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Full text of "The encyclopaedia britannica; a dictionary of arts, sciences, and general literature"

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LI6KAKY 

UNIVERSITY OF 
CALIFORNIA 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BBITANNICA 



NINTH EDITION 



THE 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NINTH EDITION 



VOLUME VI 



NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER S SONS 

MDCCCLXXVIII 

[ All Eights reserved. ] 



Add*! 



GIFT 



V. 

BIOLOGY 
LIBRARY 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BEITANNICA, 



OLI-CLI 



/"^LICHY, or CLICHY LA GARENNE, a village or township 
\J of France, in the department of Seine, situated on the 
right bank of the river, immediately to the north of the 
ramparts of Paris, of which it may almost be said to be 
part. It is the seat of a number of extensive industrial 
establishments, engaged in the manufacture of steam 
engines, chemical stuffs, and glass. The village is of high 
antiquity, and was the residence of some of the early kings 
of France. Its church was built in the 17th century under 
the direction of the famous Saint Vincent de Paul, who at 
that time had charge of the cure. Population in 1872, 
14,599. 

CLIFTON, a watering-place and fashionable resort of 
England, in the county of Gloucestershire, forming practi 
cally a part of the city of Bristol. It is situated on the 
eastern heights above the gorge of the lower Avon, which 
divides it from the county of Somerset, partly occupying 
a spacious table-land about 250 feet above the sea, and 
partly an abrupt declivity which sinks clown to the once 
fashionable district of the Hotwells, on the same level as 
Bristol. Three ancient British earthworks bear witness to 
an early settlement on the spot, and a church was in 
existence as far back as the time of Henry II., when it 
was bestowed by William de Clyfton on the abbot of the 
Austin canons in Bristol ; but, with the exception, perhaps, 
of Mardyke House, in Hotwells, there are no longer any 
architectural vestiges of an earlier date than the 18th 
century. Of the churches the most important are St 
Andrew s parish church, an ungainly structure rebuilt in 
1819; All Saints, erected in 1863 at a cost of 32,000, 
after the designs of G. E. Street, and remarkable for the 
width of its nave and the narrowness of its aisles ; and the 
Roman Catholic pro-cathedral church of the Holy Apostles, 
with a convent and schools attached. Among the other 
buildings of note may be mentioned the Victoria Rooms, 
which are used for concerts and other public assemblies, 
the Fine Arts Academy, dating from 1857, and Clifton 
College, a well-designed cluster of buildings in the Gothic 
style, founded in 18G2 by a limited liability company, and 
giving education to 550 boys. The famous suspension 
bridge across the Avon, designed by Brunei and commenced 
in 1832, was completed in 1864. It has a span of 702 
feet, and the roadway is 245 feet above h ; gh water; the 

094 



total weight of the structure is 1500 tons, and it is calcu 
lated to stand a burden of 9 tons per square inch. Since 
it was opened a village called New Clifton has grown up 
on the opposite bank. The once famous Lot springs of 
Clifton, to which, in fact, the town was indebted for its 
rise, are no longer frequented. They issue from an aperture 
at the foot of St Vincent s Rock, and the water has a 
temperature of about 76 Fahr. The population of 
Clifton in 1712, the date of the second edition of Sir 
Thomas Alleyne s work on Gloucester, was only 450 ; in 
1841 it amounted to 14,177 ; in 1857 to 17,634 ; in 1861 
to 21,375 : and in 1871 to 26,364. In the last-mentioned 
year there were 10,319 males and 16,045 females. The 
average annual mortality is about 14 per 10CO. 

CLIMATE. The word Climate, or K-At/ua, being derived 
from the verb nXivfiv, to incline, was applied by the ancients 
to signify that obliquity of the sphere with respect to the 
horizon from which results the inequality of day and 
night. The great astronomer and geographer Ptolemy 
divided the surface of the globe, from the equator to the 
arctic circle, into climates or parallel zones, corresponding 
to the successive increase of a quarter of an hour in the 
length of midsummer-day. Within the tropics these zones 
are nearly of equal breadth ; but, in the higher latitudes, 
they contract so much that it was deemed enough to 
reckon them by their doubles, answering consequently to 
intervals of half an hour in the extension of the longest 
day. To compute them is an easy problem in spherical 
trigonometry. As the sine of the excess of the semidiurnal 
arc above a quadrant is to unity, so is the tangent of the 
obliquity of the ecliptic, or of 23 28 , to the cotangent 
of the latitude. The semidiurnal arcs are assumed to be 
91 52 , 93 45 , 95 37J , 97 30 , <tc., and the following 
table, extracted from Ptolemy s great work, will give some 
general idea of his distribution of seasons over the surface 
of the globe. The numbers are calculated on the supposi 
tion that the obliquity of the ecliptic was 23 51 20", to 
which, according to the theory of Laplace, it must have 
actually approached in the time of Ptolemy. They seem 
to be affected by some small errors, especially in the paral 
lels beyond the seventeenth, as the irregular breadth of 
the zone abundantly shows ; but they are, on the whole, 
more accurate than those given by Varenius. 

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L I M A T E 



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43 4 


15 15 


1 57 


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4 15 


12 15 


4 10 


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15 30 


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8 25 


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4 5 


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12 30 


12 45 


3 57 


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XXVI. 


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Climate in its modern acceptation signifies that peculiar 
state of the atmosphere in regard to heat and moisture 
which prevails in any given place, together with its 
meteorological conditions generally in so far as they 
exert an influence on animal and vegetable life. The 
infinitely diversified character which climate displays 
may be referred to the combined operation of different 
causes, which are chiefly reducible to these four distance 
from the equator, height above the sea, distance from the 
sea, and prevailing winds, which may thus be regarded 
as forming the great bases of the law of climate. 

Of these causes which determine climate incomparably 
the most potent is distance from the equator. The same 
sunbeam which, falling vertically, acts on a surface equal 
to its own sectional area is, when falling obliquely on the 
earth, spread over a surface which becomes larger in in 
verse proportion to the sine of the obliquity. Conse 
quently less and less heat continues to be received from 
the sun by the same extent of surface in proceeding 
from the equator toward the poles ; and this diminution of 
heat with the increase of obliquity of incidence of the 
solar rays is enhanced by the circumstance that the sun s 
heat, being partially absorbed in its passage through the 
atmosphere, the absorption is greatest where the obliquity 
is greatest, because there the mass of air to be penetrated 
is greatest. Hence arise the broad features of the distribu 
tion of temperature over the globe, from the great heat of 
equatorial regions, falling by easy gradations with increase 
of latitude, to the extreme cold of the poles. If the earth s 
surface were uniform, and its atmosphere motionless, these 
gradations would run everywhere parallel with the latitudes, 
and Ptolemy s classification of the climates of the earth 
would accord with fact. But the distribution of land and 
water over the earth s surface and the prevailing winds 
bring about the subversion of what Humboldt has termed 
the solar climate of the earth, and present us with one of 
the most difficult, as certainly it is one of the most 
important problems of physical science, viz., the determina 
tion of the real climates of its separate regions and localities, 
and the causes on which they depend. 

The decrease of temperature with height is perceptibly 
felt in ascending mountains, and is still more evident in the 
snow-clad mountains, which may be seen even in the 
tropics. The snow-line marks the height below which all 
the snow that falls annually melts during summer. The 
height of this line above the sea is chiefly determined by 
the following causes by distance from the equator ; by the 
exposure to the sun s rays of the slope of the mountain, and 
hence, in northern latitudes, it is higher on the south than 
on the north slopes of mountains, other things being equal ; 
by situation with reference to the rain-bringing winds ; by 
the steepness of the slope ; and by the dryness or wetness 
of the district. Since, then, no general rule can be laid 



down for the height of the snow-line, it can only be ascer 
tained by observation. Speaking generally it sinks little 
from the equator to 20 N. and S. lat. ; from 20 to 70 it 
continues to fall equably, but from 70 it falls rapidly to 
78, where it is at sea-level. 

The following are a few of the more noteworthy of the 
exceptions. On the north side of the Himalayas it is about 
4000 feet higher than on the south side, owing to the 
greater depth of snow falling on the south side and the 
greater dryness of the climate of Tibet, resulting in a more 
active" evaporation from the snows and stronger sun-heat on 
the north side, to which is to be added the comparative 
want of vegetation on the north side, thus favouring a more 
rapid melting of the snows. The snow-line is higher in 
the interior of continents than near their coasts, the rain 
fall there being less and the heat of summer greater ; and 
similarly, owing to the greater prevalence of westerly over 
easterly winds in many regions of the globe, it is higher 
on the east than on the west sides of continents. In South 
America the snow-line rises very considerably from tho 
equator to 18 S. lat. and more so, markedly, on the west 
than on the east slopes of the Cordilleras, because of the 
smaller amount of precipitation of the west side of this 
mountain range. It is as high in 33 as in 18 S. lat., but 
south of 33 it rapidly sinks owing to the heavy rains 
brought by the westerly winds which begin to prevail there. 
In the south of Chili it is 6000 feet lower than among the 
Rocky Mountains at the same distance from the equator, 
and 3000 feet lower than in the same latitudes in Western 
Europe. It is impossible to overestimate the importance 
of the snow-line as one of the factors of climate in its 
relations to the distribution of animal and vegetable life. 

Glaisher, in his balloon ascents, made observations of 
temperature at different heights, the results of which may 
be thus summarized. Within the first 1000 feet the average 
space passed through for 1 was 223 feet with a cloudy sky 
and 162 feet with a clear sky; at 10,000 feet the space 
passed through for 1 was 4545 feet for the former and 417 
feet for the latter; and above 20,000 feet the space with 
both states of the sky was 1000 feet nearly for a decline 
of 1. It must be noted, however, that these rates of 
decrease refer to the temperature of the atmosphere at 
different heights above the ground, which are in all 
probability altogether different from the rates of decrease 
for places on the earth s surface at these heights above the 
level of the sea the problem with which climatologists 
have to deal. 

Observation shows, as might have been expected, that 
the rate at which the temperature falls with the height is 
a very variable quantity, varying with latitude, situation, 
the state of the air as regards moisture or dryness, and calm 
or windy weather, and particularly with the hour of the 
day and the season of the year. In reducing temperature 
observations for height, 1 for every 300 feet is generally 
adopted. In the present state of our knowledge this or 
any other estimation is at best no more than a rough 
approximation, since the law of decrease through its 
variations requires yet to be stated, being in truth one of 
the most intricate and difficult problems of climatology 
awaiting investigation at the hands of meteorologists. 
Among the most important climatic results to be determined 
in working out this problem are the heights at which in 
different seasons the following critical mean temperatures, 
which have important relations to animal and vegetable 
life, are met with in ascending from low-lying plains in 
different regions of the world, viz., 80, 75, 70, 65, 63, 
60, 58, 55, 50, 45, 39 (the maximum density of fresh 
water), 32 (its freezing point), and 20. 

These results, which only affect the mean daily tem 
perature in different seasons, and which ore due exclusively 



GLIM A T E 



to differences of absolute height, though of the greatest 
possible practical importance, yet leave untouched a whole 
field of climatological research a field embracing the mean 
temperature of different hours of the day at different 
heights, for an explanation of which we must look to the 
physical configuration of the earth s surface and to the 
nature of that surface, whether rock, sand, black soil, or 
covered with vegetation. 

Under this head by far the most important class of con 
ditions are those which result in extraordinary modifica 
tions, amounting frequently to subversions, of the law of 
the decrease of temperature with the height. This will 
perhaps be best explained by supposing an extent of 
country diversified by plains, valleys, hills, and table-lands 
to be under atmospheric conditions "favourable .to rapid 
cooling by nocturnal radiation. Each part being under 
the same meteorological conditions, it is evident that terres 
trial radiation will proceed over all at the same rate, but 
the effects of radiation will be felt in different degrees and 
intensities in different places. As the air in contact with 
the declivities of hills and rising grounds becomes cooled 
by contact with the cooled surface, it acquires greater 
density, and consequently flows down the slopes and 
accumulates on the low-lying ground at their base. It 
follows, therefore, that places on rising ground are never 
exposed to the full intensity of frosts at night ; and the 
higher they are situated relatively to the immediately 
surrounding district the less are they exposed, since their 
relative elevation provides a ready escape downwards for 
the cold air almost as speedily as it is produced. On the 
other hand valleys surrounded by hills and higu grounds 
not only retain their own cold of radiation, but also serve 
aa reservoirs for the cold heavy air which pours down 
upon them from the neighbouring heights. Hence mist is 
frequently formed in low situations whilst adjoining 
eminences are clear. Along low-lying situations in the 
valleys of the Tweed and other _rivers of Great Britain 
laurels, araucarias, and other trees and shrubs were 
destroyed during the great frost of Christmas 1860, whereas 
the same species growing on relatively higher grounds 
escaped, thus showing by incontestible proof the great and 
rapid increase of temperature with height at places rising 
above the lower parts of the valleys. 

This highly interesting subject has been admirably eluci 
dated by thenumerousmeteorologicalstationsof Switzerland. 
It is there observed in calm weather in winter, when the 
ground becomes colder than the air above it, that systems 
of descending currents of air set in over the whole face 
of the country. The direction and force of these descend 
ing currents follow the irregularities of the surface, and like 
currents of water they tend to converge and unite in the 
valleys and gorges, down which they flow like rivers in their 
beds. Since the place of these air-currents must be taken 
by others, it follows that on such occasions the temperature 
of the tops of mountains and high grounds is relatively 
high because the counter-currents come from a great height 
and are therefore warmer. Swiss villages are generally 
built on eminences rising out of the sides of the mountains 
with ravines on both sides. They are thus admirably pro 
tected from the extremes of cold in winter, because the 
descending cold air-currents are diverted aside into the 
ravines, and the counter-currents are constantly supplying 
warmer air from the higher regions of the atmosphere. 

Though the space filled by the down-flowing current of 
cold air in the bottom of a valley is of greater extent than 
the bed of a river, it is yet only a difference of degree, the 
space being in all cases limited and well defined, so that 
in rising above it in ascending the slope the increased 
warmth is readily felt, and, as we have seen, in extreme 
frosts the destruction to trees and shrubs is seen rapidly to 



diminish. The gradual narrowing of a valley tends to a 
more rapid lowering of the temperature for the obvious 
reason that the valley thereby resembles a basin almost 
closed, being thus a receptacle for the cold air-currents 
which descend from all sides. The bitterly cold furious 
gusts of wind which are often encountered in mountainous 
regions during night are simply the out-rush of cold air 
from such basins. 

The two chief causes which tend to counteract these 
effects of terrestrial radiation are forests and sheets of 
water. If a deep lake fills the basin, the cold air which 
is poured down on its surface having cooled the surface 
water, the cooled water sinks to a greater depth, and thus the 
air resting over the lakes is little if at all lowered in tem 
perature. Hence deep lakes may be regarded as sources 
of heat during winter, and places situated near their outlet 
are little exposed to cold gusts of wind, while places on 
their shores are free from the severe frosts which are 
peculiar to other low-lying situations. The frosts of winter 
are most severely felt in those localities where the slopes 
above them are destitute of vegetation, and consist only of 
bare rock and soil, or of snow. If, however, the slopes be 
covered with trees, the temperature is warmer at the base 
and up the sides of the mountain, the beneficial influence 
of forests consisting in the obstacle they offer to the 
descending currents of cold air and in distributing the cold 
produced by terrestrial radiation through a stratum of the 
atmosphere equalling in thickness the height of the trees. 

Hence as regards strictly local climates, an intelligent 
knowledge of which is of great practical value, it follows 
that the best security against the severity of cold in 
winter is afforded where the dwellings are situated on a 
gsntle acclivity a little above the plain or valley from which 
it rises with an exposure to the south, and where the ground 
above is planted with trees. When it is borne in mind that 
in temperate climates, such as that of Great Britain, the 
majority of the deaths which occur in the winter months 
are occasioned or at least hastened by low temperatures, it 
will be recognized as of the most vital importance, especially 
to invalids, to know what are the local situations which 
afford the best protection against great cold. In truth, 
mere local situations may during periods of intense cold 
have the effect of maintaining a temperature many degrees 
above that which prevails close at hand a difference which 
must mitigate suffering and not unfrequently prolong life. 

In addition to mere elevation and relative configuration 
of surface, the land of the globe brings about important 
modifications of climate in the degree in which its surface 
is covered with vegetation or is a desert waste. Of all 
surfaces that the earth presents to the influences of solar 
and terrestrial radiation an extent of sand is accompanied 
with the most extreme fluctuations of climate, as these are 
dependent on the temperature and moisture of the air ; 
whilst on the other hand, extensive forests tend to mitigate 
the extremes of temperature and distribute its daily 
changes more equably over the twenty-four hours. 

As regards the influence of the sun s heat on the tempera 
ture of the air, attention is to bo given almost exclusively 
to the temperature of the extreme upper surface of the 
earth heated by the sun with which the air is in 
immediate contact. Badly conducting surfaces, such ^ as 
sand, will evidently have the greatest influence in raising 
the temperature of the air, for the simple reason that the 
heat produced by the sun s rays being conveyed downwards 
into the soil with extreme slowness must necessarily remain 
longer on the surface, in other words, remain in immediate 
contact with the atmosphere. Similarly at night, the 
cooling effects of terrestrial radiation being greatest on 
sandy surfaces, the climate of sandy deserts Ls characters; 
by nights of comparatively great cold. 



These daily 



CLIMATE 



alternations of heat and cold are still further intensified by 
the great dryness of -the air over extensive tracts of sand. 
In warm countries the surface temperature of sandy deserts 
often rises to 120, 140, or even to 200, and the shade 
temperature has been observed as high as 125. It is this 
hot air, loaded with particles of sand still notter, and driven 
onwards by furious whirlwinds, which forms the dreaded 
simoon of the desert ; and the irritating and enervating 
sirocco of the regions bordering the Mediterranean is to be 
traced to the same cause. It is in the deserts of Africa, 
Arabia, Persia, and the Punjab that the highest tempera 
ture on the globe occurs, the mean summer temperature of 
these regions rising to and exceeding 95. The extreme 
surface of loam and clay soils is not heated during day 
nor cooled during night in so high a degree as that of 
sandy soils, because, the former being better conductors, 
the heat or the cold is more quickly conveyed downward, 
and therefore not allowed to accumulate on the surface. 

When the ground is covered with vegetation the whole 
of the sun s heat falls on the vegetable covering, and as 
none of it falls directly on the soil its temperature does not 
rise so high as that of land with no vegetable covering. 
The temperature of plants exposed to the sun does not rise 
so high as that of soil, because a portion of the sun s heat 
is lost in evaporation, and the heat cannot accumulate on 
the surface of the leaves as it does on the soil. Hence the 
essential difference between the climates of two countries, 
the one well covered with vegetation, the other not, lies in 
this, that the heat of the day is more equally distributed 
over the twenty-four hours in the former case, and there 
fore less intense during the warmest part of the day. 

But the effect of vegetation on the distribution of the 
temperature during the day is most markedly shown in the 
cuse of forests. Trees, like other bodies, are heated and 
cojled by radiation, but owing to their slow conducting 
power the times of the daily maximum and minimum 
temperature do not occur till some hours after the same 
phases of the temperature of the air. Again, the effects 
of radiation are in the case of trees not chiefly confined to 
a surface stratum of air a very few feet in thickness, but 
as already remarked, are to a very large extent diffused 
through a stratum of air equalling, in thickness at least, 
the height of the trees. Hence the conserving influence 
of forests on climate, making the nights warmer and the 
days cooler, imparting, in short, to the climates of districts 
clad with trees something of the character of insular 
climates. Evaporation proceeds slowly from the damp 
soil usually found beneath trees, since it is more or less 
screened from the sun. Since, however, the air under the 
trees is little agitated or put in circulation by the wind, 
the vapour arising from the soil is mostly left to accumu 
late among the trees, and hence it is probable that forests 
diminish the evaporation, but increase the humidity, of 
climates within their influence. The humidity of forests 
is further increased by the circumstance that when rain 
falls less of it passes immediately along the surface into 
streams and rivers; a considerable portion is at once 
taken up by the leaves of the trees and percolates the soil, 
owing to its greater friability in woods, to the roots of the 
trees, whence it is drawn up to the leaves and there eva 
porated, thus adding to the humidity of the atmosphere. 

Much has been done by Ur Marsh and others in 
elucidation of the influence on climate of forests and the 
denudation of trees, in so far as that can be done by the 
varying depths of lakes and rivers and other non- 
instrumental observations. Little comparatively has been 
done anywhere in the examination of the great practical 
question of the influence of forests on climate, by means 
of carefully devised and conducted observations made 
with thermometers, the evaporating dish, or the rain 



gauge. The most extensive inquiry on the subject yet set 
on foot has been for some years conducted in the forests 
of Bavaria under the direction of Professor Ebermeyer, 
and a like inquiry was begun in Germany in 1875, the 
more important results being that during the day, particu 
larly in the warm months, the temperature in the forest is 
considerably lower than outside in the open country, there 
being at the same time a slow but steady outflow of air 
from the forest ; and that during the night the tempera 
ture in the forest is higher, while there is an inflow of air 
from the open country into the forest. The mean annual 
temperature in the forest increases from the surface of the 
ground to the tops of the trees (where it is observed to 
approximate to what is observed in the open country), a 
result evidently due to the facility of descent to the surface 
of the cold air produced by terrestrial radiation, and to 
the obstruction offered by the trees to the solar influence 
at the surface. The mean annual temperature of the 
woodland soil from the surface to a depth of 4 feet is from 
2 to 3 lower than that of the open country. A series of 
observations was begun at Carnwath, Lanarkshire, in 
Ih73, at two stations, one outside a wood, and the other 
inside the wood in a small grass plot of about 50 feet 
diameter clear of trees. From these valuable results have 
been obtained relative to the differences in the daily march 
of temperature and the different rates of humidity, the 
most important being the substantial agreement of the 
mean annual temperature of the two places. The estab 
lishment of a station, with underground thermometers, 
which it is proposed to erect under the shade of the trees 
close to the station in the cleared space, will furnish data 
which will not only throw new light on the questions raised 
in this inquiry, but also on the movements and viscosity 
of the air and solar and terrestrial radiation. 

When the sun s rays fall on water they are not as in the 
case of land arrested at the surface, but penetrate to a 
considerable depth, which, judging from observations made 
by Sir Robert Christison on Loch Lomond, and from those 
made on board the " Challenger," is probably in clear 
water about 600 feet. Of all known substances water 
has the greatest specific heat, this being, as compared with 
that of the soil and rocks composing the earth s crust, in the 
proportion of about 4 to 1. Hence water is heated much 
more slowly by the sun s rays and cooled more slowly by 
nocturnal radiation than the land. It is owing to these 
two essential differences between land and water with respect 
to heat that climates come to be grouped into the three 
great classes of oceanic, insular, and continental climates. 

The maximum densities of fresh and salt water, which 
are respectively 39"1 and 26 2 (when the sea-water is the 
average degree of saltness), mark an essential distinction 
between the effects of sheets of fresh and salt water on 
climate. The surface temperature of sea-water falls very 
slowly from 39 0l l to 28 4, its freezing point, because as 
it falls the temperature of the whole water through its 
depths must fall ; whilst from 39 l to 32 the surface 
temperature of fresh water falls rapidly because it is only 
the portion floating on the surface which requires to be 
cooled. If the bottom temperature of fresh water exceed 
39 l the cooling takes place also very slowly, since in this 
case the water through all its depth must be cooled down 
to 39 l as well as that of the surface. 

The temperature at the greatest depths of Loch Lomond, 
which is practically constant at all seasons, is not 47 8, 
the mean annual temperature of that part of Scotland, but 
42", which happens to be the mean temperature of the 
cold .half of the year, or that half of the year when 
terrestrial radiation is the ruling element of the tempera 
ture. Thus, then, there is an immense volume of w T ater 
at the bottom of this lake at a constant temperature 5 8 



C L I M A T E 



below that of the mean annual temperature of the locality. 
From this follow two important consequences, viz. (1) 
during each winter no inconsiderable portion of the cold 
produced by terrestrial radiation is conveyed away from 
the surface to the depths of the lake, where it therefore no 
longer exercises any influence whatever on the atmosphere 
or on the climate of the district in lowering the tem 
perature ; and (2) this annual accession of cold at these 
depths is wholly counteracted by the internal heat of the 
earth. In corroboration of this view it may be pointed 
out that the water of the Rhone as it issues from Lake 
Geneva is 3 7 higher than that of the air at Geneva. 
Thus, the influence of lakes which do not freeze over 
is to mitigate in some degree the cold of winter over the 
district where they are situated. This is well illustrated 
ori a large scale by the winter temperature of the lake 
region of North America. The influence of the sea is 
exactly akin to that of lakes. Over the surface of the 
ground slanting to the sea-shore the cold currents generated 
by radiation flow down to the sea, and the surface-water 
being thereby cooled sinks to lower depths. In the same 
manner no inconsiderable portion of the cold produced by 
radiation in all latitudes over the surface of the ocean and 
land adjoining is conveyed from the surface to greater 
depths. The enormous extent to which this transference 
goes -on is evinced by the great physical fact disclosed to 
us in recent years by deep sea observations of temperature, 
viz., that the whole of the depths of the sea is filled with 
water at or closely approaching to the freezing point of 
fresh water, which in the tropical regions is from 40 to 
50 lower than the temperature of the surface. The with 
drawal from the earth s surface in high latitudes of such 
an enormous accumulation of ice-cold water to the depths 
of the sea of tropical and subtropical regions, rendered 
possible by the present disposition of land and water over 
.the globe, doubtless results in an amelioration to some 
extent of the climate of the whole globe, so far as that 
may be brought about by a higher surface temperature in 
polar and temperate regions. 

Oceanic climates are the most equable of all climates, 
showing for the same latitudes the least differences between 
the mean temperatures of the different hours of the day 
and the different months of the year, and being at all times 
the least subject to violent changes of temperature. So far 
as man is concerned, oceanic climates are only to be met 
with on board ship. The hygienic value of these climates 
in the treatment of certain classes of chest and other 
complaints is very great, and doubtless when better 
understood in their curative effects they will be more 
largely taken advantage of. It is, for instance, believed 
by many well qualified to form an opinion that they afford 
absolute, or all but absolute, immunity from colds, which 
are so often the precursors of serious complicated dis 
orders. 

The nearest approach to such climates on land is on 
very small islands such as Monach, which is situated about 
seven miles to westward of the Hebrides, in the full sweep 
of the westerly winds of the Atlantic which there prevail. 
The mean January temperature of this island, which is 
nearly in the latitude of Inverness, is 43 - 4, being 1 8 
higher than the mean of January at Ventnor, Isle of 
Wight, 8 higher than that of Jersey and Guernsey, and 
almost as high as that of Truro. Again, Stornoway, being 
situated on the east coast of Lewis on the Minch, an 
inland arm of the Atlantic, has thus a less truly insular 
position than Monach. Its climate is therefore much less 
insular, and accordingly its mean temperature in January 
is 38 7, or 4-7 lower than that of Monach. From its 
position near the Moray Firth, on the east of Scotland, 
Culloden occupies a position still less insular ; hence its 



January temperature is only 37 l, being l-6 less than 
that of Stornoway, and 6 - 3 less than that of Monach. 

On the other hand, the mean temperature of July is 
55-0 at Monach, 57 8 at Cullodeu, GT O at Guernsey, 
and G2 G at Ventnor. Thus the conditions of temperature 
at these stations are completely reversed in summer, for 
while in January Monach is l - 8 wanner than Ventuor, in 
summer it is 7 G colder. Since the prevailing winds in 
the British Isles are westerly, places on the east coast are 
less truly insular than are places similarly situated on the 
west, whence it follows that the winter and summer climates 
of the east coast approach more nearly the character of inland 
climates than do those of the west. 

The facts of the temperature at such places as Monach 
in Scotland and Valentia in Ireland disclose the existence 
of an all but purely oceanic climate along the coasts, 
particular^ of the west, so distinct and decided, and 
extending inland so short a distance, that it would be 
impossible to represent it on any map of land isothermals 
of ordinary size. The only way in which it can be 
graphically represented is by drawing on the same map 
the isothermals of the sea for the same months, as 
Petermann has done on his chart of the North Atlantic 
and continents adjoining. Such maps best lead to a 
knowledge of the true character of our seaside climates. 

Though it is Impossible to overestimate the climatological 
importance of seaside climates, as evinced by their curative 
effects on man, and their extraordinary influence on the 
distribution of animal and vegetable life, it must be con 
fessed that we are yet only on the threshold of a rational 
inquiry into their true character. Undoubtedly the first 
step in this large inquiry is the establishing of a string of 
about six stations at various distances from a point close 
to high-water mark to about two miles inland, at which 
observations at different hours of the day would be made, 
particularly at 9 A.M. and 3 and 9 P.M., of the pressure, tem 
perature, humidity, movements, and chemistry of the air. 

Our large towns have climates of a peculiar character, 
which may be said to consist chiefly in certain disturbances 
in the diurnal and seasonal distribution of the temperature, 
an excess of carbonic acid, a deficiency of ozone, and the 
presence of noxious impurities. Systematic inquiries into 
the condition and composition of the air of our large towns 
have been instituted this year (1876) in Paris and Glasgow, 
in which the ozone, ammonia, nitric acid, and germs present 
in different districts of these cities are regularly observed. 
There yet remain to be devised some means of making 
truly comparable thermometric and hygrometric observa 
tions in different localities, including the more densely- 
peopled districts, for the investigation of what we may call 
the artificial climates peculiar to each district. While such 
an inquiry, at least in its earlier stages, must necessarily 
be regarded as a purely scientific one, it may fairly be 
expected to lead sooner or later to a knowledge of the 
causes which determine the course of many epidemics- 
why, for instance, diphtheria is more frequent and more 
fatal in the new than in the old town of Edinburgh, and 
why in some parts of Leicester diarrhoea is unknown as a 
fatal disease, while in other parts of the same town it rages 
every summer as a terrible pestilence among infants and 
ultimately suggest the means by which they may be 
stamped out when they make their appearance. 

It has been already pointed out (see ATMOSPHERE) that 
prevailing winds are the simple result of the relative distri 
bution of atmospheric pressure, their direction and : 
being the flow of the air from a region of higher towards a 
region of lower pressure, or from where there is a surplus 
where there is a deficiency of air. Since climate is pract! 
cally determined by the temperature and moisture of t wr, 
and since these are dependent on the prevailing winds wmci 



6 



L I M A T E 



come charged with the temperature and moisture of the 
regions they have traversed, it is evident that isobaric 
charts, showing the mean pressure of the atmosphere, form 
the key to the climates of the different regions of the globe, 
particularly those different climates which are found to 
prevail in different regions having practically the same 
latitude and elevation. This principle is all the more 
important when it is considered that the prevailing winds 
determine in a very great degree the currents of the ocean, 
which exercise so powerful an influence on climate. 

Since winds bring with them the. temperature of the 
regions they have traversed, southerly currents of air are 
warm winds, and northerly currents cold winds. Also 
since the temperature of the ocean is more uniform than 
that of the land, winds coming from the ocean do not cause 
such variations of temperature as winds from a continent. 
As air loaded with vapour obstructs both solar and terrestrial 
radiation, when clear as well as when clouded, moist ocean 
winds are accompanied by a mild temperature in wintsr 
and a cool temperatura in summer, and dry winds coming 
from continents by cold winters and hot summers. Lastly, 
equatorial currents of air, losing heat as they proceed in 
their course, are thereby brought nearer the point of satura 
tion, and consequently become moister winds ; whereas 
northerly currents acquiring greater heat in their progress 
become drier winds. 

It follows from these relations of the wind to temperature 
and moisture that the S.W. wind in the British Isles is a 
very moist wind, being both an oceanic and equatorial 
current ; whereas the N.E. wind, on the other hand, is 
peculiarly dry and parching, because it is both a northerly 
and continental current. Owing to the circumstance of 
atmospheric pressure diminishing from the south of Europe 
northwards to Iceland, it follows that S.W. winds are the 
most prevalent in Great Britain ; and since this diminution 
of pressure reaches its maximum amount and persistency 
during the winter months, S.W. winds are in the greatest 
preponderance at this season ; hence the abnormally high 
winter temperature of these islands above what is due to 
mere latitude. The msan winter temperature of Lerwick, 
Shetland, in respect of latitude alone would be 3, and of 
London 17, bat owing to the heat conveyed from the 
warm waters of the Atlantic across these islands by the 
winds, the temperature of Shetland is 39" and of London 
38. In Iceland and Norway the abnormal increase of 
temperature in winter is still greater. This influence of 
the Atlantic through the agency of the winds is so pre 
ponderating that the winter isothermals of Great Britain 
lie north and south, instaad of the normal east and west 
direction. 

This peculiar distribution of the winter temperature of 
the British Isles has important bearings on the treatment 
of diseases. Sinca the temperature of tha whole of jthe 
eastern slope of Great Britain is the same, it is clear that 
to those for whom a milder winter climate is required a 
journey southward is attended with no practical advantage, 
unless directed to the west coast. As the temperature on 
the west is uniform from Shetland to Wales, Scotland is as 
favourable to weak constitutions during winter as any part 
of England, except the south-west, the highest winter 
temperatures being found from the Isle of Wight westward 
round the Cornish peninsula to the Bristol Channel ; and 
from Carnsore Point in Ireland to Galway Bay the tempera 
ture is also high. 

The height and direction of mountain ranges form an 
important factor in determining the climatic characteristics 
of prevailing winds. If the ranga be perpendicular to the 
winds, tha effect is to drain the winds which cross them of 
their moisture, thus rendering the winters colder and tha 
summers hotter at all places to leeward, as compared with 



places to windward, by partially removing the protecting 
screen of vapour and thus exposing them more effectually 
to solar and terrestrial radiation. To this cause much of 
the observed difference between the west and east climates 
of Great Britain is due. In Ireland, on the other hand, 
where the mountains are not grouped in ranges running 
north and south, but in isolated masses, the difference 
between the climates of the east and west is very much 
less. In the east of the United States the prevailing 
winds in summer are S.W., and as the Alleghanies lie in 
the same direction the temperature is little affected by 
these mountains, and the rainfall is pretty evenly dis 
tributed on both sides of the range. 

In its climatological relations the distribution of rain 
over the globe presents us with a body of facts which lead, 
when intelligently interpreted, to a knowledge of the laws 
regulating the distribution of plants more quickly and 
cartainly than do the facts of temperature. It is to the 
prevailing winds we must look for an explanation of the 
rainfall, the broad principles of the connection being these: 
1, The rainfall is moderately large when the wind has 
traversed a considerable extent of ocean ; 2, if the v.-inds 
advance into colder regions the rainfall is largely increased, 
and if a range of mountains lie across their path the 
amount precipitated on the side facing the winds is greatly 
augmented, but diminished over regions on the othej side 
of the range ; 3, if the winds, though coming from the 
ocean, have not traversed a considerable extent of it, the 
rainfall is not large ; and 4, if the winds, even though 
having traversed a considerable part of the ocean, yet on 
arriving on the land proceed into lower latitudes, or 
regions markedly warmer, the rainfall is small or nil. It 
is this last consideration which accounts for the rainless 
character of the summer climates of California, of Southern 
Europe, and of Northern Africa. 

The region extending from Alaska to Lower California 
presents more sudden transitions of climate, and climates 
more sharply contrasted with each other, than any other 
portion of the globe, this arising from the contour of its sur 
face and the prevailing winds. A direct contrast to this is 
offered by the United States to the east of the Mississippi, 
a region characterized by a remarkable uniformity in the 
distribution of its rainfall in all seasons, which, taken in 
connection with its temparature, affords climatic conditions 
admirably adapted for a vigorous growth of trees and for 
the great staple products of agriculture. India and the 
region of tha Caspian Saa and the Caucasus Mountains 
also present extraordinary contrasts of climate in all 
seasons, due to the prevailing winds, upper as well as 
lower winds, tha relative distribution of land and water, 
and the physical configuration of the surface of the land. 

In tha above remarks the only question dealt with 
has been the average climate of localities and regions. 
There are, however, it need scarcely be added, vital 
elements of climate of which such a discussion can take no 
cognizance. These are the deviations which occur from 
the seasonal averages of climate, such as periods of extreme 
cold and heat, or of extreme humidity and dryness of air, 
liability to storms of wind, thunderstorms, fogs, and 
extraordinary downfalls of rain, hail, or snow. An 
illustration will show tha climatic difference here insisted 
on. The mean wintar temperature of the Southern States 
of America is almost the same as that of Lower Egypt. 
Lower Egypt is singularly free from violent alternations of 
temperature as well as frost, whereas these are marked 
features of the winter climate of the States bordering on 
the Gulf of Mexico. Robert Russell, in his Climate cf 
America, gives an instance of the temperature falling in 
Southern Taxas with a norther from 81 to 18 in 41 
hours, the norther blowing at the same time with great 



L I C L 1 



violence. A temperature of 18 accompanying a violent 
wind may be regarded as unknown in Great Britain. 

It is to the cyclone and anticyclone (see ATMOSPHERE) we 
must look for an explanation of these violent weather 
changes. Climatically, the significance of the anticyclone 
or area of high pressure consists in the space covered for 
the time by it being on account of its dryness and clear 
ness more fully under the influence of solar and terrestrial 
radiation, and consequently exposed to great cold in winter 
and great heat in summer ; and of the cyclone or area of 
low pressure, in a moist warm atmosphere occupying its 
front and southern half, and a cold dry atmosphere its 
rear and northern half. 

The low areas of the American cyclones, as they proceed 
eastward a^ng the north shores of the Gulf of Mexico, are 
often immediately followed to west and north-westward by 
areas of very high pressure, the necessary consequence of 
which is the setting in of a violent norther over the 
Southern States. Since similar barometric conditions do 
not occur in the region of Lower Egypt, its climate is free 
from these sudden changes which are so injurious to the 
health even of the robust. Since many of the centres 
of the cyclones of North America follow the track of the 
lakes and advance ou the Atlantic by the New England 
States and Newfoundland, these States and a large portion 
of Canada frequently experience cold raw easterly and 
northerly winds. The great majority of European storms 
travel eastward with their centres to northward of Faro, and 
hence the general mildness of the winter climate of the 
British Isles. When it happens, however, that cyclonic 
centres pass eastwards along the English Channel or through 
Belgium and North Germany, while high pressure prevails 
in the north, the winter is characterized by frosts and 
snows. The worst summer weather in Great Britain is 
when low pressures prevail over the "North Sea, and the 
hottest and most brilliant weather when anticyclones lie 
over Great Britain and extend away to south and eastward. 

Low pressures in the Mediterranean, along with high 
pressures to northward, are the conditions of the worst 
winter weather in the south of Europe. A cyclone in the 
Gulf of Lyons or of Genoa, and an anticyclone over Germany 
and Russia, have the mistral as their unfailing attendant, 
blowing with terrible force and dryness on the Mediter 
ranean coasts of Spain, France, and North Italy, being 
alike in its origin and in its climatic qualities the exact 
counterpart of the uorther of the Gulf of Mexico. It 
follows from the courses taken by the cyclones of the 
Mediterranean, and the anticyclones which attend on 
them, that also Algeria, Malta, and Greece are liable to 
violent alternations of temperature during the cold months. 

The investigation of this phase of climate, which can 
only be carried out by the examination of many thousands 
of daily weather charts, is as important as it is difficult, 
since till it be done the advantages and hazards offered by 
different sanataria cannot be compared and valued. It 
may in the meantime be enough to say that no phce any 
where in Europe or even in Algeria offers an immunity 
from the risks arising from the occurrence of cold weather 
in winter at all comparable to that afforded by the climates 
of Egypt and Madeira. See ATMOSPHERE, METEOROLOGY, 
and PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. (A. B.) 

CLINTON, a city of the United States, in Clinton 
County, Iowa, about 42 miles higher up than Davenport, 
on the Mississippi, which is crossed at this point by an iron 
drawbridge upwards of 4000 feet long. It is a thriving 
place, with workshops for the Chicago and North-Western 
Railway, and an extensive trade in timber. Several news 
papers are published weekly. Population in 1870, G129. 

CLINTON, a town of the United States, in Worcester 
county, Massachusetts, on the Nashua River, about 32 



miles west of Boston, at the junction of several railway 
lines. It is the seat of extensive manufacturing activity, 
chiefly expended in the production of cotton cloths, woollen 
carpets, boots and shoes, combs, and machinery. Tho 
Lancaster mills rank as perhaps the best in the United 
States ; and the wire cloth company has the credit of being 
the first to weave wire by the power-loom. Population in 
1870, 5429. 

CLINTON, DE WITT (1769-1828), an American states 
man, born at Little Britain, in the State of New York, waa 
the son of a gentleman of English extraction who served as 
brigadier-geiieral in the war of independence, and of a lady 
belonging to the famous Dutch family of De Witts. He 
was educated at Colombia College; and in 1788 he was 
admitted to the bar. He at once joined the republican 
party, among the leaders of which was his ui.cl i, George 
Clinton, governor of New York, w r hose secretary ha became. 
At the same time he held the office of secretary to the 
board of regents of the university, and to the commissioners 
of fortifications. In 1797 he was elected member of tho 
Assembly, in 1798 member of the Senate of the State of 
New York, and in 1801 member of the Senate of the 
United States. For twelve years, with two short breaks, 
which amounted only to three years, he occupied the 
position of mayor of New York. He was also again 
member of the Senate of New York from 1803 to 1811, 
and lieutenant-governor of the State from 1811 to 1813. 
In 1812 he became a candidate for the presidency ; but he 
was defeated by Madison, and lost even his lieutenant- 
governorship. Throughout his whole career Clinton had 
been distinguished by his intelligent support of all schemes 
of improvement, and he now devoted himself to carrying 
out the proposal for the construction of canals from Lakes 
Erie and Champlain to the River Hudson. The Federal 
Government refused to undertake the work ; but some time 
after, in 1815, the year in which he finally lost the 
mayoralty, he presented a memorial on the subject to the 
Legislature of New York, and the Legislature appointed a 
commission, of which he was made a member, to make 
surveys and draw up estimates. Having thus recovered 
his popularity, in 1816 Clinton was once more chosen 
governor of the State; in 1819 he was re-elected, and 
again in 1824 and 1826. In 1825 the Erie Canal was 
completed ; and he afterwards saw the work which ow ed 
so much to him carried on by the construction of im 
portant brunch canals. 

Do Witt Clinton published a Memoir on the Antiquities of Western 
New York (1818), Letters on the Natural History and Internal 




CLINTON, HENRY FYKES (1781-1852), an English 
classical scholar, was born at Gamstou, in Nottinghamshire, 
lie was descended fixm the second earl of Lincoln; for 
pome generations the name of his family was Fynes, but 
his father resumed the older family name of Clinton. 
Educated at Southwell school in his native county, at 
Westminster school, and at Christ Church College, Oxford, 
he devoted himself to the minute and almost uninterrupted 
study of classical literature and history. From 1800 to 
1826 he was M.P. for Aldborough. 

His chief works are-lfcs. i Hdlenici, a Civil and Library Chrono 
logy of Greece, which also contains dissertations on points of Greci 
history and Scriptural chronology (4 vols., 1824, 1827, 18oO, 1J 
and Fasti Xomani, a Civil and Literary Chronology of Lome am 




Pemains of II. F. Clinton were publish 
1S54. 

CLITHEROE, a manufacturing town and a municipal 
and parliamentary borough of England, in the county o 



8 



C L I C L I 



Lancashire, situated not far from the Kibble, at the foot of 
Pendle Hills, about 28 miles by railway north of 
Manchester. It has several suburbs, known as Waterloo, 
Salford, and Bawdlands, and at the side of the river is the 
little village of Low Moor. Its principal buildings are the 
parish church of St Michael s, a grammar school founded 
in 1554, the moothnll, and the county court erected in 
1864 ; and its industrial establishments comprise cotton- 
mills, extensive print-works, paper-mills, foundries, snd 
brick and lime works. The cotton manufacture alone 
employed upwards of 2000 people -in 1871. Clitheroe 
was a borough by prescription as early as the llth century, 
and in 1138 it is mentioned as the scene of a battle be 
tween the Scotch and English. Its castle, probably built 
not long after, was a fortress of the Lacy family, and 
continued a defensible position till 1649, when it was dis 
mantled by the Parliamentary forces. The Honor of Cli 
theroe, for a long time a part of the duchy of Lancaster, and 
bestowed by Charles II. on General Monk, is now in the pos 
session of the Buccleuch family. Population of the municipal 
borough in 1871, 8208 ; of the parliamentary, 11,786. 

CLITOMACHUS, a leader of the New Academy, was a 
Carthaginian originally named Hasdrubal, who came to 
Athens about the middle of the 2d century B.C. He 
made himself well acquainted with Stoical and Peripatetic 
philosophy; but he principally studied under Carneades, 
whose views he adopted, and whom he succeeded as chief 
representative of the New Academy in 129 B.C. His 
works were some 400 in number ; but we possess scarcely 
anything but a few titles, among which are De sustincndis 
ofensionilus, vtpl tVo^s (on suspension of judgment), and 
Trepi alptcrewv (an account of various philosophical sects). 
In 146 he wrote a philosophical treatise to console his 
countrymen after the ruin of their city. One of his works 
was dedicated to the Latin poet Lucilius, another to L. 
Cenf,orinus, who was consul in 149 B.C. 

CLITOR, a town of ancient Greece, in that part of 
Arcadia which corresponds to the modem eparchy of 
Kalavryta. It stood in a fertile plain to the south of 
Mount Chelmos, the highest peak of the Aroanian Moun 
tains, and not far from a stream of its own name, which 
joined the Aroanius, or Katzana. In the neighbourhood 
was a fountain, the waters of which were said to deprive 
those who drunk them of the taste for wine. The town 
was a place of considerable importance in Arcadia, and its 
inhabitants w ere noted for their love of liberty. It extended 
its territory over several neighbouring towns, and in the 
Theban war fought against Orchomenos. As a member of 
the Achaean league it suffered siege at the hands of the 
vEtolians, and was on several occasions the seat of the 
federal assemblies. The ruins, which bear the common 
name of Paleopoli, or Old City, are still to be seen about 
three miles from a village that preserves the ancient 
designation. The greater part of the walls and several of 
the circular towers with which they were strengthened can 
be clearly made out ; and there are ulso remains of a small 
Doric temple, the columns of which were adorned with 
strange capitals. 

CLIVE, ROBERT (1725-1774), Baron Clive of Plassy, in 
the peerage of Ireland, was the statesman and general who 
founded the empire of British India before ho was forty 
years of age. He is now represented by the Powis family, 
his son having been made earl of Powis in the peerage of 
the United Kingdom. Clive was born on the 29th 
September 1725 at Styche, the family estate in the parish 
of Moreton-Say, Market-Drayton, Shropshire. We learn 
from himself, in his second speech in the House of Commons 
in 1773, that as the estate yielded only 500 a year, 
his father followed the profession of the law also. The 
Clives, or Clyves, formed one of the oldest families in the 



county of Shropshire, having held the marior of that namo 
in the reign of Henry II. One Clive was Irish Chancellor 
of the Exchequer under Henry VIII. ; another was a 
member of the Long Parliament ; Robert s father sat for 
many years for Montgomeryshire. His mother, to whom 
throughout life he was tenderly attached, and who had a 
powerful influence on his career, was a daughter, and with 
her sister Lady Sempill co-heir, of Nathaniel Gaskell of 
Manchester, Robert was their eldest son. With his five 
sisters, all of whom were married in duo time, he ever 
maintained the most affectionate relations. His only 
brother survived to 1825. Young Clive was the despair 
of his teachers. Sent from school to school, and for only 
a short time at the Merchant Taylors school, which had 
then a high reputation, he neglected his books for boyish 
adventures, often of the most dangerous kind. But he 
was not so ignorant as it is the fashion of his biographers 
to represent. He could translate Horace in after life, at 
the opening of the book ; and he must have laid in his 
youth the foundation of that clear and vigorous English 
style which marked all his despatches, and made Lord 
Chatham declare of one of his speeches in the House of 
Commons that it was the most eloquent he had ever heard. 
From his earliest years, however, his ambition was to lead 
his fellows ; but ho never sacrificed honour, as the word 
was then understood, even to the fear of death. At eighteen 
he was sent out to Madras as a " factor " or " writer " in 
the civil service of the East India Company. The deten 
tion of the ship at Brazil for nine months enabled him to 
acquire the Portuguese language, which, at a time when few 
or none of the Company s servants learned the vernaculars 
of India, ho often found of use during his service there. 
For the first two years of his residence he was miserable. 
He felt keenly the separation from home ; he was always 
breaking through the restraints imposed on young " writers ;" 
and he was rarely out of trouble with his fellows, with one 
of whom he fought a duel. Thus early, too, the effect of 
the climate on his health began to show itself in those fits 
of depression during one of which he afterwards pre 
maturely ended his life. The story is told of him by his 
companions, though he himself never spoke of it, that ho 
twice snapped a pistol at his head in vain. His one solace 
was found in tho Governor s library, where he sought to 
make up for past carelessness, not only by much reading, 
but by a course of study. He was just of age, when in 
1746 Madras was forced to capitulate to Labourdonnais, 
during the war of the Austrian Succession. The breach 
of that capitulation by Dupleix, then at the head of the 
French settlements in India, led Clive, with others, to 
escape from the town to the subordinate Fort St David, 
some twenty miles to the south. There, disgusted with 
the state of affairs and the purely commercial duties of an 
East Indian civilian, as they then were, Clive obtained an 
ensign s commission. 

