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Full text of "The Encyclopædia Britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and ..."


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DiBiiizcdb, Google 

Gift of 

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Copyiitkl, in tht llBilol SuMi ol Asierici. 1911, 


The EuydopBdii Britipic* Camfnf. 

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A. B Ceatwooo, B5c., A-M Jnst C.E., MInSi ElW.E. j u 

■ AmB> Birron Rcmu, M.A , D Se , F U.S., P J..S. f 

KRpv-D'PVKHMDt Bouny, Brili^MuKun. Avthar d Tul Baok n Oaisifi- i Lt 
aUHi iif Runruf FlamU, in. I 

HimT kvrrtH Ddbsoit, LL.D 

S« the bnplphk*! utJdt : DouaH, KlHmr AunTN. 
PnoBE lliaiE AocuaiE Fiuw 

Sk Ihi triacraplikil utkle FlLON, P. M. A. 
AlJMI FiiOEim FOLLUD, M A., P.R.KuT.Soc. 

Prafruir dI Engliih Hinmy in the UnivEmiy of London. Fdm' at All Soutl' 
Callrgr. Oxford. AuuUni fditdt al ihc DKtioiury at Nitioiul Biography, Itq]- 
lOOI. LotliiiD PnviDin, Oiford, iSoi; Arnold Pcunun. 1S9S. Aalkir ol 
£m^ai^ ndn- Iti PnAtOiir Stmrrid, llrmrj VIII ; Lift if ntmas CltiMur: Ac. 
AU(OiJ> Glotih. M.A., LL.B. (d 1905) 
Trinity ColleiE. Camblk^; J«ilI-«Ul 
biidit Ui^vsiity Prm 

Rev. ALEXuniEK Goid 

IT of fionMoM ud nufto [or the Cun- 



ry in the Univ 

iC Tin CrniU aj Hlw pnnt 

Y C.M.G . M.A.,LiTT D., F.R. Hisi 

irch Hi«(>»..\ 

LithuiMO. Collcte vt Agrici 
— ■ '- roj. i87»-i90i- 


iKUofraphiol uiick: Lakc, AmAiw. 

nlalliu. Cinoo CoUnc, C 

, b^dit^ JS9^ Aiidwr oi varioHt Arlicln on lodaulnil 

Aons Uakv Cmitt. 

So the bioinpluial uiick: Cliku. A. M. 

AmzD Newtoh, F.R.S. 

Sie the tMinphlcil iniclcT NEWtOH, ALrut. 
AaiBnm Pouehoh ColEum. M.A., Ph.D , T R.S, 

Fn(a»r of Ccslofy in the Univnwiy ol Torsnio. CrolocU. Bdku of Minn 
TaraaU. 1893-1910. Aultiorof Ri^li vf Itt Buriaii tf tlimti bI Ou^it. 

^Amapkic tut. ibavnngjiti indlvidgjil conlTiboton, oppunbi tlic floal 

« (Pn). 


Icnbcr ol Cmlotkil Survey ] LtlntM 

AuEM Pim Low. 

. AuUkoroiSipgrl 
L MA., F.R^. 

Fdlow, ■ -^"^ 

Aimii Shadwi 

3(y at Ibc Iinperld Cslkge at Soma ud Ttchnolciry, Ld 
EHy Tut«. of Trinity Caatft. C>nibrid|c enltmsr o( Z( 
oTCunbridfe. 1907-1909. 

, M.A M.p., LL.D., F.R.C.P. 



LUf SinniEiLy Cole, C.B. 

AB«i*Uiic Sccrcttry for An. Bovd of 
iSS* rei*t and Pilhm 1a - - ■ -' 

Autbor o[ ilinnlj ; 

T Rciimoit. Eiplonr in Soulb CcDtnl Atrict. 

4/lwl ^m 5»lt to if<Mk Ilrnif* ilarnti^att. 

A. T. TiotiOH. 

Oftcial B Life Sivl^ Service, U.5A 


Foioeily SduUr at St Jehn'i College. Oilord. Bion ScboluolCny'i lu, Ifov. 
Rev. Arihdi Woiuuton Hitttoh. M.A. 

■- ~ ■ ~ ■"- '■■^— ■--■■-—■ LihmlCliiJ),l»S»-lg99. 

Ut^teit: Unini SlaUi. 

AnbOT of Lifi <•! C^ivtat N^mi* ; Li},,^ Qu^mil Uimnim 
»>mr. Wood Rihtoh, M.A., LL.B. , 

fudge of the Supmae Court otCCylOB. E^tvt iil Butydtfttiia 4f On Lam < 

If Eiffanf. 

k. W. W. AooLntDi WmiAV Waid, Litt.D., LLJ>. 

See the faiognphica] iriicl "' 
B. P. J. BndAlOH D«nWH JkCluoH Pa.D. 

Gencjml 5«rTtuy of th< LinocATi Society. Svcirury ti 


Demnnaiiil Connoii 






■ QtAVTOUi Wbiniiv, A.M. 

veU Uuivcrbly. AHEtulcdilor 11 

» DnDin, F.R.C.S. 
' oilfwRoyMlNi 
fe-boat Fund, il 

EvIBrrr MA., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S. 


Km. Staavy ot tlie Qvil ■ 

Forney SiAolu- si iiUgiUa CgUqn <htonl'. 

illt4«*t: AilM. 

LI(U] lulnimli 

Ciptain, IK Qty of Loadon [Royal i 
el the Office of the Land Rrglitiy. J ] 

Cbulu Foktescue-Bucu 

BarTittcr-at.Lav, Liocolc.^ --._- — .-, -.- . ^._.. 

UKola'a [an Fiddh Aulb« of RtBiUawn t] TilU M Uai; Tin FtaiHi* ^ 

Ltni Jltfiilry; Lnmd Tnmijtr im Vanm Cmlria; ftc 
Sn Cbulu HoLiom. 

Sec ili^ UagnpUo*] aitkfa! HoLtOTD. Sir CaAUsa. 
Cailtoh Huntlev Hat. 

C >. I.* Rn. Caiuxs Jakes Ball, M.A. 

' lUvHilty Lecuinr io A^rkilogy, OilonL Autbor d( Li^Jnm On Eau. 
CL, B. bnin LirmuDaE Rmasroui, M.A,. F.R.HaT,S., F5.A. 

Aawtant Simlarv, Board ot Educatioii. Author ot Lift tf Btnry V. Editor oi 
. . Ct>H«(o</X<»><MaiuiSHw'i.5anfy</L»iM. 

fl> ■■ CAtL Tbeoooi MniBT, D.Tb. 

PntCHor of Church H 

■IL^^^ua aHkUUt ill FafittLmt^aK. ' 


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VnUutCoatio Momkhothb. _^ ^ __^ ^ -TLAUi 

CkAKui Rathomd Beuut. Mj^., D.Litt., F.R.C.S., F.R.Bm.S. 

riiitimii «f Modcni mniry ia tiK Ui^Rr^cy of BinsiDtham. Funwrlr Fdhnr 

at Mcrton Colkgc, Onford. lod UnivmllT UcCurar In Ih ' " 

Lothiu Piinun. Oxfont, 1U9. LdiMI LKiuiTr. Bs 
AuryliWA'aficator; T>« g— tf Jf»<P» C n iwf *)r; fa. 

•"J UK bkMWi 

HBIXHiDf ni OuniaJ Ctnarlt, TU 


AuIhdT of Euajt rt liutial Atujyiii 
GMUrt VariatitM, ud ualyu d[ nur 
Daud Geoige Hocjuth, H.A. 

KHpetoftbcAihnuliaaMiuniin. CMoni. FeUow of Miptela Con». OConl. 
Fells* o( tlw BrkUi Acadeisy. EuvuhI at FlfitHX, 1U81 Naucni^i' 
looji EphenB, 1901-191131 ■ ■ - "■ - ■ ■ . - 

(. QrcUD eifianlioa FbmI, i: 

Atheu. 1S97-1900; Dincii 
David Hunui. 

FnmitTlir Britiili Vn-Comll 
lfa<7 1 Z<i V Onko CwWsr , IB. 
Damiel Lleutei Tboius 

BaiTiKcr.u-La>, Lincolii'i Inn. StipcvUiry MapHnlr il nwlypridd ud- 

Lil Sinn Hiatrj ■/ bW Htyal 

Rev. Dog 

jr, M.A. 

rh Grove CanpTiiliaul Ghqnii, HitliESte. 



M H.M. l-^m 

Ccoiw V Dlnclor ol tlie Fortlri 

^ (Fr.i-T) JoiDI.«<>tl>r of Nw 

Autbor o( Aunsi Eapl 

t bJ Empirt; &c 

Kcncr of ll» dcAarln 
■- ••—>.-, of At Ai 

ant lb E(jpfiiflji Qiuilun - r*< 
EtHEST Cbailes Funcois Bai: 

ruiflMil u the Colbiic de France, KH]]cr ef lb* deairlinciil of Mnlall am 

Aiiiquitki It the BiMiiitMqw Natwiuk Member of St /taOtrnlc dn Inicrip 

tioni « de Bellei Leitrei. Pun. CbevaliR oi Ihe Lerioa af Hanour. Authsc a 

Diunpntni Multnt-a it Itnman it U lUpiMfmi Xrmtmt; Trailit it. 

Mw—Mi CwtjiM a JtMMiMi , Csubfiw du CuMla di ti giMtjtygiM SaHamaU 
EI1W.ID Cdthbeit BtJTiEK. O S B , M A , D.Lirr (Dublin) 

Abbot of Downiidf Abbey, Batb. Auihor ol " The Uoau HtMoiy o( Pillidiiu,' 

is CuHindci Tixb *ni SUiitl, vol. vi. 
Edwau Gioice Danhiedtbei {1844-190;) 

Member ai Board of Profeuon. Royal CoUefi o( Mmic. iSfJ-IOOJ. 

tbr fiiB WagoFc Concern in London, li-ii-ti-n. Author of ft* J 

fiiAin.&t. Ediiorof (cnlialodiuooot Us ' ' 

&nrAM> D I Wiuou 

Foiaierly Uado-mur oa Tht Tiwia. 
Eburrm Gosse. LL D , D C L 

' e Gom. EMflniB 

ui 5vr«ry at Ibt Univcrailic* o 
A Mmm cJAmltmj/tr Snim 

EOOA* Fm«taoe. 

Specu] Leciurrr ii 

Sot EomH Rav Laheeitei 

EULE Gaicee, M Inst E E. 

Minanni Director of Brituh Ekcti 
ElttUuafV'ArUliuie. tc. 


EDWim Owen. M.B., F.R.CS.. LL.D., D.Sc. 

Connilling Surieon to St Mary'i HoipIlBl. U 

Great Onvitd Street, London. Chevalier of t..... . ..^.^. 

'^ 3I CaiabridSB, LoDdoa and Dt 


na Member of Liabon 
Sc Aiilbar tl Uttri 

of E«ter OJkge, bJonl. Director of ihe NmiiuaT Hniorr Detan- 

anta of tbe BrllMi Mavain, 1898-1907 Proirt^t of the Briiiah Anocaifen, 
1911&. ProfiHer of Zoolofy and Comparailvr Anatoinv in Untvenity Collrte, J 
London. l8i4-iloi> Linacre PfafEoor of Coiaparaiive Anaiomr at Oxford,] 
»)l-ia^ Vice-Pie»dent of the Royal Society, 1M6. Roawnt* Lactam- at I 
'"-- ' — ■— -* "- ■- "- Mnmumimi If Sliatt; Tin Kif 1 

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■an iNrruLS and headings of akticles 

■■ V. L. -Eewjip VerWii. I.nc*i. ,„._.., / 

ki 1^ ClurUi Lcmt. Author im/rif C^in t^H. 

P. KB. FlANE EvElt BEDDJtlD. M.A.l F.R£. ' 

PnjKCEor of ZodvfticaL Socicry, Loik^oo. Formnlv LccCurcf \n Bialoay u Giir'« 
Hcapli'l, LoiKlon. Nptunliil to "ClalltiiEcr" tipcdiikm CooiinMn, l«&e 

F. E. W. Rev. Fudeuci Edwus Waiien, M.A., B.D., F.S.A 

Riclor oT BacdwctL Bury St Edmundi. Fe[la> oT St Johi ._. _._ 

tMs-iMi. AulborcinuOUCiiditluRili-dJttuHMEm^dimdamfaia 
fk Ctrrttfenimt OMui •• 111 PtmtM and OU CcnHiii ITiuHub: TU Oi — 
SUmbI 1^ lit Ctkic CkllFtk; &c 

F. a. M. B. FsEOCRicx Geoice Meeson Beci. H.A 


31 Tbomu'm Hoqiiui and the Landoa SihoolotMcili 

rotmcriy nunlrrimn ProfcMor u (he Royil Colltie -' " 

FmkCIS Tohm HtvEUiEio, M.A., LL.D.. F.S.A. 
Caniu< Pntnnr «( Anrint Hiitsry in ih* Uni 
DrMCBOK Csllcgr. Fonl'i Lcclurrr. 1906-1907 F 
Author ol MoDOCraphi on Romui HuJory, e^iccialt 

Got i^AMDUs LotinHOTOii, M.A- 

ForaKily Clncl Folic* M>(iMnii foe Lociilaii. Author nl Wufcri ^ 

■F. VOKtKt Baoou. 


Mcmbn J Cambcidic Philoloiicd Soncty; Mnoba of Hdltok Sodcty. 
ol. Tkt Ityilital BltMBd qf lUiiitm. 
Fxivcis W.ir, M.A. r 

Baniitcr-it-Lii'. Middle Ttmplc. Aullioi «( Lati Lumbo Rtm: SaOaiU ij', U«, JckB. 


CunloT and Ubnuun o( the MuKum of 
PmMtiit 01 tht CcologiBU' AHOciatioo, 18 
Fsuica Wiu»>i Rhus, K.C, LL.D. UtHJ-wA). 

judge of Coomy Courts, Hull, i«9S-i9D6. JoiDt.autlwr of rb Ntw Pneli. 

_... . JivA Service. 1873-1903. In charge of L11 

[ndia. i«ag-ian. Cold Medallui. Royal Auiic Socictv. looo. 
the RoyalAuik Society. FormeHy Fellow o( Cakutu finive 
The Laiftuita tf India -, ftc. 
Rev Geomoe Edmdndson. M.A., F.R Hei.S. 

FomiFriy Fellow and Tutor of Brunne Colk^, Oilord. Ford' 
- . .i^ll^ bmployed by Briliih GovemmCTit in preikXttiion oT the B 

cx KmiE, AM, Ph.D., D,Se. 

i>MeiirmTifFanvACD..Nowyark, Hon. Curator of Pttei 
■euinaTNatunlHidorr, New York. Felkiw of Ceolouica 
ihor a( Prnim Slmti b] NMkAmova. &c Senior Ui 

toalofv in the R^il College of Science. DuUin, Author of I1 
L.. LL.D. 

CEtiatiii Sokes LiTitan. 

Trinity CalloK, Cambridge. BaiiiHer-at-Law. Inner Temple. A 

Kant: SUrtt, Br«^,: &c 
Rev. GurnmES Whuelib Thitckee. M.A., B.D. 

Sitdenof Camdiin Catlike, iMlney. M.S. W. Formerly Tutor in 
stameat HiNory M Ma»Md Collegr, CMord. 


ProfOBOr oi Phvtica in the l'niveT»ty oT Iridcn. Author of L 

maptUiqwt dc Uiuaetll tl itrt tfplialiii* uu iwfu mniiiaiUi. 
Hemit Behjamui Wbeatlev, F.S.A. 

AHBint Secidary, Royal Society iJ Aria, iSn-iqoq. Fiesdee. .. — 

FCBVlOub, Iqat-IQID. Vice-Praidentar the BibliograidiicaJSaciay, igoS-IVie. 

AolWor 7VS(tT^t™d»;Iu«J«i °-' — ' "- — '■*- 
Hoiice BouNoiRDEE Woaowim, FR.S., FC.& 

Preiident Geohi^iU' Aaociatian. iS«3-lM- 

CeotDgieal Surver tl Eiwlind 
- — ""-" MedaiUH, ig 


B. Ck Hues Chuhcui, M.A. ■ ( 

.. .-a.- ■ FocniMl Scholar of Corpui Chriui Colin, OiIiMil, Cdiiocof tlx iiihiditincll Llvd OMri«, D. 

Oit SMiytJepatdia SriUniiuaiCa^iiiia a ike itttk c&ljoB. I 

H. Dt. Riv. Hn>POLYTi Delehati, SI ■ lUamaat,m 

Bellwdilt, JgiiH4ull»( d ttc ildi .SanOMH. . ll^M. 

H. F. Q. Hani Fiiedrich Gadow. M.A.. F.RS., Pb.O { 

Strxklaixl Cuntor mnd Loturer on Zoolofv in Ihe Ualvtrdty •>( CMMdfc:^ Uul 

A>ithar!if^iiVUMB<pJAr«(r(Cinbrid|(Nuiinl.HblMy). I 

TLf.t. Hwrf Fbancis Piumi, LL.D Sun tin tmH • 

H. H. I. toUtnv KtuiEtov' Jcnmnoir, K.C.B., G CMC. ' /utetfL 

SBthBU<«I>plliuIirU>:}OBN>nH>,S»HlNlTKAaibT[M. -yuHB. 

H.H.I> , BsMti HoKSl Stefbens. MA.Lnr.D, 

' Prof nnr of Hiitocy ind Dirolor ol Univcr 

ALtbor of ^uJ0r7 ^ Ak Frrmik Rttalwiiaii 

H. R. T. Hinv RiciuHi Tkou, F.S.A. 

Sccnluy Md Libniua of tbi Athouum Qiifa 
R. U. HiNiy Stuit, M.A. 

Author o( /<M> rtnUn'; FkcJdaeJt Fra CkucS. ud ftruii 
K T. A. R«v. REunT TbdiuS AnMews. 

Pntan ol N<* Tcuimt riitiii. New College, London. 

- T " ComiBeiiwry on AcB," in ilic HViurisUcr "— "^ 

' ipacryplal Biaii in iIk " Ccnlury BiUe." 
B. W. %.* HiUEU Wnium Biuwi, M,A. f . ^ -. , . 

^StndcBt, TuUr, ud Ubnriin. Chrirt Chuicli. Oitgnl. FsdHXly FcUe* of AW 1 M0B: fiubink 
Souli' ColIegE. L 

H. W.C.D. Henry William Ctiixss Davis. M.A. Tl-i-u. 

Fd!o* iDd Tutor of Dilliol ColleBe. (Wotd. Ftno- of All SoidV Colbjt, Orfonf, J ?* °?** '_. . 
1IM-I9CD. Auihor ol CjbutunnfU; £n|kiiU wi^tr ^ JVprmoJU »f Xii(<niU: I UBfMm, SMpMB- 

in In th* UnivH^tx at CambrldKT. J : 
■ry of Emland. Anibor ol A Stinl : 

Ktmr at the NiLionai Muihiri o( Aniiquitin. Edinbuigh. AuiKiDt Sccreury to J 

SF SodatT of Anilqiuiia d ScotJiwl. ud lUigd LKInm, ■JM-iSli aiid.i3>B. I 
UtorMbrummani^AHdnilSaMikWBipmiSc. \ 

I.A.F. JooN Akbiose Flekihc, M.A., D.Sc., P.R.S. , 

Peodrr FroTeHgr d Ekctric*] Engintcriofl in the Umveruty of London. Fellow oC 
vn!v*nHy College, London. Fofmeriy Fellow ol Si fohn'a CoTlnr- CAmbridfe. 
Wee-iWdent oTthe [n<tltii>ion o( Elertrical Engineer!. Auihor arTkl PriKifi,! 
iieJtaric watt Tikc-apky: Unpuli aid E^iclric CurrmU; &C- 

J.A.I,IL -.•Jfjan AuxANDEE Fuller M*iilahd, M.A., F.S^ 

"^MuiJcil crilic of Til n-iu, AuJior ol toft 1} ScAnnuriM; TV ifuuun'l ftf- 
rtt iff g/ Aict anJHatd^. Editor of Crove'i Dicliima,:, of Uvk aid Uiuiiuii^i 

J.A.H. JoHH Allen Howe, B.Sc. 

Cunlor IDd Libnriaa o< ibi Mukusi of Pnctiol Ccoloni, Losdoa. Autbsr s( 

KIh^ OoBeie, Canbridie. domuondRit of T*e TtilKi in E 
Commaodcr ol Ibe Oiden of I^ncc Dinilo (t Monlenegfo 
, Greece, and Officxi of tbi Order of St Aluaader of Bulgtria, 

I. D. Br. ^ Jakes Duit Browh. 

ABOentloo. Authored AiA hi £itr«HsiiIti^; Ac 
!■ fj-K. Juas PnntAuiici-KELLV. Lm.D., F.R.Hut.S. 

Innon. Public Ubmrie* VJwPmtdeiit of tin Ubar/i I 
CW( ftp '-' — ' — '■-■'- ■- ' 

Spasiih. Linfuiu aid Lfaemitrfa Uvmool : Ubiwtfqr. t 111 IkMWj' 

rer. Canbridgi Unlvvtity Fellear sTibe Biitidi AoUkny. I Urk ' 

Member of the Ravil SpaBidi Addeoy. K^ht CooiaMiMkr of tb* (Mer n< uignbin. 

ir FrofcMor of Spaoiih. Lanfuage aad LfaettfUtrei UvertooE : L 
III McCbU Lkibts. CanrtuUgi Unlvwtity Fetlear otihe Mtldi 
cr of the Rival Spaaidi Addeoy. K^ht CooiaMiMkr of tb* 
AipnonaoXll. Auihor oTf «ii ' "' '^^ 



S«e tU bitgmphlcal utide: Cairdhu. Jamss. 

1.0.^. J' Sit Iqntu OttUNO FiTCH, LL.D. ft* ,. 


Juaa ComoM Pakzbi, D.Sc., P.C.S. f 

PKhhiiI sI LcMbnctkn TKhniol Collect. Leuioa. GM HediBirt. Sgdety < ■— '— 
tfAiu. Autlior(iljUiiUcr/«rZ*trsnui ProKifJcf ff raaaiati ftc .1 

GnHWE Rgsuasox, MA., PbJD. f 

■ rofoKT g( Grrmfp L«aauare And LUcntur^ Ujiitftnitjr a( Loadm. Editor of tbc J t^gt^M Om aaA 
V mljiTi t nnpian Jamat. Author ol fluwj ^f Cimu Lilinitiin; SdtilUr ajlir 1 ' ' f~"*" 

JtKtts H*SH*OEH, Pa.D, flMf. KKl HMmM; 

Print-doicnt in Medieval ud Mdden Hiatarr, UnIvwrity'gJ Bona. / 
Ou ShJohiiJ ■Ucr il« /nnudnicli HiHKlufu 
« HiNiy FtEUi, M.A. 
Fonicrir FcUov oJ Sc Joha'a CsUeie, Cubrldgb 
[IMH HoLLjuiD Rosi, M.A., Lm.D. 

LectunroD Modem Higtorv to the Cuinbndn Uolvsiily Laal Leetiiro SrndKitF. J La 

KatiM-.TUUJiifPia.e- ' 

\tmK LDrTOH MvxES, M.A., T.S.A.. FJt.G.S, 



Huitial«(dRU^3u|aBiHCaiirt.i>7>-ill7, Jota6«iMhor «( 4»«1«» Ui«M-- -{ UnaDk, 

■ (iB» 

r. loBN T«im Lus. M.A. 

Chuccliof of LUndair Calhe 

Cjlhednl. formerly Hutiean iMtum la Divioily ud 

Lady Mujun Preaclier, Usivenily «t Cair 
Qf Kelu InObik, LL.D. 
Sec Ibe blocrapblcd ankle: iMOtAiI. J. K. 


'AbUH^ b tba Unlnnlty of OifcinL Pa 
jd Lecturer in Andent Ceocraphy. Vc'— 
Archaeology la Uoivertity of Q:dord. 


Seethe biDgiapliicsl article: MuaiAV, Sii Jobk. 

RlV. JaHES M. CtOHH*. 

Author of £nitmar: Ui Tepipeplif and Salmi HiiUry; Lulmu BnUiMicA 
ronr HnUB Giuy (i8jo-tSu) 

An Clitic and Curator dI the a^IIiihNatioiBiPoruaitGalleTy, lUi-itot. / 

ft Dnid ScM. R.S.A.: Jama tad tViUiam T*ini. 
[ux Paul Baroi.rrK Eiuukuel AnHiiiH Eutnn 

PnrEnOT of Law in the Univcniir of Paili. Officer of the Lenm 

Member of the laiCitulE of Fnuce. Author of Oxri ^IMnlsin J'tlU 


I(MM PuLCivAi Posnuir, M.A,, Lm.D i , ..,.., 

Pmfewc of Utin in the Umvcnity of Uvnpool. Felloir of TKiutT CoOeEf. J bita UniMBn tlS pint ' 
Cambli^ge. Pellov of tlie Britiih Aradeiny. Alitor of the CIomhuiI Qmulerlf [ 
EllilOT>4a<hief of the Cur^ iVInruM ialiMnm: *t 

RiT. John Pdhkeit Feieie. Ph.D., D.D 

Ca>>aoReli<IenIiiry,P.E.CalhedralofNe«Yotk Fonoerly Pn>te»TaFH<bre- in 

the UmWniiy of Ptnniylvani^, LKrenor of tlit Univenity ExpediiioR to Bit^ 

iMia, leas-tga;. AulFior of Kffmr, at VxtlaMira and Atttttiaa at in 

Eupktila; SaifU.ni, Hilnta aid Ciruliaii. 
m<Sou.T, LL.D. f. 

See the biiignphica] article; Sin,LY, Jiutu. ■(' 

HI Snz, M.A, (i84]-i8gs). /. 

AMbMciil JTiUarja/CMuajiac \' 

tapbcr to the Geolo^cal Survty. Ponneilv Lcdunr oa Pttmlngf la I I^tiitM; 

iigb CJaivendty. NdirMedalliit of the Royal Society of Edlaburjh. Bli^y 1 LmcII*; £«aM X«jb: 

ill of the Ceoloficd Society of London. ii— _.._ 

r. Ceofraphlcal Soti 

M Scow Keltie. LL,D,, F,S.S., FSJl (Scot.). 
Secieurv.. Rfiyri Cecvaphlal Sodety. Han. Ui 
of Fan, Beiiin, Rmie, Ac Ediur M tb< iSstfnu 

loan Srarero Willisok, LL.D,. F.R.S, {Canada}. 

" • •-I- " — {Toronto). Canadian CoirBipoadeat «( n* nuMi. J 

of thei ' 

Sir Wairii Umia aii'Hiiljtral Paiiji &c " 
Imi Xkoku Beaut. 
. UotHuttfaor of Stanfonl'a Etntt- Ponoeily Edit 
Matq ii m t . TianalaMi d Sva Hndla'a Tlrnft At 

JL TRnoa Btcnnu 

UM c;iurifiluaf-l 1 

{m^Im^ BaMrt (i- ^ 

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Jorarx Thokm CroimreHUf, MA, 


Jamm Tboumh Shotwiu., Pa.D. 

TniVBirtrsf Edwbuili. I' 


London. Fonneilv PiOaw J i 
dI Ninnl HlMDty in tbi j 

of HiMcry in Coliuntu Univtnity, New York' City. 
fuus Vuiii. 

An:hiviit (I Ibi Nidmul Aichiva. Puii. OflicK of Pi 

CAmnf J. Whttit DncoH, ILN. 

Niucicu Aaiaiar to tbo Court of AppcoL 
Jims WirCLim Huduh, U.A. 

SafF iMpocIor of SKCtidiry Schawl under thi BmitI 

Fellow bTKiiiE'i College. Cambridir. Pnrencir at Cm 

QiKen'i CclJcge. London. Autlior iJ Bumarcli utid Ikt 

JjiHES Wbitbiead Le« Guisbei, M.A . DSc., F.R.S. 

Fdlow of Trinity Collfgt. Cainbrkl(e. Fornoly Praridml «l 1^ CimbridfcJ 

FtiH—ailiipa Soarty. ud One Royal AiDtnoniial SocirtT '^-■- ' " ' 

af l/aliemtlU' itni tbtQwmrrly JetmalefPimaiii Afflud 

I , C.I.E., LL.S . M.B 


• Laoum Jtlas Stekcek, M.A. 

Sidney ^ 





I ColKfc, CinMJft, 


liolir Editor a{ the Jfi<u 


^a( dw Arcba; Muter of thi l^KultiH: and Fvn Church Euatea Cob- J 
v^oner. BcDdks of LiocolD'a Jdcu Author of Jf«ujt*nnii in Smtfand, ^ ' 
Ltnci ViiLARl 

[Bliin FgntinOfiin (Emigiation Dcpl.). Farninly Ntwigiper Coi 

f Europe Italian ViCE-CaiiHil in New Oileini, iap6„Philadelpl 

n,U3A, 1907 ■ ■ •■■■--•' I^ 

I fitiwt. 

MoRTTi Caijtoj, Ph.D. 

Honortfy PmfaiDt _. . ._ 

Verlauiit'*it€riliiCiidBcUtitr Uaikimalik.atc. 
' HxttoH IT. SncuuKH, F.! 

ul in New Oileini. loofi.'Philadelpiiil. igar. a 
or of luliim Lijiit Tan and CtnUrj. &c. 

the Unlvcrrity of Keiilelbert. 


.r liic ita^ 

d Eihibltioni of Bern 

tSuem Nubdhi Tod, i 

c/Ari. McmbnofFi 
uthor of Hiilarj of ' 

.■ of Orid Collegi!. Oxford. Uni 

Jomt-uitbor of Calaltpu if Itt Sfarb Ummm. 
HamaujkN Otto Bisuahci Cigpaki, U.A, 

"--■--- ■--■— t HliMryatLondonUnivenily t 

l^rj^C.' f , 

Waoi, ILA.; I 

Uopold IL (Cromf thite if 
TMicany). '' 

LwdoR Bitiirtnth; 
Lmarto et fin. 

LIM EntiBTh* (w ^n'O. 



KksoLAE C Gmvi. 

Chid Eb^hcb to the TVuc tmpravcmeai CamBMauB. 
Ottd Hcneie, Ph.D. 

Ob Ih* StfS d Ibc C*ri ZdM Factofy, J BE. Camuy 


PeJeI CEAUffiis MnCTEii, M.A., F.R.S., D.Sc., LXJ). 

SKtetaiy n the ZodocicAl Sockcy c4 'LondoDf' Uaivcnity DcBonatntor in 
CompDliiva Automy ind AuiaUnl Is LiiucK Pnleuor u Oxfonl iMt-ltei.. 

■ - - "■ ■ "'- rine CcMt Hojpiui. i8m-i«o»: MLondoor' - ' 

to 3ie Ro}'al Collep of Tbyiicua^ iSgi-igf 

, Julont iMI 

It CtauKiE Cnu Hotpiul. iS«-i8at: MLsndsaHi 
in Uiolstr to the Ro}'al CdIIcic of Tbyiicua^ i ~ 
inZoolofy Co theUmvehly a London, 190^ 

fund. AnkUteK 
J UndarM^tak* tfi 
lu*d% in Dak* «C. 

P. G. Peicv GuuihEi, Lm.D., LL.D., F.S.A. f . 

S«thebia(iaphial midc. Cakdkek, Piicv. \ 

». GL Ptrai Guzs, M.A., LL D., Litt.D. f , -, 

Fdlow anil Clasiul Ltctaia of Emmanuel Calleee, Cunbridse. ind Univernty J , 
Reader is Campantivc PhDology. Late SeciEIuy oT the Cuiibridge Philciloiiical { **■ 
Society, AaliwcliliiiitaltfOmttniUttl'liiliJiitf.^ L 

SeelhebiographLc«lartide:H«IERION,PBIUPGlv»s«I. l*"™ Mfi»ra| '".'j ^ 

B. A. S. K. ' ROBErr AtEXANDU STTtviiiT Maciustei, M.A., F.S.A. f 

Kt fokn'i Colkte, Cambridge. DinctarofEmvatloiiifortiKPilenintExplan-^LMhkh. 

B. Q. RiCHUiD Gainiit, LL.D. i^I^anariL 

' Seetiiebii^raphialBnltlerCAaMtrr, RicBaMa \ ^^ 

bsMfr, LoadDD. [ , 

Sn Rqbext Eennaway DonctAS. f 

Fonmlf PrDfeuar of Cbinne. King'i Collen. London. KeeperofOiieaBr Primed 
BookiAndMSS. aiBriiidiMuKuin, itoi-1907. Member of the OiincK Coiuulir ^ ' 
Service, iScS-iMl Autbnr d »< £«i»o« and LiUnUiri tl Oata: EnroU 
t1lllh$ Far Ball: &i:. I 

RiCBAU) LTOEJiKEa, F.RS.. F,G5., F2.S. unmat ^f» fany, 

MambB-ot the SuR of the Cenlaaical Survey oT IndJa. iSM-taSi. Auihor of J !<■<»; 

CiUliinK c/ nisiif tfrnmnii/i. /UplUrs anil fiiidi >* lite Bnluh JVimiun: TTii Dm] Lwinid (in parti; 

afaUlmiii. Til Camt Animali ofAJrUa; Sx. Uon (in parfl; 

R. MX. RonEiT H'Lachlah. /LmmI (in Mr0. 

E4ilorof tb(Ei>i™ofcrrii'i«oiuAJ^lfBlriifat. 1_^ - ' T" 

^Seethebio(rapbicdar(ick;BAU.*«IYNI,R.M. |U»-bo»t: BrUuk (ia fan). 

R.K.BL RoBEST IfiiBET Bain (d. I90q). f ,i^_,, _. _, J-- ■• 

Ausmt Librarian. Britith MuKum. 188^1909. Author of Scu-iJinana. lii f uIUM» L Ud IT. oT' 

PiJUiial Ifuloty bJ DniKiirk, Nurmay and Sarifl. ISIl-1900; TTu FirsI Rmamtcs, i fbomt- 
^t6li-i7!!;Slanic,^Hnipt: lit Pohliai Uitlin} ^ Pflaad md Rmsm Imm 146^ i-iV 

.R.S.C. RoBEiT Sevhodb Cohway, M.A., D.Lirr (Cantab) fLaUn i"— -— (» tvA 

■ ud CttQi College, Cambridge. Aalbvr nine Imla DialaU L rkMety- 

R. W*. RJCHAKD WeBstm, A.M f , „ , . _ 

Fomierlv Fdlov in Clawci, PiinccUHi Univaniiy. Ednot «l Tibf BUtn oTi La>« >•«'■ 

B.W.G. The Vmt Rev. R. W. Chuscb, D.D, /Inntarti: - " 

Sat the biognphica] article; Chuich, R. W. \ Tie Kinfrfm m Ally. 

S. A.<L ' BtMKxM AxrouB Cook, M.A. f 

Letiurer in HebriK and Syriac, and fominly Felloif, Gonville and Caiai Coneot 1 
Cambridge. Editor for Faleiline Enploralion FunJ. E.atniiier in Hebrew and ' 
Aiamaic. London Univenity, ioOi-1908. Author oJ Gloaary cl Anmou 7»- 
Kritn-m: riu Lam ej itiia siid IMt Cnfi of Honn Broil : CrAitd Nala « OU 
■■ 7iiamaiI1alory,Ri(itun^A%tii^PaUiHiu-,ii:. 

. 5e« the biographical article CoLviH, Sidski -^^a-iraanig 

■t C V1SCODN7 St Gybes. /limnn' 

See the Ungraphical inicle iDDESLEibH, 1ST Eakl or. '^UfsorL 

S.D.F.S. Rev. StSwut Dincwau. Foidyce Saluon, M.A; D'.DWiSj^twjJ. 

Ptofcawr-of Svilematic Theoiogv and Emjeila of the Epiallei, \ff,C 

t NEwCtiiiB, LL.D,. D.Sc, ■■ - ' /' 

K theli iugia phicai mitJciej N'awcOHD, biHOH. \] 







D.LttT.. FS.A. 

' ' " ' ' ai Arrtntehwy at Rome. CormpondiM Member 
•_., ,_. Fonwili.. Schol« y Chn« 

Director of , --. ,< -- 

of the fmpcria] Gcnnin ArrhuolDficB] Iiulitu 
Ckwdi, Oxford. Cnv« Fdlov. (Kfwd. Ito7- 
ratty tft-^— '■— -- 

u al tti Oaitial Tnpt- 

Thoiui Case. H.A. 

PmidCDt of Corpui CkriMi ColUfc Oxtonl. Fonncrly WivnBtu Profaur o( 
Uenl and UfOfibruc^ Fliilouiifiy >t Oiloid and Fcfiov of Mafdiltn CaU^i. 

nd Meuphvtiul FhikHopI 
at Pkfiiai ikaUim: Ac 

RTllin Twltrnx at Fkyuc In tbc Untvenity ti Csnibriibi- Phyticdn is Addn- 

biDoke'i Ho^BUl. CambTidie. Fdlev oT Gaiii>Ule ■ad&iuiCallcte.Cuibrldtt. 

Ediuc of S^Utmi el M^uint. 

lOKU DAvmoM, LL.D. 

Tboiiu F. Kuideuon. 

Author of Murj Q-m ^ ShIi 
Su TkoHaI Hi 

Colonel in Ilw Royal Eniln 
iCol. CoM Mtdafliii. RC 
Befuch Bonndary, l«9«. t 

Houaai, K.C.M.Q K.C.I.E., D.Sc., F.R.CS. 

'raond"oy?iM7."H.MTon'miiK2^(or ihe Pmo- 
- ' -^'r l«iuiii Bt^nlaU: Tin Cma ^ Irndtn; 

Taotus MooiE. F.L.S. (iSii-iSS;) 

Cuiatot tt tbe Garden ol the Apart 

•i Ihc CaiJHiri- Mtpaimt •/ B 

tnda Fiikum: lUmaraimu tf On! 
lUv. THOHAa MmniH Ukbat. U..!)., D.D. 

Printipnl of [he Uaixa Free Chureh Colkte, Clugov. Formeily Ai 

P^cinr at Lofie and MelafJiyiln in ilie Uaitiniiy at Edinburil 

lialirf qf iIk KifarmaiieK; J.^ e{ iMkir; &c 
Thomas Seccowie. M.A 

teure^ in Hiiloiy. Fjll Ll 
tniK Piianian. Oifor4, .... . .. _ 

eint^pkr, 1*91-1900. Auiboc of n<.1(i i/J>tBa>:&Si 

rr mfnnily. ProTeH 

Royal Aiiatic &icicty, tUv-lQOJ. Aul 
BmUUiU: Earti Baililiitm:BliiUill Ini 

Author of BulMiim..Sa(rril BBoti aj I 


Head oI the Wiavinf and Ttitilc DcuinlnK Departmenl. Technical College, 

ViviAM BYan Leww, FI.C , F.C S. 

Pmfeiwr of Chcniury. Royal Naval CoMete. Chief Supeiinteiident Gaa Eaaminn 

to iht Cocponlion of the City of London. 

PrnfeiaDr of Bouny in the Univenity of Lnd*. Fonneriy FeUow of S( iolm'i 

Cclkge. Cambridce. 
Rjiv. WiLUau AncuiTtn Bkivooit Cooudce. M.A.. F.R.C.S. 

FcUoo of Ma^lin Cs)le|t. Oifocd. ProTewir of Enfliili Hiitory. Si David'a 

Cdltje, Lampeier, i«8o-ihi. Author ol Cand to Smiurlamd: 7». Alpt n jValnn 

VKl in Hiiltry, Ac. Ediloi of Flu ^lin'at /oiinu/, iSSa-iSS». 
Waltu AuaoM PmLim, M.A. 

Fomierly Eihibitioiier of Menon CoHetc and Senior Scholar of St lohn'a CoUoe, 

OxTord. Author cfJVxknieanircAc. 
Tie Ri. Rev. WtuuH Eowakd Coluns, M.A.. D.D. 

Biihop of CibraJtir. Fomiecly ProfCHOr 

London. Lecturer of Selwyn and Si Johi. _ ,_ .. 

Slrndf 1/ EaUiiaaiat Hiatrf, Btpmnati tl E'tM* ^^^ri''''*^y: Ac. 
Wmuu Fe»cOTsok I»vihi, How. M.A. (Llvnpoon. 

Hoa.StcRtaryandGcncni Editorof HntotkafSoeietyof Laneaihireand Cherfdn. 

H«. Local Secmaiy for Chedure of Ihe Society of Antiquarici. Aiuhor of Lov- 

fodiaAi nipi 4 OiAt II. : OU HilU if Winal: Ac 

S|: OU aiid Gu. 



L li. ' Wouui Hehii 

I, M.A D.D;, D.Lirr. (C»n 



W. W. B.* 

W.W.* , 


Autfcac at Jb|M I Lulu. 

— — _ It EHfloii In New And Hickne^ __. 

FvuHcly Fdlgw of St John'i Callrtr. OmbridEt Lccurei in Kabiv 
C«negc, ShcScld. Aalbor ol StUpn ^IttFtU-ExiUiFitHiUi it. 

Sn WnLUH Heh»* Flowej, F.R.S. 

SCE tb> bk««plual utlde: Flowii. S[1 W. H. 

WiLLuu Michael Rossetti. 

Sk the bloinpbial ■rtick: Ronnii, Didti Cmuii. 

Wiuuu FEnuiEU) Tkeht, LL'.D., D.C.L. 

Fnlfrwr g( Eiwluli Uicntuic. Cetumbli Usivcn 
CKUm-M ViifiHUf.A Brirf Hisuty if Amtham Ultrili 

V/IUMM RncHiE Soxiiy, M.A., LirrD., LL,D. 

PnKow oT MonI PtitloBpby in the Univtniiy d CimbrMp!. Vrnaw ol King' 
Collnr, CaiBbridEe. Ffllaw of the Briiitti Acadtny. FomwHy FfUdw oT Trimr 
CsUcie. Autburof Tlir Elkiu tf Italtralitm; JIu InUifriliUin ef Ewtlmlmi; >c 


FodUHly AHiHMt in Ibe DcputimtiE o< FrinMd Bonlo. Briliili Mumita. Auiha 
(tf JCuiioD FM T^a; Ac. 


AviHut ia chine el Cruuicau Nicunl Miitoiy MuKum. Scwlh KtailntlDii. ^ LoMir. 

AutbcK ol •■ Cnuucta" la A TVralui « Zulny, KRltd by Sii E. Rmy Link ' 

WlLLUU TlEOITDEH Dovcuss, M.IkIt.C.E., M.I.M.E. 

ConiuIliiii-EnilnHr la Governmnti of Wanni AimnKi, Nfw Ssuih 
Vicloril. Cipe or Good HCDC Jte. ErKltdlheEddyiloMlndBiihciaRiicli 
bouM. tuit\i» ol TTk Sm EJdyiUmt LillaJuuu: a 

WlLUAK Wai _.. , 

AnUliiit Prc^Fw ol Churcb 


ML iMf^. , 


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LI MWt wUch wu tbs tvtittb Inter of ilw PbocnidiB 
■Iplwbet It lu* 1b 111 biitory puMd throuih rvbj 
thingfi el torn, endjng curioudy *Mni|b la iu Bnul 
Buuucripc fan wkk a ih^w AliDait IdeDtkal wllh Ihat 
wbich It hid kbout 9aoi^(^^). Aiwutbe cue vUh S 
ud some other kltcn the Gncki did Dot eveiywb«n keep the 
■ymbol in tbe potllioa in vhich they hid bomoed it ], , This, 
which wu its oldc5t fDcm in Allica ind id the Chilcidian coIddIc* 
of Itiiy, wu the lono adopted by the Romrne, who Id time 
converted it into the recUogle L, which puied from them to the 
BUions at westtni Eumpe. In the Ionic ilphabct, however, 
[[Dm which the oidiouy Crecli alph«bet b dcHved it tppeued 
ts A. A siill more common fonn in other pini of Greece w»a /* , 
with the Icgi of unequal lenph. The eiUion oT Hciodotus hive 
ikot *1wiys lecogniied Ihit the name of Labda, the mother of 
Cypselus, in life Koiy (v. fli) ol the louniUng ol the great lamily 
ol CorinthiaD de^wts. wu dcdved Iroin the Fact that she wu 
bme and so suggnted the loim ef the Corialhiaa A . Another 
(onn /■ « h wu pnctically caofiDcd to the wot of Argolis. 
The nunc of ibe G[«k ktiei o eidiiurily liven u ^laWa, but 
is UemdMui (above} and in Aibeoeus 1. p. 4Sj (, •rbete Iba 
Buie* of the leitcim an given, ilK-hcsi autbeatlcMed lata h 
IdUn. The HebKW name, which wu pralMbly idratical with 
the Pboenidan, is LawMd, which, with a final tdwiI added M 
muL, would euily become Lombdth ^ being LDsert«d belweea 
<e ud another ceooBUit. Tbe ptoDuDoBtba ol I vuin n 
■icai 6ai according ta tbe poioi at whkb Ibe loBCUe ualut 
copiacl with the not of lb* month. Tlic contact, (eneiaUjr 

lansoicei, «(. in Latin JxtiuM fm 
Umpp and the B** t^i*>* 4Mr* Tbo cfaani* In Latin occun in a 
vrtf United nonber ol one* and one aplanndaB of their 
ocamencB ii that llwr u< boit^wed (Sabkie) w«nta< In pro- 
■nntiaiifin the breath nay b« aBond to escape at on* oi bolb 
rids of the tsogue. Id moM liiinimi t J 1* a fairiy sialile MUnd. 
Orientak. faowevir, baTB nnch dttculEy in dBtiaguiahini 
between I and r. In (Hd Penlan ( !• bund la only two fordsn 
wBids, and in SanArk diffeieDt dtabcu enploy r and f diffeitnt^ 
fa the lam* word*. Otheiwise, Iwwewi, the iBtBdnnga 
be i wen r and I were Mmeirhat annenied by lb* older phiki- 
io^la. Before other cDnaananU 1 beconiB lilnt in not a fmr 
laociiace*, notably in Fiencb, where it i* replaced by ■>, and ui 
Eo^iib where it hu occasioiiaHy betB restored in recent linu^ 

c^g. in/onfj which earlier wu spelt without J (u in French whence 
it wu borrowed), and which Gokismitb Cijuld still ihynu with 
ongib. In the ijth century the Scottish dialea of English 
dropped i largely Inth before conswiants and finally after o and 
0,11' -tU, fa'-Uli, ^'-puU, W-wool, hJji pronounced liktf 
6(nt, &c, while after sit ^ipeaii as*, rgo (pronounced ru)- 
loU. tan-knoll, &c It is lo be observed thai L-Jo does not 
come [nun this symbol, but wu an adaputJonof +, tbe western 
Creek form of x, which had no corresponding lound in Ijitin 
and wat therefore not mdudcd in the ordinary alphabet. Thi* 
symbol wu first rounded into J, and then changed Brst to X 
and ultimately lo L (P. Gi.) 

of the Eilel volcanic lorniation, a 

ad tbe pi 
it lender 

le and basalt 

cucumfeTence and ibo it- 
deep, and i* sunounded by an amphithcaite of high hills. ' The 
water is iky blue u colour, very cold and bitter to the tutc 
The lake has no natural outlet and consequently b subjected 
to a conudcrahle rue and lalL On the western sjde Uc» tbo 
Benedict uie abbey of St Mana Laach lAibalia LaccKits) founded 
in lof J fay Henry II,. count paUtine ol the Rhine. The abbey 
church, datng fror -■■ ■- -■ ■- " " 



have been uneventlul 

ln_ iSoi It was abolished and a 


ol the Napoleonic wi 

a Prussian tiMe 


In iS6j U paaed into 

the hands of 

he Jesuits who 


their eipulsion in 187J. published he 

re a periodical, which 

appears, entitled SUmma, car ifa 

no tfloci. In 


nunuLcry w>* again 

iccupicd by the 

LAAQBR. a South African Dulcl 

word (DuLdi Utf. 

ttttr, connected with 


far a len^orary 

" brlraginring " .army. TIm Cer. Jofir, in the 

is familiar u tbe oame of a light biet (n Buwihc). 

UUi BBXR (itdr-iSts)i Gannan phOosiipher. wu bora 
oBtbai6ihaf Junaii^Tnt FOnttBwalde, He studied theology 
and pkilDsopby nnder Treodtknburg at Berlin, and eventually 
became professor of philoaoidty in tbe new univervty of Slran- 
burg. In Kaaei Amalttia, dcr Er/almmt (iSt«) be ktnty 
criti«!iod Kant** liuiceadcnulitm. and In his chief mtk 
MtofiiMat imi PmtMimiu (j vtria^ 1879-1884), be dicw a 


Uk fousdei. Lui in i 

Huougbout bi> phiJcaophy be codcavoun to conocct meta- 

pbyikiwilb eUiia»d Ihe Ibeoiy of cduutiou. 

Hli chief (ducuiorul wocki wen Do dnufk Amfaa i* ia 
ttm QnmanilUaiia <lgM; SrdnL, putL. iSoS, nut it, igqi], 
niDaitmlMeliiUiiUrtidiltptiilmnUiimiuUailitji-, md td. 
1*861. HtamuibMeiJtrgelYtoliitViMdJaliriidir.f.wiii.Plnloi. 
(l<«o-lMiJ: the LHUwHcker tlatUaii. t poaiamaai •x\\rait,a. 
wupubUibcd ■t^nean (Its;]. Sit HMiitci, Dir FaMtiimia ten 
Enil £«i (1901) t Cjvriu, Pit Erimaiiitllititit ia Emu Laat 
[1903) 1 FilckcBbeiK. HiH. 1^ Utd. PkOti. (Egg. tnu. I«9s)' 

UBUUB,JBUIia(ieio-««7ii, PrBttbdi<riiic,«(«uul«o(. 
the Kfaod know! m IlK LubadbU, *u loia it.fiour^ not fai 
inm Bordeaux, on tbe ijih of Fefanuiy 1610, 1 
Jean Charlo de la Badie, goveioor al Cuienae. 
ID the Jouit Khool at BoTdeaiu, snd when fifteen entered the 
Jesuit csUege there. In ibi& he begsn to btudy fbloHpI 
and theology. He wai led to hold umenhat 'titttme iriei 
about Ihe efficacy of prayer and the direct influence of the Holy 
Spirit upon believen, and adopted Augustiniao views about 
gncei free will and predcsliiuitiODi which brought- hira 
coUiiiau wiib hii older. He iheiefore Kpuaicd (com Ibe 
Jcjuit), and then became a preacher to the peopI«, cattying on 
Ihii TorJt in Bordeaux, Paiia and Amieni. At Amiena In 1640 
he vai appdnted a canon and teacher of theology. The hostility 
of Cardinal Muarin, however, fon:ed him to retire to the Ci 
melile heraiitage at Graville. A iludy ot Citvin's IntlOtu 
showed hiio thit he had more in common with the Refortned 
than nilh the Romin Catholic Church, and Biln 
^Jvtntiirei he joined the Reformed Church o( Fwnce a)id 
became profeuor of Iheolog^ 
lor doing » be published in the same year in hia Dtdataiion 
it Jan it la Bmlit. Hii acceuion lo the ranks of the Pro- 

hinuel!, it was said, had left the Roman Catholic Church. 
He was caDed to the putarste of the church it Orange on the 
Rhone in iSjf. and at oace became noted for his uvetily ol 
discipGne. He act hia face Kalously against dancingj card. 
playing and woiliDy entertalDmenti. The unsettled slate oi 
the country, recently anneied to France, compelled him to leave 
Onnge, and in 1659 he became a pastor in Geneva- He then 
■ccepled a call to the French chuR;h In London, but after 
vaiioui mnderings settled at Middelburg, where he was pastor 
to the Freach.speaking congregation at a Walloon church. 
His peculiar opnioni were by thi; time (1666] well known, and 
he and his congregation found Ihemielvea in conflict «ith the 
ecclesiastical authoiitiea. The result wai that la Badle and his 
foflowers established a separate church In a adgfibouring town. 
In 16&9 he novcd to Amsterdam. He had CBthulIaltic disciples, 
FieiR Yvon li646-i!o7) at Montaubin, Pierre DuUgnon 
(d. 1675), Francois Menurel (d. 1670), Theodor DwereyV (d. 
160)), F. Spanheim (i6jj-i;oi), and, more important than 
any, Anna Malia v. Schtlrman (1607-167B), whose book Eucltria 
b perhapi the best exposition of the leDeu of her master. At 
(be head of hfs Sepaialist congirgatlon, la Bsdfe developed liis 
views for a reformatioo of Ihe Reformed ChurAes: the thuith 
is a communion of holy people who have been bom again from 
sin; baptism Is The sign and seal of this regencrailon, and is 
10 be admimstered only lo helieveri; (be Holy Spirit gdldes 
the regenerate into all Irulh, and the cfmith possesses Ihiwighonl 
all time those gifts of prophecy which it had in the ancient days; 
the community at Jemsalem is Ihe continual type ^ every 
Chifatian congregalioii, therefore there should be a comnunlly 
of goods, the disciples should li»« logtihcr, eat logeiher, dance 
logeibec; marriige is a holy oidinance between Iwo'befievets, 
aild the children ol the regenerate are bOm iritbout original 
ain, marriage with an untegennate person Is not binding. 
Tfaey did not observe the Sabbath, because— « ih^ said— their 
Ufe was a continual Sabbath. The life and (eparatisn of the 
Commui\ily brought them into ireqticnt colUslon nitb ttieir 
■ei|)ibaunani wltblh*iDafisttWes,«sdIa i6;o they aRttiied 

the invitation ot the princess Etiiabelh, abbess of Hcrioid Id 
Westphalia, to take up their abode within her territories, aod 
settled in Herlord to the number of about £fly. Not £ndii« the 
rest they expected they migrated to Bremen in 1671, and 
afterward] to AItona,'where they were divcned on the death 
of the leaden. Small communities also eiitted in the RhlnelaDd, 
and a missionary seLtlcment wai established In New Yoik. 
Jeau de la Badie died in February 1674. 

La Badie'i woiki Include LaPnpUlui (rfi68), Umdittita 

■ triflMtu ii la til a ii Ik aniiaJt Mtlei iriir ii 

Ir li Laitiii. tni Anna Maria t. SchOnnaB, Bmdirta (Alloa 
' 'I. Cf. the. article in Hcna(-Hauck.J!<dfnfyiU«f>dAi>. 

arly Chriaiian 


LUUSH, Ibe-uat osiUttry si 
Roman emperors, first adopted by Constantine tbe threat aJtet 
his miraculous vision In jii, although, according to Cibban, 
he did not exhibit it to the army till 313. The name seems to 
have heeo kAowa before, and the banner was simply a Chrialian- 
Iied form of the Soman cavalry sUndard. Euscbius (Lift 
of Cml. i. ]i) describe* the first labarum as consisting of a 
long gilded spear, crossed at Ihe top by a bar from which hung 
a square puriile cloth, richly jewelled. At the upper extremity 
of the apor wla a gsUaLHreUh cncticling the sKrtd monogrsB, 
focmed of' Iht &Bt tvo ktien of the name ot Christ. In iaUr 
banncn (be monoinm was •omelimet embroIdciFd M the clott . 
i guanl of fifty aoldiers waa a[volmed 10 protfCt'Tftb 
ilandaid. The deriuaiioa of the word labarum ia. 
dupuled; it appears to be connected wilh the Basque /<i5<irH, 
ugniJying standard. Sw Fuo. 

LilB^ LODISB CHAHUK FERIUll (c. isij-isM), French 
. xt, called la Bdle Ctrditn, was bom al Lyons about 1515, 
the daughter of a rich ropemaker, named Charley or Chariin. 
Al the liege of Fen>lgnaa she is said to have fought on horse- 
back in the ranks of tbe Dauphin, afterwards Henry IL Some 
'Ime before 1551 she married Ennemond Perrin, a ropemaker. 
he formed a libruy and gathered round her a SWfety which 
iduded many of the learned ladles ot Lyonc,— PctiKlte du 
GuiUet, Claudine and Sibytlc Scive and CKmencc de Bourges, 
ce Scfve, Charin Fontaine, Fontui de 
Tyard; and among the occasional visilots were Clement Marot 
' his friend Mclln de Sainl.Gelais, with probably Bonaventure 
Piriera and Rabelais. Aboot issolbrpoeVOUvterde Magny 
pasud tbnw^ L^mus on his way to Italy In -the suits ol Jcui 
''Avauon. the French e»oy to tbe Holy 8<«, A« the friend 
I Ronaaid, "Pr^we ol Poets," he met with .(D oilbadaida 
KcepllSB from Louise, who stnl^tway feH !■ love vilh hini.' 
~ little doubt that her paaion lor Magny faipiml 

uen RTie, and tbe elegla probably cxpcnt hef 
iitt abseocc. A second sheet visit to Lyons iraa 
followed by a Mcotul longer absence. Magny^ InSoence im 
' mo more decWvtly in bcr SmuU, wtricb, pHnled fn 1555, 
. icUy attained gitat popularity. Diiriog hit Kociid vltk to 
Italy Magsy had ^ipareailyaoineiedhimaelf,aBdLauiw,d(qMlr- 
Ing ti his return, aniBuraflcd aoolko admfacr, Claadc Bidiya, 
when her lover returned UKspectodly. Lolun dimbwd 
Rvbys, but Magily^ jatauiy loud vent in aa ode addreiKd 
to tbe Sin AymOB <EimeB«id)^ vMch niDed fctr Tqntaiioo; 
whiU Rubya, usfff M Ui -"--^tii', iveBged hioacU laUr Ik 
' ' HtMiH vMuait i» Lyam (tj;]]. Tta scandal m.nA ■ 
J hlow at Lonise's poiltloo. Shortly aflerward* be( ImsbanA 
1, and *ba Mumed ta bcr tountiy haaae at nidw, vheie 
she died On thii ijih of April ijM. leaving ibe greiur put ol 
ihefoMnDetbeifaslelt toUiepoor. Uei works indadc, betldn 
the Setisj and fittwli meolicaed, • pnn DOat dt fdk d 
''ammr ilranslaud into Ei^llib by Robert Cnene in »eti: 

' voU, 1M», 

iketeh ot Lniia Labt an 

d by Google 


SocKty ii in Mu* ^ili Skbcr 
LABEL (a Fi 

purpoat I 

*nled by (( 
I vanmi; it u ol obscure origin Bad nuj' be ci 
Teutonic "01(1 appearing in lie English " lap," 
■ slip, licVet, or card of piper, metal or other nu 
10 an object, iotii u a parcel, bottle, Ac, and coi 
address, description or oiiier information, far 

identi£catioD, Orfginally the word ciecnt a 

ol UneD or other material, and via thus applied to the 6 
(injuiac) attached to a biahop'i milrt. In heraldiy 
** label " is a mark of " cadency.'* 

In architecture the lenn "label" ii applied to tie « 
projecliB( moulding over doors, windows, wthes, Ac, 
(aUcd "Dripstone" or. "Weather Moulding," or "Hood 
Mould." The lonncr terms seem scarcely applicable, 
moulding is often inside a buifding where no ram could 
cooje. and consequently there is no drip la Normal 
the label frequently d^ not project, and whea i( did 
very liltle, and foimcd part of the senes ol arch mouldm 
the Early English styles they were not very large, 
flighlly und* "" — -- , , 
with chamf< 

[ the body of the roll. Labels 
(irsesol the period, and, in fact, aj 
strings. They are less coramo 


re than 

LUED. HABCnS AMTISinn (<. 59 BC.-AD 
jurist, WBS the ion ol Pacuviua Antlstius LabeO. 
causedhimsell to be slain alter the defeat of bis par 
A member ol the plebeian nohiljiy, and in easy ^ . . . . 
the ymnger Laboo eariy entered public life, and soon n 
the praetor^ip; bat lus undisguised inlipathy to the 
regime, and the somewhat bruique manner in whic^ ' 
•esate he occsilDnally gave eipreision lo his tepublii 
ruhitt — what Tacitui <^iiil iil. Js) calls ha tacBrmfU i 

:S), Roman 
jurist who 
(1 PhQJppL 

lich III L 


is sdvan 


BndFc the w 


done Mm. L^beo dechn 

ed the affi» when it 

wu offered 

m in 

subsequent yea 


Ann. 01 /J 

Pompon, in 


i). From Ibii time he 


devoted hi. 


rumngm the 

icienre had 


derfred principally In 

jm Trehatius Testa 

To his bnoo 


of th 

law he added a 


in specially to dialectics, philology {ffjit 
'uahie «!■■■■ 

ration ol legal doctrine (GcB. ilil. to), 
a the tiihe of Hadrian his wu probably the name 61 

and annoUted by later hand*. While Capflo is hattlly e+er 
referred lo, the dicta o( L«l>eo are of constant recurrence in the 
writings ol the dasjinal jurisls. sui* as Cafus, Ulplaa and Paul, 
and no Inconsiderable number of them were thought worthy 
ol prestrvatmn in Justiniaft's Digesl. Labeo gets the (rrdii 
o( being the lottndcr of the Proctllian sect m school, ' while 
Cspito IS spoken of as the founder of the rival Sabinbn one 
(Pompomus in ft 47. Dit I t). but it Is probable that the 
leal founders of the fwo seholae were Procuius and Sabinus, 
followers temerlively ol the methods of Labeo and Capflo 

t liwportant Inetary work w» ■■■- ' -'-- «>— — — 

aiF putiliihcd only alter hla di 



n thai < 

le rdin: 

mm SolniitanQ, il Pmuh, 
Lalxii. Dai rem Pniairahl 
ttUUe, I S73- ■*»!). 

^ Kcim 10 have ^)tcB one ol h^ mft 

iDoribaa. el fliidii* M AnL Ldbeonia " 

i«'> rim iH>. vol. 1 . MaacoviiK. Dt 

ritcB jakrkuiidrrlt der 'Xaiuntti 

(c. tos-<1 '■':■). Ronun knight aad 

who wioto for his own picuure. In <5 Julius Caesar ordend 
him 10 appai in me of bis own mimes in a public DOiieat with 
the actor PnUiliua Syrua. Labeiiui pronounced a dlgnUed 
prologue OB the degradation thus thrust on his slicty years, 
and directed seveni ibatp allusions against the dictator. Caeaar 
■warded the victory to Publiliui, but rcalored Laberiul 10 hia 
(queitrian rank, which he had fscfdted by appearing a) ■ mimua 
(Mambius. Sat. ii. 7). Laberiul was the chief of those who 
introduced the mimm into Latin liteianue towards the doK 
of the republican period. He seems to have bccti a man ol 
' ' ~ ' culture, but his pitcefl ^^ 

the d 

I of h 

ud Autus Ocllius (ivi. 7, 1. 

the coining ol new word*. Honce (Sal, i. id) qisaks of him la 

In addition to (iie prolofue {in Macrobiut). the tiiln of farty.foiir 
of bis minii have been pciiTvcd-, the iragnnnu have ben coUcitcd 
by O Ribbeck in hit Cnnumi lalimntm rcli^lae (iB/J). 

LABIATAB (i.e " lipped," Lat faUim, hp), in botany, 1 
Balural order of seed-plants belonging to Ihe series Tubiflorae 
of the dicotyledons, and containing about ijo genera with 
iSoo specie*. The majority are annual or perennial heita 


t cal>'». 


.bitfng the temperate nne, becoming ibnibbr in warmer 
ates. The Wem is genernlly iquarg in sectkih and the sinplt 
ipulate lea\i« are amhged In decusaatlag pain (u, eacb 
pail is In a plane at right anghs to that of the pairs immedfalely 
and hehnr tt); the blade is entire, or toothed, Uibed 
re or leai deep^ cut. The plant ii often haiiy, and the hah* 
reqtiently glandular, the lecietion coDlaining a scent 
disncteriatlc ol the genta or (pedes. The Bowci* ue bom* 
■ aids of the leavei or bratts; they are rarely aDlitaiy 
as in SciiltUarla (skuU-c^), and gtDeraily fora an apparent 
' (valicitlosleT] at the node, consisting of a pair ol cymose 
•sccnces each of which is a simpke three-flowered dichaiiiim 
BnTuUa, Ssttia, ftc. or more generally a dichaiiiHn passing 
nto a pair of monochasiai cymes as m Jjimium (fig i). 
Ba!lt!ia, Ncf(ia, Ire A number (4 whorls tnaj be crawded ai the 
ol the stem and the fubtendiilg leave) reduced to small 
., the whole forming a raceme- or Bpike-Mke infloreioeBce 
as in Utraka (fig i. S) Srwii^, &c , Ihe biarti areHmetioa 
and coknired as in Henaria, species ol Salvia, Itc , Id Ihe 
tbe apei of the stem is sometimes occupied wtib a dut«r 
of tterBe coIouihI bracts. Tite plan of the flower 1* reinarttUT 
■■ 10 (fi«- 1. «; [ 



■ncdiBB pluie. with { iquli united to lam x penisoil cbp- 
KIk oLyi, J pMib Dsilnl to loim ■ iwo-lippcd gipin( omUa. 
4 BUDKU iuurttd on Ihe cDioUa-tubc, Im el which. gnwnUy 
Ibc 40ttnDT pair, ue loAgfr Lhan Lhc other two (didynunoui 
ArttnsemcnE) — tometirnci u in Satita^ the poMcrior pair ii 
aborted — and two supciior median caipeli, each very eariy 
divuJed by a constriction in a vertkil plane, tlie pistiJ coniisling 

9 Iroi 

eentR of the piilil between Ibe Itruc ugnKnti llyntiaiii], and 
is aimple with a bifid apei. The lluit compriia [our one-Kided 
nutlets included in the peisslcnt cnjyi, ihe seed has a thin 
(eua and Ih* embiyo alooil oc (Onpictely Uls iL Although 
the lonend.Eonn acid plan oE ammgcment of the 6ower is very 
uulonn, there aie wide variations in detail. Tlius the (ilyi 
may be tubuUtt, bell-shaped, or almatt spherkil, or itnigbl 
or bent, and the length and loim o( the teeth or lobes varies 
aho. it may be equally toothed as in mint {MenAa) (fig. i, 
8), and marjoram (Oijoiurm), or two-lipped as in Itiyme 
inymus), la„i,Mw. (£g. i] and Salvia (fig i, /); the number 
of nerves affords uselul chsractets fat diilinction of genera, 
there are normally five main nerves between whicb simple or 
forked secondary nerves are more or less devdoped. The shape 

Fic. a. — /, Flower ol Sage (5riJn* ojuiiulii]. I, Corolla of nine 
c;it apta ihnwinx ibe iwn itaiKni: S, hwer of ipcanninl (ifnUa 

ingihc»ia['ianu.rediHnti e,3aaiiiaanm<^Sali%a, 
ol the corolla varies widely, the diltefcnca bcins doubtless 
intimately associated with the pallin»IiDn of the Sowers by insect- 
agency. The tulx is strai^t or vailouily bent and altcn 
lindens towards Ihe mouth. Occa^onaHylhe Umb is equally 
five-toothed, or forms, as in UenJu (fig. i, 9, 4) an almost 
tef^dar four-toothed corolla by union ol the two poMerHr teeth. 
Usually it is two-lqiped. tbe upper lip being IstDied by the two 
posterior, the kiwer lip by the three aDlerior petals (sec lig i, 
and 6g. 1, 1,6), the median lobe ol the lower lip is gcner^Jly 
most devehsped and forms a mling-place for Ibe bee or other 
insect when probing the flower for hooey, the uppci lip shows 
gnat variety in locm, oiten, •> in Lamium (fig, i). SUukyi, &c , 
it i> arched lonaing a protection (lom tain for the stamens, 
01 it at.j be flat as in Ihyms. In the tribe Ocimttdeai the four 
upper petab lotm the upper Up, and the tingle anterior one 
the lower lip, and in Tacrimm the upper lip ii absent, aH Ave 
kibct being pushed forward to fonn the lower. The posterior 
stamen a iomrtioiea present as a staminode. but generally 
suppressed, the upper pair are often reduced to staminodes 
or inoTT or Ifss conpktely suppre s sed as in Salva (fig, 3. i, 6); 
nidy are tkeae drveloped ud the anterior pair reduced. In 
CaUia the tumena are monadelpboiia. In Kiptla and allied 
genera the posleriol ptir arc the longer, but this is rare, Ihe 
didynamcvs character being generally the result ol the anterior 
pair being the longer The anthers are Iwo-cdled, each cell 
splitung lengthwise, the connective may be more ot less 
devekued between ibe culls, an extreme case is seen In Svitia 

Ifig. I. t). when the connective Is filiform and fointed to the 
&luntnt, while the anterior anther-cell i> ttduced to a sterile 
appendage. Honey b secreted by * bypogynous disk. In the 
more general type of flower the anthers and stigmas are pro- 
tecled by Ihe arching upper lip as in dead-nettle (fig. t1 and many 
other British gencrai the lower Up aflords a nsling-plux for 
the insHi which in probing the flower For the boney, secreted 
on the lourer side of the disk, collects poUett on its back. 
Numerous variations in detail are found in Ihe difleftnt genera; 
in Salvia (Sg. t), for instance, there is a lever mechanism, the 
barren hall of each anther forming a knob at the end ol a short 
arm which when touched by the head of an insect causes the 
anther at the end of the longer arm to descend on the insect's 
back. In the less common type, where the anterior pan ol the 
Bower is more developed, as in the Odmeidea, the stamens 
and style lie on the under tip and honey is secreted on the upper 
aide of the bypogynous disk; the insect in probing the flower 
gets smeared with pollen on its beHy and legs. Both types 
include brightly-coloured flowers with longer tube* ad^ed to 
the visits ol butterflies and motbt. a tpedes of Satiia, Sladiji. 
Mtntarda, tic; some SoLth American ^lecies ol Salna are 
poiUnated by humming-binjs. In VenUn (fig. j, J), thjme, 
marjoram (OrifdirirM), and aUied genera, Ibe flowers are nearly 
regular and the tlamens spread beyond the coroUa- 

The per^slenl calyx encldsa the ripe nutlets, and aids in 
their distribution In various ways, by means ol winged spiny 

amy e 

I it the .... 

LwfmJiili. Tliymm. Xamamiu 
feature in the vcsetaiion. The 
tropical and subtropical and occur 
■ ■, Tented in Brtuio ■■ 

Jiogilw *- 

Bflyroyall! Ontamw 

LAd others fem an aaportant 
tribe Otimtidtot is eadukively 
in both hemispheres. The order 

jlhynie)! CaUmimfia (calanunt^ ududiru aiaa C. Ctimrfiu^um 
(wild basil) and C, Aaiu$ (buil ihyme); Sslria lugej, including 
S. Virbema (ctary)i Nfftia CaUria (catmint). H. CUiktma 
(ground-ivy), Smulti (>dl-h<al) : Smdtana (ikull-eip)', Sbtkjt 

— ^.... '(dcBd->ellk)i foifau (biac!i' hu 
Ciermander): and Aiaea fbutie). 

Labialae are rtadilyd^inguiihed froni ■ 
series excepting Venenaeeae. in whicti. T 
__ — I. i_. 1 ^^_ Afuia. Ttm 

(ZAmdiild). rvvniarv'lAUHdnHHJ). paLdi 
luben ol Slack)! SuMU uc eaten in Trance. 

UBICUIA. VIA. an ancieot highroad ol Italy, leading £.S. 
from Rome It scema poasible that the road ■> first led 
Tusculum, that U was then prolonged to Labici, and later at 

id lor 

e to the S E , lor. u 

the distance 

junction at Compitum Anagninum) is practically idcniiral. tb« 
summit level ol the lormirr is 715 it. lower than that ol lb* 
biter, a htilc to the west of the pass ol Algidus. After theii 
junction It IS probnlile that the road bore the name Via Latin* 
rather than Via Ubicuia. The cwnse of the road alter tbe 
first six miles Irom Romelsnot identical with thai at any nodcm 
road, but can he clearly traced by remains ol fMvemenl ukd 

Saci^AMtyiaFapiri'i/lluBrmikSclmlal Aw,i.ai5«)q. 

a. As.) 

UBICHK. BnOkHE NAHIH (igij-iSSS], French diamalUt, 
»u bom on Ihe Jth ol May iSij. ol beartaii parentage. He 
read for Ibc bar. but liteistun had more powerful atlnclioiis, 
and he was hardly twenty when he gave to the CUthMh — an 
impertinent little magazine, long vanished and forgotten — ft 


dnrt UDijr, esltUed. in tba uvilin liyU ol (he period. Let 

flui iiiUl ufl la flai Jaulia. A hw tulken ialkmcd muth in 
ttemCiLnia, but Ikilcd tocMch-the (UcBiionof ihe public 
tic Irird hb Lud U dnnulic crilkisn in ibe Xnw <to UMUtm, 
ud in iSiS mide > doiiUe vtalun on tit shec. The imiU 
Tbfaire du Paalhian pivduccd, *pud *aiiu! u(ni of papulae 
fivsur, a dnmi ol hit, L'Atrett LmMi whUc ft vaudeville, 
Unaait it CtitUn M i'^MMC JI|fliiMiU ^', vdliU in 
CDUaboiation with More Midiel, >od given 11 the PiUb Reyil. 
introduced for ibe GnL lime Lo the Paiiwiu a ptovinciil actor 
•rbo WD la bccotne and [0 nnulnagmi Cavourlie with them, 
CtiaoE, ihe [anwiu km cotnediui. In the ume year Labicbe, 
Hill doabtlul about his true vocation, pubJiihcd a nunanie 
called La CIt da aamft. M. Lfon Halivy, hii tucccMor at 
the Academy and hli pintiyriu, Infornu ui ihai the publisher 
became a bankrupt uon after the novel wat out. "A lucky 
' " the biocraphu ooocludei, " '' 

wirninf of Deatin) 


where n 

' There ■»» yet 
in ibt way. When he named, he loleinnly ptomiied his wile's 
pucnis that he vmuld renovoce a pni(esion then considered 
iDcompaUble with moral rtgulinty and donmtic happineta. 
Bw t year afleri^itdi hi» wife spontaneously released him Irom 
his vow. and Labidie recsllnl the iocident vihen he dediiaied 
Oiefijsl edition of hii ctrnplete woika: " To ray wife." Labkbc, 
iiconjunuian with Varin.' Hare Michel,' Ctaicvillc,' Duouaoir,' 
and oibcii contribuled comic playi 

IS Parii tl 

iSsO- ll nniaini 
whvifu. in which s 

I cnnvd of othen; t 

. Thes 

faiiU i'llalU (Au|usl 
I accam^dUied aptcimen of the Fceoch 
\t one ii In search ol somelhini, but doe* 
nuiei belotE tlB niiUiii falta. Prior to 
been only a iBSceuf ul tattimaiiU amoni 
t a tinlvtclMntk later he na^e a new 
mlkrilK cl rAuKriaol. AU (he pbyi 
liven for the next Iwenty-bve yean, a1thou(li consirDcied on 
the oU ]^D. contained a more or lea appticiable dose of 
that comic obaervaiion and gDod aengc tihicb gnduilly raised 
Ik French farce almoii to the level of the aimciiy oj character 
aod nannera. " Of all Ihc subjects," he uid, " which offered 
tlniiselves to me, I liave lekcted the tcvfii- Eaaentiilly 
Bediscte in hit vice! and in hit virtus, he stands hall-way 
betvcen the beto and Ihe Koundret, between Ihe aahit and the 
proBigtte." During the second period of his career Labicbc 
hid the coUabontion of DeUrour,' Choler,' and others When 
It ii asted what ahart hi the authonhip and success of Ihe playt 
nay brclaimed lor those men, we >hiU.ag>wtT in Cmile AuBier'i 
vords: " The dbtinctive qualities which secured « lasting 
vogue for the playsof La1>kbe are to be found in all the comedies 
■nil ten by him Hithdifloret coUaboraion, and are conspicuously 
aluent fiona those which they wrote Without bin." A moce 
Bsefui and more important collaborator he lound in Jean Marie 
Uichd GeoSroy (i«ij-i&Sj) whoa he had known as a iMiiUhiI 
in bh younger days, and who remuncd bts faithful interpreter 
10 the UtI. CeoHmy impcBonaicd the Anrfscii not only to Ihe 
public, but to the author himaeU; and it may be aseumed that 
Lahidic, when writing, could ace ami hear Geoffroy acting the 
diiraeta and uttering, in his poaipoui. fussy way, the wordt 
that he bad just cocDnititd to paper. CHimare (a Ka-dinrf 
(iWjJ, U Veyan it U. Pat^at (iWa), la Crammain, (/■> 
Piti daiu U abn*. La CaiasUe (1864), say be qnoled as the 
kappiett prndudion* oi Labiche. 

In 1S77 be brought hi* oaiuie:don wfth the stage to a iloae, 
ud 1 1^ to Ui lural ptapaty Id Sdo^K. Then he could be 

' Wctor Varis, pNodonym of Cbail« Voirln C179S-1S69). 
■ Maic Anioin* AmtdCc Mictel (1811-1069). vaudevilliM. 
■Laui* Francois Nicshiie, caRed CbiirvilU (1111-1879), pan- 
ioIluK ot thcfamoua filhil* MiH AinU (1871). 

• Phiinc Ranceit Ploal, oiled DunaBCHr {i«afr-i*M). 
^'AHief Charlemane. Unigoe, alM Dikcaui (iSis-itts). 
Foe a list ol thl* auihor'a eieoa •(• 0. lonu. Oualcimt CMraf 
(vol. ii.. I86S). 

• Addpbc Jtrnflt CMa (iti^ilS?)- 

seea, dmted as a tanwr, with low-brinimed hat. iMck gaitcn 
aod an enormous atict. superintending the agiicuTiural wOrfc 
and busily engaged in reclaiming land and marshes. His liT»- 
long friend, Augier, visited him in his principaliiy, and, lieing 
led alone in the bbniy, took to reading his hou'i dnnaiic 

igly advised Labiche to publiih a collected 
edition of his works. The saggation, bitt decUned 
as a Joke mi long reiisled, was hnally accepted and carried 

during 1S78 and iSyq, The success was even greuet than bad 
been eipccied by ihe author^) moat sanguine friends It had. 
been coniiBnly believed that these plays owed their popularity 
in great neasurc to the {avouriu> actors who had )ppe*Te<) in 
them; but-it was now discovered thai all, with the' exceptioa 
ol CeolTny, had introduced into thtm a grotesque and caricalural 
element, thus hiding from the qieclalor, in nuny caset, the true 
comic vFin and delightluJ cLelineation of human (haraclet. 
The amaaement turned into admiration, and the eii(iiiieiMiiJ 
became so general that very lew dared gnimUe 01 appear 
tcandaliicd when, jn 188a; Labiche was elected to ihe French 
Academy. It was fditnnate that, in fftrner yean, he had never 
dreamt irf attaloieg this high dittuiction; bti, at H. PaiDcron 
iutily observed, while liying to get rid (^ Ihe little faults wfeich 
were in him. he woold have been in daager ol losing some ol 
his stcriiug qualities. But when the honour WW bestowed «po« 
him, becnjcqiedlt with hb usual good aenae and quiet modcoly. 
Me died in Paris on the tjid of January iSlS. 

Same foobsh adiaiceat have placed him on ■ level with Moli^ 
but it will be inough to say that he waa suntlhing better than 
a public anawir. Many of hit plays hwt been Irsnatemd 
to Ihe Eiwlith ttage. They are, on Ihe wbolc, as sound at Ihey 
Love i* prarlically abaent from hit theatre^ 
of his playi did he ever venture into the depths ol 
lennune ptychology, aod womankind is only npreacated in 
ibem by preiealioui old maids and silly, insipid, ala»si dumh 
youag ladiet. He ildicukd marriage according to the invarlabl* 
cuitoin of Fieach pitywrlghti, but in a Jiiendly and good- 
naiured Daaiter which always left a door open 
and timely araendinent. tie is never coarse, Bm 
Alter he died Ok French farce, whkh he had raaea 10 aome' 
thing akin to literature, r e lapsed into ila fortoet grooncaa and 
unmannins coDplexily. (A. Fl) 

His TULrr um^ (10 voU, 1870-1879) coobuQia preface by 

LABICI, an ancient city of Lathim, the nodcm Monte 
Compatri, about 17 m. S.E. from Rome, on Ihe northern slopes 
of the Alban Hills. 1739 ft. above sea-levd. It occurs smong 
Ihe thirty cities of Ihe Latin League, and it is mid to have 
joined the Aequi in 419 B.C. and to have been captured by the 
Romans in 41S. After this it does not appear in history, and 
in the time of Gcero and Sitabo waa almost entirely deserted 
il not destroyed. Trsces ol its ancient walls have been noticed. 
Its place was taken by the rapaHi'caLmicaiuriimQiiiiilaniHsiiim, 
the pott^tation established in the lower ground on the Ma 
Labicana (see Ubicana, Via), a tittle S.W. ol the modem village 
of Colonna, the site of which is attested by various inscriptions 
and by the course of the road iUelf. 

See T. Ashby En Papri if On Briiiik &ImI at Komr. \. a^ 

UBiB (Abfl 'Aqn UWd ibn SabTal (c SftK. MO, AiabitB 
poel, bekiiiged to the Bant 'Amir, a division ol the Irlbe of the 
Hawlzin. In his yonnger yean tie wu an active warrior ind 
hb vene Is laigety concnned with inter-tiibal disputes. Laid, 
he was iCBl by a skk nnde to get a remedy from Mahonttat 
Medina and on tUi ocodon waa much influenced by a put of 
the Koran. He acoipled Islam «Mn alter, but tesini then to 
have ceased wtitinc. In Omar's caliphate he b said to haw 
settled hi Kula. TnditloD ascilbee to him a long 111*, but 
' and CMttTadktary. One of his pattM 
the J/<*«ttatiU (f .>.). 


■hole. «m cdiinl ffuftly trot 

•Irs LeM 


H of Ubid ar 

lv.9j(r.and». Ijjll. 

■ Hubs) tnr C 

niiM Of a Ranan bmily. uid (withnit 
luthorilyl 10 belong lo Ihc gens Alii: The Bunt important 
menibec wu Tciui LABiENCt. In 4} B.c.at Caesar't iiutlialkin, 
he proscculed Caius Rabiriiu (4.*.) tar Ireuon; in Ihe.ume 
year, u tnbune of Ihe plet», he catned a plebiscite which in- 
liindly lecured for Caesar the digniiy ol ponllfei mtiimui 
(Dio CaidiB tiavii. 3;). He Krved a« a legilus (hnughout 
Cieur's Gallic campaigns and look Caoar'i pbce whenever he 
went la Rome, Hb duef eipk>ltt In Gaul vren the <le[uT of 
Ihs Ti^virJ under Induiknnaru! in J4. hit expediiKin agiinsi 
Luleila (Pari*! in ji, and his victory over Camulogcnui and ihc 
Aedui in the same year. On Ihe outbreak of the civil wir. 
however, he wai one of the Gist to dewrt Caeur, pmbibly owing 
10 an overweening sense of his own importance, not adequately 
retogni«d by Caeaar. He w»» 

e hioughi n. 

had been under Carsar. From the defeat at Fharsilus, to which 
he had contributed by a Heeling (o dapise ha lite conndn, 
he Red to Coreyta,lnd thence la Africa. There ht was able by 
mere force of numben to inflict ■ slight check upon Caesar al 
Rospina In 4S, After the defeat at Thspsui he joined the younger 
Ponpey in Spain, and wis killed at Munda (March I71h,4j). 

UBUCH&, UriQI (i794~iSsS), Fnnco-lllllan singer, wu 
bom at Nai^eson the (Sth of December 1 iqa, t he son' of a merchant 
of MatieiDcs who had marticd an Irish lady. In iSa6 he entered 
the Conservaloiio dellx Plela de Turrhini, where he studied 
moHC under Genl^i and singing under Valeti, betidts learning 
to play the vlotla and violoncella. At a boy he had a beautiful 
alio voice, and by the age of twenty he had developed a mignifi' 

a with a 
e the b 

It Kaptn he went to Milan i 

. Aft< 

10 Turin 

and Vieni 

s Iroi 

{ hli Gnt appearance 
Si 7, and subaRtuently travelled 
His fint appcirvxcs ra London 
enKUcncnts in both the Enldith 
risbuig a few yean 

and French capiCiIs. Hburccptii 
later was no leu enlhnilaatic. In EnglMid he look . 
provincfal musical feslivala, and «■> engaged by Queen Victoria 
to teach her singing. On the opetalic stage be wu equally 
aucccssfui hi comic 01 tragic pails, and wiifa bis wonderfully 
powerful voice be could eq^ress either bumour or piihos. Arnong 
Us friends were Rosjini, Bellini, DotUieiii and Mcicadinte, 
He was one of the Ihlriy-two loich-bcartrs chosen to surround 
the coffin al Beelhoven's funeral in 1JJ7. He died al Naples 
on tbe >ird of January jS^A and waa buried at Maiaoa Lafille, 
Paris. LibUcbc'i Leporella in Don Giovanni was perhaps hit 
tnost fotnaus impcrnnation; among his prindpa! oihcr ifilts 
were Dandini in Ccnirenlala (Rossini), Aisur in Smiramidi 
a La Gaaa Ladra (Rssini}, Heniy Vtll. 

1 BtAoia (Don 


^ Doge 

> Fdia 

(DoniiEtli), the litle^raie In Dm Pasguali (Donizelli), Cei 

in It Uatrimmio Stt"" (Cimarosi), Gritienho in £'£l»0e tu 
Herd (Meyerbeer), CaUban in Tkt Ttmpcsl (Kulfvy). 

LABOR DAT, in the United Sutes, 1 legal holiday in nearly 
all of Ibe Blalea and Tenitoiis, where the first Monday in 
£epl£inber Is observed by parades and meeting <ji labour 
oiganiuCioni. In iSftv the Rnights of Labor paraded in New 
Voik aiy on this day; In 1SS4 another parade wat held, and it 
was decided that llda day should be Kl apail for this purpose. 
In 1887 Colorado inade tbe &rsi MtHiday in September a legal 
holiday; uid in igog Labor Day «ai observed at a bolidiy 
throughout Ibe United Sutes, exrtpl in Aiisoai and North 
Dakou; ia LouMun It is a holiday only in New Oikani 
(Otieini palish), and in Maryland, Wyoming and Nev Meiico 
it i» Dot eitaUisted aa a holiday by (latulc, but ia Mch may 
be proclaimed ai sucb in any year by lire govtraor. 
. L* BODRBOOLB, a watering-place of central France, in 
the departmtnt of Puy-dc-DAme, 4) m. W. by N. of U«>nl-I]ore 

by road. Pop. {i«o4) 1401. La Bonrfaoute is illuated on tfc* 
light bank ol tbe Dordogne at a heigfat of 3790 fc Its wacen, 
of which anenic ia tbe chanclefiltlc constirueol, are (Bed in 
cases of dtseaio of ihe skin and irapltatory organs. iheumulsB, 
neuralgia, Ice Though known to the Komani Ihty wen, not 
In much repute till lowaids the end of tbe i^tb century. The 
town hai three ihtrmal etiablithments and a casino. 

LABOUR CHURCH. THB, an otganintion blended to give 
eiprcBioB to the religion of tbe labour moveOHt. Thta 
rehgion is not Iheokigkal— it leaves Iheoloticil queitioiB to 
private individual convietian— but " seeks the realiialloD of 
universal well-being by the atabUshmenl of Sadalisoi — ■ 
commonwealth founded upon justice and love." It anerts thit 
" improvement of social tsndilions and (he development of 
personit character are both nsntlal to emancipaliaa from 
social and moral bondage, and to Chat end insist! upon the duly 
al studying (he economic and moral terces of society." Tha 
fint Labour Church was founded at Manchester (Engtand) 
In October iSqi by a Uniuriao minister, John Trevor. Thia 
has disappeared, hui vigorous luccesson have been Btablished 
not only in Ihe neighbourhood, bitl in Bradford, Biimini^m, 
Nmiingham, London, Wolverhampton and other Dtncnt ol 
industry, about ]o in ill, with a membership of 3000. Huiy 
branches of ihe Indepenient Libour Pirty ^d the Sodil 
Democntiic Fedeiiiion lUo hdd Sunday gilherings for adulU . 
and (hUren, using ihe Labour Church hymn-book and a similu 
farm of service. Ihe reading being cbotcn fn>m Dr Stanton Coll'i 
Miuaie aj Uan. There art special fnms for cbild-namiiig, 
nuniages and buriab. The separate churches an federated 
in a Labour Church Union, which holds aa annual tonlncDce 
and busineu meeting in March. At Ihe conference of igo), 
held in Ashion-under-Lyne, the name "Labour Churili" wn 
Changed to" Socialhl Church." 

DE (i6o9-i75]l, FiDich naval commandei, wis bom at Salm 
Malo on tbe nth of February 169Q. He went to sea when a 
boy, and in 1718 entiied the service of the French India Company 
■s 1 lieutenant. In 1714 he was promoted captain, and displayed 
such Inavery in Ihe capture of Maht ol Ibe Malabar coast Ifaii 
ihe name of the town wu added id his own. For tira yean 
he WIS in the RTvice of the Portuguese viCeny of Goa, but in 
I7J5 he returned to French tervice a> governor oi the He da 
France and ihe lie de Bourbon. His Eve yeais' idminisiritfoa 
of the islands- wis vlgoioui and ■ucccsslul. A visit to Fiuee 
in i7«o was iniempted by the ooibieak of hostUilies with Great 
Britain, and La Banidonnais was put il Che head of a fleet in 
Indian waten. He saved Mab^, relieved General Dupleix at 
Pondichany, defented Lord Peyton, and in 1746 participated 
ia the slete of Madias. He quandled with Dupleii dvh the 
condvcc of ifliin In India, and his anger wu fncreaied on his 
letuin to Che tie de France at finding a successor 10 himself 
Installed tbeie by his rivaL He set sail on a Dutch vetiel to 
present hi| case al coun, and was captured by the Siiiiah, 
but allowed to return to France on parale. losl^ of Kcuring 
a aecilement ol his i]uaml with Dupleia. he was anesied (174S) 
on a chuige of gubcnutorial pecidatkui and maladministrailoci, 
aiu) secretly imprBoned for over two years in Che BaatlUe. 
He wu tried in its' and acquitted, but bis health was 
broken by the imprisonmeni and by chagrin at tbe Iocs of 
his piopoty. To the last be made unjust accusatiops againat 
Dupleix. Be died at Faiil on ihe lolh tt November 17J5. 
The French government gave hb midow ■ poniioD cf 3400 
Uvies. ' 

La. Botrrdonnaii vnte Trailt iti k mtlurt da saiaiiuai 
(Paris i7>j). and left valuable memoirs which were published 
by his grandson, a cdebtalM chess player, Count L. C. Maht 
de la Bourdonnais (i7gj-iE[4s] (lalrst edition, Paris, iSgo). 
His quarrel with Duplcii has ^vcn rise to much debitei lor 
a long while Ihe bull was generally kid to tbe itrogance and 
jealousy of Dupleii, but W. Cartwright end ColotM] Malleson 
have polmed out Cbal La BDUfdouais wu pnwd, uopIdinA 

b, Google 


Stt P. dt CenriB. lOwuitw tear 

la fUtii juttifala€i [Vir,y lllfiU TklCoHtf lUt Ui Bnriai- 
uu. in B Luur la a frini (Londoii. irtt): Fantin dn Odoirdi. 
Ktw^wMamdrnnJ,IPuit.tT9i); Colin ib Bar, WHnn 4( r/iuf* 
..^j__ rf _J..w (pBifc 1I14J1 BucbHi da Pttiaitt, Hinrirt 
• • ' -MlilimttnM^Mttuul'lnitVeua, 
■ Fnnu ct dc B<wbM MuileicHiviine- 

.... __. . . La JJnui ■wiMiiin* loiMJato (1861I; 

•V. Canwrifhl, " Dupldi H rinde (ranfuK." in IaRhh tnJDnii^ 
(rUi): G. B. MilEui. i>**Ux (OilonI, i«vs)i Awndaniin 
hUai. Ut rnitttit i*ia ruHTDutliix tt LottMrJamuit, omSi 
rf» JMinta/ j'^iH>iigrgs-tii»^aiiIU irj#-l74J. liani. in French by 
Vinioc in EinU ipttlait iti lennti niaUUi mama, ttia 3. 
nt. w. (f*ri^ 1894)- 

UBOQH EXCBARBI, ■ term vny fiequtntly applied to 
nutria h»viog for ihtJr principal object the better tlatribiiiion 
of Ubour («e Unehplovuewt). Hisigrially thetfimiiapplied 
10 the tyiKm of tquiiible labour eiehanjn tstablishej [n 
EngUad beiwccn 1S31 and iSm by Robert Owen and hi< 
(olloweis. The idea a uid 10 have originiled with Jodab Warren, 
tiba commuRicaled it to Owen. Wtiren Uicd ui eiperiment in 
1S18 at Cindiinall, opening an eichsngt under the title of > 
e." Me Joined In dattiog another il Tuscarawi 


and a third at Mou 

: Vernon. Indiac 

:e on the lame line ai the Engliih eicbanfes. The fonda- 
menial idea of the English eichatigea wal to establish a currency 
based upon labour; Owen in Tkl Criris for June iBji laid down 
that all wealth proceeded from labour and knowledge; thai 
labour and knowledge were generally 

.0 the IF 

iloyed, E 

n the n> 

13 being w 

This new currency was represented by " bbour no 

^ipencc, this hgure being taken n tht mean beli 
o( the bett and the worst paid labour. Goods wen then to be 
eichinged for the new currency. The exchange was opened 
in eitens^ prenuHs in the Cny'ainn Road, near King's Cross, 
London, on the jnl of Septfinber rSji. For some months 
the esIahUshment net with considerable juccns. and i consider. 
able number of tcadeimen agreed 10 take Eaboui notetlD payment 
tor their soods. Al fini, an enormotB number Of deposltn was 
Buile, anKHiniIng in seventeen weeks to mS.SOI houra. But 
diflicultin soon arose fmn the lack ol sound practical valuators, 
Ud from the inability of the pnmoters 10 distinguish between 
IlKtabouToflhshighly skilled and that of Iheunskilled. Trades- 
Ben, to», were quick 10 see that the eichange might be worked 
to their advantage; they broughi unsaleable Dock from 
their shops, exchanged it for labour notes, and then picked 
Ml the best of the ulcafale articles. Consequently the labour 
notes begati to depredate; trouble alto arose with the pro- 
prietors of the premise*, and the eiperiment came to an untimely 


See F. Ftodmon 

Stitrl Om, n, I 

Ca-ofcralin, c. vilL tl^oe). 

UnVB LKOIELATIOll. Regulaikin of laboiff,' In nmc 
form 01 another, whether by custom, isyal auihoijly. tccloi- 
■itiad rates or by formal legiiliilan in the imerau of > com- 

lion. And older than all dviliution b the neceuiiy for the 
greater part of muikind lolaboor lor mainttnancc, whether freely 
or in bond*, ■beiber for ihemitlvei and ibair famOJes or (or tht 
requiteneau or nipeifluilis of others. Even while it is clear, 
however, that mawul tabour, t* (he applitaikin of rhe bodily 
form — with or without mechanical aid— lo penonal mainten- 
ance and the prodoctlOD «[ goods, tenaint the rvmnaa lot of 
the mkfority of cKlaena of the most developed modem com- 
nuoitlcc, (till there Is much itik ol conluskm il modem technical 
letiaa such u "labour," " enployer," "labour legitiaiiMi " 
*!• fndy qiplied lo caadilloni in bygant diriliiaiuns with 
■holly difleront iodiBItiil Dtganlulion and social reluionhlpa. 
•The term "labonr" (Lit. lolar) means ttrfctly any energelk: 
work, fboufh la feocnl it Implin hard work, but in iBadnii 
parhae* Ills ifwially tonSned la iBduiuial work of Che kind dona 
by the " watking.(Jaiaea.' 

enl timea in Gn^wd ibere bubeena i 
ruirent useol mrrelative term* isiplying a aodal rcltUoa- 
ihich hgiealfy dwiVId, Ibreuaple, in thcnpid pMMge 
the Master and Scfvul Act 1M7 la the EnplMcr ud 

1S7I. In tkc iBtb a 
factimr " pwed liom Us ipplicattaii u 
10 lu modem connMMion of at Icatt aome mmnaBo 01 capital, 
the eaploycr being po lonftt a imall ^wotking maalir. An 
ertii moK aigniEcut later cbwge is aeen in the eteuly develop- 
raent of > labour legislation, which anue lo a claraant wdkl 
need for the care of specially hclpleiB " protected " penoni in 
factoric* and mines, into a wider legisbilion tor Ihe promotioB 
vi general industrial health, safely and freedom for llw ttoriier 
from Inud bi makipg or carrying out wage c(Hilr*ct&. 

II, then, we can discern these aigna of Imporunl cb«ngei 
within io short a period, gnat camioa i> needed in niiidly 
reviewing long periodji ol time prior lo IhM indualtial Rvolulio^ 
which i) iiaced munly to Ihe appiicMion of nMcbankal powti 
to machinery in aid of manual labour, {nartical^ begun and 
completed wiibin the second half of Iht tSlh ccntoiy. " In 
1 740 save lor ihe fly-shuttle the loom was as It had been ^ince 
weaving had begun . . . and the law of the land waa" (under 
Ihe Act of AKHCDtiec* of 1J63) " thai wage* in each district 
ihould be aiHiMd by Justices of the Peace."* Turning back 
to siill eailier time*, Itgislaliaa— whatever its source or auiborily 
— mutt ckaily be dcvoled la aims very diflerei ' ' 
aim* in leguiating labow, when il aroae befor 
at a man depesdent on an " employer " iot Ihe 
work, had appeared, and when mign 
unknown through the serfdom of part ol ihe population and the 

In the great civiliialiow of antiquity there were great aggregm 
lions of labour which was not solely, Ihou^ Irequemly il waa 
predominanliy, slave labour; and aome ct the features of 
manufacture and mining on ■ great acale anee, producing the 
same tori of evih and indvstrial maladies known and regulated 
inoucownlinea. Some of the maladies were docribed by Pliny 
and classed as " diseases of slaves," And be gave dctcriptjoot 
of pmcesses, lor eiample in themelal trades, as belonging entiraly 
to his own day, which modem archaeologlrsl diKOverics tract 
back Ihrou^ the earliest known Aryan civitiialions lo a pre- 
historic origin in Ihe Eail, and which have never died out in 
western Eumpe, but can be Irated in a concentrated manu- 
facture with almost unchanged methods, now in France, now 
in Germany, now In England. 

Liiile would be gained in such ■ tktlch as this byaoeadeavoui 
to piece together the scattered and scanty materials for ■ «Hn- 
paralive history of ihe varying conditions and methods of ItUtur 
regulation over to enorqious a range. While our knowledge 
conlinualiy incteuei of the remain! of ancient craft, skill aad 
maSHd labcmr, much has yet id be discovered that may Ihii>w 
light on methods of organizaiioa of the Libouten. While much, 
the labour was compulioiy 

nuch less 

, , tmids of Egypt. 
earliest Egypiian pcoducti in metal 
wora, weaving ano oiner skilled crafl work, were typical 
products of slave labour. Even in Rome it was only at timet 
that the proportion of slaves valued as property was gretler 
than that of hired worken. or, apart fnnn capture In war or 
tell surrender in discharge of a debt, that purchase of slaves 
by the trader, manulacimer or agriculturist was generally 
considered the cheapest meant of lecuring labour. At in early 
England the vanoui stagei of village industrial life, medieval 
town manufacliue, and oiganiuliiHi in craft gjLdt, and the 
beginnings of Ihe mercantile tyslcm. wert panVcl with a grtaiet 
or lets prevalence of strfdam and even with tht preieiue in 
pan of slavery, to In other ag>a and dviliiationa the various 
methods of ocganlralion of labour arc found lo some eiUnl 
logethtr. The Germans in their primitive atiilcmenu were 
anutlomed lo the notion of slavery, and in the decline of the 
< H. D. TrailL&rU Engfg^. v. Sot (189^. 


BoDU Empire Komu aplivcs [mn UDong (he moil UMful 
crafuven were cvried ivny by thdr Doxthen couqueron. 

Tbe UMoiy md pment deUili of tbe libnic Um oE virioui 
couQUki tre deaEt vlih bdow In luomive Kctioni: (i) history 
of k^iklioD Id the Dniled Kingdom; (>) the nwdu u ihewn 
by Ibc U« En fom in igog. with (lie comqxMidlDg [icti for 
(j1 ContinRitil Eun^a ud (4) tb* United Sutc*. Under other 
headiagi (Tura-UinoHa, Stukm uo Loci-Otn*, Aum*- 
TioH UB CoHcnJAitoif, Ac, Ac.) ire min)> delnU* oa cdfute 

I. HisToiv IM Tu* Unhid Xihcmiii 
I. Umii lit Clan ef Ot 15U Cali^jr-^X Ibc miin condition] 
of loduitrwl Ubenr in eariy Anglo-Slloa England dMaill ue 
KUty. MoDutlc JBdnitriil comraiinilia ivere added in 
Chrktian timet to village industrial communitlca. White 
genetally hubandry *Bi the fitit object of toil, and developed 
under dibonte regulalioa in tbe manorial lystem, itUI 1 <on- 
•idenble nriety of induHrieJ gnu up, tbe aim beinfaprfuly 10 
nuke each lodi] group leU-suffidng. and to protect and legulile 
village utiuiB in the inteieft dE village reaourcd. Tbit pro- 
tective lyilem, restiog on a communal or cooperative view of 
labour and social liEe, haa E>een compared al analogous to the 
much later and wider syatera uiKla which the main purpose 
was to keep En^and as a whole seU-auSciBg.' It baa also been 
ihown how greatly * fresh ^irii of enleiprise in industry and 
trade was stimulated first by the Danish and neit by the Norman 
invasion; tbe (omtcr brought in a vigour ibown in growth of 
Villages, increase in number of firemen, and f omuttlon of trading 
(owni; the latter espedatly opened up new communications 
wiih the most dvfliied continental people, and was followed 
by a (onsidenUc immigration of artisans, patliculaily of 
Flemingi. In Saion England slavery in the strictest sense 
eaisted, as is ihown fn the earliest Elfish laws, but it teems 
(bat the true slave class as distinct from the self class-was tom- 
paralively amall. and it may wdl be that the labour oE an 
ordinary serf wai not praclicilly more tevere, and the remunera- 
tion in maintenance and kind not much ksa than that of agri- 
cultural labourers in recent times. Ih spite of the steady 
protest of the Oiurch, slavery <ii the nceplJon, not the general 
rule) did not die out lor many centuries, and was apt to be 
revived as a punishment for criminals. e.|, in the fierce prmHtion* 
ol tbe statute of Edward VI. against beggars, not repealed 
nnljl is^j. At no time, however, wasitgeneral, and as the larger 
village and city pi^ulilions grew the ratio of serfs and slaves 
to tbfe freemen In the whole population rapidly diminished, 
(or the city populations " bad not the habit and use of slavery," 
and while aerft might sometimes Gnd a refuge in the diia from 
(sceptionally severe taskmasters, " there a DO doubt thai free- 
men gradually united witb them nnder tbe lord's protection, 
that strangen engaged in trade sojourned among them, and thai 
a race of artlsaiu gradually grew up in wlii^ original class 
leeHngs were great^ modified." From these conditions grew two 
psraD^ tendencies in regulation of labour. Oh the one hand 
there was, under royal charters, the burgh or municipal organiia- 
tion and contnd of artisan and craft labour, passing later mto 
the more specialized organization in craft gilds; on the other 

diminution In tbe numbers available for husbandry or agricul- 
tuial labour. To the latter cause must be traced a pravlsien 
appearing bi ■ succession o( statutes (see esfieaaBy an act of 
Richard 11., t jEt), that a chUd under twelve yeara once employed 
te agrfculture mig^t never be transferred to apprenticeship In a 
cra^, The steady development of England, Erst as a wool- 
growing, hiter as a doth^nodudng country, would accentuate 
this dJflkully. During the rjlh century, side by aide with de- 
TClopmenl oF trading compam*es for the aport of wad En>m 
En^aad, may be noted many agimnoltB on tbe pan of raonas- 
lerfes to sell their wool to Florentin<», and during the same 
century absorption of alien artisaoi into tbe munitipal system 
was practically completed. Charters tt Henry 1. provided Eor 
■W. Cunainghan. Gnma ^.Saclitl Ctmmttt ■■' /isAufrT- 


natutaliiation of tbcK ah'ens. From the time of Edward I. 
Edward m. a gradual transference ol buigb cu>I«nt, to lac 
fecogniaed for the common good, to statute taw was in pn>> 
gnsa, together with an asaertlon of the rl^tt of tbe crown a(dnM 
ecclesiastical orders. "The ttatules i^ Edward L," says Dr. 
igham, " mark the first attempt to deal wilh Industry 
and Tiade u a public uuttci wliich conceens the whole state, 
the puticular aHair ol leading men in cuh sipaiate 
locality." The t5rst dh'ect legislalioD for libooi by statute, 
however, la not earlier than the twenty-third year of the 
reign of Edward III,, and it arose in an attempt to ocotrol the 
decay and ruin, both in rural and urban diatriels, which laDowed 
the Hundred Yean' War, and the pestilence known as the Black 
Death. This first " Suiule of Laboureia " waa designed Jot the 
beoefil ot the community, not lor the proiection of labour or 
^ the policy of enforcing customary 
wages and compelling tbe able-bodJEd labourer, whether free or 
bond, not living in mercbindiie or execdting any craft, to work 
lor hire at (ecogniaed rales o( pay, mutt be reviewed in tbe 
drcunuiances aud ideals of the time. Kegulation generally in 
the middle ages aimed at preventing any hidlvidual or section 
of the conxmunity from making what was oonsidered an tKrp' 
tlonil profit through tbe necessity of olhen.' The scarcity cd 
labour by the reduction oE the populaLion through pealileDcs 
iS not admitted as a justilicalion for the demands for increased 
y, and while the unemployed labourer was liable Lo be com- 
ited 10 gaol if he refuted service at current rales, the lordi id 
: towns or manors who pmnised or paid more to their scrvania 
ire liable to be sued treble the turn in question. Similar 
itriclions were made appIicaUe to altificers and workmen. 
By another atatute, two yeara later, laboureia or aitifiuts who 
' ' ' * work and went into another county were liable to 
i by the thoill and brought back. These and similar 
provisions with similar aims were confirmed by sLatutea ol 
ijSo, ij6$ and ijSS, but the act of ij6o, while prohibiting 
" all alliances and covins of masons, carpenters, congregations, 
chapters, ordinances and oalbs betwiat them made," allowed 
"every lord to bargain or covenant for tbcir works b) gnas 
with sucb labourers and artificers when it picaseth them, so 
that they perloim such works well and lawfully according to Iba 
haigaia and covenant with them thereof made." Powcra weit 
ivea by the acts of rjU and ijSS to Justices 10 determiim 
utters under these statutes and to fijt wages. Records show 
bat workmen of various descriptions were pressed hy writs 
ddtcssed to sheriffs to work for their king al wages regardtcm 
I their wilt at to terms and place of work. Tlete proceedings 
rere Eoinded on notions of royal prerofative, of which impren* 
sent of teamen survived at an example to a far later date. By 
B act oE ijSS no servant ot labourer, man or woman, however, 
could depart out of the hundred to serve elsewhere unless hearing 
a letter patent under the king's seal tiatmg the cause oE going 
and time of ntnm. Sucb provisions would appear lo have 
widely failed in thdr purpose, Ear an act ot 1414 detjarta that 
the tcivaats and labourers fied from county lo county, and 
Justicet were empowered to send wnis to (he sherifis for fugitive 
labourers aa for fekms, and to examine labourtn, servanlt and 
their nusteit, ai mil u iitificers, and to punish ihim on coi< 
An Id of 1409. wbik putting a pnperty qnafifia tion <n 
tsUp and Rquiring paienta under ha*y penalties ID 
put tbelr childiBi U auch labour aa their cilatet leqikirH!, made 
a lesetvMioa giving frecdon lo any person " to tend their 
childivntaMbooltoIevnlittfsluce.'' Up to tbe end of the ijlh 
eeotury a nooolonoat aucixtaion of statutes slrtngthening, 
iBodifyfnff, "«— 4't the variooa ntteBq>ts (since the fint 
Statut* o( I^bouma) to limH &ee movement of labour, or 
desaandl bT hbovters for iocrtned wage*, may be Ken In tbe 
(cU of 1411, 1417, 1444, 140S. It was dearly (otmd eitmndy 
diBcnlt, if DDL impeaclicaUe, to cany out the minute conUol 
of wageacoiuidereddeaLtable,aibdeicepliont in favour of certain 
occupations were in aone of tbe tiatults themselves. In isn 
the penaltiB for giving wages contrary to law wtn repealed so 
*"■ ~ ■ ■ - ■ - - -^ Cimmira ami Iniu^. 


bt ftB idatcd tomutols but Sl&ba tppon tbil Londoa wo4- 
nen vduld not adare the premfent lotrictloiv u to wmget, 
aod that th^ secured in prutice ■ greaTer fncdoni to mmnge 
iftte* when inirkiDg villiiii the d(y. Sevcrml of theie itatute*, 
■nd tiftdaliy oat of 1514, fixed the boun ol Ubour iriien 
liittitiBg wife& During Mareh to ScpleinbeT Uie Imiiti mere 
J iLH. to 7 (■ S UL, vilh htii u boui oS for bnakCut end u 
bout (nd ft hilt ofi (oi midda]' dinner. In winter the oulnd* 
bnits were tied by the-knglh oi diyligkl. 

Throughout (he ijth century the npidly iucreulDf PXUU' 
ficture of cioth wi5 sibject to a reguiitkin which lirojed it 
ndard o[ pisduciloD ind preventioD of bid 
Lhe natemnhy (Ulitie 4 Edwin) IV. c, >, 
while ffving power Eo myil oSctn Id ii;pemic liie of cloihi, 
modes of Kiliiig, in^, *lio reproaed piymcut la worken In 
" pins, gitdln lud unprufitible wits." ind oidiined piymcnt 
in true ond liwful mencx- THb ititule (Ihc Gnt igilnit 

dolhicn — or, ■* we ihould cill them, whottiile mnchinti ind 
minufictuRT) — ddivind wool to ipinncn, cuden, (tc, by 
■eight, Mid paid (or Ibe wvik when breughi btdf finlihtd. 
It ippem thit the work wu cuiied on in ninl u well u town 
diitricti. While tbit induitty vu growing Ud thriving other 
tfidc* remiiaed bickwird, ind igiicultuK wu in i dtprsicd 
conditiOD. Cnft gilds bad primarily the mne putpoM u the 
Edwnrdinn ititula. thu ii, of Kcuring (bit the public ihould 
be well HTVed with good win*, ind that the trade ind nunu- 
fictun itietf dieuld be on iMnnd buiju 10 quility al pioducu 
and iboBld BsurUi. InddentiUy there wu considemble rcguU- 
tioD by tbc gildi of the condition) ol libDur, but nat primirily 
is the intercR) o[ the libount, Thui night woili wu piohibliFd 
btcauH It leoded to KCtecy uid k> to bid eiecuiion of worlE; 
working on hoUdiyi wu probiblied (0 aecure fiir pliy between 
cnftsmcn ind 10 on. lie poiition of ipprentica wu nude 
deal thmu^ indentures, bnt tbe poilLlon of toumeynen wis 
kacntiin. Sigiu ire not wuttng of a Oiug^ between joumey- 
BKD md muten, ud toward* Ibe end of tbe ijlh century 
mailen Ibenaelvei, in it lent the great wool tnde, tended to 
develop ftom criftnnen into lomethinf more lihe Eite nuHJem 
opititiit enplayer; from in ict of 15;; tourliing wiaven 
K il quite eleiT thit this development had greatly idvinced 
and that doth-nuking wu curied 00 lirgely by employen 
with laige c^Iili. Before thii, however, while a itnig^e 
•enl on between tbe town anihorilin and the oift glldi, Journey- 
nea began U lonn companiei of Iheir own, and the rsult o( 
tbe Tuloia conflleti maybe Km inu icl ol Heniy VI., providing 
■bit in fnture new onUnincei of gildt ihiil be lubmitled la 
tiMkea Of the peacv--« meKun which wu itNngtbaed in 

1. Frtm Twiti Dayt ma On OoM tf Hu itik CtmHiry~A 
detailed UNVty of Uheor tegiditioa In tbe lith cenlisy would 
indvde tooM ueotint of tbe TMoc law* apinU nrngrancy and 
metbodi of dealing with the Incteue of peupertui, illtfliutihit, 
al lent In put, to the dliKJntion of the monuterict undet 
Henry VIII., and to Ibe coafticatlon ol cnft giM fundi, wbkh 
pnteeded under Soaienet tad Edwatd VI. It !> raflSdent hen 
to point to the (tnenl reeognitioD si the public right to oonpel 
kbotu'eti to work and thui lecnre control of nnemfrioyed ai 
wen u employed. TbettitulMcf Henry Vm. and Edmrd VI, 
a^but vagnncy differed rather Ita degree of leverity thin in 
prmdirie fmn kglifaUIon lor dmHai purpcau in prevloai and 
uheeqncnt reigfu. The Statute of Lahouren, paned in tbe 
Hth year of Eliiebclb "i tdgn (i )Si). u well u Ibe poor Uw id 
the lUK year, wu to ■ conriderable 
and an UDending code of Uw, and wu 10 wcmdy 
^>inlao and deqily tooled cuftooi that It wu 
force for two cntarin. It avowedly ipftrovu oi pmapN* 
■nd aiOi tai earlier acti, regotMlng wtgti, punkhlng icftMl 
to work, and preventing iTee migralloci of hboiir. It make*, 
however, a great advance In lu npteta aim ol pntectlng tbe 
poor labonrer igiinit imufficim wign. and ot devWng ■ 


"uBio the hired pmoa both in time irf icardly and [n t&u of 
plenty i connnleol proportion of wigca." Hinnte regulatjou 
wen nude govtming tin coDiract between muter and aervul, 
apd their mutual tighti and oUigatfou on puiUcl linei fol 
(a) anifictn, (t) libonren in hmhindiy. Hiring wu In be by 
Ibe year, and any unemployed penoo qualified m either caUing 
waa hound to ictept service on piin of Imprisonment, U 
required, unleu poKucd of property of ■ specified amount 
ot engaged in art, science or Jetten, or being a " genllenun," 
Fenou leaving a letvice were bound lo obtain i teUinumlil, 
and might not be taken Into freah employment withcut produc* 
ing tuch teitlnionial, or, If in i new diurict. unlH after iliawing 
it 10 the Butborities of lhe place. A muter mi^ be fined £5, 
and a labourer imprisoned, and if contumadoui, whipped, for 
breach ol thii rule. The nrefuUy devised Kbeme for lecfaalca{ 
Inining ol ii^trenikei embodied 10 i comiderable extent the 
nKthodi ind e^Mriencei ol the cnft gildt. Houn oi llhouf 
were as f<dlowi: '^AU inificera lod labourer* being hired for 
wages by the day or week ihill, betwtit Ibe midst of tbe moDlht 
ol March and September, he and tonlinue It Iheir walk ■( or 

depart until belwiil 7 and B o'clock at night, eicept It be in 
the time of breakful, dinner or drinking, tbe which lime it 
... diy, Ibit il 

ig hili II 

r, lor his < 

when he ii showed to sleep, tbe which is (mm 
y 10 Ibe midst of August, hiif in hour; and «ll 
1 ind Iibourers betwiit the midst ol Seplembet 

ImiD the spring of 
same doy, einpl 
iitd dinner, upon \ 
hour's absence, 10 be dedi 

lil the e 

Lt Iheir 

Although the sludpolnl of the Victory 
Act ind Truck Act in lorce it the beginning of tbe 10th ccnlury 
u regards hour) of labour or irguUtion ol fines deducted from 
wagn il completely Rvetaed, yet the diSenncc it not great 
between the avenge length of houn of labour permiiiible under 
the pteaent hw for women ind those boun imposed upon lhe 
advit labourti in Ellxibeth 'a tutule. Apart from the ilind- 
point of compulsory tmpoeithin of fines, one advintage in Ibe 
definitenai of mount deduclable from wagei would arfeiT 
to lie on the side of the earlier stitute. 

Three points remiln lo be toiicbed 00 in conseiiaa with the 
Elinbethan poor liw. In iddilion to (e) convriidation of 
mensura for acttlng vignnts to work, wt find the fittt con- 
pvbory contributions from the well-to-do towairdi poor rdief 
there pmvided for, (I) it least a ttworMical recogulttoi] al k 
right u wdl as in oMIgatioB on tbe part of tbe labourer to be 
Ured, (e) careful pioviskni for tbc apprentidDg of dcttituM 
children and orphus lo ■ trade. 

one piovfelon of consMnaUe inletert imee In Scotland, 
which wu nearly a Centmy liler In orginidng proviatena lor 
filing condltloni of hire and wages o( woiimen, liboutm ind 
lemnti, ihnDar to tboae consoKdated In Ibe Ellubethan 
Statute of Labourm. In lfii7 it wu provided (ind reofflmied 
iB 1661) that power should be given to tbe sheriSs lo cofnpd 
piynent of wigea, " ihit aervmli may be the noit witling to 
obeylbeofdinance." The dDEcnllies in regulation ol compnlsoir 
hbouT in Sootland must, however, have been great, for Id iC7a 
homes ol correciion were erected lor disobedient aervuts, uid 
masten of these houses wen empowered to force Ibcm to woric 
and (0 correct tbem accMding to their demerits. While eerwnts 
in minulaeture weracompj" 
they mi^ not cntv on ■ 

' Such lasiilitloD oMtliiMd, m 

untn tbo amkadBg ethcted by tbe btgtauibq of the InduMrial 

itvduUoB— that ii, antB Ibe combfiwd.eSncls of iteady ci~' 

centnlion of capllil In tbe hud* ol emptopen ind a 

of tnde, followed daady ^ « 


CaaiMdy tluni lltt lice ot iDdiuUfil Eogbnd. Fnsi time 
W time. In mpcct of ptnicutu Imds, fuaviuani. igunu 
inck (lid loc piynKDt ol «■«• ■■> cumot coin, ainuUi lo the 
act oi Edmid IV. ia ihe waaUm iaduuiy, wcic lound neccuiiy, 
ud thii bnncb of Ubour lcgijli(ian dcvclDped iliraugh ihc 
iciSiu of Aane 4nd the lour Ctorga udIU toiuolkUtioD ud 
imcndiKDt were cStclot, ttla Ihe camptctuiD of the indiutiid 
nvolulion, in ihe Truck Act ot iSji. FroRi ibc close of the 
171b century and durintf the 18th ceoLujy die lepilatuR i* 
no Vmaa mainly engiged ia deviling means for compeUing 
labouren and artiaani to enter Into involunlaiy servkff, but 
ratber in reflating the lummaiy paveji of juslicel of ihe peace 

(o cantracts and agFtemenls, ^pns or implied, prcaumed to 
have been entered into voluntarily on, both tidei. While the 
movement to refer labour queslioni lo the jurisdiction of the 
Jiutkes thiu gradually developed, the main lubject matter (or 
their exercise of jurisdiction in regard to labour also changed, 
even when theoretically for a time Ihe two sets of powers — such 

wra-JUTi refusing hire, or {b) fixing scales ot wages and enforce- 
sent ol labour con liictt— might be concurrently eiercised. 
Even in an act ot Gcotve IL C1746) tor Kltienienl ol disputes 
and differencn as to waget ot other conditions under a contract 
at Ubour, power wu RUiued tot Ihe justicn, w complainl of 
Ihe tnasten of misdemeanour or iU-bchaviour on Ihe part of 
the servant, lo discharge Ihe iatlet fioia service or to send him 
Id a house of carreclion " there to be corrected," thai i>, lo be 
hrid to hud labour lot a term not eiceeding a monib or lo be 
comcled by whipping. In an act with similar aims ol Ceorft 
IV. (iS)]}, with a ralherwider scope, the power loorder corporal 
puniihaent, and In 1867 to hard labour, (or breach of labour 
conlract* had disappeared, and soon after the middle of ihe 
IVth century the right lo enloiie contracts of labour also dis- 
appeared. Then breach ot luch Ubour contracts became 
■imply a question of recovery of damages, tinlcas both parties 
agreed IhM Mcurily for pei^rmancc ol the contracl shall be 
(ivcB inaleMt of damagics. 

While the tDdeaveui to enloice Ubour apirt trwn a contract 
died out in the latter end of the iSth ceniuiy. sentiment for 
■one time had strongly grown in favour of dcvelaping early 
industrial training of children. II appears lo have been a special 
object of charitable and phiUulbropic endeavour in the 17th 
century, as well aa the ifith. to found houses of indusliy, in 
which little children, even under hye yeara ot age, mi^l be 
trained fnr t^>preniiceahip with employers- Connected aa this 
devd<H>ment was with poor relief, one of ila chief aims was to 
prevent future unemployment and vagrancy by training in 
habits and knowledge ot indusliy, but not unavowed was 
another motive: ^'trom'childrcn thus trained up to constant 



Ubour we may 

mcnl gave the &nt impulse 
IcgisUtion which an specially 

"• Uyenf 

1 price. 

[k of the i9ih ceniurj. 
Knoent as 11 is " mat Ulore me Industrial Revolution very 
young children were lately employed both in their own hoino 
and aa apfneolicea itnder ijie Poor Law,'' and that " long before 
feel'a time there were tnisgivinga about the apprenticesh^ 
lyitem," Mill il iteeded the oonceDtiation and prominence of 
HiSering and Injury to child life ia Ihe iacloiy ayatem to lead 
to parliamentary interveniiaa. 

J, Frem iSoo In llu Caitt sj iljji bbJ 1I7S.—K senoua out- 
break of lever in 1 7S4 in GOtlon milk near Manchester appean 
to have £r*l drawn widespread and influential public opinioB 
)o Ihe overwork of children, under terribly dangemus and 
insaoiury condiiions, on which the faciory ayatem wai then 
bfgtly beinc Onicd on. A local inquiry, chieSy by a gtoup 
o( itedial mat presided over tqr Dc Fctdvil, was ioilituled 
ln> the justicta «f Iha peace for Laacaihire, and in ihe forefront 
al the [Ctulting ntnn stood ■ rtconunendalioa lor limitation 

ItuMiM. tV B. L, UutcUu u 

IL Harrison (iSDII. P[k & t> 

work* in which chMdm arc obliced lo wolk in tho nl^ or 
Ihan MB honia in the day." In 179; Ihe Manchaater Board ol 
Health wu formed, which, with fuller inforBalion, more 
defiailily advised le^sUiioo for the nguUiIoo ol the boura and 
conditions ot Ubour in factMies. In 180] the Health and Blonb 
at Appnntices Act was passed, which m elfett formed the first 

under ■ 

hich Urge n 

worked in totlon and woollen mdlt without education, for 
eiceuive honn, under wTctched coadilioat. Il did not aj^ly ID 
plate* employing fewer than twenty penons or three appienlices, 
and it applied the principle of limitation ot boura (to twelve a 
day) and abulilion of night work, u well as cducatioul require- 
ments, only to apprentices. Religiaus leaching and suitable 
deeping accommodation and clotbing were provided fat in the 
act, alto sa regarda apprentices. Unic-wathuig and ventilation 
provisions applied lo all cotton and wooUen factories employing 
more Ihao. iwmly persona. " Visitor» " wett to be appointed 
by couniy jutiiwa lor reisesalon of coniraveniiont, and wen 
empowered 10 " direct the adoption of such sanitary rvguUiiona 
aa ihey might on advice think proper." The milli weie to be 
registered by ibe clerk of the peace, and juiiicei bad power to 
iafljct fines of from £1 to £j lot toDtravenlienA. Although 
enforcement of Ibe very limited provistons of the aa wai in 
many case* poor or nan.eitstent, in some dialricts eicclleni 
work was done by juuiua, and in iSoj the Wesi Riding o( 
Yorkshire justtcet patted a resolution substituting Ihe ten houia' 
limit lor the twelve boun' limit of the act, ai a conditkin of 
pemuiuofl for indenturing of apprtnlicci in miUs. 

Rapiddcvclopmenlof the application of steam power lo manu- 
facure led lo growth of empUyment of children in popuknia 
centre*, otherwise than oa ibe apprenlicedtip system, and before 
long the evils attendant on this change brought the general 
(picstion of leguUiion and proteclioa of child Ubour in textile 
iacloiies to the front. The act of 181D, limited as it was, waa 
a noteworthy sicp forward, in that it deall with thii wider 
■cope of employment cA children in colton factories, and it i* 
atlisfactory lo record thai il was the outcome of the eSorU 
and practical eaperimenla of a peat manufacturer, Robert 
Owen. Ill ptovi&ions fell on every point lower than the aimn 
be put loiwird on hbown experience as practicable, anduKahly 
in ila application only 10 cot ton mills inatrad of all leitilefuitiries. 
Probibillenol child labour under nine yeaiaof age and limitalioa 
of the working day to iwdve In the twenty-four (wtihout 
•pedfying the precite hour of beghuiing and ctoalng) were ihe 
main provision* of thit act. No pmvisoo waa made for entorce- 
meni of tlie law beyond luch a* was attempted in the act of 
iSoi. Sli^l amendraenu weit atlenptcd in ihc acts d 1815 
and iSji, but ihe £rM really importtnl factory act was is tSjj 
applying to textiU factories geunilly, limiting employment 
of young peoooa onder eigbteeo yean of age, as wdload^ditn, 
prohibJling ni^t work between S.jo f.il and j.jo lil, and 
Grit piovidins tor "inqieclon " to enforce the law. This is 
the act whkh wa baaed oa the devoted elona ol hiichael 
Sadler, with wtew naaw in this coonexion that ol Lord AaUey, 
afterward* eui of ShafMbury, wa* from iSji asiociaied. 
Hie imporuace of thii act Uy in its provision for skilled iaspcc- 
lino okI Uhi* lor cnforcemenl of the Uw by an indepcodeat 
body of men unoonnecltd with the locahty In which the manu- 
factures Uy, whoae specialiaalion ia their work enabled them 
to acquire informaljon needed lor iurtber dfvclepmftat of 
Icgi^lioD for proteclioa of labour. Their pgweia were to a 
certain eitenl judicial, being ataimilaied 10 Ihoae poiaeited 
by jualice^i they could administer oaths and make such " nilt), 
rcguUlioii* aad orders " as wen necessary for execution of Ibe 
ad, and could hoar nwipUiata and impose peoalliea under the 
act. In ■8«4 K lenjle lutoiy act nradifiad thcM «Maui*c 



d added pmviiioa f« unUyisi 
luiguai to enminc mikcn under lUucn jtu* of *gc u ■» 
phyiacal Gtooi lot emphqnnent ud to grant FcitiScata ol age 
ud ordinary Mcoiclli. Hour* oS Ubouc, by ibc act of iSj], 
wm Umlted 1« cbilditn tudtf ekvak la 9 ■ day oi 48 ia the 
week, and lor yoaat puiaaa undct titf''— " to i) > day w.-^ 
b lb* wesk. Between iSoj nod iSm lb* Bovemnt In Itvoui 
o( a Un boun' day, wbkk bad ^tt bMn in ptagnm. Mccbtil 
lu hei(ht in a lime irf greal coauanall and iodiMUial diUftM' 
but could not Ik canicd into lOeel until ia41- By Ibc Kt of 
I&I4 tbe houn at adult wonra woe fint Rgulatcd, and imt 
limited (ai were alnady tboM <iC " younc penoni ") to 11 a day) 
cbildreo wan permittol diliti to work tte laoH b«ara on altei- 
aate daya or " half-time," with Bonqmlwiy adwol attendance 

tbe bsun ol tbe tbm duici of wnikeia wai.lo ptovide to I 
practical ilaodard wocking-day. For tbe fint lime dtuilad 
piaviaisna for heallb ud lalety bcgao to Make thdi appeaiancc 
in tbe law. Penal oDrnpouation for preventlble injuria due to 
udesccd marhinny wai alio piovidiid, aod appean to bave 
bcea the outcome of a ■"--■— t"~ by wilnoaia befon tbe Royal 
CommiiaioD on Labouc of Young Penooi in Mioca and Manu- 
baaret in 1S41. 

From tbii date, ia4i, begin tte Erst alteia[its at ncotective 
legiilitioa for labour ia mining. Tie fint Hinet 
fallowing tbe-ienible revelalanu o< tbe Royol 
raferrtd to excluded wometi and gida ftoni undei^ouod WMkiog, 
and limited the employmoit ol boyi, eaduding fiois qiideigimuid 
working tboae under ten yean, but it waa sot until i8jo that 
•yitemaiic icpoiting of iilal acddenta end until ilss that other 
uJeguardi ioc bealtb, Life and Umb in mina'wete witeuily 
preWded by taw. With tlw cnception ol leguhtioni igiinM 
track there wai no protection for the miner before 1841; before 
1B14 it waa not cuilomary to hold inciuettj oo mioen killed 
by acddenu in mines. Fma 1S41 onwuda conideraUt iotet- 
■ction in tlie devekipineat ol tbe two aeta ol act* (aiinn *ad 
lutHiet), as n^rda ipedal pntectlon egaLut iDduitnal inju(y 
t« ^Ith and limb, took place, both in puliament and in thi 
dqnrtment (HooM OSoc) adminlKeriag thtm. Anothc* 
nrsng influence leiiding tooatda ultimate divelopaDent ot 
)cienli£c protection of bealtb and life In indntttT bi^ in tlM 

woA and report) ol the icriea a( aanitary ■lAhiniii tad Donrd 

ol HoJth tepocta horn 1843 onwaida. In 1S44 the nunei 
inqieciot made bii fint rcpon, but two y«ait btet women wen 
Hill emcdayed to «Mne eilcDt andetgroHDi- (hsanaed inapc^ 
tioabc^in i8jo,andinits4theS*lectCHnBittNaaAcc)daBla 
tdopiid a suggcMion oi tbe '■"(""" lot iiiidallii aHamion 
of ibe practice ol aavnal taUUtf ownen in hatting qietdal 
laitly rules Ioc working in minta. Tb* act' ol 185; pnwided 

(even general rulct, [dating " .. -■ . . .> — . 

■haiti, proper mcaai lor ' 
lot tlam-boiler, iodkatDI 

raiaiog; alao it provided . . ... ., _ . . 

by mige-owDas to the secretary of tfate. ni^rt, oa Ua ap^vnl, 
have the loroc of law and be eniorcwblt by penalty. The 
Uina Act of lUo, beside* "'-"■'"■a the law to ire&ilona 
minoit foUowing as it did on a aeries of dittilRHii accidents 
and eiploiioaa, strengthenecl aoms of th« peovSakm for aaliay. 
At several inqusita nroog evidence wa* given cd incompetent 

enforcing employmecit only ol cettlicated Baoagets cd caal 
mines. This was not met nntD the act ot 1S71, but in r86o 
tirtain aed ioos idating to mgea and edncatien were introduced. 
Steady developmeat of the cnl indoitryi iacieaaing aasodatloa 
among miaen, and increased acienCiSc knowledge of neans of 
vcBtilttion and ol otkier metbotb br securing t^ety, dl paved 
the way to the Coal Uinca Act of tX/jr, and In the same yen 
bealih and siMy in meuUilenua mines received tlieir irst 
Iqiilativi [lealment In a code ol similar scope aad chateder 
lo that of tbe Co^ Minet Act. This act was amended in.iU6^ 
and repeaUd and rwsiUM in iSSi^iM.princ^ l a u v ^haa 

tiona as regards reporting of accidenl* (1906] and empkoriaenl 
ol childm CroD3). It was based on tbe recoramendatiops td a 
Rayal CojwaiiBDn, iriucb bad reported in 1U4, and which bad 
■boWD tha grave cnesa of moilaliir and lirtneai among metal- 
lilcnwa minen, attributed to tbaiabalatlon ol gdtEy portidea, 
impatfecl veatilation. graat chaaM af ttaaperuare, aneaarvt 
I aad other CBiuca TlMpror 
and o£ boys imdcr tcayCMi 
....... ta, as well aa in coal miiw^ 

had been-eCiected by the act of 1B41, and la . 
pnnded lot to Ibe act of i860: these were in ai 
included in tbe code of lija, the age of . ~ , 
undspound being raised to twdve. In the' Coal.UiBca Act 
ot iS7> we see tbo first important effort to provide a complete 
coda. <rf repilatlon fat the specU dangers to baaltb. . lite and 
limb in coal minea tpart Irom olba mines; it apfdisd la 
" mines ol doal, miaea oC atmified inaaum^ min of alale and 
minca of fie-«lay." V^kt lbs compaiian act— aivlyiag to 
all atlKi.ataaa— it maintamcd tha age limit *f cnletiag uodet- 
gtmnd cmplayment for boya at ten years, but Iv tbeae betweea 
lea and twelve it ptovided lor a ayatem of working analogmH 
to the hall-tfaae ^Btcm in tactoricB, Indoding oompaboty a^oel 
aumdance. The Itmita of cmploymcDt lot boys.ltom twelve 
to siitaen were ro boors in any one d^ and Miuanyoaawathi 
7^ duet cbaiadcfiatics of the act lay in eatenaimi of lb* 

for cattificatad and ton- 

die geeeral rakaj 
auch aa compulsory tne of salety lamf)* when needed, regulation 
of use of eqihnivea, and aecuting d mofs and aidu. Special 
mles, before being submilted to the aecrctaiy ol state fa 
tffaml, moat be posted in tin mine bx two weda, with a 
notice that objediona mi^t be sent by any peraoa employed 
to the dstrict inspector. WiUu) ne^act of saiety provisioaa 
became paaishable in Ibe caae of empfoyeis aa wdl as minm 
by koprisoament with hard labonr. But the mat important 
IKW step lay in the sections iclatiug to d^)y coolrel and super- 

of tbe bolder oS tbe certificate, and U 
cettifiCBiB ia easel of proved unClnesa. 

Kelimung to Iba devidrymnit of factory and wodtthop tan 
from tbe year 1144, Iht main line of effort — after the act ol 
tS47 bad restricted booia ot women and yonog persons to 10 
a day and find the daily Umita between 6 aji. aad 6 KM. 
(Saliuday 6 jui. to a pjs.)— 4ay in biinglrig trade alter trade 
hi Bome degree under tbe scope oltUi branch of law, wfaieb bid . 
Utberto only regulated conditions ia textila laototies. Bleaching 
and dyeing works were included by tbt actsol t66o and iHi; 
lace lecMriia by that of 1861; calenderh^ aad finishing bf 
acts of iW] and 1B64; bakehoases became partial^ rtfnktcd 
by an an ot sttj, whh q>edil talennce to local aolborillei lea 
admUttiatlan of iu daoaes. Tbe lepoit of tha third CUMieBn 
Empk^mient Commimloil brought together In acccatlble form 
the ateable tacts relating to chad Ubour in a aumber of im- 
regulaled Indaslriea in the year 1861, aad the act M 1U4 broutfrt 
soma of {these eaithenware-maUag, hNlICr matdi-maUnff, 
percumian cap and cattildge making, papec-Mahdng, and fultiaa 
cutting) pardy under tfae scope of tht varlooa tOttHe faclaiy 
acts bi force. A larger addltloa of tiwtsa waa oadt thtee yeaia 
later, but the act of 1804 Is particularly tol«c«alb« ta that It 
finl embodied some ol the icaults of laquMes ot es^lett SMdicd 
and lanitiiy eomsdahHiers, by mt^cbv vantOatlon to ba 
applied to tbe reaiOTa] of IniuiiotM gawa, dost, and atbar Ia»> 
purlliea gensated In manufaelaie, atd mad* a first attelitpt 
10 engraft part of tbe qmJal rales lyslem from the nines acta. 
l%e pr«visioBS far (racatag nich nilia disaffcaied la the Can. 
sotitbiiiH.ActvljdTS, to be mdnd ta a beuar ftam Mtr. 


The Stniluy Act al 1866, tialaMati by Jottl Mitboiiiie*, 
pravldcd for suenl unitatiDn tn any ftciofia Md •nskibopi 
not aBda abUoi (iclory acu, *sd the Wt»kifaD|M RcpiIuiaD 
/tCt of 1M7, limlUilr 10 be IdmlnlMcnd by loal ■utboritlK, 
uModad la iSto, pnctkiDy cooipkud tha ^ijdkatiaD of tin 
Bab |>JDdplt ot tb> latUKy aeti to ill fUtcm b which inaBwl 
llbonr vai t ^* H rt^ fof yht |q tju rmViny ov fiTriTM''f of 
vlidca DC pMt> of aiticba lor nk. A f«w ipMblly dU|erov> 
or Enjoriooi tmk* braught undtf icguUtioa ia 1)64 lad 1867 
(<4. cutbemrara ud India mudi miking, iluo-iDaklBS) 
Bukfd u "bctock*,'' ilibnigh not uiac aMchulcfcl pom, 
■nd foi ■ tint cmidoyiiient nt leu thin tfty pwions ickfMcd 
cortiin iraA-fdicci 10 Iba auguy ot "wnkdwpi," b«t breadly 
the pccaena cs ihOenco ot Midi motor power In lid of pniccM 
«u nudo md bu noulnod the dlKlnctioa belmen (iMotiO 
tad votkAofn. Tin FuMry Act of 1S74, tbt lut <rf the wrier 
teton tho gnit CoawUdiUng An of 1B7S, nivd the minimum 
■gi of tBploymeU lor daldisi to un yean in leitik factoriea. 
In moit of the gnat faMTuIriea into condiiiou of child laboor 
the (act bu com* ckitly to light, io legud to laiae ind 


le the total UHnnt of wigca payable to tbeo; (r) 
Df tbe act to Uundriai (/) 1 tentative eHott to limit 
the too eiiiy employment of nothui iftci ehUdbinh, 

eertlficatci of age, and In iSjjputnUalidiildoi 

hivlsi any beneSl fnm the mgca of luch child 

to (bare napondrility for employ mesC ol diildien nilbout ichaal 

itMadance oc beyond k^ houn, 

Dtning tbe diKOiiani on the biD which became law In 1874, 
It bid benoM iq^aient that leviuon and conoolidaiiaB ol the 
midtlpUcily ol atatutei then resutaling muufif luring Indinlcy 
had becDDie prcsmgly necoHTy; modi&axiau and cxccpttona 
"a lepaote induitiicj neolal to- 
on on cleat ptindplB, and ths 
could with gral idvanuge be 
ipiMiad mote genenlly to all the indintiia. Is pullcular, 
the daQy limits 11 Io period of eoploymail. piuMS for mcali, 
and holiday*, needed ta be nni&ed toe non-lcitile biclorics and 
wnkihopa, » al to bring about a itandahl working-day, md 
tlnH prevent the ttodeacy ia "the iaigs eatabliihrnenti to 
fum out wDik anwDg the itnallH, where it ii done under loi 
fivounble condilioni both aanilsry and educational. " ■ la 
tbcai nuin directiona, and thai of aiiq^ying dcfinitiom, lum- 
marinng ^Miil lanituy pnvisoni that had been gndually 
intioduced for varioui Indci, ind centnliiing and improving 
tbe atglBiialion of the impactorate, the Commiwon of iSjfi 
on the Fictoty Acts made il> recowmendatiom, and Ihc Factory 
Act of 1878 twA eHect. In the Gied working-day, ptoviiioni 
fn paiiact, holidiys, general and apedal cuxptiona, diatiocliou 
between lystenii of empkiytnent for childicn, young penoni 
and women, education of chtldren and certificaiea of filneu for 
children aod young penona, limited regulation of domeUic 
workitwpa, genenl princjpla of idmiimiraiion and debnilioni, 
the law td 1S7B wai mide practically the lune u ihit embodied 
in the klat piiodpil act of ii)ai. Hon or leu completely reviaed 
an; (a) the lectioni la the i8}8 act rdiling tn mode of contral- 
Uag •anllaly conditioDi io workihopi (tiSce iflgi primarily 
cnlotced by tbe lootl latdtaiy authority); (i) provUon for 
nportint icddeot* and for enfotdDg lafely (other than fencing 
ti mill gearing and dangeraoi mictaiDay); (e) deuiled tcgula- 
lioa eS in}nriotti aod diagema pmetm lod iradaj (A powei* 
id cortifylng nrfnoni; (r) amount ot ovcttime penniMiMe 
<initly raduced in amount umI now confined u> adultt): (/) 
ase for pctmlmiUe (■qdoyaent of a child hat beta tailed f mm 
ten year* U twelve y*ii*> Eotirely new rincc the act of 1878 
are tb« pfovUom: (a) for coouol of outworit; (») for npplyint 
paniculin of work ind wage* to piec^^worixn, cubUiig them 

•Uiaiilt* d BvMenco. Hoo» ofCoompM. iM: qnoird ta 
ffiMy «f AiWy IivMaiw*- bv Hamm and HHtchiBno, p. I7». ' 

U. l^w ot Vntna Kimddoi^ 1910 

FKltria tiU Waritktfi.—'nt act of 1(78 temlbwd nntfl 

1901, aldiough much bad been meanwhile luperimpoiBd, a 

monnmeol to the eSotti of the great factory refocmen of the 

fint half of tbe 19th ccnuiry, and the genoal groondwtKk of 

nfely for wotfcen In taetoela and wotkdKqie in the main 

dlvidMH al lanllatloB, icnrity agaiul acddenlt, pfayiical 

fitaeu of woriieit, general limititloa of boon lad timei of enq>loy- 

' for young worfcti* and women. Tbe act of 1901, which 

lata force IM Jannaiy I9ii> (ind became tbe [Kincipal 

att),wiaaaiB>endingaiwelluacaniotidiiin|act. Comparfoon 

of Ilia two acli ibowa, however, that, In ipiie of tbe advantage* 

•ecUoR* ind important additioni which tend toward* a vedtlitcd 

hy^en* lor faclmy Ut*, the fuDdameMd ieilure* of tbe lair 

fought out in the iglh csniury renala WMtitlutbed. So far 

tbe kw bai alttnd In Aaractcr, it bl* done ao cUefly by 

gmdoil devdspment of certain Hinltaiy featoRS, oiJginBlly 

fetreit from Iti eitUer limi. At the aanie 
tlmo 1 bull lar poaiibia new developineDU on be lecn in the 
piotectloD of " outwotkcn " is Will is (ictory woAen igainai 
fnudulent ot defective particnlan of piece-work rate* of wages. 

Later acts dirsctly and indirectly afloctlngibc law are certain 
acts o[ 1403, 1006. 1907, to be touched on pnaently. 

The act ol 1878, Io 1 Krica of acti from i88j Io 189;, leceival 
■triking additions, baled (i) on the experience gained In otha 
hrancba of protective Ic^ilitioo, r.f. devdopinent .__, 
of the method of regulation of dangerous trade* by ^fj^TT 
"■pedal Itilt* " and adminiitnllve inquliy (olo un, 
ictidenu under Coal Minei Acts; (1) on the fimfin^ 
of foyal commis^ons and parliamentary inquhfta, e.g. fncraued 
cootml of "outwork " and dooteaUc workibops, and limilatioa 
of "overtime "; (j) on the development ol idminiMntivc 
nacbinery lee eniorciog the more modem bw nisting to public 
beallh, (.(. tianifeieBce of adminlatralloii of ainiUuy ptovtBOna 
la woriuhiqM to Ibe kiol saniuty autboiftles; (4) on tbe tiado- 
unlon deinand for neia* for securing tmtwiMrlhy noordi ol 
wBgo<ootTacu between emidoyer and woAmm, (.g. the aeclioa 
requiring particular* (rf work and wage* for pieo-worfcen. 'Vat 

first addiUon* to the act of 1878 «— "■- -'- - 

iiiempts to deal more adecpMely 
hi the code of 1S78 with ceftiln striking it 
injurioue to health. Thus tbe Fictory and WoiUiop Act of 
1S8] provided Ihal wbite-leid factories tbould not be carried 
on without 1 certificate ol confotaiily with oertafci condltiotia, 
and alio made provision tot special ndes. on Um* later suptneded 
by those laid down in the act of t8or, appUobl* to any cmplay>- 
ment in a factoty or wotbhop certtfiid aa dangemos or Infmloai 
by tbcsecietaiyiJslBte; Theactof igSjalwdaikwfihsanltaTy 
oonditioas ia bak eb ou w s. Certain defiidlions aad eiplsnalioos 
of previous oiactmenta lourhfug orertime and employment 
of a child in any faolory or woikdwp ware alao included in the 
act. A daassf fadoiieiiB whkheKcasiveheat and hunddity 
■etiously aflectad Ihc health tt oporatfrc* was neat dealt wiib 
in the Cotton Oath Faetoties Act 1889. TWs provided for 
■pedal notice t» tbe chief inqiector fioB all Occupiers of oolWD 
doth facMfies (a*, any mom, shed, or worfcibop or put tlwnof 
in wUch weaving o[ cotton doth 1* arritd on) who Intend to 
prodoco humidHy by irtifidil meaos; regulated both lempenf 
tuie of wakiUMUi and amount of mature In the itmosfdierB, 
and provided lor leM* and reoords Of the tuiei and flied a 
tiaodind mlniBHun TCtame of btd air (600 cub. ft.) to be ad- 
asitted io crary hoar Jot every person amployed In the factory. 
Powei was nt^ned for Ihe •ccntaiy of itBto to taodify by order 
tho itiodard tor tbe mutmnm Hmlt U humidity of the atmo- 
iphae at any given lemperitm, A ibdn ad In T870 eMonded 
tMi power to ot hrt .meiarea lor the piotactlopotheahh. 



the tpidtl Rieuuia tram 187! to i88g |ivc vduibia pre- 
CEdecU for hinhec deveh^>mcnu of ipeck] byci"" fn factory 
life, but Ibe nut advuicc In lbs Futory ud Wockihop Act 
1891, loUowint Che Uauit of Locda Coinmiiuc on ths iwcatint 
iniiid the Berlin- -■-.-- 

ovtr much wUtr pnund. lu prindpd oWecis were: (a) to 
nadu idminiitniion of the I*w itlating to woikihopi mare 
cScient, pinicululy u ngudi HBilalioo; with lh» end in 
view it made the primary contnitini aulborily fat lanltacy 
piattera in warkshiHM tbe local tanitary lUlborily (now the 
diiltict cDundl). acting by tbeir oRinn, and ^viDt tbern the 
powtra ol tbe \ts! numeniui body of tactocy inapccton, while al 
the lanu time Ihc pcovBioni of the Publii KMltb Acta nphceil 
in wDtkibopi the Tety limilir sanliiry pnvisioni of the Facloiy 
AcU; (i) to provide for greater lecurity against accidentl and 
more efficienl fencing ol machinery in faclotiea, (t) to «Und 
Ibe melbod of regulation of unhealthy or dangcmui occupalioni 
by application of special rules and requirements to any incident 
of emtJoyment (other than in a domestic workshop] certified 
by the KcreCary of-otale to be dangerou* or iojurloiu 10 health 
or dangenua to life gc limb, (d) lo niic the age of employment 
of chSdren and restrict the employment of women immediately 
after chUdbtitb; (e) to require particuiati of rale of wages to 
be given with wdcIi to piece-woiket* in certain bniiche* of the 
leilile Industries; (f) to amend the act of iS;a in various 
subsidiary ways, m^ tbe view of improving the idmialstnition 
of its principles, c-i ' ' 

otate aa dangerous I 
paring and esLablisbing suitable 

The Factory and Workshc^ Act iBiis fallowed thus oa a 
period of exercise of new powen of adrainlttrative legaUtion 
(the period being also that during which the Royal Commission 
HLaboui itude its wide survey of Indusliial conditions), aJid 
afia two anccessive annual report* of Ibe chief iiupeclDt of 
iKtotiei had embodied leporti ud rsooaimendations from the 
■omen inspeclora, who in i8u "ce Gnt added to the inspector- 
ate. Again, (be chief features of an even wider legislative effort 
IhtD that ct itvi were Ihe Iscieucd Mringency and de&niieness 
1^ tbe meanoel for MCttiini hypeu'c and safe conditions of work. 
Some of Ihese measuiei, however, involved new principles, ai 
in the provision for Ibe prohibition of the uae of a dangeioui 
machine ci structure by the order of a magiitiate's court, and 
(lie power to include in the special rules drawn up in putiuance 
of section B of the act of 1591, the prohibition of the employ tnent 
ofuycUssof persoci.octbc limitation of the period of employ- 
ment of any class of persons in any pmceu scheduled by order 
of the secreCajy of state. These last two powers have both been 
eiodsed, and with the exercise of the latter passed away, 
without oppoaition, the absolute freedom of the eo^ilayet of 
the adult-male labourer to carry on his manufacture without 
Ic^dative linutation of the hours of labour. Second only in 
significance to these new devehipmeats was the addition, fdi 
Ibe first time since 1W7, of new classes of workplaces not 
averod by tbe gaoetat definitions in soclloa gj of the Con- 
aoliditing Act nl 1878, vlx. : (a) laundries (with special 
as to bouia, &c.); (6) docks, wharves, quays, warehouses and 
premies on which machinery worked by power Is temporarily 

used for the purpose of the coostruction of 1 

stnKtoral work fn connexioti with the building. 
only of obtaining security against accidents). Other entirely 
new provisioiu In the act of i3qj, later strengthened by the act 
ol tool, were tbe requirement of a reaaonable tempenture In 
workroomi, the recpiirement of lantoriea for the use of penona 
employed In any department where poisonous subiiar 
ui«l, the obligation on occupiers and medical practitlc 

occnpteis of persons empk>yed, at 
ciurged with in' ' ' 

u found in which tUa pnwa 
he act of igoi deals with the 

I tbe competency of the pemoa 
I KTve evidence in-his defence,' 
adoption of tho 

I Regulatiob Act 

new provisions, as was aba th 
powers, to direct a formal invotigalfon of an; 
linea laid down in section 4S of the Coal Mim 
tU/. Oibet settiona, lelitlng to sanitation 
developments of previous regulation 
of overcrowdiog, provision of SBQiti , 
for each aei where the standard of Ihe Public Hcailb Act Amend- 
ment Ad of i3«o had not beea adopted by the competent local 
sanitary authority, power to order a fan 01 other riuchanlcal 
means to cany oil injurious gas, vapour or ether impurity 
(the previous power covering only dual). The fencing of 
machinery and de£nitioa of accidenta were made more preuisa, 
young peiKma were ptobibiied from deanlog daagenus 
machinery, and additional safeguards against risk of in)u>y by 
fire or panic were introduced. On the question of employment 


IS lay in 

complete prohibii 

ig peraons, 

at an employer to employ protected persona outside his factory 
or workshop on the same diy that he had employed Ibem in 
the factory or workAhop. Under the head of particulars of ytork. 
and wages to pieee-worken an important new power, highly 
valued by th* workers, was given 10 apply tbe principle with 
the necessary modiflcailons by order of the secretary of state 
to industries other than teitile and to outworkcn as well ai 
to those employed inaida factories and workshop*. 

