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^iihicrstty uf Coroutn 


L.V. Mills, Esq., 
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Toronto, Onttrio. 

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Arts. Sciences, and General Literature 




By W. H. DePUY, U.D.. LL.D., 
Bringing Each Volume LTp to Date. 






\). 1 

Copyright 1892 
Bv K. S. Pealk Company. 

Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

Vol I. — A-(ANA). 

Total Number of Articles, 966. 


ABBEY AND ABBOT. Rev. Edmund Venables, Precentor and Cauou of Lincoln. 

ABEL.iRD. G. Croom Robertson, M.A., Professor of Logic, University College, London. 

ABERDEEN. Alex. Cruickshank, M.A. 

ABRAHAM. Rev. Samuel Davidson, D.D., Author of "Introduction to the Old and New Testaments," &c. 

ABY.SSINIA. David Kav, Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. 

ACADEMY. Francis Storr, M.A., Author of "Tables of Irregular Greek Verbs." 

ACCENT. John M. Ross, LL.D., late Editor of the "Globe Encyclopsedia." 

ACCLIMATISATION. Alfred R. Wallace, Author of "Theory of Natural Selection." 

ACHILLES. A. Stuart Murray, British Museum, London. 

ACHIN. Col. Henry Yule, C.B., F.E.G.S., Author of "Tbe Book of Marco Polo." 

ACOUSTICS. David Tho.mpson. M.A., late Professor of Natural Philosophy, University of Aberdeen. 

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. Principal Donaldson, LL.D., Authorof "Early Christian Literature and Doctrine." 

ACTINOZOA. T. H. Hu.XLEY, LL.D.. F.R.S., Professor in the Royal School of Mines, London. 

AD.^M. Rev. Sa.muel Davidson, D.D. 

ADDISON. William Spalding, LL.D., late Professor of Rhetoric and Belles Lettres, University of Edinburgh. 

ADMIRAL and ADMIRALTY. F. W. RowsELL, C.B., Superiutendeut of Naval Contracts, H. M. Admiralty. 

ADULTERATION. Dr. HENRY Letheby, Ph.D., formerly Medical Officer of Health to the City of London. 

AERONAUTICS. James Glaishek, F.R.S., Superintendent of the Meteorological Section, Greenwich 

jESCHYL^S. J.Stuart Blackie. late Professor of Greek. University of Edinburgh. 
jESIR. Miss E. C. Otte, Translator of Humboldt's "Cosmos." 
jESTHETICS. Ja.mes Sully. LL.D., Author of "Sensation and Intuition." 

AFRICA. Keith Johnston, Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. 

AG.VSSIZ. W.C. Williamson, LL.D., F.R.S., Professor of Natural History, Owens College, Manchester. 
AGK.\RIAN LAWS. GEORGE Ferguson. LL.D., formerly Professor of Humanity, Uuiversity of Aberdeen. 
AGRICULTURE. John Wilson, Member of Council, Highland and Agricultural Society, and W. T. Thornton, 

Author of "A Plea for Peasant Proprietors." 
ALCHEMY. Jules Andrieu. 

ALEXANDER THE GREAT. Rev. Sir George W. Cox, Baronet, Author of "A History of Greece." &o. 
ALEXANDER VI. Richard Garnett, British Museum, Author of " Idylls and Epigrams from Greek 

ALFORD. DE.A.N. Charles Kent, .\uthor of "Charles Dickens as a Reader." 

ALG.E. Dr. J. HuTTON Balfour, F.R.S.. late Professor of Botany in the University of Edinburgh. 
ALGEBRA. Philip Kelland, F.R.S. , late Professor of Mathematics, University of Edinburgh. 
ALGEr'ia. David Kay. F.R.G.S. 

ALPH.\BET. John Peile, M.A. , Fellow and Tutor of Christ's College, Cambridge. 
ALPS. John Ball, F.R.S., late President of the Alpine Club. 
ALTAR. Rev. G. H. Forbes. 

ALUM. James Dewar, F.R.S., Jacksonian Professor of Natural Experimental Philosophy, Cambridge. 
AMAZON. A. Stuart Murray, British Museum. 

AMBASSADOR. HENRY Reeve, CD., D.C.L., Registrar of H.M. Privy Council. 
AMBULANCE. Thomas Long.more, C.B., Professor of Army Surgery, Netley. 
AMERIC*. (North and South). Charles Maclaren, late Fellow of the Geological Society, and of the Royal 

Society, Edinburgh. 
AMERICAN LITER.\.TURE. John Nichol, LL.D., Professor of English Language, University of Glasgow. 
AMMON. Samuel Birch, LL.D., D.C.L., Keeper of Department of Oriental Antiquities, British Museum. 
AMMUNITION. Capt. C. Orde Browne, R.A.. Royal Laboratory. Woolwich. 
AMOS. Rev. Canon T. K. Cheyne, Oriel Professor of Exegesis, University of Oxford. 
AMPHIBIA. Prof. T. H. Huxley. 
ANALO(;y and analysis. Prof. Croom Robertson. 

AN.ESTHESIA. Dr. James O. Affleck. Examiner, Royal College of Physicians. Edinburgh. 
ANATOMY. Sir Wm. Turner. M.B.. F.R.S., Professor of Auatomy in the University of Edinburgh. 


' I "HE En'CYCLOP^DIA Britann'ICA has long deservedly held a foremost place amongst 
-*- English Encyclopaedias. It secured this position by its plan and method of treat- 
ment, the plan being more comprehensive, and the treatment a happier blending of 
popular and scientific exposition than had previously been attempted in any under- 
taking of the kind. The distinctive feature of the work was that it gave a connecttid 
view of the more important subjects under a single heading, instead of breaking them 
up into a number of shorter articles. This method of arrangement had a twofold 
advantage. The space afforded for extended exposition helped to secure the services 
of the more independent and productive minds who were engaged in advancing their 
own departments of scientific inquiry. As a natural result, the work, while surveying 
in outline the existing field of knowledge, was able at the same tiine to enlarge its 
boundaries by embodying, in special articles, the fruits of original observation and re- 
search. The Encyclopjedia Britannica thus became, to some extent at least, an instru- 
ment as well as a register of scientific progress. 

This characteristic feature of the work will be retained and made even more promi- 
nent in the New Edition, as the list of contributors already published sufficiently 
indicates. In some other respects, however, the plan will be modified, to meet the 
multiplied requirements of advancing knowledge. In the first place, the rapid progress 
of science during the last quarter of a century necessitates many changes, as well as a 
considerable increase in the number of headings devoted to its exposition. In dealing 
with vast wholes, such as Physics and Biology, it is always a difficult problem how 
best to distribute the parts under an alphabetical arrangement, and perhaps impossible 
to make such a distribution perfectly consistent and complete. The difficulty of dis- 
tribution is increased by the complexity of divisions and multiplication of details, which 
the progress of science involves, and which constitute indeed the most authentic note 
of advancing knowledge. This sign of progress is reflected in extensive changes of 
terminology and nomenclature, vague general headings once appropriate and sufficient, 
such as Animalcule, being of necessity abandoned for more precise and significant 


But, since the publication of the last Edition, science, in each of its main divisions, 
may be said to have changed as much in substance as in form. The new conceptions 
introduced into the Biological Sciences have revolutionized their points of view, methods 
of procedure, and systems of classification. In the light of larger and more illumi- 
nating generalizations, sections of the subject, hitherto only partially explored, have 
acquired new prominence and value, and are cultivated with the keenest interest. It is 
enough to specify the researches into the ultimate structures, serial gradations, and pro- 
gressive changes of organic forms, into the laws of their distribution in space and time, 
and into the causes by which these phenomena have been brought about. The results 
of persistent labor in these comparatively new fields of inquiry will largely determine 
the classifications of the future. Meanwhile the whole system of grouping, and many 
points of general doctrine, are in a transition state; and what is said and done in these 
directions must be regarded, to a certain extent at least, as tentative and provisional. 
In these circumstances, the really important thing is, that whatever may be said on 
such unsettled questions should be said with the authority of the fullest knowledge and 
insight, and every effort has been made to secure this advantage for the New Edition 
of the Encyclopaedia. 

The recent history of Physics is marked by changes both of conception and classi- 
fication almost equally great. In advancing from the older dynamic to the newer 
potential and kinetic conceptions of power, this branch of science may be said to have 
entered on a fresh stage, in which, instead of regarding natural phenomena as the result 
of forces acting between one bod\' and another, the energy of a material system is 
looked upon as determined by its configuration and motion, and the ideas of configura- 
tion, motion and force are generalized to the utmost extent warranted by their defini- 
tions. This altered point of view, combined with the far-reaching doctrines of the 
correlation of forces and the conservation of energy, has produced extensive changes in 
the nomenclature and classification of the various sections of pliysics ; w hile the fuller 
investigations into tiie ultimate constitution of matter, and into the phenomena and 
laws of light, heat and electricity, have created virtually new sections, which must now 
find a place in any adequate survey of scientific progress. The application of the 
newer principles to the mechanical arts antl industries has rapidly advanced during the 
same period, and will require extended illustration in many fresh directions. Mechanical 
invention has, indeed, so kept pace \\ith the progress of science, that in almost every 
department of physics improved machines and processes have to be described, as well 
as fresh discoveries and altered points of view. In recent as in earlier times, invention 
and discovery have acted and reacted on each other to a marked extent, the instru- 
ments of finer measurement and analysis having directly contributed to the finding out 
of physical properties and laws. The spectroscope is a signal instance of the extent to 
which in our day scientific discovery is indebted to appropriate instruments of obser- 
vation and analysis. 


These extensive changes in Physics and Biology involve corresponding changes in 
the method of their exposition. Much in what was written about each a generation 
ago is now of comparatively little value. Not only therefore does the system of 
grouping in these sciences require alteration and enlargement ; the articles themselves 
must, in the majority of instances, be written afresh rather than simply revised. The 
scientific department of the work will thus be to a great extent new. In attempting 
to distribute the headings for the New Edition, so as fairly to cover the ground occu- 
pied by modern science, I have been largely indebted to Professor Huxley and Professor 
Clerk Maxwell, whose valuable help in the matter I am glad to have an opportunity 
of acknowledging. 

Passing from Natural and Physical Science to Literature, History and Philosophy, 
it may be noted that many sections of knowledge connected with these departments 
display fresh tendencies, and are working towards new results, which, if faithfully 
reflected, will require a new style of treatment. Speaking generally, it may be said 
that human nature and human life are the great objects of inquiry in these depart- 
ments. Man, in his individual powers, complex relationships, associated activities and 
collective progress, is dealt with alike in Literature, History and Philosophy. In this 
wider aspect, the rudest and most fragmentary records of savage and barbarous races, 
the earliest stories and traditions of every lettered people, no less than their developed 
literatures, mythologies and religions, are found to have a meaning and value of their 
own. As yet the rich materials thus supplied for throwing light on the central prob- 
lems of human life and history have only been very partially turned to account. It 
may be said, indeed, that their real significance is perceived and appreciated, almost for 
the first time in our own day. But under the influence of the modern spirit, they are 
now being dealt with in a strictly scientific manner. The available facts of human 
history, collected over the widest areas, are carefully co-ordinated and grouped together, 
in the hope of ultimately evolving the laws of progress, moral and material, which 
underlie them, and which, when evolved, will help to connect and interpret the whole 
onward movement of the race. Already the critical use of the comparative method 
has produced very striking results in this new and stimulating field of research. Illus- 
trations of this are seen in the rise and rapid development of the comparatively modern 
science of Anthropology, and the successful cultivation of the assistant sciences, such as 
Archaeology, Ethnography and Philology, which directly contribute materials for its use. 
The activity of geographical research in both hemispheres, and the large additions 
recently made to our knowledge of older and newer continents by the discoveries of 
eminent travelers and explorers, afTord the anthropologist additional materials for his 
work. Many branches of mental philosophy, again, such as Ethics, Psychology and 
^Esthetics, while supplying important elements to the new science, arc at the same 
time very largely interested in its results, and all may be regarded as subservient to 
the wider problems raised by the philosophy of history. In the New Edition of the 


Encyclopaidia full justice will, it is hoped, be done to the progress made in these 
various directions. 

It may be well, perhaps, to state at the outset the position taken by the Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica in relation to the active controversies of the time— Scientific, Re- 
ligious and Philosophical. This is the more necessary, as the prolific activity of modern 
science has naturally stimulated speculation, and given birth to a number of somewhat 
crude conjectures and hypotheses. The air is full of novel and extreme opinions, 
arising often from a hasty or one-sided interpretation of the newer aspects and results 
of modern inquiry. The higher problems oi philosophy and religion, too, are being 
investigated afresh from opposite sides in a thoroughly earnest spirit, as well as with a 
directness and intellectual power, which is certainly one of the most striking signs of 
the times. This fresh outbreak of the inevitable contest between the old and the new 
is a fruitful source of exaggerated hopes and fears, and of excited denunciation and 
appeal. In this conflict a work like the Encyclopaedia is not called upon to take any 
direct part. It has to do with knowledge rather than opinion, and to deal with all 
subjects from a critical and historical, rather than a dogmatic, point of view. It cannot 
be the organ of any sect or party in Science, Religion or Philosophy. Its main duty 
is to give an accurate account of the facts and an impartial summary of results in 
every department of inquiry and research. This duty will, I hope, be faithfully 





THE Grst symbol of every Indo-European alphabet, 
. denotes also tlio primary vowel sound. This coin- 
cidence is probably only accidental The alphabets of 
Europe, and perhaps of India also, were of Semitic origin, 
and in all the Semitic alphabets except one, this same 
symbol (in modified forms) holds the first place ; but it 
represents a peculiar breathing, not the vowel a, — the 
Tovpels in the Semitic languages occupying a subordinate 
place, and having originally no special symbols. When 
the Greeks, with whom the vowel sounds were much more 
important, borrowed the alphabet of Phoenicia, they re- 
quired symbols to express those vowels, and Esed for this 
purpose the signs of breathings which were strange to 
them, and therefore needed not to be preserved ; thus the 
Phceuician equivalent of the Hebrew aieph became alpha; 
it denoted, however, no more a guttural breathing, but the 
purest vowel sound. Still, it would be too much to 
assume that the Greeks of that day were so skilled in 
phonetics that they assigned the first symbol of their bor- 
rowed alphabet to the <7,-sound, bccaiue they knew that 
sound to be the most essential voweL 

This primary vowel-sound (the sound of a ia/aUier) is 
produced by keeping the passage through which the air is 
vocalised between the glottis and the lips in the most opeu 
position possible. In sounding all other vowels, '.ho air- 
channel is narrowed by the action either of the tongue or 
the Ups. But hero neither the back of the tongue is 
raised (as it is in sounding o and other vowels), so that a 
free space is left between the tongue and the uvula, nor 
ia the front of the tongue raised (as in aounding r), so that 
the space ia clear between the tongue and the palate. 
Again, no other vowel is pronounced with a wider opciuiig 
of the lips ; whereas the aperture is sensibly reduced at 
each side when we sound o, and still more when wo sound 
u (that is, yoo). The whole channel, therefore, from 
the glottis, where the breath first issues forth to be modi- 
fied in the oral cavity, to the lips, where it finally escapes, 
•a thoroughly open. Hence arises the great importance of 
the sound, by reason of its thoroughly non-consonantal 
character. Ail vowels may bo defmeJ a.i open positions 


of the speech-organs, in which the breath escapes withotil 
any stoppage, fricticin, or sibilatiou arising from the con- 
t-act of those organs, whereas consonants are heard when 
the organs open after such contact more or less complete. 
Now, all vowels except a are pronounced with a certain 
contraction of the organs ; thus, in sounding the t (the 
English «-sound), the tongue is raised so as almost to 
touch the palate, the passage left being so close, that if 
the tongue were sufl'ercd for a second to rest on the palate, 
there would be heard not i but y; and a similar relation 
exists between u and w. This is commonly expressed by 
calling ff and ic semi-vowels. Wo might more exactly caH 
t and It consonantal- vowels; and as an historic fact, t docs 
constantly pass into y, and ti into w, and vice versa. But 
no consonant has this relation to the a-sound ; it has abso- 
lutely no affinity to any consonant ; it is, as we have called 
it, the one primary essential vowel. 

The importance of this scihnd may be shown by histori- 
cal as well as by physiological evidence. Wo find by 
tracing the process of phonetic change in different lan- 
guages, that when one vowel passes into another, it is the 
pure a-sound which thus a-'usumes other forms, wherca-i 
other vowels do not pass into tlie a-sound, though some- 
times the new sound may have tliis symbol, KougUy 
speaking, we might express the gene- ^ 

ml character of vowel change by draw- 
ing two lines from a coiamon point, 
at which a is placed. One of thcso 
lines marks the progress of an original 
a (aA-sound) through e (a-sound), till 
it sinks finally to t («-sound) ; the oilier 
marks a similar degradation, through 
o to « (oo-sound). This figure omits 
many miuor modifications, and is sub- 
ject to some exceptions in particular languages. Put it 
represents fairly in the main the general jiroccss of vowel- 
change. Now, we do not a-ssert that there ever was a 
time when a was the only existing vowel, but we do main- 
tain that in numberless cases au originjl a has pa.sstd into 
other sounds, whereas the revcrso process is excessively 

1. — I 

A A R 

rare. Consequently, the farther wo trace back the history 
of language, the more instances of this vowel do we find ; 
the more nearly, if not entirely, does it become the one 
starting point from which all vowel-sound is derived. 

It is principally to the effort required to keep this 
sound pure that wo must attribute the great corruption of 
it in all languages, and iu none more than our own. In- 
deed, in English, the short a-sound is never heard pure ; it 
is heard in Scotland, e.g., in man, which is quite difl'ercnt 
from the same word on English lips. We have it, how- 
ever, long m father, kc, though it is not common. It has 
passed into a great many other sounds, all of which are 
denoted in a most confusing way by the original symbol, 
and some by other symbols as well. Thus a denotes — (1.) 
The English vowel-sound in man, perhaps the most common 
of all the .substitutes, dating from tho 17th century. (2.) 
It appears in want; for tliis sound o is also employed, as in 
on. (3.) A more open sound is heard in alt (also denoted 
by au in auk, and aw in atd). (4.) Very commonly it re- 
presents the continental e, as in ale (here also we have the 
s}Tnbol ai in ail). (5.) It is found in dare and many 
similar words, where the sound is really the e of den, pro- 
longed in the utterance ; hero also ai is sometimes an 
equivalent, as iu air. Then (6) there is a sound which is 
not that of a either in mare or in father, but something 
between the two. It is heard in such words as ask, pass, 
grant, ic. All these may be, and often are, pronounced 
with the sound either of man or oi father; still, we do often 
lear in them a clearly tlistinguishable intennediate sound, 
■which ought to have a special symbol. Lastly (7), there 
is the dull*aound heard in fmal unaccentuated syllables, e.g., 
in the word final itself. It is that to which all unaccen; 
tuated syllables tend ; but it is also often heard even in 
monosyllables, where it is represented by every other vowel- 
symbol in the language, e.g., in her, sir, son, suti. This 
Protean sound is commonly called the neutral vowel ; it 
occurs in all languages, but perhaps in none so frequently 
as in English. This great variety of sounds, which are all 
denoted among us by one sj-mbol, clearly shows the in- 
iulEciency of our written alphabet. 

As in English, so in Sanskrit, the short a/i-sound was 
lost, and was replaced regularly by the neutral sound. 
This was regarded by the grammarians as inherent in every 
consonant, and therefore was only written at the beginning 
of a word ; in fact, it is the smallest amount of vowel- 
eound requisite to float a consonant. Long a, however, 
kept its sound pure, aad does so stUl in the vernaculars of 
India. In Latin the sound was probably pure, both short 
and long, and it has been .preserved so in the Romance 
lajiguagcs down to the present day. In Greek there was 
considerable variation, proved in one case at least by a 
variation of sjinbol ; in Jonic a commonly passed into 
r], a sjrmbol which probably denoted the modern Italian 
open e ; but possibly the close e, that is, the English a in 
ale. On the other hand, it is probable that the Doric a 
approximated to au o, being sounded as a in our word 
loant; and it is likely that this variation was the TrXartiao-- 
^tos which the grammarians attribute to the Dorians. This 
is commonly sap,posed to have been the retention of a where 
the Ionic had rj ; but that was not peculiar to the Dorians, 
being common to all tho Greeks except the lonians. In 
the north of Europe we find a similar tendency to give to' 
oiji o-sound,; thus in Norse, aa, is sounded as an open o. ' 
By' a further cxt'cnsion in the'north of England, at least in 
such parts as have been gpeciiAIy exposed to Norwegian 
inJ5uence,.ff«has the sound of o ; e.g., law is pronounced lo. 
A is frequently usefl as a jjrefix^in Ucu of some- fuller 
form in old English. Thus •It stands for tho preposition 
an (O.E. 071) in an'ay, again, afoot, asleep; for o/f in odowif 
(O.E. of-dune) ; and seems lo bo intonsive in athirst (O.E. 

ofthirst). Sometimes, opcciu'Jy with verb*, it reprcsenta 
the old English &, which in old liljjh German apjieari as 
ur or er, and in modem German as er, which signilics the 
completion of an action, as in ermachen, to v>hich awake 
corresponds. Frequently no special force sccma to ba 
added by tho prefix, as in abide, arise, Ac. Sometimes a 
appears as the representative of tho prefix commonly used 
in past participles, which has the form ge in German, and 
ge and y in old English, e.g., in ago or qgone; compare 
aware (O.E. gewaere), among (O.E. gemang), ic. A also 
stood for the preposition an (on) in such expressions (now 
obsolete) as a-doing, a-making, where doing and making are 
verbal nouns. Lastly, it represents the prepositions on or 
af in the phrases nowa-days, Jack-a-lantem, and others. 

Tho place that A occupies ill the alphabet accounts for 
its being much employed as a mark or eymboL It is used, 
for instance, to name the sixth note of the gamut in music; 
in some systems of notation it is a numeral (see Akith- 
METic); and in Logic it denotes a universal affirmative 
proposition (see Looic). In algebra, a and the first letters 
of the alphabet are employed to represent known quanti- 
ties. AI marks the best class of vessels in Lloyds Re- 
gister of British and Foreign Shipping. In the old poets, 
" Aper se" is found, meaning the highest degree of excel- 
lence; as when Chaucer calls Creseide "the floure and A 
per ee of Troyo and Grcce." 

A was the first of the eight literoe nundinalet at Rome, 
and on this analogy it stands as the first of the sev^ Domini- 
cal letters. 

It is often used as an abbreviation, as in A.D. for anno 
domini, A.M. for ante meridiem, A.B. and A.M. for artivm 
haccalaureus and artium magister. In commerce A stands 
for accepted. (j. P.) 

AA, the name of about forty small European rivers. 
The word is derived from the old German aha, cognate 
to the Latin aqua, water. The following are the more 
important streams of this name : — a river of Holland, in 
North Brabant, which joins the Dommcl at Bois-le-Duc ; 
two rivers in the west of Russia, both falling into the 
Gulf of Livonia, near Riga, which is situated between 
them; a river in the north of France, falling into the sea 
at Gravelines, and navigable as far as St Omer; and a 
river of Switzerland, in the cantons of Lucerne and Aargau, 
which carries the waters of Lakes Baldeker and Hallwyler 
into the Aar. 

AACIIEN. See Aix-la-Chapelle. 

AALBORG, a city and seaport of Denmark, is situated on 
the T'iimfiord, about 15 miles from its junction with the 
Cattegat. It is the capital of the district of •Xhe same 
name, one of the subdivisions of the province of Jiitland. 
The city is a place of xonsiderable commercial importance, 
and contains a cathedral and a school of navigation. Soap, 
tobacco, and leather are manufactured ; there are several 
distilleries ; and the herring fishery is extensively prosecuted. 
Grain and herring are largely exported, as are also to a 
smaller extent wool, cattle, skins, tallow, salt provisiong, and 
spirits. The harbour, which is good and safe, though 
difficult of access, is entered by about 800 vessels annually, 
and there is direct steam communication with Copenliageu. 
Tlie district is celebrated for its breed of horses. Popula 
tion (1870), 11,953. 

AALEN, a. walled town of Wurtemberg, pleasantly 
' situated on the Kocher, at the foot of the Swabian Alps, 
about 50 milea E! of Stuttgart. . Woollen and linen goods 
are manufactured, and there are ribbon looms and tanneries 
in the town, and large iron works in the neighbourhoodi 
Aalen- was a free imperial city from 13G0 till 1802, when 
it was annexed to Wurtemberg. Population (1871), 5552. , 

AAR, or Aake, the most considerable river in Swi^er- 
hnd. after the Rhine and Rhon>^ It rises in the glaciers 

A A R — A A R 

of the Finster-oaj-uorufSchreekhoni, ana Qrimsel, in the 
canton of Bern; and at the Handeck in the valley of Hash 
forma a magnificent water-fall of above 150 feet in height. 
It then falls successively into the lakes Brienz and Thun, 
and, emerging from the latter, flews through the cantons of 
Bern, Soleure, and Aargau, emptying itself into the Rhine, 
opposite Waldshut, after a course of about 170 miles. 
Its principal tributary streams are the Kander, Saane, and 
Thiele on the left, and the Emmen, Surin, Aa, Reuss, and 
Limiaat, on the right. On its banks are situated' Unterseen, 
Thun, Bern, Soleure or Solothum, Aarburg, and Aarau. 
The Aar is a beautiful silvery river, abounding Ln fish, and 
is navigable from the Rhine as far as the Lake of Thun. 
Several small rivers in Germany have the same name. 

AARAU, the chief town of the canton of Aargau in 
Switzerland, is situated at the foot of the Jura mountains, 
on the right bank of the river Aar, 41 miles N.E. of Bern. 
It is well built, and contains a town-hall, barracks, several 
eqiall museums, and a library rich in histories of Switzer- 
land. There is a cannon foundry at Aarau, and among the 
principal manufacture^ are silk, cotton, and leather ; also 
cutlery and mathematical instruments, which are held in 
great repute. The slopes of the neighbouring mountains 
are partially covered with vines, and the vicinity of the 
town is attractive. About ten miles distant along the 
right bank of the Aar are the famous baths of Schinznach. 
PopiJation, 5449. 

AARD-VARK (eartr,-pig), an animal very common in 
South Africa, measuring upwards of three feet in length, 
and having a general resemblance to a short-legged pig. 
It feeds on ants, and is of nocturnal habits, and very timid 
and harmless. Its flesh is used as food, and when suitably 
preserved is considered a delicacy. The animal is the only 
known species of its genus (Oryderopus), and belongs to 
the order Edentata of the mammalia. The same prefix 
Aard appears in the name of the Aaed-wolf (Proteles 
Lalandii)^ a rare animal found in Cafi'raria, which is said 
to partake of the characters of the dog and civet. See 


AARGAU (French, Aegovie), one of fhe cantons of 
Switzerland, derives its name from the river which flows 
through it, Aar-gau being the province or district of the 
Aar. It is bounded on the north by the Rhine, which divides 
it from the duchy of Baden, on the east by Zurich and Zug, 
on the south by Lucerne, and on the west by Bern, Soleure 
or Solothurn, and Basel. It has an area of 502 1 square miles. 
By the census of 1870, the number of inhabitants was 
19'i,873, showing an increase during the preceding ten years 
of 4665. Aargau stands sixth among theSwiss cantons in 
density of population, having 395 inhabitants to the square 
mile. The statistics of 1870 show that of the inhabitants 
107,703 were Protestants, 89,180 Catholics, and 1541 Jews. 
German is the language almost universally spokei. 

Aargau .is the least mountainous canton of Switzerland. 
It forms part of a great table'land to the north of the Alps 
and the cast of the Jura, having a general elevation of 
from 1200 te 1500 feet. The hills do not rise to any 
greater height-than 1800 feet above this, table-land,, or 
3000 feet above the level' of the sea. The surface of the. 
country 'is beautifully diversified, undulating tracts and 
Vrell-wooded hills alternating with fertile valleys watered 
by the Aar and its numerous tributaries, and by the rivu- 
lets' which flow 'northward into the Rhine. Although 
moist and variable, the climate is Inildcr than in most 
parts of Switzerland. 

The miiicrals of Aargau are unimportant, but remarkable 
palEontological reinains are found in its rocks. The soil to 
tho left of the Aar is a stifl' clay, but to the right it is light 
and productive. Agriculture is in an advanced state, and 
great attention is given to tho rearing of cattle. Thero 

are many vineyards, and much fruit is grown. The can- 
ton is distinguished by its industry and its generally 
diffused prosperity. Many of the inhabitants are employed 
in the fishings on the Aar, and in the navigation of the 
river. In the villages and towns there are considerable 
manufactures of cotton goods, silk, and linen. The chief 
exports are cattle, hides, cheese, timber, raw cotton, yam, 
cotton cloths, silk, machinery, and wooden wares ; and 
the imports include wheat, wine, salt, leather, and iron. 
The most important towns are Aarau, Baden, Zofingen, and 
Laufenburg, and there are mineral springs at Baden, Schinz- 
nach, Leerau, and NiederweiL The Swiss Junction 
Railway crosses the Rhine near Waldshut, and runs south 
through the canton to Turgi, whence one line proceeds S.E. 
to Zurich, and another S.\V. to Aarau and Olben. 

Untd 1798, Aargau formed part of the canton of Bern, 
out when the Helvetic Republic was proclaimed, it was 
erected into a separate canton. In 1803 it received a 
considerable accession of territory, in virtue of the arrange- 
ment under which tho French evacuated Switzerland. 
According to the law whereby the cantons are represented 
in the National Council by one member for every 20,000 
inhabitants, Aargau returns ten representatives to that 
assembly. The internal government is vested in a legis- 
lative council elected by the body of the pecple, while a 
smaller councO of seven members is chosen by the larger 
body for the general administration of affairs. The re- 
sources of Aargau are stated to am.iunt to about a million 
sterling; its revenue in 1807 was nearly £82,000, and the 
expenditure slightly greater. There is a pubUc debt of 
about X40,000. The canton is divided into eleven districts, 
and these again are subdivided into forty-eight circles. There 
is a court of law for each district, and a superior court for 
the whole canton, to which cases involving sums above 160 
francs can be appealed. Education is compulsory; but in the 
Roman Catholie districts the law is not strictly enforced. By 
[improved schools and other .appUances great progress has 
been made in education withfn the last thirfy or forty years. 
AARHUUS, a city and seaport of Denmark, situated 
on the Cattegat, in lat. 56° 9' K, long. 10° 12'.E. It is 
the chief town of a fertile district of the same name, one 
of the subtlivisions of Jutland. The cathedral of Aarhuus 
is a Gothic structure, and the largest church in Denmark. 
The town also contains a lyccum, museum, and library. 
Aarhuus is a phice of extensive trade. It has a good and 
safe harbour, has regular steam communication with 
Copenhagen, and is connected by rail with Viborg and the 
interior of the country. Agricultural produce, spirits, 
l,eathor, and gloves are e.xported, arid there are sugar r'e- 
fineries, and manufactures of jvool^ cottor^ - and tobacco. 
Popidation (1870), 15,020. 

AARON, the first high-priest of the ./ews, eldest Fon 
of Amram and Jochebed, of the tribe of Levi, and brother 
of Moses and Miriam. When Moses was comniissioned to 
conduct the IsraeUtes from Egypt to Canaan, Aaron was 
i^)pointed to assist him, principally, it would appeaf, on 
account of his possessing,' in a high degree, persuasive 
readiness of speech. On the occasion 'of Moses' .abstince 
in Mount Binaii(to which he had gone up to rec?^e tho 
tiibles of tho law), .the Israelites, regarding Aaron as their 
leader,' chniorously demanded that he should provide them 
with a 'visible sj-mbolic imago of 'ihcir .God for worship. 
He weakly compUed with the derannd/ and put of the 
ornaments of gold, contributed for tho purpose cast tho 
figure of a calf, tlus form being •doubtless chosen in recol- 
lection of Yhe idols of Egypt. In obedience to*ins(|(uctiona 
given by'God to Moses, Aaron was appointed high-priest; 
his sons and descendants, priests ; and his tribe wa« set 
'a|)art as the saoerdoUd caste. The oftico of high-priest was 
held by Aaron for-lieaxly forty years, tiM the time of his 

A A 11 — A B A 

death, which took i)lacc or, Mouut Hor, wLcu he was 123 
years old. 

AAKSSENS, Francis Van (1572-1641), one of the 
greatest diplomatists of th? Uiitcd Provinces. He re- 
presented the Statcs-Generol at the Court of France for 
many years, and was also eng'aij'^l in embassies to Venice, 
Germany, and England. hi.i I'/cat diplomatic ability 
jppears from the memoirs ht VMoto of his negotiations 
in 1024 with Hichehcu, who rauki i him among the three 
greatest politicians of his time. A deep stain rests on the 
memory of Aarssens from the shan ho had in the death of 
Barneveldt, who was put to death by the States-General, 
after the semblance of a trial, in I'lO. 

ABABDE, an African tribe occ.ipj-ing tho country be- 
tween the lied Sea and. the Nile, to the S. of Kosseir, 
nearly as far as the latitude of D.rr. Many of the race 
have settled on the eastern bank of the Nile, but the 
greater part EtiU live like Bedouins. They arc a distinct 
race from tho Arabs, and are treacherous and faithless in 
their dealings. They have few horses ; when at war with 
other tribes, they fight from camels, their breed of which 
is famed. Tliey possess considerable property, and trade 
in senna, and in charcoal made from acacia wood, which 
they send as far as Cairo. 

ABACA or AuAK-i, a name given to the Jfusa texlihs, 
the plant that. produces the fibre called JIaiulla Hemp, 
and also to the fibre itself. 

ABACUS, an architectural term (from the G.-. a/3af, a 
tray or flat board) apphed to the upper part of the capital 
of a column, pier, ic. The early form of an abacus Ls 

Forma of the AKicug, 

simply a square fiat stone, probably derived from the 
Tuscan order. In Saxon work it is frequently simply 
chamfered, but srimetimes grooved, as in tho crj'pt at 
Repton (fig. 1), ana in the arcade of the refectory at West- 
minster. The abacus in Norman work is square where 
the columns are small; but on larger piers it is sometmies 
octagonal, as at Waltham Abbey. The square of the 
abacus is often sculptured, as at the \VTiite Tower and 
at Alton (fig. 2). In early English work the abacus is 
generally circular, and in larger work a continuation of 
circles (fig. 4), sometimes octagonal, and occasionally squaru. 
The mouldings are 
generally rounds, 
which overhang 
deep hollows. The 
abacus in early 
French work is 
generally square, as 
at Blois (fig. 3). 
The term is ap- 
pbed in its diminu- 
tive form (Abacis- 
cus) to the chequers 
or squares of a tes- 
seUated pavement. 

Fig. 5. — Roman Abacus. 

Ab-vcus also signifies an instrument employed by the 
• ncients for arithmetical calculations; pebbles, bits of bone, 
or coins,'being used as counters. The accompanying figure 
(5) of a Eoman abacus is taken from an ancient monu- 
ment. ■ It contains seven long and seven shorter rods or 
hars, the former having fonr perforated beads running oti 

thera, and the latter one. The marked I indicates 
units, X tens, and so on up to millions. The beads ou the 
shorter bars denote lives, — five units, five tens, <fec. The rod 
O and correspond- 
ing short rod are 
for marking ounces; 
and the short quar- 
ter rods for fractions 
of an ounce. 

The Swan-Pan of 
the Chinese (fig. 6) 
closely resembles tho 
Koman abacus in its i'S- 6.— Clunesi; Swan-Pan. 

construction and usa Computations are made with it fcy 
means of balls of bone or ivory running on slender bam- 
boo rods similar to the simpler board, fitted up with beads 
strung on vrircs, which is employed in teaching the rudi- 
ments of arithmetic in elementary schools. 

AB/E, a town of ancient Greece in the E. of Phocis 
famous for a teniplo and oracle of Apollo. The temple ^yas 
plundered and burned by tho Persians (B.C. 480), and again 
by the Boeotians (B.C. 34C), and was re,stored on a smallei 
scale by lladrian. Kemains of the temple and town may 
still be traced on a peaked hill near Exarkho. See Leake's 
NorthtTii Greece. 

AB.VKANSK, a fortified town of Siberia, in the govern- 
ment of Yeniseisk, on the river Abakan, near its coufluenca 
with tho Yenisei. Lat 54° N.; long. 91° 14' E. This is 
considered the mildest and most s.alubrious place in Siberia, 
and is remark.ablo for the tumuli in its neighbourhood, and 
for some statues of men from seven to nine feet high, 
covered « ith hieroglyphics. Population about lOOO. 

AE:\JNA and Puaepae, "rivers of Damascus" (2 Kings 
V. 12), are now generally identified with the Barada and 
the Awaj respectively. The former flows through the city 
of Damascus ; the Awaj, a smaller stream, passes eight 
miles to the south. Both run from west to east across the 
plain of Damascus, which owes to them much of its fertility, 
and lose themselves in marshes, or lakes, as they are called, 
on the borders of the great Arabian desert Mr Macgrcgor, 
who gives an interesting description of these rivers in his 
I'^ob Hoy on, the Jordan, affirms that " as a work of 
hydraulic engineering, the system and constraction of the 
CiUials by which the Abana and Pharpar are used for 
irrigation, may be still considered as the most complete 
and extensive in the world." 

ABANCAY, a tovra of Peru, in the department of 
Cuzco, 65.miles W.S.W. of the town of name. It Uea 
on tho river Abancay, which is here spanned by one of the 
finest bridges in Pom. Rich crops of sugar-cate are pro- 
duced in the district, and the town has extensive sugar 
refineries. Hemp is also cultivated, and silver is found io 
the mountains. Population, 1200. 

ABANDONMENT, in Marine Assurance, is the surren- 
dering of the ship or goods insured to the insurers, in the 
case of a constructive total loss of the thing insured. 
There is an absolute total loss entitling tho assured to 
recover the full amount of his insurance wherever the thing 
insured has ceased to exist to any useful purpose, — and in 
such a case abandonment is not required. Where the thing 
assured continues to exist in specie, yet is so damaged that 
there is no reasonable hope of repau-, c^r it is not worth the 
expense of bringing it, or what remains of it, to its destiuiw- 
tion, the insured may treat the case as one of a total loss 
(in this case called constructive total loss), and demand 
the full sum insured. But, as the contract of insurance is 
one of indemnity, the insured must, in such a case, make 
an express cession of all his right to the recovery of the 
subject insured to the underwriter by abandonment. Tho 
insured must intimate his intention to abandon, within « 

-A. B A - A B A 


tea3onatle tiiije after receiving correoi information as to 
the loss; any unnecessary delay being held as an indica- 
tion of his intention not to abandon. An abandonment 
when once accepted is irreTocable; but in no circumstances 
s the insured obliged to abandon. After abandonment, 
the captain and crew are still bound to do all in their 
power to save the property for the underwriter, without 
prejudice to the right of abandonment; for which they are 
entitled to wages and remuneration from the insurers, at 
least so far as what is saved-wiU allow. See Aruould, 
Marshall, aud Park, on the Law of Insurance, and the 
judgment of Lord Abinger in Roux v. Salvador, 3 Bing. 
N.C. 26_6, Tudor's Leadiny Cases, 139. 

Abandonment has also a legal signification m the law 
of railways. Under the Acts 13 and li Vict. c. 83, 14 
and 15 Vict. c. 64, 30 and 31 Vict. c. 126, aud 32 and 33 
Vict. c. 114, the Board of Trade may, on the application 
of a railway company, made by the authority and with the 
consent of the holders of three-fifths of its shares or stock, 
and on certain conditions specified in the Acts, grant a war- 
rant authorising the abandonment of the railway or a por- 
tion of it. After duo publication of this warrant, the 
company is released from all liability to make, maintain, 
or work the" railway, or portion of the railway, authorised 
to be abandoned, or to complete any contracts "elating to 
it, subject to certain provisions and exceptions. 

Abandoning a young child under two years of age, so 
that its life shall be endangered, or its health permanently 
injured, or likely to be so, is in England a misdemeanour, 
punishable by penal servitude or imprisonment, 24 and 25 
Vict. c. 100, § 273. In Scotland abandoning or exposing 
an infant ia an offence at common law, although no evil 
consequences should happen to the child. 

A.BANO, a town of Northern Italy, 6 miles S.W. of 
Padua. There are thennal springs in the neighbourhood, 
which have been much resorted to by invalids for bathing, 
both in ancient and modern times. They were called by 
the Romans Aponi Foiis, and also Aauce Patavina:. Popu- 
lation of Abano, 3000. 

ABANO, PiETEO d', known also as Petnis de Apone or 
Aponensis, a distinguished physician and philosopher, was 
born at the Italian towji from which he takes his name in 
• 1250, or, according to others, in 1246. After vi.siting the 
east in order to acquire the Greek language, he went to 
study at Pari.s, where he became a doctor of medicine and 
philosophy. In Padua, to which he returned when his 
studies were completed, he speedily gained a great reputa- 
tion as a physician, and availed hinaself of it to gratify his 
ivarice by refusing to visit patients except for an exorbitant 
fee. Perhaps this as well as his meddling v/ith astrology 
caused the charge to bo brought against him of practising 
magic, the particular accusations being that he brought 
back into his purse, by the aid of the devil, all the money 
he paid away, and that he possessed the philosophei-'s stone. 
He was twice brought to trial by the Inquisition ; on the 
first occasion he was acquitted, aud he died (1316) before 
the second trial was completed. He was found guilty, 
however, and his body was ordered to be e.xlmmed and 
burned; but a friend had secretly removed it, and the 
Inquisition had, therefore, to content itself with the public 
proclamation of its sentence and the burning of Abano in 
effigy. In his writings he expounds and advocates the 
medical and philosophical systems of Averrhoes and other 
Arabian ^vTitcrs. His best known works are the Con- 
ciliator diffcrcnliarvm qua; inter philosophos et medicos 
versantur (Mantua, 1472, Venice, 1476), and De venenis 
torumque remediis (1472), of which a French translation 
was published at Lyons in 1593. 

ABARIS, the Hyperborean, a celebrated sago of anti- 
quity, whoi-isited Greece about 570 B.C., or, according to 

others, a centuij or two earlier. The particulars of his 
history are diiferently related by different authors, but all 
accounts are more or less mj-thicaL He is said to have 
travelled over sea and land, riding on an arrow given him 
by Apollo, to have lived without food, to have deUvered 
the whole earth from a plague, &c. Various works in prose 
and verse are attributed to Abaris by Suidas and others, 
but of these we have no certain information. 

ABATEMENT, Abate, from the French abattre, abater, 
to throw down, demolish. The original meaning of the 
word is preserved in various legal phrases. The abatement 
of a nuisance is the remedy allowed by law to a person 
injured by a public nuisance of destroying or removing it 
by his own act, provided he commit no breach of the peace 
ill doing so. In the case of private nuisances abatement 
is also allowed, provided there be no breach of the peace, 
and no damage be occasioned bevond vhat the removal ol 
the nuisance requires. 

Abatement of freehold takes pjiace where, alter the aeath 
of the person last seised, a stranger enters upon lands 
before the entry of the heir or devisee, and keeps the latte* 
out of possession. It differs from intrusion, which is a 
similar entry by a stranger on the death of a tenant for 
life, to the prejudice of the reversioner, or remainder man ; 
and from disseisin, which is the forcible or fraudulent ex- 
pulsion of a person seised of the freehold. 

Abatement among legatees (de/alcatis) is a proportionate 
deduction which their legacies suffer when the funds out 
of which they are payable are not sufficient to Day them in 

Abatement in pleading is the defeating or quashing of a 
particular action by some matter of fact, such as a defect 
in form or personal incompetency of the parties suing, 
pleaded by the defendant. Such a plea is called a plea in 
aliatemeut; and as it does not involve the merits of the 
cause, it leaves the right of action subsisting. Since 1852 
it has been competent to obviate the effect of such pleas 
by amendment, so as to allow the real question in contro- 
versy between the parties t- be tried in the same suit. 

In litigation an action is said to abate or cease on the 
death of one of the parties. 

Abatement, or Rebate, is a discount allowed for 
prompt payment ; it also means a deduction sometimes 
made at the custom-house from the fixed duties on certain 
kinds of goods, on account of damage or loss sustained in 
warehouses. The rate and conditions of such deductions 
are regulated by Act 16 and 17 Vict. c. 107. 

ABATI, or Dell'Aebato, Niccolo, a celebrated fresco- 
painter of Modena, born in 1512. His best works are at 
Wodena and Bologna, and have been highly praised by 
Zanotti, Algarotti, and Lanzi. He accompanied Primaticcio 
to France, and assisted in decorating the palace at Fontain- 
bleau (1552-1571). His pictures exhibit a combination of 
skill in drawiug, grace, aud natural colouring. Some of 
his easel pieces in oil are in different collections ; one of the 
finest, now in the Dresden Gallery, represents the martyr- 
dom of St Peter and ,St PauL Abati died at Paris in 

ABATTOIR, from abattre, primarily signifies a slaughter- 
house jiroper, or place where animals are killed as distin- 
guished from boucheries and itaux publics, places where 
the dead meat is offered for sale. But the term is al.=o 
employed to designate a complete meat market of which 
the abattoir proper is merely part. 

Perhaps fiio first indication of the existence of abattoirs 
may be found in the system which prevailed under the 
Emperors in ancient Rome. A corporation or guild of 
butchers undoubtedly e.xisted there, which delegated to its 
ollicei-s the duty of slaiigliterinf,' the l)fa.sts iwjiiired to 
supply the city with meat. The establishments requisite 



for this purpose wero at first scattered about tfie vanous 
streets, but vrere eventually confined to one quarter, and 
formed the public moat market. This market, in the .time 
of Nero, was one of the most imposing structures in the 
city, and some idea of its magnificence has been transmitted 
to us by a delineation of it preserved on an ancient coin. 
As the policy .tnd customs of the Romans made themselves 
felt ill Gaul, the Roman system of abattoirs, if it may bo 
BO called, was introduced there in an imperfect form. A 
clique of families in .Paris long exercised the special func- 
tion of catering for the public wants in respect of meat 
But as the city increased in magnitude and population, the 
necessity of keeping slaughter-houses as much as possible 
apart from dwelliug-houses became apparent. As early as 
the time of Charles IX., the attention of the French author- 
ities was directed to the subject, as is testified by a decree 
passed on tht 25th of February 1567. But although the 
importance of the question was frequently recognised, no 
definite or decided step seems to have been taken to effect 
the contemplated reform until the time of Napoleon L 
The evil had then reached a terribly aggravated form. 
Slaughter-houses abutted on many of the principal thorough- 
fares ; the traffic was impeded by the constant arrival of 
foot-sore beasts, whose piteous cries pained the ear; and 
rivulets of blood were to be seen in the gutters of the public 
streets. The constant accumulation of putrid offal tainted 
the atmosphere, and the Seine was polluted by being used 
as a common receptacle for slaughter-house refuse. This 
condition of things could not be allowed to continue, and 
on the 9th of February 1810, a decree was passed authoris- 
ing the construction of abattoirs in the outskirts of Paris, 
and appointing a Commission, to which was committed the 
consideration of the entire question. 

The result of the appointment of this Commission was 
the construction of the five existing abattoirs, which were 
formaUy opened for business on the 15 th of September 
1818. The Montmartre abattoir occupies 8J English acres; 


I I I I iSl I 1 I I 

rrm-Td n~n 
■ ■■■'■*'''■' 

I I i I I I.' ■ I 


S?, ' & 

I » 1 I 1,1 I I I I 1 
I ■ ' ' "^ ■ ' ■ ' ' 

— 1 I — 




— 1 •— 
— J 1— . 

■ ■ 

t — 

t ^5? , r-M 1 

' ' ■ ' ' ^ ' ■ ' ' 

1. MenilmoDtant Abattoir. 

A. Residence of OfBcUls. 

B. Sheep and Cattle Shedi 

C. Slaujfttter-Hoasea. 

D. Yards to do. 

E. Stored. 

F. Tallow-meUing Hotiaca. 

G. Steam Enefne. 

n. Stable witti Water TankJ. 

I. Dane Pits. 
L. Priviea 
M. Layers for Cattle! 

M^nilmontant, lOJ acres; Crenelle, 7| ; Du Eoule, 5|; 
md Villejuif, 5i. The first two contain each 64 slaughter- 
houses and the same number of cattle-sheds ; the third, 48 ; 
and each of the others 32. The dimensions of each of the 
slaughter-houses is about 29i feet by 13. The general 

arrangement of the abattoirs will be nnderstood fron. the 
preceding plan of that of Mt^niknontant. 

The component parts of a French abattoir are — 1 
Echaudoirs, wnich is the name given by the Paris butcher 
to the particular division allotted to him for the purpose of 
knocking down his beasts ; 2. Bouveries et Bergeriti, the 
places set apart for the animals waiting to be slaughtered, 
where the animals, instead of being killed at once, after a 
long and distressing journey, when their blood is heated and 
their flesh inflamed, are allowed to cool and rest till the 
body is restored to its normal healthy condition ; 3. Fan- 
deurt, or boiling-down establishments ; and, 4. Triperits, 
which are buildings set apart for the cleaning of the tripe 
of bullocks, and the fat, heads, and tripe of sheep and 
calves. Besides .these, a Paris abattoir contains Loyementt 
des a gens, Magasina, Rhervoirs, Voiries, Lieux d'aisance, 
Voules, RemUes et ecuries, Para aux Boeu/s, &c., and is 
provided with an abundant supply of .water. All the abatr 
toirs are under the control of the municipal authoriJies, 
and frequent inspections are made by persons regularly 
appointed for that purpose. 

The abattoirs are situated within the barriers, each at a 
distance of about a mile and tliree-quarters from the heart 
of the city, in districts whereuuman habitations are still 
comparatively few. There are two principal markets from 
which the abattoirs at Paris are supplied, — the one at 
Poissy, about 13 miles to the north-west, and the other at 
Sceaux, about 5 miles and a quarter to the south of the 
city. There are also two markets for cows and calves, 
n.^mely, La Chapelle and Lcs Bemadins. 

The Paris abattoirs were until recently the most perfect 
specimens of their class ; and even now, although in some 
of their details they have been surpassed by the new 
Islington meat market, for their complete and compact 
arrangement they remain unrivalled. 

The example set by Paris in this matter has been fol- 
lowed in a more or less modified form by most of the prin- 
cipal Continental towns, and the system of abattqjrs has 
become almost imiversal in France. 

The condition of London in this important sanitary 
respect was for a long period little more endurable than 
that of Paris before the adoption of its reformed system. 
Smithfield market, situated in a very populous neighbour- 
hood, continued till 1852 to be an abomination to the town 
and a standing reproach to its authorities. No fewer than 
243,537 cattle and 1,455,249 sheep were sold there in 
1852, to be afterwards slaughtered in the crowded courts 
and thoroughfares of the metropolis. But public opinion 
at length forced the Legislature to interfere, and the corpora- 
tion was compelled to abandon Smithfield market and to 
provide a substitute for it elsewhere. 

The site selected was in the suburb of Islington, and the 
designs for the work were prepared by Mr Bunning. The 
first stone was laid March 24, 1854, and the market was 
opened by Prince Albert, June 15, 1855. The Islington 
market is imdoubtedly the most perfect of its kind. It occu- 
pies a space of some 20 acres on the high land near the Pen- 
tonrille prison, and is open to both native and forei;rn cattle, 
excepting beasts from foreign countries under quarantine. 

In connection with the Islington cattle market are a few 
slaughter-houses, half of which were originally public, and 
half rented to private individuals ; but at present they are 
all practically private, and the majority of the cattle sold 
are driven away and kUled at private slaughter-houses. In 
this respect the London system differs from that of Paris ; 
and it may be said for the former that the meat is less 
liable to be spoded by being carted to a distance, and is 
therefore probably delivered in better condition ; but the 
latter secures that great desideratum, the practical eitino- 
tion of isolated slaughter-houses. 


The Edmburgh abattoir, erected in 1851 by the corpora- 
tion, from designs prepared by Mr David Coiisin, the city 
irchitect, > is the best as regards both construction and 
management in the United Kingdom. It occupies an area 
of four acres and a quarter, surrfiunded by a screen-wall, 
from which, 'along the greater part of its length, the build- 
-.r-s are aeoarated by a considerable open space. Opposite 




2, Edinburgh Slaughter-Houses. 

A- Central Eoadwar. 

B. SlaoKhterIng Booiha. 

C CaUle ShcdB. 

li. Enclosed Yards. 

B. WaU. 

P. Steam-j:.nglll& 

G Raised Water Tank. 

H. Tripery. 

I. Pig-slaughterint: House. 

K. Court for Cattle. 

L. Sheda. 

U. Blood Bouse, now Albumen Factory. 

the principal gateway is a double row of buildings, extend- 
ing in a straight line to about 376 feet in length, with a 
Central roadway (marked AA in the annexed plan), 25 feet 
«ride. There are three separate blocks of building on each 
side of the roadway, the central one being 140 feet in 
length, and the others 100 feet each — cross-roads 18 feet' 
Tride separating the blocks. These ranges of building, as 
well as" two smaller blocks that are placed transversely 
behind the eastern central block, are divided into compart- 
ments, numbering 42 in all, and all arranged on the same 
plan. Next the roadway is the slaughtering-booth (BB), 18 
feet by 24, and 20 feet in height, and behind this is a shed 
(CC) 18 feet by 22, where the cattle are kept before being 
slaughtered. AU the cattle are driven into these sheds by 
a back-entrance, through the small enclosed yards (DD). 
The large doors of the booths are hung by balance weights, 
and slide up and down, so as to present no obstruction 
either within the booth or outside. By a series of large 
ventilators along the roof, and by other contrivances, the 
slaughtering-booths are thoroughly ventilated. Great pre- 
cautions have been used to keep rats out of the buildings. 
To effect this, the booths are laid with thick well-dressed 
pavement, resting on a stratum of concrete 12 inches 
thick, and the walla, to the height of 7 feet, are formed of 
solid ashlar; the roadways, too, are laid with concrete, 
and causewayed with dressed whinstone pavement; and the 
drainage consists entirely of glazed earthenware tubes. 

The ground on which the abattoir is built was previously 
connected with a distillery, and contains a well 100 feet 
deep (E), which, with the extensive system of tunnels 
attached to it, provides the establishment with an abundant 
supply of pure water. By means of a steam-engine (F), 
introduced in 1872, the water is pumped up into a raised 
tank (G), whence it is distributed to tho different booths 
and sheds, as well as for scouring the roadways and drains. 
The steam from the engine is utilised in heating water for 
the numerous cast-iron tanks required in the operations of 
cleansing and dressing the tripery (H) and pig slaugh-. (I). By an ingenious arrangement of 
rotary brushes driven by the steam-engine, — the inven- 
tion of Mr. Rutherford, the superintendent, — the tripe is 
dressed in a superior manner, and at greatly less cort 

; than by the tediour and troublesome method o^ ''-ZTii- 

By the Edinburgh Slaughter-Houses 'Act of I'SSO, the 
management) is vested in the city authorities. Booths 
are let at a statutory rent of £8 each per anntmi, and, in 
addition to this, gate-dues are payable for every beast 
entering the establishment. !^ The present rates for tenants 
of booths are l^A for an ox or cow, |d. for a calf or 
pig, and :Jd. for a sheep. Common booths are provided 
for butchers who are not tenants, on payment of double 
gate-dues. The city claims the blood, gut, and manure. 
■ The tripe and feet are dressedjfor the trade without extra 

The blood was formerly collected in large casks, and dis- 
posed of for manufacturing purposes. This necessitated 
the storage of it for several days, causing in warm weather 
a very offensive effluvium. It even happened at times, 
when there was little demand for the commodity, that 
the blood had to be sent down the drains. All nuisance 
is now avoided, and the amount received annually for 
the blood has risen from between £200 and £450 to 
from £800 to £1200, by a contract into which Messrs 
Smith and Forrest of ilanchester have entered with 
the city authorities, to take over the whole blood at 
a fixed price per beast. They have erected extensive 
premises and apparattLS at their own cost, for extracting 
from tho blood the albumen, for which there is great 
demand in calico-nrinting, and for converting the clct into 

In connection with the establishment is a boiling-house, 
where all meat unfit for human food is boUed down and 
destroyed, Tho number of carcases seized by the inspec- 
tor, and sent to the boiling-house, during the 5^ years 
ending with the clos.e of 1872, amounted to 1449, giving 
a weight of upwards of 400,000 pounds. 

Before the erection of these buildings, private slaughter- 
houses were scattered all over the city, often in the most 
populous districts, where, through want of drainage and 
imperfect ventilation, they contaminated the whole neigh- 
bourhood. Since the opening of the public abattoir, all 
private slaughtering, in the city or within a mile of it, is 
strictly prohibited. 

Few of the provincial towns in Great Britain have as yet 
followed the example of London and EdinburgL In some 
instances improvements on the old system have been 
adopted, but Great Britain is still not orily far behind her 
foreign neighbours in respect of abattoirs, but has even 
been excelled by some of her own dependencies. In 
America abattoirs are numerous, and at Calcutta and other 
towns in British India, the meat markets present a very 
creditable appearance from their cleanliness and systematic 
arrangement. (c. N. B.) 

ABAUZIT, FlEMiN, a learned Frenchman, was born 
of Protestant parents at Uzis, in Languedoc; in 1679. 
His father, who was of Arabian descent, died when he 
was but two years of age ; and when, on the revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, the authorities took steps 
to have him educated in the Roman Catholic faith, hi« 
mother contrived his escape. For two years his brother 
and he lived as fugitives in the mountains of the Cevennoa, 
but they at last reached Geneva, where their mother after- 
wards joined them on escaping from the imprisonment in 
which she was held from the time of their flight. Abauzlt'a 
youth was spent in diligent sttidy, and at an early a;/c i:e 
acquired great proficiency in languages, physics, and 
theology. In 1698 he travelled into Holland, and there 
became acquainted with" Bayle, Jurieu, and Basnage. 
Proceeding to England, he was introduced to Sir J^^aao 
Newton, who found in him one of the earliest defcvdera 
of the great truths his discoveries disclcaed to (he -.vorld. 


A B B — A B B 

Sir Isaac corrected in the second edition of his Principia an 
error pointed out by Abauzit. The high estimate Newton 
entertained of his merits appears from the compliment 
he paid to Abauzit, when, sending him the Commercium 
EpUtolwum, ho said, " You are well worthy to judge 
between Leibnitz and me." The reputation of Abauzit 
induced William III. to request him to settle in England, 
but ho did not accept the king's offer, preferring to return 
to Geneva. There from 1715 he rendered valuable assistance 
to a society that had been formed for translating the New 
Testament into French. Ho declined the oiler of the 
chair of philosophy in the University in 1723, but ac- 
cepted, in 1727, the sinecure office of librarian to the city 
Df his adoption. Hero he died at a good old ago, in 1707. 
Abauzit was a man of great learning and of wonderful 
versatility. The varied knowledge he possessed wan so 
well digested and arranged in his retentive mind as to be 
always within his reach for immediate use. Whatever 
chanced to bo discussed, it used to bo said of Abauzit, as 
of Professor WhewcU of our own times, that ho seemed to 
have made it a subject of particular study. Eousseau, 
who was jealously sparing of his praises, addressed to 
him, in his NouvelU Ilelohe, a fine pancgjTic ; and when a 
stranger flatteringly told Voltaire he had come to see a great 
man, the philosopher asked him if he had seen Abauzit. 
Little remains of the lalxmrs of this intellectual giant, his 
heirs having, it is said, destroyed the papers that came into 
their possession, because their religious opinions differed 
from those of Abauzit. A few theological, archaeological, 
and astronomical articles from his pen appeared in the 
Journal Hdvetique and elsewhere, and he contributed 
several papers to Rousseau's Dictionary of Music. A 
work ho wrote throwing doubt on the canonical authority 
of the Apocalypse was answered — conclusively, as Abauzit 
himself allowed — by Dr Leonard Twells. He edited, and 
made valuable additions to Spon's History of Geneva. A 
collection of his wr'^ings was published at Geneva in 
1770, and another at London in 1773. Some of them 
(vere translated into English by Dr Harwood (1770, 1774). 
Information regarding Abauzit will be found in Senebier's 
Ilistoire Litteraire de Gaieve, Harwood's Miscellanies, and 
Orme's JBibllotheca Biblica, 1834. 

ABB, a town of Yemen in Arabia, situated on a moun- 
tain in the midst of a very fertile covintry, 73 miles N.E. 
of Mocha. Lat. 13° 58' N., long. 44° 15' E. It contains 
about 800 houses, and is surrounded by a strong waU ; 
the streets are veil paved ; and an aqueduct from a neigh- 
bouring mountain supplies it with water, which is received 
in a reservoir in front of the crincipal mosque. The 
population is about 5000. 

ABBADJE, JjVJIEs, an eminent Protestant divine, 
was born- at Nay in Bern about 1657. His parents 
were poor, but through the kindness of discerning friends, 
he received an excellent education. He prosecuted his 
studies with such success, that on completing his course 
at Sedan, though only seventeen year." of age, he had con-> 
ferred on him the degree of doctor in theology. After 
spending some years iu Berlin as minister of a French 
Protestant church, ho accompanied Marshal Schomberg, 
in 1683, to England, and became minister of the French 
church in the Savoy, London. His strong attachment to 
the cause of King Wdliam appears in his elaborate 
defence of the Revolution, as well as in his history of 
the conspiracy of 1696, the materials of which were 
furnished,- it is said, by the s-.cretarics of state. The 
king promoted him to the deanery of KUlaloe in Ireland. 
He died in London in 1727. Abbaciie was a man of 
great ability and an eloquent prcach'.r, but is best known 
by his religious treatises, several of wuich were translated 
from the original French into other languages, and had a 

wide ciiculation all over Europe. The most important of 
these are Traite de la Verite de la Jieligion Chrilienne ; 
its continuation, Traite de la Diviniti de Jisus-Chriit ; 
and L'Art de se connaitre Soyviime. 

ABBAS I., surnamed Tat: Gheat, one of tht most 
celebrated of the sovereigns of Persia, was the youngest 
son of Shah Jlohammed Khodabendch. After heading a 
successful rebellion against liis father, and causing one of 
his brothers (or, as some say, both) to be aissassiiatcd, he 
obiaiucd possession of the throne at the early ago of 
eighteen (1580). Determined to raise the fallen fortunes 
of hii counti-y, he first directed his efforts against the 
predate y Uzbeks, who occupied and harassed Khorasan. 
After a long and severe struggle, he defeated them in a 
great battle near Herat (1597), and drove thcri out of his 
dominions. In the wars he carried on with the Turks 
during nearly the whole of his reign, hia successes were 
numerous, and ho acquired or regained a large extent of 
territory. By the victory he gained at Bassorah (1605), 
he extended his empire beyond the Euphrates; A chimed L 
was forced to code Shinvan and Kurdistan in 1611 ; the 
united armies of the Turks and Tartars were completely 
defeated near Sultanieh in 1C18, and Abbas made peace 
on very favourable terms; and on theTurks renewing tliewar, 
Baghdad fell into his hands after a year's siege (1623). 
In the same year ho took the island of Ormuz from the 
Portuguese, by the assistance of the BritisK When ho died 
in 1C28, his dominions reached from the Tigris to the Indus. 
Abbas distinguished himself, not only by his successes 
in arms, and by the magnificence of his court, but also by 
his reforms iu the administration of his kingdom. He 
encouraged commerce, and, by constructing h'ghways and 
building bridges, did much to facilitate it. To foreigners, 
especially Christians, ho showed a spirit of tolerance ; two 
Englishmen, Sir Anthony and Sir Robert Shirley, were 
admitted to hie confidence, and seem to have had much 
influence over him. His fame is tarnished, however, by 
numerous deeds of tyranny and cruelty. His own famOy, 
especially, suffered fromlliis fits of jealousy; his eldest son 
was slain, and the eyes of his other children were put out, 
by his orders. 

ABBAS MIRZA (6. 1785, d. 183?), Prince of Persia, 
third sen of the Shah Feth Ali, was destined by his father 
to succeed him in the government, because of his mother's 
connection with the royal tribe of the Khadjars. Ha led 
various expeditions against the Russians, but generally 
^-ithout success (1803, 1813, 1826). By a treaty made 
between Russia and Persia in 1828, the right of Abbas 
to the succession was recognised. When the Russian 
deputies were murdered by the Persian populace in 1829, 
Abbas was sent to St Petersburg, where he received a 
hearty welcome from the Czar, and made himself a 
favourite by his courtesy and literary taste. He formed a 
design against Herat, but died shortly after the siege had 
been opened by his son, who succeeded Feth Ali as the 
Shah Mohammed Mirza. He was truthful^a rare quality 
iu an Eastern — plain in di-ess and stylb of living, and fond 
of literature. 

ABBASSIDES, the caliphs of Baghdad, the most 
famous flynasty of the sovereigns of the Mahometan or 
Saracen empire. They derived their name and descent 
from Abbas (b. 566, d. 652 a.d.), the uncle and adviser of 
Maiomet, and succeeded the dynasty of the Ommiads, th« 
caliphs of Damascus. Early in the 8th century the 
famij/ of Abbas had acquired great influence from their 
near relationship to the Prophet ; and Ibrahim, the fourth 
in descent from Abbas, supported by the province of 
Khorasan, obtained several successes over the Ommiad 
armies, but was captured and put to death by the Caliph 
Merwan (747). Ibrahim's brother, Abul-Abbn.s. whom ie 

A B 13 — A B B 

had named his heir, assumed the title of caliph, and, by a 
decisive victory near the river Zab (750), effected the over- 
throw of the Ommiad dynasty. Merwan fled to Egypt, 
but was pursued and put to death, and the vanquished 
family was treated with a severity which gained for Abul- 
Abbas the surname of Al-Safiah, the Blood-ahedder. 
From this time the house of Abbas was fully established 
in the government, but the Spanish provinces were lost to 
the empire by the erection of an independent caliphate of 
Cordova, under Abderrahman. 

On the death of Abul-Abbas, Almansur succeeded to 
the throne, and founded Baghdad as the seat of empire. 
He and his son llohdi waged war successfully against the 
Turkomans and Greeks of Asia Minor; but from this time 
the rule of the Abbassides is marked rather by the 
development of the liberal arts than by extension of 
territory. The strictness of 'the Mohammedan religion was 

- relaxed, and the faithful yielded to the seductions of luxury. 
The caliphs Harun Al-Rashid (786-809) and Al-Mamun 
,(813-833) attained a worId--iride celebrity by their gorgeous 
palaces, their vast treasures, and their brilliant and nume- 
rous equipages, in all which their splendour contrasted 
strikingly with the poverty of European sovereigns. The 
former is known as one of the heroes of the Arabian 

_ Nights ; the latter more worthily stiU as a liberal patron 
of literature and science. It 15 a mistake, however, to 
look in the rule of these caliphs for the lenity of modern 
civilisation. " No Christian government," says HaUam, 
" except perhaps that of Constantinople, exhibits such a 
series of tyrants as the caliphs of Baghdad, if deeds of 
blood, wrought through unbridled passion or jealous 
policy, may challenge tJie name of tyranny." 

The territory of the Abbassides soon suffered dismem- 
berment, and their power began to decay. Eival sove- 
reignties (Ashlabites, Edrisites, itc.) arose in Africa, and 
an independent government was constituted in Khorasan 
(820), under the Taherites. In the West, again, the Greeks 
encroached upon the possessions of the Saracens in Asia 
Minor. Ruin, however, came from a less civilised race. The 
caliphs had continually been waging war with the Tartar 

_ hordes of Turkestan, and many captives taken in these wars 
•were- dispersed throughout the empire. Attrec'.ed by their 
bravery and fearing rebeUion among his subjecJs, Motassera 
(833-842), the founder of Samarah, and successful oppo- 
nent of the Grecian forces under Theophilus, formed body- 
guards of the Turkish prisoners, who became from that 
time the real governors of the Saracen empire. Mota- 
wakkel, son of Moto.s3em, was assassinated by them in the 
palace (861) ; and succeeding caliphs became mere puppets 
in their hands. Radhi (934-941) was compelled by the 
disorganised condition of his kingdom to delegate to 
Mohammed ben Rayek (936 a.d.), under the title of Emir- 
al-Omara, commander of the commanders, the government 
of the army and the other functions of the caliphate. 
Province after province proclaimed itself independent ; 
the caliph's, rule became narrowed to Baghdad and its 
vicinity ; and the house of 'Abbas lost its power in the 
East for ever, when Hulagu, prince of the Mongols, set 
Baghdad on fire, and slew Motassem, the reigning caliph 
(20th Feb. 1258). The Abbassides continued to hold a 
semblance of power in the merely nominal caUphato of 
Egypt, and feebly attempted to recover their ancient seat. 
The last of them, ilotawakkel III., was taken by Sultan 
Selim I., the conqueror of Egj-pt, to Constantinople, and 
detained ther^ for some time as a prisoner. He afterwards 
l-eturned to Egypt, and died at Cairo a pensionary of the 
Ottoman government, in 1538. 

ABBE is the French word corresponding to Abbot, but, 
from .the middle of the sixteenth century to the time of 
S,he French Ilcvolution, the term had a wider application. 

xne assumption by a numerous class of the name and 
style of abb6 appears to have originated in the right con- 
ceded to the King of France, by a concordat between Pope 
Leo X. and Francis I., to appoint ahbes commendatairei to 
225 abbeys, that is, to most of the abbeys in France. 
This kind of appointment, whereby the living was com- 
mended to some one till a proper election could take 
place, though ostensibly provisional, reaUy put the nomi- 
nee in full and permanent possession of the benefice. 
He received about one-third of the revenues of the abbey, 
but had no share in its government, the charge of the 
house being intrusted to a resident officer, the priea' 
daustral. The ahhes commendalaires were not necessarily 
priests ; the papal bull required indeed that they should 
fake orders within a stated time after their appointment, 
but there seems to have been no -.lifficulty in procuring 
relief from that obligation. The , expectation of obtaining 
these sinecures drew young men towards the Church in 
considerable numbers, and the class of abb^s so formed — 
abbes de cour they were sometimes called, and sometimes 
(ironically) abbts de sainte esperance, abb^s of St Hope — 
came to hold a recognised position, that perhaps proved as 
great an attraction as the hope of preferment. The con- 
nection many of them had with the Church was of the 
slenderest kind, consisting mainly in adopting the name 
of abb^, after a remarkably moderate course of theo- 
logical study ; practising celibacy ; and wearing a distinc- 
tive dress — a short dark -violet coat with narrow coUar. 
Being men of presumed learning and undoubted leisure, 
many of the class found admission to the houses of the 
French nobility .is tutors or advisers. Nearly every great 
family had its abbd. As might be imagined from the 
objectless sort of life the class led, many of the abb& were 
of indifferent character ; but there are not a few instaijices 
of abb& attaining eminence, both in political life and in 
the waits of literature and science. The Abbe Siey^s may 
be taken as a prominent example of the latter type. 

ABBEOKUTA, or .jIbeokuta, a town of West Africa 
in the Yoruba Country, situated in N. lat. 7° 8', and 
E. long, y 25', on the Ogun River, about 50 miles north 
of Lagos, in a direct line, or 81 miles by water. It lies 
in a beautiful and fertile country, the surface of which is 
broken by masses of grey granite. Like most African 
towns, Abbeokuta is spread over an extensive area, being 
surrounded by mud walls, 13 miles in extent. The houses 
are also of mud, and the streets mostly narrow and 
filthy. There are numerous markets in which native pro- 
ducts and articles of European manufacture are exposed 
for sale. Palm-oil and sh'ea,-butter are the chief articles of 
export, and it is expected that the cotton of the country 
will become a valuable article of commerce. The slave 
trade and human sacrifices have been abolished ; but not- 
withstanding the efforts of English and American mission- 
aries, the natives are stUl idle and degraded. The state 
called Egbaland, of which Abbeokuta is the capital, 
has an area of about 3000 square miles. Its progress has 
been much hindered by frequent wars with the king of 
Dahomey. Population of the town, about 150,000; of the 
state or adjacent territory, 50,000. (See Burton's Abheo- 
kuta and the Cameroon Mountains, 2 vols.) 

ABBESS, the female superior of an abbey or convent 
of nuns. The mode of election, position, rights, and 
aiithority of an abbess, correspond generally with those 
of an abbot. The office was elective, the choicfi being by 
the secret votes of the sisters from their own body. The 
abbess was solemnly admitted to her office by episcopal 
benediction, together with the conferring of a staff and 
pectoral, and held it for life, though liable to be deprived 
for misconduct. The Council of Trent fixes the qualifyin| 
age at forty, with eight years of profession." Abbesses had 

I. a 


A B B — A B B 

a right to demand absolute obedience of their nuns, over 
whom thoy exercised discipline, extending even to the 
power of expulsion, subject, however, to the bishop. As 
a female an abbess was incapable of performing the 
spiritual functions of the priesthood belonging to an 
abbot. She could not ordain, confer the veil, nor excom- 
municate. In the eighth century abbesses were censured 
for usurping priestly powers by presuming to give the 
veil to virgins, and to confer benediction and imposition 
of hands on men. In England they attended ecclesiastical 
councils, e.g. that of Becanficld in C94, where they signed 
before the presbyters. 

By Celtic usage abbesses presided over joint-houses of 
monks and nuns. This custom accompanied Celtic nioi;- 
ostie missions to France and Spain, and even to Rome 
itself. At a later period, a.d. 1115, Robert, the founder 
of Fonto^Taud, committed the government of the whole 
order, men as well as women, to a female superior. 

Marteno asserts that abbesses formerly confessed nuns, 
but that their undue inquisitiveness rendered it necessary 
to forbid the practice. 

The dress of an English abbess of the 12th century 
consisted of a long white tunic with close sleeves, and a 
black overcoat as long as the tunic, with largo and loose 
sleeves, the hood covering the head completely. The 
abbesses of the Hth and 15th centuries had adopted 
secular habits, and there was little to distinguish them 
from their lay sisters. (e. v.) 

ABBETILLE, a city of France, in the department of 
the Somme, is situated on the Fiivcr Somme, 12 miles 
from its mouth in the English Channel, and 25 miles 
•N.W. of Amiens. It lies in a pleasant and fertile valley, 
and is built partly on an island, and partly on both sides 
of the river. The streets are narrow, and the houses are 
mostly picturesque old structures, built of wood, with 
many quaint decaying gables and dark archways. The 
town is strongly fortified on Vauban's system. It ha? a 
tribunal and chamber of commerce. The most remarkable 
edifice is the Church of St Wolfran, which was erected in 
the time of Louis XIL Although the original design was 
not completed, enough was built to give a good idea of 
the splendid structure it was intended to erect. The 
facade is a magnificent specimen of the flamboyant Gothic 
style, and is adorned by rich tracery, while the western 
front is flanked by two Gothic towers. A cloth manufac- 
tory wa.s established here by Van Robais, a Dutchman, 
under the patronage of the minister Colbert, as early as 
16C9 ; and since that time Abbeville has contin-ieJ to be 
one of the most thriving manufacturing towns in France. 
Besides black cloths of the best quality, there are produced 
velvets, cottons, linens, serges, sackings, hosiery, pack- 
thread, jewellery, eoap, and glass-wares. It has also 
establishments for spinning wool, print-works, bleaching- 
works, tanneries, a paper manufactory, die. ; and being 
situated in the centre of a populous district, it has a con- 
siderable trade with the surrounding country. .Vessels of 
from 200 to 300 tons come up to the town at high-water. 
Abbeville is a station on the Northern Railway, and is also 
connected with Paris and Belgium by canals. Fossil 
remains of gigantic mammalia now extinct, as well as the 
rude flint weapons of pre-historic man, have been dis- 
covered in the geological deposits of the neighbourhood. 
A treaty was concluded here in 1259 between Henry 
TTT of England and Louis IX. of France, by which the 
prtjvince of Guienne was ceded to the English. PoDula- 
tion, 20,058. 

ABBEY, a monastery, or conventual establishment, 
under the government of an abbot or an abbess. A 
priory oidy differed from an abbey in that the superior 
V)ure the name of prior instead of abbot. This was the 

case m all the English conventual cathedrals, e.g., Cantflr- 
buiy, Ely, Nor\vich, kc, where the archbishop or bishop 
occupied the abbot's place, the superior of the moiia-stery 
being termed prior. Other priories were originally off- 
shoots from the larger abbeys, to the abbots of which they 
continued subordinate ; but in later times the actual dis- 
tinction between abbeys and priories was lost. 

Reserving for the article iloNASTicisM the history of the 
rise and progress of the monastic system, its objects, benefits, 
evils, its decline and fall, we propose in this article to con- 
fine ourselves to the structural plan and arrangement of 
conventual establishments, and a description of the various 
buildings of which these vast piles were composed. 

The earliest Christian monastic communities ivith which Cell* 
we are acquainted consisted of groups of cells or huts 
collected about a common centre, which was usually tho 
abode of some anchorite celebrated for superior holiness or 
singular asceticism, but vi'ithout any attempt at orderly 
arrangement. The formation of such communities in tho 
East docs not date from the introduction of Christianity. 
The example had been already set by tho Essenes in Judca 
and' the Therapeutse in Egypt, who may be considered tho 
prototypes of the industrial and meditative communities of 

In the earliest age of Christian monasticism the a-sceties 
were accustomed to live singly, independent of one another, 
at no great distance from somo village, supporting them- 
selves by the labour of their own hands, and distributing 
the surplus after the supply of their own scantj- wants to 
the poor. Increasing rehgious fervour, aided by persecu- 
tion, di'ove them further and further away from the abodes 
of men into mountain solitudes or lonely deserts. The 
deserts of Egypt swarmed with the cells or huts of theso 
anchorites. Antony, who had retired to the Egj-ptiau 
Thebaid during the persecution of JIaximin, a.d. 312, was 
the most celebrated among them for his austerities, his 
sanctity, and his power as an exorcist. His iame collected 
round him a host of followers, emulous of his sanctity. 
The deeper he withdrew into tA wilderness, the more 
numerous his di.sciplca became. They refused to be sepa- 
rated from him, and built their cells round that of their 
spiritual father. Thus arose the first monastic commnnjtYj 
consisting of anchorites living eai.'h in his own little dwell- 
ing, united together under one superior. Antony, as 
Neander remarks (Church History, vuL iiL p. 31G, Clark's 
Trans.), " without any onscious design of his own, had 
become the founder of n new mode cf living in common, 
CcSDobitisra." By degrees order was introduced in the 
groups of huts. They were arranged in lines like the tents 
in an encampment, or the house.i in a street. From this 
arrangement these lines of single cells lame to be known 
as Laurae, Aavpai, " street's" or '' lanes." 

The real founder of coenobian monasteries in ti.e moflern Cdnobta 
sense was Pachomius, an Egyptian of the beginning of the 
4th century. The first community established bj him was 
at Tabennie, an island of the. Nile in Upper Ej.'ypt. Eight 
others were founded in his lifetime, numbering 1000 monks. 
Within 50 years from his death his societies cculd reckob 
50,000 members. These coenobia resembled villages, peopled 
b'- a hard-working religious community, all of one sex. 
The buildings were detached. sniaD, and of the humblest 
character. Each cell or hut, according to Sozomen (H. E. 
iii. 14), contained three monks. They took their chief 
meal in a common refectory at 3 p.sf., up to which hour 
they usually fasted. They ate in silence, with hoods ao 
drawn over their faces that they could see nothing but what 
was on the table before them. The monks spent aU thft 
time, not devoted to religious services or study, in manual 
labour. PaUadius, who -visited the Egyptian monasteries 
about the close of the 4th century, foancf among tbc 300 




members of the Ccenobimn of Panopolis, ^der the 
Pachomian rule, 15 tailors, 7 smiths, 4 carpenters, 12 
camel-drivers, and 15 tanners. Each separate coromunity 
had its' own ceconomns, or steward, who was subject to 
in chief ceconomus stationed at the head estabhshment. AU 
the produce of the monks' labour was- committed to him, 
and by him shipped to Alexandria. The money idised by 
the sale was expended in the purchase of stores for the 
support of the communities, and what was over was devoted 
to charity. Twice in the year the superiors of the S2veral 
coenobia met at the chief monastery, under the presidency 
of an Archimandrite (" the chief of the fold," from /idvS-ia, a 
fold), and at the last meeting gave in reports of their 
administration for the year. 

The ccenobia of Syria belonged to tiie Pachomian institu- 
tion. We learn many detaUs concerning those in the 
,V;cinity of Antioch from Chrysostom's writings. The 
monks lived in separate huts, KoAv/Sat, forming a religious 
hamlet on the mountain side. They were subject to an 
abbot, and observed a common rule. (They had no refec- 
tory, but ate their common meal, of bread and water only, 
when the day's labour was over, reclining on strewn grass, 
Bometimes out of doors.) Four times in the day they 
joined in prayers and psahns^ 

The necessity for defence from hostile attacks, economy 
of space, and convenience of access from one part of the 
community to another, by degrees dictated a more compact 
and orderly arrangement of the buildings of a monastic 
ooenobium. Large piles of • building were erected, with 
strong outside waUs, capable of resisting the assaults of an 
enemy, within which all the necessary edifices were ranged 
Vound one or more open courts, usually surrounded with 
cloisters. ; The usual Eastern arrangement is exemplified 
i.n the plan 6t the convent of Santa Laura, Mt. Athos 
(Laura, the designation of a monastery generally, being 

- converted into a female saint). 

K. Gatevray. 

B. Chapela. 

C. Gucst-liuirse. 

D. Church. 

E. Cloister. 

F. Fountain. 

G. Refectory 
H. Kitchen. 
L CeUs. 

^. Storehouses. 
L. Postern Gate. 
U. Toner. 

Monasteiy of ^anta Latira, Moui«t Athos (Lenoir). 

^ITiis monastery, like the Oriental monasteries generally 
<8 surrounded by a strong and lofty blank stone wall, 
enclosing an area, of betv;een 3 and 4 acrea The longer 
jide. extends to a length of about 500 feet. . There is only 
one main entrance, tm the north side (A), defended by 
three separate iron doors. Near the entrance is a large 
tower (M), a constant feature in the monasteries of the 
Levant. ■ ■ There is a small postern gate at (L.) The 

enceinte comprises two large open courts, gniroundeS with 
buildings connected with cloister galleries of wood or stone. 
The outer court, which is much the larger, contains the 
granaries and storehouses (K), and the kitchen (H), and 
other offices connected with the refectory (G). Imme- 
diately adjacent to the gateway is a two-storeyed guest- 
hfluse, opening from a cloister (C). The inner court is 
surrounded by a cloister (EE), from which open the monks' 
cells (II). In the centre of this court stands the cathoUcon 
or conventual church, a square building with an apse of 
the cruciform domical Byzantine type, approached by a 
domed narthex. In front of the church stands a marble 
fountain (F), covered by a dome supported on columns. 
Opening from the western side of the cloister, but actually 
standing in the outer court, is the refectory (G), a large 
cruciform building, about 100 feet each way, decorated 
within with frescoes of saints. At the upper end is a semi- 
circular recess, recalling the Triclinium of the Lateran 
Palace at Kome, in which is placed the seat of the Iltgu- 
menos or abbot. This apartment is chiefly used as a hall 
of meeting, the Oriental monks usually taking their meals 
in their separate cells. St Laura is exceeded in magnitude 
by the Convent of Vatopede, also on Mount Athos. This '.'atopede 
enormous establishment covers at least 4 acres' of ground, 
and contains so many separate buildings within its massive 
walls that it resembles a fortified town. It lodges above 
300 monks, and the establishment of the Hegumenos is 
described as resembling the cqurt of a petty sovereign 
prince. The immense refectory, of the same cruciform 
shape as that of St Laura. wiU accommodate 500 guests at 
its 24 marble tables. 

The annexed plan of a Coptic monastery, from Lenoir 
shows us a church of three 
aisles, with cellular apses, and 
two ranges of cells on either 
side of an oblong gallery. 

Monasticism in the West 
owes its extension and de- 
velopment to Benedict of 
Nursia (bom a.d. 480). His 
rule was diffused with miracul- 
ous rapidity from the parent 
foundation on Monte Cassino 
through the whole of Western 
Europe, and every country wit- 
nessed the erection of monas- 
teries far exceeding anything 
that had. yet been seen in spaci-' 
ousnesa and splendour. Few 
great towns in Italy were without their Benedictine convent, Bc-nedie^ 
and they quickly rose in all the great centres of population in tine. 
England, France, and Spain. The number of these monas-' 
teries founded between A.D. 620 and 700 is amazing. 
Before the Councd of Constance, a.d. 1415, no fewer than 
15,070 abbeys had been established of this order alone. 
The Benedictine rule, spreading with the vigour of a young 
and powerful Hfe, absorbed into itself the older monastic 
foundations, whose discipline had too usually become dis- 
gracefully relaxed. In the words of Milman {Latin 
Christiani1y,-^o\. i p. 425, note x.), "The Benedictine 
rule was universally received, even in the older monas- 
teries of Gaul, Britain, Spain, and throughout the West,' 
not as that of a rival order (all rivaliy 'was of later 
date), but- IV a more full and perfect rule of the monas- 
tic life." Not only, therefore, were ' new oionasterics 
founded, but already existing wire pulled down, 
and rebuilt to adapt them to the requirements of ths 
pew rule. 

The buildings of a Benedictine abbey were uniformly 
arranged aftar ono plan, modified where necessary (as at. 

Plan of Coptic Monastery, 

A Karthex. 

B. Church. 

C. Corridor, with cello on each sido. 

D. staircase. 




St Call, 

Durham and Worcester, whore the monasteries stand close 
to the steep bank of a river), to accommodate the arrange- 
ment to local circumstances. 

Wo have no existing examples of the earlier monasteries 
of the Benedictine order. They have all yielded to the 
ravages of time and the violence of man. But we have 
fortunately preserved to us an elaborate plan of the great 
Swiss monastery of St Gall, erected about A.D. 820, which 
puts us in possession of the whole arrangements of a 
monastery of the first class towards the early part of the 
9th century. This curious and interesting plan has been 
made the siibject of a memoir both by Keller (Zurich, 
1844) and by Professor Willis (Arch. Journal, 1848, vol. 
7. pp. 8G-117). To the latter we are indebted for the 




n r-| 

T r 



• 1 i 

"T^^/r ""I'l" 

1 1 
1 1 

U _J ' 1 

f -!7 r^'i? 


Ground-plan o( St Gall,- 

FlBll Altar. 
A lir of Si r.TiL 
Altar of St I'cfcr. 
. Towers. 


MoKasTic BciLDiNoa. 
O. Cloister. 

H. Calefactory, wUh Dormltor)- rxT. 
L Necessary. 
J. Abbot's house 
K. Rcfeotor/. 
U Kltcheo. 

U. Bakelioiuo and Brcwliouse. 
N. CelJai. 
O. Parlour. 

P, Scrtptot lum. witli Mbraiy over. 
Pj. Sacristy and Vestry. 
Q. House of Novices— 1. Cbapcl; 2. 

Refectory; 3. Calcfactoiy; 4. 

I'ormltory; 6. Waster's Room; 

6. Ctiambcrs. 
B. Inflrmary— 1-6 as. above in the 

House of Novicca 
8. Doctor's House. 
T. Phyolc Garden. 

U. Houae for blood-lettlnd. 
\'. School. 

W. Scfaoolinnster's Lodpinps. 
-\i.\|. Guest-house for those 

suf-erlor rank. 
XgXj. Guc&t-housc I'cr the poor. 
Y. Guest-chamber for stronge tnonka. 

Mk-mal Dkpakiuext. 
Z. Factory. 
a. Thr€3h:nr-f.oor. 
6. Workshops. 
t. e. .Mills. 

d. Kiln. 

e. Stablffi 

/*. Cowsheds. 

?. Goatsbeds. 

A. ?'.g-st!cs. t. Sheep.folda. 

*, *, t. Servar.ts' an-j workiuen's 

sleeping chaiubeM 
/. Gardener'a hoitso. 
m, m. Hen and DucJl house, 
n. Poaltry-keeper'a bouse. 
o. Garden. 
/I. Cemetery. 

fl. Bakehouse fir Sacramental Bread, 
r. Unnamed in Plan. 
J. t. a. Eltchena 
t, 1. 1. Batha 

Rubstance of the following description, as well as for the 
above woodcut, reduced from his elucidated transcript of 

the original preserved in the archives of the convent 
The general appearance of the convent is that of a town of 
isolated houses with streets running between them. It is 
evidently planned in compliance with the Benedictine rule, 
which enjoined that, if possible, the monastery should contain 
within itself every necessary of life, as well as the build- 
ings more intimately connected with the religious and 
social life of its inmates. It should compi'se a mill, a 
bakehouse, stables and cow-houses, together with accom- 
modation for carrying on all necessary mechanical art* 
within the walls, so as to obviate the necessity of the 
monks going outside its limits. The general distribution 
of the buildings may be thua described : — The church, 
with its cloister to the south, occupies the centre of a 
quadrangular area, about 430 feet square. The build- 
ings, as in all great monasteries, are distributed into 
groups. The church forms the nucleus, as the centre of 
the religiou-s life of the community. In closest connec- 
tion with the church is the group of buildings appropriated 
to the monastic life and its daily requirements — the refec- 
tory for eating, the dormitory for sleeping, the common 
room for social intercourse, the chapter-house for religious 
and disciplinary conference. These essential elements^ of 
monastic life are ranged about a cloister court, surrounded 
by a covered arcade, affording communication sheltered from 
the eltjments, between the various buildings. The infirmary 
for sick monks, ■with the physician's house and physic gar- 
den, lies' to the east. In the same group with the infirmary 
is the school for the novices. The outer school, with its 
head-master's house against the opposite wall of the church, 
stanils outside the convent enclosure, in close proximity 
CO the abbot's house, that he might have a constant eyo 
nver them. The buildings devoted to hospitahty are divided 
into three groups, — one for the reception of distinguished 
guests, another for monks ■visiting the monaster}-, a third 
for poor travellers and pilgrims. The first and third are 
placed to the right and left of the common entrance of the 
monastery, — the hospitium for distinguished guests being 
placed on the north side of the church, not far from the ab- 
bot's house; that for the poor on the south side next to the 
farm buildings. The monks are lodged in a guest-house 
built against the north ■n'all of the church. The group of 
buildings connected ■with the material wants of the esta- 
blishment is placed to the south and west of the church, 
and is distinctly separated from the monastic buildings. 
The kitchen, buttery, and offices, are reached by a passage 
from the west end of the refectory, and are connected 'with 
the bakehouse and brewhouse, ■nhich are placed still fur- 
ther away. The ■R-hole of the southern and western tides 
is devoted to workshops, stables, and farm-buildings. The 
btuJdinga, -with some exceptions, seem to have been of one 
story only, and all but the church were probably erected 
of wooii The whole includes thirty-three separate blocks. 
The church (D) is cruciform, with a nave of nine bays, and 
a semicircular apse at either extremity. That to the west 
is surrounded by a semicircular colonnade, leaving an open 
'■ Paradise" (E) between it and the wall of the church. 
The ■whole area is divided by screens into various chapels. 
The high altar (A) stands immediately to the east of the 
transept, or ritual choir; the altar of St Paul (B) in the 
eastern, and that of St Peter (C) in the western apse. A 
cylindrical campanile stands detached from the church on 
either side of the western apse (FF\ 

The " cloister court ' (G) on the south side of the nave 
of the church has on its east side the " pisalis" or " calefac- 
tory" (H),the common sitting-room of the brethren, tvarmed 
by flues beneath the floor. On this side in later monas- 
teries we invariably find the chapter-house, the absence of 
which in this plan is somewhat surprising. It appears, 
however from the inscriptions on the plan itself, .that the 




north wait of the cloisters served for the purposes ot a chap- 
ter-house, and was fitted up with benches on the long sides. 
Above the calefactory is the " donnitory" opening into the 
seiith transept of the church, to enable the monks to attend 
the nocturnal services with readiness. A passage at the 
other end leads to the " necessarium " (I), a portion of the 
monastic buil'dings always planned with extreme care. The 
southern side is occupied by the "refectory" (K), from the 
west end of which by a vestibule the kitchen (L) is reached. 
This is separated from the main buildings of the monastery, 
and is connected by a long passage with a building containing 
the bakehouse and brewhouse (M), and tho sleeping-rooms of 
the servants. The upper story of the refectory is the "ves- 
tiarium," where the ordinary clothes of the brethren were 
kept On the western side of the cloister i? another two 
story building (N). The cellar is below, and the larder and 
store-room above. Between this building and the church, 
opening by one door into the cloisters, and by another to the 
outer part of the monastery area, is the " parlour" for inter- 
views with visitors from the external world (O). On the 
eastern side of the north transept is tho "scriptorium" 
or writing-room (PJ, with the hbrary ahore. 

To the east of the church stands a group of buildings 
comprising two miniature conventual establishments, each 
complete in itself. Each has a covered cloister surrounded 
by the usual buildings, i.e., refectory, dormitory, &a, and 
a church or chapel on one side, placed back to back. A 
detached building belonging to each contains a bath and a 
kitchen. One of these diminutive convents is appropriated 
to the " oblati" or novices (Q), the other to the sick monks 
as an "infirmary" (R). 

The "residence of the physicians" (S) stands contiguous 
lo the infirmary, and the physic garden (T) at the north-east 
comer of the monastery. Besides other rooms, it contains 
a drug store, and a chamber for those who are dangerously 
ill. The " house for blood-letting and purging" adjoins it 
on the west (U). 

The "outer school," to the north of the convent area, con- 
tains a large school-room divided across the middle by a 
screen or partition, and surrounded by fourteen Little rooms, 
termed the dwellings of the scholars. The head-master's 
house (W) is opposite, built against the side wall of the 
church. The two " hospitia" or "guest-houses" for tho 
entertainment of strangers of difi'erent degrees (Xj Xj) 
comprise a large common chamber or refectory in the 
centre, surrounded by sleeping apartments. Each is pro- 
vided with its own brewhouse and bakehouse, and that for 
travellers of a superior order has a kitchen and store-room, 
with bed-rooms for their sen'ants, and stables for their 
horses. There is also an " hospitium" for strange monks, 
abutting on the north wall of the church (Y). 

Beyond the cloister, at the extreme verge of the con- 
vent area to the south, stands the " factoi-y" (Z), contain- 
ing workshops for shoemakers, saddlers (or shoem.'ikers, 
tellarii), cutlers and grinders, trencher-makers, tanners, cur- 
riers, fullers, smiths, and goldsmiths, with their dwellings 
in the rear. On this side we also find the fann-buddings, 
the large granary and threshing-floor (a), mills (c), malt- 
house (d). Facing tho west are the stables (f), oi-sheds 
(/), goat-stables (y), piggeries (A), sheep-folds (t), together 
with the servants' and labourers' quarters (i). At the .south- 
east corner we find the hen and duck house, and poultry- 
yard (m), and the dwelling of the keeper (n). Hard by is 
the kitchen garden (o), the beds bearing the names of the 
vegetables growing in them, onions, garlic, celery, lettuces, 
poppy, carrots, cabbages, &c., eighteen in all. In the same 
way the physic garden presents the names of.'the medicinal 
herbs, and the cemetery fp) those of the trees, apple, pear, 
plum, quincfe, &c., planted there. 

It is evident, from this most curious and valuable docu- 

ment, that by the 9th century monastic estabusmnenta 
had become wealthy, and had acquired considerable import- 
ance, and were occupying a leading place in education, 
agriculture, and the industrial arts. Tho influence such an 
institution would difl'use through a wide district would be 
no less beneficial than powerfui 

The curious bird's eye view of Canterbury Cathedral and Canter- 
its annexed conventual buildings, taken about 1 1 65, pre- bury, 
served in the Great Psalter in the hbrary of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, as elucidated by Professor Willis with such 
admirable skill and accurate acquaintance with the existing 
remains,' exhibits the plan of a great Benedictine monas- 
tery in the 12th century, and enables us to compare it with 
that of the 9th, as seen at St Gall. We see in both the 
Sams general principles of arrangement, which indeed be- 
long to all Benedictine monasteries, enabUng us to deter- 
mine with precision the disposition of the various build- 
ings, when Httle more than fragments of tho wall.? exist. 
From some local reasons, however, the cloister and mcuiistio 
buildings are placed on the north, instead, as is far more 
commonly the case, on the south of the church. There 
is also a senarate ch<ipter-house, v/hich is wanting at 
St G-alL 

The bmldings at Canterbury, as at St GaU, form separate 
groups. The church forms the nucleus. In immediate con- 
tact with this, on the north side, lie the cloister and the 
group of buildings devoted to the monastic;, life. Outside 
of these, to the west and east, are the "halls and chambers 
devoted to the exercise of hospitality, with which every 
monastery was proWded, for the purpose of receiving aa 
guests persons who visited it, whether clergy or laity, tra- 
vellers, pilgrims, or paupers." To the north a largo open 
court divides the monastic from the menial buildings, in- 
tentionally placed as remote as possible from the conven- 
tual buildings proper, the stables, granaries, barn, bake- 
house, brewhouse, laundries, &c., inhabited by the lay ser- 
vants of the establishment. At the greatest possible distance 
from the church, beyond the precinct of the convent, is 
the eleemosynarj' department. The almonry for the relief of 
the poor, with a great hall annexed, forms tho pauper's 

The most important group of buildings is naturally that 
devoted to monastic Ufe. This includes two cloisters, the 
great cloister surrounded by the buddings essentially con- 
nected with the daily hfe of the monks. — the church to the 
south, the refectory or frater-house here as always on the 
side opposite to the church, and furthest removed from it, 
that no sound or smell of eating might penetrate its sacred 
precincts, to the east the dormitorj-, raised on a vaulted 
undercroft, and the chapter-house adjacent, and the lodg- 
ings of the cellarer to the west. To this officer was com- 
mitted tho provision of the monks' daily food, as well as 
that of the guests. He was, therefore, appropriately lodged 
in the immediate vicinity of the refectoiy and kitchen, and 
close to the guest-halL A passage under the dormitory 
leads eastwards to the smaller or infirmary cloister, approi 
priated to the sick and infirm monks. Eastward of this 
cloister extend the hall and chapel of the infirmary, resem- 
bUng in form and arrangement the nave and chancel of an 
aisled church. Beneath the dormitory, looking out into 
the green court or herbarium, lies the "pisahs" or "cale- 
factory," the common room of tho monks. At its north- 
east corner access was given from the dormitory to the 
necessarium, a portentous edifice in the form of a Norman 
hall, 1 45 feet long by 25 broad, containing fifty-five scats. It 
was, in common with all such ofllces in ancient monasteries, 
constructed with the most careful regard to cleanliness and 

' Tht Archileciural Uiilnry of Vie Conveillual Buildingi of Ou 
Mmasltry of Christ Church in Canlmbury. By the Rev. Robert 
WiUis. Printed for the Kent Aichaeologicii Society, 18G8. 






iicalth, a sticim of water running thrcugli it from end to ■ 
end. A second smuLler dormitory nins from eaat to west 
for the accommoilatioa of the cunTentual officers, who were 
bound to sleep in the dormitory. Close to the rck-ctory, 
but outside the cloisters, aro the domestic offices connected 
with it; to the north, the kitchen, 47 feet square, sur- 
mounted by a lofty pyramidal roof, and the kitchen court; 
to the west, the butteries, pantries, &c. The infirmary had 
a small Idtchen of its own. Opposite the refectory door in 
the cloister are two lavatories, an invariable adjunct to a 
monastic dining-halJ, at which the monks washed before and 
after taking food. 

The buildings devoted to hospitality were divided into 
three groups. The prior's group " entered at the south-east 
angle of the green court, placed near the most sacred part 
of the cathedral, as befitting the distinguished ecclesiastics or 
nobility who were assigned to him." The cellarer's buildings, 
wore near the west end of the nave, in which ordinary 
visitors of the iaiddle class were hospitably entertained. 
The inferior pilgrims and paupers were relegated to the 
north hall or almonry, just within the gate, as far as possible 
from the other two. 

Westminster Abbey is another example of a great Bene- 
dictine abbey, identical in its general arrangements, so far as 
they can be traced, with those described above. The clois- 
ter and monastic buildings lie to the south side of the church. 
Parallel to the nave, on the south side of the cloister, was 
the refectory, with its lavatory at the door. On the eastern 
side we find the remains of the dormitory, raised on a 
vaulted substructure, and communicating with the south 
transept. The chapter-house opens out of the same alley 
of the cloister. The small cloister lies 'to the south-east of 
the larger cloister, and still farther to the east we have the 
remains of the infirmary, with the table hall, the refectory 
of those who were able to leave their chambers; The 
abbot's house formed a small court-yard at the west 
entrance, close to the inner gateway. Considerable por- 
tions of this remain, including the abbot's parlour, cele- 
brated as " the Jerjisalem Chamber," his hall, now used 
for the Westminster King's scholars, and tho kitchen 
and butteries beyond. 

St Mary's Abbey, York, of -whichi the ground-plan is 
ftnneSed", exhibits the usual Benedictine arrangements. The 
precincts are surrounded by a strong fortified wall on three 
sides, the river Ouse being sufficient protection on the 
fourth side. The entrance was by a strong gateway (U) 
to the north. Close to the entrance was a chapel, where ii 
now the church of St Olaf (W), in which the new comers<paid. 
their devotions immediately on their arrival Near the 
gate to the south was the guest's-hall or hospitium (T). 
The buildings are completely ruined, but enough remains 
to enable us to identify the grand cruciform church (A), 
the cloister-court 'with the chapter-house (B), the refectory 
(I),^ the kitchen-court with its ofiices (K, O, O), and the 
other principal apartmenta. _^ Tlve inSrmaiy has perished 

Some Benedictine houses display exceptional arrange- 
ments, dependent upon local circumstances, e.g. , the dormi- 
tory of Worcester runs from east to west, from the west 
walk of the cloister, and that of Durham is built orer the 
west, instead of as usual, over the east waUf; but, as a 
general rule, the arrangements deduced from the examples 
described may be regarded as invariable 

The history of Monasticism is one of alM^ate periods 
of decay and revival With growth in popular esteem 
came increase in material wealth, leading to luxury and 
worldliness. ■ The first religious , ardcor cooled, the strict- 
ness of the rule was relaxed, until'by the JOth century the" 
dS'ty of discipline was so complete in France that the 
TOoslrj are said to have been frequently, unacguaicted with 



the rule of St Benedict, and even iguorunt that thoy were 
bound by any rule at all (Robertson's Church HifUyry, 
ii. p. 538.) These alternations arc reflected in the mouaatio 
buildings and the arraDgementii of the establishment 


T? OfiitdMtut 

St Mary's Abo-:), Y ork (Beneuictiiie). — Chuiton s Monastic RuliTK 

0. Offices 

P. fcllsni. 

Q. UDcert&iD 

R. Pft&sARe to Abbot'e Hona*. * 

S.* Pasaage to Commoo lluiu& 

•T. Hoipltliim. 

U. Great Owe. 

V. P.>rt«r"B Lodge. 

W, Church or St Olaf. 

S. Tower. 

Y. Emnuice from Boottiaa 

A. Clitirch. 

B. ChapIer-bOQSe. 

C. Vestibule to dn. 

E. Library or ScrltHorlam. 

F. Calefactory. 

G. Necessary. 
H. Parlour. 
L Refectory. 

K. Great Eitchcri and Conr^ 
L. Cellarer's Office. 
If. Cellars. 
N.. Passage tt Cloister. 

The reformation oi thSse prevalent abuses generally took 
the .form of the establishment of new monastic orders, with 
^ew and more stringent rules, fequiring a modification of 
the ^rchiteetural arrangements. • One of the earliest of 
these reformed orders was the Cluniac. This order took Claanfv 
its name from 'the little village of Clugny, 12 miles N.W 
of Macon, near which, about a.d. ^09, a reformed Ben&, 
dictine abbey was founded by William, Duke of Auvergne 
under Bemo, abbot of Beaume. He was succeeded by 
Odo, ■rtho is often regarded as the founder of the order. 
The fame of Clugny spread far and wide. Its rigid rule 
was adopted by a vast number of the old Benedictine alK 
beys, who placed themselves in affiliation to the mother 
society, while new foundations sprang up in large nimi- 
bers, all owing allegiance to the " archabbot," established 
at Clugny. By the end of the 12th century the number 
of monasteries affiliated to Clugny Li the various coun- 
tries of Western Europe amounted to 2000. The monas- 
tic establishment of Clugny ■jras on6 of the most ertenaiva; 
and magnificent in France. We may form some idea o£ 
its enormous dimensions from the fact recorded, that when, 
A.D. 12i5, Pope Innocent rV;, accompanied .by twelve 




cardinals, a patriarch, three archbishops, the two generals 
of the Carthusians and Cistercians, the king (St Louis), 
und three of his sons, the queen mother, Baldwin, Count 
of Flanders and Emperor of Constantinople, the Duke of 
Burgundy, and six lords, visited the abbey, the whole 
party, with their attendants, were lodged within the 
monastery without disarranging the monks, 400 in num- 
ber. Nearly the whole of the abbey buildings, including 
the magnificent church, were swept away at the close of the 
last century. \Vhen the annexed ground-plan was taken, 
shortly before its destruction, nearly all the monastery, with 
the exception of the church, had been rebuilt. The church, 
the ground-plan of which bears a remarkable resemblance 
to that of Lincoln Cathedral, was of vast dimensions. It 
was 656 feet by 130 feet wide. The nave was 102 feet, 
and the aisles 60 feet high. jL The nave (O) had double 

Ahtey of Clugny, from VioUet le Due. 

A. Gateway. 

B. Narthex. 
O. Choir. 

D. HiKh-A)tar. 

E. Retro.Altar, 

F. Tomb of St nagh. 

G. Nave. 
H. Cloister. 

K; Abbot's nome. 
I* Guesc-neuBC. 

M. Bakchoiuse. 
N. At>bey Buildings, 
0. Garden. 
P. Kelectory. 

vavdted aisles on either side. Like Lincoln, it tad an 
eastern as well as a western transept, each furnished with 
apsidal chapels to the east. The western transept was 213 
feet long, and the eastern 123 feet. The choir terminated 
in a semicircular apse (F), surrounded by five chapels, also 
semicircular. The western entrance was approached by an 
ante-church, or narthex{Ji), itself an aisled church of no mean 
dimensions, flanked by two towers, rising from a stately 
flight of steps bearing a large stone cross. , To the south 
of the church lay the cloister-court (H), of immense size, 
placed much further to the west than is usually the case. 
On the south side of the cloister stood the refectory (P), an 
immense building, 100 feet long and 60 feet wide, accommo- 
dating six longitudinal and three transverse rows sf tables. 
It was adorned with the portraits of the chief benefactors 
of the abbey, and with Scriptural subjects. , The en^ wall 
displayed the Last Judgment. ' Wo ire unhappily unable to 
identify anyotherof the principal buLlding3(N). The abbot's 
residence (K), still \-ra.rt,\y standing, adjoined the entrancc- 
t'lito. The -guesl-house (L) Teas close by. .The bakehouse 

(M), also remaining, is a detached ouuding of immense 
.size. The first English house of the Cluniac order was that English 
of Lewes, founded by the Earl of Warren, cir. a.d. 1077. Clunuc. 
Of this only a few fragments of the domestic buildings exist. 
The best preserved Cluniac houses in England are Castle 
Acre, Norfolk, and Wenlock, in Shropshire. Ground-plans 
of both are given in Brittou's Architectural Antiquities. 
They show several departures from the Benedictine arrange- 
ment. In each the prior's house is remarkably perfect, 
AU Cluniac houses in England were French colonies, go- 
verned by priors of that nation. They did not secure their 
independence nor become " abbeys " till the reign of Henry 
VI. The Cluniac revival, with all its brilliancy, was but 
short lived. The celebrity of this, as of other orders, 
^¥orked its moral ruin. With their gro^rth in wealth and 
dignity the Cluniac foundations became as worldly in life 
and as relaxed in discipline as their predecessors, and a 
fresh refortu was needed. The next great monastic re- 
vival, the Cistercian, arising in the last years of the lltK 
centUi-', had a wider diffusion, and a longer and more 
honourable existence. Owing its real origin, as a distinct 
•foundation of reformed Benedictines; in the year 1098, 
to a countryman of our own, Stephen Harding (a native of 
Dorsetshire, educated in the monastery of Sherborne), and 
deriving its name from Citeaux (Cistercium), a desolate 
and ahuost inaccessible forest solitude, on the borders of 
Champagne and Burgundy, the rapid growth and wide 
celebrity of th? order is undoubtedJy to be attributed to 
the enthusiastic piety of St Bernard, abbot of the first of 
the monastic colonies, subsequently sent forth in such quick 
successi'on by the first Cistercian houses, the far-famed 
abbey of Claii-vaux (de Clara VaUe), A.D, lllG. 

The rigid self-abnegation, which was the rulihg principle Cisterciau. 
of this reformed congregation of the Benedictine order, 
.extended itself to the churches and other buildings erected 
by them. The characteristic of the Cistercian abbeys was 
the extremest simplicity and a studied plainness. Only one 
tower — a central one— ^was permitted, and that was to be very 
low. Unnecessary pinnacles and turrets were prohibited.' 
The triforium was omitted. The windows were to be plain 
and undivided, and it was forbidden to decorate them with 
stained glass. All needless ornament was proscribed. The 
crosses must, be of wood; the candlesticks erf iron. The 
reirunciation of the world was to be evidenced in all that 
met the eye., The same spirit manifested itself in the 
choice of the sites of their monasteries. . The more dismal, 
the more savage, the more hopeless a spot appe'ared, the 
more did it please their rigid mood. 'But they came not 
merely as ascetics, but as improvers. The Cisterciau 
monasteries are, as a rule,' found placed in deep weU- 
watered valleys. They always stand on the border of a 
stream; not rarely, as at Fountains, the buildings extend 
over it. These vaDeys, now so rich and productive, wore a 
very different aspect when the brethren first chose them as 
the place of their retirement. Wide swamps, deep mo- 
rasses, tangled thickets, wild impassable forests, were their 
prevailing features. The ".^Bright Valley," Clnra Vallis of 
St Bernard, was known as the " Valley of Wormwood," 
infamous as a den of robbers. " It was a savage .dreary 
solitude,. ■ so utterly barren that at first Bernard and hia 
companions were reduced to live on beech leaves." — ^Mil- 
man's Lett. Christ. voL iii. p. 335.) 

All Cistercian monasteries, unless the circumstances (tf 
the localitj- forbade it, were arranged according to one plan. 
TJxe? general arrangement and distribution of th^ various 
" buildings, which went to make up one of thtso vastv-esta- 
blishmcnts, may bo gathered from that of St Bernard's 
own Abbey of Clairvaux, which is liere giren. Obirviui 

It will be obsented that tlie abbey prfftiucts are surrounded 
by a strong wall, furnished at internals^ with watch- 




OAiiraui. towers and other dcfcnsiTe works. The wall ls nearly 
encircled by a stream of water, artificially diverted from the 
small riviilets wliich flow through the precincts, furnishing 
the establishment with an abundiint supply in every part, 
for the irrigation of the gardens and orchards, the sanitary 
requirements of the brotherhood, and for the use of the 
ofKces and workshops. The precincts are diWded across 
the centre by a wall, running from N. to S., into an 
cuter and inner ward, — the former containing the menial, 
tb9 litter the monastic building's. The precincts are 
entered by a gateway (P), at the extreme western ex- 
tremity, giving admi.^sion to the lower ward. Here the 
bams, granaries, stables, shambles, workshops, and work- 
men's lodgings were placed, without any regard to eym- 

Oairvaux, No. 1 (Cistercir.n), General Plan, 

A. Clolsteri. 

B Ovena, and Corn and 

C. St Bemaid's CcD. 

D. Clilef Entrance. 

E. Tanks for FiAh. 

F. Guest Mouse. 
O Abbot'a Jiuuso. 

II. .Stnbles. 

I. Winc-prcaa uid Ilay- 

K. rar'.our. 
L. WorkEhopaandworli- 

mcn's Lodglcira. 
M. Slftu^hter-hoiwe. 
N. Bams oBd Stablee^ 

0. Public Preasa 

1'. Gateway 

R. Remains of Old 

S. Oratory. 
V. Itlc-works. 
X. Tile-kiln. 
I Y. Water-coursea. 

metry, convenience being the only consideration. Ad- 
vancing eastwards, we have before us the wall separatihg 
the outer and inner ward, and the gatehouse (D) affording 
communication befveen the two. On passing through the 
gateway, the outer court of the inner ward was entered, 
with the western facade of the monastic church in front 
Immediately on the right of entrance was the abbot's 
house (G), in close proximity to the guest-house (F). On 
the other side of the court were the stables, for the accommo- 
dation of the horses of the guests and their attendants (H). 
The church occupied a central position. To the south 
were the gyeat cloister (A), surrounded by the chief monas- 
tic buildings, and further to the east the smaller cloister, 
opening out of which were the infirmary, novices' lodgings, 
nnd quarters for the aged monks. Still further to the east, 
divided from the monastic buildings by a wall, were the 
veijetable gardens and orchards, and tank for fish. The 

large fish-ponds, an indispensable adjunct to any ecclesia»- 
tical foundation, on the formation of which the monkj 
lavi.'ihed extreme earc and pains, and which often remaio 
as almost the only visible traces of these vast establish- 
menti, were placed outside the abbey walls. 

