 
BaroD Blakeney ol Mount Blakeney in the Irish peerage. A 
little later Van Host's sutue of him was erected in Dublin, and 
hi) popularity continued unabated for the short lemaindcr of 
his lile. He died on the lolh of September 1761, and waa buried 
in Westminster Abbey. 

See WiHwi •^Ctntnl WHHam Blahmj (17S7). 

divine, was bom in London mi the filh of March iSoC. and was 
educated al Si Paul's school, London, aod at Corpus Chnrti and 
Trinity Colleges, Cambridge. In iSji Iw waa alacted a fcUaw, 
and in iS» a tutor of Trinity. InlSuhe taDkhalyofdett.aild 
from 1845101871 held the cnUcfe living of Ware, HcrtfOcdahitE. 
Over the signature " Hertfordshire iDcmabeDt " be toalifbuted 
alarge number of letters to T** ri«» on Ita leadtog lOtiri and 
politics! subjects ol the day, and be alto wioUDiaiiy rtviewiol 
books (or that paper, tn 1863 he wit Dade n caaoa id Canter- 
bury, and in i8]i dean ol Lintolo. Dean Btthcilqr waa lb* 



•vthor at lilt finl En(lf>h Ufi tf AriHtOt (i8jg), 40 edidon of 
Hcrodatia (rSji-igji) in Ibc BiHiMaa Clatiict, ud Fsv 
Jfnlfa ■'■ ,4;f»w (iRsg). Hedifdoiiilic iSlbof AprB 1SS5. 
BLAKIRK. tOSAlIRA (i74T-'194). Engliib poet, dinghtn of 

■ CunberliDd yromia, wu born at Cardcw Hall, near Dibton, 
ia January 1717. Her mother died while she was i diild, and ihe 
*i9 bTOufhl up by her auqi, a Mn Simpun of Thackwood, who 
■cut hR niece to the vilhge Kheol it RiUEhlan Head. Sulanna 
Btamire't earliest poem ij " Written In a Churchyard, on seeing 

■ Dumber ol cattle grazing," in imitation of Cray. She liv«l an 
venlful tite among the firmenol theneighbautbood, 


ic wdet; 

In 1767 her elder sister Sanh mam'ed Colonel Gnbam of Gan- 
moie. " An Epistle to bet friends at Ganmore "gives a playful 
dcsoiption ol tbe monotonous simplidty of her life- To her 
Perthshire visits ber aaoga in the Scottish venuculsr are Do 
dmbt partly due. Her chief fiieud was Catharine Gilpin of 
Scaleby Castle. TV two ladies spent (he winters together in 
Cartiale, and wrote poems in common. Susanna Bbmire died 
in f*»Tikfa oQ the 5tb of April 1 744. Tbe poems whidi were not 
coQecied during her lifetime, were first published in 1B41 by 
Henry Lonsdale ai TJkt PbuHoI Wnrkt af Uia Susanna Blamin. 
"like Man tf Ctntitrland." with • memoir by Mr Patrick 
MaiwelL Some of bir iea|9 isnk among the very best of north- 
cooniry lyrio. " And ye ihsU wallt In silk attiie " and " What 
mils ihii heart 0' mine," are well known, and were IndDded in 
JohMon's Se*ur Mtak^ Itiaeinn. 

MLAMC CJCMi Joseph CHtiua) UOIS (i8ii~iSSi), Frendi 
politi ci an and hfatorian. was bora on the iQIh of October 1811 
•t Kadtid, where his biber held the post of Inipector-grneral of 
**"■"** under Joseph Bonaparte. Failing to receive aid Irom 
l^»JO di BoigD, his nolber's ande, Louis Blanc studied law in 
Paria, tiviiig'io poverty, and became ■ contributor to various 
innMk. In the Jlewdii ftiph, which he founded, he published 
in iBjq bit study on VOrfninUitii '■ Ironnf. Tiit principles 
laid dD» B tbia famous assay forni tbe key to Louis Blanc's 
whole poUlial cnrecr. He attribute* all the evils that alBict 
iDCictT ta the proaure of onnpetiiiao, whereby the weaker are 
fltivea to tbe wnlL He demanded the equalisation of wages, and 
tiae merfing of persona] interetts in the isfflmon good— "d 
t*tcam lUm la ioHni, di ducim idaii m faadUt." Tbiswas 
10 b( i£teul by the establishment of " socinl worksbnpa," ■ sort 
of comfaliud OHqieiativa ancjety and trade^inion, where the 
workBoi in each trade were to nnlte tbeir elloTti for tbdr 
CMBIOOB benefit. In 1841 he published bis Hitlein it taatu 
i<ja-i(^uiUtickupon the moBucbyof July. It nathnni^ 
fmiT aditioiB in four yian. 

In 1^47 he pobiiahsd Ibe two tut whuaes of his Autfvf d( 1( 
~' ' " " BK lu pnblliatlan was interrupted by tb« 
8, vhen Loid* Blanc beODe a member ol tbe 

«( tb* mtioB*] wortibcia h> UamtU daaled b Ui Affd 
iKKMn gnu (Full. iSm). wtittm ia Lo^ia after his ffiv»; 
bat by Uw ioHigeat iDob of the >5tb el H^ aad by the lictofiain 
Uodaates alike he wu npidid M nafoBBUe. Biwiie the 
lea i n rfall H , who tried to force Mm tnplaeshnisrifetthdr held. 
UMi (Ik aalwud goaide, *bi» lultteeted hte, be we* Muly 4oae 
10 dnetli.. Rescued with dlBctdv. he Bciped with ■ Mm 
--'■•■ - ■ ,; ja ij, aiacDce he 

el nl articles in the 

alike prateited, develo[HBg his protest In s 1 
SttUfta Utmdt, a review published in Pans unoer lus direction. 
These he ifleiwtrds collected and published as Pofu it t^dmit 
it la rtPtlulitm it 1S4S (Brussels, iSjo). 

DuringbisitayinEn^^andhe made use of the unique coHectiOD 
ol materials for the revolutionary period preserved at tbe 
British Museuni to complete his HUlmridtla SMiiivmFranfaiu 
IJ vols. <i84;-iB4j). In iSiS be published a reply to Lord 
Normanhy's A Ytar a/ RnJaiim in Font (1858), which be 
developed later into his HUiairt it It rtaJulitn dt 1S4S (i vols., 
1S70-1880). As far back a* i8^g Louis Blanc had vehemently 
opposed the idea of a Napoleonic restoration, predicting Ihst it 
would be " de^lotiim nithout ^oiy," " tbe Empire without the 
Emperor." He iherefon lemslncd In eiile till the fall of the 
Second Empire in September 1870, after which be returned to 
Paris and served as s private in the national guitd. On the !ih 
of February ig;i be was elected a membet ol the National 
AsKmbly, in whicb he malnuined that tbe repubUc waj " the 
necessary form of national sovereignly," and voted for the 
coatioualion of the war; yet, though a member ol the eitreme 
Led, be wu too dear-minded to sympathize with the Commune, 
and eierted his InHue nee in vain on the side of modetation. Id 
187S be advocated the abolition of the presidency and the senate. 
In January 1874 he introduced Into the chamber 1 proposal for 
the amnesty of tbe Communists, which was carried. Tbii was 
hJi last important acL His declining yean were darkened ty 
ill-health and by tbe death, in 1876, of his wife (Chiisthu Gnh), 
an EngUUmnnum whom be had oairied in iS6s- He died at 
CanDtion the 6ih of December lUi, and on the i ith el Dtcendwr 
received 1 itate funeral in the cenetery of Pte-Ladaiie. 

Lotd* Blanc poaiened a pictumqiie and ybM style, and 
considetable power o( research; but the fcmnii with wUdi be 
eiprtsted hi) convictions, while pladBg hlM In tbe InM rank of 
oraton, tended la turn Us Ustoikal writings Into polilkd 
pamphlets. Hli political and soda] Idtn have bad ■ great 
influence on tbe development of sodalism In France. His 
Diiamri feliliqm (1847'lSSi) was poblisbed in iSSi. His 
most important works, besides those already mentioned, sra 
Lilira lar FAatUimt (1866-1861), Dix amttei it FkiUart it 
e A K^tUrrt (1 S7f~iSBi) , and Qiuaitiu eat^eari'laa tl it iimaai 

Sec L. Ram, Lamu Blav (lOj). 

lUXC, WHIT, the cubninating point (iS,7B) ft) ol Ih« 
atoontaln range of tbe sooie naaie, which forms part of the 
Pennine Alps, and is divided luwqualty betweea France, Italy 
and Switierlaiid. The actual hifbiit summit b wte^y FrcKb 
and is the loltiest peak in the Aljn, and in Eunpe also, if oirtain 
peaks in the Caocaiui be excluded. At Geneva the neuDtain 
was in larsiet day* named tbe Hwilegne Maudile, but tbe 
piLiuit name Kenw to have been always ueed locally. Ob the 
north la the vtlley of Chamonii, and oq the east tbe head el til* 
vaBeyelAoata. Among the (rest gtadenwblchstTtani ftomtbe 
piah the dmM nolevon^ an those of Bomobs and Taeonnia 
(aoitbtn dopd and ef Biean and Uiage {aiivtherD slope). 
Tlu(Maac*DtwaimSdeini7S6l0'twiiChaaKiniiBeB, Jacqnt* 
BaWl and Di Hkhd Paecard, and the second in 1 787 Iq- Balmat 
with two local DND. LaU(lDijSiH.B.dBSaiisHi>«mBdetbe 
thM a*nat, nemoiaUe in many nwacta, and waa followed a 
weakktct bj Cotoswl Beamfoy, the Gist EngllshmaB to ^Ub tbe 
top. ThcMiKeDtswtm all made fisnOainonhiiiiAithb still 
tb* iMBBl itaitiBf point, Ihon^ lovle* have been forced ■« the 
peak fnm anriy efeiy aide, tboee oa the Italian ilde bdag much 
steeper than that from C hamc nfe The aacmt bom ChUMoix 
is a»« lieqneDtly made in mmmct (racdy In winter alB), but, 
awinf to tbe great bei^t ol the monntam, the view b uuetis- 
laeteey, though vy eateMivw (Lyeaal* visible). TlienlianiDa 
at tiM Giaad* HideU (M09 It). In 1890 U. Vallot buUt an 
oheervatny SBdebdter hut (t4>8» (t) on the Boascs da Dias»- 

' <Dorth-w«st ridfc of the DOUDtalo), and in i8g] T. J. C. 
obaemtoiy Just below tbe vsy sammit 

Tli dwMtit ^ Mmrnl B 



, 1(94. tin I Fnndi tnnililloa, Cei 


Ctiain 1/ MM Blame, wctllea ■ 

C Kura, aimUri- Cuiii , -_- 

(London. 1S91J : L. Kun ind X. InihM, CMt ^ Ja (tiliu in tfoHf 
Au< (1896, Dcw oUUcia 1903). (W. A. a CJ 

BIARCHARD. SAMUEL UKAR (iSo4-it45). Bntish author 
■ndJDuniiliit.tbt son oil punter uidgluin-, wubonicl Greal 
YinBouih on Ilie 151b ol May 1804. He wu educated at St 
Olavc't Khoed, Soulhwark, and then became dcik to a proctor 
in Docton' ConunoDi. At an early age he developed ^leiacy 
taaui. contributing dramatic sketches ID a paper called Drama. 
For a ihort lime he waj a member of a uavelUng dramatic 
company, but lubsequently became t proof-reader in London, 
and WTDIe lor ibe UinlUy Uitaane. In iS)7 he vai made 
lecntary of the Zoological Society, a post which he held (or three 
yean. In iSiShepubliihed lyric (}jf<riK(i,dcdicaIed to Charles 
Lamb. Re had 1 very varied Joumatiitic eiperience, editing in 
■uccesuon the Uoniily Uataiiu, the True Sun, the CcksHiu- 
liinal, [he Ceurt Jeunat, the Cwrier, and Ccgrfc CmHiMciit'l 
Omnibut; atid from 1S41 till bis death he vas connected with 
tbcEiamintr, In 1S46 Bulwer-Lytton collected a number of his 
proie-asays under the title Siilclits ofLijt, to which a tneiooir of 
the author was prtGicd. His verse wai collected In iS;6 by 
Blanchard Jerrold. Ovcr-woik broke down his sireogih, and, 
unnerved by the death of his wife, he died by his own hand on 
the ijlh of February 1845- 

His eUcst son, Sidhev Imiui BunCriiD, who wu the authoc 
ol YaUiiay ami TihLi) in India, died in l8Sj. 

BLANCHB.JACgUESfi]fILB(tg«i- ),FRDdipdiiler,«u 
bom in Puis. He enjoyed an eiceUenl oouMpolitto education, 
and was braoiht (q> ■( Pany in a bmue snce belm^ag to the 
princeu* de LtBibaUe, whidi still retaiaed the ■ima^ihen d( 
i8th-ceataiy ekfuice and icfinenent uid Influenced hii taste 
aod woffc. Although he received mne laMnKtiOD in painting 
Inm Gbvci, be may be nguded ai *elf-laughL He acquired a 
great reputation as a portrait painter; his 

imU (iiSS-iisO, wife of Louis Vm. of 
Fraikce, third daughter of Alpbonso VI11-, king of Castile, and of 
Ekuwr of England, daughter of Henry U., WIS bom at Vatenoa. 
In conseqiKncc of a-tieaty between Philip Angintui and Jdin of 
England, ihe was bctnthed to the fomet'i son, Louis, and was 
bnught-to France, in the spring of ues. by John's mother 
Beanoi. On the intdolMay i no tlwtnaly was finally signed, 
John ceding with his niece the fiefs o( Issoudun and Gracay, 
together with those that Andrt de Cbavigny. lord of Chlteauroui, 
bJd in Benj, of tlie English crown. Tbt marrtage wasatgbrated 
ttKnendayiatPottBiorton theri^t bank of the Sdne, in John's 
domains, ai those of PhiUp lay under an interdict. 

Blanche Gnt displayed her gnat qnallllB in 1 116, when Louis, 
who on the death oTJobnclaiined the English crown In lier right, 
Invaded England, only to find a united nation against binx. Philip 
Augustus refused to help his ion, and Blanche was his solo 
support. Tia queen established henelf at Calais and organiud 
two fleets, one of which was oofflmanded by Eustace the Monk, 
and an anny under Robert of C^ounenayi but all bet ceaolntlon 
and energy wen in vain. Although it wonld seem that ber 
masterful temper exerdsed a sensible influence opon her 
htnband'B gentler character, hec T^ during his reign (i»j-is>e} 
is not well known. Upon bh death he left Blanche regent and 
guardian of bis children. OI her twdvo or thirteen cUldna, ill 
had died, and Louis, the heb— afterward* the sainted Leais IX., 
-^rai but twelve years oM. Hie litnation m critical, lor the 
bird-min domains of the boMa at CapM seeniid lihaly to fall tn 
ptecadiuiagamiDmity. BUnche had 10 bear the iriwic bBrden 
of aSainalana, to break npa league oftlM banns (isitf). and to 
repel the anaekef (be Unga(EngUad(is]o). Bnlhercoeigy 
mess overcane al dangers. Tlwie was an end to the 
rs drcolated against ber, based on the poetkal homage 

: (k'^nM 

tKoIoiged stay in Fatis of the papal legate, Romau Bonavtntnra, 

cardinal of Sant' Angelo. The nobles wen awed by her warlike 
preparations or won over by adroit diplomacy, and their league 
was broken up. St Louis owed his realm to bis mother, hut 
he himself always remained somewhat under the spell of her 
imperious penoiulity. Aflerhecaioeof *ge(iij6) her influence 
upon him may still be traced. In IJ48 she again become ngcnt, 
during Louis IX- 's absence on the crusade, a pro ject a-hich she 
had strongly opposed. In the disasters which followed shemain- 
tained peace, while draioing the land oI men and money to aid 
her son in the East. At last bet strength (ailed her. She (ell ID 
at Uelun in November iiji. and was taken to Paris, but lived 
only a few days. She was buried at Maubulsson. 

Beside* the works of Joinvllie and Willi 
Berger, " KiMolit de Blanche de CaaLiilc 

BiUialliini its icdci /ronaoo fAlkina . .„, 

(Paris. 1895): U Ntin de TillemDnt, -'Viede^int l-mis," ed by 
]. de Caolte (or the SpcUU It rkiibin di Frenu (fi vol*.. tl47- 
iSji): and Paulin Pari*. " NouvellorrchcTcheiBur Ic* mours del* 
nine Blanche EI de Thibaud." in Caiimtl kiiUiifiu [IBjSJ. 

BLANCH FEB, or Blamch HoLDiMa (from Fr. btaju, white), 
an ancient tenureinScoitishlandlaw, the duty payable being in 
silver or white money in oiDtndistinction to gold. The phrase 
was af lerwarda applied to any holding of which the quit-rent was 
purely nominal, such as a penny, a pefqwrcom, &c. 

BLAHDFORD, or Blandtoed Foatiu, a mariut tomi, and 
municipal borough in tlu northern parliamoitary division of 
Dotselshin, England, on the Stour, 19 m. N.W. of Boutu^MaUl 
by Ibe Someiset & Dorset railway. Pop. (1901) 3649. The 
town is azident^ut waa almost wholly destroyvl by fire In tlw 
iSIh century. The church of St Peter and St Paul, a claMlcat 
buiiding, waa built in 17JI. There a _ 

(founded In 15)1 at Milton Abbas, transfemd ic 
i77Sl, a BlueCoat school (17 
Remnants of a mansion of the 14th century, Damoiy Coort, am 

used as a bam. Tbtm ara nununins early earthwork* on iha 
chalk hills in the neighbotuboad. li* fine modem maaifan of. 
Btyuslon, la the park adjolnhig Ibe tows. Is the leat of Lont' 
Portman. The municipal borough is under a mayor. 4 ■'■''pnTn: 
and II coundllan. Area, 14; acits. 

Italian phyildan and polemic, who came of tiK De Blandtat* 
family, powerful from the early part of the ijth oe 
bom at Saluzm, the youngest son of BcmanbiiD 
He graduated in arts and medicme at Montpellier In 1533, aM 
qiecialiied in the functiooal and nervous disotdeis of wooen. 
In 1544 he made his first acquaintance with Ttanxyteanla; 
in TS5J he was with Alciati In the Giison*: in 1557 he qieat a 
year at Geneva, in constant intercourse with Calvin, who di*. 
trusted him. He attended the English wife (Jane Staflloid) of 
Count Ceiso Masaimiliano Martinengo, piea<jier of thi It^ian 
church at Geneva, and fostered anii-triiiitariaa cf>iniotia in that 
church. In i]j8 he found it eipedient to remove to Poland, 
when be became a leader of the bentical party at the synod* 
of Pincifiw (tjsS) and Ksionxh (15A0 and i^i). His point 
was the suppnsrion of eiticmta of i^iinioB, on the bails of 1 
cenfeiiion litetally drawn tiun Scripture. He obt^ned the 
portion of court phyildan to the qoeai dowacer, the Uilaneas 
Bona Slorta. Sl^ had been instrtunental in the bumiog dsjo) 
of Catharine Weygsl, at tha age of eigbly, lor anli^ilnilaiian 
opinions; bat the writings of Od^ hid altered ber viewi, 
wUchinnB«rant{.Calhiilic InisftjB'-^ - 

c th* 

Poland (1576) in the tl; 

U StepWn Bbhecjr, who** ■"Wiitra 
. ., i at hfwfa s; and sifaan Usn) Chri^ 
tarher Bithory hitnidoaBl tha Jesulta Into TiaBThania. 

trhktm brothin, Ludodco and 

_ laflB of Salnaso. In Tiaaiyfvania, 

with Francis Divld (d. ma). Uie antl- 

In rs7S two drcnutanctt bmk* th« 


chtried with " luIUn tin ": 
Dind mouaod ihc wonhip of Chriit, To inBiMoee Dtvid. 
Bluihau MDI (or Fiuiiui SodDui [mm SucL Sedoa »u 
Dlnd'i (ttot, bnt ibe diiciuwn bftwcen ihcni ltd to no toull. 
Ai the insUBCt ol Blindnu, Dlnd wn tried aail amdnnncd 
to prison It Dtvi [In vhicta be died} on the diu^ of innavmiioii. 
Hivins imiued > fortune, Bhudrata returned to the oom- 
nunionof Rome. Hli end i> otsaire. According to the Jeiuit. 
Jicob Wujek, he hb itnngird by > nephew (Chvgia. wn of 
Alphonwl in Miy 1588. He publuhed a few polenilc*! writing!, 
some in cobjunctioD wJtb Divid, 

Se* Miliarae. C(>nwitari> rfiSr Opirt 1 itUt Yientt ii C 
AianrfnW (Pidevi. iSi4)l Wiltacx, A*Mr«iifrmn Biipaptj. 
voLiLdlso). (A. Co. -J 

BLAME, SIR OIUKT (i74Q-i8]4), Scottiih phyiiciin, 
wu bom It BUnefield. Aynhiie, on ibe igib of August tjM. 
Me wti eduuted at Edinburgh univeniiy, and ihotlJy afur 
hiinAwvai lo London became privalr phyucian to Lord Rodney, 
whom heicconipanied la the West lodieiin njn. He did much 
to improve the hntib of the Beet by allenlion to the diet of ihe 
(ailori and by enfoning due saniury precautions, and it wu 
largely through bin that in ins theuM of lime-juice was nude 
obligatory throughout Ihc uvy u a preventive of scurvy. 
Enjoying « number ol court and hotpiial appointmenu be built 
np k good practice for blniKlf in London, and Ibe govtninMOt 
<onU«Dily consulted bim on quntions of public hygiene. He 
*at made a baisnct in iSii in reward for the tcrvices he rendered 
in coaneuon with the return of Ihc Waicbercn eipedition. 
He died in London on the ifiih oF June iSi4. Among hit woriis 
were MHnuliimi as /<k £iiui« e/5(d>m (179J) and £lniciiJi 

BLAHPORI), WILUAH THOMAS (iSji-ioo;), English 
geologist and uturalisi, was bom in London on the 7th ot 
October iS]l. He wat educated in private schools in Brighton 

tpenltwoyeaninabusineuhouMal Civitavecchia. On relum- 
ing to England in i8;i he i^ induced 10 enter the newly «ub- 
Itdied Royal School of Mine), which his younger brother Henry 
F- Blanford (i8j4'iB<;l), aJlerwards head of the Indian ftlcLeoro- 
logkal Department, had already joined, he then spent a year 
in Ihe mining ichool at Freiburg, and Inwards the close of 1854 
both he and his brother obtained posts on the Geotogicat Survey 
ol India. In that «tvice he remained for Iweniy-seiTn year;, 
retiring in 1S81. He was engaged in various parts ol India, in 
Ihe Raniganj coallitld. in Bombay, and in the coalfield near 


where b 

a elsenh 

ulden c 

His i 

■t only t 

eipedilion, acconpinying the army to ftllgdala and bachi 
and in 1871-1811 he wu appointed 1 member of tbe Tersian 
Boundary Commission. The best use was made of Ihe etcep- 
lionai oppoitunitj'n of studying the natural history of those 
countries. For his many contributions to geological science 
Dr Blanford was in iSEj awarded Ihe Wotlsston mrdil by the 
Geological Society of London; and tor his labouis on the loalogy 
and geology ol Briiish India he received In 1901 a loyal medal 
from the Royal Society. He had been elected F.R.S, in 1S74, 
and wa* chosen president of the Ceologlcat Society in tSSS. 
He waa oealed C.IX. in 1904. He died in London on the tjrd 
""s principal publi ' ""' 

m lk€ Ctoleiy jn^ ZoDfgfy tf Atyi 
Ou Ctelity 'f iKdia, wiih H. B. Mi 

Biography, with bibliography and portrait, I 
January 1905. 

BLAHK (from the Fr Ua>ic, white), 1 < 
KRsei based 00 that of " left while," i.e. 
10 be Klled in: thus a " blank cheque " L 
Ihe an»unl to be inserted, an Insurance pi 
Ibe nuDe of the beneficiary li lacking, ' 

■fl (r8jo),andifnMa;a/ 

:olt (r87Si), 

-ait, ia Cralaiical Uiiaxini, 

vene witbool Thyme. " blank ortiMge " that coDUiin only 
powder and no ball or shot. The word a also <ned. as ■ sub- 
slanlive, for a ticket in a lottery or sweepsiake which doei noi 
carry a number ot Ibe name of a borf>e running or for an 

BLAMKEHBEROHB. a seaaide waierlng-plice on tbe North 
Sea in tbe province of Wai Flandcra, Belgium, 11 n. N.E 
ol Oalend, and about 4 m. N.W. of Bruges, with which il 
is caanecled by railway. Il ii norc bracing than OMend. and 
I Goc parade over a mde in length. During Ihe season. 

n June 

1 September, it ttcdvei 

probably over 60.000 allagelber, 
Germany as well a* (mm Belgium. There is a small hshing pari 
as well as a coniiderable Jtshing-Beet. Two milci north of ihil 
place along Ihe dune* is Zcebmgge. Ihe point at which Ihe Dew 
ship-canal from Bruges cnien tbe North Sea. Fixed popula lion 

BLAMfCSKBDHg. (i) A town and beilih resort ol Germany, 
in iheduchy of Brunswick.ai the N loot of the Han Irfaunuini, 
iim. by railS.W. fmm Halbcniadi. Pop. (i«oiJ 10,173. It 
bai been in large pan cebuJi since a &ie in i8j6. and possesses 
a castle, with various collcclions, a museum of aniiquiiiet. an old 
town ball and chuicbea. There are pine-needle baihs and a 
hospital for nervous diseases. Gardening is a speciiliiy. Inthe 
vicinity is a cliff or ridge ol rock called Teufelsmauer (Devil's 
wall), from whicb fine views are obtained across tbe plain and 
into the deep gorges ol Ihe Han Mouniains. 

in Schwa nburg-Rudotsladt, Thuringia. at Ibe confluence of Ihe 

lauL lis envimns are charming, and lo Ihe north of il, on an 
eminence, rise the line ruini of the caille ol Crcilenslein, built 
by the German king Henry I., and from 1)75 to i^Sj the seat 
of a cadet branch ol Ihe csunu ol Schwanbur^ 

BLAHKETECRS. ihe nickname given to some jooo operatives 
who on ihe lOih ol March 1817 met ui St Peter's Field, near 
Manchester. 10 march 10 London, each carrying hbnkets or mgs. 
Their object was losre the pnnce legeni and lay their giievancei 
before him. The Habeas Corpus Act was suspended, and Ihe 
leaders n-ere teiied and impiiioncd. The bulk ol ibc demon- 
stration yielded al once. The few stragglers who persisted in 
Ibe march were intercepted by Iroops. and treated wilh consider- 
able severity. Eventually the spokesmen hid an inlerview wilh 

BIAHK VERSB, the unrhyned measure of iambic decL- 
syUable in five beats which is usually adopted in English epic 
and dramatic poetry- The epithet Is due to the absence of Iho 
rhyme which the ear expects al the end of successive lines. Tha 
decasyllabic line occurs lor Ihe first lime in a Provencal poem 
d the imh itniuty, but io Ihe earliest instances preserved il ia 
already constructed with such regularity as to. suggest thai it 
was no new invtnlion. It was certainly being used almost 
aimullaneouily [n Ihe north of France. Chaucer employed it 
m tab CtmpltjTiU to Pilic about 1J70- In all the tileniures ol 
western Eumpe it became generally used, but always witb 
ihytnc. In Ibe beginning of the ifiih century, however, oeruiia 
Italian poets made the experiment ol writing decuyllabki 
without rhyme. Tbe tragedy of SBfliniiia (ijis) of G. G. 
TiissbM (m73-I!sd) was tbe earliesl work completed in this 
form; it was followed la iji; by tbe didactic poem It Apt 
(The Bees), of Giovaiini Rucellai (i47S-iJis)p who announced 
his Inlenilon of writing " Cm urn Elnuct iallt rimt ttwOt," 
In consequence of which eipiession this kind of metre was called 
■rrri Kielil or btank vene. In s very short lime ihb form was 
largely adopted in Italian dramatic poetry, and the comedies 
of AriosiD. Ihe ,1 niiird of Tuso and the ^'nitur /'id* ol Cuarinl 
are composed in IL The iambic blank vene of Italy was, how- 
ever, mainly hendeeasyllabic, not decasyllabic, and under French 
influerefs ihe habit of rhyme soon relumed. 

Before ihe close of Ttissicio' '" ' 

enjoy ■ longer and m 

noiber lii 

. Towaida Ibe 


daw tl tbt idga of Hemy Vm., Henry Howud, tail of Sumy. 
UuuUied lnobooluol the Ataiid iaU> Enslufa tbymeltu vcrae. 
" dtawtni" Ibcm " inioailrangc metre." Sumy'i blank ven* 
b UiS and timid, peimjttios iueU m divergeoce Inun the uact 
iambic movenical. — 

" Wba can «(h» the iliufhnr el ihit niglit. 

O' can, in 



Surr^ 90on found an Imltalor in Nicholas Grimoald. a 
1563 blank verac was tint applied to Engiiah dramatic poetry 
fn the Ciiridrjiic of Sackville and Norton, la IS76, in Ihe Slal 
Clan at CiKfugne, It wa* firt^ uied for ntlrc, uid by tbe year 
t :8s it lud come into ilnunt unmrtai use for thealricai purpom. 
In Lyiy'i T)a IVimaH In IIh if am and Pccle'i Anaipimtia ef 
/■nriifbothof 1584} veEnd biinli vene itruggiinf witb rhymed 
vene and successTuUy holding its own. The earliat play nr '" 
entirely in blank vene !l supposed to be Tkt Uiifortuf 
Arlkur (1587) of Tbomas Hughei. Marlowe now immediitcty 
followed, with the magnificent movement of hit ToM&nfla ' 
(isSfi}, whicb was mocked by satirical critics as " Ibe svdl 
bombast of bragjing blank verse" (Nash) and "the spacii 
volubility of a drumming decasyllabic " (Gi«nel, but *t 
Introduced a great new music into English poetry, in 11 
" mighty lines " as 

" Siin climbing aher Itoowlcdge infinite. 
And always moving as the rcstleis splwRS." 

" Sa wben ChriHs Uood ■leams in the Grmamcnt. ' 
Eaeept. however, when he is stirred by a rarticularly vivid 
emotion, the blank verse of Mailowe continuts to be monotonoui 
and unilono. It still depends too aclusivtly on a counting of 
syllables. But Shakespeare, after having returned to thyme 
in his eaHiest dramas, particularly in Jjle Fuo Cenlltmrn p/ 
Vao*a, adopted blank vine conclusively about the lime that 
the career o( Hiriowe wis closing, and be orried it to Ihc greatest 
petfection lo vickty. >un>len«> and fulness. He released it 
Iron (be eaccMive boiMlage that it had hitherto endured; as 
Robert Bridget hat ttid, " Shakespeare, whose early verse may 
be described at lyUabic, (radually cime to write a verse depend- 
ent on ilreti." InconparlMn n-iib that oi his predccesson and 
HKcetion, the blank vmc ol Shakespeare is essentially regular, 
andhitproiodyBurkilbeadiiiirable mean between the stiffness 
of his dramatic larenuuMn and the laiiiy of those irbo followed 
him. tlott ol Shakeipeare'i lines conform to the normal type 
of the deeaaylltble, and the irst are accounted for by familiar 
and rational rules of variatlotL The ease and duidily of his 
prosody were abused by his successors, paniculariy by Beiunwnl 
and Fletcher, who employed the soft feminine enilbig to excess ; 

s leLued to the point of kaing all 
nervous vigour. 

The later dnmatisit gradually abandoned that rigoroot 
diflerenct whidi should always be preserved between the cadence 
of verte and ptose, and the ciample of Ford, who endeavoured 
to revive the old leverily of blank verse, was not loUowed. But 
just as the lorn waa dkking into dramatic desuetude, it took 
new life in the diieclkni of epic, and found its noblest proficient 
in the petton ol John Miltotu The mntt intricate and ihcRlore 
the notl interetling blank verte which has been written it that 
of Milton in the great poenu of hit later life. He reduced the 
eiisiDU, srhich had beeii frequent in the Oiabelhan poeo, to 
taw; he admitted an eittaordintuy variety in the number ol 
stresses; be delibetalely inverted the rhythm in via to produce 
paiticnlar effects; and he multiplied at will the caeMuae or 
breakt in ■ line. Such verses as 

" ArHyfng with reflected purple and gold — 
Shoou inviuUa virtue evin to iIk d«p— 

He, Bw only, juii ebfcct of his in " — 
are not mistaken in rhythm, nor to be scanned by forcing them 
to obey the ooavtntional ttrest. Tliey are instances, and 

ParadUt Lait a full of such, of Milton's exqafsita art bt rintfn( 
changes upon the metrical type ol ten syllaUes, five stresses and 
a rising rhythm, to aa 10 make the whole teiture of the verse 
respond to his poetical thoughL Writing many yean later 
in Fanuliu SiisiiMd and in Simsim Atoniuti, Milton tci^ncd 
his lysiem of blank vette ia its geoeial characteristics, but he 
treated it with increased diyness and o-ilh a certain harsbnest 
of effecL It is certainly in his biblical drama that blank vene 
has been pushed to Its most attihcial and technical perfection, 
and it is there thai Milton's theories are to be studied best; yet 
it must be fonfesscd that kaming euJudes beauty in some of 
the very audacious irregulatiliet which be here peimitt himscll 
in Samtim Att*ultt. Such lines at 

" Made arms ridiculous, u&cleu the forgery — 
My griefs not only pain rae as a Lingering disease — 
Drunk with idolitry, drunV with wine- 
Justly, yet despair not of hit lina] pardon "'— 
are constructed with perfect comprehension of metifctl law, yet 
they differ so much from the normal structure lof blank vcEse^iat 
they need to be explained, and ID imitate them would be perilous. 
A persistent weakness in the third foot has ever been the snare of 
English bbnk verte, and it is this element of monotony snd 
dulness which Milton is ceaselessly endeavouring to obviate by 
his wonderful Inversions, elisions and breaks. 

After the Restoration, and aflef a brief period of eiperimeat 
with rhymed plays, the dramatists relumed to the use of Mank 
verse, and in the bands of Otway, Lee ana Dryden. It recovered 
much of its magniGcence. In the i8Ih century, Thornton and 
others made use of a very regular and somewhat monotonous 
form of blank verse for descriptive and didactic poems, of nUch 
' : NiiU TkeushU of Young is, from a metrical point of view, 
: most interesting. With these poets the form Is little open to 
rnce. while inversions and breaks are avoided at much aa 
possible. Since the i8th century, blank verse has been subjected 
ID constant tension in the hands of Wordsworth, Coleridge, 
Shdley. Keats, Tenny«>n, the Brownings and Swinburne, but 
no radical changes, of a nature unknown to Shaketpeare and 
Mikon, have been introduced into it. 

See i. A. Symonds. BUi<iJr Vmt (1855!; WIter Thomas. U 
DliiuylliilK wwaw « M /ariKw M Europr [igoil: Robert Bridges 
UUuiL-t Prtiadf {IB-M): Ed. Ci»i. H iliM't el En^iik RkyHmt 
;i88i); J. Molbtrt. La TUmii da vm UreUm aatidii (18B6): 


It Nice 

n the It 

ol Nov 

mber 1758. Bcfpn- 

i5,he was attracted totbesiudy 

economics by the lecturesof J. B. Say, whose pupil arid aasist- 

t he became. Upon the recommendation of Say he was in 

15 appointed professor of industrial economy and of history 

the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers. In iSjj he succeeded 

y as prolcssor of political eronomy at the tame inttitutinn. 

d in iSj8 was elected a member ol the Academic des Sdcncet 

orales ci Poliiitiuea. In iSjS appeared his most important 

irk, Hisloiri it l'tce<um« felilifui tn Europt, dipuii In 

citnj jKifii'd lui jntl. He was indefatigable in research, 

d for the purposes of hit economic inquiries travelled over 

almost the whole of Europe and viated Algeria and the East 

" contributed much to our knowledge of the conditions of the 

Ung-dasses, espedsUy In Fiance. Other works of Blanqui 

e Dela lilualioH tiBnomiqut tl morale dt FEspatat at 1S46; 

uml de riiisUirt dii camnicrie tt di i'lKdufrfc (ilj6); Prliii 

lUmnttirc d'ttejimit poliliqiu (i8i5); La Classti tmriitri 

n France (184S). 

BLAHqtn, LOUn AUOUSTB (iSos-iSSi). French publicist, 
ras bom on the 8th of February 1805 at Puget'TMoien, where 
lis father, Jean DoEoinique Blanqui, was at that time sub- 
prefect. He studied both law and mcdiclnei but found his real 
In politics, and at once constituted himself a champion 
St advanced opinions. He took an active part in the 
1 of July 183D, and continuing to maintain tlie doctrine 
icanism during the reign of Louis Philippe, was con- 
demned 10 repeated terms of imprisonment. Implicated in the 
armed outbreak of the SotiEtC des Saisons, ef whicb be was a 


Btat [or Lit He 

U (B the Mlowlns ; 
tliBi WM ifurmnl* i 

u Riaud by the revelutkiB of 1S4R. onlr 

1 ao emiing initimiion*. The nvohiliM, 

Mre cbanfe ot uin& 71k vMencv of Ute 

" ■ " y Bluiquf 10 

d in ift49 be 

lervjng ■ further term of Lzapriiona»nl under 
coitrivcd to escape, uid benccfortb conluiaed 
ifiinii ibe BOveniiDait Innn abmul, untU ibe { 
of ]S6q enabled bim lo retizni to FiuiKe. filuiquj'i Jcuiing 
tonnk vMnt nuoira wu Uluitnled in ig;o by two un- 
HKixBfal uned denHualiuIfoni: wie on ibe 121b of juuuy 
It Ibe tuitenl of \^ctor Nolr. the journalist iliot by Pierre 
Boaipaite; the other on the i4ih of Au|uit, wba be led u 
ilienipl (o Koe *obh |uni at a barrack. Up«i ibc fill of [be 
Empire, threogh the revoliition of tbe 41b of Sepienber. Blinquj 
subliiticd (he dub and fauntti La falrlt at Janfir. Kewaione 
of the band that for a momenl uiied Ibe reini of power on Ibc 
jisl oi Oclobrr, and For bit ihare in Ihil onlbreik be wa* again 
condemnrd to death on the i^lh of March of (he ioUowinf year^ 
A few itiyt aftcmrdi the iniurmtion which estaUitbed [be 
COiuiDunc bnke out, and BlanquI wai ekclcd a member of Ibr 
imurgeoi goveramenC, bu( his detention In prison prevenied 
Wm frein taklni an acUve part. NevenbdoB be was bl iSt' 

iccmuit of bis bnliai betttb ilii* 
o one of Imprisonfflenu In 1S7Q he 
a deputy for Batdeiuii although the elecIioB was 
pronotuind invalid. Bllnqui wa* tet at libeny, and at once 
TBDined hiswvrkaf actUiion. Atihetndof itSo. afier a ^etcb 
at a rcvolutlooary metiing in Parij. he was struck down by 
apopleiy, and el^rtd on Ihe lit oF January 1881. Bliuqui's 
uncomprofuiiing commimisni, and his deletminatioD [a enforce 
it by violence, necessarily brnughl him into confSct wi[b every 
French govemmen[. and half his life w>9 ipent in prison. Besides 
liis innumerable contributions to journalism, he published an 
aslrononucal worii entitled L'£lrnaU fat la aOiti (i8;i}. and 
after his death his wiitints on ecnnomlc and social qoeslioos 
vereeollectcd under Iheliilc of Cri(itiwJ«iaft(iBBjl. 

A biofrnphybyG Ceflroy.L'Ei/enrf {I8g7),ii hiihtycohwred 
and dcodedl)' part Ian. 

BLAHTYRK Ihc chief lawn of ihe Nyaialand pTotec[oraIe. 
Biiiiih Ccniral Afriuk Ii is situaicd ihoui jooo ft. above tbe 
sea In the Shirf Highlands joo ra. by river and rail N.N.W of 
(be Chindf moulb of the Zambezi. Pop. about (ooo nilfves 
and 100 whites It ii the bcidquarten of the principal inding 
films and minionary societies In the pnteciarale. It is abo 1 
■tatlon on the African iranKontinental leicgnpb Une. The 
chfef buDding is tbe Churcb of ScoUand cburcb. a fine red brick 
building, a ndiiun of Noruian and Byantine styte*. with ktfiy 
lurreu and while domes. I[ stand* in a hige open qwct and is 

church was built entirely by native labour. Slanlyn was 
founded in 187a by Scotiish misiioiuria. and i* named after the 
hrlhpl ace of David Livingstone. 

BIARTTBI (Gaelic, "Ibe warm retreat"}, a parish oS 
Lauiiihii^ Scotland. Popi (iqot) 14.14;. Tbe parish ha a 
few miles south-eail of Glasgow, and conliins High BUnlyre 
fpop- >5'1>. BlantyiT Work* (or Low Blantyre). Slonefield 
and seven! villages. Tbe whole district i* lich in coal, (be 
Buning of which i* extensively carried on Blintyie Works 
<pop. ifiij) wu the birthplace of David Livingstone [181J- 
tS73) and hii brother Charia {1G11-1S7J). who as lads weie 
both employed a> plccen in a local catlon-milL The scanty 
remain of Blantyic Priory, foimdtd toward* the ckiae ol (br 
i3(hcentui7.slandonthe1e(Ibankofihe Clyde, alnnst opposite 
the beautihl ruins of Bothwell Castle. High Bianlyre and 
Blantyre Works an connected with Glaagaw by ibc Caledonian 
laihny. SloneSekl (pop. T1S8}, the most populous place In 


B High 

nitlraly occDpltd with ndnhg, 

d Blanlytt Works. Calderwood Caitle on RotI__ 

!i, neai High Bknlyte, ia aitnaied amid [dcturesqiK 

tbe Corii & Muskerry Lgbt railway. Fop, (1901) qiS. There 
is a large manulaclure of tweed. Tbe name " blarney " hu 
pasied into Ibe language to dnote • peculiar kind of peDuaiivs 
ekujuence, alleged to be cbaracteriitic of tbe native* of IreUnd' 
The " Blarney Stone." the kissing of which is said to confer ibi* 
facally, i* pointed out within the castle. The origin of (hi* 
beliel Is not known. TTie castle, buill t mb bj Cormac 
McCarthy, was of immeme strength, and pads of its walh are 
as mocfa as 1 8 ft. thick. To its founder ii triced by innie (be 
oti^ of tbe lerm " blarney," *ince lie dd*yed by penuasfen 
and promisei Ibe mnendeT of (be casile to the lord pretldeot. 
Kichlrd Wilbkin's song. " The Giova of Blarney " (c. 1748), 
contributed to the fame of (be caade. which is also bound up 
wiih the dvil history of tbe county end ibe War ol the Great 

BUUHPniZI. BDWIX ROWLAHD [iB4»- ). American 
artist, was bom on the ijih of December iB4Sln New Vork City. 
Hewua pupil ol Bonnai in Paris, and became (1W8) a mtmbei 
of Ibc Nxional Aademyof Design in New York. For woie 
ye*r»»geniep*in(er. be later tumed lodecoi«livt«flrk, marked 
by rare delicacy and beauty of colouring. He painted mural 
decoration* for a dome fn the Bianulictuttn' buil*ng at the 
Chicago Exposition of t^Si for the donie of (he Congresional 
hbraiy, Washington; for the capital at S( Paul, Minnesota; 
for Ibc Batlimoce court-house; bl New York n(y for (he Appellate 
court bouse, tbe grand bait-room of (be Waldorf -Astoria hotel, 
the Lawyers' dub, and the nsidesces of W. K. VanderiiiK and 
ColUs P, Huniinglon: and in PbiladelpMa for the lesidenra of 
George W Dreid. With his wife he wrote rialiim CiViei dooo) 
and edited Vasari'i £iWi ef Ikr Faialrrs (iSgt), and was well 
known ai 1 leclonr and writer en in. He became president <4 
(be Sodety of Huial Palnten, and of the Sodety of Anwiku 

BLAStUI (or BixQi:). SAINT, bishop of Sebule or Sns fn 
A*I> tlinot. martyred under Dhxieiian on tbe 3rd of February 
J 16. The Roman Caiholie Church holds his lestival on tbe jrd 
of Febnisry. ibe Orthodoi Ensiem Church 01 ' - — 

Heih I* said (0 have been 
wai beheaded, and this 
always been regarded 1 

prt-RcEomution Englai 

andthccoundlof Oilon 

Owing to a I 

suffering fro 

way to eiecuiion. St Biaiw' 

throat and lung disease*. 

celebrate St Blaiw'sday 


Lth. His 

rlcomber*' irons before he 

rhybe haa 

'hich he b alleged to have woiked 01 


1 of fou 

in Catholic Germany 

particularly devoted worship in Ro 
the middJeof the icih century. 

Set WilKan Hone, £Hry Day Stat. i. an. 

BLASPREHT (through the Ft from Cr ^Xsff^^its. profane 
language, slander, probably derived from root of PUvrw. la 
injure, and M*nl- tpeech), Utenlly, deliDialion or evil speaking, 
but more peculiarly re*iricied to an Indignily offered to the 
Deity by words or writing. By (he Mosaic law death by itaning 
was the punishment for blasphemy (Lev iiiv. ]6). Tbe 7;<h 
Novd of Justinian aulgned death as Ihe penalty, as did aho the 
Capitularies, Thecommon lawol Englard treats blasphemy a« 
an indictable offence. All blasphemies against God, as denying 
His being, or providence, all contumelious rfproacbes of Jtsul 
C3)risl, at) profane scoffing al Ihe Holy Scripluits, or eiposmg 
any part (hereof 10 contempt or lidiculr. an punishable by (be 
temporal courts with fine, Imprisonmeni and also inhmout 
cotporal punitbmcnt. An aci of Edward VI (iM7I npcaM 


Dt of Ibc Loid' 

•blU tatltr 

dcprivHJ oi Ibc benefit of the Am ol 
An act of i6gr-i6«S, coinnionlr 
cnacu Ihil it iny penOQ, cdgcited 
of ihE Cbnstiin (diaiou, tbouJd by wriiing, pnachini, leaching or 
■dviKd^ieiiking.denytny one of ibe Person! or the HoiyTiiniiy 
lo be Cod. 01 (hould ustn or Ruinuin Ihit Iherc lit non (od* 
Ihio o*F, oi (hould deny the Chriitiu rcligioa to be true, or the 
Holy Scripture* to be t)I divine authority, be ibould, upon the 
tnl ofltDce. be rendered Encipeble o[ hokJing uiy office oi pU« 
of tnut, and for Ihe lecond incapable of bringing any action, ol 
iKing guardian or executor, or of Uking a legacy or deed of gift, 
and ihouM lufler three reart' impriunnvent without baiL It 
hai been held that 1 pcrton oHending under the itatutc ia alio 
indictabk at comnMn law IXa v. Carluii, i8i», where Mr 
Juuice Bnt remarki, "In the age of tolenlioD, *bea that 
luiuu paued, neither chuichmeo nor icctariini witbed to 
protect in their infidelity IhoM who disbelieved Ibe Holy 
Scripturei"). An act of i8ii-i8ii eiccptt from tboe eiUKI- 
menta " penoni denying ai thetein mentionRj tnpntinc the 
Holy Trinity." but oiherwite the conimoa and Ibe lUlule law on 
Ihe lubiect remain ai (uied. In the UK of Xu v. ICiufiMii 
(i7>S) ihe court declared that they vould not luBer it to be 
debated "hether to write igainii Chrisiianiiy in piural wai not 
an offence punishable in Ihe temporal courtaalcomnionlaw, but 
they did not intend to indude di^Hjtea betwecD learoed men oa 
paituyJat conlrovcrted poinla. 

The law agaijut t>la^hcmy haspncticatly ceajted lobe put in 
active operation. In 1841 Edward Moion was lound guilty of 
the publication of a blasphcnwui libel (Shelley's ^unn Uib). the 
tutedbyHt ■■ ■ ■ 

had pi 


A four 

aatha' in 

siniilir offence, and wished to lai ihc law under which he 
irai punished. In the cim of Ctaan v. tfilbenrH |iE6r) the 
defendaol had broken hb contraci lo let 1 leciure- room to ihe 
plaiDtiff, on diMOverinf Ihtl the intended lectutct were to 
miiDtain that " the character of Christ is delcciive. and his 
teaduog misleading, and that ihc Bible ii no more inspired than 
any other book." and the court of ' ' 

n the I 

nd Ihe conlracl 

reaflirmed Ihc 
part of Ihe law) 
w (tilth report) 
of the being and 

m ol Chief Justice Kale, that Chth 
ol England. The cammissionen on en 
lemirk thai " although the law forbids i 
providence of C^ or ibe Chiisiiin r _ , 
itrriigian assumes ihe form ol an insult lo Cod and nun that il 
interference of ibe crimirul law hai taken place." In Englar 
the last prommrni prooecuiion (or blasphemy waa the case 
R. V. Ramity tr Fotlc. iS^i; 48 L.T. 7jg. when the ediu 
publisher and printer of the frrelliintcr were Knicnced 
imprison mem; but police court proceedings were taken as la 
as igoS against an obscure Hyde Park oiaUi who had become 

inishable by ll 

r Putin force. In CefiBMiy, tht pwiMaliHH far bll^Wir 
— It vaiying from ooeday lo "' *' 

blatpheny m 
and have we 

BUB. rUKDUCH (iSu-i«07). Gcnnui claMical •cbolar, 
wai bora on tha md of January 184^ at OsMbrUck. After 
aludying at CfltlhigEa and Boon from iSlio to iWj, he kctund at 
•even! gymnaai* and at the univBiily of KOnifibarg. In i»j6 
he waa appolated (ilnantinaiy piofesacr of cluilcd philology 
t( Kiel, aitd ordinary proftMor in 18B1. In iBga he accepted a 
profenonhip at KaUe, wher* he died oa the Itb.of Uarch 1907. 
He frequently visited England, and was intiiu'iely acquainted 
wiib Icatting British scholan. He received an boooniy degree 
from Dublin Uoiveisity in iSoi, and his nadinesa to place the 
results of his Ubours at Ibe disposal ol othen, together with Ihe 
courtesy and kindliness of his disposilkin, won Ihe reqiecl of all 
who knew him. Blosi ii chieDy kaown for hii work* in connexion 
with the study of Greek oratory; Dit i^uciiickc BtniiamtuU 
HH Aleuuio bit aul AKt<uIiu [tUtiV, DiinUiichi Btnitamkta 
(iSbS-iSSoi lod ed., 1SS7-1S9S}, hi* gicaUat woik; editions 
for the Teubner tenn of Andocide* (iKSo), Antipbon (i8Ji), 
Hypereides (1881, iS«m), DemMlbenei (Dindgrf's ed., iggj), 
Isocraics (1886). Dinarthu*(tSH8]. Demoslheol^* (RchdtaU'ed,, 
i8oj), Aetchines (i8g6), Lycurgus, Uacriutt (1901)1 Bit 
Siyllimen ia Witdiat Kttnslpnta (1901); Dit HJiyllimai iv 
oriaitiKJun unJ rOmuckm Knmtproio (1Q05), Among hi* other 
work* are editions of Eudoius of Cnidui(iSS7}, the 'AOgnluv 
ToXiriIa(4lhed.. i(Bj).awork of great importaru;e,and Bacchy- 
lides (ifd, ed., i904);Craiwiiw/iit drr aen/estaiiieii^/scjbnii GnccAucJb 
(i«eii Eng. Itaot. by H. St John Thackeray, ifos)! Httmnta- 
lit iiHd Krilik and Palaepafkit, Biiclnuam, und HamlainJUn- 
kuidt (vol. i, of &lUller'* IlatdtuU ia Uuiuctcn Ahat»K- 
uiijiiiitii/l. iS^ili iSlitTi\tA<atptKlitiaCriKkixtiat\.\i»»: 
Eng. tran*. by W J. Purton, 1890); DU InUrpalaliaiim in da 
Odyiiet (1904): conthbulioni to ColhU'i ^BiuifHifg drr piicU- 
xlun DiJtkliiatluilua; edition* of Ihe texts of certain potlioni 
oliheNewTestameni(GospeUaiid.4cU). Hii lail work was an 
edition of the OiKpkai (i«o6). 

' ' ' : Aadmy, March le, 1907 (J. P. Mahafly): 
ly 1907 Q- E. SandyO. which contains ■!» • 
— J .'-..-..t... . -^ r6miiclun KiMilpnu, 

BLASTINO, the proces* of rending or breaking apart a soM 
body, such a* rock, by exploding within it or in contact with it 
same explosive subsUnce. The explosion is accompanied by Itie 
sudden devclapmeni ol gas at a high tcmpeiatuTe and under a 
tension sufficiently gnat to overcome Ihe reaistance of the 
cnelosing body, which is thus shattered and disintegrated. 
Before the iniroductign of explosives, rock w*i lalioriously 
excavated by hammer and chisel, or by the ancient procesi ol 
" Are-setting," f.i. building a lire against the rock, which, on 
cooling, splits and Bakes ofl. To hasten disialegialion, water 
was oltcn apFdied to the heated rock, the loosened potlion being 
alterwards removed by pkk or hammer arul wedge. In modem 

By the law ol Scotland, as il originally stood, the punishtnenl 
of blasphemy wai death, bm by an act of i8ij, amended in 
j8j7. blasphemy wa* nude puiushable by One or imprisonment 
or both. 

In France, blasphemy (which included, alto, speaking against 
the Holy Vngin and the saints, denying one's faiih, or speaking 
Kiih impiety ol holy things) was from very early limes punished 
with great severity The punishmeni was death in various 
lomis, burning alive, muiiUtian. toriureor corporal punishment 
In the Uniied Stales the common l*w of England was largely 
followed, and in most of the stilet. also, statutes were enacted 
■gainst the eflenct but, a* in England. Ihc law is practically 

Evicw of Dit Kiyllmm dcr ai 

n, bckm the rank of 

nd other hard material, a* In ot 
jnnelling, shaft-sinking and mininj 
For blasting, a hole is generally dj 

■■ riable. d 
:, thesh 

reall n 

» the ex 

cut*, quarrying. 

the presence or absence of cracks or huures, and the position ol Ihe 
hole with respect 10 the free surface of the rock. The shock of 
I blast pr^ucc* impulsive waves acting radially in all ditections, 
Ihe force being greatest at the centre of explosion and varying 
nvcrsely as the square of the distance from the charge. This 
s evidenced by the observed facta. Immediately surrounding 
he explosive, ibe rock is ofien &nely qdintered and crushed. 
Beyond this is a inne in which it is comfdetdy broltcn and 

d^libnd ot prefecud, Icavlai id nwlopint nu* of dmi 
IcB rieied fricturec] rnck nnJy pulMy looicnnl. Lully, 
dinin^Liil wavD produce vibrations which an Imumillc 
considcnbledisLancci. Thcomically, ii4dui|cof expUait 
■ircd ii I ulid nulniAl ol pcrlnlly bDoiogriKsui Liilun an 


ployed lor drilGat iHlBkorfaoaullirn nniud Oikir usb iiiad 

1 on wUh njck-dntlint An l3ke pkk aod nd, 

rilled br hiad lauaHy vaiy in depth from ny 18 10 it in„ 

_~ .L ...— «i pk^ — L -„j pogp q( jj^ work, cnousb 

:k, lanalc-lund drilling u 
, bul thi) differciicedca 

hiaaa oul lo ilie full depth ol 
ibaped civiiy. Ko cock, ho* 
tod physical chincter, u that 

in pncttcc there I> ooly ■ niugh 

shape a[ the mau btasied oui is 

id cleavage planca. The 
ie explosion, of a confined 
SI resbTance ia pToealed. 
it is only by iiial, or by 

D be delt 

pericnce, ill 

properly proportioDed- 

BUaliog. as usually orried on. conqiriiti several opent. 
[i>d[illiD( holes in the rock to be blasled; (1) placing in the 
Ihe charge of tiplosive, mdih iljruH:(j) lamping the charge 
mnptetiog il and filling the iriminder ol the bole ciih 1 
luiiable nutetial foi preventing the charge from blowing 
wiihout breaking Ihe ground; (4) igniting or detonating 
charge; (5) clearing *way the broken materiaL The hole 
bliMing are nude cilber by hand, with hammer and dii 
jumpef, or by machine drill, the latter being driven by sti 
campnsced air, or eleclridly, or.in rare cases, by hydraulic po 
Drill holet ordinarily vary in diamciA- Irom i 10 j in., an 
depth Iton a few inches up to 1 j 01 » It. or more. The dc 
hsietsrt nade only in lurlace excavation ol rock, tbe shallo 
10 a nutiraum depth of say 12 fl., being luitabk lor tunnc 

tvind." In liRBic.ha 


slightly alter every blow ji. . 

prevent (he drill Irom siichiBf last. ... . 

ilrihes, while the olher bokli 

~ and deep holea. two 

Ihe hammc 
keep the b^ mui 


Rnecally of octagonal . ^ -. _ 

forged out to a cutting edge (fa. 1). The cd^ of the drill 
It made either itraichl. like that of a chiset, or with a 

lil*^i ^iraiy' Clara (led 

Fio. J. — IngenolLScrgtanr 

indTiMbit. Whil 
np«i (fig. j»j or. 

Flvven the toot antl floor, or side walls, ol the tunnel or 
line. As the hole ii deepened, the entire drill bead ia 
f«r forward on its support by a screw feed, a iticceisioD 
LOd tongn drill biu beuia used as required, 
the iinmerous types and nako of percusiion drill may 
the following :7-.*deUide. Climaa, Darlinjron, Dubois- 

h^dmpjealol the machine 'drills n [he Darlingion (fiis. 4 
: a IB the cyliodcr: (.piston rod: c, bit: d,d, air inlets. 

■ iDni KAV-bar ccixujni vilh « out on the ur 
Ik. The ihell r ii bolLcd lo the cUmp r. wb 
iBvunled oQ (faFbaUowcolumaor bar f, orofi % tripob, «v«uiiim (■< 
the ch^ncur of ibc work. By main of the idjiauMc cUpip i, 
the (vuchjne can br ■« lor drilling a btJlr in any doiml dincuoa, 
The drill luko [ran 400 to 800 Mroka ps miaine. 

Tbe " New laaenall " drill, mhich may be taken uaneanpli 
gf the numenua DichiBa in oMcli valm ait lun), k ihowa ii 
teclion inAf.6. Theauainorcoidaivivri jlriftriutrihiiiiKff iiinuiDh 
the poruiltemi rely loi J--*.!- 

Ehil purpoae the >li 

cylinder. Thi 
> o( the niaii 

on /'or'dWi'in! 
ecu..intfc Fo 
t lonntudinallv 
1 uak. to whkl 


A fock drill ol entirely difli 
tucceaafully uied in Europe Tor driving milway lunneK It U 
operated bir hydraulic power, the pi»UK ntet being lupplied by 
a pump. The lioltow drilt.bit, which haa a temted cuitini edzr. » 

lonsd under heavy pmuin agiimt the ht ■ -. . t 

[Dtaied ilowly — at lu to diht rcvolutfom 
mill hydraulic cvU-'— ■■- ■- ■ 

Inndl, hai bcei 
' lunneK It li 
leing supplied bj 

a of the hcSi. and' is 

i< the hl!l?b"k 


« Iron 

'I dean and the drili-bi 

diiUi an made in a number ti Attt. [1 
r ol cylinder, the Liger aiut beini caH 
leter and jo it. deep. They : 
<t the drill head (unmounle 
1 Ih eicluiive o) the we>a 

the UTDod, 

farmininjwertoinjl^tojj in. diameiec ol cylinder. In nek of 

per hour. For uae in narmw vetni. or other con'^ workinci 
undetnound. aereral iMnniely Hull and hghl compn id air 
drills Fave been iMrodind, a^ [or cample, the rnnbe and Wonder, 
(he lim rt which weigha complete only ielb,and the Kcond iStb. 
Thaediillt ace held in the handt o( the miner in Ihc reqaited pc^Iion, 
and strike a npid tuccesuan ol li^ht Uowt. A laifi number al 

So«e ioitaie hand^drilUnt in the mode of deliverinff (he blowj iii 

kand driven through gearing by^mJnutive 
DotoTL t Dcae are inicoded Tof boring in coal, slate or other ^mlUr 
aoCi maiHtBl. Haad annra irmiihliiig' * otipemer'i bncc and Wt 
tn alio altto ii«d li caOieriea. 

Whamw ny b* tbi iMChod of drima^ alter the bole baa baea 
cmpleted to tbc depth required, it ij finally cleaned out by a itia per 
or swab; or, when compnaed air drills aie uaed. by ■ iel of air 
directed Into the bole by a short piece of pipe connected rhroogli a 
Reilble bene wttb the compreiaed air lupply pipe. Tbe bole ia amtt 

tlte poaition ol the hi 

^ largely by tbe character 


X ol the fare oT 10 

lu be Uaaled. The m 

is KHnted fnxn the wall-rock by a thin, nft layer of day (D,d| 
61. a). This would act almoat at a free faa. and the Gni hcjca oC 

method, rhe holei c-,^ a tTt^ >a 

aie placed with - ''"■ •• '"^ ■»■ 

some degree of symmetry, tn muchly cOnce n tftc ifn**. aa ahowm 
by figi. 9 and lo. The centre holea are blaned brut, and arq 
followed by the oihen in one or tnore voileya aa indirated by th« 
doited linea. Aimbcr method ia the "centre cut." in which th« 
hola are drilled in pualtH nm on each lide o( the eentiT line of tha 
tunoel drift or Shalt. -ThoM in the two rowaiKaifM the nuddle arc 

Aral blasted out by heavy chargei. after which the ivwi ol ade hola 

will lireak with nlativety light chartta. 

EiflchMi.—A great variety ol eiploaivta are (n oae for blaaiint 

puipoH. Up to iS&«. gunpowder was the only avaitabte 

eipkiiive, hut in ihal year Alfred NobeJ fim applied aitm- 

J :- /, blaalrng, and in 1B67 Invented dynamrte. Tbia 

originally applied to his cuIjiiuit of niuOBlycerin 

ifguhr, bur BDw includea alio other meciunical 

or FhemrtsI compounda which develop a hieb 

rompared with gunpowder. BewIca theie 

ailed BamelcH or aafrty eiploiivei. uied 

■ock-dnPa opem te d by electiiiaty a 

'n and SfenteiH.Halske. Tbe P._. ... 

M ol the otherv havecnnk and sprrni 

j( the plalon. Powei 

_. bbck pcnvder. Fi aeldnn naed fo 
ihatterfnj the atone. — ' ■ ' — " 

' -f^p!^-^ -i-,fc .&-i.-,s '^ ii ■■-■■■ 

^hruiigh the agency ol a fu^ and fulmiaatintt cap. 
■" — .— -L imdinf lore*. Dyna. 

■-- ^"St 

Y k)w pcfwer art doi^tlle ti 

nd are pocked in waterprcwled a 
radea ol dynamite most commo 
1 60% of nitroglycerin; the sir 


liy apuki aad an oM ■> tttily captodcd. Hm an (gwnl M x aBM ■ 

uHf in iniiuot iir about (our uhh aa warrr haib, tbc canria|ct bt 
._,,.. tbc lidn and baainiii by Bun 

NiKRvlycerin ia iu liquid [bnB it now nrrly u>?d (or bUidiVp ""^ "~ 

tertly bccauM in fuD itnnnh ia not oJttn nKCfury but chicAj/ 
br^iuc df tbe difficulty uffilaiifcr oE tniuportji»» lundJEng and 
dur^iof it. H cmpio^d at all. it ia charged id iAjd tjnnoJ pUie 

diarciac it- II «npl<^«l 

■BBPt ■■ nibbsriioui cajtr 

BlattiMi wuk BItk r 

■ui»ny (ran. i lo A In. 

r.— The powder !■ o&ne-cniried, 

, _r. and ia chargnj in papa catndBB, 

Gf a proper diameter to fit loMriy in Ibr diiD 
boie. A pteca of fuac lonf CBouvb to Raeli a tiiUc b^nmd the 
■■Dwtli ol the bole. Ia isitnail in or t^iUtOgc and tied tut. For 
sn bnln |-~«~"' paper ia wbI, iIk miner viiatinofin| the Isiua 
withcna^ Wbea own than one caniidfe ia requind [or the blaal, 
thai which hai the liue atiacbcd ia mually chaijed laiL The 
artiidjca an caMuUy nnmcd dDwa by a wooden tampinf bar 
•MjibetBoinderDdbebalaUMvithumpiac. Tkk cooaCu ol 
6i>d|r bnihia lock, diy day or MhM ceouiButadBBIeflal. carefully 
CDinpacled by the umpinf bar on top of the chaije. The line ia a 
cdrC having ia the ceotR a con of ninpowder, eadoied In avcral 
layen of Bom or bemp wmrprDflfedcoverint. It ii igniied by Ibe 


at one end. It ia fired inlo the cbarse Ihroti^ a chajUKl in the 
cavpinf. TbBChannelaiay be lormedbya pieceof I in- na pipe, 
(atntmlia the bale and HMhiaa ibe ahaifei or a " needlh'' a king. 
upcr inin isd. it laid loBfiiudiiiaUy in tW hol^ with iB poir- 

enlciinf the chu]— --'-•^-^■<- I—i— :. i-^-u ■ r..ii 

frithdnwin the 
(quib ia bad. Ir 

en'" "~ 

walB bath placod ovn a andle or i 

J n t WD veiaclt, ■ niilac to tha above. ■ 

ipied by air. provided the boat applii 

at by uBn( a caodla. (J) Wbcn lane i 

uKdawpplymaybcliMC--'-' — -■ 

d to a UBlud exieiH. ij. plun of dry waod driven liahily 

w of dfIB hofet, and whidioBbcinc wetted awell and aplit 

- — ij."-, cantidgn. which eapand powerfully — •■" 

; tinpla wBd|e>. drivHi by haoner it 

^.c wodieK nuOKd ia tha boka aad «| 

tar hydiaulic pmauie froia a (nail hand loRe-puap. 

Alaifiif vA /fit* Eiffanu.—Hvh oploaive* an find 
Sy etdieary '■"> and deionating cap or by cicclric Cub. Den 
apa of enUnary tmaalh contain ID to IS fnini of fulm 
Sturt. Tbecapitc>SBp«l(i|k(OBtbenido(lh(fua.ein 
ia lb* cartridn. and OB bent aaplKM Iw (n Inw Ibe luat dc 
Ibtchane. Thenunber otcaitridicacharnddcpcndtaa tbedepth 
a bote, tbe lenclh of the One sfkan nluanre, and the tonthnna 
and atW cfcaneteriMica ol iha mcL Each cartridge ahouid be 

teSdIy taiaped.aad,tssvoid waano i-.i—t-^ -i — ■ .u 

nducc Ibe cflect of iha Uau. ii it 


phead la (be caitridta pnodini the bu one chtned. b 
Mm' M> incft it Ian. la a piece «f cviridie cnlied a " | 
Thoiiih the dynanitot an not eanloded by ipnrl^ •><•» 
■evtnbebaadnyabchandMcanfuUv. It u » 

- 'iKly and an Ih '' " " 

ick powder, be 

vinod, at it it 

ID cbainai btadt pow 
ncfiat nin of Ike n 


fnlDlaadnf . 

druaDlt*. TUtiifpeciti^'tiiieif ibewcalbiTbcaidl Dytmai<i_ 
then bvCOifiea leu ecniilivc, and Ibe canridset thauld be icnior 

Poitooona iunet act olien |miidncvd by the e a pio ai on 
riyccrin compoandi. Thne are probably lartely due < 
decoaatiDo. bv which part of tbe aiBra|lyctnn ia nporized or 
BKiity bwned. Tbit it mott likely to onur when Ibe dynamite it 
chilled, or of poor quaEty, or when the cap it too wcaL Then » 
teiicnlly but little iiKOflvcnlcoce from ibc lamea. cacept in confintd 
undefxioqad worhian where ventilalion ia imperfect. 

Lika nittotlyeeriB, ibteaaMiaa dyaaniicadceae at a (OMpoUu 
d InMi ai* to 46' F. Tbey an Ibea conpanlivelv tale, and ao ti 
at poaiilile tboald be traniponed In Ibe Inmn itate. At very lO' 
tempentatea dynanitt again becomet toniewhat temldve 10 fhocl 
When It b froten at ordinary t ampet a tuna even the a t aoneft- 
dctDontiiif capalail todci^iaptb*I«niana. !■ ibawioB dynaaoM, 
can mull be eierrited. The lact that a •nail quantity win atUa 
iHirn quietly hai led to the dafqterouity mlacaken notion that mert 
faoadnfl win Bot cavia ^ikiioa. tt it cbleAy a qneftion of tempera- 
ton. If Ibe qoantity ignited by laaa be laiie eooafh to beat tbe 
entin Daaa to the detonating point bay jM' F.) btloR aU it oan- 
umed. aa eiplnian wiD roult. Tiinheiiwon, djjnamta. wbea 
•eia Bodcnldy bcaltd. br " '*-*- 



prtpanlo ._ 

asdthtn to nach a ptaca 

ia innimltted. AboUhi ■ 

'anger of a bole " han^nf an,' WBica aoineiimca 
auiea acddeata in luing onboary fwte^ 
Hanfing fin nay be due to a cut, brakea or dam. 
fed powder fuae. whU nay anoulder for tone tine 
cfon conuHinicxting fin to tbachaE^- " Miia-firea." 
ibich alio an of not jnfteqwnl occurrence with both 
otdioary and eleclrie futa. antniei wheneipksion 
'-Dm any caun laili to take place. Alter waituig a 
-jffident length of time hefon approachiAg the chatged 
hole. Ibe miaer carefully removct ihe tarrpihr down to 
--"■-'- a lew Jnchen of the eiploiivti and ineni and 
._.- _nother cartridge. Ihe coocinaion mually detonai- 
inc tbe ealin ehaigc. Sometlmet another hole it 
drilled near Ihe one wMch baa ndiied. No atlaiipi to 
remove the old charge ahould ever be made. y,k ■ ■ 

HMi IcnAin electricity. gnenKd by a frtctioiul cfMrial 
■aclunc. provided with a condenter, wn lofmerly p„„ 
' uied (or Uaning. The ban ooda of the (uie 
In the detonating cap an placed aay | in. apart, leaving 
_ __.) acnaa which a iparh it aitchargrd. patiiq|^ through t 
priniiig charge vi tome len&tlvc compoiiiion. The priming 
It not only combivllblc bui alas 1 conductor of ekctricily, 



Snaied by a imall. porubia dyatno. ofieraied ^ haad. or nw be 
ved from a battery or fron any convenient eloctiic circuit. The 
— It ol the (aae wirei In tbc detonalint tap are connecied by a 
: plaiinun Alauenl (fif. 11). embedded In a guacMlon ptimint 
top ol the lulmlnallat adalun, and exploiion reauha (nm the 
il generated by ibe rea te ann oi 

eiptodeiiaiullaneoinly., Tbeprematunapki^DBof asyoneol Ibc 

In Ihe actnal ooeratioiia of UaMing. definite nilet for ihc cm- 
ponloning of thechargcaan nnly obterved. and although the blam 
nude by a ikiUul miaer teUom (aU to do Iheir work. It ii a commoB 
lault that tte much, nihcr than too Kllle. eiploiive it uied. The 
high ciploiivei an ipectaily liablr to be wa»tfd, prttebly IhiOufh 
lack of appneiation of Ibnr power at compaml with that o( black 
powder. Anoiit the Indiatina of eiceidve chanei in Ibe ptO: 
ductloa of much Bnelybrshaarocknof cmhcd and ipliniend rock 
around the bottom ol tha hole, and ei ' " ' 



HI chirtM (Pd dcplFn ol hoV. and noting the 
' put id cha^e of one oi mon tkilkd men. 

COBIWCUd with thtin, ■ number ri chimhetB ate eiuvded ta 
IKtive the Chufea el ejtplaefvf. Tlie prepirflEioD for Hich blutl 
nuy occupy tuodthB. ■lu ouny itma U iunpowder or dytumite 
■n u timei etploiM iliiiiiluuieowly, bteakini or ii^aifiot thou- 
•uidi, or gvtil liuiKb«d»ii( ilmaaiuti, of lou of rock. Thii melhod 
11 wla|il«d lor nuinr nam cheaply, ai.Cor buiktini piacadaniiied 
foadi. ilaina ana btolmttn, obaiaiec limeMone lor blut rurnm 
Ilia, and oixvimlly in eacavallnc tail* railwav cvltinfL Ei is 

navifatiofL and lOfaeiuiDC* for WMCnitif enteniive bapLi of pirtl/ 
cetncated gdd-bDarinf iraircl. prrpoiatory to waiiiinf by bydrauijc 

AUTHOaniiu. — For lutther Inlonnalion on dnDitif and bliHinc 
«ci— Callon, t^lK"! n »■■»( (1S76). vol. L cbi. v. and vi.: 
Fauer, Ttil-btai ^ On tmil Sum Miiint, (i9cia).ch. Iv.: HuiKn, 
reO-toct tl r«f jJiiiei (1901), ch. iiLi H. 5. DHnker, Tnndiiof 
OiflniH Ccmptmiidi enS h^t thiOi litjt): M. C. lldMx. Uantat 
14 Uim\*t 11905)' PP- VM^i KOMei. Dit Bv^m^Hii (rS^?). 
ap. icH-iog; D(>. ffa iJailuf ^ Kxi (itot): PrBdI. Eon* a«l 
KkjI fijEcoEoIuii liyij). chi. v..vj.andv]|.:Cill«le. Tkt Eaaaliim 
af JiKit (1904); Cuttnunn. StaMnt <l^)|! %»n'i Ditliiiary ff 
£>i(ii»rrii(, an. " Berini aiad BlaitW -^j Eialer. J/mfni J}/{lt 
CMidonii (iStJ). PIi. ii. and iii.i Wiltc, IMkw w E^pUiiw 
tlW). chi. «jt.-xiii. AlHi: IVn. /nit. Cn. £>ti. <L«ndDn). 
vol. iiuv. p. 1641 Troai. Ina. Hi: Bmi. (Enilandl.Hili. liv.. >v. 

p. 108! Tram. Amrr. Sx. 
T. Ina. Urn. ^-^vej. ■ 

Ent. Ski., voTviL ,. ^ 

Src^Suai A/Hta. Aat<M imiSili«1iif KitiQiiarurly.N. 
vol ix. p. joSi CstiiCTjr CurAaa, April ij, i>9a. and February 6, 
1903: IrijKi a*J i(i«n/i. February 1905. p. u8, January igob. 
p. 1J9, and Aatlt 1006. p. jn: £»{■ "W i/imar Jnr.. April 19. 
lyu. p. 5SJ; Tht Eaxmar, Febniary 14. 1909; Eltc. Ka.. Iiinr 9. 




K*r. /. Brrf 11. 



8. i«oj and 



IB- P-) 

BUUBEUREN. a lavn of Ccim 

any, in tli* kingdoio of 

which it ii connecled by 

riLUwiy, Pop,(i9oo)jii4. 



«Bd deep valley ol the S-abia 



ol 1600 It. and 

nl wati 

a. Of the 

thiee churdic* 



is the abbey church (KfurerHrctr). a late Cothk building dating 
(ram i4(s~i49A, the choir of which containi beautiful ijth 
century carved choir-itiUi and a fine high aliir with a iriptydi 
(I4v6). The choir only is used (or wrvloc (Pn>t«tant). the nave 
bein|uud u a Kymnuium. The town church ISiadlkirckt) alio 
baa a fine altar with tiipiyrh. The Benedictine abbey, [oiinded 
in 109J, wu UKd after the Relormalion ai a ichool, and ia now 
■n Evangelical theologica] Miainaiy. Then an two boipilals 
in the lawn, 

iheoiophiii, wai bom ai Ekaurinoilav, on the jiit ol July (O.S.) 
iSji,the daughter of Coloul Peter Hahn,RnKmberDla Mecklen- 
burg family, lettied in Ruuia. She nurifed In bei leventeeath 
year a man veiy much hei leniar, Nicephon BliviUky, ■ 
Ruuian official in Caucasia, from trham !Jie wai Kparaled after 
a lew montha; In later daya, vlien scelting to invat henelf with 
a halo of vir^nlty, ihe deiCTibed the FnaTTtage as a nominal ime. 
During the neil twenty yean Mnw Blavatsky appears to have 
tcavelled widely In Canada, Teiat, Mexico and India, with two 
atlcDipu on TdKt. In one ol thew ihe seems lo have cmued 
the frontier alone in diiguise, been loM Id the desert, and, after 
many adviniures, been conducted back by a parly oi horsemen. 
The years from 1S4B to 1858 were aUudcd 10 jubsequenlly as "the 
veiled period " of her life, and she tpoke vaguely of a seven yean' 
•Djoum in " Little and Great Tibet," or preferably of a " Hima- 
layan lelreaL" In 1858 she nvisited Runia, »h*« she CRiied 
BKuatioauaipitllualuUcnediuiii. About tlioihttcquJted . 

piomlnenee among the ipiriiualiiu of the Doited Suiici, when 
she lived for sii years, becoming a Damialiied dliien. Her 
leikure was occupied with the study of occult and kabbaliAiic 
liierature, to which she soon added ibat of the tacred writings oJ 
Inctia. through the medium of translatiou. In 1875 she conceived 
the plan ol combining the spiritualistic " control " with iha 
Buddhistic legentla about Tibetan sagn. Henccforlli she 
determined lo eidude all conitol save that of two Tibetan adept* 
or "mahatmas." The mahalmas exhibited their " aatiil 
bodies '* to her, " precipitated " mr sia f ri whidi reaped her 
from the conSnes of Tibet in an instant of lime, supplied her with 

ver^oD of sceptics. At New York, on the 17th of Noveabn 
1875. with the (id of Colonel Henry 5. (Mcolt, >he founded tlu 
" TheOHiphical Society "with Ihe object of (i } foiining ■ univenal 
bntherhoodof man.li) studying and making known the aadtnt 
religions, philosoF^ies and sciencea, (j) investigating the lawa of 
oatun utd developing the divine powen latent in man. Tlx 
Bnhmanic and Buddhistic h'icratun supplied the society with 

Egyptian, lubtuUstic. occultist. Indian and modem spiritual- 
iilic ideal and (ormulai. Mqk Blavatsky 'a principal books were 
/iijr/i»nl<rf(N» York, 1877). TkeSartlDKlrinf.UuSjMJuiii 
RelipenanJ Piiloiof Ay UiSi), Tlu KejITIuBUtky 

Ot). The t* 

>f the« 

tie's Kayal 

iiaunU Eiuyclefaeda, C, W, King's Ctuaiia. Zel 

works on magic by Dunlop, E. Salvcrte, Joseph Enoemaaer, and 
Des Mousseaui. and the mystical wriliogs of Eliphaa Levi (L. A. 
Constant). A Otisart of TlmiiipkUat Ttrmi (iSqo-iBqi] wu 
compiled for the benefit of tier ditfiplea. Btit the appearance of 
Home's Lifkli and Siadna 0/ SFiriluilim liBj)) had a pre- 
judicial effect upon the propaganda, and HeUoaa P. Blavalaky 
(as she began to style herself) rctlteij to India. Thence she con- 
Irihuled wnie dever papeii, " From the Cava uid Jun^ea of 
HindDsiao " [published sepamtely In English, London, 1891) to 
the Ruish Vytslnik. Defeated in her object of obtaining aa- 
pkiynenl in the Russian secret service, ifae tenuned her eflbrta 
to gain converts to Ihcosophy. For lUs piupeoe Ihe eihibitian 
ol " physical phenomena " was found aecessaiy. Her jugglery 
wat cleverly conceived, but on three occasions was eipated 
in Ihe moat conclusive manner, Nevtrtheleu, her devemess, 
volubility, energy and will-power enabled her to maintain her 
ground, and when she died on the Sth of May 1891 (White 
Lotus Day), at the theosophlcal headquarter* in the Avenue 
Road, London, she was the acknowledged bead of • comnnniiy 
numbering not far short of 100,000, with jounulittic organ* in 
London, Paris, New York and Madras. 
Muehin" " " " 

, (iB9s),inAi 

uiiy and Her Tkmotkj (189;), and in 
.:.... ,_ D„-t;^, R^n-h i^Se Cambi 



eraduaie despatched ic 

English dauical scholar, was bom at Hampton Court Green, on 
the igth of SepIcmlieT 1818, being a coUatenl descendant of 
Andnw Marvel), the satirist and friend of Milton. He ms 
educated at St Peter't school, York, and Christ Church, OiFord. 
He wu Hettfoid scholar In 183S, took a tecond dasa in liierae 
humsniores in 1S40, and was subsequently elected to a student- 
ship at Christ Church, In 1841 he took ordira, and fimn 1843 
to igS( wa* vicar of Hariingworth in Nonbunplonshiic. DarinB 
a long life he devoted himsell almost enlitely to the study of the 
Greek drunalisls. His editions and philokigicat papen are 
remarkable for bold conjectural emendations of corrupt (and 
other) passages. His disiinciton was recogniird by his being 
made an honaiary LL.D of Dublin, Ph.D. of the univenity of 
Buda Pest and a fellow of the royal society of latter* at Athena. 
He died at Southsea on the 7 th of September 1908. 

with crilical nolei and ciHnn>rntary (1880-189}): Ontfl. J^>Mrl 
A*in. H'u^4it7i-i87Sl:0^<rD(hiiiJd. with critical noita {im6); 



Sapkodtai (MMh CUhmm. IMMm Tjnama ud ^HMinH On 

C im ii. m ■ « al«H f M AafUHiria (1*90): n 7>af>«m CroK. 
Au. (Ilu), in XmcMhi (1I911I, » Vonn l>g(lu (rfWH d 
L^Hf (tM), ^ i(rlM>^la*»t T>*»9K <■ SfHaebm (l»«1, fr. 
BmipiiMm hfDi). <■ Bmdeiam hvu); Aaattaa Ciiirica Cram 
<l90i);.<i»licl« TyttfCf" U90«)< 

BUTDOII, wi Drian dliUJct ia the ChcMcr-le-Slntt pariii- 
Mnlmiy diftatai of Durhuo, England, on tht lyae, 4 m. W. d( 
KewaitlebiribTOidioftheNorth-EuIetnrulKay. Pop.{iSSi) 
Io,tSj; (igoi) IQ,6l7. Tlu cliief iixluiUki ue caal-oiiiung, 
iRH^fatnKUnf, l^pA, fire-brick, chemical muiurc uid bottle 
I— —*-""— In the vldnlty Ii the beiulitui old muisloa at 
Siclla, uid below It StctUheugh, to which the victorious Scottlih 
umy pQwwl from Newbuin on the Nonhambctkiiil bulk in 
iS^o, after which they occupied Newcutle. 

BUTB-n-ITI LDCB, ■ town of loatli-wealem Fnnoe, 
cipitil of an imindincnieiit In the depulmest of Clrosde, on 
the ri^t bank of the Cirooda (here over i m. wide), 35 m. N. of 
Bordeuu by laU. Pop. (1906) of the town, 3413: ot the oom- 
DDBe, 4890. The town hu a ciudd hnfll by Viuban on a nxl 
beiide the tiver, and embiadog In Iti eaceinte rulni of an old 
Cuthic lUteau. The laltei coDtaint the tomb of Caribett, king 
of Toulonie, and Ion oi OatsiK U. Blaye i* alw ddended by 
tbe Fort ntt on an UaDd la the rivet and the Fon UMoC OR It* 
left bank, both of tlu i]th oeuloiy. The town li the Kit of > 
■lb-prefect, and haa tribunal* of b*t iittauce and of coonneKa 
and > camBBoal eoUeie. It ba* a unall rint^Mict, aad cairici 
oiiln(leiiiwine,br*Ddy,grain,fni]ttadtiniber. The Indu*ti[et 
iadtule the buitifiDt of null veuel*, dlitilUng, floiir-mIIlIn& and 
the nuiBuhciun ol iM and caudki. Fine led wine fi produced 
in the diitiict. 

Ia aocknt time* Blaya (Bteiii) wu a port of tho Santone*. 
Tradition Wate* that the hero RoUod wit buried In Iti basilEca, 
which wat on tlK lite (tf the dtadeL It wai eaily an Important 
(tiDo^Mld which played an Important part in the war* a(ain*t 
tlu En(Uih and the Rcllgiaut Wan. The ducbcM of Beny waa 
bnpii»Ded in it* loniesi la 1831-1833. 

lUlZB (A.-5. ilaat, a torch), a fiie or bright flame; men 
neariy nkin to the Ger. Uaa, pala or *>i<iitwg white, la the uae 
ol the tntd lor the white mark cat the face of a hoiae or cow, 
and the American uk for a mark nude on a tree by cuttlnt off 
a piece ol the bark. The word " to blue," in Iho kuo o( to 
Doiae abroad, come* (ram the A--S. iloeiaB, to blow, cL the Ger. 


a, It bcc 

BLAZM, a bcnidic ihf^, a coat ot arm* pnperfy _. 
■oibed " acsordlng to the rule* of heraldry, hence a proper 
henUle deacrfption of luch a coat. The O. Fr. Uastm Kem* 
oH^nally to have raeaat limply a thJetd at a mc«n> of defence 
and not a ihield-ihaped luilace fat the daplay of atmoriil 
'"■""pi but thi* i) difficult 10 tecondie with the generally 
accepted derivation from the Cer. blaim, to blow, predAim, 
EngUih "bbue," to aoI>e abtoad, to declare. In the ifith 
century the hetidiHc tenn, and " blazs " and " blaion " In the 

BUACHUia, the pmoe** of whitening or depriving objecu 
of cskoi, an operation Incesuntly In activity in nature by 1* 
mB..»nf> of-li^t, alt ud RMdaturc. The art of bleaching, 
which ■* have ben to treat, con^ta In inducing the lapid 
•peiation id whiteaini igCDdei, ud ta an Indnitiy It k moally 
diieclal to ootton, Gnen, iBk, wool and other textile Abies, bat 
It i* abo applied to the whitening of papepinilp, bea*-wu and 
■one eB* and other wibitancet. The term bleaching is derived 
lioai the A.-S. tlmcaH, to Ueidi, ot to fade, from which also 
cofnt* the cognate Germin word NtitiiH, to whiten or r 
palb Bleacben, down to the end ol the lEth cenlnty, 
known In England a> " whittlets," a name obviouily derived 
fioai the aatute of their calling. 

The operation of bleaching mull ftom it! vely nitun be of 
lb* lame antiquity a) the work of waihing tcitnic* of Uocn, 

ooUon or other vegctahia fibita. Oothing repeatedly waibti, 
and eipoied in the open aii to diy, gradually ns ii m ei a ■nbita 
and whiter hue, and our aacesloia cannot have failed to notice 
and take advantage of this lacl. Scatttly anything u known 
with certainty of the art o[ bleaching as piactisal by the nation* 
of antiquity. Egypt in eariy ages wu the great centre cf teilile 
nunulacturcs, and her white and coloured Uneni were in hi^ 
repute among contemponuy natioaa. Ai a unilormly well- 
bleadied baii* ii neceuary lot the production ol a latiifaciary 
dye on cloth, it may be asnuned thai the Egyptiaiii weic I^iiy 
proGcient in bleaching, and that still mote (o were the Pboe- 
niciini with their brilDani and fanwui purple dyea. We learn, 
from Pliny, that diflerent pbnti, and likewiie the ubei ol planlt, 
which no doubt contained alkali, were employed as detergents. 
He rnentloni particularly the Slruikium as mudi used for 
bleaching in Greece, a plant which hm been identified by ume 
with CyfHpkila Sinilkiuiii. But as it doei not appear from 
John Sibthoip'i Flora Graaa, edited by Sir Jimea Smith, that 
this tftda is a narive of Greece, Dr Sibthoip'i conjecture that 
tiv SlntHiim o( the aiuienU wu the Sopeuaria qgUiHelii, a 
phut conunon in Greece, is certainly more probable. 

In modern times, down to the middle ol the 18th century, 
tlie Dutch potscHcd ahnoit a mom^uly o[ the blfarhing trad* 
although we find mention of bleach.worki at Southwaik seal 
London aa early 1* the middle of the i7lh century. It w>* 
customaiy toiend alt the brown Unen, then hiigely minuTactuted 
In Scotland, to Holland to be bleached. It was lent away in Iha 
month ol Uatch, ud not tetumed till the end al October, being 
Ibna out of the handf ot the merchant mon than half a year. 

The Dutch Doda of bleaching, which was mouly conducted 
In the nel^ibouriiood of Hiariem. waa to steep the linen Snt 
In a watte lye, and then for about a week [n a potash lye poured 
over It boiling hot. The doth being taken out of thii ly* and 
washed, wu next put Into wooden vesBeli containing butter* 
milk.inwhidiiClayunderapTesHuieforfiveoriiiday*. After 
this it wu spread upon the grass, and kept wet ioi (cvenl 

In 1718 Jame* Adair (mm Bdfait pni[i«wd to the Scottish 
Board of Manufacture* to establish a bleachfield in (jaUowtyi 
this pRfwsal the board approved of, and in the iiino year le- 
aohnd to devote Iteco ai premiunu for the estaUiihment ol 
bleachfieU* throughout the country. In i;ji a method ol 
bleaehing with kelp, Introduced by R. Holden. also from IMind, 
wu Hibmitted to the board; and with their assiatanca Holden 
^tfhii^kMi ( hu..-iiKji/< fat prccecutiog bis process at ntkena. 

The t'V'-i"'"! pnotn, at u that lima petfoimed, was very 
tedlouii occnpying a complete tummer. It consisted in steeping 
the doth In alkaline lye* for several da>i, waihing it clean, 
and spreading it upon the gius for soma weeks. The steeping 
in alkaline lyes, oUled tiicUnt, and the bleaching on the grass, 
called anjiint, were repeated alternately for five or lil timei. 
The doth was tbentleeped tor same dayi in sour milk, washed 
clean and crolted. Tbeia procesie* were repeated, dlminiihing 

acquired the requisite whilencu. 

For the lint improrcmcnt In this tedious proctit, whidi wu 
faithfnily copied from the Dntdi blearhficlds, manufacluien 
w«s Inddtted to Di Fiud* Home of Edhibur^ to whom tlK 
Board of Ttuitea paid £100 for hit eipeiimenta In bleadiing. 
He ptopoied to nibstitute water iddulated with nilphuric acid 
lor the sour mUk pevtoutly employed, a uggestion made ui 
couequenoe of the new mode of preparing nilphuiic acid, con- 
trived some time belote by Or John Rodwck, which reduced 
the price of that idd to Its* Ota one-third of what it had 
Ibtmeriy been. When till* dungs waa Gist adopted by the 
bleachers, thero wi* the nme outay against ita csmHive effects 
at aiDie when diloilna wa* mbttltuted for oofting. A great 
advantage wa* found to tenlt from tha tue of sulphuric add, 
whidi was that ■ souring with tulphuric add required al the 
tongeit only twsnty-four hoon, and often not more than twelve; 
wboea*, when toot milk waa employed, lii weeks, w even tw» 


Dontbi, w 


mtnhiat lo dispose a( hisKDodiw much the sooDU, tad <niae- 
qutnlly 10 [rade wiib las apiwL 

Ns [urthcr modifidtlan of couequaice vu btrediuxd b> 
the lit till the yai 17S7, wim ■ nxnt imporUDl dunsc nt 
initialed by the u3eo[cKlorine(j.i.). in tlenient which hud b«n- 
diKovcnd hy C W. Sdierle in Sweden about thirteen yenn 
bclore. TTie dtscoyeiy thtt lhi« )ps poraeraei the property ol 
desiroyinE vegetibk colours, led ficnhollei to suspect that it 
might be introducnl with idvutige into the art of bleaching, and 
Ihai it iroukl enable practical bkacheti gieaily to shorten their 
processes. In a paper on cbkrine or oiygcnated muriatic 
acid, read before the Academy of Sdenees at Psrii in April 
T7SJ, and published in the Jnnut it Pkjtiqta for May of the 
lame year (vol. iivj. p. jij), he mentions that he bad tried the 
eSect oi the pis in Ueicbing doth, and found that it answered 
perfeclty. This idea b ttiU Further developed m a paper on the 
same substance, published in the Jtunel ie Pkynqite for 17S6. 
In i;g« be exhibited the experiment to James Walt, who, 
immediately upon his return to En^and. commenced a praclicai 
eiaminalion of the iubjcct, and was accnrdin[ly the person 
who first introduced the new method of bleaddng Into Great 
Britain. We find (ron Walt's own mtimany that chlorine was 
practically emptoyed in the bleachfietd of his father-in-law, 
Ur Macgregor. in ihe Dcighbourluwd of Glasgow, in llarch 17^7. 
Shortly thereafter the method was introduced at Abetdeen by 
Messrs Gonlon, Baritin ft Co., on inlorautjon received From 
De SaUEure ihroush Pnftstot Palrich Copland of Aberdeen. 
Thomas Henry of Mancbeslei wu the first tobleach with cUorine 
in the Lancashire district, and to his Independent investigations 
Bercral of the earty inprovtBenCi in the applicatioa of the 

In these eirfy eipetitBents. the bleacher had to make his own 
tUariiK and the goods were bleached either by erposing them 
b chambsi to the aciiou oi the gas or by sleeping them in Its 
aqueous solution. If we consider the inconveniences which must 
have arisen fn worting with such 1 pungent substance as free 
chlorine, with Its detrimental eBecl on the health of the wort- 
people. It will be readily understood that the process did not at 
Erst meet with any great ainouiil of success. The first important 
improvemeDI was the Intioductioo in 1791 of en die Jatd, 
which was prepared at the Javel works near Paris by absorbing 
chlorine in a sotation of potash (r part) in water (S parts) until 
eflervescence begaiL The greatest impetus to the Ueaching 
ibdiotry was, howevet, given by (be bKrodoctiou in 1799 <i 

Gbagow, whenby the Ueacber wit tamritod with a riagcat in 
solid form which contained np to one-tbiid of ita weight of avaO- 
■Ue chlorine. Latterly (requeot attempts ban been made to 
Rplace bleacbing-powder by hypodUorile of sods, which is 
prepared by the bleacher aa required, by Che electrolytic decon- 
poaitien of s solution of common salt in specially coastnicted 
cells, but up 10 the preieai this mode ol pioceduie has met ^th 
only a limited luccoi (aec Aluu MAtnTntcnnt)., 

ffitacUsg ff CattiL 
. Cottoa b bleadicd Is the raw state, aa yarn and bi the pien. 
!■ the nw state, and as yam, (he only impDritIa present are 
those *hick are naturally contsiaed in the Gbra and which 
inchide ootlon nvti fatty adds, peciic suhsianco, coloDring 
■tatters, atbuminoids and minenl matter, amounting in all to 
BoaM5%oIihe wejghtof the matetiaL Both in the raw state 
ud in the maoofacttued conditiiHi cotton also contains small 
Msch particles which adhere firmly to the nulcrial and an 
as " Pbotex." These consist of Fragments of 
n seed husk, which cannot Iw complelely removed by 

leans. The bkadung ol cotton pieoes a more 

since the M eac b er a called DTnn to remove the 

lb wiib which the 

lesTlag (see hdow). 

In principle, the hIeaiAIng of coltoD Is > compuatively sln^ 
process in whtch three main operatioua are involved, via. (i) 
boiiing with an alkali ; (s) Ueaching the organic colouring Dbatters 
by means of a hypochlorite or some oilier ondiring agent; 
Cj) sourlog, !.(. trebling with weak hydrochloric or sulphuric 
acid. For loose cotton and yam thoe three operations ate 
sufficient, but lor piece goods a larger number if opersiioDS ii 
usually neceasary in order to obtain a satislactoiy r^ulL 

lata Ctatm. — The bkacUgg at loose or raw cstu pmriaw to 
■ptniiiiM is only carried otit to a very limited cxum, and c 
eSKntiaiiy in GrH steeping ihr maieiul in a wami nKiEion t 

liaiiy in GrK steeping ihr m 
me houriL after whic^ it is t 

In order 

uu with weak Bulohuiv or bydmchloric acid 
fished free from add. Careful Irearment b wc 
Lvoid any undue nulling of the fibres, while any c 
adi as beating with nuMic soda and loap, as tn 

vntdd thnlw be retaayed, aad chis would detract from ibc sp 
qualities ot the fibre, la case the cotion ii noi inieiKbit to be 
but is to serve Ibr eottoa wool orfor ihe manuracture of gun c 
employed, and ia. in '-^ -■-- 

— - — , — In principle the pnceanemplDyed-... .....,...» 

caK. but the machiaen neeesaarily ditera. Moat yarn is h 
in the hank, and it will suffice 10 give an acmnt ol Ihia 
only. TIk •cqiKBCc of operations is the ' "- 

material after dryia^ in 
on hanks 

■a the UeafKngc* 

„ in the Uquai , 

kmllBiMesol ihevM. Far hlacUng wain bulk. 

ibis mode <i procedure would inveJve so nuia manual labour that 
the pnccaa would bec ome loo eapensiv^ It 1^ Iheieforv. naioty 
frith the obiect of eco n o m y that madiiaery hu been iatroduced, 
by OKini of wUiA larfe quaarliKS an be dak with at a time. 
The fim opBuiDB. via. that ol txaUnc in sjkali. Is aniRl oat la 
" tier." a larj^ egg-ended. Mpfight cyUndricai veaeL eommicrcd 
oikr-platcaadcipableDf tTentingrnm one to three tons a( yam 
■ " ■ ' nrn bkaching arc 

<«bd<iw). The 


with tbt aQBline lye tj^ % d Bda aih or a % 
■-'- ' -■ ^ — beint usually employed) 

' *'V°^ stuold be maiauined darisg the 

«. «»^ -.^« ... . .«« low pRBure kiers (worlong up to 10 b 
p r ea aur e) are enrpSoyed for yaro bkaching. tbou^ some b l p a chrr a 

Wbaa the hllinihaaooiitinaed for the requidte tins (6-S hours), 
>e Btaaa ia atnt oQ. and the Ucr Equor bkiwo o>. when tb* yam H 
--'-■ •-'•-^—thr m^ the latter with iraler and (hen conidi^ 
bi&gRpeatedlwoar three timet. Thehankiare 

m the w^n of the cc 
WV^glt™--' ■- 


from beocath which a pipe coanect* the dttein with a wen slitiaieil 
bdow the Boor liK. ^he well conaiiB a iolutini si btfacUag- 
pDWder. usually at a* T«. ttreagth. and this is drawn np by naeaoa 
-' irifi^JbrasBjwmpaad showered over the top ol the good* 

1 w3l be fiMiid to bt 

■0^ powder remains in the goods. , The sowing is nerf carried out 

t^SX^ add ;: r- Tw. tJ~,b^h^ » h^"^ tU^^!^ 

lOowed to diaia. aad Ihe yam is thaiHighly washed to remo 


kiinilomlydisiributnlthiaiglMMrtbemateriaL The yarn a 






TW AdolboBiac -Ml tlUihtoRBBntli* BM<fc'*dd. tb* riHT 
Ksk. MR -rf ilw caaoo mu ux) llw bulk of tb* cokniniia mini, 
vbileilwilbuiiiiiiaidiindMnnwIiBd tht iBOicinnllHl up. II 
mme be uwd ilana wiili llw iHaS, ibe ohgli ol tbc *u u nnovcd 

■ad ibc hvpoclili 
HMtttcr Kill rmu 
Ibc HaH I' -' 

ftcj uc rem™ 

■hlbdy iiid 

muLolni Imm ihc Ini opcnikM, tnti 

all lr«[nicnta ind arc tbua nnwvoL In ibe 
a» Uv liiaa wbtch baa baaa dtpoaitad oa tte 
i^jBHBt iriib blaachiiil pinxlv U diaaoivcd, 
dmr any otbar oMuUie oiiilca Qnni, npp«. 


be avnded aa mucl 

tbrwBbout at full wUH) 

Tacinai biilk si 
iiclMf ntetfcd hhI 

ink |«u io •!■ miautti. 