In iSw an hidirect modification of the limitatioi) to employ* 
meni of children was effected by the Elementary Educalioli 
Ameadment Act, which, by raising froni eleven W -^,--, 
twelve the minimum age at which a child may, by „„_ " 
the by-law* of a local authority, obtain total or 
pajtial exemption from the obligation lo attend school, made it 
unlawful for an occupier to take into employmenx any chad 
under Iwdve in such a manner as to prevent full-time attendance 
at school The age of employment became generally thereby 
the same as it his been for employment at a mine above ground 
since 1887. Tbe act of 1901 made tbe probibilion of employ- 
ment of a child undei twelve in ■ factory or workshop direct 
and absolute. Under th* divisions of sanitation, s^ely, fitness 
for employment, spedal regulatbn of dangeruua tmdes, special 

methods of dealing with home work and outwo^en, impofljiBl 
additions were made to the general law by the act of s^or, ai 
also in regulations for strengthened administrative control, 
■ ■ - - "log; (a) 

vealtktioD f<r It ti every woi 
■ecretarv of state to fil a stanr 

1, and empowering il 
f tuffident venti1ation| 
(i) drainage of wel 

were those niating lo— (o) Examination and i^rt on ttean 
boilers; (t) piohilntion of employment of a cbud In deanulf 
below machinery in .motion; (c) power of the district coundl 
to make by-lawi for escape in case of fire. The most important 
admfaustralive alterationi were : (e) a Justice eBgaged in the 
same trade as, or being officer of u aMod«tion of persoitl 
engaged in the same trade aa, * person c|iuged with an oficDC* 
tiay not act at the hearing and detanalaationaif tbe chargB; 
(i) oidinaTy supervision ol sanitary ooodMoni mOir which 
outwork is carried on was Iransterred to the Aattict coundl; 
power bebg reserved to the Home Office to intervane in case D( 
MftMt at dabulC by Ujr district counciL 


Tba EmployBnt of CbDdm Act igej, vhil« ptimuily 
pmrldiog (or induiLria ouulds i1h scopi of the FiCXcty Act, 
Inddcnully lenHHl thit chlldnm emplaycd u ball- 
Mj ^—" ticifln ibould not also be employed io otber occupa- 
2^; ^* tioni. Tbe Notice of Aoidenla Act 1906 aoHndcd 
the VPhoU tyslem of nQIi&citk>n of mrcidBnlB, unul' 
tUMondy in minn, quinia, futodn uxl woiluhopi, and 
vB] be Ml out in (olloving pingraplu: Tke Faoioiy ud 
Workibofi Act ol 1907 amended the Im in respect of iaiaxlciei 
br genei*lly applying the pioviiiuu ol )i)ai la trade hunittin 
while gtiQling Ibem choice of new eiceptloflil peijodi, and by 
extending the provision! □( the act (with terlaln power* to tb( 
Home Office by Ocden laid befoie pailiunnit to iUoh wittioni) 
to tnttitulion hundiica caiTicd on loi chatStsble or lefonnatary 
punmes. The Einployment of Women Act i^j repealed 
an tiEinption in the id oi 1901 (and earlier acU) telitins to 
employnient of vomen in Ban iculcb mills, Ihui bringing this 
employment utidci the ordinary provisioia «i to period of 






of December 1901: 

ui idea of the 
vhole, adding 
ol acts, whicb 



a^y 10 prCBUses, nunu or place* in which nunuai labour, vilh or 
withbcii the aid of mechanical power, ii enercised far gain in or 
incidental to (he making, altering, Fcpajringi ornamenting, wa$bang, 
deiniiigor finishing oradapting tor sate of any article or part bf any 
uildc If neini, water or other mechanical poser is used ia aid ol 
the mapulactuHnff pnceaa, the workplace is a laelory; if nca, it b 
a worlobop' There is, however, a list of eighteen clauei ol worlu 
CbiDught under (he factory law (or reasons of safety. &c., before 
nriobops generally mete regulated) which are defined ai faetarl« 
whether power ii Bsetl in then or Ml, focuries an, agaii 
dividKlinto ^atile and noc-uxtile: Itwyite ieM|Iei[|bemK 
is employed la preparing, manufacturing or fiaisning 
hair, Nik, Aai, hemp, jule, tow. China Brass. ciKoanuI uuieqiulih;! 
lilLe material either separately or mixed together, or mixed with any 
oEher [paterial. or any fabric made thertof ; aH other faeCD«1aa at* 
non-tcatilc. The dlslinction .turns on t^e hisrorical origin ol factoid 
regulation and the regulations in lexti^ factories remain la some 
respects slightly more stringent than In the non-ieitile facloriet 
and workshops, though the general pnwMou are almost the same. 
Thiee i^ial elasac* tj wornbeps. uw lor certain pnrpesBe to ht 
disti n au i sh ed from ordioaty wariiilwpa, which iscTude MiKmeit 
workihopa: (a) Domeilic wcslubopa. u. any private bouscAiom or 
place. -which, though used as a dwelling, is £y reason oT the work 

■a family, dwelling there alone— In these 
■~ — "" '" '"'oen'awDilBhoaa. in which 

__ . ,— ^ , employed — la these a more 

elastic airangemejit of hours is permis^ble than ia onnnary work- 
shops; ft) Workshops in which men only are employed— these come 
Biufb- thA aame general regulation* in recard to sanitation as other 
wDrksbops, alio under tbt provitioiu of the Factory Act as rega^ 
security, and, if certified hy ih' "^™'."' *' — -."■ -.*..!— 1 1.- 

91 the itgDlatioH apply U the 

(or il an educatioiul cettiScite 
etghtecn years ol age, and iiwih 
eighteen; theae are all " pmCecte 
provisiofi* of the act, inclnslvv ol 

lined, thirteen), and 

whom the geneial 

1 ol hours and tiinea 

. Toadi 
jiy only apply which are aims.. .^ ..^......^ _..„ 

y in Aeeondoct al the manufaclurine; proceai. 

le peraoa leBerslly ntpantibit la obHrviDCe ol the c 

M bw.^wietha tbcie fel*t* to bcalth, ealety, lini 

rral^, whet 

the houn of labour or other nialterl, is t 
defined in the act) of the factocy. workslnp , 
however, limit) to hi» irsponiibility: ft) 
DCculder has used dan diUgeoee to enjfott* tl _ 

or oths' person, ia the r^ofTender; {bi specially in a factory the 
aectloos lekting to employment of nrotccled jinoils. where the 

mittcd in reiatiDO to a person jvhp is employed iocodntJrioilwithcba 
machine or implement, and is in the employment or nay ol lb« 
owner or hirer, shall be deemed to be the ocespier «l the factory; 
(c) far the one purpoae ol repottiig aecWon t n, tM •etoil enpkqW 
of the penon miuni) ia any lactay «■ warhshgii ia bomd Mi ih r 
penalty immediitely to teport the lame to (he occupier; M) so iar 
ai relates to aaniury conditions, ICncini of machinery, imiini ol 
notices ih Inumml lactories.'the nmolas defined by Ibe F^lic 
Health Act IB75).(ei>enlly (piKkint, Bkta tba place ol tbt oceipiir. 
Employment in a factory a> wwhshop mchides work iriiether for 
wages or not. (oj in a manuUcturiu process or handicraft, (A) in 
dcaninganyplaceused lor the same, if] in cleaning or oiline any part 
ol the machinery, (it) any work whatAiever incidental to the proces 
or handkaaft, orcontieeled with the article imidr Prrniafnuivf n 
any pan ol the [accoty «r workahop, whet* mi 
maAu(actuie carried on, except at meal-limes, 1 
is stopped, are deemed to be employed until the 
The act, however, does not apply to employment 
of ropairing ths premises or machinery, aor to the process ol pre- 
senring and curing 6A imniedittely upon its arrival in thniihiiic 
boats in order to prevent the fish from being destroyed or spoUcir, 
n^nn fh* prixese of cleaning and preparing fruit so far as 11 necessary 
tit fromspoilingduriiie the months of June. July. August 
"^ ' Lin light handlctalta raiiSed 00 by a family 
rmomat irregulap iOtervtls are usotmtaidc 

foremwt provisions are those relating 
of the workplace* and the general seou 
. Evcey factory must be kept In a cli 



during the itoy, 400 during u nn ii i u t, lor evh WoHkc)T 

matters (he law ol puhnchealth takes in workihapa the place c^ the 

Although, however, pnmarily the oftcert of the d' — '— — " 

doaa not extend 
KiMiBC to publie Ms 
Ceocial powen arc 1 

is satisfied that the . 
at regards work;^c« 
eeundl. utsuthorlae 

- _ factory or workshop (inc. 

ly be prescribed by order of the se 

leasures for securing arid 

fan to carry off lnjiuioot dust, gaa c« other fdipurlty, and prevent 
their inhalation in aay factory or workshop; drainage oi floora 
where wet processes ate cairiedon. For laundries and bakehousca 
there are funl -..--. 

.., ,.. laundriesallsl. 

Ihciently tepnrared from any in>n1ng.room 
ftoort shall be " drained in such a manner 

. „-.. 10 How all (teely"iAnd in bakebDuaes ■ 

tern lupplying water toa bakehouae must beauite Kpaniefioo 
It supplying water to a watcKlosct. and ifie latter may. not 
nmunicnie directly trith the bakehouse. Use "of undertround 
JBhousei [Li. • tialdng rodm i^th floor more (tan t ft. below the 
wnd adjoiBtBg) ia piDhibiletL ocept idiere akni^ uaed at the 
Hing ol the aiet; further. In thcie cuea, after 1st January 190*. 
zrtificate as to suitability in light, ventflalion. &c must be ob- 
disuict coundl. In 1 " - . . . 


sake sanitary requirements a condition 

. .._ r^ ,-„_ -J the genera] bw as he is empowered to 

tant. In factortei, as distinct from workshops, a periodical lime 
'ashing (or ivashlng irith hot water and soap w^iere paint and 
ifirish hale been isid) of all inside wall* and ciiliagi onoe ai least 
. . ._. ,.._ 1. -. ,j„„^y nquiTBi ji„ takthouMi once 

te ahall be <4>*erved in 

>e districtt to wfilch It 

» 4th of February 190^. the definitions and standards in 

also been widely adopted by local lanilajy aulhoril -- 

' ' ■-- "-tTer itself hn no Icoal force, the local authority 

uMkr the Public lM(hA« ol lifar. 


Smirty u llw HI* al irtjmnr ■ pnykM bw by ^m 
uresudilTieckaDinf of nM c h i ncr y n motion and iiwkiiiA 
- j^ thA &Hd aad oswiiiv para- at tdf-Aciiiv n 
*7J — ' driv«A by PQiicr, by lui^ of iBochlaeiy. and 

liDb- Every hoUt and fly-whccl dUvctly coamcud vith nwJuniaL 
pcrwcr. Odd every part of a watcr-wbed or ohhw vorkrd by 
m edajii ca l povcr. ud every wbccL rux» mutt be upccd, wlulevcr 
ill poaliDii, aad evm part of miltgeArldl or dAdneroui vucbiocry 



not prcmuq ii provvkd for by empowcrinf count of 
luriidictaoit, oa tbc apptcalion oT an iDwecloTt u prohibit 
iiplii thfl dugci bu bcca nmovcd. The diuiict council, or. 

J ihhWup* in wnirb nam San Isriy 

locty pmom ore em- 

Ifte [rom obumctioa 

■team ip a f adiHy oc ■ 
hav* a proper abty v. 

coSliM. Eilam'i^li^n hy a^'^mi^ 

or wEvkihop Qiay be 

' the act apfiJi» piuu 

ThE OCGUpin- ol any 'acIDiy 

pcnmlioo no( _ ."(j,^ 


worluhoo, {be coroner muK aJviw (he factory iniimtor ior ihe 
diiirictol thepbctandtimeof Ihelnquol. Theicuelary of Kait 
"■ vntiiattoncildiccircainUirweaolanyiceldCTiI 
L Careful and drtaikd pronnm an made for 
ant aiKJ wiry in the rv^iAciB 

— , -.ts which occur in a factory cu 

K loH of Hie to a pcnon empioyrd there, or (fri 
f naoved by mKhanical pover, molten nwtai, 
tint liquid. «pl(>J0B,eicaBe of (at or Btean. efaclricilT. lodiiaiblinf 
any purua cnpkiyoa ia the factory or *arhihafi aa to cave bim id 
be abicai throughout at Iran one whole day frora hb ordinary vrorlG. 
(f) are due to any othfT apedal eauic which thciecretaryof stale may 
deienniAe, tf) «oC faniBg imdcr the pievioai head* and yet came 
duablemem foe nan than HfCn d«y» onlinary nfork to anv petiea 
wotkiaj in the factory or worliahop. In ihecaKof (o) or (1) nuiin 
hai alio to be tent to Ihe ecctifyini Mirgcon by the occupier. Caici 

Goniracted in any fartoiy or workihop mutt aimibrly be reporred 
andiUHlered by the onupici, and Iheduly of reporting thaeniea 

come. The list of cUski of poiioning can be eilcndcd by the 
lecreiary cJ *tafe'« order. 

Certificatii o( phywal litncM for employminl must be obtained 
by the occupier from the ccnilyiag mrseon for Hie dutrirt (or all 
jM^ficar perscna urtdcr sixteen yean oTagc eoijiloyed in a lartury, 

^JSiy hai been eilended by order of theiecnMary of «ale. and 
'^"^ 10 inKwdor may luipond aay aucfi penoni tor It-tx- 

aiginatkm in a .factory, or ror euudaalm in a worliabeti, «4kb 
the work of the place. The certifying aurseoii nuv cjiamine the 
proceH aa well as ihe person inThnitited. and may qimtify the certifi- 
cate he givit* by conditimu a* to (he worlr on which the perfon laftl 

■hall not kncwiuiy allow a woman to be empVoyed tbercia within 
four weeki after childbirth. 

The eiuplaymeiit of children, ycmng prnona and women il rega- 
bded aa r^arda ordinary and eaeeptunal boon 'of wcn\, ordinary 
Khti ti ■*' cBxptkmal meal-timn, Migth a( wtl) lod boHday*. 
_^i^^ The oulude linita of ordiaary pertQdi ol cmptoymnit and 
^y^^B, holidaya ar«, broadly, the AiTK for lextik factorin at for 
nofl-tenile faclDrfet and workAopa; the tnain differenre 

lad a Natrt of ive boura foe ■ 

a.iL to 7 r JL ; in DOn-teitile Eactoija 

attending achool 
factorfeala whic 

S^iT^ i[ la , , 

allowed for cleaning), and in aon-textile factonea and <— .- .,. 
at a r^r^J V'H'or4Fji., BccoadingatthebouroEbcgimuDgitAaji., 
lA.H.orSA.M. In" dameitii:wgckihopt"tbetetalnoBberafboan 
lor young peivHia and childiTD imut not exceed thoae allowed ia 
ordinary workaht^ia, but the outwie liinita for begiadiag and endiag 
are wider; and the caae ia tjniilar aa reprda Guuca of wtoed ia 
'^ womea'a arorktbopo." Enwlayineflt oiHsde a Uctory or woekihop 
in the biuiiieit ol the lame ia Emitd ia a vauMr ■imilH to that laj) 
down in [be Shop Houn Act, to be touelied on pmently. Ovariiine 
in cerlaLn claaaea ol factorier ——■-->—- --^ — 
to ihem ia permitted, undo 
whciv goodt of a periahable ii 
drought c 

ananging Ihe^c 
wS^ln add! 

powered to api 
tavouiablc that 

_ eaceplional methodt oJ 

' peiiodt ID u to permit of periodt of diflerent 

, lo ovenime permiMble under the gtoenl law. 

rouihl in 1907 within Ihe acope ol the law, but 
i^ulaiion ai id houia. meali. lioUdayi,Ac, may 
Le raanagirn to the lecntary of atate, who it eO' 
-e them if he ia aatiB&ed that they are not kat 

all be laid at aooa aa potAibie befocc be 
' """" "" '■eTbebtwlhil 

olida)^ ZSZtn. 
women and youpg perv>nt arc emptoyed the aecretaiy of itale may 
by tpecial order vaiy the bninning and end of the daily period of 
employment, and allow employaKnt tor not more than three hoora 
on Simdayi aod holidaya. 

The general proviuana of the act may be tupplementtd whm 
apecially danaenua or uDhealthy trade* arc carried on, by uecial 
Rgulations. Thii waa provided for in the law ia lorce until 31ai 
December 1901, aa in tM eidMing principal act, aod Ihe powvr to 
cstabliih oilet had been exerrited Ktweeo 189? and 1901 in twenty 
two Iradet or procetaea where biury aroie either [rom handling of 
danfcroua tjbstancea, auch at lad and leai' 

or where there it inhnlatior 

_ Before the rule CDuU 

B9S. the aecrelarv of alate ha 

FaUh: thereupon the 


1 the pat- 

to the ^'pi^ 


n«e»ary to meet the circumttaocee. IIK occupier might object 
or propoae modificailont, but if he did not the ruin became Uiiding 
in twcaty-onc dayt; it b e (Reeled, and the wKntirf ofil atedij not 

ID be referred to atbitiallon, the avanl in wUch finally ttltkit IM 
rulei or requircmeni to be obierved- In November toai.iaihecaia 
o( the einhenware and china induilry. the Ian arbitrailoa s( tha 
kind vat optntid and was finally concluded bi looj. The partln to 
the arbitration were the chief iiupector. on behalf of ihe lecnttrv of 
■laie. and the occupier or occupicn. but the workmen inlemted 
might be and were npmented on the arbiinlion. In the eitablithii« 
of the twenty-two aett of exiitlng special rules only thrice baa 
arbitration been reuned to, and only on two of these oceanina 
were workmen leprwehted. The proviiiont ai to the arbitntioB 
were hid down in the Ant lehedule to the Act of iBoi. and wen 
similar to those under the Coat Minea ReguUtion Acta Many of 


ney. aigUc mt onlr itniUii nad ki oiii ol trnflaym u t, b 
RMrict «r prohibit MpbyBMt of uv dm ol vorlnn; 
audi nKrie&n or imbiiiiioa aflteMd adult warim tb* nhi 
be laid lor forty ^n brfon bath Hook* <d Puttaatat 
... , ;_ T^ oU^iloa lo ob«r- — - 

Sh* (kotUIom u u ipceU nfulttloM o( itw act el 1901 toudi 
primirilr tht mrihnd at tnetitn lor mtkiai (In rttokiiou, bin 
tbry iIb omrod for tb* tnt tim doaiRic workiboia and adiM ■ 
pniifr aa to Iba kind ot nfUtalloiia tbat Bay be made; (urtber, 
Ibey atreaftheaeil the amctiGn lor ohaefraBM ol any nika llial mi) 
be alabHAed, by pladof tbe occiipitr fai the B»e (enenl poiitiac 

— "i thaeenllcaie el the wcretafy ol '— 

refutalioH aa appear Is the Mcteiaiy ol alale to meet the 

el the caae may be BBde by him alter he haa duly pabliih 

4l) el h(a hnenkmi (l) ol the place where cepiei ol the dnCt Rfu- 
luimu c«a be sbtatned: and (3) ol the time duriaf whkh ab^io» 
(o then on be made by penofli affecud. Tbe leoMarv ol Male 
may nodily the npilatliiM to meet the e^cclloni made. II not, 
a liin frivdeut. be 

bold a public hiquTr 


made, tbcy muil be laidaaioon ai powble before pariiament. 

Houiemayannullhe«ei«(ulallon>of inj- '■'- '•' 

to the power of tbe •Fcmaiy ol Bate 

The TenilatlOPt may apply lo all (iOanemat Kanamrpmtn-wamimnK 

eeniHd manufactun, pnm, b.. h nird, or to t ipicited daia. 
They may. ainsni Mhrr tbinia, (0) prohilHi or Emit (nplayment 
el any penon or claai ol penoni; In pnhitiit, Umii, or connri aae 
of any malerial or proceat: {c) modiiy or eiteod opedal inulationa 
tontaliMd iQ tbe Act. Regulation* have been eicabTidica among 
othert to tbe ffdlevTitf traiM and aro cei a et : Iril bal-nakinf when 
(■y inlbmnublE ulvenl it uied: file4unb( by hand: mam- 
laclore ef tleRric aRumulaton: doekt, pmcaaet o( loadlnf. m- 
kadint. Ac.; tar dUtillini; ficiario in wUch alf-anlnt aaiVtt an 
wed: u«e of loconwtivca: qwininf and weaviog ol lUx. hnn|) and 
juic: Runufaciure ol painta and coloun^ hcadjog of yam d)'Td by 

AhbDUfh Ihr riclory and WoiMiop Art. have net directly 

■ "*" — have madr crrtain proviiion for iecuring-io 

Lgrrtd ppofl diall be 1 

itia ibL , 

.- ..alile procewea, H U ufKcinit to 

ilan Kpintdy la tach worlwr. The •ecrnaiy.e' 

,....« ,-» .,».. -,... _,-.... ». eilend thii protection 
wo>lccn. wilh HilaUe modificaliont, in \-ac»ui hard» 
fndwting pcn<makin|» koclo, chaini. En wliolnale 
■nakinff of wearinE appard. in fuuian culling, un_ 
[ ana a nunwr of other [Hcce-woric 
"■All ol these and other trades uicd hii pa 

a effidrnt adninutniisn el the act (a] 


nottoei have 

factory or 

III important are the pc«cribc4 abillnct oC the >el, 

id addreoci tt the Intpenor and onilyini luricon. 

;he period ai employment, and tpecibcd mcal-iimet (which may not 
ic changed wiiboirt Ireth notice toiheiBipector), the air ipice and 
mmher of penoni who may kgalty be employed in each ronm, and 
Hncribcd partKulart o( nceptionil emptoynent: among <he 
wond ire Ihe grneral ni^ncn ol children and young prnani em- 
^lo^-cd. ol accident!, of limewailung. of overtime, and liui of out- 
wocl^cn; amonc the third are the notice oi beginning to occupy a 
'arrory or workthop. which the occupier mutt tend within one 
moniK, report of ovenimeempleyment. notice el accident, peltening 
X anihrai. and rrlurni of pcnoni employed, wilh juch ot*ier por- 
liculan as nU] be pretcribcd. Thete mutt be icnt IB the chief 

lit d OM hM tbu Mt IDd BOt ^M ^aa ttee 

f lUM Mr the Home DcpattBeai eoatialB tht 
'kt aclt, apaeinla tbt InipeEten referrtd lo bi 
the acti, aniani U'llen thttr datiet, and R|ulatet the naaatc aad 
eaiea (a vhlA they art to eatidie the powen ol iatpecUri. The 
act, bvwcvcr, ii p r ei i ly aaigna cenaia datiea and poven to a chid 
latgnetor jnj certain te Jurict hu p e t tert. Many pivviiiaDa of the 
Kit ileptod u 10 thele eptratloa ea tbe m*Un( ol onlen by the 
atcRUry of tlat*^ Tbttt oidtm Dtr inpoit apeeial obligatioaa 
oa occupien and incntit ttia atrivgtacy or rvfulation^ may apply 
ciceptiono at In employment, aad may modtfy or rdax regniatieiit 
10 meet ipeeial daaaca ol dicumttancca. In certain caaea. aheady 
Indicated, hiaattet guide nr de t er mi ne Ihe action of diinict councilai 
and. generally. In caie of ddaulE by a council he may empewer bit 
ininecien to ad ai repnli worlidacca, inttend ol the counci], both 
lll*t tba factory Acta and Publfc Health A:ta. 

n i> cmpluyed there; ti 

factory or worluhop, or in a achool where the children employed an 
bdnf educated: to pnaccute, oonduct or defend before a court ol 
tuBmaiyiuTiadicItwiany p roceeding under the acta: and to e ae irlat 
web otHr powen ai an ncceaiary Tor carrybif the act into dfrct. 
The Inipceler hat alts Ibc duty of enfotdng Ihe Tiuck Aeti in placet. 
and In mpect of p erte n a, under die Factory Acta. Ccrtilyirtt 
tuigtont *>e appointed by tbe chief hnaecior Hibiect te the tegula- 
worhe r t andcr tiiteen, and penom under tpecial rukt. at to pbytical 
fitneat for the daily work during Imt pcnodt, vJth power to fnnt 
qutlihed ccnifieatet aa to tbe work for which the young woi^cr u fit, 
and ft) to invenigate and report on aeddenti and caaa el lead, 
pbe^tierui er c«h« poiiening and antlntii. 

la tfOT then were regiilereil ai under inipectlDii iio,t7C 
factotiea. including laundries wiUi poirer, 146,917 vorkibopt 
(other than men's worlubops), ndudins laundrie* tnlboiu 
pown; oi worka under special rule* or nfulttieni (included 
in the figum juM given) there were io,5S4 and 19,687 dob- 
tcilDe worki under otden for tupply of pmiculin to piece- 
wocken. Of noticei of accidcnit received tliere wen 114J15, 
o< which 1179 were falal; ol icpoiled case* id poboning then 
wen 65], of whidi 40 wen fatal. Frcsectiliont were taken 1^ 
InspeciDci In 4474 caiet and convictions obtained in 4111 eiiet. 
OC pcitoni employed tbeit were, according lo Rlumiof occiT>f>i 
ip04, 4,i6i,7gi in ftctoriei and 6S3,7jft in wotkiliopi. 

Cwt Uiaa. — llie mode of progress to be rccoided bl Ihe 
ngulition of coat minea since iS;] can be contiattHf in one 
aspect with the profKu juM recorded of fulory legiililkw 
fince iB;8. ConiolidBlion «u agtin eailiei idoptol wbca 
luge unendmenu were found necessaiy, with (be retnh tbil 
by far the gieitct part of the law is to be bund in Ihe act el 
1SS7, which repealed and zt-cna£ted, with amendmenta, tbt 
Coal Mina Acts of 1S71 and litb. and ibe Sitaiified IroMloH 
Mines (Gunpowder ) Act, iMi, The act of iWi wti simfJy 
concerned wilh rules relating lo the use of explosives underground. 
The act of 1SS6 dealt wilh three quesliona: (s) The dectioa 
and payment of chedtweigbert {!■'■ the penons appointed and 
paid by mincti In pursuance of section 13 of the act of 1U7 fti 
the puTpoie of taking a cornel account oa Ihelt behaK of the 
weight of Ihe mineral gollcn by them, and for the comet 
dderrainalioa of cenain deductions lor which they may be liable); 
(6) pmviiicm for new power* of Ihe secretary of itale to direct 
igaiion of any caplosii 

adi^ed in the 

ctoriet; (c) proviiioB enabling any nlativB 
of pcTions whose death may have been caused by ciphislani 
or accidents In or ibout mina 10 attend In person, or by ifcnt. 
coioners* inquests thoeon, and to eaamine witEieasea- Tbt act 
of 1S8;, which amended, strengthened and conscMalad that 
acts and the etrfier Coniolidaling Act of 1871, may alaD he 
conltiiled in ai^othcr aspect with the general act* of factcvy 
legitlalion. In scope It farmed, a* it* ptiadpal iecenuuict had 
done, a general code; and in lema otature it iMnl farlber In 
the w>y al eontolidition Ifaan the Factory Aril hid done, 
Inasmuch at certain queslioni, which in factoric* ace dealt will 

by itsMici dhtiDct fnm At Fkcioj Acts, bavc bmi Indaded 
iatlw HiMi Ragulitkn Acti, i^. the prohibilioa ol Ibt payment 
ol mga In pubUc-bouia, uhI llie nKchliiery nktiag to weigbU 
•iid ineaiutcs whcicby minen conttal thdr ptymcoli lurtber. 
partly fmm the less r^'ngi^e nituit o[ the induuiyi but piobtbly 
Aljtjy irom the power of uprcision giincd for mJnert by their 
ofguuxatioD, the axle, u ' ' 


■pparently oa the whole m 

nily to tbe < 

Thii vu iliiluzigly Keo in the evidence before the Roynl Com- 
niuion oD L*boui in i(l9i-iS9t> iFben the npetted txpnuion 
oi Hlisfietioo on tbe put of tbe minen with the provision* 
ti distinct from the idminittntioa of the code ("with • few 
IrLfiing eiceptioM "] ii in Duulud cootrut wiib Ibe long uid 
vuied lerie* of diitn* ud cenlentioni put faiwud lor uncnd- 
mcDt oi tbe Factory Acti. 

Since the act of 1SS7 there have followed five miiui acu, 
bued on the recommendation of tbe offidaJk acting under Ike 
acti, wblle two o( them give effect l« ciaimi made by tbe ninata 
before the Royal Commiuion on Labout. Tbu, in 1894, tbe 
Coal Uiao (Check wcigbei) Act nndetcd it niegal for an employer 
(" owner, agent, ot manager of any mine, or any per»n employed 
by or acting under tbe initiuctians of any uich owner, igtnt, 
or manager ") to make the removal )>( a particular cbeckwdgher 

_, yer in hit claim to ibc 

right ol dintjnlng lU tbe wwkinen nod r»4nga^ng them on 
coDdilioD that th^ would ditmin n paiticulai checkweighet. 
In 1S96 a abort act enended tbe powen to propoie, amend 
les, provided for rcprcBcotatiOD of workmen 
be piindpal act on any matter in diflerenct, 
on for phuii of nunei in vorking and 
coded tbiee ot the general rulu (intpection 
ig work, use of ufety lamp and non-inflamm- 
able aubatancca foe atemming), and empowered tbe aecretary 
of itale by order to pnihibiC or regulate the uM of any eiploiive 
likely to becomi dangoDaa. In 1900 another britf 'ut niud 
tbe a|p ol amploytnent of boyi undeigronnd fnm twelve 10 
<>■■''—' In 1)03 another ammdiag act allotred aa an alternative 
qualification fci a manager'a certificate ■ di;doma in icientiGc 
«iid mining uaininf after at leaat two yean' atudy at a univeniiy 
mininf ac&ot or otbcr edueatianal lutitulioa approved by tbe 
aecretary oi Malej caused vilb pmctkal experience ot at least 
(hrac fean in ■ mloc. In tbe laow year tbe Employment 
of Children Act affected childns in mine* to tbe extent already 
indicated in connexion vith tactoiiet. In igoj « Coal Ulna 
(Waghing ol blinenU) Act improved aome proviiioni relating 
to appointment and pay of cbeckwcigbcia and facilitica for them 
and tbot duly appointed deputiea in canying out their duties. 
In 1906 the Notke of Accident* Act provided hi improved 
annual Rtumi of aoident* and foe immediate reporting to tbe 
diurict inipcctor of acddenl* under newIy-dcfined oonditions 
BB thqi arise in coal and metaUileroui miaa. 

WUle tb* (^Mi tt mlsM Rfulatad bv the act ol lUr ate the 
«ame •• thow regulated by the act of 1871 iU. ninta of coal, of 
. •traliMd IrooKDoei ot ahale and of fin-clay, including 
*!t, wki above ground where the minerali are prepared for 

'■'' me by ttfeennig, wiiliing, *c.) the inletptelalion ol the 

tena " mlm" 1* wldv and liin^i Indgdiog " every ihoft in the 
coune ol bdng lunlc. and even kvd ud ledincd nlaoa in the 
ceune ol bdng driven, and all the ihaft*, level*, pbnea, nrki, 
Iramwayi andiidinp, both below grouod and above ground, in and 
■djaeenttoaiKl belDiwingtothemTne." Of the penom neponaible 
Oder penalw !«■ tha aiHvam,of the acu (he term "oww" ta 
defined jnody .* in the act of 1I7), but the Mr> " umc h 
audiliidta mean " any pcnooappobited a> the lepceKniitlveof the 
owner to reapeet of any mine or any part tkenof, and aa nch, 
aupecfar to a naaanr appointed in pursuance of this act. Of the 
penaoainNeeted. tka (era " young pcnon " disappeared fnim the 

act, ana " boy," (.t "a male under the age — ' — 

'AU" ta. " a (eaial* under the age oT eTirr 
pSce, and the term '■ woman IT " •— 

i tmployment 

UAiga of amplayii tt nlagHBHl of boy* hla b 
ex t en ded lisa baft id the aga <l ten bi 1171 to bi 
■My and to biqn of tbiiteen in I^OOl The an of CBplgyw 
boya and glila abim ground b conneaiaii with any p u ** u 

I yg^j^ I, jg^ (g twdva year* sioca iWr. Tbe bu>i> •■ 

'- boybekiwgnuBdmay nolocaad Uty-feuriBaay 

lumiOB to tbe aurfate. AbovegrouaJaay IJDyor 

Udiyi in any one " '— ■ " -~ -■" ■■— -— 


in tha " nncral n 
aecwinr afety of ralnea, and wnch, ao I 

nedgieA to dilute and R--*— ' ' 

he pnviiion wUch , ^„, 

" — fldeilwitbBtlailtvDibaflakMdB 
of tU7 than In the previo i code, by 

^^^ ^1111" " r""** 

pointa: (a) l}aily peraonal aopervlskin of the bIh by the oertificated 
iiiiiiaiii. (1) daiaes ot cettifieates and eontitutkin of board lor 
KraatlBgceruficateaof eoKpeeeacyt ff) plan of workingi of any Buup 
IS be k«c op to a date not bbr than three montha pmloualy tt the 
office oTlbe mfaie; (d) notice to be given to the Itupector of the 
district by the owner, agent or manager, of aceideota in or about any 
mine which cause ioas ol life or aerious personal injury, or are caused 
by upkidDB oi coat or cca] dust or any explosive or deciridty er 
any other ^iccial nuiB Itiat the lecrttary of state spedfiH tiy order, 

accident occunfausicg loB ol life or serious penonal Injury ihill be 
left tor inspmian far at IsisI Ihree day*, unless this would lend to 

was new in the act of 1M7: M noCKe to be given of opening and 
abandonment o( any mine; this was extended to the openng or 
abudoonKnt of any scani (0 plan of an abandoned ada* or leaid 
to be sent within three menOui (c) formal invest^tion of any a^ 
plosion or accident by diiection of tbe secretary of state; this 
provision, lini introduced by the act d itM, wag modiBed in TM7 
to admit the sppointnieiit by the tsoetary of state of " any com- 
petent perwn ■'^u bold tb* tmstigation. whereaa under the alias 
■ection only an Inspector could be appointed. 
The " general rulea " for aafely !n mines hat 
many waya linee the act of 1g71. Artlcuhir 

ef nde 4 of tbe Kt (d iM;, lelatlng to tbe li_, _ . 

covUtioas as to ^s ventilation bqrood appointed statiooB ".*" " 
at the entranoB to the nine or difleient parti of tbe miDa; ^^ 
this ndegcaefallv removed the earlier tfistiocUon between mines En 
which inlummable e** has been found within the neceding tr' - 
._ —-■-■— '--I'-i ^-ba*notb*ea*ofouoiJ;ofrule*g, 

strengthened in 
Ae inspection of 

nine ID the cenilniciian, use, ftc.of safety laiapa. which 

jUiled and stringent than rule 7 ol tbe act of 1871, which 

they replaced; of rule I>, idiling to the use of cxploiivea below 
grtntnd; of rule 14. which reqiiitti the appointment of a competent 
male person not leas than twenty-tvo year* of age for working Ib> 
machinery for ioweriag and raisag petaDnt at tbe nanei of rule u 
which first reqidied provlsian of amlmlaiKe* or st 
(plint* and bandagia at tbe nine leady l« unii>nlii 
3B, wbl^ su e ngt bened the prDvfskm for | 
the mine bv prectieal mfaxtroa behalf of tb 

periodica! inspection of 

r--— — ,J» workmen at their own 

reference to the laai-dted nde^acinf tSoEl a Prussiaa 

minuig caaunisilan irislied Great Britain, Franse and Belgium, to 
study and compare the nrioua metboda of inspection by working 
miaeneatabllshedlnibeaelhreeeountrie*. Th^ found that, so fat 
a* tbe method iad been applied. It waa me*l Mtisfaetocy In Great 
Britain, lAete the whole coat la borne by tbe worhet^ own osfaaiia- 
tiona.aBd Uw attilbiitad parttf thedccnne in umber of accident* 
per tbouiaod employed *inee 1S7) to tb* inaugucaiion of this 

Tba pnviiloat t* to th« pnpoHt, mendment and iiodificntio* 
of " spKlal rulea." last eBcndsl fay tha act of ilei^ may be eon- 

tnsted irith thoK of the Faeury Act. In the latter - .„ 
it is not until an industry or process lias been scheduled S^ 
as dangerous or injurious by tbe secretary of state's ^^ 

then the Initiative rests with the Factory Department whereas in 

iDl, for Ike ippmnl of ■!■■ Hcntuy at Mi.^ -^ 

cakuUud ta pnvcst dtncErooi ■oci«m^ *oi ta provkki ... _.._ 
X mdiwkper diftifKae df the p et M» enployed 
n. TbiH rule* niy, if they relite u K^tiu uid 
''an 01 cnpHivei, mtcniif nd 



■Uy the I 

d in the minb daeriptiaii of explailt 
)C lb* minei cr prevtfium of ac ci a wi t* 
l[ dut, bipciKdc uijr e^wI nile ui 


""S'lbe n 

jnder the Fjclncy Act, bu t then a ifiral prayiHun 
lOi to Ike pnlpDied min, itl uldLtion 10 thtir lubflc- 

»T- ihi: trctttaa nLiiin^ tO f^yaxat by weight toe 

. -, r-— — Hnplored, Mid for cbttk- 

ciitckiRiilicr " RaliODCd br the imjoTitv 

' hI i« tbe mighiiiK of tlH nutcdil, 

wl oiii Mi it of iIh Bciiu oj KCBrins i)h luliUniiit o( wir contract 
lo toe wwken mey be Gompsnid with ibe bittm of tnc Hclioia 
■flortUiif pntcction ta picct-woHccti by p«rtkpbtrv c4 work and 
want In ibe lolile tradn •incB tbi Futoiy ActoJ lBi|i. 

At r^udt 1e|i] pncocdinEik the chief anKDdnienti cJ the act of 
■ B71 ere: the exteniiaa of (ba nraruion that the " owner, egnt. 
AgmU^ ^^ aianagar" cbarfid ia f^apect of toy conlmvenlion 
njj^ by aaottwr penon aught be iwora mad cQinititd » an 
ordinanr witJHa» to aay peiBOB chained *jlh any offence 
dadcf (he act. llie mult of Che pracc ed ingi aeainit vorfemcn by 
the aaner, agent or mnafcr in ropccc of an qAcdcc under tJic act 
it to be reported within twenty-one dtyi to the inapcctor of the 
djilHct. Thcpowennf iiufcclon weteevrendcd tocoveraainqEiiry 

n oi the mine tv the 

An important act wai 
Act 1908) limiting the 1 
It enacted that, subject to vai 
not to be below ground in • n 
and of going to and f tom hii > 

aulhotitiet of eveiy n, 

1 190S (Coa! Mines Regulalion 
rk for workmen below ground, 
u provisioru, a workman was 
: lor the purpoie of hi» work, 
(, for more than eight boun 
loun. EiccpiioD was made 
[ for the purpose of lenderiog 
:nt| ot lor meeting any danger, 
or work incompleted, through 
requires to be dealt with to 
; work of the mint The 
ix the times for the lowering 
and be cDmplcled, and such 
the pit head. These 

in the ad m 

. Thelc 

ae (other than a fireman, examiner 
or deputy), or a mechanic or a borse keeper or a person engaged 
■olcly in surveying or measuring. In the case of a fireman, 
eianiiner, deputy, onsetter, pump mioder, fanman or furnace 
man, the maamuin period for which be may be below ground 
b nine hours and \ hail. A register must be kept by the 
aulhorities of the mine of Ibe limes of descent and ascent, 
wbile the workmen may, at their own coat, station persons 
(whether holding the oSim of cbeckweighcr or not) at the pit 
head to observe the limes. The authorities of the mine may 

•tity days in one calendar year (s^ j}. The act may Ix suspended 
by order in coundl in the event of war or ot Imminent national 
danger or great eaetgenty, or in the event of any grave economic 
disturbance due to the demand for coal exceeding the supply 


a force on the 11 

In 190s the r 
eoi^i^ed, of w 

or the counties s( NDrtbumberland and Di 
in was postponed until the tst of January ipro- 
iter of coal-minei reported on WM 3116, and Ih( 
I employed below grouad wu «S9i,tJ> o( whom 
' ]6 years of age. AljDve Around )07,36l "-^^ 
n 6l}4 were women and girls. The nunt 


iioo6,caut!iiciUI(Hof iMSlivea. (X 

Qaarria. — From rS/S until 1B94 open quarries (at distinct 
from underground quairica regulated by Ibe MetaUifetous 
Mines Regulation Act) were regulated only by the Factory 
Acts ID fir' as they then api^ied. It was laid down in section 
Bjof iheactof t878(«i Vict. e. 16), that " any ptemfaes or place 
shall not beexclucted from the definition o[ a taetoryotwoiijbop 
by reason only thai such premises, AC, are or li in the open 
alt," thereby overruling the decision in Kent v. Attlcy that 
quarries in which the work, as a whole, was carried on In tbe open 
air were not factories; in a schedule 10 tbe same act quarriei 
were defined as " any place not bcitig a mine In wHdi persons 
work la getting slate, stone, coprolltcs Or other mincralB." 
The Factory Act <^ rSgi made it possible to bring these places 
in pari under " special rules " adapted to meet the special risks 
and dangers of the operations carried on in them, atid by order 
of the secretary of state Ihey were certified, December 1B91, 
as dangerous, and thereby subject to special rules. Until (hen. 
at reported by one of the Inspectors of factories, quardts had 
been placed under Ibe Factory Acli without insertion ot appro- 
priate rula tor their safe wotiing, and many of them were 
'developed in a most dangerous manner without any regard 
(or safely, but rturely for economy," and manigers of many had 
" Karccly seen a quarry until (hey became managers." In hn 
report for i8(|j it was recommended by the chief inspector of 
faciorics Ihal quanics should be subject 10 the furisdiellon of 
the government inspectors of mines. At the same time mtrcncy 
was given, by the published reports of the evidence before the 
Royal Commission on Labour, lo the with ot large numbers 
of quartymen that open as well as underground quarties should 
come under mote fpcciallHd government inspection. In LB93 
a conmiittee of eipects, including inspectots of miae* and. of 
fsctories, was appointed by the Home Office Id investigate the 
conditions of labour in open quarries, and in 1S94 the Quarries 
Act brought every quarry, as dinned in the Factory Act iR;8, 
any part of which ia more Ihoa ao ft. deep, under certain of the 
provisions of tbe Metalliferous Mines Acti, and ondcr the 
inspection of the inipccton appointed under those acts; further, 
it transferred the duty of enloidng the Factory and Wortshop 
Acts, so far as they apply in quarries over 10 11. deep, from the 
Factory 10 the Metalliretouj Mines impeclors. 

The provisioiu ot the MelallifeiDus Mines Acts tB7» and 1875, 
applied lo quarries, are those relating to payment of wages in 
public-houses, notice of accidents to the iitipector, appointment 
and powers of inspectors, arbilralion, coroners' Inqutsla, special 
niles, penalties, certain of the definitions, and ihe powers of 
the secretary of state finally to decide diM>ul*d questions whether 
ptaees come within the ap[dIcaIion of the acta. For other 
matters, and in particular fendng of machinery and employment 
of women and young persons, (he Factory Acts apply, with a 
proviso that imlhing shall prevent the employmeitt of young 
persons (boys) in three shifts for not more than tight boors 
each. In i3og it was reported by Ihe inspecton of mines that 
spedil rules forsafaly had been established in over jooo quartiet. 
In the rtpont for 1905 it was reported that ihc accounts of blast- 
ing acddcntt iudicaied thai there was " iLill much biily In 
observance of the Special rules, and that many irregufar ami 
dangerous practices are in vogue." The absence ot deficiency 
of cilemal fencing lo a quarry dangerous to Ihc public has been 
^nce 1887 (so k ji Vict. c. tg) deemed a nuisance liable lo be 
dealt with summarily in Ibe manner provided by the PuUic 
Health Act 1875. 


with 1900, tnen wii 
employed. Fatal ao 


t. (hit csceeded the aveaas 
minci under the Cotl Mines 
■pile of tlie quarrlei " having 


r)«Un to hwfion nplonon of iM aaiatrotai 

l«n». He iiuibutnl tJw diStrence to » B« qbii --. ^-- 

lion d( Ihe Uw. In 1005 tbm vcrE 97 faul oirhfiRIi mulling in 

□I' ip^tmul or I 

r-abou and otKcr pUcct lor the hIe 
—" <: Imf down in tit CaA 

. BHU Minn RllulilioB 

Acu. The plana cAvmd by tW pnthibitiofl induda (ny 
od^cF, nidcn or plpca bdonfiiK to or occupitd wllb the placn 
namcid, Dut'thc ut doa not ipp^ to nich wafe« av Hre p9id by the 
loidcM, owner or occupfar o[ ilw pubKc-honc, b«T-diop >nd «b« 
plus jnclmled is the pnUbitloa to uy mifaiiiD taiw jU( em- 
plD>«tJ by bia. Tbe pmuhy lor u cBeaa inimt ibb act ia one 
not etc«cdlii( £ 10 (ccuDnn the imit of /m lor tbe comifondiii( 
offmn under iEeC«l MinetActJ.aBdiHonenm itHybe (rowcutM 
■nd panaKin Roiveted In Bocltind ind Scotland under the Siiaunaiy 
JmiiiltadDa Acta. The ict doci not ■?» to Ireland, and noipcdil 
iupcctonle ii doited «ith the duty (deoforung iu provisioio. 

Sitp Hnri.— Id four brief icli, tB«i to 1894, «ai in force, 
the fint very limiud iteps were taken towards the poutiv* 
roguUtlon of tbe employment ol shop asaiataots- la the act 
of 1904 certain additional optional powers were given to any 
local autboiity making a " closing order " fixing (be houi (not 
Hilier than 7 F.u. or on one day in the week i p.H.) at which 
■hops shall cease to serve customers throughout the ares 01 
tbe autboiity or anyqxcificd part thercol oa regards all sbopft 
Or at regarda any specified class of sbopL Befoi< 
an bt made (i) a prima facie case [or it must apt 
authority; (j) the local autborily must ioqg 
(j) (be otdci must be diaftcd and sent for confiri 
vise to the central aulboiity, that is, tbe seoet 
Ihe Home Department; (4) tbe order must be bid before 
bath Houses of Parliament. The Home Office has given every 
Mconragtmcnt to tbe maluBg ol such otdcn. but their number 
in England is very laiall, and tbe act is praclltally ioopaati 
In London and many large lown Khera the need is grrale 
As the secretary of state pointed out in the House df Comma 

in the II 

It the u 

occupiers of tbe shops It 

me theie is a great difficulty 
twe4hitds majority, among 
[ed. In favour of the order, 

e weekly 

law in motioa Id England J64 local a' 
BO steps, but In Scotland ratbcr bctle 
obtained. The House resotvtd, on the d: 
drastic te^slalioD is required. As legLirdi 
^ace of such general codes as tppty t( 

Cia employers of shop assistants: [i) Llmiti 
lolal of hours of work of persons under eighteen years 01 age 
to sevcDty-iour inclusive of mesl-tiinei; (1) prohibilion ol th« 
employment of sucb persons id i shop on the same day that they 
have, to tbe knowledge of the employer, been empk^d iti any 
factory or workshop for a longer ptr|od than would, In both 
classes of employ me nl together, amount to the number of hours 
permitlcd to sucb penons la a faclocy or wakshiv ; (3} pioviuon 
for the supply of seats by the employer, in all rooms of a shop 
or othu ptemists vhtre goods are retailed to the public, lor tbe 
use ol female »iMstanlB empbyed in retailing the goods— the 
•eats to be in (be proportion of not fewer than ode to every 
three fcmak as^tants. The first two requirements art contalBcd 
in the act of iSfli, wbich also prciaibed that » notice, referring 
to the provisions of the act, and^tating the number of houn 
in-the week during which a young pmoD nuy be lawfully 
employed in tbe ahop, shall be kept eiMbiled by the employa; 
the third requirement was fint provided by the act of iSgg. 
Tha inteivilniog acta of iS^j lod 1S9S are merely supplementary 
to the act of iSqi; the lormer pronding for the salarfcs and 
eipcUN» ri the Inspectot* vhicb tka eowoil aj any eounly or 

bamugbfandintbeCityolXaiuloa the Comnan Cousdl) 

' ' loint) the latxer 

an employer to 


penaJty of 40s. for 
eahlUled [he notice ol the pi .... 

absence of a penaHy it had been impoasibk to enforce. The 
peoally foremptoymntt eonliBiy tolbe acta is a fine not eiceeding 
£1 for each feriim «> employed, and for falluK to oomply with 


•ffcRce. and lor any subsequent offence a fin ol i 

e i n tetptet a tioii !■ (hn by tbe act o( 1S91 to the dasi 

ilace to which the limitation of bom applies. ".Shap"* 
ctail and wholesale shops, markets, stalli and Mmmmimm 

le shop*, markeii. f 
vuK« LM, ■ijui.i, ««dtants an employed ■»■ „ 
lnclwlca licensed pubUc'bouaea add refrfahm 

ia the " CBpioyer " 

thelern "employer " nor " shop a™Tit>nl " (med in the title of (he 
aee al llM} la dcfioed; but alher temu have the mewiingaasigiKd 
tolhcBlnlbeFaclotyaiidWarkihapAct ig;e. The " enpk^r '.' 
has. In case of any tantraven lion illeged, the same power as tfie 
" occitpier " in IheTacIory Acm to niempi himself from line on proof 
of due diligence and of Ihe fact thai tome other penon h tbe aeiual 

of the aame family lidng in a house of w^ch the shop loms part, a 
to iDcmben of the empteycr'a Eacnily, or to any one wholly employed 

la London, where the County Council has appointed mrti and 
wwien inspectcim 10 apply the acts of 1S91 to 1899. thaie wirr, in 
1900, 73,939 nremisM, and in I9OS, 84,169. under inspKtioii. In tbe 
biter year Ibere were ai.ojj employing pcraoiu under iS years ol 
a^. In 1900 the number of young persons under the acts were: 
indocn. 10,139 lioya and 4476 tirii; DOTdoors. 35,019 boyi, »A 
girlL In i905theratkibecwKBb^aand girls had decidedly altered: 
ind«ira,MDiboyii46Gggirlsiou><k«*>ii.fiS4bay>.]Dggii1a. Tbe 
number of irregularities reported in 1900 were 1^04 ana the pro- 
■ecuiiona were irT; ia 1905 tbe irregulaiitks were «a66 and the 
proHeutiDnH numbered 34. Aa rwirds tlie act of rS99, fit only 
■omDtihe T4.g44 shopi affected biLosdon was thcfc Iduad In looo 
to be failure to pFovneaealB lor the women employed iu retailuw 

Souls. The chicl officer of the Public Control Department renxled 
lat with viry lew eueptiou the law waa complied with II the end 
of tbe first year of ha appUeaiion. 

As mgaids eleanSnm. vcatilatkin, drainage, water-npply and 
vnitafy coniUtioa (eKially, sbopl have boen lince iSri (by 41 
Vict. e. 16. >. rot) auhjcct to tbe provisions of the Public Health 
Act 1S75, which apply to all buildings, except faetoriea under the 
Factory Aetj, in whicb any persom, whatever their number be, are 
employed. Thui. hnsdly, Ihe same aanhary proviiiana apply in 
shopa aa in workshopa, bat in the Etnner IhcK are enfocced goidr 
by the ofliccrB ui the local authodty, vritbout rraervation of any 
power, a> in workihops for the Home Dfiict impcetorale. to tOii 
default of the loeiil authority. 

ShoD aailstaoli. ta far as Uwy are engaged In mannl km merely 
clerical labour. coiM uadnlhe provisions of tbe Truck Acta 1S31 to 
iBBt, and in all clrcunutances [bey fall within the leiilioni directed 
agmnil unfair and unreasonable Arcs in the Truck Ael of 1S96: but, 
unlike employes in faelories, workshops, bundHes and mines, they 

neither Hont OScenapecton nor officers of^ loQil anthDrity have 
any ^xsially aaiigoed poweti to adiainiilrr the Truck Ads in ihepa. 
Tfuct.— Setting a^e tbe qiedal Hosiery Manolacture 
(Wages) Act T874, aimed at a partiodar abuse appearing chiefly 
in the hosiery industry— tbe pnctice ol making eicessliie 
charges on wages for macblDery and frame rcatt — only two 
acts, those of lEB? and 1S96. have been added to the general 
lav against tnick since tbe act of TB31, which repealed all prior 
Truck Acts and whicb rtniains the principal act. Funher 
amendments of tha law have been widely and strenunnsly de- 
manded, and m hoped for as the result of tbe long inqtdiy 
by a depanmental committee appoinied early in iqoAl The 
Track Act AncndmcM Act iHj, amended and eitsnded the 
act wit host adding any distinctly mo txinciplej tbe Ttuck 
Act «f li^ was directed lowarda providing remedies for mattea 
thoira by decislang under the earlier Ttuck Acts to be outside 
the scope of tbe ptindplti and proviiiona of those a<t*. Under 
in objecu were: (1) to make tbt vagca 

wagta is toodoi drink 

i of bboDi. payable Onl^jn 
a igrohlhlt whole ot put paynml a 
I clMhei 01 any uhei anickai (ij u 




(ttrbid agrMmHiit, ciprHi or [mpticd, btliKen tmptoyer md 
workmen u to the manner or place In which, orulidt* on which, 
I wDrlman ihaJI expend hii wages, or lor the deduction fram 
wagei of ibe price Bi irticin {other than maleriali to be lued 
In ihe labour of tbe workmen) tupplied by the employer. The 
^^ act of 1&B7 added a further prohibitioa by making 
Mi$4i^ ^^ illegal for an employer to chargs iatercit on any 

advance ol wi 
« otberwiw a workmar 
the regular period of lb 
part ot on icmunt Ihert 

of Ihe principal i 

any action ageinubii workma 

belonging la the employer, or id 

•rby . 
Evceivc in antfapation of 
liit wages an advance al 
L itrenglbened the lectfon 

11 for goods aupplied 
L which the employer i 
By la] Mtunng any worKmnn suing an employer for wagei agamst 
any counttr-daim in respect ot goods supplied to the workman 
by any person under any order or direction of the employer, 
and W by etpieuly prohibiting an employer [lom ditmiising 
any worker on account of any patticukr tine, place or manner 
of ctpending his wages. Certain eiemptlons to the prohibition 
ofpayment otherwise than in coin were provided for in the act 
of 1S31, if >D agreement were made in writing and signed by 
the inniier, via. rent, victuals dressed and consumed under the 
unpToyer'a roof, medicine, fuel, prnvcnder for beasts of burden 
used in Ihe trade, materials and tools for use by miners, advances 
lor fiieodly societies or savings banks; in the case of fuel, pro- 
veadcr and tools there was slso * proviao tlut the charge should 
not «ceed the real and true value. The act of iSS; amended 
these provisions by rcquirfng a correct annual audit in the case 
of deductions for medicine or tools, by permitting part payment 
of servants In hnslundry in food, drink (not intosicanls) or 
other ^lowJknces, and by prohibiting any deductions for sharpen- 
log or repilring workmen's tools except by agreement nol forming 
part of the condition of hiring. Two imponint adminisiraiivc 
amtndmenti were made by the act of 1887; (1) a section 
limiLar to that in the Factory and Mines Acts was added, empower- 
ing the employer to eiempt himself fiom peniJty for contra- 
vention of the actson proof that any other petun was the actual 
DSeodec and of his own due diligence in enfocciiig the eiecuiion 
of tfce acts; (i) the duly of enforcing the acu in factories, 
workshops, and mines was imposed upon the Inspectors of the 
Factory and Mines Departments, respectively, of (be Home 
Office, and lo tbeir task they were empowered to bring all the 
authorities and powers wfaich they pottessed in virtue of (he 
acts under whicfa they arc appointed; these inspectors thus 
prosecute defaulting employers and recover penalties under Ihe 
Sunutiary JurisdiciioB Acts, but tbey do not undertake civil 
proceedings for improper deductions or payments, proceedings 
lor which would lie with workmen under the Employers and 
(Vku Workmen Act iSjs. The persons to whom the 
ttmtaud benefits of tbe act applied were added lo by the act 
<^^* ™* of 1887, which repealed the comphcated list of trades 
^^ contained in Ihe ptindpal acl and substituted the 

lioiplei definition ot the Employin and Workmen Act, 1I75. 
Thus tbe acts iSji to rSSr, and also tbe act of i3q6, apply lo 
all workers {men, women and children) engaged in manual 
labour, eicept domestic servants; tbey spply not only in mina, 
factories and noikshops, bul, lo quote the published Home 
Office Memorandum on the acts, " in all places wbete work- 
people ate engaged in manual labour under a contract with an 
ecD|>loyer, whether or no the employer bean owner or agent or 
ft parent, or be himself a worknian; and therofore a workman 
who eniJoys. and pays othen under him must alio observe Ihe 
Truck Act5." The law thus in certain circunutancs cover* 
Outworkers for a contnclor or sub-contractor. A decision of 
tbe High Court at Dublin in I tcot^fxire V. 5B«uy) slrenglhencd 
the inspectors in investigation of offences commitlcd intonfit 
outworkers by supporting (he contention that Inquiry and 
uerciie ol all the powers of an inspector could legally lake 
place ia puis of an employer's premises other than those io 
vhichtiK work is given DUE. It de^ed for Ireland, in a narrower 
teine than bad bithaRn baen understood and acted upon by 

Ihe Factory Department, (he cIuks of outwoiken prelected, 
by deciding that only lucb as vete under m contract personally 
lo execute the work were covered. In 1905 the law in England 
WIS similarly declared is Ihe decided case of S^irt v. Tkt 
ilidlani LattCe. Tbe Judges (Lord Alveistoae, C.J.; and 
Kennedy and Ridley, J.J,} stated that they came to the con- 
clusion with " reluctance," and said: " We venture [a express 
tbe hope that some amendment of Ihe law may be made so ss 
(0 extend Ibe protection irf tbe Truck Act lo a cla« at work- 

" though they do sometimes employ assistants m evidently, 
ai a class, «iage-camlng manual labourers and not cnntraciors 
In the ordinaiy and popular sense." The principle iclied 00 ia 
Ibe [ledsioB was tlut in llu case of Inpam v. Barmt. 

At the time ot Ihe panng ol the aa of iMt it ■ens to bavebeen 
Rnerally believed that Che obligation under the priiKipal act to pay 
the "entire amount of wages earned " .in coin rendered »---^- ^ 
illegal any deductions from wages fo respect of fines. tT^^*? 
Impoftanl decisions in Itit and lUg showed this beliei '^^ 
to have been ill-Ioundcd. The esietiilal point lies In the definition 


loget taiiitrecemptnse for the W»ur penormed. As 
nedear that ejiceiiive deductions from vaga as wdl 
y wovkcn for maceiials uicd in the voric were nol 
t dediiclioiuoTTuyiiicnti by way of compensation to 
ly way of discipline might legally (wiih the unale 
M for litenen lor women and children, leguliled by 
■nd Workmen Ad iBrj) even exceed tbe degree Of 
or damage to the emplwer, it alto came ckarly Into 
ler Isislalion voa dfiiiablc to extend tbe principles 
Ibe l?iick Acts. It wa* deiinble, that it to asy, to 
lly the unfair deaUnc that may be enceumged by halb 
I in wori(-plac*t. on Ilia part ol the •mplovB' in making 

Ik at Uie tame line kavingtha ptiociple ot fntdiua 

at far as possible nntouched. The Truck Ace _. . 

- ■-— tbe condition under which dcductiont US* 
X payments made to the employer, oot *"'•'" 
tTKCed to bt paid te the werktt," ij.mttC any 

iniru they ai 

<d JB96 nsulat 

ctumt or payments illegal uniru they an in 
, _. . .let; and it provides that dcductiont (or pay- 
ments) lor (d) fines, (Ei] bad work and danugcd goods, (r) natenaU. 
machines, and any oner thing provided by tne employer in rdalioB 
to the work ihalllie rcssDE il>le, and that paniculan of the WM ia 
writing likall l>e given to the workman. In none of the cases men- 
tiooed Is the employer to make any profit; neiihcr by fines, for 


or damage, for these may ji 

ible havint reKSfti ^ 
racl CouUTm^ legi 

(^ acli er'omlHlHia vMch oi 
not byss]e<4 ■Mienslt. loi 
"" en^rfoyer; not by deduc. 

:ced the actual or 

10 oe uniair 10 uc wonunan in inc sente o' the Set. "i ne coniian 
between the employer and workman must either be in writing signed 
by the workman, or its terms must be cicaily stated in a notkt 
conitantly affixed in a place easily acceuible to the workman to 
whom, if a party to tbe conlnct, a apy shall be given at the lime of 
mnkiiu Ihe conttacc, and who sball be entitled, on lequen.taobuin 
from IliC employer * copy c^ the notice tree of chaign. On each 
occasoD when a deducuofl or paymcot It made, full particulars in 
writing must be nipplied to the workman. The employer it bound to 
keep a Rgltcer of deductions or paynentS. and 10 enter therein 
paitieubrs ot any fina made nnder tbe cootract, specifyipg the 
amount and nalure of the act or ominsoa in respect of which the fine 
was impoied. Thii register mutt be at an timet open to JDtpBtm 
of minet or faciorict^ha ate entitled to make ■ copy of the cootnuft 
or any part of it. This act as a whele ippliea to ad woitnm ja- 
cluded under the earlier Tiwck Acta; the aecthias rdating to fioif 
■nnlv alu ta ihon uaiMaota. The latter, however, jipwently ttc 
I gf the law (henudvea, at no intpedont* 

jnihelrbehaE In theie and otba' cue* 

inder the Track Acta may be InBltuled by My person. 
Any workman or shep aaiNsnt may iicovtr any sum deducted by 
or paid to hit enpleyer cmuiuy to the act of iSffc pcondid that 
prcceedioBS are commenced within six monthi, and that where hi 
has acquiesced in (he deduction or payment He shall only rttuvtr 
the OCC9 over the ameanl *hk;h Ibe couR may find to'havc b« 
fair and reavnable in all the einnnxUMa al the ease. . It la *«■ 
prqily declared in thaaatht nothing in kahallafierttbtteov ill OB t 


■ Acu aitli nl 


», . vr Ibe cav of t tundry. And d lay plan 
tqr tiM ocEuplB ol ■ faclocjr or woUiiip.or 
' — = — K It rmiwd (or the ten 



iSb. pnvUau i4 lb* : 

_„ __ i on bV>ly o._ 

tiDcuhin coOH iBdiun. Tin cffcd gf IBc «iianpIiiKi ia not I 
ermpt iott tad deductuiu fiom beiiif nade, bnt Uw dcwT h 
It deaeiumiad thu then sre cuce when leiden unonf vnbi 

vilhDfit 1l« ifHKifie oinditloiu liid down In thii >ct TTie report! 
ctf the iniprctan' of {■ctarin ban denunitnted tbit Id othtr Ln- 
durtriet mu^ mk tuH had to be done under thli act. end knowlcdKO 
ol a biBhty trcbni^L chuactcr ID be ^raduaUy acquired, before 
MinioM could be (onued U 10 lb* rtMOfubleBMi and (aimcia. or 
the cofttniy, of many fenm ol dedu 
cuttka ai l^al ioterpcetatfcHi involvliig 

ouri. panly to the 

.. Owing partly to diA- 
-le nectBlty at taking teat 

nuinbeToTciioviniaar^uIned oa pniecniMn la not m high aa 
Bnder the Factory Acta, iboogh the atenge penalty impoecd ia 
hieher. In 1904. Si ouca were uken Into court multini in 54 
CDnvictioni mth an Bverate penalty of ll. roe. In 1905. 38 caaca 
ivnillln|f In 34 oonvictiona wrre taken with an averaffr penalty of 
£1, 3a. In ignis. 3; caws mullini in ij Boavlctiane wen taken with 
an avnage penaily tH £r, ina, 

RcTenncc ahoatd hen be nwSe In the Shop Cluba Kctcltmu 
cloacty allied with Bme o( the proviikwi nf llir Truck Acu by it! 
pnivlsan that emrth>yen ahalL not make It a condition of employnient 
that any workman ahall become e memberof aahopdubunknail ii 
r e ti nend aadcr iht Friendly Sodetiei Act ol 1B96. Ai in the caae of 
payment 0( w«M in Public Hmim Act, no ipecial inioeetorale hi! 
ibi duty ol •nloidBc tbia act. 


In compatioa ItfUation affecting factoriei. miiKi, (bop* u>d 
truck in the chief iadmlrfal counlrita of the CDnifaient wltb that 
of Great Btiwfn, it is esjcntial to i juM view that inquiry ihould 
be extended beyond the coda IhcDUclvct to the geooal wciil 
mder and lyaleia ol lav and adnuniHralion id each country, 
Funfaer, spectil compaiteon ot tbe dcGoltioiu and the (anctiona 
of ench indoilrial code must be reeogniicd *9 twcetsaty, lor 
these vary in all. In 10 biicl a nimmary u II tppCDdcil hen 
ao more i> possible thaaaaautkneindJcatioD of the main general 
requiitmniti and profalblttona o[ tbe lawi as legardi: (i) hours 
■nd times of employmenl, (3) ordinuy unitation and spedol 
lequiiemcDU fo[ uobealtby and daiigeniU5 ioduitrics, (3) security 
BBainst (cddeDta, and U) pRVtntion of fnud and oppiesaon in 
fulfilment ol wlge contracts. As legards the fint of these sul>- 
divi^oni, ia general in Enrape the ordinary legal limit is nthn 
wider than in Great Britain, being in several counttiei not lesa 
than II hounidsy, and while Insoioe, uin Fiance, the aoiinal 
limit is 10 hours daily, yet the gdministntivt dlicretlon in- 
granting ntceptiom b talber more clastic The weekly half- 
holiday !i a peculiarly BHliih insillution. On the other band, 
in levenl European counltle*, notably France, Austria, SwiUer' 
Imnd and Rnsda, the legal maximum day applio to adult aa 
win IS youthful labour, and not only to ipedaJly protected 
classes of persons. As regards specialized saniuiion tor un- 
bealLhy factory industries, Cerciu regulation! smku to be 
most ncariy comparable with BritiitL Mines' labour (tgulatlon 
In several countries, having an entirely dlHerenl origin linked 
with owaenhip ol mines, i3 only !n few and most recent develop- 
menls comparable with British MXnea RcguUlIoa Acta. In 
rcgulatloa of ^ops, Cetmaoy. treating this matter as an integral 
part of her imperial fnduilrtal code, bu admactd farther than 
has Gnat Britain. In truck legislation most European counlrici 
' (with the exception o( France) appear to hive been influenced 
by the lai eaiHot law* of Great Britain, although in sDme retpecta 
Bclgiirai, with her rapid and recent industrial development, 
has Diade interesting originil etperimcnta. The rule of Sunday 
real (see Sumdai) has been eilended in several couattiea, 
ant recently in Belgium and Spain. In France this partially 
mttmpUd lult ha been BO modified u to be pnetball]' Bieventh 
dqr kK; oot neccMulhF Sunday. 


wir WHO, iKFmBca.in 

{wBw a mami fttl i iiwi ) foe adults by the law of the 9th al 
■848 to u Q Eb* 14. Mud) nnceitalntr existed ai to t 
workplaces covered. FloaD*, Id IMS, an audiarltatlve iiumim 
defnal ihea.aa btdndint: (0 IndiMnS estaUUnBeats wkb Htat 
power or ceaiiiiii*! farnaces, (7) worksbops enHdoring over 10 
•rorketi. in 1891, Bodec eonftlon of potlficatloa to tbt kcal 
authorities, eicqKlooa, itlll la fofcv, were mad* M the general Itsoita- 
tlon. In favour of ceettln Induatrla or p n jtjj t Lt , amoiw others for 
leiieipreas and Uthofiaphle nriniing, engiiieerini worfcL work at 
lumacca and in heating wnrkiAop*, mapnfaclun oTpnqectiks b( War, 
and any work for Ihexsvemincnl m the interests of natkwal derene* 




inipkved,ia iwto Il.and was 

^ypan of age and prohibited lUghl labour for any 

.^. This waa nreogtlieited in 1S74, particulariy M 

tTfardtemplovnientol girls nnderll. but it wasBot until 1891 that 
the Unur o( moien waa qieciatlyRgulated by a law,«lli in force, 
with certaia aaiendnients is 1900, Under diia law factory and worll- 
shop labour la prohlblled for children under 13 yeara, though they 
may beglB at II If quillBed by the neacribed alucatioBal cenlficata 
aod BuiUcal ceniScate of Itneai. The limit cf daily hours of em- 
ployment Is the lane aa lor adult labaur, and, ahnlbcly, fioBi the 
I at of April 1903 waa ro|, and two yean later betame 10 hoarafn the 
i\. Notice of the houn muit be affiled, and nml-timn or pauK* 
By the act ol ligi one day in the weelc. not oecesaarily Sunday, had 
to be given lor entire absence from arorlr, in addition to eight rero^ 
niied annual holidays, but this was modified by a law of i«0« whicli 
generally requires Sunday real , but altotra lubstitutlon of another day 
in certain IndualjieB and cenala dieumitanceB. NIghl labour- 
work between 9 r.u. and 5 jlk.^i prohibited for workers. under It, 
and only oc^tionally permitted, under ^condltionL for girisand 
women over ll in ipeofied tratks. In mines and undnground 
quarries enipk>ynKnt of women and girls it prohibited eacepl at 

factories. Boys of 13 may be employed m certain work underground, 
but under 16 may not be employed rrwn than g hnun in the aa from 
bank to bank. A isw of igas provided for minera a 9 
and In 1907 an B hours' day from the foot of the entn 


ively. In I 

9 of Inspection enfc 


phyocal fitness for the 

..„,, ,_ _. -.., ._. ,_. -jrtaiD occupations and 

processH are prohibited— *x, girls under 16 at machines worked by 
treadhM, and the weights that may be lifted, puihed or carried by 
girli or boys under 18 an carefully specified. The law applies 
grnerally to philanthrcqilc and religiouB institutiona where indubtrial 
work is earned on, as 10 ordinary trvUna estabUHhmeola; and thb 
holds good even S the work U t>v way of technical inatruction. 
Domeidc srorlEshops an not controlled unlcs! the induitry it claued 
at dangerous or unhealthy; Introduction of motor powa hringa them 
under biapectlon. General laDltation in iiulustrial oatabliBbmenlt is 
provided for ia a law of 1893. amended in 1903, and is lupplcmenud 
by admiiditruliie tetnlationa for ipecial risks due to powona, duat, 
eiplnlve substances, gaaea, fnmes, Sc. Vestnatlon, both general 
and tpKlal. lighting, provijon of lavatories, doakroomi, good 

placet, thoips, winrhauiet, mianrant Utchens. snd when wvkrn 
are lodged by their emploven hycieatc condltloni an piesoibed for 
dormitories. In many tndualnea ironen, children and young 
worken an dther abuIuCcly eicluded from tpedfied unhcahhy pro- 
cesses, or an admitted only nitder conditions. At regards sbops aod 
offices, the labour lawi are: one which protiela ^iprentlcet agaiolt 
overwork flaw of Jjnd Febrmrv iBsi). one (law of i9tfa December 
1900} which requires that aeatl ihall be provided for wimen aod glrb 
employed in retail tote of artidci. and a decree of the iSth of July 
1904 dehning in detail cooditiona of hyriene hi dormllDries for work- 
men aiidthopataiitants. The law relating to aealt ia enforced by the 
inspectors of factories. In Ftaace there la no ipedat penal legiila- 

Suc*SM'frmn"!^gea. alt hoilgh bll& ™i that end l" view have 
Irrquenlly been before parliament. Indirect protection to worken 
i! no dount in many caiea afTorded in organised indurlrie* by the 

Btlnum.—ia 1S48 In Belgium the COfnmltdon on Labour pro- 
poRdlcgiilatbn 10 limit, as in France, the houn of bbour for adullt, 
but this ptopoial wu never passed. Beyan legulailon d bboui 
in Induitry nnuin) eaaeotlal^. In ^rmony with Itl earHett bc^n- 
ningi in I Jtj and onwards, a seriea of tpecialiied provisloni to meet 
particular risks of Indi^dual trade*, aoddid not, untA igtg.glvf any 
adhennce lo ■ common prhvdple of limitation ot hours and times or 
labour for "protected "penoas. THtwasinthelawof the 131b," 
l>e«mber 1889, which applies to mhica. ouarrtes. lactones, work- 
ihopt classed at unhealthy, nlurvea lod docks, tranapont. As in 
Fiance, industrial uubUthments having » chariuble or pbilaothro^ 



or cdncUiaBil chiracUi ui bcliidHl. The ptimu jnHaiti in 
fiH« ud woian UDdv II ywii »d boyi uadvr |&; aad vmncd 
svtr II «ly &oi ■ plua is tlw law thnMgti ihi pnAJbiiian of thcu 
•m^oyniflDt within four vrnln Hficr diildbirttx, Ab the boun of 
bjjwr of adult worn miwin onliurily unlimiwd by law, id ir 
^ltaun<di)ayiIn)iB l6[all. Tlie law ci< Sunday nt dated Ibe 
■Ttli al July 190J. bowtvir, ■ppUa w labour gcaaiOy in all in- 
duRrial anduninBcial undutaUnai oont iniupoR and fiiberich 
wiJh wiain regulated eueptnu lor ^j caa<a ol hieakdavn or 
ur^Dcy due u /ercf j wa^ntrj, (Al ceftaui npain and cleanidf. if] 
p^ibabk materials, (J) letu und mpply- Vnuiw wwIkti ate 
eacluded troa the exantioni. The abeoluli probiUiiiHi o' eni' 

C' ynient are; for childjm uiHkr It yon ia may iDdiulry. manu- 
lurinv or mioiof or larupwXj moA for wodko and sirii under ai 
yvMn bdow the lurface ia working of nunoe. Doyi luder lb yrara 
and vamcn and girle under >1 yewi nay in fuenl not be «n- 
ployedbe£ore5a.H, oraftcr9P-M.,andoBeday wtlMiinrcnittobe 
■et apart to€ reit frooi cnployokcat: to tbeeo nitea eueption may 
be nade other by royal d«ree for cLuaea otrduib of pro m ae a , « 
by local authmuin ia cuxptiaaal caiea. The BKxpCBU may be 
applied, feneralty, Daly to worlfieru over 14 vearL but in mjnca, by 
royal docree, boyi over ii ywa may be enplaycd from 4 a-H. The 
lawof tBBoiiKCaDnlyamaaimumorja bouraot eRfctiwwoflcIobe 
inlerrupted by paiuei for rot of not let* than 14 houn,empDWTrinK 
tba king by decree 10 formulate more predat linula euitod to tbv 
tp«ial cinUDUtancci of individual indidtriea. Royal decreet have 
accocdingly bid down the conditiona for many group^ including 
ttilile IndeK Diaoutaclure of pvcr, pottery, glut, clothing, mino. 
quarrwa, enBinecring and printiiw worica. To aoine the daUy limit 
ia Lobourm, but in more iO|or It noun. In ■ fsw ocrptionany urn 
bBlthy Indei. uch la the manufactuicodudfcr matcho, vulania- 
lion 01 india-rubber by maane of carbcn bi-iulphidc the age of ei- 
cljvon fivm employment hii been rued, and in tbo bU'tumcd 
procesa haura have been reduced to 5, Lnoken Into two ipetia of >t 
houra rach. A« a rule the conditiDU of health and ■a fog ua r ding s< 
cmploymenta in euxptjonaliy injurioua tiadea have been iotvht by 
a leriia ol deciees under the law of 1(163 relating to public haUlb in 
auch induitriea. Special re):ulationt for ufely i3 woTkcn have been 
introduced in manufacturea of white-lead, oiidea of lead, chtmute 
of lead, lucifer match worla, rag and ahoddy worln; and for danger* 
common to many iodiutrie^ pRndsoaa agairut duit, soliona, 
accident* and other riika to health ct limb have kwen codined in a 
deciKofiSgfi. Aroyal decneof tbejittof March looj prohlblla 
emplcmnenl of penons under 16 yean in lur-puiUng and in carotiing 
si nbUt bUu. and aintber of the lllb of May 1903 ngulMesuKoi 
lead in bouse-paintinf. In 1S9I a law waa paiicd to enable tlw 

Sthoritico to deal wiui riaka in quarriea under the same proccdure- 
i«y in roinei [which are not private property, but lUte concea- 
aiou to be worked under atiict atate control) hu been prrMded tor 
ainoe 1S10- In maltcra of hygiene, until 1B99 tbc powen of the 
puljlic hraltb aulhorilia to ioterveoe wen iniulficlent. and a law 
WB9 pawd luthoriiinc the government to make i 
kind ol risk in any uodertakinf, whether dasse 

public health or not. By a ipecial law of 1S8S ,_... 

penooA under iS yean are oduded Emm employiDent aa pcdlara, 
hawkers or in citcuiea. eacept by tlidr parenla, aod tlicn only if they 
haveatlained t4yeara. Ahuieiof IhetruektyMemhave.aiDcelSS?, 
been regulated with care. Thechief objectaof tbelawof tU7 were 
to iccure payment in full to all workcn, other than those in agri- 

in public-houiea. and to lecure prompt payment of 
^uctioni were permilted under careful controJ for 
■ -•■-—— lodging, uie of lar-" ■•-■■■ ' — ' 



it local admiei: 

lyai order of the TOth^ October 190^ reqt 

piDcesaa. TheliHoIIhe ijth ol June i^ieguIaK 

of the workiag rules, the natuie and rate oJ fines, if any. ^d the mode 

of their application. Two cen' ■ - - ■ -■ - ' 

and the factvy aod workabop 

indioted. There ia aln ■ >y 

regblatidna relating to iodustna cuhco aa unne^iiny. dlii lue 

tendency baa been to ^n the aupreme control in these niailcn (o the 

Eactory service, with ica eipcrt staff. 

ffsBwd.— The first law tor regulation of labour la manulacture 
waiMaed in 1874, and this related only locmploymcatol children. 
The basis of all eidating Rgulatkxis irai established la the law of the 
Sth of May il8g, which appEea to all Industrial uodertakingi. ca- 
cludtag aeneulture and forestry, fishliw, stock-rraiing. Employ- 
ment of childred under 11 ycanisprobiblted.aDd hours are limited 
lor young persona under IG and for women M My an. These pro- 
ttctcd peraon* may be eicluded by royal deem iron unhealthy 
industrMa, and such Industrie* are uedfied in 1 decree of iSn 
which aupoaedc* other earlier itgulatKna. Houra of trnptoymr— 
. .. ._.,^_.. jp^„, ,._ _. . 

, which hour must no 

rorfaoom. ^Voik befc. ., ..... , ., — - ^ -,-„, „— 

rork on tecogidud holidays is generally prohibited, but there are 

(ceptfona. fXertime f rom 7 to 10 r.u.. under coaditionB,bnnowed 
or women nod young worton, and Sund^ work for womn, tw 

iag of DadrinRv, psocuitioaa against lidi fran In and 

ten are provided fix. The BtaiMdKnDE of hsciler mittbei 

by means of while pbospkoiua waa larbUdeB and the cnan, iinpoitv 

tmn and ale waa rcgakled bv a law of th* iMi of May 1001. Br 

egulalion el the 16th of Match 1904 pniviaaoa for tallty and 

Llth of womai and young werken wan kngtheood in pr 

Bounds or other ^Disans aix asedi and Ibeir ( 

vented by the a 
employen and '"^ 
of disputes. 

AnlicrJaiid.— In SwiUcrland aepantt caalonal lendalioa pre- 

pared the way for the geaenl Federal labour law of ajj on wUck 

- batqatnt legislatkHi reata, Swl kgislatioa it also isniimal aa 

■M at Federal, but in tht latter (ken it oaly —t'*-"™' pr 

larpietalioa of the piinciplaa eoataiiied ia Iba law of iSn, whcieaa 

nlonal legitlaliaa coven indastriea aat inchided uader tka Federal 

— V, r^ ttulc workaaanplaycd ia a tiadt (nsffHr) andeiaaloymeat 

in shopt, offices and hotdt. TheFedciallaw BappGedloIaiwtie^ 

■orkshopt emplmrbig young perannt under 18 or mora thaa li> 

worken. and workthopa ia which unbtallfay or danferous c roiMea 

'on. Mineaaicnot inclndad, butaRraulatediaaonM 

.,-, _ regarda health and saEety by canioAal laws. Further, 

the Law of Empla|«i' Liability l8ii-lU; w>--<- - ' ' ■' 
... — : ■._. apintt^ecileais aiw re 

iaTM,'tothecr(at~inio(BipL ,— ,— .- 

which theiv an few. have to be inspected once B_year by a mining 
mguieer. The majority of the pmUoaa of the Federal labour law 
ipply to adult wctftccn of both seaes, and the pneral limit of (tie 
I i-boun' day, exduafve of at least one hoar foe loeak, appUea to men 
■a weH as wooien. The latter have, however, a kgal dniiB, when 

Shave a household to manage, to leave work at the dinner-liauf 
snhoureatlierthanthemen. Menand unmarried women may 
be employed in such subsldisry work as cleaning btfoct or eltIT tho 
cennl Iml limits. On Saturdays and eves <( tkc eight psbUc 
hoUdaystbe I1-baun'ifciyisRdiicedta 10^ Suaday work (udnirtt 
work an fbrlndden, but ejEceptions are pcrmttta] conditionany. 
Night work Is definad aa 8 T.u. to s kU. In sumoier, 8 r.H. to 6 A.H. Ln 
winter. Cfaildrta arc e x cl u ded from empkpyinent la mjTkplaceB 
under die law untH 14 yean of age. and untiF 16 must attend con- 
tinuatlaa achocJ*. ZUeh caston haa Sued the working day for 
women at 10 houn generally, and 4 houn on Saturdays and eves oS 
faoUdays, Ule-VUle caoton has the aame limiti and provides that 
.1.. 11^:.^ c — I imploynient permitted shall be eompen- 


_ in nil 

, .^., /lay en 

■aled by double time off on 

eantsoa girlt under 18 are not petmllteil 

cantons ctcept Glarua the condjiianal o\ 


Sanitaiy reKulitioni and^fendng of marhlnrry are provided for 
withcansideTable minutenesslnaFedenlderreeaf 1897. Tke plan* 
of every new factory must be aubmitteil 10 the cantonal govern- 
ment. In the case ol lucifer match iactones^ not only the buUding 
but methods of manufacture must be subnutled. Snce 1901 thfl 
nUTiulacluTe, sale and im poll of matches contaming white phcaphorua 
have been lortildden. Women must be abaent^iom empklynicit 
during eight weelit befoiT and alter chikibirth. In certain dangemta 
occupations, t^. where lead or lend compounds are ia use, woman 
may not If^ly be employed during pregnancy. A resolution of the 
federal CDuncit in 1901 clased thirty four different lobstancts In use 
In industry aa daiKcrous and laid down that in case of dearly deRned 
illness of worken directly caused iiy use of any of tbettaubstuce* the 
Kabilicy ptoindcd by article J ol the taw of the igth of June 18S1. 
and article I of the bw ol the 16th ol April 18S7, shouhj apply to the 
manufacture. L«islative provision against abuses of the truck 
rystem appnra taK of Arfier origin In Swicnrland (17th century) 
than any oiher European coontry outride England (ijth oatitUT). 
The Federal Labour Law 1S77 generally pmUbict paymant of 
mam nthrrviie than ui Current com. and pnvldea that no daduc- 
epntraet. Some of the 
IrElsh act of ' 

le made without ai 

aRtOnal laws go muc) 

al pacecd half a day'] 

nriajft in I 
■^ maduaety. 

appointed by the Federal Govemment a 



cfulilSofi of the coB^tfom df labeur in indiDlry 

, _— -- - ^ t«crniu eapin jt atrtHied for in Ihe InpaiAl 

ladiuirlilCadtuilthcadaiaftheFtilml Council bued Ihcnon. 

mBl»tia| chiki bbriBT, ducd tbcwKb cf Minh 190J. >likh nluea 

InliMnlCodK THiCoikiibunloBiuUgTiiiduarBlaKlHolllK 
inuMc Nate*, but win c^cciilly ca lb* Cods at 1M9 el the 

Notth IT Ill Cufednlka. It ipitliri lo slHle or la put id all 

■ad JBdiutflal oocnadvB. mpt toimpBit, fiifctrla (ad 

Man. Miaw •» oaCr lachM n (ir u tniefe Sandiy ud 

- — ■ laokibilioa M tnplByiiMM uadntniuid o( mouIe 

an c< tin homy of iwa n tad jiow ny voHicrt *n 

>i do Iba nuriiw !■«■ otth* ^Kmtac tttta. To 
' iduitiU Cod* hi mridiH, it fa nccHBiy to 

,_.mtid polilkal htocofy of tha miplR. tho 

u admiAaulDii by ibo lidmttd Mata, and the (conUy 

Boble povcn mRd in adndnlitimtfoB « Inldithif rsfoli. 

liDM. 'nelnduMil Cede «iqnid/fet>iupawErf« the umie 
WdMB tvtHil tddlliou M eicFptians te the Code whldi la my 

K' ■ nte mty im piat of tlw law rccufattng faavia there. 
Code (onSke tha Auitriin Indi»«Tial Cede) liyi down no genenl 
UrailforaTiDnnalworkinffdayformdaltnulewDrhen, but linn lioi 
liiipeii«*en(ftin1tatbelniparlalfovsnUDRitti>liiidt boon far 
«ay iJaBia of mrtoa In lodaatriat Man hcbhIvb Icaglh af ibe 
nUai day tadufen tha health ol the mftor (ILCa 1 1K«). 
t^cviouiljrapplkatM had been okade «f powen to reduce the wofkii^ 
dty lo luch anhcalthy iadditiiei aa lOming of mirron by totfctiry 

niolnclaw^ alio lioited hoDn o( minen. Sunday kksu.uiiIIsi, 
Hnnd lar awry cUm of wotkcn, coninKrdal, iaduuiltl iiM 
_z-: — • 1 L-«j — , „,„ ij^ ■cured oo dwnA lotivab. 


foad conduct 

ditjooap AjiuapanantdiitiDGdonhBat- , _.. 

the icguIatioBa lor houn aJid timea of labour for protected penoni 
(vmieih youag pefwui and childreD). Settiny aside for the nunient 
lARi of uupadiiitanta (whkA an under neciat lectlofH ilncc 1900). 
It li u " factory wnricen " anl not to nouitnal iwcka n En ^enenl 
thai thbe lunita applyi allhougb they atay be. and in aome iaitancca 
bin bRn. further enendcd— for iimwue. in Rady>inade cloduiit 
mdo— by ImpeiUl dtcne to morlahnpa. and by the Child Labour 
Law of T^ iTnlaiion of the imiH iDd duntion of enplciyitieBt of 
thPd ign ■■ much vtnngtlienai in ToriodiDpa, coaiBBTtr, trtMn^ian 
•ad doaeitic Induuriei. The teem " [actory " ^FaMi) ia net de- 
hard Id the Code, hut it !■ dear from vatloua deciwou of the tuprrme 
QHirt that it only in part coinddea with tlie Euliih term, aad ttut 

pmr, rank rather aa Engtbh work^loH- The rUatinrtioD w nthcr 
MCaau ■IwlViik —T in f ii ctu rioi induftry, vith Hbdtvwon of 
labour, and muU tndualry, when the empJow wvrki biniKlL 
Cenua daiaca of undstakint, vit. lorta. timber-yanli. dock- 
yarda, btickfidda and open quanio, arc ■pcdiieally nuked u 
lactorie*. EiDploynentoI'pnitaned pcnorwat thssirfucof ninea 
and mdecxround quarrien, and in alt norka and on-diaaiiac worki, 
and fif b^a uoderfroiind cooua uibler the factory reguUtioDi. 
Tboe <sdude chifdrca from empfoyawnt under 13 yean, and even 
later H an edocationiil cntUiaie Ua not been obivivd: unlli 14 
yean boun of aiaiiloynunt may wt axSHd 6 In the 14. In procnaea 
andoccuMiioat undaribi ninof tha ChUd Labour Lavduldren 
may not be employed by thck parcnta or fuardiana befon 10 yran 
of atre or by other employcn befon >> yean of aee: nor tKtwetn 
the Eeun of S r.H. indS a.H.. nor elherwlK than in full conj^ana 
with rvatjlrenenta ol educatlona] authorities tof tcbool attendance 
and with dua regard to pnaaibed pauieL In aehooi term tine the 
daily limit of euiployq^at for ehildnn ia thiet hour^ in holiday time I 
three boun. Aa revarda facioriei Germany, unlike CiAI Britain, 
Fmncr and SwitieE^nd, rrq jiiea a aharter ity for youiifl penou 
than for wo m en- -JQ bovrv for the fomier, 11 boun for ihe btirr. ' 
Women ovv 16 yean may be employed II houn. Night work ii 
(orbHilin. i'.*. work betweia 8 jo ».». aad 5.10 *J«. Overtime may 
be enured to meet vnforearen preiaure or [or work on pcriihable 
nrtfiea, nnder mndilion^ by local authodtiei and the higher ad- 

balf-hour for chlMnn in theittlmir^: (or jnwnriKtaana a mid-day : 
pvuie of one hoar, and half an hour mpectivwm tha mominfl and 
4Cienibon ipelli; lor women, an hour at mid-day, but women with 
the care of a houeehoM have the claim, on deoiind, to an eitn biH- . 
boar, aa In Swiucrland, No woman may be employed within four 
weche after cUldbmh, and <mls« a nedkal eotUeate (aa then he 
prodocad. (be abaenca auut eiOtBd Is <ii wttka. Nniica of working 
perioda and meattlmea mnit be affixed, and co^iee Km to the local 
authoiltla. Emplaymtnt <€ pioteeted penoni in bctoty induUriei 
^1— „ k*,^,.. _ JL„^t ^.ita «1 v^i,b ^ MMmi[tv may 1^ i^mUA/*^ 

, , ,J«Cb^ 

emplormtBi ot chOdRB la loibidder - ■^--'— ■ 

cfaunaer •weeping, nnet cleaning > 
mi. By aa order of the Federal Coiindl in tw» 
■^ ■ ■ - in rm|« and w 

wereew^ded Tr 

m. By the Chilil Labour Law 
.- in brickwDiki, Hone btcakigg, 
and other proman and occupa- 

any pMHMB imdi 

Indqitrila and 1 
ala Rfulaled I 

lioa. PnhibltiociaaftnickiniBodilnalieiw— 
waf oth«r»fa« than In camnt eo& apply n 
a coBtBct of BHTica with an m ploy tr fcr a 
doMiial pnnMei; memben of a famHy mrUai 
band an not induded; ontworlten an c u vi ar eC 
I dedueiJoai from wagca applica oa^ b> betmy 

1 abopa enploylnf at Itaat » worhen. ShM horn 
by nqidrinc ah^ to ba doaed geMnlty t tc ano a 

1 JL. by icqnlriiit ■ GUI' "' " ' "' ' 


liianti. tVie limit! can be 

Notice of honn and worUng 

ie ooon of compuleory dodar i^ 

cuae to houte ia forbidden. Coder 

tha a»il aide, every employer la 

■uuuu ma silopl evcty Doiaihla nieaiuR lor maintaining the lalely, 
health and goad enndnct of bit emphwta. By aa enter ot the 
Imperial Chancellar under the ConmefCMl Coda aeala miMt be frO' 
viiied for coinmardal aadacaata aad awalka*. 

.taiMa.— Tha InddMital Cod* of Awtrit, which b ia ptcaeat 
outline (modfigd by later euclnuiM daua fiwn iMj, mutt be 
eaiernlly diitlnniibKl from lh< InduiCtlBl Code of the Uiwdom 
of Hungary. The latter i^ owing te the pndomlaantly agrkiillnBl 
character of the papuktion, ol later origin, and hardly ^ad pnetkal 
focoa before the law of iGoj pievidgd^ for lanectkia and pnvaa- 
tleo of acddcati in factenei. No aepanie miaing code HdHt In 
Hungary, and coodition* of labour an regulated bf tha AuBriaa 
lawofi854. The truck lyMcm ia repmaed on Ihiea elmilar ta Ihsee 
bi Aaetria and Germany. Aa ngardi limitation of boon of adult 
laboar. Hungry may be eenmaied with both tboaa empina In that 
riQ iBtrictioit of houn appUea either to men'l er women'i boun, 
wbereaa In Aurtrlan factonea both an Umltad to an ll-houn' day 
with exceptional owrtime for which payment maat alwayi be made 
to the worker. The AuHiinn Code haa In origin. hHrevar, like the 
Britiih I^eiary Acta, In pnlectfon of chOd tthoar. Itx pmeni anw 
h detannhied by the Imperial " fteest " of tSj9, and all Induirlal 
labour h Induded except iidnini;. traaipen. haheriea, fenairy, 
agiicultnn and damaRK biduitrlea. FactoHei an deKned a> 
Including indmtriea in wlwA a " manulactaring pieceaa ia carried en 
In an endoted place by Ihe aid of not leaa tlun twenty worfcen 
werUng with aiaeUnea, with nbdhrldoa of labour, and nndcr 
an employer who doea M« himadi maaBally anlat ia tbe woiic." 
—-"— liandlcmft indnitrlea the cempuliory gild ayttem ef 

itill appUea. In every hidUHnd eatabliihmenl. latfe 

the isnitary and niety pnvidana, teneral r e q aire m iB t 
' iHt- and annual htdkuya (wfth coadHional eaceptlona), 

— * ■■-■ - of the agen of chiU labeurapply 

a,tc.. la prohibited only in factory 

indlHtrieai lor 



ikMay, and LI ibe 1 

u and j^temoon epellk c 

^ . atCou mm be given. ChUdnn 

nay nee be inployed in indnuW weifc bifen la yean, and then 
only t heen a day at week that h not iniuiioui and if ed 

: . ■ -^ ,— ol employment ■- -' 


A^^^S^ __ 

Odcupatlaa wlAIn one month after dL 

unhealthy Indiaicrlea, ^Am cenihcatca of autluriiatian fma 
aathoriliia meat be oM^aed by Imcading oecnpien. condlii 
health and adety for worten tan be laM down la ■»< «•: 
The Mioiinr of the Interior it enpowend to ' 


mii^ law, enslsyiamt of womea ud girb underieouiHl la pre- 
bihltd; boye liaa i> to 16 (Ad gMi frau 11 to il may eidy be 
•mnlmiHf at light work abovc gieund; la ia the earliaet age of 
"loyi undHyeund' Theahiftatrom banklobinlimiwt 

admiiiien for boyi nndiTgnund' "Die ahiftat ri 

woriL EadsyiMtDMbwIitaMlaurilMneAJi^udi 
itkoun'dsallaik Tina ba ns piwirion do ml koU 
pinilnt duitr br HfMir, bialtb or Bmiiny. Sick tad acxiilni 
^ndi tad Hiigiiic uMdadaBt m IcvMaad lor in nlmttM dnuL 
ne lonl to* jpnividtB for iBlny ia ncrkiiii, boi iftclil nils 
dnwn OB by tht dBtiict ■!■ thorltka by daim in deaa lltt ceoditJso* 
oC biBhb ud atety. Ai rnrd* BUHlietiiriiic indoitf]', the 
ImJuaOi^ Code IftBfl BO «N^'*^ oa «i»ployeH tc r^ioft ■ m d wt t, 
•nd UBdl tha Acodtn Ihuiuib L«* al tUf atm tow fon 
BO lUliitka «EK ««ikt>l>. la AiutiU, uollka Cernny, tbc lictiirv 
impKtonCc ■ tfiamMd IkAUBhoiiE uodw a ccolml durl inapictar, 
£c«diiH>>« CnuWiu.— Ia Swcdea the Factory Law mi 
aaead(d la Janiwiy 1901 ; la Daaiaric la Inly 1901. Unlil itiil 
ytar, bo m v M, Kontiy mi In rnnot ntpettM io advum ol tbc Mher 
n» cDuatfki by Ho bw of itoa, ^kb applied to iaduRnal nHu. 
hid«dln|Betal«o(fcio(aUliDidi«9da>diic. Wonea wen Ihrt^y 
pnUUud fna eai)doyn«t: M aadettmuad: W to deuui| or 
SSmt Mcbtoeiy i^laotioi: uTin^t ito wed> alter ^hrrih, 
■nkBpravidedwiibamcdkalaitiicatcMattoitbailbey mifM 
Rlum at th* end of bxtr wiiH witbout totury to health 1 W in 
iliHnoiii, lubnlthy or cnhauHliic ttadea durltif nenuicy. 
Faiuer, woffc on SuadiH and public houdaya i> gnihiblted to all 
vnten, adak and youiMid,. wiUi otnditianti eiErpiiiiiu under the 
—•hority of tbc iuoeetara. Cbikbn owr 11 am idmlnod to 
Mrial Mfll on obtalnlic cartificata of birth, of pbynl Giiicai 
o4 aleiBaatvy education. The houn of childmi an Uniiicd to 

i. All 


Tba law of iHW ptobibltB anployBHBi 
and UBder loyianlBuodei| 

[UNinD STAt^ 

6,withpa>iaia,*iidt^yeiiaf seraanaCof I4(olS Veata] to to, wi 

l^-.-i.. — ^ betweea S pji. and <S AJi.lt pnbibhad. J 

r a oode of factory nilaa coBlaininff t 

. Night 
inn an entiOed to a copy I 

_jnaortliat«iln£tofwo>kd , 

with the anploycn aod lanctlaoed 

I up by Rpveaantativeaof enuc 
4 by the toapector. Health . 
totbtaUletbeBRiekwof i(.^. 
tnde^ tod la 1899 tuch 
t, aiiniiar to loqic of the 
tmuan rufs, mi nocany prawiuif jor a dental ciamiBatiDD four 
timva yeariy by a doctor. In Denmark, ngulation began with ua- 
hcallby indiutriee, and it wna not until the law of 1901 came into 
fane, DO the litof Janaary toot, that childraa under Ilycanbava 
been ovludcd frofli factofy labour. Conini of child labour can ^~ 

•ulety to wockinc an piovickd l«r 
Specal nils may be n— ^ '— ■■- 
min ware eatabtahed 

coaoiuon iwiumuon, cpdic afiaco, uu|Miauin» ugni; an^nuiaieo 
is detaiL la Denmark die ue of aridte phoqihoRia ia aiaanfaclOR 
«f luclfer matobc* baa bacn pR^bittd rinee 1174, aad ««ia] lafala- 
tiont have been dawn w by adminiitrailvcotdu* which atiMcthea 
' sa unheaK^or dangDOM toduatliea. («. dty^doaning 

woHu, printing worb and type fdundnoi In __ — 

iof worio. A Ipeeial act of the 6Ih of April 1906 ngulatca laba 
and laiutary condition* in bakehouaet and confeetioflery wortt^ 

Italy 1' '— - "- -"- ■"' ■— ' ■■- ^-- ^ 

■ ■ — mtwiBeaetoi 

a. produced a eituatiofi, aa reguda labour 

touch oD the compaialiv^ linu^^acope of their renlationa at the 
dome at the aeriea. It ma alated by ceoipetefit a^ impartial «l^ 
■envi innn each of the two couatriea, at the International Cdngrein 
DO Ubour Lawi held at BruHela in i8n. that the lack of adequate 
meaaun* for protectioa (rf diUd labour oad inefficient adnu n jat i mtion 
of each ngalatione aa eilat wu tbcn ttivoniible (or abuae of their 

inaRjTdoB" ISpiln). 

ItaUan factoriea aad iaduBriea" (ItatyST la both count 
ponaDt pragtBt baa iincc been made in organlalng inipeci 
pmnting accideata. Ia Spdn the Srtt atep in the din 
limltaiiDn al wontn'i boura of labour ma taken by a law 
which look eSect to 1901, in ngulatlBu Cnr nrfunLn oi 1 
labMiffbrad ulta tn 11. noting, ini 

DndcrtaUng. Labou before the a>e of to yean 
bMwc«6r.H.niidj| AJa.wwpnhiWiod, andpaweiiwEi<w-m »> 
Riend the prohibition of nlgbt work to young peraontnoder 16 yean. 
The labour of ehlliben in Italy wu antU i9aa ngolattd In the main 
bv a law of 1W6, but a ra^ dean of ia99 olni^thened it bv 
cLuaing oight work for duldnn under T3 ynn at '* iajuriom,*' tuch 
work belng-tbenby geneially prohibited for them, though encpti 
an admitted; at the name iinie It waa laid dowa that diJMnn fr 
t^to I5ycanniight not be employed for obOR than G boura at aif 

< In any coauaMCiBl 
n and night work 

law of iHW probibltt enployaiBit ef ehadicn under g yoaia in 
«y and uaderloyianlBuodeniound wintoc. NUtwsrk 
omtn mi to I taly bat MhOrited Sy the lawol tbc tglE of J tua 
and at the tame tkaa alto foe b^ Bodtr H. bat tUt fqniitiam 

190a, and at the tame tkaa alto foe boy* Bodtr H. 1 

waa BD( to take full efleet Iw, S ytan aa ncaidt 1 , _ 

employod! by the aaaic law ptnont uadarij and wones at any an 
ven accorded the claim to one day'atanplcta net ol 14 honnto tba 
•neki (he age of onplinnaant of lUdrcB to beloriea, wodahapa. 
Ubcratonea, quaniea, mine^ na tailed to la year* fcnerally and 14 
yean for umkigrDuad work; the labatv ti Kaiab workcn of Bur 
age ni probibiicd ia nadcfgRmad mrk. and power wu nteived to 
tunher nunci ud ranbta their eBplwiMBt ** wtU at that o< Data 
workBi voder I}. &iato and Ita^, Uic tonDcr by the law of tba 
ijihofMudi I900,tbebtttrbytheb<iaf tbaiothof lunei»cn. 
prohibu the employment of woaieo wilbto n find period ol child- 
birlh ^^aia the linut b three weeka. In Itnly ona ■Both, wbicb 
SuikUv rett b troBfd in laduatrial wcek^ aitb iwdaled eaceo- 
lioat m Spain by the law of tk ird of March igo^Tlt b la *£• 
ducctioD of IcBiang and other aalmaidt (gaiatt aocidanta and aa 
reganlt aaaitaiy proviiiaoa, both ia laduiUial workpbcc* and m 
Hdact, that Italy haa made aioit advance tiva her bw of Itaoior 
pnvntHaafaecfalenta. Sptclal meaauKt ibriaevaadiB o( malaria 
an rtqulcad to ahlvalion 01 ike by I ailidtUfblciiGnlarof the SJnl 
of Apnl 1903: work nay not he^ unlil an hour aftii tusibe and 
mutt (caaa an hour helim Buuet: thildnB aodir 15 ouy Mt b« 



IV. Umtio Sung . 

Under the lenenl bead o{ Libooc Lesblalioii all Ameikui 
ttatute lawt reguktlns bbour, ill condiilotia, tad the tttatlcot 
frf employer atKl empb^f muu be daued. IL indudci ^mhil 
what b properly known m factory legialatioi. Labou ^"*'>* 
tegiibiioD belonfi to the htler half el the iqth eeatuty, w far 
as the United Stalci b coacetiied. Like Ecglaiid in tbc far ptut, 
the AoMiicau in coJooial dayi undeilook to ttgulate wise* 
awl prico, and bier tbacBp)o)nDeBtolappRBtk(a. Legiililka 
leltUoi to wafci, and prion *fu Iod( ago abtBdomd, bat the 
lava aflcctlof the *fii|iloyiD»t of apprentlcet ttili eibt ta mne 

"""hot attend w ol old; bai 

pailivoent wiiLcd to regulate the labour ol factory opeiativea, 
Tho code of bbour bws of the preoent tine b tlDOM ealicdjr 
the mull of tbc induatrial rtvolulloa dniiDi tbc bCter pan o[ 
the iSlh century, under which the domestic or hud-bbout 


at a tomewhat later date than in England, the bbonr leiiriMlan 
Dcccuiiitcd by it belooKi to 1 blec date. Hm faclory, M> far 
aa tciUtei are coDccmed. wu Ejmly cstablithcd b Ametic* 
during the period from iSio to 1840, and it waa natural that the 
English le^abtion found Iriendi and advocatei In the Unittd 
Slates, although the rnoreobjectlonabtccaiiditloniaccoinpinyioi 
the English f acloty were not to be found there. 

The first aiiempt to iccurc legiiluioa refuUtlng tactofy 
empioyment rfbted to the ho " ' ' ' ' 

Io thin. 


WIS introduced it was felt that the tcniion i«u!lin| otUafti 
from MMeded machines and the doie attention re- '* "*' '■■■ 
quired in the factory ought to he accompanied by a 
ihorler workJiy. This view look firm bold ol the opeiatlvci, 
ud was the chief cause ol the agilalloii which hai rtiulted to t 
great body of Jaws applying ia very many directions. At early 
as rSo6thecaDlkenaiid>hipbuildenaf New York City agitated 
fora reduction of houn to ten per day, but no legialation followed. 
There were levenl othei atlempla (o tecure lonie legulatioo 
«e to boun, but there waa no general agitation prior Io iSj t , 
uachutetu waa the atale whicbfirit recogoieed the necemily 
of regulating employnient (followbig In * measure, and 10 far is 
condillOQi demanded, the En^iifa Uboui or ttctaty legisblion), 
(be history of such legiilttion in (hat a(ate b todiMlive ol UiU 
in the United Staid, and at it would he impoaaibb tn thb «nida 
(0 give a detailed history of the orlgiD of lain In the dif eteni 
states, the dates of their enactment, and tfadi picvidona, It II 
best to foUcw primarily the counc of the Eastern alatea, uul 
eapedally that of Uamchnietti, where (be firitflEKialafilMloB 



look plicc ind [be fint lam were cnuMd. Ttuit iMte in i8]6 

icEuIalcd by liT the qunitoD o[ [lie education ol yoant ptiMiu 
employed in manufactuiinc aUbliihraeoti. The legulKkiD of 
boun ti Ubouc wit ^maty diicuBed in iSji, lod levcnl 
IcKiiliiive corainitieea and commiinoiu nported upon il, tnit no 
nedfic action on thegcneiml quolion of houn of ikbout JKurcd 
(he indoraecaent el the Muuchu]e[[i Icgislilure unlj] 1S74, 
allbongh iht diy'i labour of children under twelve ywi q( tga 
was limited [0 len bonis in 1S41. Ten boun conKi[u[td a dey'i 
laboQi, on ■ volDniaty bssli, In many Uada in Hisucfauie[ti 
and otber parii al tht country as early u lEjj, Kbile in [he 
ihipbuilding tndei [bii was the waik-KJiy in 1S44. In April 
1S40 PmidHil Van Buitn laued an order " that all public 
atibliihmenia win heratier be reguhted, a> to working honra, 
by the [en-hours syslem." The teal aggreuive oioveoienl began 
in 1S45, through numerout pelitioni to the MaiucbuMtU 
lesiilature urging a reduclion of (be day'i labour to etcveahoun, 
butnotblngcameof ihe*epctl([oniatl)ia[tin)e. A^n.ln 1B50, 
■ limilaieirart was made, and also in 1S51 and iSji, but [he bills 
failed. Then there wai a period at quiet until 1M5, when an 
unpaid comniiaion made a report relative to the bouta of labour, 
and recommended the ealabliihment o( a bureau of atatiitici 
for [he purpose of colletiing data bearing upon the labour 
quealion. This waa the firttstep in tbis direction in any country. 
nie fint bnmu e[ the kind was esubli^ted in Maaaacbuadts In 
iMq, but meanwhile, in accordance with leporta of commissions 
tnd the address of Govemar Bullock in 1^66, and the general 
aentiment which then prevailed, the legislature passed an act 
regulating in a measure the condiiiooa of the employment of 
children In manufacturing establishment!; and tbis li one of 

legislation in the United Statcc relating to the'bours of labour 
which the writer baa been able to fipd, and for >rhich be on fi< 
a date, wu enacted by the itate of Pennsylvania in 1S49, the law 
providing that ten hours shonld be a day's tntk In cation, 
vooQen, paper, bagging, silk and flax factories. 

The UaiaachuKlts Law of ii66 provided, £islly, (hat no child 
under ten should be employed In any manufactoring cstablisb- 

had a(tended some 
: months during the 
year preceding such employment, and, further, that 
•ocfa employment should not continue unleu the child attended 
school al lea>[ sii months In each and every year; tccondty, a 
penalt]>oot acceding tjo for every owner origentorother person 
knowingly employing a child in violation of the ad; thirdly, 
Ifaat no child under the age of fou tieen ibovM be emplo^nd in any 
manufacturing establishinent more (ban eight boun in any one 
day; loortbly, that any parent or guardian allowing or consent. 
bkg to employment in violation of the act ahould forfeit a sum 
not to oceed ts" lot each ofienct; fifthly, that the Govenor 
irutruct (he state consUible and bii deputies (0 enforce the 
provisions of all laws far icgulating the employment of children 
in manufacturing establishments. The aame legislature also 
created a comniatioB of three penona, whose duty it waa to 
investigate the lubjcct of hoati of labour in relation to the 
■adal, educational and sanitary condition of the working classes^ 
la 1867 a fundamental law relating to schooling and hours of 
labour of diildren cmfdoyed in manufacturing and mechanical 
eitabliahments was passed by the Mauachuselt) legislature. 
It differed from the act of the year previous In some respects, 
gi^g deeper into the general question. It provided that no 
child xinder ten should be employed in any manufacturing or 
mechanical establishment of the commonwealth, and that no 
cfaUd between ten and £fleen should be so employed unless he 
h4d attended school, public or private, at least three months 
aniing the year ncit preceding his employment. There were 
provisions relating to residence, frc.,and a further provision that 
no time less (ban 110 half-daya of actual schooling should be 
deemed an equivalent of three montht, and that no child under 
Bfletn should be employed m any manufacturing or mechanical 
atabll^uncnl more than tiity hours any one week. The law 

ilto provided pemhlea for vMuioit. 


t repealed the act of 

inlries, k 

their espeda] purpose bring the collection and dlsseminatfou of 
information relating to alt leaturca of induatrial ejnployment. 
As a result of the auccesa of the first bureau, bureau an hi 
aiiatence in thirty-three states, In addition to the United StUM 
Bureau of Labour. 

A qicdal piece of le^ilatlon vihich belong to the comoos- 
wealth of Uaaiachuietta, 10 far as eipeiience ahowt, was that 
in iSfs, providing for cheap motning and evening traina for the 
accommodation of working men living in the vicinity of BoMon. 
Great Britain had long had such trains, which were called 
parliamenla^ trains. Unds the Maasachusettalaw some of the 
railways running out of BaaloD fumiabed the afCDmiDodatioa 
required, and (he system has ^oce been in operation. 

In different parts of the conntiy the aglLaiion to aectiie legisla- 
tion regulating the hours ef labour became aggrcaiive again 
in rflTO and the yeara immediately following, thcra 
bdng a constant repetition of attempts (o secure the P*.* ?*^ 
enactment of a ten-hours law, but in Massachusetts oSmtT. 
all the petitions failed till 1S74, when the legislature of 
that conunonwealtb catablished the hours of labour at sixty per 
week not oily for children under eighteen, but for women, the 
law providing that no minor under eighteen and no wnman over 
that age ahould be employed by any person, firm or corpotatlOD 

one day. In iS;A Uiaaachuactts itcoastnicted Its laws idating 
to the emiJayBKnt of children, although ft did not abrogate the 
prindples involved in earlier legisUtton, while in 1S77 the. 
cosmonwealih passed Factory Acta covering the general pnt- 
vlsjons of the British laws. It provided for tiie general inqicc- 
tlon of factories and public buildings, tbe provisions of the law 
relating to dangerous machinery, such as belting, shafting, gear- 
ing, dtUDU, &c, which the legislature insisted must be securely 
guarded, and that no nuchinery other than steam engines ahould 
be deaned while running. The question of ventilation arKi, 
deanlinesa was also attended to. Dangers connected with 
hoistwaya, elevators and well-holes were minimiaed by their 
protection by suffident trap-doors, while fire-escapea were made 
obligatory on all eatabliahments of three or more storeys In 
height. All main doon, both inside and outside, of manufactur- 
ing es[abH5hmen[B,. as well aa those of churches, school-rooms, 
town halls, theatm and every building used for pubhc aaacmblica, 
should open outwardly whenever tbe factory Inipecton of tbe 
commonwealth deemed It necessary. These provtsions remain 
in ibt laws of Massachuaetts, and other itala have found It irise 
to f i^low them- 

The Umr Itghlatbn b (Oice fai 1910 tn the vartons Aatta el the 
Uflkm oteht bedaaubed in two ■eaenl bnaehea: (A) piotuive 
labour l^^tkM, or lawa for the bM ef wwken who. on acceun ef 
ihdr ceaooadc d ep e n d en ce, an doc In a position fully to pnuet 
cbeaudveal (B) le^tladDa havhv for its purpose tbe fadng of the 
legal status of ibe worker aa an aofkift, Hch salaws rdaling to tbe 
making and brcakinf of tbe labour contract, tbe righl to lara 
□rgaqiiatlaes and to aaiemble peaceably, tbe settlennt of labour 
dliputa, tbe lIceodDg of occapanna, Ac 

(A) The firat class Indndea factory and worhsboii ads, lamaidalia* 
to hour* of Ubonr, work aa SuiKtaya and boUdayi, the payment <2 
wages, tbe UabiUty of cmployera for injurka to their 
eiDpk^^ due Fsrtorv acti have beea oaaed bv '**'■' . 
nearly aU IbB ■ 

which fit an age UndtbdowwhicheMpkiyiiicubunlnrfaL AUbirt. 
fin states have enacted 9«b pRHtiioaa, and tbtst bow alatea have 
practlcslly no manufactinini indwtrita. !■ tome atatca tbe Tam 
Biiiig an age limit are reslrleted in their appUcatioa ts factories, 
whils fai otGrrs tbey extend ili» (0 woillihn, babstiB, Man anti h 


{■ubluhimnti _ 
Thft pffcrib ed w lig 
comefnlng the cdudi 
bv toaitdrrvd id I 


iti ud atiier vorlr plieo wbat childm u* mulaycd 

^btrn^ Id appmtittahlp ■« 

to onpkiyiBeiit, Appfrntkqhjp Wwt *a nunKrout, but Ibcy o« ncu 
BQW nivD ETcmc force bnjiuK of tbe poclioj abrontjoa of tbi 
■ppnalioeinkp lyitem thraugh Ibe operation of luodcm methodi- 
Di oroductioiL Moit iuu> luvt pttividoni pnfaibitint itfitmm 
under > ^tdftcd >te, luoilly dneen. (ram Iwibi eaplorod in 
(actcriu uid mkibco. Tht praviiioa of tba lutonr ku rebtini 
to hour* of labour ana night vork goienlly affect only tbe employ- 
ment of wonwnmpd young pcnoBi. Moet of the tUtee Juve enacted 
HJch prDviiion» thoK limiciDg the boun of diUdren occurring more 
freqaentlf tbu tbae linihiii( tbe houn of women. The hour Until 
formrk in mch caecn ruaeeboiniixperdaytoiKXty-iiJtpef week. 
Wban tho woridng tbne nl children ie lentnctad, the miniinuni age 
preacribed for auch children nocea from toitlve to twCDly-one yeara. 
In aome caaea tbe RUricdon oTtbe boura of labour of wonrii and 
' '" ■ ■ « It appGa only ID eoplDynwil In 
1. OtUr iroviiisaa of law for tbe 

, fa, and pcohiUt t 

ployment in certain occupatkma aahi minea, placea where Entoxkai 

aie manufnctuied or aold, fn elcnnlnf or opemtiAf duifaam 
machinery, ^ Pnndilona of foetoty acta iclatini to tlw laniEarv 
condillofl of factoriea and woriohopa and the lafeiy of onploy^ 
havE been enacled In nenriy nD the nunufacluring italn of the 
Union. Thry prohibit orer cm wding, and require proper voiiila- 
tion, tuttcient light and hcnt. tiie UiBc^wniUni or painting of hUa 
and cdUDia. tbi pnvisoa of eahaoat fanand blowna in plue* where 
duit or daageroua fiimn are cencnlcd, guarda on nachinery, 
mechanical be]laaqdimi»«bii(en,guardione!cvatonandhDiit' 
wa^p hand^raili on itun, nre-wapev^ &c- 

Tbe Hntutet relathw to houn of labour may be eonWdered under 
five troufka, namely: (i) generai lawa whkb UKrely Jij^ what ihall 
„ be nprdcd aa a day'a labour in tbe abaeniT nf ■ Bmtnri ! 

J™*™** (i) Ian deBolni what thalt conBlIuli 
■■"■'■ public roada; tU lawi limiting the ht 
day on public worlia: U) lawt KmiEinf (be hoora d 
oecupuiona; and ClJ liiwa whidi apeofy the bM 
wnk duiiiu which woomb and chudm may bi 
■UtuIcB included in the fint two groupa placo no mtncuooa upon 
tht number of houra which may be ^reed upon b^wcen employers 
and anplortg. wl^ tboM h) Ibc otho- thra gimps unally Nmit the 
freedom of contact and pruvido penaltia for their violation, A 
OMrideiable numbv of atala have cnactfd Uw> which hxaday'a 
labour in tbe nbaeocc of any cootinc^ aome at dgbtandolbenot 
ten houra, ao that vbtn an employer and an employe nuhe ■ contract 
and they do not apecify what iti«n conKitute a day'a labour, eight 
or ten houra rtapcctiv^ would b* luM aa tbe day'a labour in an 
acOoawhUintifhtcamebalontbaaurt*. In a pumher of the ilala 
It i* optlgoal with the dtiaena to liquidate certain caiea dihrr by 
CMBh paymcnii or by rendering perional aervice. In the bun ax 
the length of the wotUnE day a d^ned by 1h>, elghl bnun being 

usually apeCifled. 7^* FwWwf jiw— r wiM»> ■,«■ M^y /m^ha J f ^ >!, ■ 

■tatei have kwi providiiH that eighl houra ibatl cooHilulc a day'i 
work for eopkiyil on peblic woiEa. Under Ibe Federal Act it ii 

nbcontractor for puUic woHta to permit labourrra and mechanica to 

iger than d(ht hauia per da^r. The lUte lava cancemlia 

labour fcan tktSu prwiBon*. EKeptlonaanrpfovlded 

~ cit*i iuch aa duwer to human life 

boun of labour have been limited 

~ of thfdr d^ogamui 





tbour in certain 

ly cbaracter, the health of the enplniia ' 
houn of labour, or in which the ladgm 
Tiuld endanger the Una of tbe 

ra. ameiting and 


LIU vorlCB, talwii 

n have been loo^deied under lacwcyaod ww: 

ly aU atatea aod Territorieaof the Uoion have Ian pirjhiUtir 
. . . ployaent of labour on Sunday. Theae Ian uaually aialie 
^^ amiidemeanaurfDrpcraonaeitbef tolabour thenuelveHi 
Hf*"^ to compd or pBrmit their apprenticea. icrvanu oroth 
""■ imployii^ to labour on the lint day of the week. £ 
^ioni an mado in tbe caae of hoUHehDld dutiei or works ' 
BCeawty or charity, and in the one cfmambcfm of religiouasocicti 
ho obicrvc aome oUkt than tha bK day af the week. 
StMutaa cooccnliiB tbe payineni of waga sf taOlosft nt 
h theempkn 

at (I) tboaewhic 

yy* payneoM. prohibit^ tha paym 
rva^a. Qfifffj eviducea of inaebtedneia 


Lialicn tT^uln^y, 
.. ,, _^_ „ — 1 of hnea, break^e of 

nacbinao', diamunta for prepaynKnti, nKdical attcndapcr, relief 

fundi or ether ninues. mquiruig tht gniu of Botin «f radiKtiaa at 
wages, «c : (1) legiilalion grantui certnin pdvilegea or ■O'^rn 

:lat pfotectioa to working penpl* with reipect la thait waee*. 

1. — i._ ___; . '—eot, pRforiM wngS 

Uena BOOB Kldii«( 

from hii employer under oei 
no naa oeen uijured through accident ectamng In Qie 
worlgof ^ emplwer. The ooamwo-law muim that tbe ^J*^""* 

auly where Iwp or mm atnon* an workiiw teielhcr wtftar 
the mne employer and one c( tlie employ^ la injuied thraurii iba 
' soem of hia Irikiw-empkiyf, although the one caudnc the 
;nl ia tba acem of the prindpnl, who nnder tbe canmon tow 
I be nsponraiB. Tbe oU Ramao law and tte Eagliah ud 
lean pncuoi under it bekl that the c»4Biphiy< wai ■ pany ta 
-cidFpt. Theinjuttkf of Ehiinileiiivenbyaaijia^illumatjoa. 
cotloo factory, where then ue bundre&of optnllvea, 
.1 . . . ... , >y*^-^ 

_.-t In the Unio.. . 

rules filing the liability of employan under ctriain 
nd relieving tbe employ^ fjom the application of Uia 

rule. Where the cniploy* himself ii cootributoiv to 

necaiea where be knows of (he dawer from the defect! 
nplememacnphqied Iwhin. tli* leiiihitha upon Ibe 
ilvea many fenlurci ol legiilttion whsh need not ba 
re, auch as those coocenung tbe power of employ^ to 
— -ncti and those defining the conditlonii often elabsnte, 
d to tbe liability of the employer and the dutieaof tbe 

the telatkHia In which damaget for Injuri 
■ — y be recovered fnHn tbe emplDyer. 
thus far considered maybe ngardr^ ' 
There is, besides, a large body ci 

r employers and «npioy4a ai 

19 of employment wherel™ employta 
case of injury, &c. A Federal slatutc 

LCt to perform labour c 

exceptions being made in 
ithcrwiac be onained, don 
Lny of the reenvhiaed profe 
Tbe FadenI govcmment 
have ilalntoty jinviaioE 


't pervniB pnetisir 

neariy aU the sutca ud lenitDriea 

,. , , , in Indes other than thoae in tbe ^ 

ilam of remgnind professioua. The Federal sutute re- '*'^' " 

Eilola, ftc. Tlie oocupations for.whieh examuiaiiDiiB and '^'^ 
ccnces are nquiied by (he vaiinoa B(ate Ian are those of bnbera, 
lioneshocn, elevator operatois. plumbers, stationary firemen, (team 
Mij^neers, tdegraph operaton on railroda aod certain cbncs ol 

id pMcuble autmbly on (he put 
mmOD law thiDughout the United 
■king-men fonncd for 

il benefit, proi 

shottei haul 
Federal goi. 

regarded as unlawful. A number of slalea and ibe 
:mmenl have enacted itatutei providing for the 
I of trade unions, but owing to the freedom fiDIB 
Lupection enjoyed by unincotpanled litde uciooi, 


wety Icn tunc (v«l]ed tiicmsdvra d! Ihii pdvilege. A nuinlKi of 
itato have ouKIFd Um Unding lo give speciit prattctkni to 
mde aoiuis. Thus, uoily one-halC af the date* 
I> dtdariiiK it uitbtihil lor emplajni to dbcharge 
worJuDciL tor ^OLDJng Ubeur prganlaitiona, or to make it H con- 
ditioQ of ec&pIc^mcAt that they ihali not bckm^ to nidi bodies. 
Lam td tliii kind hare genenlly been b^d to ba imamstitu- 
Ikaai, Neatly all Iba >Uta have lam pnucotini Iiade 
luioDS b the we oE the unioD label, inalgnia d[ membn'ship, 

---■■'■ ■ - -odl 


labour orioiutioii* ft 

n the operatunu of the ai 

Until meni yean all legal action concerning labour dii- 
tDTbaice* was baaed upon the principle* of the comnon lav. 

Some o[ the italea have now fairly complete slatutoiy 
^^^^ enact nienti concerning Ubour disturbances, while 

othetshave lilUe or no legislalion of thii cUsa. The 
right ol emidoyi) lo itrike for any cause or for no canie is sus- 
tained by the common law everywhere in the United States. 
Likewise an employer has a tight lo discharge any or all of his 
empbyit ahea they ban do contiut niih hiv, and be miy 
lefuse ID employ any penon or class of persons for any reason 
or lea no teason. Agrectnents among itrikeis (o take peaceable 

n the w 
until he yields to the demands of the slrikcrs arc 
WH heJa to be moapiracies under the ctunmon law, and the 
carrying out of Hueh a purpose by peaceable persua^on and 
without violence, inlimidation or Uueals, Is not unlawful. 
However, any intcileience with the const itutionil ligbu of 
anotbet to employ whom he choose* or lo labour when, where 
«( on what terms be pleases, ii Illegal. The boycott has been 
held to be an illegal conspiracy in lestiaint of trade. The 
tIatulDry enactments ol the various states concerning labour 

and in part more or less departi 
ejtiiliihed principlea. The list of such stitutoty cnacimcnti is 
a large one, and indudes laws relating to blacklisting, boy- 
cotting, conspiracy against working. men, inteiftfence with 
CEopkiyment, intimidation, picketing end strikes of railway 
employ^; laws requiring statements of causes of discharge of 

laws prohibiting deception* in the employment of labour and the 
hiring of armed guards by employers; and laws declaring that 
certain labour agreements do not constitute conspiracy. Some of 
these laws have been held to be uncoDStitutional, and aiime have 
not yet been tested in the a>urts. 

The hws 

t proVUbng f 01 

Drt entirely to «e»« dther of 

be taken by olhen Id tbeiffsn 
from Ining eniplaynieat. either 
hoH of tnnr onploytfa, or to 

if emplnyineiil, rula. ac, Theeelawtnwidel 
he arbitratiDn of labour dlipuKa (tea AitaiTaA 
M). TwpUy^lM, ""* "'" ""'"" ■ 

iMD Concttta- 

,. , et and tfct Fedcial 

fHily. A number of states ptrwide for locat or special boards in 
mdfUtkiA to the regular aiate boards. In aoaie Mates It is rvquired 
tint a meaiber of a labour eeganisatlen muK be a member of (he 
board, aBd. in general, both employers and emplojrii mi 
Rineroted. Kearl)' all state boanjs an required to alien 

fldved of an actual or ttneatened talnur trouUe. Arbitratioi 
be undtn a l UB in aome ilatet on applacalian from either pai 

••■on <» the appUeation of both parties. As agreement to mi 

■rfvff t]«sdiB|arfeitrBrlaft isiJiuaHyrequlred. Themodes* 


tates depend ott publicily at 

of iIk bcBrdt i 

J u dgments of ooartt of law wUch may ba 
L while in oilm stam diaobedlem to nicb 
Inpt of cpo rt: Tfc e Federal it 

M made at nwhation by Iwn deelgnaiwi'govierm- 

board of artiitracic 


in attoDpt, for the 
il the lanie officHla 

The enforcement of laws by executive or judicial action is an 
important matter relating (0 labour legislation, for without 
action such laws would remain dead letters. Under 
the constitutions of the Italea, the governor is the I^mw 
commander-in-chief of the military forces, and be haa tm/Kw 
the power lo order the militia or any part of it into »*' ■' 
active service in ease of insurrection, favasion, tumult, jjj^ 
riots or breaches of the peace or imminent danger 
thereof. Frequent action has been taken ui the case of atiikea 
with the view of preventing or su[:f>resBing violence threatened tr 
happening to persons or property, the effect being, however, that 
the militia protects those working or desirirtg to work, or the 
empkiyers. The president of the United Stales may use the 
land and naval lotcet whenever by reason of insurrection, 

lions or assemblages of persons it becomes unpracticable (a 
enforce the laws ol the land by the ordinary cDurse oi judicial 
pmxedings, or when the eiecution of the laws is so hindered 
by reason of such events that any portion or class of the people 
are deprived thereby of their rights and privileges under the 
constitution and laws of the country. Under Ibis general power 
the United Stales forca have been used for the protection of 
both employers and employes indirectly, ibe purpose betng to 
protect maib and, as in the steles, to see that the laws are carried 

The I 


through the injunction and pun 
of court. It is a principle of law I 
actual or threatened, with properly or with rights of a peciuiianr 
nature, and the common or statute law oBcn no adequate and 
immediate remedy lor the prevention of injury, a court of equity 
may interpose and issue its order or injunction as to what moat 
or must not be doue, a violstioa of which writ gives the cQurt 
which issued it the power to punish for contempt. The doc(ri,ne 
is that something is necessary to be done to [top at once ibe 
destruction of property and the obstruction of husinMS, and the 
injunction is immediate in its action. This writ has been resorted 
to frequently for the indirect protection of employCs and ef 
employers. (C D. W.) 

AuTBentrmia.— Eholish: (a) Factory Laddatloai Alnlam 
and Davio, Z«u nlalmi It Fatlaria and Warkiiefi (fjindon, i8» 
an- ■ - • - .^ ^i (London iS»7); Roji) 

Ci 'la sf Emlmii nnJ DijciU, Croup 

... ,.^) "(ili™) :* House oi 

U sting System, Krpsrf |iSoi): Afrmt 

Oi of H.M. CUel Inspector of Fsctorie* 

(I » White Le«l and Vaiiu Lead 

In if the Cotton CMh Facioiies Acu 

{I nthfai) Commiitee, Do,, Miacellaiie- 

ou Coninitont of Work in Fish.Curlng 

Ti Ida in PHIcrv(iS«), Phosphannla 

M Ks (iS»), Ac., At: Wiiatdy Cool*. 

Taykir, Untrm FaOiry Syilim (London. tSai] ; Oliver, DoMimt 
TnJri [London. 190J); Cunningham. Gnjulk of Enfliiii Ceiamva 
BKd l^aOry {1907); Hutchini and MarriKin, Hiilory rf /"("ry 
LipiUlioii (1901): TiaUI, Sacva EnOani, »c., ffc. W) Knn 
BsdOnaniMi 5mMu: Coal Mines tiegulation Acts 1«86. IBM, 
1S96, iSoe; UetaUUenus Mines ReguLtioB Acu |S», tin; 
,Cr_„-^^ l»»4i Royal CommiBiM on Labour. J^ualci rf 
DitBlt. dniiip "A" (lEbi-iIlQi. 1 vok.): Rot'al 
in HinJ^ng Koyallitt, Apptndlat (iȣ|); Uomt Offa 

, fiat and f 1 
il labour Q 

iSfat MetalL 

Qiurrict Act ISM! ^Sy*^ 

jcnenl RnioR upoa.' the Minmg 
and Quames, General Reports and 

lliit-ttm). Mines and Quames, General Reports and Statiilics 
(1898 to laoo). Annual Rroorti of K-M. Chief Inlpectcr of FactorioB 
flR«-tSa5) (Quames): Macnrinney and Bfiilowe, Coat IfiHi 
hrSiiim Aa litT djaidm. iSBS). (<) Blwv*; fMAiia: Shop 
Homa Aeti iBoi, 1S93, 1696. Seat* fn- Shop AaiBUntB Act 1S99: 
Xtp"i '! SHal Ctmrnka if Baun of Cemmrtu « lit Shp Htutt 
RtnitHen BUI iBH [EyiT and Spottiswoodi). W Truck: ffimv 
QtCs FiporU: Annna! Report! of H.M. Chief Inspector of Faetoilea, 
especially 1693-1900, Memorandum on the Law relati:^ to Trwk 


ud ChH^wi^IiiiK CkoM at Um CmI Miw* Acn iM Mopbi- 
udam idatmi Dtbc Tmck ActfclqtSir KenliaDiBby, >U ua s( 


aitlitrl indutttwil ti 


(P»ri>, itgi-lgot) ; BmlUbi itr»,.- , 

iatn-i««); Cmifii ii^matinJ dt UriicUtii im umatt OW): 
ZftTcnHrlni^inuit/ilfdudnriKbJEwk. (il LwdiupD (ia«ii 
(i) Ncubvnp (I90i)i Gsrii Up. KitAraritU in eimiriliciim 
BMittm. 30. Uirt looy. Konnd Anhd, Mam'aU CmUiaat^, 
mat Band und ilEbeMe Dud (Wks. iS^r-'Mll LtV niH 
inttrlamli M lav* (MiUn, laas). 

Uhitbd ^uns: Sag the IWiuj^-SmmJ Ahm< Jti^grl ^ lli 
CMnii<i»n<r rf Zoitr (1901) raving iiD Ubu bin in (one in the 

xr. conuiaini h»B 

rtktiv to eadoyen ud cmployia; alK> ipKut vtidei tw (htae 
itklbtnu on "Employer and EmploW under the Omnwii Lav " 
We. 0, " PmecdDn at Workmen in tbeir employment " [No. >61. 
" Cnva-nowni InduiiiiBl Arbiltuitn" (No. ISO), "Lam relatin( 
to tlw Einplavnieni of Women and Cklldien, and to Factoty In- 
smiDa and IIk Ualih and Safely oT Enployta" (No. 74). 
'; WiEFi ami Houra of Labor in Manufacniriof Indiiittlet, iSgo (0 
1907 (Ko-JT). " Rcvinroi Labor Letiilat<onort9aIandl90« (No. 
«J ; also " Repon of ihe Indmrul CWnnuHHi on L^bor L«ri>la- 
tno" (toL v., US. OunoinHi't AterlliC D. VMgbt, Iiilmanal 
£Kif Uun in tti W>jirfSteiH (iM7):Stini -- "— " -' ■- -'- '-'— 
Lirm,,^ac (/niW Sun., and tqJ - -■- 
■nd Snmnrr, Laim FrMtmi; Lai 
Mrmr aad Sfmml. 

UMIIR PAHTT, ID Great Biilaln, tlie did 
party in ptriiamtnt compnaed of iroTkiiig.diB 
Ai (he nsuU of ihe Retonn Act of 11)84, eilending the fnochise 
to * luster Dm *DrkiDt-<:ta3i electotate, the votes o[ " labour " 
beome loon and moie a matter ol importance for poUlkiani . 
■nd llw Ubctmi paitj, uekiDg for the support of orguiixed 
bbour in tbe trade unians, found room (or ft few working-ctan 
RpiCKDialives, who, however, »cted »od voted a* Libeiala. 
It wu not tnl 1B03 that the Independtot Labour party, iplitting 
off DDder Mr J. Keir Hudie (b. iSsfi) from the todBliit onuiiu- 
UoD known ai Che Sodid Dcmocntii; Fedenlion (founded iBBi), 
was fomed at Bradford, with the object of getting Independeiit 
candidMe* ictutned to parliament on a sodaliil pragramme. 
Id 1900 Hr Keir Hiidie, who as lecreluy of the Luulkridre 
MInen' Union bad stood unsuccessfully as a labou/ candidlte 
for M!d-Lanaik in 1S88, and aat as M.P, lor Wot Ham 
1S91-1SQJ, was elected to pariiament for MerthyT-TydvQ by iti 
eflorta, and in igoA it obtained the retUTQ of 30 membcn, Mr 
Keir Hudie being cfaalmifiQ of the group. Meanwhile in 1S99 
the Trade UoioD Congieu inittucled its parlismcntuy con 
mittce to call a cocference on tbe quatko of laboui lepresenti 
tioii; and in February 1900 Ihli was attended by trade unio 
delegates and also by representatives of (be Independent Labour 
parly, the Social Democratic Fcdcralion and the Fabian Society. 
A rcsolutian was carried " to eitabliih a distinct labour group 
In parliament, who ihall have thor owD whips, and agree upon 
(heir own polity, which must embrace a readiness to co-operate 
with any party which for the time 
promoting le^slation it> tbe direct interest id labour," and tbe 
contBlttce (tbe Labour Btpreseniaiion C^ommitiee) 
for the purpose. Under tbclr auspices ig out of 51 candidatta 
werentumcdal (heelectionof 1906. Thi 
from the Labour membeia (" Lib.-Laba ") who obeyed tbe Liberal 
whips and acted with tbe litierals. In iQog the attempts to 
Unite the parliameDlary representatives of tbe Independent 
Labour paity with the Trades Union members were successful. 
In June of that year tbe Miners' Federation, returning is 
members, joined the Independent Labour party, pow known 
(or patliarnentaiy puipoxs as tbe " labour I^y 
Trades Unions, snch as (be Amalgamated Sodety of Baili 
Servan ~- 

e same step. Thi* anangemect e 

forte at tbe general election ol igio, when tbe bulk of the 
ndnen' reprcieniatlVes signed the oonstiCntion of (he Labour 
parly, whkh after the eteciion Dumbeied 40 membcis of pariia- 

penlnsula In BrithA Notth AiMrica, 
boonded E. by (fas North Atlantic, N. by Hdibio Sodt, W. 
byHndaoaaud JamtaBaya, andS. by an aiUtnty ttne *»*— *^ 
■ids fr«n tbe sonih-eut coma ti Uudsoa Bay, aear 5^ 
tbe nouth of tbe Ualsis riw, OB tbe Golf of St I'wmia, 
to so* N., ud tfaence eastwaids by the Oulf of St Lbwiokb, Ii 
extendi Irem so*(ot3*N.,andbom5s*tata^W.,aDd^ibiaca 
an appniima(t arek of sii,ooo tq, m. Rtoot opIoMlm 
and tnmyi hav* added gnMly to tba kanriadfi of th4> *aM 

ia( latoit i n eut c o tl value in it* fonati, faberio lud minenh. 
Pkyiiat CtggraMy^— I-abrador locine (be caatem Enb ol tbe V 
(n the Aiehacan pncaxb o( North America (tee CaHAtM), and In- 
dudca most ol tbe Ugheal parts of that ana. Along tooie perttaaa 
ol tbe coasts of Hudioa and abo ol Ungava Bay tbn Is a fringe of 
lowland^ iHt nost ol the interkv is a ptateau riqng toward the aflcith 
and east. The Mghesl portion edendi east and west betiwi ^* 
and 54* ^-i where an fanmenae innite anm lr« between the head- 
wateaef the krgcr riveraof Iheloiir principal dninagi banns; the 
lowatt aita 1* betweea Hodlon Bay and Ungava Bay in the north- 
wot, where tbe ^aenl level It not more than joo It. atiove tbe tea. 
Tbe only mountajiu are the niDR aloni the Atlantic coast, extending 
Iron tbe Strait ol Belle I4e to T^pe Ondleyi in thor toutbem haH 
Ibey rairly eacont ijoo ft, ■■- ' — —— -- -'- ' "-" 

EctwEcn jooo and jooo ft.. 1 
deeilly Indented 1^ ' ' 


k>nge_ „ 

breadth varying froa 

of the pUlea- ■- -■ — ' 

lochab^tbei .... . _ 

depth ueoi tbe volunw ot water Bowiag ibrongl 

of tba Raiaaiwi rivar la tb* glnteit. lorn a < 

valley of tba Inht and ectenda 300 

t->"~" f-ei fcom SDo to 1500 It bebw 1 

: Bay 700D ot SOOD ft. Tbe 1 

liar bays and (rinied with rocky iilandi, 

_j J .- .., Atlannc coaic, where long narrow fiords 

peoelrale inland. HaaSlcon lnleI,>joiiL northol tuSlnhatBell* 
tilt, ia the longcsi of thoe bays, with a Inngth of iy> n. and a 

in* (or (beir length and 
■ghthan. Tbevagey 

of tbe ptatcau uil 
k)w ridges of d 

la unally ahcupt, beinf amSt 
ton, from the levd interior, in 

, __ ._ head ot lu valley, thU detcent 

indiHEnga ihcei drop of 31; ft. at tbe Grand Fills, which, taken 
with the lane vclumE of the nver, nukes it ibe giatrat fall in Ncnb 
America. Tbi rivns of the nonhrm and we a t em walcnheds drain 
about two-tbirdi of the pevnula; tbe moat important of Ihefoj-ma 
are the Koknak. the Uiint river ol Labiador (over 500 m. long) Jhe 
George, Whale and tVyaerivoa, an flawing into Ungava Bay. The 
large rivers flowing westwards into Hudson Bay are the Povung- 
nituk, Kogalulb Gnat Whale, Big, East Main and Rupert, varying 
in le^h hnn 300 to ud «. The rlvera Bowing wnrtk an cx^rT 
ingly rapid, tbe Moiife, Romahie. Naiaihkwan and St Aitguitina 
baoi dunoMbapertaal: all an about jDom. long. The Atlantic 
Goait range thmwi man of Che drainage Dorthwardi En(a (far Ungava 
twin, and only Bnall iciTami fill into the ocnn, ezcept the 
Hamihcin, Nnrth-weat and Keumou, whieb empty ircn the bad «( 
Hamilton Inlet. 

Gmlety-— The peoiiMila b lomHiI largelv of cryttalline adililaanl 
gneiiica aMociated with raanilei and other igneoui rocks, ag ef 
arehaean age; there are abo lane anas of noivfeaiiEifcToiii, itratW 
6ed limestones, chats, ahalaaiHriron orra, the unaleeied eqiilvmleata 

of part of the tchisu and cneiises. " ' ' •-'-■^-- 

iUpper Hurooian or perhaps Cambrian] 
lyi^ ieu(hera and western shores, b 

■ _J,...!.-. .1 .1 ; ,1, |„y[j_ 1,^ 

Daring the El 

^oli«, whlS_ , 

_-. - — _. — , ^ — . — Owing to the evtremaly long eaposnra to 

ludatiai, to the aabicqant removal of the greater pan of tba 

wnpOKd rock by riaon and (o the nneqaal wealbulag d A* 

xxnponint rack*, it is now a plateau, whicb aioeada anmcwfaaa 

ibcuptly withto a tew mile* of the eaait-lint to bei^la of brtween 


'diu yu ft. ^vvUk 

aooaadMoDfi Tha 
OMow, rauDded UNi. 

ifsHMJi.— The miiKnl nlth It undmkipKl. Tdick brdi cX 
cgnllett iron m encr bife aieu in cha imtrior and iloni (be 
than* st KodMB and Uuaw Btyt. Luge veu el minsillicd 
HuKHiiia lOCln have iliD bitedacavmiS, luniUc toiioi in"'— 
"~ ' ihcRCbeyecMbia valuable dcpoaita of lotd.oi 

oickel and lad; pnd pi 

.,«.^p^ s»,»«ta 41 EoTd» copper. 

we neut* liave been (oumI. 

, old toqienn on tbcacnilieni 

ouu »> nun. dn Hudaon Suait, aad li ■macally ■» rincoua Um h 

■ dnilHlul if the countiy u Gt for agriodtiite nanh M 51 . • 

10 llw low EnnuKb "■■ ' "- ' "— — ■■ — 

nUtoei and oUter 1 

Jamea Bay good crapa t 

ire mwn al Fort Cearje, u* N., irlii! 
1 iDlet. on tbecajtoiaat, aad u Bcaily tl 
.neaiilyeuliivatHL (iatteeaMrDMd 

naonui. taeinc aSeeted tn de acaliot ica '-— 
Arctic current. To the interior at Miit 

y>* 50* N , a crop of potatoei la railed 
iolaad. OvtaalntEt abaenoc o( (iw 

inuait)!^ bat t hey la irly 

IMi thtMaSttla likili- 
iidy im 

It lanuMiatiicea ol the 

nnnfrom -50" F- to -60* F., and an ilifBtlv higbcr along 

W" F., with IroBrt during every rnontK in tliic northern portion. 
On tke Adutic nmaaiid m HiHfain Bay th* luierbnytfreeae bIM 

tKtweentlKi IK aad 1 Jih iil P Im ^iiul IliiiH iiiiaiii iiBnia li 1 

imind until laic in June. Hudioa Stcatt it mually mfficieady i/pn 
loc navtgatioD about tlie loth of tuly. 

Vtttlaitm.~-'nt (Oinbem baB li InctuUed In the nb-Arrlk fnrst 
belt, and niBa loociiB of nun umalituta tlw vbola ailtoveaant flora 
oC tbu naiini twe apaciai aia tba vUtc birgk, pD«Ur, a^m, cedar. 
Banlman ^ae, wbiLa and Uack nnice, balaam £r and lanh. The 
lorcM !• CDatlnuoui over tba loutlierB portion to 5j* K., the only 
ox^ptiosi being the nramiiti it roefc* Ulli and the outer Uaiide of 
the Atlantic and Hodaon Bay, whBa the knr narilaa and rivar 
laUtya ooolain nwcfa lahiable tlnhec. Ts tha iiaitiward the liv 

thu Iialf lb* country li iredew, and two degreea farthtr BWth the 
Jimit of treta Ii reached, leaving, to the northward, only bamu 
u h whI aritb tow Arctic flow arln g planti, aadaea and IMieiu^ 

Kitow— TlwMtetkaaloDtihcahontolKCidiiitStLainBca 
aad o( tha Atlantic fonn pcicucally tba anly induKiy of the irinte 

popiilation •adered alon* tlw aiHl»,a» wdlatof a' -— 

SihTintnMunU of NewfoundW: Tbs cbmu 
IbundlBBdt^wiCurBaieivjaSi wowBt and *»B eh 


IaU,^:tli*u'*'<*t^'>'>™l4W,7W<nuBCabof sod, lajstkicea 
«f ulmoa and ^iS baneli ol bemng, *Uch, conpaied with the 
cutotna ntumi for lUo. dionred an inotuc of cod and decreaaea o[ 
■liDOB and bartini. The aalaaon Bifciiy aloai tba AtliMic coaar ' 
■o* vaay BaaU. tfia decnaae bdag prpbiblroiia to lauiitiaiiai 
csd-uapa. The cad fiahery 1> noir caniad on thna tha (ni 
Atlantic cooU and into tna eailcrn part of tlDEava Bay, wb 
eicrUent catchea bavt been nude lina 1S93. The annual value 
the fiiliertea oa tko Caiadlao poniDB of tbe coait b about (ijo^ 
The kberiea el Hudaon by aad of the interior are whiui^ nn 
nloped, thouah both the bay and the bric Iskea of the inteclai 
veO alKkcd with icvcrai apccica of cxcelienC £ah, including An 
ticput, brook trout, late trout, while fiab, atur^coD and cod. 
PefiUaJbni. — Tbe papulation ta ^prociiuttiy 14, 
about one person to every 35 Aq.m.j it ism&cf 
joco EsUino and gooo whilca. Tbe lul an conluud 
CDuti and Id the Hudaon Bay Company'a tuding poata 
ioteilor. On the Atlantic coast [hey are laigely immigranti 
from Kfwtoundluid, together with doosdanU of En^itk 
fiabermen and Hudxni Bay Compaoy'i aetvanti. To the north 
of Htmilloa Inlet they are of more or leu mixed blood fipm 
nuRiage irlth Eiklnu women. Tlie Newfoundland cenius of 
igoi gave 3634 u tbe number of permanent white tcaidenta 
aloBg the Allantlc auut, and the Canadian ccnaos (1891] save 
a vbite population of 5;iS, mcntly Freticfa Canadiani, tcattere4 
akug the noitb ahore of tbe Gulf oi St Lawrence, white Ibe 
•hitei living at the Inland poaU did not exceed £Ily penou. 
It It difficult to give more thao » rough apptoiimaiion of the 
number of the native population, owing to their habiu of loving 
bom one trading post to anolhu. and the cooMquent liability 
of couDtinf the ume family teveral timet if the iclutni ate 
computed from Ihe booki of the variout potti, the only available 
dua tor *a enumeration. Tba following e ' 

m; Vngava Bay, 
OMSt, tgoo, EikitDO — Allaniic 
Budion Strait, too; «au coaat 
of Hndion Bay, 509. The lodiao* idms ova Ibe teutbem 

bandt, their northern limit being iJetenBined 
by that of tte tree* on which tbey depend for fuel. They Dve 
wholly by tbe duue, and tbdt numbna are dependent upon 
and othn aaiauia; at a conaeqaeace there ii a conillnt 

th great glan^ler of tbe latter, follomd by periodic 
anung tbe native*, which greatly reduce Ihcii number* 
ntain an equilibrium. The native pc^ulaliea baa thua 
1 about autinniry for the laat two cenlnriet. The 
belong to the Al^oquin fam^y, and qteah dialecti of 
tbe Cm language. By contact with nUa*U>nuici and fur-ttaden 
leia dviiiiad, and tbe grew majority ol them 
TboM living north of tbe St Lawience are 
Catholio. wbjle the Indian* of the vettein watenhcd 
have been converted by the minionarie* sf the Chunli Uiarioo 
eaitem and northoa bandt have not yet been 
« miuionarlea, and ate aiill pagans. The Eskimo 
of the Atitntic coait have long been uadei tbe guidance of tbe 
I, and lie well advaoctd hi dviUxaUan; 
. have beep taught by the Church MIsiion 
Society, and promiae well; iriiile the Eiklnw of Hudaon Sitait 
' "' t teacben, and are pagan*. Tbe Eahinw 
only going inland fiH abort perioda to hunt 
the harRn.giound caribou for their winter clothing; the mt 
of the year tbey remain on the abore or the ice, hunting leal* 
and porpoiaca, which aflojd them food, clothing and fueL 
"Hw 1+T(t"'"HTH Indiana and Eikimo read and write In thelT 
' . _ . ' ider tbe teacMngof tbe Church Hlaaloa 

Sodely ma a ()41abic chancier, the othen nuke iiae of the 
<linuy alphabet. 