The Plan No. 2 furnishes the ichnography of the dis- 
tinctly monastic buildings on a larger scale. The usually 
unvarying arrangement of the Cistercian houses allows us 
to accept this as a type of the monasteries of this order. 
The church (A) is the chief feature. It consists of a vast 
nave of eleven bays, entered by a narthex, with a transept 
and short apsidal choir. (Itmayberemarkedthat theeastern 
limb in all unaltered Cistercian churches is remarkably 
short, and usually square.) To the east of each limb'o<" 


Clauvau, Xo. 2 (Cistercian), Monastic Buildings. 

A. Chnrch. 

B. Cloister. 

C. Chapier-HoBse. 

D. Monks' Parlour 

E. Calefactory. 

V. Kitchen and Court 
G. Refectory 
11. Cemetery. 
I. Little Cloister. 

K. Infirmary. 
U Loilclngs of NoTlce». 
SI. Old Guc!t-Uou8e. 
N. Old AbbcfsLodglnEa. 
0, Cloister of Supemn- 

mcran- MoLi^a. 
r. Abto:e Hall, 
Q. Cei: of Si Bercard. 
IL Stables. 

S. CeKara and St«r4H 

T. Watcr-cooTse. 
U. Saw-mill and OD-mllL 
V. Curricr'a Worksliopa. 
X. SacrlBty. 
V. Ll:tl« Library 
Z. Undercroft of Dof- 


the transept are two square chapels, diWded according to 

Cistercian rile by solid walls. Nine radiating chapels^ 
similarly divided, surround the apse. The stalls of the • 
monks, forming the ritual choir, occupy the four eastern 
bays of the nave. There was a second range of stalls in 
the extrei e western bays of the nave for thefratres amversi, 
or lay brothers. To the south of the church, so as to 
secure as much sun as possible, the cloister was invariably 
placed, except when local reasons forbade it. Roimd the 
cloister (B) were ranged the buildings connected witli tho 
monks' daily life. The chapter-house (C) always opened 
out of the cast walk of the cloister iu a Unfi.Tvil'h fhg 





south transept In Cistercian houses this was quadran- 
gular, and was divided by pillars and arches into two or 
three aisles. Between it and the transept we find the 
Bicristy (X), and a small book room (Y), armarinlum, 
where the brothers deposited the volumes borrowed from 
the Lbrary. On the other side of the chapter-house, to 
the south, is a passage (D) conununicating with the courts 
and buildings beyond. This was sometimes known as the 
parlour, colloquii locus, the monks having the privilege of 
conversation here. Here also, when discipline became 
relaxed, traders, who had the liberty of adjniission, were 
allowed to display their goods. Beyond this we often find 
the calefactorium, or day-room — an apartment warmed 
by flues beneath the pavement, where the brethren, half- 
frozen during the night offices, betook themselves after the 
conclusion of lauds, to gain a little warmth, grease their 
aandals, and get themselves rcf»dy for the work of the day. 
In the plan before us this apartment (E) opens froia the 
Bouth cloister walk, adjoining" the refectory. The place 
usually assigned to it is occupied by the vaulted substruc- 
ture of the dormitory (Z). The dorr/iitory, as a rule, was 
placed on the east side of the cloister, running over the 
calefactory and chapter-house, and joined the south transept, 
where a flight of steps admitted the brethren into the 
church for jioctumal services. Opening out of the dor- 
mitory was always the necessarium, pl;^rined with the 
greatest regard to health and cleanliness, a water-course 
Invariably running from end to end. The refectory opens 
out of the south cloister at (G). The position of the refec- 
tory is usually a marked point of difference between Bene- 
dictine and Cistercian abbeys. In the former, as at Can- 
terbur)', the refectory ran east and west parallel to the nave 
of the church, on the side of the cloister furthest removed 
from it. In the Cistercian monasteries, to keep the noise 
and sound of dinner still further away from the sacred 
building, the refectory was built north and south, at right 
angles to the a.xis of the church. It was often divided, 
sometimes into two, sometimes, as here, into three aisles. 
Outside the refectory door, in the cloister, was the lavatory, 
where the monks washed their hands at dinner time. The 
buildings belonging to the material life of the monks lay 
near the refectory, as far as possible from the church, to 
the S.W. With a distinct entrance from the outer court 
was the kitchen court (F), with its buttery, scullery, and 
larder, and the importani, adjunct of a stream of running 
water. Further to the west, projecting beyond the line of 
the west front of the church, were vast vaulted apartments 
(SS), serving as cellarsand storehouses, above which was the 
dormitory of the conversi. Detached from tliese, and sepa- 
rated entirely from- the monastic buildings, were various 
vrorkshops, which convenience required to be banished to 
the outer precincts, a saw-mill and oil-mill (UU) turned 
by water, and a currier's shop (V), where the sandals and 
leathern girdles of the monks were made and repaired. 

Returning to the cloister, a vaulted passage admitted to 
the small cloister (I), opening from the north side of which 
were eight small cells, assigned to the scribes employed in 
copying works for the library, which was placed in the 
upper story, accessible by a turret staircase. To the 
south of the small cloister a long hall will be noticed. 
This was a lecture-hall, or rather a iall for the religious 
disputations customary among the Cistercians. From this 
cloister opened the infirmary (K), with its hall, chapel, 
cells, blood-letting' house, and other dependencies. At the 
eastern verge of the vast group of buildings we find the 
Tiovices' lodgings (L), with a third cloister near the 
novices' quarters aud the original gaest-house (M). De- 
tached from the great mass of the monastic edifices was 
the original abbot's house (N), with its diniiig-hall (P). 
Closely adjoining to this, so that the eye of the father of 


the whole establishment should be constantly over those 
who stood the most in need of his watchful care, — those 
who were training for the moUas>tic life, and those who had 
worn themselves out in its duties, — was a fourth cloister 
(0), with annexed bmldiugs, devoted to the aged and 
infirm members of the establishment, llie cemetery, the 
last resting-place of the brethren, lay to the north side of 
the nave of the church (H). 

It will be seen that the arrangement of a Cistercian 
monastery was in accordance with a clearly-defined system, 
and admirably adapted to its purpose. 

The base court nearest to the outer wall contained the 
buildings belonging to the functions of the body as agri- 
culturalists and employers of labour. Advancing into the 
inner court, the buildings devoted to hospitality are found 
close to the entrance ; while those connected with the 
supply of the material wants of the brethren, — the kitchen, 
cellars, &e., — form a court of themselves outside the cloister, 
and quite detached from the church. The church refec- 
tory, dormitory, and other buildings belonging to the 
professional Ufe of the brethren, surround the great 
cloister. The small cloister beyond, with its scribes' 
ceUs, library, hall for disputations, osc, is the centre of the 
literary Ufe of the community, 'fhe requirements of sick- 
ness aud old age are carefully pro'dded for in the infirmary 
cloister, and that for the aged aud infirm members of the 
establishment. The same group contains the qiiarters of 
the novices. 

This stereotyped arrangement is further illustrated by Citeau* 
the accompanying bird's eye view of the mother establish- 


A. CrosB. 

b. Gatc-Houae, 

C. Almonry. 

D. ChftpcL 

E. Inner G^'e-Uouae. 

F. Stable. 

G. Dormitory of Lft/ 


meat of Citeaux. 

Bird's eye View of Citcau.-^u 

IL Abbo;'j House. 

I. KltcliCD. 

K. Kcfcctory. 

L. Staircase tuDormitOl 7. 

M. Donnitoi7. 

N. Clmrch. 

P. Library. 

R. Innmifiry. 
S. I>otir to (.lie Cliurcik 
for the Lny csft 
T. Baw Coort. 
V. GrcRt Cloister. 
W. Small Clolnler. 
X. Boundaiy W^X 

A crues (A), planted ou the high rocdL 




tit: •;x. directs travellers to the gate of the monastery, reached hy buttery. The arches of the lavatory ore to be seen near 

aa avenue of trees. On one side of the gate-houso (B) 
is a long builJirg (C), probably the almonry, with a 
dormitory above for the lower class of guests. On the other 
side is a chapel (D). As soon as the porter heard a stranger 
knock at the gate, ho rose, saying, JJeo gratias, the oppor- 
tunity for the exercise of hospitality being regarded as a 
cause for thankfulness. On opening the door he welcomed 
the now arrival with a blessing — JSenedicile Ho fell on 
his knees before him, and then went to iiiform the abbot. 
However important the abbot's occupations might be, he 
at once hastened to receive him whom heaven had sent. 
He also throw himself at his guest's feet, and conducted 
him to the chapel (D) purposely built close to the gate. 
After a short prayer, the abbot committed the guest tu 
the caro of tho brother hospitaller, whoso duty it was to 
provide for his wants, and conduct tho beast on which he 
might bo riding to the stable (F), built adjacent to the 
inner gate-housa (E). This inner gato conducted into 
the base court (T), round which were placed the barns, 
stables, cow-sheda, &C. On tho eastern side stood the 
dormitory of tho lay brothers, /raires conversi (G), detached 
from tho cloister, with cellars and storehouses below. At 
(H), also outside the mbnastic buildings proper, was the 
abbot's house, and annexed to it the guest house. For 
these buildings there was a separate door of entrance into 
the church (S). The large cloister, with its surrounding 
arcades, is seen at V. On the south end projects tho 
refectory (K), with its kitchen at (I), accessible from the 
base court. Tho long gabled building on the east side of 
the cloister contained on the ground floor tho chapter- 
house and calefactory, with tho monks' dormitory above 
(M), commuuicatiiig with the south transept of the church. 
At (L) was the staircase to the dormitory. The small 
cloister is at (W), where were tho carols or cells of the scribes, 
with tho bbrary (P) over, reached by a tunet staircase. 
At (R) we see a portion of the infirmary. Tho whole pre- 
cinct is siirrounded by a strong buttressed wall (XXX), 
pierced with arches, through which streams of water are 
introduced. It will be noticed that the choir of tho church 
is short, and has a square end instead of the usual apse. 
Tho tower, in accordance with the Cistercian rule, is very 
low. The windows throughout accord with the studied 
simplicity of the order. 

The English Cistercian houses, of which there are such 
extensive and beautiful remains at Fountains, Rievaulx, 
ICiikstall, Tintern, Netley, ifec, wero mainly arranged after 
tlie same plan, with sUght local variations. As an example, 
v,e give the ground-plan of Kirkstall Abbey, which is one 
of tho best preserved and least altered. The church here 
|Ki7kstoH. is of , the Cistercian type, with a short chancel of two 
squares, and transepts %rith three eastward chapels to each, 
Jittded by solid walls (2 2 2). The whole is of the most 
elTidied plainness. The ■windows are unornamented, and 
the nave has no triforium. The cloister to the south (4) 
occupies tho whole length of the nave. On the»east side 
titauds the two-aisled chapter house (5), between which and 
tile south transept is a small sacristy (3), and on the other 
side;. two small apartments, ono of which was probably 
tho^arlour (G). Beyond this stretches southward tho 
calefactoiy or day-room of the monks (1-1). Above this 
whole range of building runs the monks' dormitory, opening 
by stairs into the south transept of the church. At the 
other end were the necessaries. On the south side of the 
cloister ',we have tho remains of the old refectory (11), 
iruuning,' as in EenetUctiue houses, from east to west, and 
iho new refectory (12), which, mth the increase of the 
inmates of the house, superseded it, stretching, as is usual 
in Cl-jtercian houseSj from north to south. Adjacent to 
this apartjucut arc tho remains of the kitchen, pantry, and 


tho refectory entrance. The western side of tho cloister 
is, in usual, occupied by vaulted cellars, supporting on the 
upper story the dormitory of tho lay brothers (8). Ex 
tending from the south-east angle of the main group of 
buildings are the walls and foundations of a secondary 
group of considerable extent These have been identified 
cither with tho hospitium or ■nith the abbot's Louse, but 
they occupy the position in which the infirmary \s mora 
usually found The hall was a very spacic^us apartment, 
measuring 83 feet in length by 48 feet 'J inches in btcadtk 


KirkstAll Abbey, Yorkshire (Cistercian). 

L Church. 

2. Clmpell 

S. Sncrtsty. 

4. Clolatrr. 

fi Chnpter-Houso. 

C. P&rlour. 

7. Pu'nialiment Cell (?) 

8. Cellars, with DonnitoriM for cun- 
Teral o%'er. 

9. Gucat-Hoiue. 

10. Commcn Room. 

11. Old Refectory. 

12. Now Refectory. 
13 Kitchen Court, 

11 Calefactory or nay-Hoom. 

\i. Eltcheo and Offlcca, 

16-19, UncertaiD; pcrliapa OfBcce coSh 

nected with the Inflmiary, 
20, Infirmary trr ^bt>ol'a Uouse. 

and was divided by two rows of columns. The fish-ponda 
lay between the monastery and the river to tho south. The 
abbey mill was situated about 80 yards ta the north-west. 
The mill-pool may be distinctly traced, together with the 
gowt or mill stream. 

Fountains Abbey, first founded A.D. 1132, deserves ' 
special notice, as one of the largest and best preserved 
Cistercian houses in England. But the earUer buildings 
received considerable additions and alterations in the hiter 
period of the order, causing deviations from the strict 
Cistercian tj-pe. The church stands a short distance to 
the north of tho river Skell, the buildings of the abbey 
stretching down to and even across the stream. We have 
the cloister (H) to the south, -nith the three-aisled chapter- 
house (I) and calefactory (L) opening from its eastern walk, 
and the refectory (S), with tho kitchen (Q) sod buttery (T) 
attached, at right angles to its southern walk. Parallel 
with the western walk is an immense vaulted substructuro 
(U), incorrectly styled the cloisters, serving as cellars and 
store-rooms, and supporting the dormitory of the convern 
above. This building extended across the nvor. At its 


S.W. corner were the necessaries (V), also built, as usual, 
above tbe swiftly flowing stream. The monies' dormitory 
was in its usual position above the chapter-house, to the 
south of the transept. As peculiarities of arrangement 
may be noticed the position of the kitchen (Q), between the 
refectory and calefactory, and of the infirmary (W) (unless 
ther.; is some error in its designation) above the river to 



Groind Plan of Fountains Ablmy, Yorkshire. 

A, Kive of the Charch. 

N. CellRr. 

Z. Gate-nonae. 

it, TraiiSfpt. 

0. Brew Houae. 

Abbot's Houb 

C. Ol.apela. 

P. Prisons. 

1. PasBa^e. 

D. Tower. 

Q. KltcheiL 

3. Great HalL 

E. Sacriaty. 

R. Offices. 

8. Refectory. 

F. Chofr. 

S. Refectory. 

4. Buttery. 

a. Chapel of Klae 

T. Buttery 

&. Storehojse. 

/J tars. 

U. Ccllarftaiid Store- 

6. Chapel. 

K. C'olflter. 


7. Kltclieo. 

L Chaptcr-Hoase. 

V. NcccHaary. 

8. AflhplL 

K. Base Court. 

W. Iiiflrmao (?) 

0. Yard. 

h. Calcftictory. 

X. Gii-'st-liuusca 

10. Kitchen Tank. 

M. Water Course. 

Y. MIU Biidgc 

the west, adjoining the guest-houses (XX). We may also call 
attention to the greatly lengthened choir, commenced by 
Abbot John of York, 120^-1211, and carried on by his 
suocoBsor, tormiEaiujg, like Dnr linm Cathedral, in an 

eastern transept, the work of Abbot John of Kent, 1220- 
1247, and to the tower (D), added not long before the dis- 
solution by Abbot Huby, 1494-1526, in a very unusual 
position at the northern end of the north transept. The 
abbot's house, the largest and most remarkable example of 
this class of bvdldings in the kingdom, stands south tn 
the east of the church and cloister, from which it is divided 
bythe kitchen court(K),3urrouu.dedbythe ordinary domestic 
offices. A considerable portion of this house was erected 
on arches pver the SkeU. The size and character of this 
house, probably, at the time of its erection, the most 
spacious house of a subject in the kingdom, not a castle, 
bespeaks the wide departure of the Cistercian order from 
the stern simplicity of the original foundation. The hall 
(2) was one of the most spacious and magnificent apart- 
ments in mediieval times, measuring 170 feet by 70 feet. 
Like the haU in the castle at Winchester, and Westminster 
Hall, as originally built, it was divided by 18 pillars and 
arches, with 3 aisles. Among other apartments, for the 
designation of which we must refer to the ground-plan, 
was a domestic oratory or chapel, 46J feet by 23 feet, and • 
a kitchen (7), 50 feet by 38 feet. The whole arrangements 
and character of the building bespeak the rich and powerful 
feudal lord, not the humble father of a body of hard- 
working brethren, bound by vows to a life of poverty and 
self-denying toiL In the words of Dean MUman, " the 
superior, once a man bowed to the earth with humility, 
care-worn, pale, emaciated, with a coarse habit bound 
with a. cord, with naked feet, had become an abbot on his 
curvetting palfrey, in rich attii-e, with his silver cross before 
him, traveUing to take his place amid the lordliest of the 
realm." — (Lai. Chriit., vol. ui p. 330.) 

The buildings of the Austin Canons or Black Canons Bl.iok 
(so called from the colour of their habit) present few Austin 
distinctive -peculiarities. This order had its first seat in Cancn 
England at Colchester, where a house for Austin Canons 
was founded about j^D. 1105, and it very soon spread 
widely. As an order of regular clergy, holding a middle 
position between monks and secular canons, almost resem- 
bling a community of parish priests living under rule, 
they adopted naves of great length to accommodate large 
congregations. The choir is usually long, and is some- 
times, as at Llanthony and Christ Church (Twynham), 
shut off from the aisles, or, as at Bolton, Kirkham, &c., is 
destitute of aisles altogether. The nave in the northern 
houses, not uufrequently, had only a north aisle, as at 
Bolton, Brinkburn, and Lanercost. The arrangement of 
the monastic buildings followed the ordinary type. The 
prior's lodge was almost Invariably attached to the S.W. 
angle of the nave. The annexed plan of the Abbey of 
St Augustine's at Bristol, now the cathedral charch oi Brisi"' 



^rr- ■•-■ 

i\ rj' ^f^i^i^T^^^f^ 

St Augustine's Abbey, Bristol (Bristol Cathedral). 

A. Charch. 

B. Oroat Clclster. 
C Uttlb aolstor. 

D. Chftptoi^HouAd. 

E. Calefactory. 

F. Se'octory. 

G. ruioiu. 

n. Kitchen. 

L Kitchen Court 

K. Cellara. 

L. Abbot 8 HalL 

P. Abtmt'fl Gaton^ay. 

&, Intlrmary. 

.1, Fr!ar«' LxxSglnK 
T. King's Wall 
V. Oncst-Hrtuaa 
'.V. Athcy Gatew'i-, 
.\. Ba-Tii. subloa. .- 
T. Ltv&toiJ, 




that city, siuiwn tlio arrangement of the buildings, which 
departs very little from the ordinary Benedictine tyjje. 
The Austin Canons' house at Tliornton, in Lincolnshire, js 
remarkable for the size and magnificence of its gatehouse, 
the upper floors of which formed the gue«t-house of the 
establishment, and for possessing an octagonal chapter- 
house of Decorated data 
Pretfionfl. The Premonstraiensian regular canons, or White Canons, 
lr«tensiaii. had as many as 35 houses in England, of which the most 
perfect remaining are tlioso of Easby, Yorkshire, and 
liayham, Sussex. The head house of the order in England 
■was Welbeck. This order <\m3 a reformed branch of the 
Austin canons, founded, k.n. 1119, by Norbert (born at 
Xanten, on the Lower Rhine, c. 1080) at Pr^montrd, a 
Bccluded marshy valley in the forest of Coucy, in the 
diocese of Laon. The order spread Tt-idely. Even in the 
founder's lifetime it possessed houses in S)Tia and Pales- 
tine. It long maintained its rigid austerity, till in the 
course of years wealth impaired its discipline, and its 
members sank into indolence and luxurj'. The Premon- 
. itrtitensians were brought to England shortly after A.D. 
1140, and were first settled at.Nowhouse, in Lincolnshire, 
tiear the Ilumber. The ground-plan of Easby Abbey, 
)wing to its situation on the edge of the steeply-sloping 
banks of a river, is singularly irregular. The cloister is 
duly placed on the south side of the church, and the' 
chief buildings occupy their "usual positions round it. 
I?ut the cloister garth, as at Chichester, is not rectangu- 
lar, and all the surrounding l:milding3 are thus made to 
sprawl in a very awkward fashion. The church follows 
the plan adopted by the Austin canons in their northern 
Bbbe)-3, and has only one aisle to the nave — that to the 
north ; while the choir is long, narrow, and aisleless. 
Each transept has an aisle to the east, forming three 

The churcn at iiayuam was deftitute of aisle either to 
nave or, choir. The latter terminated in a three-sided apse. 
This church is remarkable for its exceeding narrowness in 
proportion tp its length. Extending in longitudinal dimen- 
sions 257 feet, it is not more than 25 feet broad. To 
adopt the words of Mr Beresford Hope — " Stern Premon- 
stratensian canons wanted no congregations, and cared 
for no processions ; therefore they buUt their church like a 
long room." 
Carthusinn. fhe Cart/iusian order, on its establistiment by St Bruno, 
about A.D. 1084, developed a greatly modified form and 
arrangement of a monastic institution. The principle of 
this order, which combined the coenobitic with the solitary 
life, demanded the -erection of buildings on a novel plan. 
This plan, which was first adopted by St Bruno and his 
twelve companions at the original institution at Chartreux, 
near Grenoble, was maintained iu aU the Carthusian 
establishments throughout Europe, even after the ascetic 
severity of the order had been to some extent relaxed, and 
the prinjitive simplicity of their buOdings had been ex- 
changed for the magnificence of decoration which charac- 
terises such foundations as the Certosas of Pavia and 
Florence. According to the rule of St Bruno, all the 
members of a Carthusian brotherhood lived in the most 
absolute solitude and silence. Each occupiel a small 
detached cottage, standing by itself in a small garden 
.surrounded by high walls and connected by a common 
corridor or cloister.' In these cottages or cells a Carthusian 
monk passed his time in the strictest asceticism, only 
leaving his solitary dwelling to attend the services of the 
Church, except on certain days when the brotherhood 
assembled in the refectory. 

The peculiarity of the arrangements of a Carthusian 
monastery, or charter-house, as it was called in England, 
from a- corniption of the French rhqrtreux, is exhibited in 

the plan of that of Clermont, from Viollet le Due. The Clermoot, 
whole cstablbhment is surrounded with a wall, furnished 
at intervals with watch towers (R). The enclosure ia 
divided into two courts, of which the eastern court, sur- 
rounded by a. cloister, from which the cottages of the 
monks (I) open, is much the larger. The two courts ar« 

A. Cliurch. 
Jl. Uonlu aiolr. 
C. Trior's GnrdeiL 
P. Great Cloister. 
£. Chaptcr-HouM 
P. PaMaiic. 

0. Pr1oi-5 UkIj:- 

n. Dovecot. 

1. Cell!. 

K. Chfipcl of rr«^ 

U SBcristy. 
U. ChjipoL 
K. Slililoa. 
0. Gatevrajr- 
r. Gucst-Cliara- 

^. Bnrnft and 

P.. Wfttcli Towert. 

S. Urtle Cloister 

T. Uukehouse. 

V. Kitchen. 

.\. Refectory. 

v. Cemetery. 

Z. Prison. 


V. Garden nf d". 

C.trtliusi.-iu Monastery of Clermont 

divided by the main buildings of tne monastery, indiding 
the church, the sanctuary (A), divided from (B), the monks', 
choir, by a screen with two altars, the smaller cloister to 
the south (S) surrounded by the chapter-house (E), the 
refectory (X)— these buildings occupj-ing their normal 
jjosition — and the chapel of Pontgibaud (K). The kitcheb 
with its ofnces (V) llfes behind the refectory, accessible 
from the outer court without entering the cloister. To 
the north of the church, beyond the sacristy (L), and the 
side chapels (M), we find the cell of the sub-prior (a), with 
its garden. The lodgings of the- prior (G) occupy the 
centre of the outer court, immediately in front of the west 
door of the church, and face the gateway of the convent (O). 
A small raised court with a fountain (C) is before it. This 
outer court also contains tlie guest-chambers (P), the 
stables, and lodgings of the lay brothers (N), the barns 
and gianaries (Q), the dovecot (H), and the bakehouse (T). 
At (Z) is the prison. (In this outer court, in all the earlier 
foundations, as at Witham, there was a smaller church in 
addition to the larger church of the monks.) The outer and 
inner court are connected by a long passage (F), wide 
enough to admit a cart laden 'with wood to supply the 
cells of the brethren -with fuel. The number of cells sur- 
rounding the great cloister is 18. They are all arranged 
on a uniform plan. Each little dwelling contains three 
rooms : a sitting-room (C), warmed with a stove iu winter; 
a sleeping-room (D), furnished 'with a bed, a table, a bench, 
and a bookcase; and a closet (E). Between the cell and 
the cloister gallery (A) is a passage or corridor (B), cutting 
ofif the inmafe of the cell from all sound or movement 
which might internipt his meditations. '.■_ The superior had. 




ClemoEt. free access to this corridor, and througli open mches was able 
to inspect the garden without being seen. At (I) is the 
hatch or tura-table, in which the daUy allowance of food was 
deposited by a brother appointed for that purpose, aflford- 
ing no Tiew either inwards or outwards. (H ) is the garden, 

A. Oolstcr GaBery 

B. Corridor. 

C. Living Room. 

D. Sleeping Rooni. 

E. ClOKli 

F. CoTcred Walk 

G. yccc:snrf 
n. Garden. 

I. Hau;h. 

K. Wood-houaa 

Carthusian Cell, Clermont 

cultivated by the occupant of the cell At (K) is the 
wood-house. (F) is a covered walk, with the necessary at 
the end. These arrangements are found with scarcely any 
variation in all the charter-houses of Western Europe. 
The Yorlcshire Charter-house of Mount Grace, founded by 
Thomas Holland the young Duke of Surrey, nephew of 
Richard II., and Marshal of England, during the revival 
of the popularity of the order, about A.D. 1397, is the most 
perfect and best preserved English example. It is charac- 
terised by all the simplicity of the order. The church is a 
modest building, lon^, narrow, and aisleless. Within the 
wall of enclosure are two courts. The smaller of the two, 
the south, presents the usual arrangement of church, refec- 
tory, &c., opening out of a cloister. The buildings are 
plain and solid. The northern court contains the ceils, 1 i 
in number. It is surrounded by a double stone wall, the 
two walls being about 30 feet or 40 feet apart. Between 
these, each in its own garden, stand the cells ; low-built 
two-storied cottages, of two or three rooms on the ground- 
floor, lighted with a larger and a smaller window to tiie 
side, and provided with a doorway to the court, and one at 
the back, opposite to one in the outer wall, through which 
the monk may have conveyed the sweepings of his cell and 
the refuse of his garden to the " eremus " beyond. By the 
side of the door to the court is a little hatch, through which 
the daily pittance of food was supplied, so contrived by 
turning at an angle in the wall that no one could either 
look in or look out. A very perfect example of this hatch 
— an arrangement belonging to all Carthusian houses — 
exists at Miraflores, near Burgos, which remains nearly as 
it wa.1 completed in 1480. 

There were only nine Carthusian houses in England. 
Witham. The earliest was that at Witham in Somersetshire, founded 
by Henry 11., by whom the order was first brought into 
England. The wealthiest and jnost magnificent was that 
of Shene or Richmond in Surrey, founded by Henry V. 
about A.D. 1414. The dimensions of the buildings at 
Shenei are stated to have been remarkably large. The 
great court measured 300 feet by 250 feet ; the cloisters 
were a square of 500 feet ; the hall was 110 feet in length 
by GO feet in breadth'. The most celebrated historically is 
tlieCliarter-houseof London, founded by Sir Walter Manny 
*.D. 1371, the narao of which is preserved by the famous 

public scbool established on the site by Thomas Suttoa 
A.D. IPll. 

An article on monastic arrangements would be incom- 
plete without some account of the convents of the Mendi- MendicanT 
cant or Preaching Friars, including the Black Friara or Friara. 
Dominicans, the Grey or Franciscans, the White or Carmel- 
ites, the Eremite or Austin Friars. These orders arose at 
the beginning of the 13th century, when the Benedictines, 
together with their various reformed branches, had termi- 
nated their active mission, and Christian Europe was ready 
for a new religious revival. Planting themselves, as a rule, 
in large towns, and by preference in the poorest and most 
densely populated districts, the Preaching Friars were 
obliged to adapt their buildings to the requirements of the 
site. Regularity of arrangement, therefore, was not pos- 
sible, even if they had studied it. Their churches, built 
for the reception of large congregations of hearers rather 
than worshippers, form a class by themselves, totally unlike 
those of the elder orders in ground-plan and character. 
They were usually long parallelograms unbroken by tran- 
septs. The nave very usually consisted of two equal bodies, 
one containing the stalls of the brotherhood, the other left 
entirely free for the congregation. The constructional 
choir is often wanting, the whole church forming one unin- 
terrupted structure, with a continuous range of windows. 
The east end was usually square, but the Friars Church at 
Winohclsea had a-polygonal apse. We not unfrcquently 
find a single transept, sometimes of great size, rivalling or 
exceeding the nave. This arrangement is frequent in 
Ireland, where the numerous small friaries afi'ord admirable 
exemplifications of these peculiarities of ground-plan. The 
friars churches were at first destitute of towers ; but in the 
14th and 15th centuries, taU, slender towers w-?io com- 
monly inserted between the nave and the choir. The Grey 
Friars at Ly^n, where the tower is, is a good 
example. The arrangement of the monastic buildings is 
equally peculiar and characteristic. Wo miss entirely the 
regularity of the buildings of the earlier orders. At the 
Jacobins at Paris, a cloister lay to the north of the long 
narrow church of two parallel aisles, while the refectory — 
a room of immense length, quite deta,ched from the cloister 
— stretched across the area before the west front of the 
church. At Toulouse the nave also has two parallel aisles, 
but the choir is apsidal, with radiating chapels. The refec- 
tory stretches northwards at right anglestothecloister, which 
lies to the north of the church, haiing the chapter-house 
and sacristy on the east. As examples of English friaries 
the Dominican house at Norrnch, and those of the Domini- Norwick 
cans and Franciscans at Gloucester, may be mentioned. The GloucesteB 
church of the Black Friars of Norwich departs from the 
original type in the nave (now St Andrew's Hall), in having 
regular aisles. In this it resembles the earUep-examples of 
the Grey Friars at Reading. The choir is long and aisle- 
less ; an hexagonal tower between the two, like that exist- 
ing at Lynn, has perished. The cloister and monastic 
buildings remain tolerably perfect to the north. The 
Dominican convent at Gloucester stiU exhibits the cloister- 
court, on the north side of which is the desecrated church. 
The refectory is on the west side, and on the south the 
dormitory of the 13th century. This is a remarkably good 
example. There were 18 cells or cubicles on each side, 
divided by partitions, the bases of which remain. On the 
east side was the prior's house, a building of later date. 
At the Grey or Franciscan Friars, the church followed the 
ordinary type in having two equal bodies, each gabled, 
with a continuous range of windows. There was a slender 
tower between the nave and choir. Of the convents of the 
Carmelite or White Friars we have a good example in the 
Abbey of Hulme, near Alnwick, the first of the order in Hulmg 
England, founded A.D. 1240. The church is a narrow 


A B B - A B B 

Mendicant oUong, destitute of aisles, 123 feet long by only 26 feet 
Friara. wida The cloisters are to the south, with the chapter- 
house, (fee, to the east, with the donnitory over. The 
prior's lodge is placed to the west of the cloister. The 
giiest-housea adjoin the entrance gateway, to which a chapel 
was annexed on the south side of the conventual area. 
The nave of the church of the Austin Friars or Eremites 
in Loudon is still standing. It is of Decorated d&te, and 
ima wide centre and side aisles, divided by a very light and 
graceful arcade. Some fragments of the south walk of the 
cloister of the Grey Friars exist among the buildings of 
Christ's Hospital or the Blue-Coat School. Of the Black 
Friars all has perished but the naco. Taken as a whole, 
the remains of the establishments of the friars aflFord little 
warrant for the bitter irirective of the Benedictine of St 
Alban's, Matthew Paris : — " The friars who have- been 
founded hardly 40 years have built residences as the 
palaces of kings. These are they who, enlarging day by 
day their sumptuous edifices, cncircUng them with lofty 
walls, lay up in them their incalculable treasures, impru- 
dently transgressing the bounds of poverty, and violating 
the very fundamenta.1 rules of their profession." Allowance 
must here be made for jealousy of a rival order just rising 
in popularity. 

Eveiy largo monastery had depending upon it one or 
Cells. more smaller establishments known as cells. These cells 

were monastic colonies, sent forth by the parent house, and 
{>lanted on some outlying estate. As an example, we may 
refer to the small religious house of St Mary Magdalene's, 
a cell of the great Beneilictiuo house of St Mary's, York, in 
the valley of the Witham, to the south-east of the city of 
Lincoln. This consists of one long narrow range of build- 
ing, of which the eastern part formed the chapel, and 
the western contained the apartments of the handful of 
monks of which it was the home. To the east may be 
traced the site of the abbey mill, with its dam and mill- 
lead. These cells, when belonging to a Cl^iniac house, 
were called Obediential. 

The plan given by Viollot le Duo of the Priory of St 
Jean de» Bona Uommea, a Cluniac cell, situated between 
the town of Avallon and the village of Savigny, shows that 
these diminutive establishments comprised every essential 
feature of a monastery, — chapel, cloister, chapter-room, 
refectory, dormitory, all grouped aceording to the recog- 
nised arrangement. 

Those Cluniac obedientuje differed from the ordinary 
Benedictine cells in being also places of punishment, to 
which monks who had been guilty of any grave infringe- 
ment of the rules were relegated as to a kuid of peniten- 
tiary. Here they were placed under the authority of a 
prior, and were condemned to severe manual labour, ful- 
filling the duties usually executed by the lay brothers, who 
acted as farm-servants. 

The outlying fanning establishments belonging to the 
monastic foundations were known as villte or granges. 
They gave employment to a body of conversi and labourers 
under the management of a monk, who bore the title of 
Brother Hospital-lei the granges, Uke their parent in- 
stitutions, affording shelter and hospitality to belated 

Authorities: — Dngdale, Monatticon; Fosbrooke, British 
M<machism; Hclyot, Dictionnaire des Ordres Eeligieux; 
Lenoir, Architecture Monastique; VioUet le Due, Diction- 
naire Maiscnnee, de ■ U Architecturt Francaue ; Walcott, 
Conventual Arrangement; Willis, Abbey of St Gall; Archseo- 
logical Journal, voL t > Conventual Buildings of Canter- 
bury ; CvlTzoq, Monasteries of the Levant. (e. v.) 

ABBLATE QRASSO, a town in the north of Italy, near 
the Ticino, 14 miles W.S.W. of MOan. It has silk manu- 
factures, and contains about 5000 inhabitantii 

ABBON OF FLErnY. or Asbo FLOEiACENsrs, a learned 
Frenchman, bom near Orleans in 945. He distinguished 
hinuelf in the schooU of Paris and Kheims, and was a profi- 
cient in science, as known in his time. After spending two 
years in England, assisting Archbishop Oswald of York in 
restoring the monastic system, ho returned to France, and 
was made Abbot of Fleury (970). He waa twice sent 
to Rome by Robert the Wise (986, 996), and on each occa- 
sion succeeded in warding off a threatened papal interdict 
He was killed in 1004, in endeavouring to quell a monkish 
revolt He wrote an epitome of the Lives of the Soman 
Pontiffs, Jjesidcs controversial treatises, letters, &c 

ABBOT, the head and chief governor of a community 
of monks, called also in the East Archimandrita, from 
mandra, " a fold," ot Uegumenos. The name ahhol is derived 
from the Hebrew -*, Ah, or father, through the Syriac 
Abba. It had its origin in the monasteries of Syria, 
whence it spread through the East, and soon became 
accepted generally in all languages as the designation of 
the head of a monastery. At first it was employed as a 
respectful title for any monk, as wo learn from St Jerome 
(in Epist. ad GaL iv. 6, in Matt zxiiL 9), but it was soon 
restricted to the Superior. 

The name abbot, though general in the West, was not 
universal Among the Dominicians, Carmelites, Angus- 
tines, Ac, the superior was called Praepositus, " Provost," 
and Prior; among the Franciscans, Gustos, "Guardian;" 
and by the monks of Camaldoli, Major. 

Monks, as a rule, were -laymen, nor at the outset wm 
the abbot any exception. All orders of clergy, therefore, 
even the " doorkeeper," took precedence of him For 
the reception of the sacraments, and for other religions 
offices, the abbot and his monks were commanded to 
attend the nearest church. — (Novellce, 1 33, c. iL) This rale 
naturally proved inconvenient when a monastery was 
situated in a desert, or at a distance from a city, and 
necessity compelled the ordination of abbots. This innova- 
tion was not introduced without a struggle, ecclesiastical 
dignity being regarded as inconsistent with the higher 
spiritual life, but, before the close of the 5th century, at least 
in the East, abbots seem almost universally to have become 
deacons, if not presbyters. The change spread more 
slowly in the West, where the office of abbot was commonly 
filled by laymen tQl the end of the 7th century, and 
partially so up to the lltL Ecclesiastical Councils were, 
however, attended by abbots. Thus, at that held at Con- 
stantinople, A.D. 448, for the condemnation of Eutychcs, 
23 archimandrites or abbots sign, with 30 bishops, and, 
cir. A.D. 690, Archbishop Theodore promulgated a canon, 
inhibiting bishops from compelling abbots to attend 
councils. Examples are not uncommon in Spain and 
in England in Saxon times. Abbots were permitted 
by the Second Council of Nicaea, A.D. 787, to ordain 
their monks to the inferior orders. This rule waa 
adopted in the West, and the strong prejudice against 
clerical monks having gradually broken down, eventually 
monks, almost without exception, belonged to some grade 
of the ministry. 

Originally no abbot was penpitted to rule over more 
than one monastic community, though, in Some exceptional 
cases, Gregoiy the Great allowed the rule to be broken. 
As time went on, violations of the rule became increasingly 
frequent, as is proved by repeated enactments against it 
The cases of Wilfrid of York, cir. a.d. 675, who held the 
abb.acy of the monasteries he had founded at He7.ham and 
Ripon, and of AJdhelm, who, at the same date, stood ii 
the same double relation to those of Malmesbury, Frome, 
and Bradford, arc only apparent transgressions of the rule. 
We find more decided instances of plurality in Hugh of 
, the T'^ynl Carlovinejian house, cir. 720, who was at the same 



tims Bishop of Rouen, Paris, Bayeui, and Abbot of Fonte- 
nelle and Jumi%es ; and Sidonius, Bishop cf Constance, 
who, being already Abbot of Rcichenau, took the abbacy of 
St Gall also. Hatto of llentz, cii: 912, annexed to his 
Ece no less than 12 abbacies. 

In Egypt, the first home of monasticism, we find abbots 
in chief or arcMmandrites exercising jurisdiction over 'a 
large number of communities, each of which had its own 
abbot. Thus, Cassian speaks of an abbot in the Thebaid 
who had 500 monks under him, a number exceeded in 
other cases. In later times also, general jurisdiction was 
exercised over the houses of their order by the abbots of 
Monte Cassino, St Dalmatius, Cluguy, (tc. The abbot of 
Cassino was styled Abbas Abbatum. The chiefs of other 
orders had the titles uf Abbas Generalis, or Magister, or 
Minister Generalis. 

Abbots were originally subject to episcopal jurisdiction, 
and continued generally so, in fact, in the West till the 
11th century. The Codex of Jicstinian (lib. L tit. LiL do 
Ep. leg. xl.), expressly subordinates the abbot to epis- 
copal oversight. The first case recorded of the partial 
exemption of an abbot from episcopal control b that of 
Faustus, Abbot of Lerins, at the Council of Aries, a.d. 
456 ; but the oppressive conduct, and exorbitant claims 
and exactions of bishops, to which this repugnance to 
episcopal control is to be traced, far more than to the 
arrogance of abbots, rendered it increasingly frequent, 
and, in the 6th ccntiuy, the practice of exempting religious 
houses partly or altogether from episcopal control, and 
making them responsible to the Pope alone, received an 
impulse from Gregory the Great. These exceptions, 
though introduced with a good object, had grown into a 
wide-spread and crying evil by the 12th century, virtually 
creating an imperium in imperio, and entirely depriving 
the bishop of all authority over the chief centres of power 
and influence in his diocese. In the 12th century the 
abbots of Fulda claimed precedence of the Archbishop of 
Cologne. Abbots more and more aped episcopal state, 
and in defiance of the express prohibition of early councils, 
and the protests of St Bernard and others, adopted the 
episcopal insignia of mitre, ring, gloves, and sandals. A 
mitre is said to have been granted to the Abbot of Bobbio 
by Pope Theodorus I, A.D. 643, and to the Abbot of St 
Savianus by Sylvester II., a.d. 1000. Ducange asserts 
that pontifical insignia were first assigned to abbots by 
John XVIIL, A.D. 1004-1009 ; but the first undoiibted 
grant is said to be that to the Abbot of St Maximinian at 
Treves, by Gregory VII. (Hildebrand), a.d. 1073-10S5. 
The mitred abbots in England were those of Abingdon, 
St Alban's, Bardney, Battle, Bury St Edmund's, St Augus- 
tine's Canterbury, Colchester, Croyland, Evesham, Glas- 
tonbury, Gloucester, St Benet's Hulme, Hyde, Malmes- 
bury, Peterborough, Ramsey, Reading, Selby, Shrewsbury, 
Tavistock, Thomey, Westminster, Winchcombe, St Mary's 
York. Of these the precedence was originally yielded to 
the Abbot of Glastonbury, until in A.D. 1154 Adrian IV. 
(Nicholas Breakspear) granted it to the Abbot of St 
Alban's, in which monastery he had been brought up. 
Next after the Abbot of St Alban's ranked the Abbot of 

To distinguish abbots from bishops, it was ordained that 
their mitre should be made of less costly materials, and 
ehould not be ornamented ■n-ith gold, a rule which was 
Boon entirely disregarded, and that the crook of their 
pastoral staflf should turn inwards instead of outwards, 
indicating that their jurisdiction was limited to their own 
bouse. The adoption of episcopal insignia by abbots 
was followed by an encroachment on episcopal functions, 
wiMch had to be specially but ineffectually gviarded against 
by the Latcran Council, a.d. 1^23. In the East, abboU, 

if in priests' orders, with the consent of the bishop, were, 
as we have seen, permitted by the Second Nicene Council, 
A.D. 787, to collier the tonsure and admit to the order of 
reader ; but they gradually advanced higher claims, until 
we find them authorised by BeUarmine to be a.ssociatcd 
with a single bishop in episcopal consecraliions, and per- 
mitted by Innocent IV., a.d. 1489, to confer both the 
subdiaconate and diaconate. Of course, they always and 
everywhere had the power of admitting their o>vn monks, 
and vesting them with the religious habit. In the first 
instance, when a vacancy occurred, the bishop of the diocese 
chose the abbot out of the monks of the convent, but 
the right of election was transferred by jurisdiction to 
the monks themselves, reserving to the bishop the con- 
firmation of the election and the benediction of the new 
abbot. In abbeys exempt from episcopal jurisdiction, the 
confirmation and benediction had to be conferred by the 
Pope in person, the house being taxed with the expenses 
of the new abbot's journey to Rome. By the rule of St 
Benedict, the consent of the laity was in some unde- 
fined way required ; but this seems never to have been 
practically enforced. It was necessary that an abbot 
should be at least 25 years of age, of legitimate birth, a 
monk of the house, unless it furnished no suitable can- 
didate, when a liberty was allowed of electing from another 
convent, well instructed him.self, and able to instruct others, 
one also who had learned how to command by having prac- 
tised obedience. In some exceptional cases an abbot was 
allowed to name his own successor. Cassian speaks of an 
abbot in Egypt doing this ; and in later times we have 
another example in the case of St Bruno. Popfe and 
sovereigns gradually encroached on the rights of the 
monks, until in Italy the Pope had usurped the nomina- 
tion of all abbots, and the king in France, with the ex- 
ception of Clugny, Pr^montre, and other houses, chiefs of 
their order. 'The election was for life, unless the .abbot 
was canonicaUy deprived by the chiefs uf his order, or, 
when he was directly subject to them, by the Pope or the 

The ceremony of the formal admission of a Benedictine 
abbot in mediaeval times is thus prescribed by the consuetu- 
dinary of Abingdon. The newly elected abbot was to 
put off his shoes at the door of the church, and proceed 
barefoot to meet the members cf the house advancing in 
a procession. After proceeding up the nave, he was to 
kneel and pray at the topmost step of the entrance of the 
choir, into which he was to be introduced by the bishop 
or his conunissary, and placed in his stall. The monks, 
then kneeling, gave him the kiss of peace on the hand, 
and rising, on the mouth, the abbot holding his staff of 
office. He then put on his ahoes in the vestry, and a 
chapter was held, and the bishop or his commissary 
preached a suitable sermon. 

The power of the abbot was paternal but absolute, 
Umited, however, by the canons of the church, and, until 
the general establishment of exemptions, by epi-scopal 
control. As a rule, however, implicit obedience was en- 
forced ; to act without his orders was culpable ; whUo it 
was a sacred duty to execute his orders, however unrea- 
sonable, until they were withdrawn. Examples among tha 
Egyptian monks of this blind submission to the commands 
of the superiors, exalted into a virtue by those who re- 
garded the entire crushing of the individual will as the 
highest excellence, are detailed by Cassian and others, — e.g., 
a monk watering a dry stick, day after day, for months, or 
endeavouring to remove a huge rock immensely exceeding 
his powers. St Jerome, indeed, lays doivu, as the principle 
of the compact between the abbot and his monks, that they 
should obey their superiors in all things, and perform what- 
ever they commanded. — (Ep. 2, ad Eustoch. do ousted. 



;Wrgin.) So despotic did the tyranny became in the West, 
that in the time of Charlemagne it was necessary to re- 
strain abbots by legal enactmenta from mutilating their 
monks, and putting out their eyes; while the rule of St 
Columba ordained 100 lashes as the punishment for very 
•light offences. An ubbot also had the power of excom- 
municating refractory mhis, which ho might use if desired 
by their abbess. 

The abbot was treated with the utmost submission and 
reverence by the brethren of his house. When he appeared 
either in church or chapter all present rose and bowed. 
His letters were received kneeling, like those of the Pope 
and the king. If he gave a command, the monk receiving 
it was also to kneel. No monk might sit in his presence, 
O"- leave it without his permission. The highest place v-as 
naturally assigned to him, both in church and at table. 
In the East he was commanded to eat with the other monks. 
In the West the rule of St Benedict appointed him a sepa- 
rate table, at which ho might entertain guests and strangers. 
This permission opening the door to luxurious living, the 
Council of Aix, a.d. 817, decreed that the abbot should 
dine in the refectory, and be content with the ordinary 
fare of the monks, unless he had to entertain a guest. 
These ordinances proved, however, generally ineffectual to 
secure strictness of diet, and contemporaneous literature 
abounds with satirical remarks and complaints concerning 
the inordinate oxtravaganee of the tables of the abbots. 
When the abbot condescended to dine in the refectory, his 
chaplains waited upon him with the dishes, a servant, if 
necessary, assisting them. At St Alban's the abbot took 
the lord's seat, in the centre of the high table, and was 
served on silver plate, and sumptuously entertained noble- 
men, ambassadors, and strangers of quality. When abbots 
dined in their own private hall, the rule of St Benedict 
charged them to invite their monks to their table, provided 
there was room, on which occasions the guests were to ab- 
stain from quarrels, slanderous talk, and idle gossipping. 
The complaint, however, was sometimes made (as by Matt. 
Paris of Wulsig, the third abbot of St Alban's), that they invited 
ladies uf rank to dine with them instead of theirmonks. The 
ordinary attire of the abbot was according to rule to be the 
same as that of the monks. But by the 10th century the 
nile was commonly set aside, and wo find frequent com- 
plaints of abbots dressing in silk, and adopting great 
sumptuousness of attire. Nay, they sometimes laid aside 
the monastic habit altogether, and assumed a secular dress.' 
Thiswasanecessary consequenceof their following the chase, 
iwhich was quite usual, and indeed at that time only naturaL 
With the increase of wealth and power, abbots had lost 
much of their special religious character, and become great 
lords, chiefly distinguishgd from lay lords by celibacy. 
Thus we hear of abbots going out to sport, with their men 
carrying bows and arrows ; keeping horses, dogs, and 
huntsmen ; and special mention is made of an abbot of 
Leicester, dr. 1360, who was the most skilled of all the 
nobility in hare-hunting. In magnificence of equipage and 
retinue the abbots vied with the first nobles of the realm. 
They rode on mules with gOded bridles, rich saddles and 
housings, carrying hawks on their wrist, attended by an 
immenaa train of attendants. The bells of the churches 
were rung as they passed. They associated on equal terms 
with laymen of the highest distinction, and shared all their 
pleasures and pursuits. This rank and power was, how- 
ever, often used most beneficially. For instance, we read 
of Whiting, the last Abbot of Glastonbury, judicially mur- 
dered by Henry VIII., that his house was a kind of well- 
ordered court, where as many a.s 800 sons of noblemen and 

' ^^ '^wortb, the fourth abbot of St Alban's, circa 930, U charged by 
McKl.'.T Praia with adopting the attire at a epottsmao. 

gentlemen, who had been sent to him for virtnoos educO' 
tion, had been brought up, besides others of a meaner rank, 
whom he fitted for the universities. His table, attendance, 
and officers were an honour to the nation. He would 
entertain as many as 500 persons of rank at one time, 
besides relieving the poor of the vicinity twice a-wetk. 
He had his country houses and fisheries, and when ho 
travelled to attend Parliament his retinue amounted to 
upwards of 100 persons. The abbots of Clugny and 
Vendome were, by virtue of their office, cardinals of the 
Romish Church. 

In process of time the title abbot waa improperly tmns-, 
ferred to clerics who had no connection with the monutio 
system, as to the principal of a body of parochial 
clergy; and under the Carlovingians to the chief chaplain 
of the king. Albas Curia:, or military chaplain of the em^ 
peror. Abbot Castrensis. It even came to be adopted by, 
purely secular officials. Thus the chief magistrate of. the 
republic at Genoa was called Abbas PupuU. Ducange, id 
his Glossary, also gives us Abbas CanqMiiilU, Clochetiii 
Palatii, Scholaria, iic. 

Lay abbots, so called, had their origin in the system of 
commendation, in the 8th centiiry. By this, to meet any, 
(,Teat necessity of the state, such as an inroad of the Saraj 
cens, the revenues of monasteries were temporarily com- 
mended, i.e., handed over to some layman, a noble, or even 
the king himself, who for the time became titular abbot.' 
Enough was reserved to maintain the monastic brother^ 
hood, and when the occasion passed away the revenues 
were to be restored to their rightful owners. The estites,' 
however, had a habit of lingering in lay hands, so that in 
the 9th and 10th centuries most of the sovereigns and 
nobles among the Franks and Burgundians were titular 
abbots of some great monastery, the revenues of which 
they applied to their own purposes. These lay-abbots 
v!eTe stylcA Abbacomitea oi Abbates Milites. Hugh Capet, 
before his elevation to the throne, as an Abbacomet held 
the abbeys of St Denis and St Germain, in commendam. 
Bishop Hatto, of Montz, a.d. 891-912, is said to have held 
12 abbeys in commimdam at once. In England, as wo see 
from the Acts of the Council of Cloveshoc, in the 8th 
century, monasteries were often invaded and occupied by 
laymen. This occurred sometimes from the monastery 
having voluntarily placed itself under the protection of a 
powerful layman, who, from its protector, became its op- 
pressor. Sometimes there were two lines of abbots, one of 
laymen enjoying the lion's share of the revenues, another 
of clerics fulfilling the proper duties of an abbot on a small 
fraction of the income. The gross abuse of lay commen- 
dation which had sprung up during the corruption of 
the monastic system passed away with its reformation in 
the 10th century, either voluntarily or by compulsion.. 
The like abuse prevailed in the East at a later period. 
John, Patriarch of Antioch, at the beginning of the 12th 
century, informs us that in his time most monasteries had 
been handed over to laj-men, leneficiarii, for life, or for 
part of their lives, by the emperors. 

In conventual cathedrals, where the bishop occupied 
the place of the abbot, the ftmctions usually devolving on 
the superior of the monastery were performed by a prior. 
In other convents the prior was the second officer next to 
the abbot, representing him in his absence, and fulfilling 
his duties. The superiors of the cells, or small monastic 
establishments dependent on the larger monasteries, were 
also caDed priors. They were appointed by the abbots, 
and held office at their pleasiu-e. 

Authorities: — Bingham, Oi^V^jne*/ Ducangfe, Glossary; 
■Herzog, Realwbrterbuch ; Eohertson, Ch. Hist. ; Marten e, 
De Antiq. Monnst. Ritibxia , Montalcmbcrt, ilonlts of the 
'•Vc^t , (1 V.) 



ABBOT, Chaeles,. speaker of theHonse of Commons 
/Vom 1802 to 1817, afterwards created Lord Colchester. 

ied CoLCfiKSTEB. 

ABBOT, Geoege, Arclibishop of Canterbury, -was bom 
October 19, 1562, at Guildford in Surrey, where liis father 
iras a cloth-worker. He studied at BaUiol CoUege, Oxford, 
and was chosen Master of University College in 1597. 
Pe was three times appointed to the office of Vice-Chan- 
cellor of the University. When in 1604 the version of the 
Bible now in use was ordered to be prepared, Dr Abbot's 
name stood second on the Hat of the eight Oxford divines 
to whom was intrusted the translation of the New Testa- 
jinent, excepting the Epistles. In 1608 he went to Scotland 
with the Earl of Dunbar to arrange for a union between 
the Churches, of England and Scotland, and his conduct in 
that negotiation laid the foundation of his preferment, by 
attracting to him the notice and favour of the king. With- 
out having held any parochial charge, he was appointed 
Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry in 1609, was translated 
to the see of London a month afterwards, and in less 
than a year was made Archbishop of Canterbury. This 
rapid preferment was due as much perhaps to his flat- 
tering his royal master as to his legitimate merits. After 
his elevation" he showed on several occasions, firmness 
and courage in resisting the king. In the scandalous 
divorce suit of the Lady Frances Howard against the Earl 
of Essex, the archbishop persistently opposed the dissolu- 
tion of the marriage, though the influence of the king and 
court was strongly and successfully exerted in the opposite 
direction. In 1618, when a declaration was published by 
the king, and ordered to be read in all the churches, per- 
mitting sports and pastimes on the Sabbath, Abbot had 
the courage to forbid its being read at Croydon, where he 
happened to be at the time. As may be inferred from 
the incident just mentioned. Abbot was of the Protestant or 
Puritan' party in the Church. Ho was naturally, therefore, 
a promoter of the match between the Elector Palatine and 
the Princess Elizabeth, and a firm opponent of the projected 
marriage of the Prince of Wales with the Infanta of Spain. 
This policy brought upon him the hatred of Laud and the 
court. The king, indeed, never forsook him ; but Buck- 
ingham was his avowed enemy, and he was regarded with 
dislike by the Prince of Wales, afterwards Charles I. 
In 1622 a sad misfortune befell the archbishop while 
hunting in Lord Zouch's park at Bramzill. A bolt from 
his cross-brow aimed at a deer happened to strike one of 
the keepers, who died within an hour, and Abbot was so 
greatly distressed by the event that he fell into a state of 
settled melancholy. His enemies maintained that the fatal 
issue of this accident disqualified him for his office, and 
argued that, though the homicide was involuntaiy, .the 
sport of huntiug which had led to it was one in which no 
•clerical person could lawfully indulge. - The king had to 
refer the matter to a commission of ten, though he said 
that " an angel might have miscarried after this sort." A 
■decision was given in the archbishop's favour; but to pre- 
vent disputes, it was recommended that the king Bhould 
formally absolve him, and confer his office upon him afiew. 
After this the archbishop seldom appeared at the council, 
chiefly on account, of his infirmities. He attended the 
king constantly, however, in his last illness, and performed 
the ceremony of the coronation of Charles I. A pretext 
■was soon found by his enemies for depriving him of all his 
functions as primate, which were put in commission by 
the king. This high-handed procedure was the result of 
Abbot's refusal to license a sermon preached by Dr Sibthorp, 
iu which the king's prerogative was stretched beyond con- 
•Btitutional limits. 'The archbishop had his powers restored 
to him shortly afterwards, however, whon the kii:g found 
it absolutely sicccsaary to summon a Pai'liamcnt. His pre- 

8en''.e being unwelcome at court, he lived from that time 
in "retirement, leaving Laud and his party in undisputed 
ascendency. He died, at Croydon on the 5th August 1633, 
and was buried at Guildford, his native place, where he had 
endowed an hospital with lands to the value of £300 a year. 
Abbot wrote a large nimiber of works; but, with the excep- 
tion of his Exposition on the Prophet Jonah (1600), which 
was reprinted' in 1845, they are now little known. His 
Geography, or a Brief Descriptimt, of the Whole World, 
passed through numerous editions. 

ABBOT, Geokgb, known as " The Puritan," has been 
oddly and persistently mistaken for others. He has been 
described as a clergyman, which he never was, and as son 
of Sir Morris Abbot, and his wi-itings accordingly entered 
in tLo bibliographical authorities as by the nephew of 
the Arch'oishop of Canterbury. One of the sons of Sir 
Morris Abbot was, indeed, named George, and he was 
a man of mark, but the more famous George Abbot 
was of a difi'erent family altogether. He was son or 
grandson (it is not clear which) of Sir Thomas Abbot, 
knight of Easington, East Yorkshire, having been bom 
there in 1603-4, his mother (or grandmother) being 
of the ancient house of Pickering. He married a 
daughter of Colonel Purefoy of Caldecote, Warwickshire, 
and as his -monument, which may still be seen in the 
church there, tells, he teively held it against Prince 
Rupert and Maurice during the civil war. He was a 
member of the Long Parliament for Tamworth. Aa a 
layman, and nevertheless a theologian and scholar of 
rare ripeness and critical ability, he holds an almost 
unique place in the literature of the period. His Whole 
Boolce of Job Paraphrased; or made easy for any to tinder- 
stand (1640, 4to), is in striking contrast, in its concinnity 
and terseness, with the prolixity of too many of the Puritan 
expositors and commentators. His ^ddic-ice Sablathi(l&il, 
8vo) had a profound and lasting ^influence in the long 
Sabbatic controversy. His Brief Notes vpon the Whole Book 
of Psalms (1651, 4to), as its date shows, was posthumous. 
He died February 2, 1648. (MS. collections at Abbey- 
viUe for history of all of the name of Abbot, by J. 1". 
Abbot, Esq.,F.S.A., Darlington; Dugdale's Antu/itities of 
Warwickshire, 1656, p. 791; Wood's Athenae (Bliss), s. v.; 
Cox's Literature of the Sabbath; Dr James Gilfillan on 
The Sabbath; Lowndte, Bodleian, B, Museum Catal. 
a. v.) (a. b. g.) 

ABBOT, EoBEET. Noted as this Puritan divine was in 
his own time, and representative in various ways, he has 
hitherto been confounded with others, as Eobert Abbot, 
Bishop of Salisbury, and his personality distributed over 
a Robert Abbot of Cranbrook; another of Southwick, 
Hants; a third of St Austin's, London ; while these succes- 
sive places were only the successive livings of the one 
Robert Abbot. He is also described as of the Archbishop's 
or Guildford Abbots, whereas he was iu no way related, 
albeit he acknowledges very gratefully, in the first of his 
epistles-dedicatory of A Hand of Fellowship to Uelpe Keeps 
ovt Sinne and Antichrist (1623, 4to), that it was from the 
archbishop he had " received all" his " worldly mainte- 
nance," as well as "best earthly countenance" and "fatherly 
incouragements." The worldly maintenance was the pre- 
sentation to the vicarage of Cranbrook in Kent, Of which 
the archbishop was patron. This was in 1616. He had 
received bis education at Cambridge, where ho proceeded 
M.A., and was afterwards incorporated at Oxford. . In 
1639,'in the ej)istle to the reader of his most noticeable 
book historically, his Triall^of our Chutch-Forsakers, 
he tells us, " I have lived noW, by God's gratious dis- 
pensation, above fifty years, and in the place of my 
allotment two and twenty fuU." The, former data 
carries us back to 1088-89, or perhaps 1587-88 — the 

I ~ A. 


A B B — A U 13 

" AnDftda"year — as his birth-«ime; the latter to lClG-17 

Sut supra). In hia lite Thank/ull London and her Sislera 
1G2C), he deacribeo himeeli as formerly "assistant to a 
reverend divine .... now with God," and the name on 
the margin is " Master Haiward of Wool Church." This 
was doubtless previous to his going to Cranbrook. Very 
remarkable and effective was Abbot's ministry at Cran- 
brook, where the father of Phiueas and Giles Fletcher was 
the first " Reformation" pastor, and which, relatively small 
as it is, is transfigured by being the birth-place of the poet 
of the " Locusta)" and "The Purple Island." His paribh- 
ioners were as his own " sons and daughters" to him, and 
by day and night he thought and felt, wept and prayed, for 
them aud with them. He is a noble specimen of the rural 
clergyman of his age. Puritan though ho was in his deepest 
convictions, he was a thorough Churchman a.s toward Non- 
conformists, e.g., the Brownists, with whom he waged stem 
warfare. Ho remained until 1043 at Cranbrook, aud then 
chose the very inferior living of Southwick, Hants, as be- 
tween the one and the other, the Parliament deciding 
against pluralities of ecclesiastical offices. Succeeding the 
" e.xtruded " Udall of St Austine's, Abbot continued there 
until a good old aga. In 1657, in the Warning-piece, he 
is described as still " pastor of Austine's in London." He 
disappears silently between 1657-8 and 16G2. Robert 
Abbot's books are distinguished from many of the Puritans 
by their terseness and variety. (Brook's Puritatm, iii 
182, 3; Walker's Sufferings; Wood's J</tfntB (Bliss); Cata- 
logus Impressorxim Librurum in Bibtiotlieca JBodleiana, a. v.; 
Palmer's Nonconf. Hem., iL 218.) (.v B. G.) 

ABBOTSFORD, the celebrated residence of Sir Walter 
Scott, situated on the south bank of the river Tweed, about 
three miles above Melrose. The nucleus of the property 
was a small farm of 100 acres, with the " inliarmonious 
designation" of Clarty Hole, acquired by Scott on the lapse 
of his lease (1811) of the neighbouring house of A.shestiel. 
It was gradually increased by various acfiuisitions, the last 
and principal being that of Toftficld (afterwards named 
Huntlyburn), purchased in 181 7. The present new house was 
then commenced, and was completed in 1824. The general 
ground-plan Is a parallelogram, ' with irregular outlines — 
one side overlooking the Tweed, and the other facing a 
courtyard ; aud the general stylo of the building is the 
Scottish baronial. Scott had ouly enjoyed his new resi- 
dence one year when (1825) he met with that reverse of 
fortune (connected with the failure of Ballantyne and 
Con.stable), which involved the estate in debt. In 1830, 
the library' and museum \vere presented as a free gift by 
the creditors; and after Scott's death, which took place at 
Abbotsford in September 1832, a committee of friends 
subscribed a further sum of about X8000 towards the same 
object. The property was wholly disencumbered in 1847, 
by Mr Cadell, the publisher, accepting the remaining 
claims of the family over Sir Walter Scott's writings in 
requital of liis obligation to obliterate the heritable bond on 
the property. The result of this transaction was, that not 
only was the estate redeemed by the fruit of Scott's brain, 
but a handsome residue fell to the publisher. Scott's only 
son Walter (Lieutenant-Colonel 15th Hussars) did not live 
to enjoy the property, having died on hb way from India 
in 1847. Its subsequent possessors have been Scott's 
son-in-law, J. G. Lockhart, and the latter's son-in-law, 
J. R Hope Scott, Q.C., whose daughter (Scott's great- 
granddaughter) is the present proprietor. Mr Lockhart 
died at Abbotsford in 1854. — See Li/e of Scott, by J. G. 
Lockhart; Abbotsford and Newslead Abbey, by Washing- 
ton-Irving; Abbotsford Nolanda in Gentleman's Mag., 

' TliB Catilotruo of the Library at Abbotsfoid forms vol. IxL of the 
B&imatf a» Club publications. ^ 

April and May 1869; The Lands of SeoCt, by James F. 
Hunnewell, cr. 8vo, 1871; iSeott Loan Exhibition Catci 
luyue, 4to, 1871. 

ABBOTSFORD CLUB, one of the principal printing 
clubs, was founded in 1 834 by Mr W. B. D. D. Turnbull, and 
named in honour of Sir Walter Scott. Taking a wider 
range than its predecessors, the Bannatyne and Maitland 
Clubs, it did not confine its printing (as remarked by Mr 
Lockhart) to works connected with Scotland, but admitted 
all materials that threw light on the ancient history of 
literature of any country, anywhere described or discussed 
by the Author of Wavcrloy. The club, now dissolved, con- 
sisted of fifty members ; aud th» publications extend to 3 t 
vols, quarto, Usucd during the years 1835-18C4. 

ABBREVIATIOX, a letter or group of letters, takca 
from a word or words, and employed to represent them for 
the sake of brevity. Abbreviations, both of single words 
and of phrases, having a meaning more or less fijccd and 
recognised, are common in ancient writings and in3crij> 
tions, and very many are in use at the jjresent time. A 
distinction is to be observed between abbreviations and the 
contractions that are frequently to be met with in old 
manuscripts, aud oven in early printed books, whereby 
letters are dropped out here and there, or particular collo- 
cations of letters represented by somewhat arbitrary symbols. 
The commonest form of abbreviation is thiJ substitution for 
a word of its initial letter ; but, with a view to prevent 
ambiguity, one or more of the other letters are frequently 
added. Letters are often doubled to indicate a plural or a 

I. Classical Abbreviations. — The following lisl con- 
tains a selection from the abbreviations that occur in the' 
writings and inscriptions of the Romans : — 


A Absolve, .£dill9, M&, Ager, Ago. AJo, Amicoa, Annus, 

Antiquo, Auctor, Auditor, Augustus, Aulus, Auruuv 

A. A. Mi alicDum, Ante audita, Apud agrom, Auium aig«utuio^ 

AA. Augiisti. AAA. Au^uisti tres. 

A.A.A.F.F. Auro argcnto ajreuando foriundo.^ 

A. A. V. Alter ambove. 

A.C. Acta causa. Alius civis. 

A. D. Ante diem ; e.g., A. D. V. Ante diom •{Uialuni.' 

.V. D. A. Ad dandos agros. 

.ED. Jules, .£<iUis, .£dilita3. 

i£M. and AIM. .^uiilius, .£mitia. 

^.R. jErarium. jEH. P. £re publlcu, 

AF. Actum fide, A\ili filius. 

AG. Ager, Ago, Agr^>pa. 

A O. Aniino grato, Aulus Gclliua. 

A. L.'E. and A. L. £. Arbitrium litis cealiiuaj.dji 

Ail. nii^ A.MILL. Ad milliarium. 

AN. Aniensis, Annus, ADt«. 

ANN. Ami&les, Anni, Amiona. 

ANT. Ante, Ajitoniua. 

A. O. Alii omncs, Amico optimo. 

AP. Appius, Apud. 

.V. P. Ad pedes, iEdilitia potestate. 

AP.F. Auro {or argento) publico feriundo. 

A. P.M. Amico posuit monumentum, Annoruin plus minus; 

A. P. R.C. Addo post Romam conditam. 

jVRG. Argentum. 

Alt. V.V.D.D. Aram Totam volens dedicavit, Arma votivudouutfedjit- 

AT. A tsrgo. Also A TE. and A TEB. 

A.T. M. D. 0. Aio to mihi dare opertere. 

AV. Augur, Augustus, Aurcliua. 

A. V. Annos visit. 

A. V.C. Ab urbo condita. 
AVG. Augur, Augustus. 

AVG3. AwgasXHgenerally of two). A'VGGG. Augast) tres. 
AVT. Pfi.U. Auctoritas provincise Romanoi'um. 


B. Balbius, Balbus, Beatua, Bene, Beneficiarios, Beneficiuic, 

Bonus, Brutus, Bustum. 
B. /orV. B8ma,BiTU3, Butit 
B.A. Bixit annos. Soma au^uriis. Bonus amabilis. 

' Doscnbing the fonctioa of the iriunvin numUaUa., 



HR. orB. B. Bene bene, i.e., optime, Optimus. ' 

B. D. BonsB dose, Honiim datum. 

B. DD. Bonis deabua. 

B. D.S. M. Bene de se merenti. 

B. F. Bona femina, Bona fidcg, Bona fortuna, Bonnm factum. 

(I.J. Bona femina, Bona filia. 

H, H. Bona hereditaria, Bonomm heres. 

B. i. Bonura judicium. B. 1. 1. Boni judicia judicium, 

B. K. Beats memoriae, Bene merenti. 

B. K. Bona nostra, Bonum nomen. 

li N.H.I. Bona hie invenies. 

B. P. liona patema, Bonomm potestas, Bonum publicum. 

B.Q. Bene quiescat. Bona quiesita. 

B.RP.N. Bono reipublicae-natua. 

BUT. Britannicus. 

B.T. Bonomm tutor, Brevi tempore, 

B. V. Bene vale, Bene vixit, Bonus vir. 

B. V. v. Balnea vina Venus. 
BX. Bixit, for vixit. 

C Cfflaar, Caius, Caput, Causa, Censor, Civis, Cohors, Colonia, 

ComitiaKs (dies), Condemno, Consul, Cum, Curo, 

p. Caia, Centuria, Cum, the prefix Con. 

C. B. Civis bonus, Communo bonum, Conjugi benemerenti, Cui 

C.C. Calumni.'e causa, Causa cognita, Conjugi carissimae, Con- 

eilium cepit, Curiro consulto. 
C. C. C. Calumniae cavendse causS. 

C.C. F. Caisar {or Caius) curavit faciendum, Caius Caii filiui. 
caw. Clarissimi viri. 

CD. Caesaris decreto, Caius Decius, Coraitialfbus diebua, 
CICS. Censor, Censores. CESS. Censorep 
C.F. Causa fiducise, Conjugi fecit, Curavit faciendum. 

C. H. Custos heredum, Custos hortonim. 

C.I. Caius Julius, Consul jussit, Curavit judex. 

CIj. Clarissimus, Claudius, Clodlus, Coloiii.k 

CL. ^. Clarissimus rir, ClypeuTn vovit, 

C» AL Caius filarius, Causa mortis. 

CN. CnfcuB. 

COH. Coherea, Cohors. 

COL. CoUega, Collegium, Cgloma, Columua. 

COLL. Collcga, Coloni, Colonrre. 

COM. Comos, Comitium, Compnratum, 

CON. Conjux, Consensus, Consiliarius, Cons\il, Consularis, 

COR. Cornelia (tribus), Cornelius, Corona, Corpus. 

COS. Consiliarius, Consul, Consulares. COSS. Consulcs. 

C.P. Carissimus or Clarissimus puor, Civis publicus, Curavit 

C. R. Caius Kufus, Civis Romanus, Curavit reficiendum. 
C3, Caisar, Communis, Consul. 

C.V. Clarissimus or consularis vir. 
CVR. Cura, Curator, Curavit, Curia. 


D. Dat, Dedit, &c., De, Dccimus, D^cius, Decretum, Decurin, 

Deus, Dicit, Jtc, Dies, Divus, Dominus, Domu.'*, 
DC. Decurio colonic, Diebus comitialibus, Divus Ctesar. 
D. D Dea Dia, Decurionum decreto, Dedicavit, Deo dedit, Dont- 

D. D.D. Datum decreto decurionum, Dono dedit dedicavit. 
I>. E.R, De earc. 
b ES. Designatus. 

D.I. Dedit iraperator, Diis immortallbus, Diis inferis. 
D. I.M. Deo iuvicto ilithrx, Diis inferis llanibus. 
D.M. Deo Magno, Dlgntis memoria, Diis Manibus, Dolo malo. 
D. 0. >L Deo Optimo Maximo. 

D. P.S. Dedit proprio sumptu, Deo pqrpetuo sacrum, De pccunia 

Ejus. Eques, Erexit, Ergo, Est, Et. Etiam, Ex. 
iEgor, Egit, Egregius. 

EgrogiiR racmorice, Ejosmodi, Erexit monumentura. 
Equitum raagister, 
Ea res agitor. 

Fubius, Facere, Fecit, fcc, Familia, FiiBtus (dies\ Felix. 
Femina, Fi^es, Filius, Flamon, Foi-tuna, Frator, Fuji. 
Faciendum curavit, Fidei commi3<*um, Fiductte causa, 
Fidera dedit, Flamcn Dialis, Fraude donavit. 
Forro flamma fame, FoMior fortxma fato. 
Filius, FlameH, Flaminius, Flavins. 
Paveto Unguis, Fecit libcfis, Felix liber. 
Foram, Fronte, Frumentorius. 
Foruui Iluniauum. 


R. M. 
EQ. M. 
E. U. A. 








G. Gains ( = Cains), Gallia, Gaudium, GeTlina, Gemina, Gena, 

Gesta, Gratia. 
G.F. Gemina fidelis {%pplkd to a legion). 5o G.P.F. Gemina 

pia fidelis. 
GL. Gloria. 

GN. Genius, Gens, Genus, Gnaeus (^Cnaeofl), 

G. P.R. Genio populi Romani. 

H. Habet, ITeres, Hie, Homo, Honor, Hora. 

HER. Heres, Herennius. HER. and HERC. Hercules, 
H.Ij. Hac lege, Hoc loco, Honesto loco. 
H.M. Hoc monumentum, Honesta mulicr, Hora mala, 
H.S.E. Hie Eepultus est, Hie situs est. 
H.V. Hsec ui-bs, Hie vivit, Honeste vixit, Honestus vir. 

I. Immortalis, Imperator, In, Infra, Inter, Invictus, Ipae;. 

Isis, Judex, Julius, Junius, Juniter, Justus. 
IA_ Jam, Intra. 

I.e. JuJius Cssar, Juris Consultum, Jus civile. 
ID. Idem, Idus, Interdum. 

I.D. Infens diis, Jovi dedicatum, Jus dicendum, Jussu DeL 
I. D.M. Jovi dco magno. 
I. F. In fovo, In Ironte. 

I. H. Jacet hie, In honestatem, Justus homo. 
IM. Imago, Immortalis, Immunis, Impensa. 

IMP. Imperator, Imperium, 
I. CM, Jovi Optimo maximo. 

I. P. In publico. Intra provinciam Justa persona. 

I.S.V. r. Impensa sua vivus posuit 


K. Kceso, Caia, Calumnia, Caput, Carus, Castra. 

K., EAL.. arul KL. Kalends. 


L. Laelius, Legio, Lex, Libcns Liber, Libra, Locus, LoUiua, 

Lucius, Ludus. 
LB. Libens, Liberi, I^ibertus. 

L.D.D.D. Locus datus decroto decurionum. 
LEG. Legatus, Legio. 

LIB. Liber, Liberalitas, Libertas, Libertus, LibrariuB. 
LL. Leges, Libentissime, LibertL 

L.M. Libens merito, LocuS monumrnti. 
L.S. Laribus sacrum. Libens solvit. Locus saoer. 
LVD. Ludus. 
LY.P.F. Ludos publicoa fecit. 

M. Magister, Maglsti-atus, Jlagnus, Manes, Marcus, Marina^ 

Marti, Mater, Mcmorin. Mcnsis, Miles, Monumentmn,. 
Mortuus, Mucins, ilulier. 

M*. Manius. 

M. D. Jlagno Deo, Manibus diis, Matri deum, Merenti derbt 

ME3. Mensis. MESS, iicnscs. 

M. F. Mala fides, Ma-rci filius, Monumentum fecit, 

M.I. Matri Idae.-e, Matri Isidi, ilaximo Joyi. 

MNT. and MON. Moneta. 

M. P. Male positus, Monumentum posuit. 

M.S. Manibus sacrum, Memorire sacrum, ManUficriptum. 

MVN. Municeps, or municipium ; so also MN., MV., and 

M.T.S. Marti ultori sacrum, Mciito votum solvit 

N. Katio, ^atus, Nefastus (dies), Ne^ws, Keptunus, Nero, 

Komen, Non, IJonte, Nostcr, Kovu3, Nuraen, Numo- 

rius, Numerus, Nummus. 
N"EP. Kepos, Neptunus. 
K.F.C. Nostra fidei commissum. 
X.L. Kon licet, Non liquet, Non loDgO. 
N.M.V. Nobilis mcmoriaa vir. 

NN. Nostri. NN., NNO., ffjiiNKR. Nostronim. 
NOB. Nobilis. NOB., NOIiK., a»rf NOV. Novembris. 
N.P, Nefastus primo (i.e., priore parte dici), ]^on potest. 

0. Ob, OfTirium, Omnis, Oportot, Optimus, Opus. Oaso. 

OR. Obiit, Obiter, Orbis. 

O.C.S. Ob civcs scrvatos. 
O.H. F. Omnibus honoribus functus 
O.H.S.S. Ossa hie siti sunt. 
OR. Hora, Ordo, Omaraentum. 

O.T.B.O Oasa tua bene quitscnnt. 


P. Pots, Passus, Pater, Pr.tronus, Pax, Porpctuns, Pes. Pius,, 

Plebs, Pondo, Populus, Post, l*osuit, Prases, Pra:tor, 
Primus, Pro, Provincia, Publicus, Publius, Pucr. 

P.C. Pactum conventum, Patrcs conscripti, Pecunia constitutor 
Ponendum cuiarit, Postconsulatum, PotcstatecousoriA. 



A B B K E V I A T I O N 

p.p. Pl» (idelis, Pius felix, Pnomissa fidos, Publii filius. 

P. M. Pisd memoris. Plus minun, Pontifex maxirous. 

P.P. Pater patmtua. Pater patriaj, Pccunia publica, P'^posihis, 

Primipilus, Proprsetor. 

PR, Pmwea, Prtetor, Pridie, Prjnoops. 

P. R. Pormiaau roipublica, Populus Uomanus. 

JMI.C. Post Jiomam couditam. 

PR. PR. PiKfectus praetorii, Proprsetor. 

P. 8. Pecunia sua, Plebiscitnm, Proprio snmptu, PnbliciB saluti. 

P. V. Pia victrii, Prtcfeotua urbi, Pnnstantisdimua vij. 

Q. Quaestor, Qaando, Quautufl, Que. Qui, Qoinquennnlis, 

Quintus, Quiritos. 
Q.O.R. Quadero. 

Q. I.S.3. Qum infra scripta sunt ; so Q. 8. 8. 8. Quie supra. 4c. 
QQ. Quajcumiuo, Quinqueonalia, Quoque. 

Q. U 'juai.itor rnipublic;^. 

R. Recto, Res. Respnblica, Betro, Roi, Rips, Boma, Ronmnna, 

F.iJ'us, Rursua. 
R. C. Eo-nana ci vitas, Uomanus civia. 
Rii.SP. and RP. HcspuUioa. 
KET. P. and RP. Retro nei'ea. 

8k Sacrum, Scriptus, Semis, Senatps, Scpultns, Serriua, 

Sorvua, Soxtua Sibi, Sine, Situs, Solus, Solvit, .Sub, 

SAC. riacerdos, Sacrificium, Sacrum. 
S.C. Scnatus consultiini. 
8,0. Sacrum diia, Salutcm dicit, Senatna decrcto, Sentontiam 

S.D.jr. S'lcnim diis Manibus, Sine dolo mala 
SKH. Rervius, Rervus. 
9. E.T.L. Sit ei terra levia. 
SN. Senatus, Sententia, Sine. 

S. P. Sacerdos perpetua. Sine peconia, Sua pecnnia. 
S. P.Q.R, Senatus populusque Romanus. 
S.S. Sanctisaimus senatus. Supra acriptum. 
S.V.B.E.E.Q.V. Si vales bone est, ego quidem valco. 

T. Terminus, Testamentum, Titus, Tribunua, Tu, Tnrma, 

TB., Tl., and TIB. Tiberius. 
TB., TR., and TRB. Tribunus. 
T.F. Testamentum fecit, Titi filios, Titnlam fecit, Titus 

TM. Terminus, Teatamentum, Thermse. 
T. P. Torminum posuit, Tribunicia potestate, Tribnnns plebis. 
TVL. Tullius, Tullua.- 

V. "Urbs, TTsas, Uxor, Tale, Vertia, Testalia, Tester, Tir, 

Tivus, Tixit, Tolo, Totum, 
7.A. Teterano assignatus, Vixit annoa, 
T.C. Tale conjux, Vir clarissimua, Tir consularis. 
V. E, Terum etiam, Tir egregius, Tisum est. 
T.F. ITsHS fructus, Terba fecit, Tivus fecit 
T. P. Urbis prasfectus, Vir perfectissimus, Tivus posuit. 
V. R, Urbs Roma, Uti rogas, Totum reddidit 

n. Medlbval Abbreviations, — Of the different kinds 
of abbreviations in use in the middle age?, the following 
are examples: — 

A.Htf. Ave Maria, 

B.P. Beatus Paulus, Beatna Petrus. 

CC. Carissimua {also plur, Carissimi), Clarissimua, Circum. 

D. Deus, Dominicus, Bux. 

i). N. PP. Dominua noster Papa, 

FF. Felicissimua, Fratres, Pandectffl (proi. for Or. n). 

I.e. or I.X. Jesus Cbristua. 

I.D.N. In Dei nomine. 

KK. Karissimua (or -mi). 

MM. Hagistri, Martyres, Matrimoniom, Meiitissimas. 

O.S.B. Ordinis Sancti Benedicti. 

PP. Papa, Patres, Piissimua. 

R,F. Rex Francorum. 

R. P. D. Reverendissimus Pater Dominos. 

S. C. M. Sacra Ccesarea Majestaa. 

S. M. E. Sancta Mater Ecclesia. 

R.M.AL Sancta Mater Maria. 

S.R.1. Sanctum Roman um Imperium. 

8.T. Sanctitos Testra, Sancta Tirgo. 

T. Tenerabilis, Tenerandua. 

T.R.P. Testra Reverendissima Patemitaa. 

• IIL Abbbeyiations now in use. — The import of these 
will often be readily understood "from the connection in 

which they occur. There ia no occasion to explain her« 
the common abbreviations used for Chi-istian names, books 
of Scripture, months of the year, points of the compass, 
grammatical and mathematical terms, or familiar Titles, 
Uko " Mr;" Ac 

The ordinary abbreviations, now or recently in use, may 
be conveniently classified under the folloising headings :— < 

1. Abbreviated Titles and Designxtioks. 

A. A- Associate of Arta. 

A. B. Able-bodied scainan. 

A. M. (ATiium Mngister), Master of Atrts. 

A. R.A. Associate of tbo Royal Academy 

A. U.S.A. Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy. 

B. A. Bachclof of Arts. 

li. C. L Bachelor of Civil La% 

B. D. Bachelor of Divinity. 

B. LiL. Bachelor of Laws. 
B.Sc Bachelor of Sciencs. 

C. Chairman. 

C.A. Chartered Accountant 

C. B. Companion of the Bath. 

C. E. Civil Engineer. 

C. M. {Chirurgix Mayistcr), Master in Surgery. 

C. M.G. Companion of St Michael and St George, 

C. S. I. Companion of the Star of IndijL 
D.C.L. DoctorofCivil Law. 

D.D. Doctor of Divinity. 

D. Lit Doctor of Literature. 

D. AL Doctor of Medicine [Oxford]. 

D.Sc Doctor of Science. 

Ebor. (i.'6ora«Tur«), of York.* 

F.C.S. Fellow of the Chemical Society. 

F. D. {Fidn Defenaar), Defender of the Faith. 

F. F. P. S. Fellow of the Faculty of Physicians k Surgeons [Chisgo*. ] 

F. G. S. Fellow of the Geological Society. 

F.K.Q.C.P.l. Fellow of King and Queen's College of Physicians 

in Ireland. 
F.L.S. Fellow of the Linnxan Society. 
F. M. Field Marshal 
K. P. 8. Fellow of the Philologies} Society. 
F. R.A.S. Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society. 
F. K.C. P. Fellow of tho Royal College of Physicians. 
F.R.C.P.E. Fellow of tho Royal College of Physicians of E>lin-, 

F.R.C.S. Fellow of the Rcyal College of Sareeons. 
F. R.G.S. Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. 
F. R. S. FeUow of the Royal Society. 
F.R.S.E. Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 
F. R.S.L. FcUow of the Royal Society Sf Literature. 
F.S. A. Fellow of the Society of Antiquai'ies. 
F. S. S. Fellow of the Statistical Society. 

F. Z. S. Fellow of the Zoological Society. 
G.C.B. Knight Grand' Cross of the Bath. 
G.C.H. Knight Grand' Cross of Hanover. 

G.C.M.G. Knight Grand Cross of St Michael and Pt George. 

G. C.S.I. Knight Grand Commander of the Star of India. 
H.RH. His (or Her) Royal Highness. 

J. P. J'istice of the Peace. 

J. U. D. (Juris utriusque Dodo/), Doctor of Civil and Canou I.»w. 

K. C.S.I. Knight Commander of the Star of India. 

K.C.B. Knight Commander of the Bath. 

K. G. Knight of the GarUr. 

K. P. Knight of St Patrick. 

K.T. Knight of the Thistle. 

L.A.n. Licentiate of the Apothecaries' HalL 

L.C.J. Lord Chief Justice. 

LL. B. (Z^gum Baccalawreus), Baclftlor of Laws. 

LL. D. {Legum Doctor), Doctor of Laws. 

LL. M. {Legum Magistcr), Master of Laws. 

L. R. C. P. Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians, 

L. R. C. S. Licentiate of the Royal College of .Surgeons. 

L. S. A. Licentiate of the Apothecaries Society. 

W.A. Master of Arts. 

M. B. {Medicince Baccaiaurcus), Bachelor of Medicine. 

M. C. Member of Congress. 

M.D. {Mcdicina Doctor), Doctor of Medicine. 

M. P. Member of Parliament. 

M. R. C. P. Member of the Royal College of Physicians. 

.\I. R.I.A. Member of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Mus. B. . Bachelor of Music. 

* An archbishop or bishop, in writing his signature, substitutes Iv 
his surname the name of his see ; thus the prelates of Canterbury, York, 
tford, London, &c. , subscribe themselves A. 0. Cantuar.,, W. Eber. 
J. F. Cion., J. London. i:c. 







c. (or cub.) ft &c cubic foot, 


{d€narizis), penny. 


dra^bm or aram. 







h. 01' hr. hour, 
hbd. hothead, 
in. iucn. 
kilo, kilometre. 

















{guadra7is)f farthing. 


ro. rood." 
Rs. ' rupees. 
&. or / {solidua), shilling. 
3. or sec. second. 
sc. or scr. scruple, 
sq. f*- &c. square foot, &c, 
St. stone, 
yd- yard. 

Mufl. D. Doctor of Musits. 

N.P, Notary Public. 

P.C. Vxivy Councillor. 

Ph.D. {PhilosophicB Doctor), Doctor of Phiio3<^hy. 

P.P. Parish Priest. 

P.R.A. President of the Eoval Academy. 

Q.CX Queen's Counsel. 

R, {Hex, Regina), King, Queem 

JLA- Royal Academician. Royal Artillery. 

R.A.M Royal Academy of Music. 

R.E. Royal Enginesra. 

Reg. Prof. Regius Professor. 

R.M. Royal Marines. 

R.N. Royal Navy. 

S. or St. Saint. 

8.S.C. Solicitor before the Supreme Courts [of Scotland]. 

S.T.P. {Sacrosanci(K Theologice Professor)^ Profesror of Sacred 


V.C. Vice-Chancellor. " ictoria Cross. 

V.G. Vicar-Generak 

V.S. Veterinary Surgeon. | 

W.S. Writer to the Signet fin Scotland]. Equivalent to Attortwy. 

2. Abbreviations denoting Monies, Weights, and 
Measuees : — ^ 

L. , * £,' or Z. {libra), pound 

lb. or lb. ^libra), pound (weight), 
m. o^ mi. mile ; minute. 







3. Miscellaneous ABBEEviATiONa, 

A. Accepted. 

A.C. {Ante Christum), Before Christ. 

Eicc., &/c., or acct. Account. 

A. D. {Anno Domini), In the year of our Lord. 

A. E.I.O.U. Austrise est imperare orbi universo.'w Alles Erdreh'h 

1st Oesterreich Uuterthan. 
SLi. or iEtat. {^tatia [anno]). In the year of his age. 
A.H. {Anvj) Eegirce)^ In the year of the Hefnra (the Mohammedan 

A. M. (-471710 Mutidi), In the year of the world. 
A.M. {Ante meridiem), Forenoon. 
Anon. Anonymous. 
A.U.C I Anno urbis condilft), m the year from the building of tlie 

city (i.ff., Rome.) 
B.C. Before Christ. 
C. or Cap. {Caput), Chapter. 

C. Centigrade {or Celsius's) Thermoraecor. 
cent* {Ce)itum), A hundred, //-cf/tttrnf/j/ £100. 
Ct {Confer), Compare. 

Ch- or Chap. Chapter. 
Co. Company, County, 
Cr. Creditor, 

ciu-t. Current, the present month. 
D.G. {Dei gratia), By the grace of God- 
Do. Ditto, the same. 

D.O.M. {Deo Oj)tiTno Maximo), To God the Besi and Greatest 
Dr. Debtor. 

D. V. {Deo /oolnite)t God will in £^. 

* Characters, not properly abbreviations, are used in the same way ; 
e.g., ° ' " for "degrees, minutes, seconds," (circular meaaure); 5i 3' ^ 
for "ounces, drachms, scruples." ^ ^ probably to be traced to the 
written form of the x in "oz." 

' TlicKC forms (as well as $, the symbol for the American dollar) arc 
placed before their amounts. 

* It is fjiwn to Avstna to rule the whole earth. The device of 
Austria, first adopted by Frederick IIT. 

* " Per cent" is often u^^nifiod by 7oi a 'orm traceable to " 100." 

e. g. (Exempli gratia). For example. 

ect. cr &c. {£t ccttera), And the rest ; and bo forth. 

Ex, Example. 

F. or Fahr. Fahrenheit's Thermometet 

Fe^ {Fecit) f He- made {or did) it 

fl. Flourished- 

Fo. or FoL Folio. 

f.o.b. Free on board. 

G.P.O, General Post Office . 

H.M.S. Her Majesty's Ship. 

lb, or Ibid. {Ibidem), In the same Mlace, 

Id. {Id^n), The same. 

i, e. (Id est). That is. 

I. U.S. Ijesiis Hominum Salvator), Jogua the Saviour of mon, 

Inl {Infra), Below. 

inst Instant, the present month, 

I.O. U. I owe you. 

i.q. (Idem quod). The same as. 

K.T.x. (kk) vac XeiTtc), M ccElcra, and the rest, 

L. or Lib. {LiberS. Book 

Lat Latitude. 

Lc. {Loco citato). In the place cited. 

Lon. *r Long. Lon^^tude. 

L.S. {Locu^ sigilU), The piace of the seal. 

Mem. {McTTUiito), Remember, Memorandum, ■ 

MS. Manuscript. MSS. Manuscript;!. 

N.B. {N'ota bene). Mack well ; take notice. 

N.B. North Britain (i.c, Sc/-*-'""d^ 

N.D. No date. 

nem, con. {Kemiru^ corUradicente\ No one contradicting. 

No. {Nuviero), Number. 

N.S.' NewSiyle. 

N.T, New Testament 

ob. {OUit), Died, 

Ob3, Obsolete 

I). H.M.S. On Her Majesty's Service. 

O.S. Old Style. 

O.T. Old Testament 

P. Page. Pp. Pa^es. 

^. {Per), For ; e.g., ^ lb.. For one pound- 

Pinx. iPinxit), He painted it. 

P.M. {Post meridiem), Afternoon. 

P.O. Post Office. P. 0.0. Post Office Older. 

P. P.C. {Pour prendre congi). To take leave. 

P.R. Pri2e-ring. 

pros. (Proximo [mense]), Next montli, 

P. S. Postscript 

Pt Part. 

p.t or pro. tern. {Pro tempore). For the time. 

P. T.O. Please turn over. 

Q., Qu., or Qy. Query ; Question. 

q.d. {Quasi dicat), Aa if he should say ; as much as to say. 

Q.E.D. {Quod erat demoTistrandiim), which was to bo denionstrateil, 

Q.£.F. (Quod erat faciendiim), which was to be done. 

q.s. or quant Buff. {Quantum sujicit), As much as is sufficient 

q.v. {Quod vide), 'Which see. 

R. or R. {Recipe), Take. 

v' (= r. for radix), the sign of the square root 

R.I.P. (Rcquiescat in pace I), May be rest in peace I 

8C. {Scilicet), Namely ; that is to say. 

Sc. or Sculp. (Sculpsit), He engraved it. 

S.D. U.K. Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

"Seq. or sq., seqq. or sqq. {Sequens, sequcntia). The following. 

8. p. {Sine prole). Without offspring. 

S.P.G. Society for the Propagation oi the Gosnol. 

Sup. {Supra), Above. 

S.V. {Sub voce). Under the word {or heading;, 

T.C.D. Trinity College, Dublin. 

nit {Ultimo [m^isc^ Last month. 

U.S. United States. 

V, ( Versus), Again^ ., 

V. or vid. ( Fide)^^ce. 

viz, { Videliccl)^ amoly, 

V. R, ( Victoria Regina), Victoria the Queen. 

Xmas. Christmas [TAw X is a Greek letter, corresponding (o Ch] 

(See Grocvius*8 TJiesanrus Antiquitatnm, 1694, eqq.; 
Nicolai's Tractatus dc Siglis Veterum ; Mominsen'a Corpus 
Inscriptionum Laiinarvm, 1863, sqq.; Natalis de Waillys 
Paleographie, Paris, 1838; Alph, Chassant's Faliopraphie, 
,1£54, and Dictionnaire des Abrcmation^, 3d ed., 1866. A 
manual of the abbreviations in current use is a desideratum. ) 

ABBREVIATORS, a body of writers in the Papal 
Chancery, whose business is to sketch, out and prepare in 
due form the Pope's bulls, briefs, and conaistorial decreea 


A B D — A B D 

'I'hey are first mentioned in a bull of Benedict XIL, early 
iu the 14th century. Their number ia fixed at seventy- 
two, of whom twelve, distinguished as de parco mitjori, hold 
prelatic rank ; twenty-two, de parco minori, are clergymen of 
lower rank; and the remainder, <j;amtn<j<orM, may be laymen. 

ABDALLATIF, or Abd-ui^Latif, a celebrated physician 
and traveller, and one of the most voluminoas writers of 
the East, was born at Baghdad in 1162. An interesting 
memoir of Abdallatif, written by himself, has been pre- 
served \rith additions by Ibn-Abu-Osiiba, a contcmporar)'.' 
From that work wo learn that the higher education of the 
youth of Baghdad consisted principally in a minute and 
careful study of the rules and princijiles of grammar, and 
in their committing to memorj' the whole of the Koran, a 
treatise or two on philology and jurisprudence, and the 
choicest Arabian poetry. After attaining to great pro- 
ficiency in that kind of learning, Abdallatif applied him- 
oelf to natural philosophy and medicine. To enjoy the 
society of the learned, he went fii-st to Mosul (1189), and 
afterwards to Damascus, the great resort of the eminent 
men of that age. The chemical fooleries that engrossed 
the attention of some of these had no attraction for hiin, 
but he entered with eagerness into speculative discussions. 
With letters of recommendation from Saladin's vizier, he 
visited Egj-pt, where the wish ho had long cherished to 
•converse with Maimonides, " the Eagle of the Doctors," 
was gratified. He afterwards formed one of the circle of 
learned men whom Saladin gathered around him at Jeru- 
salem, and shared in the great sultan's favours. He taught 
medicine and philosophy at Cairo and at Damascus for a 
number of years, and afterwards, for a shorter period, at 
Aleppo. His love of travel led him in his old age to visit 
different parts of Armenia and Asia Jlinor, and he was 
sotting out on a pilgrimage to Mecca when he died at 
Baghdad in 1231. Abdallatif was undoubtedly a man of 
great knowledge and of an inquisitive and penetrating 
mind, but is said to have been somewhat vain of his attain- 
ments. Of the numerous works — most of them on medi- 
cine — which Osaiba ascribes to him, one only, the Acrount 
of E;iypt; appears to be known in Europe. The manuscript 
of this work, which was di.scovcrcd by Pococke the Orien- 
talist, Ls preserved in the Bodleian Library. It trans- 
lated into Latin by Professor White of Oxford in 1800, and 
into French, with very valuable notes, by De Sacy in 1310 
It consists of two parts : the first gives a general view of 
Egypt ; the second treats of the Nile, and contains a vivid 
description of a famine caused, during the author's residence 
in Eg)'pt, by the river failing to overflow its banks. The 
-work gives an authentic detailed account of the state of 
Egypt during the middle ages. 

AED-EL-KADER, celebrated for his brave resistance to 
the advance of the French in Algeria, was born near 
Mascara, in the early part of the year 1807. His father 
was a man of great influence among his countrymen from 
his high rank and learning, and Abd-el-Kader himself at 
an early age acquired a wide reputation for wisdom and 
piety, as well as for skill in horsemanship and other manly 
exercises. In 1831 he was chosen Emir of Mascara, and 
leader of the combined tribes in their attempt to check the 
growing power of the French in Africa. His efforts were 
at first successful, and in 1834 he concluded a treaty with 
the French general, which was very favourable to his cause. 
This treaty was broken in the succeeding year; but as the 
war that followed was mainly in favour of the Arabs, peace 
was renewed in 1837. War again broke out in 1839, 
and for more than a year was carried on in a very 
desultory manner. In 1841, however, Marshal Bugciud 
assumed the chief command of the French force, which 
numbered nearly 100,000 men. The -war was now 
^earned on with great vigour, and Abd-el-Kader, after a 

most determined resistance, surrendered himself to the 
Due d'Aumale, on the 22d December 1847. The promise, 
that he would be allowed to retire to Alexandria or St 
Jean d'Acre, upon the faith of which Abd-el-Kader had 
given himself up, was broken by the French government 
He was taken to France, and was iniprisoncd fjst in the 
castle of Pan, and afterwards in of In 1852 
Louis Napoleon gave him his liberty on condition of hu not 
returning to Algeria. Since ther he resided successively at 
Broussa, Constantinople, and Damascus. He is reported 
to have died at Mecca in October 1873. See Algeria. 

ABDERA (1.), in Ancient Geography, a maritime town of 
Thrace, eastward from the mouth of the river Nestua. 
Mytholog)' a-ssigns the founding of the town to Hercules ; 
but Herodotus states that it was first colonised by Timesias 
of ClazomeniB, whom the Thracians in a short time expelled. 
Rather more than a century later (b.c. 541), the people of 
Seos recolonised Abdcra, The town soon became one of 
considerable importance, and in B.C. 408, when it was re- 
duced by Thrasybulus the Athenian, it is described as in a 
very flourishing condition. Its prosperity was greatly im- 
paired by its disastrous war with the Triballi (circa B.C 
370), and very little b heard of it thereafter. The 
Abderitie, or Abderitani, were proverbial for their want of 
w it and judgment ; yet their city gave birth to several 
eminent persons, as Protagoras, Democritus, and Anaxarchus 
the philosophers, Hecataeus the historian, Nicsenetua the 
poet, and others. 

ABDERA (2.), a town in Hispania Saeiiea, founded by 
the Carthaginians, on the south coast, between ilalata and 
Prom. Charidemi. It is probably represented by the 
modem Adra. 

ABDICATION, the act whereby a person in office 
renounces and gives up the same before the expiry of the 
time for which it is held. The word is seldom used except 
in the sense of surrendering the supreme power in a state. 
Despotic sovereigns are at liberty to divest themselves pi 
their powers at any time, but it is otherwise with a limited 
monarchy. The throne of Great Britain cannot be lawfully 
abdicated unless with the consent of the two Houses of Par- 
liament. Wnen James IL, after throwing the Great Seal 
into the Thames, fled to France in 1688, he did not formally 
resign the crown, and the question was discussed in Parlia- 
ment whether be had forfeited the throne or had abdicated. 
The latter designation was agreed on, for in a full assembly 
of the Lords and Commons, met in convention, it was re- 
solved, in spite of James's protest, " that King James II. 
having endeavoured to subvert the constitution of the king- 
dom, by breaking the original contract between king and 
people, and, by the advice of Jesuits and other wicked persons, 
having violated the fundamental laws, and having with- 
drawn himself out of this kingdom, has abdicated the 
government, and that the throne is thereby vacant" The 
Scotch Parliament pronounced a decree of forfeiture and 
deposition. Among the most memorable abdications of 
antiquity may be mentioned that of Sulla the dictator, b.c. 
79, and that of the Emperor Diocletian, a.d. 305. The follow- 
ing is a list of the more important abdications of lat<ir times ; — 

Benedict IX.. Pope, ....... 1046 

Stephen II. of Hungary , . . . 1131 

Albert (the Bear) of Brandenburg, . . .1169 

Ladislaus HI., Duke of Poland, . . . . 1207 

John Balliol of Scotland. ..... 1295 

John Cantacu^ene, Emperor of the, . . . 1355 

John XXIII , Pope H15 VII. of Denmark and XIII. of Swivlen, . . . 143S> 
Amnrath II., Ottoman Emperor, . . U4landl44)^ 

Charles v.. Emperor,. ...... 155f. 

Christina of Sweden. ....... 165* 

John Casimir of Poland, . . ... ]66f> 

James II. of England. lC3h 

Frcd'^rick Acpistus of Pobrd 17Ci 

A B D — A B E 


rhilip v. of Spain, . . 


Victor Amadeus II. of Sardinia, . , . . . 


Aclitnet III., Ottomau Emperor, . . . 


<"'liarles of Naples (on accession 

to throne of Siiaini, 


Stanislaus 11. of Toland, 


Cljarles Emanuel IV. of Sardiii 

i I . . . June 



Charles IV. of Spain, 




Joseph Bonaparte of Naples, 




'GusUTOs IV. of Sweden, 




Ix>ui3 Bonaoarte of Holland, 




iXapoleon of France, 

. April 4, 13H, and June 



Victor Emanuel of Sardinia, 




Charles X. of Fi-ance 




Pedro of Brazil.' . 

, . April 



Don Jliguel of Portugal, 




v.- I. of HoUand, 




Louis Philippe of France, 




lAfUis Charles of Bavaria, 




Ferdinand of Austria, . 




•- Charles Albert of Sardinia, 




.Leopold 11. of Tuscany, 




.Isabella 11. of Spain, 




. Amadeus I. of Spain, 




ABDOMEN, in Anatomy, the lower part of the trunk of 
■■ the body, situated between the thorax and the peh-is. See 

ABDOMINALES, or Abdominal Fishls, a sub-division 
.of the ilalacopterj-gious Order, whose ventral fins are placid 

■ behind the pectorals, under the abdomen. The typical 
.abdominals are carp, salmon, herring, silures, and pike. 

ABDUCTIOX, a law term denoting the forcible or 
fraudulent removal of a person, limited by custom to the 
£ase where a woman is the victim. In the case of men or 
.children, it has been usual to substitute the terra Kid- 
napping (q.v.) The old severe laws against abduction, 
generally contemplating its object as the possession of an 
heiress and her fortune, have been repealed by 24 and 25 
Vict. c. 100, s. 53, which makes it felony for any one from 
motives of lucre to take away or detain against her will, 

■ -with intent to many or carnally know her, <tc., any woman 
. of any .age who has any interest in any real or personal 
.estate, or is an heiress presumptive, or co-heiress, or pre- 
;.smnptive next of kin to any one having such an interest ; 
or for any one to cause such a woman to %e married or 
. carnally known by any other person ; or for any one with 
:3uch intent to allure, take away, or detain any such woman 

nnder the age of twenty-one, out of the possession and against 
-.the will of her parents or guardians. By 3. 5 4, forcible taking 
away or detention against her will of any woman of any age 
■with like intent is felony. Even without such intent, abduc- 
■tion of any unmarried girl under the age of sixteen is a 
misdemeanour. In Scotland, where there is no statutory 
adju3tn;ent, abduction is similarly dealt with by practice. 

ABDUL MEDJID, Sultan of Turkey, the thirty-first 
sovereign of the house of Othman, was born April 23, 
1823, and succeeded his father Mahmoud IL on the 2d 
• of July 1839. Mahmoud appears to have been unable 
to effect the reforms he desired in the mode of educating 
his children, so that his son received no better education 
than that given, according to use and wont, to Turkish 
princes in the harem. When Abdul Medjid succeeded to 
the throne, the affairs of Turkey were in an extremely 
. critical state. At the very time his father died, the news 
was on its way to Constantinople that the Turkish aiiuy 
;Jiad been signally defeated at Nisib by that of the rebel 
Egyptian viceroy, Mehemet Ali; and the Turkish fleet was 
;at the same time on its way to Egypt, to be surrendered 
perfidiously by its commander to the same enemy. But 
through the inter^'ention of the gfeat European powers, 
Mehemet Ali was obliged to come to terms, and the Otto- 
man empire was saved. In compliance with his father's 

Pedro had succeeded to the throne nf Portugal in 1826, but ; 
<eil U pt dDce \a lavour cf hia daughter. 

express mstructions, Abdul Medjid set at once about carry- 
ing out the extensive reforms to which Jlahmoud had so 
energetically devoted himself. In November 1839 was 
proclaimed an edict, known as the Hatti-sherif of Gulhanc, 
consolidating and enforcing these reforms, which was 
supplemented, at the close of the Crimean war, by a 
similar statute, issued in February 1S56. By these enact- 
ments it was provided that all classes of the sultan's sub- 
jects should have security for their lives and property ; 
that taxes should be fairly imposed and justice impartially 
administered ; and that all should have full rehgious 
liberty and equal civil rights. The scheme was regarded 
as so revolutionary by the aristocracy and the educated 
classes (the Ulema) that it met with keen opposition, and 
was in consequence but partially put in force,' especially in 
the remoter parts of the empire ; and more than one con- 
spiracy was formed against the sultan's life on account of 
it. Of the other measures of reform promoted by Abdul 
Medjid the more important were-^the reorganisation of the 
army (1843-4), the institution of a council of public in- 
struction (1846), the abolition of an odious and unfairly 
imposed capitation tax, the repression of slave trading, and 
various provisions for the better administration of the public 
service and for the advancement of commerce. The pubMc 
history of his times — the disturbances and insurrections in 
different parts of his dominions throughout his reign, and 
the great war successfully carried on against Russia by 
Turkey, and by England, France, and Sardinia, in the 
interest of Turkey (1853-56) — can be merely alluded to 
in this personal notice. When Kossuth and others sought 
refuge in Turkey, after the failure of the Hungarian rising 
in 1849, the sultan was called on by Austria and Russia to 
surrender them, but boldly and determinedly refused. It 
is to his credit, too, that he would not allow the con- 
spirators against his own life to be put to death. He bore 
the character of being a kind and honourable man. 
Against , this, however, must be set down his excessive 
extravagance, especially towards the end of his life. He 
died on the 25th of June 1861, and was succeeded, not by 
one of his sons, but by his brother, Abdul Aziz, the present 
sultan, as the oldest survivor of the family of Othman. 
A BECKET, Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury and 
hancellor of England in the 12th century, was born in 
London on the 21st of December 1118. His father, 
Gilbert Becket, and his mother Koesa or Matilda, were 
both, there can be httle doubt, of Norman extraction, if 
indeed they themselves were not immigrants from Normandy 
to Englani Gilbert Becket, a merchant, and at one time 
Sheriff of London, a man of generous impulses and son:o- 
what lavish hospitality, provided for his only child Thomas 
all the attainable advantages of influential society and a 
good education. At ten years of age Thomas was placed 
under the tuition of the canons regular of Merton on the 
Wandle in Surrey. From Merton he proceeded to study m 
the London schools, then in high repute. At Pevensey 
Castle, the seat of his father's friend Richer de I'Aigle, one 
of the great barons of England, he subsequently became a 
proficient in all the feats and graces of chivalry. From 
Pevensey he betook himself to the study of theology in the 
Univeisity of ParLs. He never became a scholar, much 
less a theologian, like Wolsey, or even like some of the 
learned ecclesiastics of his own day ; but his intellect was 
vigorous and original, and his manners captivating to his 
associates and popular with the multitude. His father's 
failure in business recalled him to London, and for three 
years he acted as a clerk in a la\\-)er's office. But a man 
so variously accomplished could not fail to stumble on 
preferment sooner or later. Accordingly, about 1142, 
Archdeacon Baldwin, a learned civilian, a friend of tbo 
elder Becket. introduced hira to Theobald, Aichbiihop of 


A B b: (' K E T 

Cauterbury, who ut onco appuinted liim to an oflice iu the 
Arcliiepiijcopal Court. His talents epocdily raised liiui to 
llio ardideacoiiry of the sea A Bcckot's tact in assistijig 
10 thwart an attempt to interest the Pope in favour of the 
coronation of Stephen's son Eustace, paved the way to the 
archdeacon's elevation to the Chancellorship of England 
under Henry II., a diqnityto which he was raised in 1155. 
As he had served Theobald the archbishop, so he served 
Henry the king faithfully and well. It was his nature to 
be loyal Enthusiastic partisanship is, in fact, the key to 
much that is otller^vise inexplicable in his subsequent con- 
duct towards Henry. When at a later period A Beckot was 
raised to the primacy of England, a dignity not of his own 
seeking, he must needs quarrel with Henry in the interest 
of the Pope and " for the honour of God." As Chancellor of 
England ho appeared iu the war of Toulouse at the head of 
the chivalry of England, and " who can recount," says his 
attendant and panegyrist Grim, " the carnage, the desolation 
he made at the head of a strong body of soldiers 1 lie 
attacked castles, and razed towns nnd cities to the ground ; 
he burned down houses and farms, and never showed the 
slightest touch of pity to any ojo who rose in insurrection 
against his master. In single coinbal ho vanquished and 
made prisoner the valiant Knight Engelram de Trie. Xor 
did A Bccket the chancellor seek to quell Henry's secular foes 
alone. He was the able mouthpiece of the Crown in its 
contention with the Bishop of Chichester, who had alleged 
that the permission of the Pope was necessary to the con- 
tarring or taking away of ecclesiastical benefices ; and he 
rigorously exacted sculage, a military tax in lieu of personal 
service in the field, from the clergy, who accused him of 
" plunging a sword into the bosom of his mother the 
church." His pomp and .munificence as chancellor were 
beyond precedent In 1159 he undfertook, at Henry's 
request, an embassy to the French Court for the purpose 
of affiancing the king's eldest son to the daughter of the 
king of France. His progress through the country was 
like a triumphal procession. " How wonderful must be 
the king of England himself whose chancellor travels in 
such state I" was on every one's hps. In 11S2 he was 
elected Archbishop of Canterbury, Gilbert Foliot, Bishop 
of Herford, alone dissenting, and remarking sarcastically, 
at the termination of the ceremony, that " the king had 
worked a miracle in having that day turned a laj-mau into 
an archbishop and a soldier into a saint." Hitherto A 
Bccket had only been in deacon's orders, and had made no 
profession of sanctity of life. At the same time, there is 
nothing to show that his character was stained by the gross 
licentiousness of the times. Now, however, he devoted 
himself body and soul to the service of the churcL The 
fastidious courtier was at once transformed into the squahd 
penitent, who wore hair-cloth next his skin, fed on Toots, 
drank nauseous water, and daily washed the feet of thirteen 
beggars. Henry, who hod expected to see the archbishop 
completely sunk in .the chancellor, was amazed to receive 
the follonijig laconic message from A Becket: — " I desire 
that you will provide yourself with another chancellor, as 
I find myself hardly sufficient for the duties of one office, 
much less of two." From that moment there was strife 
between A Becket and Henry, A Bccket straining every 
nerve to extend the authority of the Pope, and Henry 
doing his utmost to subject the church to his own will 
Throughout the bitter struggle for supremacy which ensued 
between A Becket and the king, A Becket was backed by 
the sympathy of the Saxon populace, Henry by the support 
of the Norman barons and by the greater dignitaries of the 
church. At the outset A Becket was wotgted. He was 
constrained to take an oath, "with good faith and without 
fraud or reserve, to observe the Constitutions of Claren- 
don." which «ubjecteJ clerlis guilty of crime to the ordinary 

civil tribunals, put ecclesiastical dignities at ths royal dia 
posal, prevented all appeals to Rome, and made Henry ths 
virtual "head of the church." For lus guilty cojiplianco 
with these anti-pajial constitutions he received the special 
pardon and absolution of hia holiness, and {.rcKjecded to 
anathematise them with the energy of a genuine remorse. 
The king resolved on his ruin. He was summoned before 
a great council at Northampton, and in defiance of jnstic* 
was called on to account for the sum of 44,000 marka 
declared to have been misappropriated by him during hia 
chancellorship. " For what happened before my consecrar 
tion," Eaid A Becket, " I ought not to answer, nor will L 
Know, moreover, that ye are my children in God ; neither 
law nor reason allows you to judge your father. I refe^niy 
quarrel to the decision of the Pope. To him I appcJ, and 
shall now, under the protection of the Catholic Church and 
the Apostolic See, depart" He effected his escape to France, 
and took refuge in the Cistercian monastery of Pontigny, 
whence he repeatedly anathematised his enemies in 
England, and hesitated not to speak of Henry as a " mali- 
cious tyrant" Pope Alexander IIL, though at heart a 
warm supporter of Becket, was guarded in his conduct 
towards Henry, who had shown a disposition to support tha 
anti-pope Pascal III., and it was not tiU the Archbishop of 
York, in defiance of a pa'::'! cidl, had usurped the functions 
of the exiled primate by officiating at the coronation of 
Henry's son, that Alexander became really formidable. A 
Becket was now resolute for martyrdom or victory. Henry 
began to tremble, and an interview between him and Eockel 
was arranged to take place at Fereitville in 1170. It was 
agreed that A Becket should return to his see, and that tha 
king should discharge his debts and defray the expenses of 
his journey. A Becket proceeded to the coast, but the king, 
who had promised to meet him, broke his engagement ia 
every particular. A Becket, in retaliation, excoramumcated 
the Archbishop of York and the Bishops of London and 
Salisbury for officiating at the coronation of the king's son. 
The terrified prelates took refuge in Normandy with Henry, 
who, on hearing their tale, accompanied by an account of 
A Becket's splendid reception at Canterbury, exclaimed io 
ungovernable fury, " Of the cowards who eat my bread, ia 
there not one who will free me from this turbulent priest t " 
Four knights, Fitzurse, Tracy, Morville, and Brito, resolved 
to avenge their sovereign, who it appears was ignorant of 
their intention. They arrived in Canterbury, and finding 
the archbishop, threatened him with death if he would not 
absolve the excommunicated bishops. ■' In vain," replied 
A Becket, " you threaten me. If all the swords in England 
were brandishing over my head, your terrors could not move 
rae. Foot to foot you will find me fighting the battle of tha 
Lord. " He was barbarously murdered in tlie great cathedral, 
at the foot of the altar of St Benedict, on the 29th Decem- 
ber 1170. Two years thereafter he was canonised by the 
Pope ; and down to the Reformation innumerable pilgiim- 
ages were made to the shrine of St Thomas of Cauterbury 
by devotees from everj' comer of Christendom. So numerous 
were the miracles wrought at his tomb, that Gervase ol 
Canterbury tells us two large volumes kept in the cathedral 
were filled with accounts of them. Every fiftieth year ^ 
jubdeo was celebrated in his honour, which lasted fifteen 
days ; plenary indulgences were then granted to all who 
visited his tomb; and as many as 100,000 pilgrims were 
registered at a tima in Canterbury. The worship of St 
Thomas superseded the adoration of God, and even that of 
the Virgin. In one year there was offered at God's altar 
nothing; at that of the Virgin .£4, Is. 8d.; while St 
Thomas received for his share £954, 6s. 3d. — an enormous 
sum, if the purchasing power of money in those times be 
considered. Henry VIII., with a just if somewhat ludi- 
crous appreciation of the i;:$ue which A Ectifit liad raLcJ . 