At this time India was ready to become the prize of the 
first conqueror who to the dash of the soldier added the 
skill of the administrator. For the forty years since the 
death of the Emperor Aurungzebc, the power of the Great 
Mogul had gradually fallen into the hands of his provincial 
viceroys or soubadars. The three greatest of these were- 
the nawab of the Deccan, or South and Central India, who 
ruled from Hyderabad, the nawab of Bengal, whoso 
capital was Moorshedabad, and the nawab or vizier of 
Oudh. The prize lay between Dupleix, who had the 
genius of an administrator, or rather intriguer, but was no 
soldier, and Clive, the first of a century s brilliant succes 
sion of those " soldier-politicals," as they are called in tho 
East, to whom, ending with Sir Henry Lawrence, Great 
Britain owes the conquest and consolidation of its greatest 
deperdency. Clive successively established British ascend- 



OLIVE 



encyaganist French influence in the three great provinces 
under these nawabs. But his merit lies especially in the 
ability and foresight with which he secured for his country, 
and for the good of the natives, the richest of the 
three, Bengal. First, as to Madras and the Deccan, Clive 
had hardly been able to commend himself to Major Stringer 
Lawrence, the commander of the British troops, by his 
courage and skill in several small engagements, when the 
peace of Aix-la-Chapelle forced him to return to his civil 
duties for a short time. An attack of the malady which 
so severely affected his spirits led him to visit Bengal, 
where he was soon to distinguish himself. On his return 
he found a contest going on between two s-jts of rival 
claimants for the position of viceroy of the Deccan, and for 
that of nawab of the Carnatic, the greatest of the subor 
dinate states under the Deccan. Dupleix, who took the 
part of the pretenders to power in both places, was carry 
ing all before him. The British had been weakened by the 
withdrawal of a large force under Admiral Boscawen, and 
by the return home, on leave, of Major Lawrence. But 
that officer had appointed Clive commissary for the supply 
of the troops with provisions, with the rank of captain. 
More than one disaster had taken place on a small scale, 
when Clive drew up a plan for dividing the enemy s forces, 
and offered to carry it out himself. The pretender, Chunda 
Sahib, had been made nawab of the Carnatic with Dupleix s 
assistance, while the British had taken up the cause of the 
more legitimate successor, Mahomed Ali. Chunda Sahib 
had left Arcot, the capital of the Carnatic, to reduce 
Trichinopoly, then held by a weak English battalion. 
Clive offered to attack Arcot that he might force Chunda 
Sahib to raise the siege of Trichinopoly. But Madras and 
Fort St David could supply him with only 2^0 Europeans 
and 300 sepoys. Of the eight officers who led them, four 
were civilians like Clive himself, and six had never been 
in action. His force had but three field-pieces. The cir 
cumstance that Clive, at the head of this handful, had been 
seen marching during a storm of thunder and lightning, 
led the enemy to evacuate the fort, which the British at 
once began to strengthen against a siege. Clive treated 
the great population of the city with so much considera 
tion that they helped him, not only to fortify his position, 
but to make successful sallies against the enemy. As 
the days passed on, Chunda Sahib sent a large army under 
his son and his French supporters, who entered Arcot and 
closely besieged Clive in the citadel. An attempt to relieve 
him from Madras was defeated. Meanwhile the news of 
the marvellous defence of the English reached the Mahratta 
allies of Mahomed Ali, who advanced to dive s rescue. 
This led the enemy to redouble their exertions, but in vain. 
After for fifty days besieging the fort, and offering large 
sums to Clive to capitulate, they retired from Arcot. The 
brave garrison had been so reduced by the gradual failure 
of provisions that the sepoys offered to be content with the 
thin gruel which resulted from the boiling of the rice, 
leaving the grain to their European comrades. Of the 200 
Europeans 45 had been killed, and of the 300 sepoys 30 had 
fallen, while few of the survivors had escaped wounds. In 
India, we might say in all history, there is no parallel to 
this exploit of 1751 till we come to the siege of Lucknow 
in 1857. Clive. now reinforced, followed up his advan 
tage, and Major Lawrence returned in time to carry the war 
to a successful issue. In 1754 the first of our Carnatic 
treaties was made provisionally, between Mr T. Saunders, 
the Company s resident at Madras, and M. Godeheu, the 
French commander, in which the English protege, Mahomed 
Ali, was virtually recognized as nawab, and both nations 
agreed to equalize their possessions. When war again 
broke out in 175G, and the French, during Clive s absence 
in Bengal, obtained successes in the northern districts, his 



efforts helped to drive them from their settlements. The 
Treaty of Paris in 1763 formally confirmed Mahomed Ali 
in the position which Clive had won for him. Two years 
after, the Madras work of Clive was completed by a firmaun 
from the emperor of Delhi, recognizing the British posses 
sions in Southern India. 

The siege of Arcot at once gave Clive a European reputa 
tion. Pitt pronounced the youth of twenty-seven who had 
done such deeds a " heaven-born general," thus endorsing 
the generous appreciation of his early commander, Major 
Lawrence. When the Court of Directors voted him a sword 
worth 700, he refused to receive it unless Lawrence 
was similarly honoured. He left Madras for home, after 
ten years absence, early in 1753, but not before marrying 
Miss Margaret Maskelyne, the sister of a friend, and of 
one who was afterwards well known as astronomer royal. 
All his correspondence proves him to have been a good 
husband and father, at a time when society was far from 
pure, and scandal made havoc of the highest reputations. 
In after days, when Clive s uprightness and stern reform of 
the Company s civil and military services made him many 
enemies, a biography of him appeared under the assumed 
name of Charles Carradoli, Cent. All the evidence is 
against the probability of its scandalous stories being true. 
Clive s early life seems occasionally to have led him to yield 
to one of the vices of his time, loose or free talk among 
intimate friends, but beyond this nothing has been proved to 
his detriment. After he had been two years at home tie 
state of affairs in India made the directors anxious for his 
return. He was sent out, in 17 50, as governor of Fort St 
David, with the reversion of the government of Madra^, 
and he received the commission of lieutenant-colonel in the 
king s army. He took Bombay on his way, and there 
commanded the land force which captured Gheriah, the 
stronghold of the Mahratta pirate, Angria. In the distribu 
tion of prize money which followed this expedition he 
showed no little self-denial. He took his seat as goverm r 
of Fort St David on the day on which the nawab of Bengil 
captured Calcutta. Thither the Madras Government at 
once sent him, along with Admiral Watson. He entered 
on the second period of his career. 

Since, in August 1690, Job Charnock had landed at tlio 
village of Chuttanutti with a guard of one officer and 30 
men, the infant capital of Calcutta had become a rich centre 
of trade. The successive nawabs or viceroys of Bengal 
had been friendly to it, till, in 1756, Suraj-ud-Dowlan 
succeeded his uncle at Moorshedabad. His predecessor s 
financial minister had fled to Calcutta to escape the extor 
tion of the new nawab, and the English governor refused 
to deliver up the refugee. Enraged at this, Suraj-ud- 
Dowlah captured the old fort of Calcutta on the 5t i 
August, and plundered it of more than two millions 
sterling. Many of the English fled to the ships and 
dropped down the river. The 146 who remained, were 
forced into "the Black Hole" in the stifling heat of the 
sultriest period of the year. Only 23 came out alive. 
The fleet was as strong, for those days, as the land force 
was weak. Disembarking his troops some miles below the 
city, Clive marched through the jungles, where he_lost his 
way owing to the treachery of his guides, but soon invested 
Fort William, while the fire of the ships reduced it, on the 
2d January 1757. On the 4th February he defeated the 
whole army of the riawab, which had taken up a strong 
position just beyond what is now the most northerly 
suburb of Calcutta. The nawab hastened to conclude a 
treaty, under which favourable terms were conceded to the 
Company s trade, the factories and plundered property 
were restored, and an English mint was established. In 
the accompanying agreement, offensive and defensive, C 
appears under the name by which J.e was dwn; 



10 



OLIVE 



the natives of India, Sabut Jung, or the daring in war. 
The hero of Arcot had, at Angria s stronghold, and now 
again under the walls of Calcutta, established his reputa 
tion as the first captain of the time. With 600 British 
soldiers, 800 sepoys, 7 field-pieces and 500 sailors to draw 
them, he had routed a force of 34,000 men with 40 pieces 
of heavy cannon, 50 elephants, and a camp that extended 
upwards of four miles in length. His own account, in a 
letter to the archbishop of Canterbury, gives a modest but 
vivid description of the battle, the importance of which 
has been overshadowed by Plassy. In spite of his double 
defeat and the treaty which followed it, the madness of the 
nawnb burst forth again. As England and France were 
once more at war, Clive sent the fleet up the river against 
Chandernagore, while he besieged it by land. After 
consenting to the siege, the nawab sought to assist the 
French, but in vain. The capture of their principal settle 
ment in India, next to Pondicherry, which had fallen in 
the previous war, gave the combined forces prize to the 
value of 130,000. The rule of Suraj-ud-Dowlah became 
as intolerable to his own people as to the English. They 
formed a confederacy to depose him, at the head of which 
was Jaffier Ali Khan, his commander-in-chief. Associating 
with himself Admiral Watson, Governor Drake, and Mr 
Watts, Clive made a treaty in which it was agreed to give 
the office of souba, or viceroy of Bengal, Behar, and 
Orissa, to Jaffier, who was to pay a million sterling to the 
Company for its losses in Calcutta and the cost of its troops, 
half a million to the English inhabitants of Calcutta, 
200,000 to the native inhabitants, and 70,000 to its 
Armenian merchants. Up to this point all is clear. Suraj 
ud-Duwlah was hopeless as a ruler. His relations alike 
to his master, the merely titular emperor of Delhi, and to 
the people left the province open to the strongest. After 
" the Black Hole," the battle of Calcutta, and the treachery 
at Chandernagore in spite of the treaty which follow 3d 
that battle, the East India Company could treat the nawab 
only as an enemy. Clive, it is true, miglit have disregarded 
all native intrigue, marched on Moorshedabad, and at once 
held the delta of the Ganges in the Company s name. But 
the time was not ripe for this, and the consequences, with 
so small a force, might have been fatal. The idea of acting 
directly as rulers, or save under native charters and names, 
was not developed by events for half a century. The 
political morality of the time in Europe, as well as the 
comparative weakness of the Company in India, led Clive 
not only to meet the dishonesty of his native associate by 
equal dishonesty, but to justify his conduct by the declara 
tion, years after, in Parliament, that he would do the same 
again. It became necessary to employ the richest Bengalee 
trader, Omichund, as an agent between Jaffier Ali and the 
English officials. Master of ths secret of the confederacy 
against Suraj-ud-Dowlah, the Bengalee threatened- to 
betray it unless he was guaranteed, in the treaty itself, 
300,000. To dupe the villain, who was really paid by 
both sides, a second, or fictitious treaty, was shown him 
with a clause to this effect. This Admiral Watson refused 
to sign; " but," Clive deponed to the House of Commons, 
" to the best of his remembrance, he gave the gentleman 
who carried it leave to sign his name upon it ; his lordship 
never made any secret of it ; he thinks it warrantable in 
such a case, and would do it again a hundred times ; he 
had no interested motive in doing it, and did it with a 
design of disappointing the expectations of a rapacious man," 
Such is dive s own defence of the one act which, in a long 
career of abounding temptations, stains his public life. 

The whole hot season of 1757 was spent in these 
negotiations, till the middle of June, when Clive began his 
march from Chandernagore, the British in boats, and the 
sepoys along the right bank of the Ilooghly. That river, 



above Calcutta is, during the rainy season, fed by the 
overflow of the Ganges to the north through three streams, 
which in the hot months are nearly dry. On the left 
bank of the Bhagarutti, the most westerly of these, 100 
miles above Chandernagore, stands Moorshedabad, the 
capital of the Mogul viceroys of Bengal, and then so vast that 
Clive compared it to the London of his day. Some miles 
farther down is the field of Plassy, then an extensive grove 
of mango trses, of which enough yet remains, in spite of 
the changing course of the stream, to enable the visitor to 
realize the scene. On the 21st June Clive arrived on 
the bank opposite Plassy, in the midst of that outburst of 
rain which ushers in the south-west monsoon of India. 
His whole army amounted to 1100 Europeans and 2100 
native troops, with 10 field-pieces. The nawab had drawn 
up 18,000 horse, 50,000 foot, and 53 pieces of heavy 
ordnance, served by French artillerymen. For once in his 
career Clive hesitated, and called a council of sixteen 
officers to decide, as he put it, " whether in our present 
situation, without assistance, and on our own bottom, it 
would be prudent to attack the nawab, or whether we 
should wait till joined by some country power ? " Clivo 
himself headed the nine who voted for delay ; Major 
(afterwards Sir) Eyre Coote, led the seven who counselled 
immediate attack. But, either because his daring asserted 
itself, or because, also, of a letter that he received from 
Jaffier Ali, as has been said, Clive was the first to change 
his mind and to communicate with Major Eyre Coote. 
One tradition, followed by Macaulay, represents him as 
spending an hour in thought under the shade of some trees, 
while he resolved the issues of what was to prove one of 
the decisive battles of the world. Another, turned into 
verse by an Anglo-Indian poet, pictures his resolution aa 
the result of a dream. However that may be, he did well 
as a soldier to trust to the dash and even rashness that had 
gained Arcot and triumphed at Calcutta, and as a states 
man, since retreat, or even delay, would have put back the 
civilization of India for years. When, after the heavy rain, 
the sun rose brightly on the 22d, the 3200 men and the 
six guns crossed the river and took possession of the grove 
and its tanks of water, while Clive established his head 
quarters in a hunting lodge. On the 23d the engagement 
took place and lasted the whole day. Except the 40 
Frenchmen and the guns which they worked, the enemy 
did little to reply to the British cannonade which, with the 
39th Regiment, scattered the host, inflicting on it a loss of 
500 men. Clive restrained the ardour of Major Kirkpatrick, 
for he trusted to Jaffier Ali s abstinence, if not desertion to 
his ranks, and knew the importance of sparing his own 
small force. He lost hardly a white soldier ; in all 22 
sepoys were killed and 50 wounded. His own account, 
written a month after the battle to the secret committee of 
the court of directors, is not less unaffected than that in 
which he had announced the defeat of the nawab at 
Calcutta. Suraj-ud-Dowlah fled from the field on a camel, 
secured what wealth he could, and came to an untimely 
end. Clive entered Moorshedabad, and established Jaffier 
Ali in the position which his descendants have ever since 
enjoyed, as pensioners, but have not unfrequently abused. 
When taken through the treasury, amid a million and a 
half sterling s worth of rupees, gold and silver plate, jewels, 
and rich goods, and besought to ask what he would, Clive 
was content with 160,000, while half a million was dis 
tributed among the army and navy, both in addition to 
gifts of 24,000 to each member of the Company s com 
mittee, and besides the public compensation stipulated for 
in the treaty. It was to this occasion that he referred in 
his defence before the House of Commons, when he 
declared that he marvelled at his moderation. He 
sought rather to increase the shares of the fleet and the 



L I V E 



11 



troops at his own expense, as he had done at Gheriah, and 
did more than once afterwards, with prize of war. What 
ha did take from the grateful nawab for himself was Jess 
than the circumstances justified from an Oriental point of 
view, was far less than was pressed upon him, not only by 
Jaffier Ali, but by the hundreds of the native nobles whose 
gifts Clive steadily refused, and was openly acknowledged 
from the first. He followed a usage fully recognized by 
the Company, although the fruitful source of future evils 
which he himself was again sent out to correct. The 
Company itself acquired a revenue of 100,000 a year, 
and a contribution towards its losses and military expendi 
ture of a million and a half sterling. Such was Jaffier 
Ali s gratitude to Clive that he afterwards presented him 
with the quit-rent of the Company s lands in and around 
Calcutta, amounting to an annuity of 27,000 for life, 
and left him by will the sum of 70,000, which Clivo 
devoted to the army. 

While busy with the civil administration, the conqueror 
of Plassy continued to follow up his military success. He 
sent Major Coote in pursuit of the French almost as far as 
Benares. He despatched Colonel Forde to Vizagapatam 
and the northern districts of Madras, where that officer 
gained the battle of Condore, pronounced by Broome "one 
of the most brilliant actions on military record." He came 
into direct contact, for the first time, with the Great Mogul 
himself, an event which resulted in the most important 
consequences during the third period of his career. Shah 
Aalum, when Shahzada, or heir-apparent, quarrelled with 
his father Aalum Geer II., the emperor, and united with 
the viceroys of Oudh and Allahabad for the conquest of 
Bengal. He advanced as far as Patna, which he besieged 
with 40,000 men. Jaffier Ali, in terror, sent his son to its 
relief, and implored the aid of Clive. Major Caillaud 
defeated the prince s army at the battle of Sirpore, and dis 
persed it. Finally, at this period, Clive repelled the 
aggression of the Dutch, and avenged the massacre of 
Amboyna, on that occasion when he wrote his famous 
letter, " Dear Forde, fight them immediately ; I will send 
you the order of council to-morrow." Meanwhile he never 
ceased to improve the organization and drill of the sepoy 
army, after a European model, and enlisted into it many 
Mahometans of fine physique from Upper India. He re- 
fortified Calcutta. In 1760, after four years of labour so 
incessant and results so glorious, his health gave way and 
he returned to England. " It appeared," wrote a con 
temporary on the spot, " as if the soul was departing from 
the government of Bengal." He had beon formally made 
governor of Bengal by the court of directors at a time 
when his nominal superiors in Madras sought to recall him 
to their help there. But he had discerned the importance of 
the province even during his first visit to its rich delta, 
mighty rivers, and teeming population. It should ba 
noticed, also, that he had the kingly gift of selecting the 
ablest subordinates, for even thus early he had discovered 
the ability of young Warren Hastings, destined to be his 
great successor, and, a year after Flassy, made him 
" resident " at the nawab s court. 

In 17 GO, at thirty-five years of age, Clive returned to 
England with a fortune of at least 300,000 and the quit- 
rent of 27,000 a year, after caring for the comfort of his 
parents and sisters, and giving Major Lawrence, his old 
commanding officer, who had early encouraged his military 
genius, 500 a year. The money had been honourably 
and publicly acquired, with the approval of the Company. 
The amount might have been four times what it was, had 
Clive been either greedy after wealth or ungenerous to the 
colleagues and the troops whom In led to victory. In the 
five years of his conquests and administration in Bengal, 
the young man had crowded together a succession of 



exploits which led Lord Macaulay, in what that historian 
termed his " flashy " essay on the subject, to compare him 
to Napoleon Bonaparte. But there was this difference in 
Olive s favour, due not more to the circumstances of the 
time than to the object of his policy he gave peace, 
security, prosperity, and such liberty as the caso allowed 
of to a people now reckoned at 240 millions, who had for 
centuries been the prey of oppression, while Napoleon 
warred only for personal ambition, and the absolutism ho 
established has left not a wreck behind. During the three 
years that Clive remained in England he sought a political 
position, chiefly that he might influence the course of 
events in India, -which he had left full of promise. He 
had been well received at court, had been made Baron 
Clive of Plassy, in the peerage of Ireland, had bought 
estates, and had got not only himself but his friends 
returned to the House of Commons after the fashion of the 
time. Then it was that he set himself to reform the home 
system of the East India Company, and commenced a 
bitter warfare with Mr Sulivan, chair man of the court of 
directors, whom finally he defeated. In this he was aided 
by the news of reverses in Bengal. Yansittart, his successor, 
having no great influence over Jaffier Ali Khan, had put 
Kossim Ali Khan, the son-in-law, in his place in considera 
tion of certain payments to the English officials. After a 
brief tenure Kossim Ali had fled, had ordered Summers, 
or Sumroo, a Swiss mercenary of his, to butcher the 
garrison of 150 English at Patna, and had disappeared 
under the protection of his brother viceroy of. Oudh. The 
whole Company s service, civil and military, had become 
demoralized by such gifts, and by the monopoly of the 
inland as well as export trade, to such an extent that the 
natives were pauperized, and the Company was plundered 
of the revenues which Clive had acquired for them. The 
court of proprietors, accordingly, who elected the directors, 
forced them, in spite of Sulivan, to hurry out Lord Clive 
to Bengal with the double powers of governor and com- 
mander-in-cliief. 

W T hat he had done for Madras, what he had accomplished 
for Bengal proper, and what he had effected in reforming 
the Company itself, he was now to complete in less than 
two years, in this the third period of his career, by putting 
his country politically in the place of the emperor of 
Delhi, and preventing forever the possibility of the corrup 
tion to which the English in India had been driven by an 
evil system. On the 3d May 17G5, he landed at Calcutta 
to learn that Jaffier Ali Khan had died, leaving him 
personally 70,000, and had been succeeded by his son, 
though not before the Government had been further 
demoralized by taking 100,000 as a gift from the new 
nawab ; while Kossim Ali had induced not only the viceroy 
of Oudh, but the emperor of Delhi himself, to invade 
Behar. After the first mutiny in the Bengal army, which 
was suppressed by blowing the sepoy ringleader from the 
guns, Major Munro, " the Xapier of those times," scattered 
the united armies on the hard-fought field of Bttxar. The 
emperor, Shah Aalum, detached himself from the league, 
while the Oudh viceroy threw himself on the mercy of the 
English. Clive had now an opportunity of repeating in 
Hindustan, or Upper India, what he had accomplished for 
the good of Bengal. He might have secured what are now 
called the Xjrth- Western Provinces and Oudh, and have 
rendered unnecessary the campaigns of Wellesley and 
Lake. But he had other work in the consolidation of rich 
Bengal itself, making it a base from which the mighty fabric 
of British India could afterwards steadily and proportionally 
(rrow. Hence he returned to the Oudh viceroy all his 
territory save the provinces of Allahabad and Corah, which 
he made over to the weak emperor. But from that emperor 
he secured the most important document in the wlioJe of 



12 



OLIVE 



our Indian history up to that time, which appears in the 
records as " firmauud from the King Shah Aalum, granting 
the dewany of Bengal, Behar, and Orissa to the Company, 
1765." The date was the 12th August, the place Benares, 
the throne an English dining-table covered with embroidered 
cloth and surmounted by a chair in Olive s tent. It is all 
pictured by a Mahometan contemporary, who indignantly 
exclaims that so great a " transaction was done and finished 
in less time than would have been taken up in the sale of 
a jackass." By this deed the Company became the real 
sovereign rulers of thirty millions of people, yielding a 
revenue of four millions sterling. All this had been ac 
complished by Olive in the few brief years since he had 
a/enged " the Black Hole" of Calcutta. This would be a 
email matter, or might even be a cause of reproach, were it 
not that the Company s, now the Queen s, undisputed 
sovereignty proved, after a sore period of transition, the 
salvation of these millions. The lieutenant-governorship 
of Bengal, with some additions since Olive s time, now 
contains sixty millions of people, and yields an annual 
revenue of twelve millions sterling, of which eight goes 
every year to assist in the good government of the rest of 
India. But Olive, though thus moderate and even 
generous to an extent which called forth the astonishment 
of the natives, had all a statesman s foresight. On the same 
date, he obtained not only an imperial charter for the 
Company s possessions in the Carnatic also, thus completing 
the work he began at Arcot, but a third firmaun for the 
highest of all the lieutenancies or soubaships of the 
empire, that of the Deccan itself. The fact has only 
recently been discovered, by distinct allusion to it in a 
letter from the secret committee of the court of directors 
to the Madras Government, dated 27th April 1768. Still 
so disproportionate seemed the British force, not only to 
the number and strength of the princes and people of 
India, but to the claims and ambition of French, Dutch, 
and Danish rivals, that Olive s last advice to the directors, 
as he finally left India in 1777, was this, given in a remark 
able state paper but little known : " We are sensible that, 
since the acquisition of the dewany, the power formerly 
belonging to the soubali of those provinces is totally, in 
fact, vested in the East India Company. Nothing remains 
to him bat the name and shadow of authority. This name, 
however, this shadow, it is indispensably necessary we 
should seem to venerate." On a wider arena, even that of 
the Great Mogul himself, the shadow was kept up till it 
obliterated itself in the massacre of English people in the 
Delhi palace in 1857 ; and the Queen was proclaimed, first, 
direct ruler on the 1st November 1858, and then empress 
of ludia on the 1st January 1377 

Having thus founded the empire of British India, 
Olive s painful duty was to create a pure and strong 
administration, such as alone would justify its possession.by 
foreigners. The civil service was de-orientalized by 
raising the miserable salaries which had tempted its 
members to be corrupt, by forbidding the acceptance of 
gifts from natives, and by exacting covenants under which 
participation in the inland trade was stopped. Not less 
important were his military reforms. With his usual tact 
and nerve he put down a mutiny of the English officers, who 
chose to resent the veto against receiving presents and the 
reduction of batta at a time when two Mahratta armies were 
marching on Bengal. His reorganization of the army, on the 
lines of that which he had begun after Plassy, and which 
was neglected during his second visit to England, has since 
attracted the admiration of the ablest Indian officers. He 
divided the whole into three brigades, so as to make each 
a complete force, in itself equal to a>jy single native army 
that could be brought against it. His one fault was that 
of his age and his position, with so small a number of men. 



He lacked a sufficient number of British artillerymen, and 
would not commit the mistake of his successors, who trained 
natives to work the guns, which were turned against us 
with such effect in 1857. It is sufficient to say that 
Government has returned to his policy, for not a native 
gunner is now to be found save in a few unhealthy and 
isolated frontier posts. 

Olive s final return to England, a poorer man than he 
went out, in spite of still more tremendous temptations, was 
the signal for an outburst of his personal enemies, exceeded 
only by that which the malice of Sir Philip Francis after 
wards excited against Warren Hastings. Every civilian, 
whose illicit gains he had cut off, every officer whose con 
spiracy he had foiled, every proprietor or director, like 
Sulivan, whose selfish schemes he had thwarted, now 
sought their opportunity. He had, with consistent 
generosity, at once made over the legacy of 70,000 from 
the grateful Jaffier AH, as the capital of what has since 
been known as " the Olive Fund," for the support of 
invalided European soldiers, as well as officers, and their 
widows, and the Company had allowed 8 per cent, on the 
Bum for an object which it was otherwise bound to meet. 
Burgoyne, of Saratoga memory, did his best to induce the 
House of Commons, in which Lord Olive was now member 
for Shrewsbury, to impeach the man who gave his country 
an empire, and the people of that empire peace and justice, 
and that, as we have seen, without blot on the gift, save in 
the matter of Omichund. The result, after the brilliant 
and honourable defences of his career which will be found 
in Almon s Debates for 1773, was a compromise that saved 
England this time from the dishonour which, when Warren 
Hastings had to run the gauntlet, put it in the same 
category with France in the treatment of its public bene 
factors abroad. On a division the House, by 155 to 95, 
carried the motion that Lord Olive "did obtain and possess 
himself " of 234,000 during his first administration of 
Bengal ; but, refusing to express an opinion on the fact, it 
passed unanimously the second motion, at five in the 
morning, " that Robert, Lord Olive, did at the same time 
render great and meritorious services to his country." The 
one moral question, the one stain of all that brilliant and 
tempted life the Omichund treaty was not touched. 

Only one who can personally understand what Olive s 
power and services were will rightly realize the effect on 
him, though in the prime of life, of the discussions through 
which he had been dragged. We have referred to Warren 
Hastings s impeachment, but there is a more recent parallel. 
The marquis of Dalhousie did almost as much to complete 
the territorial area and civilized administration of British 
India in his eight years term of office as Lord Olive to found 
the empire in a similar period. As Olive s accusers sought a 
new weapon in the great famine of 1770, for which he was 
in no sense responsible, so there were critics who accused Dal 
housie of having caused that mutiny which, in truth, he would 
have prevented had the British Government listened to his 
counsel not to reduce the small English army in the 
country, Clive tells us his own feelings in a passage of 
first importance when we seek to form an opinion on the 
fatal act by which he ended his life. In the greatest of his 
speeches, in reply to Lord North, he said, " My situation, 
sir, has not been an easy one for these twelve months 
past, and though my conscience could never accuse me, yet 
I felt for my friends who were involved in the same censure 

as myself I have been examined by the select 

committee more like a sheep-stealer than a member of this 
House." Fully accepting that statement, and believing 
him to have been purer than his accusers in spite of 
temptations unknown to them, we see in Olive s end the 
result merely of physical suffering, of chronic disease 
which opium failed to abate, while the worry and chagrin 



C L L 



lij 



caused by his enemies gave it full scope. This great man, 
who fell short only of the highest form of moral greatness 
on one supreme occasion, but who did more for his country 
than any soldier till Wellington, and more for the people 
and princes of India than any statesman in history, died by 
his own hand, November 22, 1774, in his fiftieth year. 

The portrait of Olive, by Dance, in the Council Chamber 
of Government House, Calcutta, faithfully represents him. 
He was slightly above middle-size, with a countenance 
rendered heavy and almost sad by a natural fulness above 



the eyes. Reserved to the many, he was beloved by his 
own family and friends. His encouragement of scientific 
undertakings like Major Rennell s surveys, and of philo 
logical researches like Mr Gladwin s, was marked by the 
two honorary distinctions of F.R.S. and LL.D. 

The Lest authorities for his life, which has yet to be worthily 
written, are article "Clive," in the second or Kippis s edition 
of the Biographia Urilamnca, from materials supplied by his brother, 
Archdeacon Clive, by Henry Beaufoy, M.P. ; Broome s History oj 
the Bengal Army; Aitchison s Treaties, second edition, 1876"- 
Orme s History ; and Malcolm s Life. (G. SM.) 



CLOCKS 



rilHE origin of clock work is involved in great obscurity. 
I Notwithstanding the statements by many writers that 
clocks, horologia, were in use so early as the 9th century, 
and that they were then invented by an archdeacon of 
Verona, named Pacificus, there appears to be no clear 
evidence that they were machines at all resembling 
those which have been in use for the last five or six 
centuries. But it may be inferred from various allusions 
to horologia, and to their striking spontaneously, in the 
12th century, that genuine clocks existed then, though 
there is no surviving description of any one until the 13th 
century, when it appears that a horologiuni was sent by the 
sultan of Egypt in 1 232 to the Emperor Frederick II. " It 
resembled a celestial globe, in which the sun, moon, and 
planets moved, being impelled by weights and wheels, so 
that they pointed out the hour, day, and night with cer 
tainty." A clock was put up in a former clock tower at 
Westminster with some great bells in 1288, out of a fine 
imposed on a corrupt chief-justice, and the motto Discite 




FIG. 1. Section of House Clock. 

justiliam, moniti, inscribed upon it. The bells were sold 
or rather, it is said, gambled away, by Henry VIII. In 



1292 one is mentioned in Canterbury Cathedral as costing 
30. And another at St Albans, by R. Wallingford the 
abbot in 1326, is said to have been such as there was not 
in all Europe, showing various astronomical phenomena. 
A description of one in Dover Castle with the date 1348 on 
it was published by the late Admiral Smyth, P.R.A.S., 
in 1851, and the clock itself was exhibited going, in the 
Scientific Exhibition of 1876. In the early editions of 
this Encyclopaedia there was a picture of a very similar 
one, made by De Vick for the French king Charles V. 
about the same time, much like our common clocks of the 
last century, exeept that it had a vibrating balance, but 
no spring, instead of a pendulum, for pendulums were not 
invented till three centuries after that. 

The general construction of the going part of all clocks, 
except large or turret clocks, which we shall treat separ 
ately, is substantially the same, and fig. 1 is a section of 
any ordinary house clock. B is the barrel with the rope 
coiled round it, generally 16 times for the 8 days ; the barrel 
is fixed to its arbor K, which is prolonged into the winding 
square coming up to the face or dial of the clock ; the 
dial is here shown as fixed either by small screws x, or by 
a socket and pin z, to the prolonged pillars p, p, which (4 or 
5 in number) connect the plates or frame of the clock 
together, though the dial is commonly, but for no good 
reason, set on to the front plate by another set of pillars of 
its own. The great wheel G rides on the arbor, and is 
connected with the barrel by the ratchet R, the action of 
which is shown more fully in fig 1 4. The intermediate 
wheel r in this drawing is for a purpose which will be de 
scribed hereafter, and for the present it may be considered 
as omitted, and the click of the ratchet R as fixed to the 
great wheel. The great wheel drives the pinion c which 
is called the centre pinion, on the arbor of the centre whee.1 
C, which goes through to the dial, and carries the long, or 
minute-hand; this wheel always turns in an hour, and 
the great wheel generally in 12 hours, by having 12 times 
as many teeth as the centre pinion. The centre wheel drives 
the " second wheel " D by its pinion d, and that again 
drives the scape-wheel E by its pinion e. If the pinions d 
and e have each 8 teeth or leaves (as the teeth of pinions 
are usually called), C will have 64 teeth and D 60, in a 
clock of which the scape-wheel turns in a minute, so that 
the seconds hand may be set on its arbor prolonged to the 
dial. A represents the pallets of the escapement, which 
will be described presently, and their arbor a goes through 
a large hole in the back plate near F, and its back pivot 
turns in a cock OFQ screwed on to the back plate. From 
the pallet arbor at F descends the crutch F/, ending ic 
the /or/;/, which embraces the pendulum F, so that as the 
pendulum vibrates, the crutch and the pullets necessarily 
vibrate with it. The pendulum is hung by a thin spring 
S from the cock Q, so that the bending point of the spring 
may be just opposite the end of the pallet arbor, and the 
edge of the spring as close to the end of that arbor aa 
possible a point too frequently neglected. 



14 



CLOCKS 



We may now go to the front (or left hand) of the clock, 
and describe the dial or " motion-work." The minute hand 
fits on to a squared end of a brass socket, which is fixed to 
the wheel M, and fits close, but not tight, on the pro 
longed arbor of the centre wheel. Behind this wheel is a 
bent spring which is (or ought to be) set on the same arbor 
with a square hole (not a round one as it sometimes is) 
in the middle, so that it must turn with the arbor; the 
wheel is pressed up against this spring, and kept there, by a 
cap and a small pin through the end of the arbor. The 
consequence is, that there is friction enough between the 
spring .and the wheel to carry the hand round, but not 
enough to resist a moderate push with the finger for the 
purpose of altering the time indicated. This wheel M, which 
is sometimes called the minute-wheel, but is better called 
the hour-wheel as it turns in an hour, drives another wheel 
N, of the same number of teeth, which has a pinion attached 
to it; and that pinion drives the twelve-hour tcheel H, 
which is also attached to a large socket or pipe carrying the 
hour hand, and riding on the former socket, or rather (in 
order to relieve the centre arbor of that extra weight) on an 
intermediate socket fixed to the bridge L, which is screwed 
to the front plate over the hour-wheel M. The weight W, 
which drives the train and gives the impulse to the pendu 
lum through the escapement, is generally hung by a catgut 
line passing through a pulley attached to the weight, the 
other end of the cord being tied to some convenient place 
in the clock frame or seat-board, to which it is fixed by 
screws through the lower pillars. It has usually been the 
practice to make the case of house clocks and astronomical 
clocks not less than 6 feet high ; but that is a very 
unnecessary waste of space and materials ; for by either 
diminishing the size of the barrel, or the number of its 
turns, by increasing the size of the great wheel by one-half, 
or hanging the weights by a treble instead of a double line; 
a case just long enough for the pendulum will also be long 
enough for the fall of the weights in 7| or 8 days. Of 
courso the weights have to be increased in the same ratio, 
and indeed ratharmore, to overcome the increased friction; 
but that is of no consequence. 

PENDULUM. 

The claim to the invention of the pendulum, like the claim to 
most inventions, is disputed ; and we have no intention of trying 
to settle it. It was, like many other discoveries and inventions, 
probably made by various persons independently, and almost simul 
taneously, when the state of science had become ripe for it. The 
discovery of that peculiarly valuable property of the pendulum called 
isochronism, or the disposition to vibrate different arcs in very 
nearly the same time (provided the arcs are none of them large), 
is commonly attributed to Galileo, in the well-known story of his 
being struck with the isochronism of a chandelier hung by a long 
chain from the roof of the church, at Florence. And Galileo s son 
appears as a rival of Avicenna, Huyghens, Dr Hooke, and a London 
clockmaker named Harris, for the honour of having first applied the 
pendulum to regulate the motion of a clock train, all in the early 
part of the 17th century. Be this as it may, there seems 
little doubt that Huyghens was the first who mathematically investi 
gated, and therefore really knew, the true nature of those properties 
of the pendulum which may now be found explained in any mathe 
matical book on mechanics. He discovered that if a simple pen 
dulum (i.e., a weight or lob consisting of a single point, and hung 
by a rod or string of no weight) can be made to describe, not a 
circle, but a cycloid of which the string would be the radius of cur 
vature at the lowest point, all its vibrations, however large, will be 
performed in the same time. For a little distance near the bottom, 
the circle very nearly coincides with the cycloid ; and hence it is 
that, for small arcs, a pendulum vibrating as usual in a circle is 
nearly enough isochronous for the purposes of horology ; more espe 
cially when contrivances are introduced either to compensate for 
the variations of the arc, or, better still, to destroy them altogether, 
by making the force on the pendulum so constant that its arc may 
never sensibly vary. 

The difference between the time of any small arc of the circle an 
any arc of the cycloid varies nearly as the square of the circular 
arc ; and again, the difference between the times of any two smal 



and nearly equal circular arcs of the same pendulum, varies nearly 
as the arc itself. If a, the arc, is increased by a small amount da, 
the pendulum, will lose IQSOOada seconds a day, which is rather 
more than 1 second, if a is 2 (from zero) and da is 10 , since the 
numerical value of 2 is 035. If the increase of arc is considerable, 
t will not do to reckon thus by differentials, but we must take the 
difference of time for the day as 5400 (a, 2 a 2 ), which will be j ist 

seconds if a = 2 and a t 6. For many years it wag thought of 
great importance to obtain cycloidal vibrations of clock pendulums, 
ind it was done by making the suspension string or spring vibrate 
Between cycloidal checks, as they were called. But it was in time 
discovered that all this is a delusion, first, because there is and 
can be no such thing in reality as a simple pendulum, and cycloidal 
cheeks will only make a simple pendulum vibrate isochronously ; 
secondly, because a very slight error in the form of the cheeks (as 
Huyghens himself discovered) would do more harm than the circular 
error uncorrected, even for an arc of 1 0, which is much larger than 
the common pendulum arc ; thirdly, because there was always some 
friction or adhesion between the cheeks and the string ; and 
fourthly (a reason which applies equally to all the isochronous 
contrivances since invented), because a common clock escapement 
itself generally tends to produce an error exactly opposite to the 
circular error, or to make the pendulum vibrate quicker the farther 
it swings ; and therefore the circular error is actually useful for the 
purpose of helping to counteract the error due to the escapement, 
and the clock goes better than it would with, a simple pendulum, 
describing the most perfect cycloid. At the same time, the thin 
spring by which pendulums are always suspended, except in some 
French clocks where a silk string is used (a very inferior plan), 
causes the pendulum to deviate a little from circular and to approxi 
mate to cycloidal motion, because the bend does not take place at 
one point, but is spread over some length of the spring. 

The accurate performance of a clock depends so essentially on the 
pendulum, that we shall go somewhat into detail respecting it. 
First then, the time of vibration depends entirely on the length of 
the pendulum, the effect of the spring being too small for considera 
tion until we come to differences of a higher order. But the time 
does not vary as the length, but only as the square root of the 
length ; i.e., a pendulum to vibrate two seconds must be four- 
times as long as a seconds pendulum. The relation between the 
time of vibration and the length of a pendulum is expressed thus : 

t TT\/-, where t is the time in seconds, it the well-known 

9 

symbol for 3 141 59, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to ita 
diameter, I the length of the pendulum, and g the force of gravity 
at the latitude where it is intended to vibrate. This letter g, in 
the latitude of London, is the symbol for 32 2 feet, that being the 
velocity (or number of feet per second) at which a body is found by 
experiment to be moving at the end of the first second of its fall, 
being necessarily equal to twice the actual number of feet it has 
fallen in that second. Consequently, the length of a pendulum to 
beat seconds in London is 39 14 inches. But the same pendulum 
carried to the equator, where the force of gravity is less, would lose 
2J minutes a day. 

The seconds we are here speaking of are the seconds of. a common 
clock indicating mean solar time. But as clocks are also required for 
sidereal time, it may be as well to mention the proportions between a 
mean and a sidereal pendulum. A sidereal day is the interval between 
two successive transits over the meridian of a place by that imagin 
ary point in the heavens called T, the first point of Aries, at the 
intersection of the equator and the ecliptic ; and there is one 
more sidereal day than there are solar days in a year, since the earth 
has to turn more than once round iii space before the sun can coma 
a second time to the meridian, on account of the earth s own motion 
in its orbit during the day. A sidereal day or hour is shorter than 
a mean solar one in the ratio of 99727, and consequently a sidereal 
pendulum must be shorter than a mean time pendulum in the squaro 
of that ratio, or in the latitude of London the sidereal seconds pen 
dulum is 38 87 inches. As we have mentioned what is or 24 
o clock by sidereal time, we may as well add, that the mean day is 
also reckoned in astronomy by 24 hours, and not from midnight as 
in civil reckoning, but from the following noon ; thus, what wo 
call 11 A.M. May 1 in common life is 23 h. April 30 with 
astronomers. 

It must be remembered that the pendulums whose lengths _we 
have been speaking of are simple pendulums ; and as that is a thing 
which can only exist in theory, the reader may ask how the length 
of a real pendulum to vibrate in any required time is ascertained. 
In every pendulum, that is to say, in every body hung so as to be 
capable of vibrating freely, there is a certain point, always some 
where below the centre of gravity, which possesses these remarkable 
properties that if the pendulum were turned upside down, and set 
vibrating about this point, it would vibrate in the same time as 
before, and moreover, that the distance of this point from the point of 
suspension is exactly the length of that imaginary simple pendulum 
which would vibrate in the same time. This point is therefore 
, called the centre of oscillation. The rules for finding it by calcula- 



CLOCKS 



tbn are too complicated for ordinary use, except in bodies of 
certain simple and regular forms ; but they are fortunately not 
requisite in practice, because in all clock pendulums the centre of 
oscillation is only a short distance below the centre of gravity of 
the whole pendulum, and generally so near to the centre of gravity 
of the bob in fact a little above it that there is no difficulty in 
making a pendulum for any given time of vibration near enough to 
the proper length at once, and then adjusting it by screwing the 
bob up or down until it is found to vibrate in the proper time. 



Revolving or Conical Pendulum. 
Thus far we have been speaking of vibrating pendulums 



but 



now useu universally, in all but some interior foreign clocks, which 
have strings instead, is a thin and short spring, with one end let 
into the top of the pendulum, and the other screwed between two 



luiu me lujj vi uic peuuiuum, iinu uie inner screwed ueiwecn two 
chops ot metal with a pin through them, which rests firmly in n 
nick in the cock which carries the pendulum as shown in fig. 2 a 
little farther on ; and the steadiness of this cock, and its firm 
Qxing to a wall, are essential to the accurate performance of the 

rlnc V. Tlio thinner flip Qnrinrr flip 1^o<fnT. -rn^t-i.!*./! f\f isMii*cr> if 



lilUS I UT We nave uccll suettmiig ui \iuianii^ ^/CUILIUIUUO , L>uii 

the notice of pendulums would be incomplete without some allusion 
to revolving or conical pendulums, as they are called, because they 
describe a cone in revolving. Such pendulums are used where a 
continuous instead of an intermittent motion of the clock train is 
required, as in the clocks for keeping an equatorial telescope 
directed to a star, by driving it the opposite way to the motion of 
the earth, to whose axis the axis on which the telescope turns is 
made parallel. Clocks with such pendulums may also be used in 
bedrooms by persons who cannot bear the ticking of a common 
clock. The pendulum, instead of being hung by a flat spring, is 
hung by a thin piece of piano-forte wire ; and it should be under 
stood that it has no tendency to twist on its own axis, and so to 
twist off the wire, as may be apprehended ; in fact, it would require 
some extra force to make it twist, if it were wanted to do so. The 
time of revolution of such a pendulum may be easily ascertained as 
follows : Let Z be its length ; a the angle which it makes with 
the vertical axis of the cone which it describes ; w the angular 
velocity ; then the centrifugal force = u> 2 I sin. a ; and as this is the 
force which keeps the pendulum away from the vertical, it must 
balance the force which draws it to the vertical, which is g tan. a : 

and therefore / 2 = the angular velocity, or the angle de- 

v/ i cos. 6 

scribed in a second of time ; and the time of complete revolution 
through the angle 360 or 2w is^=2ir^/L2L ; that is to 

say, the time of revolution of a pendulum of any given length is 
less than the time of a double oscillation of the same pendulum, in 
the proportion of the cosine of the angle which it makes with the 
axis of revolution to unity. 

A rotary pendulum is kept in motion by the train of the clock 
ending in a horizontal wheel with a vertical axis, from which pro 
jects an arm pressing against a spike at the bottom of the pendu 
lum ; and it has this disadvantage that any inequality in the force 
of the train, arising from variations of friction or any other cause, 
is immediately transmitted to the pendulum ; whereas it will be 
seen that in several kinds of escapements which can be applied to a 
vibrating pendulum, the variations of force can be rendered nearly 
or quiteinsensible. And it is a mistake to imagine that there is 
any self-correcting power in a conical pendulum analogous to that 
of the governor of a steam-engine ; for that apparatus, though it is 
a couple of conical pendulums, has also a communication by a 
system of levers with the valve which supplies the steam. _ The 
governor apparatus has itself been applied to telescope-driving 
clocks, with a lever ending in a spring which acts by friction on 
some revolving plate in the clock, increasing the friction, and so 
diminishing the force as the balls of the governor fly out farther 
under any increase in the force . And with the addition of some 
connection with the hand of the observer, by which the action can 
be farther moderated, the motion can be made sufficiently uniform 
for that purpose. 

Various other contrivances have been invented for producing a 
continuous clock-motion. The great equatorial telescope at Green 
wich is kept in motion by a kind of water clock called in books 
on hydrostatics Barker s Mill, in which two horizontal pipes 
branching out from a vertical tubular axis have each a hole near 
their ends on opposite sides, from which water flows, being poured 
constantly into the tubular axis, which revolves on a pivot, 
resistance of the air to the water issuing from the holes drives the 
mill round, and there are means of regulating it. Another plan is 
to connect a clock train having a vibrating pendulum with another 
clock havin" a conical pendulum by one of the lower wheels in the 
train, with a spring connection ; the telescope is driven by the 
revolving clock train, and the other pendulum keeps it sufficiently 
in order, though allowing it to expatiate enough for each beat ot 
the pendulum The more complicated plan of Wagner of I ans 
described in Sir E. Beckett s Rudimentary Treatise on Clocks and 
JFatches and Bdls does not appear to have ever come i 
and therefore it is now omitted. 



Pendulum Suspension, 

The suspension of the pendulum on what are called 
like those of a scale-beam, has often been advocated. But 
it may do well enough for short experiments, in which th 



iiii.iv in me LUIIV nuivii lituTieH uiu pciKimuiii as snown in rig. z a 
little farther on ; and the steadiness of this cock, and its firm 
Gxing to a wall, are essential to the accurate performance of the 
clock. The thinner the spring the better ; provided, of course, it 
is strong enough to carry the pendulum without being bent beyond 
its elasticity, or bent short ; not that there is much risk of that in 
practice. Pendulum springs are much oftener too thick than too 
thin ; and it is worth notice that, independently of their greater 
effect on the natural time of vibration of the pendulum, thick and 
narrow springs are more liable to break than thin nnd broad ones 
of the same strength. It is of great importance that the spring 
should be of uniform thickness throughout its breadth ; and the 
bottom of the chops which carry it should be exactly horizontal ; 
otherwise the pendulum will swing with a twist, as they may he 
often seen to do in ill-made clocks. If the bottom of the 
chops is left sharp, where they clip the spring, it is very likely 
to break there ; and therefore the sharp edges should be taken off. 

The bob of the pendulum used to be generally made in the shape 
of a lens, with a view to its passing through the air with the least 
resistance. But after the importance of making the bob heavy was 
discovered, it became almost necessary to adopt a form of more 
solid content in proportion to its surface. A sphere has beOn occa 
sionally used, but it is not a good shape, because a slight error in 
the place of the hole for the rod may make a serious difference in 
the amount of weight on each side, and give the pendulum a ten 
dency to twist in motion. The mercurial jar pendulum suggested 
the cylindrical form, which is now generally adopted for astronomical 
clocks, and in the best turret clocks, with a round top to prevent 
any bits of mortar or dirt falling and resting upon it, which would 
alter the time ; it also looks better than a flat-topped cylinder. There 
is no rule to be given for the weight of pendulums. It will be 
shown hereafter that, whatever escapement may be used, the errors 
due to any variation of force are expressed in fractions which inva 
riably have the weight and the length of the pendulum in the 
denominator, though some kind of escapements require a heavy 
pendulum to correct their errors much less than others. And as a 
heavy pendulum requires very little more force to keep it in motion 
than a light one, being less affected by the resistance of the air, we 
may almost say that the heavier and longer a pendulum can be 
made the better ; at any rate, the only limit is one of convenience ; 
for instance, it would obviously be inconvenient to put a large pen 
dulum of 100 lb weight in the case of an astronomical or common 
house clock. It may perhaps be laid down as a rule, that no 
astronomical clock or regulator (as they are also called) will go 
as well as is now expected of such clocks with a pendulum of 
less than 28 lb weight, and no turret clock with less than 1 
cwt. Long pendulums are generally made with heavier bobs 
than short ones ; and such a clock as that of the Houses of Par 
liament, with a two-seconds pendulum of 6 cwt., ought to go 44 
times as well as a small turret clock with a one-second pendulum 
of 60 lb. Pendulums longer than 14 feet (2 seconds) are incon 
venient, liable to be disturbed by wind, and expensive to compen 
sate, and they are now quite disused, and most or all of the old ones 
removed, with their clocks, for better ones. 

Pendulum Regulation. 

The regulation of pendulums, or their exact adjustment to the 
proper length, is primarily effected by a nut on the end of the 
rod by which the bob can be screwed up or down. In the best 
clocks the rim of this nut is divided, with an index over it ; so the 
exact quantity of rise or fall, or the exact acceleration or 
retardation, may be known, the amount due to one turn ot tlic 
nut being previously ascertained. By the calculation used below 
for compensation of pendulums, it may be seen that if the J gtfl 
of the pendulum rod is I, and the breadth of one thread of 
the screw is called dl, then one turn of the nut will alte 
rate of the clock by 43200 y seconds a day ; which would be 
iust 80 seconds, if the pendulum rod is 45 inches long and the 
screw has 32 threads in the inch. To accelerate the clock the nut 
has always to be turned to the right, as it is called, and t 
But in astronomical and in large turret clocks, it i 
to avoid stopping, or in any way disturbing the pendulum ; and f 
the finer adjustments other methods of regu ation are adopted 
The best is that of fixing a collar, as shown in fig 2, capable o 
having very small weights laid upon it, half-way down th 
dulunf, this being the place where the addition of any smal 1 eig ht 
produces the greatest effect, and where, it may be added aiij 
moving of that weight up or down on the rod produces 



CLOCKS 



effect If M is the weight of the pendulum and I its length (down 
to the centre of oscillation), and m a small weight added at the 
distance d below the centre of suspension or above the c.o. (since they 
are reciprocal), I the time of vibration, and - dt the acceleration due 
to adding m ; then 

-dt m_ id d*\. 

~T~ ~ 2M V " I 1 ) 
from which it is evident that if d = i, then - d T the daily 

acceleratioij := 1080 m ; or if m is the 10800th of the weight of 

M 

the pendulum it will accelerate the clock a second a day, or 10 
grains will do that on a pendulum of 15 Ib. weight (7000 gr. being 
= 1 Ib.), or an ounce on a pendulum of 6 cwt. In like manner if 

d = - from either top or bottom, m must = , - to accelerate 
3 7200 

the clock a second a day. The higher up the collar is the less risk 
there is of disturbing the pendulum in putting on or taking oft the 
regulating weights. The weights should be made in a series, and 
marked 4, 1, 2, according to the number of seconds a day by 
which they will accelerate; and the pendulum adjusted at first 
to lose a little, perhaps a second a day, when there are no weights 
on the collar, so that it may always have some weight on, which 
can be diminished or increased from time to time with certainty, as 
the rate may vary. 

Compensation of Pendulums. 