PMkal JEoina.— Tbe peniniul* i* divided poUtically betwees 
tbe govcnuneati of C*itada, Newfoundland and tbe prorinca 
oi Qudiec. Tbe gavtnunaM of Newfoundland, under Letter* 
Patmt of tlie tSth of Uaieh 1876, eierdaet Jmlidletion along 
the Atlantic (out; the bouiulaiy betwea ita tenitory and 
tlmt el Cauda I* a Une nmnfng doe north and aoutb from Anas 
uatth ahoR of the Stnit of Belle Isle, to ji* N,, 
being aa yet undetennfaMl. The 
nnthen bomdaiy of tbe provioa ol Quebec follow* tbe East 
MA ifm to Iti leiatt io Fatamitk lake, thaice by a fine doe 
east to the Aahoanlpl brandi of the RainHton river; it then 
ibBowa that rim and Hamlltoai Inlet ts'tbe CDMt am* lader 
the JmiadictioD ol Nevfoondland. Tbe rem^ndet ol tbe 
penbula, north of tbe piovince of Qudiec. by oidct in oouBca 
dated the iBth oi December 1S47, waa conitllnted Oi^va 
DlMricti aa niMfganiaid tetiitoiy under the fiiriadlctlm of lb« 

Atrtoounas W. T. Cnnfell and othinL lairadr: Itt CttpOrj 

luU lb PuMt (New York. 1909): R. F. Halnea. " A Jauraey in tba 
Interior cf Labiador." Tree. R.C.S. i. iSo-hj (1M7]; A. S. 
Packard. Tlta L^niei Cml (New York, iSoO; Aunen Caiyi 
" Exphmdon on Cnnd River. Labndar," Btl. Am. Cbi. Stc. vaL 
nbv., 1891; R. BeU, " Tbe Labtador Plnlaa^' &*aH*Cu. Uh- 
July 1891. Alao the teUowini repocta by the Ceologial Survey of 
Canada >-K. BeU, " Report A an Explontion of the Eaat Coin of 
Hudion Bay," 1877-181S; " Obaervatlona on the Coast of Labrador 
aad on Hodn Stiail and Bay,' l88*-It>4i A. P. Low, " Rapen 
on tha llla«aaaiiil Bapaditioa, ttSg; " Report on Jaea Bay aad 
the Country Eaat el HudaoB Bay," 1(87-1888; "Report oa 
ir-j_ri — t. .V. t .._.._ peniniula, 180J-H0S," iBot; " Re- 

Explantiana In tbe Labrador Fi 

,. Tnveiae of the Nortinn ^ito^ tht Labfitoi; Pmiin u la, 


," 18M. F_ 

Coaliag, latradir (l»Io). (A. P. La.; A. PTcj 
LUBAMUn, OC iMMMk Sum, ■ UoieMd* fdvn 
ot the rlr(fr^li'^ ((-k) Iitwpi often cut ud poUabed as as 
omameDtal atune. It lAea It* name Irani tbe coaM of Labndolv 
where it *aa ditcovered, as boaldeia, If the Uoiavian Miwleo 
about 1170, and apedmens wen aom afterwarda lent to tb* 
aecielary in London, the Rev. B. Latnibe. Tie fdfptl itidf 
i* generally of a dull grey cohmi, with a ntbcc grcuy luHisi 


_c< pofple or led; tii£ coloiu 

_^ ._^ u chui^uig vhsi Ih* Hone ii viewed in diflercot 

dimlicu, Thk gptial effect, kDCnti Kuutima u " b^radoc- 

hmlnu at muiu minenjo, like gMhite or hacmuite, unngcd 
puilld to the iiiriuc which itflccu the cniouii hut in other 
cataittuybecuuedDoooniuchbyinctiuioiisas by uddicite 
Umcllu itnKture iii liie Mipix. An treDtDQne effect is pro-. 
ducid by the pracoce ot micKocopic encLoiiRea. The on^zial 
lihraduile wu found in the neighboiuhood of Niin, notably 
kD A lifoon about 50 m. inland, and ld St Paul'a liland. Hen 
it occun with hypenthene, of a tkb bron^ ihecn, forming a 
QBiK-graincd noiite. When ml, the stones aie Tenarkably 
biilUsnl, azid have been esUed by the natives " £ie eocIu." 
Russia hu also yielded dwloyant labndoiite, eqiecially near 
Kic* and in Finknd; a Soit blue labradorite has been brouEbt 
from Queensland; and tbs tniitenl is also iinowa in. several 
beauties in the United Suiet. as ix Keeseville, in Euez county. 
New York. The omamenlai Mone frem south Norway, now 
largely used as a dctoiMive matnia] in aickitccture. owes ita 
beauty to a felspu with a blue opalescence, ofun called labia- 
dorile, but leally * kind of orthodase which PiofeiKir W. C. 
Bttlg^ fau lenned oyptopesthite, whilst the rock in which 
it occun is aa augite-syenite qalled by him laurvi^ie, from' 
ill chief locality, Laurvik in Norway. Common lainadoiilc, 
without play o{ oolour, is an important constituent ol such 
locki *i c^)bco, dioritc, isdeule, doleiite and ba^t, (See 
PiAcmcusi.} Ejected CTTBlals of labradorite are fonad on 
Itonti RoMi, a double paraaitic cone on Etna. 

Tbe Uim labradorite it unfortucatdy used alw ai a rock- 
■aoie, havina been wplted by Foucint and Ltvy to a group 
•I bailc lOcka itch in augiie and poor in olivina. (F. W. K.*) 
• UBBADOX TEA. the popular name lor a qiedea of Lttmm, 
aimall evergreen shrub growing in bogs and swamps [q Greenland 
and tbe more northern parts of North America. Tbe leaves arc 
tMlgb, densely covered with brown wool on the imder lace, 
fnwnmt when ctuibed and have been used as a substitute fcr 
tea. Tkeidaot isamtnberoftheheaihfuBily (Ericaceae). 

UBRUH (Ut for " lip "), (be large vessel of the warm bath 
In the Rmuu thennac. The>e wek cut out cA great blods irf 
- marble and gnnite, and have goieially an overhanging lip. 
llwteiiODein the Vatkaool potphyiyover 11 ft. in diameter. 
Tlte tenaMmM te nied ia zoobgy, o( a lip or hi>jike part; in 
CBlainolofy it la qtpbed qtedfically to tbe npper lip of an Imect, 
tbe lower Up beinf tenntd liiUiiii. 

U nnnRB, aia DB (164S-1696), Fiendi ciuiyiu and 
BcnUM, wai botB in FariKHi the lAthol August t6tj, and not, 
as was once tbe conunoit ttatement, at Doordan (Seine-et-tXie) 
in 1619. His iamily waa of the miildle daas^ and hia reference 
Ut a eolaln GeoSny de la Bruyto, a cnaader, k only a satirical 
Ulustratioa of a method of iclf.4noi>Ucmcnt common in France 
ai ia soDe otba countiJt*. Indeed he himself ahrayi signed the 
name Delabruy^ in one word, thus avowing his TsfuR. His 
pngenilon. bowevei, were of respectable position, and he could 
tnce them back at least as far as his greal-giandlaibtr, wbo had 
bna a strong Leagua. La Bruytn's own father was ronitoQer- 
ftnefal of finuice to the HAtel de Ville, The son wu educated 
by tha Oratoriana and at the univcTsity ol Ocleins; he was 
called to tbe bar, and in it?] bought a post in Ibe revenue, 
which gave tbe status ol noblesse and a 
\i^ he sold this office. Hii piedecessoi in it 
' it is thought that ibe transaction 

bndly, introduced him in 16S4 to tbe household of the great 
CsBdf, to wbne grandson Henri Jules de Bourbon as weS as 
t6 that piftici'a pri-biide Ulle de Nsila, one of Louis XTV.'i 
DBtuial chOdren, La Bmyhe became tutor. The rest ol his life 
was pamed In tbe bousebold d( the prince or else at court, and 
bt aeema 10 have profited by the {ndination which all the Condt 
bmilyhadfOrtbeiodMyolmeaof teltats. Veif little is known 

of the evenli of this part — oi, indeed, oT any part—ol his life. 
The iotpnsdoii derived from the (iw notices of him Is of a iHeiil, 
observant, but somewhat awkwatd man, nsenibling in nuoneit 
Joseph AddiKin, whose masta in littf atuie Ia Bniylie m- 
doubtedly was. Yet despite the numetous enemies wfiich his 
book tiised op for him, most of these notices are favourable— 
notably that of Saint-Saion, an acuta judge and one bitteily 
prejudiced against nliiriBt generally. There ii, bomvtr, a 
curious passage in a lettec from Boileau lo Bidne in which be 
regrets that " nature baa not nude La BniyEte as agreeable la 
he would like lo be." Hlg CaraOiia ai^ieiied in iGSK. and at 
Dace, as Nicolas de Maleiieu bad predicted, brooght hini " biea 
dea lecieurt et bien des ennetnis." At the head ol these were 
Thomaj Corneilie, Tontenelle and Beiuerade, who were ptelly 
deitly aimed at in the book, as well as innumeiable other 
persons, men and vomin ol letters as well isol socarty, oawhoca 
the cap ol La Bmy^tc's fancy-portrslts was fitted by maBuBCtipC 
" keyj " compiled by the scribblers of the day. The ftieodsbip 
ol Bouuet and still more the protection of the Condb lufficienlly 
ddcnded the author, and he continued to insert fresh portrsJta 
of his coatcmpoiajies in each new edition of his book, e^xdally 
in the 4Ih (i^). Those, however, whom he had attacked were 

Bruy^ before he could make his way into that guarded hold. 
He was defeated thrice in 1691, and on one memorable occation 
he had but seven votes, five ol which were those of Bosuei, 
Boileau, iiacine, PcUisson and Bussy-Rabutin. It was not 
till 164J that he wa* elecled, and even then an tpigram, which, 
considering his adrnitted Insignificuice in oonvenatltv, was pot 
of ll» woist, iienl laCeri: — 

" Quand la Bniytn k pitsente 

""hltlluoil"!! p»i uTsiT?"' 

. bowever, chiefly confined [o the aubjed* 
of bis sucaitic portraiture, and to tbe hack writers ol the time, 
of whom be waa wont to ^leak with a disdain only stuptssed 
by that of Pope. His description of [he Uanre gofanl as 
" immASiaienunt au dastmi de rien " Is the best-remembered 
Bpecinun of these imwise attacks; and would of itself account 
for the enmity ol the editon, Fontenelle and the youngcf 
Corneilie. La Bruy^'s'discourso of admission at the Academy, 
one of the best ol its kind, was, like his admisdon itself, severely 
criticiied, especially by the partisans of the " Moderns " in the 
" Aodent and Modem " qoane!. With the CuracOra, tbe 
translation of Theophrastus, and a few letters, most ol them 
addressed to the prince dc Condt, it oompleies the list of hi) 
liurary work, withtheexceptiaanf acuciousandmuch-diQiutcd 
posthumous titatise. La Biuy^ died very suddenly, and not 
' long after his admiisian to the Academy. He is said to have been 
struck with dumbness in an assembly of his friends, and, being 
carried home to the HAtcl de Condi, to have expired of apoplsiy 
a day or two afterwards, on the loth of May i(i«6. It is not 
surprising that, considering die recent panic about poisoning, 
the bitterpersonalenmitieswhichhe had excited and the pecvliof 
circumstances of his death, suspicions of foul play ihoidd have 

them. Two yean after bis death appealed ceitoin DialDiiia i" 
k QiiitUrtni, alleged to hare been found among his papers in- 
oomplete, and to have been completed by the editor. As these 
dialogues ate far Inferior in literary meiit to La Bruy&e's olbrc 
works, their genuineneis has been denied, Sut the iliajghi- 
forward and drcumstantisl account of their appearance given 
by this editor, the Abbt du Fin, a man o! acknowledged probityi 
the intimacy ol La Bruytre with Bossuel, whose t^tn in bis 
contest with Ffneton these dialogues are designed to further, 
and Che entire absence, at so short a time after the aUeged author's 
death, of the least protest on the part ot his friendi and rqirff- 
sentaiives, seem to be decisive in their favour. 

Although it ia permissible to doubt whether the Value of the 
Cararttra has not been &>mewbal exaggerated by traditional 
French crilicQm, they deserve beyond all questioa a hi^ place. 

Hm plas cf the bocfcis tbonv^y tni^mi, if Uku Una luy be 

__ _ nlitttomote. WiUi tht tUnuT gMm a Ua t iam md 
•odil Dutch pwDtiic iri Ut origoil L« Bti^te coabidad tb« 
pcculiariliu of tlw l&nulgiw <nay, if tfac PoBto Mid if luiau 

oactly i^mdimd lince, tbougli the trnny «l Addwia uk) SUcU 

iililn it raj dody. opKiilljr in tha teUcductioa of lancy 

poitraiU. IiitlKtit]aafliiiin>ik,aadfaiitinUnH douKsri- 
DaB.LaBrnTfcaKBuiiditlianadB'of UodUl(at,bmhe lieHd 
too aiudi It MnlnHimaBaa to altonpt even the •ppartnl cm- 
Ijnully of tha gnat auyiit. The d»n pans'^>hi of whkh hb 
ch*pten coa^Bt mro ouide up of ^—fi^^Tf prapttr of criticiuia 
lilemr ud ethical, ud abon all of the celebnted ikeLcbn of 
indivtdiwb baptiatd with naisei taken (lom the ptayi and 
lomancei of the time. Tbcie last an the treat featnic o( the 
«Dck, and thai whidi Ran It iti iimiKdiate if not iu eoiating 
popDlarily. H)^ aie wmdartuOy piquant. ntnoidinirUy 
life>tihe in a certain mdM, Hid mnst hive given great pkamre 
or moiE fnqimtly enpiiiite pain ta the originals, irtio were In 
many caaea unmistakable and in most lecogoinble. 

But then it aometUng wanting Is Ibcm. The critidun of 
Charpeaticc, who readved 1a fimytiD at the Acadcruy, and 
lAo wai of the opindte faction, [i in fact fully |uMl£ed a* far 
■1 it goo. l* Biajnfae Uttially "est (trap] descendu dao) ie' 
pvtMJnlier." He bat aeOher, Uko MolHre, cmbodFed aUlnrc 
pecullailt)tainaikigkliMllntype,noihaibe,1ike Shak«p«n. 
made (h« indMduat pas nh ifttlem aOtnilUiCi, and terve as 
a irpe vIdIb retahtbf Ui indivlduifily. He ii a photognplw 
lalha than an ailBt in Mt ponraftucc So, loo, hit majtims, 
admirably u they are eipreaaed, and e«Bct ai their truth often 
ii. an an a kwer level than those of La Rocheloucauld. Baide 
the icalptaiaiine predskin, the Koman brevity, the piofmnd- 
tRM of ethial hitidtion " pierdng to the accepted hells beneath," 
o( the great Frondeur, La Bniyfae bat the air of a literary- 
ptO^maVn Aesalng up nq>erfid»] obwrvailon [n the fintiy 
of afil. It it indeed only by comparitoB that he loacs, but llieo 
it it by compaiifton that he [a usually praised. His abundant 
■H and hi* personal "mahce " have done mndi to give ban hit 
nnfc in Pnncb tileratuie, but iniidi muM alao be allowed to 
hit poidy literary BKiit*. With Kacine and Matron he b 
prolubly the very best writer o( what is tomcwhat arbiltaiily 
wyled clasdcal French. He it hardly ever iacotrcct— the highest 
merit in the cyca oi a Fiendi academic ciHk. He is always 
wcU-bred, ftevcr oUcure, raidy though lomeliaKa '' pCEcnua " 
in the turns aud nicelia of Iwiguig) in which ho delights to 
indulge, in Ua avowed design of attracting readen by form, 

added to Ui aedit that he was sensible of the folly of impoverish- 
ing Frachby ejecting old words. His chapter on "Xea ouvragei 
de rcaprit " contains. randi good criticbm, ihougb ii thowathat, 
like molt cJhitcoataiBpimrieaescepI Ffndon, hasBlameiiUbly 
ignonnl ot the literature of his own isngoe. 
The editions of La Bniy^re. both paitkl and complirte, have been 

Grte. am fa aractirrs et Ut moMri 4t tf liiiff, appealed for 
first time in tSW, being publiihed by MtchittR, tn whoic lil 
daughter, aeoorillnlja tradition. La Bniyire lavc the prolili of 
book as a dowry. Two other ediliaiia.h((le alM— ■ ■-'"' 

Om imM leiHratly'Bieful, aa the edhur hai ccJIerted ilmott enry- 
ln| ol win la hia predeceaiort. The litentim dI " kcyt " to 

L Diuytcv la catenalve and apeeryphai. Almoal everything that 

can be done in lUt dheetiM and in thai of genenl iDuitiatiDn w« 
dona by Edonard Fournler hi Ua kamed and amniini C<imUit it 
Za Brmjtn (lSM)i M. Paul Msrillot connribuied a nianci{nidi on 
' iBnyiecto tM BBiee«CCMadi4cnnifin/Ria(at>in 1W4. 

lUlUX (a comiptlon of Uw Malay word kivlK*, sJgnlfyInc 

ap " anchorace "], an iaiaad of the Malay Archipelago, oS the 

noitb-wett coast ol Borneo in j* 16' N., 115° ij' E, lu an« 

io-ii tq. to.; it ia distant about 6 m. from the ■n.ml.iul 

Bomeo at the riearest point, and Uci ojqxaitE to the northern 

d of the great Brunei Bay. The ialand it covered with low 

lis rising from flats near the shore to an irr^ular plateau 

ar the centra. About 1500 acres arc under rice culiivation, 

id there are scattered patcbft of coco-nut and taao palm* and 

few vegetable gudcos. the Utter owned for the laott pan 

by Chinese. For the rest Labuan is covered over snat ol iU 

extent by vigorous secondary growth, amidst which the charred 

trunks of trees rise at frequent intervals, the greater part ol tha 

fest of the island having been destroyed by great accidental 

inflagralions. Labuan was ceded to Great Britain in ift46| 

chiefly through the Instrument ility of Sic Jime* Brooke, Uw 

" ' ajaof Sarawak, andwasoccupiedtwoyeart lAtO'. 

the lime of it* cation the ishuid wat uiusbabited, but in 
the populaifoD numbered 5;ji, tbou^ it had declined tl» 
53fii in iSoi. The census returns loc 1901 give the popalUioB 
at 8411. The native population consists of Malay £shemica, 
Chinese, Tamils and small shifting communities ol Eadayam, 
Tutonga and other natives of the neighbouring Bomean. coast. 
There are about £fty European reiidents. At the tiTne of ila 
occi^ation hy Great Britain a brillianl future was predicted 
for Labnan, which it was thought would become a second 
jingapore. These hopes have not been realiacd. The ooal 
leposila, which are of somewhat indiaerent quality, have been 
lorked with varying dcptn ol failure by a tuccetnon of com- 
lanics. one of which, the Labuan b Bomco Ltd , Uquidaled in 
[901 after the collapse of a shaft upon which large (ums had 
leea eipended. It wa* succeeded by the Labuan CoalfiekU 
Ltd. The haxbnur it a fine one, and the above-named company 
possesses ihiee wharves capable of berthing the laiieM Eutnn- 
going ocean iteunen. To-day Labuan chiefiy eiidi a* a Iradini 
depAt for the nativo of the neighbouriiig coast of Borneo, who 
" their produce — beeswax, edible birds-nests, cv^ibor, 
gutta, infMUig. Ik., — to Chiooe ibopketpen, who r«KlI it in 
pore. There is also a contidcnhle trade in sago, much (d 
is produced on the mainland, and there are three HryUl 
sago-Iactoriei on the Island where the raw product is (onveftad 
into flour. Hie Eastern Exteniioa Telegraph Company ha* ■ 
central station at Labuan with ubl<* to SinppoM, Hoof 
EongandBritlsh N'orthBotoeo. Monthly steam commuoicatioa 
it maintained by a German firm between f j>wi^^ Singapore 
and the Philippines. "Hb colony Joined the Imperial Poiny 

>, aildilloiu, I 

ninth editton, 
HAor'a death. 
ThtthiieliM diahicueswc 
including those addressed 

of 16QA, a fnsh edition appeared, and. in all tbcK 

milch alRnd, was put forth In the yeai 

Academy ipeech appeared In the eighlh 

■m publithed n itm; moM «t -"- 

■ oTCw 

KiOie X Walctonaer (iRu). Serveit (iMT. hi the eetfea of C 
IuihAu a la Fniut}, Astelinen (• <chol»i*y repoMrf llii 
oilgliial •diiisn, i*T>J and lin^ Chaieaiit (tlTSt; th> laK 1 

liSp. ' 

a few 

lof n 

island Bod a metre-gauge railway from the baiboui to the coal 
mines, the properly of the comptny. There is a Roman r.tWJu, 
church with a rcaident pfietl, aa Anglican church, visited peiiadic- 
atly by a clergyman from the mamland, two native and Chiac*e 
scboolt, aod a sailort' chib, built by the Roman CalboHc mission. 
The bisbop of Singapore ai^d Sarawak is alto bishop of Ldwan. 
The Eunqiean graveyard bit cepeateiily been the accne Of 
outrage* peTpetraled, it is believed, by natives from the mainland 
of Boiaeo, the graves being rificd and the hair of the head and 
other parts of the coriwa being carried oS 10 furnish otsament* 
to weapons and ingiedicalt in the magii: philtres of the nativea, 
Pulau Dat, a small island in the near nei^bourhood oi T.hnf^ 
It the aite of a Gnt coco-nut plantation whence Butt ai>d eapn 

. are exported in bulk. The diioatc is hot and very humid. 

tTmll 1W9 the erpendltuTe of the cotony wai partly dcfiaytd by 

' HpRial irutHo^iA but alter tlial dale it wat lelt ta Its owa 

thcB. ' sIbcc' then law and order 


have. b«a ndiitiiDKl vithovt diScutiy by ■ null nbed poliec 
idnc of PiiD)abi> and Malayi. Fnm (Ik in of Jinuuy itootoUv 
IM of Juuuy i>id6 Labuan ma innifentd l« aaairMntiva 
purpo» to Uw Bntuh Notth BonicD Compaayi ^^ tawtmor lor tba 
time beiiif o£ tbt QHnpany'a lenitoria baUlDg alas tba nyal oom- 
miniaa ai goveirur oi L^buaiL Thia aRaii|«iieDC (tid not work 
latiifactorily and called forth fnqiKDt petJtaonaaadprotcMafram 
the colonini. Labuao wa> ibeo placed oader the loveranieDt of 
the Sinlti Sentementi. ard u adnuidiieml by a deputy invinwr 
*bo li a meiBbei of Ilie SUait> ClvD Service 

LUORIftnt, known botanlcally ai tjiimiai wlfon (or 
Cyfinr Latttmitm), a famiGai tree of tbe pea famDy (Legu- 
ininosae); it q also known ai ''golden chain" and*' golden rain." 
It is a native of the mountsini of France, Swiuerland, uulhem 
Gcnnanj, nDTtliem Italy, &c., haa long been cultivated aa an 
onumcntal tree throughout Europe, and waa Introduced into 
DOTth-caat America by the European colonl&ta- Gerard records 
it ai glowing in his garden In 1J97 under the names of aiagyiis, 
tabuinimi 01 beane tcefoyle (Bcrkall, p. i]m)> I^uC Ihc date of 
Hi introduclIoD into E^land appcin to be unknown. In 
Fiance It ia oiled I'aubino — a corruption from labumUDi 
according to Du Hatnel — as alio arboii, i.e. orc-bii, " the 
wood Imviag been used by the ancient Gauls for twwi. tl 
il itni w employed in lome parts of the Mlconnois, when the 
bowa *K found to preserve Ibeir strength and elaitlijty for half 
■ centuty " (Loudon, Arbarctum, a. jgo). 
' Sevtnl varietia of this tree are cultivated, dillering In the 
rite of the Sowers, in the form of the foliage, &c., such at Ihe 
"oak^teaied" (purdfsliim), pniittiini, cmfum, At; vat. 
mmnii has golden yellow leaves. One of the molt leraarkable 
forma ii Cylisui Adami (C. parptaasirni), which bears three 
kinds of btoasama, via. racemes of pure yellon flowers, olhen 
of a purple colour and others of an imetmediaie brick-red tint. 
The last are hybrid blossoms, and are sterile, with malformed 
ovules, (hough the pollen appears (a be good. The yellow 
and purple " leversions " are fertile. It originated in Paris 
in 181S by M, Adam, who Inserted a " shield " of the bark ol 
Cyfim^ar/wcKilntoasIockof Labamum. A vigorous shoot 
from this bud was subsequently propagated. Hence it would 
appear that the two distinct species became united by their 
camtdum tayeia, and the trees propagated therefrom subsequently 
reverted to their respective parentages in bearing both yellow 
and purple flowers, but produce as well bloasoms of an inter- 
mediate or hybrid character. Such a result- may be oiled a 
" graf [hybrid." For full details see Dartrin'i Animali and 
PloHii undo DanuiHealUin. 

The laburnum has highly poisonous properties. The roots 
taste like Ilquotice, trhtch ii a member oI the same family as 
llie lihtinHua, It has proved fatal to cattle, thougb hares and 
nbUtt cat the bark i^ ii with avidity [Gaiicner't ChrenicU, 
. p. 666). The seeds also *t« highly poisongui, 
Hie as well as acrid narcotic principles, especially 
e, Centd (I«, c!i.) alludes to the powerful eScct 
leiystem by talung the bruised leaves medicinally, 
ei (hat bees wilt not visit the flowers (N.H. ivi. jt), 
but thii Is an error, as bees and butterflies play an Important 
part in the fenititation of the flowers, which they villi for the 

The heart wood of the Itbuniura is of a dark reddtlh-brown 
colour, hard and dumble, and takta 1 good polish. Hence It 
il much prized by turners, and used with other coloured woods 
lor inlaying purposes. The laburnum has been called false 
ebony from this character of its wood. 

UITBIMTH (Gr. Xa^fyutfoi, Lat. Iciynallna), the name 
fiveD by (he Greeks and Romans 10 buildings, eniirdy or partly 
iobtenmnean, containing a number of chambers and .fnlricate 
paaiafci, whkh rendettd egress pu tiling and diflicult, lleword 
ii considered by same to be ol Egyptian origin, wlute others 
connect it with the Or. \e.ipit, the passage of a mine. Another 
derivation suggested -is from UBfOf, 1 Lydian or Carian word 
meaning a " double-edged ais " {Jeunmi ef HJtoiit Slmiai, 
iti. log, >6S]. acconfing lo which the Cretan labyrinth or 
palace of MInoi was the house of (he double tia, the symbol 

1SS1, VI 

produced on 

Pliny (JVrK. HuL iiTvi. 19, «i) moKinM the lollMiiit U th« 
isDi- lamouB labyrinths of antlqaky. ' 

I. Hie Egyptian: of whidi a dtactiptioii li given by Herodetui 
(ii. 148) and Strabotivil. tii). J( was situated to the east of 
lake lioeiis, orfiaaite the aodest site of Antnoe or Crocodllo- 
poUa. According to Egyptdogitts, (he word meant " the temple 
at the entrance of the lake." According to Hsrodoiui, the 
entire building, luirounded by a sio^ wall, contained twelve 
courts and jooo chambera, 1500 above and 1500 below ground. 
The roofi were wholly of stone, and the walls covered with 
sculpture. On one aide stood a pyramid 40 orgyiae, or about 
941 ft. bi^ Uerodolui himself went thnngh the upper 
chambeia, but wu not permitted to visit thaw tiadasmmd, 
which he wu told contained the (tmbs of the Unv vbo htd 
built the labyrinth, atid of the sactcd crocediks. Other andeiu 
authorities coniidend that it was built at > place «i meeting lor 
the Egyptian noma or potitical diviiionii but it ia akua l^y 
that It was intended for lepoldiial puipoiea. It wai tba work 
of AmenemU III., of the iilh dynaity, iriio lived about ijeoB.c 
It wai £nt located by the Egyptolo^ Lepaina to the poith of 
Hawara in the Faynm, and (in iSSS) FXndeci Petrie discovered 
its foundation, the eatent of which is about looa ft. long by 
Soo ft. wide. Immediately to (he north of it is the pyramid of 

have been found (see W. U. Flioden Petrie, BoHra, Aatom, 
eni Ariintt, iSS«). 

1. The Cretan: said to have been buHt by Daedahii on the 
plan oi the Egyptian, and fanoui for iti conmiioa with the 
legend of the Minotaur. It ii doubtful whetbei it ever had any 
rol existence ttid Diodorui Siculm says that in his time It had 
stretdy dis^qxarcd. By the older writen it was placed Bear 
Cnoasui, and ii represented on coim of that dty. but mthing 
corresponding Lo it jkaa been found during the course of the receni 
eacavalions, unles (he royal palate was meant. The rocka of 
Crete are full of winding cavei, which gave the fitN idea of the 
legendary labyrinth. Later writers (for inslaace, CItndiaB, 
De laU C«u. Hnurii, 6^4) place it near Gottyna, and a let 
of winding passagei and chambers dote to that ptace is still 
pointed out as the labyrinth; these arc. however, ilt fValily 

the EgypUas. 

Kemains of it existed in (be (ime of Pliny. I(B chief feature 
was Its ijo tdunuu. 

4. The Italian: a taiiea of cfcambai in the kiwa part of 
(be totnb of Forscna at Quiium, This tomb was joo II. iquare 
and Jo ft. high, atid usdeniiath it wai a labyrinth, from which 

Fm. 1.— Labyrinth of Loadoii and Wise. 
It wai exceedingly difficult (o find an eilt without the asrislaiK* 
of a clew of thread. It hu been maintained tbat thb tomb li to 
be recognized in the mouiid named Poggio Ca;eQa near QiiutL 

Lastly, Pliny (luvi. igJappUetlhe word to a rude drawing on 
the ground or pavement, to Some extent aotidpating the modem 
or garden nuie. 

1, Atyptiiihi Go- 
-.1. u» CU...UII III iiiv secoad book ol 
U Cntaa, C. HOck. £nla {(>i}-lltM. and 


A. J. Evau b JmriHl «/ AUmfc JMin: on ilw nbJKt (eoenlly, 
■itidci in RoKhn'i LentM iir MylUitit Kti Dinmbett ud 

In gitdcDiDS, I kbyiintli or swH meuu u intriote nclmrk 
of pwlnnyi codoMd by bedfci ot pUntUioot, lo that tbou 

Fio. 3. — Libyrinih cl BtUf Langky. 

■ho enter becBme bewildered in their eSorU to fiad the centre or 
■nil:e theit' nit. It ii a lemnut oi the old gcoraeU-tol nylc o( 
[udeniag. There in two methodi of fonniDf it. That which 
ii peba|« the more common coowU of vallui or alleys u they 

Fro. 3. — Libyrlnlh at VemiUs. 
mie ionnaly called, taid out and kept to an equal widlb or 
Beaily la by parallel bcdfei, which (bovld be w clew and thick 
^ the eye cwuiot rcadBy penetrau them. Tbe t*A ii to fet 

to (he ceatie, vhich ti ollen rabed, and imenlly eonti 
coveted scat, a founliin, a Ualue or even a small gnnp a( 
Alter reaching this point the neat thing a to return I 
entrance, when it i> lound that cgren ii u diKcuII al in 
To every design ot this urt there 'should be a key, but even 
who Itnow the key are apt to be perplexed. Somelimt 
ddign consiili of illeyt only, u in Gg. 1, publiahed in r; 
London and Wiio. Ill audi a com, when the farther i 
reached, there only reniaini^to travel back again. Of a 
pcelcntioui character waa a design published by Sviiier in 

Fia. 4.— Man ai Hampton Conrt. 

Tlii II of octtgouat (Orm, with very numeroui paraDcl hedgeaand 
palhi, and " dx diSecent entrances, whereof there is tnit one 
that leaili to the centre, and thai is attended with tome ififficulliea 
and a ffcac many Mops." Some of ihe alder designs for laby- 
rinlhl, however, av«d thia dose parallelism of the alleys, which, 
Ihou^ ecpially involved and intricate in Ihtjr windings, are 
carried through hlocksof thick planting, as shown in fig, i, from 
a desigivpublished in r;iR by Baiiy Ungley. These blocks of 
shrubbery have been called wilderncsKS. To this latter class 
belongs Oie celcbcaled labyrinlh al VertaiUes (fig. 3), ol which 
Switier observes, that it " is allowed by all to be the noblest of 

Whatever tlyle be adopted, It ii oKnttal that there ibould be a 
Ihkk healthy irawih el the htOm or thruhbecies Ihit eaa&ae tbe 
wanderer. The trtea used should be inpbietnble to the eye, and 
•0 tail Ihit no ODC can look over Ihem; and the polhi ihould be ol 
gravel and well kept. The [teea chiefly uaed for the he<ft[»». and 
the bat for the pi -'- ■- — ■■ '--'-■ 

Fia. 5. — Maae ai Sonerkeyua KaS. 
a«mmu wltb my good rtiulti. and lO ndght Ihe Anerica* 
vitae if the naiwal khI pnseaied no obsaclt Th* fmuHl 
be wdl prepared, ao aa to give lb* tceee a good Mart, and a 
ling of manure during tbe early yean of their nowlfa would 
-. -. much advanlaih Tney nniflt be kept trimmed In or clipped, 
(Specially bilbttreaBlerBatesi Irinoitng with the knlie <■ much u 

' ifened 10 dqipiaf villi amiv An* «la«i leiiiag nicli ia 

(• of lb* red fboM bt Un>Ml, and tM whole kept to mat 
IS ft. in hoght until the lower parts aie well thickened, when 
r be allowed to acquire the allotted hei^i by mMemte annual' 
Hie. In cutthiKi th* hedxe (■• indeed all hediei) limld bt 


kipt btodal II the bait . 


ueinihe^idniial Him pion Coon Pibce (1i(. 4) la «n- 

1y pinof IhcnifnTl WnluB IN., tli«iIhith>ib««Hl^ 
.iu a nu» had tiiilcd ihcrr lincc tbc [imc o( Hciiry VIII. 

. _ .._ ._. _„_ _ , ^ ^ 


ird*. which pnvti 

ir^Mnilrucitd'on the "iiidst - 

beloved. arifiinAlly planted wiih hornbcAin» but ma 
have brrn rrpUccd by hollic*. yews, ACr. lo ihal 

Dccur>ie<l is a JilHe ovtr a qulKer oT an acrp. The centre conUint 
1*0 large trrei, wiih a seat Ivnnth each. The ke^ to " '" 

--1 :. .1 1 — ■.rc/^..r ^ Hun, near Lowriioti (fij. 

Tba bedfo in ol Eiifliili 

■j), Ida df^ncd by Mr Jolm The 

Fio. 6.— Labycinlh in HDniculliiral Sockly'a Gaiden. 

mi, art about 6) [t, high, and have b«B pbnltil about At» y"' 
In the natre ia a Erau mound, raised to the hrighl ot the he€l|«. aa 
on thil iDouitd ia a pagoda^ approadicd by a rur^-ed grau path, / 
the two contera on the weitern tide an iHnIa of laurcli 15 or 16 ( 
high. On each eide of the bedfea ihTOughour the kabyiimh ia 

"'Thcn"Ha abo^ labyrinth at Theobiid'a Farli, mr Cheahun 
when thia place paued ftom the eaH ot Salnbory into (he ptmeasio 
or J:ime4 F- Another ia aaid to have exiBtnl at Wimbledon Hbu* 
the «it o[ Eari Spciicer, which - ■ ~ 

the dan ol k 1, a( Minley Place' Mai 

When tbe (ardena o[ r- '■ ' " 
Ktntuiguia were beinf pb 

Thii labyrintli. deiitiKd by Lieut. W. A. Netlietd, wit lor many yean 
the chief point of attnction id the younnr niilon 10 the (aidenii 
but il wa« allowed to m to ruin, and had to Dc denrpyed. The eatdeni 
themKlm an now EuUt over. {T. So.) 

> UBTRIHTHDUDSA, Iht ntme givtn by Sir Ray LanliRter 
(iMj) to Satcodini (»...) forming a retindite pla»o»diBin. 
Ihe denwi muKi united by Bne pieudopodical Ihreadi, hardly 

This I] a small and helerogeneom gioup. Labyrintkala, 
diuovered by L. CieokowiJcy, formi a network ol relatively 
stiff Llueadi on which an scanered large apindk-shtped enlarge- 
tncnti. ndi repreienting an amoeba, with a linjle nitdegs. 
The (hiTidi are pseudopodj, very slowly emitted and withdrawn. 
The amoebae mulliiily by isaioD in the active aUic Tbaptaiot 

^ioRl^abyrinUi, lorKwh 
re tbould be a male 




>r *'cell.heap" oT icveral celle which have loat 

ibnf^raa, Ciciik., their defiiule tpiadte-ihaiied 

pon an Alga. contour- t, CorptiKlet which 

u* "cell-heap" of have become spherical and are 

ler, with fully ex- about to be encysted}, 

■tuork ot Ihieadi 4. Annoleipindlecellandthreada 

the oat-ihaped ^ latyruHin/o iMrrocyriii. 

(cell.) are movinj. ciealt, n. Nutleut 

l^nOh,"^™! S.A|.oupo(encj™icel(io(L. 

TOme encysted. , ""^ , 

of the nerworL of °< 7* tneysied 

noiieveial eocyated apiiidle^dl ol i- 

closed proto- 

f. Fuai 


KC4lliii| On AtnriMA ffma nth Oft dtttMetr.enewt ■ 
(ingle unocbuiOi maic mtiy four (fifi. 6, il- TIic wprophyU 
Ditttt^yU) Orcva (Cieok.) apiinn donly lOKd lo thuk. 

CiUmyd*myai (W. Aicbei) KMobk* Labytiittkiila io iu 

indr bnodied pluowdiuni, but conuin* y«Ik>iri>h duooulo- 

' pboia, and minuu ovil vcsicla (" phyioda ") GUcd with a 

along tbt plRsowdiil tncki. The ccU-body contains cumcrout 
DUtlci) bul in iti ictivc ilUc is not resolvable into diuincl oval 
irw**>^'^' It il amphitraphic, icgetiin^ and digcsUng other 
PnHiM*, M wall a* " auimilatiag" by id cliraaiBtapkDrei, ihs 
product beiBi oil, not aUich. Tlic wlude body may fonn a 
Uimnatcd ccUulou rating cyu, from which it may only tern- 
poniily cBKqte (fig. >), oi it may nndcrga icsolution into nudcals 
cdU vfaicb (ben encyit, and b«DnwinulLinudeBteJ>clouniplur- 
i^ tfac cyii afrota. . , 

Ltyiaua [F, Schaudinn) is a paiasitc io malignfnt diuaiat 
of the pleura. The pteudopodia of adjoining cdli unite U> Iwm 
a ottwoik; but iu alEniiies seem te such todal naked. Fon^ 
minilcn as UUtriprmia. 

SnCienbnnky, AnUt/. UtoaapiiOu Aaalaml: iU. 174 (1M7I, 
liL u {t^m-. W. Anhu. Owvf. Jiwr. Uknurifii Scitntt, ». "fl 
(i87j)i e. £ Unkntcr, Kti., »«■., !» [i«9Cl: Wcmnymu. anj 
jcniilnun. lUd., alii. 89 {1899): W. ZodI, BiiirS^ snr AfiialMit 
mi MtrAilitit aMtnr Oriim--- " -' '■"— ' '- '- '■---'- 
paf»Ht Mwth^ tat PuffcmtH 


fU (1S96). 


r, if je (18»»), 
i». 196 (1904);. .. . 


in the iwip and r^ung 

tbein. The Kim lac {htilia, Sanskrit; Idii, Hindi ) ii the tame 
a> tbe numeral lakh — a hundred thousafxd-^and is indicative 
«( tbe counllest hosli d( insecti which nuke Iheic iippcaranu 
with evciy successive generation. Ijic is a product of Ibe Eiii 
Indin, coming especially from Bengiil,regu,Siiim and Auam, 
and it produced by a number oC Ircn o( the species Fiimi, 
paniculaily F. rdiiieia. The intect *hich yields ft ii closely 
allied Io the cochineal insect, C«c«f Mli; keinies,. C. Hicis 
and P<disfa grains, C. fsflHiciu, all ol which, likt: the lac insect, 
yiuld a Rd cokwring matter. The minule larval iiueclt fasicn 
in myriads on the young shools, and, inserting thcii long pro- 
plant- The insect! begin il once to ciode the 

■cparaie exudaiioi 
layer regulaily hooeyi 
over and around the J 


:e bodies; this iorm 

I cosle^ing, - — - . 

irvconibed with small cavities it depoiilcd 
nm this living loHib the femilc 
bulk of the whole, never escape. 
impregnation, which takes pIjcb on ihe liberation 
aboat three months from their first appcitance, the 
lematet develop into a singular amorphous orginiim consiiling 
iailtn^iiafcatutesol a Jaige smooih shining ciimson-coloured 
tac— the ovary— «iih a lieak stuck into the bark, and a lew 
papilhiry procaisa projected above the resinous surface. The 
red fluid in the ovary is the substance which forms the lac dye 
of commore. To obtain the bigist amount of both rctin and 
dye-stuff it it necisuiy lo gatbei the twi^ with ,thei 

,r Jun 

the Lwiga *a gathered is knc 

resin Eruahtd to imall fiagmcnit am 
[r» il bom coloiuing mallet conttiti 
■hen mtUed. iliaioed through thick c 
thin layers, is knowii ai " shellac," an 
rnio is usually brought to £uropcai 
in coloul from a dark amber to analn 
known u " orange-lac," is the most va 
— ■' Uver-ctdourod," " tuby," " ga 
value as Ike colour deipena. Shellac n 
log it In a boiling lye of caustic po 
Ihiough the Bohilion till all the resin i . 
belBg known *■ while shellac. Bleachol 

d November. Lac enctusling 

is the loim in nhich the 
maikett. Shcllacvarics 
si pure black; the palest. 

> light delicate 
much used in 
s for. the head 

aad tat otherpmnMl ladoromtBta. .Lscisapijodpalingtedlen; 
and (onni the .basis of same ol the mod valuaUt 
tea bdng uaefui in vahwii cements, &c. Avenge 
tuca lac cofiiaini about 6S % of ream, ro of lac dye aad 6 of a 
waxy tubitaiwe^ Lac dys is obtained by evaporaliog tbe water 
IB which itjclc lac ii washed, and coims inu omnmerce in the 
f«m of •null iquare cake*. It is in many leipecu Hailar lo, 
although not identical with, coduncaL 

UUILLB. NICOUS UHIU DB (1711-1763), French attra- 
non»[, was bom at Kunignjf, in the Aidtnnis, on the i5tk el 
March 1713. Wt destitilt by tbeckathol hisfaihe, whobeM 
a. poll in the househcMof the dudiesaof VendAine, his theological 
iiudies at the Ciriligt de Listeu in Palis were picsccuted at the 
cijKBie of the (hike of Bouttxa. After he had taken deican'l 
oiden,however,he devoted hloticU.eicluiively Io tcienc*, and, 
tbrougb tbe puratugt of. J. Casaini, obtaiQcd tmployBKnl, 
fiitt ID BUiveying the coast Crom Naniea to Bayonne. then, in 
t1i9, . in tenKaionni the French an of the meridiaB, Tht 
sucecsa of this di£cuh <^xration, which occupied two years, and 
•chievoJ Iba correnian of tbe anomaloui mult puUohed by 
J..Cassinl in iriS, was mainiy due to Lacailk't indasliy and 
ikilL , He was rewarded by adraiiGion to the Acaderfiy and Ihe 
appoiolmeBt of mathematical pnftHoi in hlaaaan colkgr, 
wb*R he worked in a anall obaetvalory lilted fat his uh. Hk 
deiim Ut observe the souLbera beavent led him to propose, la 
1750, an astroiiomieal expedition to (he Cape ol Good Il<^, 
wMdi was oSicially aaoctioiied, and lonunatcly ciecuied. 
Among its tciilts were detcnninatioDi of (he lunar and ol the 
snlat parallax (Mai9 serving as an intermediary). Ihe firsi 
raeaiURBMnt of a South African arc of the meridian, and Ib< 
observation of IOiOOei iOulherD atan. On his telBm to Paril 
in I7st LacaiUewat disttessed to find himsell an object ol public 
attention; he withdrew to Maiatin college, and there died, 
on the tist of Maioh 1763, of en attack of gout iggravated by 
utircRiilcing loiL Ldlaode «aid ol bim thai, during a compara- 
tively ahon life, be had made more observations and calculations 
than all the astronomers of bis lime put together. Tbe quality 
ol hia woEk rivalled its -quantity, while tbe disinterts(edH*s 
and rectitude of his. moral character earned him universal 

"*"■ ■ " ■ 'P. 

taii^ a BUodaid catalotue dl 

{Mimiiii KnAiir. Stciay, v.-^jTaMte SaUra ([758} 1 'CMl*m 
W%B'" (1J6J) (idita^ty i.p. MaraWi). gT«ng u«. 

r D. w 

, Otwrrations sur iig ttolfesdu Zodkque 

(17j4i>. fmiutBdr rtprinud; diR« dt JMonOM (i7<u). AcTdiua 
d'.ljiffiaAfiJc{)T46j, 4th edition augmented by ubadc (1779); ditto 
fOpliqitf (17S0), sc. Calculations by him of Klipsn (or cighicrn 
huiKliw yearm were flnsened in L'AtI de tirtfisf Ui dalfi (1750); he 
communkated 10 ibe Andemy in 17s; a daned caialKuf ol Inny 
two sDUlifni nebulae, and gave in i. ii. •( bii £»Wiii<riAi UjK) 


f 197 (1761)1 G. BiOlier, Preface to Lacaille's Cttlmm aulnuc) 
lauoe Cailier, ^JJCPvrl a/iforiguf, prefiacd to Lacajlle't Jaurnat 
*ii(»r,'j« d« »wi(/flfl ax Ca* [r?*!!; J. J. L.lande, Co.F.»».in» 
ill tempi, p. 163 (!767)[ ftW. " '- — '■ ■'■ "'-■ ' 

1761)1 G. .Biolier, Preface to Lacailli 

■W/afla" Cap (I 

63 (1767)1 **'. 

(. *fM». an JtV/;_ ^ _„^ . ._ ,. 

AM. A raw. MOdinii, teiaesii., iik. AuiM M , C. PoBcrailDrfr, Jwr 
LIL HanilwtrUrlimii R. Grant, Hl<l. of l^yiiial Ts/'sxtwrv. pr. 
4S6. &c.: R. Wolf, Cciclbttt dtr Aiirf>emi. A catalcfiur ol g;6<; 
(tars. trdBird Irom Lacaille's obwrvaiknij by T. Hcrrdcnon. under 

lACUTA. »K jJuia'|Gua»">l (iSij-i^x). Anglo-iiiKan 

he tcqDh*dl'deilrel«ill>d]rlbeE«|lll>ilan(u*Be. AKbough 
anodante Litml hi politlM,h* never fointd any iccm aacMy, 
but In ilfi aflH the MitofUloa of Bourbon aulocncy be wai 
arretted for having suppHM ntdKone «t(b Inlorraailon on 

Bourboii ■ mfsrole. ThtMgb the interWntion ol the Briiiab 
and RuwaD miDblct* l)e via Ubentcd. bul on the pablicalias 



xt GUdM^*> funoiB letUn to Lord Abgtdtca he nu obUgeil 
to Inve Nifdci. He fint Kttlid in Edinburgh, where Itf Eiinud 
Uarfal Cumkhiel, and then in London when he nude numema 
fakiida tn hLeinry ind political drdea, and was pjoffsaai of 
luUinat Quccn'iCoilcgifrom 185] taias6. In ihe luteiyear 
lie ucomiHUiied Loid Hlnlo to Italy, on which occaiion be 
Gnl met Civoor. FMm 1(57 t» 186] be *** printe Kcretaiy 
(non-polilical) 10 Lord LantdawiB, >ad in iBjS be acxonpaaied 
GladUane to Ihe laniui Iilaoik u ncnlaiy, for which Kivkei 
he was nude a K.C.M.G. tbefotknrincyear. In lUo Frandi II. 
of Naplei bad iiDplorcd Napotcoa III. la lend a iquadron to 
prevent Ciribald} Irom crossing over from Sidly to Callbtu; 
Ihe enqwnr eipressed falmBcU willing to do 10 provided Gnttt 
Britain co-crpcraled, and Lord John Rnlsell was at Gru Inclined 
to agrteJ At this junctare Cavour, having heard of the scbeme, 
entiBKed Liouu, at the BDggesiion of Sir Junes Hudson, the 
foittab ndniito M Tuiia, with the luk of inducing Ruuell to 
itfiue OKipenitian. Lscnila, who wu an Indmatc Iriettd both 
of RohU and bb wiJe, succeeded, with the help of th« latur, 
in- winning ovei the British iiitranmn just^ be <m about to 
accept the Fiaoco-NtapoUlan proposal, which was in a>n- 
•equenct abudoned. He RIumedtaNaplesliitein iS6aandthe 
(oliowinK y»r was elected meinbcr of parliament for BiloMo, 
altbougfa be bad been naturalized a British subject in IS5J. 
He took little patt in pariiamti ~ 

He w 

rested ii 

English companies operating in Italy, and was made one s( the 
direcion of the Iial^n Southern Railway Co. He had a wide 
circle ol friends in many Europoin countries and In Americs, 
iKluding a number of the moat famous men In politic* and 
litetatuie. He died ia 189; at Fosillpa near Naples. 

An iDtbority on Danic, he eave many lectures on Italian llieianire 
■nd liistocy wKile in EnBland; 

da Imoia'i Latin ' ' '^ ' 

Mrnw (tAiulaii, _ 

implied a QUiocue ii 


it of Dsvofuhin's library at Chatswsnh fLoodoo. 

U CUJ& a seaport of Algeria, In the arrondisscineat of 
Bona, dcpartouDt of Constantine, sGm.byiailE.olBonaaad 10 
n. W. of the Tunisian Imnttet. It is the cenln of the Algerian 
and Tunisian coral hdieries and has an eitensive industry in 
the curing lA sardines; but tfie harbour is small and exjused 
to the y.E. and W. winds. The old fortified town, now almost 
abandoned. Is built an a tocliy peninsub about 400 yds, long, 
connected with the mainland by a bank of sand. Since tl)e 
occupation <A La Cille by the French [n 1838 a new town has 
grown up along the wvX. Pop, (1906) ol the town, 1774: o\ the 

La Calle from the times gf its earliest records in the lolh century 
has been the reudcnce of coral merchanit. In the i6th antury 
e»cluiive privileges of fishing lor coral were granted by the 
dcy ot Algiers to the French, who Brat established Ibemielves 
on a bay to the westward of La Calle, naming their settlement 
Bastion de France; many ruins still exist of tids town. In 1677 
they moved their beadquarteis to Id Calle, The company — 
Ctm^t^'t f Afriqiie-^ia owned the concession for the fishery 
was suppressed in 1798 on the ouibreak of war between Fiance 
and Algeria. In 1S06 the British consul-general at Algiers 
Obtained the right lo occupy Bona and La Calle for an annual 
rent ol £11,000; but though the money was paid for several 
ytats DO practical eDect was given 10 the agReaail. The 
French regained possession in 1S17, woe expelled during Ibo 
wars of 1817, when La Calle was burnt, but returned and rebuilt 
the place in iSjG The boats engaged in Ihe fishoiy were mainly 
IlaJian, but the imposition, during the last quarter of the tgth 
century, of heavy taxes on all save French boat* drove the foreign 
vessels away. For lome yuis the industry waa abandoiwd, 
but was restarted on a small scale In 1903, 

See Abbe Poirrt, royajc n Baii^ . . . (Paris. TJS9); E. 
Brmighion, Sin ?««' fl^ilfc™ ix Altiirs (London, liy,) and Kr 
R. L. Playiair. Trttxli in On FoottUfi tf Brut (London, i8n). 

U- tti»-iM>5). Ficnch aavdiu and dnmallst, was bom at tbe 
Cblteau of Tolgou, near Sailat (Dotdogoe), fn ifio; or 1610. 
After studying at Toukoae, he eame to Paris and entered the 
regiment ol Ihe guank, beoMnlng in i6jo gcnlLeman-iiKinGnuy 
of tbe Toyal houMbold. He died In iMj In consequence ol a 
kick from his horse. He was the author of several Ions heitic 
romances ridiculed by BoBeau. Tbey art: Caaatidrt (to tmh., 
1641-16S0]; CUofaln (1648): Faramond (iMi); and Zei 
Nmdkt, M ia DiMrliiummU it la frincase AltMen (iMi) 
published under his wile's name, but gcDetally tttHbuted to 
him. His ptayi lack tbe spirit andioroe that occaaiaiBSy ledeem 
I he novels. The best Is I> C«((ait'£»ai, iCptcseMcd In iGj8, 
whicb supplied some ideas In Thomas Comdlle for hll tragedy 

LA CARLOTA, a town of tbe province of Negraa OcddcDt*^ 
FhOfppne stands, on the W. coast ol the bland and the left 
bank of San Enrique river, sbout 18 m. S. of Bacolad,''llie 
capital of the praviacc. Pop. <ivo]), aflcr l!be anneiilion c( 
Sao Enrique, 19,191. There are fifty-four villages or barrioi 
in the town; tbe largest bad a population in igoj of lijt, and 
twoolhershsdeachmorctban looornbabitanlt. The Fanajiao 
dialect of the Visayan bnguage is spoken by most of the fnhibi- 
tasts. Al La Cu-lola Ihe Spanish government established a 
station for the study ol the culture ol su^r-ome; by ibc 

" Goverm 

agricultural eipeiiment station, known i 
LACCADIVB miAllDS. a group of ci 
the Indian Ocean, lying between id' and 11" itf N. and ji' 
to* and 74* E. The name Laccadives {lakska impa, the " hundred 
thousand isles ") is that given by tbe people of the Ualabsr 
coast, and was probably meant to include the Maldho; they 
are called by the nalives simply DM, " islands," or .lnuflJiW, 
Irom the chief island. There are seventeen lepanle reefi, 
" round each of which the loo-falbom line la continuous " 
(J. S. Gardiner). There are, however, only thirteen islands, and 
of these only eight are inhabited. They fall into two gronps 
—the northern, belonging to tbe eoUectoratc of South Kanara, 
and including the inhabited IslaAds of Amini, Kaidsinat, Kihtn 
and Chcllat; and the soul hem, belonging to the administrative 
district el Malabar, and including the inhabited islands of Agatii, 
Kaviialli, Androth and Kalpeni. Between tbe Laccadiws 
and the Maldives to the south lies the isolated Mlnfkoi, ehicb 
physically belongs to neither group, though somewfiat nearer 
to the Maldives (i.».). The principal submerged banks lie north 
of the northern group of islands; they are Munyal, Coradtve 
and Sesostris, and ait of greater extent than (hose on whidi 
tbe blands lie. The general depth over these is from 13 to il 
fathoms, bat Sesostris has shallower soundings "Indicating 
patches growing up, and some traces of a rim '* (J, S. Gardiner)^ 

and protected side of the reef, Ihe western being completely 
exposed to the S.W. monsoon. The islands are s: 

Tadlh, while th 

They lie so low that they would be hardly di 
but lor tftt coco-nut groves with which tbey are thickly covered. 
The soil is light coral sand, beneath which, a few feet down, 
lies a stratum of coral stretching over the whole of tbe Istank. 
This cotai. generally a foot to a foot and a half in thickness, 
has been in Ihe principal islands wholly excavated, whereby 
the indcdying damp sand is rendered available for cereals. 
These excavations — a work of vast labour— were made at a 
remole period, and according to the native tradition by giants. 
In these spaces (Msn, " garden ") coarse grain, pulse, bananii 
and vegetables are cultivated; coco-nuti grow abondintly 
everywhere. Forricclhenaiivesdepcnd upon the mainland, 

Popaliilai and r™i(.— The population in 1901 waa io,iH- 
The people are Moptas, i.e. of mixed Hindu and Arab dcsceM, 
and are Mabommcdsna. Their manners and rustoBisaresimiltr 
to Ihose of Ihe coast Mopias; but they maintain their own 
ancient caite diitfnctlons. The language sfahen Is Halayabm, 
but ft Is wtftton in the Arabic cbtiader. Readlni sad wriliv 



hole trchlpcUgo (DIlMill) in 

. . Itbt Mtldim). WHJ ibt D' 

It (tlK Ucwlina). (^ JtKrn. Aual. i , 

p. 76s). The iilanden wtt codv«eI«] to ItUin by an 

named Mumba Mulvala. vhow rnve ■! Androth 1 . 

peculiar Bnciity lo Ihit iiland. The kua ol Androtli 
Bill a fnonbiT of bis bniily, and wai Bid (o be the I* 
who bad luld tlv office ia dincl line from tbe nlal. 
colour 10 ih£ tndiiioo that tbe coaveruon took place 
It a alK lurthtr combantrd by Ibe ilmy pven by the 
of Ibe conVEnionol the MaldivM. wbich occurred, jihi 

■neiilandi in lua. The Pc 
[ay 149B. and builE loru . 

I«ra^ cl (he rafaTcI; 

Tbe iaUndt autMOiu^lI] a 

nnanore, and after the peace a- 

fBi^iii, i/v' <■■«' -uuM^ciii ^raupwu permitted to femai ie 

■oaiHiEnienl of the native chief M a yeady tribute. Tb ;a 

isamr. andonihiiaccouiu Ibeie idanda were leqoeitialed by the 
Briliab fDvemment bi iS??. 

See fb> Fauna a«i Cropap^y ^ Ou ViiU» ohI LauaJiwm 
Arckiftlami. ed, J. Stanley Cirdiriet (Cimbridie 1001-1905); 
Ifulaiar binriaCn^Uir iUtani, loot}; G. Perein. "At Ilhude 
Dvve " (Btltlim da Soc.Cnt., Liibon, iH^s^ign) givea detail* 
retatiog to the Laccailivn Irani tbe Ifitb-ceaEury MS. volume Dt 
Buwlii a ptntriMaimi ItuiUnorum in the National Libtary. Liibon. 

UCCOUTB (Ci. >Jixxot, ciilem, Uftn, none], in teology, 
tbe Daizie given by Grove IL Gilbert to uitru^ve cnauea 
oC igoeous rock possesung a calf-like form, wbich be fint 
detoibtd from tbe Meiuy Mountaiii* of uuthern UUh. Their 
duracteiislic it thai Ihey have ipiead out along tbe bedding 
planes of the strata, but are not u hioad and thin is Ibe Abeela 
or istruaive ailla which, coniisling ujuaQy ol base IDClis, have 
qiread over immeue dislanccs without attaining aoy great 
tlicknes. LaccoUEes <f)ver a comparatively ainall aiea and 
have gnaiei thickness. Typically they have a domed upper 
nrfacc while their base Is flat. In the Henry Moustaiaa they 
are from i to j m. in diameler and range in thickness up to 
(bout 5000 fi. Tbe cuut of tbcir peculiar shape appeals to 
be tbe visoaity of the rock injected, which is utuilJy of inler- 
nwdiate character and compualively rich in alkalis, betonging 
to tbe tiacbytei sod similar liibological types. These are 
much let) Suid tbaa tbe bualu, and tbe bttcr in consequtnce 
spread out much more readily along the bedding planes, forming 
Qiin flat-topped sills. At eacb side tbe laccolites thin out rspidly 
lo that their Mppa surface slopes steeply to tbe matins. The 
(tnta above them which have been uplifted and bent are often 
cracked by utensioB, and as the Igneous materials well into 
tbe G&surea a large number of dikes is produced. At tbe base 
of the laccotite, on tbe other band, the stnta are flat and dikei 

has Sowed into the laccoiite. The rocks around sie often 
nucb afiecied by contact allenlion, and great masaet of tbem 
have iOEOelimes tunk into tbe laccoiite, where Ibcy may be 
partly melted and absorbed. 

Gilbert obtained evidence that these laccnlites wen filled 
at depths of 7000 la 10,000 ft. and did not reach tbe surface, 
Cviog dse 10 volcanoe*. From the eHedt on tbe drainage of 
Ibe country it seemed probable thai above tbe lacmUiea tbe 
strata swelled up in flatlish eminence*. Often tbey occur tide 
by tide in gmupa belonging 10 a tingle period, though all the 
members of eadi group ate not strictly of tbe tame age. One 
laccoHte nay be termed on tbe side d an eailleT one, and com- 
pound la«colitei ibo occur. When exposed by etMion they 
(Ive rise lo hills, and tbeit ippearuuf vvtei aenewhat with ibi 
Mage of development. 

Tio die wcttem cart of Sovth Amerira ItMolltet anedn* <a all 
■ ■ ■•^- ■ -BlbyGnbBtomrlnconJilerable 
trait ----- 

itea they split into a auBbe« «< ibeM* 

- Ji tbe neks around. But the tarn 

^ — , _,en adopted by feo1o0Bta in Britain and elaewheir 
a vuiety ol intiutive mattes not strictly identical ia 

id eroded edgea of an 

., urnithed by the felille 

latef the BUnk HiUin the Ptntlandi. near Edinborih, which bat 
" le bcCwcan the Silurian and the Old Red SaadBDna. 

T^t d«ith, fonaing a door. Tlw definite proof of tbiJ 
.Itaincd Eor 00 bonngs have penetjaled the granitH 
cdtmeniary rockt facneath then. Bat often in 
~ intries where there an deep valleyi the beset of g 
colitet are eiKned to view la ^ IiiD aides. Tbete granrit < 
T a cnwderabie thickoba ia ^nporiionto their lenglb. raiie 

■ellKleADed floor Wl 



I dikes, and behave generally like- 

JoR to intrUBioRi of this type with 

Ly place the batholilhs. byioulithi, pJulooic 
tve vertical maiginsaiid apparently descend 
I unknown depths. It baa been conjectured that maMet of ihli type 
Lt (bar way upwardt by dlatotvini the rock above them and ab. 
ctung it, or excavate a passage by breaklAf up ihe n»f ot tbe tpaca 
■ — y while the fragmenti '—-*---» -'-«- -■ ' J — 

.which have 


U. 5. F.) 

UCB (cortoponding to ItaL maiiOe, Iritn; Genoese fiar. 
Cer. i^Itcai Fr. iaHcUi; Dutcb itunlni; Span, tnajt; the 
English word owes something to the Fr. ium or Uais. but both 
■re connected with the eatKer Lat. ta^uau; eariy Frendi lani 
wen also called paaitviailj or insertions and dnls or edginp). 
the name applied lo ornamental open work formed of Ihreadi of 

aloe fibre, looped or plsited or twisted together by hand, (1) with 
a needle, when Ihe work is distinctively known as " needlepoint 
lace "; (>) with bobbins, pins and a piUow or cushion, when the 
work is known u " piUow hn"; and Cl) by ileam-driven 
machinery, when Imiiaibna of both needlepoint Ind pUkiw 
bicea are pToduced. Lacr-maUng implies tbe production of 
otsanitnt uid fabric concurrently. Without a pattern or dcilgn 
tbe fabric of lace cannot be made. 

Tbe publication of patterns for needlepdnt and pfflow lacn 
dales from about tbe middle of Ibe ifith century. Before thai 
period lace described such articles as cords and narrow br^dt of 
plaited and twisted threads, used not only to fatten shoes, 
tleeves and corsets tegelher, but also in a decorative manner !• 
braid the hair, to wind round hats, and to be sewn as trimmings 
upon («luines. In a Hsileian MS. of the time of Henry VI. 
and Edward IV., about 1171, directions are given for the making 
o[ " late Bascon, lace indented, lace bordered, lace covert. 1 
brode lace, a round lace, a thynne lace, an open lace. lace for 
hatlys." la. The MS. opens with an illuminated capital letter, 
in which Is tbe figure of a woman making these articles. Tbe 
MS. supplies a clear dearription how thrcsils in combinations of 
twos, threes, fours, fives, to tens and fifteens, were to be twisted 
and plaited together. Inttead of the pillow, bobbins and pint 
*rilh which paiow lace soon afterward! was mide, the hands were 
used, eacb finger of a band serving as a peg upon which wai 
pUccd a "boiwya" or "bow," or little ball of thread. Each 
ball might be of diffoent colour [mm the other. Tbe writer of 
the HS. says that the first finger next the thumb thall be cslled 
A, the But B, and so on. According to tbe tort of cord or biaid 
to be made, to eacb of tbe fOur Sngert, A, B, C, D might be called 
into tnriee. A " thynne Uce " might be mads with Ibree 
thnada, and tben only fingers A, B, C would be requited. A 


" nund " lue, lUuUr Ihu the " thyutc " Uc«, might Tcquire 
(be Mrvicc of four oi man fingcn. By occuiouUy diapering 
tbc UK of thrcadi fiom nniio Gtigcn a um o! indented laa: oi 

vcte wanted, such u a broad late for " hattyi," >!>« fingers on 
tbe huds o[ aaiiituils were Rquired. The smsjler rardi M 
" tbyuie laces," when lastenedin simple or fantastic loops along 
the edges of (olUis and cuSs, were called " puils " («ee the small 
edge ID the collar worn by Cathenne de' Medid, Fl. IL £g. 4), 
louothei direction from which tome luggesliOD maybederived 
a! to th* evolution of lace-maiciog, notice should be taken of the 
fact that at an eariy period the darning of varied omamenial 
devices, sliaandgeometricinlreatmentinlohand-Biade netwiodi 
of small iquare meahei <Ke squaiei <d " licii," PL I. fig. r) 
became speciaJiEed in many European counliic^ This is held 
by »aie writen to be "opui filatorium," or " opus anoeum " 
(tpidei work). Eiamplei of this " (^ua Elatoriuin," said to data 
from the 13th century eiiit in public coUectJoni. The pi«duc- 
lions of this darning in the eaiiy part of the iiilh ontwy ame 
10 be known as " panto a ma^ia quadra " in Italy and as 
"lacis " in France, and through a growing demand for household 
and wearing linen, very much of the " lacia " was made in while 
(hreadt not only in Italy and Frarure but also in Spain. In 
appearance it is a filmy fabric With white Ihreiids also were 
the "purling" above mentioned made, by means of leaden 
bobbins or " fuidi," and were culled " metletti a pionibiDi " (see 
lower border, FL II. fig. ]), Cut and drawn thread Unen work 
(the latter known as " tela tlnta " in Italy aad as " dethilado " 
io Spain) were olher tonus of embroidery as much in vogue as 
the duning on oct and the " ptuiiag." The onuineni of much 
of thb cut ftod drawn linen work (see collar of Catherine de* 
Medid, Ft. II. fig. 4), more restricted in scope than that of the 
daioing on net, was governed by the recurrence of open squares 
formed by the withdrawal of the threads. Within these aquarei 
and rectangles radialing devices usually were worked by means 
ol whipped and buiionhirie stitches (PI. fig. j). The general 
eSect in the linen was a suciesuon of inietiions or borders al 
plain or enriched reticulaiions, wheace the name " punto a 
rcLicella " given to this class of embroidery in Italy. Work of 
aimiiar style and especially that with whipped stitches was done 
rather earlier in the Gredan islands, which derived it from Aaia 
Minor and Persia. The cloae cooneiion of the Venetian republic 
with Greece and the eastern alands, as well aa its commercial 
relaljons with the East, iiif&ciently explains an early tfansp^t- 
ing of this kind of embroidery into Venice, aa well as in southern 
SpBiQ. At Venice besides being called " relicella,*' cut wcH'k wu 
also callpl " punto laglialo." Once fairly cstabiiibed ai hiniE 
industries such arts were quickly eipkuted with a beauty and 
vuiety of patlera. complesly of stitch and deUcacy of eascu- 
lion, until insertions and edgings made iudqieadenljy of any 
linen as a alaning base [see irU two bordets, PL II. fig. j) came 
inlo being under the name of " Punto in aria " (PL U. fig. 7). 
This was the first variety of VeneliaD and Italian needlepoint 
lace in the middle ol ihc t6lh century,' and its appearance then 
almost coincides in date with that of the " merletii a piombiu," 
which was the earliest Italian cushion or pillow lace (tee fewer 
edging, FI. 11. fig. 3). 
The many varieties of needlepoint and pillow Itcu will be 

^Tlie prenlence of fashion in the above-meBCloaed lorw el cn>- 
— ■' — ' --"ng the i6lh century i> marked by ihe number of pattem- 
^li^. In Veniccawotkalthlsclasswasissuedby 

^ Flwe Quhny. appeued m the same year at Coloiw: and ijt 
flaa it la idtnu iitiartraiclMri tifalnnt di trtJtritJafm afatafu 

It jtali^iu, was pubTiihed ai Paris in 1330. From these early dates 
until the banning of the 1 7th izniury pattem.books tor embroidery 
in Italy. Fiance. Gemany ant England were published in great 
abundaacb ThedeaignsccntaiiiedinnianyDf thoMdatingiinm the 
eariy i6ihceBmn' were to be worked for nmumet and baniing»,Mnd 
coniistedM eerotli, arabesques, birds, animals, noweri. [oliagt, herbs 

oaaebatpractited ' 
later, could be eipc 

ix eipecied to undenake. 

loocbed on UKicr the hewUng allot*al to <ach.<t tta* adbodl 
of making lace. Here, however, the gena*! ciKuniUDcn U 
their, genesis may be briefly alluded to. ThaiactMtr Ib cord 

needlework already memjoud ckaiiy pcatBknd « 
labour aa was capable of being convetteit i«t« 1> 
Arid frotie the j6th century tmwartlE the stimulus to the iadustiy 
to Europe wu ajlorded by regular trade demand, coupled witi 
the oertions of tfiose who encounged iheic depeodenti ot 
prDtegfa to gjve theit tpait lime to lemunenlive home occupa- 
tions. Tlini the origin and popetnation t! the indnstiy havt 
come to be associated w^th the women folk of peasarna and 
fishermcB In dicunutances which present little dissimilarity 
whether in regard la needle lace wocketi now makiag lace in 
whitewaBbed cottages and cabins ac You^ial and Kentnare in 
the south of Ireland, or those liio produced thdr " punti la aria " 
during the i6tb century about the lagoons of VenlCb or French. 
women who made the *uII^ltuaus " Points de France " at 
AlengOD and' elsewhere ui tin 17th and iflih cenluriea; or pillow 
lace mrfctn U be seen at tbe pre&CDt day at httle seaaide vfllago 
lucked away in Devonshire dclU; or those who were engaged 
more than four hundred yean ago in " mcrleiti a piombini " ia 
IlaUan villages ot on " Dentelle* au fuseau " in Flemish low- 
lands. The ornamenlal character, however, of these leveral 
laces would be found to differ muchj but methods, materials, 
appliances and (qiponunities of work would in the main be alike. 
As fashion in wearing lacxs eitended, so workers came lo be 
drawn together into groups by em|doyers who acted as channds 
for general trade.* Nuns in the past as in the present have also 
devoted attenlfon to the industry, often providing in the convent 
precincts workrooms not only for peasant women Lo carry out 
commissions in the service of the church ot for the trade, but 
also lor the purpose of training children in the art. Elsewhere 
lace schools have been founded by benefactors or organized by 
some leading local lace-maker' as much for Iradug as for 
education. lb alt this variety of circumstMce, development 
of finer work has depciKled upon the abihLies of tbe workers being 
exercised under sound direction, whether derived through their 
own intuitions, or supplied by inteUigentand tasteful employers. 
Where any such direction has been absent the industry viewed 
commertiatly has suffered, its productions being devoid of ariXslk 
effect or adaptabOity to the chanf^ng tastes dl demand. 

It ii notewocihy that Ihe two widely disunt regions of Enrope 
where pictotial art Gist Soutiibed and attained high pericctioc, 
north Italy and Flanders, sere precisely the kcalilies where 
lace-making fitst became an Indusliy ol importance both from 
an artistic and from a commercial pdnt Of view. Notwithstand- 
ing mote convincing evidence as to the earlier dcvelc^mcnt of 
ImUow lace making in Italy the invention of pillow lace is oftoi 
credited 10 the Flemings; but there Is no distinct trace ol the 
time or the locaLiy. In a pictitte said lo eiist in tbe ehuith of 
Si Gomar at Lierre, and sometimes attributed to Quenlin 
Matsys (i4?is)- » hitroduccd a girl apparently woiiing at some 
sort of lace with pillow, bobbins, ftc, wWch are somewhat 
similar to Ihe implements in use in more recent tlme^* ^From 
the very infancy of Flemish art an active intercourse was inajll- 
tained between the Low Countries and the great centres of 
Italian art; and ft ia therrJore only what might be expected 
that the wonderful examples of the art and handiwork of Venice 
hi lice-making shook] soon have come to be known to and 
rivalled among the equally industrious, thriving and arlistie 
Fleming At the end of the i6th ccntnty patlera-books "Ben 
issued in Flanden having the aame general character is Iboae 
published lor Ihe goidance ot the Venetian uh) other Itiliaa 

of how these coaditiena begad and 

V...., .ancc, is given in Madame Deapierre's 

AlcTHon (iSSi) to whtch is appended an taRnestiar 
- -■ •■■— ■'-'-■■t and naken al Paw! 

paintcd,io|ii«.tJu<il')ea(ila(er,aiidbyj4U>Ua^fh . 


famao aaA v ^mvtA mn not fir bekisd Vemet uid Fluidci* 

ta miUif tiealk aod pLUon lace. Heniy UL of Fiucc (is;t~ 
ijBg) If^ointed k VaKliiu, Frederic VjuckIo, pctleiD mker 
for mittieflaflincniietdkmrkA and laces tc his ctnut. ThrDu^h 
tlic influence of Ihu fertile desigDer tie seeds of a lute lor lacti 
in Fiucfl won priodpaUy oown. But the event which par 
tmiltita would »em to have foitercd the higher deveiopment 
ol ilie French ut of lace-maLing wu the aid oStdxUy ^vcn It 
In the following centHjr by Louis XIV., actins « t^ sdvice 

done on ■ pillow or auhion and with the needle, in the style 
of the lacei made at Venice, Genoa, Roguia and other places; 
these French imitationi were lo be called " points de France." 
By 1671 the Italian ambaiiadoi at raiia writes, " Callantly 
il the minisJer Colbert on hil way to bring the ' lavori d'aria' to 
perfection." Sii yev* later an lldian, Domenigo Contarini, 
alluda to (lie " punto in aria," " which the Freoch can now 
do to adountiDn." The styld of design wiuch emuuled fnm 
the chief of tbc Fteiid] iacs centre, Aleacon, were more iandful 

of hii minister Colbert. Intrigue and diplonucy were put into , 
action to secure the icTvices of Venetian lace-woiken; isd by 
an edict daled 1665 the lace-making centres at Alencon, Quesnoy, 
Kmt, Reimt, Sedan, Chilean Thierry, Loudun and elsewhere 
wen selected ior (he opention of a cnapany in aid of Mkh 
the state made a tontribatiM sf. ib/Ko fauna; at. the same 
time the ImpoitMioo of VcDetfan. FlemiA aad otfaer laces ^a 
alrktiy (orfatdden.' ' Tkc edict cootdned iintnctiom that the 
Itct-iDaierB should pioduce afi sotta U thmd irork, such aa ihoae 
■ See (lie poetical ikh fttmUe ia passemnli it hfttrria. written 
by HaAnuwIk de la TouiK. coiBin o( UvJune dc ^hAtnt. in the 
aiiddle of ibe I7ih centuiy. which marks the favour which lomin 
laces at that time unniuDded amonEiI the leaders ol French IntJiwu. 

and less severe than the Ve letkin, and it it evident that the 
Flemish Uce-maltecs later on adopted many ef these French 
patteim for their own use. The proviiion ol Fmdi dcsigni 
(G«. 14) iriucK owes so much to the stale patnmage, conlratts 
with the absence of cetreipondiag provition in En^and and 
waa noticed early in the iSIh centuiy by Bishop Berkeley. 
"How," be ssk*, "conld FisiKe and Flanden have drawn 
so much money (ram other countries for figured ulk, lace and 
tapeslry, if they had not had their scsdemiet of design?" 
It il faii4r evident too tbtt the French 

couJil bout Ol DO 
ud Spain rauld a 
U thil of Fnncc i 
iraa nude in Devi 

ti of peuuiuy In Entfud (which 

in work d to bitb ^niuic pretcBBm 
iden. Id tbe iSthitiluiy t«HlUce 
il I> only la ROBt yan 

lice nuking " was puiaued in [he ifUi cc 
ihirr, Hcniordihire »nd Bcdfordih.' - - 
to the DiinuCictuic ol bone l«u in w 
{uUr eiicdxil and iinpIDved wit 
" Bone " lice datn [loai tbe i;Lh 
piaFtioUy the couotetpart at Fkmiih 
and related ilu 

. ol England and Iceland havi 
' will-consid<i«d deaifu 

Defoe refer, 
h villagcn kek " wonder 
I thcie few yttrt pait.' 
Ltury in England and wai 

I'l. fig. 1 

In Ceil 

I Ullm. 

_ iicled pcaiaoti ol the Han 

twut and plait Ihreada in ijCi. Sbe wai aniilea Dy cenaiii 
icliignfl from Flandcfi., A »rt of " purling " or Eaiitation of 
tbe Italian" metletli a plnmbini " wai (jie style ot work ptoduced 

Lace oicompantivdy dmple doign hai been made be centurio 
tn viUagci of Andaliuia at well as in Spanish conventual cstab- 
tidunenta. The "p^t d'E^iagne," however, appeals to have 
been a commercial name given by French manufacluren of a 
cUis ol tace made in Fiance with gold or silver threads on (be 
pillow and greatly esteemed by Spaniards in the 17th ceatury. 
No lare paliem-books have been found to have been pnUished 
In Spain. The needje-madc laces which came out of Spanish 
monasteries in iBjo, when these institutions were dissolved, 
vtre mosily Venetian needle-made laces. The lace vestments 
preserved at the cathedral at Cnnada hitherto presumed to be of 
Spanisli work an veriAcd u being Flemish of the 17th teniuiy 
(similar in style to Fl. iig. 14). The industry is not alluded 
to in Spanish ordinances of the 15th, r6thor 17th centuries, but 
tradilioiu Kbich Uirow its origin back to Ihc Moors or Saracens 
mre still current in Seville and its noghbonrhood, where a 
twisted and knotted anangemeDi of Ene cords is often worked ■ 
tmdei the name of " Moiisco " fringe, elsewhere called maciamf 
bee. Black and while silk pillow laces, or " blondes," date from 
the i8th century. They were made in con»derable quantity 
in the neighbou^ood of Gianlilly, and impoiiedfor mantillas 
by Spain, where cwresponding silk lace making was started. 
Atibough sfler the lEih century the mailing of silk licei more or 
less ceased at Chanlilly and the neighbourhood, the ciall Is now 
carried on in Normandy— at flayeui and Caen— as well as in 
Auvergne, which is also noted for its simple " torchon " laces. 
Silk pillow lace making is carried on in Spain, r^wdally at 
Barcelona, The pallemt are almost entirely imitations IroD 
lEih-ccnlury French ones of a Urge and free floral character. 
Lace-making is said to have been promoted in Russia throu|ji 
the patronage of the court, alter the visit of Peter the Grint to 
Paris in the early days of the iSih century. Peasants in the 
districts of Vologda, Balakhua (Nijnl-Novgorod), Bielefi (Tula) 
and Uaensk (Orel) make jullowlsccs of simple patterns. Malta 
is noted for [noducing a silk pillow laie of hlsck or white, or red 
threads, diieSy of patterns in which repetitions of cittlet. 
wheels and ndiations of shapes nsembllng grains of wheat 
■re the mnin features. This chancteristic of design, appearing 
in white Uncn thread laces of similar make which have been 
identified as Genoese pillow laces ol tke early 17th century, 
reaqqjears in Spanish and PamguayaQ work. Pillow tace in 
imitation of MaltcBc, Buckiigham^iire and Devonshire beet 
is made to a small extent in Ceybm, in different parta of India 
and in Japan. A luccesifol effort has also been made to le- 
(stiblitli the industry in the island of Bunno near Venice, and 
pillow and needlepoint lace of good design is made there. 

At FnsenI the chief aourcea of hand-made lace are France, 
Belgium, Ireland and En^and. 

Fiance is lailhlul to her tiaditions in maintaining a lively 

■ Useful informstian has been cnniniuolcated to the writer of the 
premi anicle si lace by Mn e. Wkhaw of SeviUe. 


rate of wages. The production o( bsnd-made laces In Bdgium 
was in 1900 greater than thst of France. The principal modem 
needle-made lace of Belgium Is the " Pdnt ds Case "; 
" DucbesK " and Bruges laces are the chief piUow-mide lace*; 
whilst " Point Appliqut " and " Plat Appliqu^ " are frequently 
the results not only of combining needle-made and pillow work, 
but also of using them in conjunction with machine-made net, 
Ireland is the best producer of tlint substantial looped-thiend 

Fic. j6.-'<:oIIu of Irish Crochet Lace, 
work known aa crochet (lee fi^ t;, t6, tj), which must bt 
regttdcd as a hsnd-made lata fabric although not clastlBaUi 
as a necdleptunl or pillow lace. It is also quite distinct in char* 
actcr from pseudo-lacn. which an leafly embroideiiB with ■ 
lace Jike appearance, e.g. cnbroidcrics on net, cnt and embniderfld 
cambrics and tne linen. Foe such as these Ireland a 
a reputation in iia admirable Limerick a 
laces, made not only In Limerick and Carrlckmacnas, b 



bt Kfattdt, NtwiT, frrrt— |I^~ and cbBiihnt. Ti* Amuid 
fann Fnoce tat Iiiih crodut i* bow In txyond the inFfily, • 
aOnditioii irtiidi lead* not cmljr to the npid repetition hy Inih 
mtkcn ot tU pattern, but teodi tlm to a gndwl debueuuBl 
ol beth tsitnn ud onuunant. Attempti have btta made lo 
CDuntenct thii (end- 

mesi of Iri^ ctocbet 
In Ep. 3S, >6 and 17 

Ad apprcdabU 

Fn.l^— i.iidr'1 Sken of ImbCniebttLKK 

fordahin and NonliamploD, buE it Ii boutht almost wholly k 

homeiae. TheEnglublaceaamnadealinoil enlinly [naccord- 

definit elcngthi and widiht, ai for bordm, Inscnioni and flouiica, 
altlnngh large ibaped aitkls, lucb M paoeli (or drain, long 
■leevei complete ikbti, jiduu, blouiO, and rmdfully ihaped 
coUai* ol coiiaidciable dimenKOO* bavs ol lau been f reelr made 
ctoeiibere. To make lucb thingi entirely o[ lace lucessiutei 
many modiScalioiu la the oidisary methodt; the En^iib 
bep^ioAen aie daw to adapt their weik in the msnnet lequiiiie, 
and hence art fai bchbid in the n'ce to respond la the luhlonible 
deoiand. Xo countncs lucceed to veil in promptly aDiwering 
''- - vaiiable call of f aihion ai France and Beltpum. 

pcnonm employed in 
Hd in 1901 about ] 

a probably buyt n 

ibly bu 

E KuMia and 

X now made it that which !■ 

: and Gernany. The total ai 


The caily bUtory' of the lace-mikmi toachEne ednddea 
with tKat ot the tlocUng Inme, that madiine having been 
adapted about the yeu i jH (or piodtidDi open-looped labrio 
which had a nel-Lilte ai^ieanince. About i jM (raoMa lor making 
point neta by macbineiy £nt appear at Maniflcld and later ai 
Aihboume uid Nottingham and uon afterwaida modifications 
were introduced into luch Iramei in order to male varietie* of 
nabci in the point neti wbich wen dancd aa figured neti. 
1b iEoS and iSoq John Heathcoat of Nottingham obtained 
palenti for miKhiDea [or making bobbbi net with a almpler and 
nioR readily produced meah than (h*I of the pohit net juil 
ooitioned. Foe at leu> thu^y yean thousands of women 
biid been employed in and about NMlin|him in the embroidery 
of tinple ornament on net. In iSij John Leaven began 10 
laptDve the figured net weaving marhhm above mentioned, 
lad from these the lacc-maklng machines in me at the present 
time were devriopcd. But it was the application of the cele- 
brated Jacquatd apparatus to lucb machines that enabled 
Donulacturers to produce all (orii of pattern* in tbread-wo 
in imitation of the patterns for hand-made lace. A Freni 
BHchioe called the " denlellihv " waa devbed (see L» fain 
br the 3rd ol March iBSi), and the patlemi produced by 
were of plaited threads. Ihe expense, bowrver, attending t' 
{■mduction ol plaited lace by the " dentellilrc " is as gieii a* 
tliat of pillow lace made by the hand, and so the machine has 
DM aucceeded for ordinary trade purposes. More succsslu.' 
■caalt* ban been lecured by the new patent circular lice machlni 
of Heaita. Blrkin & O). of Nollinghim, the productlona of which 
all ol simple design, cannot be distinguished from hand-madi 
PiOdw hceol the aame style (see li)p.;7, ^. s«). 

Dill in I de*Hn| with technical details in processes of mahbig 
tan wbethO' by hand ot by Ihenacbbie, the component parts of 
4IScteDt eaahes of lace may be coDsIdered. TbeM are goveniad 

•Sm Fal^'a lf<cU>»«r**|l( BMivy «W.£«m Unuttamni 

pattens, Alcfa may be to iaiffai, m 
they were in the cstlier laces, that the diflerept compoBCDt pun 
may touch one azmther without any intervening ground-work, 
wish arose to vary the eSect ol the delaila ia a patina 
nirks were gradually developed end at Gnl conalatHl ot 
tics bctwecD the aubttaallal parts of the pattern. T]w 
ties were succeeded by gtouodi of mesbet, like nets. 
Sometimes the aubaiantial puts of a pat tern were ou timed with a 
single thread or by a strongly marked rabcd edge 0! ttutianholc 
llitched Of ol plaited work. Uinule bnclful devices were then 
' Lttoduced to enrich vatioua portions of the pattern. Soma 
of the heavier neodle-made laces resemble low relief carving in 
relief portions are often deconlell 
with dusten of imall loops. For the mast part all this elabora- 
btoughl to a high pitch of variety and finish by French 
designers and workera; and French terms are more usual )> 
ipeaking ol details in laces. Tbui the aolid part of (he patlein 
1 called the ImU or clothing, the links or ties are tailed tnidfi, 
Ibe meshed grounda are called rlicoiix, the outline to the odea 
pattern is called ((rdgwHl or imU, the inaeitionB of 
landfill devices iwrfci, the little knps fiali. These term* at* 
applicable to the varioua portions of laces made with the needle, 
m the pillow or by the machine. 

The Mqucnce of patterns in lace (which may be verified upon 
elerring to figs i to ij> is nnghty aa foUows, From alMut 
j40tD isfa tbey wet* composed of geoiaetric forma *et within 
squares, or of crotied and ladlatioa line devkt*, resulting Id 
pen fabtk, ttifl and almost wiry in eSect. srithoul 
rlicaiH, From 1590 may be dated the inttoductioa 
lems of very conventioiial floral and even humao 
lal forms and slender scrolls, rendered in a tape-Ufce 
tcfture. held together by brUa. To the period [torn 1610 to 
[Oto belongs the development ol long continuous scroll patlema 
nth rbtam and triia, accompamed in the case of needle- 
nade laces with an elaboiatioD of detatb, eg. ardnmtl with 
massings of fiuft. Much of tboe laces enriched with Sllinp 
bla time. From ■6so to 1700 ihaan^ 
patterns gave way to amnflementa <A detached omamsital 
detail* (at m PI. VI. fig. »): and about 1700 to iTfio mora 
imponani schemes or designs were made Isi in PI. fig. la. 
' ' ' In text), Into which were introduced natnralitiic 

garlands, flowers, birds, trophies, archilectutal 
figures. Grounda composed «itirdy 
in the case of the rdicBii r«a(« (FL V. 
. From 1760 to 1800 nsall 
detail* consiating of bonqueta, qirayi ol flowcTs. single flowera, 
leave*, buds, apot* and such like were adapted, and sprinkled 
over meshed grounds, and the character of the tciture wis gatuy 
and filmy (at in figa. «a and 41). Since thai time variants Of 
the foregoing styles of pattern and tenures have becD used 
aocordlng M the bent of fashion fai favour of simple or compki 
omamentatfcm, or of ttifl, compact or filmy teituret. 

HiMtftM Lore.— The way in which the early Venetian 
"punio in aria" was made corresponds with that b which 
needlepoint lace Is now worked. The pattern b first drawn 
upon a piece of parchment. The parchment is then stitched 
to two pleco of linen. Upon (he leading lines drawn on the 
parchment a thread is laid, and fastened throu^ to the pacc£- 
meat and linen by means of stitches, thus constructing a tkeletan 
thread pattern (see left- 
hand pari of fig. jo). 
Those portions which 
are to be repr es ented aa 
the " clothing " or laU 
are usually worlied a* 

and m fig. 9 

latged diagram (fig. iq). 

Flo. aS. Ficig. 

nile with buttonhole atilching (fig. 98I. 
Between thoe taili portions of the pattern are worked tiea 
[briio) ar meshes (rfjHvi), and thus the vitioin parts united mts 
one labric are wrought on to the face of Ibe parcbocnt pattern 
and reimducing ii (aee right-hand part ol G(. jo). A Inifa II 

puud between the two pieces of liaen it the back of the parch' 
Best, cultiog (be itilchu wbich have puied through [he parch- 
laeDl aDd liaen» a^d so iclcasin^ the lace itself froa its pattern 
patchment. Id Ibe eailiet Utgci, the Lace was made in lesgthi 
to actve a> tDsertioDs (^aj«Hfli/i) and alio in Vandykes (tfai^a!iu) 

It PatlKT 

■ :1hg 

le the freer style of di 

howiciK work m progn 
in the right liaU of the pati 

la edging. Later on insenlona and vand 
mule in oae piece. AU o( such hcr at fint of • 
Kyle of pattern (PI. fig«. 3-5 and 6). 
Following cloKly upon Ihem can 
already mentioned, without and then with links or tiea — kridti- 
Inttripened betmen the vatkui details of the pstierni (PI. II. 
fig. 7), which were ol fiat tapelike texture. In elaboraif speci- 
mens of this flat pcunt lace some lace wofkos occasionally used 
gold thread with the while thread. These fiat laces (" Pnnto in 
Aria "I are also called " fiat Venetian point." About 1640 " rose 
(nised) psiut " Uces began 10 be made (PL III. fig. ii). "Oicy 
•ntt doae in relief and those of bold design with stronger reliefs 
■re called " gros point dc Venise." Lace of this latter das was 
ysed for altar cloths, flounces, jaboti or nedccloths which hung 
beneath the chin over (he breast (PL UI. fig. 11), as weU as for 
trimming the Cumed^ver topa of jack ' boots. Tabtitn and 
hdtea' aprons were also made of such lace. In these no regular 
ground was introduced. Ail sorts of minute embellishnents, 
like little knots, stars and loopa or picots, were worked on to the 
irreffularly arranged brida or ties holding the main patterns 
Idgethcr, and the more dunty of Ihew raised locel (PI. kg. 17) 
exempli^ the most subfle uses to which the buttonhole stitch 
Ippean capable of bein^ put in making omaraentt. Bui about 
iMo came Uces with trUa or lie* arranged in a hooeycomb 
KticuLation oe regular groutbd. To them succeeded \aj:t in 
which the compact relief gave place to daintier and Lighter 
material combined with n ground of meshes or riitau. The 
acedle.made m«hH were someiimes ol single and sometiiaef of 
double threads. A diagram is given of an ordinary melhod of 
Tiifif^wj such meshes (fig.. 31). At the end of the ifth century 
the Lightest of the VoKtian needlepoint 

was of the filmiest lesturc is usually 
koowD as " ptunt de Venise i. rfseau " 
(PL V. fig. soo). It was oonienpotiiy 
with the needle-made French laces of Alcn- 

toinuds thelilterpBTtof the I71h century 
^). *' I*oint d'Argentan " has t>cen thought to 
stingultbed on account of its delate boneycoiDb 
ground of heisgonally nmngcd Mdti (fig. 31), ■ ptci^iaiity 
already referred to in certain antecedent VcDctian point Itcei. 
Often intemuied with this heugonsl bridts ground is the fiue- 
mcshed ground or rticau (fig. 106), whidi has been htbl I0 be 
distinctive of " point d'Aknfon," But the styles of patteno 
and Ibe methods of woildng them, with rich virieiy of inseiiioni 
or mabi, with the briM or CfrAwiel of tilsed buttonhole iiiicbed 
edging, are alike in AiseaUn and Alencon needle-made lace* 
(PI. V. Eg, loi and 6s, 31). Besidt* the heiajonal trida 
> After 1650 the lacc-workers at Aleogon and its n^ghbourhood 
pmluced work of a daintier kind Ehanlhal which watbonz made by 
(tie VeDetiau. As a rule the beaagonai bridt arouods of Alencon 
beet are smaller than sjmilar details in Venciianlaces. The average 


gtouBif and the gnimd ot miabei aaotha varietj e( gi 
Irtiian rmaU) wai used in certain Alencon designs. lUa groand 
consisted ol butUnbote-stitchoi ikdetan heaagoot vith^ enck 
of which was worked a small heia(on td USt connected with ih« 
outer surrounding hexagon by means ol lix liula tia n Mite 
(PL V. fig. 11). Lt<x with this particular ground has beta 
called " Argentella," sad lomB wdten haTfrtbOBsht tiiM.it wn 
a specialty of Genoese ot Venetian work. But the characts 
of the wofk and the style of the lloril patlcms are those nt 
Alencon bees. The industry at Argcntan was virtually an off- 
shoot of that nurtured at Alencon, where " licis," " cut work ■* 
and " vilin " (work on pirchineot) had been made for year* 
before the well-developed neBUe-made "point d' Alencon'" 
came into vogue under the favouling patronage ol the slatC' 
aided lace company mentioned as having been Kxmed in 166$. 

Uadame Dttfoerre in her Hulnri <fu point i'Alaipm gives an 
interesting and trustworthy account of the industry. 

In Belgium, Bnoscls has acquired some celebrity for needle- 
made hica. These, however, are chicfiy in imitation of Ihofe 

Fic, M,— ShTrt decorated wi 
(EngUah, 17th century. 

/iclotia and Albert Museum,) 

thread is used as a urinaul for tbtic patterns instead 

111 with buttonhole ukcha a* in the f tench 

Lace*. Note ttie bright sharp MUlin* to Ibe various 

■ sails in PL V. 6f , 50>, 

NeedlepoLDt lace bas also beao 



EogluHl. WUkt the chaoctei o( hi doign ia Ihc ariy 1 7ih 

CenlciDpoiu? lUlijUi. tiM (Hth« 

luce iuci into an arly i;th-centi 
Spcdaeiu oi ni 

11 Ucc Ii su 

> woikniBiulilpu vinutUjF 
D of English Dccdk-oudt 
hilt ii illmtntcd ia bt. jj. 
by ViigtiwJi ichool duidicn 



Lo the >Iudy o[ deigni [oi 

near Veoicc producn huic 

cartful reproductioiu of 1 1 

iluUy made it Youghid, Ken 

ie lace-makiiig icboo) U Bunno 

celebrated cluilclDif point lices, 

Venisc 1 riKiUp" "point d^Alen^on," '^poinl d'Argeniao" 
and Dibeis. Some good needlepoint lace la made inBobemia 
and elsewhere in the Austrian empire. 

Pillta-madc Zdft— Pillow-made lace ia buUt upon no lub- 
alTUCture corruponding with a skelclon thread pattern sitch 
is used For needtepoint lace, but is the tcprocntatlOD of tpMU 
obtained by twisting and plaiting threads. 

These patterns were never so ttrictly geometric In ttyk 
those adapted for the earliest poiot laceuaUBg from tteafii 
cedent cut linen and drawn tbrudembioidEiie*. Curvsdton 
almost at tbeoutset of pUlo* Lace, aeetntahave bees looadea 

more.liaom and less ciiip and wiry in tppeuHOce ilian that 
tBntemponiy seedle-mide lace. The nuiy twitted and plaited 
Ibiead laces, which had the appearance of tmall cards merging 
into one another, were soon succeeded fay laces of similai nul 
with flattened and broader line* more lihc fine braids oi tapes 
(PI. 1. hg. 1, and Pi. fig. io>. But pillow lacei of this 
chiraclei must not be confused with lace* in which aciuftl tape 
et braid ia used. That peculiar dati of lace-wwk doe* not ' 
util after the begiDDini of the iTlh century wbn the weaving 
e( tape is laid to have comracDced in Flasdera. Ib Englud 
this sort ol lape-lace dates no farther bacl( IhU i]47, whan 
Dutchmen named Lsnfoil were invited by an Englitta £11 
•ct up tape loom* In Manchcater. 

Tlie process by whidi lace is made on the pillow i* roughly 
and bruSy as (dlowi. A pattern is first drawn upon a 
ol ptper or puchtocat. It i* 
' pricked «ithbolcabya>luUed"p«Itan 
' pcickec," who detcrminea where the 
plind^nl pins ahall Im stuck for guid'' 
ing the threads. This piickctj pattern 
is then fastened lo th< pillow. Ttu 
piUow or cusbioa varies in tb^ie in 
diBertnt csuntDt*. Some lace- oiakeis 
use a dicular pad, backed with a fiat 
board, in order that it nuy be placed 
upon a table and easily movod. Other 
Fio. 54. — Diagram show- lace-worken use a well-stuaed round 
ing to. Bebtuas in use. pjHow „ short bokier, flattened at 
Ibe '.wo ends, 10 thai they may hold it conveniently on iheir 
laps Ftotn the npptr part of pillow with the pattern fastened 
.on it hang the Ihreadilrom the bobbins. Tbe bobhiD threads 
thss bang aonst the paitem. Fig. n tbowi the conuncace- 
instance, of a double set ol three-thread 
. The compact portion in a piUaw lace 
Etiasa woven appcjjanoe (Gg, a). 
3 About the middle of tbe i7tb century pillnw 
^ lace of lormal scroll patterns somewhat in imila- 
rjG. ^ tion of those for poiot lace was made, chiefly 
in Flanders- Tbe earlier ol these had grounda ol 
ties or trider and was ollen called "point de Flindres" (PI, 
^t- 14) in Contrndisiinction to scroll palletns with a moh 
Itound.wbjeh wetecalled."point d'Angleterre" {PI- fig- 16). 
Into Spain and France much lace from Venice and iTandeis was 
xnported as well as into En^and. where from the itlb century 
the manudclurc of ihe simple pattern " bone lace "by peasants 

1..1. ,. ,. .. counties was still being carried on. 

nanufaclure was Ibieslcned with 

In Charles II.'s 

finet Flemish lace*. The importation of the latter wis acBord- 
in^yptohibiled. Dcal^ii in Flemish lace sought to evade the 
p^UDitlon* b^ "Htp g celUlB ol tXdr laiM " ptdat f Aogletan^' 

r of Enfflish Pillow-made (Devonshire) Lace ijQ 
uskIs d«ign of Ihe mlddieod tin ifitb century. 

□d smnggUng them into Kn^and. But smuggling waa made 
I diflicult that English dealers were glad to obtain tbe aervicea 
f Fliiaiih Uce-makcTs and to induce them to settle in England. 
1 is from same auch cause that the better i7tli- and iSth-ceatuiy 

Englith piOow lacH bear resemblance to pillow Igces oF Bmuels, 
of Mecblin and of Valenciennes. 

.-AaakiU.iB the Europaaa kcc-makini dtvdoped aooD afMt l^ 
middle of the ijth century, patterns aad particular plaidngs 

d'AIcB^ of the Louis XV. 

be identified with ctrtiia localities. Mechlin, for 
. enjoyed a high reputaiion for her production*. .The 
cUcf technical features of this pillow lace lie in the plaiting of 
the meshes, and the nutlining of the clotliing or tail* with a 
Ibnad ariotmil. The ordinary Mechlin 
iMsh is-bcugonsl b ahape. Four oF tbe 
side* are ol double twisted threads, I 
are o[ (our tbreada plaited thiee time* 
(fig- 39)- 

In BnHsets pOIow lace, which ha* 
gnater variety of design, the me*h is 
also hexagonal; but ia conlratt with the fi 
JlechUn mesh wiiUsl four o( its sides 
of doublc-twlsicd threads the other 

threads plaited lour times 

[fig- 4 


icdmens of Bntiid* f"^- %- 
ior the fidelity and "* 


ndered(Ft,VI.fig.i3). These ate mainly reproduction* « 
adaptations of designs For point d'Alencon, and the aoFl qttabty 
imparted to them in the tenure of pillow-made lace codtraata 
with Ihe harder and more crisp aopeatance 




petals *nd lEivM, tlic edges 

latiH in pan of tlijbUy naid 

•nUmail o[ comjMct pUiI«d wo^ 

Honiton pillow lace roemhla BntBcti 

ce, but in moit o[ the Engliib pUlo* 


Kler <fig. 4J). A. . . _ 

I tlut Dfled ID the older nemiifa 
bcM. In ml Fltmisb Vilendennes 
luc there ue no titiittd >Ida to tlie 
aab; >ll ut cloMly pUited (Bg. 44) 
end as a rait tbe shape ol the mcih is 
diamand but without the openings as 
Ra. 4i- — Enlanemnt ihaini in £(. 44. KaoMUatmaricmul 
of Bniueb Ifah. to define the pattern is used in Valen- 
ciennes Uce (see 6g. 45). Much lace of the Vatecdcnnef type 
(fig. 54} is made ai Yprcs. Besides these distinctive claua of 
plUow-like bcei, there att olhcn lo vhich equal care In plajt- 

• Weddim Veil, J ft. 6 in.XS ft. 6 in., of 
i> and olher flawers daintily 

eddin Veil, : 


ground, which is of BnsiBb mi tiaoA 

gpcagnuiidof piUow-mada beunnal tnto ba group o 

on* Aj^ng towards tbe other which appears rvad^ to talct wmii hvh 

its nest; an ovat fraine containing iwq hearli pierced by an arrow 

nderingsol varkiuiii«i[(fj» rbcp/iHvnuui, slar devices. Ac. "Hk 
omamenul deviiv are pajtEy appLird aad partly worked iaio tib 
ginind CVictoHa and Alferl Mut^m). 

ing and iwiiting thread! la (ll^>Uycd, Ibongh the cbuacter ol 
the deagn is compaiativejy aiinple, as In inMaan io atdiiiai7 
pillow lacea tnun Italy, from Uw Anvetgae, tnun Bucking- 
hamshiie, or lude and prioiitiva m In lace* IioD CicU, 
•outbera Spahi and Ruaiia. Fillo* lace-aMkiii| la Crete it 
Ill* lacei wen made duafly«irilk. The 

pattenis in nany apecimea* are outlined with one, two or 
three bright-colouted ^Uten threads. Unilormity in simple 
may alto be observed in many Italian, 

round with silk, and wita csiton | 
thread. Aji eariier kind of ^mp was 
(onoed with " Caititane," a little strip 
of thin p^rchnwnt or vellum covered | 
wilhsilk.goblaisiherthTead. Theae 1 
stiff gimp thread!, formed Into a 1 
patten, were held together by 
stitcbowstked with the needle. Gold ' 
and silver thtiad lacta have been 
usually made on tbe pitlow, though ' 
gold thread has txen used with fine 
eSect In 1 7th-ceDtury Italian needle- 
pobt lacea. 

UaekHK-ruiit Lact. — We have 
already seen that a technical peculi- 
arity in making needlepoint lace h 
that a single (bread and needle an 
alone used to form tbe pattern, and 
that tbe buttonhole stitch and other 
kwpings which can be worked by 
means ol a needle and thread mark 
■ distlnclioD between lace made in 
this manner and lace made on the 
pillow. For the process of pillow lace 
making a scries of threads an in 
constant employment, plaited and 
twbted (he one with another, A 
buttonhole stitch a not ptoducihle 
by It. The Leavers lace machine 
does not make either a buttonhole 

— Lappet of deli- 
tbat the threads are twilled logrther ValeoriemiM. about iTjo- 
as in stocking net. The Leaven lace TJ'„P«"^»"'y "I V^n- 

nachine-made work ii 

• tact Is the Urn) 

mscbiiie q that generally In use at 
Nottingham and Calais. French in- t 
developed improvements ' 

as France makes an improvement Mechlin and BniHeli U(«. 
England fotlowB with another, and 

both countries virtually maintain an equal position in Ihb 
btaach of indusUy. Tbe number of threads brought into opera- 
tion In a Leaven machine Is reguhited by the pattern lo be 
produced, the threads being of two sorts, beam or warp threads 


■Bd bobtuB or weft tlmsili. l^nnnb o( SSSo are 301 
ntitA^ liity JUKS of bee bang midt iimullucou^r. m 
rfquihng 14B Lhieodfi — too beam OiECJidt and 4S bobbia 
The indi'af boih uti of Ihreiid) in fiicd la > cjUod 
Khidi u U» nunulaclun pioceeds Ike Uce become* 

Fic. 16.— Border to ■ Cigtb. The wkW iian bcarini ibe doubl*- 
hesided eagle o( Ruuia i» of drwvn ihraid embroidery ; ihe •callopcd 
■dtint l* » B""'"' inllDw-miidr tee. ihniiih the ttyleci* lit patten 
U gfu^KeOria piUanJacBanuide by p^danu yi Dviubiaa provipcca 
M «en aa la the toulbiif Spain. 

Tie aiiMy o' '1"! l""* « ""P '^'f™*' '•*'*''* "P" '**'•• "^ 
tlat «f the bobbins ot wcit ihieads is held in brtbiua. Thr 
btun or wup thread t«li are anangcd in [runQ ot liay« 
beaath the itage, above whicn and bciwein il and lie cylinder 
the tvi^ting ot Ihe bobbin or welt with beam or wup Ihreadt 
UkcspUce. Hiebobbint 
* conlaining the bobWn ot 

weft thread* are Bat- 
tened' in (h«pe 10 aa 
to pasa lonvcnieniljr be- 
tween the stretched beam 
or inrp thrcida. Each 


o ydi. of thread. By 
most ingenious mechan- 
ism varying degieea of 
tension can be imparted 
lo waip and weft threads 
as required. As the bob- 
bins or weft threads pasa 
Ulu pendulums between 
Ihe warp threads the 

late, tbu* causing them 
to become twilled with 
^ the bobbin threads. As 
the twislings take plaee^ 
rombi passing thnnich 

FT0.48. Iwiitingi. I^Mthatax- 

ture of the dolhinf or 
« Uce may generally be delecicd by 
due to the compreued iwiitnl threads. 
Fip. 47 and 48 an intended to >how eflecti obtained t>y 
vaiyinc tiu teBiwos of weft and watp thiMda. FM in- 
Naare, ii the wtfi, aa ibreada h A, (, * ia fi^ 4), b« lifht 

and the waip thread ihck, Ibe «*ip thiead ■ will be twitud 
spoo the weft threads. But if the wirp thread a tie light and 
Ibe well Ihieads t, i, b, t, be slack, as in Gg. 4S. (hen the welt 

[ in botfa iLese caaei arises from the conjunction of 
given to the two kIs td threads, naouly. aa osdUa- 
. . . ement from side lo side ol the beam or warp thiead). 
and the swinging or pendutum-EItc movement of tbe bobbbi 
or weft threads between Ibe 
warp threads. 

I lectiuial rieva- 

stnling it* nmc etseniiil pirii. 
£ i* the cylinder or beam upon 
wbicb Ot£ Uce is icAed asmade, 
and upon which tbc ends of 
both warp and weft threads are 

or beams, ooe above tlie otIiBT, 
containing the reeli of the 
idpplica of warp threads; c, e 

if the bdbbiB b with 

It '^ Relicdia " Lace. 

laading fun, one od each side 

sf Uie luk of warp tfareads; i, I are the comb* which take k 

in turns 10 pnu togelhei the twiatingi as Ihey. are nada^ 


1. ]!.— Border o( Mich iiK- 
: in the «vlc nl I7ih<t 
iw Guipure Lace- 

Fig. 54 dijpliys ■ 
band-made Vaien- 
(YpiB) lace and 
consponding piece 
r the machine. Tht 
o*I the advaslagc 
be gaiosd by using 

iblh^ v"^ do" 
ua oi the [ul lace It 

open ud dar r^icnu or cet, 

(uch as would be nude on i 

inie to keep the pailem fine ani< 

Fia Jl.— Border of Michine-nude Lm 

■nd the weavlne It made the full gauge of 
i6 perint. Fig. 56 0va other eumples of 
nude Valcadennct lace. The machine-mi 

tDtbeiscU.lbegiouad being ) point and 1 

4 poinU AltboBgl 
1e in theie eiamplc: 
a work is encilj 

that in Dg. 15 beingan eiample 
oF tight bobbin! or weft, aod 
tbck wirp tbrcids ai shown 
in fig. 47- Whereas iha ex- 
ample ia fig. j6 is nude with 
■lack bobbiu or weft threads 
and light wup threads ai is 
lig. 48- In fift. ST is a piece of 
hand-raade kreof stoulthrBad, 

lace made mthcAuvcreneandtoiheB iviungbuuhite " Maltese^' 
tacc Goaeloit arespccimcnoriacc<figs.5gand5o)iiiade by 
the Bcw patent ciicuUr lace machine of MessnBlckii of Notiing' 
kan. This machine although very tlon in productioB actually 
Rprodoces the real bee, at a cost (lightly below that of the hand- 


f ig>- 69 uid Ai giw umc idea of the high quality to 
Admirable couBleilek bu been brouglit. 

Colleclioiu of hand-midc bcc chicHy eiist in mi 

inad« Lace of Modem D»ga. 


NenllcpDint Lore, " G 

Iniucb placei the appan unity ii pceientcd of incinEin cbrono- 
logical Mqucace I)ie lUgci ol pitlein and tcxtun dcvcLspment. 
LiIihCuk— ThelitentureoltlieiiTtiillart-inaklntiicanudcniblc. 
The aeriei of i6th- and 1 7th-«ntury tue cattaa-tiuuki. ui uhich Ike 
issn impDRant uc nihaps Ihoec by F. Vinciolo (Pari«, 138;), 
Com Vkeeino (VenW. 1S91), and labnta Catanea Parante 
(Venice, 1600). no! 10 mentjon leveral kindted wotkt of earlier and 
later ^t* DuWUhed in Germany and the Nethertaitdk^ kuppUet a 
lacp field For emiiKaiiim. Sienor On^uia a( Venke publiihcd a 
limned number ofiacumilc«ollhcniai«iEy of such workt. M,_ALvin 

flame year the marqaii CMrolanw d'Adda conlFilnJred two bLblio- 
■ngbical ewayi upoa the uine ubjccc la iheCicMM i<h Aou-'lili 
Ivgl. XT. a. uKcq^wid vsL ivii. p.^ii (ni.). In lat* Cavalieie 
i Medi Vwe a paoiphkl («i>b S, -— ^- i-.^"--— --> 



d Oriuae 


rather (aadlul /fidinrr ^ Ja 4nifrllr in ia«. in which he Tepmdi 

•DaemeMa » be found in Oideroa'i EtK^Klnptiit. auhnqueMiy 

qumeifby RcJiBddelaPlatitee, The fim ^|a>rl s/ Mr I*c|iaHiMM 

s/ PrruliaS Ail (1851) conlaiu a " Report ( 
and Lace<Makinc " by Octaviui Hudun. an 
llu DcparbKiia ofSciiKe t<td Art iiKtomt " 1 
Reponi upon the Imematianal Eihibiiions 
1B1S7 (IVul.by M. Aubiy. Mis Palliicrand . 

1 Cotton Print Worki 
in thefinl Stfoil tf 

iBsi (I 


/ofhc '■ 

)). iBlli .. , .. 

Lhan a technical point of view; and wardrobe ac 
have been laid under <:ontributiiin wtn AurpriiinE dilioence. A new 
edition pnUiibid in 190a pieKnii the work 3* entirely rgvised. re- 
wHcIFn and entii^ under the editonhip of M. Jourdain and Alice 
Diyden. In iSjs the Arundel Society brouEhtoutjliiaeiil//iid<- 
pnni and Pif^DiD Xdcr, a folio vnlame of pemanenly nrinlod phoio' 
graphs taken fmni »nie of tbe lincM flpedmeni of andent Ihv 
collected for the Intemailonal Eihibition of 1S74. Thne wrie 
■ccompanied by a brief history of lace, wriltea from the technical 
upect of the »rt, by Alan 5- Cole. At the aamc time appeared a 
bulky imperial 4to volume by 5c£uin, entitled La Hrji^ri^. ill t]Ur>iFtl 


laco. bibliDgTaphy of 
third relates Id needle- 

^.^jttry gf lace 1 
SeEuin aecordi to 
practieaUy aLI the 

L« the palm for having excelled In profli 


iuued of the laa collcdkaH ai 

.rt of laee^Daldne wi 

ly Alan S. Cole. 

deliiered befon Che Socbny 

C. M. Urbani de Chdtof. with pblee. wai Iranilated by Lady 
Layaid.^nd publiihed at Venice by Signnr Ongania. Tiit Hiilmy if 
Uaclthia-vm^ Hmtrf tiU Laa MamifiuUirr (London, 1867). by 
Fellcio. hai already been relened to. There i> alio a tadiiialDfical 
ersay upon Lace made by machinery, with tUagrami of lace atitchei 
and pallemi (Tali;aliiilu»e .Sfudini im Uckiiitkm Enieliirif, 
LeipsBi i^H)p by Hugo Fischer. In t886 the Libroirc Kenpuard. 
ait, ruUUieda AUorya/AM^illacgR, wiitten'by Madafne 
G' Dai p i ema . wluch givefl a elate and intercating account of the 
■ ' lOBethcrwiihali«.compiledfnnnlocalrecordi,ormolietj 

^ in from 1601 onivarda. — £A5reuflrry and Lact: their if ohh- 

jaOtn and »ij(or* /re* On timeltsi anli^uitr U Ike preienl rfey, by 
EtacH LeEebure. bce-makcr and admlniitrator of the Ecolc dea An* 
IMcoratifi-lcanilaicdandenLiiEed witbnoieaby ALanS. Cole, tat 
publiihed in London In tSse. Ii ii a nll-illuiinted handbook lor 
amaicun. eoltectors and ^neial readers. — Eriah lace* made from 
modem defllam are illuRrated in a Kmanence of the Irish Ariot Late- 

—Hnt.vtiXtt'-' ■- ■"' "-'-• ■-• ^....-- ...- 

t, -. -. i '--.--:. '^yTshftiw 

a sa hsii 

ri DeaUtta *• 


obvioiia desire !■> credit Bn^c 
of bee-work, much of which a] 
in nyle,— The Eiicyclcfaedis 1 

ential atitchea lor ncedLepeii 
Dd<u1* and proceia blocka.- 


.Domach (Atiacc. iSai). ii 1 detailed euide to icveril kindt 

E. craebct. (auie*. neiunc and mou of Iba 

leedlepeinl laa. It ii wril iUuitrated with 

■'net..— An eahauslive hiilory of Ruuian 

la PenUlU niise._ by Madame Sophie 

le Rpniluiled by photo-lilhofniAy in Ihia bi 

'on, 1*99). i» illunialtd wiih t vpicaL Miecimen« 
nth and Ennlith Wei, at wdl oi n-ltll mofni- 
jiingany oneioidentilr theplailthlbelvkiri* 
the actual making od ibe [abric^-Z'/A^Krf'ir 



by Henri Iteiua (PuH, 1900J4 

piECi ol tfftapmt, iatdg pn i nl wiih abiuHbnt pncCH »«•• « 
Ike •evnt UadioT nuchiw Miiiad laca nude at Cibit ibiB III). 
It opcu iriih ■ ihen aecnrnt of tbc Ami ^nd-mMk !«(% tba pra- 
ductinflfwUchiinmilnioMatiiict. The book «u kM lor th* 
beBcbaf - - ■■■ ■ - - -. ...... 

ETtli centiry to the preient dne. Jfmir rtlroiptttff, 

fg p w fl l H mwtfitffi iMinutfnab if f u> d AuA. RapfcH i 
iiav, E, Lefe^rrt eoaulnt leveral ipod yhiitntloiu, apKUlly 
Inportut iprcin ' "-'— ■'- * ' -■-- — •■ —- ' •*-' 

'thrrt eoaulnt leveral ipod 
Kimeiu of Pc^ de Fnn 

r d Ibe iTth >nd Ikh 

LurrmdF Lajndr (]^TU» 190^). b 

carrird on for r«o«idmble paiodL TTit book it wdl 

Sm iI» Iriicit Sfilun (30 lmK-tni» pblo). wilk ■ "ti 
hltnxliictioii by Alin S, Cole ^uRgirt, Ijm) 
pncln] handbcnk by Eliabtth Mincvf and M«i 
(Lvidan, 1^07)^ TAf Art af Bobbin Laa, 

Ualitnr. by EUn'Ruxi (Bciniiw, 1908;, oni uidkhicu^ . 
(MuHJii/Iwz.byMnJobnlJuiiEeifanlfViUaiflAidon ind 
Vork, 190!}, my (aUy UhnimtRL (A. & C 


LACS-BABK TBBB. t native oi Jimik*, known tmunlcally 
M Laplla tiiiUaria, [ran lu nativs umc litctlo. Tbe inner 
buk condMs of namcnnn concoitrie \tytn ^ intcrUdng fibrei 
Rumbling in a^ipeuance luc. CoLUn and albcr ankles ol 
apparel have been made ol Ik« fibre, whkh ii abo used is the 
nanulaclure d wbipt, ttc The im belonp to tlw natunl ofder 
Tfaymclaoiccif , and ii grown in holhoma In Britain. 

UCBDABMOH, in bistorical timta an allemalive name ol 
Lacohia (f.T.). Homer usca only the fonnei, and in aomc 
|BiH(ci ■eemitodeDotebyittkcAckaeandtadd.tlie'niBiptiae 
of hltc times, in conlrul: 10 the lower town Sputa (C. Gibeit, 
StitdUn air aitjpartanisdm GackuAle, Gottingen, 1871, p. 34 
fblL). It ii described by Ibe epilbeliDlXi] (hollow) and (rWas 
(•{Adous or boUow), and Is probably coiuiectBd elynoki^caUy 
with Most, leaa, any hoUow plaa, LuedaeiBon Is now Ihe 
tume of a separate dqttrtmenti which had m 1907 a pc^wlation 


CoMtE DE (1756-181;), French nalutalbt, was born »t Ag«i in 
Cuienne on Ihe idth of Decombcr 1756. His education was 
caieluUy OHulucted by his father, and Ibe eariy pcluial ol 
■• Nalnrat HiUtry awakened 


1. Hit lelsiue be 
.c, in which, besides becoming a good perfonner 
nd organ, he acquired cwuiderable mastery of 
D of his operas (*diich were never published) 
meeting with the high approval of Chick; in 17S1-17S5 he also 
brought out In two volumo bit PtOiqat it ia iiuii^iu. Mean- 
time be wiole two treaties. Euai lur FHabkiU (o>0 •»'' 
Pktiiqte ttntrA €l farliiaiHn (i78>'iie4), which giiiitd him 
Ihe friendship of Button, who in 178s appOfaited blm sub- 
demonstrator in the Jardin du Roi, and proposed to Un to bccorne 
the continiutoi of hia Hiiieirt nalunUe. This conliouation 
wu puUithed under the litlei Hisltin da titadiutU*! ailpara 
(I ia itrfrMt {1 vob., 17ES-1JB0) and Hisltwt iiiltircfti it$ 
rtflila (179«), Allet the Revolution Lac^p&Ie beoine a 
nembet of the legislative aueoiUy, but dining the Reign >A 
Tenor be left Paris, his B(e having become endaageied by hia 
disipproval of Ibe massacres. When Ihe Jardin du Rol vaa 
Korganiied as Ihe Jardin des Ptantej, Lacipidc wai appointed 
to ibe chair aUocated to Ihe study of repiilcs and fishes. In 
1798 be published Iht lint volume ol HiMeiH mmlirMt itt 
ftfiminf, tbc Eiflh ODhune appearinf in itoj; >od to 1804 

ap^ieared his Biilairc Ja cUacA. Prom Ihu penodtiO h£i death 
tiK part be loedL In poLitia pitvenicd him making any farther 
cDnufluiiioB o( inportutce to science. Id 1799 lie became a 
aenalor, in iSoi proideat of tlw tenau, in iSoj grand chancdkir 
of tlie Ic^oD of koBOur, in (S04 minisier of stale, aod at the 
ReuontkH) In 1819 be wai created a peer of France. He died al 
£pluy on th* Atb ol October tSij. During the lalter pan of 
hia Ufe he wrote HiiMn (MMb fijaiim U cmU it rEurtfi, 

bodlea and two pdn ol large amilai' tkUy vdned whi^ Tte 
larvae ire short pobabcMtiritlibairHDlUiadtvbeiclca. They 
Iced upon ^/Mte ot " peea fiy " and covet tbemselvea with the 

emptied tkinaoltbeir prey. Uceving-Bjet ol Ihe genus Cibyufs 
are conunoDl]' calkd golden-eye ffiei. 

U raUlB, PRAMCOU DE <i6i4-i7og), father confeiwr o[ 
Louie XIV., wu bocn at the chitean of Aii [n Forey on Ibe 
>5th of AnguM lA]4, being Ihe son of Georges d'Aii, seigneur 
de la Chaise, and of Rente de Kochefoil. On his mother's side 
he was a graodnepbew ol Pire Colon, the confessor ol Henry IV. 
He became t novice of Ihe Society of Je«us before compleling 
his tiudia al the university of Lyons, where, alier taking the 
final vows, he lectured on i^ikaopby to sludenls attracted 1^ 
his fame from aU pans ol France. Thtou^ the influence <rf 
Camille de VUlcroy, archbishap of Lyons, Pin de la Chaise wu 
nominaled in 1674 confessor of Lonis XIV,. who Intrusted him 
during the Ufcllme of Harlay de ChanipvaUon, archbishop of 
Paris, with Ihe adnunislration ol Ibe ecdcsiasiical patronage >l 
the crown. The confciior united his influence with thai ol 
Madame de Maintenon 10 induce the king to abandon his liaiwn 
with Htdame de Moniespan. More than once at Eajter be it 
laid to have had a convenient lllncsa which dispensed him fnm 
gnntiug abiolulion to Louis XIV. With the ItU of Uadune 
de Montcspan and the ascendancy of Madame de Mainlenon 
his influence vastly Increased. 'Hie marriage between Louii 
XIV. and Madame de Maiattnim was celebrated in bii presence 
at Versailles, but there b no reason for auppttting that the 
Bubicquent coolncts between him and Madame de Maiotenon 
flro»e from his Insistence on secrecy in this mallet. During the 
long sirile over Ihe lemporaUlies ol the Callican Church between 
Louis XJV. and Innocent Xt. Pin de la Chabe supported Iha 
royal prerogative, tlunigb he used hia influence at Rome lo 
condliale the papal aulboritiea. He mtol be held largely 
respontibie tor Ihe mocalion of the Edict of Nantes, but not 
lor the brutal measures aniLied againsi Ihe PrDtcstanli. He 
eierdsed a moderating innuence no Louis XIV.'i leat against 
the Janscnisis, and Saint-Simon, who was oppaied to him in 
moM malten. docsfuH justice 10 his humane and honourable 
character, fin de la ChaiM bad a lasting and uaakerable 
lection for Ftnelon. which remained unchanged by Ihe papal 
mdemnation of Ihe Uaximit. In tpile of tailing lacullics he 
•nlinued his duiia as confessor lo Louis XIV. to the end of 
a long life- He died on the mh of January 1709. The 
Fmetery of P&o-la-Cllaise in Paris slaiulB on prcqicrty acquired 
by the jeiuita In iSi«. and Dot, at is often ttated, on ptoperly 
personally granted to him. 

See R. CTianleliuie. Lt Fkt dt la Oaai. £liida fUiUirc n, 
Upnat (Parii and Lyons, iBjgJ. 

LA CHAUB.flIED, 1 town of cenlral France, in the deput- 
nenl of Haute Loire, >9 m. N.N.W. of Le Puy by tail. Pop. 
(1906) 1303. The town, which is lituaied among fir and pine 
woods. 3 joo ft. above Ihe sea, preserves remains of lis ramparta 
and mm; houso ol the i4ih and ijib centuries, bul owes ill 
celebrity to a church, which, after Ihe cathedral of Clermont- 
Ferrand, is the moit iemarl:able Colhic building in Auvergne. 
The west lacade, approached by a flight of slept, is flanked by 
two mamive lowBi. The nave and aisles ire of equal bdgbt 
■ttd an wpnued from the choir IVaalMe.^ofdicRcn. Tht 

Fig. I. — Portion of a Coverlet composed of squares of "lads" or 

darned netting, divided by linen cut-work bands. 

The squares are worked with groups representing the twelve months, and with 

scenes from the old Spanish dramatic story " Celestina." Spanish or Portuguese. 

i6th century. (Victoria and Albert Museum.) 

Fig. 2. — Comer of a Bed-cover of pillow-made lace of a tape-like texture with char- 
acteristics in the twisted and plaited threads relatmg the work to Italian 
"merletti apiombini" or early English "bone lace." i 

Possibly made in Flanders or Italy during the early part of the 17th ot at theenH"-'^'^ 
of the i6th century. The design includes the Imperial double-headed eagle 
of Austria with the ancient crown of the German Empire. (Victoria and 
Albert MuseumJ 


Fig. 4- — Catherine de Medici, wearinR 
a linen upturned collar of cut work 
and needlepoint bee. Louvre. About 
Fig. 3.— Three Vandyke or Dentated Borders of Italian Lace 'S40- 

of the late 16th century. 
Style usually called "Reticella" on account o( the patterns 
being based on repeated squares or reticulations. The two 
first borders are ot needlepoint worlc; the lower border is of 
such piUoir lace as was known in Italy as " metletti a piom- 

Fig. 7. — Border of flat Needlepoint Lace of fuller texture than 

that of fiB, 3. and from a freer style of design in which Fig, 6.— Amclie Elisabeth. Comlesse dc 

conventionalized floral forms held together by small bars Hainault. wearing a ruff of needle- 

or tycs are used. point Reticella lace. By Mohcelse. 

Style called "punto in aria," chiefly on account of its The Hague. About 1600. 

independence of squares or reticulations. Italian. Early (f:ii.ia.j^i^ f,^,.i,ni-ff Mum. r:r,,nM. 

1 ;th century. u.mt<ti a- £*.. £.™«* t.AUiKti, .*/ yj.u.j 

Fig. 8.— Mary, Countess of Pembroke, Fig. 9.— Henri IL, Due de Montmorency, Wearing a Falling 
Wearing a Coif and Cuils of Retieella Lace Collar. By Le Nain. Louvre. About 1618, 

Lace. National Portrait Gallery. ffljA'-"'^i-r'V"<"S'™- c/™««»£i. 

Dated 1614. D.*«>;hlA:,«„.«„j'p.,r„., 

Fig. 12.— Jabot of Needlepoint Lace Worked Partly in Relief, 
and Usually known as " Groa Point de Venise." 
Fig. II. — James n. Wearing a Jabot Middleof I7lheentury, Conventional scrolling stems with 

and CuSsof Rused Needlepoint Lace. ofT-shootin^ pseudo-blossoms and leafs are specially character- 

By Riley. National Portrait Gallery. '^lic in design for this class o( lace. Its texture is typical of 

About 1685. ? development in needle-made lace. later than the Bat "punto 

{Piti.Saiiiil.tMibyEmlryWiUkir.i '" "'^" °^ ^^ H- ^S- 7. 


'ig. 13.— Mme Verbiest, Wearing Pillow-inade Fig. 15.— Prinress Maria Teresa Stuarl, Wearing a 

Lace il ristau. l-'lounce or Tablicr of Lace Similar to that in 

From the familj' group by Gonzalez Coqces. fig. 17. Dated 169s. 

Buckingham Palace. About 1664. From a group by LARCiLUfenE. National 

<a,firmij»^Hj,fM^y2^B'M«.ci^'^i o- Ci,.. Portrait GaHery. 

Fir. 10. — Scallopped CoElar of Tape-like Pilbw-madc Lace. 
Possibly of F.ngtish early 17th-century work. Its texture is typical of a develop- . 
Tient in pillow-lace-mating later than that of the lower edge of "merletti a iuptw-")n (' 
bini"inPl. II.lig.3. <:".'^iv 


Flemish, of the middle of the 17th century. 
This lace is usually thought to be the earliest 
^/pe of " Point d'Angleterre" in conlra- 
<fialincLion to the "Point dcKlandres" (fig. 14), 

A. — A Lappet of "Pobt de Venise k Rfseau." 

The conventional character of the pseudo-leaf 
and floral forms contrasts with that of the realistic 
designs of conlempomry French laces. Italbn. 
Early i8lh century. 

B.^A Lappet of Fine "Point d'Alenfon." 

Louis XV. period. The variety of the fillings of 

geometric design is particularly remarkable in this Fig. n. — Border of French Needlepoint Lace, 
specimen, as is the button-hole stitched cordonnat with Ground of "Roseau Rosaci." 

or outline to the various ornamental foimj. iSth century. 

Digilizcd by Google 


Fig. 14, — Piece of Pillow-niade Lace Usually Known as 
" Point de Flandres i brides." 
Ot the middle of the 17th century, the designs for which 
were often adaptations from those made for such needlepoint 
lace as that of the Jabot in fig. 12. 

Fig. _ 17. — Very delicate needle- 
point lace with clusters of small 
relief work. 

Venetian, middle of the 17th 
century, and often called "rose- 
point lace." am' 
Fig. S- — Comer of a napkin or handkerchief bordered with "PointdeNcigc." 

"Reticclla" needlepoint lace in the design of which acorna — . 

and carnations are mingled with geometric radiations. Diciiiizcd bv^iOOQ IC 

Probably of English early 17th century. a j (^ 


3^ d,5 = s|s§, 

is '^is|l||l| 

Ij |E-!|-§Mil 

S^s 1^ "- as s £ = 


Fig. jj.— Jabot or Cravat of Pillow-made Lace ot Fantastic Floral Design, the Ground of Which i; 

Composed of Little Flowers and Leaves Arranged Within Small Openwork Vertical Strips. 

Brussels. iStb century. (Victoria and Albert Museum.) 

ig in *a tjme with ndi 
tnc lamb and itaLiK at Clmrot VI. 
■dninbto Flciniih iipmrin at ihc nrly i6th ctntuty. There 
it ■ nuocd doiiin on the soulh aide. The church, which da! 
from Llie 14th cealuty. wu buili 11 the cipenu o[ Pope Cleme 
VL, 4Qd bck«c«l to m powerlul Bcnediciiae abbey founded 
lOM. Theie «re spscioiu monulic building) of the tSih ceniui 
The •bbey iras fotmetly dtfcniicd by fonrficilioni, the chi 
■urvival of which ii 1 tofty rectungulK keep to the uulh of (he 
cboii. Tnde in Cinber ud the DuUng of lace chiefly occupy the 
iahatrimti of the lonn. 

17BS), FrencEi juriJi, wa> born 11 Rennea, on llu Uh of IHaich 
ijoi. He mi for fie yean piocateur gMral at (he parliament 
of Btituny. He wu an ardent opponent of the Jenilu; 
drew up is 1761 tor the parliament a memoir on the constitu- 
liaos of (he Order, which did much (a lecure iu luppreuioo 
in France; and io 176} publlihed a remarkable " Euay on 
KatlmiBl Education," In nvhlch he pmpoKd a prognrnme of 
■dnitific itudlea ai a lutnlliuie For Ihoie taught by the Jesuits. 
Tbeaame year began the conflict between the Eitatci of Brittany 
■sd (be governor of the province, the due d'AiguiUon (4.1.}. 
71w Eitatei refuKd to vole the ednoidinaiy imposii demanded 
by (he governor in the name of Ihe king. La Chaloials "■as the 
penonal enemy ol d'Aiguilloo, who had served him an ill turn 
wilfa the king, and when the parliament of Briiiiny sided with 
Ihe Estaica, he (ooli Ihe lead in iti opposition. The parliament 
lerbade by decicet the levy of imposts Io which Ihe Eilatei 
had not consented. The king annuUing these decicea, alt the 
nembeia of (be parh*amenl but twelve resigned (October 1764 
to May 1761). The goveniment considered La (Thilotab one 
«( tb* unhora ol this affair. Ai ihii (tne the lecretary of state 
wbo adminiitcred (he alfairs-of the province, Laui» PhilypeauK, 
ducdeUVril]i*re,coraiedcS«ini.noienIin (1705-1777), received 
two aaODymoas and abusive letters. La ChaloUi* was auipcclcd 
at having viitun them, aitd ttaiee eipcrti in handwriting 
declared that they were by him. Hie gDyeraineaE (herefon 
armtad Um, hiaton and four odKr membcm ol the pirUamcnt. 
The urew made a ^eat sensation. There was much talk of 
" despolim." Voltaire stated that Ihe procureur ginfral, in 
kit prino of Saint Malo, was reduced, lor Uck d ink, to write 
bii deI«Doe with a toothpick dipped in vinegar — whidi was 
qipuoilly pnn legend; but pulilic opinion all over Fmnce nt 
•trongb' aiMued against the govemmenl. On the i6lh ol 
NomBbet 17&5 a commission of judges was named to take charge 
«i tht UUL La Chalotais maintained thai the tiial was illegal; 
bdaf procuRur gtBirel he claimed Ihe right to be judged by 
th* parlianKBt of tUnon, oi laillng this by the paiiiameot ol 
Bordeaux, according to Uu cuiioin «f the province. Tile judges 
■Ud not dfua to praoauaoe a condemnation on the cvidinoe of 
aiperU In haodwriiuig, and al tbe and od a year, things remained 
wbert thiy were it the firil. Louis XV. Iheo decided on a 
nveieign' act, and bnnigbt tbe aBatr btlon his council, which 
withaot f imbft fonnalily decided to s«ul the accused into exile. 
Tlut «q>edkBt but bci«ued Ihi popular agitation; fkilaupia, 
■ e a i b tff ol llw paftjaimt, patriot Bretons and Jaiueiiists 
all dcdutd IhU La Chalonis wa* tbe victim of Ihe per»B*l 
batiad of tk> diK (TAigiBUai and of Ibe Jesoits. The govera- 
nant at iaat pn way, aiMl conseaied Io recall (he membsn of 
lfeB[MiltaiIiaat«f BrUtuywboladntfgMd. TUs pariiamect, 
idMi Jl tKt avtaf-aftai tba iWmal accasadoo vt tbe doc 
d'AJguiUoB, deaiaiMled tbe reodl «( U, Chalotals. Tliii was 

» bia ten. In tUa aSnii public oplnloa sbo««d itaelf 
»rwg» IkiK thn akMlutlan of tlw king. Tlie oppoaition to 
Ihe ngnd pBvnr talnid iMsely ihnu^ it, and it m^ be regarded 
MOMottbcplehidHtoithanvDhnioaoI 1789- La Cbalotaii, 
who wai penonally a vMant, haughty and untympalbMle 
ctancitet.dlnlaLlUnBaaaitlw ■sUlofJub' 178]. 

See.be^dei (he Ctmpla-Ftniiii it>i ni«iindun> Atw r/oAri ami 
Ibe S)Hi f UkoHh Kalumaie. the 
■76fr-l7«7t. Two work*. Gonial 



Id CWrfoli 

Marioo, Li Bnlarf tt U due tAigi^tK (hrls, i*u), and B. 

a conlrovertj' betwecD theK tn™ auihon in (be BuUitin cnlifU for 

U CHARTrt, a (own- of central Fiance In the deparimcnt 
of Nitvic, on the right bank of (he Loire, 1; m. N.N.W. o( Nevcii 
on the Parl».Lyon-M(diteTran^ railway. Pop. (1906) J050, 
La Charitf possesMs the remains of a Sne Romanesque basilica, 
Ihe church of Salnle-Croii, dating from Ihe iith and early mh 
cenluilei. Tbe plan consait of a nave, tebnilt at Ihe end of 
(he 17th century, tnnsept and choir with ambulaiary and side 
ch^iek. Surrnminling (he tranwp( is an octagonal lower of 
one story, and a square Romaoesque tower of much beauiv 
IhDki tbe main porlaL There are rains of the nmparls, whict 
try. The manufacture of hosiery, boon 

■Dd iboes, files and ir 

I goodly lime and CI 

o are among the industriea; trade is chiefly Id 

La Charii j owes Its celttiricy to its priory, wHch was foonded In 
[he aid century and im^niied as a depeadency o( the abbey of 
rnonaiteriB, ■ome o( ihcm to England and Italy, The pDHeMian of 
ihe Iowa VIS holly conicited dunng the wirt of nfieian o( the 
lech century, at the end of which i» tarti£caIions were dismantled. 

1754), F— -■■ -■ ■- --- ■---■. 

nch drai 

I 17JI 

. ibllshcd an £^lre d Oio, a didactic poem in defence'ol 
Uriget de la Faye in his dispute with Anioioc Houdart de la 
Motte, wbo had maintained Oat vcise was useless in tragtdy. 
La Chausiie was forty yeati old before he produced his firal 
play, U FoHsit AtUifaOdt (17^4). His second play, Le F'IMt 
i la medi (1735) turn' on the fur ol incurring ridicule Felt by 
a man in bve with his own wife.a prejudice diipellcdinFrante, 
according (0 La Haipe, by La Cbauss&'s comedy. L'Lcdc 
da anil (i7]7) [allowed, and, alter an unsuccessful allrmpt 
al trsgedy in MaiimMien, he returned (a comedy in UBaaidt 
(1741). In UHaaiie the type known ai tomldic lirmeyami 
is fully developed. Comedy was no longer (o provoke laughier, 
but teaia. The innDvaiion onaiMcd m desiroyiBg the sharp 
distinction then eiisling between tragedy and comedy in French 
literature. Indications of this change bad been already offered 
in the work of Marivaui, and La Cbauss^'s pJayt led naturally 
of Diderot and of Sedaine. The ni 

d lot 



luthor " U RMreKd Pirt Ciaiaiir," and ridiculed b 

of bis nuat famous epignunt. Voltaire maintaioed that the 

tamUi* lamuyaatc wa* a piuoE of Ihe inabUiiy of tbe auiboc 

reduce either of ihe recognized kinds of drama, Ihoogh be 

lelf produced a play of similar character in Z'£n/iznJ /radrgbt 

boKiliiy ol the critics did not prevent the publk from ibcd- 

disf tears nightty over tbe sorrows of La Chauii^'s hennnc. 

VEwUda mhB ((744) and La Cotaenanit iiJ^J) form, with 

Lhcsa already mentioned, the beM of bis weak. The strict 

moral aima pursued by La Chauitte in bis playa seem hardly 

CMuistenL with hia private prefciencei. He fiequenled iha 

nc gay sosiaty aa did the comte de Caylus and coatiibuied 

■be XuMJti A cu nutnevi. L* Chausafa (bed on tbe u'b 

of May (7S4. Villenuia said of hia style that he arole prosaic 

verssa with puii^ while Voltaire, usually an adverse critic of 

hi* work, said be was " mi in prtmicn aprli cwi qui «il J* 

For the a> 


UGHM (from Angki.neiich - ladum, ncgBgnice, from 
lutltt, modem Mote, iinlfyinid, alack), a (erm for slackneBt 
at n eg li ge ii ce, taed panleulaiiv in l*« to si^ly DCgligeace 
(m (he part of a person In dohig tkii *Mch ha la by law bound 
to do, or unreasonable lapse of time in asserting a right, aceking 
relief, or claiming a privilege. Laches Is frequently a bar to 
a remedy whidk might have been had if pmaacuied In proper 
lime. Statniea of limitadon qiedty the time within wtaicfa 
various claiSM of actions may be brought. Apart from Mituiei 
el equity will oltoi refuse relief U Ibcae 


e pEiDciple viiilaniibiu a 

UCHIHB, an incoiponted town in Jicquo Cartirr coKHty, 
Quebec, Cuiidi, S m. W. of Monirul, on Like St LouU, ui 
npansion of the St Liwitoce livei, and at tbt upper end d[ 
tbc Laihine unal. Pop. (igoi) 5561. Il ii a (talion on the 

reuit loi Lhe people of Mootreal. It was named in 1669 io 
■nockcty ol its thea owner, Rob«it Cavetiei de la Salic (164J- 
16S7), who dreamed of a westwaid pastage to China. In 16S9 
il was tlw Kcne of ■ lenible mauacie o( llit Ficnch by the 

UCHISK ■ tOBU o( great importanca in S. PalcstiDC o(len 
mentioned in the Tell el-Amania tabletL It wai dettroyed 
by Joihua (or jirining Ihe league against the Gibeoniln CJothua 
>. Ji-Jjl and assigned to Ihe liibeolJudab(iv.jg} Rfimbotni 
rarti&ed it (1 Chron. li. 0). King Amaiiah having fl«d hitbci. 
«at ben raunkred by conq>iratan (i Kingi ilv. ig). 
Sennacheiib here conducted a campaign (i Kings' '" 

b Hen 

malic U 

IS with bi 

nemorated by bas-iclif fs found 
nonin the Britisb lluseum CseeC. SmUViHiiliiryofSntiuulurit, 
p. 6g). Il wasoneol the last cities that resisted Nebuchadneitar 
(Jet. nitv. ;}. The meaning of Micah's denunciation (i. ij) 
ol the dly Is unknown. Tha OanmH/iiim places it 7 m. ftom 
Eleutheropolis on (he S. road, which agrees with the generally 
reccivrd ideniificalion, Tell el-Hesi, an loiporiani mound 
wcavaled foe the Palestine Eiploration Fund by Petric and 
Bliss, 1890-1803.' The name Is preserved in a small, Roman 
site in flic nefghbouihood, Umm Liliis, which probably tcpre- 
lenit a later dwelling-place of the dcicendaBIs of Ibe ancient 
inhabitants of the city, 

See W. M. Flinders Peirie, r«if d-Bnj, and F.J. Blia, A Unnd 
of ■»«> CUits, both published by the Palnline Eiploration Fund, 
(fe A. S. M.) 

('7<U-r85i), German philoiogiii and critic, was bom at Bruns- 
wick on the 4th of. March 1793. He studied at Leiprig and 
GOttmgen, devoting himself mainly to philological iiudln. 
In 1815 he joined the Fi . . . 


. In 181 
Werdergymnasium at Berlin, andafriPsWjceiHat the 
The same summer he became one of the principal 
the Ftiedtilh>-Gymnasfum of KOnigsbcrg, where ne assistea 
his colleague, the GermanisI Filedrich Karl Kbpke (i7S5-iae5) 
with hb edition ot Rudolf von Ems' SBrteam vnd Jetnpkitt 

of the works of Wattber von dcr Vogclwdde. In January 1S18 
he became professor cxtraordinarius of classical phifology in 
the uaivetsity of X&nigsberg, and at the same time began to 
lecture on Old Getman grammar anil the Middle High German 
poets. He devoted himself during the folkiwing seven yeata 
to an eilnordinarfly minute study of those subjects, and In 
1S14 oblalned leave of absence In order that he might search 
the libraries of middle and south Oeiinany for lurlher materials. 
In 181S Lachmann was nominated eitraordlnaiy prpfessor 
of classical and Cermin philology In the university of Beriia 
[ordinary professor iSi?) rmi In rgjobe vas admitted a member 
of the Academy of Sciences. The remainder of his laborioul 
and fniillul life as in author BDd a teacber wu UMwntftd. 
He died on Ihc ijlh of Hanb 1I51. 
Laehnann. win wu the tnnilatsr of IW bit volom ol P. E. 

■— ■ ' - ■ ^ttaiiKlin AlUUumi (1I16], is a 

■0 Ihe UHoty el German ptiilology 
• ■/'••TmamKlmFliailapf.ltjoi. 
. . >i •aipraniHille CnUil .hi 

vcanwi HT maar^w* '*"' flSi6), ud BtiU Dore In bis review of 
HagEn'i KiiitBiimw and Bemike'i BaMRU. conlrihuted in 1817 to 
the yciwuclc £II(ra(u>«liiii[. he hid ainady laid down Ihe ruin of 
textual criticiun and eluddated the phonelie and metrical principles 
of Middle -High German b * miniKi which inaAMl a diXMicl 

9K Rudolf von Riu 
■ hli ■■Habilllali 


■■ (■■l«). 



»ai i.E-Uniyt, 

advance hi that brancb or invettlgaiiaB. IV rtgldly idMtUc ehar- 
acKr M.hii method tia»in« fncnaaingly apparent in lh( Aumtit 
tia 4n bcUnucikni DaUtnt 4a irtattnltm Jakrkuaiiru lllio), 
m the edilioo of Hanmann'i /»■ (iBa7). in Ihoae ctf Walthcr 
von dee Vogdwide (1B17) and Wotriam von E^henbach (I8u). In 
the paper* " Ober dai HiMcbrandHied." " Uber atthochdeuiKhe 
Bclocuini und Vcrskonst," " Obcr den Einfaiifi dn Fanivaki," and 
" Ubcr dpci BnichftlMk* niedcrrhciniicher Cediehtc " puhlished in 
Ihc AUuiuauiim of Ihe Berlin Acadcmv. and in Der Niiduitt Ns< 
undiuKhif (Itlt. tiIhed..iBgi).wh>chwai1alIawed by a critical 
commentary In Ilj6. Lachmann't Bttrathninm nbtr Htmrr't 
Jfiii. iwH DuMiAedin Ihe itUmuMnifn of ihi Berlin Aadany ta 
lS37aad 1841. in which he •High) la Juiw that Ihe /fioJcouiiUef 
imeee ladcpeodetit '" lays " variously enlarged and iaierpplaKd. 

(lee HoMii). ■lihoiKh hii vine In so longer acrrptM. Hb 
•mallcmlilianiidhaNewTcitanKiKapinrcdiniBji. tided. 1146: 

Ihe bifcr, in two volumet, in 1841-18J10. Tbc |d>D of l^achmaoa't 
edition, eiplained by himiclf in Ihc ,Slii3. D. Krif. of 1^30, is a nodi- 
ficalioo ol the unaccompllihcd pni)ec[ of Bcniley. It leeki to 

cenieDI of the Ladn HthoriAa"^ Utin ud Greek Wwen 
UncialiJ-aa the main nreoi nl aatiquily of a reading where tbesMeM 
Eastern auihorilitt diller. Beiidci Pntirtiui (iSifil. Lachmua 
ediiod Oilaifiu (iS>9): TOmBia (1819): Cntsita (IBu); rern- 
luKml UnnnH Wfiy.Baifiui (1S45): ^nmiii (184;)- (Siiu (1841- 
1S41): Ihe Apimtimta Kamm (il4B-i8u); laeifuu (etiMd 
afnr his death by Vahlen. iStC); and LminSMi (ityi). The bit. 
t'hich was the main occi^diion of the eloatng yean of hii UfclroB 

I'ti^W ME^'ro a. " a S^^hkh w^ b^ •'Undm^k fo^^olan u 
longatthe UailnlaiviMgccanEinuntobeuudiod," LaehnainakB 
translated Shak^Iptan'a lonneta (iSlq) aad lluMUi ' 

See M. Hcni, Xart laOamai. tan Bamfka ht 
liil of Lachmann's works is given: F. Leo. Jbot 
K. Ladimanm (l8,3)r J. Cnmm. btoaraphy ■- ' 
VI. SchtRT in ABitmrim intula Bittrapliu. »,, _. 
Hal. ij Claiiiui Siithriyf, iii. (igoR), pp. 137-131, 

UCmiini, PROMUimntinM (ntod. Capo dene CaJonne), 
> m S.E. ol Ciolona (mod, Colrone); the easlemmost point 
of Btutiil (mod. Calabria). On the cape still Hands a lia^ 
eolitmn of the temple erected to Hera Lacinia, which is Hid to 
bave been fairly complete in the i6Ih century, but to have been 
destroyed to build the episcopal palace at Coittme. It li ■ 
IMric column with cajntal, about 17 ft. fn height. Remaini Of 
marble roof-tiles have been seen on the spot (Livy ibl. 3) and 
aichilectural frigmeils were excavated in T886-1S87 by Ihe 
Archaeological Institute of America. The (colplurea found 
were mostly buried again, but a few fragments, »me deconln^ 
lerra^eoLtas and a dedicatory inscription to Hera of the Otb 
century B.C., in private possession at Cotrone, are desofbed 
by F. von Duhn in IVMhie degff Kusi, 1897, 343 leq. TV date 
of Ibe erection of the lemple may be given la 480^440 ■.(:.{ 

is nm recorded by any ancient writer, 

See R. KaMewey and O, Puchstein, Dii grtcciKidln Ttmttl Ai 

UinM/M Ka^ Acifioi (BcrUa 1899,41). 