A B E — A L E 


•with his royal predecessor Henry H, not only piliaged the 
rich shrine dedicated to St Thomas, but caused the saint 
hiaiself to be cited to appear in court, and to be tried and 
condemned as a traitor, at the same time ordering his name 
to be struck out of the calendar, and his bones to be burned 
and the ashes thrown in the air. A Becket's character and 
nimii have been the subject of the keenest ecclesiastical and 
historic controversy doivn to the present time, but it is im- 
possible to doubt the fundamental sincerity of the one or 
the disinterestedness of the other, however inconsistent his 
actions may sometimes appear. If the fruit of the Spirit 
be " love, joy, peace, long-sulfering, gentleness, goodness, 
"faith, meekness, and temperance," A Becket was assuredly 
not a saint, for he indulged to the last in the bitterest 
invectives against his foes ; but that he fought with 
admirable courage and devotion the " battle of the Lord," 
according to the warlike ideas of an age with which he was 
in intense sympathj', is bej-ond dispute. He was the 
leading Ultramontane of his day, hesitating not to reprove 
the Pope himself for lukewarmness in the cause of the 
" church's Kberty." He was the last of the great ecclesiastics 
of the type of Lanfranc and Anselm, who struggled for 
supremacy with the civil power in England on almost equal 
terms. In his day the secular stream was running very 
strong, and he might as chancellor have noated down the 
current pleasantly enough, governing England in Henry's 
name. He nevertheless perished in a chivalrous effort tu 
■stem the torrent. The tendency of his principles was 
to supersede a civil by a spiritual despotism ; " but, in 
point of fact," says Hook, in his valuable Life, "he was 
a high-principled, high-spmted demagogue, who. taught 
the people to struggle for their liberties," a struggle 
soon to commence, and of which he was by no means 
an impotent if an unconscious precursor. — See Dr Giles's 
Vita et EpistolcB S. Hiomce Carduariensis ; Canon ^Morris's 
Life of St Thomas Becket ; Canon Robertson's Life of 
Becket ; Canon Stanley's Historical Memorials of Canter- 
hury ; J. G. Nichoi's PityrtTnagfs of Walsincfkcm and 
Canterbury ; Hook's Lives of the Archbishops of Canter- 
bury; and Lord Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors of 

A'BECKETT, Gilbert Abbott, a successful cultivator 
Ci light literature, was born in London in 1811, and educated 
at Westminster School. He wrote burlesque dramas with 
success from his boyhood, took an active share in the 
establishment of ditferent comic periodicals, particularly 
Figaro in London and Punch, and vias a constant contributor 
. to the columns of the latter from its commencement till the 
time of his death. His principal publications, all over- 
flowing with kindly humour, and rich in quaint fancies, 
are his parodies of li\'ing dramatists (himself included), 
reprinted from Punch (1844) ; The Small Debts Act, with 
Annotations and Explanations (1845) ; The Quizziology of 
the British Drama and The Comic Blachslone (1846); A 
Comic History of England (1847) ; and A Comic History of 
Home (1852). He contributed occasionally, too, to the 
Times and other metropolitan papers. A'Beckett was 
called to the bar in 1841, and from 1S49 discharged with 
great efficiency the duties of a metropolitan police magis- 
trate. He died at Boulogne on the 30th of August 

ABEL C'^,^, breath, vanity, transitoriness), the second 
eon of Adam, slain by Cain his elder brother (Gen. iv 
1-16). The narrative in Genesis, which tells us that "the 
Lord had respect unto Abel and to his offering, but unto 
Cain and to his offering he had not respect," is supplemented 
by the statement of the New Testament, that " by faith 
Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain," 
(Heb. XL 4), and that Cain slew Abel "because his orm 
works vere evil and hia brother's righteous " (1 John ill. 1 2). 

In patristic theology the striking contrast between the 
brothers was mystically explained and typically applied in 
various ways. Augustine, for example, regards Abel as 
the representative of the regenerate or spiritual man, and 
Cain as the representative of the -natural or corrupt man. 
Augustine in his treatise De H<sresibus, c. 86, mentions a 
sect of Abelitae or AbeUans, who seem to have lived in 
North Africa, and chiefly in the neighbourhood of Hippo- 
Regius. According to their tradition, Abel, though married, 
lived in continence, and they followed his practice in this 
respect, so as to avoid the guilt of bringing sinful creatui'es 
into the world. 

ABEL, Karl Feiedkich (1726-1787), a cele'orated Ger- 
man musician. His adagio compositions have been highly 
praised, but he attained greater distinction as a performer 
than as a composer, his instrument being the Viola digamhu, 
which from his time has given place to the violoncello. 
He studied under Sebastian Bach, played for ten years 
(1748-58) in the band formed at Dresden by the Elector 
of Saxony, under Hasse, and then, proceeding to England, 
became (I'TSQ) chamber-musician to the queen of George III. 
His life was shortened by habits of intemperance. 

ABEL, Niels HenkiIj, one of the ablest and acutest 
mathematicians of" modern times, was born at Findoe in 
Norway in 1802, and died near Arendal in 1829. Con- 
sidering the shortness of his life, the extent and thorough- 
ness of his mathematical investigations and analyses are 
marvellous. His great powers of generalisation were dis- 
played in a remarkable degree in his development of the 
theory of elliptic functions. Legendre's eulogy of Abel, 
" Quelle tete celle du jeune Nori-egien ! " is the more forcible, 
that the French mathematician had occupied himself with 
those functions for most of his Kfettme. Abel's works, 
edited by M. Holmboe, the professor under whom he studied 
at Christiania, were published by the Swedish government 
in 1839. 

ABEL, Thomas, a Roman Catholic diiine during the 
reicn of Henry VIII., was an Englishman, but when or 
where born does not appear. He was educated at Oxford, 
where he passed B.A. on 4th Jidy 1513, M.A on 27th 
June 1516, and proceeded D.D. On 23d June 1530 le 
was presented by Queen Catherine to the reciory of Brad- 
well in Essex, on the sea-coast. He had been introduced 
to the court through the report of his learning in classical 
and hving languages, and accomplishments in music ; and 
he was appointed domestic chaplain to Queen Catherine. 
_It speaks well both for the chaplain and his royal mistress, 
that to the last he dafended the outraged queen against 
"bluff King Hal." The Defence, " Invicta Veritas," was 
printed at Luneberge in 1532. This pungent Mttle book 
was replied to, but never answered, and remains the 
defence on Queen Catherine's part. Abel was ensnared, as 
greater men were, in the prophetic delusions and ratings of 
Elizabeth Barton, called the " Holy Maid of Kent." As 
belonging to the Church of Rome, he inevitably opposed 
Henry VIII.'s assumption of supremacy in the church. 
Ultimately he was tried and condemned for " misprision 
of treason," and perished in the usual cruel and ignoble 
way. The execution, as described, took place at Smith- 
lleld on July 30, 1540. If we may not concede the vene- 
rable and holy name of martyr to Abel — and John Fo.\c 
is passionate in his refusal of it — yet we must hold that 
he at least fell a victim to Ids unsparing defence of hia 
qvieen and friend, the "misprision of treason" having 
been a foregone conclusion. In stat. 25, Henry VIII., c. 
12, he is described as having "caused to be printed 
and set forth in this realme diverse books against the 
divorce and separation." Neither the Tractatua nor the 
"diverse books" are known. — Dodd, Church HL-ln-g, 
Brussels, 1737, folio, voL L p. 208; Bourchier, Ui<i. JL'ccl. 

i — S 


A B E L A R D 

de ilart'jr. Fratr. minor. (Ingolst. l.").S.".); Pitta, De 
Uluilr. Angl. Scrip.; Tinner's BMiotheca IIibemico-Britan- 
uica, p. i. ; Zurich, Oriijinal Ltltert relativf to the English 
nfformation (Parker Society, pt. iL pp. 209-211 1816); 
Foxes Acts and Monuments (Cattley'e, voL v. pp. 438-440); 
Burnet, Soames, Biog. Brit.; Wood's Atli^iux (Bli.s«), s. v.; 
Stow, Chron. p. 581. (a. a o.) 

ABELARD, Peteb, born at Pallet (Palais), not far 
from Nantes, lu 1079, was the eldest son of a noblo Breton 
house. The name Ahcela>dm (also written Abailardus, 
Abaielardm, and in many other ways) is said to lio a cor- 
rujition of I/aMardus, substituted by himself for a nick- 
uauie Bajolardus given to him when a student. As a 
boy, he showed an extraordinary quickness of apprehen- 
sion, and, choosing a learned life instead of the active 
career natural to a youth of his birth, early became an 
adept in the art of dialectic, under which name philosophy, 
meaning at that time chiefly the logic of Aristotle trans- 
mitted through Latin channels, was the great subject of 
liberal stuc'y in the episcopal schools. Roscellin, the 
famous canon of Compi^gne, is mentioned by himself as 
his teacher ; but v/hether he heard this champion of 
extreme Nominalism in early youth, when he wandered 
about from school to school for instruction and eiercise, 
or some years later, after he had already begun to teach 
for himself, remains uncertain. His wanderings finally 
brought him to Paris, still under the age of twenty. There, 
in the great cathedral school of Notre-Dame, he sat for a 
while under the teaching of WUIiam of Champeaiix, the 
disciple of St Ansohn and most advanced of Realists, but, 
presently stepping forward, he overcame the master in 
discussion, and thus began a long duel that issued in 
the downfall of the philosophic theory of Realism, tUl then 
dominant in the early Middle Age. First, in the teeth of 
opposition from the metropolitan teacher, he proceeded to 
set up a school of his own at Melun, whence, for more 
direct competition, he removed to Corbeil, n,earer Paris. 
Tlie success of his teaching was signal, though for a time 
he had to quit the field, the strain proving too great for 
his physical strength. On his return, after 1 108, he found 
William lecturing no longer at Notre-Dame, but in a 
monastic retreat outside th'e city, and there battle was 
again joined between them. Forcing upon the Realist a 
material change of doctrine, he was once more victorious, 
and thenceforth he stood supreme. His discomfited rival 
stiU had to keep him from lecturing in Paris, but 
soon failed in this last effort also. From llelun, where he 
had resumed teaching, Abelard passed to the cipital, and 
set up his school on the heights of St Genevieve, looking 
over Notre-Dame. When he had increased his distinc- 
tion still further by winning reputation in the theological 
school of Anselm of Laon, no other conquest remained for 
him. He stepped into the chair at Notre-Dame, being also 
nominated canon, about the year 1115. 

Few teachers ever held such sway as Abelard new 
did for a time. Distinguished in figure and manners, he 
was seen surrounded by crowds — it is said thousands — of 
students, drawn from all countries by the fame of his 
teaching, in which acuteness of thought was relieved by 
simplicity and grace of exposition. Enriched by the offer- 
ings of his pupils, and feasted with universal admiration, 
he came, as he says, to think himself the only philosopher 
standing in the world. But a change in his fortunes 
was at hand. In his devotion to science, he had hitherto 
lived a very regular life, Yaried only by the excitement of 
conflict: now, at the height of his fame, other passions 
began to stir within him. There lived at that time, 
within the precincts of Notre-Dame, under the care of her 
uncle, the canon Fulbert, a young girl named Heloise, of 
noble extraction and born about 1101. Fiir, but still 

more remarkable f<5i her knowledge, which extended beyond 
Latin, it is said, to Greek and Hebrew, she aw.^ka a feel- 
ing of love in the breast of Abelard; and with intent tu 
win her, he sought and gained a footing in FiUbert's house 
as a regular inmate. Becoming also tutor to the maiden, 
be used the unlimited power which he thus obtained over 
her for the of seduction, though not without 
cherishing a real affection which she returned in unparallilc<l 
devotion. Their relation interfering with his public work, 
and being, moreover, ostentatiously sung by lumself, soon 
became known to all the world except the too-confiding 
FuIbcrt; and, when at last it could not escape even his 
vision, they were separated only to meet in secret. There- 
upon Heloise found herself pregnant, and was carried off 
by her lover to Brittany, where she gave biilh to a »on. 
To appease her furious uncle, Abelard now proposed a 
marriage, under the condition that it should be kept 
secret, in order not to mar his prospects of advancement in 
the church; but of marriage, whether public or secret, 
Heloise would hear nothing. She appealed to him not to 
sacrifice for her the independence of his life, nor did she 
finally yield to the arrangement without the darkest fore- 
bodings, only too soon to be realised. The secret of the 
man-lage was not kept by Fulbert; and when Heloise, true 
to her singular purpose, boldly then denied it, life was 
made so unsupportable to her that she sought refuge in the 
convent of Argenteuih Immediately Fulbert, believing 
that her husband, who aided in the flight, designed to be 
rid of her, conceived a dire revenge. He and some others 
broke into Abelard's chamber by night, and, taking him 
defenceless, perpetrated on him the most brutal mutilation. 
Thus cast down from his pinnacle of greatness into an 
abyss of shame and misery, there was left to the brilliant 
master only the life of a monk. Heloise, not yet twenty, 
consummated her work of self-sacrifice at the call of his 
jealous love, and took the veil. 

It was in the Abbey of St Denis that Abelard, now 
aged forty, sought to bury himself with his woes out of 
sight. Finding, however, in the cloister neither calm nor 
solitude, and having gradually turned again to study, ho 
j-ielded after a year to urgent entreaties from without and 
within, and went forth to reopen his school at the Priory 
of Maisoncelle (1120). His lectures, now framed in a 
devotional spirit, were heard again by crowds of students, 
and all his old influence seemed to have returned ; but old 
enmities were revived also, against which he was no longer 
able as before to make head. No sooner had he put ill 
writing his theological lectures (apparently the Introductio . 
ad Tluologiam that has come down to us), than his adver- 
saries fell foul of Iiis rationalistic interpretation of the 
Trinitarian dogma. Charging him with the heresy of 
Sabellius in a provincial synod held at Soissons in 1121, 
they procured hy irregular practices a condemnation of his 
teaching, whereby he was made to throw his book into the 
flames, and then was r.hut up in the convtnt of St lledaro. 
•■Uter the other, it was the bitterest possible exper'ence 
that could befall him, nor, in the state of mental dtsola- 
tion into which it plunged him, could he find any coafort 
from beiii^ soon again set' free. The life in his twn 
monastery proving no more congenial than formerly, he 
fled from it in secret, and only waited for permission to 
live away from St Denis before he chose the one lot that 
suited his present mood. In a desert phice near Nogent- 
sur-Seine, he built himself a cabin of stubble and reeds, 
and turned hermit. But there fortune came back to him 
with a new surprise. His retreat becoming known, students 
flocked from Paris, and covered the wilderness around him 
with their tents and huts. A\"hen he began to teach agaia, 
he found consolation, and in gratitude he consecrated the 
new oratory they built lor him by the name of the Paraclet« 

A B E — A B E 


Upon tne return of new dangers, or at least of fears, 
Abelard left the Paraclete to make trial of another refuge, 
accepting an invitation to preside over the Abbey of St 
Gildas-de-Rhuys, on the far-off shore of Lower Brittany. 
It proved a wretched exchange. The region was inhospit- 
able, the domain a prey to lawless exaction, the house itself 
savage and disorderly. Yet for nearly ten years he con- 
tinued to struggle with fate before he fled from his charge, 
yielding in the end only under peril of violent death.^ The 
misery of those years was not, however, unrelieved ; for he 
had been able, on the breaking-up of Heloise's convent at 
Argenteuil, to establish her as head of a new religious 
house' at the deserted Pajaclcte, and in the capacity of 
spiritual director he often was called to revisit th? spot 
thus made doubly dear to him. All this time Heloise had 
lived amid universal esteem for her knowledge and character, 
uttering no word under the doom that had fallen upon her 
youth ; but now, at last, the occasion came for expressing all 
the pent-up emotions of her souL Living on for some time 
in Brittany after his flight from St Gddas, Abelard wrote, 
among other things,- his famous Historia Calamitcttum, 
and thus moved her to pen her first Letter, which remains 
an unsurpassed utterance of human passion and womanly 
devotion ; the first being followed by the two other Letters, in 
which she finally accepted the part of resignation which, 
now as a brother to a sister, Abelard commended to her. 
He not long after was seen once more npon the field of 
his early triumphs, lecturing on Mount St Genevieve in 
1136 (when he was heard by John of Salisbury), but it 
was only for a brief space : no new triumph, but 'a last 
great trial, awaited him in the few years to come of his 
chequered life. As far back as the Paraclete days, he 
had counted as chief among his foes Bernard of Claii-vaux, 
in whom was incarnated the principle of fervent and 
unhesitating faith, from which rational inquiry ■ like his 
was sheer revolt, and now this uncompromising spirit was 
moving, at the instance of others, to crush the growing evil 
in the person of the boldest offender. After preliminary 
negotiations, in which Bernard was roused by Abelard's 
steadfastness to put forth all his strength, a council met 
at Sens, before which Abelard, formally arraigned upon a 
number of heretical charges, was prepared to plead his 
cause. When, however, Bernard, not without foregone 
terror in the prospect of meeting the redoubtable dialec- 
tician, had opened the case, suddenly Abelard appealed 
to Rome. The stroke availed him nothing; for Bernard, 
who had power, notwithstanding, to get a condemnation 
passed at the councO, did not rest a moment till a second 
condemnation was procured at Rome in the following year. 
Meanwhile, on his way thither to urge his plea in person, 
Abelard had broken down at the Abbey of Cluni, and there, 
an utterly iaDen man, with spirit of the humblest, and 
only not bereft of his intellectual force, he lingered but a 
few months before the approach of death. Removed by 
friendly hands,' for the relief of his sufferings, to the 
Priory of St 'Marcel, he died on the 21st, of April 1143. 
First buried at St Marcel, his remains soon after .were 
carried off in secrecy to the Paraclete, and given over to 
the loving care of Heloise, who in time came herself to 
rest beside them. The bones of the pair were shifted 
more than once afterwards, but they were marvellously 
preserved even through the vicissitudes of the French 
Revolution, and now they lie united in' the well-known 
tomb at PJ're-Lachaise. 

Great as was the influcnco exerted by Abelard on the 
minds of his contemporaries and the course of medifeval 
thought, he has been little known in modern times but 
for his connection with Heloise. Indeed, it was not till 
the present century, when Couisin in 183G issued the 
collection entitled Oum-ages vddits d'Ahdard, that his 

philosophical performance coold be judged at fif4t hand: 
of hi? strictly philosophical works only one, the ethical 
treatise Scito te ipsum, having been published earlier, 
namely, in 1721. Cousin's collection, besides giving ex- 
tracts from the theological work Sic et Non (an assemblage 
of opposite opinions on doctrinal points, culled from the 
Fathers as a basis for discussion), includes the Lialeciica, 
commentaries on logical works of Aristotle, Porphyry, and 
Boethius, and a fragment. Lie Generihus et Speciebus. The 
last-named wOrk, and also the psychological treatise De 
Intellectib'os, published apart by Cousin (in Fraginnni 
Philosophiques, vol. ii.), are now considered upon internal 
evidence not to be by Abelard himself, but only to have 
sprung out of his school. A genuine work, the Glossula 
super Porphyrium, from which M. de Rimusat, in hi'j 
classical monograph Abelard (1&45^, has given extracts. 
remains in manuscript. 

The general importanoo of Abelard lies in his having 
fixed more decisively than any one before him the 
scholastic manner of philosophising, with its object of 
giving a formally rational expression to the received 
ecclesiastical doctrine. However his own particular inter- 
pretations may have been condemned, they were conceived 
in essentially the same spirit as the general scheme of 
thought afterwards elaborated in the 13th century with 
approval from the heads of the church. Through him' 
was prepared in the Middle Age the ascendency of the 
philosophical authority of Aristotle, which became firfflly 
established in the half-century after his death, when first 
the completed Organon, and gradually a"ll the other works 
of the Greek thinker, came to be known in the schools : 
before his time it was rather upon the authority of Plato 
that the prevailing sought to lean. As regards 
the central question of Universals, without having sufii- 
cient knowledge of Aristotle's views, Abelard yet, in 
taking middle ground between the extra-t-agant Realism of 
his master, William of Champeaux, or of St Anselm, and 
the not less extravagant Nominalism (as we have it 
reported)- of his other master, RosceUin, touched at more 
than one point the Aristotelian position. Along v/ith 
Aristotle, also with Nominalists generally, he ascribed f'lll 
reality only to the particular concretes ; whUe, in^opposi- 
tion to the " insana sententia " of Roscellin, he declared 
the Universal to be no mere word (vox), but to consist, or 
(perhaps we may say) emerge, in the fact of predication 
{sermo). Lying in the middle between Realism and 
(extreme) Nominalism, this doctrine has often been spoken 
of as ConceptuaJism, but ignorantly so. Abelard, pre- 
eminently a logician, did- not concern himself , with the 
psychological question which the Conceptuahst aims at 
deciding as to the mental subsistence of the Universal. 
Outside of his dialectic, it was in ethics that Abelard 
showed greatest activity of philosophical thought ; laying 
very particular stress upon the subjective intention as 
determining, if not the moral character, at least the moral 
value, of human action. His thought in this directio:;, 
wherein he anticipated something of modern speculatior, 
is the more remarkable because his scholastic successsis 
accomplished least in the field of morals, hardly venturing to 
bring the principles and rcles of conduct under pure plSlo- 
sophicat discussion, even after the great ethical inquries of 
Aristotle became fully known to them. (o. c. E.) 

ABENCERRAGES, a family or faction that is said i^ 
have held a prominent position in the Moorish kingdora 
of Granada in the 15th century.' The name appears to hare 
been derived from the Yussuf ben-Serragh, , the head of 
the tribe in the time of Mahommed VII., who did, that 
sovereign good service in his struggles to retain tho 
crown of which he was three times aeprived. ^'•Nothing 
ia known of^with certainty; but. the* name ia 


A B E — A B E 

familiar from the interesting romance of Qines Perez de 
Hita, Guerrai cwilet de Oranada, which celebrates the 
feuds of the Abencerrages and the rival family of the 
ijegtis, and the cruel treatment to which the former were 
Bubjected. Florian's Gontalm of Cordova, and Chateau- 
briand's Last of the Ahmcerrages, are imitations of Perez 
de Hita's work. The hall of the Aboncerragoa iu the 
/Vlhambra takes its name from being the reputed scene of 
the massacre of the family. 

ABENEZRA, or Ibn Ezra, is the name ordinarily given 
to AsnAliAM BEN Meik BEN EzRA (called also Abenare or 
Svenare), one of the most eminent of the Jewish literati 
of the Middle Ages. He was born at Toledo about 1090; left 
Spain for Rome about 1140; resided afterwards at Mantua 
(1145), at Lucca (1154), at Rhodes (1155 and 1166), and 
in England (1159) ; and died probably in 1168. He was 
distinguishcQ as a philosopher, astronomer, physician, and 
poet, but especially as a grammarian and commentator. 
The works by which ho is best known form a series of Com- 
mentaries on the books of the Old Testament, which have 
nearly all been printed in the great Rabbinic Biblca of 
Bomberg (1525-6), Buxtorf (1618-9), and Frankfurter 
(1724-7). Abenezra's commentaries are acknowledged to 
be of very great value ; he was the first who raised biblical 
exegesis to the rank of a science, interpreting the^text 
•according to its literal sense, and Ulustrating it from cognate 
languages. His style is elegant, but is so concise as to be 
sometimes obscure ; and he occasionally indulges in epigram. 
la addition to the commentaries, he wrote several treatises 
on astronomy or astrology, and a number of grammatical 

ABENSBERQ, a smalltown of Bavaria, 18 miles S.W. 
of Regensburg, containing 1300 inhabitants. Here Kapo- 
leon gained an important victory over the ^^Austrians on 
the 20th of April 1809. The town is the Abusina of the 
Romans, end ancient ruins exist in its neighbourhood. 

ABERAVON, a parliamentary and municipal borough 
of Wales, in the county of Glamorgan, beautifully situated 
on the Avon, near its mouth, 8 miles east of Swansea. 
The town and adjacent villages have increased rapidly 
in recent years, from the extension of the mines of coal and 
iron in the vicinity, and the establishment of extensive 
works for the smelting of tin, copper, and zinc. The 
harbour, Port Talbot, has been much improved, and has 
good docks ; and there is regular steam communication 
with Bristol Ores for the smelting furnaces are imported 
from Cornwall, and copper, tin, and coal are exported. 
Aberavon unites with Swansea, Kenfigg, Loughor, and 
Neath, in returning a member to Parliament. In 1871 the 
population of the parish was 3396, of the parliamentary 
borough, 11,006. 

ABERC07WAY. See Conway. 

ABERCROMBIE, John, an eminent physician of Edin- 
burgh, was the son of the Rev. George Abercrombie of 
Aberdeen, in which city ha was born in 1781. Aiter 
cttanding the Grammar School and Marischal College, 
Aberdeen, he commenced his medical studies at Edinburgh 
in 1800, and obtained his degree of M.D. there in 1803. 
Soon afterwards he went to London, and for about a year 
gave dUigent attention to the medical practice and lectures 
in St George's Hospital In 1804 he returned to Edin- 
burgh, became a Fellow of the College of Surgeons, and 
commenced as general practitioner in that city ; where, in 
dispensary and private practice, he hvid the foundation of 
that character for sagacity as an observer of disease, and 
judgment in its treatment, that eventually elevated him to 
the head of his profession. In 1823, be became a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians; in 1824, a Fellow of 
that body; and from the death of Dr Gregory in 1822, 
he was considered the first physician in Scotland. Aber- 

crombie early began the laudable practice of preserving 
accurate notes of the cases that fell under his care ; and at 
a period when pathological anatomy was far too little 
regarded by practitioners in this country, he had the 
merit of sedulously pursuing it, and collecting a mass of 
most important information regarding the changes pro- 
duced by disease on different organs ; bo that, before the 
year 1824, he had more extended experience, and more 
correct views in this interesting field, than most of his 
contemporaries engaged in extensive practic& From 181C 
he occasionally enriched the pages of the Edinbui-yk 
Medical and Surgical Journal with essays, that disphiy 
originality and industry, particularly those " on the diseases 
of the spinal cord and brain," and " on diseases of the 
intestinal canal, of the pancreas, and spleen." The first 
of these formed the basis of his great and very original 
work. Pathological and Practical Jiesearchet on Diseases 
of the Brain and Spinal Cord, which appeared at Edin- 
burgh in 1828. In the same year he published also 
another very valuable work, his Researches on the Liteaset 
of the Intestinal Canal, Liver, and other Viscera of tlie 
Abdomen. Though his professional practice was very 
extensive and lucrative, he fonnd time for other specula- 
tions and occupations. In 1830 he published his Inquiries 
concerning the Intellectual Powers of Man and t/ie Investi- 
gation of Truth, a woik which, though less original and 
profound than his medical speculations, contains a popular 
view of an interesting subject, expressed in simple language. 
It was followed in 1833 by a sequel. The Philosophy of 
the Moral Feelings, the object of which, as stated in the 
preface, was " to divest the subject of all improbable 
speculations," and to show " the important relation which 
subsists between the science of mind and the doctrines of 
revealed religion." Both works have been very extensively 
read, reaching the 18th and, 14th editions respectively in 
1869. Soon after the publication of Moral Peelings, the 
University of Oxford conferred on the author the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Medicine, and in 1835 he was elected 
Lord Rector of Marischal College, Aberdeen. Dr Aber- 
crombie was much beloved by his numerous friends for 
the suavity and kindness of his manners, and was uni- 
versally esteemed for his benevolence and unaffected piety. 
He died on the 14th of November 1844 of a very uncom- 
mon disease, the bursting (from softening of the musculai 
substance) of the coronary vessels of the heart. 

ABERCROMBY, Dattd, M.D. This Scottish physi- 
cian was sufficiently noteworthy half a century after his 
(probable) decease to have his ^^ova Medicines Praxis 
reprinted at Paris in 1740; while during his lifetime his 
Tuta ac efficax luis venerew scepe absque mercurio ac semper 
absque salivatione mercuriali curando mcthodus (1684, 8vo) 
was translated into German and published at Dresden in 
1703 (8vo). In 1685 were published De Pulsus Varin- 
tione (London; Paris, 1688, 12mo), and Ars explorandi 
medicos facultates plantarum ex solo sap. (London). His 
Opuscula were collected in 1687. These professional 
writings gave him a place and memorial in Bailer's Biblio^ 
theca Medicinoe Pract. (4 vols. 8vo, 1779, torn, iii, p. 619); 
but he claims passing remembrance rather aa a meta^ 
physician by his remarkable controversial books in theo" 
bgy and philosophy. Formerly a Roman Catholic and 
Jesuit, he abjured Popery, and published Protestancy 
proved Safer than Popery (London, 1686). But by far 
the most noticeable of his productions is A Discourse 
of Wit (London, 1685). This treatise somehow has fallen 
out of sight — much as old coined gold gets hidden away 
— so that bibliographers do not seem to have met with 
it, and assign it at hap-hazard to Patrick Abercromby, 
M.D. ■ Notwithstanding, the most cursory examinatioq 
of it proves that in this Discourse of Wit are contained 

A B E — A B E 

some of the most characteristic and most definitely-put 
metaphysical opinions of the Scottish philosophy of com- 
mon sense. Of this early metaphysician nothing biographi- 
cally has come down save that he was a Scotchman 
("Scotus") — bom at Seaton. He was living early in the 
iSth century. (HaUer, as fupra; Lawrence Charteris's 
M.S., s. V.) So recently as 1833 was printed A Short 
Account of Scots Divines by him, edited by James Maidment, 
Edinburgh. (a. b. g.) 

ABERCROMBT, James, Lord Dunfermline, third son 
of the celebrated Sir Ralph Aberpromby; was bom on the 
7th Nov. 1776. Educated for the profession of the law, 
he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1801, but he 
was prevented from engaging to any considerable extent in 
general practice by accepting appointments, first as commis- 
sioner in bankruptcy, and subsequently, ag steward of the 
estates of the Duke of Devonshire. He commenced his 
political career in 1807, when he was elected member of 
Parliament for the borough of Midhurst. His sympathies 
with the small and struggling Opposition had already been 
declared, and he at once attached himseU to the Whig 
party, with which he consistently acted throughout life. 
Li 1812 he waa returned for Calne, which he continued to 
represent until his elevation to the Scotch bench in 1830. 
During this lengthened period he rendered conspicuous and 
valuable services to his party and the country. In Scotch 
affairs he took, as was natural, a deep interest; and, by 
introducing, on two separate occasions, a motion for the 
redress of a special glaring abuse, he undoubtedly gave a 
strong impulse to the growing desire for a general reform. 
In 1824, and again in 1826, he presented a petition from 
the inhabitants of Edinburgh, and followed it up by a 
motion " for leave to bring in a Bill for the more etfectual 
representation of the city of Edinburgh in the Commons 
House of Parliament." The motion was twice rejected, 
but by such narrow majorities as showed that the monopoly 
of the self-elected Council of thirty -three was doomed. In 
1827, on the accession of the Whigs to power under Mr 
Canning, Abercromby received the appointment of Judge- 
Advocate-General and Privy Counsellor. In 1830 he was 
raised to the judicial bench as Chief Baron of the Exche- 
quer in Scotland. The oflSce was abolished in 1832; and 
almost contemporaneously, Edinburgh, newly enfranchised, 
was called to return two members to the first reformed 
Parliament. As the election marked the commencement 
of a new political era, the honoiu' to be conferred possessed 
a peculiar value, and the choice of the citizens fell most 
appropriately on Francis Jeffrey and James Abercromby, 
two of the foremost of those to whom they were indebted 
for their hard- won privileges. In 1834 Mr Abercromby 
obtained a seat in the cabinet of Lord Grey as Master of 
the Mint. On the assembling of the new Parliament in 
1835, the election of a speaker gave occasion for the first 
trial of strength between the Refo.rm party and the followers 
of Sir Robert Peel. After a memorable division, in which 
more members voted than had ever before been known, 
Abercromby was elected by 316 votes, to 310 recorded for 
Manners-Sutton. The choice was amply justified, not only 
by the urbanity, impartiality, and firmness with which 
Abercromby discharged the public duties of the chair, but 
also by the important reforms he introduced in regard to 
the conduct of private business. In 1839 he resigned the 
office, and received the customary honour of a peerage, with 
the title of Lord Dunfermline. The evening of his life was 
passed in retirement at Colinton, near Edinburgh, where he 
died Ion the 17th April 1858. The courage and sagacity 
which marked his entire conduct as a Liberal were never 
more conspicuous than when, towards the close of his life, 
he availed himself of an opportunity of practically asserting 
his cherished doctrine of absolute religious equality. The 

important part he took in, originating and supportmg the 
United Industrial School in Edinburgh for ragged children, 
irrespective of their religious belief, deserves to be grate- 
fully acknowledged and remembered, even by those who 
took the opposite side in the controversy which arose with 
regard to it. * 

ABERCROMBY, Patrick, M.D., was the third son of 
Alexander Abercromby of Fetterneir in Aberdeenshire, and 
brother of Francis Abercromby, who was treated by Jamea 
II. Lord Glasford. He was born at Forfar in 1656. A3 
throughout Scotland, he could have had there the benefits ot 
a good parish school ; but it would seem from after events 
that his family was Roman Catholic, and hence, in all pro- 
bability, his education was private. This, and not the un- 
proved charge of perversion from Protestantism in subser- 
viency to James II., explains his Roman Catholicism and 
adhesion to the fortunes of that king. But, intending to 
become a doctor of medicine, he entered the University of 
St Andrews, where he took his degree of M.D. in 1685. 
From a statement in one of his preface-epistles to his mag- 
num opus, the Martial Achievements of the Scats N'ation, 
he must have spent most of his youthful years abroad. 
If has been stated that he attended the Univei-sity of 
Paris. The Discourse of Wit (1G85), assigned to him, 
belongs to Dr David Abercromby, a contemporary. On his 
return to Scotland, he is found practising as a physician in 
Edinburgh, where, besides his professional duties, he gavR 
himself with characteristic zeal to the study of antiquities, 
a study to which he owes it that his name still lives, for 
he finds no place in either HaUer or Hutchison's Medical 
Biographies. He was out-and-out a Scot of the old patriotic 
type, and, living as he did during the agitations for the 
union of England and Scotland, he took part in the war 
of pamphlets inaugurated and sustained by prominent 
men on both sides of the Border. He crossed swords 
with no less redoubtable a foe than Daniel Defoe in his 
Advantages of the Act of Security, compared with those of 
the intended Union (Edinburgh, 1707), and A Vindication 
of ttu Same against Mr De Foe {ibid.) The logic and 
reason were with Defoe, but there was a sentiment in the 
advocates of independence which was not suiBciently 
allowed for in the clamour of debate ; and, besides, the 
disadvantages of union were near, hard, and actual, the 
advantages remote, and contingent on many things and 
persons. Union wore the look to men like Abercromby 
and Lord Belhaven of absorption, if not extinction. Aber- 
cromby was appointed physician to James II., but the Re- 
volution deprived him of the post. Crawford (in his Peer- 
age, 1716) ascribes the title of Lord Glasford to an intended 
recognition of ancestral loyalty; its bestowment in 1685 
corresponding with the younger brother's graduation as 
M.D., may perhaps explain his appointment A minor 
literary work of Abercromby's was a translation of M. 
Beague's partizan History (so called) of the War carried on 
by the Popish Government of Cardinal Beaton, aided by the 
French, against the English under the Protector Somerset, 
which appeared in 1707. The work with which Aber- 
cromby's name is permanently associated is his already 
noticed Martial Achievements of tlie Scots Nation, issued in 
two noble folios, vol. i. 1711, vol. il 1716. In the title- 
page and preface to voL i he disclaims the ambition of 
being an historian, but in vol. ii., in title-page and preface 
alike, he is no longer a simple biographer, but an historian. 
That Dr Abercromby did not usethe word "genuine history" 
in his title-page without warrant is clear on every page of 
his largo work. Granted that, read in tho light of after 
researches, much of the first volume must necessarily be 
relegated to the region of the mythical, none the less was 
the historian a laborious and accomplished reader and inves- 
tigator of all available authorities, as well manuscript aa 


A B E — A B E 

printed ; wkilc the roll of names of iLose tvIio aided liini 
includes every :iuiu of note in Scotland at the time, from 
Sir Thomas Craig and Sir George Mackenzie to Mr Alex- 
ander Niabet and ilr 'fliomaa Kuddimau. The Martial 
Achievemtntt has not been reprinted, though practically 
the first example of Scottish typography in any way 
noticeable, vol. ii. having been printed under the scholarly 
supervision of Thomas Ruddiman. The date of his death 
is uncertain. It has been variously assigned to 1V15, 
1716, 1720, and 172G, and it is uAially added that he left 
a widow in great poverty. That he was living in 1710 is 
certain, as Crawford speaks of him (in his Peerage, 17 10) 
13 "my worthy friend." Probably he died about 1710. 
Mfmuirs o/ the Ahercromhi/s, commonly given to Lim, does 
not appear to have been published. (Chambers's Eminent 
Scolsiiifn, «. v.; Anderson's Scottish Nation, t. v.; Chalmers's 
Diog. Diet., ». v.; Chalmers's Life of Rvddiman; Haller's 
Bibliotheca Medicina: Pract., 4 vols. 4to, 1779; Hutchin- 
son's Diog. Medical, 2 vols. 8vo, 1799; Lce'a Defoe, 3 vob. 
8vo.) (a. b. g.) 

ABERCROMBT, Sib Ralph, K.B., Lieutenant-General 
in the British army, was the eldest son of George Aber- 
cromby of Tullibody, Clackjnannanshire, and was born in 
October 1734. After passing some time at an excellent 
school at Alloa, he went to Rugby, and in 1752-53 he 
attended classes in Edinburgh University. In 1754 he was 
sent to Lcipsic to study civil law, with a view to his pro- 
ceding to the Scotch bar, of which it is worthy of notice 
that both his grandfather and his father lived to be the 
oldest members. On returning from the Continent he 
expressed a strong preference for the military profession, 
and r\ cornet's commission was accordingly obtained for 
Kim (March 175G) in the 3d Dragoon Guards. lie rose 
through the intermediate gradations to the rank of lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the regiment (1773), and in 1781 he 
became colonel of the 103d infantry. When that regiment 
was disbanded in 1783 he retired upon half-pay. That 
up to this time ho had scarcely been engaged in active 
service, was owing mainly to his disapproval of the policy 
of the Government, and especially to his sympathies with 
the American colonists in their struggles for independence ; 
and his retirement is no doubt to be ascribed to similar 
feelings. But on Franc* declaring war against England 
in 1793, he hastened to resume his professional dutiesj 
and, being esteemed one of the ablest and most intrepid 
officers in the whole British forces, he was appointed to 
the command of a brigade under the Duke of York, for 
service in Holland. He commanded the advanced guard 
in the action on the heights of Cateau, and was wounded 
at Nimeguen. The duty fell to him of protecting the 
British army in its disastrous retreat out of Holland, in 
the wrinter of 1794-5. In 1795 he received the honour of 
knighthood, the Order of the Bath being conferred on him 
in acknowledgment of his services. The same year he 
was appointed to succeed Sir Charles Grey, as commander- 
in-chief of the British forces in the West Indies. In 1796, 
Grenada was suddenly attacked and taken by a detach- 
ment of the army under his orders. He afterwards 
o'otained possession of the settlements of Demerara and 
Essequibo, in Souih America, and of the islands of St 
Lucia, St Vincent, and Trinidad. He returned in 1797 
to Europe, and, in reward for his important services, was 
appointed to the command of the regiment of Scots Greys, 
intrusted with the govemnients of the Isle of Wight, Fort 
George, and Fort Augustus, and raised to the rank of lieu- 
tenant-general He held, in 1797-8, the chief command 
of the forces in Ireland. There he laboured to maintain 
the discipline of the army, to suppress the rising rebellion, 
and to protect the people from military oppression, with a 
care worthy alike of a general and an enlightened 

and beneficent statesman. Wlien he was appointed to the 
command in Ireland, an invasion of that country by the 
French was confidently anticipated by the Engli^h 
Government Ho used his utmost efforts to restore the 
discipline of an army that was utterly disorganised; and.- 
aa a firet step, he anxiously endeavoured to protect the 
people, by re-establishing the supremacy of the ci^Hl power, 
and not allowing the military to be called out, except when 
it was indispensably necessary for the enforcement of the 
hiw and the maintenance of order. Finding that he received 
no adequate support from the head of the Irish Govern- 
ment, and that all his efforts were opposed and thwarted 
by those who presided in the councils of Ireland, he resigned 
the command. Hia departure from Ireland was dieuly 
lamented by the reflecting portion of the people, and was 
sjwedily followed by disastrous results whicft he had 
anticipated, and which he so ardently desired and had so 
wisely endeavoured to prevent. After holding for a short 
period the office of Commander-in-Chief in Scotland, Sir 
l\alph, when the enterprise against Holland was resolved 
upon in 1799, was again called to command under the 
Duke of York. The difficulties of the ground, the incle- 
mency of the season, unavoidable delays, the disorderly 
movements of the Russians, and the timid duplicity of the 
Dutch, defeated the objects of that expedition. But it 
was confessed by the Dutch, the French, and the British 
alike, that even victory the most decisive could not 
have more conspicuously proved the talents of this distin- 
guished officer. His country applauded the choice, when, 
in 1801, he was sent with an army to dispossess the 
French of Egypt. His experience in Holland and the 
West Indies particularly fitted him for this new command, 
as was proved by his carrj-ing his army in health, in spirits, 
and with the requisite supplies, in spite of very great diflS- 
culties, to the destined scene of action. The debarkation 
of the troops at Aboukir, in the face of an opposing force, 
is justly ranked among the most daring and brilliant 
exploits of the English army. A battle in the neighbour- 
hood of Alexandria (March 21, 1801) was the sequel of 
this successful landing, and it was Sir R. Abercromby's 
fate to faD in the moment of victory. He was struck by 
a spent ball, which could not be extracted, and died seven 
days after the battle. The Duke of York paid a just 
tribute to the great soldier's memory in the general order 
issued on the occasion of his death : — " His steady observ- 
ance of discipline, his ever-watchful attention to the 
health and wants of his troops, the persevering and un- 
conquerable spirit which marked his military career, the 
splendour of his actions in the field, and the heroism of 
his death, are worthy the imitation of all who desire, like 
him, a Hfe of heroism and a death of glory." By a vote 
of the House of Commons, a monument was erected in 
honour of Sir Ralph Abercromby in St Paul's CathedraL 
His widow was created a peeress, and a pension of j£2000 
a year was settled on her and her two successors in the 
title. It may be mentioned that Abercromby was returned, 
after a keen contest, as member of Parliament for his 
native county of Clackmannanshire in 1773; but a |»rlia- 
mentary life had no attractions, for him, and he did not 
seek re-election. A memoir of the later years of his life 
(1793-1801), by his son. Lord Dunfermline, was published 
in 1861. 

ABERDARE, a town of 'Wales, in the county of 
Glamorgan, on the right bank of the river Cynon, four 
miles S.W. of MerthjT-Tydvil llie district around is 
rich in valuable mineral products, and coal and iron 
mining are very extensively carried on in the neighbour- 
hood. Important tin-worki?, too, have been recently 
opened. Part of the coal is used at the iron-works, and 
large quantities are sent to Cardiif for exportation. Aber- 



dare JS connected with the coast by canal and railway. 
Owing to the great development of the coal and iron 
trade, it has rauidiy increased from a mere village to a 
large and flourishing town. Handsome churches, banks, 
and hotels have been erected, a good supply of water has 
been introduced, and a public park has been opened. 
Two markets are held weekly. The whole parish falls 
within the parliamentary borough of Merthyr-Tj;dvil. 
The rapid growth of its population is seen by the fol- 
lowing tigures : in 1841 the number of inhabitants was 
6471 ; in 1851. 14,999 ; in 1861, 32,299; and in 1871, 

ABERDEEN, a royal burgh and city, the chief part .of a 
parliamentary burgh, the capital bi the county of Aberdeen, 
the chief seaport in the north of Scotland, and the fourth 
Scottish town in population, industry, and wealth. It lies 
in lat. 57° 9' N. and" long. 2° 6' W., on the German Ocean, 
near the mouth of the river Dee, and is 542 miles north 
of London, and 111 miles north of Edinburgh, by the 
shortest railway routes. 


ta^^^^^^SiSF-^ : ' "^ ^\S ^ A \ ■ ) " 

Aberdeen, probably the Devana on the Diva of Ptolemy, 
was an important place in the 1 2th century. "William the 
Lion had a residence in the city, to which he gave a char- 
ter in 1179, confirming the corporate rights granted by 
David I. - The city received many subsequent royal 
charters. It was burned by Edward III. in 1336,' but 
it was soon rebuilt and extended, and called New Aber- 
deen. The houses were of timber and thatched, and 
many such existed till 1741. 'The burgh records are the 
oldest of any Scottish burgh. They begin in 1398, and are 
complete to the present time, with only a short break. 
Extracts from them, extending from 1398 to i570, have 
been published by the Spalding Club. For many centuries 
the city was subject to attacks by the barons of the sur- 
rounding districts, and its avenues and sLx ports had to 
be guarded. The ports had all been removed by 1770. 
Several monasteries c^cistcd in Aberdeen before the Re- 
furmation. "Most of the Scottish sovereigns jifiitcJ the 

city and received gifts from the authorities. In 1497 a 
blockhouse was built at the harbour mouth as a protection 
against the English. During the religious struggle in the 
1 7th century between the Royalists and Covenanters the 
city was plundered by both parties. In 1715 Earl 
Marischal proclaimed the Pretender at Aberdeeru In 1745 
the Duke of Cumberland resided a shoit time in the city. 
In the middle of the 18th century boys were kidnapped 
in Aberdeen, and sent as slaves to America. In 1817 the 
city became insolvent, with a debt of £225,710, contracted 
by public improvements, but the debt was soon paid off. 
The motto on the city arms is Bon- Accord. It formed the 
watchword of the Aberdonians while aiding King Robert 
the Bruce in his battles with the English. 

Of eminent men connected with Aberdeen, New and 
Old, may be mentioned — John Barbour, Hector Boece or 
Boethius, Bishop Elphinstone, the Earls Marischal ; George 
Jamesone, the famous portrait painter ; Edward Raban, the 
first printer fn Aberdeen, 1622 ; Rev. Andrew Cant, 
the Covenantor ; David Anderson (Davie do a' thing), a 
mechanic ; James Gregory, inventor of the reflecting 
telescope ; Dr Thomas Reid, the metaphysician ; Dr George 
Campbell, Principal of Marischal Qollege, author of several 
important works, and 'best known by his Philosophy o/ 
Rhetoric; Dr James Beattie ; Lord ' Byron ; Sir James 
Mackintosh; Robert HaU • Dr P- Hamilton,' who wrote on 
the National Debt. 

Till 1800 the city siood on a few eminences, and had 
steep, narrow, and crooked streets, but,, since the Improve- 
ment Act of that year, the whole aspect of the place has 
been altered by the formation of two new spacious and 
nearly level streets (Union Street and King Street, meet- 
ing in Castle Street), and by the subsequent laj-ing out of 
many others, besides squares, 'terraces, «fec., on nearly flat 
ground.- The city is above eight miles in ciixuit, and is 
built on sand, gravel, and boulder clay. The highest parts 
are from 90 to 170 feet above the sea. The chief thorough- 
fare is Union Street, nearly a mile long and 70 feet broad. 
It runs "W.S.'W. from Castle Street, and crosses the Den- 
b'urn, now the railway valley, by a noble granite arch 132 
feet in span and 50 feet high, whichj^ost. .with a -hidden 
arch'on each side, j£13,000. 

Aberdeen is now a capaciou.ij'^elegant, and well-built 'Public 
town, and fron^the material employed, consisting chiefly of .Buildtncsi 
light grey native granite, is called . the " granite city."; 
It contains many fine public buildings. The principal of 
these is Marischal College or University Buddings, which 
stands on the site of a pre-Reformation Franciscan Convent, 
and was rebuilt, 1836-1841, at a cost of about £30,000. 
It forms three sides of a court, which is 117 by 1 05 feet, 
and has a back wing, and a tower 100^ feet high. Thf 
accommodation consists of twenty-five large class-rooms ana 
.laboratories, a hall, library, museums, &c. 

The University of Aberdeen was formedby the' union 
and incorporation, in 1860, by Act of Parliament, of the 
University and King's College of Aberdeen, founded in Old 
Aberdeen, in 1494, by William Elphinstone, Bishop of 
Aberdeen, under the authoritj' of a Papal bull obtained by 
James I'V., and of the Marischal College and University of 
Aberdeen, founded in New Aberdeen, ia 1593, by George 
Keith, Earl JIarischal, by a charter ratified by Act of Par- 
liament. _ The officials consist of a chancellor, with rector 
and principal; there. are 21 professors and 8 assistanta 
Arts and divinity are taught in King's College, and medicine, 
natural history, and law in Marischal College. The arts 
session lasts from the end of October to the beginning 
of April. The arts curriculum of four years, with gradua- 
tion, costs £36, lis. There are 214 arts bursaries, 29 
divinity, and 1 medical, of the aggregate annual value of 
£3646, £650, and £26, respectively. About CO art» 



bursaries, mostly from £10 to £35 in vaiue, are given 
yearly by competition, or by presentation and examination. 
Two-tliinla of the arts studcDts are bursars. Seventeen 
annual scholarships and prizes of the yearly value of X758 
are given at the end of the arts curriculum. The average 
yearly number of arts students, in the thirteen years 
since the union of the arts classes of the two colleges in 
18G0, has been 3i2, while in the separate colleges together 
for the nine years before the union, it was 431. In winter 
session 1872-73 there were 623 matriculated students in 
all the faculties. In 1872, 32 graduated in arta, 68 in 
medicine, 5 in divinity, and 1 in law. The library has 
above 80,000 volumes. The General Council in 1873 had 
2075 registered members, who, with those of Glasgow Uni- 
versity, return one member to Parliament. 

The Free Church Divinity College was built in 1850, 
at the cost of £2025, in the Tudor-Gothic style. It has a 
Inrge hall, a library of 12,000 volumes, and 15 bursaries of 
the yearly value of from £10 to £25. 

At the east end of Union Street, and partly in Castie 
Street, on the north side, are the now County and Muni- 
cipal buildings, an imposing Vranco-Scottish Gothic pile, 
225 feet long, 109 feet broad, and 64 feet high, of four 
Btorics, built 1867-1873 at the cost of £80,000, including 
£25,000 for the site. Its chief feature is a tower 200 
feet high. It contains a great ball, 74 feet long, 35 feet 
bro-id, and 50 feet high, with an open timber ceiling : a 
Justiciary Court-House, 50 feet long, 37 feet broad, and 
31 foot high; a Town Hall, 41 feet long, 25 feet broad, 
and 15 feet high, and a main entrance corridor GO feet 
long, 16 feet broad, and 24 feet high. A little to the west 
is the Town and County Bank, a highly ornamented building 
inside and outside, in the Italian style, costing about 

A very complete closed public market of two floors was 
built in 1842, at a cost of £28,000, by a company incor- 
porated by Act of Parliament. The upper floor or great 
hall is 315 feet long, lOo feet broad, and 45 feet high, 
with galleries all round. The lower floor is not so high. 
The floors contain numerous small shops for the sale of 
meat, fowls, fish, &c., besides stalls and seats for the sale 
of vegetables, butter, eggs, <fec. The galleries contain small 
shops for the sale of drapery, hardware, fancy goods, and 
books. On the upper floor is a fountain of polished Peter- 
head granite, costing £200, with a basin 7J feet diameter, 
cut out of one block of stone. Connected with this under- 
taking was the laying out of Market Street from Union 
Street to the quay. At the foot of this street is being built 
in the Italian style the new post and telegraph office, at a 
cost of £16,000, including £4000, the cost of the site. 
It is to form a block of about 100 feet square and 40 feet 
Chiircliea Aberdeen has about 60 places of worship, with nearly 
«°<i 48,000 sittings. There are 10 Established churches; 20 

" Free, 6 Episcopalian, 6 United Presbyterian, 5 Congre- 

gational, 2 Baptist, 2 Methodist, 2 Evangelical Union, 1 
Unitarian, 1 of Roman Catholic, 1 of Friends, and 1 of Origi- 
nal Seceders. There are also several mission chapels. In 
1843 aU the Established ministers seceded, with 10,000 lay 
members. The Established and Free Church denomina- 
tions have each about 11,000 members in communion. 
The Established West and East churches, in the centre of 
the city, within St Nicholas churchyard, form a continuous 
building 220 feet long, including an intervening aisle, over 
which is a tower and spire 140 feet higL The West was 
built in 1775 in the Italian style, and the East in 1834 in 
the Gothic, each costing about £5000. They occupy the 
site of the original cruciform church of St Nicholas, erected 
in the I3th, 14th, and 15th centuries. One of the nice 
(bells la the tower bears the date of 1352. and is 4 feet 

diameter at the moiith, 3^ feet high, and very thick. Tie 
Union Streiit front of the churchyard is occupied by a 
very elegant granite facade, built in 1830, at the cost of 
£1460. It is 147^feet long, with a central arched gateway 
and entablature 32J feet high, with two attached Ionic 
columns on each side. Each of the two wings ha;i sLit 
Ionic columns (of single granite blocks, 15 feet 2 inches 
long), with boaement and entablature, the Whole being 23J 
feet high. The following are the style, cost, and date of 
erection of the other principal Aberdeen churches — St An- 
drew's, Episcopal, Gothic, £6000, 1817; North Church, 
Established, Greek, £10,000, 1831; three churches in f. 
cruciform group. Free, simple Lancet Gothic, with a fin. 
brick spire 174 feet high, £5008, 1844; Roman Catholic 
Gothic, £12,000, 1859; Free West, Gothic. £12.858, 1869. 
with a spire 175 ftet high. 

In 1873 there were in Aberdeen about 110 school*, ^i} 
from 10,000 to 11,000 pupils in attendance. About 2501: 
students attend the University, Mechanics' Institution, and 
private schools for special branches. 

Five miles south-west of Aberdeen, on the south side oi 
the Dee, in Kincardineshire, is St Mary's Roman Catholic 
College of Blairs, with a president and three professors. 

The Aberdeen Grammar School, dating from about 1203, 
is a preparatory school for the university. It haa a tectoi 
and four regular masters, who teach classics, English, 
arithmetic, and mathematics, for the annual fee of £4, lOs. 
for each pupil. Writing, drawing, itc, are also taught. 
Nearly 200 pupils attend, who enter about the ag? of 
twelve. Like the Edinburgh High School, it has nj 
elementary department. There are 30 bursaries. A new 
granite building for the school was erected, 1861-1803, 
in the Scotch baronial style, at the cost of £16,000, in- 
cluding site. It is 215 feet lone and 60 feet high, and 
has three towers. 

The Mechanics' Institution, founded 1824, and re- 
organised 1834, has a hall, class-rooms, and a library of 
14,000 volumes, in a building erected in 1846, at a coist of 
£3500. During the year 1872-73, there were at the School 
of Science and Art 385 pupils ; and at other evening classes, 

Aberdeen has two native banks, besides branch banks, Ljuke. JL^ 
and a National Security Savings Bank ; three insurance 
companies, four shipping companies, three railway com- 
panies, and a good many miscellaneous companies. There 
are ten licensed pawnbroking establishments, with about 
440,000 pledges in the year for £96,000, and with a 
capital of £27,000. There are seven incorporated trades, 
originating between 1398 and 1527, and having charitable 
funds for decayed members, widows, and orphans. They 
have a hall, built in 1847 for £8300, in the Tudor Gothic 
style. The hall, 60 feet long, 29 wide, and 42 high, con- 
tains curious old chairs, and curious inscriptions on the 
shields of the crafts. 

Among the charitable institutions is Gordon's Hospital, Cluritic*. 
founded in 1729 by a miser, Robert Gordon, a Dantzic 
merchant, of the Straloch family, and farther endowed 
by Alexander Simpson of CoUyhill in 1816. It is 
managed by the Town Council and four of the Established 
ministers of Aberdeen, incorporated by royal charters of 
1772 and 1792. The central part of the house was built 
in 1739, and the wings in 1830-1834, the whole costing 
£17,300, and being within a garden of above four acres. 
It now (1873) maintains and educates (in English, writing, 
arithmetic, physics, mathematics, drawing, music, French, 
<Uc.) 180 boys of the age 9 to 15, the sons and grandiona 
of decayed burgesses of guild and trade of the city; and 
next those of decayed inhabitants (not paupers). Expendi- 
ture for year to 31st October 1872, £4353 for 164 Ix.ys. 
It has a head-master, three regular, and several visitiiig 



masters. The Boys' and Girls' Hospital, lately built for 
£10,000, maintains and educates 50 boys and 50 girls. 

The Female Orphan Asylum, founded by Mrs Elmslie, 
in 1840, and managed by trustees, maintains and educates, 
chiefly as domestic servants, 46 girls between the ages of 
4 and 16, at the yearly cost for each of about £23, 13s. 
Thco admitted must be legitimate orphan daughters of 
respectable parents, who have lived three years imme- 
diately before death in Aberdeen or in the adjoining 
parishes of Old Machar and Nigg. The Hospital for 
Orphan and Female Destitute Children, endowed by John 
Carnegie and the trustees of the Murtle Fund, maintains 
and educates 50 girls, chiefly for domestic service. The 
Asylum for the Blind, e3tabli.shed in 1843, on a foundation 
by Miss Cruickshank, maintains and educates about 10 
blind children, and gives industrial employment to blind 
adults. There is a boys' and girls' school for 150 boys 
and 150 girls on Dr BeU's foundation. The Industrial 
Schools, began by Sheriff Watson in 1841, and the Re- 
formatory S -hools, begun in 1857, having some 600 pupils 
on the roU, have greatly diminished juvenile crime in the 
district. The Murtle or John Gordon's Charitable Fund, 
founded in 1815, has an annual revenue from land of about 
£2400, applicable to all kinds of charity, in sums from 
£5 to £300. The Midbeltie Fund, founded by a bequest 
of £20,000, in 1348, by James Allan of Midbeltie, gives 
yearly pensions ranging from £5 to £15 to respectable 
decayed widows in the parishes of St Kicholas and Old 

The two pansnes in which Aberdeen is situated, viz., 
St Nicholas and Old Machar, have each a large poor-house. 
The poor of both parishes cost about £20,000 a year. 

The Royal Infirmary, instituted in 1740, was rebuilt 
1833-1840, in the Grecian style, at the cost of £17,000. 
It is a well-situated, large, commodious, and imposing 
building. It has thi'ee stories, the front being 166 feet 
long and 50 feet high, with a dome. A detached fever- 
house was built in 1872 for about £2500. The managers 
were incorporated by royal charter in 1773, and much 
increased in number in 1852. The institution is sup- 
ported by land rents, feu-duties, legacies, donations, sub- 
scriptions, church collections, &c. Each bed has on an 
average 1200 cubic feet of space. There are on the average 
1 30 resident patients, costing each on the average a shilling 
daily, and the number of patients treated may be stated at 
1 700 annually, besides outdoor patients receiving advice and 
medicine. The recent annual expenditure has been about 
£4300. There is a staff of a dozen medical ofiicers. 

The Royal Lunatic Asylum, opened in 1800, consists of 
two separate houses, valued in 1870 at £40,000, in an 
enclosure of 40 acres. It is under the same management 
as the Infirmary. The recent daily average of patients has 
been about 420, at an annual cost of £13,000. The annual 
rate for each pauper is £25, lOs. The General Dispensary, 
Vaccine, and Lying-in Institution, founded in 1823, has 
had as many as 6781 cases in one year. The Hospital for 
Incurables has a daily average of 26 patients, and the Oph- 
thalmio and Auric Institution has had 671 cases in a year. 

The Music Hall, built Li 1821 and 1859 at the cost 

Muiiic of £16,500, has a front 90 feet long, with a portico of 6 

H^li. Ionic pillars 30 feet high; large, highly-decorated lobbies 

and zooms; and a hall 150 feet long, 63 broad, and 50 

high, with a flat ceiling, and galleries. The hall holds 2000 

pei-sons seated, and has a fine organ and an orchestra for 

3C0. Hero H.R.H. Prince Albert opened the British 

Association, as president, 14th September 1859. A new 

Theatre and Opera House was built in 1872, in the mbcod 

l'.i.'atro. Gothic style, for £8400, with the stage 52i feet by 29, and 

the auditorium for 1700 to 1800 persons. The front wall 

IS of bluish granite and red and yellow freestone, with 

some polished Peterhead granite pillars, the rest being 
built of concrete. 

In Castle Street, the City PUce and Old Market Stance, 
is the Market, a beautiful, open-arched, hexagonal 
structure of freestone, 21 feet diameter, and 18 feet high. 
It has Ionic columns and pilasters, and an entablature of 
twelve panels. On ten of the panels are medallions, 
cut in stone, in high relief, of the Scottish sovereigns fri,m 
James I. to James VIL From the centre rises a com- 
posite column 12^ feet high, with a Corinthian capital, on 
which is the royal unicorn rampant. This cross was planned 
and erected about 1C82 by John Montgomery, a native 
architect, for £100 sterling. On the north side of the 
same street, adjoining the municipal buildings, is thu 
North of Scotland Bank, a Grecian building in granite, 
with a portico of Corinthian columns, having most elabo- 
rately carved capitals. On an eminence east of Castle 
Street are the military barracks for 600 men, built in 1796 
for £16,000. 

The principal statues in the city are those of the last 
Duke of Gordon — died 1836 — in grey granite, 10 feet high; 
Queen Victoria, in white Sicilian marble, 8 J feet high; 
Prince Albert, bronze, natural-size, sitting posture; and a 
curious rough stone figure, of unknown date, supposed to 
be Sir W illia m Wallace. 

The Dee to the south of the city is crossed by three 
bridges, the old bridge of Dee, an iron suspension bridge, 
and the Caledonian Railway bridge. The first, till 1832 
the only access to the city from the south, consists of 
seven semicircular ribbed arches, is about 30 feet high, 
and was built early in the 1 6th century by Bishops Elphic- 
stone and Dunbar. It was nearly all rebuilt 1718-1723, 
and from being 14J feet wide, it was in 1842 xnade 26 
feet wide. From Castle Street, King Street leads in the 
direction of the new bridge of Don (a little east of the old 
" Brig o' Balgownie "), of five granite arches, each 75 feet 
span, built for nearly £13,000 in 1827-1832. 

A defective harbour, and a shallow sand and gravel bar at 
its entrance, long retarded the trade of Aberdeen, but, under 
various Acts since 1773, they have been greatly deepened. 
The north pier, b'lilt partly by Smeaton, 1775-1781, and 
partly by Telford, 1810-1815, extends 2000 feet into the 
German Ocean. It is 30 feet broad, and, with the parapet, 
rises 15 feet above high water. It consists of large granite 
blocks. It has increased the depth of water on the bar 
from a few feet to 22 or 24 feet at spring tides, and to 17 
or 18 feet at neap. The wet dock, of 29 acres, and with 
6000 feet of quay, was completed in 1848, and called 
Victoria Dock, in honour of Her Majesty's visit to the 
city in that year. These and other improvements of the 
harbour and its entrance cost £325,000 down to 1848. 
By the Harbour Act of 1868, the Dee near the harbour 
has been diverted to the south, ac the cost of £80,000, 
and 90 acres of new ground (in addition to 25 acres 
formerly made up) for harbour works are being made up on 
the city or north side of the river; £80,000 has beeu 
laid out in forming in the sea, at the south side of the 
river, a new breakwater of concrete, 1050 feet long, against 
south and south-east storms. The navigation channel is 
being widened and deepened, and the old pier or break- 
water on the north side of the river mouth is to ba 
lengthened at least 500 feet seaward. A body of 31 com- 
missioners manage the harbour affairs. 

Aberdeen Bay affords safe anchorage with off-shore wind.s, 
but not with those from the N.E., E., and S.E. On the 
Girdlei ess, the south point of the bay, a lighthouse was 
built iL 1833, in lat 57' 8' N., and long. 2° 3' W., with 
tv/o &xed lights, one vertically below the other, and re- 
spectively 115 and 185 feet above mean tide. There are 
also fixed leading lights to direct shrps entering the harbour 

L — 6 







turcs, &c. 

at night. In fogfl, a steam whi»tlo near tUo lighthouse is 
sounded ten seconds every minute. Near the harbour 
mouth are three batteries mounting nineteen guns. 

The water supplied to the city contains only 3J grains 
solid matter in a gallon, with a hardness of about 2 degrees. 
It is brought by gravitation, in a close brick culvert, 
from the Dec, 21 miles W.S.W. of the city, to a reservoir, 
which supplies niie-tentha of the city. The other tenth, 
or higher part of the city^is supplied by a separate leaer- 
voir, to which part of the water from the culvert is forced 
up by a hydi-aulio engine. Nearly 40 gallons water per 
head of the population are consumed daily for all purposes. 
The new water works cost XI 00,000, and were opened by 
Her Majesty, IGth October 18GG. 

The gas is made of cannel coal, and is sent tlirough 71 
miles of main pipes, which extend 5 miles from the works. 

The manufactures, arts, and trade of Aberdeen and 
vicinity are 1 irge and flourishing. Woollens were made as 
early as 170; , and knitting of stockings was a great industry 
in the 18tb century. There are two large firms in the 
woollen trade, with 1550 hands, at £1000 weekly 'wages, 
and making above 1560 tons wool in the year into yams, 
carpets, h.-'nd-knit hosiery, cloths, and tweeds. The linen 
trade, much carried on since 1749, is now confined to one 
firm, with 2G00 hand.s, at £1200 wages weekly, who spin, 
weave, and bleach 50 tons flax and CO tons tow weekly, 
and produce yarns, floorcloths, sheetings, dowlas, ducks, 
towels, sail-canvas, &c. The cotton manufacture, introduced 
in 1779, employs only one firm, with 550 hand.<i, at £220 
weekly wages, who spin 5000 bales of cotton a-year into 
mule yarn. The wincey trade, begun in 1839, employs 
400 hands, at £200 weekly wjges, who make 2,100,000 
yards cloth, 27 to oG inches broad, in the year. Paper, 
first made here in 1G96, is now manufactured by three 
firms in the vicinity. The largest has 2000 'hands, at 
£1250 weekly wages, and mokes weekly 75 to 80 tons of 
writing paper, and 6J millions of envelopes, besides much 
cardboard and stamped paper; another firm makes weekly 
77 tons coarse and card paper; and a third, 20 tons print- 
ing and other paper. The comb works of Messrs Stewart 
ife Co., begun in 1827, are the largest in the world, em- 
ploying 900 hands, at £500 weekly wages, who yearly 
convert 1100 tons horns, hoofs, india-rubber, and tortoise- 
shells into 1 1 millions of combs, besides spoons, cups, 
scoops, paper-knives, <fec. Seven iron foundries and 
many engineering works employ lOOC men, at £925 
weekly wages, and convert 6000 tons of iron a-year into 
marine and land steam engines and boilers, corn mills, 
wood-preparing machinery, machinery to grind and pre- 
pare artificial manures, besides sugar mills and frames and 
coffee machinery for the colonies. 

The Sandilands Chemical Works, begun in 1848, cover 
five acres, and employ over 100 men and boys, at £90 to 
£100 weekly wages. Here are prepared naphtha, benzole, 
creosote oil, pitch, asphalt, sulphate of ammonia, sulphuric 
acid, and artificial manures. Paraffin wax and ozokerite 
are refined. An Artesian weU within the works, 421 feet 
deep, gives a constant supply of good water, always at 
51 Fahr. Of several provision-curing works, the largest 
employs 300 hands, chiefly females, in preserving meats, 
soups, sauces, jams, jeU-es, pickles, &c., and has in con- 
nection with it, near the city, above 230 acres of fruit, vege- 
table, and farm ground, and a large piggery. The products 
of the breweries and distilleries are mostly comsumed at 
home. A large agricultural implement work employs 70 
or 80 men and boys. Nearly 200 acres of ground, within 
three miles of the city, are laid out in rearing shrub and 
forest-tree seedlings. In 1872 about 145 acres of straw- 
berries were reared within three miles of Aberdeen, and 
(JU tuua of this fruit are said to have b«en exported. 

< Fishing 


Very uurjiblo grey grjiiito has been quarried near Abcr- CraniK. 
decn for 300 years, ajd blocked and dre&sed pa^Hng, kerb, 
and building granit* stones Lave long been exported from 
the di.ftrict In 1764, Aberdeen granite pavement was first 
used in London. .About the year 1 795, large granite blocks 
were sent for the Portsmouth docks. The chief stouts of 
the New Thames Embankment, Loudon, are from Kemn.iy 
granite quarrie*, 10 miles northwest of the city. Aber- 
deen is almost entirely built of granite, and Urge quantities 
of the stone are exported to build bridges, wharfs, docks, 
lighthouses, &c, elsewhere. Aberdeen is famed for \l» 
polishing-workfl of grapite, especially grey and red. They 
employ about 1500 hands in polishing vases, tables, 
chimney-pieces, fountains, monuments, columns, ic., for 
British and foreign demand. Mr Alexander Mjicdonald, 
in 1818, was the first to begin the granite polishing trade, 
and the works of the same firm, the only ones of the kind 
till about 1850, are still the largest in the kingdom. 

In 1820, 15 vessels from Aberdeen were engaged in tho 
northern whale and seal fishing; in 18C0, one vessel, but 
none since. The white fishing at Aberdeen employs some 
40 boats, each with a crew of 5 men. Of the 900 tons 
wet fish estimated to be brought to market yearly, above a 
third are sent fresh by rail . to England. The salmoc 
caught in the Dee, Don, and sea are nearly all sent to 
London fresh in ice. The herring fishing has been pro- 
secuted since 1836, and from 200 to 350 boats are 
engaged in it. 

Aberdeen has been famed for shipbuilding, especially 
for its fast clippers. Since 1855 nearly a score of vessels 
have been built of above 1000 tons each. The largest 
vessel (a sailing one) ever built here was one in 1855, of 2400 
tons.. In 1872 there were built 11 iron vessels of 9450 
tons, and 6 wooden of 2980 tons, consuming 5900 tons 
iron, and costing £252,700, including £70,700 for engines 
and other machinery. '1400 hands were employed in 
shipbuilding in that year, at the weekly wages of about 

In 1872, there belonged to the port of Aberdeen 236 Shipping 
vessels, of 101,188 tons, twenty-four of the vessels, of 7483 
tons, being steamers. They trade with most British and 
Irish ports, the Baltic and Mediterranean ports, and many 
more distant regions. In 1872, 434,108 tons shipping 
arrived, ^t the port, and the custom duties were £112,414. 
The export trade, exclusive of coasting, is insignificant. 
The shore or harbour dues were £126 in 1765, and £1300 
in 1800. In the year ending 30th September 1872, they 
were £25,520; while the ordinary harbour rc\enue was 
£37,765, expenditure £28,598, and debt £324,614. The 
introduction of steamers in 1821 greatly promoted in- 
dustry and traffic, and especially the cattle trade of 
Aberdeenshire with London. These benefits have been 
much increased by the extension of raOw ys. Commodious 
steamers ply regularly between Abe.Ucen and Londoli, 
Hull,' Newcastle, Leith, Wick^ Kii"kwall, and Lerwick. 

The joint railway station for the Caledonian, Great 
North of Scotland, and Deeside lines, was opened 1867, 
and is a verj' handsome erection, costing about £26,000. 
It is 500 feet long, and 102 feet broad, with the side walls 
32 feet high. The arched roof of curved lattice-iron ribs, 
covered with slate, zinc, and glass, is all in one span, rising 
72 feet high, and is very light and airy. 

The Medico-Chinirgical Society of Aberdeen was founded 
in 1789. The haU was built in 1820 at a cost of £4000, 
and is adorned with an Ionic portico of four granite columns, 
27 feet high. It has 42 members, and a library of 6000 
volumes. The legal practitioners of Aberdeen have been 
styled advocates since 1633, and received royal charters 
in 1774, 1779, and 1862. They form a society, called 
th.j Society of Advocates, of 127 members in 1873, with a 









iall built in 187^ for £5075, a library of nearly 6000 
volumes, and a fund to support decayed and indigent 
members, and their nearest relatives. The revenue in 
1872 wa3i2S80. 

Aberdeen has on^ daily and three weekly newspapers. 
The Aberdeen Journal, established in 1748, is the oldest 
newspaper north of the Forth. 

The places of out-door recreation and amusement are 
chiefly the following: — The Links, a grassy, benty, and 
Bandy tract, 2 miles long and J to J mile broad, along 
the shore between the mouths of the Dee and the Don. 
It is mostly only a few feet above the sea, but the Broad 
llill rises to 94 feet. Cattle shows, reviews, kc, are held 
on the Links. To the north-west of the town, a Public 
Recreation Park of 13 acres was laid out in 1872, at the 
co-st of £3000, with walks, grass, trees, shrubs, and flowers. 

Climate Daily observations from 1857 to 1872 ehow the mean 

temperal"ure of Aberdeen for the year to be 45°"8 Fahr., 
for the three summer months 56° Fahr., and for the three 
winter months 37°"3. The average yearly rainfall is 30'57 
inches. Aberdeen is the healthiest of the large Scottish 
towns. East winds prevail in spring. 

Since 1867 £50,000 has been spent in constructing 
main sewers throughout the city. A few acres of farm 
laud have been irrigated by part of the sewage. 

The city is governed by a corporation, the magistrates 
and town councO, consisting of twenty-iive councillors, 
including a provost, six bailies, a dean of guild, a trea- 
surer, kc. The corporation revenue in the year 1871-72 
was £11,498. The police, water, and gas are managed by 
the council. The municipal and police burgh has an area 
of nearly three square miles, with 12,514 municipal electors, 
and with assessable property valued at £230,000 in 1873. 
The Parliamentary burgh has an area of nine square miles, 
including Old Aberdeen and Woodside, with 14,253 Par- 
liamentary electors, and real property to the value of 
£309,328 in 1873. It returns one member to Parliament. 
The populafiou of Aberdeen in 1396 was about 3000; in 
1643, 8750'; in 1708, 5556; in 1801, 26,i)92; in 1841, 
03,262; and in 1871, 88,125; with 6718 inhabited 
houses, 292 uninhabited, and 77 building. 

Ol'l Abeedeex, Old, is a small, quiet, ancient town, a 

Aberdeen, hurgh of barony and regality, a mile north of Aberdeen, 
and as far south-west of the mouth of the Don. It mostly 
forms one long street, 45 to 80 feet above the sea. The 
Don, to the north of the town, runs through a narrow, 
wooded, rocky ravine, and is spanned by a single Gothic 
arch, the " Brig 0' Balgownie" of Lord Byron. The bridge 
rests on gneiss, and is 67 feet wide and 34i feet h'"' .bove 
the surface of the river, which at ebb tide is hert ^» feet 
Jeep. The bridge is the oldest in the north of Scotland, 
and is said to have been built about 1305 The funds 
belonging to the bridge amount to £24,000. 

The town was formerly the see of a bishop, and had a 
large cathedral dedicated to St ilachar. In 1137 David L 
translated to Old Aberdeen the bishopric, founded at 
Mortlach in Banffshire ia 1004 by Malcolm IL in memory 
of his signal victory there over the Danes. In 1153 
Malcolm IV. gave the bishop a new charter. 

ratliedral. The cathedral of St Macliar, begun about 1357, occupied 
nearly 170 years in building, and did not remain entire 
fifty years. What is still left is the oldest part, viz., the 
nave and side aisles, 120 feet long and 621 feet broad, 
now used as the parish church. It is chiefly built of 
ouilayer granite stones, and while the plainest Scottish 
cathedral, is the only one of granite in the kingdom. On 
the flat pannellod ceiling of the nave are 48 heraldic shields 
•■f the princes, nobles, and bishops who aided in its erection. 
It has been lately repaired, and some painted window.'* 
inserted, at the cost of £4280. 

The chief structure Lq Old Aberdeen is the stately fabric King's 
of Kirig's College cear the middle of the town. It fornia College, 
a quadrangle, with interior court 103 feet square, two 
sides of which have been rebuilt, and a projecting wing for 
a Kbrary added since i860. The oldest parts, the Crovm 
Tower and Chapel, date from about 1500. The former 
is 30 feet square and 60 feet high, and is surmounted 
by a structure about 40 feet high, consisting of a six-sided 
lantern and a royal crown, both sculptured, and resting on 
the intersections of two arched ornamented slips rising froai 
the four comers of the top of the tower. The chapel, 120 
feet long, 28 feet broad, and 37 feet high, stiU retains in 
the choir the original oak canopied stalls, miserere seat, and 
-lofty open screen. These fittings are 300 years old, in 
the French flamboyant stylo, and are unsurpassed, in taste- 
ful design and delicate execution, by the oak carving cf 
any other old church in Europe. This carved woodwork 
owes its preseiwation to the Principal of Sefonnation 
times, who armed his people, and protected it from the 
fury of the barons of the Meams after they had robbed 
the cathedral of its beUa and lead. The chapel is still used 
for public worship during the University session. 

Connected with Old Aberdeen is a brewery in the town, 
and a brick and coarse pottery work in the vicinity. There 
are also a Free church, two secondary schools, and two 
primary schocSs. Old Aberdeen has its own municipal 
ofiicers, consisting of a provost, 4 bailies, and 13 councillors. 
The town is drained, lighted, supplied with water, and is 
-.vithin thp ParUamentary boundary of New Aberdeen. 
There are several charitable institutions. Population in 
1871, 1857 ; inhabited houses, 233. (a. c.) 

ABERDEENSHIRE, a maritime county in the north- 
east of Scotland, between 56° 52' and 57° 42' N. lat. and 
between 1° 49' and 3° 48' long. W. of Greenwich. It is 
bounded on the north and east by the Ocean ; on 
the south by tLie counties of Kincardine, Forfar, and Perth ; 
and on the west by those of Inverness and Banff. Its 
greatest length is 102 miles, and breadth 50 miles. Its 
circuit with sinuosities is about 300 miles, 60 being sea- 
coast. It is the fifth of Scotch counties in size, and is one- 
sixteenth of the extent of Scotland. Its area is 1970 
square miles, or 1,260,625 acres, of which, in 1872, 36'6 
per cent., or 585,299 acres, were cultivated, 93,339 in woods 
(mostly Scotch fir and larch), and 6400 in lakes. It con- 
tains 86 civil parishes and parts of 6 others, or 101 parishes, 
including civil and quoad sacra. The county b generally 
hilly, and mountainous in the south-west, whence, the 
centre of Scotland, the Grampians send out various branchc.-i, 
mostly to the north-east, through the county. The run of 
the rivers and the general slope of the county is to the 
north-east and east. It is popularly divided into five 
districts : — First, Mar, mostly between the Dee and Don, Distfid^^ 
and forming nearly the south half of the county. It is 
mountainous, especially Braemar, its west and Highlana 
part, which contains the greatest mass of elevated land in 
the British Isles. Here the Dee rises amid the grandeur 
and wildness of lofty mountains, much visited by tourists, 
and composed chiefly of granite and gneiss, forming many 
high precipices, and sho«-ing patches of snow throughout 
every summer. Here rises Ben Muichdhui, the second highest 
mountain in Scotland and in the British Isles, 4296 feet ; 
Eraeriach, 4225; Cairntoul, 4245; Cairngorm (famed for 
" Cairngorm stones," a peculiar kind of rock crystal), 4090 ; 
Bcn-a-Buird, 3800; Ben Avon, 3826; and Byron's "dark 
Lochnagar," 3786. The soil on the Dee is sandy, and 
on the Don loamy. The city of Aberdeen is in Mar. 
Second, Formartin, between the lower Don and Ythaii. 
with a sandy coast, succeeded by a clayey, fertile, tdlod 
tract, and then by low hills, moors, mosses, and tilled land 
Third, Buchan, north of the Ythan, and next in size to 



Mar, tntb parts of the coxst bold and rocky, and with the 
interior bare, low, flat, undulating, and in parts, peaty. On 
the coast, 6ii miles south of Peterhead, are the Boilers of 
Bnchan, — a basin in which the aca, entering by a natural 
arch, boils up violently in stormy weather. Buchan Ness 
is the castmost point of Scotland. Fourth, Garicch, a 
beautiful, undulating, loamy, fertile valley, formerly called 
the granary of Aberdeen, withihe prominent hill Benachie, 
167C feet, on the south. Fifth, Slralhbogie, mostly con- 
sisting of hills (The Buck, 2211 feet; Noath, 1830 feet), 
moors, and mosses. The county as a whole, except the low 
grounds of Buchan, and the Highlands of Braemar, consists 
mainly of nearly level or undulating tracts, often nalced 
and infertile, but interspersed with many rich and highly 
cultivated spots. 

Rivers. The chief rivers are the Dee, 96 miles long; Don, 78; 

Vthan, 37, with mussel beds at its mouth; Ugie, 20; and 
Deveron, 58, partly on the'boundary of Banffslwre. The 
pearl mussel occurs in the Ythan and Don. A valuable 
pearl in the Scottish croivTi is said to be from the Ythan. 
Loc. Muick, the largest of the few lakes in the county, 
1310 feet above the sea, is only 2| miles long and J to J 
mile broad. The rivers havp ilenty of salmon and trout. 
There are noted chalybeate _ rings at Peterhead, Fraser- 
burgh, and Pananich near Ballater. 

Oimate. The climate of Aberdeenshire, except in the mountainous 

districts, is comparatively mild, from the sea being on two 
sides. The mean annual temperature at Braemar is 43°'6 
Fahr., and at Aberdeen 45°-8. The mean yearly rainfall 
varies from about 30 to 37 inches. The summer climate 
of the Upper Dee and Don valleys is the driest and most 
bncing in the British Isles, and grain is cultivated up to 
1600 feet above the sea, or 400 to 500 feet higher than 
elsewhere in Korth Britain. All the crops cultivated in 
Scotland ripen, and the people often live to a great age. 

Geology. The rocks are mostly granite, gneiss, with small tracts of 

syenite, mica slate, quartz rock, clay slate, grauwacke, 
primary limestone, old red sandstone, serpentine, and trap. 
Lias, greensand, and chalk flints occur. The rocks are 
much covered with boulder clay, gravel, sand, and allu- 
vium. Brick clay occurs near the coast. The surface of 
the granite under the boulder clay often presents ghcial 
sraoothings, grooves, and roundings. Cairngorm stone, 
beryl, and amethyst are found in the granite of Braemar. 

Plants and The tops of the highest mountains have an arctic flora. 

Aniniais. At Her Majesty's Lodge, Loch Muick, 1350 feet above the 
sea, grow larches, vegetables, currants, laurels, roses, <tc. 
Some ash trees, 4 or 5 feet in girth, are growing at 1300 
feet above the sea. The mole occurs at 1800 feet above 
the sea, and the squirrel at 1400. Trees, especially Scotch 
fir and larch, grow well in the county, and Braemar abounds 
in natural timber, said to surpass any in , the north of 
Europe. Stumps of Scotch fir and oak found in peat in 
the county are often far larger than any now growing. 
Grouse, partridges, and hares abound in the couuty, and 
rabbits are often too numerous. Red deer abound in 
Braemar, the deer forest being there valued at £5000 a 
year, and estimated at 500,000 acres, or one-fourth the 
arc.i "jf deer forests in Scotland. 

Apncul- Poor, gravelly, clayey, and peaty soils prevail much more 

ture. in Aberdeenshire than good rich loams, but tile draining, 

bones, and guano, and the best modes of modern -tillage, 
have greatly increased the pro<luce. Farm-houses and 
steadings have greatly improved, and the best agricultural 
implements and machines are in general use. About two- 
thirds of the population depend entirely on agriculture, and 
oatmeal in various forms, with milk, is the chief food of 
farm-servants. Farms are generally small, compared with 
those in the south-east counties. The fields are separated 
by dry-stone dykes, and also by woo<len and wire fences. 

Leases of 19 or 21 years prevail, and the five, eix, or seven 
shift rotation is in general use. In 1872 there were 1I,C42 
occupiers of land, with an average of 50 acres each, an3 
paying about £630,000 in rent Of the 585,299 acres of 
the county in crop in 1872, 191,880 acres were in oats, 
18,930 in barley and bcre, 1G33 in rye, 1357 in wheat, 
95,091 in turnips (being one-fifth of the turnips grown in 
Scotland), 8414 in potatoes, 232,178 in grasses and clover. 
In 1872 the county had 23,117 horses, 157,900 cattle 
(being above one-seventh of all the cattle in Scotland), 
123,308 sheep, and 13,579 pigs. The county is unsur- 
passed in breeding, and unrivalled in feeding cattle, aud 
this is more attended to than the cultivation of grain-crops. 
About 40,000 fat cattle are reared, and above £1,000,000 
value of cattle and dead meat is sent from the county to 
London j early. The capital invested in agriculture within 
the county is estimated at about £5,133,000. 

The great mineral wealth in Aberdeenshire is its long- Mincralai 
famed durable granite, which is largely q>iarried for biiild- 
ing, paving, causewaying, and polishing. An acre of land 
on being reclaimed has yielded £40 to £50 worth of causo- 
waying stonea Gneiss is also quarried, as also primary 
limestone, old red sandstone, conglomerate millstone, grau- 
wacke, clay slate, syenite, and hornblende rock. Iron ore, 
manganese, and plumbago occur in the county. 

A Lirge fishing population in villnges along the coast FUberies. 
engage in the white and herring fishery. Haddocks are 
salted and rock-dried (speldings), or smoked (finnans). The 
rivers and coasts yield many salmon. Peterhead was long 
the chief British port for the north whale and seal fishery, 
but Dundee now vies with it in this industry. 

The manufactures and arts of the county are mainly Huinfae- 
prosecuted in or near the town of Aberdeen, but throughout turc:. 
the rural districts there are much milling of com, brick and 
tile making, stone-quarrying, smith-work, brewing and 
distilling, cart and farm implement making, casting and 
drj-ing of peat, timber feUing, especially on Decside and 
Donside, for pit-props, railway sleepers, lath, barrel staves, 
(tc. The chief imports into the county are, coals, lime. Trade, 
timber, iron, slates, raw materials of textile manufac- 
tures, wheat, cattle-feeding stuS's, bones, guano, sugar, ■ 
alcoholic liquors, fruits, &c The chief exports are granite 
(rough, dressed, -end polished), flax, woollen, and cotton 
goods, paper, combs, preserved provisions, oats, barley, 
live and dead cattle, <tc. In the county there are about 
520 fairs in the year for cattle, horses, sheep, hiring ser- 
vants, ic. 

Aberdeenshire communicates with the south by the £«i]*aya. 
Caledonian Railway, and five macadamised roads across 
the east Grampians, the highest rising 2200 feet above the 
sea. About 188 miles of railway ^the Great North of 
Scotland, Formartin and Buchan, and Deeside lines), and 
2359 miles of public roads, ramify through the county. 
Tolls over the county were abolished in 1865, and the 
roads are kept up by assessment. The railway lines in the 
county have cost on the average about £13,500 a mile. 
Several macadamised roads and the Great North of Scot- 
land Railway form the main exits from the county to the 

The chief antiquities in Aberdeenshire are Picts" houses Anti- 
or weem^ stone foundations of circular dwellings; mono- quilies. 
liths, some being sculptured; the so-called Druid circles; 
stone cists; stone and earthen enclosures; the vitrified 
forts of Dunnideer and Noath ; cairns ; crannoges ; earthen 
mounds, as the Bass; flint arrow-heads; clay fimeral urns; 
stone celts and hammers. Remains of Roman camps occur 
at Peterculter, Kintore, and Auchterless, respectively 107 J, 
100, and 115 acres. Roman arms have been found. Ruina 
of ancient edifices occur. On the top of a conical hill called 
Dunnideer. in the Garioch district, are the remains of ^ 




castle, supposed to be 700 years old, and surrounded by a 
vitrified wall, which must be still older. The foundations 
of two buildings stiU remain, the one in Braemar, and . the 
other in the Loch of Cannor (the latter with the remains 
of a wooden bridge between it and the land), which are 
supposed to have belonged to Malcolm Canmore, King of 
Scotland. The most extensive ruins are the grand ones of 
KUdrummy Castle, evidently once a princely seat, and stilt, 
covering nearly an acre of ground. It belonged to David 
Earl of Huntingdon in 1150, and was the seat of the Earls 
of Marr attainted in 1716. 'The Abbey of Deer, now in 
ruins, was begun by Cumyn Earl of Buchan about 12 19i 

In Roman times, Aberdeenshii'e formed part of Ves- 
pasiana in Caledonia, and was occupied by the TaLxali, a 
warlike tribe. The local names are mostly Gaelic. St 
Columba and his pupil Drostan visited Buchan in the Gth 
century. In 1052 Macbeth fell near the Peel Bog in 
Lui'iphanan, and a cairn which raarks the spot is stiU 
shown. In 1309 Bruce defeated Comyn, Earl of Buchan, 
rear Inverurie, and annihilated a powerful Norman family. 
In 1411 the Earl of Marr defeated Donald of the Isles in 
the battle of Harlaw, near Inverurie, when Sir Robert 
Davidson, Provost of Aberdeen, was killed. In 1562 
occurred the battle of Corrichie on the Hill of Fare, when 
the Earl of Murray defeated the Marquis of Huntly. In 
1715 the Earl of Marr proclaimed the Pretender in Braemar. 
In 1746 the Duke of Cumberland with his army marched 
through Aberdeenshire to Culloden. In 1817 a base line 
of verification, 5 miles 100 feet long, was measured in'con- 
nection with the Trigonometrical Survey of the British Isles, 
on the Belhelvie Links 5 to 10 miles north of Aberdeen. 

Among eminent men connected with Aberdeenshire are, 
Robert Gordon of Stralooh, who in 1648 published the first 
atlas of Scotland from actual sjirvey ; the Earls Marischal, 
whose chief seat was Inverugie Castle ; Field-Marshal 
Keith, born at Inverugie Castle, 1696 ; Dr Thomas Reid, 
the metaphysician, minister of New Machar 1737 to 1752 ; 
Lord Pitshgo, attainted 1745; Sir Archibald Grant of 
Monymusk, who introduced turnips into the coiinty 1756, 
and was the first to plant wood on a great sc;Je ; Peter 
Garden, Auchterless, said to have died at the age of 132, 
about 1780; Rev. John Skinner, author of some popular 
Scottish songs ; Morrison the hygeist ; the Earl of Aberdeen, 
Prime Miaister during the Crimean war. 

The native Scotch population of Aberdeenshire are long- 
headed, shrewd, careful, canny, active, persistent, but 
reserved and blunt, and vrithout demonstrative enthusiasm. 
Thoy have a physiognomy distinct from the rest of the 
Scottish people, and have a quick, sharp, rather angry 
accent. The local Scotch dialect is broad, and rich in 
diminutives, and is noted for the use of e for o or u, f for 
kTi, d for th, &c. In 1830 Gaelic was the fireside language 

almost every family in Braemar, but now it is little used.' 
Courts and Aberdeenshire has a Lord-Lieutenant and 3 Vice and 60 
Deputy-Lieutenants. The Supreme Court of Justiciary sits 
in Aberdeen twice a-year to tiy cases from the counties of 
Aljerdcen, Banff, and Kincardine. The counties of Aberdeen 
and Kincardine are under a Sheriff' and tv/o Sheriffs-Substi- 
tute. The Sheriff Courts are held in Aberdeen and Peter- 
head. Sheriff Small-Debt and Circuit Courts are held at 
seven places in the county. There are Burgh or Bailie Courts 
in Aberdeen and the other royal burghs in the county. 
Justice of the Peace and Police Courts are held in Aberdeen, 
&c. The Sheriff Courts take cognisance of Commissaiy 
business. During 1871, 994 persons were confined in the 
Aberdeenshire prisons. In the year 1870-71, 74 parishes 
in the county were assessed £53,703 for 7702 poor on the 
Tioll and 1847 casual poor. 

Aberdeenshire contains 105 Established churches, 99 
Free. 31 Episcopal, 15 LTQJtgd Presbyterian, 9 Roman 




Cathohc, and 31 of other denominations. This includes 
detached parts of the two adjacent counties. 

By the census of 1871, 84-83 per cent, of the children Ecicition. 
in the county, of the ages 5 to 1 3, were receiving education. 
Those formerly called the parochial schcolniasters of 
Aberdeenshire participate in the Dick and Milne Bequests, 
which contributed more salary to the schoolmasters in some 
cdses than did the heritors. Most of the schoolmasters are 
Masters of Arts, and many are preachers. Of 114 parochial 
schools in the county befoi-e the operation of the new 
Education Act, 89 received the Milne Bequest of £20 a 
year, and 91 the Dick Bequest, averaging £30 a year, and 
a schoolmaster with both bequests would have a yearly 
income of £145 to £150, and in a few cases £250. The 
higher branches of education have been more taught ia the 
schools of the shires of Aoerdeen and Banff than in the 
other Scotch counties, and pupils have been long in the 
habit of going direct from the schools of these two counties 
to the University. 

The value of property, or real rental of the lands and Property, 
heritages in the county (including the burghs, except that 
of Aberdeen), for the year 1872-73, was £769,191. The 
railway and the water works in the city and county were 
for the same year valued at £11,133. For general county 
purposes for the year ending 15th May 1872, there was 
assessed £14,803 to maintain police, prisons, militia, county 
and municipal buildings, <tc., and £19,320 to maintain 
2359 miles of pubUc county roads. 

The chief seats on the proprietary estates are — Balmoral Proprietora 
Castle, the Queen ; Mar Lodge and Skene House, Earl 
of Fife ; Aboyne Castle, Marquis of Huntly ; Dunecht 
House, Earl of Crawford and Balcarres ; Keith Hall, Earl 
of Kintore ; Slains Castle, Earl of Errol ; Haddo House, 
Earl of Aberdeen ; Castle Forbes, Lord Forbes ; Philorth 
House, Lord Saltoun ; Huntly Lodge, the Duke of Rich- 
mond. Other noted seats are — Drum, Irvine ; Invercauld, 
Farquharson ; Newe Castle, Forbes ; Castle Eraser, Eraser ; 
Cluny Castle, Gordon ; Moldrum House, Urquhart ; Craiga- 
ton Castle, Urquhart ; Pitfour, Ferguson ; Ellon Castle, 
Gordon ; F3rvie Castle, Gordon. Ten baronets and knights 
have residences in the county. Of the proprietors many 
hvo permanently on their estates. Their prevailing names 
are Gordon, Forbes, Grant, Eraser, Duff, and Farquharson. 

Aberdeenshire has one city, Aberdeen, a royal parha- Burghs, 
mentaiy .burgh ; three other royal parliamentary burghs, 
Inverurie, Eontore, and Peterhead ; and seven burghs of 
barony. Old Aberdeen, Charleston of Aboyne, Fraserburgh, 
Huntly, Old Meldrum, Rosehearty, and Turriff. 

The county sends two members to Parliament — one for 
East Aberdeenshire, with 4341 electors, and the other for ' 
West Aberdeenshire, with 3942 electors. The county has ' 
also four parliamentary burghs, which, with their respective 
populations in 1871, are — Aberdeen, 88,125; Peterhead, 
8535; Inverurie, 2856; and Kintore, 659. The first 
sends one member to Parliament, and the other three unite 
with Elgin, Cullen, and Banff, in sending another. 

By the census 1801 the county had 121,065 inhabitaiits, 
and by that of 1871, 244,603, with 53,576 families. 111 
females to 100 males, 34,589 inhabited houses, 1052 unin- 
habited houses, and 256 building. In 1871 there were in 
eight towns (Aberdeen, Peterhead, Fraserburgh, Huntly, 
Inverurie, Old Meldrum, Turriff, and Now Pitsli2<^)i 
111,978 inhabitants; in 32 villages, 19,561; and in nuol 
districts, 113,064. 

(New Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. xiL ; the charters 
of the burgh; extracts from the Council Register down to 
1625, and selections from the letters, guildry, and trca- 
surcr'e accounts, forming 3 volumes of tho Spalding Club; 
Collections for a History of the Shires of A. and Banff, 
edited by Joseph Robertson,. Esq.,. 4to, Spalding Club; 


■ tary Tepro. 




A B E — A B E 

/leytftrum Epifeopntus Alcrdonensii, vols. L fiud ii., by 
I'rof. Cosiao Innes, 4to, Spalding Club ; Tfie Jlistoryof A., 
by Walter Tliom, 2 vols. 1 2mo, 1811; Buchan, by the Rev. 
John B. Pratt, 12ino, 1859; Historical Account and Delineo 
lion of A., by Robert Wilson, 1822; First Report of Royal 
Com. on Hist. MSS., 18G9; The Annals of A., by William 
Kennedy, 1813; Orem's Description of the Chanonry, Cathe- 
dral, and Kiwfs College of Old A., 1724-25, 1830; The 
Castellated Architecture of A., by Sir Andrew Leith Hay 
of Rannes, imp. 4to ; Specimens of Old Castellated Houses 
of A., with drawings by GUcs, folio, 1838 ; Lipes of Eminent 
,1/ctj of a., by Jan\c3 Bnice, 12mo, 1841). (a. c.) 

ABERDEEN, Gkorgk Hamilton Gordon, Fouetu 
Earl of, was bora at Edinburgh on the 28th January 
178-1:. He was educated at Harrow School, and at St 
John's College, Cambridge, where he gi'aduated in 1804. 
ile succeeded hb) grandfather in the earldom in 1801, and 
in the same year he made an extended tour through 
.Europe, visiting France, Italy, and Greece. On his 
return he founded the Athenian Club, the membership 
of which was confined to those who had travelled in 
Greece. This explains Lord Byi'ou's reference in the 
English Bards aiul Scotch Reviewsrs to "the travelled 
Thane, Athenian Aberdeen." Soon after his return he 
contributed a very able article to the Edinburgh Review 
(v.)l vi.), on Cell's Topography of Troy. Another 
literary result of his tour was the publication in 1822 of 
An Inquiry itito the Principles of BeaxUy in, Grecian Archie 
lecture, the substance of which had appeared some years 
before in the form of an introduction to a translation of 
Vitruvius' Civil Architecture. In 180G, having been 
elected one of the representative peers for Scotland, he 
took his seat in the House of Lords on the Tory side. 
He was already on terms of intimacy with the leading 
raembora of the then predominant party, and in particular 
■with Pitt, through the influence of his relative, the cele- 
brated Duchess of Gordon. In 1813 he was intrusted 
with a delicate and difficidt special mission to Vienna, the 
object being to induce the Emperor of Austria to join the 
alliance against his son-in-law Napoleon. His diplomacy 
was comjJetely successful; the desired alliance was secured 
by the treaty of TopUtz, which the Earl sign«d as repre- 
sentative of Great Britain in September 1813. On his 
return at the conclusion of the war, he was raised to a 
British peerage, with the title of Viscount Gordon. Lord 
Aberdeen was a member of the Cabinet formed by the Duke 
of Wellington in 1S2S, for a short time as Chancellor of the 
Duchy of Lancaster, and then as Foreign Secretary. He 
was Colonial Secretary in the Tory Cabinet of 1834-5, and 
a fain received the seals of the Foreign Office under Sir 
Robert Peel's administration of 1841. The policy of non- 
intervention, to which he stedfastly adhered in his conduct 
of foreign affairs, was at once his strength and Ids we.ikness. 
According to the popular idea, he failed to see the limita- 
tions and exceptions to a line of policy v/hich ne;irly all 
admitted to bo as a general rule both wise and just. On 
the whole, his administration was perhaps more esteemed 
abroad than at home. It has been questioned whether 
uny English minister ever was on terms of greater 
intimacy with foreign courts, but there is no substantial 
warrant for tie charge of want of patriotism which was 
sometimes brought against him. On the two chief ques- 
tions of home politics which were finallj^ settled during 
his tenure of office, ho was in advance of most of his 
party. While the other members of the Government 
yielded" Catholic Emancipation and the repeal of the Corn 
Laws as unavoidable concessions, Lord Aberdeen spoke 
and voted for both measures from conviction of iheir 
justice. On the 13th June' 1843, he moved the second 
reading of hia bill "to remove doubts re.-ipecti:iy the 

admisjiion of ministers to benefices in Scolliind,'' and it 
was passed into law in that session, though a eimilar 
measure had been rejected in 1840. Ab the first proposal 
did not prevent, so the passing of the Act had no effect m 
healing, the breach m 'he Established Church of ScotLind 
which occurred in 184o. On the defeat of Lord Derby's 
government in 1852, the state of parties waa Buch as to 
necessitate a coalition government, of which Lord Aber- 
deen, in consequence of the moderation of hia views, was 
the n.-itunil chief. He had been regarded as the leader of 
the Peel party from the time of Sir Robert's death, but 
his views on the two great questions of home policy above 
mentioned rendered him more acceptable to the Liberals, 
and a more suitable leader of a coalition goverrmient than 
any other member of that party could have been. His 
administration wiU chiefly bo remembered in connection 
with the Crimean war, which, it is now generally believed, 
might have been altogether prevented by a more vigorous 
policy. The incompetence of various departments at 
homo, and the gross mismanagement of the commissariat 
in the terrible winter of 1854, caused a growing dissatis- 
faction with the government, which at length found 
emphatic expression in the House of Cominons, when a 
motion submitted by Mr Roebuck, calling for inquiry, was 
carried by an overwhelming majority. Lord Aberdeen 
regarded the vote as one of no-confidence, and at once 
resigned. From this period Lord Aberdeen took little part 
in public business. In recognition of his services he 
received, soon after his resignation, the decoration of the 
Order of the Garter. He died December 13, 1860. Lord 
Aberdeen was twice married, — first in 1805, to E daughter 
of the first Marquis of Abercorn, who' died in 1812, and 
then to the widow of Viscount Hamilton. He was suc- 
ceeded in the title and estates by Lord Haddo, his son 
by the second marriage 

ABERDOUR, a village in the county of Fife, in Scot- 
land, pleasantly situated on the north shore of the Firth 
of Forth, and much resorted to for sea-bathing. It is 10 
nules N.'W. of Edinburgh, with which there is a frequent 
conjmunication by steamer. 

ABERFELDY, a village in Perthshire, celebrated in 
Scottish song for its " birks " and for the neighbouring 
falls of Monuss. It is the terminus of a branch of the 
Highland Railway. 

ABERGAVENNY, a market town in Monmouthshire, 
14 miles west of Monmouth, situated at the junction 
of a small stream called the Gavenny, with the river Usk. 
It is supposed to have been the Gohannium of the Romans, 
so named from Gobannio, the Gavenny. The town wai 
formerly walled, and has the remains of a castle built 
soon after the Conquest, and also of a Benedictine monas 
tery. The river Usk is hero spanned by a noble stone 
bridge of fifteen arches. Two markets are held weekly, 
and elegant market buildings have recently been erected. 
There is a free grammar school, with a fellowship and 
exhibitions at Jesus College, Oxford. No extensive 
manufacture is carried on except that of shoes ; the town 
owes its prosperity mainly to the large coal and iron 
works in the neighbourhood. Abergavenny ia a poUiag 
place for the county. Population of parish (1871), 631S. 

ABERNETHY, a town in Perthshire, situated in the 
parish of the same name, on the right bank of the Tay, 
7 miles below Perth. The earliest of the Culdee houses 
was founded there, and it is said to have been the capital of 
the Pictish kings. It was long the chief seat of the Epis- 
copacy in the country, till, in the 9th century, the bishopric 
was transferred to St Andrews. There still remains at Aber- 
nethy a curious circular tower, 74 feet high and 48 feet 
in circumference, consisting of sixty-four courses of hewn 
stone. A number of similar towers, though not so weD 

A B E — A B E 


built, are to be met witli in Irel.iiid, but there is only one 
Dther m Scotland, viz., that at Brechin. Petria argues, iu 
bis Round Towers of Ireland, that these structures have 
been used as belfries, and also as keeps. 

ABERNETHY, John,— a Protestant dissenting divine of 
Ireland, was born at Coleraine, county Londonderry, Ulster, 
where his father was minister (Nonconformist), on the 
lyth October 1680. In his thirteenth year he entered a 
student at the University of Glasgow. On concluding his 
course at Glasgow he went to Edinburgh University, 
t\here his many brilliant gifts and quick and ready wit — 
thought-born, not verbal merely — struck the most eminent 
of his contemporaries and even his professors. Returning, 
home, he received licence to preach from his Presbytery 
before ho was twenty-one. In 1701 he was urgently 
invited to accept the ministerial charge of an important 
congregation in Antrim ; and after an interval of two 
years, he was ordained there on 8th Augast 1703. His 
admiring biographer tells of an amount and kind of 
work done there, such as only a man of fecund brain, of 
large heart, of healthful frame, and of resolute will, could 
have achieved. In 1717 he was invited to the congrega- 
tion of Ushei'a Quay, Dublin, as colleague with Rev. Mr 
Arbuckle, and contemporaneously, to what was called the 
Old Congregation of Belfast. The Synod assigned him to 
Dublin. He refused to accede, and remained at Antrim. 
This refusal was regarded then as ecclesiastical high- 
tre:ison; and a cont'-oversy of the most intense and dis- 
proportionate character followed. The controversy and 
quorrel bears the name of the two camps in the con- 
flict, the "Subscribers" and the "Non-subscribers." Out- 
and-out evangelical as John Abernethy was, there can ba 
no question that he and his associates sowed the seeds of 
that after-struggle in which, under the leadership of Dr 
Henry Cooke, the Arian and Socinian elements of the Irish 
Presbyterian Church were thrown out. Much of what he 
contended for, and which the " Subscribers " opposed bitterly, 
has been sDently granted in the lapse of time. In 1726 the 
" Non-subscribers," spite of an almost wofuUy pathetic 
pleading against separation by Abernethy, were cut off, with 
due ban and solemnity, from the Irish Presbyterian Church. 
In 1 730, spite of being a " JSTon-subscriber," he was called 
by his early friends of Wood Street, Dublin, whither he 
removed. In 1731 came on the greatest controversy in 
which Abernethy engaged, viz., in relation to the Test Act 
nominally, but practically on the entire question of tests 
and disabilities. His stand was "against all laws that, upon 
account of mere differences of religious opinions and forms 
of worsTiip, excluded men of integrity and ability from 
sen-ing their country." He was nearly a century in 
advance of his century. He had to reason with those who 
denied that a Roman Catholic or Dissenter could be a 
" man of integrity and ability." His Tracts — afterwards 
collected — did fresh service, generations later. And so 
John Abernethy through life waa over foremost where un- 
popular truth and right were to be maintained; nor did he, 
for sake of an ignoble expediency, spare to smite the highest- 
seated wrongdoers any more than the hoariest errors (as he 
believed). He died in 1740, having been tmco married. 
(Kippis' Biog. Brit., s. v.; Dr Duchal's Life, prefixed to 
Sermons; Diary in MS., 6 vols. 4to; History of Irish Pres- 
bi/terian Church). (k. B. o.) ; 

ABERNETHY, John, grandson of ihe preceding, an 
eminent surgeon, was bom in London on the 3d of April 
1764. His father was a London merchant Educated 
at Wolverhampton Grammar School, ho was apprenticed 
in 1779 to Sir Charles Blicke, a surgeon in extensive 
practice in the metropolis. He attended Sir William 
Blizzard's anatomical lectures at the London Hospital, 
and was early employed to assist Sir William " de- 

monstrator ;" he also attended Pott's surgical lectures at 
St Bartholomew's Hospital, as well as the lectures of the 
celebrated John Hunter. On Pott's resignation of the 
oflice of surgeon of St Bartholomew's, Sir Charles Blicke, 
who was assistant-surgeon, succeeded him, and Abernethy 
was elected assistant-surgeon in 1787. In this capacity 
ho began to give lectures in Bartholomew Close, which 
were so well attended that the governors of the hospital 
built a regular theatre (1790-91), and Abernethy thus 
became the founder of tha distinguished School of St 
Bartholomew's. He hold the office of assistant-surgeon of 
the hospital for the long period of twenty-eight years, till, in 
1815, ho was elected principal surgeon. He had before that 
time been appointed surgeon of Christ's Hospital (1813), 
and Professor of Anatomy and Surgery to the Royal 
CoUege of Surgeons (1814). Abernethy had great fame 
both as a practitioner and as a lectujer, his reputation iu 
both respects resting on the efforts he made to promote 
the practical improvement of surgery. His Surgical Ob- 
servations on tlie Constitutional Origin and Treatment OJ 
Local Diseases (1809) — known as "My Book," from the 
great frequency with which ha referred his patients to it, 
and to page 72 of it in particular, under that name — wad 
one of the earliest popular works on medical science. 
The views he expounds in it are based on physiological 
considerations, and are the more important that the con- 
nection of surgery with physiology had scarcely been 
recognised before the time he wrote. The leading prin- 
ciples on which he insists in " My Book " are chiotly these 
two : — \st, That topical diseases are often mere symptoms 
of constitutional maladies, and then can only be removed 
by general remedies ; and Id, That the disordered state of 
the constitution very often originates in, or is closely 
allied to deranged states of the stomach and bowels, and 
can only be remedied by means that beneficially affect the 
functions of those organs. His profession owed him 
much for his able advocacy of the extension in this way 
of the province of surgery. He had gi'eat success as a 
teacher from tha thorough knowledge he had of his 
science, and the persuasiveness with which he enunciated 
his \'iews. It has been said, however, that the influence 
he exerted on those who attended his lectures was not 
beneficial in this respect, that his opinions were delivered 
so dogmatically, and all who differed from him were dis- 
paraged and denounced so contemptuously, as to repress 
instead of stimulating inquiry. It ought to be mentioned, 
that he was the first to suggest and to perform the daring 
operation of securing by ligature the carotid and the exter- 
nal Uiac arteries. The celebrity Abernethy attained in 
liis practice was duo not only to his great professional 
skill, but also in part to the singularity of his manners. 
He used great plainness of speech in his intercourse with 
his patients, treating them often brusquely, and sometimes 
even rudely. In the circle of his family and friends ha 
was courteous and affectionate ; and in all his dealings he 
was strictly just and honourable. He resigned his surgery 
at St Bartholomew's Hospital in 1827, and his professor- 
ship at the CoUege of Surgeons two years later, on account 
of failing health, and died at his residence at Enfield 
on the 20th of April 1831. A collected edition of his 
works in five volumes was published in 1830. A bio- 
graphy. Memoirs of John Abernethy, by George Macilwain, 
F.R.C.S., appeared in 1853, and though anything but 
satisfactory, passed through several editions. 