For vclvWMUfc « 
ind otiier fabrka in which cnaali 

md Inn (iM be Tta da«h •■»■ enr« nil A, ud la p 

rbc plat* a ia Ibonufbly dried and piapvad lor tfar ■■ 

»vta whci il dnaea lo Ihe hjchly-baaud plan fr. A bl 

anyine Iwa laila is Ibe afiaa btfrnmn the plaia. oia be rai 

IswinJaii >a is incnaae or leiiea Ihe pfi iw of Ike dnih a 

'■eplala.ar, il iiifi^q . rn lilt ll guh* tni of cnntacl witb 

Tbe piccaa cm leaving Ihe dnaeist machine an paiard 

Ibfough a wairr irousb or Ibmrth ■ tteam boa with tha ob; 

— :. _.;.!.: •^ j,^ ^„ [g(„ pliited dowB. Tb« api 

FK. ».-Seettoo ol Siogi-itov. 

'cnaTcUiaei Xnaleria'""™" 

t, a cui^iH^linder fa nme 

^tb!?J^ lhe''^i£r^i^ 
1 eed and nvolvB ilawly la Ihe 

iiTin emplavcd 


iTvcne dlmtioa 


oouil]' a Irahly 

ce.h ;• obviom 



yed. which condut in niniaaa ihr pena evrt ■ 
ime. Ihe breadth of which aU^ilr aacrcdi ihat ol 

•wini the flame rithi ihniii(h 

he piece.' TTie 

mJInary p> dngeini apparalui 

miied ^ih air It itnt under 

xmtn thiDuih 

invela' in ihe dincuon U the 


, _ jd la i«pe ftata, ** 

. B end and bunllr csUapicd, ■> that tbey 


Tbe fan opFfatka whicb ibr ' 


ampijia will 

u *ad by meaoa ol •pedal ■ewini machinea, the witch beini of 
Il ■ natun (chaia atiiih) Ihal the ihread can be ripped oul il one 

Sitttimi—ln Ihe condiiian in which _.. ^ ._ _ 

and esme inn tbe bandt ol Ihe bkacber, Ihe niiface o( Ihe [ahiic 
kKea m be covered with a aap of pmjcctlnx hbrea which |ivet it a 
downy appcannce- For iome daieei ol tootfi Ihia la mt a dl*. 
•dvaataie, bM in lb* nutoril* ol caaet. opacially lor prima when 
■ clean aiulac* ia caBDtial, ih* nip it lemmed belon bleachini. 
TUi h uwally ellfclcd by_runiun( Iba piMa at full width oyer a 

£^ Aau 


umally enacicd by running Ibi 
dI ardiad ropptr plate* heated 

I ie fit. a. in 

„., ftwolBciial 

a UgUy bautd, a baiaa at lb* lod d lb* At 

beat by di 
I. in wilrb 

bleaching of calioi. bul althoi 

oiler coMkknbk advantage*, ihe old pn 
prvcedca tbe other opeiaiioiia U Kill tnt 
Bmplo]fvd by bleacben in England. 
□pcraliona ii Ihe lolfoain^— 

Crrj tCaiUa^.-'niit operation (wbkh la ae 
afmply corutftt in rvminf the pira ihrtn^h an 

On leaving the RiaduDe they ar 

y ari piled in 


■n tlwii run ovtr viiKhB ind (ufdnl llircniih inumb psmlsm 
riiii« ("pot-syw") into the kier. where tlwy»n!*venl)'p»elwdb» 
bm who ent«r llw vtad Ibnwb the RUDhak ■< the top. It fa 
of the (mtBt import»ne« thM the iDoda ihoukl be evenly p*:licd. 
foe. it i±MKlt or loa«ly-p«ckeil pUmim Wt, the liquor circuliitinK 
Ihroiith the fcler, •hen boilinf It nibKquently la progTW, wifl 
Mlo* the Km oI !«■ re^nince, ■nd the reMh li in "^^^'- 

ibe DM moM pnenlly adopted. Thii coiuini of u tu^ndcd 
eyKndria! vr»ri cMoitrucled of itovt boiler (J»te ud ihown in 
•eclionl clention in lii|. 4- The Utr ■• (n>« to to 13 ft. in hn^ 

to tlK eide*, hut mil ihoira in the Bgiire. The bolto™ — • "i™ " 

aptd filKhnii 


he whok bononi ui the li> 

T bnl, the MjKt in 

ijm pir 1o provideipftCT fort he Kccumulition or tiqucc end Co prevent 
the pipe Ebeini blocked. The chMh i> evenly pecked up to wiihia 
■bout J to 4 It. ol the nuohola M. when lime witer it run in thimih 
the liquor pipe until the level of the liquid leachee within (bout > ft. 
ol the lop at the goode. The nunholn in now ckieed, end flenm 
ii turned or at the inteelor J by speoing the v»i« (. The effect 
of thi> h to HCk the liquor throuch E. end ID f<«e It m throinh 
pipe P into the top of the Uer, where it dubce miul Ibc umbrelli- 
•haped ihield U and !• diitributed over lb* p>«*h throuch which 
it penobtch unlit en arrivinf at E it ii agwn cvned M tbe top tX 
the Uer. a continuoua drculitKn beina Ihua eflectcd. A* the 
diculalion procetdi, the Ream tundnnuit in the Uquor n|»fly 
beati the bller to the boO. and at lOon ai, In the opinion of the fate- 
man, an air h» been expelled, the bkiw-throuih lap it cksed aad 
the Doilini ia continued lor perkvii varyinclran tut to twelve 
houn under «^6o ft preuure. Slean it now lumed off, and bv 
openlni the valve V the liquor, which it ol ■ dark-brawn colour, it 
forced out by the preiture of the nam it conialna. 
The pleeea are bow run IhrouEh a contuiuoui waihiut maci - 

.^A-^t, £mv»'.^-> ---»■ ■ — -:'..■ 1" -' - --- ■"- -■ 

Flit. 4-— Hi^ Pteiaute BlBW-t)iiiHi|h Klir. 

■Aich it thown in fif- Si couliti eiaeniiall)' of a wooden vat 
which then it • pair o< heavy wooden (•ycaiaere) bowb or >qiH 
The piecci enter the madiine u each end. at Indicated by the aj 
and pao rapidly tbnugh the bowh down to thebetion of tl._ .__ 
aver I looHnfcr, thence between the llnl pair ol pilde peft Ihmuch 
the bowtt anin. and travel thut in a tpiral direction uniii tney jmve 
■t the middle of the maehlH, when they leave at the tide oppotite 
— ••■ "-■■ ■'■?y entered. The tame type of bucUb* ir -' 

* Tw. tirentth, with the Direct of diiHiivini out the Urae «bk:h 
>e iDodi retain in contidenble qnanlily after the Umi boiL Tbe 
mJi an then well wathcd. and arn now boiled anin in tbe iib 

Flc. 5. — RoUn- Wathing MadiiK. 

loteifht to ten houn. For white bleaching the nMin toap It onilted, 
•oda aih alone btiiic cmployeil. 

The pitcet are now waihed free from alkali and the bleachinf 
proper or "dwnuckini" foUswi, Thii operation nay be eflected 
in variout wayi, but the BtoM effideat ia to run thcgoodiint waih> 
ina machine tfaroufb bicaehinc powder aoluiion at |*-[ Tw., 
and allow them lo lie looaely piledaver night, ot in ton* laiet lor 
a kmgiT period. They are now wuhed. tun through dilute tulphuric 
or hydrochloric add at a* T*. f white tour ■') and wathcd aciin. 
ShouM the white not appear tatitfactary at thit itan (and thii it 
uiuallv the caie with Hty heavy or deoic maleriab). they are boiled 
ag d with bleaching powder at t* Tw. or 

ev ihed. It it of the uinHM importance 

th d be aa thorough at pottible, in order 

lai .hey are liable to become tender b the 

Jlenehiag cotton pieca dilTer fram lb* 
on B that the Kme bnl It entirely digpented 

wi ly a tnatment in the kier with cauKic 

FD Ic loda and aoda Bah) and retin tuix 

T1 il y the n wat widelypractitad of theie 

^ b Sir Wiliiam Mather, and iMt mm 

In r la the atg ntn c e of the openthmt but 

all he Ha, Tliit contiMi of a hotiionul 

■r 3m ol tba *ndt E eonitlintat ■ door 

wl ed by newii of tba Pi^erHtivtn chain 

C !d ate packed in wanu W outride the 

k>-, c puthed hone Inlo Dia kkr, to that thf 

pipes p fit with their Aancea on to the fiiad pipet at the bottom of 
the kier. The heating it effected by meant ol ataam pipca at the 
loweri ettrenily of the kier, while the circulation ol Ihi Iktoor it 
brought about by meant of the centrifugal pump P, which drawt 
the liquor ihrnugfi the pIpet t from beneath llie faitt bottomi of the 
warnni and ihowen it over diitributcn D on to the gDOdi. By 
thli mode of working a eontidenWc camomy, it effected m point of 



., tide of SenL 

ramd out Bouinuonly Ibrguili il _ . . .._. 

~ha piacn ibh la the dincLiDit of the ajraw (%. a] qvet a tcrimp 
i3 or ej([HndJiia; raUcr noDd the lint cyUnder, then in a ligus 

'«r ah fuccecdlnt cylinderL iiul ulifivaUty leave 
I. beiiiC iKeliaiileaMy pWlfli dna u lb* stW ml. 
aekiiw proce i i hai bcca properly esailiicled. Ibe pii 
~ V ihDW a luiUbra pure' " — . . . . - 

AilDiir, but ihcir drenvih 

aRfsHy bleached couoa 

. . ..ibkached conditioii, and 
dbyoEherfl. Ejienaivcbludnf. 

_. and tbeo eonparin wkh the otifjul. The locnution el 

myullBliMe durini the bkachiai proma mar (ilhir uke place in 

hn,i;_ ...A., _____ _1>). ii~. ~- ™._.; 1, In coMMueiKe ol 

taction of Ueachi<i| 


dycioj a nniple of Ihc bkiched 

•oluliMi'Dl'mnhvIenT^lue (or 
-■-- nui«,.wb*n any 

darkar coEoiu- i] 

pUa. Mott bkacbed c 




/ «r«te.|B/Wu,t 

Th. UeacWng of linra I« 

a much a 

re complitaled 

and tcdioui procem ttan tbc 

blcachbig of 

OdOD. Tliii b 

the (an that in 

Fia. 7.— Tbc Mather Kkr, '—r""'""' 

irtilne. Feb;. S «hows the anpe 

mtd fond of ihthtfittHiialc&yiT^., , 

» HW f« pitoe lOadt than the vcriical [oTBL 

.; or more of tie weigbl of 

the 6bre, whereas in cotton 
Ihcy do not usually ein«d s%. Funhennore Ihoe ini- 
purities, which include colooring matter, Inimcelhibt fub- 

difficult to attack than those whidi are prejent Is coKoo. and 
the difficulty [i ilfll li^bci enhanced in the ait of piece 
: goods owbig 10 their dense or imperviouithitacler. 

Till toward! the end of the iSih ccrluiy the blrachiDf of linen 
both in the north of Inland and in Scotland mi accomplished 
by bonking In cows' dung and touting with lOur tnilk. thepiecn 
being eipoied to light on the grass between these operations for 
proloaged periods. Subsequently potasb ud later oa iodi 


mi subsllluled for the eovi' dun(. »hllt lour milk wi* nplactd 

by Eulphuiic acid. Thii " mtural bteich " ii Hill ia uw id 
UoUuid, * bigkci price bcini paid far linen bleached in Ihii *ty 
thin (oi ibe lame nulerial biachcd witb ibe aid ol blcachin) 
powder. In the year 1744 Dc Jimei Fergmon of BelFail recxived 
t piemium ol £100 from Ihe Irish Linen Board (or i he application 
oTIJine in Ihe bleaching of linetu MotwilbiUQdiiigtlitt rtward. 

Sioct the qualillnst Unto shiAat 

iry cDnsidenbly, and tbt mode of tnatment hai to be varied 
iccordiogly. il i> not pouible to five nun than a bare outline 

LI1WB I> blached In i>k yam and bi the piece. Whenrvir dm 
ihr opnaiioM i< repealed, [he ttrencih tl the mgnt ia 

KGCHivcLv Hi— ;«;.i>»rf |j| yun-bteachiid the iBqucKe o( ihe 
opentiaiu i> aboul u hUawt: — (I) 
Boil in Icier with hxIi mA. (iI Reel 
In blcmching powder- Thia oparatiDn, 
which it peculiar u linea btnchinf , 
fBauu in luipeBdinf ihe hanka from 
a aquan roller into eleachiu powder 
aoluiioa eonujned in a iballow iuhi* 
trou|h. The nlltr revolve* ilewly. as 
that ihe hinb. while (mwii conunu- 
oinly thnnifh Ihe bleadiiH powder, 
are for Ibe crealer pan 01 the lime 
I beiiw eipoaedle Ihe air. (3) Sour in 
wilpKuric add. la) Seald in lodi aih. 
Cnie term " KaMiBt " meaoi boilini 
in a kier.) (]) ReeTui bkurhini pow- 
der. (6) Soar in aulphuric arid. (7I 
Scald in >oda aih. (B] Dip, ij. aieep 
In bleacbina powder. fo> Sour in 
aulphuric acid. {10) Scaldinasdaaah. 
(It) Dip in Uwhinc powder. In) 
Sou in aulphitric acid. For a full 

RquirEd, viz. (ijlnld in ioda aih. 


n dyed Tuckry red. 
cwn iDfeiher end iq 
cd to the loUowinf 

n the b 

er & Platt'i Horiiontal Drying M. 

af lerwarda lorbiddf 
hie as iSij Mi Barklie, a reipecliblc linen bleacher o{ lints 
Vale, near Keady, wai " proiecutcd lor uaict time in iba whiten- 
JngoF linens In hi* bleachyard." 

The mclhodi at present cinployed for Ihe bleacbing of Hntn 
are, except in out or two unimportant particuUta. the same as 
were lued in the middle of the iQih century. In principle they 
resemble those used in conon bleaching, but require to be fre- 
quently repeated, while an additional operation, which a a relic 
of the old-fa*hioned pioceit, via. that ol "gitiiing" or "ciofl- 
in(," ia tlill csiential (01 lh«, production of the linnt uhitet. 
Coniidenbly more care has to be eicrcised in linen bleaching 

J the c: 

: with CI 

result of Ihit ii thai whereas cotton pieces can be bleached and 
finished in leialhan a week, linen iHcccs require at least sii weeks, 
^lanyattemptshavenaluially been made 10 shonenand cheapen 
the process, but without success. The use of stronger reagents 
and more drastic tRatmenl, which would at first suggest itself, 
Inciin the lisk of injury to the fibre, not ao much in respect to 
actual tendering as to the destiudioa oi Its chaiacleiislic ^oss. 
•bile il too drastic a trealment is employed al the beginning 
Ihe cotouring matter ta liable to become set in Ibe fibre, and It b 
then almost impossible to remove iL Among the many modem 
Improvements which iiavelxcn suggested, mention may be made 
of the use of hypochlorite of soda in place of bleaching powdei, 
the use of oil in the first tieatmeul in alkali <Crosi k faikes), 
while de ILeukelacre auggesu the use of sodium sulphide for 
this purpose. With [lie object of dispensing with the operation 
of grassing, which besides acccsaitaiing much manual labour 
ia subject to the influences of the atmospheric conditions, Siemens 
k Ualske of BerLn have suggested exposure ol the goods in a 
chamber to the action of elect rolylically prepared otoae. jsrdin 
seeks to achieve Ibe lame object by steeping tlie linen In ttQulc 

. ■ eiade up into bundles (eicept in ibe 

caie ol very lighi linens, which may 

«■ ihiouEh the whole of the opaatioos in rope form) and aourcd 

First Iff boll with soda aih and caunic loda. 

Second lye boiL For some claaea tl gnodi no leaa ihaii sli 1^ 

Cnus bctveea lye boili (accocding 10 ibeir number]. 
Rub with rubbma boards. This ii alio a stjeciality In Knen 
leaching, and coiiiHts Of a mechanical treatment witb ttdt soap, 
lie object of which it to remove black stains in [be yam. 
Bleach with liypochlarite o( soda. 

Scald. ThetwpUltertrealmeoliarereiJaledthreelolive lioiea, 
im, and in wini inBances the piecea are rubbed befoie iha 
gti ilceped in large vessels (kien) in weak hypt^ 

Flc. Or— Diwram sbowii 

chlorite of soda, and then I. 

being repeated several time 

Uiiinutcly Lbcgoodsarei 

Btfukim tftJitr VffriBVi Ttxl3t FaMti. 
Hemp may be bleached by a piDcat umDir 10 that tned for 
linen, but this is seldom done owing to the expeoie entaikii 
Ciliiia pau is bleached like cotton. /kU contalni In Its nw 
stale a considerable amoitnl of colouring matter aod intmctUular 
substance. Snce the individual fibre* an vay ibott, tb* 


Complele removal o( ilic litt<r «odM be ■timdfil hy ■ dislii- 
icgntlon ol the DUTeriil. Althougfa it Is passible lo Ucich Jute 
wbiie, thu is scldam 1( ev« earned out on i laijc tcate owing 
to die ^ai expense involved. A half-bleach on jute 'a obtiinrd 
by steeping the gooda alternately in bleaching powder (or hypo- 
chlonte of soda) and sulphuric aeid, washing Lntcrvening, For 

Bhadiht'/ Straw. 

In the Luton district, straw it bleached prindpally In the (onn 
of plait, in which lona it Is Inpoited. The bleaching is effected 
by steeping the sinw (oi peiiods varjing from twelve hours to 
several diya in fairly sliong allulinc pcioiide of hydrogen. 
The munbei of bsths depends upon the qualiiy of stnv and the 
degree of whiteness required. Good whiles art thus obtained, 
ud no further process would be necessary if (he hals had not 
mbseqwnily to be "blacked" or pressed at a high lempcratuie 
vhicb brings aboui ■ deterioratioa of the colour. After 
UeiduBg itiih peroiide and drying, the straw consequently 
undcigos a lunber process of sul[jiurlng, Ij. eiposurc to gaseous 
Bulphurous acid. Panama hats are bleached after making up. 
but in tba ose only peroaide of hydrogen is used and a very 
lengihy triaiDieiit eniBiling aa me times fourtecQ days' Meeping 
is required. 

Bkaiiiiif nf WmI. 

Is ibe coaditian In which ii is deLveted to the mamtfarturtrs 
wool is generally a very impure article, even if it has been washed 
on the sheep's bock before iheaiing. The impurities wbicta ft 
contains craisist in the main o! the nature! grease (in reality 
a kind of wax} exuded from the shin of the sheep and technically 
known as the " yolk," the dried-up pcTS|Mration from the body 
of ihe sheep, technicatiy called " suini." and dust, dirt, burrs, 
lie, wbich mecbanically adhere to the sticky surfaces of (be 
fibres. InthisconditionwoolisquiteunGltorany manufacturing 
purpoces and tnust be cleansed before any mechanical tqierations 
can be commenced. Formerly the washing was eRecled in stale 
Brine, which OKcd lis delergeni properties mainly lo the presence 
ef ammodiun carbonate. The stale urine or lant was diluted 
wiib tour to five times its bulk of water, and in ibis liquor, heated 
to 4O*-S0* C. the washing was effected. 

A( liie present day this method has been entirely abandoned. 
tbe washing or " scouring " being effected with soap, assisted 
by ammonia, potash, soda or silicate of soda. Tbe AnesI quali- 
Ue* of wool are washed with soli soap and potash, while for 
bifetior qualities, cheaper deiergents are employed. The 
* 'o principle perfectly simple, the ' ' ' 

forks and tben tj 
Ireaimral in weak 

with large quantiti 

d allowed ic 


0« end of the m 

Threes ' 
the first 

Lislly ot lo 
. Tbei 

thing machines are em 
'ashed is fed in a 

ie and is slowly propelled 
ystem of mechanieally-driven EorKs or rakes, as 
lie machine, II if squeeied through a pair of rollers. 
:h midrines art usually trqulred for efbcicnt washing, 
sntaining the si ranges) and the third ihe weakest soap. 
The washing of wool is In the miin a fneihanical process, in 
which tbe water dissolves ou( ihesuini while the soap emuliiies 
ihe yolk and thus remove* ii from iht fibre. The atlmdani 
earthy impuritic* pas* mechanically into tbe suitoundtng liquid 

In some work* ihe wool Is washed first wlih witer alone, the 
aqueous tiiract thus obtained being evaporated to dryness and 
Ihe residue calcined. A very good quality of potash is thus 
obiained as ■ by-product. In many works in Yorkshire and 
^hewberv. (he diny soap liquois obiained in wooNwashing are 

I. The ellcct of ihit ireiiment 

The purified produc 

Attempts have been n 

aibon bisulphide, carboi 
lut have noi met witb much success- 
Worsted yam spun on the English system, as well as woollen 
■am and fabrics made from them, contain oil which ha* been 
ncorporaled wilh the wool to facilitale the spinning. This oil 
nust be got rid of previous to bleaching, and this is eflected by 
couring in warm soap wttb or without tbe assistance of alkali*. 


■ BUiuiiKi if sat 

In raw aitk, the fibre proper ii uniformly coaled with i prolrid 

ibstance known as itfil-fiiiH, liJi-jfiie or wrici'iie which anwunU 
' 10-15% of tbe weight ol the material.and i( is only after Ihe 
moval of (his coating that the characteristic properties of (he 
d byUie pr 

iharging " or " boiling-ofT," w 

I suspending tl 

seip solution (]a%of soapon ihe weight of the silk). The 
or is kept jusi below boiling point for two or three houia. Ihe 
ks being (umed from time lo time. IHiring the process, Ihe 

3tiy, but as tbe operation proceeds it passes into tolulion. 
h important that only soft wa let should be Used for boiiing-od 

ks are tied up loosely » 

first operation. The h: 

silk becoming entangled, and boiled 
[If assliongasthal used in Ihe 

id wrung. 

isually effected bystoving as in 
t, Ihal the operation H repeated 
igwiiholhcr colours is effected 


liU Wa^! =« ben bleached by sleeping 



Hindered flieh.l, alkali « by iCe addi.ion 

If pm.ide 




animal >u 



or Buck IMhumi fucfrf.i), a small 

fish of the 


amily, allied 10 ihc bream and Ihe minn 

>w, but wilh 

ongaie body, resembling a sardine. Ii 

b found in 



urns. The well-known and important 


Orienlale " and anihciat pearls, carried 

n in France 

and Germany wilh Ihe oyslalline silvery colouring raaitec of 


lbs hlekk, 1 
t7ih c.i.luo'. 

.BLEEK, FBIEDRICH (i;<)J->S;g), German Biblinl idioUr, 
wu bora on Ihe 41b of Jul/ i;9], U Ahrtnsbbk, in Uolitein, ■ 
villige iie»r LUbeek. His f«U«t wnt him in his siilixnifa yai 
ID the gymouium il LubccJi, where be became so mucb iniei- 
Cbled in andeni languages Ibai he abandoned his idea ot > legal 
career and resolved Lo devole binuell 10 Lhc sludy ol theology. 
Ader spending some lime at the universily of Kiel, be weol lo 
Berlin, where, from iSi* "> "817. he studied under De Welle, 
Neander and Scbleictoiuber. So highly were bis merits 
appreciated by his professon — Schleiennacher was accttstomed 
10 say that he possessed ■ special liariima fpr the science of 
" Introduction "—that in 1S18 after he had passed the cuunlna- 
lions for entering the miaislty be was recalled 10 Bcrhn as 
KiptUnl or tutorial fellow in theology, a lemponiy post which 
Ibe theological faculty had oblained for him. Besides dis- 
charging his duties in the Iheological seminaiy, he published 
two dissertations In Schleietmacher's and G. C. F. LQcke's 
Sibylline Oracles " Uber die Enistehung und ZusammenseUung 
der Sibyllinischen Oialitl," and another on the authonhip and 
design ol Ihe Book of Daniel, " Dbci Veifasscr und Z-ncck. des 
Buchcs Dsni^" These articles aiinded much attcntioa, and 
wen di«ingui5hed by those qualities of solid Icaniing, tbonwgh 
tDvestlgalion and candour ol judgment which characleriicd 
all bii writings. Blcet's merits as a rising scholar were recog. 

stipend as Rtptltn) lor k third year, and pronriicd further 
advancement in due time. But Ihe aliilude of (he political 
luiboriiy underwent a change. De Weiie was dismissed from 
his ptDfessorship in i3i9, and Bleeic, a favourite pupil, incurred 
the suspicion of the goveimnent as an eitrcme democrat. 
Not only was bit stipend as RtptUal discontinued, but his 
noRiinatiDn to the oflice of professor eilnordiiuirius, whkh 
had already been ugntd by the minister Karl Allenstein, was 
withheld. At length it was found that Bleek bad been can- 
founded with a teitiin Baueleven Btech, and in iSij he received 

During Ihe sii yean that Bteek remuned at Berlin, he twice 
declined a call to Ihe oOice of professor ordtnarius ol theology, 
once to Greilswald and once lo Kttnigsberg. In riig. however, 
■ ■ ■ iccepl LOckr ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 


y of Bon 

.r Ihicly 

10 the en 

rs he laboured with 

to the so 

ntssol his investigations, ihe impartiality o( his judgmet 
the deameis of bis method. In 1843 he was laistd to lhc oflice 
ol consistorial councillor, and was selecled by the universily 
to hoM the office of rector, a disiinciion which has not since 
been conlernd upon any Iheoki^an of the Reformed Church. 
He died suddenly of Ipoplciy on the i;lh of February 1850. 

Bleek's works belong entirely to the departments ol Biblical 
criiititm and exegesis. His views on questions of Old Testament 
eriiicitm were "advanced" in his own day; lor on all Ihe 
di^lHited points concemlng the unity and authorship oE the 
binks of the Old Covenant he was opposed lo received opinion. 
But with respect 10 the New Testament his poiilion was con- 
servative. An opponent of the Tubingen school, his defence of 
the genuineness and auihenticity of the gospel of St John is 
among the ablest ihit have been wriiten; and although on 
some minor points his views did not aliogeihcr coincide with 
Ihose of the iradiiional schod, his critical labours on ihe N'ew 
Tcstimrnt must nevertheless bt regarded as among the most 
important contributions to Ihe maintenance, of orlhodoi 
opinions. His greatest work, his commentary an the cpislle lo 
the Hebrews (Brre/ in ia HtbrSn trlatltrt iturct EiitleilnKi, 
Obn-irliwTif, sni Jerllaa/nulcn Cemmnlat. in three pans, tSiS, 
iSj6and 1S40) won.the highest praise from men like De Wetle 
and Fr. Dtlitisch. This work wu abridged by Bleek lor his 
college lectures, and was publnJicd in thai condensed form in 

1S68. Id iM be publiibed Us conlribuiioiu lo the crittdim 

ot the gospels (Beiffit^e lur fusujefuii KrilH, pt. [.}, which 
cODtaintd his defence of St John's gospel, and arose out of a 
review of J. K. A. Ebraid's WiittiucJui/llkJu Krilii itr Ettapli- 
ickti CticiitUi (1841}, 


1 Berlin. He studied 

n and afterwards at Berlin, 
lowiids the phihilogical 
the South African languages. In his doctor's 
onn, i8ji), Dc aeminiim pwrribui lintiuriiM 

la the fe 

Colcnso 10 Natal, and was enabled to prosecute his researchu 
into the language and customs ol the Kaffirs. Towards the close 
of iSjA he setlled at Cape Town, and in iSj; was appointed 
interpreter by Sir Oorge Grey. In iSjg he was compelled by 
ill-health to visit Europe, and on his relum in the following year 
be was made librarian of lhc valuable CflUectioii of books pre- 
sented 10 ibe colony by Sir George Grey, In 1869 be visited 
England, where Ihe value ot his services was recogniaed by k 
pension from the civil list. He died at Cape Town on the i;lh 
of August iSjs. His works, which are of considerable brltiortance 
lor African arid Australian philology, consist of the Vacctaliiry 
cj Ihi Umambiiiiu Lantnaci (London, iSjfi): HaK^bttt «/ 
A/ricaa, AuUraUaH end Fslyatiuin Ftiilolciy (Ctpe Town and 
London. 3 vols., iGj8-iS6j)j Comfaralitt Cranmar ej Ike 
Stulh AS'iian toafaajei (vol. i., London, iS»(i}; Rcynati Ikt 
Fn in Snlk A/rua, cr HoUenlelFaUti and Talt) (London, 1864) ; 
Origin ef Lanivan (London, 1S69). 

BLENDE, or Spiuleriie, a naturally occurring dnc sulphide, 
ZnS, and an important ore of linc. The name blende was used 
by G. Agtkola io isaC, and is from the Germari Nendni, lo 
blind, or deceive, because the miikeral rcsHnbles lead-ore in 
appearance but contains no lead, and was consequently often 
rejected as worthless. Sphalerite, inlroduced by E, F. Clockei 
in 184;, has Ihe lantc meaning (Gr. a«aX<^, deceptive), and 
BO have the miners' terras " mock ore," -■ false leid." and 
"blackjack." The letm - blende " ■ 

■ the 

Crystals ot blende belong lo thai nb-' 
class of the cubic system in which then 
are six planes ol symmetry parallel to 
the Faces ol the rhombic dodecahedron 
and none parallel 10 Ihe cubic 

faces; in other 1 
hemihedrism, and have xw) 
The fundamental form is the lettahedron. 
linaiion of two letrahedia, in which the 
ihedran are larger than I he lour laces ti 



cfauacttn, thatt «f ou Mt being duQ uid MrlUtd, wUbt 
ihmc oi the othtr m( are bright and imMlh. A comnan 
Form, thowD in fig. i, b ■ cDmbiaillon of the riioaiblc 
dodecabnlrDa with a thrR-fucd lelnbrttnti y (jii); 
Ihe lii Ucn mcciiBg In each triad axis ir oltta niUMitd 
logeilKr into ion conical fonna. Tic oyslali an (requeolly 
IhiniiEd, the twin-atlt coinciding with a triad axii; a rhombic 
dodecahedron so Iwiimed (Ag. i) hai no »<nliant an^ea. An 
■inponani cbancler ol blcode ii the perfect dodecihsdnl 
cleavage, there being lii dincliotu ol clavagc parallel to the 
fac«i a( tlw rtwoibic doctccahedran, utf angln betwecii wbidi 
an 60*. 

When chemically pan, which li nrely the caie, hlende is 
ColouricB and tiuupueiu; usually, however, the mineral Ii 
yellow, brawn gi black, and often opaque, llie depth of colour 
and degree of transparency depending on the apsovnt of iron 
prcMnt. Tbe ilreak, or colour ol the poivder, ia bnwniih or 
light ydloc, ntdy whiu. The liutteii minous to adamantine, 
and the indei of refraction hi^ (I'jGg for udium light). Tbe 
(ubitance ii utaaHy optically isoliopic, though (ometinica It 
eihibitl anemakiu double leltaclion; litirous line lulphide 
which li doubly refracting la lo be leletted to the beaagonal 

e, bM owing 

to twinning and dittonion and curvaiun of tbe facef, tbeyue 
often rather complei and diSicuIt 10 decipher. For thii reason 
the mineral ii not alwayi readily megniied by inspection, 
Ihou^ the perfect dodecabedral cleavage, tbe tubuuaDtitw 
luure, and the farown atreai: are characlea which may be relied 
upon. The inlneral ii alu Ireqoenily found maiaive, with a 
coarse or fine granulaj structure and a ciyatalline fracture; 
■Dfnelinies it occun as a K>ft, white, amorphoui deposit tewm- 
bling artificially precipitated zinc sulphide. A compact 
variety of a pak bver-brown colour and fanning concentric 
layers with a renilonn auilace ii known in Gemany a> ScJalen- 
ilemdi or Ubtrtleadi. 

A few vuietia of blende are diHisguished by qiecial names, 
these varietiea depending on difTerencca in colour and chemical 
conpoailion. A pure white blende from Franklin in New Jeney 
is known as dcophane; snow-white oystals are abo found at 
Nordnwlk in Vermland, Sweden. Black blende containing 
ferrous lalphide, in amounts up to 15 or 10 % namorphously 
replacing zinc sulphide, is krtown as raarraatltc {Irom Marraalo 
near Guyalul in Colombia, South Amcrka) and christophlle 
(from St Christophc mine at Breitenbninn near Eibenstock in 
Saiooy). Transparent bloide of a red 
such as that fotind near Hfriywell in FQi 
"ruby-blende" or " niby-iinc." Pfibri 

Other vaiietiei contain imall 

e from Phbtam ia Bohemia. 

Blende occun in metalliteratis vcini, often in (Mociition with 
galena, abo with chalcopyrite, baryiei, fluonpar, ftc. In ore- 
dcpoiiti containing both lead and zinc, such u Ihoie SUiag 
cavitia in the limesiones of the north of England (wt of Mitiouif, 
ibc galena is usually foand in the upper part of tbe depoail, the 
blende sot being tvaehed until the deeper put* are woilicd. 

Blende is atw found epondkiUy fn uMnenttiy Ntb; lilr 
euRipIe, in nodules of cby-tronilone in Ibe Co*) Mcunre*, in tbe 
cement-tlogeen of the Lias, and in the (UU of fouU sbeib. It 
has occasionally been found on tbe old timben tl mines. In 
IbeM caict the linc sulphide has probaUy ulnn (tom the 
reduction of lulphate by organic matter. 

Looliiiet for fine ctystalliaed . spedmmi •!• nimennit. 
Mention may be made of the brilliant Uuk ctyttnb from AlMot) 
Moor [d Cumberland, St Agnes In Cotnwafi and Derbyiblre. 
Yellow crystals are found at Kapnlk-Binya. near Nagy-Binyn 
in Hungary. Transpaimt yrilow cleavage muset o( large 
ttie occur fn Umesione in the line mines at Picm dc 
Europa In tb» province ol Santinder, Spain. Beautlfol 
isolaled tettahedra of lianpireni yellow Mend* ue fcnnd 
in the snow-wbile crystalline dolomite ol the Binnentbal Id 
the Valais, Swiiierland. (L. J. S ) 

BLENHEIM (Cer. BUtdktlm), a village of Bavaria, Germany, 
in the diitrici ol Swibia, on the left bank of the Danube, jo m. 
N.E, fram Ulm by rail, a few mile* below HOchuldt. Pop. 700, 
It wu the scene of the defeat of tbe French and Bavarians ondeT 
Menhili Tallard and Manin, on the ijth of August 1704. by the 
Englith and the Austrians under the duke of Maribonugh and 
Prince Eugene. In oonsiderstion of hil military services arul 
eqMclally bis decisive victory, a princely mansion was ereaed by 
parliament for the duke of Marlborough near Woodstock in 
Oxfordihire, England, and was named Blenheim Palus altet 
this place. 

The bittle ol Blenheim is alio called HSchiiUt, but Ifae title 
accepted In England has the advantage that it distinguishes tbli 
battle from that won on the same ground a year previously, by 
Ibe elector of Bavaria over the Imperial gener^ Slyrum (9-10 
September 170J}, and from tbe lighting between the Austrian* 
under Krag and the French under Moreau In June i8ai [sc« 
FtLHCtt REVOLimoNAnv Wins], The gnund between the 
hills and the maishy valley of the Danube forms a deAle through 
which the main road from DonauwSrth led to Ulm; parallel 
streams divide the narrow plain into strips. On one 1^ these 

superior in numbers) took up their position facing eastward, 
their light Hank testing 00 the Danube, their left in the under- 
feat uies of the hilly ground, and their front covered by the Nebel, 
onwhicbweretbe villages of Obergliu, If nicrglau and Blenheim. 
Tbe imperialist army of Eugeneandihe allies under Marlborough 

stream, their flanks similsriy protected. On the ind-ijth of 
August 1704 Eugene and Marlborough set their force 


Is the 1 

veral sti 

IS had Id 

of Marlborough's left wing, neit 
Jeployed opposite Bknli dim, which Tallird thereupon garrisoned 
■rith a large force of his b«t infantry, aided by a battery ol 
14-poundcr guns. The French and Bavarian! were taken, 
imyed in two separate armies, 

Thus the ce 

.valry 01 

'Ings and its fool 

ibmed forces coniisied ol Ih 
OC Karsin'sright and of Tillard's left. 

Here was the only good ground for mounted troops, and 
Marlborough followed Tallard's example when brming up 10 
attack, but it resulted from the dispositiont ol the French 
narshal that this wesk point ol junction of bis two armies was 
ciactly that at which decisive action was to be eipecled 
Tallard therefore had a few horse on hit right between the 
Danube aDdBlenhefni,imaisofinfantryiDhIicentreBtBlenheiin 
itself, and a long line of cavalry iu[^rted by a few batttUon 
Corming his left wing in the plain, and connecting with the right 
of Mariin's army. Tbi* army was timilirly drawn up. The 
cavalry right wing wu in the open, the French infantry neat 
Obetglau, which wu strongly held, the Bavarian infaniiy next 
on ihe left, and finally the Bavarian cavaliy with a force at foot 
on the eiireme left In the bills. The elector of Bavaria oxa- 
mandedhiiown tioopi in person, Marlborough and Eugene on 
their pan were to attack respectively Tallard and Mania. Tht 


ri|bl niiig nnder Eniene lud to inikE > difiodl DUrcb ever 
bioken ETDund bcrote iL could [arm up lor baiLlc, ind Marl- 
bonmgh wiiled. wiUi hit »miy id order of baltle belwteo 
Unurglau iDd BlEakdoi, uiiiil tiij coBetgue thould be lady. 
Al iijo ibc b(<Uc opened. Lont Cuiu, •rich i dcuchowoi of 
Mitlterougb't left wgng, iiucked Blenheim with tlit uLioott 
lory. A third of the leading biigido (British) wu killed Bcd 
■ouoded in the viio alteniiti to break through ilie itiont defences 
of Ibe viUaje. and urne French •quadmoi charged upon it a* It 

bri^de in lecond liu drove back the cavalry and retook the 
colour. Alter the repulte of iheae iquadrofls, in which lome 
Bniiib cavalry fiora the centre look pan, CutU again moved 
(orwaid. Tbeiecoiu) attack, though prenedevea nwre fiercely, 
fared no better IbiB the Grot, and the louei were heavier than 
before. The duke then ordered Cults to obMive the enemy in 
Blenheim, and cancentnted all hit attenlion on the centre. 
Hen, between Unttrglau and Blenheim, preparatiou were beini 
made, under cover of artillery, lor the crouing of the Nebel, and 
fdiher up-ilream a corpa ■«• Knt (o attack Oberglau. Thli 
attack tailed completely, and it wai not until Marlborough 
himtell, with Ircih battalioni, drove Ibe French back into 
Oberglau that the allia were Ircc to cms the NebeL 

Id the meanwhile the Ant line of Marlborough's inlantry bad 
noised lower down, and the finl line of cavalry, following ihera 
across, had been umewhit Kverely handled by Tatlard'i cavalry. 
The squad roni under the Prujtsian general Bothmar, however, 
made a dashing charge, and achieved considerable temporary 
aucceu. Eugene waa now closely engaged with the cleclor of 

xloiingbeavily. ButEugen 



iself led the cavalry^ 

Tallatd 10 any extent, and the duke was p 
altaclc Hii whrfe force, eictpt the dels 

(be cavalry in (ronL Uarlboiough hlo 
Ihe French iquadronj received the attack 

Those squadrona of Tallacd's left which retained their order fell 
back towards the Danube, and a gr^t gap waa opened in ihe 
centre of the defence, through which the viclorioui squadrona 
poured. Wheeling to (heir left the pursuers drove hundreds of 

army ol Manria towards Marfborough, who re-formed and laced 
tlorihward to cut off its retreat. Tallard was already a prisoner, 
but in the dusk aod confusion Maraln slipped through between 
the duke and Eugene. General Churchill, Marlborough's brother. 
had meanwhile lurroundcd the French garrbon of Blenheim; 
and after one or two attempts to break DUt,Iwenty-foutbaltaliona 
and lour rcgimCDls ol dragooiis, many of ' 

finest of the French 

The losses of the 

alliei are stated at 4500 k3led and 7500 

wounded (British 6;o 

killed and isoowounded). OflheFrench 

and Bavarians 11,0. 

standards were lak 

n; beside* the killed and wounded, the 

Dumbersol which we 

-elarge but tuiceitain— many were drowned 

in the Danube, M 

fsin'i army, though il lost heavily, was 

in good order; 

BLENHERHASSEIT, HARMAH (lyOj-iSji), Irish-Aneri 
lawyer, ton of an Irish country gentleman of English sti 
settled in Co. Ktiry, waabom on theSth of October 1765. 
■ ■ .y College, Dublin, and in 


■. Alter 


d in 1706 his niece. Margaret Agnew, daughter of 
Robert Agnew, the lieutenant-governor of the Isle of Man, 
C^traciied by their famijjea for this step the couple decided to 
settle in America, where Blennerhasietl in uoS bought an 
island in the Ohio ifver about 1 m. below Parkersburg, Wat 
Virginia. HereinlBoshereceivedavisilftom Aaron Bun («...), 
in whose canspiiacy he became IntcretLed.lurniihinglibeTil funds 
For its support, and oflering the use of his island as a rendezvous 
for the pthering ol atma and supplies and the training of 
volimtecn. When ibe conspicaty coUapacd, iba puuiioB and 

a lawyer (iSio-iBii) in Honireal, Canada. Aftar retunung ta 
Ireland, he died in the island of Guernsey oo the and of Febniary 
1831. His wife, who had coosideiable litenry ulent and wko 
published ribeduerjedii/fdSi)) and Tkt Vidn tj Uh Rttk 
and Otktr P€€*H (iBi(), reliuned to the United Stales in 1840, 
and died soon afterward in New Vork City while aliempiing W 
obtain through CoD(reia payment for fHoperty deatroyod on \ha 

8LBRA (nod, Bitit), an aocient Etruscan tows on the Via 
lodia.abouljiDi.N,N.W.olRome. It wasoflitUe importance, 
h1 is only mentioned by geographen and in inscriptions. It 

situated on a long, narrow tongue ol rock at the junction of 
ro deep glens. Some nmaJns of the town wills tiill exist, aitd 
10 two ancient bridges, both belonging u ibe Via Clodia, and 

chileclural forms of houses, with beams and rafters represenud 
relief. See G. Dennis, Cilia and Cimdtria «/ Eiriiria. {. 107. 
here waa another Bleia in Apulia, on the road from Venuaia U> 

■LESSINOTail, KARaumtlTE, Countess or (1730-1844), 
iih novelist and miscellaneous writer, daughier of Edmund 
)wer, a iniall landowner, was bom near Clonmel, Co. Tippeiaty. 
eland, on the iiiof Scptemberi/flg. Her childhood was made 
ihappy by her father^ character and poverty, ind her early 
^manhood wretched by her compulsory marriage al the am 
lifteen to a Captain Maurice Si Leger Farmer, whose drunken 
batrita brought him al last as a debtor to the king's bench priaofl, 
a October iSr?, he died. Hii wife had lefl him sone 
ore. and in February i8t8 she nunied Charles John 
r, ear] of BZessingTon. Of rare beauty, cbam and wit, 
generosity and for the 

rd with hi 


xl by Count D'Orsay, who in 
- Bleniniton'. only 

of debt. In the 
iSii they went abroad, spent lour month* of the neat 
noa in close intimacy with Byron, and remained on 
nt till Lord Blesiniton'i death in May iSio. Some 

cd Lady Harriet Gardiner, 1 
daughter by a former wile. D'Onay, who had 

iw accompanied Lady Blesslngion u cngiana 
3- till her death. Theil home, lirsl at Seamore 
trds Core House, Kensington, became a cenlrv 
r wbatcvcT wu distinguished in literature, 
learning, art. sdcncc and fashion, Aller her husband's dealh 
ihe supplemented her diminished tacooe by contributing to 
rarious periodicals as well as by writing novels. She wai (or 
lome years editor of TIU B«.k af Stanly and Tki Ktrpiakt, 
popular annuals of the day. In 1S34 she published her Cimerra- 
M Lard Byran. Her Idler in Italy (1830-1840), and 
I France (t84J) were popular for their pcrsuul gossip and 
le, descripliona of nature and sentiment. Early in 1849, 
D'Onay lefl GoR House to escape his creditorsj the 

jit in Parn, where ihe died on the 4th of June 1S49. 
Her Liurary Lift and Camifndtnii f] vela), edited by R. R. 
Madden, appealed in iBjS- Her poiuait »» painted la 1808 by 
Sir Thomas Lawrence. 

BUDA, a town of Algeria, In the department nf Algiei>, 
r m. by railway S,W. from Algien, on the line to Oran. 
3p. (1Q06) 16,866. It lies surrounded with orchardi and 
gardens, 6]o (I. above the sea. al the base of the Little Atlaa, 
in the southern edge of the fertile plain of the Metila, and the 
ighi bonk of the Wad-el-Kebir afflveat ol the Chifla. Tbe 
bundanl water of Ikia itream piDvltic* power lor larfe com 



■Jlli ud KKnl rictoriCi, tod tSaa nipplhl iht tom, *ltb lb 
muDROii* (sunuin and im'gittd pjilcra. Blidi b (umninded 
bjr ■ will sf contidtnlile eitmt. piemd b; lii ^let, ud ii 
fiiitbtT ddndcd trf Fort MImieh, crowning ■ it«p hill od ihe 

kfl b»Bli of the rlvCT. The praent lown, French in chancier, 
liu weU-bLiUt modem BtreeU wiLh many ucado. ind numben 
VDonf iu buildiDff leveni motqus uid churches exuuJvc 
buncki ind i lugt mJUiiry hospiiil. The principal *(|iUR, 
the place d'Annes, ii jurrouBded by arcided hmaes and shaded 
by treej. Tlie cenire of a Icrtile diuiici, and a pcsl on one o( 
ibe main mlea in the cousuy, BUdi baa a Souislunt trade, 
rhieRy in amga and flora, lie oranp grmn contain over 
50,000 liees, and in April the air [or milei round is laden wiih 
Uc Kenl oi Ibe oranje bloBomi. In the public gaident li a 
poup of luanificcnt alive tnci. 71m pniducU ol the ueigh- 
boQiinf Cork Ireci and cedar giovca art a aourcc cd trvenve 
u the iDira. la the vianity arc the villasa of JoinvSle and 
Monipeisier, which cm their onjia to military caniB ettab- 
Uabad br Manhal Valfc In iSjg; and on Ihe road lo Medea 
ar« the lomba of ^e marabout Mihemmed<l-Kcbir, who died 
fa t^.andhh 

A taotqae una buill by order of Khair-ed-din Barba/OMa, and 
under the Turlu the toxn wat oF tame importance. In iSi; 
It wat aeaitydeMroyed by an euihquake, bul wat apecdily 
nbiiilt on a tite about a mile dittint [torn the nda. It wi* not 
till igj8 that it was finally held by Ibe French, tbou^ Ibcy had 
been In poanaion (or ■ ihort lime eight years bclore. In 
April 1906 It wat cb«ni ai the place of detention ol Bcbaniin, 
Ihe n-^lnf el DahoBicx, who died b Qetttabcr ol that 

Blida h lit chief (own of » commnne cf th« Mmt hum, 
bavins (i4o«) a popultlion ol 3i-lS'- 

BUSH, WILLIAM (i71«-i8it). English admhal, wai bom 
ol ■ good Cornish lamlly ia ITS4- He acrompaoied C^iuin 
Cook in bis second tipcdilion [i77>-i7;<) as sailing- master of 
the " Rewluilon." During the voyasi, the bread-fiuit, already 
known 10 Dampier, wu found by them at Olaheile; and alter 
seeing «rvicr under Lord Howe and etsewhere, "Bread-fruit 
BUgh,''uhe waa nicknamed, was despauhed at the end ol i;t7 
to the Psci&c in conmind of H.M.S. " Beuniy," loi ibc purpose 
dI iBItoducing ll into the West India Irom Ibe Sonlh Sea Istux^ 
Bligb salted (mm Otaheiie, aflci remaining there about lis 
RKHitb: but. when near the Friendly Isbndi, a mutiny (April 
>8. IJ89) broke out on board the "Bounty," headed by 
Flrichcr Cluteilan. the master's imte, and Bligb. with eighteen 
Mbeis. was set adrift in the launch. TV mulinern tbeaaelvs 
acttied on Piicalm Island (f.>.), bui tome of them were aFier- 
ararifa capiund, brought to England and in three cases eiicu ted. 
TUt BiMlny. which forms the tubjici of Byron's liland. did 
iWI arise so much from (yranny on the part of Dligh a* from 

of Olalvile. Alter tuflering severely from hunger, thirst 
and siormt. Bligh and hb companions landed at Timor fn the 
East Indies, having performed a voyage ot about 4000 ra. in 
an open boat. Bligh returned to England in ijQo, and he was 
■oon afterwarih appointed to the " Providence," in «bich he 
rtfcted the purpose of his lormer appointment by introducing 
the bread-fruit tlte Into Ihe West India Islands. He showed 
great courage at Ihe mutiny of the Norein i ;g7, and in the same 
year took part in Ike battle of Camperdewn, where Admiral 
Duncan itetealed the Dutch under De Winter. In iSoi he 
commanded the " Clalton " (m) at the battle of Copenhagen, 
and received Ibe personal commendations of Nelson. In 1805 
^ WM appcuAIed " certain general and governor of New South 
Wale*." As he made himself intemely unpopular by the 
harsh eierctsc of suihoriiy. he w» deposed in January iSog 
by a mutiny headed by Mi)ai George Johnston ol the temd 
liiai. and was imprisoned by the muiineen till iSio. He re- 
nnied to Englaiid in iSii, wai reoraoled to nar-wLniral in 

that year, and to vfee-admlral In 1814. Major JohtBton wii 
tried by court martial al Chelsea lo iSii, and was distniiBCd the 
service. Bli^ who wai an active, penevering and couragcoiB 
oOicpr, died in London IB1S17. 

BUHD. HATHILDK (1841-1806), English author, wu bom 
at Mannheim on Ibe ml of MinJi 1S41. Her father was a 
banker named Coben, but sU took the name of Blind afici her 
step-falhcr, the political writer, Karl Blind (1816-190}), one 
of Ihe eidled leaders al the Baden Inauirection in iS4i-i84(i, 
and an ardenl supporter of the various iglh-ctMtuy movements 
for the freedom and autonomy olitruggling nationalities. The 
family was compelled lo take refuge in En^d, where Maihilde 
devoted herself to literature and to the higher eduealian of 
women. She produced also three long poema, " The Prophecy 
of St Onn" (1S81), "The Heather in Fue" (iSSti), an io- 
dignant protest agaisH Ihe evictioni in the Hlghlanib, and 
" The Aiceai of llan " (iSSl), which wu to be the epic ol the 
theory of evolutioa. She wrote biognphle* of George Eliot 
{iS8j) and Madame Roland (i886),snd tiaoUled DS. Slnua'l 
Tie OU FaUk and lit Nc<m Mji-ii'n) aud the Utmtkt 
at ilaric BaiklarlsiS (iSgo). She died on the 36th of Nov- 
ember 1896, bequeathing hex property to Newnham College, 
A complete edition of her poatiia was edited by Mr Anhur Synuna 
190a, with a biagraphiiaf inlndueiiaa by Or Richaid Ganieci. 
BUND R(X)K£T, a game of dunce, played wfth a full pack 
cards. The deal, which Is an advanuge, Is decided as at 

ves a parcel of cards to'each player including himself. Each 
player puts the amount of his stake on his canis, wliich he must 
noltookat. The dealer has to Uke all bets. He then turns up 
his parcel, eipoiing the bottom card. Each player in turn docs 
the same, wiiining or losing according as his cards are higher 
or lower than the dealer's. Tics pay the dealer. Tlie cards tank 
as at whisL The suits arc of no importance, the cards taking 
precedence according to their face-value. 

BLINtllllO, a form of punishment andent^ common In many 
lands, being infficird on thieves, adulterers, perjurers and other 
criminals. The inhabitants of Apollonia (Ulyiia) are said to 
have Inflicted this penally on their " watch " when found asleep 
at their posts. It was resorted to by the Roman emperors in 
their persecutions of the Christians. The method of destroying 

barely scalding vinegar atone, wu poured into Ihe eyes. Some- 
times a rope was twisted round the victim's bead till Ihe eyes 
started oul of their sockcti. In the middle ages Ihe punishment 
seems lo have been changed from UNsI blindness to a pemunenl 
injury to Ihe eyes, amounting, however, almost 10 blindnesa, 
produced by holding a red-hot iron dish or basin before the face. 
Under Ihe forest laws of the Norman kings of England blinding 
WIS a common penally. ShalLCspeaic make* Xing John order 
nephew Arthur's e 

n O, Fr. 

t, (Kje, ■■ 

5pecijHy a blow on the cheek), a _ 

ilindfaldcd and made to catch and identify one of tlic others, 

vho in sport push him about and "buffet" him. 

sight (see alw Vision; and Eve; Diuimi). 

rally a decrease In bliu 

n In shops and factories. 

temperate and cold re^ons, but Finland and Iceland are c:(cep- 
lions to the general rule.^ In hot countries the eyes arc alTected 
by the glaring sunlight, the dust and the dryness of the air. 
From statistics In Italy, France and Bel^um, localities on the 


InriK ubk livta the punbool btiod penou u nponsl ( 

iiuigrach country. UiiIe»oiherwU*iUttd,lt tri — ■- - 




§£-■ ::::;■: 




HoK|Ki {".%»).■ ; : : ; : 







Then ire many cue) </! complcle or partial blindDcn which 
might have b«n prcvcntH). ind a knowledge of the best methods 
ol preveniion and cure Ehould be aptcad as widely u pouible. 
Magnui, Bremer, SleStn and RUsilcr are of opinion that 40% ol 
the cases of blindneaa might have bcca prevented. Hayea gives 
33-35% " positively avoidable, 38.75% pceaibly avoidable, 
aod 46' i; % ai a conservative estimate. Cohn regards blindness 
as cirt«inly prevenUWe in 33%, as probably preventable in 
43%,and as quite unprevcnUble in only 14%. Ifweukeihe 
loweil ol these figures, and usumc thai 400 out of every 1000 
blind penoiu migbl have been saved from such ■ calamity, 
we realize Ihc JDiportiince ol preventative measures. For the 
physiology and pathology of the eye gmerally, sec Vision and 

The great majority of these cases are due to Infantile purulent 
ophihilraia. This arises from inoculation of the eyes with 
<MfU» *""""' ™'"i"' " ■■"« «• li'"!'- If 'he contagious 

IM of a microbe, and the effective applica- 



,. . r at an early period of the case. In Gi 

midwives are eipressly prohibited by law from treating any 
affection ol the eyes or eyelids ol inlanis. however alighL On the 
appearance o( th.; fiisi symptoms, they are required lo represent 
to the parents, or others in charge, ihal medical Isustance !s 
urgently needed, or, if necessary, they are themselves to report 
to the local authorities and the district doctor. Neglect of 
these regulations entails liaUlity to punishment. Eleven ol the 
United Sutes ol America have enacted laws requiring that, if 
one or both eyes of an inlant should become inlbmed. swollen or 
reddened at any time within two weeks ol its birth, it shall be the 
duly ol the midwile or nunc having charge of such infant to 
report in writing wiihm sii hours, lo the health officer or some 
legally qualiEed physician, the fact that such inflimmalion. 
BWelling or redness eiisti. The penalty lor failure to comply is 
fine or imprisonment. 

The loUowing wnghty words, Iroin ■ paper prepared by Dr 
Park Lewis, of BuSalo, N.Y., lor the American Medical Assocla- 

suppoTled by strong public sentiment; — 

** When an entighiened, civilized and firosrcsiiivc natiOB quietly 
and peaiivelr. year after year, penniia a multitude of in people un- 
iKceuarily to become Mind, end more evpeciany when one-quaner 

' f^reviout returns from Finland havei 
cwvul la 5l Peienbuii Imn the laal ce 

supplied ljy the Bnii 

''Z la practically alt those fi 
absolutely curable, if like ttcati 
early period. 

"&nc« the« facts iic no Ion 
unhrersalty accepted by all edi 
inquiry follows; Why. aa a ec 
these ^mple. harmtea, prevenii 

and imsffeRntly by. making no 

it ii employed 


lie ha V* 
s the disease is 

n..Ihe' naiinal 
tbly employed. 


become b' 
is no doul 
protect II 

Bsona an thne-fold. and lie — first, with t 
second, with the lay public; third, wiih ihe s 

educalkHi of its blind chiktren annually New 
pita at least f j90, and a yeaHy frois sum an 

than (too.ODo. II. as sometimes happcni 

.. ^ncerni Ihe ilaie that not one child shall needlessly 
blind, thereby increasing Ihe public financial burden, ihere 


ri each cw to the proper health authority, 
irtilefailuTcIodasa. Ashasbeenimimaleil. 
■ny means always under the minlsiraiioA ol 
>» occur, and. like all laws behind which i> 
this law is rarely 

•.it have placed in 


method mu9i be devised. I 

"oi'«rly and cwrttt '. 
heir hands, ready lor ir 
and emcicni preparation, isvued by the health auinoriiin as a 

*' An important step was taken in thii direction when a resofuiion 

« -''-- -SaHoueof Delegaieaal the annual meeting o( Ihe 

N. t Medical Soeiely, requesting Ihe various health 

of state 10 include ofilitkatmia uronaltiruin amons 

CO sea which must be reported to the local bauds c4 

eiwitial. in oider ihal the cane of infaniile 

aa I uNler the authority of somclmdy capable of in. 

10 conAdenee. and thai it be dinribured by the health 

pl fUSe'q^'fieifnaR fw the 'wii'umni "iiSIlII: 

Tl she BolHiion. togelber with the ctiaracirr of the 

di which should accompany ii. should be defermincd 

bj . diosen by the pmident of the American Medical 

Ai left should have among its membcn at Itasi one 

represemaiivTaphthalmolaiiit. oncob^triciaB and one aaniiarian. 
The condusjeas of this committee should be iTpoited bark to the 

nvaiiaUy be pin of ihie toilet o 

loluiion. Hobably titver nitrate, coul 

ll'lS^SUtt. I'l^'X b^lUdn^ 

cially piepanid nceptaclea. 



;\3 s;di«.":s;sia,y.i 

npIoynwH. and the righi lubic- 

calkd "innulu lidi," becai 
^ , . , ittao to bt covet«l wiih liiile granukiloDs. The 
diMiK >oinediiK9 lasts lor yean wilbout causing 
blindma. Ibouih it (ivo riie Ui jrat initation. Ii is generally 
Bilendeil by a discharge, which It highly ouLigioia, pnxluciiig 
ihe -saint diMsse il ii (Its into oUxi (yc*. Wani cl tltanlipeis 
is one of Ihe meal inipocUnt (aclora in the prnpagaiion ol 
Irachomt, htnce its gnat prtvajtnce ID Oriental couotricj. 
Tnchama is very prevalent in Egypt, irhcte (hose luSering 
licm total or pan^ bliaduoi are utd to amount la to% 
ol the popubiion. Dunnf Nspcleon'i Egyptian caaipalgn, 
Dcaily evEiy soldier, out ol u acoiy of i',eoo men. vu aflccted. 
During the lollowing Iwenly yens the disease spread Ihcough 
almotl all European aniuea. Jo the Belgian anny, there was 
one tnchomaious soldier out of every Bve, and up to i8m do 
less ihas 4000 loldien had kat both eyes and io,o<w one eye. 
It is * disease wbich is very coaimOD la workt»use schools. 
oiplHD asylums and similar establishmeDU. Unlike ophthalmia 
ol aew-botn children, it is diflif ult ts cure, and a total sepaiatioD 
ol the diseased [mm the healthy childceD should be eSccied. 

Ahoui one-ball ol tboK who are blinded by Injuries lose the 
second eye by sympttbetic sphlbabnia. It Is a nHBUnt source 
- ^ danger to thou wbo retaiu ui eye blioded by 

akiHk injury. Blisdneu Inm this cause caa he pnevenlid 
*■<—■*• by the Rmoval of Ihe injured eye. but imforiunately 
""" the ptiqusal often meets with opposition Iram the 

CtaiKoma b a dkease which alouai invariably leads Id total 

jP ^ blindne»i but in most cases it can be airested by 

■ simple operatioD if the case is seen suffi- 

tlyivia, or " iboit-slght," makes Itsetl apparent Id children 
beiHcni the ages of seven and nine. Neglect of a year or two 

niay do serious mischief. Short-sight, when not 
TT^ iahetited, Is produced by looking intently aiul cod- 

linuously at near objects. Children should be 
encoutiled to describe objects at adislance.with'which they are 
unacquvinted, and parents should choose oul-door occupations 
and snusements for chiMria who show a tendency to sbort- 

A report was issued Id t3o6. by the school board of Glasgow, 
u to aa invcsligaliaa by Ilr H. Wright Thomas, i^lbalmic 
surgeon, regarding the eytsiiftl of school children, which in- 
cludes the following passage. Dr Wright Thomu stales that 
■he teachers teitetl the vUuil icuteoeis of 51,40} children, and 
found iS.sti, or 3S %, to be below what la regarded 
normal suuidard, lie eiaoiiaed the i8,j6j defectives by 
scopy, and iound (hat 11, 109, « 11 % ol the whole, had ocular 
delects. The proportion of these case* was highest in (he poor 
■od closely-built districts and Id old schools, sDd was lowest 
in Ihe better-class schools and those Dear the outikitu ol the 
ciiy. Defective viiion, apart from ocular delect, seems 
due partly to want ol triuilng ol the eyes for distant objects 
and partly to eshaustlon.of the eyes, which is easily Induced 
when work is cirtied on hi bad light, or the nulnibn of the 
children is delective from bad feeding and unheallhy surround- 
ings. Regarding training of the eyes for distant objects, much 
might be done in the infant departmeal by the total abolitloD 
ci sewing, which is de6nitc]y hurtful to such young eye\ and 

the substitution of competitive games involving the tecognitjon 

of small Injects ata distance ol 10 It. or more. An annual testing 
by the teachers, followed by medical inspection of the children 
found defective, would soon cause all existing defects to lie 
corrected, and would lead to the deicctlos of those which 
develop duiicg school life. 


Although there is t tccetdof shotpiiilcslablbhedbyStBaEil 
at Caeiarca, Cappndocia. in the aih century, a refuge by the 
bcmiii St Lymnee (d. 1. 4js} at Syr, Syria, in the jth century, 
and so institutioa by St Bertraod, bithop oi Le Mans, in the 
;(h century, the first public effort to benefit the blind was the 
taunding of a hospital at Paris, in is6o, by Louis IX., foe joo 
blind persons, lite common Icsend is that he lounded it as an 
asylum for 300 of his soldiers who had become blinded Id the 
crusade in Egypt, but the statutes of the founder ore preserved, 
and no mcollon Is mideol crusaders. This Hospice des Quinie- 
Vingts, inirrested by subsequent additions to its funds. sliU 
assuls the idult blind of Fnnce. The pensioners are divided 
into twoclasses— those who are inmitesof the hoipital (joo), and 
(hose who receive pensions in the lorm of out .door relief. All 
appointments to liunate* or pensions are vested in Ihe miniata 
of the Interior, and applicants must be ol French natiooalily, 
totally blind and not leu than forty years of age. 

From the lime of St Louis lo the iSlh century, Iliere are 
records ol isolated case* of blind persons who were educated, 
■rul ol (Sorts to devise langiblc apparatus to usisi them. 

Girolamo Cardan, the leth-century liatiaD phyiidao. cod- 
ceived the idea that (he blind could be taught to read and write 
by means ol touch. About 1517 Fianceico Lucas in Spain, 
and Rampazetto in Italy, nude use ol large letters cut in wood 
lor instructing the blind. In 1646 a book, on the condition of 
the blind, was written by an Italian, and puUished in Itatias 
and French, under the title of L'Aacu^i ijlitt a coniM. Is 
i6;e a book was written on Ihe instructioo of the btiod by 
Lana Teni, the Jesuil. In 1676 Jacques Bernoulli, the Swisi 
savant, taught a blind giri to read, but the mean* of her ii^ 
struclion were not nude known. In 1749 D. Diderot wrote his 
LiUn iiir 1(1 auuilti i I'maft it ttux qui aicHl, to show how 
far the intelleciual and moral nature of man la modified by 
blindness. Dr S. G. Howe, who raaoy yean after tnnslaled 
and printed the "Letter" In embossed type, characterises It as 
abounding with errors ol fact and inlcrence, but also with 

Id his "Letter on the Blind " caused Diderot to be inprisoned 
three months In the Bastille. He was releised because his service* 
were required lor the forthcoming Emyilapiudia. ttousiean 
visited Diderot in prisoD, and ia reported to have suggested ■ 
lystem ol embosHd printing. J. Locke, f 


d Ihe eliccl 

human mind. In Ccrmany, Websembourg had used signs Id 
relief and t4ught Mile Fandis. 

Prior to Ihe iSih centuiy, blind beggars existed in such 
niunben that they struggled for Handing room in positions 
favourable for asking bIbis. Their very affliction led 10 iheir 
being used as spectacles lor the amusement of the pi^nlace. 
The degraded stale of the busses ol the bLnd in Fnnce attracted 
the attention of Valentin Haily. In t7Ti, at the annual fair ol 
St Ovid, in Patis. an Innkeeper had a group of blind men attired 
in a ridiculous manner, decorated with peacock tails, asses' ears, 
and pasteboard spectacles witkinl glaises. in vhich ooodilion 
they gave a burlesque concert, for the profit of their employer. 
This sad scene was reputed day after day, and greeted with 
loud laughter by the taping crowds. Among those who gated 
al this outrage to humanity waa the philanthropist Valentin 
HaOy, who left Ihe disgraceltil scene full of sorrow. ' Yes," 
be said 10 himself, " I will substitute truth for this mocking 
parody. I will make Ihe blind to read, and they shall be enabled 
to eaceute faaimonious music." Hafly collected all the hilor- 
mation he could gain reapectmg the blind, and began leaching 
■ blind boy who had gained his living by begging at a church 



door. EDCOunged b^ tlw ntcoti ef hh fnjtO, Ttttty cnOeftcd 
other Hind pcnoiu, ind in 17SJ Itnuided \b I^Ha tbc Bnt Khool 
lor ihe blind <lbc Iiulilution N*tioii«lc dct Jcuno Aveugln), 

bcforr Louii XVI. and tail couil ■[ Venailln. he exhibited (h^ 
iiujamcnu of hn pi^itls in reading, wriiin;, ftriihrneiic. geo- 
IRphy and auiic. and in the lamc year puUisbed u ucouat 
o( hit mcibodt. tnliilcd Enai mr riduialhn dit atu^n. Ai 
tbe novdly wort off. ODnlribuliont ([moit came to an end, and 
the Blind Schod mint ha ve ceaKd 10 ciitt. had it not been Uhen, 
in \n\. under Ihe prelection ol the stale. 

Tbe emperor of Rusiia.and talerlhedowigntinpRU, baviof 
leimed o( HaUy'i work, invited him to visit St PelenbUTI 
for tbr purpoae a[ rslabliihing a limltac Institution in the Ruulan 
capital. On hli Joutwjr HaUy waa invited by Iho king ol 
Piiissu to Charlotienlniri. He took part in tlw delibetationi 
el the Academy ol Saencet in Berlin, and a* a null a icboot 

Edward Riahton, a blind man, wai the profector ol Ibe fint 
Iniiituitsn for ibe blind in England — the Schoot lor the IndiRtnt 
Blind. Liverpool In 17QO Ruahton luggeated to tbe literary 
and philoaophkal society ol which be waa a member. Iba eitab- 
bihmtni ol a benefit club lor the indigent blind. The idea waa 
cumin uoiated to hi( Iriend. J. Christie, a Mind nuiidui, and 
Ihe Utter thought Ihe scheme (hould also include the initiuc- 
tion ol young blind persons. They circulated letlen amontlt 
Individuals vho would be likely to give ibeir aaistann, and Ihe 
Rev. Henry Dannetl warmly advocated Ibe undertaking, it 
**■ mainly due to hia co-opcrallan and »al that Mesira Riiahlon 
and Christie's plan wai carried out, and the Liverpool asylum 
waa opened in t;9i. Tbomas Blacklock ol Edinburj^. a blind 
poet and adralar, (nnslaied HaUy'* work on the Eitaatim 
tj lit Bllii. He Inureited Mi David hmiai, a blind gentle- 
man, the Rev. David Joboilon and olben in tbe auhjeci, and 
alter Elacklock'a death the Edinboi^ Asylum fnr the Rehef 
ol the Indigenl and Induilriaui Blind was ettabtlshed (174]). 
Iniiitmiona wtrr eataUiihed In the United iUiigdom In the 
faUawingiirdcr: — 

School lor Ihe Indtgent Blind, Liverpool . . in' 

RmI Blind Aiylum, Edinburgh ilg< 

Brmel Aaylum 179J 

School lor Ihe IndieeBt Blind. Southwark (sow 

Rnwvcd (0 Lealherhead) I7«l 

Norwich Allium and School iBoj 

Richmond Aiylum. DubUn ilio 

Aberdeen Asylum ilil 

MdIv»u> Aayium. Dublia . . . . . I«i5 

Claiiaw Aiylum and School lilj 

Bellau School lajl 

IMIberforn School. York ...... iSU 

Llnenck Asylum i8m 

Loodon Society lor Tsachitti tbe Bliad to Sfd. St' 

John-. Wood, N. . . ■••• 

Royal Victoria School lor the t 

West ir'Enili*nd Inline r'nt the Blind. Enter '. iBjB 

Htnshaw't Blind Asylum, Mancheucr . iBjg 

Couniy and City ct Cork Aijlum .... 1B40 

Cathode Avium, Livapool 1II41 

Brighton An'lum 1B4J 

Midknd Institute for Ihe'BlitxI. Notriniham . . 1B4J 

General laiiiiute for ikt Uiad. Birmii^lUm . . 184! 

Macan Aaylum, Anaagh ilM 

St Joseph-* AsylumTOublia iSji 

Si Mary-s Aaylum, Dublin . , . iltS 

Inahuie lor the Blind. Dennpatt . ' . . II60 

South Devon and CorawiU Institute foriba Bliad, 

Plymeuih iMo 

School for the Blind. Soulhsea 1864 

Iniiliute (or the Blind. Dundee It65 

South WalninuiIuieloribeBllnd.Swaiwa . 1(65 

School for the Bliad. Leedi isH 

Colbn lor Ihe Sonaol Gentlemen. Womur . 1M6 

KonbraCounilealiwitutc(ar(heBlind.lnverm ISU 
Royal Normal College and Academy ol Music loi tbe 

Blind, Upper Norwoed Itr* 

School for the Uiad. Sheffield 1I79 

BarcUy Home and School lo. Blind Ciris. BrigUon iSN 

Homes for Blind ChiUien. Preiioa . . . . 1S9] 

North Stafford Scboiil. Suik<4B-Ti«M .. IW 

Many ottbeeaifrli utl tn ti oniwCTeaiylttHa.aiiJtetbe rr t M a t 
day acbooli for tbe blind are regarded by the public u aiyluioi 
thin as eduntioDal ttubUshraenta. With Marly all 
leboob workjbop* weie BonDeeUd. In iSje Uha Giibctt. 

After tbe be^nnlng of tbe tqIIi cxntmy, fnalitutlost for tbe 
blind were ettabliabed in vaiiaui parta of Europe. The Initilu- 
tion at Vienna waa founded in iSoa by Dr W. Klein, a blind man, 
and be remained at its bead lor Cfty yean. That of Berlin wai 
nublished In 1806, Anulndam. Prague and Ihesden in iSoS, 
Copenhagen in iSi i. Then are more than 1 50 on the EunpeaB 
continent, moat of tbem receivlnc aid fnm Iba g 

The flnt school lor Ihe hUnd In the Untied Statca waa {oondad 
In Boaton, Maaa.,cli[eflytbmoghtheeaonsof DiJohnD. Flaber, 
a young phyftciaq who viilled the French tdmoL It aiM 
ioairpoiated In iSip.andIo honour of T.H. Pertfat(iTfi4-i!M) 
who save bii manaion lo tbeiiatitulion was nanKd tbe Ferkigt la- 
(lltulionand Masaacbuaetta Asylum (now School) for the Bliiui, 
Aid waa granted by the alats Inm the beginning. In tSjt Di 
Samuel C. Howe (;.v.) waa appointed director, and held tbal 
position for nearly [orty'ioui yeais, bring lucceedcd by hb 
son-in-law hiichari Anagnot (d. 1906), who esIabUshcd a kinder- 
garten far tbe blind at Jamais Plain, in connexion with tbe 
Perkins I miltution. DrHavewasinieresiedlnmanychaiiiable 
and Bodoloflcal Aovementa, but bis life-work waa on behall of 
the blind. One of bi> nic«t notable achievenenu waa ibe 
education ol Laura Btidgman (;.>.) who was deal, dumb and 
blind, and Ihit bii ^nce led to the eduotkin ol Helen Keller 
and other blind deaf-mulea. The New York Inalilntlon waa 
incoiponted la iSii, and the Penniylvaaia Institution wai 
founded at Philadelphia by tbe Sodety of Friendi fa) iSjj. Tbe 
Ohio wai founded at Colitmbai In iB]7, Virginia at Slauaton in 
iBjg, Kentucky at Loidiville la 1841, Tennentia at NasbviUe 
in iBm, and now every atau In the UbIob makta provWon lor 


Ib Enibnd and Walea the total Dumber of persona retuinU 
in igoi aj afflJcted with blindcesa wu >}.]>;, being In tfaa 
praponioa of 778 per taiUioD living. « 1 blind person 
in every 11^5 of the populatloiL The following table ^^"^ 
ibowa Ibat tbe propoition of blind persons to popula' f^, 
lion ha> diminished at each successive enumeration 
lince 185I1 In which year particular! of iboac afflicted in tUa 
manner were aactnalned for the fiitt time. It will, howevei, 
be noted Ibat, although tbe decnaie in tbe piopoRion of blind 
in the latcal inteiceua) period wa* (till conaideiable, yet the 


.8,. a. 


The foIlowlnK table, which gives tbe pToportloRi of blind 
;r million living at the earlier age-groups, ahowt that in the 
icenniun iS^i-igoi, a> also ta recent previous intncental 
periods, there was a decrease in the proponion ol blind childtea 
" igland and Wales generally; it thus lends support to the 
nlion. [n the Cnimi/ Jiff nrl lor iBqi, that the decrtaie was 
:ltheT to tbe leaser prevalence, or to the more efficient 
ol purulent opbibalmia and other iDiantile tnaladin 




■ Ml 




■ «0> 














III 18M s myi comauuian 
ippoinusl by ihc govt rn mini, 
tvidiDCc. iuued in «b«ustivc i 

tht EicmtnUiy Educition (BI 
■u pusni. under which the < 
jiDpulsOTT. In 

D the btiibd, detf and dumb w 
iod. ifler uking much viluat 
diojl rue live rtpon. FoUowii 

, thctcbool 
of (Uiuble 

idof £1 

•oUuniiia nitri 

ry eductiion (or bti 
u of £],]>■ For elcRii 

duelling children In Khooli ccnificd u cfiidcnt 
ling of (he EkniCTiUry Educilicrn Act iB;6. 
'- -■ -Mof 1893 WIS lo lupply 

|iiuic3iinii ar tnde whfch wiU enable 
the Ujad to tun then hvthhood ind lo becom* jaetuJ dtiieni; 
but ibc ttak ipol wia that no piOviiian wu roidt therdo for 
the ccimplciioD ol ihcii cdualiOD ud loduiuul ItsiDisg alter 
the age of liirteeit. 

In Englind and Wata, tn 1907, then mre twntiy-faar 
KUdenI Kbooli and fony-thret voiUiDpa for the blind. In 
many of the large towu. day cbuea lor the education of blind 
children have been eitabji^ed by loci] tducatioD lutboritiei. 
Tbeit »iT (orty-iii home leaching lodetis, *ho jend teichert 
to vilil the blind ic Ihcir boma, to teach adulu who uriili to 
lean to r»ad, to act u colporteun, to lend and iichinge uieful 
baoht, uid to act u Scripture readen to tfeoM who are iged ud 
infinn. AU the borne leaching lociet i t a for the blind and inany 
public libcarit* lend cmbsued boolu. The public library al 
Oxford baa nearly 400 vokunei of daaiical worlu lor ibe tut of 
oiiveniiy atudeatt. 

A aodrty waa initiiuled Id 1S47 by Dr W. Moon for itarsk- 
tniiog and emboning the Scriplum and other booka in 
" Mood " type. The type hi> been adapted to over 40a 
languagei and diilecti. After Dr Uooa's death in 1 U4 the irorli 
wu carried on by hii daughter, Mix Adelaide Moon,and tlw 
bosit* an mwh used by the adult blind. 

In iS65DrT. EL Anniiige, being aware of iliegrcml Impiovt- 
nwnta which had been made in the education of the blind in 
B«bn countna. lowided Ibc Britiih aitd Foreign Bliid Aiaocit- 
tios- Tbii auociatioii wi> lonned for the puipoK of pnmMiilng 
ibe education and caiplo>ineirt of the blind, by ascertaining 
what had been dant io ibeM retpecu in virioui countriei, by 
endeavouriag to lupply deficietida* wbeie ibcM were found to 
clitt. md by attempting to bring about greal«r batniony of 

It gave a new Impetui to the education and training of the blind 
IB the United Kingdom. At that time their education wu in 
le of chao*. Tbe Bible, or a pat part of it, had been 



that the Rtaiive meriti ol tbe varioui melhodi of edi 
IhiDu^ the acnie of touch should t)t decided by Uwaa and tboae 
only who ban lo rely on tha aenie. The council, who were all 
tolally 01 partially Mind. Ipent two yean in comparing Ihc 
diSerent iyiiems of embossed prinl. In iS6« and iS;o Dr 
Armiiage commanded with Dr J. R. Rub In regard to the New 
York Point. No (rouble wu spared to airlve at a ri^l concln- 
iisn. The Brailkayitcwwisfiinllyidopted,! " ' 
■I once became a centre for supplying Iramo lor writing 
piinled hooka, maps, music and oibn educational ap 
1h ihe blind. All taaki priaied by the asaocialion are 
frnm siemiyped platei emboued by blind copylsla. 
joDo separate woiks, varying in length from 1 la i> v 

«, who ^ve their 
woks, and they are 
Sil), who are paid 

typcL Book* are 

I tmbcMtd lypa In 

tbe prfodpil an 
the Cordwaioen', 
id PetuioD SodMj 

le of £]ae,eoo left 

music, la luiubl* 
than BHisie, for 
nd iridividiiali (or 

TLli whole couni^ 
Mncy and Shetland 

I voluntary helpn 

the Scriptuira and 

. In5MlS«i 

ton. aiTiJiiaii I13J 
< imiiy aged blind 


Tht MIoirliif titn the oimiaRiBnu for 19OI : — 

Uind u dcGiKd in Ihc in 

»^ (■»»■) 


Ntw South \Mla I . 8*4 NcvZ 

Soulh AuMnUa . . 315 Nital 

QuKndind ... KM Capef 

WnAuKFilii' . . Ill Canad 
Is AuKnlii tlm aie ioMimtiom Iw tlir blind ai MdbauiH, 
Sydaev, Adelaidt. Briihiaa. BriibiKind Mayludi irv Pulli. In 
New Zialiiid Uk iiaiiiiniao liat Aucktind. 

InCipcColony.bnwteR iS;5*iid iBfi.tlwmminninontiiiiTv 
iocnav in btindneu, btii beiwHn lAai and locuilvmc on- iD.ooo 
hudKiuKd »*7< %. Thtr 

I8tl. It ia tupponed by a 
*Schi»irror tSl'ui-'I wm ooblulKd 

npontd I tool <f loi.iH nruM (llnd to b* 

■he ioHiuciioH nnuiiKJiniba (chedl^ bm 
ally rtdiavd at a nauli of the cwrevpowUna 
oirecijy wLiD TiK iiHLviduali. SS4J rtpeftinf that tht altcfed dckci 
did ttn ciiB. aad fiju that ibay wen blutd ODly la at tn biM 
were able 10 Ke viihU* Diber. and heoct dkl mx con wiitin tbt 
■cope of iha inqujrv. No icplidB wcR received in IQ.SB4 caiea ift 
which penonal •ckedulet were •eol. allbouigiintauid iimviiia 

the pemnal HlKdaln lemrned nete tea incomplet* (or uit, and 

lenuiniQi for ttailidcal irtatMteH. after makiag the <ll«iutla« 

U.—Tkt Bllni. by Bipa ej Blininiu. Att-Piritdi. Cetetir and NalitUy. 

Dominioii Eovenunent at Brantford, Oncaho 
(lajl). andlialiraii. Nova Scoiia (IS67).. 

the'M'KBTTinitiHe'far Pnlea»i>I beai-Mutn 
ind Blind, and 1 acbool (or Roman Calholk 
ihildnn under iba cbarEo of tb* Silun of Cbai- 


In Ibc Dnitcd Sutn the education of 
bliod [a Dot regarded aa a charilj, buL foi 
.. , . paitoflbceducitioDal lyitemoi 
f^^ counlry, and It cairied on it 
public apenae. According to 
A HtuialStfarlal the CosimlssioDcr of Educatioi 

r .908, tl 


_ 10 pupila. The value of appaialua, grouadi 
and building waa 19,701.161. For aalaiica 
■IMJ oUiet cipendituie, tbe aggregate waa 

ti.«fio.7]i. The United SUtes 


these line schools, there are woikshopi for Ihe 
blind subsidized by the state goveriuneai or the 
miuiidpalily. Conimiaiuiutonipoicd of able 
men have recently been appointed in Kvenl 
of tbe ilatcs to take charp of the affairs of 
Ihe blind from infancy lo old age. Tbe 


TIk bliod . 
Under M yea 

Age unlcnotrn 

'^ bUnd T™ f~ 

The panially 1^1 nd 

10 conniunicitt with ev 

brief pr 



Lii enables these cc 
in the plan for 

ricted to a 

return, ihowing only tbe 
omce addrot, and nature of the eiisting delects in all persons 
alleged to be blind or deaf. Dr Aleundcr Graham Bell, of 
Washington, D.C, was appointed eiperl special agent of the 
census office tor the preparation of a report on the deaf and blind. 
He waa enapoWTrrd to conduct in his own name a correapondenco 
relating to this branch of the census inquiry. A circular con< 
taining eighteen qucsljons waa addressed to every blind person 

iln the 
iefollDwingtablea(I., IL, 

IV.) h*ve been compikd. 
He BIi*d, by Dtftt 1^ Blaiteu ami Sti. 






?i.: : : : : : 












d correction, waa ^^' 

3S.6U toully blind. ■ 

.53, repre. 

Tills number, however, lan be conidtTed 
minimuin, at an unknown proponion of the blind wem 

not located by I 

•chedulea thoold be indudKl In theTouT 

" Blindnea, either tntai or partial, is n largely a defect tt 
aged, and OEcurs^wJth nm^uch grrater frequency as Ihc age advai 

borne in mind. Thei*'^ 
the diSereocea in the 
compared for etaiMa d 
liabilln 10 UlndncB c 

M el ocfc dui shovkl be eouiii 

yt-i7c) hadblind reUuve>,7-«44 having blind biDitieis. liHen or 

0( the S3.?Bo blind whoK panmi were not related, 9490 (oi 
i;.6%) had blind lelitives, ^}g; having blind bm hen. snen or 

had also 6)1 nd rel 
IJ.9B0 wlxMe isre' 
bNnd waa 16M lo 
blind lelairve*. 
In 1M3 Ihe m 

of the 2527 t>lind whoie parents wtte covhus. 
conBrnilally blind, of whom 3^ (or js-^f^) 
vn dI the cls«es tpecihcd; while, among iSe 

•It &-8%),*ywhom oaly"iU3 lot ir^^l'hail 

cr of Uind in Fnnce was nllmaled at li.ajb, 
of the coviiry being 38,000,000; 1148 of the 

J7 «■« Rdivliit IsMnRisa ia ii icMiila (uppoRn) bjr iha lun, 
. bir lb* dry bI FtiTM, by iDini of ItM dctwtiKau. mud by 

■^^ BUI* reUnuB bndich Tht four PviiuJniiiiutHHia 
n the ludniiiiia NmijiihIi do JnuKa Avniiln. [he Ecolc Bnilla 
bsnlKl ia isag), ihi EBbUMHuiit da Saun Aveuild dt Sc Pud 

TuLB III.— n> WW, I7 i)*!"* ff Blii^mm (W AthFtnuit. 

Under ID ytan . , . 
10-19 " ... 

JO-M. " '.'.'. 
4fr-l» . . .. ■ 

es :r : : : 

H5 : : : : 

9o-« ;^, ■ • ■ 

Nanbo pn 1,000,00a jxqiulilli 

Aii*ri TTfT'. -. 

Dnriorcan ■ . . 

»o-J9 » I • ' 

S-- : : : 
« :: : : : 

V~n ", ■ ' ■ 


Scniided in 1I53}, ud Out of the Frim de Siint Jon dc Die 
Dundrd In 187s). 

TIk aumbcr a1 thf blind In Getnuny was about 39,000, or B70 jx 
BiUioB ia iMj. Tbt numbfr of inttiti-' ' ' - - 

with I toul of 

t wo which in 

,_. „.'Ly ■»Mtpd by t 

iv»M muni fitting. -— ' ' '^— ' ' — *---■■-— -,-- 

the pTDViimt. L_ , 

«» fnm the itite. u (hit ih<7 
' It of private charhy, while ii 

tioni I>U ehon of the 

NESS 6j 

bMDiiIli^linyiliiStxoair. THcrMu1lo(tkievlitb,u*elluaD 
eominuniaiioiu from ihe (iiudi>n. thi letttnfnm the Mind penan. 


UCE ol a^tdT^^hetber i 
mfinZ ^ickl" ■mi'S'i 

n <« ihdr 'wanb. Bui 

n themielvn without I'hi 
jTooiiit. - ■■■ ■ 
inH! bn 

'aiid hit tlmily. tht'Ui 

orooiAt. liieUin'c 
ji fee; but » ■ ruk pe ooa not 
wlio ii 001 blind bfi to use every 
" - - the blbid man to do 
ithoot Idikh b« viti 

a blind pupil 

tiled in other pluB on 
their lelativn. 

" The fund for thr dlirhuted blind tt adiniDiRered by the direel 
theinflitution. The number of ihoKainMedainounnitpreee 
»aboui40o, who live mpecably in all putlog Suiony, arealnt 
'If-nippoTtinf. and led themiclva free meo. For, Juit Mia 
xa not fed galled by a sill from hit father, 10 they are not a^iam 
I receive a&iitance from their aecood patemai Ikvik, t 


hg '•■*■' 
d iutStntloa, 

about eqoally balanced- No cevnibnce wai t 
brind in the cenxx o( iln. Ther* ia only 
that of AmMerdum, with «i> supila. with ■ | — . — 
Benuchem (wiih»pupili)aniluaaylanlar adului 

Sinniarried). Bnidei Ibeie, there are vorlohMia 1 
ntterdam, the Ha(ue, Utrecht and MiddettHHT. 
AecordiBf to the cenaiiaof 1S70, than wre ia Danmufc IV4Q bGnd 
(577 inalei and 671 lenulea). or one bUnd foe every Ifil penoaa. 
One inatitiKiofl haa been ea tab l iibcd by jovecnaient, _ 
M. the Royal laatitation for Ibi Blind, at Capenhaceni '"■■"■' 

loochitdrentafed 101"' -'- — *' j_— .^j ti 

pfeparatory aeiuol for 
aayldn for blind femal 
royal tchooL An atiDi ^ ^ 

The aumbcr ol blind 

ioder Tain IV.— r*« BJ«d. h (l"'"(ti"i 

[nou In aweoea, aaanunf 10 tne caeana 

Iv sf PsmU, Dttra ^ Blimiaia, aid Bli<U 

fCHIm Oujti. 

blind iteadily advai 
fidcnce of the Sail 


Totally blind , 

P.nially blind . 

TbeUInd . . . 

TouUy blind . 

Pinially blind . 

Toially bl 
Panjjl'y 1 


No BUnd 

., inltKdiKti ._ 

a IruftwDTthy pemm, reaidini in him f iRUir ptac 
buD advke aad practical lielp. to protect him fn 

anabie to'ad^Sc'w'Slp.''h»'thcJi w 

ilriKIKin of the blind in Sweden wa 


fulv lUi tbe Royil lutliiuliia 61 lit BDiid 
buUdint 41 TDinlcbDda. mai SlwUu[m. 
TtHla " 

Tbt nilHU oC Ilrj •howrd Ihil in Flnl 

MM Mi 

Euhilg Lhc -try btfh figuri ol onf (or tvrry jji al 
:>uT poptilalioru ncvcnhclm (hcrv were only i£ 

»1 ate. For ihtmt there ire 

KUDoiate. r or iMae loerc ire iwouuinu 
wbrrr Ibc inAmctiDD it jfivtn in [he &WKJ 
there ere eboul tt pupi^Bild aooLher I 
•irucUDD ie given ia the Finaiih i^*n[..*f 

^. And when the pupUi 

Accordlni le inlgrmitiaa raeriveil rnj« Ihe I.R. CeDiral Coinniij- 
*^'' '" ^iiiiiic«» (he nirrnber ol blind in Ihe pnvlKn rcpmenied 
in [hi Aiutiian Reichira[h anuHioied lo 15.5IJ ia the year 

unely 4JJ tSfi 

01 il 



o( the email of Si Slephen uru loS.jai. 

The number dJ btind penoEwia July vuji.tiS, vfonjing tothe 
ceuiucf iMl.and Ihoie si ichcni iie were euirmted loioimlj ^ 

**■ ''^^S5Se^.lrt^^''""h!e'*'' ^\;|""P""' 

TIierT ire lamuiaiiau.echooIaindworkJiaiiafgrihe blind. 

SMtiHio wiih Rfard 10 the lUimbtr ind condiiiaa of the bUnd 

in ihe RuHian empire en of ■ very limiled chinrter. and ii lion' 

mmn ol late yean ihal any uienpi haa been made (o dra 

up any icrunie reluini wjih refud u ihen. The lot 

nirmberof (he blind ihroiighoul llv empire 19 generally reckoned j 

the bj'ind!'*' " """ " '~ " '*" ""' " ' "'""'" 

'■Jr. Egypt the bl 

int. lyg- 

PaluaTiuh. Calitin, 

ucma. The memorial 

in CeytoD look the form of work br the blind. 

^. ihe help o( L. Canhmiie of the Indiai Civil 

Si vieed a acheme ci orlenTal Brulle. which haa been adopieil 

b: jrii aad Foreiin Bible Scxaeiy lor the producuaa g( the 

S( in Eastern Lnauage*. 

■ it very prevaleni in China, and to eynftaam. Pnlect 
ar iiul be added tepnieyaiid tmallpai ai auto. Blind 

br iy be vfn on evin highway, clamonnne for Ckmt 

■liu>. itM in India their _pitilul condition attrairico the 
aticnlion (< (he miwonarlea. W. H. Murray.aScottiih mUonary 
[a Pekini, made a einiple aad fngennui aibputfon 1^ the Braille 

Lacorrequadine Brume nocnber. 

40a ■ 

[alto, early in the Teat looi. ihrouch fundi provided by 
Atmiraje, Theobjeclolihcrnuituiion, whiih liwhnlly 

become in ereat meaiure, or 

India ha« 1 llrfc prvportioB 

iven comptetely. lelf^uppiirtini 
9I blind inhibitanti. latiflnc fn 

ssTf; , 

11. AKhsolforlbeblindnieiublubedaiPekinc, 
mol the Script urea pridled at Peking can be lead in all 

whereiheNonhera Mandarin dialect iiipokendreMiH 
mint, Tiki lanur tj Ot Kmmtnl Typi /•> Ciina). 
r haa recently been tmnged for Mandarin, baied on a 
liaband finak. by Miia Garland ol the China Intaiid 

FoDchow (here ia a brge vhool for b<m and |^li 'm 
h the Chuich MiiKnury Society. At Ningpo-Tlmoy, 

Fukien work lor the bJiod 14 carried on by iht 

The blind in Japan have long been (rained in maaaBe, acupnivtirr* 
blind engaged In Ihw oGCUpationa. From three to five t^mm 

blind pcrvm il ihea able M Hippon hinwil. la Vokohama. wiih * 
populaiioaolhaif a miinon. then art imonenand women eaiaeed 
In muage, and all but about too of Ihaie are blind. In litl a 
achool lor Ibc blind and dcal-nuta nt dtabUihed in Kyoto, and 
loon af(er one In Tokyo. Japan bai loot Khooli (or the blind, aod 
■even cooitiicicd KhooU lor the blind aod dcaf-nucea. 

a othet_ Eanern countriea, Mindneia ii very prevabat in 

RTVCeived thrtwghtheeTelliui llinnigh 
her organ, the mind of a blind child is vacanl, and [be 
g ihould begin early 01 the mind will degenen 

ecUy It 

f tight mulli in 

If no 

Hither detayi n 

blind child l> 

and when he leavei bit seal wiD move timidly 
of activity produce! bad pbytical eSecti, and 
nlal growth. Th.: blind are often ioJLted, 
aome Ol mem niined for life, through the Ignorance and miitaken 
lundncs) ol their liirndi during caily childhood. They ihould 
be uughl to aialk. to fo up and don itain, u naali, dieu aad 

Tley ihould be orefully lau jht conect potiuRt and attitudes, 
and 10 avoid makltig grimacei. They tbould be told the lequlre- 
menta of aocial convtntioni which a leciDg cliild leanu lllrough 
watching hii etdera. They have no coudouiDen that Iheit 
hi hilt arediugreeaUe, and the earlier uBughtiy tnannerlimi are 
corrected the better. It il a fallacy to luppoK that the other 
lenaeiof Ihr blind are naturally thaipcrllun thOKOl Ihe teeing. 

cultivated that they partially replace light, and inch cultivatiott 
can begin with very young children. 

Blind children have ■ itronger claim npoo Ihe public tor 
-J ;— .!.._ 5,1^, thiUrjn^ bccauK they itart >1 > "' 

in their 

t. they 

Vrhat •Dthoritla dMald adopt tb* mM cOdeat pba loc 
prepiriBs bHnd cUldnD to btcoioe (cUve, Indrpfnrtnit 
■ad nonieii. nthec than CDuida the chwpfM uul culai 
BHttiod ol cduciihii tlicm. Wc cuiixit tflord to (ivc the '" 
Lj cduatloB that b not Ilu bat of Id kiod to tha tn 
pnfessioD Ihry will have to EoDow. Tkn are nauy miai 
penoDi wiih litUr educatkn who arc iHCfuI dtimiand Hm 
ia vanow industrlu. but an untdncalcd blind poHO ii bdplai, 
■nd oiusi bccoiiK (tspCDdtnt. 

Tlie ■umnindlBgi ol Ihc bUnd do Mt hvouc tb« dcvdor 
of activity, telf-relianci and iodepcDdcooc PaRDt* aod fiicadi 
Bud it euler to attend to the winU and tcquiramtnta ol tliar 
blind duMmlhaa to tactatlKinUbeKlf-hdpfijltn liiccoaiBon 
>cu of evciyday lii*. A —''i-fc— klndnau Icadi the friend* to 
toardemy Bwvenent and piewDt ptiyikal ■jccnioiL Asa tuk, 
the vlUfilT ol the b&nd It nuch bdov the average vitatiiy oi 
leehig pcnou, ind any Q>ileBi of educatioo whicb doe 
tecognlM and oveicomc tU* defect wlU be a failure. It 
lack at tottfjr aad doMrntnalJoi], not the want ol aigbt, iIbI 
GBoaes ID many faihiR* amoog the biiu). 

A pnctftal tyiUiD of education, wUcli ha* (or fu object 
make the Mind iodependcni aad KK-Hotalnins. mual be ha* 
p-^^^ upon a OHnprebnalva coune of physical devetopaxnt. 
JUJJIJ A blhid man aiho hat iittjved mechanical tnialng, 
gmeial education, or muiicai initnictioa, nilhout 
phyaieal developmeai, Ii like an ea^na pmvided with eveiything 
neoasary eicept awiive power. 

Schooli lor the blind ihould be provided with mU-equipped 
fymaaaEa, aad the pho'ilcal training should ^"'•^™^ varioua klndi 
of maw and appaAtui work, tai^ and Hiitabk pUyjnundi 

pfay, it (Invld have a uipp^ al nriav. tilta, jiim(iin«^baanit, 
Mila, chai*4-baoei, Allllt-aDey*, &c. Any fame' that aUoi 
of aide* bcini taken add* freatly to the eBioymeBt, and b 
powoful faicontive to play. The pvplli *lio<ild be encouiaged 

The (objocu In the acbool cunicidan ilioald be varied 
he a(e and capacity ol the pupil), but tboM 
wiucB cultivite the powen of obicrvaliOD and the 
perceptive laculilci should have a fint place Object 
leauni or nature study ihould have a latBD share ol 
. Few people realize that a blind child knows BOlUng 

Acain, a carnal drill 

. rapidity. Is 

hf licqnent eierdie* la composiLioa, and by comaiitting to 
DiemoTypaAafeaof standard proae and poetry. In his secondary 
course, the choice of subjects must depend upon his future 
CBzccr. Above aH, siimulaio a love of good reading. 

Ttoia the earliest yean ■"**■■■' dexterity should he cultivated 
by kiadexgariBi work, andriling, sewing, knitting and tloyd. 

BImd children ifho have not had the advantage of 
~*Lj this early handwork find niuch more difficulty when 
II iri>u they begm a ngular course In technical tninlng. 

Eariy maanal triioing culilviies Ihc perceptive 
facultka. (ha activity to the body, and prepua the band* and 
fiaceit for piaooTonc-playlng, piuiofotte- timing and handicraf is, 
Boidca a good general education, the blind must have careful 
aixl detailed training in lome handicnlt. or thorougb prTpantiOD 
., . lor some piofettlan. The ttidca and pnlcaeioai open 

1^1', to IheB are lew, and if they fail in one of these tbey 
^M. eanBottumquickly to some Other line ol work. Those 

who have charge of their edvcatlon •houM avail 
th tiusal sta el the knowledge that haa been gained in all countries. 
ia order to dedde wisely fai reprd to the iiadg or < 
tervUtbcst&pu^sknldhcprepand. It puybc 

ol hradictaft, pbiwfartfrtentnc, school-teacUvg, or the pin- 
laBioa of ntwici the talent and ability ol each child tbould be 
caiduLy csntidcred beloichnaUy deciding his luiureoccupatioiL 
The (aiiutc to give the blind a practical education olton meaoa 
dependence through lUe. 