Soon after pendulums began to be generally used in clocks, it 
was discovered that they contained within themselves a source of 
error independent of the action of the clock upon them, and that they 
lost time in the hot weather and gained in cold, in consequence 
of all the substances of which they could be made expanding as 
the temperature increases. If I is the length of a pendulum, 
and dl the small increase of it from increased heat, t time of the 
pendulum I, and t + d that of the pendulum l + dl ; then 



t + dt 



VI 



dl 

+ 2 J 



since ( ) may be neglected as very small ; or dt = ! and 
the daily loss of the clock will be 43200^ seconds The following 
is a table of the values of ^ for 1000 Fahr. of heat in different sub 

stances, and also the weight of a cubic inch of each : 

ft 

White deal ..................................... 0024 036 

Flint glass ........................................... 0048 116 

Steel rod ......................................... 0064 28 

Iron rod ............................................. 007 26 

Brass ............................................... 010 30 

Lead ................................................ -016 41 

Zinc ............................................ -017 25 

Mercury (iu bulk, not in length) ............. 100 49 

Thus a common pendulum with an iron wire rod would lose 
43200 x -00007 = 3 seconds a day for 10 of heat ; and if adjusted 
for the winter temperature it would lose about a minute a week in 
summer, unless something in the clock happened to produce a 
counteracting effect, as we shall see may be the case when we 
come to escapements. We want therefore some contrivance which 
will always keep that point of the pendulum on which, its time 
depends, viz., the centre of oscillation,, at the same distance from the 
point of suspension. A vast number of such contrivances have 
been made, but there are only three which can be said to be at all 
in common use ; and the old gridiron pendulum, made of 9 alter 
nate bars of brass and steel is not one of them, having been super 
seded by one of zinc and iron, exactly on the same principle, but 
requiring much fewer bars on account of the greater expansion of 
zinc than brass. The centre of oscillation so nearly coincides in 
most clock pendulums with the centre of the bob that we may prac 
tically say that the object of compensation is to keep the bob always 
at the same height. For this purpose we must hang the bob from 
the top of a column of some rnetal which has so much more expan 
sion than the rod that its expansion upwards will neutralize that of 
the rod, and of the wires or tube by which the bob is hung, down 
wards. The complete calculation, taking into account the weight 
of all the rods and tubes is too long and complicated to be worth going 
through, especially as it must always be finally adjusted by trial 
either of that very pendulum or of one exactly similar. For prac 
tical purposes it is found sufficient to treat the expansion of zinc as 
being "016 to steel "0064, instead of "017 as it is really ; and for 
large pendulums with very heavy tubes even the 016 is a little 




too much. Moreover the c.o. is higher above the e.g. of the bob 
in such large pendulums than in small ones with light rods and 

But neglecting these minutiae for the first approximation, and 
supposing the bob either to be of iron, in which case it may be con 
sidered fixed anywhere to the iron tube which hangs from the top 
of the zinc tube, or a lead bob attached at its own centre, which 
obviates the slowness of the transmission of a change of temperature 
through it, the following calculation will hold. Letr be the length 
of thesteel rod and spring, z that of the zinc tube, b half the height 
of the bob ; the length of the iron tube down the centre of the bob is 
% - b. If the iron tube is of steel for simplicity of calculation, we 

2 
must evidently have -064(r + z-i) = I6z : z - g(r-J). It is 

practically found that for a seconds pendulum with a lead cylindrical 
bob 9 in. x 3 hung by its middle r has to be about 44 inches, 
and 2 nearly 27. At any rate it is safest to make it 27 at first, 
especially if the second tube is iron, which expands a little more 
than steel; and the tube can be shortened after trial but not 
lengthened. The rod of the standard sidereal pendulum at Green 
wich (down to the bottom of the bob, which is such 
as has been described and weighs 26 ft), is 43| 
and z is 26 inches, the descending wires being steel. 
A solar time pendulum is about % inch longer, as 
stated above. If the bob were fixed at its bottom 
to the steel tube the zinc would have to be 4 88 
longer. Fig. 2 is a section of the great West 
minster pendulum. The iron rod which runs from 
top to bottom, ends in a screw, with a nut N, for 
adjusting the length of the pendulum after it was 
made by calculation as near the right length as 
possible. On this nut rests a collar M, which can 
slide up the rod a little, but is prevented from 
turning by a pin through the rod. On a groove 
or annular channel in the top of this collar stands 
a zinc tube 10 feet 6 inches long, and nearly half 
an inch thick, made of three tubes all drawn 
together, so as to become like one (for it should 
be observed that cast zinc cannot be depended on ; 
it must be drawn). On the top of this tube or 
hollow column fits another collar with an annulai 
groove much like the bottom one M. The object 
of these grooves is to keep the unc column in its 
place, not touching the rod within it, as contact 
might produce friction, which would interfere with 
their relative motion under expansion and con 
traction. Round the collar C is screwed a large 
iron tube, also not touching the zinc, and ita 
lower end fits loosely on the collar M ; and round 
its outside it has another collar D of its own fixed 
to it, on which the bob rests. The iron tube has 
a number of large holes in it down each side, to 
let the air get to the zinc tube ; before that was 
done, it was found that the compensation lagged 
a day or two behind the changes of temperature, 
in consequence of the iron rod and tube being 
exposed, while the zinc tube was enclosed without 
touching the iron. The bottom of the bob is 14 
feet 11 inches from the top of the spring A, and 
the bob itself is 18 inches high, with a dome- 
shaped top, and twelve inches in diameter. As 

it is a 2-seconds pendulum, its centre of oscilla- _ , . . 

tion is 13 feet from the top A, which is higher t m. t n - 
than usual above the centre of gravity of the bob, t p i i 
on account of the great weight of the compensa 
tion tubes. The whole weighs very nearly 700 ft, and is probably 
the heaviest pendulum in the world. 

The second kind of compensation pendulum in use is still more 
simple, but not so effective or certain in its action ; and that is 
merely a wooden rod with a long lead bob resting on a nut at the 
bottom. According to the above table, it would appear that this 
bob ought to be 14 inches high in a 1-second pendulum ; but the 
expansion of wood is so uncertain that this proportion is not 
found capable of being depended on, and a somewhat shorter bob 
is said to be generally more correct in point of compensation . All 
persons who have tried wooden pendulums severely have come to 
the same conclusion, that they are capricious in their action, and 
consequently unfit for the highest class of clocks. 

The best of all the compensations was long thought to be the 
mercurial, which was invented by Graham, a London clock- 
maker, above a century ago, who also invented the well-known 
dead escapement for clocks, which will be hereafter explained, and 
the horizontal or cylinder escapement for watches. And the best 
form of the mercurial pendulum is that which was introduced by 
the late E. J. Dent, in which the mercury is enclosed in a cast 
iron jar or cylinder, into the top of which the steel rod is 
screwed, with its end plunged into the mercury itself. For by 



CLOCKS 



17 



this means the mercury, the rod, and the jar all acquire the new 
temperature at any change more simultaneously than when the 
mercury is in a glass jar hung by a stirrup (as it is called) at the 
bottom of the rod ; and moreover the pendulum is safe to carry 
about, and the jar can be made perfectly cylindrical by turning, 
and also air-tight, so as protect the mercury from oxidation ; and, 
if necessary, it can be heated in the jar so as to drive off any 
moisture, without the risk of breaking. The height of mercury 
required in a cast-iron jar, 2 inches in diameter, is about 6 8 inches; 
for it must be remembered, in calculating the rise of the mercury, 
that the jar itself expands laterally, and that expansion has to be 
deducted from that of the mercury in bulk. 

The success of the Westminster clock pendulum, however, and 
of smaller zinc and steel pendulums at Greenwich and elsewhere, 
has established the conclusion that it is unnecessary to incur the 
expense of a heavy mercurial pendulum, which has become more 
serious from the great rise in the price of mercury and the admitted 
necessity for much heavier bobs than were once thought sufficient 
for astronomical clocks. The complete calculation for a compen 
sated pendulum in which the rods and tubes form any considerable 
proportion of the whole weight, as they must in a zinc pendulum, 
is too complicated to be worth undertaking generally, especially as 
it is always necessary to adjust them finally by trial, and for that 
purpose the tubes should be made at first a little longer than they 
ought to be by calculation, except where one is exactly copying 
pendulums previously tried. 

BAROMETRICAL ERROR. 

It has long been known that pendulums are affected by varia 
tions of density of the air as well as of temperature, though in a much 
less degree, in fact, so little as to be immaterial, except in the best 
clocks, where all the other errors are reduced to a minimum. An 
increase of density of the air is equivalent to a diminution of the 
specific gravity of the pendulum, and that is equivalent to diminu 
tion of the force of gravity while the inertia remains the same. 
And as the velocity of the pendulum varies directly as the force of 
gravity and inversely as the inertia, an increase of density must 
diminish the velocity or increase the time. The late Francis Baily, 
P. R.A.S., also found from some elaborate experiments (See Phil. 
Trans, of 1832) that swinging pendulums carry so much air with 
them as to affect their specific gravity much beyond that due to 
the mere difference of stationary weight, and that this also varies 
with their shape, a rod with a flat elliptical section dragging more 
air with it than a thicker round one (which is not what one would 
expect), though a lens-shaped bob was less affected than a spherical 
one of the same diameter, which of course is much heavier. The 
frictional effect of the air is necessarily greater with its increased 
density, and that diminishes the arc. In the ll.A.S. Memoirs of 
1853 Mr Bloxam remarked also that the current produced in the 
descent of the pendulum goes along with it in ascending, and there 
fore does not retard the ascent as much as it did the descent, and 
therefore the two effects do not counteract each other as Baily 
assumed that they did. He also found the circular error always 
less than its theoretical value, and considered that this was due to 
the resistance of the air. The conclusions which were arrived at by 
several eminent clockmakers as to the effect of the pendulum spring 
on the circular error about 40 years ago were evidently erroneous, 
and the effect due to other causes. 

It appears from further investigation of the subject in several 
papers in the R.A.S. Notices of 1872 and 1873, that the barometri 
cal error also varies with the nature of the escapement, and (as Baily 
had before concluded from calculation) with the arc of the pendulum, 
so that it can hardly be determined for any particular clock a priori, 
except by inference from a similar one. The barometrical error of an 
ordinary astronomical clock with a dead escapement was said to be 
a loss of nearly a second a day for an inch rise of barometer, but 
with a gravity escapement and a very heavy pendulum not more 
than 3 second. Dr Robinson of Armagh (seeR.A.S. Mem., vol. v.) 
suggested the addition of a pair of barometer tubes to the sides of 
the pendulum, with a bulb at the bottom, and such a diameter of tube 
as would allow a sufficient quantity of mercuiy to be transposed to 
the top by the expansion under heat, to balance the direct effect of 
the heat upon the pendulum. But it is not necessary to have two 
tubes. In a paper in the R.A.S. Notices of January 1873 Mr. 
Denison (now Sir E. Beckett) gave the calculations requisite for 
the barometrical compensation of pendulums of various lengths and 
weights, the principle of which is just the same as that above given 
for regulating a pendulum by adding small weights near the middle 
of its length. The formula is also given at p. 69 of the sixth edition 
of his Rudimentary Treatise on Clocks. A barometrical correction 
of a different kind has been applied to the standard clock at Green 
wich. An independent barometer is made to raise or lower a magnet 
so as to bring it into more or less action on the pendulum and so to 
accelerate or retard it. But we do not see why that should be better 
than the barometer tube attached to the pendulum. The necessity 
for this correction seems to be obviated altogether by giving the 



pendulum a sufficient arc of vibration. Baily calculated that if the 
arc (reckoned from 0) is about 2 45 the barometrical error will W 
self-corrected. And it is remarkable that the Westminster clock 
pendulum, to which that large arc was given for other reasons, 
appears to be free from any barometric error, after trying the results 
of the daily rate as automatically recorded at Greenwich for the 
whole of the year 1872. We shall see presently that all the escape 
ment errors of clocks are represented by fractions which have the 
square or the cube of the arc in the denominator, and therefore if 
the arc can be increased and kept constant without any objectionably 
increase of force and friction, this is an additional reason for pre 
ferring a large arc to a small one, though that is contrary to the 
usual practice in astronomical clocks. 

ESCAPEMENTS. 

The escapement is that part of the clock in which the rotary 
motion of the wheels is converted into the vibratory motion of the 
balance or pendulum, which by some contrivance or other is made 
to let one tooth of the quickest wheel in the train escape at each 
vibration; and hence that wheel is called the " scape 77heel. " 
Fig. 3 shows the form of the earliest clock escapement, if it is held 
sideways, so that the arms on which the two balls are set may 
vibrate on a horizontal plane. In that case the arms and weights 
form a balance, and the farther out the weights are set, the slower 
would be the vibrations. If we now turn it as it stands here, and 
consider the upper weight left out, 
it becomes the earliest form of the 
pendulum clock, with the crown- 
ivheel or vertical escapement. CA 
and CB are two flat pieces of steel, 
called pallets, projecting from the 
axis about at right angles to eacli 
other, one of them over the front 
of the wheel as it stands, and the 
other over the back. The tooth 
D is just escaping from the front 
pallet CA, and at the same time 
the tooth at the back of the wheel 
falls on the other pallet CB, a little 
above its edge. But the pendulum 
which is now moving to the right 
does not stop immediately, but 
swings a little further (otherwise 
the least failure in the force of the 
train would stop the clock, as the 
escape would not take place), and 
in so doing it is evident that the 
pallet B will drive the wheel back 
a little, and produce what is called 
the recoil; which is visible enough 
in any common clock with a 




FIG. 3. Recoil Escapement. 



seconds-hand, either with this escapement or the one which will be- 
next described. 

It will be seen, on looking at figure 3, that the pallet B must 
turn through a considerable angle before the tooth can escape ; in 
other words, the crown-wheel escapement requires a long vibration 
of the pendulum. This is objectionable on several accounts, first, 
because it requires a great force in the clock train, and a great 
pressure, and therefore friction, on the pallets ; and besides that, 
any variation in a large 
arc, as was explained be 
fore, produces a much 
greater variation of time 
due to the circular error 
than an equal variation of 
a small arc. The crown 
wheel escapement may in 
deed be made so as to allow 
a more moderate arc of the 
pendulum, though not so 
small as the 2 usually 
adopted in the best clocks, 
by putting the pallet arbor 
a good deal higher above 
the scape-wheel, and giv 
ing a small number of teeth 
to the wheel ; and that also 
diminishes the length of 
the run of the teeth, and 
consequently the friction, 
on the pallets, though it 
makes the recoil very great 
and sudden ; but, oddly FlG- 4. _ Anchor Escapement, 

enough, it never appears 

to have been resorted to until long after the escapement had be 
come superseded by the "anchor" escapement, which we shall now 

VT 3 




18 



CLOCKS 



describe, and which appears to have been invented by the celebrated 
Dr Hooke as early as the year 1656, very soon after the invention 
of pendulums. 

]n fig. 4 a tooth of the scape-wheel is just escaping from the left 
pallet, arid another tooth at the same time falls upon the right hand 
pallet at some distance from its point. As the pendulum moves on 
in the same direction, the tooth slides farther up the pallet, thus pro 
ducing a recoil, as in the crown-wheel escapement. The acting faces 
of the pallets should be convex, and not Hat, as they are generally 
made, much less concave, as they have sometimes been made, with 
a view of checking the motion, of the pendulum, which is more 
likely to injure the rate of the clock than to improve it. But when 
they are flat, and of course still more when they are concave, the points 
of the teeth always wear a hole in the pallets at the extremity of 
their usual swing, and the motion is obviously easier and therefore 
better when the pallets are made convex ; in fact they then 
approach more nearly to the "dead" escapement, which will be 
described presently. We have already alluded to the effect of some 
escapements in not only counteracting the circular error, or the 
natural increase of the time of a pendulum as the arc increases, but 
overbalancing it by an error of the contrary kind. The recoil 
escapement does so ; for it is almost invariably found that whatever 
may be the shape of these pallets, the clock loses as the arc of 
the pendulum falls off, and vice versa. It is unfortunately 
impossible so to arrange the pallets that the circular error may be 
thus exactly neutralized, because the escapement error depends, in a 
manner reducible to no law, upon variations in friction of the pallets 
themselves and of the clock train, which produce different effects ; 
and the result is that it is impossible to obtain very accurate time 
keeping from any clock of this construction. 

But before we pass on to the dead escapement, it may be proper 
to notice an escapement of the recoiling class, which was invented 
for the purpose of doing without oil, by the famous Harrison, who 
was at first a carpenter in Lincolnshire, but afterwards obtained the 
first Government reward for the improvement of chronometers. We 
shall not however stop to describe it, since it never came into 
general use, and it is said that nobody but Harrison himself could 
make it go at all. It was also objectionable on account of its being 
directly affected by all variations in the force of the clock. It had 
the peculiarity of being very nearly silent, though the recoil was 
very great. Those who are curious about such things will find it 
described in the seventh edition of this Encyclopaedia. The recorded 
performance of one of these clocks, which is given in some accounts 
of it, is evidently fabulous. 

Dead Escapements. 

The escapement which has now for a century and a half been con 
sidered the best practical clock escapement (though there have been 
constant attempts to invent one free from the defects which it 
must be admitted to pos 
sess) is the dead escapement, 
or, as the French call it 
with equal expressiveness, 
I echappement d repos, bu- 
cause instead of the recoil 
of the tooth upon the pallet, 
which took place in the pre 
vious escapements, it falls 
dead upon the pallet, and 
reposes there until the pen 
dulum returns and lets it off 
again. It is represented in 
fig. 5. It will be observed 
that the teeth of the scape- 
wheel have their points set 
the opposite way to those of 
the recoil escapement in fig. 
4, the wheels themselves 
both turning the same way ; 
or (as our engraver has re 
presented it), vice versa. 
The tooth B is here also 
represented in the act of 
dropping on to the right 
hand pallet as the tooth A 
/scapes from the left pallet. 




FIG. 5. Dead Escapement. 
But instead of the pallet having a con 



tinuous face as in the recoil escapement, it is divided iiito~two, of 
which BE on the right pallet, and FA on the left, are called the im 
pulse faces, and BD, FG, the dead faces. The dead faces are portions 
of circles (not necessarily of the same circle), having the axis of the 
pallets C for their centre; and the consequence evidently is, that as 
the pendulum goes on, carrying the pallet still nearer to the wheel 
than the position in which a tooth falls on to the corner A or B of 
the impulse and the dead faces, the tooth still rests on the dead faces 
without any recoil, until the pendulum returns and lets the tooth slide 
down the impulse face, giving the impulse to the pendulum as it goes. 



The great merit of this escapement is that a moderate variation 
in the force of the clock train produces a very slight effect in the 
time of the pendulum. This may be shown in a general w~ay, 
without resorting to mathematics, thus : Since the tooth B drops 
on to the corner of the pallet (or ought to do so) immediately after 
the tooth A has escaped, and since the impulse will begin at B 
when the pendulum returns to the same point at which the impulse 
ceased on A, it follows that the impulse received by the pendulum 
before and after its vertical position, is very nearly the same. l\ow 
that part of the impulse which takes place before zero, or while the 
pendulum is descending, tends to augment the natural force of 
gravity on the pendulum, or to make it move faster ; but in the de 
scending arc the impulse on the pallets acts against the gravity of the 
pendulum, and prevents it from being stopped so soon ; and so the 
two parts of the impulse tend to neutralize each other s disturbing 
effects on the times of the pendulum, though they both concur in. 
increasing the arc, or (what is the same thing) maintaining it against 
the loss from friction and resistance of the air. However, on the 
whole, the effect of the impulse is to retard the pendulum a little, 
because the tooth must fall, not exactly on the corner of the pallet, 
but (for safety) a little above it ; and the next impulse does not bt-gin 
until that same corner of the pallet has come as far as the point of 
the tooth ; in other words, the retarding part of the impulse, or 
that which takes place after zero, acts rather longer than the accel 
erating part before zero. Again, the friction on the dead part of the 
pallets tends to produce the same effect on the time ; the arc of 
course it tends to diminish. For in the descent of the pendulum 
the friction acts against gravity, but in the ascent with gravity, and 
so shortens the time ; and there is rather less action on the dead 
part of the pallets in the ascent than in the descent. For these 
reasons the time of vibration of a pendulum driven by a dead 
escapement is a little greater than of the same pendulum vibrating 
the same arc freely ; and when you come to the next difference, the 
variation of time of the same pendulum with the dead escapement, 
under a moderate variation in the force, is very small indeed, 
which is not the case in the recoil escapement, for there the impulse 
begins at each end of the arc, and there is much more of it duiing 
the descent of the pendulum than during the ascent from zero to the 
arc at which the escape takes place and the recoil begins on the 
opposite tooth ; and then the recoil itself acts on the pendulum in 
its ascent in the same direction as gravity, and so shortens the 
time. And hence it is that an increase of the arc of the pendulum 
with a recoil escapement is always accompanied with a decrease 
of the time. Something more than this general reasoning is re 
quisite in order to compare the real value of the dead escapement with 
others of equal or higher pretensions, or of the several contrivances 
that have been suggested for remedying its defects. But we 
must refer to the Rudimentary Treatise on Clocks for details of 
the mathematical calculations by which the numerical results are 
obtained, and the relative value of the different kinds of escape 
ments determined. 

It camiot be determined a priori whether cleaning and oiling 
a dead escapement clock will accelerate or retard it, for reasons 
explained in those calculations ; but it may be said conclusively 
that the larger the arc is for any given weight x the fall per day, the 
better the clock will be ; and in order to diminish the friction and 
the necessity for using oil as far as possible, the best clocks are 
made with jewels (sapphires are the best for the purpose) let into 
the pallets. 

The pallets are generally made to embrace about one-third of the 
circumference of the wheel, and it is not at all desirable that they 
should embrace more ; for the longer they are, the longer is the 
run of the teeth upon them, and the greater the friction. There is 
a good deal of difference in the practice of clockmakcrs as to the 
length of the impulse, or the amount of the angle 7 + if the im 
pulse begins at /8 before zero and at y after zero. Sometimes you 
see clocks in which the seconds hand moves very slowly and rests 
a very short time, showing that 7 + /3 is large in proportion to 2a ; 
and in others the contrary. The late Mr Dent was decidedly of 
opinion that a short impulse was the best, probably because there is 
less of the force of the impulse wasted in friction then. It is not to 
be forgotten that the scape-wheel tooth docs not overtake the face 
of the pallet immediately, on account of the menu-lit of inertia of 
the wheel. The wheels of astronomical clocks, and indeed of all 
English house-clocks, are generally made too heavy, especially the 
scape-wheel, which, by increasing the moment of inertia, requires 
a larger force, and consequently has more friction. We shall see 
presently, from another escapement, how much of the force is 
really wasted in friction in the dead escapement. 

But before proceeding to other escapements, it is proper to 
notice a very useful form of the dead escapement, which is adopted in 
many of the best turret clocks, called the pin-wheel escapement. 
Fig. 6 will sufficiently explain its action and construction. Its 
advantages are that it does not require so much accuracy as 
the other; if a pin gets broken it is easily replaced, whereas in the 
oth^r the wheel is ruined if the point of a tooth is injured ; a wheel 
of given size will work with more pins than teeth, and therefore a 



CLOCKS 




train of less velocity will do, and that sometimes amounts to a savin<? 
of one wheel in the train, and 
a good deal of friction ; and 
the blow on both pallets being 
downwards, instead of one up 
and the other down, the action 
is more steady ; all which 
things are of more conse 
quence in the heavy and rough 
work of a turret clock than 
in an astronomical one. The 
details of the construction are 
given in the Rudimentary 
Treatise. It has been found 
expedient to make the dead 
faces not quite dead, but with 
a very slight recoil, which 
rather tends to check the 
variations of arc, and also the 
general disposition to lose 
time if the arc is increased ; 
when so made the escape 
ment is generally called "half- T^ a D . . 
^g^j " 6 Fio. 6.- Pin- Wheel Escapement. 

Passing by the various other modifications of the dead escapement 
which have been suggested and tried with little or no success, we 
proceed to describe one of an entirely different form, which was 
patented in 1851 by Mr C. Macdowall, though it appeared afterwards 
that one very similar had been tried before, but failed from the 
proportions being badly arranged. It is represented in fig. 7. 
The scape-wheel is only a small disc with a 
single pin in it, made of ruby, parallel and very 
near to the arbor. The disc turns half round at 
every beat of the pendulum, and the pin gives the 
impulse on the vertical faces of the pallets, and 
the dead friction takes place on the horizontal 
faces. Its advantages are that the greatest part 
of the impulse is given directly across the line of 
centres, and consequently with very little friction; 
and therefore also, the friction on the dead faces is 
less than usual, and scarcely any oil is required ; 
moreover, it is very easy to make. But there 
must be two more wheels in the train, consuming 
a good deal of the force of the clock-weight by 
their friction, which rather more than makes 
up for the friction saved in the escapement. It 
was applied successfully to watches, but the 
expense of the additional wheels prevented 
their adoption. In order to make the angle 
of escape not more than 1, the distance of the 
pin from the centre of the disc must not be 
more than ^th of the distance of centres 
of the disc and pallets. 

With the view of getting rid of one of these 
extra wheels in the train, and that part of the 
impulse which is least effective and most oblique, 
Mr Denison shortly afterwards invented the 
three-legged dead escapement ; which, though 
afterwards superseded by his three-legged grainty 
escapement, is still worth notice on account of 
the exceedingly small force which it requires, 
thereby giving a practical proof of the large 
proportion of the force which is wasted in friction 
in all the other impulse escapements. 




Fio. 7. 

Macdowall s Es 
capement. 



In fig. 8, the three long teeth of the scape- wheel are only used 
for locking on the dead pallets D and E, which are set on the front 
of the pallet plate ; A and B are 
impulse pallets, being hard bits 
of steel or jewels set in the pallet 
plate, and they are acted upon 
by the three sharp-edged pins 
which are set in the scape-wheel 
and point backwards. As soon 
as the pendulum moves a little 
further to the left than is here 
shown, the long tooth will slip 
past the dead pallet or stop D, 
and the pin at B will run after 
and catch the corner of that 
impulse pallet and drive it until 
the wheel has turned through 
60, and then it will escape ; 
and by that time the uppermost 
tooth will anive at the stop E, 
and will slide along it as in the 
common dead escapement, but FlQ. 8.- 
with a pressure as much less than 




Denison s Three-Legged 
Escapement. 



ID 

that which gives the impulse as the points of the teeth are farther 
rom the centre of the wheel than the impulse pins are. But the 
impulse is here given with so little friction, that even where the 
ts 01 the teeth were made identical with the pins, the clock-weight 
required to keep the same pendulum with the same train (a common 
urret-cloek movement), swinging to 2, was only one-lifth of what 
had been required with the pin-wheel escapement ; and the scape- 
wheel which kept the 6 cwt. pendulum of the Westminster clock 
going for half-a-year, until superseded by the gravitv escapement, 
weighed only a sixth of an ounce. It appears also that it would be 
possible so to adjust the recoil of the half-dead pallets that the time 
would not be affected by any small variation of the force and the arc ; 
since it was found that, when a certain amount of recoil was given 
the clock gamed instead of losing, under an increase of arc due to 
an increase of clock-weight. And if the force were kept constant by 
a tram remontoire, such as will be described hereafter, there would 
in fact be nothing capable of altering the arc or the time. But on 
account of the small depth of intersection of the circles of the 
pins and the pallets, on which its action depends, this escape 
ment requires very careful adjustment of the pallets, except where 
they are on a large scale ; and considering the superior qualities of 
the corresponding gravity escapement, it is not likely to be used, 
except perhaps in clocks required to go a long time, in which 
economy of force is a matter of consequence. The pallets should be 
connected with the pendulum by a spring fork (which indeed is 
advisable in the common dead escapement with a heavy pendulum, 
especially the pin-wheel escapement), to prevent the risk of their 
driving backwards against the scape-wheel when it is not in motion, 
as it will not clear itself. The distance of the centres should be 
not less than 25 times the radius of the circle of the edges of the 
impulse pins. * 

DetacJicd Escapements. 

In all the escapements hitherto described the pallets are never out 
of moving contact with the scape-wheel, and there have been several 
contrivances for keeping them detached except during the impulse 
and at the moment of passing a click which is to release the wheel 
to give the impulse. This is an imitation of the chronometer 
escapement in watches which is sometimes called the "detached." 
There are only two of such contrivances which appear worth special 
notice. One was proposed by Sir G. Airy in vol. ii. of the Cam 
bridge Transactions, but not executed (so far as we know) till a few 
years ago in the standard sidereal clock at Greenwich, which is 
reported to go extremely well. Suppose a dead escapement consist 
ing of a single pallet only, say the right hand one of the pin-wheel 
escapement (fig. 6), for the Greenwich clock has a pin escapement, 
and that the wheel is locked generally by a spring detent hooking 
into any one of its teeth, and capable of being lifted or pushed 
aside by the pendulum, i.e., by a pin somewhere on the single 
pallet as it passes to the right, but also capable of being passed 
without being lifted as the pendulum goes to the left. We shall 
see afterwards how this is done, in the article WATCHES. Then as 
the pendulum goes .to the right, it first lifts 
the detent at about 1 before zero, and then a fo} 

tooth or a pin drops on to the pallet and gives 
the impulse, exactly as in the dead pin-wheel 
escapement, and with exactly the same amount 
of friction, substituting only for the dead 
friction the resistance and friction of passing 
the detent one way and lifting it the other. 

A different escapement on the same principle 
but involving less friction was adopted by 
Sir E. Beckett in a clock described in the 
later editions of his book as having gone for 
above ten years very satisfactorily, except 
that, like all direct impulse escapements, in 
cluding Sir G. Airy s, it must vary with the 
force of the clock train, due to different states 
of the oil. The scape-wheel (fig. 9) is five- 
legged, and has five sharp-edged pins which 
give the impulse to the hard steel pallet P 
whenever it passes to the right, provided the 
wheel is then free to move. It is stopped by 
the detent UEF, which turns on a pivot F, not 
in the pen luluin crutch, as it looks in the 
drawing, but on the clock-frame. When the 
pendulum going to the right arrives at the 
position here drawn, the click (JE on the crutch 
pushes the detent aside and so unlocks the 
wheel, which then gives the impulse, moving 
through 72 until another tooth arrives at the 
detent and is stopped, the click having then 
got far beyond it. When the pendulum re 
turns the click lightly trips over the top of 
the detent. Here there is practically no friction 
in giving the impulse, as it is directly across the line of crnfres. 
as in the three-legged dead escapement, and the friction of passing 




Fig. 0. 



20 



CLOCKS 



and unlocking is as little as possible, for the pressure on the 
locking teeth is less than half of that of the impulse pins. 

In practice the pallet P is a separate bit of steel, screwed on, and 
therefore adjustable. The locking teeth are about 6 inches long 
from the centre, and the impulse pin-edges | in. from the centre, 
which is 7 in. below the top of the pendulum and crutch, 
so that the impulse begins 1 before zero and ends 1 after, 
corresponding each to 36 turn of the scape-wheel. If r is the 
distance of the pins from the centre and p the length of the 
crutch down to the centre, rsin. 36must=^)sin. 1, if you want an 
impulse of 1 on each side of ; which makes p = 33 7r. BB are 
eccentric beat pins for adjusting the beat to whatever 1 position of 
the pendulum you please, i.e., you can make it less than 1 
before or after zero as you please. In some respects it would be 
better to have no crutch, but it would be very difficult to make the 
adjustments. This escapement should evidently be at the bottom 
of the clock-frame instead of the top, as in the gravity escapements 
which will be described presently. The back part of the scape- 
wheel is carried by a long cock or bridge within which the crutch 
also moves. 

Remontoire or Gravity Escapements. 

A remontoire escapement is one in which the pendulum does 
not receive its impulse from the scape-wheel, but from some small 
weight or spring which is lifted or wound up by the scape-wheel 
at every beat, and the pendulum has nothing to do with the scape- 
wheel except unlocking it. When this impulse is received from a 
weight the escapement is also called a gravity escapement ; and in 
asmuch as all the remontoire clock escapements that are worth 
notice have been gravity escapements, we may use that term for 
them at once. The importance of getting the impulse given to the 
pendulum in this way was recognized long before all the properties 
of the dead escapement, as above investigated, were known. For 
it was soon discovered that, however superior to the old recoil 
escapement, it was far from perfect, and that its success depended 
on reducing the friction of the train and the pallets as far as possible, 
which involves the necessity of high-numbered pinions and wheels, 
small pivots, jewelled pallets, and a generally expensive style of 
workmanship. Accordingly the invention of an escapement which 
will give a constant impulse to the pendulum, and be nearly free 
from friction, has been for a century the great problem of clock- 
making. We can do no more than shortly notice a very few of the 
attempts which have been 
made to solve it. The 
most simple form of gra 
vity escapement, and the 
one which will serve the 
best for investigating their 
mathematical properties 
(though it fails in some 
essential mechanical con 
ditions), is that invented 
by Mudge. The tooth A 
of the scape-wheel in fig. 
10 is resting against the 
stop or detant a at the end 
of the pallet OA, from the 
axis or arbor of which de 
scends the half fork CP 
to touch the pendulum. 
From the other pallet CB 
descends the other half 
fork CO. The two arbors 
are set as near the point 
of suspension, or top of 
the pendulum spring, as 
possible. The pendulum, ,, , A 
as here represented, must Mudge s Gravity Escapement. 

be moving to the right, and just leaving contact with the left pallet 
in. going to take up the right one ; as soon as it has raised that 
3t a little it will evidently unlock the wheel and let it turn, and 
then the tooth B will raise the left pallet until it is caught by the 
.top b on that pallet and then it will stay until the pendulum re- 
urns and releases it by raising that pallet still higher! Each pallet 

!vW ? tT" J h ? IT lulum to a lo Point than that 

where it is taken up, and the difference between them is supplied by 

B lifting of each pallet by the clock, which does not act on the 
pendulum at all ; so that the pendulum is independent of all varia 
tions of force and friction in the train. 

Again referring to the Rudimentary Treatise on Clocks for the 
mathematical investigation of the errors of this class of escapements, 
or to a paper by the late J. M Bloxam, in the R. A. S. M^unrs of 
Io3, we may say it is proved that though the time of a crravitv 
escapement pendulum differs from that of a free r.endulum more 
than from that of a dead escapement, yet the variations of that 
hflerence (which are the real variations of the dock) may be made 
much less than m any kind of dead escapement 




The difficulty which long prevented the success of gravity 
escapements was their liability to what is called (ripping. .Referring 
again to fig. 10, it will be seen at once that if the scape-wheel 
should happen to move too fast when it is released, the left pallet 
will not be raised gradually by the tooth B, but be thrown up 
with a jerk, perhaps so high that the tooth slips past the hook ; 
and then not only will that tooth slip, but several more, and at 
last when the wheel is stopped it will be running fast, and the 
points of some of the teeth will probably be bent or broken by 
catching against the pallets. And even if the pallet is not raised 
high enough for the tooth to get past or completely trip, it may 
still be raised so high that the point of the tooth does not rest on 
the hook exactly where the slope of the pallet ends, but lower v 
and the friction between them is quite enough to keep the pallet 
there ; and consequently the pendulum does not begin to lift it at 
the proper angle 7, but at some larger angle ; and as the pallet 
always descends with the pendulum to the same point, the duration 
of the impulse is increased, and the pendulum made to swing farther. 
Sir E. Beckett called this approximate tripping, and though not so 
injurious to the clock as actual tripping, it is obviously fatal to its 
accurate performance, though it appears never to have been noticed 
before he pointed it out in 1851. Various contrivances have been 
resorted to for preventing tripping. But on account of the delicacy 
required in all of them, and other objections, none of them ever came 
into use until the invention of the three-legged and four-legged 
escapements to be mentioned presently. The only one which 
approached near enough to satisfying all the requisite conditions 
to be worth description is Mr Bloxam s, and we accordingly give 
a sketch of it in fig. 11, which is copied (with a little alteration for 
distinctness) from his own de 
scription of it, communicated in 
1853 to the Astronomical. Society, 
some years after he had had it in 
action in a clock of his own. This 
drawing will enable any one con 
versant with these matters to un 
derstand its action. He made the 
pallet arbors cranked, to embrace 
the pendulum-spring, so that then- 
centres of motion might coincide 
with that of the pendulum as 
nearly as possible, perhaps an 
unnecessary refinement ; at least 
the three-legged and four-legged 
gravity escapements answer very 
well with the pallet arbors set A 
on each side of the top of the 
spring. The size of the wheel 
determines the length of the 
pallets, as they must be at such 
an angle to each other that the 
radii of the wheel when in 
contact with each stop may be 
at right angles to the pallet 
arm ; and therefore, for a wheel 
of this size, the depth of lock 
ing can only be very small. The 
pinion in Mr Bloxam s clock 
only raises the pallet through 40 at each beat; i.e., the angle 
which we called 7 is only 20 ; and probably, if it were increased to 

anything like -r-, the escapement would trip immediately. The 

two broad pins marked E, F. are the fork-pins. The clock which 
Mr Bloxam had went very well ; but it had an extremely fine 
train, with pinions of 18 ; and nobody else appears to have been 
able to make one to answer. In short Bloxam s was not a practical 
solution of the gravity escapement problem, any more than those 
of Captain Kater, or Hardy, or various other inventors. A few 
clocks of Hardy s alone still exist. 

The only gravity escapement or escapements that really have 
come into common use are the "four-legged" and the "double three- 
legged" escapements of Sir E. Beckett. They passed through 
various phases before settling into the present form, ot which it is 
unnecessary to say more now than that the first was the single 
three-legs described in the last edition of this Encyclopaedia, which 
was suggested by his three-legged dead escapement. A five-legged 
one was also tried ; but though it had some slight advantages they 
are quite overbalanced by disadvantages, and it requires much more 
delicacy of construction than either the double three-legs or the 
four-legs which we shall now describe, remarking that the latter is 
the best for "regulators," and the formei in large clocks. Fig. 12 
is a back view of the escapement part of an astronomical clock with 
the four-legged wheel ; seen from the front the wheel would turn 
the other way. The long locking teeth are made about 2 inches 
loi.g from the centre, and the lifting pins, of which there are four 
pointing forwards and the other four intermediate pointing back 
wards, are at not more than one-30th of the distance between tr.< 




FIG. 11. Bloxam s Gravity 
Escapement. 



C L O K S 



21. 




FIG. 12. 

Four- Legged Gravity 
Escapement. 



centres EC, of the wheel and pallets ; or rather C is the top of 
the pendulum spring to which the pallets CS, CS converge, though 
their actual action are a little below C. It is not worth while to crank 
them as Mr Bloxam did, in order to make them coincide exactly with 
the top of the pendulum, as the friction of 
the beat pins on the pendulum at P is in 
significant, and even then would not be 
quite destroyed. The pallets are not in the 
sime plane, but one is behind and the other 
in front of the wheel, with one stop pointing 
backwards and the other forwards to receive 
the teeth alternately, it does not matter 
which ; in this figure the stop S is behind 
and the stop S forward. The pendulum is 
now going to the right, and just beginning 
to lift the right pallet and free the stop S ; 
then the wheel will begin to turn and lift 
the other pallet by one of the pins which is 
now lowest, and which moves through 45 
across the line of centres, and therefore lifts 
with very little friction. It goes on till the 
tooth now below S reaches S and is stopped 
there. Meanwhile the pallet CS goes on 
with the pendulum as far as it may go, to 
the end of the arc which we have through 
out called a, starting from 7 ; but it falls 
with the pendulum again, not only to 7 but 
to - 7 on the other side of 0, so that the 
impulse is due to the weight of each pallet 
alternately falling through 2y ; and the 
magnitude of the impulse also depends on 
the obliqueness of the pallet on the whole, 
i.e., on the distance of its centre of gravity 
from the vertical through C. The defect of 
the original three-legged escapement was that the pallets were too 
nearly vertical. 

Another most material element of these escapements with very 
few teeth is that they admit of a fly KK on the scape- wheel arbor to 
moderate its velocity, which both obviates all risk of tripping, 
wholly or partially, and also prevents the bang which goes all 
through the clock where there is no ny. The fly is set on with a 
friction spring like the common striking-part fly, and should be as 
long as there is room for, length being much more effective than 
width. For this purpose the second wheel arbor is shortened and 
set in a cock fixed on the front plate of the clock, which leaves 
room for a fly with vanes 2 inches long. The back pivot of the 
scape-wheel is carried by a long cock behind the back plate, so that 
the escapement is entirely behind it, close to the pendulum. The 
pallet arbors are short, as they come just behind the centre wheel, 
which is here also necessarily above the escapement, and the great 
wheel arbor on a level with it, and at the left hand (from the front) 
or the string would be in the way of the fly. No beat screws are 
required, as the pallets end in mere wires which are easily bent. 
It is found better to make the tails of the pallets long, rather than 
short as Mr Bloxam did. It is essential, too, that the angle CSE 
formed by the tooth and the pallet which is struck upwards 
should not the least fall short of a right angle, nor the other angle 
CS E be the least obtuse, or the escapement may very likely trip. 
Practically, therefore, it is safer to let CSE be just greater than 
90 and CS E a little less, so that there may not be the least tend 
ency in the blow on the stops to drive the pallets outwards. For 
the purpose of calculation, however, we must make them both 90 
and then it follows that, calling the length of the teeth r, and the 
distance of centres d, and the length of the pallets from C down to 
the stops p, r must d sin. 22^ J and _p - d cos. 22 J D . Therefore 
if r is made 2 inches CE or d will bo 5 22, say 5j inches, and p = 
4 "82. The distance of the lifting pins from the centre will be | of an 
inch to make the angle 7 = 1. It is certainly not desirable 
to make it more, and even that requires such light pallets for a 
pendulum of 30 or 40 lb, that J- inch distance from the centre is 
more convenient as giving the smaller lift, assuming the scape-wheel 
to be from 2 to 2j inches in diameter. 

Gravity escapements require more weight than a direct impulse 
escapement with an equally fine train ; and they try the accuracy 
of the wheelcutting more severely. If there is a weak place in the 
train of a common clock the scape-wheel only follows the pendulum 
more weakly ; but in a gravity escapement it always has to raise the 
pallets, and ought to raise them quickly, and especially in clocks 
for astronomical purposes where you take its exact time from the 
sound of the beats, and so the lifting must not lag and sound 
uneven. Therefore although a fine train of high numbers is not 
requisite it must be perfectly well cut. And as the force of the 
weight does not reach the pendulum its increase is of no consequence, 
within reasonable limits. It is worth while to put large friction 
wheels under the arbor of the great wheel in all astronomical clocks, 
and it makes a material dilference in the friction on account of the 
necessary thickness of the winding arbor. A variation of arc iu 




dead escapement clocks is sometimes visible between the beginning 
and the end of the week according as the string is nearest to the 
thick or the thin end of the great arbor, when there are no friction 

wheels. 

The other form of the gravity escapement, which is now adopted 

for large clocks by all the best makers, having been first used in the 

great Westminster clock, is the double 

three-legged which is shown in fig. 13. 

The principle of it is the same as of the 

four-legs ; but instead of the pallets being 

one behind and the other in front of the 

wheel, with two sets of lifting pins, there 

are two wheels ABC, abc, with the three 

lifting pins and the two pallets between 

them like a lantern pinion. One stop B 

points forward and the other A backward. 

The two wheels have their teeth set inter 
mediately or 60 apart, though that is not 

essential, and the angle of 120 3 may be 

divided between them in any other pro 
portions, as 70 and 50, and in that way 

the pallets may be still more oblique than 

30 from the vertical, which however is 

found enough to prevent tripping even if 

the fly gets loose, which is more likely 

to happen from carelessness in large clocks 

than in astronomical ones. The West 
minster one was once found to have been 

left with the spring loose for several days, -, , T. 

and it had not gained a second, and there- FlQ ; L ~ ?** 

fore had never tripped. The two wheels legged Esca P e t. 

must be both squared on the arbor, or on a collar common to them 

both, and must not depend upon the three pins or they will shake 

loose. If the wheels are set with the teeth equidistant, their centre 
is evidently twice the length of the teeth below C, the theoretical 
centre of the pallets. The pins should not be farther from the 
centre than one-24th of the radius of the wheel ; and they should be 
so placed that the one which is going to lift next may be vertically 
over the one which has just lifted, and is then holding up the other 
pallet. The third will then be level with the centre; i.e., they 

will stand on the radii which form the acting faces of the teeth of 
one of the wheels, and half way between those of the other. 

Of course the fly for those escapements in large clocks, with 
weights heavy enough to drive the hands in all weather, must be 
much larger than in small ones. For average church clocks with 
1\ sec. pendulum the legs of the scape-wheels are generally made 
4 inches long and the fly from 6 to 7 inches long in each vane by 
lj orl^ wide. For 1^ sec. pendulums the scape-wheels are generally 
made 4^ radius. At Westminster they are 6 inches. 

Sir E. Beckett has come to the conclusion that these escapements 
act better, especially in regulators, if the pallets do not fall quite 
on the lifting pins, but on a banking, or stops at any conveni 
ent place, so as to leave the wheel free at the moment of starting ; 
just as the striking of a common house clock will sometimes fail to 
start unless the wheel with the pins has a little run before a pin 
begins to lift the hammer. The best way to manage the banking 
is to make the beat-pins long enough to reach a little way behind 
the pendulum, and let the banking be a thin plate of any metal 
screwed adjustably to the back of the case. This plate cannot well 
be shown in the drawings together with the pendulum, which, it may 
be added, should take up one pallet just when it leaves the other. 

It is no longer doubtful that these two escapements are far the 
best of all for large clocks, the three-legs for very large ones, while 
the four-legs does very well for smaller turret clocks. And they 
cost no more to make, though rather more is charged for them 
by some makers under the pretence that they do. It is 
absolutely impossible for any large clock exposed to the variations 
of weather and dust to keep as good time as an ordinary good house 
clock unless it has either a gravity escapement, or a train remontoire, 
which last is much more expensive, to intercept the variations of 
force before they reach the pendulum. And though a detached 
escapement clock while kept clean and the oil in good condition 
is as good as a gravity one and perhaps better, the gravity one is 
less affected by variations of the oil, and its rate is altogether more 
constant. They* seem also to have a smaller barometric error. 

GOING BARRELS. 

A clock which is capable of going accurately must have some 
contrivance to keep it going while you are winding it up. In the 
old-fashioned house clocks, which were wound up by merely pulling 
one of the strings, and in which one such winding served for both the 
going and striking parts, this was done by what is called the end 
less chain of Huygheus, which consists of a string or chain with the 
ends joined together, and passing over two pulleys on the arbors of 
the great wheels, with deep grooves and spikes in them, to prevent 
the chain from slipping. In one of the two loops or festoons 
which hang from the upper pulleys is a loose pulley without spikes, 



22 



CLOCKS 




carrving the clock-weight, and in the other a small weight only 
heavy enough to keep the chain close to the upper pulleys. Now, 
suppose one of those pulleys to be on the arbor of the great wheel 
of the striking part, with a ratchet and click, and the other pulley 
fixed to the arbor of the great wheel of the going part ; then (when 
ever the clock is not striking) you may pull up the weight by pulling 
down that part of the string which hangs from the other side of the 
striking part ; and yet the weight will be acting on the going part 
all the time. And it would be just the same if you wound up the 
striking part and its pulley with a key, instead of pulling the string, 
and also the same, if there were no striking part at all, but the second 
pulley were put on a blank arbor, except that in that case, the weight 
would take twice as long to run down, supposing that the striking 
part generally requires the same weight x full as the going part. 

This kind of going barrel, however, is evidently not suited to 
the delicacy of an astronomi 
cal clock ; and Harrison s 
going ratchet is now univer 
sally adopted in such clocks, 
and also in chronometers 
and watches for keeping the 
action of the train on the 
escapement during the wind 
ing. Fig. 14 (in which the 
same letters are used as 
in the corresponding parts of 
fig. 1) shows its construction. 
The click of the barrel-rat 
chet R is set upon another 
largerratchet-wheel, with its 
teeth pointing the opposite 
way, and its click rT is set 
in the clock-frame. That 
ratchet is connected with 
the great wheel by a spring 
ss pressing against the two 
pins s in the ratchet and s 
in the wheel. When you FIG. 14. Harrison s Going-Ratchet, 
wind up the weight (which is equivalent to taking it off), the click 
IV prevents that ratchet from turning back or to the right; and 
as the spring ss is kept by the weight in a state of tension equi 
valent to the weight itself it will drive the wheel to the left for 
a short distance, when its end s is held fast, with the same force 
as if that end was pulled forward by the weight ; and as the great 
wheel has to move very little during the short time the clock is 
winding, the spring will keep the clock going long enough. 

In the commoner kind of turret clocks a more simple apparatus 
is used, which goes by the name of the bolt and shutter, because it 
consists of a weighted lever with a broad end, which shuts up the 
winding-hole until you lift it, and then a spring-bolt attached to 
the lever, or its arbor, runs into the teeth of one of the wheels, and 
the weight of the lever keeps the train going until the bolt has 
run itself out of gear. In the common construction of this apparatus 
there is nothing to ensure its being raised high enough to keep in 
gear the whole time of winding, if the man loiters over it. 
For this purpose Sir E. Beckett has the arbor of the bolt and 
shutter made to pump in and out of gear ; and, instead of the 
Fhutter covering the winding-hole, it ends in a circular arc advanced 
just far enough to prevent the key or winder from being put on, 
by obstructing a ring set on the end of the pipe. In order to get 
the winder on, you must raise the lever high enough for the arc to 
clear the ring. During the two or three minutes which the clock 
may take to wind, the arc will be descending again behind the 
ring, so that now you cannot get the winder off again without also 
pulling the maintaining power out of gear; so that even if it is 
constructed to keep in action ten minutes, if required, still it will 
never remain in action longer than the actual time of winding. 
The circular arc must be thick enough, or have a projecting flange 
added to it deep enough, to prevent the winder being put on by 
merely pushing back the maintaining power lever without lifting it. 
In large clocks with a train remontoire, or even with a gravity 
escapement, it is hardly safe to use a spring going barrel, because 
is very likely to be exhausted too much to wind up the remon 
toire, or raise the gravity pallets, before the winding is finished, if 
t takes more than two or three minutes ; whereas, with the common 
escapements, the wheel has only to escape, as the pendulum will 
keep itself going for some time without any impulse. 

EQUATIOX CLOCKS. 

It would occupy too much space to describe the various contriv 
ances for making clocks show the variations of solar compared with 
mean time (called equation clocks), the days of the month, periods 
of the moon, and other phenomena. The old day of the month clocks 
required setting at the end of every month which has not 31 days, 
and have long been obsolete. Clocks are now made even to provide for 
leap year. But we doubt whether practically anybody ever takes 
his day of the month from a clock lace, especially as the figures 



are too small to be seen except quite near. Several persons have 
taken patents for methods of exhibiting the time by figures appear 
ing through a hole in the dial, on the principle of the "numbering 
machine." But they do not reflect that no such figures, on any 
practicable scale, are as conspicuous as a pair of hands ; and that 
nobody really reads the figures on a dial, but judges of the time in 
a moment from the position of the hands ; for which reason the 
minute hand should be straight and plain, while the hour hand 
has a "heart " near the end ; 12 large marks and 48 small ones 
make a more distinguishable dial than one with figures ; and the 
smaller the figures are the better, as they only tend to obscure the 
hands. 

STRIKING CLOCKS. 

There are two kinds of striking work used in clocks. 
The older of them, which is still used in most foreign 
clocks, and in turret clocks in England also, will not allow 
the striking of any hour to be either omitted or repeated, 
without making the next hour strike wrong; whereas, in 
that which is used in all English house clocks, the number 
of blows to be struck depends merely on the position of a 
wheel attached to the going part ; and therefore the strik 
ing of any hour may be omitted or repeated without 
deranging the following ones. In turret clocks there is no 
occasion for the repeating movement; and for the purpose 
of describing the other, which is called the locking-plate 
movement, we may as well refer to fig. 22, which is the 
front view of a large clock, striking both hours and 
quarters on this plan. In the hour part (on the left), you 
observe a bent lever BAH, called the " lifting-piece," of 
which the end H has just been left off by the snail on the 
hour-wheel 40 of the going part; and at the other end 
there are two stops on the back side of the lever, one 
behind, and rather below the other ; and against the upper 
one a pin in the end of a short lever 9 B, which is fixed to 
the arbor of the fly, is now resting, and thereby the train 
is stopped from running, and the clock from striking any 
more. The stops are shown on the quarter lifting-piece 
in the figure (27) of the Westminster clock. We omit 
the description of the action of the wheels, because it is 
evident enough. At D may be seen a piece projecting 
from the lever AB, and dropping into a notch in the wheel 
78. That wheel is the locking-wheel or locking-plate ; 
and it has in reality notches such as D all round it, at 
distances 2, 3, up to 12, from any given point in the 
circumference, which may be considered as marked off 
into 78 spaces, that being the number of blows struck in 
12 hours. These notches are shown in the locking-plate 
of the quarter part in fig. 22, but not in the hour part, foi 
want of size to show them distinctly. 