ABERRATION, or (more correctly) the Aberration 
op Light, is a remarkable phenomenon, by which stars 
appear to deviate a little, in the course of a year, from 
their true places in thiheavcns. It results from the eye 
of the observer being carried onwards by the motion of the 
earth nu its orbit, during the time that light takes to 


A B E — A B 1 

travel from the star to the earth. The effect of this com- 
bination of motions may be best explained by a familiar illus- 
tration. . Suppose a rain-drop falling vertically is received 
in K tube that has a lateral 
motion. In order that the 
drop may fall freely do\ni 
the axis of the tube, the 
latter must be inclined at 
such an angle as to move 
from the position AD to BE, 
and again to CF, in the 
tiujcs the drop moves from 
D to G, and from G to C. 
The drop in this case, since 
it moves down the axis all 
the way, must strike the 
bottom of the tube at C 
in the direction FC. The 
light proceeding from a star is not seen in its true direc- 
tion, but strikes the eye obliquely, for a precisely similar 
reason. If lines bo taken to represent the motions, so that 
the eye is carried from A to C during the time that light 
moves from D to C, the light will appear to the eye at C 
to come, not from D, but from F. The angle DCF, con- 
tained by the true and apparent dii-ections of the star, is 
the aberration. It is greatest when the two motions are 
at right angles to each other, i.e., when the star's longitude 
is 90° in advance of, or behind, the heliocentric longitude 
of the earth, or (which amounts to the same thing) 90° 
behind, or in advance of, the geocentric longitude of the 
sun. (See Astronomy.) Now, in the right-angled triangle 

ACD, tan ADC {i.e., DCF) = j^ ; whence it appears that 

the tangent of the angle of aberration (or, since the angle 

is very small, the aberration itself) is equal to the ratio, 

velocity of e.irth in orbit _, , , ., .>, ■• 

i—^, — fT^-TT . The rate of the earth s motion 

velocity 01 liglit 

being to the velocity of light in the proportion of 1 to 
10,000 nearly, the maximum aberration is small, amount- 
ing to about 20--1 seconds of arc, — a quantity, hov.'cver, 
which is very appreciable in astronomic^al obsci'vations. 

Aberration always takes place in the direction of the 
earth's motion; that is, it causes the stars to appear nearer 
than they really are to the point towards whioh the earth 
is at the moment moving. That point is necessarily on 
the ecliptic, and 90° in advance of the earth in longitude. 
The efl'ect is to make a star at the pole of the ecliptic 
appear to move in a plane parallel to the ecliptic, so as to 
form a small ellipse, similar to the earth's orbit, but having 
its major axis parallel to the minor axis of that orbit, and 
vice versd. As we proceed from the pole, the apparent 
orbits the stars describe become more and more elliptical, 
tin in the plane of the ecliptic the apparent motion is in 
a straight line. The length of this line, as well as of the 
major axes of the different ellipses, amounts, in angular 
measure, to about 40" 'S. The stars thus ajjpear to oscil- 
late, in the course of the year, 20"'4 on each side of their 
true position, in a direction parallel to the plane of the 
ecliptic, and the quantity 20" -4 is therefore called the 
constant of aberration. 

For the discovery of the aberration of light, one of the 
finest in modern astronomy, we are indebted to the dis- 
tinguished astronomer Dr Bradley. He was led to it, in 
1727, by the result of observations he made with the view 
of determining the annual parallax of some of the stars ; 
that is, the angle subtended at these stars by the diameter 
of the earth's orbit. He observed certain changes in the 
positions of the stars that he could not account for. The 
deviations were not in the direction of the apparent motion 
that parallax would (nve rise to; and he bad no better 

success in attempting -to explain the phenomenon by tho 
nutation of the earth's axis, radiation, errors of obserw 
tion, ic. At last the true solution of the difficulty occurred 
t him, suggested, it is said, by the movements of a vane 
on the top of a boat's mast. Roemer had discovered, a 
quarter of a century before, that light has a velocity which 
admits of measurement; and Bradley perceived that the 
earth's motion, having a perceptible relation to that of 
light, must affect the direction of the visual rays, and with 
this the apparent positions of the stars. He calculated the 
aberration from the known relative velocities of the earth 
and of light, and the results agreed entirely with his 

The observed effects of aberration are of importance as 
supplying an independent method of measuring the velocity 
of hght, but more particularly as presenting one of the few 
direct proofs that can be given of the earth's motion round 
the sun. It is indeed the most satisfactory proof of this 
that astronomy furnishes, the phenomenon being quite in- 
explicable on any other hypothesis. 

ABEKYSTWITH, a municipal and parliamentary bo- 
rough, market town, and seaport of Wales, in the county 
of Cardigan, is situated at the western end of the Vale 
of Ehcidol, near the confluence of the rivers Ystwilh 
and Rheidol, and about the centre of Cardigan Bay. It 
is the terminal station of the Cambrian Railway, and a 
line to the south affords direct communication with South 
Wales, Bristol, &c. The borough unites with Cardigan, 
Lampeter, itc., in electing a member of Parliament. Coal, 
timber, and lime are imported, and the exports are lead, 
oak bark, flannel, and corn. The harbour has of hite been 
much improved; and the pier, completed in ISCS, forms 
an excellent promenade. There are many elegant build- 
ings, and it has been proposed to establish here a Uni- 
versity College of Wales. On a promontory to the S.W. 
of the town are the ruins of its ancient castle, erected in 
1277, by Edward I., on the site of a fortress of great 
strength, built by Gilbert de Strongbow, and destroyed by 
Owen Gwynedd. From its picturesque situation and 
hertlthy climate, and the suitableness of the beach for 
bathing, Aberystwith has risen into great repute as a 
w.itering-place, and attracts many visitors. Much of the 
finest scenery in Wales, such as the Devil's Bridge, &c., 
lies within easy reach. Population (1871), 6898. 

ABETTOR, a law term implying one who instigates, 
encourages, or assists another to perform some criminal 
action. See Accessory. 

ABEYANCE, a law term denoting the expectancy of an 
estate. Thus, if hnds be leased to one person for life, with 
reversion to another for years, the remainder for years ij 
in abeyance till the death of the lessee. 

ABGAR, the name or title of a line of kings of Edess.T 
in Mesopotamia, One of them is known from a corre- 
spondence he is said to have had with Jesus Christ. The 
letter of Abgar, entreating Jesus to visit him and heal him 
of a disease, and offering Him an asylum from the wrath 
of the Jews, and the answer of Jesus promising to send a 
disciple to heal Abgar after His ascension, are given by 
Eusebius, who believed the documents to be genuine. The 
same belief has been held by a few moderns, but there can 
be no doubt whatever that the letter of Jesus at least is 
apocryphal. It has also been alleged that Abgar possessed 
a picture of Jesus, which the credulous may see either at 
Rome or at Genoa. Some make him the possessor of the 
handkerchief a woman gave Jesus, as He bore the cross, 
to wipe the sweat from His face with, on which, it is 
fabled, His features remained miraculously imprinted. 

ABIAD, Bahr-el-, a name given to the western branch 
of the Nile, above Khartoum. It is better known as the 
AVhite Nile. See Nile. 

A B I — A B I 


ABIEfi. See Fm. 

ABILA, a city of ancient Syria, the capital of the 
tetrarchy of Abilene, a territory whose limits and extent it 
is impossible not* to define. The site of Abila is indi- 
cated by some ruins and inscriptions on the banks of the 
riyer Barada, between Baalbec and Damascus, about twelve 
miles from the latter city. Though the names Abel and 
Abila differ in derivation and in meaning, their similarity 
has given rise to the tradition that this was the scene of 
Abel's death. 

ABILDGAARD, Nikolaj, called "the Father of Danish 
Painting," was bom in 1744. He formed his style on 
that of Claude and of Nicolas Pousstn, and was a cold 
theorist, inspired ndi by nature but by art. As a technical 
painter he attained remarkable success, his tone being 
very harmonious and even, but the effect, to a foreigner's 
eye, is rarely interesting. His works are scarcely known 
out of Copenhagen, where he won an immense fame in his 
own generation, and where he died in 1809. He was the 
founder of the Danish school of painting, and the master 
of Thorwaldsen and Eckersberg. 

ABIMELECH ('l^?"'?-'!. father of the king, or rather 
perhaps hing-father), occurs first in the Bible as the name 
of certain kings of the Philistines at Gerar (Gen. xx. 2, 
xxi, 22, xxvi 1). From the fact that the name is applied 
in the inscription of the thirty-fourth psahu to Achish, it 
has been inferred with considerable probability that it was 
used as the official designation of. the Philistinian kings. 
The name was also borne by a son of Gideon, judge of 
Israel, by his Shechemite concubine (Judges viLi. 31). 
On the death of Gideon, who had refused the title of king 
both for himself and his children, Abimelech set himself 
to obtain the sovereignty through the influence of his 
mother's relatives. In pursuance of his plan he slew 
seventy of his brethren " upon one stone " at Ophrah, 
Jothara, the youngest of'them, alone contriving to escape. 
This is one of the earliest recorded instances of a practice 
exceedingly common on the accession of Oriental despots. 
Abimelech was eventually made king, although his election 
was opposed by Jotham, who boldly appeared on Mount 
Gerimn and told the assembled Shechemites the fable of 
the trees desiring a king. At th« end of the third year 
of his reign the Shechemites revolted, and under the 
leadorahip of Graal made an unsuccessful attempt to throw 
off the authority of Abimelech. In Judges is. there is 
an account of this insurrection, which is specially interest- 
ing oiving to the full details it gives of the nature of the 
military operations. After totally destroying Shechem, 
Abimelech proceeded against Thebez, which had also re- 
volted. Here, while storming the citadel, he was struck on 
the head by the fragment of a millstone thrown from the 
wall by a woman. To avoid the disgrace of perishing by 
Q woman's hand, he requested his armour-bearer to run 
him through the body. Though the immediate cause of 
his death was thus a sword-thrust, his memory was not 
saved from the ignominy he dreaded (2 Sam. xi. 21). It 
has been usual to regard Abimelech's reign as the first 
ettempt to establish a monarchy in Israel. Tl;^ facts, 
however, seem rather to support the theory of Ewald 
(Gesch. ii. 444), that Shechem had asserted its independ- 
ence of Israel, when it chose Abimelech as its king. 

ABINGDON, a parliamentary and municipal borough 
and market town of England, in Berkshire, on a branch 
of the Thames, 7 miles south of Oxford, and 51 miles 
jW.N.W. of London. It is a place of great antiquity, and 
jwas an important town in the time of the Heptarchy. Its 
i)ame is derived from an ancient abbey. The streets. whii:b 
are well paved, converge to a spacious area, in v^hich the 
market is held. In the centre of this area stands tho 
jmarket-Jiouse. supported on lofty pillars, with a large hall 

above, appropriated to the sTumner assizes for the county, 
and the transaction of other pubhc business. The town 
contains two churches, which are saiS to have been erected 
by the abbots of Abingdon, one dedicated to St Nicholas 
and the other to St Helena ; several charitable institutions, 
and a free grammar school, with scholarships at Pembroke 
CoUege, Oxford. In 1864 a memorial of Prince Albert 
was erected at Abingdon, a richly ornamented structure, 
surmounted by a statue of the Prince. Abingdon was 
incorporated by Queen Mary. It sends one member to 
Parliament, and is governed by a mayor, four aldermen, 
and twelve councillors. In the beginning of the century 
it manufactured much sail-cloth and sacking; but its chief 
trade now is in corn and malt, cai-pets, and coarse linen. 
It is a station on a branch of the Great 'V\'"estern Railway 
Population (1871), 6571. 

ABIOGENESIS, as a name for tne production of living 
by not-living matter, has of late been superseding the less 
accurate phrase " Spontaneous Generation." Professor 
Huxley, who made use of the word in his presidential 
address to the British Association in 1870, distinguished 
Abiogenesis from " Xenogenesis " or " Heterogenesis," 
which occurs, or is supposed to occur, not when dead 
matter produces living matter, but when a living parent 
gives rise to offspring which passes through a totally 
different series of states from those exhibited by the 
parent, and does not return into the parent's cycle of 
changes. When a " living parent gives rise to offspring 
which passes through the same cycle of changes as itself,' 
there occurs "Somogenesis." "Biogenesis" includes both 
of these. Other names for Abiogenesis are Generatia 
^quivoca, Generatio Primaria, Archigenesis (Urzeugung), 
Archebiosis, &c. The question of Abiogenesis — whether 
under certain conditions living matter is produced by not- 
hying matter — as it is one of the most fundamental, is per- 
haps also the oldest in Biology; but within recent years — • 
partly because the means of accurate experimentation have 
been increased and the microscope improved, and partly 
because the question has been recognised in its impor- 
tant bearings on evolution, the correlation of forces, and 
the theory of infectious diseases — naturalists have been 
led to bestow more attention upon it than at any previous 
period. While, therefore, the doctrine of Abiogenesis 
cannot be said to be either finally established or refuted, 
it is at least reasonable to believe that we are gradually 
advancing to a solution. Among the older observers 
of phenomena bearing on the question may be named 
Aristotle, who, with the ancients generally, favoured 
Abiogenesis ; Eedi, the founder of the opposite view ; 
Vallisnieri ; Buffon; Needham ; and SpaDanzani ; among 
later observers, Schwann and Schulze, Schrceder and 
Dusch, Pasteur, Pouchet, Haeckel, Huxley, Bastian, and 
many others. The experiments and observations made by 
these naturalists, and their results — the ingenious' ex- 
pedients employed to prevent inaccuracy^ — the interesting 
and often marvellous transformations which microscopista 
declare they have witnessed — will be discussed in tho 
article Histology ; here it will be enough to note the 
general nature of the reasoniogs with which the opponents 
and defenders of Abiogenesis support their views. The 
opponents maintain that all trustworthy observationa 
have hitherto shown living matter to have sprung from 
pre-existing living matter ; and that the further we search 
and examine, the smaller becomes the . number of those 
organisms which we cannot demonstrate to have arisen from 
living parents. They hold that seeming instances -^ 
spontaneous generation pre usually to be explained by the 
germ-theory — the prefic nee of invisible germs in the air ; 
and they call to their aid-sue^ high authorities as Pasteur 
and TynddL The defenders of Abiogenesis, on tho othen 

T. — 7 


A B 1 — A li C 

hand, v/liile interpreting the results of past obacrvabon 
and experimeot in their own favour, are yet leas disposed 
to rest on these, rather preferring to ar^ae from those 
wide analogies of evolution and correlalaon which seem to 
support their doctrine. Thus Hacckel expressly embraces 
Abiogcnesis as a necessary and integral part of the theory 
of universal evolution ; and Huxley, in the same spirit, 
though from the opposite camp, confesses that if it were 
given him to look beyond the abyss of geologically 
recorded time to the still more remote period when the 
earth was passing through physical and chemical con- 
ditions, he should ejrpect to be a witness of the evolution 
of living protoplasm from not-living matter. (Critiqves 
and Addresses, p. 239.) From this point of view, of 
course, any microscopic obiervatious that have been made 
soera verj' limited and comparatively unimportant. The 
Abiogenists, indeed, are not without arguments to oppose 
the results of past observation that seem unfavourable to 
their vieAvs ; they argue that, as yet, all the forms 
observed and shown to be produced by Biogenesis are 
forms possessing a certain degree of organi-sation, which 
in their case makes Abiogeuesis unlikely, from the first ; 
whereas it has not been shown that the simplest struc- 
tures — the Monera — do not arise by Abiogenesis. But 
it is not so much on grounds of fact and experiment the 
defenders of the Abiogenesis theory are convinced of 
its truth, as because it seems to gain confirmation from 
reasonings of much ^vidcr scope; because Abiogenesis aids 
the theory of evolution by tracing the organic into the 
inorganic ; because it fosters the increasing unpopularity 
of the hypothesis of a special " vital force;" and because, 
if this theory of the " perpetual origination of low forms 
of life, now, as in all past epochs," were established, it 
would agree well with the principle of uniformity, and by 
disclosing the existence of unknown worlds of material for 
development, would relieve natural selection with its ay-sist- 
ing causes from what many consider the too Herculean 
labour of evolving aU species from one or a very few 
primary forms. The fullest discussion of the subject of 
Abiogenesis, from the Abiogonist's point of view, is to be 
found in Dr Bastiau's Beginninya of Life. Professor 
Huxley's address, already referred to, contains an interest- 
ing historical survey, as well as a masterly summary of 
facts and arguments in favour of Biogenesis. For many 
interesting experiments, see Nature, 1870-73. 

ABIPDNES, a tribe of South American Indians, inhabit- 
ing the territory lying between Santa F^ and St lago. 
They originally occupied the Chaco district of Paraguay, 
but were driven thence by the hostihty of the Spaniards. 
According to M. Cobrizhoffer, who, towards the end of 
last century, hved among them for a period of seven years, 
they have many singular customs and characteristics. 
They seldom marry before the age of thirty, are chaste 
and otherwise virtuous in their lives, though they practise 
infanticide, and are without the idea of God. "With the 
Abipones," says Darwin, " when a man chooses a wife, he 
bargains with the parents about the price. • But it fre- 
quently happens that the girl rescinds what has been 
agreed upon between the parents and bridegroom, obsti- 
nately rejecting the very mention of marriage; She often 
runs away and hides herself, and thus eludes the bride- 
groom." The Abiponian women suckle those infants that 
are spared for the space of two years, — an onerous habit, 
which is believed to have led to infanticide as a means of 
escape. The men are brave in war, and pre-eminently 
experi in swimming and horsemanship. NumericaDy the 
tribe is insignificant. M. Dobrizhoffer's account of the 
Abiponians was translated into English by Sara Coleridge, 
aX tlie suggestion of Mr Southey, in 1822. 
ABJUILITTOX. See Ajllegiancb, Oath os. 

ABKHASIA, or Abasia, a tract of Asiatic liosaia, on 
the border of the Black Sea, comprehending between kt. 
42° 30' and 41° 45' N. and between long. 37' 3' and 40° 36' 
E. The high mountains of the Caucasus on the N. and 
N.E. divide it from Circassia; on the S.K it is bounded 
by Mingrelia ; and on the S. W. by the Black Sea. Though 
the country is generally mountainous, there are some deep 
well- watered valleys, and the clin.ato is mild. The soil 
is fertile, producing grain, grapes, and other fruits. 
Some of the inhabitants devote themselves to agriculture, 
some to the rearing of cattle and horses, and not a few 
support themselves by piracy and robbery. Honey is 
largely produced, and is exported to Turkey; and excellent 
arms are made. Both in ancient and in modem times 
there has been considerable trafiic; in slaves. This country 
was early known to the ancients, and was subdued by the 
Emperor Justinian, who introduced civilisation and Chris- 
tianity. Afterwards thi Persians, then the Georgians, and 
more recently the Tvuks, ruled over the land. Under 
the Turks Christianity gradually disappeared, and Moham- 
medanism was intrvluced in its stead. By the treaties of 
Akerman and AAvianople, Russia obtained possevsion of 
the fortresses of this territory; but till the insurrection of 
186G, the chiefs had almost unlimited power. The prin- 
cipal town is Sukumkaleh. The population of Abkhasia 
is variously stated at from 50,000 to 2r)0,000. See Pal- 
grave's £ssays on Eastern Questions, 1872. 

ABLUTION, a ceremonial purification, practised in 
nearly every age and nation. It consisted in washing the 
body in whole or part, so as to cleanse it symbolically 
from defilement, and to prepare it for religious obsen'auces. 
Among the Jews we find no trace of the ceremony in patri- 
archal times, but it was repeatedly enjoined and strictly 
enforced under the Mosaic economy. It denoted either — 
(1.) Cleansing from the taint of an inferior and less pure 
condition, and initiation into a higher and purer state, ao 
in the case of Aaron and his sons on their being set apart 
to the priesthood; or (2.) Cleansing from the soil of 
common life, in preparation for special acts of worship, as 
in the case of the priests who were commanded, upon pain 
of death, to wash their hands and feet before approaching 
the altar; or (3.) Cleansing from the pollution occasioned 
by particular acts and circumstances, as in the case of the 
eleven species of uncleanness mentioned in the Mosaic 
law; or (4.) The absolving or purifying one's self from the 
guilt of some particular criminal act, as in the case of 
Pilate at the trial of the Saviour. The sanitary reasons 
which, in a warm climate and with a dry sandy soil, ren- 
dered frequent ablution an imperative necessity, must not 
bo allowed to empty the act of its symbolic meaning. In 
the Hebrew different words are used for the washing of 
the hands before meals, which was done for the sake of 
cleanliness and comfort, and for the washing or plunging 
enjoined by the ceremonial law. At the same time it is 
impossible to doubt that the considerations which made 
the law so suitable in a physical point of view were present 
to the mind of the Lawgiver when the rite was. enjoined. 
Traces of the practice are to be found in the history of 
nearly every nation. The customs of the Mohammedans, 
in this as in other matters, are clcsely analogous to those 
of the Jews. ^Yith them ablution must in every case pre- 
c-ede the exercise of prayer, and their law provides that in 
Vhe desert, where water is not to be found, .the Arabs may 
perform the rite wi'th sand. Various forms of ablution 
practised by different nations are mentioned in the sixth 
book of the iEueid, and we are told that iEneas washed 
his ensanguined hands after the battle before touching his 
Penates. Symbolic ablution finds a pLice under the New 
Testament dispensation in the rite of baptism, which is 
observed, though with some variety of form and circum- 

A B N — A B O 


stances, throughout the whole Christian Church. By 
Romau Catholics and Bitualists, the tenn ablution is 
appUed to the cleansing of the chaHce and the fingers of 
the celebrating priest after the administration of the Lord's 

ARN'F.R (^52?, father of light), first cousin of Saul 
(1 Sam. xiv. 50) and commander-in-chief of his army. 
The chief references to him during the lifetime of Saul are 
found in 1 Sam, xvii. 55, and xxvi. 5. It was only after 
that monarch's death, however, that Abner was brought 
into a position of the first political importance. David, 
who had some time before been designated to the throne, 
was accepted '\.- king by Judah alone, and was crowned at 
Hebron. T' - other tribes were actuated by a feeling 
hostile to Judah, and, as soon as they had thrown off the 
Philistinian yoke, were induced by Abner to recognise 
Ishbosheth, the surviving son of Saul, as their king. One 
engagement between the rival factions under Joab and 
Abner respectively (2 Sam. ii 12) is noteworthy, inasmuch 
as it was preceded by an encounter between twelve chosen 
men from each side, in which the 'vhole twenty-four seem 
to have perished. In the general engagement which fol- 
lowed, Abner was defeated and put to flight. He was 
closely pursued by Asahel, brother of Joab, who is said to 
have been " light of foot as a wild roe." As Asahel would 
not desist from the pursuit, though warned, Abner was 
compelled to slay him in self-defence. This originated a 
deadly feud between the leaders of the opposite parties, for 
Joab, as next of kin to Asahel, was by the law and custom 
of the country the avenger of his blood. For some time 
afterwards the war wps carried on, the advantage being 
invariably on the aide of David. At length Ishbosheth 
lost the main prop of his tottering cause by remonstrating 
with Abner for marrying Rizpah, one of Saul's concubines, 
an alliance which, according to Oriental notions, implied 
pretensions to the throne. Abner was indignant at the 
rebuke, and unmediately transferred his allegiance to 
David, who not only welcomed him, but promised to give 
him the command of the combined armies on the re-union 
of the kingdoms. Almost immediately after, however, 
Abner was slain by Joab and his brother Abishai at the 
gate of Hebron. The ostensible motive for the assassina- 
tion was a desire to avenge Asahel, and this would be a 
sufficient justification for the deed according to the moral 
standard of the time. There can be little doubt, however, 
that Joab was actuated in great part by jealousy of a new 
and formidable rival, who seemed not unlikely to usurp 
his place in the king's favour. The conduct of David 
after the event was such as to show that he had no com- 
plicity in the act, though he could not venture to punish 
its perpetrators. The dirge which he repeated over the 
grave of Abner (2 Sam. ui 33-4) has been thus trans- 
lated : — 

Should Abner die as a villain dies ? — 

Thy hards — not boimd. 

Thy feet — not brought into fetters : 

As one falla before the sons of wickedness, fcllest thou. 

AEO, a city and seaport, and chief town of the district 
of the same name in* the Russian province of Finland, is 
eituated in N. bt. 60° 26', E. long. 22° 19', on the Aura- 
joki, about 3 miles from where it falls into the Gulf of 
Bothnia. It was a place of importance when Finland 
formed part of the kingdom of Sweden, and the inhabi- 
tants of the city and district are mostly of Swedish descent. 
By the treaty of peace concluded here between Russia and 
Sweden on 17tli August 1743, a gieat part of Finland was 
ceded to the former. Abo continued to be the' capital of 
FinLind tUl 1819. In November 1827, nearly the whole 
city was burnt down, the university and its valuable library 

being entirely destioy e<t" " Before this calamity Abo coa. 
tained 1100 houses, and 13,00C 'jihabitants ; and its 
university had 40 professors, more 500 students, and 
a library of upwards of 30,000 volumes, together with a 
botanical garden, an observatory, and a chemical laboratory. 
The university has since been removed to Helsingfors. 
Abo is the seat of an archbishop, and of the supreme court 
of justice for South Finland; and it has ar cathedral, a 
town-haU, and a custom-house. Sail-cloth, linen, leather, 
and tobacco are manufactured; shipbuilding is carried on, 
and there are ertensive saw-mills. There is also a large 
trade in timber, pitch, and tar. Vessels drawing 9 or 10 
feet come up to the town, but ships of greater draught are 
laden and discharged at the mouth of the river, which 
forms an excellent harbour and is protected. Population 
in 1867, : 3,109. 


ABOMASUM, caillette, the fourth or rennet stomach of 
Ruminantia. From the omasum the food is finally depo- 
sited in the abomasum, a cavity considerably larger than 
either the second or third stomach, although less than the 
first. The base of the abomasum is turned to the omasum. 
It is of an irregular conical form. It is that part of the 
digestive apparatus which is analogous to the single stomach 
of other Mammalia, as the food there undergoes the process 
of chymification, after being macerated and ground down 
in the thi'ee first stomachs. 

ABOMET, the capital of Dahomey, in West Africa, is 
situated in N. lat. 7°, E. long. 2° 4', about 60 miles 
N. of Whydah, the port of the kingdom. It is a clay- 
buUt town, surrounded by a moat and mud walls, and 
occupies a large area, part of which is cultivated. The 
houses stand apart; theie are no regular streets; and the 
place is very dirty. It has four larger market-places, and 
trade is carried on in palm-oil, ivory, and gold, Moham- 
medan traders from the interior resorting to its markets. 
The town contams the principal palace of the king of 
Dahomey. It is the scene of frequent human sacrifices, 
a " custom" being held annually, at which many criminals 
and captives are slain; while on the death of a king a 
" grand custom" is held, at which sometimes as many as 
2000 victims have perished. The slave-trade is also pro- 
secuted, and the efforts of the British Government to induca 
the king to abolish it and the " customs" have proved un- 
successful. Population, about 30,000. See Dadojiey. 

ABORIGINES, originally a proper name given to an 
Italian people who inhabited the ancient Latium, or 
country now called Campagna di Roma. Various deriva- 
tions of this name have been suggested; but there can be 
scarcely any doubt that th.^ usual derivation {ah origins) is 
correct, and that the word simply indicated a settled tribe, 
whose origm and earlier history were unknown. It is thus 
the equivalent of the Greek autochthones. It is therefore, 
strictly speaking, not a proper name at all, although, from 
being applied to one tribe (or group of tribes), it came to 
be regarded as such. Who the Aborigines werf, or whence 
they came, is tmcertain; but various traditions that are 
recorded seem to indicate that they were an Oscan oj 
Opican tribe that descended from the Apennines int< 
Latium, and united with some Pelasgic tribe to form the 
Latins. The stories about .iEneas's landing in Itnly repr& 
sent the Aborigines as at firet opposing and then coalescing 
with the Trojans, and state that the united people thea 
assumed the name of Latins, from their king Zatinus, 
These traditions clearly point to the fact that the Latins 
were a mixed race, a circumstance which is proved by the 
structure of their language, in which we find numerous 
words closely connected with the Greek, and also numerous 
words that are of an entirely different origin. These non- 
Greek words are mostly related to the dialect.? of the 


A B O — A B R 

Opican tribes. In modern tiirics tho tenn Abori'jinea has 
been extended in eigniilcution, and is uiicd to indicate 
the inhabitauta found in a country at ita first discovery, in 
contradistinction to colonies or new races, the time of whose 
introduction into the country is known. 

ABORTION, in Midioi/ery (from aborior, I perish), 
the premature separation and expulsion of the contents of 
the pregnant uterus. When occurring before the eighth 
lunar month of gestation, abortion ia the term ordinarily 
employed, but subsequent to this period it is designated 
premature labour. The present notice includes both these 
terms. As an accident of pregnancy, abortion is far from 
uncommon, although its relative frequency, as compared 
with that of completed gestation, has been very differently 
estimated by accoucheurs. It is more liable to occur in 
the earlier than in the later months of pregnancy, and it 
would also appear to occur more readily at tho periods 
corresponding to those of the menstrual discharge. Abor- 
tion may be induced by numerous causes, both of a local 
and general nature. Malformations of tho pelvis, acci- 
dental injuries, and the diseases and displacements to 
which tho uterus is liable, on the one hand ; and, on the 
other, various morbid conditions of the ovum or placenta 
leading to the death of tho foetus, are among the direct 
local caiises of abortion The general causes embrace 
certain states of the system which are apt to exercise a 
more or less direct influence upon the progress of utero- 
gestation. A deteriorated condition of health, whether 
hereditary or as the result of habits of Ufe, certainly pre- 
disposes to the occurrence of abortion. SyphUis is known 
to be a frequent cause of the death of the foetus. Many 
diseases arising in the course of pregnancy act as direct 
exciting causes of abortion, more particularly the eruptive 
fevers and acute inflammatory affections. Prolonged 
irritation in other organs may, by reflex action, excite 
the uterus to expel its contents. Strong impressions 
made upon the nervous system, as by sudden shocks and 
mental emotions, occasionally have a similar effect Further, 
certain medicinal substances, particularly ergot of rye, 
borax, savin, tansy, and cantharides, are commonly be- 
lieved to be capable of exciting uterine action, but the 
effects, as regards at least early pregnancy, are very un- 
certain, while the strong purgative medicines sometimes 
employed with the view of procuring abortion have no 
effect whatever upon the uterus, and can only act remotely 
and indirectly, if they act at all, by irritating the alimen- 
tary canaL In cases of poisoning with carbonic acid, 
abortion has been observed to take place, and the experi- 
ments of Dr Brown Sequard show that anything inter- 
fering with the normal oxygenation of the blood may 
cause the uterus to contract and expel its contents. Many 
cases of abortion occur vrithout apparent cause, but in 
such instances the probability is that some morbid condition 
of the interior of the uterus exists, and the same may be 
said of many of those cases where the disposition to abort 
has become habitual. The tendency, however, to the 
recurrence of abortion in persons who have previously 
miscarried is well known, and should ever be borne in 
mind with the view of avoiding any cause likely to lead 
to a repetition of the accident. Abortion resembles ordi- 
nary labour in its general phenomena, excepting that in 
the former hemorrhage often to a large extent forms one 
of the leading symptoms. The treatment of abortion 
embraces the meams to be used by rest, astringents, and 
sedatives, to prevent the occurrence when it merely 
threatens ; or when, on the contrary, it is inevitable, to 
accomplish as speedily as possible the complete removal 
of the entire contents of the uterus. The artificial induc- 
tion of premature labour is occasionally resorted to by 
aoooucheuTB jmder certain conditions involving the safety 

of tlic mother or the fiEtus. For Criminal Abortion, fct 
Medicax Jueibpeudence. 

ABOUKIIl, a small village on the coast of Egypt, 1 3 
miles N.E. of Alexandria, containing a ciistle which wai 
used as a state prison by Mehemet Ali. Near the village, 
and connected with the shore by a chain of rocks, is a 
small island romaikable for remains of ancient buildings. 
Stretching to tho eastward as far as tho Rosetta mouth of 
the Nile is the spacious bay of Aboukir, where Nelson 
fought " the Battle of the Nile," defeating and almost 
destroying the French fleet that had conveyed Napoleon 
to Egypt. It was near Aboukii that tho expedition to 
Egypt, under Sir Kalph Abercromby, in 1801, effected a 
landing in the face of an opposing force. 

ABRABANEL, Isaac (called also Abravanel, Abarbanel, 
Barbanella, and Ravanella), a celebrated Jewish statesman, 
philosopher, theologian, and commentator, was bom at 
Lisbon in 1437. He belonged to an ancient family that 
claimed descent from the royal house of David, and his 
parents gave him an education becqming so renowned a 
lineage. He held a high place in the favour of King 
Alphonso v., who intrusted him with the management of 
important state affairs. On the death of Alphonso in 
1481, his counsellors and favourites were harshly. treated 
by his successor John ; and Abrabauel was, in consequence, 
compelled to flee to Spain, where he held for eight years 
(1484-1492), the post of a minister of state under Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella. When the Jews were banished from 
Spain in 1492, no exception was made in Abrabanel's 
favour. Ho afterwards resided at Naples, Corfu, and 
Monopoli, and in 1503 removed to Venice, where he held 
office as a minister of state till his death in 1508. Abra- 
banel was one of the most learned of the rabbis. HLs 
writings are chiefly exegetical and polemical ; he displaj's 
in them an intense antipathy to Christianity, though he 
lived on terms of friendship with Christians. He wrote 
commentaries on the greater part of the Old Testament, 
in a clear but somewhat diffuse style, anticipating much 
that has been advanced as new by modern theologians. 

ABRACADABRA, a meaningless word once supposed 
to have a magical efficacy as an antidote against agues and 
other fevers. Ridiculously minute directions for the 
proper use of the charm are given in, the Praicepta de 
Medicina of Serenus Sammonicus. The paper on which 
the word was written had to be folded in the form of 
a cross, suspended from the neck by a strip of linen so as 
to rest on the pit of the stomach, worn in this way for 
nine days, and then, before sunrise, cast behind the wearer 
into a stream running to the east. The letters of this word 
were usually arranged to form a tiiangle in one or other of 
the following ways : — 
















ABRAHAM or ABRAJf, father of the Israelite race, 
was the first-born son of Terah, a Shemite, who left Ur 
of the Chaldees, in the north-east of Mesopotamia, along 
with Abram, Sarai, and Lot, and turned westwards in the 
direction of Canaan. Abram had married his haJf-sistei 
Sarai, who was ten years younger than himself ; and 
though such relationship was afterwards forbidden by the 
law. it was common in ancient times, both among othei 

A B R A K A M 


peoples, and among the Hebrews tliemselTea at leasi; oefora 
Mosea. The cause of Terah's removing from his native 
country ia not given. Having come to Haran, ho abode 
there till his death, at the age of 205. According to 
Genesis xii., Abram left Haran when he was 75 years of 
age, that is, before the death of his father, in consequence 
of a divine command, to which was annexed a gracious 
promise, " And I wiU make of thee a great nation, and I 
will bless thee, and make thy name great ; and thou shalt 
be a blessing. And I will bless them that bless thee, and 
Gurso him that curseth thee ; and in thee shall all families 
of the earth be blessed " (xii. 2, 3). Another tradition 
makes him leave Haran only after Terah's decease (Acta 
vii. 4). The later account is that Abram's departure was 
the result of religious considerations, because he had 
already become emancipated from surrounding idolatry. 
Perhaps the desire of a nomadic life, the love of migration 
natural to an Oriental, had more to do with his pilgrimage 
than a spiritual impulse from within ; but it is likely that 
his culture advanced in the course of his sojournings, and 
that he gradually attained to purer conceptions of duty 
and life. Traditions subsequent to the Jehovistic represent 
him as driven forth by the idolatrous Chaldeans (Judith 
V. 6, &c.) on account of his monotheistic doctrines, and 
then dwelling in Damascus as its king (Josephus's Anti- 
quities, i. 7). The true cause of departure may be sug- 
gested by Nicolaus of Damascus saying that he came out 
of Chaldea with an army. The leader of a horde, worsted 
ia some encounter or insurrection, he emigrated at the 
head of his adherents in quest of better fortunes. The 
word redeemed, in Isaiah xxix. 22, out of which Ewald 
conjectures so much, as if Abram had been rescued from 
great bodily dangers and battles, does not help the portrait, 
because it means no more than the patriarch's migration 
from heathen Mesopotamia into the Holy Land. Journey- 
ing south-west to Canaan with his wife and nephew, he 
arrived at Sichem, at the oak of the seer or prophet, where 
Jehovah appeared to him, assuring him for the first time 
that his seed should possess the land he had come to. 
He travelled thence southward, pitching his tent east of 
Bethel. Still proceeding in the same direction, ho arrived 
at the Negeb, or most southern district of Palestine, 
whence a famine forced him down to Kgypt. His plea 
that Sarai was his sister did not save her from Pharaoh ; 
for she was taken into the royal harem, but restored to 
her husband in consequence of divine chastisments inflicted 
upon the lawless possessor of her person, leading to the 
discovery of her true relationship. The king was glad to 
send the patriarch away under the escort and protection 
of his men. A similar thing is said to have subsequently 
hiippened to Sarai at Gerar with the Philistine king 
Abimelech (Genesis sx.), as also to Rebekah, Isaac's wife 
(xxvi.) The three narratives describe one and the same 
event in different shapes. But the more original (the 
junior Elohistic)' is that of the 20th chapter, so that Gerar 
was the scene, and Abimelech the offender; while the later 
Jehovistic narrative (xii.) deviates still more from veri- 
similitude. Though this occun'ence, however, belongs to 
the southern borders of Palestine, wo need not doubt the 
fact of Abram's sojourn in Egypt, especially aa ho had an 
Egyptian slave (Genesis xvi.) How long the patriarch 
remained there is not related ; nor are the influenoes which 
the religion, science, and learning of that civilised land 
had upon him alluded to. That they acted beneQcially 
apon his mind, enlightening and enlarging it, can scarcely 
be doubted. His religious conceptions were transformed. 

' Three documents at least ftre traconble in tlio Pent.iteuch; the 
Elohistir, the junior Elohistic, and the Jehovistic. These were put 
together by a redactor. Nearly tho whole of the fifth book w:ia 
«lduU by the DouteroDomi^t. 

The manifold wisdom of Egypt impressed him. Inter- 
course with men far advanced in civilisation taught him 
much. Later tradition speaks of his communicating U> 
the Egyptians the sciences of arithmetic and astronomy 
(Josephus i. 7) ; but this is founded upon the motion 
entertained at the time of the civilised Chaldeans of 
Babylon, whereas Ur of the Chaldees was a district 
remote from the subsequent centre of recondite knowledge. 
Abram received more than he imparted, for the Egyptians 
were doubtless his superiors in science. He found the 
rite of circumcision in use. There, too, he acquired great 
substance — flocks and herds, male and female slaves. 
After returning to Canaan, to his former locality, Abram 
and Lot separated, because of disputes between their 
herdsmen, there not being sufficient room for all their 
cattle in common. After this separation the possession of 
Canaan was again assured to Abram and t6 his seed, who 
should be exceedingly numerous. This is the third 
theocratic promise he received. He is also commanded 
by Jehovah to walk through it in its length and breadth 
as a token of inheritance, — a later Jehovistic tradition that 
must be judged according to its inherent verisimilitude. 
Abram settled again at the oak of Mamre near Hebron. 
This was his headquarters. After Lot had been taken 
prisoner ia the expedition of the kings of Shinar, Ellasar, 
Elam, and Goyim, against the old inhabitants of Basan, 
Ammonitis, Ivloabitis, Edomitis, and others besides, Abram 
gave chase to the enemy, accompanied by his 318 slaves 
and friendly neighbours, rescuing his nephew at Hobah, 
near Damascus. On his return, the royal priest Melchizedek 
of SalMn came forth to meet him with refreshments, blessed 
the patriarch, and received from him the tithe of the spoUa. 
The king acted generously towards the victor, and was still 
more generously treated in return. 

Jehovah again promised to Abram a numerous ofi"spring, 
with the possession of Canaan. He also concluded a 
covenant vrith him in a solemn form, and revealed the 
fortunes of his posterity in Egypt, with their deliverance 
from bondage. Ia consequence of the barrenness of 
Sarai, she gave her handmaid Hagar to Abram, who, 
becoming pregnant- by him, was haughtily treated by her 
mistress, and fled towards Egypt. But an angel met 
her in the desert and sent her back, telling of a numerous 
race that should spring from her. Having returned, she 
gave birth to Ishmael, ia the 8Gth year of Abram's age. 

Again did Jehovah appear to the patriarch, promising as 
before a multitudinous seed, and changing his name in 
conformity with such promise. He assured him and bis 
posterity of the possession of Canaan, and concluded a 
covenant with him for aU time. At the institution of 
circumcision on this occasion, Sarai's name was also changed, 
because she was to be the maternal progenitor of the 
covenant people through Isaac her son. Abram, and all 
the males belonging to him, were then circumcised. He 
had become acquainted vdlh the rite in Egyjjt, and trans- 
ferred it to his household, making it a badge of distinction 
between the worshippers of tho true God and the idolatrous 
Canaanites — the symbol of the flesh's subjection to the 
spirit. Jts introduction into the worship of the colony at 
Mamre indicated a decided advance in Abram's religious 
conceptions. He had got beyond the cruel practice of human 
sacrifice. The worship of the Canaanites was left 
behind; and the small remnant of it which he retained com- 
ported with a faith approaching monotheism. Amid pre- 
vailing idolatry this institution was a protection to his 
family and servants — a magic circle drawn around them. 
But, though powerful and respected wherever his name 
was known, he confined tlio rito to his own domestics, 
without attempting to force it on the inhabitants of 
tho land where he sojourned. The punishment of dcatJi 



for neglecting it, because the uncircumciaea person -was 
thought to bo a breaker of the covenant and a despLser 
of its Author, seems a. harsh measure on the part of 
Abram; yet it can hardly bo counted an arbitrary trans- 
ference of tho later Levitical severities to the progenitor of 
the race, since it is in the Elohist. 

Accompanied by two angeb, Jehovah appeared again to 
Abram at tho oak of Mamre, accepted his proposed hospv- 
tality, and promLsed him a eon by Sarai within a year. 
Though she laughed incredulously, the promise *as definitely 
repeated. When the angels left, Jehovah communicated 
to Abram the divine purpose of destroying the dwellets 
in Siddim because of their wickedness, but acceded to the 
patriarch's intercession, that the cities of the plain should 
bo spared if ten righteous men could bo found in them. 
I'he two angels, who had gone before, arrived at Sodom in the 
evening, and were entertained by Lot, but threatened with 
shameful treatment by tho depraved inhabitants. Seeing 
that the vengeance of Heaven was deserved, they proceeded 
to execute it, saving Lot with his wife and two daughters, 
and sparing Zoar as a place of refuge for them. Jehovah 
rained down fire and brimstone from heaven, turning all 
the Jordan district to desolation, so that when Abram 
looked next morning from tho spot where Jehovah and 
himself had parted, he saw a thick smoke ascend from the 

Abram then journeyed from Hebron to tho Ncgob, settled 
between Kadesh and Shur in Gerar, where Sarai is said to 
have been treated as a prior account makes her to have been 
in Egypt. At the patriarch's prayer the plague inflicted on 
the king and his wives was removed. This is a duplicate of 
the other story. Whatever historical truth the present nar- 
rative has belongs to an earlier period of Abram's life. His 
second removal to Gerar originated in the former journeying 
through it into Egypt. He must have remained in the neigh- 
bourhood of Hebron, his first settlement, where Isaac was 
born according to the Elohistic account. After the birth of 
the legitimate heir, succeeding events were the expulsion of 
Hagar and Ishmael from the paternal home, and the making 
of a covenant between Abimelech and Abram at Beersheba. 
Hero Abram " called on the name of the Lord," and is 
said to have planted a noted tamarisk in commemoration 
of the event. 

Abram was now commanded by God to offer up Isaac in 
the laud of Moriah. Proceeding to obey, he was prevented 
by an angel just as he was about to slay his son, and 
sacrificed a ram that presented itself at the time. In 
reward oi his obedience he received the promise of a numer- 
ous seed and abundant prosoerity. Thence he returned to 

Sarai died and was buried in the cave of Macnpelah near 
Hebron, which Abram purchased, with the adjoining field, 
from Ephron the Hittite. . The measures taken by the 
patriarch for the marriage of Isaac are circumstantially 
described. , His steward Eliezer was sent to the country 
and kindred of Abram to find a suitable bride, which he 
did in Haran, whither he was divinely conducted. Eebekah 
appeared as the intended one; she parted from Bethuel 
and her. family with their fuU approbation, was brought 
to Isaac, and became a maternal ancestor of the chosen 

It is curious that, after Sarah's aeath, Abram should 
have contracted a second marriage with Keturah, and 
liegotten six sons. The Chronicles," however, make her 
his concubine (1 Chron. L 32), so that these children may 
have been born earlier. Probably the narrative intends 
to account for the diffusion of Abram's posterity in Arabia. 
Keturah's sons were sent away with gifts from their home 
into Arabia, and aU the father's substance was given 
to Isnac. The patriarch died at the age of 175 years, 

and woA buried by I^aac and Ishmael beeido Sarai is 
^fachpelah. I'he book of Genesis gives two lists of Arab 
tribes, descended partly from Abram and Eeturah, partly 
from him and Hagar or IshmaeL These dwelt in Arabia 
Deserta and Petrxa, as also in the northern "half of Arabia 

1. We cannot adopt the opinion of Von Bohlen and Dozy 
tliat Abram is a mythical person. Ho must be regarded as a 
historical character, though the accounts of his life have 
mythical elements intermingled with much that is tradi- 
tional or legendary. The difficulty of separating the historic 
from the merely traditional, hinders the presentation of a 
natural portrait Later legends have invested him with ex- 
traordinary excellence. They have made him a Worshipper ' 
of Jehovah, a prophet, the friend of God, favoured with 
visible manifestations' of His presence, and receiving 
repeated promises of the most far-reaching character. He 
is the typical ancestor of tho chosen race, living under the 
constant guidance of God, prospering in worldly goods, 
delivered from imminent perils. A superhuman halo 
surrounds him. It is the Jehovist in particular who 
invests him with the marvellous and improbable, con- 
necting him with altars and sacrifices — a cultus posterior 
to both his time and mental development — making him 
the subject of theoplianies, talking familiarly to Jehovah 
himself, and feeding angels with flesh. The Elohist's 
descriptions are simpler. Hiq patriarchs are usually colour- 
less men, upright and plain. Th^y hav^ neither char- 
acteristic features nor distinct outline. Abram stands 
out an honest, peaceable, generous, high-minded patriarch; 

a prince, rich, powerful, and honoured, fitted for rule, 
and exercising it with prudence. Wo need not expect 
a full history of the man from writers long posterior, the 
representatives of popular traditions. Only fragments 
of the life are given, designed to . show his greatness. 
Legend assigned ideal lineaments to the progenitor whom 
a remote antiquity shrouded with its hoary mantle, and 
thus he became a model worthy of imitation. 

2. The biblical sources of his biography are three at 
least; and sometimes all appear in a single chapter, a£ in 
Gen. xxii., which describes the severest trial of faith. The 
oldest or Elohim-document h seen in verses 20-24, which 
link on to chap. xxi. 2-5, from the same. The rest of the 
chapter belongs to the junior Elohist, except verses 14^18, 
added by the Jehovist to connect Abram's sacrifice ^-ith 
Jerusalem These different documents, out of which the 
general narrative was finally put together by a redactor, 
create diversities and contradictions. Thus the Elohist 
makes Abram laugh at the announcement of a son by Sarai 
(xviL 17); the Jehovist, jealous for the patriarch's honour, 
assigns the laughter to the woman as a sign of incredulity 
(xviii. 12). 

3. The account of the change of names given to Abram 
and Sarai when circumcision was instituted, cannot be 
regarded as historical The Elohist says that Abram became 
Abraham, the latter meaning /a<A«r of tnuch people. But 
the Hebrew tongue has no word rahdm, and no root with 
the three letters cm. Hence the Jews found the etymo- 
logy a puzzle.* The old reading was undoubtedly Abram 
and Sarai, though the later Jews expressly forbade Abram 
either in speaking or writing. The difference is one of 
mere orthography. The forms om and on are cognate 
ones, as are m:? and nTi7. The ctjonologising propensity 
of the Elohist is well known. The names signifv/a/A<r <j/ 
heif//U and pnncess respectively. 

4. The religion of Abram was not pure Jehovism. Ac- 
cording to Exodus vi 3, the name Jehovah was unknown 
before Moses. Pure Jehovism was a growth not reached 

2 See Beer'a Ltbcn AhraJiaiAs, pp. 150, 161. 

A B E — A B E 


before the prophets. It was a late development, the creed 
of the most spiritual teachers, not of the people generally. 
Abram was a. distinguished Orieutal sheikh, who laid aside 
the grossness of idolatry, and rose by degrses, through ooa- 
tact with many peoples and his own reflection, to the con- 
ception of a Being higher than the visible world, the Gcd 
of the light and the sun. He was a civilised nomad, 
having wider and more spiritual aspirations than the 
peoples with whom' he livedo As a worshipper of God, 
his faith was magnified by later ages throwing back 
their more advanced ideas into his time, because ho was 
the founder of a favoured race, the type of Isiael as 
they were or shoxild be. 

5. The leading idea forming the essence of the story re- 
Bpecting Abram's sacrifice of Isaac, presents some difficulty 
of explanation. The chapter did not proceed from the 
earliest writer, but from one acquainted with the institu- 
tion of animal sacrifices. That the patriarch was familiar 
with human sacrifices among the peoples round about is 
beyond a doubt. Was he tempted from within to comply, 
on one occasion, with the prevailing custom; or did the 
disafi'ected Canaanites call upon him to give such proof 
of devotion to his God 1 Perhaps there was a struggle in 
his mind between the better ideas which led to the habitual 
renunciation of the barbarous rite, and scruples of the uni- 
versal impropriety attaching to it. The persuasion that it 
could never be allowed may have been shaken at times. 
The general purport of the narrative is to place in a strong 
light the faith of one prepared to make the most costly 
sacrifice in obedience to the divine command, as well as 
God's aversion to human offerings. 

6. It is impossible to get chronological exactness in 
Abram's biography, because it is composed of difi'erent tra- 
ditions incorporated with one another, the product of dif- 
ferent times, and all passing through the hands of a later 
redactor for whom the true succession of events was not 
of primary importance. The writers themselves did not 
know the accurate chronology, having to do with legends 
as well as facts impregnated with the legendary, which the 
redactor afterwards altered or adapted. The Elohist is 
much more chronological than the other writers. It is 
even impossible to teU the time when Abram lived. Ac- 
cording to Lepsius, he entered Palestine 1700-1730 B.C. ; 
according toBunsen, 2886 ; while Schenkel gives 2 130-2 140 
B.C. In Beer's Leben Abraham's his birth is given 1948 
A.M., i.e., 2040 B.C. 

7. The Midrashim contain a good deal about Abram 
which is either foumded on biblical accounts or spun out 
of the fancy. Nimrod was king of Babylon at the time. 
The patriarch's early announcement of the doctrine of one 
God, his zeal in destroying idols, including those worshipped 
by his father, his miraculous escape from Nimrcd's wrath, 
his persuading Terah to leave the king's service and go 
with him to Canaan, are minutely told. During his life 
he had no fewer than ten temptations. Satan tried to ruin 
him, after the fiend had appeared at the great feast given 
when Isaac was weaned, in the form of a poor bent old man, 
who had been neglected We can only refer to one speci- 
men of rabbinic dialogire-making. God appeared to 
Abram by night, saying to him, " "Take thy son" — (Abram 
interrupting), " Which 1 I have two of them." The voice 
of God — " Him who is esteemed by you as your only .son." 
Abram — " Each of them is the only son of his mother." 
God's voice — " Him whom thou lovest." Abram — " I love 
both." God's voice — " Him whom thou especially lovest." 
Abram — " I cherish nry children with like love." God's 
voice — " Now, then, take Isaac." Abram — " And what 
shall I begin with in himf God's voice — " Go to the lund 
where at my call mountains will rise up out of valleys 
...... to Moriih. and oficr thy son Isaac as a holocaust." 

Abram — "Is it a sacrifice I .shall offer. Lord? Where is the 
priest to prepare it V " Be thou invested vrith that dig- 
nity as Shem was formerly." Abram — " But that land 
counts Beveral' mountains, which shall I ascend 1" "The 
top of the mountain where thou shalt see my glory veiled 
in the clouds," &c (Beer, pp. 59, 60.) 

The Arabic legends about Ibrahim are mostly taken from 
the Jewish fountain, very few being independent and pre- 
Islamito. Mohammed collected all that were current, and 
presented them in forms best suited to his purpose. His 
sources were the biblical accounts and later Jewish legends. 
Those about the patriarch building the Kaaba along with 
Ishmael, his giving this son the house and aD the country 
in which it was, his going as a pilgrim to Mecca every 
year, seeing Ishmael, and then retm-ning to his own land, 
Syria, his foot-print on the black stone of the temple, 
and similar stories, are of genuine Arabic origin. The 
rest are Jewish, with certain alterations. The collected 
narratives of the Arabic historians are given by Tabari, 
constituting a confused mass of legends drawn from the 
Old Testament, the Koran, and the Babbina. (See 
Ewald's Geschichie des Yolkes Israel, vol L pp. 440-484, 
third edition ; Bertheau's Zur Geschichie der Israelites, 
p. 206, et seq.; Tuch's Kommentar ueber die Genesia, 
1838: Knobel's Die Genesis, 1852; Doz/s Die Israeliten 
m Mekka, p. 16, et seq.; B. Beer's Leben Abraham's 
nach Auffassung der jiidijschen Sage, 1859 ; Chrrniique 
iAbou Djafar Mohammed Tahari, par L. Dubeux, tome 
premier, chapters 47-60; Chwolson's Ssabier vrid der 
Ssabismus, vol. ii.) (s. D.) 

ABRAHAM-A-SANCTA-CLARA, was horn at Krahen- 
heimstetten, a village in Snabia, on the 4th of June 1642. 
His family name was Ulrich Megerle. In 1662 ho joined 
the order of Barefooted Augustinians, and assumed the 
name by which alone he is now known. In this order he 
rose step by step until he became prior provincialis and 
definitor of his province. Having parly gained a gxeat 
reputation for pulpit eloquence., he was appointed court 
preacher at Vienna in 1669. There the people flocked in 
crowds to hear him, attracted by the force and homeliness 
of his language, the grotesqueness of his humour, and the 
impartial severity with which he lashed the folUes of all 
classes of society. The vices of courtiers and court-life 
in particular were exposed with an admirable intrepidity. 
In general he spoke as a man of the people in the lan- 
guage of the people, the predominating quality of his 
style,, which was altogether unique, being an overflowing 
and often coarse wit. There are, however, many passages 
in his sermons in which he rises to loftier thought, and 
uses more refined and dignified language. He died at 
Vienna on the 1st December 1709. In his published 
writings Abraham-a-Sancta-CSara displayed much the same 
qualities as in the pulpit. Perhaps the most favourable 
specimen of his style is furnished in Judas der Enschclm. 
His works have been several times reproduced in whole 
or part, though with many spurious interpolations, within 
the last thirty years, and have been very extensively read 
by both Protestants and Catholics. A'selection was issued 
at Heilbronn in 1845, and a complete edition in 21 vols, 
appeared at Passau and Lindau, in 1835-54. 

ABRANTES, a town of Portugal, Estrcmadura province, 
on the Tagus, about 70 miles N.E. of Lisbon, delightfully 
situated on the brow of a hiU, of which the slopes are 
covered with olive trees, gardens, and vineyards. It has 
considerable trade with Lisbon, particularly in fruit, 
com, and oU. The town is strongly fortified, and is 
an important military position. At the convention of 
Cintra it was surrendered to the British. Junot derived 
froin it his title of Duko of Abrantea. Population about 


A B R — A B iS 

ABRAXT ES, Duke and Ddchzss op. See Jijnot. 

AI3KAXA.S, or Aukasajc, a word engraved on certain 
fiutique stones, wbich were called on that account Abraxas 
stones, and wore used as amulets or charms. The Basili- 
dians, a Gnostic sect, attaclied importance to the word, if, 
indeed, they did not bring it into use. The letters o£ 
iPpaidt, in the Greek notation, make up the number 305, 
and the liasilidians gave the name to the 3G5 orders of 
spirits, which, as they conceived, emanated in succession 
from the Supreme Being. These orders were sujipoiied to 
occupy as many heavens, each fashioned like, but inferior 
to that above it; and the lowest of the heavens was 
thought to bo the abode of the spirits who formed the 
earth and its inhabitants, and to whom wiis committed 
the administration of its affairs. The Abraxas stones, 
which are frequently to be met with in the tabincts 
of the curious, are of very little value. In addition to 
the Tvord Abraxas and other mystical characters, they 
Lave often engraved on them cabalistic figures. The com- 
monest of these have the head of a fowl, and the arms 
and bust of a man, and terminate in the body and tail of 
a serpent. 

ABRUZZO, originally one of the four provinces of the 
continental part of the kingdom of the two Sicilies, after- 
ward subdivided into Abruzzo Ulteriore I., Abruzzo Ulte- 
riorell., and Abruzzo Citeriorc, which were so named from 
their position relative to Naples, and now form three of 
the provinces of the kingdom of Italy. The district, 
which was the most northerly part of the kingdom of the 
two Sicilies, is bounded by the Adriatic on the E, and 
by the provinces of Ascoli Piceno on the N., Umbria and 
Rome on the W., and Terra di Lavoro, MoUse, and Capi- 
tanata on the S. The Abruzzi provinces have an area of 
nearly 4900 English square miles, and extend from N. lat. 
41°40'to 42°55'. Though presenting to the Adiiatic a coast 
of about 80 miles in length, they bave not a single good 
port^ This territory is mostly rugged, mountainous, and 
covered with extensive forests, but contains also many 
fertile and well-watered valleys. The Apennines traverse 
its whole extent, running generally from N.W. to S.E., and 
here attaining their greatest elevation. Near Aquila is 
Monte Corno, the loftiest peak of that chain, called // gran 
jSasso d'ltalla, or the great rock of Italy, which rises to the 
height of 0S13 feet. Monte Majella and Monte Velino 
attain the height of 9500 and 8792 feet respectively. 
From the main range of the Apennines a number of smaller 
branches run off towards the west. The country is 
watered by numerous small rivers, most of which fall into 
the Adriatic. They are often suddenly swollen by the 
rdns, especially in the spring, and thus cause considerable 
damage to the lands through which they pass. The 
principal rivers are the Tronto, Treutino, Pescara, and 
Sangio. In Abrn2zo Ulteriore II. is lake Celano or Lago 
di Fucino, the Lacus Fucinus of the Romons, now reduced 
to about one-third of its former extent. The climate varies 
with the elevation, but, generally speaking, is temperate 
and healthy. Agriculture is but little understood or 
attended to, although in many of the lower parts of the 
country the land is fertile. The rivers are not e: abanked, 
nor is irrigation practised; so that the best of tie land is 
frequently flooded during the rainy season, and pirched in 
the heat of summer. The principal productions are com, 
hemp, flax, almonds, olives, figs, grapes, and chestnuts. 
In the neighbourhood of Aquila saffron is extensively 
cultivated, although not to such an extent as formerly. 
The rearing and tending of sheep is the chief oixupation 
of the inhabitants of the highlands; and the wool, which 
is of a superior quality, is an important article of com- 
merce, while the skins are sent in large quantities to the 
Le\-ant. Bears, wolves, and wUd boars inhabit the moun- 

tain fastnesses; and in the extensive oak forests nnmerons 
herds of swine are fed, the hams of which are in liii;li 
ri-pnte. 'i'lie manufactures are very inconsideiaM,, '.:.^'.:;j: 
chiefly woollen, Linen, and. silk stuffs, and earthen and 
wood wares. Abruzzo 'was of great importance to the 
kingdom of Naples, being its chief defence to the north, 
and presenting almost insurmountable difliculties to the 
ad^Tince of an -enemy. The country is now free of the 
daring brigands by whom it was long infested. The 
inhabitants are a stout, well-built, brave, and industrious 
race. Their houses are generally miserable huts; their 
food principally maize, and their drink bad wine. The 
railway from Ancona to Brindisi passes through Abruzzo 
Ulteriore I. and Abruzzo Citcriore, skirting the coast; and 
a line has been projected from Pescara, by Popoli, the Lago 
di Fucino, and the valley of the Liris, to join the railway 
from Rome to Naples, and thu.s open up the interior of the 
country. The line ia open for traffic between Pescara 
and Popoli. 

Abruzzo Ultebiore I. is the most northerly of the 
three provinces, and has an area of 1283 square miles, with 
a population in 1871 of 245,684. The western part of .the 
province is very mountainous, the highest crest of the Apen- 
nines dividing it from Abruzzo Ulteriore II. The valleys 
possess a rich soil, well watered by rivulets and brooks in 
the winter and spring, but these are generally dried up in 
the summer months. Tho streams run mostly into the 
Pescara, which botinds the province towards Abruzzo 
Citcriore, or into the Tronto, which is the northern 
boundary. The city of Teramo is the capital of the 

AuKUZZo Ulteeioee n. is an inland district, nearly 
covered with mountains of various heights, one of which 
is the Gran Sasso. There are no plains ; but among the 
mountains are some beautiful and fruitful vallej-s, watered 
by the various streams that run through them. None of 
the rivers are navigable. The province has an area of 2510 
square miles, and in 1871 contained 332,782 inhabitants. 
Its chief town is Aquila. 

Abruzzo Citeriore lies to the south and east of the 
other two pro%'inCes. It is the least hilly of the three, but 
the Apennines extend through the south-west part. They, 
however, gradually decline in height, and stretch away into 
plains of sand and pebbles. The rivers all run to the 
Adriatic, and are very low during the summer months. 
The soil is not very productive, and agricidture is in a 
very backward state ; the inhabitants prefer the chase 
and fishing. The province contains 1104 square miies, 
with a population of 340.299 in 1871. Its chief town is 

ABSALOM (o'''=??, father of peace), the third son of 
David, king of Israel He was deemed the handsomest 
man in the kingdom. His sister Tamar having been 
violated by Amnon, David's eldest son, Absalom caused 
his scr\'ant3 to murder Amnon at a feast, to which he had 
invited all the king's sons. After this deed he fled to the 
kingdom of his maternal grandfather, where he remained 
three years ; and it was not till two years after his return 
that he was fully reinstated in his father's favour. Absalom 
seems to have been by this time the eldest surviving son 
of David, but he was not the destined heir of his father's 
throne. The suspicion of this excited the impulsive 
Absalom to rebellion. For a time the tide of public 
opinion ran so strong in his favour, that David found it ex- 
pedient to retire beyond the Jordan. But, instead of adopt- 
ing the prompt measures which his sagacious counsellor 
Ahithophel advised, Absalom loitered at Jerusalem tQl a 
large force was raised against him, and when he took the 
field his army was comfiletely routed. The battle was 
fought in the forest of Ephraim ; and Absalom, caught in 

A B S — A B S 


Ihe toughs of a tree by the superb hair in which he gloried, 
■was run through the body by J oab. The king's grief for 
iis wortMess son vented itself in the touching lamentation 
— " my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom 1 woald 
God I had died for thee, O Absalom, my son, my son;" 

ABSALOJi', Archbishop of Lund, in Denmark, was born 
in 1128, near Soroe in Zealand, his family name being 
Axel. In 11 -iS he went to study at Paris, where a coUcge 
for Danes had been established. He afterwards travelled 
extensively in diifercnt countries; and returning to Den- 
mark in 1157, was the year after chosen Bishop of Roes- 
kilde or Kothschild. Eloquent, learned, endowed with 
uncommon physical strength, and possessing the confidence 
pf the king, ^V'aldcma^ I., known as the Great, Absalon 
held a position of great influence both in the church and 
state. In that age V/arlike pursuits were not deemed in- 
consistent with the clerical office, and Absalon was a 
renowned warrior by sea and land, as well as a zealous 
ecclesiastic, his avowed principle being that " both swords, 
the spiritual and the temporal, were entrusted to the 
clergy." To his exertions as statesman and soldier Wal- 
demar was largely indebted for the independence and con- 
solidation of his kingdom. In 1177 he was chosen by the 
chapter Archbishop of Lund and Primate of the church, 
but he declared himself unwUhng to accepi;. the appoint- 
ment; and when an attempt was made to install him by 
force, he resisted, and appealed to Rome. The Pope de- 
cided that the choice of the chapter must be respected, 
and commanded Absalon to accept the Primacy on pain of 
excommunication. He was consecrated accordingly by the 
papal legate Galandius in 1178. He set the Cistercian 
monks of Soroe the task of preparing a history of the 
country, the most valuable result being the Danish 
Chronicle of Saxo Grammaticus, who was secretary to 
Absalon and his companion in an expedition against the 
iWendish pirates. A tower or castle which the archbishop 
caused to be buUt as a defence against these pirates, was 
the commencement of the present capital, Copenhagen, 
,which from this circumstance is sometimes known in his- 
tory as Axelstadt. The archbishop died in 1201, in the 
monastery at Soroe, and was buried in the parish church, 
where his grave may still be seen. 

ABSCESS, in Surgery (from ahscedo, to separate), a 
iCoIlection of pus among the tissues of the body, the result 
of inflarajnation. Abscesses are divided into acute and 
chronic. See Sukqery. 

ABSINTHE, a liqueur or aromatised spirit, prepared oy 
pounding the leaves and flowering tops of various species 
of wormwood, chiefly Artemisia Absinthium, along with 
angelica root {Arcliangelica officinalis), sweet flag root 
(Acorus Calamus), the leaves of- dittany of Crete (OnV/are«TO 
\Dictamnus), star-anise fruit (Illicium anisaium), and other 
aroraatics, and macerating these in alcohol. After soaking 
for about eight days the compound is distilled, yielding an 
emerald-coloured, liquor, to which a proportion of an 
essential-oil, usually that of anise, is added. The liqueur 
thus prepared constitutes the genuine Exlrait d' Absinthe 
of the French ; but much of an inferior quality is made 
iWith other herbs and essential oils, while the adulterations 
practised in the manufacture of absinthe are very numerous 
and deleterious. In the adulterated liqueur the green 
'colour is usually produced by turmeric and indigo, but the 
.presence of even cupric sulphate (blue vitriol) as a colour- 
ing ingi-edient has been frequently detected. ■ In com- 
merce two varieties of absinthe are recognised — common 
and Swiss absintlie — the latter of which is prepared with 
higlily concentrated spirit; and when really of Swiss manu- 
facture, is of most trustworthy quality as regards the herbs 
used in its preparation, h The chief seat or tho manufa.> 
tuio is in the canton of NeufcLatcI ia Switzerland, although. 

absinthe distilleries are scattered generally throughout 
Switzerland and France. The liqueur is chiefly consumed 
in France, but there is also a considerable esport trade to 
the United States of America. In addition to the quan- 
tity distilled for home consumption in France, the amount 
imported from Switzerland in recent years has not been 
less than 2,000,000 gallons yearly. The introduction of 
this beverage into general use in France is curious. Dur- 
ing the Algerian war (1844-47) the soldiers were advised 
to mix absinthe with their wine as a febrifuge. On their 
return they brought with them the habit of drinking it, 
which is ;iow so widely disseminated in French society, 
and with such disastrous consequences, that the custom is 
justly esteemed a grave national evil. A French physician, 
M. Legrand, who has studied the physiological efl'ects of 
absinthe drinking, distinguishes two trains of results accord- 
ing as the victim indulges in violent excesses of drinking 
or only in continuous steady tippUng. In the case of 
excessive drinkers there is first the feeUng of exaltation 
peculiar to a state of intoxication. The increasing dose 
necessary to produce this state quickly deranges the diges- 
tive organs, and destroys the appetite. An unappeasable 
thirst takes possession of the victim, with giddiness, tingling 
in tho oars, and hallucinations of sight and hearing, followed 
by a constant mental oppression and anxiety, loss of brain 
power, and, eventually, idiocy. The symptoms in the 
case of the tippler commence with muscular quiverings and 
decrease of physical strength; the hair begins to drop off, the 
face assumes a melancholy aspect, and he becomes ema- 
ciated, wrinkled, and sallow. Lesion of the brain follows, 
horrible dreams and delusions haunt the victim, and gradu- 
ally paralysis overtakes him and lands him in his grave. 
It has been denied by a French authority, M. Moreau, that 
these symptoms are due to wormwood or any of the essen- 
tial oils contained in absinthe, and he maintains that the 
strong spirit and such adulterations as salts of copper are 
suflicient to account for the effects of the liqueur. There 
is, however, no doubt that proportionately the consumptioa 
of absinthe is much more deleterious to the human frame 
than the drinking of brandy or other strong spirits. The 
use of absinthe has been prohibited in both the army and 
navy of France. 

ABSOLUTE (from the Latin absolvere), having the 
general meaning of loosened from, or unrestricted, in which 
sense it is popularly used to qualify such words as " mon- 
archy" or " power," has been variously employed in philo- 
sophy. Logicians use it to mark certain classes of njimes. 
Thus a term has been called absolute in opposition to attri- 
butive, when it signifies something that has or is viewed as 
having independent existence ; most commonly, however, 
the opposition conveyed is to relative. A relative rams 
being taken as one which, over and above the object 
which it denotes, implies in its signification the existence 
of another object, also deriv^g a denomination from the 
same fact, which is the ground of the first name (MUl), 
as, e.g., father and son, the non-relative or absolute name 
is one that has its meaning for and in itself, as man. 
This distinction is a convenient one, although, as has been 
observed, it can hardly in perfect strictness be maintained. 
Tho so-called r.bsolute name, if used with a meaning, does 
always stand in some relation, however variable or in- 
definite, and tho meaning varies with tho relation. Thus 
man, which is a word of very difl'erciit meanings, as, e.g., 
not woman, not boy, not master, not brute, and so forth, 
may be said to have them according to the different 
relations in which it admits of being viewed, or, as it has 
been otherwise expressed, according to the different notions 
whoso '■ universe " it composes, along with its different 
correlatives. .. From this point of view there is always one 
relaiiQa.ifl_wliich a real thing must Btand, namely, the 

L — 8, 


A B 6 — A B S 

relation to its contradictory (03 not man) intbin the 
auiverso of being ; tUo correlatives, under less general 
notions, being then generally eipreascd positively as con- 
traries (woiuan, boy, ni^-ster, brute, and bo forth, for man). 
If there is thus no nana or notion that can strictly bo 
called absolute, all knowledge may be said to bo relative, 
or of the relative. But the knowledge of an absolute has 
also been held impossible, on the ground that knowing is 
itself a relation between a subject and an object ; what is 
known only in relation to a mind cannot be known as 
absolute. This doctrine, now commonly spoken of under 
the name of the Relativity of Knowledge, may, indeed, be 
brought under the former view, in which subject-object 
marks the relation of highest philosophical significacce 
within the whole universe of things. Keeping, however, 
the two views «part, we may say with double force that 
of the absolute there is no knowledge, — (1), because, to be 
known, a thing must be consciously discriminated from 
other things; and (2), because it cau bo known only in 
relation with a knowing mind. Notwithstanding, there 
have been thinkers from the earliest times, who, in dif- 
ferent ways, and more or less explicitly, aUow of no such 
restriction upon knowledge, or at least consciousness, but, 
on the contrary, starting from a notion, by the latter 
among them called the absolute, which includes within it 
the opposition of subject and object, pass therefrom to 
the explanation of al] the phenomena of natuie and of 
mind. In earlier days the Eleatics, Plato, and Plotinus, 
in modern times Spinoza, Leibnitz, Fichte, Schelling, 
Hegel, and Cousic, all have joined, under whatever dif- 
ferent forms, in maintaining this view. Kant, while 
denying the absolute or unconditioned as art object of 
knowledge, leaves it conceivable, as an idea regulative of 
the mind's intellectual .experience. It is against any such 
absolute, whether as real or conceivable, that Hamilton 
and Mausel have taken gi-ound, the former in his famous 
review of Cousin's ])liilosophy, reprinted in his Discussions, 
the latter in his Bampton Lectures on 2'he Limits of. 
lltligious Thoiujhi, basing their arguments indifferently on 
the positions as to the Relativity of Knowledge indicated 
above. For absolute in its more strictly metaphysical use, 
see Metapuysics. (o. c r.) 

ABSOLUTION, a term used in civil and ecclesiastical 
law, denotes the act of setting free or acquitting. In a 
criminal process it signifies the acquittal of an accused 
person on the ground that the evidence has either dis- 
])roved or faDed to prove the charge brought against him. 
It is now little used except in Scotch law, in the forms 
assoilzie and absolvitor. The ecclesiastical usage of the 
vord is different from the civil It refers to 
sm actually committed, and denotes the setting of a person 
free from its guilt, or from its penal consequences, or from 
both. It is invariably connected with penitence, and some 
form of confession, the Scripture authority, to which the 
Uoman Catholics, the Greek Church, and Protestants 
equally appeal, being found in John xx. 23, James v. 1 6, 
»tc. In the primitive church the injunction of James was 
literally obeyed, and confession was made before the 
whole congregation, whose presence and concurrence were 
reckoned necessary to the validity of the absolution pro- 
nounced by the presbjrter. In the 4th century the bishops 
began to exercise the power of absolution in their own 
right, without recognising the congregations. In conse- 
quence of this the practice of private confession (con/essio 
iiuncularis) was established, and became more and more 
common, unti it was rendered imperative once a year by 
a decree of the fourth Lateran Council (1215). A dis- 
tinction, indeed, was made for a time between peccata 
venudta, which might bo confessed to a layman, and 
pcccdtc nwrtaHa. which could only be confessed to a, pnes'c; 

but this was ultimately abolished, and the r>oman CanoQ 
Law now etands, JS'ec vmdalia nee morlalia poesumus 
cnnfiteri taoavifntaliier, nisi tactrdoti. A change in the 
form of absolution was almost a logical sequence of tha 
change in the nature of the confession. At first the priest 
acted ministerially as an intercessory, using the formula 
abaoluti^Tiit precativa or cUprecaliia, which consisted of the 
words : Dominua absolvat te — iliserealur tut omnipotena 
Dcuf et dimittal tibi omnia peccata tva. This is still the 
only form in the Greek Church, and it finds a place in the 
Roman Catholic service, though it is no longer used in 
the act of absolution. The Romish form was altered in 
the 13Lh century, and the Council of Trent decreed the 
tise of the formula abtolutionis indicativa, where the priest 
acts judicially, as himself possessed of the power of bind- 
ing and loosing, and says. Ego absolvo te. Where a form 
of absolution is used in Protestant Churches, it is simply 
declarative, the state being only indicated, and in no sense 
or degree assumed to be caused by the declaration. 

ABSOIIPTION, in the animal economy, the function 
possessed by the absorbent system of vessels of taking up 
nutritive and other fluids. See Physiology. 

AJBSTEMII, a name formerly given to such persons as 
could not partake of the cup of the eucharist on account 
of their natural aversion to wine. Calvinists allowed these 
to communicate in the species of bread only, touching 
the cup with their lip; which was by the Lutherans 
deemed a profanation. Among several Protestant sects, 
both in Great Britain and America, abstemii on a some- 
what different principle have recently appeared. These 
are total abstainers, who maintain that the use of stimu- 
lants Ls essentially sinful, and allege that the wine used 
by Christ and his disciples at the supper was unfermented. 
They accordingly communicate in the unfermented "juice 
of the grape." The difference of opinion on this point 
has led to a good deal of controversy in many congrega- 
tions, the solution generally arrived at being to allow both 
wine and the pure juice of the grape to be served'al the 
communion table. 

ABSTRACTION, in Psychology and Tyogic, is a word 
used in several distinguishable but closely allied senses. 
First, in a comprehensive sense, it is often applied to that 
process by which we fix the attention upon one part of 
what is present to the mind, to the exclusion of another 
part ; abstraction thus conceived being merely the nega- 
tive of Attention a( J. v.) In this sense we are able in 
thought to abstract one object from another, or an attribute 
from an object, or an attribute perceived by one sense 
from those perceived by other senses. Even in cases 
when thoughts or images have become inseparably 
associated, we posssss something of this power of abstract- 
ing or turning the attention upon one rather than another. 
Secondly, the word is used, with a more special significa- 
tion, to describe that concentration of attention upon the 
resemblances of a number of objects, which constitutes 
classification. And thirdly, not to mention other less 
important changes of meaning, the whole process of 
generalisation, by which the mind forms the notions 
expressed by common terms, is frequently, throagh a 
curious transposition , of names, spoken of as abstraction. 
Especially when understood in its less comprehensive 
connection, the process of abstraction possesses a peculiar 
interest. To the psychologist it is interesting, because 
there is nothing he is more desirous to understand than 
the mode of formation and true nature of what are called 
general notions. And fortunately, with regard to the 
abstractive process by which these are formed, at least in 
its initial stages, there is little disagreement ; since every 
one describes it as a procees of comparison, by which the 
mind is enabled to consider the objects confusedly pre- 

A B S — A B U 


sented to it in intuition, to recognise and attena exclusiTely 
to their points of agreement, and so to classify them in 
accordance with their perceived resemblances. Further, 
tiiis process is admitted without much dispute to belong 
to the discursive or elaborative action of the intellect ; 
although, perhaps — should the view of some modern 
psychologists be correct, that all intelligence proceeds by 
the establishment of relations of likeness and unlikeness 
— abstraction will be better conceived as thus related to 
intelligence in general and typical of all its processes, than 
as the action merely of a special and somewhat indefinite 
faculty. No such harmony, however, exists regarding the 
nature of the product of abstraction; for that is the subject- 
matter of Nominalism and Kealism, which has produced 
more controversy, and stimulated to more subtlety of 
thought, than any other subject ever debated in philo- 
Bophy. The concept or abstract idea has been represented 
in a multitude of ways : sometimes as an idea possessing 
an objective existence independent of particulars, even 
more real and permanent than theirs ; sometimes as an 
idea composed of all the-cii-cumstances in which the par- 
ticulars agree, and of no others ; again, as the idea of an 
individual, retaining its individualising qualities, but with 
the accompanying knowledge that these are not the pro- 
perties of the class ; and yet again, as the idea of a 
miscellaneous assemblage of individuals belonging to a 
class. It is still impossible to say that the many-sided 
controversy is at an end. The only conclusion generally 
admitted seems to be, that there exists between the con- 
cept and the particular objects of intuition some very 
intimate relation of thought, so that it is necessary, for all 
purposes of reasoning, that the general and particular go 
hand in hand, that the idea of the class — if such exists 
— be capable of being applied, in every completed act of 
thought, to the objects comprised within the class. 

To the student of ontology, also, abstraction is of 
special interest, since, according to many distinguished 
thinkers, the recognition of abstraction as a powerful and 
universal mental process is to explain all ontology away, 
and give the ontologist his eternal quietus. The thorough- 
going notain'vlist professes to discover in the mind an 
inveterate tendency to abstraction, and a proneness to 
ascribe separate existence to abstractions, amply sufficient 
to account for all those forms of independent reality which 
metaphysics defend, and to exhibit them all in their true 
colours as fictitious assumptions. In reply, the ontologist, 
strengthened by the instinct of self-preservation, commonly 
contends that the analogy between general notions and 
metaphysical principles does not hold good, and that the 
latter are always more than simple abstraciions or mere 
names. Only after abstraction is understood can the 
question be settled. 

In like manner to logic, whether regarded as tne science 
of the laws of thought, or, more widely, as the science 
of scientific methods, a true understanding of abstraction 
is of the greatest importance. It is important in pure 
logic, because, as we have seen, every act of judgment and 
reasoning postulates a concept or concepts, and so pre- 
supposes abstraction. Abstraction, detenniniflg the possi- 
bility alike of reason and speech, creates those notions 
that bear common names ; it is indispen.sable to the 
formation of classes, great or small; and just according as 
it ascends, increasing the extension and diminishing the 
intension of classes, the horizon visible to reason and to 
)o<nc gradually recedes and widens. And to logic as the 
science of the sciences a true doctrine of abstraction is not 
less necessai-y ; because the process of extending know- 
ledge is, in all its developments, essentially th.; same as 
the first rudimentary effort to form a concept and think of 
particulars as members of a class ; i " natural law," at 

least m its subjective aspect, is invariably an abstraction 
made by comparing phenomena — an abstraction under 
which phenomena are classed in order to the extension of 
knowledge just as under a concept are grouped the par- 
ticulars presented in intuition. As proof of this identity 
it is found that the 'same diS'erences exist regarding the 
objective or subjective nature of the " natural law " as 
regarding that of the concept. Some affirm that the law 
is brought ready-made by the mind and superinduced on 
the facts ; others, that it is never in any sense more than 
a mere mental conception, got by observing the facts ; 
while there are yet others who maintain it to be sucli a sub- 
jective conception, but one corresponding at the same time 
to an external relation which is real though unknowable. 

ABSURDUM, Eeductio ad, a mode of demonstrating 
the truth of a proposition, by showing that its contra- 
dictory leads to an absurdity. It is much employed by 

VBU, a celebrated mountain oi western India, between 
oOOO and 6000 feet in height, situated in 2i° 40' N. lat., 
and 72° 48' E. long., within the RAjputdn4 State of Sirohf. 
It is celebrated as the site of the most ancient Jain temples 
in India, and attracts pilgrims from all parts of the country. 
The Jaius are the modern Indian representatives of the 
Buddhists, and profess the ancient theistic doctrines of that 
sect, modified by saint worship and incarnations. The 
elevations and platforms of the mountain are covered with 
elaborately sculptured shrines, temples, and tombs. On 
the top of the hill is a smaU round platform containing a 
cavern, with a block of granite, bearing the impression of 
the feet of Ddta-Bhrigu, an incarnation of Vishnu. This 
is the chief great place of pilgrimage for the Jains, Shrawaks, 
and Banians. The two principal temples are situated at 
Deulwar4, about the middle of the mountain, and five miles 
south-west of Guru Sikrd, the highest summit. They are 
built of white marble, and are pre-eminent alike for their 
beauty and is typical specimens of Jain architecture in 
India. The following description is condensed from Mr 
Fergusson's History of Architecture, vol. ii. pp. 623 to 
625 : — The more modern of the two was built by two 
brothers, rich merchants, between the years 1197 and 
1247, and for delicacy of carving and minute beauty of 
detail stands almost unrivalled, even in this land of patient 
and lavish labour. The other was buUt by another 
merchant prince, Bimala Shdh, apparently about 1032 a.d., 
and although simpler and bolder in style, is as elaborate as 
good taste would allow in a purely architectural object. 
It is one of the oldest as well as one of the most complete 
examples of Jain architecture known. The principal object 
within the temnle is a cell lighted onjj from the door, con- 
taining a cross-legged a(3«f:cd figure TSi'thegod ParesnAth. 
The portico is composed of forty-'^ight pUlars, the whole 
enclosed in an oblong court-yard about 140 feet by 90 
feet, surrounded by a double colonnade of smaller pDIars, 
forming porticos to a range of fifty-five cells, which enclose 
it on all sides, exactly as they do in a Buddhist monastery 
(vikdra). In this temple, however, each cell, instead of 
being tlie residence of a monk, is occupied by an im.age of 
Paresnith, and over the door, or on the jambs of each, are 
sculptured scenes from the life of the deity. The whole 
interior is magnificently oruameirted. The Emperor Akbar, 
by a farmin dated in the mouth of Eabi-ul-Aul, in the 
37th year of his reign, corresponding with 1C93, made a. 
grant of the hill and temples of Abu, as well as of the 
other lulls and places of Jain pilgrimage in the empire, to 
Ilarbijai Sur, a celebrated preceptor of the Setimbari sect 
of the Jain religion. He also prohibited the slaughter of 
animals at these places. The farmdn of this enlightened 
monarch declared "it is the rule of the worshipper- 
of God to preserve all religions." 


A B U — A B U 

ABCJ-BEKR {father nf the virgin), v/as originally called 
Abd-el-Caaba (servant of t>t^ temple), and received the name 
by which ho is known histxjrically in consequonco of the 
marriage of his virgin daughter Ayesha to Mohaiumcd. . He 
■naa born at Mecca in the year 073 A.D., a Koreishito of 
the tribe of Bcun-Taim. Possessed of immense wealth, 
■which he liad himself acquired in commerce, and held in 
hi"h esteem as a judge, an interpreter of dreams, and a 
depositary of the traditions of his race, his early accession 
to Islamism was a fact of great importance:^ On his con- 
version he assumed the name of Abd-Alk (servant of God). 
His own belief in Mohammed and his doctrines was so 
thorough as to procure for him the title El Siddik (the 
faithful), and his success in gaining converts was corre- 
spondingly great. In his personal relationship to the 
prophet ho showed the deepest veneration and most un- 
swerving devotion. When Mohammed fled from Mecca, 
Abu-Bekr was his sole companion, and shared both his 
hardships and his triumphs, remaining constantly with 
him until the day of his death. During his last illness 
the prophet indicated Abu-Bekr as his successor, by desir- 
ing him to offer up f)rayer for the people. The choice 
was ratified by the chiefs of the army, and ultimately con- 
firmed, though All, Mohammed's son-in-law, disputed it, 
asserting his own title to the dignity. After a time Ali 
submitted, but the difference of opinion as to his claims 
gave rise to a controversy which still divides the followers 
of the prophet into the rival factions of Sunnites and 
Shiites. Abu-Bekr had scarcely assumed his new position 
under the title Khalifet-Resul-Allah (successor of the prophet 
of God), when he was called to suppress the revolt of the 
tribes Hedjaz and Nedjd, of which the fonner rejected 
Islamism, and the latter refused to pay tribute. He en- 
countered formidable opposition from different quarters, 
but in every case he was successful, the severest struggle 
bein" that with the impostor Mosailima, who was finally 
defeated by Khaled at the battle of Akraba. Abu-Bekr's 
zeal for the spread of the new faith was as conspicuous as 
that of its founder had been. When the internal disorders 
had been repressed and Arabia completely subdued, he 
directed his generals to foreign conquest The Irak of 
Persia was overcome by Khaled in a single campaign, and 
there was also a successful expedition into Syria. After 
the hard-won victory over Mosailima, Omar, fearing that 
the sayings of the prophet would be entirely forgotten 
when those who had listened to them had all been re- 
moved by death, induced Abu-Bekr to see to their preserva- 
tion in a written form. The record, when completed, was 
deposited with Hafsu, daughter of Omar, and one of the 
wives of Mohammed. It was held in great reverence by all 
Moslems, though it did not possess canonical authority, 
and furnished most of the materials out of which the 
Koran, as it now exists, was prepared. When the authori- 
tative version was completed, all copies of Hafsu's record 
were destroyed, in order to prevent possible disputes and 
divisions. Abu-Bekr died on the 23d of August 634, 
having reigned as Khalif fully two years. Shortly before 
his death, which one tradition ascribes to poison, another 
to natural causes, he indicated Omar as his successor, after 
the manner Mohammed had observed in his own case. 

ABULFAKAGIUS, Geegob Abulfakaj (called also 
BaehebEjEUS, from his Jewish parentage), was born at 
Malatia, in Armenia, in 1226. His father Aaron was a 
physician, and Abulfaragius, after studying under him, 
also practised medicine witn great success. His command 
of the Arabic, Syriac, and Greek languages, and his know- 
ledge of philosophy and theology, gained for him a very 
liigh reputation. In 1244 he removed to Antioeh, and 
shortly after to Tripoli, where he was consecrated Bishop 
of Cuba, when only twenty years of age. He was subse- 

quently transferred to the Boe of Aleppo, and was elected 
in 1266 Maphrian or Primate of the eastern Ecction of 
the Jacobite Uhristians. This dignity he held till his 
death, which occurred at Maragha, in Azcrbijan, in 1286. 
Abulfaragias wrote a large nimiber of works en various 
subjects, but his fame as an author rests chiefly on hia 
Hittorji of the World, from the creation to his owii 
day. It was written first in Syriac, and then, after a 
considerable interval, an abridged version in Arabic 
was published by the author at the request of friendo. 
The latter is divided into ten sections, each of which con- 
tained the account of a separate dynasty. The historic 
value of tne ■won lies entirely in the portions that treat of 
eastern nations, especially in those relatujg to the Saracens, 
the Tartar Mongols, and the conquests of Genghis Khan. 
The other sections are full of mistakes, arising partly no 
doubt from the author's comparative ignorance of chissical 
languages. A Latin translation of the Arabic abridgement 
was published by Dr Pococke at Oxford in 1603. A jior- 
tion of the original text, with Latin translation, edited, by 
no means carefully or accurately, by Bruns and F. W. 
Kirsch, appeared at Leipsic in 1788. 

ABULFAZL, vizier and historiographer of the great 
Mongol emperor, Akbar, was born about the middle of 
the 16th century, the precise date being uncertain. His 
career as a minister of state, brilliant though it was, would 
probably have been by this time forgotten but for the 
record he himself has left of it in his celebrated history. 
The Akhar Nameh, or Book of Akbar, as Abulfazl's chief 
literary work is called, consists of two parts, — the first being 
a complete history of Akbar's reign, and the second, 
entitled Ayin-i-Akbari, or Institutes of Akbar, being an 
account of the religious and political constitution and 
administration of the empire. The style is singularly 
elegant, and the contents of the second part possess a 
unique and lasting interest. An excellent translation of 
that part by Mr Francis Gladwin was published in Cal- 
cutta, 1783-6. It was reprinted in London very in- 
accurately, and copies of the original edition are now 
exceedingly rare and correspondingly valuable. Abulfazl 
died by the hand of an assassin, while returning from a 
mission to the Deccan in 1 002. Some writers say that the 
murderer was instigated by the heir-apparent, who had 
become jealous of the minister's influence. 

ABULFEDA, Ismaf.l ben-Axi, Emad-eddijj, tne. cele- 
brated Arabian historian and geographer, bom at Damascus 
in the year 672 of the Hegira (1273 a.d.), was directly 
descended from Ayub, the father of th() emperor Saladin. 
In his boyhood he devoted himself to the study of the 
Koran and the sciences, but from his twelfth year he was 
almost constantly engaged in military expeditions, chiefly 
against the crusaders. In 1285 he was present at the 
assault of a stronghold of the Knights of St John, and he 
took part in the sieges of Tripoli, Acre, and Roum. In 
1298 the princedom of Hamah and other honours, origin- 
ally conferred by Saladin upon Omar, passed by inherit- 
ance to Abvilfeda; but the succession was violently dis- 
puted by his two brothers, and the Court availed itself of 
the opportunity to supersede all the three, and to abolish 
the principahty. The siiltan Melik-el-Nassir ultimately 
(1310) restored the dignity to Abulfeda, with additional 
honours, as an acknowledgment of his military services 
against the Tartars and Bibars, the sultan's rival He 
received an independent sovereignty, with the right of 
coining money, ic, and had the title Melik Mowayyad 
(victorious prince) conferred upon him. For twenty years, 
tiU his death in October 1331, he reigned in tranquillity 
and splendour, devoting himself to the duties of govern- 
ment and to the composition of the works to which he is 
chiefly indebted for his fame. He was a munificent patroa 

A B U — A B Y 


of men of letters, wlio repaired in large numbers to his 
court. Abulfeda's chieiE historical work is An Abi-idgane;it 
of the History of ihe Human Race, in the form of annals, 
extending from the creation of the world to the year 1328. 
A. great part of it is compiled from the works of previous 
srriters, and it is diflScult to determine accurately what is 
the author's and what is not. Up to the time of the birth 
of Mohammed, the narrative is very succinct; it becomes 
more full and valuable the nearer the historian approaches 
his own day. It is the only source of information on 
many facts connected w^th the Saracen empire, and alto- 
gether is by far the most important history we 
now possess. Various translations of parts of it exist, 
the earUest being a Latin rendering of the section relating 
to the Arabian conquests in Sicily, by Dobelius, Arabic 
professor at Palermo, in 1610. This is preserved in 
Muratori's Reritm llallcarum Scriptores, vol. i. The his- 
tory from the time of Mohammed was published with a 
Lr.tin translation by Reiske, under the title A nnalex Mos- 
lemici (5 vols., Copenhagen, 1789-94), and a similar 
edition of the earher part was published by Fleischer at 
Leipsio in 1831, under the title Ahulfedoe Hisloria Ante- 
Islamitica. His Geography is chieily valuable in the his- 
torical and descriptive parts relating to the Moslem empire. 
From his necessarily imperfect acquaintance with astro- 
nomy, his notation of latitude and longitude, though fuller 
than that of any geographer who preceded him, can in no 
case be depended on, and many of the places whose posi- 
tion he gives with the utmost apparent precision cannot 
be now identified. A complete edition was published by 
MM. Reinaud and De Slane at Paris in 1840; and Eeinaud 
published a French translation, with notes and illustrations, 
in 1848. MSS. of both Abulfeda's great works are pre- 
served in the Bodleian Library and in the National 
Library of France. 

ABULQHAZI-BAHADUR (1605-1663), a khan- of 
Khiva, of the race of Genghis-Khan, who, after abdicating 
in favour of his son, employed his leisure in writing a 
history of the Mongols and Tartars. He produced a 
valuable work, which has been translated into German, 
French, and Russian. 

ABUNA, the title given to the archbishop or metropoli- 
tan of Abyssinia. 

ABUSHEHR. See Bushiee. 

ABU-SIMBEL, or Ipsambul, the ancient Ahoccis or 
Abuncis, a place in Nubia, on the left bank of the Nile, 

about DO miles S.W. of Dorr, remarkable for its ancient 
Egyptian temples and colossal figures hewn out of the 
solid rock. For a description of these see NuDiA. 

ABU-TEMAN, one of the most highly esteemed of 
Arabian poets, was born at Djacem in the year 1 90 of the 
Hegira (806 a.d.) In the little that is told of his life is 
is difficult to distinguish between truth and fable. He 
seems to have lived in Egypt in his youth, and to have 
been engaged in servile employment, but his rare poetic 
talent speedOy raised him to a distinguished position at 
the court of the caliphs of Bagdad. Arabian historians 
assert that a single poem frequently gained for him many 
thousand pieces of gold, and the rate at which his con- 
temporaries estimated his genius may be understood from 
the saying, that " no one could ever die whose name had 
been praised in the verses of Abu-Teman." Besides 
writing original poetry, he made three collections of select 
pieces from the poetry of the East, of the most important 
of which, called Hamasa, Sir William Jones speaks highly. 
Professor Caa'lyle quoted this collection largely in his Speci- 
mens of Arabic Poetry (1796). An edition of the text, 
with Latin translation, was published by Freytag at 
Bonn (1828-51), and a meritorious translation in German 
verse by Riickert appeared in 1846. Abu-Teman died 
845 A.D. 

ABYDOS (1.), in Ancient Geography, a city of Mysia 
in Asia Minor, situated on the Hellespont, which is hert 
scarcely a mile broad. It probably was originally a 
Thracian town, but was afterwards colonised by Milesians. 
Nearly opposite, on the European side of the Hellespont, 
stood Sestos; and it was here that Xerxes crossed the 
strait on his celebrated bridge of boats when he invaded 
Greece. Abydos was celebrated for the vigorous resistance 
it made when besieged by Philip 11. of Macedon; and is 
famed in story for the loves of Hero and Lcander. The 
old castle of the Daidanelles, built by the Turks, lies a 
little southward of Sestos and Abydos. 

ABYDOS (2.), in Ancient Geography, a town of Upper 
Egypt, a little to the west of the Nile, between Ptolemais 
and DiospoUs Parva, famous for the palace of Memnon and 
the temple of Osiris. Remains of these two edifices are 
still in existence. In the temple of Osiris Mr Bankeg 
discovered in 1818 the tablet of Abydos, contaiiung a 
double series of twenty-six shields of the predecessors of 
Barneses the Great. This tablet is now deposited in the 
British Museum, 


ABYSSINIA is an extensive country of Eastern Africa, 
the limits of which are not well defined, and authorities 
are by no means agreed respecting them. It may, however, 
be regarded as lying between 7° 30 and 15° 40' N. lat., and 
35° and 40° 30' E. long., having, N. and N.W., Nubia ;E., 
the territory of the Danakils ; S. , the country of the Gallas^ 
md W., the regions of the Upper Nile.' It has an area of 

* It is usual to include in Abyssinia tlie flat country wliicli lies betTv-cen 
it and the Red Sea, and to regard the latter as forming its boundary on 
the east. This, however, is not stiictl/ correct. Ahysoinia proper com- 
prises only the mouritainous portion of this territorj', the low lying por- 
tion being inhabited by distinct and hostile tribes, and claimed by the 
Viceroy of Egypt as part of his dominions. The low country is very 
unhealthy, the soil dry and arid, and with few exceptions uncultivated, 
whereas the hi;jhlands are generally salubrious, well v/atered, and in 
many parta very fertile. This arid track of country is only a few miles 
broad at Massowah, in the north, but widens out to 200 or 300 miles at 
Tajurrah, in the south. It is, in a groat mea-suro, ov/inf; to Aby^^sinia 
being thus cut off from intorcourso with the civilised world by this in- 
bospitable region, which has for three centuries bcou in the hnnda of 
enemies, that it is at present so .for sunk in iguorunce and barbarism. 

about 200,000 square miles, and a population of frc'in 
3,000,000 to 4,000,000. 

The name Abyssinia, or more properly Habessinia, is 
derived from the Arabic word Habesch, which signifies 
mixture or confusion, and was applied to this countiy by 
the Arabs on account of the mixed character of the people. 
This was subsequently Latinised by the Portuguese intc 
Abojssia and Abassinos, and hence the present name. The 
Abyssinians call themselves Iliopyavan, and their country 
Iliopia, or Manghesta Itiopia, the kingdom of Ethiopia. 

The country of Abyssinia rises rather abruptly from the 
low arid' district on the borders of the Bed Sea in lofty 
ranges of mountains, and slopes away more gradually to 
the westward, where the tributaries of the Nile have formed 
numerous deep valleys. It consists for the most part of 
extensive and elevated table-land.s, with mountain ranges 
e.xtcnding in dififerent directions, and intersected by numerous 
valleys. The table-lands are generr.lly from 6000 to POOO 
feet above the level of the sea, but in the sou^i there ar» 



some of considerable extent, which attain a height of more 
than 10,000 feet. The mountains in various parts of the 
country rise to 12.000 and 13,000 feet above the sea, and 
some of the peaks of Samen are said to reach to 15,000 
feet, and to bo always covered with snow. The average 
height of the range which divides the streams flowing to 
th2 east from tjosa that flow westward is about 8000 feet, 
rising to 10,00o or 11,000 in the south, and sinking in the 
north. The whole country presents the appearance of 
having been broken np and tossed about in a remarkable 
manner, the mountains assuming wild and fantastic forms, 
•with sides frequently abrupt and precipitous, and only 
accessible by very difficult pas-ses. The Samen range of 
mountains are the highest in Abyssinia, and together with 
the Lamalmon and Lasta mountains form a long but not 
continuous chain, running from north to south. 

Sketch Chart of Abyssinia. 

The principal rivers of Abyssinia are tributaries of the 
Nile. The western portion of the country may be divided 
into three regions, drained respectively by the Mareb, the 
Atbara, and the AbaL The most northern of these rivers 
ia the Mareb, which rises in the mountains of Taranta, 
flows first south, then west, and afterwards turns to the 
north, where it is at length, after a course of upwards of 
500 milo!, lost in the sand, but in the rainy season it falls 
into the Atbara. The Atbara, or Takazza, rises in the 
mountains of Lasta, and flowing first north, then west, and 
again turning to the north, at length falls into tho Nile, 
after a coui'se of about 800 miles. The Abai, Bahr-el-Azrek 
or Blue River, the eastern branch of the Nile, and considered 
by Bruce to bo tho main stream of that river, rises from 
two mountains near Geesh, in lat 10° 59' 25' N., long. 
36° 55' 30" E., about 10,000 feet above the level of the 
sea. It flows first north to the Lake of Dembea or Tzana, 
then takes a long semicircular sweep round the province of 
Godjam, and afterwards flows northward to about the 10th 
degree of N. lat., where it unites with the Bahr-el-Abiad, 
which has now been ascertained to be the true Nil^i The 
Hawash, the principal river of eastern Abyssinia, rises about 
lat. 9° 30' N., long. 38° E.and, flowing in a north-easterly 
direction towards the Red Sea, is lost in Lake Aussa, laJj 

ir25'N.,long. 'tr40'E. The principal hke of Abyssinia 
is the Dembea, which lies between 11° 30' and 12° SC N. 
lat., and 37° and 37° 35' E. long., being about 60 miles in 
length by 40 in width, and containing a number of small 
islands. It is fed by numerous smaU streams. The lake 
of Ashangi, in kt. 12° 35' N., long. 39° 40' R, is about 4 
miles long by 3 broad, and upwards of 8000 feet above tho 

The fundamental rocks of Tigr£, and probably of all 
Abyssinia, are metamorphic. They compose the mass of 
the table-land, and while they occupy no inconsiderable 
portion of its surface, they are exposed, in Tigr6 at least, in 
every deep valley. The metamorphics vary greatly in 
mineral character, "every intermediate grade being found 
between the most coarsely crystallino granite and a slaty 
rock so littlo altered that tho lines of the original bedding 
are still apparent Perhaps the most prevalent form of 
rock is a rather finely crystalline gnsies. Hornblende-schist 
and mica-schist are met with, but neither of tho minerals 
from which thoy are named appears to be so abundant as 
in some metamorphic tracts. On the other hand, a compact 
felspathic rock, approaching febite in composition, is pre- 
valent in places, as in the Suru defile, between Komayli 
and Senaf6." There are a few exceptions, but as a general 
nilo it may bo asserted that in tho neighbourhood of the 
route followed by the British army, so much of the country 
as is more than 8000 feet above the sea consists of bedded 
traps, and this is probably the case in general over Abys- 
sinia. " Between the traps and tho metamorphica a 
series of sandstones and limestones intervene, one group of 
the former underlying the latter. The limestone aione is 
fossiHferous, and is of Jurassic age." " On the route to 
Magdala volcanic rocks were first met with at Senaf^ where 
several liilla consist of trachyte, passing into claystone and 
basalt Trap hills, chiefly of trachyte, are dotted over the 
country to the southward as far as Fokada, a distance of 
nearly 30 miles. Here a great range of bedded traps com- 
mences, and extends for about 25 miles to the south, pass- 
ing to the west of Adigerat" At Meshek, two marches 
south of Antalo, " the route entered high 'ranges entirely 
composed of trap, and thence no other rocks were seen as 
far as Magdala." " The trappean rocks belong to two dis- 
tinct and unconformable groups. The lower of these is 
much inclined, while the higher rests on its upturned and 
denuded edges." Denudation has evidently been going on 
to a great extent in this country. One of its most striking 
features are the deep ravines which have been worked out 
by the action of the streams, sometimes to the depth of 
3000 or 4000 feet " How ranch of the Abyssinian high- 
lands has been removed by these great torrents, and spread 
as an alluvial deposit over the basin of the Nile 1" "Probably 
over the whole of northern Abyssinia there existed at least 
4000 feet of bedded traps, of which now only a few vestiges 
remain." — W. T. Blanford, 

Abyssinia is said to enjoy "probably as saiuorious a 
climate as any country on the face of the globe." — 
Parh/ru. The heat is by no means oppressive, a fine 
light air counteracting the power of the sun ; and during 
the rainy season, the sky being cloudy, the weather is 
always agreeable and cool, while the rain itself is not very 
severe. In certain of the low valleys, however, malarious 
influences prevail before and after the rainy season, and 
bring on dangerous fevers. On the higher parts the cold 
is sometimes intense, partictilarly at night The natural 
division of the seasons is into a cold, a hot, and a rainy 
season. The cold season may be said to extend from 
October to February, the hot from the beginning of March 
to the middle of June, and the wet or monsoon period from 
this time to the end of September. The rainy season is of 
importance, not only in equalising the temperature, increasing 



tne fertility, and keeping up fhe water supply ol the country, 
but, as Sir S. Baker lias shown, it plays a most important 
part in the annuo! overflow of the Nile. 

On the aumraits and slopes of the highest mountains 
the vegetation is of a thoroughly temperate and even 
English character ; the plateaux have a flora of the same 
character; while on the lower slopes ^f the hills and in the 
ravines occur many trees and shrubs of wanner climes. 
"The general appearance of the plateaux and plains is that 
of a comparatively bare country, with trees and bushes 
t'ninly scattered over it, and clumps and groves only occur- 
ring round villages and churches. But the glens and ravines 
in the plateau sides, each with its little bright spring, are 
often thickly wooded, and offer a delicious contrast to the 
open country." — Mark/uxm.. This refers more particularly 
to the northern portion oi the country, that drained by the 
Mareb ; the central and southern parts are much more fertile 
and productive. Here the fertihty is so great that in some 
parts three crops are raised annually. Agricultui'e receives 
considerable attention, and large quantities of maize, wheat, 
barley, peas, beans, &c., are grown. Very ey+ensively 
cultivated is tef {Poa ahyssinica), a herbaceous plant with 
grains not larger than the head of a pin, of which is made 
the bread in general use throughout the country. The low 
grounds produce also a kind of com called tocussa, of 
which a black bread is made, which constitutes the food of 
the lower classes. CoQ'ee grows wild on the western 
mountains, and the vine and sugar-cane are cultivated in 
favourable localities. Cotton is also grown to a consider- 
able extent. Among the fruit-trees are the date, orange, 
lemon, pomegranate, and banana. Myrrh, balsam, and 
various kinds of valuable medicinal plants are common. 

Most of the domestic animals of Europe are fouud here. 
The cattle are in general small, and the oxen belong to the 
humped race. The famous Galla oxen have horns some- 
times four feet long. The sheep belong to the short and 
fat-tailed race, and are covered with wooL Goats are very 
common, and have sometimes honis two feet in lengtli. 
IMie horses are strong and active. Of wild animals the 
t-.potted hy^na is among the most numerous, as well as the 
fiercest and most destructive, not only roaming in immense 
numbers over the country, but fi-equently entering the 
towns, and oven the houses of the inhabitants. The 
elephant and rhinoceros are numerous in the low grounds. 
The Abyssinian rhinoceros has two horns ; its skin, which 
has no folds, is used for shields, and for lining diinking 
vessels, being regarded as an antidote to poison. Crocodiles 
and hippopotami are plentiful in the rivers ; lions, panthers, 
and leopards are seen occasionally, and buffaloes frequently. 
Among other animals may be mentioned as common various 
species of antelopes, wild swine, monkeys, hare" oiuirrels, 
several species of hyrax, jackals, <5ic. 

The birds of Abyssinia are very numerous, ana many of 
them remarkable for the beauty of their plrmage. Great 
numbers of eagles, vultures, hawks, and other birds of prey 
are met with; and partridges, snipes, pigeon's, parrots, 
thrushes, and swallows are very plentiful Among insects 
the most numerous and useful is the bee, honey eveiywher^ 
constituting an important part of the food of the inhabi- 
tants, and several of the provinces paying a large proportion 
of theii- tribute in this article. Of an opposite class is the 
locust, the ravages of which here, as in other parts of 
Northern Africa, are terrible. Serpents are not numerous, 
but several species are poisonous. 

The inhabitants of Abyssinia form a number of different 
tribes, and evidently belong to several distinct races. The 
majority are of the Caucasian race, and are in general well- 
formed and handsome, with straight and regular features, 
lively eyes, hair long and straight or somewhat curled, and 
colour dark olive, approaching to Uack. Ruppoll regards 

thera as identical in teatures with the Bedouin Arabs. The 
tribes inhabiting Tigre, Amhara, Agow, kc, belong to this 
raca^: The Galla race, who came originally from the south, 
have now overrun the greater part of the country, consti- 
tuting a large portion of the soldiery, and, indeed, there are 
few of the chiefs who have not an intermixture of Galla 
blood in their veins. They ate fierce and turbulent ijj 
character, and addicted jx) cruelty. Many of them are stOl 
idolaters, but most of them have now adopted the Moham- 
medan faith, and not a few of them the Christianity of the 
Abyssinians. They are genei-ally largo and well-built, of a 
brown complexion; with regular features, small deeply-sunk 
but very bright eyes, and long black hru'r. A race of Jews, 
kn'own by the name of Falashas, inhabit the district of 
Samen. They affirm that their forefathers came into the 
country in the days of Rehoboam, but it seems more 
probable that they ai-rivcd about the time of the destruction 
of Jerusalem. From the 10th century they enjoyed theii 
own constitutional rights, and were subject to their own 
kings, who, they pretend, were descended from King David, 
until the year 1800, when the royal race became extinct, 
and they then became subject to Tigri. 

The prevailing religion of Abyssinia is a very corrupted 
form of Chi-istianity. This is professed by the majority of 
the people, as well as by the reigning princes of the different 
states. There are also scattered over the country many 
Mohammedans, and some Falashas or Jews. Christianity 
was introduced into this country about the year S.'JO, but 
since that time it has been so corrupted by errors of various 
kinds as to have become Uttle more than a dead formahty 
mixed up with much superstition and Judaism. Feasts 
and fast-days are very frequent, and baptism and the Lord's 
supper are dispensed after the manner of the Greek Church. 
The children are circumcised, and the Mosaic command- 
ments with respect to food and purification are observed. 
The eating of animals which do not chew the cud and which 
have not cloven hoofs is prohibited. The ecclesiastical body 
is very numerous, consisting of priests, of various kinds, 
with monks and nuns, and is looked upon with great awe 
and reverence. If a priest be married previous to his 
ordination, he is allowed to remain so; but no one can 
marry after having entered the priesthood. The primate 
or chief bishop is called Abuna {i.e., our father), and is 
nominated by the patriarch of Cairo, whom they acknow- 
ledge as their spiritual father. The churches are rude 
edifices, chiefly of a circular form, with thatched roofs, the 
interior being divided into three compartments, — an outei 
one for the laity, one within for the priests, and in the 
centre the Holy of Holies, exactly after the manner of a 
Jewish temple. The worship consists merely in reading 
passages of Scripture and dispensing the Lord's supper, 
without any preaching. Like the Greek Church, they have 
no images of any kind in their places of worship, but paint- 
ings of the saints are very common — their faces always in 
full, whatever may be the position of their bodies. They 
have iimumerable saints, but above aU is the Virgin, whom 
they regard as queen of heaven and earth, and the great 
intercessor for the sins of mankind. Their reverence for a 
saint is often greater than for the Almighty, and a man 
who would not hesitate to invoke the name of his Maker in 
witness to a falsehood may decline so to use the nam.e of 
St Michael or St George. Legends of saints and works of 
religious controversy form almost their entire hterature. 
" At present," says Bishop Gobat, " the Christians of 
Abyssinia are divided into three parties, so inimicaJ to each 
other that they curse one another, and will no longer par- 
take of the sacrament together. It is one single point of 
theology that disunites them — the imceasing dispute con- 
cerning the unction of Jesus Christ." 

In manners the Abyi>siuians are rude and barbaroU^ 



Engaged as thcj are in coii'inual wars, ana accustomed 
to bloodshed, human life is little regarded among them. 
Muraera and executions are fi-equent, and yet cruelty is 
said not to be a marked feature of their character ; -and in 
war they seldom kill their prisoners. When one is con- 
victed of murder, he is handed over to the relatives of the 
deceased, who may either pit him to death or accept a 
ransom. When the murdered person has no relatives, the 
priests take upon themselves the office of avengers. The 
Abyssinians are irritable, but easily appeased ; and are a 
gay people, fond of festive indulgences. On every festive 
occasion, as a saint's day, birth, marriage, ic., it is 
customary for a rich man to collect his friends and neigh- 
bours, and kill a cow and one or two sheep. The principal 
parts of the cow are eaten raw while yet warm and quiver- 
ing, the remainder being cut into smaU pieces, and cooked 
with the favourite sauce of butter and red peppdr paste. 
The raw meat in this way is considered to be very superior 
in taste and much tenderer than when cold. "I can 
readily believe," says Mr Parkyns," that raw meat would be 
preferred to cooked meat by a man who from childhood 
had been accustomed to it." The statement by Bruce 
respecting the cutting of steaks from a hve cow has fre- 
quently been called in question, but there can be no doubt 
that Bruce actually saw what he narrates, though it would 
appear to have been a very exceptional case. Mr Parkyns 
was told by a soldier, " that, such a practice v/as not un- 
common among the Gallas, and even occasionally occurred 
among themselves, when, as in the case Bruce relates, a cow 
had been stolen or taken in foray." The principal drinks 
are mese, a kind of mead, and bousa, a soit of beer made 
from fermented cakes. Their dre?s consists of a large 
folding mantle and clcse-fitting drawers ; and their houses 
are very rude structures of a conical form, covered with 
thatch. Marriage is a very .slight connection among them, 
dissolvable at any time by either of the parties ; and poly- 
gamy is by no means imcommon. Hence there is httle 
family affection, and what exists is only among childreu of 
the same father and mother. Children of the .'■,ame father, 
but of different mothers, are said to be " alwavs enemies to 
each other." — Gohat. 