Pianolerte-tuning 1* an employment lor the blind originated 
in Psris. About i8je Claud Montal and a blind IcUow-pupit 
attemptedtotuiieapiaiw. The seeing tuner in charge __ 
ol the tcho^ pianos complained to the director, and a^^T* 
they were lorbidden to touch the works, but the two '—-^ 
Iriends pncuied an old piano and continued their 
efibrts. Finally, the dinctor, convinced of theii skill, gave 
them, tjiarge ol all the tcbool pianos, and classes were soon 
started lor the other pupils. When MoDtal Ml the [nsiitulioii 
faa (Dcounteied great prejudice, but bis skill in tuning bccanM 
known to the profcsaon of the Conservatoiiv, and bis work 
rapidly boeased and success was assured. Uonlal afterwards 
established a manufactoiy. and remained at its had lor niany 
yean. Tuning is an eiDcUenl employment for the blind, and 
one in which they have certain advantages. The seeing who 
eicel in the business go through a long spprtnlicesiiip. and one 
mint give the blind even more csieiul pitparaiioD. They nait 
woek a number of hours daily, under tuiuble tuition, for several 
years. Alter a careful eumiaaiion by an eipcrt piinotortv 
tuning authority, every duly qualified tuner Should be lurniihed 
vrith an oAcial ccrtihcate ol proficiency, and tuners who csiuiot 
take the requited examinations ought not to be allowed l» 
Impose upon the public 

ilusic in iu various bisncha. when properly taught. Is lh« 
best and o»si lucrative employment lor the blind. To becooN 
luecesslul in the prolession, it is necessary lor the ^^.^w 
bUnd to have opportunities of intirucdon, practice, g^u^ 
study, and hearing muaic equal to thooe allordcd the 
seeing, with whom they will have to compete in the open aiatket, 
II the blind Tnuiician is to rite above mediocrity, systematic 
musical instruction in childhood Is indispensable, aad good 
instruction will avail little anlcs* the pmciice Is under constant 
and judicious supervision. The musical instruction, in iti 
several branches ol harmony, pianoforte, organ and vocal 
culture, must be addressed to the mind, not merely to the car. 
This Is [he only possible method by which musical training 
can be made of practical use to the blind. The blind music 
teacher or organist must ha 
ol analysing and dealing with music froi 
ol view. U the mental faculties have not been developed and 
thoroughly disciplined, the blind musician, however well be may 
play or sing. wiU be a failure a* a teacher. The musical in- 
struction must be more thorouch, more analytical, more con^ 
piebensive, than eonespDnding ioiliuclion given to seeing 
persons. In J87J Dr Armitage published a book on tho 
education and (nii^ymenl of the blind, in which he stated that 
lithe blind musidanstcoiaed in the United Kingdom sot moia 
han one-half percent wen able tosuppoit ihEmsclvcs, whereas 
>f those mined in the Paris school jo % uippoilcd Ihemielve* 
uUy. and 30 % partially, by the profession of music. 

To provide a belter education and improve the musical 
laining of the blind, the Royal Kotmal College was established 
n ig7>.* Its object was to allord the young blind 
I thorough general and musical education, to qualify j^^ 
hem to earn a living by various intellectual pursuits, c^afi> 
especially as organists, pianists, teachers and piano- 

I the first, the founders ol the college a»iii> 
ind could only be made self-sustaining by 
itclligcnce, bodily activity and destcrily, 
by inculcating business habits, by arousing their iell-respeet, 
and by creating hi their minds a btliel in the possibilitjr 
iiMl (responsible, with Dr Armlnge, the duliF el West- 
Dlhen, Isr its louildallon) was Sir F. J. CsmpbelL 
Cl.S., F.S.A.. hi>nKlf a blii^min.xha, bora in Tenncs- 
in i8}i, and cducaied ■! tlx Naihvilk Khool. and slier- 
_. I -ipaig ,nd Berlin, had Imm iSjJ to IK9 been 

LL.D.. I 

>ith Dr H 

It the RoT>l NonoJ College, for the Grat time, 
rot MIM (tauenti, mnd the initilution iKogniied by Ebc Educi- 
tiob Department u a tnining callrgc for blind ichooL-teuberL 
From the first day A |™pi( cnteti school until be hoiibet his 

_. Blind cliildien »re allowed to b« idle ud helpleu at 

5jjT bomei they do not kam to apptedal* the value of 
,„^ time, and la alter yean thli is one ol the most dilhcull 
lenoiis to Inculcate. Hvrisg dtlfled thtough child- 
boDd, they an content to drift Ihroujgh lilt. The Important 
habits oF punctuality. reguJanty and precision ahould be culti- 
vated In all the amngemenU and requirements. A great eflort 
should be nude to lift the blind from pauperism. As soon as 
popfls enter a school, all lembtanca ot pauper origin should be 
removed. They must be Inqiired with a desire (or independence 
and > belief In its poulblliiy. In the public mind blinrinfi has 
been so long and closely asaodaied vith dependence and panper- 
(UB that tcboob lor the blind, even the most progressive, have 
been regarded hllberu as aiylunu niher than educatloDal 
eMabtlihmenla. A sad mistake in the training of the Mind i* 
llu lack of an earnest effort to Improve their aodal condition. 
The Ian that their education has been left to charily has helped 
to keep them in the ranks of dependenta. 

The queiiion of diy-classes versus boardliig.schDals has been 
nuch dlscuned. It tt claimed by tome thai a Uiod child gains 
more independence if kept at home and educMed In ■ school 
with the seeing. This theory is not veri&ed by prKtical ei- 
ptrience. Al home lis blindocs* nakes the child an exception, 
kod often It laka little or DO part in the active duties ol every- 
day life. A^n, in a daM of seeing children the blind member 
Is treated aa an eiceplion. The mentory i> cultivated at the 
eipense al the other [acuities. «ad the facility with which It 
rtdte* in certain subjects causa it to make a false estimate 
of iu •tiaiiuiMnis. The fundamental principles in diffeieal 
branches are imperfectly understood, from the (allure to (oUow 
the fllustntioni of the teacher. In the playgrounds, i few 
inepttssibla join la active games, biu most ol the blind chiUren 
prefer a quiet comer. 

For the sake ol economy, schools tor dea^mntea and the 
Mind an sometiines united. Aa the tequiiement* of the two 
ciassessre entirely separate aruldatinct. the union Is' undesirable, 
whether lor gcnenJ education or indistiial training. The plan 
was tried in America, but has been given up in most of the 
states. To meet the dil&cully ol proper dassiBcalion with small 
numben, blind boys and girls are taught in the same classes. 
The acquaintances then irtadc lend to intimacy In later yean 
and (ostei Intcrnurriage among the bliwL Intermarriage among 
the blind is a calamity, both for them and for their children; 
aoOK who might have been successful business men an liMlay 
begging in the streets Id consequence of inletmarriage. 

In every Kbool or class there will be a certain munbet of 
yoDBg blind children who, from neglect, want ot food, or other 
causes, are feeble in body and defective in Inlellccti such 
children arc a great burden in any diut or schaol. and require 
Special treatment and inilrvctioit. Eduotional autboritiea 
should unite and have one or two school* in a hcalthlut locality 
lot mtntally defective blind children. 

Uort and more, in educational work for the seeing, there it 
s tendency to tpeciilise, snd thus ensbtr each student to have 
the best pouible insi rue lion in the subjects Ihst bear must 
directly en his luluie ailing. To prepare the blind lor Bell- 
" be an equally careful study ol the 

ability of e*cb child. 

A icbaai* of educatioi 
the Mind > sell-susiainii 
Khoob lot chPdten Itoi 

h has lor il 

14 an intcllictnl opinion can be lormed in ngs 
xieer of the pupils. They *iU fail naturally 
rig categoriet: — (a) A certain number will si 

handicnft thaa In any other ollfne, and should be dnfud tan * 

suitable mechutical scbooL W A few will have special gilts lor 
general busioeas, and should be educated accordingly, (c) A 

. M 

, combined with the requisite 
I in the musical profession; 

and Indusl 
in addition to a libt 
Instruction, equal U _ 

BCbools d1 music (e) Some may achieve cicellent success a* 
piADOlotts-luncts, ud in 1 pianolortc- tuning scbool strict 
buslBCB habits should be cultivated, sod the same attention 
to work rec]uircd as Is deinaulc4 of seeing workmen in well- 
regulated piaiuiforte factories. 

The United Kingdom stands ajimst alone in aUotring the 
education of the blind to depend upon charity. In the United 
Slates, each tl«te goverament not only make* libet>l praviaioa 
(or the education arid ttwning of the blind, but Bust of them 
provide grounds, building and a complete equipment in ail do- 
plrtments. Although it coats muiJi mate per cavils, from £40 to 
£60 per annum, the blind are as unpty provided with the means 
of education as the seeing. The govcmment of the United 
Suites appropriates fTO.DOo per annum for printing embossed 

The CM-lieM anlhentie record* of tangible letto* (or the blind 
describe a pUn o( engraving the letters upon hkicka of wood, the 
iaventton of Fnncesco I,uca*, a Spaniard, who d ed icat ed it to 
Philip It. of Spain In the ifith century. In 1640 Piem Horcwi, 
a wriling.oulsur in Puis, cut a movable leaden type for the an 
of the blind, but being without mean* to (any out his {dan, 
abnndoned iL Pins inserted in cushiona were neit tried, nod 
large wooden letters. Alter these came > contrivance ol Du 
Puiseaiu, a blind man, who had-motsl letlen cast and vt them 
in a small frame with a handle. Whilst these eiperimenls wen 

R. Weiisembourg (a resident of Mannheim), who lost his sight 
when about seven yean ol age. made use of letten cut in card- 
board, and afterwards pricked mspa in the same materiaL By 
this method he uught Mile Psrsdia, the talestcd bUnd musjcian 

To HaBy belongs the honour of being the fin! M enboM M>^ 
as a mean* of reading for the Hiad; his books wcit cmboastd ia 
large and small italics, Irom nnvable type set by Ui popib. The 
foUottiog is an account of ijie origin ol hi* diMOvery. HaOy'i 
Erst pupil was Fnn^aia Lesueui, ■ blind boy whom he found 
begging at the poich door of St Germain del Pr^ While 

I a cud strong indented by the type* in the prew. The 

lad showed his master he OHjd decipher seveial letters on 

the Old. Immediatd]' Hafiy traced irith the handle of his pen 

some signs on paper. The boy read them, and the resolt waa 

printing iv relief, the gRnteit o( Haily's diico«Eiies. In iSii 

Lady EhBbeth Uiwtber bnaghtembOBcd books and type* fron 

hria, and with the type* her son, Sk Charles Lowther, Bart., 

printed foe his own use the Cospel of St Matthew. Thewotior 

was taken up by Mr Call of Edinburgh, Mr Alston of 

Glasgow. Dr Howe of Boston, Mr FrietUasler ol PUIaddphia, 

' ithen. Intg>7 James Gall of Edinbuigh embossed SDBK 

ntary works, and published the Co^kI of St John in iBj*. 

(lis plan was to US* the commoti Englisb ktter and Rplkce 

1b iBjiihe Edinhurgh Sodely of Arts offeicd a gold medal for 
the best method of priming lor the blind, aid it was awarded to 

Imond Fry of Loikdon, whose alp>hahet consisted ckl ordinary 
capital Irtlen without their imall strokes. In lIjA the Rev. W. 
Tsyloc ol Yorit and John Alston in Glasgow bc^n to print with 
Fry's type, kit Abios's appeal lor s printing (and met with ■ 

r nspoase, and s gnnt ol £400 wan aads by thn tismiif; 


h iljt be MDipIeted the Ne* TBUmtni, ind at t)w end at 1840 

ibc whole Bible wu published la cmboued print. In i8]3 
printiof tat the bniid wis commennd in the United Statei al 
Botton and Philadelphia. Dr S. G. Howe in Boiton uaed unall 
Englkta lelten wilhoul c*fn(al«, anglei being employed instead 
«( cuna, while J. R. Friedbuider in Fhiladelpbii >aed only 

5, C 2) r f 1 



4 ^ 

y Tl 



J9 R 

;0 T 





^ i 




Flo. i.-Mc»ii Alphabet. 

Roman (apilali. About iljST.M.LucaiofBrijJol.ailiortJi 
writer, and J. H. Frere ot Blaciheaih, each inimduced 
■l^bet of ompler rorau, and based iheir lyttems an «i 
graphy. In 1M7 Dr Moon ot Brighton brought oul * (yi 
whkb paniany retains the outline o[ the Roman leilen. ' 
type B easily leid by the adull blind, and is stilt much usee 
the home IcaEhlng societies. The pnceding methods an 
kruwn as line types, but the one wbich is tHnv in general use 
point type. 

In the eariy part of the igth cenluiy Captain Charles Barl 

rl^t-band tow Id irUch vettktl fine, ot the piinted table ibf 
■lieeeh unnd !i 10 be found, 

Louis Bnillc, a pupil and aFterwaids a prorcssor of the tosijlu- 
llon Nalionale da JeuQcs Avcugica, Paris, studied al! the vaiiouf 
methods In which erbitmry diantctcis were used. Birbict'l 
letter, although it gave a large number ot combinalloiis, was 100 
long to be covered by the hnger. in reading, and Louis Braille 
reduced the number of dots. In 1S34 Braille petfected hit 
system. Di Aimitige considered ft »u (be grcilest advance 
thai had ever been made in the cducilioo of the bUnd, 

The Braille alphabet consists of varying cOBbioatlons of six 
dots in an oblong, o[ which the vertical side contains three, and the 
horiionlil two dots •• Itiete ir 
of IheK lia dots, and after the letten 
supplied, the remaining sigos a. 
tractions, &c 

" Fix wriiing. a ruler it need, eonslicinc of a netal bed either 
Broowcd or nujltKi by gnun of IJitlc pics, each group oouisting el 
hi: ovsr ihii bed ■• Aitcd * brui giiide, punched with otaunc 
holes whose vertical diameter is [hree-tcnihs 01 an inch, while the 
horinnul diamnei ie tvo-ienths. The pita are amnged li iwa 
panllcl lius, and iheiuidt is hinted oa ihe bed la luch a way that 
when the two an loclied tognher the openings In the (idde cono- 
•pondoavlytoihtpittinihebed. The brsM guide lua a dovUe 
row of opeoinEV which enables the writer (s write two lines: wbea 
these are wci ticiA he ihifis hit guide dawnwatds until two little piiia, 
which project [rom the uoder lurlac* at it* ends, drop intocom* 
Bponding boles of a wooden board; iheQ two man lines are written, 
and (hit opeiaiion is repeated until the boetoin of the page it reached. 
The papeiisinliDduced between the Imme and the ental bed. Tht 
iestnintni for writing Is a blunt awl. which carriia a little cap el 
paper hdore it into the 'grooves or pitt of the bed, theiebyproduoag 
a ieriea of liiUe pita in iBe paper OB the fide nut lh< wnier. When 
taken out and turned over, liukepromineneea ace felt, coneaponding 
10 the pita on the other tide. The tiadiiv it perfonned f ton left to 
tight, coflscqiKnlly The writing ft from right to left; but thiamvcnal 
prctenis no practical oifBcvUy at taon at the pupjl bad caught the 
idea that in reading and writ ing alike he hat to go ffvardr- 

" The 6nt ten fetters, from ' ■ ' to ' J.* are lomed in (he upper 
and middle grooves: the neit ten, ftoni It ' to ' 1,' are formed i>y 
uldinir nK lawrr tqick dot to each Letter of the fitit tedet; the third 
Ibe fini by aiMing two tower dott loeach lett*i|. 


aumben and the 

' groavei. inttesd of 

" The tin ISO letw™, wl 

t! S U 

\[-i Jr = ? £ S 5 H 2 3 

iftt V X y Zandfefertheviih 

(ttghih ihwhedaraoowWtea. 

S £ ^ 3 5 -V 5 S •: 3 :€ 

te^ond mioiois. the 
IhiidteDlbre wk th^ 

,Biaille Alphabet. The black dots repraeM the rmisHl p<^ts ot Si,f,'^^jtti^ 

Appuatot fee writing Bi^lfc. 

an Lorclatioa to tbcgr 

g French oScet, MbMituted enhoocd dots foi cmboased Unci, 

The ilaiefor writing was aboinvenied by him. 

a tafalt of speech soMnds, eontlstiDg of six 

intachline. Bil rectangular ceD contained 

' ler of poi n ts In the 

Idn of the laethod employed by th 


unUrlOf mj ind Dobit ^neroMty, every UiDd man, tromari lod 
cbQd Ihrougbaut the Englub-apuldnf world ua nov obuyi 
aol only the bett Liieniure, hui [he bat muiic. 

la Amenci there are two mDdjficaliou of ibe point type. 
knoHB M New Vork point and American braille. In each oT 
thoe the most ErequentLy recuiring Lellcn are reprevnted by 
the leut nunbci of doti. 

The oriiinil Braille ii uied by the Inuilutioni lor Ibt blind in 
the Brltiib cmpiiei £unipca4i coiuitries» Meiico, Bn^ and 

AmuKm toi EirauTtOHU Wou 

The appaiatiB lor writing point aJphabeti ha* alrudy been 
detcribed. Frank H. Hall, former Hipcrioiudfni Ol the School 
rar thi Blind. Jackionville. 111., U.5.A., baa inv«Dled t. Braille 
typewriter and ilemtype maker ^ the latter embona Bicial plate* 
from which any number of copiacao be printed Ad automatic 
BiaiUe-writer bu been brought out in Gtrminy, and Wilttim 
B. Walt (princlpil ol the InMiiution for the Blind in New York 
City) hat invcBiedamichinefor writing New Votlpoint TlicM 
nucblnaateetpcnilve.but A. WayneaCBitminghiinhaibrougbL 

i •■■•••■•■•••••■•■••••••• 

I t S 4 9 S 7 8 


Fio. y — Arilhinnic Board. Pin atxt Chincien. A. Shape sf 
opening in ihr boud (dc pia ; S ud C, pin. 

OulBcheapandeSiciivcBranie-wriitr- H.Stainiby.ucrflaTyol 
the BImingham lutituiion, and Wayu hive invented ■machiat 
(or writing Braille dortbind. 

Many boardi have been conatnicled to enable tbe blind to 
work arithmetical probkmi, Tbe oik whicb ii moil nicd was 
Invented by the Rev. W. Taylor. TIm board hai ■tir.ihapcd 
Opening! !n which a iquare pin Gu In eight diSeienl potitioni. 
The pin bai on one end apl^ ridge and on the other a noichrd 
rid^; aiitccD chancten can be lamed with the two end*. 
Tbe board ll alio used for algebra, aoolber let ol type furnishing 
the algebraic lyrnboli. 

Books are prepared with raised gnmefrical diagrams^ figures 
MB be (omed with bent wiir* on nuhlona, or on piper with i. 
toothed whed attached to one end nf a pair of compauei. 

Geography I* itudled by neani ol nlieF napi, manulartured 
to wood or paper. The phyiical map* and glciici prepared lot 
■eeing children ait Died also for the blind. 

Chiefly owing to the unTTmitllng encrfy and hlierality of 
Dr T. R, Armitatf. in cnnneiion with the British and Foreign 
Blind Asucialion, all ichool applUaca lor the blind han been 
greatly improved and cbea^Mnied. 

crence hai b«*n nade to tbe iact thai iBittie in.iu vaitoiM 
Ks lumithn the hot aikd noii lucrative employment lor 
ind. But ibow who have OBI the ability, oi an loo old 
trained for music ot •nan other proieiaias. must depend 
hindiirafti for their *uppon. The pnnciiwJ ones tavghi 
varioui initituiDnt an the making ol baskets, brush**, 
sacks, ships' lender*, broomi and maltreiBes, upholstery, 
'ork. diair^aning, wood^hopping. &c. Female* ue 

It It diRicuU to find (mploymeNt 

thtt typewriting and mastage will | 

The blind, whfihcreduciied (ortl 

I, I rai ned at trachtn. 

nuUcIuied goodt in 

e outlet. They n«d heb> Id 
'Dient, rccommenditiont [of niibliihint 
auiitiiite tn pranding oatfit* of twok*. 
help in the lelecLion and puichate of the 
wctt >halcsale rates, in the talt ol theii 


and il n' 


rards a Iresh start. Every 

insiituiion ihould keep in touch with iu old pupils. Tbe luper- 
inttndeni who carefully studies the lucceiscs and laJum of hi* 
pupils when they go into the worid, will more wisely direct the 
work tnd energiei of hli present and future studept*. 

Within recent yrsri grEiI Improvonents have been made In 
lomc of the progressive workshops lot the blind. At the coo- 
ftrence in London in i«oi Mr T. Stoddan gave the foUnwifl^ 
inlormalion in regard to the work in Claigow:— " We ate build- 
ing very eiteniive additions to our workshops, which will enable 
ui to accommodsle 6oo blind people. We mean to Mnpkiy the 
moil np-10-dale Dietbods, and are Introducing electric power 
to drivF tbe machinery and light the workshops. We have to da' 
with the average blind adull recently deprivnl of sight aliM ha 
hu aitsinedinagr of from ij to^oor even joyear*. In Clavov 
■e have developed an induslry eminently tuiuble lor tbe 
employment ol the blind, namely, the manulirture of oew and 
the remaking ol old bedding. There arc ioduMtia which ate 
purely local, where certain articles of maoufacture largely used 

in which this industry imy be )Homoled is practically wilhout 
limit ll is perhap* the employment far ntdltmi for the blind, 

il ' employment is provided lor the blind of both leic* and ol 
nil BgciL there it no tfctimulsiion nor dettrioniian ol Mock; 
il yield* an eicellent pmfii, and its use is univenaL Wt have 
been [Juihing this indutiry lor year*, our annual tDtnaver !■ 
this paricular dcpaitment having exceeded £!ooo. aitd as «c 
find il io lulled to the capabiliiics ol all grades ol blind people. 
it is our intention to pn>vidr lacilities for doing a turnover of 
three times that amount. Instead ol the thirty sewing. machines 

loo blind women. At cork-fendei-maklng. alio an indusiiy ol 
the most suitable kind, we are ai present employing about 
thirty workers. It b also our Intention to gteatly devekip and 

In the United Slates many blind pertont are engaged In 
agricultural putiuili, and tome are very successlul In com- 
mercisl punullt. When s man Intel hit tight in adult Lie, 
il he can potsibly fedlow the buHneu In whitb he hai previouily 
been engaged. Il Ii the best courK lar him. In lie present day, 
work in manufactories Is lubdivided In guchan eatent thai otteD 
some one portion cto be done by a blind penan; but il need* 
the Inicresi ol tome enihuiraaiic belirver in the capabilities of 
the blind to pemiade the seeing imnager Ihil blind peofde can 

In England, at the lime of the rsyal conmiwlan of lUg, 
upwards ol fUxjo blind penont. above the age of 91, ware im 
receipt of relief Irom the guardiam. ol whon no las than 5>7B 
wcR teaidcni in wotkhauac* or woikbouac InbrnarinL *»■ 



ctMM ntons bf i«i>i bdhau ikai tlw nuabM at ibu tlni 
«M eqiuUy Urge. Ii vould ttttuniy be aon rconomkal 'to 
ctUbUah iRKkilup* wIhr lit lUa-bodinl tdult blind am 
be tninnl in kkh htodicnfl tai tHiplaycd. 
Tht pipen remd 11 the vi ' 

te urn enough Tor itieti wppon, nevcilbclcH. cmplojvxDl 
inpnns their csndliion; ihcie ii M (ruiei uUmily lluin 
la live ■ life (4 compulKirT kUcDen Id tBUl dukneet. The cry 
of ilie blind b Hi i\aa but irork. One ol the woiUwpi 
in weileiB Atneiiu biu Idoptcd the BBIto, " ' * ; 
tkiDu^ iBdiuUy," ud ll (bould bt the lin al every 

no lonfH be ■ywmynotu Unni. 

It aty bt fDlntiUaf, to caDcluilon, to nwi 
■Moei ol prambent bbid people in tuMary:— 
~ tio-liiM.c.}.»Cntkf 

... ;d. ii4r). Unial 



Bui) III. Id. 14UI. prim ^ „...,„. 

Shah AlaM Id. iSoU. Die Uh ol Ihc Cnat Maeuk. 

of Coiecoo. The de^eeol doctor ^divipiryiiuGcnlermi 
Od hiiB by (he university of Louvnin. mnd ibt pope granted 
- -" ' ■'■- -•■- Uw o( the Churdb. that be 

ee d HudcJ' _. 

•d the deine <d duEoc el 

:lebnted malhcmtidu ud 

Sir John Fieldiiit fd. t; 
TkoBH BlacUuk U» 
Fnntoie Huber tliy-l<()i 

rie ThMM nn Ptndit (b. 1159). ttadiiiithler el u bnperUI 
eoDMiUer b VieinB. Sfai «* 1 todclSid ol the emprea 
Mufe ThMie. end u bef piRiin timmeJ nnh and 
««altli,iBapeueiiuip>ndiaWredBCUioa. WeliieiB- 

b«iM. ■ Wnd nun, wu htr tuMr, and aht Itinied ro nd 
viih JflllenciiEDUEDl pailebaard, and read words prvkfd 
upon EaFdi with pina. She itudird Ihe piano with Richter 
(ol Holland) and Konlix^h. 5he wai • bifMy mnmed 

□DHn (Our ol Europe, vliiiiiv 



reufh^rti. iKe 
itf^cr hflibe 

net Vilemia fially. Towvda Ihe chiee 

dcvDied benelf (a Icactiinf ungiflf and tlw inawiiins wm 

lame*irHriSS?(J».! I7»6-IB!7). Bavelter. 

Willian H. Pmc«t (f.t. \ 1796-1)59). the Amcfiafl hbtorlaa. 

Senml early iqihceaiury oiiiBiciana bcM Awtioul a> ana> 
iNi in London; anoag theu Cmvdii. Scslt, LeckCii. 

Louii Braille (iSap-iSul. In llig he veai to Ihe Khnol (or 
the blind in Pari*. He became proUenl on lhcor|ali. and 
held a psel in one el the Pirit chiuche*. While a p eel aa aiir 
Bi ihe Imlitiniea Nalionalc dca Jeuia* Avw^m, ht 
pcrfrcied hia fvatein ol potol wrfEJnfl. 

Alexander Rodenbach, Beli&n nateeman. Wbes a member bI 
the fhambet el drpviin. In ■•]& he iniiDduttd and 
•uinnkd ia eiubliahir« by law tht rt|hl el blind «*d 
deaf-mute children to an educaiien. 

DrWilliaoi Moon (iBi»^i«94). the iovcatiTcJ the lypc for ite 

;. the Amtrinn efcaphli 

.._ , .1 ifly thouiand niilea ■ 

year, ipcakinc and preacbinE every day. He »aa tbret 
timet chaplain ol Ihe Ko«iieolRepn(enlatlveB,aBdlsI>93 
waa cheaeq to the chaplatncy ol Ihe senale- 
Dt T. R. AniilBfB (b. 1114). Alto apeadiof hIa youth so th* 
(onlinal. he beeaine ■ medical etiideal, bi4 al Kina'a 
CoUcjc. and allerwaida al Paria and Vienna. Hit eantr 
tTomiied to be a brilliant one. but at the age of itdrty-ahi 
lailine iiEht cauaed bin to abandon hia snfeaalDn. te* 
the mt ol hia Ue be devoted ha time and [anuaa id ib* 
iniefeata ol Ibe bUnd. He norganiaed the Indigeiit filiad 
ViiiliBt Ssciely, endowed ilt Samaritan fund, founded Ihe 
Brfilih and Foreifn Blind AHodalion. and. In conjunction 

Royal Wonnal Cujliy. 
EUiabcthCilbenlb. iBiJl.dauEhlerof thcbi•lIopofCbicb«tcr• 
ShelDat biciiabt it thealeal ihm. Sbawaaeducaledal 
home, and toiA her full ihaiT of houHboId dutieaand care* 
and plsaurm. When ahe (Al rmoty-wen, (be began to 
conader Ihe CDndition ij the poor bfiad ol UndoiL She 
•iw lonie OBI muM befriend ihoH vho had been tauht 
trader KKne one who could lupply material, give cniploy- 

acheme waa nanrd, and worlt waa given to lii men in their 

commiiue waa fonned. a houae convetied iniD a facttfy, 
and the AiKciaiioa [or Promoiiog the General Welfare of 
Ihe Blind waa founded. 
' Rev. Ceorge Maihnon, D-D. fb. it^t}, prt^cher and writer of 
■ivChuRholScoilaad. Tfacdennc' D.D, waacoidentd 
on bin by ibe uaivtr«ity of EdipDurgh in iBrg.aiidhe waa 
appoiawd Baitd Leciurei in 1S81, aad St COea' Lccluier 

Henry Fawceit (igi]-iU4l, profcasor el poUtfcgt eeoaoiny at 
Cambiidn and pasunaner-gener-* 

•■ Chwihnlan of "■ - 
ibliihing the k 

w hia e^nptic mancgCBenl I 
w«k loe the adult bUitd thi 

BinLtociarKT.— See also W, H. Levy. BKndiHii Md lie Sited 
(TS71I: I. Wilasn. fliegrgMy ■^"W Biimd (1S3B): Dr T. R. Arailiage. 
JSdiuattH oW EMl*rw>>( < lb BfAid (and *d., lUa) ; R. H. Blur, 
fdMOHw ^Hi BIM (ItWl hL AnaiKis, Edmmtim tl Ii* Bind 
llMj); H.l. Wllioifc /niPlnlwai. SatiSia aad l^eusi /gr ij« Bf urd 
-'- England and Ifalif (1^): Cidllif. /wlnvlieH and ^Hvitianili 

IlDtH. Roth./ 

^ (b'sM (rat9]: b;'^ M« ,. . . 

Meldnini. ZiBUawOartFaOifxided.. lloilLDr _ 

Htm tl BliWaui (igSs). aad hia PhniaJ Edmiuim tl Itt Mad 
(IBU); Ritrrt er Jteiol Cummiiiimi (lUoJ: Gavin Douglas 
>wrLui^li./ J>ir>»J (iSig): John Bird, Sttitl PaHiSia 
{1B«i):M. dt laSiieranne. »• Btind in r7if/^.tae«lieni(Parii£ 
tWi>, 7>w ItiutKi ar SwiaOtr Sthmoll II^tH. l8«4l. rha Wnd ik 
/'ma (Fkria, iMj), TV* I'tvi' Jhaly and Wti f- da Bftal 
[Fvte, lawl. anTna Mind aJ un, W Blimd Vaa [Mndauil 
by Dr Park Lewit) (Pkrla. I»u)> Or Cmile JavaL nTBliW 



Um'i WtM ItnMlind by EnwM TliiniBnl (Fkiji. 1904): 
Pnl. A. McO. Emtjatfdiiduit ilaBdlii,dt ia Bhmltmiau 
CWenn.. i«99). (F. J. C.) 

BUtS. CORKEUDI HEWTOII (iSjj- ), Amerioa ner- 
cbuit ud politiciu. ns born al Fail River, UsssicbvKtti, on 
Ibe »«th of jMuaiy i8jj. He was educated in bis nalire dty 
' 'd New Orleaiu, wliere be early cnlered bla Blep-fathc ' 


became a ticA and tubsequently 1 
Boston ce t m u trcial himse. Lati 
OCy to ettabliili a braocb ol Uu &nii- In iSSi he orjuiized 
and bccuDO prcildait at Blis), Fabyan & Company, one oF the 
lariat wholoak dry-goodt boiua in ihe cnuDtry. A anuiiient 
advocmte of the ptotectivc tarill, be waa one of the organiurs, 
and far many yean piesidcnt, of the Ajncrican ProtKtive 
Taiifl League. In politics an active Republican, be was cbtiir- 
mai d the Republican state committee in 1SS7 and iSSS, and 
contributed much to the lucrxss nl the Harrison ticket in New 
Yorit in the laiter year. He waa treasurer of the Republican 
national {omioiitte Crub iE^ 1 to 1904, and waa tecretaiy of the 
Interi or in P iealdent McKinley'a cabinet Iram 1897 to i&qq. 

BUSTEB (a word Imnd in many romu ia Teutonic Inoguages, 
d. Gtt. Blase; It Is ultimately toonrtted with the same root at 
In " blow." cf. " bladder "). a tmaU vside £Ued wia midui 
Quid raised OD the ikifi by a bum, by mhbing on a haid surface, 
as on the hand in rowing, or by oUier injury; ihe term is also 
wed of a simiUr condiiloo of the ikin 

mustaid, o( v 

la klndi 

f Hy (« 

n, hy II 

d or paint, &c, 

ith flulc 

•ir. on plants and on the surface 
called " blisters." 

BUSAKD (origin probably onomatopoeic, cf. " blast.' 
" bloater '1, a foriou* wind diiving fine particles of choking 
blinding snow whirling in icy clouds. Tht 


IT with il 

ieriy w, 

ir of the cyclono ciossing the eastern states of Amc 

BLOCH, MARS EUBZER (e. n'J-WW). German naturalist, 
was horn at Ansbach, of poor Jewish parcnla, about 17JJ. Alter 
taking his degree as doctor at Frankfort-on-Gder he established 
bimsetf ai a physician at Berlin. His hrat scientific work of 
Importance was an essay on intestinal worms, which gained a 
prize from the Academy of Copenhagen, but fie is best known 
by bia important work on fishes (sec Ichthyolohv). Bloch 
was fifty^ii when he began to write on ichthyological subjects. 
To be^n al his time of life a work in which he intended not 
Only to give full descriptions of the species known to him from 
•pedmcns or drawings, but also to iliustrate each species in a 
atyie Ouly magnificent for his time, was an nndenaiung the 
axecotion of which most men would have despaired of. Yet he 
accompUabed not only tUs task, but even more than be at first 
contemplated. He died at Carlsbad on the 6lh of August 1799. 

BLOCK, HADBICB (1816-1901), French slatiitidan, was 
bom In Berlin of Jewish parents on the iSih of February 1816. 
He studied at Bonn and Cicsscn, but settled in Paris, becoming 
naturalised them. In iSm he entered the French ministry of 
agrknltutc, becoming In lEji one ol the heads of the statistical 
department. He retired in iSii. and thenctforlh devoted him- 
•elf entirely to statistical studies, which have gained For him 
a wide repuIatioD. He was elected a member of the Acadcmie 
da Sciences Morales et Folitiques ui tSBo. He died In Paris on 
the fth of January i^or. His principal works are: Dictumnairi 
dt fadwiitiiUraliim Jmnfaisi (iSj6); Stoliiliqut' it la Frana 
(1S60I; DUIumnalri ttrtbal it la ftiaiqiu (iS6j); L'Earept 
ttUHqiit tt ladali (iB6«); 7>siM Ihitriqia d froiupit de ilalit- 
(if» (1878)1 La Piopti it CtcmniKb folilifui itfuij Adam 
Smilk (1S90); he also edited from 1856 L-Antiairc it VlanamU 
toliAqn tl icU ilatisli^e, and wrote hi German DIt BnHike- 
nni da framSsiicMim Kaittrrekki (iS£i): Dit BetClktnnt 
Sfaitinu mid Peristals {lS6l}i and Dit UaMaOimn itr 
tBBpavcKtn Slaalm (i8«)). 

BLOCK (froto the Ft. tide, and poMibly connecled with u Otd 
Cei.Afwl, obstruction, d."^ulk").apiectai wood. The word 
it used In -various sensei, t.i- the block upon which people wen 
beheaded, the block at mould upon which 1 hat is shaped. ■ 
pulley-block, a printing-blDCk. tic. From the sense of a acjid 
mass oomes the eipreaaioo, a " block " of boose*, it. a rect- 
angular space covered with housea and bounded by four streets. 
FiDO Ibe sense of "obstiuctioa" cornea a " bk>ck " in traffic, a 
block in any pioceediBga, and llw block aystem of signalling on 

BLOCKADB (FT. Uxwi, Ger. Blakadt), ■ term used in 

maritime warfare. Originally a blockade hy sea was probably 

blockade or siege on land in which the army inveatiog the 
blockaded or besieged place Is in actual physical posseasiou of a 
lone through which il can prevent and forbid ingress and egros. 
An attempt to cross such a lone wiiiiout the consent of the 
investing army would bean act of boslilily against the besiegns. 
A mariiime blockade, when it formed part of a siege, would 
obviously also be a close blockade, being part of the miliiary 
cordon drawn round the besieged place. Even from the first, 
however, differences would begin to grow up In the coDditiom 
arising out of the opeiations on land and on sea. Thus wheisi 
conveying merchandise across military lines would be a deliberata 

had sailed in ignorance ol Ihe blockade for the blockaded placa 
might in godd faith cross the blockade line without committing 
I hostile act against the investing tone. With the development 
of recognition of neutral rights the involuntary chancier of the 
breach would be taken into account, and notice to neutral state* 
and to approaching vessels would come into use. With the * 
employment In warfare of larger vessels in the place of the more 
numerous small ones of an earlier age, notice, moreover, would 
tend to take theplaceof tfe/affff investment, ajid at a time when 
communication between governments tfas itill slow and pre- 

tactic* before the blockade could be 
Out of these citcumstance* grew up the 
abuse of " paper blockades." 

The climax was reached tn the " Continental Blockade " 
decreed by Napoleon in igae,whichconiinuediillitwasabotislwd 
hy international agieemeni in iSri, This blockade forbade all 
countries under French dominion or allied with Franis to have 
any commumcatlon with Great Britain. Great Britain replied 
in 1807 by a sloular measure. The first nation to protest against 
these fictitious blockades was the United States. Already in 
1800 John Marshall, secretary of state, wrote to the American 
minister in Great Britain painting out objections which have 
since been universally adniitted. In the lollowiog interesting 
passage be said: — 

" Ports not eflectnally blockaded tiy a force capable of 1 

lithe ef^Iivcntss of the blKkade 
ci Ihe bdiiferenl powers 1 




flaiid. lOliiDl Septtmber 1800, Am. State Papers. Clasi I. For. ReL 
^' — J. B. Moan, DiffU c] Itumalimal Ln, vii. 7SS. 

■ainiiler ia Londoo : — 

" The law ol nitiatu requirei to tonnitutr a btoclivJc that that 
thouM be the pment* and paaiiion al a hirce nndcrina acoia I 
tbe pmbibited plan ^unileitly dlKcuU aad dapfcnu."' 

In 1816 and 1817 Creal BHlaln ai well ai [he Utiittd Suta 
aueited that blockadn in order [o be binding must be eSetlive. 
Tliia became gradually ilie recogniaed view, and when in i 
tlie ponen tepmcnted at the cDogresi of Pari* inietlcd in 
dedaration there adopted that "blockades in order to 
bidding must be etFecIive, that it to lay, maintaiocd by a ft 
niKcient tcitly (0 prevent access to the coast of an enemy," t 
Tere merely enunciating a rule which neutral lUtea had alfo^ 
beeooie too powerful to aUow belligerents to disregard. 

Blockade is unlveisally admiiled to be 1 belligerent light 
which under Intematiooal la.wdeutraU are obliged to subtnit. 
is DOW also univciully admitted that (he above-quoied rule of 
the Declatition of Paris forms part of intemaiignal law, rn- 
dtpendently oI Ibe declaration. Being, however, eaclusively a 
belligEient light, it cannot be exercised eicrpt by a belligerent 
force. Even a jt fada belligerent hai the right to iuiiiule a 
blockwle binding on neutrals if it hu (he mcani of malting it 
effective, (hough the f«cc iq>poscd to It may treat (be lU fmle 
belligctent as rebck. 

It is also admitted Ihat, being etcluslvtTy a bclligerenl right, 
it cannot be exerciied In time of peace, bul there hu been some 
inconsistency in practice (see Pacific Blockadi) which will 
piobablylead govenments, In order to avoid prolestsof neutral 
powers against belligerent rights being eiercisal In mere coercive 
pmceedingi, tn eiercl$e tU the tights of belligerents and carry on 
dt Jacu war to entitle them to use violence against neutral in- 
fringen. This was done in the cue of Ihe blockade of Venezuela 
by Great Britain, Germany and lulyin 1901-1903. 

The points upon which conirovcny still atisrs (re as to what 
COBstilutcs an " effective " blockade and what a sufficient 
notice of blockade to wan-ant the penalties of violation, vii. 
confiscation sf the ship and of tht 


to the then American They ihould be baarded by an officer, who ahouU en 

deaumslrmtei Ihe innocence ol 

A bloc] 

lined by 

M ports, and it must be duly proclaimed. Subject 10 these 
principles being complied with, " the question of the legitimacy 
4Wl eaectivencss of a blockade is one ol fact to be determined in 
each case upon tlie evidence presented " (Thomas F. Bayard, 
American sccreUry of state, to Messrs Kimer & Co., iglh of 
February 1B89). Tlie Bi ' ' 

cs In which a I 

alidly insi 

eHecIivcly maintained, as lollowsv— (1) If the 
abandons its position, unless Ihe abandonment De merely 
temporary or caused by stress of weather, or [i) if it be driven 
away by (he enemy, or (j) if it be negligent in Its dntiet, or 
(4} <f it be partial in the eieculion of its duties towards one ship 
rather than another, or (owartls the ships of one nation lathet 
than (hose of another. These cases, however, are based on 
deduons of (he British admiralty courl and cannot be relied on 
ibsolu(cly at a statement of international law. 

As regairls notice the following American instractions vert 
given to blockading oRcenia June 1S9S; — 

-Htmni vMwItaneiiiiikd to DotilieatiDnota Uockxle belofe 
they can be Blade pria for ita alteVpted violalion. The character 
of tilia DouAcalicml. not material. fTmay be aclual. ai by a ve»el 

imntl imiibliMiiic'ltl UsctaA. •• *7 unnwa n^aria-j. If a 
si vcMdcu be iliinm to have had miciaf the tikxlcade ■■ 


and place. venSedliy h is official 
other bl'ackadcd port ai to^vh' 
»t1^ of M^k'adl^' ^ « 

Mblocfclde. tl 

1 i»tice,'*sKc "e^ 

a i^Ut ISifma ef HMkailt kc4.iya fair pr. 

■Hges in italics arc not in accordance with the views 
ilher lUtes, which do not recogniie the binding chat- 
diplomatic notification or of constructive notice fnm 

The lubjecl was brought uj 
(1907). The Italian and Mnii 
hut alter a declaration by the 
subject (Sir E. Satow) that h 
in lire Russian pngiammi 

V»ii, however, v 


the lecoDd Hague Conference. 

delegationa submitted projects, 
Itish delegate in charge of the 
Lade not having been included 
'vermrent had given him no ia- 

ize Court (see Fbiie). I 
e Court was lo apply the 


7of theliticri:Diivtintion 
' rules of inlernatloaal Uw," and in 
principles of justice and equity.*' 
le close ol the second Hague Con- 
mcnt took aleps to call a special 

. Among the lubjects dealt witb 
[ing Lo which are as follow: — 
1 »t»d beyond the porta and couts 
the Declaration of Paiia of Igj6. a 


Whether a blockade >• eSective i. . nuestion 

Art. 4. A blocliade ii 

raiKd if the blocVadiog force 
Bpanially to ihTihlps of all 

o(^' ^JLd'nT'"™ " "cl-nt-ledKed by an Sffirer 

A,\!S^K blockade, in order to be binding, mint be declared in 
«eorJ«e with Article 9, and notified in aiJWiance with Article. 

An. 9- Adedar^lionofblockadeiimadeeitherbytlieblockading 

inties acting io its rume. It apcciSes (il 
le begfot; (i) the geocraphicat Hmiu of 
de; (J) the period witliiii which neutral' 

B hlockadina pe^tr. or of 
ot tally with the particuli 

An 1 1. : 

|»wrrs. by 

make the bkicu 
<n of blockade 

idinilo^. tS 
Dnwilir oHcen a 

bkKkade i< le-enaMflhedwIler having been laiHd. 

Alt. 1). The volumary ninni eJ a bkickade. n alio any re- 

n^cribKl by Ankle II. 
An. 14. The jiabiliiy ef a nrutral veisl to capture for breach of 

provided Ihat tbch notification waf n 



n tortifiulio 
as ■ IbniGed post for a imalt 
■Ina 1500, hoi uncertain orifjn. ind wu applied 1 
alia) a /eri farrH. a dcuchcd lort bhKkii 
bndlns, channel, pui, bridge or delile. Thci 

vdo. and nc 

. hokd on all 

" ^Ucry. BkKUuHiH ai 
IT (1 Jgo-igoi) ihcjF were ofltn 1 

ilt at 

wood, brick, ilo 
During the SouU 

from En^and lo me ironi m rcauy-maac acciions. 
BLOEMAEHT, ABRAHAM (1564-16!!], Dutch painter and 

wai 6ni a pupU ol Gemt Splimei' (pupil of Frani Florii) and of 
Joot dc Beec. at UlrechL Kc then spent Lhm yean in Parii, 
nudyint under levera] miiden, and on hii tetum to his niiivc 
coiinliy received lurther training from Hieronymus Francken. 
In 1591 be wtnc te Amitecdam, and [our yean later settled 
finally at Ulrnht.wbetE he became dean of the Cild ol St Luke. 
He eiccUed mine as a colourist than as a dnughiaman, wai 
ntRmcly productive, and painted and etched historical and 
alletorical pictures, landscapes, still-lire, animal pictures and 
Bower pieces. Amoog his pupils >xe his lour sons, Mcndrick, 
Frederick, Cemelis and Adriaaji (all ol wham achieved coniider- 
ible reputation as painters or tngravtn), the loo Hootlunts 
■nd Jacob G. Cuyp, 

BLOBMBR. JAM FRARS VAH {r6«j->74o). nemish painter, 
ma bom at Aotmip, and studied and lived In luly. At Rone 
be wu styltd Oriaanle, on account of his paintinf oF dtaunce 
in bis landscapes, which are rrminiscent ot Caspard Poussin and 
nucb admired. His bntben Pieiec (ifis7-i7io), styled Stan- 
daan (liom his Riiiitary pictures), ud Norbcrt (ifiio-1746}, 
■ere ako ne M-kno wn painten. 

BLOEMraimiH, capital ol the Onnge Free State, la 
t«* r S., ifi* IB' E. It is situated on the open veld, surrounded 
by s few lov kopjei, 4513 (t. above the sea. los m. by rail E. 
by S. ol Kimbeiley. jjo N.E. by E. ol Cape Town, 450 N. by E. 
ol Port Eliiibelh, and 1S7 S.W, o( Johaonnburs. 

BtoemfoDteia is a very pleasant town, regularly laid out with 
Simla running at right angles and a large ceattal market square. 
Many of the bouses are surrounded by large wooded gaolens. 
nmnib the town runs the Bloemspntit. AttFr a disastnus 
flood in 1904 the course of ibis spring was atraightened and sii 
ItotK biidgH placed across it. Thm are several line public 
buildings, motiiy built o( ted brick and a Ane-gnined nihile 
stone quarried in ihenetghbourhood. The Raadtiit.a building 

c style, fa 

arket Squa 

■eeting.plau of ttle Onnac Free Slate Raad, il 

ot the provincial coundL In tiwl of the old Raadtaal (utti 

as law courts) is a statue of President Brand. In Douglas Street 
a an unpreientious building used in turn as a church, a raadtaal, 
a court-houK and a museum. In 11 was signed (iSj^) the 
convenlioa which Rcogniaed tbe independeocc of the Free 
State fiocii {see Oianci Free State: Hislery). 

™lly. i 

, . _ the Anglica . 

cathedral, which has a fLoe interior. The chief educaiiooal 
establishment is Grey University College, buiil i«a&-i9aa al 
a cost of £iij.aoo. It stands in grounds of joo acres, s mile 
and ■ half from the town. In the town is the original Gray 
College, founded in iSjCi by Sir George Grey, when governor at 
Cape Colony. The post and tele|nph oKct in Market 5quar« 
is one of the finest buildings in tfae town. The public library 
is boused in a handsome building in Warden Street. Opposite 

Bloemfontcin posscssei few manuTaclures, but is tlw trading 
cintrr of the province. Having a dry healthy clinuic, it is > 
favourite raideniial town and a resort for invalids, being lecom- 
mendcd especially (or pulmonary disease. The mean nuiinium 
lemperaiure is 76- 7* Fahr.. the mean minimum 4S**; "lie mean 
annual laiofall about 94 in. There is an eacellent water-supply, 
obtained partly (torn Bioemsprult, but princtpafly from the 
Moddcr Hver at Sanna's Post, »m. to the eatt, and from 
reservoirs at Modus Dam and Mag^epoon. 

The population in iqo« «as ll.BSj. of whom. Including the 
garrison of J4E7, ii,ioi wen white, compared with a while 
population of 9077 in iSgo. The cnlourHl inhabitants are mostly 
Bechuana and Basuto. Most of the whites are of Biilish origin, 
and English is the common language ol all. including I he Dutch. 

The spruit or spring wfuch gives its name to the town wai 

dates from liifi, in which year Major H. D. Warden, ih^ 
British resideot norlb of the Orai«e. selected the site as Ihe 
seal of his administration. When in 18^ independence wai 
conferred on the countiy the town was du»en by Ihe Boers aa 
ilie scat of goverrunent. It became noted lor tjie inlelligenci 
of its citizens, and lor ihe educational advantage) It OITcred at 

lightly. In 1S9] the railway connecting il with Cape Town and 

Johannesburg was completed. During the Anglo-Boer War 

of iSoo-igoi it was occupied by the British under Lord Roberts 

wiiboul resistance {ijth of March i»oo). fourteen days after the 

surrender of General Cronjc at Paardcberg. In Market Square 

on the iSlh of the following May Ihe anncialion of the Onnga 

Free Slate to the British dominions was proclaimed. In i«07 

the fint session of the £nl parliament elected under the con- 

iiion granting Ihe colony self-gavetnioent wai held in 

imfoniein. In iqio when the colony became t province 

lie Union of South Africa under its old detignalion of Orange 

: Slate. Blocmfonlein was chosen as the seat of the Supitma 

n of Soulii Af Hca. Its growth as a business centre slier the 

dose of Ihe war in tgo> was very marked. The rateable valua 

..ij), English 

1 lOOS. 

jishop, was chincetlai 


a William L and Ruli 

>f Lincoln (TOqj) in succession to Rcmigiua. His private char- 
icler was indifferenli but he administered his see with skill 
ind prudence, buill largely, and kept a magnificent hoUKihald. 
which served as a training-school even for Ihe sons of noblei. 
Bloet was active in assisting Henry I. during Ihe rebellion of 
t became that monarch's justiciar. Latterly, however. 
t of favour, and. although he had been very rich, waa 
ihed by Ihe fines which the king eilorted from him. 
his wealth was hil chief offence In Ilie king's ryes; 
IS in atlendance on Henry when seiud with bis last 
Kc waa Ihe patron of the ehmnieler Henry of Huniing- 

Krnry of HuMlngdu and W. Malmeahaiy {Dt Cttlii Pmr^fcm) 
J^^n^T^uy! rb iRnnMiou tf Ei^kI.'Ul U. |T[7w. cIo) 

■UM. UMin n (i5D6-i56a), Fkmiih myMlat wrfier, 
fiBcrilly kmwn ondcr the Baine of Bumui, nt born in 
OcMbcr ijofi ■! [lic'chltau of Doistienne, iKir Liige, of an 
Hhtttriooi funity to whicb jevcnJ crowned hadi were KlLiedr 
He «■■ cducilciJ II itie courl of tbe Nethcrlindi vith Ihe (ulure 
tnpe mi CliuJa V. o( Cnrnuiy, vbo muiincd to ilie list hii 
(Uiuch friend. Al the tge of lounevn he lectivcd l)ie Bmt- 
diciiDe hibii in Ihe wnuutr of Lftuln in Haiuui, of which 
be bcume *bbot m ijjo. Chide* V. p mtLd In viln upon 
bjm the archbiibopnc of Canbrai, but BEosIus itudioiuJy 
oteritd hiDMU la lit nfona el hii monasteiy and in Ihe oom- 
potitiovi of devolloDal imki. Ue died at his wataalery tm 
the ith of Janaiy ij66. 

Blothu'i miki, wUcb mm mitten in Latin, have been 
tiaiulalcd into atnKBt every Eorapcaa Janguage, and have 
appealed aot only to Roman Citbdio, bul lo many Engljdi 
taymen ol HMc, nich a* W. E. CladilOH and Lord CnleridgE, 
The beat edJiivna of }ua collected wulit an the £nl edition by 
J. Frojiu (Louvain, isM), aul the Cologne teprinta (1J71, 
1^7). Hii betl-knawn worki art: — the luslUmlia SfirilmJii 
(Etic. Iiua., A Btk t] Sfiiittal Inilnictun, London, 1(100)^ 
CfUoJdJie FutiitMi>iti»m <En|. tnuia., Ctmlml jBt Ae Faint- 
HrarM, London, i«oj}; Saallum Atimat FUd'a (Eng. trans., 
Tki Saailiary if '^ FaMJid Soul, London, igos); all theK 
three nvrki vere Irantlaied and edited by FaLher fiertmnd 
WlUKrforcc, O.P., and have been reprinted levind limeai 
and e^Kciatly SfatJum Umaclmntm (French Irani, by Fflicilf 
de L^Dieniiab, Pirii. \iog\ Eng. iiarkL, rrnii, 1676; R-ediled 
by Lonl Coleridge, London, 187V, iSr'>*'>diiuened in" Paiet- 

See Ceoiiea de Blei*. Lmuii it Stsii, m BMiidin » XVI ^ 
iHcIt (Parii. 1B75I, Eiq. mat. by Lady Lovat ILomlon, iSjS, Ac). 

BLOII, a town of cenlnl France, capital ef the dcpaitnical 
ot Loir-el-Cber, ]S m. S.W. ol Orleani, on the Orlcana railway 
between ibal dty and Toun. Pep. (1906) r8,45;. Situated 
in a thiddy-iKiodHl disuici on Ihe right banli of the Loire, il 

runs the prind]M] thanuijifait of the town nuoed after the 
philosopher Denit Ptpin. A bridge of the iSih ccotury Iron 
which il piexnlt the ippeinnce of an amphitheiire. unites 
Btois with the suburb of Vicnne on the left bank ol Ihe river. ' 
The iirHtt of the higher and older pan of the town an nimw 

pmvidtd by flights ol steps, Tlie famous chlleau of the family 
' "1ean/r ■ " ■ ■ ■ ■■ ■ 

of Orleanf (see ABCHITECIim; . 

«t), a fine eutnplei 



the more westerly of the two hilts. It consists ol three main 
wings, and > fonrthandERialler wing, and itbuiX round a courl- 
yard. The mosi inteieating portion is ihe north-west wing. 
which via erected by Francis I., and coniDins the room where 
Henry, duie of Guise, was assaaunaled by order of Henry lIL 
The atriklng Feature of the Interior bcade is the celebrated ^iral 
Italrase tower, lb* bays of which, with their baulifuUyiculp- 
lured balustrades, profect into (he courtyard (see AiICHiTEcruic, 
FlauVlll.fig.g4i, Thenortfa-eastwIng.lnwhichistheentrBnce 
to the castle, wu built by Loub Xli. and is called aliei him: 
il contains pIciure-giBeries and a museum, Opposiie b ihc 
Casion wing, eiecied by Casion, duke of Orleans, brother ol 
Louis X11I-, which contiins a majestic domed iliircisc. In Ihe 
north comer of the counysrd it the Sille dcs £ials. which. 
loeelhci with the donjon in (he west nunei, survives from the 
I3lh century. 0( the churches of Bloii, Ihe calhcdial of St Louis, 
■ building of the end of the 17th century, bul in Gothic style, 
[4 surpassed in inlemt by St Nicolis, once Ihe church of the 
abbeyofStLaumci.ind dating Irom Ihc i)lh and ijlh cenlurirt. 
"nie i^cturesqucness ol the (own is enhanced by many old 
sitmions, the chief of which is Ihe Renaissance HAlel d'AIIuye. 

Lams XII. is of very graceful design. The rnleciure, the law 
court, the com-mirkfi and the fine stud- buildings are ajmng 
the chief nwdem huililingi. 
Bigisii ibeteatof a hitbop, a prelKl, and a muilof auties. 

It has a tribamlol Snt fnitonce, ■ trflnma] of 1 

of trade arbilratiun. a branch o( Ihe Bank 
codtge and training colleges. The lowr 
agricultural and pastoral regioiu ol Bes 

■ ■ ■■ t-slock. Il I 

if the L«re valley, m 

nateriab, I 

1 boots and 

shoe*, biscuits, cbocotile. upboblering t 
tnachintjy and eiiihenware, ai ' ' 
leiiher-wgrk» and foundrto. 

Though of incirni origin, Bloitb first dbtbictly mentioned by 
Cregcsyof Tours hi the bih century, and was not of any import- 
ance lill the gth cenlury, i^n it became Ihe seat of a powerful 
countship {sec belowj. In iig6 Count Louis granted privDegea 
lo Ihe townsmen; Ihe commune, which survived throughout 
(he middle ages, probably dated Irom this lime. The counts of 
the ChlliUon line resided at Btois more often than their pre- 
decesaon, and the oldest pant of the cUlieau (ijth ixKOBfi 
were buil( by (hem. In 1479 Joan of Arc made Bloii hei bua 
of openlioni for (he relic[ of Orleans. After bit capllviiy in 
England, Chiria ol Oleani in 1440 look up hit residence Is tbt 
chlieau, where in r^Ai hh son, afterwards Louis XII., was bonu 
In the ifith oenlury Blols was often the resort of the French 
tourt. Ill inhibitanti inchided many Calvinkts, and il wsi 
in i;di and 1567 the scene of struggles between Ihem and the 
supportersof the Roman churdi. In 1576 and i;S8 Henry III,, 
king ol France, chose Bids aa the meeting-place of the sutea- 
generii. and in the latter year he broughl aboui the murden of 
Henry, duke of Guise, and hia bmiher, Louis, archbitbop d 
Rcimi and cardinal, in (he chtteau. where (heii deaUiB wo* 
sfaanly loUowed by that of the queen-nuther. C>tberine da" 
MedicL From ifii7 to 1619 Mane de' Uedld. wife of Kins 
Henry IV.. exiled fiom the court, lived at the Chilean, which 
was soon afterwards given by LouiiXIIL to his brother Canon, 
duke of Orleans, who lived there lill his death in itfio. Tbn 
bishopric dates from (he end of the ijth cenluiy. In 1R14 
Bloii was for a short lime the seat ol the regency of Marie Louise, 
wife of Napoleon I, 

£ee L. de 1) Siu_aye. BMi H « nairsu (ilTilt ffiUifrf to 
lUuam it BItu Uiji): 1, Bcigeiin ei A. Dmri, duawi dr AMt 

BUHS, ConNTm? of. From Stf to about «□ the connt^lp 
of Blols was one of those whicb were held in fee by (he mirflavi 
ol Neuslria. Robert (he Strong, and by his luccesson. (he abbot 
Hugh.Odo(orEuda),RobenU. and Hugh Ihe Crtal. Itlbe* 
poised, aboal 940 and for nearly three ceniuries, lo a new famfly . 
of counli, wh<»e chiefs, ai first vauals ol the duket of France, 
Hugh the Cieat and Hugh Capet, became In 987. by theaccesnon 
of the Capelian dynasty to ihe throne of France. Ihe direct 
vassals of the crown. These new counts were originally very 
powerful With the counlsbip ol Slois they united, from 940 to 
1044, thai of Touraine, and from about 45oto i)i8. and after- 
wards ln»n 1 169 to t>8A, the counutaip el Cbtrtia remained in 
(heir possession. 

The counli d Blois ol the bouseoF the Theohatdt (Thibsodi) 
begift with Theobald L. Ihe Cheat, who became cnuni iboui 9401 
He was succeeded by his ton. Odo (Eudesl I., aboui 97$. 
Theobald II.. eldest son of Odo I., became count hi 996, anil 
was succeeded by Odo II., younger sop ef Odo L. about lesj. 
Odo IL was one ol the most warUke barons of his lime. With 
the siresdy considerable domains which he hdd fma his 
ancestors, he united the heriuge of his kinsman. Stephen 1.. 
count of Troyes. In isjj he disputed (he crown of Burgundy 
wiih the emperor. Conrad the Salic, and perished In 1037 while 
fighting in Lorraine. He was succeeded in rO]7by hiseldaiun, 
Theobald HI., who was defeated by the Angevfns in taia, and 
was forced to give up (he town ol T^un and ila dipendencica 
lo Ihe count of Anjou. In 1089 Stephen Henty. eldesi son ol 
Theobald 111,, bccamecounl. He look part in the firMdmade. 
Irll inio the hands ol ihe Saracens, and died in opiivity; be 
nuriicd Adela, daugbtci of William I., king of EnglaniL In 
iioi St^hen Henry was nicceeded by hia ton. Theobald IV. 
tbe Gnat, who united Ibt souptship of Troyet arilh hi* doowisa 



Is iitt. In tijjiOnthedMtliof UiBwcenul uncle. HBuyl,, 
kiiiil ol Englud, he wu called lo Nonundy by ib> biroiu of 

yoaaga biolher, Slcpbcn. bid juil been produzned king of 
EniUod. In 1 1 ji Tbeobkld V. Ihe Good, Kcond »ii oi Thwbild 

Uii Km Louii lucocdcd m ii^i, look part in the lourtb cruude, 
and nfur the Uking of CouiinUnDpIe «u rewntded wiih the 
duchy of NicuL He vu killed >| (he bnUe of Adtiinople in 
m5, in which year he «M luccccded by hit uo, Theobild VI. 
tbc Ydibis, who died cbildleu. In iiig tha counuhip pmed 
10 Muguet, eldeit d>ught« of TlieolMld V., and to Walter 
(Cantiet) o[ Aveinei, bn Ihlid hucbitid. 

Hie Chllillon branch ol the counu of Bloli hefan in ijjo 
with Uary of Avonei, daushtei of Miriant of Bloii and ber 
huahand, Hugh of Chllillon. roimt of St PoL In 1941 her 
bcoihet, John ol Chllilloo. becime count of Bloit, and was 
auccctded la 117Q by hit diughtTr, Joan of Chttillon, who 
lUTTled Peter, count of Alen^on, Sllh ton of Louis IX., king ol 
France. In 1 186 Joaa lold Ihe counlthip of Chartmto the king 
ol Franx. Hugh ol CUliUon. her finl-couain. became 

id wu tucceeded by bia 1 

n, Guy I., 


In iMi ^uii II., eldst wn of Guy I., died at the battle of 
Crfcy, and hii brollicr, Chulet of Blois, diiputed the duchy of 
Brittany ititb John of MontforL Loui) III., ddeal ion ol 
Louii II., beciDie count in 1346, and was (uccetded by John U., 
■econd »n of Lauii II., In i]7i. In ijSi Guy II., brother of 
Uuii UL and John U., succeeded in ijgi, but died childleia. 
OvETwhelined with debt, he had sold the countship of Bloii to 
Louis I., duke of Orleans, bioihctof KJtig Charles VI,. who took 
poMiiilon ol it4n 1J07. 

lo 14«S the counuhip ol Glols was united with the crown by 
tbt acGCMloD U King Louis XII., grandson and accond lucceswr 
•i Louit I., dwfcc of Orleans. 

Sec Bccnier. aimin id Wtii (16B1) ; La SauMye. BiiMn it la 
tHU ii Blcit {It^}. iKLo.) 

BLOHEPIBU), FRAHCII (iT0i->7Ii)i English topognphn 
ol the county of NotfoU, was bora at Fenfietd, Noriolk, on 
the 13^1 of July tjey On leaving Canbiidge in tTi; be ms 
ordained, becoming in 1719 rector of Harghara, Norfolk, and 
lamtdialely afitrwaids rector of Feiafidd, bis fathet'a family 
living. In 1 733 he mooted the idea of a history oi Norfolk, for 
which he bad begun collecting material at the age of fifteen, and 
ahoftly afterwards, while, collecting further informatioa for 
. lii* book, discovered some cf the famous J'oitoii LtOas. By 
IT36 be vat ready to pot some of the results of his researches Into 
tip*. At the end of 1734 the first volume of the Ilislory e) 
JV«i/»Bwii completed. Itwaaprintedaltheaulhot'sownpress, 
bot^t ipediUy for the purpose. The second volume was ready 
in 1 145, There Is litiledoubt that in compiling hli book Blome- 
fidd bad frequent recourse to the eiisting historical coUectlona 
of U Neve. Kir^irick and Tanner, bis own work being to a 
large eitent one of expanifon and addition. To Le Neve In 
■ le share of the credit is due. When half-way 
I vidume, Blomefield, who had come up to London 

hk work wu published poathumously, and the whole eleven 
KilDmei *ei« ttputdbhed In London between 1805 and ilio. 

BLOHniU). UH ARTHUI WILLIAM (igi^-rBw), English 
tr^tect, aos of Blabop C. J. BlomBeld. was bora on the 6th of 
Hardi igig, and educated at Rugby arid Trinity. Cambridge. 
He was then artidcd aa an aichited to 7. C Hardwick, and 
aabactfueatly obtained a large practice on his own account, lie 
became president of the Architiclural Aisodatlon in 1S61, and a 
leilDw (1S67) and vice-president (1U6) of the Royal Iiulitule of 
Briiisfa Architects. In 1SS7 be became architect to the Bank of 
EBglaBd, and deigned the law count bnnch in Fleet Street, and 
h* waa ■— ^■'~' with A. E. Street in the building ol (he law 
cmrts. IB iBSo be was knighted. He died on the 30th of 
Octobar tgiK. H* wtt twice manted, and biought up two sons, 
Chaila J. Bloafidd and Atthur Coatan Blomfickt, to bit own 

pioltMlon, of which 1^ btciBw dlatlnsidAed npMwatalKt*. 

Among the nuaierout ebuxba which Sir Anbu' BljafcU 
designed, his wotk at St Saviour's, Sontbrak, ft a aotafala 
eiunple of hit uc of tcvivtd Gothic, lad ha «a* hitfily nguded 
a* 4 rcMom. n. 

BIOMFIEU), CRARLn JAMII [i7>«-iS]7). EniUih dMpc, 
was bomoa the sgth^UayijSial Bury St Edmund UewM 
educated at the local gnmniar aebod and at Trinity Colkic. 
Cambridge, where he faioed the Bnwuc medab for lula and 
Greek odes, and carried oO the Ciavsu idiolBrahip. In ilol he 
fnduated a> Ibiid vnngitr and £rat uedallisi, aad Im tha 
foUowlnc year waa elected to a idkiwihlp at Tifadty CoAece. 

•nn.>iT»l-fi^.il.n(hl.«flMl|...t.ip— T.n«^|t;nTin(;h« p.— ritM.f 

of Aeschylus in igio; tUa waa firilaiwed by editlm of Che AfSnW 
antra Iktiat, Prnat, Ckmtttrai, atul Afummnt, of CaU- 
machus,and of the bagBenD of Sappho. Sophm and Akaeo. 
Blomfield, howerer, toon ceued to devote bbaeeU antbdy to 
scholarship. He- had been ordained In itio. and heU In quick 
aucceuiantbelivingsaC Cbcsteif Ocd, Qutfiingtao, D nnton. Gieat 
and Little Cbesteiford, and Tuddenhaia. In 1S17 be «•« 
appointed private chaplain to Wn. Howley, bllh» of Lotwkn. 
In iSiq he was noainated to the ijch living of St Botolpfe'l, 
BisbopigBte, and in igii he became aichdeacon o( Colchatn. 
Two years la ter he was raited to the biib0)Htc d Cbestn where h« 
carried through many much-needed rtfonai. tn iBiB he waa 
tnnilaied to the bishopric of London, which he held for twenty- 
dghi yean. Diving (bit pertod hit energy and ntl did niach to 
eitend the Inriuence of the church. He wit one of -the ben 
debater) In the House of Lordi, took a leading poattlon In (be 
action for chuicb rrfonn which culmiaalcd In the ecdesiaitical 
commitiion, and did much for the dletnioii oT the cotoidal 
epltcopate; and hit genial and kindly nalutc made him an 
invaluablt mcdiatn' In the controvenlct aririn| out of the 
Inclttlan movement. His health at last gave way, and in iSjS 
be was penaiited to itsign his blihopric, retaining Fnlhaia 
Paltce ■) bis residence, vdtha pention of £Gooo per annnm. He 
died on the jlb of Auguit 18;;. His published works, nclutlva 
of those above mentioned, constat of charges, tennons, leclurea 
and pamphlets, and of a Ua*Kal of Printi sad Fumttj Prayri, 
He was a frequent coDtributor tO the quattctly revjev^ MeOy 
on classical lubjects. 

in^Chrbilama BltmjItU. D. D.. Bhhp a Eeidea. 
vjfMiliiCsrraMMna.ediiedbyliisBn.Xirrcd Bloni- 
C. E. Biber. Butef Blm^tiM aiM lit niKn (1*57). 

classical schobi, brother ol Bishop C. J, BIccnfield, was bam at 
Buiy St Edmunds on the 14th of February 17S8, Going to 
Ciius College, Cambridge, he was thirteenth wrangler in igii, 
obtained several ol tin ciatsical priwt of Ihi university, and 
became a fellow end lecturer at Emmaaucl College. In 1S13 be 
travelled in Germany and made tbc acquaintance ol some of 
the great scholars of Germany. On hla return, he published In 
the UuicuM Crilitam (No. U.) an hitercatuig paper on " The 
Present SuteofClattlcal Literature in Germany," Blomfield it 
chiefly known by hit ttanilation of Mattbiae't Crut Craaator 
(iSiq), which was ptepaied for the pteta by hit bnlher. He died 
on the 9ih nf Ociobei 1816, bit euly datib depriving Cambrfdgn 
of one who teemed dettined to take a hi^ place amonpt her 
most brilliant classical tcholaii. 

Sec " Mcmsii of EdwaidValenthM Blomfield," I9 Bishop Monk, 

BLOHDms DAVID (ijpl-iejjI.Fieucb Protestant clergyman. 

■t ChSldTO 


iisgi, I 
»1 C. J. Voaaius 

April 16 SI, 

(hip of hislorv ai Anuteroam. ms woras were very numerou 
in toRie of Ibem he thawed a remarkable crilical laculty, u In b 
disicrUtion on Pope Jotn (164;, i6ji), in which be came lo ll 
conduifon, now universally accepted, tfaal the whole itoiy is 
mere myth. Considerable Prolestant Indignatkm was eadu 
against liim on account of this book. 

BLONDBU JACaon FXARCOIS (i7DJ-t774l. French attU- 
tect, began lite at an ircbllccluial engiaver. but de ' 
into an aicUtect of contiderable ditLlscLloB, It o( n 


UwdOicct W Lmti XV. lr«m IMS 1 
he nicoco •uukt, Uthotigli ii would Mtm Uul hr 
tuhiBO ntbcf ihan la anutk conviciion. He 
«M UBong tba cvlicst loundcn of Kbooii ol uchitectun Ln 
Fmtce, ud for Uiis Ilb vu disljngui&hcd by the Academy; but 

yr— <«'H ,inwhichbfmhcCQDdDuatQrpf Manati The book ji 
• pRdouicoUeclioDof vienrionunous building many ol ubkh 
have disappeared or been icmodeUcd' 

ZLDMDIH (iSi4-ia97), Fiencli lighl-Ripe wilktr tnd acrobat, 
waa boni at St Omci, Fiina. on tb« iSih ol Fcbtuaty 1S14. 
Bii nal mne i»* Jem Fcsocois Cravelet. Wtato Bve yan 
tM be wu sent to the £cole dc Gymnau at Lyoni and, alter sU 
mODtha' tr^niog ai an acrobat, made hk tint public appearance 
at " The UiUe Wonder." Hii lupuior eIllU and gnce as ik'cU 
u the ori^nalily of (he actUnp of bis acta, tnade him a popular 
fAvouiite. lie especially owed his celebrity and fortune to his 
idea ol crossing Niagara Falls oa a tight-rope, 1100 iL bng, 
160 II above the water. This he accomplished, fint in 1839, 
a number ol limea, always with diSeient theatric variations; 
blindlold, in a sack, trundling a wheclbinow. on siilts, carrying 

an omelette. In i36i Blondin first appeared in London, at the 
Crystal PaUce, turning somersaults on sllla od a rope stfetdicd 
■emu the central transept. 170 It. [rom the ground. In iKAi 
he again gave a series of performances at the Crystal Palace, 
and elsewhere in England, and on the continenL After a period 
of retirement he reappeared in iftte, his final pejfonnance 
being given at BelTui in iSg6. Ut died at Ealing, London, 
OD the igtb of February 1B9J. 

BtOOD. (he drculating fluid in the vdns and arteries of 
■ni m>'> The word itself is common to Teutonic languages: 
the O. Eng. is UH. cf. Gothic blcUi, Dutch blool, Ger. film. It 
b probably ultimately connected with the root which appears 
Id "blow," "bloom," meaning flourishing or vigorous. The 
Cr. word for blood, aT>ia. appears as a prcliic katptff' in many 
compound words. As that on which the life depends, as the 

:hild is be 

it froi 


i "blood" 

a: thus "to have fcs blood," " to Ere .the blond," " cold 
il," " hall " or " whole blood." ftt The 
erprewion " blM blood " is from the Spanish langrt axuL The 
nohks of Caitile daimHl to be free Imm all admiiture with the 
daiker blood of Moon or Jews, a proof being supposed to lie ia 
tl« blue veins thai ihowed in their fairer skin*. The common 
Cn^ish expletiva "bloody," used as an adjective or adverb, 
haa been given many lancitut origins; it has Iwen supposed to 
be a conmclioil of " by Dor Lady." or an adaptation of [he oath 
DominoB during the tjlh ceniuiy, " 'sblood," a eoninciion ol 
" Cod'i blood." The eiact oilgiD of the eipRssion is not quite 
dear, but il il eetlaialy merely an appliealion of the idjeetive 
fonoed from "blood." The lira Eng/iili Durinary suggeais 
tlnl it refers to the use of " blood " for a young romly of arislo- 
ccalic biilh. which was common at the end o( the 17th century, 
and later bccime aynonymous with " dandy," " buck." Sic; 
"bloody drunk "ncani therefore "drunk as a taknd." "drunk 
«a a lonL" The cxpressicn came into common coUoquiaf irae 

ceniuiy. There can be little di 
has becB oontideiaUy aSectcd b 
principle, (ad (hcttfore tomcthin 
■a an ialeniive epiihtt *ilb nicl 
" awluUy " and ihe Uke. 

gneni worid, wbeno 

jbt tl 

;il the middle ( 

Ihe lE 

!Of 11 

iwn Ihe food supply for 1 

n the lood-ibwrbing suifai 
le iiwlirect nreau, Furthi 

ouh living ctU prodnea wtiM ptolutt* whoM ummulailoa 
would speedily piove injurious to the cell, hence they must b* 
conttinily lemavcd from jts immediate neighbourhood and 
indeed from the organism ai a whole. In this instance again. 

Klly discharged to the ; 
cells of the organism mi 

SI depend upon i 

to that group of cells whosi 
charge them from the body. 

past every cell ol the body. 

ID modify them, or dis- 
ends are attained by the 
h Is constantly flowing 
le cells eiliict the food 
matenais itiey require lor their sustenance, and into it they dis- 
charge the waste materials resulting Irom their activity. This 
circulating medium h the blood 

Whilst undoubtedly the two luntlionj of ihii circulating 
fluid above given are the more prominent, there ate yet oihen 
of greai importance. For Instance, It Is known that many tissues 
as a result of their activity produce certain chemical substances 
which are of essentia] Importance 10 the life of other tissue 

—are earned 10 the second tissue by the blood stream. Ajaia, 
many inslancei are known fn which two distant tissue* corij 
municate with one another by meani of chemical messengers, 
bndiei termed Wwoaa (tpuinr, to stir up}, which are produced 
by one group of cells, and sent 10 the other group to eicite 
Ibcm to activity. Here, also, the path by which such messcngen 
Iravd is the blood stream. A lunher and most imponanl 
manner in which Ihe drculating fluid ia utilized In the life ol an 
animal is seen in the way in which it is empkiyed in protecting 
the body should il be invaded by micnM>rganisma. 

Hence il is dear that the blood is of the most vital Imporunce 
to the healthy life of Ihe body. Bui Ihe fact that iiii presenlis 
a drculating medium exposes the animal to a great danger, vii. 
that it mriy be lost should any vessel carrying It become ruptored- 
This is constantly liable to happen, but to minimiae aa far as 
possible any such loss. Ihe bkwd ia endoi^ with tfie peculiar 
ptoporty of (loUinj, i.e. of setting to a solid or still jelly by 
means of which the orifices of Ihe torn vessels become plugged 
and the bleeding stayed. 

The peiformancc of these essential functinng depends upon 
Ihe maintenance of 1 continuous flow past all tissue Celts, and 
this is aiuined by the cimilalory mechanism, comliling of ■ 
central pump, Ihe heart, and a system of ramifying tuba, the 
arteries, through which the blood is forced from the heart to 
every tissue (set Vascnua Svstch). A second sel of lubes, 

many inverlebrata the drculating fluid b actually poured into 
the tissue spaces from the open lerminala of Ihe arteries. Prom 
these spaces 11 is in turn drained away by the veins. Sudi a 
aysiem Is lermed a Matmnlynpk lyiirm and the drcnltllDg 
fluid the baemolymph. Here the eiaenlial point gained Is that 
Ihe fluid is brought into direct contact with the ii«M ceDs. 
In all vertebratet, the ends of Ibe arteries are united to Ihe 
commencements of Ihe veins by a ptcius of eilrcmely minute 
tubes, the capillaries, consequently Ihe Mood is always retained 

cells. Il is while pa^ng through the capillaries that the blood 
petforma iu work; here the blood stnam is ai iti slowest and 
is brou^l nearest to the tissue cell, only being Kpaialed from 
it by the ectremely thin will of the capillary and by an equally 
Ihin layer of fluid. Through this narrow baiiintbeinlaiThangea 
between cell and blood Uke place. 

Theadvantage gained in the vertebral* animal by retaining 
the blood in a dosed syBlein of lubes lies in Ihe great diminution 
of tesiitance to the flow of blood, and the consequent great 
increase in rate of flow past ihe tissue cdls. Hence any food 
stuffs which can travel quickly through the capillary wall 10 
the tissue cell outside can be supplied in proportionately greater 
quantity within a 1' 


foi Ibe for 


s bj the blood It t dmiti 
ju Are more peculiarly of i 

lie ■cid-'apedaily 
licb can be canicd 


It which ■ til 
ij. ill acLivily, depends upoa the raLe of lis rfacmieal 
and a3 thew are fundamcniaUy ojudativei the moi 
oiygen is cairied to a lisMie ibe mora rapidly it can live, lad the 
greater the tmouni ol woik ii can perform wiihin a pven lime. 
The rate ol supply ii ol much ku impoilance in the case ol 
(be other food iubslaneei because they art far more soluble in 
water, so that the supply in sufficient quantity laa easily be 
met by a lelallvdy ^w blood flaw. Ilencc we Ond that ibe 
gradual eviduiiua of the animal kiuEdom Eoes hand in hand 
with the (raduat dtvelopmeol of a pcalct oiygen-rarryiiig 
capacity of the blood and aa Increase in the rate ol its Oow. 

In Ibe EToundwoilc of a tissue are a number of spaces— the 
liisiu ifactL They aie Med with Quid and inlcirommunicale 
freely, finally connecting with a number of Une tubes, the 
lymidialics, through which cicoi of fluid or any solid pai 

..y. The conuinri 
uy between ibe blood and the ceUi from it, 
iriout food studs, these having in the first 
cd from the blood, ajid ijilo it ibe cell dischar 
lets. On the coune ol the lymphatics a numt 
turea, the lymphaljc sbnds, are placed, am 
o pass through t h es e si 



the lymph 

away by further lymphatics and hiuUy Tcturned Lxi 

vastly slower than that of the blood. The flow is ton 
to act as the vehicle lor the removaJ ol those wast . 
(carbonic add, &c.)which must of necessity lie removed quicUy. 


. numbei of other ^ 


But In addition t 

fluid, the litsue space* may al 
d mtltei in the form of partic 

btis of destroyed cills, or vhich 

noved fi 



Illy ti 

the blood stream — indeed In Lhe caK ol living orgai 
an absorption would in many instances rapidly prove fatal, and 
^Kcial provision is made lo prevent such an accident. These, 
Iherefore, are made lo travel along the lymphalic channels, 
and so. before gaining access to the blood stream and thus to the 
body generally, have to run the gauntlet of the proieciive 
mechanism provided by tbc lymphatic glands, where in the major 
number of cases they are readily dcslroycd. 

Hence we set that first and foremost we have to regard the 
Uood as a food<anier to all the cells of the body; in ihe second 
place as the vehicle cviying away most if nol all Ihe 

milting chemical subiunces m 
distant cells of Ihe body for whf 
may be essential; and in additio 


in ibey 

these important 

1 almost impossible to over- 

hnmune to the atlacki of invading organisms. The question of 
bnmuoify is discussed elsewhere, and it is sufficient merely 

cnential protective mechanism. Should living organisms £nd 
their way into the surface cells or within the tbsue spaces, the 
body fighu (hem in a number of wayi. |i) It may produceone 
oi more chemical subslances capable ol neulrtliiing Ibe toiie 
matcrialpfoduced by theorganism. (i) llmayproducechemicil 
BtbilaDcrs which act as poisons to the micro.ofgan]sm. either 
paralysing it or actually killing it. Or [j) the organism may be 
attacked and taken up into the body of wandering cells, if. 
ortain ol Ihe leucocyta. and then digested by I hen. Such cells 
■re iheiefora called phagocytes l^ytir, to eat). Thua, by il* 

power oC reiftfnK In . . 

of iriihsiinding the itiacks of many iliEereDi varieties ol mi 
organisms, of both tDimal and vegetable origiii. 

Cattral PrBptrlia.—IUood h an opaque, visdd bqsid el 
bright led colour possessing * dbtind and cbaractcristic odour, 
especially when warm, lis opadly it due to the [wnrncE of a 
very large number ol solid panicles, the blood corpusdn, having 
a higher relraciive indei than thai of the liquid in which ihey 
Hoal. The specific gravity in man averages abowi 1-655. The 
specific giaviiy of the liquid portion, the plasma ICr. lUMfW, 
something fonned or moidded, T^iffvtLr, to mould). Is about 
i-o)7, whilst that ofthecorpusdesamounli to I 'oU. To litmus 

Bload Flan 


-The plasma b a lohitioA in water ol a varied 
ibslances, and as a solvent it confers on the blood 
its power of acting as > carrier of food stub and wasit product!. 
One imporunt food substance, oiygen. is, however, only panly 
carried in solution, being Iruihly combined with haclnoglohiq 
in the red corpuscles. The food stuffs carried by the plasma 
are proteins, carbohydrates, salts and water. The main waste 


ie mammalian blood as 1 type, the plasma w 
owing tppioiimale composition. — 

Oihcr pfoieiiuand organic ■ bu i nre* Bt-ya 
Sulphurieacid . . o-iif 

Prdfeiu. — llie proteiD] of the blood plasma belong to the two 

Masses of the albumins and the globulina. The ^obuUnt present 
ire named fibrim^en and lerum-globulin ; ai Its name implict, 
.he chirf physiological property of fibrinogen is that it can give 
ise to AlKin, the solid substance formed when blood dots. It 
wscssei the typical properties of a globulin, f.f. it coagulalcs 
m heating (in this instance at a temperature ol 5^' C.I. and il 
jrecipitalcd by half saturating its idutioo with ammanium 
lulpbale. II diaen from other globulins in that it Is less uluhle. 
It is only present in very small quantities, a'4 %■ The olbei 
globulLn, serum-globulin, is tiol coagulated until 7 j^ C. ts reached, 
iw know that it is in reality a miaiure of several 
lUt so far these have not been cninpletely separated 
irsm one aoolber and oblalned in ■ pure form. On dialysing a 
solution of ienun.g]obiiUii a part is predpitaied, and this portion 
has been termed the «i-^biilia baetlon, the remainder being 
known, in contndlstinciion, ai the p*etKl»globuhn. Again, tm 
diluting a sohitioo and adi&ng ■ smaB amount of acetic acid a 
formed whicb in •one respects differs from the 
the globulin present. Whether in these two 
are dealing with appraidmaiely pure aubstaiKci 
loubtlul. A further important poiol in conneiion 
iitroie may be 

iHih the chemistry 

1. or posiilily the whole, possesses a gincoslde chaiicter. 

Serum-albumin pves all the typical colour and preciplUitian 
eaclions of the albumins. II plasma be weakly acidified with 

jitil a slight precipitate forms, filtered and the filtrate allowed 
a evaporate very slowly, typical crystals of serum-albumin 
may form. Accoidini lo many It ii a unUbtm and tpeUIk 



_mIS4*C OniheoihcrhindttK 

at betintnillDennliiulyiaal cvtn ihe ■ 
pirpantioBi poinu u tbm bcini but oae Mnun-albumin. 

When blood dou iwa MV pretnoi nukt tbcit Ippnnncc in 
thcBindpuiol [be bkBd.DiKiuin.Mititnowullcd. ThrGnt 
of tbcar i* Umn hnuu (hii iti aci(JB ice iMtioB on CIMixi 
bdcm). The olliet, BbriDojiabulia, pcimwi til lie typiol 
cbncuriuic* <f ibe ilBbuliBi ud coafobta al 64* C. 
Carttkfdrala.—'nita " " 

doubinll]' cenuin (lyccfeiL 
having ibe (ocrauk (or turcb aiid jrieldiBi 
kjrdnilytii ahb add bu *1m been deKribed. The coiwiu 
cirboh)Fdnte coaUiliieal of plumi, however, k dnlroM. Tba 
spRsent utbeipprMlpnteaiMWMol»-is %lii >iteii*l blaod. 
The iBHHBiiniybeanKiicreaurIn the blood ol ibe porul vein 
during c>tbiib]rdfMc*b«npUon.Mdactardiag to (MntDbMrvtri 
then B 1^ in kcooui Ibin in ailcfia) blood, biu the diSmnce i> 
■mall and fall inlblo Ibe enor ol observalioo. The ilatemRit 
thai vhea as ibnorplioa i* Ukbgt plu* the blood ol Ihe hqntk 
vein B rkb« in duirtme th«i that of the portal vein (Btraard) 
it denied bj l^vy. 

^au.— PlannaorMfumb a* a ndequltcdeaT, but after a meal 
rick in lata ii nay become qulw milky owing 


npidty dhappetti from Ibe Uood alter fat abMxpilon hai 
_Kd. ToMmeenentllvarieainVonipoilltDBwithlbaiaf Ike 

■ -palmitic ' * ' '" ■-■"--- - 

ni ol lilt; 
lorm in which th>> 
poaiMrpraMniMauaporevcnaianentrilfit.iinceallltle can 
be diHolvtd <n plaima, (he lolvent nibsiaiKe belni probably 
protein or cholcaterln. Fatty addi iho ippear to be preieni to 
■ome enent combined with cboleileiln fonnins choknerin eaten 
(about »a6%). 

CUtf- Ortaiiie CmfsHidi.— In Hhfllion 10 Ibe mbitalicei 
above dncribed.bclansing to the three miiBiIanet of food ilufli, 
Uktc are iiill othtr organic badia pmenl In plaima In imill 
asnanti, which for convenience we may clu^fy 11 non-nilro- 
(eaoui and nitratenom. Among the former miy be mentioned 
lactic add, ^/cerin, a Epochromc, and probably many other 
ishttanca of a limilar typa wboia lepantion hai not yet been 

The non-protein fdlrogenom comtitnrnti conAI of the 


carbamate (0 

bypoaanthine and occasionally hippuric add. Three femicnti 
an abo doeribcd as being preient: (1) ■ glycolytic fcrracni 
CKeeting an action npon deitroKj (1) a lipase or fat-splitlinf 
fenntnt; and (]) a diaataaa capable ol convertipg Maicb IdIo 

5iin>.— The laline timitltiienti of plasma compibe chlorldci. 
photphtiei, caibonata and posiiUy lulphain, of ladium, 
pouuium, calcium and magneaiura. The moil abundant melat 
b lodian and the m«t abundant add Is hydtodiloilc. These 
two are present In sulBcTent amount to form about o-9j% of 
iodium ditoride. The phosphite b preMnt to about 0-01%. 
Sulphuric arid ii alwiyi present ir the blood has been calcined 
forthepurpoieiollheanalyib.andmiy thenbc prncnt to about 
o-Di}%. Tliii I), however, probably produced during the 
deUTuclion of the proltin. lince il has been shown that no 
lulphale can be maoved (ram Twrniil plasma by dialyiis. The 
amount of potassium pment (oo.i^l is tcu than one-irnlhof 
Ibtt of the lodiun. and the quantitiea of calcium and magncaium 

F^mtt ElnmCf.— Wbtn vinnd vndtr the ■IwMWin Ik* 
main number ol ihcM anieen to be small ydlow bodies ol very 
unilorm «ie. liic and shape viiying. however, in dincient 
inimala. When observed in bulk they have a red coloui, tbdr 
pnaencelnfactgivingihelyplcalcolDuctobhiod. Tbescaie the 
niUeaiairfmdaiaa^lBK^{Qt.tiiil6iiK,ttA). Mingled with 
ibem in t be blood ate a imager num bci iri corpuKlei which poama 
no colour and have Ihetdore been called vkiu Upti ctrp<ada 
01 (ewKjCuiCT.XiixlI, white). LaMly.lheRanpreienla larfl 
number of smaU Icns^haped struclurea. teiB in number than tW 
led carpBaclea.andmudiiBiitedilficvliiodiuinsuisk. These aie 
known a* N«rf fAnrfite . 

Ktt Ctrfuulo. — These are pment in very large tramben txA, 
inderBaiBulcoadiliDBa.allpasseiseiaci1yibc>aDie (i^waraKC 
With rare eaeeptlona ibdr shape b that of a Mconcave disk with 
bevelled edges, the slic varying somcwbai In different animali, 
ai b leen in the loUonriug uUe which i^vet thdr diametet*.'— 
Man ,,,.,,. 0-0075 "<■"> 

Dog . O-OD^J mm. 

Rabbit o-odA^ mnL 

Cat o-DoAj mm. 

Tlie coloured corpuscles of amphibia al well as of neaity all 
virtcbnlci below mammals are bicoavei and ellipiiciL Th* 
folloving are the dlmensiouol some ol theoumcommon: — 
r<gn>n . . • O'or47 mra.loa(b)r 00065 mm. wide. 

- ";oii" . 

> 5,000.000 per cub. m 



Proteus . , , 36,000 „ „ 

In tnammal) they an apparently hotnogcncooi (n stnidure, 
have no nucleus, but possess a thin envelope. Thefr specific 
gravity (s dtslinclly higher than that of the plasma (1088), so 
that il clotting hat been prevented, blood on siinding yields a 
large deposit which may form as much as half the total volume 

protein Is the haemoglobin. To it the corpuscle owes its di». 
linctive properly o( acting as an oiygen carrier, loi 11 pomcssci 
the power ol combining chemically *ilh onygm and ol yielding 
up that same oiygen whenever Ibeie b a decrease in the coa- 
ccntralionof Ihe oiygen in the solvtnl, Tlius hi agiven toluliOD 
ol hiemoglobln the amount □( it which n combined with oi>GCD 
depends absolulely on the oiygcn eoncentiation. The grtaLcsl 
diuociailanof aiy haemoglobin occurs as Ihe oxygen tension (aUs 
from about 40 10 10 mrn. of tnercury. That the otygcn iotaa a 
dcAnite compound with Ihe haemoglobin is proved by the (act 
that bacmoElobin Ihoroughly ulutitcd with oiygen (oiy- 
hactnoglobin) hai a definite absorplion spectrum shoving two 
bandibctween Ihe DandE lines, vhibi haemoglobin [mm which 
the oiygcn has been completely removed only givei one band 
between those lines. In association with this, oijhacnwglobin 
has a typical bright red colour, whereas haemoglobin b dark 
purple. A furlhetstrikingcharacterisiicof haeniDstebinbihat 
il contains iron in its molecule. The amount pment, though 
small bears a perfectly definite quaniitaiive rdalkin id the 
amount of ovygen with which the haemoglobin it capable ol 

haemoglobin crystals can combine wiih r-ji oe. ol oiygen. On 
dmruclion with inacM or alkali, hiemflglebin yields a pigment 
portion, haemniin. and a protein potiinn, globin, the bun 
beleaciai to Ibe group of ihe hbtonei (Gt. Icrrjt, web, tbnie). 



p tbe Iran ii toatid in Ihe [n; 

ercf the mijccak bring much (uither dccompoicd 
Zksinictum and Formaiion. — Ln (he perfotrnKnce ol thdr worfc 
Uw eoTpMclH gridiuUy delrriorale. They 4re then deslroytd, 
cbieSy in the Tivs, but whciher the whole oi thb process is 
cfiecud by the Uver done is doi decided. It ii pn»ed, hairevei'. 
that the destjuctionof tbebaemoglobiniioitireLy effected thete. 
It was for a \on^ lime musidcred to be ana of the functions of the 
■plecD to exuDLne the red corpusdes and to destroy or in some 
way to mark those na hniKci tilted for the perfonnance of thdr 
nark. It is proved that the deslructjon of the haemoglobin is 
mlinly effected in the liva, luce both the main deavage producu 
nuy be tnced lo this orgui, ubich discbargei the pigmentary 
pottioo at the bik pigment, but reCaini Ike iron-protein moiciy 
at any rate Cot a time. The anwunt of bile iKgioeni eliminaied 
duiiog Ihe day indicate* Ibat tfae destruction must be coniider- 
able, and dnce Ihe number of corpuscles docs nol vary Ihete muil 
be an equivaieni foimaiion of Dew ones. This takei phce [n the 
red bone-manow, where special cells are piorided for their 
continuous praductioa. In embryonic life their Eomiation is 
eSectcd in another way. Certain mesodcrmic ulls, reacmbliug 
those of the connective tissue, collect masses of haemoglobin, and 
from these elaborate red blood corpuscles which thus come to 
he in Ihe fluid part of the nlL By a caiuilization of the branches 
of these cells which unite with branches ol other cells the pre- 
cursors of Ibe blood capillaries are formed. 

lF*i« BUai Ce-piada.—Tbae coniiitute the second import- 
ant group of fonzbed elements in the blood, and auEnbtr about 
E2,ooo to 10,000 per cutnc mm. They are tyrucai vandcring cells 
carried In all parts ol the body by the blood stream, but often 
leave that stream and lain the tisuc spaces by passing through 
the caplUsiy waH. They 


deeply with baatc dyes. It ll nidyfonndto tbetlood«<*doIb 

•stimt. — ^These cells act as icavengeit or as dettroyen of 

granular appearance or appeared dear. The cells 
distinguished from one another according as they possessed fine 
or coarse granuk*. The granules are confined to the pfDloplasm 
of the cell, and it has been shown that they differ chemically, 
because their staining properties vary. Thus, some granules 
selecl an add sUin. and the cells containing them are then 
designated etidephili or aainafkiU; ' other giasules sdeA a basic 
stain and are called boiofJiilt, while yet othcn prefer a neutnl 
slain luealmpliiii). 

in blood the toUowing vaiictiei ol leucocytes may be 

1. fid Pilymtrphmiultat CcO.— This possesses a nucleus of 
very complicated outline and a fair amount of protoplasm Ultd 
with numbers of fine granules which slain with eosio. They vary 

highly aniaeboid and phagocytic, and form about 70% of the 

1. Tkt Caarsdy Cfvtular Emiutpkat Cd!.~Tkac Targe cells 
wcll-dcfincd granules which stain deeply 

id dyes. Then 

. The cells ar 

■bout 1% of the loljd number of leucocytes, though the propor- 
tion varies considerably. They are actively amoeboid. 

J, Tilt iym^ocylr.— This is the smallest leucocyte, bring 
only about O'oofis mm. in diameter. Il has a large spberial 
nucleus with a small rim ol dear ptoioplsim suriounding iu 
Il forms from 15 to 40^4 of the number of leucocytes, and is less 
markedly amoeboid than the other varielio. 

4. Tlu HyiUini (Gr. b6.\iMri, glassy, crystalline. Mm, glass) 
tdl Bf Mocracyli (Gt. fiaipte, long or large).— This is a cell 
similar to the last with a spherical, oval or indented nudeus. but 
tl has much more protoplasm. !l constitutes sbaul 4 % of all 
Ihe leucocytes and Ii highly amoeboid and phagocytic. 

5. Tlu Baiofiilt Crll—Tlia possesses a spherical nucleus and 
die ptotoplam contain* a small Dumber of granules staining 

ie fintfari 

(. Greek tOiAr. eo lo 

> that F 

, , , gained a. . . 

spaces. They play an imporlant part in the '''— "<"' pmcesses 
underlying the phenomena of iminuoily, (nd lome at leut are 
ol importanc* in starting the piotiss of dotting. 

They are constantly suflering destructioo in the . 
of their work. Many, too, are tost to the body by thdr . 
through the diSerenl mucous surfacea. Their origin k H^ 
obscure in mkny pointi. The fymplncylei arc ddriVMl ftom 
lymphoid tissue, wherever it eaiaU m the diSennt put* of tb* 
body. The p(ilymoipbonudearaiid(«MiM[iUk cells are dcrind 
fmra the bone^marrDW, each by diviwia of nacdfic notktr (dU 
located in that tissue. The macracTte la bdievcd liy paay to 
represent a further ttrnge In Ihe develapiiient of Ibe lympbocyt*. 
Their rate of fomatiod may be biAiDKzd by ■ variety ol 
cooditions — f« insUDce, Ib^ an iOaBd to vary hi nurabcc 
according to the diet aod tko, to a eonnlerabli enoU, ia 

i'/oleJeti.—Thc platelets or thrombocytea (Gr. Ofilfpu, dot) 
■re the third daai of formed edemems occuring in mammaUaa 
blood. There are still, bownrer, many obaetvtr* wbo considet 
that platelets am not pmeni in the normal drcubling Mood, 
bui only make Iheir a[qieannce after il haa been shed or otfaa- 
vise injured. They are minute lens-shafied stmctures, and may 
Under oe ' 

and amoeboid. 

This has been regarded by some at a nudeus. Da being brought 
into contact with a foreign lurfaa Ibey adhcic toll firtDly, very 
rapidly pasting Ibrough ■ number of phtsei tesulliog ulticaaldy 
in the formation of granular tkbris. In sbed Uood ilkey tend b> 
collect into groupa, and during dotting, £bcin fi't "****>■ may bo 
observed lo shoot out from these dwapa. 