LA CIOTAT, a cotil town of gouth-eaitcm France te the 

rpartmenlof Bourhes-da-Rhftne.on the west shore of the Bay 
Of L3 Ciotat, 16 m. S.E. of MarseiUes by rail. I^>p. (1906) 
io,;6i. The port Is easily acceasihle and *itll ibclleied. The 
large shipbuilding yards and repaiiing docks of ibe Messagerin 
Maritime] Company give employment to between tooo and 
3000 workmen. Fiihlng and an active ooatting trade are 
carried on; the tAwn is fnquented for sea-bithisg. La Cfaiat 
was in ancient times the port erf the neighbouring town of 
CiliariM fnow the village of Cevreste). 

LA CLOCHE JAMBI DB ["Prince James Stuart "I 4iftM i- 
i66g), a chaiacler who waa brought into the hiMoiy of England 
by Loid Acton in 1S61 IHome and Ftrtit* Ketitw, 1. 14^- 
"The Secret History of Chtrtct II,"]. From inforaw- 
t!an discovered by Father Boero in the archives ol Ihc JbuIii 
' " me, Lotd AcloB averred that Chaiiea II., when a W U 
Jetsey. had a natuni son, Jann. The evidence foUvn. OK 
the ind of April iMK, a* the register of the JeMiit Boatc M 
Novice) at Rome altests, " there cnlered Jacoboa de la Ctache." 
His baggagewaseiiguous.bfsa1IireHiclerkiI. Heiademtbed 

" 'rom Ibe island of Jersey, under Ihe king of Engfand, aged 
He pocsoud two dotumenu in Flench, putpoitini Ut 
bMo wHttan by Charles II. at WhitetiaU, on the iglh «i 


Svlembn it6$. and on tlw 7lh al Fdvuwy iM?' In botb 
Cbulei acknovledEn J^mn to be his ruUinl K», he ftyta 
him " Jamot de U Qochc it Bouig du Jenc)'," ud iven I' 
M inoiDiw him publicly " would impeiil thr pact o( 
kiugiiaiDt " — why it oot a)i|Mi«Dt. A (biid ceitiGcatF oC tulh, 
in Lalin, usdalcd, wai from Cbristiu of Sw«dcii, nho dcduo 
thai. James^ pEcviomJy a Pn>lc3tant, hu been received InXD 
church of Rome at Hamburg fwhere la i667-]£68 she 
itaidug) on tba i^th of July 1667. Hk doI paper purpona 
to be a letter from Cbulta II. of Augmt 3/ij to OHva. geaml 
of ibe jBuils. The king writea. bi French, Oal he bu long 
viilicd to be KcreLly leceived into tin chuich. He tboefDiE 
iksicet that James hit hd by a young lady " of the bif^t 
qulity," ud bom to hfm when he wai about liitcen, iboukj be 
ordiined a priest, tome 10 England and receive him. ChirfB 
alludes to {irevioui atlempu of hit own to be lecretly admitted 
(1661}. Jamei mint be sent aeCKIly to Londoo at once, lod 
OUn mult By notUng to Chiiitina of SvtdiD (then meditsltng 
a journey to Rome), and mu^ never write to Charles eicept 
•hen Jama carria the lelier. Cbailei oeit writei on Augun 
ig/Seplembci 9. He is moit uiioui that Chtislina should not 
Meet Jomei; if she Lnowi Chartet's design of changing hi« 
need she will not Veep it •ccrel, and Chiries will infallibly 
lose bii life. With thii letter there i> another, wtiiien when the 
tal had been lealod, Chailei iittiiti that Jaoiet must sol be 
accompanied, ai novlcet were, wben travelling, by ■ Jesuit 
tixiu) or guardian. Chorlcs'i wife and mother have juil heard 
that tbii is Ibe rule, but the rule must be brolien. June*, Who 
it to iravd u " Henri de Kohaa," nun not ame by way Of 
France. Oliva wilt supply him with fundi. On the back id 
thiileiterOlivahaawiittealhednifiof hit brief reply to Charin 
Utom Lcaboru, October l*. ifi6B). He merely layi that the 
bearer, a French gentkman (Jamet spirit only French), will 
inforn the king that hii orden have been encuted. Besd« 
tbese two letters ii one from Charles to James, of dale August 
4/14. It is addressed to " Le PriiKc Stuart," ihoogh tiohe ol 
Cbariea's bastirdi was aiiowed to bear (he Sluirt name. James 
ii laid thai be may doetl the .:trical piajcwaa if he pleases. 
In that CAst " you may daim higher titles tioa us than the 
duko of Monmouih." (There wai no higher title save prince 
<d Wahsl) If Charics and his bmther, the duke Of Yoik, die 
diildlflas, " the kiagdoms belong to you, and parliament cfinnai 
legally oppose you, unless as, at present, Ihey con mily eject 
Frotestani kings." This letter ought to have opened the eyes 
of Lord Acton and other hlttoriana who acc^t the myth of 
James do Is Cloche. Chaiiet knew that the crown of England 
was not elective, thai there was no Eichision Act, and that there 
wen legal lieiis if he and his brother died without Issue. The 
loM ItltET of Chailes is dated November iS/iS, and purports 
to have been btgught fism England to OUva by James de la 
Cloche on his return to Rome. It reveals the fact that Oliva, 
dspile Charles's oiders, did send JanMl >qr way of France, 
with a lociail or guardian whom he was to pidc Dp in France 
on bis ictum to EnglatuL Charles says Ifaal James is to cnn- 
moniaUe certain matlera Is Oliva, and come back at once. 
OLva ia to give Joinn all the money he needa, and Charies 
wai later make an ample donation to the Jeiuiti. He acknow- 
ledge! a debt to Oliva of iSco, lo ha paid m sii nWDtto. The 
readec will remark that the king has never paid a penny to 
Jame* or to Oliva, and that Oliva has never communicated 
diiecllr with Charles. The tniih is that all of Charies't letters 
an fbCKeriea. This is certain because in all he wiiles frequently 
aa if his BOtlwr, Henrietta Msria, were in London, and Rmstantly 
m conpBiqr with bim. Now the hsd left Englaod fo France 
in iMi, and to England she never returned. As ihe.letteit— 
including that to " Prince Stuart "—an all forged, it is dear 
that do la Cloche was on impostor. 
money from Oliva, and to pretend 10 
to enfOjr Ufnte" 
jK»i witb him 
with CfaiiHiBa of Sareden w 
el hi™ tban did Cbarba, and wouU haiia upweJ him. 

; His pmaulion* 10 avoid a nuetinf 

ThenaBteoIJ*nM»JeU.CIadw> p |>e«iw»PW«w h d» cgweii U. 
He reached Rone in December iWt^ tod b Junivr a penon 
calling bimtelf " Prince Janet Sluan " oivcais la N^ile^ 
occiiBipanied by a itcmi ityliii hfmnU a Fieock kniibt of 
Malta. Both aro on Ihetr way lo Ungiind, but FiiB0» Janua 
lalla ill and itayi in Naples, while his conpuwn depaiU. Tbr 
knight of UalU Bay be a JeHit. In Mwkt, Pijote June* 
marries a girt of D« posiliMi, and i* tnwUd OD W9iciaB«f being 
a ooincr. To hit coKfMon (be' bid two is nccotioa) be layi 
that b« is ■ Min of Cbailei II. Onr iMueN an the dapatcha 
of Kent, tbt Ea^iah tgaa at Napk^ aad tltf IMa; vef. iii., 
of VincesM Anunn! (i6]>4), who had hit inlsrmatloa ftom ona 
of the cOBfOKin o( the " Prince." Hie viceroy of Napka 
communicated wilJl Charles U., who disowned the impostor; 
PriiKe James, howcAFir, was releaiect and died at Kapies in 
Augmt 1669, leaving a wild willj ia wUch be diimt lot hit son. 
still unborn, the "aptnage" of Monmouth or Wales, "which 
it is usual lo bestow on natuial hud ef the Ung." The loa lived 
till about iijo, a pennilen ptetendti, and writer of beggjag 

IS W pDiM* Lord Acton'i tm^Mam about talec 
pcanncei of JaoM* de la Ckcb* at the cowt ol 

._..^ diieun the l«ewl thU hit mother was a lady of 

Jei«i9^-or a tWet d Oltrkll Tbe Jcacy nytha nay be fc>im4 
iorht JfoaVtefottOpoCOibyMoBsigiioTBaineiiWho argued 
that Jtmei wu the nun io tbs iron math (see Iron Mwa). 
Laid Uoniwnac Bame*, irin had observed that the letter ot 
Cbaric* to Prince Jamas Stuart ia 1 fbnitry, noticed tbe impostt- 
bilily that Cfairiet, hi 1668, should consUntly write of his mother 
as lesident in Londca, which she left fat ever In 1665. 

Wh» de la Cbche really wan it is imposiible to diaoovet, but 
he was a bold and tucccbf ul swindler, who look in, not only the 
general ol Ihe Jesails, but Lord Acton and a geneittioa of 
guileless historians. (A. U 

U COKDUIIin; CHARLD MARIB BB (hoi-s/m], French 
geogiaphcf and mathematician, wai bom at Paris on the aSiti 
ol January ijot. He was tniaed for the militiiy pufetsion, 
b«t turned bis altentton lo science and gtegrapltical eiphmlion.' 
After taking pari in a scientific oped tlkm in the Levant (iTji). 
he became a member with Louis Codin and Herre Bouguer of 
tbe nqxdilion sent to Peru in 173s (o determine the length of a. 
dcgrio of tbe meridian In the neighbourhood of the equator, 
ith bis principals were unhappy; the eopedi- 

and finally La Condam 

ID Quito doo 

M and published Ih 
.( (English Iranslalic 

ts of bis mensurementa an 

74S-tM7]. On a visit to Rome La 
UL measuretaeott ol tbe ancient buildinga 
with a view to a precise dciemiiiiation ol the longlh of the RonwR 
foot. Tbe jonmatofbisvoyageloSouthAmericawBspublished 
in Paris in irji. Heabo wrote in favour of inotBlaiion, and on 
various other subjects, mainly connected whh kis srork in^nth 
Americs. He died at Paris on the ^Ihof Friiruary 1774. 

UCOKIA (Gr. Atnmtfi), the andeot name of tbe aoulh- 
eostero ditttltt of the Fclaponnesc. of. which %>arta was the 
capital It bas an ana ol some i,at8,oDo acres, slightly greater 
than that of Somcrset^iire, and consisla of three weU-raarked 
lonea raamng N. and S. The valley of tbe Euiotas, which 
occupies the centte, Is bounded W. by Ibe chain of Taygeiui 
{mod. Pestedakiyhn), 7«aa ft.), wUch starts Imm tho Arcadiaa 

leN., I 

mity f« 

IS tbo 

prowoalisyolTacnarum(Cap*UatapanX The taaten , 
of Laconia consisls of a far more brolten lanst of hit) countsy, 
riling in Ml Pamm to a height ol 6361 ft. and tenninalin( hi 
tbe headland of Mslca. The nageof l^ygaius it well.watecal 
and woi In ancient limes covered with foteMs which aSoided 
ncellcnt hunting lo the Spartans, while ft hod also targe ima 
inines and qoorries of an bfeiioc hlhiih oaEblei oi wefl a* of the 
iaiBouiriMW^Hkaof iKMnm. far poocraicthealopnaf 


FainoB, coB^dtng iei titc mt»t put of burcn Umntow U[4uidi 
taaOify waterad. Tht EuioUi valley. boHMW. ii (rnile, ind 
producB U Ihe piornt diy maiie, (Jiva, oimngo and mulberfif 


Iribuury (he Oeniu (n 

flie EunMu ind its Iitjoi 

The caul, eipeciiUy an ine lait, li mggHl and dingnoui. 
lanaiia hu lew good h«rboun, nor are there any islands lying 
aS iu shorn wilh the enroplloii of Cytban (Cehgo), S. of Cspe 
Mafca. TTieniostimporlanllowni.bMldeiSparuaod Cylhium, 
were BtyMW, Amyctaa and Fhaiis in the Eurolas [^in, Pcllana 
and Bdbina on ibe uppei Euroisi. SdUaia on thr Oenui. Caiy» 
aa the Arcadian froaiier, Pissiae, Zaiai and Epldaunu Limcra 
on tb« eaal coast, Getonthne on ihc slopM of Puiwn, Boeae. 
Aiopu), Helot, Laa and Teulhrone oa (he Laconiao Gulf, and 
Hippob, Meisa and Odyhia on the Mesunian Gulf. 

IIk earlial inhabitants of Laconia, according to Uadilion, 
wtre (he mito^hihoDaui Lelegu (f.v.}. Minyan Inraignnii (ben 
ultltd at various plAoi on (he a»U. and even appeu (o have 
poHbated into the inletior and to bava founded Amydie. 
Phoeniciao (raden, too, visited the sbotes of the Laconiso Gulf, 
And there arc iodioitions of ttade a( a vecy early period belween 
Laconia and Crete, (.(. a number of bbckt of gteen Liconltn 
poiphyry Itom (he quatrict ■( Cioate have be«n ' 
palace ol Minos al Caouus. Tn the Homeric poi 
appean as the mltn ei an Achaean prince, Mcnelaus. whox 
capital was perhaps Therapne on Ibe left bank of the Entotoc, 
S.E. of Spanai the Achaean eonqncton, hoirever, probably 
contented (hemsetves with a suaerainty over Laconia and part 
of Menenla («.».) and were too few to occupy the whole land. 
The AchaetUi kingdont fell before Ihe Incoming Dorians, and 
(hnutboiK the dassical period the hinoiy of Laconia ia that 
of'iis capital Spar(a (gjo). In 195 n.c (he Lacanian com toitns 
were fiHd Iratn Spartan rule by the Konin gential T, Quiactiiu 
Flanilninui, and became mem bets of the Achaean League. When 
(bit was diaiolved In 146 I.e., they remained independent under 
ttw title ef the " Coafedetatkra ol the Lictdaemotiiafli " or 
"of the Free-Laconiana" (mi^ r^v Katiituneyiawor 'EkeuOtfiO^ 
IUl«li>ur),t)ieiupTeni«officero[ which wasasTpaTirrii (general) 
asaisied by * raidat (tteaiuitr). Augustus setmi to have 
icorganiied the league in some way, for Pauianiis (Ui. 11. 6) 
■paaki ol him as iti founder. 01 the (wcnty-four dtiei wiich 
originally composed the league, only eighteen risnained ai 
memben by the reign of Hadrian (ice AcasuH Lucue). In 
SJL 395 a Gothic horde under Alaric devastated Laconia, aad 
■ubsequentiy it wa< overrun by large bands of Slsvjc inunigiaais. 
Throughout the middle oga H wu the scene of vigorona sCnigglu 
between Savs. fiyianllnes, Franks, Turks and Venaians, ibe 
diiti memorials ol which arc the rallied UrBBghohb of Mistra 
near Sparta, Ceriki (ane. Geronthiae) and MonenvuB, " the 
Cibraliir of Greece." on the east coast, and FiBavi near 
Gythium. A prominent pan in the War ol lodepcndncB wu 
played by the Maniales or blainotei. iha inhabitants of tbc 
rugged peninsula loiined by the eoutfaem part ol Taj^tns. TlMy 
bad all along maintained a virtual indqieiidence of tbo Turks 
atld until quite recently retained (heir mcdievU cuiKims, living 
in fonihed towers and piactsiiig the vendetta or blood-leud. 

The dlatrict has been divided Into two departments (nonut), 
Laccdaemoti aad Laconia, wiib tbcir capiali at Sparta ud 

Gythium reipectively. Pop. of Laconia (1907) 

Arctaaloty. — Until t«04 ardueological reanrch 
was carried on only tpotadiolly. Besides the eiovai 
Ukenat Sparta, CytUatnand V^hio (t-r,), themost important 
were tboieU tki ApoUo aancUiitT of Amyclae canicd out by 
C. Taonntat In iSoa ('EMl d^xuaX. il«i. i H.) aad in 1904 by 
A. Furtwiin^ei. At Kaavot, on the wtaian aide of Taygetus, 
a vnall domed lonb of the " Mycencan " age was excavated in 
iBgo a&d yielded two leaden tutuetto of great intoest, while 
g| Arkina ■ sim^r tomb of poor coostiuclioc was uneaifhed 
b the previoDS year. Importanl inscrrpliont were found, at 
Ocnnihrte (Geiiki). DOtibly five kmg fragment! ef the £duli>iii 
DttdtHaml. and elsewhere. In 1904 the Britiab Ardiaeolosical 
a wUciBatic iavntiiukm of tbo 

ndent'aadmOdteVilRinaiasliiLacbnfi. TV eeeolts, of wUA 
be molt imponant are summarized in the arlide Sp*Ria,ar« 
ubiished in tbc British Scfaool AitntaS, i. S, The acnptdis o( 

faigbiands, j 

nd the BinrtMary of Ino-Pisipiiae at 


LFDT.— Bnldei the Creek hiiti 

WDfxs ciira unoflT arjiKTA. lee w. m, Leaae, Tfodi m ike Marts 

SLomlon. i8jo), cc iv..Tiii., lal.. xxUL: E. Curthis, P/ioprmiaat 
UipiiE, iU»}. iL 101 i.: Sirabo v!u. sfFWnias UL and the 
commentarY in J. G. Fiaier. PuiumifBi^i DiunpHin a Crtra 
(LoiKhn, iML vol. JiL: W. O. Clark, F^MMntnt (LandM. ilsB), 
i»S.: EL P. Bobby*. JtKtmtu liwiai^i nv fe] ruui <£ to 
J^irfe (Parii, iSjs), ^ If.i L. Row, bun im Pdrfttma (Berik, 

(aiuf (Buel. 1B57). j6o IT.: I. B. G. M. Bory de Saint-Vinctnt. 
Itdalm iu veyttf d( I'apUlSai icinfjjtw ii Iterti (Pari.. 1816), 
cc, g. loi G. A. Bbaei, BipUMni t^rwUfi^n ii Uartt (Pam, 
i83i-iej»l, ii. j8 a.; A. PhiUppwn, Dir FJefnaa (BerUn, 189a), 
iSS S.\ Annwd <i Bniiih School at Athens, 1907-3. 

CruauumlfiiaVm. i»i8J. Not. iij7-isn>i CoUftr.WhMl', ^m- 
li»W^ineclu£uJcUiLictn/lnhlii.i{(;aitingim. lloei, t4oa.44rM. 
4613. Cnu: Cuiahfac vf Crtit Csuif I'A Ikt BHtiik Mumm: 
Prhpsnntms [London, 1887), ilvi. IT,, 111 fT.: B. V. Head, HiUmo 
JTumormM (Oiford. 1B87). jfij H. CulU: S. Wide. Lakiniiulu KtiU 
(Leipiig. 189]). AtciBil rKi4f.'W. Loring, "Some Anrient Route* 
in the PeiDponnei- " - " -■'■'" — ■ 

in Jeunul 0} HiOniK Stadia, : 

■v. 25 ff. 

(M. N. T 

UCORIA, a city and the a»nty^«eat of Belknap 
Kew Hampdiire, U.S.A., on both lidet of the Wmnep 
river, aS m. N.N.E. ol Concord. P<ifi. (iqos) 804^ 
loeeign'bom}; (igto) le.iSj. Laconia is lerred by two d 
of the Boston & Maine railway, which bat 
' granite passenger station (iSgi) and repair shops here. 
pleasantly situated in the bkc district olcei^tml Ni ~~ 
and in the summer season Lake WinnbriDara on 
aiukee on (he.N.E. 


»4<S " 

1- (S'4; 

. . ind about 6 «. Ima its 

centre, are the grounds of the Wionepcsaukee Camp-Meeting 
Astodptionv and the camping place for the annual rKinions 
of the New Hampshire Velerana of the Qril Wat, both at The 
Wein. the noitbemmost point in (he urri[«cy daimed by colonial 
Uaisachusects; about -i m, from the centre of Laconia ia 
Lakepon (pop. 1900, iij?), which. like The Wein, is a Bunmcr 
inort and a ward in the city of Latonia. Among the public 
innituiien are the Slate School foi Feeble-minded CfaUdrea, 
a cottage bcoiHlal and the Laconia Public Library, lodged in 
the Gale Memorial Libniy buildmg (iqoj). Another Baa 
building is the Congregational Church (i<d61. TlieNevHaAp- 
shire Slate Fish Hatchery is in Laconia. WatcF>power ii 
furnished by the river. In 1905 Laconia ranked hrst 



product; anoug its other 
maonlaclures.BR yarn, knitting machina, iKedlct, saabcs aod 
blinilE, ades, paper boaes, boats, gas and ^uoleno engiiKs. and 
freighi, passengx sDil decttic can. The total value of tlia 
factory prodotli incieued Irom li,i5ij;9 ui 190a (0 t],0«6,BlS 
in rtos, or 43'R%. The ponion of the city N. ol the riva„ 
foraeriy known as Meredith Bridge, was set ainrl from the town- 
ship of Uercilith and incorpatated as a township under tbc name 
of Laconia in 1S55; a tectioo S- of the river was takcQ frwB 
the township of Oilfoid in 1874; and Lakeport was aildcd is 
iSqj, when laconia was chartered as a city. The Bane 1 irrrmin 
was first applied in New England to the naion glaDtcd ia ifiafi 
to Mason aiid Goiga (sec Mawn, Joniil. 
LAOOHICDII (t.(L Spartan, ic. hdnniiH, haih), tbedryawMlias 



BO bath in 

■tconHn; to ViUuVlds (v. lo), "from which • brum ihitid Is 
■mpciulcd by chains, capable of being » lovered and tailed 
B to Rgulate tlie tempenturc." The wilb o( the laconicam 
*cte pliDtered irlth marble stucro Uid t>o1Ished, and (be nmical 
nwf covered arith Qiailei and painted Hue vitb gdd ilan. 
: old Inths at Pompeii, the taconicum wu 
etl in Uiipse at me end of the aildaciam, but ai'a nile 
■'sepirale room raised to a liighcr teinperature and had 

on to the hypocaust under the floor Ihe 

e tHes. Tbe larj^t laconicum. about 
7S ft. in (liimejer, wu that buDt by Agiippa in his theiniac on 
the south side of the Paotheonj and is refrmyf to by CassTui 

stmctcd the hot bath chamber which he called the Laconicum 
GyDiiuL»uni," ' All traces of this building are hat, but in the 
additions mlde to the lh«mae,0( Agiippa by ScpliBiii;s Seems 
anoihei lieonicum was built faiihet south, portioiii o( which 
itill eiiw in the so-called Acco di Ginmbella. 

ccclsiailic andomtoc, was bom at Recey-sur-Ource.nted'Or, 
40 Ihe I'lth at March iBoi. He was the second of a family of 
tour, the eldest of hhom, Jean Thfodbie CiSoi-i8]0], tiavellcd 
a gnat deal (n his youth, and was aftenvards piofessor of com- 
parative ^atomy at Li£ge. For several years- Lacordaire studied 
at Dijon, shpwing a marked talent for rhetoric; this led him 
to the purauif of law, and iii the hxal debates of the advocates 
be sllained a high celcbnty. At Paris be thought of going on 
(he slaee, but wa> icdvced to linish Jut lea.1 training and began 
la practise as ui advcicate (i8i7-ifii4). M«aawhile Laijiennais 
had published bis Eiiai tur Vl^jjitaa.—a, passionate plea 
far Christianity ind in particular for Ronun Catholicism as 
necessary foi the social progress of nankind. Lacordaire read, 
and his ardent and beb'ering nalute, wtary of the theological 
negations of the Encycropaedistt, wai convinced. In 1S13 
ie became a tjieological student at the seminary ot Saint 
Sulpicc; four yean later he was ordained and became almoner 
ol the ccJIcge Henii IV. He was called fiom tl lo co-operate 
with laniennais in the edit'onhip of I'Att/iii, 1 journal esiab- 
Bshed to advocate (he union ol the dcmoctalie principle wilh 
ullrauiontajiism. Lacordaire strove lo show that Catholicism 
WHS not bound up with Ihc ide* of dynasty, and definitely allied 
it lyith a well-defintd Ifberty, equalily and Iralemity. But the 

In the meanlimc Lacordaire and' Monlalembett. believing that, 
under the charier ot 1830, they were entitled to liberty of 
initruction, opened an independent tree school. It was closed in 
two days, and the teachers £ned berore Ihe court of peers. 
Thtse reverses L.-icordilre accepted wilh quiet dignity; but 
Ihey brought hii relationship with Lamcnnaii lo a close. He now 
began the coura! of Christiaq anflrrMa at the College Stanislas, 
which attracted the art and Inlellect of Paris; thence he went 
to NMre Dame, and for two years his sermons were the delight 
of the capital.. His presence was dignified, his voice capable of 
indefinite modulations and his gestures animated and attractive. 
He itlll preached the gospel of Ibe people's sovereignly in civil 
life ud Iba pope's supremacy in religion, but brought to hi* 
projagandiani the full resources of a mind familiar with phflo- 
tophy, bislory and literature, and indeed led the reaction against 
Vollajfean sceptidsot- 

OTonnell being especially roaiked by point and cteamos. He 
next thought that his presence In tbc National Assembly would 
3e of use 10 his cause; but bring tebuked by his eccteiastitat 
inperlors for declaring himseK a repuHican, he resigned his scat 
:en days after hii election. In 1850 be went back to Rome and 
nas niade provincial of Ihe oitler, and for four years Ubooml 
[o make the Driminlcans ■ idigions power. In 1854 be retired 
:o Sorrfae to become dlrect6r of a private lyceum, and remaned 
there nnlil he died on the und of November 1861. He had been 
lected 10 the Academy in the precedtog year. 
The bcii edition of Lacocdaln's worfci ii the (Earts amtRiit 
ink., Pari>.iJri-ia73).|)wbli9hedbyC. PoirMeliue, which con' 
liH. be4d» tbi CmfinaKa. the enuUtely vrilccn. but unoilicaL 

J wit cirflium. For a complete lis of his publijhed eorrHpoDdcnce 
sK L. Petit d^ulleville's Hislmi it la lantK <titta mnruti 

_TI^'thi>i4iatiUbla[nFhyiibyCfc.Foi«t(lvDb.. Peril. iflTo). 
isRli^^lWKt ot hiidwruierit bciCriHiwnin p*re A-Cbif 
. rne'sFie^iiPirrLiiioivfBiri jvols.,Parii.i866— EaaMilran^lJOB 
by A. Th. Orane, London, igM); kc al» Count cTTR: de MSlU^ 
— . — .i T,. «_■ ^Fn_,jj^ (Paiii, i«6i— EiViih itansb- 

Pam. iWjli by Coibu O. d'tJauwnviUi <i nl_ iX 

icrisaiiB Ftanieu leriB. Parii. .IB97); by Cabcicl Ledg* IParii. 
1001); hy Don CreenweU ji867)( and ^ tb* due de BroeKa 

!□ lakes 

m the ur 



ring the ol 

•ppoidtmenlB, and 

schenle for chrislianii,^ ... 

St Dominic. At Rome he donned the babil of the prtachi 

friar and joined the monastery of Minerva. His Ulnavt pn 

brUablilitmtnleml'raiicidtl'mlriilisJrlrct fr&Aou-f was th 

prepared and dedicated lo his country; at the same lime 

collecled lie materials tor the life of St Dominic. When 

retilmed lo France in 1841 he resumed his preaching al N6I 

Dame, but be had small success in re-establishing the order 

wWeh be ever alierwards called himself monk. " ' 

i(t A( Ptf> £»Rfadc. t£ted 

ilad Into EqdUi, nmc thkic hciiif, Jini Cb^ (iM9)i 
i.iaia,; at ladliKi U*Uh IjU (l^ii. For a [Inkihai 
■tud> at the CtuHmas it Hllrt Dnu, lee an uiicle by Bkhop 
■ " Kedl«yiaAiU^Jtiiw>(OeuAtriS;V> 

a tot coloured atld 

ibslHice Is the b'asis of bcquera properlysn caned. TechnlcaBy, 
nong Weslem rations, lacquering is restricied to the coating 
of polished metals or tnetdljc iutlaces, such as braq, pewter and 
in, with prepared vamfsbes which wiU give them a golden, 
tome-Uke or other lustre as devied, Thiodghout the East 
Indie* the lacqoerlng of wooden surfaces is uMvenally pnrttiedl 
leq of household furtiiture, as well aismaSboiea, trays; 
lOTs and pa[fler-mich( oblccls, being decorated with bright- 
coloured and variegated lact]uer. The hcqun used In the East 
is. in general, variously coloured seal{ng-w»i, appltell, smoothed 
id polished' in a heated conditirai; and by various dellcc* 
Iricale matbled, streaked and mottled deigns are produced, 
uiie lUstinct Ircm IhtK, and from all other forms of lacquer, 
thelicquer work of Japan, for which see JaPAW, i ArL 
UtRtTBLLR PIEHBI U>n» DB [i75r~iei4), French 
politician and writer, wu bom at Metz an the (rth d October 
17JJ. He, practised as a barrister in Paris; and under the 
Revolution was elected u a dlpul suppllanl In the Constituent 
Assembly, and I^tei as deputy in Ihe Legislative AuentUy^ 
He belonged lo the modernte party known as the " FeuUliiits,'' 
but after the 10th of August ijgi he ceased to lake part In 
pubHc life. In 180] he became a member of Ibe Ininitnttf, 
taking the place ot La Harpe. Onder the Restoration he-waj 
one Of the chief editon of the Uintm franiBin; he wrote alio 
an essay, Svr It iS Brtmat" (1799). some PrapntnU fiilHfiia 
ll 'HUtrairtJ (iSt?], and a treatise Da porta peliHjuel tt ia 
Indians it Id trOitidiie aruliKrelit iToipeioTl'Ain (1B19). 

His younger brother, Jeih Cauus DoURiam oi LacbC^ 
TUtE, called Lacretdle It jnru (1766-1855), bhtorian and 
Jouraaliil, was also bom at Meli on the jrd of September ij«fi; 
He was called to Paris tty his brother in 17S7, and during the 
Revolution belonged, like him, to the party of the FeulUintit. 
He was for some lime serTTtaiy to the due de la RocbefoUcauld- 
Llancourl, Ihe celebrated philanthmprst, and afterwards joined 
the staff of the Jnmal de Paris, then managed bf Suard, and 
when: he had as nilleagues Andr* Chteier and Antoine Roucher. 
alLempI to hide his monarchist sympathies ' ' 
.„— . with the way in which heTep— ' "■- ■-- 
of Louis XVI., brought Un ni peril of tl 


tr TbennidoT he ntunKd; 

o posrerful 

dugcr be cnUsttd la the umy, bul a( 
lo Paris nod to hll i.cwipaiKi work, ae 
■oyalial movemenl 'A liie I3lh Vendfmiair 
dcponalion after U» iSlii Fnictidor; but 
iiiBiicnce, he was lef t " [oigolun " in prison tm um uk idludiu- 
Duirc, «bea he vss scl it liberty by Foucbt. Undu the Empiie 
be wu appointed ■ pmrmiQi d[ biiUiry in the FaailU da liUia 
of Pari* (iSog), and elected u * member ol the Aradfmie fran- 
(luse (iSii). In iSivhewaspiiineiiiovciin theptoiest cuileby 
tbeFiench Academy against the miniilei Peyionnet'tlawon the 
pnu, nfaich led lo the lailuce ol that meaniie, but thii tlep coct 
biiD, as il did Villemain, his post u mtsear royaL Under Louii 
Philippe he devoted hlDUell entirely lo his tendiing and liteniy 
work. In iS(8 he retired to H&con; but there, u In Paris, he 
WM the centre o( a brilliant circle, for he wss a wonderful ieuuur, 

pEiienca to tecsU. He died. on the a6th of March 1855. 
His ton PIciie Henii (181S-1899) nu a hnnumnu writei and 
pohtician of purely coniempoiacy hilerest. 

J. C. LaCRUlfe'i chief aoili it a serin of hiuarto of the 18th 
cchtury. the RevolutioD and its aeqiicl: Fridt hitUri^nt id 
Rfdui™ Jraxtaiu. appended la the hirinry oj Rabaud St Etiel 
arid partly written in uie pr" ' 
Hitleiri ti Fi 

<i l4 la 

at style, nor Hiibdnf 

di rimpirt U vnli., 1846). The ai 
Blipdedipap.bmp r ii nTrl neither F 

UMortcal indght. noi tb ■' ■■■-- 

accuracy of dnnil whti I 

00 Lacretdlt's hiuory u tne 
BptproEt much/'iiparil>r trucof allhiibofln. He had 1>eeB an eye- 
wilreH of and in atloT in the events which he describes, but bii 
testimony mutt be acctrpted with cstttLOa. 


French minenJogist and geologiti, nubom ai Micoa,'SaJne ct 
toire, on the 4lh d( Febtujuy iSts- He took the decree ol 
D. il Sc. in Faiis, 1884. In i8«} he was appointed professor ol 
mineralogy at the Janliii da PUmla. Paris, and in 1896 director 
vl the muieralogical laboratory in the £ait ia Savla £luda. 
He paid especial attention to mineraJa connected with volcanic 
phenomena and igneoiu rocks, to the effects of metamorphisni. 
and to mirteral veini. in voiious parts ol the world, notably In 
the Fycenees. In his numerous conlributioni lo scientific 
journals he dealt with the mineralogy and petroloor of Mada- 
gascar, azid published an elaborate and exhaustive volume 
fUl the eruptions In Maitiniquc. La iiontagne Ptlte el jei trup- 
Uata (i«a4)- He al*o issued an important work entitled Viiuia- 
J*titd(Iai'raiic(eld(KiCiifMi(l(i8gj-iS^, and other vorks 
Id conjunction with A. MichiJ L£vy, He was elected member 

01 the Acad jmie des sciences in 1904. 

. UCBDIX, PAUL (iSo6-tS&(], French author and ]ouina]ist, 
was bom in Paris on the ijih of April iKot, the son of a novelist. 
He a best known under hifl paeudntiym of F. L. Jacob, bibihpkiU^ 
or ^' Bibliophile Jacob," auggealed by the cgnst^nt interest he 
tooL in public tibraties and books generally. Lacmii was an 
(ilremel)' prolific and vitied writer. Over twenty bislorical 
lomancex alone came from bis pen, and be abo wnle a variety 
of serious historical works, ioduding a hisIAiy oC Xapoleon UL, 
and the life and tunes ol the Tsar Nicholas I. of Kussia. H^ 
was the jmnt author with Ferdinand Sbi of a five-volume work, 
I4 HeytnAt' '' ^ Rimaiiiima (1847), a standard work on the 
mannera, customs and drew of those times, the chief metit of 
which lies in the great oumbei of itlustialions it contains. He 
also wrote many monographs on phases of the history of culture. 
Over the signature Pierre Dufour was published an exhaustive 
HiiMrt dt la PnilUiHim (iSsr-iSsi), which has always been 
attributed to l^croix. His works on bibliography were also 
eatrcoely nuaooua. In i88i be was appointed librarian of the 
Arsenal Libazy, Paris. He died in Paris on the jfith of Octnbcr 

and lyiDg less than ball a mile aoatl o[ B«ca>a- nou^ hmij 
\\ m.inle[]gth.LBCromaisremaikablefDr the beauty of its sub- 
tropical vtgetat^n. It was a favnurile resort of the alt^duke 
Majdmiliao, afterwards emperor of Mexico (1SJ1-1S67), who 
restored the chtteiu and paiki and of the Austrian crown prince 
Kudolpii (iSjT-iSSg). Il contaioi an iitb-century Benedictine 
iDonasieiy; and the remains of a (hutch, said by a HCiy doubtful 
local tradition to have been founded by Richard L of EnJ^and 
C[i£7--itQg), form part of the imperial ch&teau. 

See irfUTDnia, an jlluitiated detcriptlvt work by the crown princes 
Stephanie (afterward. Counlcss 1.4nyay )(Vicnna, 1891). 

LA CHOSEE, a city and the county-seat ol La. Crosse coubi>, 
Wisconsin, D.S.A., about tSo m. W.N.W, of Milwauktt, asd 
about iiom. S,£. of St Paul, Minnesota, on the C bank «f the 
Mississippi Tiver, at the nuutb of the Bhick and ol the la Crouc 
riven. Pop. (iqoo) 18,895; ('V>o census) ^0,417, Of the 
total population hi 1900, 7111 were lordgn-bom, 31J0 being 
Ccrman and loij Norwegian, and I7,ss5 were of foreign- 
parentage (both parents foreign-bom), including 78^ of Genrtan 
parentage, 4411 of Norwegian parentage, and 1061 of Bohemian 
parentage. La Ctoue is served by the Chicago & North Western, 
the Chicago, Milwaukee jt St Paul, Ihe Chicago, BurUngton k 
"La Crosse li South Eastern, and the Green Say ft 

id by rive; 

he Miss 


ilwaybridge (CM. &Sl 
wagon bridge. The city Is situated on a prairie, ertcnding hack, 
fiom the river about i} m. to bluffs, from which fine vieirs may 
be obtained. Among the city's builduigi *nd insiitutions are the 
Federal Building (.886-1(87), the Oninly Court Hotae (teo)-, 
190]), the Public Library (with more than 10,000 volumes). 
Ihe City HaU (1891), ibe High School Building ti«os-rgo6}, the 
St Francis, La Croue and Luthetsn hoipiut*, a Voung Uen'i 
Christian Auodatlon Building, a YoUng Women'a Christian 
Association Building, a U.S. Weather Station (i«07), and a 
U.S. Fish Sution (1905), La Crosse is the seat of a state Normal 
School (1909). Among the city's parks are Ftttibone (in Island 
in the Mississippi), Riverride, Burns, Fair Ground and Myilet. 
The city is the tee of a Roman Catholic bishop. La CroMe il 
an Important lumber and grain market, and is the principal 
wholnale distributing centra for a large teriiioty bi S.W. Wi»- 
conain, K. Iowa and Minnesota. Prailniity to both pine and 
budnood forests eariy made it one ol the most important 
lumber manufuturing placet In Ihe North-wesli but tbii 
industry has now been displaced by other manufactures. The 
city has grain eleVaiots, RouT niiUs (the value of Bour and griM 
mill product) in 190; was t9,i6S,it6), and breweries (product 
value in 190J, S>,440.S!9). Other important minufacturei are 
jigriculLural implements (Ss*i,4»S '" '9=!). lumber and plam"n| 
mill products, leather, waoDen. knit and rubber foods, tobacco, 
dgars and dgaretles, carriages, foundiy and machine-ahop 
producti, copper and iton producta, cooperage, peari butjons, 
brooms and bnishct. The total value of the facioiy ptoduct 
in 1905 was t8,i}g,4ji, as against t7,S;fi,59i In 190a. The 
city owns and. operates its wiler-wotks system, the wagoik 
bridge (1890-1891) acrosi the Mississippi, and a toll road (1) m. 
longJ to the village of La Crescent, Minn. 

Father Kennepin and du Lhut visited or passed the ^e of 
La Crosse as early ai 16S0, but il Is possible that adventuroui 
cnurenri-du-taij preceded them. The £rsl permanent settlement 
was made In 1841, and La Crosse was made the county-Kal ia 
1S5S and *u chartered as a city bi 1S5S. 

LACROSSE, the national ball game of Canada. - II dttiVes ill 
name fiom the resemblance of its chief iaplement used, the 
curved netted stick, to a bishop's croeler. It ivaa borrowed 
from the Indian tribes of North Ametica. In the old days, 
according to Catlin, |he warrioit of two tribes in their war-paint 
would form the lidet, often Sso 01 looo strong, Tkt goals were 
placed from joc yds. to i m. apart witb practically no side 
boutidatici. A solemn dance preceded the gaoie, afUr which the 
ball was tossed into the air and the two side* rushed to catch 
it on " crosses." sinuiar to those now in use. The medicIoe-ttieD 
•cted ^ umiKCci, and the Iquawi uifed on the sien by beating 



tlum Willi iwilchrt. The tune attnctfd much ittcatlon from 
the ally Fnnch ttultn In CkuAdii. In ii6j, alio Canada 
feed becaine Briiith, tbe guot ni laol by tbi aboricuiei lo 
airy out in iafnuous piece ol troichriy. On the 4lh a[ Jane, 
*htn tht |»iriion ol Foit Michilimackinic (rdw Mackintc) wu 
cclebratiog the kinf't birthday, it w&i invited by the Ottawa^ 
nndei ttieir chief Fouiiac, to witncn * |ame a( " tnggMany " 
(lacTOK). The playera gradually worked Ibtir w«y ckxc to the 
gala, when, ihrowlng aside their croua uid Kidiu their 
IDiaahawlu which the iquawi niddenly produced 
their blanlieu. they rushed into the fort and 
iomatei ncepl a lew Fmcfamen. 

. The game found favour amonj the British «ntler», but it wis 
BM until 1867, the year In whldi Canada became a Dotninion, 
that G. W. BtxTt, a prombicnt player, luggesLed lh>( Licrone 
rimfld be r««tslted (1 the national game, and the National 
IjiCToaK Auodalion of Canada wii (onned. From that time 
the |>rDe bai Bouriibcd vigoronily in Canada and to a leu 
clteDt in the United Slats. In r86S as EngKah LacroiK 
Aaao d ation wai iormcd, but, altfaoufb a team of Indiana viaited 
the United Kiaidam in 1W7, it wu net ualil Knnetine later 
that tha game became at all pi^ular In Great Britain. Ili 

the Toronto I.acroue Qub in liSB and 1901, the methodi of the 
CuBdiuH and their nonderful " ahort-paiaing " eidting much 
admintion. In 1907 the Capitals af Ottawa viaiied EogUnd, 
playing sii matdies, all oI which were woo by the Canadians. 
The match North ?. South has been pUyed annually in England 
aince ilSi. A county chunpiODShip was inaugurated in 1905. 
A North of Entfand I.eacue, ssbcacing ten cluba, began playing 
league matcha In ilgr; and > natch between the univenitici 
of Oxford ud Cambridge has been jdayed annually since 1Q03. 
A match between England and Irdaod waa pbyed aantially from 

' 7iiififa«A>li iif It< C^iM,-The bdl Ii n 

~'-^-' tn4iand4Toi -' 

tap bdag beal Id ' 

feof Litdiarubber spon^ 

Bielal nuR be ued ia ill manu'icture. I( nuy be ol aoy rnifui la 
■uitthe pUyer. The pull ace let up not Ich than 100 par more Ihao 
Ijo yds. apacl. the gmL.pons beini & It. high and the HmcdiiUnu 
apart. They arc K1 tip in the middle ol rhe " goaL<reaie." a ipace 
el lilt. iqiuRiutliKj wiih chalk. A nM extends Ima the lop laH 
and Hdeiof the pouifascli 10 a point 6 El. behind the auddleol (he 
line between the posts. Boyndanes are agreed upon by the cspuini. 
Shoes nay have indiarubtar kIcs. but muit lie without iFslKa, 

71U Canw.— The object al the jamc b to send ihe balT. t^ means of 
tberroBe, ihrouBrfi the enemy's goal-pofls as many limes a 1 po»ible 
doTinf the two periods tA play, pfenicly as in (ooihan and hoclrey. 
There are twelve pbyeis on each side. In evrcy powiion save thai 
if gnal Ihene are two men, one of each adc, whose dulii 
" mack"«nd (leuirsKiecachothcr'sclIorts. thegameiso 
the act of ■' facini." in which the iwo nnires, ' ' 

■hoolder towards hnopponenls^eDsl, hold their r- ^ . 

wards, on the grouiid. the ball beinf placed betwetn (hem. Wlii 
Ihe slgnl is ffiytn the renin dnw their croan sharply Inwards 
order to pin posaesstel e( the baN. The ball may be Inctcd 
aliKk widt the crease, as at hockey, but the nal-kfetirr alone mi 
handle u. and tbenonly to block and noi toihrowii. All hough I 
hall may be ihrawn with the crosse for a kHig distance — IKi yds. 
■bsBt ihe limit— long throws are sehlom liM.it being (tninl 
movw avranlageous lore pisyer to ran with rhe bell lestiTrg on f' 
cmssc, until he can pass il 10 a j ae ui l j er el his side who procreds wi 
theatuck,dlh<rbyninning. pssung to anolher. oc iryini to Ihtc 
the ball Ihrough Ihe opponenls' go*l. The cnisw. uwafly hdd 
both hinds, il made to retain the hall by an inienknis TocUne motii 
MirMqIlictdkymclic.. All bne Is ■»" <>..Mt " la Lacrosse, 

SXwiThi. le^ 


■ the hall Id Ihe fTO«. si 
ma pbyvr may LnLericre 
11 of him (■■ body<heck ' 

or ifar. No cbargiiw W 
ilh another by standiiig 
though •riihoul holdiiii, 

player who ia Dot in poasciaon oT the ball. Fouls are penalised elth^ 
by the sBspenikmoi the oifeitder until a Boal has been seomlaetrnlil 
the ead et the_ gamei or b^ allowing the^ sidi oDeadsd wiast a 

must lUnd in the poiitian whcie he k, eicepclog the goal-keeper 
who may get back to hit nal, and any opponent who may be ncanr 
ttie ptayer getting the ball than s yds,; this player must reliie » 
that distance Irom the one who has been given Ihe " free podtiDn," 
who then proceeds with Ibe game as he likes when the reteree kivs 
" ptay-" This penslty rnsy not be carried oul neairr than to yds. 
Irom Ihe goal. If ibe bill crosses a bonndiry the releree nils 
" Btsnd." arid all players siop where they are, the hall beiax thea 
" lacxd " not loH than 4 yds. within the Oouadary line hy ihs twn 

y W. <^Si±mdBCT. in 

r English Lacrosse U0I0 

Iv Ceorgs Catln. 

U CtDl RAH61I DI (i7jr-iy94). Spanish diunatist, va> 
bomatMadlJdoatheiBIhofhlanJii73i. He waa a clerk in the 
ministry of finance, and ia Ibe author of three hundred laimeta, 
little (arckal itches of city lile, wtiiien lo be played beiween 
the arl9 of a longer pEay. He pobliibed a Klectian in ten vdume* 
(Madrid, i7«&-i}Qi), and died on Ihe 5th ol March 1794- Tho 
best of his t^eces, nicb as loi rtrlnJtiuicJfsifrid.are delightful 
^recimens of satiric observatioD. 

See E. Cotardo y Mori, Dsii RnmAi A la iTrrs y nu slru (Madrid, 
i>99]l C. CaiobroBeni, .SatiKlu iriUita siUmlsi sn ia SiUialia 
UuHidpat it UiUid (Madrid, 1900J. 

LICRTMATORT (from Lat. laaimt, a tear), a dau o( amaU 
vcweli of tem.cotts. or, man fitquently, of glass, found in 
Roman and late Creek tombs, and supposed lo have been 
bMIIesintowhichnloDniendroppedlheirtcaiB. They contained 
unguents, snd to the use of unguents at funeral ceremonies the 
finding of so many of these vessels in tombs is due. Tliey are 
shaped like a spindle, or a flaik with a kmf imill a«k and a bodjr 
in the form of a bulb. 

UCTAimui nRMiUira (c 96o-<. 340), alto caned Uctua 

Cadiua (or Caecilius) Lactantiu* Firmianus, waa a Chriilian 
writer who fmm the beauty of his ilyle has been called Iha 
" Christian Cicero." Hii history ia very obscure. He wu bom 
of heathen parents tn Africa about t6a, and became a pupil ol 
Amobius. whom he far excelled In style though his kumledgn 
of (he Scrlpturo was t([Uilly sli^t. Aixnit igo he went la 
NicoDeifia in Bithynia white Diocletian was emperor, to teach 
ihetoric, hul found little wock to do in that Greck-qieaking 
dtv- In middle age he becaine a convfft lo Christianity, and 
about jhS he went to Caul (Trivnl on the invitation of Conataiv- 
tine Ibe Great, and became tutor to his eldest toBi Ciiipus. Ht 
probably died about 340. 

Lactantius' cliiet work, Dnaamwi Iiurtlatiiniam Uiri Stfltm, 
is an '* apology " for and an intmdoctien lo ChrialiaBily, 
written in ciquiiite Latin, but displaying such ignorance as to 
have inmricd the charge of favouring Ihe Arian and Msnichatin 
heresies. It seems to have been begun in Nicomedla about 
J04 and fiinthed in Gaul before jit. Two long eulogistic 
addresses and most of the brief apostrophes to the emperor srt 
from a Ulcr band, which has added some duilisiic touches. 
The seven books of the inatitutinns have separate titles given ta 
them either by the author or by a later editor. The Grsl. Of 
Falsa Rditiani. and the second, De Oripnc &T<rii, attack the 
polyiheism of heathendom, show the unity of the God of creation 
and providence, and try to explain how men have been corrupted 
by demons. The Ihiid booh. Be Falia SapimSa, describes 
and criliciies the various systems of prevalent . philosophy. 
"' ' ■ book, De Vaa SajiiaUic el 


leal in the person of Christ. The fiiih 
booh, Di Jiulilia, maintains that true righteousness is not 10 be 
found apart from Chriatiioity, and that it springs from piety which 
consists in the knowledge of Cod. The sixth book, Dt Vera 
Cnfhi, describa the tnie worship of Cod, wUdi it rjghlcousnrss. 


■nd aaHlEU (Uifly )b Uw fmdM ol CluutliB lave towiit 
God and man. Tlie Kvcnlh booki Dt VUa BtaU, dimissa, 
tnuD^ a vaijety of subjKU» ihc chief good, immarlaliiy, the 

LactantliB wrote an cfucome of tbcie IiutitMioiu, aod fiuch a 
mrt, which may well be autfienBc was disroveMd in MS. in the 
royil library ai Turin in 171! by C. M, PfaH. 

Bciidn the ImiUuluna Lacunliui wrote itvenl UeatuM: 
(1) Di Ira Dd, addteaud to one Donatua aiid dinclcd a^nat 
the Epicuiru pMJowphy. (>) Ot Opififit DiS ttw di Firmtlitiu 
Htmlaii, bii eadlest mtk, and oat which levcdi lerf little 
Chiiiliao influcDCC He cxborti > loimci pupil, Demctrianui, 
■ot to be led Utny by WMkh Imn vitliKi ud ha liemanltnln 
Ibe ptovideacc of God ftea tb adaptilality ud btaUy of Ikc 
huoiaa body, (j) A cdebnted incendiuy tsaliic, Dt UtrlHiB 
P(r»(ii/mM>,»hicfadeactniesGod'a judgmenlioothepenecuton 
<4 hit church fiom Nen tO MnelWiaii. and hM Mtved aaa nodel 
for numbcitcu wrillogi. Di Ittrt. Ftrucul. it not in (he eadiv 
cditiotD at Lactaatiiu; it va^ diKOMiait and primed by Bdiue 
in 1679. ManycriliciaKribeittauiud^wonLadaiCucilitH; 
(hoc are ccitain]/ acrioua di9e(«0Cti ol ■runmat, (tyle and 
tempo between it and the vritinp ilcetdy mcolioMd. It mu 
probably csmpoacd In ffioxDedia, (. iif. JcroDM Ipeaki of 
LananliiB m ■ poel, and Kvetal poena bnve been attnbuted 
(0 Imni—l}* An Ptttnit4 (winch Huudt think&pukef uicol 
■ Clement], Zfei'aufnwDMiHiiud Dt JUaareOiam {DamiMii 
or Dt Pmia ai Fttiam Bfixafam. the firat of thtm may 
belong la IdCIanthu'i beitbeo day*, tkE aecond b ■ product of 
the Beiuiu*nc« (c 1500), tbe llntd wai written by Venantiiu 
FottoDitai b the Mb centmy. 

' Edtcloiu;O.P.F>1iwhe[BE.aCerw1arriBilt.ertlr,aa/:x.,ii. 
(Ldpilt, |S43-I^4); Micnc, Pab. LaL vi.,vu,; S. Bnndl and C. 
Uiibiwiw b iIm V«ni bfw J<r)W. Euto. £<i<. liiL, xvlL 1 and 
a <'>90-u-97}. TiuriaiioB; W. Fktcher in Aittt-Nicm Fuiiti. 
Tu-Liieiviure: tho Genoaq hlitorie* of tarty Chriilian littTalurc. 
bv A. Hiriuck, a BartenlwwK, A. Ebm, A. Ehrhard. C. Knijcr'i 
EiWy CMr. I.a.p.ja} and HuclL-Hcnof'* KaileKyk. vOL xL, pvt 
fuidei to the copioiu liteiatuzc on Che aubfect. 
[ Umc ACm (hydraayproptonie add), CUUV' Two taaic 
•ddi ate hnowD, diaetiaE' ttaa each otbct In the poation 
occupied by the hydtoxyl poop in the molecnk; they an 
tiMwn reqnctlvely a« a-hydniyptoi^anle add {ftmentaijoa or 
add (Tiydracrylie add), (7.*.), a%«»).CHrCOiH. Altbongh 
on nnclmil gnundi there ibould be only two hy dr o«ypro^oiJc 
■cida,ai a matter ol fact foDi lactic acldi an koowD. TbclhtKl 
bomer (nrcolaclle add) it found in meat extract (J. *. Liebig), 
and may be ptepartd l>y tlie aedon of PtHidlliiim iAhmhm od 
a aotutloD of ordiaary anuuoniinn lactate. It ii idoiticai with 
a-hydroxypiofiiofuc add ia ahnou evmy napect, except with 
regard to its phyiical properties. The ioiutli iUHnar, ftmned 
by the action of BOcilfiu lawiacHf on cane^ugar, imcnhln 
aamJanic add in eTery respect, eic^ In ila action on polariicd 
Hght (see SnaioiaouEtnM}. ' 

(7>niu, SlotUttIm Aad, irM) Iron aour miUi <Lal. lac.lattii, milk, 
wkcoce the name). Aboot Itpenly^our years later fiouiHoa Lag. 
mat, and uidepeiideatly A. F. de Fouraay and L. N. VtuqutUn, 
nuintirnrd that Sdieelei new tad wH nothiat but Impare acetk 
add. Thisnotion wucombattdbyl. Bemli>»,andfin>Hyrefuti!d 
(in iajj)lwj. V. LiebigsDdE.Mit>clieitich,whi)ibytbcelenicmaiy 
aiulyses ot lactates, proved tbe exiiteBce of this acid as a diitiivl 
cmpiund. It nay be prepared by the lactic fermentation of 
•tarchn. lufan. lunu, Si:., tlie lUEar bdni diuolved In Wlicr (nd 
acidified by a imall quantity of tanaric acid and then termeiitcd by 
the addilxn of uur milk. wTih a Utile putrid checK. ZiiK caibonalc 
laadded to tbe miniUE (lo ecuitiliie die acid Innited), vbkh ii kept 
warm [or (gme days and wcU stiired. On boiling aod AltciiTig ific 
produci, line lactate ciyitallins out of the solution. The acid tnay 

plunk and) liy niiroui acid (K. SiiKkcr, i4iia., ilgo. 7}, fi- 17}: by 
the mdditlon ei propylene jiycol (A. Wurts); by boili/ig a^hlnr- 
propioDK add with caustic alkalis, or with silver oxide and water ; by 

amaldeMe'by the^'Sylrin WKtkm 1j"wi^^ta^Am^ tS». 

'dlL-cilO r~-> CH(.CH(OH)-CM >— 7^.CH,.CH(0U}-C(W1. 

It forms a colourtaeayiiip, d HicciRe entity l-attt fisV4*>, aiid 

dccsmpoies on dlatlllalian under ordlniry ainnapheHc iir<«urc; 
but at nrf low premium {about I mm.) it dUtib at a^t SV C, and 
then sets to a cryitaUioe solid, which mdti at about iS* C. It 
p Q i Hsi ea tbe jrnpaOM boitt ol an acid aad si an alcahoL VOtn 
heated with dHute uilphutic add to ijo" C, under praline, it ia 
resolved into formic add and acetaldehyde. Chromic add oudizet 
it to acetic add and carixm dioZHle; porairiiim pennantanatv 
oaidiBn it » pynrric add; nitric add uaaalic acU. and a mhtna 
of man^naae diudd* and irfpluiric add (e ■cetaUchyde aad caiboa 

diowlc. Hydrobnraic add -• ■ ' --'-' 

and hydriodic ioA into pron 

UCniRt. tbt qiclic aUa ti hyitaxy acids, icmltiDf Iron 
the inicmtl eliouaatiaa of water between the lQ>dieiy] and 
cvboiyl lioupt, this reaction taking place wbea the hydroiy 
acid is liberated from its saUs by a minecal add. The a and ^ 
bydroiy adds do not form lactones, the tetideDCy for lactone 
formation appearing first with the 7'hydrDKy aods, thus 7« 
bydroaybu tyric add, CH,QH CH.CHiCOiH:. yiilds 7-bulyio. 
lactone, CHiCHiCHi'COO. Thttc componaih may also be 
pcepaml by the dlsUllailon of the -r-balogen fatty adds, or by 
the action of aUatine csibonatcJ on these adds, or from^-of 
T^-unsatunled adds by digestion mlh hydrobnimic add or 
dilole sulphuric add. The lacions ait mostly Hqujdi wtiJcb 
are readily sohible fn alcohol, ether and water. Oa bdlinf 
with water, they are partially tecosvetted into tbe hyiftoiy add*. 
They ar« easly sapootfied by the caustic alkalis. 

On the behavioor o( lartona with ammonia, see H. Meyer, 
u — ,..,-,. .=^ jK, p. j,j. .^ ^,1, phenylliwlr-- -" 

with ■ 

I hydrate, He R. Meyer, Ber., 1891. s6. p. leyjj U aanee. 

I., 1899,11, p. iijj, E. Fucher, Bj>., iSte, », p. lUg. 
■g%isK iTs Iiqui3^«hlch boils at io«> C. It u nuicible 

and Is volatile in 

™k™ <!H,-CHCHrCH,.C0j), ii alic 
C. iJaclna are also known, and may 
the t^hlor acids. 

e prepared by disdiliiig 

LA CmVA, JUAI DI (i55o?-i(>eo7), ^nniah dtamatiU 
aad poet, was bora at Seville, and towards tjTe began wltii^ 
for the stage. Hfa plays, fourteen la nnmber, were published 
in 1588, aad are the earlleat manifestations of the dramatic 
methoda dcvdoped by Lope de Vega. Abandoning the Senecaa 
model MthettB nmveiial in Spain, Cueva tocA for his thema 
naiten ol nalkmal lepend, historic tradition, teceot victories 
and the actualities of contemporajy life: this amalgam of epical 
and realistic dementi, and the inlnjiiuctlon of a grcat,vuiely 
of metres, prepared (he way fijr tbe Spsirish romantic dnma 
ofthei;thcenlury. ApecuLarinlciMtitlachesto Hf«/ai(iarfor, 
a. play i£ itHA lb* dtarader of Leudno aniidpatea the daaic 
type of Don Jmn. ' As an Initiative lOKt, Cuevi is a figtire 
□f grot hlslorlcal imponance; his epic poem, laCa^uiila 
dt BUM iiSoi), shows his weakness as an artist. The last 
Biork to which his name ia attached is the EJemfUr paUiM 
(1609), and be ia believed lo have died Aonly after Iti 

See the editions of SoM de XoMind a WoMoA*. by E. dr Odioa, 
■n the rnwfl ill «o/ra cjfajW (Paris, iBjSJ, vol, i. pp. yi-iSj; 
and of EjtmH^ pallia,, by J. J. Linci de Scdano, in iWPaimut 
tipiH<i. vol. vLiL pp. i-K; alio E. vKlbcts. " Juan de la (fueva « 
ton Ejemplai poftice '■ in the AM Vnianiuuz IjiwUini (Lund, 
1904I, vol. Dn; ■• Pofmes iraSdit. de Ju.in de la Cueva (Viaie de 
SaanM.) " edited by F. A. VVuUT. in ike Ada Vnm„iuiU LunJriisu 

Sund.ItSe-iSSr). vol. uiii.iF. A. Wulff. "I^UrimasdeluaB 
la Cueva, Prlmeia Parte " m the fioiuaoii a UtnliiOn v Ptiaw 
(Madrid, iSOT), vol. ii. pp. 143-14S. U, f.-K.) 

lACDHAa, the Laiin name in architecture [or a panelled 
or cofleted ceiling or (Ofiit. The word is derived from Jocwna, 
acavttyorhoilow, a blank, hiatus or gap. Tbe panels or coSett 
qI a ceiling art by Viltuvius called kcmttiSa. 

UCUZOH (0. Fr. Ia ct^n. disturbance), the tume even 
to the Franc.Comtcd) leader CuimE Pxon (1607-16S1). who 
WIS bom at Longchaumtrfl (department of Jura) on the i7t)i 
OF June ific;. He gained his first mOitaly eipcricnce whcB 
.the French invailed Buiguody Jiv i6jd, baifyinc ibe F/cnch 


mop* fcDin lie aaOaal Mohtiiiu ind St LuKBl-b-Rncbe, 
ud devuMtini (be famiia diatricii of Breoe and Bugc]> with 
ire nod iirord (i640-rf4i). In the firal inwiion ol Fimnche- 
Cginl* by Loi^ XIV. in 1668 lacmon m* uniHe la make tny 
cffmire lasunce, but be pbyed an importanl put in Louia^ 
KoiDd invuian. In 1G73 be defended Sallni lot •onw tint; 
afier tbecapitulaEion'of Ibe (own be look refuge In Ilaly. He 
dird It Milui on (be int of Decembei 16S1. 

LACT. FnARZ MORITZ, Codht (i7ij-fSai), AuMlui 6eld 
maralul, was bom il SI Pete nb nrg on the iiit of OOabfT 
1795. Hia fatlter, Pder^ Count IJicy. ma a ttlKingalibed 
Russian uldlcr, who bdonged to an Irish faroHy, and bad 
tollawtd the foituna at the exiled Juna n. Fianz Horita vai 
eduaied in Gennany for a militaiy arcer, Mid entered the 
Aiutrian service. He served in Italy, Bohemia, Slola and the 
Hcibciiaods durinK Ibe War of Ibe Aiutrian Succca^n, ma 
twice wounded, and by Ifae end of the war waa a lieut.-ailoneL 
At the age Of twenty-five he berame full colced and cluef of an 
infantry rejinitnl. In 175* with tlie opening o[ Ibe Seven 
yurs' War be was again on active service, and in the £nt 
battle (LolKnilz) be distinguisfwd himself 90 much thai he waa 
t^ om:e promoted ma^-generaL He received lus third wound 
on Ihii oecnion and his fourth at the battle of Prague fn 1757. 
Liter ia 17S7 Lacy I»te a tunsfiicuDUS part in the gfcat victory 
of Bmlau, and at Ltutbeo, wbeie be received his fifth wound, 
be cdverid the retreat of Iba defeated anny. Soon after tliia 
began hii aasociation with Field-Maiabal Daun, tbe new 
genrialissimo of the empresi's forces, and these two conunanden, 
powerfully aasisted later by tlie geoiua of Loudoo, made bead 
against Frederick the Great for the remiundei of tbe war. A 
(Eneril sta0 was created, and Lacy, a lieutenant Geld-nalsbal 
at ihiity-in'o, waa made chief of ilill (quart crmaaler-geoeial) 
lo Daun. That (heir cautiousness of ten degenerated Intoliuiidiiy 
Dlay be admitted — Leulhea and many other tiller defeala bad 
taught tbe Austrians to respet. their greal opponent— but they 
showedai any rale that, baviog resolved to wear out the enemy 
by Fabian metboda, they were itroug eoeugh to persist in Lheir 
1 Iha end. Tbui for loine yews tbe lite of Lacy, 

Daun I 


. H VeIlIS' War). After Hochkitch (October ij, .. . 
Lacy received the grand cross of tbe Maria Theresa older. I^ 
<TS9 bvth Daun and Lacy fell into dofavour for failing ta win 
victories, and Lacy owed his premolian to Feldieugnieister only 
to the fact that Loudon hail Just received this rank [or the 
biiUiaot cottduct of his detachment U Kunetsdad. Hii respongj- 
bOitiei told heavily on Lacy in Ihe ntuing eampaifta, and bis 
capacity for sopreme command was doubled even by Daun, 
who refuKd to give bim the command wbca he hiMielt was 
wounded at the battle ef Torgnu. 

After the peace of Huheitusbui^ a new sphere of activity 
was opened, in which Lacy's speda! gifts had the grealeat scope. 
Maria Theresa havinK placed her son, ibe emperor Joseph II., 
at the bead of Auatrian militaty affairs, Lacy was made a £eld< 
Bianhal, and green the task of rdorming and admimsteriig 
the araiy (r7S6). He framed new regulations [or each aim, a 
new code of militiiy law, a good supply syllem. As the rrsull 
of his wutk (be Austrian army wa> more luimenHu. far better 
equipped, and clieaper than it had ever been before. Jiaeph 
soon became very inthnaie with his mititSTy adviser, but ihb did 
Doi prevent his mother, after she bcc;inie estranged from the 
youBg emperor, from giving Lacy her full confidence. Hu 
■ctiviiita were not cDafined to the amy. He was in sympathy 
with Joseph's innovations, and was regarded by hfaria Theresa 
as a prune mover in the scheme for tbe partition of Poland. 
But his self-imposed work broke down Lacy's htalib, and in 
f 773, In ^t(^ of tbe remonstrances of Maria Theresa and of (he 
emperor, he laid down all his otTim and went to sonthem France. 
On returning be was still unable to resume oRice, though as 
ut turaRidiil adviser in political and Riiliiary mailers he was 
fat from idle. Ia the brief and uoeventlul Warol the Bavarian 
SucceBlaB,LacyaDdLoudonwerethechidAu. .. 
agafaut (he king of Prussia, and when Joseph IL 

Thema'a death, hecaBM tbe sovereign of the Austtfui dt 
as well as emperor, Lacy remained his mast treated fi^nd. 
Mork serious than tlie War of the Bavarian Snccenion waa the 
Turkish war which presently broke oul. Lacy was now old and 
worn out, and bis temiit a! cmimind Ihetdn was not maAed 
by any pealer measure of success than in the case of the other 
Aislrian generals. Hb active career was at an end, althou^ 
be cootbued his effective interest in the affairs of Ibe state 
and the army Ihiupughinit the reign of Joseph's aocceaaor, 
Leopold I. Hb last yean were qient in retirement at his 
castle of Neuwaldegg near VicOBL He died at ^enna on the 
i4(h of November iSoi. 

See nemoir by A. V. AncA In Atttimiiiu dnAck SItpvfkit 
(Leipng^ l88j). 

UCT, HUUIETTB DSBDUH (1S07-1874), EngBih actress, 
•as bsm in London, (he-daughterof a tradesman named Ta^or. 
Her first appearance on the stage was at Bath in 1817 as Julia 
ia The RtKdi, and she was immediately given leading parts 
therein I»th comedy andlragedy. Her first London appearance 
was in iSjo as Nfaia, in Dimond's Canmal s/ Htfla. Her 
Rosalind, Aspalia (to Maeready's MeiuitTuj) in Tkt Briiai, and 
Lady Tearfe to the Cbailes Surface of Waller Lacy<iSo9-i 898) — 
10 whom she was married in 1839 — confirmed her position ant 
popularity. She was the otEginal Helen in The HtmclAock 
(ilji), and abo created Nell Cwyane la Jen«]d'> play of that 
name, and the heroine in his Hnathatrr. Sbe was considered 
the fint Ophelia of her d^. She ndred in 1S4B. 

UCT. aiCHABL SOPBIRD (i79i'i867), Irish BnociaB, 
son of a merdiant, was boin at Bilbao and appealed then in 
public as a violinist in iSoi. He was sent to study in Paris 
under Kreuticr, and sooti began a successfid career, being known 
as " £c Pd^ Eifapal," He played in London for some yean 
alter 1805, and then became an actor, but in 181S resumed tbe 
musical prolrssion, atld In l8>o became leader of the ballet at 
Ibe King's theatre, London. He composed or adapted front 
other composers a number of operas and an onilofio, Tht 
Inadittt in Btypl. He died in londoB m tbe Mlb of 
Sept embe r 1M7. 

lACnsa OF VVUKH^ Greek philosopher, was bead •[ Iba 
Academy at Athens ia suixession to AnreOans about 341 B.C. 
Though some regard him ^i the founder ol the New Academy, 
the testimony of antiquity is that he adliered in geeeral to the 
of Arcesilaus, and, therefore, that he belonged Co tbe 

?my. He lectured in a garden 

Ed the 

which was presented to him by Attalus t. of IVrgamum, and for 
twenty-sii yean maintained the inuSlions of the Academy. 
He is said (0 have written treatises, but nothing survives. 
Before bis death be vohmtarify resigned his poolion to his PuihIb, 
Euander and Tcledes. Apart from a number of anecdotal 
distinguished rather for sarcastic humour than for probability, 
Lacydes eiists for us as a man of refined character, a hard worker 
and an accomplished orator. According to Atlienaeos (a. 438) 
and Diogenes LaBrtius (!v. «o) he died from excessive drinking, 
but the stor; is dncredited by the eulogy of Eusefaios {Ptaep, 
Et. lir. 7},'that he was in all things moderate. 
See Cicero, ,4fa<f. ii. «; and Aelian, VS. S. 41; also article* 


LADAKB AHD BALTISTAir, a provtnct of Kashmir, India. 
The name Ladak, commonly but less correctly spdt I^dakh, 
and sometimes Ladag, belongs primarily 10 the brwd valley oi 
the upper Indus in West Tibet, but include) several surrounding 
districts b political coaneiion witb it; tbe present limits are 
between 75* 40* and Bo* 30' E., and between 31" 15" and 36* S. 
It is bounded N. by the Kucniun range and the slopes of the 
Kamkoram, N.W. and W. by the dependency of Baliistan or 
Little Tibet, 3. W. by Kashmir proper, S. by British Himalayan 
territory, and E. by the Tibetan provinces ol Ngari and Rndok. 
The whole region lies very high, (he valleys of Ropshu in the 
south-east being 15,000 ft., and the Indus near Leb 11,000 It., 
while the average height ol the sunounding ranges b 19,000 ft. 
The proportion of araUe and even possible pasture land to barren 
rock and gtivd It very smalL Pop., inctudlog Balttstan (looi) 


(65,9«i,o['wb(>iiijD,iifiIiiLtdiikb proper *n Bvddhiils, wfancu 
the Bitlii havg udoplid the Sbiah form ol lilam. 

The Mluiil loluiet of the country «■)' be bot eipkined by 
icienncc lo Imo native tcimt, undtroneor aiherol mrluch every 
part is iDCluded: vit, ctamflaai, i,t. " oonhein, ai high piain." 
ikhere the amount of level ground a coiuiderabLe, oad rang. 
I.e. " deep valleyf'* where the coatrwy condition prevaUk. 
The former predomlnafcs in the east, dimiruihing gradually 
weitwardi. There, although the vut aliuvul dqxsiti which 
once filled the valley lo a remaikably uuitoim height ot about 
IS,000 ft. have left ibcir tracer on the mouDlain bdei, Ihey hive 
undergone immense denudation, and Iheir dfbrii now formi 
Mcondary depoiiti. Sat bolloms oi ihelving slopes, tbe only 
spots available for cultivation or pasture. These masses of 
■iluviam ate eflen dthec mctimoiplKaed lo f lubcryxalline 
rock itill showing the composilion at the strati or siaply con- 
lotldaled by lime. 

;>lIonat, lor the valleys are confined. 


is the 1 

1. and of no grea 
of the flimalaylj 

apparent height. The parallelism cl 

ranges continues here, the direction Dang nortn-west ano soutn- 
Cast. A central raage divides the Indus valley, here 4 to 6 m. 
wide, from that of its north branch the ShyolL which with its 
fertile tributary valley of Nubra is again bounded on the north 
by tbe Kaialioram. This central ridge is mostly syenilic gneiss, 
■ad north-cut Irom it are found, successively, Silurian sistcs, 
OrbaaiferDDi shales and Tiiaisic Umstonts. ihe gneiss recurring 
■t tbe Turkestan frontier. The Indus Ues along Ihe line which 
separates the crystalline rocks from the Eocene sandstones and 
•ludet of tbe lowtr range of hills on the left bank, .the lofty 
mounlaius behind Ihem coiuisting of parallel bands of rocks 
from Silurian to Cretaceous. 

Several lakes in the east districts at about 14,000 ft. have been 
of much greater eitcnl, and connected with the rivet systems of 
the OKtatiy, but Ihcy are now mostly without outlet, lalioe, 

LeE'is the cspTtatofLadjikh, and the road to Lcb from Srinagir 
lies up tbe lovely Sind valley to the sourca of the liver at Ihe 
ZojiL«Pus(ii,joaft.) in tbe Zaskar range. This is the range 
which, skirting the touthem edge of the upland plains of Dcosai 
In BallBtan, divide! them from the valley of Kashmir, and then 
cantinuestaNangaFaibat(ia.6]oIl.)andbeyond that mountain 
stretches to the north oI Swat and Bajour. To the south-east 11 
is an unbroken chain till it merges into the line of snowy peaks 
seen from Simla and the pUins of India— the mnge which reaches 
past Cbini to the famous peaks ol Gangotri, Nandadcvi and 
Nampa. It is the most central and conspicuous range in the 
HimaUya. The Zoji La, which curves from the head ol the Sind 
vaUhy on to the bleak uplands of Dras (where lies Ihe road to the 
trough of tbe Indus and Leh), Is, in ^ite of its altitude, a pass 
on which little snow lics^ but for local accumulations. It would 
be open all the year round. It affords a typical pstance of that 
cutting-back process by which a river-head may erode a chanocl 
through a watershed into the plateau behind, there being no sleep 
lall toward) tbe Indus on the northern side of the range. From 
Ihe Zoji La the mad continues by easy gradients, following tbe 
line of the Drag drainage, lo the In<bis, when it turns up tbe 
valley lo Leh. From Leh there are many routes into Tibet, 
the best known being that from the Indus vafley to the Tibetan 
plateau, by Ihe Chang La. to Lake Pangkong and Rudok (14,000 
It.}. Rudok occupies a forward potilion on tbe wQiern Tibetan 
border analogous to that of Leh in Kashmir. The cbief trade 
route to Lhasa from Leh, boncvcr, follows the lino oRcred by 
tbe valleys ol the Indus and the Brahmaputra (or Tsanpo), 
crossing Ihe divide between these ri'vers north of Lake Maiub- 

The observaloiy at Leh ii the most elevated observatory 
Id Asia. "The atmosphere ol tbe Indus valley is lemarVably 
clear and transparent, and the beat of the sun is very great- 
There is generally a diQereace of more than 60° between the read- 
ing ol the exposed sua thermometec in fotut and tbe air tcmpeia- 

tuic in the shade, and this diSereace has occulosally uceeded 
911* ... . The mean tsnual (empeialute at Leh is 40*, that of 
Ihe coldest months Uanuary and February) only 18° and 19*, 
but it rises rapidly from Febtuaiy lo July, in which mooth it 
reaches 6>* with a mean diursal maiimum of Sa° both in that 
moiklh and August, and an average dlEerence ol ig^ or 30* 
between the early morning and afteinooai The mean highest 
temperature of the year is 90*, varying between 84° and 9j* 
in the twelve years previous la li^j. Ob the other birtd, in 
the winter tbe minimum ihermooieier falls occssionally bdow 
0°, and in 1S7S reached M low as i]* below lero. The eitreme 
range ai recorded tempeiatutc is Iheiefote not len than 110*. 
Tbe air it as dry as Quella, and rather mote uniformly >o. . . . 
' Insignificaol. The average 

in (and ir 

tie year."' The wi 

illy light, and depend on the local direction of the valleya. 
At Leh, which stands at the entrance of the valley leading to 
the Kardang Pass, the most common directions are belveea 
south and west in the daytime artd summer, and from north- 
east In the night, especially in the later months of the year. 
In January and February (he ait is generally calm, and April 
and May are the most windy months of tbe year. . 

Vegetation it confiwd to \aUcys and ihellcred spots, where a 
....^ .i..t :.i 1 "—-—ia.Hipfepliotii^dElantiiiii, 

re the pencil cej 

withmuch-McdedfirewHd. The trteierethe pencil cedar (JaKiMri 
KXCttM), the poplar and wiUow (both ratCRUvdy pZaated, the k(1< 
HiDctimrs wild), apple, mulberrv, apricot and w^nul. Irrigati 
variety of barley cancd(r/"i, mlllcl, buckw"-"' — *— ' — -— 
lumips. Lucerne and prangn (an umbcllift 

'[£ant)'are uMd M 

leni. and 

>hccp!°c?which the big« S^ITija} is used for car^ 
ii a principal source U wealth, the yak and the 1 

hytmd between the yale and common cow. Amoiwi . _ _ 

the kiang or wild ass. ibea, eevonl hJiidB of wild ibeep, aiueloae 
lPa:Maltpi}, marmot, hare and other Tibetan fauna. 

The present value of Ihe trade between Driiiih India and Tibet 
paning through Ladakh it inconsiderable Ladakh. however, El Im- 
proving in ita trade prosM en apart Irau Hbet. It is curiow* tbM 
both LadaUi end Tibci iiapait a eonldenbk anovm et ireuore. 
for on the bocdcta ol weatem Tibet and wiihLa a radius of loo 
or 100 m. of Leh ihere cenlres * goM-mining induitiy which 
apparenLly only refluiiei iclentlltc devetapaiciit la render il ei»m- 
ou^v pmdiictire. Here the uuface «sil hai been (or many nniaiiee 
wDihrd for sold by bands of Tiljetan minen. wba never work deeper 
than ID u JO It., and wbgn inclbadi of washing are ol ihe crudest 
dcvriMian. They work ui winter, chiclly brnuK of Ihe binding 
power ol fml on the friable nil, suffering great hardshipt and ob- 

poSlion°naturally alTtlu 

The adjoiaing lerritoiy of Bahlstan rorms the wnt eatremity ot 
Tibel, wb«e nalural limit) here are the Indus from its abrupt soulh- 
waFdbcndia74*4S'E.^and theimiMairB 10 ihe north and WW. 
vparating a comparatively peaceful Tilietan populaiion (rovn iha 
herccr A^n tribes beyond. Mahaninedan wriien about the tfith 
century Beak ol Ballistan as " Litlle Tibet," and at I -rf-th .. 
" Great Tibet," thus ignorbtg llie really CieaE Tibet 
The Balti call Cilgit " ■ Tibet." and DrLcitnerstyi ibM 
call tbeouelvsa Bot or Tibetans; but, althovgh iIkh disuicu may 
have been avereun bv the Tibetans, or have received rulers of that 
race, the ethnologlrsl frcjntief coincides with the geograf^iical one 
given, Baltialan laa nuudi lofty mr>uniains, tbe prevailiiif forma- 
tion being gndia. In the iwrth is the fialtoro glacier, Ibe tergal out 
of the an:tic regiooa, 35 m. long, comained between two riilges whose 
hietiesl peaks to the south are a],ooo and Is the nonh ig,l6s It. 
The Indus, as in Lower LadsUi. runs in a narrow corge.widenrnfi lor 
nearly Mm. alter receinnEtheShvok. ThecapIUI.Skan]u.*Bcat»n<l 
collection ct houses standa here, paired oa a rode pjolt. above the 
lea. Tbe houae roofs are flat^ occupied only in lurt hy a second 
itory, Ihe rcmajning space being dcvoti?d to drying aprkols. tbe 
chief staple ol tbe main valley, which supporti Ihtle cnhivation. 
But the rapid slope westwards is seen generally In the vrgetatioo. 
Birehi pbuK. spruce and ^inu nreJs appnr: Ihe (ndu aic taer. 
including poniegianate. pear, peach, vine and meba. and where 
irri;atian is avaHabie, ai in the North Shigar. and at Ihe deltas of tb« 
tributary valleys, the cn^in are more lujioHaRt and varied. 

Jfiilsry.— The earliest DDtlce of Ladikh b by the Chine** 
pilgrim Fa-blen, a.D, 400, who, CnvelliDg 1b Kartb of a purer 

■ H. F. BlaBdCord, aimcUtni Wea&tr ofladia (London, 1U9). 


LADix-LAbKCAUs iv; 


Um bdss (he pn^i-cyUndEr, lit cffitacy of wfiici he dKtim 
k incrtdble. LidiUi fanned part of the Tlbelin emtBrt unta 
its dimiplion in the loth centuiy, ind jince then hu conitnucd 
ccdeuuticiUy lubject, iDil uni'ellmcj tributciy, (6 Lhasa. 
Iti iniccaablUt]' urcd it [nm my Muraulnun invasion untH 
15J1, wbeo SDttan S*Id of Kashgar marched an army tmss 
the Kaiakoiam, one division fighting its way into 'Kaahmlt 
ud ttinlerfng iliere. Neit year they inwded MilCTn Tibet, 
when nearly all perished fnaa the effectj of the dimale. 

Eaily in ihe i;()i.ceiiluiy I^dilih was invaded by iu Uatitun- 
medin Deighbqun of Batlistan^ nho plundered and dcslrayed the 
temples and monislcrles; and again, In i6Sj-i6SS. by the Solpa, 
vho ireic eipened only by the aid of Ihe lieutenant of Auiangieh 
in Kashmir, Ladakhthereafier becoming Iribuisiy. Thegyalpo 
or king (hen mide a nomlogJ profession of IsUm, and allowed 
I mosque to be founded it Leh, and Ibe Kashmiris have ever 
rinee addressed his succcsson by a Mihommcdan title, ^'ben 
(he SIkhi took Kaihmir.Ladakh, dreading Iheli approach, dffeied 
■Uetiance to Great Britain. It was, however, conquered and 
anneied in 1834-1S41 by Gulab Singh of Januim— the unwai- 
like Ladakhls, even with nature fighting on tbeii ^de, and affilDsl 
iadiiferent generalship, being no match lor the Dogra ttoopi. 
These neit turned theli arms successfully against the Ballit 
(who In the iSth century were subject to Ihe Mogul], and were 
then tempted to revive the claims ol Ladakh to the Chinese 
provinces of Rudok and Ngari. This, however, brought down 
an army (mm Lhasa, and after a three days' fight the Indian 
(orce was almost annihilaled— chiefly indeed by frostbite and 
other suflerings, for Ihe batlle was fought in mid-winter, is,eec> 
ft. above the sea. The Oiinese (hen marched on Leh, but were 
toon driven out again, and peace was finally made on (he basis 
of the old frontier. The widespread prtsllge of China is iUuitraled 
by Ihe fact that tribute, though disguised as a present, is paid 
to her, for Ladakh, by the maharaja of Kashmir. 

The prindpal works to be eoniultrf ate F. Drew, Tin Ixmrnaa mi 

Kaikmir T — •—-—'• • ■ - ■" 

Trilfl of 

Aanen/' _ 

KiCJ. (ttiiii W. LawccBce. Tit 
BlaodfoidTrit aimtU sxi Wt-ulur 

UDD, SBOIUIB TRnHBULL (1841- ), American philos- 
opher, *as bom ia PainotviUe, Lake county, Ohio, on the 
i$th of January 1841. He graduated a( Western Reserve 
Collegf In 1864 and at Andover Theolo^cal Seminary in i86g^ 
preached in Edinburg, Ohio, in 1869-1871, and in Ibe Spring 
Stnet Congregational Church of Milwaukee in 1871-1879; 
and was professor of philcwphy at Bawdois Collie ia 1S79- 
l8Bt, and dark professor of mctaphyaia and moral philosophy 
at Yale from iSSi till 1901, when he look charge ol the graduate 
departjneiit ot philosophy and psychology; be became professor 
cmeritu in igej. In iSjg-iSJi be lectured on (hedogy at 
Andover Theological Seminaiy, and in 1S83 tx. Harvaid, wberc 
in 1895-1846 ho conducted a graduate seminary in ethics. He 
lectuKd in Japan is i8fi, 1899 (when he also visited the uni- 
veisilictol India) and 1906-1907.. Kc was much influenced by 
Lotie, whose Ouliitut 0} Pkiitufky be translated (6 vols., 1S77), 
and was one of (he &al to introduce (i87st) the study of eipeii- 
■unWl, psychology into Amoica, tLc Vale jaychologictJ 
laboiMaiy being fmmded by him. 

PuBLieanom,— n« Prindflti af Church PdUy t'Wa); Ttn 
M IIU BM<r BiMoUe* riea9)rdrreiKline Ihe " oM " (Vatc) 
■piMtAHariwdor'' — ""li"'™. — n ■ ■' - 

J-" ' 'xplaiaary (it 

I4DDSB, [0. Eng. ilatdv; of Teutonic ori^, d. Dutch ket, 
Get. leikr; tbe uhLnale ori^ b in (he root Kcn in " lean," 
Ct. A(^aQ, ■ kl of tteps or "Tunfs" between two luppoiii 

.. m 

" The Mountain Systems of 

VtJ^ . ... 

o( (he Himalaya." vol. vl., iVac, 
VtUiy at Xaiimi, (1B91I; H. F. 
■r ej fiidia li»S9). (T.Tl. M.'J 

BImt (M Hanard tt '' new " eduaiion. m pniied by Gaoiie H. 
ner: BkmtMt^njfMtdaii PtycMott (is^o. Tewciiien » Out- 
ItMi «/ ny,ialtp(4 PnSSei,. in l8oS); Pn'^r "/ PiycMaiy 
(iSu] ; njrtstenTpeKWelte and BxpbAaOn (i«94) ; '"i O'dlna 
iTBuMtllK /mEf^liSpS): in ■■'•>«•>«. J philosophy." 

vda.7woO;Tr]E™ «W, Uasuii Ilo 1908 ; and 

to enable one to get op and down; tnnaDy m^ite dt -wood and 
aometimes of metal or rope. Ladders are generally movable, 
and differ from a staircase also in having only treads and no 
"risers." The (erm " Jacobs ladder," taken from tbe dream 
of Jacob In the Bible, is applied Co a tope ladder with wooden 
^Icps used at sea to go aloh, and to a common garden plant <i 
tbe genus PiJtmemum on account of tbe ladder-like fonnatioia 
of Ihe leaves. The flower known in England as Solomon's 
seal is fn some countries called tbe "ladder of heaven-" 

LADIHQ (From " to lade," 0. Eng. Uadait, to pot carpi oa 
board ; cf . " toad "), BILL OP, the document ^ven as receipt 
by the master of a merchant vessel to the consignor of goods, 
- ' '* cir tale delivery to the consigoee. (See 

LADISLAUS [I-l. Saint (1040-109;), klog ot Hnngaty, 1b» 
ion of Bfia I., king ot Hungaiy, and Ihe Polish princess Richei^ 
was bora in Poland, whither his father had sought refuge, 
but was recalled by his elder brother Andrew I. to Hungai? 
(1047) and brought up there. He succeeded to Ihe Ihtone 
ftn the death of his uncle Geaa fn 1077, as the eldest member td 
the royal family, and speedily won for himself a reputation 
scarcely inferior tothatofSiephenL.bynaliDDaliiingChnstianily 
and laybig Ibe foundations of Hungary's poUtiol greatness. 
Instinctively tetogoiiing that Germany was the nalural enemy 
of the Magyars, Ladlslaus formed a dose alliance with Ihe pope 
and all the other enemies of the emperor Henry IV., Including the 
anti-emperor Rudolph of Swabia and his chief supporter WelT, 
duke ol Bavaria, whose daughter Adelaide he married. She 
bore him one son and three daughters, one ot whom, Pirlska, 
married the Hyzanilne emperor John Comnenus. T^e collapse 
Df the German emperor in bis struggle with the pope lef I Ladislaua 

tree ti 

wards ll 

and Christianiie the wildemMses of Transylvania and the lower 
Danube. Hungary was stlQ semi-savage, and bet native baiba- 
nans were being perpetually recruited from Ihe hordes of Peche- 
negi, Rumanians and other races which swepi over her during 
the iilh ccatuiy. Ladlslaus mmself had fought valianily in 
his youth against Ihe Pechenega, and to defend the land against 
tiie Kumanians, who now occupied Moldavia and Wallachia 
as far as the Alt, he built tbe fortresses of Tumu-Severin and 
Cyula Fihervir. He also [Janled in Transylvania (he Siellets, 
the supposed remnant of the andenC Magyars from beyond the 
Dnieper, and founded the bishoprics of Nagy-VSiad, or Grass- 
WardeiiW wid of Agrara, as fresh fod of Catholicism in south 
Hungary and the hilltedo uncultivated dislttcis between (be 
Drave and the Save. He subseqoenlly conquered Croatia 
though here bis authodty was questioned by the pope, the 
Venetian republic and tJie Creek emperor. Lidislaus died 
suddenly in 1095 when about to take part in the first Crusade. 
No other Hungarian lung was so generally beloved. The whole 
nation mourned for him for three years, and regarded him as a 
saint long bcloie his canoniialion, A whole cycle of legends 
i^ osGocialed with his name. 

See 1. Batnk, Uh <4 5i I«fuJaiu CHung.) (Egei. 1B93V, CySny 
Pray, ?>C»e»olig & a L^iJa- [Pie^bnlf, 177^1 Antil 6in^, 
Due. kin. cril. it 51 Ladilla* CViHina, 1775). (R. N. B.). 

LAIPUlAnS r^. The Kumanlan (1161-1190), kinioIHunguy, 
was Ihe son of Stephen V., whom he succeeded in 1S71. From 
bis tenth year, when he was kidnapped from his father's court 
by the rebellious vassals, till his assassination eighteen yean 
later, bis whole Hfe, with one bright interval ol oiiUtary gloiy, 
was unrelieved tragedy- His Biinarity, i>7>-i)i7, wu an 
alternation of palace revolutions and cis^ wars, in Ihe course 
of which his brave Kamanian mother Eliaabeth barely contrived 
Co keep the upper band. In this tenible school Ladlslaus mitured 
ptccsdously. At fiftoen he was a nuui, resolult. ^diiled, enter- 
prising, with the germs ot many talents and virtues, hut rough, 
reckless and very impeiieclly educated. He 'was married 
betimes 10 Elliabelh o( Anjou, who had been brought up at the 
Hungarian' court. The marriage wax « purely political one. 



tbc (triicr put dt hu [ci(n, TjfliTl-ii« obseqiUDuil)' (oUawcd tbe 
diitelion ol [he rfeipolitan eourl in foreign uSain, In Hunewy 
iU«Jl 4 large ptrty was in favoui of Ihc Ccrmaiu, but Lhc civil 

did QOC ptcvent LulialAiUj at the head of 20,000 Magyan and 
Kumsoiani, from co-opcnliog wUh Rudolph of Hahihurg in \he 
peat battle oIDuiDkrBt (Auguit i6ih, 1138), irhich dslcoyed, 
oDce foi all, the cmpiie of the Flemyslidai. A monib bier 
* papa] legate arrived lb Hungaiy to inquire into the conduct 
of the ting, who WIS acnised by bii ntigbboun, and many. o[ 
hli own subjects, of adopting the ways of bii Kumanian kinsfolk 
uh) theieby undermining Christianity, Ladblaus wis not leally 
> pagan, or he would not have devoted bis sliuc of the spoil of 
Durnkrtll lo tbc building of the Franciscan church at Picssbutg, 
noi would he have venerated as be did bia auot St tUrgaii^I. 
PoUlical enmity wo hugely icsponiible (or the movement against 
bim, yet the tendt of a very careful inveiiigation (117^1)81) 
by Fbilip, bidiop of Fermo, mon than justified many of lbs 
acciuatiou brought against Ladishut. He cUuly pre/trTt4 
the society of (be Kmi-heatbea KuciUDian* to that of the 
Chnstiajui wore, tad made bis couit weac, Kumanian diesii 
(umHioded himself iiilb Kumanian cencubuics, and neglected 
and m-used bis ill-favoured Ifeapoliun consort. He wu Siully 

he routed at HodrntiO (May tiii) with fearful loss; but, 
previously to Ibis, he bad arrested the legate, whom he subse- 
quenlly attempted to starve into submission, and his conduct 
generally was regarded as so unuLisfactory thai, after repealed 
warnings, the Holy S«e resolved lo supersede him by his Angevin 
fcinsfolk, whom he had also alienated, and on the jih of August 
iiU Pope Nicholas IV. piodilmed a crusade against him. For 
the neit two yean all Hungary was convulsed by a bonible dvil 
*ai, during arhich the unhappy young king, who fought for his 
heritage to the last with desperate vJour. was driven fiom one 
end of hii kingdom lo the other like a bunted beast. On the 
ijtb of December 11S9 be issued amanifesla to the lesser (entry, 
a large portion of whom sided with him, ur^ng them to continue 
fbe struggle against tbe magnates and their foreign supporters; 
but on the lolh of July rioo he was murdered in his camp 
*t Korossaeg by Ihc Kumanians, who never forgave him for 
deserting them. 

Sec Karoly 5iab&, Lojuloiu Uu Cnuaul (Hung.), (BudapeK, 
1BS6); and Acsidy, ffiitoiy d/ Kc Hiuijarwii Real^,. 2 Budapest. 
190JI. The latter k however, too lavouraWc to Ladi^u^ 

(R. N. D,) 

LUISLAUS V. (i446->4i7'). king of Hungary and Bohemia; 
Ibe only son ol Albert, king of Hungaty, and Eliiabelh, dajjgh ter 
of Ihc emperor Slgismund, vat bom at Komirom on the imd 
of Febtuary 1440, lour ihonths after hjs talher'i death, and was 
hence called Ladislaus Postbumus. The estates ot Hungary 
had abtidy elected Wladislaus III. ot Poland their king, but 
Ladialaus's mother caused the holy crown to be stolen from il) 
guardiani il Viscgrad, and compelled the primate la cronn the 
infant king at Sitkeafejtrvir on tbe isth of May 1440; where- 
upon, for saFcty's soke, she placed the child beneath Ihc guardian- 
ship o( hit uncle tbe empcroi Fiedeiick III. On the death o( 
Wladislaui IIL (Nov. lolh, 1444), Ladiilaus V. was elected 
king by the ftun^arian estates, though not without comidcrable 
Opposition, and a' deputation wasscnt to Vienna lo induce the 
emperor to surrender tbe chad and the holy crown; but il was 
□01 till 1451 thai Frederick was compelled to rcUnquish both, 
the child was then traufened to the pernicious guardianship 
of his maternal grandfaiEer Ulrich Cillel, who corrupted him 
soni and body and inspired him irith a jealous haired of the 
Hunyadfs. On ihe iSlb o( October 1453 he was crowned king 
of Bohemia, and henceforth spent most ot Ms thnc at Prague 
and Vieniu. He remained supinely indilTereni to the Turkish 
peril;' at the insiigatlon of Cillei did his best to hinder tbe 
defeii^vi preparations of the great Hunyadi, alid fled Irom the 
country on the tidings of the siege ol Belgrade. On the death 
of Hunyadi he made Cillei governor ol Hungary at the diet of 
Futlak (October 1416), and when that tratior paid wllli his lile 

Ladislaui procured the dccapiiaiion of young Hunyadi (ilkb ol 
March 14SI], after a mock trial which raised such a storm in 
Hungary thai the king lied to Prague, wbere he died suddenly 
(Nov. ijrd, 14S7), while making picparationt for bis marriage 
with Magdalcoa, daughter of Charles VII. ol France. He 1* 
ipposed to have been poisoned by his political (VponeoU in 

■1 Kfit LaJiilam mt 


Sec F, t^bcky, ZmrmerUr ultr itn r . ^ — 

VKtan a. SMiHit (Prague, l8jbl; Iiuu Acsidy. i£ulgr;r tf Ot 
ifuKiarun Suit (Hung,}, vol, i. (Budapest. 1903). 

French man oE lettera, was bom at Ijoiolbe (Haule-Matoc). 
While still young be removed to Paris, where tbe mi of bit 
life WIS spent ia literary acliviiy. He died on the >6lh ol 
November ipgr. His numerous works include Cpn/ci pUlt; 
lefkl^as d meraai (iifis), L€t Dtui iffj du teOI tl ia itait 
«ui»i.ilX/»'.(f»«iIoi<uXl'.(rj6o),aparallel and contrast, 
in which the deriuon is pven in favour ot the tatter; VEsfscm 
Iil«roi«{i774)i ifffprfe VaUairt (tu9)a>i £''("'' V"il''t'i' 

UDO EHCLAVB. a region ci the upper Nile formerly ad- 
ministered by the Cougo Free State, but since T919 a province 
of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. It has an area ol (iboul l^.oss 

a population 

lunded S.E. t 

nated a( iss/»o and ci 
Nilotic Negroes. The entiavc \t 
i. by the north-west shores of Albert Nysrua— IS 
tar soutn as the port ol Mabagi— E. by the western bank of the 
Nile (Dahr-el-Jebel) to ihe point where the river is intersettcd 
by S* 30' N., wliich parallel forms its northern fronlier from tbe 
tine westward to 30 E. This meridian forms the west Irontier 
lo 4* N., Ihe fmntiei thence being the Nile-Congo watershed lb 
the prant nearest to Mabagi and from that point diiecl In Albert 

Tbe country is a moderately elevated plateau sloping north-, 
ward from the higher ground maikiog Ihe Congo-Nile watershed. 
The plains art mostly covered with bush, with slreichn at forest 
fn the northeni dutricts. Traversing tbe plateau are two 
parallel nHnintainous chains having ■ general, nanh lo looih 
direction. One chain, tbe Kuku Mountains (average height 


le Nile a 

sevenl apparently isolated peaks. At other placn 
these mvunlains form pncfpices which stretch in ■ continuous 
Ene Bke a huge wall, From Du£le in 3' 34' N. to below the 
Beddcn Rapids in 4* 4D'N.thebed of tVNileis much obstructed 
■nd the river thnughout Ibis reach J9 unnavigable (we Km:). 
Below Ibe Bedden Rapids rises the conieal htU of Rejaf. and 
north of ifaat point Ihe Nile valley becomes flat. Ranges of blllj 
however, are visible farther westwards, and a Utile north of ;* N. 
is Jebel l^do. a con^icueus mountain i soo tt. high and some 
II to. distant from the Nile. It has given its nine to the <Bstrict. 
being the Grit hill seen fton the Nile in the ascent ot some 
1000 m, ftbm Khartum. On the liver at Sejaf, at Lado, and at 
Kim, 18 m. N. ot Lado, titgoveminent stations and trading 
eatiblishmenls. Tbe western chah ot hills hu kftler peakt 
than those of Knku, Jebel Loka being about 3000 ft. high. 
This western chain forms a tecondary watershed wpanling 
the basin of the Yei. a large river, some 400 m. Id lenlltb, which 
itmadmost duenorth tojointlie NUe, fmm the alher stream^ 
ot Ihe enclave, which have an enlerly or north-easieriy direction 
and join the Nlle,af[cr comparaiively short courses. 

The aortbem put of ibedisldM was first visited by European* 
in rS4i-i!l49. when tbe Nile was axtflded bjt an eipediliaii 
despatched by Mehemet Alt to the foot of tbe mphto at B*ddenj 
The nejghbouring posts of Condokoro, on the east bank of tb^ 
Nile, and Lado. iooa became sUtioBS of the Khaitum ivory. 
tnd slave Iraden. After the dtscoveiy ol Albert Ny*BH by 
Sir Samuel Baker hi rS64, the whole country was overrun bf 
Arabs, Levantines. Turks and others, whose ehlcf occupation wai| 
slave raiding. The region was claimed ai pari ol the Egyptian 
Sudan, but it was not until the arrival o( Sil Samuel Baler at 
GondiJLoro in 1J70 u governor of ihc equatorial provinces. 


thil uif <0active MuUd of tbe lUve trtdcn wu itlanptcd. 
Baker wu succeeded by Gescnl C. G. GordoD, vto olablisfan] 
a sepAiAte admuualntian foi xhc Babr'd-GbazaL In iS; 
Eraia Fatki bcouw ■ovcnoi of the Sqiuloiul rrgvince, 
Una beiceioflh canfiDcd to the rccJon uljoiujiig tbc nu 
Nile ibovfi (be Sohal ouiflucnce, ajid.(he regioa loutb of L] 
Bihi-d-ChuaJ pravince- (The vbole of the Lado Endai 
thus foni:ed pan of Ernin'a old pnivioceO Emin made h 
headquancK aa Lado, uheoce he was diiven in iGg; by the 
Kahiau, He then re moved to Waddai, a station farther south, 
but in i8g(i the pasha, to whose udH. M. Stanley had cooducLed 
tut eipedilioD fiom ibe Congo, evacuated ihe couatiy and with 
Staoley made bis way to the east coasl< ^^luJe the MabdIsLs 
nmai^ed in possession at Reptf, Gnat Britain In virtue of her 
position ia Uganda claimed the uppei Nile iq^on as within Ihc 
Britiih tpbeie; k claim adjnitted by Gerniany in i$90. In 
Febnuuy 1S94 the union Jack was hoisted al Wadelai, while in 
May ol the ume year Great Bntaui granted to Leopold JI., as 
loveteign ol Ibe Googa State, a lease of Laige areas lying west of 
Ihe upper Nile inclusive oI (be Bab[-cl-Ghaul and Fashoda. 
Pressed bowevec by France, Leopold II. agreed lo occupy only 
that pail of Ihe leased itcaeaat of 30° E. and south of J* jo" N., 
and in this maonei the actual limits of ibc Lailo Enclave, as it 
■IS ibtteafier ciUrd, were fiied. Congo State forces had 
penetrated to the Nile valley as early as 1S91, but it was not 
UDlj'l iSq;, nben OD tbc ifLh of February Commaadani Chattto 
inflicted a dccl^ve defeat on the MahdisLs at Rejaf, that their 
occupation of the Lado Enclave was assured. Alter the wiih- 
diawsl of the French from Fashoda, Lcoptld 11. revived (1S99] 
hi& claim to the whole of the area, leased lo him In iSo4. In 
this claim be was unsuccessful, and the lease, by a new agreement 
Biide with Gceal Britain in J906, was annulled {see Atwca, { s)- 
The king however retained the enclave, with the atlpulation 
that sia loonlhs after the tervination of his rciga it should be 
handed over to the Anglo-fudajiese govemineal (sec Treaty 
Sain. No. 4, '9o6). 

See It JTcvwrnoil thcmplilqia (BrumeW Puiia, and espeeURy 
trtlcln la the 1910 liMin. 

UMMA {foriKrly tttVo), a Irte ol Bortbem RoMla, bMwcn 
5^ 56* and At* 4<^ N.> and 39* 53' and 32* 50^ E., slirTOiiDded 
by the govemiDentt of Srl^enhnii lad Ohatt*, and ofVlborg 
in Finland. H has thefORDOf i qaadilliteni, alangated from 
N.W. lo S,E. lU eulatn and nitbem ihOMs m flat aad 
B*r^, tbe florth-westehi craggy and bioged by ^aiimcww 
siniil! TVcky Islands, the laiBcn of which are Valuno and Koui^ 
Till, regelhn having an area t>f 1 
in ana, thai it, thirty-one times 
bat, id depth being ku, it contal 
water aa the Swiss laka. Hie (leaust deptb, 730 fl., ia in > 
trough ia the north-western part, ibe avenge depth not ticecding 
*Jo to 35a It. Tit level of Lake Ladngt Is SS tt- above the 
tMl ol rikbind, but It risai and falls about 7 fC, aecordlBg to 
ttno^hetic Mnditlom, a pbeconeDcia nty dmilai to the 
uklmol theL4tuof Gen«v* beiiM otienid in 

The wnteni and cuton duns coo^ of boulder dar. ai well aa ■ 
aarmw ■trip on tha aoutbem shorer mth nl which luai a ndet of 
aift cf SiianU) iiiiililima The UUa of the Doitb-veatein iLoce 
afford a variotT of psnllea and cryiUUine slate* of the Lauieatian 

tnlocinidtacribeaaonfaochalic hypcnthecfte. The {rariiie and 
niUe'of SenUboI. ud the saaduoBe of PHtllavo. ara much laed 
(er buihliB^ ai St nMnbocgt (■■PPvand.imCrom the PitkUinta 

No^ver than ^evnicv in-en enter Ladoga, pourinc into it the 
•tten of BDmbeilcas smanet takes whUi Ue at hliher level* •n^Mt ft. 
The Voikhav. wlneh cotmys the wanrt of Lab Ilmea, b 

Lake OoeH disehai — ' ■ -^ -'- -- 

•nMn •naho si 

lie Lake ot GcDtva; 

y Ihf.Svici tod ^ Saima 
Mnlnbult* tb* Vuonea and 
■ ' a lie Bnalivlakea 

•le imts; tM SyialiRngB ihe 1 _ — 

narsbes of the Valdai ptauin. Ladoga dndontti' r — 

r bv mean of the Neva, which Ban [nm hi iwtb.«st«ii 
v_lats the Golf of Fndnd.^nUisf down in bnd chtud 
ind cold: In May the lUifBee 

a! Ladoga Is very pure and c 
Aics not eaceedjo^ Fahr-, and ' 


only so" and «*. the avei^je yearly tEmperalure of Ihe air at 
VabTKO beiiw jenT. Tbebkr beiiins id FreeielnOen>bei',fn( 11 a 
only about iHe ead of i^ersntm thai it ia (men in hs-decper t^arlsf 
aad it rmaitf icebound imti4 the end of Maichr ibouah taoad iefr 
Mdiemtinuclollaatin the piiddte of the lake until bnikbn up by 
pies. Onlyaumllpajtof tbcLadoipiiceiadlschargedbylhe Neva: 
but it ii enoigli to produce ia the middle M June a return of cold 
in ih( nonbeni emnal. TIb ihickttm o( (he irs doe* lat eimd 
3 or 4 ft.i but dunng the alumatiiw tf caU and wwn weaihu, 
with strong gales, in winter, stacks d in. 70 and So it. hiah. an 
raisedDntheshmandoadieicE&eldh The wai-r LTin m^nuni.. 
rotalory molron; beiitg earned alr>ng the writer 

- >„ jNJE-windL ,,, 

lutb-weatcm part, wmelLmf* 3 to 5 ft. Steamers ply regularly in 
iro direciiont fmrn §t f^remburr-to the mOnasrerfn of Konnevite 
ih) Wkinn. md to the nunih of the Svir. whence they go up that 
vtTtoLake Oniga and F^mtavodalsiwHl nnaU vessels tnnspun 
.':._ r .V v.,^ ^g^ ^ SchUwElbur*, and 


m the northeni sh 

thence to Sr Petenbatg. Navigatton on the lake being ran iGhgei^ 
ouB for sma]! oaf I. ankls with an agfretate tength oTrof nu weiv 
dug In >;sg-i7)i. and oihera Ii ti6i'iM6 haviu wiJin*v>tii 
Length d( 101 m. along iU ■oulbeen ibore, uniliag with the Neva M 
Schliisjelbuij ih ■-- -' ■■- -■— **-"-•—- =- -■ '■^- -■■ 

*S.._ ..-- . 


in i^J: New Ladc^ 

j'lbi S"lbe ri™Volkhov. S^ indSnr'Sl 

, 'of fJ'Si.'' "" """ 

^r prniUtiea't3s,oao) on the itaones oC tbe kke is 1 

iawn»-&cUaas(lbBrg ^S'H inhabiKnta in >imi: 

[4144) : Keiholm (lujl and Scrdnbol— are (null. Themi 
ol Valamo, founded in »i, nn the island of the Bine name, and 
Konnevakiy, on Konneviu Mnnd. founded hi ijw.ateviiitedEvety 
yar tif many tfaonsaiKb of pilgrinia. (P. A.K.;J.T. B>.) 

LADT (O. Eng. Uaffdlit, Mid. Eng. Iif/di, Oieli; the first put 
of the wiiTd Is AUf, loaf, bread, u in the corrcipgnding U^urd, 
lord; the second part is viually taken to be from IhC root dii-, 
to knead, seen tko in " dough "; the tense devck^meni from 
brcad-kneadeTi bread-maker, (0 the ordinary meaning, though 
not dearly to be traced tutloriciBy, may be iilustnled by that 
o( "lord"), a term of which the main ippb'catioas are two, 
(1) as the corrditive of " hird " (?.».) in certain of the usages 
of that word, (i) as the correlative o( " gentleman " (i.t). 
The pritnary meaidng of mlsliBs of a bonsebold is, tf not obsolele. 
In ptcsent usage only a vulgatism. The special use of the word 
ks a title tif the Virgin Miry, asuiDy " Oor Lady, " irprescnts 
Ihe Lat. Domna Nai»a. In Lady &iy and Lat^ Cbipel the 
word fa properly a genitive, representing the O. Eng. Ma/jdifini. 
Aantitleof nobility the uset of " lady " arc mainly paralleled by 
{bose of "iord." It is thus a less fortnal alternative 10 the fiiU 
title gtviDg Ibe spedEC rank, of marcliloBesi, tountess, vl>- 
counlen or baroness, whether xi the title of tbe busbtid^ 
■rank by right or courtesy, or aa the lady's title in her own right. 
In the case of the yonnger soos of a duk« or marquess, wiia bj 
courtesy have lord pre^xd to Ibeii Christian and fam0y name, 
the vHt is known by the hnsbaiid's Christian and family came 
with Lady prelEied, «.(. Lady John B.; the daughters of dukes, 
marquesses and eails are by conrtrsy Ladia; hat that title 
is prefixed to the Christian and family name of the lady, e.g. Lady 
Maiy B,, and lUs is pjiietTed if the lady many a coDUDoner, 
e./. Mr and Lady Wary C. "tady* b also tbe msiotnaiy 
title ol the wife of a banmet or kn%ht^ the proper titJt, now • 
tally used in legal docuaieots or on sepulchral momintenia, b 
"Tiame " (^.r.); in the latter cose liie usage is -to prefii Dame 
to the Christian name of the wife followed ^ihesumaoie of the 
husband, thus Dame Evador B., but In tbe fanner, J-ndy with 
the surname of the husband only. Sir A. and Lsdy B. During 
the i;ih and-i6th ceDlnries " princesses "or datighler^ of ibt 
Mood royal were osnatly known by their Christln nunes with 
"the Lady " pieSied, e,g, Ihc Lady Eliiabctlt 


WhDe " laid " hu nUiitcd iu origiiul'ipiiUciliaii w & ilUe 
of natnUtj c^ luk without cxlfliaiDii, ui *wmpl* irtuch hu been 
lollawed io Spiniih mge by " 4aa," ~ lady " hm been alended 
Id meuiiD£ to ba the feminine comdative of ^ gentlemui " 
throughout iU itnit develoftmeats, and in tha ii panQcled by 

if kortain sudd potitioii 


It a [he geotnl word for any w 
(see CemtleuaiO, 
, LASTBABK, a, police buigh of FJfeilire, ScoUaud, s) m. 
S.W. of Cupar by the Noith British lailway, i m. faom the left 
bank of the Eden. Pi^. (igoi) 1340. Bc*ide* haTing • stMion 
on the maio Ibu to Dundee, it is alio amoected with Perth and 
Kinrosa and ia a laHway junction of aomc importance and 
poufaaM-a locomotive depot. It ia an induatrlai centre, liuetj 
veavifl^, coal mininc and malttag being the prindpal induslHca, 
Kirni, a village 1 m. S-, hai prehistoric barrows and a fort. 
At CouissiE, li m, N. by W., a atanding (tone, a mound and 
traces of ancteot ompi ciist. while una and coiu have been 
found. BetwecD the pariiba of OiUeirie and Uonimail tbc 
boundary line tahes the loriii ot s ctocent known aa the Bow 
of Hfc. Uonhuil contains the Mount, the isidence of Sir 
David Ijndaay the poet (i4po-iSS5). lU Miy lite i) ww 
marked by ■ clump ol IKca. Here, too, ii the D«ic p31ar, 
100 ft. high, raised to the mcnraiy of John Hope, ^tb aA of 
Hopetoun. Uelvills House, the seat ol the eailt o! Lcvcn, lies 
amidst beautiful woodi. 

- UDTBSAHD, a town of the Orange Ftn Sute, 8e m. E. of 
BIoemlonleinbyrBfl. Another railway connects It with Nalal 
via Harrismilh. Pop. (igoi) 3S61, of whom ijj4 «e» whites. 
The town is pleasantly situated at the foot of a flat-topped hill 
(Che Platben), about 4 m. W. of the Caledoo river, which 
Kparatea the pnlyince from Basuloltad. Ladybnnd it the 
centre of a rich arable district, has a luE= wheat market and is 
alio a health resort, the climate, owing to the proximity of the 
Maluli MountaiD), being bracing even during the summer 
months (November-March). Coal and petroleum are fgund in 
iheneighbouihood. Iliinamedafter the wifeofSir.J.H. Brand, 
president of the Orange Free Slate. 

LAOT-CBAFEI, (he chipel dedicated to the Btenad Vir^ 
and attached to cHuidus of large tiu. Ccaerally the chapel was 
built eastward of the high altai ami fonntd a prajectioD froiti tbc 
main building, as id Wmchoter, Salisbury, Eieter, Wells, St 
Albans, Chichester, Peterborough sod Nontlch cathcdrab,— iu 
the (wo latter cases now destroyed. . The earUcat Lady-cbapc) 
built was that in the Saioa cathedral ol Cajuerbury; ihls was 
(ransfered iu the rebulidrng by Archbishop Liufranc to the 
west end of the dsvc, and agaiu shifted in 14S0 to the chapel on 
the east side ol the notlh tra^^tp^ The Lady-chapcl at Ely 
cathedral is a distina buiUing altacbed to tbe aonh transept; 
at Rochester the Lady-chapel is west of the gouih ttansepi. 
Probably the largett Lady-ch^id was that btiHt by Henry m. 
in mo at Wolminster Abbey, which wu 30 ft. vide, much in 
eicesa of any foreiea example, and emnded li» the end of the 
site now occupied by Henry VTI.'s chapcL Among other 
notable English eaamplea of Lady-chj^iela are those at Otteiy- 
Sl-Maiy, Tbetford. Bury St Edmund's, Wimbome, Christ- 
churcli, Hauipsbire ; in Coinptan Church, Surrey, and Cnspton 
Uartio, Socnerseishin, and Darccth, Kent, it was built over the 
chancel. At Croyland Abbey then were two Lady-chapels. 
Lady-chapeU enst in moat of the French cathedrals and churches, 
where they fonn part ol the chtvetj in. Belgiuin they were nm 
introduced before the i4tli century; !n some cases tb^ arc 
of the lame siie ai the other diapels at the chevct, but in otbcn, 
probably rebuilt tl a bier poiod. ' ' 
import^ features, and in Italy 
usee period totiMituta lomeaf 

UU>T DA7, originally the k"^^ for all the days in the church 
"'"'*«' iimVinj lay ercat in the Virgin Mary's. life, W now 
lealrictedto theloutof tlteAnnuncistioB. hdd.on the issi of 
March in each year. Lady Day wu in Dtedieval and lata times 
the beginning of tbe legal year io En^snd. In 17J1 this was 
altered to tbe 1*1 of Jatniary, but tbe T5lh of Manh limuns one 

of the Quarter Day<; though in some parti dd lady I>«y, 
on the 6th of April, la ittU the date foe lenc paying. Stf 

UDTSMITH, a town of Natal, r»g m. N,W. of Durban by 
rail, on tbe left bank of the KKp tributary of the Tngda. Pop. 
(1Q04} 55AS, of whom 3960 weteVhites. It lics.iiS4 ft. above 
the sea and is encircled by hills, while the Drakmsberg are some 
30 m. distaot to the N.W. Ladysmith Is the trading centre of 
northern Nsial, and is the chief railway junction in the province, 
the main line from the south dividing here. One line crosses Van 
~ ■ ■ ■ the Orange Free Stale, the other runs 

to the 



Among the public buHdingi ai 
town halL The church contains tablets with Ihc names of j»o 
men who perished Id the delence and relief o( the town fn the 
South African War (we below), while the dock tower of the 
town hall, partially destroyed by a Boer shell, is kept in ill 
damaged condition. 

Lidysmilh, founded In iS^r, Is named after loana. Lady 
Smith, wife of Sir Harry Smith, then governor of Cape Colony, 
It stands neat the site of the camp ol the Dutch farmers who in 
[848 assembled Tor tbe purpose of trekking across the Dtakcns- 
berg. Here tfiey were visited by Sir Harry Smith, who induced 
the majorily of the farme is 10 remain in NataL Tlie growth ol 
the town, at Gtst slow, increased with the opening of the railway 
from Durban In rSS6 and the subsetpient eilen^n of the line 

in the first and mo^ critical stage of the South African Wai 
of rS99-iQOI (sec TRA!i5VAAt) Ladysmith was the centre of the 
struggle. During the British concentration on the town there 
were fought the actions of Talana (or Dundee) on the 10th, 
Elandslaagte on the iist and Rieilontein on the iiih of Octobei 
iSq;. On the joth of October the British sustained a serious 
defeat in Ibe general actioo of Lombard's Kop or Farqutiar*! 
Farm, and Sir George White decided to hold the town, which had 
been fortified, against investment and siege until he was relieved 
directly or indirectly by Sir Redvcrs BuUer'i advance. The 
greater portion of BuUs's available ti«ips were despatched (o 
NatolinNovember, with a view to the direct rdief of Lad ysDiEth. 
whidk meanLime thn Boen had closely invfsted. His firtt. attempt 
was repcUed (m tbie ijch of December in the battle ol ColuBO, 
bis second on tbe 14th ef January iqdo by the succes^ul Boa 
oeDBtenlroke agunal Spian Sop, and his third was abandoned 
without aerious fighiisg (Vaolknoi, Feb. s). But two at 
three days after Vsalkiana, ahnosi limultaneously with Lord 

ibeoQeDsivein liie biUito the east of ColensD, which he gradually 
clearol of ibe enemy, and •Itbougb be waa checked after reaching 
the Tugela below COlenio (Feb. 14) he was finally laocisfid 
in canying tbc Boei pMidoas (Pktei'a Hill) on the 17111 and 

nwrithi (Nov. i-Frix a£) bad auSered vcq' sewely from want 
«f Iosd,aid«o,aiaaccatdon (Caeui'a Camp, Jan. 6, 1900) had 
only with heavy losiei and great difficulty repdled a powerful 
Boer aatault. Tbe gaiiiioo displayed its unbroken icsdution 
on the last day of the investment by setting on foot a mnhile 
colDron, esnq»>ed of all men who were not too enfediled is 
march out, h orderto harass the Boerretrcal. This eipcditioB 
was however countermanded by Buller. 

lABUDIi the name of a Konun plebeian family, probaUy 
utilad tX Tibia (Tivali). The chief membea wcr«>— 
. Gaic) I.iBTTtrs, genenl and statesman, waa a friend ol tbe 
eldef Scipio, whom be accnmpamcd on tdi Spanish campaip 
(iio-ao6 B.c.>. In Sdpio's couulstiip [wj), Laeliui went ritfc 
him to SfcOy, whenoa he donducied an eipeditlon ta Afiia. 
In >oj be defeated' the Havaesyllu prince Sypbai, mio, 
breaking his alljailix with Sdp^, had Jidnsd the CarthaginlBia, 
and tl Zama (loi) rtsidered oatrideraUe iwlDe in command id 
tlKcanby^ In rn^waapkbeiaoaedlkaadia 196 praetoral 
SicHy. As consul in iQo he was emptied in ngaslali^ tbe 
tKeally conquered territory In Cisalpine GauL Platcnlia and 
Cremona were rtpeopled, and a new mlooy founded at Bonoola. 



Hiiahit heudof in i to u ambuiukir Co Trasm^Hiic GauL 
HiMi^ litdc is kj»im oj hit penoiul t'*^*''*^, his lUlnu^ 
wJUi Scipio i« pmol ttait be must liave b«D > man of Kmc 
btipanaacc. ^ui luliciu (Piaata, iv. 4jo) dacribo ktm u 
4 niu of fRat eodoMiiuoU, M) di>()ueDt cmoi and a bnvc 

S« Indti Id Livy; PolyhiB. 1. J. J, JO, li. 3>, BV. 4. 8, H. 9. 
II, 141 Appian. fiiif. IJ-ig: Goto, Plalittia, 11. 7. 

Hit tan, Caids I-Atuns, ii kiun chiefly u the fricod at the 
foungcr Sdpio, ud u one of the cpeiken in Gccio'i A itiucfiUi, 
& smcilHi (or LadiHi) ud Z)i RipM'ut. He wu ninuMd 
5afi«j (" the wse "}, eilbei FiBin hii stboiaiy turn « becuiM, 
whea Iiibune, be " [uudeatly " villidrew hit propmul (151 ax.) 
ba the relief ol the lanneti by i^stiibuiiou ol kind, wbes be 
u* thiLt it wu liliely to bring sboul ditluituuica. In the tUid 
Puaic Wu (14;] be uannpuicd Scipio lo Aliici, and di»- 
linguiilied himKlI U the optan of the Cothon, tbe militai; 
bartnui erf Cirthagt. la 145 be cuncd on epmUoas with 
Dwdcnte nieces tgiitut Vihalhu* in Spain; in 140 he vu 
dccted consuL Duiizig the Giuchan period, a* a miinrh 
BinKHter of Scipio and tlieulitocraty.I^etiiabecuBeobaonou* 
to ihe demooati. He una asodaled with P. Popilliui Luu* 
b ib< praMculioDal tboie wbo had uf^sxXtA Hbciiui Cnccbui, 
and in 131 oppowd tbe biU broucht forwaid by C. Papiriui Caibo 
to Koder lecil Ihe election of a Iribuse lo a accood year af office. 
The altempU of Lis enemies however, [ailed to thalc hji re|nua< 
tjon. He ml a highly accoinplisbed man and bdooged to the 
totalled " Sdpionic drde." Kc iiudied pbitosopby under the 
Stdia Diogenca BabybniiB aiul Panutiut of Rhodcsi he »ai 
a pocl, and tbe plays of ToRDCe, by ru»a of tbiir elegance o[ 
ditlieo, sen lomelimes atliibulnl to him. With Scipio he was 
DUJnly ioitnunenta] in isliodudnf tbe iiudy of the Creek 
language and liieratore into Rome. He was a gifted orator, 
though bis tefiqed elaqucnce was perhaps Less suited to the 
lonun than to tbe senate- He delivered speeches Dt CaiUtnj 
(i4i) a^init the propotal o[ the tribune C. Licinius Ciauai lo 
d^n the piiesUy coUcgt* of Iheii right of co-opiaiion and lo 
txaufai the power of election le tbe people; Pra Publiauiu 
(139], on bebali of the faimen of the revcaue) against the 
{Kopoial of Cubo noticed above; Prr St, % tpetib in bis own 
defence, deliveied in answer to Caibo and Giaoliut; luseral 
DEatiou, tm^rf them two on his friend SdptA Miidx ipfom^ 
tion is given cooccnutii bio in Ckzio, ■bo compuet bin to 

S« lndis to Ckcio; Plutarch. TA. Crtudiui. I 
FuiEo, 136; Horace. Sai. ii. i. 71; Quintiliao, Jruld. 
Sur^ni. Via Tanlii; Tenncc, Aidfki. Pro]. IJ 

, Appian 


GiUBi Ponum LiiEius, ouhuI in 171 r.c. He was itnt 
to Greece in 174 to allay the gcDtral disiSedion, but met with 
Bttle sneeeas. He took part in the war against Feneus, king 
ol Maccdoida (Livy ililf. 17, 11). Wheu Antiodm Epiphancs. 
Hag of Syria, invaded Egypt, Laenas was sent to arrest bis 
progrcu. Heeling Um near Alexandria, be handed tain tbe 
dKtee of tbe scBate, demanding tbe evacnalion rf Egypt. 
Anttochus baving asked time for ronsldentioa. Laenas drew a 
drde raond him with bis itaff, and told hira Ik must ^ve an 
answer before he alepped out ol it. Antiochoa Iberenpoo 
tubtnitted (Livy ilv. i»; Polytaus nit ti; Cicero, Pkaippiia, 
*Hl. 8t VeD. Pat. i. 10). 

Pdujui Fomiira Laekai, son of tbe pieeeding. When 
connil in iji B.C. be IncuTred tbe failred of the democnu 
by his hanb moidTCS as bead of a qiecial comminlon appealed 

■ -■ Tlice«o)-nb*ifoiGracchu!i. 

> bin prabibhlng all sodi 
- ' -c with Ihe old 

In I >j Gafut Gncdiut brought ii 
eommlaloia, aad dedaicd tbil, b 
laws o( appeal, a nagis 
donl doak carried byM 


witbmt tbe pao{4c's aiienl. aboold b* fully 
It is not known whether tbe bill contained a 

sentence of banishment from Italy was pronounced against him, 

him wen Canoelled. and he wi* recalled <■»). 
See Cicero. Brtba. i j. 34. and Pe itnv ttia, ji ; VeS. Pat. B. 7? 

BDd peaiaats with cattle. Ftom tl 
petaanal deliTmity. be wax nlcknained 
Italians. On bis ntum (o Hdlsnd iboot 1630, be lived chiefly 
at AoMtrdam and Haarlem, in wUch latter dty be died in 1674 
or 1A7S. His pictures are marked by skUful cofflpositioB and 
good drawing; he was tspeciaUy ca«ful in perspective. His 
ctUaring, aecoirling to Crowe, is " generally <rf a wann, brownish 
tone, utnetimes very dear, but of tener heavy, and hli eiecution 
broad and splrJEed." Certain etched {dales are also attributed 

LAESTRTOOIIB, a mythical race of ^ants and cannibals. 
ActDttfing lo Ihe Odyisty (i, 80) tbey dwelt in the farthest north, 
whtie tbe nights were so short that the shepherd who was 
driving out hit &Kk met another driving it in. Ttiis feature ol 
the tale coDtains some bint of tbe long nigbiless surnmer in tbe 
Arctic rei^DS. which perbaps reached the Greeks through the 
merchants wbo fetched amber from the Baltic coasu. Odysseus 
in bis wanderings anived at tiM coast inhabilsl by the Laestiy- 
goncs, and csaped with only one ship, tbe rest being sunk by 
the i^nls with masses of rocL Their chief diy was Telepjdus, 
founded by a fonnet king Lamus. Ibelr ruin at that time being 
Aniqihatcs. This is a purely fanciful name, but Limus takes 
us Into a religious world wboi we can trace the ori^ of the 
legend, and observe the god of an older religion becoming the 
subject of fairy tales (tee LtKu) ia a later period. 

The later Oraeki placed the country of (he Lae str yaooet In Sicily. 
to ihe louih of Aetna, near Leonlini; but Horace {Ola, lii. 16, 34) 
and other Larin aulbors ipeak of them as living in KUIbem Ltiium. 
near Focnriae. w^idi was Hippoeed to have been founded by l^mua. 

LUTDS, JUUin POMPOHim IGiulio Pomponio Letol, 
(1415-1498), Italian humanist, was bom at Salerno. He studied 
at Rome under taurenu'us Valla, whom he succeeded (1457) 
as professor of ebquence in tbe Gymnasium Roman nm. About 
this time he founded an academy, the members of which adopted 
Greek and Latin nanus, nut on the Quirinal to discuss das i c al 
questions and cclebraicdtbe birthday of Romulus. Itsconstitu- 
lion resembled that of an ancient priestly college, and Laetus 
was styled pontifeiioaiimus. The pope (Paul XL] viewed these 
proceedings with tuspcion, as savouring of paganism, heresy 
and republicanism. In 146S twenty of the aademidans were 
arrested during the carnival; L«tus, who bad taken refuge 
in Venice, was sent back to Rome, imprisoned and put to tbe 
torture, but refused to [dead guilty lo the charges of infidelity 
and immorality. For want of evidence, he was acquitted 
and allowed to.iesunM bit profeiscsial duties; hut it was loc- 
hiddcn to utter Ibe najue of the academy even in jesL Siatus 
IV. permitted the raumplion of its meetings, wUch continued 
to be held till the sack ol Rome (ija;) by Consuble Bourbon 
during tbe papacy of Ocment VII. Laetus co nt i n ued Co teach 
in Rome until his death on the Qth of June 149S. Asa teacher,' 
Laetus, who has been oiled tbe first head of a philak>^cil 
school, was extraordinarily succeasful; in his ova words, Uke 
Socrates and Christ, he expected lo live on in the person of bis 
pupils, amongst whom were many ol the tnotl famous scholan 
of the period. His works, written in pure ai^ simple Latin, 
were pubUihed in a coliected form (Pfaa Pnmpeiai Ladi 
SErio, ijii). They oanlain treatises on the Ronun nagisttaui. 



the death of ik yooBlet GoidUs to Ibe lime of Jmlla UL 
Lietui abo vrole comraeiitBrui on dautcal •.ulbon, tsd pio- 
ntoted tlw pnbliclticiD ol the editio pi&icxps o( Viigil >l Rome 

See nt Li/i cf lila by SabdIinH (StmitHij. IJIO); G. Vap, 
Dit WitdtrbiUbunt itJ kiauii€ktm Atittikums. u. : F. GECOoroviuL 
GacUiim ia Sail ««• w UtiulaUn, viL (i«u}. p. stS, for >n 
uxount ol the umdemy: Suxlyi, HiriPDi s] CUiiiul Sflitlaitkit 
(1908), iL 9a- 

UBVIUS (7 c 80 >.c), > Litis ^ecl o( Khstn pnctictlly 
nothijis u ksowa- The earliest refereoce to hizD i% pcrhapa iit 
SuctcmiuB [Dt poMiiuiicii, 3), though it u not certam that the 
Laevius Miliuui tJioe referred to ii the aame p«iaii. Befinlte 
Rferencci do sat occur befoce the lod cenluiy (Fioato, Ef. ad 
U. Cau. L 3: Aulua Celliui, tioU. >lt. ii. 94, lU. 10, nx. 9 i 
Apuleitu, AaM/io, ja;PoipliyrioD, i^dHarof. MTM. iii. i. >)• 
SoDW aiity mbtdUneoua liuca an pnaetved (kc BUirdi, 
Fratm. fa/I. rgm. pp. 187-19J), fiom which it ii difficult lo M« 
bov audeat critics could have regarded him aa Ihc master of 
Ovid ot Cuuliua. Celhus and Auionius state that be compDKd 
an Sittepinffiia, aod io othei souicis be is credited with itimu, 
Ala^t, Cnlaari, BiUna, Ins, PnlaUotiiaima, Sirimaina, 
PkeaU, vhich may, bowevs-, be only the parts of the Eittf- 
poegnia- They were not serious pocmSj but light and often 
licentious skits on the beinc mjths. 

See O. Ribbeck, CuakicUi itrimiscluii DiOlMtf. L; H. dc [a 

(indcd.), pcTLJi. lis 


(t909). Pf 

UEVULtHlC ICtD (^^cctopropionic add), CiHiOi 01 
CHiCO'CHi-CHrCOtH, a kctooic add prepared from lacvuloic, 
loulin, starch, &c., by boIUofE them irith dilute bydnxhloric 01 
sulphuric adds. It may be synthesized by coodensiiig sodium 
acetoacetate with monochloracetic eater, the acetoHccioic ester 
produced being then bydrolysed with dilute hydiciddoric add 
(M. Conrad, Ann., iS;;, iSg, p. sti)- 

I ■•* I ->CHiCOCHiCHrC0iOH. 


It may also be prepared by beating the anhydride olY-mctbyloiy' 
glutaiic add with coDcentrated sulphuric acid, and by ondation 
Ol melby! beptenone and of geianioL It crystaUiiei in plates, 
which melt at 3'S-JJ* C. and boil at 148-140° ds mm.) (A. 
Michael. Join. prat. Ciem., 1891 U), 44, p. ii4). It is readily 
lotuble in alcohol, ether and water. The add, when distilled 
slowly, 11 dKompoHd and yields a and 0-angelica lactones. 
When heated irith hydriodic add and phosphorus, it yields 
it-valerie add; and with iodine and caustic soda solution it 
gives iodoform, even in the cold. With hydrorylimine it yields 
an o»iiiie, which by the action of concentrated sulphuric add 
narrangtj itsdi to N-methyUaccinimide [CH,CO!.Nca. 

U PABO^ JOHK (iSjs-igia), Amtiican artist, was tiom 
in New Votl, on the 31R ot Msrch iSjj, of French parmiage. 
He received instruction in dtaaring from b!s gnndfither, 
BlniM de St Victor, a paioter of miniatures; studied law snd 
(Tchitfctore: entered the atelier of Thomas Couture in Paris, 
where he remained a short time, giving espedal attention to the 
itudy and copying ol old masters at the Louvre; and began 
by making niustntiaai to tbe poets (iSjg). Ap intimacy with 
the artist WilUam M. Hunt had a strong influence on him, 
the two vorktng together at Newport, Rbode Island. La Parge 
painted landscape, still lile and figure alike in the eariy siities. 
But from iBM on be was for some time incapadtaied (or work, 
and when be regained strength he did some decoixtive work 
tor Trinity church, Boston, in 187^, and turned his attention 
to stained glass, becoming president of the Sodety of Mural 
Painters. Some ol his important commisjions include windows 
for St Thomas's church (1877), St Peter^ chufcb, the Paulist 
church, the Brick church (iSSi), the churcbesot the Incarnation 

^Sj) and the Asccnaon (1887), New Vocki Trinily chuich. 

Buffalo, and the " Battle Wbdow " In Mein«Tial lUB u 
Harvard; ceilings and window* for tbe bouse ol Cornelius 
Vaaderbilt, windows for the houseaof W. H. Vanderbilt 
and D. O. Mills, and panels for the bouse of Whiielaw Rnd, 
New York; panels for the Congressional Library, Washington; 
Bowdoin CoUcge, the Capitol at St Paul, Minn., besides designs 
for many (tained glass windowi. He was also a prolIBe painter 

ciJonr sketches, tbe result ol a voyage in the Sooth Seas, shown 
iniS95, HisbifluenceonAmericanartwsspowerfuIlyeithiblted 
in loch men as Augustus St Gaudens, Wilton Loclwood, Fiands 
Lalhrop and John Humphreys Johnston. He became president 
of the Society of ArnericAn Artists, a member Oi the National 
Academy of Design in 1869; an officer ol the Legion of Honour 
o! France;' and tecdvcd many medals and decorationa. H* 
published CmukralioKi en PeiHlHii (New YoA, iBgs), 
ffoWnri: A Teli ahm/ BakHni (New York, tS*?), aiMl A» 
ArHifi ItOerifrtm Japai (New York, 1891). 

See Cedfa Waera, Jatu La Fartl. Artia and Writer [London, 1S96, 
No. It of riH Pergtiia). 

lA PARIIIA, OlUnm (iSi5~iBe3l, Italian intbot and 
pi^tician, WIS bom at Mesalna. On account ofthe part be tod 
in the insurrection ol rS]7 he had to leave Sicily, but returning 
In 1839 he conducted various newspapers of liberal tendencies, 
unt3 his eflotts were completely iDterdicted, when he removed 
to Florence. In 1840 he had published ire»ii>s«dini«i iwiw- 
mnti, and after lua removal to Florence be brongbt out La 
Germama coi nmi ■umimeiUf (1S41), L' Italia coi nun swiot- 
mnli (1S41), La Sriaera Utriia ad arlislita (1841-1843), 
LaCkina, 4 vols. (1841-1^7). and Sloria iT llaiia. f vols. 
(1846-1854). In 1S47 he eslabtisbed at Florence a demooatie 
journal, VAIbf, in Ibe Interests of ttaliin freedom and unity, 
but DO the otilbreak of the revolurion in Sidly In 1848 be retamed 
tbitber and was elected deputy and member ol tbe committe* 
of war. In August of that year he was appointed minister of 
public instruction and later of war and mtrine. After vigoronilr 
conducting a campaign against tbk Bourbon troops, be was 
forced into erile, and repaired lo France in 1849. IniSjohe 
published his SItria imumaaala idia Ritoltaiine SiciU^ia 
iti st4S-iS4S, and in iS5t-iBsi bis Sl^ia f Italia dol ISij 
al 1S4S. in 6 v(ds. He relumed to Italy in 1854 and settled M 
Turin, and in 1856 be founded Ihe Piaole Cerrittt d! IbJIg, aik 
organ wfaldi had great Influence in propagating the political 
sentiments of the Sodell Nadonale Italiina, of which be ulti- 
mately was chosen president. With Diniele Manin ((.».) 1 one 
of Ibe founders ol that sodety, he advocated the unity ot Italy 

i bcfon 

one time be had daily inlerviewl, and orgaaiied tli 
oi volunteers from all pansof Italy Into the Picdmontese army. 
He also negotiated an interview between Cavour and Garibaldi, 
with the result tbat tbe latter was appointed commaisder of 
the Cacciaiori delle Alpi in the war of 1S39. Latti be supported 
Garibaldi's eipedition to Sidly, where be himself wcdI aoon 
after tbe occupation of Palernw, but be tailed to bring about 
the immediate anneiationol tbe island to fiedmont as Cavour 
wished. In 1860 be was chosen a member ol tbe first Italian 
patUament and waa subsequently made cauncilkM- of atale. 
Ucdiedan the Jib ol September 1863. 

See A. FnnchL EpulotoHo ii Oiwuppe La Fanaa (1 vdi., 1M9) 
and L. CariM, II Siwrtimtnlt Ilatiant, voL i. [MUin. 1884). 

LA PATBTTE; OILBBRt MOTIER DE (i38o-i4»i), manhal 
ol France, was brought up at the court of Louis IL, 3rd duke 
of Bourbon. He served under Maiabal Boudcaut in Italy, and 
o> his return to France after tbe evacuation ol Genoa in 1409 
became senctcbal ol the Bourbonnaia. In iJk English wan he 
was wiih John L, 4ih duke of Bourbon, at the capture el Soubise 
in 1413, and of Compile in 1413. Tbe duke then made him 
Ecu tenon I'gcncral In Languedoc and Guanne. He failed la 
defend Caen and Falaise in the interest ol (be dauphin (after- 
wards Charles VII.) agwnst Heuy V. in 1417 and 1418, btil in 
(be laller yor be heU Lyoosfor some time againstjean aani 
Peur, duke of Burgundy. A sniei ot lUBceaeS orei (he Engtiib 


■id BsTiundiMK on itic Loir mi i fmkJ n uto with tk 
gdVFramnit of Dtuphiny and Ihc office o( inanhd of Fante. 
L» F«yeit* rammwidnt ik Fruco4colttih tniafE at tbe bntilc 
of BiiwC (i4ii>, UnBgh h< did nu, ububcoi KinaiiiKiitMnl. 
(Ur TboDiu, ihikB of CkniKz, wiLh kfa •n Inod. In 1414 
be wat UkcB priMHKT by Ihe Ei«l^ at Vcncoil, bui was 
nlciKd shortly iltcnnrdi, lul f<>u|lu nitli Joan ol Arc U 
Oilcani and Palar in i4i«. The manha] bail become a Bcmbn- 
d( the mnd council of Cbaila VU., and vilh the emplion ot a 
than dispace aboui mjo. doe to Ibe ill-wjU oi Georges de la 
TrfmouiUe, he ntainid Ibe loyal lavour all hit Kle. He look 
an active pan in ibe umy Rrttna bitialed by Charles VIL, aiul 
thccttiblibbmentot military poaLsfor the aupprcHuonai bniftnd- 
ugc- Hii test campaign qrai agninst the Ene^ish im Nanrnndy^ 
u I4M. He died on the ijid of Febniacy i^bt. Hit line wu 
continiKd by Gilbert IV. da U Fayette,, sin OI fall icconl 

LA FATCrrS. LOmSS DE (c. i6i6-i66t], ma one at tbc 
lOUTlcen childii'n ol John, cointi: de La Fayetlc. and hiirgugiiK 
de Bourbon- Buuet. Lotuie became maid of honour to Anne td 
AoUrb, and Richelieii lought 10 alliacl Ibe atlEntion d LouiE 
XII L to her in the hope Ikat die might counlcrlstiiHX ibb 
inlliicncc cucrcixd over htm by Marie de llanleforl. The aJTiir 
did rni lUm o«l as the minister wished. The liiae did indcnl 
make htt the confidante of his aflain and ol bis rpvoiaiml 
acainM the cardinal, but she. far from tepealiris his conHilnHa 

lion. She refused, BcvrrlhvlcsB, to bceome 
i after taking Ian ol Ihe kin^ in Anne ol 
ilited 10 Ihc convnt of ihc Fill» de Sainkc- 
■c att rras rfipcaiedly vi&ited by LouiSh with 
whom she aiaiiii:iincd a earmpendence. Richelieu micrccpiL-d 
Ihc leturs, awl by amieioiM anU lalsihcalions silcoecdid in 
dalroying tbcir muluij confidence Hr ccisalion ol Iheir 
inisawse was irgtcttcii by the queen, who had been rtconcUnl 
irilh hti faushand Ibroagb the inftucncc al Leufee. At the time 
of her death in Jmuary lAdj kllle dt La F. 



ic bod founded al 
It: Vkmr Cno! 

.,_. AnciU Ji U fa^Ut 

(Fa^. i»9j). 

DD HOTUil, MaaQuls de (1757-18^). <ru bom at the cUleaa 
of CbavaniacinAuvcisne. Fiance, on the 6<h of September rTST- 
HiSfalher'Tas killed al Mindcn iniisq.ond his mother and his 
pandtatlirr died in 1770, and thtisM the age of Ihirleen ho vac 



. .80J), dau^ler 
kNoailli's. ' 

c kingdom, 
dns 10 tolloir tbe taatt ol his father, and cnleccd lis Guafdi. 
' La FaycIIe no nineleen and a captain of drajgnona when Ibe 
EagUA colooin Id America prodiimed thcii 
" At [be trst news of this quarrel," he afleiwB 
memain, " my hart was enrollsd in it," The t 
vboiB he CDiBtdttd, discauraged his aeal (oi the 
'Findtag his puipoae unchangeable, however, he ivnented iht 

in Anwika, and thruu^ Silas Ueaoe. Amcriaan agent in Paris 
an anangunent »u concluded, on the 7th ol Ducmber 1776 
by wBicb L« Fajtlli was 10 enlae t he Amerfcan Bctvicc as majot 
gchenil. A( (Us mameat the news anbed ol 
the Apicrfeaa arms. Id Faytii^s friends >gB 
■baiidon fail' pDrpDse. Even the Atnofcan 
and AHbuT Lee, who had mpeiseded Dcane, withheld further 
(ncounEemeBI and ibe king hlnstll forbade his leaving. . 
tbe batanee ol the Bitilth ambassador al VcnalUes ordcn vc 
iMued lo lein Ihc ship La Fayette was fitting out si Bordcai 
mud La Fayetlc htoiKll waa ancalid. Bol the ship was sc 
' Thf r.mily ol La F^ywte, 10 llie cadM branch of wliTch he I 
feeUcvdl^Ibc ijtb century to the Moticr laauly. 

La Fay. 

' independencE 
Hint de Broglic 

fnm Bordeatu. to > oeighboutiog port in Spain, La Fayetlc 
escaped fnim onstody iit disguise, and before a skoihI liUrt 
' caditl could teach faim be was aftial with eleven choacn 
iHpudens. Though two Brilsh cndscts had been (cat in 
lisuit ol him, he landed safely near Gcsgetawn, S.C. aflor 
tedious voyage of nearly two months, and hulened to Phila- 
Hpbia, then the seat of gowDnuait of the ookiEiies. 
When Ibis lad of.ninetean. with Iha oonmand of only whit 
htle £n^ish be had been able 10 pick ep oa hi? voyage, pro- 
seiued himself is Congroa adih Deant's auihotiiy lo dtmaNd a 

his nceptioD .was a little chilly. Duine's comracis wen so 
■umeifim, and for ollictrsaf suck high rank, that it was impossible 
lor CongreE to raiily them withont injuELlce to AmerklBS wha 
had becomo cntiiled by their service to promotion. La FaycMe 
appreciated the siluation as soon as it was explained 10 him, 
and inunediatdy exprcBcd his desire (o serve in the AmctkaA 
army upon two cogdiLions — that he should revive no pay, and 
that he should act as a vohnlaor. These It-rms were so dilTereiit 
from those midt by olhcr faTBgnets, they h;id bven allcnded 
with such substantial socrifins, and ifaey pcomiscd such import- 
ant iadim:! advantages, Ihar Congress passed a rrsoluifon, on 
Ihe jisl at July i;i7,- thai his services be actepLed, and that, 
in cun^deiation ol his zeal, lllustiious family and connciionl, 
he have the rark and commisdon of iiuijor.gciieral ol the United 
Slate*." Nul day La Fayette met Washington, whose lifelong 
friend be became. Congicss intended hltappolmmcni aspurciy 
honorary, and Ihe question of giving him n fammand was Ich 
enllrcly id Washington's iliicrct ins. Hiafirsl ball k was Brandy- 

CDuragl and aclh^ity and received a vounJ. Shoflly sf lerwanfc 
he stcuicd wliai he most detlted, the command of a dlvl»an — 
Ihe ImmedblL- nsuit of a conmunicaiion from Washington to 
Congress ol November 1, 17J7, In which he said;— 
" The moniuis de La FayCIIc kcilKmely.iDbciliiif of havuif a 

hi» llluslrfnus ami Important ^aeirfms, the ailachnKnt vhidi ly 
has manifested for our cause, and the eon»qifenres which hisfetum 
in dbguL michi prubicc, thn it wiU be atviiiiUe uiraiily his 
wiihes, and I^ marc so as several genlleiwon fnm France wba 
. . _., J haMc (one back disappoinicd in 

"i^ himsHI tTimwe .IM 

eiprcUtions. Hli cundurt 
iialrtc paint a) view— havini 

01 La Faycllc's 
Is not much to be said. Though the commander of ■ division, 
he never had many troops in his charge, and whatever mill lary 
talewts he possessed were ndi ot the kind which appeared 10 
conspicuous advantage on Ibe IheaIre to which his weallh and 
lamily inSuence raihei than his soldierly gills had called hlnr. 
In the Gist months ot 1778 he commanded troops detailed 
for the projecled upcdition against Cnosdt. Hit retieal fiom 
Birren Hill (May it, ij;8) was tommended ss maWeHy, and 
he fought at tbe battle of Menintniih (June it,) and received 
Irom Congress a fonnal lerognitiDn of his strvim la Ihe R^odc 
Island eipediiion (Augast 1)78!. 

The inatiss of eommcicc and dcfendve aSiance, signed by Ihe 
inaurgentaandFranccon the 6th of February i778,iMtdpTOMpll7 
followed by a deClantion of war by England apltui the latter, 
and La FaydIC asked leave to tevltit France and to flDBSuH hli 
king at to the fuilher direction of his setviccs. This leave wal 
readily gisnsed; il was not dtlScult tor Washingion to lepbce 
the tnajor-gcAeral. but it was hnposslble 10 find another equally 
eompelBnl, ftifloenliaJ and devoted champion ot the Ameiican 
cause near the court ol Louis XVL 1Ntaci,heweot onamhsioA 
lather than a vltil. Htembafked an the iithaf Janaary 1779, 
was received wlih enlhiHlun, and was made a eiilDncI In the 
Ficnch eavalty. On the 41h ol March following FiankJin wrote 
10 Ihe president ol Congnss: "The msfquis de la Fayette. : . 
Is ioJioUrly euecRRd and Moved here, and I >M peiwaded will 


do everythiii( 


D ini 

." He 1 

Li Fa>tILq wu abicDt fniln Americi 
hii return mis the occaiion oF a compUmcaUj 
Congress. Fmnl Aim] uolil October 1781 he wj 
the dclincc ol Virginia, in which Wiuhingion 
credit o[ domg all thai was poniblc with the forcei 
and he showed his xcaL by borrowing id 

Ic Dl Yorklown, 

part, was the lail ol the wu, and lenntuted his militiuy career 
in the United Slates. He iinniediuel)' oblaiotd leave to Rlum 
to Francc.wbere il was supposed he might be useful in ncgotiatioiH 
lor a general peace. He wu also occupied in the preparalioDB 

the British West India Islands, of which he had been appoinlcd 
ctuef oS slaK, and a.ionnidaUe Beet asKmblcd at Cadii, hul 
the anniuiix signed oo the lolh of January 17X3 between the 
belligerents put a stop, to the expedition. He had been pro- 
moted (1781) to the tank of marMai it canif (major-general} 
in the French arniy, and he received (vciy token oi regard 
Irani his sovereign aod bit countrymen. He visited the United 
Sl*<« again in 17S4, and renutined wme five nwatbt at tkc 

La Fiyctie did not appoai again promiDcnlly in public lilc 
until 1787, though he did good service to the French Protestants, 
and btcatne actively iDiertstcd in plans to abolish slavery. In 
■787 be took his seat in the Atu^mbly ol Noubles. He 
demanded, and be alone signed the dcfliand, tbat the king 
convoke the fltates^gencral, thus beconing a leader in the 
French ReKdutlon. He showed Liberal tendencies both in 
tbat aiserably and alter its dispersal, aod in 178S was de- 
prived, in consequence, ol hii active command. In 1784 La 
Fayette was elected to the slates-general, and look a prominent 
part in its pnceedings. He ms chostn vin-pretidcni a( the 
National Anembly, and on the itlh of July 1789 piescntcd 1 
declaration ol rights; modelled 00 Jefferson's CcdaratiDn of 
Independence in 1776. On the ijtb of July, the Kcond day ol 
(he new t*gime, La Fayette was chosen by acclamaliDn oolonet- 
gtneral of the new National Cuird ol Paris. He abo pioposcd 
the combination el the colours of Paris, red and blue, ^d the 

O^y t7). For the SKcecding Ihree years, until the end of the 
constitutional monarchy in 1792. his history is largely the biatoiy 
Ol France. His life was beset with very great responsibility 
and perils, for be was ever the minister ol butnanity and order 
among a Irenaied people who had come to regard order and 
humanlly aa phases of treaion. Ho tesclwd the queen from the 
handsel the popiiUce on tbe jth and Aih of October ijEg, 
saved many biinblet viciims who hod b«n condemned to death, 
aad htt lislied bis life in many uBluccesslul attempt! to rescue 
othtis. Befsfc this, disgusted citk enaiBiities sihieh he was 
powetkess to prevent, he had resigned his conuBissioB; but so 
impossihle was it to lepUee bioi that be was induced <to resume 
il. In the Const litieat Assembly be pleaded for the abolition of 
ubltruy imprisDnnieflt. for ccUgtous talcmDOg. for popular 
npiaeatalion, [or the establish meat ol uial by juiy, lor the 
gradual emancipation ol slaves, for the ftretiom ol tbe press, 
hw ibe nbolitio« «( .tillea ol nobility, and the suppression of 
IKivikged orders. In Fcbruuy I7«D he nlustd the supreme 
command ol the National Guard of the kingdom. In May he 
founded the " Society id i;84 " whidi afterwards bctninc the 
_ ... -^ ■ , He took ■ pramiDCDt part in ibe cdebiation 

•f July 1. 