When the arm AB of the lifting-piece is raised by the 
snail depressing the other end H, a few minutes before the 
hour, the fly -pin slips past the first of the stops at B, but 
is stopped by the second and lower one, until the lever is 
dropped again exactly at the hour. Thus the pin can pass, 
and would go once round, allowing the train to go on a 
little; but before it has got once round, AB has been 
lifted again high enough to carry both stops out of the 
way of the fly-pin, by means of the cylinder with two 
slices taken off it, which is set on the arbor of the wheel 
90, and on which, the end of the lifting-piece rests, with 
a small roller to diminish the friction. If the clock has 
only to strike one, the lifting-piece will then drop again, 
and the fly-pin will be caught by the first stop, having 
made (according to the numbers of the teeth given in fig. 
22) 5 turns. But if it has to strike more, the locking- 
wheel comes into action. That wheel turns with the train, 
being either driven by pinion 20 on the arbor of the 
great wheel, or by a gathering pallet on the arbor of the 
second wheel, like G in fig. 15 ; and when once the lifting- 
piece is lifted out of a notch in the locking-plate, it cannot 
fall again until another notch has come under the bit D ; 
nd as the distance of the notches is proportioned to the 



CLOCKS 



23 



hours, the locking-plate thus determines tho number of 
blows struck. It may occur to the reader, that the 
cylinder 10 and roller are not really wanted, and that the 
locking-plate would do as well without ; and sometimes 
clocks are so made, but it is not safe, for the motion of 
the locking-plate is so slow, that unless everything is very 
carefully adjusted and no shake left, tho corner of the 
notch may not have got fairly under the bit D before the 
fly has got once round, and then the lifting-piece will drop 
before the clock can strike at all ; or it may hold on too 
long and strike 13, as St Paul s clock did once at midnight, 
when it was heard at Windsor by a sentinel. 

Small French clocks, which generally have the striking 
part made in this way, very commonly strike the half 
hours also, by having a wide slit, like that for one 
o clock, iu the locking-plate at every hour. But such 
clocks are unfit for any place except a room, as they strike 
one three times between 1 2 and 2, and accordingly turret 
clocks, or even large house clocks, are never made so. Sir 
E. Beckstt has lately introduced the plan of making 
turret clocks strike one at all the half hours except 12.V 
and 1|, so that any striking of one that is heard between 
1 1 i and 2\ must needs be one o clock. This is done by hav 
ing a 12-hour wheel driven by the going part, either continu 
ously or by a gathering pallet moving that wheel only once 
an hour, and it has two high steps which come under another 
piece like D in the lifting detent a little before 12J and 1 
so as to prevent it falling when let off by the snail. In 
the English or rack striking movement, to be presently 
described, the same thing may be done by a kind of star 
wheel with flat ends to the rays, attached to the 12-hour 
snail, which will let the rack fall enough to strike one at 
every half hour, but with two longer rays to prevent it 
falling at all at 12^ and H ; or it would be better to let 
those rays, by means of an intervening lever, prevent the 
lifting piece from falling, as that would involve less fric 
tion of the tail of the rack. 

In all cases the locking-plate must be considered as 
divided into as many parts as the number of blows to bo 
struck in 12 hours, i.e., 78, 90, or 88, according as half hours 
are or are not struck; and it must have the same number 
of teeth, driven by a pinion on the striking wheel arbor 
of as many teeth as the striking cams, or in the same 
ratio. 

Fig. 15 is a front view of a common English house clock 
with the face taken off, showing the repeating or rack 
striking movement. Here, as in fig. 1, M is the hour- 
wheel, on the pipe of which the minute-hand is set, N the 
reversed hour- wheel, and n its pinion, driving the 12-hour 
wheel H, on whose socket is fixed what is called the snail 
Y, which belongs to the striking work exclusively. The 
hammer is raised by the eight pins in the rim of the 
second wheel in the striking train, in the manner which is 
obvious. 

The hammer does not quite touch the bell, as it would 
jar in striking if it did, and prevent the full sound ; and 
if you observe the form of the hammer-shank at the 
arbor where the spring S acts upon it, you will see that 
the spring both drives the hammer against the bell when 
the tail T is raised, and also checks it just before it reaches 
the bell, and so the blow on the bell is given by the 
hammer having acquired momentum enough to go a little 
farther than its place of rest. Sometimes two springs are 
used, one for impelling the hammer, and the other for 
checking it. A piece of vulcanized India-rubber, tied 
round the pillar just where the hammer-shank nearly 
touches it, forms as good a check spring as anything. 
But nothing will check the chattering of a heavy hammer, 
except making it lean forward so as to act, partially at 
least, by its weight. The pinion of the striking-wheel 



generally has eight leaves, the same number as the pius ; 
and as a clock strikes 78 blows in 12 hours, the great 
wheel will turn in that time if ifc has 78 teeth instead 
of 96, which the great wheel of the going part has 
for a centre pinion of eight. The striking-wheel, drives 
the wheel above it once round for each blow, and that 
wheel drives a fourth (in which you observe a single pin 
P). six, or any other integral number of turns, for one 
turn of its own, and that drives a fan-fly to moderate the 
velocity of the train by the resistance of the air, an 
expedient at least as old as De Vick s clock in 1370. 

The wheel N is so adjusted that, within a few minutes 
of the hour, the pin in it raises the lifting-piece LONF so 
far that that piece lifts the click C out of the teeth of the 
rack BKRV, which immediately falls back (helped by a 




FIG. 15. Front view of Common English House Clock. 

spring near the bottom) as far as its tail V can go \>j 
reason of the snail Y, against which it falls ; and it is so 
arranged that the number of teeth which pass the click is 
proportionate to the depth of the snail ; and as there is 
one step in the snail for each hour, and it goes round with 
the hour-hand, the rack always drops just as many teeth 
as the number of the hour to be struck. This drop makes 
the noise of "giving warning." But the clock is not yet 
ready to strike till the lifting piece has fallen again ; for, 
as soon as the rack was let off the tail of the thing called 
the gathering pallet G, on the prolonged arbor of the 
third wheel, was enabled to pass the pin K of the rack om 
which it was pressing before, and the striking train began 
to move ; but before the fourth wheel had got half round, 
its pin P was caught by the end of the lifting-piece, which 
is bent back and goes through a hole in the plate, and 
when raised stands in the way of the pin P, so that the 
train cannot go on till the lifting-piece drops, which it 
does exactly at the hour, by the pin N then slipping past 
it. Then the train is free ; the striking wheel begins to 
lift the hammer, and the gathering pallet gathers up the 
rack, a tooth for each blow, until it has returned to the 



CLOCKS 



place at which the pallet is stopped by the pin Iv coming 
under it. In this figure the lifting-piece is prolonged to 
F, where there is a string hung to it, as this is the proper 
place for such a string when it is wanted for the purpose 
of learning the hour in the dark, and not (as it is generally 
put) on the click C ; for if it is put there and you hold the 
string a little too long, the clock will strike too many; 
and if the string accidentally sticks in the case, it will go 
on striking till it is run down; neither of which things 
can happen when the string is put on the lifting-piece. 

The snail is sometimes set on a separate stud with the 
apparatus called a star-ivheel and jumper ; but as this only 
increases the cost without any advantage that we can see, 
we omit any further reference to it. On the left side of 
the frame we have placed a lever x, with the letters st 
below it, and si above. If it is pushed up to si, the other 
end will come against a pin in the rack, and prevent it 
from falling, and will thus make the clock silent; and this 
is much more simple than the old-fashioned " strike and 
silent " apparatus, which we shall therefore not describe, 
especially as it is seldom used now. 

If the clock is required to strike quarters, a third " part" 
or train of wheels is added on the right hand of the going 
part ; and its general construction is the same as the hour- 
striking part ; only there are two more bells, and two 
hammers so placed that one is raised a little after the 
other. If there are more quarter-bells than two, the 
hammers are generally raised by a chime-barrel, which is 
merely a cylinder set on the arbor of the striking- wheel 
(in that case generally the third in the train), with short 
pins stuck into it in the proper places to raise the hammers 
in the order required for the tune of the chimes. The 
quarters are usually made to let off the hour, and this con 
nection may be made in two ways. If the chimes are 
different in tune for each quarter, and not merely the same 
tune repeated two, three, and four times, the repetition 
movement must not be used for them, as it would throw 
the tunes into confusion, but the old locking-plate move 
ment, as in turret clocks ; and therefore, if we conceive 
the hour lifting-piece connected with the quarter locking- 
plate, as it is with the wheel N, iu fig. 15, it is evident 
that the pin will discharge the hour striking part as the 
fourth quarter finishes. 

But where the repetition movement is required for the 
quarters, the matter is not quite so simple. The principle 
of it may shortly be described thus. The quarters them 
selves have a rack and snail, &c., just like the hours, ex 
cept that the snail is fixed on one of the hour-wheels M 
or N, instead of on the twelve-hour wheel, and has only 
four steps in it. Now suppose the quarter-rack to be 
so placed that when it falls for the fourth quarter (its 
greatest drop), it falls against the hour lifting-piece some 
where between and N, so as to raise it and the click C. 
Then the pin Q will be caught by the click Q?, and so tho 
lifting-piece will remain up until all the teeth of the quar 
ter-rack are gathered up ; and as that is done, it may be 
made to disengage the click Q?, and so complete the let 
ting off the hour striking part. This click Q? has no 
existence except where there are quarters. 

These quarter clocks are sometimes made so as only to 
strike the quarters at the time when a string is pulled 
as by a person in bed, just like repeating watches, which 
are rarely made now, on account of the difficulty of keep 
ing in order such a complicated machine in such a small 
space. In this case, the act of pulling the string to make 
the clock strike winds up the quarter-barrel, which is that 
of a spring clock (not yet described), as far as it is allowed 
to be wound up by the position of a snail on the hour 
wheel against which a lever is pulled, just as the tail of 
the common striking-rack falls against the snail on the 



twelve-hour wheel; and it is easy to see that the number 
of blows struck by the two quarter hammers may thus be 
made to depend upon the extent to which the spring that 
drives the train is wound up; and it may even be made to 
indicate half-quarters ; for instance, if the snail has eight 
steps in it, the seventh of them may be just deep enough 
to let the two hammers strike three times, and the first of 
them once more, which would indicate 7^ minutes to the 
hour. It is generally so arranged that the hour is struck 
first, and the quarters afterwards. 

Alarums. 

In connection with these bedroom clocks we ought to 
mention alarums. Perhaps the best illustration of the 
mode of striking an alarum is to refer to either of the recoil 
escapements (figs. 3 and 4). If you suppose a short 
hammer instead of a long pendulum attached to the axis 
of the pallets, and the wheel to be driven with sufficient 
force, it will evidently swing the hammer rapidly back 
wards and forwards ; and the position and length of the 
hammerhead may be so adjusted as to strike a bell inside, 
first on one side and then on the other. Then as to the 
mode of letting off the alarum at the time required ; if it was 
always to be let off at the same time, you would only have 
to set a pin in the twelve-hour wheel at the proper place 
to raise the lifting-piece which lets oft* the alarum at that 
time. But as you want it to be capable of alteration, this 
discharging pin must beset in another wheel (without teeth), 
which rides with a friction-spring on the socket of tho 
twelve-hour wheel, with a small movable dial attached to 
it, having figures so arranged with reference to the pin 
that whatever figure is made to come to a small pointer 
set as a tail to the hour hand, the alarum shall be let oft 
at that hour. The letting off does not require the same 
apparatus as a common striking part, because an alarum 
has not to strike a definite number of blows, but to go on 
till it is run down ; and therefore the lifting-piece is 
nothing but a lever with a stop or hook upon it, which, 
when it is dropped, takes hold of one of the alarum wheels, 
and lets them go while it is raised high enough to disen 
gage it. You must of course not wind up an alarum till 
within twelve hours of the time when it is wanted to go 
off. 

The watchman s or tell-tale clock may be seen in one of 
the lobbies of the House of Commons, and in prisons, and 
some other places where they want to make sure of a 
watchman being on the spot and awake all the night ; it is a 
clock with a set of spikes, generally 48 or 96, sticking out 
all round the dial, and a handle somewhere in the case, by 
pulling which you can press in that one of the spikes 
which is opposite to it, or to some lever connected with it, 
for a few minutes ; and it will be observed, that this wheel 
of spikes is carried round with the hour-hand, which in these 
clocks is generally a twenty-four hour one. It is evident 
that every spiks which is seen still sticking out in the 
morning indicates that at the particular time to which 
that spike belongs the watchman was not there to push it 
in or at any rate, that he did not ; and hence its name. 
At some other part of their circuit, the inner ends of the 
pins are carried over a roller or an inclined plane which 
pushes them out again ready for business the next night. 

SPRING CLOCKS. 

Hitherto we have supposed all clocks to be kept going 
by a weight. But, as is well known, many of them are 
driven by a spring coiled up in a barrel. In this respect 
they differ nothing from watches, and therefore for cori- 
sideiation of the construction of parts belonging to the 
spring reference is made to the article WATCHES. It may, 



CLOCKS 



however, be mentioned here that the earliest form in which a 
spring seems to have been used was not that of a spiral rib 
bon of steel rolled up, but a straight stiff spring held fast to 
the clock frame at one end, and a string from the other end 
going round the barrel, which was wound up ; but such a 
spring would have a very small range. Spring clocks are 
generally resorted to for the purpose of saving length ; for 
as clocks are generally made in England, it is impossible to 
make a weight-clock capable of going a week, without either 
a case nearly 4 feet high, or else the weights so heavy as 
to produce a great pressure and friction on the arbor of the 
great wheel. But this arises from nothing but the heavi 
ness of the wheels and the badness of the pinions used in 
most English clocks, as is amply proved by the fact that 
the American and Austrian clocks go a week with smaller 
weights and much less fall for them than the English ones, 
and the American ones with no assistance from fine work 
manship for the purpose of diminishing friction, as they are 
remarkable for their want of what is called "finish" in the 
machinery, on which so much time and money is wasted in 
English clock-work. 

All the ornamental French clocks, and all the short 
" dials," as those clocks are called which look no larger 
than the dial, or very little, and many of the American 
clocks, are made with springs. Indeed we might omit the 
word "French" after "ornamental;" for the manufacture 
of ornamental clocks has practically ceased in England, anil 
we are losing more of all branches of the horological trade 
yearly, as w r e are unable, i.e., our workmen do not choose, 
to compete with the cheaper labour of the Continent, or 
with the much more systematic manufacture of clocks and 
watches by machinery in America than exists here, though 
labour there is much dearer. It is true that most of the 
American clocks are very bad, indeed no better than the 
old-fashioned Dutch clocks (really German) made most 
ingeniously of wood and wire, besides the wheels. But 
some better American ones are also made now, and they 
will no doubt improve as their machine made watches have 
done. Though this has been going on now for 30 years 
and more, no steps appear to have been taken to establish 
anything of the kind in this country, except that watch 
" movements," which means only the wheels set in the 
frame, are to a certain extent made by machinery in 
Lancashire and Coventry for the trade, who finish them in 
London and elsewhere. That is the real meaning of the 
advertisements of "machine-made watches" here. 

The French clocks have also been greatly improved within 
the same time, and are now, at least some of them, 
quite different both in construction and execution from the 
old-fashioned French drawing-room clock which generally 
goes worse than the cheapest "Dutchman," and is nearly 
always striking wrong, because they have the locking-plate 
striking work, which if once let to strike wrong, either by 
altering the hands or letting it run down, cannot be set 
right again except by striking the hours all round, which 
few people know how to do, even if they can get their 
fingers in behind the clock to do it, .The Americans have 
a slight wire hanging down a little below the dial which 
you can push up and so make the clock strike. All locking- 
plate clocks ought to have a similar provision. 

There is not much use in having clocks to go more than 
a little over eight days (to allow the possible forgetting of 
a day), as a week is the easiest period to remember. The 
French spring-clocks generally go a fortnight, but most 
people wind them up weekly. Occasionally English clocks 
are made to go a month by adding another wheel ; and even 
a year by adding two. But in the latter case it is better to 
have two barrels and great wheels acting on opposite sides 
of a very strong pinion between them, as it both reduces 
the strain on the teeth and the friction of the pivot of that 



25 

pinion. Such clocks sometimes liave a 5 feet or l\ sec. 
pendulum, as the case must be a tall one. The great thing 
is to make the scape-wheel light, and even then you can 
never get more than a small arc of vibration, which is 
undesirable for the reason given above, and such a long 
train is peculiarly sensitive to friction. 

In the American clocks the pinions are all of the kind 
called lantern pinions, which have their leaves made only of 
bits of wire set round the axis in two collars ; and, oddly 
enough, they are the oldest form of pinion, as well as the 
best, acting with the least friction, and requiring the Last 
accuracy in the wheels, but now universally disused in all 
English and French house clocks. The American clocks 
prove that they are not too expensive to be used with 
advantage when properly made ; although, so long as there 
are no manufactories of clocks here as there are in America, 
it may be cheaper to make pinions in the slovenly way of 
cutting off all the ribs of a piece of pinion wire, so as to 
reduce it to a pinion a quarter of an inch wide, and an 
arbor 2 or 3 inches long. On the whole, the common 
English house clocks, so far from having improved with 
the general progress of machinery, are worse than they were 
fifty years ago, and at the same time are of such a price 
that they are being fast driven out of the market by 
the American plain clocks and by the French and German 
ornamental ones. 

Clocks have been contrived to wind themselves up by the 
alternate expansion and contraction of mercury and other 
fluids, under variations of temperature. Wind-mill decks 
might be made still more easily, the wind winding up a 
weight occasionally. Water-clocks have also been made, 
not on the clepsydra principle, where the flow of the water 
determined the time very inaccurately ; but the water is 
merely the weight, flowing from a tap into a hollow hori 
zontal axis, and thence by branches into buckets, which 
empty themselves as they pass the lowest point of the circle 
in which they move, or flowing directly into buckets, so 
emptying themselves. But the slopping of the water, and 
the rusting of any parts made of iron, and the cost of the 
water itself always running, destroy all chance of such 
things coming into use. 

ELECTRICAL CLOCKS. 

It should be understood that under this term two, or wo 
may say three, very different things are comprehended. 
The first is a mere clock movement, i.e., the works of a clock 
without either weight or pendulum, which is kept going 
by electrical connection with some other clock of any kind 
(these ought to be called electrical dials, not clocks) ; 
the second is a clock with a weight, but with the escape 
ment worked by electrical connection with another clock 
instead of by a pendulum ; and the third alone are truly 
electrical clocks, the motive power being electricity instead 
of gravity; for although they have a pendulum, which of 
course swings by the action of gravity, yet the requisite 
impulse for maintaining its vibrations against friction and 
resistance of the air is supplied by a galvanic battery, 
instead of by the winding up of a weight. 

If you take the weight off a common recoil escapement 
clock, and work the pallets backward and forwards by 
hand, you will drive the hands round, only the wrong way ; 
consequently, if the escapement is reversed, and the pallets 
are driven by magnets alternatively made and unmade, by 
the well-known method of sending an electrical current 
through a wire coil set round a bar of soft iron, the contact 
being made at every beat of the pendulum of a standard 
clock, the clock without the weight will evidently keep 
exact time with the standard clock ; and the only question 
is as to the best mode of making the contact, which is not 

VI. - 4 



2G 



CLOCKS 



so easy a matter as it appears to be, and though various 
plans apparently succeeded for a time, and were mechani 
cally perfect, not one has succeeded permanently ; i.e., the 
contact sometimes fails to produce the current of sufficient 
strength to lift the weight or spring on which the driving 
of the subordinate clock depends. It is therefore unneces 
sary to repeat the description of the various contrivances 
for this purpose by Wheatstone and others. 

The first person who succeeded in making one clock regu 
late or govern others by electricity, Mr 11. L. Jones/accord- 
iugly abandoned the idea of electrical driving of one clock 
by another; and instead of making the electrical connection 
with a standard clock (whether itself an electrical one or 
not) drive the others, he makes it simply let the pallets 
or the pendulum of the subordinate clock, driven by a 
weight or spring, be influenced by attraction at every beat 
of the standard clock ; and, by way of helping it, the 
pallets are made what we called half-dead in describing the 
dead escapement, except that they have no impulse faces, 
but the dead faces have just so much slope that they would 
overcome their own friction, and escape of themselves under 
the pressure of the clock train, except while they are held 
by the magnet, which is formed at every beat of the 
standard clock, or at every half-minute contact, if it is 
intended to work the dials by half-minute jumps. This 
plan has been extensively used for regulating distant clocks 
from Greenwich Observatory. 

The first electrical clocks, in the proper sense of the term, 
were invented by Mr Bain in IS 40, who availed himself 




FIG. 1C. Baiu s Pendulum. 

of the discovery of Oersted that a coil of insulated wire 
in the form of a hollow cylinder is attracted in one 
direction or the other by a permanent magnet within the 
coil, not touching it, when the ends of the coil are connected 
with the poles of a battery ; and if the connection is 
reversed, or the poles changed, so that the current at one 
time goes one way through the coil from the - or copper 
plate to the + or zinc plate, and at other times the other 
way, the direction of the attraction is reversed. Mr Bain 
made the bob of his pendulum of such a coil enclosed in a 
brass case so that it looked like a hollow brass cylinder 
lying horizontal and moving in the direction of its own 
axis, and in that axis stood the ends of two permanent 
magnets with the north poles pointed at eachotherand nearly 
touching, as iu the right hand part of fig. 1G. The pendulum 
pushed a small sliding bar backwards and forwards so as 
to reverse the current through the coil as the pendulum 
passed the middle of the arc, and so caused each magnet 
in turn to attract the bob. But this also failed practically, 



and especially in time-keeping, as might have been 
expected, from the friction and varying resistance of the 
bar to the motion of the pendulum, and in the attractions. 

Mr Ritchie of Edinburgh, however, has combined the 
principle of Bain s and Jones s clocks in a manner which is 
testified to be completely successful in enabling one 
standard clock to control and keep going any number of 
subordinate ones, which do not require winding up as 
Jones s do, but are driven entirely by their pendulums. 
This differs from Wheatstone s plan in this, that his subor 
dinate clocks had no pendulum swinging naturally and 
only wanting its vibrations helping a little, but the pallets 
had to be made to vibrate solely by the electrical force. 
The figures are taken from Mr Ilitchie s paper read before the 
Royal Scottish Society of Arts 
in 1873. The controlled pendu 
lum P is that just now described 
as Bain s (seen in fig. 17 the other 
way, across the plane of vibra 
tion) ; the rod and spring are 
double, and the wire cd is con 
nected with one spring and rod 
(say the front one) and the wire 
d e with the other ; so that the 
current has to pass down one 
spring and one rod and through 
the coil in the bob and up the 
other spring. The other pendu 
lum O of the normal or standard 
clock is a common one. except 
that it touches two slight contact 
springs a, b alternately, and so 
closes the circuit on one side and 
leaves it broken on the other. 
AVhen that pendulum touches a 
the B battery does nothing, and 
the - current from the battery A 
passes by a to c and d and down FlG " 17 -- Ritchie s Pendulum. 
the d spring and rod and up through d to e and back 
again to + of A. But when the standard pendulum O 
touches b the A battery does nothing, and the current 
from - to + of the B battery goes the other way, through 
the controlled pendulum and its 
coil. The two fixed magnets SN, 
NS consequently attract the coil 
and bob each way alternately. And 
even if the current is occasionally 
weak, the natural swing of the pen 
dulum will keep it going for a short 
time with force enough to drive 
its clock through a reversed escape 
ment; and further, if that pendulum 
is naturally a little too fast or too 
slow the attraction from the standard 
pendulums will retard or accelerate 
it. In practice, however, it is found 
better not to make the contact by 
springs, which, however light, dis 
turb the pendulum a little, but by a 
wheel in the train making and 
breaking contact at every beat; and 
if the clock has a gravity escape 
ment there is no danger of this 
friction affecting the pendulum atall. FlG - 18. 

Ii> order to get the machinery into cal 
a smaller compass than a 39 inches pendulum requires, 
Mr Ritchie uses a short and slow pendulum with two bobs, 
one above and the other below the suspension, as shown 
in fi. 17. Such a pendulum, like a common scale-beam, 
be made to vibrate as slow as you like by bringing 





Ritchie s Eliipti- 



CLOCKS 



the suspension nearer to the centre of gravity of the whole 
mass. But they are quite unfit for independent clock 
pendulums, having very little regulating power, or what we 
may call force of vibration. He applies magnets to both 
the bobs, so as to double the electrical force. Fig. 17 
is the section across the plane of vibration. 

Fig. 18 shows the kind of reversed escapement, or "pro- 
pehnent," used with these short and slow pendulums. The 
pendulum here is returning from the extreme right, and 
has just deposited the right hand pallet BCD with its end 
D pressing on a tooth of the scape- wheel, but unable to 
turn it because another tooth is held by the stop G on the 
left pallet. As soon as the pendulum lifts that pallet the 
weight of the other pallet turns the wheel,until a tooth falls 
against the stop C. When the pendulum returns from 
the left the left pallet presses on a tooth at E but cannot 
turn the wheel because it is yet held by C, until that is 
released. In order to prevent the hands being driven 
back by wind where they are exposed to it, a click is added 
to the teeth. The wind cannot drive the hands forward 
by reason of the stops C, G. 

CHURCH AND TURRET CLOCKS. 

Seeing that a clock at least the going part of it is a 
machine in which the only work to be done is the over 
coming of its own friction and the resistance of the air, it 
is evident, that when the friction and resistance are much 
increased, it may become necessary to resort to expedients 
for neutralizing their effects which are not required in a 
smaller machine with less friction. In a turret clock the 
friction is enormously increased by the great weight of all 
the parts ; and the resistance of the wind, and sometimes 
snow, to the motion of the hands, further aggravates the 
difficulty of maintaining a constant force on the pendulum ; 
and besides that, there is the exposure of the clock to the 
dirt and dust which are always found in towers, and of the 
oil to a temperature which nearly or quite freezes it all 
through the usual cold of winter. This last circumstance 
alone will generally make the arc of the pendulum at least 
half a degree more in summer than in winter; and inas 
much as the time is materially affected by the force which 
arrives at the pendulum, as well as the friction on the 
pallets when it does arrive there, it is evidently impossible 
for any turret clock of the ordinary construction, especially 
with large dials, to keep any constant rate through the 
various changes of temperature, weather, and dirt, to which 
it is exposed. 

Within the last twenty years all the best clock- 
makers have accordingly adopted the four-legged or three- 
legged gravity escapement for turret clocks above the 
smallest size ; though inferior ones still persist in using the 
dead escapement, which is incapable of maintaining a con 
stant rate under a variable state of friction, as has been 
shown before. When the Astronomer Royal in 1844 laid 
down the condition for the Westminster clock that it was not 
to vary more than a second a day, the London Company of 
Clockmakers pronounced it impossible, and the late Mr 
Vulliamy, who had been for many years the best maker of 
large clocks, refused to tender for it at those terms. The 
introduction of the gravity escapement enabled the largest 
and coarsest looking clocks with cast-iron wheels and pinions 
to go for long periods with a variation much nearer a 
second a week than a second a day. And the consequence 
was that the price for large clocks was reduced to about 
one-third of what it used to be for an article inferior in 
performance though more showy in appearance. 

Another great alteration, made by the French clockmakers 
before ours, was in the shape and construction of the frame. 
The old form of turret clock-frame was that of a large iron 



cage, of which some of the vertical bars take off, and are 
fitted with brass bushes for the pivots of the wheels to run 
in ; and the wheels of each train, i.e., the striking, the 
going, and the quarter trains, have their pivots all in the 
vertical bar belonging to that part. Occasionally they 
advanced so far as to make the bushes movable, i.e., fixed 
with screws instead of rivetted in, so that one wheel may 
be taken out without the others. This cage generally 
stood upon a wooden stool on the floor of the clock room. 
The French clockmakers long ago saw the objections to 
this kind of arrangement, and adopted the plan of a hori 
zontal frame or bed, cast all in one piece, and with such 
smaller frames or cocks set upon it as might be required 
for such of the wheels as could not be conveniently got on 
the same level. The accompanying sketch (fig. 19) of the 




< Fid. 19. Clock at Meanwood Church, Leeds. 

clock of Meanwood church, near Leeds, one of the first on 
that plan, will sufficiently explain it. All the wheels of the 
going part, except the great wheel, are set in a separate 
frame called the movement frame, which is complete in 
itself, and light enough to take off and carry away entire, 
so that any cleaning or repairs required in the most delicate 
part of the work can be done in the clock factory, and the 
great wheel, barrel, and rope need never be disturbed at 
all. Even this movement frame is now dispensed with ; 
but we will reserve the description of the still more simple 
kind of frame in which all the wheels lie on or under the 
great horizontal bed, until we have described train 
remontoires. 

Train Remontoires. 

Although the importance of these is lessened by the invention of 
an effective gravity escapement, they are still occasionally used, 
and are an essential part of the theory of clockmaking. It was long 
ago perceived that all the variations of force, except friction of the 
pallets, might be cut off by making the force of the scape-wheel 
depend on a small weight or spring wound up at short intervals 
by the great clock weight and the train of wheels. 

This also has the advantage of giving a sudden and visible 
motion to the minute hand at those intervals, say of half a minute, 
when the remontoire work is let off, so that time may be taken 
from the minute hand of a large public clock as exactly as from the 
seconds hand of an astronomical clock ; and besides that, greater 
accuracy may be obtained in the letting off of the striking part. 
We believe the first maker of a large clock with a train remontoivo 
was Mr Thomas Reid of Edinburgh, who wrote the article 
on clocks in the first edition of this Encyclopedia, which was after- 
wards expanded into a well-known book, in which his remontoiro 
was described. The scape-wheel was driven by a small weight hung 
by a Huyghens s endless chain, of which one of the pulleys was 
fixed to the arbor, and the other rode upon the arbor, with the 
pinion attached to it, and the pinion was driven and the weight 
wound up by the wheel below (which we will call the third 
wheel), as follows. Assuming the scape- wheel to turn in a minute, 
its arbor has a notch cut half through it on opposite sides in 
two places near to each other ; on the arbor of the wheel, which 
turns in ten minutes, suppose, there is another wheel with 2 
spikes sticking out of its rim, but alternately in two different planes, 
so that one set of spikes can only pass through one of the notches 
in the scape-wheel arbor, and the other set only through the otter. 
Whenever then the scape-wheel completes a half turn, one spiko 



CLOCKS 



is M "o ami the third wheel is able to move, and with it the whole 
clock-train and the hands, until the next spike of the other set is 
stopped by the scape-wheel arbor; at the same time the piinoiionthat 
arbor is turned half round, winding up the remontoire weight, 
but without taking its pressure off the scape-wheel. Eeid says 
that, so long as this apparatus was kept in good order, the clock went 
better than it did after it was removed in consequence of its getting 
out of order from the constant banging of the spikes against the 
arbor. 

The Iloyal Exchange clock was at first made in 
on the same principle, except that, instead of the endless 
chain, an internal wheel was used, with the spikes set on it 
externally, which is one of the modes by which an occasional 
secondary motion may be given to a wheel without disturbing its 
primary and regular motion. A drawing of the original Ex 
change clock remontoire is given in the Rudimentary Treatise on 
Clocks; but for the reasons which will appear presently, it need 
not be repeated here, especially as the following is a more simple 
arrangement of a gravity train remontoire, much more frequently 
used in principle. Let E in fig. 20 be the scape-wheel turning in a 




FIG. 20. Gravity Train Remontoire. 

minute, and e its pinion, which is driven by the wheel D having a 
pinion d driven by the wheel C, which we may suppose to turn in 
an hour. The arbors of the scape-wheel and hour-wheel are distinct, 
their pivots meeting in a bush fixed somewhere between the wheels. 
The pivots of the wheel D are set in the frame AP, which rides 
on the arbors of the hour-wheeLand scape-wheel, or on another short 
arbor between them. The hour-wheel also drives another wheel G, 
which again drives the pinion /on the arbor which carries the two 
arms /A, /B; and on the same arbor is set a fly with a ratchet, 
like a common striking fly, and the numbers of the teeth are so 
arranged that the fly will turn once for each turn of the scape- 
wheel. The ends of the remontoire arms / A, / B are capable of 
alternately passing the notches cut half through the arbor of the 
bcape- wheel, as those notches successively conio into the proper 
position at the end of every half minute ; as soon as that happens 
the hour-wheel raises the movable wheel D and its frame through 
a small angle ; but nevertheless, that wheel keeps pressing oil the 
scape-wheel as if it were not moving, the point of contact of the 
wheel C and the pinion d being the fulcrum or centre of motion of 
the lever A d P. It will be observed that the remontoire arms / A, 
/ B have springs set on them to diminish the blow on the scape- 
wheel arbor, as it is desirable not to have the fly so large as to make 
the motion of the train, and consequently of the hands, too slow to 
be distinct. For the same reason it is .not desirable to drive the fly 
by an endless screw, as was done in most of the French clocks on 
tins principle in the 1851 Exhibition. There is also an enormous 
loss of force by friction in driving an endless screw, and consequently 
considerable risk of the clock stopping either from cold or from 
wasting of the oil. 

Another kind of remontoire is on the principle of one 
bevelled wheel lying between two others at right angles to it. 
1 he first of the bevelled wheels is driven by the train, and the 
third is fixed to the arbor of the scape-wheel ; and the intermediate 
bevelled wheel, of any size, rides on its arbor at right angles to 
the other two arbors which are in the same line The 
scape-wheel will evidently turn with the same average velocitv 

i the first bevelled wheel, though the intermediate one may move 
up and down at intervals. The transverse arbor which carries 
it is let off and lifted a little at half-minute intervals, as in the 
remontoire just now described ; and it gradually works down as the 
scape-wheel turns under its pressure, until it is freed again and 
lifted by the clock train. 

!n all these gravity remontoires, however, it must have been 
observed that we only get rid of the friction of the heavy parts of 
the tram and the dial-work, and that the scape-wheel is still subject 
to the friction of the remontoire wheels, which, though much less 
thtm the other, is still something considerable. And accordingly, 



attempts have frequently been made to drive the scape-wheel by a 
spiral spring, like the mainspring of a watch. One of these, was 
described in the 7th edition of this Encyclopaedia ; and Sir G. Ahy, 
a few years ago, invented another on the same principle, of which 
two or three specimens were made. But it was found, and indeed 
it ought to have been foreseen, that these contrivances were all 
defective in the mode of attaching the spiing, by making another 
wheel or pinion ride on the arbor of the scape-wheel, which produced 
a very mischievous friction, and so only increased the expense of the 
clock without any corresponding advantage ; and the consequence 
was that spring remontoires, and remontoires in general, had come 
to be regarded as a mere delusion. It has however now been fully 
proved that they are not so ; for, by a very simple alteration of 
the previous plans, a spiral spring remontoire may be made to act 
with absolutely no friction, except that of the scape-wheel pivots, 
and the letting-off springs A, B, in the last drawing. The Mean- 
wood clock (fig. 17) was the first of this kind ; but it will be necessary 
to give a separate view of the remontoire work. 

In the next figure (21), A, B, D, E, e, f are the same things as 
in fig. 20. But e, the scape-wheel pinion, is no longer fixed to the 
arbor, nor does it ride on the arbor, as had been the case in all the 
previous spring remontoires, thereby producing probably more 
friction than was saved in other respects ; but it rides on a stud k, 
which is set in the clock-frame. On the face of the pinion is a plate, 
of which the only use is to carry a pin h (and consequently its 
shape is immaterial), and in front of the plate is set a bush b, with 
a hole through it, of which half is occupied by the end of the stud 
k to which the bush is fixed by a small pin, and the other half is 
the pivot-hole for the scape-wheel arbor. On the arbor is set the 
remontoire springs (a moderate-sized musical-box spring is generally 

used) of which the outer end 

is bent into a loop to take <3> V 
hold of the pin h. In fact, 
there are two pins at A, one 
a little behind the other, 
to ksep the coils of the 
spring from touching each 
other. Now, it is evident 
"diat the spring may be 
wound up half or a quarter 
of a turn at the proper in 
tervals without taking the 
force off the scape-wheel, 
and also without affecting 
it by any friction whatever. 
When the scape- wheel turns 
in a minute, the le tting-off 
would bo done as before 
described, by a couple of 
notches in the scape-wheel 
arbor, through which the 
spikes A, B, as in fig. 20, 
would pass alternately. But 
in clocks with only three 
wheels in the train it is best 
to make the scape-wheel 
turn in two minutes, and 
consequently you would 
want four notches and four 
remontoire arms, and the 
fly would only make a 
quarter of a turn. And 
therefore Sir E. Beckett, who invented this remontoire, made the 
following provision for diminishing the friction of the letting-off 
work. The fly pinion/ has only half the number of teeth of the 
scape-wheel pinion, being a lantern pinion of 7 or 8, while the other 
is a leaved pinion of 14 or 16, and therefore the same wheel D will 
properly drive both, as will be seen hereafter. The scape-wheel 
arbor ends in a cylinder about | inch in diameter, with two notches 
at right angles cut in its face, one of them narrow and deep, and 
the other broad and shallow, so that a long and thin pin B can pass 
only through one, and a broad and short pin A through the other. 
Consequently, at each quarter of a turn of the scape-wheel, the 
remontoire fly, on which the pins A, B are set on springs, as in fig. 
20, can turn half round. It is set on its arbor/by a square ratchet 
and click, which enables you to adjust the spring to the requisite 
tension to obtain the proper vibration of the pendulum. A 
better construction, afterwards introduced, is to make the fly separate 
from the letting-off arms, whereby the blow on the cylinder is dimi 
nished, the fly being allowed to go on as in the gravity escapement. 
The performance of this is so much more satisfactory than that of 
the gravity remontoires, that Mr Dent altered that of the Royal 
Exchange to a spring one in 1854, which had the effect of reducing 
the clock-weight by one-third, besides improving the rate of going. 
It should be observed, however, that even a spring remontoire 
requires a larger weight than the same clock without one ; but as 
none of that additional force reaches the pendulum, that is of no 




CLOCKS 



consequence. The variation of force of the romontoire spring 
from temperature, as it only affects the pendulum through 
the medium of the dead escapement, is far too small to produce 
any appreciable effect ; and it is found that clocks of this 
kind, with a compensated pendulum 8 feet long, and of 
about 2 cwt., will not vary above a second a month, if the 
pallets are kept clean and well oiled. No turret clock without 
cither a train remontoire or a gravity escapement will approach that 
decree of accuracy. The King s Cross clock, which was the first 
of this kind, went with a variation of about a second in three weeks 
in the 1851 Exhibition, and has sometimes gone for two months 
without any discoverable error, though it wants the jewelled pallets 
which the Exchange clock has. But these clocks require more care 
than gravity escapement ones, and are certain to be spoilt as soon as 
they get into ignorant or careless hands ; and consequently the 
gravity ones have superseded them. 

The introduction of this remontoire led to another very important 
alteration in the construction of large clocks. Hitherto it had 
always been considered necessary, with a view to diminish the friction 
as far as possible, to make the wheels of brass or gun-metal, with 
the teeth cut in an engine. The French clockmakers had begun to 
use cast-iron striking parts, and cast-iron wheels had been oc 
casionally used in the going part of inferior clocks for the sake of 
cheapness ; but they had never been used in any clock making 
pretensions to accuracy before the one just mentioned. In conse 
quence of the success of that, it was determined by the astronomer 
royal and Mr Denison, who were jointly consulted by the Board of 
Works about the great Westminster clock in 1852, to alter the ori 
ginal requisition for gun-metal wheels there to cast-iron. Some 
persons expressed their apprehension of iron wheels rusting ; but 
nothing can be more unfounded, for the non-acting surfaces are 
al \vay3 painted, and the acting surfaces oiled. A remarkable proof 
of the folly of the clockmakers denunciations of the cast-iron wheels 
was afforded at the Royal Exchange the next year. In consequence 
of the bad ventilation of the clock-room, together with the effects 
of the London atmosphere, some thin parts of the brass work had 



become so much corroded that they had to be renewed, mul some of 
it was replaced with iron ; for all the polished iron and brass work 
had become as rough as if it had never been polished at all ; the 
only parts of the clock which had not suffered from the damp and 
the bad air were the painted iron work. The room was also venti 
lated, with a draught through it, and all the iron work, except 
acting surfaces, painted. Even in the most favourable positions 
brass or gun-metal loses its surface long before cast-iron wants 
repainting. 

There is, however, a curious point to be attended to in using cast- 
iron wheels. They must drive cast-iron pinions, for they will wear 
out steel. The smaller wheels of the going part may be of brass 
driving steel pinions ; but the whole of the striking wheels and 
pinions may be of iron. A great deal of nonsense is talked about 
gun-metal, as if it was necessarily superior to brass. The best gun- 
metal may be, and is, for wheels which are too thick to hammer ; 
but there is great variety in the quality of gun-metal ; it is often 
unsound, and lias hard and soft places ; and on the whole, it has 
no advantage over good brass, when not too thick to be hammered. 
In clocks made under the pressure of competing tenders, if the brass 
is likely not to be hammered, the gun metal is quite as likely to be 
the cheapest and the worst possible, like everything else which is 
always specified to be "best," as the clockmakers know very well that 
it is a hundred to one if anybody sees their work that can tell the 
difference between the best and the worst. 

Turret Clocks with Gravity Escapement. 

Fig. 22 is a front view of a large quarter clock of Sir E. Beckett s 
design, with all tlje wheels on the great horizontal bed, a gravity 
escapement, and a compensated pendulum. They are made in two 
sizes, one with the great striking wheels 18 inches wide, and the 
other 14. The striking is done by cams cast on the great wheels, 
about 1 ^ inch broad in the large-sized clocks, which are strong enough 
for an hour bell of thirty cwt., and corresponding quarters. Wire 
ropes are used, not only because they last longer, if kept greased, 




FIG. 22. Front view of Turret Quarter Clock. 



but because a sufficient number of coils will go on a barrel of less 
than half the length that would be required for hemp ropes of the 
same strength, without overlapping, which it is as well to avoid, it 
possible, though it is not so injurious to wire ropes as it is 
to hemp ones. By this means also the striking cams can be 
put on the great wheel, instead of the second wheel, which 
saves more in friction than could be imagined by any ,ne who 
had not tried both. In clocks of the common construction two- 
thirds of the power is often wasted in friction and in the bad 
arrangement of the hammer work, and the clock is wearing itse 
out in doing nothing. 

The same number of cams are given here to the quarter as to 
hour-striking wheel, rather for the purpose of suggesting the expedi 
ency of omitting the 4th quarter, as has been done in many clocks made 
from this design. It is of no use to strike ding-dong quarters at t 
hour, and it nearly doubles the work to be done; and i 
omitted it allows the bells to be larger, and therefore louder, because 
the 1st quarter bell ought to be an octave above the hour bell, it 
they are struck at the hour ; whereas, if they are not heard together 
the quarters may be on the 4th and 7th of a peal of eight b< 



Moreover, the repetition of the four ding-dongs can give no musical 
pk-asure to any one. 

The case is different withihe Cambridge and Westminster quarter 
chimes on 4 bells, and the chime at the hour is the most complete 
and pleasing of all. It is singular that those beautiful chimes 
(which arc partly attributed to Handel) had been heard by thousands 
of men scattered all over England for 70 years before any one thought 
of copying them, but since they were introduced by Sir E. Beckett 
in the great Westminster clock, on a much larger scale and with a 
slight difference in the intervals, they have been copied verj exten 
sively and are already almost as numerous in new clocks as the old- 
fashioned ding-dong quarters. Properly, as at Cambridge and 
Westminster, the hour bell should bean octave below the third (< 
largest but one) quarter bell; but as the interval between tl 
quarters and hour is always considerable, it is practically found that 
the ear is not offended by a less interval. At Worcester cathedral the 
great 44 ton hour bell is only 1J notes below the 50 cwt. tenor bell 
of the peal, which is made "the fourth quarter bell ; and at some 
other places the quarters are the 2d, 3d, 4th, and 7th of a peal ot a, 
and the hour bell the 8th. Thereby you get more powerful 



4th 



30 

altogether better sounding quarters. The quarter bells are the 1st, 
2d, 3d, and 6th of a peal of 6 independent of the hour bell ; and 
the following is their arrangement : 

01 /3126 
2(1 ( 3213 

1326 
3d 6213 

1236 1st 

hour. ..10 

The interval between each successive chime of four should be 
two or at most two and a half times that between the successive 
blows. At Cambridge it is three times, decidedly too slow; at 
Westminster twice, which is rather too fast ; at Worcester cathedral 
and most of the later large clocks 2J times, which sounds the best. 

At Cambridge the chimes are set on a barrel which turns twice in 
the hour, as this table indicates, and which is driven by the great 
wheel with a great waste of power ; the clock is wound up every 
day. An eight-day clock would require a very heavy weight, 
and a very much greater strain on the wheels, and they arc alto 
gether inexpedient for these quarters on any large scale of bells. 

Indeed there is some reason for doubting whether the modem 
introduction of eight-day clocks is an improvement, where they have 
to strike at all on large bells. Such clocks hardly ever bring the 
full sound out of the bells ; because, in order to do so, the weights 
would have to be so heavy, and the clock so large, as to increase 
the price considerably. A good bell, even of the ordinary thickness, 
which is less than in the Westminster bells, requires a hammer of 
not less than ^th of its weight, rising 8 or 9 inches from the bell, 
to bring out the full sound ; and therefore, allowing for the loss by 
friction, a bell of 30 cwt, which is not an uncommon tenor for a 
large peal, would require a clock weight of 15 cwt., with a clear fall 
of 40 feet ; and either the Cambridge quarters on a peal of ten, or 
the Doncaster ones on the 2d, 3d, 4th, and 7th bells of a peal of eight, 
will require above a ton, according to the usual scale of bells in a ring 
ing peal (which is thinner than the Westminster clock bells). Very few 
clocks are adapted for such weights as these ; and without abundance 
of strength and great size in all the parts, it would be unsafe to use 
them. But if the striking parts are made to wind up every day, 
of course }th of these weights will do ; and you may have a more 
powerful clock in effect, and a safer one to manage, in half the com 
pass, and for much less cost. Churches with such bells as these 
have always a sexton or some other person belonging to them, and 
in attendance every day, who can wind up the clock just as well as 
a clockmaker s man, The going part always requires a much lighter 
weight, and may as well go a week, and be in the charge of a clock- 
maker, where it is possible. 

There should be some provision for holding the hammers off the 
bells while ringing, and at the same time a friction-spring or weight 
should be brought to bear on the fly arbor, to compensate for the 
removal of the weight of the hammers ; otherwise there is a risk of 
the train running too fast and being broken when it is stopped. 

No particular number of cams is required in the striking wheel ; 
any number from 10 to 20 will do ; but when four quarters on two 
bells are used, the quarter-striking wheel should have half as many 
cams again as the hour-wheel ; for, if not, the rope will go a second 
time over half of the ban-el, as there are 120 blows on each quarter 
bell in the 12 hours to 78 of the hours, while with the three quarters 
there are only 72. If the two quarter levers are on the same arbor, 
there must be two sets of cams, one on each side of the wheel ; but 
one set will do, and the same wheel as the hour- wheel, if they are 
placed as in fig. 23. The hour-striking lever, it will be seen, is 
differently shaped, so as to diminish the pressure on its arbor by 
making it only the difference, instead of the sum, of the pressures.at 
the two points of action. This can be done with the two quarter 
levers, as shown in the Rudimentary Treatise; but the arrangement 
involves a good deal of extra work, and as the quarter hammers are 
always lighter than the hour one, it is hardly worth while to resort 
to it. The shape of the cams is a matter requiring some attention, 
but it will be more properly considered when we come to the teeth 
of wheels. The 4th quarter bell in the Cambridge and Westminster 
quarters should have two hammers and sets of cams longer than 
the others, acting alternately, on account of the quick repetition of 
the blows. 

The fly ratchets should not be made of cast-iron, as they some 
times are by clockmakers who will not use cast-iron wheels on any 
account, because the teeth get broken off by the click. This break 
ing may perhaps be avoided by making the teeth rectangular, like a 
number of inverted V s set round a circle, and the click only reach 
ing so far that the face of the tooth which it touches is at right 
angles to the click ; but, as before observed, cast-iron and steel do 
not work well together. 

The hammer of a large clock ought to be left " on the lift," when 
the clock has done striking, if the first blow is to be struck 
exactly at the hour, as there are always a good many 
seconds lost in the train getting into action and raising the 
hammer. Moreover, when it stops on the lift, the pressure on the 



stops, and on all the pinions above the great wheel, is only that 
due to the excess of the power of the clock over the weight of the 
hammer, and not the full force of the weight, and it is therefore 
easier for the going part to discharge, and less likely to break the 
stops. 

In fig. 22 the wheel marked 60 in each of the striking parts is a 
winding wheel on the front end of the barrel, and the winding pinion 
is numbered 10 ; a larger pinion will do where the hammer does not 
exceed 40 ft ; and in small clocks no auxiliary winding wheel is 
needed. But in that case the locking-plate must be driven by a 
gathering pallet, or pinion with two teeth, on the arbor of the 
second wheel, with a spring click to keep it steady. In all cases 
the hammer shanks and tails should not be less than two feet long, 
if possible ; for the shorter they are, the more is lost by the change 
of inclination for any given rise from the bell. In some clocks with 
fixed (not swinging) bells, the hammer-head is set on a double shank 
embracing the bell, with the pivots, not above it in the French way, 
which makes the hammer strike at a wrong angle, but on each side 
of the bell, a little below the top. On this plan less of the rise is 
lost than in the common mode of fixing. The Westminster clock 
hammers are all fixed in this way. 

The first thing to remark in the going part of fig. 22 is that the 
hour-wheel which carries the snails for letting off the quarters and 
striking, is not part of the train leading up to the scape-wheel, but 
independent, so that the train from the great wheel to the scape- 
v/heel, is one of three wheels only. If it were a dead escapement, 
instead of a gravity escapement clock, the wheel numbered 
96 would be the scape-wheel ; and as it turns in 90 seconds, 
it would require 36 teeth or pins for a 1J sec. pendulum which 
most of these gravity -escapement clocks have ; it is about 6 feet long 
to the bottom of the bob, which, if sunk just below the floor, brings 
the clock-frame to a very convenient height. The hour-wheel rides 
loose on its arbor, or rather the arbor can turn within it, carrying 
the snails and the regulating hand and the bevelled wheel which 
drives all the dials, and it is fixed to the hour-wheel by means oi 
clamping screws on the edge of a round plate on the arbor just 
behind it, which turn by hand. In a gravity escapement clock 
this adjusting work is not really necessary ; because you can set the 
clock by merely lifting the pallets oli the scape-wheel, and letting 
the train run till the hands point right. The regulating hand, 
you observe, in fig. 22 turns the wrong way; because, where the 
dial is opposite to the back of the clock, no bevelled wheels are 
wanted, and the arbor leads straight off to the dial. It used to be the 
fashion to put clocks in the middle of the room, so that the leading- 
off rod might go straight up to the horizontal bevelled wheel in the 
middle, which drove all the dials. But the clock can be set much 
more firmly on stone corbels, or on cast-iron brackets built into the 
wall; and it is not at all necessary for the leading-off rod to be 
vertical. Provided it is only in a vertical plane parallel to the wall, 
or the teeth of the bevelled wheels adapted to the inclination, the 
rod may stand as obliquely as you please ; and when it does, it 
ought on no account to be made, as it generally is, with universal 
joints, but the pivots shouldgo into oblique pivot-holes at the top and 
bottom. The joints increase the friction considerably, and are of 
no use whatever, except where the rod is too long to keep itself 
straight. Where the rod does happen to be in the middle of the 
room, and there are three or four dials, the two horizontal bevelled 
wheels at each end of it must be a little larger than all the others 
both the one in the clock and those of the dial-work ; for otherwise 
the three or four wheels in the middle will meet each other and 
stick fast. 