Varialimi ia Ot Blsod of diJ^tniU Ammali—U we contrast 
the blood of dilfcrent animals of Ibe vertebrate da« we find 
striking diflerences both in micmacopit appearances and in 
cheniical properties. In the first place, Ihe corpuscles vary ia 
amount and in kind. Hius, whilst in a mammal the corputdca 
lorm 40 to 50 % of the tola! volume of the hkod, io Ihe lower 
vertebrates the volume is much less, t-j. io fmgs as low as >5 % 
and in fishes even hiwer. The defidency is diielly in Ibe red 

blood from animals lower in the scale. The corpusdes themselves 
are also found lo vary, especially the red ones. In the mammal 
Ihcy arc biconcave disks with bevelled edges, they do not contain 
I nucleus so thai they ire not cells. In the bird Ihey are larger, 
ellipsoidal in shape and hive a taiBe nucleus in the centre of 
Ihe cell In reptiles and amphibia Ihe red corpuscles are also 
nudealcd, but the sirffma portion containing the baemoglohia 
is arranged in a thickened armular part endrding the nucleus. 
When seen from the Sal they are oval in section. In fishes the 
corpuscles show very much the same structure. A further very 
significant diflcrence 10 be observed between Ihe bloods of 
diSerent vertebrates Is in the amount of haemoglobin they 
contain; thus in the lower classes, fishes and amphibia, not only 
is the number of red corpusdes small but Ibe tmounl of haemo- 
globin each corpuscle contains is relativdy Low. The conccnui- 
lion of Ihe haemoglobin b the corpuscles attains its maximum 
in themammal and the bird. Since the haemoglobin is piactically 

Ihe same from whalt j-.i ^. ■- -l. ...j ._ . .. . , 

bine with Ihe same ai 
blood of any verlebr 

haemoglobin it containa. Thereiore we see mat as we ascena 
Ihe scale in the vertebrate series Ihc oiygen-carrying capacity 
of Ihe blood rise*. This increase was a natural preUminaiy 
conditiun for the progress ol evolution. Id order that a more 
active animal might be developed the main tnential was that 
Ihe chemical processes of Ihe celt should be carried oat raoro 
rapidly, and as these processca are fundamentally ttddative^ 

Lai it is obtained ar 

oxygen, the oiygcn^apadiy nf tlie 

proportion 10 the amount ci 

TwirtwilifllTlrrnittiliinlonr^rrliilr Tifi^TitTTf — it~ 
TUi klUT Jiu bMB bmnslit mbnul in the tnloiil luogdom in 
tm •itjrt. 6m 1^ u incieiK in ihccoBctntniiunaf Ihrhunw- 
^bia ol the blaad cfftctcd by u ncnuc boib in ihc numbci of 
tgrpaitia tad in tlic ■mouBl of lucmoKlabin csnUiaed le nch. 
and KcODdly by in incnue in the nic it whidi lit bluod hu 

th« bload pnaun l> low uid the bumoslabia conlcnl ol ihc 
bload i* low. BiaKqutBilr boib ntc of blood-flow ind oiygcn- 
conuot an low. In tsauut widi tfaii, in higher venebraia ihc 
blooil tiimiin St bi^ and the hutno^obin coDtnit at the blood 
it high. caacqiKnUy bolb nu of bkod-Bow uid oiygen-csnicnt 
■R U^ Wa BiBit aaodttt nitb tiiii impOfUnt Ettp in cvoJu- 
tion iIm meina cDiidoycd Ux the non nptd th«iiMion ol 
myfcn and lot it* ' 

lE accRtiDg celh or 

in unimpoiluit deullf of itmctuR ot individ ual ciH 
variatHHB tn to be foujid in diflcreDt ipecici ol 
the celb (iMnlly conform lo the lypia 

Tbc pbldcu ika dil'H' in the diflerent tpedct. In the Irog, 
■otirmaacc, many ace *plndle->hiped and contain a nudein-like 
itincnR. Bitdt' blood i* ataled to contain no plawleti. The 
.vuiaiiOBs In Dumber of theae bodiet have not been utiafactorily 
1 of the difliculiie* involved in aay attempt 


in binU ar 

while in ttplilei. amphibia and fiahei 
bloodi of the lailer two claatea are much more watery than that 
a< the mammaL MoreovFr, ii haa been proved thai there are 
■pccific diflerenm in the chemical nature of the virigui proieiiu 
proent even between diilerenl varietiet ol maramali. Thut the 
ratio of the tlobulin Iraction to the albumin fraction may vary 
cDiaideiably, and af ain, one or other of the proleini may be 
quiieipcdljc lot theanimal from which it iiderived, 

CMtimi. — If a lample of blood be withdraws from an animal, 
within a ihon time it underjoeiaietieiolchanenand becomn 
coDvened Into a >iia jelly. It ii laid to dtl. If the proceti ii 

blond until the whole man Kla »lid. A thott Lime elapu) 
before this procea commence! — a lime dependeru upon two 
cf canditiou, viz. the lempeiaiure at which the blood ii 

id iht ei 

. Tbui 


fUowed to (ool to 


ly the clotting ii conudenbty delayed and in the 
nalsahaECtber prevented. Foi eaample, human 
:mpenliire data in Ihiee 

I appearat 

rmperature the fir 
- eight m- 

[ lign of ctotling may 
I afUr its removal 

from the body. The pinxia ol clotting i: 

acctleraled by miking the blood Sow in a thin itream over a 

time if the blood be kept quiet, but ultimately the whole mau 
of the blood becomn converted into a lolld. Al Ihii lUge the 
containing veascl may be inverted without any drop of fluid 
eacaping- A short time after this ilagc fus been reached dropi 
of a yellow fluid appear upon the surface and^ increasing in liie 
asdnumbcr) tun togelber lo form a layer ol fluid eepara ted from 
IhcdoL Tbii fluidialermed jpkK^ its appearanca is due Ld the 
contraction ol the clot, which thus squceiei out the fluid from 
between IlsaoUdcoiuIitueuIi. Contriction continues fen about 
twenty-four hours, at the end of whicb time a large quanlily 
(spc-third or moK ol ibc total volune) of ictiim Buy have 
jv. a* 

whKh it ha« ciprased. 

illy the clot awima fteeiy in 
id to bo the 

The cause of the clot faraauen has beer 
predpiuiion of ■ lutid Inm the liquid plasma of the blood. 
This solid is in the form of vciy minute threads and bence is 
termed firin. The thieads traverse Ibc mass of bknd in every 
possible dicection. interlacing and thus confining in Iheir meshes 
all the wlid elements of the blood. Soon after their deposition 
Ihey begin to conltacl. and as the meshwtnk Ibey form ii very 
they carry with them all the corpuscles of the blood. 


in for 

t rate at which blood clola be retarded eilher by CDOlinB 
« by some otha process the coipusdes may have time to ieltlc, 
partially or completely, in which case distinct layers nuy fom. 
The lowennoil ol tbde conlaiu chiefly the red cuipuidea, the 
second layer may be gtey owing to the high petcentage of leuco- 
cytes present, while a third, marked by opalescence only, mny 
be very rich in platelela. Above these a clear layer of fluid 
may be found. This is flama. The faimaiion of these layers 
depentfa solely upon the rate of sedimentation of Ihese elements, 
the rale depending partly upon diflerences in specific gravity, 
and partly upon the tendency the corpuscles have lo run into 
clumps. Horse's blood oflers one of the best instances ^ the 
clumping of red corpuscle*, and in (his animal aedimcniatioa 
(d the red corpuscle* Is moM rapid. 

11 now such a sediniented blood t> aDowcd lo dot the ptoceia 
is fonnd to sun in the middle two layers, ij. in tboa* 
containing the white cntpuKle* and platelet*. Fron these 
layers it spreads through the rest of the liquid, being most 
rciarded. however, in the red cotpusde layer, and particularly 
so if the sedimentation ha* been very complete. Not Only does 
the dotting proceu *urt from the layers containing the leuco- 
cytes and platelet*, but in them it also proceeds more quickly. 
These observations dearly Indicate that the clotting proceia is 
initialed by lonie change starting fnnn these elementa. 

The object of the clotting of llv blood ia quite dear. It Is 
to pmeni, si far at pooible. any loss ol blood when there is 
an injury w an aninal't vessels. The shed blood becomei con-i 
verted into a solid, and this, eitending into the inlerinr ol ihs 
ruptured vestel. forms a plug and thus arrests the blsedinB. 
It is found that dolling is especially accelented wheoever 
'he blood touches a foreign tissue, for instance, the outer layer* 
of a lorn blood-vessel wall, muscle tiuuc. ftc, in in exactly 
those conditions in which rapid dotting becomes of the greatest' 
imponance. Yet another very pregnant Fact in connexian 
with dolling is that if an animal be bled rapidly and the blood 
collected in successive samples it is found that those collccteil 
Uil clot most quickly. Hence the more eiccisive Ike haemot^ 
rhage in a)iy case, the greater became* the onset ol the natuiat 
cure far the bleeding, vi*. dotting. . 

When we begin to inquire into the natUK of dotting we have 
to determine in the lirat place whence the fibrin is dDiived. 
It ha* long bees known thai two cheisiul subtUince* ai least 
are requisiie far lis pnxluction. Thu* cetiain fluids are kiwwn, 
>.[. some samples of hydrocele or pericardial fluid, which will 
not dot sponuneously, bul will doi rapidly when a snail 
quantity of lerum or ol an old blood-ck>l is added lo il. Tlw 
CDHtiiuent subslucc which is present In the firtt-oained fluid* 
is known as GlnHnagcn, and that present in the serum or the 
clot i* known as Gbna-letraent or UmMit. 

Fibrinogen is present ia living blood disiiilved in the (dasmi; 
it is also present in such fluids as hydrocele or pericardial aSuaioni, 
which, though capable of clotting, do not dot tponlancoudy. 
Thiombin, on Ihe other hand, does not eiist in living blood, but 
only makes its appearance there after Uood is shed. It Is not 
yet certain what Is the oaturc of the final reacihu between 
Abrlnugen and thrombin. The powibiiltie* are, thai ihtoinblD 
may act— (i) by acting npaa fibrinogen, which 11 In some way 
converts into fibrin, (]} by uniting with fibrinogen to form itaii^< 
« (j) by yielding pan ol itself to Ihe fibrinogen iiUcb tbt* 

t m™— * amveTlcd into fibrin. The cipcrincntil ilndy of ihe 

iolutioiu tit alJowrd to K\ upon a fibrinogen wlullont \etdi 
ui to the protuble condusion iliai ihc biM of ihcK Lhr« poni- 
faOitia ii the comet one. and lint thi 

pen fibrin 
D Lhe l( 

II it Lnoi 
■n at fibrin 

^._._innukaiti»ppeirance. This it known ai fibrinoglobulin, 
ud appireatly it miaa From the fibrinogen, so thul the chingE 
would be one of cleavage into fibrin and fibrino^lobuUn. It 
ii very noteHOtthy Ihat although the amount of fibrin loimeil 
(luring the dotting appean veiy bulky, ytt tfae actual weighi 
is eitiemdy amall, oat uWK than 0-4 gtms. fTom 100 cc ol 

Having aacxTtained tliat the dotting i> due I 
thtmnbin upon fibrinogen, m aotr act that the 
eaplained a the origin of thrombLn. It has been 


substance, Unfled prothiombin, with calcium. Any soluble 
calcEum salt is ioond to be eSective In this respect, and eon- 
VRldy the tcmovil of toluble calcium (<.f. by siKlium oialalc) 
will prevent the formation of Ihrambin and thercTore ol clotting. 
Id the neil place it can be proved that prothrombin does nol 
eiiH aa such in cireulating blood, to that lhe problem becomes 
an inquiry as to the origin of prothrombin. Eiperimenc has 
ihown that in lis tam prothnmbln arises from yet another 
precursor, which i: named Ihrombogen, and that Ihtombogen 
iIm is not to be found in circulating Mood but only Diskes iu 
appearance alter [tie blood is shed. The fonvtnioo of ihrom- 
bogen into prothramMn has been proved ID be due to the action 
of a second fcrmenl which has been named thrombokinfiae, and 
thia laltci is again abaent from living blood. Hence the queslwn 
ariiei, whence at* derived ihrombogen and ihrombokinmef 
Id the study of this queaiioa ii has been found that U the blood 
of biidi be coUecied direct from an anciy through a pcriectly 
dean cannula into a clean and dusl-lrce glass vessel, ll does not 
dot VDnUneouily. The plasma collecied from such blood is 
found to contain ihtombogen but no thromboLinaae. A some- 
wlial ^rnilaf plasma may be prepared from a mammal's blood 
by collecting samplrt ol blood Iram an atteiy 'n'o vessels which 
have been thoroughly coaled with paraflin. though in this Insunce 
IbrombogeB may be absent as wcD as thrombokinase. If 
plasma containing ihtombogen bui no thrambakint« be ireaied 
with a saline eitiact of any tissues ii will won dot. The saline 
eilract (oniain* ihtombokinase. This ferment cnn therefore 
be derived from most lissuet, including alw the white blood 
corpuscles and the platdet*. Thiomhogen ii produced from the 
kucocyits, but il is not yel certain whether it ic also formed 
tram Ihg platelets. The discovery ol the origin ol the throm. 
bokinaic from tissue cells eiplains ■ fict thai ha long been 
known, namely, that if in collecting blood, it is allowed to Sow 

Fact that birds' blood il very carefully collected wit! not dot 
spontaneously tends to prove that IhtombokinaK is not derived 
from lhe leucocytes, and makes probable its origin from the 
pblelels, for it is known that bitds' Uood apparently does not 
contain platelcis, at any rale in the form in which they are 
lound in mammalian blood. When eiaminlng lhe general 
properties of platelets, aliention was drawn to the remarkably 


II Is a 

ently tl 

td possibly also of thromfwgen. 

s the folh 

ipiiulated account of the changes 
coBitilute lhe many phasei of clotting. When blood escapes 
fnm a blooilveMet it comet Into contact with a foreign surface, 
either a Ustue or the damaged walls of the cut veuel. Very 
Weadily this ceouct ratulu In the discharge of ibrambogen and 
thnnbokifiaae, the lonner from the while bk»d corpuscles and 
•bo ponlbly from the ptetekla, the latter bom the ;:Jatelets 

or ftoio the llnut with which the Uood coma fn cnatut. Tbe 

interaction ol tbcae two bodiea neat rasulia in the formaUoa of 
prothrombin, wbich, comUning with the calcium of any soluble 
' u ihtvisbin or fibriD-fetmeDI. The lut 

step in the change is lhe action of tl 

Tbe in 

id the dot is co 
o the a 

of tl 

Tbe power of clotting and lb 
is of essential importance, and yel this dolling must not occur 
within the living bknd-vtsiels, or it would speedily result in 
dcjiih. That tbe tissues should be able to ■caelerau tbe process 
It of very obvious value. That tbe inner lining of the blood- 
vesHlt doe* not act as a foreign tisnig it possibly due to iIk 
eilieme unaoiluess of their surface. 

Further, aD animal must always be eipoaed lo a possibk 
danger in the absorption of some Ihrorabin from a mass of doited 
blood Kill retained within Ibe body, and we know ihai ii a 
quantity of active lermeot be injected bllo the bhMd-Nre«in 
intravascular dolling does reiulL Under all usual condiUom 
this it obvlaled. the protective mechanism being of a iwofold 
character. First, it Is found thai thttHnbin becomes converted 
very quickly into an inactin modification. Scrum, for inslancc, 
very quickly iotet its power of inducing dotiiog in fibrinocen 
solutions. Secoiidly, the body has ben found to posaesa the 
power of making's substance, anlithrombin, which can combine 
with ihrombin forming a substance which is quite inactive ai 
far as dolring It concerned. Finally, then to evidence that 

present may be eoormously in 

Tbe changes in thi 

is not only Ibe medium of retpim 
defence againsl organisms and of many oilier functions, none 
of which can be aflecied wlihout oompanding alterattoiu 
occurring in the drculiting fluid. The immense majority of 
these changes are, however, so subtle thai they escape deieclioB 
by out present methods. But in certain directions, notably 
in regard to the relaiions with micio-nrganisms. changes In the 
blood-plasma can be made out. though they art not associated 

ack the body, for tbe blood 

wilh ar 


The phenomena of immunily lo the ■ 

lachs of bacteria or 

n. of the 

prccipitio lest 


dependent on 

of lhe blood 

ptsce that 


people vary in 

attacks ol diRerent 

organisms, and 

different species of anim 

salso var 

f greatly. 

This " nalurJ 


by the leucocytes or while blood corpusd 

s of taking 



( holding 

lhe blood — phagocytosis. — partly ti 
the blood seium which have a bactericidal action, or whose 
presence enables (he phagocytes to deal mope easily with the 
organisms. This natrnal imrnunity tar be heightened when 
it eiisis. or an artifidal immunily can be produced in varioua 
ways. Doses of organisms or their toiins can be injected on 

be nol reached, ui most case an increased power of resistance a 
produced. The organisms may be Injected alive in a virulent 
condition, or with their virulence It^ned by beat or cold, 
by snliseplics, by cutlivalion in lhe presence ol oiygen, or by 
passage through other arn'mali. or they may first be killed, or 
iheir loiins alone injected. The method chosen in each cue 
depends on the organism dealt with. The result of this treat- 
ment is [hat m the animal treated protective substances appear 
in the Icnim, and these substances can be transferred 10 the 
serum ol another animd or ol man: la other words the active 
immunity of llie eipcrimental animal can be trandated bto 



OtpaBhchBHiDBltyarmia. AccMilIng U tha BUnm or tbe 

idnlucs infnttd inis the formti. <U lenim mi; 

il il ha txcn imniuniicd tgaint uiy piniculu I 

bicleriil. if icairut in oixinrim. Fimltiat eiiitipla of that 

ue. al ibe (Dnncr diphihtna mtitinin, of Ihc lallcr uil 

»iid irli-iyphoid 

bicrL ll b pnbibk thii thi oltimile Mnrce sf the anliti 
to be round In tht livinj cxllj of the tinua ind Ihit ii | 
[ram them into (lie blood. The Ktion of in inlibuierial 
lepciids on ibe pcoence in it ola Jubitancf known u " fmi 
My," vhich hii > ipecid aflinjly ind power of combininc 
* the bictcrium uied. In order ihil ll may exert thii poi 

il lequir 

nally pi 

"inli-bodics," ihougb 

with biclcrU and Ibdr toiiM. 1> not rontined to Ihetr tx 
but can be dcmoostraied in regard to many other lubilii 
nch u fenncnU, tluue cells, led corpusclo, &c. In i 
animaU, lor ciample, Ibe btood lenim hai the power of dli: 
lo| the red corpiuclei of in animal of dillerenl ipcdn; i.f. 
[uinea-pif*! lemm ia " haemolytic " 10 the red corplisclr 
Ihe DL Thii hiemolylic powei (haemolysis) can be incre 
by repelled injetiior ' ' .... 



duced in the caie of the red coipiisclM may wmdinio, if injccied 
iato the finl animal, whot* fed corpuicln were u»ed. cause 
eitenvve dcMniciion of Its red corpuscles, with haemo- 
llobiniiria, and lomelimes a fatal retulL 

Opsoruc action depends no the presence of a substance, the 
"opuuilo," [a the seruin of an immuniccd animal, which inakcs 
thcortaaism in quaiion more easily taken up by the phagocytes 
(InicDcytet] ol (he blood. The opsom'n becomes hied to the 
artminni. It is present to a ccruin eilent in nonnal scrum, 
but can be greatly increased by ihe proceu of immuniiaiiooi 
and the " opioaic Indei," or rcTailon beiween the numljer of 
Mpnisms laken up by leucocyica when treated iriLh the serum 
of a healthy peraon or "coolnil," and with the senun of a 
person affected with any bacicrial disease ajid under treatment 
by immuniulion. li regarded by urn* as repreMnting the degree 
of immunity produced. 

AggtuUnaiive action b-evidcnce of the presence In ■ leniin 
of a somewhat almOar set of subitaices. known Is " agglutinins." 
When a portion of an anlisenun is added 

se became salhcred togeilicr into clumps, 
ra] diircrent bodies are toncemed in this 
3, Id its practical applications it least, 
nay be rc^uded as a reaction of infection rather than of im- 
■umlation u oidinarily undetstrxid, lor it is found that (be 
blood serum of patients luiFcring from typhoid, Atalta fever, 
dttleia, and Buny otbei hactciiaj diseaws. igglutioales the 
Dsnesponding onanisms. This laa has come to bc-of treat 


ling orgaui 
1b all pmbability tci 

The predpitin teal depends on a aamewhat analogous 
U the seium of an aniioal be injected repeatedly inl 
"' al of diSeienl apcdcs, a " precipitin " appear ' 

ef the 

fact Is that 

which a 

i>hcn added 

the £nl animal. Tbt 

can be utiliaed ai a method ol distinguishing 
Deiween human blood and that of *nJin>l«^ whidi a often of 
importance in nsedkal jurisprudence. 

In lUt summary the facts adduced are practically all biological. 
and ue due to the eitraordiaary activity with which the study 
of bacteriokigy (f.>.) has been puiiued in r 
diemistiy of the Uood ha* not hitherto bi 
ildoiDiation of clinical or diagnostic Importi 
■Kd bete be added lo whal is said above on 
tk blood. Ewugh has been siid. however, 
ttdlnary anapleally of the apparrntly simple 

Tbe BWtbodi M pnwal employed ' 



of the Kd aad ohita mpuidn 

me ctiimaiion of the perceniM* •< 
ipeci6c gravity of the blood, the nicrs. 

made upon cover<gtisses. fixed and stained, is special caiet the 
alkalinity and the rapidity ol coagulation may b« ascertained, 
or the Mood nay be eiamined bacleiiologically. We have no 
unlverwily accepied means of etlimating, during life, the total 
amount of blood in the body, though the method ol J. S. Haldine 
and J. Lomin Smith, in which the local oaygen clpidly of rlie 
tilood is estimated, and iu loul volume worked out fnun ihai 
datum, has seemed to promise important resulta fJn^a. tf 
Ptfiitl. vol, uv. p. jji, itoo). After death Iht unauat ol 
bkiad wmelimes seem* to be increased, and MHneiiiaei, aa In 
" pemidous anaemia." it b cerliinly diminished. §ut the high 
count! of red cotpuscfcl which are oerliionally reported ai 
evidence of plethora or inneise of the total bload ai* ready onfy 
indications of concentration of the fluid enept In certain rare 
eases. It is necesnry. Iherefore, in fiamlning Mood diicasea, 
to confine ourselves to the siudy of the blood-unit, which is 
always taken as the cubic mlllirneire, without teferencc to the 

^ lUuMia b of ten used as a tenen'e term for all Mood diteasei, 
for in almmt all of (hem the haemoglobin is diminished, either 
IS a result of diminution in the number ol Ihe red ■, ■-,„,!, 
coipusdcs In which It Is contained, or because the 

normal. As haemoglobin h the medium of 
:hange. Ill diminution causes obviotia symptoms, 
more easily appreciated by the patient ihan 
alicrallons in the plasma or the leucocytes. It 
livide anaemia; Into " primary " and " »econ<!. 
ary ": the primary are ihose for which do adequate cause ha* 
as yet been discovered; (he secondary, those whose cause Is 
known. Among the former are usually included chlomts, 
pemicloui atuemia. and lomellmes the leucoeythiemiu; 
among the Utter, the anaemias due to such agencies as milliitaDI 
disease, malaria, chronic metallic poisoning, chronic haemor- 
rhage, tubercle, Bright's disease, infective processes, intestinal 
fuiasiles, &c As our knowledge advances, however, this dis- 
n will probably be given up, for the causes of several 
primary anaemias have been discovered. For example. 


from the 

other forms 

of pemiciout 

acmia with which i 

to be ire 

uded, and le 

» been declared by 

LOwii, though 

probably e 

roneously, to 

due to a blood pa 


closely r. 

lated to thai of malaria. 

all these condiUon 

lidciabte iIri 

jlariiy In the 

mploras produced 


m Ihe pa 

hological an 

atomy. The 

neral symptoms arr^ 


r of the ski 



akness and lassitude, ihorlncss of brcilfa, palpita 

idency (o fainting, and usually also gastro.inlestinal diilurb- 

ct, headache and neuralgia. The heart is often dilated, and 

auscultation Ihe syitoUc munaun auoclated with that 

idition are heard. In fatal cases (he internal organs are 

found to be pale, aod very often their cells cunlain an eicessive 

unouni o[ fat. In maoy anaemias there b a special tendency 

lo haemorrhage. Ktgct of the above symptoms and organic 

:hanges are directly due to dioiinlUed rapiraIoi> interchange 

from the loss of haemoglobin, and (o l(s effect on the various 

gaai involved. The diagimis depends ultimately in all cases 

»n the eiaminalioa ol the blood. 

Though the relative pnq»rtians of the leucocytes are probably 
intinually undergoing change even in health, especially as the 
suit of taking food, the number of red corpuscles remain* much 
ore constant. Through Ihe agency of tome unknown mechao' 
m, the supply of fceih red corpuscles from the bone-marrow 
keep* pace with (he desEruction ol eflcte corpuscles, and in 
hulth each coipusde contains a definite and constant amount 
ol haemogbbiti. The dislurhartce of this arrangemepl In 
a n a em ia may be dtie to loss or to increased desiructioii of cor- 
puscles, to Uw lupply of 1 smaller number d new ones, lo > 

(SmlBntloB of (he amaunt ot humoi^bin in the Inclividual 
ntm urputdea, or to ft conihjiution ol these cjutf*. It is 
euy lo Qliutnie thit by dacribing vhit hAppeib if ler m hu 

U^tbeku ia replaced by Ihe fuUy-EonDed 

Bujd lost ii £nl made up 

Uk blood ; tbe crythro- 



d caipuidi 

(tiiDuIated 10 pnlifciation, and new coipuida (ue quickly 
thcDWD into the circuUlion. Tbeae an apt, however, lo be huI] 
and to contain » saboornuJ atnount of haemoglobin, and it ii 
only tfiei lOine time that they ue desJroyed and Ibeit place 
Uken by noniuil cocputdt*. If (he loo lu* been vety gieat, 
■udatcd red corpuiclea may even be caiiied into (he blood- 
stttan. The blood pooeuca a great power of ncovcty, il time 
be giTEii it, becauK the orpn (bane-manaw) which fcumi to 
many ol iu clemCDU never, in health, worka it high prcnure. 
Otdy * pan of the marrow, the ao-called red majtow, is nonnally 
occupied by erythroblastic tiuue. the nsi of the medullary 
cavity of the bonet being talun up by [ai. If any long-continued 
demiDd for red corpuaclet is nude, the fat it abtorbed. and iu 
place gradmllyuken by ted minow. This compeiuatoiy change 

I oFlen V 

y difficult, especially in " i 


It their 

. lucb aaahOK uwdated with lepticacmii, there is no 
doubt thai blood desUuciion plays the ptindpal put. But it 
the tMOix of anieni* ii i chronic one. a gastric cancer, for 
Imtuce, (hough there may possibly be in increued amount of 
dettractioD of coipvidei in some cases, and (hough there is ol(en 
lou by haemorrhage, the cancer mierfere* with putriiion, (be 
blood is Impoverished and does noL oouriih the erythrobtsata 
in the marrow suSicienlly. and the new corpuscles which are 
turned out are few and poor in haemoglobin. In chronic 
anienias. regeneration always goes on side by tide wi(h destruc- 
tion, and it ia important to remember that the state ol (he blood 
in these conditions gives the measure, nol of the amount of 

regeneration o[ which (he organism is capable- The evidence of 
dcstruc(ioo has oEten to be sought for in other orgaiu, or Id 

Of Ihe iO-caUcd primary anaemias the most common is 
Mtrfiis, (Q anaemia whidi occurs only in the female sei, 
between the ages of Efteen and twenty-five u a rule. Its 
■ymptomt are those caused by a diminution of haemoglobin, 
and though it is never directly Faul, and is eitremely gmenablc 
to treatnienl with iron preparations. Its subjects very frequently 
luHir from relapses at varying Inlervals alter the £rst iKack. 
Iu causation Is probably complei. Bad hygienic condilions. 
over-fatigue, want of proper food, espedaltyoi the iron-contain- 
ing proteids of meat, the sttiin put upon the blood and bTood- 
forming organs by (he accession of puberty and the occurrence 
of menstruation, all probably play a part in it. Il has also been 
suggested that internal secretions may be concerned in stir 

d that In 1 

the genital organs 
of function by these organs ft puberty, caused perhaps by some 
of the above-mentioned conditions, might lead to sluggishness 
In the bone-marjow, and to (he supply lo (he blood of the 
poorly-formed corpuscles defideni In haemoglobin which are 
chancieristic of the disease. Chlorosis is the type of anaemias 
from imperfect bbod-fortnation. Lorrain Smith has produced 

body is not diminished m (his dii 

and the amount in each blood -ui 
Ptnaidimi diteemiu h a rarer 

noglot^n i 
ease, but that the blood -plui 
(hat the haemoglobin is dilul 
lit greatly lessened, 
disease than chlorosis, occi 
ibuted nearly equally beiwe 
rat importance because of 
thougb iu downward cou 

is generally broken by tempociry in . 

occasions. The sympioms are those of a progressive anaen 

in the £rst attack, b 

lusly or . 

It (heir 

1 more usually, when things 

ns probable 
rverc malarial 

:pparent heslth. This rei 

The prime cause of (he disease is j 
indeed that (he causal (ac(on are numetou 
infection, sj^hilis. pregnancy, chronic gastt 
chronic gas-poisoning, are all. in diHerent cases, known to have 
been causally associated with it. and il is probable that a con- 
genital weakness of the bone-mairow has often to do with its 
production, ai In many cases ■ family or bcrediury hiltory of 
(he disease can be obtained. The condition is now regarded *i 
a chronic loiaemia, partly because of the clinical symptoms 
and pathological appearances, partly because arulogous COQ- 
ditioiu can be produced experimentally by such poisons aa 
saponin and toluylendiamin. and partly because of the facts of 
hcikriatrpkalus aiuemia. The site of production of the loiin, 
oi (oiins. for i( is possible that several may have the ume effect 
on the blood. Is possibly not always the same, but must often 
be the a]imen(aiy canal, sa bosMtxtfiatHi anaemia proves. 
Not all persons affected with this in(es(inal (apeworm contract 
the disease, but only (hose in whose iulstines the worm ti dead 
and decomposing or sometimes only "sick," The eipulsioa 
of the worm puts an end to the absorption of the toiin and the 
patients recover- No adequate eiplanitlon of Ihe formalioa 
of the toxin in (he immense raajoiiiy of (he cases, in which tbeif 
is no upcworm, has yet been given. It is certain that ua 

ind throuiA i( the btood, 
uic gaiiiD-intesIlnal apparatus and (be nervous system, especi- 
ally the spinal cord, in different propotlions in diSerml cases. 
The effect upon the marrow is to alter Ihe type ol red corpuscle 
formation, causing a reversion lo the embryonic condition, in 
which Ihe nucleated red corpuscles arc large (megaloblisu), and 
the corpuscles in the blood formed from them are also large, are 
ippaienlly IU suited lo the needs of the adult, and easily break 
down, as the deposiu of iron in the liver, spleen, kidneys and 
marrow prove- Whether this reversion Is due to an eihaustiOD 
of Ihe normal process or to an inhibiiion ol it it not delinliely 
known. The result is that the drculaling red corpuscles are 
enomously diminished: it is usual to find t.ooo,ooa or less In 

the haemoglobin Is of course absolutely dimmishcd. it is always, 
in severe cases, present in relatively higher percentage than Ihe 
red corpuscles, because Ihe avenge red corpuscle is larger and 
contains more haemoglobin than the normal. The targe 
nucleated red corpuscles (megaloblasls) wilh which the Burrow 
Is crowded, often appear in the blood- 

Olher aruemias, such aa those known as lympAadcKtma, or 
Hodgkin^ disease, splcnii anatmia, cUetama, leuimarmia 

CO of childre: 


erf bed 

iture of the lentocytea In Ihe U 

liseaset, as lor eiample In typhoid tevn. in malaria 
I tevei, and in pernicious anaemia. An ioctease is 

more frequent, and is known tis (euKyteii), though 
-ni is usually connoted a relative hictease in the 

of the polyrrwrplronuclear neutnophile teucocytCA. 


twed<ytBili QfWW—dw cw«) wiely nf eoojiigiii, neraally 
W ■ (Uclll aUBI (huini iticcMiiiD, during pngnancy, lod sllci 
'id ■bnomuUy lilcr hacmorrha^, in ibe coune 

of niickio and atbst nbiuiiut. It doe> not occur In some 
iulcnivt djirtiti, tbt BWMifnjwrUnt of which iie lypboid Imr, 

la all on* wbtn it ii wSdcndy levcn ud lonn coniinucd. 
the rcKivc vact In the boac-murow ia filled up b; Oic iciive 
pnlilcntioB of ihe lencocyU* nomully louml tbac, and i> u«d 
n a Bunoy (or ibe leucocyUi nquinil is ibe blood. In loaay 
cuH loKDcyliMia it kaown 10 be ijsodited villi the dclcace ol 
Ibe orpninn from injurious influcDcea, and ila anounl deptndi 
on ibc idaLion bccwKS the Kvciily ol the ittacli and the power 
of tesiitUKE. Then nuy be an increase in the {Hoporiisns 
prteeni ib the blood of lymphocytes i^ympkoeytaxii), and <d 
usmopkUit). Thiilaller chingefiassodatcd 

iy wiih ac 


al parasites in the body, such a 

and with the 
ankykiatoina and filaria.- 

The disease in which the number of kDcocytea in the blood 
is giealat i> itatetjUutmia or leucaemia. There are two main 
tMMMl« '""" "i this diacaae. In both of which there are 
anaemia) cnlargcmcDt of the spleen and lymphatic 
(lauls. M of eilher of them, leucecytjc hypcitnphy of the 
booe-aurrow, and depoaili ot kucocyles in the liver, kidney 
and other orgena. The diSerence lia in the kind of kiKDcytd 
present in eiceai in the blood, bkAd-forming orgsnt and 
deposita in the tisiucL In the one form these are lymphocytes, 
which are lound in hallh mainly in the marrow, the blood itsdf, 
the lynttA glands snd in the lymphatic tissue round the ali- 
BienUuy ctnili in the other they arc Ihe kinds of leucocytes 
BOnially found in the booe-marrow — myelocytes, neuirophik. 
bawphile and eosinophile. and polymorphoDuiilear cdb, >bo 
aeulrophile, basopbile and eoiinophile. The clinical cmuK ol 
the IWD [anM may dil!cr. The fint, known as lymphatic 
InKMBiia or lymphtrKtia. may be acute, and prove taUl io a 
lew weeks or even days with rapidly advandog anaemia, or 
Duy be chronk and last for one or two years or kmger. The 
second, known as iplenD.nyelogenous leucaenaia or mydatmia. 
a almoai always chronic, and may Ust lor several years. Re- 
covery does not take place, though remissions may occur. The 

disease very Isvourably. The most nccnl viewol the palbology 
of the disease is that it is due to an overgrowth of ihe bone- 
naimw leucocytes, asalogou) la »me respects to lumoor 
fTDwih and caused by the renwvai ol some cootrolling mcthanius 
ralher than by stinulalion. The anaemia accompanying tbe 
disease is due partly to the leucocyte overgrowth, which takes 
up the space in the marrow belonging of lighl 10 ted coipustle 

KU>OI>-LEmHa. There 

urked n 

if Iroi 

iditions whci 
ilmclion si 1 

cerukn amount ol blood, from three or it 
oc rvoi thirty in extreme cases. TWi may be cfVerted by venc- 
seclioB, oc the appUcatioa of leeches, or more racFly by cupping 
(f >.]. Unlortunalely, in years gone by, b>ood-leI ling wai used Io 
such ciceaa, as a cure Cor alnoat every known disease, that public 
opinion is now eatremely opposed to it. In certain palhologicid 
, however, it brings relief and saves lile when no other 

VtBcaeclion. Ia which the blood is usuaUy withdrawn from 
the median- basilic vein of the am. his the dtaadvinuge that it 
esn ooly be performed by the medical man. and that the patient's 
friends ait ftnerally very much opposed to the idea. But the 
public aie not neatly lo prejudiced against the use of Iterhes; 
and ** the nurse in charge can be Inttnicied to nse Iheae if 
occasion aiiae^ this is the loim ol blood-leliing usually practised 
tiKlay. From one to twelve leeches are applied at the time, 
the average leech withdrawing aome two dnehiM of bkiod 

by am immediate appBalian'Dl hot fomenUthmi to the voundi. 

liiey should always be applied over some bony prominence, 
that pimure may be ellcttivcly uicd lo slop Ihe haemorrliage 
allctwaids. They should never he placed over luperficial veins, 
or where there it miidi Iodh subcauncoui tieue. If, aa isolteo 
the case, there it any diCGculiy in making them hiie. the skin 
should bepiickedatlhedc«ired spot with the point oFa Itetilized 
needle, and the leech will then attach itsell without further 
imuble. Also they must be kft In fall oS ol their own accord, 
the nurse never diageing them foiciblyoS, II cold and pressure 
fiil to nop Ihe lubuquent haemorrliage, a little powd«ed alum 
orotherilyptic may beinscrted in Ihe wound. TbtfdUowing are 
tbe main indicalions for their use, though in tortie caaes Ih^ an 
belter replaced by venesection. <i) For sugnalim of blood on 
the right side of the heart with conalani dyspnoea, cyaaosis, tic. 
In acute lung disease, the sudden obitructiOD to Ihg pasggc of 
blood through the liin^ throws such an iiKreascd strain on the 
right ventricle that it may dilate to iJie verge of pnralytis; but 
by lessening the total vcjume of blood, the hean'a work is 
ightened for a time, and the tbnger a1 


ently m 


jmonla, pleurisy atKi bronchitis, when the obitructi 
■. But these 


also met with ai * retult ot failure ol campemalion with hick 
presson ia cerUiia fotu of heart diseate (f.*.). (:) To lower 
arUiial lenvoo. In the early stages of cenbiaj haemonhiga 
(before tonu has luperveneil), wherL the heut 11 vorUiig 
vigorously and the tension of the pulse Is high, a tlmely'vene* 
section may lead to arrest ol the haemorrhage by loweting the 
blood pressure and so giving the blood in the ruptured vessel 
an opportunity to coagulate Cj) In varioua convuIsiTe attacks, 

BUXID-IIONEV, coDoquiaDy, the reward for betraying a 
criminal to justice. Mole itriclly It is used of the money-penalty 
paid in old days by a murderer lo the kinsfolk of his victim. 
These fines completely piolccted the offender from the vengeance 
ol the injured family. The system was common among the 
Scandiiuvia* and Teutonic nces previous to the inOuduction of 
Christianity, and > scale of payments, grmduated accsnUng to 
the beinousneu of tbe crime, bis fiied by laws, which further 
settled vho could eiact the blood-money, and who were entitled 
10 share it. Homicide was not ihe only cirme this tipiable: 

bitxid -money co 

acted for 

killing any bne in achurchot»hileaBleep,oiwiiUn 

Lne precincts of the royal palace, were " bot-lcss "; and the 

death penalty was inflicted. Such a criminal was outlawed, and 

hia enemies could kill him wherever they fouiHi him. 

BLOODSTONE, the popular name of the ninctal bcliotnipe, 

bright ted spots, iplaihei and sireikt. The greea crJourlsdue 

I chhiriiic 


K kinds 

have sou 


restrict the 


to green jatpi 

with red 


ings, thus 


heliotrope a 

opaque at 

, though coi 


t generally 


uid. Agood 


ia, where i 


traps, and is 

and polished 

t Cambay 


tone is used 

for seals, kn 



lious trivia 

lents. Blood 

widely d 


led, hut is 


u the basaltic 

rockaof Ihel 

lew olh 

aemaiiie (Gi, alfie, blood), or native peroxide 0! iron, la also 
■mciinKs called " blooibione." 

BLOOM (from A.S. Wmb, a Sower), the Uowom o( Howeilng 
antt, or the powdery film on the skin of iresh-pickcd Fruit; 
of ne«ly-minied coins olio a cloudy 

D the VI 

nbh of painl 
^ of the r 

t due I 

ugh hill 

i steel. 

which have unrlergone a preliminary bamr 
ace ready lor lurlhrr workinf-. 

BLOOMER. AHEUA JEHU (iaift-ig«e), American dics^ 
cefenncsand wonen'srights advocate, wni horn at fioaer-Ncw 



Vdifc, on the tTih of Miy itiB. Afltr her iraniiec in 1840 ihe 
dUbliihcd I pciiodkal ciJIcd Tkt Lily, which had unc hi 
In 1R49 ihc look up the idea — previoialy oHginsted b) 
Eliubeth Smith ililki — ol ■ nfoim in wonun'i drm, ind the 
weiring of 11 ihorl ildn, with hxse Uouaen. gaibcrcd roue ~ 
■nidei. The mnc of " bhniDen " gmduaUjr beane popularly 
ituched to iny divided-akin or knicketlMcker dim lor woe 
Until hci death an (he joth oI December itq4 Mn Ulooincr 1 
> prominent part in the leinperuioc ampiign ud in that 

BLOOHnELD. HAURICI (i«5S- ). Anerian Sanikrit 
•cbtdar, wu born an the ijrd of Febniary iSJi, in Biel 
Austriu SilaiL Hemniiothe Uci'irdSutain i867,ud 
yean liter gniuaied from Funnan Unhrenit y. Cnenvilte, South 
CanliBa. He then itudied Sanikrit at Yale, under W. D. 
Whitney, and a( Jobra Hopkins, to whicfa univenity he reliuned 
■imociite profenor in i&Si altera nay of two yean in Be ' 
■nd Le^^iig, and ieoD aJtervardi ma pmtnotFd pmfeisoi 
Sanikrit and conparallve philology. His pipen in the A mtri 
tmal tf PkiUcgjF number a few in compimlivc litiguiaiics. 

racral Bteli a/ 

duui of wordi. 

InterpRlation ol the Vedai," and he I> bcil k 

of the Vnlai. He ttanilated, lor tiu-MlUtei 

U(£iiif, ihe Hymnial the Aiham-Vcda(iS9j); csntnbutea to 

AlunnmitaniU the ledion " The Aiharva-Veda and the Copaiha 
Brtbnuna"(iSo«);waiGnt loedii ibeKaufiki-Saira (1S90), 
and in 1407 publiihed. in the Harvard Oriental lerin, A Valii 
Ctiuttianu. In iQoshepubliihedCckriu.aei^rd/iJiufei.a 
■tudy in comparative mythdogy. 

BLOOKFIEUI, ROBERT (i;b6-i8i3), Englidi poet, mt bon 
ol humble pirenli at the village ol Honington, SiiElalk, on the jid 
ol December i;66. Heiru Ipprentlnd it the age ol eleven to 1 
firmer, but he *u loo imill and frail for £ctd labour, and lour 
yean liter he came to Ldodon to work lor a ihoemaker. The 
poem thai made hil reputllion, Tkt Farmer's Bej, wu written 
In • gnrret In Bell Alley. The manuicripl, declined byievecal 
publiihen, fell Ibid the hands ol Capcll Lofft, who imnged for 
ItipublinliDn with woodcuts by Bewick in iKoo. Theimceuol 
the poem wai remarkable, over tsjooo copia being aold in the 
sert twaycin. Hiiieputition was increased by the appearance 
of his Ratal TaUi (iSoO, Ktws ]tom Iht Farm (1S04), Willi 
Ftnrn (tgo6) and Tkt Baitti •>/ Iht ICy* (iS>0- Inllucnlial 
friend* attempted to provide for Bloomfield. but ill-health and 
poaibly faults ol temperament pievented the lucceu ol these 
ellorts. ind the poet died la poverty at ShcOord, B«I(ardshire, 
HI the loth ol Ab(UM iSl). Hit Stmaiyuin Patlry trii Vase 



BUmNPIEU), a town of Eiki onnly, New Jersey, U.S.A., 
about tin. W. of New York, and directly adjoining the cilyol 
Newark on the N. Pop.(i9Do)oMI,of whom 1167 werefoteign- 

BloomScId 'ii served by (he Erie, and the Delaware, Idc'ka- 
wanna i Western railways, and by leveralelecliiclinHconnecl- 
tog with NcwiA, Uonldair, Orange, East Orange and other 
neighbourini places It ^ a residenlia] suburb oi Newark and 
New York. >> the icat ol a Ccrmin Ihcologicil tchool (Fmby- 
teriin. lS6«) and has the Jarvie MemorUl library ( i«oi). There 
is a Central Green, and in 190A land wu acquired for another 
park- Among the town*a minufacturei arc silk and wofdlen 
goods, paper, electric elevators, electric limps, nibher goods, 
aalely pins, hats, cream separators, bnnhcs and novelties. The 
value of the town's fictory products increased Irom l3,J7O,034 
In IQOO to UMyt^i in iqej. or iTi%. Finl sellled aboui 
i670'i67j by the Dutch and by New Engbndcrs Irom the 
Newark colony. Bloomlwld wat long a pan ol Newark, the 

Id (i3sj-'8'3l. 'ho «rvcd {i77i-i778) in the Wat 
1 Indepeiidence, reaching the rank ol major, w 
of Newjenarb iSoi-iSai and i8«j'i8ii, b 

general in the Cniled Slates army doriig the Wteol ttt>, Md 
a Democtalic repfeoentative in Coogresi Irom 1817 10 igii. 
The township of BloomMd was incorporated in iSi>. From it 
were tubsequemly ael oil Belleville [iSjq), Uontdaii ( iSbg) and 
Glen Ridgt(i8i,5). 

BLOOMtMaTOIf. a dty and the couniyseit of UcLean 
county, Ullnoii, U.S.A., in the central pan ol the stiie. about 
IIS in- S.W. of Chicago. Pop. (iSgo) lo.iBj; fiooo] i],)36, 
of irtioa 3611 were fonign-bom, there being a lirge Genma 
element; (igio census) is.tM. The dly is served by the 
Chicago ft Allan, the Illinoii Central, the Cleveland. Chicago, 
Cindnniti ft St Louis, and the Ijke Erie ft Western roJways, 
snd by electric inicr-urbin Une*. Bloomington is the seitaf 
the lllinoit Wcsleynn Univenity (Methodin Episcopal, at- 
educational, founded in iSjo), which compriset a college of 
libenl irti, an academy, a college of U«. t college of nrusic and 
a school of oratory, ind in 1407 had ijso tiudcnts. Id the lows 
of NotHU, (pop. in igoo, ]705), ' m. north of Bloomington, an 
the Illinois Stale Normal Um'veniiy (opened at BloomingtOB 

normal schools in the Middle West, and the state Vkldiera* 
orphim' home (i8A«|. BloonungtoB has a public library, and 
Franklin and ^filler parks; among ita principal buildinga arv 
the oourt bouie, built of marble, and the V.M.C.A. huihUng. 
Anung the manufacturing establishments an foundries and 
machine shops, including the large shops of the Chtcago ft Alton 
railway, slaughlcring and meil-pocking establishments, Soar 
and grist mi Us, priming and publishing emablislimcnti, 1 taiamcl 
lictory and lumber factones. The nhie of the dly'i (onory 
products incnased Irom ti/oiifii^ b t«00 to lj.777.oOB in 

the city, ind the dty 1* situated in 1 fine firming ngloa. 
Bloomington derives Its name from Blooming Grove. * tmall 
forest which was crogaed by the tiaili leading [rom the -Catena 
lead minea to Sonihem UUnois. Irom Lake tlichigan to St Lotiit, 
and from the Easiem to the far Western iiaict. The first settle- 
ment WIS nude in iSji, but the town was not formally founded 
until ilji, when K became the county-seat of McLean covaly. 
The first dly chiner wu obtained in iSjo. and in igjj the 
public school system was established. In r£;« Bloomington 
was the meeting place of a Mate convention call«l by the Illinola 
edlton who wen oppoaid to the Kansas-Nebraska Bill (see 
Deutiti). This was the first convention of the RepubHraa 
piny in Illinois; among the delegate* wen Abnham Lincoln, 
Richard Yates, John Jl. Palmer and Owen Lovejoy. The dty 

Divid Divii (igij-igg«), an associate justice ol the United 
States Supreme Coun In ig6i-iST7, a member ol the United 
Slilei Senile in igjj-iggj, and preiident- pit Itrmpart of the 
Senite In igSi-iSJj: Governor John M. Hamilton (iS47-i<)oO, 
Governor Joseph W. Filer (b. i8<0); and Adiai Ewing 
itevcnionlb. iSj5),a Democratic nprelentative in Congnn in 
ig7j-i8;7 and 1879-1811, and vice-president ol the United 
Suts in i8q]-)Sg7. Bloomingion'i prosperity Increased niter 
1867, when coal was fint luccenfully mined in the vicinity. 

In the TVeeiecfini of the Mtlnoii Stan Hinorieil Satiety far 
l«aj may l» laundapapcr." The DIoamingiaaCanveatkMiof lgJ6 
lod Thou Who Pirudpaied in iL" 

BLOOMIMTOH, a dly and the coonty-aeit ol Moni«e coimtr, 
[ndiana, U.S.A., about 4S m. S. by W. ol Indianapolis. Pop. 
(itgc) «oiS; (T900) 64^0. Indnding jo« negrwl; (1010) S838. 
erved by the Chicago. Indianapolis S Louisville and the 
upolis Southim (lllinob Central) nitwiys. Bloomington 
Belt ol the Indiini University (co^dncaiional since iSM), 
iihed 11 1 itaM Koiniry In 1810, and as Indiana College 
'8, and chinered is the Stale univenity in iSjS; in 1907- 
I hid go instniciois, Mj 1 tludenti, md a library of 65.000 
les; it* school of law was established in 1S41, auipended 
17 and re^sublished in T88a; lit school ol mrdidne was 
iihcd in 190J; bui mosl ol the nwdicil couree ii given 
lianapolit; a graduaic Khool w 



MiliniQO{. DrD>«iaSUrrJi>nfaD«udBBntpraMait(iI 
tb* OBiftnily in itSs-i8qi, wben ii wuiboiwigMy reorganiin] 
■nd It) carrlculani poion ibcbHliof mii)ariub)Kii tnd dcpin- 

KadiBko eouDiy. Among (be mnuliciurci ol BlMiningKHi 

ijiivTici in tba vldidiy. Tlndty vufiniKtIlnlibgul iSiS. 

BUXHUIDHS, m Km mud the couwy-HX ol CoUintni 
cDUBty, Pewnylvanii. U.S^. on FbUng CiEck, j m. Iioo iu 
conlhniix viib the Siaquebinu, ud sboyl 40 m. S.W. of 
Wilkct-Bum Pop. <iS9Ci) i^ss; (1900) iijo ("i loitign- 
bon); (■«!□) T411. It iaKTVcdbytbeDeliwmn.Lackiniina 
k WaicTD, the niOiddphu ti Kading. uid the Bloaauburg 
ft SuUivu kad the ^uquEhuiui. Bloonbuig ft BemiEk 
niln>* ((be lut tva only 30 m. aitd 39 n. long mpectirely); 
■ad i) connected vitb B>erwicJi, Cauwiiw *nd QasviUe by 
cSecutc kinev Tlie wwa im biult on > bluff commuiduig ci- 
IBBive viewt. Anung the iDwnfactuiei ol BkBnuburg vt 
rati way CUV curUgeftpiilk uid wooUcn gDoda, huidtuie, cupct«, 
irlre-dnving mKhine* and gun cuiiign. Xroa ore wu iw 
only dbuioed treai the neighbooiing hilli. Tht tom b the 
•cat of ■ lUte DOniuI ichwH, aubliihed u nich In Il6g. 

K3I in 1S4A. and wu incoipoialcd in 1B70. 

BUIDlfT. CtUKLEt (laM-iO-u). Eoglnh aulbor. mi ban , 

■I Uppci HoUgmy on tbe i;Ih ol April ifij4. His lather, 
Sii Hcniy Blount (i6o;-iA8i). *u th( aulht>r ol a Voysia to 
(if LtHiN. describing hit own tnvel*. He gala his ion I canful 
education, and is said u>have helped bim in bii Aiiwia Uundi: 
m An Hiuarual XarriUin ojiii OpiauHutJilu AmitMntnuxK^ 
u| Uan'i Sail a}la jUi Li/t, aatriiat la maditkleMd Hauin 
(1670), which gavrgrcat offence by tbcsceptkal views exptnacd 
in it. It wsi lupprmed by order ol ibe bishop t>l London, an4 
even burnt by sotnc ovcr-ieaLoiii o^dzj. but a re-ibsue wu 
pccmiilcd. Blount was an admitir ol Hobbci, and published 
his " Last Sayingi " C1670), a paaphict coniisling of eitracu 
from TIk Lttialian. Cnat ii Diva ej Uu Efkaiani, v IMt 
Oripmal ej Unlalry, ttptlia mik Oa Pelaical Iiuiaulum ef tht 

thai in deprecating lie evils of phestcialt Blount >ai attacking 
Christianity itBcU. His best-known book. Tic Tw /^irX fisaii 
^ Fiiiail'aiui tuKaxini At Lift sj Apeilanitu Tymtta . . . 
(i6So).isia>d (obsve been prohibited in 164], diieSy on account 
of the Doles, which are slated by Biyle (note. >.«. AfeiJiiniiil) 10 
have been Uken mainly IcDrna MS. of Lord lleib{il ol Cbetbuiy- 
Blount contributed nuwrully 10 the reoiavil of the icsiriciiont 
OB ihr Iretdom ol the prcu, irith (wo pamphlett (i&gj) by 
" Philopatris," mainly derived from hiilton's Arapaiiiica- 
He also laid a succeuluf trap lor the censor. Edmund Bohun. 
Under the name ol "Junius Brvtus" he wrote a pamphlet 
.... , « ^ ^(^jy (.J, ., .., 

rorlb the 1 

col til 

which Bloui _. 

Gcensed, but was ordered by tbe House of Cominaas to be 
burnt by the common hangnun, as being diunelricaDy opposed 
to the attitude ol William's governmenl on the subject. These 
pnxndings showed the luiility ol the cciuonhip, and haileaed 
Its overthrow. 

Blouoi had lillca in love with his deceased wife'i sister, and. 
In despair oF overcoming her scruples as to the Itgality ol such 
• marriage, shot himsell in the head. He survived lor some 
time, refusing hefp eicepi from his liiter-ln-bw. Alexander 
Pspt astened {EpHetae to llu Salira, Note, i, 114) (hat he 
mnnded himself in the arm, pretending 10 kill hinueU. and that 
the remit was latal contrary to hii eipcclatiODS. He died in 
AoCBst 169J. 

Sfconly belsre his deilh a eollFnion o( hii Daniphlets and prlviH 
papers wu pnnred wjili ■ preface by CharlnGildon. uixfer (he (ille 
althrOrarhtrfPnui^. Hisifuairiiuni] tVorli (i[i9}) k* luller 
•dkiso by tbe lame ediior. 

BlOOVr (or BtttKT), EDSARS (b. 1565?}, tbe printer. In 
B with Isaac Jag^d, dl Ur William Sitktifiara 

Cmtiia, Rislaria ani Tnjiiks. PutlbM Beariimi U lit 
Int Oritinali Ctfia (1613), usually known as the Grot lolio lA 
Shakespeare. It was produced under the direction ol John 
Kemiog (d. (630) (Dd Henry Condell (d. 1617), both ol whom 
hid been Shakespeare's coUoigues at tbe Globe tbeain, but a* 
Blount combined the CunclioDt ol printer and editor cm other 
oecaaiont, it 1* fair to con>eciure thai he to somrateat edited 
the first lolio. The Sutionera' Xcpstir Males that he waa the 
too ol Ralph Bkwnt or Blunt, merchant uUor ol London, and 
rd himiellin i57SIori«iyeariia WiUluo Ponsonby, > 

He became a freeman ol the Statloneii' Company ia . 
nong the Dtoat important of his publieatlooi are 
Fhirio'i Italbn-Engliih dictionary and hii iranslalioD 
ol Uonlalgne, Marhiwe^ Her* Ini Ltanitr, ind tbe 5iii Ctial 
Camtiia ol John Lyiy. Be himsell translated >t ri AMca, wt Ott 
■ • ■ (ito7l Iron the Italian ol Lomio Oucd. ind 
CAriitiaii Falidi (1631) liom the Spaniih si Jvwi (Is Santa 

BLOOirr, THOMAS (t6iS-i67o), English antiquarian, *a) the 
ion ol one Myln Blount, ol Orletoa in Herdorddilrc He wu 
bom at Bor(Mey, Wonestenfaite. Few details ol his Lile arc 
known. It appears that he was called to the bar at tbe Inner 
Temple, bul, bdaga Kalous Roman Catholic, hisreligion intetfeied 
cODiiderably with the practice ol his prolcuion. Retiring to his 
estate at OrletOB, he devoted himsell to the iiudy ol the bw ai 
an amateur, and abo read widely in other branches of knowledge. 
He died at Orleton on (he i6(h ol December 1679. His principal 
works are Ciiiupaphia; er, a iiOunary imttrpraint tkt kari 

(Mfu (1656, r^rinted in 1707), which went through leverai 
ediiioni and ruuini most amusing and instructive reading; 
(am iiaititSTj inurfratng mtk iiSiaJI awl 
Kvrit surf itrmt M *( /oaiid tiika in nv awm ar 
vKim or Kuiirn Icea (i6]o; third edition, with 
additions by W. Nelson, 1717); and /'rdinuiUa AmiguOolii; 
AncitiU Trsura tj land, and jienlat tnHnmi nf icnH mannen 
(1670; enlaiBcd by J. Beckwitb and lepublitbed, with additiona 
by H* U. fieckwiih, ia iSts: again tevited and enlarged by 
W.C.Ha£lilt,i874). Blount's SDJu>M(i6si),giviiiganBCaiuM 
ol Charles Il.'s preservation after Worcester, with (Ite addition ol 
the king's own account dictated 10 Pepys, ba* been edited with 
a bibliography by C. C. Thomas (i&m)- 

BLOUKT. EIH THOMAl POPS (1649-1607). English author, 
ddesi ion of Sir Heni> Blount and brother ol Cbailci BkiunI 
(f J.), was bom a1 Upper Holloway on the nth ol September 
LC44. Hesucceeded to theestateofTittenhangeron his mother's 
death in i6ja, and in the following year was created a baronet. 
He nprescntB) the borough el Si Albans In the two last parlia- 
oieau ol Charles II. and was knight of the shire from tbe revolu- 
tion till his death. He married Jint, daughter ol Sir Henry 
Caesar, by whom he had five sons and nine daugbtett. He died 
at Tiileniuuige' f^ ^ y"^ "I J"™ '^- IIu Ccniura ttU- 
trvmrw aii'ilfriiiB iiM IracUIni in fw mria tiramm dKMruii ia 
tlariiiimiit tnjuiiiiii lanli uripleriiuj jadiiia Imdnnliir (i6go) 
was ori^nally coiBpiled lor Blount's own use,and is a dictionary 
in chronological order ol what varioui eminent writers have said 
about one anathei. This neceuarily involved enormous labour 
in Blount's time. It was published at Geneva in 1694 with *J 
tbe qt>olatians fmm modem languages translated into Latin, 
and again in 171D. His other worka are A Naturat Hillary, 
eaniainint many luf comman obimatiama aUa^Ird aid af ikt Auf 
modanvilas {ibgi), De ra fealica.arnwivhtfenPaalry.ltilk 
CkaraiiirsandCixnaisafAatmlcoJuUeratltFnil. . .(1604), 
and Eisayi a« Sntral Otanima (iboO- II iaon this last work 
(hat hit claimi to be regarded as an original writer rest. Tha 

edition (1607) he added an eighth eoay. on religion, in whi^ 
he deprecated (he multiplication of ceiemonica. He dtiplayi 
throughout a hatred ol pcdantiy and caaveBliea, wbidt oaka* 
Us book still interouing. I .:. I ; Vl t. H fS;i>^ 


^."•^".filffSf/^- G^rc 

AtUiqnitia ^ lilt Cnal) oj B€nliri [1615). »ol- i- pp- »7-ii 

BLOmr. WILUAM <ij49-iBao). Amcricu politidui. m 
bstD la Bertie count]'. North Cuoliu. on the 16th ol Much 1740. 
HemilDianbriaf the Continrnul Congress id 1781-1784 and 
ipin in i;86'i7g7, ol the conttitutioiu] coaveDtKn at Phil- 
adelphia in 1787. and of the lUte convention which lau&ed the 
Fnlenl conitiiulion lor North Caiotim in r7l«. Fnni 1790 
UDlil r7va be via, by Preiiitenl WaihinglaD'i appdntmeot, 
' govtnun o( Ihe " Terrilory South ol the Ohio River," created 
mil ol land ceded to the niljonil gdvernnwni by North Carolina 
in [)8g. He m) also during (hi> period the luperiBtendent oi 
Indian aSain fei thii part of the country. In 1791 he biid out 
Knoiville (TesMSsee) aa theacalol govemmenl. He presided 


1 1796. ao 

of its first 

the stale being admitted la the Union, 

Kpresenlativcs in the United Suiea Senate, in 1797 aa 
connenoii became knowD with t tcheiH. dnce called " Blount's 
Conwitacy," which priJvMed [or the n>-oper»lion of the American 
troniicDnien, asaiiied by Indiau, and an Englijb lotre, In the 
seizure on behalf of Great Britain of the Flofidai and l^ulilaoa, 
then owned by Spain, with wbich power Easland wu then at 
war. As this ichene, if carried out, involved the corrupting of 
two oSidals of the United States, an Indian agent and an 
loierpnter. a breach of the ncnuality of the United States, and 
the breach ol Article V. of the treaty (d San Lotinto el Real 
(signed on the 17th ol October 170s) between the United States 
and Spain, by which each power agreed not 10 incite the Indiana 
to attack Ihe other, Blount was impeached by the House of 
Repmenuiives on the 7th of July IJ97, and on the following 
day was [ormally expelled from the Senate lor " having been 
guilty ol high misdemeanor, entirely inconsistent with his public 
trust and duty u a acnator," On the igih of January 1798 
arliclcs of Impeachment were adopted by the House of Repre- 
»enla11»es. On Ihe 14th ot January 1709, however, the Senate, 
silting as a court of lmpeachmenl,dedded that il had no jurisdt^ 
tion, Blount not then being a membet of the Senate, and. In the 
Senate's opinion, not having been, even as a member, a civil 
officer tA the Uoiled States, within the meaning of the con- 
atitution. The ca*e Is aignlficanl as being the first case of 
impeachment brought before the United States Senate. " In > 
legal point of view, all that the case decides b that a senator of 
the United States who has been eipellcd from his seat fa not after 
inch eipulsion lubjcci to Impeachment " <Francii Wharton, SUM 
Trials). In eSec^ howevci. it also decided that a member of 
Congress waa not In the meaning of the csnstitntlon s dvil officer 
of the United States and Iheicfoie could not be impeached. 
The "consfrincy " was disavowed by the Driijih government, 
which, however, leemB to have lectetly favoured It. Blount 
was enlhusisatlolly supported by his constituents, and upon his 

of the state senate. HcdiedatKnoivilleonthe iiiEoIMarch 

fat a defence oT Bloont. ■ 
tflluLift iMd Smica if Wil 

BLOntR, a word (taken from the French) used for any loosely 
fitting bodice belted at the wiisL In France it meant ori^naily 
the hxiM upper gantieDt of bnen or cotton, generally blue, worn 
by French workmen to preserve their clothing, and, by tnns- 
terence, the workman himself. 

BLOW, JOHK (1648-17081, EngUsh musical compoMr, wu 
bom in 164S. pnilHblyatNoribColIInghamin Nottlnghanubiie. 
He became a chorister of the chapel royal, and distinguisbed 
himself by his proficiency In music; be compoKd several 
anlhems at an unusoalty early age, including Lord, T)um kasl 
itrtt HT rr/vfc; Lirri, rtbuie mt nof; and the so-called " club 
■nihcm," / via ahrayi tin ilianti, Ihe last in coIUboiatlon with 
Pelham Humphrey and WiUiam Turner, either in honour of a 
victory over the Dutch in 1M5, or — more probably— simply to ' 
commemomlf Ihe friendly tntercoune ol the three choristen. 
To this time also belongs the competition of 1 two-put Kiting 

of Bolkk'a Cm, M^' <"•% "AUn U tbe itqiuM of CklAt 
IL to imitate CatiMini's Oil*, » (M. !■ i66« Blow becaa« 
orpnist ol Weatmlnstec Abbey. In liu be wu made > fcatlv 
nan ol the chapel t<QiaL »mI la the September ol thii jrtai ho 
was manied to Eliabclh BiAddo^ who died la diBdbtrth i^ 
years Later. Blow, who by the year 1678 wu a donor of masic. 
aas named in 16S5 on* of the private musidaiis of Jamea II. 
Between i6Ba and 1&87 he wiuia the only stage comporitioB by 
him ol which any rtcord nirvfves, Ihe i/ufae/sr Ua EMaltht- 
mt«l tflit King: Vamt ad Adamii. In thb Huy Da«iei 
played the put of Venus, and ber daughter Igr Choriei XL, lody 
MaliyTndot, appeared u Cupid. In itS? he becuae maatet of 
the cboirof St Paul's chuicta; la 169s be wu elected of^t^taf 
St hlatgaiet's, WeMmlnaler, tadfamidtohavtmumeillilapou 
u oipnisl ol Weatmlaiur Abbey, (nm which fn 1680 be had 
telited ST been disBhsed to make way ior PundL In 1609 he 
wu appointed to the aetriy enated peM of axopOMi to the 
cfaapd ny«L F^wrtaeB services and more thiD > buadr«d 
anihema by Blow are eitaat. le addjtloa to hli porely ecdeit- 
aitical Diutic Blow wiole Creel tir.UtjvyafaOtur teoru, an ode 
lor New Year's day 1&81--1681; simikr compositions for i68)i 
1686, 1687, 168B, 1689, 1693 (?}, <«94 and 1700: odea, Ac, lor 
the celebration ol St Cecilia"! ----- 


1 It. t' 

Dtfemdtr, and Cod tfate someiitiKi in riswHs; some harpaicbord 
pieces for the second part of Playford'a Ifuwiff BaidmaU 
(1689)1 EfuiliiimfarQuten Uary (1695); Oit n Iki Dtclk »f 
PuntU (1696). In 170D he published his AmflHtn AntlicKt, a 
coUeciion of pieces ol music lor one, Iwo, three and four voicei, 
with * Bgured-baas acumpanimenL A famons page bi Buraey's 
Hillary 0/ Uiaic is devoted to Blustrationi ol " Dr Blow'* 
Crudities,'^ most ol which only show the meritorious U Immature 
eBorti in eiprenon characteristic of EngUsb music at the time, 
while some of them (where Bnmcy jays " Here we are bat ") 
nre really excellent Blow died on the tH ol October r7o8 at hb 
house in Broad Sanctuiiy, and wu buried in the nofth aUe of 
Wcttminsler Abbey. 

BLOW-OUH, a weapon eontbtint of a long tube, Ifatnigh 
which, by blowing with the mouth, arrow* or other missiles can 
be shot accurately to a conddenble distance. Blow-gnna an 
tued both in warefare and the chase by the South American 
Indian tribes inhabiting Ihe region between the Amaion and 
Orinoco rivers, and by the Dysis of Borneo. In the iBlh century 
they were also known to certain North Ameiican Indians, 
especinliy the Choctiwa and Cherokees of the lower Miaslssipid. 
Captain Bossu, in his Tratdi Ibtufi Ijuiiiana (i7i6}, says ol 
the Cbocuws: " They are very eipeit in ihootlng with sn instru- 
ment made of reeds about 7 It- long, Into which they put a little 
srrow feathered with the wool of the thistle (wild cotton?)." 
The blow-guns of the South American Indians dISer in style and 
workmanship. That of the Manisis of Guiana, called fuaau, it 
the owst perfect. It b made of two tubes, the inner of which, 
called ttrik, is a light reed 1 in. in diameter which often grow* 
to a length of i ; f t. without a Joint. This is eoctosed, lor protec- 
tion and solidity. In an outer tube of a variety of palm llriartdla 
laiiaa). The mouth-piece Ismadeof adrcletofsiik-grui, and 
the farther end ts feruled with a kind of nut, forming a sight. A 
rear open ^ght Is formed of two teeth of a amall rodent. The 
length of the fwww Is about 11 ft and Iti weight i) lb. The 
arrows, wbich are from 11 to 18 la. long and very slender, are 
made of ribs of the cororite palm-leaf. They arc usually feathered 
with a tuft of wild cotton, but aome have in place of the cotton a 
ihin atrip of bark curled into a cone, which, when the shooter 
blows Into the ptuiina, expands and completely fills the tube, 
thus avoiding windage. Anoth e r kind of arrow is fuioishod 
with fibres ol bark filed along the shaft, imparting a rotary 
motion to the miaaile, a primitive eiamide of Ihe theory ol tlM 
rifle- The arrows used in Peru are only a few Inches long and ■* 
thin as fine knitting-needicL AH South AmeriOA Uow-^mi 
arrows sre steeped In poison. The natives shoot vsyaccaiately 
with the ^flfiMu at d^tancea up to 50 or fio pl^ 

The blow.gun ol the Borneo Dyalu, called nm^Ben, Ii faom 

BLOwrrz— BLownPE 


« i» T ft. It^ i ad M J e *! ! !— a«d. 'ntbon.o(|ia.,i*nwde 
•kk a bof peloMd ficce ot inn. At Ihc nauk * mmII mm 
kuh b atiMd, M MTV* ■* ■ Bglit, ai well H > ^nrbctd ykr a 
bvMM and bit the nine pnnna. The ■mn uvd irlth tte 
tmmfiimm an abcot lo ia. loiif. poinud wiik bk-ucth. »Mi 
(eaikOfd <ritk pilh. Tker ice ibo envcDomcd with poiioiL 

Fntancd amw* an aliD owd by the utina d[ tbe PhUippine 
filand of Mindanao, wheat blow-pipe*. Iran 3 to 4 Ci. h>n( md 
aude of bavliaa, art ollea richly ornanemed ud even jewdJed. 

The pttodple of ihc blow'gua is, of cmuie, Ihe nmc a* Ihat 
o( theconuDOD " pea-ihoour." 

See Sft wOijLdtmdC-t ■■ Amrri€eM Wttti <uH Waltn. by 
A. H. Mayer, lol. iL (EdinlniKh. i8M)^ Ifai^wmn in Satilk 
AtKiia. Sx: by Clurln V/iunot, (London, iSiS); Tit tttod 
HuMlrri rf BvntH. by Cail Bwk (LuodDn. lUi). 

BLOwnz, Hnmi aBORQEa itspham adolphi he 

(iliS-tflCj). An(l*Frendi JoumaliJt, ins bom, iccording 10 Ihe 
acciHini civcn in hit m«Doin, al hi> (iLhct't fhlisu iDBDhrmia 
OR the iStliof Decembec iSty At Ihetgeof filleen belcll hmne, 
and liavelled over Europe (or lone yon in company wilh a 
young proIeiBt o( philolojy, aiqairinj a Iboiwigh knowledge 
of French, Oemuin and lialiin and a miied general education. 
The finance! of bb family becoming stniiened, young fllowiu 
wu on Lhe point of aiarling to seek liis fortune in America, when 
he became acquainled in Pitli with M. de Ftlkui, miniiter of 
public jmLntction, who appointed him pmfasoe of foreign 
LinguagB il the Toan Lycik. whence, after tome yean, he waa 
trmlerted to the ManciUes Lycte. After marrying in 1854 be 
TOigned hii piofesonhip, but remained at MarHlIIa, devoting 
hjnoelf to lileratuie end polilica. In |U(| infonnatjoa which he 
supplied 10 a ttgitlmtst newapiper al Maneilica with regard 10 
the candidature of M. d< Leueps t» depuly for that dty led lo 
a demand lor tul elpuUioo front France. Ma was, however, 
allowed to remain, but had lo retire to the counliy. In 187s his 
prediction! of the ippmiching fall of the Empin caused the 
demand toi hi< eipulslon to be renewed. While hit case was 
under discussion the battle of Sedan wis fought, and Bbwili 
efleciualty ingralialed himself with ibe aotboritiej by applying 
lor nitanliiation a* a French subfect. Once nituraiiied, he 
Munwd to MarKiOe*. where he was fortunately able to render 
coioideratilt service to Thiers, who lubsequenily employed him 
in coHeding inlormalion at Versailles, *Tid when this work was 
fiobhed oflered him the French consubhip a( Riga. Blowiti wa* 
OB the point of accepting this post when Laurence Olipfaant, 
tlieo Pvb cwnspondent of Tkt Timu, for which Bloviti had 
already done some octuiona] work, ajked lum lo net 11 his 
i^ulii aanstanl for a time, Ficdcrick Haidmtn, the other Paris 
comepondent of TAe Tints, being absent. Btowitz accepted 
theo9er,aad when, Uteron.Oliphanl WIS succeeded by Hirdman 
he irma&ied as usistant correspondent. In 1871 Hardman died, 
and Bkiwiti became chief Paris correspondent 10 TM Tina. 
In thll capadly he Boo became bmous in the wottd of jounulism 
and diplomacy. In l8;j the due de Dtcaiet, then French 
tateign minislcr, ihowtd Blowitx a con6denlIaI despatch from 
the French ambasiador in Beclin (in which Ihe latter warned hti 
gDVemment that Germany was contcmplaliitg au attack on 
Fraact), and tcquestcd the correspondent to eipose Ihe Getnin 
deiigDi jn Thi Yima. The pubKcatioa of the Iicts elTectually 
arooied Enropcan public opinion, and any lucb intention was 
unmediitely ^warled. Bkiwitz's most Knsatiotud joumalialic 
feat waa achieved in \&^&, when his enterprise enabfed The 
Tima lo puUish the whole teit of the treaty of Berlin at the 
•clBil Doment that the treaty was being signed in Germany. 
In 1877 and agahi in 188S Blawiti rendered considerable service 
to the French government by his exposure of internal designs 
tHMD the Republic He died on the r Sih of tanuaiy 1403, 
Mr ifawnx. by fl. S. de BlDwiii. ku publiihed in i»a^ 
BUWPIFK, in the arts and chemistry, a tube for directing 
a jet of ail into a £re 01 into the Game <4 a lamp or gas je 
tla parpeie of producing a high temperature by accelerating 
the combustion. The blowpipe has been In common ine froi 
la isr icUeiing mclali and woriilag glua, bi 

■laihad (a A. F. Cnialedt, and bM 10 AbIob Swab, aa ha* hen 
»ai«>ai«d (see J. Landaiier, Btr. tS. p. 808), The £ri work 
«a lUa application of the blowpipe waa t^ C. v. Eogestritai, 
and was publishid in 1770 as an appendia to a treaLisc oa 
mineialDgy. Its application has been variously iatpcgvcd at 
the hands of T. O. Bergman, J. C. Calin. J. J. Bcixelius, 
C. F. Flatinec and oUmcs, but noce especially by the two last* 
named chemisU. 
The limplcst and oldeat fdnn of blowpipe Is a conical hnM 
' length, curved at the email end into a right 

in the tube. : 

bulb Jb the cenln of hit blowpipe. Dr Jovph Blacfc-| iMn- 
mcDt ooDsitli of a oonkal tube of tin pla(e, with a amall braN 
tube, supporting the ■Qitlt, imerled ai ' " 

The ti 

support Jt givea to the chccki 
bk>iring I* penditi, aad . 
blast ia kept up by the 

be aeea 10 cmdit of (««i pani — (a)adiepU _ , 

(t> a dark ooac in the ccalrc, <c) a luminoui porlioa Rund tUi, 
and (A aa oterioT pale Uiw cnvdope (lee Fluo). In bloih 
p^ aoifc only t«o el dwK tbiu pan* are made los of, vie 
lit! palt emtlopc, for mldatiim. and the luBnaout portion, foe 
leductloB. ToafalainBgDodMMwkvjbiUithehlm^ptialieU 
with in KDide tanned la the edge of the tame dna ovei the 
level of'thawidiiand bknmlalafEnllyandcvealy. A conical 
jet b thna pmhiad, ooa£Ming of la iaair Cone, with aa oulcr 
one camaaeiic i Hg aear itt ^lUEr-thi fonner, (atievoBdiag M 
Ii) in (he hta OatM.bhia aad veil detaid; the btltr earn- 
spondiag M Ifi, pale Una aad vagni. The heat b iiaaKtl Just 
beyvnd the p^ of tha faner eoae, eombni t ina bc&ig thera 
mnt conplele. Oildatiai b better (fleeted Of a Rrr Uafa 
teopentve be not taqulRd) the ttttber the 
Ihc apa of Ihc inner cone, lor the air baa (hu 
obtain a foed nriwiigjfaiac (fai which the co 
very hat, iMit not yet bained, is d i yoaed to 
any ccanpo un d containing it), the noide, oith » 
ibauid fust (ouch the fiaine at a point Ugher above the w 
and a fDmewhat weaker cumnt of all should ha blown. Tha 
flame then appear* a> > long, narrow, luminiKi* cone, the end 
being enveloped by a dimly vUibJe portion of flame coRetpond* 
ing to that which surmndi the free flaaa, while thttt b also a 
dark nudeni abovl Ihe wick. The aubeiance to be reduced ia 
bmoght into the hmiiaoai portion, whae the redtxing point 

Various matcriah aie nied M m >po rU (at lubstancee In tlw 
biowinpe flame; the principal are ibanual, platinuBi and ^asa 
or porcriaia. Ciarceal is valaaUa tor its inlualiilitr mM kiw 
oooduclivity (or heat (allowing Bibitaseti lo be nmgly hated 
upon It), and tor its powerful redudng praperttes; so Ihat il b 
thiefly employed In tcsibig the faiibilily of minetab and ia 
reduction. Tlie best kind ot diarcoal b that irf cldee.gialaed 
pine or akler; It Is cut In ihort prisns, having a flat smooth 
surface at right angles to the rings of growth. In this a shallow 
hole is made for receiving the sobslaDCe to be held in the flame. 
Gae^carboa is fonietimea used, since it is mote permanent in 
the flame than wood chiicoiL Pltlitaat h employtd in o>j> 
diiing pcocesset, and in the fusion of aubatancea with lu«>; 
alio Id Dbaerving the cokiurlng eflect o( subiiaacs on the bb*. 
pipe flame (wUeh eflect Is apt to be sameabat maihed by char- 
coal]. Most comnHHily it b used hi the fbnn «( srin, with a 
■mall bead or loop il the end. 



Tht moulb blowpfp* li ■muitmlilf for lh« pnduriiDB of ■ 
Uifc bme. and cinnal be uicd tor loy lengthy Dprntioiu; 
beau rcoHJrK mutt be mule to ^ypo Jn which ihe air-btui 
k occukmnl by nwchiniul meiiu. The Ubonloiy 'ana in 
oomnxin luc nmiull of i bdlowi Hoiked by titber bud or 
fool, ind A tpecial lype a( gu buinei [ormed ol two conctntric 
tuba, one conveying the bUui. the olhei tbe gu: the lupply 
of (il uid gu being leguliled by iiopcocki. The lial UttI Hut- 
fift of T. Fletcher. In which the bUw 'a heued by puiing 
thnnigb > copper coil healed by > icpuile burner, ii onJy oI 
■ervice when a poinied Aimc of i Iiiily high lempcntuce ii 
required, Bkiwpipa in which oxygen li uied u Ibe blul 
hive been nuufuiured by fletcher, Ruuell A Co., and have 
proved of gnal Krvke in conducting fuiioni which requin a 
ItBipcnlure above >hai yielded by the aii-btowpipe. 

Fof tbe ipplniiofu at the blowpipe <■ chemical aailyili lec 
Citvtmmr- AmUylu^' 

Fnnaian general field "n'^^'V prince of WahJaladl in Sileiia, 
*u bora at Xottock on ihe lAth of Dtcembci 1741. In bii 
fourteenth year he entered the lervicv of Sweden, and in the 
PomeranLan campaign of 1760 he was taken priioner by the 
PniBiani. He mu penuaded by 

He la 


u Sever 

■' War, t,nd M a huuar officer gained much eipci 
light cavalry wtk. In peace, however, hiiardentapirilledbim 
into ejtccuci of all kin<b, and being piaaed over for promotion 
be lent In biamignaiion, 10 whkh Frederick replied, " Captain 
BlUcber can lake MnKlf 10 the devil " (i;;j). He now Killed 
down to (arming, and in fifteen yean be had acquired an faononr- 
able Independence, But he wu unable to reiura to tbe amy until 
after the death of FRderIck the Great. He ou tbea reinttaird 
aa nujor In hii old reginenl, the Ited Huiura. He look part 
in the etpedltion to Holland in 1787, and io the loUowing year 
became lieuicnani-coloncl. to 17S4 he rKclved the order four 
U M<riie. and ia 1741 he bcame odIomI of the Red Hunan, la 
1773 and '79* he diitiagutibed himaelf in cavalry actiou againu 

Bkajor-generaL In iBot he was promoted beutcnant-gnicnL 

He wai one of the leader) irf the war party in PraBta in 
i3as-i8od, and lerved a> a cavalry fenenl in tbe disaitnni 
campaign s( the Utter year. At Auentgdi Bluchei rcpeaudly 
charged at the bead ol the pTTuilan eavalrr. but withoal mcean. 
In Lbe retreat of the broken annieaheKimrnandcd the Raiguanl 
of Prince Hobcnlohe'a cotpa, and upon Ihe capitulation oi the 
main body of Prenitau he cuiicd off a nmnint of the Ptutlan 
army 10 the nortbward. and in the oeighbouibood of LUbeck 
be fought n lerici at combiLi, which, however, ended in hit 
being lorced to lurmder ai fUlkiu {November 7, tSo6). Hii 
advenarjei teitilied In hli capilutaiion that it «u earned by 

tor General Victor, and vai actively employed in Fomeraiua, 

■t Berlin, and at KSnIgiberg until the cooduaion of the war. 

Alter the war. BUcher wu hioked upon aa the natural leader 

of the patriot party, with Hhich he wu in cloie touch during 

the period of Napoleonic domination. Hit bopca of an alliance 

with Auiria In Ihe war of i8oq 

year be waa made general of cavalry. In 181 

himaclf to openly on tbe alliance of Ruuia with France that be 

■la recalkd from hli military govcinaiibv of Pomarania and 

virtually binitbed from tbe court. 

Wbcn at lut Ihe Napoleonic dombtallon *•> ended by tlie 
oMbnak o< lbe War of Liberation In ■■ij, BIDdMr ol count 
waa al once placed In high coounand. and be wtt pfoe&t at 
Leiien and BautieiL During tbe armliiice he worked at the 

cE of the Anny ol 
SUoia, wllb GneiMnau aitd MOSing aa hit piiacipal lUfi oKcert, 
and 40,000 Pnnriani aad 50400 Runtana urxler hii control. 
The MIUBB campaign s( iStJ will he found deacribed in tbe 
■nide NaiOLBomc CamiiCHa, and ii will here be tufficient 




deleaied Manhal tlacdonald at the Kaufcach. and by hi> victory 
over Mannont at MAckcmlcd tbewaytothadeciaive Bvenhtow 
ol Napoleon at Leipag. whicb place waa lUmncd by BlUchcr'i 
own army on the evening a< the (aat day of the battle. Ob- tbe 
day o[ Uockem (October ifi, igijl BlUchtr wai made a gCMial 
field manhal. and alter Ihe victory be punued the muled Fnnch 
with hii accuttomed energy. In the winter of iii]-iBi4 
BlilcheT, with hit chief tull aflicen, waa mainly Irairumcntal 
in inducing the allied lovercigni to carry the war into France 
iiMlI. The combat o[ Brienne and tbe battle ol La Roihijre 
were the chief inddcnti uf the fint *tage of the ctlebialed 
campaign of 1814, and they were quickly fallowed by the vicuna 
ol Napoleon over BlUcher at Chaapaubcre. Vauachunpi and 
MontmiraiL But the courage of tbe PiuuUn leader wai un- 
diminished, and hii great victory ol Laon (March a to is) 
practically decided the fate of the campaign. After (his Blilcher 
infused tame of his own energy into the operations ol Prince 
Schwarunberg'i Army of Bohemia, and at last thia army and 
the Army of Sileaia marched in one body direct upon Paiia. 
T^viclaryof Monltatrtrclbeentryeltheitliesinto tbe FrcDcli 
capiial. and ihe overthrow ol tbe First Empire were the direct 
contequcncea. Bludierwssdiipoiedtomake 1 severe retaliaiioa 
upoa Pari) for the cilamitiea that Prussia had suflered from 
the annici of France had not the allied commanden intervened 
to prevent it. Blowing up the bridge ol Jena was said to be one 
of his contemplated acta. On the jrd of June 1S14 he waa made 
prince ol Wahlstadt (in Silesia on Ihe Kalihach hilUefiekl), 
and soon alierwards he paid a visit to England, bein( leceived 
everywhere with the grealeat cnthuaiatnt. 

Alier the peace he reiirsd to Silnia, hut Ihe renin of Napolcoa 

soon called him to further service. He wai put in command of 

the Army ol the Lower Rhine wllti General GneiienaD ai hii 

chief of itaQ (see VVaTcauKi CahpiUOi}. In the campaign of 

181 S the Prutsiao* MUtaiDad a very severe defeal at the ouuet 

at Ligoy {June 16), in ibe oune of which the old field manhal 

wu ridden over by cavalry cbaigcs, hit bfe being saved oidy 

by tbe devotion of his aide-dc-cuop, Couni Nosiiu. He wu 

umc command for some houn, and Gneisenau drew 

led array, Tbe trlationi ol the Pnusian and the 

quartern were at this Umc very complicated, and it 

whether BlUcber binnrll wu lEspousible for the 

ition to march id WcUingtoa't assistance. This 

gne, and alter an incredibly severe march BlOchci'l 

ned with decisive and ciushlng ellect in ihe bulk 

of Waterloo, The great victory was converted into a sqcces) 

' nlutcly decisive of tbe war by the relentless pursuit ol ihc 

uisians. and the allies re-eolend Paris on tbe 7th of July. 

in« BlUther remained in the French capital for tame numbs, 

t bis age and in£rmitici compelled him to retire 10 his Sileuan 

idenceat Krieblowiu, where be died on lbe nth of September 

[9, aged teveniy-tcven. He cfuined to tbe end of his life 

It wildoest of character and pnmenett to cxceaao which had 

caused his dismissal from the anny In bit youth, bul however 

tbey msy be regarded, Ihne laulu sprang always Irom lbe ardent 

,nd vivid temperament which made BlUcher a dashing leader ol 

Bnc. The qualities which made him a great general were hia 

Htriolism and the hatred of French domination which implied 

very success of the War of Uberalioo. He wu twice married, 

ind had. by his first marriage, two sonsand a daughter. Statuca 

reie erected to his memory al Berlin, Brcslau and RostocL 

of Prince BtDeher, that \>y Varnhigen n 

Efise (i. 

L (.fill 

Coll aid Rjbt 



{Cnmftt-* ./•" 


" mic blue " mttot originiilly t tuundi PmbyUriin, ibe 
Cmrcunura luvinc ujopied blue u their colour u appowd to 
Rd, the rofal colouri similarly, in the navy, then nt in ilw 
iSib CBilury ■ " Blue Squadroo," Mttus being el unt lime 
" Rear-Admin] ol the Blue "-, igain, in i6()o, Ibe RayjiJ Hone 
Cuudi Here oiled the "Bluci" irom their blue unilormi, or, 
baa iVii leader, the cad o( Odord, the " Oxford Ejluci "; 
aho, Erom the blue ribbon worn by the knights of the Carter 
ODEDei the uae ol the phrue u the Jufhest mark ol diitinclion 

o( ibe Derby. Tbe" blue Pelzr "iiarKUnguULr blue Sal. with 
a while aipiarc in the centre, hoisted ai the (op of ihe loieDiast 
u a ligaal thai a verael it about to leave poii. Al Oiford and 
Cambridge a men who n^menu hia tmivertiiy in certain 
llKlctic ipotta b caUed a " blue " froot the " coloun " he ii 
then entitled Is wear, dark blue lot Oilord and lighl blue lor 

BLUEBEABD, tbe moo: 

d[ Charlei Pcrrault'a I 

bcr ditobedience 


very ol 

a gmeaomi 

tiiMly rescue fro 

m death-are lo 

be loond io 

storiea. none «I 


has aitaine. 

Bluthiaii. A d 


n an EithoB 

huihaiKl -ho had 



Irom killing the 

welllh. oho had 


k1. In "Tbe 

d CrimjB'l HswiKlrtVii, 



being reaeiad b 

bei broihen. 

Bluebeard, i 

re'I'J.S, ^rby a 
" Tbe Feather Bird " 
re tbe yktims, the third 
' ihMigh Permult 
<wei noi state me number ol hit cricncs, ii gFnerally oediicd 
with the murder at leven oivei. Kit history belongi to the 
commoB stock ol folklore, and has even been Ingeoiouly fined 
with a mythical inteipiciation. In France the Bluebeard legend 
has its local habitation in Brittany, but whether the existing 
traditions connecting him with Cilles de Rais (f.i.) or Comotre 
ihe Cursed, a Breton chiel ol the (ilh century, were anterior 
to Pemull'l lime, wc have no means ol determining. The 
identibcaiioD of Bluebeard with Cilia de lUis, the Mie ^Hirr- 
■^orian of Micbclel'i lorcihlt language, peubts locally in the 
Dcighbouibood ol the various casilei ^ the baron, e^Mcially at 
Hachecoulaod TiHauges. ihe chiel scenes ol his infamous crimes. 
Gillci de Rais. however, had only one wife, who survived him, 
and his victims were in the majority ol cases young boyl. The 
(raditioiul conneiion may arise simply from the not improbable 
association of two monstrous tales. The less widespread identi- 
fication of Bluebeard with Comorrc is supported by a series ol 
irescon dating only a lew years bttr than the publication ol 
Perngll'i story. In a chapel at St Nicolas de Bieuiy dedititrd 
to St Tryphine. in which Ibe ute of Bluebeard It depicted u 
the slory of the saint, who in history was the wife ol Comorre. 
CoRiorre or Conomor had his .original headquarters at Carhali. 
is FinistJre. He extended his authority by marriage with the 
widow of lona. chiel of Domnonfa, and attempted the life ol 
his stepson JudwaJ. who fled to the Frankiih court. About j^j 
oc M^ be obulncd in marriage, through the imercetsion of 
St Cildas. Tryphitit. daughter of Weroc, count ol Vinnrs. Tbe 

his a 

I In the 
.k Bight, bi 


■hmtenrd Tryphi 
ber biding in a wood, 
left her lor dead. She was tended and miorcd to hcalih by 
St Cihhs. and alter the birth ol her ion iclirrd to ■ convent of 
her own foundation. Eventually Comatre was defeated and 
slain by Judwal. In legend St Tryphine was decapitated and 
Biracuhiusly restored to life by Cildas. Alain Bouchard (Craiufri 
in»i«ui. Nantes. isjO asserts that Comorre had already put 
several wivci to death before he married Tiyphine la the 

Ugevfu Jrtfmiw ot Ibe GooBt tTAmonO tk( cbtadi le(tB4 
bccoiBel I charming fairy talc. 

^ alio E. A. Vlietellr. K-tbarJ (iqoi); C Sidney Hariland, 
"The Furbidden Chamber." in FtJkln-r. vol. iil. |iM])l and Ihe 
ediiions of Ibe CeUM d Chartei Pemudi (f.*.). Cf. A. France, 
111 Stpt Ftmmn it Bari€ Sim (ijot). 

BUI8-B00K. Ibe genenl name given to the reparu and 
olbcr ducuments pdnled by order of the parliament ol the 
United Kingdom, lo called firun their being usually covered 
with blue paper, though some arc bound in dnb and others have 
while oaverv The printing el its proceedings was fitit adopted 
by the Hook of Comnoni in lASi. and in iSjG was commenced 
the practice of selling parliamentary papen to the pohh'c. All 
proeecdings Id both 

:h day d< 

g these 

elude Ibe various papers 
departmenta, Ihe reports of eommiitect 
inquiry, public hills, as well as returns, 
correspondence, &c.. ipetiaMy ordered lo V printed by cither 
house. The papers of each session are so arranged st to admit 
of being bound up in regular order, and are weU indexed. The 
terms upon which Uue.boc^ single papen, Ac, are iasued 
to the genera] public are one halfpenny per sheet ol lour pages, 
but for an annual subtcription of £» all the parliamentary 
publicatians of Ihe year may be obtained; bat lubscriptfona an 
be arranged so Ihal almost any particular claM of pubNcilion 
can be obtained- lor example, the daily votes and proeecdings 
can be obuined lor in annual subscription of £], the House 
of Lords papers lor fro, or the House ol Commons pa[)ers lor 
£i i. Any publication can also be purchased separately. 

Mast foreign couniriei have a distinctive oolour lor the bindtng 
of their official publicalioDS. That of the United Suta varies, 
but foreign diplomatic coiresixindenec ii bound In red. The 
Unitod Slata gSTcmmenl pubHcaiioiis are not noly on sale [u ■ 
nilcl but are widely supplied gntb, wiih the Rsnll that Imponani 
publicstioiutKingetoutof print, and it it difficult to obtain ac- 
cess to many valuable reports ot other infomaiioa, except at a 
public library, German ofiicialpublicatioBt art bound in white; 
Fiencb. in yellow; Austrian, in red ; Portuguese, b white; Italian, 
in green; Spanish, in red; Mexicsn. in greeni Japuieae, ic frey; 
Chinese, in yellow. 

BLUESroCXIHO, a derisive name lot * Ulcniy mnuiL 
The tern originated in or about ijjo, when Un Eliiabelh 
Montagu (;>-) made a delermlDcd eSon to fntraduce Into 
sociely a bcallhier and more iniel 

asieinblics si which literary converaa . . 

to take tbe place ol catdi and gossip. Moil of tboie attending 
were cootpjcuous by tbe pbunness ol their dres*, and a Mr 
Benjamio Slillingfleet specially caused comment by alwayi 
wearing blue or worsted stockinga instead of the usual black 
silk. It was in special reference ta him that Mn Montaga'l 
friends were called the Bluestocking Society a Club, and the 
women Irequcnling hei bouac is HiU Sirecl came lo be known 
as the " Blncslocking Ladies" or simply "bluestockings." At 
an allenutive ciplaoation. the oiigia ol the name is allribuled 
to Mn Montagu's deliberate adoption el blue slockingi (in 
which fashion ^ was fellawed by al] ber women friends) as 
Ihe badge ol the secicly she wished to lonn. Sbc is said to have 
obuined the idea from Paris, where in the ITIb ceolury there 
was a revival of a social leunion In i jfio en tlie lines of that 
formed in 1400 al Venice. Ihe ladies and men ol which wore 

Ihe Little Parliament, in allusion to tbe pniitankally 

'. by holding 

BLUFP (a 1 

poiubly conneeted with 
an opseicie Dutch woid. blaf, brand), an adjective used of a 
ship, meaning broad and nearly vertical in (he bows: similarly, 
of a difi or >norc. presenting a bold and neariy perpendicular 
franl; of a person, good.nalurtd and fnok, with a leugb or 
abrupt manner, Anoihtr word "blu9," perhaps connected 
with German Ktbtufrt, to baffle, meant originally a horse's 
blinker, the conetpoBdioi verb OMWung to bUadlold; it nuviva 



m t» MCb tUM* M ft .. - 

to bcl heavily on a hand » u lo mite >n ^poocnt bdwvc 
to be lUonicr ihin it ii; bescc iiub ptii««a U " tbs gUM a( 

BLUM. ROBERT FREDBRICK (i8;;-i«0]), AmcHoiTi aniil, 
«u bora in Cindniuti, Ohio, on the gih ol July iSj;, He wm 
employed lor ■ time in m. litbognpkic ihop, and studied at the 
McMicken An School o[ Deugn in Ciaciiiniill, and 11 the Penn- 
lylvanii Academy ot Fine ArU in Pbiladelpbii, bvt be wu 
pncllcally lelf-uught, and early dnwed great and otiglnal 
talent. He Kttled in Nev York In iS;q. and hU Gnl publittied 
ikelchti— of JapaneK JuMlcn-appeand in .51 KkMat. HIi 
moil impoitani woik it a large frieze in the Mendeluobn Muse 
Mall, New York, " Muiic and the Dance" (1S9;). Hit pen-and- 
ink voik to[ the Cciifiiry tnaguine iitnctcd vide allenlioa, at 
did hii illuBltatioiu for Sic Edwin Arnotd'a Jaftnic*. In the 
countiy and ait at Japan he had been inleretted for many yean. 
•' A Daughlei il Japan," dntwn by Blum and W. J, Baer, was 
the cover of Strilmir't ilatatine tot May iSq], and waa one o( 
the eailiesl piece* of colnur-piiniing fat an American magvine. 
Id ^cntacr'i lor tSgi appealed alw bit " Atliii'i Lctlen from 
Japan." He was an adminr of Foriuny, whoM method! aome- 
vhat influeiKed Ui work. Blum's Venetian pidutei, auch at 
"A Bright Day at Venice" daSi), had Uvely chttm and 
beauty. He died on the Sth of June 1901 in Ne« York Cily. 
He wai a mcmbcl of the Nalionai Academy of Dnign, being 
elected alter hia cibibitioa in i9gi of "The Amcya "; and 
«* president ol the hinten in'PulcL Although an excellent 
draugbianuui and elcbet, it wai ai > colouriit llul be cbxBy 

phyiiologiat and antbropologisi, waa bom at Goihaoa the tith 
of May I7JI. Allei atudying medicine at Jena, he gtiduiled 
doctor at GiJttiiigen in 1775, and waa appointed extraordinary 
piolnaDr of medirine in 1776 and oidinaiy profcsior 10 1778. 
He died at CotiinEea on the imd of January 1S40. He was 
<be author of /lulilnlieno Pkyihltpcl (17B7). and of a Hand- 
tmk da n,i)eiik€tukH AnaUmU (1804), both oi which were 
veiy popular and went through many ediilona, but he li bat 
known lot hie work in conoeiion with anthropology, of which 
icitnce he hu been justly oiled the founder. He was the first 
to show the value ol comparative analoffiy In the study ol man's 
history, and his craniometrical reseatche! Juatlfied his division 
of the humao race into leveral great varietiea or lamiiica, of 
which he enumerated £ve — the Caucasian or white nee, the 
Mongolian « yellow, the Malayan or brown nee, the Negro or 
black race, and the American or red race. ThitclaBUication hu 
been very generally received, and most later ichemei have been 
modiScaliona of it. His most important anthropdogical work 
waa bi> description ol sixty human crania published origlnilly 
in/ajocijiuodec thf liik Calkiiimii inm craniiirum iiatrierKm 
pmlium UluUralai deaiUi IGailingcn, 1 70O'iSiS]. 

BLUMEKTHAL, LEOHHARD, Count voh (rSi^iQoo), 
Prussian field manhal, ton of Captain Ludwig von Blumenthal 
(killed in iSij at the battle of Dennewiti), was bom at Schwedt- 
on^Dder on the joth ol July iSia Educated al (he tnilitaiy 
tchoola of Culm and Berlin, he entered the Guards aa ind lleti- 
Icnanl in 1S17. Alter aeeving In tbe Rhine provincei, he Joined 
the topogra^ical division of the general staff in 1B46. As 
lieutenant of the jistfoot he took pan in iB481n the luppreuton 
ol the Bcriin riota, and- in 1A49 waa promoted capuln on the 
gemal aiafl. The same year he lerved od the iiafl of General 
von Bontn in the Schleiwig-HoUtein campaign, and to dlsliR- 
(uiihcd himHil, particularly at FredeHcia, that he vras appointed 

was general staff ofecer ol the uwhile division under von Tielten 
io Hcasc-CasaeL He waa sent on a misaion to England in that 
year (41b ciaas of Red Eagle), and on aeveral lobsequetit occa- 
lions. Having attained the rank of lienteunl-tolanel, he wu 
appointed penooal adjuUnt to fhnnce Frederick Charica in ig;o. 
Ill lUo he became colonel of the jiat, and later of the 7iat, 
ntinicnt. He waa chitf ol the auB ol tb« III. army corpe when. 

on the outbreak of tbe Daidib War of 1864, he wu oomfatted 
chief of the general stall ol the army against Denmark, and 
displayed ao much ability, partieuUrly at Dtlppel and the 
passage to Alsen Island, that be was promoled raajor-genei*] 
and given the order fimr It miriu. In the war of i&M Blumen- 
thal occupied the post oTchiel of the general atalTio the crows 
prince of Prussia, commanding the >nd army. It wis upon 
this army that the bniot of the fighting fell, and it Kfiniggrku 
It decided the fortunes ol the day. "' 

spieuoui. On the 
Us chief of staff, ' 

general and the oak- 
' a knight ol Ih 
nminded the 1 

Geld of KIMiig; 

Mign generally w 

ie QTTWn prince laid Ii 

»hom I owe the conduc 
of the order pffsr ^c 

al DUaseldorf. In the Franco- 
CenniB War ol 1S70-71 he was chief of stalT of the jnl army 

preceding the battle of Sedan, and his services in the war have 
been considered as scarcely Iras valuable and Inlportanl than 
ihme of Molike himself. In 1871 Blumenthal reprcsenled 
Gennany at the BrilishmanceuvTesat Chohham,and waagivefi 
the command of the IV. army corps at Magdeburg. In 1873 he 
became a general of infantry, and ten yean later he waa made 1 
count. In 18U he was made a general field marshal, after which 
he was in command ol the 4th and jrd atmy In^ieciiona. He 
retired in litfi, and died at Quellendorl near KSIl^ on the >itt 

Blueienthal'i dJaiY of l8fi< and 1170-1171 has been edited by 
hiiiun. Count Alhctcht von Blumenlhil (rarrtut* ia G.F.U. m 
mimmkal), 1901: an Enaliih irandation {Jtumait «/ Cewtl m 

BLUHDERBtlSI (a conoprion of the Dutch intia, thunder, 
and the Dutch tai; cf. Ccf. Bfchst, a boi or tube, hence 1 
thundcr-boi or gun), an obsolete muiale-loading fininn with 
a bell-ahiped muule. Its calibre was large so that it couU 
contain many balls or slugs, and It was intended to be fired a( 
a thort range, ao that tome of the charge was sure to take effect. 
The word is also used by analogy to describe 1 blundering loil 
random person or talker. 