■J suppressing ai 

n April i;«i he again 
_ compelled 10 retain it. 
He wu (he irimi! of liberty as veil as o( order, and when Louis 
XVI. fled to Vaicnnet he issued orders to stop him. Shortly 
slicrwards he was made lieutenant-general in the nmy. He 
canamaDckd tbe troops in tbe suppmalon ol another twKnU. 
on the occaiioa ol the prodanution ol the constitution 
{SeiXamber iS, ngi), alUr which, feelinc thai his Isik 
'' doiM. be retired into private life. This did not prevent 

Ins ftieods from )HT>posiif him foi tbe nuyonlty »( Pirii Cb 

oppoution to Potion. 

When, in December i7Qr, three armln swn (omed on the 
western Irontier to attadt Austria, La Fayette was pitced b 
command of one o< them. Dut events moved faster than Li 
Fayette's moderate and humane repuhlicsnifn, and seeing that 
the lives ol the king and queen were each day More aod more 
in danger, be definitely opposed himscll tn the further advance 
of the Jaa>bin party, intending eventually to use his army for 
the rostorBlian of s limited monarchy. On the i^lh of August 
1793 the Assembly declared him a traitor. He Mas tompellnl 
to lake refuge in the neutml territory of Ll^ge, vhetice as one 
ofjlie prime movers in the Kevohjtian he was taken and held 
as a pnaonec ol state lot five years, first la Prussian and 
aftctwardi in AuUiiin prisons. In spke oi the intercesaoi ol 
America and the ptcadingi of ha wl(c. Napoleen. bawevec, 
(hDugh he had a low opinion ol his capacities, stlpultled in the 
(ccaiy ol Campo Formio (1797) iu La Fayette's reltue. He 
wat not allowed to return to France by the D'atnatj, He 
nlutncd la ijgg; in iBoi voted against the life tsasulate at 
Napoleon; and in l8o< he vMcd against the imperial title. 
He lived in tctiitment during the First Empire, but teiuned 
to public aCairs under the First Restoration and took some 
part in tbe p^tical events of the Hundred Days. FVom 181I 
to iSa^ he iras deputy lor the Sailhe, speaking and voting 
always on tbe Liberal side, and even becoming a lOrftnan^ 
He then revisited America. (July iBl<~September 1815) wbat 
he wss overwhelmed with popular sp[dsuic sod voted the sum 
of f Kio,ooo and a township of land. -From iSr5 to his death be 
satintbeChairiberof DeputicsforMeaui. During the Rvolutkin 
of iSio he again took command ol the Nations] Cuatd and 
piRsued the same line of conduct, with equal want of succfB, 
as In the first tenjlulion. Id iBji he msd^ hi* tut speech^ 
on behalf of Polish potilical refugees. He died at Paris on tlic 
nth of Ma>t 18^4. In iSt« in the city of New Vork a mominent 
was eiHlcd 10 him, and in 1883 another was etKled at Pay. 

Frw men hove owed more of their success and mefutaun 
to their family rank than L* Fayette, and still fewvi havs abused 
it less. He never achieved distinction in the field, and hb 
polliical career proved him to be incspaUe ol ruling a great 

always [mpcHta bM 1 

nglbem. which, in JItl 
rured him a very ur 

n in F«aaee appear to hi 

tudcs ol his eventful lile, i 
public respect. No ciliiei 

America, nonjots any staie*- 

■et possessed uninterruptedly 

uire of papular infioewx and 

called a " cuiH iip)ittile " 

1 the appetite only seemed to 

the lame irhick be cnft^nL 

e never shrank livm dailger 

the way open to spare file «t sttHiNiag. 

nouxE the defenceless, to lusain the law and prenene atder. 

fis SOB. Cioaais Wishdidtoh Mottek d* L* Fanns 

7 IT-i 849). entered the aimy and was aidtde-camp to General 

luchy thrpugh Ibe AoKoaa, Fruiiiaii and Polish (iSoi-vt) 

^gns. Mspoleon's dlsttuM ol bis lather rendetfng pcono- 

I impmbable, Georges do La Fayeii4 letiml iuo private lite 

180T until the Rotontion, when he eatirvl the Chamber ol 

■roentatiis and voted consisleally oo the Liberal udCL 

>ms away from Paris during the revohitioa of Jul^ i8je^ 

Ik took an active part in Ibe " cinipiignoi the banquets," 

which led iv-to that of 1B48. He died in Oecembs of the ua 

'. Hbson,09CAKTi[OiiiisCiuii:iT Monu d£ La Fayins 

S-1881). wns educated at the fkole Polytecbnique, and 

served as so aitiUcry odsccr in Algeria. He entered tbe Chunber 

of Repntcntativcs in 1846 and voted, like his lather, «i(h the 

me Left. Alter the nvokiUon of 1&48 he iBBtM a pcM 

c provisional government, and is a member ol the Coo- 

■.ai Assembly be became secictary ol the war oMnnittoe. 

the dissolutioa of the Legislative AsKmbly in iSjt, he 

d Itam public life, but emerged on the nliblisbment of 



the tM>d >— Mfe. b a ra wl M * Ute wotw in i»). BiihnHhei 
EbmusUphumX* F«nnE {[8it<-iego] ibwd Ua poliital 

opuigiw. H*:«M on of Ibc Kcnuriti oC the CoatiiuMit 
A«BBta)y, ■Bda.iaeiqlKitd.ilKMQiu tKM*il}6 toiSSt. . 

SmMMhiw * Mt w iM i> It MitH ButtMNoMf'np JTl A £a 
ayHH taar kHh i Fi Mn ia t*iAilums tfiiifa, An ».. I7U- 
iivi; a. SamiiL Za AihMi •< fa XAaliitiM ^ lita, lujoiii i£u 
ft«« d du *«■■>« d( 7mIU (Pirn, i8u): Ulmmki. tcrrt^pcrd- 
BKB tt Kuinucnlj d> £a FayOlt. |HibIiil»d by hii fimily (i vol<., 
Pufa, ISJT-ISK): Rnniill Wvln. MtmtiUfpnr imh d to Wr <h. 
iMiaf £• liicMMi inra, 1814): A. BiKbuii, id jnmMu di /« 
Tudft (Puit, iSw): i<i iJnnifaci aniifcj ib La faytiu (Pva, 
.c... # r^ J, C/k'™; ij Fay^ (Piirii, ■'•" ' " 

ft^ri*. iS»> 

LcvUKur. La Faytia m .. .. , 

Snaniri dt fa m pMt <a ttirtmJ £1 

fiucr, 1a Amu in Oci(m*kjt (Vienna. lioS); 1 


-- — V; Md M, M. 

dtlphii, 1(95). 

VEBONB, CouiEUE de (i6i4-i6e>), French novdisl, Will 
Ispiucd in Puii, on tin iStli of Maicb 1614. Her (uhcr. Hue 
Piocbe de li VcFgoc, oMiunuuUiil of Havn, died when the was 
liiton, ■odbctraolherKeoii loliave been moie occupied wiih 
her own tlua hef dtughlor't iotercEU< Mme de ia Vcrgne 
auiied ia 1651 Ihe cbevalicide S^vignf, uid Made Ihui bccune 
comccled wilb Mme de Scvignf, who wo dmined 10 Le a 
liiclang [lieod. She lUdicd Greek, Idlin ind Italua, and in- 
4>ifcd iM one of hu tutjor^ CiUei deiMnugc, an cnLhkitiai;jc 
adnuratiui whidilueipreuediii vrncin Lhree or four luguagcs. 
Marie mariiai io 1655 Fnoceii Mclier, cocnte dc La Fayclle. 

own •coiiinl (io > kltet 10 Manage} quJLe happi^; bul aitei 
Uie birtb ol ha two lOIis het Eiutband diappeifgd 10 eflei:tually 
that iL wu loot suppoied thai he died about 1661^ though 
Lc really lived until 16S3. Mmc de La Faytiie had reiumol 
to Paris, aod about 166s ctintiacted an inilaacy with the due 
dc la Rocbeloucauld, then ecfagcd oo hi) Maxima. The coo- 
itancy and aSectioD that maikcif thi( Uaaaa on boih u'dci 
juuified it is the eyct «( todcty, and whro in 16&1 L< Kocberou- 
auld died Mme de La Fa^^iLe tecdvdd the siocctat lympalhy. 
Her first Qavd, la Priuuu dc ifsn/^min'. wu published 
aooDyiBoiely in iiKii Ztyit apparcd in id?" undu ibe name 
of J. R. de Scfnis; and in ifi)S hei maiterpicce, Zd JViiuciic 
it CUtts. tJso under the oame of Sc^rais. The hittory oF Llie 
■Dodem novel of tcniimenl begim wiib the Piincait it Cltni. 
The inleiffiiutiae paget of Mile de Studtty with the f'Kiauu 
and iheir admiiea maj>quetading as Pcnians or ancient Romau 
had already been diauedilcd by the buiinquo ol Paul Scatroa 
and Anioine Fureiiere. It remained loi Mme dc La Fayette 
10 achieve the more diScolt tuk of tubsliluling nmeihing 
more latiilactaiy than the disconsccted episode! of Lhe rdmaii 
cenifut. Thii the acmaplished in a tiory oftcrinf in in shsri- 
OCB and limpUcily a complete contiait 10 the eiiravjgant 
anl lengthy romancei of 4lie Lime, The interest of the story 
depeadi not on ipcidcnt but on the cbatuien ol tbe persoiugci. 
They act in a pcifccLtjr nawoable way and Ibcir nwiivei are 
aoalyKcl with the final dixiiniinatioD. No douhi the semi- 
autobiographical characlet ol the material pailislly uplaii* 
Mme de La Fayetle'a refusal to ackoowledge the book. Con- 
lefflporjir^ criUo, even Mmc de Sfvignj amonpt Lhcm. found 
fjiulL with the avowal made by Mme dc Cloves to her husband. 
In ajiawer to thew criticisms, vhich her avonyrnily prevented 
ber from aotwcriiiB directly, Mme de La Fayette wroU her 
l«sl novel, Lhe Camltat it tail. 

The character of her worli and her history lave cgmhine^ 
to siv« an impiCKioB a( melancholy sitd awsetncss that only 
de of hei chatactcr, for a cotitspondcnca 
imparalivety mntly showed het as the acute 

the court of Louis XIV. She had from her early days also been 
inlitoMc wilh Henrietta ol England, duchess. of Orleans, undef 
vfaotc imroedlale dinction lhe wntte her Hitltiri it Uaiamc 
Bf'itilt i'An^ticrrt, wbic^ only appeared id r7». She wrote 

nof Cnadi Annu 

of da reign ol Louia XIV., wkich, wilh the cactpliss 
chaptcn, lor Ibi ywa 1688 ud 1U9 (published at 
. lua, ijji}, were kal thmach her wn's caiek»ncs. 
Madame dc La fiyetle died on tiw ijlh of May i£«a. 
St* Saintc-fifeivt. ArfH^ di ^Buw t tin ODRitc d'Hauwmirint, 

Uattmr it i^ FaltUt (l««l). i- -'■ ' ' •"—■'- '--—■- 

/«.(oi,: M. de LeKurei o«io 
P,i,u,ut it COkj (iW.>- "■'< ' 

urnutu it laAytiu (liaai'. ' 
S. a cily.ani! 
oiuniy, Indiana, U.Sj\., situaitd at the former head of ni 
tioD on the Wabash riv.cr, about £4 as. N,W. of Indianapohs. 
Pop. (igoo) iS,|i6, of whom li&C were roreign-bom; (1910 
census) lo.eSi. li is served by the Chicago, Indianapolis 
& Louisville.' lhe Qevdand, Cinrinnali, Chicago & St touii, 
the Lak^ Erie & Wolctn. and the Wabash railways, and by 
the Tenc Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern (elntricj, and the Fort 
Wayne ir Wabash Valley Iflwlric) tailways. The river is not 
now navigable at this point. Lafayctlf is in the valley of the 
Wabash river, which is sunk below lhe noimi] level ol lhe plain^ 
the surmundijig; hcighis being the wilb ol the Wabash ba^n. 
The cily has an eicdlcnl system of public schools, 1 good public 
library, two hospitals, the Wabash Valley Saniiarium (Scvenlli 
I>ay AdvenliK), Sl Anlhony's Home lor old people and Lwo 
orjJliB asylums, ll is the scat of Purdue University, a co-educa- 
Uonal, technical and agrlculiur.-il insiiiuiion, o[*enect in 187* 
' John Purdue (iSo]-i8j6), who [ave 

it Iiio,oo 

if the Federal agricullu' 
:ond Morrill Act ol li. 
it cipcriraenl 11 

It of iS6> 

igag ito instruciot^ i;k» itudcnli, aad t Ubray ol ij.'Bo 
vohimcs and pamphlets. |ust ouliide the city is the Stale 
Soldiers' Ifome, whac provision is also made lor the wives and 
widows- of soldicrsi in igoS it contained S5i men and 700 
womcnJ Tlic city lies in the heart of a lich agricultural region, 
and ii an Important market lor gmin, pnxluce and hotses. 
Among its minufaclures are beet, foundry and machine shop 
pxoducu [the Chicago, IndiauapoUs & LouiiviDe railway hu 
shops here], straw board, telephone apparatus, paper, wagons, 
packed meals, canned goods, flout and carpelsj the v«]ue ol 
the factory product increased Inxn Ij, 514.116 in 1900 to 
l4,6ji,4ijin 1905, or ]i'G%. The municipality owns ill water 

Lafayette is about 5 m. N.E. of the site of Ike andenl Wea 
(Miaoii) Indian village known as Ouiaianan, where the Ftench 
established a post about 17M, The French gairison gave way 
to the English about 1760; the alockade fort was deilioyed 
during the conspiracy of Pontiac, ud was never rebuilt. The 
head-quarters of Teoimieh and'hii brother, the "Prophei," 
were established 7 m. N. of Lafayetle near the mouih of the 
Tippecanoe river, ana the settlement there wu known ts the 
" Prophet's Town." Near tSis place, and near lhe liie of the 
present village of Battle Ground (where the Indiana Meihodisis 

wasfought on the 7lh of November 1S1 1 the battle of Tippecanoe, 
in vhich the Indians were dediivcly defeated by Governor 
William Henry Harrison, the whiles losing ilS in killed and 
wounded and the Indians about an equal number. The battle 
ground is owned by the slate; in 1907 the Hate legislature and 
the United. Slates Coagress each appropriated lii,sco for ■ 
monument, wlach took the Ibm ol a granite shall go fl. high. 
The first American sctllcrs on the site of Lafayette appeared 
about iSio, and the town was laid out in 1B15, bul for many 
years in grnwih was alow. The completion of the Wabash and 
Erie canal marked a new era in iu .development, and In 1854 
Lafayette was incotporaled. 

LA PESTi, the name of a number of iDcalilies in France, 
diflerenliated by agnomcna. La Ferif tmbaull (department ol 
LoIr*t-OiBr) was in the possessioii ol Jacques iFElampei 
<ij«o-iMS), mirshal of France and ambasaador In Eii(IaiBt, 



who wu known u the iimrqun ol L* Ttrtl hnbrndu La 
Ferl« Mibcn (the modern La ftnt Saint Aubin, dcfunmcnl 
o(I>c«rct} wuacquirL'd In Lhc tdlh canLury by the faouu of Saint 
Nctiaiic (lunupicd id Srnniicm), and treclal ftiio i iluchji 
iolbc pcsiigenlfoin'XUiiM-taairi in 1M5 for Hcori de Sunt 
neciiiiT. manhal qI Fnncc li wai coIIkI La Fait Loweuiai 
after il had been accpiiiod by MarahaJ LowcnAiI in ijiS. 

U FESTt^ERHARS, a town of wcsicm France, in the 
depanncnl ol Sanhc, en the HuUn(^ 17 m. NX. o( Le Mana, 
on ihc railway from Paris lo thai igwo. Pop. (1906) *Ji8. 
Lt Fcrl« tartics an doth manulaclurc and flour-miiling and 
ha) trade in horsej ajd cattle. In ehutch o(-Noire Dame has 
a choir (i6ib century) with gtacriul ap«c-chapeh ol ReBaiuancc 
aichitcciuie and temaikable windows of the same period; the 
remainder Of ibo church a in the FlamtxiTant Gothic siyte. 
The io«o hall occupio the supcrsltucture w>d Banking lowen 
of a (otiified gaicivay of the ijlh century. 

La FertC'Bcmaid owes its ori^n and name Lo a itronglwTd 
(Jitrmll} huill al»ul the lilh century and afterwards held by 
the lanulyol Bernard. In i4]4i[ did notiuccumblo the English 
inwps liH after a four nwnihs' tiege. Ii belonged in the ifith 
crnLury to the family of Guiic and supported the League, but 
was CBplured by the royal forces in iJe>o. 

LA reRtt-MILOH, a toicn of norlhem Fiance Tn Ihe depart- 
ment of Aisnc on the Ourcq. 47 m. W. by S. of Reims by rail.' 
Pop. (i(io6) 156J. The town has Inlposine remains comprising 
one side flanked by four lowers of an unfinished caslle buill 
aboDt ihc beginning of the ijih century by Louis of Orleans, 
broiher of Charles VL The churches ol Si Nicholas and Noire- 
Dame, cfaieRy of the i6tb century, both contain 6ne old stained 
glass. Jean Kacine. the poet, was bom in the town, and a 
siaiuC 1^ David d'AugcTS has been erected to him. 

LAPFrrrK JACgOBS (1767-1844). French banker and 
politician, was born at Bayonne on the >4lh of (ktober t7A), 
one of the Icn children of a carpenter. He became derk in 
(he. banking boiuc of Perregau;! in Paris, was made a partner 
in' Ihc business in ittoo, and in 1S04 succeeded Perregatii as 
head ol the firm. The house of Pcrrcgaui, Laffitte el Oc. 
became one ol the greatest in Europe, and Lalfiuc became 
regent (iBoi)), ihcn governor (iSn) of Ihc Bank of France and 
president of the Chamber ol Commerce {1814). He raised large 
sums of money for the jiiovlsional government in 1S14 and for 
Louis XVIIL during the Hundred Pays, and il was wiih him 
that Napoleon deposited five million (lancs in gold before 
kaying France lor the last time. Rather than permit ihegovem- 
(nclfl to appropriate Ihe money from ihe BUik he supplied 
IWD million Irom his own pockel lor the arrears ol the imperial 
(rOops alter Waterloo. He was returned by iIk department 
ol the Seine to Ihc Chamberof Deputies in 1B16. and took hii u;at 
on the Left. He spoke chiefly on financial quesllonJ: his known 
Liberal views did nol prevenl Louis KVIU. from insisting on 

lEiS he saved Paris from a financial crisis by bvying a large 
amount of stock, but ncii year, in eonscqucnoe erf his healed 
defence of Ihe libcny of the press and the decioial law <4 1867, 
the goveniDrship of ihc Bank ivas taken fiom him. One of the 
earliest and most delerminwl of the partisans of a conslilntional 
monarchy undCT Ihe diike ol Orleans, he was deputy for Bayonne 
In July i8]0, when his house in Pans became the headquarters 
of the revolutionary party. When Charles X., after reiraciing 
the hated ordinances. Sent ihc comic d'Argout' 10 Laifitte 10 
ncgoliate ■ change of ministry, the banker replied, " 1 1 it tod late. 
There is no longer a Charles Xi." and II was lie who secured 
the nomination of Louis Philippe as lieuienant-gcncral of the 
kingdom. On the jtd ol August he became presideni of Ihe 
Chamber of Deputies, and on ihcgth he received in this capacity 
Louis Philippe's oaih to the hew tenslitution. Tht clamour 
ol ibe .Paris mob for ihe death of the imprtsoned ministctiol 
Charles X., itibich in October culminated in rials, induced the 
'ApcIIiaaicc Actoirc Maiufce. cooiIc d'Argout (1781-1858), aften 



narchy, and a 1 

men tnodcialc mcmben of the govwmMnt^acbding Ootm, 
Ihe due dc BfOgli* and CasJinir-T*rior-i-lo hand owr Iht 

of lite ruvoiuiiotuiry f^riaiaat, should ba in 
losaVc Ok ninisieis from their fury. Oaibe sih c4 Novtmber, 
accORlingly. LaSite became miniiteriiccsidaniofagavarninent 
pledged 10 progrcn [moiaeiiuHr), holding at ' ~ ' 

result Ihal it luccecded In doing 
'the impeached ministers were, indeed, saved by the courage 
ol the Chamber of Pecnand ihcuiitudaof theMalioiulCuudi 
but their safely was bought al the price of LallUlc'i popidtrity. 
His polity of a French intcrvcnilon in favour of the ItalJaD 
icvolulionfels, by which be might have regained his popularity, 
w^ihwarted by the diplomalic policy dI Louis Philippe. The 
rislgnaiian of Lal^yctle and DuponI de I'Eure iiUI furtliei 
undermined Ihc government, which, incapable even of keeping 
order in the slnwls of Paris, ended by being diacrediled with aB 
panics. AC length Louis Philippe, nnicious to free Iilmsdf 
Irom the hampering conirol of ihe agents of his fortune, thought 
it safe to parade his want of confidence in the man who had 
made him king. Thereupon, in March iSji,'Lafriite teugtled. 
begging pardon of God and man for the part he had played in 
raising Lours PhDippe lo the thtont He left office politically 
and financially a mined man. His affairs were WBund op la 
iSjd, and neti year he created a credit bank, which prospered 
as long as he lived, but failed in 1848. He died in Paris oD the 
i6l>i of May 1844. 

Set r. Tbufcau-Dangin, La UenaiMt ti Jutita (vol. i. 1SS4). 

LAPFim, PIERHB (iSjj-igoj), French PosiUvfaii was 
bomon the list of February iSijat Btgucy [Girondel! Hetiding 
al Paris as a teacher of malhemalics, he became a disdpte of 
Comic, who appmnied him his liietary ciccuior. On Iht 
schism ol [he I'osliivlsi body which foUowcd ComteV dnih; 
he was recogniicd as head of the section which accepted the IuH 
Comiian docirine; [he other' section adhering to Lillrf. who 
rejected the religion of humanity as meonsblenl with ihe 
maicrlaiism of Comic's earlier period. Fmin iBjj Laffili^ 
deEvcrcd IV>iii}visl lectures in the room formetly occupitd by 
Comtc in (he rue Monsieur k Prince. He puUUed Ut Crndi 
Typts it rimiaamii (1S7S) and Ciwi dt fliilauplrit premiirt 
(i83q). In iSgj he was appointed lo the ne4 chair fonnded 
at (he College itc France for ihc eiposllion ol the general history 
of science, and It was largely due to his inspiration thai a statue 
to Comic was, creeled In ihe Place de la SorboBne in 1901. H< 

U PIACHE. a too'n of western France, capita! of an iirond: 
isscmcnl lii the department of San he on the Loire, j 1 m. S.5.W. 
of Lo Mans by ralL Pop. (itioS) lown 7*00: commune 10.483. 
The chief inicresi of Ihe loitn'iies in the l^an^. a fanwa 
school for the sons *f olhcera. originaffy a college founded for 
the iesulls m 1607 by lleniy IV. The buDdings. Including a 
fine chapel, were enxted fism iGio to lA;] and ate lurrounikd 

place. La FIcchc is the scat of'a sub-picfecl and of a trfbunul 
of TiTsi Instance, and carries on tanning. Ikiur-milling. and the 
manulaciorcof paper.starch. woodenihocaandglovts. Itiian 

1 Ihe .1 


the family of Sourbon and tins I 

lAPOHT, PIERRE CBftRI (1707-1873), French aetA-, wis 
bom at Sonkaui on the i^h of May 1797. Abandoning hit 
prolcssion as assistant ship's doctor in the navy, he went iii 
Paris 10 study «nging and acting. He had some e ip er i enee al 
a small iheatre, and was preparing 10 appear at the Optra 
Comiquc when ihc ihrertor ol the Vaudeville oBertd JiiBian 
engagement. Itcrchr maileh's tfMiiin 1811 In La Smoiamhali, 
anil his good knls and ctccUeni voice soon lirought taim InW 


paUk hmiit. Afut levenl ynn at the Nouwantb tnd tbc 
Vasdtville, on the buniiv of tlie latui in iRjS be want to 
B^"^,' Hid 'touried, U GniH Gicbd, Jcsny C^b, tram 
irliiiiD be «s soon divormd. On U> ntuin lo Puis be joined 
tbe Viittlt, nbcre he utu) for £fUeD yein in luch pliyi u 
Z« Clu—Htr it SaM Carga, Lt I>tM tmpttiO, Vm ianiin 
evHfttl^ Ace AiuthcT engLgimcDl mt the 'VaudeviJh faDovcdt 
tnd one (C the Gaifti, and tie ended kii btilliint cokct it tbc 
GyrBEiue En the part of Ibe noble fathtr in sucb plays as La 
Vitux Carfsm snj Het beni tilitiefii. He died in Paiii on Ibe 
iftb of April i8;j. 

U FOHTAIDB, JHAN DB (i«>i-i695), Ftend> poet, ma 
boin at Cblleau Tbicny in Champagne, prob*bIy on the 8lh of 
July 1611. Kb fatbei was ChaiJca de La FontuJM, "malue 
ds eaui (t hiitu " — a kind ot deputy^cuger — of Ibe duchy of 
Chlteaa Tbieciy; bii CKHbcc ma E^anpniB Fidom. On 
hotb s{dF9 hia family was of tbc blgbcsC ^Ktivinclal middle 
cba, but was not nobtci hii fatbu was also lairly wealthy, 
Jtta, the ddeit child, was educated *t tbc ctUiii (gianuiiai' 
■cbool) of Reima, aod at tbc cod of hi& acbml days be catered 
tie Oratory In M«.y 1641, and Ibe seminaiy of Saint-M»gloirr 
b Octobec of the same ycati but a very short sojourn proved 
Id him Ibat be had mistakeo bis vocation. He then apparenlly 
Uodied law, isd ia udd to ban been ubnitttd ai atoal, ibougta 
there does not seem to be actual proof of this. He was, however, 
settled in L'fe. or at least might have been so, soncnbat early. 
In 1647 ha father resigned ha rangersbip in bis favour, and 
anangcd amarri^efor himvitbMaricHiii<art,agiTlof alateen, 
wbo brought bbn twenty Ibousantl llvres. 

[o have been both Iiandsoine 

intelligent, but tl 

Iwa did iK>t get on well together. There appean lo be abeolutdy 
a» groottd for the vague scandal as to her condact, which was, 
$m the most part long af tetiratdi, raised by gossipa or persona! 
eaemiea of La Fbntaine. All that is positively said against 
bet. B that she was a negligent housewife and an invclecate 
Ba«d nader; La Fonlaioc himielf ma coniuatly away fiaa 
hame, was certainly not strict in point of conjugal fidelity, and 
was so bajl a man of bu^ncss that his aSaiis became involved 
in hopeless difficulty, and a itpaitlion di liieni bad to take 
pbee in rftsS. This Has ■ perfectly amicable tTUiaeikin for 
the benefit of tbc family; by degtees, however, tbc pair, still 
without any actual quarrel, ceased to live together, and far the 
greater part ol the last forty yean of La Fontaioe't life be lived 
m Paris while hia wife dwdt at Chitean Thierry, which, however. 
he fRquencly visited. One Son was bora to them [n 16J3, and 
Wta educated and taken care ol wholly by his mother. 

Even ia the earUcr years of hi* marriage La Fontaine leema 
to have been much at Paris, but il was ni>t till about i«56 that 
be becuAe a regular visitor to the capital. The duties oi his 
office, which were only occisional, were compatible with this 
Doa-resideuce. It was not till he was past thirty ibat hti literary 
caner began. The reading of Malherbe, it is said, first awoke 
poetical fancies in him, but for some time be attempted nothing 
but triSes inlhefasluooaftbe limel-eplgiams, ballades, rondcaui, 
kc. Hb first letiDui work waa a tranUiioii ei adaptaiion of 
the £iiinicjhu of Terence (11154). At this time the Maecenas 
irf French Icttcn was the Supcrintendatit Fouquct, to whom 
Ia Fontaine was introduced by Jacques Jjuinart, a conncuon 
of hia wife'*. Fiw people who paid their court to Fouquct went 
away empty-haiuied, and La Fontaine soon received a pension 
of rooa livres (1634), on the easy terms'of a copy of verses for 
each quaticr's leceipl. He began too a medley of prose and 
poetry, entitled U Stttp it Vaax, on Fouquet'a lameus country 
bgqs*. It was abovt this time that bis wife's pnperty had to 
be separately secured to her. and he seems by degrees lo have 
hid to sell everything of tb onn; but, as be never lacked 
powerful and generous patrons, this was of siaaU ioipoiuince 
Is hhn. In Ibe aame year be wrote a ballad. La Kinn da 
Btau-Kictard, and this was followed by many smaB pieces of 
occasional poetry addressed to various peisoaagcs from the king 
. Fouquct soon incuiied the loyal ditpleasuTe. but 
'" >0«toIUiUHn(yp»otig4*,manM«nfaltUid 

to Um, tbBwdl-kiiowB degy ffawo, nyiifte * Vtia, being 
by no means the only proof of his devoilan. Indeed it is tbonglil 
not hnpnbaUa that a JonnMy to Limoges in 166] in company 
with Jaonait,aiid (tf wUA wb bwe an accouol wriiiea to his 
wife, was not wholly spAntaneons, as it certainly was not on 
Jannart's put. Just at this lime his affairs did Dot look promis- 
ing. His father and hiaiself bad asaumnl the title of oguae, 
to whicb they were not strictly entitled, and, some old edlcu 
on tbc tubject having been put in Mrce, an Informer pmeuied I 
aeateoce agalnat the poet fining him 3000 llvres- He found^ 
hawerer, a new protector In tbe duke and stiH loore bi the 
dttctaesa al SouHlon, his feudal supcrloia at CUtean Thierry, 
aad nothing >noR k beard of the fine. Some of La Fontaine's 
liMlkat Tenea an addnned to the duchen, Anne Uandni, 
ibe yningeit of Uaaaiin'i nieces, and it ts ewn probable that 
Iho IBSU of the dnke icd duchess for Atiosto bad something 
to do with the Wltlng of hit Snt wofk of real impottsiKe, the 

. first bodi of the Cmtu, whicb appeared in 1664. Me was then 
lottj^btce yaais aid, and his previous - printed pniduclloDs 
had beta coapavatlvdy trivld, though much oi his work was 
h andad aboM la manucripl long before it «as regularly pubbsbed. 
It wai about thia tltta that the qnaitctte of th« Rue du Vteur 
Cokmbia, *o fauatti ta KcDch lileiary hedory, was formed. 
It eoarisud of la Fsatalne, Raciu, Boilean and Meiiln, the 
last of irboni was abnoat al the same age as La Fontaine, tbe 
other tMo inuideTably yonnger. ChajieUe was abo a kind of 
oat^defln the coteril. There are m^oy anecdotes, some pretty 
obvlouslyapociypbal, about these meetings. The most character- 
istic ia perhaps that wUch asserts that a copy of Chapdain's 
uBhKky Pmilli alway* lay on lbs taMc, a certain number of 
IJnea ol wUch Wla tbt appointed punlahment (or oBences against 
the cnaipaoy.i The oHerlB funurited under fagned name^ 
the peraMageaof Ia Fontaine's vaMon of the Cupid tnd Psyche 
story, wfaldi, hmimer, with Adanii, was not printid till 1660. 
HeaawUk the pM coUlBUed t« fmd friends. In 1M4 he waa 
icguUil)' comntailoned and auran Inis gmtloDan to tbe 
dnchcaadowigtrolOdeaB^ and was Installed In tbe tuaembouig.' 
•gMUp, and in lUt ire have somtlfaing 
Colbert suggcsltn; tbat he shodld look 
at Chlteau Thierry. In tbc saise year 
ipp4ared the aecoad book of the Cimla, and in iMS the first 
!<iK books ot Iba FaHtti with more of both kinds in 1671. Id 
tUa latter year a cmioos instance of tbe doeHhy with wUch tbe 
poet lent UmeH to any inSucDce was afforded by blsoflidatitig. 
at the instanct of the Per^-Rayalists, as editor Of a v^ume ol 
sacred poetry dedicated tfl the prince de Conti. A year after- 
wards his riiiialion, whidi bad for some time been deddedty 
itouifching, sbmred signs of dianglng very much for the worse. 
The duchos of Orleans died, and be apparently had to ^ve up 
his raogBTship, probably selling ii to pay debts. But there was 
ahiaya a pcovidenco for La Fontaiac, Madame de ta Sablibe, 
a woman ol great beauty, of consideTable intellectual power 
and of high eharactei, invited him to make his home In bet bouse, 
where he lived (or some twenty yeaia. He seems to have had 
no trouble whatever about his affairs thencefor«aid; and could 
devote bimseif to his two different Uoea of poetry, as well as to 
tbat of tbcatrica] compoaitlon. 

In r6Si bo was, at mon than sixty yean of age, recogniied 
aioneef tbe first men of letters of France, Madame dc SCvignt, 
one ol tbe soundest litcreiy critics of the time, and by no rAeant 
given to praise mere novcliici, had ^»kcn of bis second collection 
of PaUa pubhsbed in tbe winter of ibjS as divine: and K ia 
pretty certain that this was the general ophilon. II «as not 
uonasonablBi therefore, that he should present hlmsctf lo the 
Academy, and, though the anbjocts of his Catila were scareelt 
calculated to piopftlate that decototis assembly, while bit 
attachment to Fouquet and lo man than one repKseOtative 
of tbe old Frondeur party made him •Rispect to Colbert and the 
king, most of tbe members wen his penonal friends. He wii 
first proposed In 1681, but was rejected for Dangeau, Tbe neit 
year Colberl died and La Fontaine was agafai nominated. Boiteau 

! was alio a candhlale, bat tbe bit baUat gave du fatetti 



lixteni voUiigiliMlHicsa^latltecrilk. TW UOg, vbcM 
•nent mi BBoeuaty, not mc^y foe tlKtioa bal lot a •scvnd 
IwHol in que of Uk Itiiaxe ot imbaohm mtjatior, hm iH-plnmd , 
and tfai dcctioQ wu k(t pendlnf. Aaothcr vuuicy occuiml, 
bawcHH, unic moDtlis later, ud to Ihii Boikau wu ekcud. 
Tbt kiag tautened ta appnnre the choice efiusivdy, ukiioli 
" Voui pouvei iauuaniRwnt recevoil La Fonlaioe, i ■ pronui 
d'etre sage." Hit admiBioD wai iDdirectly tbc cauu o( the 
only leiioui lUaiaiy quuttl o( hi* life. A diiput* todt [dace 
between the Academy and one of iu membera. Aatolne FuKIiite, 
on Ibe lubject of the lalter'i Fnnch dktiDDaiy, whidi wat 
decided la ba a breach of the Aodcmy'i DOipoiale priviiegcf, 
Furetijre, a man of no irnaU aluUty, bitterly asiaikd thoH whom 
be coniidend lo be h[s enemia, and imcof them La FontilM, 
whose nnlucky Ctnits made him peculiarly vuloepible, hii 
lecoDd cuUecikia of Ihfw Udet having b«o the subject of a 
police cnademnalioii. The deatli of the author of the Xaiun 
6ev{uu, hoxevu, pot an tod to Ibk qiuurcL Shortly aftei- 
vudi La FoDtaim bid a ibare in a itill nan latnaus aSair, 
the ceiEbrated Anoent-and-Modem squabble In nhich Boilcau 
and Pf rrauli men (be ehiels, aad in which La Fontaioe (though 
he had be«o tpedally singled out by Perrault tat favounble 
CDmpaiiMU nilh Aesop and Phaedrus) toiA the Andent tide. 
About the ume time Ci68;-i6Bt) be made the icquaiDUDce 
of the last <A bis many hoUs and pratccton, Moii^eur and 
Uadame d'Uervin, and fell in love with a certain Madame 
Vhich,a lady of Bomepoiitionbut of duubllulcbatacler. Thi< 
acquaintance was accompanied by a .great familiarity with 
Vccd6me, Chaulieu and the real of the libenlne coterie of Ibe 
Temple; but, though Uidaioe de la SaUiire had long given 
herself up almost entirely 1o good works and religious cierdses, 
La Fontaine cnniiiiued an Inibatf of her hau« until her death 
is i6«]. Whax fDilowEd is told in ooe o( the beat known of 
the many stoiio bearing on hi) childlike natutt. Henart on 
hetiiag of the death, had att out at once to find I& Fontaine. 
He net him in die street in gwat soclow, and begged him to mak* 
bis home at hi* house. " J'y allais " was La'Faataine'a aoawei. 
He bad already undergone the piocesi of conversion during 
a seven illness the year before. An energetic young priest, 
M- Poucet, bad brought him, not indeed to undcntand, hut to 
acknowledge the impr^ety ol the CmUs, and it i* said that 
tbe deslructkin of a new play ol some merit was demanded and 
submitted to as a proof oi repentance, A pleasant sloty is XiAi 
of the young duke of Burgundy, F^Delon's pupil, who was then 
only eleven yean old, sending jo loui* to La Fontaine as a 
present of his own moiioD. But, though La Fontaine cecovtred 
for the time, he was broken by age and inhnnity, and his new 
hosts had to nurse rather ihan to entertain him, which they 
did very carefully and kindly. He did a little more work, com- 
pleting his Foifei among other thingi; but he did not Muvivc 
Madame de la SahU^ie tnuch more than two years, dying on tte 
I31h of April 169s, at the age of seventy-three He was butied 
in the cemetery of the Holy InnMcata. His wife survived 
nearly Efteen years. 

The curious perHmai tltaiactei of La Fontaine, like tbi 
some other men ot letters, has been enshrined ia a kind of legend 
by literary tradition. At an early age his absence of mind and 
indiSerence to bnsiness gave a subject to Tallemsnt del Riatii 
His later contemporaries helped to swell the tale, and tbe 181 
centuiy finally accepted it, including the anecdotes d bis meeting 
his son, being told who be was, and remarking, " Ab, yes, I 
thou^t 1 had seen him somewberel " of hb insisting on fighting 
a duel with a suf^Mued admirer of hja wife, aiHl then implori 
him tovbit at his bouse just as before; of his going into compa 
with his stockings witing side out, tic., with, for a contn 
those of his awkwardneu and silence, if not positive ludene 
in rompany. It ought to be temembned, as a cooiinent on I 
unfavourable descripllDn by La Biuyire, that La Fontaine wa 
4>edal friend and ally of Beaserade, La Bruy^'s chief litnary 
enemy. But after all deducUou nucb will lemain, especially 
when it Is Teaenibeied that out of the chief aulhuitiei for these 
•DK^Ote* ia Louis Kadnc, a man who pMacMcd inteltigeaca 

««Mh and wba ncairdd iliMi.fMm U* tt^n, Li: 
Fontabe'aaitadedfritodfof nun thaatUny yean. Fabw» 
the beM wiith nc»tdii« it all tbwe itoifaa ii odb ol the VJem 
Colombiv quattetlo, which tdls bow Holilrc, lAile Radna 
and Boileaa vete cmdsiag that kill i^iaa " la bodbomme " 
or " le bon " (by botli wU^ Htlei tt, Fcolalne was lamiUariy 
known), remarked u> a byauadeii" Nob beatu etpriu out bean 
'cHacemoE pti le boDbomnie." TbeyhavanM- 

but bf ChampBeaU. the hasbaad ol the la 

captivated Radiic and Charles do 5Mgq£. His 

chiefly in the fcrni of opera, a form C4 no great — ^, — — , — 
:hi has all the advantancs of hi charming fltt>ry and of 1a 
taine^B «yle. but it Is penisps princ ip ally intertitliif iKni4da>4 

luwiai the framemrk cS pcrsHid convemtion already alludid to. 

The minglKJ iirOK and «rie of cbe&etrdt Kauisnot uointerest-. 

'igi but ita beat things, siidi ai the descriptioa of night— 
" Laissant ton^Ki lea fleuji « ne Its seraant pas," 
.'hich has ncbantcd Fmch ^iei; an little «« thaa coaeeiti. 

elegies, the epltlct, the epigranu, the banidn, conEain many (luii» 

■ociili. but even i[ they be taken aanrdiiv to the vne rule of modem 

in ibat kind, they fall fvnclow the ncrits nf the two great coUactions- 

Between the actual Hteniy merits of the two there is not madi 
to clune, but the chsnfa st mannas and the altered standard <A 
literary detencyhavathrowBtheCkiHkriBtetlieshade. Tkeseuki 
an identical lA gencial ffc'y**^ vhh those irtiich amused Europe 
frDin the days of tbe early /Matt writerL Light love, the mis- 
EortuTiet of hinbands, the cunniiig of wives, the breach of their vows 
by mHniaitin, eoBttlule the staple bf their lul^ecl. In some 
npnni La Foataloe la the best af such lale^elleri, wbile he is 
cvtainly the lateu who dcKives eucb cKUie *i any be claimed by 
a writer who don not chixne indecent nibiects from a deCbente 
knowledge that they are coBsidertd indeeeBt. and with a defibente 
de«ire t* ponder to a virlaus laate. No one'wha foUowfd hi«i In the 
style can dum thiaeuuM; beeaiLaadlfc* wayJawUchEOiitaDpeF- 
ana a[ >tai nlai vin ue auch aa Madvne de Stv^ni apeak of Iw wvk 

Am" 'ij^trff "" iS" ™ ^1 'fi"Fon™tiTt«°l( 
aTlempU little odgiruHly of thrnie. He taltH tiia ne 
them. It b (cue. in detail not a Stile) tiomBociaocio.boii 

hardly less 

na Gcuhy ol Hyiiu L ,„ 

litfl and gentleniaii^ manner. These 

ilcawbBcks. Thty an not peasBaKd bf tbi half jiaiaa 
or physical beauty and tbe ddighta of snss which Bnuaatea 
IKS the early Italian Renaissanc*. They have not the subtle 
and sensuality, of poetry and appetite, which 
Drt of Marguerite and of the FKiide, liley are 
I pnr rin, a geaulne eipiaaihin of the aiprd 
iH writers and oIBabelais, destitute ol the grow- 
ncfls n envewpe which hsd formerly covered [Hat spirit. A con- 
parison et "l^ Fiane£e do poi de Garbe"wjth lis origina) in 
Bocoocn (espedally if the reader takes M. Eeiile Moni^I'a ad- 
DJiabli essay as 1 comncniary) will iUmtnte better than anytluiig 
else what they have aad what they have ool. Some writecm have 
pleaded bard for the admissioo of actual paaaion of the poetical sort 
in such piem as " La Courtiiane ac " ' . . -. 

must ba admtlMd to beahseM. 
Tbe Falte with hardly las an 

collections be allowed himiclf bi 

that his genhd is moat rullr 
is as mudi to be eoiuidercd J 

imiclf br more Uboty. and it b in it 

rnnjr manifested. TheboMimof tb 

innity of the motalliii 



]La Rochafoucauld. for whom t} 

lack Ihit of 
■ piUaiDd 

It BMty only be Bid llul odn ((ml La FoDtHnc b nmncDtlr ■ 
MtiriM) aiGtauily conanu iuilf wilh the darker nllwr tbu nUi 
tb« Eigatrf thads. Indeed ibe objectioa kM becone preny aeafly 
obnlcie with Ike gb»le«DOE of w&u mar be carlcd Uie DiimiMt 
i^hical tcboel of crlUcuo. Ita lavt ovtft cxpmflOa mi nude by 


ilha /'•Ua OB man poreh liitmn, bal kudlr >■ 
nouadt by LudBi. Peibapa uie beet crlticui 
La Fonlaus'a FsiSt i* that <tf SUvexue de Saq 


puidy ubimiy 

to the effect iGal they Hpp)y ihnc wTCnl deU(hti to 
us; the ehUd icjoicei id tb> trtiliiHH and vinfaieit ol the aorr. 
tEe caoer itiidHit of HtetMun la iba i iiinniiinmii an wltb wMch it b 
teU, lb* ofaritiicid ana of the worid In the MNk nOectkiiu m 
c h a nct g and Ufa wlucb it Gopvrn. Nor hai any one. witb the ea- 
cqidon of a ttw paradoxal like Rouneau and a few KPtipienuiiita 
Kite Laoiartliw, dnM that tbe man) tone of the wkc4c ia ai freih 
•wlh(aWky«ainlit«*nr)>M»Mi>vivhl. Tte book hai ibetelon 
■aunlly baeania (ha itandacd nadiac book of Fieo^ both at 
faome and abiwL a postka wkkh S ihana in vrna with the 
TMmajiit o( Ftnelon In prooe. Il b no nnall teMimooy to lu Dierit 
that not even tMa nie or miHK haa iatnfercd with lie poputarily. 
Ite lewnl UtMary daiacter d La Faotaiae it. wkh alkwaiue 
nada for the diOcmia of lubfect, viiOih eqaallr ia the AWu a^ in 
the Ctmla. Pwtiapa one <d the bard ci t Hviiin ia Frcncb litentm 
(or an Enillih Mudnt u the dictun o( Joubett to Ibc cfTect that 
- n < a rfi» £a AhMAm ne fUnfkda dk ^MW( fi'm M nvtM wOi 
aaMrataittanMiuglK~ The diBculty ari» lnMa the 
ettixtniH. Foriannli<iH*DfbaivaDdfcrdi%Bat 

aadi theoldeit 

, „ itiktly 

iTpilated. hia cadencei aitluiW anapied. and the whole aCect aiay 
beauliabc(t1iouih,orcoune, ma II(BtaiK] tripping Bteauueinitead 
«( I iiately one) atnlUr to that of the (Uiiai of the En|liih i^ndailc 
ode in the hand* of Drydea or Collin. Tbera It tbercliR BathinE 
aiaioot La FoaniMoaike acsnol- iawaiiga nd aoihii^ n the 

■tandardi» ii wanted to dhIh up a " plenitude of poevyi" and tint 
•ocRelkiaf more La Fontaine leldoDi or never cxhibiti. In wordi 

faculwrotiianipotiangiapo — r danjMedkumydlHareiiiiaaim 
by dincrcnt nta. bt aonait Mkeatba foraoi paniaB.inaontiri 
half myUkal eadiuiiam for nature, ia aooa o( commandini ek>- 

Swnce. in dime of moral fervour. La Fontaine hai none gf tbsie 
inf> : he 11 alwayi aninihif. alwayi aemible. alwaya ticver, iDnie- 
tioei cRi aSaninf. bol at IM Mntt tInK alwM intior Inpneak. 

perbipi not even a treat huouriat; but he la ike laai adninble 
teller oT lifht talc* in leiae thai h» ever eiijlcd in any tlmt or 
couitrr; and be hai eitablisbcd in hii vene-lale a model which It 
Bevel Skaly to b« Mp»a«L 

of ihein. The moit remarkable o( hia vparvEe publicalioas have 
alirady been noticed. Other* were the Petme it la afitmll it Si 
Uik {itjif, one oi Ae piecai l»|ilred br the Pon-RouliKi, the 
fotae Ai Qi^H (I6»l). a pia« <if tkOi work abo, lK»|h «r a 
very different Uitd, and a number ol piecaa paUiibed ehlwr n nail 

gmphlcti or with the w«rkt ol other own. Anoiw ibe hiler may 
iLnglcd out the riecei pabRilied by the poet iriih the vorki o( 
hit friendMaucnix (lets). Tlie year after Ini death lome rot- 

■atlcnd poama, leUctik fc;, with the addiliiM «l «me naouUiihed 
work bought from the family in manuKript, wen carefuRy edited 
and pabnihed u (Qiirei dnirin (i7iq). During Ihc Itlh century 
two e< (be nion mainitceBi ilhiiinted ediilam ever poblMied of 
any poat imniaai the two chkf wvehi el La PonUkR The 
fMa were UlMliated by Ouilry (IMS-ITM). the IThIb by Ei«i 
tl76f). Tki. killer onde. the ilt of "Dillon de. F.-'" 
Ciainat' letclin ■ high price. During the Krtt thirty i 
tkaiettMntvTyWakktnaer.nkttnlKudntof French ITth' 
cUadca, pabUibed f at the bouK of Didot thrtt Mccaein idi 


i-iSiT) bctnc Mffcana entltkil to the nnt 
Ui fiittDM rflTb hTb Ai a— MI d( La 


of the uandanl edition. *i Ui fiiKDM di I* w B Ai iMa i ei it _. 
ifntleimt a the Mandard bnanphy and biblnaiapky. Tha lata 
edilKuu of M. Maity-LavcBux u the BibUMStiit MtiHatnt, A 
"auly In the CtHtctitn its dattiqmt paiuaiitt of M. Lemerre ana 
^ MolaDd In that of M. Cuniei upply in diAerent fvnn all that an 
be wlihed. Thg wjubA la tho handioineM, tbe third, wkicb ia ooa- 

ffie,psrhap•the^Knt■eae^Uy vatfuL EditiDoa, leleeiiDaa, (lajia- 
mi. Ac., ol tbe FMa. eapecuUy for achod uae. an innumenbH: 
but an lltuitraled edilian publlahed by the Liinuntia BiUiitiiUt 

ondec^nn. The worka ol H Cnuchy. AeaawaU MHuar 
la Famtjn biaa\ I of G. Lafencatit, /(oa da It Fimltimt (tIu) : 
and oC Enulc Faguet, Jcoa di U FfOUtm* (1900), ibouU^ 
BkentioDed. (C S<l.) 

ufohtahk. im unns hipmlttb, but. (iSor-ia&t). 

Canadian lUteunan and judft, Ibiid aon of Anlinne JUouil 
LaFontaine [1771-iSij} (od Malie-J- Fontaine Bienveoue, wa> 
boTi) at BouclieiviUe la the province of Quebec on the 4th of 
October ito^. LaFoataine nu educated at the OJUge de 
Montreal under the diiectioii of the SuLpiciant, ajid wat called 
to the bar of the province of Lowec Canada on tbe iSth of AuguK 
iSig. He mamed Gully Adek, daufbter of A. Berthdot of 
Quebec; and, lecDodly, Jane, dau^lei of Charlci MoniioB, 
ol Bettbiei, by wbom be had two aaoa. In iSjo be waa elected 
a mCRibei of the Home of Auerably foe the county of TeireboDne, 
and became an ardent aapporter of Louia Joseph Papineau in 
oppous^ the adminiitniion of the BDvetnor-in.duef, which led 
to the lebeilion of 1AJ7. LaFontaine^ bowcvai, did not appiove 
the violent methodi of hit lewler, and afiei tbe beatiUtiea U 
Saint Dcnia he preaented a pclilian to Lord Coiford tt^KtlJDg 

Ibe itvolotiotiaiy csune of eventa in Lower Canada. He 
rebellion broke outafrcshin the autumn of iSjSj tbe conitilution 
of I79t wai nu . . . ^ . - 
blicf peiiod; and 
United Slatei, wa 
Frtach Canadians tuned to LaFontaioc aa their leader, and 
under bii <Urecliaa maintained tbeir (i[i|iDsition to the vecial 
council, composed oj nonuncet of the ciowD. In i8j9 Lord 
Sydenham, the govenwt-geneial, oOered the loiidtar lenenblilp 
to LaFonuine, which be rdiued; and after the Union of 1S41 
LaFontaUie was defeated In Ike county ol Terrebonne Ihraugh 
the tovettwr'a influence. Duiing the nut year be obtained • 
seat in Ibe aaiefobly oi the province ol Canada, and on the death 
of Sydenham he waa callol by Sir Cbailei Bigot to lonn as 
adnunistralion with Robert Baldwin. The misiairy resigned 
in November iSu, ai a pnleu againtt tbe actloDt of Imi 
Metcalfe, who bad succeeded Bagot. In 184S LaFoDtaine 
formed a new administration with Baldwin, and mnained in 
office until iSji.wben be retired Iran) public life. It wu during 
the minid.ry of LaFontaine-BBldwin ihal tbe Amaealy BIU 
wu paned, wUch occajioned gnve riots b Montml, pcnontl 
violoict to Lord Elgin and the doliuctioo of tbe pailiament 
buHdlngt. After the death of Sir Jimet Stuart in iBjj !«■ 
Fontaine waa appoioled chief juatke ol Lovrei Canada aod 
pteaident ol tbe aeigneuiaj court, which (titled ibe veied 
question ol land leauie In Canada^ and in 1B5* he waa oeated 
• Wonct. Ue died at Mcotieal on the rtth d( Fcbnury 1S64. 
LaFonlabi* waa wel vened In connltutnaal hiitery and French 
lawibereaBdaiedckiaelyamipreacntedkbcooduaiootwilh dinctataa. 

v»itit iptiiti nit Ih tmaxi dky t a rt tjam IMontnol, iS4»! 
~ ''wf jv Jej caeiftfm rnpuiinain IMoncrcai, iAm)l lee L^ 
by A. DiCelkm (Toronio. 1906). (A- C. DJ 

Unm, CBARia di (i&«a-i7i6), French paintff, ww 
bom in PMiL He wai one of the moat noted and leaM aetvifc 
pMpib of Le Bim, trader whose direction he tbaied in the diief 
of tbe grnt de«»ative workg undertaken In (he rdgn tA Lottli 
XIV. Leaving France In tM). he qieni two yean in Rome and 
three hi Venice and ibe Influence of his prolonged atndlei Of 
Vcroncae b evident in bb " Findlnf of Mow** (Louvre), and 
InMf "Rape of ProMipIn*" (Loavre), lAddi he pnaenMd 
to tbt Royal Academy aa hia diploma picture m itij. He wit 


il ones lumcd uiUtut prafisoi, and b 1674 the full loponv- 
lilitia of Uie office devolved on him, but his cngigcmeJili did nat 
treveat hii aatplliig in 1689 tbe iovitation of Lord Montagu 
decorale Man tun House. He visited London twice, remaininE 
[qh — logcthcr witb Roussuu acd Mc 


I IlL V 

UmlnEiitfud by tbe pmpotal that heiboulddecoiaie Hampton 
Court, (or Le Biun WiU dead, and llaiuart pitssed Lafosse to 
retuni to Paris to take In baod tbe cupola of ti» lovpfides. 
He decDratioiis of Montagu House are destroyed, those of 
Venailies aie leatored, and the dome of tbe Invalides (engievcd. 
rtcan and Codun) is now tbe only work existing which gives 
■ full mcnsure of bia talent. Puting his latter yeus Lifosse 
executed many othtr important decorations in public buildings 
uid private hou»e», notably In that of Croiat, tinder whose roof 
be died on the ijth of Dccembec 17I0. 

UOIRDS. PAUL AMTOH DS (iBir-iSiiO.Ccrmaabiblical 
■cholai and orienUliat, was bom at Berlin on the md of 
November 1B17. His teal name was Stttticber, Lagarde being 
bis raatber's name. At Berlin (1644-1846] and HaSc (1B46- 
t347) fie studied theology, phDosophy and oriental languages. 
In i&i2 his siudira took bim to London and Paiis. In TS54 be 
became a teacfier at a Berlin public school, but this did not 
interrupt hi) biblical slULKej. He edited ths Diiascalia apesle- 
lenm Syrian (iSn), and other Syiiac teits collected in the 
Btitidi Museum and In Paris. la i86« he received three years' 
leave of absence to collect fresh nateiialt, and fn tB£q tuccteded 
Heinricb Ewald as ptofcsMr of oriental languages lit COtilngen. 
Like £*ald, Lagarde was an active worker in A variety of 
ubfccta and languages; but his chief aim, tbe elucidation of 
the Bible, was almost always kept in view. He edited tbe 
Aramaic translation (known as tbe Targum) of tbe Prophets 
according to the Codex Reuchllnianua preserved at Carismhe. 
Fref/iclae daUaiee (1I71), the Hapupapka duldoice (1S74), 
an Arabic translation of the Cospcis, Dit vitr EvanitHtH, arabiich 
0ID ier Witnir Handichrifl luraBiieithn (1864), ■ Syriac 
trusklios of the Old TestuDeni Apocrypha, LiM V. T. 
tpKrypIn ijtvhi (iSAt], a Coptic translation of ibe Pentateuch, 
Dtr FtKlalaicIl jId^h'iiA (1M7). and * part of the Lucianic leit 
qt the Septuagini, which he wai able to reconstruct from manu- 
•cripts for nearly ball the Old Tcstatnent. He devoted himself 
■idenily to oriental scbolatship, and published Zur UriticikUt 
da Armciiitr (1854) and Armenlickt Smdicn (1877). He was 
aba a atndenl of Persian, publishing fiiioi penici (1883) and 
Fvtildu Sluiiitli (18S4). He Jollowed up bit Coptic studies 
witk .(((y^Iaca ([IS3), and published many mioor contributions 
te tbe itudy of oriental bnguages in Crsaiim^ic -Abhandliiiigfn 
(1866), SymmlOa <i. 1877, ii. iSSo), Simliica (I. 1878, ii. 1874), 
Orialalia (i8;9-'3ao) and UiaMliinge<i (1884). Mention 
■houki aha Ix made of tbe valuable Oitmmlka laoa (t8)o; 
tnd ed., 1887). Lagarde also took some part in poliliia. He 
belonged to the Fnissian Conservative parly, and wai a violent 
anti-Semite The biltemess which he felt appeared in his 
writings. He died at GOItingen on tbe iindoi Decwaber i8«i. 

See tbe anicle in HetiOB-Kinck. Kalntyilrpadif. and d. Anna 
Ik Lagarde, Paid dc Laemti [1894)- 

USASH, or EiBitnu, one of tbe oldcM centra ol ftimerian 
civiliaatioD in Babykmio. Il is represented by a ntbei low, 
long line of ruin mounds, along the tlry bed of an ancient canal, 
lomejm. E. ofthe Ehatt-el-Htl and a Utile less than 10 m. N. 
ol tbe modem Turkish toKo ol Shatra- These tuios were dis- 
ttivcred in 1S77 by tlmeat de Saiitc. at lint tiTne French consul 
>l Baira, who viaillawed, by the Montefich chief, Maiir Paaha, 
ibe Snl Wali-Paiba, or govnnor .general, of Basn, to eiavate 
at hi* pltaiun in the tenilories lubject to that offidal. At 
the outset Ob his omu account, and later aa a tepresentative of 
tiw Flench govatiunait, under a Turkish £mun, de Suiec 
cotttinoed ocavations at this site, with various intermissions, 
until Us deatk in 1901, afiu which tbe woik wu contioued under 
(hclopHvisiDB of Uk Commandant Crol. T2ie principal eicava- 
•MU mtt made u two laiser mounds, one of which proved 10 
' ■ tbe site of Ibc temple, E-Minnu, Ibe abriiw of iJk patron god 

ol Lagash, Nln-^tsn or Ninib. Thfa tnnple bad been rand aad 

■ fortccu built upon its [uiu, in the Greek er Sdeucid period, 

soRie of the bricks found boring tbe inscriptfon in Aramaic 

and Creek of a certain Hadad-oadin-akhe, kinjE of a imall 

Babylonian kingdom. It was beneath thia EorticB that tic 

numerous staluei ol Gudea wen found, which conatilute the 

gem of the Babylonian collections at the Louvre. These had 

been decapilaied and otherwise mulilaied, and thrown into the 

foundations of tbe new fortress. From this stratum came also 

various fragaeata ol bas rebels of bi^ artbtk caceUeiKe. Tbe 

eicavations in tbe other laisei mound resulted in the discovery 

of the remains of buildings containing objects of aH sorts in 

bronze and stone, dating £rom the earliest Sumerian period 

onward, and cnablioc us to trace the art history of Babybnia 

10 a date aome huodteds of years be(«a tbe time of Gudea. 

Apparently Ihb mound had been occutued largely by alore 

houses, in which were stored not only grain, fi^ &c, but also 

veaaela, weapons, sculptures andevery poisible object anrtccled | 

with the use and administration of palace and temple. In a 

small outlying mound de Sarrec discovert the archives ol 

tbe temple, about jo.ooo inscribed day tablets, cODtainini | 

ness the administration of an anciuit Babyfonfan temple, the 
character of its property, the method of fanniDg its lands, herding 
its Socks, and its comtneicial and industrial dealings and enter- 
ptisoi for an ancient Babylonian temple was a great industiial, 
cotometciBl, agricultural and stock-raising establishment. Un- 
fortunaldy, before these archives could be removed; the galleriea 
con laiuing them vcre rifled by the Arabs, and large nimjbers 
of tbe tatjets were sold to antiquity dealers, by whom tbcy have 
been scattered all over Europe and America. From the inscrip- 
tions found at Telki, it appears that Lagarii was * dty of great 
importance In the SOmerian period, some time probably in the 
4th. millennium B.C. It was al thai time ruled by independent 
kings, Ur-Nina and hi* succesion, wlio were engaged in contesia 
with the EUmiteg on the east and the kings of Kengi and Kish 
on the nortb. With the Semitic conquest it lost its independence. 
Its rulers becoming fatriis, dependent rulers, under Sargon and 
his succesBon; but it stUl remained Sutnerian and continued to 
be ndty olmocb impt»1ance, and, above all, a ceatie of ailistk 
development. Indeed, it wa* in this period and under the 
immediately succeeding supremacy ol tbe kui^ of Ur, Ur-Gur 
and Dungi, that it reached its highest artistic development. Al 
this period, also, under its palttii, (Jr-bau and Cudea, Lagash had 
extensive commercial comiTiunications with distant realma. 
According to hii own records, Cudea brought cedan from the 
Amanus and Lebanon mountains in Syria, diorite or dolorite I 

ftom eastern Arabia, copper and goldfnimcentral and southern I 

Arabia and from Sinai, while hfs amlB, ptesumably under hs 
ovcr>lord, Ur-Gur, were engaged in bailies in Elam on tbe east. I 

His was especially tbe era of artistic development Some of 
tbe earlier works ol Ur-Kloa, £n-anna-tum, Enienena and 
otbeia, before the Semi tic conqoest, arc also eiirem ely inicresllog, 
especially the famous stele of the vultures and a great silver vase 
ornamented with what may be called the cost of arms of Lagash. 
a lion-headed eagle with wings outspread, graaptng a lionlneadi 
talon. Altar the liaie of Gudea, Lagasfa scema to have loat ita 
importance; at least we know nothing more about it untQ the 
construction of the Scleucid fortress mentioned, when it seems 
to have become part of the Creek kingdom of Characone. like 
objects foundatTellD are tbe mast valaable art Ireaiurti ap to 
this time dbcoventd in Babylonia. 
See £. d( Sanec, DlanatrUi a OalHi [1887 folLV 


UQHMAH. a diRricI of Afghantstan, in the pronnn m 

Jaialab^, between Jalalabad and Kabul, on the northern ride 

in Afghanistan. It la the valley of ibe Kabul river between tbe 
Tagao and the Kunsi and merges on the north into Kairiitan. 
The inhabitants, GhOzals and Tajiks, are supposed (0 be tbe 
cleverest business people in the country.. Sugar, cotton and 
lice are exported to Kabul. The Laghmaa mute betwcea Xabul 



Bd lodta omIbi tht Cmu rim im* the IMduwI country 
li ibe toott ioIlaVBd by Atcxanda tiit Cmt uid Babcri but 
it b» warn been luppluUed by tbe Ktayber. 

UMOK (Ft. lat*H4, tM. laana, ■ pool], i term ipplicd to 
(0 k riMCt of Hit or bncklifa witet TCU the », (i) > ihnt of 
lioh •ater of no ^not deplb or Dxtent. (^JtbceipanKof imoolh 
mtcT codoiHl by an atolL Scm Ugootu ue Ibrincd only wbere 
iheibom jkR k>w ubd piTMccted Irom wiveaclkm. Under (h«e 
coDditiona t, b«t nuy be nued »boTe ki-IctcI or ■ spit mey 
(low until ill enij loucbe* the l»nd. Tb* enckaed shalloH water 
■ iboi iioUted in a wide Mntcb, tbe wavud banki broaden, 
■ad Ibe lasDOn becointa i pcmancnt arem ol jiitl sHaltow wain 
with pecaUar (aunal leature*. In [he dd lake pUuni ol AiatnEa 
tbcn an occaskmal (ride uid shallow drpmsion wheie water 
coUecIS pcmazieBliy. Large numben ol iqoalic birds, black 
EWana, vUd dUck, te«l, migraat spoon-bBls or ptli^nj, n»rt 
to tbeM tnab-nmcT )ai«ns. 

urns, tbe Kcxtrn pivfince of Sootbem Nlgeiia, a Britiih 
totony and pratectonte in West Africa. Tbe province coniiit< 
•( three diviiiMia: (i) tbe coast rc^on, including Lagos Island. 
brine the lonner etiaaj at Lagos; (i) small native stales 
utfacent lo the colony; and Cj} the Vaniba countiy, farther 

of Scotland. Tbe pnninre a bounded S. by the Gull ol Coinea, 
Una »• 46' 5i' to 4* 30' E.); W. by tbe French colony ol 
Dahamty; N. and E. by oihei province! of Nigeria. 
Pkyriai finAiru.— Tbe caan it luw, mintiy and miUiSooa. and 

Dabomey iKifbbfmn, but are of •Mnewbal li^iter compledOD, 
taEer and ol icH pronannced Negro fealures. Tbey ubibit 
high administntive ability, possess a miikcd capacity [or iiada, 



illow cauae a dantrrou 1 
ly (eiaraiet the anSe la 

north 10 the Niger, anil 

physical feature. TheEeL,^,^, „:y,;iui ■vivu^.mu » «»«.«:■ ^ww 1^ 
Bdllcwardt the cut, about the uppercoune of the river Oahun. the 
rinaiisa ia higher. Sauthwairi fioia the dioide the land, which ii 
incenccicd by Ibe ncoriy parallel coonei of Ihe riven Ogun, Omi. 
Othuo. Oni and Oluwa. FaUTin conliniiaui uadulatioai U theuau. 
Ihe open cultivated ground giadualljr giving place 10 foinE tiacEi, 

thai of the other ntiou ol Ihe Guinea 

but large gam 

hteumlRg acance. Lcopaidi. aDIelopn 


and allMon inleM Ihe riven. 

mrf-beaten beach and 

ineale«._ TTiey are aloost eatirel, Im 


L The 

Lekki in ihe eM, and Ikoradu (Lagot) in the wen. At iii N' 
eatmnity Ihe Lagea kgoon rmim (he Ogun. Ihe bigest riwi 
Vonibalaad, whoio cBinU ia aDoag emigh n kiap ibt aeav 
^ 1 .1. L — .1.. _.^_ HtaiM Ih* inutancr of 

lb water at the nocthem end ol 1 

port of Lara, wbicblkiinani^.... 

channel. Tbe outer entrance li obstructed by a dangerous 1 

Climalt ami ffanU.— Tlie climate Is unhealthv. eipeciany ir 
Europeana. The rainfall haa not been aKcrtaiacd in the inlerlo 

1. .i. .L — j!_._!_._ ;- jj probably CDnaidenbly leia than a 

._,__ayear.,Tfievariaii--^- ■- 

In the Dorthem distr 
f^a^os, where it la about jc 

Est. In 1901 cherainfa.. .-,. 
[ng reapcotiiTly the highest 


Idea heavy ittulla 

Mver not unfrequenlhr awimei the 
' black-waler fever." The fr equency 

I, choleTa. typhoid 


Us."— Tint popubtion ia estunaled al 1,750,00a. 
Yomba people, a Nepn race divided into many (tibes. fon 
najacity ol the inbobitanu. Noiwiihsueding tbeir poUtioit 
lend* ind tbclr proved tapadty u fighting men. tbe Yomba 
ue djatinginibed above all ihe sunoundlag 
(eneiaUy peacdul diqmitioD. induftry, Iriendliness, touiteay 
and boapitality lowanb Mnuigcn, They an also intenidy 
pUriotic. Physically they tttetnble chncly ' - " 

horiiontally or vertically on the checks or other pans ol 

""' feding lor religion is deeply implanted among ih« 
'he majority are pagans, or dambaled by pagan beliefs, 
hu Diade gnat ptogreu since the cessalion of the 
while Prottslant and Roraan Catholic missions have 
been at work since iM « AbeokuU. OyD, Ibadan and other 
Urge towns. Saioue! Crowiher, the first Negro bishop in ibe 
Angiicin church, wbo wai dhlinguished as an ciptorer, gn- 
gnpher and linguist, was a native ol Yonibaland, rescued 
(i8i>) by the En^sh boa slavery and educated at Sierra Leone 

' «e YOBDBds): 

rnmi,— Besides Lagoa (i.i.), pop. about 50.B00, the thief 
iwns in Ibe colony pnper are Epe. pop. 16,000, on the nortbem 
de ol the lagoons, and Badagiy (a nolorioui place duiing Ihe 
ave-Iiide period) and Lekki, both on the caasL Ifllaod Ihe 
nief lowni are Abeokuia (9.1.), pop. about 60,000, and Ibadan 
}.t.), pop. estimaifd at 150,000. 

^iriciiftim ind Tradi. — Tie cbieC malib of Ibe counliy 
jniuu in foieai produu, tbe &taph: induiiris being ibc collec- 
OD ol palni-ketoel* and palm oil. Beiidei Ibe oil-palm forttli 
crge areas are covered with timber trees, tbe wood chiefly cut 
forcommtrciaf purposrsbelng a Lind of mahogany. Tbede 


la started ta tig*, 


trade. Tbe rubber fnduitry w 
ana in ifipo ihc rubber eirportrd was valued at £3, 
1390, owing to reckless methods of lapping tbe vli 
tbe rubber plants died. Precautions were then laken 
the remainder and allow young plants to grow. The collection 
ol rubber recommenced m tgo4 and the industry again became 
one of Importance, A considerable area is devoted to cocoa 
ptaatatiOD*. all owned by native cultivaton. CoSee and tobacco 
of good qtuliiy are cultivated and shea-buiter la largely used as 
""umiBint. The Yoruba country is the gieatat agticuliunl 
B io West Africa. For home consumpiion tbe Yoiub* 
yams, maiie and millet, Ibe chief artids of food, cassava, 
. potatoes, sesame and beaoa. Model farms lave been 
established for cxpnimcnial culture and for tbe tuition of the 
natives. A palarabic wine is obtained from the Safliia vinijaa 
and native beeia are also brewed. Imported spirits are largely 
consumed. There are no manufactures on a large scale aave 
the making of " country cloths " (from cotton grown, spun and 
woven In the conntij) and mats. Pottery and agricultural 
implements are made, and tanning, dyeing and forging practised 
in Ihe towns, and akog the riven and lagoons boata and ennoes 
are built. Fishing is extensively engaged in, tbe fish being 
dried snd sent up country. EicepI iron there arc no valuable 
minerals in Ibe counlry. 

The cotton plant from which the " countiy ckubs " are made 
is native to the country, the soil of which is capable of producing 
the very finest grades of cotton. The Egba branch of Ihe Yoruba 

valued at ij6,QS7, but owing to hiw priceB the natives ceased to 
grow cotlon for eipoit, so that in 1870 the valoe ol eiponed 
cotton WIS only £516. In tfloi planting for ciporf Wat recom- 
menced by the Egba on scientific lines, and was suited in Ihe 
Abeokuia district with enconnging results. 

The Yomba priest to be unable lo alienate land In per- 
petuity, hut native custom does not preclude leaung. and land 
concessions hive been taken up by Europeans on long leases- 
only ft - ■ . - . - 

The chief eiporti are palm-kernels, palm-oD, timber, rubber 
and cocoa. F^m-kemels alone constitute more than a half in 
value of tbe total eiports, and witb palm-oil over Ibree-tourtbs. 



The irvk in ih 


Britain snd Germany, the 

to Germany'. 

S%- M 

ciMhj," maia. i 

Cotton goodi 

re them 

coming neil. followed by 


imported from C 

ol th« spirit im 

potts to 

[1 Ii practically coo&ied ta Gica 

bare ol the biit-oamed being Jj^ 
or ciporli arc cgSee, " couoti] 

" Trade Spiriti," thiefly tjn, ni 



of pure alcohol and lOmelimei aver 4*/, of fuiel oil. To hinder 
the file of ihia noxioiu compound trgialation wu paiaed in igoj 
prohibiting the import oF Lquor containing more than j% 
of fuel oil, whilst the sutes of Abeokult and Ibadu prohibited 
the imponatioQ of liquor iironger than proof. The total trade 
of the country In 1405 wai valued at £i,>i4.7S4i tl>* imponi 
iligblly etceeding the eiporu. Tben ii a larft mnsit trade 
•ith Dahomey. 


man of con. 

, IddoliUnd.and 

m. from LaEOf,]badaii(i23m.), Otbotbo 

fopplied . 


... lone, from Anon the main line. Railway 

, et Iddo Itlandboib with Iht mainland and with Lat« 

■aland (m LAC09, iDvnl. Thi> Umwu bqpin in iSgiindapn^ 
to Ibadin in 1901. In wo; the buildinlU the Kction Iliadan- 

vid tod aluut Xtooo pet mill. TlKln^oaoAerconvenientchinnFli 
for nunemtii mull cTKft. whkh, with tbe escvptioo of neani- 

run between the Forndoi mouth oil the Niger and Lafoi. and alio 
between Lata and Poito Novo, in French territory, and do a lane 
triBiit trmde. Variova ina d» ihnw yh (he buih have been mHk by 

between f^goi and LiveipDol, and Lagiwand Hambuig (see Lacds, 

cenind council which m«<i ni U«o<. The (nat majority of the 

ed in Cniland. The lefal uatua ol lUvtiy ■• ' 
law courtt and dealing Id t' ' 

JTiibry.— Ligoi Iiland 1 
c:ip1oren ol the 151b century 
or bkei on thia pin of the 
Ihem the French, had Kttl< 
the iSlh century Ltgoj Lagoon became the chief : 
frcquenliog the Bight ol Benin, Ihii portioit 

utned by tbe Portusuese 
jie of tbe numeroiu lagoons 
The Pottuguese, and after 

Cuinei becooiEV kDon pn-emJaentty u thi Sbve ComC 
British tmden euabliihed theiBMliKi at Bidtfry. 40 a. W. 
of Lagos, where in iSji they wen attacked Vl Konfco. lb* 
Yoniba king of Lagos Island. At a lauk > Britiib Mnlforct 
seiied Lagos after a sharp Bght aitd depoMd the fiing, pbdng 
his cousin, Alutoye, on the throne. A treaty was coIlc^Jdcd 
under which Akitoye hound himself to put down tbe lUv* 
trade. This treaty wu not adhered to, and in 1861 Akiloye's 
■on and luccessor. King Dotemo, wai induced to give up bb 

I, afler 


nuled to £io< 

death in iBSj. Immedialdy after the pr 
tion of the British anneution, ■ steady current of immigration 
from tbe mainland set In. and ■ fknirisbing town arose on Idgoi 
Island. Iddo IsUnd was acquired at the same time as Lago* 
Island, and from 1S61 to 1S94 various additions by purclBie 
or cession were made Lo the colony. In 1879 tbe smail Ungdon 
ot Kolonu wu placed under British protectioB. Koisnu bei 
south and ea«t of the Denham Lagoon (see DasoiiEy). la 
iSSg it was exchanged with the French for the kingdon of Pokr« 
which is to the north of Badagiy. In tbe early yearsof tbec<d«iy 
Sit John Glover, R.N., who was twice governor (1304-1^66 aod 
1S71-1871), did much pioneer work and earned the canfideDce 
of the natives to a remarkable degree. Liter Sir C. A. UoloBey 
(governor i&S^-iSfc) opened up relations with tbe Yoiub* 
and other tribes in tbe hinterbnd. He dtspitched two cotn- 
misiioners whose duly it was to conclude commerdal (teatie* 
and use British Influence to put a stop to tniertribal fighting 
and ihe closing of the trade routes. In tggj the Jehu, who acted 
as middlemen between the colony tod the Yoiuba, dosed acveril 
trade routes. An eipcdiiiun sent igainsi ibem leeulted in Ibelr 
subjugation and the anneaatlon of part of their ceontry. An 
order In council Issued in iSqg eilended the protectorate over 
Yorubiland. The tribes of the hinierlind hivelaigely welcomed 
Ibe British protectorate and military expeditions have been 
few and unimportant. (For the history o( the Yorub* Matei 

Lagos was made 1 lepante government in 1S6]; in 1S66 It 
was placed in political dependence upon Stem Lewte: in it14 
it became (politically) an intetnil p*rt of the Gold Coail Ccrfony, 

is again 

Inislered as a crown colony. In Sir William Macgregor, M.D, 

— lerly administrator of British New Guinea, governor 1899- 

rnlightened ru^r. He inaugurated 

rev much closer the friendly ties 

:SS4, the whole ol the Niger delta, lying immediately 

the Hausa atates and Bomu, had been 

acquired by Gieal Britain. Unificition of the British possessioni 

Nigeria being desirable, tbe delta regions and Lagos were 

igot iuto one government (lee Nioeua}. 

See C. P. Lucas. niiUriadCai'at'l'f^'^ BriOsk Ctlattet, vol. lil. 

WttI Africa (Oilord. i8o6); ihe nnnoafft^u itsucd by ihe Colonial 

Office, London: A. B. Ellis. Tin YmAa-ipakinf Paplti (London. 

......,_ J. .-._..._ ™. ,..,_ -■ -iir Jei„ HaiJej Clfrr (London. 

d under NiCEKu and DAHovEr. 
LAOOt. a leapait of Wot Aftka, etipital of the British colony 
and pmlectonte of Sootbem Nigeria, in 6' 16' N., j* 13' E. on 
lagoon Darned Lagos also. Between Lagos and 
the mainland ii Iddo Island. An Iron bridge for road and rail- 
way traffic i£oo ft. long coiiDeeti Lagos and Iddo Islands, and 
another iron bridge. 917 ft. long, joins Iddo IsUnd to the tnain- 
land. The town lies but 1 foot or two above ae^-leveL The 

. ,. „ large government house, ibelawcouns, 

memoria] hail erected to commemorate Ibe servkVs of Sic 
I Glover, used for public meelinga and eDtenunncot*, 
rbbotali club-house provided from public fund*, and tb* 
There ai 


' iubsUnlial V 

,.... e buildings. The aiiems are weU 

supi^cd wilfa electric light, and thers is a 
Tbe chief ston* and dephi for guodi its 



■B«a(beb«nk)af Ibehsmn. Ttie iwnnpa of *Mcb oilgliutly 
Lit« Ijiind tDtinly axuiilcd hive been rcdiim^. In 
comieiion with this vork > cuul, >; ll. wide, hu bceo cut nghl 
thniaKii llie aUad snd » >ea-wi!l buQ[ round its wnleni half. 
Time ll 1 cocimodiaui public bospitil, of Ihe coltigE lype, 
on a good sile. Then li a nceannc, whkti ■!» Krv« u a 
{eoenl public rccreatioii fround. Shifting buiki of sand fDm 
a bai at the m (nirance of the ligoon. Eneniivc woAs mat 
luidfrtaken in igog with a view to making Lagoi an open port. 
A mole h*> been bnilt at the eaiteni entrance to the haiixnit 
and drtdjen are at worit on the bar, which can be crossed bj 
Kuels drawing 13 ft. Large ocean-going Meanen ancboi 
nst leu than a m. from land, and goodi and pauengen tri 
there trinihlpped Into smaller steamers far Lagoo, Heavy 
caigo is carried by the Urge sleamera to Forcadoa, 200 a. farther 
down (he coaat, tramUpped Ibere into bianch boata, and taken 
lit the lagoons to Lagos. The port is 417a m. Inim Uveipool, 
iMi from Trectown, Siena Leone (the nearest nfe port wot- 
ward), and jis from Cape Coast. 

The Inhabitants, about 50,000, tndnde, bcdde* the native 
lilbei, Sieera Leonts, Fanll, Krumen and the descendants of 
some 600a Brajiban nuiKi^a^i who were settled here <n Ihe 
eady da/t of British rule. The Europeans nombei about 400. 
Rather more than half the populace are M osfem s. 

UQOS, a seaport of southern Porlnga], In the dhlrict of Fare, 
(formerly the pfovince of Algarve); on the Atlantic Ocean, and 
sn ibe estuaiy of the small river ligoi, belt spanned by a fine 
stone bridge. Pop. (iqoe) Siqt. The city is defended by tonifi- 
citions erected in the 17th centuty. It Is supplied with water 
by an aqueduct too yds. long. Hie harbour b deep, capccioiis, 
and completely sheltered on the north and west; It is frequently 
visited by theBritish Channel fleet. Vines and figs aieetteosiftly 
culiivatKl in the neighbourhood, and Lagoa is the centre of 
fnpoTtant sardine and tunny fiibeiies. Its trade is chiefly 
carried on by tmall coasting vessels, aa there is no railway. 
Lagoa is on or near fhe site of the Roman LateMta. Since the 
tjlh century it has held the fomal nnk and title of dty. Cape 
St Vincent, the ancient PnmonlnriKm Sacnim, and the south- 
western eitremfty of the kingdom, is it m. W. It b famous 
for Its conneiion with Prince Henry (7.1.). the Navigator, who 
here founded the town of Sagrcs in i4'i; and lor leveral 
British naval victories, the most celebrated of which wai won 
in 175J by Admiral Jervls (afterwards Earf St Vincent) over a 
lirger Spanidi sijuadnHL In im Admiral Boscawen defeated 
a French fleet oH Lagoa. TliegreaCaithquakeof I755denn>yed 
a hrge part of Ihe dty. 

U OKiCK 01 Lu GUcfS, agame invented in France daring 
ibe first quarter of the >9th century and called there kjtu da 
CrSctJ. It is played wllb two Ught sticks about 16 in. kmg and 
■ wicker ring, which is projected into the air by placing it over 
the sticks crossed and Ihcu separating tbem rapidly. The ring 
is cau^t upon the stick of another player and llirown back, 
Ihe object being to prevent it from laUhig to the ground. 

U ORAHD* COVBB, a town of soothem France, in ibe depart- 
mcnl ol Gaid on the Gardon. 39 in. N.N.W. of Nlmes by nS. 
)i. There are eitenjve 

,n the vl 

LAQRARSB, JOSEPH lODB {i73«-t8r3), French malhc- 
natician, was bom at Turin, on the >5lh of January 1736. He 
was of French eitraclion, hii great grandfather, a cavalry 
captain, having passed from the service of France to that of 
Sardinia, and settled in Tuifn under Emmanuel II. His father, 
Joseph Louis Lagrange, marritd Maria Theresa Ctos, only 
daughter of a rich physldan al Cambiano, and had by her eleven 
children, of whom only the eldfst (Ihe subject of this nollce) 
and the youngest Survived Idf ancy. His emoluments as Irtisuret 
at war, loge;her with his wile's fortune, provided Um with 
ample means, which be lost by ra^ speculations, a circumstance 
regirded by his son as Ihe prelude to bis own good fortooe; for 
had he been rich, tw ugod to say, he nught atvtr have known 

The genius of Lagrange did not U DMc take In titie bent. 

Rb earlieit tastes were Dteraiy rlther than scientific, and*' he 
learned the rudiment* of feameliy during his first year at (he 
college of Ttuin, witboat difficulty, but wilhonl ^[nctioii. 
The pernsal of ■ trad by Halley {FkU. Trota. itUi. 960) 
roused his enthtisiasm for the analytical method, of which he 
Was destined to develop the utmost capabilitiea. He now enteml, 
unaided save by his own unerring tact and vivid appre h ension, 
upon a eoiirae of study which, IB two years, pJactd him on a level 
with the greatest of Iris contemporaries. At the age of ninelem 
lie cornmuidcated to Leonhard Eulei bia idea of a general method 
of dealing with " isoperfmetrical " ptublems, known later as 
the CalciLus of Variations. It was e»getly welcomed by the 
Be^n mathematician, who bad the generosity to wKhhold from 
pnblication bis own further reieanhes on the subject, until his 
youthful correspondent should have had time id complete and 
opportunity to c laim the invention. Tliis protpetous opening 
gave Ihe key-note in Lagrange's career. Appoimed, in 1754, 
professor of geonjetry In the royai school of »ftil!cty, he (ormed 
with some of hn pupila— for the most part his- seniors — frlemf' 
ships based on community of scientific ardour. WilH the aid of 
the marquis de Saluces and the analainlsl C. F. Cigna, he 
founded in 17JI a society which became the Turin Academy of 
Sciences, lie first volume of its nemoln, published in Ihe 
following year, contained a paper by Lagrange entitled Jt(t*erc»(j 
jKr Is ncittre rt la propaiotion du n%, in which the power of his 
analysis and his address in its application were equally con- 
spicuous. He made his first appearance In public aa Ihe critic 
of Newton, and the arbiter between d'Alembcrt and lEuler. By 
considering only the particis of air found in a right h'ne, he 
reduced thcproblem of the propagation of sound to tbe solution of 
the same pulial diflcrential equations that include tbe raotionB 
of vibrating strings, and demonstrated tbe insufiiciency of the 
methods employed by both his great contemporaries in dealing 
with the latter subject. He further treated in a masterly manner 
of echoes and tbe miiture of sounds, and e^lained the phern^- 
meoon of grave harmonics as due to the occurrence of beats stt 
rapid as to generate a mosical note. His was followed, in the 
second voluMe of the UisceBima Tnirintiuvi (1767) by Ua 
" Essa! d'ube nouveSe milhode pour dftemrindf Its maiima et 
lea minima des formules intfgrales IndCfinles," together with the 
application of this important development of analysb to tbe 
solutroD of several dynamical pnMems, as well as to tbe demon, 
stralion of the mechanical principle of ^' least actfrm.'* The 
essentia] point in his advance on Euier's mode of investigating 
curves of maxuntnTL <^ minimum consisted In his purely analytica] 
eonceplion of Ihe subject. He not only freed it fromall trammeh 
of geometrical constraclion, bill by the inlroducticn c4 Ihe 
symbol 3 gave it tbe efficacy of a new calcufos. He is thus justly 
regarded as the inventor of the " method of variations " — a 
same supplied by Euiei in 1 7«. 

By these performancn Lagrange lunnd himsdf, at the age 
ot twenty-sii, on tlie summit of European fame. Such a height 
had not been reached whhout cost. Intense application during 
eatfy youth had weakened a constitution never robust, and led 
to accesses of feverish enltatlon culminating, in Ihe spring of 
1761, in an attad of bilious hypochondria, which permanenlly 

however, temporarily restored his health, and be gave proof 
ot ihe undiminished vigour of bit powers by carrying on, hi 
17(4, the priie offered by tbe Paris Academy of Sciences for the 
best essay on the llbraUon of ibe moon. JBs treatise was remait- 
able, not only as oSering a satisfactory Eaplanation of tbe coItN 
cidcnce between Ibe lunar periods of relation and revolutioii, 
but as containing the first employment of his radkil formula 
of tnechamcB, obtained by combining with the principle id 
d'Alembert thai of virltial velocities. His luccesi encouraged 
the Acsdeny to propose, in tTM, as a theme for cotopetithm, the 
Iriiheno unatlenipted theory ot tie Jovian system. Tbe prm 
■as again awarded to Lagnngei and he eaiiicd the same db- 
tinctDB wttb caai^aB tkefsqUem of three bodiei in i77i>on 
the aandar equacloa of i^e taau ia 1 774. and Id 1^78 on the 
theory of conulary perturbations. 


Ke hiS In ibe nuanllnw patlficd > Too| felt doln by * vliil 
ta I>arii, when lie cujojcd the ilimulaliui delighi o( convenin) 
wilh sucb lulheniBiidarii u A. C Ckirault, d'Alcmbeit, 
Cnodoial lad Ihc AbM Muie. Iltneo pnvcnled him froni 
visitlni London. The poil oi diicclor of the miihcmailcal 
depanment of ibe Berlin Aademy (of which he hid been a 
' - ovil ol Euler 





e lo quit B 



n-t by hit dread of a r 



■od ibe result *at that an inv 

oveying ihe 

wirfi ol the " 

[reaisl king in Europe 


On Ihe 6ih 

of No 


76«. Lagrange wai installed 

e* posilioa. 



f 6oao franca, lisple 1>L 


royal I. 

eidiing tary. The D^tional jeiloiuy of 
loreigDen, wu at fint a aoura of annoyance to him; but luch 
prejudice! were gradually diunaed by Ihe inoSensiveaew of hit 
demeanour. We are laid that the uuversal eumple «{ hii 
collcaguei, lalber tbao any detire lor female nciety, impelled 
him ID matrimony; hii choice beins a hidy of Ihe Conti family, 
who, by hti requtsi, joined him at Beclio. Soon after mutiaie 
hii wife wai aitaclied by a lingering iUncu. lo which the >uc- 
cumbtd, Lagtange devoting all bis time, anda considerable itort 
of medical knowledge, to bei care. 

The bng scries of memairs— some ot them compkle treatises 
of great moment in the history of sdeace — communicated by 
Lagrange to (he Berlin Academy between the ycara 1767 and 
1737 were not the only fruits of hi* etile, ttia Utcatiitut 
atttdyti^ucy in which his genius most fully displayed itself, was 
produced during the same period. This great nork waa the 
perfect realiiation ol a dtaign conceived by (he author almost 
in boyliood, and dearly sketched in hi> Gnt publisbcd essay.' 
Its scope mar be btieSy dcactibed at tbe reduction of ibe theory 
certain genenj foimnlac, from the simple 

■ equations Receassry 

,' From the lunda- 

ajd of the calculus 

truths, by pro- 

conililine, ' "■ 


at of which should be 

for the aolution ol each k. 
mental piindple of virtual veloci 
agnificance, Lagrange deduced, 
ct variatioot, tin whole lyilem 
cesses » elegant, ludd and I 

nethod wi 

a kind of sdentiGc poem." This 

d by the 


unshackled mobihty of its minutest parti, the separi 
^e mechasici of matter in diRerent forms oj aggregation finally 
disappeared, and the fundamental equation of forces was for 
the first time eatended to hydrostatic* and hydrodynamics.' 
Thus a univeisal sdence of matter and motion Kas derived, by 
an unbrokeo sequence of deduction, from one rulical principle; 
and analytical mechanics assumed the dear and. complete form 
of logical perfection which it now wears. 

A publisher having with some difiiculty been found, the book 
appeared at raijs in 1 7&S under the lupcrvisioD of A, U. Legend le. 
But befoct that (ime Lagrange hinucif was on the spot. After 
the death of Frederick the Great, his presence was competed 
for by the courts ol France, Spain and Naples, and a residence 
in Berhn having ceased to poiieu any attraction for him, he 
removed to Parii in 17S;. Marie Antoinette warmly pationited 
him. He was hxiged in the louvre, received the grant of an 
income equal to that he had hilhcrla enjoyed, and, wilh the 
title of " veteran pensioner " in lieu of that ol " foreign associate " 
(conleired in 1771), the right of voting at the deliberations of the 
Academy. In the midst ol these distinctions, ■ profound 
melancholy uiied upon him. His mathematical enthusiasm 
was lor lie time coraphuely quenched, and during liro yean ' 
the printed volume of his Ulcaniqut\ which he bad seen only in . 
■nanuicript, lay unopened bcKdf him. He relieved his dejection 

><Ei*u,l. ij. Mfc. An.. AdveniiiiiBi ta let «d. 

• E. DUihng. Xritiicte COc*. 

[MUiniv. KnliKiit Cati 

•rilb tniscellaaeotu studies, especially with that of dematiy, 
which, in the new form given to it by Lavoisier, he found " ais*e 
coto m e I'alg^re." The Ilevolution roused him once more to 
activity and cheerfnlneia. Curiosity impelled him to mnaja 
and watch the progcen of such a novel phenomenon; but 
curiosity was changed into dismay as the ieiti£c character of the 
phenomenoo unfokled ilsdf. He now bitterty regretted his 
temerity in braving the danger. " Tu I'as voulu " fie would 
repeat self -reproacb fully. Even from revolutionary tiihunali, 
hOArever, the name of Lagrange uniformly commanded reapect- 
His pension was continued by ihe National Assembly, and be 
was partially indemniHed for the dqireciation of the currency 
by remunerative appoinlments. Nominated president of the 
Academical commission for the reform of weighit and measures, 
his services were retained when its " purification " by the 
Jacobins removed hit most distinguished colleagues. He again 
sat 00 the commission of 1799 for (he conitruciion of the metric 
system, and by bis aealous advocacy of the dedmel principle 
largely cootribuled to its adoption. 
Meanwhile, on the Jul of May 1791 he married Mademoiselle 

iful girl, whose de 

=1 that 

disparity ol years, 
ano lormea inc one ue wiin lue which Lagrange found it hard to 
break. He had no children by either nuiriage. Althou^ 
tpedilly exempted Itom the operation of the decide ol October 
17031 imposing banishment on foreign residents, he took alarm 
at the fate of J. S. Bailly and A. L. Lavoisier, and prepared 
10 resume his former situation in Berlin. His design was fr«s- 
tnted by the etlaUishmcot of and his offidal coimeiion with 
tlu Ccol< Noimale, and (he £cole Polylechoit 


iation of the Ecote Polyt^bniquc 

of Lagrange to mathemaiics. Theremembranceof bis teaching 
was long trrasured by such of his auditors — amongst whom 
were J. B. J. Delambre and S. F. Lacroii— as were capabk ot 
appreciating them. In tipounding the piiaciples of the differ- 
entiil cakuiui, he started, as it were, Itom tbe kvel of bis pupils, 
aod ascended with them by almost insensible gradations icom 
elementary to abstruse conceptions. He seemed, ooi a professor 
amongst students, but a learner amongst learners; pauses for 
thought alternated with luminous eipatiiion; iovention 
accompanied demonstration; and thus originated his Tklirii 
da fetKlieiu amdyliqua (Paris, 1797). The leading idea of this 
work, was contained in a paper published in the BrrliK UentUi 
for I7;i.> lis object was the elimination nf tbe, 10 some minds, 
unsatisfactory conception of tbe infinite from the netaphyijcs 
of the higher ma thematics, and the substitution lor the difiereotial 
and integral calculus of an analogous method depeoding wholly 
on the teiial dcvelopmeot of algebraical fuoctiojis. By means 
of this " calculus ol derived lunctions " Lagrange hoped to give 
to tbe solution of all analytical problems the utmost " rigour of 
the demonstrations of the andents ";■ but it canoot be said 
that the at temp t was successf uL The validity of his fundamental 
position was impaired by tbe absence of a well-canEtituled 
theory of series; the notation employed was inconvem'eot, 
and' was ibaodoned by Its inventor in the second edition of his 
Utcaniqutt while his scruples as to the idmitsjon into analytical 
investigations of the idea of tinuis or vanishing ratios have long 
since been laid aside as idle. Nowhere, however, were (he 
keenness and clearness ol his intellect more conspicuous than 
in Ibis brilliant effort, which, if it failed in its immediate object, 
was highly efleciive io secondary results. Bis purely abstract 
mode of regarding functions, apart from any mechanical or 
geometrical consideratioos, led the way to ■ new ^d sharply 
characterised development of the higher analysis in the handa 
of A. Cauchy, C. G. Jacobi, and othecs.' The Tktirii Iti 
joiKliens is divided into three prt*, ol which the first explains 
the gencial doctrine of functioot, tbe second deals viUi tit 
• NuiccAy ]. Del^ihn, (Earn it Lafniul, L p. ^iL 
•tZiwi], lii. 441. •rUffwdti/iocutu. p. A.. 

' U. Suter, CtifkirkM tfr poll,. Win. u- ta-ui- 


■ppUcitiMi to Bxaaeuy, tad the tUid wltli iu beuiop on 

>t Ihe bewt of Ihi •Mtkw of teonKtiyi be vu one ol llw fint 

in 1791 on t^ lilt of fonipi ouoibvft of Ibc Rgyai Soaelj, 
Od (he AiuicuLion of Picdmotit Ui Fiujcc in 1796, a toucblofl 
csmpIiBieilt was pud to hun in tbt penqn ol Ut igcd UUiei. 
By direction of TalLeymtd, (hec rpinit'tr for forfi^ aHiuii^ 
tlu French commiiuxy repiinid is >tu< to Ibe old mM'i 
naidence in Turin, to con(ralul«.te bim on Ibe meiitt of hs •oo, 
■tluio ibcy declared. " to bavt done banaur to nunkiod bT bu 
f fli im, and ivhom PlnimoDt was pfoud to bivD pfodured, and 
Ftaace lo fnaat." Booipuie, vbo uylad bim " la bauic 

S^tunidedcsBdcnasmaUi^niatiqua." Loadtdhim with pf raonal 
.voun and offidal dialinciiou. He became a acnaior, a count 
of the empifc. a grand officei of the legioo of honour, and juat 
before bit death ccceived itic gnnd cnu of the aider of rfuoioA. 

The pcepaialion of » nev edition of hii tfJoMifiw eihausttd 
hi> alceady failing poven. Frequent (lislinf fit* gave prwingf 
of a tpecdy end, and on the Sih ol April iSij ha had « £ul 
iilemea iritb his Criead) B. Ijic^ptde, C. Uonfe «nd J. A. 
Cluptil. He ipoke sitb the utmost oilai of bit approwhiaf 
death; "c'eM uiK' derail le fonction," be uid, "qui n'eat ni 
pfnible ni ihtgilMc." He nevirlbdeM looked fonnjd to a 
future mectinf, vhen be promised to complete the anlohio- 
(raplucal dclrjli vhich weaknea* obliged him to Intemtpt, 
Tbey remained anlnld, foihedied tvo dayi later on the iMb of 
April, and was buried in the Pantheon, (Ik funenl enlion being 
pronounced by Ijplace and LacfpM^ 

Amongst (he briJliant noup of marhciiBricUju *h«e DUgnani' 
(HDut ri^ry ronrributrcTla acconpliflh (he raftk af leneralUaoon 
and deduction [earned for the iBlh century, LairarHe DOCllpioa u 
tniinent place. It ia indeed liy no meini iniy u diniiiiuiih and 
(PponiDn(hercapcc(iireineiiuo((hecainpeii(ain. Tkuiieapccially 
tnc cue between Lsgranie and Eulei on ib> one ilde, and between 

Lagrange and Laplace 00 the other. The calci 

onaevuaped la Euler'a mode of t( ' 

The fiuiiful method, acaio, of the 

duoed by £ultr, but adopted and perfected by Lnirange. ' 
recDfi^Eed ita mpremB ImportaHe tolbe analytirwl mventi^Enn-n 
the ptanetaiy movemanla. FianUy, of the itind •eciea i< meaidiei 
by which tbe liability d (he jolar tyetem was aK«(ained, the eUwy 
fault be nlmoet equally divided bet««n Lagrange and Laptace. 
Ifl analytkal IdveMion. and maffery onr the cakultia. (he tuTin 
matliemalkaan waa ndininedly nniiiralled. Laplace owned (hat he 
had dn^^Fwd of decling the ifl(«cali>n of thediScRiuial (quatian* 
relative 10 aecnlai laequaliiici until Lagrange ihowed him (be way- 
But [jptaccnnqneetionablyiurpanedhu rival In pradlal Biacity 
and the incqitlali dtf phyikal truth. Lagrange aw in the problem* 
(rf natare so many ocouam* for analytkat triumpbl; Laplace n- 
gaidcd analytical triumphi aa the meauof aolving the peo b laaw of 
■atiire. Owe mind leenicd the e^nplement of tbe other j and boih. 
united la honDorabk rinhy. formed an Initnimcnt Of oneiamplcd 
pafectioO lor iha lii'ii Kiwi inn <4 the ceteaiial machinery. What 
tuy be cdled Lwruigaa Im period of reetarch into planetary 
ceruufaaliaiaeaUndedlnMi i7I4>o i7l4(>ecAsiHOHoii>;ffuUr<r>. 
The notabu group of tiatinca coramuniHIed, 1791-17S4, tc ihe 
BeriSn Ac«kmy «■ dedgned, but did not prove to be tiU final 
cosiiMioa to tko thaery of the plkoeii, Afrer an inrervd of 
l a aul y-l uii r iiwatlat — Wuet . fB^peaedTui S. D. Poiinoa ia a paper 
cad on the Mth of ione (loB-waaoattniventachedbyLagmap 
*i(b an bEs priitio^ vigow and ftetility of Invenbon, Riming w 
bquiry inn the invanability o( mean intKiona, Pobaofl carried (he 

>pp»BrfiMtia«. with Lanr^^ lonnlaB. aa tar aa the eqi 

the di«<a|Wi« f«e* hHherto iiBghrttd, wilb the w(« ren 
IbeitaUh[y«f tJMiyalaa. He bad pot attmnpwd to iadu 
Jalcntatloiia 'the otutal variation of Iho diaturhing bodi 
lagrangF. by ihc happy artifice of (nrnferrbii (he origlT. .. .. 
aSbuM hem the oeatn ol the HK (o the cemn of m^ el the 
•u aad piMen. obtalwd a itapliicatiaa of thcloniUa. by wUch 
tbe aaae aoilyiit wia.rmidefed equally applkaUe to each ol |hc 
[faaete leveniV- l(de<ervHiDberesBidedatDBe(>f tbenumcnnB 
coinddencea ol- dbcovny that Laplace, on being made aci)oaln(cd 
by Lagfluge with hia Hw method, pndoced aoakcoua e a pre wk ifia. 

ill alia liliiinMlillliiah M iiiihaliiil liiMiiin TV liaitaehiew 

vcnlol LaAange in (h^direc'' "*"" ----'-»- — -^t_j 

of the variafna of arbitrary c 
the tnveatigatinn ol perindkal 


utanta. Hfcceaaftilly uied by hun in 
Lt well aa of lecutar lneqiuditie% to 
luatly interacting bodle*.' " Not 


withiHK aiumltbBM. *na tc 

groat gcotnlity «i Ot diSireMiu. _. 

wHfa u to locUchi, a* a putiodac iwh th* nliMiaa ol the plaMOBy 
problem reeewly obuipnl I9 Wm. M) prainBd le apply «b*«ita 
pnndplea to the calculadoa ol the dirUrbaasca iiiiiduijdl i« ite 

loiaiiou nf the planru by anetnal action on th« '' 

tubetucca, but waa antie i nat e d by pginoa, whoi 

Svariatna of the elaie~- -^ -^•!~ — ^J—i^ — 
10 found by Lagrai^e I 

mainly for the pvpoaa ^ emlndyuw in 
final reanhk bu na iMtnaptad, whia 
the dea# of ita luubai. 
i_ .L- _j — EamtiBt of almoat evqry branch of 

a connkaouB _part. . The caJcal^ .. 

Dciated with ki* name. . In rbe tbocity << 

ana of taaay tl P. Fennai'a thriremi. and added 
Id algebialte diKovend the method ofapprmd- 

. .. ._ raota ol u •qsMioa by mtan* ol esotinwd f rac- 

aad loiagmed a fT irr-Tin rf rtVng aitahrairni numiinw 

xy degree. The method indeod fails lor ctgaationt al aa ordar 

! the loanli, became It Ibea lavalvoa the aolatia* etao <q(M- 

< higher diioenwiB than thiypKpamd. Yet ii pataaBia Ibe 

great and chancteroUc ncrU of genaraUalM tbe eolutiiiia of hia 

pndeeesHTi. aahibitini |bim all at modificatmtu of one [liiKHile. 

To fjgtange. perhaiM more thaa to any otbcr, the theory of difter- 

cntiai e(|ua(iooa^ mdobted lor ita potatua aaa.icicac^eailKr thao 

" tnllvtiofl of ingenioua artifices tor fhe ulutioo of iial (iiidai 

>bleini. To tbp calculus rd finite diffeterKet he coacribHted the 

■ntifiil lormuli o> ikterpoiatloQ which bears M> lumr; although 

wtantttlty tbe Mm* raaidt seema to tMMbaaa previouily olitalncd 

Euler. ButitxaaiatheapiAcatiDaloiwchaaiciilmMional 

I uutrumenl which he thus helped to lonn tba( his Triiiilar merit 

'. It iru hii jutt bsaii to have tiansfarmed mecfianici (defined by 

'ellowlrig the ..._ _. 

showed^that, il we delcrmlise its configuration 
abcr of variabko, whose muuher is that ot the de 
move (there beioi at many equations aa tbe tyitcm hi 

FdDm). (he kinetic and potential enemies of the ^i „ 

d Ihne, and the differentvl equBliOrq of mntlon 
y dmide diSersiHlatioa. Bevdot (his ■■»« im- 

ir'tt """ 

parted by gi ' ' 

(hu It 


eltgance,— aifoag 

al qundraturea has (imned'(he martlng- 

- HU (tetermiiij- 

e sloi^ varying 


L a more accurate knowledge ol the ifiatfca of (he 
. then pmaetscd a Htiiroctory tolndon was im- 
le upper firaift aiaigncd by hira agreed dosely wffh 
larar by U. J. J.lewiAac.' As a matbtmtlciU 

. 1. 1 „„ ^^^ aorptised. . Hia titatiiB 

smaut methods., but models of sym* 
of presentatlofl t^ve lucidity to what ia olncnre. novzUy 10 what is 

d Ihe aapintt^ont of the Itee 

, . ._.'«!, By hit (cnne lafaouri, ap 

emDooimeni oenled id them In tiS (mubled Vorld ol politici. 

bica eellecKd and pubLahed in tevea 41a wolumes, oadv Ihe tkle 

•Gbbi. JfiOtrj 4 f Aphtal 4Nnt*M^^K' 


IM^-I•7T^^TW6•I. ini^ ul tlM Ktlaii <tf thia pibfejttin 

Aodt^H oTs^uM flf Tana, Bcriiii ud Puit; (be ronrtli is- 

d*)B hfa liii^taii 1 eaotributisiu to o^trt ideDlik eoUsctiaiH, 

SHtko' iiilk U* MO&'Ooim te Eokr'* i4Mrs, i»4 hii Luw 
ffliiiimiiw It iht fen Nanntk i« ijo*. DctUBbn^i n«l« <]f bi> 
»>, tianetH] (nv the tOm. it TltuHin, iBit, <• pnflnl to tbr 
~ " te iRiantc worka ibnd* busbI ut lUiriii- 
M—o (ifol, lad cd.. tM. JTd «!., Ili6), 
u (i8M. nd cd,. iao6), dabBcd 

, , tu Ibf utt put (4 the rUmi rin 

K ol tiMrolujBd efilion ol the MkmMiam 
■cpnnllii i«ti, tbcKcoad, of •hfehlfirnnrWoBwucmplMHlbr 
MM Pnn ud BJBM, ia ItlJ. A thbrl editiiiii. ia i vuli., ito. m 
Ibuh] In iBu-ifu, iiida ■sBnd of the TMini ^ftHBlimi la iRi j. 
Sat J~T J.^uer "id Potd, P<*i» kM^rjpa (iSij): Tt. 
IVnwa-i ^aaili It nanmkf (iSij-iSkA, «(l U. lad n.; 
K. Suts. OoUmtu in maA. Wia. (i»>j): E. DOhrinf. KnHiilm 
etui. Ar aaiiMHW fViMifiM d* Maimk (i»77. >»■ <dJ: 
A. Caalis, ^MfliiM-iiw nir b ffnt fl wi d« Ireii Hffi (I>I7): 
R. Giaat. fTUwy sf PltmiMl >iBHnn, Ac: PMn> CsmR, SIw 
(Padua. (111)! L. MutW, CtMf liv4M (l«4o): Vfntnr d* I« 
Ahw (■*■«)< W. WbmU. iftM. *f Um Inimetlm SrUKa, B. 
Munii J. CMc Muxfl. SHitiitUf tni Uat/ii^m, il. lU; A. 
^^— *-« tfiA < Aar., p. Jlj; J. S. Bamiy. i/iH dt fai* 
L isfi, lis, iji: J. C. PoHCDdoifi, Siif. Lit. Aoiid- 



on the iR of Janaaiy l6jt- Ht «u an ertienely precodout 
boy, and at Bordoui, wtiert b« iru fduciied, be produced a 
play irben be was Dine yean M. Fin yeu* latu hii rneiliet 
lofdL bim lo Puia, wbne be IddihI a punra In Ilw piiuetnt 
dc CoBti, towbom bededkattd bk tn^cdyol/iiiwIAa or, u it 
vai called itXti.AiktrM (i6m)< Radaebid fiven bim advice 
and waa preicDt at tbe inX perfannaiiCB, allbeujfa be had lonf 
lived IB complete retiiemeat. Otbti play* (oUoirad: OttU it 
PjUii Ii&9t). UtUapt (1699), Amasii (iTOi). and /■# O MM- 
calt Iiyis). Lagrange hatdly Rallied tbe hlfita bopo niied by 
hit precocity, alibaii|h bi> only Krioiu rival on the tiafk lUit 
■ai CatDpiiliOD, but be abuined high [aveui at couit. becooiiac 
wBaOt i'UU 10 Ihe ducbew ol t>rl«ni. Thii praperily ended 
with (be paUialioD in i;io o( bi) PMifpuiua, odes accusing 
the thecal. Phnip, duke oi Orlein:. ol the moit odious oiDies. 
He might have escaped Ibc coasequnicfs of this libel but ioi 
tbe bhier ciumty o[ a former palnHi. Ihe due de La Foice. 
Lagrange found sanctuary at Avignon, but was rntlccd beyond 
the boundaiy of tbe papal j'urisdicUoa, when he mat anckteii 
and seat ** a pciwocc la ifae isles ol Sainte Huxoenle. Ha 
contrived, bovever. In esape 10 Sardinia lad thence lo Spain 
. and Holland, wheieheproduccdhiifDunh and SllhPjtifJp^^i. 
On the dtalh of the Regent he was able to return to France. 
He was pan author o< a Hisloirt it Plrifard left unfinished, and 
made a further coBlribulion lohiMory, or perhaps, more exactly, 
to romance, In a lelter lo Elie Frfena on tbe idcnliiy of ihe Man 
wilb the Iron Mask. Lagiaogc'a bmHy life vaa embiitercd 
by a loof LtiTMiit against hia loa. Hi died at P^Eiguaua at tbe 
end of December 175!. 

He bid colkcicd hii aim mrki (s vbIl, 175S) lone monlbs before 
b>9 death. KUmaiir>inauti>orli.tbe7u^tIwr. nacdiiidby 
M. dc i-cxiut ia iSs«.aada liith phiivpicby M. Diaacourtin itM. 

LA flBAIUA.or Sax ItSEromo.a ummer pataoeof the kingi 
of Spain ; on tbe soutb-easlem border of the pioviocc of Segovia, 
and on the western sli^ies of the Siena de Cuadamnu, j u. 
by road S.E. of the dly o( Segovia. Tbt rayal eatatt t> S901 
(u above leaJevtt. Tbe Kenery of thii regloih opedally In 
tliB gorge of the river Leioya, with its graolte rocks, lu dc 
forest of pines, hrs and hiichea, aad its red-tDed faima, m 
nearly RKmblis the '■j*'"^* of northani Europe than 1 
otbei part of Spain. La Gmnja faai an almost alplDe climi 
with a. dear, cool atmosphere and abondaot igjahine. Above 
Ibe palace rise the sonied lummin of Ibe Cuadtnaini, culroinat 
ing in the peak ol PefiaUia (7S91 (u); lo frost irf it (be vid 
plains ol Scfovia extend aaOhwatds. Tba village ci Sai 
ndefonso, the oMol put of ibe estate, was founded In 14J1 
by Henry IV., who built » lwiitiB| lod|« aad i±>fd here. Id 