When the pendulum is very long and heavy, it should be sus 
pended from the -wall, unless the clock-frame has some strong 
support near the middle ; but a six-feet pendulum, of not more than 
two cwt., may be suspended from the clock-frame, provided it is as 
strong as it ought to be for the general construction of the clock, 
and supported on corbels or iron beams. It has generally been 
the practice to hang the pendulum behind the clock-frame ; but 
inasmuch as the rope of the going part may always be thinner than 
that of the striking part, and that part requires less depth in other 
respects, a different and more compact plan is adopted in the clocks 
we are describing. The back pivots of the going wheels run in 
bushes in an intermediate bar, three or four inches from the back of 
the frame, joining the two cross bars, of which the ends are dotted 
in the drawing. The pendulum cock is set on the back frame, 
and the pendulum hangs within it. And in the gravity escapement 
clocks there is yet another thin bar about half way between the 
back frame and the bar on which the bushes of the wheels are set 
the only use of which is to carry the bush of the scape-wheel, which 
is set behind the fly; the wheel, the fly, and the pallets, or gravity- 
arms, stand between these two intermediate bars ; and the pallet- 
arbors are set in a brass cock screwed to the top of the pendulum- 
cock. The beat-pins should be of brass, not steel, and no oil put 
to them, or they are sure to stick. The escapement in fig. 22 is 
not drawn rightly for the present form of them, which is given hi 
fig. 13. 

The same gen.eral arrangement will serve for a dead escapement 



CLOCKS 



clock with or without a train remoutoire ; only the pendulum will 
not stand so high, and the front end of the pallet arbor must he 
set in a cock like those of the striking flies, oil the front bar of the 
frame. And for a dead escapement, if there are large dials and no 
rernontoire, the pendulum should be longer and heavier than that 
which is quite sufficient for a gravity escapement. The rod of a 
wooden pendulum should be as thin as it can conveniently be made, 
and varnished, to prevent its absorbing moisture. 

Dials and Hands. 

The old established form of dial for turret clocks is a sheet of 
copper made convex, to preserve its shape ; and this is just the 
worst form which could have been contrived for it. For, in the first 
place, the minute-hand, being necessarily outside of the hour-hand, 
is thrown still farther off the minutes to which it has to point, by 
the convexity of the dial ; and consequently, when it is in any posi 
tion except nearly vertical, it is impossible to see accurately where 
it is pointing ; and if it is bent enough to avoid this eifect of 
parallax, it looks very ill. Secondly, a convex dial at a consider 
able height from the ground looks even more convex than it really 
is, because the lines of sight from the middle and the top of the 
dial make a smaller angle with the eye than the lines from the 
middle and the bottom, in proportion to the degree of convexity. 
The obvious remedy for these defects, is simply to make the dial 
concave instead of convex. As convex dials look more curved than 
they are, concave ones look less curved than they are, and in fact 
might easily be taken for flat ones, though the curvature is exactly 
the same as usual. Old convex dials are easily altered to concave, 
and the improvement is very striking where it has been done. 
There is no reason why the same form should not be adopted in 
stone, cement, slate, or cast-iron, of which materials dials are some 
times and properly enough made, with the middle part countersunk 
for the hour hand, so that the minute-hand may go close to the 
figures and avoid parallax. When dials are large, copper, or even 
iron or slate, is quite a useless expense, if the stonework is moder 
ately smooth, as most kinds of stone take and retain paint very 
well, and the gilding will stand upon it better than it often does on 
copper or iron. 

The figures are generally made much too large. People have a 
pattern dial painted ; and if the figures are not as long as one-third 
of the radius, and therefore occupying, with the minutes, about two- 
thirds of the whole area of the dial, they fancy they are not large 
enough to be read at a distance ; whereas the fact is, the more the 
dial is occupied by the figures, the less distinct they are, and the 
more difficult it is to distinguish the position of the hands, which 
is what people really want to see, and not to read the figures, which 
may very well be replaced by twelve large spots. The figures, 
after all, do not mean what they say, as you read " twenty minutes 
to" something, when the minute-hand points to vm. The rule 
which has been adopted, after various experiments, as the best for 
the proportions of the dial, is this. Divide the radius into three, 
and leave the inner two-thirds clear and flat, and of some colour 
forming a strong contrast to the colour of the hands, black or dark 
blue if they are gilt, and white if they are black. The figures, 
if there are any, should occupy the next two-thirds of the remaining 
third, and the minutes be set in the remainder, near the edge, and 
with every fifth minute more strongly marked than the rest ; and 
there should not be a rim round the dial of the same colour or 
gilding as the figiires. The worst kind of dial of all are the things 
called skeleton-dials, which either have no middle except the stone 
work, forming no contrast to the hands, or else taking special 
trouble to perplex the spectator by filling up the middle with 
radiating bars. Where a dial cannot be put without interfering 
with the architecture, it is much better to have none, as is the case 
in many cathedrals and large churches, leaving the information to 
be given by the striking of the hours and quarters. This also will 
save something, perhaps a good deal, in the size and cost of the 
clock, and if it is one without a train remoutoire or gravity escape- 
Uient, will enable it to go better. The size of public dials is often 
rery inadequate to their height and the distance at which they are 
intended to be seen. They ought to be at least 1 foot in diameter 
for every 10 feet of height above the ground, and more whenever the 
dial will be seen far off; and this rule ought to be enforced on archi 
tects, as they are often not aware of it ; and indeed they seldom 
make proper provisions for the clock or the weights in building a 
tower, or, in short, know anything about the matter. 

The art of illuminating dials cannot be said to be in a satisfactory 
state. Where there happens to be, as there seldom is, a projecting 
roof at some little distance below the dial, it may be illuminated 
by reflection, like that at the Horse Guards about the only merit 
which that superstition sly venerated and bad clock has ; and the 
same thing may be done in some places by movable lamp reflectors, 
like those put before shop windows at night, to be turned back 
against the wall during the day. It has also been proposed to sink 
the dial within the wall, and illuminate it by jets of gas pointing 
inwards from, a kind of projecting rim, like what is called in church 
windows a "hood-moiddiiig," carried all round. But it is a great 



objection to sunk dials, even of less depth than would be required 
here, that they do not receive light enough by day, and do not get 
their faces washed by the rain. The common mode of illumina 
tion is by making the\lials either entirely, or all except the figures 
and minutes and a ring to carry them, of glass, either ground or 
lined in the inside with linen (paint loses its colour from the gas). 
The gas is kept always alight, but the clock is made to turn it nearly 
off and full on at the proper times by a 24-hour wheel, with pins 
set in it by hand as the length of the day variew. Self-acting 
apparatus has been applied, but it is somewhat complicated, and an 
unnecessary expense. But these dials always look very ill by day ; 
and it seems often to be forgotten that dials are wanted much more 
by day than by night ; and also, that the annual expense of lighting 
3 or 4 dials far exceeds the interest of the entire cost of any 
ordinary clock. Sometimes it exceeds the whole cost of the clock 
annually. The use of white opaque glass with black figures 
is ver) superior to the common method. It is used in the 
great Westminster clock dials. It is somewhat of an objection to 
illuminating large dials from the inside, that it makes it impossible 
to counterpoise the hands outside, except with very short, and there 
fore very heavy, counterpoises. And if hands are only counterpoised 
inside, there is no counterpoise at all to the force of the wind, which 
is then constantly tending to kosen them on the arbor, and that 
tendency is aggravated by the hand itself pressing on the arbor one 
way as it ascends, and the other way as it descends ; and if a large 
hand once gets in the smallest degree loose, it becomes rapidly worse 
by the constant shaking. It is mentioned in Reid s book that the 
minute-hand of St Paul s cathedral, which is above 8 feet long, used 
to fall over above a minute as it passed from the left to the right 
side of xii, before it was counterpoised outside. In the conditions 
to be followed in the Westminster clock it was expressly required 
that "the hands be counterpoised externally, for wind as well as 
weight. " The long hand should be straight and plain, to distinguish 
it as much as possible from the hour hand, which should end in a 
"heart" or swell. Many clockmakers and architects, on the con 
trary, seem to aim at making the hands as like each other as they 
can ; and it is not uncommon to see even the counterpoises gilt, 
probably with the same object of producing apparent symmetry and 
the same result of producing real confusion. 

The old fashion of having chimes or tunes played by machinery 
on church bells at certain hours of the day has greatly revived in 
the last few years, and it has extended to town halls, as also that 
of having very large clock bells, which had almost become extinct 
until the making of the Westminster clock. The old kind of chime 
machinery consisted merely of a large wooden ban-el about 2 feet in 
diameter with pins stuck in it like those of a musical box, which 
pulled down levers that lifted hammers on the bells. Generally 
there were several tunes " pricked " on the barrel, which had an 
endway motion acting automatically, so as to make a shift after eacli 
tune, and with a special adjustment by hand to make it play a 
psalm tune on Sundays. But though these tunes were very pleasing 
and popular in the places where such chimes existed they were generally 
feeble and irregular, because the pins and levers were not strong 
enough to lift hammers of sufficient weight for the large bells, and 
there were no means of regulating the time of dropping off the 
levers. Probably the last large chime work of this kind was that 
put up by Dent to play on 16 bells at the Royal Exchange in 
1845, with the improvement of a cast-iron barrel and stronger pins 
than in the old wooden barrels. 

A much improved chime machine has been introduced since, at 
first by an inventor named Imhoff, who sold Ms patent, or the 
right to use it, to Messrs Gillett and Bland of LYoydon, and also to 
Messrs Lund and Blockley of Pall Mall, who have both added 
further improvements of their own. The principle of it is this : 
instead of the hammers being lifted by the pins which let them off, 
they are lifted whenever they are down by an independent set of cam 
wheels of ample strength ; and all that the pins on the barrel have 
to do is to trip them up by a set of comparatively light levers or 
detents. Consequently the pins are as small as those of a barrel 
organ, and many more tunes can be set on the same barrel than in 
the old plan, and besides that, any number of barrels can be kept, 
and put in from time to time as you please ; so that you may have 
as many tunes as the peal of bells will admit. There are various 
provisions for regulating and adjusting the time, and the machinery 
is altogether of a very perfect kind for its purpose, but it must bo 
seen to be understood. 

It is always necessary in chimes to have at least two hammers to 
each bell to enable a note to be repeated quickly. Some ambitious 
musicians determined to try " chords" or double notes struck at 



them, ine largest peaia ana cmmus wt "* -< 

cester cathedral, and the town halls of Bradford and Rochdale, and 
a still larger one is now making for Manchester, all by Gillett ano 
Bland. The clock at Worcester, which as yet ranks next to West- 
minster, was made by Mr Joyce of Whitchurch ; the others are by 
Gillett and Bland. At Boston church they have chimea m 



32 



CLOCKS 



ticm of some of the foreign ones on above 40 small bells, which were 
added for that purpose to the eight of the peal ; but they are not 
successful, and it is stated in Sir E. Beckett s book on clocks and 
bells, that he warned them that the large and small bells would not 
harmonize, though either might be used separately. Other persons 
have attempted chimes on hemispherical bells, like those of house 
clocks ; but they also are a failure for external bells to be heard at 
a distance. This however belongs rather to the subject of bells ; and 
we must refer to that book for all practical information about them. 

TEETH OP WHEELS. 

Before explaining the construction of the largest clock in the 
world it is necessary to consider the shape of wheel teeth suitable foi 
different purposes, and als o of the cams requisite to raise heavy 
hammers, which had been too much neglected by clockmakers pre 
viously. At the same time we are not going to write a treatise on 
all the branches of the important subject of wheel-cutting ; but, 
assuming a knowledge of the general principles of it, to apply them 
to the points chiefly involved in clock-making. The most compre 
hensive mathematical view of it is perhaps to be found in a paper 
by the astronomer royal in the Cambridge Transactions many years 
ago, which is further expanded in Professor Willis s Principles of 
Meclwnism. Respecting the latter book, however, we should advise 
the reader to be content with the mathematical rules there given, 
which are very simple, without attending much to those of the 
odontograph, which seem to give not less but more trouble than 
the mathematical, and are only approximate after all, and also do 
not explain themselves, or convey any knowledge of the principle 
to those who use them. 

For all wheels that are to work together, the first thing to do is 
to fix the geometrical, or primitive, or pitch circles of the two wheels-, 
i.e., the two circles which, if they rolled perfectly together, would 
give the velocity-ratio you want. Draw a straight line joining the 
two centres ; then the action which takes place between any two 
teeth as they are approaching that line is said to be before the line of 
centres ; and the action while they are separating is said to be after 
the line of centres. Now, with a view to reduce the friction, it is 
essential to have as little action before the line of centres as you 
can ; foi if you make any rude sketch, on a large scale, of a pair of 
wheels acting together, and serrate the edges of the teeth (which is 
an exaggeration of the roughness which produces friction), you will 
see that the further the contact begins before the line of centres, the 
more the serration will interfere with the motion, and that at a 
certain distance no force whatever could drive the wheels, but 
would only jam the teeth faster ; and you will see also that this can 
not happen after the line of centres. But with pinions of the 
numbers generally used in clocks you cannot always get rid of 
action before the line of centres ; for it may be proved (but the 
proof is too long to give here), that if a pinion has less than 11 
leaves, no wheel of any number of teeth can drive it without some 
action before the line of centres. And generally it may be stated 
that the greater the number of teeth the less friction there will be, 
as indeed is evident enough from considering that if the teeth were 
infinite in number, and infinitesimal in size, there would be no 
friction at all, but simple rolling of one pitch circle on the other. 
And since in clock-work the wheels always drive the pinions, except 
the hour pinion in the dial work, and the winding pinions in large 
clocks, it has long been recognized as important to have high num 
bered pinions, except where there is a train remontoire, or a gravity 
escapement, to obviate that necessity. 

And with regard to this matter, the art of clock-making has in 
one sense retrograded ; for the pinions which are now almost univer 
sally used in English and French clocks are of a worse form than 
those of several centuries ago, to which we have several times 
alluded under the name of lantern pinions, so called from their re 
sembling a lantern with upright ribs. A sketch of one, with a 
cross section on a large scale, is given at fig. 24. Now it is a property 
of these pinions, that when they are driven, the action begins just 
when the centre of the pin is on the line of centres, however few 
the pins may be ; and thus the action of a lantern pinion of 6 is 
about equal to that of a leaved pinion of 10 ; and indeed, for some 
reason or other, it appears in practice to be even better, possibly 
from the teeth of the wheel not requiring to be cut so accurately, 
and from the pinion never getting clogged with dirt. Certainly the 
running of the American clocks, which all have these pinions, is 
remarkably smooth, and they require a much smaller going weight 
than English clocks ; and the same may be said of thecommon 
" Dutch," i.e., German clocks. It should be understood, however, 
that as the action upon these pinions is all after the line of centres 
when they are driven, it will be all before the line of centres if they 
drive, and therefore they are not suitable for that purpose. In 
some of the French clocks in the 1851 Exhibition they were wrongly 
used, not only for the train, but for winding pinions ; and someof 
them also had the pins not fixed in the lantern, but rolling, a very 
useless refinement, and considerably diminishi;\g the strength of the 
pinion. For it is one of the advantages of lantern pinions with fixed 



pins, that they are very strong, and there is no risk of their being 
broken in hardening, as there is with common pinions. 

The fundamental rule for the tracing of teeth, though very 
simple, is not so well known as it ought to be, and therefore we will 
give it, premising that so much of a tooth as lies within the pitch circle 
of the wheel is called its root or flunk, and the part beyond the 
pitch circle is called the point, or the curve, or the addendum; and 
moreover, that before the line of centres the action is always 
between the flanks of the driver and the points of the driven wheel 
or runner (as it may be called, more appropriately than the usual 
term follower) ; and after the line of centres, the action is always 
between the points of the driver and the flanks of the runner. Con 
sequently, if there is no action before the line of centres, no points 
are required for the teeth of the runner, 

In fig. 23, let AQX be the pitch circle of the runner, and ARY 
that of the driver; and let GAP be any curve whatever of smaller 
curvature than AQX (of course a 
circle is always the kind of curve 
used) ; and QP the curve which is 
traced out by any point P in the gene 
rating circle GAP, as it rolls in the 
pitch circle AQX; and again let HP 
be the curve traced by the point P, as 



the generating circle GAP is rolled on 
the pitch circle ARY ; then RP will 




pit 

be the form of the point of a tooth on 
the driver ARY, which will drive with 
uniform and proper motion the flank 
QP of the runner; though hot without 
some friction, because that can only 
be done with involute teeth, which are 
traced in a different way, and are subject 
to other conditions, rendering them practically useless for machinery, 
as may be seen in Professor Willis s book. If the motion is 
reversed, so that the runner becomes the driver, then the flank QP 
is of the proper form to drive the point RP, if any action has to 
take place before the line of centres. 

And again, any generating curve, not even necessarily the same 
as before, may be used to trace the flanks of the driver and the 
points of the runner, by being rolled within the circle ARY, and on 
the circle AQX. 

Now then, to apply this rule to particular cases. Suppose the 
generating circle is the same as the pitch circle of the driven pinion 
itself, it evidently can 
not roll at all ; and 
the tooth of the pinion 
is represented by the 
mere point P on the 
circumference of the 
pitch circle ; and the 
tooth to drive it will 
be simply an epicycloid 
traced by rolling the 
pitch circle of the 
pinion on that of the 
wheel. And we know 
that in that case the^e 
is no action before 
the line of centres, 
and no necessity for 
any flanks on the teeth 
of the driver. But in 
asmuch as the pins 
of a lantern pinion 
must have some thick 
ness, and cannot be 
mere lines, a further 
process is necessary to 
get the exact form of 
the teeth ; thus if RP, 
fig. 24, is the tooth 




FiQ. 24. Lantern Pinion. 



that would drive a pinion with pins of no sensible thickness, the 
tooth to drive a pin of the thickness 2 T>p must have the width Yp 
or E,r gauged off it all round. This, in fact, brings it very nearly 
to a smaller tooth traced with the same generating circle ; arid 
therefore in practice this mode of construction is not much adhered 
to, and the teeth are made of tbe same shape, only thinner, as if 
the pins of the pinion had no thickness. Of course they should be 
thin enough to allow a little shake, or "back-lash," but in 
clock-work the backs of the teeth never come in contact at all. 

Next suppose the generating circle to be half the size of the pitch 
circle of the pinion. The curve, or hypocycloid, traced by rolling 
this within the pinion, is no other than the diameter of the pinion ; 
and consequently the flanks of the pinion teeth will be merely radii 
of it, and such teeth or leaves are called radial teeth ; and they are 
far the most common ; indeed, no others are ever made (except lan 
terns) for clock-work. The corresponding epicyeloidal points of 



CLOCKS 



33 




the teeth cf the driver arc more curved, or a less pointed arc, than 
those required for a lantern pinion of the same size and number. 
The teeth in fig. 25 are made of a different form on the opposite 
sides of the line of centres 
CA, in order to show the 
difference between driving 
and driven or running 
teeth, where the number 
of the pinion happens to 
be as much as 12, so that 
no points are required to 
its teeth when driven, 
since with that number 
all the action may be 
after the line of centres. 
The great Westminster 
clock affords a very good 
illustration of this. In F - - 

both the striking parts 

the great wheel of the train and the great winding-wheel on the 
other end of the barrel are about the same size ; but in the train 
the wheel drives, and in winding the pinion drives. And there 
fore in the train the pinion-teeth have their points cut off, and 
wheel-teeth have their points on, as on the right side of fig. 25, 
and in the winding-wheels the converse ; and thus in both cases 
the action is made to take place in the way in which there is the 
least friction. Willis gives the following table, " derived organi 
cally" (i.e., by actual trial with large models), of the least numbers 
which will work together without any action before the line of 
centres, provided there are no points to the teeth of the runner, 
assuming them to be radial teeth, as usual : 

Driver 54302420171514131211109 876 

Runner 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 21 23 27 35 32 176 

In practice it is hardly safe to leave the driven teeth without 
points, unless the numbers slightly exceed these ; because, if there 
is any irregularity in them, the square edges of those teeth would 
not work smoothly with the teeth of the driver. Sometimes it 
happens that the same wheel has to drive two pinions of different 
numbers. It is evident that, if both are lanterns, or both pinions 
with radial teeth, they cannot properly be driven by the same wheel, 
because they would require teeth of a different shape. It is true 
that on account of the greater indifference of lantern pinions to the 
accuracy of the teeth which are to drive them, the same wheel will 
drive two pinions of that kind, differing in the numbers in the 
ratio of even 2 to 1, with hardly any sensible shake ; but that 
would not be so with radial pinions, and of course it is not correct. 
Accordingly, in clocks with the spring remontoire, as in fig. 21, 
where the scape-wheel or remontoire pinion is double the size of the 
fly pinion, the larger one is made with radial teeth and the smaller 
a lantern, which makes the same wheel teeth exactly right for both. 
In clocks of the same construction as fig. 22, and in the West 
minster clock, there is a case of a different kind, which cannot be so 
accommodated ; for there the great wheel has to drive both the 
second wheel s pinion of 10 or 12, and the hour-wheel of 40 or 48; 
the teeth of the great wheel were therefore made to suit the lantern 
pinion, and those of the hour- wheel (i.e., their flanks) then depend 
on those of the great wheel, and they were accordingly traced 
by rolling a generating circle of the size of the lantern 
pinion on the inside of the pitch circle of the hour-wheel ; the 
result is a tooth thicker at the bottom than usual. These are by 
no means unnecessary refinements ; for if the teeth of a set of wheels 
are not properly shaped so as to work smoothly and regularly into 
each other, it increases their tendency to wear out in proportion to 
their inaccuracy, besides increasing the inequalities of force in the 
train. Sometimes turret clocks are worn out in a few years from 
the defects in their teeth, especially Avhen they are made of brass 
or soft gun-metal. 

In the construction of clocks which have to raise heavy hammers 
it is important to obtain the best form for the cams, as pins are 
quite unfit for the purpose. The conditions which are most impor 
tant are that the action should begin at the greatest advantage, 
and therefore at the end of the lever, that when it ceases the face 
of the lever should be a tangent to the cam at both their points, 
and that in no part of the motion should the end of the lever scrape 
on the cam. In the common construction of clocks the first con 
dition is deviated from as far as possible, by the striking pins 
beginning to act at some distance from the end of the lever; and con 
sequently, at the time when the most force is required to lift the ham 
mer there is the least given, and a great deal is wasted afterwards. 

The construction of curve for the cams, which is the most perfect 
mathematically, is that which is described in mathematical books 
under the name of the tractrix. But there are such practical 
difficulties in describing it that it is of no use. It should be 
observed that, in a well-known book with an appropriate name 
( Camus on the Teeth of Wheels), a rule for drawing cams has been 
inserted by some translator, which is quite wrong. It may be 



proved that epicycloidal cams described as follows are so nearly 
of the proper mathematical form that they may be used without 
any sensible error. Let r be the radius of the circle or barrel on 
which the cams are to be set theoretically, i.e., allowing nothing 
tor the clearance which must be cut out afterwards, for fear the 
fever should scrape the back of the cams in falling ; in other words 
r is the radius of the pitch circle of the cams Call the length of 
the lever I. Then the epicycloidal cams may be traced by rolling 
on the pitch circle a smaller one whose diameter is Vr a + P - r 
Thus, if I is 4 inches and r 8 inches (which is about the proper size 
tor an 18-inch striking wheel with 20 cams), the radius of the 
tracing circle from the cams will be 0-9 inch. The advantage of 
cams of this kind is that they waste as little force as possible in the 
lift, and keep the lever acting upon them as a tangent at its point 
the whole way ; and the cams themselves may be of any length 
according 1 to the angle through which you want the lever to move , 

Most people however prefer dealing with circles, when they can 
instead of epicycloids ; and drawing by compasses is safer than 
calculating in most hands. We therefore give another rule, su"- 
gested^by Mr E. J. Lawrence, a member of the horological jury in the 
1851 ^Exhibition, which is easier to work, and satisfies the principal 
conditions stated just now, though it wastes rather more in lift 
than the epicycloidal curve ; and the cams must not have their 
points cut off, as epicycloidal ones may, to make the lever drop 
off sooner ; because a short cam has to be drawn with a different 
radius from a long one, to work a lever of any given length. But, 
on the other hand, the same curve for the cams will suit a lever of 
any length, whereas with epicycloidal cams you must take care to put 
the centre or axis of the lever at the exact distance from the centre 
of the wheel for which the curve was calculated an easy enough 
thing to do, of cours e, but for the usual disposition of workmen to 
deviate from your plans, apparently for the mere pleasure of doing 
wrong. It is astonishing how, by continually making one machine 
after another, with a little deviation each time, the thing gradually 
assumes a form in which you can hardly recognise your original 
design at all. The prevention of this kind of blundering is one of 
the many advantages of making machines by machinery, for which 
no machine offers more facilities than clocks, and yet there is none 
to which it is less applied. 

In fig. 26 let CA be a radius of the wheel, L in the same straight 
line the centre of the, lever, and AB the space of one cam on 
the pitch circle of the 
cams, A being a little 
below the line of 
centres; AP is the 
arc of the lever. 
Draw a tangent to 
the two circles at A, 
and a tangent to the 
cam circle at B ; then 
T, their point of in 
tersection, will be 
the centre of the 
circle which is the 




Fig. 26. 



face of the cam BP ; and TB also =TA, which is a convenient test 
of the tangents being rightly drawn. The action begins at the 
point of the lever, and advances a little way up, but recedes again 
to the point, and ends with the lever as a tangent to the cam at P. 
The backs of the cams must be cut out rather deeper than the circle 
AP, but retaining the point P, to allow enough for clearance of the 
lever, which should fall against some fixed stop or banking on the 
clock-frame, before the next cam reaches it. The point of the lever 
must not be left quite sharp, for if it is, it will in time cut off the 
points of the cast-iron cams. 

OIL FOR CLOCKS. 

We will add a few words on the subject of oil for clocks. Olive- 
oil is most commonly used, sometimes purified in various ways, and 
sometimes not purified at all. We believe, however, that purified 
animal oil is better than any of the vegetable oils, as some of them 
are too thin, while others soon get thick and viscid. For turret 
clocks and common house clocks, good sperm oil is fine enough, and 
is probably the best. For finer work the oil requires some purifi 
cation. Even common neat s foot oil may be made fine and clear by 
the following method. Mix it with about the same quantity of 
water, and shake it in a large bottle, not full, until it becomes like 
a white soup ; then let it stand till fine oil appears at the top, which 
maybe skimmed ofT; it will take several months before it has all 
separated into water at the bottom, dirt in the middle, and fine 
oil at the top. And it should be done in cold weather, because 
heat makes some oil come out as fine, which in cold would remain 
among the dirty oil in the middle, and in cold weather that fine oil 
of hot weather will become muddy. There are various vegetable 
oils sold at tool-shops as oil for watches, including some for which a 
prize medal was awarded in the Exhibition, but not by any of the 
mechanical juries ; we have no information as to the test which was 

VI - 5 



CLOCKS 



applied to it, and nouc but actual use for a considerable time would 
be of mucLi value. 

THE WESTMINSTER CLOCK, 

It is unnecessary to repeat the account of the long dispute between 
the Government, the architect of the House of Parliament, the 
astronomer royal, Sir E. Beckett, and some of the London clock- 
makers, which ended in the employment of the late E. J. Dent and 
his successor F. Dent from the designs and under the superintend 
ence of Sir E. Beckett, as the inscription on it records The fullest 
account of these was given in the 4th and 5th editions of the 
Treatise on Clocks, and we shall now only describe its construction. 
Fi". 27 is a front elevation or section lengthwise of the clock, The 
frame is 16 feet long and 5| wide, and it rests on two iron plates 
lying on the top of the walls of the shaft near the middle of the 
tower, down which the weights descend. That wall reaches up to 
the bell chamber, and those iron plates are built right through it, 
and so is the great cock which carries the pendulum. The clock- 
room is 28 feet x 19, the remaining 9 of the square being occupied 
by the staircase and an air-shaft for ventilating the whole building. 

The going part of the clock, however, not requiring such a long 
barrel as the striking parts, which have steel wire ropes 55 inch 
thick, is shorter than they are, and is carried by an intermediate 
bar or frame bolted to the cross bars of the principal frame. The 
back of them is about 2^ feet from the wall, to leave room for a man 
behind, and the pendulum cock is so made as to let his head come 
within it in order to look square at the escapement. The escape 
ment is the double three legs (fig. 13), and the length of the teeth or 
legs is 6 inches. The drawing represents the wheels (except the 
Welled wheels leading off to the dials) as mere circles to prevent 



confusion. The numbers of teeth and the time of revolution of the 
principal ones are inserted and require no further notice. Their size 
can be taken from the scale ; the great wheels of the striking parts 
are 2| and of the going part 2 inches thick, and all the wheels are of 
cast-iron except the smaller ones of the escapement, which are brass, 
but are painted like the iron ones. 

The maintaining power for keeping the clock going while winding 
is peculiar and probably unique. None of those already described 
could have kept in gear long enough, maintaining sufficient force 
all the time, as that part takes 10 minutes to wind, even if the 
man does not loiter over it. This is managed without a single extra 
wheel beyond the ordinary winding pinion of large clocks. The 
winding wheel on the end of the barrel is close to the great wheel, 
and you see the pinion with the winding arbor in the oblique piece 
of the front frame of the clock. Consequently that arbor is about 
6 feet long, and a little movement of its back end makes no material 
obliquity in the two bushes ; i.e., it may go a little out of parallel 
with all the other arbors in the clock without any impediment to its 
action. Its back pivot is carried, not in a fixed bush, but in the 
lower end of a bar a little longer thanthe great wheel s radius, hang 
ing from the back of the great arbor ; and that bar has a spring 
click upon it which takes into ratchet teeth cast on the back of the 
great wheel. When the great wheel is turning, and you are not 
winding, the ratchets pass the click as usual, but as soon as you begin 
to wind the back end of the winding arbor would rise but for the 
click catching those teeth, and so the great wheel itself become the 
fulcrum for winding for the time. After the winding has gone a 
few minutes a long tooth projecting from the back of the arbor 
catches against a stop, because that end of the hanging bar and 
pinion have all risen a little with the motion of the great wheel. 




FIG. 27. Section of Westminster Clock. 



Then the man is obliged to turn the handle back a little, which lets 
down the pinion, &c., and the click takes up some lower teeth ; and 
so if he chooses to loiter an hour over the winding he can do no 
harm. The winding pinion "pumps" into gear and out again as 
usual. The going part will go Si days, to provide for the possible 
forgetting of a day in winding. The weight is about 160 K ; but 
only one-14th of the whole force of that weight is requisite to drive 
the pendulum, as was found by trial ; the rest goes in overcoming 
the friction of all the machinery, including a ton and a half of hands 
and counterpoises, and in providing force enough to drive them 
through all weathers, except heavy snows, which occasionally accumu 
late thick enough on several minute hands at once, on the left side 
of the dials, to stop the clock, those hands being 11 feet long. For 
the dials are 22 feet in diameter, or contain 400 square feet each, 
and there are very few rooms where such a dial could be 
painted on the floor. They are made of iron framing rilled in with 
opal glass. Each minute is 14 inches wide. The only larger dial 
in the world is in Mechlin church, which is 40 feet wide ; but it has 
no minute hand, which makes an enormous difference in the force 
required in the clock. They are completely walled off from the 
clock-room by a passage all round, and there are a multitude of gas 
lights behind them, which are lighted by hand, though provision 
was originally made in the clock for doing it automatically. The 
hour hands go so slow that their weight is immaterial, and were left 
as they were made of gun metal under the- architect s direction 
but it was impossible to have minute hands of that construction and 
weight without injury to the clock, and so they were removed by 
Sir E. Beckett, and others made of copper tubes, with a section com 
posed of two circular arcs put together, and are consequently very 
stiff, while weighing only 28 lt>. The great weight is in the wheels, 
tubes, and counterpoises. The minute hands are partly counterpoised 
i-.utside, making their total length 14 feet, to relieve the strain upon 



their arbors. They all run on friction wheels imbedded in the 
larger tubes 5k inches wide, which carry the hour hands, which 
themselves run on fixed friction wheels. 

There is nothing peculiar in the quarter striking part except its 
size, and perhaps in the barrel turning in an hour and a half, i.e., 
iu three repetitions of the five chimes already described. The 
cams are of wrought iron with hard steel faces. Each bell has two 
hammers, which enables the cams to be longer and the pressure on 
them less. The hour-sti iking wheel has ten cams 24 in. wide cast on 
it ; but those cams have solid steel faces screwed on them. All this 
work was made for a hammer of 7 cwt., lifted 13 inches from the 
bell, i.e., about 9 inches of vertical lift. The hammer was reduced to 
*K cwt. after the partial cracking of the bell. The rod from the lever to 
the hammer is made of the same wire rope as the weight ropes, and the 
result is that there is no noise in the room while the clock is strik 
ing. The lever is 5 feet 4 inches long, and strikes against the 
buffer spring shown in the drawing, to prevent concussion on the 
clock-frame, of which you cannot feel the least. The quarter ham 
mer levers have smaller springs for the same purpose, and the 
stops of the striking part are also set on springs instead of 
rigid as usual. The ilies, for which there was not room in the 
drawing, are near the top of the room and are each 2 feet 4 inches 
square. They make a considerable wind in the room when revolv 
ing. The only noise made in striking is their running on over 
their ratchets when the striking stops. Each striking weight is 
a ton and a half or was before the great hammer was reduced. 
They take 5 hours to wind up, and it has to be done twice a week, 
which was thought better than making the parts larger and the 
teeth more numerous and the weights twice as much, to go a week, 
and of course the winding must have taken twice as long, as it was 
adapted to what a man can do continuously for some hours. Coil 
sequeutly it was necessary to contrive something to stop the mau. 



C L C L 



35 



winding just before each time of striking. And that is done by 
a lever being tipped over by the snail at that time, which at once 
stops the winding. When the striking is done the man can put 
the lever up again and go on. The loose winding wheels are not 
pumped in and out of gear as usual, being too heavy, but one end 
of the arbor is pushed into gear by an eccentric bush turned by the 
oblique handle or lever which you see near the upper corner of each 
striking part, and they can be turned in a moment. They are held 
in their place for gear by a spring catch to prevent any risk of slip 
ping out. Moreover the ropes themselves stop the winding when the 
weights came to the top, pretty much as they do in a spring clock 
or a watch, though not exactly. 

The mode of letting off the hour striking is peculiar, with a view 
to the first blow of the hour being exactly at the GOth second of 
the GOth minute. It was found that this could not be depended on 
to a single beat of the pendulum, and probably it never can in any 
clock, by a mere snail turning in an hour, unless it was of a very 
inconvenient size. Therefore the common snail only lets it off par 
tially, and the. striking stop still rests against a lever which 
is not dropped but tipped up with a slight blow by another 
weighted lever resting on a snail on the ] 5-miiiute wheel, which 
moves more exactly with the escapement than the common snail 
lower in the train. The hammer is left on the lift, ready to fall, 
and it always does fall within half a second after the last beat of 
the pendulum at the hour. This is shown in fig. 28, where BE is the 
spring stop noticed above, and P the ordinary first stop on the long 
lifting lever PQ (which goes on far beyond the reach of this figure 
to the hour snail). The second or warning stop is CD, and BAS is 
the extra lever with its heavy end at S on the 15-minute snail. 
When that falls the end B tips up CD with certainty by the blow, 
and then the striking is free. The first, second, and third quarters 
begin at the proper times ; but the fourth quarter chimes begin 
about 20 seconds before the hour. 

The clock reports its own rate to Greenwich Observatory by gal 
vanic action twice a day, i.e., an electric circuit is made and broken 
by the pressing together of certain springs at two given hours. And 
in this way the rate of the clock is ascertained and recorded, and 
the general results published by the astronomer royal in his 
annual report. This has been for some years so remarkably uniform, 
that the error has only reached 3 seconds on 3 per cent, of the days 



in the year, and is generally under two. He has also reported that 
"the rate of the clock is certain to much less than a second a 
week " subject to abnormal disturbances by thunder storms which 
sometimes amount to seven or eight seconds, and other casualties, 
which are easily distinguishable from the spontaneous variations. 




Fig. 28. 

The original stipulation in 1845 was that the rate should not vary 
more than a second a day not a week ; and this was pronounced 
impossible by Mr Vulliamy and the London Company of Clock- 
makers, and it is true that up to that time no such rate had ever 
been attained by any large clock. In 1851 it was by the" above- 
mentioned clock, now at King s Cross Station, by means of the train 
remontoirc, which was then intended to be used at Westminster, but 
was superseded by the gravity escapement. 

The great hour tfell, of the note E, weighs 134 tons and is 
9 feet diameter and 9 inches thick. The quarter bells weigh 
respectively 78, 33, 26, and 21 cwt. ; with diameters 6 feet, 4J, 4, 
and 3 feet 9 inches, and notes B, E, F sh. and G sh. The hammers 
are on double levers embracing the bells, and turning on pivots pro 
jecting from the iron collars which carry the mushroom shaped tops 
of the bells. The bells, including 750 for recasting the first great 
bell, cost nearly 6000, and the clock 4080. The bell frame, which 
is of wrought iron plates, and the dials and hands, all provided 
by the architect, cost 11,934 a curious case of the accessories 
costing more than the principals. (E. B.) 



CLOISTER (Latin, claustrum ; French, cloitre ; Italian, 
ckiostro ; Spanish, claustro ; German, Hosier). The word 
" cloister," though now restricted to the four-sided 
enclosure, surrounded with covered ambulatories, usually 
attached to conventual and cathedral churches, and some 
times to colleges, or by a still further limitation to the 
ambulatories themselves, originally signified the entire 
monastery. In this sense it is of frequent occurrence in our 
earlier literature (e.g., Shakespeare, Meas. for Meas., i. 3, 
"This day my sister should the cloister enter"), and is 
still employed in poetry. The Latin claustrum, as its 
derivation implies, primarily denoted no more than the 
enclosing wall of a religious house, and then came to be 
used for the whole building enclosed within the wall. To 
this sense the German " kloster " is still limited, the covered 
walks, or cloister in the modern sense, being called 
" kloster-gang," or " kreuz-gang." In French, as with us, 
the word cloitre retains the double sense. 

In the special sense now most common, the word 
" cloister " denotes the quadrilateral area in a monastery 
or college of canons, round which the principal buildings are 
ranged, and which is usually provided with a covered way 
or ambulatory running all round, and affording a means of 
communication between the various centres of the eccle 
siastical life, without exposure to the weather. According 
to the Benedictine arrangement, which from its suitability to 
the requirements of monastic life was generally adopted in 
the West, one side of the cloister was formed by the church, 
the refectory occupying the side opposite to it, that the 
worshippers might have the least annoyance from the noise 
or smell of the repasts. On the eastern side the chapter 
house was placed, with other apartments belonging to the 
common life of the brethren adjacent to it, and, as a 
common rule, the dormitory occupied the whole of the 



upper story. On the opposite or western side were generally 
the cellarer s lodgings, with the cellars and store-houses, in 
which the provisions necessary for the sustenance of the 
confraternity were housed. In Cistercian monasteries tho 
western side was usually occupied by the " domus cou- 
versorum," or lodgings of the lay-brethren, with their day- 
rooms and workshops below, and dormitory above. The 
cloister, with its surrounding buildings, generally stood 011 
the south side of the church, to secure as much sunshine 
as possible. A very early example of this disposition ia 
seen in the plan of the monastery of St Gall (ABBEY, 
vol. i. p. 12). Local requirements, in some instances, 
caused the cloister to be placed to the north of the church. 
This is the case in the English cathedrals, formerly Bene 
dictine abbeys, of Canterbury, Gloucester, and Chester, as 
well as in that of Lincoln. Other examples of the north 
ward situation are at Tintern, Buildwas, and Sherborne. 
Although the covered ambulatories are absolutely essential 
to the completeness of a monastic cloister, a chief object of 
which was to enable the inmates to pass from one part of 
the monastery to another without inconvenience from rain, 
wind, or sun, it appears that they were sometimes wanting. 
The cloister at St Alban s seems to have been deficient in 
ambulatories till the abbacy of Robert of Gorham, 1151- 
1166, when the eastern walk was erected. This, as was 
often the case with the earliest ambulatories, was of wood 
covered with a pentice roof. We learn from Osbern s 
account of the conflagration of the monastery of Christ 
Church, Canterbury, 1067, that a cloister with covered 
ways existed at that time, affording communication be 
tween the church, the dormitory, and the refectory. We 
learn from an early drawing of the monastery of Canter 
bury that this cloister was formed by an arcade of Norman 
arches supported on shafts, and covered by a shud roof. 



C L O C L 



A fragment of an arcaded cloister of this pattern is still 
found on the eastern side of the infirmary-cloister of the 
same foundation. This earlier form of cloister has been 
generally superseded with us by a range of windows, usually 
unglazed, but sometimes, as at Gloucester, provided with 
glass, lighting a vaulted ambulatory, of which the cloisters 
of Westminster Abbey, Salisbury, and Norwich, are typical 
examples. The older design was preserved in the South, 
where " the cloister is never a window, or any tiling in the 
least approaching to it in design, but a range of small 
elegant pillars, sometimes single, sometimes coupled, and 
supporting arches of a light and elegant design, all the 
features being of a character suited to the place where they 
are used, and to that only " (Fergusson, Hist, of Arch., i. 
p. 610). As examples of this description of cloister, we 
may refer to the exquisite cloisters of St John Lateran, 
and St Paul s without the walls, at Rome, where the 
coupled shafts and arches are richly ornamented with 
ribbons of mosaic, and those of the convent of St Scholastica 
at Subiaco, all of the 13th century, and to the beautiful 
cloisters at Aries, in southern France, " than which no 
building in this style, perhaps, has been so often drawn or 
so much admired " (Fergusson) ; and those of Aix, Fonti- 
froide, Elne, &c., are of the same type ; as also the 
Romanesque cloisters at Zurich, where the design suffers 
from the deep abacus having only a single slender shaft 
to support it, and at Laach, where the quadrangle occupies 
the place of the " atrium " of the early basilicas at the 
west end, as at St Clement s at Rome, and St Ambrose 
at Milan. Spain also presents some magnificent cloisters 
of both types, of which that of the royal convent of 
Huelgas, near Burgos, of the arcaded form, is, according 
to Mr Fergusson, " unrivalled for beauty both of detail and 
design, and is perhaps unsurpassed by anything in its age 
and style in any part of Europe." Few cloisters are more 
beautiful than those of Monreale and Cefalu in Sicily, 
where the arrangement is the same, of slender columns in 
pairs with capitals of elaborate foliage supporting pointed 
arches of great elegance of form. 

All other cloisters are surpassed in dimensions and in 
sumptuousness of decoration by the " Campo Santo " at 
Pisa. This magnificent cloister consists of four ambu 
latories as wide and lofty as the nave of a church, erected 
in 1278 by Giovanni Pisano round a cemetery composed of 
soil brought from Palestine by Archbishop Lanfranchi in 
the middle of the 12th century. The window openings 
are semicircular, filled with elaborate tracery in the latter 
half of the 15th century. The inner walls are covered 
with frescos invaluable in the history of art by Orgagna, 
Simone Memmi, Buffalmacco, Benozzo Gozzoli, and other 
early painters of the Florentine school. The ambulatories 
now serve as a museum of sculpture. The internal dimen 
sions are 415 feet G inches in length, 137 feet 10 inches 
in breadth, while each ambulatory is 34 feet 6 inches 
wide by 46 feet high. 

The cloister of a religious house was the scene of a large 
part of the life of the inmates of a monastery. When not 
in church, refectory, or dormitory, or engaged in manual 
labour, the monks were usually to be found here. The 
north walk of the cloister of St Gall appears to have served 
as the chapter-house. The cloister was the place of 
education fur the younger members, and of study for the 
elders. A canon of the Roman council held under 
Eugenius II., in 82G, enjoins the erection of a cloister as an 
essential portion of an ecclesiastical establishment for the 
better discipline and instruction of the clerks. Peter of 
Blois (Serm. 25) describes schools for the novices as being 
in the west walk, and moral lectures delivered in that next 
the church. At Canterbury the monks school was in the 
western ambulatory, and it was in the same walk that the 



novices were taught at Durham (Willis, Monastic Buildings 
of Canterbury, p. 44; Rites of Durham,}*. 71). The other 
alleys, especially that next the church, were devoted to the 
studies of the elder monks. The constitutions of Hildemar 
and Dunstan enact that between the services of the church 
the brethren should sit in the cloister and read theology. 
For this purpose small studies, known as carrols, from their 
square shape, were often found in the recesses of the 
windows. Of this arrangement we have examples at 
Gloucester, Chester (recently restored), and elsewhere. 
The use of these studies is thus described in the Rites of 
Durham : " In every wyndowe " in the north alley 
" were iii pewes or carrells, where every one of the olde 
monkes had his carrell severally by himselfe, that when 
they had dyned they dyd resorte to that place of cloister, 
and there studyed upon their books, every one in his carrell 
all the afternonne unto evensong tyme. This was there 
exercise every daie." On the opposite wall were cupboards 
full of books for the use of the students in the carrols. The 
cloister arrangements at Canterbury were similar to those 
just described. New studies were made by Prior De Estria 
in 1317, and Prior Selling (1472-94) glazed the south 
alley for the use of the studious brethren, and constructed 
" the new framed contrivances, of late styled carrols " 
(Willis, Mon. Buildings, p. 45). The cloisters were used 
not for study only but also for recreation. The constitutions 
of Archbishop Lanfranc, sect. 3, permitted the brethren to 
converse together there at certain hours of the day. To 
maintain necessary discipline a special officer was appointed 
under the title of prior claustri. The cloister was always 
furnished with a stone bench running along the side. It 
was also provided with a lavatory, usually adjacent to the 
refectory, but sometimes standing in the central area, 
termed the cloister-garth, as at Durham. The cloister- 
garth was used as a place of sepulture, as well as the sur 
rounding alleys. The cloister was in some few instances 
of two stories, as at Old St Paul s, and St Stephen s Chapel, 
Westminster, and occasionally, as at Wells, Chichester, and 
Hereford, had only three alleys, there being no ambulatory 
under the church wall. 

The larger monastic establishments had more than one 
cloister ; there was usually a second connected with the 
infirmary, of which we have examples at Westminster 
Abbey and at Canterbury ; and sometimes one giving 
access to the kitchen and other domestic offices. 

The cloister was not an appendage of monastic houses 
exclusively. We find it also attached to colleges of secular 
canons, as at the cathedrals of Lincoln, Salisbury, Wells, 
Hereford, and Chichester, and formerly at St Paul s and 
Exeter. It is, however, absent at York, Lichfield, Beverley, 
Ripon, Southwell, and Wimborne. A cloister forms an 
essential part of the colleges of Eton and of St Mary s, 
Winchester, and New and Magdalen at Oxford, and was 
designed by Wolsey at Christ Church. These were used 
for religious processions and lectures, for ambulatories for 
the studious at all times, and for places of exercise for the 
inmates generally in wet weather, as well as in some in 
stances for sepulture. 

For the arrangements of the Carthusian cloisters, as 
well as for some account of those appended to the 
monasteries of the East, see the article ABBEY. (E. v.) 

CLONMEL, a parliamentary and municipal borough of 
Ireland, in the province of Munster, partly in the south 
i-iding of Tipperary and partly in Waterford county, 104 
miles south-west from Dublin. It is built on both sides 
of the Suir, and also occupies Moore and Long Islands, 
which are connected with the mainland by three bridges. 
The principal buildings are the parish church, two Roman 
Catholic churches, a Franciscan friary, two convents, an 
endowed school dating from 1685, a model school under the 



L O C L O 



national board, a mechanics institute, a court-house aud 
prison, a fever hospital and dispensary, two lunatic 
asylums, a market-house, a workhouse, and barracks. Till 
the Union the woollen manufacture established in 1GG7 
was extensively carried on. The town contains a brewery, 
flour-mills, and tanneries, publishes two newspapers, and 
has a considerable export trade in grain, cattle, butter, and 
provisions. The river is navigable for barges of 50 tons 
to Waterford. Clonmel is a station on the Waterford and 
Limerick Railway; it was the centre of a system, established 
by Mr Bianconi, for the conveyance of travellers on liglit 
iars, extending over a great part of Leinster, Munster, and 
Connaught. It is governed by a corporation, consisting 
of a mayor, free burgesses, and a commonalty, and returns 
one member to parliament. Population in 1851, 15,203 ; 
in 1871, 10,112. 

Cionmel, or Cluain mealla, the Vale of Honey, is a place of un 
doubted antiquity. In 1269 it was chosen as the seat of a Fran 
ciscan friary by Utho de Grandison, the first English possessor of 
the district: and it frequently comes into notice in the following 
centuries. In 1641 it declared for the Raman Catholic party, and 
in 1650 it was gallantly defended by Hugh O Xeal against the 
English under Cromwell. Compelled at last to capitulate, it was 
completely dismantled, and has never again been fortified. Sterne 
was bom in the town in 1713. 

CLOOTZ, JEAN BAPTISTE, BAROX (1755-1794), better 
known as Anacharsis Clootz, was born near Cleves. A 
baron by descent, and heir to a great fortune, he was sent 
at eleven to Paris to complete his education. There he 
imbibed the theories of his uncle, Cornelius de Pauw, and 
of the great anarchists of the epoch. He rejected his title 
and his baptismal names, adopted the pseudonym of Ana- 
charsis from the famous philosophical romance of Abbe" 
Barth6lemy, and traversed Europe, preaching the new ideas 
as an apostle, and spending his money as a man of pleasure. 
On the breaking out of the Revolution he returned in 
1789 to Paris. In the exercise of the function he assumed 
of " Orator of the Human Race," he demanded at the bar 
of the National Assembly a share in the federation for all 
nations, presenting at the same time a petition against the 
despots of the world. In 1792 ha placed 12.000 livres 
at the disposal of the Republic " for the arming of forty 
or fifty fighters in the sacred cause of man against tyrant." 
The 10th of August impelled him to a still higher flight ; 
he declared himself the personal enemy of Jesus Christ, 
abjured all revealed religions, and commenced preaching 
materialism. In the same month he had the rights of 
citizenship conferred on him ; and having in September 
been elected a member of the Convention, he voted the 
king s death in the name of the human race. Excluded 
at the instance of Robespierre from the Jacobin Club, he 
was soon afterwards implicated in an accusation levelled 
against Hebert and others. His innocence was manifest, 
but he was condemned and put to death. 

Clootz left several works in which his extravagances are 
developed with much solemnity. The principal of these are 
La Certitude, des Prcuves du Mahometisme, LOrateur du 
Genre Humain, and La Repuhlique Universelle. 

CLOT, ANTOINE (1795-1868), was born in the neigh 
bourhood of Marseilles, and was brought up at the charity 
school of that town. After studying at Muntpellier he 
commenced to practise as surgeon in his native place ; but 
at the age of twenty-eight he was made chief surgeon to 
Mehemet Ali, viceroy of Egypt. At Abuzabel, near Cairo, 
he founded a hospital and schools for all branches of medical 
instruction, as well as for the study of the French language ; 
and, notwithstanding the most serious religious difficulties, 
he prevailed on some of the Arabs to study anatomy by 
means of dissection. In 1832 Mehemet Ali gave him the 
dignity of bey without requiring him to abjure his religion ; 
and in 1836 he received the rank of general, aud was 



appointed head of the medical administration of the country. 
In 1849 he_returned to Marseilles. Clot published Relation 
des epidemics de cholera qui out regne a VHeggiaz, & Suez, ct 
enEgypte (1832); De la peste observee en tigypte (1840); 
Aperfu general su>- I Egypte (1840); Coup d ceil sur la 
peste et les quaraiuaines (1851); De L ophtkalmie (1864). 