Abyssinia is one of the most ancient monaroiucs in tne 
world, and has been governed from time immemorial by an 
emperor. For many years, however, until the accession of 
the late Emperor Theodore, he had been a mere puppet in 
the hands of orte or other of his chiefs. Each chief is 
entire master of all soiu:ces of revenue xvithin his territory, 
and has practically full power of life and death. His sub- 
jection consists in an obhgaticn to, send from time to time 
presents to his superior, and to follow him to war with as 
large a force as he can muster. For several generations 
the emperor had been little better than a prisoner in his 
palace at Gondar, his sole revenue consisting of a small 
stipend and the tolls of the weekly markets of that city, 
the Teal power being in the hands of the ras or vizier of 
the empire, who was always the most powerful chief for the 
time. If at any time a chief " has found himself strong 
enough to march upon the capital, he has done so, placed 
upon the throne another puppet emperor, and been by him 
appointed ras or vizier, till a rival stronger than himself 
could turn him out and take Ms place." — Dr Belce. 

The three principal provinces of Abyssinia ar£ Tigr^ in 
the north, Amhara (in which Gondar the capital is situated) 
in the centre, and Shoa in the south. The governors of 
these have all at different times assumed the title of Kas. 
Three other provinces of some importance are Lasta and 
Waag, whose capital is Sokota; Godjam, to the south of 
Lake Dembea ; and Kivara, to the west of that lake, the 
birth-place of tha Emperor Theodore The two provinces 
of Tigre and Shoa have generally beeu m a state of rebellion 

from or acknowledged independence of the central power at 
Gondar. The geographical position of Tigr^ enhances ita 
political importance, as it lies between Gondar and the seai 
at Massowah, and thus holds as it were the gate of the 
capital The province of Shoa is almost separated from 
that of the Wolla Gallaa, a Mohammedan tribe, 
and for a long time the former had been virtually indepen- 
dent, and governed by a hereditary line of princes, to one 
of whom the Indian government sent a SDCcial embassy 
under Major Harris in 1841 

The principal towns arc Gondar in Amhara, the lormer 
capital of the kingdom, and containing about 7000 inhabit- 
ants, and Debra Tabor in Amhara, formerly a email village, 
but which rose to be a place of considwable ei^e in conse- 
quence of the Emperor Theodore having fixed upon it as 
his residence, and near it was Gaflat, v^-here the European 
workmen resided. It was burned by the oinperor v.hen be 
set out on his fatal march to Magdala. Adowa is the 
capital of Tigre, and the second city in the empire, having 
about 6000 inhabitants. Antalo \s also one of the principal 
towns of Tigr4, and the capital of Enderta. Near Antalo 
is CheUcut. Sokota, the capital of Lasta Waag, is a town 
of con.siderable size. The capital of Shoa is Ankobar, and 
near it is Angolala, also a place of considerable size. The 
capital of Agam6 is Adigerat. 

The language of the religion and literature of the country 
is the Geez, which belongs to the Ethiopic class of languages, 
and is the ancient language of Tigr6; of this the modem 
Tigr($ is a dialect. The Amharic, the language of Amhara, 
is that of the court, the army, and the merchants, and is 
that too which travellers who penetrate beyond Tigr6 have 
ordinarily occasion to usa But the Agow in its various 
dialects is the language of the people in some provinces 
almost exclusively, and in others, where it has been super- 
seded by the language of the dominant race, it still exists 
among the lowest classes. This last is behoved to be the 
original language of. the people; and from the afEnity of the 
Geez, Amharic, ~ and cognate dialects, to the Arabic, it 
seems probable that they were introduced by conquerors ot 
settlers from the opposite shores of the Red Sea. The 
Gallas, who have overrun a great part of Abyssinia, have 
introduced their own language into various parts of the 
country, but in many cases they have adopted the language 
of the people among whom they have come. The Uterature 
of Abyssinia is very poor, and contains nothing of much 
value. During the late war the hbraries in connection 
■\rith the religious communities were found to contain only 
modern works of little interest On the capture of Magdala, 
a large number of MSS. were found there, which had bee u 
brought by Theodore from Gondar and other parts. Of 
thess 359 were brought home for examination, and are 
now deposited in the British Museum. The oldest among 
them belong to the 15th and 16th centuries, but the great 
bulk of them are of the 17th and 18th, and some are of 
the present century. They are mostly copies of the Holy 
Scriptures, canonical and apocryphal, including the Book.of 
Enoch, praj'er and hymn books, missals, hvea of saints, and 
translations of various of the Greek fathers. 

The trade and manufactures of Abyssinia are insignificant, 
the people being chiefly engaged in agriculture and pastoral 
pursuits. Cotton cloths, the universal dress of the country, 
aie made in large quantities. The preparation of leather 
and parchment is also carried on to some extent, and manu- 
factures of iron and brass. "The Abyssinians are, I 
think," says Mr Markham, " capable of civihsation. Their 
agriculture is good, their manufactures are not to be 
despised ; but the combined effects of- isolation, Galla 
inroads, and internal anarchy, have thrown them back for 
centuries." The foreign trade of Abyssinia is carried on 
entirely through Massowah. Its principal imports are lead. 



tin, copper, silk, gunpowder, glass wares, Persian carpcU, 
and coloured cloths. The chief exports are gold, ivory, 
ilaves, coifee, butter, honey, and wax. 

Abpsinia, or at least the northern portion of it, was 
included in the ancient kingdom of Ethiopia. The connec- 
tion between Egypt and Ethiopia was in early times very 
intimate, and occasionally the two countries were under 
the same ruler, so that the arts and civilisation of the one 
naturally found their way into the other. In early times, 
too, the Hebrews had commercial intercourse with the 
Ethiopians ; and according to the Abyssinians, the Queen 
of Sheba^ who visited Solomon, was a monarch of their 
countrj-, and from her son MenOek the kings of Abyssinia 
are descended. Diuing the -captivity many of the Jews 
settled here, and brought with them a knowledge of the 
Jewish religion. Under the Ptolemies, the arts as weU as 
the enterprise of the Greeks entered Ethiopia, and led to 
the establishment of Greek colonies. A Greek inscription 
at Adulis, no longer extant, but copied by Cosmos, and 
preserved in his Topographia Chj-utiana, records that 
Ptolemy Euergetes, the third of the Greek dynasty in Egypt, 
invaded the countries on both sides of the Red Sea, and, 
having reduced most of the provinces of Tigr4 to subjection, 
returned to the port of Adulis, and there offered sacrifices 
to Jupiter, Mars, and Neptune. Another inscription, not 
80 ancient, found at Axum, and copied by Salt and others, 
states that Aeizanas, king of the Axomites, the Home- 
rites, ic, conquered the nation of the Bogos, and returned 
thanks to his father, the god Mars, for his victory. The 
ancient kingdom of Auxume flourished in the first or 
second century of our era, and was at one time nearly 
coextensive with the modem Abyssinia. The capital 
Auxume and the seaport Adulis were then the chief 
centres of the trade with the interior of Africa in gold ^ust, 
ivory, leather, aromatlcs, &c. At Axum, the site of the 
ancient capital, many vestiges of its former greatness still 
exist ; and the ruins of Adulis, which was once a seaport 
on the Bay of Anncsley, are now about 4 miles from the 
shore. Chriitianity was introduced into the country by 
Frumentius, who was consecrated first bishop of Abyssinia 
by St Athanasius of Alexandria about A.D. 330. Subse- 
quently the monastic system was introduced, and between 
470 and 480 a great company of monks appear to have 
entered and established themselves in the country. Since 
that time Monachiism has been a power among the people, 
and not without its infiuence on the course of events. In 
522 the king of the Homerites, en the opposite coast of 
the Bed Sea, having persecuted the Christians, the Emperor 
Justinian requested the king of Abyssinia, Caleb or 
Elesbaan, to avenge their cause. He accordingly collected 
an army, crossed over into Arabia, and conquered Yemen, 
which remained subject to Abyssinia for 67 years. This was 
the most flourishing period in the annals of the countiy. The 
Ethiopians possessed tie richest part of Arabia, carried on a 
large trade, which extended as far as India and Ceylon, and 
were in constant communication with the Greek empire. 
Their expulsion from Arabia, followed by the conquest of 
Egypt by the Mohammedans in the middle of the 7th 
century, changed this state of afi'airs, and the continued ad- 
vances of the followers of the Prophet at length cut them 
off from almost eveiy meauB of communication with the 
civihsed world ; so that, as Gibbon says, " encompassed by 
the enemies of their religion, the Ethiopians slept for near a 
thousand years, forgetful of the world by whom they were 
forgotten." About A-d. 9G0, a Jewish princess, Judith, 
conceived the bloody design of murdering all the members 
of the royal family, and of establishing herself in their stead. 
During the execution of this project, the infant king was 
carried off by some faithful adherents, and conveyed to Shoa, 
where his authority was acknowledged, while Judith reigned 

for 40 years over the rest of the kingdom, and transmitted 
the crown to her descendants. In 1268 the kingdom waa 
restored to the royal house in the person of Icon Imlac. 

Towards the close of the 15lh century the Portugueso 
missions into Abyssinia commenced. A belief had long 
prevailed in Europe of the existence of a Christian kingdom 
in the far oast, whoso monarch was known as Prester John, 
and various expeditions had been sent in quest of it. 
Among others who had engaged in this search was Pedrd 
de Covilham, who arrived in Abyssinia in 1490, and, 
believing that he had at length reached the far-famed king- 
dom, presented to the Negus, or emperor of the country, a 
letter from his master the king of Portugal, addressed to 
Prester John. Covilham remained in the country, but in 
1507 an Armenian named Matthew was sent by the Negus 
to the king of Portugal to request his aid against the Turks. 
In 1520 a Portuguese fleet, with Matthew on board, entered 
the Red Sea in compliance with this request, and an 
embassy from the fleet visited the country of the Negus, 
and remained there for about sis years. One of this 
embassy was Father Alvarez, from whom we have tho 
earliest and not the least interesting account of the country. 
Between 1528 and 1540 armies of Mohammedans, under the 
renowned general Mohammed Gragn, entered Abyssinia from 
the low country, and overran the kingdom, obliging the 
emperor to take refuge in the mountain fastnesses. In this 
extremity recourse was again had to the Portuguese, and 
Bermudei, who had remained in the country after the 
departure of the embassy, was ordained successor to the 
Abuna, and sent on this niission. In consequence a 
Portuguese fleet, under the command of Stephen de Gama, 
was sent from India and arrived at Massowah. A force 
of 450 musqueteers, under the command of Christopher 
de Gama, younger brother of the admiral, niarclied into 
the interior, and being joined by native troops were at first 
successful against the Turks, but were subsequently defeated, 
and their commander taken prisoner and put to death. 
Soon afterwards, however, Mohammed Gragn was shot in 
an engagement, and his forces totally routed. After this, 
quarrels arose between the Negus and the Catholic primate 
Bermudez, who wished the former publicly to profess liim- 
self a convert to Rome. This the Negus refused to do, 
and at length Bermudez was obliged to make his way out of 
the countiy. The Jesuits who had accompanied or followed 
Bermudez into Abyssinia, and fixed their head-quarters 
at Fremona, were oppressed and neglected, but not actually 
expelled. In the beginning of the following century Father 
Paez arrived at Fremona, a man of great tact and judgment, 
who soon rose into high favour at court, and gained over 
the emperor to his faith. He directed the erection of 
churches, palaces, and bridges in different parts of the 
country, and carried out many useful works. His successor 
Mendez was a man of much less conciliatory manners, and the 
feelings of the people became more strongly excited against 
the intruders, till at length, on the death of the Negus, and 
the accession of his son Facilidas in 1633, they were all 
sent out of the country, after having had a footing there 
for nearly a centuiy and a half. The French physician 
Poncet, who went there in 1698, was the only European 
that afterwards visited the country before Bruce in 1769. 

It was about the middle of the 16th centui-y that the 
Oalla tribes first entered Abyssinia from tho south; and 
notwithstanding frequent efforts to dislodge them, they 
gradually extended and strengthened their positions till 
they had overrun the greater part of the cu jntry. The power 
of the emperor was thus weakened, independent chiefs set 
themselves up in different parts, until at length he became 
little better than a puppet in the hands of the most power- 
ful of his chiefs. In 1805 the country was visited bv 
Lord Valentia and Mr Salt, and again by Salt in I81Q. In 

I o 



1 620 >Ie.=sro Gobat and Kuglcr were sent oul as missionanes 
by the Church Missionary Society, and were well received 
by tbo Raa of Tigri. ilr Kuglcr died soon afte- his 
arrival, and his place was subsequently supplied by Mr 
licnberg, who was followed by Messrs Ulumhardt and Krapf. 
In 1830 Mr Gobat proceeded to Gondar, where he also 
met with a favourable reception. In 1833 he returned to 
Europe, and published a journal of his residence here. In 
I ho following year ho went back to TigrC', but in 1836 ho 
was compelled to le^ve from ill health. In 1838 other 
missionaries were obliged to leave the country, owing to 
the opposition of the native priests. Messrs Isenbcrg and 
Krapf went south, and established themselves at SLoa. 
The former soon after returned to Engjand, and Mr Krapf 
remained in Shoa tiU March 1812. Dr Riippcl,tho German 
naturalist, Tisitod the country in 1831, and remained 
nearly two years. MJI. Combes and Tamiaier arrived at 
Massowah iu 1835, and visited districts- which had not been 
traversed by Europeans since the time of the Portuguese. 
In 1839 the French Government sent out a scientific com- 
mission under M. Lefebvre. Its labours extended over five 
•/ears, and have thrown great light on the condition and 
productions of the country. In 1841 a political mission 
was sent by the Governor-General of India to Shoa, under 
the direction of Major Harris, who subsequently published 
an account cf hia travels. One who has done much to ex- 
tend our geographical knowledge of this country is Dr Beke, 
who was there from 1840 to 1843. Mr Mansfield Parkyus 
was there from 1843 to 1840, and has written the most 
interesting boolc on the counti-y since the time of Bruce. 
Bishop Gobat having conceived the idea of sending lay 
mi-ssionaries into the country, who would engage in secular 
occupations as well as carrj' on missionary work, Dr Krapf 
and Mr Flad arrived in 1855 as pioneers of that mission. 
Six came out at first, and they were subsequently joined by 
others Their work, however, was moie valuable to Theodore 
than their preaching, so that he employed them as work- 
men to himself, and established them at Gaffat, near his 
capital. Mi- Stern arrived in Abyssinia in 1860, 'but re- 
turned to Europe, and came back in 1863, accompanied by 
Mr and Mrs Rosenthal 

Lij Kassa, v/ho came subsequently to be known as the 
Emperor Theodore, was born in Kuara, a western province 
bf Abyssinia, about the year 1818. His father was of noble 
family, and hi3 uncle was governor of the provinces of 
Dcmbca, Kuara, and Chelga. He educated in a con- 
vent, but, preferring a wandering life, he became leader of 
t, band of malcontents. On the death of his uncle he was 
made governor of Kuara, but, not satisfied with this, he 
seized upon Dembea, and having defeated several generals 
sent against him, peace restored on his receiving 
Tavavitch, daughter of Ras Ali, in marriage. This lady is 
Slid to have been his good genius and counsellor, and during 
her life his conduct was most exemplar}-. He next turned 
his arms against the Turks, but was defeated ; and the mother 
of R.13 Ali having insulted him in his fallen condition, he 
proclaimed his independence. The troops sent against hira 
were successively defeated, and eventually the whole of the 
possessions of Ras Ali fell into his hands He next de- 
feated the chief of Godjam, and then turned his arms 
against the governor of Tigrc, whom he totally defeated in 
Februarj- 18.55. In March of the same year he took the 
title of Theodore III., and caused himself to be crowned 
king of Ethiopia by the Abuna. Theodore was now in the 
zenith of his career. He is described, as being generous 
to excess, free from cupidity, merciful to his vanquished 
enemies, and strictly continent, but subject to violent bursts 
oi anger, and possessed of unyielding pride and fanatical 
religious zeal, i He was also a man of education and inteUi- 
i^cnce, superior to those aniong whom he lived, with natural 

talenta for governing, and gaining the esteem of others. 
He had further a noble bearing and majestic walk, a frame 
capable of enduring any amount of fa'igue, and is said to 
have been " the best shot, the best spearman, the best 
runner, and the best horseman in Abyssinia." Had he 
contented himself with what he now possessed, the sove- 
reignty of Amhara and Tigr^, he might have maintained hia 
position ; but he was led to exhaust his strength against 
the Gallas, which was probably one of the chief causes of 
his ruin. He obtained several victories over that people, 
ravaged Jheir country, took possession of Magdcla, which 
he afterwards made his principal stronghold, and en'Utcd 
many of the chiefs and their followers in his own ranks.. 
He shortly afterwards reduced the kingdom of Shoa, 
and took Ankobar, the capital ; but in the meantime his 
own people were groaning under bis heavy exactions, 
rebellions were brcalang out in various parts of his pro- 
vinces, and his good queen was now dead. He lavished 
vast sums of money upon his army, which at one time 
amounted to 100,000 or 150,000 fighting men; and in 
order to meet this expenditure, he was forced to exact 
exorbitant tributes from his people. The British consul, 
Plowden, who was strongly attached to Theodore, having 
been ordered by his Goveramcnt in 1800 to return to 
Massowah, was attacked on his way by a rebel nnmed 
Garred, mortally wounded, and taken prisoner. Theodore 
attacked the rebels, and in the action the murderer of Mr 
Plowden was slain by his friend pnd companion Jlr Bell, 
but the latter lost his life in preserving that of Theodore. 
The deaths of the two Englishmen were terribly avenged by 
the slaughter or mutilation of nearly 2000 rebels. Theodore 
soon after married his second wife Tcrunish, the proud 
daughter of the late governor of Tigr6, who felt neither 
affection nor respect for the upstart who had dethroned her 
father, and the union was by no means a happy one. In 
1862 he made a second expedition against the Gallas, which 
was stained with atrocious cruelties. Theodore had now 
given himself up to intoxication and lust. When the 
news of Mr Plowden's death reached England, Capl.-iin 
Cameron was appointed to succeed him as consul, and 
arrived at ilassowah in February 1862. He proceeded to 
the camp of the king, to whom he presented a rifle, a pair 
cf pistols, and a letter in the Queen S nama In October 
Captain Cameron was dismissed by Theodore, vriih a letter 
to the Queen of England which reached the Foreign Olfice 
on the 12th of February 1863. For some reason or other 
this letter was put aside and no answer returned, and to 
this in no small degree is to be attributed the diiEci;lties 
that subsequently arose with that country. After forward- 
ing the letter. Captain Cameron, hearing that the Christians 
of Bogos had been attacked by the Shangallis and other 
tribes under Egyptian rule, proceeded to that district, and 
afterwards went to Kassala, the seat of the Egyptian ad- 
ministration in that quarter. Thence he t< cut to Metemch, 
where he was taken ill, and in order to recruit his health 
he returned to Abyssinia, and reached Jenda in August 
1803. In November despatches were received from 
England, but no answer to the emperor's letter, and this, 
together with the consul's visit to Kaisala, greatly 
offended him, and in January 1804 Captain Cameron and 
his suite, with Messrs Stem and Roscnihal, were cast into 
prison. WTien the news of this reached England, the 
Government resolved, when too late, to send an answer to 
the emperor's letter, and selected Mr Honniizd Rassam to 
be its bearer. He arrived at Massowah in July 1804, and 
immediately despatched a messenger requesting permission 
to present himself before the emperor. Neither to this nor 
a subsequent application was any answer returned till 
August 1865, when a curt note was received, stating that 
Consul Cameron had been released, and if Mr Kassam stilt 



desired to visit the kiiig, Le was to proceed by the route of 
Metemeh. They reached Metemeh on 21at November, and 
five weeks more v?ere lost before they heard from the 
emperor, whose reply was now courteous, informing them 
that the governors of all the districts through which they 
had to march had received orders to furnish them with 
every necessary. They left Metemeh on the 28th December, 
and on 25th January foDowing arrived at Theodore's camp 
in Damot. They were received with all honour, and were 
afterwards sent to Kuarata, on Lake Dembea, there to await 
the arrival of the captives. The latter reached this on 1 2t'h 
March, and everything appeared to proceed very favourably. 
A month later they started for the coast, but had not pro- 
ceeded far when they were all brought back and put into 
confinement. Theodore then wrote a letter to the Queen, 
requesting European workmen and machinery to be sent to 
him, and despatched it by Mr Flad. The Europeans, 
although detained as prisoners, were not at first unkindly 
treated ; but in the end of June they were sent to Magdala, 
where they were soon afterwards put in chains. They 
suffered hunger, cold, and misery, and were in constant 
fear of death, tiU the spring of 1868, when they were 
relieved by the British troops. In the meantime the power 
of Theodore in the country was rapidly waning. In order 
to support his vast standing army, the country was drained 
of its resources : the peasantry abandoned the fertile plains, 
and took refuge in the fastnesses, and large fertile tracts 
remained uncultivated. Rebellions broke out in various 
parts of the country, and desertions took place among his 
troops, till his army became little more than a shadow of 
what it once was. Shoa had already shaken ofif his yoke ; 
Godjam was virtually independent ; Walkeit and Samen 
were under a rebel chief ; and Lasta Waag and the 
country about Lake Ashangi had submitted to Wagsham 
Gobaze, who had also overrun Tigrc5, and appointed Dejach 
Kassai his governor. The latter, however, in 18C7 rebelled 
against his master, and assumed the supreme power of that 
province. This was the state of matters when the English 
troops made their appearance in the country. With a view 
if possible to effect the release of the prisoners by con- 
ciliatory measures, Mr Flad was sent back, with some 
artisans and machinery, and a letter from the Queen, 
stating that these would be handed over to his Majesty on 
the release of the prisoners and their return to Massowah. 
This, however, failed to influence the emperor, and the 
, English Governmtnt at length saw that they must have 
recourse to arms. In July 1867, therefore, it was resolved 
to send an army into Abyssinia to enforce the release of 
the captives, and Sir Robert Napier was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief. . A reconnoitring party was despatched 
beforehand, under Colonel Merewether, to select the landing- 
place and anchorage, and explore the passes leading into 
the interior. They also entered into friendly relations 
with the different chiefs in order to secure their co-operation. 
The landing-place selected was Mulkutto, on Annesley Bay, 
the point of the coast nearest to the site of the ancient 
Adulis, and we are told that " the pioneers of the English 
expedition followed to some extent in the footsteps of the 
f.dventurous soldiers of Ptolemy, and met with a few faint 
traces of this old world enterprise." — C. R. Markliam.. 
The force amounted to upwards of 16,000 men, besides 
12,640 belonging to the transport service, and followers, 
making in all upwards of 32,000 men. The task to be 
accomplished was to march over 400 miles of a mountainous 
and little-known country, inhabited by savage tribes, to 
the camp or fortress of Theodore, and compel him to deliver 
up his captives. The commander-irk-chief landed on 7th 
January 1868, and soon after the troops began to move 
forward through the pass of Senaf^, and southward through 
Iho districts of AgauKi, Tera, Kndaila, Wojcrat, Lasta, and 

Wadela. In the meantime Theodore had been reduced to 
great straits. Hia army was rapidly deserting him, and he 
could hardly obtain food for his followers. He resolved to 
quit his capital Debra Tabor, which he burned, and set 
out with the remains of hia army for Magdala. During 
this march he displayed an amount of engineering skiU in 
the construction of roads, of military talent, and fertility 
of resource, that excited the admiration and astonishment 
of his enemies. On the afternoon of the 10th of April a 
force of about 3000 men suddenly poured down upon the 
English in the plain of Arogi^, a few miles from Magdala. 
They advanced again and again to the charge, but were 
each time driven back, and finally retired in good order. 
Early next morning Theodore sent Lieut. Prideaux, one of 
the captives, and Mr Flad, accompanied by a native thief, 
to the English camp to sue for peace. Answer was returned, 
that if he would deliver up aU the Europeans in his hands, 
and submit to the Queen of England, he would receive 
honourable treatment. The captives were liberated and 
sent away, and along with a letter to the English general 
was a present of 1000 cows and 500 sheep, the acceptance 
of which would, according to Eastern custom, imply that 
peace was granted. Through some misunderstanding, word 
was sent to Theodore that the present would be accepted, 
and he felt that he was now safe ; but in the evening he 
learned that it had not been received, and despair again 
seized him. Eai;ly next morning he attempted to escape 
with a few of his followers, but subsequently returned. 
The same day (13th April) Magdala was stormed and 
taken, and within they found the dead body of the 
emperor, who had fallen by his own hand. .The inhabitants 
and troops were subsequently sent away, the fortifications 
destroyed, and the town burned. The queen Terunish 
having expressed her wish to go back to her own country, 
accompanied the British army^ but died during the march, 
and her son Alam-ayahu, the only legitimate son of the 
emperor, was brought to England, as this was the desire 
of his father. The success of the expedition was in no 
small degree owing to the aid afforded by the several native 
'chiefs through whose country it passed, and ijo one did 
more in this way than Prince Kassai of Tigre. In acknow- 
ledgment of this several pieces of ordnance, small arms, 
and ammunition, with much of the surplus stores, were 
handed over to him, and the English troops left the country 
in May 1868. Soon after this Prince Kassai declared his 
independence; and in a war which broke out between him 
and Wagsham Gobaze, the latter was defeated, and his 
territory taken possession of by the conqueror. In 1872 
Kassai was cro%vned king of Abyssinia with great ceremony 
at Axam, under the title of King Johannes. In that year the 
governor of Massowah, Munzinger Bey, a Swiss, by com- 
mand of the Viceroy of Egypt, marched an armed force 
against the Bogos countr)-. The king solicited the aid of 
England, Germany, and Russia .against the Egyptians, whoso 
troops, however, were after a time withdrawn. Sir Bartle 
Frere, in the blue-book published respecting his mission to 
Zanzibar, is of the opinion thot England, having regard to 
the passage to India by the Red Sea, should not have wholly 
abandoned Abyssinia. (d. k.) 

(See Travels of Bn-ce, 1768-73; Lord Valentia, Salt, 
1809-10; Combes et Tamieier, 1835-37 ; Ferret et Galinier, 
1839-43; RuppeU, 1831-33; MM. Th. Lefebvre, A. Petit, et 
Quartin-Dillon, 1839-43; Major Harris; Gobat; Dr C. 
Ecke; Isenberg and Krapf, 1839-42; Mansfield Parkyns; 
Von Heuglin, 1861-62; H. A. Stern, 1860 and 1863; 
DrBknc, 1863; A. Rassam, 1869; C. R. Markham, 1869; 
W. T. P.lanford, 1870; liemrdo/lho ExpeditiontoAhyssinia, 
compiled -by order of the Secretary of State for War, by 
Major T. J. Holland and Captain H. Hozier, 2 vols. 4to, 
and plates, 1870; various Parliamentary Papers. 18C7--C8.) 


A C A — A C A 

ACACIA, a genuB of shrubs and trees belonging to 
the natural family Lcguminosae and thn Bcction Mimosesb. 
The flowers oro email, 
arranged in rounded or 
elongated clusters. The 
leaves ore compound 
pinnate in genonvL In 
some instances, how- 
ever, more especially iii 
the Australian species, 
the leaf-stalks become 
flattenetl, and 8er\'e the 
purjjoso of leaves; the 
plants are hence call- 
ed leafless Acacias, and 
as the leaf-stalks are 
often placed with their 
edges towards the sky 
and earth, they do not 
intercept light so fully 
as ordinary trees. There are about 420 species of 
Acacias widely scattered over the wanner regions of the 
globe. They abound in Australia and Africa. Various 
species, such as Acacia vera, arabica, Ehrenbergii, and 
tortilis, yield gum arabic ; while Acada Vereic, Seyal, and 
Adansonii furnish a siiidlar gum, called gum Senegal These 
species are for the most part natives of Arabia, the north- 
eastern part of Africa, and the East Indies. The wattles 

Leaf of Acacia keUrophylUL 

of Australia are species of Acacia with astringent harkt. 
Acana dcalbata is used for tanning. An astringent 
medicine, called catechu or cutch, is procured from sevend 
species, but more especially from Acacia Catechu, by boiling 
down the wood and evaporating the solution so as to get 
an extract. The bark of Acacia arabica, under the 
name of Babul or Babool, is used in Scinde for tanning. 
Acacia formosa supplies the valuable Cuba tijnber ca'leti 
sabicu. Aco^ria Scyal is the phint which is supposed to be 
the shitt-vh tree of the Dible, which supplied sliittim-wood. 
The pods of Acaciix nilotica, under the name of neb-neb, are 
used by tanners. The seeds of Acacia Niopo are roR.'ited 
and used as snuff in South America. The seeds of all the 
varieties of Acacia in South Au.stralia to the west, called 
Nundo, are used as food after being roasted. Acacia 
melaiMxylon, black wood of Australia, sometimes called 
light wood, attains a great sue ; its wood is used for 
fumituie, and receives a high polish. Acacia homalopkylla, 
myall wood, yields a fragrant timber, used for ornamental 
purposes. A kind of Acacia is called in Australia Bricklow. 
.In common language the term Acacia is often applied to 
species of the genus Robiuii, which belongs also to the 
Leguminous family, b\it is placpd in a different section. 
Jiobiiiia Pseudo-acacia, or false Acacia, is cultivated in 
the milder parts of Britain, and forms a large tree, with 
beautiful pink pea-like blossoms. The tree is sometimes 
called the Locust tree. 


ACADEMY, u/.aSiJ;itia,' a subufb of Athens to the north, 
forming part of the Ceramicus, about a mile beyond 
the gate named Dypihim. It was said to have belonged 
to the hero Academus, but the derivation of the word is 
unknown. It v/as surrounded with a wall by Hipparchus, 
and adorned with walks, groves, and fountains by Cimon, 
the son of MUtiades, who at his death bequeathed it as a' 
public pleasure-ground to his feUow-citizens. The Academy 
was the resort of Plato, who possessed a small estate in the 
neighbourhood. Here he taught for nearly fifty years, till 
his death in 318 B.o. ; and from those "groves of the 
Academy wliere Plato taught the truth," ^ his school, as 
distinguished from the Peripatetics, received the name of 
the Academics. 

The same name (Academia) was in after times given by 
Cicero to his viUa or country-house near Puteoli. There 
was composed his famous dialogue, TIu Acader.iic Ques- 

Of the academic school of philosophy, in so far as it 
diverged from the doctrines of its groat master (see Plato\ 
we must treat very briefly, referring the reader for parti- 
culars to the founders of the various schools, whose names 
we shall have occasion to mention. 

The Academy lasted from the daj's of Plato to those of 
Cicero. As to the number of successive schools, the critics 
are not agreed. Cicero himself aud Varro recognised only 
two, the old and the new; Sextus Empiricus adds a third, 
the middle; others a fourth, that of Philo and Charmidas ; 
and some even a fifth, the Academy of Antiochus. 

Of the old Academy, the princijial leaders were Speusip- 
pus, Plato's sister's son, and his immediate successor; 
Xenocrates of Chalcedon, who ^vith Speusippus accompanied 
Plato in his journey to Sicily; Polemo, a dissolute young 

' The bye-fori.i iKxin/iia, which occurs in Diogenes Laertius, is pro- 
bably a ralionalistic attempt to interpret the word, such as we com- 
monly meet with in the writing? of Piato. 

* Horace, £p. ii. 2, ii. 

Athenian, who cjime to laugh at Xenocrates, and remained 
to listen (Horace, Sat., ii. 3, 253); Crates, and Crantor, the 
latter of whom wrote a treatise, Tcpl irci'Oov^, praised by 
Cicero. Speusippus, like the Pythagoreans, with whom 
Aristotle compares him, denied that the Platonic Good 
could be the first principle of things, for (he said) the 
Good is not like the germ which gives birth to plants and 
animals, but is only to be found in already existing things. 
He therefore derived the universe from a primev.^l indeter- 
minate unit, distinct from the Good; from this unit he 
deduced three principles — one for numbers, one for magni- 
tude, and one for the souL The Deity he conceived ta 
that living force which rules all and resides everywhere. 
Xenocrates, though like Speusippus infected with Pj-th&- 
goreauism, was the most faithful of Phto's successors. He 
distinguished three essences: the sensible, the intelligible, 
and a third, compounded of the other two. The sphere of 
the first is all below the heavens, of the second all beyond 
the heavens, of the third heaven itself. To each of these 
three spheres one of our faculties corresponds. To the sen- 
sible, sense; to the intelligible, intellect or reason; to the 
mixed sphere, opinion (Sofa). So far he closely follows 
the psychology and cosmogeny of his master; but Cicero 
notes as the characteristic of both Speusippus and Xeno- 
crates, the abandonment of the Socratio principle of 

Of the remaining three, the same writer (who is our prin- 
cipal authority for the history of the Academic school) tells 
us fliat they preserved the Platonic doctrine, but emphasised 
the moral part. On the old Academy he pronounces the 
following eulogium (Ve Fin. v. 3); "Their writings and 
method contain aU liberal learning, all history, all polite 
discourse ; and besides, they embrace such a variety of 
arts, that no one can undertake any noble career without 
their aid. .... In a word, the Academy is, as it were, the 
workshop of every artist." Modem criticism has not en- 
dorsed this high estimate. They presened, it is true, and 



elaborated many details of the Platonic teaching, which wb 
could iU have spared; but of Plato's originality and specu- 
latire power, of his poetry and enthusiasm, they inherited 
nothing ; " nor amid all the learning which has been pro- 
fusely lavished upon iuTestigating their tenets, is there a 
single deduction calculated to elucidate distinctly the 
character of their progress or regression." ^ There is a 
saying of Polemo's, which will illustrate their viitual 
abandonment of philosophy proper : " We should eiorcise 
ourselves in business, not in dialectical speculation." 

ArcesUaus, the successor of Crates, the disciple of Theo- 
phrastus and Polemo, was the founder of the second or 
middle Academy. He professed himself the strict fol- 
lower of Plato, and seems to hare been sincerely of opinion 
that his was nothing but a legitimate development of the 
true Platonic system. He foUowed the Socratic method 
of teaching in dialogues; and, like Socrates, left no writ- 
ings, — at least the ancients were not acquainted with any. 
But we have no evidence that he maintained the ideal 
theory of Plato, and from the general tendency of lus 
teaching it is probable that he overlooked it. He affirmed 
that neither our senses nor our mind can attain to any 
certainty; in all we must suspend our judgment; proba- 
bility is the guide of life. Cicero tells us that he was 
more occupied in disputing the opinions of others than in 
advancing any of his own. ArcesUaus is, in fact, the 
founder of that academic scepticism which was developed 
and systematised by Cameades, the founder of the third 
or new Academy. He was the chief opponent of the 
Stoics and their doctrine of certitude. This is attested by 
a well-known saying of his : "If there had been no Chry- 
sippus, there would have been no Cameades." To the 
Stoical theory of perception, the <JMvraa-La KaTaXryimKri, by 
which they expressed a conviction of certainty arising 
from impressions so strong as to amount to science, he 
opposed the doctrine of aKaTaXrjipta, which denied any 
necessaiy correspondence between perceptions and the 
objects perceived. But whUe denying the possibility of 
any knowledge of things in themselves, he saved himself 
from absolute scepticism by the doctrine of probability or 
verisimilitude, which jnay serve as a practical guide in hfe. 
Thus he announced as his criterion of truth an imagination 
or impression (<f>avTaa-ia.) at once credible, irrefragable, and 
attested by comparison with other impressions. The wise 
man might be pennitfed to hold an opinion, though he 
allowed that that opinion might be false. In ethics, how- 
ever, he appeared as the pure sceptic. On his visit to 
Rome as an ambassador from Athens, he alternately main- 
tained and denied in his public disputations the existence 
of justice, to the great scandal of Cato and aU honest 

On the fourth and fifth Academies, we need not dwell 
long. Philo and Antiochus both taught Cicero, and with- 
out doubt communicated to him that mild scepticism, that 
eclecticism compounded of almost equal sympathy with 
Plato and Zeno, which is the characteristic of his philo- 
sophical writings. The Academy exactly corresponded to 
the( moral and political wants of Eomo. With no genius 
for speculation, the better Eomans of that day were con- 
tent to embrace a system which, though resting on no 
philosophical basis, and compounded of heterogeneous 
dogmas, offered notwithstanding a secure retreat from 
religious scepticism and political troubles. " My words," 
says Cicero, speaking as a tru.6 Academician, "do not 
proclaim the truth, like a Pythian priestess; but I conjec- 
ture what is probable, Hke a plain man; and where, I ask, 
am I to search for anything more than verisimilitude t" 
And again: " The characteristic of the Academy is never to 

' Archor Butler, LaC. on Anc. PhiL ii. 8)6 

interpose one's judgment, to approve what seems most pro- 
bable, to compare together different opinions, to see what 
may be advanced on either side, and to leave one's listeners 
free to judge without pretending to dogmatise." 

AcADEliY, in its modem acceptation, signifies a society 
or corporate body of learned men, established for the ad- 
vancement of science, literature, or the arts. 

The first institution of this sort we read of in history 
was that founded at Alexandria by Ptolemy Soter, which 
he named the Museum, ji.ovaiiov. After completing his 
conquest of Egypt, he turned his attention to the cultiva- 
tion of letters and science, and gathered about him a large 
body of literary ' men, whom he employed in collecting 
books and treasures of art. This was the origin of the 
library of Alsxandria, the most famous of the ancient world. 
Passing .by the academies which were founded by the 
Moors at Grenada, Corduba, and as far east as Samarcand, 
the next instance of an academy is that founded by Charle- 
magne at the instigation of the celebrated Alcuin, foi 
promoting the study of grammar, orthography, rhetoric, 
poetry, history, and mathematics. In order to equalise all 
ranks, each member took the pseudonym of some ancient 
author or celebrated person of antiquity. For instance, 
Charlemagne himself was David, Alcuin became Flaccua 
Albinus. Though none of the labours of -this academy 
have come down to us, it undoubtedly exerted considerable 
influence in modelling the lan^age and reducing it to rules. 

In the following century Alfred founded an academy at 
Oxford. This was rather a grammar school than a society 
of learned men, and from it the University of Oxford 

But the academy which may be more justly considered 
as the mother of modern European academies is that of 
Floral Games, founded at Toulouse in the year 1325, by 
Clemens Isaurus. Its object was to distribute prizes and 
rewards to the troubadours. The prizes consisted of 
flowers of gold and silver. It was first recognised by the 
state in 1694, and confinned by letters-patent from the 
king, and its numbers limited to thirty-six. It has, except 
during a few years of the republic, continued to the present 
day, and distributes annually the following prizes : — An 
amaranth of gold for the best ode, a silver violet for a 
poem of sixty to one bundled Alexandrine lines, a silver 
eglantine for the best prose composition, a silver marigold 
for an elegy, and a silver lily presented in the last century 
by M. de Malpoyre for a hymn to the Virgin. 

It was the Pienaissance which was par excelle^ice the era 
of academies, and as the Italians may be said to have dis- 
covered anew the buried world of literature, so it was in 
Italy that the first and 'by far the most numerous academies 
arose. The earliest of these was the Platonic Academy, 
founded at Florence by Cosmo de Medici for the study of 
the works of Plato, though subsequently they added the 
explanation of Dante and other Italian authors. 

Marsilius Ficinus, its principal ornament, in hxsTiieologica 
Platonica, developed a system, chiefly borrowed from the 
later Platonists of the Alexandrian school, which, as it 
seemed to coincide with some of the leading doctrines ol 
Christianity, was allowed by the church. His Latin trans- 
lation of Plato is at once literal, perspicuous, and coirect 
and as he had access to MSS. of Plato now lost, it has in 
several places enabled us to recover the original reading. 
After the expulsion of the Medici from Florence, tht 
Platonic Academy was dissolved. 

In giving some account of the principal acadelnies o< 
Europe, which is all that this article professes to do, we 
shall, as far as possible, arrange them under difl'erent heads, 
according to — \st, The object which they were designed 
to promote; id. The countries to which they belong. 
Tliis classification, though, perhaps, the best available, is 



necessarily imperfect, inasmuch as several of those we shall 
mention were at onco literary and scientific, and many 
associations for similar objects were known by some other 
naino. Thus, with the doubtful exception of the Royal 
■ Academy of Arts, England has no academics in the proper 
senao of the word. For those institutions in England which 
answer to Italian academies, wo must refer the roader to 
the article Society. 

L SciENTiKio Academies. — Italy. — The first society 
for the prosecution of physical science was that established 
at Naples, 1560, under the presidency of Baptisla Porta. 
It Was called Academia Secretorum Naturae or de Secreti. 
It arose from a meeting of some scientific friends, who 
issembled at Porta's house, and called themselves the Otiosi. 
No member was admitted who had«ot made some useful 
discovery in medicine or natural philosophy. The name 
suggested to an ignorant public the prosecution of magic 
&nd the black arts. Porta wont to Rome to justify himself 
before Paul III. He was acquitted by the Pope, but tho 
academy was dissolved, and ho was ordered to abstain for 
the future from the practice of all illicit arts. 

At Rome he was admitted to the Lincei, an academy 
founded by Federigo Ccsi, tho Marcese di Monticelli. The 
device of the Lincei was a lynx with its eyes turned towards 
heaven tearing a Cerberus with its clav,-s, intimating that 
they were prepared to do bat1,le vdth. error and falsehood. 
Their motto was the verse of Lucretius describing rain 
dropping from a cloud — " Redit agmine dulcL" Besides 
Porta, Galileo and Colonna were enrolled among its mem- 
bers. The society devoted itself exclusively to physical 
science. Porta, aiidor its auspices, published his great work, 
Mar/i(B Naturalii lihri xx., 1589, in foL; his Fhytor/no- 
manica, or, tho occult virtue of plants; his De JIumanaPby- 
tiognomia, from which Lavater largely borrowed ; also various 
works on optics and pneumatics, in which he approached 
the true theory of vision. He is even said by some to 
have anticipated QalUeo in the invention of the telescope. 

But the principal monument still remaining of the zeal 
and industry of Cesi and his academy is the Phytobasanos, 
a corapendiuni of the natural history of Me.\ico, written by 
a Spaniard, Ilernendez. During fifty ye.ars the MS. had 
been neglected, when Cesi discovered it, and employed 
Terentio, Fabro, and Colonna, all Lynceans, to edit it and 
enrich it with notes and emendations. Cesi's own great 
work, Tlieatrum Natures, was never published. The MS. 
still exists m the Albani Library at Rome. After Cesi's 
death, 1630, the academy languished for some years under 
the patronage of Urban VIIL An fxiademy of the same 
name was inaugurated at Rome 17'&4, and still flourishes. 
It numbers among its members some of our English philo- 
sophers. But the fame of the Lincei was far outstripped 
by that of the Accadcmia del Cimento, established in 
Florence 1657, under the patronage of the Grand Duke 
Ferdinand II., at tho instigation of his brother Leopold, 
acting under the advice of Viviani, one of the greatest 
geometers of Europe. The object of this academy was 
(as the name implies) to make experiments and relate them, 
abjuring all preconceived notions. Unfortunately for 
science, it flourished for only ten years. Leopold in 16G7 
was made a cardinal, and tho society languished without 
ils head. It has, however, left a record of its labours in 
k volume containing an account of the experiments, pub- 
lished by the secretary in 1667. It is in the form cf a 
beautifully printed folio, with numerous full print pages of 
illustrations. It contains, among others, those on the 
supposed incompressibility of water, on the pressure of the 
air, and on the universal gravity of bodies. Torricelli, the 
inventor cf the barometer, was one of its members. 

Passing by numerous other Italian Academics of Science, 
We come to those ot modern timea. 

Tho Royal Academy of Sciences at Turin originated in 
1757 as a private society; in 1759 it published a volume 
of Miscellanea Philoaophtco-MalJtematica Societatu privala 
3'aurinettsis ; shortly after it was constituted a Royal 
Society by Charlss Emanuel IIL, and in 1783 Victor 
Amadous IIL made it a Pujyal Academy of Science It 
consists of 40 membars, residents of Turin, 20 non- 
resident, and 20 lorei^ members. It publishes each 
year a quario volume of proceedings, and has crowned 
and awarded prizes to many learned works. 

France, — Tho Old Academy of Sciences originated in much 
the same way as the French Academy. A private society 
of scientific men had for some thirty years been accustomed 
to meet first at the house of Montmort, tho militre de« 
requetes, afterwards at that of Thevenot, a great traveller 
and man of universal genius, in order to converse on their 
studies, and comhiunicate their discoveries. To this 
society belonged, among others, Descartes, Gassendi, 
Blaise Pascal, and his father. Hobbes, the philosopher 
of Malmcsbury, was presented to it during his visit .to 
Paris in 1640. Colbert, just as Richelieu in the case 
of the French Academy, conceived the idea of giving an 
official status to this body of learned men. Seven eminent 
mathematicians, among whom were Huyghens and De 
Bessy, the author of a famous treatbe on magic squares, 
were chosen to form the nucleus of the new society. A 
certain number of chemists, physicians, and anatomists 
were subsequently added. Pensions were granted by 
Loub XIV. to each of tho members, and a fund for 
instruments and experimentations placed at their disposal. 
They commented their session the 22d December 1666 
in tho Royal Library. They met twice a week — the 
mathematicians on tho Wednesdays, the physicists (as the 
naturalists and physiologists were then called) on the 
S.aturdays. Duhamel was appointed secretary by the 
king. This post ho owed more to his polished Latinity 
than to his scientific attainments, all the proceedings 
of the society being recorded in Latin. A treasurer 
was also nominated, who, notwithstanding his pretentious 
title, was nothing more than conservator of the scientific 
instruments, &c. At first the academy was rather a 
laboratory and observatory than an academy proper. 
Experiments were undertaken in common and results 
discussed. Several foreign savap-ts, in particular the 
Danish astionomer Rocmer, joined the society, attracted 
by the liberality of the Grand Monarque; and the German 
physician and geometer Tschimhausen and Sir Isaac 
Newton were made foreign a-ssociates. The death of 
Colbert, who was succeeded by Louvois, exercised a disas- 
trous effect on tho fortunes of the academy. The labours 
of the academicians were diverted from the pursuit of 
pure science to such works as the construction of fountains 
and cascades at Versailles, and tho mathematicians were 
employed to calculate the odds of the games of lansquenet 
and bassett. In 1699 the academy was reconstituted 
by M. do Pontchartrain, under whose department as 
secretary of state the academies came. By its new con- 
stitution it consisted of ten honorary members, men of 
high rank, who interested themselves in science, fifteen 
pensionaries, who were the working members, viz., three 
geometricians, and the same number of astronomers, 
mechanicians, anatomists, and chemists. Each section of 
three had two associates attached to it, and besides, each 
pensionary had the power of naming a pupil There were 
eight foreign and four free associates. The officers were, 
a president and a vice-president, named by tho king from 
among the honorary members, and a secretary and treaisurer 
chosen from tho pensionaries, who held their offices for 
life. Fontenelle, a man of wit, and rather a populariser of 
sciences than an original investigator, succeeded Duhamel as 



secretary. Tte constitution, as is evident, was purely aristo- 
cratical, and unlike that of the French Academy, in which 
the principle of equality among the members was never 
violated. Science was not yet strong enough to dispense 
with the patronage of the great. The two leading spirits 
of the academy at this period were Clairaut and Reaumur. 
Clairaut was the first to explain capillary attraction, and 
predicted within a f^w days of the correct time the return 
of HaUey's comet. His theory on the figure of the earth 
was only superseded by Laplace's Mecanique Celeste. 
R&,umur was principally distinguished by his practical 
discoveries, and a thermometer in common use at the 
present day bears his name. 

To trace the subsequent fortunes of this academy would 
far exceed our limits, being equivalent to writing the history 
of the rise and progress of science in France. It has 
reckoned among its members Laplace, BufFon, Lagrange, 
D'Alembert, Lavoisier, and Jussieu, the father of modern 
botany. Those of our readers who wish for further informa- 
tion we would refer to M. Alfred Maury's excellent history. 

On 21st December 1792, the old Academy of Sciences 
met for the last time. Many of the members fell by the 
guillotine, many were imprisoned, more reduced to indi- 
gence. The aristocracy of talent was almost aa much 
detested and persecuted by the Revolution as that of rank. 

In 1795 the Convention decided on founding an Insti- 
tute, which was to replace all the academies. The first 
class of the Institute corresponded closely to the old 
academy. See iNsnruTE. 

In 1816 the Academy was reconstituted as a branch of 
the Institute. The new academy has reckoned among its 
members, besides many other brilliant names, Camot the 
engineer, the physicians Fresnel, Ampere, Arago, Biot, the 
chemists Gay-Lussao and Thtoard, the zoologists G. Cuvier 
and the two Geoffroy Saint-Hilaires. 

The French had also consider8.ble academies in most of 
their large towns. Montpellier, for example, had a Royal 
Academy of Sciences, founded in 1706 by Louis XIV., on 
nearly the same footing as that at Paris, of which, indeed, 
it was in some measure tho counterpart. It was recon- 
stituted in 1847, and organised under three sections — 
medicine, science, and letters. It has continued to publish 
annual reports of considerable value. Toulouse also had 
an academy under the denomination of Lanternists; and 
there were analogoiis institutions at Nlmes, Aries, Lyons, 
Dijon, Bordeaux, and other places. Of these several, we 
believe, are stUl in existence, if not in activity. 

Before passing on to German academies, we may here 
notice a private scientific and philosophical society, the 
precursor of the French Academy of Sciences. It does not 
appear to have had any distinguishing name ; but the pro- 
moter of it was Euscbius Renaudot, Counsellor and Phy- 
sician in Ordinary to the King of France, and Doctor 
Regent of the Faculty of PlrjBjic at Paris, by whom a full 
account of its conferences was published, translated into 
English by G. Havers, 1664. In the preface it is said to 
be " a production of an' assembly of the choicest wits of 
France.'' We will quote a few of the subjects of these 
discussions in order to show the character of the society : — 
"Why the loadstone draws iron;" "Whether the soul's 
immortality is demonstrable by natural reason ;" " Of the 
little hairy girl lately seen in this city." . On subjects of 
popular superstition their views were far in advance of the 
time. Of judicial astrology it is said, "Why should we 
seek in heaven the causes of accidents which befall us if 
we can find them on earth!" Of the philosopher's stone — 
" This most extravagant conceit, that it is the panacea, 
joined to the othw absurdities of that chimerical art, makes 
us believe that it is good for nothing but to serve for 
'maginary consolation to tho miserablo." 

Germany. — The ■ Collegium Curiosum was a scientific 
society, founded by J. C. Sturm, professor of mathematics 
and natural philosophy in the University of Altorfi', in 
Franconia, in 1672, on the plan of the Accademia del 
Cimento. It originally consisted of 20 members, and con- 
tinued to flourish long after the death of its founder. The 
early labours of the society were devoted to the repetition 
(under varied conditions) of the most notable experiments 
of the day, or to the discussion of the results. Two volumes 
of proceedings were published by Sturm in 1676 and 1685 
respectively. The Programma Invitatwium is dated June 
3, 1672; and Sturm therein urges that, as the day of dis- 
putatious philosophy had given way to that of experi- 
mental philosophy, and as, moreover, scientific societies had 
been founded at Florence, London, and Rome, it would 
therefore seem desirable to found one in Germany, fof the 
attainment of which end he requests the co-operation of 
the learned. 

The work of 1676, entitled Collegium Experimentode sive 
Curiosum, commences with an account of the diving-bell, 
" a new invention ; " next follow chapters on the camera 
obscura, the Torricellian experiment, the air-pump, micro- 
scope, telescope, &c. The two works have been pronounced 
by a competent authority ' to constitute a nearer approach 
to a text-book of the physics of the period than any pre- 
ceding work. 

The Royal Academy of Sciences at Birlin was founded 
in 1700 by Frederic I. after Leibnitz' ccsiprehensive plan, 
but was not opened tiU 1711. Leibnitz was the first presi- 
dent. Undfer Maapertuis, who succeeded him, it did good 
service. Its present constitution dates from January 24, 
1812. It is divided into four sections — physical, mathe- 
matical, philosophical, and historical Each section is imder 
a paid secretary elected for life ; each secretary presides in 
turn for a quarter of a year. The members are — \st. Re- 
gular members who are paid; these hold general meetings 
every Thursday, and sectional meetings every Monday. 2rf, 
Foreign members, not to exceed 24 in number. ?>d, Hon- 
orary members and correspondents. Since 1811 it has 
published yearly, Meinoires de I'Academie Eoyale des Scienceg, 
et Belles Leltres d Berlin. For its scientific and philoso- 
phical attainments the names of W. and A. v. Humboldt, 
Ideles, Savigny, Schleiermacher, Bopp, and Eanke, will 
sufiiciently vouch. 

The Academy of Sciences at Mannheim was established 
by Charles Theodore, Elector Palatine, in the year 1755. 
The plan of this institution was furnished by Sch^pflin, 
according to which it was divided into two classes, the his- 
torical and physical In 1780 a sub-division of the latter 
took place into the physical, properly so-called, and the 
meteorologicaL The meteorological observations are pub- 
lished separately, under the title of l^hemerides Societatis 
Meteorologies PalatincB. The historical and physical me- 
moirs are published under the title of Acta Academim 

The Electoral Bavarian Academy of Scie/ices at Munich 
was established iu 1759, and publishes its memoirs under 
the title of Abhandlungen der Baierisc/)en Akademie. Soon 
after the Elector of Bavaria was raised to the rank of king, 
tho Bavarian government, by his orders, directed its atten- 
tion to a new organisation of the Academy of Sciences of 
MunicL The design of the king was, to render its labours 
more extensive than those of any similar institution in 
Europe, by giving. to it, under the direction of the minis try, 
the immediate superintendence over all the establishments 
for public instruction in the kingdom of Bavaria. The Privy- 
Councillor Jacobi, a man of most excellent character, and of 
considerable scientific attainments, was appointed president 

^ Mi O. F. BodwtO. In tbo Chanical Neun,.JiiM 21, 1867. 


Tlic Electoral Academy at Erfurt was establitiliecl by llie 
Elector of Meutz, in tho year 1754. It consists of a pro- 
tector, president, director, assessors, adjuncts, and asso- 
ciiatcs. Its object is to promote the useful Bcicnccs. Tho 
memoirs were originally published in Latin, but afterwards 
in German. Tho Ilessiin Academy of Sciences at Oie&sen 
publish their transactions under the title of Acta Philo- 
tophico-Medica Academicc Scientiarum I'rincipalis Uesaiacce. 
lu the Nethe-lands there are scientific acaduinies at Flush- 
ing and Brussels, both of which have published their 

litissia.—'Yha Imperial Academy of Sciences at St 
Petersburg was projected by tho Czar Peter the Great. 
Having in tho course of his travels observed tho advan- 
tage of public societies for tho encouragement and promo- 
tion of literature, ho formed the design of founding an 
academy of sciences at St Petersburg. By tho advice 
of Wollf and Loibnitz, whom ho consulted on this occasion, 
the society was accordingly regulated, and several learned 
foreigners were invited to become members. Peter him- 
self drew the plan, and signed it on the lOlh of .February 
1721; blithe wms jirevented, by the suddenness of his 
death, from carrying it into execution, llis decease, how- 
ever, did not prevent its completion; for on the 2l6t of 
December 1725, Catharine L established it occording to 
Peter's plan, and on the 27th of the same month the society 
assembled for the first time. On the Ist of August 1726, 
Catharine honourfed the meeting with her presence, when 
Professor Bulf-nger, a German naturijist of great eminence, 
pronounced an oration upon the advances made in the 
theory of magnetic variations, and also on the progress of 
research in so far lis regarded tho discovery of the longi- 
tude. A short tiuio afterwards the empress settled a fund 
of i4982 per annum for the support of the academy; and 
15 members, all eminent for their learning and talents, 
were admitted and pensioned, under tho title of professors 
in the vaiious branches of science and literature. Tho most 
distinguished of these professors were Nicholas and Daniel 
BeniouilU, the tv o Do Lislcs, Bulfinger, and Wolff. 

During the short reign of I'etcr IL the salaries of the 
members wcro discontinued, and the academy utterly 
neglected by the Court; but it was again patrouiscd by the 
Kmpress Anne, who even added a seminary for tho educa- 
tion of youth under the superintendence of the professors. 
Both institutions flourished for some time under the 
direction of Baron Korf ; but upon his death, towards the 
end of Anne's reign, an ignorant person being appointed 
president, many of the moot able members quitted Kussia. 
At the accession of Elizabeth, however, new life and vigour 
were infused into the academy. Tho original plan was 
enlarged and improved ; some of the most learned foreigners 
■were again drawn to St Petersburg ; and, what was considered 
as a good omen for the Hterature of Russia, two natives, 
Lamonosof and Bumovsky, men of genius and abilities, 
Avho had prosecuted their studies in foreign universities, 
were enrolled among its members. Lastly, the annual 
income was increased to X10,G59, and sundry other advan- 
tages were conferred upon the institution. 

The Empress Catharine II., with her usual zeal for 
promoting the diffusion of knowledge, took this useful 
society under her immediate protection. She altered tho 
court of directors greatly to the advantage of tho whole 
body, corrected many of its abuses, and infused a new 
vigour and spirit into their researches. By Catharine's 
particular recommendation the most ingenious professors 
visited the various provinces of her vast dominions ; and as 
tho funds of the academy were not sufficient to defray the 
whole expense of these expeditions, tho empress supplied 
the deficiency by a grant of £2000, which was renewed as 
occasion required. 

Tlio jiurpose and object of these travels will appear from 
tho instructions givon by the academy to the several per- 
sons who engaged in them. They were ordered to iustituto 
inquiries respecting tho dilferent sorts of earths and waters; 
tho best methods of cultivating barren and desert spots; 
tho local disorders incident to men and animals, together 
with tho most efficacious means of reIie\Tng them; tho 
breeding of cattle, particularly of sheep; the rearing of bees 
and silk-worms; the different places and objects for fishing 
and hunting; minerals of all kinds; the arts and trades; 
and tho formation of a Flora Kussica, or collection of mdi- 
genoua plants They were particularly instnicted to rectify 
the longitude and latitude of the principal towns; to make 
astronomical, geographical, and meteorological obscrva 
tions; to trace tho courses of rivers; to construct the most 
exact charts; and to bo very distinct and accurate in re 
marking and describing tho manners and customs of the 
different races of people, their dresses, languages, anli- 
(piitics, traditions, history, religion ; in a word, to gain 
every information which might tend to illustrate the real 
state of tho whole liussian empire. Jloro ample instruc- 
tions cannot well bo conceived; and they appear to have 
been very zealously and faithfully executed. The conse- 
quence was that, at that lime, no country could boast, 
within tho space of so few years, such a number of excellent 
publications on its internal state, its natural productions, 
its topography, geography, and history, and on the manners, 
customs, and languages of the different tribes who inhabit 
it, as issued from the press of this academy. In its researches 
in Asiatic languages, and general knowledge of Oriental 
customs and religions, it proved itself the worthy rival of 
our own Boyal Asiatic Society. 

The first transactions of this society were published in 
1728, and entitled Commentarii Academiw Scientiarum 
Imperial is Petropolitance ad annum 1726, with a dedica- 
tion to Peter II The publication was continued under 
this form until tho year 1747, when the transactions wero 
called A'^oi'i Cummentarii Academiae, ilc;.and in 1777, the 
academy agitin changed tho title into Aria Academics Scim- 
tiarum Imperialis I'etropoliiance, and likewise made some 
alteration in the arrangements and plan of tho work. The 
papers, which had been hitherto published in the Latin 
language only, were now written indiflcrently either in 
that language or in French, and a preface added, entitled 
Partie Hislorique, which contains an account of its pro- 
ceedings, meetings, the admission of new members, and 
other remarkable occurrences. Of tho Commentaries, H 
volumes were published: the first of the Kew Commen- 
taries made its appeaiancc in 1750, and the twentieth in 
1776. Under the new title of Acta Academice, a number of 
volumes have been given to the public; and two are printed 
every year. These transactions abound with ingenious and 
elaborate disquisitions upon various parts of science and 
natural history; and it may not be an exaggeration to assert, 
that no society in Europe has more distinguished itself for 
the excellence of its publications, particularly in the more 
abstruse parts of pure and mixed mathematics. 

The academy is stiU composed, as at first, cf 15 pro- 
fessors, besides the president and director. Each of these 
prof essors has a house and an annual stipend of from £200 
to £G00. Besides the professors, there are four adjuncts, 
with pensions, who are present at the sittings of the society, 
and succeed to the first vacancies. The direction of the 
academy is generally entrusted to a perion of distinction. 

The buildings and apparatus of this academy are on a 
vast scale. There is a fine library, consisting of 36,000 
curious books and manuscripts ; together with an extensive 
museum, in which the various branches of natural hietory, 
(tc, are distributed in different apartments. The latter is 
extremely rich iJi native productions, havine been cousi- 



dorably augmented by the collections made by Pallas, 
Gmeliu, Guldenstaedt, and other professors, during their 
expeditions, tbrough the various parts of the Russian em- 
pire. The stuffed animals and birds occupy one apartment. 
The chamber of rarities, the cabinet of coins, ic, contain 
innumerable articles of the highest curiosity and value. 
The motto of the society is exceedingly modest; it consists 
of only one word, J'aulaiim. 

Sweden. — The Academy of Sciences at Stockholm, or the 
RoyaX Swedish Academy, owes its institution to sis persons 
of distinguished learning, among whom was the celebrated They originally met on the 2d of June 1739, 
when they formed a private society, in which some dis- 
sertations were read ; and in the end of the same year 
their first publication made its appearance. As the meet- 
ings continued and the members increased, the society 
attracted the notipe of the king; and, accordingly, on the 
31st of March l741, it was incorporated under th« name 
of the Koyal Swedish Academy. Not receiving any pen- 
sion from the crown, it is merely under the protection of 
the king, being <lirected, like our Royal Society, by its own 
members. It has now, however, a large fund, which has 
chiefly arisen from legacies and other donations ; but a pro- 
fessor of experimental philosophy, and two secretaries, are 
still the only persons' who receive any salaries. Each of 
the members resident at Stockholm becomes president by 
rotation, and continues in office during three months. 
There are two kinds of members, native and foreign ; the 
election of the former take places in April, that of the latter 
in July; and no money is paid at the time of admission. 
The dissertations read at each meeting are collected and 
pubUshed four times in the year : they are written ia the 
Swedish language, and printed in octavo, and the annual 
publications make a volume. The first 40 volumes, which 
were completed in 1779, are caUed the Old Transactions. 

Denmark. — The Royal Academy of Sciences at Copen- 
Tiagen owes its institution to the zeal of tis: individuals, 
whom Christian -VX, in 1742, ordered to r.rrange his cabinet 
of medals. These persons were John Gram, Joachim Fre- 
deric Ramus, Christian Louis Scheid, Mark Woldickey, 
Eris Pontopidan, and Bernard Moeknan, whe, occasionally 
meeting for this purpose, extended their designs; associated 
with them others who were eminent in several branches of 
science ; and f erming a kind of literary society, employed 
themselves in searching into, and explaining the history and 
ailtiquities of their countr)'. The Count of Holstein, the 
first president, warmly patronised this society, and recom- 
mended it so strongly to Christian VI. that, in 1743, his 
Danish majesty took it imder his protection, called it the 
Royal Academy of Sciences, "endowed it with a fund, and 
ordered the members to join to their former pursuits 
natural history, physics, and mathematics. In consequence 
of the royal favour the members engaged with fresh zeal 
in their pursuits ; and the academy has. published 15 
volumes in the Danish language, some of which have been 
translated into L^tin, 

Utigland. — In 161G a scheme for founding a Royal 
Academy was started by Edmund Bolton, an eminent 
scholar and antiquary. Bolton, in his petition to King 
Jamee, which was supported by George Villiers, Marquis of 
Buckingham, proposed that the title of the academy should 
be " K i n g Jame."!, his Academe or College of honour." 
In the list of members occurs the name of Sir Kenelm 
Digby, one of the original membora of the Royal Society. 
The death of the king proved fatal to the undertaking. 
In 1635 a second attempt was made to found an academy, 
nudfff the patronage of Charles I., with the title of 
" Minerva's Musaeum," for the instruction of young noble- 
men in the liberal arts and sciences, but the project was 
30on dropped. About 1645 seme of the more ardent followers 


of Bacon used to meet, some in London, some at Oxford, 
for the discussion of subjects connected with expeiimental 
science. This was the origin of the Royal Society, vrhich 
received its charter in 1662. See RoTAi SociEry. 

Ireland. — The Royal Irish Academy arose out of a 
society established at Dublin about the year 1782, and 
; Sonsisting of a number of gentlemen, most of whom 
belonged to the university. They held Weekly meetings, 
and read es.-ays in turn on various subjects. The members 
of this society afterwards formed a more extensive plan, 
and, admitting only such names as might add dignity to 
their new institution, became the founders of the Royal 
Irish Academy. They professed to unite the advancement 
of science with the history^ of mankind and polite literature. 
The first volume of their transactions (for 1787) appeared 
in 1788, and seven volumes were afterwards published. 
A society was formed in Dublin, similar to the Royal 
Society in London, as early as the year 1683 ; but the 
distracted state of the country proved unpropitious to the 
cultivation of philosophy and literature. 

Holland. — The Royal Academy of Sciences at Amsterdam, 
erected by a royal ordinance 1852, succeeded the Royal 
Institute of the Low Countries, founded by Louis Napoleon, 
King of Holland, 1808. In 1855 it had pubHshed 192 
volumes of proceedings, and received an annual subsidy of 
14,000 florins from the state. 

Spain. — The Academy of Sciences at Madrid, founded 
1774, after the model of the French Academy. 

Portugal. — The Academy of Sciences at Lisbon is divided 
into three classes — natural history, mathematics, and ■ 
national literature. It consists of 24 ordinary and 33 
extraordinary members. Since 1779 it has published 
Mejxorias de Letteratura Poirlvgueza ; Memorias Rcmiomicas : 
CoHec^ao de Livros ineditos di Historia Portvgueza. 

II. Academies op BeIxLes Lettees. — Italy. — Italy in the 
16th century was remarkable for the number of its literary 
academies. Tiraboschi, in his History of Italian Literature, 
has given a list of 171 ; and Jarkius, in his Specimen^ 
Histories Academiarti'Tn, Conditarum, enumerates nearly 
700. Many of these, with a sort of Socratic irony, gave 
themselves lames expressive of ignorance or simply ludi- 
crous. Such were the Lunatici of Naples, the listravaganti, 
the Pulminales, the Trapsssati, the Drcrxsy, the Sleepers, 
the Ajixiovs, the Confused, the Unstable, the Fantastic, 
the Transformed, the ditherial. " The first academics of 
Italy chiefly directed their attention to classical literature ; 
they compared manuscripts; they suggested new readings, or 
new interpretations; they deciphered inscriptions or coins; 
they sat in judgment' on a Latin ode, or debated the pro- 
priety of a phrase. Their own poetry had; perhaps, neves 
been neglected ; but it was not tiU the writings of Bembo 
furnished a new code ef criticism in the Italian language, 
that they began to study, it with the same minuteness as 
modem Latin." " They were encouragera of a numis- 
matic and lapidary erudition, elegant in itself, and thi-ow- 
ing for ever Uttle specks of light on the still ocean of the 
past, but not very favourable to comprehensive observation, 
and tending to bestow on an unprofitable p£d.".ntry the 
honours of real learning."- The Italian nobility, excluded 
as they mostly were from politics, and living in cities, 
found in literature a consolation and a career. Sucb 
academies were oligarchical in their constitution ; they 
encouraged culture, but tended to hamper genius and originality. Of their academies, by far the 
most celebrated was the Accademia delta Crusca or Fiir- 
f-aratorum ; that is, of Bran, or of the Sifted.^ The title 
was borrowed from a p.revious society at Perugia, the 
Accademia flegli Scosti, of the Well-shaken. Its device 

' Qallam'a [nt. to Lit. qf Euro^, vol. 

65 1. ai.<1 U. 60?. 
L — lO 


A C A D E 2il r 

was a sieve ; its motto, " 11 pit bel fior ne coglie," it 
collects the fiaest flour of it ; its principal object the puri- 
6catioa of the language. Its great work was the Vocahu- 
lario delta Crusca, the first edition of which was published 
1613. It was composed avowedly oq Tuscan principles, 
iind regarded the Hth century as tTie Augustan period of 
the language. Beni assailed it in his ArUi-Cruaca, and 
this exclusive Tuscan spirit has disappeared in subsequent 
editions. The Accademia della Crusca is now incorporated 
with two older societies — the Accademia degli Apatici 
(the Impartials) and the Accademia Fiorentina. 

Among the numerous other literary academies of Italy 
we may mention the Academy of Naples, founded about 
mo by Alfonso, the king; the Academy of Florence,{o\iuded 
1540, to illustrate and perfect the Tuscan tongue, especially 
by a close study of Petrarch ; the IrUronati of Siena, 1525; 
the IiifiamTnati of Padua, 1634 ; the Jiossi of Siena, sup- 
pressed by Cosmo, 1568. 

The Academy of Humourists, Umoristi, had its origin at 
Rome in the marriage of Lorenzo Marcini, a Roman gentle- 
man, at wliich several persons of rank were guests. It 
was carnival time, and so to give the ladies some diversion, 
they betook themselves to the reciting of verses, sonnets, 
Bpteches, first extempore, and afterwards pre^ieditately, 
which gave them the denomination of Belti Uumori. 
After some experience, and coming more and more into 
the taste of these exercises, they resolved to form an 
academy of belles lettres, and changed the title of Belli 
Uumori for that of II umoristi. 

In 1690 the Academy or Society of Arcadians was 
established at Rome, for the purpose of reviving the study 
of poetry. The founder Crescimbeni is the author of a 
well-known history of Italian poetry. It numbered among 
its members many princes, cardinals, and other ecclesias- 
tics; and, to avoid disputes about pre-eminence, aU appeared 
massed after the manner of Arcadian shepherds. Within 
ten years from its first establishment the number of 
academicia7i3 amounted to 600. 

The Royal Academy of Savoy dates from 1719, and was 
made a royal academy by Charles Felix in 1848. Its 
emblem is a gold orange tree fuU of flowers and fruit; its 
motto " Flores fructusque perennes," being the same as 
those of the famous Ftorimentane Academy, founded at 
Annecy by St Francis de Sales. It has published valuable 
memoirs on the history and antiquities of Savoy. 

Germany. — Of the German literary academies, the 
most celebrated was Die Fruchtbrinyende Gesellschaft, the 
Fruitful Society, established at Weimar 1617. Five 
princes enrolled their names among the original members. 
The object was to purify the mother tongue. The German 
academies copied those of Italy in their quaint titles and 
petty ceremonials, and exercised little permanent influence 
on the language or literature of the country. 

France. — The French Academy was established by order 
of the king in the year 1635, but in its original form it came 
into existence some four or five years earlier. About the 
year 1629 certain literary friends in Paris ag?eed to meet 
weekly at the house of one of their number. These meet- 
ings were quite informal, but the conversation turned mostly 
on literary topics; and when, as was often the case, one of 
the number had composed some work, he read it to the 
rest, and they gave their opinions upon it. The place of 
meeting was the house of M. Conrard, which was chosen 
as being .the most central. The fame of these meetings, 
though the members were bound over to secrecy, reached at 
length the ears of Cardinal Richelieu, who conceived so 
high an opinion of them, that he at once promised them 
his protection, and ofl'ercd to incorporate them by letters 
patent. Nearly all the members would have preferred the 
charms of privacy, b'lt, considering the risk they would run in 

incurring the cardinal's displcaaure, and that by tbo letter 
of the law all meetings of any sort or kind were prohibited, 
they expressed their gratitude for the high honour the 
cardinal thought fit to confer on them. They proceeded 
at once to organise their body, settle their laws and constitu- 
tion, appoint officers, and choose their name. Their oflBcera 
consisted of a director and a chancellor, both chosen by 
lot, and a permanent secretary, chosen by votes. They 
elected besides a publisher, not a member of the body. 
The director presided at the meetings, being considered 
iis primus inter pares, and performing much the same part 
as the speaker in the English House of Commons. The 
chancellor kept the eeab, and sealed all the oflicial docu- 
ments of the academy. The office of the secretary explaim 
itself. The cardinal was ex oficio protector. The meet- 
ings were weekly as before. 

The letters patent were at once granted by the king, but 
it was otdy after violent opposition and long 'delay that the 
president, who was jealous of the cardinal's authority, con- 
sented to grant the verification required by the old con- 
stitution of France. 

The object for which the academy was founded, as set forth 
in its statutes, was the purification of the French language. 
" The principal function of the academy shall be to labour 
with all care and diligence to give certain niles to our 
language, and to render it pure, eloquent, and capable of 
treating the arts and sciences" (Art 24). They proposed 
" to cleanse the language from the impurities it has con- 
tracted in the mouths of the common people, from the 
jargon of the lawyers, from the misusages of ignorant 
courtiers, and the abuses of the pulpit" — Letter of Academy 
to Cardinal Richelitu. 

Their numbers were fixed at forty. The original members 
who formed the nucleus of the body were eight, and it was 
not till 1639 that the fuU number was completed. Their 
first undertaking consisted of essays written by all the 
members in rotation. To judge Iiy the titles and speci- 
mens which have come down to us, these possessed no 
special originality or merit, but resembled the «ri8«'^is of 
the Greek rhetoricians. They next, at the instance of 
Cardinal Richelieu, undertook a criticism of CorneUle's 
Cid, the most popular work of the day. It was a rule of 
the academy that no work could be criticised exccjit at the 
author's request. It was only the fear of incurring the 
cardinal's displeasure which wrung from Comeille an tin- 
willing consent. The critique of the academy was re- 
written several times before it met with the cardinal's 
approbation. After six months of elaboration, it was pub- 
lished imder.tho title. Sentiments de t Academic Fran^oise 
sur le Cid. This judgment did not satisfy Comeille, as a 
saying attributed to him on the occasion shows. " Ilora- 
tius," he said, referring to his last play, " was condemned 
by the Duumviri, but ho was absolved by the people." 
But the crowning labour of the academy, commenced in 
1639, was a dictionary of the French language. By the 
twenty-sixth article of their statutes, they were pledged to 
compose a dictionary, a grammar, a treatise on rhetoric, 
and one on poetry. lu. Chapelain, one of the original 
members and leading spirits of the academy, pointed out 
that the dictionary would naturally be the first of these 
works to be undertaken, and drew tip a plan of the work, 
which was to a great extent carried out A catalogue was 
to be made of all the most approved authors, prose and verse : 
these were to be distributed among the members, and aU 
words and phrases of which they approved to be marked 
by them in order to be incorporated in the dictionary. 
For this they resolved themselves into two committees, 
wliich sat on other than the regular days. M. de Vaugelas' 

' A ion mot of bis is w^rth recording. Wbeu returning thrnks foi 

A C A D E M if 


frus appointed editor in chief. To remunerate Mm for his 
labours, he received from the cardi^ai a peii"ion of 2000 
francs. The first edition of thi." dictionary appeared in 
1691, the last Complement in 185-1. 

Instead of following the history of the French Academy, — 
which, like its two younger sisters, the Academy of 
Sciences and the Academy of Inscriptions, was suppressed 
in 1793, and reconstituted in 1795, as a class of the Insti- 
tute, — a history which it would be impossible to treat 
adequately in the limit of an article, we will attempt 
briefly to estimate its influence on French literature and 
language, and point out its principal merits and defects. 
To begin with its merits, it may justly boast that there is 
h.ardly a single name of the first rank among French 
litterateui-s that it has not enrolled among ita members. 
Moliire, it is true, was rejected as a player; but we can 
hardly blame the academy for a social prejudice which it 
shared with the age; and it is well known that it has, ao 
far as was in its power, made the amende honorable. In 
the Salle 'cles Seances is placed the bust of the greatest 
of modern comedians, with the inscription, " Rien ne 
manque \ si gloire ; il manquait Ji la notre." Descartes 
was excluded from the fact of his residing in Holland. 
Scarron was confined by paralysis to his own house. 
Pascal is the only remaining exception, and Pascal was 
better known to his contemporaries as a mathematician 
than a writer. His Lettres Provinciales were published 
anonymously; and just when his fame was rising he 
retired to Port-Koyal, where he lived the life of a recluse. 
On the other hand, it cannot be denied that the fauteuils 
have often been occupied by men of no mark in literature. 
Nor is the academy wholly exonerated by M. Livet's in- 
genious defence, that there are but eight marshals in the 
French army, and yet the number has never appeared too 
restricted ; for its most ardent admirers vnR not assert that 
it has, as a rule, chosen the forty most distinguished living 
authors. Court intrigue, rank, and finesse have too often 
prevailed over real merit and honesty. Though his facts 
are incorrect, there is much truth in Courier's caustic 
satire : — " Dans une compagnie do gens faisant profession 
d'esprit ou de savoir, nul ne veut pris de soi un plus habile 
quo soi, mais bien un plus noble, un plus riche : un duo 
et pair honore I'Acadimie Fran(;aise, qui ne veut point de 
Boileau,^ refuse la Bruyfere, fait atteudre Voltaire, mais 
reyoit tout d'abord Chapelain et Conrart." 

We have next to consider the influence of the French 
Academy on the language and literature, a subject on which 
the most opposite opinions have been advanced. On the 
one hand, it has been asserted that it has corrected the 
judgment, purified the taste, and formed the language of 
French writers, and that to it we owe the most striking 
characteristics of French literature, its purity, delicacy, and 
flexibility. Thus Mr Matthew Arnold, in his well-known 
Essay on the Literary Influence of Academies, has pro- 
nounced a glowing panegyric on the French Academy as a 
high court of letters, and rallying point for educated opinion, 
as asserting the authority of a master in matters of tone 
and taste. To it ho attributes in a great measure that 
thoroughness, that openness of mind, that absence of 
vulgarity which he finds everywhere in French literature ; 
and to the want of a similar institution in England he 
traces that eccentricity, that provincial spirit, that coarse- 
ness, which, as he thinks, is barely compensated by English 
genius. JTlius, too, M. Kendn, one of its most distinguished 
living members, says that it is owing to the academy "qu'on 

Lia Tension, the cirtlinal rem&rked, " Well, Monsieur, you will not 
forgot the vfor^ pension in your dictionary.*' "No, Mouscignour," 
l*oplied Vaugelas, "and atill Icaa tho word gratitude." 
^ Boiloau was eloctud to the French Academy 1G84, La Bruy^ro 


peut tout dire Bans appareil scholastiqne avec la langue 
des gens du monde." " Ah ne dites," he exclaims, " qu'Us 
n'ont rien fait, ces obscures beaux esprits dont la vie se 
passe h, instruire le proces des mots, ^'peser les syllables, 
lis ont fait un chef-d'ceuvre — la langue franyaise." On the 
other hand, its inherent defects have been so well ..ummed 
up by M. Lanfrey, that we cannot do better than quote 
from his recent History of Napoleon. " This institution," 
he says, speaking of the French Academy, " had never 
shown itself the enemy of despotism. Founded by the 
monarchy and for the monarchy, eminently favourable to 
the spirit of intrigue and favouritism, incapable of any 
sustained or combined labour, a stranger to those great 
works pursued in common which legitimise and glorify 
the existence of scientific bodies, occupied exclusively with 
learned trifles, fatal to emulation, which it pretends to 
stimulate, by the compromises and calculations to which it 
subjecto it, directed in everything by petty considerations, 
and wasting all its energy in childish tournamentB, in 
which tho flatteries that it showers on others are only tho 
foretaste of the compliments it expects in return for itself, 
the French Academy seems to have received from its 
founders the special mission to transform genius into be/ 
es]mt, and it would be hard to produce a man of talent 
whom it has not demoralised. Drawn in spite of itself 
towards politics, it alternately pursues and avoids them ; 
but it is specially attracted by the gossip of politics, and 
whenever it has so far emancipated itself as to go into 
opposition, it does so as the champion of ancient prejudices, 
li we examine its infiuenee ou the national genius, we 
shaU see that it has given it a flexibility, a brilliancy, a 
polish, which it never possessed before,; but it has dono 
so at the expense of il-3 masculine qualities, its originality, 
its spontaneity, its vigour, its natural grace. It has dis- 
ciplined it, but it has emasculated, impoverished, and 
rigidified it. It sees ia taste, not a sense of the beautiful, 
but a certain type of correctness, an elegant form of medio- 
crity. It has substituted pomp for grandeur, school 
routine for individual inspiration, elaborateness for sim- 
plicity, fadeur and the monotony of literary orthodoxy for 
variety, the source and spring of intellectual life; and in 
the works produced under its auspices we discover tho 
rhetorician and the writer, never the man. By all its 
traditions the academy was made to be the natural orna- 
ment of a monarchical society. Richelieu conceived and 
created it as a sort of superior centralisation applied to 
intellect, as a high literary court to maintain intellectual 
unity, and protest against innovation. Bonaparte, aware of 
all this, had thought of re-establishing its ancient privileges; 
but it had in his eyes one fatal defect — esprit. Kings of 
France could condone a witticism even against themselves, 
a, parvenu could not." 

In conclusion, we would briefly state our own opinion. 
The influence of the French Academy has been conservative 
rather than creative. While it has raised tho general 
standard of willing, it has tended to hamper and crush 
originality. It has done much by its example for stylo, 
but its attempts to impose its laws ou language have, from 
the nature of tho case, failed. For, however perfectly a 
dictionary or a grammar may represent the existing lan- 
guage of a nation, an original genius is certain to arise — a 
Victor Hugo, or an Alfred de Musset, who will set at do- 
fiance all dictionaries and academic rules. 

Spain. — The Royal Spanish Academy at Madrid held 
its first meeting in July 171.3, in the palace of its founder, 
the Duke d'Escalona. It consisted at first of 8 academicians, 
including the duke; to which number H others were 
afterwards added, the founder being chosen president or 
director. In 1714 the king granted them the royal con- 
firmation and protection. Their device is a crucible in 



the middle of the fire, with this motto, Limpia, flxa, y 
da esplmdo) — " It purifies, fixes, and gives brightness." 
The number of its members tvas limited to 24; the Duke 
d'Escalona was chosen director for life, but bis successors 
were elected yearly, and the secretary for life. 'l^hcir 
object, as marked out by the royal declaration, was to 
cultivate and improve the national language. They were 
to begin with choosing carefully such words and phrases 
as have been used by the best Spanish writers ; noting 
the low, barbarous, or obsolete ones ; and composing a 
dictionary wherein these might be distinguished from the 

Sweden. — The Eoycd Swedith Academy was founded in 
the year 1786, for the purpose of purifying and perfecting 
the Swedish language. A medal is struck by its direction 
every year in honour of some illustrious Swede. This 
academy docs not publish its transactions. 

Belgium. — Belgium has ahvays been famovui for its 
literary societies. The little town of Dicst boa-sts that it 
pcssessed a society of poets in 1 302( and the Catherimsts 
of AJost date from 1107. Whether or hot there is any 
foundation for these claims, it is certain that numerous 
Chamhers of liheioric (so academics were then called) 
existed in the first years of the rule of the house of Bur- 

The present Royal Academy of Belgium, was founded by 
the. Count of Coblenzl at Briissels, 1769. Count Stahreu- 
berg obtained for it in 1772 letters patent from Maria 
Theresa, who also granted pensions to all the members, 
and a fund for printing their works. All academicians 
were ipso facto ennobled. It was reorganised, and a class 
of fine arts added in' 1845 through the agency of M. Van 
de Weyer, the learned Belgian ambassador at London. It 
has devoted itself principally to national history and anti- 

III. Academies of Aiich.sology and History. — 
Italy. — Under this class the Academy of Hercnlaneum pro- 
perly ranks. It was established at Naples about 1755, at 
which period a museum was formed of the antiquities 
fo",u!d at Herculaneum, Pompeii, and other places, by the 
Marquis Tanucci, who was then minister of state. Its ob- 
ject was to explain the paintings, &c., which were discovered 
at those places; and for this purpose the members met 
every fortnight, and at each meeting three paintings were 
submitted to three academicians, who made their report 
on them at their next sitting. The first volume of their 
labours appeared in 1775, and they have been continued 
under the title of Antichita di Ercolano. They contain 
engravings of the principal paintings, statues, bronzes, 
marble figures, medals, utensils, ic, with explanations. 
In the year 1807, an Academy of History and Antiquities, 
on a new plan, was established at Naples by Joseph Bona- 
parte. The number of members was lunitecl to forty; 
twenty of whom were to be appointed by the king, and 
these twenty were to present to him, for his choice, thi'ee 
names for each of those wanted to complete the fiiU num- 
ber. Eight thousand ducats were to be annually allotted 
for the current expenses, and two thousand for prices to 
the authors of four works which should be deemed by the 
aiademy most deserving of such a reward. A grand meet- 
ing was to be held every year, when the prizes were to be 
distributed, and analyses of the works read. The first 
meeting took place on the 25th of April 1807; but the 
subsequent changes in the political stats of Naples pre- 
vented the full and permanent establishment of this insti- 
tution. In the same year an academy was established at 
Florence for the illustration of Tuscan antiquities, which 
published some volumes of memoirs. 

I'rancc. — The old Academy of Inscriptions and Belles 
Lettret was an off-shoot from the Franch' Academy, which 

then at least contained the UiU of French learrung. Loms 
XIV. was of all French kings the one moat .occupied with 
his own aggrandiijement. Literature, and even science, be 
only encouraged so far as they redounded to hia own glbry. 
Nor were literary men inclined to assert their independence. 
Boileau well represented the spirit of the age when, in 
dedicating hiii tragedy of Berenice to Colbert, he wrote — 
" The least things become important if in any degree 
they can seivo the glory and pleasure of the king." Thu« 
it was that the Academy of Inscriptions arose. At the 
suggestion of Colbert, a company (a committee we should 
now call it) had been ap)X)iuted by the king, chosen from 
the French 'Academy, charged with the o£Bce of fumishing 
inscriptions, devices, aiid legends for medals. It consisted 
of four academicians : Chapelain, then considered the poet 
laureate of France, one of the authors of the critique on 
the Cid (see above); I'abbd do Bourzais; Franfois Car- 
pentier, an antiquary of high repute among his contom- 
l/oraries ; and I'abbi de Capagnes, who owed his appoint- 
ment more to the fulsome fiatterj' of his odes than his 
reiUy learned translations of Cicero and Sallnst. This 
company used to meet in Colbert's library in the winter, 
at his country-house at Sceaux in the summer, generally 
on Wednesdays, to serve the convenieiice of the minister, 
who was constantly present. ITieir meetings were princi- 
pally occupied with discussing the inscriptions, statues, 
and pictures intended for the decoration of Versailles; but 
M. Colbert, a really learned man and an enthusiastic col- 
lector of manuscripts, was often pleased to converse with 
them on matters of art, history, and antiquities. Their 
first published work was a collection of engravings, accom- 
panied by descriptions, designed for some of the tapestries 
at Versailles. Louvois, who succeeded Colbert as a super- 
intendent' of buildings, revived the company, which had 
begun to relax its labours. F^libien, the learned architect, 
and the two great poets Racine and Boileau, were added 
to their number. A series of medals was commenced, 
entitled Medailles de la Grande Bistoire, or, in other word^ 
the histoiy of le Grand Monarque. 

But it was to M. de Portchartrain, comptroller-general 
of finance and secretary of state, that the academy owed 
its institution. He added to the company Kenaudot and 
TourreO, both men of vast learning, the latter tutor to hia 
son, and put at its head his nephew, I'abbe Bignon, librarian 
to the king. By a new regulation, dated the 16th July 
1701, the Eoyal Academy of InscriptioTis and MedaU 
was instituted, "being composed of ten honorary members, 
ten pensioners, ten associates, And ten pupUs. On ita 
constitution We need not dwell, as it was an almost exact 
copy of that of the Academy of Science. ■ Among the 
regulations wo find the following, which indicates clearly 
the transition from a staff' of learned officials to a learned 
body : — " The academy shall concern itself with all that can 
contribute to the perfection of inscriptions and legends, of 
designs for such monuments and decorations as may ba 
submitted to its judgment; also Avith the description of all 
artistic works, present and future, and the historical ex- 
planation of the subject of such works; and as the know- 
ledge of Gr>eet and Latin antiquities, arid of these two 
languages, is the best guarantee for success in labours of 
this class, the academicians shall apply themselves to all 
that this division of learning includes, as one of the .most 
worthy objects of their pursuit." 

Among the first honorary members we find the indefa- 
tigable MabiUou (excluded from the pensioners by reason 
of his orders), Piro La Chaise, the king^s confessor, and 
Cardinal Rohan-; among the associates Fontenelle, and 
Rollin, whose Ancient History was submitted to the 
academy for revision. In 1 7 1 1 tnty completed L'Uistoirc 
Metalli^ve du Hoi, of which Saint-Siinon was asked- to 



■writo the preface. In 1716 the regent changed its title 
to that of the Academij of Inscriptions and Belles Leitres, 
a title which better suited its new character. 

In the great battle between the Ancients and the Modems 
which divided the learned world in the first half of the 
18th century, the Academy of Inscriptions naturally 
espoused the cause of the Ancients, as the Academy of 
Sciences did that of the Moderns. During the earlier 
years of the French Revolution the academy continued 
its labours uninterruptedly; and on the 22d of January 
1793, the day after the death of Louis XVI., we find in 
the Fi'oceedings that M. Brequigny read a paper on the 
projects of -marriage between Queen Elizabeth and the 
Dukes of Anjou and Alen9on. in the same year were 
published the 45th and 46th vols, of the Memoires de 
I' Acadimie. On the 2d of August of the same year the 
last seance of the old academy was held. More fortunate 
than its sister Academy of Sciences, it lost only three of its 
members by the guillotine. One of these was the astro- 
nomer Sylvain Bailly. Three others sat as members of 
the Convention ; but for the honour of the academy, we 
must add that all three were distinguished by their mode- 

In the first araught of the new Institute, October 25, 
1795, no class corresponded exactly to the old Academy 
of Inscriptions ; but most of the members who survived 
found themselves re-elected either in the 2d class of moral 
and political science, under which history and geography 
were included as sections, or more generally under the 3d 
class of literature and fine arts, which embraced ancient 
languages, antiquities, and monuments. 

In 18 iC the academy received again its old name. 
The Proceedings of the Society embijaco a vast field, and 
are of very various merits. Perhaps the subject.; on which 
it has shown most originality are comparative mythology, 
the history of science among the ancients, and the geo- 
graphy and antiquitijes of France. The old academy has 
reckoned among its menvbers De Sacy the Orientalist, 
Dansse de VUloison the philologist, Du Perron the traveller, 
Saintc-Croix and Du Theil the antiquarians, and Le Beau, 
who has been named the last of the Romans. The new 
academy has already inscribed on its lists the well-known 
names of Chanqiolliou, A. Remusat, Raynouard, Burnouf, 
and Augustin Thierry. 

Celtic Academy. — In consequence of tire attention of 
several literary men in Paris having been directed to Celtic 
antiquities, a Celtic Academy was established in that city in 
the year 1 800. Its objects were, first, the (jlucidation of the 
history, customs, antiquities, manners, and monuments of 
the Celts, particularly in France; secondly, ihe etymology 
of all the European languages, by the aid of the Celto- 
British, Welsh, and Erse ; and, thirdly, reL^earches relating to 
Druidism. The attention of the members was also parti- 
cularly called to the history and settlements of the Galata; 
in Asia. Lenoir, the keeper of the museum of French 
monuments, was appointed president. The academy still 
exists as La SociSle Jioyale des Antiqnaires dc France. 

IV. Academies op Medicine and Suegeky.- — Germany. 
— The Academy of Naturae Curiosi, called also the Leo- 
poldine Academy, was founded in 1062, by J. L. Bausch, 
a physician of Leipsic, who, imitating the example of the 
English, published a general invitation to medical men to 
communicate all extraordinary cases that occlirred in the 
course of their practice. The works of the Naturae Curiosi 
were at first published separately ; but this being attended 
with considerable inconvenience, a new arrangement was 
formed, in 1770, for publishing a volume of observations 
annually. From some cause, however, the first volume 
did not make its aiipearance until 1784, when it came 
'orth under the title of Ephemeridcs. In 1 687, the Emperor 

Leopold took tne society under his protection, and estab' 
lished it at Vierma; hence the title of Leopoldine which i' 
ia consequence assumed. But though it thus acquired ; 
name, it had no fixed place of meeting, and no regular 
assemblies ; instead of which there was a kind of bureau 
or office, first established at Breslau, and afterwards re- 
moved to Nuremberg, where communications from corre- 
spondents were received, and persons properly qualified 
admitted as members. By its constitution the Leopoldine 
Academy consists of a president, two adjuncts or secretaries, 
and colleagues or members, without any limitation as tc 
numbers. At their admission the last come under a two 
fold obligation — first, to choose some subject for discussion 
out of the animal, vegetable, or mineral kingdom, provided 
it has not been previously treated of by any colleague of 
the academy; and, secondly, to apply themselves to furnish 
materials for the annual Epliemerides. Each member also 
bears about with him the sj-mbol of the academy, consist- 
ing of a gold ring, whereon is represented a book open^ 
with an eye on one side, and on the other the academical 
motto of Nunquam, otiosus. 

The Academy of Surgery at Vienna was instituted by 
the present emperor, under the direction of the celebrated 
Brambella. In it there were at first only two professors ; 
and to their charge the instruction of a hundred and thirty 
young men was committed, thirty of whom had formerly 
been surgeons in the army. But latterly the number both 
of teachers and pupils was considerably increased. Gab- 
rielli was appointed to teach pathology and practice ; 
Boecking, anatomy, physiology, and physics; Streit, medica} 
and pharmaceutical surgery; Hunczowsky, surgical ope- 
rations, midwifery, and chirurgia forensis ; and Plenk, 
chemistry and botany. To these was also added Beindel, 
as prosecutor and extraordinary professor of surgery and 
anatomy. Besides this, the emperor provided a large and 
splendid edifice in Vienna, which affords accommodation 
both for the teachers, the students, pregnant women, 
patients for clinical lectures, and servants. For the use 
of this academy the emperor also purchased a medical 
libraiy, which is open every day ; a complete set of chirur- 
gical instruments; an apparatus for experiments in natural 
philosophy; a collection of natural history; a number of 
anatomical and pathological preparations ; a collection of 
preparations in wax, brought from Florence ; and a variety 
of other useful articles. Adjoining the building there 
is also a good botanical garden. With a view to encourage 
emulation among the students of this institution, three 
prize medals, each of the value of 40 florins, are annually 
bestowed on those who return the best answers to questions 
proposed the year before. These prizes, however, are not 
entirely founded by the emperor, but are iik part owing to 
the bbei-ality of Brendellius, formerly protochimrgus at 

France. — lioyal Academij of Medicine. — Jledicino is a 
science which has always engaged the atteution of the 
kings of France. Charlemagne established a school of 
medicine in the Louvre, and various societies have been 
founded, and privileges granted to the faculty by his suc- 
cessors. The Royal Academy of Medicine succeeded to the 
old Pioyal Society of Medicine and the Academy of Sur- 
gery. It was erected by a royal ordinance, dated December 
20, 1820. It was divided into three sections — medicine, 
surgery, and pharmacy. lu its constitution it closely 
resembled the Academy of Sciences {vid. sup.) Its function 
was to preserve or propagate vaccine matter, and answer 
inquiries addressed to it by the Government on the subject 
of epidemics, sanitary reform, and public health generally. 
It has maintained an enormous correspondence, in all 
quarters of the globe, and published extensive minutes. 

V. Academies of the Fin? Akts. — Rua.a.- — Tltf 

A C A D E :\1 Y 

academy at St Petersburg was established by the Empress 
Elizabeth, at the suggestion of Count Shuvaloff, and 
annexed to the Academy of Sciences. The fund for its 
support was X4000 per annum, and the foundation 
admitted forty scholars. Catharine II. formed it into a 
sep.imto institution, augmented the annual revenue to 
£12,000, and increased the number of scholars to three 
hundred ; she also constructed, for the use and accommo- 
dation of the members, a large circular building, which 
fronts the Neva. The scholars are admitted at the age of 
•^ix, and continue until they have attained that of eighteen. 
They are clothed, fed, and lodged at the expense of the 
crown ; and arc all instructed in reading and writing, 
arithmetic, the French and German languages, and draw- 
ing. At the age of fourteen they are at liberty to choose 
any of the following arts, di^nded into four classes, viz., 
first, painting in all its branches of history portraits, war- 
pieces, and landscapes, architecture, mosaic, enamelling, 
&c. ; secondly, engraving on copperplates, seal-cutting, &c. ; 
thirdly, carving on wood, ivorj', and amber; io\irthly, watch- 
making, turning, instrument making, casting statues in 
bronze and other metals, imitating gems and medals in 
paste and other compositions, gildirig, and varnishing. 
Prizes are annually distributed to those who excel nn any 
particular art ; and, from those who have obtained four 
prizes, twelve are selected^ who are sent abroad at the 
charge of the crown. A certain sum is paid to defray 
their travelling e-Tpenses ; and when they are settled in 
any town, they receive an annual salary of .£60, which is 
continued during four years. There is a small assortmeut 
of paintings for the use of the scholars ; and those who 
have made great progress are permitted to copy the pictures 
iu the imperial collection. For the purpose of design, 
there are models in plaster, all done at Rome, of the best 
antique statues in Italy, and of the same size with the 
originals, which the artists of the academy were employed 
to cast in bronze. 

France. — The Academy of Painting and Sculpture at 
Parii was founded by Louis XIV. in 1 G48, under the title of 
Academic Royale des Beaux Arts, to which was afterwards 
united the Academy of Architecture, erected 1671. The 
academy is composed of painters, sculptors, architects, 
engravers, and musical composers. From among the 
members of the society, who are painters, is chosen the 
director of the French Academic des Beaux Arts at Berne, 
also instituted by Louis XIV. in 1677. The director's pro- 
vince is to superintend the studies of the painters, sculptors, 
i-c, who, having been chosen by competition, are sent to 
Italy at the expense of the Government, to complete their 
studies in that country. Jlost of the celebrated French 
painters have begun their career in this way. 

The Hoyal Academy of Music is the name which, by a 
strange perversion of language, is given iu France to the 
grand opera. In 1571 the poet Baif established in his 
house an academy or school of music, at which ballets and 
masquerades were given. In 1645 Mazarin brought from 
Italy a troupe of actors, and established them in the Rue 
du Petit Bourbon, where they executed Jules Strozzi's 
" AchiUe in Scire," the first opera performed in France. 
After Jloliire's death in 1673, his theatre in the Palais 
P.oyal was given to Stdli, and there were performed all 
Gluck's great operas ; there Vcstris d.inced, and there was 
produced Jean Jacques Rousseau's " lievin du Village." 

Italy. — In 177& an Academy of Painting and SciJp- 
ture was established at Turin. The meetings were held 
in the palace of the king, who distributed prizes among 
the most successful members. In Milan an Academy of 
Architecture was established so early as the year 13S0, by 
Galeas ViscontL A'oout the middle of t'ne last century an 
Academy of the Arts was established there, after the 

example of those at Paris and Itome. Tho pupils were 
furnished with originals and models, and prizes were dis- 
tributed annually. The prize for painting was a gold 
medal, and no prize was bestowed till all tho competing 
pieces had been subjected to the examination and criticism 
of competent judges. Before the effects of the French 
Revolution reached Italy this was one of the best establish- 
ments of the kind in that kingdom. In the hall of the 
academy were some admirable pieces of Correggio, as well 
as several ancient paintings and statues of great merit, — 
particularly a small bust of Vitellias, and a statue of 
Agrippina, of most exquisite beauty, though it wants the 
head and arms. The Academy of the Arts, which had 
been long estabUshed at Florence, fell into decay, but was 
restored in the end of last centur}-. In it there are halls 
for nude and plaster figures, for the use of the sctJptor and 
tho painter. The hall for plaster figures had modeb of all 
the finest statues in Italy, arranged in two lines; but thf 
treasures of this and the other institutions for the fine art* 
were greatly diminished during the occupancy of Italy by 
the Frenclu In the saloon of the Academy of the Arts at 
Modena there are many casts of antique statues ; but after 
being plundered by the French it dwindled into a petty 
school for drawings from living models ; it contains the 
skull of Correggio. There is also an Academy of the Fine 
Arts in Mantua, and another at Venice. 

Spain. — In Madrid an Academy for Painting, Sculp- 
ture, and Architecture, was founded by Philip V. Tho 
minister for foreign affairs is president. Prizes are dis- 
tributed every three j-ears. In Cadiz a few students 
are supplied by Government with the means of drawing 
and modelling from figures ; and such as are not able 
to purchase the reqi^^ite instruments are provided with 

Sweden. — An Academy of the Fine Arts was founded at 
Stockholm in the year 1733 by Count Tessin. In its hall 
are the ancient figures of plaster presented by Lotiis XIV. 
to Charles XI. The works of the students are publicly 
exhibited, and prizes are distributed annually. Such of 
them as display distinguished ability obtain pensions from 
Government, to enable them to reside in Italy for some 
years, for the purposes of investigation and improvement. 
In tliis academy there are nine professors, and generally 
about four hundred students. In the year 1705 an 
Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture was 
established at Vienna, with tho vie* of encouraging and 
promoting the fine arts. 

England. — The Jloyal Academy of ArU in London was 
instituted for the encouragement of designing, painting, 
sculpture, &c., in the year 1768, with Sir J. Re>-nolds 
for its president. This academy is under the immediate 
patronage of the queen, and under the direction of forty 
artists of the first rank in their several professions. It 
furnishes, in winter, living models of different characters 
to draw after ; and in summer, models of the same kind 
to paint after. Nine of the ablest academicians are 
annually elected out of the forty, whose business it is to 
attend by rotation, to set the figures, to examine the 
performance of the students, and to give them necessary 
instructions. There are like\\ise professors of painting, 
sculpture, architecture, anatomy, and chemistry, who 
annually read public lectures en the subjects of theii 
several departments ; besides a president, a council, and 
other officers. The admission to this academy is free to 
all students properly qualified to reap advantage from the 
studies cultivated in it ; and there is an annual exhibition 
at Burlington House of paintings, sculptures, and designs, 
open to aU artists of distinguished merit. 

The Academy of Ancient Music was established in Lon- 
don in 1710, by several persons of distinction, and other 

A C A — A C G 


amateurs, in conjimction with the most eminent masters of 
the time, with the view of promoting the study and practice' 
of Tocal and instrumental harmony. This institution, 
which had the advantage of a library, consisting of the most 
celebrated compositions, both foreign and domestic, in 
manuscript and in print, and which was aided by the per- 
formances of the gentlemen of the chapel royal, and the 
choir of St Paul's, with the boys belonging to each, con- 
tinued to flourish for many years. In 1731a charge of 
plagiarism brought against Bononcini, a member of the 
academy, for claiming a madrigal of Lotti of Venice as 
his own, threatened the existence of the institution. Dr 
Greene, who had introduced the madrigal into the aca- 
demy, took part with Bononcini, and withdrew from the 
society, taking with him the boys of St Paul's. In 1734 
Mr Gates, another member of the society, and master of 
the children of the royal chapel, also retired in disgust; 
so that the institution was thus deprived of the assistance 
which the boys afforded it in singing the soprano parts. 
From this time the academy became a seminary for the 
instruction of youth in the principles of music and the 
laws of harmony. Dr Pepusch, who was one of its foun- 
ders, was active in accomplishing this measure; and by 
the expedient. of educating boys for their purpose, and 
admitting auditor members, the subsistence of the aca- 
demy was continued. The Royal Academy of Music 

was formed by tha principal nobility and gentry of the 
kingdom, for iho performance of operas, composed by 
Handel, and conducted by him at the theatre in tiie Hay- 
market. The subscription amounted to X50,000, and the 
king, besides subscribing XIOOO, allowed the society to 
assume the title of li'jyal Academy. It consisted of a 
governor, deputy-governor, and twenty directors. A con- 
tost .between Handel and Senesino, one of the performers, 
in which the directors took the part of the latter, occa- 
sioned the dissolution of the academy, after it had subsisted 
with reputation for more than nine years. The present 
Royal Academy of Music dates from 1822, and was incor- 
porated in 1830 under the patronage of the queen. It 
instructs pupOa of both sexes in music, charging 33 guineas 
per annum; but many receive instruction free. It also 
gives public concerts. In this institution the leading" 
instrumentalists and vocalists of England have received 
their education. (See Musical Directory published by 
Rudall, Carte, and Co.) 

Academy is a term also applied to those royal coUegiat • 
seminaries in which young men are educated for the navj 
and army. In our country there are three colleges of 
this description — the Royal Naval CoDege at Portsmouth, 
the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, and the Royal 
Military College, Sandhurst. 

ACADIE, or Acadia, the name borne by Nova Scotia 
while it remained a French settlement. 

ACALEPHvE (from o.KaXrj'fiv, a nettle), a name given to 
the animals commonly known as jcily-fish, sea-Uubber, 
Medusce, sea-nettles, &c. 

ACANTHOCEPHALA (from ^KavBa, a thorn, and 
Ke4>a\q, the head), a group of-parasitic worms, having the 
heads armed with spines or hooks. 

ACANTHOPTERYGII (from aKavBa, a thorn, and 
Trripv^, a wing), an order of fishes, having bony skeletons 
witl^ prickly spinous processes in the dorsal fins. 

ACANTHUS, a genus of plants belonging to the natural 
order Acanthaceae. The species are natives of the southern 
parts of Europe. The most common species is the Acan- 
thus mollis or Branhursine. It has large, deeply-cut, hairy, 
shining leaves, which are supposed to have suggested the 
decoration of the Corinthian column. Another species. 
Acanthus spinosus, is so called from its spiny leaves. 

ACAPULCO, a town and port in Mexico, on a bay of 
the Pacific Ocean, about 190 miles S.S.W. of Mexico, in 
N. kt. 16° 50', W. long. 99° 46'. The harbour, which is 
the best on the Pacific coast, is almost completely land- 
locked. It is easy of access, and the anchorage is so 
secure that heavily-laden ships can lie close to the rocks 
which surround it. The town lies N.W. of the harbour, 
and is defended by the castle of San Diego, which stands 
on an eminence. During a part of the dry season the air 
is infected with the putrid cfHuvia of a morass eastward of 
the town. This, together with the heat of the climate, 
aggravated by the reflection of the sun's rays from the 
granite rocks that environ the to^v^l, renders it very un- 
healthy, especially to Europeans, though a passage cut 
through the rocks, to let in the sea breeze, has tended to 
improve its salubrity. Acapulco was in former times the 
great depot of the trade of Spain with the East Indies. 
A 'galleon sailed from this port to Manilla in the Philippine 
Islands, and another returned once a year laden with the 
treasures and luxuries of the East. On the arrival of this 
galleon a great fair was held, to which merchants resorted 
from all parts of lleiico. The between Acapulco 

and Mamlla was annihilated when Mexico became inde- 
pendent; and, from this cause, and also on account of tha 
frequent earthquakes by which the town has been visited, 
it had sunk to comparative insignificance, when the dis- 
covery of gold in California gave its trade a fresh impetus. 
It 13 now the most important seaport in Mexico, and is 
regularly touched at by the Pacific mail steamers. Besides 
having a large transit trade, it exports wool, skins, cocoa, 
cochineal, and indigo; and the imports include cottons, 
silks, and hardware. Population about 5000. 

ACARNANIA, a province of ancient Greece, now called 
Carnia. It was bounded on the N. by the Ambracian 
gulf, on the N.E. by Amphilochia, on the W. and S.AV. 
by the Ionian Sea, and on the E. by .(Etolia. It was 
a hiUy country, with numerous lakes and tracts of rich 
pasture, and its hiUs are to the present day crowned with 
thick wood. It was celebrated for its" excellent breed of 
horses. The Acarnanians, according to Mr Grote, though 
admitted as Greeks to the Pan-Hellenic games, were more 
akin in character and manners to their barbarian neighbours 
of Epirus. Up to the time of the Peloponnesian war, they 
are mentioned only as a race of rude shepherds, divided 
into numerous petty tribes, and engaged in continual strife 
and rapine. They were, however, favourably distinguished 
from their jEtolian neighbours by the fidelity and stead- 
fastness of their character. They were good soldiers, and 
excelled as slingers. At the date above mentioned they 
begin, as the allies of the Athenians, to make a more pro- 
:mnent figure in the history of Greece. The chief toivn 
was Stratos, and subsequently Leucas. 

ACARUS (from iKopt, a mite), a genus of Arachnides, 
represented by the cheese mite and other foims. 

ACCELERATION is a term employed to denote gene- 
rally the rate at which the velocity of a body, whoso 
motion is not uniform, either incroascs or decreases. As 
the velocity is continually changing, and cannot therefore 
be estimated, aj in uniform motion, by the space actually 
passed over in a certain time, its value at any instant haa 
to be measured by the space the body would describe in 
the unit of time, supposing that at aiul frora the instant ia 


A C C — A C C 

question tho motion became and continued uniform. If 
tlio motion is such that the velocity, thus nifcasurcd, in- 
creases or decreases by equal amounts in equal iuter»als of 
time, it is said to bo uniformly accelerated or retarded. 
In that Ciiso, if/ denote tho amount of increase or decrease 
of velocity corresponding to tho unit of time, tho whole of 
such increase or decrease in t units of time will evidently 
bo ft, and therefore if « bo the initial and v tho final 
velocity for that interval, ti — u ^fl, — the upper sign apply- 
ing to accelerated, the lower to retarded, motion. To find 
the distance or space, i, gone over in i units of time, let i 
bo divided into n eaual intervals. Tho velocities at the 

^ 2/ 

end of the succossive intervals will be u ± / - , « ■<=/ — , 


u ••■/ — , iKo. Let it now be supposed that during each 

of those small intervals the body has moved uniformly 
with its velocity at tho end of the interval, then (since a 
body moving uniformly for x seconds with a velocity of y 
feet per second will move through tsy feet) the epaces 
describod in tho successive intervals would be the product 

of tho velocities given above by - , and tho whole spaoo in 

the time t would bo the sum of these spaces; i,s., 

« = j(-(l + 1 .... repeated n times) */• -j(l -I- 2 -H 3 +n) 


^ii ="->(..!). 

It is evident, however, tuat as tho increase or decrease of 
velocity takes place continuously, this sum will be too 
large; but the greater n is taken, or (which is the same 
thing) tho smaller the intervals are during which the 
velocity is Bupposed to be uniform, tho nearer will tho 
result be to the trutL Hence making n as largo as pos- 
sible, or - as small as possible, i.e., — 0, we obtain as the 

correct expression s = ut ± - /t'. 

In the case of motion 
0, and the above formulae become «=_/?, 

from rest, 

"We have a familiar instance of uniformly accelerated 
and uniformly retarded motion in the case of bodies fall- 
ing and rising vertically near the earth's surface, where, if 
the resistance of tho air be neglected, the velocity of the 
body is increased or diminished, in consequence of the 
earth's attraction, by a uniform amount in each second of 
time. To this amount is given the name of the accelera- 
tion of gravity (usually denoted by the letter <?), the value 
of which, in our latitudes and at the surface of the sea, is 
very nearly 32J feet per second. Hence the space a body 
falls from rest in any number of seconds is readily found 
by multiplying IG-,', feet by the square of th« number of 
seaonds. For a fuller account of accelerating force, — tx- 
preased in the notation of the Differential Calculus by 

/=■ ^ J- or/= !t —J, — the reader is referred to the article 


ACCENT, ill reading or spedking, is the stress or 
pressure of tho voice upon a s^iaUe of a word. The deriva- 
tion of the term (Lat. accerUus, quasi adcantus) clearly shows 
that it was employed by the classical grammarians to 
express the production of a musical effect. Its origin is 
therefore to be sought in the natural desire of man to 
graiify the ear by modulated sound, and probably no 
lang;«ige exists in which it does not play a more or less 
important part. " Only a machine," says Professor Blackie 
( Place and Poioer of Accent in Language, in the Transac- 
tions of the Roi/al Society of Edinbun/h, iS71), "could 

produce a continnoos series of sounds in andistinguifihcd 
monotonous repetitions like tlie tUm, tUm, turn, of a drum; 
a rational being using words for a rational purpose tck 
manifest his .thoughts and feelings, necessarily accents both 
words and sentences in some way or other." That tha 
accentuation of some languages is more distinct, various, 
and effective than that of others is beyond question, but 
there are none, so far as wo know, in wliich its power ia 
not felt The statement sometimes made, that the French 
have no accent in their words, can only mean that their 
accent is less emphatic or less variously so than that 
of certain other nations. If it means more, it is not 
merely an error, but an absurdity. From this conception 
of the subject, it is obvious that accent must be funda- 
mentally the same thing in all languages, and must aim 
more or less successfully at the same results, however 
diverse the rules by which it is governed. But there are, 
nevertheless, important differences between the conditions 
under which accent operated in the cbssical, and those in 
which it operates in modem tongues. It did not wholly 
determine the rhythm, nor in tho least affect the metre of 
classical verse ; it did not fix the quantity or length of 
classical syllables. It was a mu.sical clement superadded 
to the measured structure of prose and verse. 