t47T tbe dupd wai preaeMed ty ^>dl»'>d ud labda id 
the mask* of tbe Pural, ■ neighboaring Hiandji^te noDaMoy. 
Tbe oeigiitat pM[r* (f '. sruiiEe w '■'n), estalSAed by the monk*, 
~~~ pvrebBMd lo 1714 by PUBp-V., lifter the destrtietiati of Ua 
mn paba at Vihafn, tba ancient FaWi J's^Mnoa, 1 a. 
VUlip detennlned to eonvert Ihe estate faito a lecodd 
■allies. The palace wu buUl between 1711 and tTij. Ill 
Afafnmtedby a tolw iaa deta which Ifae piDan reach to the 
. TTie itate apaitiiKu ta contain soimvaluiMe iBlh^entiuy 
faniftmv, bat' the faioODa coSectioa of leolplura waa removed 
to Madrid in igjfl, and ta pit a ti t ul there In the Mtneo del Prado. 
At La f^ranja ir is RprcseOted by facumSrs in plaater. Tbe 
eiAeflale dmrcb adjolnlsg (he palace dates from 1714, and con- 
UlB* the (onbi of Pldl^ V. and his comort Isabella Fatnew. 
Aa attiBdat late caBed El Mar, 4eqs "• ■>>ove Ka-tevcl, 
inlfHtt ibe gutleni. which ate im!U(ed from thoae of Vettailles, 
and lOApBe* wa(er for (be fountalol. These, desfnlt tbe anil- 
itotad and mnetimes tuteless Myle o( tbefa' ornamentation, 
■re prabaMy the finett bi Ibe world; tt b noteworthy (hat. 
owingtotbcUgblcvctof ihelake. ho pinnpa or other amlianism 
are needed (d supply pnssDTe, There ate twcniy-sii fbnMain) 
beudes lake! and waterfall). Among (he ann retnarkalih 
are (he group of " Perseus, Andhimeda and the Sea-Monster," 
which seiida up a fet ol water tio ft. high, the " Fame," which 
reaches iif It., and the very elaborate " Batfat of Diana." It 
is of (he last thai FhKIp V. fs said to have remarked. * It haa 
coat me tbne Odliona and amused me three ndnules." HoM 
Df (be foan(aliu were made by order of Queen Isabella la 1717, 
duriilg tbe king's absence. The ^aas factory dl San IMefonM 
was founded by Charles III. 
It was In La Cratqa that Philip V. mlfnR! the crown to Mi soa 

' V777. 1778. iTO^ and 1800 were tigHd 
FenliiiaiiJ VI! . .... .-.j 


unoHRl Don Carlo* 

: Sntw: HiMrj); (bat Fen 

ef~)lU own Infant 'daughlFT InbriiaVthui iiTv^viin'Spain In inVii 
war; anl that in 18)6 a millury levoft compelW the Queen- 
Rftnt Christina to mtore the coutitacioa of illli. 

UOBOltB, bOHU JUH FRUgOU (1714-1801), FrtnU 
painter, wu a pupU o( Carle Vanloo. Bon ■( Parts on the 
]otb of December 1714, in 17s] be became a member of (be 
lEoyal Aademy, presenting as his diploma picLure the " Rape ol 
Deianira " [Louvre]. He viuted St PeleTihuiiat (hecalTolIb* 
cnpicia EUaabeib. and on his retua was named in t7Si director 
ol the French Academy at Rome: he (bere pabled the " Indian 
Widow," one of bis best-known works. In 1S04 Napoleon 
cooferied on him tbe cross of the iacioa of honoue, aad on 
the loih of June lAoj be died in the Lonvce, oi whldi h« «a« 
hbiwrary keeper. 

Li GDAIRA, or Ia Gdayxa daoielima LaeOAlM, b-), 
k town ud pon of Vencauela, in.Jw Federal diiuict, tt Ui 
fay rail and 6) m. in a dinct line S. of CaileM. Pop. (1904, 
estimate) I'ooo. It Is Blualed between a pferfpliotu mountain 
aide and a broad, temiciicular Indcnutioo of tbe coast line which 
[onaa tb« roadstaad of ibe port. The ancboraic waa iMf con. 
aideied one of the mou dangerous on iJw CatibbiaB oout, and 
landing was attended with much danger. Tbe harbour bai been 
improved by the consttuctioa ol a concrete breakwalec nuinini 
out f nun tbe eatttra sfaota Uh 1044 ll., built up inmaoeKtcnic 
4ep(b ol 4fr ft. or from aa avcage depth of ■«} ft., and rUng 
I9t It- shove se*-leveL Thii endtoa an ana Of j6\ acres, 
having an avetage depth of neatly >S ft. Hie harbour 11 lurUter 
impcoved by 1JI70 f I. o( concrete quaya tod 1397 ft. of — ■••■'■^ 
sea-wall, with sBvoal pieii (tbtec covered) pnfecdac lata deep 
water. Theae works were executed "by a Biltidi company, 
known as tbe La Guaira Haibour CorpomlJai^ Ltd., and were 
campl c l ed ia i8qi at a coatot «bomon»a>illie>> «t«dit». Jh* 
coocewic ia !«- M yean aad the additiaal cbalgta Whldi tbt 
company is autborted to Irnpote aR Deoeuailly heavy. TlMM 
ImpiovemenU and the lestrictlDu placed opOB the duect trade 
between West Indiu) porta and the Otinoco bavagroatly Inntaifiil 
lb* Eonign uad* of La Coajra, which la rira] wai 51K ol that 
ol the lour /Mrlai taHWaJw ol tba tepuhlic. Ilie aUppiog 

■Nwnlcua»aiHli4<'itl>(xwlucluii«eJy. The eipcuU iochidcd 
ijiitij b*^ atltt, 114447 b*^ aa» uid iji.Soi liidn. 
Foe igoj-igoi Um ioiiaru U. Ia Guuu mrt viJubI offidiUjr 
>t ^tAIiI^S ixid llw exporu al £M>3,i(>t. Tt» ciiy Wwb on. 
■lopiiig s>oiuKi ■tratchiai iIom t^ «iniilu cnaM bM wi\k ■ 
" li of ije M jjo tL ind ktvuB Ik* ippauw <f 


hutc»likiwiMiBcnMHlit*>v«ikU>b«Mllt. UtUaaumw 

0) cpwi)*^ ■"SO*' (■^b' >■■*'', nucMr- 
icKw, twUy-iNned Mnw^ but wilb aood 
u |ic>id|«l Mntt- Fren Ua . 

being V F. Hh lauUi LoviM of UtuquMi^ i n. W. w>d 
Hacuta, ]■!.£., wbicb htm bMUr cbMik lod naiUry 
coodltiDai Kid ire canaccuil by ■ ii«n>w-|wv> railnayi we 
tbe midMMSi of naoy of tlH malthkc itctmi «i La Cuaiia. 
La Ca«in «ai founded ia 15U, wu nckcd bgr UiUaun 
udar Anil* PratoB ia isgf, and br the Fnack uado- Cnnv- 
mint in 16(0, >u doUoyed by (b« paat lankqiuli* o( 
Ike >«lb D( Uanh aii, aad ■nfcrad wwdy k Ibt war lor 


n-dccud 10 llw Cbaabet la ttn. Kenans *a* an ooOeat 
kciurti an lie revgluUwiaiy iicciod of Fnadi Uitaty, coimniiDg 

Gnat Britain, Gcrmwy ud luly ■ 

I, VxoKi* M <iSi6-i8i5}, FioKb polilidio, wu the 
a BoUa Paiuvia family, Akhoofb lo' biitb and aduca- 

[farhwl 10 LatflimiM prtadptcit b j^framr ckiady 
I iwaninti l« ohoM oiaan, J^ Bin J'aUic, Ik 
a principal contributor. Aftar lb* uoppaga of tUa paper 
neinDM(«ri«/tetM,aBdin ils»4dkad£i /!^». Achaiacler 
■katcb of Lonja Naimlami In tbfa joutnal caMid diSexnao wilb 
LamaiUna, and La Gutramdiia becaaeBamudBoreclMdy 
idealificd with the polky of tbe prince piaidait. Under tbe 
Brnpiie be m* a mamber of the council oi Mate (iSij), aenator 
(iWr), amheewdor at Bnuaili itl6»i, and at Contta 
(iRTo), and pud cAcer of tbi l«pia of bonaur (iSM). ... 
(fitd la Ptrii OB tbe ijrd of December iStj. BcaUei IA Aida 
« twHrmki tt l ilifim tml m f ti m iu (*Bs<U hb iH«.tMpar«ilil 
•otfci an tboae od the foiaiD policy of tbe EnipfR: L* Fma, 
KemialMii (1851), VAiax^m it Rtmi (lUf], Dilaftitivt 

Hii alder biotbci, Altud Duheuil IUuon, Comte de La 
fliitinnaMin (taia-iti4), nbo ranaioed faithful 10 the Lctriiraiil 
paity,*aaalaaa«ell-kiioira«rilcrud>«inialiit. Hiwaicon- 
liaieat ia bi« eppo«itina to tbe July Monarchy ud tb* £aplic, 
but in a •siea of book* 00 tbe criaia of iSto-iI?! Aoved ■ 
nwit fawurahla attitude to tbe KqMiUk. 

LAflUIUI, WM BBni anun <iR5»- I. French 
lawyer aod poHtidan. ni tnra b Park on the utb of June 
ifljS. Called to tbe bar in xtn, be dotingutibed binueU by 
br^lluU, plcadi^* in favour of aOciaUU and inarrhiw leaden, 
defoHUgs Prince Kn>potkiae at Lyeo* in iSSj, LouiK Uicbd 
ia tbe unc year; and in iIM, witb A. Millerand ae colkacue 
be defended Bm«M Rodie and Due Qwcy. tbe b^tlfaton of 
tbe DecairriUe etlika. Hb lUiClilre* oa 1^ fronvar di 1* 
JU^idM^M OB thiiaccNiaabtinf declared libellmn be wa* *» 
pended loi ni Mouhi and in iVboagain incuned Mupanion 
for u attack on the atunuy-feaenl. QHaaay da Baanitpaiie. 
He aln pleaded in the reausi criminal claeaof Ui tine, tboach 
fmm iB«j oBwaidi cKluBvely in tbe pnvince*. bin etd iian 
from tbe Fatiuan bar haties been Kciual oa the piMeXl of 
bb coooeiioa with la Praia. He tetered tbe Chaabtr of 
Deputin (dc Apt In iBS] 11 1 tepifatntative of die exUnue 
icvisaoiii FnefnouDC, and wa* one of the levten of tbe 
BoulaniiM afiiatioo. He had (oimaly vrittcn for Ceoife* 
Ocnieiiccau'i Drgan La Ju^a.hax whin CkoieiKeaa tifiued 
to tmpnK any ibibbolctb on tbe radical party be bcone direclDT 
of La Fnaa. He lallitd to the repubUcaa party ia May 1801, 
MBi BWMtn befim Genanl Knulaocn'a wldd*. Ua ina not 

He iolfiested Maiwif in tte fau of Ibe " LHtle Danplun " 
(Loui* XVIL), wlwao euppoMd itmaina, biuicd at Ste UaoiKrite, 
he pnved to ba Ibaea of a boy of lourteea. 

LAOOIU. or La Lasrau, an e|texval dly aad formerly the 
capital of tbe idaad of Tcaerifle, in the Spaniik aidii|iclesD 
of the Canwy bknda. Pop. (1900) 1^,074. Lafuna ii 4 b. K. 
by W. of SaalB Ct«i, u a ptaia i«oo fL above ■ea-levcl, t«r- 
~ <T is unknoiRi hei^ and tbe mean 
tj* F.; but the niafall it vctji 
plain inometimei Soodcd. Tba 
tauoiUily of lb* alnuapbeiB, cocibiBed with tbe warn diBBla 
aad Bcb ■okiaic wO, wndm the diKria eacqitioaallr fotilci 
wheat, wne aod iobaccD, ofBnaea and otba freiti, are piadwtd 
in ebumknce. I »rina ia Ibc (avootilc lummer lasdence uf 
tbe wealthier inhabitanU af .Sanla Cna. Boaki the ealliedral, 

a fine modun town ball, boapiiala. a lufe pvblic libnty ttid 
■onwaadiBt fialBceiof IheSpukhnobiUiy. Eves tbe nwden 
buiidiap have ofica an appearance of aatiquiiy.owiai to tbe 
decay auead by damp, and the hituiianl gnwlh af '^"''''■1 

U HAKPE. JBUI FRAHCOU DB (1737-1801), French critic. 
wat hoin in Pan of poor paecnla on the mh of November 
I ly). Hi) laiber, lAoilgned btauelf Dclharpe, wai a deKtodut 
ol a noble limlly onsiiully of Viud, LcTi aa orphan at the age 
of nine. La Hirpe was taken care ol foriii moatbi by.ihe liiura 
of charity, and his education wai providad lor by a echolartfaip 
at tba CoiUfe d'Kaiennn. Vfhen nineteen he «a* imprisoMd 

Ui proteelon at the coUefa. La Hupe ^inyi denied hii (Bill, 
hut thb culBilnatlm milfoiMne of as early life ipent enlinly 

witb tbe UitemeH bt evinced fai lalerlife. Ia itBj hi* iraiedy 
of Waniik wa* played beiN* tbe eevrt- This, ha fini play, 
w*i pab*|» Ibe tat be ner wnle. Th* many aatbors whom he 
afienardagCended weitahny* able lootaerfc that tbe critic'* 
own play* dM not nack tbe ilanilafd of eaccUeBcc be lei up. 
(ailnna. M4t«M >■* a better play, but was never nprocnled. 
Tht (ucco* of Wtntei M la a coneapODdenea wilb Voltaire, 
who (snceinvd a high opinion of La Haipe,even alloiring bin 
to Conert fab »inn. In 1764 La Harpe married the daufhicr 
of a enffee bouae keeper. TUi maniage, which proved very 
inAappy and wn dtaidved, did not iBprerc bb petition. 
Hiey were veiy poor, and tor *o«m lime wen foalt of Voltalie 
It Foney. Whan, aliu Voludn'* deatb. La Harpe In hb prabe 
of Ibc pfaikaopber ve u t « ed 00 aome leasonaUe, bet lather 
ill-tbned, etitkbni of faidividBd woila, be waa accuied of treachery 
10 one who had been U* ceortant fiicBd. In 176! be retunied 
from Feraey 10 Paiii, wbaM he began to write fat tbe Mtrart. 
He waa a bon t^er and had MiaB Dieny OB the anthoti wboic 
violently attacked, and 
. . . . . l*lly (boae of Lebtait- 
atrlkbis pmof of the (Oieral boetBHy can be 
givea thanUi McapUan (r77a) al ' ' ' -- - - 

BeBie alb bi* ." enecailon." U 

HaltM'* predeceaeor, Chailc* 

fiom tba Mtreun, which be bad edited fi 

stage be pMdwed lar BanHM a (iTtOi ^ 

SmfUM (iT«i>, la Bmm <tT8]), CarUbO (17*4). Vitpnk 

(17W). In itM he beflu a conne of bteratnre at tbe iie*4y- 

catabHsbed Lytda. In theie Icctorei, ptiWthed a* tbe Cwi *t 



uidbahul(iiiI]rBH|KrtaiilkMnilecl(eoltbcmiddle«|ct,b<it be 
beicellcntuihbauljiiiaaf irlh-cealniywiilcn. Sdnlc-Beuve 
toundiDhiBitbdMHtrilkoflbePnichMboolol In^nly.ahkh 
Kuhed ill pafKtiDn in lUdiH. La Hkrpi wu > diKiple D[ ibe 
" fhiUuflus "; he mpfHcted the extnine pftrty tbroa^ tbe 
cjcous of 179J uid 1793. Id itoj he edited (be Uncim it 
Franct vbjcb vUwfed blindly to ibe revohiiioiiArnr lemden. 
But is ApcU 17M he wu nevenheleu ttitri K ■ "tuipect." 
In nisoD be undtrweat a tpiriiuit cHiit wbich he deacnbed in 
■dnc ttnxirate. ud he emerged an urdeot Cilholic and a 
mill in pablict. When be resumed hl> diiir M Ibe 
Lytfe, be alladied hl> formtt fnendi in politin and litenlure. 
He wu impfwlenl eBoBgh to begin tbe pablicalion (iSoi-iSar) 
alhBCgrr«f«iJaiurlilMnire(i774-i7gi) wllfatbegiud-dake, 
alterwaidi ibe empeior Paul of Rniila. In tbcH Itllen be 
wipaMtd ilw braialiiia of Ibe Uircuri. He contracted a 
Mcood Bamice. which wu diuoJvFd altFt a (ew wtelii by hit 
wite. He died on the itlh of February iSoj In Parii. leaving 
En his wiil an incooenniu* eibartalion to hit Icllaw countiymen 
IB maintain peace and concord. Among hi! poHhumoai worki 
wu a /Vo/iittw it Catllt wbicb Slinte-Beuve pronnuncu his 
beat work. It 11 a nmbn deicription of a dinner-party of 
wublea long before tbe Revolution; when Jacqne* Cantic 
ii made to prophesy the frighiful fito awaiiini Ihe various 
iodividml* of (lie company. - 

AmoBf 'fail vgifa not alzvuly mentioned 
SMit (iT95-i79A)> publiiked u lie]: •"— - 
CsCla^iiF earlier date (puUislvidu^i 

a Rllie- 

. (iBi,). 

HmrDKaau. SHalioSi 

' ' ~ 4 {« preGied a ] 


C. Feig 

d Harf (1 8)0). 

UBOX, U0SBIIT OB (ite6-ii{6). Fnaicb [watrr, wa* 
bun at Pari* on the 17th of February 1606, He became a 
pupil of Lallemand, studied the works of Primatlcdo at Fontatne- 
bleau, but never viiiled Italy, and belongs wholly 10 (bat tnnsi- 
lion period which preceded Ihe KboDl of Simon Vouel. His 
picture of Nicolu V. opening ibe ci^pt in which he dinven 
Ihe corpae of Si Francii of Aiiiai tltnding (Louvre) wu executed 
in t6jo lor the Capuchiei of the Maials; it shows a gravity 
and Mbtieiy of cbaiacter which maiked Lalnre's best work, and 
teems not lo have been without iofluenceon Lc Soeur. The 
Louvre coBlaint eight olbet works, and ptintiaga by LaUre are in 
llMrauiCumaoIStraiburg, RmenaodLeMana. Hiidnwinff. 
«f which the Briliah UuKum poueua a fine enmple, " Pre- 
sentation of tbe Virgin in the Teieple," are inMcd a* seriously 
u bis paintings, and »meiiim tho* timplidiy and dignity 
al cBect. The eumple of the Capuchins, for nbaoi be eiecuinl 
■everal other works in Paris, Rouen and Ftcamp, Sru laUmM 
by ibagoldsmiihi' company, for sliom he produced in 163s " St 
Filer hcaliog the Sick " (Louvre) and (be " Conveiwo of St 
Paul " in itj7 In 1646, witb eJevcn ullier arliata, be founded 
(be French Royal Academy ol Painting and Sculpt un, Richelieu 
called Lahire lo tbe Palais Royal: Chaotdkir Sjfuier, TallemagI 
de R£aui and many others entiusled Um with important 
works of decoration; for the Gobelim be deaipiFd ■ aetiei of 
. Lahire painted ako a great number of 
I i^M united in one work foe the town-hall of 
Parii (hose of Ibe priodpaJ digotlaijca nl tbe manidpaiiiy. 
He died on Ibc iStb of Decembet 1656. 

LAKH, a river of Gertuoy, a right-bank tiibnuiy of tbe 
Rhine. lUsourceiiontbeJagdlMrC.aBimBUIoltbBRnthaai' 
Uoun(Bina, in ibe ceDu ol a house (Lahnbof), at an eientkoi 
of iqis.fl- It ^*a at fial eastward and then soutbwanl lo 
Ciesien. then luna sou th-west ward and with a winding eoorac 
reaches the Rhine between (he towns of OberlaJtBst^ and 
Niederlahnstein. lia valley, tbe kiwei put of wUcb divides 
the Tautuu hill* from tbe Weaieiwald, is often very nanow and 
picturesque: among the lowns and lites dI kitereu on jIt banks 

ill cathedral, Runkel witb its castle. LimbB:gwilh ilacatbedtal 
the caaijnof Scbaumburg, Batduin 

Bnrgstete and Naaaw, and tbe wdt-fawwnlwUth Instt of Zni.' 
Tbe Labn it about ijs m. long; It ii navigable frem In ivoaib 
to Cienen, and it partly canalized. A railway FoBowi tbe TaUey 
praclieally througbaut. In 1706 (here were here several en- 
connten between Ibe Freocb under Oeneral jMirdaa and the 
troops of the artbdake JohaD, wbkb Kmlted In tbe ntnat of 
tbe FKDcb adoai tbe Rbbie. 

Mfl. the langiiage of the Welt), an Indo-Aryan language spoken 
in the western Punjab. In i^i tbe number of speakers wu 
3.3ST,4r7. ItleulerabooiKlajyisvHy Indefinite uthelanguage 
gradually merges bio Ihe Fanjabi Immediately to the eu(, but 
i( u convenlioBiUy taken u Ihe river Cbenab f ran ibe KaAnlr 
frontier lo the ln«n of Ranuugar, and IheiKe aa a tiralglK Hoe 
(o the Bou(h- weal comer of the district (4 MoDlgemery. Labnda 
Is aho spoken in the northed the Ilate of Bahiwilpur and of Ibe 
province of Snd. <n which latter localiiy it is known u SIralkL 
Its wejiFTTi boundary It, roughly speaking, the river Indus, 
acroa chich the langnage of the Afghan population Is Publo 
(Pushtu), while the Hindu settlers stltl speak Lihnda. In die 
I>erajat, however, Lahnda is the prindpal language of all davei 
in the plain* west of the river. 

Lahnda ii ako known u Waiera Pan)abl iixt ai Jalll, or 
the language of ihe Jais, 1A0 form tbe bulk of tbe populatioD 
whose nwiher-Iongue It ii. In the Den)i( It Is ctlltd Hindko 
or the language of Hindus. In iBiq the Scrampur minimarici 
published a Lahnda version of (he New Testament. They 
caUed tbe language Ucbchi, from the Imponant town «( Uch 
near the ranHiwnce of Ihe Jbdam and Ibe Chenab. This-tMBe 
Is cammonly net witb in irid writings. Ithunumennudlalecta, 
which Ian Into two main groups, a norlbem and a soutliaTi, 
the speakers of which are sepanted by the Sell Rang*. Tbe 
principal varietieacf the northern group are Hindkl (the sane 
in meaning u Rtndke) and PMhwIil. In tbe wutbeiB gnmp 
the imni important are KbKrtnl, Huldnt, and (be dialect of 
Shahpur. The language poncna no litenlure. 

Lahnda belong! to the north-western grdnp of the ooter band of 

'- *- - - (f-T.), the other member* bahig Kaibmiii 

both of which It is chady connected. See 

U BOODI. lAITLB OP. Ibe Mme now ghn to a aeries of 
encounter* whicb took place from tbe lOth U> tbe Ijrd (O.S.) 
of Hay ■««>, between an allied BriUA and Dutch leet aad a 
French force, on the northern and eaHern iMa of tbe CateotiD 
in Normandy. A body of Frencb tybofis. and a mtubcr al 
Jacobite eiiles. had been ejected in the Colentin. Tbn 
governmen( cl Loui* XIV. prepared a naval armament ta cov^ 
their passage acroaa the Channel. This fom wa* to have beoi 
compintd ol tbe French ihipaai Brest comnaoded by (be Couu 
ol Toutville, and of a squadron whicb wu to have joined bim 
from Toulon. Bu( (be Toulon ihipa were •catteitd by a gale, 
and the combinsllon wu not eaecied. Tbe count of ToomHe, 
who bad put (o Bin to mrci them, bad with him only 45 or 
47 iMiis of the line. Vet when tbe Miolorcanent failed to 
join him. he steered up Cbaund to meet tbe alUet, wbo wen 
known Is he in Mrengtfi. On Ihe 151b of Hay the Biltilh AeM 
of 6j sail of tbe Hne, mder eonnuDd of Edward RuMiiL after- 
ward* eari af Orfaid, wu joined al St IMani by tha Dutch 
aqaadtan of jAuil under AdiidialvanAlhaiOBdt. Tbaaii|i*t(nt 
- Mounter witb 

man]' Biitiah eaptaim wci« dbconieated, and wnuU 
pasa <n«r hna Ihe lenicc of tbe gofcraKienl oublished by 
tbe Rmohiliaa of itU te their ekiM Ung. Janci II. It I* nld 
that TonvtDe had erden from Louii XI V. (o at tack in any case, 
butibeitmyiiafdoabtfalanthority. Tbe Brilfifa gowenmest, 
awaieef tbeiacobneiUrJ(iK*tniuS*ct,iado(tba prmlcDCC 
of diteonteM. tnok the bcM caune-ol appeiiiag to tbe hqially 
aodpUrioihmotltaoScnt. Ata(MCtin^o{tliea^«Saia oa 
board Ihr " Brhannia." RumU'i Oag-sMp, on the isih of ISaj, 
they piMtated Ibdr kqmhy. and Ibe wboli allied fleet put lo (e* 
OBtbaiUb. Ob Ibe igtb ai Hayi, wbaa Capa aaritu, iW 

I ado-Aryan knau^a (i 
(t».j and Sindhl, with ^ 
SlHDUI; alio tf IMKIsrA 

ftaUt lUuIi ptiM of the CatcMK ««i ii m. S.W. of Uwni, 
tbty righted TourviBc, who wu then » hl En the amh ol Ctpe 
L* [bsu(, ^ BBnb-««teni cmcnltr <>( the parinsub, wUcb 
miBt DM be eonlBunJ ed vitk La Hooqne, oi Li Hr«of, the 
[ilice *t ithicb the SchliiiB ended. IIk allies were fotrntd in a 
Hoc from S3.W. ta N J<.£. beading Unntdi the EagSsh csul, 
the Dutch (Onring the Whbe or vmn diniioB, wtdle the Red or 
CEBtrc divoioa noder Rtuscll, and the Blue or real uoder Sir 
John Aihbjr, weie •bolly compiaed of British ibipe. The wind 
wu tnm the S.W. lad the weitfact buy. Touiville bae dawn 
ud ittickcd abiiot mid-day, diROing his msin siuDlt on the 
centre of the il£cs, hut telling off some ships ta wiUh the van 
end rcsr of hla cnrmy. As this fiist encounter toot place off Cape 
Buaeoi, the battle was fonneilyoftoi called by the nasK. On 
the centie, where Tourville wu directly oppeoed to RuneO, tbe 
Aghdw wn tewen. The SitUb b»«hip the " BnuanJa " 
(tm^, ai^ the FiCKfa, Dw " SokU Boyd " (loe), wen both 
omslttdy crippled. AfterKvenlbautsaf ooBBki, ihcFmnb 

outSudc bin and pMi through .the neceaaiily wide inieivali 
is Ut cueDdad liae. dicw od wilboait the ka of a il^ The 
wiftdDawitUaadtbebanbecaBMafag. Till tbe ijid, the two 
Amu rrnatani ofl the BoMh caait of the CotcDtbi, driftiBg 
■tit with tbe ebb tide oc CMt with tbe bod, nve rten ib^ 
aa clMctd. Dsrii^ tbe oitfu of ti^ i^th/aoth aonw BritMi sb^ 
bccau eoiasglcd, in tbe fag, with tb* FitDcta, and dilfted 
thiDugli them. on the tide, wilhlais. On the ijid both Betta 
weteaear La Hague. Aboid half the FtCDcfa, under D'AtalieviUc, 
' ' ' o St Halo-.thimigb ' 


ftiMd hb own flag, and-left hii . 

w Ibef best ogald. He kit tbe " SoUl Royal," and leBl bci 

with two otbcn to Cbobomg, when tbcy wcra deaioytd by Sir 

Ralpb DelavaL The othen now ran round Cape Baifleut, and 

■ontbt lehge «n the «aU side of the CDtmCin «l ■■- — >-—- 

al LaHouqiM, odkd by the CngUib La Hagoe, w 

dcMJaed {grtbe tava^ wo* eacampad. Hi 

«efe banc ^ Sir Cwrge Roolu, in the [ 

tbe ptaa where the jut blow wu stnul:, the baltls hucnmo 
to be hiuwn hy the umc of La Hogue. 

SuStdeit ucouou el tbe ballle Duiy be found in Lediard'i Haul 
niilirj (London, i )35). ""d for the French lide in Troode'j BaUuila 
m-aalrj it la Fnma (}^ri., iMj). The mapc of D-Amtffville'l 
iquadroa la the tublcct of BnwBuic'spacin" Hgrv4 Rid." 


LAHORE, an andent dty of Brilitb India, tbe capital of tba 
Punjab, which giva in same to a diiukt and diviiian. It tiea 
Id ji'js'M. aodTV* id* E. neat Ihckft bankof thcKivsKavi, 
iTot It. above tbe sea, and ii]> ai. by rail front CaloiCta. 
It is thus in abput the same latitude u Cairo, but owing to iti 
inland pOHtion is conaidenbly boiler than thai city, bdng one 
of tha hottest places in India in the aicnmer tine. In the cold 
ieason tbe dimale ii pleaiaally ami and bright The native 
city ii walled, abont il to. in lei«Ui W. to E. and abo«t i m. 
in breadth N, to S. Its site baa beat occupied fton cady times, 
and mnch of it sUnds high above the levd «f tbe (unotnding 
country, raised on tbe remains of a auccenian of fcnaeiJiabita- 
tions. Some (dd buildinp, vhich bave been prtMfvcd, atand 
BOW below tbe present surface of (be grouod. Tbii b well Been 
in the mosque now called MBJId Niwin <ot sunken) built in 
1560, the mosque oi Mullah Rahmal, Tit. below, and the Shivali, 
a very uld Hindu temple, about 1 s ft- below tbe surmunding 
ground. Hindu tradition traces the origin of lahore to Lob 
01 Lava, lOD ot Ruoa, the ben of the Ramayama. Tbe absence 
of raeniion of Labote by Aleuadtr's biilotians, and the fact 
tbat coins oi tbe Craeo-Bacliiaii kings are not found among 
tbe rains, lead 10 tbe beliel that it wts not * place of say impott- 
anc* duiiog the eailiest period ol ladiaa history. On the other 
kand, UsOan Tsug, tbe Cbiiiac Buddhist, naticd the dty in 
hia IliKtrary (ut. &3o)j and it secma piobable, Ibeitiora, tliai 

of tbeFrauft 


Lduae first Toae into pnxniDence betwem tbe til aM Ttb 
ceniuiies a.D. Governed oiiglniUy by a family af Chauhui 
Rajpuis, abrahdiof thefaouKof Ajmeie, Laboie Cdl sacottively 
under the diauohin of tbe Ubazni and Gboii sultans, who nnid* 
it the capilil of their Indian conquests, and adorned it wilk 
numeRKis baOdinp, almost aH now In nduB. Bat It was ondcr 
the Uogul em^ that Lahore readied hs greaMM it» and 
rigna of HUnuyim, Akbar, Jabangir, Sid 
J^ian and Anmngieb fsRp the golden period ill tbe annals and 
of the dty. Ahbar enlarged and itpaired the iort, 
dad tba town with a wall, poRktnB ol whidi remain, 
the modem work otRanJii Singh. Lahore formed the 
capital nl the Sikh emplR ol thai aanaFch. At tbe end of tha 
eoad Sikh War, with the leM of tbe Puajab, it came tmdat 
10 Briliah dominion. 

The architecture ol Lshatt cannot compare witb that <■( 
Drlhi. Jahangit in ifiii'ilSiiy erected the Khwabgah or " sleep- 
ing.p|ace," a £ne pakce mocb defacod by the Sikhs but to some 
itored in tnodetn times; tbe Hoti Hujid or "peart 
in the fort, used by Ranjit Singh and afterwards by 
the Biitidi at a treaaire^wnse; and also the tomb of AnatkaU, 
tattoo diuidi and new as a Mbraiy. Sbb 
Jaban eacted a palace mhI otbei buDdhigs near the Kbwabgab, 
iadodlng tbe beaMifnl pavilion called the Naulakha ftom in 
COM «f nine laichi, which wu tabid sdth pttdoua stones. Tbe 
nwaqiie of Wa^ Xban (iOm) pravidea tba linesl taan^ile of 
wM ot cncauttk tile woik. Auran^eb-i JanM Masjid. o> 
' great moaque," ii a huge bare bulMog, uiS in dolin, and 

aching tbe dcl^lsd oonraeM typical ot bi " " 

The fadSfinff ol Ran]U Sii«b, evedally U 

md memiiaNa in elyle. He wu; moreover, reivoasible 
of the deqiailing ot the easier bnikfings. Tbe streets 
of the native dijr ait nanow and tortuois, and are bat seen 
bade of an elephant. Two of tbe chid leituies of 
Idhore lie ootside its walls at Shifadara aitd Sbilamar Gardens 
R^KCtiirdy. Shahdara, wbidi cxataioi the tomb of the enpenf 
Jabangir, liea aooa tbe Ravi anne S m. N. of the dty. It 
osnalsta of a splendid marble cenol^tb tBRoanilcd by a gtoia 
ol trees and gardens. The SbalaoBr Gardens, which were laid 
oat in 1.0. i6jT by Shah Jaban, Be 6 id. E. of tbe dty. Tiny 
■re 9omeii4ia> n^ected en^t 00 feKive occarions, when tbo 
fountains *ie playing aad tbe tices are lit up by lan^a at 

Tie modem dty irf I^bon^ which oontaiiied a populaUaa 
of ia>,96i in 1901, may he divided Into four puts: the nathio 
dty, already deacjihed; the dvll Slalion or European t]uarter, 
known n Donald Town; the Anarkah baiaar, a suburb S. □( 
the dly wall; sod the cgntoomcnt, farmcTly called Mian hUr. 
ThE marn street of the civil station 1> s ponion of tbe grand 
trunk mad fnia CalculU to Peshawar, locally knawa as tba 
UaH. Hie chief nodera buUdiags along this road, west to cast, 
are tlie Lahore mitum. containing a fine collection of Gtaeco- 
Buddhiat aodptnrci, foulid by Genera] Cunningham in the 
YuBubai coimtry, end anaoged by Ur Lockwood KipHng, a 
fotmcf cotatot of the mnsetun; ihe cathedral, begun by Bishop 
Ftencfa, in Eaily Engbah style, and consecrated in ilSyj the 
Lawience Cardena and Montgomery Halls, surrounded 1^ 

alatloned, eso^ a company o( British infantry^ ■ 
thefon. ItiittiebsadqiunBnaf tbsjiddivliDonalthenoithan 
aimy. Lahore ft u impotlanl junctioD on ihe Nectb-Westem 
railway syaun, but hu Kttle kical trade or muufsetma. Tbi 
diiel industiia are ailk goods, gold and silver lace, tnelal wotk 
and catpeta wUcb are made in tbe Labote gaoL Tteeaicalsa 
cotton tmlU, aour mills, an kO'factaiv, and sevoal ladoiiet 
for mineral waters, oUs, aoap, leather goods, fee I«haie ia 
an important educational ccntK. Here sie tbe Punjab University 
■dth im eolleits, medical and law coUei 


t, tW AIldAso CUA' Csflcfe (or tlx noi ol Mliv* 

•ad ipedil Khoob. 
TIteDinsicx or I. 

In the uHtb'nit the diKikt iaduda ft luic put of the buica 
Rediu DoiU), iriiile KUth of the lUvi b & ieaalMtc aUsvul 
tnci, laUe to &i«ta. Ilw MupB iriatau, hnncr, bdvem 
Ibe Ravi and the B<u, hu been raDdanl Icrtila bjr the Bui 
Doab caiuL Hw lrind[ial crapt us ' ^ 

aajjie, «flmJi and cotttnL Tbetean 

Uao of the Baij Doab cuial ud Iti bnndw*. ud by iwmihtion- 
cut! ffom the Sudej. Hu dUikt b cnned U Kvinl Anctkaa 
bylinaoftheNonb'WaUmnOw^'. Lahon, £aiiir, Chuilui 

The Divisiaa or ij^n»p oooidi alng tht dgkC b«ak of 
Ihe Sutlcj fmm Ihi Uiauiiyai to Uulun. It comptocs the u 
diuricti ol Siallnti Gninniimla, MootfEBiajr, I^bu^ Aointiv 
indGuidMliur. 3Mduea,i7,iM ■q.m.ipap.CkgoOs.svS.^Cij- 
ThcaiauBWooerlot Iha divWaoali» ■■'■■'"■ poUticil osotiol 
ova tba bill MaU ol <^Uill>*. Hw comncs langoafc o( tlM 
nml populsticai and oi artiMBi ia Pimlald; i4dk Uida or 
HlBdiului fa tpeika by iha tdocated riimi So far boa the 

tcmpeiMan in the nib-tniiiia b gnat. The mtut tenpetatme 
b theiludeia Junefaaboot gi°F., in JinuqtaWt 50^ In 

ihada.and lEmaimttiaaniaccaiiDniai lii^aa lo^ thie<«hont 
iIm nighL In irintci the momiiig tanpcntnz^ is aonietimca 
ai low aa m^. Ihe rainCill fa unceilain, **"B'"g from S in. to 
iSiOlthanavente of 15 in. The oDiiBtijr u a whole la panhed 
and arid, and Iitatir dqiendait on Irri^tion. 

'a hbdrid. He became a knlito 


L Iai6e5bewi 

poai ai tne iTeaimy, am u mt lain jrean acted ■* offidii 
eaooT o( the Uadild theatm. On the 13th of Aovut i;Dg 
he ligiied hfa fiajr tndtkd /s(^, mIhJ^ A £({;», ud fa p»> 
(umed to have lUed in the UOoitiaf year. Hoi ia sot ibbuA- 
able for origiiialily of eonccptloo, but fafa tecaMa of ptojra by 

for the eateem in whiefa be waa hdd by hfa cwHeinlmaifaa. 
BlllMmliiM*jMi«iPoiiatMaiBtcailittJtlaMaaia, ninnttd 
ta Ihe BOUiUta it Aaltrtt BipateUi, five a joM Idea tt fail 

11 Is Ibe gcand-dudiy ol Badoi, on the Scbuttef, 
about « ID. S. of OflenbnrR, and on the laihny DingLingai-Labi. 
Pop. <i90o} 13,117. One id the buiieet towna in Badea, It 
cairiea on maouiactnm of tobuxo and dgoi, woollen (ooda, 
ddcofy, leather, paMeboaed, hati and nuiiBm other article*, 
hit eonriderable trade in wine, while amons f ti mbm indistilet 

ttji, and aftet ktbiI Tknntudei it paMed iriwlly to Baden 

See Stdn, GncUik ml StKlHaHf iw Soil Zokr (Lai*. il>7} ; 
■Ml SOttBlLi, £«kr aW MH [ftqihial (Lahr. 1404). 

UlBACa (Slovenian, UtO^m,), capital «f the Aatrian 
daAyolCaialola, ej7m.5J.W.«fWeBnabyialL ^9.(1900)' 
j6,547, noatly Slorae. It k ritaaled on the Lalbach, aeai ita 
InBu iMo the Save, asd niacin of Ihe towa piopei end eight 

maiHihctBWe at pott«y, kkhe, oO, Ihten and wmIn dN^ 
i(»]Mee and paper. 

LaOiad ■ aanaaed to oecopy the liu af the BocieBt Emoaa er 
AaDcaa, louoded liy tbe empciDr AusuKut in 34 ax. It wu 
bei'meJ by Aluic la iiio. aad in 4SI it vu JaoIaHd by Ihe Hum, 
EnOQOLaiDaehtiifferedmiKhfnMillieMaEyani who wen, however, 
defeated Ihae ia 914. In tbe uth OBtmy the (own paiied Into tha 
handi of the dake* of CaifotUa : ia lajD It wn t^ea by OtMcac of 
EMKDua; ud in 1377 it csne under tbe Hahd»igi. In Ihe early 
put as tie ijih cRiiuiy tbe town wu •evoal tinea bedeged by the 
Turks, 'nelnilninc wax foancM in I4S1. On the I7tti of Maidl 
1797 and anjn oa (be jid of Jan* 1*09 LiHarii *aa talon by Ike 
Ennch, and boa 1809 to 1B13 k besiae Ihe ivt of their ■neial 
tovemaient of tb* tUynu pn>vi«a. Fnxn t8l6 to tlu Laibach 
wai the racial of tbe Uoidoin of lllyrii. The town fa aln bfatoric- 
(Hy known tnm tbe cofiinia of Laibach, whicb aiaenbkd hen la 
tail jn bdew). LaOwfa aaflend lamely on the 14a af April 
tats iKia aa —"'-nr^ 

Canpttr «r Ca^vnt* tf laOMt.'-Bcfon tbe bnakrop ot 
the <Dnfeteiiee of Trappas (f.K), it had beta decided 10 adiovra 
it till the foUowiM jannaiT, and to tavlte tbe attmdana o( 
Ihe king of Htpkt, LaAacfa bring di 
ing_ Caetlereegh, in the Di ' " 

and FRMb. had ianed, oa th* Ith ol 
iSm, a dtculai letto', in «hidi they teitsatad tht 
ptindplci of the Pntocol, ^ the ri^ and do^ of the powaa 

any ienlntkHiai)> moT uuaut 1^ iMdi thitf m^ht cDocelvn 
that peace ta be eodaa^ttl (Hottlet, Mb. roj). Asdaet tU» 
view CaKlanagb anea Hin pioteetad b> * ivciijar de^Wih ot 
the 19th el JaiMTy ilii, te wbkfc be dea^T dtOenatieted 
between the abjfrttonakle gnml prfadptet advaand by tha 
thne DoWBi. ud the paiticniu caee of the natcK In Ita^, 
I cnicen) DM of Earopo at km bu of Antiia 
othea- F*»*T^n |m i ^m which "H^t ^^mi ji A M r >■■— x ii f^^ 
(Bictilet, Nk lor). 

opcoed on tfaa 16th ol Jatmaiy ilii, and It* 

.--,_.j -' dlvngeoca iiiuialail b the abovai 

Koala at^ Amtiia wae pnnt 

, . _ ma Coonta Miaadiwk and Capo 

dletiia, UeUenldi and Baton \^ni3Bit; Pnnaia and Ftaaa 
were u p rcKn ted fay plaa(pofati«rt«a. Bat (heat Britafa, m 
the groond that iha had ao tmiBediala iotORK bi tbe Italian 
ipKitioa, waa i^reacnted only by Loed Stewart, tbe ainlaaadec 
at Vienna, who wai not ainMd with fun poweo, hii minion being 
to watdi tha pfooeedJnv and to fee that nctbiag waa dona 
beyoad or in violation of the tieatfai. Of the Italian nrincea. 
Ferdband of Nmlca and the data d Hodcna a 
the lot wen lepnacoted by pi ' 

It wu aooa dear that a ai 
Qtft Bdtab and the ot 
waa aniioa* 10 eecDia ai 
hack tha AoMilan inlervenUoo In Napke,' and cveiy devkw 
waa and to entrap the BngUdi n p waau ta t lve bio auhaolbing 
a tonaida whfdi would hava aeeoiid to eonuait &iat Btitidn 
to tbe piiBCJ[dea of the other aUka. Whtc thew d»(o(B failed, 
attenqiti were made uaannc—fally to eadude Lord Stewart 
fiontheoooferaic*eaatb«gn)iindo(d<(ecllv«pawcn. Flaally 
be waa foKBd toan open piat<at,iAld he caoMd to be inacribed 
oathe{omnak, bat tlw action ofC^odliuktaTca^ng to the' 
aia em h l ed Italian mlaiMen, lAa wele by no meaiia reooDcDcd 
to the iaiga Gtoioa Implied Id the Auttrtan inUTvenlloii, a dedata- 
tioo b wfaidi *t (be itaah of lb* * Intimate union catafaliAed 
all the European powen " tbe Rouiaa 

idea of a " uninnal ui^ " based on the Hdy Alliance <f.>.) 
agafaiat wUdi Cmm Britain had tonsbuatly pnteited. 
. The objecllone ol Great Britain woe, however, not ao mudi 
to an Atutifan bterveatiNi b Nqilee u to the [at-tead>ing 
principles by which it waa aou^t to juHify IL King Ferdinand 
had bets invited, to j/aibach, according to llie dnOlar of tha 



tfh ef DecemSti, Is order that be mlglit be fcte to act u 
" EmUttcr iMiweeo bii ening pcopte* tad tbt lUlcs whne 
tnnqidlBty tIiC7 tlue^tened." The cynicil dm be mMle c4 Ui 
* fncdom " to repndiMc obSiitloni nlcmnl; anitncttd Ii 
daciibed dKwlKrc Cue Nuul, Huttrf)- ^ nauh of lUi 
■ctko ms tbe Netpolitin dedanllon of mr and the occitpa- 
don <if Kapla bf Atotiii, nitta tbe unoiao el the cougiBt . 
Tla mi pncnkd, on the loCh of Much, b]r the revok ^ the 
■uriWD of AleauBdiB (Hi) the mOituy nvdutkia tn Piedmont, 
■Ucta in IH loni wi* npimacil, as ■ remit of negotUtloni it 
Lalbacb, br AuMriu uoopi. It «u «t Liibodi, too, thit, on 
(he 19th VI Mudi, the emperor Alenader recelvel the newi 
of YpiUutti'i inn^on of the Durabian pi!ndpalbl(«, vbidi 
bet^ded the oolbtesk of the Wtt at Creek Independsoce, tod 
fnm LubKh Cipo dlstib iddiHed to the Otak leeder the 
tsu*! RpndhtloD ot hi* actioa. 

TIk conference dcoed on the utb of Hqr, on wbid dite 
Ronli, Amtiinand Pmssb Imcd t dedualion (Hertilet, 
No. lat) " to prbcbim to the woild ibe priudtda whidi luided 
Ibem " in coming " to (he ueiitaace of Hibtlaed people*," ■ 
deduation which once inoie affimed the prindpta of the 
IVoppn PiotocoL In this lay the European significance of the 
Laibach conference, of which the actii^iii hid been mainl]' 
confined to Ttaly. The fame of the dedaration without the 
•fgnatorei of Ibe representatives of Great Britain and Prance 
pradabned the <Siun!on of the lUiance, witUn Thiib — to me 
Lord Stewart'i woidi — there existed " * triple nuderttanding 
which boDnd the panki to carry forward tWc own viewi in 
ijdte of any difloicnce of orinioB between them and the twn 

No acperate Jiiilory of the corateii exidi, but iaoamerabk refer- 
cncaaretobefoundlDgemaltuUnrieiaiid In raenobi, corrafiond- 
cf«,Ae.,(i[ttaeIliae. SeearE.Hertri«, VopsfEinM (Loodoa, 
187^: Caitlengh, Cmutmina: Meatraicb, Manmrt; U. 
°"ttY. '"—f- J-TT— T'-- •'*"■■ ■"f'-^'-' Ennpa ui Ilalia (3 voU, 
Turin, lB6s-l8;j); Centi'i coneipoBdenee (k Ct-tnz. f- VOH). 
Valialile unpuSSihcd conapondence ii pnerved ai ths Rccoid 
OOce in the nluBH madidT. a. Aniria, Lord Stewart. Januarr 
to feboHiy iSii, and. Hanh is Sepumbcr iKii. (Wt A. P.) 

LAniULV, mUAM (1TS0-1I45), (rfend and amanuensis 
d Stt Walter Scott, wh bom at Blickbouie, Selkirkshire, on 
the iglli of NcnrembB- 178a, the son of a ibeep farmer. After 
an demcntaiy education in Peebles he letonied 10 work upon 
Iiii father^ farm. James Hogg, the ihepheid poet, who waa 
employed at Blackhouse -for some years, became Laidliw*! 
friend and i^ptedatiTe critic. Together they asaisted Scott 
by snppTyiag raaterial for his Border Uinslnhy, and Laldtaw, 
■Iter two faHntes at a fanner in MidlatUan and Peebinhtre, 
be<SDie Scolt's itewud at Abbotslord. He also aoed as Scott's 
amaiiiK»2s at different times, likkf down a large part of TIU 
Brl^ ef Lamwimiacr, Tkt Lcgeiid ef Xmtrtst and /hhAm 
from the antbar'i dictation. He died at Qmlin near Dingwall, 
Rosa-shin, on the iSth of Uay 184S- Ot Ua poetrr, little it 
known except Imefi maiK,' in Bogs's Fsrat tthitlrtl. 

nam, AUXAisra wbdon (^^•}y^^Rli), scottui 

e ip tot w ', Ibe Sfit Enropean (o reach l%nboktQ, was born at 
Edfnbo^ on the 17th of December itqj. He was edncated 
by bis father, WQUatn Laisg. * private teacher of duilea, and 
at Edigbnri^ TJmveiti^. In iSir he went to Barbadoa at 
detk toUamateml ancle OoloDel<itterwudt General) Gabrid 
GOTdon. UnoDgh Geneial Sfr George BoittStb, goveraor ot 
Baritadot, be obtained an maimer in the Vorfc tf^ Inlantiy. 
Hewttoni^DyedlstbeWest India, aodfn iSn waa peeaoted 
to a company io the V/jpd Afifcan Coipa. In that ^fear, wUe 
wltli bb fcgfaaent at Serra Leone, be was teU by tbe govetBilr, 
Eb Cbailet IfacCacthjr, totbe HandfogooMmtiy, MlhtbedouUe 
abject of opeaint up com m wa and endeaiouiing to abcOdi dte 
tinvetiadelathattcltoii. Inter fai the tame yeaf I^ing visited 
Falaba, the ca|4tBl of tbe Sulimn omntir, and aKetttbwd tba 
■outce of tV KoJceB. Be endeavooied to reach Ibe nnice irf 
the W^ bat was stopped by the natlra. He was, however, 
•MUodtoixHwIthappTOiitnataacconcV. He to<* an actMt 
paH in Ibe Athaotl War of 1813-14. and was scnt'home with tbe 

_ italning th« newa of the death b adloa oE Sir 

Cbarie* UacCaithy. Henry, 3rd Earl Balhunt, then iccretary 
for the colonies. Instructed Captain Lalngto undertake a joimiiry, 
via TilpoO and Timbuktu, to further duddaie the h)iln>gT(phy 
of tbe Niger basfai, Laing l^t Enghnd m Febrmtry 1S15, and at 
TitpoHoa tbe t4th of Jidy following bemaiciedEaum Warring- 
Ion, daoghtei of the Britiib cons^ Two dqn later, leaving bis 
biide behind, he started to aem tbe Sahara, being aocoinpaiited 
by a sheikh wbo wtt sabaequently accused of r*"-"'"! bit 
mnrder. Ghadames wat reached, by an imlirect tome, in 
October 1835, and in December Lalig wat fai die T^t totitoiy, 
wbere be was weQ tecdved by tbe TUareg. On the lotb of 
JaniuU7 rSH! he left Toit, and made lor Tlmboktu aonm the 
desert of TonenDft. Letteia from him written hi May and 
July foUowing Iirid of tnfleringt tnnn fever and tbe pCnndeilag 
of hit caravan by Iteng, Lalng bdng vronnded In twenty-fbtn 
plaeea m tbe fighttng. Aootber fetter dated from Tlmbnkla 
on the I ist of September announced Us arrival In that tftf on 
the preceding iSih of Angust, and tbe Intccority af hb tiorillon 
owing to the hottiUty of tbe Ftda chieftain BeDo, thai ruling 
(be dty. He added that be Intended leaving Tlmbnktu £ 
Ibiee days' tintb No fottber news waa received frun tbe 
iravdlci. FVom nativa Intematim It vis ascerfabied that be 
left nmbnktu on the dajr be bad Hf""*^ *nd was nmrdered 
on the nl^t of the itU of September tSid, Rb papen were 
never recovered, tbcngli It Is bdjered that they were secretly 
brought to Tr^iKdi in iSsS^Ia 190J the French goveminent 
placed a taUet bearing the ■■> of the explORT and tbe date ci 
Ut visit on the house eoci^e3 by bin during Us thirty-eight 
days' stay to 'nmbnktn. 

WUIs Lb Eaibnd ia I >14 Laiac prepared a ■airatlveefhfaearUa 
foDnwyk whid waa pobUibed in 1S15 and aatillcd Trmilt m Its 
Timaiuut, JCaanmlii aad Sttlima CnsUnu. n WaUta Afiiia, 

UIHa, DAVID (iTU-iSje), Scottish antiquary, the son ol 
WlUiam Laing, a bookidki in Edlnbuigb, waa boni in that dly 
ontbcMthof Ap[ili7«s. Ednatedat tbe C a rt onga te CraniMr 
School, when fourteen be was apprenticed to hia lather. Shortly 
after tbe death of tbe latter ilk 1837, taing was decled l« tbi 
Ubtarianahip d tbe Signet libraiy, which pott be related liB 
bia datb. Apart bom an eatnonlinafy gineial UbUogta^klcal 
knonlcdge, Lalng was beet known at a Ufdong studait of the 
literaiy and aitiido liltlory of Seothnd. He puUisbad no 
Ofiginal volunMt, but contented hintdf whb editing the worka 
oI othcn. Of tbete, the cUel an— Am&itr'i Wvia (i vol*., 
1834), with a ai4J[JEment added in 1865; Jii?icrt BaillU'i 
1411114 and Jnmali (3 vols., 1841-1841)1 .'obi Kat^t Wwla 
(6 volt., 1846-1864)', pQimi ami FaUa of Ssltn Barytu 
(iSts); Auiret cf Wyulomi Orytymile Cnmyia 1} StaOani 
{3 vols., 1871-1879); Sir Dsfii Lyadiir^i PMical Wfrla 
(3 voU, iSig). laing wat for note tiian fiSty yean a inemlNt 
o( the Sodely of Antjqwiisa of Scotland, ud be duuibutef 
apMi4i nf a bandied separata ptveis to tbeir iV(KMdM(& 
He waa abo lot none Hun forty jFcnn seoctaiy la the Bannatyna 
Club, muy oi the pnbUcationa <i iripcb were edited t9 turn. 
HewHiUiickaitbpaialfibin iSjS wUc in the Signnt Ubiaiyv 
and it b laUted that, on ncoveriag contdouanit^ be lookid 
about and atfced if a piao( of Wyn^onn bad been ami from ih* 
piinlaa. Uodiedafs)idia»aflc(wacds,<aitba iStboiOctob^ 
in Ut dgbty-iiiih ytu. Kb lihi*iy wat *old by a i atioa, and 
>*aliie4£i<^'JI- Totbeiwtveaity<ifEdinbui»hl>ebaff)BM hej 
■■ " ■■ olUSS. 

by John Soiitl 

Witt U« «/ Ml PiMlMliiM, an. (pdvaody prinMd ■■$ 

Uim. KUODUi (il«t-iStS)t ScMtU Ultotian, «n af 
Robert Laing, aW dder bmiber bf Saimel Lalng (be dder, 
was b6ni an Us potei**) Mate on ibe Uainland «l Orkney. 
Having sludtal at tbe gramnUT tcboo) of UrkwiV and at 
Cdlnborgb Dni*enily,bb wascded to tbe Scottfc iMr In 1781, 
bat devoted bb ttnie mail^' to hbtatkal ttodlet. b 1703 be 
coraiMed tteditb t»d (all Tohmte of Robert tiaat^ Biliary 
1^ Crail BnMa, tb* portion wUeii h« WTDl«be&ig hi Ila tuengly 



Sbcai Udc at.varhoce «itli.llie pnccdiog pan of tlie mrk; 
ud in iBoi lie published hii Hiilcry oj Satiaad jrom til Usien cf 
tiu Crowm tolki Union oJtfieKintiioms.twQtiLthoviii^conMdti' 
»hlf research. Attached :g the History was & diueitatioa cm 
the Cowrie cosspincy, uijd vuther on Ihe suppoicd Luthentuily 
ol Osiu's poem*. Id aoottiei diieetutian, pieGicd to R Komd 
and coitccled edilioD oI the Uiilery publsbed la iSm, Lgdng 
endeavouied to prove that Mary, queen of Scola, wfotc the 
Casket Letterij and waa partly loponsihle for the murder oi 
Lord Damlcy. In the same year he edited tlic Life and miioric 
oj Kiiii Jama VI. f and In lAo; brought out in two voJumet an 
ejition of Osuao'i poenu. Laiog, who wu ■ friead o{ Chailei 
James foi, was mepibcr of parluimeiU far Orkney and Shetland 
Itora itor ta 1811. He died on Ihe 6lb of November iSiS. 

LADIG, SAMUEL ([S10-1S97), British author and railway 
administrator, vat bora at Edinburgh on the ijlb of Decembtr 
iSjo. He was the nephew of Malcolm Laing, the. historian of 
ScotUnd; and his father, Samuel Laing (i7So--i3£8), wu also 
» well-kQown author, whose books on Norway and Sweden 
attracted much aticstioa.' Samuel Laing the younger tatcrcd 
St Joha'i College. Cambridge, in 1817, and atlei paduating as 
■cGOnd wra^er and Smith's piiicman, wai elected a fellow, 
and reinaijied at Cacibddgc temponnly aa a coach. He waa 
called to the bar in 1837, and beca me privute lecreiaiy to Mr 
Labouchere (afterwards Lord Taunton), the president of the 
Board of Trade- In i&ta he was made aecrctAry to the railway 
department, and retained this post till 1&47. He bad by Iheo 
bcCDDK an authority dd railway wsjUoA and bad been a loembec 

that Ihe " parliameuaty " rale ol a penny a mile nas instituted. 
In 1&4S tM wa* appctiitn] cbainiuui and managing diiKtai of 
the London, Brighton & South Coail Railway, and faie business 
faculty showed itself in tbe laigety increased prosperity of the 
line. Hb alia became chairman <iSji) of tb« Crytlal Palace 
Company, but telired from both poMs In liss- In iSji he 
(Btend parliament as a Liberal for Wick, and after losing hil 
ical Id iS)t, was re-elected in 1S51!, In which year be wis ap- 
pcrfnted ftnandal Mcretary to the Treasury; in tA9o bt vat 
suaJe fiiUBce mlniMi* in lodla. On retnnuiig from India, ho 
WB* in-tittlci to paitlamal lot Wkk bi rBfij. Me Was defeated 
In iMS, but in iStj be was retumcd lot Orkney and Shetland, 
■nd retained his seat US iSSj. Meannhila be bad bun rt- 
■ppolnled duJrtnan of the Brighton line In 1867, and <iiDt(nued 
in that pOLi till ii94, being genenlly iKognlied as an adoililbl* 
administrator. ^ He waa aha c&akman of the Railway DctqntVfl 
Trust and the Railway Share Tragt. In lats'.lile he becanw 
well known as an author, his Utdtrn Sdrtio tud Uodtrn 
Tknikt (18S5), PrehUm of tk* StOwe (1S84) and Hainan 
Oritms (1S99) being widdy irad, not only by reason ti ihe 
writer'* faiftnaitial position, eipen«ice ol aiiain and deaf 
■tyle, but aho tlnugb llt^ popnlai and at t]|e same time 
wdl-Mmned tieatuent <tf th( adentific prabkott 1^ Of day. 
lalag «ed at SydcBhim on the eih of AnguM 1S9;. 

UnOI |0T Laik'i] nek; a pa» tbtwgh the Dtikensberg, 
SoDtli Afiks, ImnediUd)' north of Maiufaa <f,i.), at andentloD 
of s«>o to 6aoo ft. It b ite htwect put of a ridgE vbicfa dc^Ms 
(ram libhba to. (bfr Bdals. tiver,' and bifore tb« i^xalng of 
(he raitwBy in iRvi ffift nwl B««r Uwndl m* tbe main artery 
of coannnjcstiiBi between Dwban and PletiM^ Tbi taihny 
^CRts Ue nek by a tunnel. 1113 ft. k«(. When the Be»4 
rose in revolt in December iS3o they occupied Laing'* NdE 
to oppose the entrj' of British leinforccmenls into the Tiamvaal 
On the 3&Ih of January lESi a tm^ Biitith Xonz endeavouied 
to dtive the Boera from the pass, but was fnoed to rdiie. . 

UURD. MACORUOX (i«og-i8ti), ScqVUi iMxteit, 
pioneer ol British tndc on tbe Njgtr, wu b«Q) at Giemock fal 
180S, the yOHBger am ol William Laird, fouBderol 4heSiTkeD- 
bead fiiia.af ahipbuilder* of that name; In igji L^iid and 
certainLiwpool merchants formed a cconpaay for thf ooounercial 
devetopment of the Niger reginns, the lower oume nf the Mige} 
havingbeenmadeknownthaij^uby Richard and John Land**, 
In 1S31 the com>aay despatched two uiall ahi^ te the tOseSi 

one, the "Albuikah," a paddle-wheel iteamei of js tons dcngnel 
by Laird, being the Eist iron veuel to nuke an ocean voyage. 
MaqgregoE Laird went with the cipedilioa, which was ltd by 
Richard Laodei and numbered fony-eighl Euiopeana, of wboDt 
all but nine died from fever or, in Ihe case of Lander, irom 
WQunda, Laird went up the Niger tn the oonduence of the 
Benue (then called the Shary or Tchadda), which he was the 
£iat white mas to ascend. He did not go far up the river but 
foimed an accurate idea as to its source and coiuse. Hie expedi- 
tion returned to Liverpool in i8j4, Laitd and Surgeon K. A. K. 

Lieut.) William Allen, K-N., who accompanied the eipcdilioB 
by order of the Admiralty to survey the river. Laird and 
Oldfield published in iSj; in two volumes the Sarraliie of on 
ExpidiliBH irsU litlaloior of Africa by U< Awr Siter ... in 
iSji, iSji, 1S34. Commercially the eipeditioa had been, 
unsuccesfiful, but Luid bad gained ejpeiience invaluable Ift 
his successors. He never returned Lo Africa but henceforth 
devoted himself largely to the development of trade with West 
Africa and espcaally to tbe opening. up of the countriei now. 
forming the British protectorates of Nigeria- One of bis prindpaJ. 
reasons for so doing was hb belief that this method was the bcH 
means of sioppiog ihc :^ve trade and raising the social coBdilioa 
ol the Afiicans. IaiS54hetentoutaihis«wacbaiges,but willt 
the Hfipoit of tlie British government, a small itcamet, the 

Pleiad," which under W- B. Baikie made so succcaaful a voyage 
that Laird induced the government to sign contracts for annual 
trading trips by steamers specially built for navigation ol the 
Niger and Bcmie. Various stations were founded oa the Niger, 
and though govrmment support was withdrawn after the death 
of Laird and Baikie, British tiadeis continued to frequent the 
liver, which Laird bad opened up with Utile or no personal 
advantage. Laird's inleresls war not, however, whoUy AfricarL. 
In iSj7 be was-ooe of the piamoEen of a company formed to 
run ileomsbips between Enjjand and New York, and in rSjS 
the " SiriUS," sent out by this company, woi tte Erst ihlp to 
cm* the Atlantic fiDm Eurcpc entirely under steam, Ijurd 
diedin London on the 9tli of Ja^oaiy iSti. 

His elder brother, JOHH LaikD (iSo5-ig74), wiiont of ||m first 
to use iron in the construclioa of ships; in 1S19 be made an 
Iron lighter oi 60 tons which vas used on caoali and lakes im 
Ireland; in 1S34 he built Ihc paddie tteainei " John Rando^h" 
[or Savannah, U.S.A., stated to be tbe £nt iron ship seen in 
America. For the East India Company he built in rSjg the first 
iion veuel cariying guns and he was. also the designer o( the 
famous "Biikenhud." A Coixservative in politio, be repre- 
sented Biikenhead in the JSouse of Commons from 1861 to his 

UlS. Uie Baste of two Greek courtesans, generally distin- 
guished as followi. (i) The elder, a native oi Cotinth, bom 
c fSa BX,, was famous l()r her greed and hardhcaiiediiesa, which, 
gained her the nickname of Aj:ua (ibc aie). Among her iovcn 
were the philosophers Aiistippus and Oiogenes, and Eubatas 
(or . Araiotdes) of Cyrene, a faaieus ronner. In her aid age 
*he hecaroe a diunkaid. Her grave was shown in the Craneion 
near Coiintli, aucmoupted by a lioness tearing a ram, (i) Tbt 
yaungar. dsirghtcr of Tinundra tlie mislteu ^ Alcibedes, bom 
St Hyi>arB.in Eidly c. 430 b.c, Uken to Corjnlh during the 
Sicilian e^ieditign. Hie painter Apelles, who saw her drawing 
water iiODi Ibe btunUin of Peirene, was struck by bee beauty 
andtookberaianKKleL Having toliawed a handaomaThesnlian 
to his native land, she was slain in tlie temple ot Aphrodite by 
women who niir«. jealous of her beiaily. Maiiy aoecilota ire 
told of a Lafa by Athenaeui, Aelian, Faoeania*, and slie fonns 
^ subject oi many cpigramE in the. Creek Antbdofy; but, 
owing to theeiDihuity of. names, there is consideoUe uaceiUinQ: 
to whom, they refer. The ^ama itself^ 11^ Phryne, -ms nsEil 
as a general term for * eouitesan. 
, See F. JacolH. Vamischt Sd,ri!ltn. W. (iBjo), 

LUSAXT, CHARLES AKHB (1841- J, French poBtfrJam 
was boinU N^nt* on the rsl of Novefnbet rt*i,.- »>d: vat 
edUfMad.U lb* Ecoie Poiylechaidua a* ■ military cngltWi 



Heddcaded thtfartallH^at-tJieriiteaf Fub, uAJ wivcd 
In Conka ud in Algerii In 1B7]. In iS^ he tcsifiKd bli 
cammiison to Enter the Chimbei u deputy for Nautca is the 
republicu intacu, uid in iS;g he bcomc diiccUit gi tlw Ftlil 
ParititM, Fw illeged libd oc Cental Cimtat da Cia^ m iKa 
paper hs ms bnvfly fined. In the Chusber lie ipote cblcflr 
OB «rBiy quntion; Mid »M ffnimuiB o( » CTminlmion «ppolpte<[ 

.. !j i„-_i_.7__ — ■—■-g jQ ,jgj on iIk refuitl 

Lion of csenptiani of uy 
It of Uif revWonfat pi^CT 
rmbcr ol the LoLgue ol PitdotL 
He wu elected tuiiuui^t ilepuly for the iSlh Fuiuui anon- 
dUwineiit in iSSq. He did doI Msfc n-ckctiaa is iSn. but 
devoted htniKlf thenceioiwud to raathen»Ila,hd{riiigIoaukC 
known in Fnoce the tlieoHes of Giuilo BelUvltii. He "u 
■ttadicd la the itifl of the £a>lc Folyterhniqiif, and in 1903- 
ri^at «u preiklenl of the French 

In addjtioa Co fail poUtka] jiuqphlen FovvHi tt ammt n ijt rm 
BnlamiUU (iU7) ud L'Amuciu bnrpiiu (iBStX bi publiibtd 
cuthemitic^ worki. amanf them InttadtKlioK d Vkndt ais tKvU 
tniau (iBSi) lad TlUerinlaffiUaliinudBt^fM"^ (l^7)- 

UI-TUn. a dty in the Chinese piovince of Sfain-tung. 
10 37^ N., i3o^ 5j' £., about the middle of the coAtem pemnKuU, 
oa the highmy ninniog »uth from Chi-fu to Kia-Ei> ai'Ting' 
tiu hatboDT. It is announded by well-kept wnlb of great 
aniiquityT and iu main streets are spanned by Urge poitoui 
(HI moDumental archea, ume dating from the time of the emperor 
Ta»^Bg-ti of tb* YiUB dynasty <13>4}. There ue eneiiive 
nbuifas both to the ivinh and south, and tfie total popolailon 
it eitimated at 50,000. The so-called AiUnlhus lilk produced 
hy SdluiBia lyrMa 'a woven at Lai-yang into a itnmg fabric; 
and Ibe ntanulactunt of the peculiar kind ol wax obtained from 
the ta-tba or wax-tree insect is largely carried iin in the vldoity. 

UKUAU lOnPH (i;0i-iB4j), French politldin, vu bora 
BtSerrei(ATUge) on the 14th 0! July 1761. Hii name.origin- 
ally Lacanal, ma altered to '**—^"gi^*rf'* him from his Royalist 
bntbeia. He Joined one of the leaddng coDgragalioBs, and fat 
fauneea years tao^t in ibeir ichoah. When elected by hii 
utivc depsitmeat to the CooventioD id 1791 he was acting 
aivicat to hii node Bernard Fm)L(i;ij-i Sod), ttMcouIilutiaual'; 
Uriwp of Fauden. in tbs CenvemioD he beU apart innn the | 
varlou! party iectioni, although he voleil (or the death of ! 
Louis 7CVI. Ho rendered great seivicc to the Revoluliou by ' 
ha pcactica] knowledgs a[ education. He became a member 
of (he Committae of PoUic Insttactioa ear^ to [793, and after 
carrying many useful deems oo the preservation of national 
mocumenis, on the military schools, on the icorganliaiioa 
•f iheMuaeum of Natuial Hisloiy and other maUcn, he brought 
focward on the 16th of June his Praja d'UmaUrm tiaiiamaii 
(printed at the Imprimeiie NatiotiBle), whkh proposed to Uy 
Uie burden or primary education on (he publk funds, bul <o 
leave secotidaiy education to piiVato enteipriae, ProvisiDn was 

be entrusted vHh educational questions. The scheme, in the 
maintb* work of SieyJs, was refused by the Convention, who 
submitted the whole question lo a aiiedil conuidsilon of lii, 
which imdtr the ln£ueui:e of Robcplcm adopted ■ report 
by Michel le Felelier de Saint Fargean iborljy before bis tia^ 

began to wort for the argsidiation of Ugbec education, and. 
abandoning the principle i^ his Fnja advocated the eWiblilh- 
mem of tialc-aided •ctiools lor pilniaiy, itixiiidaiy and uoivosty 
educaiioo. In October 179] be wia aeu by tba CoDvealJan to 
the south-western deputmenUand did BOIicttlta to Pari* 
until after the Tevolutiaa . of ThtimMot. He now 'became 
president of the Education Committee and promptly aboliihed 
(he system which had had Robesplerrt'a support. He drew up 
schemes lor departmental mrmal scboob, nt primary KJiooU 
(reviving fa lubttancc the fnjdi and cnual idtMls. He 
presently acquiesced fa the supersession of Ua 

'A aRct Ul ACUn (a the 

Couaeit ol the Fiw Huadied. In ijK'he waa Mat by the 
Direotofylo otgaoiae the dejeoceof Iha four dcfartmenta on 
Iha left bok of the Rhine tfarealencd by invasion. Under Ih« 
Consulate he roluaed bii pnfcukinal work, and after Walerloo 
retired to Amttka, wheie ha became presidenl of the univeisiiy 
«( Inwiiiiaia, Ha ntuod'tv Fnoce in iftUf.aBd ibonlT 
afwnmdi. In ifAe ol his advanced ag*, nianied a mcvhI lima. 
Se died hi Faria oa thb uth oC J<ebniaiy ibj; hia widow 
aurvivad tlU lUi. Lahanal waa aa odpoal menbei «{ tha 
iBHitale ol Flaw*. He pubUatcd in >t jS- an &^mI imoMwt 
dti knam da Jmt^ Ulumd. 

Uisabttactbe AoadeaiitfMiMalBndJUcic^ScItnDe.irfwUcb 
he was a nepiber, vat pronounced by tl» comte de fUnuiaat 
(February 16, i«4S).and » /folia iultripu by F. A. M. Minel warn 
read on the ind al May 1857. Sec also aoncts by Emile Darmud 
(PaiK 1874), "Marcus" (I^ris, iStq), F. LenndiV in ffanmei ilc la 
rfcffatwn (Parfa. tM>). E. Cuilion. iakitat a tbalrmaiBn IrkliUqf 
(Pari*, iMiJ- ror deMlIs of the reports aubmilted try htm to the 
■Orenment jae M. Tounetm. " tUsmlre de I'iDKcMtiiD pubKvie, 
•ctra et dtUteiations de U convcstion. Ac." in BMin if rua. ^ 
Ftrtl (vol. iii., 1900]; also A- Robert and C. Cougny, DicliamKiin 
in Imlemtnlalrei (voL ii.. 1B90). 

UXE. GERABD URB, iJT VucDtTNT (r;44-TBog}, Eritbh 
genera}, waa bom on the )7th of July 1744. Me entered the 
foot gmrd) In 175BI becoming heulenant Ccaptaln in Ibe army) 
17A1, captlin (Keut.-eolond) In 1776, major tyU, and beul,- 
cobnel In 1 79>, by which time he was a general officer hi the amy. 
He served with his regiment in Germany in 1760-1761 and w<(h 
a compoHte bsllalion in the Yorlitown campaign of 1781. 
Af(er this he was eqneny to the prince of Wales, afterwards 
George IV. In 1790 be became a tnajor-gmeial, and in 179J 
was appointed to coouaaBd the Gnards Brigade in the dule ol 
York's army in FUnders. He was in comtnand at Che brilHant 
affairofLineelles, on the jBlh of August 1793, and served on the 
continent (except ftir a short lime when seriously iS) ontil April 
1794- He had now sold his lieut.-colonelcy ui the guards, and 
■^ ■ ' ilond of (he sjrd foot and goreraot of Limerick, 



Ibe Irish tebeffion brake out. . 

IreUnd, socceeded Sir Ralph Abercromby in ■ 

troops bi April 1 798, issued a proclamation ordering tlb 

then serving in 
imniand of the 

... . „ snnendet 

rms by the dvil popuhiio 
June routed the" rebels at Vinegar Hill {near Ennismtthy, Coi 
Wexford)- He exercised great, but perhaps not unjiotified, 
severity (awards all rebeb found In arms. Ijird Cornwallis 
now assnmed the chiel command In Ireland, and in Angust sent 
Lake to oppose the French expedition which landed at Sillali 
Bay. On the i^lh of the same month Lake arrived at Castlebar, 
but only In time <o witnea the disgraceful rout of the lro6(« 
nnder Genera] Hely-Hniehinsoa {afterwards mi eaH of Donoughv 
more); bul he tWrievcd this disaster by compelling Ibe snntndet 
of the French at BaUinaianii, near Cloone, on the 8th of 
September. In r799 Lake trtumed to En^nd, and soon after- 
wuda obtalnad the command In chief In India. He took over 
his duties at Calcutta in July 1801, and applied himself n> t&e 
impttivemenl of the Indian army, especially in the direction 
of making aS arms, Infantry, cavaLy and arliHery, more mobile 
and more manigEafate. In tSo: he was made a (nil general. 

-On the oulbieak of war with the Mahralta confederacy Iii 
iSoj General Lake took the Geld against Sindhia, and witliiii 
Iwo months defeated the Mahialtas at Coel, stonncd AUgatu. 
took DelM and Agia, and woa the great victory of laswari 
(Nineqtbef ist, rBoj), where the power of Sindhfa was completely 
tofcen- with the loss of thirty-one disciplin e d bailaliana, trained 
aad oScarad by FRaehmea, aad 4*6 laecta ol ocdaaDca. TUa 
dataat, toflowad a fvw daya Uter by UaJos-GcBanl Arthilr 
Welledey*! victory at Arganm, compelled SfndhU to came tb 
ierms, uid » treaty with him was signed in Ileccmber iSoj, 
Oparaliona wne, howcvei, continind a^ioR hia cooitdtnto, 
Holkat^ who, on the t7th of NovembeT i$a4, waa defeated b^ 
Lake at Fnmikhabad- But the lortreas of Bhiutporc held oid 
against lour aaiauks early in 1805, and ComwaHls, who succeeded 
Wellesley as goveraoi'general i> Jaly i4 that yi 


Pusfib and conpdled faim ' 
iBoj, Welloky la & dap4lcb attributed nacfa of thi lucccn 
of th> nr to Lakc^ " milrhlni MKrgjr, ability tad valour." 
For hit wtvlctt Laka recUved iha thaoki of paiUamm, ud -wu 
Rwardid by a pecngc Id Septonber 1(04. At tic oHicluiiDB 
of the war he REunwd to Bo^and, and in 1S07 be wb created a 
vbcotmL He repnaented A^eabiiiy In Ibe Bmiae of CoBmoiif 
from ITQO to iSei, and ht.aho ma biwi^ into th* bidi pwlia- 
menl by the govemnienl as member lor Annaj^ in im M 
VMC lor dw-UBka. Hediedla LrodoooBtbe Mb«f Fcbruaty 

See R. Pane, Uimiir if He Lifi aii Sirtiea el Vai<mnl Idle 

"—■ ' 8);G. B. MJImoji, D(nrn*&UJfciB/J»i[iB (rSBj); 

J, Ridory aj Itu MahnsUai (lS;j]; ahon mcsuic in 

m OdvimJJ to WtiiingloJi, oL SpuiKr WHJuphil 

Um t^nfesm Focil of SirilieilaBd, tba foBodei of the 
tdcnn d{ linrnolofp (Gt. tdiiyii, a lake), defines a take (Lat. 
tacui) as a mass of at ill water situated, jo a dcprcssioD of the 
■ h ihe sea," The (frm 



to tiodies ol water whkh lie along sca^oasta, even at ua-level 
and in diicct communication with the to. The lernu pnd, 
tarn, todi and fHere are a|>p]icd to amailcr lakes accordioi to u« 
and posiLion. SoBie lakes arc so laige that an obaeiver cannot 
ue loo objects situated on the opposite shsre, owiii( to tbe 
lake-tutlace assuming the gencta) curvature of (he earth's 
tutiace. Lakes an nearly universally diitributtd, but ate man 
■bundani in high than in low latitudes. They are abundant in 
nuuntaiiiaus regions, especially ia thou nhich have been 
nastly glaciated. They arc frequent aloBg rivers which have 
low giadienta and wide flat), «ben they an dearly connected 
with tbc r-Vianjifip chaBUel of the liver. Low lands in proximity 
to the ics, espedally in wtl cUumtes, have numerous lakes, as, 
lor instance, Florida. Lakeii»aybecitlierfrcslieria]t,accordini 
to the nature of tbe climate, lOBie being much more salt than tbe 
laa itsdf. They occur in all altitudes; Lake Tiiicua In South 
America is 13,500 ft. above sea-level, and YeUowitone Lake 
la tbe United States is 7741 ft. above the sea; on the otber band, 
the surface of the Caspian Sea is S6 It., the Sea of Ilbemi 6S1 It. 
and tbc Dead Sea it^a ft. below the level of tbc ocean. 

The primary source of like water [s alntoipheiic pndpitatian, 
which may reach tbe liku through nin, melting ice and anow, 
Iptinp, riven and iounciJiate luo-oS fnna the knd-surfacci. 
Tbi lurlace of the eailh, with which we an directly in touch, 
U compoted of liifaosphcie, bydiraphcn and atmosphete, and 
tbtie interpenetrate. Lakes, rivvt, the water-n^nur (^ the 
■tmosphctetDd the water ol hydration of tbe liiho^hcre, must 
tU be regarded as outlying ponioiu ol the bydrospbeie, which 
i> chiefly made up of the great oceans. Lakes ouy be compared 

peculiirilki in its rocks, soil, fauna and fiora, due to its iulalion 
iron tbe larger temslnsl masses, so doe* a lake present pcculi- 
uities and aa individuality ia its physical, chemical and bkioglcal 
teatutes, owing to its poaitioi and leparUion ftomthe waleii 

the geologtca] point ct view, lab* may be 

p>: (A) Rock-Btrins, (B) Barner-Doiiin 


imins! the Lake of ^ ... — . 

Annecy in France ate due to thr nib^dence or warpins of out ' 
Atpii sa the other hand. Lalas SuCania. Rudolf; JObtn MvHiat. 
Tanouiyika and Nvan in Africa sod Ihe Dead Sea iaAdi Hiaor. 
are all believed to Ga m a eceat rift or sunken valley. 
1 By Vikanic Affix.! - ■ ■ ■ ■ ^ ■ . . 

dormant vokanoes may ._ 

width, baM gencilllv a tireulai iMi 

Mllet. EJacUeK eonplea of wcfc Was an ta be leen in tbe am- 
viwx al Rome (Italy) and In tha ceatrsl plaleaa of France, where 
M.DelebccqueroundlbELakeoftssarlbwIt.indeplh. Thcmoat 
splendid cralcT4ake Ii foood on the nimail of tbe Cascade ratoe of 
' ' " mCU.&A.). Thl>klali>ooa[i.tadepth. 


iinb. l.alcciHmUartotheieaiEaI»lai|ndinrTriaiiiBbaaiMiiiK'U] 
rock-salt drpown; the Jura rah« offers many such lakes. 

4. ^CfcKMT&KKjii,— A.C.TlamsayhaiAownthallnouioetable 
lakes of tb* mitbeai heraiainetE (b Mt U* in fissurs pndwad by 
ludtfarnwl dunirtiBncH^ nar la aim ol.nilajikaea. wot in eyn- 
dinalloIdsDr strata, but are the KsuItaolAiJalciosioB. Many 
Sal allovul plains above ^tm In SwICiHiand, as well aa in tKe 
H^landi of Scotland, wen, wttbout doubt, what Sir Aiduliald 

GukieaHagle>4akes, _ , 

uaby Hnd anc^ ouid bruhtinto then by tfacir tributaiy stMano. 

B. BaatiBK-BAsiNs.-TheteniaybeduetBthefolfcHiiiatcauieir— 

I. A laadilif ofteo occurs in aKHiniaiiiaus reIoiul wlien strata, 

dipinng tDware> the valley, net on soft Iiyeni the faaoj yocks slip 

mta the valley alter heavy mlaa, daaunui back the dialnagc, wbks 

then fonu ■ baner-hau. M,aiv,s|BaIllake*hitll upB the Alpa 

and IViene» an lonned by a nver bang damaKdWa in Ibis way. 

a. By a Clacur.—h A&ifca, jn SeandliHvia aiSin tbe AlpTa 

glacier often ban (he mouth of a trfbnlaiy valley, tbe p*— • a.^— 

cbaieiB^isdaffininlbaclcaBdalalBisthatonned. T 

lake of ihii kind ii tbe Mlrielcn Laka in theAlp^i 

Glacier. Lake Caitain In Abi^ ia Iwtcdby 

him beta 700 m. In iMit^, 
■ iivxiu iq. m, thus eneeedint tha 
I Amerian lakei;Superior (J1.M0), 
OeorgLan Bay (13,600), Erie (996a] 

wldA when at its K^M 

.... .._ , .... in length beneath tbe ice- 

HM. Thefanwuspanllet iiMdsofClen RoyuiSntbndannie- 
asim temcet formed along the shorn of a gisciil lake doling the 

finnipeg is a wmnant, wju formed by an l«-dani along the marriif 
I two gnal ice-Jireu. It iteslimaled I" >— -' i.i^wi. 

iichigiB (lajjo) Hi 
ud Ontarm (7340). 
1- Bytti ^■n'oWjfo'afuii^aa.^tiliufClBciitr.—ThaElalits some- 
Dies occur ui Ihe A^ of CCntial Europe and ia tha Fyroite* 

^ By lAe PrmwJ Uoniiiu of m Antiail Gladir.—'Ytie buHa in 

... — . i.u J .k. 1,.. i-i. ■_ -L allng glacier, 

eapec&lly ia 

tfCkiiat Mn^-Um Iha ntnatol 
ues of glacial drift are left on the land- 

, at beeom* AIM with wafer, 

_.„ — -Je,«i(b«« wUe tatlcM^lbe mer frsqueatly 

percolating Ihroiqh Ibe glacial diift. Tbc« nkea an b nuiBaotis 
,,. ih> <inflh.*utem pa« of North Amelfca that one can trace the 
idary of *e great h*.>M«rt by followfng the soulheni 
aa-Brewn legion, where lakn may be onioted by teas 


prevaiHA^wiHla. _. 

may be [orawL A Mod tt ., . _ ..„.,. 

Lake in the state of WaaUagioB ! bui tbe aand-dunea nay alio fill v|» 
or subcnottf river-vaflevs and lakes. lor iostaoce, in Ue Sabaca, 
where the shotti an Dke vagi Iskes in (be eariy morning, and fn 
the altenuoB, a^n nacb avapoiuiaa hat ntea pbotTliko vast 

7. ayAiinMUalUriipasiUibtIjaBalSlrtaMi!^taai<:iunat 
of a main river be not ponrciful enough to sweep away delrila] matter 
brought down by a lateral stnam, n dam is fcnnsf omiing a lake. 
Time lakes are frequently met with in tha nam* vaUeys of tba 
Miglilands ofSoollacd. 

i. fi>nMne/iaa.—Lai<asof this kind an met with iavdcauic 

C. OatJANic EuiHS.— In 


( of vtsetatioo. 
n al dKSBiDe 

that skirt Ihe Aictic 

pondj ind lakes arc mel wii*- ....j-'j ... i.-tr . 

Saonh-ttanks are geneially aL__ _, 

spott. DnuY'iuviaKr riba iiowtb of the nodn M 
vasy rapid, aaJ the laowKliIgs tliat last langeat tn sumanaea 
hy huuriant vegetation. When >och accomiilations of snow 
inelly melt, the vegetation on (be place they occupied is mnch lea 
hen along their border*. Year after year soeb placei beeome mere 

m^ BiOtry aj laka. — ^lom the time of its tocmat^on a hlic 
i* destined to, diaappeat. Tbe bistoiical period baa not been 
long anougb to enable man lo have wsiched the birth, tile and 
dcalli ol any single lake ol oujuidecable siia, still by *UidyiB| the 


Uiey lun can be abubled, 

ID proctSKS lend 

er in th£ lake, and tlv 
ID of Ih* OBtkt Mnam 
OB the lorcict. TkCK oultoing Mmnu, bamvcr, bdng vny 
pon and dui, iH detrilal maitcT bavr'ng b«n dep(Mtcd In the 
lake, bavc loss eroding pover tliaa Indowing stnuni. One 

pmealed by Locbs Doinc, Voll and Lnbnalg In Ibe Callander 
dhCikt ol Scotland. In poat-gladal times thcK tbne lochi 
fanned, viUuut doubt, one continuoiu abeet ol water. •Klxi 
nnliirqiifntly became divided into three difleBat batiot by tbe 
depodtloD of Kdlment. Loch Dah» haa been •qaraied tiw 
Ijxh VoU b^ allnvlal cones laid down by two oppo^te itTcanu. 
At the bod of I.och Boinc there B an alluvial Sat 1^ itietchei 
for ]) m., foimed by the Lochlaii; river and ita trihutario. 
The king itRlcli d alhiviuin that acpatatea Loch Vni fiom 
Locb Lahnafg has been laid down by Calalr Bum in Giro Buckie, 
by tbi EiikioD Buin at Balquhiddci, and by varioui stitami 
OB botk lide* of Smtbyie. Lscb Lubnaig once extended to a 
point 1 m. beyoBd iu pnsent outlet, the level of tiie locb bdng 
lowend abont lo ft. 1^ tbe denudinj aclian erf the liver Lcny 
on its locky hairier. 

In arid legioni, when the ninfall is often leai than is ins. 
in Ibe year, the action of winds in the tnnqioit of sand and duit 
ii more in evidence than thai od riven, and the eflecli of evapota- 

Ihe lake below the level of the outk 
sail, and the fotmer great fresh- 
gtadually to tbe lelatively unalt Qiul Sail Lalie 
day. The lites of ullact s^ kkei yield aah i 
. ijuantjties. 

Tki Wair t( Lalui.-^) C^/wiftoi*.— It la 

ty of nltd natter in, and 



9 the Suei Canal being added tor c 







jes-A-a- : 











H of Salt per IOC 

« Grans of Wats. 







aSS'i-'u'S- : ; ; 










CUo^ofSD^ . . . 








JftS^™ ■, " 











Total Sdkl Matter 









lion grtaler than ol prcdpilatlon. Salt and bitter lakca ptevail 
in these legioni. Many aalt lakes, auch aa the Dead Sea and tbe 
Great Salt Lake, ue dcwKnded from fndi-water aoceston, 
while olhetti.like the Caspian and Aral Seas, ue isolated pocliona 
of tbe ocean. Lskei til iJh £nt group have iuaall)i bocone tilt 
Ihimij^ a deccraM in the tainfall of the tegioa in which they 
occur. The walei be^ to get udt when the evaporation fiom 
IIk take exceeds the inflow. Hie Inflawing mteis biing in a 
miaJl amount cf laline and alkaline matter, which becMWi 
more and more corKYnlrsJed as the eraporation increases, 
In lakes of tbe second group the waten were salt at the outset. 
If inflow eioeds evaporation Ihey become Itesber, and nay 
■Umately become quite fresh. II the evapcaation exceed) the 
inflow they diminish in sixe. and their waten become more and 
more ult and bitter.. The iint lake wlucb occupied the basin 
of the Gnat Salt Lake of Utah appean to have been [reab, then 
with a change of flimatr to have become a salt lake. AnothEr 
change of climate taking pIsc', the level of the lake nse until it 
overBowed, the outlet being by the Snake rivti; the lake then 
became Irtsb. This expanded lake haa been called Lake Boane- 
riOc^ which oorered an iiea of about 17,000 aq. m. AtMha 

lasp^n Seas we hai 

..,„.„ edwalen. In the" 

he Caspian, Unnla aad_ the Dad Seas 

In the Karabiiiu. a beanch 

m an quanfil 





: tai lill si tiM Hrfaot-l 

-1ml al 

. laiddStisolatlKW 

i( the levtl at the nuJ to 


of the lortgesc duiipet«-. ^^, *. , .-- 

of ihii kind every pHUcle of the «ur sf the like udltBta lyn- 
diRHUBily witk every other, tlM nrkxb and phuB being the nine 
for alt. and iKe orbiti umilar but of diS«*iU dinculiHia and 
IHII liinnarly iltuated. Seicha wen bit duanrsTd in 171a by 
Falio de DuUticr. a wtll>kitawn Svha encinnr. ud wen 61K 
aydteinatkally atudied by Prolcaor Foni ia the Lake of Gcnev*. 
E^rE^njinbrnofobwrvalions have been nude by various obaervera 
in l^iei in irunv parliof thpirorld, Henry obaerved a ftftccD-bour 
•ekhc in Lafcc Eric, which i> J96 kSomecrei ia lennh, and Endroi 

j_j ■_L__T*_.^ nodataaaaiallpondonJy tit metRa 

(Mtiodkal mine and ' "' 

inlenph. Althf 
OC the waitr-levt . 
iTcankd by a »( 

I. Ihey 


only be 

land uader the immediate diret 

ihe ttudy nl lekhea 

bir the Lake Survey of Scoc- 
f iWeiior Claytai, who haa 

_ _. liF hydrodynantcal theorieaof thepheiio> 

inenoD. Seiche* «Te probably due to levent faclon acting tof^thc 

or aepaiately, auch u luc'-'— — '-•' ' — '— '- 

chan|u in the ttrenfth or 

loapheric jjreA 


Umiian qI the wind. Eipbnau' 

"tm} ULie'Sf'wt'hea. " own 10 « -m- 

tt ump€rattat of lakes miy cbaoee with the aeaion 

' plaiV and tsont layrr tn Lyfr; theie changes are 

'by innlatian. by terrestrial rddiatiDn. by contract with 

re, by rain, by (he InltDW d[ riven and other factora, 

imponanl of mtl theie are iniolalion and lerreilrial 

. rreih water hai iti peaien deniiiy at a rernpnatnie of 

■a that rater both abcwe and below tnia temperature floaift 

rface, and thia phyiicil fact largely detemincA the water 

rer. and doei not come iato play. In the troptcat type of 
er lake the tem pent ureiialwaya higher thanjg'F.. and Ihe 
lire dscreaKft aj the ilepth increaae*. In the |»lar l^pe the 
jre ia always lower than w* F.. and the temperature 
Iron Ihe luriace downwardi. In the temperate type the 
on of teraperatuPc In winter reMmbl™ the polar type, 
immer the tr^ipical type. In L^ich Nchb and other deep 
lochi the lemperatuie in Mairh and April it il" to 43* F., 
en nearly uoirnrrn from top la bottom. At the sun ctHnel 
d (he mean air tempeiature begini to be h^hr- "■— -^- 

:ill th« moruh of Augiitt' About thii time thi 

ure lalli bdow the auAace temperatUR. and the loch begini 
ilb its heat by radiation and coaduclioiu The ttinperature 
tper layers beyond Joo ft. U only tlightly aHected tbitiughout 

. . coinpaninen(>.theuppeth«vin|alein|ieraIuiefnim49*tD 

u* F.. the deeper a temperature from 41* Mt^jJ*. BNveea these lies 
die dimmtlnuity-layer (^pmagKiiCikl of the Germana), where there 

well marked, and lis at a depth of 
vancei thii layer gradually sinks 
temperature above it increases lb 
il finally th< wholt loch aoi 
nn icmperBiurr- plany years OBo Sr John Ml 
ana erf temperatuiv obeervatioH the manner in a 

locb, arid aubaetiuent obeuvMius seem tn skoa 

continuity-layer nukea iu aniarance, the cu 

tfirids are diatributed thrtiuih the whole mass of the 
however. Ibis U>t;er appean. Ihe loch is divided ' 
' ia the following diagram; — 

Another effect of the leparallan of Ihe loch into 1 
bj; tbe HtfaCE of di«(»tinuily b lo render ponblc luc > 
■ekhe. The surface-current produced by ihewind tran 
quaniity of warm water to Ihe lee end of Ihe keh. with th 
xht surface o( disceiMiouity ia deeper at the lee than at tt 

r which haa been 

end. Wken iba «Ind ee«Na 

tilled- Thia temperaturr-se: 
ami rendered visible by lupei 

the quantity of beat that enten Loch Neat 

Weddetbnm eitlma 

[e raiie about 30,000 miUioiigalloai 
luiliA£-pdnt. Xakes thus molify II 

they occur, bo(h by increasing it 

— (poninre. They eool ai 

. tend to restialo 6oods, 

_- promote rfegularily ol iow. They becone 1 

ikediaaj^ power, and aa (bcir waters are purihed by all . — 

of walcr-npply for Iowm and ciiiea. In Icmpcrale tesiona amall 
•od shiDow IiIks ne lik^ to freeie all over bl winter, but deep 
''keaia sinDar regiom do tut feneraUy fnei^ owikff lo the fact Ibat 
le low teaiRcaUire of the air doca not eoMiBD* loiif enoufli (XBol 
swatheentirebodyof water to the maximaBdeujiy point. Deep 
ket are thus tbeWl sources of waler-aupply for ciiiea, for ill 
tmmer they aoppty relatively oral water aiM In winter reUdvely 
arm water. Brtides, the number of of^nlMns in deep lakea la 
a than in (mail shalkiw lakes, is which there is a much higher 

rowth. The dcMmlt, which are formed along the shores and on the 
DOTS ol bkes. depend 00 the geological strucLurc and nature of tbe 
adjacent ahorea. 

iliW^f]'.— Compared with tbe walets of the octan iIkk of 
lakes may ulely be uid to contain relatively few anirnab and 
plinli. Whole groupa c^ organiims — tbe EchlDodenm, for 
InataBce — am unrepr eaen ted. £n tbe oceani there k a much 
greater uniroTToity in the phyaical and chemical conditions 
than DbtalBJ in lates. In lake Ihe lemperBture variw widely. 
To underground Itlta U^( does not penclmie, and Id the» 
Mme of the orKanisfli* nwy be blind. Sac eumple, tbe Uind 
any&h (Contanu f^udJui) and the blind Bib iAt^ycftii 
iptiatui) of the Remucky caves. Tbe tnajoi)!}' of lika are 
freib, wbilo some are >o all thai no orginismi bave been found 
in them. The peily milla ia otlier lakca h m abundant that 
light does not panetritelo any great dEpIh,a]id Ihehtmiic addi 
in ulution prevent the devetopmenl of some specis. Indeed, 
eveiy lake haa an individuality of its own, depending upon 
climate, siae, nature of tiie bottom, diemicai compositloD 
and conneiion aiib other Ukea. WhUe the ocean conlalni 
many famiiin and genera not rtpresenled in lakes, almost 
every genua in lakes is represented in the ocean. 

The irrtrliralH. insects and llowerk^ plaata Intabldoc Ukaa wry 
much according (0 latitude, and an compamlvely wdl knoani to 
ndogiitt and botanisti. Tile njcnh^iini and Ion have only 

been studied in dciail, and 1 
has Kiidied Ihe Sooltiih loka. 1 

ing groups; 



Florideae' '. 

IE the ihoiti, in 

'I>e<e orjanimii ar 

of a rooted vegeut ion is only possible tbcre, and thia in turn auppnrta 

also favours growth. The great majority of Ihe species in Scottish 
,_^ -:.! I-.,., !_^ i.,„^ larvaeof many kinds are 


Cafne(UaltlwnainC>Eb^.iBdtlMHi., , 

ii dib n^oD. Wnti-BiMi^ BMily an the R«ilm, Cutmrichi, 
TuiliMib and Mli^ — ~ ' — -■ ' - 

A Um aumbcr <A die littwsl i|P«ia in Loch Not oucndi 
oown to 1 deplh of about 30a ft. 

Tke abytai hiwh, in Scottish Tochit En, u ■ rule, cSrflwr than 
— .. ^-t :..,-,. J __■ "-uAndMSDciitionoflniniil. 


.luUy dr^vdjp Id Locb N 

PiiUium fmiilbim (Cioet]. 

C7^H liilhalmia, lurint. 
aybOnliH KinUQi'Vtii. 
OBtodam. nn dRcnmiKd. 

u (Urv.). 


1 Piuiiam ud Cjtb^i, 

tn^ddilion, the toUowing were found caiually at crest dcptlit In 
Locli Nan: U^n, LirnMHB pmiia, PnaUi uplmmla 4ftd 

Tkt pSatic FCjion of ibe Scalliih Likei ii occupied by nusicniui 
_; ;„ : ...1 ,_. u, ,(,, Zooplanklon and Phyto- 

d in Loch Nm. BckHgint to the 
v[voiKl0iHip 150 epeciea were recorded, of which 120 were Detmidi. 
Some oTtlifle neciaof plankton organumi an ilmoit univmal in 
the Scollijh locht, while olbcn an quite kcaL Some a( Ilu uedn 
occur all the year throc^h, while ollten have oniy bten rrcoroed in 

wa(cin,cidl(d " Sow^rinfoOhe water " (HVuierWu^.neateerwd 

in AijEiiac inLocbLDEnandt a dietinct Aowerinf ," due t» ChloRK 
phyceae, hai been obaefved in fhallaw (och* aa early at July. It 
u noa conHTion in August Ind September, but hat alu beea 

Tlie plaaktoa aninli which are donlsant « commM. both nver 

Da/^nvi kyolina. 
DiapHanosema brachyKrwitt 
tipuiera UndlH. 


NuMit U» 

vitbout any pemptitale 

antic ipccleL The couKpelitan tpeelea may enter the kochi by 
erdiaaiy miintkHi. It b pmbable OmK if the whole planklon eduM 
be aiinilillated, it would bcRpland by ordinary, mifiwioii within a 
fnw yearf. The em and epoRt of many neciea can be dried up 
without injury, aDdmav be catrled Ihrough the air ai duit from one 
lake to anocfwrt othcn. which would'mt bear denccalion, mifht 
be cuikd in imul adheriat tsthe feet of aquatic biidi and in varioui 
ocherwaya. Thearclicipc«ea«iaybeaiwiirDcalcTHnapcciod*tien 
arctic oondition* prevailed over Jt rarat part of Earope- Wlut art 
knam ai " teKcte " of • marine fauna have not been found in the 
Scelliili (reib-water lochK 

It i**aoewhai lemarkabla that no** (f the organbihi 1!>inf In 

ffok-nur locha bat heto ohaerved 10 eidubit the phene ' 

phoipliDreaccnce, altboofh limilar ornnitnit ia the lalt-w 
a few mUea diitaot eiliibit brilHant photphorrtcence. t 
deptht In the eea-foclrt there if utuaMy a (;reat abundar 
when oompaitd with that fsdnd la fretb-wntcr tochi. 

LtKtfk, Dipa, Ana e<iS Yttimt «/ luka—Jn tha ftdlowlni 
(able wH be loatA the iengtli, dtplh. aiu and volume of some 
of the iMiacip*! Uu of Che «oild.' Sir lohn Mnrray ettimales 

"" ' ' "reeti cntaia of'theae'finmi and ttiaae qooted 

ark may be actnnttd lor by tlie ililMly dlB«at 
ry varioua authorities 

laewbere |B tUi I 

tbe vohune of water In Uk 56a ScMtiah Inch! recenUy wrveyed 


bout looo cub. m., u that Ibis laat nuni^ 

ia but a small Ita« 

on of tha volume of the ocean, which Ui 

at 194 milUoD cub. «. tl m*y be RCalled 

that tbe total lunfall on (he land ot the xinbe is eiUnated >t 

ii),3Jo cub. m., and 

the m«l discharge from the riven of the 

globe at 6524 cub.r 

BatTiiH UrEJ 






eq. m. 


1. fiajta**- 



Windermere . 


78- J 






























II Wal»~ 

ynCawlvd . 



ynCwclfyn . 

UynPadarn . 


.ynUydaw . 

77 4 



. yn Pcfb . 








1178 . 










Tay . . . 


Am . . . 






iJS^'. '. '. 





Bannoch . . 




rfclig' : 




6 4* , 




Famich ■ ■ 






Aiiynl '. ' 

■ 6J6 

gS?. : : 






Fiona ICUti- 

L.ZS : : 






.vTi.-, ■ : 












Erne (Upp"! ■ 









M*^ ; 


De, . . . 



OfE*- CONT.«g«.*L L*0. 




Volume in 



cub. It. 




UAw. . . . 



Onega ., . 




Vener . . . 



Cenen . . . 






SJS.: : : 





Carda . 






Maigiore'_ '. 



51 J 




.'M, , 









■rowtbi of mIe, ub, micDolia, cyinn* and other nlukbl* 

timber. Tilt WatUu raibny cncndiDB to the N.E. and iha 

Kum* Oiy Sombcra cnnding to ibc M.W. have opened up 

the vtry be*t ol Ibe loreil. The couoliy Uj ihc S, ud W. a 

largely (pveD ovec to riu cullUK. Ldke Chails ia the cUd 

tR of luinber mumfactiin la (ke Waie, and haa tfci ndlli, 

dw^a and an imponut trade in wool Tcd mDa W. ate 

idpEiur nana (product hi 190) about ^61,000 loni), which wiUi 

* le of Sidly producs > lar^ part of tht tout prodiKt of the 

:id. Jenniop. about 34 ■>. lo tlie E., it the ceatn of oil 

i>, oDce very pcoduciive but now of dlmimsbiniimpwUiKe. 

lib, I] m. E.. ia the cnire of a ncwct Gcldi tod olben lis 

the N. Lake Cfaiila wat aeltlcd about iSj>, lugely by 

pie fnnn Iowa and seighbouiuig Btotea, waa incorporated 

under the narae of Cbarlnion and again I 

Ahericak Ltm 

The rily auffeied eeveiely by fire in April n _ 

UXE CITY, a town and the couoly-eeat of Columbia amnty, 
Florida, U.S.A., S9 ni' by laU W. by S. of JackunvQIe. Pqh 
(ifloo) 4013, of whom iisfl were negroei; (190s) 6jofl; <lfllo) 
5031. L4kn City ii lervcd by (he AiUniic Cout Line, the 
Seiboaid Air Line asd the Goocgla Soulhem b Fl«ida railways. 
There sie ten email laka In the neighbourtxiod, and the town 
snd hnJih reian. It Is the Kit of Columbii College 
1907); the Ftoridi Agricultural College was opened 

h der Seenkunde: mllEe- 

W. Halblas. " Die Moipbom 
CeitU. ErituHJt Birtin (lah- 

LeLimoM, wvnetftt^itt «.,_ v, . . ...^^. --j- --,-■,, 

A. DdebecDUb La Latt francaii. text and pUtei iPani, iAgA)i 
H. K. Mill, ^ithynutrical Sumy of (he Engliih Ukei." Cutr, 
Jaum. voL vi. pp. 46 and in (IMB): Jeliu. ''^Baibyioeciiaa and 
CtoIiKical Stui^ ol the Uk» ofSiunidaSi," Trm^. lUn. Sv. 

"' ' -' - --i(i90i):Sir John Munay and Ijureneel'i^lit. 

'■'-^~'— -ilBrl^h.orScotluid/'Cioer. 

: voluinn, Ediabaish, 1910); 

Itr Funpllichea 5een.v Zrilrb. 

|J.P.S»»: 1904. p. J04); 1. C, 

, „ [Bqhdh and London, i*j); 

O. Zichariii, " Foncluiipberichta UH der biolotnehen Stitiini 
auPlds"(5<utiEart]; F.E.Boamtx,La UcitUiniiuiiiri: ilud, 
tUmitm ii ^Ayngu (Genevs, 1906)-. G. P. Magrini, Li«it!,hiit 
<MiUn, 1907). U. McJ 

LAKE CHAlLffi, a city of Louluus, IT.S.A., capital ot 
Cskatieu Fariib, jo m. from iba Gull of Mexico and about iiS m, 
(by laU) W. of New OtleaBL Pop. (1S89) 838, (1890) 3441, 
(1900) 6680 {3407 negroei) ; {1910) 11,449. It iJ lerved by the 
Louisiana & Texaa (Soutliem Pacific Syitcm), tbe St Louis, 
WaiUns ft Gulf, the louisianit 8c Padfic and the lUnsu City 
Southern tallwtys. The cilyiicbinniogly situated on theibore 
of Lake Charles, tnd on ths Calcasien river, which with tone 
dredging can be Siade navigable for brge vessels tor 131 n. 
from the GnIL It is a srintet resort. Among the [vincipal 
building! are a Cuutgic library, Ibe diy hail, the Govtmmei 
building, the court house, St Patrick's sanatorium, ihc mason 
lemi^ ud the Ells' elub. Lake Charles is in the prairie ngloo < 
SoutberikLouiiiuu, to the N. of iirliicb,«»v*riBga large p>K of l! 
slate, SIC magnificent forcsli of long.feaf pine, and Icuer lowlai 




le iheu 




aw. Vegetables and fruits 

It products of (he surrounding country, and Lake 

The town was fint aellled about 1826 u AUigator; it was 
incorporated in 1854; adopttti tie present name in 1859; 
tnd in 1901, with an enlarged ana, was re-incorporated. 

LAKE DlSmilT, in England, a district coniiinlng all tbe 
principal English lakes, and variously termed the Lake Country, 
Lakeland and " tbe Lakesi" It falls wilUa (be nonh-weslern 
counties of Cumberland, WestnNtlutd and Laoca^re (Fnmen 
district), about one-half beingwitbin the 6m of thfM, Although 
celebrated far outside the (onfinei of Great Britain as a district 
of remarkable and strong iodi^vidua) physical beauty, its area 
is only some 700 aq- m., a drde wftk radhis of 15 m. from the 
cantial ptiiA Eovsing pncifcatty ths whole. Within this drde, 
besides the U^at lake, Windermere, is the bighest point in 
Engtand, Sciitll Pike; yet Wiodermue la but 10) m. In leoglli, 
and covers an area of j-69 tq. n., while Scaldl Pike Is only 
jiio It. in height.' But (he lakes show a wooderful variety of 
character, from open Mpanw and steep rock-bound shores to 
picturesque island-groups and soft neodcd banks; while (he 
mountains have always a remarkable dignity, le» Imo tbs 
ptoble of ibeii suounils than from tbe boM sweeping Unas of 
their Banks, unbroken by vegeUHon, and Often culminatlog 
in sheer cliffs or crags. At their feet, tie flit green vaUcy floota 
of the higher clcvaUons give place in the lower parts to lovely 
woods. Tbe slrcuni ore swift and clear, and nomeisia snail 
waieifallt are dumntrblic of Ibrdislricl. To the north, west 
and south, a flat coastal beh, hbrdcring (he Irish Sea, with If* 
ii^ets Morccambe Bay and Sl^way Finb, and broadest in (kq 
norlb, marks off the Lake District, while to the east the valleya 
of the Eden and the Lone divide It fmn the Pennine moantain 
system. Geologically, too, ft Is individusL Its centre is of 
volcsntc tocks, comptei in character, wb^ the Coal-measures 
and New Ked Saidaiona afipeat reucid the edges. Tbe district 
as a whole is giooved by a main depmalon, running from Dorth 
to south along the valleys of St John, TUilmere, Crumere and 
Windermere, surmounting a pass (Dunoiail Raistj ol onlj 
78] ft.; while a aecondary depnssion,.jn tits sum diieclkMW 
runs aloBg Derweatwater, Bomwdtte, Wasdsle and Wastmtei, 
but here Sty Head Pass, bctweea Bononddc and WiiAle, 
rises 10 ifioo ft. The centie al Iha is-m. ladtita tin oa the 
lesser heights between Lanfflratk md Dwnaafl Raiit, ohich 
may, however, be tb* crown <i( an ancient dome c4 -recks. "Ihe 
diisccled tkflelOD of which, worn by (he varfsre of air and nin 

iAitE :DWaL{.INGe 

lad lot, anr aloM kbiJm " (Dr H. R.' Mil, " BubyocUiial 
Sumy at Ihe Ensluh Laka," Cmpattwal Jnuiul, yi. 4S). 
TIb piiodpil IMtures o[ tbi d^tiict mi/ bo indiotDd by loUow- 
inf Ihii dicl* [Quad bin north, by mat, Kalh and <Mt. 

Tbe rim D««ent ({.r}. ridnt In Ibc tim ind "iBb" or 
"ghylb" (biuII lUeuDB ruHilfii u dnply-fniwid ckfttrnv^ ^ 
Str Hold n» (id tlw SaU (BM^aan iKKih thn^ib tM vaadtd 
Bonmnble ud ktno DcrwcDCntcr and Buvmhmia. Thai 
(■o Ilka an in a elm 3ft fmn ail the ml. bcinE bcoulcr fcx tbcir 
IniKlh, and quite iliaDciw ((bout IR ft. average anir7oft. maiimum}, 
udiidBct Inm the]aig, numrwid deep imigta sctupinlbytbe. 

Mhtr ehkl lain whMi avenge fBmM to 13s li-d — " ' 

n(er (uj. Kuoled whliiun* idudi, Ii pHhaiiaUii. , — 

m aB. Bomwdtie {• loiud an tbe eaM by the bin wild dilc ot 
' and the Cna jrim the Dcrven Immediately behnr 
! town of Kenrfcfc tytHl nw tbe lunclUHi. 
Bainnnbvate.vccapy a wagle dtft mi aa, • Hat 

, ,„jtinstbisi. FunScateUsinBorTwdakaniid 

tiaveocn Honltter Pau (1100 ft,), vltcnce It doccndi irstward. 
bentath tbe aujenlc Honnter Cra(<, -where gnen date a quamed, 
iaio the nitey coDtdnhu ButtenMn (94 ft. max. depth) and 
CniOBock Water (144 ft.), drawd by the Codcar. Betocen thb 
and tbe Dcncu valley the pfiacipai liei|ht it Gratooor (mi It.) 1 
nuthwird ( h«p aaimr ifdee (Hub Style. ifi4j) dividn it from 
EnDcrdile,cnitaini»EnMTtb1eWater(i4Slt. max. depth), which ii. 
led by the Lis and Aalnad by the EheiL Aip)endidranga>epamta 
tUi dale rnrni W(ed(k and in l^battry MoMdaK inclu(th« Gnu 
f^bte (Hw (t.), Pilbw 41917), wHh ibE pnciBitau PiUu Rodt on 
the EaASdale flank and Sl«ple <174«1. Waxlale Head, belwcea 
Cable and tbe Scalell nngt, t> pCEuEacly pand, with dirk my 
■cna and Mack eran fnnmfrs absra ita nanow bottom. On Ihii 
■ide of GnblOH tbe flat detached nek, NapeaHeeine. WaOwMer. 
1 B. in ln«^. ia tbe dealt take of all (15B fi.). it* Boot, like thoic 
of Windomeie and UUnateri dnldng bekiw aca-level. lU lail 
ihore conwti of a Er^t radve ef tcna, Eait of Waidale nei the 
nn— «f (irifdl ((,*!), Hi chiiS pi^Mi being Sealell (1161 <!.). ScafeU 
Liwnell tifiw) (ad Croat End MSa), wUle ^ line ■ 
m Eak Haine hie (iwo) along a fiae line «f beiibu 
19601 Qinkle trm, iSit), to embrace tb» b(M (f 

Kke (3110), 

(Bmi FellLi96^1:tinUe Ji™rSi6)7to'*mhnicrti» I 
Eikdale. The liH then deiceiA to Wtynoge Pan (1170 ft... ,. — 
*hlch the Duddon rum Bath throorii ( vale of peculiar ilcMiia In 
it* town pattal whSe the iwi|e cDntmnca eouth to tulmiaalc in the 
OU Han of Coaiiton (iCu) wUh thn nlendkl Dow Cran'abovt 
CoattWater. TbeplcuantvateafYawdakdBimioutb toCoouton 
W«ta)_ialorJ^J»ji:ft.ma^ depth). ' -"' 

- ■malt. - 

.„jn by th .. 

Bow Fdl and Laafitale I 

Rolhay Inr " " "■ 

" lal^ate 

■et-lakeLTam Howa and 
(aa.). ThiahkeciiUeeti 
iiangoaic, inc Wd id wiricb, betwna 
!t (^(01 ft.}, b vny Gnej and by thi 
— ■ .1. n i-i.j, uf GiasmeiT and 

FairMd (tttj) and oUwr poiali. with magni&ccni cnga u trw 
elacea on the eartcm iidt towarda GriMdale and Pallcrdalc. Tb> 
dais dtain to Ulliwalcr (hk It. mat., eccond to Windermere f n an.,, 
aodionorth-EtHta theEden. To the ran and KMth^ai) Ilea the 
lidse niaed High Stieet <i66j It,). Iiain Ibt Komio lowi MiU tiaOb 
able iron Kuih to north akw in ummit, inddopinc HM^ainto 
the lequeMered Hawn Watn (lot ft. raai.), a curiouiTy ihap^ lake 
nearly divided by the delta of the Maund Beck. There remain, (he 
ThMmne valley. Thidmere ilvif hi railed in kvel and edaptMl 

aup^rS Ma'ncbMB in l£«^iSa4. " drab, nwih'by St ™hn^ 
Vale into tbcGrcta. north of which apm ritea a mnunlain-gnHip of 
which the chief aummila are Saddleback or Bleocaihra (184; ft-) and 
the graceful peak of SfcMdaw (10S4), The mo«t noteworthy waler- 
f alfaaie---Scale Pom tDaaoJW«t^ira.^t. bei>di<ruEn»ck, 
Lodon near Derweniwatir, Dmgeon Sill Force, beakle Langdile, 
Dakcartb Force in Eakdale. Aiia near Ullnnter, luni by Wccdt- 
worth, Stock Gilt Force and Rydal Falk near AmhrMidt 
I The principal orntte* in the Lake IMitrietnKKawick(Derwfnt- 
Hltr), AaHeude. Bownv. Windermen and Ukeddt (Windrr^ 
-ere), ConiMon and Boot (Effcdilal, (U oC which, eicepc Anbinidc 
id Bownoi (which neatly ipin Windermen) (I* (COHiUe by rail, 
he condderable vfllife at Graamen Ilea beautifully at the bead o\ 

the hke of that n 

c: *id above EaMiwdte i 

the an 

inverae the main t 

It, PiUai.Gabli INai 
ear Com.i 

i» diitrlct, having 

•panaint the itraett. There, 
rmenand Ull.wain'. Coic. .. 
lurii^j the lummei, Tjiit*nan);ol 
■rbie only on loot or by pomi 
a pctbAiariL hot iODie of thei 
die), Parey Ark abwE Langda 
> afford aacenti for Dpaiena 


{iSTO-Knl bting ijwito- iMj m-7 ■•a.Biamd to 1903 
amf 34]'98 10. In 1S71, At Ktswlck tbe annual mmn Ii te'O), A 
CiasnerviboiitaanK The montlif ot mixbnum rainfall at Scatl^ 
wniie R November. Decenber and Jaaaary and Sepmber. 

Fish taken in the lakea iadude peick pika,.«hBr and tmUE Sk 
Windermere Ennerdate, Baaa e pt h waitc. Derwentwater, Ac,, and the 
fwyfdad or freih-water herTLiif fa UIl»rater. Ttie loduUriei of tbo 
Lake Diattkt bKlsde date quarryiAg and aome lead and tine milung. 
and weaving bobbiOHaakiiw and KDcil-nuldng. 

Saltiv awde London ud EdinVin|h, n» locality b tbe Britiili 
Itlca it 10 intinutdy Meociatod witk Va biatory of Eoglish litcrat utr 

journal of tdi tour in 

I7<» BatitVMWodewCRh.aiMtimolCUBWlBnd, 
outtUrttaf thi LakelXaiiicI nadL^who raMjy made it . 

,. __ jolQmA 

. of thi Lake I3i(ificl Mdl. who raMjy 

uigliia poetry. 0>it nf bu tong Ufa < 
wen aucnt amid It! lakee and mount^na, flnt ■■ ■ m.auuiuvy 
Hawkihead, and a it erwarde ai ■ teiklent at Gnumeiw (1799-11 
and Rydal Moonl (ItI3-l8ji4^ In tbe AoRhjsid el Gnamen 

of Hartley Coleridge (aoix of the poetj, who hiiaaeU lived many vean 
at K«wi jk. Ambleudt and Grasmere. Soulhey, the friend of t^irdi' 
wwthi wM a i«idcnt of Kenwick for forty yrau (1*01-1841), and 
waa buried hi Onthwdta chunhyaid. Samad Tlylor Coleridgt 
lived aoma tinia at Kaiwick. ud alio with iha Mxdawcnha at 
Craioitre. From tS07tiil8l5Chriso|ibcTNorth(IahnWilaoa) waa 
iMIIed at Windermere. De Quinccy qient the greater part ol tbi 
yean IflOD to 1S18 at Graamere, in the liiit cottage wMA Wonl* 
watth tBd hibabited, AiableaIdc.orlu«vlton. wiaalBtbeplBce 

ee of Or Arookl (of Rugby), wL. .^ 
--..•- jifej jijjl Harriet 

■ - "t Keiwlek ^.., ^, 

le'beside CorAiton Lake, 
- ■ ■ ILIe. In A 

lie last ten yeara of hia lifei , 

riei Martina 
k Mca Lynn 

henelf a houe'tbere in 1S4S'' At iCMwIck hfn Lynn Lteti 
bora in iB>3.' Bnntwood, a bouie'beside CorAiton ' ~''~ 
hoiae <X RaiUn during the laH 

the fc3ii>5. Shelley, Scott, Nathanid 

awihome. Clough, Cmbb RoUdiod, Cajlyle. rCrata. Tennytoo. 
latiliew AraoldTMn Hemaoh Gerald Mauey and othen J leu 

Gerald Mauey ai 

I the niu (tmdy meialoaed. The Vale of St John. 

reoOi Soen'a AM q/ JWwimiii. But tbow it a 

thfn thia between tke.Lake Diitrict and £ngliih 

r. — .. — teOa of leveral litcjaiy ichoob. or ^vupa 

and working in the spirit' of 

poede metbodi. The moat 

deal it k alnaat the only ioWKC— of the kind 
■ the Lake ScbMlof Poeta. 01 lUi acbeel iht 
and founder wa* Watdiworth, and the teneu 
le Uid down by tbe poet hImwH in the lamoui 

m of Tit Lyical AiOadi which he pvbllibrd in 

WordiWonb'a tbeoriea of poe tr y— th e objecta beet nlited lot 
poetic iieatdKal, the chuacteruiia ct inch treatmcot and tb* 
choice Dt diciian luiuble fur the purune — may be aid to iavt 
grcTHn out of the soil and subnancc of the liVtt and mountatni, and 
out of the homely livcaor the people, of'Cumberbnd and Weitimra* 

S^ CuMBEBt*™, LAMCASHiaa, WisiHOalAHO, The foUowtng 
is a wleclion from the literature^ the mbiKli H-.--" "—:—.. 
7-ik! £iuJtik Lalas (Windermen. iSjS); Mn Lyi 
CnMfilrf CLondoo, 1*64); E. WauA, ■*—"-- 


Tdiwarllt CauMrj (London, 1800)1 H. D. lUwuIn 
,««ii.n..c/jfc gnrfijiioiu ft vol.,. Gb.,o«, 18^ 

d SatMre of tSt EJt^tih Lake' (G1 

a« C«Ba«, V— "- " '- 

ft v;i.„GbMo«, isWand Uff 
(GlaiEow, iSm: Stopiitfd BnMke, 

/™iir»BOI*r«o«; A.G. BradlM. 

- Hiikwtyi lutd Syrnn (London. 1901)1 Sir 

John Karwood.HuUry ef Ui Tliirtmm Waltr Silumt (i«m): Ut 

l^ B»i"cill-J*fia'iBl (llondonTTSaB);''Hl|knt-s'm:th, CHmWug'S 
Ok BtUM lOti, part, i.i Owen G. Jona. Rin|.cMiitia( , ia lb 
En^ith LOm DiUmK »<1 ed. by W. hL Crook {I^eavidc 190a). 

LAKE OWELLIIiOt. tlie tcmi employed In *iUiubk«y for 

habiuiioni conitiucted, ao( on the diy land, but wiUun the 
margint of lake* 01 cneki at lome disUaca Itom iha ebore. 

The vilUgee. of Ibe Guajiroa in ihe CuU of Maiacajbo u* 
dcKtibed by. Coeiing w composed of bousea with low •loping 
toofi perched on loft/ piles and counccied wiib cacfa olber by 
brtdgr* ol planka. Each bouie comiUed of two apartmenlii 
the a>M( v(( Ibtmed of split items of tnw let close togctbar 
Wid coveted with mau; (bey wen reached Inn >he (bon by 
^g«ul canoei poled over the shsllow waten, and a DOtcbad 
ma trunk lovcd (i • Itddir. Tbe cuuom b alio common ii| 
tbe eUueriei of the O^noca and Amaion. A unulu system 
prenils in Htyi Guinea. Domoni d'Urville dcicribea four audi 
Tillagi* In tbe Say of &itd. containing from ei^t 10 iftceq 
bi«cks or tluitera.ol hoi^ei, nacb Uodi Kpuwe^ b^ilt on «ik». 



'and MH&tlng of ■ nw-ol ditlinct dwcntli|>. C. D. Citnenin 
ddCTibca three villtget thai buill on pUei in Lalie Mohrya, or 
Moria, in CeaIrllAthca,ttieinaliveliere being 10 prevent suip rite 
by bondi ef «la™t-c«tch«». Similar coralniclioim have been 
described by travellera, among the Dyaks o[ Borneo, in Celebes, 
ID the CuoUiie Iilandi, on the Gold Cotul oE Afrita, aad in oihei 

Hippoctjtci, writing (n Ihe slh century B.C., soys of tlie people 
Of the Phssls Ihat llicir country Is hoi and marshy and lobject 

and reeds cosstnicted m the midst of vhe watin, and ue boats 
of ■ single tree trunk: Kctodotus, writing also In the jlh 
centuiy B.C., describes the people of Lake Fcasias as living in 
bouses consliucled on plalf anas supposed on piles In [he middle 
et the lake, which an ai^roadicd from the land by a single 
nam* bridge. Abulfeda the geographer, ariiing in the tjth 
centoiy, notim the fact that part of the Apamacan Lake was 
inhabited by Christian Gchcrmen who lived on the lake in wooden 
bull built on piles, and Sir John Lubbock (Lord Avcbury) 
mentions thai the Rumelian fidiermen ee I^ke Praaiaa " still 
Inhabit wooden cottages built ovn the water, as in the time of 

The Kford* ol the wan in Ireland in the ifilh ccntuty abow 
(bat the petty chieftains of that limc had their defensive atronr 
hdds toasttucled b the "fteshwatcr lochs" of the country, 
and there is record evidence of t Kmilai'syslcm in the western 
parts of Scotland. The aichaeotagical rescaichea of liie past 
fifty years have shown that such anllidalconstnictionsiii lakes 
were used as defensive dwellings by the Cdlit people from an 
early period to medieval times (sec Ceimnoc). Similar researches 
bave abo established the fact tbit in prehistoric times neaily 
" *ic lake* of Switzerland, and many in the adjoining cooniriei 


.burg and 

of Italy, in Ai 


Geneva, Ncuchiid, Bienne, ZUdch and Constance lying to 
lurth of the Alp% and io the Lakes Miggiore, Vareic, Isco 

lakes, however, ct 


U. Idibach in Caiaiida. In lonie of the laiger lakes (hi number 
ofsetlletnents has been very great. Fifty are enumerated in the 
Lake of Neuchitri, thirty- two in the Lake of Consiante, iwenly- 
four in the Lake of Geneva, and twenty in the Lake of Blenns. 
The (<le of the lake dwelling ol Wangen, in tbe Untcisec, Lake of 

t>y about rio paces in breadth. The settlement at Merges, 
one of the largest in the Lake of Geneva, ii i loo f t. long by iio 
ft. in breadth. The settlement of Suti, one of the largest la the 
Lake of Bienne. extends over ni aciea, and waaownectcd wiib 
tbe shore by a gangway neariy too yds. long lud about 4a ft. 

The suhstructuie whidi supported the platforms on which 
Ihe dwellingt wen placed was Most frequently ol piles driven 
into the bottom of the lake. Less frequently it consisted of a 
Mack of brushwood or fasdnes built up from the bottom and 
Mrengtbened by stakes penetrating Ihe mess » as to keep it 
from spreading. When piles were used they were the rough 
Items of Irtca of a length propotlioned to the depth of the water, 
ihaiprned sometimes By fire and at other times chopped to a 
pmnl by halehets. On their level tops the beams supporting 
the i^ilfonns were laid and fastened by wooden pins, or inserted 
tn morticet cut In the heads of the piles. In some cases Ihe 
whtie consliuclftin was further steadied and strengthened by 
tni» beams, notched into the pHes beh>« the nipports of iIk 
platform. TheolalfoTTn itsell was usually composed ofrongfi 
layer* of unbai-ed stems, but occasionally it was formed of 
boards split froln larger stems. When the mud was too soft to 
afford foothold for the ^ilej ihey wefemgnlstd mlo a ftamewiitk 
Of (m tnnks placed hntiiontilly on Ihe bottom of tbe lake. 

On the other hand, when the bottom was rocky so th»t Ibe pUei 
could not be driven, they were steadied at their bases by bring 
enveloped in a mound of loose stones, in the manner In which 

Jo cases where piles have not been used, ai al Niederwil and 
Wauwyl, the tubslruclure is a mail of fascines or faggots laid 
' parallel and crosswise upon one another with intervening fayen 
of brushwood or of chgy and gravel, a few piles here and tfaeie 

Kiedefwil the pjaifoim was formed dI split boards, many of 
which were 1 ft. broad and 9 or j in, in Ihlcknas. 

On these auhatructures were the huts composing tieiettfc- 
meni; far Ihe pecuUaiity of these lake dwcllinga is Hut Ibtg' 
were pile villages, or clntLen ol hula occupying a comnHm 
platform. The huK ihemsetves were quadrilateral In form. 
The size of each dwelling is in some cases marked by boards 
resting edgeways on the platform, Uke the skirting boards over 
the flooring of the looms in a modern bouse. The walls, which 
were supported by posis, or by jhIcs of greater length, weR 
formed of watile-wDrl, coated with clay. The floon were of 
clay, and in each floor there was a hearth eonsirucled ol Sat 
(libs of itone. Tbe roofs were thatched with bark, iiiaw.recils 
or rusbea. As Ibe luperettuelures are mostly gone, there 



tree-trunks set upright 

ing of similar timben 

of [he gangways or 

case, at Schussenried, the house, which was of an oblong 
nngular form, about J3 by 13 ft., was divided into twe 1 

two, was entered by a doorway j ft. in width facing 
The access 10 the Inner room wasiiy a similar door tl 
partition. The walls were formed of sp 
and plastered with clay; and the fle 
bedded in clay. In other cases the lej 
bridges rJmncciing Ihe settlements with tbe shore have 
disoiveicd, but often Ibe village appears to have been accessible 
only by canoei. Several of these single-tree canoes have beCD 
found, one of which is (jtl. in length snd4 ft. « in. in ilsgieateH 
width. It is impossible taeslimaie wiih any degree of certainty 
the nambei of separate dwellings of which any of IheM villages 
may have consisted, but at Niederwil they stood almost can< 
liguously on the pbtfotm, the space bctueea them not exceeding 
3 ft. in width. Tbe liae of tlu huts also varied comideiabty. 
At NicderwU they were » ft. king and is ft. wide, while at 
Robenhausen Ihey were about ij ft. long by about sift wide. 

The (haraeler of the relics shows that in some cases the sctlle- 
menls have been the dwellings of a people using no materials 
but stone, bone and wood for their IbpleDjents, amaments and 
weapons; io oihen, of a people using bronze as well bs stone and 
bone; and in oihera again the occasional use of iron is disclosed. 
But, though the character of the relics is tbui changed, there is no 
corresponding diange in lbs cansmction and airoageffleola et 
the dwelling. The settlement in the Lake of hifoosscedorl, 
nor Bern, aHordi the most perfect example of a lake dwelling 
of the Stone age. It waa a paiaUelogram 70 ft. long by jo fL 
wide, supported on piles, and having a gangway built on faggoti 
conne^ing It with the land. The superstructure had been 
dertroyed by fire. The implemews found In the relic bed under 
it were aie.hcods oS stone, with their haf lings of stag's horn and 
wood; a dint tavf, set in a handle of fir wood and fastened with 
asphill; flint flakes and arrow-heads; harpoons of stag's hom 
wlih bsibs; awls, needles, chisels, fish-hooki and other Implt- 
racnlt of bone; a comb of ;ew wood s in. long; and a akale 
made out of Ibe leg bom of a horse. The pottery consisted 
chiefly of ronghly-nwde vessels, some of which were of large size, 
others had holes under the rims (or suspension, and many were 
covered with sooi, the result of their uae aa culinary vessels. 
Burnt wheal, barley and linseed, with many varieties of Seeds 
and fniits. were plentifully mingled with the bones of the ilag, 
the ot, the iwine, the sheep and the goat, representing the 
ordinaiy food of ihs inbabilanta, while lemaini <rf the beaver, 
the fOx. the hate, the dog, Iha bear, thO bone, the dk and Ifai 


re ODDUianJ 

tha MttlHMU of KoGniuMca, Id tba 
iNiMdjr tbe btd of ihe ucirnt Like si PUfi" 
ewllnned In occapuio* ttla the inuadurii 

U0,e» pics. Id uiik pim Ihrce (Usii 
■dublted pliiloriiia ban b«a inccd. Tbe Grtt had btcn 
ikUfeyed by fire. It k RpmentKl it the bDItom o[ thi lake 
bjiiiycrcF cbuonl mind with Inptamtnuel Mooeuid'bonc 
and oihet rcMa highty cifboplwd. Th« fceond ii iipresentnJ 
ibBvc the bottom by s leiitt of piJa «!lb burnt beaifa, and in 
the bottom by a layer o[ dBKoal mind with con, a[^Ic«, 
doth, bonti, pottuy iuid impleioentl of none and bone, upii»ted 
hom ihe fim \a¥" it chax^uJ by 3 ft. of paaty stdiratnt inlet' 
BUKd iiith relict of the occupation of the ptulorm The pile* 
ot Ihe third letllenwnt do not reach do«n to the iMII marl, 
hut UT find in tbe liyen repreMnting the Gnt and second 
wttlemeots. Tbey an Conned or split oah inisb, white tboM 
«l Ihc t*D Gnt ulilcmcnts are round sienu diieSy of aolt mwd. 
Hw buti oi ibis lul cetileineni appear to have had caltte El>l)« 
between them, Ihe droppings and liner fonnidg heaps at the lahe 
boltam. Tbe bonea <ri the uimaU ansumed at food at ihii 
Nation sera found In aucb nufflbera that S torn «ece collected 
)n the loniiiucliop. of a watercou™ wliSch cnwed the lite. 
Aiaons the wbodeu obfecu recoTeied tnta (he relic beds wei« 
tabt, platei, lidls-aad ipoou, a Sail [or ibrcthliig corn, a lut 
(or itTetchinjf shoa of hide, cell handles, dubi. kng-boin of 
yn, SoaiBUid In^emenu of fi^ng and a dug-out canoe 11 ft. 
bng. Ho iplndte-vhotla Here found, but there ovre many 
nrieiio Of cUth, ptaiied and woven, bundlea of yam and balls 
ofuritig. Among the tooli of bone and stag'i horn were 
awls, needta, tanwons, acrsplng toob and hiflitigi lor atone 
aieheids. The loi^lenienu of Nong were diiefly axe-fieadg 
and imnr-hcndi. 01 diy and ctithenwafe there were manf 
varietici of Joneslfc dilhea, cup) and pIpkiHe, and 'cMclbln 
or melting pots made of clay and horwdung aadMiU retaining 
At ditwy ooatlni ot the mtlled brahn: 

TheacttlcRient tff Amrtmier in the Lake of NoKhatd It'UM 
of the richest and most nuidetabte sUtloni ol the Bmue agK 
It haa yielded four bniat nvordt, ten socketed ipaar-headi, 
locty celts or aj*- heads aad slekicB, fifty knivei, twenly socketed 
riilKb, lour hamnn* and aa anidl, slaty Ting; lor the arm* and 
legs, Hwral highly omaM torques or twisted nedc ibp, and 
ilpwank lA Km bnodnd hair pins of vaiiom abM np to iS In. 
in length, aome havbig spherical beads in whlA plates nt girid 
were set- MouUa lot ikklta, lanoe-headi and bncalets Were 
lound-cut bi •loBeot nwde.ti baked day. From four to fire 
hundred vewel* ol pottery ftndy mad* tai dcgaadjr sh^ied are 
indlcaladbytbefragMecitancentedfroaitlwidkhtd. Tlielac 
Je Bouryet, hi Sasoy, has el^ setttnaenthi all ol tha Bionn 
•ge. These have yielded upwards of 4000 htipkmenls, weapons 
and ontamcnlB of brona, among which were a taige proportion 
ol moulds and founden' malerfab. A few atone implement) 
suggest the tiansition from itone to brmzt] and tbe occaiioBal 
•ccurrenn of Iron weapon! and pottery of Gallo-Roman origin 
bidicBin tbe sorvival of some of the BetUemeSts to Roman times. 

The relative anIiqiUty of the earlier settlements ot the Stone 
and Bionae ages is not capable of being deduced from eiistiBg 
«vld«eB. " Ws may venture to place them," aays Dr F. Kdler, 
" In an age when iron and bronze had been long known, but had 
MM cioma hito our districts in such plenty as to be used for the 
common purposes of bouxliold life, at a time vhen amber had 
already taken its place as an ornament and bad become an object 
of traffic." It is DOW eoDsidered that the people wbo erected 
Ihe lake dwelHnp of Central Europe were also the people who 
were spread over the mainland. The forms and the omamenta- 
tioB of the impleaiecla and neapons oS stone and htooie iound 
lo the lake dwcUinga are tbe ume as those of the ImrJementa 
and weapons in these msterlBls found In the soU of tbe adjacent 
regions, and both groups must therefore be ascribed to the 
Industry oton* and the same people, Whclber dwelling on tbe 
land or dwelling tn tie lake, they have eihlbfted ao nany 
in&atfoiiB of capacity, intefiigence, indistty and sodal orpol- 

aailoB thai'iliey caoiN 
I heir Stone age, a veiy low condition c 
Their axes were nude of tough atonf 
and ground to the Biliog shape. They 
a socket of stag's bom, moniscd into 1 
knives and saws of ffint wen mounte 
hied with asphalt. They made ajid used an endless variety of 
bone tools. Their pottery, though roughly &iiishal,iawcU nude, 
the vessels often of large aize ^ad capdile of alaidingthe file 
as cooking ulenailB, For domestic dMiha tbey alao made wooden 
tubs, plates, spoons, ladles and the like. The Industries Of 
spinning and weaving were largely practised. They made nets 
and fishing lines, and used (uoca. Tikty practised agnculturc, 
cultivating several varieties of wheat and barley, buidts millet 
and flai. They kfpt hoises, entile, sheep, goats and sirine. 
Tbdi ckilhing was partly of linen and partly of woollen fabrics 
sod the skins of their beasts. Tbeii food was nuliilious and 
varied, Ibclr dwvJimp neither unhealthy nor IncommocKoiB^ 
They lived in the security and comfort obtained hy sodal 
OTganliaiion, and were appitently intelligent, industrious and 
progressive communities. 

Then is no indication ol an abrupt change from tbe uie Of 
stone lo tbe use of metal stfch as mighr have occurred had the 
knowledge of copper and bronie, and the methods ol working 
them, been-tntroduccd through the conquest of the original 
inhabitants hy an aUen race of superior ciUruiT and diiEcatlon. 
The impnwed cultural conditloiis become apparent in Ihe 
midtiplicalion of (he varieties of tools, weapons and oraaments 
niade possible by Ihe more adaptable qudlties of tbe new 
material; and that the developmenC of the Bronze age culture 
in tbe lake dwellings foUowed theiame course as in the sunound- 
rng regions lAare tbe'pet^'tfwett on the dty land is evident 
from the correspondence ol the types of implcmenls, mapona, 
* uten^ oolimHiD to, both these conditions'of 

Other classes of prehhloA pile-slraclinM akin lo the bke 
dwelUngsarethe-'ntTeniaitof Italy and the Terpen of Holland^ 
Both Of these ate setllamtnts of wooden huts erected On piles^ 
not over the water, but on Bat hnd aubjcet to inviDdations. 
Tie terremare Cso named from the maHy soil of which they 
are compoaed) appear as mounds, sometimes of very eonsderable 
eitent, which -when dug Into disclose the remains and reBc beds 
of the andenl settlements. They are most alnindadt in the 
plains of northern Italy traversed by the Po and Its trihntaiiel, 
though siffrilar coBStniMkms have been found fn Hungary [n the 
valley of the Tbeiss. These pile-villBges were often lurroimded 
by an earthen rampart within which the ImU were erected in 
mote or less tegular order: Many of tbem preset evidence td 
having been miae than once'destroyed by fire and reamstiucled, 
while others show one or more reconstructions at hlghit levels 
en tbe same site. Tbe contents of the re^c beds fndlcste that 
they bekmg for the most part to the age of bronie, although in 
some eases they may be tefetied lo the latter part of tbe Stone 
age. Theh: Inhabitants practised agriculture and kept the 
common domestic animals, -while their tools, weapons and 
mainly ot similar character to those ot the 
a! dwellers ol the adjoiping regions. Some ol 
the Italian teiremaie show quadrangular conalmctions made 
like the modem log botoes, of undrened tree trunks superposed 
longiludinally and oTeriapphig at Ihe enda, as at Caslione In the 
provIncB of Parma. A sircar mode of construction is found in 
tbe pOe-vniage on the baiAt of tbe Save, near Donbi Ddina 
in Bosnia, desctibcd In ige* by Dr Trtibelka. Heie the latget 
bouses bad pbtfottns in front of Ibem fonoteg lettaces at different 
fevds descendfaig towards the river. - There was a cemetery 
adjacent to the village in which both unbumt and'crcmated 
interments occurred, the former pie d o h ilnatlng. * Frotfi the 
geneira] character of the relics this settlement ^ipnired to belong 
to the eaily Iton age. Tlie Terpen of HoBand appear as mounds 
soniewbnC similar to those ol the terremare, and were also pile 
Btnictarea^n low ot thanby lands subject to Inmidatians from 

the sea. bnlika the K 



bdoBg to tfaefnbittetic ago, bw jrMd iatfcaiiooi 

iteriab lor the tavtulniloii of tUi li Dgutar 
fint o)11(cIb] indM/Benu-'— ' '■■- '^- 

i),otr ■- 


VDck in EoilaBd, 1 

tf &iraM, V " 

JUm Edwinf Lnnd ed. Ji 

in rat-RMUjO^Md madkvd lima. 

^ lite , 

),nf loiiDi 

Liiol by Di 
■410 (t«js- 

r, "trublated ind unnged by 
1.1878]. Otlierwixki 

lu W^ •&J« •<< WtHUlet (Phu, l«6> 
lod L. Favre, UBiiAttdit tmat lattulrt n jniu (Pvu, 1874) ; 
A. PeiTin, £M( /rMuftinipM nr la Sm>li iftiialimml t tipaint 
lacuiln iLm PataftKi in lot ^ Bmirpt, PuU, 1870); Eni« 
Chutre, Itt foMMa « hwIpkShu IkiMrj A lac ^ Fatain 
(Cliuiberv, 1871): Binoloneo Ganildi, laiu BebUahau and 
trtkiUnrlc iUmaiiu >■ Oi rurtariii and VerUcdi o/ JfA-Ukm exl 
OsmJ 7JfJy, tramUlFd bf C. H. ChsmbcR (UiDdan. IB«;); Sir 
tobn Lnbbodc (1-ORl Anbury). FrtUsUric Titmti (xth ed., London. 
1878) I Robert Mum, nt IjJ^iiwtaing, ulBuftp, (LonkHi, 189a), 
■itb ■ bibliefraphy d( (be mbjecc (J- A>r.) 

lAKB OBHEVi, ft dly of Wilwoclb couity, WuamuH, 
O.S.A., 6s "- N.W. df Chicago. Pop. (igoe) asSs, of whom 
46S wcR famgn-bami (iftas) JMQI (>9io) 307g. It ii teired 
by the Chiogo & Narthweitem nilny. Tfae diy is pictui- 
Oqiuty lituated on the alums of Lake GeacvA (s Jo. long and 
1} to J m. wide), a beaaiiful body of remaikably tleai wua, fed 
by ipritigs, ud eaciided by rolling tdlli covered wiih thick 
gmvn of lurdHOod trees. The ngion it famoui ai a uunmer 
lewct, i>ulicululy fot Chicago people. Thi dty ia the acat 
of OakHOod Sanitwium, and at WilUaiu Bir. ^ ■»■ (iutant, 
ia the Yeikes Obucvatoty of Lbe Univcnty of Chioago. Dairying 
it the DUHt inpoitant industrial inteicit. The fint icltlenient 
on Lake Geneva waa tside about iSjj. The dty «aa chaitiKd 

LAKS OF TUB WOODS, ■ laks In the »uib.w«C ol the 
province of Ontario, Canada, bordering west 

esUemdy inegulai ahape, tsd cODtains many iilands. Ili 
length ii )a m., brcadtb xa to 59 m., area ijoo iq, a. It 
lies In the centn; of the Lauitntiaa ngion between Lalia 
Winnipeg and Superioi, and an ana ol j6,ooo tq. m. draisi 
to it. It mll ctu the oaten of many riven, the chief being 
Rainy liver fnm the eait, draining Rainy Lake. By the Winni- 
peg river coj the uoitb-east it diKhaigei into Lak e Winnipeg. 
At iti source Wiooipee river is 1057 ft. above the ica, and diopa 

the lake U eundlngly beautiful, and (he islands an largely 

a aouri^ung ton at the aource of the Winnipeg river, la the 
ocntrc ni the niLznenua hunbering and mining cntcipnies of 
the vicioity- 

UKB PUCID. a village in Ewea County, New York, U.S.A., 
on the W. shore ol Mirror Lake, near the S. and oC Lake Fladd, 
about 41 m. N.W. of Ticondeioga. Pop. (1901) IJ14; <iQio) 
l6Ji. Ttm village is served by the Delaware & Hudson railway. 
The region is ooe of the most atliKlive in the Adiiondacks, 
and is a much Irequeoted suounei nsoit. There are four good 
golf courses hete, and the vUlage has a well-built club house, 
called the " Neighboibood House." The vQlaga ties on Ihs 
oanow strip of land (about } m.) between Mirrot Lake (about 
I m. long, N. and S,, and I m. wide), and Lake Pladd, about 
S m. long (N.NX by S.S.W.), and about it m. (nuuimun) 
broadi its altitude is 1864 ft. The lake ia roughly divided, 
from N. to S. by Ihice isUods— Moose, the largest, sod Hawk, 
both privately owned, lod Buck — and it a beautiful slieet ol 
water b t. picturesque setting of forests and heavily wooded 

an Whitefice Mountain (4871 ft.), about 3 m. N.W. ol ibe N. 
end of the lake; McKeniie Mountain (3871 ft.), about i m. 
to the W., and Pulpit Mountain (i6jS ft.), on (he E. tbore. 
The suDunit of WhiUface Mountain comnundt a fine view, 
with Gothic (47jS It.), Saddleback CtBO ((.), BatiD (4S1J fi.), 

to the S. and late CtuwUlB M the B..ud to (he H£' mv be 
seen, on ckai day», the spitat ol UooueaL In (he valleys E. 
aod S. ue (be beaidwaten 01 (be fuuut Auaaiile river. AbaM 
I m. E. of the vitlage, at Noith Elba, ia Uhe gnm of .the abc^ 
lionisi, John Snnm, with iu huge boiddet imiaumnit, and neu 

who bought the John Brown faun and gkve it to llw italc 
Tbciailway totlu villag*wucompleiediD iSg]. Tlie villa|e 

UKKVOOD, a village of Ocean munty, New Jetacy, U.S.A.. 
in (be towsstip ol Likewood, n ai. S. by W. of New Votk city, 
and 8 m. from Ihe.cout, on ktae Cental P-iiT^-H ^ Htm Jenqr. 
Fnp. (1000) of the tAwub^ loduding the vUlage. joim, {1401) 
4s45i (1910) %n^ Lakewood it a faahiooable besith. and 
winter Tewrt, and b situated In ihe oudst of a inne fotesi, 
wiih two small lakes, and many durmbg walks and drives. 
In the village then an a wunber uL fine itaidcnceii luge boiila, 
a library and a hotpiuL The winter temperature is lo-ii* F. 
wumer than in New York. The township ol Lakewood wtl 
incoiporated in iSgi. 

UKB (irom the Sana. laUa, one hundred ilousuid), ■ 
term used in British India, in a colloquial Koae to signify ■ 
bikh of rupees (written i/»,coo), wUch at the lace value ai the 
Tupee would be worth £io.oaa, but now is worth only £6i06. 
The term is also largely used in trade ntutna. A liundted 
lakhs moko a cnn. 

LAXHIVPIIK, a district of British India In (he toUcnie east 
of the province of Easttm Bengal and Asaam. Area, tjipiq. m. 
It lies along both banks of the Brahmaputra fot about 40a m.; 
it ia bounded N. by the Daphia, Miii, Abor and Mishmi hiUi, 
E. tQF the Mishmi and Kachin hilii, S. by t^ watcrlbed o[ the 
Patkai niige and-ihe Lobit branch of the Bnhmapuira, tad W, 
by Ihe distticu of Dammg and Sibaagar. ■ The Bnkmtputik 
it navigable lor tCeuncrt in all gcsMiBt at far *■ Dibnigaih. in 
(he niny tcaton a* tar at S*diyi; it* navigable tribularia 
within the district are the SubiBtiri. Dibra. «nd Oifaing. Hie 
depuly-cenuiiisaioner In chatgc ewKJaei .politictl control over 
nunsRHit tribes beyond the ianct surveyed border. Tke mosl 
importanl (il these (ribei an the Mills, Abets, Ulalmiis, Khamth, 
Kachins and Ntgas. In 1901 tbe popuhtiou wu 37t,jg6. 
to increase of 46 % in the decade. The district ha* tt^oftA 
reouikabk and continuous prosperity. At each succcsiivt 
census tbe r-'""''^^ of increase hat bftcn over 40, the present 
population being more than three times as great as that Of 1871, 
Tbia increase b chiefly due to (hi; niuneroua lea gaidena and (a 
tlw cod minea and otha enterpriaei of the Attaai Railwayt 
and TiadUig Company, Lakhimpur was the first district into 
which tea cultivatiaa was introduced by (ha govBnment, and 
tbe Assam Conpany begaa opeiatioat here in iB*o. The 
tailwty, known ai (he Dibni-Sadiya line, runs iron Dibrugarii 
to MiJiun, with two biiDches to Talap and Uargherita, and 
hat been connected across the hiUs with the Avam-DeDgtl 
railway. Tba coal it of axcellcnt quality, and is eiparted tv 
rivet as far a« Calcutta. The chief oil-wdlt an at DigboL Tbe 
oa is tefintd at Margherita, producing a good quality of kenoac 
oil and firtt-claia paraffin, with wai and other by-pcoductt. 
The company also tniuiulactuna bricks and pipe» of various 
kindt. Anotbet industry is cuittig timber, for the mtnulactata 
of tei-cbetls, &c. 

Laldbmpur figures Lsrgdy in Che anaali of Assam at-the rtglqa 
whfn ■uc ce t si va invaiien from the east first reached (lie Bi^ni«- 
The Ban Bhulyat, origiuHy from the wnteni rHttvincea of 

re driven oot by the Chi 

TvB plaet to ihdr 1 — 
oeMwy. The Bi 

, and iheic 
s, Ibe/- 

kuigd(inu,at (lie end e( (he iSth century, wen in i8>jeipetl«] by 
tbe^rilliti, who plaeej ihe •oulbern pari of ibe country, together 
wllh Sibtsgir under the nileef Raia Purandhir Singh; but it was 
sot till t»A ihai the whole was cakia under dime British adninia- 
traikm. The headauaneit are ai Difaninrh. 
See LoUoHpur iAitricf CUcuw [Calculi*. 1905).' 
UKtHKl (San*, for " mark," " sign," genaraHy med k 
composition i^th fimya, "prrspercvt") hence "good sigit," 
"fc«d lottunt"), in Hindu nyUtoIogy, the wife of VU^n, 



wtiMpfet M the goddcM «C love, beauty ukt pmi>eritr. She 
hu muiy ottiu luma, Uie chief bdai ^ta main [" mother ef 
■he wMld"), Padma {" tbt lotua"), PaJma laya ("ihe *bo 
drnUt on * lotui ") ud Jaladkijo (" ibe attta-bota "). She 
it r^roenUd u a( ■ bnght goldcD caloui uxi lotKl od ■ loliii. 
She is Hid to hive beai born from ibe (la of milk wboi it mi 
diBnoi tnaa uiibraaU. Uuqr qiudnl mytbi nattvoS ber 
binh. In the Rif Ved« ber muue does not oa»r ■> a godden. 
UUINO, JACQDBS M <c. i4i(r-i4U]. Fkmlili knVn, 
wu ori^uOy In the mvkc of the duke at Clcra and nf terwudi 
la that of the dake d Burgundy, Philip m., the Good, gaining 
gKU Raowa by hk pnnRM hi the tlltyud. Tin duke of 
BuifUMly entnUlad Ma wlLh onbana to the pope and Ibe 
king gf Fnnee <i4]i), and mbiequeBtty kbI Urn to put down 
Ibe revolt of the inbaUtanti ol Cheat, In which eq>editIon be 
wukllled. Bk iiatnfbj, Li Lirt da faOi dr matin JacjMi 
it lnMiii, which hai been pabU)hed leveial t&BO, li mainly 
the wiufc oI the BoismHliaa herald Ud ducoicler lean le 
FlvTe, better known u Taiun far, the Flembb balortc«rapheT 
Georgea CbaMellahi aad the herald Charoliii alu look part in 

Its OODipjIatiM]. 

UUMDB, JOIVH iftllAU UnUKAIS M (tjjft&h), 
FRDck astiODaincr, wn bora at Boiug (depattment of Ain), 
on ibe iitb of July 17J]. His parenti sent him to nuii to 
■tudy lawibut Ibe uddeat of lodgiDg in the HAtd Cluny, where 
J. N. Delisle had hii obiCTvmtoiy, drew him to istrononiy, and 
he became the teaknu and favoured pupQ of both Delide and 
Piene Lemonnla. He, however, comjijcted bii legal studies, 
and wai about to ntuni 10 Bourg to practise Ibereu an idvoale, 
when Lemonnier obtained penmiiton ttt send him to Beilin, to 
nuke obaervationi on ibe lunar paraHu in concert with those 
o{ N. L. LacaiUe at the Cape of Good Hope. The laitessful 
oecalioa of his task procured tor him, before be was Ivmiy-oce, 
.0 the Aisdemy oC Berlin, and (he poH of sdjnnct 
to thai ol Paris. He now devoted himself Id Ibe 
neat of the planetary theory, putjidiiiiK in 175V a 
1I cditkia of Halley's tables, with a hisiory of the cele- 
biaisl comet whose retom in that year he bad aided Clairauft 
(o cakolate. In 171S1 J. N. Delisle resigned in his favour the 
diair of astronomy In the Coll^ de France, the duties ol wbich 
were ischarged by Lahmde for forty-sii years. His house 
became- aa asttmioiincal sesdnaty, and amongst hb pupils 
were J. B. J. Delambre, G. Plasri, P. Mechain, and his own 
nepbew Michel Lalande. By his pubh'catioiia In connexion 
wiib the traniil ol 1769 he won gnat and, in a measure, dejerved 
fame. But bi> love of nolorlety and impetuous temper coin- 
promised the rapeM due to taia adeniiSc zeal, though these 
taulla wne panially balanced by hll gCDerosily and beoevolcnce- 
Heified on the 4th ol April iBo/. 

- - ^ ^. , ,_5 ductrf Willi (HUgflKC int'— 

, - - J • aid the Ijlande priie. 

laatittnHl^ bin in iScaloe thecbielaausmnical perlomaani' 
«ch ytar, •611 testifies 10 bis Bithuiiawi (or his favourite puiwU. 
Amomsr lii» voluminous works are nou/ iTorirmieinir U volt, 1764: 
enlarged e*ltoii,4V0lB.,i77i-l7»I, lrded.,3VDls.. 179JI: «''("« 
tiUM tianfvit (iSoi), pvlng the plices ol yMHB nan; Btblir- 
■..1^^ niimsBim itgat^ wiik a hiitary of aatnUMiiry iiOB 17*1 

'» (i70b),b valiubk record dI nistnvels 
"iHi-fjA. he coBnouniciIcd above one hundred and fifty 

■-''^■^--t"A^'"iK" -. --- 

o Ibe Paris Academy of Scieoces, edited the Cffftfinrjaafr lb 

"^ (rV3»-17T«)." 

-Mt. i.iM (itio) (MmedcSaii-. 
<rM, t. Ki. U. iiM); J. Muncf, 
41; V^'H^.Cts^.ittAiUsntm^i 
IB; ]. C PKgeodorff, 3iiii. LU. Ma 


Tilf; AiUsntmiti J. J. LaUode, »iU. 


UliM, a town of norlb-wnttm Spain, !n tfat province ol 
foDinedra. Pop. (ifoi^ i6,tjg. Lain Ii the caain oi Ibe 

trade In agifcultural products oF the lertSe Ui^ldaiida bt t w ecu 
dte Dtu and Anicgo rivers. The local {nduaUta are tanning 
aad the manubctmt of paper. Near Lalln are the mfaia cif the 
GotUe abb9 ol Cirboeiro. 

U UMKk, or La Loo* DI U ComaKioii, a town of Spain. 
In the province g( Cadii, between (Xhiahar and San Boque. 
Pop. (rgoo] ji,8o>. La Linea, iridch derivei ill Dsme liom 
(be lint or bauridai}r <fivlding Spanish tenitory from the district 
of (%ca]tar, b a town of comparativdy modem date and was 
fonniMy looked upon as a snbiirb oC San Roque. It b now a 
distinct frontier post tlid headquanert of the Spanish com- 
mandant of the lines of Gibraltar. The fottldcationa erected 
herein the ifitb ceilnry were dismantled by the Britldi in iSio, 
to preveBt the landing of French bvadeis, and all the eiisling 
buUdiop ate BiadeiiL Theji indode barracks, casinof, a theatre 
and a bultdngt modi IreqOcnted by the iohalulaDls and garrison 
of Gibraltar. L« Linea bas tanx trade in cereals, (ndt infl 
vcgMabler, It b the leddenx of hrge numbers o( labouiea 
employed b Oibrahar. 

UUTPBR, a town of BiltUi Tndii^ In Jhind district, tTnited 
Provinces. Pop. <i9ai) ir,;6o. II has a slailoB on tbe Great 
Indiaii Peninsula railway, and alargt trade in oS.seeds, hides and 
fM. It cmtains several beautiful Hindu and Jain temples. 
It was focmeily the beadqnarlen of a diatrfct of the same nimf, 
which was incorporated irhh that of Jbinsi in iSgi. The 
Bundeli cbleh of LaHtpul were among those who moat tagetly 
Joined the Uutiny, and 11 waa only after a uvcce atniggle that 
the diatria waa padfitd. 

LULT, THOMU UTHKIt, Coun n, Btnn da Tirflendal 
(1701-17W), French general, was bora at Romaoi, Dauphint, 
In January 1 701, bdng the son of Sir Gerard CLally, an Irish 
Jacobite who nutried a Frendi lady of Jioble family, irom 
whom the son inherited hij titles. Enlcrihg the Fren^ army 
in 1711 he served in Ibe war of 1734 against Austria; he was 
present at Detliogen (t74j), and commanded the ngbnent de 
Lally in the famous Irkh brigade at Fontenoy (Kay I74i). He 
was made a brigiditt on the field by Laid! XV. He had previ- 
onsly b«n mited up in several Jacobile ploH, and in 1745 
accompanied (!haries Edward to Scotland, serving as aide-de- 
camp al the batik of FaUiiit (January 1746). Escaping lo 
France, he served with Marshal Sue in the Low Countries, 
and St the capture of Maeslricht (1748] was made ■ marlcliil 
•It camp. When war broke out with England in 17JS Lally was 
given tbe command ol a French expedition lo India. Be 
reached Fondlchary in April 1758, and at Ibe outset mri wiTb 
some niSing milltaTy cuccesa. Be was a man of courage and a 
capable general; but his pride and ferodly made him disEkcd 
by bis officers and baled by his soldiers, while he regarded the 
natives as slivea, despised their assislancc, and trampled on ihclr 
tradittons of caste. In consequence everything went wrong with 
hfm. He was unsuccessful in an atlact on Tanjore, and bad 
In retire from tbe siege ot Madras (i7s8) oiring to the timely 
aniva! of the British fleet. He was dcfealed by Sir Eyre Coole 
■I Wandiwasb <i7£o), and besieged in Fondicheriy and forced 
10 cipitnlalc (i 761). He was sent as a prisoner of wat lo England. 
WhUe in London, he heard Ihal he was accused in France of 
treachery, and in^sied, against advice, on returning on parole lb 
stand his trial. He was kept prisoner for nearly two ycaia 
before the liiat began; (hen, afler many painful delays, he was 
sentenced to death (May 6, t7i6), and three days later beheaded. 
Louis XV. tried to throw the responsibility for what was un- 
doubtedly a judicial murder on his minibters and the public, 
but his policy needed a scapegoat, and he wat probably well 
coRtent not to exercise his authority to save an almost friendleu 

naiquis de lilly^ 

Dllendal) anicte In the Biotrapiu Ifulioud; 
cnMlcI. The k^ docoments are pre- 

served lo lb* BibUothlqiM 

LULTUmURMtk immnaB efum, Mxaqins m 
(r7si~igjb), wn bora at Parta on the jth of Marcl 
waitbelegRlmixedBosodbecDmtedeLallyn' ' 



the Mint of lui birth 0(1 ibe dijr at hii tithu's ciecutioD, when 
be icsolved to dcvulc hiiiBclf to lituieg bit btbec'i menuiiy. 
He wu lupportol by Voluiic, >nd in i7j8 lucceeded in peiHud- 
bg Louii XVL (o innul Ibe dccnc vhich h>rd KMenod the 
comte de i-tiiy; but Ihe pufement of Rouen, to whicb Ibe cue 
«u rtferrtd bick, io 1784 tgiia dedded in favoui of LtUy't 
(uilt. The oue wu retried by other couns, but LaUy'iuuwccace 
wu nevK fully adiajited by Ihe Fieoch judgim. Id 1779 Lilly- 
ToUendal bought tbe oBix of Craid baiili ol ttimpo, ud is 
1 7S9 wu (. deputy la the italet-genenl foe the itabUtu of Puix. 
He pUyed lome put in Ibe evi/ itages of the Rcvoliilioa, hut 
wu (00 conservative 10 be in t/mpalby with tli even of it> 
e&rlier devcZopmentL He Ihievr hi m a e lf into opposition to the 
" tynnny " ol MirabcAu^ and condemned (he epidemic oE ro- 
DUOcUtion which in the loiion oi the 4th ol August 1789 
deitnyed (he tiadilionil institutiona of France. Later is the 
yeu be emi^Tated to England, During the trial of Louia XVL 
by the National Conventioii (ilgj) he offered la defend the 
king, hut waa cot allowed to telurn to FoDce. He did not 
Kliun Ull the time of the CanauUle. Louii XVIUi created 
him apeci ol France, and ui iSid he became > mcrabci of Ike 
nendi Academy. From that lime untH his dealh, on the iilb 
of Uarch iSjo. he devoted hunieli to philanthropic work, 
specially idenlilyin| himself with prison leioim. 

See his Plaiityir fov Lnit XVI. O^oiidoH, mi): Latly- 
ToUendal wu alia in part mponsible lor llie Miuuiti, allributed 
lo Jowpb Weber, comraini^lirie Antoinette (iBoi): he (untier 
edited the ailide on hit lather in the Bttfrapliit Itidiiaid; ice also 
ArpautI, Disawt firtntnti omt fitmroiOu it M^tt mt ro uUit LaUy^ 

"■■-'-■• -ii«ja(Fvii1iGautUB<leBmy.WAn' -- ' 

aUyrrri&Mfa/<I>aris,uiKl>ledJiVa' ' 

If. kH 



ULO, BD0UAR9 (iSij-iSqi), French composer, wu bom 
at LiDe, on the 27th of January iBij. He bcgaJ) his musical 
(ludics at the conservaloirc at Lille, and in Paris ailenijed Ibe 
violiii cUu<s ol Hibenctk. For several yura Lalo led a modest 
and retired exiUelKe, playing the viola in the quailet party 
organiaed by Armlngaud artd Jacquard, and in composing 
clumber music His early works include two Irioa, a quartet, 
and several pieces for vi<jin and fnanoforiep In jSij he took 
part in'an openlic compclitioo, an opera liom his pen, entitled 
Fitiqut, Dbtiiining ifae tbiid place out of lorty-lhree. This 
work »u accepted lor production al the Paris Op(ra, bul delays 
occurred, and nothing wu done. Fitiqut wu neit oEleied to the 
TbUlre de la Monnaie, Snisselt, and wu about to be produced 
there when the manager hecirae bankrupt. Thus, when neatly 
fifty years of age, Lain found hlinsrit in difficulties. Fiaqu 
wu never peiibnned, hut the composer published the pianoforte 
Kore.and eventually employed someol the music in other works. 
After Ihe Fr^co-Cetman war French campoaert found Iheii 
opponunily in the concert-room. Lalo was one of these, and 
during the succeeding ten years several inleieltini woiks frob 
his pen wen produced, among them a sonata for violoncello, a 

SjmphinU Elpstnolt lor violin and orchestra, one of his best- 
known compositions. In ibe meanwhile he had written a second 
opera, Lt Rsi fYi, which be hoped would be produced al the 
Optra. The adminialralion ofleicd bim Ihe "sceouio" of a 
ballet instead. Lalo wu obliged to be tonlenl with this, and 
act to work with so much energy that he [ell HI, the lul scenes 
of the ballet being orchestrated by Goimod. Namtuna, the 
Inilet in question, was produced *t ihe Optra in 1S81. 5ii 
years later, on the 71b of May 1S8S, Le Rii iTYi wu brought 
out at the Opin Comique, and Lalo wu at last enabled to tute 
(he sweeta of success Unfortunately, fame came to bim too 
late in life A pianoforte concerto and Ihe musip (a Nlrim, a 
pantomimic piece played a( Ihe Hii^wdrome In rS9i,Were bis 
tasL two works. He had begun & new c^era, hut had only 
written (he hist act when, on the 23rd ol April iSgi, he died. 
Thb open. Lc Jtcfacfii, wn hniabed by Arthur Coqaud, and 
*u i^oduced in 1845 U Monte Carlo, Aii-lo-BainB ud 
GuOjr in Pun. Lalo bad distinct ociginalily, disceniibit in bii 

employment of cuitoiu rhrthmic devkCL Sb mtuia I* Vim 

U IIASDALQIA. m island 1) hl from the N.K cout <d 

Sardinia. Pop. (i0orj G361. Kapaleon bombarded it in 174J 
without success, and Nelson made it his headquarters for sckh 
time. It it now an Important naval station of the Italian flrel, 
(he andwiage being good, and Is strongly loni&td. A bfidgt 
and an embankment coiuiect il with CapienL It ippean to 
have been inhabited In Roman tiowL 

LkM AiSM, a system of doctrine partly religious, partly poUlicaL 
Religiously it is tbe corrupt form of Buddhism prevalent in Tibet 
and Mongolia. ItstandsinarcUtionship to primitive Buddhism 
similar to that in which Roman Catholicism, 10 loog >* the 
temporal power of the pope wu still in euiltnce, stood to 
primitive Christlanily. Tbe ethical and metaphysical ideas 
most coupicuoua in the docliincs of Llmtlun are not Donfined 
lo the highlands of central Asia, they are accepted in great 
measure also in Japan and China. It is the union of these ideas 
with a hierarchical system, and with (he temporal aover i i g nty 
of the head of that system in Tibet, which eonsiituies what is 
distinctively understood by the term Llmiiso. Limtlso) 
hu acquired a ^Mciil interest la Ihe itnitent of ooinparaijve 
history through the instructive patalld which ila history present! 
ID that of the Church of Rome. 

Tbe central pcant of primitive Buddhism wu the doclrint 
" system of ethical and menial self-cultiit^ 

and sorrows of Eie in a change of heart te be reached ii_^ 
here an eartb. This doctrine seems 10 have been tn^' 
held very neatly in its origirul purity from the time 
when it wu propounded by Cotama in the Ath century B.C. 
to the period in which northern India wu conquered by the 
Hunsaboullhecommcncemcnt of tbe Christian era. Soon alter 
that time there arose a school of Buddhist leicheis who called 
thelrdoctrincihe" Great Vehicle." It was not in any con I ladic- 
tion tothe older doctrine, which they contempluDusly called iba 
" Little Vehicle," but included it alt, and wu based upon iu 
The distinguishing chuactcristic of the newer school wu the 
impoitanu whicb il attached lo " Bodhisalship." Tbe older 
school bad taught that Gotama, who had propounded the doctrine 
of Arabaiship, wu a Buddha, ihat only a Buddha is capablt 
of discovering that doctrine, ajjd that a Buddha is a isbd who 
by seli^lenylng cSoris, continued through masy huadnds of 
diSereni bitths. has acquired Ihe soi^lled Ttn PsiamSlii a 
carding virtues In such perfection ihat he is able, when sin and 
ignorance have gained the upper band throughout the world, 
lo save the human race from impending ruio. But until tbe 
process ol perleciioa has been completed, anlil the moment 
when al last the sage, silting under the Wisdom tree acquires 
that particular itui^l or wisdom which is called Enligblenoient 
DrBuddhabDad,hei>itillonlyaBadhisaL The Imk of conBeiioo 
between the various Bodhisals in (he future Buddha's successive 
births is not a soul which is Itansferred from body to body, 
but the htrma, or character, which eath sjccestivt Bodhisat 

Now (he tJder school also held, bi the Ent place, that, when • 
mw had, in this tile, attained to Atahaiship, his karma would 
Jtol pass on to any other individual in another lite — or in olber 
worda, that after Arabatship there would be no lebirtb; and, 