BLUKT. JOKH BEKRT (183J-1S84), Englith divine, waa bom 
at Chelsea In iSi], and before going 10 the univeraity ol Durban 
engaged in business as a minufact uing 
d in i8si and took his M.A. degree 

in i8si. publishing 
He held in lucteu 
vicarage ol Kennlngtor 

cral p 

ir Oifori 

(1B68}, which hi 
ig of Beverston in Cloucesletshin. 
He had already gained some reputation as an induttrioui 
theologian, and had published among other works an annotated 
edition of the Prayer Book (1S67), 1 HiUery «/ tkt Engliih 
R/fOTnatiim C1S68), and a Bcoi ^ Cinrtk Lm (1871]. al well as 
a useful DulHKiary 0/ DnclriAal end fliiltrkal Tkttltly (1870). 
The continuation oi these labours waa (een in a Ditianarj if 
5edi oix/HerMiir (187*), 10 ,(BiiW4toiBi««Q vols., 1878-1871)1, 
and a Cychpatdia tf RdiiicH (1SS4], aiid received rccagnilioD 
in the shape of the D.D. degree bcslowed on bim in 1S81. He 
died in London on the nth ol April 1884. 

BLONT, JOHN JANES (1794-185^), English divine, waa bora 
at Newcastle-under-Lyme in StaHordshire, and educated al 
St John's College, Cambridge, where he took hit d^rec at 
iiftecnih wrangler and obtained a fellowship (1S16). He was 
appointed a Wort's travelling bachelor 1818. and spent aoma 

journey. He proceeded M.A. in iSig. BJJ. 1816, and waa 
Kulsean Lecturer In iSji-iSji while holding a curacy in Shrop- 
shire. In t8j4 he became rector ol Great Oakley in Esse), and 
in igjo waa appointed Lady Margaret proTeiaeT ol divinity at 
Cambridge. In 1SJ4 he declined the aec of Saliibuty, and be 
died on the iBth ol June iSsj. His chief book waa OiUaitnat 
Ctinciiaai in Itt Wrilimti itik tf Urn OU m^ Htm rutamnD 

(■■M; fnlir tiUdMi. 1I41). Sbmrol hti viiilnp. amnigi Umi 
tk Hillary tf Uu ClaiiUs* CktrcUitrinilJu Fim Thru Ciaiuria 
*id (W IcciutB On On RiiU Uk g/ Kb furJ^ f'sUsi, wen 

n the hud of Wmiua 

■Umr, WILTIIID SCAVEM (1840- ), EngJiih pad (lul 
publidil. su boio on itic iiih oF Auxtnl 1S4S •( PciwDrth 
HaDc, Smi. ihc wn dF Fnncii Scmca BInnt, who mvtd in 
the Pcnininkr Wm and wu woundRl >t Coninni. Be wu 
cdacitrd at Smnyhunl ind OKoit, and cnlnrd the diplamitic 
HTVKFin iB^.Krving]ucccuinlyitAdKn].Midii(l, Pica and 
Lubon. In 1S6; he wai wnt to South Ameria, and on hia 
nturn to England Tclirrd Ttwh Ihc icrvice on his tnarriagc with 
Lady Anne Noel, diughtci of the carl ol Lovclai 


Uir «t Otmia^mm (1847). > 


1197. h 


ii< hn tldei bnihcr, In ibe otauoCCrabbet Par 
be eatafaliahed a lamom Mud for the breediog oF Arab borves. 
MiandLadyAniw Blunt iraveLlcdfip«ted]y in notthfra Africa, 
Asia MiiMif and Arabian two of thtir eipediiforu being described 
in Udr Anne's Bofsxfaj ef Ik, Euphraut (1 vols.. 18,4} and A 
PUtrimair In fftjil (i vi^., itAi) Mt Blunt became known as 
■n ardent sympcthiicr with Mahommedan (spintlon). and in 
his fWon c/ lilan (tSS8) he directed tltenilan ID the totces 
which aliennrds produced the movements oF Pan-lilmism and 
Mahdtsm, He was a violent opponent of the Englith policy in 
the Sudan, and in Tkt Wim! tid ikt Wkirlmiid (in vene, iMj) 
f^tophKJed its downFaU. He supported the national party in 
EfypI, and took a prominenl part la the deFence of Arabi Fasha. 
lilrei abaU laiia (iMj) was the cmuU of two visits to that 
CDuniry. the second In iSgj-iM*. In iSS; and iS96 he stood 
antucceBfully for parliament as a Home Ruler; and in 1SS7 he 
tarmledin Ireland while presiding over a political meeting in 

h the a 

I on Lord Clan 

was imprisoned I 
volume of venc, LiiH 5ininrfi Bf fV»(riii (iSSo). is a revelation ol 
his ntt meritsasan tmoilonal poei. Tlu Pi^Uytf Wilfrid BtuM 
FtSU), Klened and edited by W. E. lUnley and Mr. George 
Wyndhant, Includes these sonnets, togcihei with "Worth 
Fotat, a Pastoral." " Crinlda " (described as a " aocitty novel 
in ttaymed verK "), Iramlaiionj From the Arabic, and poems 
whkb bad appeared in othet vdumes. 

lUnmCMU. JOKAMIt KASPAH dSoS-iaitl, Swiu jurist 
and politkian, waa bom at ZQrich on the 7ih ol March 1808, the 
ion of a soap and candle manufacturer. From school he passed 
iDio the PMUiulu Imiliiiit {a seminary of hw and political 
•eience) in his naitvc town, and proceeding ibenre to the uni- 
versitks^ Berlin aad Bum, took (hedegrteof tf0C/0T/«njin the 
kltcr in ilt^. Reluming to ZOrich in iSio, he threw himself 
with ardour tnto the political strife which waa at the time 
aurtlling all the cantons of the Confedenlfon, and in this year 
published Iftar tit Vofaiimt itr Sladl Ztfiih (On the Con- 
Kitulioa of the City of ZUnch). This waa foUowed by Dos Vtlk 
amd-itr Smtran (iSjo), a worit in which, whUe pleading for 
constftutioeia] government, be showed his bitter repugnance of 
the grmrlng Swne radicalism. Elected in 1837 a member of the 
CroMer Rath (Great Council), he became the champion of the 
madenu conservative party, pasciniied by the metaphysical 
views of the philosopher Friedrich Rohmet (1814-1856). a man 
who attracted little other attention, he endeavoured in Fiyda- 
lifi"^ Sluditii Ubtr Steal md Kizclit {it*A) to apply them to 
pc]ilic»fscienoegenenlly,and inpanictilarasa panacea for the 
csnlituliona] troubles of Switzerland. BluntKhJi, shortly before 

toy greatest desert tl to have comprehended Rohmet." This 
phBoaophial essay, however, coupled with his uncompromising 
attitude towards both radicalism and uirramonianism. brought 
him many enemiei. and rendered hi) continuance in ihc council. 
«( which he had been elected president. Impossible, He resigned 
hs ml. and oB the owrthmw ot (he Sondetbund in 1S47, 
penetving that all hope oF power for his party was kst. took 
i««t of SoltHrlud with the pampUei AimaH t 

ililtin'iwal law ia 1848. 

with polltka, publUhed itAgeaMiiH 
Ldtnttm mainmSlaal (187^1874)1*1 
Kail Ludwig Thcodor Biatei <i8t9-t8A«), D 
vffferlwt (ii vols., 1 8 jt-iSjp'. abridged ^ Edpt LMaing ia 
jvols.,i86«-iS7s). MeaawhilelMkMtaniclwMalywoikadBthi* 
code For the ointon o( Zhritii. PrhatmUidm CutMuckfltrim 
Kaiotn liiriii (( vols., iSM-i8sfi), a work which waa much 
praised al the time, and wluch, pcnicubTly the KCIioa devoted 
to contracts, served as a modd for cadet both In Swiueitand and 
other countries. In 1861 BluntschllrtceivedacaUtoKeidctben 
as professor of conttitutlanal bw (Stuurecht), where he agaio 
entered the politicd aienk. cDdeavouring in his CUcMciki da 
aUttmiiim Smitrtctif tmi ier PMlU (1864) " to stimubU," 
as be said, " the politicat codsciousneB ol (be Omuin people, to 
deinie it of prejodica and to funhei it iBielleciiiaUy." Ik hi* 
new home, Baden, he derated his energiea and poUlioi l-«iitfn~. 
during the Austm-Prustian War of i8«6, toward) kwpiDg tks 
country neutnL From this lime BhintschU beame active in 
the held ol IntcnatioDal law, and hii faiiM ai a Juriil bthmgi 
rather to this province than to that of caaitliutlaiial law. lib 
Dai mtdtnu KritssrecU (iS66)j On wrienu VakBncH 
(1868}, and Dai BnUncU !m Kriei (ta7S) an likely to reaaiti 
invaluable teit-books in this branch of -the tdeBCa el juris- 
prudence. He also wrote a pamphlet on the ~AlaliaiB"ase. 

Bluntachli waa one of the founders, at CUOit fai 1S7J, of th« 
Institute ot International Law, and wa* (he RpreseBtaUveof tha 
German emperor al the conference OB the inlematloHl laws ot 
war at Brussels. During the tilter years (4 his life be look a 
lively Interest hi the PnUilaKlmnriia, a society farmed to 
combat reactionary and tdtramontane views of theology. He 
died suddenly al Karhnihe an the list of October 1881. Hie 
library wuaMiiiiml by lotaiuHapUasUnivefsIlyal Baltimote, 

Among Us mrki. other than these before mcnllotied, may be 
cfted DtvialKt PrltalrttU (18JJ-1B54); Dtnlukt SbuUildirt 
liir CriiUiU (1874)1 >"<> OiMlickt SUaltMrt nd dit kcmHf 
~ XemcU (iSSo). 

or notices of ninntKhlrs life and works me his intenitlnir 
ibtetfj ^y._ , DtiMidim au iwiw"! Lttrn (1894);^ 

■ (lU 

< Vvdinnt m 


biopiphy by Meycx voc ICronari, in ^//fPviH 

BLTTB, a market (oira and seaport of Nonhumherlatid, 
Engltnd.lo the parliamentary bonMghoF Morpeth, 9 tB. E.S.E. 
of (hat town, al the DMutfa o( the river Blylh, OB a facuch of iha 
North Eastern railway. Pop. ol luinn district (1901) njt. 
This Is the port lor a consldenUe eeal.inimiig district, and iti 
harbour, on the MUth side «i the ilvcr. Is proirfded with 
mediaDlcal appliaticca foe shipping coaL There are five dry 
docks, ind gpwardi ot it m. of qoayage. Timber is largely 
Imported. Some shlpliuildhig and the manBlaclflre oC tope, 
sail) and ship-Bi(inp arc eanied on, and the fidxiies ait 
valuable. BIyth ts also in eonsMenble favour a* a wateitng- 
placei there are ■ [fcaiaiit paik, e pici, ptotectibg tke hariioui, 
sbout 1 a. \n length, aod a sandy bescb affording sea-bathtBg. 
The river Blythritei near the village of Klikheaton, and hasaa 
euteily course of about 15 m. through a deq>, mil-wooded aod 


B'HAI rBITH (or Snes or tm CoVCMakt}, D I D g B I Ugl ff 
ORDBSOP,* Jewish fraternal eodety. It'was fonndedal Kew 
York m 184J tiy a number el GermaB Jews, headed by Heniy 
Jones, and is dte oldeat a* well as the largest of the Jewish 
fraternal organiiaiions. It* membenhlp in igoS was ]S,8;a, 
its 481 lodges and lo giiDd lodges tclag distributed ovei the 
United State*, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Rumania, Egypt 
and Palestine. Its object are to promote a high morality among 
Jews, reguiDas oT dlScienoe* as to dogma ind oenmonlJ 
coslomi, and in['*^'"r to iDcsksle the supieitw virtues of 

94 BUA— 

i^uity ud bnlbcrly lovt. PfdiUcil and Rtifiaiu dbcouiont 
wiR [rom the £m Ficluded [ram (be dcbitn o( the outer. In 
I8;i sit fini grand Jodgc wucsublishcd it New yotL^ in i8;6, 
the number ol diiiricl lodcci hivioc incmKd, Ibt aupreme 
WltboHly HU veiled in ■ cealiil body ooiKUIiD( d[ one membec 
Itom nch lodce; ud by the prescpl coutiiuiian, adopted is 
(868, thii luthorily ii valcd in i (itaidcnl elected lor five yeu, 
u ciwcutive commitlee and court of appeill (elected ai belore). 
The 6m lodge in Cenniny *u Iruliiuted at Berlin in iSSj. A 
biie number of duritabje tnd alber public inititutioni have 
bwi ciubliihed in Ihe United SUUt and eliewhere by tbe Older, 
el •tiichacy be men lioned the Urge orphan aiyluni in Oeve land, 
tbe boD» lot the a(ed and infirai ai Yonken, N.V,. the Nuliond 
jlwllllbawiUlEo'COBtUDlpIivciat Denver, and (he MaimeDldel 
Lbruy In Ntm Yorli City. The B'nai B'riib lodety hai »1» 
coKiperaUd kridy with other Jewish ptulaDlhroptc orgabiutlou 
in MioauriDi diilnued bnelitei Huoughout the world. 

See Iba JtmA EncyOataiiia (igoi), i.i. 

KM, 1 BUM loimerly applied to all large lerpenti which. 
dtnad «( pobon ianfi, kill Iheir prey by conitriction: but now 
confiaed to that aiibiamily of (he BcUae 

: boat cotDpriie 

Theotbera*KluiawgaipythonB(f,>.)- Tbe tr 
vme forty ipedca; moat ol (Jieni are Ai 
Brji inbabili Nanh Altioi. Greece an 
Uk (Cdui Enytna Roiet from Mew Guin 
iuuumitti it rettiicted to Round Island, near Miuritiui; and 
two ipecica of B*a and one of Coratlu represent this subfamily 
in Madagascar, while all the other boas live in ArneTica, chiefly 
in tropica] paila. All Btidae poesesa veitiffet ol pdvii and hind 
liniha. appearing eilsinally as claw-like spun on each tide ol (he 
vent, but ibcy are to iniill thai they are practically without 
lunction in climbing. Tbe muill]' tbort tail a prehensile- 
One of the comnoDett ipedei of the genus Boa j> (he flea 
auarulof^ which hae a wide range from tropical Ueaico (o 
BiuJL The head it covered wiih untU scale*, only one of the 
preoculara being enlarged- The general colour isi delicate pale 
brown, with about a dotcn and a half darker crou-ban, which are 
often connected by a still darker dorso-lateral streak, encloung 
large oval spots. Oa each aide is a serif* of large dark brown 
•pots with light cen(re*. On the till the maikingi become 
bolder, brick red with black and yellow. The under pons ue 
yellowish with black dots. This species niety reaches a length 

long irtide of 

BOABDII. (■ corruption ol the name Abu Abdullah), the last 
Moorish king of Ctauidi, called d cticn. the little, and also ti 
ttttj/U, the unlortuule. A too ol Muley Abu'l Hassan, king ol 
l^nada, he was procUimed king ia 14S] in place of hisfilher, 
who was driven tlom the land, Boabdil soon after sought to 
pin prestige by invading Castile. He was ukeo prisoner at 
1 14SJ, and only ol 


See J. A. Conde. CnnindnM ii ia Auk— *• Bif** (PaeK 
iStol. iianilaied into Engliih by Mn ], FoMer (Lowlan, Itja- 
iSjj); Washington Irving. Tii ^Ibmtm (New Vork, ed. IS|a}. , 

BOADICEA, strictly BouDiccA. a British queen in the time 
ol the emperor Nero. Her husband Prasutogus ruled the Icfail 
(in what is now Norfolk) as an autonomnu prince under Roman 
suxriiioiy- On his death (*.D. Ai) without mole beir, hit 
dominions were anneied, and tbe onneiation was carried out 
bruully. He bad by his will divided his private wealth between 
his two daughlen and Nero, (rusting thereby to win Imperial 
favour for his family- Instead, his wife was scourged (doubtless 
for resisting [he (nnualion). his daughtcn outraged, his chief 
tribesmen plundered. The proud, fierce queen and her people 
rose, and not alone. With Ihcm rose hill Britain, enraged, foi 
other causes, *I Roman rule. Roman laulion and conscription 
lay heavy on the piovincei in iddiuon, the Romin goveminent 
had just revoked financial concessions made a few yean earlier, 
and L. Annaeus Seneca, who combined the parts of a moralist 
and a money-lender, bod ibrupily recalled large loans made 
frora his private wealth to British chiefs. A favourable chance 
for revolt was provided by the absence of the govemor-general, 
Suetonius Paulinus. and moat of his troops in North Wiles and 
Anglesey. Allsoulh-eait Briuin joinedOutmovemenl. PauUnus 
rushed back Knthoutwii ting lor h^ troops, hut he could do DOthing 
alone. The Britons burnt (he Romin muoidpalilict ot Venilam 
and Colchester, (he mart of London.and several military posla, 

and almost annihilated the Ninth Legion marching from Lincota 
to the tescue. At lost Paulinus. who seems (oiiave rejoined bit 
army, met the Britons in (be field. The site ol the battle it 
unknown. One wtjlcr has put it at Chester; othen at London, 
where King's Cross bad once a namw escape ol being christened 
Boidlcea's Cross, and acii;a1]y lor many yean bore the name of 
"■'"■' ipposed reference (0 (his battle. Probably, 

rn Lend. 

tcsperate soldien' battle Rome regained the pnii 

ea took poison; (houiand) of Britons fell in the tight 01 

lunted down in the ensuing guerrilla. Finally, Romi 

d a kindlier policy, and Brir " " - "... 

less of Romano-British rrma; 

erity wiib which (he Ictni wei 

Tlciium. A-^tnit. niv.: ;4(ric. 

.: Dio UIL Tltt Hi 


BOAR (0. Eng. llr; the word b loand only in W. Cer. 
Unguages. cf. Dutch bctr. Gcr. £ler}, (he name given to the un- 
castrated maleol Ihedomoiic pig(f.s.).and to some wild speciet 
ofthelamily.SKir/ae(ieeS»iNE]. The Eurapein wUd boar (5w 
icrs/a) is distributed over Europe, notlhetn Africa, and central 
and northern Asia. I( has long been ealinci in tbe British 
Isles, where it once abounded, bu( (races have been fout^d of i(i 
survival in Chartley Forest, StalTordshire, in an entry of ibgj 
in an acoounl-book of the steward of the manor, and it possibly 
rcauuned till much later in the more remote parts of Scotland 
and Ireland Q. £. Hailing, £il/nil firilii* .4>iieiriri. rSSe). 
The wild boor is still found in Europe, in marshy woodland 
districts where (here is plenty of cover, and it is fairly plentiful 
in Spain, Austria, Russia and Coinany, particularly Id the 
Black Forest. 

bold Granada as a tributary kingdom under Ferdinand and 

From (he earliest (imet, owing to In gnal ilrtngih, speed. 

Isabella, king and queen ol Cast.le and Angon. The nei( lew 

■nd ferocity when at bay, the boar has been one of the favourite 

yean were consumed in struggles wiih his U(her and hit 

beastsol the chose. Under iheold forest laws of England it was 

one ol (he" beasts of the forest," and, as such.under the Norman 

Ferdinand and Isabella to surrender the city of Granada, and 

the loss of a member. It washunledin EngUnd and in Europe 

on foot and on honthack with dogi. while the weapon ol attack 

was always the tpear. In Europe (he wild bar is still hunted 

with dogs, but the spear, eicept when used in emergencies ind 

killed in battle fighting for hi< kinsman, the ruler ol Fet- The 

lor giving (he vx-p Je iiSu. has been given up for the gun. I( 

spot from which Boabdil looked for the last lime on Crsnadi is 

is also ihol in great forest drives in Aus(ria, Germany and 

nlU shown, and is known as " the lost sigh ol tlw Moor " (ri 

Russia. The Indian wild boar (S« rflMiUiu) ia slightly loller 


(ban Su tcmji. aundiog some jo to 40 1*. U (he simikki. It 


b bMd ifaM^aM Ml>. CfjilD* ud 

■ad tpttt *ra (till lutd. uul ihc^nn > 
folDdBL (Sec Pic-nicUNc.) 

The bow I* MM of Ibc loui 
■he cnpinaoe ol Richird IIL, UoE ol En^uuL 
of lood dw beiu^ bnd m* tons cooldtied ■ q>ccU delicuy, 
uid iuiErvingwUBiundcd with much omnmuaL AtQucn'i 
ColirgB, OiIorI, (he diih a lliU bnwgfal en ChriKini* diy in 

a v&rioua compouikdA to dncribe 
inSaiued ror^MctilpurpoiH, orofajecIiUkebaardafdTivring- 
Lid. ironing-burd, soarulln^boutl^ cbei»-board, cudboard, 
kboMd, Boiite-boaid, itoring-boird). The phrate " M 
p onc'i uune 00 tb« biurdi," at CimbHdge Univcnily, 
lifia u mnain i Dicmber of K ODilege: at Oifoid It ii " on 
boDki." la booktnndine, pmcbwrd cnvera in cillnl 

d bond," "bard md lodging"; 

■D (he aaket. bene*. BKoraiivclr, lo any iD before one. The 

nme meaning kmd> IS " Board of rnde," " 

Board- ftc 

men the meaDlng ol border or ilde, and eipediHy ihlp-) 

(ide. cmn "«a-bo.rd," maning Kt-ceai 

, and the phnuH 

-iboKd" (Fr. aitrJt, ■■ overboard," ■ 

by the board •■! 

ori^n. Mid. Eng. laddittaril or MkOtari; 

"uwTiDg Ale," 0. Eng. Mnrtml. the md 

der of early >h!pa 

vorking over the iteeTing iMe), ligidfyliig ( 


the Item and looking forward} the lelt and 

fight tidei ol the 

vate hoDie fn which the proprietor 
pnnides boatd and lodging lor paying gunu. The poiitioa 
•r a gncM in a boarding-boiue dilleii In EngUih law. to tatac 
dtoil, OB tk* one bond inm that of a lodger in the ordinary 
atOMOf Ihe unmaod OB the other fmm that of a guiat In an 

of particular re 


debt due in mp«1 of hb board (Tlamp^v^^ v. Lac 
and Aid. iBj). TIm landlord i> under an lAligii 
nuonaMe care for Ibe lafety nl pmpeny brought by a gunt 
{niB hs home, and It liable for damage! in cax of breach of ibl> 
HI C^coriennifl v. Ctipnte. 19:5, 1 K.B. Saj). Again, 
e the tnnkeeper, a b«rding-hauK keeper doei not hold 
hinneir oui a* nady to receive all iraveflen for whom he hat 
accomnmblloB. for which they are ready 10 pay, and of coarse 
he is entitled Id get rid of any gust on giving ceaaonable notice 
(lie lAwmti V. Riduri. tS«7, i Q.B. 541. $48). What fa 
Ruonable Dotice depends on the tentii of the contiact; and, 
■nbfect (hereto, (he cosne of payment of rent Is 1 matctiil 
dmunttance {see LiKDUitD uto Tenakt). Apparently the 
BBC impBed wananly of Bloen b» hibiutloli at Ibe commence- 
BCBt of the teDancy *Uth CKntt in the cue ol luttnshcil todg- 
Ingi be* LoocEB and Lomudis) txltu also in (he cue ol 
bou^nji-hoiiiei; and the gaeM Is 1 bMrding-houie, like a lodger, 
b CDtltled to all ibe yiml *ad aeeaaaxf coovetiienc» ol i 

Tbt bw of the United States is similar la EngHih law. 

Oader the Fmch Code Ova, daimi for subsistence furnished 
to a debtor and Us family during the lasl year ol hii life by 
baanfing-boiuc keepers Inurirei di feniim) are privileged over 
(be genenGly of moveable*, the privilege being eurdseablc 
after legd eapenes. funeral erpenses, the eipcnset of the lui 
flhiets. and the wages of servanu lor the year elapsed and what 
k dnc for the current year (art. hoi ( s))- Keeper* of uverns 
(utirtula) and hotels fUlrlieii are respanalMe for the goodi 
el ibrir guettt — Ihc cammiital ol wbi^ to their easiady !• 
■pided aa a deposit d oecetaty WfM nittiuirt). They ate 

Kihle Ide the baa «f mh goad* ^ theft, uteiW by MvaMa 

orstrangcn, but not where ihekm iidue to Jirci mqfam (acta. 
iqji-ia54}- Their liability for oonty and bearer secuiiliet not 
actually deposited is limited to looo ftanca <tawof 18th of Apd] 
(SSoJ. These provitiom ate reproduced ill lubstance In the 
Civil Codes of Quebec (arts. 1S14. 181s, 1494, taai) and cd 
St Lucia (an. itisg). In Quebec, baatding'hoiue kecpeia have 
a lien on the goods id theirsuesti lor the value or price of any 
loodot accoinniodation furnished to (hem, and haic aba a tight 
to tell their baggage and oiher pcopetiy. if (he amount remain* 
unpaid for three months, under conditions iJmllar to thoie 
iaipoud on innkeepers in England (art. iSifi A; and tea IkM 
um iHyicEPtas); abo la the Civil Code of St L<k{* (an*. 
IS7B, (714, 171s)- (A. W. R.) 

BMBOINO-OIJT tranm. in the Englbh poor bw, tb« 
boiirding.out of orphan or deserted children with lulllble lostep- 
parenu. The practice wB* first luthgriwd In 186S, ihongh 
for many years previously it had been carried out by •onM 
boards of guardians on their own initiative. Botrding^ut b 
governed by two order* of the Local Covemnent Board, issued 
ia 1KS9. Tha Ent permits guanftant 10 board-out children within 
(heir own union, eicept In the metrvpoK*. The second governs 
Ihe boatdlngH3ut of children In hulitie* outside the ttnJofr. 
The mm payable to (he foster-parents <* ml to exceed 4s. per 
week for each child. The lyXem ha* been much discussed by 
authorities on the adminliiniloa of the poor law. [( has been 
objected that few worlung-mcn with an aveisge-siaed fsmily 
can sfford to devote inch an amount for the malnterance of 
each child, and that, therefore, boarded-odt children are better 
off than (he children of the independent (Fiweett, l^ia^eriM), 
Wocking-daas guiritians, also, do not favour Ihe system, bdng 
sus[Hcious as to Ihe diiinteretledne*) ol the foster-parMI*. 
On the other hand. It is argued that fiOm the economic and 
eduational pofnt of view much better tesulta axe obtained by 
boarding-eui children; they are given a lulural Ble, and when 
(hry gmw up they are vithaui eHort merged in the genera] 
population (Mickay, Hi:), £>i|. Peer Lm). Sec abo Pooi 

The ■' boatding-out " of luaitin 
of the lunacy admininraiion. 1 
adopted in Belgium. {Bee lusuKnT.l 

BOARIWAH, OEOKOB DANA (i8ot-iRji). Ameiicao 
Baptist missionary, was bom at LEvermore, Me., and educated 
at Wtierville College and Andover Theological Seniiiary. In 
iSis he went 10 India as a mftsionary, and in 1S17 (o Burma, 

by his early death. His widow 

His so 


, AdoDJ 


:. the younger (iRiS-iqqj), 
made the voyage Iiom Burma to America alone when six yean 
of age. He graduated in iSji at Brown University, and from 
the Newton Theological Institution in 1II55. He held BaptM 
pastorates at Rochester [1SS&-1M4). and at Philadelphia, and 
was president of the Ajnetictn Baptist Missicnaty Union. iSSo- 
1S84. At PhUadeTphia he is said 10 have taken his congrcgiition 
through every verse of the New Testament b 64J Wednesday 
evening lectures, which occupied nrariy eighteen year*, and 
sfterwinls to have begun on the Old Teiument'in similir 
fashion. Among hb published works are Stndia in Ihc Uadi 
PraytT {1819), and EpiplianU, ffltc Risen Lord {i&n). 

BOASB, BEXBT lANUEL (17Q9-1S8J), English geotogilt, 
the eldest son ol Hcni? Doase Ci7fij-i8j7). banker, of MadMn, 
Cornwall. Wis bom in London 00 the lod of September I79Q. 
Educiicd partly at Tiverton gramniar^chDol. and partly at 
Dublin, where be studied chemistry, hi alterwsrds proceeded 
to Edinburgh and took the degree of M.D. in iBii. He then 
settled for some years as a medical piactitioner ai Penunce; 
there geology engaged his partiiular (tienlbn, and he became 
scciBIary of Ihe Royal (;Bologjial Society of Cornwall. The 

Primary Cttioiy (1834), a work of considerable meril in regard 
to (he oldei aystallaia and igneous neks and tbe nibfect ol 

Dlneil nint. to 1I37 be remowd to L«odan, whtra b« 
icBiJBgd lor ■boBl * yttt. btin| elecicd F.R.S. la iRjS be 
becuM (Mrtntr in a finn oT bkichcn it Dundtt. He retind 
iDiB7i,»»ldled0Bifaesih(dMir tStj. 

BOAT (O. Enf. Mt; the tiue etrnwiacical coaaeiioD nib 
DuIiA utd Ca. &«^' F[. hUnii, lUl.-tiUUJJa pmenu gral 
diScultie*; Cdtic [onni ut [roni O. Eng.), k aiinp>ntivel)F 
(ubII opn cnft (or cooveyuict oa mui, UHwll]' pnpeUcd 

The origii 

w [ano of OM 


if Ibe word " boat " b prob^jr to be looked 
' -* (lem. ft Midi, ■ piece of wood. If 
in iu inaptnn referred to the mattrid ol 
vDicii ine pniruuve veuel wu aHBtnicUd. ind in dib ntpttx 
■niy veil be roairuud wiib Ihe word "(hip," of which tbe 
ptirauy idea «u the precea by shicfa tbe malctiil wu la ih ion ed 
■«d adapted lot the uk o( nun. 

Wc may atsume thai primiliva man, in hii eariieM eSorti to 
achiev* tbe feii of a>sveyin| histKU and bii bclonfiDp by 
walac, iMCceedeH is doinf w-<i) by futenmi together a 
quMlil|i ol material of HiScieat buorascy to Soit asd larTy 
Un about Ibe levd of tbe water; (>) by taMCNag out a (aJlen 
ine M> u to abtain booyaocy ewMtb (oc the lame pwpoae. 
InthaalwopniB)Kl>tabcfaMUMllbe|enni>a( bolbboateod 
Ajp, of which, tbouib often ued ai coavcrtibLe tenm. the 
lociDci B (enerally tcMricted 10 the imaUer type of vatd auch 
■> ii dealt with in thia aitide. For tbe lariet type Ibe reader 
ia referred to Shv. 

Great miut have beea the Irlompb ot the mu who l!nl 
ditconred that tbe nubei or the txunita lie had managed to lie 
tncttber would, pmpelled by ■ itict or a branch (cf, raiaw and 
rmiii} uied ai pde «r paddla, tanvcy him laldy acrofi the river 
ibich had hithnio been hia barrier. But uic multiplin 

■peed, and of dry cairyini power, which we find operative 
throusbout Die hbtery nt the boat down to tbe pieMDl day, 
drove him 10 devne other modea of Aolation aa well a> to try 
to improve hii fint invention. 
The iavcDtion ol the holbwcd tnink, of the " dns-oul " 

il came into {Ompuiloil with Ihe lall. mual have nipencdcd the 
latter toi wine purpoKt. though net by any meaDi for alL It 
wai lupeiiot id the nil id ipeed, and wu, to 1 ortaia eitenl, 
water-tight. On the other hand it was inferior in larryini 
power and itabjlily. But the two lypei once conceived had 
i;onic to alay, and to them icvcrally. or to atiempti to combine 
the uiefuJ propcrlin of both, may be traced lU the vaiietiea of 
(eaet Is which tbe aame of boat may be applied. 

Tbe develDpmenI of the lafi ii idiiilii.hly Uluitntcd in the 
deaciiplion. ^ven u> by Homer in the Oiysay. of the conitnic- 
tion by the hem Ulyuei of a vcud of tbe kind. Floating timber 
ia cut down and carefully shaped and planed with aae and aiUei 
and tbe timben are then exactly filled face 10 face and com- 
pacted with Ireoaili and doweli, just u tbe dat Boor of a lump 
or lighter might be lashioned aid filled nowadayL A platform 
il raised upoa the floor and a bidwark of oiien contrived to 
keep out tbe waah of the waves (d. ia/ro, Malay bosti). It 

conitruction, as illuitrated by the lechniol skill of h^ hero, 
and ibe use ol the various tools with which be supplies him. 

On the oibcr hand tbe dug-out had iu limiutions. The 
lalgest tree that could be thrown and scooped out afforded but 
a narrow space for carrying goods, and presented pnbli 
to slatnlity which rnust have been very difficuli to solve, 
sbipiag of bow and stem, tbe bulging out of tbe sides. 

a ked p 

X. th( 

raise the sides by building up with ptanks. sU 
On towards the idea of cofuliuctini a boat properly to called, 
perhaps lo Ihe invention of tbe canoe, which in tome ways may 
be regarded as the iolenaediaie stage between dug-out aod ' 

Heuiwhllt the raft had nderfiHie lilipwuiwiiiti neli M 
ihotewbkhHometiadicatea. li had airiwd at a floor compoaad 
of timbers squared and shaped. It had itiea to a plalldllB, Ih* 
pcoiotype of a deck. It was but a step is bidid «p the iidei and 
~ .m up the ends, ind at lUs point we reach tbe unLiii «( aik 

HJ puni,o[iinpinBad}unk, or, inolheri(otda,af aUthemanj 

irictiei of Bat-boltoraed craft. 

When once we have icached the point at which Ibe fn^mnre- 

enti in the conatnEtion of the raft and dug-out bring tbem, 

il were, within ai^ of each other, we can enter 190B thi 

bistoiy of the devekpment of boiu property to called, lAich, 

mdance with the otea and the circumataiicet Ihit dictated 

bidld, may be said to be descended from the rait or the 

_ ml, or (nm the attempt to combine the lopectiva advan- 
tagei of the iwo original types. 

(lata and drcumManeea aic Infinite In variety aad have 
produced an InfiniU vaiieQI of boat*. But we may latdy tay 
that in all cases Ihe need ta bt lalkficd, the aatun of the iBtteiiat 
avaOable, and tbe chaiacttr <f the di&ndlica to be oraton* 
bava governed Ibe reason and tcalad tbe minnihlnarM ol Iha 
aicfiitecluie of the craft in me. 

It is DDi proposed In this article lo enter at any length Into 
ibe details of the contiruction cf boats, but it Is deniable, for 
the take of d«m«, lo indkaie certain broad dittiBclioaa 
in tbe meibod of building, which, ihougb they run hack Into the 
■ rpast, il 

The tying o( In 
In the lumber trade 
it in early days o 

inks together to form a raft is nitl not unknown 

le of the Danube or of North America, nor waa 

the raft- It eilendcd to many 

called, even 10 many of those built by llw 

I may niU be seen in the Madras suif bsat^ 

ructed out of driftwood by [he iohabilanta ol 

tie south Padfic VtrgS. who was u anlac- 

otogisl, represents Charoa's boat on tbe Slya aa of this con- 

the defect, which still tunrives, in tbe cnft 

X lUaaupalD 


Next to the raft, and to be counted in direct descent from it. 
comes the whole class of Bat-beltomcd boats including punia 
and lighteia. Aa soon aa the method ol ooutiucting a lelid 
Boor, with trenails and dowels, had been ditcovtted, the nelhod 
of cDoverting il into a water-light boa wat puraued, lidet were 
attached plaok fashion, with strong knect to ttiden Iheio, anil 
crosa JHCcea to yoke or kty (cf. ivynw, tXn^i) them toother.. 
These thwarts once fixed naturally suggestod scata for those 
that plied the paddle or the oir. Tbe cods of tbe vessel were 
shaped into bow or stem, other lumed up, or with tbe side 
planking coavcrtenl iu stem or stem poet, or Joined together 
fore and alt by bulkheads fitted in '" ' 
water-tight by caulk' 

The evolution of the boat at distinct from the punt, or Sal- 
bolloned type, and following the configuration of the dug-out 
in its length and rounded bottom, must have taxed the inventive 
art and skill of cDosiraclon much man sevtidy than that of 
the raft. It is possible that the coiade ot Ihe onoe may have 
suggested Ihe construction of a fiamesmk of luScient ttiflneis 
to carry a water-ti^t wooden skin, tuch as would succesafuUy 
lealtl tbe piessuie of wind and water. And in this regard Iwo 
pietliods srere open to the builder, both of which have survived 
to the pretent day: (i) the conitruction fiisl of the ahdl of 
Ihe boat, into which the stiSening ribs and ocas tiea were 
subsequently htted; (i) tbe construction first of a framework 
of requitlte site and shape, on to which Ibe ouler skin of the 
but was subscquenily aiiiched. . 

Funber. besids the primitive mode of lying tbe parts lo- 
gelhcr, Iwo main types of build must be noticed, in accord- 
aoce with which a boat it said to be either carircl-buill oc 



_ , (i> A I)(i«t h ctml-baOt vbe* (he pluki ire 

bid tifc u edit H tlut Ihvf pmtal 1 imiMlh tvtlMix wiibont 
(t) A b«t b cHokcr-built wbcn och pknk li laid on lo M to 
onibp tite one below it, thu r***"*'"! > xrici of lcd(c* 
rnoiunf loo^IudlntUy. 

T^ Fonner DKthod la aid (0 be e( UflUtomiHii, or pntap* 
of EuUm nigiii. The btttr ms prabtU)' inmnted by lit 
old Scinliiiiviin bnildcn, uid fnrni thtm banded down thrOBgh 
tbi laUnt bnci ol the oortheni nitiDos to our own time. 

Tbc accounu o( vcBeb uied by tbc Efypliini >ad Fb«- 
niriawK ^cDciaUy relcr to Uifci cnEt which utunUy fell under 
^^^ the bead ol Siu» (jj.)' The NUe boeu, however, 
^^^^ deKdhcd by Harodotui (iL 6o), built ol acecie mood, 
wen DO doabt o( wioui liia, lome of them quite 
unl, but all fuUowiai the Ame type of coixtniitioB, built up 
brick bahion, the blocka bdaf Uiteiied inletnally to laof potca 
•tciuKi by cnu pieces, udthaiBtenlicea caulked wilbpapynia. 
The endi nae higb abcive Iba warn, and to prevent botgiD| were 
of tea attached by a tnm laaniiig loofitiidiully onr cruUhci 

The AwyiiaB ud Bibytoaiw veueU deioibed by Beiodotui 
G. iim). built up of twifi and boochi, and connd with ikiaa 
uwuhI with bilaOMi, wcr* Rally mon like bu«s condei 
ud baldly daaervi tbe name of boala. 

The UK of boeS by Ibe Creeki and Rauu la attetted by 
lb* fnqiicat leleRBce to them in Greek and Lalin lileiature, 
Ibooi^, ai tegudi aoch (mail craft, the detaib sivea are 

Wefearofimall boat* alteadut on ■ Sczt [lO^rar, Tbuc 
t- 5}). aad of riaiilar oaf t employed in piracy (Tliuc. iv. g), and 
In oae caae of • •culling boat, or pair oai (di:dnor ifi^wuir. 
Time. hr. dj), which wai carted op ud down between the town 
of Uegaim and tha iaa, bcin^ uled for the purpoK of maraudinf 
U nllM. We are aha bmiHar with the panace m the Acu 
(axriL) wbeie in the turn they bad hard work " lo come by 
tba boat"; whicb tamo boat the aaLlan alcerwuda " let down 
toto the lea, under cobar u tbougb ihey would have qui indxu) 
oat of tbe Ibreihip," and wouU have eiaped to land In bet 
tlieniaelvca, leaving tbc paiKiiscn lo dnjwn, if tbe onlunon 
and eiddieTa acting upon St Faul'i advice had not cut off tha 
Rfie* of tbe boat and let her fall oS. 

Tlkencan be Utile doubl that boat lacea were In vogue among 
Ibe Gieeka (» Fiof. Gardner, Jttnut >/ HiOtmt Slm^i, 
iL Of 8.)> and probably formed part of Ibe Fanathenajc and 
Iithsdan featl*^ It ii, bowcvn, dlKculi to prove ihai imill 
boau took part h theae laco, tbaugb it ii not unlikely that 
they may have done w. Tbe Icitimony of the cans, aucb at it 
ia, poiota to laUeya, and tbe docriptive term (niSr t^iiUa) 

It ia hardly poaiibla now la define the diSenncea which 
■epualed incroi, Aetna*, from atXifi, ((XVw, or from 
X^Ak, or di«4te. They aoem all to have been rowing 
boats, probably carvEl-buill, tome wiih keeb laca/H mtdt 
ceriflola, PUn. 1^ r^), and to have varied in aiae, lOEOe being 

Siniltdy In Latin sntlun we have frequent mention of boats 
acoomfaayiiig ibips of war. Of thia there la a well-known 
inataaca b tbe account of Caesr'i invaiioa of Britain (B.C. 
iv. i6), when the boala of lbs fleet, and the pinnaces, were filled 
with soldicrB and sent to asiit tlie Legionaries who woe being 
fiercdy attacked as tbcirwsdcd on to the shore. There is also 

attack of laqicdo boats upon men of mi, when Anlonius manned 
the pinnaces of his large sUpa to ihe number ol liily, and with 
tbciB attacked and defeated an Imprudent squsdron of Qusd- 
lircmea (B.C. iii. 14). Tbe daia of bosti so fieciuenlly mentioned 
ai MCtutriat seems to iiave contained crafl of all lises, and to 
have bcoi uacd tor all purposes, whelbcr as pleasure boats or as 
dopatch vessels, or lot piMcy. In fact ths term was employed 
TC^wly juit as we ^eak of cialt ia genual. 

Tbe ItMlw, «Uch Is cftm ntoted to li Uvy and Myhdit, 
•etas to hsve been of Ulynsn erigin, with fine ilnes and sharp 
bows. Tbe clasB caalained boat* oF various die* and with a 
varlablB nnmbv of oars (bimais, Livy ixlv. 40, leidecim, 
Livy siiv. 35); nd it b tateresting to nole the origin hi ihl* 
case, ai the taventwa of tbe Ugh! Libuniiaa ^lieya, wbkk woo 
the battle of Actlum, and allerad the whole ^tem of naval 
constiBCtlon, came from the same seaboard. 

Bceldea then, tbe pbatlal mytamia (aee Oe. In Yartm), 
and Ibe poetical pimlm, deaen* maalion, but here agala we 
■re met with the dllBeultT of dlstingnlahtag boats fwom ihlpt. 
There is aliD an btereMl^ DOtice In Tadtia (Bill, IS. 47} of 
boata hastily eoutracled by the lativea of tlia northern ooatt 
of Asia Mtawr, which be deecrlbea ti o( broad bean with nsnow 
aida (probably meaning that tbe ddei "tumlried boma"), 
{cjned together wftbout any laalenlnp of biaa 01 liDn. Id 
atea-way the side* were nJNd with pbnta added till Ihey were 
cased In aa with a nof, whence tbeii nauM coMtanu, and m they 
rolled about In the wave*, having prow aad alctn aBlu and 
convertible lowlDcki, » that 11 was a malter of indUlertnca 
aad equally safe, ■> pcthapa uaade, wUchcvei way tfaqF 

loose b tbe iDwiock, and not, a* MS usual In the sonth, attached 
by a Ibraig to tba Ibairi pin. 

Laatly, as a cba of beet directly docended fram the raft, 
we may notice the Bat-boitooied boala or pnnu or lighters wUch 
plied on tbe Tiber as ferry-boats, or eating goods, which were 
called CB^iairua from amia, the okt wind for a plaalc 

It i> difficult lo tract any order of development ia Ihe coostmo. 
tioo of ticai* dutiog tbe Bysantine period, oc the suddle agev 
Sca-pjuig veseels according to theii >iie carried ooa or aoM 
hoata, lonie of them small boata with two or foul flBE^ olhen 
boala of a larger ui fillad with mau* and sail a* well a* with 
oars. We find hmtm aad piaaliu a* gtutiic aamca b the 
easier period, but the hidicalioai u to siis and cbanda are 
vague and variahle. "Ibe nine may be nidof tbe bculli, cafiuu, 
tialimpa.tialain.fatii^tOt wbicb, Inalmoat endleu Diunlier 
and variety, the nautioJ erudition cd U. Jal ha* collected the 
names in his toooumcntal weeks, Ariilalapt itttaU sttd the 
GItiiar4 B^KlijiM. 

It i* dear, however, that b many instances tbe names, 
orighiilly applied to boata properly so oiledi gradually attached 
IbecDielva to larger vtHeis, s* b the case of tkaltupi and olhen, 
a fact which leads to the conduiion that the type of build 
followed originally in souDer veaa el s was often developed on a 
lirger scale, according as it was found useful and'coovtnient, 
while the name remained the same. Many of these inies stiU 
iurvlvt and may he found in tbe Eastern leas, or in the Uedlto- 
ranesn or b tbc northern waters, each of which Im* it* own 
peculiarilie* of build and tig. 

more detailed uilormition concernbg ibem tbe reader ^^ 
would do weD to consuli Uail tud Sail in EBopt ojid Tj^ 
.iliia. by H, Wsringlon Smyth, an eictUent and 
eihaustive work, from which much of the bformatton which 
ft^ws regarding them has been derived. 

In tl;e Easteraseas the Chinese ronpon is ubiqultouB. Origin^ 
ally a nnaD raft of three timbeit with fore end upiumed, it gitw 
Into a boat In very early times, and has given Its name to a vtiy 
large dais ol veuels. With Sat bottom, and coniiderable width 
in proportion to its length, tbe normal sanpan runs out into twq 
tails astcm, Ibe timbers rounding up, and the end being built 
in like a bulkhead, with room for the rudder to work between 
it and Ibe transom which connect* Ibe two pnjcctiag upper 
limbcn of the stero. Some of them ace as much at jo f 1. 1> 


tcnatli and t tc 

■pevdy under so 

Tlie ChincK i 

t. in bom. Tbey arc foOd curim and 

probabilily iren the ctctittt of iH peoples 
(ololvF Lhechjcl problcmiof boil buijdjng, imt 
foabjon to work out the art ol navifaiion. whii 
DOW been KI and UDchinied (or ttiauunds of yon. They 

■ppcartohaveiued thelee-boird ind c«nire-b 

unpini, ind 10 hive eiteoded Ibrir inde ii 
beyond, cialuries befon inylbint like auril 
beard o( [n the nonh of Eunjpe. 

Ai icgxrOi the pncike <A (ong boit tadng on linn m tidal 
walera the ChJDEse are easily aatccedcnt ia ti 
the woild. On crcai [ativab in certain place* the Dragon boat 
tate fotms put of the ceiemony. The Dragon boati 
over 7j ft. (04g, oiih 4 fL beam, and dcpdi 21 in. The rowijig 
or piddling ipace i> iboul 6j ft. and tbe Dumber of thwaru 17, 
thui giving eiacily Ibc Mme number of rowen u that of the 
Zygilu in the Gieck trireme. The two otrer 

about IS "-from cache 

li tpade-like in form anc 
Both in Sam and Bun 

1 Lhe single plank givci place 

. At 

. The paddle blade 
I very larfe river populatii 

tlinging and uiing quarter niddtn it the oldeil used 
len in tailing craft, being in fad the earlieil developmc 
the tiiBple paddle (uddet, which hat in all igei been i 

Gnl method of tl 

3f being expert boal- 
niuaen, nui inc local conanioni are not Buch u to lavour the 
Donstrvclion of a good type of boat. " Small ditpla cement. 
Iiollow lines. V-ih>ped leciioni, shallow drau^t and lack of 

imong ihem that the ancient procea of dug-oui building ilill 
IBrviveiindflouiiibet, preserving all the primitive indingenioui 
methods of haUohing (he Eree t runk. of forcing its sides outwards, 
ind in many caiet building them up with added planks, to ihii 
!rom the dug-out a regular boai it formed, with ineirated though 
jmiied carrying power, iocreued though itill hatdly tuScieni 
To ensure this last very necessary quatily many ilevices lod 

In some cues (jusi as Ulysses Es described at doing by Homer, 

■long the ^dei of his boat. These being very buoyant not 
the wash of the waves, but are 


1 keep the be 

El charactecistic deN 
Halting cDod thirpcned at both ends, ' 
the Longer uIi ol tbe boat, al a diiiano 
by two or more pales laid tt tight ingli 
interfering materialiy wiih the ipecd 
" any pretsure on it »hich 

the 01 

lack ol at 

■Uiiy. ID 

igli is dlad u being in lata slnnaHy like the andnil 

an model still preserved in the Chizch museum- Coming 
ird the dominant type of build is ihal of the Arab dfiirm, 
i\ clata ol which has all the characteristics of the larger 
ieveloped Irom it. plenly o[ beam, overhanging stem and 
niiern. Tlte plinkiBgol the shell over the wiioden Irante 
ouble ihkknett *hich coaduces 10 diyneta and durability 

be Nile it is interesting 10 find the maitor preserving, in iu 

'Id fashion ol building described by Herodolus. 'Tbe 
and^ofcifijdjlareloolargelobeclassedasbaals. but they 

notewotthy that nothing apparently of the andeat 
in or cltssiol methods of build survives in tbe Mediter- 
, while the records of the developmenl ol boal-building 
niddle iges arc meagre ind contusing. The best illuttra- 

e to be found, if anywhere, in the East, that canservaiiVE 
types and lashioRB, to which they were either 
.or (rom which they were boirowed, by Egyptian* 
I. from whom they were afterwards copied by 

iierranean the chief chanrteriitics of the type! 
belonging to ii ire " carvel-build, high how, round tiem ind 
deep rudder hung on ttem p«t outtide the vessel." 

In the eastern ba^n the long-bowed wide-itemed caffMof the 
Botpoms Is perhaps the lype of boat best known, but both Cmk 
and iialian wstera abound with an unnumbered variety of boati 
of " beautilul lines and great carrying power." In the Aditaiic, 
the Venetian gondola, and the lighl cnll generally, are ol the 
pe developed (rom the nft, flat-bottomed, and capable of 
m'gating shallow waters with minimum of draught and 

In the western buin the majority of the inuBer veasch are of 
the tharp-ticrned boiid. Upon the boaw of the ftlnat Class, 
' ing vessels with easy lines and low free-board, suitable (or 
iwing as well as sailing, the influence of the long galley ol ths 
liddle ages was apparent. In Genoese walen al the beginning 
of the i^th century there were ringle-deckcd rowing vessels, 
'hicb preserved tbe name of galley, and were said to be the 
the Libumians thai defeated the many-liinkecl 

I of A 

It the Inln 
IS already relegated into obscurity 


a type of boat b 
jTve of both atens 
camber, enahliog 
tcm to be beached in a heavy surf. 

OniheDouro.in Portugal, it is said that the boats which may 
c seen laden with casks of wine, trailing behind them an 
i»rmously long stecnng paddle, ' "" 

o tbe northern waters, u with men, to with boats. 

totally diflcR 


that Ibis invention, which must have been seen by the Egyptian 
and Pluenician) In very early times, was not introduced by then 
into the Mediterranean. Possibly this was owing to the lack 
large limber suitable lor dug-outs, and the consetiuent evoluiioi 
by litem of boat (na laft, with sufficient beam to rely upon fo 

tbe more t\_„ 

[inker-built craft with great beam, and laklng sterns and atcmi, 
nd a wide Hire forward. In the most norihem waters the 
trakes o( [he sea-going boat) are wide and of crmiiderable 
iiickness, of oak or tir. often compacted with wooden trenails, 
rong and ft lo do battle with the touj^h teas and cough usage 


e the I 
taught for in the old Vjki 

In the Baltic and the Mocth Sea most of tne Gihing ba«ti 
follow this lype. with, however, considerable variety in deiaila. 
It is noticeable that here also, as in other parts of the world, and 
at other tinwi. the pressing demand far ipeed and onyiBg power 


itiiim in iliMin iilliimi [in riiij pm 

. At ihiHiHdBt ihECwcl-buildk 

>Ui. la lb* «n«^ lor lUc, ttcun uid 

U the oU typci ol n>wii( 

Mol lo'lhc N«nt *kIS ukd lu dtKtsduUi, pcrhip* tbe oUrat 
' m wMn i* U be loiuid in HglUnd, 
I oairitMloK bivc burtly elund inr 
. ll ii u ibe Oiitcb ibsl we duetjr an llw «l(iB^ 
ol oat pkuui cnit, but, iboogb we bam devdopHi thae 
cMiD—i lii. tbe Dutch bnt* h»va rfnulnwl pnny much the 
BOB. Tbt diakn-biiiM ud lbs mdi niuHlei] bow an bow 
ny Boch ■! tbe (WK cbtntctec u ihey uc lepRiaited in tb* 
old iiicliuc* «l ibc i]th »Dd iStb ceniurfs. 

The devetapncBt si fawi-boading in the Srittih lilci dailii( 
the iglh craturjr bu been onceuina (nd maU seed a tmtiM 
" to do it juMlce. The 

ImpimocBI in the mf t engaftd, and Iwre 4lw ■« ObwmUa 

-■'--^a lo lutBtitnle and, Ibouita II 1> 

tr bond, and • - . - 

, ifndualiape . _ . .. .^ __ 

patra. Uader theie inflneacei «« bear of the JtM and 

br the noce mudeni Zala, Bhicb ii mpiioied to unite tbe food 
qualitke of both, ind thcae in turn nnninc to nich a liae a* to 
take tbeiB oatsdc the calefoiy ol boiU. But evm la [he caw 
ol uojler boalB the Ziii andcl ii wtddjr faUovcd, to thai they 
have actnaUr been impoitad to the Iiiah coaal lor the me ol the 
crofter Uheran in tlu coacoted dinricu. 

For tlw SWlland uxam and tbe braid boaU at the Orkneyi. 
■nd lie mattUt td tbe MM coait ot Scottaod. the mlaui will do 
■idl to rete to H. WariogtOD Smytb'i ohM exceUcnt accounl. 

Od the oncTD ooail ol Enfland the tnHiietiea ol the Dutch 
tyiK of build la naaihtt in Duoy of tbe Bat-bottomed and DKMtty 
raud-cnded oah. ucb ai the Yorluhlro Billyiey, and partly In 
the atlt, nhich latter h lutcmting aa buill iot lanuchini off 
beadiei a^nat heavy teal, and ai contalniDi relict ol None 
iaflnencc, thmfb ir the main of Dutch origia. 

The bJc-bnt) ol the (uteto natt are in tbei 
able daB ol boat, with hoc lian. treat lentlb, and ihallow 
diaaiht, woiKletfii in their dahnj work Id loni weather and 
heavy iiai, Ip which a* a rule tbeir urvios are nquind. Here, 
hovcvat, u is the fiihioc boau, the liie ii iucreaiiog, and tleaci 
jaapproprittlDitoiueUtheproviDceiol the tail and the oar. 

The wherry of the Norfolk Bioadi hai a type of in own, and ii 
ottCD fitted ODi a* i pIcaaiiR boat. Ii it lafc and comfortable lor 
iahnd wMen. but not the ton. ol beat to Uvi In a tea-way In 
anylhiuB but inod (rather. 

Tlw Tbame* aud its ettuary rrjoit* In a gnat variety ot boati, 
of which the old Ftltr boal (» called afler the legend ol the 
fouitdation of the lUxy on Thonry lilaral) prcKrvcd a very 
andeni type of build, ihorter and bncder tku the M Thame* 
pleanin whcny. But tfaoe ud the dd iakli boal bave now 
almoti ditappeaiid. Posibly lurvivon nuy tiill be tnD on the 
upper part ol tbe UdaJ rivn. Jtound ifar Englitfa caul from tbe 
Diauth of the Tbauiei lOuibwtidt ibe <iinditioiu ol landiii| and 
of hauling up boau above bigh-WBter mark afiect tbe type, 
demaDding Mrong clinkcr-huDd and itDut timben. Henn then 
la a timng lamOy mrntbiaDce in mint ol tbt (hart boali in uie 
tnMn the North Foreland round to Brighton. Anwng tbcK art 
theUIe-hoauof Deal and iheotber Channel porti, which have 
done and are (till doing heroic work in aving life from wreck* 
opOD the Goodwin* and the other dingeiout iboali that beiet 
the oarrowing ileeve ol the English Channel. 

Farther doWn, along the aouthem coast, and lo the wetl, where 
harboun are more irequcnl, a finer and deeper claai of ~ 
chiefly of canrel-build. it lo be found. The Comiih ports 
bone of a grot boai-building induttry, tnd from ihem 
number of the fineit fuhing boau in the world are turned 

ol them : 
fuB tad held quarten, tod u 


In detail, the variety of lypct hi tea-going boatt which haw 
' tea elaborated In EnglaBd and bi Amcttca. For Ihh poipoie 
ifcrence tbould be oidc M the liil of works given at the end ol 

Tbe fallowing h a tilt of the boau al prtieot used In the TOyal 
Bavy, They hive all of then • deep lore loot, and with tbe 
exception of the whalen and Berthon boat*, ttprlght ttemi and 
The whalen have a raking item and a ahaip 

In the bowi. 

. SUId^yi; 

L Depth, 
k Ft. Ilk 

I'lt-Tia. ' ^» 

BclwocB thwarts 1 Ft. 7t iu- 
WtMit3cwl.4b. YeBewrlae . 

Ycllo-cloi . . . . . 
It. Wlialer. Bcmentliwartistl. loin. 
~ !bsard abool ii bk Weiilil, 
' ' No. 13. Ltp 


ziwiib baod-holM.) 

(AD haw .... , 

J. Car. Beiweea ihwaiB 1 fkoj In. 
Weishl t nrt. i qr. 15. B. 13 

4. Cnitct. Bavten thwti] ft-'i i^ 
Torxiryja nVB. ^rwelbuill 
innace. BelaEen thwarts 3 ft. 
Cuvetbtilli. Elm .... 

6. Lauocb, Beiweea ibwaRi ] ft. I In. 
To arrv 1 to no. IXwbli akfa 

With tbe eiceptton of the laitn' dum, vh. cutter*, pbDicc* 
jnd latuche*, the V-thape of bottom it still preierved, which 
doc* not tend to itability, and It f* didknlt to tee why the 
mailer daiiet have not loUowed the improvement made in their 
larger listen. 

Thou^ tbe number and variety of Ki-going boats Is of much 
greater Importance, no anxiunt ol boat* In general would be com- 
plete without relerence to tbedevdopmeotol pleasure ,^^^ 
ctafi upon liven and biland water*, eipedaliy In ^^^,f 
England, during tlie past century. There It a legend, laitij 
dating Irom Saion timci, which tellt ol King Edgar 
the PeaecaUe being rowed on the I>ee from hli palace In Chestn 
to tfaa church ol St John, by eight kings, hlnuelf tbe ninth, 
steering this andent S-oar; but not much Is beard of rowing 
lo Eni^and uDlQ I4!J. when John Norman, lord mayor ot 
London, let the example ol going by water to Wettniiuter, 
which, *e are idd, made him popular with the watermen of hit 
day, ai in consequence (be use ol [Measure boats by tlie dtiieni 
became common. Thus it was that the old Thames pletiun 
wherry, with it* high bow* and low sharp item and V-ibaped 
section, and the old skifl came Into vogue, both ol which havo 
DOW given way to boau. moiiiy oC clinker-build, but with 
rounder botiomi and greater depUi, lafei tod more eomtottabla 

Jn 1715 Thomi* Di^gelt (f.t.) founded a net which is itHl 
roared in peculiar sculling boau. tiraked. tnd sritb tldci flaring 
up to iheiill of the rowlock. Strutt ull> utola regatta In i^rs 
In which watermen contended in pair-oared boau or skiffs. 

At ihe be^nning of the i«lh century numerous roving dub* 
llouriihed on the upper tidal iraiers of iJt Thame*, and we beat 
of lour-oaied races from Weitminiler to Pulney. and from 
Putney to Kew. in arhat we should runr consider large and 
heavy boats, clinker-built, with bluS entry. 

* of the iBlh century. Eton certainly had one 

al Oifotd begins 


. The 

iSij. at Cambridge in 


llil. Palt-ou tnd lenQlDg lUia la Uihln bsui Mcm to b*ve 

come in looa tiler iSio, and itic fint Oifoid ud Cunbridge 
dshl-oucd nc« «u mwed in iSig, id whidi jrMi alM Eton 
and Wettmiiiiter coatcndcd At Futaey- 

Henlty regatU wu founded in iSjg, aod &ac« thai dlU tbc 
twildins ^i r&dng boats, d^u, toon, pun, uul B cuU l in boau, 
bu made peat piogroL Hic prodocti of the praejit time are 
nch| Id lightncu of buHd and iwiftnai of prf^uUkm, a> 
Tould have been tbougbt imposiible balwecD iSio tod iSjo. 

to the middle of the 19th antury the long bo^i io UK mc 
Dutly dinhei-built nitb a keel. At Oi(t>rd the toipida irere 
nwed, u DOW, 1b dinkei-built enil, but the lummer tacea 
«en rawed fai carvel-built boati. Hhlch also bad a keeL 

Id iSj5 the fint kcelleu 8-oir made ila appearuce at 
Htnlcy, built by Mat Tiylorfot the Royal Chester Rowini Club. 
The new type was constructed on mouldt, bottom upwards, 
a cedar ikln beol and fitted on to the monlda, and the libs built 
In after the boat had been turned over. 

In 1S5; Ocford rawed in a similBrboat at Putney, 15 ft. long. 
Ij ID, beam. From that time the ketlkas ndng boat has held 

But with tbe Introduction of tliding seats radng eight) hive 
developed in length to 6] [t. or more, with consideiabit (amber, 
and a beam ol 'yi* in. There art, however, still idvocatci of 
tbe shorter type with broader beam, and It ii noticeable that 
tbe Belgiin boat Ihai won the Grind Challenge at Henley in 
I^ did not aiceed 6a fl. The boat in which Oifon) won the 
University race in 1901 was j6 [1. long with 1; Id, of beam. 
In sculling boats the acceptance of tbe Australian type oT 

broader beam than that which was in vogue twaity yeua ago. 



In fact we may eipect the conirovcny between long and short 
radng boats, and the proper method of propelling them re- 
■pectivdy, to be carried a itep faither. Tbe tendency, with the 
long slide, and long type ol boat, is to try to avoid "pinch" 
by adopting tbe scullers' method ol easy beginning, and strong 
drive with the leg), and sharp finish to follow, but ic nmauis 
ID be seen whether superior pace Is not to be obtained in a 
tborter boat by ibaip begianiiig at a reasonable an^ to 
Ibe boat's side, and a coaiinuous drive right out to (he finish 

Appended Is a list ol pleasure boats In ust (igo^) <ta the 
Humes, with their measuremenu (in Icet and inches). 

Otm al BsaL Length. Beam. Depth. 

Radng dtht . . s*'io6i' m'Ioij* o'toio* 

ClBik^?ghC . -. Id-ioCo' >4'ios7' o'toio' 

Clinher (our . ■.jS'tnti' ji'm.i' i'tna* 

Tub (ours . . . 30' ti 

Outriner acnik . 1;' 10 ]o' 

Coachjnggifa . . M'tosS' 

Gi(s(pleaHKe), . u'nai' 

3 B'-i'lO* IJ' rma bcj.to 

u'loio; T'i°8', 

lo'toti- Sl'ioS' 

3| to 3 V lOj'tou' 

• : Did. A- 


AomoMtiM,— Foil 

ijwwu SMfi: Smith, %nn awt Skifwreci sf ^ fam: timer, 
A n KnaUl Bnuiii^. Oh MilmHt lUr AUih; Contn-anilral Scrrt, 

Medieval: I.L ArtUd^ hwhIt, aiid Oamin -oWfU! Marqui. 
de Folin. Baltaia a narira. pnt^t it la it*ilni"Kn maatt; 
W S Lindsay. /liiuri of Iffirtfiu ^JliMi'msiuf .4 iHieaiCcnmvm. 
Modems H, WarhftoB Smyth, Jfojl exit jrti in £woM awf ^lio; 
QivmKjtmBt.Miimm,lkYtcUttiBomlUai<im:H.C. FolVhard. 
'•■■■■■ " - -- ''-o^TlHSttFalamtTuuary - ■ 

.indiav, Hiii . , -, —. . 

nt H, WarhftoB Smytl 

Kcmpe. iVouif •! tr- 

, tnd Wtla; R. C, Le4ie. <M 

m Winti 


BOARWADI <pt«Bo«BCed " hotea "1 dolvcd torn ■■ boat" 
nd " awain," ■ servant], tha warrant oficn of the ■taiO' '■bo 
B aailing^hipa had pantoilar chacft of te boat*, Bila, iin''>t> 
oloun, anchon aiul cordage. He aupcrintended tha riai^ 
f the ship in dock, and it wai his duty 10 tanraoa (he cr«> 

BOBBIU. a town ot Biilish India, in the VliamitiiB diitrtei 
of Madras, to m. nortb ol Viasgapalsia town. Fnp.- (i9«) 
l. Itii the naideneaala raja of old fuslly, whose estate 
I an aiaa of nj it), m.: —''—■-* buaae, {,v3fioai 
permanent land roveAnc, fsaoo^ 

The attack on the fort at Bobbai made by Genml Snaiy ia 
i7s6isone ' ' " 

raja ol Viaii , . 
the raja penuaded bim thai tha lault by adth tha (Wd nl 
Bobbili and joined tha Fnacbiritb ii,ooomena|ainutaitiivaL 
In spite ol the £aict that the Rtdch fietd-friocct at ooce naite 
practicable breaches in the mud waDa of llu fort, the defeadeo 
held out with desperate vahnu. Two aaMnlU acn lepubed 
after hours of hand-to-hand i«i»"'''ti and whtn, atttr ft ireih 
bombitdineDt, the garrison aaw (bat th^ case ma bepdna, 
Ihey killed their women and cUdreo, and only nNCunbed U 
last to a third assault becauu every maaof tt» au eiltacr 
killed or mortall]' irounded. An dd man, bowem, crept out 
of a hut with a child, whom he pimetud to Bony ■* tbe iob 
of tbe dead chief. Thite nigbti later four foUonnn ol (he ctiirf 
of Bobbili crept into the tent of the raja ol Vbunagram and 
slabbed him to death. The child, Chinna Ran^ Rao, ma 
invested by Bussy with hit falher'a eetau, but during hia nlBoiity 
it wsa seised by his uncle. After a tempofary arraagement of 
terms vilb the raja of Viiianagram the old fend hreke out again, 
and the Bobbili chief wai Joiad to take nfuga lo tbe aiaam^ 
country. In i;9t,hairever,ontbebt<ak-<i]iof tbeVWasagraat 
esute, Chinna Rang* Rao waa rtatofcd by tbe Britiab, and 
in iSoi a permanent leitlemeot wa* made wUk bja *sn. The 
title of raja wa* recogniied a* bendUary tn tbe fanulyi tbat 
ol maharaja «* conferred ■* a peiamal dlstioction on Sir 
VenkalaswetachslapalJ Ran^ Rao, R.CJ.K, tb* adopted 
great-gtcat-grandioa ol Chinna Rang* Rao. 
^ For the (iege sn Imp. OaHUir a} ItHt [Oxford, IgOt). I.*. 

BOBBlOh a town and epIscDpa] see of Lombaidy, Italy, In tbe 
province of Pavia, jij m. S.W, of Piacenaa tqr road. Pop. 

{i'yai)i&^. ItsmostimpDnant building [s the church dedicated 

and died there in 615. It was erected In Lombard ityle in the 
nth or 13th century (to which period the r^mpai^u belongs) 
and restored in the ijth. The cathedra] Is alio Inlerating. 
Bobbio was especially famous for the 
to the moiuuleiy ol 5t Columhan. 
grater part being hi the Vatican library at Rome, and other* 
at hiilan and Turin. The cathedral ardana contafal docnmanU 
of the loth and nth centuries. 

See M. Sioket. Six itrnOu in Or Attmiua (London, ilga), 154 
■eq.; C CipoUa, in L'Arii (1904!, nt, 

BOIER. a tivar ol Germany, the nwit considerable of tbe 
left bank tributaries of the Oder; It rise* *i an altitude of 1440 ft., 
on the northers (Sileslan) side of the Riesengeblrge. In lu 
upper course it traverses a higher plateau, whence, after pasting 
the town of Landeshut, it descends through a nsni>w and fertile 
valley to Ruplcrhecg. Here lU romantic middle course begin, 
and after duhing through a deep ravine between tlK town* of 
HJTschberg and Lflwenberg, It gains the plain. In it* lower 
course it meanders through pieasant pasturs, hogland and pine 
lorttt) in tuccelsioR, receives the waten of various mountain 
■ treams. psssesdoieby Bunilitiand through Sagan, and finally, 
altera course ol item.,JDJnstbtOderatCroaicD. SwoHen by 
the melting ol the winter utooi aad by heavy laina in tbt 


JS.tTT-o'vlMinoarrteHiKKK'n' Inthaniinel Akiindtt I. 
Ibnc mw ended ba(v at Iha conSance ^ Um BobniWi* wilb 
llti Boaina, aiuljr ■ bOc ffon the (OBI. • fsct, whkh iiKceK- 
luUr wiiluood ■ faombudnnt by N*pokon ja iSii, wdni 
nude equal ta tha bat in Etuopfl by iha emperor Nkholai !■ 
It i« dHttofahal ia 1897. IhedefciiceebeixMHiiiimwL Hie 
lovB ha* a miliUry hoepiul lad a depanncDUl coUest. TbcK- 

■OCISL lUiniEL HARU BABBOU Ds' (i^ii-iloi), 
FanucutMpoet. vuaittlivaaf SttubaL Hii Uib« hut beld 
iMporUot judkU) aiid adniiiiiUaUv* ippoialniHiU, *Dd hit 
mother, fraia wbtm he tank Ikii Lui nmame, wu Lh* ilv^hici 
of A Portugueee vice-admiriJ al Frcndi bijlh nvba hui fougbt 
M the battle ol Uatapao. Becage bi^n M nulie versa in 
iofaocv, and beipjEiomewbat of a prodigy ^rci*uj> to be flittered. 
■elC-coiiidoui and unaUbLc At Ifae age ol Jouctcecir be niddealy 
lell acboo) and joined fbe 7th infvitry leguncDl^ but tirio^ of 
pniioB bie at Seiubal afts two y»n, be decided w cater tbe 
bavy. He proceeded to ttic r«yiJ nurine i^^AKtriy in LiaboD, 
but insiEid af uudymg he pursued love adveututcj. and for the 
BCXt 6vE-yean bunt inceaie on many aJLaji.whilcbii retentive 
otenniy and eilraordinary talent for impioviutlon gained him 
1. beat of admircn and turned his head. The Brviiian modinAatf 
lillklbyinedpoeinaiunglDaguitaral faroil)' parlie), wcrelhrn 
tafreat vogue, and Bocage added lobisfsmc by "liling a number 
of ttaeic. b/ hia ikilf in eilenipinuiag veiKS en 1 given theme, 
aod by ailefDrical idyllic plDCea, the sut>jecl« of which are similar 
la these of Waltou's acid Boucher's piciuro. In 17B6 he wu 
apfsinled gwrilaiHrinAd In the Jndiia nivy. and he reached 
DoabywiyofBraiilinOclobcr. There he Cimeinlo an ignorant 
aociety full of petty intrigue, wEiere his particular talents found 
rio Icopc to display Iheouelvca^ the glamour of the Eul left 
bim unmoved and the climate brought on a serious illniss- In 
thoe circumstances he compared the terDiclraditiDju of Portu^l 
in Alia, which had induced him to lea.ve home, with Ihe rulily, 
and wrote his uliricaf sonacU on "The Decadence of the 
Portuguese Empire in Asia," and those addressed 10 ABonso 
de Albuquelque and D. Joao de Castro. The irrit^ition caused 
by tfiete satira, together with rivalrin la tove affain. made il 
advisable {01 him to leave Cob. and early ta 1789 he obtained ihe 
poit of lieutenant of Ihe Infintry company at Damaun; hui 
he promptly deserted and made his way 10 Macao, where he 
arrived in July-August. According to a modem tradition much 
of the Luiiadi had beea written therf, and Socage probably 
travelled to China under the iDfluence of Camoens, tb whose life 
and misfortunes he loved to compare bis own- Tbou^ be 
escaped the penally of hia desertion, he bad no rttourcrs and 
livRJ on friends, whose help enabled him to Rtum to Lisbon in 

Once back in Portugal be found hia old popuhtity. and 
roumed his vagabond etiitena. The age vaa one of reaction 
■gainsi the Pombalirie reforms, and the famous intendaat of 
police. Manique. in his dflerroinilion to keep out Frmeh revolu- 
tionary aod atheistic propaganda, forbade The fnportation of 
foreign dassica ami the ditcuasion of all liberal Ideaa. Hence 
Ibe only vehide of erpre^sion left waa satfre, which Bocage 
employed with an unsparing ham], ffis poverty compelled him 
tp eat and ifrep with JHends like the turbulent friar Jos^ Agos- 
lioTio de Macedo l^-v), and he soon fcfl under suspicion wilb 
Maniqne. Re bectme a member ot the Nrw Arcadia, a litenry 
locieiy founded ta 170°, under Ihe name of Elnano Sadino, but 
Idl h three yean later. Thon^ ioeludirrg ia its tanks most 
sf tbe poets of the time, the New Arradia produced little of 
tea) utnil, and before long fti adhetents beam* eneniia and 

tn amons the tanenl public and with foeopi tnveUen (nir 
yew by year. Beckford, the author at Vtlkii, loi iuluic*, 

queenat but psfaapa tbe Boat original of God's poetical CTMIURa. 
TUi nnift and vtnatU* chancla may ba aaid lo iiimim 
the will of ita natlef 
iB| to tbe Nt* Aieadia delated him to Manique, 1^ on tha 
pctlcit allorded by aoo^ uti-iclisiou Venea, the Ehiijm 


lo Oee the eoooui' and lodied him ii 

^leBt hi> ibiny^tcoad biciMay. Hi _ . 

ta a speedy lecantation, and after iPDcb importunlni of idends. 
ba sblaiud hit ttaufcc in Noven' 

warda lecovered hii liberty.- He r 
and tubaiited by writing empty Eiap^ I 
Ihcatret, prialing votumet of vena and traaslaling the di' 
poems of DeLlle. Caild and olhen, tome iecopd-iale French 
playa and Ovid's UcUmarfiiiiti. Jiiae resourcu and Ihe help 
of brother Freemasons juat enabled him to eajsl, and a puiifyinf 
iaflneace came into his life in the shape of & real aUection for the 
two beautiful daughters of D. Anturuo Bersane Leite, which 
drew irom him versa ol true feeling mixed with regrela for Ihe 
past. He would have manied the younger lady. D. . Anna 
Perpelul (AjuJia), but eicessa bad mined his health. In 1801 
hii poetical rivalry wilhJJacedo became moreacule Indpeiunal, 
and coded hy drawing from Socage a itin^ng extempore poem> 
Faia Ji TatUt, which rcnjaini a monument to hia powers of 
invective. lniSo4themalady frotowlilchhesutfercd increased, 
and tbe approach of death inspired tome beautifli] sonneta, 
including oue directed lo D. Maria {UareiaJ, elder sister of 
Analia, wha visited and consoled him. He bKUne reconcQed 
.10 his cnemio. and hieathed his last on Ihe iiit of December 
iSos. His cud recalled tktl of Camoens, for he expired in 
poverty on the eve of tbe French invasion, while tbe singer of 
the LuiiaJi just failed to see Ihe occupation of IWugal by the 
duke of Alva's atmy^ The gulf that divides the life and achievc- 
1! these iwo poets is accounted for, las by difference of 



: ijSo froi 

Portugal ia 

id the hre of his poetry. 

powerful genius," tnd Link 
lioti, harmonious veniEotion' 
iployed every variely of lyric 

ivifly, his satires rigorous and aearching, his ode? often full of 
nobility, but his fame must rest 00 his sonnets, which almost 
rival thoseofCamoensinpower, elevation of thought and tender 
melancholy, though Ihry lack the latter'a scbolaily refinement 
of phrasing. So daafled were coniemporary critia by bia 
britliant and lru[^red extemporizations that they ignotM 

creative output and the trti£dal character of most of his 
poetry, la 1871 > monument wis erected lo the poet in the 
chief square of Seiutul, and Ihe centenary of his death was 
kept there with much drcumstanci in 1905. 

The best editbni nf hii colleetnt works ire Ihe« sf I. F. da 
Silva. With a biottapMctl aixf liieiary wudy by RebeHo da Slln. ia 
6 vala (Liabua. iasi), aod of £>i Thrc^hile Bnga. In tvels. [ODeno. 
ia;s-iS7U- See ako I. F. da Silva, Dii^£una BiUitpopkic, 
Pcrliiiiut, voL VI. pp. 4yu. and vol. m. pp. 160-164: Dr T Braga, 
Botait.naBidaetfwoI'lurviafppono, Tool). ARrildi^parirait 
of Bccage byll. 1. da Sdva was enpaved by Banoliizii, who ipeiit 
bislailyearBinLidua. (E. Pa.) 

BOCAGV (from O. Fr! ieitap, late LaL bicwi, a wood], « 
FVencb topogiaphicat term applied lo sevenl regions ol France, 
the eoramonest chararteristia of which tre a granite formation 
■ad an undtdatint! or hilly surface, eoR^sling largely ol beilK 
or trdaimed land, and dotted with dnmpt of trm. Tlie 
moat inporUBl dislrlcU daignated by tbe word are fi^ the 
Becage of Normandy, whjdi < 


deputBom «( Cdvtdot, BluKhe tM Orae; U\ tk Ba(E of 
Vendte, (lliultd in iIk depirtmnTi at VcmMc, Dcui-Shia, 
UiiiK^-Loire, and Loirr-IaWiieun. 
BOCCACCIO, OlOVAHHI (ijij-ij7s), luliaa ■«&«, 

Oecsuktm BDnenI 

il liu 

I <J>1. 

i( Pnnrth, in whkh tiat poet, 
who wu bun is ijm, calls himself the senior si his friend by 
QiDC yesn. The pUn of his birth [s soioevhil donbtfut— 
Floivnn, Puis tnd Certaido being sU mentioDed by 
vriTen ba his utive dty^ Bocofdo uodoubtediy caLfi 
■ FloKoiine. bui ihii msy nfei nwrfty to the FloreiitiDe 
thip icquiml by bii gnodfeilm. TIm diim of Psris hss been 
(uppgTied by Bildetii aod TiiaboKhi, nuunly on the giound 
Ihai bis molbcT wu ■ Udy ol gwd fuiuly in thai city, *hi 
she mil Boccaccio's lithec. Then it a good dcil in favour 
Certaldo. a smaD town or castk in the valley of the Elsa, lo 
imtn Florence, where the family had some property, and wbi 
the poel spent imich of the latter part of his life. He alwi 
signed his name Boccacdo da Certaldo. and named that Vr 
as his birthplace in bis awn epitaph. Pcmrch calls his frie 
Cenaldese; and Filippo ViUani. a contemporaiy, distinctly si 
that Boccaccio oas bom in Cirttlda. 

Boccaccio, an illtgilimate son, as is put beyond diqmte by the 
fact that a special U'cence had lo be obtained when he desired 
lo become a priest, was brought up with tender care by his 
father, who seems to have been a merchant of respectable rank. 
His elementary education be received from Giovanni da Strada, 
an esteemed teacher of grammar in norence. But at an early 
age he waa appreniiced (o au eminent merchant, with whom lu 
remained lot tii yeart. a time entirely lost I ~ ~ . ' 
believe his own siattoient- For from Ms tenderest yean bis soul 
was attached 10 Ihil " alma fMiii," which, on hit tombctone, 
ha names as the talk and study of U* life. In one ol Ms wotka 
be relates that, in hii seventh year, before be had ever seen 
a book of poetry or learned Ibe rules of loettical composition, 
he began to write vtnt in hi] childiili fashion, and earned for 
himself amongst his friends the name oF " the poet." It i) un- 
certain where Boccacdo passed Ibesc sii years of bondage; 
most likely be followed his master to various centres of commerce 
Id Italy and Fnnce. We know at least thai he was in Naples 
and Paris lor some lime, and the youtbTuI impressions received 
In the latter city, as well as the knowledge of the French 
language acquired there, were of considerable influence on hia 
later career Yielding at last to bis son's immutable aversion 
10 ci>mmeTCC, the elder Boccaccio permitted him to adopt a 
count of study somewhat more congenial lo the literary tastes 
of the young nan. He was sent to a celehnled professor ol 
canon law, at that tine an important Geld of action both to the 
iludeni and the pnclicat jurist. According to some accounts 
—far from authentic, ii is true — this professor was Cino da 
Pistoia, the friend of Dante, and himself a celebrated poet and 
scholar. But. whoever he may have liecn, Boccacdo's master 
was unable lo insinre his pupil with scientific aidoui. " Again," 
Boccaccio says, " I lost nearly sii yean. And to nauseous wu 
this study ID my mind, thai neither the tcacbing of my master, 
nor the authority and command of my father, nor yet the 
eaenions and reproof of my friends, could make me take lo it, 
for my k>VT of poetry was invincible." 

About lUJ Boccaccio tEttltd for some yean at Naples, 
apptiently Kni Ihett by his father to reiumc bis mcrcanlite 
punuitt, the canon law being finally abandoned. The place. 
il must be confoied, was little adapted to lead to a practical 
view of lile one in whose heart the love ol poetry wai firmly 
It of Kmg Robert of Anjou at Naples was 
ly Italian and French men al leltni, the gital 

rooted The co 
frequented by m 
Petrarch amongst i 
tioo in the noble ic 


al poetry by 
receiving ue uurel crown at Roek. Boccaccio was present, — 
without, however, making his pcnoiial acquaintance al this 
period. In the atlDBphere of Ihil gay court, enlivened and 
adorned by the wit ol men and the beauty of women. Boccaccio 
Bnd lot Mvenl yeui. We can ima|ine how the Icdious duties 

happened khbc lime after, led qidW M 

tioBcd occunencc to this ded«vi (BnuM-|>>>*<i* ib hn Sb, Oa 

EaMtr-cvt, IJ4I. la ihe choidiaf Saa LMfBJO, B 

for the Gnt time the natan 

if ber lover's works) w 
pan ef tbe Udy. Bni noi till iftcr auKb delay did the yidd i« 
■he anorout denandt of the poet, la vile ol her hoaaiir and bir 
duty aa the wife ol another. All lh« inloiBatloB ve ka*c iritk 
regard to Maria or FiaauuMta it darivcd IroH tha votta ol 

watched perh^ia by a jealous husband, Boccaccio had aD poaihle 
reason to give the appeararicc of Gctilioaa fncongmlty lo tbo 
effusions of his real passion. But tbert seems no ntorc reason to 
call into question the main featum ef the iiory, or even the 
identity of the person, than ihert would be <n the cue of Pe(i»rch"a 
Laura or of Danie'i Bntriix. It has been ingeniously pointed 
Dul by Balddli. that the fact of her descent froni King Robett 
being known only 10 Maria henelf.andthioagtibcrloBoecaeao, 
' Iter was ihe more at liberty lo refer lo this draimnanee. — 
lid tipression of the tnilh serving in this case to bKrcaae 
tbe mystery with which the poets of ihc middle ages loved, or 
obliged, to surround the objects id their praise. Ftod 
Bocaudo's A mtle we learn that Maria's mother was, Bkt hi* 
a Fcmch lady, whose husband, according to Baldelli'i 
ingenious conjecture, was ot the noble bouse ol Aquino, and 
therefore of the saoK family with the cdebnled Thomas Aquinaa. 
Maria died, according to his account, long before her lover, who 
cherished her memory to the end of his life, at wv sec from a 
innct written shortly before hia death. 

The fijst work of Boccaccio, composed by him at Flammetla'i 

immand, waa the prase tale, Fitocopt, describing tbe romantic 

ve and adventures o£ Florio and Biancafwie. a favourite 

ibject with the knightly minstrels of France. Italy and Germany. 

be treatment of tbe stojy by Boccaccio is not remarkable for 

originalily or beauty.aod the narrative isencumtiered by classical 

' <ns and allegorical conceits. The style also cannot be held 

worthy of the future great master of Italian prose. Consideritig, 

however, that this prose was in its infancy, and that thit was 

Boccacdo's first attempt at remoulding the unwieldy material 

his disposal, il would be unjust lo deny that FUnape i% a 

highly interesting work, full of promise and all bul articulate 

power. Another work, written about the aame time by Fiam- 

' ^.a's desire and dedicated to her. is the rnei^r, an epic poem, 

indeed the first heroic epic in the Ilaliin language. The 

e is cboaen somewhat inapproprialdy. as King Theseus playi 

sndary part, and the interest of the story centres in the two 

noble knights. Falcmone and Arcito, and dicir wooing of Ihe 

beautiful Emelia. The TtsiiJt is of particular interest to tha 

.Indent of poetry, because it eahibils Ihe fini example of Ih* 

■ttin rjMd, a metre which was adopted by Tasao and Ariotto, 

ind in English by Byron in Dm Jmn. Another Unk between 

kKcacdo't epic and English literature is formed by the fact ol 

Chaucer having in the A' nifAt'r Ta/f ad^ ted its main features. 

Boccaccio's poetry has txen severely crrticiaed by his country- 
nen. and most' severely by the author himself. On reading 
Peuarch's sonnets, Boccaccio resolved in a fit of despair lo bum 
his own attempts, and only the kindly encouragement ol his 
great friend prevented the holocaust. pMterity has jtiMly 
"~ J from the auihor's sweeping Hlf.crilidsni. It is Inn, 
smpared with Dante's grandeur and passion, and with 



potny ■Main bt namfaat tbrewn fartD riMd*. Wtnnch 
OCTwiQiallr il^Mbod. mm! [■itkulul]' kk epic poctnr Ucki 
*lua in madern pubum ii oUal poetic (liciioii,~ilie qiutily. 
that 11, wUch dittlncidihci tbc devited pubii* U the ncacder 


nuniivc ii ■Injn flycBi ud iaURMlns. uxl U> lyrical plecei, 
puticululy ibe pociic lourludn in Ibe Okchcsh, ibauKt vith 
chunuBK (KDuiiy. ud lirqueutly in* to lyikal patbcs. 

About the ytu im' Boccudo Rtnrned to Flonnce by 
coDuund al hii fiibcr. wbo ia hii old tga dolnd ill* »«->«'«'>" 
■Dd cDDpiny of hii Kin. Flamice, M that tiioa dimibed by 
civil feudt. uxt tbe lilcnt ^dob of hii Iitliet'* bowe Could not 
but appear Id aa unravourable U^t to ooa accottomed to tlie 
faytiErofdteNeapoliunaiiin. BuiDu>reUiaDallt)iii,Bo(xsccio 
rcfntitd the tepaniioD Inini bii beloved nunmttu. Tfae 
thousbi of bee al once embittered and conaoled bii londineii. 
Tbrce ol hi) *ark* owe Uieir exiiience to thli pttiod. With all 
of ihEo FiAiuMiU iicDnHctcdioIoocof Iheoi ibe afeoe ii ibe 
■Bbject. Tbc &ru iraik, called Amtbi, deicribci tb* civiliiiiii 
infliicnci of lovT, whicb tubdue* the fttodou minnen of the 
nvaae with ju tenth poaa. Fiiisinetta, akhou^ not the 
benHHDltbettory, liajuanpttbeDympbavbo mibtbeir talet 
ol tnwlaviiolun iJm mind of the bunliman. ^iwte i> wriiteii 
IB pnse altetnatint vilh vene, fpedmcu of vhich fom occur 
io aid and Biddl* l^lia writinp. It ii oiore probable, however, 
thai Bocacdo adapted it from that iwetieit and pureat blotaoni 
ol Bolieval Frencb litintun, AataiiiH il NictltlU, wbicb date* 
from tbc litb DOitiifyt and waa undoubteflTy koowa to hioL So 
pleaaed wai Boccaccio with the idea embodied Id the character 
a< A mtU that he repeated ill eaaentlal fealiirea in the Ciaoar of 
bia OeunHm (Day jlb,tal(l.}. The aecood work refcrnd to k 
■ poem in hftycbapten, called raaHra»ruuiK. ItdcKribu 
a dieaai is which the poet, (iiided by a lady, tea tbc btroa and 
lovera of bbcieiU and owdieval limaj. BoGCacdO cvidcDtlr bu 
tried l» iniuu the celebrated Trit^ al Ptintth, but without 
Duch aucccM. There b liltl) orptolc devclopouiit In the poem, 
*bicb fcadi tUte the altiat** ralraul of a picture ■alla>i but 
it it remarkable rrom another point ol view. It b peihaps the 
noM Mtougding InttaDce In liieratiui ol lufenuily wasted on 
triAat; even Edfar Pot, bad be known Boccaccio'i puiile, 
BUM have confcMcd himaeU aurpaacd. For the whole of the 
AmtiMa Viiitm it nolliini but an acmtic on a figintic acale. 
nwpocm i>wrilun,liketbci>iiiMC#aHHdu,intinan'aw,aad 
tht initial iMtMi of all the uipleli tbrouthout ttte work conpoaa 
tfantpocBMotcould(nbklen(tb,lntbtfint<rf which tbc whole 
b d tA ci t ad to Boccaccio'* lady-love, thit tin* under ber real 
aaauof Uaiin. IoaddilIoatothIi,lheiaitialletIenottbc£iM, 
third, filth, icventb ud ninth linei ol the dedicatory poem form 

■leetid degnc No wonder th 
thOUBht befln) to Baf and h 

language ti 

. The third 
,' at Florence, 

or aaoi atto hit tctun to Naplei. la called L' amema FioMmdla ; 
tad aliboufh wif tien in proae, it conlaina owre ical poetry than 
tbc daborale pradactioB jutt referred Id. It pwportl la be 
FiamBetla'a complaint attci her lover, [oOowtai tb* call of 
CUal duty, had deuncd ber. Bitterly th*deplofeib*rIate,and 
opbnidi her lover wiib coidnen and want of devotinL Jiiloui 
fean add to bo tortiue, not altoietber uiloundtd. If we believe 
the coDtmcDUton' aaKrtloD that the betoio* of Amiit it in 
reolily (be baaudful Lucii, ■ Fkrentini lady loved by Bocacdo. 
Sadly FlaaiBctu renUt the OMnent* of fonner btiia, the fint 
mectini. ibe ttolen embrace. Her namliv* 1* indeed our duel 
mucc of iafbrmetion for tb* inddentaof thii niange love-atoiy. 
It bai b*CD tliou^ unlikely, and indeed iopoaslile, that 
Boccacdo ibsald Ihut bam hecon* the mouthpiece of > real 
Uy"! n*l patiion lor Umaelt; bat there seena notUni la- 
coDfraou in the luppoiition that afto- a happy reunion the poet 
ibmld have biud vitk aattalaclion, whI aunonnded with the 
ktlao< ideal ait, tbaatoryirfhlilady'iaiLSeriD^ Uonover.tbc 

lansoaie ta too toB ol hidlvUaal toteadty 10 make lk« eaojectnn 
otancntkdylictJtiaualaveaXairiDtnaiically probable. Vamf 
rare Piammtlla la a moDody at pmattoa tuiiaincd aven to the 
verie of didncM, but itnUngly teal, and therdoce artistical^r 

By the hitanxMion af an faiflnential Iriend. Boccaccio at laat 
obtained (in ijm) hit father'a penaiaaioD to return to Na|del^ 
wbsc in the aMantinHCiov>Dna,grand-dau(htBaIKiiv Robert, 
hadaucccedediothccnnib .B^niyoaa|uidbeButiful,fa[>dol 
poetiy and of ihe ^raite of poett, the ncdvcd Boccacdo with al 
lb* dittiBCtion due to hit literary faa*. For inany ycira the 
rcnujncd lu* laitbftd frjakd, and the poet tetaned bcr fawoot 
with (raUAd devotlOB. Even when the chu«c of kvinf 
lutliattd, or at katt connived al, the nmdo d htr buahand 
was but too clearly proved againal ber, Boccacdo wia amongat 
the lew who atood by ber, and undcrUok the hopeleat tatk ol 
cleariDf ber name Iron the dreadful atain. It vaa by her dctiic, 
00 lata than by that of FiemnKtta, that he csmpoaed Ibelweee 
■J44 and ijja} omn of the atone* of hit Daamvem, which 
aftciwaida wen collected and plaad in the idduiIb ol the 
Florentine ladiei and fcnllemcn. Dunns tbla time be aha 
compnacd the Filnvtu, a namtive poem, the chief fniercn cf 
which, for Ibe En^ith icader. lies in its conneidan with Chaucer. 
With a beUacaa pardMable o^y in men of gnlui, Chaucer 
adopted the main Isatwea ol the plot, and EiunUy Irualated 
parta ol Boccaccio'i work, without ao much at mcntioDing th* 
name of bia Italian aonrcc 

la ijja Boccacdo tttuRied to Fbrcnce. owing to the death 

of bit father, who had made bin ■uardiao to his younger broiber 

Jacopa. Hie was received with (teat diatinctien, and cnteicd 

tb* aervke of the Republic, beina at varion tioiei lent oa 

'MBtotbemaisraviof Bondadiurg, and to the 

laasaevcrai pope*, both Id Avi(non and Rome. Boccacdo 

itiof the friendly tcrmt 00 which he had been with Ibe great 

politician : . _. _.__ , , 

Petrarch were. As a man of the world he CDJoyed the aociity 
of the great, but his interest in the intcTDal ccinmotioni ol tha 
Florentine state tecma to luve been veiy alight. Besides, ha 
never liked Florence, and the expreniDn used by him residing 
hia fellow-dtiiena betray anytbiag but paltiotic prejudice. In 
a Latin eclogue he appliea to them the lera "BBtnch(]*"(fKip1, 
by which, he adds parenthetically— £(d iiUdlift FUnmliiunim 
maim; iaqaadisimi enim -nwu, lerair m nhu Micii aitil 
solMiir- The only important retolt of Boccacdo's di[domatic 
career was bit intimacy with Petrarch. The first acquaintance 
olibetetmgteatovD dates [romthcyeaitjgc, when Boccacdo, 
then jutt returned to Florence, did ill in his power la mke the 
gtrmt poet's thon iiay in that diy agrnble. When in th* 
following year the Florentine* were andont to draw men of 
great reputation to their newly-founded univtsilty, it waa again 
BoccacciD who insisted on Ite dafant of Petiaii^ to the ma*l 
distinguished posiiioii. He lunaelf accepted the miiaon al 
biviiing hit ftlcnd to Florence, and of announcing to Petrarch 
at the tame time that (he lorfdted oUMol hit firaily had bea 
totored to him. In thit manner an Intiiiiate frlendthip gnw up 
between them to be parted only by datb. Comnuia Imereaw 
and coRinioa Ulcnry punuits were Ibe natoial basil of their 
frletwlthip, and both occupy pramlnnl podtion* in th* early 
bJatoiT of that great inteUectnal levfval eBmrnaif callad ttM 

fiuring the itlh eciMy the 

by political strugglet, and the t 
poetry were at the mercy of mo 

• of andeni litenturt wat' 
be lay world wat enpotied 
a of daallcal hittory and 
DO la^ or too Ifnorant to 

tc Casslno, he waa showv 

a guide told him that the monka wi 

U were mutilated; and 
in the habit of uaring 
:o ptalttn lor cbildita, 
lor or five itUi apiect. 