CLOTILDA, SAINT (475-5 io), was the daughter of 
Chilperic, king of Burgundy, and the wife of Clovis, king 
of the Franks. Her father, mother, and brothers were pat 
to death by Gundebald, her uncle, but Clotilda was spared 
aud educated. Guudebald opposed her marriage with 
Clovis, but by the aid of the clergy she escaped to the 
Frankish court (493), was married, and, having adhered all 
along to the pure Catholic faith of her mother, effected the 
conversion of Clovis to Christianity (49G). He lost no time 
in avenging the murder of his wife s parents ; Gundebald 
was defeated, and became his tributary. After her husband s 
death Clotilda persuaded her three sons Clodomir, Childe 
bert, aud Clotaire to renew the quarrel, and to visit on 
Sigismund, Guudebald s son, his father s crime. The war 
which followed resulted in the union of Burgundy to the 
Frank empire. Clotilda retired to Tours, and practised there 
the austerities of a devout life till her death. She was 
buried in the Parisian church of St Genevieve, which Clovis 
had built, aud was canonized a few years afterwards by 
Pelagius I. Her remains, preserved till the Revolution, 
were burned at that period by the devout Abbe" llousselet, 
who dreaded their desecration; the ashes are now in the 
little church of St Leu. A statue of her adorns the Luxem 
bourg, and a splendid church has recently beeu erected in 
her honour in Paris, not far from the spot where her bones 
rested during so many centuries. See FRANCE. 

CLOUGH, ARTHUR HuGii(1819-1861),a minor English 
poet, was bora at Liverpool in 1819, aud belonged to a 
family of old Welsh descent. His father, a cotton merchant, 
having removed to tin United States about 1823, Arthur 
spent a number of years at home in Charleston ; but in 
1823 he was brought back to England and sent to school. 
From Rugby, where he was a favourite pupil of Dr 
Arnold s, he passed in 183G to Oxford ; and there, in spite of 
an almost unaccountable failure in some of his examina 
tions, he attained a high reputation for scholarship, ability, 
and character. In 1842 he was chosen fellow of Oriel, 
and in 1843 appointed tutor in the same college ; but he 
soon grew dissatisfied with his position, aud ultimately 
decided that it was his duty to resign. Under the influence 
of the great religious fermentation which had been going 
on during his university career, ho had become deeply 
sceptical in his habits of thought ; and all connection 
seemed impossible with a system that interfered with the 
liberty of speculative investigation. After his resignation 
in 1848 he was for some time principal of University 
Hall, London. In 1852 ha visited America, where he 
enjoyed the friendship of Longfellow and Emerson ; and 
in the following year he was called home to accept an 
appointment as examiner in the Education Office of the 
Privy Council, During the succeeding years he was fre 
quently abroad ; and it was on a tour iu Italy in 1861 
that he was suddenly cut off by fever at Florence, 
dough was a man of singalar purity and integrity of 
character, with great sensitiveness of feeling, and fine sub 
tlety of thought, at once reserved and retiring and full of 
a genial humanity of disposition, with much humour and 
mirthfulnes?, and yet capable of a righteous indignation 
that could hardly have been expected to find fuel in so 
kindly a breast. A disciple of the great master of Rugby, 
in the midst of his most relentless scepticism he maintained 
a spirit of reverence and worship; and his most daring 
attacks on the popular creed are modified by an under 
current of toleration and diffidence. His poems are hw 



C L O L U 



principal works, and of these the best known is the 
Bothie of Tober-na- Vuolich. It was written and published 
in 1848, after his removal from Oxford; and while 
warmly praised by such men as Cauou Kingsley it was 
condemned by others as immoral and communistic. The 
interest of the poem depends on its graphic description 
of Scottish scenery and the fine analysis of contrasted 
characters. Under the influence partly of Longfellow s 
Evangdine, which had been published in 1847, and 
partly of his own attachment to the old classical forms, 
he employed the so-called hexameter ; but it is seldom 
that he attains the tuneful cadence of the American 
poet, and much of the versification is rugged and broken 
in the extreme. Of greater power than the Bothie, at 
least in individual passages, is the strange irregular 
tragedy of Dipsychus, which shines at times with jagged 
fragments of satire and irony. Amours de Voyage, a rhymed 
epistolary novelette, and Marl Magno, a small collection of 
tales after the fashion of the Wai/side Inn, along with 
various minor poems, have been republished in the 
second volume of The Poems and Prose Remains of Arthur 
H. dough, edited by his wife, and accompanied by a 
sketch of his life by F. T. Palgrave, 1869. These will 
probably do less to keep green the poet s name than the 
noble poem of Thyrsis, which Matthew Arnold dedicated to 
his memory. One work of importance remains to be 
mentioned, a careful and scholarly rehabilitation of 
Dryden s Translation of Plutarch, published in 1859. 

CLOVES are the unexpanded flower-buds of Caryopltyllus 
aromaticus, a tree belonging to the natural order M i/rtacece. 
They are so named from the French word clou, on account 
of their resemblance to a nail. The clove tree is a beauti 
ful evergreen which grows to a height of from 30 to 40 
feet, having large oblong leaves and crimson flowers in 
numerous groups of terminal cymes. The flower-buds are 
at first of a pale colour and gradually become green, after 
which they develop into a bright red, when they are ready 
for collscting. Cloves are rather more than half an inch 
in length, and consist of a long cylindrical calyx, 
terminating in four spreading sepals, and four unopened 
petals which form a small ball in the centre. The tree is 
a native of the small group of islands in the Indian 
Archipelago called the Moluccas, or Spice Islands ; but it 
was long cultivated by the Dutch in Amboyna and two or 
three small neighbouring islands. Cloves were one of the 
principal Oriental spices which early excited the cupidity 
of Western commercial communities, having been the 
basis of a rich and lucrative trade from an early part of 
the Christian era. The Portuguese, by doubling the 
Cape of Good Hope, obtained possession of the principal 
portion of the clove trade, which they continued to hold 
for nearly a century, when, in 1605, they were expelled from 
the Moluccas by the Dutch. That power exerted great and 
inhuman efforts to obtain a complete monopoly of the 
trade, attempting to extirpate all the clove trees growing 
in their native islands, and to concentrate the whole pro 
duction in the Amboyna Islands. With great difficulty 
the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into 
Mauritius in the year 1770; subsequently the cultivation 
was introduced into Guiana, and at the end of the century 
the trees were planted at Zanzibar. The chief commercial 
sources of supply are now Zanzibar and its neighbouring 
island Pemba on the East African coast, and Amboyna, 
Cloves are also grown in Java, Sumatra, Reunion, Guiana, 
and the West India Islands. 

Cloves as they come into the market have a deep brown 
colour, a powerfully fragrant odour, and a taste too hot and 
acrid to be pleasant. When pressed with the nail they 
exude a volatile oil with which they are charged to the 
unusual proportion of about 18 per cent. The oil is 



obtained as a commercial product by submitting the clovea 
with water to repeated distillation. It is, when new and 
properly prepared, a pale yellow or almost colourless fluid, 
becoming after some time of a brown colour ; and it 
possesses the odour and taste peculiar to cloves. The 
essential oil of cloves is a mixture of two oils one a 
hydrocarbon isomeric with oil of turpentine, and the othei 
an oxygenated oil, eugenol or eugenic acid, which possesses 
the taste and odour of cloves. Cloves are employed 
principally as a condiment in culinary operations, in con 
fectionery, and in the preparation of liqueurs. In medicine 
they are tonic and carminative, but they are little used 
except as adjuncts to other substances on account of their 
flavour, or with purgatives to prevent nausea and griping. 
The essential oil forms a convenient medium for using 
cloves for flavouring or medicinal purposes, and it also is 
frequently employed to relieve toothache. 

CLOVIO, GIULIO (1498-1578), by birth a Croat and 
by profession a priest, is said to have learned the elements 
of design in his own country, and to have studied after 
wards with intense diligence at Rome under Giulio 
Romano, and at Verona under Girolamo de Libri. He 
excelled in historical pieces and portraits, painting as for 
microscopical examination, and yet contriving to handle 
his subjects with great force and precision. In the Vatican 
library is preserved a MS. life of Frederick, duke of Urbino, 
superbly illustrated by Clovio, who is facile princeps among 
Italian miniaturists. 

CLOVIS, king of the Franks. See FRANCE. 

CLOYNE (in Irish Cluain-Uamha, or the Meadow of 
the Cave), a market town and formerly an episcopal see 
of Ireland, in the county of Cork, and about four miles from 
the east side of Cork harbour. It is now a small place of 
1200 inhabitants, but it still gives its name to a Roman 
Catholic diocese. The cathedral, which was founded in the 
6th century by Colman, a disciple of Fin-Bane of Cork, is 
still in existence. It contains a few handsome monuments 
to its former bishops, but, singular to say, nothing to pre 
serve the memory of the illustrious Dr George Berkeley, 
who filled the see frcm 1734 to 1753. Opposite the 
cathedral is a very fine round tower still 96 feet in height, 
though the conical roof was destroyed by lightning in 1748, 
The Roman Catholic church is a spacious building with a 
highly decorated front. The town was several times plun 
dered by the Danes in the 9th century ; it was laid waste by 
Dermot O Brien in 1071, and was burned in 1137. In 
1430 the bishopric was united to that of Cork; in 1638 
it again became independent, and in 1660 it was again 
united to Cork and Ross. In 1678 it was once more de 
clared independent, and so continued till 1835, when it 
was again joined to Cork and Ross. The Pipe Roll of 
Cloyne, compiled by Bishop Swafi ham in 1364, is a very 
remarkable record, embracing a full account of the feudal 
tenures of the see, the nature of the impositions, and the 
duties the puri homines Sancti Colmani were bound to per 
form at a very early period. The roll is now in the Record 
Office, Dublin. It was edited by Richard Caulfield in 1 859. 

CLUB. The records of all nations agree in attributing 
the institution of clubs and private companies to the earliest, 
or one of the earliest, rulers or legislators of whom they 
have retained any memory. Indeed such associations seem, 
as Addison has said, " to be a natural and necessary offshoot 
of men s gregarious and social nature." In the infancy 
of national existences, they are almost essential for purposes 
of mutual support and protection, and to supply the short 
comings of a weak Government. But over and above those 
fellowships which spring from the inalienable right of self- 
preservation, and which are founded either in the ties of 
kindred or community of material interests^ there are 
commonly found, even in matured and well-organized states, 



CLUB 



s number of secondary or accidental societies, established 
for the promotion of some common object ; and a wise and 
strong Government usually protects and encourages them 
as a most important condition of human progress. They 
may be roughly divided into four different classes, according 
to their several objects; they may be either religious, poli 
tical, commercial, or merely social ; and an attempt has 
been sometimes made to assign these to different periods of 
national development. Such a distinction, however, cannot 
be successfully maintained, since the various elements were 
often most closely united in the same clubs, almost (or 
quite) from their very foundation. Thus, tho corporations 
in Rome whose foundation was attributed to Numa would 
seem at first sight to have been merely for convenience of 
traclj. But we are told that they had also a social or poli 
tical purpose, viz., to break down the barriers which sepa 
rated Romans from Sabines in the infant state. Moreover, 
Plutarch introduces a religious element into them also, 
saying that Numa " fixed certain times of meeting for 
these companies, and certain honours to the gods, assigning 
to each what was suitable for them." So again in Greece 
we have the testimony of Aristotle that members of the 
same tribe or borough used to club together, men follow 
ing the same occupations, as soldiers or sailors, and others 
again for mere social amusement ; yet he immediately 
adds " these meet together for the sake of one another s 
company, and to offer sacrifices ; when they meet they 
both pay certain honours to the gods, and at the same 
time take pleasurable relaxation among themselves. It 
is clear, then, that whatever may have been the precise 
object with which each private club or association was 
originally formed in pagan times, these distinctive 
marks were very soon blurred, and finally, in the lapse of 
time, altogether obliterated. 

We need not say anything of the religious sodalities 
which were appointed in a regular way both in Greece and 
Home for the worship of the gods recognized by the state. 
It is the history of secret confraternities for the exercise of 
foreign religious rites unknown to the stat3 and strictly 
forbidden that is more curious and attractive. In Athens 
the penalty of death stood enacted in the statute book 
against those who should introduce the worship of strange 
gods ; but it is only on very rare and scandalous occasions 
that we hear of this statute in real life. There was a great 
invasion of foreign gods into Attica after tha Persian war, 
and they were not so easily driven out as were the hosts 
of Xerxes who had imported them. Moreover, inde 
pendently of foreign armies, the mere commercial activity 
of Athens herself did much to promote the same evil. 
Her sailors and soldiers, colonists and merchants, had 
explored the coasts of the ^EgeanSea, and had brought home 
from Thrace, from Phrygia, from Cyprus, and elsewhere, a 
whole host of deities, not more false indeed, but certainly 
more dangerous, than those whom they had been wont to 
worship at home. These gods and goddesses soon found 
little knots of devotees, who were led to form a kind of 
confraternity among themselves, for the support of the 
forbidden worship. Fragments both of tragic and comic 
poets have preserved to us some notice of the kind of 
worship that was offered, and it was obviously in every 
way less respectable than the worship sanctioned by the 
state. In the state temples the priests and other officers 
were obliged to be freemen, citizens, and the sons of citizens ; 
any taint of servile or foreign blood was a fatal disquali 
fication. But here slaves, foreigners, and women were 
admitted indiscriminately. Indeed, if we may judge from 
monuments that have recently come to light, these secret 
confraternities found their principal support among these 
classes. At Rhodes there was one consisting exclusively 
of the lowest class of slaves, the public slaves of the 



town ; at Salamis, one exclusively of women ; in that of 
Cnidus eleven members out of twelve were foreigners. 
All these monuments come from islands ; and of course it 
was there, and in the seaport towns of the peninsula, that 
such illicit corporations were likely to be first introduced 
and to take deepest root. By-and-by it became necessary 
even to give an official recognition to some of them, e.g., in 
the Piraeus, for the convenience of foreigners who were 
either detained there for a considerable time by business, 
or perhaps had even taken up their permanent abode there. 
Excavations made within the last twenty years in the 
Piraeus, and still more recently in the neighbourhood of 
the silver mines of Laurium, enable us to assist at the 
birth and early growth of some of these illicit clubs, but 
there is nothing in the history specially inviting. In 
Rome the general policy of the state towards foreign 
religions was more tolerant than in Greece. Nevertheless 
here also the practice of certain religions was forbidden, 
and the prohibition naturally produced certain secret 
societies amongst those who were attached to them. The 
law indeed forbade the worship of any deity that had not 
been approved by the senate, but then the senate was by 
no means illiberal in granting its diploma of approbation, 
and as often as a new deity was introduced, or even a new 
temple built to an old deity, a new sodality seems to have 
sprung up, or to have been officially appointed, to look 
after its interests. It is disputed whether the prohibition 
of the worship of unknown, unrecognized gods, applied 
only to acts of public worship, or extended even to the 
innermost secrecy of private life. Cicero may be quoted 
in defence of the latter view, Livy of the former. Probably 
the letter of the law favoured the stricter side and spoke 
universally, but traditional practice ruled differently. 
Certainly tho Romans had a scruple about interfering with 
anything which even pretended to lay claim to a religious 
character. Even when they repressed with such severity 
the secret meetings of the Bacchanalians, this was done 
not so much in the interest of the other gods, as of public 
order and morality and the security of the state. They even 
continued to tolerate such foul associations as these, only 
they imposed the condition that not more than five 
worshippers should meet together at once ; and under cover 
of this permission the number of thiasi was much multiplied 
in the city, and these exercised a powerful attraction over 
women by the promise which they made of effecting a real 
purification of the soul. At a later period, when Augustus 
destroyed all the temples of Serapis which had been erected in 
Rome during his absence, he was careful to assign a politi 
cal motive for this unusual interference with religious liberty. 
If we turn from these religious associations to consider 
the craft-gilds in ancient Rome, the first thing that strikes 
us is their extraordinary number. In the days of Numa 
we are told that there were only eight ; but as time went 
on they so multiplied that in the imperial period we 
count more than fourscore of them, including almost every 
profession and handicraft one can think of, from bankers 
and doctors down to donkey-drivers and muleteers. Nor 
does the mere enumeration of the different trades and 
professions give us at all an adequate idea of their 
number ; for when a club became very large, it was first 
subdivided into centuries, and then these again broke 
off into separate clubs. Again, there was one club or 
company of the watermen who plied their trade on the 
Saone, and another of the watermen on the Rhone, though 
both these companies had their headquarters at Lyons. 
The other navigable rivers, too, each had its own company. 
Thus, the most ancient notice we have of Paris is derived 
from a monument which has come down to us of the water 
men on the Seine. We find mention, also, of more craft- 
gilds than one even in a single street of Rome ; nay, further 



CLUB 



Btiil, within the limits of a single house, e.g., of the imperial 
palace, and probably of other princely establishments, which 
counted their hundreds or thousands of dependants. Each 
class of slaves engaged in different domestic occupations had 
their own clubs. Thus the chef de cuisine (magister 
coquorum) of Augustus bequeathed a sum of money to the 
collegium, or club, of cooks, in his imperial majesty s house 
hold, and there is evidence that there were five or six other 
clubs in the palace at the same time. We do not know how 
large each club may have been ; an old inscription tells us 
of forty seats reserved for a particular club in the amphi 
theatre at Nimes, but these belonged probably to the 
officers of the club, not to the ordinary members indis 
criminately. Sometimes the number of members was limited, 
either by the original constitution of the body, or by condi 
tions subsequently imposed by benefactors who did not wish 
their donations to be frittered awaj and rendered useless 
by too minute subdivisions. As to the internal organiza 
tion of the clubs, the general laws and principles which 
governed their constitution, both in Athens and in Rome, 
they were moulded, as was only natural, very much after 
the pattern of the civil institutions of the country. They 
were republican therefore in spirit, the administration of 
affairs being wholly in the hands of the members them 
selves, all of whom had equal rights ; their watchful control 
was incessant, and tlieir authority absolute ; their officers 
were elected by universal suffrage, sometimes by acclama 
tion ; they were called by the same names as were borne by 
the magistrates of the state, apxorres, qucestores, magistri 
quinquennales, curatores, &c. ; they were elected annually, 
and on entering into office they took an oath that they 
would observe the constitution and laws of the corporation ; 
and on retiring from office they gave an account of tlieir 
stewardship to the assembled members, who exercised a 
right of judgment over them. This judgment seems to have 
been almost uniformly favourable ; a commendatory decree 
was voted almost as much a matter of course as a vote of 
thanks to the chairman of our own public meetings. In 
Greece this vote was accompanied by the offering of a crown 
of leaves, of olive, ivy, or poplar, according to the supposed 
choice of the god or goddess to whom the club was dedicated. 
In the East, e.g., Bithynia, we find crowns of ribands and 
flowers ; in Rhodes, Delos, and the adjacent islands, it was 
not uncommonly of gold, of very little intrinsic worth, 
however, and provided by special contributions at each 
monthly meeting. But the most valued part of the reward 
to these retiring officers (in Greece) seems to have been 
the proclamation of the honour obtained, which proclama 
tion took place either after the ceremonies of the chief 
annual festival, or sometimes on every occasion of meeting. 
It was also engraved on a column which was set up in some 
conspicuous spot in or near their place of meeting. When 
any special services seemed to call for special recognition, 
the title of benefactor or benefactress was awarded, and 
this, too, was of course added to the inscription. A still 
higher and rarer honour was to offer the retiring officer 
a statue or portrait of himself, either full length or 
half figure only or sometimes both together, and 
even more than one of each But only once among 
Greek inscriptions belonging to these clubs do we find 
any mention of a salary awarded to the secretary, 
in consideration of the zeal and justice with which 
he had attended to the general interests of the community, 
the exactness with which he had rendered his own reports 
and accounts, as well as audited those of others who from 
time to time had been specially deputed to do anything for 
the club, and his constant devotion to the interests of all 
the members both collectively and individually Even in 
this instance, however, the zealous and disinterested 
secretary or treasurer declined the proffered salary, where 



upon the club voted him a golden crown, which again he 
gave up for the decoration of the temple in which they met. 
And this, indeed, was the usual fate of these complimentary 
offerings. The officers fulfilled the duties of their post 
gratuitously, and often at great expense to themselves, just 
as the civil magistrates were obliged to do ; and it seems 
to have been pretty generally understood, that any extra 
ordinary compliments, such as the offer of a statue or 
portrait, should, if accepted, be carried out at the expense, 
not of the donor, but of the receiver. In Rome, also, 
whenever an inscription states that the members of a 
collegium decree that a statue shall be erected in honour of 
some patron or benefactor, it is generally added that he 
undertook to pay for the statue himself (honore contentus, 
impensam remisit). Besides the acting officials of these 
clubs, there were also certain honorary patrons, whose 
connection with them was probably much the same as that 
of most patrons of benevolent societies in our own day. 
It was a compliment to invite them to become patrons, and 
they were expected to contribute to the funds in return. 

It only remains that we should say a few words about 
the merely social clubs of pagan times, those clubs which 
had no other bond of union, either commercial, political, 
or religious, but which aimed only at the amusement or 
private advantage of their members. There was nothing 
in the functions of these clubs to obtain for them a place 
in the page of history. The evidence, therefore, of their 
existence and constitution is but scanty. Monumental 
inscriptions, however, tell us of clubs of Roman citizens in 
some of the cities of Spain, of a club of strangers from 
Asia resident in Malaga, of Phoenician residents at 
Pozzuoli, and of other strangers elsewhere. These all were 
probably devised as remedies against that sense of ennui 
and isolation which is apt to come over a number of 
foreigners residing at a distance from their native country. 
Something of the same kind of feeling may have led to the 
toleration of a club consisting of old soldiers who had been 
in the armies of Augustus ; these were allowed to meet and 
fight their battles over again, spite of the legal prohibition 
of military clubs. Another military club of a different 
kind existed among the officers of a regiment engaged in 
foreign service in Africa. Its existence can have been no 
secret, for its rules were engraved on pillars which were set 
up near the headquarters of the general, where they have 
lately been found in the ruins of the camp. The contribu 
tion of each member on admission scarcely fell short of 
25, and two-thirds of this sum were to be paid to his 
heir or representative on the occasion of his death, or he 
might himself recover this proportion of his original sub 
scription on retirement from military service. The 
peculiarity, however, of this aristocratic collegium was this, 
that it provided that a portion of the funds might also be 
spent for other useful purposes, e.g., for foreign travelling. 
It is to be presumed that a member who had availed him 
self of this privilege thereby forfeited all claim to be 
buried at the expense .of his club. 

Clubs were by no means the exclusive privilege of the 
male sex; in ancient days. Women also were united in 
similar associations. Their religious sodalities, indeed, were 
not generally edifying ; but they combined together also 
for social and political purposes. The most remarkable of 
these was the great assembly of matrons, called at one 
time, in a mock-heroic way, "the minor senate." This 
ladies club received its title from imperial authority, which 
also legislated as to the needful qualifications of its 
members, the times of its meeting, and the subjects of its 
debates. These concerned the gravest questions of etiquette, 
such as what dress ladies should wear according to their 
social rank ; who was to take precedence one of another 
on public occasions of state, in processions, or other 



CLUB 



41 



ceiemonies ; who might ride in a carriage drawn by 
horses ; who must be content to sit behind mules ; whose 
sedan-chair might have fittings of ivory, whose of silver, 
&c. Not all ladies could attain to a seat in this little 
senate, which dealt with such delicate questions of etiquette ; 
but we find them forming other clubs of their own which 
occasionally meddled with questions of municipal, if not of 
general, interest. They deliberated on the rewards to be 
given to this or that magistrate, and voted funds for 
monuments and statues in honour of those who had earned 
their approbation. The names of women are not unfre- 
quently set down as patronesses of certain craft-gilds, of 
which they can hardly have been ordinary members ; and 
in one instance at least in Africa, and in another in 
Majorca, inscriptions distinctly mention that certain ladies 
had filled all the official posts in a collegium. (j. s. N.) 

Modern Clubs. The word club, denoting the promotion 
of intercommunity and good fellowship, is not very old, and 
only became common in the time of the T-.itler and Spec 
tator ; it claims a descent, however, from the Anglo-Saxon, 
being derived from cleofan, to divide, because the expenses 
are divided into shares. Thomas Occleve (temp. Henry 
IV.) mentions a club designated La Court de Bone 
Compaignie of which he was a member. Aubrey (1659) 
speaks thus of the word : " We now use the word clubbe 
for a sodality in a taverne." He also mentions the ballot 
box, that potential instrument too often used in modern 
days for the indulgence of secret spleen : "Here we had 
(very formally) a ballotting box, and bal lotted how things 
should be carried." Dr Johnson, according to Boswell, 
defines a club to be an "assembly of good fellows meeting 
under certain conditions." And to the same authority may 
be traced the words " clubable " and " unclubable." 

The numerous London clubs which sprang into existence 
in the last and previous century had their place and origin 
almost entirely in the coffee-houses and taverns then 
so much in vogue. Of these the earliest known was the 
Bread Street or Friday Street Club originated by Sir 
Walter Raleigh, and meeting at the Mermaid Tavern. 
Shakespeare, Beaumont, Fletcher, Selden, Donne, and others 
were members of this club. Other clubs were subsequently 
formed, such as that meeting at the Devil Tavern near 
Temple Bar, of which Ben Jo.nson was supposed to be the 
founder; and later on (in 1764) we find the Literanj Club 
was established chiefly at the instance of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, which soon acquired a renown no more than pro 
portionate to its merits a renown maintained and brought 
down to the present day. 

Addison, in the Spectator, has a paper on the clubs 
of his day (No. 9, vol. i. 1710). Of the description of 
club there sketched many exist at the present time, having 
no object but that of good fellowship and dining. In 
this category may be included the Royal Society Club, 
the history of which has been written by the late Admiral 
Win. Henry Smyth, F.R.S., in the privately printed Sketch 
of the Else and Progress of the Royal Society Club, published 
in I860. 

Of the more notable of the clubs of the past and the 
early part of the present century but few resembled the 
club of the Victorian era. Of those which survive may be 
mentioned Wldte s, originally established in 1698. This 
club was formerly of a high Tory character, and though no 
longer political is still somewhat conservative and undoubt 
edly aristocratic. Brooks s club, similar to White s in the 
character of its members, and nearly coeval in date, has 
continued to maintain a political aspect, and is considered 
to be identified with Whig principles. Boodle s, of later 
date, has always been deemed the resort of country gentle 
men, and especially of masters of fox-hounds. Arthur s, in 
some respects an offshoot of White s, was established fully 



a century ago, and continues to this day a club of gentle 
men associated for no special purpose, but united cnly by 
congeniality of tastes and ideas 

The number of regularly established clubs in London is 
upwards of fifty, divided into political, literary and scien 
tific, university, naval and military, and general clubs. Of the 
political clubs the principal are the Carlton, the Conserva 
tive, the Junior Carlton, and the St Stephen s, the Reform, 
and the Devonshire (a kind of junior Reform club), the 
conditions of admission into which are of a political nature. 
Of the literary and scientific, the Athenveum was " insti 
tuted for the association of individuals known for their 
scientific or literary attainments, artists of eminence in 
any class of the fine arts, and noblemen and gentlemen 
distinguished as liberal patrons of science, literature, 
or the arts," and has long enjoyed a high reputation, 
rendering admission to its ranks both tedious as regards 
the length of time a candidate has to wait before being 
put up for ballot, and difficult when he is subjected to that 
crucial test. Of university clubs the United University is 
the oldest, the others being the Oxford and Cambridge, 
the New University, and others, the qualification for mem 
bership of winch would be that of connection with the 
chief universities. The naval and military clubs include 
the United Service, the Junior United Service, the Army 
and Navy, with numerous others intended for military 
and naval officers, and in some instances for officers of 
militia. The general clubs include the Travellers , to be 
deemed eligible for which a candidate must have " travelled 
out of the British Islands to a distance of at least 500 
miles from London in a direct line " (not a very onerous 
condition in the present day, but one of some weight 
in 1815 when the club was founded), and the Oriental 
and East India United Service clubs, intended more 
especially for members of Her Majesty s Indian services 
both civil and military. Besides these there are numerous 
clubs of a special character, such as the Windham, whose 
object is stated to be " to secure a convenient and agreeable 
place of meeting for a society of gentlemen all connected 
with each other by a common bond of literary or persona] 
acquaintance;" the National club, consisting of "members 
who hold the doctrines and principles of the Reformed faith, 
as revealed in Holy Scripture, asserted at the Reformation, 
and generally embodied in the articles of the Church of 
England;" or the Garrick, which was instituted in 1831 for 
"the general patronage of the drama, for bringing together 
the supporters of the drama, and for the formation of a 
theatrical library with works on costume. 1 

This list might be extended, but the general aims of thp 
modern style of club are sufficiently indicated in this 
reference to the salient features of the clubs named. 

The architectural elevations of the London club-houses 
are such as have lent dignity and character to the parts of 
London in which they are situated. Pull Mall notably is 
thus now a street of palaces. Nor should the contents of 
these handsome and convenient mansions pass unnoticed. 
The Athenceumlias probably the choicest library of its kind, 
consisting mainly of books of reference, and including 
45,000 volumes. The Garrick club has an exceedingly 
valuable collection of oil and water-colour paintings, chiefly 
as might be expected, relating to dramatic episodes. The 
United Service, the Reform, the Oriental, and some other 
clubs have an assemblage of portraits of members who have 
won fame, or of paintings of celebrated battles and public 
events. The furniture and arrangements of the different 
apartments correspond to the exteriors, every convenience 
and luxury being placed at the disposal of the members. 

The mode of election of members varies. In some clubs 
the committee alone have the power of choosing new 
members. In others the election is by ballot of the whole 

VT. 6 



42 



L U L U 



club, one black ball in ten ordinarily excluding. In the 
Athenaeum, whilst the principle of election by ballot of the 
whole club obtains, the duty is also cast upon the committee 
of annually selecting nine members who are to be " of 
distinguished eminence in science, literature, or the arts, 
or for public services," and the rule makes stringent 
provision for the conduct of these elections. On the com 
mittee of the same club is likewise conferred power to 
elect without ballot princes of the blood royal, Cabinet 
ministers, bishops, speaker of the House of Commons, 
judges, &c. 

The general concerns of clubs are managed by committees 
constituted of the trustees, who are usually permanent mem 
bers thereof, and of ordinarily twenty-four other members, 
chosen by the club at large, one-third of whom go out of 
office annually. These committees have plenary powers to 
deal with the affairs of the club committed to their charge, 
assembling weekly to transact current business and audit 
the accounts. Once a year a meeting of the whole club is 
held, before which a report is laid, and any action taken 
thereupon which may be necessary. 

The entrance fee varies from 40 at the United Service 
and Army and Navy clubs to 20 guineas at the Carlton 
club. The annual subscription in like manner ranges from 
10 guineas in the Carlton, Reform, and several others, to 7 
guineas in the United Service club. The largest income 
derived from these and all other sources may be stated to 
be that of the Army and Navy club, which in the year 
1875 amounted to 30,813, of which 19,383 was raised 
by entrance fees and subscriptions alone. The expenditure 
is, however, most commonly of nearly equal amount, and 
of few of the clubs can it be said that they are entirely free 
from debt. The number of members included in a London 
club varies from 2200 in the Army and Navy to 475 in 
the St James s club. 

Numerous provincial clubs aro established throughout 
the country. In both Edinburgh and Dublin are clubs 
fully coming up to the metropolitan societies. Nor is this 
great public convenience lacking in the cities and towns 
of Europe, the United States, and the British colonies. 

Of a different nature and with widely different objects 
are the learned bodies designated publishing clubs, of 
which the Abbotsford, the Bannatyne, the Roxfatrghe, and 
others are examples. These societies dsvoted themselves 
solely to the editing of unpublished MSS., or the reprint- 
of rare and valuable works. (j. c. w.) 

Arnold (Walter), Life and Death of the Sublime Society of Beef - 

Ar I SI U i rey (J hn) Lciters f Eminent Persons, 2 vols. ; 
Uarsli (L.), Clubs of London, with Anecdotes of their Members 
Sketches of Character and Conversation, 1832, 2 vols. ; Notes and 
Queries 3d series, vols. 1 9, 10; Pyne (W. H.), Wine and Wai- 
^ 2 vols.; Smyth (Admiral), Sketch of the Use and Pro 
gress of the Royal Society Club, 1860; Timbs (John), Club Life or 
London, with Anecdotes of Clubs, Co/ee-Houses and Taverns 1866 

TOJflUwi f*Saf L%* ba < md C lub Li fa 1872 ; Walker (Th.)| 
The Original fifth edition, by W. A. Guy, 1875; The Secret 
History of Clubs of all Descriptions [by Ned Ward], 1709; Com- 
plete and Humourous Account of all the Remarkable Clubs and 
Societies in the Cities of London and Westminster Thy Ned Ward! 
seventh edition, 1,56 ; The London Clubs : their Anecdotes, Histor ,, 
Pnvat* Rules and Regulations, 1853, 12mo ; Hume (Rev. A) 
Learned Societies and Printing Clubs, 1847. 

CLUB-FOOT (Talipes}. The pathology and treatment 
of the various deformities of the foot, which are included 
under the above general title, come strictly under ortho 
pedic surgery. Several forms of club-foot have been 
recognized by surgeons There are four primary forms : 
(1) Talipes equinus, in which the heel does not touch the 
ground, the child resting on the toes ; (2) Talipes varus, 
m which the foot is turned inwards and shortened, the 
inner edge of the foot raised, the outer edge of the foot 
only touching the ground ; (3) Talipes calcaneus, a rare 



form, in which the heel only touches the ground, the toes 
being raised; (4) Talipes valgus, in which the foot is turned 
outwards. The third and fourth varieties are so rare that 
they are of no practical interest, and need not be further 
alluded to. It is possible to confound true talipes valgus 
with flat-foot, a deformity which is the result of undue 
stretching, from weakness, of the fascial and ligamentous 
structures which maintain the arched form of the foot. In 
flat-foot the arch is lost, the patient is splay or flat-footed, 
and as a secondary deformity the foot is turned outwards, 
resembling and often confounded with true talipes valgus. 
The two common primary forms of club-foot are talipes 
equinus and talipes varus. These two varieties are frequently 
combined ; the deformity is then termed talipes equino-varus. 
A shortening or contraction of one group, or of allied groups, 
of muscles is always to be observed ; as, for instance, in 
talipes equinus, to which the muscles of the calf are con 
tracted, or in talipes varus, in which the group of muscles 
which turn the foot inwards are contracted, or in talipes 
equino-varus, in which both sets are at fault. This con 
traction is due either to excessive primary irritation of the 
muscular group implicated, or is secondary to and the 
result of paralysis of an opposing group of muscles. In 
certain cases thD paralysis affects more or less all the muscks 
of the limb ; the result of this is a deformity in the direc 
tion of the most powerful group. The primary cause of 
these diseased conditions is some irritation of the ceretro- 
spinal central nervous system, either occurring before birth, 
and termed congenital, or appearing after birth, generally 
during the periodof first dentition, and termed non-congenital. 
As a rule well-marked cases are congenital. Such 
deformities are frequently hereditary. Both feet may or 
may not be affected. Eecognition of club-foot is of import 
ance, because if not treated early a change takes place in 
the shape of the bones of the foot, which renders treatment 
much more difficult, and in some neglected cases it is impos 
sible to restore the foot to its normal shape. 

It is to Stromeyer in Germany (1837), and to Little and 
Adams in England, that we owe a true understanding of 
the pathology and treatment of these affections. 

The following broad principles, which govern the treat 
ment, are now universally understood and adopted by sur 
geons: (1) A subcutaneous division, by the operation of 
tenotomy, of the contracted tendons ; and (2) A stretching 
of the newly formed embryonic tissue which is deposited 
between the cut extremities of the tendons in the inter 
space, the result of their retraction after division. This 
is managed by means of a mechanical appliance termed 
a club-foot boot. Various forms of boot have been used 
by surgeons ; in all the essential feature is that the foot 
is fixed to the boot by sticking-plaster or by straps, and the 
stretching is gradually accomplished by the elasticity of 
Indian-rubber bands, or by steel springs, or by screws. In 
this way the foot gradually assumes a normal appearance. 
As a general rule, after it is evident that the deformity 
is a persistent one, the earlier the operation is per 
formed the better. Only in exceptional cases should 
interference bo delayed beyond the third or fourth month 
of life. If a change takes place in the bones, or if the 
child is allowed to walk before treatment of the deformity, 
the cure is rendered more difficult and more tedious. In 
many cases when the child is young the cutting operation 
will not be necessary ; the foot can be restored to its normal 
position by rr.echanical appliances alone. 

Various rules have been laid down for the proper 
performance of tenotomy. The simple rule to begin with 
the riost tense tendon, and to divide it where it is most 
tense, is of universal application. In talipes equinus the 
tendo ^ achillis, in talipes varus the tibialis posticits and 
tibialis anticus require division. In the common form. 



L U C L Y 



talipes equino-varus, both groups must be operated on. 
Very frequently the plantar fascia is shortened and has 
also to be divided. After the operation, which is greatly 
facilitated by the administration of chloroform, the foot is 
kept at rest with a bandage for three or four days until 
the small punctures are healed. The boot is then carefully 
applied, and gradually the foot is restored to its normal 
shape without causing pain, which interferes with the 
object in view, namely, a moulding (by stretching) of the 
newly-formed tissue between the divided ends of the 
tendons If there is distinct paralysis the appropriate 
remedies friction, passive exercise, and the electric battery 
may be indicated. The boot should be worn for some time 
after the foot has regained its normal appearance, because 
there is always a tendency for a considerable period to the 
return of the deformity. (j. c.) 

CLUNY, or CLUGNI, a town of France, in the department 
of Saone-et-Loire, about twelve miles by rail north-west of 
Macon, on the left bank of the Grone, a tributary of the 
Saone, crossed there by two bridges. It is a place of 
upwards of 4000 inhabitants, and carries on a considerable 
agricultural trade, and the manufacture of pottery, paper, 
and vinegai. The main interest in the town is due to its 
specimens of mediaeval architecture, which include, besides 
its celebrated abbey, the church of Notre Dame, dating 
from the 13th century; the church of Saint Marcel with a 
beautiful spire ; the ruins of Saint Mayeul ; portions of the 
ancient fortifications ; and a number of picturesque houses 
belonging to various periods from the 12th century 
downwards, classed among the historic monuments of 
France. A mere village at the time when William the 
Pious and Bernon, abbot of Gigny and Baume, laid the 
foundations of what was destined to be one of the principal 
monasteries of Europe, it gradually increased with the 
development of the religious fraternity, and was raised to 
the rank of a town. Before the erection of St Peter s at 
Rome, the abbey church, which was consecrated by 
Innocent II., was recognized as the largest building of its 
kind in Europe, its length being no less than G56 feet and 
its breadth 130. During the wars of the 16th century the 
abbatial buildings were greatly damaged ; and in the 
Revolution of 1789 a great part of them were completely 
demolished. Restorations have since been effected at 
various times, and different portions of the enormous pile 
are appropriated to civic purposes. The abbot s palace 
contains a museum and a library ; the cloisters are occu 
pied by a school ; and the site of the abbey church 
affords room for a Government stud. The 12th century 
was the period at which the monks of Cluny reached the 
height of their prosperity ; and about that time no fewer 
than 2000 religious establishments throughout Europe 
acknowledged allegiance. Shortly after they began to 
decline from the ancient rigidity of their rule ; and their 
influence gave way before the rising power of the Cister 
cians. Among the great men whom they have produced 
are Gregory VII., Urban II., and Pascal II. The town 
residence erected in Paris by the abbots of Cluny about the 
end of the loth century is still extant, and, under the name 
of Hotel de Cluny, is occupied by the Sommerard archaeo 
logical collection ; but the College de Cluny, which was 
founded in 12G9 by Ives de Vergy, has disappeared. 

CLUSIUM. See CHIUSI. 

CLUVER, PHILIP (1580-1623), a German geographer 
still regarded as an authority, was born at Danzig in 1580. 
After travelling in Poland and Germany, he commenced 
the study of law at Leyden ; but he soon turned his 
attention to geography, which was then taught there by 
Joseph Scaliger. Displeased with his desertion of the law, 
his father refused to support him ; and he was forced 
to enter the army, with which he served for two j 7 ears in 



Bohemia and Hungary. After leaving the army he under 
took to get printed in Holland an apology for Baron Popel, 
who had been imprisoned by the emperor; and in 
consequence he was himself thrown into prison. On his 
release he visited England, where he married, and became 
acquainted with Dr Holland and Dr Prideaux. After 
spending some time in Scotland and France, he returned to 
Holland; and in 1611 he commenced to publish his works, 
being, after 1616, supported by a pension from the Academy 
of Leyden. His principal works are Germania Antique 
(161G), Sicilicp. Antiques libri duo, Sardinia et Corsica 
Antiqua(lQlQ), Italia Antiqua (1624), Introductio in Uni- 
versam Geographiam (1629) 

CLYDE, the most important river of Scotland, and the 
third in point of magnitude, has its origin from numerous 
small streams rising at a height of about 1400 feet above 
the level of the sea, in the mountains which separate 
Lanarkshire from the counties of Peebles and Dumfries. 
It flows first in a northerly direction, with a slight inclina 
tion eastward as far as Biggar, where, in time of floods, 
a junction is sometimes established with the system of the 
Tweed by means of the Biggar Water. After uniting with 
the Douglas near Harperfield, it takes a north-west course, 
passing Lanark, k Hamilton, and Glasgow, and merges in the 
Firth of Clyde below Dumbarton. From its source to 
Dumbarton it is about 73 miles in length, the direct district 
being about 52. Its principal tributaries are the Douglas, 
the Nethan, the Avon, and the Cart from the left, and the 
Medwyn, the Mouse, the Calder, the Kelvin, and the Leven 
from the right. Of the celebrated Falls of Clyde, three 
are above and one below Lanark ; the uppermost is Bon- 
nington Linn, the height of which is about 30 feet ; the 
second is Corra Linn, where the water dashes over the 
rock in three distinct leaps, and resumes its course at a 
level 84 feet lower. Dundaff Linn is a small fall of 10 
feet ; and at Stonebyres there are three successive falls, 
together measuring 76 feet in height. At high water the 
Clyde is navigable to Glasgow for the largest class of 
merchant vessels. See GLASGOW. 

CLYDE, LORD (1792-1863), better known as SIR 
COLIN CAMPBELL, was born at Glasgow on the 16th of 
October 1792. He received his education at the high 
school of that city, and when only sixteen years of age 
obtained an ensigncy in the 9th foot, through the influence 
of Colonel Campbell, his maternal uncle. The youthful 
officer had an early opportunity of engaging in active 
service. He fought under Sir Arthur Wellesley at Vimiera, 
took part in the retreat of Sir John Moore, and was present 
at the battle of Coruna. He shared in all the fighting of 
the next Peninsular campaign, and was severely wounded 
while leading a storrning-party at the attack on San 
Selastian. He was again wounded at the passage of the 
Biclassoa, and compelled to return to England, when his 
conspicuous gallantry was rewarded with the rank of 
captain and lieutenant, without purchase. Campbell held 
a command in the American expedition of 1814; and 
after the peace of the following year he devoted himself 
to studying the theoretical branches of his profession. la 
1823 he quelled the negro insurrection in Demerara, and 
two years later obtained his majority by purchase. In 
1832 he became lieutenant-colonel of the 98th _ foot, and 
with that regiment rendered distinguished service in the 
Chinese war of 1842. Colonel Campbell was next 
employed in the Sikh war of 1848-49, under Lord Gough. 
At Chillianwalla, where he was wounded, and at the 
decisive victory of Goojerat, his skill and valour largely 
contributed to the success of the British arms ; and his 
" steady coolness and military precision " were highly 
praised in official despatches. He was created a K.C.B. in 
1849, and specially named in the thanks of Parliament. 



44 



L Y C N 



After rendering important services in India, Sir Colin 
Campbell returned home in 1853. Next year the Crimean 
war broke out, and he accepted the command of the 
Highland brigade, which formed the left wing of the duke 
of Cambridge s division. The success of the British at 
the Alma was mainly due to his intrepidity ; and with 
his " thin red line" of Highlanders he repulsed the Russian 
attack on Balaklava. At the close of the war Sir Colin 
was promoted to be Knight Grand Cross of the Bath, and 
elected honorary D.C.L. of Oxford. His military services, 
however, had as yet met with tardy recognition ; but, 
when the crisis came, his true worth was appreciated. 
The outbreak of the Indian Mutiny called for a general of 
tried experience; and on July 11, 1857, the command 
was offered to him by Lord Palmerston. On being asked 
when he would be ready to set out, the veteran replied, 
" Within twenty-four hours." He was as good as his word; 
he left England the next evening, and reached Calcutta on 
August 13. The position was one of unusual difficulty, 
but his energy and resource did not fail for a moment. 
Having formed an army as hastily as possible, he marched 
with 6000 men and 36 guns to the relief of Lucknow. 
The odds against him were great, and nothing save con 
summate dexterity of manoeuvring could have achieved 
success. When the British guns were silenced by the fire 
of the rebels, Sir Colin himself headed the final assault, 
carried the fort, and saved the besieged. He afterwards, 
by his skilful tactics, thoroughly defeated the enemy, and 
captured their strongholds, thus crushing the mutiny and 
preserving the British rule in India. For these services 
he was raised to the peerage iu 1858, by the title of Lord 
Clyde ; and returning to England in the next year he re 
ceived the thanks of both Houses of Parliament. He 
enjoyed a pension of 2000 a year until his death, which 
occurred on the 14th of August 1863. 

Lord Clyde possessed in abundant measure all the 
qualities which go to make a successful general. He com 
bined the daring of the subaltern with the calm prudence 
of the veteran commander. The soldiers whom he led 
were devotedly attached to him ; and his courteous 
demeanour and manly independence of character won him 
unvarying respect. Though adequate recognition of his 
merits came slowly, he never allowed any feeling of pique 
to interfere with duty; and he deserves to be regarded 
as one of the most distinguished generals that Britain has 
produced. t 

CLYT.EMNESTRA, the daughter of Tyndareus and 
Leda, and wife of Agamemnon. See AGAMEMNON, 

CNIDUS, now TEKIR, an ancient city of Caria, in Asia 
Minor, situated at the extremity of the long peninsula that 
forms the southern side of the Sinus Ceramicus, or Gulf 
of Cos. It was built partly on the mainland and partly on 
the Island of Triopion, or Cape Krio, which anciently com 
municated with the continent by a causeway and biidge, 
and- is now permanently connected by a narrow sandy isth 
mus. By means of the causeway the channel between 
island and mainland was formed into two harbours, of which 
the larger, or southern, now known as port Freano, was 
further enclosed by two strongly-built moles that are still 
in good part entire. The extreme length of the city was 
little less than a mile, and the whole intramural area is still 
thickly strewn with architectural remains. The walls, both 
insular and continental, can be traced throughout their 
whole circuit ; and in many places, especially round the 
acropolis, at the north-east corner of the city, they are re 
markably perfect. Our knowledge of the site" is largely due 
to the mission of the Dilettanti Society in 1812, and the 
excavations executed by Mr C. T. Newton in 1857-8. The 
agora, the theatre, an odeum, a temple of Dionysus, a 
temple of the Muses, a temple of Venus, and a great number 



of minor buildings have been identified, and the general plan 
of the city has been very clearly made out. In a temple- 
enclosure Mr Newton discovered a fine seated statue of 
Demeter, which now adorns the British Museum ; and 
about three miles south-east of the city he came upon the 
ruins of a splendid tomb, and a colossal figure of a lion 
carved out of one block of Pentelic marble, 10 feet in length 
and 6 in height, which has been supposed to commemorate 
the great naval victory of Conon over the Lacedaemonians in 
394 B.C. (see ARCHITECTURE, vol. ii. p. 412). Among the 
minor antiquities obtained from the city itself, or the great 
necropolis to the east, perhaps the most interesting are tha 
leaden KaTa.Sto-fj.oi, or imprecationary tablets, found in the 
temple of Demeter, and copied in facsimile in the appendix 
to the second volume of Newton s work. 

Cnidus was a city of high antiquity and probably of 
Lacedaemonian colonization. Along with Halicarnassus 
and Cos, and the Rhodian cities of Lindus, Camirus-, and 
lalysus, it formed the Dorian Hexapolis, which held its 
confederate assemblies on the Triopian headland, and there 
celebrated games in honour of Apollo, Poseidon, and the 
nymphs. The city was at first governed by an oligarchic 
senate, composed of sixty members, known as d/Ai/i^ioi/es, 
and presided over by a magistrate called an upca-rijp ; but, 
though it is proved by inscriptions that the old names con 
tinued to a very late period, the c nstitution underwent a 
popular transformation. The situation of the city was 
favourable for commerce, and the Cnidians acquired con 
siderable wealth, and were able to colonize the island of 
Lipara and founded the city of Corcyra Nigra in the Adri 
atic. They ultimately submitted to Cyrus, and from the 
battle of Eurymedon to the latter part of the Peloponnesian 
war they were subject to Athens. The Romans easily ob 
tained their allegiance, and rewarded them by leaving them 
the freedom of their city. During the Byzantine period 
there must still have been a considerable population ; for 
the ruins contain a large number of buildings belonging to 
the Byzantine style, and Christian sepulchres are common 
in the neighbourhood. Eudoxus, the astronomer, Ctesias, 
the writer on Persian history, and Sostratus, the builder 
of the celebrated Pharos at Alexandria, are the most 
remarkable of the Cnidians mentioned in history. 

See Beaufort s Ionian Antiquities, 1811, and Karamania, 1818; 
Hamilton s Researches, 1842 ; Newton s Travels and Discoveries in 
the Levant, 1865 ; and Waddington in the Revue Xumismatique, 
1851. 

CNOSSUS, or GNOSSUS, the most important city of 
Crete, on the left bank of the Cseratus, a small stream 
which falls into the sea on the north side of the island. 
The city was situated at a distance of about 3 miles from 
the coast, and, according to the old traditions, was founded 
by Minos, the mythical king of Crete. The locality was 
associated with a number of the most interesting legends of 
Grecian mythology, particularly with those which related to 
Jupiter, who was said to have been born, to have been 
married, and to have been buried in the vicinity. Cnossus 
is also assigned as the site of the fabled labyrinth in which 
the Minotaur was confined, and a physical basis for the 
legend may perhaps have been found in the caverns and 
excavations of the district. As the city was originally 
peopled by Dorians, the manners, customs, and political 
institutions of its inhabitants were all Dcrian. Along 
with Gortyna and Cydonia, it held for many years the 
supremacy over the whole of Crete ; and it always took a 
prominent part in the civil wars which from time to time 
desolated the island. When the rest of Crete fell under 
the Roman dominion, Cnossus shared the same fate, 
and became a Roman colony. ^Enesidemus, the sceptic 
philosopher, and Chersiphron, the architect of the temple 
of Diana at Ephesus, were natives of Cnobsus. 