Passing over the consideration of the accentual system of 
the Hebrews with the single remark, that it exhibits, thuugh 
with more elaborate and complicated expression, most of 
the characteristics both of Greek and English accent, we 
find that the Greeks employed three gi-ammatical accents, 
viz., the acute accent ('), which shows when the tone of the 
voice is to be raised ; the grave accent ("), when it is to be 
depressed ; and the circumflex accent {^), composed of both 
the acute and the grave, and pointing out a kind of undula- 
tion of the voice. Tho Latins have made the same use as the 
Greeks of these three accents, and various modem nations, 
French, English, ic., have also adopted them. As to the 
Greek accents, now seen bott in manuscripts and printed 
books, there has been great dispute about their antiquity 
and use. But the following things seem to be undoubtedly 
taught by the ancient grammarians and rhetoricians: — (1.) 
That by accent (Trpoow&ia, toi'os) the Greeks understood^e 
elevation or falling of the voice on a particular syllable 
of a word, either absolutely, or in rektion to its position 
in a sentence, accompanied with an intension or remisnon 
of the vocal utterance on that syllable (cTriTao-t?, ay«rtt), 
occasioning a marked predominance of that syllable over 
the other syllables of the word. The predominance thus 
given, however, had no effect whatever on the quantity 
— long or short — of the accented syllable. The accented 
syllable in Greek as in English, might be long or it might 
be short ; elevation and emphasis of utterance being one 
thing, and prolongation of tho vocal sound quite another 
thiug, as any one acquainted with the first elements of 
music will at once perceive. The difficulty wliich many 
modern schokrs have experienced in conceiving how a 
syllable could be accented and not lengthened, has arisen 
partly from a complete want of distinct ideas on the nature 
of the elements of which human speech is composed, and 
partly also from a vicious practice which has long pre- 
vailed in the English schoob, of reading Greek, not accord- 
ing to the laws of its own accentuation, but according to 
the accent of Latin handed down to us through the Roman 
Catholic Church. For the rules of Latin accentuation are, 
as Quinlilian and Cicero and the grammariiins expressly 
mention, very different from the Greek; and the long syllable 
of a word has the accent in Latin in a hundred cases, where 
the musical habit of the Greek car placed it upon the short. 
There is, besides, a vast number of words in Greek accented 
on tho last sylhble (like volunteer, amhusca'de, in EngUsh), 
of which not a single instance occurs in the Latin lau> 



gtiage.. Partly, however, from ignorance, partly from care- 
lessness, and partly perhaps fi;om stupidity, our scholars 
tianaferre^i the pronunciation of the more popular learned 
language to that which waa lesa known; and with the 
help of time and constant usage, bo habituated themselves 
to identify the accented with the long syllable, according 
to the analogy of the Latio, that they began seriously 
!io doubt the possibility of pronouncing otherwise. Eng- 
lish scholars have long ceased to recognise its existence, 
and persist in reading Greek as if the accentual marks 
meant nothing at alL Even those who allow (liko Mr 
W. G. Clark and Professor Munro) that ancient Greek 
accent denoted an elevation of voice or tone, are still of 
opinion that it is impossible to reproduce it in modern 
times. " Here and there," says the former (Cambridge 
Jaunud of Philology, vol. L 1868), "a person may be 
found with such an exquisite ear, and such plastic organs 
li speech, as to be able to reproduce the ancient distinction 
between the length and tone of syllables accented and 
unaccented, and many not so gifted may fancy that they 
reproduce it when they do nothing of the kind. For the 
mass of boys and men, pupils as well as teachers, the dis- 
tinction is practically ioapossible." But, in spite of such 
pessimist views, it may, on the whole, be safely asserted 
that since the appearance of a more pldlosophicad spirit in 
philology, under the guidance of Hermaim, Boeckh, and 
other master-minds among the Germans, the best gram- 
marians have come to recognise the importance of this 
element of ancient Hellenic enunciation, while not & kvf 
carry out their principles into a consistent practice. The 
only circumstance, indeed, that prevents oiu' English 
scholars from practically recognising the element of accent 
in classical teaching, is the apprehension that this Would 
interfere seriously with the practical inculcation of quantity ; 
an apprehension in which they are certainly justiiied by 
the practice of ohe modem Greeks, who have given such a 
predominance to accent, as altogether to subordinate, and 
in many cases completely overwhelm quantity; and who 
also, in public token of this departure from the classical 
habit of pronunciation, regularly compose their versos with 
a reference to the spoken accent only, leaving the quantity 
— as in modern language generally — altogether to the dis- 
cretion of the poet. But, as experiment wiU teach any 
one that there is no neoes.^ity whatever in the nature of 
the human voice for this confusion of two essentially 
different elements, it is not unlikely that English scholars 
will soon follow the example of the Germans, and mad 
Greek prose at least systematically according to the Taws 
of classical speech, as handed down to us by the gram- 
marians of Alexandria and Byzantium. In the recitation 
of classical verse, of course, as it was not constructed on 
accentual principles, the skilful reader will naturally allow 
the musical accent, or the emphasis of the rhythm to over- 
bear, to a great extent, or altogether to overwhelm, the 
accent of the individual word; though with regard to the 
recitation of verse, it will always remain a problem how far 
the ancients themselves did not achieve an " accentwum 
eum quantitaie apta conciliatio," such as that which Her- 
mann (De aneiulanda, ratione, dtc.) describes as the per- 
fection of a polished classical enunciation. A historic 
survey of the course of learned opinion on the subject of 
accent, from the age of Erasmus down to the present day, 
forms an interesting and important part of Professor 
Blackie's essay quoted above. See Permington's work on 
Greek Pronunciation, Cambridge, 1844; the German work 
on Greek Accent by Qdttling (English), London, 1,831 ; and 
Blackie's essay on the Place and Power of Accent, in the 
^Transactions of the lioyal Society of Edinburgh, 1870-71. 
If there is any perplexity regarcUng the nature or influ- 
ence of classical accent, there Is none about English. /{ 

does not conflict e r combine with the modulations of quan- 
tity. It is the sole determining element in our metrical 
system. Almost the very earliest of our authors, the 
Venerable Bede, notices^ this. In defining rhythm he 
says — "It is a modulated composition of words, net 
according to the laws of .metre, but adapted in the number 
of its syllables to the judgment of the ear, as are tlie vers' 
of omr vulvar poets" {Bede, Op, voL i. p. 57, ed. 1553} 
We have, of course, long vowels and short, like the Greeks 
and the Romans, but we do not regulate our verse by 
them; and our mode of accentuation is sufficiently despotic 
to occasionally almost change their character, so that a 
long vowel shall seem short, and vice versa. In reality 
this is not so. The long vowel remains long, but then ita 
length gives it no privilege of place in a verse. It may 
modify the enunciation, it may increase the roU of sound, 
but a short vowel could take its place without a violation 
of mstre. Take the word far, fov example; there the 
vowel a ia long, yet in the line 

" Moon, far-spooming Ocean Dowa to thep 

it is not necessary that the a in far should be long; a 
short vowel would do as well for metrical purposes, and 
would even bring out more distinctlv the accentuation of 
the syllable spoom. 

Originally English accent was upon the root, and not 
upon inflectional syllables. Qottling finds the same prin- 
ciple operating in Greek, but in that language it certainly 
never exercised the \iniversal sway it does in the earlier 
forms of English. In the following passage from Beowulf, 
the oldest monument of English literature, belonging, in its 
first form, to a period even anterior to the invasion of 
Britain by the Angles and Saxons, we shall put the 
accented or emphatic syllables in italics: — 

Strdet waes sid/n-fah . . The street was of variegated stoof^ 

stig wisode the path directed 

gumam aet-gaedexe . . the men together ; 

yiid-'hyiue scan .... the war-coiselet shon 

heard, hand-looen . . . hard, hand-locked ; 

hring-iien scir .... the ring-iron bright 

s<mg m sea/rvfum . . . sang in their trappings, 

p4 hie ti5 »«Ze fuidura . when they to the half forward 

m hyra gr^rt-geatwum . in their terrible armour 

gaTtgaji. owomon . , . came to go. 

It will be observed that in these verses the accent (not to 
be confounded with the mark which is used in Anglo-Saxon 
to show that the vowel over which it is placed is long) is 
invariably on a monosyllable, or on the root part of a 
word of more than one syllable. The passage is also a 
good illustration of what has previously been stated, that 
the metre or rhythm in English is determined not by the 
vowel-quantity of a syllable, but by the stress of the voice 
on particular syllables, whether the vowels are long or 
short. In the older forms of English verse the accent It. 
somewhat irregular; or, to put it more accurately, the 
number of syllables intervening between the recurrent 
accents is not definitely fixed. Sometimes two or more' 
intervene, sometimes none at all. Take, for example, the 
opening lines of Langland's poem, entitled the Vision of 
Piers the Ploiimian: — 

" In a 5omer scson 
Whan Boft was the Sonne, 
I sAflpe me in shroudca. 
As I a sJupe were, * 
In habit as an Aeremite 
UnAoly of workea. 
Went unde in this world 
lyonias to here. 
Ac on a May vwrnyn^c 
On Malaeme huUes, 

Me by/rf a/crly, 
Of /airy, mo thoaghtc ; 
I W.-1S wery {orwandni, 
And wcxt me to rjste 
Under a brode hanke 
By a homes aide. 
And as I luy (tnd Iffnci^ 
And lokei in the waters, 
I sfonibrcd in a slepyng, 
It sacyuei so meija." 

But no matter how irregular the time elapsing between the 

T. — II 



recurrence of the accents they are always on the root- 

Tbu Norman Conquest, however, introduced a different 
Bysteci, which gradually modified the rigid uniformity of 
the native English accentuation. The change 19 visible as 
early as the end of the 12th century. By the middle of 
the 14 th, that is to say, in tlio age of Chaucer, it h in full 
operation. Its origin is thus explained by Mr Marsh, in 
his Origin and Uislory of the £n{/lis/i Language (Lond., 
18G2) : — " The vocabularj- of the French language is de- 
rived, to a great extent, from Latin words deprived of their 
terminal inflections. The French adjectives mortal and 
fatal are formed from the Latin mortalis and faialu, by 
dropping tlie inflected syllable; the French nouns nation 
and condition from the Latin accusatives nationem, condi- 
iioncm, by rejecting the em final In most cases, the last 
syllable retained in the French derivatives was prosodically 
long in the Latin original ; and either because it was also 
accented, or because the slight accent which is perceivable 
in the French articulation represents temporal length, the 
stress of the voice was laid on the final syllable of all these 
words. 'When we borrowed such words froffi the French 
we took them with their native accentuation ; and as ac- 
cent is much stronger in English than in French, the final 
syllable was doubtless more forcibly enunciated in the 
former thau in the latter language." The new mode of ac- 
centuation soon began to affect even words of pure English 
origin — e.g., in Robert of Gloucester we find falsA«fe instead 
of fatshede, tidinje instead of tidinge, tieviehede instead 
of treivehede, gladrfore instead of gladdoxe, wis/tcAe instead 
of u'iiliche, begynny«(/ instead of bcgj/nnyng, endyng in- 
stead of eht/yng. In the Proverbs of Hendyng we have no- 
thyng for no(/ang, habitvj for Aatben, fomon for/omon ; in 
Jiobert of Bninne, haiydom for halydom, c\othyng for clot/t- 
ing, gietand for gretand. Chaucer furnishes numerous in- 
stances of the same foreign influence revolutionising the 
native accent ; hedom forfredora, hethenewe for hethenesse, 
worthiness for wo/-(/i inesse, lowly for lowly, vrynnynge for 
U'yn7iyBge, weddynge for weddynge, comynge for comynge ; 
and it is traceable even in Spenser. On the other hand, 
a contrary tendency must not be overlooked. We see an 
effort, probably unconscious, to compel words of French 
origin to submit to the rule of English accentuation. It is 
noticeable in the century before Chaucer : in Chaucer him- 
self it begins to work strongly ; mortal becomes mortal ; 
\^mpest, tempest; snhstante, suistance ; amyable, amyMe ; 
morsel, morsel; service, servise ; duchfjsf, diichesae ; cosyn,- 
cosyn, <fcc. ; while a multitude of words oscillate between 
the rival modes of accentuation, now following the French 
and now the English. Before and during the Elizabethan 
period, the latter began to prove the stronger, and for the 
last 300 years it may be said to have, for the most part. 
Anglicised the accent and the nature of the foreign additions 
to our vocabulary. Nevertheless, many French words stiU 
retain their own accent. Morris {Historical Outlines of 
English Accidence, p. 75) thus classifies these : — 

*' (1.) Nouns in -ade, -icr {-«r), -e', -«e, or -oon, -ine, {-in), as cas- 
cade', crusade', &c. ; cavalier', charulcIU/, &c ; gazcticci' , pioneer', 
kc. {in conformity with these we say harpooneer^, mountaineer',) ; 
le'jatee', payec^, &c. ; balloon', cartoon', &c ; chagrin', violin', ic. ; 
routing, marine', &c. 

"Also the follow-in^ words :—iw<fe(', bruneltc^, gaseUtf, cravat", 
canal', control', gazelle ,. amateur', fatigued, antique', police', &c 

"(2.) Adjectives (a) from Lat. adj. imus, as august, benign', ro- 
bust, ke^; (6) in -ose, as morose^, verbose', kc ; (c) -esqiu, as bur- 
lesjue , grotesque', ic 

"(3.) Some verbs, as laptiz/f, cajoW, cares^, carouse, chastise', 
escape', esteem', &c" 

To these may be added the Greek and Latin words 
which have been introduced into English for scientific and 
other learned purposes, and which, not having been altered 
in form, retain their original accentuation — as auro'ra, 

coro'na, colot'svt, idea, hypoth'eiis, eauu'ra, dice'resit, diag- 
no'tit, diluvium, diplo'ma, effluvium, ilyt'ium, <L'c. ; besides 
the still larger number that have suffered a slight modifi- 
cation of form, but no change cf accent, as dialectic, diag- 
nos'tic, ejjlores'cent, elliptic, emer'sion, emol'lient, kc. The 
Italian contributions to our tongue retain their original 
accent when the form is untouched, as mulatto, tona'ta, vol- 
ca'no, but lose it when the form is shortened, as Lan'dii 
(It. handi'to). 

A change in the position of the accent serves a variety 
of purposes in EnglisL It distinguishes (1.) a noun from 
a verb, as ac'ceut, accent'; augment, augment'; torment, 
torment'; com'ment, comment'; con'sort, consort'; con'tcst, 
contest'; con'trast, contrast'; di'gest, digest'; dis'count, dis- 
count'; in'sult, insult', &c. ; (2.) an adjective iTom. n verb, 
as ab'sent, absent'; fre'quent, frequent'; pre'sent, present'; 
com'pound, compound', &c ; (3.) an adjective from a noun, 
as cx'pert, expert'; com'pact, compact'. It also denotes a 
difference of meaning, e.g., con 'jure, conjure'; in'cense, 
incense'; au'gust, august'; su'pine, supine'. 

Accent has exercised a powerful influence in changing 
the/orTHj of words. The unaccented syllables in tho 
course of time frequently dropped off. This process was 
necessarily more rapid and thorough in English than in 
many other languages which were not subjected to equal 
strain. The Norman Conquest made havoc of the English 
tongue for a time. It was expelled from the court, the 
schools, the church, and the tribunals of justice ; it ceased 
to be spoken by priests, la^v)•er3, and nobles ; its only 
guardians were churls, ignorant, illiterate, indifferent to 
grammar, and careless of diction. VTho can wonder if, 
in circumstances like these, it suffered disastrous eclipse 1 
The latter part of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle furnishes 
melancholy evidence of the chaos into which it had fallen, 
jet out of this chaos it rose again into newness of life, 
reforming and re-accenting its half-mined vocabulary, and 
drawing from the very agent of its destruction the elements 
of a richer and more plastic expression. For it cannot bo 
doubted that the irregularities now existing in English 
accent, though perplexing to a foreigner, copiously vary 
the modulation, and so increase the flexibility and power 
of the language. The older forms of EngUsh, those in use 
before the Conquest, and down to the period of Chaucer, 
are stiff, monotonous, and unmusical A hard strength is 
in the verse, but no liquid sweetness or nimble grace. 
Now, it is possible, in spite of our. deficiency in vowel 
endings, to produce the noblest melody in accent words 
known to the modern world. Almost every kind of metre, 
swift or slow, airy or majestic, has been successfully 
attempted since the age of the Canterbury Tales. AVhen 
we compare the drone of Caedmon with the aerial melody 
of the Skylark, the Cloud, and the Areihusa of Shelley, 
we see what an infinite progress has been made by 
the development of accent in the rhythm of our native 

See Lectures on the English Language, by G. P. Marsh 
(Lond. 1861); the Origin and History of the English 
language, ic, by G. P. Marsh (Lond. 1862) ; Hi.'^torisclit 
Grammatik der Englische Sprache, von. C. Friedrich Koch 
a863-69); The English Language, by R. G. Latham 
(1855); Philological Essays, hy the Rev. Richard Gamett 
(Lond. 1853); On Early English Pronunciation, uith 
especial reference to Shaispere and Chaucer, by A. J. Ellis 
(Lond. 1SG7-71) ; Historical Outlines of English Accidence, 
by Dr R. Morris (Lond. 1872). (j. M. E.) 

ACCEPTANCE is the act by which a person binds 
himself to comply with the request contained in a bill of 
exchange addressed to him by the drawer. IiJ all cases it 
is understood to be a promise to pay the bill in money, the 
law not recognising an acceptance in which the promise is 

A C — A C C 


to pay in some otJ»er way, as, for example, partly in money 
and partly by another biU. Acceptance may be absolute, 
conditional, or partial Absolute acceptance is an engage- 
ment to pay the bill strictly according to its tenor, and is 
made by the drawee subscribing his name, with or without 
the word " accepted," at the bottom of the bUl, or across 
the face of it Conditional acceptance is a promise to pay 
on a contingency occurring, as, for example, on the sale of 
■jertain goods consigned by the drawer to the acceptor. No 
contingency is allowed to be mentioned in the body of the 
bUl, but a contingent acceptance is ciuite legal, and equally 
binding with an absolute acceptance upon the acceptor 
when the contingency has occurred. Partial acceptance is 
where the promise is to pay only part of the sum mentioned 
in the bUl, or to pay at a different time or place from 
those specified. In all cases acceptance involves the 
signature of the acceptor either by himself or by some 
person duly authorised on his behalf. A biU can be 
accepted in the first instance only by the person or persons 
to whom it is addressed ; bpt if he or they faU to do so, it 
may, after being protested for non-acceptance, be accepted 
by another " supra protest," for the sake of the honour of 
one or more of the parties concerned in it 

ACCESSION is applied, in a historical or constitutional 
sense, to the coming to the throne of a dynasty or line of 
sovereigns, as the accession of the House of Hanover. The 
corresponding term, when a single sovereign is spoken of, 
is " succession." In law, accession is a method of acquiring 
property, by which, in things that have a close connection with 
or dependence on one another, the property of the principal 
draws after it the property of the accessory, according to the 
principle, accessio cedet principali, or accessorlum sequitur 
principale. Thus, the owner of a cow becomes likewise the 
owner of the calf, and a landowner becomes proprietor of 
what is added to his estate by alluvion. Accession produced 
by the art or industry of man has been called industrial 
accession, and- may be by specification, as when wine is made 
cut of grapes, or by confusion or commixture. Accession 
sometimes likewise signifies consent or acquiescence. ' Thus, 
in the bankrupt law of Scotland, when there is a settlement 
by a trust-deed, it is accepted on the part of each creditor 
by a deed of accession. 

ACCKSSORY, a person guilty of a felonious offence, 
not as principal, but by participation ; as by advice, command, 
aid, or concealment. In treason, accessories are excluded, 
every individual concerned being considered as a principal 
In crimes under the degree of felony, also, all persons 
concerned, if guilty at all, are regarded as principals. (See 
24 and 25 Vict. c. 94. s. 8.) There are two kinds of 
accessories — before the fact, and after it. The first is he 
who commands or procures another to commit felony, and 
is not present himself ; for if he be present, he is a principal 
The second is he who receives, assists, or comforts any 
man that has done murder or felony, whereof he has 
knowledge. An accessory before the fact is liable to th " 
same punishment as the principal ; and there is now indeed 
no practical difference between such an accessory and a 
principal in regard either to indictment, trial, or punishment 
{24 and 25 Vict. c. 94). Accessories after the fact are in 
general punishable with imprisonment for a period not 
exceeding two years {ih. s. 4) The law of (Scotland makes 
no distinction between the accessory to any crime (called 
art and part) and the principal Except in the case of 
treason, accession after the fact is not noticed by the 
law of Scotland, unless as an element of evidence to prove 
previous accession. 

ACCL4 JUOLI, DoNATO, was born at Florence in 1428. 
He was famous for his learning, especially in Greek and 
mathematics, and for his scriices to his native state. 
Having previously been intrusted with several important 

embassies, he became Gonfalonier of Florence in 1473. He 
died at Milan in 1478, when on his way to Paris to ask the 
aid of Louis XI. on behalf of the Florentines against Pope 
Sixtus IV. His body was taken back to Florence, and 
buried in the church of the Carthusians at the public 
expense, and his daughters were portioned by his fellow- 
citizens, the fortune he left being, owing to his probity and 
disinterestedness, very small He wrote a Latin translar 
tion of some of Plutarch's Lives (Florence, 1478); Com- 
mentaries on Aristotle's Ethics and Politico ; and the livea 
of Hannibal, Scipio, and Charlemagne. In the work on 
Aristotle he had the co-operation of his master Argyropylus. 

ACCIDENT. An attribute. of a thing or class of things, 
which neither belongs to, nor is in any way deducible from, 
the essence of that thing or class, is termed its accident. 
An accident may be either inseparable or separable : the 
former, when we can conceive it to be absent from that 
with which it is found, although it is always, as far as we 
know, present, i.e., when it is not necessarily but is uni- 
versally present ; the latter, when it is neither necessarily 
nor universaDy present. It is often difficult to determine 
whether a particular attribute is essential or accidental to the 
object we are investigating, subsequent research frequently 
proving that what we have described as accidental ought to 
be classed as essential, and vice versa Practically, and 
for the time being, an attribute, which neither directly nor 
indirectly forms part of the signification of the term~ used 
to designate the object, may be considered an accident ; 
and many philosophers look upon this as the only intelligible 
ground for the distinction. Propositions expressing the 
relation between a thing or class and an accident, and also 
between a thing or class and its property (i.e., something 
deducible from, but not strictly forming part of, its essence), 
are variously styled "accidental," "synthetical," "real," 
"ampUative," in contradistinction to "essential," "analy- 
tical," "verbal," and "explicative" propositions. The 
former give us information that we could not have dis- 
covered from an analysis of the subject notion — e.y., "man 
is found in New Zealand ;" the latter merely state what we 
already know, if we understand the meaning of the language 
employed, e.g., "man is rational." 

ACCIUS, a poet of the 16th century, to whom is 
attributed A Paraphrase of .^sop's Fables, of which Julius 
Scaliger speaks with great praise. 

ACCIUS (or Attius), Lucius, a Latin tragic poet, was 
the son of a freedman, born, according to St Jerome, in 
the year of Rome 583, though this appears somewhat 
uncertain. He made himself known before the death of 
Pacuvius by a dramatic piece, which he exhibited the same 
year that Pacuvius brought one on the stage, the latter being 
then eighty years of age, and Accius only thirty. We do 
not know the name of this piece of Accius's, but the titles 
of several of his tragedies are mentioned by various authors. 
He wrote on the most celebrated stories which had been 
represented on the Athenian stage ; but he did not always 
take his subject from Grecian story ; for he composed at 
least one dramatic piece wholly Roman, entitled £ridus, 
and referring to the expulsion of the Tarquins. Only 
fragments of his tragedies remain. He did not confine 
himself to dramatic writing, having left other productions, 
particularly his Annals, mentioned by Macrobius, Priscian, 
Festus, and Nonnius Marcellus. H« ha.s been censured 
for the harshness of his stylo, but in other 'icspccts he has 
been esteemed a gi'eat poet. He died at an advanced age ; 
and Cicero, who evidently attaches considerable weight to 
his opinions, speaks of having conversed with Lim in his 

ACCLAMATION, the exi'ression of the opinion, favour- 
able or unfavourable, of any assembly by means of the 
voice. Applause denotes strictly a similar e.\'pression by 


A C C — A C C 

clapping of hands, hut this diatincHon in tlio usage of tho 
'words is by no means uniformly maintained. Among tho 
Romans acclamation was varied both in form and purpose. 
At marriages it was usual for tho spectators to shoat lo 
Jlymen, Hymencee, or Talassio ; a Wctorious army or general 
was greeted with lo tnumpke ; ii the theatre acclamation 
was called for at the close of the play by the last actor, 
who said, J'laudiie ; in the senate opinions were expressed 
and votes pa.ssed by acclamation in such forms as Omnea, 
omnes, ^guum est, Justum est, ifec ; and the praises cf tho 
emperor were celebrated in certi'in pre-arranged sentences, 
which seem to havo been chanted by tho whole body of 
senators. The acclamations wliich authors and poets who 
recited their works in public received were at first spon- 
taneous and genuine, but in time became very largely 
mercenary, it being customary for men of fortune who 
affected literary tastes to keep applauders in their service 
and lend them to their friends. When Nero performed in 
the theatre his praUes were chanted, at a given signal, by 
five thousand soldiers, who were called Aiu/uslals. The 
wholo was conducted by a music-master, mesochonu or 
jmusarius. It was this case of Nero which, occurring to 
the recollection of the French poet Dorat, may be said to 
have originated the well-known Paris claque. Buying up 
a number of the tickets for a performance of one of his 
plays, he distributed them gratuitou.sly to those who pro- 
mised to express approbation. From that time the claque, 
or organised body of professional applauders, has been a 
recognised institution in connection with the theatres of 
Paris. In the early ages of the Christian church it was by 
no means uncommon for an audience to express their appro- 
l)alion cf a favourite preacher during the course of his 
Bermon. Chrysostom especially was very frequently inter- 
rupted both by applause and by acclamations. In eccle- 
siastical councils vote by acclamation is very common, the 
question being usually put in the form, placet or non placet. 
This differs from the acclamation with which in other 
aiiscmblies a motion is said to be carried, when, no amend- 
ment being proposed, approval is expressed by shouting 
Kuch words as ./(ye or Agreed. 

ACGLISIATISATION is the process of adaptation by 
wliich animals and plants are gradually rendered capable 
of .surviving and flourishing in countries remote from their 
original habitats, or under meteorological conditions dif- 
ferent from those which they have usually to endure, and 
which are at first injurious to them. 

Tho subject of acclimatisation is very little understood, 
and some writers have even denied that it can ever take 
place. It is often confoimded with domestication or with 
naturalisation ; but these are both very different pheno- 
mena. A domesticated animal or a cultivated plant need not 
liecessarily be acclimatised ; that is, it need not be capable 
of enduring the severity of the seasons without protection. 
The canary bird is domesticated but not acclimatised, and 
many of our most extensively cultivated plants are in the 
same category. A naturalised animal or plant, on tho 
other hand, must be able to withstand all the vicissitudes 
cf the seasons in its new home, and it may therefore be 
thought that it must have become acclimatised. But in 
many, perhaps most cases of naturalisation, there is no 
evidence of a gradual adaptation to new conditions which 
were at first injurious, and this is essential to the idea of 
acclimatisation. On the contrary, many species, in a new 
country and under somewhat different climatic coi.ditions, 
seem to find a more congenial abode than in their native land, 
and at once flourish and increase in it to such an extent as 
oftentoexterminatethe indigenous inhabitants. ThusAgassiz 
(in his work on Lake Supenor) tells us that the road-side 
weeds oi.the north-eastern United States, to the number of 
130 species, are all European, the native weeds having dis- 

appeared westwards; wbik- in New Zealand there are, 
according to Mr T. Kirk ( Tratuactiont of the /fete Zealand 
/nsliiute, ToL iL p. 131), no less than 250 species of 
naturalised plants, more than 100 of which spread widely 
over tho country, and often displace tho nativo vegetation. 
Among animah, the European rat, goat, and pig, are 
naturalised in New Zealand, where they multiply to such 
an extent as to injure and probably exterminate many 
native productions. In neither of these cases is there 
any indication that acclimatitation was necessary or ever 
took place. 

On the other hand, the fact that an animal or plant 
cannot be naturalised is no proof that it is not acclimatised. 
It has been sho^vn by Mr Darwin that, in the case of m6st 
animals and plants in a state of nature, the competition of 
other organisms is a far more efficient agency in limiting 
their distribution than the mere influence of climate. We 
havo a proof of this in the fact that so few, comparatively, 
of our perfectly hardy garden plants ever run wild; and 
even the most persevering attempts to naturalise them 
usually fail. Alphonse de CandoUe (Geographic liotaniqut, 
p. 798) informs us that several botanists of Paris, Geneva, 
and especially of Montpellier, have sown the seeds of many 
hundreds of species of exotic hardy plants, in what appeared 
to be the most favourable situations, but that in hardly 
a single case has any one of them become naturalised. 
Attempts have also been made to naturalise continental 
insects in this country, in places where the proper food- 
plants abound and the conditions seem generally favour- 
able, but in no case do they seem to have succeeded 
Even a plant like the potato, so largely cultivated and so 
perfectly hardy, has not established itself in a wild state 
in any part of Europe. 

Different Degrees of Climatal Adaptation in Animali and 
Plants. — Plants differ greatly from animals in the closeness 
of their adaptation to meteorological conditions. Not only 
will most tropical plants refuse to live in a temperate 
climate, but many species are seriously injured by removal 
a few degrees of latitude beyond their natural limits. This 
is probably due to the fact, established by the experiments 
of M. Becquerel, that plants pcssess no proper temperature, 
but are wholly dependent on that of the surrounding 

Animals, especially the higher forms, are much less 
sensitive to change of temperature, as shown by the exten- 
sive range from north to south of many specie.'. Thus, 
the tiger ranges from the equator to northern Asia as far 
as the river Amour, and to the isothermal of 32° Fahr. The 
mountaia sparrow [Passer montana) is abundant in Java 
and Singapore in a uniform equatorial climate, and abo 
inhabits this country and a considerable portion of northern 
Europe. It is true that most terrestrial animals are 
restricted to countries not possessing a great range of 
temperature or very diversified climates, but there is reason 
to believe that this is due to quite a different set of causes, 
such as the presence of enemies or deficiency of appropriate 
food. When supplied with food and partially protected 
from enemies, they often show a wonderful capacity of 
enduring climates very different from that in which they 
originally flourished. Thus, the horse and the domestic 
fowl, both natives of very warm countries, flourish without 
special protection in almost every inhabited portion of the- 
globe. The parrot tribe form one of the most pre-eminently 
tropical groups of birds, only a few species extending into 
the warmer temperate regions ; yet even tho most exclu- 
sively tropical genera are by no means delicate birds as 
regards climate. In the Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History iox 18G8 (p. 381) is a most interesting accotmt, by 
Mr Charles Buxton, M.P., of the naturalisation af parrots 
at Northreps Hall, Norfolk. A considerable number oL 

A C C L I ]\i A T 1 S A T 1 O N 


4.frican and Amazonian parrots, Bengal parroquets, four 
ipecies of vihiie and rose crested cockatoos, and two speciKS 
of crimson lories, have been at large for many years. 
Several of these birds have bred, and they almost all live 
in the woods the whole year through, refusing to take 
shelter in a house constructed for tlieir use. Even when 
the thermometer fell 6° below zero, all appeared in good 
S-pirits and vigorous health. Some of these, birds have 
lived thu.s exposed for nearly twenty, years, enduring our 
cola easterly winds, rain, hail, and snow, all through the 
winter, — a marvellous contrast to the equable equatorial 
temperature (hardly ever less than 70'') which many of them 
had been accustomed to for the first year or vears of their 

Mr Jenner Weir records somewhat similar facts in the 
Zoolojist for 1865 (p. 9411). He keeps many small birds 
in an open aviary in his garden at Blackheath, and among 
these are the Java rice bird {Padda oryzivora), two West 
Airican weaver birds (tlyplumtoniis textor and Uuplectes 
mnguinirostris), and the blue bird of the southern United 
States (Spiui cyanea). These denizens of the tropics prove 
quite as hardy as our native birds, having hved during 
the severest winters yithout the slightest protection 
against the cold, even when their drinking wat^r had to be 
repeatedly melted. 

Hardly any group of Mammalia ia more exclusively 
tropical than the Quadrnmana, yet there is reason to believe 
that, if other conditions are favourable, some of them can 
withstand a considerable degree of cold. Ihe Semnopithecus 
seJiistaceus was found by Captain Hutton at an elevation of 
11,000 feet in the Himalayas, leaping actively among fir- 
trees whose branches were laden vnXh. snow-T\Teaths. In 
Abyssinia a troop of dog-faced baboons were observed by 
Mr Blandford at 9000 feet above the sea. We may there- 
fore conclude that the restriction of the monkey tribe to 
(vam latitudes is probably determined by other causes than 
tempi'iature alone. 

Similar indications are given by the fact of closely allied 
species inhabiting very extreme climates. The recently 
extinct Siberian mammoth and woolly rhinoceros were 
closely allied to species now inhabiting tropical regions 
exclusively. Wolves and foxes are found alike in the 
coldest and hottest parts of the earth, as are closely allied 
species of falcons, owls, sparrows, and numerous genera of 
waders and aquatic birds. 

A consideration of these and many analogous facts might 
induce us to suppose that, among the higher animals at 
least, there is little constitutional adaptation to climate, 
and that in their case acclimatisation is not required. But 
there are numerous examples of domestic animals which 
sh'jw that such adaptation docs exist in other cases. The 
yak of Thibet cannot long survive in the plains of India, 
or even on the hills below a certain altitude ; and that this 
is due to climate, and not to the increased density of the 
atmosphere, is shown by the fact that the same animal 
appears to thrive well in Europe, and even breeds there 
readily. The Newfoundland dog ■wOl not live in India, and 
the Spanish breed of fowls in this country suifer more 
from frost than most others. When we get lower in the 
r'ale the adaptation is often more marked. Snakes, which 
are so abundant in waPtn countries, dinainish rapidly as 
we go north, and wholly cease at lat. G2°. Most insects are 
also very susceptible to cold, and seem to be adapted to 
very narrow limits of temperature. 

From the foregoing facts and observations we may con- 
clude, firstly, that some plants and many animals are not 
constitutionally adapted to the climate of their native 
country only, but are capable of endurmg and flourishing 
under a more or less extensive range of temperature and 
other climatic conditions ; and, secondly, that most plants 

and flome animals are, more or less closely, adapted to 
climates similar to those of ihcu- native habitats. In order 
to domesticate or naturalise the former class ia countries 
not extremely differing from that from ^vhich the species 
was brought, it will not bo necessary to acclimatise, in 
the strict sense of the word. In the case of the latter 
olass, however, acclimatisation is a necessary preliminary 
to naturalisation, and in many cases to useful domestica- 
tion, and we have therefore to inquije whether it is 

Acclimatisation hy Individual Adajjiaiion. — It is evi- 
dent that acclimatisation may occur (if it occurs at all) in 
two ways, either/ by modifying the constitution • of tha 
individual subnij?ted to the new conditions, or by the 
production of offspring which may be better adapted to 
those conditions than their parents. The alteration of the 
constitution of individuals in this direction is not easy to 
detect, and its possibility has been denied by many writers. 
Mr Darwin believes, however, that there are indications 
that it occasionally occurs in plants, where it can be best 
observed, owing to the circumstance that so many plants 
are propagated by cuttings or buds, which really continue 
the existence of the same individual almost indefinitely. 
He .adduces the example of vines taken to the West Indies 
from Madeira, which have been found to succeed better 
than those taken directly from France. But in most cases 
habit, however prolonged, appears to have little effect on 
the constitution of the individual, and the fact has no 
doubt led to the opinion that acchmatisation is impossible.' 
There is indeed little or no evidence to show that anj 
animal to which a new cUmate is at first prejudicial can 
be so acclimatised by habit that, after subjection to it for .i 
few or many seasons, it may live as healthily and with as 
little care as in its native country ; yet we may, on general 
principles, believe that urider proper conditions such accli^ 
matisatiou would take place. In his Principles of Biologj^ 
(chap, v.), Mr Herbert Spencer his shown that every organ 
and every function of living beings undergoes modificatioa 
to a limited extent under the stimulus of any new con- 
ditions, and that the modification is almost always such as 
to produce an adaptation to those conditions. We may feel 
pretty sure, therefore, that if robust and healthy individuals 
are chosen for the experiment, and if the change they are 
subjected to is not too great, a real individual adaptation 
to the new conditions — that is, a more or less complete 
acclimatisation — niU be brought about If now animals 
thus modified are bred from, we know that their descendants 
will inherit the modification. They ■naU thus start more 
favourably, and being subject to the influence of the same 
or a slightly more extreme climate during their whole hves, 
the acclimatisation wiU be carried a step further; and 
there seems no reason to doubt that, by this process alone, 
if cautiously and patiently carried out, most animals whrch 
breed freely in confinement could in time be acclimatised 
in alihost any inhabited country. There is, however, a 
much more potent agent, which renders the process of 
adaptation almost a certainty. 

Acclimatisation hy Variation. — A mass oicHdence exists 
showing that variations of every conceivable kind occur 
among the offspring of all plants and animals, and that, in 
particular, constitutional variations are by no means un- 
common. Among cultivated plants, for example, hardier 
and more tender varieties often arise. The following cases 
are given by Mr Darwin : — Among the numerous fniit-trees 
raised in North America, some are well adapted to the 
climate of the Northern States and Canada, whilo others 
only succeed well in the Southern States. Adaptation oi 
this kind is sometimes very close, so that, for e.xample, few 
English varieties of wheat will thrive, in Scotland. Seed- 
wheat from India produced a miserable crop when planted 



by tho Ror. M. J. Berkeley on land which would have 
produced a good crop of English wheat. Conversely, 
French wheat taVon to the West Indies produced only 
barren spikes, wliile native wheat by its side jielded an 
enormous harvest. Tobacco in Sweden, raised from home- 
grown seed, ripens its seeds a month earlier than plants 
grown from foreign seed. In Italy, as long as orange 
trees were propagated by grafts, they were tender; but 
after many of the trees were destroyed by tlic severe frosts 
of 1709 and I7G3, plants were raised from seed, and these 
were found to be hardier and more productive than the 
former kinds. Where plants are raised from seed in largo 
quantities, varieties always occur diifering in constitution, 
a-i well as others ditl'erijig in form or colour; but the former 
cannot bo perceived by us unless marked out by their 
behaviour under exceptional conditions, as in the foUomng 
cases. After tho aevere winter of 1860-61, it was observed 
that in a largo bed of araucarias some plants stood quite 
unhurt among numbers killed around them. In Mr Darwin's 
garden two rows of scarlet ranners were entirely killed by 
frost, e-ijcept three plants, which had not even tho tips of 
their leaves browned. A very excellent example is to be 
found in Chinese Iiistory, according to M. Hue, who, in 
his L'Empire Chinois (torn. iL p. 359), gives the following 
extract from the Mtmoirs of the Emperor Kluxng : — "On 
the 1st day of the 6lh moon I was walking in some fields 
where rice had been so%vn to be ready for the harvest in 
the 9 th moon. I observed by chance a stalk of rice 
which was already in ear. It was higher than all the rest, 
and was ripe enough to bo gathered. I ordered it to be 
brought to me. The grain was very fine and well grown, 
which gave mo the idea to keep it for a trial, and see if the 
following year it would preserve its precocity. It did so. 
All the stalks which came from it showed ear before 
the usual time, and were ripe in the 6th moon. Each year 
has multiplied the produce of the preceding, and for thirty 
years it is this rice which has been served at my table. The 
grain is elongate, and of a reddish colour, but it has a sweet 
smell and very pleasant taste. It is called Yu-mi, Imperial 
rice, because it was first cultivated in my gardens. It is 
the only sort which can ripen north of the great wall, 
where the winter ends late and begins very early ; but in 
the southern provinces, where the climate is milder and the 
land more fertile, two harvests a year may be easily ob- 
tained, and it is for me a sweet reflection to have procured 
this advantage for my people." M. Hue adds his testimony 
that this kind of rice flourishes in Mandtchuria, where uo 
other will grow. We have here, therefore, a perfect 
example of acclimatisation by means of a spontaneous con- 
stitutional variation. 

That this kind of adaptation may be carried on step by 
step to more and more extreme climates is illustrated by 
the following examples. Sweet^peas raised in Calcutta 
from seed imported from England rarely blossom, and never 
yield seed ; plants from French seed flower better, but are 
stiU sterile ; but those raised from Darjeeling seed (originally 
imported from England) both flower and seed profusely. The 
peach is belioijed to have been tender, and to have ripened 
its fruit mth difficulty, when first introduced into Greece; so 
that (as Darwin observes) in travelling northward during 
two thousand years it must have become much hardier. 
Dr Hooker ascertained the average vertical range of 
flowering plants in the Himalayas to be 4000 feet, while in 
some cases it extended to SOOO feet. The same species can 
thus endure a great difference of temperature ; but the 
important fact is, that the individuals have become accli- 
matised to the altitude at which they grow, so that seeds 
gathered near the upper limit of the range of a species will 
be more hardy than those gathered near the lower limit. 
This was proved by Dr Hooker to be the case with 

Himalayaa conifers and rhododendrons, raised ia thie 
country from seed gathered at diilcrcnt altitudes. 

Among animals exactly analogous facts occur. II. Roulin 
states that when geese were first introduced into Bogota 
they laid few eggs at long intervals, and few of the young 
survived. By degrees the fecundity improved, and iu 
about twenty years became equal to what it is in Europe. 
The game author tells us that, according to Garcilaso, 
when fowls were first introduced into Peru they were not 
fertile, whereas now they are as much bo as in Europe. 
Mr Darwin adduces tho following examples. Jlerino sheep 
bred at the Cape of Good Hope have Vjcen found far better 
adapted for India than those imported from England ; and 
while the Chinese variety of the Ailanthus silk-moth is 
quite hardy, the variety iound in Bengal will only flourish 
in warm latitudes. Sir Darwin also calls attention to the 
circumstance that writers of agricultural works generally 
recomniend that animals should be removed from one 
district to another as little as possible. This advice occurs 
even in classical and Chinese agricultural books as well 
as in those of our own day, and proves that tho close 
adaptation of each variety or breed to the country in which 
it originated has always been recognised. 

Conslilutional Adaptation often accompanied hy External 
Modificatwn. — ; Although in some cases no perceptible altera- 
tion of form or structure occurs when constitutional adapta- 
tion to climate has taken place, in others it is very marked. 
Mr Darwin has collected a large number of cases in his .-f n tmaU 
and Plants under Domestication (vol ii. p. 277), of which the 
following are a few of the most remarkable. Dr Falconer 
observed that several trees, natives of cooler chmates, 
assumed a pyramidal or fastigiatc form when grown in the 
plains of India ; cabbages rarely produce heads in hot 
climates ; the quality of the wood, the medicinal products, 
the odour and colour of tho flowers, all change in many 
cases when plants of one country are gro'ivn iu another. 
One of the most curious observations is that of Mr Sleehan, 
who " compared twenty-nine kinds of American tree; 
belonging to various orders, with their nearest European 
allies, all grown in close proximity in the same garden, and 
under as nearly as possible the same conditions. In the 
American species Mr Meehan finds, with the rarest excep- 
tions, that the leaves fall earlier in the season, and assume 
before falling a brighter tint; that they are less deeply 
toothed or serrated ; that the buds are smaller ; that the 
trees are more diflfuse in growth, and have fewer branchleu; 
and, lastly, that the seeds are smaller ; — all in comparison 
with the European species." Mr Darwin concludes that 
there is no way of accounting for these uniform difi"erencc! 
in the two series of trees than by the long-continued action 
of the different climates of the two continents. 

In animals equally remarkable changes occur. In 
Angora, not only goats, but shepherd-dogs and cats, have 
fine fleecy hair ; the wool of sheep changes its character in 
the West Indies in three generations ; M. Costa states 
that young oysters, taken from the coast of England, 
and placed in the Mediterranean, at once altered their 
uanner of growth and formed prominent diverging rays, 
like those on the shells of the proper Mediterranean 

In his Contributions to tlte Theory of N'alural Selection 
(p. 167), Mr Wallace has recorded cases of simultaneous 
Tdriation among insects, apparently due to climate or other 
strictly local causes. He fijids that the butterflies of the 
family PapHionid<e, and some others, become sunilarly 
modified in different islands and groups of islands. Thus, 
the species inhabiting Sumatra, Java, and Borneo, are 
almost always much smaller than the closely allied species 
of Celebes and the Moluccas ; the species or varieties of 
the «mnll island of Amboyna are larger than the same 



species or closely allied forms inhabiting tne eurrounding 
ialands; the species found in Celebes possess a peculiar 
form of wing, qni^p distinct from that of the same or 
closely allied species of adjacent islands; and, lastly, 
nnmerous species which have tailed wings in India and the 
western islands of the Archipelago, gradually lose the tail 
as we proceed eastward to New Guinea Mid the Pacific. 

Many of these curious modifications mas', it is true, be 
due to other causes than cUinate only, but they serve to 
show how powerfully and ipysteriously local conditions 
affect the form and structure of boVh plants and anipials ; 
and they render it probable that changes of constitution 
are also continually produced, although we have, iu the 
majority of cases, no means of detecting them. It is also 
impossible to- determine how. far the effects described are 
produced by spontaneoiis favourable variations or by the 
direct action of local conditions; but it is probable that in 
every case both causes are concerned, e'though in constantly 
a varying proportions. 

The Infiuence of Heredity. — ^Adaptation by variation 
would, however, be a slo'iv and uncertain process, and might 
for considerable periods of time cease to act, did not heredity 
come into play. This is the tendency of every organism to 
produce its like, or more exactly, to produce a set of newforms 
varying slightly from it in many directions — a group of which 
the parent form is the centre. If now one of the most ex- 
treme of these variations is taken, it is found to become the 
centre of a new set of variations ; and by continually taking 
the extreme in the same direction, an increasing variation in 
that direction can be effected, until checked by becoming 
so great that it interferes with the healthy action of the 
organism, or is in any other way prejudicial It is also 
found that acquired constitutional pecuharities are equally 
hereditary; so that by a combination of those two modes of 
variation any desired adaptation may be effected with 
greater rapidity. The manner in which the form or 
constitution of an organism can be made to change con- 
tinuously in one direction, by means of variations which 
are indefirJte and in ail directions, is often misunderstood. 
It may perhaps be illustrated by showing how a tree or 
grove of trees might, by natural causes, be caused to travel 
during successive generations in a definite course. The 
tree has branches radiating out from its stem to perhaps 
twenty feet • on every side. Seeds are produced on the 
extremities of all these branches, drop to the ground, and 
produce seedlings, which, if untouched, would form a ring 
of young trees around the parent. But cattle crop off 
every seedling as soon as it rises above the ground, and 
none can ever airive at maturity. If, however, one side is 
protected from the cattle, young trees will grow up on that 
side only. This protection may exist in the case of a grove 
of trees which we may suppose to occupy the whole space 
between two deep ravines, the cattle existing, on the lower 
side of the wood only. In this case young trees would 
reach maturity on the upper side of the wood, while on the 
lower side the trees would successively die, f&U, and rot 
away, no young ones taking their place. If this state of 
things continued unchanged for some centuries, the wood 
might march regularly up the side of the mountain tdl it 
occupied a position many miles away from where it once 
stood ; and this would have taken place, not because more 
seed was produced on one side than the other (there might 
even be very much less), nor because soil or climate were 
better on the upper side (they might be worse), nor because 
any intelligent being chose which trees should be allowed 
to live and which should be destroyed; — but simply because, 
for a series of generations, tine conditions permitted the 
existence of young tress on one side, and wholly prevented 
it on the other. Just in an analogous way animals or 
plants arc caused to varj in definite directions, either by 

the influence of natural agencies, which render existence 
impossible for those that vary in any other direction, or 
by the action of the judicious breeder, who carefully selects 
favourable variations to be the parents of his future stock ; 
and in either case the rejected variations.may far outnumber 
those which are preserved. 

Evidence has been adduced by Mr Darwin to show that 
the tendency to vary is itself hereditary; so that, so far 
from variations coming to an end, as some persons imagine, 
the more extensively variation has occurred in any specie."} 
in the' past, the more likely it is to occur in the future. 
There is also reason to believe that individuals which have 
varied largely from their parents in a special direction will 
have a greater tendency to produce offspring varying in 
that direction than in any other ; so that the facUities for 
adaptation, that is, for the production and increase of 
favourable variations in certain definite directions, are fur 
greater than the facilities for locomotion in one direction in 
the hypothetical illustration just given. 

Selection and Survival of the Fittest as Agents in UTaiura- 
lisaiion. — We may now take it as an established fact, that 
varieties of animals and plants occur, bothin domesticity and 
m a state of nature, which are better or worse adapted to 
special climates. There is no positive evidence that the 
influence of new climatal conditions on the parents has any 
tendency to produce variations in the offspring better adapted 
to, such conditions, although some of the facts mentioned 
in the preceding sections render it probable that such may 
be the case. Neither does it appear that this of 
variations are very frequent. It is, however, certain that 
whenever any animal or plant is largely propagated con- 
stitutional variations will arise, and some of these wiU be 
better adapted than others to the climatal and other 
conditions of the looahty. In a state of nature, every 
recurring severe winter or otherwise unfavourable season, 
weeds out those individuals of tender constitution or 
imperfect structure which may have got on very well during 
favourable years, and it is thus that the adaptation of the 
species to the climate in which it has to exist is kept up. 
Under domestication the same thing occurs by what Mr 
Darwin has termed "unconscious selection." Each culti- 
vator seeks out the kinds of plants best suited to his soil 
and climate, and rejects those which are tender or otherwise 
unsuitable. The farmer breeds from such of his stock as 
he finds to thrive best with him, and gets rid of those 
which suffer from cold, damp, or disease. A more or less 
close adaptation to local conditions is thus brought about, 
and breeds or races are produced which are sometimes 
liable to deterioration on removal even to a short distance 
in the same country, as in numerous cases quoted by Mr 
Darwin {Animah and Plants under Domestication^ voL ii. 
p. 273). 

The Method of Acclimatisation. — Taking into considera- 
tion the foregoing facts and illustrations, it may be con- 
sidered as proved — \st, That habit has little (though it 
appears to have some) definite effect in adapting the 
constitution of animals to a new cKmate ; but that it has a 
decided, though stUl slight, influence in plants when, by 
the process of propagation by buds, shoots, or grafts, the 
individual can be kept under its influence for long periods ; 
2c?, That the offspring of both plants and animals vary 
in their constitutional adaptation to climate, and that 
this adaptation may be kept up and increased by means 
of heredity; and, Zd, That great and sudden changes 
of climate often check reproduction even when the health 
of the individuals does not appear to suffer. In order, 
therefore, to have the best chance of acclimatising any 
animal or plant in a cUmate very dissimilar from that uf 
its native country, and in which it has been proved thit 
the g)ecicR in question cannot live and maintain itsdl 



vrithout acclimatisation, wo must adopt somo such plan 
as the following : — 

1. AVe must transport as largo a numoer as possible of 
adult healthy individuals to some intermediato station, 
and increase them as much as possible for some years. 
Favourable variations of constitution will soon show thom- 
Bclves, and these should be carefully selected to breed from, 
the tender and unhealthy individuals being rigidly elimi- 

2. As soon as the stock has been kept a sufficient time 
to pass through all the ordinary extremes of climate, a 
number of the hardiest may bo removed to the moro remot* 
station, and the same process gone through, gi^^ng protection 
if necessary while the stock is being increased, but as soon 
as a largo number of healthy individuals are produced, sub- 
jecting them to all the vicissitudes of the climate. 

It can hardly be doubted that in most cases this plan would 
succeed It has been recommended by Mr Darwin, and at 
one of the early meetings of the Socidt^ Zoologique d' Acclim- 
atisation, at Paris, M. Geoffroy St Hilaire insisted that it was 
the only method by which acclimatisation was possible. 
But in looking through the long series of volumes of Repprts 
published by thi^ Society, there is no sign that any systematic 
attempt at -icclimatisation has even once been made. A 
number of foreign animals have been introduced, and more or 
loss domesticated, and some useful exotics have been culti- 
vated for the purpose of testing their applicability to French 
agriculture or horticidture ; but neither in the case of 
animals nor of plants has there been any systematic effort 
to modify the constitution of the species, hy breeding lai-gdy 
and selecting the favourable variatiojis t/uxt appeared. 

Take the case of the Eucalyptiu globulus as an example. 
This is a Tasmanian gum-tree of very rapid growth and 
great beauty, which will thrive in the extreme south of 
France. In the Bulletin of the Society a large number of 
attempts to introduce this tree into general cultivation in 
other parts of France are recorded in detail, w-ith the failure 
of almost all of them. But no precautions such as those 
above indicated appear to have been taken in any of these 
experiments ; and we have no intimation that either the 
Society or any of its members are making systematic 
efforts to acclimatise the tree. The first step would be, to 
obtain seed from healthy trees growing in the coldest 
climate and at the greatest altitude in its native country, 
sowing these very largely, and in a variety of soils and 
situations, in a part of France where the cUmate is some- 
what but not much more extreme. It is almost a certainty 
that a number of trees would be found to be quite hardy. 
A3 soon as these produced seed, it should be sown in 
the same district and farther north in a climate a little 
more severe. After an exceptionally cold season, se^d 
should be collected from the trees that suffered least, and 
should be sown in various districts all over France. By 
such a process there can bo hardly any doubt that the tree 
would be thoroughly acclimatised in any part of France, 
and in many other countries of central Europe ; and more 
good Tvould be effected by one well-directed effort of this 
kind than by hundreds of experiments with individual 
animals and plants, which only serve to show us which are 
the species that do not require to be acclimatised. 

Acclimatisaiion of Man. — On this subject we have, un- 
fortunately, very little direct or accurate information. The 
general laws of heredity and variation have been proved to 
apply to man as well as to animals and plants ; and nume- 
rous facts in the distribution of races show that man mus^, in 
remote ages at least, have been capable of constitutional 
adaptation to climate, if the human race constitutes a single 
species, then the mere fact that man now inhabits every 
region, and is in each case constitutionally adapted to the 
climate, proves that acclimatisation has occurred. But we 

have the same phenomenon in single 7arieties of man, such at 
the American, which inhabits alike the frozen wastes of 
Hudson's Bay and Terra del Fuego, aq^ the hottest regions 
of the tropics, — the low equatorial valleys and the lofty 
plateaui of the Andes. No doubt a sudden transference 
to an extremo climate is often prejudicial to man, as it it 
to most animaU and plants ; but there is every reason to 
believe that, if the migration occurs step by step, man can 
bo acclimatised to almost any part of the earth's surface 
in comparatively few generations. Some eminent writers 
have .denied this. Sir Ranald ilartin, from a consideration 
of the effects of the climate of India on Europeans and 
their offspring, believes that there is no such thing aa 
acclimatisation. Dr Hunt, in a report to the British 
Association in 1861, argues that "time is no agent," and 
— " if there is no sign of acclimatisation in one generation, 
there is no such process." But he entirely ignores th« 
effect of favourable variations, as well as the direct in- 
fluence of climatto acting on the organisation from infancy. , 

Professor Waitz, in his Introduction to Anthropology, 
adduces many examples of the comparatively rapid con- 
stitutional adaptation of man to new clijuatic conditions. 
Negroes, for example, who have been for three or four 
generations acclimatised in North .Ajuerica, on returning to 
Africa become subject to the same local diseases as other 
unaccUmatised individuals. He well remarks, that the 
debility and sickening of Europeans in many tropical 
countries are wrongly ascribed to the climate, but are 
rather the consequences of indolence, sensual gratification, 
and an irregular mode of life. Thus the English, who 
cannot give up animal food and spirituous liquors, are leaf 
able to sustain the heat of the tropics than the more sobei 
Spaniards and Portuguese. The excessive mortality of 
European troops in India, and the delicacy of the children 
of European parents, do not affect the real question of 
acclimatisation under proper conditions. They only show 
that acclimatisation is in most cases necessary, not that it 
cannot take place. The best examples of partial or com- 
plete acclimatisation are to be found where European races 
have permanently settled in the tropics, and have maintained 
themselves for several generations. There are, however, 
two sources of inaccuracy to be guarded against, and these 
are made the most of by the writers above referred to, and 
are supposed altogether to invalidate results which ara 
otherwise opposed to their views. In the first place, we 
have the possibility of a mixture of native blood having 
occurred ; in the second, there have almost always been a 
succession of immigiants from the parent country, who 
continually intermingle with the families of the early 
settlers. It is maintained that one or other of tliese 
mixtures is absolutely necessary to enable Europeans i» 
continue long to flourish in the tropics. 

There are, however, certain cases in which the sources 
of error above mentioned are reduced to a minimum, and 
cannot seriously affect the results ; such as those of the 
Jews, the Dutch at the Cape of Good Hope and in the 
Moluccas, and the Spaniards in South America. 

The Jews are a good example qf acclimatisation, because 
they have been established for many centuries in climates 
very different from that of their native land ; they keep 
themselves almost wholly free from intermixture with the 
people around them ; and they are often so populous in a 
countr}- that tho intermixture with Jewish immigrants from 
other lauds cannot seriously affect the local purity of the 
race. They have, for instance, attained a population of near 
two millions in such severe climates as Poland and Russia ; 
and according to Mr Brace {Haces of the Old World, p. 1S5), 
" their increase in Sweden is said to be greater than that 
of the Christian population'/ in the towns of Algeria they 
are the only race able to maintain its numben; and in 

i^ C G L 1 1\I A T I S A T I N 


•Cocliin Cliina and AJeu tlifty succeed in rearing children 
and forming permanent communities." 

In some of the hottest parts of South America Europeans 
arc perfectly acclimatised, and where the race is kept pure 
it seems to be even improved. Some very valuable notes 
on tliis subject have been furnished to the present writer 
by tho well-known botanist Dr Richard Spruce, who resided 
many years in South America, but who has hitherto been 
prevented by ill health from giving to the world the results 
of his researches. . Aa a careful, judicious, and accurate 
observer, both of man and nature, he has few superiors. 
Ce saySf— 

^.5 The white inhabitants of Guayaquil (lat. 2° 13' S.) are 
kept pure by careful selection. The slightest tincture of 
red or black blood bars entry into any of the old families 
who are descendants of Spaniards from tho Provincias 
Vascongadas, or those bordering the Bay of Biscay, where 
the morals are perhaps the purest (as regards the intercourse 
of the sexes) of any in Europe, and where for a girl, even 
of the poorest class, to have a child before marriage is the 
rarest thing possible. Tho . consequence of this careful 
breeding is, that the women' of Guayaquil are considered 
(and justly) the finest along the whole Pacific coast. They 
are often taU, sometimes very handsome, decidedly healthy, 
iJthough pale, and assuredly prolific enough. Their sons 
are big, stout men, but when they lead inactive lives are 
apt to become fat and sluggish. Those of them, however, 
who have farms in the savannahs, and are accustomed to 
take long rides in aU weathers, and those whose trade 
obb'ges them to take frequent journeys in the mountainous 
interior, or even to Europe and North America, are often as 
active and as little burdened with superfluous flesh aa a 
Scotch farmer 

" The oldest Christian town in Peni is Piura (lat. 5° S.), 
which was founded by Pizarro himself. The climata is 
very hot, especially in the three or four months following 
the southern solstice. In March 1813 the temperature 
only once fell as low as 83", during the whole month, the 
usual lowest night temperature being 85°. Yet people of 
all colours find it very healthy, and the whites are . veiy 
prolific. I resided in tho town itself nine months, and in 
tho neighbourhood seven months more. The population 
(in 18G3-4) was about 10,000, of which not only a 
considerable proportion was white, but was mostly descended 
torn the filrst emigrants after the conquest. Purity of 
descent was not, however, quite so strictly maintained as 
at Guayaquil. The military adventurers, who have often 
risen to high or even supreme rank in Peru, have not seldom 
been of milled race, and fear or favour has often availed to 
procure thorn an aUiauco with tho oldest and purest-blooded 

These instances, so well stated by Dr Spnice, seem to 
demonstrate the complete acclimatisation of Spaniards in 
some of the hottest parts of South America. Although 
wo have here nothing to do with mixed races, yet the want 
of fertility in these has been often tc.ken to be a fact 
inlierent in the mongrel race, and has been also sometimes 
held to prove that neither the European nor his half-bred 
oQ'spring can maintain themselves in the tropics. Tho 
following observation is therefore of interest : — 

" At Guayaquil for a lady of good family — married or 
tmmarricd — to be of loose morals is so uncommon, thst 
when it does happen it is felt as'a calamity by tho whole 
community. , But here, and perhaps in most other towns 
in South America, a poor girl of mixed race — -especially if 
good-looldng — rarely thinks of marrying 'one of her own 
cla.s3 until she has — as the Brazilians say — ' approveitada 
de sua mocidade' (made the most of her youth) in recfiviny 
presents froih gmtUmen. If she thus bring a good dowTy 
to.bjjr husband,. he does not care to inquire, or is not 

sensitive, about the mode in wliich it was acquiied. The 
consequences of this indiscriminate sexual intercourse, espe- 
cially if much prolonged, is to diminish, in some cases to 
paralyse, the fertility of tho female. And as among people 
of mixed race it is almost universal, the population of 
these must fall off both in numbers and quality." 

The following example of divergent acclimatisation of 
the same race to hot and rold zones is very interesting,' 
and will conclude our extracts from Dr. Spruce's valuable 
notes :^. 

"One oi the most singular cases _ connected with this 
subject that have fallen under my own observation, is the 
difficulty, or apparent impossibility, of acclimatising the 
Red Indian in a certain zone of the Andes. Any person 
who has compared the physical characters of the native 
races of South America must be convinced that these have 
aU originated in a common stirps. Many local differences 
exist, but none capable of invalidating this conclusion. 
The warmth yet shade-loving Indian of the Amazon ; tho 
Indian of the hot, dry, and treeless coasts of Fern and 
Guayaquil, who exposes his bare head to the sun with aa 
much zest as an African negro ; the Indian of the Andes, 
for whom no cold seems too great, who goes constantlj 
bare-legged and often bare-headed, through whose rude 
straw hut the piercing wind of the ■ paramos sweeps, and 
chills the white man to the very bones ; — all these, in the 
colour and texture of tho skin, the hair, and other important 
features, are plainly of one apd the same race 

"Now there is a zone of the equatorial Andes, ranging 
between about 4000 and COOO feet altitude, where the vcjy 
best flavoured coffeo is grown^ where cane is less luxuriant 
but more saccharine than in the plains, and which is 
therefore very desirable to cidtivate, but whore the red 
man sickens and dies. Indians taken down from the sierra 
get ague and dysentery. Those . of the plains find the 
temperature chilly, and are stricken' down with influenza 
and pains in the Umbs.'. I -have seen the difficulty 
experienced in getting fands cultivated in this zone, on 
both sides of the CordiUcra. The permanent residents are 
generally limited to the major domo and his family ; and 
in the diy season labourers are hired, of any colour that 
can bo obtained — some from the low country, others from 
tho highlands — for three, four, or five months, who gathei 
in and grind the cane, and plant for the harvest of the 
following year; but a staff of resident Indian labourers, 
such as exists in the farms of the sierra, cannot be kept up 
in the Yungas, as these half-warm valleys are caUei 
\Miite men, who take proper precautions, and are not 
chronically soaked with ca'ae-spirit, stand the climate 
perfe(;tly, but tho Creole whites are still too much cahalleros 
to devote themselves to agricultural work. . 

"In what is now tho :opublic of Ecuador, tho onlj 
peopled portions are the central valley, between tho two 
ridges of the Andes— height 7000 to 12,000 feet— and tjio 
hot plain at their western base ; nor do the wooded slopes 
appear to have been inhabited, except by scattered savage 
hordes, even in the time of the Incas The Indians of tho 
highlands are the des^^cndants of others who have inhabited 
that region exclusively for untold ages ; and a similar 
affirmation may be made of the Indiajis of the plain. Now, 
there is little doubt that the progenitors of both these 
sections came from a temperate region (in North America) ; 
so that here we?have one moiety acclimatised to endure ex- 
treme heat, and the other extreme cold ; and at this day 
exposure of either to the opposite extreme (or even, as wo 
have seen, to the climate of an intermediate zone) is always 
pernicious and often JataL ^'Bitt if this great difl'erence has 
been brought about in the red man, might not the same 
have happened to the white man 1 Plainly it might, time 
being given ; for one cannot doubt that tho inherent adapts 

I. — 12 


A C C— A C C 

bility is the- same in both, or (if not) that the white man 
possesses it in a higher degree." 

The observations of Dr Spruce are of tnemselves aunost 
couclusive as to the possibility of Europeans becoming ac- 
climatised in the tropica ; and if it is objected that this 
eWdence applies only to the darli-haired southern races, we 
are fortunately able to point to facts, ohnost equally well 
authenticated and conclusive, in the case of one of the typi- 
cal Germanic races. At the Cape of Good Hope the Dutch 
have been settled and nearly isolated for about 200 years, 
and have kept themselves almost or quite free from native 
intermixture. They are described as being still perfectly 
fair in complexion, while physically they are the finest body 
of men in the co'ony, being very tall and strong. They 
marry young, and have large families The population, 
according to a census taken in 1798, was under 22,000. 
In 1865 it was near 182,000, the majority being (according 
to the Slates7naii's Year Book ioi 1873) of "Dutch, German, 
or French origin, mostly descendants of original settlers." 
We have here a population which has doubled itself every 
twenty-two years ; and the greater part of this rapid in- 
crease must certainly be due to the old European immi- 
grants. In the Moluccas, where the Dutch have had settle- 
ments for nearly 250 years, some of the inhabitants trace 
their descent to early immigrants; and the^(;, as well as 
most of the people of Dutch descent in the East, are quite 
as fair as their European ancestors, enjoy excellent health, 
and are very prolific. But the Dutch accommodate them- 
selves admirably to a tropical climate, doing much of their 
work early in the morning, dressing very lightly, and living 
a quiet, temperate, and cheerful life They also pay great 
attention to drainage and general cleanliness. In addition 
to these examples, it may be maintained that the rapid in- 
crease of English-speaking populations in the United States 
and in Australia, only a comparatively small portion of 
which can be due to direct imnugration, is far from support- 
ing the view of Dr Knox, that Europeans cannot per- 
manently maintain themselves in those coimtries. Mr 
Brace expressly denies that the American physique has 
degenerated from the English type. He asserts that manu- 
facturers and others find that " for labours requiring the 
utmost physical endurance and muscular power, such as 
iron-puddling and lumbering in the forests and on the 
streams, and pioneer work, foreigners are never so suitable 
as native Americans. The reports of the examining sur- 
geons for volunteers — such as that of Dr W. H.' Thomson 
to the Surgeon-General in 1862, who examined 9000 men 
— show a far higher average of physique in the Americans 
examined than in the English, Germans, or Irish. It is a 
fact wcU known to our life insurance companies, that the 
average length of life here is greater than that of the 
English tables."— rAe Races of tlt€ Old World, p. 375. 
Although the comparisons here instituted may not be quite 
fair or contlusive, they furnish good arguments against those 
who maintain that the Americans are physicaUv deteriorat- 

On the whole, we seem justified in concluding that, under 
favourable conditions, and with a proper adaptation of means 
to the end in view, man may become acclimatised with at 
least as much certainty and rapidity (counting by generations 
rather than by years) as any of the lower animals. ( a. R. w.) 
ACCOLADE (from collum, the neck), a ceremony an- 
ciently used in conferring knighthood ; but whether it was 
an embrace (according to the use of the modern French word, 
accolade), or a slight blow on the neck or cheek, is not 
agreed. Both these customs appear to be of great antiquity. 
Gregory of Tours \4Tites that the early kings of France, in 
conferring the gilt shoulder-l;elt, kisoeu the knights on the 
left cheek ; and Wiliiam the Conqueror is said to have 
made use of the blow in conferiiug the honour of knight- 

hood on his son Henry. At first it was given iN^th the 
naked fist, a veritable box on the ear, but for this was 
substituted a gentle stroke on the shoulder with the flat of 
the sword. A custom of a similar kind is still fallowed in 
•icstowing the honour of knighthood. 

ACCOLTI, Benedict, was born in 1415 at Arczzo, in 
Tuscany, of a noble family, several members of which were 
distinguished like himself for their attainments in law. 
He vss for some time professor of jurisprudence in the 
University of Florence, and on the death of the celebrated 
Poggio in 1459 became chancellor of the Florentine re- 
pubha He died in 1466. In conjunction ^nth his brother 
Leonard, he wrote in Latin a history of the first crusade, 
entitled De Bella a ChrUliania contra Barbaros, pro Chriati 
Sepulchre et Judafa recuprrandis, libri trei, which, though 
itself of little interest, furnished Tasso with the hLstoric 
basis for his Jerusalem Delivered. This work appeared at 
Venice in 1432, and was translated into Italian in 1543, 
and into French in 1620. Another work of Accolti's — De 
Prccstantia, Virorum sui jEvi — vras published at I'arma in 

ACCOLTI, Beenaed (1465-1535), son of tno preced- 
ing, known in his own day as I'Unico Aretino, acquired great 
fame as a reciter of impromptu verse. He was listened to by 
large crowds, composed of the most learned men and the most 
distinguished prelates of the age. Among others. Cardinal 
Eembo left on record a testimony to his extraordinary 
talent. His high reputation v\-ith his contemporaries seems 
scarcely justified by the poems he published, though they 
give evidence of brilliant fancy. It is probable that he 
succeeded better in his extemporary productions than in 
those which were the fruit of deliberation. His works, 
under the title Virginia, Comedia, Capitoli e Stramhotli di 
Messer Bernai/lo Accolti Aretino, were published at Florence 
in 1513, and have been several times reprinted. 

ACCOLTI, PiETRO, brother of the preceding, was bom 
at Florence in 1455, and died there in 1549 He was 
abbreviator under Leo X., and in that capacity drew up 
in 1520 the famous bull against Luther. In 1527 ho was 
made a cardinal by Clement VII., who had emploved him 
as his secre'iary. 

ACCOMilODATION, a term used in Biblical interpre- 
tation to denote the presentation of a truth not absolutely 
as it is in itself, but relatively or under some modification, 
with the view^ of suiting it either to some other truth or to 
the persons addressed. It is generally distinguished into 
formal and material, — the accommodation in the one case 
being confined to the method uf teaching, and in the other 
being extended to the matter taught To the former head 
may be referred teaching by symbols or parables, by pro- 
gressive stages graduated according to the capacity of the 
learner, by the application of prophecy to secondary fulfil- 
ments, ic. To the latter head are to be referred the alle- 
gations of the anti-supranaturalistic school, that Christ and 
the writers of Scripture modified or perverted the truth 
itself in order to secure wider acceptance and speedier 
success, by speaking in accordance with contemndrary ideas 
rather with absolute and eternal truth. 

ACCOMMODATION, in commerce, denotes generally 
temporary pecuniary aid given by one trader to another, oi 
by a banker to his customers, but it is used more par- 
ticularly to describe that class of bills of exchange which 
represents no actual exchange of real Value between the 

ACCOEAMBONI, Vittoria, an Italian lady remarK- 
able for her extraordinary beauty and her tragic history. 
Her contemporaries regarded her as the most captivating 
woman that had ever been seen in Italy. She was sought 
in marriage by Paolo Giordano Orsini, Duke of Bracciano, 
who, it was generally telieve<l. had murdered his wife, 

A C C — A C C 


Isabella- de Medici, with his own hand; but her father 
gave her in preference to Francesco Peretti, nephew of 
Cardinal Montalto. Peretti was assassinated (1581), and 
a few days afterwaMs Vittoria fled from the house of the 
Cardinal, where she had resided, to that of the Duke of 
Bracciano. The opposition of Pope Gregory XIII., who 
even went so far as to confine Vittoria to Fort St Angelo 
for nearly a year, did not prevent her marriage with the 
duke. On the accession of Montalto to the papal throne 
as Sixtus V. (1585), the duke thought it prudent to take 
refuge with his wife in the territory of the Venetian 
republic. After a few months' residence at Salo, on the 
Lake of Garda, he died, bequeathing nearly the whole of 
his large fortune to his widow. This excited the anger of 
Ludovico Orsini, a relative, who caused Vittoria to be 
murdered in her residence at Padau (Dec. 22, 1585). The 
history of this beautiful and accomplished but unfortunate 
woman has been written by Adry (1800), and recently by 
Count Gnoli, and forms the basis of Webster's tragedy. The 
While Devil, and of Tieck's romance, Vittoria Accoramboni. 

ACCORDION' (from the French accord), a small musical 
instrument in the shape of a bellows, which produces sounds 
by the action of wind on metallic reeds of various sizes. 
It is played by being held in both hands and puUed back- 
wards and forwards, the fingers being left free to touch 
the keys, which are ranged along each side. The instru- 
ment is akin to the concertina, but differs from it in having 
the chords fixed by a mechanical arrangement. It is manu- 
factured chiefly in Paris. 

ACCORSO (in Latin Accursim), Fkancis, an eminent 
lawyer, born at Florence about 1182. After practising 
for some time in his native city, he was appointed professor 
at Bologna, where he had great success as a teacher. He 
undertook the great work of arranging into one body the 
almost innumerable comments and remarks upon the Code, 
the Institutes, and Digests, the confused dispersion of which 
among the works of different writers caused much obscurity 
and contradiction. 'When he was employed in this work, 
it is said that, hearing of a similar one proposed and begun 
by Odofred, another lawyer of Bologna, he feigned indis- 
position, interrupted his public lecture's, and shut himself 
up, till he had, with the utmost expedition, accomplished 
his design. His work has the vague title of the Great Gloss, 
and, though written in barbarous Latin, has more method 
than that of any preceding writer on the subject. The 
best edition of it is that of Godefroi, published at Lyons in 
1589, in C vols. foUo. Accursius was greatly extolled by 
the lawyers of his own and the immediately succeeding age, 
and he was even called the Idol of Jurisconsults, but those 
of later times formed a much lower estimate of his merits. 
There can be no doubt that he has disentangled with 
much skill the sense of many laws ; but it is equally un- 
deniable that his ignorance of history and antiquities has 
often led him into absurdities, and been the cause of many 
defects in his explanations and Commentaries. He died at 
Bologna in 1260. His eldest son Francis, who filled the 
chair of law at Bologna with great reputation, was invited 
to Oxford by King Edward L, and in 1275 or 1270 read 
lectures on law in that university. In 1280 he returned to 
Bologna, where ho died in 129.3. 

ACCORSO (or Acoursios), Maeiangelo, a learned and 
ingenious critic, was born at Aquila, in the kingdom of 
Naples, about 1490. He was a great favourite with 
Charles V., at v.-hose court he resided for thirty-three years, 
and by wliom he was employed on various foreign mi.ssions. 
To a perfect knowledge of Greek and Latin he added an 
intimate acquaintance with several modern languages. Tn 
discovering and collating ancient manuscripts, for which his 
travels abroad gave him special opportunities, he displayed 
nncomraon diligence. Hia work entitled Dialribac in 

Avwmwm,, ei Oindium, pnnted at Rome, in folio, 
in 1524, is a singular monument of erudition and critical 
skiU. He bestowed, it is said, unusual pains on Claudian, 
and made, from different manuscripts, above seven hundred 
corrections on the works of that poet. Unfortunately thtese 
criticisms were never published. He was the first editor 
of the Letters of CcLssiodorus, with his Treatise on the Soul; 
and his edition of Ammianus Marcellinus (1533) contains 
five books more than any former one. The affected use of 
antiquated terms, introduced by some of the Latin writers 
of that age, is humorously ridicided by him, in a dialogue 
published in 1531 (republished, with his name, in 1574), 
entitled Osco, ■ Volsco, Romaiw.que Eloquentia Interlocu- 
toribus, Dialogtis I/udia Romania actus. Accorso was 
accused of plagiarism in his notes on Ausonius ; and the 
determined maimer in which he repelled, by a most solemn 
oath, this charge of literary theft, presents us with a singular 
instance of anxiety and care to preserve a literary reputa- 
tion unstained. 

ACCOUNT, a Stock Exchange term :, " To Buy or 
Sell for the Account," &c. The word has different, though 
kindred, significations, all derived from the making up and 
settling of accounts on particular days, in which stricter 
sense the word " Settlement " is more specially used. 

The financial importance of the Account may be gathered 
from the Clearing House returns. Confining ourselves to 
the six years, from the 30th of April 1867 to the 30th of 
April 1873, we have the following figures, furnished by 
the Clearing House to Sir John Lubbock, and communi- 
cated by him to the Times: — 

On fourths On Stock Excli&nge On Consols 

April April of the Month. Account Oavs. Settling Days. 

1867 to 1868 £147,113,000 £444,443,000 £132,293,000 

1868 to 1869 161,861,000 550,622,000 142,270,000 

1869 to 1870 168,523,000 594,763,000 148,822,000 

1870 to 1871 186,517,000 635,946,000 169,141,000 

1871 to 1872 229,629,000 942,446,000 233,843,000 
1372 to 1873 265,965,000 1,032,474,000 243,561,000 

During the year ending April 30, 1873, the total amount of bills, 
checks, &c., paid at the Clearing House showed an increase of 
£643,613,000 during the same period ending April 1872, and of 
£2, 745,924, 000 over 1868. The amounts passing through on the 
iths of the month amounted to £265,965,000, showing an increase 
of £36,336,000 over 1872. The payments on Stock ExchaT^ge 
Account Days formed a sum of £1,032,474,600, being an increase 
of £00,028,000 over 1872. The payments on Consols Account Days 
for the same period amounted to £243,561,000, giving an iccrfease 
of £9,718,000 over 1872. 

In English and Indian- Government Securities, the settle- 
ments are monthly, and for foreign, railway, and other 
securities, generally speaking, they are tortnightly. It 
follows therefore that in 1867-1868, an ordinary Stock 
Exchange Account Day involved payments, on Stock 
Exchange accounts only, averaging about X10,000,000 
sterling, and ia 1872-3 something like £25,000,000 ster- 
ling; and these sums again, enormous aa they are, repre- 
sent for the most part only the balance of much larger 
transactions. The London Account is, in fact, probably 
the greatest and most important periodical event in the 
financial world. The great European centres have their 
own Account Days and methods of settlement, but the 
amounts dealt in are very much less than on the London 
market. The leading cities in the United Kingdom have 
also their Stock Exchanges, but their practice follows more 
or less that of London, where the bulk of their business is 
transacted by means of post and telegraph. 

The Account in Consols or other English Government 
Securities, or in the securities of the Government of India, 
or in Bank of England Stock, or other Stocks transferable 
at the Bank of England, extends over a month, the settle- 
ments being monthly, and in them the committee of the 
Stock Exchange does not take cognisance of any bargain 
for a future account, if it shall have been effected mon 


A C C - A C E 

than eight days previously to tho close of tlio existing 

The Account in Securities to Bearer, ana, with the above 
exceptions, in Registered Senirities also, extends over a 
period of from tw^ve to nineteen days. Tliis period is in 
each case terminated by the "settlement," which occurs 
twice in each mouth (generally about the middle and end), 
on days fi.\ed by tho committee for general pui-posee of the 
Stock E.xcliange in tho preceding month. 

This "settlement" occupies three continnous days, which 
are all termed Account days, but the third day is the true 
Account, Settling, or Pay Day. 

Continuation or Carrj-ing-over is tlio operation by which tho 
sottlement of a liargain Iransactod for money, or for a given account, 
may for a consideration (called either a "Contango" or a "back- 
wardation") bo deferred for "the period of another account. Such 
a continuation is equiTnlent to a sale "for the day," and a repur- 
cha.'io for the suocaeding account, or to a purchase " for the day," 
ud a re-sale for tho succeediug account. The price at which such 
transactions are adjusted is tho "Making-Up" price of the day. 

CotUango is a technical term which expresses the rate of in- 
terest charged for the loan of money upon the security of stock 
transferred for the period of an account or otherwise, or the rate of 
interest paid by the buyer to the seller to be idlowed to defer paying 
for the stock purchased, until the next settlement day. 

Bacbtvardation, or, aa it is more often called, Back (for brevity), 
in contradistinction to contango, is the amount charged for the 
loan of stock from one account to tho other, and it is paid to the 
purcliaser by the seller in order to allow the seller to defer tho deli- 
very of the stock. 

A Bull AccoujU is one in which either the ptirchasea have pre- 
dominated over the sales, or the disposition to purchase hafl ))cen 
more marked than the disposition to sell. 

A Bear Account is one in which either the sales have preponderated 
over the, or in which the disposiition to sell has been 
more strongly displayed than the disposition to buy. 

Sometimes the Bull or tho Bear disposition extends to the great 
majority of securities, as when there are general falls or general 
rises. Sometimes a Bull Account in one set of securities is con- 
temporaneous with a Bear Account in another. — Vide Cracroft's 
Stock Exchanijc ilaniuil, 

ACCOUNTANT, earlier form Accomptant, in the 
most general sense, is a person skilled in accounts. It k 
appHed to the person who has tho charge of the accounts 
in a pubUo office or in the counting-house of a large private 
bu.sine3.s. It is also tho designation of a distinct profession, 
ivhich deals in any required way with mercantile accounts. 

ACCOUNTANT-GENERAL, an officer in the English 
Court of Chancery, who receives all monies lodged in court, 
and by whom they are deposited in bank and disbursed. 

ACCRA or Acr.^, a town, or rather a collection of 
forts, in a territory of tho same name, on the Gold Coast of 
Africa, about 75 miles east of Cape Coast Castle. Of the 
forts. Fort St James is a British settlement, Crivecoeur 
was established by the Dutch, and Christianborg by the 
Danes ; but the two last have since been ceded to Britain — 
Christianborg in 1850, and Crfevecceur in 1871. Accra 
is considered to be one of the healthiest stations on the west 
coast of Africa, and has some trade in the productions of 
the interior, — ivory, gold dust, and pabn-oil ; while cotton 
goods, tobacco, rum, and beads are imported in exchange. 
It is the residence of a British civil commandant. 

ACCRINQTON, an important manufacturing town of 
England, in Lancashire, lies on the banks of a stream caUed 
the Hindbnm, in a deep valley, 19 miles N. from Man- 
chester and 5 miles E. of Blackburn. It has increased rapidly 
in recent years, and is the centre of the Manchester cotton- 
printing trade. There are large cotton factories and prints 
works, besides bleach-fields, Ac, employing many hands. 
Coal is extensively wrought in the neighbourhood. The 
town has a good appearance, and amongthe more handsome 
buildings are a fine church, in the Gothic style, erected in 
• 1838, and the Peel In^itution, an Italian structure, contain- 
ing an assembly room, a lecture room, &c., The sanitary 
arrangements generally are good, and a reservoir capabb 

of containing 140,000,000 gallons has been constructed for 
tho water supply of the town. Accrington is a station on 
tho Lancasliiro and Yorkshire Railway. The population of 
the two townships of Old and New Accrington was in 18C1, 
17,688 ;. and in 1S71, 21,788. 

ACCUM, Fkkdeeick, chemist; bom at BiickeDurg in 
1709, came to London in 1793, and was appointed teacher 
of ohemij-'try and mineralogy at the Surrey Institution in 
1801. While occupying this position he published several 
scientific manuals {VlteviUtry, 1803; Mineralogy, 1808; 
Crystodlography, 1813), but his name will be chiefly re- 
membered in connection with gas-lighting, the introduction 
of which was mainly due to him and to the enterprising 
printseller, Ackennann. His excellent Practical Treatise 
on Gaslight appeared in 1815; and he rendered another 
valuable service to society by his Treatise on Adulterations 
of Food and Culinary Poisons (1820), which, attracted 
much notice at the time it appeared. Both works, as well 
as a number of his smaller pubUcations, were translated 
into German. In consequence of charges affecting his 
honesty, Accum left London for Germany, and in 1822 
was appointed professor in the Industrial Institute and 
Academy of Architecture at BerUn. He died there in 1838. 

ACCUMULATOR, a term applied frequently to a 
powerful electrical machine, which generates or accumu- 
lates, by means of friction, electric currents of high ten- 
sion, — manifested by sparks of considerable length. 
Accumulators have been employed in many places for 
exploding torpedoes and mines, for blasting, &c An 
exceedingly powerful apparatus of this kind was employed 
by tho Confederate authorities during the civil war in 
America for discharging subinarine and river torpedoes. 
Whatever the nature of the materials employed in the con- 
struction of the accumulator, or the form which it may 
assume mechanically, it is simply a modification of, or an 
improvement upon, the ordinary cylindrical or the plate- 
glass frictional electrical machine, — the fundamental 
scientific principles being the same in nearly every easa The 
exciting body consists generally of a large disc or circular 
plate of vulcanite, — more frequently termed by electricians 
" ebonite," in consequence of its resemblance, in point of 
hardness and of polish, to polished ebony,^the vulcanite 
disc taking the ulace of the ordinary circular plate •( 
thick glas?. 

ACE, the received name for the single poiat on cards or 
dice — the unit. Mr Fox Talbot has a speculation (English 
Etymologies, p. 262) that the Latins invented, if not the 
game of dice, at least the name for the smgle point, which 
they called unus. The Greeks corruptc-d this into wos, 
and at length the Germanic races, learning the game from 
the Greeks, translated the word into ass, which has now 
become ace The fact, however, is, that the root of the 
word lies in the Latin as, the monetary unit, which is to 
be identified with the Greek cts; Doric, ats or & 

ACEPHALA, a name sometimes given to a section of 
thei molluscous animals, which are diidded into encephala 
and acephala, according as they have or want a distinctly 
differentiated head. The Acephala, or Lamellibranchiata, 
as they are also called, are commonly known as bivalve 

ACEPHALI (from d privative, and kci^oXtJ, a head), a 
term applied to several sects as having no head or leader; 
and in particular to a sect that separated itself, in the end 
of the 5th century, from the rule of the patriarchs of Alex- 
andria, and remained without king or bishop for more than 
300 years {Gibbon, c. xlviL) 

AcEPHAii was also the name given to the levellers in 
the reign of Henry L, who are said to have been so poor 
as to have no tenements, in virtue of which they might 
acknowledge a superior lord. 

A C E — A C H 


AcEPHALi, or Aceptialous Persons, fabulous monsters, 
described by some ancient natiiralists and geoOTanliers as 
having ni5 heads. 

ACER. See Maple. 

■ACERBI, Giuseppe (Joseph;, an Italian traveller, bprn 
at Castel-Goffredo, near Mantua, on the 3d May 1773, 
studied at Mantua, and devoted himself specially to i»atural 
science. In 1798 he undertook a journey through Den- 
mark, Sweden, Finlari and Lapland; and in the follow- 
ing year he reached the North Cape, which no Italian had 
previously visited- He was accompanied in the latter part 
of the journey by the Swedish colonel Skioldebrand, an 
e.tcellent landscape-painter. On his return Acerbi stayed 
for some time in England, and published his Travels 
through Sweden, &c. (London, 1802), which was translated 
into German (Weimar, 1803), and, under the author's per- 
sonal superintendence, into French (Paris, 1804). The 
French translation received numerous corrections, but even 
in this amended form the work contains' many mistakes. 
Acerbi rendered a great service to Italian literature by 
starting the Bihlioteca Italiana (1816), in which he 
opposed the pretensions of the Academy della Crusca. 
Being appointed Austrian consul-general to Egypt in 
1826, he entrusted the management of the Bihlioteca to 
Gironi, contributing to it afterwards a series of valuable 
articles on Egypt. While in the East he obtained for the 
museums of Vienna, Padua, MUan, and Pavia many 
objects of interest. He returned from Egypt in 1836, 
and took up his residence in his native place, where he 
occupied himself with his favourite study till his death in 
August 1846. 

ACEKNUS, the Latinised name oy -wmcn oebastian 
Fabian Klonowicz, a celebrated Polish poet, is generally 
known, was born at Sulmierzyce in 1551, and died at 
Lublin in 1608. He was for some time burgomaster and 
president of the Jews' civil tribunal in the latter town, 
where he had taken up his residence after studying at 
Cracow. Though himself of an amiable disposition, his 
domestic life was very unhappy, the extravagance and 
misconduct of his wife driving him at last to the pubUc 
hospital of Lublin, where he ended his days. He wrote 
both Latin and PoUsh poems, and the genius they dis- 
played won for him the name of the Sarmatian Ovid. 
Tlie titles of fourteen of his works are known; but a 
number of these were totally destroyed by the Jesuits and 
a section of the Polish nobility, and copies of the others 
are for the same reason exceedingly rare. The Victoria 
Deonim, ubi continetur Veri Eerois Educatio, a poem in forty- 
four cantos, cost the poet ten years' labour. 

ACERRA, in Antiquity, a little box or pot, wherein were 
put tha incense and perfumes to be burned on the altars of 
the gods, and before the dead. It appears to have been 
the same with what was otherwise called ihmihulum and 
pyxis. The censers of the Jews were acerras ; and the 
Romanists still retain the use of acerra: under the name 
of incense pots. 

The name acerra was aiao applied to an altar erected 
among the Romans, near the bed of a person recently de- 
ceased, on which his friends offered incense daily till his 
burial. The real intention probably was to fumigate the 
apartment The Chinese have still a somewhat similar 

ACERRA, a town ot italy, in tne province of Terra 
di Lavoro, situated on the river Agno, 7 miles N.E. of 
Naples, with which it is connected by raiL It is the an- 
cient Acerrae, the inhabitants of which were admitted to 
the privileges ot Roman citizenship so early as 332 B.C., 
and which was plundered and burnt by Hannibal during 
the second Punic war. A few inscriptions are the only 
traces time haa left of the ancient city. _ Tho town stands 

in a fertile distcict, but is rendered veiy unhealthy by the 
malaria rising from the artificial water-courses of the sur- 
rounding Campagna. It is the seat of a bishop, and haa a 
cathedral and seminary. Flax is grown in the neighbour- 
hood. Population, 11,717. 

ACETIC ACID, one of the mosL important organic acids. 
It occurs naturally in the juice of many plants, and in cer- 
tain animal secretions ; but is generally obtained, on the 
large scale, from the oxidation of spoiled wines, or from the 
destructive distillation of wood. In the former process it 
.is obtained in the form of a dilute aqueous solution, in which 
also the colouring matters of the wine, salts, &c., are dis- 
solved ; and this impure acetic acid is what we ordinarily 
term vinegar. The strongest vinegar sold in commerce 
contains 5 per cent, of real acetic acid. It is used as a 
mordant in calico-printing, as a local irritant in medicine, 
as a condiment, and in the preparation of various acetates, 
varnishes, &c Pure acetic acid is got from the distillation 
of wood, by neutralising with lime, separating tho tarry 
matters from the solution of acetate of lime, evaporating 
off the water, and treating the dry residue with sulphuric 
acid. On appljring heat, pure acetic acid distills over as 
a clear liquid, which, after a short time, if the weather 
is cold, becomes a crystalline mass known by the name of 
Glacial Acetic Acid. For synthesis, properties, &c., see 

ACH-'\.I.4, in Ancient Geograpny, a name differently 
appUed at diit'erent periods. In the earliest times the name 
was borne by a small district in the south of Thessaly, and 
was the first residence of the Achasans. At a later period 
Achaia Propria was a narrow tract of country in the north 
of the Peloponnesus, running 65 miles along the Gulf of 
Corinth, and bounded by the Ionian Sea on the W., by 
EUs and Arcadia on the S., and by Sicyonia on the E. 
On the south it is separated from Arcadia by lofty moun- 
tains, but the plains between the mountains and the sea are 
very fertile. Its chief town was Patra?. The name of 
Achaia was afterwards employed to denote collectively the 
states that joined the Achcean League. When Greece was 
subdued by the Romans, jfcAata was the name given to the 
most southerly ot the provinces into which they divided the 
country, and included the Peloponnesus, the greater part of 
Greece Proper, and the islands. 

Achceans and the AckcEan League. — The early inhabitants 
of Achaia were called Achceam. The name was given also 
in those times to some of the tribes occupying the eastern 
portions of the Peloponnesus, particularly Argos and Sparta. 
Afterwards the inhabitants of Achaia Propria appropriated 
the name. This republic was not considerable, in early times, 
as regards either the number of its troops, its wealth, or 
the extent of its territory, but was famed for its heroic 
virtues. The Crotonians and Sybarites, to re-establish 
order in their towns, adopted tho laws and customs of 
the Achseans. After the famous battle of Leuctra, a dif- 
ference arose betwixt the Lacedaemonians and Thebant, 
who held the virtue of this people in such veneration, thai 
they terminated the dispute by their decision. The govern- 
ment of the Achajans was democratical. ITiey preserved 
their liberty till the time of Philip and Alexander; but in 
tho reign of these princes, and afterwards, they wcro either 
subjected to tho Macedonians, who had made themselves 
masters of Greece, or oppressed by domestic tyrants. The 
Achaean commonwealth consisted of twelve inconsiderable 
towns in Peloponnesus. About 280 years before Christ the 
republic of the Achaeans recovered its old institutions and 
unanimity. This was the renewal of tho ancieiit confede- 
ration, which subsequently became so famous under the 
name of the Acn.EAN League — having for its object, not 
as formerly a common worship, but a substantial political 
union. Though dating from the yea-r B.C. 280, its import- 


A C H — A C H 

ance maybe referred to its connection with Aratiw of Sicycn, 
about 30 years later, as it was further augmented by the 
splendid abilities of PhUopoemen. Thus did ihis people, so 
celebrated in the hcroid age, once more emerge from com- 
parative obscurity, and become the greatest among the states 
of Greece in the last days of its national independence. The 
inhabitants of Patrse and of DjTne were the first assertors of 
ancient liberty. The tyrants were banished, and the towns 
again made one commonwealth. A public council was then 
held, in which affairs of importance were discussed and deter- 
mined ; and a register was provided for recording the trans- 
actions of the counciL This assembly had two presidents, 
who were nominated alternately by the different towns. 
But instead of two presidents, they soon elected but one. 
Many neighbouring towns, which admired the constitution 
of this republic, founded on equality, liberty, the love of 
justice, and of the public good, were incorporated with the 
Achieans, and admitted to the full enjoyment of their 
laws and privileges. The Achaean League afl'ords the most 
perfect example in antiquity of the federal form of govern- 
ment; and, allowing for difference of time and place, its 
resemblance to that of the United States government is 
very remarkable. (See Arts. AMrniCTYONY and Fedkkal 
GovEitNMENT; also Freeman's Federal Government, 2 vols. 
8vo. 1863, and Comparative Politics, 8vo. 1873; Droysen, 
Getchichte dcs Hellenismus, 2 vols. ; Helwing, Geschichte 
del Ar.hauchen. Bundes.) 

ACHAN, the son of Carmi, of the tribe of Judah, at 
the taking of Jericho concealed two hundred shekels of 
silver, a Babylonish garment, and a wedge of gold, con- 
trary to the express command of God. This sin proved 
fatal to the Israelites, who were repulsed at the siege of 
Ai. In this emergency Joshua prostrated himself before 
the Lord, and begged that he would have mercy upon his 
people. Achan was discovered by .casting lots, and he 
and his children were stoned to deatL This expiation 
being made, Ai was taken by stratagem. (Josh. vii. viii.) 

ACHARD, Franz Cam,, a Prussian chemist, bom at 
Berlin on the 28th April 1753, was the first to turn 
Marggraff's discovery of the presence of sugar in beet-root 
to commercial account. He erected a factory on an estate 
in Silesia, granted to him about 1800 by the king of Prussia, 
_ and produced there large quantities of sugar to meet 
the scarcity occasioned by the closing of the West Indian 
ports to continental traders. In 1812 a similar establish- 
ment was erected by Napoleon at Rambouillet, although 
the Institute of France in 1800, while honouring Achard 
for his researches, had declared his process to have little 
practical value. At the close of the war the manufacture 
of beet-root sugar was protected by duties on other sugars 
that were almost prohibitive, so that the real worth of 
Achard's discoveries could not be tested. Achard was a 
frequent contributor to the Memoirs of tlie Academy of Berlin, 
and published in 1780 Ckymisch-Physiscke Schriften, con- 
taining descriptions and results of his very numerous and 
carefully conducted experiments on the adhesion of bodies. 
He died in 1821. 

ACHAMUSj Erik, a Swedish physician and botanist, 
born at Gefle in 1757. The son of a comptroller of 
customs, he studied first in his native town, and then in 
1773 at the University of Upsal, where Linnaus was one 
of his teachers. In 1782 he took the degree of M.D. at 
the University of Lund, and practised thereafter in various 
districts of Sweden. But the direction of his studies had 
been determined by his contact with Linnaeus, and he 
found his appropriate sphere when he vras appointed 
Professor of Botany at the Wadstena Academy in 1801. 
Five years before he had been admitted a member of the 
Academy at Stockholm. He devoted himself to the study 
of the cryptogamic orders of plants, and especially of the 

family of lichens. All his publications were connected 
with this subject, the Lichmographia Univrrtalis (Gc't- 
tingen, 1804) being the most important Acharius died 
of apoplexy in 1819. His name has been given by 
botanists to more than one species of plants. 

ACHATES, the faithful friend and companion of JJncns, 
celebrated in Virgil's jEneid as Adus Achates. 

ACHEEN. See Ach{n. 

ACHELOUS, the largest river in Greece, rises in Mount 
Pindus, and dividing .^tolia from Acamania, falls into 
the Ionian Sea,. In the lower part of its course the river 
winds in an extraordinary manner through very fertile but 
jnarshy plains. Its water descends from the mountains, 
heavily charged with fine mud, which is deposited along 
its banks and in the sea at its mouth, where a number of 
small islands have gradually been formed. It was formerly 
called Thoas, from its impetuosity in its upper portion, and 
Homer gave it the name of king of rivers. It has a course 
of 130 miles. The epithet Acheloius is used for aqveus 
(Virgil), the ancients calling all water Achelous, according 
to Ephorus. The river is now called Aspro Potamo. 

ACHENWALL, Goitfhied, a German writer, cele- 
brated as ha^^ing formulated and developed the science 
( Wissenechaft der Staaten), to which he was the first to 
apply the name scientia statistica, or statistics. Born at 
Elbing, in East Prussia, in October 1719, he studied at 
Jena, Halle, and Leipsic, and took a degree at the last- 
named university. He removed to Marburg in 1746, 
where for two years he read lectures on history, and on the 
law of nature and of nations. Here, too, he commenced 
those inquiries in statistics by which his name became 
known. In 1748, having been invited by Munchhausen, 
the Hanoverian minister, to occupy a chair at the univer- 
sity, he removed to Gcittingen, where he resided till his 
death in 1772. His chief works were connected with 
statistics. The Statitsverfassunffen der europdischen Reiclte 
appeared first in 1752, and revised editions — corrected 
from information which he . travelled through England, 
France, and other countries to collect^were published in 
17G2 and 1768. He was married in 1752 to a lady 
named Walther, who obtained some celebrity by a volume 
of poems published in 1750, and by other writings. 

ACHERON, in Classical MyOiology, the son of Ceres, 
who, for supplying the Titans with drink when they were 
in contest with Jupiter, was turned into a river of Hades, 
over which departed souls were ferried on their way to 
Elj'sium. The name eventually was used to designate the 
whole of the lower world. 

ACHILL, or " Eagle" Island, off the west coast of Ire- 
land, forms part of the count}- of Mayo. It is of triangular 
shape, and extends 15 miles from east to west, and 12 
from north to south, its total area being 51,521 acres. 
The island is very mountainous; its extreme western point, 
Achill Head, is a bold and rugged promontory rising to a 
height of 2222 feet above the sea. Large bogs, incapable 
of cultivation, alternate with the hills of this desolate isle, 
of whose extensive surface not more than 500 acres have 
been reclaimed. The inhabitants earn a scanty subsistence 
by fishing and tillage ; their dwellings are miserable 
hovels. There is a mission-station on the island, and 
remains of ancient churches are stiQ extant 

ACHILLES ('AxtUa;s). When first taken up by the 
legendary history of Greece, the ancestors of Achilles were 
settled in Phthia and in jEgina. That their original seat, 
however, was in the neighbourhood of Dodona and the 
Achelous is made out from a combination of the following 
facts: That in the Iliad (xvi 233) Achilles prays to Zeus 
of Dodona; that this district was the first to bear the 
name of Hellas ; that the followers of Achilles at Troy were 
the only persons named Hellenes in the time of Homer 

A G H — A C H 


(ThucyiL i .3 ; of. Iliad, ii 684, where tte more usual name 
of Myrmidones also occurs) ; that in jEgina Zeus was styled 
"Hellanios;" and that the name of SeDoi, applied to the 
priesthood at Dodona, is apparently identical with the name 
Hellenes. \\Tiether from this local connection the derivation 
of the name of Achilles from the same root as 'A;^e,Vu)os 
should be preferred to the other derivations, such as 
'A^t-kcvi = 'Ex^lXacK, " ruler," or 'A^-iXii^, — " the bane of 
the rUans," remains undecided. But this is gained, that we 
see in what manner the legend of Achilles had its root in 
the earlier Pelasgic religion, his adherence to which in the 
prayer just cited would otherwise appear very strange on 
the part of a hero who, through the influence of Homer and 
his successors, is completely identified with the Olympian 
system of gods. According to the genealogy, J^acus had 
two sons, Peleus and Telamon, of whom the former became 
the father of AchiUes — the latter, of Ajas ; but of this 
relationship between Achilles and Ajax there is no sign in 
the Iliad. - Peleus ruled in Phthia ; and the gods remark- 
ing his piety, rewarded him with, among other presents, a 
wife in the person of the beautiful nereid Thetis. After 
her son was born, Thetis appears to have returned to her 
life in the sea. The boy was placed under his father's 
friend, the centaur Cheiron. '^Tien six years old he slew 
lions and boars, and could run down a stag. When nine, 
he was removed from his instructor to the island of Scyrus, 
where, dressed as a girl, he was to be brought up among 
the daughters of Lycomedes, his mother preferring for 
him a long inglorious life to a brief but splendid career. 
The same desire for his safety is apparent in other legends, 
which describe her as trying to make him invulnerable 
when a child by placing him in boUing water or in a fire, 
and then salving him with ambrosia ; or again, in later 
story, by dipping him in the river Stj's, from which he 
came out, all but the heel which she held, proof against 
wounds. When the aid of Achilles was found indispensable 
to the expedition against Troy, Odysseus set out for Scyrus 
as a pedlar, spread his wares, including a shield and spear, 
before thg king's daughters, among whom was Achilles 
in disguise. Then he caused an alarm of danger to be 
Bounded, upon which, while the girls fled, Achilles seized 
the arms, and thus revealed himself. Provided with a 
contingent of 50 ships, and accompanied by the aged 
Phoenix and Patroclus, he joined the expedition, which 
after occupying nine years in raids upon the towns in the 
neighbourhood of Troy and in Mysia, as detailed in the 
epic poem entitled the Cypria, culminated in the regular 
siege of Troy, as described in the Iliad, the grand object 
of which is the glorification of our hero. Estranged from 
his comrades, because his captive Briseis had been taken 
from him, Achilles remained inexorable in his tent, while 
defeat attended the Greeks. At length, at their greatest 
need, he yielded so far as to allow Patroclus to his 
chariot and to assume his armour Patroclus fell, and 
the news of his death roused Achilles, who, now equipped 
with new armour fashioned by Hephaestus, drove back the 
Trojans, slew Hector, and after dragging his body thrice 
round the Trojan walls, restored it to Priam. With the 
funeral rite? of Patroclus the Iliad concludes, and the story 
is taken up by the ^ihiopis, a poem by Arctinus of Miletus,, 
in which is described the combat of AchiUes first with the 
amazon Penthesilca, and next with Memnon. When the 
latter fell, Achilles drove back the Trojans, and, impelled 
by fate, himself advanced to the Scaean gate, where an 
arrow from the bow of Paris struck his vulnerable heel, 
and he fell, bewailed through the whole camp. (a. 3. M.) 

ACHILLES TATIUS, a Greek writer, born at Alexan- 
dria. The precise time when he flourished is uncertain, but 
it cannot have been earlier than the 5th century, as in his 
principal work he evidently imitates Heliodorus. Suidas, 

who caUs him AchiUes Statins, says that he was converted 
from heathenism and became a Christian bishop, but this 
is doubtful, the more so that Suidas also attributes to him 
a tv-ork on the sphere (irtpi <r</)ai'pas) which is referred to 
by Firmicus (330-50), and must, therefore, have been 
written by another person. The erotic romance of AchiUes 
Tatius, entitled The Loves of ClitophoR and Leucippe, is 
almost certainly the work of a heathen WTiter. The style 
of the work is ornate and rhetorical, while the story is 
often unnatural, and sometimes coarse, and the develop- 
ment of the plot irregular and frequently interruptei Its 
popularity at the time it appeared is proved by the maiq; 
manuscripts of it which stiU. exist, and the value attached 
to it by modern scholars and critics is seen in the frequency 
with which it has been reprinted and translated. A Latin 
translation by Annibal Crucceius was published, first in 
part at' Leyden in 1544, and then complete at Basel in 
155-4. The Greek text was first printed by Commelin, at 
Heidelberg, in 1 601. Other editions by Salmasius (Leyden, 
16401, MitscherUch (Biponti, 1792), and Jacobs (Leipsic, 
1821), have been superseded by the editions of Hirschig 
(Paris, 1856), and Hercher (Leipsic, 1857).. An EngUsh 
translation by A. H. (Anthony Hodges) appeared at 
Oxford in 1638. 

ACHILLINI, Alexanbee (1463-1512), a naiive of 
Bologna, was celebrated as a lecturer both in medicine and 
in philosophy, and was styled the second Aristotle. He and 
Mundinus were the first at Bologna to avail themselves of 
the permission given by Frederick EL to dissect dead 
bodies. His phUosophical works were printed in one 
volume foUo, at Venice, in 1508, and reprinted with con- 
siderable additions in 1545, 1551, and 1568. He also 
wrote several medical works, chiefly on anatomy. 

ACHIN (pronounced Atcheen), a town and also a state of 
Northern Sumatra; the one state of that island which has 
been powerful at any time since the discovery of the Cape 
route to the East, and the only one that stiU remains indepen- 
dentof the Dutch, though that independence is nowmenaced. 
De Barros names Achln among the twenty-nine states 
that divided the sea-board of Sumatra when the Portuguese 
took Malacca. Northern Sumatra had been visited by 
several European traveUers in the Middle Ages, such as 
Marco Polo, Friar Odorico, and Nicolo ContL Some of 
these as weU as Asiatic writers mention Lambri, a state 
which must have nearly occupied the position of Achfn. 
But the first voyager to visit Achln, by that, name, was 
Alvaro TeUez, a captain of Tristan d'Acunha's fleet, in 
-1506. It was then a mere dependency of the adjoining 
state of Pedir; and the latter, with Pasei, formed the only 
states 'on the coast whose chiefs claimed the title of Sultan. 
Yet before twenty years had passed Achln had not only 
gained independence, but had swaUowed up aU other states 
of Northern Sumatra. It attained its climax of power in 
the time of Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636), under 
whom the subject coast extended from Am opposite 
Malacca round by the north to Padang on the west coast, 
a sea-board of not less than 1100 mUes ; and besides this, 
the king's supremacy was owned by the large island of 
Nyds, and by the continental Malay states of Johor, 
Pihing, Quedah, and Perdk. 

The present limits of Achfn lupremacy in isumatra are 
retkoced tcf be, on the east coast the River Tamiang, in 
about 4° 25' N. lat., which forms the frontier of territories 
tributary to Sidk; and on the west coast a line in about 
2° 48' N., the frontier of Trumon, a smaU modern state 
lying between Achln and the Dutch government of Padang. 
Even within these limits the actual power of Achln is 
carious, and the interior boundary can be laid down only 
from conjecture. This interior couutrj' is totaUy unex- 
plored. It is believed to be inhabited by tribes kindred 


A C H I N 

to the Battas, that remarltablo race of anthropophagi who 
adjoin on the soutli. The whole area of Acliin territorj-, 
defined to the best of our ability, will contain about 10,400 
English square milesi. A rate of 20 per square mile, per- 
haps somewhat too largo an average, gives a probable 
population of 328,000. 

The production of rice and pepper forms the chief 
industry of the Achin territory. From Pcdir and other 
ports on the north coast largo quantities of betel-nut are 
exported to continental India, to Burmah, and to Penang 
for China. Some pepper is got from Pedir, but the chief 
export is from a number of small ports and anchorages on 
the west coast, where vessels go from port to port making 
up a cargo. Achin ponies are of good repute, and are 
exported. Slinor articles of export are sulphur, iron, 
sappan-wood, gutta-percha, damnier, rattans, bamboos, 
benzoin, and camphor from the interior forests. The 
camphor is that from the Dryahalanops camphora, for 
which so high a price is paid in China, and the whole goes 
thither, the bulk of that whole being, however, extremely 
small Very little silk is now produced, but in the 16th 
century the quantity seems to have been considerable. 
\Vhat is now wanted for the local textures, which are in 
some esteem, is imported from China. 

The chief attraction to the considerable trade that existed 
at Achin two centuries ago must have been gold. No 
place in the East, unless Japan, was so abundantly sup- 
pUed with gold. AVe can form no estimate of the annual 
export, for it is impossible to accept Valentyn's statement 
that it sometimes reached 80 bahars (512,000 ounces !). 
Crawford (1820), who always reckoned low, calculated the 
whole export of Sumatra at 35,530 ounces, and that of 
Achin at 10,450; whilst Anderson (1S26), who tends to 
put figures too high, reckoned the whole Achfn export 
alone at 32,000 ounces. The chief imports to Achin are 
opium (largely consumed), rice (the indigenous supply 
being imidequato), salt, iron ware, piece-goods, arms and 
ammunition, vessels of copper and pottery, China goods of 
sorts, and a certain kind of dried fish. 

The great repute of Achin at one time as a place of 
trade is shown by the fact, that to this port the first Dutch 
(1599) and first English (1602) commercial ventures to 
the Indies were du-ected. Lancaster, the English com- 
modore, carried letters from Queen Elizabeth to the king 
of Achfn, and was well received by the prince then reign- 
ing, AlAuddin ShJih. Another exchange of letters took 
place between King James I. and Iskandar Mudain 1613. 
But native caprice and natural jealousy at the growing 
force of the European nations in those seas, the reckless 
rivalries of the latter and their fierce desire for monopoly, 
were alike destructive of sound trade; and the English 
factory, though several times set up, was never long main- 
tained. The French made one great effort under Beaulieu 
(1621) to establish relations with Achfn, but nothing 
came of it. 

Still the foreign trade of Achfn, though subject to spas- 
modic inten-uptions, was important. Dampier and others 
speak of the number of foreign merchants settled there, — 
English, Dutch, Danes, Portuguese^ Chinese, Banyans 
from Guzcrat, &c. Dampier says the roads were rarely 
without ten or fifteen sail of different nations, bringing 
vast quantities of rice, as well as silks, chintzes, muslins, 
and opium. Besides the Chinese merchants settled at 
Achfn, others used to come annually with the junks, ten 
or twelve in number, which arrived in June. A regular 
fair was then established, which lasted two months, and 
was known as the China camp, — a lively scene, and great 
resort of foreigners. 

The A.chluese are not identical with the Malays proper 
either in aspect or language. Thpy are said to be taller. 

handsomer, and darker, aa if with a mixture of blood from 
India proper. Their language is little known; but though 
it baa now absorbed much Malay, the original part of it ia 
said to have characteristics connecting it both with the 
Eatta and with the Indo-Chinese tongues. The Achfn 
literature, however, is entirely ilalay; it embraces poetry, 
a good deal of theology, and several chronicles. 

The namo of the state Ls properly AduK This the 
Portuguese made into Acfiem; whilst we, with the Dutch, 
learned to call it Achin. The la.'jt appears to have been a 
Persian or Indian form, suggested by jingling analogy with 
MAcUn (China). 

The town itself lies very near the north-west extremity 
of Sumatra, known in charts as Achin Head. Hero s 
girdle'of ten or twelve small islands afforoa protection to 
the anchorage. This faib in N.W. winds, but it is said 
that vessels may find safe riding at all seasons by shifting 
their berths. The town lies between two and three miles 
from the sea, chiefly on the left bank of o river of no great 
size. This forms a sv/ampy delta, and discharges by threo 
mouths. The central and chief mouth is about 100 yards 
wide, and has a depth of 20 to 30 feet within the bar. 
But the latter has barely 4 feet at low tide; at high tida 
it admits native ci'aft of 20 or 30 tons, and larger craft in 
the rainy season. The town, like most Malay towns, con- 
sists of detached houses of timber and thatch, clustered in 
enclosed groups called kamjKmga, and buried in a forest of 
fi-uit-trees. The chief feature is the palace of -the Sultan, 
.which communicates with the river by a canal, and ia 
enclosed, at least partially, by a wall of cut stone. 

The valley or alluvial plain in which Achfn lies is low, 
and subject to partial inundation; but it is shut in at a 
short distance from the to^vn, on the three landward sides, 
by hills. It is highly cultivated, and abounds in small 
villages and kampongs, ■with white mosques interspersed. 
The hills to the eastward are the spurs of a great volcanic 
mountain, upwards of 6000 feet in height, called by natives 
Yamuria, by mariners " the Golden Mountain." ^ Of the 
town population we find no modem estimate. 

The real original territory of the Achfnese, called by 
them Great Achfn (in the sense of Achfn proper), consists 
of threo districts immediately round the city, distinguished 
respectively as the 26, the 25, and the 22 miikima' (or 
hundreds, to use the nearest English term). 