MpM tiitb lui own 
ipyirt, the »moiml of 

Bncaedo dU^ la Ui pamtt to kbmvi 
tUi bwbinnu indiSenace. He tuughi 
huul DumuiMu vBluble sKDUKripis, an 
thai if Boccude had txcn • prafcMlootl 
Jii> ooiit might aiteniifa ut. Hi* ttth 
Kvivil at tht all bul fmialicB Cnck langBage in wnlcrn 
Eanpe aie «cll kiwm. The motl cclcbnted luliin ichalan 
about the befiiudiif of the istb ceotnry wne unable to Kad the 
Gtcck chancUf*. Boocacdo dtpkirad Ibe tewiuca of hit ag(. 
Ht look kmai Inm Lcodc Pilalo, a leuned adv^itnirerof the 
period, whohadUytdalooctlnMlnTlMualvaadialUKiUKb bora 
Ib Calabria, pnlindad (o b« a Cmk. By B«(tKcio'i itdtitt 
LeoM Pilato «aa tppoinud pnltaot of Gnek language and 
litcntun in tha ndnttlty of Flonm, a potidoa nhich he heM 
for Kveral jreaia, not trithout peat aiid laating benefit for the 
tvvlval of ^■— "•■! leaninf. Boecacdo waa fuatly proud of 
having beoa iotimateljr OBDnccted with thB'fouDdatioa of the 
iiitchair of Cemh Id Italy. But he did not forget, In bit admira- 
tloa of dMBC Ueraton, the gnat poeu of bia own eoimtry. 
Ha never tire* In blipTalie of ^ the nibUiH Bante, wboaa worka 
b copied with bii own hand.' He coBJum bii friend P«uarch 
lo ttudy the great FlorHtine, aad to defend ^ww— u agajnfit 

of one hundred itociei, puliliibed in their combiDed fonu ici 135J, 
although nuutly wrilteo at an earlier date. Thit woik toarke in 
a certain aenie the rite of Italian pmu. It ia tiue ibat Danie't 
Vila Naina waa written before, bul iu lovnlved »MiiiBCe», 
tounded eueniially on Latin cDiutruciioiii, cunot be (oinpued 
with llv infinite 'aupplfloeaa and preduon of Boocacdo'l pnifle. 
tht CiiJs NmiU Anlidu, on the other hand, which abo precede* 
the DeaWKrim in date, can hudly be laid to be writtea in 
artbtic language tnonUng to definite nilei of grammar and 
ityle. Boecacdo for the Gnt time ipeaks a new Idiom. Scxlble 
and tender, like the cfaaiacter of the nation, and cainble of 
nndering all the ahadci of feeling, from the <oane laugh of 
cynidui to the ilgh of hopelen lovt^ It it by the name of 
1 PiMc" that Boecacdo ought to be chieSy 

a Id ut and Utcnttur, 
Boccacdo'i lenunilding of Italian pme may be described aa a 
" ntuin to nature." It iaindeed the naluie of the lulian peepli 
itieU which hai becoraa articulate in the Damnaan; here «t 
ind loutheru giaca and deguce. together with that unvtiled 
atliU of impidie whkh it lo itiiking and le amiable a quality 
of the Italian diaiactar. The Bndeiinble cnoiplement of the 

and apnatiha haidly comprehensble to the nortbrtUHmind, 
alM appcan in the OsMKria, puticulariy where the life and 
convenatien of the lowci dues are the aubject of the itoiy. 
At the aame time, these deacriptioni of low life are ta admir- 
able, and the chaTacler of popidar parlance rendered with inch 
humour, a* oftan to make the frown of moral diigiiil give way 

It ii oot (uipriiuig Ibat a it)4e to coodie and yet u pliable, 
■o typical and yet ao individaaJ. aa that of Booacdo waa of 

enormous influence on Ibr further prpgrew o( ji prose is a manner 
created by iL Thii influence hu indeed prevailed down to the 
prscnl time, to aa eiliot beneficial upon the whole, although 
fietiucoily fatal to the development ol individual writeia. 
Novelista like Giovanni Fiormtino or Franco Saccbctti are 
camplelily under the my of their great modd^ and Bococcio's 
influence may be discerned equally in the plastic fulness of 
Macbiavelli and io the poiued latin oI Areiino. Withonl 
touching upon Ibe individual BKriu ^ Laaca, Banddio and other 
noveliiu of the f infneoaU. ii may be aiaeited that none of then 
I style independent of Ibeii peat predeusur. CUe 

tbe Accademia ddla CltiMi. Mdch bohh ap ibe Dtttmtrtn at 
the standard and model of Italian pmse. Even the Delia Cmscan 
writers themselves have been unaMe Ifr deprive the language 
whoUy of the fresh spontaneity of Boo^actio's maiuicr, which 
in modern literature we again admire in Mansonj's Prpmtni 

A detailed analysts of a work sO well known aj the Drttmrrm 
would be unnecesjaiy. TTie description of the plague of Florente 
preceding the iiorjes b luu'vcTsally acknawledged to be a master- 
piece ol epic grandeur and t^vidnen. It rtnki. with the paintings 
of ilmitar calamitiet by Thucydidn, Defo^ and hlinioiu. Like 
Defoe, Boccicdo had to draw largely on hearsay and bis ovn 
imagination, it being almost cellatn that In IJ4G he was at Naples, 
and theiefore no eye-wiltien of the scenes he describes. The 
stories themselves, a htmdred in nomber, range from the highest 
pathos to the nursesi licentiousness. A creation tike the patient 
Criselda, which inlemaijonal UieiaiiireDwe) (0 Boecaccio, ought 
to atone for much thai b morally and anbiicsUy objcctionabte 
in the Hammtrtx. ttinay beaaid en Ihb head, liiat his age and 
his counlry wete nol only deeply immoinl, but in addiiion 
eiceedingly outspoken. Moreover, his sources were anything 
but pure. Host of his itnpmper stories are either anecdotes 
from nal life, or they an taken fioni the failiaux of medieval 
French poets. On eomfiaring the iatler class of stories faboul 
one-fifth of the whole I>ecowwi) wlih their French originals, 

ft cannot be denied that the anfstic value of the Drtammm is 
greatly impaired by descriptions and expressions, the intentional 
licentiousness of which is but impetfeclty veiled by an ■itnnpt 

Boccaccio has been acoused of pkgiariaBi, particutatly by 
French critics, who correctly state (hat the atA>jecf9 of many 
stories in the DttaimrtH are borrowed from their literature. A 
similar objection might be raised against ChauceT, Shakcspeart, 
Goethe (in f iwl). and indeed most of the master minds of all 
nations. Power of invention is nol the only nor even the chicT 
criterioB of a great poet. He takes his subjects indiscriminately 
fiom his ofrn fancy, or from the conscietisneis of his and other 
nations. Stories float about in the air, known to all yet realized 
by lew; the poet gathers their diifKla wufh-tf into an organic 
•hale, and Ihii he inspires and tails into life with the breath 
of hbgcniu*. It ls»i (his sense that Boccaccio iithentaiorof 
those Inouoaetabk beautiful types and stories, vhltb have ^ncc 
become household words amongst ciuitiied nations. No author 

Boccacxio's crealivcneas. One of the greatest masterpieeea of 
German liieraiure. Lesslng's A'aUaa Ikt Witt, contains a «ory 
frtm Boecacdo {Daamtm, Day ist, tale iH.), and tbe list of 

For II 

d Tcnny 

1 years Boecacdo conlini 

ic city only occasjonaily 01 

s. the names of Chaacer, Lydgalc, Diyden. 

Joccacdo continued to reside in Fkimce. 
diplomatic tniuioiu sr on 
visiis 10 nis tncnus. aa lame m tne mraDtime began to aptrad 
far and wide, and his Dtcvrvron, in- particular, was devcnnrd 
by the fashionable ladies and gi:ntlcmen of the see. About 
tite he senis to have nliied from the turtwlcai sceaetal 
Florence lo his nalivo Cerlakjo. the scdudcd charnia of wUth 
he describes with laptufi. In the fi^wtng year took place ihat 
strange tuming<point in Bocraccio's career which Is generally 
described as his conversion. It seesns that a Carthusian moi^ 
came to bioi while at Certalrlo charged wi 
ink of the same or 

is also menticHicd thai the reflation 
o[ a secrel known only to Boccaccio 
this alarm incinCormatioB. fiorcaci 
•ras deeply UovoL ilis lif e had be 




vritbiai hi htd hcqomlljF NUKd (caiwC iJic rule* «( Bunlitr, 

■ad mnauiltbehidstUckadiritli bitter uLinilieiDUiiutioni 
churth. T«ri6«lbytlie«M>roiKh 
o sell bit libiuy, •JJuidan 
' ' ii lilc to pcTwac* uul 
Pclranb. Wc 
M iIk pocl'i anvRri it u > rautupwct itt writing and 
mu a more, k prooi of laidmM [rioKWiip. The tpnaitii el 
die nonk Petiudi u cvidenily iBcliixd to Ueat liniply m piniu 
tnud. mthoot. hawevir, acnuUy comnitlitii Mmidl ts Ihit 
«IiiB>Q«, " Ua monk i> nquiRd lo lell thn of ibc ibortaea 
•ndprectrisaucMof.luimuilik. (X Uutdvkc rauiredMccpt 
wbM b floodi al»n(k>m wotliUy area, caaquu iby puuoni, 
aad xfonn tby mwI tod Uit of degraded tobit*. But d> dm 
(ivt op ibe Mudiei whicb ua ibe uue food of i lualLhy miDd." 
fioccKoo Kcmi to hiv* acted on Lliis valuable advice Hii 
lUet wodu, allboofh wrillen io Latin and idnitiic ia thancter, 
an by Bi> ocaBa H • rdigioitt kind. It Kcmi, htmevci, thu 
III T-i— ■'1 tba dnudi in ijli] i> coueclcd with tha tventi 
iotf idaUd. 

Is ijfij Bocc&cda went on a viiit to Niplea lo Uw leoaclial 
Acdajiioli (the lame HonnLlse wbo hid in 1J44 ptrauaded the 
rider Boccacdo to pcniit his bd'* ntuin to Nipleri, «bo 
liiimiiiwiiHinl hmi to vnte llie atory of hia deeds of valour. 
On bis azrivat, however, the poet was (rented with shainefu] 
■e j ect, sDd reveBced himacU by deivini the possibility of relat- 
ing any vaJonHia deeds for want of their eiistence. This d& 
T^r""™! it most be timfeaed, cane soniewhit late, but it was 
inavated by a silly attack on l£c poet himself by one of the 

_, .. ai of the Republit. Heseemalo 

have been poor, bsviag ^ml laise sunuia the purchase ol books, 
piril rejected the numerous splenriid offers 
D him by fiiends and admiceis. During 
ur Important Lalin works'— Ue CciKaUiia 
Darmm liiri XV., a campeodiuin ol nytbokigical kixrwledga 
lnD of dcv Icui^l Dt UimUiiat Siitanm, Ltcaum, it 
Mtrimm UMiiufaH fiier, a treatise on andcol gcogr^yi and 
l«v biilorkal bukkT-Ci Cdiitor, Fuorum tl Feminmm 
IBMtbitam liiri IX., interesting to the English reader as tlia 
^rigirifl of Jobi Lydgate'a Foil «/ Primati and Dz CUris 
Uiiitribm. Totbeliatof hisWDiksoughtloboddcd/fA'u/ef* 
FiiHAtM. a beautiful lovr-aloiy la venc, and II Ctrimcit tsno 
H Itiaimle £Amm, a coaite salire 00 a l^kirentine widow wbo, 
kad jillad the poet, wijiien about im, not to mention many 
tcbtgiia in Idtm and DUUcUannjut Ri»t in llalian (the latter 
roHected by his biographer Count BaldeUI in iBoj). 

In I jTJ we End Boccacxlo again wttlal at CerUtdo. Here 
be was attacked by a lenibte dltoue wfaicb bioughl bim 10 the 
verge of death, and from the coD»qnaicei of which he never 
quite ncoveicd. But lickneu could sot subdue hi* intoUectaal 
viaour. When the Floreiuinet Btablishcd a chair for the ei- 
planation ol (he Divitu CetHwtsAia in their university, and 
oSered it to Bocfacdo, the (enorfnt poet at once undertook 
the arduoui duly. He delivered lU* hrst lecture on the 1314 
of October ij;j. The comoeniary on i>an of the InfaxB, 
already alluded to, beus wilnoa of his unabated power of 
iniellKL In lit* the news of the loes of hia dearest friend 
Fetnrch leacbcd Boccaccio, and from this blow he may he Asid 
to have never recovered- Almost his dying efforts were dcvotol 
lo the memory of his frieruf; urgently he entreated Felrarch^s 
aOB'in4aw to arrange the publicaLion of the deceased poet's 
Latin epic Afriia, a work of •rhich ibe author had been far more 
ptvud than of hi; immortal sonnets to Laura. 

In bis last "ill Boccaccio left his library to hii father confessor. 

Uis iniail property he bequeathed to bis brother Jacopo- fiis 
own natural cluldren had died before him. He himself died on 
the silt p[ December 1)75 at rrrtaJBo, and ma buried in the 

of haapltality made to 

chiacbgfSS. JicovaeFIi^VarttkU tmn. OsUaUMbMOM 
was engraved Uw epitaph compoaed by himself iborily bcfora 
hi* diaxh. It is calm and dignifiid, worthy indeed ol a great 
lileiritbavtupupow. ttoc tia the lins.-— 

Murulii vitaa. ' 
Patria Cenaldum 


. __jai Baldelli {VM 

at aoametm, rtuiesLB, raoDj, and otlken. la Engliik the he« 
btnnaphy ia Edward Kuuoa (1909.) The &-- — '— ' 
of the Dmmtrtn ia without date, pive or prior* 
befteved to beloiu to the >ear r46Q or 1470. and 1 
M norenec. Beiidet ihb. Baldeili mentioni eir 

the >sth ceotary. The anlln aumlv of edilioBS by fa. 

hundnd. A euriooa txfHUiated edition, auihofiied by th^ pope, 
appeared at Rorence, 137^ Here, however, the grouest lO- 
deCFni^ies teniain. tlie chid alteratioB being the change ol r he im- 
proper perwniagn front prfesn and nonkt inro laymen. The beat 
old Hytioa is ehac ol Fkirenee. ijjt. Of modern ntprinti. that by 
Forfoni (FlotvQcc, xiM) dceefvcs meiuiod- M'nni hai written 4 

e. — J.J n (1741). and a Cernun I ■ ■ -■ ■ - ■ 


riajed edition 

Slcriaitl Dtamt 


ven tdlllom 

irt in lA^7 ■ gener^ Kudy 

F. aj 

BOCCAUHI, TBUAKO (tss6-i6ij), Italian satirist. ■ 
at Lorf tto in 1 Ji6. The ton of an atcliliect, he bimcU adopted 
that profeialDn, and it appears Ihat'he commenced late in life to 
apply to literary punuiti. PunulDg hii atudiea at Kome. he had 
the honour of teaching Bentlvoglio, and acquired tb; liiettdihip 
of the cardinafi Caeiaoo and Botgheal, aa well as of other 
dlsLingui^d peraonaget. By Ibeiiiaduence he obtaised vntioui 
posts, and was even appointtd by Gncory Xlll. govenui of 
Benevenio In the lUtci ol th* ttauth. Here, however, be Menu 
to have acted imprudently, and he wa» soon iccalled to Rcm^ 
where be shortly aflervirdi compoaed hii moit impoctut worit, 
the Sattaaiti ii Fwiua, In which ^ollo ti Rpreaented at 
receiving the awaplainta of «U wbo pceaenl thenudves, and 
digjibuiing justice according Is the nwrits of auh p*"*"'*" 
cu«. The book is fuU of lj|^ lad fantastic latiic m the action* 
and writings of hii eminent contampoiuiea, nod nbk of ita 
happierhit*areamongtheh>ckneytdlelidtiBB«f literature, Tn 
escape, it it said, from the boMiUty of those «b«B hii ibaf Is Iwd 
wounded, he returned U> Venice, and then, accontlpg lo the 
re^stcr in the parochial church of Sta Haria Fortnoaa, died ol 
colic, accompanied with fever, on the itth of November iSij, 
It was asserted, indeed, by coniemporuy writcn that he had 
been beaten to death with nnd-bags hy a tund of Spani^ 
bravadoea, but the story seems without fouiulatiaB. At the 
same time, it is evident frran the PitUa itl Paraftm, which 
appeared af iir his death in 161 5. that whatever the feelings of 
Ibe Spaniards towards bim, be cherished against them f odlngi of 
the bitterest hostility. The only government, indeed, lihich la 
eiempt from his attacks is that of Venice, a city for which fa* 
seems to have had a special affection. 

The Kattuflf, Ent primed in 1611. baa fnqtieBily been re- 
published. The Pitln liai beeu tranalaled into Fnncli. Cemtan, 
EngUih and Latin; the Engliih trandalor wai Hincy, eul ol 
Monmoinh, hii TifKHi befog emfiled TU PtIUiclit TWitiCnt 
" — •— ■"•> •■other poMhunmii pubHearion of BMialinl 
mfra Ctimdia TtdUi (Geneva, r669]. Many 
. >.e preserved still unprinted. 
LDIOI (i;<j-iSo5), Italian cmBpoiH-, son ol 
u Italian bao-player, was bom at Lucca, and ituilied at Rone. 
where be became a fine 'celli^, and soon b^aa to compsae. He 
relumed to Lucca, where for some yiat« be was prominent as a 
player, and there be produced two oTatorioi sod an opera. Me 
toured in Europe, and in irliS was received in Pstit by Goiaec 
and his circle with gre«t enlhiuium, hit instrumental pieces being 
highly spplauded; and from i;6g to I7S5 be beld Ibc post ol 
" curvoier and virtuoso " to the king of Spain's brother, the 
infante Lula. at Madrid. He allerwanls became "chamber- 
GOBiposei " to Cini Ftedolck William II. ol Pnuala, till lip?. 



whn he retumed to Sptio. Re died at Madrid on tba iSUi el 
Her i80S- 

Ai an edmlicr al Htydn, tad ■ vohunlnoia wrller of lutni- 
menul oiiuic. diicdy lot the Tfalooccllo, Bonlierini rqimniU 
the effect of the rapid pngrcsi el a ocw anoea mind loo rtGned 
10 be Led Inio cnidcncs. too inventive and receptive to neglKt 

lupcificia) 10 pup ihcic real ntaning. His mutccy of the 
vi^oncella, lod hit advanced KDK al beauty in inalrunicnul 
tene-co]aur» anat have made even 1^ earlier workj leem to 
amlempontia at teait oi navd tM miture ai my o[ tboM 
eipclimentj at which Haydn, wilfa eight yean more of age and 
eipcHencr, was labouring in the development o[ the true new 
lorm). Moit oi Boccherim'l ledinical retouicet proved luclcu 
tg Hflydo. and lesembLancet occur only in Efaydn'i earlicat vrorki 
(r.[. volt of ihe ilow nwvemcnu of tlie quarteu In of. j and In 
■ome n bic as op. 17); whichever derived the ehaiactenitict of 
■uch Biovemcnu from Ihe other, the advantage ii decidedly with 
Boccberini. Bui the piiDgies of miuie did not lie in lie fon- 
duction of ncvel bcauliei of Imlrunienial tone In a Biyle In which 
polyphonic organiution vai either detiberaicly abandoned or 
replaced by a pleasing illusion, mhilc the lorni in its largto aipecti 
was a mere inorganic unplitication of Ihe aid luite- form*, which 
pmupposed a genuine polyphonic organization aa the viuUzing 
principle o( Iheir otherwise purely decorative nature. The Ime 
tendency ol the new sonata formi wai lo make Injlrunient^ 
muiic dramatic in iia variety and contraiti, iniiead ol merely 
decorative, Haydn from the oulact buried himielf with the 
handling of new rhythmic proportiona; and if It ta hardly an 
eiaggcmion totay that the aurprialng biaulyof ciriour in lucfa 
a specimen of Boccherini'i iijatring-quinletaas that in £ major 
<conlaIalR| the popular minuet} ii periiapi more modem and 
certainly niet in performance than any ipcclal effect Haydnever 
. .. . .^1...... .1... j^g ,j|£j beauty fai'- ■- 

Juatily the length ai 


eOed it In proportion t 
hia geouioe admiration 
conception. Boccberii 
lor vjoloncclliala, boll 
repettorief; and hji poa 
of the moat original ar 


, purpose a! which Boccberini. with all 
hii elder brother in art, could form no 
woris are, however, still IndHpeuable 
n thefr education and theti concert 
>n in musical history is assured aa that 
next to Tartini. pcrbipa the greatest 
igcd instruments in the late Italian 
unpiiGcationa of Ibe older quosi-pdyphonle KMMta 01 suite-form 
(hat turvlved into the beginning ol the 19th century in the works 
ni Naidini. Boccberini may ulcly be regarded aa iu Ian tul 
nailer. Re was wittily chaiactcriied by the cnniemporary 
vioUnill I>uppo as " the wife ol Haydn "; which !i very true, If 

e.f. the equally common laying that " Schubert la the wile of 
Beethoven," and still kss true than that " Vittoria is the wUe ol 

CtlaJrfm refwinl, was publiihed bf L. I^i 


■OCCBUI,klngoIMaurctanJa (about no 
law of Jugunha. In roB he vacillated bet 
the Romans, and joined Jugurlhi only on hh 
third part of bis liingdoni. The two kingi 1 

3. F. T.) 


u) after an 

interview with Sulla, who wu Mariuj'a quaestor at that time, 
lent ambassadors to Rome, At Rome the hope ol snilliaiKe 
wu encomagcd, but on condition that Docchus sbowcdhimMlf 
deiervingof it. After further negotiations with Sulla, he 6iuilly 
■greed to send a meisags to JuguKha requesting his presence. 
Jugunha fell Into the trap and was given up to Sulla. Bocchut 
eenduded a treaty with the Romans, and a portion of Numidia 
waaaddediohl* kingdom. Furtheilo conciliate the Romans and 
Hpecially Sulla,he leni to theCapilol a group ol Victories guardmg 
» device In gold abowing Bocchus haiMing over Jugurtha to Sulla. 

1. 1904}. 

yooBiet brother B^nd. Aa enemfat of Ibe Mnatotial Smitf, 
theiiiiile waarecogniied by Caesar (o I.e.). During the African 
war they Invaded Numidia and conquered Cirta, the capital of 
the kingdom of Julia, who waa thus obliged lo abandon the Idea 
of joining htetellus Sdpio a^inst Caesar, At the end of the war, 
Caeaar bcalowed open Boccbus part o( the territory of MassinissB, 
Juba'a ally, whidi was recovered alter Caesar'a murder by 
Maasiniisa's son Arabloo. Db Cassiua says ihat Bocchna sent 
hli sons to support Scilua Pompeius in Spain, while Bogud 
(ought on the side o( Caesar, and then ia no doubt that alter 
Caoar'adcaih Bocchut supfiorted Octavian, and Bogud Antony. 
During Bogud'a abtence in Spain, his brother leiied the whole ol 
Numi^, and waa conhrmed sole ruler by Octavian. Alter bii 
doath in jj, Numidia ma made • Roman province. 

Bta. Afrit, n; tXa Caaaut lii. 41. ilul. 36, idviD. fgiAppiaa, 
&*. Cl»iL<)6.iv.M- 
B0CHAItT, UHnEL (ijm-iWt), Fimdi tdolar, was bora 
■t Rouen on (he joth aS May i J99. He was br many yean a 
pastor oS a Froteaiant church at Caen, and beame tutor to 
Wentwonh Dillon, earl of Roscommon. In 1646 he pubEahed 
hit PUit and Ckaam (Caen. 1645 and tfiji), the two parts 
ol bit Ctograpkia Siiira. Hit HitrouicoH, wiiicb treats of the 
•oinab oi Scripture, was printed in London [j vtAL, i66j). In 
4$] Christina of Sweden invited him 10 Stockholm, wIhr he 
studied the Arabian manuscripls in the queen's potses^on. 
He was accompanied by Rene Daniel Huet, afterwards tdsbop 
of Avranches. Dn his return to Caen he waa received into 
the academy of that city, fiochart was a man ol prolound 
erudition; he poaaeased a thorough knowledge of the principal 
Oriental languages, including Hebrew, &yriac, Chaldak and 
3lc; and at an advanced age he wishnl to learn Elhlopic 
was to abaorbed in hit lavourile aludy, that he saw Fboc- 
in and nothing but Phoenician In everything, even in Celtic 
ia. and hence the number of chimerical etymologiea which 
in b his works. He died at Caen on Ihe i6th of Uay 1667, 
.. complMe (diiion of hit woiki wai oublished at Lctdcn, under 
the lillc of Sam. Ssiikirl Optra Onmia (tin. 1 voIl folios 4lh ed., 
1 volt.. 1711). AuEnajnUnLifuniiWnlHtn/SamtilBaikaH, 
by W. R. Whiltingbom. appeared in 18S9. 

XOLT, a town ol Germany, In the Prussian province of 
Westphalia, near ihe frontier of Holland, 11 m. by rail north 
of WeseL It is a teat 0! the cotton industry. Fop. (igoo) 

BOCHUM, a town of Germany, In Ihe Pnistfwi province tt 
Westphalia, 11 m. by rail well from Dortmund. Pop. (1905) 
118,000. Iiisaccntreof ihBiisnandsteeIinduaIries.pn>du<iTig 
principally cast atccf. caai Iron, iron fripes, wire and wire ropes, 
and lamps, wiih tin and ainc works, coal.mioing, factories for 
carpets, caldura carbide and papcr-rool^ng, brickworks and 
breweries. The Bochumer Vercin fDr Bergbau (mining] und 
Gusalohl Fabrrcalion (steel manufacture) ia one of the principal 
tniaia in thit Induiity. founded in ia]4. There are a mining 
and a metalluTSicil school. 

BOCKH. PBIUPP ADGOST (17S1-1W;). German datsical 
tchi^r and antiquarian, watborn in Karlsruhe on the i4tb of 
November i;8i. He wu sent to the gymnasium of his native 
place, and remained there until he left for the university of 
Halle ( I Soj). where be devoted himaell lo the study oi theology, 
F. A. Wolf was then cresting there an enthusiasm for datsical 
itudies; BAckh fell under the tpcD. passed iron iheolocy ta 
philology, and became the grcalcst of all Woll't scholars. In 
]So7 be established himscIF aa privai-docent In the univtnily 
of Heidelberg and was shortly aflerwards appomted s pnfeasoT 
eitraordinarins. becoming professor two years later. In 1811 
he removrd to the new Berlin University, having been sppobted 
pmletsof ot eloquence and disncal htcralutte. He Rmsincd 
there till his death on the 3rd oi August tMj. He was ejected 
s DMmber si tht Academy of Sdencea of Berlin in 1S14, and 
for * long lime acted ts Its sectttary. Many of the tpccches 
contained ia hit KUint Siliriflai were ddivoed In this biter 

BOckh worked out the Meat of Wolf In rcgud lo phOotoiri 



■hu pMUocy cauiMtd in ft 
ud ibe oerdH of ihe critiol an. he _ 
kanledgc of anliquiljr, UMorical mkI phlkanplua]. 
divida phiMos)' ibM frrt parU: bit. u inquiry Inio public 
■CIS, wiibakngwlcdgcotiimeiuid plica, into dvil iwiiiuilcnit. 
and al» iolo 1*»: K«ind, on inquiry inlo priv»I« $Siitt: 
thtfd, an cdubilion of the rfUgioni and arts oi tli? andcnt 
■atHna; lounh, a hiilory of oil thcLr monJ and physical ip«uU- 
tioin and bdicli, and of tbcir Itlnatuns; and fifth, a complete 
eqiJanalion a( ihc language. ThBe ideas In legard Id philology 
BOckh Kt fnnli in a LatiBOfatloa ddiTcrcd la i8» (CasMwJ'c 
UtUt StkrifUn, \.). In his ipecch at the opening of the congtn 
si Cenaan phikriogltts in 1850, be defined philology si Ihc 
Iklsiofical coutmcilon of the entire Life — ihenfore, of aJL forms 
of culture and all Ibe pi«dunloni of a p«^e in In practical 
and ipuiiaal lendendes. He alknn that wch a wail i) too great 
tan any aoe nuui ; but the very Infinity of HibJecU It ifae iiimuins 
to Ihe parmli of truth, and men itrlve benuK tbey have not 
attained {ii. iL). An accout of Bockh't division of phiklogy 
win be found in Fieund's Wit ilmiirl mm Phileleiit t 

From iSee till hii death B«ckh's liicraiyaclivily wastuctu- 
ing. His piindpal works were the fol]owlng>^l} An edition 
of Pinttar. the £ist volume of which (iSii) conlsini the Icit of 
the Efrfnidsn Odessa Irealisc, Dt Utttii PMari. in three books; 
and ffMu Crititat: the second (iSifi) contains Ihe ScMia; 
and part ii. of volume ii (1811) eontalna a Latin tranilallon, a 
■smmentary, the fragments and indices. It la Hill the most 
oomplcte edition of I indar that we have. But it was etpecially 
thelreatiieonthemelm which placed fiBcLhin Ihe firit rank 
of acbolan. Thii treatise forms an epoch in the treatment of 
Ihe nbject. la it the author ihrevr aside all attempts to deter- 
mine tlie Greek metre* by mere tubjective standards, pointing 
out at the nme time the dose conneiion between the music 
and the poetry of the Greeks. He invtiiigaied minutely Ihe 
satuie of Greek music aa far as It can be ascertained, as well as 
an the detaib regarding Greek musical instnimentsi ud be 
explained the statements of the andenl Greek uTiten on rhythm. 
In this manner he laid the foundation for a idcnlific treatmcnl 
of Greek metres. (1) Dii SlaaMauikdlmt 'I" AUnur, 181 
(nul ed. 1851, with a supplementary volume UrkuvJen Uber da 
Sawtan ia aUitchtn Slaali; jrd ed. by Frlnkel, 1S86), 
translatnl into En^sh by Sir George Comewall Lewii (iSiSJ 
nnder the title of Tkt Pullic Ecanemy 0/ AlMttu. In it hi 
iqvestipted a subject of peculiar difficulty with profound 
teaming. He amajaed information fnm the whole range 
Greek literature, carefully appraised the value of the inforri 
lion Kivea, and sluws thraugbout every ponlon of it h 
critical ablUly and InsIghL A work of a slmllsr kind was : 
Uitreittiidu Uiil^mktBtat Okr CatUklt. ItiliaflUit, unf 
Uantia AUtrlliMwu (1838): (3) BCckh's third great work arose 
out of his second. In rc^rd lo the taies and icventie of Ihe 
Athenian stale be derived a great deal of his most trustworthy 
information fnnn inscriptions, many of which are given in his 
book. It was natural, therefore, that when tb Berlin Academy 
of Sdences projected the plan of a Cmfui iHicriptiaHum Crar- 
urani, BOckb should be choscD as the principal editor. This 
great work (1818-1377) is In foui volumes, Ihe lluidsnd fourth 
Totimies being edited t^ J. Frtni. K Cunius, A. KirchhaS and 
B. ROM. 

BSckh'a activity wai conlinunUy digresdng Into widely 

1 for I 

unoncst Ihe invesiigalors of andent chnmology, and his name 
octupit* a place by (he side of those of Ideler and MomrnKn 
His prind^ walks on this subject were : Zw Ctuliulilt irr 
U—itydat ia HtUam (tgsi); Efipcfliiidnkraiuletiiikc 
Slidif (1856); Oiir dii (UTjdjtrifea Smusmimit ia Allen 
(iS6j). and several papers wMch he ptiUished in the rrauadisiii 
fT l*e itcrJfa Atadrmy. BOckb alio occupied funuelf nflh 
plnloaapby. One of hii earlieal papcia was on the Plaionii 
dncuinc of the world, Dt Plalntica arftrii mtmiam fatrUa 
(stag), iaUaved fay A Plaltmt* SyHtmaU CattuHiim gfohrmi 

ail ton ImitU AiMMmiat POttckt (ilio), to wUcb OBy be 

added VaiidbH^ die ^■>>^(ni^i«b(iS4j). InoppoatioQ 
to Otto Gruppc (1804-18711), he denied that )^to afemcd the 
dinraal rotalion of the earth iUnltmahmnim «btr iai itimiulu 
Syaim ia Plain, ilji), and when in oppoeitkia to him Giote 
puUitlied his Ofnnions on the subject (Plato and the RoisiioQ 
of the Earth] BOckh wu leady with bit reply. Another ol Us 

Aadrmita it sifullalt gvc Phlml mm Xnoptmlt in 
[criar (iSii). Other pUbsophical wriiinp were CemmtnlaHe 
in PlcU»ii fai nffO /irlur Vinetm (i3o6). and PhSiiaiii dn 
Pylkiterart Ukrtn mbil da BrmhUIUkc (1819). in whkh he 
endeavoured to show the genuineness of the fragmenls. 

Br»des his edition of Ptndai, BSckh published an edition 
of the Anligone of Sophoclei (1843) with a poellnl translation 
and essays. An early and Important work on the Greek Ira- 
gedians is his Grarcar TrOfOeiiat Printipnm . . . iran ta quat 
ntrrnml it imuFnd tmnia iml tljiirma primiiha lerHfa (180S). 



t Basel on the 11 

»i), Swiss 

father, Christian 

Frederick Bftcklin (b. iSoi], wu descended from an did family 
of Scbaffbausen, and engaged in the silk trade. His mother, 
Ursula Lippe, was a native of Ibe sarae city. In 1846 he besan 
his studies at Ibe DUueldotf academy tinder Ecbumer, who 
lecogniied in him a studeht of eiccpUonal prornise, and sent bin 
to Antwerp and Bruisclsi where he copied the works of Flemish 
and Dutch masters. Bitddin then went to Paris, worked at the 

Ruin " reveals at the same time a strong feeling for nature and 
a dramatic conception of scenery After serving his time in the 
tnay he set out for Rome In XIaich 1850, and Ibe sight of ibe 
Eieinal City was a fresh atimulus to his mind. So, too, waa 
the indiience of Italian nature and that of the dead pagan world. 
At Rome he married (Junt », iSa) Angela Rosa Lorenia 
Faicucd. In 1856 ha returned to Munich, and remained them 
lour yesis. He then eihibited the " Great Park," one of his 
earliest works, in which he treated ancient mythokiKjr wiih Lbe 
stamp of individuality, which waa the basis of his lepuiaiioa. 
Of (hit period, too, are bis " Nymph and Satyr," " Heroic 
Landscape " (Diana Hunting}, both of i8j8, and " Sappho " 
(1819). These works, which wen much discussed, (ogctber witb 
Lenbach't recommendation, gained him bis appointmenl as 
professor at the Weimai academy, lie held the of&ce lor two 
yean, painting the" Venus and Love," a " Portrait of Leabaeb," 
and a " Saint Catherine." He was again at Rome [torn 1861 lo 
1S66. and there gave his fancy and his taste for violent coloar 
fite play In hit " Portrait of Mme BOcfclin," now in the Basel 
gallery, in" An Anchorite hi the Witdemeu" (186]); a" Roman 
" (bote"(i864);lhi5li 

in 1866 ta 


the gallei7, snd to paint, beudes several porlraits, " 
Magdalene n-itb Christ" (1868); " Anscrcon't Muse" (1860)1 
and"ACastleandWartioti"(iB7i). Hh " Poitnil of Myself ," 
with Deatb playing a violin (1I73), wii painted after his relun 
agtiin to Munich, where he exhibited his famous " Bitlte of (he 
Centann" (in the Basel giBery); "Landscape with Moofith 
Horsemen" (in tbc Lucerne gallery): nnd "A nrm" (1S7S)- 
FioD i87fi to 1885 BOcklin was working at Florence, and painted 


■ " Pietl.'' " ClfMa 4ad Ctiffa," " PmatAtm," ud the 
" SMTtd Grave." Pium iSM to 189) he MUkd ■! ZOrich. 
or thji period ire the " Niiaite >l Fliy," " A Sea Idyll," end 

■ Wu." AfM 189] Btcklin Tcrided U Su Domnuco, mc 
Florence. An uhibitiaD a( Ut oOkclfll woiki wei bdd at 
Bawl (ram the Mth of September to the 14th si Ocloba iSgj 
He died oa the itth of Jamaiy igoi. 

Hb life hu been writtes br Henri Hmkl»iha. Sw ir» F. 
HerBiam. Ctmaida Baa* ArU (Pant,, Iftu); Hu Lrtn, AnKU 

im): W. RUur. AnSd sSuii (CandTTw}: XoKi^ dir 
BtiUiit JiMUiiu AmiMiiHit (Bud. 1S97)- (H- I^l) 

BOCULIID, BoCKUKD or BooKLAKD (risni A.S. ict, book), 
u orisuul mode of tenure of Uod, alio called cliar(er-lu)d or 
dccd-luuL Boduid wai lolk-lud (lUted to individuili in 
private ovDenliip by ■ docuintnl (challet OF book) in writing, 
with tlK aignalum of Uie king and witenitcinot: at Erst it »u 
rarely, if ever, held by laymea. eiMpi for religiaiu purposes. 
Bocland to a certain titeni tE$embl<d (uU ownership in the 
Dodem MDse. in that tbe owner csuld gnnl it in his lifetiice, 
in tlie (une raanner as he had received it, by tec or book, and 
•bo dllpoM ol it by wIlL (See also FoLILAW).) 

BOCSEAT. ntraOl [IstvAnI (i5ST-i6o«),priace of Tnn- 
■yivania, the moat eminent meolier of the andenl Bookay 
bmlly, aoo of Gyflr|y Boeskajr and Kriutina Suiyok, was bom 
at Kiilo9vir, Hungary. Aa tlie chief councillor of Prince 
Zugmond Bitbory, be advised hii 
'"* ~x with tie CBtpetor Inalead 
' ' aponaat diptoouulc acrvi 

i Vienna. The enniHy to«ardt 

BtUioiy princes of TYansylvajiia, who confiscated hb olales. 
drove him to leek protection at the Impaial court (1500); but 
tbe attempts of the empenr Rudolph U. tn deprive Hungary 
of ber conttitution and the Protestants of their religious libetiies 
ipwdily aliensied Boakay, (specially alter the terrible ouirages 
inflicted on the Ttinsylvanians by the imperfal g»net»ls Basta 
and Belgiojoio from iSoi to 1604. Bookay, to save the inde- 
ptndencc ol Transylvania, assitlHl the Turks; and in i6oj, as 
a reward for his pari in driving BaaU out of Transylvania, the 
Hungarian dkt, assembled at Modgyes, elected him prince (1605), 
on which occasion the Ottoman lullan sent a special embassy 
to congratulite him and a ^lendid jewelled crown made !n Persia. 
Bocskay refused the royal dignity, but made skilful use of the 
Tuitiih alliance. To lave the Austrian provincrj of Hungary, 
tlie aicbduke Matthias, setting aside his serailunitic Imperii 
brother Rudolph, thereupon entered into negotiations with 
Bocikty, and ultimately the peace o( Vienna waa concluded 
Uune 1J> itoA), which guirauleed sU the omstitutional aud 
■eHliotu rights and privileges of the Hungarians both in Trin- 
qrlnnla and imperial Hungary. Bocskay, at the same lime, was 
•ckacnriedged as prince oi Trutiylvania by the Austrian court, 
•ad the righl of the Tnmylvanians loelccttheirown independent 
prinos in future was ofiidiHy recognized. The lortnss of 
Tofcat and the counties of Bercg, Sutmit and Ugocsa were at 



with rt 

lie childless. Simidlantaualy, , . 

ly oi the peace ol Vienaa, waa cmcludcd with tbe 
Tnrks. BocikayBiirvi<«dlhiiripi>]aiidunprecedentediriuinpb 
«aly a few moDthi. He ia mid t* have been poiaaned (Deccra- 
bet 19, i«oe) by Ua cbaoccllor. Hiblly Xtuy, who wu hacked 
to btta by Bocakay'a adbneita in tbe nurkcl-idate of Kaua. 


(ft. N. a.) 

in the iglh of January iitT. Devoted 
to BUOBOmy from bis earliest years, he ogerly observed the 
heavnta at a (atrel window with a telescope made by himsdf, 
•nd at nioeleea began his carm with the pubUation oi a abort 
work on ibe solar tdipse of il« 5ih ol AugiBI 1)66. This was 
iollowed by an eleowntuy treatise 00 •ttroaomy entitled 

H o( wUch led to hh bdi« iMMMatd to Barita 


mpriived plan. TheRrmlud tbefaundatiinby ldiii,to 1774. 
of the welt'knowb Asffwm fi r r jt fi JakrhuA^ 51 yearly volainci 
of which be compiled and isnicd. He bctame dlicnor ol the 
BerUn obstrvitory in 1786. witbdnw fiDB official Bte In ili}, 
and died at Berlin on the tjrd of Novoabcr aSttf. T" 
hi^y eBettive [g ■"" ' 

mtp»/Mt (iloi), ■ 

icataiafaeof iTiMO 

nebulae. In oDc ol bii BBBwion inddeDtai eany* he 

in 1776, a theety of the solar cooMitutioa simiUi 

'loped in mi by Sir WilXuB HoKblL He gavi 

cutrtncyi moteovcf, to the empirical rule know* ai " Bode*! 

r," which was actually aruuunoed by JtAann Daniel Tillu 

tVitleabeis in 1771. ItlsopiaKd by tbe atatement Ihak 

proponionite distances of tbe aevenl planets from tbe sun 

may be repieseDted by adding 4 (o each term of tbe letiea; 

o, 3. e. 11, 14, ke, Tbe itregularity wiM be noticed ol the filW 

term, which should be tl instead of o. (See Soui Sysnia.) 

See J. F. Evke, Birfii AUB^mntn (iS)7). Pl >i : H. C. Schic 
machn, Aar. Nai\. v SM, J67 (1(117): P<ip[codarS. Bug. JiUrg. 

BODS, JGRAM (died t. 1110), French Iraiairt, was bora M 
Arras in the lecond hall ol the 1 ith mtury. Very liltk ii 
known of b>a lil'i but in iioj be waa about to atut lor lb* 

crusade whca he wu attacked by leprosy. In a touching poem 
ciUcd leCox^f (pi. by hi ion in /fuwWifa/iiUiaiu (4 («lu, vol i.), 
be bade larewell to hi* (beads and patrons, and begged for a 
nomination to a leper bospil^. He wtote U Jn it Saint 
Nicoias. one of the earliest mir^le plays pr^ervcd in French 
[priDlcd in Mocmerqut and Michd'i TklSlitS"M'ii d' meytn 
W. '8j9. and for the S«. dfj biblicpkila Itamtai. tSji); tin 
Chatiim dci Saiinci (cd F. Mtchd iSj«}, four faOuudttt 
[printed in K Bartsch's AllJ'an. Btmamat <aal PmlennUtn. 
Leipzig, 1870). ajid piobibly. the eight Jailiaui attributed 10 
an unknown Jean BcdeL The legend ol Saint Nicholas had 
already formed the subieci of the Latin Ludv Sawli NiJitlai 
ol Hilarius. Bodet placed the scene partly an a £cld ol battle in 
Africa, where the crusaders perish in a hopeless struggle, and 
partly in a tavern. Tbe piece, loosely connected by Ibe miracle 
oiSainI Nicholas narrated in the prologue, cods with a wholesak 
■ his subject). The dialogue 

The CMaii. 

called ii 

■iuen in thieves 

slang, and is 



5a>i*(i, Bodcl's 




«fc belonging 

10 the 

ce. and i 

rcKMum based on 

onging 1 

the Chademigne cycle. Il r 


emagne against I he Saion 

under Cuitec 


nd or Wi 

second revolt 



rsion. JehanBodel 

to Ogicr 




ul he mentions 

he defeat of Roland 

file roma 

ce is based on 

slorical fuel, 

but ia 

of Charlemagne'! 

of the Charkmagne r 

overlaid with romaolic detail. Il really en 
liTgends— ihose ol the wan against the Saii 

rebrllioui batons, and ol Baudouim and 

French poems on the subject are lost, but the substince ol them 
is preserved in the Scandinavian versions of (he Chariemagne 
cycle {supposed 10 have been derived from English sources) 
known IS the KarlamatHutiaia (ed. Ungcr, Chriitiania, iSte) 
and Kiiitr Kurt Mainia KtSniie (Romanllak Digtnung, ed. 
C. J. Brandt, Copenhagen, 1K77). 

See alu tbe article on Jchae Bodcl by Paulio Paris in ITia, Ifa. 
it la Frana. n. pp. tes-«jB; Canon Parii, Hiam, petliinu it 
CluirUmat*t (tB6s); l«ti Ciulier. Lit ipafUs fnmflnut (re. =-- • 
edilioo. vid. iii. pp. 6so-69l), where there i> a lull mnalyiii 1 ' 
C*o«™ AjiiiiMiaivlabibllisraphy^^RM^f.-- "-- ■ 

pe. I '76, when hi 

ii> ol (Iw 

n PkiUtpt (Marbt 






BOBSnAeB (CMch PaimMy). ■ town oT Bohtnii, Auilrii, 

8j m. N.N.E. of Pngue by nil. Pop. (i^oo) io,7Aj, almost 
ciclusinly Geimaii. It i* siiiutcd on the left btai oF ihc Elbe 
a(v»iie TtuchcQ. ud it wi imporuni nilwiy junction, oin- 
taininB aba (u Aniului and x Suon cuitom-bouK. Bo<ienb>cb, 
vhidi in the middle of the 19th century hwl only a few hundred 
very important 

111 principal it 

3 inclu 

carthmvare and crockety, chemicals, chicory, chocolati. 
■neaia and picKrves, and beci. It ha* alu a veiy active tramll 

BCHinSTSDT, miEORICR VARTnt VOH (1819-1891), 
Geman auihor, *i> bom.at Peine, In Hanover, on the iind ot 
April iSig. He itu<£ed in Gdtlingcn, Munich and Beriln. Htl 

Family of Prince Galiitdn at Moscow, where lie gained a Ihorongh 
knowledge of Russian, This led to his appointment m 1A44 as 
the head ot a public tchool at TiBij, In Tcaiucaucajia. He took 
Ibe opportuniiy of hit proiimity 10 Perii» 10 iiudj Penlan 
Steraturt, and in 1S51 published a volume of ociginil poetry in 
srieotal suiie tmder the findful title, Dii Liedtr da ifina 
Sc/mfy (Englidi Iiam. by E. d'Eiterre, iSSo). The success of 
thii wtnk on only be compaced with thai of Edward FitiGeiald's 
Osur Khm"", prodnced in somewhat similar drcumstaBcei, 
but difiered fnm it in being immediate. It has gone through 
160 editions hi Germany, and has been tiaiulited into almost all 
fiteiary languages. Noris this celebnty undeserved, for although 

t attain the poetical elevjtioB ol FitiGerald, 
Us view of Bfc is wider, more iheerful and tnt« woe, while (he 
necntion Is ■ model ol grace. On Iris return from Ihe East, 
Bodenitectt engaged for • while in Joonuilisra, married the 
dmjhttrofa Hessian officer (Matilde, the Ivlliiamolha poems), 
and was in 1854 »ppoinled professor of Slavonic >t Munkh. The 
rich store* of knowledge which Bodenstcdt brought back from 
the East were limied to account in two important books, Dit 
Vilieria KaalaiuiiavlihtFrtikellt-KSinpfietttii^it R"'"' 
{1S48), and TaiBcmi md nn Tat "" Oriml (1S50). For some 
time BodeiBledt cDnlinued to devote hlmselF (0 Slavonic snbjecis, 
pnjducfng tnitslalkins of Pushkin, Lerraontov, 'Hirgwtniev, and 
of Ihe poeti of the Ukraines; and writing a Tragedy on the fibe 
DeiDetriua, and an epic, Ada dit l^gkirrin, on a Circassian 
Ihrme, Fiitding, probably, this vein eihaitsted. he eichanged 
hia prelessDiahlp in igjg for one of Early English literature, and 
pnbliihed (iS;g-rS6o) a valuable -work on the English dnnia- 
listi contcmpoiary with Shakespeare, with copious translations. 
In 1S61 be produced a standard mnsblion of Shakespeare's 
sonneti, and between lUO and iS;> pnUi^ed I mmplele 
vision of the plays, with the help of many eoadju tors. In 1B&7 
be undertook the direction of the court theatre at Meinlngen. 
■nd was cnnoUcd by the duke. AttenSyj he lived successively 
at Aliona, Seriin and Wiesbaden, where he died on the igth ol 
April 1891. Hii later works consist of an sutobiognphy [iBSS], 
nccessfui translations from Hafix and Omar Khayyam, and 
lydca and drama* which added little to his lepaUtion. 

I publlihed at 

- -- .--, . ._.. itJriiadS?!- 

■ ■TII. For fnnbcf biognpfaical dctaDs. «* Budcnitedt'i Erin- 
irmofH «i MnacM Iiln (1 voli., Berlin, IWt-tSoD): and 
C. Scfcuck. Ftiidriik m Biifufit. Em DidutrMn w uvun 
Britfta (Berlin, 1S93J. 

■ODHI VAMIA, a proH poem In elaborate Saiukritiied Pall. 
compaicd by UpatlsM In tiie reign of Mahinds IV. of Ceylon 
aboot «Ji. 980. It 1* IB adaptation ol a pceviouily eiiiting 
work in Siirhilese on tbe same subject, and describes the hringmg 
of • bcaachof tba otlehnted Boor Bodhl tree {U. Wisdom Tree, 
nndcf wUcb tha Baddka had attained wttdoni) to Ceyhm in the 
y >x. Tha Bodhi Vans* quotes vent* from tbe 
' ' • " ' ' ' '1* malnUl From other 

tbe older 

)r the P*R Text Society by S. Arthur Strong 

BAIBAKA tBBH NIltB (i8t7-tS«tV EngUife 
eaucBuonauK, was bora al Watllngtofl. Norfolk, on the Sth of 
April 1B17, the daughter oF Benjamia Smhh (1783-1^0). long 
MP. For Norwich. She early Stowed a force of character and 
catholicity oF sympathy that later won her a ptomineni place 
among philxnthropisis tnd social workers. In 1857 she married 
in eminent French physician, Dr Eugine Bodkbon, and, 
although wintering many years in Algicn, continued to lead Ihe 
movements she had initialed in bchalF ttl En^shwomen. In 
1869 she published her Brit/ Summary of Oa hums Bf EntltHd 
ttHtmiiin Wmtn, which had a useful effect in belptng forward 
the passage of the Married Women's Ptopecty Act. In 1S66, 
ccMipentins with Miss Emily Dsvies, sbe matured a icbcmc for 
■he eitension of univetiity education to women, and the Gnt 
smsU eaperiiMnI at Hitchin developed into Girton College, to 
which Mme Bodichon gave liberally of her lime and^ money. 
With all her public interetU she found time foe society tnd her 
favourite art of painting. She studied under William H. Hunt, 
and hcc watcr-folours, eihiluted (t the Sslos, the Academy and 
elsewhere, showed great originality tnd Itlent, and were admired 
by Coroc and Daublgiy, Hei London salon included many at 
the literary jmd trtistic celebrities of her day; she was Gestge 
Eliot's most Inlirotte ftliDd. and, accocdios to her, the first 
(0 leoogniu the aulhorship of Adam Btdt. Her penoaal 
appetniKi is asJd to be docribnl in that ol RomoU. Mm* 
Bodichon died at Hobettabridge, Susiei, oo Ilic iitk of Juts 

BODIir, JBAH (1x30-1596), FtCDch political pbilasopbei, wat 
bom at Angers in luo. KiTlDg stuped law at Touhiusa and 
lectured thereon jurEsprudencc, be settled la Paris as an advocate, 
but soon applied himsBlf to hieistum.' In i;jj he published hia 
first work, a translation of Oppian's Cyntiaicim into Latin veise, 
with a comawntaiy. Tile ceiebraled scbolai. Tumcbut, com- 
plained that some of hii cmendtlions had been appropiiatcij 
without tcknowledgnient. In ii88, in reintalifn of the views 
of tbe seigneur de tdalestroil, comptroller of the miat, *ha 
mWDUincd chat there had been no rise oi price* in France during 
ihe three preceding centuries, he puhlished hit iEuprmntf otf 
Pvadna UalaUtlli (Rtfouu aui paradnts de li. U^atrtil), 
whidi the first time eiploined in a Beaily sttlsCDCtary marlDM 
Ihe revolution of prices which took place in the tfith century. 
Bodio showed t more rational appreciatioa than mtny of lua 
contemporaries oF the causes of this tevolueiDn, tnd the retalion. 
of tha variatnis In money lo tbe nurket Wuet of wares is 
general at well as to the wages of labour. He saw that Ihe 
amount of mcDcy m circulation did not conslitute tlie wedlb 
of the community, and thai the prohibition of theopoitof the 
precious metaJs waa rendered inoperative by the necestltie* 
□I trade. Tba tract, the Diumri av la UBtl dt l'ulrtm4 
cktrlt qui til aiunr^iiy » Fraiut {137*}, and tbe diaquisi- 
tion on public revenues in the sixth book of the mfaW^M, 
entitle Bodin to a ditlinyuihwl poaitioa asMag the euliei 

- His learning, genial diipesition, and conventtioatl |wiKn 
won him the Favor ol Henry III. and oF hit biolhei, tbe due 
d'Alcncon; and he wt* appointed king't attorney at Laon in 
I57&. Id this year he nuinied, petformed his moat brilliant 
service lo hit cooolry, tod completed his greatest Ijleniy work. 
Elected by the ficn ilat ot Verauuidois to Ttp i miiit it in Ihe 
U*t(»«eiieral of DMs, he contended with sUll and boldness in 
eilTemely difficult cinMmslances for freedom of eonacicnca, 
justice and peaces The nobilily and dagy fsvoured the League, 
and urged the king lo force his subjects to protest the Catholic 
religion. When Bodin Found he could not prevcnl this resolulioa 
being carried, he contrived lo gel inierled in the petition dnwn 
up by the staKs the clauae " without war.'* which practically 
rmdercd nugatMy all ita other clauses. While be thus resisted 
the deigy tjid nobilily be tnccestfuily opposed Ihe demand ol 
the king lo be allowed to alienalc tlu public lands and royal 
demesnes, although the chief deputtes bad been won ovei lo 
assent. This loet him tbe lavnur of Ihe king, who wanKd Bwocy 
OB any Uaam. Is >tli haactadttteueUiy to tb* due d'Al*BB» 


■bn that prlmt mna over to Esglud u 
Qunn Eliubclk. Here he tud (be pleuure 
UptMi^mi wu iludied il London and Ci 
In a barbaroui Litin t ~" 

eA the hand oT 

:>ridge, aJi hough 

loLalin hinn 

(1 586). The 111 

which he it 


Abadcd to declare For the League in ifSg* and Ear Henry IV 
five year* afierwardt. He dicrd of ibe plague ia 1596, and wai 
butied in ihe church of the Carmeliiei. 

With (01 hi) btvadtb and Ubcnlity of mind Bodin 
cndukws beticver b Hitchctid. the vinua of numbcn i 
power of the (tin, and in ijSo he publiihed tbc Dimoni 

prejudices of the age- Hfmietf regarded by mmt of hi 
temporariei as a ace plic, and by some ai an alheut , he deni 

ditbetieve In lorcrry, and urged the burning of 

irdi. It might, perhipt. hive gone hard 
Irictly followed, ai he confeui 


have had Inm his thirty- 

if piopcrly invoked^ louched hii right ear when he purposed 

doing what wu wrong, and hit left when be mediuied doing 

HU duel wtsk, the Six livnt ii la lUfniUqiu (Paris, 1576), 
which pBiMd through •evml editions In his Lifclimc, thai of 
1513 having u an aFfwndIx L'AptltfU it Rtni lltrpin (Bodin 
Unueli), wu the fiH BwderaitUmpI to conittucl an clabonie 
syitem <i political adence. Il [• perhaps the mosC important 
work of lu kind batwaes Artitotte and modem wriien. Though 
ha wai much indebted (o AiisloiJe he used the malnial to 
advantage, addmg much from his own e ipericnce and hiiiorical 
knoiHledge. In harmony wiib tlie condition* of his age, he 
^iproved of absdute govcnunebta, Ituu^ at Ihe tame time 
Ihey must, he thought, be coniroUed by c<uuiiLi]tional laws. 
He entered into an elaborate defence oF Individual property 
•gainst Plato apd More, rather perhaps because Ihe Kheme of 
to woTi nqiitrrd the treatment of thai theme than because it 
wn practically urgent in bii day, when the eitzues of the Ana- 
baptists had produced a iirong feeling agsinst commimisiic 
doetrines. He was undtr the general inSuence ol Ibe mercan- 
tibit views, and approved of energetic governmental inter- 
ference in induurial matter*, of high taiei on foreign manufac- 
tures and loH dutia on raw materials and anlcles ol food, and 
attached great Itniwrtaiice to a dense population. But he was 
■ot a blind foUowcr ol the lyilemi he wished lor unlimited 
freedom ol trade in many cases; and he was lil advance ol his 
Vote eminent contemporary Montaigne In perceiving that the 
fain «( one nation is not necessarily the loss of another. To the 
public financa, nhich he called "the sinews of the state," he 
lievoted much attention, and insisted on the duties ol the govern- 
ment b teipect to the right adjustment "F taxation- In general 
be deaeivtatbepniteol steadily keeping In view the higher aims 
■Dd intcnstt of society fai conneiMD with the legulatlon and 
devdopment of its material life. 

Among hit other worki aie Otalit it itutitHtuda in rtpuilka 
in nnlUi (isn); MaJiidtu ed faciltm hulnrianim copiUienn* 
(i;6e)i UnoBsdt NaliuBt Tkuimm {i5?«. French tram, by 
Fongenllea, ijQjj.and tbt CelU^ium Hiptafliimirti it isidilii 
nmw nUiwiiisi oreanii, written bl 1588, published Irsl by 
Cuhmuer(ia4i),aDdlntconipleteforTnbyL.Noacli(i8;;}. The 
last Is a philosophy of ntiunlism in the form ol a conversation 
bdvccD seven learned men— « Jew, a Mihommedan, a Lutheran, 

■ Zwingtian, a Roman Catholk, an Epicurean and a Theist. 
The conclusion to which they are represented as coming Is that 
they will live together In charrty and lolention, and cease from 
further diqiutation at to religlDn. It El curiout that Lelbniti, 
who oclgiaally icgatded Ibe CMtquiuwi as the work of a pro- 
fited eaemy «t Chrittianity, tnbsequently described it at 

■ moit valuable pcadactioD (d. M. Carrijie, WriMwctjaimt. 
P- 317]- 

See H. Biudrfllan. J. Safin d m irmpi CParii. iBsi): Ad. 
Fnnelc, tUfarmtiiwfi fMiaaii-4i fEarrf (Parii. t&^l: N. 
naadHOaiilt. EmIb nr ^Hi fitdia lAnaen, ilK) ; E. de BanM- 

leiKT, Bltii imr J. Bmtm (Paria. ftTtU he Ihe polilfcal ft 

ol Efodia. see P. JanH. Hal irlauieMa petit, (ird ed.. Pari, .._... 

Hancke. S. Slaim Mri i. Btrrit i. ScutrriiiUil [Breslau. 1S94), 
A. l)irdDui.L<iUtulci>i((nri<ifiKi<ancr(iii«./ri>.(duc:FaiimaL 
SoJiii prtillirunir ir jifwufinuni (F^irii. itea): for hii puliiiaf 
ceonoai^. I. K Inpm. '/•I'- <4 Pit- Bum, (London. iSUli For 
bli cthiral leaching. A. Octjardint, Lu Unraiiutt /rnvfoii ^u 

PkUeuphj 0] Huury in Earipi (ed. i»9J). pp. 190 loll, 

BDDKIH (Early Eng. i^tJiUm. a dagger, a word of unknown 
origiu, possibly connected with the Gaelic Afo^g, a short s>nird), 
a small, needle-like instrument oF steel or bone with a flattened 
knob at one end, used in needlevwk. It ha* one or man slits 
or eyes, through wliicb cord, tope or ribbon an be passed, for 
threading through a hem or leriei of loops- The word is also 
used ol a small picicing instrument lor making holes in doth, &c 
BODLB ot 60DDLI (said to be from Bothwell, Ihe name ol a 
mint- master), a Scottish copper coin worth about ooe-iuih of an 
English penny, first issued undei Charlet U. Il survives in ibe 
phrase " not to care a bodle." 

BODLEY, CZORGB PREDEHICR (iSsi-ifo?), Eagliih 
architect, was tbc youngest son ol a physician at Brighton, hit 
elder brother, the Rev- W. H. Bodley, becomlag a weU-knowa 
Roman Catholic preacher and a proletiOi at Oscolt He wa* 
articled to the lamout architect Sir Gilbert Scott, under wboaa 
influence he became imbued with the spirit of the Cothic revival, 
and he gradually became knonn as the chief eiponent of i^tli- 
cenlury English Gothic, and the leading ecclesiastical architect 
in En^nd. One of his fint churches wai Si Micbad and All 
AngtK Brighton (iSss), and among his principal ereetiont may 
be mentioned All Saints, Cambridge: Eton Mitsion churcb. 
Hackney Wickj Oumbrr church; Ecdeston church ; Hoar 
Cross cburcl^; St Augustine'i, Pendlebury: Holy Trinity, 
Kensington; Chapel AUerton, Leeds: St Faith's, Brentfordi 
Queen '1 College chape], Cambtidge: Marlborough CoUeg* 
chapel; and Burton church. Hi* domestic work included tbt 
London School Board office*, Ihe new buildings at Hagdaku, 
Oilord, and HewcU Grange (for Lord Windsor). From iBji he 
had (or twenty years The pannerahip of Mr T. Camct. who WD tked 
with him. He also dcsi^ied (with hit pupil James Vaughan)tlH 
cathedral at Washington, D.C., U.S.A.. and cathedrals at San 
Francisco and in Tasmania; and when Mi Gilbert Scott't design 
for his new Liverpool cathedral was successful in the compelitiiMI 
he collaborated with the young architect in preparing for it* 
erection. Bodley began contributing to the Royal Academy ia 
iSj4, and in iSSi was elected A.R.A., becoming R.A- is ifoi. 
In addition to being a most learned matter of architecture, he 

lished a volume ol poems in iB««; and he wat a designer ol 
wall-papcTs and chintict for Waiu & Co.. of Bakn Stmt, 
London; in eiriy lite he had been in close alliants with the 
Pre- Raphael lies, and he did a great deal, like William Morris, M 
improve public taste in domestic decoration and furniture. Ut 
died on the list ol Oclobei t«9), at Water Eaton, Oifotd. 

BODLEV, SIR TUOIIAS ('MS-'Sij), English diptomatist and 
icbolar, founder ol the Bodleian library, Oilord, was bom at 
Eieier on the >nd ol Match ij4S, During the reign ol Queen 
Mary, his lather. John Bodlcy, being obliged to leave Ihe kingdom 

Tount ol his Protestant principles, went to live at Geneva. 

it univcraity. In which Calvin and Beta were then teaching 
[y. young Bodley studied lor a shon lime. On the accesiion 
Kn Elisabeth he returned with hit latlier to England, and 
liter entered Magdalen College. Ollold. In 1561 be wok 
\. degree.and wu admitted a lellow ol Merlon College. Id 
le read a Greek lecture in hall, look his M J*, degree the year 
oEtf r, and read natural philosophy in Ihe public sdnols. la 1 569 
he was piocioe, and lor tome time alter was deputy public orator. 
Quilting Oiford in 1576, he made the tour ol Europe; shortly 
alter hit letnm he became genlleman-usher to Queen Elisabeth; 
and iii ijS}, apparently, he married Ann Bail, a widow lady of 
oniiderablelortune. the daughter ola Mr Caiew ol Bristol la 
5S4 he entered pariiameni as member lot PoiUmouth. and 
epresented St Cemtn's in ij36. In isS] Bodley wat cntmiUd 


■iHrarjrof Navim^ Hcmi 
Ui Fiuicti (ad In i5tS be 
. . oit mhkh doBindtd fiat 
k ikill, for h wu Id tbt Nctberiiodi thM tbe powtt tl 
Spun htd M be lougbL The etinlal difficultia of bb mMmt 
wen conpliated by the iDltjgDC* of the qaccn't olnlMen ■! 
borne, uid Bodlejr repeeiedl; begged Ibel he mlghl be racalkd. 
Hcni&iHUypeiiiiltLeduiTeiiiiiiloEiiglaiuliii istt.bMfaidJnf 
hii pielenDent obitnicted by tbe ]enln( bURMa of Buiielfb 
ud Euei, he ntjied fmm public life. He wu knitted on the 
iSih of AjRil ifio4. He u, however, lemembend epcdsUy u the 
foandei of tbe Bodied >t Oilonl, pnctloUy the eiiUeet public 
tibni? m Europe i>ee LiBKAUEs). HedeteRiiiiitd,lies4id, "to 
Uke hi* fucweQ of itile employtDenU cod 10 (et up hl» lUS it 
Ibelibmr doorlnOifocd." In 1508 hii Oder (0 rcMore tbe old 
libni? wu Kcepud by tbe univeniiy. fiodlcy not only ucd 
hi* priviu fomcie In bli underuking, but Induced meny of ht> 
fliendi to Buhe valuebit gilti of bookl. In 1611 be begin <t> 
pRmaBenl oadowinent, end it bli dciib la London on the i8tb 
of January 161], the graier part of hit fortune WM left to it. 
He ma buried bi the choir of Merlon College cbipd when • 
BOBnaeBt of black and white marble itai erected to him. 

Sir Tbonaa wrote hii awn llfi lo ilie ynr 1 609. whirh, with the 
bs draft oi Che fltatutca drawn up for the library, and hia letters 
to the Librarian. Tliomaa Janm. wu oubliahtd bv TJvjnaa Heame. 
under il» tiltt ol Ktlii^iat BfUiiamai. or AuiiVii Kmaini fj Sir 
Thomas Bodity (Londont 1703. 0vo). 

XODKSE. JOHAim JAKOB (iM-wSj). Swiia-German 
author, was bora at Creifenaee, near ^tjch, on the 19th of July 
ibpS. After Ent itudyini theology and then trying a commenjal 

ap(»iQted profntor dF HcIveiLin history in ZQiich. a chair which 
he held for hall a century, and in t7jj became a rocDber of the 
" Groaier Rat." He publiahed (i7ii-i;j3), tntonjunclioii with 
J.J. Breitinf^(i70i-i7J4; and several othcn, Dit Diunrudtr 
Uaiicrn, a weekly journal alter Ihe model of the Spalaltr. 
ThiDugh hit prote tiaoslatlon ol Milton't Paradiii L$il (i;jj) 
and hu lucceulul cnduvourt to make a knowledge of Eigliih 
bteratiueacaoible to Germany, be arouied the boatile criticiim 
of Cottscbed (4.*.) and hit ichiKii, a stmggle which ended In 
the complete diusmfiiure of the ktier. lit* Dual Importani 
vrituagi are the trratisei Ken dem IVuiidefbaren in ier Fotsit 
(1740) and Kritlscht BelracUmim «ier die potliidm CtmiUt 
ia Diiiur (17(0, in which he pleaded for the freedom ol the 

paeuda-cl(isiciim. Bodmei'i epica Dit SUml/liilk (1751) and 
KtaJi (iJ5f>.wweali imitations of Klopstock's Ittniai, and 
bis plays are entlnly deficient in dtamalic qualities. He did 
valuable savin to Cerman, iiieialUR by hii editions of the 
Mitinesingen and pari ol Ihe JViMwi^enlutf. He died at Ztinch 
on the ind of January 178]. >, 

See T. W. Daniel. CMiditi uj M'ne Zrit [Liipiig. 1148); 
Ci^ir. 7. C. CcOicM, Bodmtr umt Brtilinrtr (Siuitjart, iS&j); 
F. BtsitnuiT. CeliticlWdcT hafuitcn Ttii}rTi Mid Ktuik nn £11 
Datmtm dw Jfiftr Mi nf Iniiit (l^eigBig. iKt) ; Dmliidirijt a 
Badmtn n*. CfhMUsf (ZOrich, 190a). 

BOIWn.a BiirkK town and mumcipa) boron^ in the Bodmin 
puliaiBtMaTy divisioo of Cornwall. Entjiand. the county town 
30I m. WJf.W. of Plymouth, on branchits of Ihe Great Wesien 
and LoodBO ftSoulh-Wesiera nilwoyi. Pop. (idoi) sj;]. Ii 
Be* between l*e bill* la a short valley opening westward npoi 
that of tbe Canel. at tlK_!outheiif eitiemity of the hi)^ open 
Badmhi Uoot. The Ittge church ol St Pettock, mainly Per- 
* I earlier ponion*, and a late Norman font. 
t it a ruined Decorated chapd of St Thomas of 
f. with a crypt. A tower o( Tudor date, in the ceme- 
l«y, maika the site of a chapel of the gild ol the Holy Rood. 
Part of the bultdiRgB of > Francisaa friary, founded t. iito. are 
incgiporaitd hi the mitliet-havte. and the gateway remains 
Ib an altered form. At Bodmin are ■ prisnn. with civil and 
B>nl depariniefiu, the county gaol and viyluD, the bead- 
Ipurtoi d the cDDtubulary, and thoK ol the duke of CaniraU's 

nict> ol Romnn occiqMtlaD have been looad Is tbe weatnn 
pan of the pariah, belonglin to tbe fbil cenluiy it.a PoBibly 
lin-minini wu cairitd on hen at that period. The grant of a 
charter by King Ednd lo tbe prior and canona of Bodmin 
(Bomine, Bodman, Bodmyn) hi mpea of lands in Devonihir* 
appear* In an Impaimm of iiji. To it> ecclesiastical aaocia- 
tioni It owed Its imporunce at the time ol tbe Domesday iiirvey, 
when St Petrock held the mapor ol Bodmin, wbenfai wen ibity- 
tlghi housei and one market lb sacoestive ption, aa mesDe 
lords, it alto owed itt earlieil moBlcipal ptlviktet. Kbig John'a 
charter to the prior and amvent, dated Ibc tjth ol July tt9g> 
contained k clause (tuhieqnenlly oucdleal by Richard II.] Iqp 
which burgesse* were exempt from bring Impleaded, touching 
any lenemcnLs hi their demane, eicept befoK the king and 
hit chief justice. Rlchaid of Corawall, king of the Rotnam, 
confinncd to the bnrgcstet their pld merchant, Edwaid 1. tbe 
' " ' ' " larket for tin aiid moL Queen 


1 563 CO 

a body I 

a free 

Id the 

iiponte. granting at the aa 
. . ^ . ^^ iiQi 1^^ ^j^ ^j^.^ Other 

charter gnnted 
itQ 1780, when the corporal 

.... K geneially held 

at Launcetton and Bodmin; sbua 1837 they hav* 
It Bodmin only. A court of piobau baa also been 

See nurria CnaJy HiKory. Onni£;Sir JiAn Madean. PMcW 
lord Family UiMarj^lkiDiHBy^Ttiu Mi— r. Cii a—mj volt, 


•eaport on the norlh-wnteni tsut of Norway, ta 

NoTdlandoiiU(counly),lal.67'i7'N. Pop. ( iQoe) (S*?. Tl>» 
rock-bound harbour admits large veatelt, and there b a btlak 
trade In fish and elder.d>>wn. The neighbouring country hat 

MUii/ of Sulitelma on tbe Swedith frontier, with Ita capper 
mines, broad tnaw-ficlds and g£aciera. Tbe IJoida of the district 
include the Impodng Belerenfjord, tbe Saltenfiord, and tbe 
Skjersiadljonl. at the namw Boatta of which, between iriandi, 
a naaikable eaUnct (Salttlrtm] it fomed *l the tnni of tbe 
tide. On this Iford is Skjerslad, ■ large tcattoid viltafc. 

taoomu OIAMBATTUTA (1740-1813), Italian prinier, wu 
bom in 1 740 ai Saluxzo in Piedmont, where hia lather owited 
a printing ettablithment. While yet ahoy babe^n to engrave 
on wood. He at length went to Rome, and then became a 
compositor for the preat ol the Piopaganda. He made bimMll 
acquainted with tbe (Mental langiiaget, and thus waa euUcd 
to render ettenlial lervice to the Propaganda pRtt, by lOtoitBt 
and accuiBicly dlsttibuiing the typei of levenl Oriental alpha- 
beti which had fallen into disorder. Tbe infant* Dob PeidinaiMl. 
(fterwardt duke of Farma, bavfng ettablisbed. abmt 17A0. a 
prin ting-houte on the model ol thote bi Pari*, Madrid and Turin, 
BodonT was placed at the head ol this ettabliahnenl. which be 
toon tendered the fint of the kind In Europe. Tbe beauty ol Ui 
typography, ftc.. leavei nothing further to be deaired^ but the 
inirintic wlut ol hit edition* ii teldo*) equal to their outward 
tplesdour. Hit HotfiH. however, it • inily magnificent work; 
and, indeed, hi* Gieek ktten ir 


Hk cditiana vt ihe Gmk, Uitin, luUui 
re ill highly piiml [or ttrit typognjAtcil 
>f tbcm ut not lot nmulubte loi their 

Sk Dc LuurVAi M CiHJiSvCi«itatfu(s Btim (Itl6), 
BODT-SHATCHIHO, Utc went dkintcriing oF d«d bo<Uei 

fn dnucbrtidt in order to wll Uiein Cor ihc puipoe < 

Tbait *ho jxictiied body-ciutcluDg 

» AAav 

. Prevk 

r: Hittory), i 

ol ibc Anitomy Act iSji i. 

vu nquittd in Great BHtun tor opcmng in sbbuiiiiicii 
lod tbert wu do proviiioa for iuppl>-uig subjecu lo ■ 
lor iDtloiniol purposes, llcnfoie, though bodjr-ui 
wti a misdeincuwur at comiBOD liw, piiniihAble with j 
ImpriaonmeDt, It vas a luf^iealJy lucnUve buucna to 
■ ' ' ■ * . Body^natthing bi 

id irie 

Ii (rf B deceased 
T burial, leat it 

ahould be violatnL lion coEiu, too, wi 
burial, or Ihe grave* were prolecled by ■ Irimework o[ iron 
ban called tnrrtiafa, well-preserved eiampla of nbich may 
(till be leen in Gnyfiian' churchyard. Edinbuish. 

For a detailed huloty o( body-siunchine. ne TTu Diary it a 
KiturncUenisl. edited by J. B. Bailey (London. i9o6). which alio 
coalaiai a full bihiioflraphv and the regulations in forte in roreign 
oountriea for the aapfHy of bodiei For anaioidial purposes. 

BOBCE {oa Bovci), BBCTOR (i. I4«5 - t- <SJ<>). Scottit)) 
hittoiiui, ma bon at Dundee about (he year 1465, being 
dnamleil oE a family whkh lot Mveral lenenlioni had poi- 
■eoed the banny of Panbride in Fortanhin. He leceived hii 
early education at Dundee, and completed his coiuie of study 
In dw univenity of Paio, where he look the degtte ol B.D. 
He oaa appointed legeii, or proiesaor, of philoBophy in the 
colleic ol Montaign; and there he was a cootemporary ol 
Eraamiu, irha in li*a epstta has spoken ol him in the highest 
tenna. When WiUiam E^ihinitone. bishop of Aberdeen, «» 
laying hia plans for the loondation ol the univenity ol Aberdcea 
(King't College) he made Boece his chief adviMc; and the latter 
waa penuaded, after receipt of the papal bull enctiog the 
tmivRilty (1444}, to be the first principal. He was In Aberdeen 
about ijoo irtien lectures began in the new building, and he 
appean to have been well received by the canons ol the 
catlisdral, several of whom he haa CODmeniorBled as men of 
learning It was a pan of hb duty aa principal to read lectures 
OB divinity- 
Hie ns^nenU of hia office were poor, but he abo enjoyed 
the inCMue of a canoniy at AbcKlctn and o( the vicange of 
Tullynile. Under the dale ol 14th July ij>;, we find a 
" gtanl to Maiiter Hector " of an annual pension of £jo, to be 
paid by the aheriS of Aberdeen out of Uie king') caiualties; 
and on the ttth of Jgly 1519 was aitieda "pttcept [oraletue 
to Mr Hector Boyi, profesBoi of llieaiogy, of a pension ol £sa 
Scota yearly, until the king promote faim to a benefice of loo 
marks Scots ol yruiy value; the said pension to be paid hjni 
by tbc cusiuroars of Aberdeeo." In lU) and lUt, one-half 
of hia pension waa, however, paid by th« king'a treasurer, and 
the other baU by the comptroller; and *> 00 payment svb- 
Kquent to that of Whitsuntide ijM has bt«n traced in the 
treaiorer'a actounta, he is supposed 10 have obtained the benefice 
iooo after that period. Thii benefice was the rectorship ol Tyrie. 
b isiB, soon after the puUication of hia history, Boece 
leceived the degree ol D.D, at Aberdeen; and on this occasion 
the magistrates voted bun a preient ol a tun ol wine when Ihe 
new wbMt abouid arrive, or. according to ha option, the sum 
ol /» to purthnse bonneu. Ha appears to have survived liJl 
ihe yet 1^6; loi on the imd of November in that year, Ihe 
king presented John Caiden to tha rectory of Tyrie, vacant by 
the death of " Mr Hector Boisa." He died at Aberdeen, and 
waa buried before the high altar at King's College, beside the 
(wnb o( his patno Bishop El|riiinstoDa. 

ISs earliest pnUIcitlon, Efitafntm MKntleimtiM tt 
Ahtrdntmuimm fa HtOortM BtOium Vitat, waa ixinted at the 
ptes ol Jodocus Badius (Fails, isjt). He aoticca of the early 
prelates are ol liide value, hut the portion of the book in which 
he spesjta ol Bishop Dphinstone is of enduring merit. Here w« 
likewise fiod an account of the foundation and constitution of 
the college, together with some notice* ol ita earliest rnember*. 
His fame nau chiefly on his Hisltry aS Sallamd, publahtd is 
151; under the title Sftlertim lliilenc4 c frima gnilii erigiw 
mm aiianat d mm it gntfiaai ilFuMline am nffui TUi 
edition oontaina acventeen book*. Attotber edition, containing 
the eighteenth book and a fragment of Ihe nineleenih, wu 
published by Ferrerius, who baa added u appendii c< thirty- 
five pages (Paris, 1574). 

The cnniposiliou of the blilory displays aath aUity; but 
Boecc's imagination waa, however, stioDger than bk judgment: 
of the eitcnt ol the historian's credulity, his narrative eihibics 
many unequivocal piools; and ol deliberate invention or di*- 
toriion of facts not a few, though the latter are lisa flagrant 

He proFeoed to have obtained from the monastery ol Icohnkhl, 
through the good ofliccs of the earl of Argyll, and his brother, 
John Campbell of Lundy, the treasurer, certain original his- 
torian) ol Scotland, and among the rest VeremUBdus, of whose 
•mlings not a single vestige is now to be found. In his dedicatioD 
to the king he is pleased to state that Vntmundus, a Spaniard 
by birth, was archdeacon of St Andrews, and that be wrote in 
Latin a history ol Scotland Irom the origin ol the nation to the 
reign of Malcolm III., to whom he inscribed his worli. His 
propensity to Ihe marvellous was at an early period eiposcd 
' the loUowing venes by Lelandi— 

meadacia acripst 

El l^uidiau 

Joh^£lIe*iiden. a--' - 

limited edition Bt tl.tv"copi.;"~A mi 
Ihe L./* ^ Bi-h^p Eifk-^u^. whic 

GMdyneinlSl^.remainainMH, Th,,., „,„.™.,„„ =..„„„„ l.~ 
luitc^. though the vertiona of BeUeadeo and Stewart have hccn 

BOEHK. SITI JOSEPH EDQAR, Bart. (iSn-iSoo), British 
iculptor, was bom of Hungarian parenUge on the 4lh of July 
iSu at Vienna, where his father was director ol the imperid 
mint. After itudying the plastic »tt in Italy and at Paris, he 
worked for a Few years as a medallist in bis native city. Alter 
s Furiher period of study in England, he was 50 successful as an 
(ihihiior at the £ihihitian of 1861 that he detetrained to aban- 
don the eieculion oF coins and medals, and 10 give t^ mind 
to pottisit busts and statuettes, chiefly equestrian. The colossal 
statue of Queen Vicloria, eiecuted in marble (1869) for Windsor 
Casde, and the monument ol the duke oF Kent In St George's 
ipel, were his earliest great works, and so entirely lo the taate 
his royal pa trans ihat he rose rapidly in Favour with the court. 
He was made A.R.A. in r87S. and produced soon afterwards 
)E Carlyle on the Thames embankment at Chelsea. 
was appiunted sculptor in ordinary to the queen, 
nsuing year became full Aadetnician. On the death 
of Dean Stanley, Boehm was commissioned to eiecute bia 
sarcophagus in Weatminater Abbey, end hit achievement, a 
nt statue, has been pronounced lo be one of the hrtt 
. in modem sculpture. Leas aurceasftd was hrs tnonis- 
Crneral C^ordon in St Paul's cathedral. He eiecuted 
Ihe equestrian sUtue oF Ihe duke of Wellington at Hyde Park 
Comer, and designed the coinage lor the Jubilee oF Queen Vtcloria 
igg;. Among hia ideal subjects should be noted the " Herda- 
an and Bull." He died suddenly in hts studio at South 
eniington on the 12th of December iSqa 
BOEHM VOH BAWBRK, EUGEH (tg;i- ), Austrian 
onomist and statesman, was bom at Brtlnn on the t>th of 
cbiuary 1851. Entering the Austrian department oC finnttce 
. 1S71, he hdd various pott* antU tSIo, when be beciBK 

ji Stewan. The Lsti if 

,neCliJb. Edin., t«I(. in a 

commonplace verw-rcndennB of 
"■-'- --;n by Aleaander 


tocber of pditloU ecoBOmy in the imlverdty of 
sTly o( 
«1 Ihe ^ovrmt 


nuniMTT of finiDO, 

^ iinrillorin 

mod iTprttenlttl Ihe ^ovrrntncnl in Ihe Lown- ti< 
(junliaoi oF uution. In lEi;; inil igaJn in iBqt-i 
nuDBtcr o( fiuncE. In iSgq he ms madi ■. inci: 
Uppo- House, »nd in 1901 ugain bccanw minuter 
One of the leaden o( the Auiirian school trf 
nude DoUhte criiicisnis on the iheot? of value fai fduion to 
cost u laid doHD by the " daasicsl schoot." Hnmoitlnipotual 
works ue KcpiUl and KapiloMtn (Innsbruck. 1884-1889). in 
IwD puts, tnnslated by W. Smart, viz. Cnpttoi and iMrral 
(puli., iE9o).and Tlu PentaiTliarynfCiitUal{vini..\ii>i}; 
K^ Uirx ami ilu Oat tl kit SytUm {rata. K. M. Macdooatd, 
iSgg); Kami LiUraMrt en InUral [Iraos. W. A. ScoK and 
S. Fenbogen. ifloj). 

BOBHlIB(oiBEBHEN},JAK0B(t 571-1614). German mystical 
writer. wbeK iunuDc [ol which Fedmcr gives eight CennaD 
varietie*) ippcin in En^ish Utentiire u Bocm. Bekmonl. lie, 
and notably Bchnes, w>s bom nt Allscidenbcig, in Upper 
Luiatia, a atragglinj hunJet among the hills, some to m. S.E. of 
G5iliu. Hia lather was a well-to-do peasant, and his first 
emtJoymait was that of herd boy on the Luidshnne, a hill in 
Ibe Dcighbouthood of drlitz; the only educatJQn he received 
VI* at the lowa-Khool of Seidenberg, 1 mite from his borne. 
SeMenbetf, to this day, is tilled with shocmakeis, and 10 a shoe- 
maker Jxkob was apprenticed in hi) fourteenth year (1589), 
beiox judged noi robust enough for husbandry. Ten yean later 
(1J99) wc find turn settled it C^liU as nraster-shoernakcr, and 
BBniEd ID Kathnnna, daughter ol Ham KunUschmann, a 
IhrrviRg butcher in the town. After iudusttioosly pursuing his 
vocation foi ten years, he bought (1610) the subeuntial house, 
wtkb siIQ preserves his name, close by the bridge, in the Nciss- 
Vorsladt. Two or three years later he gave up business, aud did 
BM raumc it as ■ ahoemakeri but lot aonte yean before his 
death be made and sold woolkn gloves, regularly viaitiAg Prague 
lair for this puiposc- 

Bochmc'i authorship began in hia j-jih year (1611) with a 
treatise, Aunra, odtr dit iiergmfite im Akfgami. which thou^ 
unfinished was surreptitiously copied, and eagerly circulated 
in MS. by Karl von Ender. This raised him al once out of his 
homely sphere, and nude him the centre of a local circle of liberal 
Ihinkeili considerably above him in station and culture. The 
charge of hcreiy was, however, soon directed against him by 
Ciegorius Richler. thro pastor primariiis of Coiliti. Feeling ran 
ai hi^ alter Kichtcr's pulpit denunciallons. that, in July i6ij. 

Ibe a 


uing a disturbance oi the peaix. n 

ining Bochme, tookpcssessioaof bisfragmcnury 
quano, aoa oismtued the writer with vl admonjiioB to meddle 
no more wHh sucli malters. For £vt yean he obeyed this 
injunction. But in iCtS began a second perfod ol author^ipj 
bt poured loith, bat did not publish, treatise after treatise, 
eipoiitory and pi^emicaJ, in the neit and the two following yean. 
In i6a7 be compoocd nothing but a few abort pieces on true 
rqicntance, rcsignatioo, Aic, which, however, devotiooally 
(peaking, ate tbe raott precious of alt hi* writings. They were 
the only pieces o&ered to the public in his lifetime and with his 
penniSBOn, a fact which is evidence of the essentially religious 
and practical character of hi* mind. Tbckpublicationat (jOrlitz, 
ea New Vtar's day 1614, under the title ol Da Wtf n Ciriiln, 
was tbe aignal for renewed clerical Iwatiiity. Bocbme tiad by 
this time enlertd on the third and ino« prolific though tbe 
ibonat period (ieij-1614) of his (peculation. His labours at 
thedcakwcrcinterniptediaMay i6j4bya summons to Dresden, 

was made tike occasloo of a flattering but transient ovation on 
thfi part of a new dcclc of admiren. Richter died in August 
1624, and Boehmc did tiot loi^ survive his pertinacious foc- 
Seiied with afcver when away from home, be was with dilEculiy 
conveyed to CSrliU. H'a wife was at Dresden on business; 
•nd during tbe first week of his malady he was nuned by a 

literary frtend. He died, after recainng the niH of the dusdi, 

grudgingly administered by the sulbarities. 00 Sunday. th« 
17th of Noirember. 

Doehme always pnfesicd that a direct inwaid opening or 
illuniiBaiian was the only souree of his speculative power Ue 
pietcnded to no other cevelalion EcsutK laptuits we should 
noleipect.larhewascssentiallyaPiQlestantBiyclic No " ihu* 
saith tbe Lord " was claimed as his warrant, alter the manner 
Boungnon, or Ludowick Mugglcton. no spirits or 


in the 1 


ulward lilc seemed to him to come 
into contact with the invisible world. The apparition ol the pail 
of gold to the herd boy on the Landikrone, the vuit ol the 
myslcrioui stranger to the young apprentice, the laicinalion of 
the luniiiMkus shtcn, nfkctrd Imrn a comnian pewter dish, which 
Ant, in ifioo. gave an intuitive lum to his DiediiiUons. the 
heavenly music which filled his can as be lay dying— none of 
these mallen Is connecti.'d ocgaiucnily wiih the secret ol his 
special power The mysteries of which he discnursed were not 
leponed to him: he " beheld " ibem He saw the nut of all 
mysterlca, the Unfruitd or UriniMd. whence issue aU contrasts 
and discordant principles, hardness and soflnns. seventy and 
mildness, sweet and bitter, love and sorrow, heaven and hell. 
These he " saw " in their origin: these he ■Ilempted to describe 
In their issue, and to reconcile in their eternal result. He saw 
into the being ef God; whence the birth 01 


irlay uj 

. which he himi 
his cjualiircatic 

1 supposed that the form 

Bombast von Hohenhdm, 1 

Kaspar Scbwenkfcid (149a 

and of Valentin Weigel dsjJ-lsSSI- From tbi 

Paiacrliu* came much of his puuling phraseology, 

and riac/iir and so forth,' — aphraseoic 

iped entirely 
ne mnuence of Ttici^r. 
hrsl Protestant mystic. 

His flic 

ig them often 

iwn. Thus the word Idta canea up iiciore nim 
very fair, heavenly, and chaste vir^n.** The 
which his earliest treatise is best known, was 
Wallher, These, however, were false 
help*, which only serve to obscure a difKcult study, like the 
Fiagral and luM, with which his English translator veiled 
Boehme's own honest Scireci and LnU There is dinger test his 
crude science and his crude philosophical -vocabulxry conceal the 

religious insight. Few will take the pams to lollow him through 
the interminAble account of his seven QMiUiiiUn. which.remind 
u* of Cnoslicismi or even of his three Gnt properties of eternal 

ind which certainly bear a marvellous ccsembluice to the three 
ifxaJ of SchoUing's Tite(imitih Nai<a. 

10 the n 

m his f sa 
e of his bean. Then he is arllesil 

od." The mysEiu 
wtiere Boehme's 


TV thice iwnodi tt Bocbmc'i luihonhv a 
<Bitinct itagQ In the dcvelopnient ol T ' 
hinucK nurks ■ threcfdd division of hii lubicc 
PHiLOSonut. It the punuli of ihe divine SofMi 
G«] m himiclf. thu was alleinpicd in the Aanrc 


belong, wiih oihen. Du itt 
intlMktn UbtH ia Utnah 
Vt* der (kbial uml Btatilm 
Bmmi s Thcolocu. >,• 

ise. coimolDgy, 1 
: ol [he wgild in 

I, Vmdo " 
ii atla W, 

-.kairditnt Clinui 

. ■■ the lile ol 
Ihe speeidative wntinp under Ibi^ 
bud the mal impoitant in Van ia CiudiwaaM , UfiUrmm 
Mai»mm (a iptmual cDmnimiBry on Cciuau). ^« Ciruli 
TtiUmnltn (Iht Sicnmenu) 

Allhough BMhmr'i philosophy is euentiillv theolagkd. and 
Ms tbeoh^ esseniiallir phibnuphioil. one i>t>uld hardly ikxrilx: 
him u > philosophicil [hvukigiaii. and. indeed, hii position ii 
INI one ID which either the pKilowphcr or Ihe theologian finds 
It cuy to make himietl completely U heme. The phik»opher 
finds no tncv in Bachmi- ol a toncepiion of God which resu its 
own vshdiiy on an nccord wilh ihc highest canoni of icuon or 

Cod, whom he ducoveri a* ihe ipnng of iiaiufal povcn and 
Cocces. TSihet IhiD as Ihe goal of advancing ihwghi. The 
tbeologiin is siagger«l by a lunguige which breaks ihc fined 
association of theological phrase), and sifangety (ivriMng 

tiically pi 

es God as undo mi 

laihcr ihan abou 
The (/fl^mitfof Iheuninintfnted Godhead Is boldly rcprdcnK 
in the English Innilalions o[ Bochme by the wonl Aifii. In 
sense altogether uneiplamcd byjis Biblical use. In Ihnrtrsfofi 
Caauiutt this lendeney to regard Cod as ihe mbumiia, il 
underlying ground ol all things, is accepted as a loundation 1i 
piety, ihesameview.whenefleTwl in Ihc colder logicofSpinoi 
' siical. The procession of spin lu. 

by E 

IS of I Ihrtc 

le Ufipai 
inifcsl ' 

J the Chnslian 
eahibiled in a form dcnved Ifora Ihe school of Tan 
Wcigel he learned a purely idealiilrc enplanatiDn c 


'hich II 


HI of ipiniual principle* These two ciptanaiions 
•ere fused in hit mind UU they isjucd forth as equivaleni forms 
of one and Ihc same thought. Further, Schwenklcid supplied 
bim wlih the germs o( a Iranscendeniai tiegesis, whereby the 
Christian Scriptures and the dogmau of Lutheran onhodoiy 
were opened up in harmony with hi» new-found views. Thus 
equipped, Boehme's own (cnlus did Ihe resl. A pKmary effort 
of Dochme's philosophy is to show bow materiiu powers iif 
nibstanllally one wiih moral torcca. This is Ihe object with 
Khich he draws oul Ihe dogmatic scheme which dictate* Ihe 
ariangemcnl of his seven Qudlgeiiltr, Translating Boehme's 
thought out of the uncouth dialect of material symbols (as id 
«bu;h one doubts somellmes whether he means them aa concreic 


I.M find that Boehmc 

conceives of the correlalion of Iwo 

f forces.- Each triad 

conaisis of a ihcMs, an antithesis 

synthesis: and the (we 

are connected by an imporlani 

n Ihe hidden lilt of the 

Godhead, which is at once NkU, 

Ifei, exists the original 

triad, via. Attraction, DIRusion 

ir rciultanl, the Agon 


ill Ihe dl 

nied life appoirs In ibe 
if Love, Eiptesilon, and ihcir resulunt. Visible Variety. 
As Che action of contraries and iheir itsutlani are eiplained the 
lelaiions of soul, body and spirit, of good, evil and free will; 
of the apherei of the angels, of Lvdfer. and of this worid. It I) 
a more difbculi problem Co account on this philosophy lor ibe 

baa he the smallest sympathy with a pantheistic repudiation of 
Ibe tact Q< sin. IbM lb< difictiliy pnues bin la dear Iron ihr 

pmposlva ehangea fn his atlnnpttd sohittoD of lit ptobl f . 
In the ^iiriird sMbing save good proceeds from the (/iiriiaA, 
Ihough tbeit il good that abides and good thai falb—Christ and 
Ludler, In (he second stage ol his wtiling the antithesis i* 
directly generated aa such^ good and its contrary are coinci- 
dcntly given from Ihe one creative source, as factors of life and 
mavcnKnl, while in the ihirrl period evil is a direct outcome of 
the primary principle of divine manifestation — it ii the wrath 
side of Cod. Coriesponding to Ihia change we trace a significanl 
variaiion in Ihe moral end contemplated by Boehnte as the 
object of this world's life and iiistory. In the 6rst 

adjustment of a balance 
denial victory ol good o 
dam, r675l; by J, G- Gi 
by K. W. SchlcMer (Lrip 

ly of a decline 


In mre published by If . Betk* __ 

id (Aimtentam, iWi-ibai. id volt.)] 
r. lg.l-l»47. 7 volO- Tram' ' ' 

udelain Uiia (by J. A. Her 

Dutch leomplne, by W, v, Daverland. lUi-i 

(by Jean hlaclc, 1. T«40. and L, C. de Saim-llar 
Uciween i&t4 and i66i all Bochme't workt 

> EllisuHie Id. i&5a) and John Spamw, aw 

I and Humphrey Blundcn, who paid for i 

; line rcgubr ■xieliB of Sttmnali. enl 

rivaled bui tbe vulgar. eaUeed in £iurtand 

«igcd iau iheguaker msvenieni. hol£« all 

riemk ihai •alviiion is Doihiai short o) ih 

oIChiJM ' ■ 


I. iSoo- 

HI is oolhiai shon of the \'ery proa 
ie^-cr. acid only kepr apart by an objec 
- —'---'- — -jhJ Ihcm lo the pdem* 

lie Philadelphia I 
jmlcy. *c-"h^' 



. . adiied 

lis memory, by George Ward 
im Ihedn^ef D. A. Fiehs 

art of brinfioa bb 

iag tkecfediioThL.. , 

isution was in great pan ne-cdiied 

and Thomas Lan^cakc. with plaleS I 

iDril. Mus Add. MSS. S7»7-S7M)- . 

called Law's innilation : to conplgtt il a Jih voL (tlmo, Dabtia. 

See alio J. Kamberger. Dlt Lrkn dri ilra:ictn PHrenpktt J. 
AvtwJll&U); Alb. Telp. / Si>ntiiKilrrtfr«ficIley'M«i^ (iMo); 
von Harlen. /. Btrimt tint iH AUkimian (1B70. and ed. lUi). 
For Doehme'* life in ihc Utmtirs by Abraham von Ftankcnberg 
(d. iHilandaiherhi«aa.bv F.Okety (iS;a}i La M«ic Fovqu^ 
J. Baekm. tin iiapapkiuliB Dtikiuin [lajHi H. A. Fechncr. / 
Saeimi. lelo Lt»n urf srlae Sdm/Uw <1«S7I: H. L. Maneoen, 
J. Bathmt. neatpliiiki SliMu (Copenhagen. lUl ; Gnctleh liana. 
lUj): 1. ClaasKn. J^ Baikmi^ UMUItii^iitf uimJkniafiiKki 

a district of 1 

mta\ Greece, sttetchiiig tron Pbodi 
w, ana N. to Auica and Uegaiis hi the S. 
of Euboea and the CorinibiaB Gulf. Thb 

and Locrjs i 
belw«en (he sirai 

area, amounting I 

Lake Copab lies 

casiward the line 

Ihe " Klounlain o 

range In Mts. FioUm, Mess . 

These ranges, which mostly lie cleac to the seaboard, fom by 

their projecting spurs a narrow defile on the Pbodan frontier, 

near the famous baitlebeld of Chaf roncia. and shut In Copab 

closely on the south between Coronca and Kaliarliu. Tht 

nonh-easl barrier was pierced by underground passages (iaU- 

talira) which carried olT Ihe overHow from Copals. The KWIhcn 

portion of ihe land forms a plateau which slopes to Mt. Ciihaeroo, 

lory the low ridge ol Teujneuus separates the plain of Ismenul 
and Dirce. commanded by Ihe dtadd ol Thebes, from the 
upland plahi of the Asopus. Ihe only Boeotian riwr that &Dds 
the eastern sea. Though the Boeotian dimaie suSeted fiwn the 
eihalations of Copals, which produced a heavy ainioiphare with 
foggy winters and sultry nimmen. its rich soil was suited ahke 
lor crops, plantationa and pastvre; the Cofuls plain. Ibough 
abt* to tun Into manh wbca tbe cbokiog of tba talaaiaw 


M dmtlopintnt; and the Boeoliu 
I fiMt men Hkt Fin^r, Epuil- 
Doodu, Piln^irlH tad Pluuidi, ou pmitifaitlly M dull u 
iu uuin til. Bn otdil ikotdd be fiica M ite prapfe (ot 
tk Ckvalry tad btsvy 

utunl oulleti. Tbc " BoeoUui " popuktioD itrmi to kavc 
uucred Ibe kad iraia the oonh at a diu pntably aalctlor 
to the Dona iavaitoa. With the uapUoa si Oe MinyM. 
the oiiiiH] peopio ten man abuibcd by ihcK Inmupanu. 
mod the Beeotius hencelorUi tppeu M i hsmoinRiut QaUon. 
In hiMarial Lime* tin lodipc diy ol Boentu ww Thebs. 
»hoe« oentnl potilioa ukl auiilMry itcengtb made jt a sJuble 
capiiaL It wu iJh ueuiaol ambition of tht ThcluDi toab«>rt> 
tiv cUwr tDuruhip* ioLo a m^ italc, just u Atbnu Jud 

(uily rtsiited thii policy. ADd only allDwed tbe lotDution of i 
loose fedeialioo wbich ia early tima lecnu to have poimsKi 
a merely rellgiutu characiei. Wbik the Bocoiiajis. unlike tim 
AicwUaiu. geocnlly acted u a uiiled whole agalnil foreign 
fp"m^. Ibe coa&[aal unjgglc belween (he fonei of cmtral- 
ilatkm aiul divuptlon perhipa wml hutber itian aay other 
cause to check tbtii devtlopRKOt iaio a really powerful nation. 
Boeotia hardly b^rei ia hiatory before the lale 6lFi century 
Prevknia to this iU people la chiefly kaown as the producer ot 
I type of leometrk pottery uuular to Ibo Dipylon ware of 
Athen*. About iiQ Ibe naisunce of Plalaen to the federating 
policy of Tbebes led to the interference of Atheu on behalf of 
tbc former; on this occaaioo, and Again in 507, tbe Athcniana 
defeated the Boeotian levy. During the Penum invasion of 
4&1, while lome ol the cities fought whole-heartedly in the ranks 
ol tbe palriou. Thebes assisled Ibc invaders. For a lime Ibe 
pteatdcncyol tbe Boeotian i-eapjewas taken sway from ^Thebea, 
but in 4s; tbe Spanana reinstated ihat city as a bulwark against 
Albenian atErTsuoa, Albenl retaliated by a sudden advance 
upon Boeotia, and alter the vicioiy of Omopbyls brvughi under 
its power tbe vbolc country emrpting the Ofuul. For t«i 
years the land remained under Athenian conirol. whJdi waa 
cerciMd ibrougb tbe newly installed deinocrmda; but in uj 
the oligarrhic majority raised an iawneciion. and aliera victory 
at Conoaa legBiDed ibetr freedom and tntored the old con- 
Mjuitions. In the i>clopannesian War tbe Boeoiiant, em- 
bitteied by Uw early conflicts round Plitaea. Foughl leakiusjy 
■f'T*** Athens. Tbou^ slightly estranged tmm Sparta after 
the peace of Nidas. they sever abated their enmity a^inst tbcir 
Kigbboun. They itndered good service at Syranse and 
Arginmae; but theii greatest achievetnent waa the decisive 
victory at Delium over the flower o£ the Alhetdan army (4i4>. 
in which both Iheir heavy infanCry and Ihdr cavalry diq>tay«l 
vBusual efficiency. 