4o 



C A L 



IN its most general sense the term coal includes all 
varieties of carbonaceous minerals used as fuel, but it 
is now usual in England to restrict it to the particular varie 
ties of such minerals occurring in the older Carboniferous 
formations. On the continent of Europe it is customary 
to consider coal as divisible into two great classes, depend 
ing upon differences of colour, namely, brown coal, corre 
spending to the term " lignite " used in England and 
France, and black or stone coal, which is equivalent to 
coal as understood in England. Stone coal is also a local 
English term, but with a signification restricted to the 
substance known by mineralogists as anthracite. In old 
English writings the terms pit-coal and sea-coal are com 
monly used. These have reference to the mode in which 
the mineral is obtained, and the manner in which it is 
transported to market. 

The root kol is common to all the Teutonic nations, 
while in French and other Romance languages derivatives 
of the Latin carbo are used, e.g., charbon de terre. In 
France and Belgium, however, a peculiar word, kouille, 
is generally used to signify mineral coal. This word is 
supposed to be derived from the Walloon hole, correspond 
ing to the mediaeval Latin kulla;. Littre" suggests that it 
may be related to the Gothic haurja, coal. Anthracite is 
from the Greek a.v6pa, and the term lithanthrax, stone 
coal, still survives, with the same meaning in the Italian 
litantrace. 

It must be borne in mind that the signification now 
attached to the word coal is different from that which for 
merly obtained when wood was the only fuel in general 
use. Coal then meant the carbonaceous residue obtained 
in the destructive distillation of wood, or what is known 
as charcoal, and the name collier was applied indifferently 
to both coal-miners and charcoal-burners. 

The spelling "cole" was generally used up to the middle 
of the 17th century, when it was gradually superseded by 
the modern form, "coal." . The plural, coals, seems to have 
been used from a very early period to signify the broken 
fragments of the mineral as prepared for use. 
:al Coal is an amorphous substance of variable composition, 
ties, and therefore cannot be as strictly defined as a crystallized 
or definite mineral can. It varies in colour from a light 
brown in the newest lignites to a pure black, often with 
a bluish or yellowish tint in the more compact anthracite 
of the older formations. It is opaque, except in exceed 
ingly thin slices, such as made for microscopic investigation, 
which are imperfectly transparent, and of a dark brown 
colour by transmitted light. The streak is black in an 
thracite, but more or less brown in the softer varieties. 
The maximum hardness is from 2 5 to 3 in anthracite and 
hard bituminous coals, but considerably less in lignites, 
which are nearly as soft as rotten wood. A greater hardness 
is due to the presence of earthy impurities. The densest 
anthracite is often of a semi-metallic lustre, resembling 
somewhat that of graphite. Bright, glance, or pitch coal 
is another brilliant variety, brittle, and breaking into regu 
lar fragments of a black colour and pitchy lustre. Lignite 
and cannel are usually dull and earthy, and of an irregular 
fracture, the latter being much tougher than the black coal. 
Some lignites are, however, quite as brilliant as anthracite; 
cannel and jet may be turned in the lathe, and are suscep 
tible of taking a brilliant polish. The specific gravity is 
highest in anthracite and lowest in lignite, bituminous 
coals giving intermediate values (see Table I.) As a rule 
the density increases with the amount of carbon, but in 
some instances a very high specific gravity is due to inter 



mixed earthy matters, which may be separated by me 
chanical treatment. 

Coal is perfectly amorphous, the nearest approach to any 
thing like crystalline structure being a compound fibrous 
grouping resembling that of gypsum or arragonite, which 
occurs in some of the steam coals of S. Wales, and is 
locally known as " cone in cone," but no definite form or 
arrangement can be made out of the fibres. The impres 
sions of leaves,_ woody fibre, and other vegetable remains 
are to be considered as pseudomorphs in coaly matter of 
the original plant structures, and do not actually represent 
the structure of the coal itself. There is generally a ten 
dency in coals towards cleaving into cubical or prismatic 
blocks, but sometimes the cohesion between the particles 
is so feeble that the mass breaks up into dust when struck. 
These peculiarities of structure may vary very considerably 
within small areas ; and the position of the divisional 
planes or cleats with reference to the mass, and the pro 
portion of small coal or slack to the larger fragments when 
the coal is broken up by cutting-tools, are points of great 
importance in the working of coal on a large scale. 

The divisional planes often contain small films of other 
minerals, the commonest being calcite, gypsum, and iron 
pyrites, but in some cases zeolitic minerals and galena 
have been observed. Salt, in the form of brine, is some 
times present in coal. Some years ago a weak brine occur 
ring in this way was utilized at a bathing establishment 
at Ashby-de-la-Zouche. Hydrocarbons, such as petroleum, 
bitumen, paraffin, &c., are also found occasionally in coal, 
but more generally in the associated sandstones and lime 
stones of the Carboniferous formation. Gases, consisting 
principally of light carburetted hydrogen or marsh gas, 
are often present in considerable quantity in coal, in a 
dissolved or occluded state, and the evolution of these upon 
exposure to the air, especially when a sudden diminution of 
atmospheric pressure takes place, constitutes one of the most 
formidable dangers that the coal miner has to encounter. 

The classification of the different kinds of coal may be Classifica- 
considered from various points of view, such as their tion - 
chemical composition, their behaviour when subjected to 
heat or when burnt, and their geological position and origin. 
They all contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, 
forming the carbonaceous or combustible portion, and some 
quantity of mineral matter, which remains after combustion 
as a residue or "ash." As the amount of ash varies very 
considerably in different coals, and stands in no relation to 
the proportion of the other constituents, it is necessary in 
forming a chemical classification to compute the results 
of analysis after deduction of the ash and hygroscopic 
water. Examples of analyses treated in this manner are 
furnished in the last column of Table I., from which it will 
be seen that the nearest approach to pure carbon is fur 
nished by anthracite, which contains above 90 per cent. Anthracite. 
This class of coal burns with a very small amount of flame, 
producing intense local heat and no smoke. It is especially 
used for drying hops and malt, and in air or blast fur 
naces where a high temperature is required, but is not 
suited for reverberatory furnaces. The American anthracite 
is largely used in iron smelting, as is also that of South 
Wales, but to a less extent, the latter having the disad 
vantageous property of decrepitating when first heated. 

The most important class of coals is that generally known Bitumin- 
as bituminous, from their property of softening or under- ous co 
going an apparent fusion when heated to a temperature far 
below that at which actual combustion takes place. This 
term is founded on a misapprehension of the nature of the 



COAL 



[VARIETIES. 



occurrence, since, although the softening takes place at a 
low temperature, still it marks the point at which destructive 
distillation commences, and hydrocarbons both of a solid 
and gaseous character are formed. That nothing analagous 
to bitumen exists in coals is proved by the fact that the 
ordinary solvents for bituminous substances, such as bisul 
phide of carbon and benzole, have no effect upon them, as 
would be the case if they contained bitumen soluble in 
these re-agents. The term is, however, a convenient one, 
and one whose use is almost a necessity, from its having an 
almost universal currency among coal miners. The propor 
tion of carbon in bituminous coals may vary from 80 to 90 
per cent. the amount being highest as they approach the 
character of anthracite, and least in those which are nearest 
to lignites. The amount of hydrogen is from 4i to 6 per 



cent., while the oxygen may vary within much wider limits, 
or from about 3 to 14 per cent. These variations in com 
position are attended with corresponding differences in quali 
ties, which are distinguished by special names. Thus the 
semi-anthracitic coals of South Wales are known as dry" or 
"steam coals," being especially valuable for use in marine 
steam-boilers, as they burn more readily than anthracite and 
with a larger amount of flame, while giving out a great 
amount of heat, and practically without producing smoke. 
Coals richer in hydrogen, on the other hand, are more useful 
for burning in open fires smiths forges and furnaces 
where a long flame is required. 

The excess of hydrogen in a coal, above the amount 
necessary to combine with its oxygen to form water, is 
known as " disposable " hydrogen, and is a measure of the 



TABLE I. Elementary Composition of Coal (the figures denote the amounts per cent}. 





Composition 
calculated exclusive of Water, 
Sulphur, and Ash. 


Localities. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Carbon. 


Hydrogen. 


Oxygen. 


Nitrogen. 


Sulphur. 


Ash. 


Water. 


Carbon. 


Hydrogen. 0. and N. 


A ntUracite. 
1. South Wales 


1-392 
1-462 


90-39 
90-45 
82-70 

75-49 

86-80 
78-65 
78-57 
79-90 

80-07 
63.10 
82-67 

79-34 

63-29 
66-31 
50-72 


3-28 
2-43 
1-41 

4-73 
4-25 
4-65 
5-29 
4-85 

5-53 

8-91 
9-14 

10-41 

4-98 
5-63 
5-34 


2-98 
2-45 

o- 

6- 
3- 
13- 

12-88 
12-75 

8-08 
7- 

8" 

4- 

26- 
22-86 
33-18 


0-83 

85 

78 
06 
36 
1-84 
0-64 

2-12 
25 
19 

33 

24 
0-57 
2-80 


0-91 
10-35 

1-21 
0-83 
0-55 
0-39 
0-20 

1-50 
0-96 

5-32 

2-36 
0-90 


1-61 
4-67 
3-75 

10-67 
4-40 
2-49 
1-03 
1-66 

2-70 
19-78 

8-49 
2-36 

7-86 


2-00 
0-94 

1-12 
0-66 

1-13 
0-91 


93-54 
94-89 
97-34 

86-78 
92-24 
80-67 
79-70 
81-45 

85-48 
79-61 
82-67 

83-80 

66-97 
69-53 
55-11 


3-39 

2-54 
1-66 

5-43 
4-51 
4-76 
5-37 
4-92 

5-90 
11-24 
9-14 

10-99 

5-27 
5-90 
5-80 


3-82 
2-57 

1-00 

7-79 
3-25 
14-5 
14-9 
13-63 

8-62 
9-15 

8-19 

5-21 

27-76 
24-57 
39 09 


2 Pennsylvania 


3. Peru 


Bituminous Steam mid 
Coking Coal. 
4. Eisca, South Wales 
5. Aberdare, Do 
6. Hartley, Northumberl d 
7. Dudley, Staffordshire ... 
8. Strauitzen, Styria 


1-278 


Cannel or Gas Coal. 
9. Wigan, Lancashire 
10. Boghead, Scotland 
11. Albertite, Nova Scotia.. 
12. Tasmanite, Van Die- ) 
man s Land. ( 


1-276 

1-18 
1-100 


Lignite and Broivn Coal. 
13. Cologne 


14. Bovey, Devonshire 
15. Trifail, Styria 





fitness of the coal for use in gas-making. This excess is 
greatest in what we know as cannel coal, the Lancashire 
kennel or candle coal, so named from the bright light 
it gives out when burning. This, although of very small 
value as fuel, commands a specially high price for gas- 
making. Canuel is more compact and duller than ordi 
nary coal, and can be wrought in the lathe and polished. 
These properties are most highly developed in the substance 
known as jet, which is a variety of cannel found in the 
lower oolitic strata of Yorkshire, and is almost entirely 
used for ornamental purposes, the whole quantity produced 
near Whitby, together with a further supply from Spain, 
being manufactured into articles of jewellery at that town. 
_ When coal is heated to redness out of contact with the 
air, the more volatile constituents, water, hydrogen, oxygen, 
and nitrogen are expelled, a portion of the carbon bein^ 
also volatilized in the form of hydrocarbons and carbonic 
oxide, the greater part, however, remaining behind, to 
gether with all the mineral matter or ash, in the form of 
coke, or, as it is also called, "fixed carbon." The proportion 
of this residue is greatest in the more anthracitic or drier 
coals, but a more valuable product is yielded by those 
richer in hydrogen. Very important distinctions those of 
caking or non-caking are founded on the behaviour of 
coals when subjected to the process of coking. The former 
class undergo an incipient fusion or softening when heated, 
so that the fragments coalesce and yield a compact coke, 



while the latter (also called free-burning) preserve their 
form, producing a coke which is only serviceable when 
made from large pieces of coal, the smaller pieces being 
incoherent and of no value. The reason of this difference 
is not clearly made out, as non-caking coals are often of very 
similar ultimate chemical composition as those in which the 
caking property is very highly developed. As matter of 
experience, it is found that caking coals lose that property 
when exposed to the action of the air for a lengthened 
period, or by heating to about 300 C., and that the dust 
or slack of non-caking coal may, in some instances, be 
converted into a coherent cake by exposing it suddenly to 
a very high temperature. 

Lignite or brown coal includes all varieties which are Liguit 
intermediate in properties between wood and coals of the 
older formations. A coal of this kind is generally to be 
distinguished by its brown colour, either in mass or in the 
blacker varieties in the streak. The proportion of carbon is 
comparatively low, usually not exceeding 70 per cent., 
while the oxygen and hygroscopic water are much higher 
than in true coals. The property of caking or yielding a 
coherent cake is usually absent, and the ash is often verj> 
high. The specific gravity is low when not brought up by 
an excessive amount of earthy matter. Sometimes it is 
almost pasty, and crumbles to powder when dried, so as to 
be susceptible of use as a pigment, forming the colour 
known as Cologne earth, which resembles umber or 



CHUGIN.j 



(J O 



In Nassau and Bavaria woody structure is very common, 
and it is from tbis circumstance that the term lignite is 
derived. The best varieties are black and pitchy in lustre, 
or even bright and scarcely to be distinguished from true 
coals. These kinds are most common in Eastern Europe. 
Lignites, as a rule, are generally found in strata of a newer 
geological age, but there are many instances of perfect 
coals being found in such strata. 

By the term "ash" is understood the mineral matter re 
maining unconsumed after the complete combustion of the 
carbonaceous portion of a coal. This represents part of 
the mineral matter present in the plants from which the 
coal was originally formed, with such further addition by 
infiltration and mechanical admixture as may have arisen 
during consolidation and subsequent changes. The com 
position of the ashes of different coals is subject to consi 
derable variation, as will be seen by the following list of 
analyses : 

TABLE II. Composition of the Ashes of Coals. 




















| 








a 






iS 


. 1 


o 




1 




a 


o a> 




o 


a 


22 


Us 






1 


| 


ifl 


1 


& 

a 


o 


f! 


o 

2< 


1 




99 


3 


feO 


^ 


SU 


w 





H 


True Coals. 




















Dowlais, South Wales 


39-64 


39-20 


11-84 


1-81 


2-58 






3-01 


98-03 


Ebbw Vale, do. 


53-00 


35-01 




3-94 


2-20 




4 -89 


0-88 


99-92 


Konigsgrube. Silesia. 


55-41 


18-95 


16-06 


3-21 


1-87 


2-05 


1-73 


0-36 


99-IH 


Ohio 


44-60 


41-10 


7 40 


3-61 


1-28 


1-82 


69 


0-29 


IOU 69 


Lignites. 




















Helmstadt, Saxony... 


17-27 


11-57 


5-57 


23-67 


2-58, 2-64 33-83 




97-13 


Edele"ney, Hungary.. 


S6-01 


23-07 


5-05 


15-62 


3 64 


2-38, 12-35 




98-12 



The composition of the ash of true coal approximates to 
that of a fire-clay, allowance being made for lime, which 
may be present either as carbonate or sulphate, and for 
sulphuric acid. The latter is derived mainly from iron 
pyrites, which yields sulphate by combustion. An indi 
cation of the character of the ash of a coal is afforded by its 
colour, white ash coals being generally freer from sulphur 
than those containing iron pyrites, which yield a red ash. 
There are, however, several striking exceptions, as for 
instance in the anthracite from. Peru, given in Table I., 
which contains more than 10 per cent, of sulphur, and 
yields but a very small percentage of a white ash. In this 
coal, as Avell as in the lignite of Tasmania, known as white 
coal or Tasmanite, the sulphur occurs in organic com 
bination, but is so firmly held that it can only be very 
partially expelled, even by exposure to a very high and 
continued heating out of contact with the air. An 
anthracite occurring in connection with the old volcanic 
rocks of Arthur s Seat, Edinburgh, which contains a large 
amount of sulphur in proportion to the ash, has been 
found to behave in a similar manner. Under ordinary 
conditions, from |- to ^ of the whole amount of sulphur 
in a coal is volatilized during combustion, the remaining 
| to |- being found in the ash. 

The amount of water present in freshly raised coals 
varies very considerably. It is generally largest in lignites, 
which may sometimes contain 30 per cent, or even more, 
while in the coals of the coal measures it does not usually 
exceed from 5 to 10 per cent. The loss of weight by 
exposure to the atmosphere from drying may be from -g- to 
of the total amount of water contained. 

Coal is undoubtedly the result of the transformation of 
vegetable matter, mainly woody fibre, by the partial eli 
mination of oxygen and hydrogen giving rise to a substance 
richer in carbon than the original wood, the mineral 
matter being modified simultaneously by the almost entire 
removal of the alkalies and lime, and the addition of 
materials analagous iu composition to clay, as will be 
seen by comparing the analyses in Table IL The 



^ L 47 

following table, given by Percy, shows the relative pro 
portions of the different components of mineral fuels. 

TABLE III. Composition of Fuels (assuming Carbon - 100). 





Caibon. 


Hydro 
gen. 


Oxygen. 


Disposable 
Hydrogen. 


Wood 


100 


12-18 


83-07 


rso 


Peat 


100 


9 85 


55 67 


2 89 


Lignite 


100 


8 37 


42 42 


3 07 


fiiiek Coal, S. Staffordshire.. 
Hartley Steam Coal 


100 
100 


6-12 
5 91 


21-23 
18-32 


3-47 
3 62 


South Wales Coals . . 


100 


475 


5-23 


4 09 


Amevicaii Anthracite . 


100 


2 84 


1 74 


2 63 













Mohr has computed that the transformation of wood 
into coal is attended with a loss of about 75 per cent, in 
weight ; and, having regard to the difference in density of 
the two substances, the volume of the coal can only be 
from -jY to i of the woody fibre from which it is derived. 
The nature of the change is essentially a slow oxidation 
under water or any covering sufficient to protect the dead 
wood from the direct action of atmospheric air, as -in the 
latter case the vegetable mould or humus would be pro 
duced. The products of such decomposition vary with the 
length of time and the nature of the plants acted on, and 
in the case of anthracite the change is so great that no 
portion of the original plant structure can be recognized, 
at the same time the density and conductivity for heat 
and electricity are increased. This, however, is a case of 
metamorphosis analogous to the transformation of sedi 
mentary into crystalline rocks, the extreme term of such 
metamorphosis being the production of graphite or plum 
bago. Daubre"e has shown that wood may be converted 
into anthracite by exposure to the actiun of superheated 
water at a temperature of 400 C. 

The plants concerned in the production of coal vary very Coal-pi > 
considerably in different geological periods. In the coal d " cui 
measures proper, acrogens, ferns, equise turns, and similar * 
allied forms are most abundant. It is stated by some 
observers that entire beds of coal are sometimes made up 
of the spores of ferns. This, however, appears to depend 
upon the inspection of microscopic sections, and may not 
be capable of rigorous quantitative demonstration. In the 
coals of newer date exogenous wood and leaves are more 
common than in those of the coal measures ; the former 
also contain resins, sometimes in considerable quantity. 

The number of species of land plants in the British 
sedimentary formations, which may be taken as a measure 
of the comparative prevalence of coal in the different 
series, is as follows : 

Devonian strata 9 species, 

Carboniferous do 320 

Permian do 20 

Triassic do 9 

Lias and Oolitic do 160 

Purbeckand Wealden do 38 

Cretaceous do ^ 

Tertiary do 224 

The most generally received opinion is that much if not 
all coal results from the transformation of plants upon 
the site of their growth. The principal evidence in favour 
of such a supposition is afforded by the common occur 
rence of a bed of clay, the so-called " wider-clay," con 
taining the roots of plants, representing the old soil, 
immediately below every coal seam a fact that was first 
pointed out by the late Sir W. E. Logan in South Wales. 
In Yorkshire the same thing is observed in the siliceous 
rock called ganister occurring in similar positions, show 
ing that the coal plants grew there upon sandy soils. 

The action of water in bringing down drift wood may 
have also contributed some material, but much less than 
the local growth. This may probably have been concerned 



48 



G A L 



[SEQUENCE OF STRATA. 



in the production of the very thick masses of coal of small 
extent found in some coal-fields in Southern Europe. 

Another theory, that proposed by Dr Mohr, deserves 
notice, namely, that coal may be of marine origin and 
derived from the carbonization of sea weeds, such as the 
great kelp plant of the Pacific Ocean. This has been very 
ingeniously elaborated by the author, and much apparently 
.rood evidence adduced in support (see his Geschichte ckr 
Erde Bonn, 1875). But the positive evidence afforded by 
roots found in the under clays is sufficient to render such 
an hypothesis unnecessary in the majority of instances. 

It must be remembered, however, that, although cellulose 
or wood fibre is most probably the chief material concerned 
in the production of coal, this substance is readily con 
vertible into dextrine by the action of protein or analogous 
fermentescible matters containing nitrogen, a change that 
is attended with the loss of structure, the fibre being con 
verted into a gummy mass. Some forms of cellulose, such 
as that in the lichens known as Iceland moss, are soluble in 
water, and are without fibre. The preservation of recogniz 
able woody tissue therefore in coals can only be regarded 
as accidental, and any argument founded upon the relative 
quantity of the recognizable vegetable structures in mi 
croscopic sections is likely to be unsound, unless the rela 
tive durability of the different portions of the plants be 
taken into account. Thus the bark of trees is, as a 
rule, less perishable than the solid wood, while tissues im 
pregnated with resinous matters are almost indestructible 
by atmospheric agency. Instances of this are afforded by 
the fossil trees found in the coal measures, which are often 
entirely converted into siliceous masses, the bulk of the 
wood having decayed and been replaced by silica, while 
the bark is represented by an external layer of bright coal. 
Fossil resins, such as amber, are of common occurrence in 
coals, especially those of secondary or tertiary age. 

In an investigation of the coking properties of the Saar- 
briicken coals by Schondorff, it was found that they could 
be separated into three different materials, which he dis 
tinguished as glance or bright coal, dull or striped coal, 
and fibrous coal. The last, which is known in England 
aa "mother of coal," resembles a soft, dull, black charcoal, 
containing abundant traces of vegetable fibre, and yielding 
a high proportion of non-coherent coke, behaving, in fact, 
like charcoal. The bright or glance coal is without any 
apparent structure, cleaving into cubical masses, contains 
but little mineral matter, and yields a strong coke. The 
striped coal consists mainly of a dull substance, with fine 
alternations of bright matter, and is essentially a gas coal 
yielding only an inferior coke. These differences are sup 
posed to be due to original differences in the substances 
from which the coals have been derived. Thus the fibrous 
coal may result from unaltered cellulose, the glance coal 
from the insoluble mucilage derived from the maceration 
of the plants in water, and the dull coal from the soluble 
parts, such as gum and dextrine, either original or produced 
by the transformation of cellulose and starch. That some 
thing analogous to a pulping process has gone on in the pro 
duction of coal is evident from the intimate intermixture 
of the mineral matter constituting the ash, which is quite 
unrecognizable before burning in the majority of instances. 
F. Muck (Chemische Aphorismen iiber Steinkoklen, 
Bochum, 1873) has recorded some interesting experiments 
on the behaviour of the three isomeric carbohydrates, 
cellulose, starch, and gum arabic, which are all of the 
same ultimate composition, namely, C (! H 10 5 . When sub 
jected to the process of coking, cellulose, in the form of 
Swedish filter paper, gave a residue of 6-74 per cent, of a 
perfectly non-coherent coke, starch 11-30 per cent, of a 
bright vesicular coke like that from strongly coking coal, 
and gum-arabic 2042 per cent, of a hard dull coke re 



sembling that produced from imperfectly coking gas coals. 
The volume of gas given off by cellulose and starch is? 
much larger and of a higher illuminating power than that 
produced from gum under the same conditions. 

The conditions favourable to the production of coal 
seem therefore to have been forest growth in swampy 
ground about the mouths of rivers, and rapid oscillation 
of level, the coal produced during subsidence being 
covered up by the sediment brought down by the river 
forming beds of sand or clay, which, on re-elevation, formed 
the soil for fresh growths, the alternation being occasion 
ally broken by the deposit of purely marine beds. We 
might therefore expect to find coal wherever strata of 
estuarine origin are developed in great mass ; and this is 
actually the case, the Carboniferous, Cretaceous, and 
Oolitic series being all coal bearing horizons, though in un 
equal degrees, the first being known as the coal measures 
proper, while the others are of small economic value in 
Great Britain, though more productive in workable coals 
on the continent of Europe. The coal measures which 
form part of the Palaeozoic or oldest of the three great 
geological divisions are mainly confined to the countries 
north of the Equator, Mesozoic coals being more abundant 
in the southern hemisphere, while Tertiary coals seem to 
be tolerably uniformly distributed irrespective of latitude. 

The nature of the coal measures will be best understood g e qu< 
by considering in detail the areas within which they occur of cai 
in Britain, together with the rocks with which they are ifer l 
most intimately associated. The general succession of these " 
rocks is given in fig. 1 (cols. 1 to 4), which is taken from 



Q Z tiTUU] .j 


;" 


Burner 




z |, SS SB 1 


v& 


Sandstone 




** 11 w "-^ 


^ 






H g Smz g^ Uj 




Vlagnesian 




S - < ?H 




Lfmcston e 




w 


& a 

F 


fc 


JC-5 


Upper Mcasum 
.imestmies 





pirortis Lr aitij" 




lidefmd Rocfr 




Hi 


l/jjpcr 




thin coa/jj 


T.--- 


tKin coals] 


^ 


Upper 


__- 


kcTtwarthKoch 




3f 


Red 
Sandstone 


=3 


Middle 




Middle 





Measures 








Is 


Series 


^ 


thick coals] 




Measures 
thrck coa(s] 




Middle 








HE 




: 


Loweror 
Gamster 


IB 


Lower or 


: 


Measures 


ra 


SHAFTON COAL 5.7 




- -- 


Cool 





Measures 


- 


Gamster 


-- 


Pennant 








^- 


bearing ... 


?l 


thJC-jMLaLiL 




lylcasurcs 


zJ- 


scries fc 








- 


Measure? 




Milfstone 




\ 


~7T 


Lower 
Coal 








r~ 


Ffaf Coal 
SeneS] 





Grit 


-- 


Midstot ie 


__ 


Measures 





Sw|wroN COAL 5.6 
STEAM"COAL 




~~- 


y 




Series 




Grit \ 


~~ 







vVoojJHE^RA 




S 


Roslyn 
Sandstone 


ii 


Sandstone 
& sha/cs 


::: 


Scries 


: : ; 


Millstone 
Grit 





WINTER COAL 4.0 
KENTS THIN I.ID 




~_- 


or 






j_; 




" 




-S3< 


KENT S THICKtt 




HI: 


Moor Rock 






: - 




J 


Scries 








1 


until, 

itn coais] 


T . ^ 


Ctirfo/)l/(?rc | u.s 




Yoreaalc 
or *\ 


: 




:,5i 


BARNSLEYCOAL.9.4 




H 


Carlonffcrous 


z: 







Upper \ 
Limestone 





Jpper <J 


! 


SWAILQWW0003.2 
COAL 






Limestone 
Scries 


Tlfe 


Liniesrone 




Shale 
Series 




Shale | 




FLOCKT(VJCOAL3.< 




iv --" 




-- 








Ill 


i- 


r.._ " 


RWKGATE 5.4 




==s 


[Edqe Coal 










l[l] 


* 




THORNCLIE 






SarUt] 







: 







Curbont/- 




FOUR FOOT 11 3.i 




^ 


with shales 
aiidLimestoncs 


^ J 




jm 


Carioni/5 


LJL 




^r: 


SILKSTONE 5,0 




JTT-^T 
111 







Series 


II 


Limestone 




Limcsfont 




WHIN MOOR "3.0 








u 










j 




UPPER PSNISTONE 




WS 


CxlcifefoVS 


. : 


i Sandalonfs 


i 


Scries 


ill! 


C 


- 


COftL 
GPEENSIDE 
OOAL 




, f? 


Sandstone 


^^ 




" 




1 i 


i 


~^ 






^ 


Series 




Sane? stones 
. shales 


il 




M 




g 


Creenmeor 




IEEI 


with 





with \ 


E 




**!3 






Sandstone 






Oil Shales 


- 


Limestones 




/ 


* 










ft 






\ 


1 








^_-._ 


UPPER BAND 






in upper 


". 


\ 






nil 


L 




CCAL 




||j 


part 




1 


CT 




on 


( OUtC *" 




HAPDBEDCO/II.S 




-. . ^ 




\ 




1 -- 


Cv--. - - 








GANKTER CPAL 




B 


Old Red 
Sandstone 


/i 


o Lower St 
seen in 


rat, 
tin 


1C 


g 


Shale "ej 
OM Red 
Sancfsfonc 


" - 


SOFT BED COW. 1.6 
CLAY COAL 
Rough Rock 




1 


[Dei/onian] 




area 


8 




~ ." 


[Oci/071KUl] 


r i 


Millstone 
Grit 




FIG. 1. Succession of Carboniferous Strata. 


the index of strata issued by the Geological Survey. The 



VOL 



COAL 



PLATE I 



Map of tlie 

COAL Fl ELDS 



GREAT BRITAIN 



SHEWING THE AREAS OF EXPOSEC 
AND CONCEALED COAL MEASURES 



1 I Post-cairbonifeixras rocks 
S Submar 



<>nl\ within ft depth of 4OOfi feet -from, surf 



O R T H 



RISK S E 



Cardigan 
Bay 



E N G L 1 




ENCYCLOP>tDIA BRITANNICA. NINTH EDITION 



VOL. 



COAL 



PLATE h 



FIG. 1 
FOREST OF DEAN COAL H A S 1 N- 

Length about 11 miles 




FIG. 2 
SOUTH PART OF THE LANCASHIRE COALFIELJ) 



XANCHK STF. It 



HOST O N E S T R A T 




NORTH STAFFORDSHIRE COALFIELD 

Leag tli " i miles 




MILL 



SECTION ACROSS PART OF TH.E NORTH OF FRANCE COALFIELD 

Length. abo\Lt Zfa miles 




ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITAN N ICA , N I NTH EDITION 



ENGLISH COAL-FIELDS.] 

commencement of the carboniferous period is marked by 
a mass of limestones known as the Carboniferous or moun 
tain limestone, which contains a large assemblage of marine 
fossils, and has a maximum thickness in S.W. England and 
Wales of about 2000 feet. The upper portion of this 
group consists of shales and sandstones known as the 
Yoredale Rocks, which are highly developed in the moor 
land region between Lancashire and the north side of 
Yorkshire. These are also called the upper limestone 
shale, a similar group being found in places below the 
limestone, and called the lower limestone shale, or, in 
the North of England, the Tuedian group. Going north 
ward the beds of limestone diminish in thickness, with a 
proportional increase in the intercalated sandstones and 
shales, until in Scotland they are entirely subordinate to 
a mass of coal-bearing strata, which forms the most pro 
ductive members of the Scotch coal fields. The next 
member of the series is a mass of coarse sandstones, 
with some slates and a few thin coals, known as the Mill 
stone Grit, which is about equally developed in England 
and in Scotland. In the southern coal-fields it is usually 
known by the miners name of Farewell Rock, from its 
marking the lower limit of possible coal working. The 
Coal Measures, forming the third great member of the car 
boniferous series, consist of alternations of shales and sand 
stones, with beds of coal and nodular ironstones, which 
together make up a thickness of many thousands of feet 
from 12,000 to 14,000 feet when at the maximum of deve 
lopment. They are divisible into three parts, the lower coal 
measures, the middle or Pennant, a mass of sandstone con 
taining some coals, and the upper coal measures, also con 
taining workable coal. The latter member is marked by a 
thin limestone band near the top, containing Spirorlis 
carboiiarius, a small marine univalve. 

The uppermost portion of ihe coal measures consists of 
red sandstone so closely resembling that of the Permian 
group, which are next in geological sequence, that it is often 
difficult to decide upon the true line of demarcation 
between the two formations. These are not, however, 
always found together, the coal measures being often 
covered by strata belonging to the Trias or upper New 
Hod Sandstone series. 

The areas containing productive coal measures arc 
usually known as coal fields or basins, within which coal 
occurs in more or less regular beds, also called seams or veins, 
which can often be followed over a considerable length of 
country without change of character, although, like all 
stratified rocks, their continuity may be interrupted by 
faults or dislocations, also known as slips, hitches, heaves, 
or troubles (fig. 2). 




Fia. 2, representing a seam of coal k, worked towards m, interrupted 
by faults or hitches. The fault at AC is called an upthrow, that 
at BD a downthrow. 

The thickness of coal seams varies in this country 



from a mere film to 05 or 40 feet; but in the south 
of France and in India masses of coal are known up 
to 200 feet in thickness. These very thick seams are, 
however, rarely constant in character for any great distance, 
being found commonly to degenerate into carbonaceous 
shales, or to split up into thinner beds by the intercalation 
of shale bands or partings. One of the most striking 
examples of this is afforded by the thick or ten-yard seam of 
South Staffordshire, which is from 30 to 45 feet thick in one 
connected mass in the neighbourhood of Dudley, but splits 
up into eight seams, which, with the intermediate shales 
and sandstones, are of a total thickness of 400 feet in the 
northern part of the coal-field in Cannock Chase. Seams 
of a medium thickness of 3 to 7 feet are usually the 
most regular and continuous in character. Cannel coals 
are generally variable in quality, being liable to change 
into shales or black-band ironstones within very short 
horizontal limits. In some instances the coal seams may 
be changed as a whole, as for instance in South Wales, 
where the coking coals of the eastern side of the basin 
pass through the state of dry steam coal in the centre, 
and become anthracite in the western side. 

British Coal-fidds. 

There are about twenty principal coal-fields of Great 
Britain, besides several smaller ones, whose position is 
shown in Plate I., which may be classed under three 
heads: 1. Those forming complete basins, entirely cir 
cumscribed by the lower members of the carboniferous 
series ; 2. Those in which one limb of the basin only is 
visible, the opposite one being obscured by Permian or other 
strata of newer date; and 3. Those in which the boun 
daries are formed by faults, which bringdown the upper 
overlying strata into contact with the coal measures. The 
South Wales and Dean Forest basins are examples of the 
first of the above classes, the North of England and 
Yorkshire and Derbyshire fields of the second, and the 
South Staffordshire of the third. The last two classes 
are of the greatest geological interest, as giving rise to the 
important problem of their probable extension within 
workable limits beneath the overlying strata. Examples 
of the three different cases are given in Plate II., the first 
being represented by the section across the Forest of Dean, 
fig. 1 ; the second by that of the Lancashire coal-fields, fig. 
2 ; and the third by the North Staffordshire section, fig. 3. 

The largest and most important of the British coal-fields South 
is that of South Wales, which extends from Pontypool in Wales 
Monmouthshire on the east, to Kidwelly in Pembrokeshire, 
a length of about 50 miles, and from Tredegar on the 
north to Llautrissant on the south, a breadth of about 18 
miles, in addition to which a further narrow slip of about 
20 miles long, E. and W., extends across Pembrokeshire. 
Excluding the latter portion, it forms a complete basin of 
an approximately elliptical shape, surrounded by older rocks, 
the Carboniferous limestone and Devonian shale dipping 
generally towards the centre. The basin-shaped structure 
is, however, modified by a central anticlinal axis, which 
brings the lower bed within reach of the surface. The 
total thickness of the coal measures is estimated at about 
11,000 feet on the south, and 7000 feet on the north side 
in the western district. In the central portion between 
Britton Ferry and the River Taff, it diminishes to 4800 
feet on the north side, and is still further reduced in Mon 
mouthshire and on the eastern side generally to about 2500 
feet. The coal-bearing portions are divisible into three 
groups, known as- - 

1. Upper Pt imant series. 

2. Lower Pennant series. 

3. White Ash series. 

The Upper Pennant series attains the maximum develop- 

VI. 7 



50 



GAL 



[COAL-FIELDS. 



merit of about 3000 feet on the south rise of the measures 
near Swansea; at Neath the thickness is reduced to about 
1200 feet and in Monmouthshire to between 500 and 7W 
feet It contains all the free burning and bituminous 
coals of the Swansea and Neath districts, and the house- 
coals of Monmouthshire and the eastern districts, which 
latter contain 26 seams above 12 inches thick, making a 
total of about 100 feet of coal, an amount that increases 
westward to 82 seams and 182 feet. The Lower Pennant 
series averages from 1100 to 1500 feet between the faff 
Vale and Llanelly, but on the north side of the anticlinal 
thickens to 3000 feet. The average total of workable coal 
in seams which do not exceed 3 feet is 25 feet, among 
which are some fair steam coals, associated in places with 
black-band ironstone and good manufacturing and house 
hold coals, yielding slack suitable for coking, the most 
valuable among them being those of the Rhondda valley. 
The lowest or White Ash series contains the bulk of the 
valuable steam and iron making coals which have given the 
coal field its great reputation. It is about 500 feet thick 
on the eastern side, and about 1000 feet in the centre of 
the basin. The coals and accompanying ironstone are 
generally thicker and more abundant on the south than^on 
the north coast. The workable coals in this division 
amount to about 50 feet, in seams varying from 3 to 9 feet 
in thickness. The western extension into Pembrokeshire 
belongs to this part of the series ; it covers about 70 
square miles, extending in a narrow east and west belt, 
varying from 2 to 6 miles in breadth from Tenby to 
St Bride s Bay. The measures are very much dis 
turbed, but are probably about 1500 feet, containing in 
the upper 1000 feet 8 seams of anthracite of about 18 feet 
total thickness. 

The total area of the coal-field is about 1000 square 
miles, of which amount about 153 square miles lie beneath 
the sea in Swansea and Carmarthen Bays. Only one square 
mile is covered by newer formations. 

According to the quantity of the coal produced, the area 
fs divided as follows : 

Bituminous coal district 410 square miles. 

Anthracite, ,, 410 ,, 

Intermediate, or Semi- Anthracite ...180 ,, 

The most valuable class of South Wales coals is the 
semi-anthracite or smokeless steam coal of the lower 
measures, which is in constant demand for the use of 
ocean steamers all over the world. It is principally ex 
ported from Cardiff, Neath, and Swansea. 

The configuration of the ground, owing to the deep north 
and south valleys of the Usk, Ebbw, Taff, Rhondda, and 
Neath Rivers, and the longitudinal anticlinal axis, renders 
the coals of comparatively easy access. The surface rises to a 
height of about 2000 feet above the sea-level, and in the 
valleys a greater vertical range is brought within working 
limits than is the case in any other coal-field of similai 
thickness. 

Forest of The Forest of Dean basin is an outlying portion of that 
Dean coal- O f South Wales, from which, as is shown by Ramsay, it 
has been separated by denudation. It is of triangular form, 
occupying an area of 34 square miles, between the Wye 
and the Severn estuary, with a total thickness of 2765 feet 
and 31 seams, together 42 feet thick, only 9 of which are 
above 2 feet in thickness. The depth from the surface to 
the bottom of the basin, in the centre, is about 2500 feet 
The lower beds of sandstone and the Carboniferous lime 
stone contain considerable quantities of brown hematite, ir 
irregular deposits, which is smelted in part on the spot anc 
partly exported to other districts. Owing to the symme 
trical basin-shaped form of the measures (Plate II. tig. 1) 
the coals have been worked from the surface downward 
along the outcrops of the seams, leaving large hollows fo 



he accumulation of water, which render the working of the 
ower ground difficult, on account of the great pumping- 
ower required to keep down the water flowing in from the 
Id shallow mines. 

North of the Malvern Hills a straggling patch of coal Severn 
neasures extends about 35 miles N. and S., from near Bailey 
Worcester to Newport in Shropshire. This is divisible into co 
wo nearly equal areas of triangular form. The southern 
>art is known as Forest of Wyre, and the northern as Cole- 
>rookdale. The former is unimportant, having a great 
hickness of measures which rest directly on the Devonian 
ocks, but scarcely any workable coal seams. The Cole- 
)rookdale measures rest upon the Upper Silurian rocks, are 
ibout 800 feet thick, with about 50 feet of coal in 18 
earns, and many beds of nodular ironstone, which has 
iven the district a celebrity in the production of iron 
work, especially high-class castings. The eastern boundary 
s concealed by overlying Permian strata, and it was for 
merly supposed that the productive measures had been 
removed by denudation on this side ; but there is little 
loubt of their continuity towards South Staffordshire. 

To the westward of Colebrookdale are the two small 
fields of Leebotwood and Shrewsbury. These lie on the 
Silurian rocks. The exposed area of the former extends 
o 1 2 square miles ; that of the latter (which stretches in 
a crescent shape to the south and west of Shrewsbury) to 
L8. Both are partly hidden by Permian strata. 

The South Staffordshire coal-field extends about 22 miles S. Staf i 
fl". and S., from Rugeley to Halesowen, with a greatest * ire C( ; 
)readth of about 1 miles from Wolverhampton to Oldbury. 
[t is entirely surrounded byNewRed Sandstone rocks, which 
in some places are faulted against the coal measures, render 
ing it difficult to decide upon the chances of a profitable ex 
tension beneath the visible boundaries. The coal measures 
rest upon the Upper Silurian rocks, which are exposed 
at several points within the area, especially at Dudley and 
the Wren s Nest. This district is remarkable as containing 
the thickest known coal seam in England, the Thick or 
Ten Yard Seam, which varies from 30 to 45 feet in thick 
ness in the neighbourhood of Dudley, but splits up north 
wards into several thinner seams in the northern or Cannock 
Chase district. There are 6 principal seams, with a total 
of from 57 to 70 feet in 1309 feet of measures. The field 
was formerly very productive of clay ironstone, but the 
supply has now considerably diminished. The coals are 
also subject to curious alterations in places, from the in 
trusion of igneous rock, especially in the Rowley Hills, 
near Dudley. 

The Warwickshire or Tamworth coal-field is a narrow 
strip of measures, with a maximum thickness of 3000 
feet, extending about 12 miles in a N.W. and S.E. line 
from Coventry to Tamworth. It contains 5 seams, which 
are mainly worked for house coal and steam purposes. It 
is entirely surrounded by New Red Sandstone strata, ex 
cept for a short distance near Atherstone, where it is seen 
to rest upon the millstone grit, which is altered into 
quartzite by intrusive igneous rocks. 

The Leicestershire or Ashby coal-field is an irregular Leicesl 
patch of 30 square miles, on the east side of Charnwood *j^ c 
Forest, about midway between Leicester and Burton-on- 
Trent. It has 7 principal seams, and probably rests upon 
the mountain limestone, except at the eastern end, where 
it may lie upon the old slatey rocks of Charnwood Forest. 
Southward it extends under the New Red marl towards 
Leicester. In the centre is a patch of barren measures 
upon which the town of Ashby-de-la-Zouche stands, after 
which the coal-field is often named. The eastern side, 
wuich contains the mines of Whitwick, Snibston, and Cole- 
Orton. contains some igneous rocks apparently connected 
with those of Charnwood Forest, which are not seen on the 



ENGLAND.] 



COAL 



51 



Z byshire 
K York- 
f e coal - 
II. 



western or Moira side, which contains the more important 
workings, None of the seams occurring in either division 
can be identified with certainty in the other, although only 
a few miles distant. The total thickness of the coal 
measures is about 2500 feet, the principal seams occurring 
about the middle, as is also the case in Warwickshire. 

North of the Trent the carboniferous strata present a more 
complete and regular development than is seen in the central 
coal-fields. The Carboniferous limestone and millstone grit 
formations form a central ridge of high moorlands and hills, 
the so-called Pennine chain, in a gently sloping anticlinal, 
running nearly north and south from the north of Derby 
shire to the borders of Scotland. The coal measures 
occur on both flanks of this ridge, the largest connected 
mass being that of the Derbyshire and Yorkshire coal 
field, which extends north and south for about 60 miles 
from Bradford to within a few miles from Derby, where 
it is covered by the New Bed Sandstone formation. The 
exposed breadth varies from 9 miles at the south end to 
22 miles at the north. The measures dip regularly at a 
low angle to the eastward, and pass under the Permian or 
magnesian limestone formation, which forms the eastern 
boundary continuously from Nottingham through Worksop 
and Doncaster to Wakefield. The total thickness of 
measures is about 4000 feet (with about 20 seams), be 
longing to the middle and lower ganister series, the upper 
series being absent. A generalized section of the strata in 
this coal-field is given in the fifth column of fig. 1. The 
principal seams are the Black shale, or Silkstone, from 5 
to 7 feet thick, which is extensively worked as a house 
coal, and the Top hard, or Barnsley coal, which is much 
used for steam purposes. At the north end of the 
field, in the neighbourhood of Leeds and Bradford, two 
thin seams, known as the Low Moor black bed and 
better bed, remarkable for their exceptional purity, are 
used for iron-making purposes at Bowling and Low 
Moor. Iron ores are also found in considerable quantity 
on the Derbyshire side of the field, which are smelted at 
Butterly and other works near Chesterfield. The area 
covered by the magnesian limestone formation has been 
proved by several borings and sinkings, the first winning 
having b?-n opened at Shireoak near Worksop, where the 
Top hard coal was reached at 1548 feet below the surface. 
It is estimated that about two-thirds of the total area of 
this field is to be looked for within the concealed part. 

On the west side of the Pennine axis, and between the 
same parallels as the Derbyshire and Yorkshire coal-fields, 
are those of North Staffordshire and Lancashire, which ex 
tend from Longton on the south to Colne on the north, the 
continuity being, however, broken by a small fold of the 
Carboniferous limestone shales, which is brought to the 
surface between Macclesfield and Congleton. Parallel to 
this group, however, and to the eastward of it, is situated the 
small but important coal-field of North Staffordshire, also 
known as the Pottery coal-field. It has an exposed area 
of about 94 square miles, which is very irregular in form, 
being 17 miles in greatest breadth E. to W., and about 13 
miles from N. to S. The south-eastern portion, which is 
nearly detached, is known as the basin of Cheadle, or 
Froghall, which is chiefly remarkable for a band of cal 
careous iron ore formerly exported to Staffordshire, but 
now nearly exhausted. The main or western portion con 
sists of a mass of strata about 5000 feet thick, with 37 
searns of coal, out of which 22, measuring together 97 feet, 
are over 2 feet in thickness ; in addition to which there 
are many valuable beds of ironstone, both argillaceous and 
black-band. The strata, which are less regularly arranged 
than those of S. Lancashire, as will be seen by the trans 
verse sections, figs. 2 and 3 in Plate II., being bent in 
contrasted curves, and much broken by faults, form the 



eastern limb of a basin having a general westerly dip, 
which carries them in a short distance below the New lied 
marl plain of Cheshire. 

The Lancashire coal-field is of an irregular four-sided Lancashire 
form. The greatest breadth, from Oldham on the east to coal-field. 
Saint Helen s on the west, is about 52 miles, and the length, 
from Burnley on the north to Ashton-under-Lyne, about 
1 9 miles. Within the area are, however, two large islands 
of the millstone grit, which divide the northern or Burnley 
district from the main coal-field of Wigan and Manchester. 
This barren area is about compensated by a tongue of coal 
measure, which extends southward from Stockport to 
Macclesfield. The thickness of the measure is A ery great, 
and as the ground is much broken by faults, and the beds 
dip at a high angle, the workings have extended a greater 
depth than in any other district, the deepest workings 
being at Rose Bridge pits near Wigan, which have been sunk 
to 815 yards, and at Dukinfield, east of Manchester, where 
the Astley pit is 672 yards deep, and the coals have 
been wrought to a total depth of 772 yards by inclines. 
The greatest thickness is observed in the Manchester dis 
trict, where the total section is as follows, according to 
Hull. 



Upper Coal Measures 
2013 feet. 

Middle Coal Measures 
4247 feet. 

Lower Coal Measures 
Ganister, 1370 feet. 

Millstone Grit, 

Limestone Shale, about 



Limestone series, 600 feet 

To Oppenshaw Coal, 600 

To Yard Coal, 485 

Barren Measures, 1678 

Unknown Strata, 

Sod Mine to Black Mine, ... 2000 
Black Mine to Royley Mine, 897 
Eoyley Mine to Kougk Rock, 1370 

2000 

... 2000 



There is a total of 100 feet of coal in workable seams 
(exceeding 2 feet), which are chiefly situated in the 3000 
feet forming the bottom of the middle and top of the 
lower coal measures. In the Wigan district there are 18 
workable seams, about 65 feet in all, the total section 
being: 

Upper Measures, barren, .................. 1500 feet. 

Middle Measures, mass seams, ......... 2550 ,, 

Ganister Measures, ....................... 1800 , , 

The Wigan district is remarkable for the production of 
a large quantity of cannel coal. 

In the Burnley district the lower and middle coal 
measures together are from 2500 to 3000 feet in thick 
ness, the upper measures being unrepresented. 

The coal-field of Northumberland and Durham lies 
north of that of Yorkshire, on the east side of the Pennine 
axis. In the intermediate ground between Leeds and 
Darlington, about 55 miles, the lower Carboniferous rocks 
are directly overlain by the magnesian limestone, which 
preserves the north and south course observed further 
south until it reaches the sea at the mouth of the Tyne. 
The coal-field extends north and south from Darlington 
through Durham to the mouth of the Coquet, about 65 
miles, with a greatest breadth of about 22 miles in Durham. 
From the Tyne to the Coquet the eastern boundary is 
formed by the sea, while in the remaining area, from the 
Tyne to the Tees, which is included in Durham, the coal 
measures dip beneath the magnesian limestone. The 
measures are, as a rule, very regular, their dip being lower 
than that observed in other districts.. ;The total thickness 
is about 2000 feet, with 16 seams of coal, together about 
47 feet thick. The millstone grit is continuously exposed 
below the coal measures along the eastern edge as far as 
the Tees, where it is overlapped by the magnesian lime 
stone and Triassic rocks, so that there is a portion of 
the coal-field hidden beyond the exposed southern bound 
ary, but the extent is probably not large. The seaward 
extension has been proved in several deep mines in the 



Nortlmm- 
berland 

anc * ^ ur ~ 
C 



COAL 



[COAL-FIELDS. 



neighbourhood of Sundcrland, more especially at Ryhope 
and Monkwearmouth which are worked at a depth of 
about 1850 feet to a short distance from the shore. At 
these points the coals are nearly flat, but at Harton, near 
Shields, they rise to the eastward, proving that the centre 
of the basin has there been passed. The best estimate 
gives 1 1 feet of coal, and about 1 G square miles of area, 
as the probable extent of this submarine portion of the 
coal measures. The character of the coal produced 
varies in the different parts of the basin. The southern 
and western districts adjoining Bishop Auckland and 
Ferry hill produce a strongly caking coal, which is chiefly 
employed in the manufacture of a pure and dense coke 
for use in the Cleveland and Cumberland iron works, 
a considerable amount being also exported for foundry use. 
The central district, adjoining Newcastle and Sundcrland, 
produces the best class of house coal, known in London 
under the name of Wallsend, from the pits on the Tyne 
where it was originally mined, .which were close to the 
eastern termination of the wall built by the Romans to 
protect the country between the Tyne and the Solvvay 
from the incursions of the Picts. These collieries have 
been long since abandoned, but the name is still given 
in the London market to the best Durham house coals, 
and even to much that has been produced in other 
places, as indicating a coal of superlative excellence. The 
great merit of Wallsend coal is in its small proportion of 
ash, which also, being dark -coloured, is not so obtrusive on 
the hearth as the white ash generally characteristic of the 
Midland coals. The strongly caking property, and the large 
amount of gas given out in burning, tend to produce a 
bright and enduring fire. In. the district north of the 
Tyne the produce is principally steam coal, which is 
known as Hartley coal, being named after one of the 
principal collieries. It is largely used for sea-going 
steamers, and was lately in use in the Royal Navy mixed 
with South Wales coal, a combination which was supposed 
to give a higher evaporating value in raising steam than 
when either class was burnt alone. Although of a lower 
calorific power, and making more smoke than South Wales 
coal, the north country coal deteriorates less rapidly than 
the former when stored in hot climates. There are two 
small coal-fields in the mountain limestone district of the 
Tyne near Hexham, and another on the Solway at Can- 
nobie; these are, however, of small importance. 