Each of these three districts has two heads, called pomg- 
limas; and these, according to some modem accounts, 
constitute the council of state, who are the chief adminis- 
trators, and in whose hands it lies to depose the sovercigu 
or to sanction his choice of a successor. Late notices 
speak of a chief minister, apparently distinct from these; 
and another important member of fhe government is the 
Shdbandar, who is over all matters of customs, shippirg, 
and commerce. 

The court of Achfn, in tne 17th century, maintained a 
good deal of pomp; and, according to Beaulieu, the king 
had always 900 elephants. These animals, though found 
throughout Sumatra, are now no longer tamed or kept. 

Hostilities with the Portuguese began from the time of 
the first independent king of Achfn; and they had little 
remission tUl the power of Portugal fell with the loss of 
Malacca (1641). Not less than ten times before that 
event were armaments despatched from Achin to reduce 
Malacca, and more than once its garrison was very hard 
pressed. One of these armadas, equipped by Iskandar 
Muda in 1615, gives an idea of the king's resources. It 
consisted of 500 sail, of which 250 were galleys, and 

* Several other great Tolcanic cones eii^t in the AcMn territory, axul 
two visible from seaward rise to a height of 11,000 feet or more in ths 
unexplored interior. 

' A miikini is said prooc-rlv xo emoroca 44 household 

A C H — A C I 


among these a hundred were greater than any tnen used in 
Europe. 60,000 men were embarked, with the king and 
his women. 

On the death of Iskandar's successor in 1641, the widow 
was placed on the throne; and as a female reign favoured 
the oligarchical tendencies of the Malay chiefs, three more 
queens were allowed to reign successively. Though this 
series of female sovereigns lasted only fifty-eight years alto- 
gether, so dense is apt to be the ignorance of recent history, 
that long before the end of that period it had become an 
accepted beUef among foreign residents at Achfn that there 
never had been any sovereigns in Achin except females; 
and hence, by an easy inference, that the Queen of Sheba 
had been Queen of Achin ! 

In loy9 the Arab or fanatical party suppressed female 
government, and put a chief of Arab blood on the throne. 
The remaining history of Achin is one of lapid decay. 
Thirty sovereigns in all have reigned from the beginning 
of the 16th century to the present day. 

After the restoration of Java to the Netherlands in 1816, 
a good deal of weight was attached by the neighbouring 
English colonies to the maintenance of our influence in 
Achin; and in 1819 a treaty cf friendship was concluded 
with the Calcutta Government, which excluded other 
European nationalities from fixed residence in Achfn. 
When the home Government, in 1824, made a treaty with 
the Netherlands, surrendering our remaining settlements 
in Sumatra in exchange for certain possessions on the con- 
tinent of Asia, no reference was made in the articles to the 
Indian treaty of 1819; but an understanding was exchanged 
that it should be modified by us, whilst no proceedings 
hostile to Achin should be attempted by the Dutch. 

This reservation was formally abandoned by our Qovern- 
ment in a convention signed at the Hague, November 2, 
1871; and little more than a year elapsed before the 
government of Batavia declared war upon Achfn. Doubt- 
less there was provocation, as there always will be between 
such neighbours; but the necessity for war has been 
greatly doubted, even in Holland. A Dutch force landed 
at Achfn in April 1873, and attacked the palace. It was 
defeated with considerable loss, including that of the 
general (Kbhler). The approach of the south-west mon- 
soon was considered to preclude the immediate renewal of 
the attempt ; but hostilities were resumed, and Achin fell 
in January 1874. , 

(De Barros; Faria y Souza; Valentyn, vol. v.; Beaulieu 
(in Th^venot's Collection); Dampier; Marsden; Crawfurd's 
Hist, and Decl. of the Ind. Archip.; J. of Ind. Archip.; 
Dulaurier in J. Asiatique, 3d s. vol viii.; Anderson's Acheen, 
1840; Veth, Atchtn, &.c. Leyden, 1873, &c.) (h. y.) 

ACHMET, or Ahmed, the name of three emperors or 
sultans of Turkey, the first of the name reigning from 1603 
to" Ml 7, the second from 1691 to 1695. Achmet III. 
succeeded his brother Mustapha II., whom the Janissaries 
deposed in 1703. After the battle of Pultowa in 1709, 
Charles XII. of Sweden took refuge with him, and incited 
him to war with Peter the Great, Czar of Russia. Achmet 
recovered the Morea from the Venetians (1715); but his 
expedition into Hungary -was less fortunate, his army being 
defeated at Peterwardein by Prince Eugene in 1716, and 
again near Belgrade the year after. The empire was dis- 
tracted during his reign by political disturbances, which 
were occasioned, in part at least, by his misgovemment ; 
and the discontent of his feoldiers at last (1730) drove him 
from the throne. He died in pri.son in 1736. 

ACHRAY, a small picturesque lake in Perthshire, near 

Loch Katrine, 20 miles W. of Stirling, which has obtained 

notoriety from Scott's allusion to it in the Lady of the Lake. 

ACHROMATIC GLASSES are so named from being 

Bi>ecially constructed with a view to prevent the confusion 


of colours and distortion of images that result from the 
use of lenses in optical instruments. Wben white light 
passes through a lens, the different-coloured rays that con- 
stitute it are refracted or bent aside at different angles, and 
so converge at different foci, producing a blurred and 
coloured image. To remedy this compound lenses havo 
been devised, which present a well-defined image, unsur- 
rounded by coloured bands of light. To instruments fitted 
with lenses of this kind has been given the name achromatic, 
from d privative, and )(pit)^a, colour. The celebrated opti- 
cian, John Dollond, was the first to surmount this practical 
difficulty, about the year 1757, by the use of a combination 
of crown and flint glass. See Optics, Microscope, &c. 

ACI KEALE, a city and seaport of SicUy, in the 
Italian province of Catania, near the base of Mount Etna. 
It stands on solidified lava, which has here been deposited 
by different streams to a depth of 560 feet. The town, 
which has been almost entirely re-erected since the earth- 
quake of 1693, is built of lava, contains many handsome 
edifices, and is defended by a fortress. Linen, silks, and 
cutlery are manufactured, and the trade in cotton, flax, 
grain, and wines is considerable. The place is celebrated 
for its cold sulphurous mineral waters. Near Aci Eeale 
is the reputed scene of the mythical adventures of Acis and 
Galatea; and on this account several small towns in the 
neighbourhood also bear the name of Aci, such as Aci 
CasteUo, Aci Terra, &c. Aci Reale has a population of 

ACID, a general term in chemistry, applied to a 
group of compound substances, possessing certain very 
distinctive characteristics. All acids have one essential 
property, viz., that of combining chemically with an alkali 
or base, forming a new compound that has neither acid 
nor alkaline characters. The new bodies formed in this 
way are termed salts. Every acid is therefore capable of 
producing as many salts as there are basic substances to be 
neutralised; and this salt-forming power is the best de- 
finition of an acid substance. • 

The majority of acids possess tne following contingent 
propenies : — 

1. When applied to the tongue, they excite that sensation 
■which is called sour or acid. 

2. They change the blue colours of vegetables to a red. 
The vegetable blues employed for this purpose are generally 
tincture of htmus and syrup of violets or of radishes, which 
have obtained the name of re-agents or tests. If these 
colours have been previously converted to a, green by alkalies, 
the acids restore them. 

All these secondary properties are variable; and if we 
attempted to base a definition on any one of them, many 
important acids would be excluded. Take the case of a 
body like silica, so widely difl'used in nature. Is pure 
silicious sand or flint an acid or a neutral substance 1 When 
it is examined, it is found to be insoluble in water, to be 
devoid of taste, and to possess no action on vegetable colour- 
ing matters; yet this substance is a true acid, because when 
it is heated along with soda or lime, it forms the new body 
commoiJy called glass, which is chemically a salt of silicic 
acid. Many other acids resemble silica in properties, and 
would be mistaken for neutral bodies if the salt-forming 
power was overlooked. 

Another method of regarding an acid, which is found of 
great importance in discussing chemical reactions, is to say 
an acid is a salt whose base is water. This definition is 
very apparent if we regard what takes place in separating 
the acid from a salt. In this decomposition the acid would 
appear to be left without having any substitute for tha 
removed alkalL This is not however the case, as water is 
found to enter into union instead of the base. Thus every 
true acid most contain hydrogen; and if this is 'displaced 

I- — 13 


A C I — A C O 

by a metal, salts are formed directly. An acid is there: 
fore a salt, whoso metal is hydrogen. The full importance 
of the definition of an acid will be learned under the head- 
ing Chemistry. 

ACIDALIUS, Valens, a very distinguished scholar 
end critic, born in 1567 at Witt.stock, in Brandenburg.' 
After studying at Rostock and Ilelmataedt, and residing 
about three years in Italy, ho took up his residence at 
Breslau, where he professed the Roman Catholic religion. 
His excessive application to study was supposed to have 
caused his untimely death, which occurred in 1095, when 
he had just completed his twenty-eighth year. He wrote 
notes on Tacitus and Curtius, a commentary on Plautus, 
and a number of poems, which are inserted in the Dclicics 
of the Gorman poets. BaiUct gave him a place among his 
Enfarui Celebrea, and tells that he wrote the commentary 
on Plautus and several of the Latin poems when he was 
only seventeen or eighteen years of ago. 

ACINACE.S, an ancient Persian sword, short and 
straight, and worn, contrary to the Roman fashion, on the 
right side, or sometimes in front of the body, as shown in 
the bas-reliefs found at Persepolis. Among the Persian 
nobility they were frequently made of gold,- being worn aa 
a badge of distinction. The acinaces was an object of 
religious worsliip with the Scythians and others {Herod. 
iv. 62). 

ACIS, in ilylhology, the son of Faunus and the nymph 
Symiethis, was a beautiful shepherd of Sicily, who being 
beloved by Galatea, Polyphemus the giant was so enraged 
that he crushed his rival with a rock, and his blood gush- 
ing forth from under the rock, was metamorphosed into 
the river bearing his name (Ovid, Met. xiii. 750; Sil. Ital. 
xiv. 221). This river, now .^'jMme di Jaci,OTAeque Grandi, 
rises under a bed of lava on the' eastern base of Etna, and 
passing Aci Reale, after a rapid course of one mile, falls 
into the sea. The waters of the stream, once celebrated 
for their purity, are ifow sulphureous. 

ACKERJlANN, John Christian Gottlieb, a learned 
physician and professor of medicine, bom at Zeulenroda, 
in Upper Saxony, in 1756. At the early age of fifteen he 
became a student of medicine at Jena, where he soon 
attracted the favourable notice of Baldinger, who undertook 
the direction of his studies. When Baldinger was trans- 
ferred to Gdttingen in 1773, Ackermann went with him, 
and afterwards studied for two years at Halle. A few 
years' practice at Stendal (1778-99), where there were 
numerous factories, enabled him to add many valuable 
original observations to his translation of Ramazzini's 
Treatise of t/te Diseases of Artificers (1780-83). In 1786 
ha became professor of medicine at the university of 
Altorf, in Franconia, occupyiiig first the chair of chemistry, 
and then, from 179-1 till his death in 1801, that of patho- 
logy and therapeutics. Dr Ackermann's knowledge of the 
history of medicine may be estimated by his valuable con- 
tributions to Harless's edition of Fabricius' BiUiotheca 
Groeca. He wrote numerous origijjal works, besides trans- 

ACCEMET^E (dKoi/iT/ros, sleepless), an order of monks 
instituted by Alexander, a Syrian, about the middle of 
the 6th century. Founding on the precept, Pray without 
ceasing, they celebrated divine service uninterruptedly night 
and day, for which purpose they divided themselves into 
three . sections, that relieved each other in turn. The 
chief seat of the Acoemetse was the cloister Studium at 
Constantinople, whence they were sometimes called Studites. 
Having adopted the monophysite heresy, they were put 
under the Papal ban about the year 536. 

ACOLYTE (from cutoAovflos, an attendant, one of a 
minor order of clergy in the ancient church, ranking 
next to the sub-doacon. We leam from the canons of the 

fourth Council of Carthage that the archdeacon, at their 
ordination, put into their hands a candlestick with a taper 
and an empty pitcher, to imply that they were appointed 
to light the candles of the church and to furnish win* 
for the eucharist. Their dress was the cassock and sur- 
plice. The name and office still exist in the church. 

ACONCAGUA, a province of Chile, South America, is 
about 100 miles long by 40 miles wide, and lies between 
Sr 30' and 33° 20' S. lat, and 70° and 71° 30' W. long., 
between the provinces of Valparaiso and Santiago on the N. 
and Coquhnbo on the S. A large part of the province 
is mountainous, but it contains several rich and fertile 
valleys, which yield wheat, maize, sugar-cane, fruits, and 
garden produce in abundance. In the agricultural dis- 
tricts there are raised from 50 to 60 fanegas of wheat for 
every quadra, equal to about 35 bushels per English acre. 
The province has also mineral resources, but not to such 
extent as Coquimbo or Atacama. Its chief town is San 
Felipe. The mountain Aconcagua, one of the loftiest 
peaks of the Andes, rises to the height of 23,910 feet 
above the sea on the frontier between this province and 
Mendoza, a department of the Argentine Republic A 
river of the same name rises on the south side of the 
mountain, and after a course of 230 miles falls into the 
Pacific 12 miles N. of Valparaiso. Pooulation Q870), 

ACONITE, AcONiTOM, a genus of planta commonly 
known as Aconite, Monkshood, Friar's Cap, or Helmet 
flower, and embracing about 18 species, chiefly natives of 
the mountainous parts of the northern hemisphcra They 
are distinguished by having one of the five blue or yellow 
coloured sepals in the form of a helmet ; hence the English 
name. Two of the petals placed under the hood of the 
calyx are supported on long stalks, and have a hollow 
spur at their apex. The genus belongs to the natural 
order Ranunculaceae, or the Buttercup family. Aconitum 
Napellus, common monkshood, is a doubtful native of 
Britain. It is an energetic irritant and narcotic poison. 
It causes death by a depressing effect on the nervous system, 
by producing palsyof the muscles concerned in breathing, and 
by fainting. A tincture prepared by the action of spirit 
on the roots is used medicinally to allay pain, especially 
in cases of tic. Its roots have occasionally been mistaken 
for horse-radish. The Aconite has a short underground 
stem, from which dark-coloured tapering roots descend. The 
crown or upper portion of the root gives rise to new plants. 
When put to the lip, the juice, o/ the Aconite root pro- 
duces a feeling of numbness and tingling. The horse- 
radish root, which belongs to the natural order Cnici- 
ferse, is much longer than that of the Aconite, and it i» 
not tapering ; its colour is yellowish, and the top of the 
root has the remains of the leaves on it. It has a pun- 
gent taste. Many species of Aconite are cultivated in 
gardens, some having blue and others yellow flowers. 
Aconitum Lycoctonum, Wolfsbane, is a yellow-flowered 
species common on the Alps of Switzerland. One species, 
Aconitum heterophyllum, found in the East Indies, and 
called Butees, has tonic properties in its roots. The roots 
of Aconitum ferox supply the famous Indian (Nipal) 
poison called Bikh, Bish, or Nabee. This species is con- 
sidered by Hooker and Thomson as a variety of Aconitum 
Napellus. Aconitum palmatum yields another of the 
celebrated Bikh poisons. Aconitum luridum, of the Hima- 
layas, also furnishes a poison. 

ACONTIUS, the Latinised form of the name of GlAqpno 
AcoNCiO, a philosopher, jurisconsult, engineer, and theolo- 
gian, bom at Trent on the 7th September 1492. He em- 
braced the reformed religion; and after having taken refuge 
for a time in Switzerland and Strasburg, he came to Eng- 
land about 1558. He was very favourably received by 

A C O — A O 


Queen Elizabeth, at whoso court, it is saia, taougli on 
doubtful authority, that he resided for a considerable period. 
With the sanction of Parliament, he carried on for several 
years extensive works for the embankment of the Thames, 
and so reclaimed a large quantity of waste land, part of 
which was bestowed upon him by way of recompense. His 
gratitude to Queen Elizabeth was expressed in the dedica- 
tion to her of his celebrated Collection of the Stratagems of 
Satan, which has been often translated, and has passed 
through many editions. Various opinions have been given 
of this work, which advocated toleration to an extent that 
many considered indifference. The nature of its doctrine 
may perhaps be best gathered from the fact that it gained 
for the author the praise of Arminius, and the strong con- 
demnation of the Calvinists. Acontius also wrote a treatise, 
De Mcthodo, which was published at Basel in 1558. He 
died in London about the yeai 15G6. 

ACOPiUS, a genus of monocotyledonous plants belonging 
to the natural order Aroideie, and the sub-order Orontiacete. 
Acorns Calamus, sweet-sedge or sweet-flag, is a native of 
Britain. It has an agreeable odour and has been used as 
a strengthening remedy, as well as to aUay spasms. The 
starchy matter contained in its running stem or rhizome 
is associated with a fragrant oil, and it is used as hair- 
powder. Confectioners form a candy from the rhizomes 
of the plant, and it is also used by perfumers in preparing 
aromatic vinegar. 

ACOSTA, Cheistoval d', a Portuguese naturahst, born 
at Jlozambique in the early part of the IGth century. On 
a voyage to Asia he was taken captive by pii'ates, who 
exacted from him a very large ransom. After spending 
some years in India, chiefly at Goa, a Portuguese colony, 
he returned home, and settled as a surgeon at Burgos. 
Here he published his Tratado de las drogas y medecinas 
de las Indias orientcles (1578). This work was translated 
into Latin, Italian, and French, became well known through- 
out Europe, and is stiU consulted as .an authority. Acosta 
also wrote an account of his travels, a book in praise of 
women, and other works. He died in 1580. 

ACOSTA, Joseph d', a celebrated Spanish author, was 
born at Medina del Campo about the year 1539. In 1571 
he went to Peru as a provincial of the Jesuits ; and, after 
remaining there for seventeen years, he returned to his 
native country, where he became in succession visitor for 
his order of Aragon and Andalusia, superior of VaUadolid, 
and rector of the university of Salamanca, in which city he 
died in February 1 600. About ten years before his death 
he published at Seville his valuable Historia Natural y 
Moral de las Indias, part of which had previously appeared 
in Latin; with the title De Natttra Novi Orhis, libri duo. 
This work, which has been translated into all the principal 
languages of Europe, gives exceedingly valuable informa- 
tion regarding the condition of South America at the time. 
On the subject of climite Acosta was the first to propound 
the theory, afterwards advocated by Bufl'on, which attri- 
buted the different degrees of heat in the old and new con- 
tinents to the agency of the winds. He also contradicted, 
from his own experience, the statement of Aristotle, that 
the middle zone of the earth was so scorched by the sun as 
to be destitute of moisture, and totally uninhabitable. Even 
after the discovery of America this AristoteUan dogma was 
an article of faith, and its denial was one ground of the 
charge of scepticism and atheism brought against Sir Walter 
Raleigh. Acosta, however, boldly declared that what he 
had seen was so different from what ho had expected, that 
he could not but " laugh at Aristotle's meteors and his 
philosophy." In speaking of the conduct of his country- 
men, and the means they employed for the propagatioit- of 
their faith, Acosta is in no resjicct superior to the other 
prejudiced writers of his country and age. Though he 

acKnowledges that the career of Spanish conquest was 
marked by the most savage cruelty and oppression, he yet 
represents this people as chosen by God to spread the gospel 
among the nations of America, and recouuts a variety of 
miracles as a proof of the constant interposition of Heaven 
in favour of the merciless and rapacious invaders. Besides 
his History, Acosta wrote the following works : — 1. De Fro- 
mulgatione £vangelii apud Barbaras ; 2. De Chris'to Heve- 
lato; 3. De Temporibus Novissimis, lib. vi; 4. Concionum 
tomi Hi. 

ACOSTA, Ukiel d', a Portuguese of noble familj', waa 
born at Oporto towards the close of the ICth century. 
His father being a Jewish convert to Christianity, he was 
brought up in the Roman Catholic faith, and strictly ob- 
served the rites of the church tiU the course of his inquiries 
led him, after much painful doubt, to abandon the religion 
of his youth for Judaism. Passing over to Amsterdam, ho 
was received into the sjTiagogue, having his name changed 
from Gabriel to Uriel. He soon discovered, however, that 
those who sat in Moses' seat were shameful perverters of 
the law ; and his bold protests served only to exasperate 
the rabbis, who finally punished his contumacy with the 
greater excommunication. Persecution seemed only to 
stimulate his temerity, and he soon after pubUshed a de- 
fence, Examen, das iradicocns Phariseas, iii., in which he 
not merely exposed the departures of the Jewish teachers 
from the law, but combated the doctrine of a future life, 
holding himself supported in this position by the silence of 
the Mosaic Books. For this he was imprisoned and fined, 
besides incurring public odium as a blasphemer and atheist. 
Nothing deterred, he pursued his speculations, which ended 
in his repudiating the divine authority of the law of Moses. 
Wearied, however, by his melancholy isolation, and longing 
for the benefits of society, he was drivea, in the inconsis- 
tency of despairing scepticism, to seek a return to the Jewish 
communion. Having recanted his heresies, he was re- 
admitted after an excommunication of fifteen years, but 
was soon excommunicated a second time. After seven 
years of miserable exclusion, he once more sought admis- 
sion, and, qn passing through a humiliating penance, was 
again received. These notices of his singular and unhappy 
life are taken from his autobiography, Exemplar Uumamx 
Yitce, published, with a " refutation," by Limborch, and 
republished in 1847. It has. been said that he died by 
his own hand, but this is, to say the least, doubtful. His 
eventful history forms the subject of a talc and of a tragedy 
by Gutzkow. 

lACOTYLEDONES, the name given to one of tne Classes 
of the Natural System of Botany, embracing flowerless 
plants, such as ferns, lycopods, horse-tails, mosses, Kverworts, 
lichens, sea-weeds, and mushrooms. The name is derived 
from the character of the embryo, which has no cotyledon. 
Flowering plants have usually one or two cotyledons, that 
is, seed-leaves or seed-lobes connected with their embrj'o ; 
while in flowerless plants the body representing the embryo 
consists of a cell, called a spore, without any leaves. The 
plants have no flowers, and their organs of reproduction arc 
inconspicuous, hence they are called by Linnaeus crypto- 
gamous. Some flowering plants, such as dodders, have no 
cotyledons ; and some have the cotyledons divided into 
more than two, as in conifers. Some acotyledonous spores, 
when sprouting, produce a leaf-like expansion called a pro- 
thallus, on which the organs of reproduction, consisting 
of antheridia and archegonia, are produced. This is well 
seen in the case of ferns. In the interior of the antheri 
dian cells, moving filamentous bodies, called spermatozoids, 
have been observed These fertilise the archegonial cells, 
whence new plants are produced. In the article Botany 
these plants will be noticed under Class III. of the NaturaJ 




1. 1. \ COUSTICB (from iKovia, to hear) is that branch of 
XJL. Natural Phtlosophy which treats of the nature of 
Bound, and the laws of its production and propagation, in so 
far as tlieso depend on phyaical principles. The description 
of the mechanism of the organ of voice and of the ear, and 
the difficult (questions connected with the processes by 
■which, when sound reaches the drum of the car, it is trans- 
mitted to the brain, must be dealt with in separate articles 
of this work. It is to the physical part of the science of 
acoustics that the present article is restricted. 

Pakt L 


General notions as to Vibrations, Waves, <tc. 

Souml la 2. We may easily satisfy ourselves that, in every in- 

line lo Btince in which the sensation of sound is excited, the body, 
vibrations, whence the sound proceeds, mtist have been thrown, by a 
blow or other means, into a state of agitation or tremor, 
implying the existence of a vibratory motion, or motion to 
and fro, of the particles of which it consists. 

Thus, if a common glass-jar be struck so as to yield an 
audible sound, the existence of a motion of this kind may 
be felt by the finger lightly applied to the edge of the 
glass ; and, on increasing the pressure so as to destroy this 
motion, the sound forthwith ceases. Small pieces of cork 
put in the jar will be found to dance about during the con- 
tinuance of the sound ; water or spirits of wine poured into 
the glass will, under the same circumstances, exhibit a 
ruffled surface. The experiment is usually performed, in a 
more striking manner, with a beU-jar and a number of 
small light wooden balls suspeftded by silk strings to a 
fixed frame above the jir, so as to be just in contact, with 
the widest part of the glass. On drawing a violin bow 
across the edge, the pendulums are thrown off to a con- 
siderable distance, and falling back are again repelled, 

It is also in many cases possible to follow with the eye 
the motions of the particles of the sounding body, as, for 
instance, in the case of a violin string or any string fixed 
at both ends, when the string will appear, by a law of 
optics, to occupy at once aU the positions which it suc- 
cessively assumes during its vibratory motion. 
Sound is 3. It is, moreover, essential, in order that the ear may 

propagated be affected by a sounding body, that there be interposed 
to Oio ear between it and the ear one ot more intermefliate bodies 
by VI >ra- („i^j,'(j), themselves capable of molecular vibration, which 
v„ ' shall receive such motion from the source of sound, and 

transmit it to the external parts of the car, and especially 
to the memlrana tympani or drum of the ear. This state- 
ment is confirmed by the well-known effect of stopping the 
car with soft cotton, or other substance possessing little 

The air around us forms the most important medium of 
communication of sound to our organs of hearing ; in fact, 
were air devoid of this property, we should practically be 
without the sense of hearing. In illustration of the part 
€hu3 assigned to the atmosphere in acoustics, an apparatus 
has been constructed, consisting of a glass receiver, in which 
is a bell and a hammer cxannected with clock-work, by 
which it can be made to strike the bell when required. 
The receiver is closed air-tight by a metal plate, through 
which passes, also air-tight, into the interior, a brass rod. 
By jjroperly moving this rod with the hand, a detent is 
released, which checks the motion of the wheel-work, and 
the hammer strilvcs the bell continuously, till the detent is 
pushed into its original position. As long as the air in 


the receiver is of the usual atmospheric density, the sound 
is perfectly audible. But on rarcfj-ing the air by means' 
of an air-pujjip (the clock-work apparatus having been 
separated from the plate of the pump by means of a pad- 
ding of soft cotton), the sound grows gradually fainter, 
and at last becomes inaudible when the rarefaction of iba 
air has reached a very low point. If, however, at this 
stage of the experiment, the metal rod be brought into 
contact with the bell, the sound will again be heard 
clearly, because now there is the necessary communication 
with the ear. On readmitting the air, the sound recovers 
its original intensity. This experiment was first performed 
by Uawksbee in 1705. 

4. Inasmuch, then, as sound necessarily implies the L»w« of 
existence in the sounding body, in the air, Ac, and (we libratoiy 
may add) in the ear itself, of Wbratory motion of the par- """tion. 
tides of the various media concerned in the phenomenon, 
a general reference to the laws of such motion is essential 
to a right understanding of the principles of acoustics. 

The most familiar instance of this kind of motion is 
afforded by the pendulum, a small heavy ball, for instance, 
attached to a fine string, which is fixed at its other end. 
There is but one position in which the ball will remain at 
rest, viz., when the string is vertical, there being then 
equilibrium between the two forces acting on the body, 
the tension of the string and the earth's attractive force or 
gravity. Thus, in the adjoining fig., if C is the point of 
suspension, and CA the vertical through that point of 
length I, equal to the string, A is the equilibrium position 
of the particle. 

Let now the ball be removea from A to P, the string being 
kept tight, so that P describes 
the arc AP of a circle of radius 
equal to I, and let the ball be 
there dropped. The tension of 
the string not being now directly 
opposite in direction to gravity 
(g), motion will ensue, and the 
body will retrace the arc PA 
In doing so, it will continually 
increase its velocity until it 
reaches the point A, where its 
velocity will be a maximum, and 
will consequently pass to the 

other side of A towards Q. But now gravity tends to 
draw it back towards A, and heuce the motion becomes 
a retarded one ; the velocity continually diminishes, and 
is ultimately destroyed at some point Q, which wotdd be, 
at a distance from A equal to that of P, but for the 
existence of friction, resistance of the air, ic, which make 
that distance less. From Q it will next move down with 
accelerated motion towards A, where it will have its greatest 
velocity in the direction from left to right, and whence it 
will pass onwards towards P, and so on. Thus the body 
wiU vibrate to and fro on either side of A, its amplitude of 
vibration or distance between its extreme positions gradually 
diminishing in consequence of the resistances before men- 
tioned, and at last being sensibly reduced to nothing, the 
body then resuming its equilibrium-position A. 

If the amplitude of vibration is restricted withiii incon- 
siderable limits, it is easy to prove that the motion takes 
place just as if the string were removed, the ball deprived 
altogether of weight and urged by a force directed to the 
point A, and proportional to the distance from tiat point. 
For then, if m be any position of the baU, the cbcrd mA. 
may be regarded as coincident with the tangent to the 

Fig. 1. 



circle at m, and therefore as being perpendicular to Um. 
Hence g, acting parallel to CA, being resolved along Cm 
and m&., the former component is counteracted by the 
tension of the string, and there remains as the ordy effec- 
tive acceleration, the tangential component along mA, 

■wticii, by the triangle of forces, is equal io g^^;— or v- Am, 

and is therefore proportional to Am. 

On this supposition of indefinitely small vibrations, the 
pendulum is isochronous; that is, the time occupied in 
passingfrom one extreme position to the other is the same, 
for a given length I of the pendulum, whatever the extent 
of vibration. 

A\'e conclude from this that, whatever may be the nattire 
of the forces by which a particle is urged, if the resultant 
of those forces is directed towards a fixed point, and is 
proportional to the distance from that point, the particle 
will oscillate to and fro about that point in times which 
are independent of the amplitudes of the vibrations, pro- 
vided these are very small 

5. The particle, whose vibratory motion we have been 
Acoustic considering, is a solitary particle acted on by external 
viljratious. forces. But, in acoustics, we have to do with the motion 

of particles forming a connected system or medium, in 
which the forces to be considered arise from the mutual 
actions of the particles. These forces are in equilibrium 
with each other when the particles occupy certain relative 
positions. But, if any new or disturbing force act for a 
short time on any one or more of the particles, so as to 
cause a mutual approach or a mutual recession, on the 
removal of the disturbing force, the disturbed particles 
will, if the body be elastic, forthwith move towards their 
respective positions of equilibrium. Hence arises a vibra- 
tory motion to and fro of each about a given point, 
analogous to that of a pendulum, the velocity at that point 
being always a maximupi, alternately in opposite directions. 
Thus, for example, if to one extremity of a pipe contain- 
ing air were applied a piston, of section equal to th*t of 
the pipe, by pushing in the piston slightly and then remov- 
ing it, we should cause particles of air, forming a thin 
section at the extremity of the pipe, to vibrate in directions 
parallel to its axis. 

In order that a medium may be capable of molecular 
vibrations, it must, as we have mentioned, possess elasticity, 
that is, a tendency always to return to its original condi- 
tion when slightly disturbed out of it. 

6. We now proceed to show how the disturbance where- 
Transmis- ^7 certain particles of an elastic medium are displaced from 
Sinn of theii- equilibrium-positions, is successively transmitted to 
vib.-iiions. the remaining particles of the medium, so as to cause these 

also to vibrate to and fro. 

Let us consider a line of sucn particies y, x, a, b, itc. 

y X a^aa^b c d e f g h i h I m n p 

equidistant from each other, as above; and suppose one of 
them, say a, to be displaced, by any means, to a,. As we 
have seen, this particle will swing from a, to a„ and back 
again, occupying a certain time T, to complete its double 
vibration. But it is obvious that, the distance between a 
and the next particle h to the right being diminished by 
the displacement of the former to a^, a tendency is gene- 
rated in b to move towards a,, the mutual forces being 
no longer in equilibrium, but having a resultant in the 
direction ba^. The particle b will therefore also suffer 
displacement, and bo compelled to swing to and fro about 
the point b. For similar reasons the particles c, d . . . 
will all likemse bo thrown into vibration. Thus it is, then, 
that the disturbance propagates itself in the direction under 
consideration. There is evidently also, in the case sup- 

posed, a transmission from a to x, y, Sec, i.e., in the opposite 

Confining our attention to propagation in the direction 
abc . . ., we have next to remark that each particle in that 
line will be affected by the disturbance always later than 
the particle immediately preceding it, so as to be found in 
the same stage of vibration a certain interval of time, after 
the preceding particle. 

7. Two particles which' are in the same stage of vibra- tuase 
tion, that is, are equally displaced from their equDibrium- 
positions, and are moving in the same direction and with 
equal velocities,- are said to be in the same phase. Hence 

we may express the prfeceding statement more briefly thus : 
Two particles of a disturbed medium at different distances 
from the centre of disturbance,- are in the same phase at 
different times, the one whose distance from that centre is 
the greater being later than the other. 

8. Let us in the meantime assume that, the intervals 
ah, be, cd . . . . being equal, the intervals of time which 
elapse between the like phases of b and a, of c and b . . . , 
are also equal to each other, and let us consider what at 
any given instant are the appearances presented by the 
different particles in the row. 

T being the time of a complete vibration of each particle, 

let — be the interval of time requisite for any phase of a 

to pass on to b. If then at a certain instant a is displaced 
to its greatest extent to the right, b will be somewhat short 
of, but moving towards, its corresponding position, c still 
further short, and so on. Proceeding in this way, we shall 
come at length to a particle p, for which the distance 
ap=p. ab, which therefore lags in its vibrarions behind a 

by a time = ;d x — = T, and is consequently precisely in 

the same phase as a. And between these two particles 
a, p, we shall evidently have particles in all the possible 
phases of the vibratory motion. At h, which is at distance 
from a'=iap, the difl'erence of phase, compared with a, 
■n-ill be AT, that is, h will, at the given instant, be dis- 
placed to the greatest extent on the opposite side of its 
equilibrium-position from that in which a is displaced; in 
other words, A is in the exactly opposite phase to a. 

9. In the case we have just been considering, the vibra- Longitu 
tions of the particles have been supposed to take place in '•'"»' ""•' 

a direction coincident with that in which the disturbance''"' ' 

passes from one particle to another. The vibrations are 
then termed longitudinal. 

But it need scarcely be observed that the vibrations may 
take place in any direction whatever, and may even be 
curvilinear. If they take place in directions at right 
angles to the lino of progress of the disturbance ^ they are 
said to be transversal. 

10. Now the reasoning employed in the preceding case Wave of 
will evidently admit of general application, and wil), in <ransTera»l 
particidar, hold for transversal vibrations. Hence if we I'f})!^'^'' 
mark (as is done in fig. 2) the positions Oj 6, c, . . ., occupied 
by the various particles, when swinging transversely, at the 
instant at -which a has its maximum displacement above its 
equilibrium-position, and trace a continuous line running 
through the points so found, that line will by its ordinates 
indicate to the eye the state of motion at the given 'nstauti 





Fig. 2. 
Thus a and p are in the same phase, as are also h and 
y, c and r, itc. a and h are in opposite phases, as are also 
aud i, c and k, ikc. 



Distances ap, bq, &c., separating particles in the same 
phase, and each of which, as we have seen, is passed over 
by the disturbance in the time T of a complete vibra- 
tion, include within them all the possible phases of the 

Beyond this distance, the curve repeats itself exactly, 
that is, the phases recur in the same order as before. 

Now the figure so traced offtrs an obvious resemblance 
to the undulating surface of a lake or other body of water, 
after it has been disturbed by wind, exiiibiting a wave 
with its trough A/i,B, and its c^est Bpfi. Hence have 
been introduced into Acoustics, as also into Optics, the 
terms wave and undulation. The distance ap, or bq . . . 
or A-C, which separates two particles in same phase, 
or which includes both a wave-crest and a wave-trough, 
is termed the lenr/lh of the tvave, and is usually denoted 

As the curve repeats itself at intervals each ■= X, it 
follows that particles are in the same phase at any given 
niomcut, when the distances between them in the direction 
of transmission of the disturbance = A, 2X, 3A . . . and gena- 
ully = n\, where n is any whole number. 

Particles such as a and A, 6 and i, ic, which are at 

distances = -\ , being in opposite phases, so will also be 

1 3 

particles separated by distance, -X-fX= -X, or, in general, 

by -X -I- »nX = (2m -f 1 ); , that is, by any odd multiple of - . 

Wave oi 11. Alike construction to the one just adopted for the 

velocities, displacements of the particles at any given instant, may be 
also applied for exhibiting graphically their velocities at 
the same instant. Erect at the various points a, 6, c, ic, 
perpendiculars to the line joining them, of lengths pro- 
portional to and in the direction of their velocities, and 
draw a line through the extreme points of these perpendi- 
culars; this line will answer the pi(rpose required. It is 
indicated by dots in the previous figure, and manifestly 
forms a wave of the same length as the wave of displace- 
ments, but the highest and lowest points of the one wave 
correspond to the points in which the other wave crosses 
the line of equilibrium. 
VtoTc» ibr 12. In order to a graphic representation of the displace- 
longitu- menta and velocities of particles vibrating longitudinally, 
dinal vilira- j{ jj convenient to draw the lines which represent those 
°^^' quantities, not in the actual direction in which the motion 

takes place and which coincides with the line ab c . . ., but 
at right angles to it, ordinates drawn upwards indicating 
displacements or velocities to the right (i.e., in the direc- 
tion of transmission of the disturbance), and ordinates 
drawn downwards indicating displacements or velocities in 
the opposite direction. ^Vhen this is done, waves of dis- 
placement and Telocity are figured identically with those 
for transversal vibrations, and are therefore subject to the 
same resulting laws, 
fropaga- 13. But not only will the above waves enable us to see 

tion of at a glance the circumstances of the vibratory motion at 
wavci. jjjQ instant of time for which it has been constructed, but 

also for any subsequent moment. Thus, if we desire to 

consider what is going on after an interval — , we have 

simply to conceive the whole wave (whether of displace- 
ment or velocity) to be moved to the right through a dis- 
tance = a 6. Then the state of motion in which a was 
before will have been transferred to b, that of b will have 
been transferred to c, and bo on. At the end of another 
such interval, the state of the particles will in like manner 
be represented by the wave, if pushed onward through 
another equal space. In short, the whole circumstances 
Jiiiy be pictured to the eye by two waves (of displacement 

and of velocity) advancing continuously in the line a he . .. 
with a velocity V which t^tH take it over the distance ab in 

the time --,V being therefore = ^ = ^^ -= -^ or V = ^ . 

This is termed the velocity of propagation of the wave, 
and, as we see, is equal to the length of the wave divided 
by the time of a complete vibration of each particle. 

If, as is usually more convenient, wo express T in terms 
of the number » of complete vibrations performed in u 

given time, say in the unit of time, we shall have tr =< n , 

and hence 

V = /a. 

1-t. There is one very important distinction between the V»riatit>n» 
two cases of longitudinal and of transversal vibrations which °' <1«"'V 
now claims our attention, viz., that whereas vibrations of •'iuji'nj'' 
the latter kind, when propagated from particle to particle vibr»tio«». 
in an clastic medium, do not alter the relative distances of 
the particles, or, in other words,, cause no change of density 
throughout the medium; longitudinal vibrations, on the 
other hand, by bringing the particles nearer to or further 
from one another than they are when undisturbed, are 
necessarily accompanied by alternate condensations and. 

Thus, in fig. 2, wo see that at the instant to which that 
fig. refers, the displacements of the particles immediately 
adjoining a are equal and in the same direction ; hence at 
that moment the density of the medium at a is-equal to 
that of the undisturbed medium. The same applies to the 
points h, p, (tc, in which the displacements are at their 
ma.xima and the velocities of ■s'ibration = 0. 

At any point, such as c, bet^veen a and A, the displace- 
ments of the two adjoining particles on either side are both 
to the right, but that of the preceding particle is now the 
greater of the two, and hence the density of the medium 
throughout aX exceeds the undisturbed density. So at 
any point, such as/, between A and A, the same result holds 
good, because now«the displacements are to the left, but 
are in excess on the right side of the point /. From a 
to k, therefore, the medium is condensed. 

From A to B, as at k, the displacements of the two 
particles on either side are both to the left, that of the pre- 
ceding particle being, however, the greater. The medium, 
therefore, is here in a state of rarefaction. And in like , 

manner it may be shown that there is rarefaction from B 
to ^;' so that the medium is rarefied from A to p. 

At A the condensation is a maximum, because the dis- 
placements on the two sides of that point are equal and 
both directed towards A. At B, on the other hand, it is 
the rarefaction which is a maximum, the displacements on 
the right and left of that point being again equal, but 
directed outwards from B. 

It clearly follows from all this that, if we trace a curve 
of which any ordinate shall be proportional to the differ- 
ence betweeu the. density of the corresponding poir.* of the 
disturbed medium and the density of the untb'dturbed 
medium — ordinates drawn upwards indicating condensation, 
and ordinates drawn downwards rarefaction — that curve 
will cross the line of rest of the particles abc. . . in the 
same points as does the curve of velocities, and will there- 
•fore be of the same length X, and will abo rise above that 
line and dip below it at the same parts. But th" connec- 
tion between the wave of condensation and rarefaction and 
the wave of velocity, is still more intimate, when the 
extent to which the particles are displaced is very small, .j 
is always the case in acoustics. For it may be shown t'nat 
then the degree of condensation or rarefaction at any point 
of the medium is proportional to the velocity of vibr atioi 
at that point . The same ordinates, therefore, will repro 



^eut th'e clogreo3 of condensation, whicli represent the 
I elocitiea, or, in other words, the waTe of condensation and 
rarefaction may be regarded as coincident with the velocity 

Past IL 

Vdocily of proparjatian of waves of longitudiiiat, disturbance 
thronr/h any elastic medium. 

15. Sir Isaac Newton was tlie first who attempted to de- 
termine, on theoretical grounds, the velocity of sound in 
air and other fluids. The formula obtained by him gives, 
however, a numerical value, as regards air, falling far short 
of the result derived from actual experiment ; and it was 
not till long afterwards, when Laplace took up the ques- 
tion, that complete coincidence was arrived at between 
theory and observation. We are indebted to the late Pro- 
fessor Rankine, of Glasgow {Phil. Trans. 1870, p. 277)i, 
for a very simple and elegant investigation of the question, 
which we will here reproduce in an abridged form. 

Let us conceive the longitudinal disturbance to be pro- 
])agated through a medium contained in a straight tube 
having a trensverse section equal to unity, but of indefinite 

Let two transverse planes A, A, (fig. 3) be conceived 
as moving along the in- , 

terior of the tube in the 
same direction, and with 
the same velocity V as the 
disturbance-wave itself. 


Fig. 3. 

Let M; «. be the velocities of displacement of the particles 
of the medium at A, A. respectively, at any given instant, 
estimated in the same direction as V; and p^p^ the corre- 
sponding densities of the medium. 

The disturbances under consideration, being such as 
preserve a permanent type throughout their propagation, 
it follows that the quantity of matter between A, and A, 
remains constant during the motion of these planes, or that 
as much must pass into the intervening space through one 
of them as issues from it through the other. Now at \^ 
the velocity of the particles relatively to A, itself is V - u^ 
inwards, and consequently there flows into the space A, Aj 
through A, a mass (V - a,)p, in the unit of time. 

Forming a similar expression as regards A^, putting m for 
the invariable mass through which the disturbance is pro- 
pagated in the unit of time, and considering that if p de- 
note the density of the undisturbed medium, m is evidently 
equal to Vp, we have — 

V-«.)p, = (V-«>, = Vp = m. . (I.) 

Now, PiPj being the pressures at A,, A, respectively, 
and therefore p,-p^ the force generating the acceleration 
«, — «|, in unit of time, on the mass m of the medium, by the 
second law of motion, 

p,-p, = m{u,-u,) . . . (2.) 

Eliminating «„ u^ from these equations, and putting for 

— , — , - the symbols s^, s^, a (which therefore denote the 

volumes of the unit of mass of the disturbed medium at 
A,, A„ and of the undisturbed medium), we get : 

m^ = ^Z!l andV^..= ?i^ ' 

Now, if (as is generally tne case in sound) the changes 
of pressure and volume occurring during the disturbance of 
the medium are very small, we may assume that these 
changes are proportional one to the other. Hence, denot- 
ing the ratio which any increase of pressure bears to the 
diminution of the unit of volume of the substance, and 

' See also Maiwell. Theory of Ueat, p-JOlt 

or V = 

which is termed the elasticity of the substance, by f, we 
shall obtain for the velocity of a wave of longitudinal dis- 
placements, supposed small, the equation: 

yil "■', 

16. In applying this formula to the determination of 
the velocity of sound in any particular medium, it is 
requisite, as was shown by Laplace, to take into account 
the thermic efi'ects produced by the condensations and- 
rarefactions which, as we have seen, take place in the sub- 
stance. The heat generated during the sudden compres- 
sion, not being conveyed away, raises the value of the 
elasticity above that which otherwise ii -^jould have, and 
which was assigned to it by Sir Isaac Newton, 

Thus, in a perfect gas, it is demonstrable by the priii 
ciples of Thermodynamics, that the elasticity e, which, in 
the undisturbed state of the medium, would be simply 
equal to the pressure p, is to be made equal to yp, where 
y is a number exceeding unity and represents the ratio of 
the specific heat of the gas under constant pressure to its 
specific heat at constant volume. 

Hence, as air and most other gases may be practically 
regarded as perfect gases, we have for them : 

V= ^s= f^ . . . (II.) 

17. From this the following inference may be drawn: — 

Xhe velocity of sound in a given gas is unafi'ected by 

chaiige of pressure if unattended by change of temperature. 

P . 
For, by Boyle's law, the ratio - is constant at a given 

temperature. The accuracy of this inference has been con- 
firmed by recent experiments of Regnault. 

18. To ascertain the influence of change of temperature 
on the velocity of sound in a gas, we remark that, by Gay 
Lussac's law, the pressure of a gas at different tempera- 
tures varies proportionally both to its density p and to 
I +at, where t is the number of degrees of temperature 
above freezing point of water (32° Fahr.), and a is the expan- 
sion of unit of volume of the gas for every degree above 

If, therefore, p, p„, p, p„ denote the pressures and densities 
corresponding to temperatures Z2° + t° and 32°, we have: 

^ = -1 (1 + aO 

Po Pa 
and hence, denoting the corresponding velocities of sound 
by V, V„ we get 

^= 7(1 +"0 

whence, o being always a very small fraction, is obtained 
very nearly: 




Velocity of 

sOUQtl ill 

.lir is inde- 
of the 

EfTect of 
change of 


-i--«andV-V,= 2.<.V, 

The velocity increases, therefore, by - V„ for every de- 
gree of rise of temperature above 32°. 

19. The general expression for V given in (II.) may be 
put in a difi'erent form : if we introduce a height H of the 
gas, regarded as having the same density p throughout and 
exerting the pressure p, then p=ffpTl, where g is the 
acceleration of gravity, and there results : 

for V. 

Now JiU. or ^2?. 




is the velocity U which would 

bo acquired by a body falling in vacuo from a height — 
Hence V = U Jy. 

J 04 


fraluo of V 
' »ir. 

.1-110 ft. 


in ■lifTv. 
it (jases 

nienta for 
(iiig V in 

V ileppiicis 
of aouuil. 

y depends 
en the 
pitch of 

If y were equal to 1, V ■= U, which is the result obtained 
fcy Newton, nii'i would indicate that the velocity of sound 
in a gas equals the velocity of a body falling from a height 
equal to half of that of a homogeneous atniosphero of the 

20. In common dry air at 32° Fahr., g being 32-2 ft., and 
the mercurial barometer 30 ins. or 25 ft., the density of 
air is to that of mercury as 1 : 10,485 '6 ; hence H = 
10,458-6 x2-d ft. = 26,214 ft. 

Also y= 1-408 

Hence V,- ^1,408 x 32,2 x 26,214 = 1 090 ft. 

and, by § 18, the increase of velocity for each degree of rise 

/ , . IN. 1090 545 

of temperature [a being — j 's — or -^ 

•crj' n(Jlfrly. 

21. If the value of y were the same for different gases, 
it is obvious from formula V= /y ? that, at a given 

temperature, the velocities of sound in those gases would be to 
each other inversely as the square roots of their den.sities. 
Eegiiault has foiuid that this is so for common air, carbonic 
acid, nitrous oxide, hydrogen and ammoniacal gas (though 
less so as regards the two 

22. The experimental determination of the velocity of 
sound in air has been carried out by ascertaining accurately 
the time intervening between the flash and report of a gnn 
as oljserved at a given distance, and dividing the distance 
by the time. A discussion of the many experiments con- 
ducted on this principle in various countries and at various 
periods, by Van Der Kolk (Land, and Edin. /'hi!. May., 
July 1865), assigns to the velocity of sound in dry air at 
32° Fahr., 1091 ft. 8 in. per second, with a probable error 
of ±3-7 ft; and .still more recently (in 1871) Mr Stone, 
the Astronomer Royal at the Cape of Good Hope, has 
found 1090-6 as the result of careful experiments by him- 
self there. The coincidence of these numbers with that 
we have already obtained theoretically suificiently estab- 
lishes the general accuracy of the theory. 

23. Still it cannot be overlooked that the formula for 
V is founded on assumptions which, though approximately, 
are not strictly correct. Thus, the air is not a perfect gas, 
nor is the variation of elastic force, caused by the passage 
through it of a wave of disturbance always very small in 
comparison with the elastic force of the undisturbed air. 
Eamshaw (1858) first drew attention to these points, and 
came to the conclusion that the velocity of sound increases 
with its loudness, that is, with the violence of the disturb- 
ance. In confirmation of this statement, he appeals to a 
singular fact, viz., that, during experiments made by 
Captain Parry, in the North Polar Regions, for determin- 
ing the velocity of sound, it was invariably found that the 
report of the discharge of cannon was heard, at a distance 
of 2J miles, perceptibly earlier than the sound of the word 
fire, which, of course, preceded the discharge. 

As, in the course of propagation in unlimited air, there 
is a gradual decay in the intensity of sound, it would fol. 
low that the velocity must also gradually decrease as the 
sound proceeds onwards. This curious inference has been 
verified experimentally by Regnault, who found the velocity 
of sound to have decreased by 2 2 ft. per second in passing 
from a distance of 4000 to one of 7500 feet. 

24. Among other interesting results, derived by the 
accurate methods adopted by Regnault, but which want of 
space forbids us to describe, may be mentioned the de- 
pendence of the velocity of sound on its pitch, lower notes 
being, ccet. par., transmitted at a more rapid rate than higher 
ones. Thus, the fundamental note of a trumpet travels 
faster than ita harmonies. 

25. The velocity of sound in liquids and BoKds (the di»- V inli(tni4« 
placements being longitudinal), may be obtained by formula »"<* eolida 
(I.), neglecting the thermic effects of the compresr.ions and 
expansions as being comjjaratively inconsiderable, and may 
be put in other forms: 

Thus, if wp denote by • the change in length of one foot 
of a column of the substance produced by its own weight 

w, then e being = - or — , -we have - - - and hence: 
• I - I 

v^y?. . . . (IV.) 

or, replacing - (which is the length in feet of a column 

that would be increased 1 foot by the weight of 1 cubio 
foot) by /, 

V- ^/ir . . (V.) 

which shows that the velocity la that due to a fall through 

2 • 

Or, again, in the case of a liquid, if ij denote the change 
of volume, which would be i^roduced by an increase of 
pressure equal to one atmosphere, or to that of a column 
H of the liquid, since i is the change of volume due to 

11 H 1 

weight of a column 1 of the liquid, and .-. - = — end - 


, we get 
V = 


Ex. 1. For water. 


2u,000 very nearly; H = 34 ft. V in water. 

and hence V = 4680 feet. 

This number coincides very closely with the value ob- 
tained, whether by direct experiment, as by CoUadon and 
Sturm on the Lake of Geneva in 1826, who found 4708, 
or by indirect means which assign to the velocity in the 
water of the Eiver Seine at 59° Fahr. a velocity of 4714 ft. 

Ex. 2. For iron. Let the weight necessary to double V in iron. 

the length of an iron bar be 4260 millions of lbs. on the 

square foot. Then a length I will bo extended to / -1- 1 by 

, 4260 millions lbs. , , rm • , , 

a force of on the sq. ft. ihis, therefore, 

by our definition of I, must be the weight of a cubic foot 

of the iron. Assuming the density of iron to be 7-8, and , 

62-32 lbs. as the weight of a cubic foot of water, we get 
7-8 X 62-32 or 486 lbs. as the weight of an equal bulk of 

iron. Hence 

4260 millions 

which gives V = ^gl 

. 486 and I = —-r- miUions, 

i ■.,,. 


ir5? X 1000 = 1000 V284' 

or V = 17,000 feet per second nearly. 

As in the case of water and iron, so, in general, it may 
be stated that sound travels faster in liquids than in air, 

and stiU faster in solids, tlie ratio - being least in gases 

and greatest in solids. 

26. Biot, about 50 years ago, availed himself of the Eiperi- 
great difference in the velocity of the propagation of sound Tnental de- 
through metals and through air, to determine the ratio of termina- 
the one velocity to the other. A bell placed near one ex- ''^■'' "' ^ 
tremity of a train of iron pipes forming a joint length of 
upwards of 3000 feet, being struck at the same instant as 
the same extremity of the pipe, a person placed at the 
other extremity heard first Ae sound of the blow on the 
pipe, conveyed through the iron, and then, after an interval 



of time, -which was noted as accurately as possible, the 
sound of the bell transmitted through the air. The 
result was a velocity for the iron of 10'5 times that in air. 
Simil&r experiments on iron telegraph wire, made more 
recently near Paris by Wertheim and Brequet, have led to 
an almost identical number. Unfortunately, owing to 
the metal in those experiments not forming a continuous 
whole, and to other causes, the results obtained, which fall 
short of those otherwise-found, cannot be accepted as correct. 
Other means therefore, of an indirect character, to which 
we will refer hereafter, have been resorted to for deter- 
mining the velocity of sound in solids. Thus Wertheim, 
from the pitch of the lowest notes produced by longitudinal 
friction of wires or rods, has been led to assign to that 
velocity values ranging, in different metals, from 16,822 
feet for iron, to 4030 for lead, at temperature 68° Fahr., 
and which agree most remarkably with those calculated by 

means of the formula V = / - . He points out. however, 

tiat these values refer only to solids whose cross dimensions 
are small in comparison with their length, and that in order 
to obtain the velocity of sound in an unlimited solid mass, 
it is requisite to multiply the value as above found by 
J i OT ^ nearly. For while, in a solid bar, the extensions 
and contractions due to any disturbance take place laterally 
as well as longitudinally ; in an extended solid, they can 
only occur in the latter direction, thus increasing the 
vtiue of e. 

27. To conyplete the discussion of tho velocity of the 
propagation of sound, we have still to consider the case of 
transversal vibrations, such as are executed by the points 
of a stretched wire or cord when drawn out of its position 
of rest bv a blow, or by the friction of a violin-bow. 

Fig. i. 
Velocity of Lgj q^ (gg 4) ^^ ^fjg position of the string when nndis- 
tion of ' turbed, mnp when displaced. We wiU suppose the amount 
ttensversal "^f displacement to be very small, so that we may regard 
vibrations, the distance between any two given points of it as remain- 
ing the same, and also that the tension P of tho string 
is not changed in its amount, but only in its direction. 
which is that of the string. 

Take any origin in ox, and ab = hc = Ix (a very small 
quantity), then the perpendiculars am, In, cp, are the dis- 
placements of abc. Let k, I be the middle points of mn, 
np; then U (which = ot7i or ah very nearly) may be re- 
garded as a very small part of the string acted on by two 
forces each = P, and acting at n in the directions np, nm. 
These give a component parallel to ac, which on our sup- 
position is negligible, and another F along nb, such that 

F = P^8in9-sin(9'1 = P. ("ll-^^^V. 

\mn nqj 


nqJ Jx 

Now if c = a length of string of weight equal to P, and 

the string be suppo.-ed of uniform thickness and density, 

P P 

the weight of ld = - .U = -. Ix, and the mass to of W = 



Hence the acceleration / in direction nb \ 


If we denote ma by y, oa by x, and the time by t, via 
ehaU readily see that this equa'ion becomes ultimately, 
(Py cpy 

■which is satisfied by putting 

y = (a; -f Jge. t) + ili (x- Jgc. t) 

where ^ and \p indicate any functions. 

Now we know that if for a given value of t, x be in- 
creased by the length A of the wave', the value of y remains 
unchanged; hence, 

4> {^+ Jff':- t) + iiC.^-*^(x + \+ Jfc. f) &c. 
But this condition is equally satisfied for a given value of 

... '^ 

X, by increasing J gc. t. by X, i.e., increasing t by ~y=^ . 

This therefore must — T ''the time of a complete vibration 
of any point of the string j. But V = =;. Hence, 

V = V^ (VIL) 

is the expression for the velocity or sound when due to 
very small transversal vibrations of a thin wire or chord, 
which velocity is consequently the same as would be 
acquired by a body falling through a height equal to one 
half of a length of the chord such as to have a weight 
equal to the tension. 

The above may also be put in the form — 


where P is the tension, and w the weight of the unit of 
length of the chord. 

28. It appears then that while sound is propagated by 
longitudinal vibrations through a given substance with the 
same velocity under all circumstances, the rate of its trans- 
mission by transversal vibrations through the saiae sub- 
stance depends on the tension and on the thickness. Tte 
former velocity bears to the latter the ratio of J~l: J~c, 
(where / is the length of the substance, which would be 
lengthened one foot by the weight of one foot, if we take 

the foot as our unit) or of /- : 1, that is, of the square 

root of the length which would be extended one foot by 
the weight of c feet, or by the tension, to 1. This, for 
ordinary tensions, results in the velocity for longitudinal 
vibrations being verv much in excess of that for transversal 

29. It is a well known fact that, in all but very excep- 
tional cases, the loudness of any sound is less as the dis- 
tance increases between the source of sound and the ear. 
The law according to which this decay takes place is the 
same as obtains in other natural phenomena, viz., that in 
an unlimited and uniform medium the loudness or intensity 
of the sound proceeding from a very small sounding body 
(strictly speaking, a point) varies inversely as the square 
of the distance. This follows from considering that the 
ear AC receives only the conical portion OAC of the whole 
volume of sound emanating from O, and that in order that 
an ear BD, placed at a 
greater distance from O, 
may admit the same 
quantity, its area must be 
to that of AC : as OB^ : 
0A2. But if A' = AC 
be situated at same dis- ^ig- 6- 

tance as BD, the amount of sound received by it and by 
BD (and therefore by AC) will be as th<> area of A' or 


son of V 
for trans- ' 
versal and 
for loDgi- • 

Law ot > 
decay of ' 
intensity 0^ 
with in- 
creased dia^ 

AC to that of BD. 

Hence, the intensities of the sound 
L — 14 



heard by the same ear at the difitanucs OA and OB are to 

each other as OB- to OA''. 

Iiifluenceot 30. In order to verify the above law when the atmo- 

iliminished Bptere forms the intervening medium, it would be necessary 

density of jg fggj jj. ^j ^ considerable elevation above the earth's 

inU!n8ity"of surface, the car and the source of sound being separated 

sound. 'by air of constant density. As the density of the air 

diminishes, we should then find that the loudness of the 

sound at a given distance would decrease, as is the case in 

the air-pump experiment previously described. Thia arises 

from the decrease of the quantity of matter impinging on 

the ear, and the consequent diminution of its vis-viva. 

The decay of sound due to this cause is (fbServable in the 

rarefied air of high mountainous regions. De Saussure, the 

celebrated Alpine traveller, mentions that the report of a 

pistol at a great elevation appeared no louder than would 

a small cracker at a lower level. 

But it is to be remarked that, according to Poisson, 
when air-strata of different densities are interposed between 
the source of sound and the ear placed at a given distance, 
the intensity depends only on the density of the air at the 
source itself; whence it follows that sounds proceeding 
from the surface of the earth may be heard at equal dis- 
tances as distinctly by a person in a floating balloon as by 
one situated on the surface itself; whereas any noise origi- 
nating in the balloon would be heard at the surface as 
faintly as if the ear were placed in the rarefied air on a 
level with the balloon. This was exemplified during a 
balloon ascent by Glaiaher and Coxwell, who, when at an 
elevation of 20,000 Itet, heard with great distinctness the 
whistle of a locomotivo jissing beneath them. 

Tart m. 
Reflexion and Refraction of Sound. 

31. When a wave of sound travelling through one 
medium meets a second medium of a different kind, the 
vibrations of its own particles are communicated to the 
particles of the new medium, so that a wave is excited in 
the latter, and is propagated through it with a velocity de- 
pendent on the density and elasticity of the second medium, 
and therefore differing in general from the previous velocity. 
The direction, too, in which the new wave travels is dif- 
ferent from the previous one. This change of direction is 
termed refraction, and takes place according to the same 
laws as does the refraction of light, viz., (1.) The new 
direction or refracted ray lies always in the plane of 
incidence, or plane which contains the incident ray (i.e., 
the direction of the wave in the first medium), and the 
normal to the suriace separating the two media, at the 
point in which the incident ray meets it; (2.) The sine of 
the angle between the normal and the incident ray bears to 
the sine of the angle between the normal and the refracted 
ray, a ratio which is constant for the same pair of media. 

For a theoretical demonstration of these laws, we must 
refer to the art. Optics, where it will be shown that the 
ratio involved in the second law is always equal to the 
ratio of the velocity of the wave in the first medium to the 
velocity in the second ; in other words, the sines of the 
angles in question are directly proportional to the velocities. 

32. Hence sonorous rays, in passing from one medium 
into another, are bent in towards the 
normal, or the reverse, according as the 
velocity of propagation in the former 
exceeds or falls short of that in the latter. 
Thus, for instance, sound is refracted 
towards the perpendicular when passing 
into air from water, or into carbonic acid 
gas from air; the converse is the case when 
the passage takes place the opposite way. 

Laws ot 


is to or 
Irom the 
norraal ac- 
cording to 
values of 
tlie velo- 
angle and 
toUl ra 

Fig. 6. 

33. It further follows, as in the analogous case of light, 

that there is a certain angle termed the limiting anffle, 
whose time is found by dividing the less by the greater 
velocity, such that all rays of sound meeting the surface 
separating two different bodies will not pass onwar<l, 
but suffer total reflexion back into the first Ixxly, if 
the velocity in that body is less than that in the other 
body, and if the angle of incidence exceeds the limiting 

The velocities in air and water oeing respectively 1090 
and 4700 feet, the limiting angle for these media may bo 
easily shown to be slightly above 15J°. Hence, rays of 
sound proceeding from a distant source, and therefore 
nearly parallel to each other, and to PO (fig. 6), the angle 
POM being greater than 15 J", will not pass into the water 
at all, but suffer total reflexion. Under such circumstances, 
the report of a gun, however powerftil, would be inaudible 
by an ear placed in the water. 

34. As light is concentrated into a focus by a convex Aconstio 
glass lens (for which the velocity of light is less than for •'-'"'"■ 
the air), so sound ought to be made to converge by passing 
through a convex lens formed of carbonic acid gas. On 

the other hand, to produce convergence with water or 
hydrogen gas, in both which the velocity of sound exceeds 
its rate in air, the lens ought to be coTieave, These results 
have been confirmed expcriiiientally by Sondhaus and 
Hajech, who also succeeded in verifj-ing the law of the 
equality of the index of refraction to the ratio of the 
velocities of sound. 

35. When a wave of sound falls on a surface separating Laws of 
two media, in addition to the refracted wave transmitted 'flesion- 
into the new medium, which we have been consider- 
ing, there is also a fresh wave formed in the new medium, 

and travelling in it in a different direction, but, of course, 
with the same velocity. This reflected wave is subject to 
the same laws as regulate the reflexion of light, viz., (1.) 
the coincidence of the planes of incidence and of reflexion, 
and (2.) the equality of the angles of incidence and 
reflexion, that is, of the angles made by the incident and 
reflected rays with the normal. 

36. As in an ellipse (fig. 7), the normal PG at any point Refleiun 
bisects the angle SPH (S, H by - sphe- 

being the foci), rays of sound — '""'- 

diverging from S, and falling on 
the spheroidal surface formed by 
the revolution of tlie ellipse about 
the longest diameter AB, will be 
reflected to H. Also, since SP 
+ PH is always = AB, the times in which the different rays 

will reach H will all be equal to each other, and hence a 
crash at S wiU be heard as a crash at H. 

37. At any point P of a parabola (fig. 8) of which S is Kelleiioii 
the focus, and AX the axis, the normal. PQ bisects the ^.P^ 
angle SPX, PX being 
drawn parallel to AX. 

Hence rays of sound 
diverging from S, and 
falling on the paraboloid 
formed by the revolution 
of the parabola about its 
axis, wiU all be reflected 
in directions parallel to 
the axis. And vice versa 
rays of sound XP, XQ, 

bolic np 

Fig. 8. 

A-c, from a very distant source, and parallel to the axis of 
a paraboloid, will be reflected into the focus. Con 
sequently, if two reflecting paraboloids be placed at a 
considerable distance from and opposite to each other, 
with their axis coincident in direction (fig. 9), the tick of 
a watch placed at the focus S of one will be heard di» 
tinctly by an ear at S'. the focus of the other. 




Fig. 9. 

38. As a Imninous object may give a succession of 
images ■when placed between two or more reflecting sur- 
faces, so also in like circum- 
jStances may a aound suffer 

To these principles are 
easily traceable all the pecu- 
liarities of echoes. A wall 
or steep cliff may thus send 
back, somewhat reduced in 
intensity, a shout, the report 
of a pistol, ifcc. The time 
which elapses between the sound and its echo may be 
easily deduced from the known velocity of sound in air, 
if the distance of the wall be given. Thus, for a distance 
of 37 yards, the interval will be found by dividing the 
ilouble of that or 74 yards by 370 yards, the velocity of 
Eound at 50° Fahr., to amount to ^ of a second. Hence, if 
we assume that the rate at which syllables can be distinctly 
uttered is five per second, the wall must be at a distance 
iD-xceeding 37 yards to allow of the echo of a word of one 
syllable reaching the ear after the word has been uttered, 
74 yards for a word of two syllables, and so on. 

If the reflecting surface consists of one or more walls, 
cliffs, itc, forming together a near approach in shape to 
that of a prolate spheroid or of a double parabolic surface, 
then two points may be found, at one of which if a source 
cf sound be placed, there will be produced, by conver- 
gence, a distinct echo at the other. As examples of this 
may be mentioned the whispering gallery in St Paul's, 
I..ondon, and the stOl more remarkable case of the 
Cathedral of Girgenti i;? Sicily mentioned by Sir John. 
Sonnrl con. 39. On similar principles of repeated reflexion may be 
»ej-ed over explained tie well-known fact that sounds may be con- 
water, &.C. veyed to great distances with remarkably slight loss of 
intensity, on a level piece of ground or smooth sheet of 
water or ice, and still more so in pipes, chimneys, tunnels, 
itc Thus, in one of Captain Parry's Polar expedi- 
tions, a conversation was on one occasion carried on, 
at a distance of IJ nule, between two individuals sepa- 
rated by a frozen sheet of water. M. Biot heard distinctly 
from jne end of the train of pipes f cf a mile long, 
previously referred to, a low whisper proceeding from 
the opposite end. 

Practical illustrations are afforded by the system of 
communication by means of tubing now so extensively 
adopted in public and private buildings, and by the speak- 
ing trumpet and the far trumpet 

40. The prolonged roll of thunder, with its manifold 
varieties, is partly to be ascribed to reflexion by moun- 
tains, clouds, (tc. ; but is mainly accounted for on a diffe- 
rent acoustic principle, viz., the comparatively low rate of 
transmission of sound through air, as was first shown 
by Dr Hooke at the close of the 17th century. The ex- 
planation will be more easily understood by adverting 
to the case of a voUey fired by a long line of troops. A 
person situated at a point in that line produced, will first 
it is evident hear the report of the nearest musket, fol- 
lowed by that of the one follo-vring, and so down to the 
last one in the line, which will close the prolonged roU 
thus reaching his ear j and as each single report will appear 
to him less intense according as it proceeds from a greater 
distance, the roll of musketry thus heard will be ore of 
gradaally decreasing loudr.ess. But if he were to place 
himself at a relatively great distance right opposite to 
the centre of the line, the separate reports from each of 
the two wings would reach him nearly at the same moment, 
and .hence the sound of the volley would now approach 
more nearly to that of a single loud crash. If the line of 


Boldiers formea an arc of a circle having Its centre in his 

position, then the distances gone over by the separate 
reports being equal, they would reach his ear at the same 
absolute instant of time, and with exactly equal intensi- 
ties; and the effect produced would be strictly the same 
as that of a single explosion, equal in violence to the sum 
of all the separate discharges, occurring at the same dis- 
tance. It is easy to see that, by varying the form of the 
line of troops and the position of the observer, the sonorous 
effect win be diversified to any extent desired. If then 
we keep in view the great diversity of form exhibited by 
bghtning-flashes, which may be regarded as being Hies, at 
the points of which are generated explosioms at the same 
instant of time, and the variety of distance and relative 
position at which the observer may be placed, we shall 
feel no difficulty in accounting for all those acoustic pheno- 
mena of thunder to which Hooke's theory is applicable. 

Pam IV. 

The Principles of Musical SarTnpny. 

41. A few words on the subject of musical Tiurmon^ 
must be introduced here for the immediate purposes of 
this article, further details being reserved for the special 
article on that subject. 

Sounds in general exhibit three different qualified, so 
far as their ett'ect on the ear is concerned, viz., loudness, 
pitch, and timbre. 

Loudness depends, ccet. par., on the violence with which 
the vibrating portions of the ear are excited; and there- 
fore on the extent or amplitude of the Wbrations of the 
body whence the sound proceeds. Hence, after a bell has 
been struck, its effect on the ear gradually diminishes as 
its vibration becomes less and less extensive. By the 
theory of vibrations, loudness or intensity is measured by 
the vis-viva of the vibrating particles, and is consequently 
proportional to the square of their maximum velocity or 
to the square of their maximum displacement. Helm- 
holtz, however, in his remarkable work on the perception 
of tone, observes that notes differing in pitch differ also in 
loudness, where their vis viva is the same, the higher note 
always exhibiting the greater intensity. 

42. Difference of pitch is that which finds expression in 
the common terms applied to notes : Acute, shrill, high, 
sharp, grave, deep, low, fiat. We will point out presently in 
what manner it is established that this quality of sound de- 
pends on the rapidity of vibration of the particles of air in 
contact with the external parts of the ear. The pitch of 
a note is higher in proportion to the number x>l vibrations 
of the air corresponding to it, in a given time, such as one 

second. If n denote this number, then, by § 13, n =—, 

and hence, V being constant, the pitch is higher the less 
the length X of the wave. 

43. Timbre, or, as it is termed by German authors, 
Maruf-farbe, rendered by TyndaU into clang-colour or clang- 
lint,\>VL\. forwhich we wouldsubstitute the expression acojisiw; 
colour, denotes that peculiarity of impression produced on 
the ear by sounds otherwise, in pitch, loudness, ic, alike, 
whereby they are recognisable as different from each other. 
Thus human voices are readily interdistioguishable ; so 
are notes of the same pitch and intensity, produced by 
different instruments. The question whence arises this dis- 
tinction must be deferred for the present. 

44. Besides the three qualities above mentioned, there 
exists another point in which sounds may be distinguished 
among each other, and which, though perhaps reducible to 
difference of timbre, requires some special remarks, viz., 
that by which sounds are characterised, either as noises or 
as muMcal notes. A musical note is the result of reeular. 

depends on 
e-vteut of 

Pitch de- 
pends cir 
rapidity of 


noises and 



Laws of 

Patios of 



aijj Fillli 

periodic vibrations of the air-particles acting on the car, 
and therefore also of the body whence they proceed, each 
]inrticIo pa.ising through the same phase at stated intervals 
ijf time. On the other hand, the motion to which noise is 
due is irregular and flitting, alternately fast and slow, 
and creating in the mind a bewildering and confusing 
effect of a more or less unpleasant character. Noise may 
also bo produced by combining in an arbitrary manner 
several musical notes, as when one leans with the forearm 
against the keys of a piano. In fact, the composition of 
regular periodic motions, thus effected, is equivalent to an 
irregular motion. 

'45. We now proceed to state the laws of musical har- 
mony, and to desonbe certain instrnments by means of 
which they admit of being experimentally established. 
The chief of these laws are as follow : — 

(1.) The notes employed in music alwiiya TOrrespond 
to certain deGnite and invariable ratios between the num- 
bers of vibrations performed in a given time by the air 
\vhen conveying these notes to the ear, and these ratios 
are of a very simple kind, being restricted to the various 
permutations of tho first four prime numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, 
and their powers. 

(2.) Two notes are in unison whose corresponding vibra- 
tioift are executed exactly at the same rate, or for which 

{denoting by n, n, the numbers per second) -» — 1. This 

ratio or interval (as it is termed) is the simplest possible. 

2, and is 

termed the octave. 

(4.) The interval -1 — 3 is termed the twelfth, and if 

we reduce the higher note of the pair by an 8", i.e., divide 
its number of vibrations by 2, we obtain the interval 

-^ = -, designated as the interval of the f/th. 








(3.) The next interval is that in which — ■ 


(5.) The interval 

5 has no particular name at- 

tached to it, but if we lower the higher note by two 

8™ or divide n, by 4, we get the interval --^ - -, or the 

interval of the mqjor third. 

(6.) The interval -^ - - is termed the myor sixth, 
n 3 

The interval -^ - — — =- - is termed the minor 
n 5 


(S.) The interval ^ 


- is termed the fourth 

another fifth, which 

9 . 3 3 

(9.) The interval - which, being — r x -, may be r&- 


garded as formed by taking in the first place a note one- 
fifth higher than the key-note or fundajuental, i.e., higher 

than the latter by the interval -, thence ascending by 

3 3 

gives us - X - and lowering this by 


an octave, which results in - , which is called the second 

(10.) The interval -r or t x - may be regarded as the 
o 2 4 

major tliird' (- j of the fifth (- j,and is called the interval 

of the seventh. 

46. If the key-note or fundamental be denoted by C, 
and the notes, whose intervals above C are those just 
enumerated, by D, E, F, G, A, B, C, we form what is 

known in music aa tho natural or diatonic: scale, in which 
therefore the intervals reckoned from C are successively 

9 S 4 3 8 IS 

8' 4' 3' 2' 3' 8' " 
and therefore, tho intervals between each Lote and the 
ono following are 















Of these last intervals the first, fourth, and eirtA are 


each — -, which is termed a mcy'or tone. The second and 



ilLDOr t0t;*j 


jifih are each - — , which is a ratio slightly less than 
tho former, and hence is called a miner tone. The third 
and seventh ore each — — , to which is given the name uf 


By interjxising an additional note between each pair of 
notes whoso intcr\'al is a major or a minor tone, the result- 
ing series of notes may bo made to exhibit a nearer ap- 
proach to equality in the intervals successively separating 
them, which will be very nearly semi-tonet. This sequence 
of twelve notes forms the cl.tomcUic scale. Tho note inter- 
posed between C and D is either C sharp (Cf) or D flat 
(Db), according as it is formed by raisivj C a eeniitone or 
lowering D by the same amount. 

47. Various kinds of apparatus have been contrived with 
a view of confirciing expenmentaUy tho truth of the laws 
of musical harmony as above stated. 

Savart's toothed wheel apparatus consists of a brass 
wheel, whose edge is divided into a number of equal pro- 
jecting teeth distributed uniformly over the circumference, 
and which is capable of rapid rotation about an axis per- 
pendicular to its plane and passing through its centre, by 
means of a series of multiplying wheels, the last of which 
is turned round by the hand. Tho toothed wheel being 
set in motion, the edge of a card or of a funnel-shaped 
piece of common note paper is held against the teeth, 
when a note will bo heard arising from the rapidly suo- 
ceeding displacements of the air in its vicinity. The pitch 
of this note will, agreeably to the theory, rise as the rat» 
of rotation increases, and becomes steady when that rota- 
tion is maintained uniform. It may thus be brought into 
unison with any sound of which it may be required to 
determine the corresponding number of vibrations per 
second, as for instance the note Aj, three 8"* higher than 
the A which is indicated musically by a small circle placed 
between the second and third lines of the G clef, which 
A is the note of the tuning-fork usually employed for 
regtJating concert-pitch. A; may be given by a piano. 
Now, suppose that the note produced with Savart's appa- 
ratus is in unison with Aj, when the experimenter turns 
round the first wheel at the rate of 60 turns per minute or 
one per second, and that the circumferences of the various 
multiplying wheels are such that the rate of revolution of 
the toothed wheel is thereby increased 44 times, then the 
latter wheel will perform 44 revolutions in a second, and 
hence, if the number of its teeth be 80, the number of 
taps imparted to the card every second will amount to 
44 X 80 or 3520. This, therefore, is the number of vibra- 
tions corresponding to the note A3. If we divido this by 
2^ or 8, we obtain 440 as the number of vibrations answer- 
ing to the note A. This, however, tacitly assumes that 
the bands by which motion is transmitted from wheel to 
wheel do not slip during the experiment. If, as is always 
more or less the case, slipping occurs, a different mode for 
determining the rate at which the toothed wheel revolves, 
such as is employed ia the syren of De la Tour {vide below), 
must be adopted. 



'Jrheel ftp. 



If, for the single toothed wheel, be substituted a set 
of four with a common axis, in which the teeth are in 
the ratios 4:5:6:8, and if the card be rapidly passed 
along their edges, we shall hear distinctly produced the 
fundamental chord C, E,G, C\ and shall thus satisfy our- 
selves that the intervals C, E : C, G, and C C, are (as they 

5 3 

ought to be) -, -, and 2 respectively. 

48. The st/ren of Seebeck is the simplest form of appa- 
ratus thus designated, and consists of a large circular disc 
of pasteboard mounted on a central axis, about which it 
may be made to revolve with moderate rapidity. This disc 
13 perforated with smaU round holes arranged in circles 
tibout the centre of the disc. , In the first series of circles, 
rsckoning from the centre, the openings are so made as to 
divide the respective circumferences, on which they are 
found, in aliquot parts bearing to each other the ratios of 
the numbers 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 24, 32, 40, 48, 
64. The second series consists of circles each of which is 
formed of two sets of perforations, in the first circle arranged 
as 4 : 5, in the next as 3 : 4, then as 2 : 3, 3 : 5, 4 : 7. 
In the outer series is a circle divided by perforations into 
four sets, the numbers of aliquot parts being as 3 : 4 : 5 : 6, 
followed by others which we need not further refer to. 

The disc being started, then by means of a tube held at 
cue end between the lips, and applied near to the disc at 
the other, or more easily with a common bellows, a blast 
of air is made to fall on the part of the disc which con- 
tains any one of the above circles. The current being 
alternately transmitted and shut off, as a hole passes on 
and off the aperture of the tube or bellows, causes a vibra- 
tory motion of the air, whose rapidity depends on the 
number of times per second that a perforation passes the 
mouth of the tube. Hence the note produced with any 
given circle of holes rises in pitch as the disc revolves 
more rapidly; and if, the revolution of the disc being kept 
as steady as possible, the tube be passed rapidly across the 
circles of the first series, the notes heard are found to pro- 
duce on the ear, as required by theory, the exact impres- 
sion corresponding to the ratios 2:4: &c., i.e., of a series 
of notes, which, if the lowest be denoted by C, form the 
sequence C C, Ej G, C, &c., &;. In Hke manner, the first 
circle in which we have two sets of holes dividing the circum- 
ference, the one into say 8 parts, and the other into 10, or 
in ratio 4 : 5, the note produced is a compound one, such 
as would be obtained by striking on the piano two notes 

separated bv th« iutecyal of a major third ( - ]. Similar 

results, aU agreeing with the theory, are obtainable by 
means of the remaining perforations. 

A still simpler form of syren may be constituted with a 
good spinning top, a perforated card disc, and a tube for 
blowing with. 

49. The syren of Cagnard de la Tour is founded on the 
same principle as the preceding. It consists of a cylindrical 
chest of brass, the base of which is pierced at its centre 
with an opening in which is fixed a brass tube projecting 
outwards, and intended for supplying the cavity of the 
cylinder with compressed air or other gas, or even liquid. 
The top of the cylinder is formed of a plate perforated near 
its edge by ioles distributed uniformly in a circle concen- 
tric with the plate, and which are cut obliquely through 
the thickness of the plate. Immediately above this fixed 
plate, and almost in contact with it, is 
another of the same dimensions, and 
furnished with the same number, n, of 
openings similarly placed, but passing 
obliquely through in an opposite direction 
frum those in the fixed plate, the one set 
being inclined to the loft, the other to the right. 


Fie. 10. 

This second plate is capable of rotation about a steel 
axis perpendicular to its plane and passing through its 
centre. Now, let the movable plate be at any time in a 
position such that its holes are immediately above those in 
the fixed plate, and let the bellows by which air is forced 
into the cylinder (air, for simplicity. Being supposed to be 
the fiuid employed) be put in action ; then the air in ita 
passage will strike the side of each opening in the mov- 
able plate in an oblique direction (as shown in fig. 10), and 
Wl therefore urge the latter to rotation round its centra. 

After -th of a revolution, the two sets of perforations wiH 

again coincide, the lateral impuliTe of the air repeated, and 
hence the rapidity of rotation increased. This will go on 
continually as long as air is suppUed to the cylinder, and 
the velocity of rotation of the upper plate will be accelerated 
u^ to a certain maximum, at which it may be maintained 
by keeping the force of the current constant. 

Now, it is evident that each coincidence of the perforar 
tions in the two plates is followed by a non-coincidence, 
during which the air-current is shut off, and that con- 
sequently, during each revolution of the upper plate, there 
occur n alternate passages and interceptions of the current. 
Hence arises the same number of successive impulses of 
the external air immediately in contact with the movable 
plate, which is thus thrown into a state of vibration at the 
rate of n for every revolution of the plate. The result is 
a note whose pitch rises as the velocity of rotation increases, 
and becomes steady when that velocity reaches its constant 
value. If, then, we can determine the number m of revolu- 
tions performed by the plate in every second, we shall at 
once have the number of vibrations per second correspond- 
ing to the audible note by multiplj-ing m by re. 

For this purpose the steel axis is furnished at its upper 
part with a screw working into a toothed wheel, and driv- 
ing it round, during each revolution of the plate, through 
a. space equal to the interval between two teeth. An 
index resembling the hand of a watch partakes of this 
motion, and points successively to the divisions of a 
graduated dial. On the completion of each revolution of 
this toothed wheel (which, if the number of its teeth be 
100, will comprise 100 revolutions of the movable plate),' 
a projecting pin fixed to it catches a tooth of another 
toothed wheel and turns it round, and with it a correspond- 
ing index which thus records the number of turns of the 
first toothed wheel. As an example of the application of 
this syren, suppose that the number of revolutions of the 
plate, as shown by the indices, amounts to 5400 in a 
minute of time, that is, to 90 per second, then the number 
of vibrations per second of the note heard amounts to 
90n, or (if number of holes in each plate = 8) to 720. 

50. Dove, of Berlin, has produced a modification of the ^°''^ ' 
syren by which the relations of different musical notes "^"^^^ 
may be more readily ascertained. In it the fixed and 
movable plates are each furnished with four concentric 
series of perforations, dividing the circumferences into 
different aliquot parts, asp. ex., 8, 10, 12, 16. Beneath- 
the lower or fixed plate are four metallic rings furni.shed 
with holes corresponding to those in the plates, and which 
may be pushed round by projecting pins, so as to admit 
the air-current through any one or more of the series of 
perforations in the fixed plate. Thus, may be obtained, 
either separately or in various combinations, the four notes 
whose vibrations are in the ratios of the above numbers, 
and which therefore form the fundamental chord (GEO Cj). 
The invenior has given to this instrument the name of the 
many-voiced syren. 

61. Heknholtz has further adapted the syren for more |,j,jj^j 
extensive use, by the addition to Dove's instrument ofdoui,!^ 
another chest containiuB its own fixed and movable per-svrea.. 




The Plion 

forated plates and perforated rings, both the moveable plates 
being driven by the same current and revolving about a com- 
mon axis. Annexed is a figure of this instrument (fig. 1 1). 

02. The relation between the pitch of a note and the 
frequency of the correspond- 
ing Wbrations has also been 
studied by yraphic methods. 
Thus, if an ela.stic metal slip 
or a pig's bristle be attached 
to one prong of a tuning- 
fork, and if the fork, while 
in Wbration, is moved rapidly 
over a glass plate coated with 
lamp black, the attiched slip 
touching the plate lightly, a 
vavy lino wUl be traced on 
;he plate answering to the 
vibrations to and fro of the 
;ork. The same result will 
be obtained with a stationary 
fork and a movable glass 
plate; and, if the time oc- 
cupied by the plate in moving 
through a given distance can " • 

be ascertained, and the number of complete undulations ex- 
hibited on the plate for that distance, which is evidently 
the number of vibrations of the fork in that time, is 
reckoned, we sliaU have determined the numerical vibra- 
tion-value of the note yielded by the fork. Or, if the same 
plate be moved in contact with two tuning-forks, we shall, 
by comparing the number of sinuosities in the one trace 
with that in the other, be enabled to assign the ratio of 
the corresponding numbers of vibrations per second. Thu.', 
if the one note be an octave higher than the other, it will 
give double the number of waves in the same distance. The 
motion of the plate may be simply produced by dropping 
it between two vertical grooves, the tuning-forks being 
properly fixed to a frame above. 

53. Greater accuracy may be attained with the so-called 
Yibrograph or I'honautogrciph (Duhamel's or Ktenig's), 
consisting of a glass cylinder coated with lamp-black, or, 
better still, a mutallio cylinder round which a blackened 
sheet of paper is wrapped. The cylinder is mounted on a 
Vorizontal axis and turned round, while the pointer attached 
to the vibrating body is in light contact with it, and traces 
therefore a wavy circle, which, on taking off the paper and 
flattening it, becomes a wavy straight line. The superiority 
of this arrangement arises from the comparative facility 
with which the number of revolutions of the cylinder in a 
given time may be ascertained. In Koenig's phonauto- 
graph, the axis of the cylinder is fashioned as a screw, 
which works in fixed nuts at *he ends, causing a sliding as 
well as a rotatory motion of the cyKnder. The lines traced 
ont by the vibrating pointer are thus prevented from over- 
lapping when more than one turn is given to the cylinder. 
Any sound whatever may be made to record its trace on 
the paper by means of a large parabolic cavity resembling 
a speaking-trumpet, which is freely open at the wider ex- 
tremity, but is closed at the other end by a thin stretched 
membrane. To the centre of this membrane is attached a 
small feather-fibre, which, when the reflector is suitably 
placed, touches lightly thfi surface of the revolving cylinder. 
Any sound (such as that of the human voice) transmitting 
its rays into the reflector, and communicating vibratory 
motion to the membrane, will cau.«e the feather to trace a 
sinuous Une on the paper. If, at the same time, a tuning- 
fork of known number of vibrations per second be made to 
trace its own line close to the other, a comparison of the 
two Unes gives the number corresponding to the sound 
nnder consideration. 

Paet V. 

Stationary Wavet. 

54. We hcve hitherto, in treating of the propagation of Stationtry 
waves of sound, assumed that the. medium through which «avM pro- 
it took place was unlimited in all directions, and th^t the ''"'^'" "^ 
source of sound was single. In order, however, to under- Msiu pro- 
stand the principles of the production of sound by musical gieseivo 
instruments, we must now direct our attention to the case wave*, 
of two waves from different sources travelling through the 
same medium in opposite directions. Any particle of the 
medium being then affected by two different vibrations at 
the same instant will necessarily exhibit a different state 
of motion from that due to either wave acting sepai'ately 
from the other, and we have to inquire what is the result of 
this mutual interference (as it is termed) of the two given 
waves. Supposing, as sufficient for our purpose, that the 
given waves are of equal lengths and of equal amplitudes, 
in other words, tha*. the corresponding notes are of the 
same pitch and equally loud; and supposing, further, that 
they are ad\'ancing in exactly opposite directions, we shall 
now show that the result of the mutual interference of two 
such waves is the production of a stationary wave, that 
is, taking any line of particles of the medium along 
the direction of motion of 

the component waves, cer- i S > •; ' 

tain of them, such as a, c, 

e ... at intervals each F'J- ^-■ 

= -, will remain constantly in their usual undisturbed posi- 
tions. All the particles situated between a and c will 
Wbrate (transversely or longitudinally, as the case may 
be) to and fro in the same direction as they would if 
affected by only one of the interfering waves, but with 
different amplitudes of vibration, ranging from zero at a to 
a ma.ximum <vt b and thence to zero at c. Those between c 
and e will vibrato in like manner, but always in an opposite 
direction to the similarly placed jiaiticles in ac, and so on 

The annexed figures will represent to the eye the states of 
motion at intervals of time =- ^ of the time T of a complete 
vibration of the particles. In fig. 13, 1, the particles in 

ac are at their greatest distances from their undisturbed 
positions (above or to the right, according as the motion is 
transversal or longitudinal) In fig. 13, 2, they are all in 
their undisturbed positions. In fig. 1 3, 3, the dis; lace 
ments are all reversed relatively to fig. 13, 1. In fig. 13, 
4, the particles are again passing through their equilibrium 
positions, resuming the positions indicated Ln fig. 13. 1, 
after the time T. 

The points ace, &c., which remain stationary are termed Nwlwawl 
nodes, and the vibrating Mrts between them ventral n:nlril 
segments. «:gmcnt8.. 

54a. Proof. In fig. 14, 1, the fiill curved line represents Pioot 
the two interfering waves at an instant of time such that 



in their progress towards eacn other, they are then coinci- 
dent. It is obvious that the particles of the medium will 
at the moment in question' be displaced to double the ex- 
tent of the displacement producible by either wave alone, 
80 that the resultant wave may be represented by the dotted 
curve. In fig. 14, 2, the two interfering waves, repre- 
sented by the full and dotted curves respectively, have each 

Fir. H. 

passed over a distance = \\, the one to the right, the other 
to the left, and it is manifest that any disturbance of the 
medium, producible by the one wave, is completely neutra- 
lised by the equal and opposite action of the other. Hence, 
the particles of the medium are now in their undisturbed 
positions, .^n fig. 14, 3, a furth'er advance of the two 
waves, each in its own direction, over a space = \\ has 
again brought them into coincidence, and the result is the 
wave represented by the dotted line, which, it will be re- 
marked, has its crests, where, in fig. 1, are found troughs. 
In fig. 14, 4, after a further advance = J A, we have a repeti- 
tion of the case of fig. 14, 2, the particles are now again un- 
affected by the waves. A stiU further advance of \ \, or 
of \ reckoned from the commencement, brings us back to 
the same state of things as subsisted in fig. 14, 1. An^in- 
spection and inter-comparison of the dotted lines in these 
figures are now sufficient to establish the accuracy of tb" 
laws, before mentioned, of stationary waves. 

Part VL 
Musical Strings. 

65. Wo have in musical string.? an instance of tlv 
occurrence of stationary waves. 

Let AB (fig. 15) be a wire or 
Btring, supposed meanwhile to 
be fixed only at one extremity B, 
and let the wire be, at any part, 
excited (whether by passing a 
violin bow across or by friction 
along it), so that a wave (whether of tranaversml or longi- 
tudinal vibrations) is propagated thence towards B. On 
reaching this point, which is fixed, refit tion will occur, 
in consequence of which the particles there will sufTer a 
complete reversal of velocity, just as when a perfectly 
elastic ball strikes aj;ainst a smooth surface perpendi- 
cularly, it rebounds with a velocity equal and opposite to 
Oat it previously had. TTence, the displacement duo to 

Fig. 16. 

the incident wave being BlI, the displacement after re- 
flcxiou wiU be BN equal and opposite to BM. and a 
reflected wave will result) represented by the faint lino 
in the fig., which will travels with the same velocity, but 
in the opposite direction to the incident wave fully lined in 
the fig. The interference of these two oppositely pro- 
gressing waves will consequently give rise to a stationary 
wave (fig. IG), and if we 

take on the wire distances ""^ £ jj" 

BC, CD, DE, &c. = i X, Fig-1«- 

the points B, C, D, E, . . . wiU be nodes, each of which 
separate portions of the wire vibrating in opposite direc- 
tions, i.e., ventral segments. 

5G. Now, it is obvious that, inasmuch as a node is a poini 
which remains always at rest while other parts of tho 
medium to which it belongs are vibrating, such point may 
be absolutely fixed without thereby interfering with tho 
oscillatory motion of the medium. If, therefore, a length 

AB of wire be taken equal to any multiple oi-, A may bo 

fixed as well as B, the motion remaining the same as 
before, and thus we shall have the usual case of a musical 
string. The two extremities being now both fixed, there 
wiU be repeated reflexions at both, and a consequent 
persistence of two progressive waves advancing in opposite 
directions and producing together the stationary wave 
above figured. 

57. We learn from this that a musical string is suscep- Funda- . 
tible of an infinite variety of modes of vibration corro-™^^^^_ 
vionding to different numbers of subdivision into ventral 

"Thus, it may have'but one ventral segment (fig. 17), or 
but two nodes formed by its 
fixed extremities. In this carse, — -""^ " 

the note emitted by it is the ^ 

lowest which can possibly be Fig. 17. 

obtained from it, or, as it is called, its fundamental note. 
If / denote the length of the wire, by what has been already 

proved, i- -, and therefore the length of the wave \ = 

21. " Hence, V being the velocity of propagation of the ware 
through the wire, the number », of vibrations performed 

in the unit of time with the fundamental note is — . 

The next possible sub-division of tho wire is into tu-c 
ventral segments, the three 
nodes being the two fixed ^^ ~~^^c 
ends A, B, and the middle ■* 
point C (fig. 18). Hence, ? = A, Fig. 18. 

and the number of vibrations n. 

= — or double of those of the fundamental 

The note, 

therefore, now is an 8" higher. 

Reasoning in a like manner for the cases of three, four, 
&c., ventral segments, we obtain the foUowing general 
law, which is applicable alike to tranMcrsely and to longi- 
tudinally vibrating ■svires : 

A wire or string fixed at both ends is capable of yielding, ir. 
addition to its fundammtal note, any one of a scries of notet 
corresponding to 2, 3, 4 times, etc., the number of vibrationi 
per second of the fundamental, viz., he octave, twelfth, doublt 
octave, &c. 

These higher notes are termed the harmonics or (by the 
Germans) the overtones of the string. 

It is to be remarked that the overtones are in general 
fainter the higher they are in the series, because, as the 
number of ventral segments or independently ■i-ibrating 
parts of the string increases, the extent or amplitude of j,[^y i,g 
tho vibrations diminishes. liesrd to- 

68. Not only may tho fundamental and its narmouio gether. 



bow best 

son of fun- 
of strings 
ly and Ion- 

ly vibrat- 
ing string 


nx -J 

bo obtained independently of each other, but they are also 
to bo heard Bimultaneously, particularly, for the reason 
just given, those that are lower in the scale. A practised 
ear easily discerns the coexistence of these various tones 
when a pianoforte or violin string is thrown into Tibration. 
It is evident that, in such case, the string, while vibrating 
as a whole betweeh its fixed 
extremities, is at the same 
time executing subsidiary oscil- 
lations about its middle point, 
its pointa of trisection, &c., as ^'^- ^^■ 

shown in fig. 19, for the fundamental and the first har- 

TiO. The easiest means for oringing out the harmonics of 
a string consists in drawing a violin-bow across it near to 
ono end, while the feathered end of a quill or a hair-pencil 
is held lightly against the string at the point which it is 
intended shall furina node, and is removed just after the bow 
is withdrawn. Thus, if a node is made in this way, at J 
of AB from A, the note heard will be the twelfth. If 
light paper rings be strung on the cord, they will be 
driven by the vibrations to tlio nodes or points of rest, 
which will thus bo clearly indicated to the eye. 

CO. The formula "i - ^ shows that the pitch of the funda- 
mental nolo of a wire of given length rises with the velocity 
of propagation of sound through it. Now we have learned 
(§ 28) that this velocity, in ordinarj- circumstances, is 
enormously greater for a wire vibrating longitudinally than 
for the same -mre vibrating transversely. The fundamental 
note, therefore, is far higher in piitch in the former than in 
the latter case. , 

As, however, the quantity V depends, for longitudinal 
vibrations, solely on the nature of the medium, the pitch of 
the fundamental not« of a wire rubbed along its length 
depends — the material being the same, brass for instance — 
on its length, not at all on its thickness, &c 

But as regards strings vibrating transversely, such as 
are mct^ with in our instrumental music, V, as we have 
Been (§ 27), depends not only on the nature of the sub- 
stance used, but also on its thickness and tension, and hence 
the pitch of the fundamental, even with the same length 
of string, will depend on all those various circumstances. 

61. If we put for V its equivalent expressions before 
given, we have for the fundamental note of transversely 
vibrating strings : 


.1 A 

21 \/ 


whence the following inferences may be easily drawn: 
If a string, its tension being kept invariable, have its 

length altered, the fundamental note wiU rise in pitch in 

exact proportion with its diminished length, that is, » 

varies then inversely as / 

Hence, on the violin, by placing a finger successively on 
"4323 8 1 

any one of the strings at - 

5' 4' 3' 5' 15' 2' '^^ 

shall ob- 

tain notes corresponding to numbers of vibrations bearing 
to the fundameatal the ratios to unity of the following, 

. 9543 15-,., , ,, 

''^^> o> 7' Z> 7,1 "S"! ^) IV Inch notes form, therefore, with 

o 4 o J o 

the fundamental, the complete scale. 

ni 62. By tightening a musical string, ita length remaining 

v'Teoaion. unchanged, its fundamental is rendered higher. In fact, 

then, n is proportional to the square root of the tension. 

Thus, hj quadrupling the tension, the note is raised an 

octave. Hence, the use of keys in tuning the violin, the 
ngt pianoforte, (fee. 

1 63. Equal lengths of strings of the same density and 

thic'meM. equally stretched, but of different thicknesses, give funda- 

mentals which are higher in pitch in proportion to dimi- 
nution of thickness {i.e., n varies inversely as the thickness^ 
Thus, of two strings of same kind of gut, same length anti 
same tension, if one be twice as thick aa the other, ita 
fundamental will be an octave lower. Hence, three of tb« 
strings of the violin, though all nf gut, have differen 
fundamentals, because unequally thick. 

64. Equally long and equally stretched strings or wires "* 

of different thickness and different material, have funda- } 
mentals higher in pitch the less the weights of the strings; ^*"«''*^' 
n hero varies inversely as the square root of the weight a ^^i, 
of a given length of the string. 

65. If, in last case, the thicknesses of the strings mr 
which are to be compared together are equal, then n vpries ^ 
inversely as the square root of the density. VJenaily. 

Hence, in the violin and in the pianoforte, the lower 
notes are obtained from wires formed of denser material. 
Thus, the fourth string of the violin is formed of gut 
covered with silver wire. 

66. A highlj ingenious and instructive method 'for MeliS'aei- 
illustrating the above laws of musical strings, has been perimcntal 
recently contrived by M. Melde, and consists simply in '""'''™" 
attaching to the ventral segment of a vibrating body, 

such as a tuning-fork or a beU-gla."iS, a silk or cotton thread, 
the other extremity being either fixed or passing over a 
pulley and supporting weights by which the thread may be 
stretched to any degree required. The vibrations of the 
larger mass are communicated to tho thread which, by 
proper adjustment of its- length and tension, vibrates in 
unison and divides itself into one or more ventral segments 
easily discernible by a spectator. H the length of the 
thread be kept invariable, a certain tension will give but 
one ventral segment; the fundamental note of the thread 
is then of same pitch as the note of the body to which it 
is attached. By reducing the tension to J of its previous 
amount, the number of ventral segments will be seen to be 
increased to two, indicating that the first harmonic of the 
thread is now in unison with the solid, and consequently 
that its fundamental is 'an octave lower than it was with 
the former tension; thus confirming the law that n varies 
as ;^/P. In like manner, on further lowering the tension 
to J, three ventral segments will be formed, and so on. 

The law that, aet. par., n varies inversely as the thick- 
ness may be tested by forming a string of four lengths of 
the single thread used before, and consequently of double 
the thickness of the latter, when, for the same length and ' 
tension, the compound thread will exhibit double the nuxa- 
ber of ventral segments presented by the eingle thread. 

The other laws admit of similar illustration. 

Paet ^^L 

Slif Rods, Plates, <tc 

67. If, instead of a string or thin wire, we make use of Kod, fiied 
a rod or narrow plate, sufficiently stiff to resist flexure, we °' °"' ""*• 
may cause it to vibrate 
transversely when fixed 
at one end only. In this 
case the number of vi- 
brations corresponding to 
the fundamental note 
varies as the thickness 
directly, and as the square 
of the length inversely. 
The annexed figures re- 
present the modes of vi- 
bration corresponding to 
the fundamental and the 
first two overtones, the 
rod passing to and fro 
between the positions AGKC and AHLD. 

In all cases .\ 








being fixed ia necessarily a node, and B being free is the 
middle of a ventral segment. We have thus a succession 
of cases in which the rod contains I, % », Ac. ventral seg- 
ments. The numbers of vibrations per second are as the 
squares of these, or, as 1 : 9 : 25 : &c. Tha reason of this 
is, that (taking the case of fig. 20, 3) the part FB, which 
may be regarded as an- independent rod fixed at the end 
F, is evidently j of the length of A3, and consequently, 

since n<x -, has a proper note of 5^ or 25 times the 

rapidity of vibration in fig. 20, 1. 

By attaching, with a Utile bees' wax, stiff hog's bristles 
to one prong of a tuning-fork, or to the edge of a bell- 
glass, or even a common jar, and clipping them on trial to 
suitable lengths, we shall find that, on drawing a note in 
the usual way from the tuning-fork or glass, the bristles 
will divide into one or more separately vibrating segments, 
as in the above figs. 

68. The tvninrj-fork itself may be re- 
garded as belonging to the class of stiff 
rods. When emitting its fundamental 
note, it vibrates, as in fig. 21, with nodes 
at b and d and extreme positions ahcde 
and fbgdh. 

69. The transversal vibrations of thin 
square, circular, and other plates of metal 
or glass, are interesting, because, if these are 
kept in a horizontal position, light dry sand 
or powder sifted over the upper surface, will be thrown off 
the ventral segments to the nodal lines, which will thus be 
rendered manifest to the eye, forming what are termed 
Chladni' I figures. As in the case of a musical string, so 
here we find that the pitch of the npte is higher for a given 
plate the greater the number of ventral segments into 
which it is divided ; but the converse of this does not hold 
good, two different notes being obtainable with the same 
number of such segments, the position of the nodal lines 
being, however, different. 

70. The upper line of annexed figures shows how 
the sand arranges itself in three cases, when the plates 
are square. The lower line gives the same in a sort of 


i 1 



Fig. 22. 

idealised form, and as usually to be found in acoustical 
work.9. Fig. 22, 1 corresponds to the lowest possible note 
of the particular plate used; Fig. 22, 2 to the fifth 
higher; Fig. 22, 3 to the tenth or octave of the third, 
the numbers of vib'^tion in the same time being as 2 
to 3 to 0. 

If the plate be small, it is sufficient, in order to bring 
out the simpler sand-figures, to hold the plate firmly 
between two fingers of the same hand placed at any point 
where at two nodal lines meet, for instance the centre 
in (1) and (2), and to draw a vioUn bow downwards across 
the edge near the middle of a ventral segment. But with 
larger plates, which alone will furnish the more complicated 
figiu'cs, a dump-screw must be used fur fixing the plate, and. 

Fig. 23. 

at the same time, one or more other nodal points ought 
to be touched with the fingers while the bow is being 
ajiplied. In this way, any of the possible configurations 
may be easily produced. 

1\. By similar methods, a circular plate may be made Circular 
to exhibit nodal lines dividing the surface by diametral P'*'*'. 
lines into four or a greater, but always even, number of 
sectors, an odd number being incompatible with the general 
law of stationaay waves that the parts of a body adjoining 
a nodal line on either side must always vibrate oppositely 
to each other. 

Another class of figures consists of 
circular nodal lines along with dia- 
metral (fig. 23). 

Circular nodal lines unaccompanied 
by intersecting lines cannot be pro- 
duced in the manner described ; but may be got either 
by drilling a small hole through the centre, and draw- 
ing a horse-hair along its edge to bring out the note, or 
by attaching a long thin elastic rod to the centre of the 
plate, at right angles to it, holding the rod by the middle 
and rubbing it lengthwise with a bit of cloth powdered 
with resin, till the rod gives a distinct note ; the vibra- 
tions are communicated to the plate, which consequently 
vibrates transversely, and causes the sand to heap itself 
into one or more concentric rings. 

72. The theory of the vibrations of plates has not yet Theory 
been put on a quite satisfactoiy basis. The following law ofCbladni 
may, however, be regarded as confirmed by experiment, S'"'°'- 
viz., that when two different plates of the same substance 
present, the same nodal configuration, the numbers of 
vibrations are to each other directly as the thicknesses, and 
inversely as the superficial areas. 

73. Paper, parchment, or any other thin membrane Vibrations 
stretched over a square, circular, Ac, Irame, when in the "^ m^ni- 
vicinity of a suflSciently powerful vibrating body, will, 
through the medium of the air, be itself made to vibrate 

in unison, and, by using sand, a" in previous instances, 
the nodal lines will be depicted to the eye, and seen to 
vary in form, number, and position with the tension of the 
plate and the pitch of the originating sound. The mem- 
brana tympani or drum of the ear has, in like manner and 
on the same principles, the property of repeating the 
vibrations of the external air which it co&municates to the 
internal parts of the ear. • 

74. Rods vibrating longitudinally are, as we have already Loig'tii- 
remarked, subject to the laws of stationary waves. If, for J^.'°^' "'"'* 
instance, a wooden rod fixed at one end, be rubbed near ^^^ 

the top betiveen the finger and thumb previously coated 

with powdered resin, it will yield a fundamental note when 

it so vibrates as to have only one node (at the fixed 

extremity) and half a ventral segment reaching from that 

extremity to the other, that is, when the length / of the 

rod is ^ \, or \ = il, and therefore n = -j. But it may 

also give overtones corresponding to 2, 3, <kc. nodes, the 
free end being always the middle of a ventral segment, 

and for which therefore the lengths of waves are -— , -r, 

<tc. (as will be easily seen by referring to figs, in § 67, 
which may equally represent transversal and longitudinal 
displacements). Hence, the fundamental and harmonics 
of a rod such as wo are now considering, have vibrations 
whose rates arc as the succesiiive odd numbers. 

A series of like rod.^, earli fixed at one end into a block 
of wood, and of lengths bcnrijig to each other, the mtios 
I : f : 'A'c. (as in § 61), will give the common scale when 
rubbed in the manner already mentioned. This follows 

V I 

from the fundamental hann; « = ";, and therefore nx -z, 

L - ■» 



Air it! the 
Bourcfl of 
eotind in 

of Bcr- 

Glas3 rods or tubes may also be made to vibr.ite longi- 
tudinally by moans of a moist piece of cloth ; but it is 
edvisable to clamp them firmly at the centre, when each 
half will vibrate according to the eamo laws as the wooden 
rods above. The existence of a motion of the particles of 
glass to and fro in the direction of its length may be well 
exhibited, by allowing a small ball of stone or metal 
suspended by a string to rest against one extremity of the 
rod, when, as soon as the latter is made to sing by friction, 
the ball will be thrown 'off with considerable violence. 

Past YIU. 
Theory of Pipes. 

75. The longitudinal vibrations of air enclosed in pipes 
are of greater practical importance than those of other 
bodies, because made available to a very great extent for 
musical purposes. In the flute, horn, tnunpet, and other 
wind instruments, it is the contained air that forms 
the essential medium for the production of sound, the wood 
or metal enclosing it having no other effect but to modify 
the timbre or acoustic colour of the note. 

7G. In dealing with the theory of pipes, we must treat 
the air precisely in the same manner as we have dealt with 
elastic rods vibrating lengthwise, a pipe stopped at both 
ends being regarded as equivalent to a rod fixed at both 
ends, a pipe open at both ends to a rod free at both ends, 
and a pipe stopped at one end and open at the other to a 
rod fixed at one end and free at the other. When there- 
fore the air within the pipe is anywhere displaced along 
the length of the pipe, two waves travel thence in opposite 
directions, and being reflected at the extremities of the 
pipe, there results a stationary wave with one or more 
fixed nodal sections, on one side of which the air is at any 
moment being displaced in one direction, while on the 
other side it is displaced in the opposite. Hence, when 

the air on both sides of the node _ 

is moving in towards it, there is 
condensation going on' at the 
node, followed by rarefaction on 
the reversal of the motion of the 
air. The full lines in annexed 
figs, are curves of displacements, 
the dotted lines curves of velocity 
and density [vid. § 10 and 14). 

As a stopped end prevents any 
motion of the air, a nodal section 
is always found there. And as. 


stopped at 
both ends. 

Fig. 24. 

Oven pipe. 


stopped at 
ODo eod 

at the open end, we may coneaive the internal air to be 
maintained at the same density as the external air, we may 
assume that such end coincides with the middle of a ven- 
tral segment. 

From these assumptions, which form the basis of 
Bemouilli's Theory of Pipes, we infer : 

77. That in a pipe stopped at both ends, as in a rod 

fixed at both ends, the fundamental ^^_ _^ 

note (fig. 25, 1), corresponds to X = 2/, 

and therefore to n = ^ , V denoting 

the velocity of sound in air, and the 
overtones to numbers of vibrations 
= 2n, Zn, and so on. Fig. 25, 2, 
represents the octave. 

78. That in a pipe open at both ends thcsame holds 
good as in the previous case. For (fig. 26, 1) AC = J A 
. •. X = 4 AC = 2^, and in fig. 26, 2, AD = ^ X, and also 
= \ I .'. X = ;, or ^ its value for the fundamental' and 
similarly for the other harmonics. 

79. That in a pipe open at one end and stopped at 

A 2J. B 

the other (or, as it is usually termed, a flopped pipe, case S 
77, being purely imaginary), 
the fundamental note has n " 

—, and the overtones corres- 
pond to 3n, 5n. . . . 

For, in fig. 27, 1, AB or 
i - i X, and in fig. 27, 3, CB 
or I X is evidently = \ AB or 
\ I, whence X = \l, which being 
\ of value of X in previous 
case, shows that the number 
of vibrations is three times greater, 
other overtones. 

80. It follows from the above, that 
(whether open or stopped) may 
be made to emit, in addition 
to or in combina'.ion with its 
fundamental, a series of over- 
tones, which, in an open pipe, 
follow the natural numbers, 
and hence aie the octave, 
twelfth, (kc, but, in a stopped 
pipe, follow the odd numbers, 
so as to want the octave and 
other notes represented by the 
even numbers. The succession of 
practically obtained by properly regulating 

Fig. 26 
Similarly for the 

a given pipe 

in pipes- 

Fig. 27. 
overtones may 

the force 
the blast of air by which the air-column is put into 

81. If the fundamental notes of two pipes of equal 

lengths, but of which one is open, the other stopped, be 

compared together, they will be found to differ in pitch by 

an octave, the stopped being the lower. This fact is in 

keeping with the theory, for the numbers of vibrations 

V V . 

being respectively — and — , are in the ratio of 2 to 1. 

82. Ey altering the length of the same pipe, we can 
vary the pitch of the fundamental at pleasure, since n 
varies inversely as I. This is effected in the flute and 
some other wind instruments by means of openings along 
part of the pipe, which, being closed or opened by means 
of keys and of the fingers, increase or diminish the length 
of the vibrating air-column. In this manner the successive 
notes of the scale are usually obtained within the range of 
an octave. The scale is further extended by bringing into 
play the Jiigher harmonics. 

V V 

83. Since in an open pipe n = —, and therefore ' = 5"i 

if for V we put 1090 ft., and for n 264, which is the 
number of vibrations per second usually assigned to the 
note C, we get i = 2 ft. very nearly. This, accordingly, is 
the length of the so-called C open pipe. The C stopped 
pipe must, by what has been stated above, be 4 feet in 

84. Conversely it is obvious that the velocity V of sound 
in air, and generally in any gas, may be deduced from the 
equation V = 2nl, and that if two pipes of equal length 
contain respectively air and any other gas, the velocities 
in the two media being, to each other directly as the 
number of vibrations of the notes they respectively emit, 
we may, from the well-ascertained value of the velocity in 
air, determine in this way the velocities in other gases, 
and thence the values of their coeflicients y (vid. § 21). 

85. AMiile the inferences drawn by means of Bemouilli's 
theory agree, to a certain extent, v.ith actual- observation, 
there are discrepancies between the two which point to 
the existence of some flaw in one or both of the hypotheses 
on which the theory rests. In truth, the conditions 
assumed by Bernouilli are such as do not fully occur in 

Notes o. 
open anc 
p\\KS of 

Length o» 
C pipe. 

Velocity la 
any gaa 
from pipes. 