About this time the Boeotiao Leagiw Komptbed devm gimips 
of sovereiga eitia and anodaied lowmfajps. each of which 
decied one Boeotarch or minister of wu and lordgn aflalrs. 
coBtiibuted silly delegates to tbe ledetal council a1 Thebc*. 
and (uppUed s coatingenl of about a thousand loot and a 
bundled bone to the federal army. A ealegnanl against undue 
cncraachmeni on the part of the central govemmenl was pn^ 
vided it) the councils at the individual cities, to which all Im- 
portam queadoBs of policy had to be eubiBllted lor ralificaliDn. 
Tbesc kial roiinfils. lo which the ptopenled daasei alone wcr* 

ftyumtii ti the Athenian ca 
pttviov EOgniaaoce «( ail tH 

Bacoiia look a proontenl part Id the war of the CorinlKan 
League agalnal Sparta, etpecially al Haliartus and Coronca 
(WS-M4). Tbia change of policy seems due mainly to the 
national resentment againtl lOTtign fnterfereiKX. Yet dif 
aEection against Tbebn i«a now growing rife, and Sparta 
loatered this feeling by itlputaling for the complete independ- 
ence of all tbe cities in the peace of Aniakidas {jSy). In 374 
IVlopidas natond the TlKhan dominion- Boeotian contingents 
foughl in all Che campatgnt of EpuninDOdu. and in the later 
wan apinat Phocis (]50-j46); while b ibc dealings with 
FhiKp of Uaodon the federal dties appeal merely as tbe tooli 
o( Thebet. The federal coistllution was also brought into 
accord with tbe democratic govemmenti now prevalent ihrou^- 
OM the land The soveKign power wu vested in the popular 
BBsembty. whicb elected the BDeotarchs [between seven and 
twelve In number), and sanctioned all laws. Alter the battle 
of .Chaeroneia. in which the Boeotian heavy infantry once agua 
distinguished Itself, (he [and never rose again 10 pmperlty. 
The deslmclioB of Thebes by Aleiander (ijs) seems to have 
paralysed Ihe politicil energy ol the Bocoiiaiu. iho*;^ ii led 
to an improvemeni in the federal constitution, by which each 
dty received alt equal vote, tlenceforth they never pursued 
an independent policy, but foUowed the lead of protecting 
powers. Though the old military training and orgamaation 
continued, the people proved unable to defend the Itoniiers, 
and Ihe bad became more than ever the " dancing. ground of 

(about 14; B.C.I Boeotia was generally loyal 10 Macedonia, and 
supported iu later kinp againil Rome. In return lor the 
(iceSM* of the democrades Rome dissolved tbe league, which, 
however, was allowed to revive under- Augustus, and tnerged 
with the other central Greek federations in Ihe Achaean synod. 
The death-blow to the country's prosperity was given by the 
devastalioos dimng the first llithradalic War 

Save for * thon perad of prcaprrity under the Frankish 
Tukrs of Athena tiro^ijio). who rrpeired tbe kaiavotkra and 
fostered agriculture. Borolia long conlinurd in a slate ol decay, 
aggravated by occasional barbarian incursions. Tbe hr^l step 
toward* the country's recovery was not until lEqj. when Ihe 
ouilcls of Copals were again pul into working order. Snoc then 
the northern plain has been largely reclaimed lor aerirullure. 
and Ihe natural riches ol the whole land are likely to develop 
under the influence of the railway to Athens. Bocolia it at 
present a Nomos with Livadia [the old Turkish capital) for its 
centre; the other surviving townships are quite ummporlant 
The population [6s,!ift In 19OJI is largrty Albanian. 

ADTHOtiTiES.— Thuc. iv. ;6.ioi; Xenophon. ^(Jlraice. iii.-vii.. 

in (he Otyrkytitlau PapTri. vol. V. (London. 190B). No. till, col II. 
W.M.Leake.l'niiiJiiiiMirfierwC'Hu.chs.iu.-aii ILonilon. iSjJ). 
H. F ToBT, Out'apkj a] dear ILondon. 18731. pp. JJJ-ijB; 
W Rhys Roberta. r*i.*rK[nijB«iilioiil iCambridge. ■'—■■ " ' 
Freemaa. Falrral Cmmimtnl |nj. 1B4]. I-ondon: ' 

I]. (Oifc 

«7l: V! Larleld. 

5yU^'iu(np(iHHi£s«lKa>ui(Betlia.iUj). (SeealsoTHI 

BOBR. the Dutch lorm ct the Eng. " boor." in iu original 
signiAcatioo ol hubandmsD [Cer. Baiter), a name given to the 
Dutch famert of South Alrica. and especially to the Dutch 
populKlon ol the TraiBvaal and Orange Rivei Suiet. (See 
Sotrrn Ariica and Txhsviui.) 

MBRRAAVB, HBHMAHH [i66S-r7]t), Dutch i^ysidaQ 
and man of science, wu bom at Voorhout near Leiden on the 
jm ol December i66g. Entering the university of Leiden he 
look hit degree In phaouphy In ibBo, with a dinerulion Dt 
iiiliaeiint wnlit a iBr^irF. in which he atucked tbe docirinei 
of Epicurus, Hobbes and Spinoaa. He then turned 10 the study 
ol medidne, in which he graduated in i6«3 al Harderwyck In 
Guelderland. In 1101 he wat appointed lecmieron the inslilutei 
• Thucydida (v. j8), in tpcaltini ot the " lour councils ot the 


ef medidcc at Lcides; In hit Intogtlnl diKtnirw, A trmmeit- 
iande HipfotraUs liiiiia, he [HOmiMiidctl lo tail pupili thu 
great physiciao as tbcii modeL in 1 709 Ik becaiDc pniator ol 
botany and mcdidnc, aod 10 lha4 c&pidly he did good wrvicc» 

bis improvcmcDU And additions Lo Lhc boiaaic garden ol Leidca. 

IpedcA o[ planla. Id 1714, when he wu appointed rector o[ the 
university, be succeeded CoveitDidloo [i6m~i)ij} in the chair 
tif practical medicine, and ia iba capndly ho had [he merit of 
Introducing the modem ayvlem ol dinicai insLniction, Four 
yean bter he was appointed aL» to llie chair of chemistry. iQ 
171S he was elected into the French Academy of Sciences, and 
two yean later into Ihc Royal Society of London. In i;iD 
declining health obliged him to resign the chain of cbcmlitty 
uid botany; and he died, after a iingtrins and painful iVaiat, 
on the 2jrd of Scpumbcr 17^ al Leldca. Ilia geniui M raised 
Ihe tame o[ the uoivcrtiiy of Lfidcn, opcdally as a school of 
medicine, that i1 became a rcwit ol cuangen From every pan of 
Europe. All ihepriDUaof Europe sent hiia dliciplci, uhofDupd 
in this skilful prolisHiiaot only an indefatigable Icacbei. bul'an 
aRecliotuLle guardian. When Peter the Great went to [folland 

the iUusiiious Boerhaave, pbyiician in Europe," and it rcadud 

Hit principal works are — Iniillnluna maluat (Leiden. i;oSU 

which his pupJ and assistant. Gerard van Swicien (1700-177111 
^blished a commenlary m j vols. . and Eiamla dumiat (Puis. 

BOETHUS. 1 sculptor ol the Hellenistic age. a naiivr of 
Carthage (orpo^ibiyChalccdon). His date cannot be accurately 
Sued, bul was probably the 'nd century B^. He was noted for 
hi* teprcsenia lions ol children, in dealmg with whom earlier 
Creek art had not been very luccessful; and especially for a 
group Rpresenting a boy It nigghng Hi lb a goose, of which several 

(c. fi-D 480-514I. Roman philosopher and suiesman, described 
by Gibbon as " the last el the Romans whom Caioor Tully could 
have acknowledged tot their couniryman." The historians of 
the day give us but imperfect records or make unsaiislaclory 
allusions Later chroniclrrs indulged in the licijiiaus and Ihe 
marvellous, and it is almost eiclusively from his own books thai 
tnislwortby information can be obtained. There is considerable 
diversity among authorities as to his nsme. One editor ol his 
De CniiBtaliont^ Bcrlius. ihinks that he bore the praenomcn ol 
FTavius. but ihcrt ia no aulhorily lor this supposition. His 
father was Flavins Manlius Boctius. and it is probable that the 
Flavhis Bociius. the Piacionan prefect who was put to death in 
a.O 4SS by order ol Vnlcntinian IIL. was his giandfather. but 
these facts do not prove that be also bad the pracnomen of 
Flavins. Many of the earlier editions inserted the name of 
Tarqualus. bin it is not lound in any ol Ihc best maniuciipts. 
TlielBst name Is commonly written Boethiits, from the idea that 
it is connected with the Greek AnfAn: but the ben manusciipis 
■free in reading Boetiui. 

His boyhood was spent ia Rome during (be reign of Odooctr. 
We know nothing of his early yean. A passage in a tnaiise 
labely ascribed 10 him {Di DiuiplM Sdulariun) and a mis- 
inlerpretatfon of a passage In Caisiodi 

s. but tl 

10 lou 

this opinior 

Mate* thai, when he was bereaved of his parent, men o 
highest rank took him under their charge (ZJi Cm. lib, ii. 
c^iedally the aoutor Q. Aut. Memmina Symmachus, 1 
danghtci Rusiidsna be married. By har he bad two 
Anidus Manlius Sevcrlnui Boetius and Q. Aureli'us Mem 
SjrtDmachus. He became a favourite with Tbcodoiic, 

OMmgoth. wbo raled In Rone (ronr $so. *Bd «m en* at hb 
intimate Irinda. Boethia wucoondfo 5(o.udUsi0Bt,wUla 
■till young, hcM the aane bmoiu logetker (51)). Boethu 
ngudcd it aa the hai^t ol hb good forttme when he wttnessad 

his two ions, consuls at the same time, convoyed fnm tbeir home 
10 thcBCDaie-haiBeamJdtiieenthudaimoltheniaaaa. On that 
day, he teUs us. whUe his ions octopiod the curule chain fn Ihe 

', be taimieU b 

I hit good fortuiu 


his Dppoii Hon 10 every iqipresiive meaaure. Of this be mentions' 
particular cases. A famine had begun to rage. The prefect of 
the praetorium was detemiined to satlafy the soldiers, regardless 
altogether of the fecUn^ of the provincials. He accordingly 
issued an edict for a cDcm^v, that is, an order compelling the 
pioviiicisls 10 sell thdr corn to Ihe government, whether they 
would or not. This edict would have ntierly ruined Campania. 
Boetius interlered. The case was brought before the king, and 

And he gives as a crowning instance that he exposed himsdf lo 
the bati«d of the inlormer Cyprianua by preventing (he punisb- 
racct ol AlblDue, • nan ol consular rank. He nentiona in 
another plafe Iliat when at Verona the king was aniloua to 
transfer the accusation of tnaion brought against Albimis to 
the whole senate, he defended the senate at great risk. In 
coDsequcnce of the ill-will that Boetius had thui roused, he was 
accused of (reason towards Ihc cad of the reign of Theodoric 
The charges were that he had conspired agaiitst the king, that 
he was aniioui to maintain Ihe Integrity ej (he senate, and to 
resiore Rome to liberty, and that for ihis purpose be had written 
lo the empeiw Justin. Justin bad, no doubt, special reasons 
lor wishing 10 me an end to the reign ol Theodoric Justin was 
onhodoi. nxodoric was ao Arlan. The orthodox suhiecta oT 
Theodoric were suspidoui of their niler: and many would gladly 
have joined in a [Jot to displace him. The knowledge of (hli fact 
amy have tendcnxj TheedoHc mspidon. But Boctiui denied 

integrity of the senate. He would fain have desired liberty, bul 
all hope ol It was gnne. The Ictten addressed by him to Justin 
wett forgtttes, and he had not been guilty of aj . 
Notwithstanding his innocence he was condemned ai 
Tidnum (Pavia) where be was thrown into prison. It was during 
his confinement in this prison that he wmle his iamous work Dt 
CaniMim F/iUaicpkiat. His goods were confiscated, and after 
an imprisonment of considerable duration he was put lo death in 
SI4. PrDCDiriu* relates that Theodoric soon repented of his cruel 
deed, and that hjs death, which took place soon after, was 
hastened by remorse lor the crinte he had committed against fiis 

Two or three centuries after the death of Bocllus writers began 
to view his death as a maityrdoni. Several Christian books were 
ascribed lo him. and there was one especially on the Trinity (see 
below) which was regarded as proof that he had taken an atrtivc 
part against the heresy of Theodoric II was therefore for his 
ortbodoiy that Boeilui was put to death. And these writers 
delight to paint with minuteness (he horrible tortures to which 
he was exposed and the marvdlous actions which the saint 
performed at his death. He was locally regarded as a saint, buf 
he was not canonized. The brick lower in Pavia in which he 

country people. Finally, in the year 096, Otho IIL ordered the 
bones of Boctius to be taken out ol the {dace in which they had 
lain hid, and to be placed in Ihe church ol S, Pietro in Ciel d'Oro 
within a qilendid tomb, lor which Gerbcrl, afterwards Pope 
Silvester lU wrote an inuripiion. Thence they were subsequently 
removed to a tomb beneath the high aliar of Ihe cathedral. It 
should be mentioned also that lomc have given him a decidedly 
CbrisUm wife, of the name of Elpii, wbo wrote hymns, two o{ 
which are still eitant (Daniel, Tkcr. /f ym. L p. i;6). Thiilis 
pure supposition inconsiilent with chronology, and baaed otily 
on a miunteiprelalion of a pusace hi the Oe CtnulBllrm. 

s si BonhB Kfintod him ti ■ naa of 
_ Ptildln the gnmnuRui ipaks ol tun u 
hivins ktUiiKd tlie luminit ol boncsly and ol lU idcnco. 
CuaodDnOt augitUr^tisniM uiuler Tlwodof jc ^ad ihe inilmalt 
AcquiotBBCE of the phiLouphcr, emplaya lan^uAge equally 
suodx. ■i^ EnooditiA, (he bishop ol Pavia, knosn do boujidt 
(or his ■dminiioa. Titwdoric hid > prafound ropcci for hit 
KKHtificibililie*. Heemployeil him in Klling right ihcioiiugc. 
When he visited Rome with Cuaibald, king of the Bur^ndiani. 
be took him to Boctiua, xho ihotred them, imongsi tr 

lorriCDBMAitdiwuuiani^hed.uid, it thr nqucti oITheodo 
Boctius had (o fmp*it olbrn o( > limilar tulun, vtiidi w 
■eol u praents to Gunihaid. 

Tbc fame ol Bocliiu iDcreaied after hli death, and his iniluci 
dutini the middle agci wu eiCHdingly powcrfuJ. Kis circu 
stiacB peculiarly Fivourcd Ihii influeoce. He appeared ai 
lime wlini conternpt (oi inlellcciual punuiu had begun 
pervade wciely. In his earfy yan he was seized with a p 

IhrDugh life. Even amidst the caret ol the consulship he fun 
tine for cDranentinf do the C-iUflti OS Adilotle. The ii 
laid hold at him of reviving the spirit ol hii countrymen 
imbuing them with the tlioughls ol the great Creek oritf 
He formed the resolution to transtaU aU the work* <A AritloJe 
(od all the dialogues of Plato, and 10 rKondle the philowph 
of Plato with that of Amiollc lie did not succeed in all ihi 
be designed: but he did i great panet his mock. He translate 
I«to L«tiii Anttotle'i A^ytict Priara it Peslaiart, (he Topic, 
tod Elciuii SafiiilUi; andhenrotecommenuriesan AHsIoile 
CaUgoria, on his book r<pi ^pqniai. aisa a cOEnmealAry o 
the /jdffffe of Porphyrius. These works iurnicd IdsU^ec: riirr 
[he source fiom which the middle ages deiivol Ihiir knowledg 
ofAiiitotlE. iSeeSubi, ArUuiiUi badcii Ri>me"t,pp. f)6-iu 
Boetiui wrote also a cominenliry on the Tafiia of Cicero; an 
he was alio the author of IndcpcndcDt works on logic:— /niri 
inttia od Calefancia Sylleiiimei, in one book; Di SyOeiitmi 
CMttieritii, in two books; De SjOetiimii HypeUMuii. in Iw 
books; Dt Dmiim, in one book; Dt Dffiailimt, in one boot 
Dt DiSamtiis TtpUis, In lour books. 

We see Iran ■ slalemeni of Cusaodonu that he fumishc 
manuala for the quadrlvium of the ichaoli of the middle ages 
(the "qiutluormalhesecadiscipllnae," u Boeliui calls Ihen) on 
aritbuietlc, music, geoautry and ulronomy. The statement 
•f Casilodorui that he tnniUted NiCDmschiis Is rhetorical. 
Boctius binuell tells ut in his preface addressed to his father-in- 
law Symmachnt thai he had taken Uberties with the test of 
Kicomachlit, that he had abridged the work when n««tsary. 
and that be had Introduced fomiulae and diagrami of hxs oivn 
where be thought them useful for bringing out the mcining 
Hit work on music also It not ■ traotlalioD from Pyihagoiu. 
who left DO writing behind him. But Boetiut belonged to the 
school of musica] writers who bated their sdeace on the method 
o( Pythagoiaa. They thnighE that it wis not lulicieat to trust 
to the ear alone, to determine (he principles of music, as did 
practicnl mntician) like Aiiitoicnn, but (hat along wlih the 
ear. pfayjical eiperimenti tbould be employed The work ol 
Boetiua it bi five booki and Is a very complete cipositioD of the 
•ubject. It hng remiined a text-book ol music in (be univer- 
iiti« of Oiford and Cambrid^ It is stQl very viluahls as a 
help in ascertaining the prindplet of ancient music, and gives 
as the opinkHis of tome of (he be^t ancient wrilcn on the an. 
The manuscripts of the geometry of Boctius dlUer widely Irom 
each other- One editor, Codolrcdus Friedlein, thinks that (here 

ol Boetiin It hi* book Dt CtHotaiUmt Pkiteiapkla: Clhbon 
justly describes it ti "a golden volume, not uaworthy of (he 
leisure of Plato or Tully, but which claims incanpanble oierit 

The high icpuiaiic 

it had in medieval ti. 

Ihe work of Boctius. He published (he Ari^Mtmtlrw. in two 
books, as given in these manuscripts; but ciilicj ere generally 
inclioedtiidouhithrgcnuiitenessevenofthrse. Professor Rand. 
Ceorgiut Emtl and A. P. McKinlay regard the Ari as ceruinly 
iDButheniic, while Ihey accept the taurfnuita EadUtt (see 
works quoted in bibliography). 

iheCieai.aad Robert CrMieLesie, bishop of Lmcoln, commenied 
m it. Alfred UansUtcd it into Aogio-Suon. Versions of jt 
ippeared in German. Freoch, Italian. Spanish and Creek before 

igst others Queen Eliiabelh Irmnsl 
■cU known to Shakespeare- It w 
men of PnnrencaJ litermtuiv. 

in of ■ umiUr K 

boots. Ill form I* pfcvtiir. 

k by Ml 


The verfc show* great faeiiiiy of mctrtcal cofflpositiun. but a con- 
siderable portioq of it Is transferred from the craRcdm of Scr>eca. 
The ArM book opens with a feit vena, in which Boeiiut dctcribea 
how hn sorrows ud brought him loa orenarureold age. Ai he la 
thus LajoeAtiag. a woman appears to nin of dignified mied. whom 
he reco|niin as hii gutKba*. PhUoMphy. She. raolviiig to apply 
the RiMdv lor hia irief. queMions him (or that puipoK. She findi 

himidl it. tni (his abeence of lelf- knowledge is the cause of hia 
weakness, la (he Kcond book Philowphy pmcnit (o Boetiua 
Formne. who is made to state lo him (he blessuigs be has enio^. 
and after thai proceedi lo ducwis with him (hskJMof blctMOgsthai 
foftuiK can bestow, which arc ilbown to be unsatisfutory and un- 
certain. In the third book Philosophy prom ues to lead him to true 

hiitheat good, and (he hiahesi good is (rue happiness ■"--■' 


Id I 



It Eosd. The t..., 

free .Jl end God si 

lure ol God. Bi(en>pts to show 

1 lorekikowleB spenaior ol tli 

ling rewards to (he good and 

. riiriiiian booka Peiper thinks that the first three iieatitei 
ate ihe pmlueiiont of the eariy vtan of Soeriut. The first, Dt 
Saiuia tntiMit, is addreued (o ^moiachut (Domino Patri Syn- 
maehol-and (he mutrol (he ihart discuttiun, whichiiof wiabttraci 

1 Filiut e( Spiriti 
■demur." Thb tn 

af the Oeiiy, 

ume. The ihirtTlKallse bears ihe thti.'Oiiini* 

HHhint dittincilv Chrisiii*. and it eoniaint nothing of 
■ahiti ihatjt is pcoha 

I Boetiut. Ihey are 10 be (nardeduiii 
'mmachut and John (whosiiterwirds b 

ihelirtl'fruiitof hUtti 


inally boa tn tbr ttilt The Foorth book h (In) bm 

■ ■8 

■M htvv onfiiun 
(ouDd in thclini 

Jta^uiWUiiJ^ .'S'lounh *n 
ClUri Etlyilirm a NrOini'M. 

«x)l«no(-- ■ -- ■ 


ClulcDdaii |4ji;. ThtiRi 

ITiTpnliata aioR pnbabk Ihit BmJiu 
ChriuiMB uatbo. paniculaily u ihty in 

liKU>R iIk onhsdiu [aiih of Ibe cburch in ommlioa in i) 
AiSa lidefy, (nd ihae ihm phi >b uniniiitlub> linpupt tl 
Bnamiaa H Ihc Holy Spini (rDm both Fiifitr ind Son. Tl 
tounh argtm lot ihe unbodov belief ol the two naium aikF or 
penen of ChriH. SVImi ihe ilai™ aro* ihal it ihoiiM be believi 
that Boctjni perilled Irom hiloppnailioil lo the hertiy nl Theodoo 

thil wiOfHivd Uct- The work* may rttlly Ka« ' 
one Boeii«. • buhop ol Alric, u Jc-'-'- - 
Siiai Sevenriii., i> Kitnch o)ii]o:ture 

lurdain Hippo*i4« nr by H 

Important and. tf nnulnet decis'vv pKKfenc? upon tlua poini it 
(HotiW by a PMMBt in Ibe .< «ri*omi H»M*f I. a fraimrni conuined 
ina ioih-«a<iiry NfS. (ed. H. UK«s,Uipil|, i«;7y Tbeinir™' 

Ehe nnpomnl woeda bcinc '" Sciirui [u. Bmiiu) libnim dc nncu 

lIKb. bovcocr, lieW lh« iSb •»• n copvial'i iIob. hannDniiint 
wkb the ncdvid Boetlua kfcod, wtaicb Kad beea IruaferrBl to 
the no, and did sot cDOBJer that U ouiweighBl ibe oppoaiBt 
Eatmul evidence Iron D4 Caiu- PkiL 
EninOHB,— Tbc im coDectrd ediiioB of Ihe wuki af Boetlui ma 

MbvH. bdiL, liiv. (Paria. titfi. 01 Ibe numeivua edkkuu ol 
Iha £V i^u^iau ihe bcai are iluae oT Thnodorui Obboi 
ll4J)(ndR.Peipei(L«piii[. iS/i). TbebHaHii ' 
«■ the Ufa and vriunfa gf Boetiu^ on hia nlicioi 

The un a<"i'lg''^^£d '.aa ba^^n S luUw'Toj'laiun™ M*^ 

tobecollatKL Inaddiikjn to an acxount ol ihe MSS. naed. ii fiva 
(he Book o( Lupin. "Oe Mnrii Boeiu.'" tbi-'Vita Doetii " coBUiacd 
la (onie MSa. ^ EU^ BoMii." and a ihan liu ol ihecoonnniuion, 

el which mention baa bflen made above King Airml'aAng1i>Saxan 
vnaion ol ItH Dt Camilaliaai. wilh lilenl Engliib Innalalnn. 
■oira and ckiaanF, na publiahed by S. Foa (laij) tad araia by 
W. J. SeditMd ^foo): thai of d Colvilk (Colvite. cSdml, 
lUM ™ miuUiahed by E. B. Baa (i«97)i iniulaiion (mimd 
Me and vvae) tti H. K. Janea (1S91V 0<Mii Eliabetb-a 
*' EiKUahiiwa " <na Rprimed In il»; on ibe iiyle. aee A. Eflfel- 

bnciu in SamnutB. Sir Wina JtZ^ -•- "■■ '-"— ' ' 

ivjt. JIttDl liulUIIIKnuAnlkmiti 


a. Z)( /uftfWlM 

Harwari CluMiiOl Slltiia, IW7; M. tanlor, 
ojii. L. Leipna. rA^; G. Friedlein, C^Arrl. 
lai, Mibldu iKfuckn Zr/a" *" ' '"' ' 

, .,m, Ertaneen. 1B61, 

ire ediied by C. Friedleio {Lcipu'r. 1U7) : Gernian tranibtion ol the 


(Leipiig. 1877). 

■nenlFv, ae> J. C. 

rt.' teltiu: « Euay (Edinbuigh, 
cr foaadm. iL blc iv. th. liL IIM); 
a dtr /.«. in UimUari, I iitig); 
a Ldaralm (EnC' inna.. 1900J, I47A' 
•Drka. S Braiidl iaTkatlMi.ltU. 
4->n. and A. P. MeKinlay. aa aba>«. with nia: 

., ..., , in.'DirOripH^i'nSina'iiu 

:umt ii Sotir {iaiit):Cuion Bonaier. " Lc Chmiianiami 
in ^a«'«J del SaHWj (1M9I. pp. m»-4&ii A. HiUe- 
ikiui aad Hiaa 5icUa>( aua CVuitwaBH (Rafeaabiiri, 
Scheppa. " Zu Pmida-Buelbllll de &de tatholica." IB 
ZeuuW/ar wiunuht/Uuika TVafiiii, iwvUL [1I95). 
BOO llniin 1(. and CaeL lietaik, liet, lott), 1 tiact of salt. 
•ongy, Walei-logged ground, compoied ol vegetiiiaii, chiefly 
otaei, in vniioua lUgca of decompoiition. This veteublc 
Alter when panially decompo&cd lofuu the aub&uzice knoiitl 
" peat " If.*.)- ^Vhcn the accum illation ol vater ia rapidly 
creued byea<tiaive rain/all, there 11 a dan^r of a " hO£-fUde," 
" bog-bunl." which may obliterate the oeighboutiiit culli- 
..itedLand withftdepcaitol thecontcolaol thebo^ D^iructive 
bog-ilidca have occurred in Ireland, auch aa thai ol the Knock- 
nageeha Bog, Raihrnoic. Kerry, in itgfi, al Cutletea, Roa- 
I, iQoi. and al Kiln»re. Calway, igo^ 
' ii a Fnnch game of cardt called ~ bog," laid 10 be ol 
Italian origin, played with a piquet pack on A table with >it 
visioni. one d i^hlcb is knovn by the name of the game and 
rmi the pool ll waa faihionable during the Second Empire. 
rain-writer, was bom at Jankowc in Lover Sileiia on Ihe jth 
September it-QO. Al first a page al the ducal coun gf Stie- 
'eissenfeli, he neit studied bw and theology at Jena and 
ille; but ill'bealth preventing hii prcieimeni be aeltled *l 
Clancha in Silesia, where he founded an oiphanage. After 
" ~ ' KSstriu, and from 1740 to 1745" ^ court 

of Chiistiaa Ernst, duke ol San-Coburg, at SaalfeU, be made 
his home at the Waisenhaus (orphanage) al HaDe, where he 
engaged in spiritual work and in composing hymns and aacred 
songs, unlii his death on the 15th ol June 1774. Bogatzky^s 
chiel works are CMtna SdattUiOaa ttr Kinder Cellei (171S}. 
wiiich has reached more than sixty editions; and Dbuni ict 
Cltttditkal i* alUtlei tatllkktn Litdm (1; jo). 

Boiatiky's auioliiofTaphy — luhnilim] m ~ 

idelbefi. 1^46) . 
■k (London. tUw- 

and Ledderhoae, 

BOOBAZ KEDI. ■ small village in Aaia Uin 
Yiugnt in the Angora vilayet, remarkablo (or the mini and 
rock-sculpiurea in its vidniiy. The ruins aiv tboae of a i^dinj 
dty of the orknial type which flourished in Ihc pre-Gteek 
period; and they an genenily idenlibed with Pinia (f.a.), 

place taken by Cnxms after be had crossed tbn Ualya 

lerodotus L 7«). 

BOGIB. % norlhcni English dialect «ord o[ unknown orisiii, 
ip^dicd to a kind of low truck or " IroUy." In railway engineer^ 
ing it is applied to an imdei'tnjck, most freqocntty wiih |ouf 
wheels, which is olten provided at out end ol a locomotiv* 
or holh ends ol a carriacc. Il Is pivoted or swivelled on the 
main liamcs. 10 Ihal it can turn relatively to the body of the 
vehicle ot entf ne, and thus it enables the wheels readfly to lollow 
the curves of Ihe line. Il has no conneiiaB with the series bl 
words, such as " bogey " or " bogy," " hogk," " boggle," 
"bogart" (in Shakespeare "hug." "bugs aul goblins'^, 
which lie probably connected with the Welsh timz, a spectre; 
hence the verb 10 " boggle." prcfieriy applied to a bone wbicb 
allies al supposed qjecties, and so meaning to hesitate, binigle. 

BOailOll, a seaside loort io the Chichester puUamcntuy 
division of Sussex, England. AS m. S.S.W. from London by the 
London, Biighlon tl South Coast railway. Fop. ot urban 
district (1901) CiSo. Besides the parish church (here is ■ 
Koman Catholic piloty and church. The town poisesta a pier 
and promenade, ■ tbeatie, assembly rooms, and numerous 
contileicenl home*, iochidiiit an esublishment belonging to 
the Merchant Tiytots' Company. The church ol the moihei 
parish of South Benied is Noiatan and Early ""gii^h. uul 
retains a fresco of the i6lh century. 

B0a6, a town o( the pnvinn of CebO, island of Ceb£. Philip- 
inne Islands, on BogA Bay at the mouth ol the Bulac river, id 
the Donboat part at the Maud. Fop. (i«iu} it^ij. Th# 


datlt it bM bitl ballhy. The Hinouadini eeanur it («nile. 

producing lagu, IndUo coni» Ind nupuy in abiindAncci tic«, 
aao md (ruit* irr «J>o pioduccd. Hiu. buktU, dathi ind 
nil* ur mvca lod uc uponcd lo ■ liniiud (lunii inuU 
quimiiiin of (opn *ic i1m tiporud. The fiihcnn >it of 
cKisidRiblt loai imporuace. Tbc lanfiUfc ii Cebb- Viuyu. 

BOOODDKHOV. » loitn ol Ruuia, in ihe (ovcmmtnl of 
Khtrkgv. 45 n. try lul N.W. of the cily d[ lh*l name, in 4«' 58' 
N. lit. and jfi'g'E.loDii.. ■» formerly forii<ied. P0P.US60] 
10,111-. [>49tl I i^iS. There leemi to bivc been ■ mtlrminl 
«s Uiii lile » eul]' u 1571, In 1709. m the ilmeof the Ruxw- 
Snduli War. Bogodukhov wu Ulcen by Mcnihikov and Ihe rm- 

ud Itttred goiriB ire minuriftured. and ^rdening ind Unning 
tn carried on. The tndt ii principal I y in gnin. ciltle and bh. 

WMnrU. the name of an ancient reiiKiouI conimanlly 
■bich hid ita orijin in Bulgaria, tt 11 diflicult ta ucrrUin 
wbclhiT the name ma taken Iron) ihc npulrd loundn of Ihal 
Kn.acertainpspcBogumii or Bogomil, or •hrthcr he aanimed 
llal HDe alter it hid been given 10 the whole itct. The mrd 
ii ■ direct tiaralation into SUvonic of Uaindiami. Ihe Syrian 
aanr at the lect c«Tti|iondinK 10 the Crnk Euchita*. The 
Bapxnili art kkntiScd with the MaoaJiaiu ia StaTonic docu' 
oenli Dl ihe ijih ceoTury. Tliey are dw known aa Ffrlittni, 
U Piulidana. Il i> a ramplicated Uwk to dctemtine the true 
clunritr and ^he tencia of any arKienl lect. conaideTing that 
llmoil lU the information that hat nached u> hai come from 
ih apponenia. Thr heretical litnaiuTT hat to a great exlenl 
eiiicr periabed oc brtn completely changrd: but much hai alio 
unrived ia a modi&ed ivrlltfh ffirm or tJsrough oral iTaditkm. 
CovTrning the Bogomili aomrthing can be gathered from the 
infomution collected by Euihymiua Zygadenui In the iiib 
ccntuiy. and from the polemic Atcinil lit Hirrlii) written in 
SlivonicbySt Koimaduringiheiothantiiry, Thcold Slavank 
liiuof forbidden books of the i;ih and i6Lh ceiituriet *1u ipvc 
ui a clue to the ditcoviry of Lhl> heretical literature and ol the 
BmBi the BogORiili empioyed 10 cairy on their (sflpaganda. 
Uuch may abo be kirnt from the doctrinea ol the numeroua 
tentlaJ tent which iroie In Rusaia ifur the nth ceniuiy. 

The Bogomih were without doubt the conncclingjink between 
tht KM^led heretical aecu ol the Eait and ihoie o( the Wat. 
They were, rtioirover, the moti active agcnta in dnacminaiing 
iKli teacbingi in Ruuia and among all (he natfawi of Europe. 
Tliey may bive found in uune placn a toil already prepared by 
■Qorf ancient tcneta which had been preterved in tpite ol Ihc 
ptnecution cF the official Chuich, and handed down Irani the 
pniodof primitive ChiiiLiani I y. In the i2ihand ijih cinluiiei 
lh( BogDmiU were already known In the Weit la "Bul^." 

le the lo 
[ion il made ol the " Pope ol Ihe Albigenii 

pRisd mention ii made ol the " Pope ol Ihe Albigenici who tetided 

•ilhin the 

tht Waldeiacj, the 

Molokini and Dulhoborui, (uve ill at ililJertm tunej Been eiuiet 

idtniiEed with the Boeoniai or doiely connected with them. 

0«hi'«(,— From the impeilect and conflicting data which are 
ilone available one pceiiive leaiill can be gathered, via. that 
IhtBogDmilawtteboihAdoptianiitatndManichaeini. Tbeyhad 
■ccipted the teaching of Paul of Samoaita. though at a later 
Ptriod the name ol Paul wai believed to be that ol the Apostle^ 
■ hd they were lol quite free Inun the Dualitlic principle ol 
^ Cnoilici. at a later period too much identified wilb the 
'nching of Mani. They rejected the pneumatic Chrittianity 
ol Ihe onhodoi churtha and did not accept the docelic teaching 
<f ume of the other lecta. Taking ai our itanJng-poinl the 
■oching of the herelical lecti in Ruuia. notably tboie ol the 

^Id by the Bogomils. we Bnd that they dented the divine birth 
<* Christ, the personal (oeiiiLcnce ol ihc Son with the Father 
■"d Holy Chosl. and the validity of sacramcnli and ceremonies. 
"It minda performed by Jesus were interpreted in a spiritual 
*tu<. not at real mateiial occumncet; the Chuidi wu the io- 

lerior tpiriUid ckaid t> ahich aU held eqMl Abb. Bwlka 
wai only 10 be pnttiied on grown mcB and women. The 
Bottomili repudiated inlani bapiism. and considered the ha|>- 
lisrrul nu 10 be o< • apiriliul cbarsctn ncitJKi by water nor by 

oil buibyielf.abDeiaiiaD.pr«yenandchanliiig e( hymns. Carp 
SicigolnilL who in the laih century preached tbit doctrine in 
Novgorod, eaplained thai 5i Paul had langht that timple- 
ntindcd men should Jnttruct one another, iherelare they elected 
their " leicbcra " from among ibcmselvet to be ifaerr spiritual 
guides, and had do special prietls. Praytn weri to be said in 
private bouses, WM in tepuate buildinp such aa churcbo. 
Ordination »a oODferrcd by the CDDgregalion aod not by aay 
(pcciilly appoioted miuBlci. The cangtegatioa were the 
" elect." and eticb member could oblain the perfection ol Chrfat 
and become a Christ or " Chiisl." Mairiage was not a sacra* 
menL The Bogomlls rclUied 10 Fast on Mondays and Fridaya. 
Tbcy rejected nwnachism. They declared Christ to be the Sua 
of Cod only through gnce like olher pro[4ielB, and that Ihe 
brud and wine of Ihe eucharisi were not iniosfonned into 
flesh and btoodi that Ihe lut judgment would be eiecuted 
by God and not by Jens; (hat the image* and the ciob ven 
idols and the worship of talnti and relica idolatry. 

Theu Paulidan dodrinet have survived in the greal RtmiaD 
sects, and can be traced bach to the teachiDp and practice of the 
Bogtunila. But in addition to ihcac doctrmca ol ai 
origin, they held the hlatuchaean dualiilic conceptio 
origin of the world. This has been partly preserved in 
their literary remains, and has taken deep root in the b 
Iradiliona of the Bulgariana and olher nations with sii 
had c. ■ ~ 

le ages has been that of apocryphal 

cILcal sects throughout I 

Ileal narrativEi. and the popes jerenuan or tieguinii an 
diiectly raentioned as authors ol such lorbidden books " vhicb 
no onhodoi dare read." Though Ihese writing) are moiily ih* 
ume in origia aa are koown Iron Ihc older liHi of apocryphal 
book], they underwent in this case a certain a>odi5utJon at the 
hands ol their Bogomil ediion. so as 10 be lacd for the propaga- 
tion of Iheir own specilic doctrine*. In ill OKM simple aod 
attractive form— ooe at the tame lime invested with the authority 
ol the reputed holy author — their account of Ihc (rcnion ol the 
world and of man; the origin of sin and redenpiion. the biMOT 
of the Cross, and Ihe dltputet between body and tonl. rigbt and 
wrong, heaven and hell, were embodied either In " Hiiioriaied 
Bibles" (Falfya'l OI In special dialogues held between Chriil 
and bis disciples, or between renowned Fathers of the Church 
who expounded these views in ■ simple manrier arlapted Id iha 
undersunding ol the people (Lutidaria). The Bogomils usgfal 
that Cod had Iwo tons, the elder Satuail and the youDgei 
MichaeL The elder son rebelled affJui Ihe laihet and bectnw 
the evQ spirit. After hi> lidl he oeited ihe lover heaven and 
the earth and Cried b vain to create manj in Ihe end he had 10 
appeal In God lor the Spirit. Aller creation Adam wu aDowed 
to till the ground on condition that he sold hinoelf aiul hit 
posterity to Ihe owner at the earth. Then Uichad wca tent fn 
the farm of a ma^o; be became identified with Jesus, and wai 
"elected" by God after ibe baptism in the Jordan, When ih* 
Holy Ghoit (Michael) appeared in the ahape of the dove, Jesut 
received power to iHCah the covenant In the form ol a clay 
tablet (liurttnitliets) held by SaUnail Irom Adam. He had now 
become the angel hllchael in a human lorm; aa such be viih 
qui&hed Sitanail, and deprived him of the termination -tl^GocL 
in which hit power resided. Silinail was thus translormcd into 
Satan. Througb his nuchinaliona the criKiliirion look plaoi. 
and Satan wai the originator of Ihe whole Onhodoi community 
with iit churchei. veatmeals. crremonks. sacraments and laaU, 
with its monks and priests. This world being the work of Satas. 
Ihe perfect must eschew any and every eicesa of iu pleasure. 
Bui the Bogomils did not gn as lar aa to recommend ascellctab 
They held the " Lord's Prayer " in high respect aa the taoil 

Time h«ny Ihrir GiHMte (Mirciiiiite) ipirit by the ti 
Hih tone (4 ihe otrlesi MSS. enanL iboigb lUi pnjudioi ie 



Tlic Bojomili mn gumcDti 

liont Iriin end Wfit 
■ and wid* to prop*gst» 

d their 1 

' apocryphal 

tjlinturc akDg wiih somt o[ the booki o[ the Old Tmiment. 
deeply iofluciicing thereligioui ipiril ot the iutJDiu» and prepariTig 
Ifcem for the Kefonnation. They umd the hirIi of a riib 
rejigloai papular blentme in the £ait aft freli aa la the Wkl 
IIm Hiitorialed Bible, the Letter irein Heaven, the Wandcringa 
tluoD^ Heaven and Hell, the Dumeraul Adam and Cnaa 
kgenda, the religiaui poenu of the " Kakkl perehmhie " and 
Mber iJinDu pnductioni owe iJieir diDcminition lo a large 
Mtent lo the activity of Che Bogomih of Sulguii, and Ihtii 

Hilary. — Tiic Bogoinll piDpagandft foUov5 the tDoutitaiD 
Chaini of cenlnl Europe, ilarllng Trom the Balhans and con- 
llnuing along the Carpathiih Mountiini, the Alps and Ihe 
Pyieneei, with Tainificalioni north and Kiulh [Ccrmany, England 
tnd Spain]. In the middle ol the gth century (he emperor Con- 
■landne Coptotiymui Killed a number of Armenian Pauliciani 
in T1ir>cii. TtuK utre noted herello and wire pencnitcd by 
Ihe CieeL Church with Git and iHord, The empreu Theodora 
kiDcd. diowiKd or baRgcd no (iwtf than loo.ooa In the lolh 
eenlary the emperor John ZiniiKei, hinneK ol Armenian origin, 
truuplan ted do teai thin xn.ooo Armenian Pauliciani lo Europe 
and Ktlled ihem bi the neighbourhood of Philippopolis, which 
benceloith became the anlrc of a lar-ieaching propaganda. 
SelUed along the Balkani a* • kind of bulwark agai 

Imvading Bi 
nlud with tbe.n 

s, the , 

■nd flouriihed at the t 
{917-968). According 1 
Jereniah (or there wu another prle<( 
oame of Jeremiah). The Slavonic u 


■n Iratcr- 

ani adopled Iheir teaching, 
e founder of this sect wai i 
cd the Mii^chaean teaching 
Bulgarian emperor Peter " 
nirce the founder wu called 
him by the 

A Synodikon from th 
or"apoill«," Mihail 
, all thoroughly Sliwni 

oduclionof Chrislianil; 
nan leaching Ihe iam 
Imprisoned by Leon tie 

ic Church ii 
rth named Dmitri, The Church i 
e popM ! 

into RuBia, we bear c 
dectrinei aa the Bogor 
bilbop of Kiev. In III 
to combat another hete 
Sutgaiia tiso Iried to 

filrget Ibeir tounlerpart 
■nnibilalion ol the berclin. 

Tbe Bogomili spread westwatdt. and »tlted first In Servia; 
bnt at the end ol the nth cenlury Slqihen Nemanya, king of 
Servil, pritccntetl them and etpeHed them Iniin the country. 
Large numben took refuge In Bosnia, where Ihcy wen known 
under the name ol Patarrnu (7.1) or Palarenl. From Bosnia 
theiriDfluenceeitendcd into tUly (Piedmont). The Hungarians 
uadertook many cmtadel agaimt the herelics in B«nii, but 
lowardi the close of the ijlhcenlury the conquest of that country 
by the Turksput an end lo Iheir persecution. Itballeged thai 
a large number ol the Bosnian Paterenes, and especially Ihe 
nobles, embrawd Islam {see BOSNIA AHD HESIEOOVim: if 1 

, of B 

The Kiliul In Slavonic written by Ihe Bosnian Radoslavi 
lAd published in vol, iv. of the S(iiri-ie of the Souih S 
Atademy at Agram, shows great resemblance to the 
rlUa] puMiibed by Cuniu. 1853 See F lUtki, " Bd| 
Paiemai " in Had. vols, vii., viii. and i. (Agrim, 
Obllingcr. BiUttt tur Ktlurtucliidtlt d. UilUallai. 
(MuEiicb, 1890), 

Under Turkish ruleihe Bogomits lived tmmolcsled u PatHtmt 

a their ancient stronghold near Philippopolis, and farther 
•oribwaid. In itjo the Roman Caihobc Chuicb gaibered them 
nto iU fold. No lesa (han fourteen villages neu Nlcopolia 
mbiaced Caihoticism. and a colony of Paifittni in the village 
I Cioplea near Bucharest followed Ihe eiample ol their brethren 

— fuiTiymijs Zyradenui 

I. Jirefek, CiMikuku 
<DrDlev, " [t^malkl 

Biiitatit. p^ 


... . PP-,»«5 "HI. 

dim Uotm, voL ii. pp, nj 
. Tie Kry 0/ Trulk. pp, 73 
- . -, K9S>: H. Cj.ter. <^«fc2 
(London, 1M7}; O. DahnhardI, 
ipng and Balis. 1907). (M. C.) 
lal Russia, in the govemmeDt of 
.E. ol the city ol Moscow, on Ihe 


Klya/ma. It haa . , 

factories and dye-worki. and is lamous (or It) fold brocade. 
Pop. UBin) .1,110. 

BOaOS (BrtENs), a pastoral race of nuTed Hamtllc deacenl, 
occupying the highlands immediately north of Abyssinia, now 
part of the Italian colony of Eritrea. TTiey were formerly a ' 
self-governing commgniiy, though subject to Abyssinia. The 
community Is divided into two classes, ihe Siumctlitll or 
■■ elders " and Tipt or " dimis," The laiter arc ierfs of the 
(oni«r,who,ho»ever,annot sell them. TheTigr* goes with the 
land, and his master must proltct him. In blood-money he b 
worth another Tigj* or ninety-three cows, while an elder's Ufe ii 
valued at one hundred and Glly-eighl cattle or oIK of his own 
cast*. The eldest son ol a Shumaglieh inhetils hli father^ 
two-edged sword, white cows, lands and slaves, hut *e houae 
£■« to ihe youngest son, Femaie chastity Is much valued, but 
women have no rights, inherit nothing, and are classed with the 
hyaena, Ihe most dejpiaed animal throughout Abyssinia. The 

.while ii 


f Colombii 

in-law's 1 


er husbaad^ 

Fl Di BogotJI, Ihe capital ef the republic 
J VI ijie fnterior department of Cundinamarca. in 
;S* jo' W. long. Pop.about usboo. Thecily 
ij on ine eastern margin ol a large elevated plateau 8s8j ft. above 
lea-lcveL The [iJaleau may be described u a great bench or shelf 
on the weatem slope of llie oriental Cordilleras, about 70 m. long 
and JO m, wide, wilh a low rim on ill western matgin and backed 
by a high ridge on the east. The plain forming the plaieau ia 
weD watered with numerous small lakes and siteama. These 
several small streams, one ol which, the San Francisco, pasaea 
through [he cily, unite near the south-western ellfemity ol the 

over Ihe edge al Tcquendamo in a beautiful, perpendicular fall ot 
about 4JS ft. Thecily is built upon asloping plain al the base of 
two high ntounlains La Caudalupe and Monserrate, upon whose 
crests stand Iwo imposing churches. From a broad avenue on 
ihe upper side dow^nward to the west slope the streels, through 
which run streams of cool, fresh water from ihe mountains above 
The norlh and south streets cross these at right angles, and the 

somcly-laid-out plaias. or squares, o 
and staluary. have been preserved; oi 
public buildings and churches. In PI: 
Bolivar by Pietro Tenerani (rjio-iSftc). 
and in Plaia Santind^r Is one ol C( 
Sanlandir (i;oi-iSio). Firing on 
are the capiiot and calhcdiol. The 


rot hi 
Wlh gar. 


is a statue ol 
I of Canova, 
SCO de Paula 
narrow and 
raignt. out aa a ruie mey are clean ana well paved. 
wing to Ihe picvntcnce of earthquakes, private houses art 
lually of one Holey only, and are built c4 lun-diied bricka. 


ncdlyscniaauaiMar ilwtit i)Xtt di. Ithuttn 
on, declfic Itfit aod tekphoDOk Slnit Una of mUnjr a 
■ect it «ith Fkcitativm (m »■] an Um md U " 

of DKdinal ^^^^r^-'ir- ia Soiiu Aanin. It hu ■ attiBdnl, 
rebuilt n 1S14. ■ad BBejagtlm dumbo, togecliCT viih many 

s, ft ulioatl. 
■bii,ri'«tBT.« BU«ml biUefy _ 

Tbe dty «bD poMoBM • wcU^quipped mini, liuli ibhI in . 

~ "4tb«dl;iivaylcftik.aiKlpuIt 

■nd tke aioldl ihcnt Alt in- Tbe gBOcnpbial ladlim ol Ibe 
tiI7 1* ndanonhla to mf gnu dcvdopmeiit in cocuagmi u>d 
wimrfi^iim beycnd k>al oonk. 

81191U mi loanilcd in 1538 byConulo Jioteci dcQucodi 
ud «M nuMd Suu F« dc Bogoli af let hii bitihpluz Sanu Ft, 
ladallcr tlw 101111101) capiul ol Uh Cbibcluu, Bamli (or Fiutn). 
Il «■• made tba cipiul ol lie vicerayiliy ol Suen Gruudi, 
AAd Mon bccvoe ooe of the centra of Spaniah n^'""'*' power 
ud dvibntion on Ihe Souili Anui!cu ooniinenU In 1811 lu 
dtinB revolted isiiui, Spuu^ lule uul lei up ■ government 
i< Ibcir own, but in iSiiS t^ city wu occupied by Pablo MoriUo 
(iT7V~iSjS}. tbl Sponiili genenl, who tubjccted il to ■ nitUm 
f fovenunenE ontiJ i3i9, whcD Boiivar'4 victory at 
evaeuaiion. On Ibe creation of . the 


h Rmained the capital of Nocva Cranado. It tua bco) 

CokmbU. {A.|.L.} 

BOSIA. or BACttu, t, town 4nd diiltfci of BrlUih India, [n 
the Rajitiahi cSviawn of tuKm Bengal and Atuua. The liwn 
■ ■tiHlEdcalberifhibaaliamieiivecECBraiuya. Fo(^ (iqdi) 
7094. The Di*mcT or Boom, which wai hia fanned in igii, 
Bb wot ai the auiD chansel of the Brahnuputn. It cooiaiu 
■BKnki>tlJS9>q.Bi. In 1901 the population (onanduced area) 
•aa BS4,5U, abowing an incnaw of 11% in tlie decade. The 
diUikt Uittchca out in a level idaio, inienccied by aunwroua 
itnaa and dotted with paichs of jungle. The Karatoyi river 
dowi from north to Boutli,dividin^it into two poriiDni.paaissng 
very iTlf'*n^ chaiacteziuicL The eaiteni tract conaisla of rich 
■Dnvial soil, well watered, and lubjecl to fertilLZUig inundationt, 
ykldini heavy oopa of coanc lice, oii-uedi and jute. The 
vcatern portion of the diitrict it high.lyin; ai;d pioducea the 
finer tinalitiea of rice. The piindpal riven are foirned by the 
difieroit *''■■■*"**■ of the Brahmaputra, which river hen bean 
tbe local nam of the Kanol, the Daokoba and the Jamuoat 
the laM forminc a portion of the eaiiem baundjiiy of the disliict. 
Ittbedit«uddedwithaUuvialiilands. The Binhnupuln and 
ill thanaelii tosMher with three rnlBor ciieaoB, the Bsngall, 
Earatoya'and Atrai, afford admirable faciliticH (or commerce, 
and lendar ereiy part of the diiirict accessible is native cugo 
boat* of large biinieik I1wilvciaiwannBitli£sh. IhtfonBd 

metalled loadi. Sevcnl line* of raUway (the Eaatein Bengal, 
fee), however, aerve thedJaUicL 

aOUVE, DAVID (i]50-i8i5), BritUi iMiacoiilbnmsl diviiw, 
waj bora in the paiiih of ■"'■'■'■"n'— -. Benrkkshiie. After 1 
QOUtM of Uudy Id Edinborsh, ht wai lieuacd to pR*ch by the 
Church ol ScMland, but mule hii w^ to London (1711), where 

He II _ . . . . 

la paalool dutie* added 

Coaport in Hampahire {1777), and tt 

the aft of the new-born rniauonary eaterpriie^ and Bocue^ 
■oucay wi* [n a very large meaiure the aeed from riiicb the 
London Miaalonuy Sodety took itt growth. Bopie himielf 
would have gone to India in 1 706 but for the oppoaltion of the 
Eait India Company. He alio had much to do with founding 
the British and Foreign Bible Sodety and the Religioui Traa 
Sodety, aad In conjunction with Jamca Bcnact, miniater ai 
Rsm«cy, wrote ■ well-known Hiilory (/ DiimtUn C) vols., t8ci«). 
Anotho' of his writing was an Euay » tin Dtsmt A ulkinlj af 
OuNtrnTulamimt. Ue died at Brighton oD the ijtli of October 

BOan (of nocertaln origte, poa^ly CDnnected with tbe 
Fr. iattat, lugar^iauK tefux), a thing word, origiiially used la 
America ol the appantu) employed in caunteileiiing coisa, uul 
now genrralJy of any ihaia t>t ^urioui transaction. 

BOHBA (a -oid dcHved fiom the Wu.i hUli In the Fuhkien 
pfovlnaol China, 1 being lubuituted for If or 1^. > Uod ot 
black lea («.>.}, or. in the iSih and eariy igth csoLuric*. tea 
gcneraUy. as in Poiw') line, " So past her time 'twiit leading 
and bohea." Lata the name *' bohea " haa been applied to an 
inferior quality of tea grown late in the season. 

BOHEKU' (Cer. Bikwm. Ciech Calty, Ux. BtktmUi, a 
kingdom and crowuUnd of Austria, bounded NX. by Prussian 
Siltva,S.E. by Moravia and Lower Austria, S. by Upper Austria 
S.W.byBavariaaodN.W.bySuooy. It has an area of 10.060 
tq. m., or about Iwo.IhI[ds the >i» of Scotland, and foimi the 
principal province of the Austrian empire. Situated in tile 
geographical centre of the European continent, at about equal 
distance from all the European leas, endoscd by high muuh- 
taioSt and nevertheless easily accessible throu^ Moravia Iroin 
the Danybian pLiin and opened by the valley of the Elbe to the 
Germui plain, Bohemia was bound to play a leading part in the 
cullural development of Europe It bcome early the scene of 
important hi&IorJco] events, the avenue and Junction of tliD 
migntioa of pcoplesj and it forms the bordeilaod between the 
Cermto and Slavonic worids. 

Cvgrcfiky. — Bohemia has the form of an irregular rfiorab, of 
which the nonhemmcel place, Buchberg, just above Hiintparh. 
il at the same time the farthest north In tho whole Austro- 
Hungarian monarchy. From an orognphtc point of view, 
Dohemia constitutes amonpt the Austrian provinces a separate 
maaoif, bordered 00 thiec sides by mountain ranges: on the 
S.W. by the BehmerwaW or Bohemian Forest; on the N.W. 
by the Engebiige or Ore Uountaina; and on the N.E. by the 
Rieaeogebtrge or Ciant Mountains and other ranges of the 
Sudetes. Tbe B^oetwald, which, like ita parallel range, the 

OOtheiJ^unci^I'ion^iiS.tiiii^rLTlISluir---'-' ^^" 

eeeh) alphabet i> the ibrk as tlie En(<idi, w 
Ki*q. wand I. Certain Intm. howrver, — , _, __ 

and art diaiiiKttlsbed by diacriticnt mai^ a devico offiaated by 
JtAn Huia. The vowdj a, e, L (y), o, u, aie pronouoced as in 
Italian; buiI-Eng, yJIn^yet.'^aad a-Eng. 00. 

-f. or Ibe 01 

on voveJs len^beit ,- . . — , 

K Is alwayi pivnuneed in C»ck. At the m 
k and 1 It-Cowi. ehi in olbsr places as 
pnisuaciaiioB la aoiiuwhat softci. 

ipended. Tlie Ci 


Sodelu. hu a patni dtnctloD lata S.E. le N.W., b divided 

tiytbcpu3ofNcunurk[EitotwopuU. TbcDt>n)KiDpaii(Ci«Ji 
Ctstj La) atuins id Ibc musilof Cicrkov ta sltilud; at aaa ft 
bu( (br voutbrrD part (Czech JuimrpcJ) n it tb? same time th 
highest and the most picturesque part of the rangr, iDcludtn 
on the Bohemun side tlv Osser (405J ft.) and (be Fltekeuui 
(451J ft.), aJlhough the highat peat, the Arbei (4871). >s i 

pun ccyitalline torrenu, id the DumeraiB blue laka of it* valley*, 
and above alt in the magaificeDl foresu of ciak Isd pint w<ih 
*Ucb [IS side* aie rovered. Hie pais of Niumark, called also 
the pass of hfeugedein, has always been the priodpa] approach 
to Bohemia from Gctmaay. It stRLche* towards the cast, above 
the small lown of Taia (Ciecli Demallia, once called Tukelt, 
It. [he Pottrcss). and Is the place ohecc aome of the bloodiest 
bailies inibehisloryot Bohemia ven fought. Here in the first 
half of the 7lh century Samo cipidsed the landini horde* of 
the Avars, which threalcDed Ihe JndcpendeDce of Ibe newly- 
•ettled SUvonic Inhabitants; here also Wratistaa IL delealed 
liie Cermaa emperor Kcnry III. in a two^diys' battle (Aucvst 
It and 1], 1040). It wi* in ihe same place that the tfusalla 
gained in t4ji one of their greatest victorlc* a^mt a Ccrtnan 
army of cnsarten, and another ■imitet Ceimaji 
quished hen by George of Podtbrad. 

The Engebiise (Csech RmJo Her<), which fonti tbc DOrth-weit 
frontjer, liave an averap altitude of >teo fL, and as the! 
failtlKit point, the Keilbcrg (4080 ft.]. Hie numerous minin^ 
villages, the peat number of cultivated areas and the easy 
passes. tnvcTsed by Eood mad*, give those mountain* in many 
places the aipecl of a hilly undulating plain. Several o( Ihe 
villages an buill very near the tummit of the mountaJna, and 
one of them, Cotlcsgab (pop. about Ijoo), lie* at aa altitude of 
JM! 't.. tlie highest place in Bohemia and nainl Cermi . 
To the west the ErieebirEe combJiie thron(h the Elslergebirge 
with the Ficbtelgeblrge, which in their turn are united with 1' 
BOhmerwald ihron|^ the plateau of Waidussco. To the e 
the Engeliirge are separated from the Elhsandsteingebirie 
Ihe Noftcndorf pas*, traversed by the ancient nuUtary route 
Sanny; it was the route followed by Nipdeon L after the 
battle of Dresden [iSij}. To the south stretches Ihe " TVr- 
Dopylae of Babemia," the scene of the battle of Kuhn and 
Arbesao. A little farther lo the east the Elbe escapes into 
Saiony It Ihe lowest point In Bohemia [all. j6t II). The oottfa- 
easi fioDtier I* fotmcd by Ibe Sudetes, which comprise the 
LaiBitzergeMrgn (2500 ft.), Ihe tsergehirgc (with the hifihat 
peak, the Talclfichle, jSSj It,), the Jeschteogebirge (3JII lUl, 
and the Rieseogelnrge. 17k Riesengebirge (Caech Krvhtoiii 
■re, after the Alps, among the highest mouoiains tl central 
Europe, and altaio in Ihe Schneckoppe an altitude of 1164 ft. 
The last ffoupa ol the Sudetes in Bohemia are the HeiBCheucrlte- 
birge [j;ii ft.) and the Adletgcbirje (3664 fL). The fourth side 
of tiK rhomb is formed by the io.ca]1ed Bohemian- Moravian 
Hills, a plaleaD or broad series of low hilli, composed o( primitive 
rocks, and atlaloing in some traces an altitude of ijoo fl. 

The interior of Bohemia has sometimes been compared to > 
deep basin; but for the most part It Is 10 imdutaling [lateau, 
Over 1000 fl. hi^ formed by a >acGe*^on of terracea. which 
fradually alope down fnim south to north. It* loweaMylng 
points ire not in Ihe middle but in the north, in the vaDey of Ibe 
Elbe, and the country caji be divided into two parts by * line 
pusing through Hahenmauth-Piague-Komotau. The part 
lying to the south ol this tine can be designated as higblud. and 
only Ihe pan north of it as lowland. The mauBtain-iangcs of 
theinleriorof BohemiaareiheBrdywald(i79g[t.)la ibe middJe; 
the Tepler Ccbiige (1657 ft.), the Kaisbadcl Cebitge (30J7 ft.) 
■adthe£aiserwald{jsjafO, in Ihe north.irest parti while the 
nerthera comei is occupied by Ihe Miilelgcbirge (>7j<) ft.), > 
vdcantc massif, stretching on both sides of Ihe Elbe. 

Bohemia belongs to the watershed of the 0be, wlu'ch rise* 
wilbin Ihe tetritoiy and receives on the li^i the Iier and the 
Psben, and on tk left the Adlerj the Efer with Its affluent the 
"Kpl: Ihe BieU and Uie UoldaB. But Ibe piindpa] rivn ct 



Bolvmia, fraai every petol «( view, k Iba MoUaa (Cuck 
VIUH,), not the Elbe. A glaiice at the hydnenphkalrucivc 

of Bohemia, which b of such a sLrikJDg regularily, shows ut that 
Ihe Moldau is the main item, while the Elbe asd the otbtf liven 
are only liieral hrtoches^ moreover, the Elbe beto* Uriuk, 
ihc point cf ill coaduence wiih Ibe Mddio, fdlom ifec ffuatl 
ditrction ol the Uoldau. Besidca, the Uoldau is the principal 
commercial artery ol thecoimlry, bring oavigable below Budwdlt 
while tbt Upper'EIhe is not nivigaUci its bun (ii.Sgosq. mJ 
is twice as great as that of ibe Elbe, and iis width and depth 
are also greiier. It bus a lengih of 170 m., 47 m. tmigei Ihaa 
the Upper-Elbe, but il mns through a deep and iianow vilbr, 
in which there is Deilhec road nor railway, eiteoding fnn show 
Budwei* toaboui 15 m. south of Prague. The Holdau lecetvei 
on the ri^t the Lulniea and the Sasawa and on Ibe left the 
Wottawi and the Betaun. The Beraun is formed by Ihc unioa 
of Ihe Mies with Ihc Radbusa, Angei and Uslawa, and a tha 
third meat important river of the country. There are ody a hw 
lakes, which are mostly found al high altitude*. 

aiMoU.— Bohemia has a continental, senerafly healthy 
climate, which varies much in different parts of the c■Hm[n^ 
II is mildest in the centre, where, e.[. at Pngue. the mean annual 
tempera1uieii48'S* F. The rainfall varica also aceonting to tha 
disiiicts, the rainy season being the summer. Thui Ibe mean 
annual rainfall in the interior of Bohemia is iSla,,intbe)tiaea- 
gebirge 40 in., while in the B^Uunerwald it reaches Ao lo 70 in. 

Apiinliiirt. — Favoured with a suitable climate and ii^ubiled 

by a thriving rural population, Bohemia is very hi^iy developed 

In Ihe matter of agriculture. Over 50% of the whole area b 

under culiivation and the soil Is in many parts very fertile, dv 

bejI-koowB regions being the " Gfdden Road " round Kenig- 

grilu, the " Parodije " round TepBia, and the " Garden d 

Bohemia " round LeitmeriU. Tie pdiicipal products an oati, 

rye. barley and wheat, but since the compeiitioB of Hunsartan 

■beat large tracls of land bsve been converted to the cnttivatioB 

of beetroot. The potato aof, which loitns the staple food of tht 

people, b great; the Saai district is celebtalcd lor bops, and th* 

Bai is also of a good quality. Fruil, especially plums, is very 

' ndant and conslllntes a great article of ciporL The forest* 

n- i9'Oi% of the lolal area; meadows, ta*oi, pasturea s«s, 

gardens i 35%. Cattle-rearing b Dot so well developed M 

agriculture, bnt great flacks of geese are reared, espedally b) 

south, and bee<altivition conitituta another impMluit 

istry. Pisciculture has been lor centuries BtKcesfutly 

iued by the Bohemian peasants, and the altempts recently 

ifimro/j-'^-EjtcepI salt, which b entirely absent, almost 

every useful metal and mineral is to be found. First in impott- 

r, both in quantity and in value, come lignilc and coaL 

c of Ihe richest lignite Belds In Europe are found In (lie 

h^asl comer of Bohemia round Brtiz, Dux. Falkennn, 

^andTepliti. CoalBintudiaund Klulno,BBchitiuail, 

Pilsen, Schlan. Rakanitx, NOischan and Radniti, the iMt- 

ned place containing the oldest cod mine* at Bohemia (171K 

itory). Iron ores are found at Xiulnshon and NnEic, and 

the principal founitrics on round Kladno and IHhritnhnl. 

Owing to the improvements in refim'ng, Bohanh hn become 

important centre of the iron indust^, Slvcr b cxtiacted 

Pfibnm and Joachnnsthal, bat the silvB- mines near Kutten- 

bcr^ lamoiB in the middle ages, are now abaadmed Lead k 

eitracied at Plibram. tin at Cnupen In the EngeUrge, (bo only 

place In Austria where this mciol Is found. Antimony is eittactcti 

~' ' im and radium near Joac)iEin>> 

Bodwds; porcela!a.eaith neai 

I in varfoiis places ol Bohemia 

■halt, alum, nickel, arseidc and varioQa 

e, like the BohemiaB puncl (pyrope), 

and building itone. A large amount of peu ii collected, 

ipedalty In Ihe sonlh-wot of Bohemia, u -well at a peat 

quantity of asphalt. 

Bohemia postesse* over two hundred ndnetsi apifaip, bat 

iJy a few ate i»ed lor medidDal porpoics. Among them mtt 


KBc «< iliB mart cddnttd ttbad «riD» In tlw verid, taih 
■> Cukbul, UuHntaul, Fmucnibtd, TeiiUu-ScbOiiaB and 
BOiiL Other iprinsi of imporUKC ut Fullsa, ScdliU ud 
Sddiduti DOT BrlUi CieubaU ncu Cariibul) LklxKnU, 
KlDJgimrt, Sugetberi. Ncudoif, TtudwB, lofaumiibad, 
tilBiiHl at Uh (oat of tte ScbsMkc^w. Ac. 

Utrnt^ttmi ami Cimmirtt, — Fran ui Indwtrii] poml of 
tirw, BoIkbib UJki Uk Sat nmk UDonfM tbe AuMriui pn- 
nDCB,uidalt]wiuoctiDwif OMoftbcfiatal nuoulKtuiioc 
(XDtra dl Eunpc Rkli u tho coiwut a in coal ukd irao. and 
in water luppUei wtucb can be mnaFonncd inio motive powei. 
the inhabitania nere DOI >Ioi> K> utiliie Uicee advuuiea, ■> 
tZal the induatryof Bobeivia made enonDouaaUidfla durinf lis 

Irub Venice in the ijth ceaEory and lOon attained a vast is^ 
portance; the factorice are in tlM neighboiuhood of tfie dhhid- 
tains^ idiere nunerafa, and eapecially ailica and fuel, are plcntif uL 
The &icat [HtidiKt, the oyitaJ-flaia, ia made round Uaida and 
SteimdiADau. the very extenaive porceJaia indutiy ia oocen- 
tialcd in aad armmd Carlibad. The (utHv induatry atandi ia 
tbe from lank and ii moiLjy auKcntraUd in the ooith-eaM 
cnracr of Bohemia, round Rcidienberg. and in the valliy ol lb( 
Umi Elbe. The doth maotilactun b located at Rocbcobrri, 
Ruoitnirs and Trmatenau arc the ceoln of Ibe liaen iDdistry. 
■onlkn yariii an made a1 Ausif and Aach. L*a, which ii 
punned u a bome-lDdintry in Ibe Engrbiige refioo. bu iu 
pnnripal ceDtit at Wopert, (rlule Stnkotiiu h*> lis ipedaliijr 
olibr manutacitUFOf ndlcuiCTiukithaipa). The metaliurfic 
Bduiiiea, favouied by the abundance ol cnaJ and iron, an 
cDBcrnirated round tbe mine*. ladunrLiJ and afrkuJiuraJ 
BachlDeTy are manufactured aJ Rejchenberc. Pilaeo and Prague. 
and at the laat -named place ia alto to belound a great alabLiah' 
meat lor tbe prodsctioD of railway roUin|-at«L Sufar le.&niog 

nry sreat devetopnunt. and the bftweijei produce i beer 
which i> ai^iredaled all over the world. Othct importani 
bnnchea of Induttiy ace: — the manufacture of cbemicali ai 
Pnfne and Aunig; penciU at Budwcii. musical IisinuBent* 
at Graalita and Schflabach, paper, f ea th e r, dyeiaf U)d calico- 
printing. Hand-in-band witb the indualHal activity of the 
country goa ila Qnnmerdal development, which el (timulattd 
br an eitemive railway lyiiem. good raada and navigable 
lima. The centrr of the lailwa; ayitem. vhich had in i3^ 
a length ol ume jjoo m.. or 30% of tbe total length of the 
Austrixa railwaya, ■ Prague: ud thmugh the Elbe Bohemia 
hai easy acma to the lea for iti export inde- 

PopiJiiiian and AdwatiiinlatL—^aittaa had !n leoo a 
populalioo of 6.JiS.>So. which corrCHiondi to ji; inbabitanli 
pec iquare mile. Ai cegardi Dumbera. it occupies the lecond place 
amongst the AwUiaa pnvinRa, coming alter Calicia. and aa 
regards Jcnity ol popubtiop it tiaudi third, Silesia and Lower 

)j% ace GetmaH 

.d 6s% C 

especially in the north and west, i 
the country in the large lawns, t 
Coman-speaking enclaves siluiled 
on the other hand, the Czechs have 
tbe purely Cennan mining and ma 
wilJataDding ila rich Dalucal reioui 
development. Bohemia lendi out j 

D plirely Ciecb district; 


woe eitaer ■cine 10 toe oincr pinvinces of the monaichy. in 
Cerwuny and in Russia, or ccou the AOanlic ici America. To 
the Ronian Calhdic Church belong a&%ol [he total population; 
Babemia b divided Into the anhbiibapric of Prague, aod the 
thne bishopcia of Budweit, KOniggiiii and Ltilmeriix. 

EdvcuioD is well advanced, and Bobeinla has the lowest 
proponioD of iQitenlet anoevl Ihe Austrian provinces. At 
Uc be>d of tbe educational MitUiibinenU Hand the two 
ci at Prague, one Censan and the olbei Ciccb. 

4#(u the Bthbahap. the thne 
of tb* unjnnltie*, csnalata of 
ibeia, Foe adamfstnthre porpoaea Bobenia is divided 
into Dlaety-fotn' dktckB aod two autonomons maiydpalitiea, 
Pragae (pop^ 104,418}, tb« capllal, and Rcicbenbers (m.hu)- 
Olher hnpoelaiU town are Piiaen (6S.)gi), fiudves (jojto), 
AlOiig ClT.>U). ScbBoan (14.110}, E^ Uifit-ii. Wanadorr 
(iS,too), Parduhiu (17,01a), Saai <i6.i68). Koaaun (ti,oij), 
Kolia (15,011), Kuttenbetg <i4.7«a). Ttaauaag (14.771). 
Caclsbad (14.640), Pribram (■5.5T6). Jungbonalau (ii47«). 
I-eilOMrita {laatil. Chrudira (ij.017}, Dui (ii.an}, Bodeo- 
bach (ia,;8a), Tabor (lo.Aoi}, BOhoBctLdpa (10,174}. Rua- 
buii (tc^jat), Wdpan (10^7)- 

Sie P. Umkaft. n< Uad^ dM)rn<e»-I7>iMru b ITgrt mri BU, 
(15 vok, Vtena. lMl-lU»). lA. viL: Mikowac, Almntmo al^ 
DmkmMi^itilin BMiwa'j (a vols.. P>HV& i^M-iMs) \ F KivnU, 
SnuhtnOmkSiritiKtmtHicli Btkmrt Wrvat. lauS. very u^ 
loritaHDBennisanddMaaedhlNoricalBaur (O. Ba.) 

The country derives [li name fioa the BoS, a Celtic trihr 
which in the carlieii historical period inliabitcd pan ol the land. 
According to vtiy andenl iradiueoa accepted by tbe modem 
hiilocians ol Babemia, the Boii, whose capital waa called 
Boiobemum. wece weakened by coDIlBual wacfaie with oeigb- 
bounng Icibes. and hoally subdued by Ihe Teutonic tribe ol the 
MaccoDianni (about 11 a.c.). The MatcDmanni were afterwacdi 
eipelled by othec Teutonic Icibca, and evenluallj Bohemia waa 
cooquend by Slavic tcibes, of whom the Cechi (aee CiECs) 
were Ibe moat important 71k date of tbe arrival ol the &cht 
in Babemia is very uoceclain. and Ibe scanty lefeceoaa 10 Iha 
couDiry in daasical and Bjiantine vriten are cathet ^^ 
mi^cading than oIlierwBC. Recent archacologiCBl ^mmnl 

in Bohemia aa far bach as the be^nning of tbe Christian eta. 
The Cecha appear to have become tbe maateca ol the couolrjr 
in the flhceniury. The first of their rulers neutioned ia 
btitory a Su», who is slated to have defsled Ibe Avwa, a 
Turanian tribe wtucb had toe a time obtained Ibe ovrrioriUiip 
over Bohemia. Sacao alio defeated the Franks In a great battle 
that took place at Wafflisburg (630}, probably near the site 
of the present town of E^. After the death of Satuo the bil- 
iary ol Bohemia agiio beoanca absdulely obscure lor about 130 
years. Tbencneventithalarerecordedbytheoldeslchrvniclei*. 
such as (llamas, lefer 10 Ihe lanDcktian of a Dohemlan prio- 
cipalily by Krok (or Crocia} and hit daughter Libuasa. Tbe 
latter is said to have married P^mysf, a peasant wito vaa found 
ploughing his hid — a legend that b common in masl Slavk 
cDuntiies- BegioDing with thb seini'mythic ruler, llic locfenl 
chroniclers have coqsinKied a continuous liti o( Premyslidt 
princca. Neithet the deeds attributed to tbac princa hoc Ihe 
dates of Ibeli leigns can be coiisiderrd sa hbioticaL 

From the time of the btroduri ion of Chrittuniiy into Bobeoin 
the history ol the country becomea kss obscure. Tbe btl 
attempts In Introduce Christianity undoubtedly caow _ . 
from Germany They met with lillle surceas. as S^ 
innate distrust of the Certnans naturally mdercd tbe 
Bohemians unfavourable to a creed which reached tbem Iron 
tbe realm of Iheir wcsLem nei^bours. Mailers were diBereni 
when OicisiiiniLy approached them icom Mocsvia. whrce its 
doctrine had been laughi by Cyriltus and Uribodiui— Creek 
monks from Tbesaalonica- About the year S;; Ibe BohemiBa 
prince BorivDJ net baplUed by Melbodiua, and Ibi 
now rapidly uiipted tbe Chriilian lalib. 0( t. 
nilert of B^mii Ihe most famous at this period w 
Wenceslaa, tutnsined the Holy, who in oij w 
murdered by his brother Boteslav, and who waa d 
caooniied by the Church ol Rome, As Wenccalas had been na 
allyof Germany, bis murder raiulied la a war with thai oonntiy, 
Id vtaich, o far u «e caa judge by the icaaiy records of thr Ubk 

m Ihe 

_ u frontlcn Id Kvcnl 

diitctiDU. BoleslAv U. Indeed olabliihed hli nilv 
not ob]j ovtt BohcmiK uxl Mar&iria» but alio over h Lbi^ pirt 
al SUciia, Had ovfr ilui pan of Poland which u doh the ATutiian 
province ol Galida- LOt moit Slivii; tuta re tha ud even 
a IMer pniod, Ihc great Boheraiaa empire of fiolcslav II. did nol 
sujuic toDg. BalaUv m., ton oi Bololav II., loit all his 
lonicn poaKSSlOBt to BoinUv the Greal, king of PiJiuhL 
During hii niga Bohemia wai laTolved in constant dvil wir, 
oosed by Ihe dis»nw)>i9 between Boleslav UI. and hisbrotben 
Jommi' and Ulrick. Tbou^ the prince succeeded in ejipeliicg 
Us brolhtrs f rora tfwcountiy^hia cruelly induced the Bohemians 
to dethrone him and to choose as ilieir ruler the Poliili prince 
,■,^,.,1 Vladivoj, brother of Bidntav the Great, and son of the 
"~ Bohemian princess Cubravka (Dobnwa). Vladivoi 

attempted to strengthen his hoJd over Bohemia by securing ibc 
dd of Genaany. He consented not only to continue to pay Ibe 
tribute which the Germans had already obtained from several 
previous ruten of fiohemia, but also to become a vassal of 
the German empire and to receive the Gcrn^an title of dufce^ 
This state tonlinoed wben after the desth of Vlidivo] tbe 
Pfemysli dedynasty wa»re«iored. The Pfemyiiideprince Btetidav 
gJMrfnt. 1. I'ojj-iojs) restored the former power of Bobcmts. 

and again added Moravia^ Silesia and a considerable 
part of Poland to the Bohemian dominiona. To otiviale tbe 
bvceeaant strug^ea whlcb had endangered the land at every 
vacancy of the throne, Bfetislav, with the consent of the nobles, 
decreed tfiat tbe oldol member of the bouse of Pfemysl should 
be the ruler of Bohemia. BFetBlav was theielore succeeded 
lint by hi* ektcsl too SpitOmtv, and then by hii KCond ion 

In loSS Vratislav dbtahied Ihe tjik of king from Ihe emperor 
Beuy IV,, whom he had assisted in Ihe struggle with the papal 

aee which is known ai the contest about investitures. 
Isriiiit' "I^^ I)" litl< of king wasonly conferred on Vntislav 
••ti^' personally, Ihe German king, Conrad UI., conferred 

on tbe Bobemiju prioce Sobeslav (luj-iifo) the 
Utte ol hrTedilary cupbaivr of the Empire, thus granting a 
certain influence on (he eleciioo of the emperors to Bohemia, 
which biiherto had only oHigaiionj towards the Empire but no 
part In its government. In 1156 tbe emperor Frederick I. 
Barbarossa ceded Upper Lusatia to the Bohemlaa prince 
Vladislav II., and conferred on bim the title of king on condition 
of his taking part hi FVederick's Italian campaigns. II was 
intended (hat Ihat title should henceforth be hereditary, but 
il again fell lnlo abeyance during the strug^ei between tbe 
Pfrmyslide princo which fallowed the abdication of VladiiUv 



competitors for the crown v 
lined new privileges. In ii 
iiputed ruler of Bohemia, and 
iwihg year. The royal litie 

itant inlemal strug^cs w 

Ihe nobQity on wbtne supp 
t obliged to rely conslan 
■1 Ptemysl Ollakar beca 

USJ) " 

is father 

Opposition. The last ycSTi of his re 
OnalarO. dbcord. W 

under (he sovereignly ol 

I king of Bohemia wilbou 

1, premysl Oltakar II.. ' 
if Ms father ruled Mora 
r of the mllconle 
A rrconcIliMion bctweea son and lather, however, look p 
before the latier's death. PTemys! Ollakar II, was one of 
gresiai of Bohemia's kings. He had during the hfeiime ol 
lalhcr obtained ponesaion of the archduchies of Austria, i 

BoUNty of Siyria also recogniud him as their ruler. TI 
mmsfons of his domlnioni Involved Pfemysl Oltakar II 
itpeated wan with Hungaiy In i7«o he ded^vely dele: 
BeU, king ol Mmgaiy, fn the gnul ballk of KjtMoibn 

After this -victory CHUkar'* power MK to !t« gnatett hci|M. 
He now obtained potsesiion of Garinthia, Istria and parti ttl 
northern Italy. His possessions extended from the Giist 

lo the A 

, and in 

Ihe parts of the present Habsburg empire west of tbe Ldtha. 
His contemporaries called Otiakar " tbe man of gold " becatw 
of bis great wealth, or " the man of iron " because of Us mili- 
taiy power. From political mlher thiin racial cause* Oltaku 

hoped to find In the German ' 

overwhelming power of Ihe Bohemian nolnlity. In I173 
Rudolph, count of Habsburg, was elected king of the Romans. 
It is very probable that tbe German cnswn had previoisly been 
offered to Ottakar. but that he had refused it. Several tauwi, 
among otben his Slavic nationaL'ty, whidi was likdy to render 
him obnoilous to Ihe Germans, contributed to ilt deddon. 
As Rudolph immedialely claimed as vacant fiefs of tbe Em{dm 
mostof the lands hddl^Ottakir, war wax mevltable. Ottakar 
was deserted by many of his new subjects, and even by part of 
Ihe Bohemian nobility. He was tberefon unable la rcaiM 
the German king, and was obUged to surretider to bim aD bb 
lands except Bohemia and Moravia, and to lecogidte Rtldolph 
as his overlord. New dlssensiotis between the two aoverdfiii 
broke out almost imnKdntely. In i*;S Ottakar bivaded dw 
Austrian duchies, now under the rule of Rudolph, but ini 
defeated and kiDed at Ihe battle ol I>umkrut on the Msrcbldil. 

OtUkar'a ton, Wenceslu IL, was only sev>cn years of age at 
the death ol his father, and Olto of Braodenbnrg, a nephew at 
Ottakar. for a time governed Bohemia a* goardian of ^ 
the young sovereign. Olio's rule was very unpopular, ^TTT^ 
an insurrection broke out against him, and Bohemia 
was for a lime in a state of con^ete anarchy, tbe eotmtfy 
hat pacified thiough the Intervention of Rudolph cS 


was, however, in the hands at 
Zavis of Falkenstein, one of tfic great Bohemian nobles, who 
had married Ihe king's mother, Kunegnnda. Tlie power of 
Zavis at last became invidious to the king, by whose order he 
was beheaded in T290. Wencestas, though ordy nineteen yean 
of age, henceforth govertied Bohemia himself, and his abort 
reign was a period of great happiness for Ihe country. Poland 
also accepted the rule oi Wencesha and tbe Hungarian crown 
was offered to him. Towards Ibe end of hi» reign Wencrslai 
became involved in war with Albert, archduke ol Austria, after- 
wards king of the Romans. While preparing to invade Auatrli 
Wencesla* died luddcoly (tjos). IB» son and successor, 
Wenceslas IIL, was then only siiteen years of age, and he only 

r Bohen: 

expedition against Polr 
sovereigns now 

Ptemyslide dynasty 01 
Albert, king ol tbe 
icipl fief ol Ihe Emp 

nd, on which country the Boheinian 
sintained their dalm, he was murdered 
1306}. With him ended the rule ol the 

r Bohem' 

. decbred that Bohemia was a 
■, and, mainly by intimidatfon, induced 
uoncmiajii to elect his son Rudolph u their aovereign; 
Rudolph died after a reign ol only one year. Though the 
Habsburg princes at thij period alreidy cliined a hereditary 

n ihioi 

lined t< 

electing their soveirign, and they chose 
Henry, duke of Carinlhia, who had married a daughter of King 
Wenceslas II. Heniy soon became unpopular, as be was accused 
of unduly favouring the German aeillc^ In Bohemia. Ii waa 
decided to depose him, and Ihe cbcnct of the Bohemians imiw 
fell on John oi Luiembqig. son of Henry, king of the ^^ 
Romans. The Luiemburg dynasty henceforth ruled ' '^^ *^ 
over Bohemia up to the time ol ilx extinction at the tmg 
death of Sigismund (1437). Though King John, by 
bii loirriage to the princess Elizabeth, a daugjiier of W(9»- 
cola II., became more dosely connected with Bohemia, be 
does not appeal la have fell much interest In that country 
Most ol his life was spent in other lands, his campaigns nnging 
tram Italy Id Ihe aanib lo Lithuania In tha nocOi. It bccaniB 


pravetUil " that nothint ceold ba d«w In (he «oild wlthiiut 
ihc brlp of Cod and o[ the king uf Bohtmii." The policy ot 
John wu founded on ■ ckse lUiiDct with Fnnce, the country 
loi wfakh he Idt Moit lympsthir. Fighting u xa illy ol Fiuicc 
he fell It the battle of Ci^ (im6). 

He mi sTKCttded u king of Bohemia by hk ace Ch 
whom the Gcimin dccton hid pnviouily elected ai 

aoveingn It Rone (1^46). Charies proved oae of the 
S^^ Iicalest lukn ot Bohcnii, vhen tL memory h (till 
nvcred. Prague n> hii (avourjte naidnm, and by 
the [oimdatian oi the nett ml:U [new (own) he greatly enlaianl 
the city, which now had Ihrw tinut IM foriDa eiMI. Mid (oon 
also tnblcd ill papulation. He alao added gteatly to the 
Inpoitance ol the city by founding the fiUBoa* univenity of 
Plague. Charles incoeedcd fai n-catabbMng oader in Bidienua. 
The cmmtry had been in a very diatuifacd Itatc in comequence 
of feuds that mre incesiant during the reign of John^ who 
had ilnxnt ilwayi been absent (rom Bohemia. Chiric* altp 
allempled to codify the obscure and contradicljiiy bws ol 
Sf^iemiB; but this attempt failed through the R^tance of 
the poweriul nobility ol the country. During the idgn of 
Charles, Ok fint aymptonn of that mavemenl hi lavtnit ot 
church Inform ihit afifrmrda aapUTcd a wortd-oide Import- 
ance, appeurd In Bohemia. As Charles hu ofien been Ktuaed 
of undue lubierviency to the CliunJi of Jtonw. It should be mcn- 
tkmcd that he gnnted his prntectian to levctal piieili who 
favoured the auM ol (hnrrh reform. In hit (ncign policy 
Chaites differed fnnn hit father. The relations «<lh Pmnce 
gnduilly bMame oilder, and at the end of his reign Chailct 
lavcored an xlliance with England; he died in 137S at the 
age of liaiy-two, pRmatutely eihiuttd by iiduoui toA. 

Cbailo wu (Dcccedtd by his ton Wenoalu, who was then 
■cvBiteai yean of age. Ha reign muki the declbie of the rule 
<A the house of Luiemburg over Bohemia. He was 
JjJJT* ■ weak and incapable sovereign, but the very ei- 
■ggented accuutioni against him, which are found 
principally in the works of o4det hiitotians, are mamly due to 
the fact that the king and to a Larger eitent hb queen. Sophia. 
for ■ tirac funhercd the cause of church relorm. thus incumng 
the displeasure of Romanist wiitera. During the eatlici part o( 
the reign of Wenceslai ■ continual strugfile took place between 
the king and the powcif vl fiohnnian nobles, who indeed twice 
imprisoned their sovereign. Wencrsiss also became involved 
in a diqmte with the archbbbop, which mulled in the death 
of the famous John ol Nepomuk. 

Ihc later part od the rdgo of Wenceslu is a record of ladi^enl 
religuas conflicL The hold of the Church of Rome on Bohemia 
.. had ahndy been wakened dating the nign of King 

j{^ Charles by attacks on the immoiaUty of the clergy, 

jtaidia which proceeded from pious priests such as MiliCand 
Waldhiusei. Ths church schism, during which the 
rival pontiSt assailed each other with all the wild Uutats and 
^utxttions of medieval thtolop'cal Birile, necessarily alieoaled 
the Bohemians to a yet greater extent. Almost the whole 
Bobcoiian nation (hererote e^nused the cause of Huis (f.r,). 
Wenceslia on the occaaioD of these dispvtn displayed tlie 
weakness and involution that always chaiactetiied him, but 
Queea Sophia openly favoured the cause of iluss, who lor some 
time was bei confessor. IIuss wu tried before the council 
of Constance (ga.), to whkh he had pmceeded with a klier ol 
lale conduct given by Wencolas's bmthtc Sicsmand, king of 
Ihc Romaos. He was declared a heretic and burnt on the 6lh 
of Jidy 1415. The inevitable and immediate result of ihia event 
was the outbreak ol dvil war in Bohemia, where Huu was 
greatly revered by the large majority of ihe population. The 
Doblea of Bohemia and Moravia met at Plague on the md ol 
September 1415, and sent to the council the famed PrnUi- 
Uiir Atioxnin, in which they strongly protested againit the 
oeoition of Huu, "a good, just and catholic man who had Ua 
many yean been favourably known in the Kingdom by hit life, 
cDBducl and fane, and who had been convicted of no oDence." 
Tbty further dedund tbu all who aSimed that hoety uiaied 

Bohemia iMrc "Btn, vOe ballon awl calunnltUn of 
ohenia and Moiavia. tlw wortt of all herctica, hiU of all evil. 
>wof thedevU." Tbey finally lUled " that they would defend 
le law el our Loid Jesus Chrrst it " _ 

>f their blood, scorning aU fear and 
■ ■ ■ lieni."' Thii 

1 a dcelantioB of war agaiiBt the Roman church, 
the beginning of the Hussite wus. The council, 
unoned the lublei before its tribunal, but they 
refused lo appear. A laise nomber of the noUea and knighli 
who had net M Plaxne fonned a confederacy and declared 
that Ibey csMCDted la ftecdoDi ol preaching the word •! God 
on their ealatet, that they declined to ncogniie the aulbtnty 
of the coukU of ConHance, but would obey the Bohemian 
bishops aad a fulore pope lawfully elected. Ucanwhile they 
declared the m ' ' ' ~ 

some of whom owned vast estaios, now also formed a < 
phslging themselves to support Ihe pope and the mimcLL Atlei 
Ihe ckslng ol the council in 1418, Sigiamuiuli who— Wenceslai 
being childlcM — wai heir to the Bohemian Ihione, tent a leiler 
to his brother, which was practically a manilesto addressed 
to the Bohemian pc^Ie. He ihreatcoed with the scvetcst 
penalties all who should continue to ressl Ihe luihorily ol 
Rome. Wcnccilas maintained the vacillating attjlude that 
waa characteristic of his whole reign, tbou^ Queen Sophia itill 
niended her pcotectkm to therelormcia. By doing this, indeed, 
she Incurred the wrath of the Chui^ to so great an eatent that 
an act of accusation agahist her was dnwn up at the counid 
of Constance. Intimidated by his brother, Wenceslaa now 
attempted Is item the cunent of religious enthusium. Im- 
mediately after the death of Huts many priests who refused 
to adminbler communion b the two kinds— now the principal 
tenet of the adherents ot Husi— had been expeUed from tbek 
parishes. Wenccslas deoeed that they sbould bo rchnlared, 
and it wu only alter lome heiitilion that he even permitted 
that religious services according to the Ulraquiit doctrine should 
be held in three ol the churches ol Prague. Some ol the more 
advanced reformcn leit Prague and [«iDed the party known 
as the Taboriio, [ram the town of Tabor which bcame their 
centre. Trouble* coon broke out at Prague. When on the 
30th of July I4t9, the Hussite priest, John of ZcUvD, was leading 
a procession through the jtreets ol league, stones were thrown 
at him and hi) followers ttom the town ball ol the " new town." 
TheHussitcs,lodbyJohn2itka (g.t.), ilormed the tawn-hill and 
threw the magTstrsles Jntm its windows. On receiving the news 
of these rials Kmg Wenceslas was immediately aeiied by an 
attack ol api^Ieiyi a aeouul fit on the i6ih of Auguu ended 

The newi of the death of the king cauied renewed rioting is 
Prague and many other Bohemian cities, from wludi many 
Germans, mcatly adherents of the Church of Rome, 
wvre expelled. Finally a temporary truce waa oon- ?? ^ 
eluded, and, early in the following year, SigismuDd, 

Ihe Bohemian crown as successor of his biDlher, 

arrived at Kutna Hora (Kuttenbcrg), Pope Martin V. on tlv 

if March T420 proclaimed a crusade against Bohemia, and 

iders from all parts of Europe Joined Sigismund's armj. 

day of June the Hungarian king, Sigitmund, with 


le ot Plague, deleimioed 10 COD- 
■niidered a heretical (ommuaity 
because iJey used the sacred chalice and accepted other evan- 
gelical trutha."* But the allempl of the crusaders to conquer 
Prague failed, and after an aliack by them on Ihe Vitlrav 
(now Zizkov) hill had been repulsed by the desperate bravery 
of the Taborilis, led by ZiZIta, Sigiimund determined to abandon 
r FrtOilaiiw Bslirmtntm, fircjutntly ' printed la Engtiih avd 


(be titse of PngBb An aHcmpt ol St^aaad to iditvi the 

beiiigid gsmwn of the Vytehrad fonrcu oo Ihe ouukitu el 
Fngvc al» [aited, u he wu again cnlircly dcloted It the baltlr 
of the Vyichrad (Novtmbct i, u»). 

RoyaJ ■uthorily now mwd in Bahernii. AC ■ meeting Ol 
the dkl It Caslav CJune I, 14") Sirxnuod wu dcpcnnL It 
*■! decided thai a Poliih piince should be cbOKo t> »veif i^. 
■nd thai mcanwhite a provisionaJ fovemmcnl. composnJ of 
twcnly men beronging lo the various paniei, should be estab- 
liihcd. In 149* Sitismund again invaded Bohemia, but >as 
decisively defealcd by ZiUa at Ndnecli^ Brod (DeuuchbiDd). 
ITic Poiish prince, Sigismund Korybulovit, now arrived in 
Bohemia, and vai recognized u regent by tbe tanC nujorily 
«[ the inhabitants; but Ihrough Ihe influence of the papal Bee 
he was retailed by the rulers o( Poland after B »Uy 
ml? '^ ""^y ' ''* innntlB. After his depanun, dvil 

Utisquists) and the advanced Taborite pany broke oui (or the 
tint lime, though there had previoudy been Iiolated diiturbancea 
between them. The return of Prince Koryhutovit and ihe 
menace of a Cernun invasion toon reunited the Bohembiis, 
who gained a decisive victory over Ihe Germain at Auasig In 
1416. Shortly allcrwardi Korybulovif, who had taken part 
te Ihbgml victory, incurred thedislikeollheeitreme Hututel, 
mnd ttaa obliged^ to leave Bohemia. Alt hope of establishing an 
independenl Slav dynasty in Bohemia thus came lo an end. 
la T4>7 several German princes undeflooii a new crusade agalnsl 
the llussiles, Wilh ihe German and other invadcn were 1000 
Engljah archers, bodyguard to Henry Beaufort, bishop of 
Winchester, who toot pan in ihe crusade as papal l^ate. 
The crusaders were Kited hy a sudden panic, boih at Mica 
(Stiibro) and at Tachau, as soon as they approached the Husnlei, 
and Ih^ fled hurriedly across Ihe mountains into Bavaria. 
Though internal disturbances again broke out, the Bohemians 
after Ihis success assumed Ihe offensive, and repeatedly invaded 
Hungry and Ihe German stages. 
The jmpooibiliiy ol conquering Bohemia had now became 

le Ihe dcmandr ol the llu.isitei. The Germans. 
!d by SiglsmvTid, detcnnined to make a last 
! Bohemia by armed foicr. The Dohemians, 
the moment of peril, defeated Ihe Germans al 
Domallice (Taui) on the 1st of August 14 ji, after ■ very short 
fi^t. In Ihe course of the same year ncgollalion* bi^n at 
Basel, the Hussites being represented by a numerov* emlussy 
tinder the leadership of Prnkop the Great. The neKOtiations 
proceeded very slowly, and in 1433 Ihe Bohemiaiia 

attempt ti 

. The I 

Ic HusslK 

t in 

le array ol the Doblo." TheTi 
■Iio colleclcd their men, who formed " the army ol Ihe towns." 
Ibe two armies met at Lipan, near Kolin, on Ihe jolh of May 
Hi4. The Taboriles were defeated, and the Iwo Proki^ and 
most of Iheir other leaders perished on the batllcGeld. The 
victory of Ihe moderate parly paved the way lo a reconciliation 
with Sigillnund and the Church of Rome. Tlie Bohemians 
recognised Sigismund as their sovereign, but obtained 

ftOm," matlers. These concessions, vhich were formulated 
in the so-called Compacts, granted to the Bohemians the 
light of communion in both kinds, and of preaching Ihe gospel 
freely, and also to a certain eitent limited the power ol the clergy 
(o acquire worldly goods. 

After the Compacts bad been formally recogniied at Iglau In 
Moravia, Sigismund proceeded lo Prague and wn accepted as 
king. Ite died in the loltowing year (1417) and was succeeded 
by Ms Kui-ln-law, Albert of Austria, whom Ibe estates chose as 
their king. Alben died attct be had reigned over Bohemia less 
than two years. Though it wu known that Albert's widow 
EUiabetb ««td sbonly pve binb to a child, tlw qutstlon as to 

totbethmMagKlnanwifarltwuaily in illiT 
that the question whether Ibe Bohemian crown was elective 
or hcledilary was decided for ever. The oobtes formed two 
particB, one of whkh. the national one, had George of 
Podibrad (f.s.) as ils leader. [Ilricb of Rosenberg f^^ 


Ihe nobility. The two parties linally cave to an agncmebt 
knownasthe"LetIcrof Peace"(fu{iwirii». Those who signed 
il pledged themselves to recognise the Compacts, and to support 
as archbishop of Prague. John ol Rokycan, who bad been choseD 
by the estates in accordance with an agreement made simul- 
taneously wilh the t^emputa, but whom the Church of Rome 
refused to leoogniK. On the other hand, Ibe tulional party 
abandoned the caodidatuic lo Ibe tfaione of Pdmc Casioiir ol 
Poland, thus paving the way to Ibe eventual succession of 
Albert's heir. On tlv iind of Febnuiy 1440 Queen Eliiabetb 
gave birth to a son, who received the narae of LadisUa. The 
Bohemians formally ackiwwledged liim as their king, though 
only after liieir crawn had been declined by Albert, duke of 
Bavaria. Ladiilas remained in Austria under the guardianship 
ol his uncle Fnderick, duke of Slyiia, afterwards Ihe empcnir 
Frederick III., and Bohemia, still without regular 

Mrtica of the nobility. In 144^ a gcDcral m 
>f Bohemia together with those of Moravia, £ 
ind lo-olkd " lan<b of Ihe Bohemian ci 
rhis meeting has exceptional importance fo 
ilstory of Bohemia. It was decreed that al 

m theri' 


— took place 

known as inriae — representing Ihe nobies, Ihe knights and Ibe 
towns. Thoe ciiriiK were to ddiberate separauly and oidy ta 
meet for a final decision. An aitempi made at ibis mecilng to 
appoint a regent was unsuccessful. The negotiations with the 
papal see coniinucd meanwhile, but led to do result, as the 
members of Ihe Roman parly used Iheir influence at the papal 
court (or the purpose of dissuading ll lima granting any con- 
cessions to their countrymen. Shortly after the termination ol 
Ihe diet of 1446 George of Poddbrad therefore determined to 
appeal to the fortune of war. He assembled a considerable army 
at Kulna Hon and marched on Prague {144R)- tie occupied 

over Ihe kingdom. The diet in 14$] recogniied his tide, which 
was alio sanclioned by the emperor Frederick III., guardian of 
the young king. I^Klfbrad was none Ihe less opposed, almou 
Irom the lirst, by the Romanints, who even concluded an alliance 
against him with their eilreme opponents. Kolda of Zampach 
and Ibe other remaining Taborites. In Oclabet (45] Ladislai 

died somewhat suddenly on Ihe 1. 

fcted George 

Tillrcly u 
int. (or. 

„ 'I Pr^ue. 
rd of November i4ij. Ccorge 
lucntly been accused ol having 
has proved that ihii 

lundcd. The . 

iliy. Though the Romi 

I monarchy Thoush 

for tome time ad mini- 
lords, whom PodCbrkd 

considered a great victory ol the national pany and was wdcomBd 
with enthusiasm by ihe ciiians of Prague. 

During the earlier and more prosperous part of Us rrign the 
policy ol King George was founded on a Arm alliance with 
Matthias Corvinus, king of Hnngaiy, through whose inflnnce 
he was ctnwncd by the RomanitI bishop (rf Waiuen. The 
reign of King George, whose principal supporters were the mm 
of Ihe smaller nobiliiy and of the lowns. was at llrsl vet> proa- 
petous. After a certain lime, however, some of Ihe Romaniit 
nobles became liostlie to the king, and. partly ihrough theic 
influence, he became Involved in a protracted stitigglc with Ihe 
papil see. It was in consequence of this snuggle ihal some of 
George's far-reaching plans— he endeavoured lor a rime to obiaia 
the suptemacy over Cermaiy — failed. A(Ut the negOliatioBi 


•tib Ronw kcd pfovcd BT g ncttntal Gterfc tatwbM the 
BUIa 11 PnpK ia 145a ind dcrLarrd that he tvDuld to his 

he wB ittdy 10 rlik hii life ami his cniwn in ihr dcfenn of his 
faith. The Xomaoist ptny <n Bohcmii bccanw yrt man 
embJKend against the king, and at a meeting it Zeleni Hor* 
(CrUnbcrg) in 146s many nobles o( the Romin reJigion joined In 
a confedciacy aptnil him. In the tallowing yeai Pope Paul IL 
gnnlcd his moral support to the conledentet by pcanouncing 
aenlence o( eicommunlcalion against George oF Pndtbtid and by 
ideuing all Bohemians from their oath of allegilDa 10 him. It 
■as also throvi^ papal influence thai King Mallhiu of Hungary, 
desening his fonner ally, supported the lords of the league of 
Zeiena Hon. Desultory warfare broke out between the two 
parties, in whkh George was at £nl tuctnifuli but fonune 
dunged when the king of Hungary invaded Uonuia and 
obuined poiaeision oF BrUnn, the cspital of the eouittry. At i 
Beeling of the Calhotie noUcs of Bohemia and Moravia at 
UmBU in Mnavia, Blallhias was proclaimed Ung of Bohemia 
(May 1. J^ig), In (he Following year George obuined (ork 
nccesses over hs rrval, but his death in 1471 lor a lime put a 
■lop to the war. George of Podifarad. the only Kuiaiie king of 
Bohemia, has always, wit h Charlnl v.. been the ruler of Bohemia 
whose memory has most endeared Itself 10 bla countrymen. 