secondly, that four thousand years alter Ihe Buddha bad pro- 
claimed the Dhamma or doctrine of Arahalsbip, his (caching 
would have died awiy, and auothir Buddha would be required 10 
bring mankind once Bum to a knowledge of the truth. Th« 
leaders of tbe Great Vchii^le urged (heir followeta (0 seek (o 
attain, not so much to Arahauhip, which would involve only 
their own salvation, but to Bodbiaatship, by Ibe attainment ol 
wfaicb (hey would be conferring the blcasings ol Ibe Dhamma 
upoa countless multitndes in the long ages of Ibe future. Bj 
thus laying stress iipoti Bodhisatshlp, rather than upon Arabat- 
ship, the new school, though they doubtless merely tbot«ht 
Iheondvea to he csnyinrlhe idder arthodDi dactriBei lo their 
kvcal toodwiioii, wen ically cbvigiDg tbe caniral poiot o| 


M tf urios tha OiwtloD or tlnb mdUI Tfilon . 
i( mini DO avu ilut lb>)i uUtend laotbet (MpacM In tbe nuin 
10 tba oMr teubias, tint thty pcafgaad U beld to the itne 
Mbkd il-ittm, Ihtt they ■dfancd, nnpt in a Itw vnbnporUDt 
dmtredaui. TheiiiieBt boofa, pmmred ja tha PtU Pilahu, 
haag nuliil/ occnplHl trllh the deUIh at AnhaUhlp. lo*t tbeir 
oKlulva *ilDe io the i^ff ot iIhh vhOH uteDtlm wu bang 
dinctedtalhadatafllofBodliiHtihip. And the a^aloa that 
evei7 levjer bi theiiTdijInu dido, tvtrr taebei dhdngiiiibed 
unang tbem fat Ui Bndity of life, or Im hit exten^ve kming, 
WIS ■ BadUiat, who mlfbt have and who pnbiblr hid inbnited 
Lbe kaima of nrae peat teacher of old, opened the door to a 
Bood of HipentltkHU fUKla. 

li a wonhy of note that the new Khool f oimd tti enliat 
profeMon ud itf inHeM cxpoaciden In apart g{ India outside 
tbadiOilcH to whkh the fwnoiMl taRytBtcat Goiama and <d fail 
inowdiMa Mkywat bad been cratoed. The h«iK of eiriy 
BuddhUB «a> i«<md about Soaali and Uagidhai in the 
f, notth and Mtuth of tba Cangei between 
d RaJRJr OB Ibe east 


. 1 people I 

:, which th« 

forth, was written, end bu bMn prcwrvtd, In Suukrii— tli 
pnaefpal books tH Dlurm*, or doctrine, being the faUcwing nine: 
(i) er^na-piramili, (i) Ctifia^PjMt; (j) Data-tMlmii^iara; 
(4} StmUii-raja; (s> LanlOtaUn; (6> Stiikaima-fi'iiaia* ; 
(7I Talkat^m-i^yala; (8) IMOa-titlarai (^) SMKrti-trstkisit. 
Tho date of none ol Iheu woifca la known witb any cetlxinly, 
hot It is U^y jmptobabta thai asyooaol ihero h older ibin tbe 
fith centory alter the death of Gatama. Coptei of all of ihem 
w«n hnoght to Earope by Mr B. U. Hod^a, and other copies 
have been ncdnd alnca thesi but only one ol them has as 
y«« been publiabid in Eatops (the Ltlila Viilara, edited by 
Lofmana), and only two hare been traDslated into any Euiopean 
bnguge. These are the £<]<ifo ViOara, iraiDlattd into French, 
ihno^ the Tibetan, by M, Poucau. and Che Saddiama 
Faf^rtta, tianslsled into English by PrDfeuoc Kem. The 
fornerislegesdaiy work, partly in vent, on the life of Cotami, 
the historical Buddha; and the latter, alw partly in venc, 
it devoted to praving (he essential identity ol the Oteatand the 
LittU Vehleks, and the eqaal antbcntidly of both a* doctrines 
ennnciated by the master hiniselt. 

Of tlic authors of these idne works, ai of all the oldn Buddhist 
works with one or two excepciocs, nothing has been ascertained. 
He louodti of the system of the Great Vehicle b, however, 
often refeued to under the name of Nlggijuiu, whose probable 
date Is abeni ikn. sea 

Together with NIgtrfina, otlm early teachen of the Great 
Vehicle wboae namta ace kwwn are Vasunitta, VianbaBdhn, 
Aiyadava, Dhanaaplia and Ganamatl— all nf vhoas wue 
loakad 1901 aa Bodhlaata. As the arwia sdwd did not venture 
so Eat as to dalm as Bodhbata the dlicM** ^"^ >■ '^ •'■'*' 
boofca to have been the tentampnsile* of CoUaia (tlmy being 
pRcbdy the pcnons hnown aa Anhats), they attamptad to 
(iva tbe appesramz of ^e to the Bodhbat theary by npRSenting 
the Buddha as bdng lamandod, not only by bb hwnan con- 
paaioDS &a Anhats, but also by (abuloui beings, whom they 
Rpnsentad as the Bodhisats e^tOat al that tbe. In the 
opening wud* of each ItahlyiBa tfiatba a Uu U given of iDch 
BodUntt, who wa« baglaiilDg, tacnl>« *<tb the Ustoiical 
- ■■■ - ' -Q tbs Buddhist eborch ' 

of tbo UMery of Cbiisttaoity in the Chuth nl 
.nd these lilts of tabukuf BodUsatshavs now> diHioci 
importance. For they grow in length in the later 

nd It is often posalhle by comparing them oi 

r with 

booksin , _._.. 

fiom the shortness of the list In the opening words oF the LaJita 
Ktitero, as compared wllb that in the first seclioni of the Sai- 
dkanma PmfoAlia, that the latter work Is much the younger 
of the two, a conclusion soppoited aba by other consldcrstioni. 
AmongtheBodhlnumentlonRlmtheSaiM^iBa J*av^plta, 
and not mentioned in the Lalila Vutara, » atteitdint on ibe 
Buddha are Manlu-M ukI Avilokllcivaia That these saints 
•ere already adiBOiriedgtd by the fnlkmeta of the Great Vehicle 
at the beginning of the jth eenluiy Is clear from llie (act that 
Fa HIcB, iriw vUted India about that time, says that " men 
trf the Great Vehicle " were then worshipping them it Mathura, 
not Car from Ddhi (F K., chap, irl.). These were supposed to 
be celetlul beings who, inspired by love ol the hnmin rice, 
bad taken the so-called Great Resolve Io beceme future Buddbas, 
and who Iherelrin descended from heaven wfaea Ibe actual 
Buddha wis on earth, to pay reverence Io him, and to learn 
of bin. The belief in tbcm probably Bn»e out of the doctrine 
of the older school, which did not deny the eriitence of tha 
various creations o( previous mythology and Bpecolation, but 
allowed <^ their actual eiistence as s[^iiiual being;, and only 
deprived them of all power over the lives cf men, snd declared 
Ihem 10 be lemporary beings liable, like men, to sin and igaor- 
Boce, and reqoirlng, like men, tlte lalvaiion of ArahatshqL 
Among tbem the later Buddhtsls snm to have placed their 

BodfcisatS) and to ha 
MaB)u.JrI at the petsonihcation of wisdom, and to Avaloklle- 
iwara as the penonitcstioa of overruling love. The former 
was afterwanb tdentUed with the mythical fint Boddhlst 
mls^eaiary, wbo 1) nippoied to have intndnced dvlKzation 
into Tibet about two hundied and fifty yean alter the death of 
the Buddha. 

The way was now open to a rapid laQ from the simpBdty 
of early Buddhliin, in which men's attention was dbecled 
to the various parts of the system oi self-culture, 
to a bdlet in a whole pantheon of saints or angels, '^^^ 
which appealed more strongly to the balf-civiliied 
races among whom the Great Vehicle was now pro- 
fessed. A themy spnog up which was supposed to eiplaifl 
Che marveUoua powera ol the Buddhas by representing tliem 
as only the outward appearance, the reflection, as ll were, or 
emanation, of ethereal Buddhas dweliing in the skies. These 
were called Dtytni BuJdliti, and their number was lUpposed 
10 be. like that □( the Boddhis, innntnefable. Only five ot 
them, however, occupied any apace in the qcculative world 
in Which the Ideas of the later Buddhists had now began ta 
move. But, being Buddhas, they were supposed to have Ibeii 
Bodhluti; and thus out of Ibe five last Buddhas of the earlis 
leachlog there grew up five mystic trinhiea, aadi group coa- 
sitting of one ol these fire Buddbai, Us prototype in heaven 
the Dhylni Buddha, and hit celcstUl Bodhiiat. Among tbesa 
bypoiheiica] beings, the cttatloat of a tfckly schojaslicism,' 
hoDow ibslnciions without life or reality, the paitknlar trinity 
in which the historical Gotama was as^goed a aubordlnale 
p1ac« naturally occupied the most exalted rank. Amitlbha, 
the Dbydni-Suddhaof this trinity, loon began to fill the largest 
place in the minds of Ihc new bchool; and Avaloklletwan, 
bis Bodhfsat, was looked upon with a nvnence somewhat less 
than his former glory. II Is needless to add that, under the 
overpowering Induenca ol these vain Imaginations, the earnest 
moral teachings of Gotama became more and mon hidden from 
view. The imaglnaiy aainls grew and 9aarilbed. Each new 
creatfon, each cww step In the tibeory, demanded anolfaer, 
until the iid»Ie sky was filled with forgeries oi the bnin, and 
the Dobler and simpler icnoni ol ibe founder of the rdiglon 
were bidden beneath the gUlleting stream of metaplQ'Sitd 

Still worse results followed cm Ibe change ot Ibe eaitier point 
ot view. Theacuteminds of the Buddhist paadits. ru kniget 
occupIiHl with tbe practical leasoni dI Aiabalaliip, turaad theli 



Utcotioo, u far u [t wu not enfitwl apon Ibcir hicruchy 
of mythoiofiul btingt. lo queauotu of meuphyiicil ipauUlion, 
niiich, In ibc cacUcji Euddlusio, ut not only diicounsed 
but FoibiddeD. Wc £ad long iiatuei on ihc niturc o[ being, 
idealistic dtumi wbich have u litlle la do wiih the Bodbiuuhip 
that Is tonreiocd wiih the ulvalion oi ihr world u wiib the 
Anhitsliip Lbat u coDcemed with lb« peifeci hie Only one 
lowet slep was possible, and ibat »u doi long 10 being tiken. 
The animism common alike to ibc natlughl Huns and M thut 
Hindu conqueton, but condemned in caily Buddfaiun, »u 
allowed to revive As the ilronger side oT GoLama^ tea ch ing 
was neglected^ the debasing belief in ntes and cercmoniea, 
and charms and incantations, which had been the eipecial object 
of his Bcora, began to spread like tlie Bliaoa weed wanned 

narsh and muddy soil 

the eipiilsion of Buddtiijm, the degrading 
and hU diuky brid« hod been incotporued into Hmduam 
from the uvage devil wonhip dI Atyaa and of noa-Aryan 
tribe). M. as ptue Buddhism died away in the north, the TaiU'i 
aysieiD. a miiluie ol magic and wiichoaft and toicery, was' 
incDiporated mto the ODtiupted Buddhism. 

Th« loundei of thi) tysum teems to bavB baco Aianfa. an 

Influenlial monk of Pethl»at, who wrote the Cnt mt-book of 

tbe creed, the YeiMciiia BhimI Siilra, in tlie «th 

?f._ cenluiy a-d. Hsun Taang, who tiavcUed in the first 

ic 7th, found the monaitery where Asanga bad 

at deileiity 


le the t 

Saivite gods oi devil^ both'n 
heavens of the then prevalent Budi 

Avalokiteivara. He thus made it passible fo 

n the inleiioi 
, and by repreaenluig 
the Buddha and of 
the half-converted 
J brought oflecingB. 
and even bloody oSerings. to these more congenial shrines, and 
while their praaical belief had no relation at all to the Truth! 
or the Noble Eightfold Path, but busied iuelf almost wholly 
with obtaining magic powcn (SUdlii), by meant of ma^c phrasci 
IDiiroHi), and magic circlet {Jfop^ofa). Atanga's happy idea 
bore but too ample fruit. In bis own conntiy and NcpU, the 
new wine, sweet and lutciout to the tatle of tavaga, completely 
disquAfied them from enjoyiag any puiei drink; and now in 
both countries Saiviua it sopttme, and Buddhltm la even nomin- 
ally eatinct , eicept in tome outlying distiicu of NepU. But this 
full eSect hat only been worked out in the lapse of ages; the 
Tanlra literature has also bad its gtovth and its devdupmtnt, 
and some unhappy ichelar ol a future age may have to trace 
it> loathsome hiatory. The nauseout taste repelled even the 
tcU-tacrificing industry of Burooui, when he found the later 
Tanlra booki to be as immoral at they are abiurd. "Thepen." 
he tayi, " refiuet to ttantcribe doctrioet u miterable in respect 
of foim as they are odioUJ and degrading in mpect of meaning." 

Such had been the decline and tall of Buddhism considered 
as an ethical system before ilt inlrodnciion into Tibet. The 
manner in BhichilKirder of ueDdicant redusei, at first founded 
to afford better (Vportuaities to those wbn wished to carry 
out that system in practical life, developed at lail into a hier- 
archical monarchy will beat be undentiMd bf a sketch of tbe 
history of HbcL 

lu real history comnunce* with Smng Tsan Gampo, who 
was bom a litlle after 6oo aj)., and who is lald in tbe Chineie 
chronidca to liave entectd, in £54, into diplomatic 
f^^^ rdatiiuuhip with Tai Tsung, one of the empeiDtt id 
irr-i y ihe Tang dynasty. He wta the founder of the praent 
capital «( Tibet, now known at Uuua; and in the 
year 6I) (the tame year at that in ohich Mahomet fled from 
Mecca) he began the formal introduction of Buddhism Into 
Tibet. Fat ihu purpose he sent the minister Thomi Sambhota, 
aflcrwaida hioked upon as an incarnation of MaRju-trl. to India, 
there to coUect the sacred books, and to lealn and tranilate Ibtm. 

I- a 10. it^. >ii. 

a rdiw Ckndnf, edited by Rhya Davids and Biuhell, 

Thumi Sambbsta acconUngly iavantad an alphabet for tb* 
Tibetan language on the model of the Indian alphabelt then hi 
use. And. aided by the king, who is iqHetented to have been 
an induslrwus student and translator, he wrote the firal books 
by which Buddhism becatue known in his native land. Tbe 
most famous ol the works aacribed Ui him is the Uani K a mbitm, 
''the Mynad of Preoout Wocdi " — • lieatite chiefiy on religion, 
but which alto contain* an account of the intioduction of 
Buddhism mto Tibet, and of the clotLng part ^ ibc life of Srang 
Tsan Gaoipo He n also very probably the Bulbar of anatber 
very ancient itandard work of Tibetan BuddUtn, the Smalat, 
a ikott digest of Buddhist noraUty, on which the d<ril law* of 
Tibet have bca founded. It la said in th< tfaiii JCa*i6M> to 
have Fatten from heaven In a casket (Tibetan, niialfg), and, like 

King Srong Tsu Gampo'a leal for Bttddhlan «•> ahued 
and supported by his two queen*. Briba«in,« prineew fpw Kq>U, 
and Wen Chii«. a prince** frara China. Ttwy ue idaUd to 
have brought with them tacred r^ci, booln and pictuea, 
for whose belter ptetervatlon two large BMmuteffe* woe neetcd. 
The*e are the doiaten of L> BiMg (JokiiaBfl) and Sk MochC, 
still, though much chuwd ^"^ calarged, tin meat aacred abbajs 
' Tibet, and the glory ot Lhaaa. The tiao quecm banbecoma 

Dtr4-Eii, tbe " glorieu mother*," being ictaided 
tbe wife of Sin, raprcteatiBf reqiecliveb' 
two of Ihe qualities which ifae penonlfits, ifivke vcofeaBne 
and divine love. The fanner is WDnhipped by tlM UongoUaot 
as OUi* Toipi, " the Viisin Goddeta "; but in Tibet aod 
China the rAle of tbe divine virgin ia filled by Kmaa Yim, a 
pertoni&cation of Avalokiieivan at tbe heavenly ward, wIm ia 
oiten tepremtcd with a child in bar armt. Snng Twa Canpo 
bai alto bccoBc a uini, being lookol tipon aa an faicataatioB 
of Avalokiteivaa: and the dcacdlilion in t^ ecclcalattiBiI 
hiltoliani of Ihe meaturci be took for Iba wdfare of Ub tubjectt 
do great credit to their ideal of Ihe ptifict Buddhist tdag. He ia 
said to have qwnt hla loog nign in tbe buBding of nirrrnin. 
bridge and canab; is Iba pnmollin oi agDOitture, boiticuluiia 
and manufactumi in the eataUiduncot ol edioola and mHiyn 
and in the mainienaiKe ol juttica iDd tbe cncooiageaenl at 
virtue. But the degree of Ui ancceat muit have been iGght. 

For after the dealt) oibiDMdf and ol hit wlvaBi 

ally decayed, and waa anbfeclcd by M 

penecutiona; aod it waa not till moi 

aflerwarda. under King Kir Song da Tita, who idgned 740-786, 

that IruerellgiDaiaadtoowlcdgedby tbeccdaiiai ' "' 

to have become Gtmly eataUisbed ia Iba land. 

Tills BiaDarch agaii • •■ 

that had been kitt, a 
them. The mat dittbguiahed oi 
were UaUt Rakabita, ~ ' ' ' 
Slla. for Bbom. and 

built a tplendid monasteiy ttill ciiitlng, t 
about three days' jou ' 

that Ihe Tlbelani a< 

:ied bn , 

ing 6Hq work*, of whidt than are two 01 
three complete seta in Europe, one of them in tha India Office 
library. A detailed analyaia of these loipturea haa been pub- 
liihed by tlie celebrated Hungarian achcjar Caoma de KtMa, 
whose aBlhodlalive work haa been repuhUaliBd in Etendi with 
complete Indices and very useful notes by U. Uon Sea. Than 
volume* "m^*^" about a dozen wgrkaof the oldest acbool of 
Buddhiaffl, the HIaaylna, ami jAoui joo wo^ nxtttly my 
tbort, beloagfng to the Tanlra aehod But Ibe great balk id 
the cidleciion comiitt ol Hali^isa boeka, betonglag 10 all 
tbe ptevioualy exitting ntietkaof tlwt widely ancnded Baddbitt 
teci: and, aa tbe Santkrii oiigiaalt el many of iheae wiUap 
lott, Iba TIbeiu uutlatiou will be of gnUvtfn^ 



4 tntly Willi ibc tlien cmpcroT af Ctiiu (ihc twtlftb of ihc Tui( 
dynutyj, k renrd of vhu:h w^ co^raved oa « atone put up in 
tbe abovc-nxDiioDed fmt convent ot La B'arij (JoLhang], 
lad h tua U be Ken there.' He ii docribtd ui Ibc chuich 
cftfonides u 4D incai utjon of the evil sp[ril, juid a said to have 
(Dccecded in uippreuinf Suddluim thioughoul the grealei part 
of the land. The period from Stong Tsan Campo down to the 
death of Laiig Daim*, who was miiidered about A.a. S50, in a 
is oiled in the Buddhist boolu " the fintinLTodi 

It w 



lury oi r 

have lived In these troublous timn, and thcii eSorli were ai 
last crowned with success, for in the century commeociDi »ith 
the rflgn of Bltam^ur in g^i there took place *' the second 
iDlroduciion of religion " into libel, more especially undct the 
fudance ol the pandit Atliha, who came to Tibet ui 1041, and 
of bis ramout native pupil and fdloKei Brum Ston. The long 
period of depreuioD leenu not to have bean witlwut a btneficial 
iofiuence on the persecuted BuddbisI church, [or these teachers 
are reported to have placed (he Tsnlra system more in the 
backgroand, ind to have adhered more strongly to the purer 
forms ol (he Mahlylna developraent oF the ancient lajih. 
, Par about three hundred yean the Buddhist church of Tibet 
•aa left m peace, subjecting the country more and mote com- 
-^ ptelely to its control, and growing 

victory, and ui 

t important cliange in 

After the reintrodjc- 

into the "luBgdoiu of snow," the 


. Its re 

t the 

country was practically rtry much in (he condition of Cei 
■( about (he same time — chieftaini of almost independent power 
ruled from their cisiles on the hUl-lops ever the (djictnt valleyi. 
engaged in petty wars, cxid conducted plundering cipedilians 
against the neighbouring tenants, whilst the great ■bheys were 
places of refuge for the studious or religious, and their heads were 
the only rivals to the barons in social slate, and in many respects 
Ibe only protecton and friends of the people. Meanwhile 
Jenghii Khtn had founded [he Mongol empire, and bii grandson 
Koblai Khan became ■ convert to the Buddhism of the Tibetan 
Limas. He granted to the abbot of ihe Sakya monasleiy in 
southern Tibet the title of tributary sovereign of the country, 
head of the Buddhist church, and overlord over the numerous 
barons and abbots, and in return was officially crowned by the 
abbot aa lulu over (he ei(enslve domain of the Mongol empire. 
Thus was the fonndadnn laid a[ one and the same time of the 
temporal sovereignty of the Llmas of Tibet, and of the suzerainty 
over Tibet of the emperors of Chhia. One of the first acts of the 
■ head of the church " was (he printing of a carefully revised 
edition of the Tibetan Scriptures — an undertaking which 
occulted sltogetber neatly thirty years and was not completed 

Under KuUai'i succesiora in China the Buddhist cause 
Hauished greatly, and Ihe SUya Llmas extended Ihclr power 
both at home and abroad. The dignity of ihbot at 53kya 
becanie hereditary, the abbots breaking so far the Buddhist 
rule ol celibacy that they remained m*nied untQ (hey had 
begotten a lOH and heir. But rather more than hall a century 
■ftemnls titit power Wu threatened by a loimidable rival 
41 home. ■ BuddMst refonncr. 

Twn^apa, the Luther of Tibet, wu bom about ijjjaathe 
■pot when the bmoua monastery of Kunbuni nov stands. He 

vety early entered the order, juid slvdied at Slkya, 
2i— Btigung and other monasteries. He then spent eighi 
•f r»M yara as a hermit in Takpo in southern Tibet, where 

the comparatively purer teaching of Adsha (referred to 
abffve) was itiU prevalent. About 1390 he appeam! as a public 
> Publiibed with (aaiinile and (ransIatioD and iwtca ui th* Jsonut 
>f «( it0)«f 4fWt SscMy (or i87»'iasa, Vol. in. 

teacher and reformer fn Lhasa, and before Us death in 1419 
theie were (hree huge mooastciies there containing jo.oco of his 
disciples, besides oiben in other parti of the country. His 
voluminous works, of which the most famous are the Sumtnin 
and the Lam Nim Tikenpo, exist in printed Tibetan copies in 
£urope, but have not yet been translated or analysed. But 
the principal lines on which his reformation proceeded ate 
lufficicnily attested. He insisitd in the first place on the 
complete carrying out of the ancient rules of the order as to the 
celibacy of its memben, and as to simplicity in dress. One 
result ol Ihe second of ihoe two tefotins was to make it Decessaiy 
for every mook openly to decbie himself either in favour of or 
ogaiosl the new vi^ws. For Tsongkapa and his foUowers wore 
the yellow or orange-coloured larmcnts which hid been Ihe 
distinguishing mark of \ht order In the lifetime of its founder, 
and in support ol the ancient ruia Tsongkapa reinstated the 
fortnightly rehearsal of the PHimcUkii or " disburdcnmenl " 
in regular assemblies of the order ai Lhasa — a practice which 
had fallen Into desuetude. He also restored the custom ol the 
first disciples to hold the iiMalled Kojja or yearly redrement, 
and the puJic meeting Of the ardetai its close. In all these 
respects he wai simply following the directions of (he Vlnaya, 
or regulations of the order, as established probably in the lime 
of CoUma himself, and as certainly handed down from iht 
earliest times in the [ntakas or sacred books. Further, he set 
Ills lace against the Tantrs ' 

e laid St 

naya, but 

h bad b 


1 altowe 


It ot Ihe 1 


Mid during the first days of 
linly mode 


id other 

■ry fifth year. Laymen i! 
(s monks take part In the proceedings, the details of which are 
unknown la us eicept from the accounts of the Catholic mission- 
aries— Fathen Hue and Cabet— who describe the principal 

high mass. In doctrine the great Tibetan teacher, who bad no 
access to the >^ Piukas, adhered in the main 10 the purer 
forms of the Mahiylna school; in questions of church govern- 
ment he look h'ttle part, and did not dispute the titular supremacy 
of the Slkya Limas. But Ih( eSecIs of his teaching weakened 
their power. The " orange-hoods," as his (ollowen were called, 
rapidly gained in numben and influence, until they so over- 
shadowed the " nd-boods," as the followers of the older sect 
were called, that in the middle of the I5tb century the emperor 
of China acknowledged the two leaden of the new sect at that 
lime as the tl(ular overlords of the church and ttihutary nilcri 
over the realm ol Tibet. These two leaders were then knawq 
as the Dalai Lima and (be Paaisktn Umo, and were the abbots 
of (he great monasteries at Gedun Dubpa, neai Lhasa, irKl at 
Tashl Lunpo, in Farther 'nbct, respectively. Since that time 
the abbots of these monasteries have continued to eierdse th« 

As then has been no further change in the doctrine, and no 
further reformation in (Ssciptine, we may leave the ecclesiastical 

eoaddei'iomeprincipalpoinlsonthtconslitotionofihe £J3^" 
LtmllaiD'Of tiwlay. And first as 10 the mode of r, iwirrnr 
Meeting ittccesian to the two Great Llmai. It will 
have beoB notked that it wis u old idea of the northern 
Buddhists to look upon dlMingoUKd memben of the order ■» 
jncamattan of AvalokiteSvara, of HiBJu-irf, or of Amrtlbhc 
Thcle bdngi wera mppoaed to possess the power, whilst they 
continued to Ihw in bMven, of appearing bn eUth in a NirmttU' 
,t4«, or apparitiooal body. In the same way tlie Pantshen Lma 
is looked upon as an incarnation, the NinnJLna-kgya, of Amittbha. 
who bad previously appeared under the outward foim oi 
Tshoakapa hlmaelf; and the Dalai Lima ii looked upon a* an 
incimatlon - of Andokltclvm. Tbeoretiolly, therefore, tha 
former, as the spiritual successor of the grut teacher and also ol 



Amiubha, who occu|ria ibit higbn t^a in tfae mytbokv]' of itu 
Cicat V(hide, Would b« tupcdoi to Ibe Iitlci, u tbc )pmtuii1 
tcprcMDUlive of AvaloklleSvaci. But pnctiaiiy the DaUi 
Lima, oving to his poutJos is the capital,' has the poHlical 
tupicmacy, and il aclualty called the Cyal^ Xiii/gfiile, " the 
glarious Lizig " — his compamon being content vith the title 
PanliluK Rinpolihe, " the glDiioui IcichK." When nthei ^ 
Ihem dies it is ncctssaty for lie other to aictrtain ia whoM body 
IhE celestial being whose oulHiid {orm has been dissolved hu 
been pleastd again to incarnate himself. For Ibit purpose the 
names of all male chililn:n bom just atiet the death of the 
deceased Gieal Lima are laid befoct his survlvoi. He chooses 
Ihiee out of the whole number; their names are Ihroim into ■ 
golden Cijkel provided for that purpose by ■ former emperor of 
China. The Chulutaus, o^ abbols of the great monasteriu, then 
usemble, and ifler a week of prayer, (he bis are drawn in their 
presence and in presence of the luiviving Great Lima and of the 
Chinese political Tesidcnt. The child whose name is Gnl drawn is 
the future Gteat Lima; the other two receive each o[ them 500 
pieces of silver. The Chuluktus just meniioned correspond iii 
many raped! to the Roman cardinals. Lilie the Great Liaai, 
(bey bear the title of Rinpotslie or Glorious, and ue looked upon 
•} incarnalions of one or other of the celestial Bodbisati ol the 
Great Vehicle mylbology. Their number varies from ten to a 
hundred; and it li uncertain whether the honour is inherent in 
(he abbacy of certain of the greatest cloisten, or whether the Dalai 
Lima exercises [he right of choosing (hem. Under these high 
officials at (he Tibelan hierarchy there come (fat Chubil Kbina, 
who m the post of abbot to the lesser monasteries, and are alto 
Incarnations. Their number is very large; there aie [ew monas- 
tcrici in Tibet or in Mongolia which do not claim to posseis one of 
these living Buddhas. Bcsicles these mystical persons there are in 
(he Tibetan church other ranks and degrees, correqionding to the 
deacon, full priest, dun ud doctor of divinity in the West. At 
the grea( yearly fcttival a( Lhasa Ihey make in the cathedral an 
tmposing amy, not much less magnificent than that of (he clergy 
in Rome; for (be ancient simplicity of drtas has disapptnrtd in 
■he growing differences of rank, and each division of the spiritual 
army it distinguished in Tibet, as in the West, by a ^)ecial 
uniform. The political authority oi the Dalai iJUna is can£ned 
(0 'Ilbe( i(self, but he Is the acknowledged head also of (lie 
Buddhist church tbionghout Mongolia and China. Hchasno 
(upremacy over his ce-rellgioaists in Japan, and even in China 
tJiere are many Buddhists who are not practically 
control or inSueacc. 

wii Jtnt*i (Berlin, 1859). See alio Bitshcll, " The Early Hijtoiy of 
Tibet." in [he/wnwJof (i. Royai Aiialic Sxirly. iB79-i8«o, voL 
dL; Saltans Setien's Hiilgry 0/ l}n Eait Meniii (in Mnonillan. 
tnnilated into German by J, SLhmidl. Cutkicklt itr Ost-Mimieiin); 
"Analyae du I^ndjur," by M. L^on Fecr, in AjtnaUt dn Mustt 
Ctimtt ((SSi); Scholt, Vtbir ten BiMhismia in Hock-Ancn: 
CuuUr, CnMiMu ia CUmiukin Jbicta; Koc and Gab«, 
Snmimn tut »>•» Jvu la TitrtUsh U TiM, A la Ckim 
U^aris, lifS): tttt^t Samm i n x i UiUnicliir Natkriikitit ahtr t^ 
UatcliiclUn VMrriJitJIni-. BUhi Saiat Chundcr Ebs's " Contti- 
bulionionihe Religlm and HiKory of Tibet." In the Jsunuf s/lJIi 
Btntal Aiialic Smitly, 1881 ; U A. Waddell, TJit BwUkism 0/ 
FiM (London. iSMf; A. H. F™«kt Hulnry 0/ Vom Tihil 
(LortdoB. 1907)1 A. Gnandcl. Uylieltptilu Bt^Usmiu in Tim 
amt dtr lIoMiM (Btii\n, 1900). (T.W.R.D.) 

UHAUU-lBS-BAtKt. a wa(triDg.fUce of southern France 
ip Ihe department ol H^rauK, sii m. W. of MontpcUiei by rail, 
in a valley ol the southern Civonneb Pop. (iQob) Tta. The 
watcn, which are bf ih hot and c«ld, arc used in cuts ol Aca- 
au(i>m, sciatica, kKomolar ataxy and nervous m4ladi«i, 

LAIU-IIUO, or DOLON-Hoa, a city of the piovince of Chih-li, 
China, iSf> m. N. ol Peking, in a bariea sandy ptain mtered by 
the UitiagDl, a tributary of the Shang-tu-fco. The lows ptopa, 
.u most exclusively occupied by Cbineie, ia about a mile in loiglh 
Bubriijitlal and hoRorlcal 
s el ManA IqiD, when [he 
: ia India, andol loutj when 
od the Dalai LlmaSed U 

lall a mile in breadth, bos narrow and dirty street*, uid cod- 

s a population of about 26,000. VnliLc the ordinary Chinese 

n of the same rank, it is not walled. A busy trade is carried 

>elwecn the Chinese and (he Mongolians, who bring In IhciT 

le, sheep, camels, hides and wool to barter for tea, tobacco, 

on and silk. At some distance from (be Chituse town lies the 

jgolian quarter, with two 'groups of lama temples ftnd villages 

ipied by about ijoo priests. Dr Williamson (/ounuyi lit 

Hifli Ciina, iS;o] described (he chief temple as a huge abk>ng 

luildlng with an Interior not unlike a Gothic church. Lama- 

oiao is the seat of a manulacloiy of hionie idols asd other 

Jticlcs of ritual, which find thcii way to all parts ol Uongolia 

Jid TibeU The craftsmen work in their own houses. 

Imeiicao statesman and judge, was bom at the old " Lamat 
Homestead," in IHitnam coupty, Geor^, on tie ijth oS 
er iSij. His father, Lucius SJ. C. Lamar (iiqt-iBm), 
ible lawyer, a judge of the si^tior caun of Georgia, 
and the compiler of the Law$ d/ Gartia Jrtm iSio la iSig 
(iSii). In 1845 young Lsmar graduated from Emoiy College 
(Oxford, Ga,), and in 1S41 was admltled Ig the bar. In 
1S49 he rerwved to Oxford, Uitsissippi, and in 1850-1851 
Kas adjunct professor ol mathematics in (he stau unt- 
/ersiiy. In iSji he removed to Covington, Ca-, to practise 
law, and in iSfj was elected a member of Ihe (Georgia House <4 
Representatives. In 1SJ5 he returned to Miasissiupi, and two 
yeara later became a member ol the National House of Bepre- 
sen(allves, where he served until December iMo, when he with- 
drew to become a candidate for election to the " iccfalon " 
convention ol Mississippi. He was elected to the cooventioB.and 

summer of iS6a be had accepted an appointment to the d. 

ethics and metaphyiics in the university of Mississippi, but. 

Army in the spring of 1861, be resigned his professorship. The 
coloBfl of his regiment (Nineleentb Mississipja) was killed early 
in the battle of Williamsburg, on the sth of May iB6j, and the 
command then fell to Lamar, hut in October he resigned from 
tlie army. In November 1S61 be was appointed by Proidenl 
Jeflerson Davis spcdal comioissioQer of the Confederaty tO 
Russia; but ie did not ptnceed farther tbau Paris, and his 
mission was soon terminated by the tefusat of the ConfedtTxte 

appointed to the cbait of ethics and metaphysics in the uni' 
vtrsily of Mississippi, and in the neityear was trajufened to the 
Chair ol law, hut, in 1870. Republicans having become trustees 
of the university upon the rcadmiiuoa ol the sUte bito the 
Union, he rcagned. From 187^ lo 187J he was again a Demo- 
cratic representative in Congress; from 1S77 to iSg; he was a 
United Suies senator; from 1SS5 to January iSSS be was 
secretary of tlie inlcrioii and from i83S until his death at 
Macon, Ga., 00 the ijrd of January iB«j, he wu aaasiodalc 
Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Statf*. In Congress 
Lamar fOught the silver and greenback craie and argued (brdbly 
against the protective tariff; in the department of the interior 
he introduced various lelqnns; and on the Snpmne Court 
inioi) in the Neaile Cati (based vfian • 
wen bdonging to Congress, but oM 
jlication vesl^ in the department ol 
perhaps best known for the part he 

. In Ite 

bench hi 

denial that certain 
eierdsed, were by 
iuslice) b bmous. '. 

look after the Civil War in'hclping to efTecl a recnndliatioB 
between the North and the South. During the nrlysecaxko 
movement he strove to arouse the while people of (be South 
from their IndiSerenca, dedapng that secession akiae could aavs 
them from a doom simitar to thai of ibt fonner wblui ti Sao 
Domingo. He probably never changed hii convictions as lo (he 
righteousness of (he " los( cause "; but he accepted (he reidl 
of (he war as a final se[tlement of IhediSertnces leading lo il, and 
strove to restore the Sou th in th« Union, and to efltct the reunion 
oE the nation in feeling as well as in gnvcrnmcnL This ia in jMit 
seen from such speeches as bis eukigy on Charles Sumner (iTth 
of April 1874). Us ladersUp in reorgaafaug the DeiBDciMic 



pcaidcntial nnuua ai m 

Sc* Edwinl Mjiyo, -Luc 
SfHciu (NaAviUe. Tciu^ 

■ONEL CbevjUJEE is Isji^iSigl, FrocIi nalunlist, wu 
bom oa Ibt lat ol August i;mi 't Buui(iii, i vilbpi of Piciidy. 
He wai an clcvcnUi child^ Bod lua tvUicE, lord of ihc manor and 
of old lunSy, but ol linuled meins, kiving placed three lont 
ia IbeaEiiur.doliiwItbiaODifortlieciiuichiandieDl bim toihe 
Jciuili U Amieni, tihen be omtiaued till hii fathcHa death. 
Mier tbi) be would remain witb tbe Jcsuila no loDier, and, aal 
yel Kventecn yean o{ itie, itiited (oi tbe HBI ol war aj Birgen- 
op-ZcoDi, bcfoie ubicb place ooe oI bii bmlbets bad alieidy 
bixQ ijlled. Mounted on as old bDne, nitb a boy from the 
viilage aa atlendant. and fiiintihed by a Udy vitb a letter ot 
uiinxtuclioB to a colonet, Ik reached bii deutuatioa on the 
eveniag bclore a batik. Next mamizii the coloael lound that 
ttie new and very dinunutivft volunteer had posted himself in 
iheffont ranltof abody 9f grenadien, and could not be induced 
to quit tlie position. In the bailie, the company nhicb tie bad 
joined became eapwd io the £ie of the enemy'i arliUecy, and 
in the confusion ol relreat was (oigotten. AH the oSccn and 
subal terns were killed, and not more than fourteen men weit lefl. 
when the nldat grenadicn iceing there were no more Frcocti 

niindani to witbdraH his men. This he refused to do •rithout 
«ders. Thcae at last arrived; and far his bravery he iras made 
an olTicet on the spot, and soon af ler was named to a lieutenancy. 
AFter the peace, Uie regiment was sent 10 Moiuco. There 
oneolhisconiiadcsplayfullylitiedhimby Ibehcad, and to this 
ii was imputed Ihsl hewasKiud wiihdiseaMof the glands of the 
Deck, so severe as to put i stop lo bil miUtaTy career. He went 

Torking in a banker's office Be early became intercsied in 
meteorology and in physical and chemical speculattani of > 
cbimciicat kind, but happily thtcw his main itrei«ih into 
botany, and in i;;S published bit Fhri frantai't, ■ work in 
which by a djcbolomous system of contrasting characters he 
enabled the student with facility lo deleimlae iptnia. This 
work, which went thioughstveial editionsand long kepi the Bcld, 
gained for ila aulhor immediate populuiiy ai well as admission 
IA the Academy ol Sciences. 

Tn i7Sr fnd i;8i, under tbe title of botanist to the king, an 
appointment obtained for hiiiiby GuB'on, whose son accompanied 
him, he t ravelled thiaugb v^iiou) couniriei of Europe, eitending 
bis knowledge ^f natural hisloiy; and on hii return he began 
those etaborale contributions to bolany on which his reputatjon 
in that science principally rests, namely, the Diclisrmain it 
BiU-mat and the mmh<aiQ»ii it Cc«ra, voluminous works 
ronlribuled lo Ihe Encyda^it Wlliadiqut (1785). In 1793, in 



le Jardin du Rol, where he bad held a botanical 
appointment since 1788, Ijmatck was presenied lo a zoological 
chair, and called on to lecture oa the IhucIo and Vcrmii el 

urleirala. Thua driven, comparatively late In life, to devote his 
principal aiLention lo aoology instead of bolany, he had the 
misfoilune soon after lo luflet from impaired viiion: and the 
malady resulled ' subiequenlly in total blindnct). Yet bis 
greatest loclof^cal work, the Hitlolre noturelle in animaui 
jsRi vtrllirii. was pubh'shed from 181s to 1811, with the 
assistance, in the last two volumes, of hii eldest daughter and 
of P. A. Latrenle (ijfi-iSa). A volume of plates of (he loisil 
shells of the neighbourhood (d Paris was collected in i8y from 
bis memoira in the Annala HsUiuliim. He died On tbe iSlh 
of December i8}(i. 

The cbaraclct ol Lamarck as > nMuraliai is remaitaUe alike 
for its eicellencei and lis dtlcctt. His eicellences were width 
of scope, lertilily of ideas and a pre-eminent faculty of precise 
description, arising not only from a singularly terse style, but 
from * deal insight into bolb (be dislinctive (catuics and the 

- I lOI 

lOembUneeaof fonns. Tliat part af his loological wodi which 
CDuilitutct his solid claim to tbe highest honour as a zoclogist 
is to be found in hii eitertive inil detailed labours in ihe depart- 
ments ol living and fDuQ Iiorrlibraia. His endeavours at 
dasailicatiou of the great group* were aecesiaiily defective on 
accouot of the imperfect knowledge possessed in his time in 
regard to many of ihem, e.t- echinodeims, ascidiani apd in- 
testinal worms; yet they are not without iaterest, parttcuUrly 
on account of the comprebeosive attempt to unite in one great 
division as Arliaiialii all those groups that appeared to present 
a segmented construction. Moreover, Lamarck was the £nt 
to distinguish vertebrate from invertebrate animals by tho 
presence of a vertebral column, and among Ihe Inveitehrata 
to found the groups CnuUia, AraiiHida and Aimtliia, In 
ijS; lUiit, itt'Aeai.) be Evinced his apprecialion of the necessity 
of natural orders in bolany by an attempt at Ihe classihcation 
of plants, interesting, though etude and falling immeasurably 
short of the sysleu which grew in the hand* of h-- -------- 

re phUosophicaQy tb 

subsequently put 


nable (a 

Tbe I 

il defect in Lami 

Bis -inn 

rvation, and led bim 
LS chemistry without 
Ualiroiotiqiu) were 

be admitted to 
Do u btlcss the apecula- 
tive tendency furnished ' ' ' . . . - 

outran the legitimate ded 
into the production of vr 
npeiimentsl basis, as wel 
meteorological prediction: 
publitbed yearly from iS . 

until alter an unneeetiarily public and brulal tirade from 
Napoleon, administered 00 the occasion of being presented 
arith ooe of bis works on nalural history. 

To the general reader the name of Lamarck is chiefly interesting 
on account of bit (beoiy of tbe origin of life and of ihe diversitiei 
of animal forms. The Idea, which appears lo have been lavoured 
by Buflon before him, thai species were not through all time 
unalienble, and that the more complex might have been 
developed from pre-erisient simpler forms, became with Lamarck 
a belief or, as he imagined, .... 

might be easily co 

tived ai 

ity causing in small 
gelalinous bodies an ulriculat structure, and inducinga " lingulai 
tension," a kind of " irtlhisme " or " otgasmc "; >nd, having 
Ibus accounted for Ihe fint appearance of life, he eiplained 
Ihe whole orgaaicalion of animals and formation at diSeient 

_. .-._ Jt is conierved 
individuals whkh proceed 

, Tbe second law UoIIen itfcirod toasLamircli'shypolhesisof 
tbe evolution ol oigans In animals by appetence or longing 
allliough be does not teach that the animal'i deaires aSeci iii 
cooformation directly, but that altered wanta lead to altered 
habits, which result in (be lonnation of new organs as well at 
in modification, growth or dwindling of those previoudy eiiiling: 
Thus, he suggests that, ruminanls being pursued by carnixori, 
Ihcir legs have grown slender; and, then lep being only fit 
for support, while their jaws are weak, they have made atlact 
with the crown of the head, and tbe deiermlnation of iluidt 
thither has led to Ihe growth of. horns. So alio the ttKtchlng 
oTlbg giiaSe'i neck lo retch the Mage he luppowi la have led 



to iu doogitloD; aod tbc kansMoo. gittlng uprithl to luppdrt 
the younj [n Its poach, bt imigints Co have hkd tu foK-Umbi 
dwarfed by disux, uit! [ti biod trp lad Uil eusgented by 
nsing ibem b leaping. Tbc lourlh law eipnaa the iuheHtince 
of acquired chancten, which is denied by Auguil Welsmana 
and hii foUowen. For a more detaiJed account ol Lainittk's 
place in the history of the doctrine o[ evoluiion, lec EvoLinlDK. 
U MARaUERITA, CLEMEim MLARO, Comn del (i7gi' 
i36«). Piedmontese statesmin, was bom at Uondovl. He studied 

he iefiii«d to talce his degree, as tJils ptDceeding would have 
obliged him to recogniie the authority of the usurper; gller the 

In 181I! be entered the dipbmatic service. Later he returned 
(0 TVrio, Mid succeeded in gifning the confidence and esteem 
of King Charles Albert, who In iSj; appointed him minister of 
foreign affairs. A Fervent Roman Catholic, devoted to the pope 
and to the Jestdii, friendly to Austria and firmly attached to 
the principles of autocracy, he strongly opposed every attempt 
at political Innovation, and was in consequence bitterly hated 
by the liberals. When the popular a^tiiion In favour of con- 
atitulional rrfonn first broke out the king felt obliged to dispense 
within Margherifa'a service, although he had conducted public 
alTaira with considerable ability and absolute loyalty, even 
upholding the dignity of the kingdom in the face ol iht arrogant 
altitude of the cabinet of Vienna. He expounded bis potiilcal 
creed and his policy as mbistet to Cbarics Albert (Itnia February 
i8jj to October 184;) in his Utrntren^KM timet-fiiilice, 
published in iS;i, a ducumenl of great [niereil lor the study of 
the conditions of ncdmosl and Italy at (bat lime. In iSsj he 
was elected deputy lor San Quirico, but he persisted in reguding 
his maodate as derived from the royal authority lather thaa 
as so emanation of the popular nill. M leader of the Clerical 
Right in the parliament he strongly opposed Cavour's policy, 
which was eventually to lead to Italian unity, and on the alab- 
lishment ol the kingdom of Italy he retired f™n public life. 

U MARMORA. ALTOHSO FBRRERO (t8o4-i878), Italian 
general and sleinmin, was bom al Turin ori the iSlb ol 
November 1804. He entered the Sardinian army In j8i],and 
was a csplaiu in March iS^S, when be gained distinction and 
Iherankof majorat thesiegeol Pochiera. On the sth of Auguit 
1848 he liberated Cfaailo Albert, king of Sardinia, from the 
Milan revoluiianarics, and ia October was pmnotcd geoeral 
and appointed minUtet of war. Alter luppreslng the revolt ol 
Genoa in 1S4Q, he again assumed In November 1S49 the portlolio 
of war, which, save during the period of his comitiiad of the 
Crimean eipedition, he retained until i8s9. Having recon- 
structed Ibe Fiedmonteie army, be took part In the war of iSs9 
agalnM Austria; and <B July of that year succxeded Camur in 
the premlenhip. In 1860 he was xnt to Berlin and St Peten- 
buii to arrange for the rec«goiliaa ol the kingdom of Italy, 
and iBbaequtnlly be held Ibe offices of governor of Milan and 
royal ttcuieoant at Naples, until, in September 1864, he succeeded 
Mioghelti as piemier. In tbis capacity he modififd the scope 
ol the September Convention by a oote in which be ctaiined 
loi Italy lull freedom of acliou in tested d natioital aipiraliooa 
to the possession of Rome, a documeDI of which Viscontf Vennta 
afterwards took (dtaauge When juuliying the Italian occupation 
ol Rome in iS;a; In April iSi6 La Marmora concluded an 
alliance with Prussia ag;dnst Austria, and, on the outbreak of 
war in JunC; took command of an anny corps, but was defeated 
al Cuslouaontheijtdof June. Accused of treason by his fellow. 
countrymen, and of duplicity by the Prussians, he eventually 
pubtiihed is defence of his tactics (iS;}) a series of documents 
entitled U<i pa' fii ii lua niili aeali delP snu 1S6S [More 
light on the events ol i86fi] a step wbicb Caused trritation in 
permany. and eipoied him to the charge of having violated 
Kate secrets. Meanwhile be had been sent to Paris In 1H7 to 
oppose Ihe French eapedjtion to Rome, and in 1S70, alter the 
oCcupaLion of Rome by the Italiani, hid been appointed lieu- 
lenaal-royal of the new capital He died at Fhrence omfae jih 

of January 1878. la MaMnora'a wrAlnp Include ITk ifbiib 
id riitfiimenlt ilaiiaiia (Florence, 187J); and / updi it 
tiale nd tnma cnaltiiatffiaie (Floreiice, rgjy). 

Sec G. Mamni. A fneroJe jlffMie JD< tf«iiuni {Hikn, i8t0). 

(1790-1869). French port, btttottan and Etatesotan, was bom at 
Mlcon on the iiit ol October 1790, Tbe order of his sumainci 
is a controversial mallet, aod ihey are sometimes rrveticd. 
The family of Lamarttne was good, and the title of Prat wai 
taken from an estate in Franche Comlf. His father was im- 
prisoned during the Terror, and only released owing lo the evenii 
of ibeqlb Thetmidor. Ijimartine's early education was te<:C.'vcd 
from his mother. He was sent to sd»al at Lyons in 180s, but 
not being happy thetr was transferred to the care ol Ibe fiia de 
la Fol at Belley, where he remained until 1809. For some lime 
afterwards he lived at home, reading romantic and poetical 
literature, but in iSii he set out for Italy, where he seems to 
have sojourned nearly two years. Rb family having been steady 
royalists, he entered the Gardes du corps at the return ol tbe 
Bourbons, and during the Hundred Days he sought refuge first in 
Switierland and then at Aii-en-Savoie, where he fell in bve, with 
abundant results of the poetical kind. After Waterloo he re- 
turned to Paris. In iSitt-iStg he revisited Switierland, Savoy 
and Italy, the death of his beloved afiording him new mhjecta 
for verse. After some difficulties he had faia first book, the 
Mtditotimi, faiti^ua tt nUgituiit, published t:8>o). It arai 
eiceediogly popular, and helped bim to make a position. He 
had left the army for some lime; he now entered the diplomatic 
service and was appointed secretary 10 the embauy at Naples. 
On his way lo his post he manied, ia iSij, at Geneva a young 
English lady, Marianne Rirch, who bad both money and beauty, 
and in the same year his N madia mUilalimi patii^iia appearnL 

In iS>4 he was transferred to Florence, where be remained fiv« 
yewi. His Lail CaiU tj CkiUe HartU appeared in 1815. and 
he had to fight a duel (la which be waa wounded) with an Italian 
ofiicer. Colonel Pepe, In consequence of a phrase in it. Charles X., 
on whoK coronation be wrote a poen^ gave him the order of tbe 
Legion of Honour. The Harmmiii peUbpui it rtHtumti 
appeared In 1819, when he had left Florence. Hanng refused 
an sppomtment in Paris under the Potlgnac minisiry, he went on 
a special mission to Prince Leopold of Saie-Coburg. lo the sajne 
year be was elected to the Academy. Lamartioe was inSwfiier- 
land, net In Paris, at the time of the Revolution of July, and, 
though ' he put Forth a pamphlet on " Raljonal Policy," he 
■ '■ ' part in politics, refusing. 

It that crisis take 1 

id daughter For 

s diplom 

Palestine, having been unsuccessful in L ,„ 

in the chibibet. Hii daughtfr JuCa died at Beirut, and befoie 
long he received the news of his election by a constituency 
(Beigoes) In the department of the Nord. He relumed through 
Turkey and Germany, and made hia Gist speech shortly alter 
the beginning of 1834. Thereafter he spoke constantly, and 
acquired considerable reputation as an orator, — hrin^g out, 
moreover, many books in proic and verse. His Eastern iraveli 
IVayatt ai OnaiC) appeared In 1835, his CkuU fmt anp and 
Joctlyn in i8j7, and his RtLiuaicmnU, the last remarkable 
vijume ol his poetry. In 18J9. As the reign ol Louli Philippe 
went on, Lamarilne, who had previously been a liberal royalist, 
somethiog alter the Fashion of Chateauljriand, became more and 
more democratic In Tiis opinions. He set about bis greatest 
pToee work, the Hittoin dts Girondirts, which al first appeared 
periodically, and was published as a whole In 1847. Like many 
other French histories. It was a pamphlet as well as a chronicle, 
and the subject* of Lamartioe^ pen' became lui models in 

At the revolution of February Lamarilne was one of Ihe first 
to declare for a provisional government^ and became a member 
of It, with tbe poll of minister for foreign aflairi. Hewaielecled 
for Ibe new constituent assembly In ten difTercnt department!, 
and was chosen one of the five members of the Eieeuiive Com- 
mJitee- For a few months Indeed LamaHine, from being a 


IB oC iMUn, ut «fid«l of uftrinr i*nk in 4i>^ 

veakEDHl thtgi 

bRwne DM dI tba ImcdcW 
b Ihti raatiM work ol jnn a w m t, tbc attcrijr utmctiut 
UIUR of ha coBaciK*. ud Ihe luibokoct cf the PuUu ■»!), 
ptovol Md lo Ui ctaiKt*. He gav* tome prntb ol 
like •bOity.ud bii*la4u*Dce wu RpeiUdly cdkd ii 
lion M padfj' tbe Puldaa*. But m one ckd pcnuiwBilr 
c*ny on the (•varnoMnt <d > gnu cotintry b)' ipwclu* Itaai ihe 
halawjt of a bouM ia lb> e^Ial, and l^muiiiM fouid hioHcU 
a dae mM a. So long b he hcU ahxrf Inm Ledra-RoUin asd 

~ 1(110, the dlfoBioB Rxili' 

IB w he effected aa apiaolii 
LWD ID mem ue huoih ciuki feU off Fna Udi. TIm qudi 
of the iwmnctioB of the ijth of Uajr na Ua bit utam 
icU A aNDlb hler the icoewai ol active diuiubancca fanughl 
on the fiffatioB of Juae, asd I^aiatliM'i ladoMici mw euin- 
■■mbediafavoarolCavaiiaae. lIotiovei.hiachumalEeiMweil 
political pre-emiDeiKe waa fane. He had b«a ttfed aod ~ 
■anting, havinf aritbet the vInaB not the vine of 1^ (ilu 
In JaaaaiT tS49.>hough he «■■ aomiaaud (ot ihe pnii 
only a lew thoinanJ wdIb were given Lo htm, ind three 
fDonihi later he «B Bot even elected to the Lefialalivc 

The lenuiningitofy of Lamuiinc'a life ii wme»hat metiBcfaoly . 
tfa had Deverbecna rich nan, Dor had he beeniuvingOBe.and 
duriag liii period □( populuily end office he had iKiund great 
ptpcima, He no* tei to mrk to itpatr hii loiianebi' uo' 
rei^Uing liltniy labour. He brought oui in ihtPraii (iSm) ■ 
aerita of CemHtwfn. and eomewhat later ■ kind of aotobkignphy, 
entitled SafiaiL He *ib(e levetal hiiioncal nrki af more or 
kM inpottancc, the Hisltry i>/ Ai Ratla^m 0/ iS^, Tkt 
Hitltrj ^ Ikt Ratwalin, Ilu Hitlary ^ Tvkty, Tin Hiiltry 
9f Kmsbo, benda a Urge niunber of email biographical and 
■t«cellin«on» mrka. In iSjS a lubtcription wu opened for 
hii bcacfiL Two Tcan afterward!, (oUowtng the tuu»;de ol 
Chateaubriand, be auperriMd an elabonle cdltioB oi hii own 
woika in lortr^iia volumei. TMaocmpM five yean, and wfaile 
he ma engaged on it hit wile died (iSij). He wu now over 
(eventjr; Ui poven hwl dBertad Um, and even if ihey had not 
the pubUc taMe had eitiieljF changed. Hii effoiu had not 
incceeded in pkctng bio in ■ position of independence; and at 
lut.in tS67, thegoveiDDentof the Empire (Inm whichhehad 
pctfone ttood alool, though he never comideted it necenuy to 
adopt the active protaliog atlilude of Edgar Qiiinet and Victor 
Hugo) cane lo bii aaiinance, a vole of £»,ooo beuig pnpowd 
in April of that yat lot hii benefit by Einile Olliviet. Thii wit 
creditable to both partia. lor LamarLine, both u a distinguiihed 

10 the [ 

' of his I 



tor miky man, who wu not prepared and abU 

covld hardly have guided the thip of stale uiely even in much 

ol hit character heHia vanity and an incurabie teiulcncy towardi 
t hcairica] elleet. which mahet Irit travel*, menHinand other pertonal 
rtcordi a* well am hie hiitoriciJ worki radically untruKwonhy. Nor 
don it appear Ihal he had any letibd peliiicil ideal. He dM 
by modcratine the levoletioiiaTY end dcelniclive 
PirMin popukce in iS^S^but behidbeenpniiipi- 
than aay other lingle penon for briogif ' "'" ~ ~^ 

, >. , l„ibY upqbli 


drpanmcnaol iSkt 

literary Reld, at leu 

«■ wae eopiething of a elaiiiciad had wn (fl 


^ -_._._ne(Knelfr'*heee«pl*MlMi:tholibi 

Rooianiie reidval. hot he weal fai In thai direetoa. He avaiM 
hinudl ol the letnuiiia InereH u legiiimiM im] Catholidn which 
WB itpNieaMd by Bonald aad hSeph de MaLme, of (ha natui* 
wonhiB gf Roumu aad Bamaidin de Saint Picna. of the muU 
meanBun of Madame de Soil, of the mtdievaliKn and the ronince 
of Chaieaubriaod and Scott, of the moladi* da tiHtr of Oureaubriind 
andSynn. PeThapiil hiimitierbe vcrycloKly ainlyied it wiHbe 
feand that he added hardly anyihinc of hii own. But il the parli ol 
the lainurt were lihe other ihiagt •*" ",:.'.,— ■• — •• — ~~ i> 
•ecoted indeed u tin imniediaie gen 

ha> it thai the ifMiloluiiii wen ref< 

were in none of the accepted nylet. They, 

'hftnt he had vi: 

I entirely conpenuted by Ihi 


lac, dcecfibiofliia nlnrn to 
'— ■'.. dath ol hli miilieei, 

— • "Tie- ■■ - 


■^ ihnu"aMl 
ily thai hh 


d enjrwhcfe in worL of equal bulk by 
ontain nothii^ but medjuilve lyriisl 

., itiyracaloflhewt-'- -^- -^ -"^ — -- 

wiideiable varatlon ol merii. The ti 

hinted (hu' 
worthy: with rnird 

very Irequently, __ _. ,., 

•/ 5e>U->*i'>U.,Creai(ill<i &0. beie 

]| ifl not Burprifliig wl 
re appreciated to lind 1 
I Fiance. Ai a poet h 
e dcd. He wu eatii 

hiitoriet ti.. 

ird (o hi* Eaitem travel! it.— „ ,— ,,- 

In hli hiuotia proper the 
pan, but the hahU ol in- 
bekHijn ekduiivdy lo tbc 
Jtr phuoeophical on the one 


vene ■ bilk lew nntlqiuted llian thai of 
r. HihubeenHidlobeaFrenchCowpei 

and vigoToui 
ir headT HI. 

il In laagiuie 
lilt and Hilit- 

ind of hi> relniive podtkm lo th 

itallhew Arnold 

"vduiion ™niiica: a'j^'oilier"ia.?e'. i"e DbMv'l'Dn'r. 
IDlitical unpDpularily. and above all the reictfon age' 
;he emrame ftonnnlica, harve bcea the main locnti 
nartJne hai been eatoUid u a p»tcra ol cunbinn 
lettiaint.uamodclof nobility or sentiment- aad 11 a 
3ure French claaiciim in 'lute and enpre^on with m 
ihebRierpinoIKamaiitlciHnitielf. ThrwoKlllatI 
ir- frequent, il net oaivenal.aad il iaooly after o/ttr 1. 

one of Laiuniae. hut 

- . Alter hii dMIh lortie 

111 youth were publiihed. and also 

of Lfllrii 10 him. The change of vif« aSniw IV- 

(irrcd 10 may henudied in the d«— ■■-' — '-" — ' '" 


bere are maay in a ee of hit Kparate worl 
oemi md ithmrn inUiu Of hi> youth 

idanielnal MM. BcuttUn. 


FifiRt, I«(»)IR, Ac, and In lb 

, , uttw mtk of Ch. de 

. rUxi (ig)g)i B. DnchKiid. Lamaruiu (1B93I1 

E. Zynmld, Luumw (1696)! »nd ptrhtpi ' " ' " 
Ptt6ia to Emik LwKiia' Ct*™™*™" " * "— "*■''" 

Cbrendon Pm cdiiiaii •>( /ocidya (i»o6). 

(G. S 

UHB. CH&ELBS (117S-1S34), Eseliih csuyisl ud 
mi bora in Crown OScc Row, Inns Ttmple, LoocIdd, 
lOlh o( Februwy 177J. His fiiher, Ji ' ' 
mBD, wbo fille] tbe cituatian ol ctcik *na Kivani-a>mpanu>a 
to SuDuct Salt, 1 member o[ puliaratnt ftnd one ol ihc bcnchen 
ol Oac Insu Tunple, wu auutarful In abtainiui far Chirln, 
the youngest of tbret lorviving ctaildrcn, • praeniiiion to 
GirisL'i Hospital, wheie the boy remained from hia eighth to 
his Mlceoth year (1781-1789). Here he bad for a acboblfeUow 
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, his senior l>y lather mon than two 
yean, and a close and tender friendihip begu which luted lor 
(he rest of the lives of both. When the time came for leaving 
•chool, where h« had kaiMd some Greek and acquired consider- 
able (acUity in Latin mmpoution, Lamb, alter a brief stay at 
home (prDbably spent, as his school holidiys had often bevn, 
over old En^h authors fn Salt's library) was rondeinned to the 
labours of the desk — " an inconquerahie impediment " in his 
speech disqualilying him (or the cledcal proletaion, which, as 
the school eihihilions were usually only given (o those preparing 
[or the church, thus deprived him o( the only means by which 
be could have obtained a ujiiversily education. For a short 
time be was is the office o( Joseph Paice, k London tneichani, 
and then for tmnty-lhin ireeks, until the Sih ol Febtugry 1791, 
be held a small pait in the Examiner's Ollice of the South Sea 
House, where his brother John was established, a period which, 
although his age was but sixteen, was to provide him nearly 
thirty yean later with maleiiala for the first of the Eisayt of 
Blia. On the 5lh of April 1791, be entered the Accountant's 
OKce in the East India House, where during the ncil three and 
thirty years the hundred ofBdai lolioa of what he used to caU 
lus (rue " works " were produced. 

Of the years i79j-t;9S *e know little. At the end of i;m 
he uw much of Coleridge and joined bim in writing sonnets in 
tbe Ittrnuii Put, addmsed to eminent penonsi early in 
■795 he met Souibey aod was much in the company of James 
While, whom he probably helped in the composition of the 
Oripnal Loieri e/ Sir Jokn Falilajl; and al the end of the year 
' ' ' ■ al mentally 

tmsuccessful love a! 


The □ 

bable. w 

le Hetifordshire 
Liden to whom his first sonnets are addressed, whom he would 
ve seen when aa hii visits as a youth to Blakcsware House, 
■r Widford, (he country home of the Plumer faaiily, of which 
Lamb's grandmother, Mary Field, laa for many years, nntil 

1 i7g3, sole cuslodi: 
It was in the late summet 1 
came upon the Lambs, whic 
prospects in the very moitiingol li 
his li " *■ ' 


idol September 

at night," was suddenly se 
Slabbed her mother 1 

:dlework by day and to her mother 
iied vrith acute mania. In which she 
le heart. The calm stJI-maslery and 

eicilible, nervous and seli-mistrusllul, displayed at this crius 
ID his own history and in that ol those nearest him, will ever 
give him an imperishable claim to the levermce and alleciion of 
all who are capable of appreciating the heroisms of common 
life. With the help ol friends he succeeded in obtaining hit 
sister's release from the bfe-kmg restraint to which she would 
otherwise have been doomed, on the express condition Ihst he 
himself should undertake the responsibility for her safe keeping- 
It proved no light charge: for though no one was capable ol 
aHording a more intelligent or aflectionale cooipanionihip than 
Maiy Lamb during her periods o! health, there was ever present 
the apprehension of the recurrence of her malady; and when 
icom time to time the piemonilory symptoms had became 
unoiiatakable, then wa* Do alternative but ber nnuvaj whkh 

look piles In quJelnesa and te 
of Lamb's domestic life must 

I. How deeply the wbtaleeOUTW 

Lve been af ected by hia angnUiT 
be pointed out. 

of tbe great tragedy of hi* life ( 1 796), when there wen published 
in the volume ol Peemi en Varitvs SMbjtcti by Oolctidge foiu 
sonnets by " Mr Chaik* Lamb of the Jndia House." In the 
(oltowing year be oomnbuied, with Ch*rles Lloyd, a papil of 
Coleridge, some ^eca In btank verse to the second edition of 
Coleridge's Paau. In 1797 his short summer holiday was 
^nt with C^eridge at Nether Stowey, where he met tlw 
Wordsworlhs, William and Dorothy, and cslahlialied a friendship 
with bothwhich only bis own death leiminaied. IB1798, vnder 
the inltuencE ol Henry Mackenaie'i novel Jidii it Jtankift, 
he published a short and pathetic prose laic entitled Btatmnnd 
Gray, in urtiich It is passible to trace beneotli disguiied coDdiiioBi 
rtferencn to the misfortune* ol tbe author's own family, and 
many personal touches; and in the same year he Joined Uovd 
in 1 vdume of Blent Verse, to which Lamb contrihuicd poena 
occasioned by tbedeatiiol Ids mother and bis auu Sarah Lamb. 
among them being his best-known lyric, "The Old Familiar 
Faces." In this year, 1 798. be achieved the uoexpected publicity 
of an aUack by the Aiai^acBiln upon him n an (Kociate of 
Coleridge and Soulhey (Lo whose Amiiiel /nttcfpfy be had 
contribuied) in their Jacobin machituEions. In 1799, on the 
death cf her father, Mary l^mb came to live again *hh her 
brolher, their home then being in Pentonville) Init it was run 
until iSaolhaliheytcallysetllodlogethcr. their lirsl independent 
joint home being al Mitre 0>urt Buildings in the Temple, vkere 
they Und until iSoq. At the end ol i£or. or beginning of iSoa, 
appeared Lamb's first play Jain ifiuMf. on which he set great 
store, a slight dramatic piece written in the style ol tbe eiriier 
Eliaaliethan period and conuining some gentiine poeiiy and 
hippy delineation of the gentler emolians, but as ■ whole 
deActent in plot, vigour and character, it was held up to ridicule 
by the Eiinburtli Retiof as a specimen of the ni3esi condiiioa 
of the drama, a work by " a man of the age ol Thetina." The 
dnmatic spirit, however, was not thus ennly quenched in Lamb, 

and his nest eflorl was a larce, Ur H , the point ol which lay 

in the hero's anxiety to conctal his name ~ Ko^esh "; but 
it did not survive the first night of its appearance at Diury 
Lane, in December 1B06. Its aathor bott the Isilare with rate 
equanimity and good humour — even to joining in the hissing — 
and soon struck into new and more succcssfut fields ol Kieiary 
exertion. Bdore, however, pasting to these it ehould be men- 
tioned that hetnade various efforts to cam money by journalism, 
partly by humorous articles, partly aa dramatic ctilic, but 
chiefly as a coniTibuioroCsamsiicorfunny paragraphs, "sparing 
neKher man nor woman," in the iTgraiiii Pail, principally in 

In i9o7 appeared Tola /mmWetf tn (At PIcyi ef Sliahifttre, 
written by Charles and Mary Lamb, in which Charlei was 
responsible for the tragedies and Mary for-ihe comedies^ and 
in iSog, Spaimaii cj EntliiM Dnmelk Pttli who Ihri abctil 
Ihi Unu a! Skakesptan, with short but lellcitous critical notes. 
It was this work which laid the foundation ol Lamb's tcpulallon 
as a critic, lor it was filled with imaginaiivt understanding ol 
the old playwrights, and a warm, discerning and navH apprecia- 
tion of their great merits. In the same year, i«og, llafy Lamb, 
assisted by her brother, published Potiry lo CUlircn, and a 
collection ol short school-girl tales under the title Uri 
Likaltr'i School: and to the same date belongs r*f Aiwiilam 
0/ Ulyius, designed by Lamb u a companion 10 7"*f ^ifrfnliirei 
a/ TilinaikHs. In iSio began to appear Leigh Hunt's quarteriy 
periodical, 7*e Hrfiniar. in which Lamb published much (hidud. 
ing the line essays on the tragedies of Shakespeare and on 
Hogarth) thai subsequently appeared in the first collective 
edition ol hii Warku which he put lorlh in 1S1B. 

Between iSii.when TAe Xejfecf >r ceased, and iSia,heHrotc 
almost nothing. In these years we may imagine him al bis 
most social period, playing much whist and enlcrlaining his 
friends on Wednesday m Thuriday nighut ni»a>)|i)c v*hciu« 


U othen, whldi UaiUtt, ntao waJ u one time one at Umb's 
dcBC3tf[UDdi,hudancHmuchu>cdcbiale. Wbenin iSiSiii- 
pemd Uk R'irti in two valumo, it luay be tlui Lamb cDosidcml 
bii literary cBicer over. BtSoit comioc to 1E20, and an event 
■hkit was in rtajiiy to be ibe bcgipning of ifaai caKtr as it is 
feiKI>I!y knowD — the estsblishment o! Ibe ItuUi/m Itagczint — 
it tbauld be iccotded that in the suinincT of iSiq Lamb, vith hia 
liitei'* [ull conscDt, piopoied munage to Faney Kelly, (he 
actics, who was iJieii in her tbinieth year, tlisa KfHy could 
not accept, ^ving as ace nasog her devotion to her nuthtr. 
Lamb bore the rebuff with charuteii^tic humour ud Coniiude. 
llie csublishaienl of ibc Laniliii ilagtaint in iSiD slimujaled 
Lamb lo the piodueiioB o( a aeries el new nu)? (the Eiiayi 
tf Elia) which nuy be uid to [oim the chief corner-stone ia 
tbc imall but classic temple of his fame. The Km of iheie, 
u it fell out, was a description of the old South Sea House, 
with ithicb Lamb happened 10 have a^uciaLed the oameof a 
"g»X light-heaned foreigner " called Elia, who w»» t, derk in 
the dayi of his service there. The pseudonym adopted on this 

d for il 


appeared collectively in ■ volume of etuys called Eii 
After a career of five yean the IjitxIbh ifaiosine came lo an 
endi and about Ibe same period Laoib's long connexion with 
the India House termlnaied, a peuion of £tio (£441 rxi} having 
been aseigned to him. The ijKreased leisure, however, for which 
be bad king sighed, did rwt prove favourable lo liLerary pro- 
duction, which hcQceforth was Lrailed lo a few trifling cantribu- 
tiona lo the New iimlhly and other serials, and the excavation 

British Museum by David Carrick, which Lamb laboiiously 
read through in 1627, an occi^ation which supplied him for a 
time with the regular hours of work he missed so much. The 

shortening intervals of relief, broke in painfully on his lettered 
cue and comloct; and it h unforLunately impossibJe to igoon 
the deteiiortling cBecU of u over-free indulgence in the use 
of alcohol, and, in euly life, tobacco, on t, tempenuneot such as 
bb. Hit lemoval on account of his wtei to the quiet of the 
country at £s&dd, by tending 10 withdraw bin from the 
Uunulating society of the la^ circle of Uieiaiy Iiiend^ who 
had helped lo make his weekly or monthly " at homes " so 
rtnuikable, doubtleu abo tended <o ijiteotify his liitUasneas 
and bcTplnsnfia, One of Ibe bti^test element* in tbe cloaing 
yean of bis life was tbe f liendsbip and compk^iDOship of Emma 
IioU, whom be and his sister bad adopted, and whose marriage 
in 1S33 to Edward Moion, the publsher, though 

. Whili 

Lt Edmonton, whither he had mov 

Lo patjents of weak intellect, Lamb was 
oveEtaheaby anattack of eiyiipelas brought on by an ac c idental 
fall as he was walking on the London road. After a few days' 
fUaew he died on the i;th of December, 1S34. The sudden death 
of one so widely known, admired and beloved, fell on the public 
•s well aa.on hia own, attached circle with all the poignancy of 
■ perwoaJ calamity and a private grid. Hi* memoiy wasted 
DD tribute that Section could bestow, and Wordsworth com- 
aiemaratcd ia tople and soJemn verse tbe fenius, virtues and 
(fatcrnal devatioB of hii early friend. 

Cbojlea Lamb is eotilled to a plats as aiv essayist beside 
UontaigDC, Sii Thomas Brawoe, Steele and Addison. He unites 
aany of the cbvacXeiistics oi each of these writers — rchned and 
exquisite humour, a genuine and cordial vein of jdeasonLry and 
heart-touching pathos. His fancy is dlitinguishcd by great delicacy 
and lendemcssi and even Us conceits are imbued with human 

paitiabty for earlier prose writen, pariicnlaily for Fuller, 
BiBWD* aiKJ Bnnon, as well as for the draoalists of Shakc- 
Veare's time; and the care with which im studied thei 
apparent io all b* evet wrota. It ahioc: 
bis style, which baa an antique >ii ai 

pirit he made himscU 
of sludyiog them 11 
le lomelhing of theit 
siyK naiurai lu lusn-, ana long experience had rendered it a(A 
only easy and familjar but habituaL II was not a masquerade 
dress he wore, hut tbe costume which showvd the man to most 
advantage. With Ihougbt and meanlngoftCQ profound, thougb 
clothed in simple language, every Kntence of his essays is 

He played a oonsklenblc patt In reviving the dramatic 
nriters of tbe Shakespedan age; for be preceded GiOotd and 
others in wiping the dust of ages from their works. In his 
brief comments on each specimen be displays eiquisile poueis 
of discrimination: his discenunent of the true meaning of bis 
author is abnost infallible. His work was a departuie in ciiticisin. 
Former editors had supplied leitual criticism and olitiiuilive 
readintp: Lamb's object was to show bow our anceslott felt 
when they pbccd themselves by the power of inuginalioii ia 
trying situaLuins, in the conflicts of duty or passion or the strife 
of contending duties; what sorts of loves and enmities tbcin 

As a poet Lamb is not eotilled lo so high a place as ibai which 
can be claimed for him as essayist, and critic. His dependence 
on Ellxabethan models Is here abo manifest, but in such a way 
as lo bring into all the greiier prominence his native deficiency 
in " the accomplishment of verse." Yet it is impossible, once 
having read, ever 10 forget (he teoderaesB and grace of such 
poems as " Hester," " The Old Familiar Faces," and the Unes 
'■ On an infant dying as soon as botn " or the quaint humour of 
" A Farewell to Tobacco." As a letter writer Lamb ranks vtT) 
high, and when in a sonscssical mood there is 

Edition and memoin of Lamb an numerous. Tbe LOUn, with 1 
ielch ol his lib bv Sir Thomas Noon TalfQurd. appeared in 1837; 
lie ftMl MimtriA rf Ctarla Lamb by (he nme hand, alter Mary 
' l»^: Bury Cermiirt Claifa l^mt: A UtmaiT. 

I It66. Mr P. Rtif _, 

aid's Chulu Lamt 

(iS;i). Mr Rtuen'ld and Mr Hairiti' ha^ 

tfKn-i, andMcRciseraldbroughlTalrniinL „ 

ef Lamb's works in [07O-1B7& Later and fulWr editions are ih«e 
of Canoi Ainger ia ti voliiaib. Mr Macdonsld in 11 valines and 
Mr E. V. Lucas In ; volumes, Co which ui I90J wai added Tii Uh 
0/ Cla-fci Lamb, in I volumes ' (E. V, L.) 

LAMB (a word common to Teutonic hmguagct ; cf. Ger. XniHia), 
the young of sheep. Tbe Paschal Lamb or Agnus Dei ia used as a 
symbol Of Jesus Cbiist, the Lamb of Cod (John I. 1^, and 
" lamb," like "&>ck," it often used figuratively of tbe membea 
of a Christian church or CDmrnumty, with an allusion to Jesw' 
charge to Jeter (John ui. is). 'The "kmb and fiag" is an 
heraldic emblem, the deiter fore-leg of the lamb supporting a 
staS healing a banner charged with the St George's cross. Tiaj 
was one of the crests of the Koights Templars, used on seals a* 
early aa 1141; it was adopted as a badge or crcgt by tbe Middle 
Temple, the Inner Tem[je using another crest ol the Templars, 
the winged bone or Pe^uus. The old Tangier recent, now 
tbe Queen's Royal West Surrey RcgimenI, ir^ a Paschal Lamb 
as its badge. From theit colonel, Percy Xjrke (g.e.), they were 
known as Kiike's Lambs. The exaggerated reputation of the 
regiifwit for brutaUty, both in Tasgici and in Fnglfnd after 
Sedgmoor, lent irony to the nickname. 

CARIONAHO, Pkincesse de (1749-1701), fourth dau^ter of 
Louis Victor of Carignano (d, r774) (gKat-giandfather of King 
Charles Albert of Sardinia), and o! Christine Henrlelte of Hesie- 
fiheinfels-Rothenburg, was bom at Turin on the 8th of September 
1744. In 1767 she was married to Louis Alexandre Stanislaus de 
Bourbon, prince of Lamballe, son of the duke of Penihl£vre, a 
grandson ol Louis XIV. 's rtatural son tbe count ol Toulouse. Her 
husband dying the followint year, she retired with her faiher-In- 
law to RainhouiUet, wbere she lived until the nanlage of the 


dauphin, *I 

Ml die retutntd to court. M.rit Anioia 

charmtd by 

her (ccile ind naive minncn, lingM her tni 

1 compirlon 

■nd confidinte. Thr imptluom chsrsoer o 

ound !n Klidime de Lambrie thit tubm 


friflidt. Arier her icccsion Mirle Anioinct 


ing-i oppoiiHon, bad her ippoinicd .upcrinicn 

ct lh( royal houMhoLd. 
Pali'gnac tucmded in lupplanilng her; but nbcn the queen 
lired o[ Ihe avitice of the PoUgnnci, she turned again lo Madame 
dc Lamballe. From tr^s lo the Revolution ihe was ftlarie 
Anioinetle't closest friend and the pliant Iniininienl of her 

(lion served u a nieeting-piace for the queen and Ihe members 
of the AaKmbl> whom she nished to gain over, the people believed 
her tabeiheuulofaQ ihe intrigues. After (visit loEngUnd in 
I7gi to appeal for help for the royal family ihc made her will 
and returTKd to the l\iilerie3, where she continued hn tendcts 
to the queen nniil the loth of August, when she shared her 
imprisonmcni In the Tem[rfe. On the i^lh ol August she wa» 
traniierrcd to La Forre, and having refuied to lake the oath 
against the monarchy, she was on the jtd ol September deh'veied 
over to the fury of the populace, after which her head was 
placed on a pike and carried before the niDdovrsoi the queeti. 

See Ccorie Benin. VaJami ic Lamltiat (Pirii, tSSB]; Auitin 
OotoH. fetr Frfdmimtn. (1190): B. C, Hardy. PriiiKU de 
r^.bib (lutli Conn dt Looir, la Primiai it LuO-ii' 
a Hciimtnti iaUUt (1864IJ acme letlen of iIk 

ttprh _. _-_ 

puUithid by Cb. Schmidt 
1900)1 L. Lambeiu. Eihi- 

. ,— Ja mori it mutmt la pritiasie ie 

,.j)lS<rF. Montefion, TlitPTinmuitLaiiAMiii%gK. 

Tin Sum Umtin Ij lln Styal Famdy ef Frana . . . nom fnl 
pMiiluifrtm Iht JnrMl. LnU'i and CmrxUitn ,f Ihr Piivan 
it LamhaU (London, 2 voli.. iBj6}_have »incf appeared in variouj 
edilioiK in Cntlllh and in Frenrh. They are iltribulcd to Calhvioe 
Hyde. Mvrhioina CDvion-BragliD-SoUri. and arc ajBcrrphal. 

LAMSALLK, a town of north-western France, in the deparl- 
tnenl ol Cetes-du'Notd, on the Goueisant ij m, E.S.E. of St 
Bricuc by catL Fop. (1906) 4347. Crowning the eDiinence on 
which the town is built is a beautiful Gothic church [ijth and 
i4th ceBtuties), once the chapel of the castle of the count* of 
Penihiftvre. LaNoue, the famous Huffuenot leader, waa mart aOy 
wounded in 1541 in the siege of the castle, which was dismantled 
in i6ifi by Richelieu. Of the other bui)ding>, the church of St 
Manin (nth, isih and itith centuries) [a the dilef. Lanibalie 
has an imporiani ktiai (depoi for siallionj) and curries on trade 
in grain, tanning and leather-dressing; eanhenwaie is manu- 
factured <n the environs. LambaQc was the capital of the terri- 
tory of the counts of Penihiivre, who m 1569 were made dukes. 

UHBAYBQnB, a coast depirtmeni of nonhno Peru, 
bounded N. by Plum, E. and S. by Cajamsrca and Liberlad. 
Area, 4614 sq. m. Pop. (1906 estimate) 93.070. It belongs to the 
arid region of the coast, and is settled afong the rivet valleys 
where irrigation Is possible. It is one of the chief mgac-pioducing 
departmenls of Peru, and in some valleys, especially ticai 
Ferreflafe. rice is largely produced. Four railways connect its 
principal producing centres with ihe small portaof Eten and 
Ftmemel, vii.:EtenloF«Telkife, 17 m.; Eten to Cayalii. >] m.; 
Pimentel 10 Lambayeque, 15 m.; and Chidayo to Pttapo, ij m. 
The principal towns are Chidayo, the departmental eapitil, 
with a population (i9o£ estimate) of te,soD, Ferreflafe teoo, 
and Lambayeque 4500. 

LAKBBAUZ. JEP Qtunm Main Taaius), [igji-i^), 
Belgian sculptor, was bom at AntwciTi. He itsdied at the 
Antwerp Academy of Fine Arts, and was a pupil of Jean Ceefs. 
His first work, " War," wia exhibited in 1871, and was IoIIowh] 
by a long series of hamorous gimps, inchiAng " Childmi 

dandrg," " Say ' GocnI Morning. The Ludty NumI 

" An Accident " {187!). He then went to Paris, 1 
eiecuted for the Belgian salons " The Beggar " and " 1 
Pauper." and produced " The Kiss " (1881). generally regarded 
as his masterpiece. After visiting Italy, where he wi 
hnpressed by tlie works of Jean Bologne, he thowed 1 
predSection for effects of force atid mollon. Other notable woiki 

are his fountain at Antwerp (ttSS). " Kobbing Ihe Eaglet 
Eyrie" (iSw), " Dninkenncss " {1S93), "The Triumph of 
Woman." " The Bitten Faun " (which created a great stir at Ihe 
Eiposition Unlvetselle at Ufge In 1^5), and " The Hutnao 
Passions," a colossal marble bas-relief, elaborated fraai a sketch 
eihibilcd In iSSq. 01 his numerous busts may be mentioned 
those of Hendrik Conscience, and ol Charles Blls, the hucgomastei 
ot Brussels. He died on the Mb of June 190B. 
LAMBEBMOMT. AUQUITE, BaaoM (1R19-1905), Belgian 

TLlarch lAto. He came of a family of small farmer proprietors, 
who had held land during three centuries. He was intended fot 
the priesthood and entered the snninary of FTorefle, but hi- 
energies claimed a more active sphere. He left the monasleiy for 
Louvain Univciiliy. Here be studied law, and also prepared 
himself tor the nililary exarninations. At that Jnncture the 
first Cirlist wai broke out. and Lambcrmont bastened to the 
scene of action. His services wen accepted (April iSjS) and he 
was enltvtted olth the command of two small cannon. He abo 
■aed as A.D.C, to Colonel Dutando. He gnatly distinguished 

with the Cross of Ihe higheal military Order of St Fenlinand. 
Returning to Belgium he entered the Mioisliy for Foieign 
Affairs in 1S41. Re served hi this department sixty-thtn years. 
He was closely assodaled with several of the most important 
questions In Bel^an history during the last half of the 191b 
century — notably the freeing of the Scheldt. He was one of the 
very first Belgians to see the importance ot developing the trade 

ot their e 

: foreign office. ThetoDsim[ 
Dutch on navigation on the Scheldt strangled Bel^an trade, for 
Antwerp was the only port of the country. The Dutch had the 
right lomakethblevy under treaties going back to the treaty ot 
Munstcrin 1648, and they dung to it still more tenaciously aftci 
Belgium separated herKll in 1B30-1E31 from the united kingdon 
□r (he Helherlands— the London conference in 1839 fixing tbe 
Id! payable to Holland at i' so florins (3s.) per ton. From i85£to 
iSfij Lambermont devoted most of his energies to the removal tt 
this Impediment. In i8s6 he drew up a plan of action, and he 
prosecuted It with untiring perseverance until he saw it embodied 
In an iDlenullonat convention aeven yean later. Tweniy-one 
powers and states attended a conference hdd onlhequestlon •! 
Brussels in iMj. and on the rjlh of July the treaty freeing Ihe 
Scheldt was signed. For this achievement Lambennont was 
made a baron. Among other Important conferences in which 
Larnbermont took a leading part were tho^ of Brussels (1874) 
on the usages of war. Berlin (1884-1883) on Africa and the 
Congo region, and Brussels (189a) on Central African ABails and 
Ihe Slave T^ade. He was jtnnt nporter with Baton de Courtel 
of the Berlin conference in 1884-1883, and on several ocosou 
he was chosen as arbitrator by one or other of the great Eatopeaii 
powers. But his gnat achievement was the fredng of the Scheldt, 
and In token of its gratitude Ihe city of Antwerp erected a fim 
monument to Us memory. He died on tbe 7lh of MardiiQOS, 

LAMBEIIT, DAHIBL [i77i>-rSs9), an En^isfaman lanont for 
his great site, was bom near Leicester on fbe IJtb of March 
I7TO, tbe son of the keeper of the jail, to which post he succeeded 
in r79i. About this time his size and weight increased enor- 
mously, and though he had led an active and athletic life he 
weighed in 1703 thirty-two Btone (44S lb). In 1S06 be remlved 
to pR^t liy his notoriety, and mlgniag )ih office went up to 
London and exhibited Umsclf. He died on the iisl of Jnly 
1S09, and at tbe time measured s ft. 11 in. In bei^t uid weighed 
jij atone (739 ft). Ho waistcoat, now in the Kings Lynn 
Museum, measures loi in. round the wast. Bis coffin contained 
1 1 1 f). of dm and was built on wheels. His name has been used 
as a synonym for Unmensity. George Meredith dscrlbea 
London as the "Danid Lambert of dtlei," and Herbert Spencti 

proportions were depicted on a number of tavem signs, but the 
best portrait of him, a large neuolinl, ii preserved U (be 
British UuSEUm in Lyaon^ CtUaltHea, 


L&MBKBT, nUCn (c m8^>S]*)> Praisunt reformer, 
ma the icui ol ■ papal oSicM at Avignon, whcic he wu bom 
betwMD 14S5 and 1487, Al the age of 15 be enuied the 
FrucuCM mooaleiy u AvigBoii, and a/tir iji; he was an 
ilinerant preacher, mveUing through France, Italy and SwiiKr- 
laod. Hil itudy of the Scnpliuei tbook faia Iiilh in Roman 
Calhotic theology, and by ijii be bul abandoned hit order, 
and becainc known to the leaden of the Refoimztign in Swiiiei- 
land and Germany. He did not, bowevei, idectiiy himself 
either with Zwinglianfim ox I-utberuusni; he diluted with 
Zwingli al Zurich In isiit and then made hia way to Eisenach 
and Wittenberg, where he married in ijij. He retuined to 
Slrauburg in 1514, being anxious to spread the doctrines oi the 
Reiomution among the French-ipealiing population of the 
neighbourhood. By the Germanshe wa«dlitruatcd,andin 1526 
his activitie) were prohibited fay the city ol Striuburs. He wa>, 
bowevet. bcliiended by Jacob Sturm, who recommended him 
10 the Luidgnf PhlUp of Hesse, ihe most Hbcral of the Cermaa 
reloming prinires. With FhiUp'i cncouragenKnl he dialled 
thai scheme o( ecdcsiaslical reform for which he is bmoul. 

il provided for the govcmmenl of (he whole church by means of 
a synod. Pastoiswereto be elected by [he congregation, and the 
whole system of canon-law was repudiated. This scheme was 
submitted by Philip I0 a synod it Homburg; but Luther 
intervened and persuaded the Landgraf to abandon il. It was 
far too democratic ta commend itself to the Lulheians, who had 
by this time bound the Lulheian cause 10 the tupporl of princes 
lalher than to that of the people. Phtlip conlinued lo favour 
Limberl, who was appointed prolessot and head of the theo- 
logical faculty [n the Landgrafs new university ol Maiburg. 
Pairiclc Hamilton (fj.).lheScoIli5hmsnyc.wai one of his pupUi; 

his Lxi t 

:D Scotia 

rkk-i Flea, 

X populi 

waveted between the Lmheran and 
o( Ibe Lord's Supper, but at this conference he defintcely J 
the Zwinglian view. He died of the pbfue on the iSlh of April 
15J0, and was buried at Marburg. 

A calatDguc of Lamberl'e writings ii given in Haag'i Cd Franc* 

SolulonU. See also lives of Lambert bf Baum (Slrastburg. lit"); 
W. Heuencamp (Elberfeld. iB6o),Stieve (Bicslau. iMt) "-' ' "' - 
Ruffet (Paiw '874): Larimer, £1/1 sf Palw* Hamim 
A. L- Richw. - .. . I. < . 


._ .. Mint ktrckamrdtl , 

unmatun: Philip of Eteue's Cfrnsfoi^i.. _ .. 
Lena; UodKy, BiiL JUftrmadtn; Mljtmtlnt 

■ mtUr. 


F. P.) 

pbysicisl. Tnathemalician and astronomer, was bom al Uul- 
hausen, Alsace, on the i&thi^ August 1718. He was the son of 
a tailor; and the sUght eleinentaiy instruction he obtained 

own private reading. He became book-keeper at Monlbiliard 
ironworks, and suhsequeally (i74sl secretary 10 Proleisor Iselin, 
Ibe editor of a newspaper at Basel, who three yeat» later recom. 
mended him ai private lutor lo the family of Count A. von Salis 
of Coire. Coming Ibus into virtual possession of a good library, 
Lambcrl had peculiar opportunities for improving himself in his 
literary and sdentihc studies. In i7sg, after completing with 
hia pupils a lour of two yean' duration through Gattingcn, 
UtrechI, Paris. Marseilles and Turin, he resigned his tutorship 
and lellled al Augsburg. Munich, Erlangen, Coire and Leipiig 

removed lo Berlin, when he received many favoura at the hand 
of Frederkk Ihe Great ind oai elected a member of the Royal 
Acadcny of Sciences of Berlin, and in i;;* edited the Berlin 
Ettumcrii. He died of consumption on the ijth of September 
1777. His publication* show him (o have been a man of original 
and active mind with a singvtai facility la applying malhemalics 

Hia I 


ical I 

e exluded .and a 


shadowed by hii coitmponilei. Hii developounl oi the 

equation i^+^»t in an inGiiiteaetfes was extended by I,eoDhard 
Enler. and pattkularty by Joseph Louis Lagrange. Id i/fii 
he proved the irrationality of i; a simpler proof was given 
somewhat later by Legendta. The introduction ol hyperbolic 

qaldiscovtries are of great value, his Ditjrcit i*(rjf«(iK(ijs9- 
1 77i) being a work of great merit. Astronomy was also enriched 
by his investigations, and he was led to several remitkible 
theorems on conies which bear bis name. The most imporlaDl 
are: (i) To eipresa the time of describing an elliptic arc under 
the Newtonian law of gravitation in terms of the focal dislancei 
of the initial and linal poinii, and the length of the chord Joining 
them, (i) A theorem relating to itae apjiarent curvatuie ol tb« 
geocentric path of a comet. 
Lambvei m« intpemnt nixt, PynmHrii (Berlm, imj, Is a 

igftnirg, 17C0), Jttiifniam orbilat 

_ ,-iait- 17*0. and Btiliiie '^'<- 

nnl ^ttiAimmiiMi U vols., BirlV 

ip»p» propnttalti (Atig^rf, IT^ij, and ^itriie 
'trltalkrmUiktiKdJtrviAiimndiiniUvai- "-•■' 
The Uimairi of the Berlin Academy ii< 


flaidi, ™Bi.eirm7eoinEtrp>obabiKiitfc ihe motfcm ol three bt 
meteorokigr. *c. In the Aca HeVwHtfl (1751-176^ and Ir 
^0ra vta trudile (i763''7<a) sevaral ct ma eoncribaliona ap 
lilhl. Saturn'i rings and comeu; in rhe NaM aila Hdrtliia (l. 
he hu a long paper " 5ur 1e son des corps ^bsliqun." Tn Bernoulu 
and tJindenGun*! Uafiain (1767-1788) he ireais ot the rooli of 
equatkn and alpaiallFl lines: and la Hiadenbuig's Artlat (I7«S- 
1799) he wriiet on oplici and perspective, hiany of thoie pvecn 
were published poatfuimoatly. Recogniud ai smona the first 
maihenuliciaos of his day, be wai aUo widety known for Ihe uni- 
versality and depth of Ms philological and philotophical knoiwVrfee. 
The most vahu&g li his loduTand diilasaphical mcmdra atre 
puUiihed eelletih-ely in 1 vji. (i 79iJ. 

S« Huber-i Liaii€ft jUKi Ki'arK Ubtt anf Wiriifi; M. Cha>lt«, 
CtsctniUi itr Gtrmtliii; and Baenich, lamtt'lt PkilestMc kiul 

UMBERT [d/ioi X'icuoUOkI, JDBH (d. isjS), English 
Proletlaot martyr, wa* bom at Norwich and educated at 
Cambridge, where he graduated BX and wu admitted Id 1511 
a fellow of Queen's College on the noBdnailon of Catherine ol 
Aragon. Afier acting for some yeaia as a " masi-priesl," his 
views were unteliled by the aigumems of Bilney and Arihur; 
and episcopal persecution compeUcd bim, according to his own 

He likewise tetnoved to Antwerp, where he became chaplain lo 
the English factory, and formed a friendship with Frith and 
Tyndale. Reluming to England in tjji. be came under Ibe 
notice ot Archbishop Warham, who questioned him closely on 
his religious beliefs. Warham'a death in August 1531 relieved 
Lambert from immediate danger, and he earned a living for some 
yeara by teaching Latin and Greek near the Stocli Jlarkct in 
landon, The duke of Norfolk and other reactionaries accused 
him of heresy in iij6. but reTMming tendencies were tult In 
the atcendant. and Lambert escaped. In 1538. however, the 
reaction had begun, and Lambert was lla fiiat victim. He 
singled himself out forperseculion by denying Ihe Real Presence; 
and Henry VIII., who had just rejected the Lutheran propoeal* 
tora thcologicil union, was in no mood lo lolersle worse heresiea. 
Lambert had challeDged lome views eipreised by X)i John 
Taylor, afterwards bishi^ of Lincoln; and Cianmer as arch- 
btshop condemned Lombfrl's opinions. He appealed loihg king as 
supremeheadoItheChurch.andon the i6Lh of November Henry 
heard the case in person before a large sssembly of spiritual and 
temporal peers. For (ivehoursLamberl disputed 'ilh ihe king 
and ten bishops:and then, as he boldly denied thai Ibe Eucharist 
was the body of Christ, he wiscoudenincd to death by Ctomwell 
as vicegerent. Henry's condescenuon and patience produced 
a great impression on hii Catholic subjecis; but Cromwell b 
said by Foie lo have asked Lambert's pardon before his eiecullon, 
and Cranmer eventually adopted the views he condemned in 
Lambert. Lambert was burnt at Smithfitld on the nod t/l 


S« LtUen ami ^«(m «/ H«p» VtSI.: Faa-t Adi ati «««- 
MUSi Prwde. HuOtfl Diion, CIHKk Uiiiity; Cwdotr. 
MtaF^r uJ tta J^ftnMkfli. McL nf Utt. Buf- "^ tulhonao 
then ax«L <."■ '• PO 


LAMBEST. Itmn (i«i9-'*94). English gcneoJ in Ihe C™i 
Rebellion, WIS bora >t Cillon HJ], Kitkby Mslhsm, in the W«t 
Bidini o( Yorkihirt His famUy *ii ol uidtnt ltae»gf , ipd long 
Killed in tlia louoly. He studied law, bul did not mike it his 
profession. Id i6jQhtmamed Frances, daughter o[ Sir William 
Litter. At the opening of the Clvfl War he took up. arms for 
Ihe gwlianient, (Ad in SeptombFr 1641 was appointed a captain 
of horK in the umy commanded by Ferdinando, Lord FaTrTai. 
A yeu later he had become coIoheI of a refpinent of horse, and 
he diitinguiilKd himself at the liege of HuH in October, 164]. 
Early In i&u he did good service at the battle) ol Nantwich 
and Bradford, At Manton Moor Lambert's own reguncnl »as 
routed by the charge of Goring's horse; but he cut hb way 
through with a tew troops and joined Cromwell on the other side 
of the field. When the New Model army wi* formed in the 
beginning of i6ti, Celontl Lambert was appotnled to succeed 
Fairfai in command of Ihe northern farcn. General Poynti, 
however, soon replaced him, and under Ibis officer he served in 
Ihe Yorkshire campaign ol 164$. IcceiviBg a wound before 
PoDtcfracl. In 1646 he wu giveni tegimeot <n theNewModel, 
Krving with Fairfai in the wtJI of England, and he was a 
comtniuloner, with Cromwell and othcn, for the surrender ol 
Oiford U the una year. " It is evident," says C. H. Firth 
{DUI. Sal. But-): " ■>"'. tx "" 'rom the fint resided ta an 
officer o( eiceptional capadt^ and specially selected for leml- 
polilical imploymenli." 

WhtD the quarrel between the army and the pailtament 
began, Lambert Ihiew UBiwlf warmly into the aimy'i caiue. 
lie assisted treton in drawbig up the Mvenil addrcDet and 
remonstrances issued by the army, both men having had some 
experience In the law. and being " of a subtle and worting brain." 
Early in August 1647 Lambert was sent by Faiilax >s major- 
general to take charge of Ihe forces in the norlhem counties. 
Hii wise and j'uit managing of afiaiis hi those parts is commended 
by Whiteloclie. He suppressed a mutiny among hii troops, 
kept strict discipline and hunted down the moss-troopers who 
hlteiled the moorhod country. 

When the Scottish army under the maiqulj of Hamilton 
Invaded Enghnd in Ihe summer of 1648. Lambert w» engaged 
In suppressing the Royalist rising In hii district. The nrrival 
of [he Scots obliged him to retreat: but Lambert displayed the 
ercalest energy and did not cease to harau the invaders till 
Croiawetl came up from Wales and wiih him dctlroyrd Ihe 
Scottish army in the three days' lighllng from Prrston 10 Warring- 
Ion. After the battle Lambert's cavalry headed Ihe chase, 
punuing the defeated army t anlnntcc, and finally sumnindid 
It It Ultoielet, where Hamilton sunendered to Lambert on the 
jjlh of August. He then led the advani* of CromweB'j army 
Into Scotland, where he was left in charge 00 Crorawell't reium. 
Prom December 1154! to March i64[i be was engaged in the siege 
of Ponicfract Castle; Lambert was thus absent from London at 
the time ot Piidc's Purge and the trial and execution at the king. 

When Cromwell was appointed to (he command of the war 
In Scotland (July 1630), Lambert went with hhn as major; 
general and second in command. He was mnindcd at Muucl- 
burgh, but returned to the front In time to take a c6ns[ricuous 
share in the victory of Dunbar. He himself defeated the 
" Protetters " or " We«em Whigs " at Hamilton, on the ist 
of December 1650. In July 11)51 he «ii sent Into Fife to get 
in tV rear and Hank of the Scottish army near Falklrt, and 
force Ihem to decisive action by cutting off thdr supplies. Thii 
mission, In the course of which Lambert won an Important 
victoiy at Inverkcithing, was eiecuted with entire luccesi, 
whereupon Charles II., as Lambert had foreseen, made lor 
England, For the events of the Worcester campaign, which 
quickly followed, see GuuT RebelUOn. Lambert's part in 
the genera] plan was carried out most brUliantly, and In the 

''wning victory ol WorceUet he commanded the right wing of 

In October i6ji Lambert wu'made a commisdoiier to lettk 
the aSatn of ScolUnd ,andoiithedeathoflKloshewu tppcdsted 
lord deputy of Ireland (JatiaDtT 1651]- He accepted the 
office with pleasure, and made magnificent preparations; 
parliament, however, soon afterwards reconflituted the Iiish 
administration and Lambert refused to accept office on the new 
terms. Henceforward he began to oppose ibc Kump. In the 
coundl of ofScers he headed the party desiring representative 
government, as opposed to Harrison who favoured a i^ted 
ollgaichy of " God-fearing " men, but both hated what remained 
of the Long parliament, and joined In urging (^omw^ to dissolve 
it by force. At the same time Lambert was consuiled by Ihe 
paruamentary leaders as to Ihe possibility of dismissing Cromwell 
from his command, and on the i^lh of March 1IS5J Cromwell 
refused 10 see him, speaking ot him amtemptuODsly as " bOtioDi- 
less Limbetl." On the lolh of April, however, Lambert accom- 
panied Cromwell when he dismissed the council of state, on ihe 
same day as the forcible expulsion of the parliament. Ijmbrrt 
now favoured the formation of a small executive coundl, to be 
folbwed by an elective parliament whose pavers '>hoEld be 
limited by a written iniirument of government. BelnS at' thU 
time the ruling spirit in ihe council of slate, and the idol of the 
army, there were some who looked on him as a possible rival 
of Cromwell for the chief eiecutive power, while the royalists 
for a short time had hopes of his support. He was Invited, 
with Cromwell, Harrison and Dcsborough, to sit in the nominated 
parliament of i6$$; and trhen the unpopulariiy Of that assembly 
increased. Cromwell drew nearer to Lambert. In November 
1653 Lambert presided over a meeting of officers, when Ihe 
question ofconslitutionalsetllemenlwasdiscu)sed,anda proposal 
made for the fordhle npubton of the nominated parilament.- 
On the 1st of December he urged Cromwell to assume the tille 
of king, which the latter refused. ' On the iith Ihe ("rllament 
resigned its powers Into CromwrD's hands, and on the ijtN 
Lambert obtained Ihe consent of Ihe oflicfrs to the Instrument 
of Government (f->.). in Ihe framing of which he had taken ■ 
leading part. He was one of the seven officers nominated 10 
seats In the toUncfl created by the Instrtnoent. In the IMeIgn 
policy of the protectorate he was the most dampious of (hose 
who called Tor aflian^ with Spain and war with France in i6jji 
and he firmly wiihalood Cromwell's design for an eipedition 
10 the W(si Indies. 

In the dcbitei In pai^iameni on th« Instrument of Govern, 
moni hi i6s4 Lambert proposed thai the office of protector 
should be made hereditary, but was defeated by a majority 
which Indnded members of Cromwell's family, hi IM parlia- 
ment of this year, and again In 1656. Lord Lambert, as he wai 
nowstyled. sat 03 member for the West Riding. He was one of 
the mijor-ginerals appointed In August 1655 to command the 
militia h the ten districts Into which It was proposed to divide 
England, and who were to be respon^ble for Ihe maintenance 
ofordtrnnd ihe administration o( the lawinthelrseveial districts. 
Limhrt took a prominent part In the committee of coundl 
which drew up instructions to the major-generals, and he wu 
probably Ihe originator, and certainly the organlter, of the 
system of police which these officers were to controL GartUnet 
tonjecturei that it was ihrough divergence of opinion between 
Ihe protector and Lambert In connexion with these " 

t the e^ 

.t belwi 

n began. 

At aQ events, although Lamliert had himself at an earlier t 
requested Cromwell to take the royal dignity, when the proposal 
10 declare Olivet king was slirted In parliament [February 
1657) he Bl once dedared sirongly against it. A hundred oHicets 
headed by Fleetwood and Lambert waited on the protector, and 
bcg^ him to pui a slop to the proceedings. Lambert was not 
convinced by Cromwell'sargumenl!, and thdr complete estrange, 
ment. personal as well as pijiilcal. followed. On his refusal 
to lake the oath of allegiance to the prolectir, Lambert wai 
deprived of hit comniiulou, rtcdving,' hottevtr. a petuion ol 


)ut gudcn 11 WiRibledoa. ud 


fNoo A ]n*r. He Rtlrtd 

■ppared BO moic in public aunng uuv« LmmBcii > iiicume; 
ki« ibtttlr bdon ha ilalii CrnnvtU aoughi a RtondlUtion, 
■lift Lunhtn ■nd hii witr vis'tcd hifii il WhitehiLL 
When Bicbunl CrDmwcU au ptoclnimcd prolcctor bla chltf 

CDDlroL I^mbert, though bokjing no mLlJliry coiDimHJant «u 
Iht msst popnlir of ifcc eld Cromnllian gcnenh with the 
nnk and file of (he irmy, and it iraa very gcnenUy believed 
Ihal be would inual himself in Olivec't scat of powei. Kichard'i 
adIicnotA Lfied lo eoDciJiate him, and the royaliat luden lUde 

Lambert'i daughter. Lambert at first gave a luteWarm support 
(0 Rurhard Ccomwell, and look no part in lie intngus of the 
oOcers u Fleetwood's te>idcnc«, WalUnglan] Hoiuc He was 
1 member ot Ihe parliament wMcli met in Januiiy ifijg, 
and when il was disjotvcil in April under compubioii ol FlnlKood 
and Detborongh. he wai cilorcd to hl> commands. He headed 
the depuution to Unlhaii in May iaviling the rtluin ol the 
Kump, which Ifd (0 the umc Klircmcnt of RichiKl Ciomirell 
into obscurity; mci he wai appointed a oicmbci gl the com- 
mittee of wfcty inH of Ihc council ot state. When the paiHar 
meat, deiinu] of controlling the power of the army, withheld 
from Fleetwood the right of nominating olTiccra, Lambert was 
named one of a muncil of seven chaigcd with this duty. The 
parliament's evident distrust ol the soldiers caused much dis- 
content hi the army; white the entire absence of real Authority 

Charles tl, the moil serious of which, under Sir George Booth 
and the earl of Derby, was crushed by Lambert near Chester 
on the iglh of August. He promoted i petition from his army 
that Fleetwood might be made lord-general and himself major- 
generaL The republican party In the Home took olTence, 
The Commons (October nth, tfisg} cashiered Lambert and other 
offictn, and retained Fleetwood as chief of a military council 
under the authority of the ipcalei. On the neii day Lambert 
caused the doois of the Bouie to be ihjii 


smbcr. He waj also appointed major- 
gcDeral of all the focces in England and Scotland, Fleetwood 
being genetal. Lambert wai now kdI with a targe force to 
m«t SfonV, who was in command ol the English forces in 
Scotland, and either negotiate with him or force him ts term*. 
Uonl:. however. Ml bit umy io motion southward. Lambeii** 
anny began to melt away, and he was kept io luqieme by Monk 
lil! his whole army fell from him and he relumed to Londoo 
almost alone. Monk marched to Loadon unopposed. The 
" eiduded " Presbyterian members were recalled. Lanibcrl 
waisenl to the Tower(Maich3rd.i66cl, from which he escaped 
a month laler. He tried to rekindle the dvil war in' favour ot 

to the Tower (April 14th). On the Rcslontiorx he was eicmpted 
from danger of life by as addms ot both Ilausrs to the king, 
but the ncit pariiamenl (166)) charged him with high treason. 
Thenceforward for the rest of his life Lambert remained io 
custody in Gucnxsey. He died in i6fM. 
L^nbin wOBk] han left ■ t-tts luiaalfl UMory If b* had bees a 
pyalist than to the puritan 

tiFlieTFd thit Cronvnlt eould nol atirid' without him: and when 
Croaw>n wai di^ be loulKdbliiHelf aotitled and it ted to luececd 
him. YeckitanibitioBwMlmMlUiihaathatitfMoak. Laaben 
ii accused o( no ill faith, w want oTi ' '. . < 

Utioi policy. As a soldier lie ' 

cavalier. Kia Mia^ artfert and orcii 
easily drarpftd. wai more aliio to th 

>:ar HejMi 

blame of Mn 

Il hu ben said that be bi 

, loSt), Cemm dmnlcter, 
was probably a ThuringiaB by hinh and became a mook In the 
Benedictine abbey of Hersfeld in 105s. Aa be was ordained 
prieal at Aschaflenbtug be is sometime) called Lambert g{ 
Aacbafloibiug, or Scbafnaburg. Be Dude a pilgTinnge to the 
Hofy Land, and vtailed varfoiis monasteries of his order; but 
beisfamoDsasthesuthorofiome ^iMo/ei. from the crtaiioD 
of the world until about 1040 these AniiaJes am a jejune copjr 
of other annab, but from 1040 to ibeir condiuion jn 1077 Ihey 
are interesting for the history of Germany and the papacy. 
The important eveots during the elrliec part of the itign of 
the emperor Heniy IV., induding the visit to Casossa and the 
battle of Hohenharg, aie vividly described. Tbdr tone is 
hostile to Henry IV. and friendly to the papacy; their Latin 
ityle is eicellenl. The Aniwla were tint published in T5)] 
and are printed in the Uonimala Gameniji kisltriai, Blade 
iii. and v. (Hanover and Beriin, 1816 lol.). Fonnerly Lambert's 
TtpuIalioB for accnracy and ijnpartiaiity was very high, but 
both qualities have been somewhat discredited. 
Lambert is ah> Raided u tlw autbur o( tlw Hizlsria OrlMtU- 

Mafunuila of aYSaLaili. Lullus, irdif^hop ol .Maioi. be'lna ih* 
founder dT the abbey at IlenTdd; and of a Ctrmt-, dr btUoSan^ia. 
His opera have been edited with an iBtroduction by O, Holder- 

^m H. Delbi^ck/0iv *tt Oai-iKitiittfil LumbtrU mm Btr^dd 
(Bonn, IS?!): A. Ejeenbrodt, LmptH fsn HiiajtU and iit noun 
Q^£a}i,nii%»t (ifaad, iBoS): L. vsn Itinkc. Z,tr KrilH 
fnnhidk-dmxler Jtci^huiKi^iiUir (BecliK, IBu): W. Wattee- 
tneh. DtMOcUaiiii CackitkUmHBr* Band A. (Becfln, 1906} and 
A. Ponbut, £>l(Mlt« Auwui (BettimKffi). 

UMBBSSA. the ancient Lambaesa, a village ot Algeria. In 
tfie arrondincment of Batna and department of Constantine, 
T m. S.E. of Batna and r; W. ef Timgid. Ilie modem village, 
the cenlreofanagricultnralcolony founded in rS4S, Is noteworthy 
lor its great convict establishment (built about rSjo). The 
remains of the Roman town, and more especially of the Roman 
eamp, in spile of wanton vandalism, are among (he most Interest- 

re ialfarn 

northern Afriei 


d by tl 
IS have resulted 


nteresting disc 




re situated 

on the 


races ot the J 

bel A 

nd CO 

nsist of tn 


arches ( 

me 10 Septim 

us Sevi 


r 10 Com 




heat re, bi 

hs and 




to private 


To the north and east II 




a with th 

In their 

nal al 

o the 1 

have been largely removed 
for buiMing the modern village. Ot the temple of Aesculapius 
only one column is standing, though in the middle of the igtb 
century its facade was entire. The eapilol or temple dedicated 
to Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, which has been cleared of debris, 
has a portico with eight columns. On levc) ground about two- 
thirds of a mile from the centre of the ancient town stands tht 
camp; Its site no* partly occupied by (he penitentiary and its 
gardens. It measures ifiisfi. N, loS, by r4;e ft, E. 10 W., and 
fn the middk rise the ruins ot a buEldtng commonly called, but 
Incorrectly, the praetorram. This noble building, which dates 
from a.t>. i6i, is gi ft. long by 66 ft. bi«ad and n ft. high; 
Its soulhem facade has ■ splendid peristyle half the height 
of the wall, consEning of a front low of massive Ionic columna 
sod an engaged row lA Corinthian pilasteis. Behind this 
bnildtBt (wUeh was roofed). Is ■ large court giving access to 
other buildings, me befng th« aneaal. In it have been found 
many Ifaoosands of projeclilei. To the S.E. an the remains of 
the batfas. The luiiu of both tily and eamp have yielded manr 
inscriptions (Renlercdlted ijoo, and then are 4r8s in the Cirpin 
Inter. Lai. vol. viil.); and, thongh a very large proportion are 
epJUphs af the barest kind, the more imporlint pieces lupply 
an outRne of the hiMory of the pUoc. Over ijoo ilaciiptloni 
relating to the eamp have been deciphetnl. In ■ museum in 
the village are objects of antiqAity discovered la the vicinity. 



1 of Srptimlus Severui. The tt 

ea include 

Ldmbuu wu 1 miliUTV fcnjiuIatiCin. Th^ CAn 
legion (Lcgio III. Auouiu), to which It own IHD. 
tuvC IvKi aublutKr btlHRn A.D. I13 and tl4, 
ILidriaD, whoK ulflret* "" ""'" ""'"■ "" '" """" 


lutMi Ra*d b KennUctM.Ovil, 4c novad 
:rfckn Chib; the KoKd in konB Bueb uj 

niDcc of Niioiidik. The 

l.^flie town 

loaad jiucrUxd on ■ 

' a muTILCipiuEn probably 
l1 n( the new If fDundrd 

I itt lii^l d»>ru^ d«l 

xl bv Vilei 
lie pbn tl 

tuvt been round tmoiw the niiu. 
About 1 n. S of Uiubou ire the ni«» of Mukuna. Ibe incinit 

"s^S. GiiwiLiJin^in^'irtiiMuT'iUI-Mtint (PiHi, 1^1) ind 
VAlrhii iant tantipiiU (Algicn. looj); 1- Rcniei, Uunpltoiii 
MMM ifa '''i^l'i' (Paris. lS5S)i CuiUv Wilmmnn " Die rtni 

Mtmmiemi (Berlin. 'l8i7|; Sir L PUyiJlf. f>Ii^".ii UtT^iUpi 
til BrMce (LondoD, 1877); A. Craham, Rimaii AJnca (London, isai). 

LAHBBTH, « aouihetn nwiinpolitan bottHigh af London. 
England, boundRlN.W. by the liver Thames,N.E. by Southwaik, 
E. by Cambetwell and W. by Wiiidiwotlh and Baiwree*. 
and eiteniliiig S. 10 the bouDihiy of Uit county of I.ondon. 
Pop. (1901) 301,895. The name ii commonLy mnfined to the 
nonhetn part of (he borough, bordering the river; but the 
principal districta included aie Kennington and VaiiiSuH (north 
leulral), BriiLflo (centiaJ) and parr of Norwood (iouib). Four 
Isad-btidga croai tbe Thamei within the Umiti of ihc boniugh, 
Dimcly Waterloo, WeitrainiteT, Lanbelh and Vatnhall. ol 
which the Gist, a fine stone iinictun, date) from tSi;, and i> 
the oldest 'niamu bridge ilanding uiihin the county of London. 
The main thoroughfare ruui S. (roin Woiminner Bridge Road 
■s KcDiiington Road, contlauing u Biliion Bead and Biiiten 
Kill. Clapban Road biaochlag S.W. bom ii at Kenninron. 
Several thoroughfarei alw converge upon Vauiball Bridge, and 
from a point nisr ihii down to WesimJos^c Bridfe the rivei 
ii bordered by the iine Albert Embankment. 

Early records present the name Lamt^-hytlu in vuioui forms. 
Tbc suffii is common along the river in the meaning ol a haven, 
hut the ptcAa is less clear; a Saxon word signifying mud ia 
suggested. Briaton and Kennington arementioned in Domesday; 
and in Vauxhall is concealed the name vl Falkea de Bieaut^* 
an unicmpulous adventurer ol the time ol John and Henry III. 
exiled in iiaj. The manor ol KoiLh Lambeth was given I0 the 
bishopric ol Rochester in the tune of Edward tbe Confesur, 
and the bishops had a house here till the iGtb century. They did 
not, however, retain the iDanor beyond the tlote of the laih 
century, when ii was acquired bv the sec of Canieibuiy. Tbn 
palace ol the itcbbishopi is still here, and lornii, with Ibe parish 
ictLireaque group ol buildings, lying doM 

:e the r 


1 of Farl 

julnins with them 10 makeof this reach of Ibc Thamei one of 
the finest proipecla in London. The oldest put of the palace 
lemaining is Ihe Early English chapcL The le-callal Lollard'a 

t. 1440. There is a fine Tudor gatebouae of bride, and the hall 
is dated i6£]. The poriion i»w inhibited by ihc archbishopi 
was erected ia J&M and ftoota a ipuiois quadrangle. Among 
the portraila of Ihe archbiahops here ore examples by Holbein, 
Van Dyck, Hogarth and Reyuldi. There ia i valuable library. 
The church oT St Uary waa rebuilt c i&io, thou^ the ancienl 
monuiDEola ptearved give it an appeuina of antiquity. Here 
ate tombs ol some of the archbisbopt, induding Bancmfl (d, 
1610), and of the two Ttadcscanta, coUzctara, and a raemorial 
to Eiias Asfaraole, whoie name is preserved in the Aabmolean 
Museum at Oifoid University, to which he ptncated the colleo 
tions of his friend the younger Ttadeicaat (d. i66ii. In the 
present Westminster Bridge Road wai a circus, well Icdowd in 
the later iBth and early j^tb (tnturic* aa Astley's, and near 
Vauxhall Bridge wen the celebrated Vauxhall Garden*. 

The principal dMdem cleaiure gniunda are Kenninglofi Park (» 
•cm), aadBrockwcUParli (11; acres) south of B[iiian.ud near the 

Ihe Sutiey Caohiy Cricket Ctab; the 1 
.. other important fiitvna.' Amsag 
St Thomas' HopitlL Ibe — — '— ' 

Albert Embankment. The 

SCo°^' " 

. Th« etiilliig 

Ij^ildlngg, HibKqoMCly uUrpd, wh« 


n StockwelJ. Jitn •• 

OSS. Nonh. KcDniagtDB, Brinoa 
member. The bonufk councH 
ind 60 caaadtkire. Area, 408^4 


UK BETR nyHRRBNCBSl the name given to the twrlodiol 
lasemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Fan-Anglican 
synods), which since iMj have met at Lambeth Palace, tbe 
London residence of the archbishop of Canlerbucy. Tbe idea 
of these meetings ¥ras lirst suggested ig a letter 10 llic atchbUhop 
of Canterbury by Bishop Hopkins of VennSni in 1851, but the 
immediate Impulse came from the cotoqial Church in Canada. 
In iS6s tbe synod of that province, in an urgent letter to the 
archbishop ol Cinlettiury (Dr Longley), represented the unfeltle- 
mem of members of the Canadian Church caused by recent legal 
the' Privy Council.and their alarm lesl the re 

n o( C 

"should leave u 

[shops ol the Anglican Churcli at 

Longley a; 

:h housi 

in of Cani 

tury. Archbishop 
the bishopa of the Anglican 
Lommumon (then 144 in number) to meet at Lambeth In 1(67 
Many Anglican btshopi (amongst (hem the archbishop of York 
and most of his suffragans) felt 10 doubtful as to the nisdom of 
such an assembly that they refused to attend It, and DeaD 
Sunlcy declined tb allow Wcsiminatel' Abbey to be used lot 
the closing service, giving aa his reasotis tbe partial character 

and " tbe presence of prelates not belonging to our Cburdi." 
Archbishop Longlcy said in his opening address, holvever. 


sofa gem 


lull CO mm 

union wi lb the Chu 

rch of England," 

but merely to "d 

r> of practical In 

erest. and pro- 

nounce what we de 


nt In resolution < 

4iich may serve 

as safe guidet to f 

a." Experience baa shown ho« 

valuable and wise 

(hit coune wa*. The its, 

tutions of the 

Umbeth Conferen 

cei have 

d«i«a, but their 

weight has increased with e 

as those 

which possenedth 

e mind of Dean 

Seventy-six bishopa accepted the pifnut^'s Invliation to (lie 
first conference, which met at Lambeth on the utb nl Srplembet 
1B67, and sat for lour days, the jesiioDJ being in private. The 
archbishop opened the crafetence wiiU an tddren: delibeiatioa 
foUowed; e6iilnuttM( Mni appoiftlcd to report OB tpecial 
questlonr, RMlutloni were adopted, and an encyclical kitet 
wu addicssed to the faithful ol the Anglican Cooununion. 

Canterbury caihedcal and addnascd by (he archbiabop fnun 
the chair s( St Augustba. It has then met at LanbMfa, and 
after sitting for five days for delibciation upon the fixed tubjecU 
and appointment of committees, has adjourned, to meet again 
at tbc end of a fortnight and att for five daya BOn, la leuTv* 
itporu, adopt icKlutioni and Co put fanh the cacydkal 

. 1. Firjl Cmtftrtna [September i4->8. 18G7). convened and pre- 
aided over by Archbikhoo Longley. The proposed oider td ubiectt 
was eniirely altered in view of the ColeniacaK, for which urtaogt 

the thirteen roolutiona adopted by the coaftnqcc, twn hava dinct 


ta do witli tbc ocmIm of h 

volunury ifiihiihu trUniul " m a — - _ 

HiboniiiutKA of tynodt* The rejjoni of th -,-- 

nidv. udwcRcicriRl [erwui) to tbc raif etna of 1<; 
■HiHi UtSy j-a?. l<7*). EanmMd ii 
<p Tnt. Ob tUt okuob do bajuli 


by tbc aiSbufaop aTVorlt. Tk nporu of thi 

imincet (baied Id pvt udob thoae of tbo coRimitlei 

I iBboiUed la Iho cacydinJ \ttttr, vie on tbc bcM modi 
nfmiiaiy boonk of Afbitntioo, niiMHiin 

__ -.- ^-1 J. — 1-: J ^ Kport of J 




I Tnnpit; 194 UilKipt pmcm. 

ET by Archbuhop Bauooi [^ 

coDiidenttDii boif tbo posdoB of 

■KM the hiitoric ciucofiBtb la»(kL,--„ ,^ , — ^_j, 

■^**** rcMlutiawHt put forth, lod the rtporti of t«_-. 
BinippnidArapoa vhich tbcy in bued, the 
lenilnDca, po rity, di wuCT. polniiii]^, nbKiyince ol 

.^an ConunuHOB, bono mmioB, Scandlnabriu Churrb, CHd 

CithalicB, Ac, Eoitera Churchn, stondvdi of doctrine Jmd woruSp. 
FViIiiu the HUM imponint ul lhe« » the fanoui " Luinbclh 
gudrilalenl." which hit down ■ loarfoM buu tar home reunioR— 
•>■■■'■ ^ t^ Apude^ ud Nkoe cficdi. (he In 

Bcnnwntiantiiiini by Clirut htaidf *odththii»rieeph««ii. 
IV. FnrA Cmfcraa (July J-Ji. 1%), taovcned by AtchbMhon 

One o( (he chief aubjccu (or coiiiKla«t~.. — ,■■, 
" iT^ii^ of rdcndce " : taet the retohnioaa on thii 
witbd/avn. owiog, il !■ laLd, la the oppOMtJod ot 

bodp^iai sibHiialcd. The cwyctlal iHtn ii » 
■itty-tbin rcBliHidna (irtnrh indndF 1 

OM Cilhobc bodia). ind the repotti of 

'"^TtM CwMjnMna (July 6-Aui»l j, 190S), anvmd by Arch- 
bishop fundalf Davjdiop> who pmidcai >4T bjihope were pmenl. 
The chid lubjecti of diKuwan were: (he rebtioni of fiiih and 
nwdpTD Ihotiflhr, (he wpply and training of (be cWrfv, educilion. 
forwx niBDiu. Teviifoa ud " eoiiriiiaeaE "^ of the Pnyer'&oali, 
the rclalioa of ths Church to " nitoiMiiea of halii« " (Chriaiin 
Science Ac.], Ihc qiKitioDt c^ nunian uid divonc vvaniuiion U 
Ihe Anilioii Church, teunlon with otlicr Churcho. The multi ol 
the deftberatioAi were embodied ia levnity-ctiht retduiionL which 
wvn apacdded to theeacydicBl iHoidk in the name of tbcconKmice, 
by tbc AnhNiliap of Caoutbiuy oa the Bth of Auiua. 

The fifth LuriKib cmfoence, tullowini ai it did cloit oa the (rea( 
Pan-Anipan coneina, it leinirkibli inainly aii pconf of the irawlh 
of (he influence nnd many-iiiM utfviiy of l^e An(lion Church, and 
u a eoaapiciiaiu naaileitnkB of her chmcteriiiic principlei. 01 
the (cvaly-d|bc nuluiinu tone i> In any •enie epcch-maUni, 
and ihdr i|Hn( i> ihai ot ih« trMUiioiwal Anglian na oudu. (a 
pnent Ihej' are characlcriiei] ty a firm adherence 10 (be funda- 
■>u«rai BrtH-iM ^ r->ttiDlic onhodoicy, tempered by a tolerant 
at of " the houKb^of the [ilth." The 
Ih and modem (houihl i> " > farthlul 
._..a ol our i.ord Jeun ChriK, ihich Ihe 
ichicncralion, may. under Ibecharactrr- 
iK, b«l command alletsaiice." On the 
BL ]|-i4ltheronfeieiHciTalftrmedt(ronEly 
Mniie Chriuian teaibiac in ■chDob. v leeidar 

., , ..ndemned at " educiiion^ly at well at morally 

uDt4Hifuf, tince they fail to co-ordinate (he (raining of (he whoW 
'- MIA'-IB^n). ThereBluHontonqueflionialfni- 
._.. .6)dd1 wiihr.f. theoverlapplnf ofepticopal 

}uriadinB» Ual ud the nubliiluiwnt of Chsnrfmon linnadBcr 
or colour, which it condemned ilOi. The reHfutianiooqundoniof 
marrian and divorce (JJ-M) reaffirm (he traditional illilude o( Ihe 
Churrlt: It It, however. inlerHling (o oote (h3( (he reidmion (40} 
deprvcatiat tiie remarriaie In ehurch of (he innocen( pany 10 a 
divon* vaacvficd oulyby eithiy-v*m voni io nthty-four. In 
rHolutiaaa44 to M (be conference dealt with Ihe dwy ot the Church 
towardt mowm democratic ideali and tociai probiema, alfirmt ihe 
mponnbiiily id invetlott for (he character and conditioni of Ihe 
concenu lo which their money i> plactd [4q|; " while tranklv ic 

•uppona the -~ -' ■ ■ — ' — ' -— 

emphaiiaei (he 

It" waa decided 
irfeliofl (O the 

aaaemWtd (fc.) _., „ _ _,.„ _ „,.. 

CDmnuaion with certain of (he Churchei of (be Onhodoi Eat(eni 

■e laid down ior » 

ieniny relatiooa " 

" anctnt acparaitd OnDchea ol the Ea« " 

Cathofica. By leulutioa U 
naintaid and Mrengihen (be 

with Ron 

een the Chiiithet~oi the AngUan" 

ntunion anu uk ancient Church of IMIand " (J^oacBut, aetr 
Utmc^t) and the old Catholic Churdna-, and niglutioBt 70-73 
made elabmu proviBoni fur i pioiccttd cornmt* luiiaa betwcn 
the Anjlican Church and tbe VmiUt fnirtm (Honvitn Brethren). 
Ai IO " home reunion." however, l( waa made perfectly clear (ha( 
thia wwld only be poetible " on uoea Htfieated by tucii preetdenit 
u thoae of 16ID," m. by the Preibytaiu Churcbea aceepiinf the 
epitcspal uodeL So far ai the or^niialion of (ho AniUcaa Church 

the reconnruction of the Central CoitiullalivT Body on representative 
hnea (S4-j6) ; (hia body to conaU of the archbiabm o( Canterbury 
lad Kvnieen hiahepa apfuinted by Ihe varioua Churchea of the 
Anglican Camrnuuiaa throu^iout the world, A nouble feature of 
tbc conteicnce wat (he preaeoce of (he Swediih tuihop of K-l'-^' 
who pmenled a lettr- ' ■>■ '•'-^■' ' " — '- — ■— 

Sue A^^biahop K T- [Javidaon. TV LawMk Cnfuauti ^ 1IS7. 
/J/f aid fSJS [London, 1896) : CoHfcrmu 1^ £i]tDf] t/ lie .4 nuficuii 
Cnnnniiiini, fK^icoI UlUr. Sc. iXondon. 1897 and 1908)- 

UUfBIHUS. DIOHTSinS, the Ulmlied name of DenH 
Laiirih(i5io-ij7i), French chuicalscbolu, born at Hontrcuit- 
tur-mei [a I^cardy. Hsvinj devoled icveral ycu3 to clusical 
tludia duting a midcnce in Iioly, be was invited to Parii in 
i6;o to £11 the pralcs»nbip of Latin in the College de Fiance, 
which be loon iflerwardi eichangtd for thai of Creeh, Hii 
leclura were frequcnily inlemipted by hli iH-he»lth and the 
reUgioui disiurbancei of Ihe time. Hi) death (Scpicmber 1571) 
is uld to have b«n caused by hit xppreheuiDa that he mighl 
■hire Ihe fate of hii friend Peltr Ramui (Ffcrrc de la Ramfe), 
who had been killed In the inuuae of St Bartholomew. 
Lambinu) wit one of the giealeat icholan of hit age, and hi) 
if chissical futhors aicatiU uhIbL Id teiluij criticiui 

he wai a coiuervKliv 

defect ia that he refeis vaguely t 
the lourci of hii 

hb MSS. wiifaout ipecifying 
It ibeit rditive importanco 
icl, with (heir wealth 
mine of information. 
preserved the happy 

L(ed. But hii commeii 
of lllnsttalion and panllcl pnaagcs, ai 
In the opinion ot the beat icholan. 

coined Ihe word tiKiMiKr to express Iiiflini and diffuienest. 

Hia chief editiont *ie; Hsnce dsfiit: Luciniui (13A4), on which 
•ec H. A. J. Muruv'a preface to hia edilion: Cicero (is66) ; Corneliui 
Nepal (IJtlo)! DemDBhcnei {isto). compleiinE (he unAniihed work 
of Cijllliume March PUuiui(ij76]. 

See IVter UKr,Z)( Diini^riio Li iiiMao lurrslig. printed in pielll't 



1»3*). I 

Ivaruai OmAidgHi « epiiulat hmSinii atiuui: Unrtli. 
Lambini. fyiii {Pahl, 1979)1 alio Sandyi. HiU. cf Claniial Stknltr. 
•hif Oooa. S. IM), ind^A. Horawiti in Erjch and Cruberi Allp. 
IfrtHc Enrjehpedic 

n the New 

rkjhire.England.fism-W.ofLondon, __ 

of Ihe Ijnibouta Valley li^i railway fmm Newbury. Pop, 
(igoi) Mil. It lies high op the oa now valley of lheL«nboiim, 
a (ribuliry of ihe Kennet fimom (or in iHHit-ftjhing, among 
the Berkshire Downs. The church of St Michael is cruciform 
and principally Idle Norman, but has numerous additions of 
later periods and has been considerably altered by modern 
reiioraiion. The inmates of an ilmshouie founded by John 
Esibury, c, 1300, by his desire still hold letvlcf daily al hi» 
lomb in the church. A Perpendicular isarkel'craB slariili 
wiihout the church. The lonn has agticuliural Inde,'bul its 
chief imporitnce is derived from large training ilibtes in xbe 
neighbourhood. To ihe north of the town is a large group of 

to be I British buml-place. 
UMBCH {x!Ti, the biblical pilriircb, ippeir* in each of 

the aniediluvian gcnealogtet 


4 y. 1 

1 descendant of Cain, and ihrough his sons 
of primitive clviliiaiion^ In the htier he it the laihtt 
But il 11 now gcnrratlv held thai Ihew IM fCiMBlogies 
.1 tdaptalions of the Babyloniin list of ptimllivr 



king! (« EHOcn). It !■ doubtful wfaethfi Luaech it to bt 

idfoLlficd wiib Ihc nuns of any doc of ibest l^ingi; be nuy 
have been introduced iitto the geoeilogy ffoia uiother Inditkm. 
la the older aanallvc in Geo. Iv. L.atiiecli') family in the 
oii^iutan of vuioui idvuica in dviliulioD ; be bimieU 
it the £TSt to mury more than one nfe, 'Adah (" omtmept*" 
perlu)B specially " d»wn ") and Zillab (" ihidow "). He has 
three sons Jabal, Juhat, ind Tubal, the last-named qualifiedby 
the addition oi Cain £- "»aulb"0. The assonance o[ these 
names is probably intentioBal, cf. the farotheis lUsan and Hosein 
of early Mahommedan hcHory. Jabal institutes the life oF 
nomadic shepherds, Jubal is the biveDtor of music, Tubil-Cain 
the lint smith. Jabal and Jubal may be buns of a cool used ia 

and underlying our ''jubilee." Tubal nay be the cponytnoui 
ancestor of the peopli ■ ' .._.... 

with " 

kicls of h 

aometimei derived Irani '^' in the leiue of oHspring, so Ibat 
Ihey would be three different words for "son," and there are 
numerous other theories as to Iheir etymology, Lamcch his 
also a daughter Naamah (" gracious." "pleasant," "comely "; 
cl. No'min. a name of the deily Adonii). This nanalive clearly 
intends to account for the origin of these various ans ai they 
(listed in the narrator's time; it is not likely that he Ihougbt 
of the^ discoveries as separated from his own age by a universal 
floodi nor docs ibe tone of the narrative suggest thai the 
primitive Iradilioo thought of these pioneers of civilization as 
members of an tccuocd family. Probably the passage was 
originally Independent ol the document which told of Cain and 
Abet and of the Flood; Jabd may be a variant of Abd. An 
ancienl poem is connected with this genealogy] 
"Adah and Zillih, hear my voice; 
ye_ wives of Lamech, gfvc ear unto my speecK 

In view of the conseiioii, liie poem it interpreted as 
Lamech's etultaiion at the advantage be eipecta 

able to lakt signal veogeuce for the least mjury. Butth 
probably had oHginsUy nolbing to do with iha geiie>Jn_ 
may have been a pie« of folk-tODg eelehniing the piowest 
of the tribe of Lantech; or It may have bad some relation to 
a sloiy of Cainand Abd In irbich Cain was a hero and not a 

The genealogy in Gen. v. bdnngs to the Priestly Code, c. 
4J0 I.e., and may he due to a revision of ancient tradition in 
the ![Kht of Babylonian archacoiogy. It tj noicwonliy that 
according to the numbers in the SanuHtan MSS. Lantech dies 
in Ihe year of the Flood. 

The oripn of the name Lai 

it Sin the . 

ic Uban-Tuti 

i ^j^ei ol Bcrobu^ wl 

«Ih U^r, 

HI expanded and ini 

, piimillve Babyk „ .. 

llie Babylonian Hood uory. jU!i as Lamech 
• nd the larbcr ol N*»h. Spinel^* rta^M vl 
explained fnxn the Hebrew, but may penbly 
AMk yoIiKokvn. " a strong youag maru" 

Dulsldr of Genesis. Lameeh is only menti 

Chron. i. 3. Luke iii. 36. Later Jewidi tiaditi . 

prtted Ihe Moiy in ill unat fashion. (W. H. Be) 

LABEQO, a city of nortliem Foitugal, in the district of Viieu 
and formerly included in the province of Beirai 6 m. by road 
S. of Ihe rivei Douro and 41 m. E. of Oporto. Pop. (tgoo) 

.»-». lor Lamech's limily. Theidr 

rh tornjo is al« SUKeHcd by Sayce. Ejfpoiii 

Ni Ikt Httmt Tal 0/ CaaU, <i 

nil. IIm neanst railway sUlioB h Pew da Rifg^ oa tk« 
opposite side of the Douro and on (be Barcm (f^vaOporto 

riQny. Lamego is an andent and piduresftoe city, ih the 
midst of a beautlfut mountain lef^on. Its principal boHdiiigs 
(le Ihe I4tb-c«atuiy Gothic catbedial, Mooiish dLuU, Romaa 
baths and a church which ocenpica the site of a ueaque, dhI 
though intrin^cally commonplace, b cekbraled In I^lrnlgaj 
as the seat of the legendaiy csrtes of tI4] or 1144 (see PouiifUi, 
HiOory), The ptincipal ioduitriet ue vitiodtun and the 

rearing of n 

in Ihe Qtb and loth centuries It was c^>tUKd_Jn loj; by 

LiMBLUBRAHGHU (Lat. lamtOa, ■ amall or thla fdatc, 
and Gr. fipiyxit, giUa), Ibc fourth oftbefiteclBBesoCanimalt 
conititutmg the phylum MoHuaca. (4,1.). The LamellibraDctda 
arc mainly characterised by the rudimeDtaty condition of the 
head, and the retention of the ptioutive bilaleni s; 
the latter feature being actentuiled by the htetal tt 
of the body and the development of the shell aa two bUitenlly 
symmetrical plates 01 valves covering each one side of the 
aninuL The foot i> commonly a dmplo cytindriial or plough- 
shart-ahaped organ, used l«r btning in sand and mud, and mon 
ritcly pRsents a crawlitig disk similar to that of Gastropoda; 
in some forms it ii aborted. The paired ctenidia are very gnatl; 
developed right and left tl ibe elongated body, aad focm the 
men prominent organ of the group, Tbeit ftUKtlon is chiefly 
not re^'ntoiy but nutritive, since it t> fay the currents produced 
by lb«r ciliated suiface that food^iutides an biought to tlw 
leeUy-devdoped mouth and buccal cavity. 

The LuneNlhnnchia piesent as a wbide a somewhat uaifann 
•Injclute. The chief points in which they vary are— <i) In the 
structure of the ctenidia or hraadiial plates; (a) intheptaobct 
of one or of two chief musdea, the fibres of which run actoes ibc 
animal's body f ram om valve of the shril <o the other (adductors)! 
(3) in the greater or less ebborallou of the posterior portion ol 
Ibe Dunile-skiit so as to fonn a pair of tubes, by one ot which 
water it introduced bilo the sub-pallial chamber, whilst by lit 
other It is eipcUed; (4) in the perfect or deficient symmetry 
of the two valves of the shell and the connected soft parts. M 
compared with one another; (j] in tbe devdopmeot at the foot 
aa a disli-like crawling organ (Ana, HiKtia, Patuwttiia, 
Trigmia, Leflai, Galiemma), as a simple plongfa-Uke or tongue- 
shaped organ {UniimiJiii, &c.). as a R-curv^ saltatory orgaa 
iCaidlum, &c.]. as a long burrowing cylinder (Salatidat, Ac.), 
or its parUiJ (My lilsccat or even loaopteic abonim (Osttieacta). 

The essential Mottaacan organs are, with these exceiMioiis. 
unilormly well ■ develc^ied. The manile-shirt is ahtayi long, 
and hides the rest of Ihetnlmal from view, iu dependent mar^ns 
Bwettng in the middle lin« below the ventral surface wbcn llw 
animal ia nttacted; it is, ss it wtte, slit In Ihe medlafi Um 
"behind so as to form two flaps, a right and a lelti 
:areom valves of the ttieH 

e ihe right and the le 

e bomt Bcspeciively, c 


1I by ei 

incaki&ed paM of the 


Both ctenidia, right and left, are invarlaUy present, tbe ub 
of each taking ortgin from the side of Ihe body as in Ihe schematic 
aichf-Mollusc (see lig. 15). A pair of renal tubes opening right 
and left, rather far forward on tbe sides of the body, are always 
present. Each opens by its internal extremity Into (he peri- 
cardium. A pair of Bcnita! apertures, connected by genital 
duels with the paired gonads, are Found tight and left near the 
ncphiidisl pores, eicept in a few cases where the genital duel 
joins that of the renal organ {Sfaiiiylia). Hie aeia an often, 
but not always, distinct. No acnssory glands or copnlatory 
organs are ever present in Lamcllibranchi. Th» ctenidia often 
aci at biood-pouchea. 

A donal couraclite heart, with symmelrical rij^t'snd Wt 
auricles receiving (era trd Mood'frohi the ctenidia and manllt- 


ikM, ti pfom, bdng onequBy devdoped onlyWii thtac lew 
fcKJBt whkh are jnequivalve. The (ypical perinrdEiiiD is wLL 
developed It, u In other MoUuici, is not a blood-space buL 
devdopi [ram the eoelom, and it communkilis wilh Ihe 
tjtefior by the pair or renal tubes. As in Cephalopoda (and 
postibly otber MolLu&ea) water can be inlroduced through 
Ibe nephridia into this space. The alimentary canal keeps very 
Deaily to the" median vertical plane whilst exhibiting a number 
of Beiures and loopings in this plane. A pair of large gbndular 
outfTOWths, the lo-talled " liver " or peal digestive gland, 
eaists as in othei Molluscs- A pair of pedal otocysls, and a 
pair of osphradia at the base of Ihe giils, appear 10 be ^Uways 
present. A l/tncal nervous syslem b present {6g. 19), consbting 
o[ a cerebro-pieural ganglion-pail, united by cminectives to a 
' ganglion-pair and a visceral ganglion-pair (parieio- 


In many L 
of the fool 


with the UDmach fa comnionly 
1 tough flcuble cylinder of iranspuenl 
ince, tailed the " etystalline style " (Mac/i-d), 
nchs a gbnd is found on the hinder sulfate 

Maigin of the ri^t mantle- 

, Ejicuirent Bphonal notcb of 

Incurrmt lipbonal notch of 
the mantle margia. 
/. Fool 

- Probe paMd Into the 
Hiperior diviiion of the lub- 
pallial chamber through the 

asd iBuin^ by the ade of 

dividon of Ihe sub-p^Ual 
A, Anteiioi (pallial) adductor 
mutdeof-'- -■-"- 
Anterior n 

e form of threads— the soKalled "byssus" — by 
Dieans of whkh the animal can fix itself. Sometimes this gland 
is found in the young and not in tbe adult lAtitJonla, Umo, 
Cycfoi). In some LameUibiancbs (PufaR, Sfcndylus, PMai. 
UiOta. Tdlira, PiclHnctUm, Galttmaa. tic), lUhough cephalic 
eyes are generally absent, special eyes are developed on the free 
margin of the nuntle-sldrt, apparently by the modification of 
tentacles commonly found there- Tliere are no pores in Ihe foot 
or etsewbere in Lanellibranchia by which water can pus into 
and out of the vascubr system, as formeTly Jtsscrled- 

A very few have the power of swimming by opening and shutting 
the vatves of the shell (PiilrH, Lirni); most can crawl slowly 
or bunow rapidly; others ore, when sdult, pennanently fixed 
to stones or rocks either by the shell or the byssus- In develop- 
ment some Lamellibranchia pass through a free-swimming 
liochosphere Mage wiib preond ciliated band; other fiEth- 

FiG. I.— 'Disgramicf the external form and anatomy of ^■otfiM'r 
emeo- the PoDd'MuHel: in figures 1.1, 4.3.6 ihcaiumilitKnifraii 
tBeleflbdclhccenlro-dofsalrexionuppermoBt- (1) Animal rrmovrt 
from its shell, a probe g paiaed into the wb-pallial dumber throusl 
the dcuneat siphoul wlch. (a) View from the venlnl surface ol 
•n Anodoo witli iu foot apcndid and iiHiinf fmni between thi 
filiini shdla. (]j The Mt nunile-Sip leflected upwards so as Ic 
eapo« Ibe lidea oC tbe body. (4) Diagrammaiic lecIioB of Anodor 
to ibow Ibe counc of the aliiiKntary canaL (sj The two gill-plsln 
i< IIh lell side rejected uiiwanis lo aa to eapoM the fiaure between 

rausde of the ahclU. 

lie fool 

Pcalecior labi^ lei 

"^ diviMin of 
ol the .foot tup 

at. Duel of the liver on 

ir ponioa of Ibe Ml 

'. Left internal ^l-plate, 

rr, InneV lamella of the right 

inner gill.jdale. 
rg. Right outer giU-jJite, 

outer lamcUa of the left 
outer gill-iJatc with Ibe Ml 

I. Pallid tentacles. 

■. The ihlcVened muscular 
pallial margin wUch ad- 
Geres ID the ibdl and forms 
Ihe paDiat line of tbe Idi 

T, Thai of Ihe li^t side, 

X. Apcnure of the Irf I organ 
01 Boianu* fnephridium) 

water forms whic 

■ac of the left nc^hiidiura. 
■nriion of the Idl nqib- 

«w. Left cerATD-pleuiD-visceral 

ttx, Lefi pedal gangfion. 

OS,' Lefl oltactory langlian 

fpa riclo-AplaodinicX 
W, Floor of the pericardium 


■hich carry the young 
i have suppressed this lai 
iple of tbe organiEation 

le non-glandular portion of 

nl phase. 

of a Umcllibranch, wc 

il with other Lunelli- 

mussel {Anadimla ryp"")- 

The iwaB-mustd h» nipcrficiiUy a pcifeclly developed bnalnal 
■ymmeliy. Theleflndeottheanimsl Hseenaawhcn reiuoved Irom 
in ihea in fig 1 (1). Tbe valves of the shell have been removed by 
■cnii^ Ibor adhnlons to the muscular areae t. •', (. I, m, u. The 
liee edge of the left half of the mantle-skirt 6 ii rrpresented ai a little 
eontraeted In order to ibow Ihe exactly similar free ed^ of rhe righl 
faalfef Ihemantle-aklrtt Tlieae edges are not allachcd Bi. althougb 
they tDiKh, one another: each flap fright or left) can be freely thrown 
baek la the way carried out in fig. I.^ for that of Ihe Ml side. Thia 
■I not ahnys Ibe eaae with Lanewbranefca: there ii hi the group 
I tendency for the earrespoiidiiif edges of the nuMl^ikirt '- ' — ' 
logeiher by eon er eieence. and « to form a more or lesa eon 
In Ihe Scaphopoda (PnWii ' 

noleha d, t of the binder 

iintle-gkht ti Anttmla are in 

tnverted into two teparate holes, Ihe edges of 
ther along this hinder margin. 

lorm _■ pair of iXs whkh 

B. J9l. 1"'" 


ivicy oi the tbctb 

■^Tripon." Thh n Ihc utiul condioon 
and SeplibniKhA. When Iht fcdal i 


'-^ i^f 

thickenfd ndn 
panlkl to iIk 

wUUi dtnted patttiiatiy by m tiimt formed by 
the nuicla whkli rcliacl the Bpheos. 
, U i> Ihe appnuiauH cqulity in the 

ductor miMcIs which led lo the name 
Iwinya (or tht group to which /t uibiiU 
behinEi. The hinder udductor muicle 

__, Ih* anterior adductor may be very' 
tmall (He(troroya), or ah^ni ihiKether 
(MonomyaJ, The Interior addiKior 

Cylk^rn loM 0( the Sinu- Sj^™,^,t,^^'„l^fSrr"l''n 
^,.J„mya,, f™. the ^^^ -"^,^1^ J^n.^"^ tt 
■nut. The former daHificalioa bawd on theie diffenncn in the 
adductor minclH u now abandoned, havins proyid to be an an^ 
aalurai one- A Hnelc family may include isomyarian. aniioniyarian 

be unele adductor muieie of Il>e M 
chi. Oik of theie portiom if mi 

Fic. J.— Right Val* 
bling india-rubber. ; 

d accordingly out buret (fa- 1, j, i 
lupalliate genut C.ilrrm- Tlie com 
tiB-liudnita. Rdening 10 Ibe fiiuri 
«i applicable lo the partt of the valv 

(1, i) for an oplaiuliiin of lerma applicaUi 

and^the markup on iu inner (urface—cun., .... ,„ ,.,^ ...,.^__ 

aieai already noted on Ihe nrface of Ibe animal't body — ve muit 
■pecially note here [be poution of that rientienlatid IhidvninE ol the 
donal margin of Ihe v;dve which it called the hinge (&r. \t. Dy this 
hinge one valve ii chnely fitted to the other- Bdinr ihb hinie each 
ihcU becoma concave, above it each ihell rin a Utile to form the 
umbo, and it it into thii ridR-like upgnswlh of each valve thai the 
elaitic Uganenc or •firing i> Ajied (fig. 4). At thoca in Ihe diagram 
(nj. s) reprewnting a trannerH tcciion of Ibe two valve* ol a 
Lameliibranch. the Iwo ihclli form a double lever, ol which the 

b act upon tba Iw am 
:i their cont rial iofl Eeepa 1I 
or tprinff h. On the other I 


I upon Ibe thort • — ^ — 

icver Ihe addueton (Tbi, the eUilic nibNi 
'acta, and the ihelli gape. It itr- ■'■- 

by the umlunal rid^ of the ahelbi 

. .U..L. -J— o( ,|„ Nguneni 

that the nive* 

aa the affere _. _, 

and eflemil nipeiior " liphoni "" formed by the mantle 
other Lamellibranchl llw, 8). 

Whilu Ihe valvei <A the ihell ate equal in A miimla w 
many LamcUibraiKhi (Oi/rou, Ciama, CurbiJa, &c.) o 

Hal. whiitt the larger didi may be fixed to 
rock or to itaiiH {OiIraM. Ac). A further 

additional ihcUy plain upon Ihe doiHl line 
belwcen the two laiEe valvei (ftnliuliifiKl. In 
^biJsi daaylui we find a pair of umboir 

ol the oititubt hard ptoduct produced on / " 

the donal luifice and on Ihe mamle-fljpi f^^=fe 

i> to be reganled at the ■* .hcH.- of whkh a ^^^ 

median band-tike area, the ligament, ujually P=*l^ 

lipment. But the thdly tubtum doe. not \ 

alwayi in bonng fonni adhere to Ihii form \\ 

whole of the lububr mantle »« tecrclei • \\ H 

the adult tubular thell, which hat even re- pjo. (.—Diagram 

pbcrf the ligament. .0 thai the lube it ol a lit ion Si a 

completer In 7>rr^ a timilar tube ii fornied La mellibranch't 

:.=' ",T,'s iB-i-ijjss.SK; ,"ft».*'~'!i.»:i; 

Jll'^ti^^in;. ^i^i^i^u'Sr t"the^ace """' ' ^- '^1"": 

the nacRoui layer. Thelaoitaecmedby the 

whole Kirfaee o( Ihe mantk e^pt the border, and addlllont la In 

thichnett continue to be nude through life. The pei^oflracum b 

produced by the eitreme edee of Ihe mantle bonier. Ibe priimatic 
Uver by Ibe pan of the borJet within, the edge. TheK t-K layH.. 


low miniM the oinna wh 
Is, iih] >k tatbcd Gy tbc c 


:b lie benealh the miiuk-ikirt 

iDtfe-duRMHniitexfitedielit.lb)- WethmopoK 

.... . ^ _te foot (fl, the two kll laUal MalacGsi. and [b« two left 

t>U-J>litea«lefIct«DuIiiim. Infig.i (j). one of iht labial tenUcIn n 

la luo ibroHn b*ck to ikow ilie moutn tI^ and ihe hd Mi gill-plam 

are nBectcd to ihow the ^-plala of tbr ricKt suk (rr. rg) pro- 

JKtiflflbtihiod the footi.the inner or median plate ol each aide being 

united hy concrcKence to it* fellow of Ihe oppo^ie lide alfing a 

coaliniiout liae lu). The left inner ftill-plaieiialfto snipped to ^ow 

the lubjacent orificct nC the kfl renal onan 

*, and of the eenilal eland (leilis or ovary) v. 

The loot thui cjtpoied in AnaLiiUii ii a Hople 

of Ihcie ilandt. In the 

The labial tentacleiiH' palpi of ^iiiiAnla(ii,o in Gg. i Ij). Jsl) an 
highly vucular Bat p r oc cM c a richiy suflplwd with nerves. 1^ left 
aatenor tentacle fieen in the fieuie) n jtnned at in bov In front ol 
IbcraauihMtotlieiigiitanlenarlentacle.andiiaiilaclylhe left W 

appearance and pcailion firfgcit thai Ibey are in tonte way relaicd 