Defects of 





practice. The stopped extremity of a pipe is aiways to 
Bome extent of a yielding nature, and does not therefore 
exactly coincide with a nodal surface; nor can the internal 
air immediately adjoining the open end be perfectly free 
from variation of density during the ■vibrations of the 
whole mass,' particularly so at the embotichure, where the 
blast is introduced by which the tone is originated. It 
would appear from recent experiments that the pitch of a 
pipe is somewhat lower than the above theory would 
Heed pipes. 86. The reed-pipe differs in many respects from the 
simple pipe which we have been considering. A small 
elastic strip of metal, fixed at one extremity (the reed), 
lies over a slit of the same shape, and is set in transverse 
vibration by a current of air acting underneath. If, as is 
the case in the accordion and harmonium, the reed is un- 
provided with a pipe, the pitch of its note is regulated 
altogether by the dimensions of the reed, in conformity 
with the law of tranversely vibrating plates ; although, it 
is to be remarked, the note is reaUy due to the vibrations 
of the air which alternately escapes through the slit of the 
reed, and is prevented doing so exactly as often as the 
reed executes a movement to and fro. The proper note of 
the reed itself is very poor and faint. 
Inflaenceof 87. In the reed-pipe there is added above the reed a pipe 
pipe on tiie air in which partakes of the vibratory motion, and im- 
" ■ proves the quality of the sound. The pitch is, however, 

not affected by this pipe, unless it exceed a certain length 
I, when the pitch begins to fall, and continues to do so as 
I is, increased, tUl, when the length of pipe is 21, the note 
is again restored to its original pitch, &c. 
Weber's 88. 5J. Weber, to whom we are indebted for these and 

theory of other curious facts respecting reed pipes, has explained 
'"^P'l* them thus:— If the reed be exactly at that part of the 
vibrating air-column where the air-displacements are at 
their maximum, and where consequently the air suffers no 
variation of density during the vibratory motion of the 
column, the oscillations of the reed are not. at aU affected 
by the air-vibrations, and consequently the pitch of the 
reed-pipe is the same as that of the reed itself. But if the 
reed be situated at any other part of the air-column, and 
especially at a nodal section, where the air is undergoing 
alternate -condensation and rarefaction, then, when the air- 
blast from the wind chest pushes in the reed, the air in 
the pipe is in the act of rarefaction, and consequently tends 
to accelerate the reed inwards, whereas the elasticity of 
the reed tends in an opposite direction. When, again, the 
reed is passing to the other extreme of its vibration, the 
air in the pipe is in the act of condensation, and tends to 
accelerate the reed outwards or in the opposite direction to 
the elasticity of the reed. Hence the reed is affected just 
as if its elasticity, and therefore the rapidity of its vibra- 
tions, were dimiijished, and thus the pitch is lowered. 

Paet IX. 

Singing Flames. 

Om har- 69. The chemical or gas harm/>nicon, which consists of 
monicoD. ^ small flame of hydrogen or of coal gas, burning at the 
lower part of the interior of a glass tube, and giving out a 
very distinct not«, exhibits considerable analogy with the 
reed-pipe. For, as Sondhaus seems to have established, 
the primary cause of the note lies in the oscillations of the 
gas within the burner and the feeding-pipe, which there- 
fore play exactly the same part as does the roed portion of 
the reed-pipe. The air in the glass tube being heated by 
the flame ascends, and the pressure above the flame being 
thence diminished, the flame is forced upwards by the gas 
beneath, until an influx of atmospheric air at the top of 
ihe tube forces the flame back. Thus a periodic agitation 

of the flame ensues, accompanied by a corresponding di£- 
turbance of the air-column in the glass tube. The size of 
the flame and its position within the tube must be so 
regulated as to bring out the best possible note, which will 
then be found to be the same as the air in the tuV'C would 
itself emit, according to the laws of pipes, allowance being 
made for the high temperature of the air. A „8ries 
of tubes may thus be arranged of suitable lengths to give 
the ■ common scale. It sometimes happens, particularly 
with short tubes, that the note will not come out spontanu- • 
ously, all that is required, then, is either by blowing gently 
at the top of the tube, or by singing in unison with the 
expected note, to give to the air the requisite initial move- 

The flame, which burns steadily with a yellowish light 
before the tube sounds, will, as soon as the note is heard, 
be seen to flicker up and down, changing rapidly from 
yellow to blue and blue to yellow, its intensity also chang- 
ing periodically. These fluctuations are best seen by view- 
ing the image of the flame reflected by a small plane mirror, 
held in the hand and moved to and fro. Before the note 
is heard, the image of the then quiescent flame, being im- 
pressed on different points of the retina, appears as a con- 
tinuous luminous strip ; but, when the harmonicon speaks, 
the various images become quite detached from one another, 
showing that the portion of the retina over which the 
reflected light passes is sensibly affected only at certain 
points of it, which evidently correspond to the instants of 
time at which the flame, in its periodical fluctuations, is at 
its brightest. 

90. Naked flames, that is, flames unaccompanied by tubes. Naked 
may also give out musical notJS, and many singular in- flames, 
stances are mentioned by Tyndall and others of their 
sensitiveness to external sounds. 

91. Koenig of Paris has constructed an apparatus in- Flame 
tended to indicate the modes of vibration of the different manom^tefl 
parts of vibrating bodies, such as columns of air, &c., by 

means of flames,, and to which he has given the name of 
the Flame Manometer. We will here describe its applica- 
tion to the case of organ-pipes. An open pipe has three 
apertures along one side, one at the middle, o (fig. 28), i.e., 
at a node of the fundamental tone, and the two others, a, b, 

half way between o and the extremities of the , , 

pipe, and coinciding therefore with the nodes of 
the first overtone or octave. These openings, are 
closed by thin flexible membranes forming the 
ends of small boxes or capsules, the spaces within 
which communicate by caoutchouc tubes with a 
coal-gas reservoir, and also by separate tubes with 
small gas burners arranged on a vertical stand. 
The gas being introduced, and the three flames 
kindled and adjusted to equal heights of about f 
of an inch; if the pipe be made now to utter its first over- 
tone, the flame connected with o will remain stationary 
and of the same brightness as before, but those communi- 
cating with a and t will become longer and thinner, and 
assume a bluish and faint luminosity. But, if the funda- 
mental be brought out of the pipe, then it is o's flame 
that is violently affected, while those of a and b are scarcely 
affected at all. If the flames be originally made les^ in 
height (say J inch), those of a and b in the former case, and 
of in the latter, will be extinguished. These results are 
due to the condensations and rarefactions of the air in the 
pipe which arc at their maximum at a node, causing tha 
membrane placed there to vibrato outwards and inwards, 
and hence to force more or less of the gas into the burner. 
In order to compare together the notes of different pipes, 
four plane reflecting surfaces are connected together in tha 
form of a cube, which is mounted on a vertical axis about 
i which it is capable of being turned round. Kach pipe 15 

Fig. 23. 



furnished wilii oue opening, a mcmoraue, iS:c. (as above), 
at ita middle. As pointed out (§ 87), if any of the pipes 
be made to sound, the reflector being at the same time put 
in motion, a series of separate , images will be seen. On 
Bounding another pipe, \t'hose fuiidamcutal ia an octave 
higher, we shall have a second line of images separated 
from each other by half the interval of those in the former 
series. This is best observed when the two flames are placed 
in the same vertical lino. If the note of the second pipe 
is a fifth higher than the first, and consequently its vibra- 
tions to those of the fir^t as 3 to 2, then the same space 
which contains two images of the lower note will contain 
tliroe of the higher, and so on, for other combinations. 
AVhen more complicated ratios are to be tested, it is pre- 
ferable to connect both capsules with the same burner, 
either with or without the reflector. 

Paet X. 
Communication of Vibrationt. 
Coramuni- 92. The cominujucation of sonorous vibrations from one 
cation be- body to another plays so essential a part in acoustics that 
tween j^ f^^ words must here be given to the subject. It appears 
2oUdi and '" ^^ ^*'^ established that while the vibrations of e solid 
liooiilk. '"'o in general most readily communicated to other solids 
in contact with it, they are not so to liquids, and still less 
80 to air and other aeriform fluids. Thus, a tuning-fork 
is inaudible at any moderate distance unless applied to a 
table, by whose extended surface the air can be more 
intensely affected. So likewise a musical string sounds 
Tery poorly unless connected with a re.sonant cavity or 
•wooden chest, to the wood of which it first imparts its 
vibratorj' motion, which then produces stationarj- waves in 
the continued air. 
Kunilt'sex- 93. A few years ago M. Kundt made known a method 
pcriments. Jounded on the communicability of vibration, by which 
the velocities of sound in different media may be compared 
together with great facility. Take a glass tube 3 feet or up- 
wards in length, drop into it a small quantity of the fine 
powder of the club-moss or lycopodium, and turn the tube 
round so as to spread the powder over the internal surface 
of the tube. Stop both ends of the tube with corks, clamp 
it at its centre, and rub one of its halves lengthwise with 
a moist cloth, so as to cause the glass to sound a note. It 
Avill then be found that, the air within the tube taking up 
the motion, and a stationary wave being formed in it, the 
]>owder is driven off from the ventral segments and forms 
little heaps at the nodes. The dust-heaps are, by the laws 
of stationaiy waves, separated therefore from each other 
by intervals each equal to half the length of an air-wave, or 

- . If. then, the number of heaps = m, and the length 

of the tube = / : A = — . 

But, by the laws of longitudinal vibrations of rods, the 

lengtn X' of the glasS-wave =4(-j = 2;. Hence — = m, 

that is, the number of dust-heaps is equal to the ratio of 
the lengths of a wave of sound in glass and in air, and 
consequently to the ratio of the velocities of sound in those 
media. (For the vibrations being in unison, their number 
in a given time must be the same for the glass and the 

. . V V 
air, t.«., -^ = ^ ; V, V being the velocitiesl 

Kundt found 16 to be the number of heaps; prior 
experiments of a different kind had, as we have before 
mentioned, given this as the number of times that the 
velocity of sound in glass exceeds its velocity in air. 

Instead of producing the air-vibrations by friction of the 
tube containing the air, it ia preferable to make use of a 
smaller tube or rod, furnished with a cork at one end, which 

tits like a ]jiston into the tube, and projecting at its ontei 
end through an opening in the cork which closes the air- 
tube. The rod thus inserted is the one which is rubbed 
longitudinally and communicates its vibrations to the air 
in the enclosing tube. By means of an apparatus of this 
kind, Kundt determined the ratio to the velocity of sound 
iji air of its velocity in various solids, and also (replacing 
the air in the tube bv different gases) of its velocity in 
these gases. 

Pabt XL 

InUrferenee of Sound. 

94. When two or more sonorous waves travel through Meaning of 
the same medium, each particle of the air being simultane- interfe^ 
ously affected by the disturbances due to the different '"*''• 
waves, moves in a difl'erent manner than it would if only 

acted on by each wave singly. The waves are said mutually 
to interfere. We shall exemplify this subject by consider- 
ing the case of two waves travelling in the same direction 
through the air. We shall then obviously be led to the 
following results : — 

95. If the two waves are of equal length X, and are in Two wavM 
the same phase (that is, each producing at any given of equal 
moment the same state of motion in the air-particles), their '""gtlu. 
combined effect is equivalent to that of a wave of the same 

length X, but by which the excursions of the particles are 
increased, being the 
sum of those due 
to the two com- 
ponent waves re- 

If the two inter- 
fering waves, being 
still of same length 
X, be in opposite 
phases, or so that ^* ^'• 

one is in advance of the other by -, and consequently one 

produces in the air the opposite state of motion to the 
other, then the resultant wave is one of the same length 
X, but by which the excursions of the particles are de- 
creased, being the difference between those duo to the 
component waves. If the amplitudes of vibration which 
thus mutually interfere are moreover equal, the effect is 
the total mutual destruction of the vibratory motion. 

Thus we learn that two musical notes, of the same pitch, 
conveyed to the ear through the air, will produce the effect 
of a single note of the same pitch, but of increased loudness, 
if they arc in the same phase, but affect the ear very 
slightly, if at all, when in opposite phases. If the differ- 
ence of phase be varied gradually from zero to -X, the result- 
ing' sound will gradually decrease from a maTunnni to • 

96. Among the many experimental confirmations which Eiperi- 
may be adduced of these proportions, 
we will mention the foDowing: — 

Take a circular plate, such as is 
available for the production of Chladni's 
figures (§ 71), and cut out of a sheet 
of pasteboard a piece of the shape 
ABOCD (fig. 30), consisting of two 
circular quadrants of the same diameter 
as the plate. Let, now, the plate be 
made in the usual manner to vibrate so as to exhibit two 
nodal lines coinciding with two rectangular diameters. If 
the ear be placed right above the centre of the plate, the 
sound will be scarcely audible. But, if the pasteboard be 
interposed so as to intercept the vibrating segments AOB, 
DOC, the note becomes much more distinct. The reason 

mental il- 


'Fig. »0. 







enco of two 
Beta ot 
for wliich 
n m 

of this is, that the segments of tie i:.late AOD, BOC 
always vibrate in the same direction, but oppositely to 
the segments AOB, DOC. Heijce, when the pasteboard 
is in its place, there are two waves of same phase starting 
from the two former segments, and reaching the ear after 
equal distances of transmission through the air, are again 
in the same phase, and produce on the car a conjunct im- 
pression. But when the pasteboard is removed, then there 
is at the ear opposition of phase between the first and the 
second pair of waves, and consequently a minimum of sound, 

97. A tubular piece of wood shaped as in fig. 31, and 
having a piece of thin membrane stretched over 
the opening at the top C, some dry sand being f\ 
strewn over the membrane, is so placed over a (i\\ 
circular or rectangular vibrating plate, that the v ^ 
ends A, B lie over the segments of the plate, 
such as AOD, COB in the previous fig., which ^'*- ^^' 
axe in the same state of moticm. The sand at C will 
be set in violent movement. But if the same ends 
A, B, be placed over oppositely vibrating segments (such as 
AOD, COD), the sand will be scarcely, if at all, affected. 

93. If a tuning-fork in vibration bo turned round before 
the ear, four positions will be found in which it will be 
inaudible, owing to the mutual interference of the oppo- 
sitely vibrating prongs of the fork. On interposing the 
hand between the ear and either prong of the fork when 
in one of those positions, the sound becomes audible, be- 
cause then one of the two interfering waves is cut off from 
the ear. This experiment may be varied by holding the 
fork over a glass jar into which water is poured to such a 
depth that the air-column within reinforces the note of 
the fork when suitably placed and then turning the fork 

99. Helmholtz's double syi-en (§ 51) is well calculated 
for the investigation of the laws of interference of sound. 
For this purpose a simple mechanism is found in the in- 
strument, by means of which the fixed upper plate can be 
turned round and placed in any position relatively to the 
lower one. If, now, the apparatus be so set that the notes 
from the upper and lower chest are in unison, the upper 
fixed plate may be placed in four positions, such as to 
cause the air-current to be cut off in the one chest at the 
exact instant when it is freely passing through the other, 
and vice versa. The two waves, therefore, being in opposite 
phases, neutralise one another, and the result is a faint 
Bound. On turning round the upper che.->t into any inter- 
mediate position, the intensity of the sound will increase 
lip to a maximum, wliich occurs when the air in both chests 
is being admitted and cut off contemporaneously. 

100. If two pipes, in exact unison, and furnished with 
flame manometers, are in communication with the same 
wind-cliest, and the two flames be placed in the same 
vertical line, on introducing the current from the bellows, 
we shall find that the two lines of reflected images will be 
BO related that each image in one lies between two images 
in the other. This shows that the air-vibrations in one 
pipe are always in an opposite phase to the other, or that 
condensation is taking place in the one when rarefaction 
occurs in the other. This arises from the current from the 
bellows passing alternately into the one and the other pipe. 
There v/ill also be a remarkable collapse of the sound 
when both pipes communicate with the wind-chest com- 
pared with that produced from one pipe alone. 

101. If the two interfering waves are such as produce 
vibrations whose numbers per second are n, n respectively, 
these being to each other in the ratio of two integers m, m 
when expressed in its lowest terms, then the lengths of the 
waves X, \' being inversely as n to Ji', will be to each 
other as 7n' -.m, and consequently mX^m'V. Particles 
thercfoie of the air separated by this distance from each 

other will be in the same phase, that is, the length of tha 
resvltant wave wUl be m A or m \', and if N denote the 

corresponding number of vibrations N = — or — . 

Thus, for the fundamental and its octave -7 = 


therefore N = re or •— ; that is, the note of interfereuca 

is of the same pitch as the fundamental. 

For the fundamental and its major third, — = -. Hence 

mental ar-* 


or -— , that is, the resulting sound is two octaves 

Tiiental and 

lower than the fundametaL 

For the fundamental and its maior sixth, — = -; n 

mental anct 


and the resultinj 

sound is a twelfth ^ixth. 

below the lower of the two interfering notes. 

if m and hi' differ by 1 , then N = » - ?j' ; for m - m 

or X = — - .-7- . Hence, if the ratio of the vibrations ^^^ °^, 
N N m-m- 

of two interfering sounds is expressible in its lowest tei'ms 

by numbers whose difl'erence is unity, the resulting note 

has a number of vibrations simply coual to the difference 

of those of the interfering notes. 

The results stated irrthis section may be tested on a har- 
monium. Thus, if the notes B, C, at the extreme right of 
the instrument be struck' together, there will be heard an 
interference note four octaves lower in pitch than the 
above C, because the interval in question being 'a semi- 
tone, is -{-f , and, consequently, by last case, the interferencu 
note is lower than the C by interval -j'j 

Other notes may be heard resulting from the mutual 
interference of the overtones. 

102. When two notes are not quite in tune, the resultingBeats^ 
sound is found to alternate between a maximum and mini- 
mum of loudness recurring periodically. To these periodic^^l 
alternations has been given the name of Beats. Their 
origin is easily explicable. Suppose the two notes to cor- 
respond to 200 and 203 vibrations per second; at some 
instant of time, the air-particles, through which the waves 
are passing, will be similarly displaced by both, and coa- 
sequently the joint effect will be a sound of some intensity. 
But, after this, the first or less rapidly vibrating note will 
fall behind the other, and cause a diminution in the joint 
displacements of the particles, till, after the lapse of ^ of) 
a second, it will have fallen behind the other by A a vibnt. 
tion. At this moment, therefore, opposite displacements 
will be produced of the air-particles by the two notes, and 
the sound due to them will be at a minimtun. This will 
be followed by an increase of intensity until the lapse of 
another sixth of a second, when the less rapidly vibrating 
note will have lost another half-ribration relatively to the 
other, or one vibration reckoning from the original period 
of thne, and the two component vibrations wUl again con- 
spire and reproduce a maximum effect. Thus, an inter- 
val of ^ of a second elapses between two successive maxima 
or beats, and there are produced three beats per second. 
By similar reasoning it may be shown that the number of 
beats per second is always equal to the difference between 
the numbers of vibrations in the same time corrcspondiiiij 
to the two interfering notes. The more, therefore, these 
are out of tune, the more rapidly'will the beats follow each 

Beats are also heard, though less distinctly, when other 
concorfls such as thirds, Ji/l/is, i-c, are not perfectly in tune j 
thus, 200 vibrations and 303 vibrations j'cr second, which 
form, in combination, an imperfect fifth, produce h°sti 
occurring at the rate of three oer secnn j 



of beatA. 

Tuning by 

Irri tiling 
fffect of 
rapid beats 

103. The phenomena of boats may be coajy observed 
with two organ-pipes put slightly out of tune by placing 
the hand near the open end of one of them, with two 
musical strings on a resonant chest, or with two tuning- 
forks of same pitch held over a resonant cavity (such as a 
glass jar, vid. § 97), one of the forks being put out of tune by 
loading one prong vdih a small lump of becs'-wax. In the 
last instance, if the forks are fixed on one solid i)iece of wood 
which can be grasped with the hand, the beats will be 
actually felt by the hand. If one prong of each fork be 
furnished with a small plain mirror, and a beam of light 
from a luminous point bo reflected successively by the two 
mirrors, so as to form an image on a distant screen, when 
orie fork alone is put in vibration, the image will move on 
the screen and bo seen as a line of a certain length. If 
both forks are in vibration, and are perfectly in tune, this 
line may either bo increased or diminished permanently in 
.length, according to the difference of phase between the 
two sets of vibrations. But if the forks be not quite in 
tune, then the length of the imago will be found to fluc- 
tuate between a maximum and a minimum, thus making the 
beats sensible to the eye. The vibrograph (§ 52, 53) is 
also well suited for the same purpose, and so in an especial 
manner is Helmholtz' double syren (§ 51), in which, by 
continually turning round the upper box, a note is pro- 
duced by it more or less out of tune with the note formed 
by the lower chest, according as the handle is moved more 
or less rapidly, and most audible beats ensue. The gas 
harmonica and the flame manometer also afford excellent 
illustrations of the lav.-s of beats. 

101. Advantage has been taken of these laws for tht 
pnrpose of determining the absolute number of vibrations 
per second corresponding to any given nolo in music, 
whence may be derived the number for all the other notes 
(§ 45). The human ear may be regarded as most correctly 
appreciating two notes differing by an octave. Two tuning- 
forks then are taken, giving respectively the note A and 
its lower octave, and a number of other forks are prepared 
intermediate in pitch to these, say 54, and by means of 
bees' -wax these are so tuned, that the first gives four beats 
with the A fork, the second four beats with the fourth, and 
so on up to the last, which also gives four beats with the 
A_, fork. Now, if n = the unknown number of vibrations 
for the note A, n- i; n-8 ... n - 55 x 4, will be the 
numbers for all the successive forks down to the A_j fork, 

which being an octave below A, we have — ■ = Jand 

consequently n = 440. 

105. Beats also afford an excellent practical guide in the 
tuning of instruments, but more so for the higher notes of 
the register, inasmuch aj the same number of beats, that 
is, the same difference between the numbers of vibrations, 
for two notes of high pitch, indicates greater deviation 
from perfect unison, than it does for two notes of low 
pitch. Thus, two low notes of 32 and 30 vibrations 

32 16 
respectively, whose interval is therefore — or — i.e., a semi- 
tone, give two beats per second, while the same number of 
beats are given by notes of 32 x 16 (four octaves higher 
than the first of the preceding) or 512 and 514 vibrations, 
which are only slightly out of tune. 

1C6. As the interval between two notes, and con- 
sequently the number of beats increases, the effect on thn ear 
becomes more and more unpleasant, and degenerates at last 
into an irritating rattle. With the middle notes of the musical 
register, this result occurs when the niunber of beats comes 
np to 20 or 30 per second, the musical interval between 
the two interfering notes being then between half and 
a whole tone. Helmholtz attributes the disagreeable im- 
pression of beats on the ear, to the same physiological cause 

to which is due the painful effect on the eye of a faint 
flickering light, a.s, for instance, the Ught streaming through 
a wooden paling with intervening openings when the 
individual affected ia passing alongside. In this case, the 
retina, which, when continuously receiving the same amount 
of light, thereby loses its sensitiveness in a great degree, ia 
unable to do so. 

It is, however, remarked by the above-mentioned author 
that the same number of beats, which has so irritating an 
effect when due to two notes in the middle of the register, 
is not attended by the same result when duo to notes of 
much lower pitch. Thus, the notes C, D forming k tone 
give together 33 beats per second, while a note two octavea 
lower than C also gives 33 beats v^ith its fifth; yet the 
former combination forms a discord, the hitter a most 
pleasing concord. 

107. When the number of beats reaches to 132 or Differenw. 
upwards per Bocond, the result is a continuous and not lone*, 
unpleasing impression on the ear, and it was formerly heia 

tliat the effect .was always equivalent to that of a note 
having that number of vibrations. Helmholtz has shown 
that this opinion is inaccurate, except when the interfering 
tones are very loud, and consequently accompanied by 
Very considerable displacements of the particles of the 
vibrating medium. These resultant tones being, as to 
their vibration-number, equal to the difference between the 
numbers corresponding to the two primaries, are termed 
differcTice-tones, and may be best ob6er^"ed with the double 
syren. The same author was led also, on theoretical 
grounds, to surmise the formation of tummalion-tonet by Surama- 
the iirtcrference of two loud primaries, the number of tion-tooes. 
resultant vibrations being then equal to the sum of the 
numbers for the two components, and appealed for experi- 
mental proof to his syren. But, at the last meeting of the 
British Association (1872), Koenig, the celebrated Parisian 
acoustician, maintained that the notes of the syren, thus 
held to be summation-tone.s, were in reality the diftrence- 
tones of the harmonics. 

108. By reference to the laws of the interference of Helm- 
vibrations, Helmholtz has been enabled to offer a highly holtz't ei. 
satisfactory explanation of the cause whence arises dii- Pj^'tion 
ference of quality or timbre or acoustic colour between ^\^^ 
different sounds. He has shown conclusively that there 

are but few sounds which are of a perfectly simple character, 
that is, in which the fundamental is not accompanied by 
one or more overtones. Now, when a note is Bimple, there 
can be no jarring on the ear, because there is on room for 
interference of sound. Hence, the softness of the tuning- 
fork when its fundamental is reinforced by a resonant 
cavity, and also of the flute. The same character of soft- 
ness belongs also to those instruments in which the powerful 
harmonics are limited to the vibration ratios 2, 3 ... G 
(§ 57, 80); because the mutual interference of the funda- 
mental and their harmonics give rise to concords only. 
The piano, the open organ pipe, the violin, and the softer 
tones of the human voice, are of this class. But if the odd 
harmonics alone are present, as in the narrow stopped 
organ pipe, and in the clarionet, then the sound is poor, 
and even nasal; and if the higher harmonics beyond the 
sixth or seventh are very marked, the result is very 
harsh (as in reed-pipes). 

109. The human voice {iot a description of the organ in Voice, 
which it originates, we refer to Art. Phytiology — Voice and 
Speech)ia regarded by the best authorities as being analogous 

to a reed-pipe, the vocal chords forming the reed, and the 
cavity of the mouth the pipe, and, like the reed, is rich in 
harmonics, as many as sixteen having been detected in a basa 
voice. But their number and relative intensities differ much 
in different individuals, or even in the same person at dif- 
ferent times; and it is on this variety that, agroeablv to Helm- 




holtz's theory of timbre, the peculiarities depend by which 
any cue voice may be unmistakably distinguished from 
every other. Voices in which overtones abound are sharp, 
aud even rough ; those in which they are few or faint, are 
soft aud sweet. In every voice, -however, the number and 
relative intensity of the overtones depend on the form 
assumed by the cavity of the mouth, which acts relatively 
to the vocal chords precisely as a resonator does to a 
tuning-fork, or a pipe to a reed. This may be easily tested 
by holding a tuning-fork before the open mouth, when, 
by giving to the cavity a suitable form, the fundamental 
or some overtone of the ,fork may be heard distinctly 
reverberated from the interior of the mouth. Each vowel 
sound, as Helmlioltz hfis shown, is simply the result of 
the reinforcements by the air in the csmty of the mouth, 
and its prolongation towards the larynx, of one or in some 
cases two overtones of determinate pitch, contained in the 
sound which proceeds from the vocal chords. Koenig 

assigns the following notes as characteristic of the _^ 

eimpler vowel sounds (adopting the foreign pro- ^ ^ 
nunciation) : — To U, the note Bb below the line Jji 
ia the G clef, corresponding to 225 vibrations 


per second; to O, the next higher octave, consequently of 

double the number of vibrations, and thence ascending 
by octaves for A, E, and I, the last of which is therefore 
characterised by r* iiote of 3600 vibrations per second. 

The above the.'iry cf vowel sounds may be satisfactorily 
confirmed by me'ins of tuning-forks, vibrating in front of 
resonant cavities, which can, by suitabU combination, be 
made to utter any vowel sound. 

Works on Acoustics. 
Chladni, Traiie cCAcoustique. r'aris, 1809. 
Herschel, Sir John, Encycl. Metrop., art. " ^ound." Lon- 
don, 1830. 
TyiidaU, Lectures on Sound, 2d edit. London, 1869 
Helmholtz, Die Lehre von der Tomempfindumjen, 3d edit 
Braunschweig, 18V0, of which there is a Frenck trans- 
lation, and an EnjjUsh one is promised. 
Besides the above, SDme account of the subject is to be 
found in such general works on Physics as Ganot's, 14th 
edit, Paris, 1870, of -which a translation 'is published by 
Longmans,- London ; Deschanel's Natural Philosophy, 
translated by Prof. Evirett, London, 1873; Jamin, Co^rt 
ds Physique, 3d edit., Paris, 1871; Wiilner Physik, 2d 
edit., Leipzig, 1870. d. t.'* 

An-, essential for hearing, 


velocity of sound in, 

17, 18, 22 

A i^iplitude of vibrations, 


Beats, how produced; . 


examples of. 


application to finding n fo 

any note, 


cuning by. 


rapid effect of, on ear, 


Bell in vacuo, 


Cbemical harmonicon, . 


Chladni's figures, 

69 to 71 

Communication of Tibrationg, 

92, 93 

De la Tour's syren. 


Density, variations in, by longitu 

dinal vibrations, 


Diatonic scale, 


Difference tones, . 


Dove's syren, 






Flames, singing, . 

89, 90 

Flame manometer. 

91, 103 

Fundamental note, 


Gas harn!ionica, . 

87. 103 

Gases, velocity of sound in, . 


Harmonics in strings, . 

57 to 60 




77 to 80 

Harmony, laws o?, 

45, 46 

Helmholtz, his double syren. 

61, 99 

on resultant tones. 


on timbre. 


Intensity of sound— 

at different distances, 


in air of different densities, 


promoted by sheet of water, &c. 
depends on amplitude of vibra 


tions, .... 


Interference of sound — 

laws of, . . . . 

94, 95 

examples of, . 
Intervals, musical, 

98 to 100 


Kosnig's phonautograph, 

name manometer, . 

91, 100 

denial of summation-tone 

>, 107 

Kundt's experiments, . 


Laplace's corrected velocity o 


sound in air, . 


Lenseff, acoustic, . 


Liquids, velocity of sound in, 


Longitudinal vibrations. 



The numerals refer lo the sections. 

Loudness {vid. intensity). 

Strings, musical, comparison of fun- 

Melde's experiments on vibrating 

damental notes 

strings, ..... 


due to trans- 

Membranes, vibrations of, . 


versal and -lon- 

Musical sounds and noises, . 


gitudinal vib- 

notes, vibration-ratios of. 


rations, . 


Nevrton's investigation of velocity 

influence on pitch 

in air, 


of length, ten 



sion, &c., 


Noises and musical sounds, . 


Melde's experi- 
mental illus- 

Overtones (vid. harmonics). 

ParaboUc reflectors, . • 






Spheroidal reflectors. . 


Phonautograph, .... 


Summation tones, 


Pipes, BernouiUi's theory of, . 


Syren of Seebeck, 


stopped (at both enda) . 


of De la Tour, . 


open, .... 


of Dove, . . . . 


stopped, .... 


■of Helmholtz, . 


harmonics in, . 


Thunder, roll of, . 


open and stopped, of equd 


43, 108 

lengths, .... 


Tones, major, minor, and semi, . 


infl'aence of length of, on pitch. 


Transversal vibrations. 

9, 28 

length of C pipe. 


Tuning by beats 


defects of theory. 


Tuning-forks, mode of vibration, . 


illustrations by manometer. 


interference in 


Pitch, depends on «, . 


beats in. 


Plates, square, vibrations of. 



"V entral segments, , , , 


circular, do. 


Vibrations, sound due to, . 


interference in. 



laws of, . 

4, 6 

Rankine's investigation of velocity 

of pendulum, . 


of sound 


transmission of. 


Reeds and reed-pipes, . 

86 to 88 

longitudinal and trans- 

Reflexion, la«s of, . . . 



versal, . 




relation between fre- 

Refraction, laws of, . . . 

31 to 34 

quency of, and length 

RodB, transversal vibrations of, . 


of wave. 


longitudinal vibrations of, . 


communication of, 

92, 98 

Savart's toothed wheel apparatus, 


number of, for any note 

Scales, diatonic and chromatic. 


determined by beats. 


Seebeck's syren, .... 




Solids, velocity of sound in (longi- 

Voice, its seat in vocal chords. 





Vowel sounds, how accounted for. 


Solids, velocity of sound in (trans- 
versal), ..... 

Water, velocity of sound in. 




"Waves of displacement, 

10, 12 

Solids, velocity of sound in, Kundt'i 

of velocity, 

11, 12 



of condensation and rare 

Stationary waves, . . • 




Strings, musical, laws of. 

55 to 66 

lengths of, 


fundamental and 

relation of, to n. 


overtones of, . 



propagation of, . 


overtones how 

Weber's theory of reed-pipes, 


obtained from. 



A C Q — A C K 

ACQUI, 8 town of Northern Italy, in the province of 
AJessaudria, 18 miles S.S.W. of the city of that name, on 
the left bank of the Bormida. It is a jihco of ^cat 
antiquity; and its hot sulphur baths, which are still much 
frequented, were known to the Romans, who gave the place 
the name of Aquw Statiellw. There are still to be found 
numerous ancient inscriptions, and the remains of a Roman 
aqueduct. The tovra is the seat of a bishop, and has a fine 
cathedral, several convents, and a royal college. Good 
wine is produced in the ■i-ineyards of the district, and great 
attention is given to the rearing of silk-worms. There are 
also considerable silk manufactures. Population, 8600. 

ACRE, a measure of surface, being the principal deno^ 
mination of land-measure used in Great Britain. The 
word (akin to the Sa.\on acer, the German acl-rr, and the 
Latin ager, a field) did not originally signify a determinate 
quantity of land, but any open ground. The English 
standard or imperial acre contains 4840 square yards, or 
10 square chains, and is also divided into roods, of which 
it contains 4, the rood again being divided in 40 perches. 
The imperial acre has, by the Act 5 Geo. IV. c. 74, super- 
seded the acres, of very different extent, that were in use 
in different parts of the country. ' The old Scottish acre 
was equal to 1'26118345 imperial acres. The Irish acre 
contains 7840 square yards The acre is equivalent to 
•40467, i.e., about f ths, of the French hectare (now the basis 
of superficial measurement in Germany, Italy, and Spain, 
as well as in France), "7 of the Austrian joch, '37 of the 
Russian desdiine, and 162 ancient Roman jugera. The 
hectare correspond.? to 2 acres 1 rood 35 'SS perches. 

ACRE, Akka, or St Jeam D'Acbe, a town and seaport 
of Syria, and in ancient times a celebrated city. No town 
has experienced greater changes from political revolutions 
and the calamities of war. According to some this was the 
Accho of the Scriptures ; and its great antiquity is proved 
by fragm(?nt3 of houses that have been found, consisting of 
that highly sun-burnt brick, with a mixture of cement and 
sand, which was only used in erections of the remotest 
^ges. It was known among the ancients by the name of 
Ace, but it is only from the period when it was taken posses- 
sion of by Ptolemy Soter, king of Egypt, and received 
from him the name of Ptolemais, that history gives any 
certain account of it. When the empire of the Romans 
began to extend over Asia, Ptolemais came into their pos- 
session. It is mentioned by Strabo as a city of great 
importance; and fine granite and marble pillars, monu- 
ments of its ancient grandeur, are still to be seen. During 
the Middle Ages Ptolemais passed into the hands of the 
Saracens. They were expelled from it in 1110 by the 
Crusaders, who made it their principal port, and retained 
it until 1187, when it was recovered by Saladin. In 1191 
it was retaken by Richard L of England and Philip of 
France, who purchased this conquest by the sacrifice of 
100,000 troops. They gave the town to the knighta of St 
John of Jei-usalem, from whom it received the name of St 
Jean P'Acre. In their possession it remained for a century, 
though subject to continual assaults from the Saracens. 
It was at this time a large and extensive city, populous and 
wealthy, and contained numerous churches, convents, and 
hospitals, of which no traces now remain. Acre was finally 
lost to the Crusaders in 1291, when it was taken by the 
Saracens after a bloody siege, during which it suifered 
severely. From this time its prosperity rapidly decUned. 
In 1517 it fell into the hands of the Turkish sultan, Selim 
I.; and in the beginning of the 18th century, with the 
exception of the residences of the French factors, a mosque, 
and a few poor cottages, it presented a vast scene of ruin. 
Towards the end of that century Acre was much strength- 
ened and improved by the Turks, particularly by Djezzar 
PacJia, and again rose to some importance. It is memor- 

able in modem history for tne gaiiantry with which it was 
defended in 1799 by the Turks, as.sisted by Sir Sydney 
Smith, against Bonaparte, who, after spending sixty-one 
days before it, was obliged to retreat. It continued to 
enjoy an increasing degree of prosf>erity till 1832. Though 
fettered by imf>osts and monopolies, it carried on a con- 
siderable foreign trade, and had resident consuls from most 
of the great states of Europe. On the revolt of Mehemet Ali, 
the pacha of Egj-pt, Acre was besieged by his son, Ibrahim 
Pacha, in the winter of 1831-32. The siege lasted five 
months and twcnty-ono days, and, before the city was 
taken, its public and private buildings were mostly destroyed. 
Its fortifications were subsequently repaired and improved 
■ by the Egyptians, in whose hands it remained until 3d Nov. 
1840, when the town was reduced to ruins by a three hours' 
bombardment from the British fleet, acting as the aUies of 
the sultan. The Turks were again put in possession of it 
in 1641. 

Acre is situated on a low promontory, at the northern 
extremity of the Bay of Acre. The bay affords no shelter 
in bad weather; and the port is scarcely capable of contain- 
ing a dozen boats. Vessels coming to this coast, therefore, 
generally frequent the anchorage of Caiffa, on the south 
side of the bay. Acre is 80 r.iilcs N.N.W. of Jerusalem, 
and 27 S. of Tyre. Population, 10,000. 

ACROBAT (from uKpo/SaTt'w, to walk on tiptoe), a rope- 
dancer. Evidence exists that there were very skilful per- 
formers on the tight-rope (/unamhvli) among the ancient 
Romans. Modern acrobats generally use a long pole, 
loaded at the ends, and by shifting this are enabled to 
maintain, or readily to recover, their equilibrium. By an 
extension of the meaning of the term, acrobatic feats now 
include trapeze leaping and similar performances. 

AC'PkOCERAUNIA, in Ancient Geography, a promon- 
torj' in the N.W. of Epirus, which terminates the Montes 
C'eraunii, a range that nins S.E. from the promontory 
along the coast for a number of miles, and is supposed to 
have derived its name from being often struck withlight- 
niug. The cape (now called Glossa by the Greeks, and Ziii- 
guetta by the Italians) is in lat. 40° 25' N. 

ACROGEN^E is the name applied to a division of acoty 
ledonous or crypt ogamous plants, in which leaves are pre- 
sent along with va.scular tissue. In the higher divisions of 
Acrogens, as ferns and lycopods, the tissue consists of scalari- 
form vessels, while in the lower divisions spiral cells are 
observed, which take the place of vessels. The term Aero- 
gen means summit-grower, that is, a plant in which the 
stem increases specially by the summit. This is not. how- 
ever, strictly accurate. 

ACROLITH (a.Kp6\i6oi), statues of a transition penod 
in the history of plastic art, in which the trunk of the 
figure was of wood, and the head, hands, and feet of 
marble. The wood was concealed either by gilding or, 
more commonly, by drapery, and the marble parts alone 
were exposed. Acroliths are frequently mentioned by 
Pausanias, the best known specimen beine the Minerva 
Areia of the Platseans. 

ACRCJN, a celebrated physician, bom at Agngentum 
in SicUy, who was contemporary with Empedocles, and 
musti therefore have lived in the 5th century before Christ 
The successful measure of lighting large fires, and purify- 
ing the air with perfumes, to put a stop to the pestilence 
that raged in Athens (430 ac), is said to have originated 
with him; but this has been questioned on chronological 
grounds. Pliny is mistaken in saying that Acron was the 
founder of the sect of the Empiric!, which did not exist 
until the 3d century before Christ. The error probably 
arose from a desire on the part of the sect to establish for 
itself a greater antiquity than that of the Dogmatici. 
Suidas gives the titles of several works written by Acroa 

A C R — A G T 


on medical subject3, m the Doric dialect, but none of 
these now exist 

ACROPOLIS (^ AicpoVoXts), a -n-ora signifying tne upper 
town, or chief place of a city, a citadel, usually on the 
Bummit of a rock or hiU. Such buildings were common in 
Greek cities; and they are also found elsewhere, as in the 
case of the Capitol at Rome, and the Antonia at Jerusalem; 
but the most celebrated was that at Athens, the remains of 
which stOl delight and astonish travellers. It was enclosed 
by walls, portions of which show traces of extreme antiquity. 
It had nine gates; the principal one was a splendid struc- 
ture of PenteUcan marble, in noble Doric architecture, 
which bore the name of Propylaia. Besides other beauti- 
ful edifices, it contains the TlapBevuiv, or temple of the 
virgii goddess Athens, the most glorious monument cf 
a&cient Grecian architecture. 

Ground plan of tho Acropolis ci Athens. 

a, PedSfltBl of Rome and Augustus. 

b, c, oC, Sites cf tciuples of ^liDerra, 
Di&na, and Venus, 

t. Erecthcium. 
/, Dlonysiac theatre, 
ff, Odeon of Herodca. 
h and 0, Grottoes. 
i, Ruined mosque. 

t, ?, Gate and portico, 
m, Clioragic monument of Thrasyclet, 
now cliurcli of our iady of the grotto, 
n, n, Remains of Pelasgic wall, 
y, t[. WaUs of outworjte, Ac. 
«, Gate to Propylsea. 
?, r, i. Forts. 
tt, o, Ancient vralla. 

ACROSTIC (from axpos and otlxk, meaning literally 
the extremity of a verse), is a species of poetical composi- 
tion, so constructed that the initial letters of the lines, 
taten consecutively, form certain names or other particular 
words. This fancy is of considerable antiquity, one of the 
most remarkable examples of it being the verses cited by 
Lactantius and Eusebius in the 4th century, and attri- 
buted to the Erythr33an sibyl, the initial letters of which 
form the words 'Irjcrov? Xptcrrog &€ov vto5 o-tim^p : *' Jesus 
Christ, the Son of God, the Saviour," with- the addition, 
according to some, of (pra-upoi, "the cross." The initials 
of the shorter form of this again make up the word ix^u's, 
to which a mystical meaning has been attached (Augustine, 
De Civitate Dei, 18, 23), thus constituting another kind 
of acrostic. Tho arguments of ita comedies of Plautus, 
with acrostics on the names of the respective plays, are 
probably of still earlier dato. Sir John Daviea (1070- 
1G26) wrote twenty-six elegant Hymns to Aslracc, each an 
acrostic ou " Elizabetha Regina;" and Mistress Mary Fage, 
in Fame's Houle, 1637, commemorated 420 celebritii.'S ot 
her time in acrostic verses. The same form of .composition 
Ls often to bo met with in Ae writings of more recent 
versifiers. Sometimes, the lines are so combined that the 
final letters as well as the initials are significant. Edgar 
Allan Poe, with characteristic ingenuity, worked two 
names — one of them that of Frances Sargent Osgood — into 
verses in such a way that the letters of the names corre- 
sponded to the first letter of the first line, the second letter 
of the second, tho third letter of the third, and so ou. 

Generally speaking, acrostic verse is not of much value, 
and is held in slight estimation. Dr Samuel Butler says, 
in his " Character of a Small Poet," " He uses to lay the 
outsides of. his verses even, like a bricklayer, by a liie of 
rhyme and acrostic, and fill the middle with rubbish." 
Addison (Spectator, No. 60) found it impossible to decide 
whether the inventor of the anagram or the acrostic were 
the greater blockhead; and, in describing the latter, says, 
' ' I have seen some of them where the verses have not only 
been edged by a name at each extremity, but have had the 
same name running down Like a seam through the middle 
of the poem." And Dryden, in Mac Flecknoe, scornfully 
assigned ShadweU the rule of 

'' Some peaceful province in acrostic land." 

The name acrostic is also applied to alphabetical or 
" abecedarian" verses. Of these wo have instances in some 
of the Hebrew psalms {e.ff., Ps. xxv. and xxxiv.), the 
successive verses of which begin with th2 letters of the 
alphabet in their order. The structure of Ps. cxix. is still 
more elaborate, each of the verses of each of the twenty- 
two parts commencing with the letter which stands at the 
head of the part in our English translation. Alphabetical 
verses have been constructed with every word of the suc- 
cessive lines beginning with the successive letters of the 

By an extenaed use of the term acrostic, it is applied 
10 the formation of words from the initial letters of other 
words. 'Ix^"''i referred to above, is an illustration of this. 
So also is the word " Cabal," which, though it was in use 
before, with a similar meaning, has, from the time of 
Charles II., been associated with a particular ministry, 
from the accident of its being composed of CUiford, Ashley, 
Buckingham, Arlington, and Lauderdale. Akin to this 
are the names by which the Jews designated Uieir 
Rabbis ; thus Rabbi Moses ben Maimon (better known 
as Maimonides), was styled " Rambam," from the initials 
R. M. B. M.; Rabbi David Kimchi (R, D. K,), " Radak," <fec. 

A species of puzzle, scarcely known twenty years ago, 
but very common now (see English Catalogue, 1863-71, s. v. 
Acrostics), is a combination of enigma and double acrostic, 
in which words are to be guessed whose initial and final 
letters form other words that are also to be guessed. Thus 
Sleep and Dream may have to be discovered from the first 
and last letters of Sound, Lover, Europe, Elia, and Palm., 
aU expressed enigmatically. 

ACT, in Dramatic Literature, signifies one of those 
parts into which a play is divided to mark the change of 
of time or place, and to give a respite to the actors and to 
the audience. In Greek plays there are no separate acts, 
the unities b-eing strictly observed, and the action being 
continuous from beginning to end. If the principal actors 
left the stage the chorus took up the argument, and con- 
tributed an integral part of the play, though chietiy in the 
form of comment upon the action. When necessary, 
another drama, which is etymologically the same as an act, 
carried o^ the history to a later time or in a different place, 
and thus we have the Greek trilogies or groups of three 
dramas, in which the same characters reappear. The 
Roman poets first adopted the division into acts, and sus- 
pended the stage business in the intervals between them. 
Their number was usually five, and the pile was at last 
laid down by Horace in the Ars J'oetica — 

*' l^evo minor, neu eit quinto productior acta 
FuL^Jo, quiB posci vult, et epectata repom." 

" I;' you would have your play deserve succeaa, 
Qivo it five acta complete, Dor more nor less. " 

— 'J'YancU. 

On tho seviya] of letteis this rule was almost nniversally 
observed by dramatists and that there is an inherent coa 

I. — i6 


A C T — A C T 

veiiience and fitncs's ia tho number fivo is evident irom the 
fact that Shakespeare, who refused to be trammelled by 
merely arbitrary rules, adopts it in all his plays. Some 
critics hu fe laid down rules as to tho part each act should 
Bustain iu the development of tho plot, but theso are not 
essential, and are by no means universally recognised. In 
comedy tho rule as to the number of acts has not been so 
strictly adhered to as iu tragedy, a division into two acts 
or three acts being quite usual since the time of Molicrc, 
•who first introduced it. 

It may bo well to mention hero Milton's Samson Aganutea 
as a specimen in English literature of a dramatic work 
founded on a purely Greek model, in which, consequently, 
there is no division into acts. 

ACT, in Law, is an instrument in writing for declaring 
or justifying tho truth of anything; in which sense records, 
decrees, sentences, reports, certificates, kc, are called acU. 
The origin of the legal use of the word Act Ls in the acla 
of the Roman magistrates or people, of their courts of law, 
or of the senate, meaning (1) what was done before thn 
magistrates, the people, or the senate; (2) the records of 
such public proceedings. 

ACT OF PARLLUIENT. An Act of ParUament may 
bo regarded as a declaration of the Legislature, enforcing 
certain rules of conduct, or defining rights and conferring 
them upon or withholding them from certain persons or 
classes of persons. The collective body of such declara- 
tions constitutes tho statutes of the realm or written law 
of the nation, in tho widest sense, from Anglo-Sa.xon times 
to the present day. It is not, however, till Magna Charta 
that, in a more limited constitutional sense, the statute- 
took is generally held to open, and the Parliamentary 
records only begin to assume distinct outlines late in the 
reign of Edward I. The maladministration of the common 
law by the royal judges hr.d gradually taught the people 
the uecessity of obtaining written declarations of their 
rights — often acknowledged, still oftener violated. Insen- 
sibly almost, tho Commons, whose chief function it origin- 
ally was to vote supplies to the crown, began to couple 
their grants with petitions for tlie redress of grievances. 
The substance of these petitions and of the royal responses 
was in time made the groundwork of Acta which, as framed 
by court redactors, and appearing annexed to proclamation- 
writs after the dissolution of Parliament, were frequently 
found seriously to misrepresent its will. To check this 
evil an Act was passed (8 Henry IV.), authorising the 
Commons to be represented at the engrossing of the Par- 
liament roll; but even this surveillance was not enough, 
for in the beginning of the reign of Henry V. it was enacted, 
at the instance of the Commons, that in regard, to their 
petitions the royal prerogative should in future be limited 
to granting or refusing them simpliciter. In this way it 
became a fixed constitutional principle that an Act of Par- 
liament, to be valid, must express concurrently the will of 
the entire Legislaiure. It was not, however, tQI the reign 
of Hjnry VI. that it became customary, as now, to intro- 
duce bills into Parliament in the form of finishec" Acts ; and 
the enacting clause, regarded by constitutionalists as the 
first perfect assertion, in words, of popular right, came into 
general use as late as the reign of Charles IX It is thus 
e.xpreGsed: — "Be it enacted by the King's most excellent 
Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords 
Sjiiritual and Temporal and Commons in this present Par- 
liament assembled, and by the authority of the same." 
The use of the preamble with which Acts are usually pre- 
faced, is thus quaintly set forth by Lord Coke, — " The 
rehearsal or preamble of the statute is a good meane to 
find out the meaning of the statute, and, as it were, a key 
to ojicn the understanding thereof." Originally, the col- 
lective Acts of each session formed but one statute, to 

which a general title was attached, and for this reason an 
Act of Parliament is always cited as the chapter of a par- 
ticular statutc^.y., 24 and 25 Vict. c. 101. Titles were, 
however, prefixed to indiridual Acts as early as 1488. 
Since 33 Geo. III. c. 13, an Act of Parliament is com- 
plete whenever it receives the royal assent, and takes effect 
from that date, unless the Act itself fix some other. British 
Acts require no formal promulgation, for it is presumed that 
every subject of the realm is cognisant of the resolutions 
of Parliament, either by himself or his representativo 

Modem Acts of ParUament are — 1. Public. These are binding on 
all citizens, and are ex ojlcio cognisable by the judges. Since 1850 
every Act is held to be public unless the contrary be expreaaly declared. 
2. Private Acts. Theso relate to particular classes, persons, or places. 
Private Acts ore (1.) Personal, viz., those which relate to name, 
naturalisation, estate, kc, of particular persons. (2.) Ix>cal, affect- 
ing bridges, canals, docks, turnpikes, railways, kc To j^revent such 
Acti from being unduly passed, the promoters of private bills arj 
required to comply with tho standing orders of the two Houses, by 
which private bill procedure is regulated. Acta cf Parliament, fur 
convenience of reference, ore cla.«ified as Public General Acts, Local 
and Personal Acts declared Public, Private Acts printed, and Privala 
Acts hot printed. Public General Acts (if no exception be expressed), 
extend to Great Britain and Ireland, exclusively only of tho Channel 
Islands and tho Isle of Man. 

The firot complete edition of English Acts of Parliament published 
by state authority appeared between the years 1810 and 1824. it 
includes the eaily charters, and ends with the reign of Queen Anne. 
Many private editions* of tho statutes had appeared previous to that 
of the Record Commissioners. The practice of printing Acts of Par- 
li.iment commenced in the reign of Richard III. The charters and 
Acts \^re vnitten in Latin till the Slaintum de Scaccario, 51 Henry 
III. (1266), which is in French. The Acts of Edward I. are indis- 
criminately in Latm or French ; but from the fourth year of Henry 
VII. Acts are exclusively in English. 

Scotch Acts. — The earliest attempts at a written record of the pro- 
ceedings of the ParUament of Scotland consisted of detached instru- 
ments or indentures, and the next step was the entering of these 
detached instruments on a roU for more permanent preservation. 
Xo such record, however, is preserved before the disputed succes- 
sion, which commenced in 1269. The earliest roU of placita in 
parliainento is dated 1292 ; but the Blak Buik, containing a seriea 
of proceedings in Parliament from 1357 to 1402, is the most im- 
portant of th£ earliest records of ParUament. The original books of 
ParUament of the reigus of James I. and James 11. are not preserved, 
but from the year 1466 down to the Union a voluminous, but not 
unbroken, series has been preserved. Down to the reign of Jamea 
v., scarcely any Act in the original registers is distinguished by a. 
title or rubric ; and even after that period the practice has not ia 
this respect been uniform. In like manner there ia no numeration 
of the Acts of ParUament during this period. The language of the 
earliest Scotch records is in Latin ; but as early as 1398 some of tha 
proceedings of ParUament or the Council-General were written in 
Scots,- and subsequently to 1 424 always in that language. Unlike tho 
English Acts, French was never used in Scotch lepslation. In 1541 
a selection of the Acts of James V\ was printed. The lirst edition of 
the Acts was published in 1566, the second in 1597, the third ia 
1681 ; and the great national work, the complete record of Parlia- 
ment, has just been completed, with a general index to the whold 
.\ct3 from 1124 to 1707, which forms the great rei>ertory of the 
legal, constitutional, and poUtical history of Scotland. In 1540 an 
Act was passed requiring all the Acts of Parliament to be pronounced 
in presence of the king and the estates, — the assent of the king 
being indicated by his touching them with the sceptre ; and in 1641 it 
was ordained that the Acts passed in 1640 be publi-shcd in the king's 
name, and with the consent of the estates. But during the civil 
war thi Acts of ParUament were passed in name of the estates alone. 
These Acts, however, were rescinded after the restoration of Charles 
H. by Act 1661, c. 126, because "the power of making laws is an 
essential privilege of the royal prerogative." In 1457 an Act was 
passed for procLiuning the Acts of Parliament in tha shires and 
burghs, that none be ignorant; and in 1581 it was ordained that 
Ai;ts need not be proclaimed at the market-cross of the head burgh 
of each shire, but at the market-cross of Edinburgh only, the lieges 
obeying them forty days thereafter. The clerk of register was 
ahvay3''bound to give extracts of Acts to the Ueges in their parti- 
cular affairs. In 1425 a committer consisting of an equal number 
of each estate, was appointed to amend I.Ko books of law: and in 
1567 a commission was issued to codify the laws, ci\-il and muni- 
cipal, dividing them into heads like the Roman law,— the beads ai 
they are ready to be brought to Parliament to be confirmed. Lord 
Bacon recommended the Scotch .A.ct3 for their "exceLent brevity,'.'" 
His loidihiiJ's praise appUes very properly to the Acts down to the 

A C T -r- A C T 


reign of Queen Mary and the early part of the reign of James Vi. ; 
but the logomachy of Bubsequent legislation is intolerable to the 

Irish Acts may be said to commence A.D. 1310, in the reign of 
Edward II., and to close with the union with the British Parlia- 
ment in 1801. From the former d3.te, however, there is a break 
tUl 1429. In 1495 Foyning's Law provided that no bill should 
he introduced into the Iriah Parliament which has not pre- 
viously received tho royal assent in England ; and till 1782 the 
Parliament of Ireland remained in tut*;lage to that of England. 
Since 1801 it has been incorporated with the Parliament of Great 

ACT OF SEDERUNT, in Scotch Law, an ordinance for 
regulating the forms of procedure before the Court of 
Session, passed by the judges in virtue of a power con- 
ferred by an Act of the Scotch Parliaiiient, 1540, q. 93. In 
former times this power was in several instances clearly 
exceeded, and such Acts of Sederunt required to be rati- 
fied by the Scotch Parliament; but for more than a century 
and a half Acts of Sederunt have been almost exclusively 
confined to matters relating to the regiilation of judicial 
procedure. Many recent statutes contain a clause empower- 
ing the court to make the necessary Acts of Sederunt. A 
quorum of nine judges is required to pass an Act of 

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, the fifth among the 
canonical books of the New Testament. What has to be 
said on this book will naturally fall under the following 
heads: The state of the text; the authorship; tho object 
of the work ; the date and the place of its composition. 

The State of the Text. — The Acts is found in two MSS. 
generally assigned to the 4th century, the Codex Sinai- 
ticus, in St Petersburg, and the Codex Vaticanus, in Rome ; 
in one MS. assigned to the 5th century, the Codex Alex- 
andrinus, in the British Museum ; in two MSS. belonging 
to the 6th century, the Codex Bezce, in Cambridge, and 
the Codex Laudiamu, in Oxford ; and in one of the 9 th 
century, the Codex Palimpsest us Porfirianus, in St Peters- 
burg, with the <exception of chapter first and eight verses 
of chapter second Large fragments are contained in a 
MS. of the 5th century, the Codex Ephroemi, in Paris.' 
Fragments are contained in five other MSS., none of which 
is later than the 9th century. These are all the uncial 
MSS. containing the Acts or portions of it. 

The MSS. in Oxford and Cambridge differ widely from 
the others. This is especially the case with the Cambridge 
MS., the Codex Bezoe, which is said to contain no less 
than six hundred interpolations. Scrivener, who has edited 
this MS. with great care, says, " WMe the general course 
of the history and the spirit of the work remain the same 
as in our commonly received text, we perpetually encounter 
long passages in Codex Bezoe which resemble that text 
only as a loose and explanatory paraphrase recalls the 
original form from which it sprung; save that there is no 
difi'erence in the language in this instance, it is hardly an 
exaggeration of the facts to assert that Codex D [i.e., 
Codex jB«ob] reproduces the textus receptus of the Acts 
much in the same way that one of the best Chaldeo 
Targums does the Hebrew of the Old Testament, so wide 
are the variations in the diction, so constant and inveterate 
the practice of expanding the narrative by means of inter- 
polations." Scrivener here assumes that the additions of 
the Codex Bezoe are interpolations, and this is the opinion 
of nearly all critics. There is one, however, Bornemann, 
who thinks that the Codex Bezos contains the original 
text, and that tho others are mutilated. But even sup- 
posing that we were quite euro that tho additions were 
interpolations, the Codex Bezoe makes it more difficult to 
determine what the real text was. Scrivener, with good 
reason, supposes that the Codex Bezce is derived from an 
original which would most likely belong to the third cen- 
tury at the latest 

Authorship of the Work. — In treating this subject we 
begin with the external e\idence. 

The first mention of the authorship of the Acts in a well- 
authenticated book occurs in the treatise of Iren;eus against 
heresies, written between the years 182 and 188 a.d. 
Irenseua names St Luke as the author, as if the fact were well 
known and undoubted. He attributes the third Gospel to 
him, and calls him " a follower and disciple of apostles " (II. 
iiL 10, 1). He states that "he was inseparable from Paul, 
and was his fellow- worker in the gospel " {M. iii. 14, 1 ). 
The next mention occurs in the Siromata of Clemens 
Alexandrinus, written about 195 A.D., where part of St 
Paul's speech to the Athenians is quoted with the words, 
" Even as Luke also, in the Acts of the Apostles, records 
Paul as saying" {Strom, v. xii. 82, p. 696, Pott). The 
Acts of the Apostles is quoted by TertuUian as Scripture, 
and assigned to St Luke {Adv. Mar. v. 2 and 3). Origen 
speaks of " Luke who wrote the Gospel and the Acts " 
(Eus. H. E. vi. 25); and Eu.sebius includes the Acts of 
the Apostles in his summary of the books of the New 
Testament {Hist. Eccl. iii. 25). The Muratorian canon, 
generally assigned to the end of the second or beginning of 
the third century, includes the Acts of the Apostles, assigns 
it to St Luke, and says that he was an eye-witness of the 
facts recorded. There is thus unanimous, testimony up to 
the time of Eusebius that St Luke was the author of the 
Acts. This unanimity is not disturbed by the circum- 
stance that some heretics rejected the work, for they did 
not deny the authorship of the book, but refused to 
acknowledge it as a source of dogmatic truth. 

After the time of Eusebius we find statements to the 
effect that the Acts was little knowiL " The existence 
of this book," Chrysostom says, " is not known to many, 
nor the person who wrote and composed it." And Photius, 
in the ninth century, says, " Some maintain that it was 
Clement of Rome that was the writer of the Acts, others 
that it was Barnabas, and others that it was Luke tho 

Irenaeus makes such copious quotations from the Acts 
that we can feel sure that he had before him substantially 
our Acts. We cannot go further back than Irenaeus with 
certainty. If, as we shall see, the writer of the Acts was 
also the writer of the third Gospel, we have Justin Martyr's 
testimony (about 150 a.d.) for the existence of the third 
Gospel in his day, and therefore a likelihood that the Acts 
existed also. But -we have no satisfactory evidence that 
Justin used the Acts, and there is nothing in the Apostolic 
Fathers, nor in any work anterior to the Letter of tni 
Churches of Vienne and Lyons, written probably soon after 
177 A.D., to prove the existence of the Acts. 

The weight of external evidence therefore goes entirely 
for St Luke as the author of the Acts. But it has to bo 
noticed, that the earliest testimony is more than a hundred 
years later than the events described in the Acts. We 
have also to take into account that Ireneeus was not 
criticaL We find him calling tho Pastor of Bermas Scrip- 
ture; Clemens Alexandrinus also calls the Pastor inspired; 
and Origen not merely attributes inspiration to the work, 
but makes tho author of it tho Hennas mentioned in the 
Epistle to the Romans. All scholars reject the testimony 
of Ireneeus, Clemens Alexandrinus, and Origen in this 
matter. The question arises. How far are we to trust 
them in others of a similar nature 1 

We turn to the internal evidence. And in the very 
commencement we find the author giving himself out as 
tho person who wrote the third Gospel. This claim has 
been almost universally acknowledged. There is a remark- 
able similarity of stylo in both. The same peculiar modes 
of expression continually occur in both; and throughout 
i both there exist continual references backward and for- 



■ward, wliich imply the same authorship. There are some 
difficulties in the way of this conclusion. Two of these 
deserve special notice. If wo turn to the last chapter of 
the Gospel, wo find it staled there (ver. 13) that two dis- 
ciples met Jesus on the d-iy of the resurrection, as they 
were going to Emmaus. Towards nightfall (ver. 29) he 
entered the village with them; and as ho reclined with 
them, he became known to them, and disappeared. 
Whereupon "at that very hour" (ver. 33) they rose up and 
returned to Jerusalem. They found the eleven assembled, 
and told them what had happened to them. " AVliile they 
■were saying these things, he himself stood in the midst of 
them" (ver. 36). The apostles gave him a piece of fish, 
and he ate it. "But he said to them" (ver. 44), so the 
narrative goes on, and it then relates his speech; and at 
ver. 50 it says, " He led thorn out to Bethany," and then 
disappeared from tliem. This disappearance was final; 
and ii the words used in tjie Gospel make us hesitate in 
determining it to bo his ascension, such hesitation is 
removed by the opening words of the Acts. According 
to the Gospel, therefore, all tho events now related took 
place, or seem to havo taken place, on the day of the 
resurrection, or they may possibly have extended into the 
next morning, but certainly not later. • The Acts, on the 
contrary, states that Jesus was seen by tho disciples for 
forty days, and makes him deliver the speech addressed to 
kis disciples and ascend into heaven forty days after the 
resurrection. The other instance is perhaps still more sin- 
gular, lu the Acts we have three accounts of the conversion 
of St Paul — the first by the writer himself, the other two by 
St Paul in his speeches. The writer states that (ix. 4, 7) 
when the light shone round Paul, he fell to the ground, 
" but the men who were journepng with him stood dumb." 
St Paul himself says (xxvi. 14) that they aU fell to the 
ground. The writer says (ix. .7) that St Paul's com- 
panions heard the voice, but saw no one. St Paul himself 
says (xxii. 9) that his companions saw the light, but did 
not hear tho voice of him who spake to him. And finally, 
all these accounts diller in their report of what was said 
on the occasion. Notwithstanding these difl'erences, even 
these very accounts contain evidence in them that they were 
written by the same writer, and they do not destroj' the force 
of the rest of the evidence. The case would be quite different 
if Baur, Schwegler, and Wittichen were right in supposing 
that the Gospel of Luke contained documents of opposite 
tendencies. It would then be necessaiy to assume different 
authors for the different parts of the Gospel, and stiU- an 
other for the Acts. But this theory falls to tho ground if 
tlie Tubingen theory of tendencies is rejected. 

The Acts itself claims to be ■written by a companion of 
St Paul. In chap. xvi. 10, the writer, without any previous 
warning, passes from the third person to the first. St Paul 
had reached the Troad. There he saw a \-ision inviting 
him to go to Macedonia. " But when he saw the ■vision, 
straightway we sought to go out into JIacedonia." The 
use of the " we" continues until Paul leaves PhilippL In 
chap. XX. Paul returns to PhUippi, and the "we" is 
resumed, and is kept up till the end cf the work. Irenceus 
{H. iii. 14, 1) quotes these passages as proof that Luke, 
the author, was a companion of the apostle. The minute 
character of the narrative, the accurate description of the 
various journeyings, tho unimportance of some of the 
details, and the impossibility of contriving aU the inci- 
dents of the shipwreck without experiencing them, are 
strong reasons for believing that we have the narrative of 
an eye-witness. And if wa allow this much, we can 
scarcely help coming to the conclusion that this eye-\\'itnes3 
Ava-i the author of the work; for tho style of this eye-witness 
is exactly the style of the writer who composed the prei-ious 
portions. Suiae have supposed that we have here the per- 

gonal narrative of Timothy or of Silas; but this supposition 
would compel us to believe that the writer of the Acts was 
so careless as to tack documents together without remem- 
bering to alter their form. Such a procedure on the part 
of the skilful writer of the Acts is unlikely in the highest 
degree. The "we" is introduced intentionally, and can 
bo accounted for only in two ways : either by supposing 
that the writer was an eye-witness, or that he wished to 
be thought an eye witness, and borrowed the narrative of 
an eye-witness to facilitate the deception. Zeller has 
adopted this latter alternative; and this latter alternative 
is the only possible one for those who assign a very late 
date to the Acts. 

We may test the writer's claim to be regarded as a com- 
panion of St Paul by comparing his statements with those 
of the other books of tho New Testament. As might be 
expected, tho great facts recorded in the Gospels are repro- 
duced accurately in the Acts. There is only one marked 
diUerence. St Matthew says (xxvii. 5, 7) that Judas cast 
the traitor's money into the temple, and the priests bought 
with it a field for the burial of strangers. St Peter in Acts 
(i. 18) says, that Judas himself purchased a field with the 
reward of his iniquity. St Matthew says that he went and 
hanged himself, St Peter that he fell headlong and burst in 
the middle. St Matthew says, or rather seems to say, that 
the field was called the field of blood, because it was pur- 
chased with blood-money; St Peter seems to attribute the 
name to the circumstance that Judas died in it. 

The Acts is divided into two distinct parts. The first 
deals ■nith the church in Jerusalem, and especially narrates 
the actions of St Peter. We have no external means of 
testing this portion of the narrative. The Acts is the only 
work from which information is got in regard to these 
events. Tho second part pursues the history of the apostle 
Paul; and here we can compare the statements made in the 
Aces with those made in the Epistles. Now here again we 
have a general harmony. St Paul travels in the regions 
where his Eputles show that he founded churches. The 
friends of St Paul mentioned in the Acts are also the 
friends acknowledged in the Epistles. And there are 
many minute coincidences. At the same time, we learn 
from this comparison that St Luke is not anxious to give 
minute details. Timet) v probably visited Athens wliile 
St Paul was there. Th. we learn from 1 Thess. iii 1 , but 
no mention is made of this visit iu the Acts. Again, we 
gather from the Epistles to the Corinthians that St Paul 
paid a visit to Corinth, which is not recorded in the Acts. 
Moreover, no mention is made of Titus in the Acts. These, 
however, are slight matters; and it must be allowed that 
there is a general agreement. But attention has been 
drawn to two remarkable exceptions. These are the ac- 
count given by St I'aul of hb visits to Jerusalem in the 
Epistle to the Galatians and that given by St Luke; and 
the character and mission of the apostle Paul, as they 
appear in his letters and as they appear in the Acts. 

In regard to the first point, St Paul himself says in the 
Epistle to the Galatians, that after his conversion straight- 
way he held no counsel with flesh and blood, nor did he 
go up to Jerusalem to the apostles who were before him; 
but he went away to Arabia and returned to Damascus; that 
then after three years he went up to Jerusalem to seek for 
Cephas, and he remained with him fourteen days. He at 
that time saw only two apostles, — Peter, and James the 
brother of the Lord. He then went away to S)Tia and 
Cilicia, and was unknown by face to the churches of Judea. 
He says that fourteen years after this he went up to Jeru- 
salem with Barnabas, taking Titus with him. On this 
occasion he went up by revelation. St Paul introduces 
these facta for a purpose, and this purpose is that he 
might prove his inde])eiidcuce as an apostle.^ H e had acted 



solely on the revelation given to himself. He had neither 
required nor obtained sanction from the other apostles,- 
He was an apostle, not sent forth from men nor through 
men, but through Jesus and God. When we turn to. the 
Acts, we find that no mention is made of the journey to 
Arabia. He stays some days at Damascus, and then 
begins to preach the gospel. He continues at this work a 
considerable time; and then, in consequence of the plots 
of the Jews, he secretly withdraws from Damascus and 
proceeds to Jerusalem. The brethren there are suspicious 
in regard to him, and their fears are not quieted until 
Barnabas takes him to the apostles; and after this intro- 
duction he goes in and out amongst them, and holds dis- 
cussions with the Hellenists. Finally, when the Hellenists 
attempt to kill him, the brethren send him to Tarsus. In the 
Epistle to the Galatiaus St Paul does everything for him- 
self, instigated by his inward feeUngs. In the Acts he is 
forced out of Antioch, and sent by the brethren to Tarsus. In 
the GalatianS St Paul stays only a fortnight, and' sees only 
St Peter and St James of the apostles, and "was imknown by 
face to the churches of Judea. In the Acts Barnabas takes 
him to the apostles, and he continues evidently for a period 
much longer than a fortnight, going in and out amongst 
them. Then in chap. xi. 30, he goes up a second time to 
Jerusalem, — a visit which seems inconsistent with the narra- 
tive in the Epistje to the Galatians. And finally, when he 
goes up to Jerusalem, the Acts does not represent bim 
going up by an independent revelation, but as being sent 
up; ^nd it says nothing of his taking an independent part, 
but represents hin. ag submitting to the apostles. 

This, however, leads us to the treatment of the character 
of St Paul by the writer of the Acts. Soma of the 
Tubingen critics assert that the writer shows ill-wiU to St 
Paul, but they are evidently wrong. Oil the contrary, the 
character of the apostle as given in the Acts is fuU of gi-and 
and noble traits. Yet still there are some singular pheno- 
mena in the Acts. St Paul claimed to be an apostle by the 
will of God. He had as good a right to be an apostle as 
Bt Peter or St James. Yet the writer of the Acts never 
calls him an apostle in the strict sense of the term. He 
is twice called an apostle, namely, in Acts liv. 4 and 
14. On both occasions his fellow-apostle is Barnabas; 
but' Barnabas was not one of the twelve, and not an 
apostle in the strict sense- of the term. And even in 
these verses the reading is doubtful The Codex Beice 
omits the word apostle in the 14th verse, and makes 
the 4th liable to suspicion by inserting an addition to it. 
St Luke also brings prominently forward as the proper mark 
of an apostle, that he should have companied with the Lord 
from his baptism to his ascension, and describes the filling 
up of the number of the twelve by the election of Matthias. 
And if St Luke's narrative of St Paul's conversion be 
minutely examined, it will be perceived that not only does he 
not mention that St Paul saw Jesus, but the circumstances 
13 related scarcely permitted St Paul to see Jesus. He 
was at once dazzled by the light, and fell to the ground. 
[n this prostrate condition, with his eyes shut, he heard the 
voice; but at first he did not know whose it was. And 
when he opened his eyes, he found that he was bUnd. The 
words of Ananias imply that St Paul really did see Jesus, 
but 6t Luke abstains from any such statement. And St 
Paul is not treated by the Jewish Christians in the Acts as 
an independent apostle. He is evidently under submission 
to the apostles at Jerusalem. 

Furthennoro, the point on which St Paul specially insists 
in the Epistle to the Qalatians is, that ho was appointed the 
apostle to the Gentiles as St Peter was to the circumcision, 
and that circumcision and the observance of the Jewish law 
were of no importance to the Christian. St Paul's words on 
this point in all his letters are strong and decided. But in 

the Acts it is St Peter that opens up the way for the Gentiles. 
In St Peter's mouth occurs the strongest language in regard 
to the intolerable nature of the law. Not a word is said of 
the quarrel between St Peter and St Paul. The brethren in 
Antioch send St Paul and Barnabas up to Jerusalem to ask 
the opinion of the apostles and elders. St Paul awaits the 
decision of the apostles, and St Paul and Barnabas, cany 
back the decision to Antioch. And throughout the whole 
of the Acts St Paid never stands forth as the champiou 
of the Gentiles. He seems continually anxious to reconcile 
the Jewish Christians to himself, by observing the law of 
Moses. He circumcises Timothy, and he performs his 
vows in the temple. And he is particularly careful in his 
speeches to show how deep his respect for the law of 
Moses is. In this regard the letters of St Paul are very 
different from his speeches as given in the Acts. In the 
Epistle to the Galatians he claims perfect freedom for him- 
self and the Gen tiles from the observance of the law; and 
neither in it nor in the Epistle to the Corinthians does 
he take any notice of the decision to which the apostles 
are said to have come in their meeting at Jerusalem. And 
yet the narrative of St Luke implies a different state of 
affairs from that which it actually states in words ; for why 
should the Jews hate St Paul so much more than the other 
apostles if there was. nothing special in his attitude to- 
wards them ? 

We may add to this, that while St Luke gives a rather 
minute acconnt of the sufferings of St Peter and the church 
in Jerusalem, he has not brought prominently forward the 
perils of St Paul. St Paul enumerates some of hia suffer- 
ings in the second Epistle to the Corinthians (chap. xL 
23-28). St Luke has omitted a great- number of thesei. 
Thus, for instance, St Paul mentions that he was thrice 
shipwrecked. St Luke does not notice one of these ship- 
wrecks, that recorded in the Acts having taken place after 
the Epistles to the Corinthians were written. Some also 
t h in k that St Luke detaila several occurrences which are 
scarcely ha harmony with the character of St Paul. They 
say that the dismissal of John Mark, as recorded in the 
Acts, is a harsh act. St Paul's remark, " I wist not that 
he is the high priest" (xxiii. 5), they regard as doubtful in 
point of honesty. And the way by which ho gained the 
Pharisees to his side, in opposition to the Sadducees, they 
describe as an expedient imworthy the character of this 
fearless apostle (xxui 6). 

St Luke occasionally alludes, in the Acts, to events which 
took place outside of the churcL We can test hia accu- 
racy in recording these events by comparing his narrative 
with the narratives of historians who treat of the same 
period. These historians are Josephus, Tacitus, and 
Suetonius. Now, here again we find that the accounts in 
the Acts generaDy agree. Indeed, Holtzmann has noticed 
that all the external events mentioned in the Acts are also 
to be found in Josephus. We may therefore omit Tacitus 
and Suetonius, and confine ourselves to Josephus. Three 
narratives deserve minute examination. The first is the 
death of Herod Agrippa. Josephus says {Ant. xix. 8, 2) 
that Herod was at Caesarea celebrating a festival in honour 
of the Caesar. On the second day of the spectacle, the 
king put on a robe made entirely of silver, "and entered the 
theatre early in the day. The sun's rays fell upon the 
silver, and a strong impression was produced on the people, 
so that his flatterers called out that ho was a god. Ha 
did not check their impiety, but soon, on looking up he 
saw an owl perched above his head on a rope. Ho at 
once recognised in the bird the harbinger of oviL Imme- 
diately he was attacked by violent pains in the bowels, and 
after five days' illness died. The Acts says that Herod 
was addressing a deputation of Tyrians and Sidonbns in 
Cissarea, seated on the tribunal and arrayed in a roTal 



robe. The pooplu called out, " The voice of a god, and uot 
of a man." " Immediately an angel of the Lord 6tnick hiin 
because he gave not God the glory, and becomiug worm- 
eaten, he died"'(iiL 21-23). Both accounts agree in 
representing Herod as suddenly struck with disease be- 
cause he did not check the impiety of his flatterers, but 
they agree in almost nothing else; and it is difficult to 
conceive that the one writer knew the account of the other. 
Which account is most to be trusted, depends upon the 
answer given to the question which is the more credible his- 

The second case relates to the Egyptian mentioned in 
the question of the tribune to St Paul, in Acts xxi. 38, 
" You are not then the Egyptian who, ooino time ago, made 
a di.sturbanco, and led into the wilderness the four thousand 
of the .sicariii" Joscphus mentions this Egj-ptian, both in 
his Anliquitiea (xx. 8, 6) and in the Jewish War (iL 13, 5). 
In the Jewish War (ii. 13, 3), Josephus describes the sicarii, 
and then passes on, after a snort section, to the Egyptian. 
He states that he collected thirty thousand people, led them 
out of the wilderness " to the mount called the Mount of 
Olives, which," ho 8ays.(jdw<. xx. 8, 6) in words similar to 
these in Acts L 12," lies opposite to the city five furlongs 
distant." On this Felix attacked him, killed some, cap- 
tured others, and ' scattered the band. The Egyptian, 
however, escaped with some followers. Hence the question 
in the Acts. There are some striking resemblances between 
the words used by both writers. The numbers differ; but 
St Luke gives the numbers of the sicarii, Josephus the 
num1)ers of the entire multitude led astray. 

The third is the one which has attracted most 
attention. In the'speech which Gamaliel delivers, in Acts 
V. 35-39, it is s-.dd, " Some time before this, Theudas rose 
up, saying that he was some one, to whom a number of 
about four hundred men atLiched themselves, who was cut 
off, and all who followed him were broken up and came to 
nought. After him rose up Judas the Galilean, in the days 
of the registration, and he took away people after him.; 
and he also perished, and aU that followed him were scat- 
tered." On turning to Josephus we fijid that both Theudas 
and Judas the Galilean are mentioned. The circumstances 
related of both aro the same as in the Acts, but the 
dates are different. According to Josephus, Theudas 
gave himself out as a prophet, in the reign of Claudius, 
more than ten years after the speech of Gamaliel had been 
delivered, while Judas appeared at the period of the 
registration, and therefore a considerable time before 
• Theudas. To explain this difficulty, some have supposed 
that there may have been another Theudas not men- 
tioned by Josephus, or that Josephus is wrong in his 
chronology. Others suppose that St Luke made a mis- 
take in regard to Theudas, and is right in regard to 
Judas. Keim maintains that" St Luke has made the mis- 
take, and suggests that possibly it may be based upon the 
passage of Josephus; and Holtzmann has gone more 
minutely into this argument. Holtzmann draws attention 
to the nature of the sections of Josephus which contain the 
references to Theudas and Judas {Ant. xs. 5, 1, 2). He 
says that nearly all the principal statements made in these 
short sections emerge somewhere in the Acts : the census 
of Quirinus, the great famine, Alexander as a member of a 
noble Jewish family, and Ananias as high priest. More- 
over, St Luke has preserved the order of in men- 
tioning Theudas and Judas; but Josephus says " the sons 
of Judas," whereas St Luke says "Judas." "Is it not 
likely," Holtzmann argues, " that St Luke had before his 
mind this passage of Josephus, but forgot that it v.-as the 
sons of Judas that were after Theudas, and not the father?" 
He adds also, that in the short passage in the Acts there 
are five peculiar expressions, identical or nearly identical 

with the cxjjressions used by Josephus, and comes to th« 
conclusion that St Luke knew the works of Josepnus. He 
finds further traces of this knowledge in the circumstance 
that, in Acts xiiL 20-21, St Luke agrees in his statements 
with Josephus where both differ from the Old Testament. 
He also adduces certain Greek words which he supposes 
St Luke derived from his reading of Josephus. Max 
Krenkel, in making an addition to this argument, tries to 
show, from a comparison of passages, that St Luke had 
Joscphus before his mind in the narrative of the childhood 
of Christ; and ho supposes that the expedient attributed 
to the apostle Paul, -of setting the Pharisees against the 
Sadducees (Acts xxiiL 6), is based upon a similar narrative 
given in Josephus (Sell. Jud. iL 21, 3, and Vita, 26 ff.). 
The importance of this investigation is great; for if Holtz- 
mann and Krenkel were to prove their point, a likelihood 
would bo established that the Acta of the Apostles, or at 
least a portion of it, was written after 93 A.D., the year 
in which the Antiquities of Josephus was published, accord- 
ing to a passage occurring in the work itself. Meanwhile, 
the fact that important portions of the narrative must have 
been written by an eye-witness of the events recorded, 
combined with the unity of style and purpose in the book, 
are cogent arguments on the other side. 

The speeches in the Acts deserve special notice. The 
question occurs here, Did St Luke follow the plan adopted 
by all historians of his age, or is he a singular exception? 
The historians of his age claimed the liberty of working 
up, in their own language, the speeches recorded by them. 
They did not dream of verbal accuracy ; even when they 
had the exact words of the speakers before them, they 
preferred to mould the thoughts of the speakers into their 
o\m methods of presentation. Besides this, historians do 
not hesitate to give to the characters of their historj' speeches 
which they never uttered. The method of direct speech is 
useful in producing a vivid idea of what was supposed to 
pass through the mind of the speaker, and therefore is 
used continually to make the narrative lively. Now it is 
generally believed that St Luke has followed the practice 
of his contemporaries. There are some of his speeches 
that are esddently the summaries of thoughts that passed 
through the minds of individuals or of multitudes. Others 
unquestionably claim to be reports of speeches really 
delivered. But all these speeches have, to a large extent, 
the same style as that of the narrative. They have passed 
to a large extent through the writer's mind, and are given 
in his words. They are, moreover, all of them the merest 
abstracts. The speech of St Paul at Athens, 'as given by 
St Luke, would not occupy more than a minute and a half 
in deliver)-. The longest speech in the Acts, that of the 
martyr Stephen, would not take more than ten miJtutes to 
deliver. It is not likely that either speech lasted so short 
a time. But this circumstance, while destroj-igg tLcir 
verbal accuracy, does not destroy their authenticity; and 
it must stiike all that, in most of the speeches, there is a 
singular appropriateness, there is an exact fitting-in of 
the thoughts to the character, and there are occasionally 
allusions of an obscure nature, which point very clearly to 
their authenticity. The one strong objection urged against 
this inference, is that the speeches of St Peter and St 
Paul show no doctrinal differences, such as are said to 
appear in the Epistles; but the argument has no fojrce, 
unless it be proved that St Paul's doctrine of justification 
is different from the creed of St Peter or St James. 

Not the least important of the questions which influence 
critics in determining the authorship of the Acts is that of 
miracles Most of those who think that miracles are im- 
possible, come to the conclusion that the narratives con- 
taining them are legendary, and accordingly they maintain 
that the first portion of the^Acts, relating to the early 



churct in Jerasalem and to St Peter, is in tlie mglicst 
degree untrustworthy. The writer, it is maintained, had 
no personal knowledge of those early days, and received 
the stories after they had gone through a long process of 
transmutation. They appeal, for instance, to the account 
of the Pentecost, where the miracle of ■speaking with tongues 
is described. They say that it is plain, on a comparison of 
the Epistle to the Corinthians with the Acts, that St Paul 
meant one thing by the gift of tongues, and the writer of 
the Acts another. And the inference is at hand that, if 
the writer had known St Paul, he would have known what 
the gift of tongues was; and the possibility of such a 
mistake, it is said, implies a considerable distance from the 
time of the apostles and the primitive church. They 
point also to the curious parallelism between the miracles 
of St Peter and those of St Paul St Peter begins his 
series of miracles by healing a lame man (iii. 2); so does St 
Paul (xiv. 8). St Peter exorcises evil spirits (v. 16; viii. 7); 
so does St Paul (xix. 15; xvi. 18). If St Peter deals with 
■the magician Simon, St Paul encounters Elymas. If St 
Pet«r punishes with death (v. Iff.), St Paul punishes with 
blindness (xiii. CfT.). If St Peter works miracles by his 
shadow (v. 15), not less powerful are the aprons and nap- 
Idns of St Paul (xix.. 12). And, finally, if St Peter can 
raise Tabitlia from the dead (ix. 36), St Paul is ec^ually 
successful in the case of Eutychus (xx. 9). It is easy to 
see, also, that since there is no contemporary history with 
■which to compare the statements in the Acts, and since 
many of the statements are of a summary nature, and very 
few dates are given, a critic who believes the narratives 
legendary will have no difficulty in finding many elements 
in the narratives confirmatory of his belief. But to those 
who believe in miracles the rest of the narrative seems 
plain and unvarnished. The parallelism between the 
miracles of St Peter and St Paul is accounted for by the 
fact that they acted in similar circumstances, and that 
actual events were at hand on which to base the paral- 
lelism. At the same time, some who believe in the possi- 
bility of miracles think that the Acts presents peculiar 
dilliculties in this matter. They say that the healing by 
means of shadows and aprons is of a magical nature; that 
the death of Ananias and Sapphira, and vhe other destruc- 
tive miracles, are out of harmony w-ith the rest of the 
miracles of the New Testament; and that the earthquakes 
that release St Peter and St Paul seem purposeless. The 
difficulties on this head, thoujjh real, are not however of 
great importance, nor do they tell very seriously against 
the received opinion that St Luke is the author of the work. 
We have thus given a general summary of the questions 
which come up in investigating the authorship of the Acts, 
and of the arguments used in settling this point. The 
conclusions based upon this evidence are very different. 
Some join the traditional opinion of the church to the 
modern idea of inspiration, and maintain that St Luke 
was the author of the work, that every discrepancy is 
merely apparent, and that every speech contains the real 
and genuine words of the speaker. Others maintain that 
St Luke is the writer, and that the book is justly placed 
in the canon; that the narrative is, on the whole, thoroughly 
trustworthy, and that neither its canonicity nor credibility 
is affected by the existence of real discrepancies in the 
narrative. Others hold that St Luke is the author, but 
that we have got in the book an ordinary narrative, with 
Jiortions credible and portions incredible; that for the 
early portions of the work he had to trust mainly to his 
memory, duUed by distance from the scene of action and 
by lapse of time, and that he has given what he know 
with the uncritical indilTerence to minute accuracy in time, 
circumstance, and word, which characterises all his con- 
temporaries. Others maintain that St Luke is the author, 

but that, being a crcdiuous and unscientific Christian, le 
recorded indeed in honesty all that he knew, but that ho 
was deluded in his belief of miracles, and is often inacr\i- 
rate in his statement of facts. Others think that St Ltiko 
was not the author of the work. He may have been the 
original author of the diary of the Apostlo Paul's travels 
in which the "we" occurs; but the author of the Acts 
did ngt write the diary, but inserted it into his narraUve 
after altering it for a special purpose, and the narrative 
was written long after St Paul and St Luke were dead. 
Others think that in the Acts we have the work of Timothy 
or of Sdas, or of some one else. A considerable nmubcr 
imagine that St Luke had difi'erent written documents 
before him while composing, and a very few think that tuo 
work is the work of more than one writer. Lut as we 
have intimated, tlio weight of testimony is in favour of St 
Luke's authorship. 

Purpose. — AVe have seen that the Acts of the Apostles 
is the work of one author possessed of no inconsiderable 
skill This author evidently omits many things tliat he 
knew; he gives a short account of others of which he 
could have supplied accurate details, and, as in tie case of 
St Paul, he has brought forward one side of the character 
prominently, and thrown the other into the shade. What 
motive could have led him to act thus ! AVliat object had 
he in inserting what ie has inserted, and omitting what ho 
has omitted 1 Most of the aViswers given to these questions 
have no important bearing on the question of the author- 
ship of the Acts. Cut the case is different vdth the answer 
of the Tubingen school. The Tubingen school maintains 
that St Paul taught that the law was of uo avail to Jew 
and Gentile, and that, therefore, the observance of it was 
unpecessaiy ; that St Peter and the other apostles taught 
that the observance of the law was necessary, and that 
they separated from St Paul on this point ; and that the 
early Christians were divided into two great classes — those 
who held with St Paul, or the Gentile Christians, and 
those who held with St Peter, or the Jewish Christians. 
They further maintain that there prevailed a violent con- 
troversy between these two parties in the church, until 'a 
fusion took place towards the middle of the second half of 
the second century, and the Catholic Church arose. At what 
stage of this controversy was the Acts written 1 is the ques- 
tion they put. St Peter, we have seen, is represented in 
the Acts as opening the church to the Gentiles. St Peter 
and the rest of the apostles at Jerusalem admit the 
Gentiles on certain gentle conditions of refraining from 
things offered to idols, from animals suffocated, from blood, 
and from fornication. What could be the object of ^snch 
statements but to convince the Jewish Christians that 
they were wrong in pertinaciously adhering to their entii'e 
exclusion of the Gentiles, or insisting on their observance 
of the entire law 1 But St Paul is represented as observ- 
ing the law, as sent forth by St Peter and the other 
apostles, as going continually to the Jews first, and as 
appearing in the temple and ccming up with collections 
for the Jerusalem church. Was not this .also intended to 
reconcile the Jewish Christians to St Paul! Then the 
great doctrines of St Paul all but vanish — free grace, justi- 
fication by faith alone, redemption through the blood of 
Christ, — all thatischaracteristicof St Paul disappears, except 
his universalism, and that is modified by the decree of the 
apostles, the circumcision of Timothy, and St Paul's observ- 
ance of the law. The object of all this, they affirm, must be 
to reconcile the Jewish jiarty by concessions. But there is 
said to be also another object, of minor importance judeed, 
but still quite evident and falling in with the other. 
Throughout the Acts St Paul is often accused of turning 
the world upside down and causing disturbances. The 
Jewish Christians may Lave thought that St Paul was to 


A C T — A C T 

blame in this matter, and tliat St Paul's opinions were 
peculiarly calculated to stir up persecution against the 
Cliristians. The stories in the Acts were devised to con- 
vince them that they were mistaken in this supposition. 
On every occasion in which St I'aid is accused before 
magistrates, and especially Roman magistrates, he is ac- 
quitted. Gallio, the town-clerk of Ephesus, Lysias, Felix, 
and Fcstus, all declare that St Paul has done nothing con- 
trary to the law. And while the Romans thus free him 
from all blame, it is the Jews who are always accusing him. 
We have here reproduced the argument of Zeller, who 
has given the most thorough exposition of an opinion held 
also by Baur, Schwegler, and others. The argument fads 
to have effect if the assumption that Rt Paul and St Peter 
differed radically is rejected. It also suffers from the cir- 
cumstance, that there is no historical authentication of the 
church bein^ in such a state in the first half of the second 
century, that this attempt at reconcUiation could take 
place within it. Moreover, the writing of a fictitious 
production seems an extraordinary means for any one to 
employ in order to effect reconciliation, especially if, as 
Zeller imagines, the church in Rome was specially con- 
templated. The church in Rome and the other Christian 
churches had St Paul's Epistles to the Romans, Corinthians, 
and Galatians before them. They could bo in no doubt as 
to what were his sentiments. They must also have had 
some history of his career ; artd no object coiUd be effected 
by attempting to palm upon them a decree of apostles 
which never e.\isted, or a hisloiy of St Peter and St Paid 
contradicted by what they knew of both. 

Overbeck, finding this solution of Zeller unsatisfactory, 
thinks that the object of the Acts is to help the GentUe- 
rhristian Church of the first half of the second century, now 
I ' removed from Paulinism and strongly influenced by 
J uilaism, to form a clear idea of its own past, especially of 
its own origiu and of its founder St Paul. It is thus, he 
maintains, an historical novel, somewhat like the Clemen- 
tines, devised to realise the state of the church at an earlier 

It would be tedious to enumerate all the other objects 
which have been set forth as the special aim of the Acts. 
Some think that it was a work written for the private use of 
Theophilus, and aimed, therefore, at giving huu the special 
information which he required. Others think that it is 
intended to describe the spread of the gospel from 
Jerusalem to Rome. Others believe that the writer wished 
to defend the character of the Apostle Paul Some of the 
more recent members of the Tiibingen school think that 
it was intended to distort the charccter of St Paul, and 
that the image of him given in the Acts is an intermediate 
stage between the real Paul and the caricature supposed 
by them to be made of him under the name of Simon in 
tlio Clementines. 

Date. — There are no sure data for determining the date. 
Appeal used to bo made to Acts viiL 2C, " Unto the way 
which goeth down from Jerusalem to Gaza, which is 
desert." But most probably it is the way which is here 
said to be desert or lonely. But even if the word " desert " 
or " lonely " be applied to Gaza, we get nothing out of it. 
Accordingly, in the absence of data very various dates 
have been assigned. Some think that it was written at 
the time mentioned in the last chapter of Acts, when St 
Paul had been two years in Rome. Some t hin I.- that it 
must have been written after the fall of Jerusalem, as they 
believe that the gospel was written after that event, 
lren:eu3 thought that it was written after the death of St 
Peter and St Paul (H. iiL 1). Others think that St Luke 
must have written it at a late period of his life, about the 
year 80 a.d. The Tubingen school thiidc that it was writ- 
ten..some time in the second century, most of them agree- 

ing on the second or third decade of that centurj', about 
125 A.D. They argue that a late date is proved by the 
nature of the purpose which occasioned the work, by the 
representation which it gives of the relation of the Christiana 
to the Roman state, and by the traces of Gnosticism (xx. 
29), and of a hierarchical constitution of the church 
(i. 17, 20; viiL U, ff. ; xv. 28; xx. 17, 28) to be found 
in the Acts, 

, Plaee. — There is no satisfactory evidence by which to 
settle the place of composition. Later fathers of the 
church and the subscriptions of late MSS, mention Achaia, 
Attica, Alexandria, Macedonia, and Rome. And these 
places have all had their supporters in modem times. 
Some have also tried to show that it was written in Asia 
Jlinor, probably at Ephesus. The most likely supposition 
is that it was written at Rome ; Zeller has argued with 
great plausibility for this conclusion. 

There is a large literature on the subject of this article, 
but the most important treatises are those of Schwanbeck, 
Schneckenburger, Lekebusch, Zeller, Trip, KJostermaun, 
and CErteL Zeller's work deserves special praise for ita 
thoroughness. Various other writers have discussed the sub- 
ject in works dealing \vith this among others; as Baur in his 
Paulus; Schwegler in his NachaposlolUches Zeilalter ; Ewald 
in Ids History of Israel ; Renan in his Apostles; Hausrath 
in his New Testament Ilisloiy; and, in a more conservative 
manner, Neander, Baumgarten, Lechler, Thiersch, and 
Lange. Of commentaries, the best on the Tiibingen side 
is that of De Wette, remodelled by Overbeck, and that of 
the more conservative Meyer is especially good. In English 
we have an able treatment of the subject in Dr Davidson's 
Introduction to tite Study of the New Testament; we have com- 
mentaries by Biscoe, Humphry, Hackett, Cook, Words- 
worth, Alford, and.Gloag; and dissertations by Paley, 
Lirks, Lewin, Conybeare, and Howson, 

There are various other treatises claiming to be Acts 
of Apostles. One or two of these must have existed at an 
early date, though, no doubt, they have since received 
large interpolations. But most of them belong to a late 
period, and all of them are acknowledged to be apocryphal 
They are edited by Tischendorf in his Acta Apostolorum 
Apocrypha (Lipsia;, 1851), and have been translated, ■with 
an introduction giving information as to their origin and 
dates, by Mr Walker, in voL xvi. of tjie Anle-Nicent 
Lib-rary. (j, r. ) 

ACTA COXSISTORII, the edicts of the consistory or 
council of state of the Roman emperors. These edicts were 
generally expressed in such terms as these: "The august 
emperors, Di^letian and Maximian, in council declare, That 
the children of decurions shall not be exposed to wild beasts 
in the amphitheatre." — The senate and soldiers often swore, 
either through flattery or on compulsion, upon the edicts 
of the emperor. The name of a senator was erased by 
Nero out of the register, because he refused to swear upon 
the edicts of Augustus. 

ACTA DIURXA, called &\so Acta Populi, Acta PuUica, 
and simply Acta or Diuma, was a sort of Roman gizettc, 
containing an authorised narrative of the transactions worthy 
of notice which happened at Rome — as assemblies, edicts 
of the magistrates, triiils, executions, buildings, births, 
marriages, deaths, accidents, prodigies, ic. Petronius has 
given us an imitation specimen of the Acta Diuma, one or 
two extracts from which may be made to show their style 
and contents. The book-keeper of Trimalchio pretends to 
read from the Ada Vrhis: — " On the 30th of July, on the 
Cuman farm, belonging to Trimalchio, were bom 30 boys 
and 40 girls ; there were brought into the bam from 
the threshing-floor 125,000 bushels of wheat; 500 oxen 
were broken in, — On the same day the slave Mithridates 
was crucified for having slandered the tutelar deity of onr 

A C T — A C T 


fi'ioiul Gaius. — On the same day 100,000 sesterces, that 
could not be invested, were put into the money-box. — On 
the sanio day a tire broke out in the gardens of Pompey, 
which arose in the steward's house," ifcc. The Acta drflered 
from the Annals (which were discontinued ia B.C. 133) in 
this respect, among others, that only the greater and more 
important matters were given in the latter, while in the 
former things of less note also v,-ere recorded. The origin of 
the Acta is attributed to Julius Caesar, who first ordered the 
keeping and publishing of the acts of the people by public 
officers. Some trace them back as far as Servius Tullius, 
who it was believed ordered that the next of kin, on occa- 
sion of a birth, should register the event in the temple of 
Venus, and on occasion of a death, should register it in 
the temple of Libitina. The Acta were drawn up from day 
to day, and exposed in a public place to be read or copied 
by all who chose to do so. After remaining there for a 
reasonable time they were taken down and preserved with 
other public documents. 

ACTA SENATUS, among the Romans, were minutes 
of the discussions and decisions of the senate. These were 
also called Commentarii Senattis, and, by a Greek name, 
vjTo/inj/iaTa. Before the consulship of Julius Caesar, 
minutes of the proceedings of the senate were written and 
occasionally published, but unofficially. Cjesar first 
ordered the minutes to be recorded and published autho- 
ritatively. The keeping of them was continued by 
Augustus, but the publication was forbidden. Some pro- 
minent senator was usually chosan to draw up these Acta. 

ACTION, in Fabulous History, son of Aristaeus and 
Autonoe, a famous hunter. He was torn to pieces by his 
own dogs. Various accounts are given of this occurrence; 
but the best known story is that told by Ovid, who re- 
presents him as accidentally seeing Diana as she was 
bathing, when she changed him into a stag, and he was 
pursued and killed by his dogs. 

ACTIAN GAMES, in Roman Antiquity, solemn games 
instituted by Augustus, in memory of his victory over 
Antony at Actium. See Actium. 

ACTINIA, a genus of ccelenterate animals, of which the 
sea-anemone is the type. See Actinozoa. 

ACTINISM (from dxn's, a ray), that property of the 
solar rays whereby they produce chemical effects, as in 
photography. The actinic force is greatest in the blue and 
violet rays of the spectrum. 

ACTINOMETER (measurer of solar rays), a thermo- 
meter with a large bulb, filled with a dark-blue fluid, and 
enclosed in a box, the sides of which are blackened, arid 
the whole covered with a thick plate of glass. It was the 
invention of the late Sir John Herschel, and .was first 
described in the Edinhurnh Journal of Science for 1825. 
It is used for measuring the heating power of the sun's 
rays, the amount of which is ascertained by exposing the 
bulb for equal intervals of time in sunshine and shade 

ACTINOZOA, a group of animals, of which the most 
familiar examples are the sea-anemones and " coral insects" 
of the older ^vriter8. The term was first employed by 
de BlainvUle, to denote a division of the Animal Kingdom 
having somewhat different limits from that to which its 
application is restricted in the present article : in which it 
is applied to one of the two great divisions of the C(ELEN- 
TERATA, the other being the Ilydrozoa. 

The Actinozoa agree ^vith the Hydrozoa in the primitive 
and fundamental constitution of the body of two membranes, 
an ectoderm and an endoderm, — between which a middle 
layer or mesoderm may subsequently arise. — in the absence 
of a completely differentiated alimentary canal, and in 
possessing thread cells, or nematocysts; but they present a 
Bomewhat greater complexity of structure. 

This is manifest, in the first place, m their visceral tuba, 
or " stomach," as it is often called, which i» continued from 
the margins of the mouth, for a certain distance, into the 
interior cavity of the body, but which is always open at its 
fundus into that cavity. And, secondly, in the position of 
the reproductive elements, which, in the Bydrozna, are 
always developed in parts of the body wall which are in 
immediate relation with the e-xternal surface, and generally 
form outward projections; while, in the yldi'aozoa, they are 
as constantly situated in the Literal walls of the chambers 
into which the body cavity is divided. In consequence of 
this arrangement, the ova, or sexually generated erabrj-os, 
of the Actinozoa are detached into the interior of the body, 
and usually escape from it by the oral aperture; while those 
of the Uydrozoa are at once set free on the exterior surface 
of that part of the body in which they are formed. 

The Actinozoa comprise two groups, which are very 
dif5'erent in general appearance and habit, though really 
similar in fundamental structure. These are — 

1. The Coralligena or sea-anemones, coral animals, and 
sea-pens; and 2. The Clenoiphora. 

(1.) The Coralligena. — A common sea-anemone presents 
a subcylindrical body, ' terminated at each end by a disk. 
The one of these discoidal ends serves to attach, the 
ordinarily sedentary animal ; the other exhibits in the 
centre a mouth, which is usually elongated in one direction, 
and, at each end, presents folds extending down into the 
gastric cavity. This circumstance greatly diminishes the 
otherwise generally radial symmetry of the disk, and of the 
series of flexible conicfJ tentacles which start from it; 
and, taken together with some other circumstances, raises 
a doubt whether even these animals are not rather bilater- 
ally, than radially, symmetrical Each tentacle ia hoUow, 
and its base communicates with one of the chambers 
into which the cavity of the body is divided, by thin 
membranous lamellae, the so-called mesenteries, which 
radiate from the oral and the lateral walls of the 
body to the parietes of the visceral tube. The inferior 
edges of the mesenteries are free, and arcuated in such 
a manner as to leave a central common chamber, into 
the circumference of which all the intermesenteric spaces 
open, while above, it communicates v/ith the visceral 
tube. The tentacles may be perforated at their extremi- 
ties, and, in some cases, the body wall itself exhibits aper- 
tures leading into the intermesenteric spaces. The free edges 
of the mesenteries present thickenings, like the hem of a 
piece of linen, each of which is much longer than the distance 
between the gastric and the parietal attachment of the 
mesentery, and hence is much folded on itself. It is lull 
of thread cells. The mesoderm, or middle layer of th i 
body, which lies between the ectoderm and the endoderm, 
consists of a fibrdlated connective tissue, containing fusi- 
form or stellate nucleated cells, and po.ssesses longitudinal and 
circular muscular fibres. The.^c are prolonged into the mesen- 
teries, and attain a great development in the disk of attach- 
ment, which serves as a sort of foot like that of a limpet. 

The question whether the Coralligena possess a nervous 
system and organs of sense, hardly admits of a definite 
answer at present. It is only in the Aclinidco that the 
existence of such organs has been asserted ; and the nervous 
circlet of Actinia, described by Spix, has been seen by no 
later investigator, and may be safely assumed to bo non- 
existent. But Professor P. M. Duncan, F.R.S., in a paper 
" On the Nervous Sysjtem of Actinia," recently communi- 
cated to the Royal Society, has aflirmcd the existence of a 
nervous apparatus, consisting of fusiform ganglionic cells, 
united by nerve fibres, which resemble the sympathctio 
nerve fibiils of the Verlclraia, and for'in a plexus, which 
appears to extend throughout the pcd.-il disk, and very 
probably into other parts of the body. In soino of 

I. — I- 



llio Adinidce (e.y,, Actinia mfsemhryanthemum), brigbtlj 
coloured bead-liko bodies arc situated on tho oral diik out- 
side the tentacles. Tho structure of these " ehromato- 
])lioro3," or " boursos calicinalos," has been carotully investi- 
gated by Schneider and Kottckem, and by Professor 
Duncan, They are diverticula of the body ■nail, tho sur- 
face of •which is composed of close-sot "bacilli," beneath 
which lies a layer of strongly-refracting spherules, followed 
by onother layer of no less strongly refracting cones. Sub- 
jacent to theso Professor Duncan finds ganglicra cells and 
nerve plesusos. It would Bcom, therefore, that these bodies 
are rudimentary eyes. 

At tho breeding scasoa tho ova or Bpennatozoa are 
evolved in tho thickness of tho raesontc-ries, and are dis- 
charged into tho intennosouteric spaces, the ova undergo- 
ing their development within the body of the parent. Tho 
yolk, usually, if not always, enclosed in a vitelline membrane, 
undergoes complete division, and tho outer wall of tho 
ciliated blastodermic mass which results becomes invagi- 
natcd, tho embryo being thereby converted into a double 
wailed sac — the external aperture of which is the future 
mouth, while the contained cavity represents the bodycavity. 
In this stage the larval Actinia represents the Gaetrula con- 
dition of sponges and Ilgdrozoa. Tho edges of the oral 
aperture grow inwards, giving rise tp a circular fold, which 
is the rudiment of tho visceral tube. This is at first con- 
nected with thuJiody wall by only two mesenteries, wliich are 
seated at opposite ends of one of tho transverse diameters of 
the body. As the mesenteries increase in number, the ten- 
tacles grow out as diverticula of the intermesenteric spaces. 

In all the Coralligsna, the development of which has 
been observed, the embryo is converted into a simple 
actinozoon in a similar manner; but from tliis point they 
diverge in two directions. In one great group, the mesen- 
teries, and the tentacles which arise from tho intermesen- 
teric chambers, increase in number to sis; and then, in the 
great majority of cases, the iiitermcsenteric spaces undergo 
subdivision by the development of new mesenteries, accord- 
ing to curious and somewhat cpmplicat'ed numerical laws, 
nntU their number is increased to some multiple of five 
or six. In these Hexacoralla (as they have been termed 
by Haeckel) the tentacles also usually remain rounded and 
conicaL In the other group, the Octocoralla, the mesen- 
teries and the tentacles increase to eight, but do not sur- 
pass that number; and the tentacles become flattened and 
seprated at the edges, or take on a more or less pennatifid 

There are no Octocoralla which retain the simple indivi- 
duality of the young actinozoon throughout Ufe ; but all in- 
creas") by gemmation, and give rise to compound organisms, 
■which may be arborescent, and fixed by the root end of the 
(/ommon, stem, as in the Alcyonidce and Gorgonidce-; or may 
possess a central stem which is not fixed, and gives ofi' 
lateral branches which undergo comparatively little sub- 
division, as in the Pennatulidce. 

Tho body cavities of the zoSids of these compound 
Octocoralla are in free commimication ■with a set of canals 
which ramify through the ccencsarc, or common fabric of 
the stem and branches by which they are borne, and which 
play the part of a vascular system. 

Except in the case of Tubipora, the zooids and the super- 
ficial coiuosarc give rise to no continuous skeleton ; but the 
deep or inner substance of the coenosarc may be converted 
into a splid rod-like or branching stem. 

In the Hexacoralla, on the other hanrd, one large 
group, that of the Actinidce, consists entirely of simple 
organisms,— jorganisms that is, in which the primitive 
actinozoon attains its adult condition without budding or 
fissioa; or if it bud or divide, the products of the operation 
•ej)arate from one another. No true skeleton is formed- 

all are to some extent locomotive, and some (J/inyos) float 
freely by the I.eli of thjir contractile pedal region. The 
most remarkable form of this group is the genus Cereanthut, 
which has two circlets, each composed of numerous tentacles, 
one immediately around the oral aperture, the other at 
tho margin of tho disL Tho foot is elongated, subconical, 
and generally presents a pore at its apex. Of the diametral 
folds of the oral aperture, one pair is much longer than the 
other, and is produced as far as the pedal poro. The larva 
18 curiously Cko a voung hydrozoon with free tentacles, 
and at first possesses four mesenteries, ■nheoce it may be 
doubted whether CereatUkut docs not rather belong to the 

Tho ZoanlhidoB differ from tho Actinidm in little more 
than thoir multiplication by buds, ■which remain adherent, 
either by a common connecting mass or coenosarc or by 
stolons; and in tho possession of a rudimentary, Bpicuki 
skeleton. . 

On tho other hand, the proper stone-corals (aa contra- 
distinguished from tho red coral) are essentially ActinicB, 
which become converted into compound organisms by 
gemmation or fission, and develope a continuous skeleton. 

Tho skelfetal parts' of the Aclinozoa, to which reference 
has been made, consist^ either of a substance of a homy 
character; or of an organic basis impregnated with earthy 
salts (chiefly of lime and magnesia), but which can be 
isolated by the action of dUuto acids; or finally, of cal- 
careous salts in an almost crystalline state, forming rods 
or corpuscles, which, when treated with acids, leave only 
an inapprecL'ible and structureless film of organic matter. 
The hard parts of all the Aporosa, Perforata, and Tabu- 
lata of Milne Edwards are in the last-mentioned condition; 
while, in the Octocoralla (except Tubipora) the Antipalhida, 
and Zoantkidd, the skeleton is either homy, or consists, at 
any rate, to begin with, of definitely formed spicula, wliich 
contain an organic basis, and frequently present a laminated 
structure. In the organ coral (Tubipora), however, the 
skeleton has the character of that of the ordinary stono- 
corals, except that it is perforated by numerous minute 

The skeleton appears, in all cases, to be deposited within 
the mesoderm, and in the intercellular substance of that 
layer of the body. Even the definitely shaped spicula of 
the Octocoralla are not the result of the metamoi^osis 
of cells. In the simple aporose .corals the calcification 
of the base and side'walls of the body gives rise to 
the cup or theca; from this the calcification radiates in- 
wards, in correspondence with the mesenteries, and gives 
rise to as many vertical septa, the spaces between which 
are termed IccuH; while, in the centre, either by union of 
tho septa or independently, a pillar, the columella, grows 
up. From the sides of adjacent septa scattered processes 
of calcified substance, or synapticulce, may grow out 
toward one another, as in the Funffidw; or the Loterrup- 
tion of the cavities of the loculi may be more complete by 
the formation of shelves stretching from septum to 
septum, but lying at difi'erent heights in adjacent locuh. 
These are interseptal disrepiments. Finally, in the Tabutata, 
horizontal plates, which stretch completely across the cavity 
of the theca, are formed one above the other and constitute 
tabular diiaepimentt. 

In the Aporosa the theca and eepta are almost invariably 
imperforate ; but in the Perforata they present apertures, 
and in some madrepores the whole skeleton is reduced 
to a mere network of dense calcareous substance. When 
the Hexacoralla multiply by gemmation or fission, and 
thus give rise to compound massive or dborescent aggre- 
gations, each newly-formed coral polvpe developes a skeleton 

* See Eiflliker's /conu Bulotcgiar, 186S. 



of it3 own, which ia either confluent with that of the 
others, or ia united with them by calcification of the con- 
necting substance of the common body. Thia intermediate 
skeletal layer is then termed ccenenchyma. 

The Octocoralla (excepting Tubipm-a) give rise to no tkecce 
and their dependencies, the skeleton of each polype, 'and 
of the superficial portion of the polyparium, being always 
composed of loose and independent spicula. But in many, 
aa the Gorgonidoe, Pennatulidw (and in the AntipathidcB 
among the Uexacordlla), the central part of the common 
stem of the compound organism becomes hardened, either 
by conversion into a mere horny axis (which may be more 
or less impregnated with calcareous salts) without spicula; 
or the cornification may be accompanied by a massive 
development of spicula, either continuously or at intervals ; 
or the mam feature of the skeleton may, from the first, be 
the development of spicula, which become soldered together 
by a subcrystaUine intermediate deposit, as in the fed 
coral of commerce {Corallium rubrum). 

Tt has seemed advisable to say thus much concerning the 
nard parts of the Aciiiiozoa in this place, but the details 
of the structure and development of the skeleton of the 
Coralligena will be discussed under CoEixs and Cokai. 

The Tabula^a, or MiUepores, and the Ritgom, an extinct 
and almost exclusively Palaeozoic group of stone-coral form- 
ing animals, are usually referred to the Coralligena. Judg- 
ing by the figures given by Agassiz^ of living MiUepores, the 
polypes which cover its surface are undoubtedly mnch more 
similar to coryinform Hydrozoa than they are to any 
Actincioon. But it is to be observed, firstly, that we have 
no sufficient knowledge of the intimate structure- of the 
polypes thus figured; and, secondly, that the figures show 
not the least indication of the external reproductive organs 
which are so conspicuous in the Hydrozoa, and which 
surely must have been present in some one or other of the 
MiUepores examined, were they really Hydrozoa. As re- 
gards the Rugooa, the presence of septa is a strong 
argument against their belonging to any group but the 
Actinozoa, though it is not to be forgotten that a tendency 
to the development of septiform prominence is visible in 
the walls of the gastric passages of certain calcareous 

Phenomena analogous to the "alternation of generations,'* 
which is 80 common -among the Hydrozoa, are. unknown 
among the great majority of the Actinozoa. But Semper- 
has resently described a process of sexual multiplication 
in two species of Fungiae, which he ranks under this head. 
The Fungice bud out from a branched stem, and then 
become detached and free, as is the habit of the genus; 
To make the parallel with the production of a Medusa 
from a Soyphistojyia complete, however, the stem should