George of nxUbrad had undmibudly doiin) the more pm- 
pnous pan oF his nign iniended to found a naiioiuil dynasty. 
In later yeara. htnrtver, hope o( obtaining aid from Poland in his 
itiuggk against King Matthias induced him 10 offer tlie succnuon 
to th* Bohemian throne 10 Vladislav (Wladislavt. Lsdislaus). 
ion of Casimii.kingol Poland. No lomial agreemenl was made, 
and at the death of Geocge many Bohemian noUti supported 
the claim of Uatthias of Hungary, who had already bnn pro- 
dafned king of Bc^mia. nolncted negotialiona ensued, but 
„,___, they ended by the election of Prince Vladislav of 
™i^ Poland al Kotna Hon, the I71h of May 1471- Hia 
circtiaa was 1 vicloiy of the lutioDil party, and 
naj' be considered as evitlciice of the strong anti-clerical 
leelin^ which Ihcn ptevaned in Bohcnia; For Matthias was an 
BBoondiiional adherent of Rome, while tlie PfriiBh envoys who 
icpreiented Vladislar promised that he would maintain the 
Compacts. At the bcipnning d his reign the new king was 
involved in (struggle with Malihiuof Hungary, who maintained 
Us claim (o the Bohemian throne. Prolonged desultory wuf ate 
continued up to 14)8, when a treaty concluded al OlnOU 
■ecured Bohemia to Vladislav; tUlthias was to retain the 
•o-ealled "lands of the BcJwmian ciown "—Moravia, Kleiia 
and Lusaiia-- during his lifeilme. and they were lo be tesiored 
10 Bohemia after his death. Thou^ Vladislav was faithful to 
ha proiHse of maintaining the Compacts, and did not attempt 
(0 prevent the Bohemians from receiving the comnnunion In 
both kinds, yet his policy was on the whole a rcaclionaiy one. 
both as regards nutters oF stale and the leligiDUi controversies. 
The king appolnled a* govcmment ofTidab al Prague men of 
that section of Ihc Ulnquist party Ihal was nearest to Rome. 
while ft severe persecution of the eitienw Hussites known as the 
eihrcn look p4an (see Htisnns}. Serious riots 
Prague, and the more advanced Hussites siormed 
n halls of the city. The nobln of the same Faith 
also lomwd a league to guard iheniKtvei a^lnsi the meitued 
leaciioa. A raetiing oF all ibe csuta si Kutna Hon In t^Sj. 
bowivei, for a time restored pace. Both parties agreed lo 
Itapect the religlaut views of their opponenli and to abilain from 
all vfofence, and the Compacts were again confirmed. 

A* regards mattRi of state the reign of Vladislav k marked 
by a decrease of the n>yai prerognlive, while the power of the 
Dobility attaiaed an unprecedented height, at the eapense. not 
only of the royal power, but also of the rights of the townsmen 
utd peasants. A decree of 1487 practically ( ' 


aggerile the in 
of Bohemia. T)it ruler 
t to itly on that Dim 

. Hi 

penantry of iMA the amda ot 2ilka ini the Plokiva had 

mainly consisted. Various enaelmenis bclorgirrg to this reign 
also curtailed the rights of ihr Bc^emian townsmen. A decree 
known as the " regulations oF King Vladislav " codified these 
changes. It enumerated all the rights of IhE nobles and knights, 
i... __.._!.. r ,|j ijujjj gi |[|^ lowns. It was tacitly as 

1 had r 


only s< 

The la 

1e diet look plac 
' er In ijiifi 

le Princi 

•oveltign with 
les and knights. Civil discord was the 
of these enaclmentt. Several mcelingi 
I which Ibe towns wen noi rejxesenied. 
led a confederacy 10 defend Iheir righls, 
of hlUnslerberg— a granibon of 

King George— as their leai 

Vladislav was elected king of Hungary In uv> ant 
the evcnu of his laler life belong to Ihehiilory of Hun. 
married in i^of Anna de Candale, who was connected 
with the royal family of France. He had i>«o children 
by her, Anna, who afterwords married Ihe 

died in Hu 

igary in 

successor was his son Louis, who hod already been { 
king of Bohemia at the age of three. According 10 the inslrue- 
tions of Vladislav. Sigismund. king oF Poland, and the emperor 
Minlmilian I. were 10 act as guardians of the young king. The 

allow the guardians any right of inleilLTence in the aSain li 
Bohemia. The great Bohemian nobles, and in particular Ihe 
lupieme burgrave, Zdentk Leo, lord of Rolmital, ruled the 
eouQiry almogt wiihcn.t control. The beginning of the nominal 
teign of King Louis is marked by an event which had great 

a meelingol the estilct in 1517 knownos the diet of St Wenceilas 
—as the membrrs firs! assembled on the iSih of Seplemher. Iho 
annivcraary of that laiM— they cariie to terms and settled ihe 
questions which had been the causes of discord. The tiiitcns 
renonnced certain privileges which they had hitherto daimett 
while the two olhcrcstates recognized their municipal autonomy 
and tacitly sanctioned Ihcir presence at the meeting of the diet, 
to which they had already been inFormaJly readmilled since 1 JoS. 
At the Aral sitting of this diet, on the i4ih of Orlobef. il was 
declared that the three estaies had agreed henceforth " to live 
together In friendly inlepcourse, as became men belonging to the 
same country and race. " In 1511 Louis arrived in Bohemia from 
Hungary, of which country he had also been elected king On hit 
arrival at league he dismissed all the Bohemian state ofRcials, 
including Ihe powerful Leo of Rolmital. He appointed Charles 
of hlUnslerberg, a cousin of Prince Barlholonww and also a 
grandson of King George, as regent of Bohemia during his 
absences, and John of Warlenberg as burgrave. The new 
ofhcials appear to have sapporled ihe more advanced HussilC 
party, while Kolmilal and the members of the town council of 
Plague who had acted in concert with him had been Ibe allies of 
Ihc Romanists and these Utraquisis who were nearest to Ihe 
Church of Rome. The new officials thus incurred Ihe depleasuie 
el King Louis, who was at that momtnl seeking Ihe aid ol the 
pope in hb warfare with Turkey. The king therefore reimtated 
Leo of Roimiial in his oFfins in 1315. Shortly aflerwanh 
Rofanital became involved in a Feud with the lords of Rosenberg; 
the feud became a civil war. in whFch moil of the no'.ks and 
cities of Bohemia look tides. Meanwhile Loois, who had 
returned lo Hungary, opened hb campaign against the Turks. 
He requested aid from his Bohemian sirbjecls, and this was 
granted by the Rosenberg faction, while Rotmilal and lus party 
purposely delayed sending any force» lo Hungary. There were, 
therefore, but few Bohemian troops at ihe bilile of Mohkcs 
(August ig, 1514) at which Louis was dccisisvly defeated and 

The dniih of Looii found Bohemia in a slate of great disorder, 
almost of anarchy. The two lasl Vin^ had mainly resided in 
Hungary, and in spile oF the temporary agreement obtained at 
the diet of St Wencetlas, the Bohemians had nol succeeded In 
catabUihiDg a strong indigenous govenuDem which might ha«t 

Uktn tht phce al thi ■bacnut meoarch*. Aichduke Ferdiund 
ol AuiUia-^fletmrdi the coiperoi Ftidiund I.— laid diim to 
(Mt>*/ t)>c Bohemian Ihrooe 1* htubaad of Aona, daughter 
iw d( King Vladiilav. King Sigiimund of Polaad, 
niiiiuj the duka Louia and William ol Bavaiia, itvtad 
*■"*'■ olh« German princa, at well aa icveial BohemiaB 
Bobltmen, at vhorn Leo ol Rolmiul waa Ihc moit Impotiatil, 
mn alto cudidatea. The tliet ccMlvcd to entrust the cleclioD 
to twenty-four ol their membcn, choien in equal number from 
(be three euaiea, Tbcacelectoia,osilie]jrdof Octobct (i5>6}, 
f^,^^^ cboieFerdJiuind of HabibuTgaa their king. Thiidaie 
ia memorable, u ll Durka the permanent iccnaion 
of the Habibuig d/ntaly in Uie Bohemian iluone, though 
the Austrian archduket Rudolph and Albert had pievioualy been 
tulen ol Bohemia for ihoil periods. Though Ferdinand fully 
durcd that devotion to Rome which is traditional in tha 
Habsburg dynasty, he showed great moderation in religious 
ma tten. particularly at the beginningofhii reign. His principal 
object waa to eiiabliab the bcrcdiiaiy right of h[i dynasty to the 
fecjiemian throne, and this object he pursued with chancteris lie 
obslioacy. When a great Gn broke out at Prague in 1S41. which 
destroyed all the stati documents, Ferdinai ' ' 

.0 then 

a charle 

that he had been recogniud 

hereditary rights ol his ^ife Anna, : 

which had ataled that he had become iing oy eictiion. iiui 

oi the Iroublci that broke out ahorlly ■ticiwants. Fetdiiund 
had in ijjr, mainly ihiough the influence ol his bioihtr the 
emperor Charles V., been elected king of the Romini and hcli to 
the Empire. He hencelorth took a large part In the politics ol 
Ceimany, particularly after he had in ij4) concluded a titaiyol 
peace with Tarkty, which assured the safciy of th» easicrn 
fmntien of hit dominiona.- Oiarlcs V. about the atat lima 
Gondudcd his war with France, and the bniLhcra determined to 
tdopit fimieipelicy towards the l>ratcsUniB of Ccrmany, whose 
power had recently greatly increased. The latter had, about the 
lime of the tccoinilioo of Ferdinand as king ol the Ranuini,and 
partly in eotuethuence of that event, formed at Schmulkaldcn a 
league, of which John Frederick, elector of Suony, and Philip, 
bndgravc of Hate, were the leaden. War brokcoui in Ccinuny 
Id the summer of 1 u6, and Charles i^cd on the aid of hi) brother, 
while ihc German Proicttanta on the other band appealed to 
Iheir Bohemian c&-rcligionisis fur aid. 

Since the beginning ol the Reformation in Germany t^eviFw■ 
Of the Bohemian rrformcn had undergone a considerable change. 
j ^ , Some ol the more advanced Uliaquijls differed but 
Hu*M' ''"'' '""" '*" Cctman Lulherani, while the Bohemian. 
tmuu Btelhren, who at this moment gicaily increased in 
J™" Influence through the accession of several powerful 
^y^ noblo, strongly sympathitrd with the Troiestants of 
Germany. Ferdinand's laak of raiting ■ Bohemian 
amy in support of his brother was Ihercfore ■ diflicult 
one. He again cmphjyed hit usual tortuous policy. He per- 

countiy under the somewhat diiingenuout preleil that Bohemia 
wat menaced by the Tutki; for at thai period no armed forre 
could be raised in Bohemia wiihout the conKnl of the esules ct 
Ihe reitm. Ferdinand hied the lawn of Kaaden on the Saxon 
Ironlicr as the spot where the iioopa were to meet, but on hii 
■nival there he found that many cities and noble*— particularly 
(hOK who belonged to the community ol Ihe Bohemian Brethren 


. 01 tl 


Pratotantt who sympalhiicd with their German co^rcligia 
The Bohemian army refused 10 crosi the Saion frontier 
lowaida the end of the year 1S16 Ferdinand wasobligtdiodi! 
his Bohemian forces. Early In the following year he again 1 
on his Bohemian subjects 10 fumidi an army in aid of his bri 
Only a few of the Romanisls and more retrograde Ulrai, 
obeyed hit order. Tlic large majority of Bohemians, on the other 


la varloiu wayi by dalmtaj hendiUry right lo tk* cnwn mnd bF 

curtailing the old privileges of the land. The estalca met at 
Prague in Uarch 154), without awaiting a royal summona, — 
undoubtedly an unconstitutional proceeding. The assembly, 
in which the influence of Ihe rrpresenta tivei of (be town nf Prague 
tnd of the knighu and ooblr* who belonged to the BohemiaB 
Brotherhood was predominant, bad a veiy levolutionary cha> 
tcier. This became yet more rnaiked when the ncwi of the 
elector of Saiony'i vicury al Rochliia reached Prague. The 
lUlei demanded the re-otablikhmcnt of the elective character 

the Bohemian kingdom, the recognition of religious liberty for 

all, and varioui enacimenti limiting the royal prcrcptive. ll 

decided to enlrusl Ihe management of state al!ain to a 

mitleeof twelve memben chosen in equal number from the 

eestalei. Of the memberiof the conunitleccbo(cn.by<ihe 

jhti and noblca four belonged to the Bohemian Brotherhood. 
The commit tee decided to equip an armed force, the command of 
which was conferred on Kispat Pflug of Rabenstein (d. IS76). 
According to his Inslructiona he was merely to march to the 
Saion frontier, and there await further orders from the eilatei; 
there scemi, however, little doubt that he was secretly inatructcd 
to afford aid to the German Pmlestanla. PAug marched to 
Joachimsthal on the frontier, but refused to enter Saion terriloiy 
without a special command ol the estatei. 

Meanwhile the great victory of the Imperialiati at Uiihlbcrg 
had for a time crushed German Protestantism. The Bohemians 
were in a very diJBcult pcaition. They had seriously offended 
their sovereign and yet aOorded no aid to the German Pro- 
teslanla. The artny of Pflug hastily di^KIacd, and the ealaici 
sliil assembled at Prague endeavoured to propitiate Ferdinand. 
They sent envoyi 10 the camp ol the king who, with his brother 
Charles, was then besieging Wittenberg. Ferdmand received 
Ihc envoyi belter than they had perhaps eipected. He inilRd 
always maintained his pUn ol making Bohemia a hereditary 
kingdom under Habsburg rule, and ol cuitalling.as far aa pouibfe 
its ancient coiutiiulion. but he did not wish lo drive to decpair 
a siill warlike people. Ferdinand demanded that the Bohemiana 
should renounce all alliances with the German Proleslanli, and 
declared that he would make hit will known after hit atiivil 
in Prague. He arrived there 00 Ibe »lb of July, with a large 
force ol Spanish and Walloon mercenaries and occupied the city 
almost without lesistancc. Ferdinand treated the nobles and 
knighti wlih great lorbearance, and conltntcd hiniclf with the 
confiscation ol Ihe estatee of tome of ihoae who had been nHOl 
compromised. On the other hand he dealt very severely with (he 
towna — Prague in pariicular. He declared (hat their ancient 
privileges should be revited— a measure that prieiically tigni6ed 
t broad confitcaiion of lands that bckuiged 10 the municipaliiin. 
Ferdinand also forced the townsmen lo acccpl the control of 
■late officials who were lo be called lown-judgei tnd In Prague 
lown-captaini. Thete royal repretenuiivei weic given ahnoit 
unUmitrd conlrol over municipal iffaira. Tlie Bohemian 
Brelhien were also teverely pcneculcd, and their blahop Augusta 
was imprijonod !or many year*. 

Ferdinand's policy here waa u able u il always waa. The 
peasantry had ceasol to be dangerous tince the citablislunent of 
teridomi the power of the cilin vu now thoroughly undo- 
mined. Ferdinand had only to deal with Ihe nobles and km'ghli, 
aad he hoped Ilial the inBuence ol his court, and yet mire that 
of the Jesuits, whom he cttablished in Bohemia atnut this lime, 
would gndually [cnder them amenable to the royal will. II 
we consider the euslomi of hit time Ferdinand annoi be con- 
»dered as having acied with cruelty In the mcntcnl of his auceeM. 
Only four of (he principal leaders ol Ihc revolt— two km'ghis, 
and two citiiena of Prague — were icntenccd to dcalh. They 
were decspitaied on the aquare outside Ihe Hradfany palace 
where the eitiica met on thai day (Auguit »). This diet 
Ihercfore became known ai (he " Krvavy'inim " (bloody diet) 
In one of the last yanof hit life (i$6i) Ferdinand aucceedcdin 
obtaining the coronation of hit eUeit sen Maaimitisn as king ol 


in which FcrdinaDd had en 

. At Ftidiaud 1. waded lo Uw Honiiijan thmm al 

tk ume time m to tint el Bcbemii, md u bt ilao bscanie kine 
(I the Rcottaa and itler tbe detth of CfaaHs V. cmpcnir, Eov 
tKDti of bb life do net bdong to the liiiti^ ef Bohemii. He 

ur ofifMitioa. C&tamtuicti vcie gRStly in bb {ivohf: be 
htd Id ha ><Mtth mainl]' been educalid by Pnuaunt 

zl— tut«i,*nd tea time opeoly'vinRditniiigiympi.tb]' 
[or the patty at dniKh r^onn. Ibis Sict, irhkh 
id lor lam tbc lupfjort of the 

fgm, asd buked if tei a lime bi^iti agim to ainit at the fuaclioni 
et the Rnoui cboicb, from wliidi he bad kog atseated hiBoelf. 
tndiffemice, pcrbapi fomided on idigtma iceptkum, diai- 
aarriaed tbc king dajiaa Ibc many ecflc&laAtif^ di^iiztca tbat 
pbijed K) laTge a pan in hit idgn. In 1 567 Maidmilian, who liad 
aba wcccaJHt hia fatbcr a> lung of Himeaiy aid Empenr, 
nlled the Bobemians lor the finl time (Ence bia accmlon ts the 
tbioDe. Ukt moat pimm cl the Habibiae djnaatjr, ha «ai 
mnataallr amlnnted at ihi) period bj tlie diffiniky ot lafaini 
fondi for *aifan agabut tbe Tucki. When be asked the 
St^emiaiB to ganl luD mnifiea foi IbB puipoia, they bomedi- 
,i,M>a *tely letorKd by brining forvaid thrir denandt 
•rut niA Rffod to Batten of RbgioD. Tbeit prindpal 
-a— denuad anmi nmnriiat atiauie in the U^t of the 
'*'*'" eraitaaf the past. Hie olattaeipnned tbe viih that 
Ibe eddmted Compacti ahoald cme to fcnn put id the Ian 
o( the ajnnlry. Tbcse caactmenti had indtcd granted fnedon 
<f mtsb^ to the matt modcnte Ulnqnista— nwB who, except 
that ther elalmcd the rigbt to.mxira Ibe commiminii. in both 
kindi, banOr diSend hi their failh bom tbe Rwian cbwcb. 
On tbe o^er haad Feidinaad I. had laed tbe Compacts u an 
TOcmnDcnt vtdch fitiTift*d bin in oppnvsing tbe Bohemian 
Bretinen, and .Ibc adoameed Utnqniati, iriuae teaching now 
diCend fast Httie ton that of LnHier. He had aigned that all 
t^M vhopntaied docUfHt diOrringfiDm the Cbonh of Kome 
BBie wtddy tbm did tbe Tetrognde Utiaquiats, woe ootsde 
Ibe pale of reBgioBa tolcnthm. MaximXan, indiSeient aa usnal 
■a mnttciE ol celigloin m l lt»>«™y . eonaenlMl to tbe abobtion 
tl lite Compacii, and thete enactmenti, y/bltii bad once btoo 
aacToi to the Bidwinlali people, pcitdted unrr«Tetttd by all 
parties. TbaRomaniitahadalwayabatedibem.beliiviiigUiem 
Hit to be in acoocd wttb tbc genanl cntlom el the papal chutib, 
vhfle tbe LHtheiasa and Bohcufiii Bretbien coniidend tbeii 
iiilniniiiiiii a gnataalia irf tbdr omi Ebeny of wonhip. 

In I S7S Maiindlian. lAo bad kmg been absent from Bohemia, 
mumed thae, aa tbe tstatea lefued to giant tubildlB to an 

very prolongtd. The king mafntaincd a TadUiUng attitude, 
|,rilTifiyTi> no* by tbe tbrtata of tbe Bohemians, now by ibe 
adtioe of tbe papal mmcia, who bad fidlowed i^ to Pngue. 
Ihe latter tum^y repiaented to bim bow great vould be Ibe 
dKcnltiea that he would encoonttr En bb other dominlona, 
■hDoId he make conaaloDt to tbe FrolcslaDU oC Bobtmii. 
lie prindpil demuid ot the Bebemiaiu <ru ibat die " Coti- 
_ . . feiaiooof Augsbdig"— aiummaiyoILolher'ateacbing 
p ^ ' '- — ibODld be retognised in Bobemia. They futthei 
mewed ibe deraud . wbkb they bad abcady eipnued 
at tb dkt of 1567, that tbe ntalcs iboold ban the i(^t 
■f appointing tbe members of the consfatoiy — Ibe ecdeal- 
Biikal body wblcli ruled the Utiaqubt chuirb; for >uK« tbe 
deuh of John ot Kokycan thai cbuith bid had no aicbbbbop. 
Attrr Imv ddlbentiona and tbe iing'i final refuBl 10 recogniie 
tbc co Blea iion of Augibuig. the najottty of the diet, mra ii tin g 
el Bcmbeia ol tbe Bohemian broCbeifaood and advanced Vtn- 

quills, drew vp a pnltulDn of faith that became known at tbfc 
C«/enu Bainmai. It was in mat point! identical with the 
Augibuig cBufeBioB. but difleml fnan ii with regard to the 
doctrine ol tbc ■acrament oF tbe Lord's Supper- Here the 
Bohemian ptofenion agreed wiib ihc vicwt ol Calvin niber than 
with tbae of Lutber. Tbit is undoubtedly due to the bifluenc* 
of tbe Bohemian Bieibien. The Conjtuio Balumia wai pre- 
sented to Maomiliao, who verbajjy eiprcued bb approval, but 
would not OHisent to thil being nude puUic, and also refuted 
his amsent 10 )be Inclmkin ol the Cenjaae among tbe chanen 
of the kingdom. MaiimiTtin rejected the demand of the 
Bohemian estates, that they and not the king should in future 
appidnt the members of tbe consbtory. He finally, however, 
ooasented to exempt the Lutberans and advanced Uuiqubts 
from tbt jurbdlction of the consbtory, and allowed them to 

:e to heloog to eadi 

x control oicr the 



and dbcipline among the deigy. AatbeBohendanBiothertiood 
bad nerct recogniied the contittory, that body now loat whatever 
iBflaence It bad itfll poaeaed. It hecame, Indead, nbtctvien 
to the RomaiAt aichlAheiiric ot Prague, wbidi had ben !•■ 
eiUblbbed by Ferdinand LI 

men who had joined tbe Roman thuich. but coBtimed tiy aider 
ot their aupetton to remain merabHa ot tbe conistaiy, wbete 
It ma thou^t that tbeit infloencc might be naefal to tbctt new 

Tbe tanlt) of tbe dfcl of 1J75 were «b the irfiole lanaabb 
to tbe esUtea, and tbey leen to haw taken thb view, tcr ahoeal 
bnaedlalely aftciwaidi they lecogniied MaxiBitHinfa .. . . . 
cIdettaoaXndoliAaa hit soccewcr and consented to Ma ^ 
bebg crowned kbig of BotKOifa. MaximfliaB died in the following 
year, and Rnddph tncceadtd Urn wtttaaut any opporitioK 
The events of the last yCai* of the lelgn ol Rndo^ bai« the 
greatest importance for Bobemlm bittoiy, but the earlier part 
of bbnignrequlrcBlillte notice. Asltad^phbadbeenednnted 
in Spain it was at first thoogkt that be wonU tnot die Bahcmian 
church reformers with great severity. Tbe new sovefei^D, how- 
ever, shomd with tei^Td to the uoceasbig letlgious conttovetsy 
the same apathy and indiSerena wiA whiii be also met nulteii 
of state. He had been from hia early yonlh silbjeei to tits •< 
melancholia, and duHng teverd short perkxb waa actually 
iasaoe. Rsdoiph wasagreotpalron of the aria, and be greatly 
conlrihulfd la tbe cmbellithmcnt ol Prague, which, as it was 
hit (ivouiite residence, became the irnln of the vast Habshurg 
dorahiions. In 1600 the menial condition oi Rudolph bccnmeso 
seriously Impaired that the princes of the house of Uahabug 
thought it neceasajy to oonalder the lulure ot the Mate, parti- 
cnlat^y as Rudolph bad no legitimate dcsceodanu. Matihias, 
the eldest of hb bnnhets, came lo Prague and pointed out to 
KudbliA the neceaiity ot appointing a madjuior, ibooM be b* 
fncapadtated from fulfilling hb loyal duties, and obo ot making 

suggestions were bidignantly lepdled by KndiJpb, wboac anger 
was greatly iDoeased by a iMIet of Fope Clenenl VUL Tbe 
pope In a {ordUe Ihoo^ ftomally courtcan manoet pobited 
out Id Urn the evil lanlta wblcta hb n^ecl ot hb nyal diUIei 
would entail on hb aobfact*. and called ml him to appoint one 
of tbe Hatsburg prloHS his inccessor both to the mperial 
crown and to tbe thronei of Bobemia and Hungry. It ii 
probaUe that tbe fear that the pope might make ^od tbe 
threats contained in thb letter induced Rodoli^ who bad 
hitherto been indiffemit to matten rf religion, to become 
more suhservlenl 10 the Roman church, Tbe papal nuncio at 
Prague, fn particular, appears tor a thne to have obtained gnat 
influence over the king. Under Ibb inBueno, Rudolph in 
i6ai bsued a deCroe which renewed obsolete enactment! against 
the Bohemian Biethten that had been pnblbbed by King 
VU&lav In 150S. The nyal deem was puipeaely worded 
iB an obBcm mamiet. It referred lo the Compacts that bad 

been abditbed, and «a> liable to u Interpmation ndoding 
from tolerance alJ but the RDjiunliti ud (he Rlrogrode 
UlraquBLs. It appeared thcrcfon as a menace lo the Lutherans 

thai cned — ai well it tv the Bobemian Bicthren. Tl» ctlalrs 
of Bohemia met al Prague in January ifiej. T]ic discustiont 
wrre voy Manny. Budovec <A Budova, a nobleman belongint: 
la Ibc conununit]' of the Bohemian Bnihren, became ihc leadi 
of all thOM who vers oppowd lo Ihe Church of 



olatca, la altempt ii 

..... B nade by Kii _ 

ever, ndvBed [be atata lo vote tbc luppliea tbit King Rodolpfa 
Itad demanded. Immediately afier thli vote had been pasaed. 
the diet wa9 ckscd by order of the Idsg. Thougb the toyit 
pover wit at that period very weak in Bohemia, tfae <^ien 
piitiuiuhip of tbe lung eneounged Ihe RamaniU noblei, who 
* ut among whom wen tome ownen of huge 
o re-atabLiih the Roman creed on tbeir 
noUca committed great crueliiea 
while attempting lo obtain tkcse foroblc convetaiona. 

Strife again broJie out between Rudolph and bf» IreacheTDIu 
youngo brotber Matthiaai who used liie rdigiolu and political 
controveiuu of the time for Ibe purpoM of cupplanlmg hii 
brother. Tlie fonul cause of tbe ruptiue between the two 
princes wia RudoI;rfi'a reiuul to sanction a treaty of peace with 
Turkey, which Matthias had concluded as hhs brother's repre- 
sentative in Hungary. The Hun^iians accepted Matthias as 

that county had, by Charles, lord of Zerolin. alw renounced 
the lUigiinCB of BudoJpL Matthias then invaded Bohemia, 
ind invited the estates of (he kingdom to meet lum at £aslav 
(Ccslau). In coniequcnce of a sudden revolution of feeling for 
which it a difficult to account, the Bohemians declined the 
overtures of Matthias, The estates met at Prague in March 
i6o3, and, though afaln submitting their demands oonceming 
eccl^astiial mattetB la Rudolph, authoriied him lo. levy 
troops for the defence of Bohemia. Tbe forces of Matthias had 
Ineanwhile entered Bohemia and had aiTived at LibcA, a small 
town nisi Prague now incorporated with that city. Kere 
Uatlbiu,piobaUy disappointed by Ibe telusai of the Bohemians 
to ioln bis ttandaid, came lo an understanding with his brother 
Ura* >j, iffS)- Rudolph formally ceded to Matibias tbe 
Bovemnent d Hungaiy, Moravia, and Upper and Lower 
AUstfi*. but retained his rights as king of Bohemia, 

Soon after the conclusion of this tempoiaiy letilement, the 
estates of Bohemia again brought thdr demands before their 
j^^ - king. Rudolph had declined to discvas aU religious 
££, maltert during the time Ibal tbe troops of his brother 

OnHaf occupied pan of Bohemia. The diet that met on the 
^ lotb ol January r6o(i is one of tlie moat important 

Jjjjj™ in the history of Sclieraia. Here, as so frequently 
in tbe I7tb century, the reti^oui controversies were 
largriy influenced by personal entrn'ties, Rudolph never foifave 
the tieaehety of bia brolher, and wia secretly negotiating (at 
the lime when he again appeared as cbaminan of CatbolidnnJ 
with Christian of Ashali, the leader of the German Pniiiatants. 
Tbfi was known to the court of Spain, and tbe Bohemians also 
knew that the king could therefore rely on no aid from that 
tiuattec. Tbey were theicfore not intimidated when Rudolph, 
vacilbtHig as ever, suddenly assumed a most truculent attitude. 
The esutes had at their meeting in Mi.reh of the previous 
year dnvn up a document consisting of iwenty-hve ao-called 
Artides, wbicb formulated their demands with regard lo matters 
Of religion. The king now demanded that this document, 
which he considered illegal, should be delivered up to him for 
desInicUon. The "aiticles" expressed the wish t)ut the 
CBnjtisia BeAeniua should be rccofiniied as one of the funda- 
mental law* ^ tlie kingdom, and that complete religious liberty 
should be granted to all datses. Tbey further demanded that 
the Pratetlanlr-^s it now became cuttomai; to call Jointly 
the Utnquiso, Lutherans and BtJiemian Bittbien— and tho 
BftmiBi ^ntlrtift should btvo MU coual if^ht to bold aQ the 

affii:es of state, and ibal the power of Ibe X<ioil) lo acquire land 
should be limited. They finally asked for redttsi of seveta! 
grievances caused by the misrule of Rudolph. This document 
had remained in the hands of Budova, who refused to driver 
it to the king. The estates then chose twdve of thdr number — 
among whom was Count Henry Matthias Thura — who were to 
negotiite with tbe king and bis eoundllon. Protracted dis- 
cussions ensued, and lire king finally ttalcd, on Ibe jitt of Match, 
that he could grant no concosions in matten of idigion. On 
Ihcfoliowingdaytheeitatcs met luider the leadership of Budova. 
They decided to am for the defence of their rights, and when 
:ly afterwards dissolved the diet, il 

solved l£ 
mmons. When they returned t 
e burgtave, again informed Budi 
> concessions in ecclesiastical : 

without a rojr^ 
Prague, Adam of Sternberg, 
vn that tbe king woold grant 
lattera, Bohemia appeared 

tbefaequeni and amtndiciory resolutions of the king, influenced 
now by the ottreme Romanists, now tiy those of bia CQimcillots 
who favoured a pea'ceful solution. Finally— on the glh at Juljr 
t6o$ — Rudolph aigned tbe famed " Letter of Majesty " which 
gave satisfaction lo all the legitimate demands of the Bohemian 
Protestants. Jn the " Letlcr of Majesty " Rodolph Tecogniicd 

estates the control over the university of Prague, and lulboriad 
them to elect Ibe members of the Ulrsquist consbtoty. They 
were further empowered to elect '" defEnderi " dwsen jn equal 
' im the estates of the nobtes, knights and citicens. 

d the I 

n of tl 

the Letter of Majesty and generally to uphold the tights of the 
Protestants. On tbe aame day tbe Romanist and the Protestant 
members of the diet also d^ied an agnnneDt by which they 
guaranteed to each other full liberty of idigious wonbip and 
declared that this tilKTty ahould be extended to all daBeriJ 
the population. 

Ill 1611 the peace of Bohemia was again disturbed by the 
invasion of tlie archduke Leopold of Austria, bishop of Pasaau, 
who probably acted In connivance with hu cousfai j„^,um. 
King Rudolph. Leopold succeeded In obtaining 
possession of part of tbe tonn of Pcagne, but his amy wai 
defeated by the itoops which the Bohemian estates had hurriedly 
raised, and he waa obliged to leave Bohemia. - Vsltbias ma- 
sidered his hereditary rights menaced by the raid of -LeopoU 
and again occupied Bohemia. Mainly at his instigation the 
estates now forinally deposed Rudolpb, who survived his de- 
thronement only a tew montba, and died on the loth of January 
1611. Though Matthias had allied himself with tlie Bohemitn 
Protestants during his prolonged atru^e against bis brother, 
he now adopted that policy favouiable to the Church of Roma 
which b traditional d tbe Habshuig dynasty. His itiations 
with tbe Bobemian Protestants, thereforti soon became strained: 
In 1615 Matthias convoked a general diet, ij- one that besides 
tbe Bohemian representatives included also the represenlalivcs 
of the"lBndsof theBobemianerown," Al the meeting of ihit 
diet the qiieal>on of nationality, which ibnjugh the constant 
religjous coDtroversIes had receded to tlie background, again 
became predominant. Former .enactmeati enlorringthe UJ* 
of the nationa] language were reai^med, and il woa decreed that 
Bohemian ahould be the " authoriied " the, official) hnguage 

As Matthias was childlets, tbe question at la tbe succession ■ 
to tbe Bohemiau throne again arose. The king wiibed to secure 
the sucttsslon to bis cousin Ferdinand, duke of Siyrli. 
Fentinend was kriown as a fanatical adherent of tbe Church of 
Rome and as a cruel persecutor of the Protestanti of Siytla'. 
Kotie the less the state officials of Bohemb, by not very (CTupuloua 
means, succeeded in peisuatling the eatales (0 accept Ferdinand 

look plau at Prague on ibe r^th of June r£i7. No doubt 
throus^ the InBuence of Ferdinand, the policy of Matthias hence* 
forthaBumeda y«t sum pronouncedly ultramontane character. 
Tbe kill's coundUoo, all adbaeMi a( tbe Cfaurcb of Bmm, 


(pealy eqMtH«l thdi hope Ibil tbe Citlulic Qmrtb voOd I 
Ksvet it* lodEst bold over Bahcmu. Oc the otbn band the 
BobcDUU PrelotuU, led by Coupt nuni, oDa (i{ the 
nho hid i«liiBGd to vote for the lect^EoitioQ of Ferdlund n heir 
lo the thnne, did not -wiab to defer whit Ibey coDtklcnd i 
iorvitabh OH^ict. It appeand to them mon advute^out 
cDCouoUi the mak Mattbiei than hiijniuci^ and more luatit 
■Bcttmg. A comparatinljr nnimpottaiit inddest pndpitat 
Biatten. Id December ifii;, the aidibUnp of Fngue and the 
ibbot of BfcvnoT (Biaunau) aidotd the ■Dppnsston «{ the 
Piolatut nligioiia anvieta in chuichti that luid been built 
their damaiiB. Ihii waa a direct infrinftmeat ol the ngrtemcDt 
awduded by the R<aaaiiht and UttaqoiM tatatn <in the day on 
■liich Kint RoMfb had alffwd the Letter of UmjcEty. The 
defendeia took immediate aclkui, by tnviting bU FiatolaaC 
Bemboi of the diet to meet at Piasoe. They aSKmbled there 
OB i»l ot Hay iCiS, and decided to proceed in lull annoui to 
the Hrailiany pahct to brine theii rxunplaiiiD to the knoinrlcdgc 
of the coaiidllor* of Mallhiu. Oa the Idlowbg day, lluni. 
Wescolu ui Ruppa, Ulricb of KiEsky, and oibet memben of 
Ihe nam advanced patty held a lecnt meeting, at which it waa 
decided lo pot lo death the mogt ioBueDiial d[ Matibiai'a 
toundlloi*. On Ibe ijnj Ihe teprtaeniativea ol the Frotettanu 
of BcAcmia proceeded to the Hndiany. violent accuutio 
veie broulllt fotvatd, panictdarly against Maniaic and Slaval 
the king^t moaL iniated conncilloi^ who mre accused of having 
idvoed him to cppoae the wisbee of the Bohanians. Finall] 
ibae two rouncQlora, together with Fabridua^ fccretary ol Ihi 
royal ooundJ, were thrown from the windowi of the Hradfany 
inlo Ihe Doat below — an event known in hiilory la the De- 
fcotslntioD of Prague. Both Matlinic and Slaval 
Ellle injured, and loccoeded in cacaixng from Pi 
Bobcmiana immediately eitablished a pioviiiODal l 
anukting of thirty " diiecloii," ten ol whom mrie choaen by 
each of the eitatei. They alio p[OC«ed«l to raise an anned 
Una, the command of which wii even to Count Thum. 
BoOilities with Austria began in July, wbeo an irapeiial [one 
ealmd Bohemia. The Iroofa of Matthias were, hovever, soon 
npulsed by the Bohemians, and in November Thum's array 
enieied Amtiia, but was soon obliged to letiie to Bohemia 
becatoe of the lateooa o[ the leaKin. 

In the fcdlowiag March the Bobetoian oown became vacant 
by the death of Haithias. On the jist of July the Bohemian 
if^ estates pronounced the formal depotiiion of Ferdinand, 

•■a (to and on the Kilh ot Augutt they elected as Iheii king 
^y" . Frederick, elecioi paLitine. The new king and his 
queen. Elizabeth of England, arrived in Bohemia in 
October, uid were crowned somewhat latex at St Vitui's 
fatbedral in Ftague. Warfaie with Austria continued during 
iliis yeiv — ifiip. Ilium occupied Moravia, which now tbrvw 
in its lot with Bohemia, and he even advanced on Vienna, but 
B soon obliged 

a faul ti 

. Ihe p< 

eiful di 

ia joined his forces to those of Ferdinand, who bad become 
Malthiaa'a auccessor as em p er or, and who wu doternuDed to 
recDnqoer Bohetnla. Ferdinand also received aid from Spain, 
i^]l3nd and leveral Italian states. Even the Lutheran elecior of 
Saiony ttOfioA his cause. A large imperiiJisl army, under 
the CDUUBand of the duke ot Bavaria, TlUy and Bouquoi, 
tnteml Bohemia in September 1610. After seveial skirmishes, 
in all of which the Bohemians were defeated, the imperial forces 
airived at the outskirts of Prague on the evening ol the ;ih 
of November. On the following morning they attacked the 
Bobemiab army, which occujued a slightly fortified position 
OB Ibe plateau kiwwn as the " Bila Hora " (White Hill]. The 
BolmuaiB wet« defeated after a atrug^e of only a few hours, 
and im the evtoiog of battle the impenatitls already occupied 
the pen of Prague, tiiuated on the leli hank ol the Vluva 
lUoidaa). King Frederick, wbo had loil all rourage, buriedly 
left Prague on the fallowing monilng. 
Babnna Itself, aa well as Ihe laiiils of ihe Bdwnlan crown, 
'■■"'■ ■ ■ St without leuitance. The 

LMIA ijr 

bktiket the WhileHiUmarkaaaepocbln the history of BiAenla. 

The euculion of the principal leaden oT the natkinal nnv*- 
ment (June 11, ifiii) was Idlowed by a lyiteqi - --iit 
of wholesale cmilisrarion of the lands of all wbo itoaaf 
had in any way participated in the natioaa] move- "•'"'»■ 
ment. Alnnit the entue ancient nobility ol Bdiemia wai 
driven into exile, and advcntureia from all countria, moatjy 
men who bad served in the imperial atmy, dumd the spoils. 
Gradually all thote who refused to recogniu the creed ol the 
Roman church were expelled from Bohemia, and by the use of 
terrible cruelty Caiholiciam was entirely re-etublislied In the 
country. In 1617 Ferdinand publtslied a decree, whkb Eotmally 
suppreased the ancient free constitution of Bohemia, tbou^ i 
semblance of represenutive goveimnent was left to the country. 
The new constitutimi prochuoied the heredity o( the BohemiaB 
crown in the house ot Hibsburg. It added a new " cslale." 
that of the ckrgy, to the three already existing. This estate, 
which was to take precedence of all the others, consisled of the 
Roman archbishop of Prague aiHJ of aU the ecdoiaalics who were 
endowed with landed estates. The diet was deprived of all 
legislative power, which was exclusively vested in the sovcteign. 
meelinp the diet was to discuss auch malten only as were 
laid before it by Ihe repcesentativea of the king. The estate* 
:QDtiDued to have the right of voting taxes, but they were 
ipeciaUy forbidden to attach any condilioni to the granta of 
soney which they made to their sovereign. It was hnally decreed 
that the GeiDiso laj^uaff should have equal right with the 

the kingdom. This had indeed become a necessity, uocs, in 
quence of the vast conGsations, the greatest part of Ibe 
was in the bands of foreigners lo whom the nalienal 

langiugB was nnknown. Though these enactments still left 
autonomy to Bohemia, the country gradually lost all 
duality. Its hislory from liiis moment to the beginning 

of Ihe j^th century is but a part of the history of Austria 

Bohemia was the theatre of hostilitfea during a large part of 
be Thirty Years' War, which had begun in its capilaL In ifijl 
the Saiona for a time occupied a large part of Bohemia, 0*1*4^ 

!vec attempted to re-establish Protestantism. mm*tr 
During Ihe later period ol the Thirty Years' War .*"«« 
Bohemia was Irequeotly pillaged by Swedish troops, *|^'"' 
and tbe laluDgotpart ot Prague by the Swedish general 

'ipXHrk in ifitS was the last event ol the great war. The 
ipta of Ihe Swedish envoys to obtain a cctlain amount of 
taleiation tor tbe Bohemias I^Biestants pnvcd fniiilett, a* the 
iperial represents lives were infiexible on this point. At tbe 
beginning of tbe rfith centuiy the possibility of the exljiution of 
- e male line of the bouse of Hababurg arose. The estates of 
jhemla, at a meeting that took place at Prague on the 16th of 

throne and recognized the so-called Pragmatic Sanction which 

proclaimed the indivisibility of the Hababurg realm. The 

archduchess Maria Theresa, in whose favour these enactments 

■ere made, none the less met with great opposition on the death 

if her father the emperor Charles VI. Charles, elector of Bavaria, 

aised fl^ini^ to the fiobemian throne and invaded the country 

vith a large army ol Bavarian, French and Saxon troops. He 

Ictupied Prague, and n large part of the nobles and kiu^ts ot 

Bohemia look the oath ol allegiance lo him (December ii). 

^ The fortune of war. however, changed shortly afterwards. 

ia Theresa recovered Bohemia and the other lands that had 

lindertheruleol the house ol Hababurg, During the reign of 

Maria Theresa, and to a greater extent during that of her son 

Joseph 11-, many changes in the interna] administration of tbe 

Halfihurg realm took place which all tended to limit yet further 

itoncmy of Bohemia. A decree of 1749 abolished the 

te law.couru that itill existed in Bohemia, and a lew yean 

in Austio-Bohcmian chancellor was appointed wbo waa to 

have tbe control ot the administration ot Btjiemia, as well as of 

German domains of the bouse of Habibuig, The power of 

the niyal oSdils wbo cooitltuted the executive govetamenl ol 



Bobanu wu Rn>.tly curtaikd, and though the chief itpre- 
K«utive ol the tovcreign in Prasuc continued lo bar the aadent 
title of lupreme burgnve, he iru iiutnicted M coDfoim ia ill 
miiicn to the ordcn o( the ceotrgl government ot Vienna. Yet 
more extreme meuures tending to ceo tlulintkin wcie int roduod 
by tbs emperor Joseph, who refuied' to be crowned at Prague as 
king oi Boherai*. The powers ol the Bohemian diet and of the 
ro^ officials at league wcte yet further limited, and the German 
langaage «u Inltodund into all the upper ichoals of Bohemia. 
Some (rf the reforms Introduced by Joiepb were, inddentilly and. 
contrary to the withe* of Iheir originator, favourable to the 
Bohemian nationality. Thus the greater liberty whicb be granted 
to the press enabled the Bohemians to publish a newspaper in 
the nalionai language. After the death of Joseph in 1790 the 
Bohemian eslntes^ vhoM meetinp had been suspended during 
his reign, again assembled, but they at first made but scanty 
attempts to reassert their former righu. During the long 
Napoleonic wiu, in which the house of Habsburg was almost 
continuously engaged, Bohemia continued in its previous leth- 
argic state. Tn ign^ a merely formal chnngc in the constilu- 
tional position of Bohemia took place when Francis I. assumed 
the hereditary title of emperor of Austria. It was stated in an 
imperial decree that the new title of the sovereign should in no 
way prejudice the andent rights of Bohemia and that the 
' u kinn of Bohcr 


15 the Ion; 

national aspirations of Bohemia began to revi^ 
rbe national movement, however, at first only foui 
espression in tfie revival ol Bohemian litcratuj 
The arbitrary and absolutist government of Prin 
Mettemich rendered oU political action Impossible 
rated by the. house ol Habsburg. In spite ot tt 

>f opposition lo the government of Vienna. Thi 
heir right of voting the taics of the country — a rig 


obtahi the support of the wider classes 1 
determined in 1S47 lo propose at their : 
year that the towns sboidd hive a more c 
at the diet, that the control of the estates over the fli 
country should be made more slrlngenl, and that the Bohemian 
language should be introduced into all the higher schools ol the 
country. The revolutuinary outbreak of 1848 prevented this 
meeting of the estates. When the news of the February revolu- 
tion in Paris reached Prague the ciciteroent there was very great 
On the nth of March a vast public meeting voted a petition to 
the government of Vienna wluch demanded that the Bohemian 
language should enjoy equal rights with the German in all the 
government offices of the country, that a general diet comprising 
■U the Bohemian lands, but elected on an eitensive suffrage, 
should be convoked, and that numerous Ubenl relorms should 
be introduced. The deputation which presented thcsc.demands 
in Vienna received a somewhat equivoca] answer. In reply, 
however, to a second deputation, the emperor Ferdinand declared 
on the fith of April that equality of rights would be secured to 
both nationalities In Bohemia, that the question ol the reunion of 
lloravla and Silesia to Bohemia should be lell to a general 
__ ■ meeting of representatives of all parts of Austria, and 
UatT ''"' ' "'* meeting of the estates ol Bohemia, which 
would Include representatives of the principal towns, 
would shortly be convoked. This assembly, which was to have 
had full powers to create a new constitution, and whicfi would 
have established complete autonomy, never net, thoogh the 
election of its members look phce on the i;th of May. In 
consequence of the general national movement which is so 
characteristic of the year i8j8, it was decided to hold at Prague 
* " Sbvie congress " to which Slavs of all parts of the Austrian 
emigre, as well as those belonging lo other countries, n-erc 
invited. The deliberations were interrupted by the serious riots 
that broke out in the streets of Prague on the nth of June. 
They were suppiessed after prolonged fighiing and considerable 
bloodshed. The Austrian commander, Prince Windijchgrati, 

ked. though the Bohemians took part In the 
nusinan constituent assembly that met at Vienna, and after- 
wards at Kromffii (FLremslet), 

By the end of the you 1S4P all cDnstitutional government had 
ceased in Bohemia, is in all parts of the Habsburg empire. The 
reaction that now ensued was felt more leverely than in any 
other part of the monarchy; lor not only were all attempts la 
obtain self.govemment and liberty nithjessly suppressed, but 
a determined attempt was made to eilerminate the national 
language. The German language was again eidusivety used in 
all schools and government offices, all Bohemian newspapers 
were suppressed, and even the society of tiir Bohemian museum — ■ 
1 society composed of Bohemian lublernen and scholaiv^-^was (or 
a time only allowed 10 hidd its meetings under the supervl^n ot 

The events of the Italian campaign of iSjq rendered the 
continuaiioo of abtotutism In the Austrian empire impossible. 
It was attempted to estahiish a constitutionat system ^aitrtmrn 
which, while maintaining to a certain extent the unity nwi»M> 
of the empire, ihonld yet recognije the andenl cdnaii- 1*^ 
tutional rights ol some of the ronntries united under "•" 
the rule of the house of Habsburg. A decree published on the 
joth of October 1K60 established diets with limited powers. 
The corapoaitioii ol these pailiaraenisry assemblies was to a 
certain extent modelled on that of the anoent diets of Bohemia 
and other parti of the empire. This decree was favourably 
receivedinBohemia, but Ihehopeswhich it raised in the country 
fell when a new imperial decree appeared on the afith of February 
tS6i. This established a central parliament at Vienna with very 
extensive powers, and introduced an electoral system which was 
grossly partial to the Germans. The Bohemians ' ' ' - ' 


It they left the parlia. 

ilating that the assembly hod cncna^icd oi 
power which constitutionally belonged to the diet of Praguev 
Two years later the central parliament of Vienna was suspended, 
and in the following year — iB6fi — the Austto-Prossfan war caused 
a complete change in the conititutional position of Bohemia. 
The congress of Vienna in iSij had dedarod that that country 
should form part ol the newly formed (krmanic Confedentioii; 
this was done without consulting the estates ol the country, as 
had been cuilomary even after the battle of the White HHI on 
the occasion of serious constitutional changes. The treaty vtith 
Prussia, signed at Prague on the ijtd ot August 1B66, excluded 
from Germany all lands ruled by the house of Habsburg. As a 
natural consequence German influence dech'ncd in the Austrian 
empii«, and in Bohemia In particular. While Hungary now 
obtained complete Independence, tlie new constitution of 1867. 
which applied only 10 the German and Slavic parts of the 
Habsburg empire, maintained the s>'slcm of centralization and 

should be te-establlshed 

he tealited. The new 

Karl Hohenwart, took office 

accomplishing on agreemcn ,. 

the other parts of the Habsburg emjMre. Prolonged 1" 

establish a constitutional system which, while sallstylng the 
claims of the Bohemians, would yet luve firmly connected them 
with the other lands roled by the bouse oi Habsburg. An 
imperial message addressed lo tfw diet ol Prague (September 14, 
1B71) staled that the sovereign " in consideration ol the fonner 
constitutional position of Bohemia and remembering the power 
and glory which lis croum had tfvcn to his ancestors, and the 
constant fidelity of its population, ^adly rccotniied the rights 
ol the kingdom ol Bohemia, and was witling tn confirm this 
assurance by taking the coronation oalh." Various influences 

I* *ttRnpt to recooetia B<Aanls vi 
RnimcaC with a pnmoimced Germ 


CMicd the bihira M 
Amtria. la 1S71 > | 
tendency U6k office Ii 
afun rcfoKd to attend tht parliuncntiry BsKmblks of Vienna 
and Pngue. In 1879 Count Eduiid TaaEfe bccams AiutHan 
inime ainislo', and be succctdfd bt penunding the repnsen- 
lalivti el BobtmJa to take pait In tbe dcUbaitiou of the 
parliament of Vienna. They did », after stating tliat they took 
thii tlep vitbout prejudice to thdr view th^t Bohemia with 
Uonvia and Silesia constituted a separate state under the rule 
of the same sovereign as Austria and Hungary. The govcm- 
neot uf CouaE TwBe, in recognitioa oE this conce^lon by the 
Bohemia H, consented la nmove some of the grossest anomalies 
ODuwciixl with the electoral system of Bohemia, tUrh had 
Utheno been grossly partial to the Cernian Dinotity of the 
piqiulation. The government of Count TaaSe also consented 
(o the fmmdation of a Bohemian university at Prague, which 
gmtly contributed to the intellectual developmenC of the 
country. On the fait of the government of Count TaaSe, Prince 
Alfred Windiscligrlti became prime minister. The policy of bis 
ihort^Hved govemtnent was hostile to Bohemia and he wis 
■Don replaced by Count BadenL 

Badenl again atlempted 10 conciliate Bohemia. He did not 
indeed consider it feasible to reopen the question of its autonomy, 

but he endeavoured lo remedy some of the most 
?^^ serious grievances of the country^ In the be^nning 
^Sulta. of iS;7 Count Baden! issued a decree which lUted 

tEiat after a certain date aU government officials who 
wished to be employed in Bohemia would have to prove a certain 
knowledge of the Bohemian as well as of the German language. 
This decree met with violent opposition on the part of the 
Cennan InhalHtanU of Austria, and caused the fall of Count 
Badeni'* cabinet at the end of the year 1997. After a brief 
Interval he wu succeeded by Count Thun »nd then by Count 
Oary, whose govemraent repealed the decrees that had 10 a 
certain extent granted equal rights to the Bohemian laTiguage. 
In consequence troubles broke out in Prague, and were severely 
repressed by the Austrian authorities. During the subsequent 
minislriea o( Kllrber and Cautsch the Bohemiaos continued 
Is oppose the central govenunent of \lcniui, and lo assert their 
natiopa] lights. 
S ee g eaer a H; 


1896). The ' 

(Ua»uu<d Fr 
Lirly. theearli 


U iffoUf « Bluukt (1 
Bohemian hiKoty f ion I 




The' earEesI records of the fiohenlan or Cech language are 
very andent. though the so-called MS5. of Zekna Hon (Crilne- 
berg) and Kialodvuc (KOniginhot) are aliaoit certainly forgeries 
of the early pan of the i^th century. The earliest genuine 
documents of the Bohemian knguigc comprise several hymns 
and legends; of the laiiet the legend of SI Catherine and that 
of St Dorothy have the greatest value. Several andent epic 
fiagmenu have also been preserved, such as the Alciaadrat 
and Taadarim a Fhribtlla, Tliese and other early Bohemian 
writing! have been printed since the revival oE Bohemian 
Uierature in the igth centUTy. Of considerable historical value 
is the rhymed chropide generaHy though wron^y known as the 
chronicle of Dalimil. The author, who probably lived during 
llie reign of King John (J310-1346), records the events of 
Bohemian hiitory from the eailist period to the reign o( King 
Pxaiy of CuinUua, the immediate predecessor of John. A 

■tiong (edb]( of ndtl autlpatlv' to tha Onnans perradea tha 


It is undonhtedlT to be attributed to tlie high Intdlectua] 
level which Bohemia attained in the 14th century that at that 
period we already find writers on rellgioua and philo- -u^-^,^ 
sophical subjects who used the national language, /hi^^'^ 
Of these the most important la Thomas of Stito; (c. 
■33'-r4oi). Of his works, which contain tnany Ideas similar 
to those ol his contemporaiy Wydiffe, tht»e entitled O 
oiecnyc* viceck Knslaiakych (on genera] ChritUan matters) and 
Btsedni r^i (in a rough translation " learned entertainments ") 
have most value. Siitn^ and some of his contemporaries 
whose Bohemian writings have perished are known as the 
forerunners of Huss. Huss, Lke many of his contempoiorics 
In Bohemia, wrote both in Bohemian and In Latin. 01 
the Bohemian ncitmgs of Huss, who contributed greatly to the 
development of hb native language, the most important is his 
KJWad viry,disaloa Batiho prikiaam.a ^feri (ciposilionof the 
creed, the ten eommandmenB and the Lord's Prayer) written 
In r4ii. 01 his numerous other Bohemian works we may 

fBHOBi usij prme k sfastni (the true road to salvation) and 
O svalotupectti (on simony), and a large collection of loltcis; 
those written in prison are very touching. 

The years that followed the death of Huss formed In Bohemia 
■ period of incessant theological strife. The antl.Roman or 
Hussite movement was largely a dcmocralic one, and It is there- 
fore natural that the national bnguage rather than Latin should 
have been used in the writings that belong to this period. Un- 

of this controversial literature has perished. Thus the writings 
of the members of the eitrrme Hussite parly, the so-called 
Taborltes, have been entirely destroyed. Of the writings of the 
more moderate Hussites, known as the Caliitines or Uttaquists, 
some have been preserved. Such are the books entitled Of 
Iki Crial Torment cfUit Holy Churih and the Lha eflh FrUs(j »/ 
Tahor, written in a sense violently hostile to that community. 
A Bohemian work by Archbishop John of Rokycan has also 
been preserved! It Is entitled Poiiilh and is Eimilar though 
inferior to the work of Huss that bears the same name, 

A quite independent religious writer who belongs 10 the period 
of the Hussite wars is Peter Chelficky (born in the last years of 
the iith century, died 14(0), who may be called the Tolstoy of 
the isih. His dominant ideas were horror of bloodshed and the 
determination to accept unresbtingly ill, even unjust, decrees of 
the woridly authoriries. Though a strenuous enemy of the Church 
of Rome, CbcKIcky joined none of the Hussite parties. HIi 
masterpiece Is the Sll viry (the net of faith). Among his other 
works his fowU/a and polemical writings In the form ol letters 
to Archbishop John of Rokycan and Bishop Nicolas of PelhKmov 

The Hussite period is rather poor in historical works written 
In the language of the country. We should, however, mention 
some chroniclera who were contempotarles and sometimes 
eye-witnesses of the events of the Hussite wars. Their writings 
have been collected and published by FrsDtiIek Palackf undet 
the title of Slare leski Utopuj. 

In the i6th century when Bohemia wu In a state of com- 
parative tranquillity, ibt native literature was lugdy developed. 
Besidesthewritersof Ihecommunityof IheBf'-- " " ■ 

. 01 th 

(ar the best-kn 


Wencesias Hajek of Ubotan. The >-ear 

of his 

birth is u 

n, but we read of bim 

as a priest in 1514; 

he die 

i in rss3 


Ereat work JCrcnifo 

«i» was dedicated 

to the 


Ferdinand I., king of Bohemia, and appeared 



It has therefore a 



manist tendency, an 

its dtculation was 


ted even 


time when most Bo 


totally destroyed. 

Hajek's book waa 

translated into 

several languages and Ircq 

endy quoted. We 



wiitcn who had probably uvci bard of Hajck. His book' is, 
faowETcr, iiuccuratc nod groialy partiuL Very Hltlt kjiowo on 
die other hiDd are the vorks ol BaitoS, ■uioaioed " piiit " 
(Ihe writer], u he was tor numy yein eioptoyeil as secittary by 
the dty of Fiagne, and those of Siit of Oiwradorf. The work 
of Birtof (oi Butholomew) <nlilled the Cbimidt o[ Pratu hu 
■mt hbtoricil value. He detoibei the Uaables ih^it befell 
Piagoe ud BohcmU ■cnerally duiiog the reign ol the weak 
and absentee iavndin King Louif. The year of the birth of 
Bart(^ is lucertain, but it ii known that lie died in 1539. Tilt 
lomewhatlatcrworkof Silt of OtIcndorf(i5<»-i5Sj) deals with 
a (hort but very important episode in the history of Bobemia. 
It is enttlJed UemmaU a/ Iht TrouUcd Ytan ii4^ and isif. 
!tia book describes the ansucixtsful rising of the Bohcmianj 
against Ferdinand I. of Austria. Sin took a onaiderable part 
in this niovenieat, & fact that greatly enhances the value of bis 

Thou^ the life of ChelScky, who baa already been mentinDCd, 
Ivaa an isolated one, he is undouLledly the indirect founder of 
the communily of the "Bohemian Brethren," who greatly 
influenced Bohemian literature. Almost all their historical and 
theological w«ks were written in the national lingiuge, which 
through their ioGueoce became far more refined and palkhed. 
BefoK referring lo some of the writings of members of the 
comTnunity we should mention the famed translation of the 
Scriptures known as the Bihit ej Kraliee. It was the joint work 
of severs] divines of the brotherhood, and was £rst printed at 
Kialice in Moravia io 1:93, Brother Gregory, sunumcd the 
paltiircb of the brotherhood, has [eft a large number of wrilinp 
dealing mainly with Ihedogical matters. Most impottant are 
the Litters lo ArcAbiik&p Rokycan and the book On ioadandail 
priests. After the death of Brother Gregory in 14&0 discord 
Effoke out io the community, and it resulted in very great literary 
activity. Brothers Lucas, Blahoslav and Jaffct, as wcU a> 
Augusta, a bishop of the cotnmUDity, have leil us nuraaoua 
conlroveisial works. Very interesting is the account of the 
captivity of Bi^p Augusta, wrillenby his compmuon the young 
priest Jan Bilek. We have evidence that DumFroua historical 
■orks written by mcmben of the broiheihood existed, but 
most of them perished in the i7ih century when nearly all 
anti-Roman books written in Bohemia were desUoyed. Thus 
only flagoMnts of Blahoslav's Hislsry ej lie l/nily [i.e. the 
brothethood) have been preserved. One ol Ihe histoeians of 
the brotherhood, Wenttslas Bleian, wrote a Hisiory of tht 
House of Rosenbert, of ohlch only the biographies ol WilUam and 
Peter of Rosenberg have been preserved. The greaiat vniter 
of the brotherhood is John Amos Eomensky or Comcniua (15Q1- 
l6;o). Of his many works written in his native language the 
most impc.tant is h^ Lebyrinth of the World, an allegorical tale 
which is perhaps the most famous work written in Bohemian.' 
Many of the numerous devotiooal and educational writmgs of 
Comenius, — his works number 143,— art also wiittea in bis 

The year 1610, wbicb witDcued the downfall of Bohemian 
Independence, also marks the be^oing of a period of decline 
of the tiattooal tongue, which indeed later, in the iSih century, 
waa almott extinct as a written Isnguagc. Yet we must notice 
bnldei Comenius two other wiiten, both historians, whose 
works belong to a date bter than 1630. Of these one was an 
adherent of the nationalist, the other of the imperialist party. 
Paul SkUa le Zhole (ijSi-c. 1640) was an official io the service 
of the " wiolei king " Frederick of the Palatinate. He for a 
■ttrae followed bis sovereign into eiHe, and ^tent the last yean of 
his life at Freiberg in Saxony. It was at this period ol his tile, 
after bis political activity had ceased, that be wrote bis historical 
works.. His £rtt inoik was a short book which h a mere leriea 
of cbronologica! tables. Somewhat later be undertook a vast 
work entitled Hiiloire clrtetni (history of the church). In spite 
of its iitle the book, which consists of ten eooimous MS. volumes, 

'TliH^wprli liaibeen trasaliled into English by Count Laiaow 


dcdi la Dnidi «1(L [■^■"f* aa with ecdeaiuticBl matun. Tb* 
moat valuatdc part, tlml dealing with events of 1601 to 1693, cd 
wbkbSkilawrila ti ■ contemporary aud of ten at ineyo-witnesa, 
has be«n edited and published by Pcol. Tieltrunk. A coatem- 
poniy and ■ pditjcal opponeut of Sltila was William Count 
Slavata(i57i-ifi5i]. He was a tuihful servant of the bouae ol 
Habsburg, and one of the govemment oScialt wUo were thtowD 
from the windows of the Hrad£any palace in 1618, at the begin- 
ning of the Bohemian uprising In 1637 Slavata. publiahed his 
PamHy (memoui) which deal exclusively with the events id the 
year) i6tS and 161Q, in which he had played so great a pan. 
During the leisure of the last years of his long life Slavata com- 
posed a vast work entitled EislsricU SfiamiU (historical 
works). It conslita of fourteen large MS. volumes, two of which 
contain the pteviomly-written mcmoin. These two volume* 
have recently been edited and publislicd by Dc Jos. Jitlcck. 

After the dcaiha of Skila, ^vata and Comeniut, no worka 
of any importance were written io the Bohemian language lof 
a considerable period, and the new Austrian govern- ^^ 
ment endeavoured in every way to discourage the mL* 
use of that language. A dunge took place when the mrira^ 
romantic movement started at the beginning of the 
igtli century. The early revival of the Bohemian language was 
very modest, and at £nt almost exclusively translations from 
foreign languages were published. The fiiit writer who again 
drew attention to the then almost foigottcn Bohemian languaga 
was Joseph Dobrovsky (]753-i3>9). His works, which include 
a grammar ol the Bohemianlanguageanda history of Bohcmiiiik 
literature, Here mostly written in German or Latin, and his only 
Bohemian works are some essays which be contributed to the 
early oumbeis of the Caiopii Uuxa KrtlociHI CesUia (Journal 
of the Bohemian Museum) and a collection of letters. 

It is, however, to four men belonging to a time somewhat 
subsequent to that of Dobrovskj' that Ihe revival ol the boguage 
and literature of Bohemia is mainly due. They are Jungmano, 
Kolir, SafaHk and PalackJ. Joseph Jungmann (1773-1847) 
published early in life numerous Bohemian translaiiona of 
German and English writers. His most important n'orks are his 
D^epei titeratitty teska (history ^ Bohemian literature), and 
hia monumental German and Bohemian dictionary, which largely 
contiibuted to the development of the Bohemian bnguagc. 
John Kolat (i)9]--i852) was the greatest poet of the Bohemian 
revival, andit is only in quite recent days that Bohemian poetry 
has risen to a higher level. Kolar't principal poem is the Slavf 
dcera (daughter of Skvla), a penonification of the Slavic race. 
Its prirtdpal Importance at the present time consists rather in 
tbc pan It i^yed in the revival of Bohemian literature than in 
ita artistic valuer KoLir's other works arc mostly philologica] 
studies. Paul Joseph Sifalik (1705-1861) waa a vny fruitful 
writer. HU StaroliHusti StmtisU (Slavic antiquities), sn 
attempt to record the then almost unknown history and literature 
of the early Slavs, has still considerable value. Fronds Polack^' 
(17^1876) is undoubtedly the greatest of Bohemian bistoriaaa. 
Among his many works bis history of Bohemia from the caillcst 
period to tbe year 1536 fs the most Important. 

Other Bohemian writen wboos work belongs mainly to the 
earlier part of the igth century are the poets Francis Ladolav 
telakovsk^, author of the Side Xg/uUw (the hundred -leaved 
rose). Erben, Macha, T^l, to mention but a few of the most 
famous writers The talented writer Karel HavL-£ck, the 
founder of Bohemian journalism, deserves special notice. 

During the latter part of the 19th century, and particularly 
after tbe foundation of tbe national university in iSSi, Bobemian 
literature baa developed to an extent thai few perhaps forcsav-. 
Of older writers Bf^na Nimcova, whose Babillia has been 
translated into many languagea, and Benca Tfebizky, autiior 
of many bistojicaJ novels, should be named. John Nerutfa 
(iS]4^i8or) waa a very fruitful and talented writer both of 
poetry and of proiev Perhaps the most valuable of h^ many 
works is his pbjlouphical epic entitled Kosmidie iotiu (cosmic 
poems). Julius Zeyer (1841-1901). also wrote much both in 
pcoae and in verse. His epic poem entitled Vy!eknd, wbkb 



odebcatct tbt uuim glaqr at iteictopabafPnpR.hnt'*** 
value, and of hii miny novsli Jm Uaria Pl^kar hu tad Ibe 
fKitat KKCCB. Of htct Bohcmiui pocti tbt btit an Adolf 
SrrAak, Sntopliik Cech and Jan^T VnUickf (b. igjj). 
Of SvatoplBk Cecfa't many pocma, which an all Inqted hj 

(ite tioalh of Lcaedn) and Batm tlr»l» (tfae idd^ of « liave) 

Frida) has bo k«* atnog patdatk lulbiat, ha haa been men 

poetry and in pna*. Of Ub manf eoUcctkiEB of Ijnlc poeiiia 
JU Hjite (a year in Iha aonth], J'nti i £ldanidB(pl]ptaiapi 
k Bdorado) and Stmtf Sanutan ^ooBCta of a ndiae) hav* 
paniculai lahie. VithUckf ii abo a voy brilliant diamatiit. 

b Bohotfa haa bwn VBj tRiitf ul b liittofk 
T«Mk (1818-190J) )efl many hhftarteal iMcki, e( wUdt hia 
Dljtfii Mibtt A«^ (hbtoiy of Uw torn of Rague) ii the 
scat fi^ortant. Jaiola* GoQ (b. 1146) ii tbs ratbot c( many 
hinorieal woHo, opcdDlly on tba canumulty ol tlw Boheoun 
Bieihim. PlofMaor Joicph Kaloauk baa «iitton moA oa the 
«rly UMory of B«he mia, ajMl iaako tb* ambocola my valoable 
■tody cf tbf andent amthnUoD (ShM f") ^ Bohemit. 
Dr AuMB Rewk k tbft anlbor of Impoctant Urtnksl Madka, 
■anyofwhkb^pctndlntbejoonialof tbtBobcndao IfoMma 
■nd In the £^ Cutfb BUeriOf (Bobralan BMwlcnl 
Revfe*), wUd h> lotuuM Id 1S9; Jofaitly irilh FrdoMn JaRatav 
GoO. Hon nomly Dr Vldiv Flijauii few pnbtlihed Moe 
esxIlBit Msdlea on tba life and wiitinp ol ^ilui Huu, and 
PrafoHf* Ptc and Nedola bave ptiblkbed Itarntd udiMO- 
bgical itBdHi m tbe calliest period d Bohemian bittoiy. 

See CooBt Lficsnr, A BitUrt li Bttmin UloahiH (London, 
ig»}: W. R. UorfiN. Jitoqaic li><nW»> (isaj); A. N. Pypla lod 
V. D. Snaovit, Aulfry ^SloKmit tUtnttm (writtni in RUBiaa. 
tniuktcd iolo Ccman by TraiwKt Pech, Gmk, ier liar. Littratuien, 
»vol».,Lejp»g, 18*0-1*84), Tfiereire modern hlitoriaiJBoliBmiin 
HMnlDn wrlttim in the ntfonal Lancuaie by Dr Kaid TWlrunk, 
DtVii:laTFlaiiliaHaKlMr]aroiUv\lxlt (L.) 

BOBZKniiD, the natne ol a anlea of princes of AdIiocIi, 
altenniA counti ol Tripdi. Tbelt 
ioBoiRnB table:— 
RabcTt Cuiicard-Cl) Albcnda: (3)Sic 

Bohemand I.-CoutaDce. dughtcr of Philip I. otPnuce. 

Bohemirad II. -Alice, daughter (i Baldwin It. oT Jenualen. 
<i) Raynund -Coasuact - ORaynald ol CUtiOon. 

BobeinuiKl IV.-(i)PluBnc9. 

I (a)Meliiioda, daughttf <t AhuMe H. 

htnn caieer, and tbot^ helped to detandne the fabtoiy of 
die Fint Cnuuk, of whid) Bohemund may be Kgaided u the 
leader. On the dtMb of GuiKanl fai 10B5, bit younger 100 
Roger, bom " in the pniple " ol a Lombaid pdnceaa Scelgaeta, 
■Bcceedad tothedocbyotApidkand Calabik, anda waraion 
between 8<AemiiDd (whom hit tatbtr lad ■'t''t'*^ for the 
throne ol CowliBliTiople) and Dnte Roger. Hh war wh finally 
compowd by the nediallao ol Urban U. and the award of 
Omnto and other poaunknu to Bebeound. In 1096 BohennnuJ, 
•loss witk Uf nacle the peal coast of SUily, waa atticUng 
Analfi, lAid bad levolled (galnat Dake Ro«er, wton bandi of 
diiaden begaa to pan, on their way thiOD^ Italy to Cootinli- 
Dople. Hie Mat of the cnuader oama upon Baheomnd: it ii 
pOMlble, too, that be aaw b tba Krat Ctuauk a chance of 
RaUttug U> lather "t policy (whidi ma alK> n oM N«ne imUiict) 
«( the DraHf *«* OOm, aad hoped turn the Ikit to carve for 
MnocU w uattm priodpaliiy. He ptbend > fine Noman 
■imy (periiapa the Sscat dIvWon ta the cmtdlBC beat), at the 
head of wUdi he ooned the Adriatic, and peoetnted to Con- 
atanUnople along the route he bad tried to fcHow b iogi~ 
iog4. He W15 careful to obaerve a "conect " attitude toward 
AlcDui, and when he anivid at Constantinople in April 10117 he 
did honuge to the empcior. He may have ncgoiiited with 
Alexius abonl a piioclpallty at Anlioch; il be did >o, be 
bad little encouTageraenl. From ConEtantlnople to Antlodi 
Bohemund waa the teal leader of the Pint Cniude; and il sayi 
much for his lading that the Fint Cnaade succeeded in crauiog 
Asia Minor, idiich the Cruaada of iiei, 114T and iiSg fiiied to 
aocBispliah. A ^ilijiH, Bohenniad was raohrd to engineer 

nqAew TaacMd Ut the main aimy at Henclca, and attempted 

to catiUlih ■ looting b Glida, the moVEniFnt may hive been 

■ina<^ InlCDdcd a* a pnpaiatjon for Btdtemnnd's eailem 

principrifty. Bohonund was the fiiM to get lots poiitiim 

before Anttoch (October 109J), and be took a gnat part In the 

■lege, beating off the Mahommedan attempta at refief fnra the 

east, and oonnecting the bealegeta cm the west with the pcct 

of St Simeon and the Italan ih^ wtdch lay then. Tbs optun 

of Anliocb was due to Ua coaneiioD with Flrnz, one of the 

he dtyi hut be muld not bring matters to an 

aesiian of the dty was aasnnd him (May io$S), 

if the apprcachof Ketbo^witbagnatuny 

Il a reservation hi tavDor of Aledua, if Aleiha 

I aid the < 

ol Antioch, I 

n after Its 

(iJUidiiia, daughter of count ol Segm. 

of Cy|HUB I 

Hi«h II. 
L (c aj). ta5&-titi), prince of Otiasto and 
>f Antioch, wboac first name was Uarc, wai tbb 
eldest ton of Bobeit Gmacard, dm Atrial Calobriae. hjtn 
early marriage contracted before 1059. He served under his 
bther in the great attack on the East Boruid empire (1 oSi>< 
toSs), and commanded the Noimaai during Cuiicaid's absesca 
(1081-1084), penetrating into Ihesuly as far aa Larisaa, bi;t 
being repulsed byAleiius Comnenus. This early hostility to 
Aledia hid e great influence in deleimining the coarse of his 

bogha; he had to make good hii 
claims tgsuisl Riymund of Toa- 
lome, who championed iba rights of 
Alexius. He ohtained full possession 
in January 1095, and stsyed in the 
neighlMurhood of Antioch to secure 
his position ,whJ1e the other cnissdrrs 
moved southward to the capture of 
Jenaalem. He came to Jerusalem 
■t Cbrlsunaa 1099, and bad Dago- 
bert of I^sa elected as patriarch, 
peifcaps in order to check tlie growth 
of a stiong Lotbutnglan power in 
the dty. It might seem in iioo 
.*m?_'"' t*^' Bohemund was destined lo 
eat principality in Anlioch , 
luld dwarf Jeruulem; be 
had a fine territoty, a good strategical position and a strong 
array, Btit he had to face two great forces — the Enal Boroin 
empire, irtiich deimed the whole of bis territories and was 
supported in its dslm by Raymond of Toulonie, and the strong 
Uihomracdin principalities in the north-east of Syria. Against 
thoe two forces he failed. In tioo be was capinied by Dinish- 
Dend of Slvas, and he languished m prison till 1103. Tkocted 
' bis place; bat meanwhile Raymi ' -■'■•■'■ '• 


Bdemimd Va.—vJ.p. 

with the aid of Alexiiu in Tripoli, and w 

a check the 


»iliit'«" el Aadacb to the amtk IhuMstMd in iios by tbc 
icncnaity of in Aimeniui prince, BobemDiid muk [t hb Gnt 
object to attack Ibe nd^dnurinl Mihomnwdaa powen in 
orda to saia ntptHki. But In bMding u attack «d Hairu. 
is 1 104, ht wai Mvntljr defeated at Balkh, uat KaUa on Ihe 
Eqihiatea. Tbe defeat na* decisive-, it made ioipoaible (be 
great aaateni pKocipallty miicb Bohcmund had contemplated. 
It «ai foUawed by a Gieek'atUck on Cilida; and deipauinf of 
hia om looiuccs, Bohemiuid retuined to Eurafie lor nfaifuct- 
mesti In order 10 deleiui bti posilioa. Hi) atttacUw 
won bim the hand ol CoiBlaDCe, tbc daugbter ol the 
Philip I., and he collected a large anny. Denied by his 1 
be [udved [o Die bii aimy not to deleod Anitoch itai 



T-aiwW (TObli 

to cede dbpiited 

a Greek paliiaich 

bnkcD mao. lie died viihout 
buiad at CanoMa in Apulia, in 

Haaeiuneyer) li wr'" 

iUOMof AonaC ,. , , .-. 

th ait. Hb caner k d)KW»d ay B. von KQtler. Bn-rm,^ «. 
robliuni, iWlh while L van Heinemaaii, Ciakitku *ir 
■ nSicilint md Viilcniaiicn (LdpiiB. ie94), and R. 

Mliricht, Ciicticib in mun KraaotN (Inntbruck. 1901) and 

dackitUt du KInifrdcIa JirusaUm ilnmbruck, tS^S). may alube 

BobcicuhdU. (iic^ii3t), aonol the freal Bohcmnnd by bk 
naiiiage with Coutance of Ftance. wai boni in i loS, Ibc year of 
bit btber'i defeat at Daraaio. In ii)6hecaliicfn>m Apulia to 
Antioch (which, aincE the tall of Roger, the HiCEcBOr of Tancred, 
In 1119, bad bees nndet the nffncyoIBatdoinlL); and Id 1117 
Ik manied Alice, tbe yountei danihier of Baldwin. Afta gome 
tRnMe »hb JucdiD of EdeBa,and after jaininj with Baldwin U. 
in an attad on Dnmatcna (111;), be wu defeated and ilabi on 

(mi)' He hadibown that he had hit fathei^ oourace: if time 
hadauSiccd. he mliht have ibown Ibat be bad the olbcr qnalitia 
of the fintBohrannd. 

tie aoD of Conatance, dau^ter of 
id n., by hei firat hiuband, I^ymond ot ADtiocb. He 
ed bi> Dwthei in the principality ol Antiodi in 116}, and 
Kara prominently in ii6t, ai lefent of tbe kintdom of 
■.a diirint tbe eipedilion ol Aoalric I. to Egypt. Btiiiog 
icaca of Amalric, he wa> defeated and cqiiuietl by 
in (AufiM 1164) at Harenc, to (he eait of Antioch. He 
act mneonied by hd brother-in-law, tbe empcroi Uanuel, 
iDd went to CoaUiatiDople, whence he returned nilb a Cmk 
patriarch. In iito he dewrted hti iccond wife, tbe [MincOB 
(hgiulleuK, for a certain Sib)41a, and be wai in comequence 
excommunicated By OrguiUeuse he bad had two ma, Ray- 
mund and Bobemuud (the future Bohemund IV.), whose relalbns 
and acUoD) detetmiDcd tbe mt of hi> life. Raytaund mairicd 
AUce.adaughtei of tbe Armeiuan prince Rhupen [Rupia), bioiher 
ol Lao of Armenia, and died in 1 11J7, leaving beliind him a eon. 
Kaymnnd Rbupeo. Bahctound, the younger brotber of Ray- 
■DHod, had BiKcecded the lail count of Tripoli in the poaaeasion 
oi that county, nS;; and the problem whicb occupied the last 
yevi (< Bobemund III. wu to detcrmipe whether hii giaiuUon, , 
Rajmund Rhupen, or bii younger ion, Bohemund. ihovld succeed 
Un In Antioch. Leo ol Armenia waj naturally tbc champion cJ 
bit greal-nephev, Raymund Rbupen; indeed he had already 
claimed Antioch in bit own right, bclore tbe marriage of hit niece 
to Rajnund, in iigt, when he had captured Bohemund QL at 
Gailin, and attempted witboi:t luccen to force him to cede 
Antioch.' Bohemund tbc younger, however, prosecuted hit 

about tioo; but he waa ouatcd by Leo (now king of Armenia by 

' During the captivity ol Babemuad HI. tbe patriarch of Anlioch 

helped to lound a comcnune, which penistcd, inlh iti mayor and 

the grace of th> mpai ot, Hemy VL), and BohcEitMl UL died 
In potMMion of hit {Kincipaltt)' (1101). 

Boaano IV., yooBiaraon o( BohtmoDd m. byhittecond 
wile OrgtiiUeuM, becaiat ooam at Tripoli in I ig 7, and nicceeded 
hit father in the princ^alitjr of Antioch, to dc esEdnaion of 
Raymond Rbupen, In itot. But the di^te Inted fee Btny 
yean t&eo of Aimcnla OMilinidnc to ■*"■[■'— the cauie of bb 
peat.BeiAew}, and loog occuided Ibe'nttenlkn of Iimortnt UL 
Bobemond IV. enjoyed tbe luppoit of th( Tcmplan (who, lika 
tbe Knighti «l St John, had eiUtei In nipatD and of the Greek 
inbaUtantaof Antioch, to whom be giaaled their own patiiatcb 
in 1107, while Leo appealed (iiro-iiii) both to InnoCEBt IIL 
In 1116 Leocaptured Antioch, indcitabliibedRayiBiiiidRlnvca 
ai iti prince; but he loot it apfn in leaa-tbia four yean, audit 
wu once more is the pTiiiitinn of Bobcmuiul IV. when Leo died 
in ijio. Raymund Rhupen died In ijti; and alter tbe event 
Bohemund reigned In Anlioch aadTiipolitiUbia death, proving 
himself a detetmiDcd eocmy of the Hoepitallen, and thereby 
incurring eicommunicalioB ui tijo. He Exit fotaed, and then 
deserted, the emperor Frederick XL, doling (he cruaade c4 
131S-19; and be wu enluded Eram the operatioD itf Ibe 
(mty of ii>9. When he died in iijj, be had jntt concluded 
peace with the Ho^iitaUcn, and Giegory IX. had ideated him 
from the ricommunkation of 1 ija 

BoomuHD v., ton of Bohemund IV. by bit wife PIttiance 
(dau^terofHughof GibeieI),iDccccdedbisfatliclinia}s. Ha 
wat prince of Antioch and count of Tripoli, like hit father; and 
like him he enjoyed Ibe ailiancc of tbe Templars and eaperijced 
the hoitility of Armenia, which wu not appcaaedtill usi.whea 
the mediation of St Loult. aod tbe ptairiage of tbe future 
Bohemund VL to the liiter oi tbc AnMnlaa king, finally bno^t 
peace. By hii linl marriage in 11)5 with Alice, the widow of 
Hugh L o[ Cyprus, Bohemund V. connected the hbtaty of 
Antioch for a time with ihu ol Cyprus. He died in iisi. He 
had resided cbieSy at Tripoli, and undei bim Antioch wat left to 
be governed by its bt '"" 

BoBUtUNU VI. wi 
daughter of the co 

ithe t( 

It of Segni. nephew al tnnfcent HI. Bom 
loncmund VL luccecdcd bis father in 1J51, and wu 
jy St Louii in 11 jj. His aiatcr Plaitance had married 
cnry L of Cyprus, the sod of Hugh I.; and tbe Cyptiot 
ol Anlioch, origiuaUy lonced by tbe miniage of Bohe- 
mund V. aod Alice, tbe widow of Hu|ji L, waa thus maintaiotd. 
In 1151 Bobemund VL esiablished himself in Antioch, leaving 
Tripoli to itself, and in 1157 he procured the recognition of hit 
nephew, Hugh U.. the too of Henry L by Flaltance, u king ol 
Jerusalem. He allied himself to the Moogolt against tbe ad* 
vance of tbe Egyptian tultan; but in ii6g be lost Anlioch to 
Bibari, and when be diedm 1175 he wu only count of Tripoli. 

BoHEUiniD VII., son of Bohemund VI. by Sibylla, sister 
of Leo UL of Armenia, succeeded to tbe county of Tripoli in 
1 175, with bis mottxr aa tigcot. In his sbcat and troubled ttlgn 
be had trouble with tbe Templtis who were established in 
Tripoli; and in the very year of his death (11S7) he lost Laodice* 
to the lultan of Egypt. He died without issue; and u, within 
two yean of hit death, Tripoli wu captured, the county of 
Tripoli may be uid to have become eilinct with bim. 
LrTBa«Tiina.~The hijiory of the Bohrmnndi is the Uttsryol 

thcprincipality orAr"""- ---* -'—=-■■ -"" -■ 

olTripoUalto. For _, 

... J iitOnal 

and two anidcs en ta history him apoiand in lb 
ijrns_[P»iis,,i»M,,falJ, ,boa ,^^.,^ f Rasa 



principauu d'Antiodi^'* < 
rlMir^ki Jtmaltm {Inm 


'ripolL (E. Bn.) 

BBmint, mtum fribdbicb (1795-1163), GermM 

historian, son of Karl Lodwig BSbmer (d iSt;), wu bora at 
Franklort-on-Haln on the imd of April 1795. Edocated at 
tbe universities. of Heidelberg and Gettlngen, be showed an 
interest In art and viiitrd Italy; but TTtutnbg to Frankfort 
he turned bia attentkni to the study of hitloty. and beeann 


•ecntuy at the Gudbttafl ftr ttia* itttidt Cacludittlaiiii: 
He wu (Iw irchivJst and Choi Ubrariui of the dly of Fnmklott. 
Bekioet bad ■ grekt lUilike of PnissU ukd the Proltttwit fifth, 
and a cone^mHUnf iffection for Aiutiia uui the Roman 
Catholic ChmiJi, to which, however, he did not belone. Hi) 
crftkil seme wai, pethips, umewhat vuped; but hii reaeartbet 
are of gnst value to ttudents. He died uaraairied, at FtanUait, 
on the iiod of October 1863. BShoiec^ hiatotfcal muk wii 
dueSy concetiied with caDectinc and tabulatmji charten and 
other imperial docnraents of the middle ago. Hnt q^Ksied 
an abstract, the AiuU dtreiuiepia-iiflBiiKiicB rcpnm aljut 
imptralenim Svmaiianim9"-i3'3(Fnak!ott,iR3i),wbkh wu 
folloiRd by (lie Kcgala dumalii^iyiiftimalica KarotonBm. 
Dit UrktaiimSmUkkirKariiinieTinktinenAiatUtaiiTajik.- 
fott, iSjj), and 1 icria of Kcfute impaii. For the pnfod 
1314-1347 (FianLfoTt, 1839) the Reiata wu followed by three, 
and for the peiiol U46-1313 (Frankfort, 1844) by two nipple- 
menCaiy volumes. Tbe remaiamg period of the fiifetlit,u edited 
by Behmer, [i ii»S-iiS4 (Slultgart, 1840), TleM collectioos 
nmtain introductiona and eipknAtory paUajes by the author. 
Very valoable also ii Ibe Fonia rerUM Camaxication (Stnltgin, 
1843-1868), a collection of ori^oilauthoritiea for Gtnnan hitloiy 
dutiai the 13th and 14th centuriea. Tbe fourth and last volume 
of this work was edited by A, Huber after the autbot'i death. 
Other coDectiona edited by Bjjhmer are: DU RekJuietetu 
fao-i^ae [Frankfort, 1S31); WiUtliiacUjcit RrtesU* im dcr 
BrwrimidaHaatfi"" Baytnibittiil34o{SlaUt*n. 1854)1 
and Ceiiz diplmalicui Motna-FrancBfioianut. Urkmimlnich 
ia gacisslaiU Frantjut (Frankfort, 1836; ne* edition by F. 
Law, ipoz). Other volumes and editions of the Kegtsla imptrii^ 
edited by j. Fickxr, E. MUhlbacher, E. Wlnkelcunn and others, 
are largely based on BAhmer's work. BOhmcr left a great amount 
of unpublished material, and after his death two other works 
were published from his papers: Ada imperii tdeda, edited by 
]. Ficker (Innsbruck, 1870]; and Rtftila arckicpiKOporum 
Mtpalmouiim, edited by C. ViiX (Innsbruck, 1877-1886). 

See J. JansKD, /. T. BSkmm LOn, BHtfi ud Uc^uh Siirifini 
(FreimrE* iSfiS). 

BORV. BBXKT dEOROB (i;q«-iSS4). British publisher, 
■on of a German bookblndet settled in England, was botn In 
London on the 4th of January 1706. In 183J he started as a 
dealer in race books and " remainders." In 1S41 he issued his 
" Guinea " CoAj/at" of books. 

held {n 1S4S lasted four days, the „ ... 

folio pages. Printed on IIUs catalogue was tbe information: 
" Dinner at 3 o'clock, dessert at 4, tea at 5, and supper at 10." 
The name of Bohn is piincipalfy remembered by the important 
IJhraria which he inaugurated: these were begun in 1846 and 
comprised editions of standard works and translations, dealing 
with history, science, classics, tbeology and archaeology, con- 
sisling in alt of 766 volumes. One of Bohn's most useful and 
laboriotti undeitaklnp was his revision (6 vols. 18G4} of Tin 
BOIiopaplitr'i ilanxat of En^uk Liitratvt (1S34) ol W. T. 
Lowndes. The plan includes bibliographical and critical notices, 
particulars of prices, be., and a considerable addition to the 
original wt>rk. It had been one of Bohn's ambitions to found 
a great pnblislung house, but, Eai^iig that hil tons had no taste 
(or the trade, he si^ the Uirariti in 1864 to Messrs. Bell and 
Daldy, afterwards G, BeH h Sons. Bohn was a man of wide 
culluic and many Interests. He himself made eonsideiable 
contributioni to hil Uttariit: be CDllecl«d pictures, china and 
ivoriei, and waa a famous roee-giow«r. He died at Twickenham 
on the iind of August 1884, 

BOHTUIIOB^ otto VOK {181J-1904) German Sanskrit 
Kholar. was btnn on the3alh of May (iilh of June O.S.) 181 j 
at St Petersburg. Having studied(i83J-i835)OTiental languages. 
particularly Arabic, Persian and Sanskrit, at the university ot 
Si Petenbutg, be continued his studies in Ceiinany, Gist in 
BerUn atul then (1839-1841) fa Bonn. Returning to St Fetere- 
boigin ia4i,liewa)attadiedtotbe Royal Academy of Sciences, 
and wna elected an ocdinaiy member of that sodety In 1855. 

In iS6a be wu made " Rnsaian : 
" privy esundlloT " with a title of nobility. In 1868 he settled 
at Jena, and in 1S85 removed to Leipiig, where be leaided until 
hil death there on the ist of April 1004. BOhtllngk waa one of 
the most distinguished scbotan of tho i^th oetitury, and hfa 
works are of t^e-eminent value in the field of Indian and com- 
parative philology. His £rTt great work waa an edition of 
Panini'a AcU Bidur pamKuUiBlur Riid» (Bonn, iB39-t840), 
which was in reality a criticism of F^ana Bcf^p's philBlogJad 
methods. This book BUitlin^ again look iq> foTty-^enn yean 
later, irtien he npublished It with a com[Jele tianalatiDa under 
tbe title i'aHiiiuOuanHfaiiBtftcmttwuadp^.iSSj). Tlie 
earlier edition was followed by Vffaifat O am m al l k (St Petera- 
burg, 1847); £'>'rdieffraotad<r/aiMM(SIFelaibDig,i8si); 
JadiicfeS^rAcie (md ed. In 5 pun, St Fetenbmt, 18^0-1873, to 
which an hideit ana published by Blan.LeipdK 1893) ;a critical ei- 
aminadoD and Daaslatioa oI CUpnJggyoHi^BiHnM (St Peters-' 
buig, 1SB9) and a tianstathm of £lriladaniiiy«la-«fawiij|ad (St 
Petenbuig, 18S9). In addition to these he pnblubed several 
smaller Dtatisca, notably one on the Sanskrit accents, Diir im 
Acuta in Satahil {liiz). But his nutnuiw epus Is his great 
Sanskrit dictionary, SayukrU-Wlrltrbmk (7 v^s.. St Feteisburg, 
'853-1875; sewed,; vols., St iytersburg,i87o~iS8o), which with 
tbe assistance of his two friends, Rudolf Roth (1811-1895) aUd 
Albrecht Weber (b. 1815), was completed in twenty-three toil 
BOHOH, the name of a family wluch [^yi an Important part In 
English history during the 13th and 14th c«ntutiet; it was taken 
fn>m a village situated In the CotentiA between Coutanees and 
the estuary ol the Vire. The Bohuni came Into England at, of 
■hottly after, the Noimaa Conquest; but thdt eariy histoty 
there i> obscure. The fooadet of their grealneai wai Humphrey 
lU,, who in the latter years of Henry I., make* Us appearancn 
aa a dapifcr, or stewaid, in the luyal household. Hie manfed 
the daughter of Milo of Gloucestec, and [dayed an amtnguous 
pott hi Stephen's reign, siding at first with tbe Uag and after- 
wards with the empress. Humphrey HI. Hvcd until 1187, but 
his history Is uceventfuL He remained loyal to Heniy II. 
through all changes, and fought in 1175 at Farnham agilnal 
the rebels of East Anglia. Outliving his eldest >on, Humphrey 
IV., he was succeeded In the family estates by his gTandsOB 
Henry. Henry was connected with the royal house of Scotland 
through his mother Mar^ret. a sister of WlUam the LJon; 
an alliance which no doubt assisted him to obtain the earldom 
of Hereford from John (1199). The lands of the family by 
chleBy on the Welsh Uarchcs, and from this date the Bohuns 
take a foremost place among the Marcher barons. Henry de 
Bohuu Egure* with the earls of Oare and Gloucester among the 
tweety-Bve barons who were elected by their (ellowa 10 enforce 
the terms of the Great Chatter. In tt>e subsequent civil war he 
fought on the side of Louis, and was captured at the battle of 
IJncDln (1117). He took the cross in the tame year and died 
on his [ulgcimage (June i, mo). Humphrey V., his son and 
heir, relumed to the path of loyalty, and was permitted, some 
time before 1139, 10 inherit the eartdom of Eisei from his 
maternal uncle, William de Mandeville. But In mS this 
Humphrey fell away, like his father, from the loyal to the 
baronial cause. He served as a nominee of the oppoaition on the 
conunittee of twenty-four which was appointed, la the Oifoid 
parliament of that year, 10 reform the administration. It wai 
only the alliance of Montfort with Llewelyn of North Wales that 
brought the eail of Heietotd back to his allegiance. Humphrey 
V. headed the Erst secession of the Welsh Marchers from the 
parly of the opposition (itGj). and was amongst the captives 
whom the Montlortians took at Lewci. . The earl'ssonand name- 
sake was on the victorious side, and ihaied in the deleat of 
Evesham, which he did not long survive. Humphrey V. was, 
therefore, naturally selected as one of tbe twelve aibitralors 
to draw up the Inn of KenHworth (1166), by whidi the dis- 
[nhetited rebels were aUowed to make their peace. Dying in 
1175, he was succeeded by his grandson Humphrey VIL ''^* 
Bohun lives ui lustory as one of the recalcitrant baronsoftheyeai 
1 997, who eitotled from Edward I. the Cnufrautt) CBttmm 



Hk Diotivo oi ibe tacl'i deGuCc mrt noI illogelhci disin- 
URSted. Hcbidiuflcrtd twice Itom Ibe chiuncry o[ Edwztd'i 
Ulryeni io 1184 wbcn i. dispute between himself and the royal 
favDUrile, Joho CiSicd, was decided in the latler'i [avouc; 
ud igaio in ilCJ when he wai punished with tempocsrjr im- 
prbonraenL and sequeitritlon for a leduiical, and apparently 
ODwittipg, contempt of the kin^'i court. In company, therefore, 
with the earl of Norfolk he nluied to nnder fotetgn service in 
Gaicony, on the plea that tbey were only bound to serve with Oic 
king, who «u himself l»und for Flandcn. Their altitude 
brought ID > bead the general discmleni Khich Edward had 
eniled by ha aibiliary laiallon; and Edwacd waa otli^ 
to make a lumnder on all the lubjecli of complaint. At 
Falkirk (iiqS) Humphrey VII. redeemed his character [or 
loyalty, Hii ion, Ilun^rcy VIIl.. who lucceeded him m the 
aame year, wu allowed 10 marry one of the king's daugbters, 
Eleanor, the widoved caunlat of Holland (1301}. This doe 

not prevent Earl Thomu of Lancailer, from Joining the oppoti- 
tion Id the feeble Edwud U. In i]io Humphrey VHI. figured 
amoBg the Lords Ordiinerei though, with more patrbiiim 

the king to Bannockbum. He wai taken captive ia the battle, 
but eichaoged for the wife of Robert Bruce. Subsequently he 
relumed to the ause ol hi> order, and fell on the side of Earl 
Tliomaial the 6e!d o( Bomughbridge (iju). With hun, as with 
bit talber. the politla of the Marches had been the main con- 
lideiitioo; his Cnal change of side wu due to jealousy of 
the younger Deapenaer, wbcoe lordship of Glamorgan waa too 
peat rot the -.-.-■ - » . . .,.-.l .i_ j — v 

of Hun 

y VIII. tl 

, (d. : 

peaceful (tage. .- 

Humphrey IX. (d. rj6i) merely diiLinguiihed 
captain in the Bielon campaigni of the Hundred YcUl' War, 
winning the victoria of Morhiii (ijti) and La Socbe Derrien 
(IJ4;). Hit nephew and heir, Humphrey X., wbo inherited 
the earldom of Northampton from hit father, was teniloiially 
IheiDoaC important icpresentalive of the Bohuns. But the male 
line was eitinguiihed by his death {i3;3). Ilie three earldoms 
Uid the broad land) of the Bohuns were divided between two 
co-heiressc*. Both married nemben of the royal house. Tbe 
elder, Eleanor, was given bi HJt to Thomas of Woodstock, 
•eventh son of Edward III.: <bc youngrr. Mary, to Henry, 
Ctrl of Derby, son of John of Caunl and afterwards Henry IV., 
is l]So or 1381. From tbeie two marriages sprang the houses 

•Phtch of G. E. C(oluyne), (1887-1808) j^T. F. Tour'i " Wtle. and 
the March duiieg Ihe Bamn' Wat." in Oeni CiMf HiUoricnl 
Sinn. pp. 87-I36 ('90»! I- E. Morri.- WOik VTvi tf X»g 
Bimi C cha. vf , viiL ti90»- (H. W. C D.) 

BOtARDO. MAnSO MAHIA, CotFHT [i4M-i4M), lUliao 

KI, who came of a noble and illustrious house otabltsbed at 
laia. but originally from Reggio. was bom at Scandiano, 

about the year uM- according to Tiraboschi. or 1410 according 
to Mauuchtlli. Al an early age he enleird the university of 
Fermn, wbeie he acquired a good knowledge of Creek and 
I^tiD, aod even of the Oriental languages, and waa in due time 
admitted doctor in philosophy and in law. At the court of 
Ferrari, where he enjoyed the favour of Duke Bono d'Eile and 
Us lucccnor Hercules, he was cnlnsted with several honourable 
employments, and in particular was named governor ol Reg^o, 
an appointment which he held in Ihe year 1478. Three years 
kflerwards be waa elected captain of Modena, and leappdsled 
governor of the town and citadel of Reg^, where he died in the 
year 1494, though in what month b uncertain. 

Almoal all Soiardo'i works, and opedilly hb sreat poem 
oi the Orlando Inamaala, were composed for the amusement 
of Duke Herculei and his court, though not written within its 
ptednctt. His ptactice, it is said, was to retire to Sctndiino ot 
pome Mbet of bis eilates, and there to devote himsell 10 com- 
VnltioD! and Caitelvctro, ViUIuiicri, MauucbeUi and Tiia- 

botchi *U unite la slating that be twk cut to Inuit im tlw 

desciiptiou oi bis poem thote oi the agneable environs o{ ba 
ch&lcau. and that the greater part of the names of his heroei,u 
Mandticardo, Cradasse, Sacripant, Agramant And