mafpbokjficailv lo the fill-^lei. the anterior labial tentacle beii^ a 
conlinuaiionof ibc outer BdUplHe. and Ihc posterior a fDnimuation 
of the inner gill-plate. Thcie ii dd cmbryolaftifal evidence to tupporl 

hiitory d4 the gill. plain in various fnrmi of Lpamenibfanchtdoes not 

labial tenlaclef, and one which in Anodffnta iiiingularly complicated 
*ich what nun have been ihdi ocitiul 

bcinchia. The phenomcoso of "coacren 
alicady had to note aa ihowinE itself «o impo 
fire rdgn o( the nuntle-ikirt and Ihe fomu 
what, above all ihinfii faaa complicated 
Laoiellibimnch denidiitni. Our prcKni bno 
ing «enei oE modiScationa through which t 
platea have developed to their mnat comp) 
R. H. Ftck. K. Mitufairi and W. G. Ride 
ctenidlun li typically a plume- 
like Atnicturet coamting of a 

(b. lo) 
e S a I 

tamellae, but are ilightly flat* 
lened. wry long tubea Of hollow 
lilanienla. Theae hlanwnll an 
ao fioe and are let lo closely 
Togelhcr that they appear to 

Lntil examined with a lena. (peddlj aspect of the anli 

iDgethcr by patchea of cilia, awav. (Lankeater.) 
ca^d'-dlialed, junaiona." a. Itfouth. 

n^'Jo'dJ! "hT^' Tk^A^^ 

c, Frm ipirully (umcd eilremily 
of tile iin.a>ia or ctenidial 

aiia of iRe right aide. 

d. Do. ol the lell aide. 


''^' laiS^'^KH^tH^o*'^ 


e. Anlcripr adducto; muscle. 

u profoundly modiAed t^ the n, Sole at the loot, 
cuiioua condition of the free n, Calloaity. 

Thcie are actually rrilecMd at a thlip angle — doubled on 
in fact— and thua form an additional row of AlanHnti (se 
■tlament haaa detccndUig an 

muf, and Inatead ol Hi 

a ainpie plate, ihe plate 

iadouble» conaiatino of a dncendina and an aacendiiw lametla. Ai 
Ihe aiii of Ibe cleiTiiUun liei by the aide of iba body, and ii very 
[requenllycanaale with the body, at 10 often happeni in Caitropodi 

Ncvenheleii Ihe Abmrnt 

" Kui labalaMe and 

■lly by endothelium 


Then let ua auppote that Ihe Intrr-larnclhr luncllofla already notei 
in Uylilki beiMine very numeroofc brge and irretutar: by them th 
two titllia-worka o! filament) would be united lo aa >o leave only . 
aponge-like KI of apaces bflween them. Within Ihe Imbecolae c 
the ^mnge-work blood tirculares. and between the Irabcculae th 

work iomed bf the united titl-nlamenta (fit. 14). The lar^ th 

fiBwih. Tbu IiHi 

MJH the iBdivldial UamciiuJ 


(Jjt^ Arc plicEiI Of 

«>, FRcaircmitkK 

if. Mid-liK of U 

I, SuKhc oI (ke pi 
f. I» upm boidfr. 
*, ChiliVnui llnlni i 

■'. F.bmu. Iran. 

0. Upper b\tjod-wB 

H, Lonr bl«d-vci 

1, ChlaixHii [niKi 

c». Canalinlhcunie. 
i4, B. Line ilooE which Ihe < 

inof IhrCLcnidiaof V^uiJa. (Aiicr MUukucL 

S« il» Ri. 3. 
> Ihe luii □[ a the Ictc valve d the iln 

ith ■ iuir ot and the leTt half ol tl 

Libiil Tentacle. 

I, FiUnlFnlouft ippenduA ol 
the libiil tenlule. 
Hood-lilie apfcndafc of the 

Mem^ne «u«|iefidin)[ tbc 
Bill and attached to iht 
Body ftlf>Df Ihe line x, y. i, 

PoBerlor end of ihe (ill 

^cnw- I. EDiihdhini of general 

r. Dilated bkod-HiaM. 
NuKila k. Chiiiamn llniiu (coi 

fa. II. C. lend 
fiTanKnI. And 

really Ihickencd as 

Idd, in the other (lowet la Ihe 
. ThechiiiiwuiHibiUiueiitb 

Aioicila lit. ij. C) Ihii oUitei 

**" ^ ''ifl LhickcMd. the licelrtal 

'^ ■ c. rod-like body oc 

fllament, AlihAugh ib« (tnienie el the dendiaiB l> Ihu lii^y 
eoffliilkaiHl in Atmlimu, It bvet more n in lonK of the nphuiile 
lenera of LanellibranchL The fibinenli take on a Kcondaiy 
(laiping, IhE uiffacc of the lamelta beini thrown into a Kiinot haU- 

nhn' Lamellibranchi. theot 

U hatdbed embryoa an 

FtvntaieCEivetheava(Si. ij.A). TheyoSng'are nonri»hrdbTm 
u bwan w furmed 1>y the cilla vhicb cover the iponiy inter-UmelW 

(Sher point! in the modification of the typical cti 

if each ctenidium, right and l^t. Rant from 


Umella. junaion. fr., Frmial 
re tpiihelium;*./.!'., 1/j"., ihciwo 
h nwi ol Islero-fronlal Fpithdial 
ig cell* with longdlia;fl,chitiiioiiB 
>- tubular lining of Ihe Mii^M; 
i; b(., blood lacuna invened by* 

u- th« labial lnlacln.bi 

n> then 

, and if the it 

nl tameliai 

- - lully croppnl » 

w <^in the /Dim •kmiiii &•. 15. where 

>e lefl and the rL 

ttjpeeiively th 

beyond the bony, innrtn imtcan ueicen wim i^r icHimuDie. 1 
(he fiLanenIi are more easily removed than are the conaoUdati 
laipelbe formed by the Abmenli of AneSania, and in Ana the fr 
aket of the clenidia are large ami firm in tnluie (fig. 9. tA. 


9WI1 diwinuntially in fc. t(L C, «wl man comctly In fa; 17, 
Ikb ngM Itie inner uiacl&c CI tlw iaMr gJB-plua mn no Idb(w 

Flo. 1 J.— TnnjvBie S«(ion of thr Outer C 
DftuHtiit polymcrfln. [Alter EL H. I 
/. Contitusit gill-Gliiaenli. k, Blood-cotp 
/. FibRHnnib^i^damlctUius. U, Fmmittpi 
a, CUlDiiinu wluaiKC of Uw If, J/c'.Twom 
fikflKMi. epitlwlHl 

■ctiCdUfclaudtallKdutaiBW cHii. 

^, PigfDcnt-all*. 


. lOHT lill-IllltC. 

. A por&n o( B own hjeUr 
I, Oaut Ismdla. lnmrlW. 

[>■ SectidM »( GiU'plua ol 

(Afta R. H. PkIe.) 

ia£, LacunAr liatL 
<*, ChimncKuiu 

[AIM R. H. Pick.] 

ziU-plale mliiu on Iht tool llie Wl Mill of llw an[nitl of ^ii«b^ 

EKHKC tktu. o( ihc fra. ". Cniro-dorMl ar 
(eofllienaectcdUnielbc '■ Arttnpr iddocn 

it once iDVButHl ilw cc- cicnidiuin which b fuwl with tha 

duclioa do* [iU.pl.iH .>( b" of t»|f fool. Ihe™ dWleil 

of tlw Bmpl«l nmidium Iwn riiwi of iJI-BUm pitt. 

pnenti no diBruliy: «ii<l. ■. l-me of^mjin g( the Mterior libiil 

Ttremin 10 iupfi^l'^Mi "■ Nephndiil iptnim. 

lirniBclDCC. iiir mrcSxia- '• Genual mpenur 

ai n>ul< of th. coKTt«o« '■ Li« "("nP" ol 

of the outer limellir lo the tennde. 

i™nlle-a»p.«id of the inner 

lamclUe lo one (nother ii ihown u aection _. ... — _ 

ihc lub-pallol tpKt ii divided into no ipua bv ■ horia 

■eptum. The upper wpta (i> commuDKotH wiUi the oifta < 

n D, G|. IS. le that. 


r npcrisc (ipWal M>di ol th* nunile 

notch (< in Sg. i). Tbc only conuminlcatkni betomi ilw iwd 

ipaceB. EucplinE throuBh the trcUU-work of the ai1l-pU1«. H by 

Ih* lUt (• In ft. I (si) Wt by 

of the [nner kn^ of the 
inner |riD-plue iriih ihc foot. 
A prMK (f) b InnvlucHl 
IhraBA iMi lUfliln puan. 
and Itu teen lo pan eut by ihr 
tioirrcnt •ipiunal notch. Il 
H throoch Inii pun^, or In- 
directly (hrough (he pore* of 

Fio.l7,-Veftic«l Sectim 
an Auaitnlt^ aboul the m 

•>, Hinlle-Baiv 
br.OuKT.yr: i 

compoied Dt tv» wncia: 
/, Fool.' 
t. VcnIricJe ci< the beut. 

fV. lWrdi.1 ovlty. ,^i, .aBBe.lio 

•. Inlotuw. loirowtloul byDrPiul 

Pc1«neir in the cbnifidlion now f^nprally idojrtFd. 

The ilimcDtary canal a( AnatimU ii shown !ti <if. I W). The 
mouth [■ placed between the anterior ■dducior and the foot; the 

and (UiefautEt into the luperiiic falliil chamber aloit *hkh the 

Fncyclopiedia P i trf e ie or (Sir] 
E. R. Lankeeter wnnted that 
Ibcse dilTeRncFa cT xill-atnic- 

Tbe coil ef the Intenine 

n wnp^ u itwer 
anEement in Lanwlllbranch 
IK Gaatropoda (ifdIuHu). . 

limilar ta that of other LamdliL . 
peikardium. and hu uic ventricle ol th 

aod a nmilar dispoeitJtK 

liact called ttamacb Into a pair ol bne diiettive glincti. ihe i 
called liver, the bnnchei nf whKh are cloiely packed in iha regii 
(ah. TbcFo()da[iherfiHil«a.ualoIherLinirilJbranch<,coniii 

by the Mreim which leti into the tu1>palliil chamber at Ibe low 

nphond notch (linlif. i) Pmbablya ttiainingol walerlromiol 

pailiclei » eflectrd by the lillice-wDth ol the clenidia or riU-platei 

The bean o( ^HOMa cwuitti oC a median ventncle emtiacinf i; 

and of two aurictee which open in 
tested by vilvn. 

The blond i> tnlouileu. and hai 
floatlnE in it. In CtroliseUn UlUM 

which foon become irraular lacunae aurrDundinv the viiren, but 
in pant — ej. the labial ten laclet and wall* of tne snt— venr fine 
vetteh wilh endothelial ceU-lining an found. The blood malin i>i 
way by larne veini to a veooiia ^iu which liet in the micfdie line 
below the heart, haying the paired renal orfans (nephridia) placed 
between it and that organ, ffence it pa^ee throvigh the veavla of 
the lelanttular walls oTthe nephrrdia right and Mt into the cin- 
lamrTlae. whence it retJTiiH through many openinn into tbe widely- 
iRFtched aurides. In the (ilametiiiof the xill ol Prstabnnchia and 
many Filibranehia the tubular cavity is divided by a morr or leva 
complne Rbrnm leptum into two ehanneb. lor an aHrrrnt and 

perianiiua which bckKhed with a pavem en t e ndotbeEuttUd,^ iSX 




dEiMlty with Iht Wood- 

'pcritardiura of Umdli- 

lll. Of cnpH Iron tbt loot, or Iw Iht rrnal oigani when Iht 
1 wddenly amnscti, it (umiihtit by iSe CmiiKaim Icftm. 
lum nd Mood-cocpnitk*- Accofding f o obH-rvalioni made by 
R of] an UDlojuRd CtmHsoien iegumtn, no ird corpuKln in 
to bt mn in ihp pcriojrOial 

of thr pcrictrdlum. . 
Each ntphndiuiti. if 



sflrfln^ E^T (J) «.J. 

«, Of Anodnla. ■ "7 4^^ i ^l^,i^ 

•. CmbBi gmnjt»ii-pur (-are- S^rhi ™J,™„^^S^™ ^ 

». P«£rni«1ion-pB;r ST^J^- .^■«„^ i.^ 

t, aiMloiyloipluidBlJ ^nglion- ^[iS^".|i^ich^"mu„i 

tiw oriio^ariul invvcplaBd lo the front ol thr grrai ad- 

p eikjirdi uro. From iu tvtt of tbr eyfiform *ac narrow Bialk-lilw 
tuba uv Efveq vB^ vndidc ■■ abuKUnt widely-ftpn^ bnnrhirg 
^adukr GAflo, vhich fdnn tbeoannial rvnai arcrning apparaiun- 
TIk (caitAl duct opniv by « pocv into the uriiH^grnriai etoovf of ihc 
tmaa ftheiuiiearnngcnieiit bdns irpeated on cacli aidcuf ihr bniy) 
tine to but diitioct from tbe apenure of the ncphridia] cinal- 
KcAce, aajA for tbe famutHm of a urino^niUt etodvf. the iper- 
ma (K pkeed u (bay are in Anadnla. Prevnualy la Hock'i 
di HX FVer y * hrem^oloiind inveatmcat rA the aunclem of the heart of 
the oyster had been uppoacd t« nprevem Ihr nrphndia la a nidi- 
nentaiy alate. Thia invettment. which occurs also in many Fili- 
bnnchiaH fomu the perirardial flLand*. comparable (o the pcricanJial 
acceaaory glandutar [rxrwihs of Cephalopoda- In Vntontdtt aod 
■evetal other forms ifie pericardial glands arc extended mio averii- 
cula oj the pericardium which penetrate the 
mantle atid cofKtitute Ihc ornn of Hebcr. 

from the pericardium into the renal OTcani. 

Ntrttv Sjiirm D«f Sii>»-(>jaai.— Tn 

«>A./Mbl (here an three wrl1-di;vrluprd pain 

pnglia (fi^. 19, B, ami Iw. 1_ (&))- 

of C^>. lF.t 

the (^^[^(Er' .. 

lot Ihectivbraland pli-ural bat 

I the ivpical Mollusc, wh - 

air placed eloie tocelhcr in the foot (lit 
tlu, ume " ■* "■ *■ "^ ^- ' '*'• "* °" "" "''?**' 

Otolith ■ pj*>lpnilia:iheyan^ncdioiheceiebro. 

o,uM.itn pleural ganglia by coniKtivea. 

Poateriorly beneath the pwtenur adducloifc and covered only by 
a Ihin layer of ekingaied epidermal cells, an the vtsceral nn[l]a. 
Uniled with thcK .anglia on the outer rides are the osphradia 

aoioe Lsmellitaanchi the osphradial ganglia receive nerve-ftbrcs, not 

viaeeni oommissuii. Tocmeriy ihe ponerioc pair ol ganglia were 
Uenifad at timply Ihe osphradial ganglia, and the antenorpsir at 
Ibe cnebral, pleural and visceml jangTia umied into a tingfc pair. 
But it has tmce been distovcrnf Ihat in the Protobranchia the 
cerebral ganglia and the pleural ate disririct. each *''1l!g5^ 

^ plcuiv-pedal cofliKctbRt. hancvet. !n Ihtw caMt in only 

teparatein the initial jKTta of their course, and unite togefber for the 
lower half of their leiwlh. or lor nearly the srhole lengih. Moreover, 
in many forms, hi which in the adiih oonditvon there is only a single 

— -- - '-II pnglb and a dngle pedal tonncetive, a pJeural 

cl from the cerebral hat been recogoiied in the course 
I. Tbere is, hosrever. no evidence of th« union of a 
ilh tbe cerebro-pleuraJ. 

liana of ^uAnAi other than the ospfaradia coniitt <t 
SIS attached Id the pedal ganglia (Bg. T (fi). ay). The 
^1 arc peculiarly favourable lor study on account of 

Flc. 31.— f^milEyeofSfwiufyni. (From Hickaon.) 
i.t^o-cornealepiiheliuni. /, Ret liut nerve. 

:,' Ketinal'bod^. 1 EpI^Ec^'cdlt' Hied' with 

(,Tapctum. pign«nt, 

r. Pigment. ». Tenucle. 

me is eihibiled in fij. ao. A angle otolith it present as in the veUgcr 

[otoconia). The organs are devel^ied at invaginations ol the epi- 
jennis o( the fool, and in Ihe majority of the Protubranchia (be 
>n6ce of inva^nalien remains open throughout life; Ibis it alio tbe 
- 'i Ujtilts indvding the common mussel. 

■ ■ '- — - -" — tort, and ihe lentaclei on Ihe mantle 
border- This delidency is very usual 

^_.. of larKe well-devclofied 
rabsD-plcural gaaclion-pair. 

ne of Ihcse lenlaclet have undnrane a i 
Ling them into highly-organiicJ eyes. 
- are found in P«u,,. Sftiulylu: L,ma. t 

eves on the maniie-eage are founo in rrririT. ^pcn 
/hIxiukIu, Wafisd. Cardmm. T^ha. ilt. 
Fialos and Cairsmma. Thej' are totally drsi 
'ypicalMr- — "-■•■ •" 

: nerve penetrates the capaulr of the eye and 
eliiHlbody (Ag. iil.nsltal its Abrei join Ihe 
nerve-end celhi is in Vmebrato. inslead of 

fig. Ill, noil 

liisin Vr..._._ 

In tbe cephalic eyes of MoHiui 


picmenlcd vpilhelial tota c 

Pra. 3].^Dtvtlopi»nt of ibe OvBttr, OiMs tduli 
(Modified [rDm Hint.) 

, Blinopoic. 
I, InvaRinaiedendoderT 

fare. Thr dliattd vTUr rii 

■hown by the two proJ«clii 
dlu on the Jpper pan of t 
Grun. Tbc embryo i> « 

__, . iTiochon*"*. 

C, Similar optical iKIion al a e; Surf ■« vi» s( » 
littk later flage. The In- 1 period ilmoit Id 

the blaatwtn li i»w mon F. Later embryo ttta aa a trans- 

conCracteff, d; and celli. hk, m. Mouth. [paicnl objecl. 

formlne the nietDbla!! from Jl, Fool. 

which the a^m and muKu- a, Anua. 

Urandiktielo-trophlcliuuea e. Intestine. 

develop, are eeparaTed. a<, Stomach. 

D.SimilaraectionofalateriiaEe. 1^, Velaiaieaof thensHDiitiuin. 

The blasiopoee. W. haa The eitent of the iheU and 

cloaed; (he anua will tub- cammeiirii^ upgrowth of the 

■Dquenily porforate the cor- .mantle-aklrt la tntjkated by 

lis develapTnein. a> In that of PUidiuM (Rg. Ij), no 

Th-enteron. becoming the inttslinc. The nioiith and 
formed as independflit ia-puthinH. tlie nwulh with 
first, and (he ihon anal proctodaeum much bter. 
ation at the appearances is contrary (o that of Hofst, 
ur drawlnf^ oT the oyMcr'a dcvclopraeDt are taken, 
ivcn by the Amcriciii William K. Brookt differs greall)' 

of ilie epidermis— myelooic aa opposed to eptdoviic 

re of lite lepuud eyes of several of the above-namn 

KM been (snliilly cumined. In PtcUm and SlKmdjliii 

r. Ihey have been fully studied (see hi. Jl. and eaplanation} 

eniary cephalic eyes occur In the Mybliiai and in ^vinJa a 

ue base of ttw ^rat Uajneot of the inrKT pU, each consis tin g ta J 

The arm 
RudlmeniaiV ceSaUcty 

ntaiolnf a culicular kfu. 

. — Tht gonads of Amtdffnta are placed in distinct 
.^■..^^..... , 1 — ^litjiiKhs— for in- 

to. rirtiMH- 
i^ler (0.«i 

charge of the ova and the ■pemia- 

t«oa from the females and mala 

lespeciively. In the OUrca (dafii 

fertltiiation of the eui is cffnied 

drawn in ID the iut>.palliil chamber 

I^ rmtnyoi paK through the early 

the female parent \f,t. «)■ In 

•p^nS.^ tE I^ETu-JSue of 
tlie outer gill-pbte. and are there 

FiQ. 11.— Embryo of Piiii- 

fertiUied. and advance whilst slin in 

this positioato llK glochidium phase 

vSer) The emb.^ hu 
increased in me hy accumula- 

tion of liquid belwao tbc 

open lo the olerior by two simple 

outer and the invapnaled 

celli- The blastopore has 


ducts, one right andone'lefi.continV 

OB sriih Ihe tubular braatdies of the 

{onadi. In Ihemmt primilhr 

fooads diichartc into the renal cavity, as in PatiUa among Gas 
poda ThilislhecaBcin theProtdbranchla.r.f.SE^nem^. In wl 
tbe ffOAad opens into the reno-pericardlal duct. But The general 
fnducis do not pass through the whole length of the renal In 
'^ — '" ~ direct opening ftom the pericardial end of Ihe tube to 

cd o^ i^ w^i. 

Fic. is-B-Samc ., _. . , .. 

showing the invaeiiuicd cellr ky which form the arch-enie 

the mesoblaslic cells au which are budded dH [nim the stirfa 

niaia A>. and apply ihemsdves to [he inner surface of the epibUstic 

cell-layer rp. C. The same embryo locused so as to show the meso- 

blanic tells which immettiately itoderlie the outer cdl-layer. 

open into a ckacal ilil on the iurface of the body, tn Uyiaiatbe 

Scplibranchia ar ' 

male and one lemalc. These fa 
i> and Icuis completely iprk>*a 
le body, each having its di 
xi.^Mc».jwtii.«ntof Ano domta is remarkal . 
em Imown as flKlnfjaw (Sg. 111. The ikichidii 

le valves c/its ihtll. as do adull PKln and Uiu 
ime time a long byisus thread. TUl byaaas is a ' 



Am «I other LuDdlibiMcliL but *r!|iiutea Inm i imik gkn 
HitheRil all eaiitMeS In ifce Ibun on the daml uteriof u 
AetMiiaacteatcU. By thiiiliabiauslit inincmiBct with [I 

Ikmoa by OMU* oltlie uoi^hI (dft -'-— -■-"- "^ ■■ "■— 
CDCvited. Mitd it Dounnhcd by the en* 

b'^M*^ ■ddgcta 

he (nduiwha 

□I Ihe nialhei, tbuuiEi aimuui 

tirva MM the BlachidiimL An 

in die devektpmenl ot the EuiD- 
pcaa oyticr, to the fi^re of 
»hich And ite explautun the 
reader h ipeclally referred (lig. 

Ibt po 

(Alter I 

i--DBB"?'"IEmbtyoi>I „,„ biwlve. the KnJ.n™ 
i.Theuiuhadtdireag™ tK,j|„,,riJchh«*beenttttdied 
nan o( the .heU-valve. £„ Luikeiter. ThaEumiUu 
■"■"•^O r«iDed in thiecw b>E^iiu- 

lIl tioa. The embryonic telle con- 

udicnteroQ! Ihcy prolifi 

j6j. 14); within Ihii. "on' 
and giveo^branchmifceilt, which npfdy 

. -. , E.»S.Qlo — - 

the muoblatt. The outer angle byer at edit wnich connitula the 
Mcface of the vetide it Ibe cctDdeta or epUut. The liillc mue ol 

with the CKitrii of the blaMoiXKe or orifice of invkcinilion hy > 
•talk, the rectal peduade. The entna itiell beeouei bikbed and 
uioiiied by a new iavafiaation, dial of the mouth and atamodaeum. 
TbemCHblau mulliplieailtcelu. which become partly muiciUar and 

Dyronic ahell-Elan(L The pharynx or itorMdatum ia elill amall, 
the Foot rvt yet prominent, A later alage !a accn in fix- 76, where 
the pbaryu u widdy open and the foot promiocnL No dliatci] 


' An eitraofdinary luUficitEaii of the vditer eccvtv in the dfr 
velopmtnt of IftKiia and KeUta and pnbaUy other mcnbtn of dke 
aame familica. After lb* fonnatlaa of tbe (aalnila by epibcie the 
larva bfcomta cndoaed by an cctodermle tat coverinf the whole of 
the orifinal aurface ol Ike body, indudinc the ihdl-gland. and 
leaving only a amall opening at the poaterior end in which thcatona> 
daenn and prvctodaeum af« fomwL la KaUta aad A^acaJa *r«r6ita 
the teit conHti of five nwi of lalleaed cdla, thE Ihne nwdiaB row* 
bearing drdati of long dUa. At tbe anterior end of the teic ia the 
anicxl nlate [mm Ihe <ntn of irUcfc pniecta a iDiar OiidlBia aa (a 
larvae. In ffanfa ddf^Suriiiila the teat 
I diort cilia, aad then ia no 6^idldm. 
ia completed the teil u caat oH, Ite 

n the 

apart and I 

cdl* bfinVing apart and lalLkig to piccea la 

with a well^eveloped ibdt ei i p oaeo aod A , , ._ _ 

advanced lUte. The leat b Rally a ciliated vdum devdaped In th 
Bormal poatkia at Ihe apical pole but reflceted baekwirda in hk 
a way aa to cover tbe original ectodemi euept at the paaterior end 
In KiMia and Kuala pnximt the ova are H free in the water an 
the leet-larvae are fr a fr a nfi in miag, but in tii^^a Jtipkiiuieml 
the female lorma a Ihla^walled cdt^aae of mucui attached to Ih 
poalerior end of tbe diell and In oiinmunicatiDn wiih tbe pallii 

chanber: In thli caae the egg* dt — ' — '--■ "■-- "— " ' ■ — 

cloaed, A limilar modibcadoa of lb 

CtMiaiaaioH ca 

Tlie ctaauficatioa originally based on the structure of Ihtt 
gills by P. Pclscnecr jDcluded five ordera, viz.; the Ptotobraachia 
in which the gill-fiUmeDU aie flattened and not rcSectedi tb* 
FllibiaDchia in which the filajnenti are long and reflected, <ri(h 
DOD'Vasculai juncljona; Ihc Pscudo-laoiellibrariclua ia which 
Ibe giU-lameUac are vertically folded, tht interhUmentar and 
inlulaineUat Jimclioai being vaiculir or non-vuculai; the 
EuUraelUbtandiia in which the inlerSlaineniar and iulet- 
lamellai jooctiona are vascular; and bstly the Septibranchia 
in which the gills art reduced to a horiiontat paitition. Tbe 
PscudolametlibraKhia included tlie oyster, scallop and their 
alUei which lonnerly constituted the order Monomyaiia, having 
only a single large adductor muscle or in addition ft very small 
anterior adductor. The researches of W. G. Riilewood have 
ihomi that in gUl-ilructure Ihe Peciinaces agree with the fili- 
bcaochia and the Oslraeacea wiUi the EuIameUibraDchia, and 
irdin^y the order Pseudolamdlibrancbia is now suppressed 

Tbe fouj 

lembcrs divided be 

m the f 

other orders men 

in or pre-oral (cephalic) lotie ei 
ipeara, the mantle-thirt is rabei 
pa are secreted, the anu* An*p« h 
rectal peduncle, and 1I1 

is (B) ai 

1. (M a. 

w (fig. 76. lateral vieiir)^ and tli 

I Ibec 

„ ., „..-„al form of the adult are aoiuired. Later chanRt 

conaiii in (he growth of the shdl>valvea over the whde area of ih 
mantle-Saps, and in Ihe multiplication of Ihe gia-Uamenu and ihr 
eonsoBdaimn to form [in-plaiei. Il ia important to note that ih 
fill-filamentsareformeaonebyone^ilmiprfii. The labial Itnacli 
BTe formed late. In the allied genus Cyclas. abywiigland h forme 
m Ihe Iwi and nbaequently ditappean. but no auch stand oixura i 

filamcDl, but other organs, such as ll: 

1 otgani, may not show corresponding stages. On the 
coulrary coD^derable differeBCes in these orgins may 
occur within uiy unjle order. The Pralobiandua, how- 
ever. poBicis sever*] primitive chatacten besides that of 

Isce lued for creeping, as in Casltopods, the byisus gland 
is but slightly developed, the pleural ganglia are distinct. 
there a a relic □( the phiryrigeal cavity, in some fonni 
with ft pair ol glindulnt sacs, the gonada retain theit 
primitive csnneiioii with the nnftl cavitlts, and tha 
otocysls are open. 

Order L PiOTOiuMcmi 
la addition to the charactera given above, It may bt 

'1 provided laith a hypobtaochial 

that Yotnt the gland <m the outer side of each gill, tha aiuidet an 
muscular, the kidneys are gUndulu throngh theit whole 
length, the sexes are separate. 

fam. I. SalnuMiyufu.— One rawof branchial filaments LidliecHd 
dornllv, the odier vinlrally; the mantle baa a Ion* (mattnj- 

embryo of YMia UmatMU. 

Fa'i^'j.' ^Vi 

very broad, and pr 
a ntle open along in 

Id iWmni 



brapchia thromh tbe S t in wmytjat, Itca 

lu the folbwiiif CKtiDf I 

linfv dcBtilkn Ht b 

Fun. 1. AMitle<tniil.—Sti^ iiii^iUviilvb AitUpltiira; Sjluriao. 
Turn. i. Carduliiiai.—SltrU «iuinln and vcntricsH; hinge 

vitiiout tHth. dnfH^;SihirunaiidDfvooUn, 
FUQ- 4< <^wajrni^»--<'Shell thin, cqutvulve, ovil or elongBtc; 

hingv without tctth' Cnmmytni Silurian and Devonian. 

^nWM)«; DBvooiao. Coriitnurptat Siluriu to Cvbon- 

Fan. ]■ VlailMoc.— ShrU vov inviiiiTilvc: hince without Hcth. 


Fam. & ,SgjiMr'ito,~^b(1l cquivalvc iratly elonjatcd, un- 

bout vny far lonnnL Stitiutai ; Dcvooiaii u Tciu. 

OrdttlL FoauH^u 

GJU^filamoit ventnliy direded and reflected, eonaected by 

dliiied jtiDctioni. Foot genenlly provided with a highly 

dull. Byf^cma. Caralia. Efkipfii 
Sul»cder II. 
SymmelTial ; raanllc open [hnju 

Faiii.'i" a!^^ 
eyea. The hi 

Hiaga pliodnnl 

Britilk. _ Scapkula; (r 

Fan. t. FamlUoititiUiii. — i 
ldi«t teeth elongated 

EcnciB are fouil 

btmaria; Carhonii, , __ 

" ' mopMoK. — Shell orfhcnlar, hinge curved, IMament 

antcro.p«terf4rly i 
oatencny- Limapi 

iryidar- — Shell thin, very InequHatei 
imbonca proitcilng. PkiMrye, 
idBHfufof.-'-utincti eheU cqDivol 

Fam. fi. rrwHfube..— Shell thicti foot < 
front and behind, ventral Ijordcr shnqi; 
nina: shell suh-triangular, DmbODc* 
Thiflgenutwaivervabundantin thaSccoi — , 
in Juratsic KS9. There are <^,^™!l 'P™Jl ' 


1. 7. Lyrodtsmidat. — Exti 



.malt or _. 

(* only _ __.._ .... . 

mantle and open at udn otkidneya. Fool lingmiflnnand by«f( 
Fam- f. MytiMM. — Shell Ineqtrilateral. anterior end tnoct; 
hinge without teeth; ligament cxtenaL. Manik haia potterior 
•mure. Cephalic eyea piTKnl. llytUKi; British. Uoiiila; 
Britilh. lUbilaMKl. MaHnlariis: Briliih. Orwlto. SOwilill. 
Datrjdium. tlyrSna. liti. Stprifrr. 
Fam. I. ifxMVs^iUar.— Extinct: Snuriin to Crelanoui; ad- 
ductor muKlc* HiIreqiilL Ueiialtftii.—ltiidiametfla, Xye- 

Fam. i. finiju.— Shed very inequilatergl 1 linmenc nib- 
divided: nuntle open ihrouEhoui; anterior idduclor abirnt. 
Ptna. CrnHfalii: Inhahita ipan^ Balindlm. CtrdOrim 

.- — Enincl: Pilaeoioic. 

0. s. LbMnUeariiiiM, — Extiactj Silurian and Devonian. 
a. 6, CnuurdtUuv—ExtiDa; Silurian taCartionilcrout. 

9. ^ i4>il«ycJiBte.—'EiBinn;SlBriari and Devonian, The 

n. B, JVjaMindu.— EiitlMI;'snuriag to Cretaceoui; ad. 

n. 9. Aumuiidtu. — ^ell orlricular, amooth eatemally with 
idiating- eoatae iotemally. Gilb without interlamellar June- 

1. 10. Sfnijliiiit.—Shi^ very ineijuivalve. Gied by the right 
live whch <i the larier. No byiuii. Spmdylnl; thcll I^h 

without a byaul linua; Briiiih- CUamyi; 

Sub-order V.— I 
with oriiicular aad alim 
(eeth -and liganKiit in 

ra of the nb-Dnler. Diwrjc; i 

wo idducion usually prricnt. Bianchiil filaments nailed 
I vaiculir inleifitamentar lutirlioiu utd vascular inlerlaiiKlIu 
nctioni; the latter coniiin the afferent vessels. Tha gonadi 
wayi have theii own proper txumil Bperlutt*. 
Suborder I.— Curaeoini. 

Fam. I. InrAH.— Shell with auriculae. Fd« digitirorm, with 

form a mm by meana o( the bysjui. or awim by dapinna the 
valvei o( (he ihell tcjelher. timsM. 
Fam. I. OifnKuloe.— Foot much reduced and withool byanu. 
Heart usually on the ventral lide o( the iKiuni. Cillt fund to 
the nuntle. Shell irregubr, fined tn the vmini by the lelt and 
lariter valve. Oilrara; Inot nbMnl In the adulli edible and 

Fbbi. 3. EliimiAae. — Eitinct: Joraaie 
Fam. 4. Wa»ii(iir.— Shell ebngaled. 

fSlr'Sl'h by'™'""" "" ' "" 

*MH«! foiBL Carbc 

and Cretaceoita. Afrina; foaii] and 

Lted' and aafnnf 
Briti^~"c],rW^'niia. AtU^ 

" '— '^iMTBua: Juiuaic 


Suborder U.—SiitmfliJaia. 

Mantle only allf hlly ch»cd : usually there [i only 1 lingls lut 
liphont abaent or very ahon. Cilli sinooih. Nearly ilvayi 
lyariaa. SbeU equivalvc, with an external ligament. 

Fam. I. DreuKunirfu.— Shell elongated; hinge without to 

Driuiniis: Kvet in (reth water, but originated Irooi 
CaipianSeaiinlinduced into England about 1834. 

- JfaAofarciAH.— Foot with a planisr nirfice; the 

Prtixodmi; Devonian. 

. ierve aa Inei^tor^ 

x-— Shell eoncenincally ttliated ; foot elonnW. 
Brilidk »»fu. Clfuj Skob3u7. 

^ OoiBlrfKiTK.— Sfwll iliicfc. vhh o 


iaIiH cnue; fool 

'nijiicariia. CariiuUa. CarJiUfiU. 

D. 7. Cypnniai.—Utaltt o 

Ofrna: Bthuli. C 

TruB- ^ nUacar^ \ J 

■ m.fl, Isoaritiiat. — Hunle tiiftly dtnrdppRlal oriAn 
~ art at squil iLic: tbeU (kibvlir, wiih pnunincE 

F(ni.a. CiUmirJiiifai.— Siphmu prcKnt: 

Fam. 11. CgrWtfu.— Sbdl thick, with dtnticulalcd boi 
■penurt with vdve but no dplioa ; foot dirtfaudin 
CjrMi. Cneitm; Tciu aod Junnic. JfiUMJ 

Faid, 13, C/K^tHjifir. — Foot tnatly ckmotKl. vcmil 
li^ in a ^(brlolar «aiargeincDI. U% 

Fin. tj. Cmnldlulu,— Two dongalnl, 

KtJbOBa', inshwKKr, Cyrtmlia, Jaamiii 
F111L14. raicM<lii^.-9icli doi 

.i giilt wilhcnit 

itcd. soa-ntnctai 

-uinflular. Euioct. 

rdiiAx.— ShriL iLib-nrbiru 

Fim. 16. Lipicmidat 

Teitiary. Pylkima. Saiukia. SftrllUai 

, °)f(ift«: 

Fim. 17. CnlnniuKnloi.— MantTr irllrrtcd 
nping; vlducton much irdund 
£nu^ Kimliitlla. EjMpfaLmla; 
'-■— ■^- ■■-» lollowip 

. The Ihf« lollowing |en<-, 

■biy bplonE to tTiIb iaitilly^— CWa>tijhJ«ffrt£*fl. 

Fmm.lB. Kftfji/fiifcH,— Shel. ,,- 

•hirt liphon: foot ilaofnted. KtUytUa. Tt 

fiBhwucri larva a flochidmni. [ 
Briliifa. "mJaiim. Quoilnifa. . 
StUiuia. idyctlapiu. 
Pam.ij. UiMidat.—rimtrt from [ 

KItiai luiurci: rmhwatci, Miu 
Vtso. Hyria. 1 
Fam. 76. Ailitniia. 


Sob-order Itt.— riSIwa*. 

Mantle not oitenilvTir cIoKiJ; two pallial n 
developed aJphoDL Cilia unooth' Foot compr 
Lalnal pilpt very laigE. Diiryuiani pallial [in. - 

Fan. I. rtUiiMlu.—EamiHlBill'platc directed I 

3 aad two welt- 

idoa- — Caieri»]|ill-plate directed upwardt; baboiu 
I elongated; foot with bvHiu: palpa very UiRe; 
Ltcrn^ Tdlimt: Briti^ C^aiu: BiitBi. 


iteraal gill-i^ici directed upwacdi; 

wve!y lonf; Eoot without bynub 

British. Sjtdeimya; Biiti^ 

•iplnaa aepuate and eqinl- Utn 


iat. — Ejitemal nll-ptate directed vcnlnDy; 
d. invested by a chilinoui iheath; foot Iinii. bent 

■■'- ■ ^ -■-■' ■' f. 4.»). 

It byiHU. Uatlra; Brjtiah (ftgi. u 


Sub-order IV, — Vavraaa. 

Two pallial Hturea. •ishoni laDHwhat elongated and partially or 
.wholly united. Giili ilighlly jolded. A bulb on the (mterioraona. 

Fam. 1, Vinmiiil.— Fool will developed; pallial nnunhallow 01 

,, DdriniaVBr^jh. r<.»i: British. 

itiih. ilt'tlrii. Cira; Bntiili. Vat- 

■•. pM°.-, 

ited StatH, hu 

Fam.'. Ptiric^idnt -—Bo^na forms wim a Teaui:nj looii if 
delated, with dceppallinliinue. Pariicla. F. pMadiJem 

aas '"' ---■-■ 

water. aaauMja. Tuyii 

Sub-order V.— Cirdiun. 
Two ppllial HJtuna. Slphodi gcanaUv short. Foot cyliadrical. 

Fam. 1.' CofJJiilw,— Hanile slightly closed; siphoi^i Tery short. 
surroLindtd by papillae which often bear eyes; foot very long, 
nnicvlated; pallial line without sinus; (wo adducion, Cvdiwmj 
Britiih. PMude-ktUya. Byuawriimn: Eocene. LiMwardiatn; 

Fam. J. Lim. 

riiiici- — Siphons very loni 
'uadduclo[s;b<ackilh wa 
>nd fossil front tbe Ten 

^.—Mantle closed to a 

united (hmigbout; 
y. Attkktriitm; 
nnsiderable ettenl: 

duclor; shell thick. TriiaiiuL. Hippapitt. 

Sub-order VI,— C*nma«a. 

AryntmetricaT, fnequivalve, lixed, with evten^ve pallial nitures; 

I iiphonf. Two atlductort. Fool leduccd and without bysMt. 

Shell Ihkk. without pallial sloua. 

Fam-1, C^sssdae. — Shell with aub^quai valvei aod prominent 

umbooet man or lets aplrafly coiled: ligament exltnul. 

CtauM, i>i«rai: lutaivc Bitiiinia; Zttuaxiai. UoiIut- 

Fam, >, CAfriaiiu. — Shell Inequivalve; fined valve ^ral or 
eonica]; tiec valve collect or apiral; Cretaceoua, Coprint. 
Ctpniiiw. Caprinula, ftc. 

Fan. J. Afo»o)i/«uruf«.— Shell vrry , Ineflulvalve ; Bied valve 

^^•t°'s^'^a. The^'t.^foSrowi'n'g'^'ilies, logeiher known 
Diatinc forms from Secoadaiy depotita, "ntcy wtn: Bnd ^ 1h* 


fnt Mt nbc I> bm tp 
r tptjphywB ID vhich 
bkdAvai, vilbooE a 

to Ibe otcrnal layer. Kudltlilil. BiriMttiUl. 
Fan. s- HipparilidiM. — Fiml viln long, cylindnMiiflkal. 
Ihne longnudiru] EurTowa whirfa corrapDnd inloiaLly t( 
(iUin for support of (lwiipb«u. Hipfmr" 
Sub-onltT WIL— If yaaa. 
Mutle cloKd ID a onuldcrat 
^lU Buch folded and [rpqEienilv I 
Foot conproaed aod Bcnenuy 

toot Rijuced; ^11 fikpioc; ^lUKflt in 
SBkrnii: Britiih. Twmu. nalyain. 

Fan. 3. CorhiKiliu.— ^1 ub-tricaiwl. , 

^ >-ii~r: diriiDni ahon, miTud, ompteldy 

lintcd^ollEn bridfaiilH. Ctibutrnja. 

Uya: Briiiib. 

""lin, npiiw widely ar 

LiBimcnF wacitrns; ahcll Eaplngi with ■ riylfRd jpopliyiii in 
the umbotul cavLiics- GUU pjolongcd Lnu llie branchial liphon. 
Mantle larsdy ctoied. aiphtxu kioR, uniLcd. Fool ihon, truncait?d. 
- 'd, wJtbHt ■■ 

I. f iWti!«MUu.— Siphona Kpantc. 
-=•-■- rtiMe. Firiplama. 

n. J- AnaJimidat--^Siphoaa1aBt, 
hciihj aot tompletely 

a. 4- FUadrmyiJai.—M 

oat ■man, milh paslerior appndagF. F/iffiUdomja. 

n. J. Ararmjuiat. — Eatinct; Sccondajy and Tefliary. Xn^ 

antic with 

Fam. 6. FAtlaitUiJu.— 

FUaMla. F\y- 
unjiiiit.— EiiiOct ; Stconilary. IVoirsmjo. Cra- 
Fam. B. /'suSpriilat.— Shell rhin, liKODivalvt. fir*; lietmi 

i/ya, Ci<l>mya, 

Fam.o, JtfyMbMUu.— 
laltial iinui; liphona 

Fam. 10. Clum«iI,oH- 
pedal apcnurc inu 
Bsed by (he righi v 

Fan. II. ClataifUiia. 

-Sbttl very li 

ivilve. aolid, 

■nij^'!'' JvVwikuu.' Uj^n. 
—A iDuiih pallial aperture pr««ni; 
■iphoni very ihori andieparale: ibell 
'. irrrgular. Cliamoitrata. 
PedaT apenun very umU, fooc nidi- 

t. LyauitAv. — Foot byaifcnui; lipboBi afabr 
•ciuUe. i.yeianii Britiah. EMledam. ilJAHiKViiL. 
Fam. 13. VtrluariiHatr-^otiBia than, gilU papiltoKt '<nt 
Huin ilHdl (lobular. Many •(cciaa it/frnd^ V—' — "- 
EncirM. LjauuUa. Baliatiit. 

GIUiliBvc bat Ibeirispiratoiy function, 
ito a muacular KptniD on eicta side between manlJc and foot- 

— Siphona abort and aeparaie; bfancbtal 
L lare? valve; bnnchial aeptun beara two ETOuu 
eilbcT aidci bermaphnxble. Foromyai BritiUL 


HAca an each ude; liphona abort, eepuatc, Iwauclual bpbon 
dlh a valve. Ca^iindia iSilnia). 

n.y CitipiduHidae. — Branchial teptum with foar arfiv« pairt 
f very oarrow ayniinetrkal orifice*; liphona lon^. united, iheir 
rtrenitiea Hrrounded by tenlada; aeaa •cpaAic Cmpi- 

bnocbci," Feme ^ 
Origin of Pearli." 1 
" Tiit Minute Stnic 
Qurt y«m. JVicr. 
Structure of the Gilli 
(19O])! K. MitHikui 
aberrant forma of La 
(id. (iser); A. H. C 
vol. ill.: Paul Pelien 
E. Ray LanluMter, pi 

leaon. ■' On ihe 
); R. H. PecW. 
inch MoUuica." 
wood, " On Ihv 

ILL.: j.Vc.)"' 

UMBRKAU, HnoOBS Ftucirt BOBBBT DB (1781-1854). 
'rench priat, and philoKptiical uu) poliiical writer, wai bom 
t Saint Malo, in Brittany, on tbe igtb of June 17S2. He was 
he ion ol a ahipowner of Slim Malo ennobled by Louis XVI. 

. He I 

iraiy of ai 

unde, devouring the writings of Rousseau, Pasnl and othcn. 

erudition, which deltnDined his subsequent caiRi. Of a sickly 
and senailive nature, anil impressed by the honors of the French 
Revolution, his mind wis early seized with a moibid view of 
life, and this temper characterized him thiougbout all his changes 
of opiBioo and dicumstanci^ He was at &m inclined towards 
latianaliitic vien, bat partly through the influence of fail 
hiolher Jean Marie (iJTj-iSSi), partly at a result ol his philo- 
Bophical and hiilotical studies, he lelt belief to be indispensable 
to action and uw Ln religion the most powerful leaven of the 
community. He gave utterance to these convictions io the 
Rtfaioni tur Pllal ill Tt^ist at FraKI fmlaiU le iS-^ lildt 
ef nir ta tiiuaiion atlMiiie^ published anonymously in Paris in 
1808. Ntpoleon'a police seized the booh as dangerously ideo- 
higlcal, with its eager recommendatioD of religious revival and 
active clerical organization, but it awoke the ulinDiontane 
spirit which has since pUyed so great ■ part in the politics of 
cburctaes and of states. 

As a rest from political strife, Lamennais devoted most of 
(he following year to a Irsnsbtlon, in caquisite French, of the 
Spaulxm Umachmim of Ludovicus Blosius (Louis de Bhiis) 
which be (Milled £eCiiiifejp^ili.eI (1809]. In iSii he rccdvnl 
the loiuure and shortly afterwards became pmlessor of malhe- 
tnaticsin an ecde^astical college founded by hlsbiothcrat Sainl 
Ualo. Soon after Napoleon had concluded Ihe Concordat with 
Pius Vn. he published, in conjunction with his brother, Dc la 
ItaJiUat it I'tflin sur l-iiulilnlim da teb/Ha (1S14), a writing 
occasioned by the emperor's nomination of Cardinal Maury 10 
the archbisliopric of Paris, in which he strongly condemneil 
the Galilean principle wbich allowed bishops to be created 
ineapeclive of the pope's sanction. He was In Paris at (h« first 
Bourbon restoration in 1814, whicfa he hailed with satisfaction, 
less as a monatchist than as ■ strenuous apostle of religious 
regeneration. Dreading tbe Caa Jimri, he escaped 10 London, 
where he obtained ■ meagre livelihood by giving French kssont 
Is > icfaool founded by the abM Jules Catron for French toiigrfs; 



tc iba tMaaw tdtor >t the haate of Lulf Jcrnin^iuD, wbcae 
iiX impniiiiia of him tt *a t-^^-nu chugcd ioto IrieDdihip. 
OnlbefiiulaffenhtDWirfNapoIraiitDtSisbeRtunied loPuis, 
and in lk< lollowbig yeir, whb mony nbgiviDgi as to hli calliiis, 
be yielded to bis brothrr^g »iid Curon's advice, ud vu nduned 
prieil by tbe bisbop ol RcDses. 

Tbe fint volume ol fail gieat work, Eiiai nir rimiifiraue 
tn maiiire dt rtiigioar appeared in 1S17 (Eog. trans, by Lord 
Stanley of Alderley, Leodon, iSgg}, and aBected Europe like 

aspell.il ■ ■ 

irilh a." 

the i 


n their 
Ihority one 

>rds of Lacoi 

: enjoyed by Bos! 

liiiiual death. EcdesL 

lical ai 

cience, by Lutbei into 
yclopaedistB into politics 
aled in practical atheism 

. . , tupporl. 

by the univenal irj 

the sole hope of reger 
more volumes (Paris, iSta-ia94) foUoned.and met with a miied 
reception from tiie Gallican bishops and monarchists, but wilb 
Ihe enthusiastic adhesion of the younger clergy. Tbe work 
was examined by three Roman theologians, and received Ihe 
formal approval of Leo XIL Lamennais visited Rome at tbe 
pope^s ref^uest, and was offered a place in Ibe Sacred College, 
which he refused. On fiis return to France fie took a prominent 

vicomte de Villele, wasa regular contiibulor to tbe ComenafeHr, 
but when Villele became the chief of Ibe supporters of absolute 
monaicby, Lamennaia witfulrew hia support and started two 
rival or^ns, Le Drapeau bianc and Le Utmoriat calholi^iu. 
Vanousolhei minor works, togelber wifb Delardigion caaidirtt 
ia<u la rapptrli asa I'trdri civU cl ptliliqiu (i vols., 1S15- 
1H76), kept bis name before the public 

He rctized to La Cb^jiaie and gathered tound bim a host of 
briUiant diiciplea, includijig C. de Montalembert, Lacordaire 
and Maurice de Gu£iin, bis object being to form an organised 
body of opinion to persuade the French clergy and laity to throw 
oS Ibe yoke of tbe state cocnuion. With Rome at bis back, 

tbe liberties of tbe Callican cbuich. His beJlh broke down 
and be went to tbe Pyrenca tg recTuil. On his retuca to La 
Chtnaie in 1S17 he bad anothee dangerous iUness, wluch power- 
fully impiEued hiin with tbe thought that he bad only been 
dragged back to Ufe to be Ihe imtiument of Providence. Lti 
Lamennais'a complete lenundatJon of royalist principles, and 
benaforward be dreamt of the advent of a Iheooalic democniry. 
To^veeffecl to these viewshe founded /.'it tcnir, the Erst number 
of vbicb appeared on the ifiib of October iSjo, with the motto 
" God and Liberty." From the &i*t Ihe paper was aggres^vely 
denocntic; it demanded ri«hu of local admioislralion, an 
enlatged sufirage, univettal freedom of conscience, freedom of 
iniinictlon, ol meeting, and of the press. Methods of vonhip 
were to be criticised, improved or afwlished in atuolutc lub- 
miiuon to tbe spiritual, not to the lemponl authoiity. With 
Ihe help ol MonUlembert, he founded tbe Ataut [Iniraii fniir 
la iffaat it la- libali rtliskvc, wbich became a far-reaching 
erginiialioD, il had agenls all over the land wfio noted any 
violations of religious freedom and reported Ihem 10 tiead- 
qutrlen. As a result, L'A-mnr's career was stonny, and the 
opposilion of Ihe Conservative bishops checked iU drcuklion ; 
■.tatiett and Lacordaire resolved 

d they m 

n Nov 

nber 1S31 

to obtain tfie i^roval of Gregory XVI. The "pilgrims 
Uberty " wen, after mucb OHioeition, received in audience 
Ub pope, bnt cmly an the condition tbat the object which brou 
tbcm to Kome should not be mentioned. This was a bil 

Holy See, whilsl adndlUng Ibe justice ol ibdt inli 
like tbe matter left open for the preaenL Lacordaire ana Montal- 
emlKR obeyed; Lamennais, however, remained in Rome, but 
his last hope vanished with tbe issue of Gregory's letter to the 
Polish bishops, in which the Polish palriols were reproved and 
the tsar was affirmed to be their lawful sovereign. He then 
" shook Ihe dust of Kome from oS his feet." At Munich, 
ia tSji, he received Ibc encyclical Uitari mi, rondeinning his 
policy; as ■ result t'^DeKir cased and Ihe Ataiafm diMolvcd 
Lamennais, wilb bis two Ueutenanti, submllLed, and deeply 
wounded, retired to La ChCnaie. His genius and prophetic 
insight had turned Ibe entire Catholic ctiurch against hiDi, and 
those for whom be bad foogbl so long were the fiemst ol hit 
opponents. The latnous Purnlei <f im crcycHf , pubUsfaed in iB j4 
through Ihe intemiediary of Sainte-Beuve, marks I^meonais's 

in it* petvenity," was Cregny'a cfitidsm in a new encydical 
letter. A tractate of aphorisms, it has tbe vigour of a Hebrew 
prophecy and contains tbe choicest gems of poetic feeling lost 
in a wbitlwind ol eiaggenlions and distorted views of kings and 
ndecs. The work bad an eitrsonlinary circulation and waa 
translated into many Eiuopean languages. It is now forgotten 
as ■ whole, faul the beautiful eppeab to love and human brolher- 
hoodareilillieprintcdineveiyhand-bookof French literature. \ 
Henceforth Lajnennais was the apogtle of the people alone. 
Lti ASaira de Rome, da maux de Flilise Hie la secUU (iSj?) 
came from old habit of reli^ous discus^oru rather than from his 
real mind of iSj;, or at most it was but a last word. Le Litre 
da pmfli (1S3;), Bt I'admate nudtme C1B39), Ptliliqat i 
rasati da peaplt (iSjg), three volumes of artides from Ihe 
journal of the eitreme democracy, Le Monde, are titles of works 
which show that he bad arrived among the missionaries of 
liberty, equality and fraternity, and be soon got a share of their 
martyrdonL Le Pays et U louBemaiuni C1A40) caused him a 
year's imprisonment. He struggled througb difficulties of lost 
Iriendsbipi, limited means and personal illnesses, failbful (0 
the last to his fiardly won dogma of the sovereignty of tbepeople, 
and, to judge by his contribution to Louis Blanc's Home da 
progrtr was ready for something hlie communism. He was 
" ' if the "Soci£tf de lasolidarite rfpublicaioe," 

irbicb c 

n fifteen days. 

845 bad bis sympathies, a 

the iDIh of July, compliiniug that silence was for tbe poor, 
but again be was at the head of La RHdHlum dtmttraHiiut 
el saciale, wlucb also succumbed. In Ihe constituent assembly 
be sat on Ihe left till the coate fllal of Napoleon IU in iSfi 
put an end to all hopes of popular freedom. While dqiuly be 

after a translation of Dante chiefly occupied him till his death, 
which took pUce in Paris on the ijlh of February 1854. He 
refused to be reconciled lo Ihe church, and wss buried according 
to his own directions at Pete La Chaise without funeral riles, 
being mourned by a countless concoutse of democratic and 
Literary admirers. 

During tbe most difficult time of fiis republican period he 
found solace for his Intetleet in tha composition of Via taix 
during bis imprisoomeat in a BBiihu strain 
I ooyaal. This b an inieresling tonlrihutioo 
'ity: it was published in Paris in iS«fi. 
iff fkOnitkU (1840). Of the four 
ilumes of this work Ihe Ibird, which is an exposiiion of ait 
I a devek^meot from ihe aspiiatSons and neceaDtics ol the 
mple. Bands pre-eminent, nd remains the beat evidence of 
s thinking power and btiUiant style. 

1S44); both these are very inccnnplele and only co 

quenrly published sie: Amviiupatids el DarvOMdi (1S43). Le 
il la Pclopie (l&4«1. MilanttJ pkOaiefliiaaei d ttHltOHt { 
Ure^ifSei tiHi) and Ln Ktw Omfiit, tbu latter bdng 
lationorihaGasptkaDd of Daats- 

lo Lei paroiei d'lm 
to tbe Uletalute of 


, IxUlfliii rfamti (1S9J).( 

F. Dnlne. Zwibhu. is wh it la i^i; Para elm 
lagSJ 1 The Hon. W. COwn. riW XiW ^ Lii»i>ii«iiiu « 
" - '- ■'- -■ - '"— ^ (Uondor t896);E. R- 

t^t"*" (l^V^! Met. Rkaid. i.'iuJi mnui 

Sunle-Bcuvc, Ffrfraili cnliiRfaroiiii, uma L (iSji), m 

UNENTAIToiu (LohkcAiImiiu a/ JiremiaKl, > book d tlie 
Old Tesumenl. In Hebrew MSS. uid editions this liltLc coIIk- 
tioa <A lilui^al potnu ii cntilied tam Ah ksal, Um finL 
void of cb. L (and clu. ii., iv.); d. the boolu of tbe Penuteuch, 
and Ibe Babylonian Epic of Crealion (a fat older eumide). 
In the Septuagint H b called Bmtet, " Funent-souei " or 
" Dirges," the mual rcnderioi o{ Heb. urf (Am. v. i ; Jer. 
vii. Jfl; » Sam. i. Jj), "hich la, In fart, the name in the Talmud 
{BataBiMra 150) and MhM Jewish wrilinp; and it was known 
as lucb to the Fatbi^ {Jcnme, CiaalA). The Scptua^I (B) 
inlroduccft the iiook thus: " And it came to pass, alter Israel 
HU taken captive and Jerusalem laid waste, JeremUb ut 
weeping, and lamented with this [imentatloo ovet Jerusalem, 
and said . . „" a notice which may 'have related originally 
Some Septuatfnt MSS., aod the Syriac 


w Bible lamentations is placed among the Cetubim 
or Hi^ogiapha, vsiuUy as the middle book of the five Uepaolli 
or Ferial Rolls [Canticles, Ruth, Umenutlons, Ecdeslasics, 
Esther) according to the order of the d:Lys on which they are 
read in the Synagogue, Lamentniians being read on the Qth of 
Ab («b of August), when the destruction of the Temple Is 
oommemorated (Uiiss. SaplieriM 18). But the Septuagint 
appends the book to Jeremiah (Baruci intervening), just as 
it adds Ruth 10 Judges; thus making the number ol the books 
of the Hebrew Canon the ssmc u that ol the letlen of the Hebrew 
alphabet, vii. twenty-two (so Joa. c. Ap. i. S), Inslead of the 
Synagogal twenty-lour (see Balia Baliri 14}). 

EiUrnal Jcaiuru aid foilUal iltuciart, — These poems eihibi 
a peculiar metre, the so-called " lilt " " " ■■■-■-■- 

V. 2 is a good losiance: 

' of which A 


id Israel! 


A bager line, witb three accented syUables, i> fcJIowed by a 
Ehorter with two. Chs. i.-iit. consist ol stavas of three such 
eooplets each; chs. iv. aod v. of two like Am. v. 1. This metre 
came la liioe to be distinctive of degy. The text of Lamenta- 
tions, however, k> often deviates from it, that wc can only 
■Emi the IfiittKy of the poet to cast his couplets into this 
type (Dtiva). Some anomalies, both of metre and of sense, 
may he removed by judidous emendation; and many lines 
beume smooth eaou^, if we assume a crasi* of <^«ii vowels 
of tbe laioe class, « a diphthongal pronundation of others, or 
contraction or nlence of certain suffiies as in Syriac The oldest 
elegiac utteranca bit not couched in this metre; e.g. David's 
(1 Sam. iii. n I. Abncr; ii. I •g■l^ Saul lod Jonathan]. Yet the 
lelrain of tbe laiiet, '£1'* lUlf 'lu [Itbiirfa, " Ah how are heroes 
fiUenI " agieo with our longer line. Tbe remote aitceitor ol 


mtten « least a thousand yean eaittar- 
En-UiH On hiliti | Miirw ito ffri 
lylriead.BQ'liukbrollictl 1 Leoford o( ibe Wad!" 


I of the Psalms, Lame 

-iv. are alphabetical 
acrcpsiics. cjcn poem contains iweaiy-iwo stanzas, eonopond- 
ing to the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet; and eadi 
sianu begins with its proper letter. (In ch. iii. each of the three 
couplets m a slamu begins with the same letter, so Ibat the 
alphabet is repeated thrice: cf. f^ulm ciix. for an dght-fold 
lepeUtion.) Tlie alphabet of LamcntatioDS ii. iii, iv, varies ftum 
the usual order of the lellers by placing Fl before ,4in. The 
tame was doubtless the case in ch. L also until some scribe 
altered it. He went no further, because the sense forbade it 
in the other insianns. The variation may have been one of 
hKal use, filher In Judea or in Babylonia; or the author tnay 
have had some fanciful reason for the transpositinn, such as, 
lor eiample. that Pt foUowing Sanedi (m) mi^t suggest the 
word rue. " WaQ yel " (1 Sam. iii. 31). Ahbougb the iddeat 
Hebrew de^es are not alphabetic acrostics, it is a curious fact 
that the word irg, " Was he a coward? " (Sc tiS ; la. vfL 4), 
is formed by the initial tetters of tbe four liiKS on Abner (om. 
t, tine 3); and the initials ol tbe verses of David's great elegy 
arc im von «n, which may be read is a sentence meaiung, 
perhaps. " Lo, I the Avenger " Icf. Deut. nxii. 41, 4]} " will 
go forth! "; or the Gist two letters fa':)} nay stand for w -m, 
" Alas, my brotherl " (Jer. »iH. 18; A nxiv. s). In oyptie 
fashion the poet thus registers a vow of vengeancs on the 
Philistines. Bnth kinds of acrostic occur ride by side in tbe 
Psalms, Psalm ex., an acrostic nf tbe same kind t) David's 
elegy, is followed hy Psalms cii. cxii., which are alphabetical 
acnslics. like the Lamentations. Such aniGces ate not fn then- 
selves greater dogs on poetic expreasian than Ibe emodve 
alliteration of old Saxon verse or the strict rhymes of modeni 
lyrics. (Alliteration, both initial and intsual, ia annraoa in 

As the final [Mcce, ch. V. may faavT suffered more in transmisBion 
than those which precede it — even to the extent of IdbIdi tlie 
acnnlic form {like some ol the Psalms and Nahum L), besides 
half ol lis stanzas. It we divide the chapter into quatrains, 
likech.iv.,wTnoticeseveT*lvesligcso[aliac«i9tIc Tbe Altpk 
stanza (vcises ;, S) still precedes the Befjt (verses 0, 10), and the 
■fin Is still iiuite clear [veraes ij, iR; cf. i. t6). Tnmsposing 
verses 5, 6, and cotrecting tbdr teit, ve see that the Jad atanza 
(verses 3. 4) precedes the LamiJ {veaa 6, ;), Capk having 
disappeared between them. With this due, we may rearrange 
the other quatrains in alphabetical sequence, each according 

Its initial letter. Wet 

■ of'dev 


beginning urith the letters a (vents J, 8), a (9, ro), n (11. 
1 (19, cf. Psalm di. .3; ami n), i (i, »), a (r3, tewi; t«), 
• (J, -t), S (6, rW,; s. t™- . . . W, • {"; "), » (I7. 1«. 
and V (15, iiJ). luccessivdy. An internal eonneiion iriD now 
be apparent in all the stanzas. 

GtHtral labjal and nSine efamladi. — Hie thenHof Lasienta- 
tions is tbe final siege and fall of Jerusalem {;86 B.<^), and tha 
attendant and subsequent miseries of the Jewish peof^. 

In ch. i. we liave a vivid picture of the distress of Zion, alter 
all is over. The poet does not describe the sveata of Ibe rfege, 
nor tbe horrors of the capture, but the painful expetlcact of 
subjection and tyranny whidi fdlnwed. Ndtha this nor ch. 
ii. b slrirtty a " dirge." Zion la not dead. She b peitMlified 
as a widowed piiaccss. bereaved and deaolale, ilttisg amid 

the ruins of her former joys, si ' ' " 

From verse i ic to the eiid (ei 

w it) she herself h tbe 



Behdd and see I 

griel there b> like ailu l,"! )OQ IC 


iii. 1-8); 1 
pnvokcd by her ^ 

The tn[ has Bifftinl^ mueh. Vm « « 

If: ipm. nad -wp, " wu bouDd." Vene iv n™. -,. 
■a n^ nu 31m >ai " For thty iDiitht lood to raio 
lift, and found it not:" cf. Scptuagint ^ and vena 11, r 
IF — _^. ^L_ _ — _ » r_f I jrifvoufcly r 

■eBoddi. \ 

, "Mt i 

Iu^^ikI Ltt Ibt 
Bcdaudj Batb- 

bdM. " ihould ba w n 

I. Von II r.! "All mt „ --,-— 

Falm ix. 13). " Tbau didM. Bnii( Thau ' 
Dty Tbou but pncUimcd; Lfl them brcomc 
line" (nv; m Sii>tui|iiit) " a[ their olunity fd 

Clupta iL — "Ab how in wnih the Loid 
Sioiil" TIN poet lamcDU Yihwch'i ujei u Lac ini 
tauie which deiiniyed dly uid kingdam, iiupendcd leu 
tad Sibbuh, rejecled dUr and unctuaiy. He mention 
tlie upiDU o( the vidoD in the Temple; the disnunllini 
of the walls; the enle o( killl and princei (venei i-gl 
He mtlb the mnuroing in Ibc doomed ciiy; the cbildrci 
dyint of hunger in the UiteU; the prophets deluding th 
ptgple with vain hopes. PuMB-by jeered i( ihe lallcn dly 
ibd all her cnemm triumphed over her (venei 10-17]. Siol 
o the Lord in pioleM againsl Hil pililaa Koil 


> ,fr«). 

arr " (Septuaginr ti mwi 
B liJIowi. » hrre). [. 

"He I 

Ihe .irlng (Srpiuii.ni. ^..uiW.r): 
ir end «■ (n.) ■*!, •■ He tpcni Hi» 
rk. v>L a. u 1. » Vrtf «: 
Ar down tlir vail of Jlii dvetimg- 
ttmini. d Pialm liuiv 7/, where 

l^-Among Ibe nation. 
V«K iBr'-Ciy much" 
Iht Lord. O ViiTin D»i. 
rrdjjBdam. and the lul riauin di 
■■ For ihc liCe ol Ihy childtrTi ■' > 
hith donr IB ihee" (iS SW" Inl. . 
The unilann gtooni of (hii. (he ma 
unrdievnl by a Angle ray of hope, 
ibtpun 1. ill iv. aifn. 

Chapter iii.— Here the nation 
His. li. i). who hnienti hia 01 
i9-», ii. m-ti. thi> is hardly 1 
uikt lorm ot elegy {Klaidud). 


=. 2pph 1 

airee wilhwhal Ie4|owa. 

icn the mt »a> added. 

[unified ai a nan (ct. 
unities. In view of I. 
nis devialioii Itorn Ihe 

of th. 

: poenu. Chapter il. 

slaughtered children; 
ning, with its abruptly 
fprcujon o[ the Divine 

■ilh a mother's lamenl 

'ndent " I am Rie Mini " ' 

it inlenliona]. Israel dunl not breathe it, until compelled 
■ dimai, vene iS: ct. Am. vi. 10. Contrast its frequency 
when ground 4f hope is found in the Divine pity 
and purjjose (venet Il-«o), ud when the contrite nation turns 
uliiCodinpTayer(ventS5S-6&). Thespiritoalaspect of things 
B now the main topic. The poet dealt less with inddeni, and 
more wiih the moral lignihcance of the Balion') sufferings. It 
■I (he retigieu culmination o( Ibe book. His poem a nithcr 

in Ihe conneiion of thought; but his alphabetic scheme proves 
ihat fir ittipud twenty-two slanias. not siity-sii detached 
cMplels. There is somclbing arrwling in that bold " I am Ihe 
Man ■'; and ihe lyrical intrajity, the religious depth and beauty 
ot the whole, may well blind us lo occasional ruggedneuof metre 

awl language, abrupt transitions from I 
Mber alkged Uemisbea, some ol which a 

>l have I 

n of Ihe 

haps' " He iwallawed me up" Uer. 11. Jf) " 
" (Scptuagint) " wiib gknoi " <ai la Kw. IB 

rarber all peapUi (Htb. MSS. and Syt). 

•an ny 
iW. rd. 

bei m-i 


de'r Hb°fKl . "' 
«i. 18). V«« J. 

Adotiai purpitBl not (Gen. n. 
*r (Geo. v. 5; or im Nen. ix. h 
" Why dnth a morul cepiplaiiir 

_-n inxviii. la). 

Ujjnlw CEzek. «iiU m). For Ihe wording, 

1: eh. L 16; Jer. iiici. IJ. VerK 51: " T 
Ihe pit " (Shcoh Palms im. 4. l">vlil. 4 

.. L L. ^^ iaigt, to Abaddon '* (jnaii -jr 

■ jS; " O p4ead, Lord, the cauK of 


I^irhapa: " Wberewilh (hey doiged my 
■alia Unujt. 51 f. Vtrae ii, rd. Dvp, as 
ji vene 14 and lob la. 9. Vene 65: 
madnen " (cf. Arab, (aiifla; mapitfi., mad) 

Tbe finest m change hud " 

The poet shows how famine and the sword desdaled Zion 

(verses i-io). All was Yahweh's work; a wonder 10 the heathen 

(Jer itiiii. 11, 14, «vi, 8, 10 I!., iiii. 11-13), "ho, like Cain, 
became homeless wandcrenand outcasts (verses 11-16). Vainly 
did the besieged walcb Cor succoura from Egypt (Jer iiivii. 
S R }. and even the last forbm hope, (be flight of " Vahweh's 
Anointed." King Zedekiah, was doomed (0 fail (venei 17-10. 
Jcr jxBi. 4 fi). Edom rejoiced in her ruin (Eiek. «v ij, 
mv, IS. Obad.; Psalm cmvii. j), but Zioo's sin o now 
atoned for (tf Is. il. 3), and she may look forward 10 (be judgmea( 
of ber lot (verses ii-Ji). 

wen Ihe dwTef the nroid Tlui Ibr itain of raoiinel FOr ihey " 
(Septuagini am.). "Ihey paued away" (oSn Sepluigint; Pulm 
xinui. 14) "with a «ab " (Ju. a. S4; Is. aiii- "S; Jer. li. 4). 
"Suddenly, in the field" fn dvo; Jer liv. iB). Vene 13, 
add ■« after !fii: d. Ju. liv. 4; Jer. xiii. i& Vene lyr : 
" Whik we watched" (Sep[uatinl) " mntinuilly : " ncnni. 
Verwi ig;-'Our (itpi wen curbed " (n MSS,; sec Pro. iv 11: 
Job iviii. 7] " from walking In our open places " (bcfofe 1^ uiv 

Pies; ^feh. viii. 1. ]): "The completion of our days diew mgh 
r mrto a- rv; cf. Lev. viii. 33; Job ix. 11). ■'Tor 

Ui (dittoir. >): "Sedler in the' Land!" Uj. of j'udahr^ Eiek! 
mrv. 10. mivi. s. Pe.haps V.i iwr.' " Seiiei ol the Land "), 

Chapter v. — A sorrowful iupi^ca[iaB, in which (he speaken 
deplore, not tbe fall of Jerusalem, but their own Male of galling 
dependence and hopelcia poverty. They are (till suffering lor 
the dni ol Iheii lathtn, wbn perished in ilit ea(as(rophe (vine 
7). They are at (be merry of " servants " (verse g. cl 1 Kinp 
Mv. 14; Neh. v. 15: " Yea, even thdr ' boys* lorded it over 
tbe people "), under a tyranny of pashas ol Ihe worst type 
(vcfSd II f.). Tbe soil is owned by aliens; and the Jews have 
to buy their water and Gn^wood (venea 3, 4, cf. Neh. ii. 36 I.) 
While busy ^anrating, they an aaposed to the raids of the 
Bedouins (terse q). jackals prowl among (he ruiu of Zion 
(verse iS; ci. Neh. iv. 3). And ihii condition o( Map has 
already lasted a very bng time (veiu bo). 

Vervi i f. iTanspose and rittdr "To advenan'es" (B-n'f) 
"wt HibiniKed. Saying" (-km^), "'We shaU be salisfed with 
bread'" (cf. Jer. till. 14): "The yoke of our neck they made 
heavy" (Neh. v. 13: a^ "j! Tru.1). "We toil, and no ml 
IS allowed us." Vcrie 13 : " Xobica enduied to gnnd. A~i n>.'nrM 
. » . . , which belonei 

i. 7! Is. 

which belonn id 



V. 7;vi. it]. ~ Vniig, " ButTlua..." PHlmdi. ijOIclIautaitn 
incnUiici,v(ne iS). VsKii.iiiiiilH; dittogr.oIialloaiiigiEi. 

AuUarMf and iatt. — Hie lisdition of Jemnjah's tuthonliip 
camiDt be traced higher thui the Septiugint venioD. The 
prefitciy note there nuy come Imm * Uebnw MS., buLpcrbip* 
rcfen to dupler L only ("Jerenuih i&ng Uns dirge ")■ The 
jdu Chit l^unenlatjona mi originiUy mppcnded to Jeremiah 

wirdf sepinted front it lad idded to the other Megillolh for 
the Utnrgidl convenience of the SynigOfue, reMi OQ the [«cl 
that Joscphui (Ap. L I, S) ud, following him, Jenme md 
Oiigen rechon 11 boaki, tikisg Ruth with Judga ind Lamenlt- 
tuni with Jerenuah; whcreu the ordinuy Jewish reckoning 
giva 14 books, u in our Hebrew BibtcL There ' 

■ ftsciful 

irtlfidiil lecknnlng 
lie Hebrew ilphlbet was ever much n 
geilion- Even in the Scptoagijit the uutug oroer miy 

be origiml. It ippein likely thit LomentvtionB was not 
isliled by the lune hud u Jaeniiih (Noldeke) UqULc 

liLIer, the 5eptiugint Lamentitioia iticki closely to the 
saorelic teit. The two books can kudly hive been uniled 
n the Gnl. On the ilmglh of 1 ChioD. niv, ij, some 
ient writers (e.g. Jeiome arf Zech. lii. 1 1) held Hut Jerf njih 
iposed Lamentations. When, howevci, JiMcphus (Ant. i. 
) states that Jeremiih wrolc an elegy on Josiah slill eilapt 
is day, he may be merely quoting a little too much of Chron. 

iiton'l note). Itisurged. indeed, that Iheaulhol of Cfareaides 
Id not liave imagined a prophet to have sympathized with 

he must have connected tht passage 
However that may 

wilh Jc 

ic Chroi 


es he imply tliat the 

contrary; for be implio that Tit Qinolh conliincd not only 
Jeremiah's single diige on Josiafa, but also Ihe dcgio of " all 
the unging men and aiogiBg women," fiom the time of Joiiah'i 
death (608) down 10 his own day (3rd tcnlury). The unlimdy 
(ateofjoiiah became a stock alluiioD in dirges. Ills not meant 
Ibat foe Ihree centuries the diige-wriiets had nothing else to 
sing of; mndi less, that they sang of the fall of Jerusalem (pre- 
supposed by our book) before iu occurrence. Upon the whole, 
il does not seen probable, either thai the Cbronicler mistook 
Lamentations iv. for Jeremiah's dirge on Joslah, ot that the 
book he calls The Qimlk was identical with our (jinoth. Later 

obtrusive almilaritit* between Jeremiah and LameDtallons 
(lee Driver, L.O.T. p. 43J '■), and the supposed reference in 
Lamentations 111 JJ S. to Jeremiah mviiL 6 B., a* well as Ihe 
fact that Jeremiah was the one well-known inqiiied writer who 
had lived Ihraugh Ihe siege of Jeniaalcm — they naturally enough 
ascribed this little book to the prophet. It is certainly Irae 
that Ihe same emotional temperament, dissolving in tears iI 
the spectacle of the country's won, and etpcesiiog itself to a 
great extent in the same ot similar language, ia noticeable in 
the auIhor(B) of LamenUtiocs i.-iv. and in Jeremiah. And both 
refer these woes to Ihe lame cause, viz. the lins of the nation, 
and particularly of lis prophets and priests. 

This, however, is not enough to prove identity of aulhotlhip; 
and the {^lowing oiniideraiioBi militate strongly against the 
(nidilion. (i.) The langua^ aiul style of Lamentations are 
Id gcRcnd very unlike thoee of Jeremiah (see (he details in 
Nigelsbach and Uhr); whatever allowance may be made for 
conventional diffeiencci in the phraseology of elegiac poetry 
and prophetic prose, even of a mon or le&s fync^ cast. 
LamenlaIionsi.-iv.shawa knowledge oC £«k ie1(cf.Lanieata(iDna 
ii. ^c; Ei. n. S, 11; Lam. ii. 14; £1. lii. 14; liii.'io, 14: 
Lam. iL rj; Ec xzvil. 3; nviiL i>; Lam. iv. 3o\ Ei. lii. 
4. 8) and of Is. il.-livi. (Lam. i. 10, nroa; Is. Idv. 10; Lun. 
i. is: ^ liiii. >; Lam. ii. i; Is. livL i; Lam. H. »i Is. 
iliii. 181 Lui. ii, ij Us J tait; Ifc xL iS, ij; LuD. iL \ff; 

Is. ]x. 15I; L«m. iii. lA eon; la. xML 5i LuB. liL 30: ti. 
1. 6; Lam. iv. 14; Is. Ux. 3, la; Lam. iv. 15; Is. liil 11; l^m. 

got quote Eiekiel; and he could hardly have quoted wiitiag* 
if the a^ of Cyrus. (ilL) The coincidence* of liDguage between 
Lameatilioiu and certain lala Psalms, such u Psalms liii., 
Im., buxviii., Ijnii., ciii., ait numerous and ligniB- 
t least as a geoetal indication of date, (iv.) Thepointof 
view o[ Lamentations sometimes differs from that of the prophet. 
This need not be the case in L >i f . where the conteit ahow* that 
nemiei " are not the ChaJdeans, but Judah's ill neigfabours. 
Ammon, Moab and the rest (ct. iv. ii f.; in. 59-66 may 
> the same foes). Ch. ii. gc may refer to popular prophecy 
propheta "; cf. 'verse 14), which would naturally be 
d by the overwhelming FolBfication of its comfortable 
predictions (iv. 14 B.; c[. Jer. liv. ty, Eiek. vii. 16 f.; Psalm 
Iniv. 9]. But though Jeremiah was by no means disloyal 
(Jer. uiiv. 4 f.), he would hardly have spoken of Zedekiah in 
the terms of Lam. !v. 10; and the pnphet never looked to 
Egypt tor help, as the poel of Iv. tj appears to have done. It 
must be admitted that Lamentations eihibits, upon the whole, 
"a poet (more) in sympathy with the old life of the nation, 
whose attitude towards the temple and the king is far more 
popular than Jeremiah's" (W. Roberuon Smith); d. f. 4, 
u. 6, J, aof. (v.] While we End in Lamentations some 
that we should not have expected From Jeremiah, vre 
her things chatacterisilc of the prophet There is no 
f his confident faith in the restoration of both Israel 
dab (Jer. iii. 14-1S, xxiii. 3-8, iix.-iiii;i.), nor of bis 
doctrine of the New CovenanI (Jer. md. 31-34), as a 
of hope and consolation [or Zion. The only hope ei- 
in Lamentations i. ii the hope of Divine vengeance on 
I malicious rivals (i. 11 i.); and even this is wanting fton 
Chapter iii. finds comfon in the Ibonght of Yahweh** 

woe for Edom 

': but ends with a ton 

cry tor 

r hope nor eonsolalion, until the end, 
irancetJial Zion's punishment is complete, 
n be eiUed (iv. 31 f.). Hie but word is 

B state). Had Jen 

re shaU re 

" {it. 

positive and definitely prophetic 
in tone and spirit. (The author of chapter ill. seems to have 
felt this. It was apparently written in view of chapter ii. as a 
kind of religious counterpoise to ita burden of de^air, which 
it first lakes up, verse* i-». and then dissipates, verses 11 fl.). 
(vL) It seems almost superfluous to add that, in the brief and 
troubled story of the prt^hel's life after Ihe fall of the dty 
Jer. xiiii.-xliv.}, it is difficult to specify an occauon when 
he may be supposed lo have enjoyed the necessary leisure and 
quiet for the composition of these elaborate and carefully con- 
structed pieces, in a style so remote from his ordinary freedom 
and spontaneity of utterance. And if at Ihe very end of hii 
stormy career he really found time and inclination lo wi " 

onder why il 


works, or at least mentioned in Ihe chaplen wbidi leUle to bis 
public activity after the cata*troph& 

Budde's date, no i.e., might not be too catly for chapter v.,' 
if it stood alone. But it was evidently written as Ihe dose of 
the book, and perhaps la complete Ihe number of five divisions, 
after the model of the Fenlaleuch; which would bring it below 
the date of Ezra (4S7 B.C.). And this date is supported by 
inlemsl indications. The Divine (oigetfulnesa has already 
lasted a very long time since Ihe catastrophe (" for ever," 
veise lo); which seems to imply Ihe lapse of much not* than 
thirty-six years (cf. Zech. i. 11). The hilt of Zion is stiU a 
deserted site haunted by Jackals, aa il was when Nehepilab 

tions, political and economic, leem to agree with what is told ui 
ty Nebemiah of the state of things which he found, and which pre- 
vailed before hii coming: cL op. Neh.v. 9-5 with Lamcnlatiani 


T. >, lO, ud Nch. T. 
k DoUiiBx IB doplci L 
vriUEn, hul be b«a m poet (cL Nek i. «). The nuTBtive of 
Kih, liiL tbion light od venc lo; md Ibcre an muy nun- 
ddaicBBol lasguige, &(.-"Tbe Piovince" <oI Judea), Neh. i. 
}, cL vcne 1 1 " ■dvenadn " (n), of Judih'i luitile neif^ 
hottn, vene 7i Neh. iv. ii; "made my sueDglfa stumble," 
WH 14. ti. Neh. n. 4 (Heb.); the pnyen, venn ai I., Neh. 
iv. 4 f- (Hcb. iii. 36 f.), are similai. -TIm raemoiy ol what is told 
mNeh.iT. 5 (ii), Emiv. i3f,,v. 5, may perhaps have intgsled 
the pecuUar Ism nve, Otffate, anat. vene 7. With verse ] 
" Jadob mi^atcd Inm uppaaaioa; From gicatoesa ol savitude; 
Bbe settled among lbs oltioBs, Without fioding a ratine-[dace," 
d.Neb.v. iSendtJet. iLiiL The"remnuito(thecaptiviiy" 
(Neh. L.i f.) bname mKl ailoiuBted (d. nne 4), beauie all 
vbo could esc^ie fiom tbc galliog tyraimy ol the foreigner 
kft the iDuiiUy (d. Tine 6). \eaia it, 19 (deanb of feod), 
10 fdangB- in the fidd, staivalioii in the bcmse} sgree curioody 
■ilh Neh. T. 6, 9 1- 

'. Cbapttta iL aad Iv. can hBdly be dated eailiir than the 
biginniiig at the Pcniaii period. Tbey might then have b«n 
written by one who, aa a yoong man of siitaa or twenty, bad 
wilnawd the Unible scEnc* of fifty yeaii before. If, however, 
n li sewnlly tecogniud, these poems are not the spontaneous 
ud tiBIBiltod outponringt of pastlonale grief, but compositions 
of "'"■'"'^ ut and itnded effects, wriilen for a purpoic, it 
ii ^ivioai that they ucd not be contcmpomy. A poet of a 
lucr seaoUioD mtfit ham Mmg oC the great drama in this 
foUos. He cbM iadtleBta and episodei would be deeply 
paven Id tlw popular oxnuiy; and it ia the poet's hiDCtion 
to make the past live again. There is much netsphot (i. 13- 
15, il. 1-4, Iii. i-iS, iv. I S.), and little detail beyond the 
honon usnal in long sieges (see Deut. xviii, 51 ff.; i Kings 
tL j8 f.) Acquaintance with the eihting litmture and the 
popular remiidscenafl of the last dayt of Jerusalem would supply 
■n aopla lowndallon for aU that we End in these poems. 

LrTBMTDaB.— 'Thedder litcraluie ii fully given by Nbniibadi in 
Lange'sBiMwri^.r.xv. (I«6S. Eng. Irani. iB7i,p. 17). Anune 

"- ly be Bodced thoM of Kalkar (in Lalln) (iSrt); 

' - ' f Hfitmek (i8ss), who ascribet 

, , jup. K. Budde in ZA.T.W., 1881, 

t, 4S); VaiUi«er (l8ST)i Neumann (iSsS): H. Ewald in bis 
Kclbr, vol I. pt. U. (loded., tS66) : Eimtfanlt (1867): Nlgtli- 
bKh, tf- ti*- (tM»; E. Gotach, D» IChidM. Jer. (i»6ah A. 
liana., 1B74): Payne Smith in Iti Sftaitri Ctrnmnliirf-' Rtuw. 
Lt Balt:_jiiiKlyrifiii(iiT9) : T. K. CWne, at end of " Jeremiah," 
Pulpii Ommixiiirj (igaj-iS*.); E. H. Flumptrc, in Eincmi'j 
O.T. /orSsdu* Kod»i (iSS4h S. Oellli in Slnck-7.Cc1der'i 
Kmiff- Xtmm. A.T. viL lte»))iM. LMi (1S91) and again Hai.'- 
tw— ffif (HI A.r. [tB9])i F. Baetbnn ap. Kaulsxh, Dii 
BtOitf SChriJI <E. A.r. (189th W. F. Admey, Ex/KiaWi Bibit 
JlSi^j'S. Mmocchi. U LaixmlaBimi di Ctrfna (Rome, iK97);and 

K. Budde, " Fflnf MnilUx." in Kuntr Hd.-Ciim< 
" ' ~ ' ' ntetary criticism see ar 

'■riUiat, ii. 477-4^ (ijTJ): &■ H. Rodhe. JVnas Jatmai Tkraui 
tri^ml ipuulwiKi (Lundae, 1871}; F- Monlct. Elmit or U Inrs 
u tomlatuiu [Centva, 18J5I ; C. Bickell, Ctrmina 7.T. 

i-IM (iWl). and WitntrirUalmhfir Kmiitia MiTHiilBiia, 

I. mi a. tl*M) (cf. also Ins Mclnawi dtr HiMtr, I «Me«, 

lM>):UerlKirm(rdaiX.r.AKhd<r2JkHiu^(r (Halle. i«8a)i 

t. Dyserinck, TMsfiidt 7-<Uiciln|l. xavi. 349 ff. (1I91) : S. A. Fi^ 

*■ Panlleleiwis^en*rhr. Iv., v.und der MaaaUenell.''Z^.r.lC.. 

(>(r .Sfnctj^lMBt da Swia dir JCtadifdff 1 anS LAhr " l^ieni Ui. 
upd die jeremlanische Autonchaft Oea Buches def KUB e li c do'," 
Zjt.T.W:, Edv. I ff. (iwH). 

On the ERHody, see {besides the worb of BSrhell and Dnerinclil 
K. Budde, " Das hebrfiKhe Khuelied," ZJl.T.W.. U. i tT. (1M1I. iii. 
MS B. (1M3). xL i34f. (1S91). Iii. 31 fl. >6i ff. (1891): i*! 
AtrMcbf. iniiL 4S1 H. (iSul: and C. I. BaK "'rhe 
SuuctuRofQiDDth" J>..S.B..il. (March iggj]. (Thewiiler 
unacquainted with Bodde's previous labours.} 

The following may also be consulted, NUdeke, DiiA.T.Lllmiiir, 
niL 141-148 (i3ig);$ein(cke, Cork, ia Volka ttnd. ii.io H. (itSi); 
Eude. Cwil. p. 701. B. I.(l>S7)l Smend In Z.A.TSr. \im\ 
P 61 r : Steinlhal, ''Die KlanlKder Jer." In OiM *nd !bi.-tkaBKI*ie, 
i^U (1 «9o) : Driver, LOT. (i89i).p.i2(,"TheUnienIaliiiiM";aKl 
Cbeyae'>aiticlc"Lanientatk>ns(BoDk>,"in£iu.BiU.liL (C.J.B.*) 

[OR, Cfntn oi 
(i7to-iSi9), Fitncb soldier and politician, was bom in Paris 
on the loth of October ijte. He served la the American Wu 
of Indqieadence under Bnchsiabetu, and la i7Sg was sent as 
deputy to the Stales (^eoBal by the nobles of the bailNagi ol 
P*ronne. In the Constituent Assembly be formed with Bsmave 
and Adrien Duport a sort of association called the " Triumvirate," 
which controlled a group of about forty deputies forming the 
advanced left of the Assembly. He prraented a famous report 
in the Consliluent Assembly on the organization of the army, 
but is betlcf known by his eloquent speech on the 95tb of 
February 1791, at the Jacobin Club, against Mlrabesu, wbose 
rdations with the court were beginning to be suspected, and who 
was a personal enemy of Laioeth. Howeva. after the flight of 
the king to Vicenaeg, Lamcth became lenaicilcd with the court. 
He served in the amy as SMrtohif-dKaai^ under Lucknet and 
Lafayette, but was accused of treason on the ijib of August 
179J, fled thp oouDtry, and was Imprisoned by the Austrians. 
Alter his relesae be eogaged in commerce at Hamburg with his 
brother Charles and the due d'AiguiUon, anl did not return to 
France unlil the Consulate. Under the Empire he was made 
prefect successively in several depaitctenU, and in iSio was 
created a baron- In 1S14 he attached himself to the Bourbons, 
and under the Restoration was appointed prefect o( Sonrae, 
deputy for Seine-Inffcrieure and finally deputy for Seine-et-Oise, 
in which capacity he was a Icado' of the Liberal opjwsition. 
He died in Paris on the iSth of March 1S19. He was Ihe author 
of an inqnrlant History rf Ik Cnsittlwnl AaaMy (Paris, 
> vols., iS7S-iSig}. 

Of his two brotben, THtonou Laheth (i7s6-iSs4) served 
in tbc Amerion war, sal In the Legislative Assembly as deputy 
from tlic department <A Jura, and beame marUliBi-it-amp; 
and Chulxs Malo FaaHcon LuiEtB (i7j;-igj3), who aba 
served in America, wsa deputy to the States General of 4 73p, 
but emigrated early in die Revolution, returned to Fraiue 
under the Consulate, and was appointed governor of WUnbnrg 
under ibe Empire. Uke Alexandre, Charles joined the Bourbons, 
auixeeding Alexandre as deputy in 1829. 

See F. A. Aulard, t« Orafciiri i "■ -" - ■ _ . 

LAMBTTSIB, JDUBH OPFBAT DB (1709-1751), French 
physician and philosopher, the earliest of the materialistic 
writers <A the Illumination, was bora at St Malo on the igtb 
of December 1709. Afis studying theology in the Jansenisl 
schools for some yean, be suddenly decided to adopt Ibe 
pTOlessoo ol medicine. Ini7u hewentloLeidenlostudy under 
Boerbaave, and in 174s returned to Paris, where be obtained 
Ihe appointment of surgeon to the guards. During an attack 
of fever he made observations on himylf with reference to the 
actkm of quickBkcd dmlation iq»n thought, which lad him to 
the ooudusiDn that psychical phiHimena wcia to be accounted 
for sa ths eflect* o( ofganlc changes in Ibe hrain and nervous 
ayrian. This conclusion ba worfcjed oul in hb earliest philo- 
aopiucal worit, tbe Hit$»ir» DoMirdtt i4 Finn, which appeared 
about 1 745. So gical was the ouuty caused by its publicalion 
that Lametlde was forced lo Uke icfuge in Leiden, where he 
developed his docuiaca stUl more boldly and complelely, and 
with great origmalily, In L'Hmmm madime (Eng. trans., 
London, 1750; ed. Willi introd. and notca, J. Asstiat, iS6s), 
and Z,'HniiiH fJoiM, IRalisei based upon principles of the 
most conststeotly maierlslisUc character. The ctbio of these 
principles were worked out in Diicom nr b benkmr, La 
ValHfU, Bid L'ArliUjiHar.iaiiUcii the end of life is found In 
the pleasures of the senses, and vbtoe Is reduced to sdf-Iove. 
Atheism is the oidy means of ensuring the happiness of Ihe world, 
which bss been toidered ImpossfUo by the wars bronght about 
by theolo^ans. Tbe soul Is only the thinking part of the body, 
and with tbe body it passes away. Wfaen death comes, the farce 
is over (In Jara at jouUt, tboefon let ui Uke our pleaiura 
while we can. Lamettrie has been called " the Atistippus of 
So MtoDg waa the fcding afaliut Uin 

TauTDcua, Ih^ioi. ia fkiiioin df iWrj {\ 


thM iD 1 748 be «u cuaqnlled 10 quit UoUud lac Bidin. nben 
Tredtiitk Ux Cnac dm only tJkiMrtd him (a pnctiu u ± 
pbyiiciui, but appolniid liim coun radci. He di»l on ihe 
iiih o[ Novemba 17J1. Hi> oMtaeii <Eiarts fkiltsepkiqua 
Appeued if urhia death in several flljlkt OS, publi^Kd Id LoDdoo. 
fiertia ud AmUentam mpectivitjr. 

Thechiel niitbiiriiy br hBlile ■> ihe £l<>te irriRni br Fmkrick [be 
Creil (primed in Aiiiui'i cd.ol Homme jauiinc). In nuxtein tirno 
Lametirie has been judetd leu icvciily;Kjc F.A. Laoie. CrK*i£*u 
in Uaonalinm (ti«. trant. by E. C. Thomai. ii. ISSd); Mrit 
QatfiitUj.RtotPtaua).LaUtarit,unfHiaienra (1873. wilh 
CrnluiteU biitecv (d fail wscki): J E- Psrlliky, J. O.ib LiamtUnt. 
Slit LOtn uai uini Wott (1900): F. PIcavcl. "U Mtitric a U 
eHlIqiie illeinande." in Ctm/M lendu in liaKH ic tAcad, in 
ScuiUa monkt tt ptiili^ti, xxxii- (lAS^Ji 4 reply lo Gerirun re- 
habilkatioi tt of Lamettrifc 

UMU. Id Gieek mylbology, queen o[ lifayt. She »u 
beloved t^ Znu, and wtacn Hera robbed hec of her cbfldren out 
of JeikMity, the killed eveiy child she could gtl inio bcr powei 
(Diod. Sic. K. 41; Schol. Araiophinet, Pni, .jsj). HoDte 
Lomii cBine lo rnenn a lemxle bogey ot demon, wboK nune 
«u uwd by Gitefc moiheti 10 Iriehien ihdr children; from 
Ibe Greek ibe paued into Romin denionology. She wu repre- 
KUed with 1 ifoman's Fan and a secpem's tifl. She ni alu 
known n a sort of ftcnd, the prototype of the tnodem vampire, 
who ID the form of a beautiful Tromon enticed young men to 
b« emhraca, in order that she miEht feed on their life and 
heart's blood. In ih'is (otm she appears in Goethe's DU Brani 
m CotinOi. and Keals's Umi„. The none UmU is deaily 
inine form of Latnoi, king of the Laesttygonta (fl.t.). 

At I. 

(both, according to some ic< 

■onhipped as gods; but li 

, children of Foh 

in) wer 

n the g< 

in Germ 

kably like that of the malignant 

d Celtic folk-lo' 


of Cieece tsA Asia 
belong to that religion 

Minor; and it is probable that the 

which spread from Asia Minor over Thnce 

UMMAI (O. Eng. Uammaan. Uafmarnc, from aiij. loai, ana 
■uciie, mass, "loaf-mass"), originally in En^ind Ibe festival 
of the wheat harvest celebcaled on the iit of August, O.S. It 

mas (Christmas) and Whitsuntide lEasler), Some rents are 
ilill payable in England at Lammastidc, and in Scotland H li 
geoeralty observed, but on the iitb of August, uncc the altera- 
tion of the calendar in George II. '9 reign. Its name was in 
alluuon to the custom thai each worshipper sboold present tn 
the church a loaf made of the new wheat as on oOering of Ibc 

A relic of Ibe aid " open-field " syslen of agrkvlttire siwivct 
in the so-caUcd " Lammas Lands." Th«e were latidi eneloud 
■nd beld in severally during (he growing of com and giua and 
IhrawD open to paMuragc during the rest of Ihe year for those 
who had common tights. These commoncn might be Ibe 
■everaJ owners, the inhabitants of a parish, freemen of a borough, 
lenantl of a manor, &c. The opening ■( the fields by throwing 
down the tencn look place on Lammai Day tmh of Augasi) 
lor corn-Unds and on Old MldsuRimer Day (6ih of July) for 
gcasa. They remained opea untA the following Lady Day. 
Thus, is law, " lammas landi " bclmg to the several owners in 
lee-simple subject fot half the year to the lights of 


and Ihe Gypaiiui barbalus of 
grandest birds-of-pny of the Palae 
lofty mountain chains Item Portugal 
thou^ within historic limes il has bee 

the Falti barbalui c 

one ol the 

iltndcd fanbcr tiaa lb* loulbcrD Iianiicr oi 

Bavitia. or the odgfaboiBtKiod of Salzburg; ■ but in A^ )l 
formerly reached ■ higher latitude, having been fouod eveu ao 
lately as igjo in the Amur regioll where, according to G. P. 
Radde (Btiir. KanUn. Run. Ktkki, udiL p. 4G7), it hat no* 
left hut its name. It ii not unaiiniaaB oa many puts of the 
Himalayas, where it breedi; and oa the ntouDtains oi KtunaoQ 
aod the Punjab, aod ii Ihc " golden eagle " of maM Angto- 
Indiani. It ii found abo in Peru, Palestine, Crete and Greece, 
the Italian Alps, SIdly, Sardioia and Mauritania. 

In some ealemal characters the Itmmergeyer la intennedialc 
between the families Vtiituridae and FakBitidcCt and the opioiop 
ol systematists has from time lo lime varied as to its proper 
posiiiotL. it is now generally agreed, bowever, that it is more 
cloiely alUed Kith the eagles than with the vultures, and the 
lub-family Gyfaltittae ol the Fskmiiu baa been formed to 

The whole teagth of the bird is from 41 to 46 in., ol which, 
howevee, about » an due to Ibe loag cuneiform tail, while 
the poiDied wiogi measure more than jo io. ftom tbe carpal 
joint to the tip. The top ol the head it white, bounded by blatk, 
which, beginning [n stiff btlstly EeaEheis turned forwarda over 
the base 0^ the beak, pioceeds on either side of the face in a 
well-defioed baod to ibe eye, when it bifurcals into two nairow 
stripes, of which the upper ooe passes above and beyond that 
feature till just In front ol the scalp it suddenly turns upwards 
across the bead and meets the corresponding stripe from Iho 
" ' ude, cnckeing the wUte foRhead already m 

khUe the In 

iddenly tiopi. A lult o( black, btiatly 
leathers projects bcardlike Imm the base of Ibe mandible, aid 
gives the bird one ol its 
The rest ol tbe head, th 

are dolhed with lanceolate feathers of a pale lawny coi 
sometimes to pole as to be nearly white beoeaih; whi 
scapulut. back and wing-coveRs generally, are of a 
gieyitb -black, most of Ibe featben having a white shaft 

tail, are of 1 dirk bUukish-gtey. The irides ait of a light o 



tunio— equi 


us am! 

of a bright 

young ol lb 


t head, neck^nd 
ts of the 

untie and wing-coverts an broadly tipped a 
treaked wilb-tawny or ligbtish-grey. 
The Bmoiergeycr breeds ejdy in Ihe year. Tlie neil it si 
uge site, built of tiitks, lined with toft malnial and placed 
n a ledge of rock— a spot being chosen, and often occupied lor 
lany years, which is nearly always diflicult of access. Hene 
1 the month of February a single egg is usually laid. This is 
length by nearly 3| in breadth, of a pale 

bh^)raDge. Tbe ) 

' food ol the 

and neck, and with ochriceoua in the I 

There a much discrepancy as to Ibe ordi 
UmmeTpyer, tome observers maialtining that it lives almoit 
entirely on (amon, offal and fx-en ordure; bul there Is no 
question of iu frequently taking living prey, and it is reasonable 
to suppose that this bud, like so many othen, is not everywhere 
unilDim in in haliits. Its name shows il to be the reputed 
enemy of shtphttds, and it ia In tome measure owing to their 
hostility thai ft has been eHcrmlnated in so many parts of its 
Euiopcaa range. ButtheUmmergeyerhatalwagrcal partiality 
for bones, which whcD imalt enough <l awallowi. When they are 
too luge, it is said to MBr with them to a great hoight and drop 
ihem on a rock or (tone that they may be broken into piece* 
ol convenient size. Hence Its name totlfiagt,' by vbidi the 

■See a paptf by Di Cirtanner on this bird in^SwItterlaDd (fir- 

tandf. Sl-Call. •ulura. Criillntaf'- 1(169-1870. pp 147-144}- 

' AnUMifl olhcfl- cr[nn al Lribuled 10 the specie* is that, accotdiaf 
la nixy (Hiil. JVoL X. cap }J. ol having caused the death of Ibe 
pact AeKHylut, by dropping a tortoiie oa hit bitd bi ■ " ' -' - 

LI bald bead! In 


Hebtc* Ptm b lishtly (luAtol in the Aatkstiicd Voiiin of 
tbc BiUe (Lev. li. ty, Dtm. m. ii) — •. nod cwnipted ints 
ttpnf, umI applUI M ■ biid w\mh bu on btbit oC the kind. 

Tttltitttrpcycrcfnanh wimmdimMt Airk»it^i«iafc- 
*lly diMioct, and ia bwm w Gjfatba andaiMlu « C. 
M>ih>ct. Ia btUK k loanbla Iba northctm bod, fncn vhidi 
it diStn in little DUntbumalXas the bUck aript below tbe 
ere and hnrias the Idwb put of the Urn* buc of fcMhoi. 
ll B the "RDltkn eitle" of Bnicc's Tmdi, ud bu bent 
huutUuUy isuied by JoKfth WoU in E. Rilppdl'i SjM. Obat. 
ilF Vitd Kmi-Oa-Afrika.'! {Tal. i). (A. NJ 

UHOtOKOIL ■ Fnoth Uouly. wbidi taktt in buh ittm 
LxaoigiuB. ■ ptue uid to beve beea in Iti prMtwion lince the 
I jlh century. One of iu anrcn] bnacbei it tlut of LunagDon 
de Mftlofaerbca. Several of the lanwigAou hive played 
impoitut patts In the hiuoiy oC FniKCuidtbeluBilyhubeia 
•pedelly diUiBguUhed in the legil pciifaiioB. Guiliaiihi 
D( Lakoicnon Ci6"7-iiS7?), atliinnl emiaenre «i » lewyer 
ud becenie pnsdeat of tbe pirlement of Fuii in 165S. Fint 
an the populiri end later on the royiliit tide during the Fraode, 
he peeuded at tbe eulier silting of the thai of Fouquet. vhoo 
he Ttgarded ai innocent, and he was ■■*^>"*>"*< with Colixrt, 
whom he wai able more than once to thwart. Lamoipion 
tried to smplily the laws of Fnnce and loatfal the Hciely of 
eien of letters like Boileau and Badne. Having ncdvcd rich 
m-aids for his public services, he died ia Firil on the lotb ol 
December 1677. CuilUume'i second ion, NicdiaidiLamoicmon 
(164S-1714), took the surname of BaiviUe FoUowina his 
beredtlary calling he iili^ many public olTicea, serving » inlend- 
aot of Montauban, ol Pau, of Poiticn end of Unsuedoc before 
fci> redremcnt in 171S. His adminbtniion of Languedoc wat 
chielly resuitable for ngorous meuuns atainit the Camiuids 
and other Froteituls, but In other diiections his work in the 
IMKb of France was nunc bcoeficent, at, following the lumple 
of Colbert, be encountged igricullure and industry generally 
ud did sometbing towards improviog the means ol communica. 
tioD. lie wrote > Ulmairi, wtiith ountaiu much interesting 
bformnlioa about his public work. This wu published at 
Amiterdun in i7it. Lamaigwn. nho i* (ailed by Saint Simon, 
" the kiDland tyrant of Languedoc," died in Paris on the 17th 
of May 1714. CuKfiUM Fi*k{oie na Lahdicnon (i7j;-r;So) 
entered public life U an early age and wasanadorinUie ttoublet 
vbich heralded the Revolution. First on the side of the paile- 
meal and later on that of the king he wu one of the assistanu of 
Lom^nie de Diiemie, whose unpopularily and fall be shind. 
He committed suicide on the ijih of May 17S0. 

UaOXT. JOiUNK von (i3os-i87eI. Scott bh-Gctman 
attroDomei and mignttitlan. was bom at Braemar. Aberdeen- 
shire, on the ijlh of December iSo;. Hewis sent at the age 
of twdve to be educated at Ihi Scottish monaileryin Regensburg, 

Hi) strong bent tor sdentific itudia was recognized by the bead ' 
of tbe monastery, P. Deasson, on whose recommendation he 
wu admitted in 1817 to the then new observatory of Bogen- 
faauacik (near Hunich), where he worked under J. Soldner. 
After the death of hig chief in 1835 he was, on H. C. Schumacher's 
TecotaisendatioQ, appdnted to succeed him as director of the 
observatory. In iSji he berame professor of astronomy ai 
the anivBiity of Muiuch. and held both these peats till his death, 
which took place 00 the Mh of August i8i«. Lamont wu a 
tneoiber of the academics of Btuuels, Upsala and I^igue, of 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh, of the Cambridge Philosophical 
Society and of many other learned corporations. Among bis 
contributions to astronomy nuy be noted his eleven lone- 
cataloguB of M.674 stars, hii meaturemenis, in iSsfr-itj?, ol 
nebulae and clusters, and his determination of the mui of 
1, Sx. 

<•' ;i. 183S}. A m 

u equipped at Bogen- 
: chiefly of 

in iMi. His HaMmtM ta Et^mapHtinmia (Bolin, it 
asUDdud work on the lubicct. 

Sa Altftmiimi Dtmlitht Bitpapkii (S. Gtather]: V.J. Sclirifl, 
Ailr. GtitUiikall, IV. 6a; MmuiltLiluias Rn. AUr. Sixitly. il. IQt; 
KiKirl. u. 4151 Ourl. .ToanufVflw. Stcitl,. d. Ji; Pnx^imtl 
Ray. Stcitly a Eiiwburtk. i. tjg; m Timii (11 Aug., 1879); 
Si( F. RoinMi^ aa. •! Btctj iSilimi m ElWrutly and Jttpuliim. 
pp. lii-tiy.lttftlSttia^iCal. if ^irmliftPtptrt, -nil. m-yii. 

uuuwiciiBBi raaiBranu LtoH urns juchaslt 

08 (t&36-TM5), Ffcncli general, wu bom at Naolca on llw 
Tilb of Seplemher iSoA, and entered tbc Fniinnrn in iliS. 
He ssved in the Algerian oenpeigne fmn iSjo onwards, and 
by tS4o he had risea to tbe gnde (d tmrtckJrit^amf (major- 
general). Tteae yon later ba was Made ■ gelteral of dinslon. 
He wai OBC of tbe neat ditliacaiabed tad efident of Bugeaod'a 
gmeralt, rcudand qiecial aerrtcs at Isly (Ansusl 14, r844), 
acted leraporaiily at govefimr-geaaal «C Algeria, and Gnal^ 
efiected tbe captore of Abd d-Kader Id (S«7. Lamoridtrc 
took aOBa pan in the political events of 1S48, bolh a* a member 
of the Chamber of Deputies and as a ndlitary commander. 
Under the ttgine of Cemnl CavalCMC he vat (or a time 

tile maat conapacuoda oppoocnta ol the policy of Louis Napoleot^ 
and at the tnf drtUI of tbe lad of December 1S51 he wat 
arrested and eiiled. He refused to give in his alt^iance to tbe 
emperor Napoleon 111., and in iMo accepted the command 
dI the papel army, which he led in the ItaUan campaign ol 1&60. 
On the iSih of September of that yeu be was severely defeated 
by the Jtiliao uoy at Cosldfidarda. His last yean weee spent 
in complete retirement in France [he hid been aUowed to relura 
'be died at Proiuel (Somne) oa tbe itlh of 


r 1M5. 

Sec E. Keller, U Cttl'oi A LcMoruitn (Paris, 1871)- 

LA MOIHE LE VAVEfl, ERUffOIS DE (isaBri67>), French 
writer, was bom in Paris of a soble family of Maine. Hb 
father was an ook^ at the parlemcni of Paris and author of 
■ curioui ireatiw on the functioni of tmbtssadori, entitled 
Lrfaliii. Hit Dt kciilimm priril/tiii, afiit il mnnot librUia 
(1574) and illustrated mainly from ancient history. Francois 
succeeded his father at the parlemeat, but gave up his post 
■bout 1647 and devoted himselE to tnvel and btllti Itliru. 
Ha Caniul/rjiiiiu nr rHotniiHt fmnijiu (ibjS) procured him 
admistion to the Academy, aitd hit Pt rixiirnilitii it Up. I* 
Daupk'iK (1640) attracted the attention of Richelieu. Iu 1644 
Aoneol Ausuia entrusted him with tbe educalionof her second 
son and subsequently with tbe coniplclioa of Loult XlV.'i 
education, which had been very much neglected. The outcome 
of his pedagogic Ubotus was a series of books comprising the 
Ctspapkit, Rkilariltc. Ucrali, £i</nimivu. PMique, Liiidai. 
and ehytiipu da friiue iibii->6i%). The king rewarded bit 
tutor by tppointing him historiographer of France and councillor 
oftuie. La Mothe Le Vayet died in Paris, Modest, sceptical, 
and occasionally obscene in hit Latin ^eces and in his verses, 
he made biioself a ptrsona irala at the French court, where 
libertinism in ideas and morals was hailed with relish. Besides 
his educational workt, he wrote JutmiKl mr In aacitui (I 
triniifiaux iiilarUni IMCI ef Idlmi (i64G)i a treatise entitled 
Dn ftu dc urliludi gu'if y a ea AiiUirc (iMS), which in a sense 
marks the btginning of historical criticism in France^ and 
sceptical Dinlatmi, published poithumously under the pscudo- 
uym of Orotiui Tubero. An incomplete edition ol bit workt wat 
published at Dresden in 17S6-115Q, 

See Bayle, Dic/ieeea.'fr crilhiu, article "Vayer"l L, Elienoe, 
Eiioi mr U UMt Lt Vaur (Pint. |S49). 

U KinTK AKTOWB HOQirAtl DB (ifiri-illt), French 
author, was bom in Pant on tbe tSih of January it?!. In 
169J his comedy Zej Oiiiiwiii proved a complete faihlre, which 
so depressed the author that he contemplated joining the 
Trappists, but four yean later he again begin writing operas 
and ballell, t-t. VEnriitt t^rlHU ^164;), and tragedies, one of 


Itidunc Drndct had publubol {liqq) * Uualilion of Ibc Iliad. 
ud Li MotLs, vbo knew no Gcttk, muk i inuuhlno (1714) 
in vene ininded od bo- wiKk. Tbc utun oi hii work miy be 
judged fTom bit own ciprenlon: "I luve tikm the LlKrly 
tc cbinge *b(t I tboufht diusmUe in il." He defended ihe 
DMderu in Ibe iMscpm jut Hrmtrt prefiicd to bu timnsUlioa. 
and in liif Rifaiaia lur Is eritijat (171^). Aput from Ibe 
■miU of Ibe eoDliovsijr, k m* coodDCtcd on Li Uotte'i lide 
vdtb a. wjt aud j/etiaata^ wbich compand very fmvounUy 
with Iiu opp«Hiit'a BHtbodi. He ns etectcd to Ibe Acukm; 
io 1710. (sd uon liter became bbiid. La Molte calried on > 
torretfiMHfeace with the dacbeiai du Maine, and vaa tbc fiieod 
el FoDlencUe. Ha bid the nunc frndom fmm pirjudice, the 
■aiae inqidrtng nind la the Utter, and it ia on tbe eiccilcnt pnne 
ia wbich hi* vim are eiproKd that Ui reputation mta. He 
died in Pari* on tbe ifith c< December 1731. 

Hii <Ea>ni du lUtM [1 fola.) apoand in ITV. and hiiSism 
(10 voIl) in 17)4. See A. H. I(«aul[. HiUmn it It fwrdlf 4cl 

UMODBSOX, CHARLBi (1154-1899), Pmdi conductor 
and vitdiniit, was bom at Bordeaux on Ibe iKth of September 
iS}4. He itudied at tbe Pau C«nwmtoIre, wat engaged u 
vii^niit at the Op^, and in 1S64 orjaniaed a lerief of conccrta 
devoted to chamber muiic. Having jouneyed to England 
and aaiiMed at a Handel feativat, be thought he wijuld attempt 
iomeLfaing aimilaj In Paiia. At hia own expenie be founded 
Ibe "Sod^t de I'Hannonie Sacrie," and in 1S73 conducted 
Ihe firal performance in Paiia o( Handd's Uasiak. He aba 
gave perfinnancea of Bach'i SI Uallkrm Ptaim, Handet't 
Jrdai Iftaaiatui, Gounod's GaUu, and Maaaenet'a £ae. In 
187J he conducted the feativa] given at Rouen to celebrate the 
cenlenuy of Bolddieu. The foUowing year he became ckrf 
fttthtiut at Ibe Opfn Comitiue. In 1S81 be founded the 
famous conccria aaandaied n^ih hla name, which contributed 
io mocb to popularise Wagner'i muse In Parla. Tbe perform- 
ances of delacbed pieces taken from the German maater'a worki 
did not, however, saiiafy him, and be nutumd the project lo 
produce Lakmtrin, whidi at that time bad ml been heard in 
Parii. For Ibis purpose be took tbe Eden Tbe*tK, and on ihe 
jtd of May 1S87 he cDnducted tbc £nt pcrfonnance of Wagner's 
opera in the French capital Owing to tbe oppotilion of the 
Ctaauviniita, tbe performance wai nol lepealcd; but it douhtlen 
prepared the way for ibe pnxlucUon of tbe tame maalerpiece 
■t Ibe Paris Opfra a few years later. Lanwumi WIS successively 
■econd duf d'nrcliatrt at Ibe Conservatoire. Hrsl duf ftinlialn 
at the Opti* Comiqne, and twice first etc/ fonhtiln at the 

uiccessful concetti at Ibe Qui 

>cei ootbtng stnnge in tbe " featjval of lampa," 
wbkh was held at Saia in Egypt, except in the Taai nonner of 
Ihcm. Each wis &l]ed with oU 10 aa to buia tk whole nigbt. 
Again be spedis ol evening as ibe lime of lampa (jH/i M k m. 
vii. II j). Still, the scarcity of lampa in a style anything like 

tbam Iron the late Greek and Roman age, »ems to jwtify 
the mnark of Atbenaeua. The r^mmoneit acrt of domealic 
lampa were of terra-oMU and of ttie shape seen fai Ags, i and 1 
with a quut or nozile ((iHnb>) fn wbicb Ibe wick «|1h>Mi| 
burned, a round hole ou tbe top to pour in oil br, and a handle 
to carry iJk lamp with. A Ump with two or man ipouti was 
JUfiutet. Tplfufoi. Jkc., but tbcoe tetmi would not ^iply 
' ly to tbe large dais of lamps with numerous hotm for wicks 

« Ihe 11 

been at last heard in 
bis diteclioR. After i 
masteipiece he wai 


nducting one of the performances of this 
iken ill and succumbed in a few days, 
stion before hia death oi witnessing the. 
triumph ol the tunc be hid so courageously dumpianed. 

LAMP (liom Gr. Xigirii, 1 torch, X^isr, to shine), the general 
lerm for an apparatus In which some combustible tubiunce, 
generally for illuminating purposes, is held. Lamps are usually 
asaociaied with lighting, though the term is also employed in 
conneiion with heating (e.g. ipiril-limp) ; and as now employed 
for oU, gu and electric Ugbl, Ibey are dealt with hi the article 
on LiCKTiNC. From the artistic pinnl of view, in modeni times, 
Iheii variety precludes detailed rderence berc; but their ardiaeo- 
logicil history deserves a fuller account. 

A ncicnl £411^1.— Though Albenaeus sUtes (iv. 700) that the 
limp (Xvxm) was not an ancient invention in Cieece. it bad 
come into general use there for domestic purposes by Ihe 4th 
cenlury n.i;., and no doubt had long before been employed 
for temples or other places where a permaneni light was required 
in room of Ibe torch of Homeric times. Hcmdotu* {U. 6t) 

British Museum ha* ■ view of the 
IS with speciaiort kx^ng an u a 
chariot race. In other cases the lamp ia made iltofeiher ei • 
fanlistic shape, as in Ihe lotm of an animal, a bull's head, or a 
human foot. Naluially colour was eiduded iron ibe cmamcnla- 
lion eicipt in Ihe form of a red or bltck gUae, which would 
resisi the heat. The typical form of hand lamp (figs, i, a) is a 
(nmbinition of Ihc flnlnes necessary lor carrying sleady and 
remaining steady when act down, with the roundneia evcdved 
from tbc working in clay and chatacierisiic of vessela in thai 

though the roundness was less in keeping with metal. Fanciful 
shapes are equally common In bronic. The standard form of 
hancfle conssla of a ring lor tbc lorehnger and above it a kiivl 

ould only be 
protecting ine flame from 
case out of doors in Athena. 

. Apparently it wua to tbe 

a crescent, no doubt in allusion I 
wilb bnnie lamps that the co 
the wind cotUd be used, as was t 
Such a lamp was In fact 1 lant 
lijitcrn that Ihe Creek worI Isn^i, 1 

probably from a custom of having guards to protect the torches 
also. Afterwards it came to be employed for the lamp itsell 
(Xlr^rof, (wcTna). When Juvenal {Stsl. ili, 177) speaks of Ibe 
■men lampai, be may mean a torch with a btonie handle, tnl 
more pmbahly dlbcr 1 lamp or 1 lanlera. Lamps used lor 
'cre mostly ol bronie, and in such caici tbe decora- 
wit on tbe under pan, so as to be seen from below. OI 
tbe belt '""■pi- Is Ihe lamp at Cortona, (oimd tfaeit is 

1840 (.t B g T'i ed, Unmutui d. nu<. v(*. iU, pb. «i, 4>. uul in 
Dcania. Cifiif aMl CemiUriei of Bimria, liid td. ii. p. 403). 
It B icl round wilb linccn nouls oniiDieDtH iJiRulcJy 
with K sireD and a ulyr ptaying on a double flute, between 
each pair of nozilcs ii a head ol a river god, aitd on Itie bottom 
oj the lamp a a large majk of Medusa, surrounded by baodt of 


Thii lamp vas rctiUcd on eoctly tbc tame day ei 

Fio. 4.-Brontt Lamp i 

Ol MuKum. 

which appears to belong (0 the bcginoing of the jlhceniuiy 
B.C., jostlGn ihe Hieem in which Elrascan lamp* were held in 

■lylc is a bronce lamp in the BHtilh Museum found in the balht 

o( Julian in Paris (figs. 3, 4. s)- The thain is aiiaihed by means 

ol two dolphins very artistically combined. Under ihc nozzles 

are heads of Fid (dg, i); and from Ibe sides project the fote- 

pul* of lions (fig. s). To wbai 

Client lamps may have been used 

in temples is unknown. Probably 

Ibe Erechtheum on Ihc acropolis 

of Alhcns was an exception in 

having a gold one kept burning 

day and ni^l, jusi as this lamp 

I anistic raetits. It was the 
. of the sculptor Callimachus, 
■rai made apparently for the 
y tebnili temple a Utile before 
■c. When once filled with 
Fio. J- oil and lit it burned coniinu- 

oosly For a whole yeM. The with 
v>9 of ■ fine Sax caOed Caipauan (now undeistood to have been 
a kind of cotton}, which proved to be the least combustible o[ ill 
flu fPau^anias i- 26- 7). Above the lamp a palm tree of bronze 
nne 10 the roof for the purpose of carrying oS the fumes. But 
bow this was managed it is not easy to dclermine unless the 
palm be supposed to have been inverted and to have hung above 
the laii^ spread oul IiIlc a refleclor, [or which putpose the polished 
boQie would have served fairly well. The stem if left hallow 
voiald collect the fumes and cany Ihem out through the roof. 

11 then 

(Uxrow) opable ol 
days of the year, wt 
the Ptytaneum of 1 

a thee 

ie by it 

ly lamps ai there were 
lus tne Sidlian tyrant placed in 
At Fharae in Acbaia there was 
statue of Hennes with a marble 
l&mps were attached by nieam 
of lead. Whoever desired to consul! the statue went there in 
the evening and first filled the lamps and lit. them, placing also 
a bronze coin on Ifao altar. A similar custom prevailed at Ihc 
oncleof ApisiiiEgypI(PausaniBsvii.i9.2). At Atgos he spcika 
of a chasm lolo which it was a custom continued to his lune 
10 let dovD burning tamps, with some, icfercnce to the goddess 
of the lower world, Persephone "" ...... 

re found crowded iD 


iltar at which il had 

ncrici Bt HaiUarnaaui, Ire, S. y>i). These lamps are of 
!ria<otla. but with Utile otnsmentatton. and so like each other 
1 woriimiiisfaip that they must all have come Iiom one potteiy, 
od may have been all bmughi to ihc spot where they were 
mod on one occastan, probably the funnal of a peison with 
lany liicnds. or the cclcbialion of a festival in his honour, 
jch as the pamOidia among the Romans, to maintain which 

a marble slab in Ih 

British M 

iseum ha 

a Lalin 


describing the property whi 



I to provide among 

other things that a 




should be 

placed at the tomb 





des of each month (if lu.i/ 

V. pi. 8, fig. >), F 


piesenti tcrra-cotta 


appear to h 

ve been 

employed, the devic 


being Ih 

t of two 

figures of 

victory hokUng beti 

ran ih 

disk ini 

fribed wi 


the ItudiplioD 01 



lamp in the British Museum, which besides 
toe vicioncs nas among other symbols a disk with tbe head of 
Janus. As the torch gave way to the lamp in fact, so also it 
gave way in mythology. In the earlier myths, as in that of 
Demeter. it is a torch with which she goes Conh to search for 
her dau^tet, but in the bte myth ol Cupid and Psyche il b an 
oil bmp which Psyche carries, and from which to her grid a 
drop of hot oil falls on Cupid and awakes him. Teni-colla 
lamps have very frer]ucnlly the name of the maker stamped on 
"' ■ Clay moulds iroi '"■"'" """" ' "" — -■*- 


:rable numbers. 

deep black pigment consist 
y one siaic of division, obiaiited by the i 
of hi^ly carbonaceous substances. It is 

(A, S. M.) 

g of carboi 

din tl 

justiblc bodies rich in carbon, the finest 
iccd by the combustion ol oib obtained 
ecCoai-TAK). Lamp-black is « 

a pigni 

It for 

ig and also lot "cboniiing" cabinet work, a 
waiing and lacqueiiag of lotber. It is the principal constituent 
of China ink. 

LAMPEDUSA, a unall island ia the MMiterranean, belonging 
to the province of Girgenti, fnun which it is about mm. S.S.W. 
Pop. (l«oi, with Linosa — sec below) i>;6. Its greatest length is 
about J m., its greatest width about 3 m.; the highest point 
is 400 It. above sea-kvcL Gcslogicalty it belongs to Africa, 
being situated on the edge of the submaiine platform which 
extends along the cast coast of Tunisia, from which (at Mabadia) 
il is 90 m. distant easlwtids. The soil is calcareous; it «a* 
covered with scrub (chiefly the wikt olive) until compsrativdy 
recent times, but this has been cut, and the rock is now bare. 
The valleys an, however, fairly fertile. On the south, near Ibe 
only village, is the harbour, which has been dredged to a depth 
oT 13 ft. and is a good one foe torpedo boats and small citft. 

The islsod was, as remains of hut fooj ' ' 

it f oanditiDiu ibow, inh^ 



in pnhiilDtic limn. Piuiic tamb> uid Ronin buUdinp alto 
ad%l [leJiT the huiwur. Tfae uJuid a (he Lopaduu of Slmbo, 
■nd tbe Lipulou of Aiicnto'i (Maado Funaia, Iht scene of the 
boding al Roger of Sicily and of hii coavenion by tlie hennit. 
A (hoiURnd sUves well l»Len [min its population in isS3- 
In 1436 it wu given by Alfonso of Aragoo to Don GiovBnni 
de Caio, baroD of Montechiiia. In 1661, Fadinnsd Tommasi, 
ill then ownn, received tbc title of prince from Cbarrn U. of 
Spain. In 1737 [be earl of Sandwich found only one inhabillini 


I; in 1760 some 

French letdera 


Wished Ihemselv 


Catherine 11, 

Rimia proposetl 

buy il as 



sutios, and the 

Biiliih govemi 


of doin 


se if Napoleon had Bioseded in 

ng Malta 



of itwasleucd 

Salvatore Gal 


Malta. *h 


tublel part of il to Alcaandra Femandei. In !&« onmrdi 
Ferdinand II. of Naples estibliahcd a colony there. Then is 
DOW an Italian penil cclony for dimikilh loallt, •nib some 40a 
ConvicU (kc B. Sanvisente, L'liola ii Lamptdvta trdla a 
alenia, Napla, i&iq). Eight miles W. il tbe b!(t of Lampione. 
Linosa, some Jo m. Id [he N.N.E.. nteasuie) about 2 by 1 m., 
and it enlirely volcanic; its highest polnl is 610 (t. above sea- 
levd. Pop. (1901) about loo. It has hmding-placH on tike S. 
and W., and is more fertDe than Umpcduiai but it suffers from 
tbe lack of springs. Sanviiente uys the water in Lampcduia 
il good. A few fragments of undoubI«lly Roman pottery and 

the luins of housci ate probably of later dale (P. Calcara, 
DacHuant dell' itala di Litma, Palermo, igji, 39). (T. Ai.) 

UMPERTHEIN, a town in tbc grand-duclv ol Mesle- 
Damutadl.Sm. N. from Mannheim by Ibe railway [0 Fiankfort- 
on-Main via Biblis, and at the junction of lines 10 Worms and 
Weinhdm. It contains a Roman Caifaolic church and a fine 
Evangelical diuich, and has chemical and cigar factories. Pop. 

UHPETER lUaabcdr-lmilSlclilHm), > madet town, muni- 
dpal borough and assise lown of Cardiganshire. Wales, on 
lite right bank of the Tcifi. here crosied by an ancient stone 
bridge. Pop. (jgor) 1712. Lampercr is a ilation on the so- 
called ManchesKr.and.Milford branch Unc of the Cnal Wnlem 
railway. Though of ancient origin, the town is entirely tDodim 
in appearance, its most conspicuous object being the Gothic 
buildings of St David's College, founded in iSii. which cover 
a large area and conloin a valuable library ol bigliih, Welsh 
and foreign works (sec Ukiverstties). Tbe modemiaed paii^ 
diurdi oI St Peter, or Pcdr. coouins some dd monuments of 
the Uoyd lamily. Moilh of the town are the park and mansion 
of Falcondale, the seat of the Harford family. 

The name of Uanbcdr.panl-Slcphan goes 10 prove the early 

(Kh century, while one Stephen was the original builder ol the 
bridge over (he Tcifi. As an imporlsol outpost in the upper 
valley of the Tcifi, Lumpelcr possessed a caslle, which was 
demolished by Owen GnYnedd in the iilh century. In iiGS 
tbe town was visited by Archbishop Baldwin on his way from 
Cardigan to Sitata-Flatida Abbey, and the Crusade was vigor- 
ously preached at this spot. Lajnpcler was first imcorporaied 
nnder Edward II., but the earlic3( known durter dales from 
the rdgn ol Henry VI., »hcreby the principal oKccr of the town, 
a portreeve, wu to be appoirded armually at (he court Jeet of 
the manor. The (own was subscqucndy governed under a 
coafirmaloiy charier ol 1S14, but in 1SS4 a new charter was 
obtained, whereby the corporation wai csponercd to consist 
of a mayor, 4 aldermen and 11 councillati. Although only a 
tfliall a^icultucal centre, Lampeter has since 1SS6 became the 
■ssiie tOBH of Cardiganshire owing to its convenient position. 
Until the Redistribution Act ol sB&s Limpeler formed one ol 
the group of boroughs comprising (he Cardigan parliamentary 

LAMPOOH, a virulent satire either in prose orverse; the 

to its definition. Although in its use (he word is properly and 
almost nctutively English, Ibe derivation appears to be French. 

LItlrf derives it from a term of Puiliaa wvol, lamftt, to drink 

greedily, in great mouihfuls. This wocd appears lo have begun 
to be prevalent in (he middle of the I7lh century, and Fureti^ 
bai piacrved a fragment from a popular (ong. which layi: — 

Jaeques fuvaat de Dublin 

bittUuua, toacounn, 

"^Prcnci uin de ma couronnc, 

LamponsI lampomt " 

English fonn, lampoon, the word is used by Evelyn in 1645, 
" Efere they still paste up their drolling lampoons arid scurriloui 
papers," and soon after il is a verb,—" suppose we lampooned 
all the pretty women in Town." Both ol these forms, the noun 

nwdilicalion, for violent and reckless literary censure. Tom 
Brown (iMj-1704) was a past master in the art of lampooning, 
and some of bb attacks on the celebrities of his age have a 
certain vigour. When Dryden became a Roman CathoUc, Brown 



Lodest^ bdieve in transu 
Several of the heroes of the Duruiad, 
-Oldtniion (ifijj-i;*'), were charged 1 
being professional lampooneis. The coa 
published by Richard Savage (1697-174, 
Macclesfield, were nothing more nor less Ihan lampoons. 

As a rule, how 

r, the 1 

mpoon possessed bi 

isually a] 



inymoui. The ni 

Eijoy <M Woman (1764) of John Wilkes was a lampoon, and 
was successfully proceeded agauist as an obscene libd. The 
piogress of civiliaation and the discipline ol the law made il 
more and mote impossible for private malice to lake Ibe form 
ol baseless and tnurilaui s((ack, and the lampoon, in its open 
shape, died of public decency In the iBth century. Malice, 
especially in in anonymous form, and passing in manuscript 
from band to hand, haj cenlinued, however, Lo make use of thil 
very unlovely form ol literature. It has conilantly reappeared 
at (imn ol political disturbance, and Ifae French have seldom 
[ailed (0 exercise their wicked wit upon (heir ut^iopular rulers. 
Set also FuQUiHitDe. (E. C,1 

UKPHEY. a fish belonging to (he family Pitramyimaidai 
(from irtrpot and fiifu. literally, ctonc-iuckers). which with the 
hag-hshcs or if)iiinuliic forms a distinct subclass ol fishes, 
the Cyclvitomata, diatinguiahed by the low organitatlon of their 
skeleton, which ia carliiaginous, without volcbtal segmentation, 
without ribs or real jan-s, and without limbs. Tbe bmpreyi 
readily ncDgniied by their long. c<l-like, scaleless body. 

iariy in the c 


side, behind the bead, 
(here is a row of seven branchial openings, through whkh Ibe 
water is conveyed to and lima the gills. By means of their 
mouth (bey fasleo lo Uones. boati, Ac., as well as to other 
fishes, (heir object being to obtain a resting-place on the former, 
whilst they attach (beniselvcs to the latter to derive nonrisbmenl 
from (hem. The inner surface of their cup-shaped mouth is 
armed with pointed tcclh, with which they perforate the integu- 
ments of (he fish attacked, scraping ofi particles of the fieih 
and sucking the blood. Mackerel, cod. pollack and flat-fiihes 
are the kinds most frequently attacked by them in the sea; 
of river-fish tbe inigraloiy Sdmmiiat and the shad are some- 
times found with the maiksof the teeth of the lamprey, or with 
tbe fish actually attached to them. About fifteen ipcdei are 

m (he « 

k WAiu, vu. UK lacgG DiluLU 



lunptm (^. fmit^is), and tbc imall hmpan « " p(id« " 
« " ^Lud-pqKT " (P, braMckislH), Iht fint V«o jir btifntory, 
cnUriog riv«n ID Ibe wring te ipiirD; of the liva-luipRy, 
h i it» ti . gcckBOtt lie net with in fresh mur ill tlie ycu 
mmd. In Soab Ameriok ibont tu (pcda of lunpngr neon, 
•rbile in South Aueria ud AuUnluia itSL ollm uefound. 
Lauprcyi, specially the Ka-lunprcy, uc atccmst ■■ food, 
fiHincrly more ■> Ihin u. piBcnl; but tboi flak is But cuy 
li diaeslioii. Hncy I. of En^and b add to luivt faUes * vicUm 

nVR-binprcy, which ai bait ig pcclfrred to all olhen in tbc 
cod and Inrbot fisheiia of Ibe Ninth Sea. YatrcU atatei that 
iDnncriy the Thames alone supplied Irom 1,000/300 to t.Too^ooo 
lampetni annuilly, but that number baa 90 fflucb filkn oS 
that, for inilance, in iStC only 4o/»o wen utd to the cod- 
fiihai. That ycai. however, was In niwulUy bid yt»i-, the 
liinpenu. fioni their saidiy, fetched £8, 101. a thouaand, 
■bibt in oidinaiy yean £j ii cmsidertd a fair piica. The ■eiun 
for caidunf Umpetiis cloats in the Thames about the middle 
ef March. The origm of the name lampicy is obscure; il i> an 
adapution of Fi. lomtrme, Med. Lat. lumtnia; thij hu been 
taken as a vuiaut of anoiher Med. Lit. tarm Lamfcira, which 
occuiB in ichihyologkal wniks o[ Ihe raidille ago; (he derivaikHi 
Snm lamiot ^einu, to liiik aimn. is a specimen ol etymological 
ugCDuity- The devdopment of lampreys haa received much 
atiEDiion oji the part gf jiaturalists, since Aug. MoUer discovered 
that ihey tukdergo a metamorphosis, and that the minute 
Worm-Ukc lampems previou^y known under the niune of 
AmmKttUt, and abundant in the sand and mod of many streams, 
Were nothing but the undeveloped youDg of the livci'lampreys 
ud null lanpcna. See Ctcustoiuta. 

LiMPaWHTBBi (fiom Gr. Xa^o^ bright, and the teniinU 
part of Ibe woni porphyry, meaning rocki containing brl^t 
pnphyritic crystals), a group of racks coBtaiiung phenoccysts, 
usually of biotite and hombtnide (with bright cleavage (urlaces), 
often also of olivine and augiie, but not of felipu. They are 
thus distinguished from the porphyries and portAyrites in which 
felspar has crystilliied in two gtaeialioos. They are essenti- 

ally ■' dike I 

turring u 

marginal facics of _ 
a good Fumple of the correlation which 
petrofraphical types and their mode ol 
the inponancc of phyiiiml conditioni in deuralnlng the minen- 
loglcal and slructunl characters of rocks. They ale usually 
dark in ctjlour, owing to the ahundaDcc of fcrro-msgnesian 
slicates, of relatively high qtecific gravity and liable to dccoot- 
poiition. For these rtasDaa they have been defined as a ttiianv- 
otlt leries (rich in the dark mhierals); and they are often 
accompanied by a complementary lencocrait series (rich [n the 
white minerals felspar and qusrti) such >s apliies, porj^yiics 
and felsitea. Both hsve been produced by differentialiai li 
a parent magma, and if the two camplemcntaiy sets of rocks 
could be mixed in tbe t^ht'pioponiona, it is presumed that a 
msa of limiLsr cbemiol compodtlon to the parent magma 
would be produced. 

Both in the band qtedmens and in micnscopic alidca of 
lamprsphyrk rodu biMile and barabkode an usually con- 
ipioHNS. Tboagfa bUck by re8ected light ihcy arc bnnm by 
tnrwnitled Ugbt and highly pleochroic. In some cases ihey 
are yeUow-bitiwn, hi other cases cfaeslnul-brown and reddish 
brown; in the same rock tbe two mlnenlt have slrikinily 
similar colour and picochroiara. Augiie. wbeit it occius, is 
Bmellmet green, at other limes purple. Felspar is restricted 
to the ground maas; quarts occurs sometima but fa scarce. 
AhboD^ porphyritic structure is akKBt universsl, it is some- 
times BOI very marked. The large biotiua and hombiendes 
are not sharply distinct from those of intcmiediate lise, iriucfa 
in turn graduate into the small crystals of the same minerals 
In the ground mass. As a rule all the jngredientt have rather 
perfect crystalline forms {esi^l quails), hence these rocks have 
bea olM " ptmdtonwiphic." In many lampnphyns the pale 

spots, or oerUi, in which there has been progrcssvc cryslaUis*< 
lion tnm tbe mai^ns (owuds the centre. These spots may 
consist of radiate 01 bnuh-hke febpars (with some mica arxl 
homhlende) or of quarts and felspar. A cvntivl area ol quarts 
or of anahile probably represents an ori^nal miarolitk cavily 
infilled St a later period. 

There are two great groupa of lamprcfJiyTcs differing in com- 
pooition while retaining the geiKrat features of the cUss. One 
of these accompanies inlrustons of granite and diorite and 
includes the minettes. kerssntiles, vogesitea and q»sssrtlles. 
The other is found in assodaltoo wilb nephcline syenites, 
easeiites and tocheniies, and is eieinpUfied by canptooilea, 
monchiquites and alnoitcs. The compleTneptSiry fscits of the 
first group is tbe aplites, porphyriles and felsites; (hat of the 
second group jncluda tustonita, tiDguailei and other rocks. 

The p<niao^arilic4iimpnpkym (the first of these two grovps) an 
found lo mtny districtt when gnnites and diorites occur, e.r (he 
ScotiLih Highlands and Souihem llpUndi, the Ukedotrict. Irbod. 
the Vo^ei. Btick Forat, Han, «c. As a rule Ihey dO not prawett 

rot be regankd as sharply diuinct from one another. The group 
ai a whole ii a wcU-charactericed one and shows few trunvTions (o 
porphyiies. porphyiitcs and other dike types^ its subdivisions, 
however, tew to merge into one aiwHher and eqiecislly when they 
are weathered are hard to dLfTerentiste. The prnenre or abience of 
the four dofniiuDt minbali, orcboctai*. plagiocbic, biotite and 
hornblende, determiiH the ipecies. Mlneitei contain Uoiite and 
onhocbn; kenaodtn. Uolite and plagloclaK. VcMiltes contain 
honUends and oRhoclaiti q>es*artite% bombkBde and plagio- 
claie. Each variety of lampnmhyie may and often docs contain 
all four ddaerats but is named aMeeding to the two whidi nv- 
ponderate. These rocks conlaia tbo Inn aiida (usually tilamler- 
Dui),apati(e,s>mecImessphene.auglttandaU<iite. The homblciKie 
and biotite arc bnmn or greeniih bnwn. and as a ruk thdr cryitah 

-— " when smaU «- ' ' "^ •' ' = 



.._ _ shapes or may be iibr 

,..-, - -_.-.-— 'hich are mitow in Ibe midoie mu 

rowarda bolh ends. If quarts b present 1( u the lail 
cryslallisadon and (he only mineral devoid of idkHnnrphL 

Lmprophyres lie prone lo ■Iteniionby weaihvri 
nee 01 secondary mioeiala is ua ""'"" '-----■ -'- '■- 

OceUar BtructuR is covmon ; the ocelli conuH msinly of ortho- 
laie and oosrti. and may be a quarter of an Inch in diameter. 
jwlher fciluie el these rocks is (be pmence of large foreign cryHsb 
.1 lenscryits of fetspar and of quarts. Their forms are rounded. 
indicadng priitial merptkm by the solwBtKtion of the Isnimphyric 
msgmai and tbe qaaiti may be sumundtd by corroaiaD tuders of 
nsiacmls such ss auglte and hornblende produced where the maema 
is a((BcUng the ctyttaL Theiecrystitsareaf doublfularlgin: (hey 
an often at eoailderaUe sise and may be eoHpicuous in hand- 
sptcimeos of the rocks. It is supposed that (bey did not crystaUiae 
" •■- lampiDphyre dike but in soma way were caiighl up by il. 
ncHHiea. mere ceruyily of loreiBn origin, are often Ken, such 
liite, schisls. gametifcroui rocks, giarite. Ac. These may 
d and altered or in other cases pirtly dissolved, Conjienle 
formed either in (heendomin ocln (be IsntproiAyiw. where 
the shape of hexagonal prisms which in polarised IiEht break 
tin eecion, liiangulsr in shape, diverging from the centre of 

of Ismpeophyric dike meks JI*._™p»> 

descKbed. As ■ nk they occur (ogether, ni 

phyrcL InSweden,Brau1,I^«ugi]I.Non 

rases, though nM In alf, they 'have a 

iici>he1iiK or leucBt n>eid(es and simiiai rocki .- 

hiiika(eaa genetic afinky Ulie (hsi which eaiats between the granilg 
LAd (he mineltes. Ac, and further pnofof IhbcoanedOB la f umsbed 

Cncft hornbleDdeee 

lb Himorphlc crvKals of pale greca 

ithnlng. Oavine In the Treah 


nns rounded, corroded gnlns; in many ca 

-_ jrecn or colouileas honblande in radiaODg 

plsgkidaac occurs as small rectangular crystab; 
Save Hiailar r' ■■- "• ■■ ' ■- 



iiitbo«Umi>c|i)iymcf[nKiu, baOync 


divine ■«] (ilit<ei>ue 

Tlk^r luvt t\)K porphivniic *wi 



Semde Mom 

Bl»r Itw Sara de MoncKiqt 
;rf Idqxc. Tlwir aMcliil 

le And purplivh Jtucitc ^own ItvabkiKk, lik« that of 

pRKH, wbich may ■onwlimM T» * TwTM*n DiaiA. hill Bt mfwr li 

la ofouikH and ia Micwd b 

cryauiiine analcitc They vo 

:; odien n^id ibe analri 

le u aHuiaUy ^aay. Soi 
ila la otben adialt Icudta i 
■ny pnteott though leaa mark 

than in tha canptoflilc*. A apedal eroup fi moatitnaaUta rith 

dap brown biofile haa been called Tourchi 

Mouataiok Arkanva). 
TV alnoile* (called after the ialaixl ol All 

le and meUlile. They an fi 

(iTla the F< 

n Norway) ai 

!t ol North America 

al CbeK mcka wOl be (ndkated 

id hygioacopic), COi. S. MnO, PA. Ci 

UJIPlACni, as tudal Greek colony is My^ A>i4 Minoi, 
knoitn ai Pityusa or Fityuaaa before iti coloniiaiion by Imian 
Giecka fiom Phocara ud Miletui, waa liiuaiH oa theHeUapoDi. 
oppcntE CiUipoIii (GallipoU) is Thiaa. It posiesHd a good 
harhoui; and the ndghbourbood ma lamoui lor lu wine, ta 
revolt, it waa assigned by Aituerxes I. to Tlietiu»1odea to provide 
bun with vine, ii Petcntc did nitfa mat and Magneiii nith 
bread. After the battle of Mycale {479 B.C.), Lampaacus joined 
the Athenians, but, having revolled fiom Ihem in 411, waa 
reduced by force. It waft defended In 19A B.C. agnnut Aniiochua 
the Giesi of Syria, after iihich ita inJubituiIa were received 
■a lOiei o( Rome. LampucUa was the chief icat o[ the wonhip 
of Priapua, a gtoia nature-god doaely connected w!lh the culluie 
of the vine. Theancienl name ia pioerved in that of the modem 
village of Lipuki, but the Greek town poaaffaly lay at Chirdak 
inunedialcly oppoaile GallipoiL 

See A. L. Caslellaii, LtUra KB la Ugrii, rHiOapml. Ire. (Paris, 
|B»); Chouetil Gou^er, Voyap piu^wfiu dam ftmpirt t tt tma n 

tripod or figure eitending t 

. . - _ the 

floor for auppofling or holding a lamp. The lampatand (Jdai^a- 
Jire) is probably of French origin ; it appears lo have been in 
UMin France before the end ol the i;th century. 

UXARK. ■ royal, municipal and police burgh, and coimty 
town of Lanarkshire, Scotland, standing on high ground Ibout 
half a mile Inim Ibe right bank of the Oyde, ]i ra. S.E. of 
GlugDW by the Caledonian railway. Pop. (1901) 644a. It ia 

■ t. Mtnelle (Weiler. Alsace). IT. Kersantite (Neubninn, Thur- 
iogia), in. Vcveute (Canle Mounuln. Moi "' ~ 

aartite {WaJdmicGad, SpeBart). V. Camptonl 

> tCtjmaloa FaUaT 

omvileKCDt bomi 
Victoria Jubilee fo 
ning, weaving, nail 


William f 

being the p«nt fmm wUeh tke laHi 
, viuted. The principal buildingi aft 
ity buildingi, llw assembly rooms, occupy- 
Frandson monajlery, three ho^tate, > 
be SmyUum oipbinage ud (he Qu«n 
ain. The industriea include cotton-q:^ 
iking and oilworka, and there are frequent 
place ol conaidenble 

inelh II. held I parliac 

n the re 

kings, ooe of whom, 
charter. Seven] el 

[4), granled it 

of William Waltace 

neighbourtwod. He burned the town and slew the Engliah 
aheriS William Heielrig. Abont i m, N.W. arc Cartland 
Craiga, where House Water runs through a ptedpitoua red 
undttone ravine, the aide) ol which are about 400 ft. bi^ 
The fiream is crossed by a bridge of lin^ span, supposed to be 
Roman, and by a three-arthed bridge, deaigned by Thomai 
Telford and erected in 1813. On the right bank, near tbia bridge, 
is the cave in which Wallace concealed himself after killing 
Heaelrig and which alill bean his name. Lanark was the centre 
of much activity in the dayaof Ibe Covenante n. WiUiaDi Lithgow 
(.S81-J64S), Ibe traveller, William Smellie (1697-1763), the 
ohitctridaa and Gavin Hamilton (1730-1797), the painter, 
were bora at Lanark. The town i» one of the Falkirk dimirt 
group of parliamcDtiry burghs, the other coDltituents being 
Alidrie, RarnQton, Falkiik and Linlithgow. 

New Lanark (pop. 795), i m. S.. i> lamotu m eonnenon 
with the lodalbl eipetinenls of Robert Owes. Tbe village 
was founded by David Dale (i739-i8o«) in 178J, with tbemppott 
of Sir Richard Arkwright. inventor of the apinning-frame, wbo 
Ibougbt the ipal might be made tbe Uancbesler of Scotland. 
In ten yeara four cotton mills were running, employing nearly 
1400 bands. They were totd in r799 to a Manchesler company, 
who appointed Owen mutgcr. In the aame year he manicd 
Dale's daughter. For many yean the milla were ttxceaalnlly 
cmducied, but fricliw ullimnlcly arose and Owen rMInd in 
iSsl. Tbe milta, however, are Hill caitied on. 

c^ficler of the Scottiib jeffnyi. "RobcnBsillic.'i 
wi, E«culed lor coukkikx' aake (i««4). btlonKd to 
enaleonlbeMouae. Lee Kouae. Ibehon.. ^ tlw Lo 
N.W. Tbe oU CB 

7 •!" P? 

the Clyde at Crwlord, is said I 


LUUBKIBIBB, a aouth-wettem county ol Scotland, 

lunded N. by the shirea of Dumbarton and Stirling, E. by 

Linlithgowahire, Mld-Lolbian and PeeUesshlre, S. by Dunifrie*- 

and W. by the counties ol Ayr, Renfrew and DumbanoB. 

rea is 874 sq. m. (i6i,Sii acres). It nay be described u 

idng tbe valley of the Oyde; and, in addition to the gradual 

:nt from the high land in the south, it is also diancteriied 

. gentle slope lowardt both banka of the rivet. Tbe shire ia 

divided into three wards, the Ukkt, compijiing all the aouthern 

half the whole area (over j]o,coa acres); 

tbe Middle, with Hamilton for its chief town, covering fully 

ipOiAoo acres; and the Lower, occupying the northern uct 

>i about 40,000 acres. The surface falli gradually from the 

iplands lo the south to the Firth of Clyde. The hlgbeal bills 

iR nearly aU on or chise to the borders of Peehtnshire and 

Dunfiiesahire, and include Culter Fell (1454 ft.) and Lowtber 

Tbe loftiest heists eiduaively belonging to 

■e Green Lowtber (S403), Tinto (>JJ5), Balleo- 

!i Law (>i6y), Rodger Law (ust). I>un Law (1116}, Shid 

(si^o), Dungrain Law (1186) and Comb Law (no)}. 

principal riven are the Gyde and ill head waten and 

BU (on tbe light, the Hedwin, Uouie, South Caldcf , Notth 



CiUs tad Edvia; <« &e Ut, tine Don^u. Neihu. Ann, 
KolUo Csldci lud Carl). Tberc m no loclu at cxmsderable 
ut, Uk Eck theeU of witer in tlie Dortb — Wwdend Roavoir, 
Bishop Lodi, Uoggufield Loch, Woodeoil Loch. Locbcad 
Loch — mainly (ceding ihe Monklind tad tht Forth and Oyde 
CuaJL The most bmoiu natural fealuto are the Fall* of 
□file at BduudsUid, Coira, Duadaf 

Gf^oa- — The touthera upland portion u built up at Si\\ 
Ordovician rocks; the northern knitr-iyii 


Old Red Sandstone rocks. Ordovidan nrata 

., ...m S.W. to N.E. in a bdi w m. in breadth nhich 

is bniiElit up by ■ lault uainic the Old Red and the Sluriaa on 
the ooRbcm dde. This lault niu by LaminElon, RobcRon and 
CnwfeidkAa. The Ocdovlcian neks lie in > lyoclmat fold with 

IhIi o( Cndoc aje in the centie Banked by (i ■-'- 

niu and coEvbnieratc^ iocluditw among the laat- 

Hulii-iDck ": the veU-lmaim lead minea of LeaflhULa ar 
ia thoe Coroutions. Silurian ihalei and sandstoDes, Ac 
louth oi the Ordovician bell to the county boandary; and 
lie noTthefa ^dejrf the Ortlovidao belt " 

Tltt'Sd , 

•iciui belli > ■owu division consisting of aandatone. 
aad auutitane* u the msl eiteniiiietr developed! 

f ecmaue upon the lower dii 


with the ridi and etfcnsive coal and ina Aeld to the eaat and sontlH 
cast of Gbssow; the shipbuildiac at Govan and Putich and in 
Glasp^w haibour; the tendlea at Alrdrie, Blantyir. Hamilton, 
Lanark, New Lanark, RutiwfvleD and Glaifow^ engineeriDg at 
" imbuslant, Carhike, Coatbiidge, Kinning Fuk, MotWwell aad 
„ishaw, and the varied and flouriahing OAOuiacturea centiid in 
and uouad Ctugo*. 

/- .'^i-- .|j jjig north of the oounty, where poftulation is 

._„., « , , , . . jtineiaJ field ejKeptiaDBily neb. railway lacihties 

•re biahly devetooed, theie beiog lor lo or ii m. around CUiieoH 
quiteanelwarksi Unes. The Caledanian Itailway Company'i main 

Orflovidan belt two amall tracts appear 
r.H.<n«. on the cresta of antkUnal loMs. 
irretutar tract north of the Orcfo- 

id melaphyna. co 

^^^^^^^^^-^ -~ jILanddgton. Lanar ed 

Sandstone and the Falls of GvdeDCCur in chi Ic- 

ally the most iraportanl geDbgiol feature he 

Ghwow district. The ana of this baun lii sc- 

.,... ;. -I 1 "'luding Cla^D 01, 

h'S^'^cS ™ 

the EH, Main, Splint, Pyotshaw and VirtueweE Underlying the 
aat-measaro U the Millstone Grit Kcoon the northern sidelietween 
Glenboig and HoKsn&eld— here the hieclayi of Camkirk, Cailcosh 
and Glenbc4g are wmhed — and on the boim and south-east d[ the 

Wishaw, Cariuke, U. 

ie Cildferaiu Sandstone letiea whid) in 

It in the west Uie greale 

part of the aeriea is composed of laterbedded voicanic rocks — ' 
perphyiitei and mthriiyrei. It will be observed that in lenenl the 
yeuniet lomiation* Ik neater the centre ol the baain and the older 

Iheic lire'iiitnisw'bBsalls in the Caibonilerous roda'Uke that in the 
ncithboucbood o( Kult^ and the smaller mUas (I Hognn&eld near 
dasiawaBdelsewbere. VokankDeckiaRlounduitheCarlBkeand 
Kilcadiow dislricti, marUni the venta of former velcanoea and 
■eveial dike* of Tertiary age ttavem the older iscka. An intruHHi 
of pink lelste in early «d Red Ubio baa been the cause of TintD 
HilL Eindences al the Cladal period are abundant in the fom of 
id boulder day. 

an eastetb direction who 
teacheiol the Clyde the 
above the preaent sea-level ate to be obserrt 

aimaU end 4pt«anr«.— TM rainfall * 
being higher in the hill country and lomr 

July »■■ The area under grain has show 
■ince iseo. Oats is the pnncipal ciop.bi 

Ihe Lower WiitS nauket-^rdaning 

aj, JO ao 


.-.. »...« ,.— — • .— , - *sed coaMenbl 

Ihe quantin e( vegetable*, gnpaa and tomatoes reared under glasa 
has reached inal proportions. An anoenl induatty In the vale of 
Ihe Clyde fw many nOes below Lanark is the culdvalion of Iruil 
several of the orcurds bang said to dale from tite time of Bedi 
Hk apples and paars an of good repute. Therv haa hecfl a remarli 
able eneisHHi in the culture of sitawberries, hundreds of acrta being 
laid down in beds. . The sheep walks in the upper and middle watdi 
ire heainly stocked and the herds of cattle are eiteosive, the lavourr* 
breeds bnns Ayrshire and a crass between this anil " inpiovc 
Unaffc." Dairy-fanning AeuriJies. the cheeses of Camwath ae 
l^mahagowl " " '^--■- ■■-■-■---*■- '-- 

of high ^ss. 

I sUwIy demand. Clydesdale draiuht-horaes a re 
■ W have been bredftom Flandera 

- They 

iported eaily In 

"-^ -' rte h»- -. 

' unbmken horses and mar 

. Most of die hotaes i 

general holding runs from J 
sre under wood. 
Olicr iaduilriu.— The le 

kept tor agneullun 
latS hi the Upper W 

Lhrough the wh^ length 

^.. ,.__ al points, especially at 

Tbe North British Railway Company servea 
' "die nrdaand Ita lines to Edinb 

and the nonh of the county. 

neq^bourhaod of Glasgow does the Glaqpnr 

sysicn compete for Lanarlophiretr^ffi'' rhmwh 

Caledoidan to work the Mid-Lar 

Tha Monkbnd Canal in the far norl 

"n the north and north-west mrry .. ^ ...„„„. ..- 

ind before the days of railways aHorded one of the priocipil 

Apulalisn iui4 jl^ssnijfnituiis.— The populatkm amoui 
II9I t0 1J05,^andin 1901 to Ijaj.JJ^or ISJJpen™ 

i..'^?r.fcj_j _r .J- >..!_. ^ — Lj .1 .!r5. I.. ,«, 

^ J...Ktion. 

.nd the Forth and Clyde Canal 

he county la dii^ded In 
t. North-west, MM -■ 
I returning one meir 
rfc and Riitheiglen 1 

kmg 10 the Fallcirt group 
< oTparlianieDiary burgha. 
principal is confined to his 

'«3> at'Aird'rie, H'ammon 
school-tioard jurisdiction, many 

and Lanark. The •! 

schools earning grants tor rugner educBliDD- for oavaoceu educa- 
tion, besides the university and many other insiitulioni in Gtaigow 
theiE are a high school In Hamilton, and technical schaolB at Coal- 
bridge and Wshaw. The county ooundl expends the " residue ~ 
giant in supporting lectuns and daascs lo agrkuhure and agr^ 
cuUnial cfaemistr^, raining, dairyiiig, cookeiy. buadry work, nursery 
aad poultry-kee^ng, b paying Ices and railway fares and jm>- 
viding bumries for technical students, and in subvdLring scieitce 
and ail and technical classes in day andevening sdunlB. A director 
of technical education la maintairwd by Ihe council. Lsnark. 
Motherwell and Biggor entrust their shares oE tbe grant to the 
county council, ana Coatbridge and Airdrie thcmscTvet subsidiB 
science and art and evening classes and continuation schools. 

Hillary. — At an early pciiod Lanoiltshire was inhabited by 
• Cellic Uibe, the Damnonii. whoie terrilory was divided by 
Ihe srall of Anloninus between the Forth and Qyde (lemsios 
of which arc found in Ihe parish of Caddcr). but who were never 
wholly lubjugiled by the Romans. Trucesof Iheirlortlfitatiooi, 
mounds and circles cuifit. while stone ajces, hronie celts, querru 
and urns belonEing to tbeir age are occauonally uneanhed. 
Of the Bonans there are traces in the camp on BcattiKk summit 
near Elvanfool. in the fine bridge over the Mouse near Lanark, 
in the mad (o the south oi Strathaven, in the wall already 
menlioaed and in the coins and other relics that have been duf 
up. After tbeir departure tbe country which included Linark- 
shire fotmed part ol tbe kingdom ol Slralhclyde, which, in the 
;th cenluiy, was subdued by Noithumbrian Suoni, nhen great 
numbers of the Cells migrated into Wales. The county once 
embraced a portion of Renfrewshire, but this was disjoioed in 
the time ol Robert III. The ihite wa) iten divided into two 
trardi. the Over (with Lanark as its chief town) and the Nether 
(wilh Rutherglen as Its capital).' The present division into Ibree 
wards was not effected tiD tbe iSlh century. IndepCTiilrnlly 
ol Glasgow, Lanarkshire has not borne any part conttouously 
in Ibc (eoenl history ol Scotland, but has been the Kzoc ol 



■cnni CKitlDi cpbado. Huijr of WiBut'i diring deob nre 
psformed in tbe csunly. Queen Miiy met her fite it Lusside 
(ijAB) Uld the Covesanlen leceivol oosiUat luKMn fnua 
tb* people, drfeatiog CUveriiouie U Dnunckf (1679). but 
nEMiDideEeat tbeiEidve*M Both well Brig (1679). 

S« W. HlolillaB. DutrifUtu of <^ .UaijM«"i •} Lmari imd 
itrJifr™, MlilllBd aub (rSjI)! C. V. rrvi™ .nd A. Mumy, Tl. 
mbr Ifanl ^ Idwrtitin (Ghupw, iS^^I; r*i ajitiialt Smd 
A»l {ClMgow)! W. A. ConDrHiil»7 <^ iiinri (LiiaA, i«t7): 
EiHroeUfrwrn On Startt tflki Bvil, iifU*aik (Glugow, i«91). 

LAHUSHIRK > north-wateni oninty of EngJuid, bounded 
N.E. by WcumoiliuKl, E. by Yorkihire, S. by Chofaue, W. 
by tbe Irish Sea »nd N.W. by Cumbedlnd. Tlii «« ii i8So-i 
iq. m., the county bf inj the liiLfa is liie in Engluid. Thf rout 
ii genemlly fiiil. aaA broken by greU inJeU, with fide eipuiMS 
o[ undy foialioR 11 low tide, Tbe chief ioleU. iiom N 10 S., 
ue — tbe atDuy of tbe river Duddon, whicb, with Ihe rivn 
ilMlI, iep«r»lo tbe eoiinty from CumbetUnd; Moreaoibe 
Biy; ud the Biuiriei of tbe Kibble ud Ibe Mcney. 
Iforecunbe Bay receiva the riven Crile and Lcvtn in KODunon 
cnuary, and the Kent Imm Wataunknd; while the Luh ind 
the Wyre diachtrge Into LancajMer Bay, which Is only partially 
Eepariltd Imm Moiccambe Bay by the promooLory of Red 
N^ MoiEcunbe Bay al» deiacheLfrom Lbe 

I ol Fun 
and bating oS it 
and uvtni an " 


It the itland of Walney, 

3 the Duddon, 
m, in length, 

taainlaiid. The principal aeaaide reurta and wateiing-placea, 
Cron S. to N., are Soiitbpan, Lylham, Si Anne't-on-tbe-Sea, 
Blackpool, Fleetwood and Morecimbc; while al the head of 
Uoiecambe Bay ue Kvend pleasant villagn frtqucotcd by 
viiitora, such u Ajntide and Ctance. Of the rivEia tbe Uaraey 
(f->-). aeplnling Ihe county fiom Chahire, ia Ibe principal, 
and TeceivtA from fjncaalure Ihe Irvell, Sonkey and other 
tmalt ■iTcims. Tbe Kibble, which rises in the mountaini o[ 
tbe Weit Riding of Yoricabire, [omu tor a few mDea the boundary 
wltb that county, and then £owt S.W. to FnMon, Rceiving tbe 
Hodder from the N. and the Caldcr and Dirwen from Ihe S. 

fanoua for their iceneiy, but doea not include the finest part ol 
either. Fumew, entirely hilly enepl (or a nanow coastal 
Inui, eilendi tf. to indude Ihe aouthcra part of Ihe Like 
Divricl (y-Oi it cantaiu Coniiion Like and harden Wiadei- 
whicb are diained le^wctively by tbe Leveo and Craki 

with K 

and WethetUm. . 

e unaller lakes and il 



A Uan 

lied ditlrict, forming part of 
etching from the Scottitb border, covered 
broader applicaLion, rum 


along the whole eaiteni boundary qj ine maia panmn 01 me 
couoty, and to the louth o( lbe Ribble ooupiet more than half 
the area, atreuhmg west nearly to Liverpool. The moorlands 
ia tbe soDlbem district are generally bleak and covered with 
heather. Towaids Ihe north the scenery Is frequenlly beaulilul, 
the green rounded devaled ridges being leparalcd by pleasant 
tullivated valleys variegated by woods and waLered by rivers. 
None of the summits of tbe range within Lancashire alliini 
an elevalion of Moo ft., Ihe highest being Blickuone Edge 
(13I} ft.), Pendle VSi. (iSji fl.) and Boulsworth HiU Uiea ft,). 
Along lbe sea-coasl from the Meney 10 Lincuter Ihere is a 

which have been rediimed. The largest is Chit Moss between 
Liverpool and Manchester. In some Inilances these mosses 
have ethibited the phenomenon of a moving bog. A large 
distifct in tbe north belonging to the duchy of Lancaster was 
at one time occupied by forests, fnit these have wholly dis- 
appeared, though their eiillcnce ia recalled in nomendalure, 
as In Ihe Forest of Rossendile, near the Yorkshire boundary 
wmewhai south o( the centre. 

Cfoiagy, — The Rivalet nan of Lancashire, the central and eanent 
portion!, is oceuned by Cari»ni(et«u> rocksi a tmad bell r' ''-- -'■' 

outh: ' 

K of the detached 

ill the priDc^ial manufacturiog to 

BtackboB. CberiRt, Wipn. B^u^ V t vu o, O 
■nd Maacbestei. ralheecBtnefdieeeatWdiai 
lud trad EocBed of Ibe pfta and ibales of the "~ 
P ari ot t he mall eoaliad a( In^eton aks lie 

IB which ^ta an . 

limenoH and ahalea which are well eiposed in the quarriu at 
dlthene and al Loofridge, Chlppini, Whalley and [Xiwnhan. Tbe 
lineBonc again appeanbi the nonFat Boln»4e-Saiids, Bunoo-ia- 
Kendall, Cnuge, Olventoa aad Dalio^iB-FumeiL Large wketi 
of rich ban ore are worked In the Umeatone In Ibe FunieA district. 
The bell of Trial includes the Burner andstone and eengloBiente. 
vhkh langea fraa Bairav-in-Furaeia, through Ganiang, Prenon, 
Omukick, Uvtfpoot, WarriagloB and Salford^ and Keuper mailh 
itfhieh underlie lbe surface between the Banter outcrop and ilie sea. 
On lbe eoau there it a eonindenUe devdopneal « blown biid 
between Blackpool and Lylbam and between Savthpnit and Sca- 
ferth. North of Broughton-ln-FurBest, Ulvenrton and Cartniel an 
Ihe Silurian rocks around Lakes Windermere and Conitton Water. 
locludinglEieCaniston grits and fligi and the Brathay Aigi. These 
rocks are bounded by the Ordovidan ConlRon limenone. nnging 
northeast and Boiilh.vesI, aad Ihe volcanic lerics of BorrowJale^ 
\ good deal of Ibe adSti geology is obscured in many places t^ 

.ilaUe coal s^ply 

, -. - han been eslinaled at 

oftons. In ISSilheamoanlnisedwas 
ns 14.3Sy.475 tons. In the pfaduction 
I Yorkshire, nut each Is about onc>lhiid 
* - - ■ i^fg^ quanticiee — fireclay, 

■ district b 

of coal 

bdow Durham. Tberear ... ._.^_ 

brine. Tlie red beniititic inn obtained Id th. 

very viluabl*. but is liable to decnaie. Tin district al__ . .. 

A line blue slate. Metali. eaceptlng Iron, are uniDponanl. 

Ctimait ami Airiailnrt.—'ni climate in Ihe billy districts It 
frequently cotd. but io Ihe more sheltered parts tying to Ihe soglb 
inrf wcu II il mild and geniaL From ita westerfy siluatioB and Ihe 
ittnction o> the hilli iKeie it a high iwif