The Cumberland field extends along the coast of the 
South Irish Channel from Saint Bees northward for 15 
miles to Maryport, where it turns eastward for about 1 7 
miles, and is exposed with constantly diminishing breadth 
until it disappears under the Permian rocks of the Vale of 
Eden. The greatest breadth is about 5 miles at White- 
haven and Workington, but. as in Northumberland and 
Durham, the beds dip and the coals have been worked 
below the sea to a distance of 1 J miles from the shore or 
2 miles from the pit. The total thickness of the mea- 
sitres is 1500 feet, with three workable seams. The pro 
duce is largely consumed within the district, a considerable 
portion of the export being to Belfast and other Irish ports. 

Denbigh- The coal measures of North Staffordshire and Lanca 
shire reappear on the western side of the plain of Cheshire 

coal -fields. in the coal - nelds of Denbighshire and Flintshire, which 
form a nearly continuous tract from the neighbourhood of 
Oswestry through Ruabon and Wrexham to the mouth of 
the Dee, and along the Welsh coast near Mostyn. The 
.separation between them is formed by a slight roll in the 
mountain limestone near Gresford, corresponding to that 
dividing the two coal-fields on the eastern out-crop. The 
Denbighshire field is about 18 miles long, having 7 seams, 
together from 26 to 30 feet in thickness. The principal 
workings are near lluabon, where there are several large 



coal 



collieries producing a much esteemed house coal. The 
Flintshire field is about 15 miles long. The greatest 
breadth is in the neighbourhood of Mold, whence it nar 
rows in a N.W. direction, being covered by the estuary of 
the Dee. At Mostyn coal has been extensively worked 
under the river, but great difficulty was experienced in 
keeping the mines clear of water. The details of the 
measures in this district have not been fully worked out, 
but the southern portion is the most valuable. The higher 
measures contain six seams, including some valuable beds 
of caunel, the total being about 28 feet. In the northern 
district bordering the Dee the beds are much disturbed 
by faults, but the deeper coals are said to be of good quality. 

The basin formed by the North Wales, Lancashire, and 
North Staffordshire coal-field is probably the most extensive 
tract of coal measures in the country, as it may be 
assumed to extend under the overlying Triassic strata 
under the Dee and the Mersey to South Lancashire and 
across the plain of Cheshire, an area of 800 to 1000 square 
miles. Much of this, however, is far beyond workable 
limits, the depth to the top of the coal measures being 
estimated at 10,000 feet below the surface at the point of 
greatest depression. The area within the limits of 4000 
feet below the surface, which has been assumed as a 
possible maximum working depth, may be seen by refer 
ence to Plate I. 

There is a small coal-field in the Island of Anglesea, 
which is interesting for its geological peculiarities, but it 
is of very small economic value. 

The Somersetshire coal-field appears at the surface in 
the form of several disconnected patches, the largest of 
which extends northward of Bristol for about 12 miles, 
while the remainder stretches southward for about the same 
distance to the Mendip hills. The Carboniferous lime 
stone is seen at many places along the western flank, but 
the connection is generally hidden by a peculiar modifi 
cation of the New Red Sandstone known as the Dolomitic 
Conglomerate, which overlaps both formations indifferently. 
Towards the east the measures are further obscured by the 
overlap of the lias and oolitic rocks, this being the only field 
in which such an overlap takes place in England. The 
exposed area of the coal measures is only about 14 square 
miles, but it is estimated that they extend over 238 square 
miles, the remainder being concealed by overlying strata. 
The character of the measures is similar to those of South 
Wales and Dean Forest, namely an upper and lower pro 
ductive series separated by a nearly barren mass of Pen 
nant sandstones. The sections, which vary very consider 
ably, are summarized by Prestwich as follows: 

Upper series 2600 feet thick, with 16 seams, together 26 ft. 10 in. thick. 

Pennant sandstone, 2500 to SOOO ,, 4 50 

Lower series, 2SUO 26 C6 6 



Together, 7900 to 8400 46 93 4 

The disturbance of the strata by faults is much greater 
than in any other British coal-field. The whole series 
is squeezed into a comparatively narrow trough, which 
throws the bottom of the basin to about 8000 feet below 
the surface. The coals are in some instances tilted up 
vertically, or even turned over, a kind of disturbance 
which is usually attended with considerable shattering of 
the strata. In one instance the upper series of measures 
have been shifted horizontally by an inclined or slide 
fault for a distance of about 200 feet above the: lower 
series. In spite of the difficulties caused by these disturb 
ances, coal seams of only a foot in thickness are regularly 
worked in Somersetshire, which is far below the limits 
considered to be profitable in other districts. 

The coal-bearing strata of Scotland 1 are confined to the 

1 For the following account of the coal-fields of Scotland the writer 
is indebted to Mr J. Geikie, F.R.S. 



SCOTLAND.] 



GOAL 



53 



Carboniferous formation, the only exceptions being the little 
patch of Oolitic coal at Brora in Sutherland and certain 
thin seams which occur intercalated among the Miocene 
volcanic rocks of the Western Islands. The Scottish Car 
boniferous Formation is divisible into four series, viz., 
1. Coal Measures; 2. Millstone Grit; 3. Carboniferous 
Limestone series ; 4. Calciferous Sandstone series. Coal is 
confined chiefly to the first and third of these groups, but 
in West Lothian and Mid-Lothian the lowest (calciferous 
sandstones) yields some coals, one of which has been worked 
(Houston coal, 6 feet thick). These coals are associated 
with the well-known " oil-shales," forming a peculiar deve 
lopment of the upper portion of the calciferous sandstone 
series which is not repeated elsewhere in Scotland. The 
millstone grit contains no workable coals. The coal bear 
ing strata of the coal measures and limestone series are 
irregularly distributed over the central or lowland district 
of the country between a line drawn from St Andrews to 
Ardrossan, and a second line traced parallel to the first 
from Dunbar to Girvan. Throughout this region the 
strata are disposed in a series of basins, of which there 
are properly speaking only three, namely, (1) The basin 
of Mid-Lothian and Fifeshire, which is bounded on the west 
by the calciferous sandstone series and some older strata, 
forming the Peritland hills, Arthur s Seat, the rolling 
ground that extends west of Edinburgh into Linlithgow- 
shire, and the heights behind Burntisland in Fifeshire, and 
in the east by the barren sandstones and igneous rocks of 
the calciferous sandstone series in the east of Hadding- 
tonshire and Fifeshire; (2) The basin of Lanarkshire 
and Stirlingshire, the eastern boundary of which begins in 
the south at Wilsontown, and runs north by Bathgate and 
Borrowstounness to the borders of Clackmannan, extends 
west to the foot of the Campsie and Kilbarchan Hills, and 
is separated by the Paisley and Dunlop Hills from (3) the 
basin of Ayrshire, the main mass of which is bounded in 
the south and east by the valley of the Doon, the Silurian 
uplands behind Dalmellington and New Cumnock, and the 
calciferous sandstone and Old Red Sandstone heights which 
overlook the heads of the Ayr and Irvine valleys. Two 
small outlying coal-fields lie beyond these boundary lines, 
viz., the Girvan and Sanquhar (Dumfriesshire) coal 
fields, but both belong geologically to the Ayrshire basin. 
Although there are thus only three great basins, it is usual, 
nevertheless, to speak of five principal coal-fields, each of 
which is named after the county in which it is roost 
abundantly developed. Thus we have the coal-fields of 
Ayrshire, Lanarkshire, Stirlingshire, Fifeshire, and Mid- 
Lothian. 

/shire. Ayrshire Coal-fields. The Ayrshire basin, owing to 
undulations and faultings of the strata, comprises a number 
of subsidiary coal-fields, such as those of Girvan, Sanquhar 
(Dumfriesshire), Dalmellington, New Cumnock, Lugar and 
Muirkirk, Kilmarnock, Kilwinning, Dairy, &c. The coal 
measures of this basin are of variable thickness ; they 
contain from 5 to 8 and 11 principal coal-seams, yielding 
a united thickness of from 13 ft. to 40 ft. The Carboni 
ferous limestone series of Ayrshire sometimes contains no 
workable seams of coal, while occasionally its seams eqiial 
or surpass in number and thickness those of the coal mea 
sures. Thus in the Girvan field there are 7 coals with an 
aggregate thickness of 50 feet, while at Muirkirk the same 
number yield a thickness of 40 feet of workable coal. The 
Ayrshire coals consist chiefly of common coals, including 
" hard" or " splint" and " soft" varieties. In some districts 
the intrusion of igneous rocks has converted certain seams 
into "blind coal," a kind of anthracite, much used for 
steam purposes. Gas or parrot coal (so called from its 
dr.- crepitating or chattering when heated) is met with here 
aud there, chiefly near New Cumnock. Parrot coal often 



occurs in thin lines or bands, which, when intercalated aud 
alternating with dark carbonaceous ironstone and coaly 
matter, form seams of what is called black-band ironstone. 
The Ayrshire black-bands occur chiefly at Dairy, Lugar, 
and Dalmellington. 

Lanarkshire Coal-fields. These are the most extensive Lanark 
in Scotland, covering an area of not less than 150 square shire, 
miles. The coal measures, which attain a thickness of 
upward of 2000 feet, contain about 18 workable coals; 
but all these are not continuous throughout the whole coal 
field, while some are too thin in places to pay the cost of 
working. At their best they yield an aggregate thickness 
of 70 feet or thereabout, but in many places they do not 
average more than 40 or 30 feet, or even less. The lime 
stone series is well-developed in the Lanarkshire coal-fields, 
but it is a very variable group, as indeed is the case 
throughout Scotland. It consists of upper, middle, and 
lower groups, tho coals being confined chiefly to the middle 
group, only one or two seams occurring in the lower, 
while in the upper only one seam occasionally attains a 
workable thickness. The principal coals of the limestone 
series vary in number from 1 to 9, their aggregate thick 
ness seldom reaching more than 15 feet. The Lanarkshire 
coals consist chiefly of varieties of common coal, namely, 
hard or splint, soft, dross, &c. But here and there excel 
lent gas coal is worked, as at Auchenheath, Wilsontown, 
<fec., the former being considered the finest of all the Scotch 
gas coals. Another well-known parrot coal is that of Bog 
head near Bathgate, the subject of much litigation. Par 
rot or gas coal frequently occurs forming a part of mussel- 
band and black-band ironstones, which seams, when traced 
along their crop, are often seen to pass into gas coal. The 
best known blackbands are those wrought at Palacecraig, 
Airdrie, and Quarter, Bellside, Calderbraes, Bowhousebay 
and Braco, Goodockhill and Crofthead, Earnockmuir, 
Possil, Garscadden, and Johnstone. 

At Quarrelton, Renfrewshire, an abnormal development 
of coal seams occurs below the horizon of the main or 
Hurlet limestone, which is usually the lowest important 
bed in the limestone series. The strata underlying that 
limestone contain here and there irregular lenticular 
patches of coal, never of any value. At Quarrelton, how 
ever, a number of these seams come together, and form a 
mass of coal more than 30 feet thick. 

Stirlingshire Coal-fields. These embrace the coal-fields Stirling 
of Falkirk, Carron, and Grangemouth, Slamannan, Clack- sllire< 
mannan, and Borrowstounness. In the Falkirk, Carron, 
and Grangemouth fields, the coal measures are about 600 
feet thick, and contain 9 workable seams of coal, yielding 
an aggregate thickness of 30 or 31 feet; the thickest seam 
is only 4 feet. In the Slamannan field, the coal measures 
are some 720 feet thick, and show G workable coals, yielding 
an aggregate thickness of 15 or 16 feet, the thickest seam 
being 4 J feet. A small outlier of coal measures at Coney- 
park, however, gives a depth of 1140 feet of strata, con 
taining 12 workable coals (two of which are 7 feet thick re 
spectively), which yield an aggregate thickness of 44 feet. 
The coal measures of the Clackmannan district attain a 
thickness of 900 feet, and yield 10 workable seams of coal 
(thickest seam 9 feet) with an united thickness of 41 feet. 
The limestone measures of the Stirlingshire basins contain, 
as a rule, few coal seams. Where these are best developed, 
they vary in number from 5 (Bannockburn) to 1 1 seams 
(Oakley); and their aggregate thickness ranges from ll 
feet to 37 feet. The coals embrace the variety usually met 
with in Scotland, viz., hard (or splint) and soft coals, some 
of the seams being good caking coals. Good gas coal was 
formerly obtained at Oakley; and other coarse parrot coals 
occur in various parts of the fields. Oil shale and black- 
band ironstone are alsoltnet with. The coal-field of Bor- 



COAL 



[COAL-FIELDS. 



rowstounness is remarkable for containing thick sheets of 
basalt rocks, which are of contemporaneous origin, and do 
not alter the beds that rest upon them. 

Mid- M id -Lothian and Fifeshire Coal Fields. The Mid 

lothian. Lothian coal field is disposed in what are for Scotland 
unusually symmetrical and unbroken lines. The basins 
lie with their principal synclinal axes from north to south. 
In the deepest basin the coal measures lie in a trough 2 
miles broad and 9 miles in length, stretching from the sea 
at Musselburgh through Dalkeith to Carrington. The 
trough is underlaid by the millstone grit (Roslin Sandstone 
or Moor Rock), whose outcrop surrounds that of the coal 
measures in a band rarely more than half a mile broad. 
The Carboniferous limestone series rises from beneath the 
basin of millstone grit and coal measures on its west side, 
and crosses at a high angle, in a band about a mile in 
breadth, through Portobello, Gilmerton, and Penicuik. 
South of Penicuik the millstone grit forms another basin 
at Auchencorse Moss, but the trough is not deep enough 
to bring in the coal measures. West of Dalkeith the 
limestone series forms a shallow undulating basin with an 
outcrop of about 7 miles broad, extending from the sea at 
Cockenzie by Tranent and Pathhead. The Dalkeith basin 
of the coal measures has a total thickness of 1180 feet. 
There are 14 coal seams of a workable thickness, with an 
aggregate of 43 ft. 4 in. The limestone series of Mid- 
Lothian contains numerous coal seams. The total thick 
ness of the series is 1582 feet, with 23 workable coal seams, 
aggregating 68 ft. 3 in. The "great seam" averages 
between 8 and 11 feet, and in one place is 12 ft. 6 in. thick. 
The coals of the Mid-Lothian basins are of the usual 
varieties met with in Scotland. The basins of the Mid- 
Fifeshire. Lothian coal-fields reappear on the southern coast of Fife, 
and are undoubtedly continuous (though somewhat de 
nuded) beneath the Firth of Forth. A segment of the 
western half of the coal measures trough (the prolongation 
of that of Dalkeith) extends from Dysart by Markinch, 
Ken no way, and Largo Bay. On the north this trough is 
bounded by faults, and on the east and south it is covered 
by the sea. Measured from Coaltown to Methil (at right 
angles to the line of strike) the thickness of the coal 
measure strata exposed to view may be roughly estimated 
at 4600 feet ; but as the centre of the basin is not reached 
at the coast, the total thickness of strata is not seen. There 
are about 11 workable seams, with an aggregate of 61 feet. 
The Dysart Main coal is 16 feet thick. Another little 
basin, comprising the lower seams of the coal measures, 
occurs at Kinglassie. The Dysart or Leven coal measure 
basin occupies about 18 square miles, and that of Kin 
glassie from 3 to 4. The limestone series of Fife lies in 
several much broken basins on the south side of the Ocliils 
and Lomond Hills from Alloa to Earlsferry. The prin 
cipal coal fields in this series are those of Dunfermline, 
Halbeath, Lochgelly, and Kelty; but coals have been 
worked in many other places, as at Ceres, Radernie, 
Largo ^ Ward, Markinch, &c. The coal-bearing strata 
vary in thickness, but do not exceed 600 feet. In 
the Dunfermline coal-field there are 10 seams, \\ith an 
aggregate thickness of 4 1 feet, llalbeath coal-field yields 
< seams, with an aggregate thickness of 29| feet; 
Lochgelly coal-field contains some 1-i seams, with an 
aggregate thickness of about 65 feet ; in the Kclty and 
Heath coal-field there are 12 seams, yielding an aggre 
gate of 43i feet. The workable seams in these separate 
fields range in thickness from about 2 feet up to 10 and 14 
feet. The 14 feet coal of Lochgelly is divided by thin ribs 
of stone, which thicken out eventually so as to "divide the 
coal into 5 separate workable seams, which, with the inter 
vening strata, yield a thickness of 10 fathoms of strata. 
It is worth noting that, in the lower Carboniferous rocks 



of Fifeshire, two coals are worked at Balcarmo and else 
where. As a rule, this series in Scotland is barren. 

The carboniferous strata of Ireland consist chiefly of 
the Carboniferous limestone, which covers the greater por 
tion of the island in one connected mass. The coal 
measures have probably been at one time nearly as exten 
sive, but they have been almost entirely removed by 
denudation, the largest remaining basins being that of 
Castlecomer, near Kilkenny, and another in the west, 
between Tralee, Mallow, and Kilarney. In the north the 
small basin of Coal Island, on the west side of Lough 
Neagh, is partly covered by New Red Sandstone strata, 
and trials have been made to discover a possible extension 
of the coal measures in the valley of the Lagan, between 
Belfast and Lisburn. 

The two coal fields of South Wales and Somersetshire Probal 
differ from those of the central and northern counties in 
their strike or direction, their longer axes being placed east 
and west, instead of north and south, which is the prevail- 
ing direction of the latter, the strata in the Somersetshire 
area being sharply bent and broken on a north and south 
line in a manner which is not seen elsewhere in this 
country, but is reproduced on a much larger scale in the 
north of France and Belgium. The most easterly point in 
England at which the coal measures have been worked is 
near Bath, where the overlying Liassic and New Red Sand 
stone strata are .about 360 feet thick, beneath which the 
coal has been followed for some 5 or 6 miles from the 
outcrop. From this point nothing certain is known of 
their extension until we reach the neighbourhood of Valen 
ciennes, where a coal field, known as that of Hainault 
and Valenciennes, extends with a general east and west 
strike as far as Namur, a distance of 65 miles. AtNamur 
the width is about 2 miles, near Charleroi from 7 to 8, and 
through the north of France from 6 to 7. Only the eastern 
half, between Charleroi and Namur, comes to the surface, 
the western portion being covered by Tertiary and Creta 
ceous strata. Within 30 miles of Calais the coal measures 
end, the shales of the Carboniferous limestone having 
been pierced in a boring of 1113 feet deep at the latter 
place. East of Namur the coal measures come in again 
at Li6ge, continuing for about 45 miles, with a width of 
from 3 to 8 miles to beyond Aix la Chapelle, where they 
are divided by a ridge of Carboniferous limestone into two 
parallel basins, covered by Cretaceous and newer deposits, 
till they appear again on the right bank of the Rhine 
in the valley of the Ruhr, in the great Westphalian basin, 
which is probably the largest in Europe. 

The same general structure is apparent along the whole 
of this line, which, from the western end of the South 
Wales basin to Frome, and from the N, of France to the 
Ruhr, is about 470 miles long. The measures generally 
dip regularly from N. to S. along the northern line of out 
crop where it is known, but on the southern side they are 
bent into sharp folds by the elevation force which has up 
lifted the underlying Carboniferous limestone and Devonian 
strata along an east and west line, extending from the 
old slaty rock of the Ardennes to the Mendip Hills and 
the western part of Pembrokeshire. The known coal fields 
extend for about 350 miles out of the above amount of 470, 
and from the similarity of their position and structure many 
gealogists are of opinion that other basins similarly placed 
may be reasonably supposed to exist in the intermediate 
ground between Somersetshire and Belgium. This subject 
has been treated in great detail by Mr Godwin Austen and 
Prof. Prestwich in the Reports of the Royal Commission 
upon Coal. The probable direction of this axis is shown 
on the map, Plate I. The only actual determinations 
of the rocks made within this area have been in two 
borings at Kentish Town and Harwich. In the former, 



CONTINENTAL EUROPE.] 



COAL 



sandstones, supposed to be of Devonian age, were reached 
below the Cretaceous strata at 1113 feet, and in the 
latter the Carboniferous limestone shale at 1025 feet. The 
most likely positions for the coal measure trough are con 
sidered byPrsstwich to be in Essex and Hertfordshire, while 
Mr Godwin Austen places them in the valley of the 
Thames or under the North Downs. The latter seems to 
be the more probable than the line further north. The 
point, however, is purely speculative in the absence of 
any trial borings as guides ; and a great number of these 
would certainly be required before any generalization as to 
the position of workable coal measures even within a wide 
range could be accepted. The deep boring on the southern 
part of the Wealden area, near Hastings, which it was sup 
posed would have thrown a considerable amount of light on 
this matter, has hitherto been without other result than the 
proof of the existence of a totally unexpected and exceed 
ingly great thickness of the upper Oolitic clays, similar to 
what is known on the French coast, near Boulogne. 

On the south side of the Mendip axis a very large area 
in Devonshire is occupied by the lowest coal measures or 
culm series, which consist almost entirely of clay slates, 
with a few beds of anthracite in the northern portion of the 
district, near Barnstaple and Bideford. These are only 
worked to a small extent, their principal use being, not for 
fuel, but as a pigment for covering iron-work, which is 
known as Bideford black. 

The coal-bearing areas of Secondary and Tertiary age in 

the United Kingdom are of very small importance. In 
-p. T . ,: P ., , < < ! 

Devonshire a lignite- bearing series of strata of Miocene 

age occurs in the flank of the granite of Dartmoor at 
Bovey Traeey, near Newton Abbot. This is principally 
remarkable for its associated clays, which are derived from 
the waste of the granite, and contain numerous impressions 
of dicotyledonous leaves and other plant remains. The coal 
is a lignite resembling a mere heap of tree stems drifted 
together and partially decomposed. It is nut now worked, 
the original excavations being filled with water ; and as 
the demand is restricted to supplying the wants of the 
local potteries, there is no opening for profitable mining. - 

In the Great Oolite of Yorkshire, some thin seams of coal 
or lignite were formerly worked at numerous points upon the 
moors between the Cleveland Hills and the Vale of Picker 
ing. The most important product of this district, however, 
i-a the jet which is obtained from the waste of coal-bearing 
strata of the same age along the cliffs near Whitby, where 
it is manufactured into ornaments. The largest Oolitic 
coal deposit in this country is that of Brora in Sutherland, 
where a seam of about 3 feet in thickness has been 
worked at intervals for a considerable period, but never to 
any considerable extent except during the prevalence of 
high prices in the coal trade. 

Another area in which coal is found in strata of Second- 
ary a e * S tliat ^ Scania, near Helsingborg, in south- 
western Sweden, in the three coal-fields of Hoganas,Stabbarp, 
and R6ddinge. These are situated in the uppermost Triassic 
or Rhuetic series. At the first, which is the most im 
portant locality, the strata vary from 100 to 800 feet in 
thickness, with two seams of coal respectively 1 and 4^ feet 
in thickness. There is a good fire-clay associated with the 
lower seam, which is extensively worked for fire bricks and 
pottery, a large proportion of the coal being used on the spot. 
In the Danish Island of Bornholm similar coal-bearing strata, 
probably of Liassic age, form a narrow belt along the south 
and south-west coast, which it is supposed may continue 
under the alluvial plain of the Baltic into Pomerania. 

The Coal-fields of the Continent of Europe. 

The coal-fields of the continent of Europe, though more 
scattered and dietui bod than those of England, may be simi 



larly divided into two groups according to tlieir geolo 
gical structure, the first being those in which the series is 
complete, the coal measures being symmetrically arranged 
upon the Carboniferous limestone and Devonian strata. 
Examples of this structure are afforded by the long line of 
coal-fields extending through the north of France and 
Belgium to the Rhine valley on the north side of the 
Ardennes, and those of the more easterly district of Silesia 
and of the north of Spain. The remaining and far more 
numerous European coal-fields are either contained in 
hollows in crystalline schists, or rest on the older Palaeozoic 
rocks, e.g., the central and southern French basins, and 
those of Saxony and Bohemia. Further east, in central 
and southern Russia, the order observed in Scotland is 
reproduced, there being a large development of coal in Car 
boniferous limestone strata, and something of the same 
kind seems to be probably the case in China. 

The best developed portions of the Franco-Belgian coal- Franco- 
field are seen within the territory of Belgium, the westerly 
extension into France being entirely covered by a" great 
thickness of newer strata. Commencing at the eastern 
side, the first field or basin is that of Liege, which 
extends from tne Prussian frontier near Verviers in a 
S.W. direction for about 45 miles, the greatest breadth 
being about 9 miles near Li<%e. The principal working 
points are concentrated on the western edge, where the 
lower beds rest on the Carboniferous limestone, the eastern 
portion being partly covered by Cretaceous and Tertiary 
strata. The number of coal seams is 83, the upper series 
of 31 being so-called fat coals, suitable for coking and 
smiths fires ; the middle series of 2 1 seams are semi-dry- 
or flaming coals ; and the remainder or lower series of 31 
are dry, lean, or semi-anthracitic coals. The upper series, 
which are the most valued, are found only in a small area 
near the centre of the basin at Ougre e, near Li6ge. The 
seams vary from 6 inches to 5^ feet in thickness, the 
average being barely 3 feet. This order of succession is 
observed in the whole of the districts along this axis. The 
same general structure also prevails throughout the strata 
which have a comparatively small slope on the northern 
crop, and are very sharply contorted, faulted, or broken 
along on the south side of the basins. The local terms 
platteurs and dressants are used to distinguish the flat and 
steep portions of the coals respectively. 

The next basin, that of the Sambre, extends for 
about 30 miles from Namur to Charleroi, the greatest 
exposed breadth being about 9| miles. The western and 
a greater part of the northern side are covered by Tertiary 
strata, which are very heavily watered. At Montceau, 
near Charleroi, there are 73 seams, which pass through the 
various conditions of fat, flaming, and dry coals, from above 
downwards, according to the order already described. 

The most important development of the coal measures 
in Belgium is in the basin of Mous, which extends from 
Mons to Thulin, a length of about 14 miles, with a breadth 
of about 7 or 8 miles, a large portion of the area being 
covered by newer strata. The number of known coal 
seams is 157, out of which number from 117 to 122 are con 
sidered to be workable, their thicjmess varying generally 
between 10 and 28 inches, only a very few exceeding 3 
feet. These are classified, according to position, into the 
following groups, which are taken as a standard for the 
whole of the north of France and Belgium: 

1. Upper series (charbon flemi), 47 seams. These, 
which occur chiefly in the neighbourhood of Mons, are very 
rich bituminous coals, especially adapted for gasmaking. 

2. Hard coal series (charbon dur), 21 seams. These 
are, in spite of their name, soft caking coals, less rich in 
volatile matter than the flenu, but excellent for coking 
purposes. 



56 



COAL 



[COAL-FIELDS. 



3. Forge coal series, 29 seams. These are chiefly used 
for smithy purposes and iron works, but the lower mem 
bers approximate to dry steam coals. 

4. Dry or lean coals, 20 to 25 seams, forming the bot 
tom series. They are of small value, being chiefly used for 
brick or lime burning. 

The amount of compression to which, the strata have 
been subjected in these coal-fields, has caused them to be 
sharply contorted into zig-zag folds. In the neighbour 
hood of Mons a single seam may be passed through six 
times in a pit of 350 yards vertical depth, and the strata, 
which if flat would be 9 miles broad, are squeezed into a 
space 7 miles across and about 8200 feet deep to the 
bottom of the basin. At Charleroi the compression is still 
greater, a breadth of 8| miles of flat strata being nar 
rowed to rather less than half that quantity by contortion 
into 22 zig-zag folds. 

The thickness of the overlying Tertiary and Cretaceous 
strata in the neighbourhood of Moris is from 500 to 900 
feet; towards the French frontier the thickness is between 
200 and 400 feet, and at Valenciennes about 250 feet. 
At Aniche these overlying measures, or terrains morts, are 
400 feet thick, below which the coal measures are found 
to contain 23 feet of coal in 12 seams. At Anzin, near 
Denain, there are 18 seams, together 39 feet, which, is 
about the maximum development in the north of France. 
This coal-field, which was unknown before 1734, has 
reached a very high state of production in spite of great 
difficulties interposed by the water bearing strata covering 
the coal measures. It extends for about 45 miles, dimi 
nishing in extent and value to the westward. The struc 
ture is very similar to that of the Belgian, one of the 
most remarkable features being the inclined fault called 
the cran de retour, which brings the lower or dry coal 
series of the north side against the higher coking coals of 
the south side, as shown in the section, Plate II. fig. 4. 

At Hardinghen, near Boulogne, a small patch of disturbed 
coal strata was formerly worked. These are now supposed 
to be of the age of the Carboniferous limestone. 

The coal-fields of central and southern France are mostly 
small in area and irregular in structure, with at times 
remarkable single accumulations of coal of enormous thick 
ness, which do not, however, extend for any distance. The 
most important basin is that of Saint Etienne and Rive 
de Gier, south of Lyons, on the right bank of the Rhone. 
It is of triangular form, about 28 miles long, with a base 
of 8 miles. The thickness of the three principal seams at 
the latter place is about 33 feet, but at Saint Etienne 
there are from 15 to 18 seams, making together about 
112 feet in a total depth of measures of about 2500 fe.et. 

The basin of the Saone et Loire, near Chalons and 
Autun, is about 25 miles long in a S.W. and N.E. line. At 
Creusot, on the north crop, the coals, which are in places 
extremely thick (the main seam averaging 40 feet, but occa 
sionally swelling out to 130 feet), dip at a high angle below a 
covering of New Red Sandstone strata, and appear in a modi 
fied form,bothas regards thickness and position, on the south 
side at Blanzy. An attempt has been made to prove the 
continuity of the series in the bottom of the basin by a deep 
boring, which was, however, abandoned at a depth of over 
3000 feet without passing through the overlying strata. At 
Moutchanin a remarkable seam or mass of coal was found 
extending for about 650 yards, with a thickness varying 
from 60 to 200 feet at the surface, which, however, df- 
minished to one half 60 yards down, and wedged out at 
1 40 yards deep. Another coal field of considerable im 
portance is that of Alais and Grand Combe near Nimes, 
which is partly covered by Liassic strata, and has a total 
maximum thickness of 80 feet of coal. 

In addition to these must be mentioned the anthracitic 



series of the Alps, which extend along the flanks of that 
chain from Savoy and the Tarentaise into Styria and 
Carinthia. They are of small economic importance. 

The Secondary and Tertiary coals of France are of com 
paratively small importance. Lignite is worked, among 
other places, near Dax in the Pyrenees, and at Trets 
and Fuveau near Marseilles. 

The coal-fields of Prussia, situated on the extension of Germ; 
the Franco-Belgian axis, are the two small basins of the 
Inde and Worm, east of Adelnau, near Stolberg and Esch- 
vveiler, which are included in single sharply sloped folds 
of the mountain limestone, and the great Westphalian 
basin east of the Rhine, in the valley of the Ruhr. The 
latter, which is one of the most important in Europe, 
extends for about 30 miles east and west from Essen to 
Dortmund. The breadth is unknown; the beds are exposed 
for about 15 miles at the broadest part, but the actual 
boundaries to the north and north-east are hidden by Creta- 
taceous rocks. The greatest depth from the surface to the 
bottom of the basin is probably about 5000 feet. It is 
divided lengthways by transverse axes of elevation into 
four principal basins, besides several smaller ones. The 
total thickness of measures already proved is from 6000 
to 8000 feet, with about 130 seams of coal, together 
about 300 feet thick. These are divided into three series 
by two bands of barren measures. The thickness of 
the individual coal seams varies from 8 inches to 7 feet. 
Seventy -six are considered to be workable, having a combined 
thickness of 205 feet, and 54 are unworkable, containing 42 
feet of coal. The proportion of workable coal to the whole 
thickness of strata is as 1 to 33. The order of succession 
as regards quality is similar to that observed in Belgium, 
the most highly valued gas and coking coals being at the 
top of the series, and the dry semi-anthracitic seams at the 
bottom. On the south side of the axis of the Rhenish De 
vonian strata, which is the high ground known as the Eifel 
and Hunsruck, carboniferous strata reappear in what is 
known as the Pfalz-Saarbriicken basin, occupying a rect 
angular area between Bingen, Donnersberg, Saarbriicken, 
and Mettlach, about 60 miles long and 20 miles broad, 
the productive coal measures being restricted to a triangular 
space of about 175 square miles in the S.W. corner. The 
Carboniferous limestone is absent, but the thickness of the 
coal measures is very great, the upper or Ottweiler series 
measuring from 6500 to 11,700 feet, with about 20 feet of 
coal in different parts of the district, and the lower or 
Saarbriicken series from 9000 to 5200 feet, with 82 
workable and 142 unworkable coal seams, making a total 
of about 350 to 400 feet of coal. The greatest thickness 
of the upper strata is found in those localities where the 
lower are thinnest, but the total thickness is computed to be 
about 20,000 feet in the thickest known section. The coals 
of the lower division are divided into groups by certain well- 
marked horizons, usually prominent seams, which have this 
peculiarity that the best coking and gas coals are found ir?, 
the bottom of the series, and the drier ones at the top, thus 
reversing the order observed in the basins on the northern 
slope. The amount of hygroscopic water in the coal 
is also found to diminish downwards. 

In the district between the Ems and the Weser, are 
situated the small coalfields of Ibbenbiiren, on the easterly 
extension of the Westphalian basin, and the Piesberg, near 
Osnabriick, which are of true Carboniferous age. Besides 
these, there is a curious development of coal in the Weal- 
den strata which extend in a narrow discontinuous band 
E. andW. for about 150 miles. The coals are or have been 
worked at Tecklenburg and Borgloh in the Teutoburger 
Wald, at Biickeburg in Schaumburg, and in the Osterwald 
south of Hanover. The coal seams are small and of infe 
rior quality, but are interesting as showing how nearly the 



OEBMA.NX.J 



A L 



Oi 



conditions prevailing at the time of the older coal measures 
were repeated over a part of the same area in Cretaceous 
times. There are traces of thin discontinuous coal-beds in 
the Wealden strata of Sussex, but nowhere approaching 
to the extent of those in the Wealden strata of N. Germany. 
In the low ground north of Halle, small and irregular 
patches of coal measures are found at Wettin, Lobejun, 
and Plotz. These are probably the remains of a single 
coal-field which has been disturbed and broken up at the 
time of the eruption of a great mass of igneous rocks 
which is found in a nearly central position between them. 
The coal measures are also found in the Thiiringer Wald, 
the Schwarzwald, on the south side of the Harz, and in the 
Bavarian Oberpfalz, but none of these localities are im 
portant as centres of production. In Saxony there are two 
principal coal-fields, the first being that of the Plauens che 
Grand, near Dresden, which is chiefly interesting for the 
very disturbed condition of the measures, and the conse 
quent difficulty in working ; and the other that of Zwickau, 
which is one of the most important in Europe. It forms an 
elliptical basin, about 20 miles long, between Zwickau and 
Chemnitz, and from 6 to 7 miles in maximum breadth, the 
greater portion being covered by New Red Sandstone strata. 
The coal measures, which rest upon old argillaceous schists, 
are about 1700 feet thick at a maximum, containing 12 
principal seams of coal, besides several smaller ones. The 
most important is the so-called soot coal (Russkohle), which 
at times attains to a thickness of 25 feet. The series is 
divided by Geinitz into groups, according to the prevailing 
character of the associated fossil plants, as follows : 

1. Zone of Ferns, corresponding to the upper group. 

2. Zone of Annularia and Calamites, or middle group. 

3. Zone of Sigillaria, or lower group. 

A fourth, or Sagenaria zone, found in Silesia, corresponding 
to the culm measures of Devonshire, completes this classi 
fication. 

The most important coal-fields of Eastern Europe are 
those of Silesia. The Carboniferous limestone series and 
the lowest coal measures or culm strata reappear in these 
basins, and are associated with numerous valuable mineral 
deposits, mainly of zinc and lead ore. The coal-field of 
Lower Silesia and Bohemia forms a basin between Glatz, 
Waldenburg, Landshiit, and Schatzlar, about 38 miles 
long and 22 miles broad. The number of seams from 3^ 
to 5 feet thick is very considerable (from 35 to 50); 
but it is difficult to trace any one continuously for any 
great distance, as they are liable to change suddenly in 
character. The lower seams usually lie at a higher angle 
than those above them. There does not appear to be any 
relation between the coking power of the coals and their 
geological position, and the same seam often varies in 
quality in neighbouring mines. 

The upper Silesian coal district extends in several dis 
connected masses from Mahrisch-Ostrau in Moravia, in 
a N.W. direction, by Rybnik and Gleiwitz in Prussia, 
and Myslowitz in Poland, being held partly by Austria, 
Prussia, and Russia, the Prussian portion between Zrabze 
and Myslowitz being the most important, extending over 
20 miles in length, by nearly 15 in breadth. The greatest 
thickness of coal in workable seams (from2|- to GO feet thick) 
is estimated at a total of 333 feet, the thickness of the 
measures beingabout 10,000 feet. A very large proportion of 
this coal-field is hidden by New Red and Cretaceous strata. 

The Tertiary coals or lignites of Germany are of consider 
able importance, being distributed over large areas, the 
seams often attaining a great thickness, although rarely 
continuous for any great distance. The principal deposits 
are situated in the lower parts of the valleys of the Rhine 
and the Elbe, in Nassau, and in the high ground of the 
Rhon in Bavaria. The lignite district of the Rhine ex 



tends from near Bonn down to Deutz and Bensberg below 
Cologne. The pigment known as Cologne earth is a sepia- 
coloured lignite, which can be ground to a fine powder 
when dried. In Nassau the so-called bituminous wood, a 
variety of lignite containing flattened masses of wood of a 
light brown colour, is very common. The produce of 
these districts is mainly consumed for house fuel and steam 
boilers, some small quantity having been used for the pro 
duction of paraffin and photogen oil. 

The coal-fields of the empire of Austria-Hungary are of Austria. 
very considerable interest, from the great diversity in 
their geological position. Coals of Carboniferous age are 
mainly confined to the northern provinces of Bohemia, 
Moravia, and Silesia ; but in Hungary and the Alpine- 
lands, especially in Styria, coals of Tertiary age are found, 
which approach very closely in composition and quality to 
those of the coal measures. 

First in importance among the former class, is the basin 
of Pilsen in Bohemia, which covers an area of about 300 
square miles. It rests upon Silurian shale, and is 
covered unconformably by Permian conglomerate and sand 
stone. The coals vary considerably in different localities ; 
the total thickness of the workable seams, from 3 to 5 in 
number, does not exceed 20 feet. There is a remarkable 
bed of slaty cannel in the upper part of the series, which 
contains animal remains of Permian types associated with 
the ordinary coal flora. Another important basin, that of 
Schlan-Kladno, E. of Prague, appears along the north edge 
of the Silurian strata, extending for about 35 miles E. 
and W. At Kladno, where it is best developed, it contains 
two principal seams, of which the upper is from 10 to 20 
feet, and the lower or main seam from 19 to 40 feet thick. 

At Rossitz, near Briinn, in Moravia, a belt of coal 
measure, resting upon crystalline rocks, has been consider 
ably worked. There are three seams, together from 27 to 30 
feet thick. These beds are said to be the equivalent of 
the upper seams of Pilsen and Kladno. 

In Moravia, Silesia, and Poland the coal measures are 
associated with the mountain limestone, which in Central 
Germany, east of Westphalia, is generally absent. The 
upper Silesian coal-field is situated in Prussia, Austria, Sile 
sia, and Russian Poland, the largest portion being in the first 
country. The area of this basin is about 1700 square miles, 
a considerable portion of it being hidden by Secondary 
and Tertiary strata. In the Austrian portion at Ostrau in 
Moravia there are 370 seams, of which 117 are workable, 
with a thickness of about 350 feet of coal. The largest 
seams are situated in the upper series, the principal one 
being about 13 feet thick. The coals of the neighbour 
hood of Ostrau are very full of gas, which occasionally finds 
its way into the cellars of the houses in the tow r n, besides 
giving off large quantities of fire damp in the workings. 
A bore hole put down 150 feet to a seam of coal in 1852, 
gave off a stream of gas which was ignited at the surface, 
and has continued to burn, with a flame many feet in 
length, to the present time. The same coal-field extends into 
the district of Cracow, where it contains numerous seams of 
great thickness, which, however, have been but partially 
explored. In the Austrian Alps anthracitic coals occur 
at various points along the northern slopes, in strata of the 
age of the culm measures, but nowhere in any great quan 
tity. In the Carpathian countries true coal measures are 
not largely developed, the principal locality being near 
Reschitza in the Banat, where 4 seams, from 3 to 10 feet 
in thickness, are worked to a certain extent. 

At Steyerdorf, near Oravicza on the Danube, a remark 
able coal-field is found in the Lias. There arc 5 seams, 
from 3 to 7 feet in thickness, which are bent into an 
anticlinal, besides being disturbed by numerous faults. The 
coal is of a very good quality, yielding a coke suitable for 

V. S 



58 



GOAL 



[COAL-FIELDS 



iron-smelting. The annual production is about 260,000 
tons. Similar coals occur in the Lias at Dreukowa, and near 
Fiinfkirchen, where there are 25 workable seams, together 
about 80 feet thick, also of a good coking quality, but very 
tender in working, making a great deal of slack. 

Secondary coals occur in the Trias and Oolitic strata at 
various points in the Alps, but are only of local interest. 

In the Gosau strata belonging to the chalk, coaL is 
worked at various points in the Alpine lands, the average 
annual production being about 25, 000 tons. Eocene coals 
occur in Dalmatia, and Miocene lignite in the Vienna basin 
in Southern Moravia, one seam, about 10 feet thick, cover 
ing an area of about 120 square miles. In the Styria-Hun- 
garian Tertiary basin, Tertiary coals are developed on a 
very great scale, especially in Styria, at Salgo Tarjan in 
N. Hungary, and in the depression between the Matra and 
the crystalline rocks of Upper Hungary. These localities 
represent only those best known by workings, many more 
being undeveloped. The lignite beds are often of great 
thickness, e.g., 70 feet at Hrastuigg, and 130 feet at Trifail. 
The production of Tertiary coal in Styria is about 500,000 
tons annually. At Leoben and Fohnsdorf, lignites are 
worked of a quality closely approaching to that of Carboni 
ferous coal, and are largely consumed in the production of 
iron and steel, having almost entirely replaced charcoal in 
the local forges. In Bohemia, Miocene brown coal strata 
cover a very large area, the principal basins being those 
of Eger, Carlsbad, and Teplitz, together about COO square 
miles, the main seam occasionally attaining a thickness of 
over 100 feet, The trade in this coal is very considerable 
along the entire valley of the Elbe. 

The coal-fields of Russia have been but imperfectly 
known until a comparatively recent period, when the de 
mand for fuel caused by the extension of railways and the 
increase in manufacturing industries has stimulated ex 
plorations, which have resulted in the discovery of coal- 
bearing strata of considerable magnitude and extent. 
These belong to the period of the Carboniferous limestone, 
like the lower coals of Scotland. 

In Central Russia the coal-bearing area belonging to 
the Carboniferous limestone is said to cover about 13,000 
square miles, the centre of the basin being at Tula, S. of 
Moscow. There are two principal seams, 3 ft. G in. and 7 
feet thick, in the bottom of the series near the top of the 
Old Red Sandstone. The coal is of inferior quality, con 
taining about 12 to 16 per cent, of ash, and from 2 to 5 
per cent, of sulphur. 

In Southern Russia, between the river Donetz and the 
head of the sea of Azoff, a more important coal-field occurs, 
also in the Carboniferous limestone, covering an area. of 
11,000 square miles. There are sixty seams of coal, forty- 
four being workable, with a total thickness of 114 feet. 
The best is a dry or semi-anthracitic coal, resembling that 
of South Wales. At Lugan and Lissitchia Balka, a thick 
ness of 30 feet of coal is found in 900 feet of strata. 

In the Ural, coal is found in sandstones, iuterstratified in 
the Carboniferous limestone in the district north of Perm, 
between the parallels of 57 and 60 N. latitude. The strata 
dip at a high angle to the west, under the Permian 
strata. The thickest coals are at Lithwinsk at the northern 
end, where there are three seams worked, measuring from 
30 to 40 feet each ; further south they become thinner. 
The coals appear to be similar in quality to those of the 
central coal-field. 

In Poland, about Bendzin and Lagorze, N. of Myslo- 
witz, an extension of the Upper Silesian coal-field covers 
an area of about 80 square miles, being partly covered by 
Permian strata. Nine seams of coal are known, varying 
from 3 to 20 feet in thickness ; but they do not occur to 
gether, except in a small part of the centre of the basm. 



The aggregate thickness of coal is about 60 feet. This is 
the only district in which true coal measure strata are 
found in European Russia. 

Among the southern countries of Europe, the first place Span 
must be given to the coal-fields of Spain, but even these 
are of comparatively small importance, when measured by 
a northern standard, consisting of a few small and scattered 
basins, in which both Carboniferous and Secondary coals are 
represented. The Carboniferous limestone acquires a con 
siderable development in the Cantabrian chain along the 
north coast, and is associated with overlying coal measures 
near Oviedo and Leon. In the former area the coals are 
often considerably disturbed, becoming anthracitic at the 
same time. The best seams are from 5 to 8 feet thick. In 
the Satero valley near Sotillo, N.E, of Leon, a seam called 
El Carmen, averaging 60 feet, is sometimes 100 feet thick, 
and is said to be in places associated with another which is 
occasionally 180 feet thick. Another basin of importance 
is that of Belmez and Espiel, occupying a narrow valley iu 
older Palajozoic strata, about 20 miles north of Cordova, 
which has recently been traversed by a railway connecting 
it with the main lines from Lisbon and Cadiz. This pro 
duces coking and gas coals of good quality, which are in 
considerable demand for smelting in the lead and other 
mineral districts in the neighbourhood. The other principal 
localities are at Villaneuva del Rio near Seville, and San 
Juan de la Abaderas in Catalonia. Coals of Neocomian 
age are found at Montalban, in the province of Teruel, and 
lignites of Miocene age, among other places, at Alcoy in 
Valencia, and Galas in Catalonia. 

In Portugal a small tract of lower Carboniferous strata, Portuga 
containing anthracite, occurs at San Pedro de Cova, near 
Coimbra, but the produce is very small. 

In Italy there is very little Carboniferous coal, what does Italy. 
occur being mainly of an anthracitic character in very dis 
turbed strata in the Piedmontese Alps. Tertiary lignites 
are worked at several places in Tuscany and in Naples, but 
the total output is inconsiderable when measured by the 
standards of more northern countries. 

Extra-European Coal-fields. 

In Turkey, Carboniferous coal is found at Heraclea in Turkey. 
Asia Minor, and has been worked from time to time, but 
hitherto without much influence upon the coal produce of 
Europe. Lignites are known to occur near Smyrna, and in 
the Lebanon and various other points in Syria. 

It is doubtful whether any Carboniferous coal exists in Africa. 
Africa. Coal-bearing strata, probably of the age of the 
New Red Sandstone, the so-called Karoo beds, cover a con 
siderable area, both in the Cape Colony and Natal, but 
little is known of the details of the coal-beds beyond state 
ments of the excellence of the quality of the coals. Lig 
nite occurs in the high lands of Abyssinia, and probably at 
numerous other points in the interior. 

The coal-bearing strata of India occur in numerous de- India, 
tached basins, which are widely distributed over the whole 
peninsula, their aggregate area, however, being but small. 
The principal development is in the valley of the Damodar 
river, one of the southern tributaries of the Hugli, the 
largest coal field being that of Raniganj, on the line of 
th a East Indian Railway, about 140 miles W. of Calcutta, 
wluch covers an area of about 500 square miles. It is a 
basin resting upon crystalline schists, and partly covered 
by Triassic sandstones iu the centre, and by jungle and 
alluvium, to the eastward, so that the real area is not yet 
known. The strata are divisible into three series as 
follows : 

Upper or Raniganj series coal-bearing. 

Middle or Ironstone series no coals. 

Lower or Barrakur series coal-bearing. 



5IA.] 



C A L 



59 



The total thickness may be from 3000 to 4000 feet ; the 
ironstone series is a group of shales containing nodular 
ironstone about 1500 feet thick, but diminishing westward. 
Numerous coal seams are worked at different points, but 
they cannot be traced continuously for more than a short 
distance without change. In the upper series an average 
of 11 seams/ together about 120 feet thick, are known in 
the eastern or Raniganj district, and 13 seams, together 
100 feet, on the western side. Occasionally single seams 
acquire a great thickness (from 20 to 80 feet), but the 
average of those worked locally is from 12 to 18 feet. In 
the lower series, 4 seams, together G9 feet, are known. The 
coals are generally of inferior quality, containing a con 
siderable amount of ash, and are non-coking in character. 
The coals of the lower series are better, yielding fairly good 
coking and gas coal at Sanktoria, near the Barrakur River. 

A small coal-field at Kurhurbali, near Luckeeserai, on 
the East Indian Railway, has recently been developed to a 
considerable extent for locomotive purposes. It covers 
about 1 1 square miles, with an aggregate of 3 seams, vary 
ing from 9 to 33 feet in thickness. They are of better 
quality than those of any other Indian cool-field at present 
known, and are of great value to the railway, which is now 
supplied with fuel at a lower rate than probably any other 
railway company in the world. 

There are several other coal-fields in Bengal, especially 
that at Jherria, near the sacred mountain of Parisnath, 
those south of Hazaribagh, and those on the Sone River, 
but none are as yet developed to any extent, being away 
from the great lines of communication. On the western 
side of India the principal workings are at Mopani, on the 
Nerbudda, on the line of the Great Indian Peninsular Rail 
way, the coal being used by the railway. It is of inferior 
quality, and the strata are inclined at a considerable angle, 
rendering the working difficult. 

_ In the Central Provinces a new coal-field of considerable 
extent has been recently discovered, almost entirely by 
boring, on the Wardha and Chanda districts, on the upper 
tributaries of the Godaveri, a considerable portion being 
within the Nizam s province of Berar. It is probable that 
this may become one of the most important sources of coal 
supply for Central and Western India, but no great amount 
of work has as yet been done upon it. 

Besides the above, there are several other known coal 
fields, for details of which the reader is referred to the 
Reports of the Geological Society of India. 

The age of the Indian coals is generally supposed to 
be Permian, the only fossils that have been found in them 
being plants which are referred to Permian types in 
Europe. If, however, the overlying sandstones, containing 
reptilian fossils, generally reputed to be of Triassic age, 
should, as seems likely, prove to be Permian, it is not 
improbable that the coal-bearing strata may actually belong 
to the period of the upper coal measures, and the Indian 
coal-fields would then be strictly analogous to the deep 
irregular basins of Southern France and Central Europe, 
with which they have many structural points in common. 
No marine strata, or anything approximating to the char 
acter of the Carboniferous limestone, are known anywhere 
on the plains of India, although they are found in the salt 
range of the Punjab and in the Himalayas. 

The coal-fields of China are known, from the researches of 
Baron von Richthofen, Prof. Pumpelly, and other travellers, 
to cover a very large area, comparable only with those of 
North America; but, as may be imagined, no very detailed 
information has as yet been obtained concerning them. 
According to the first-named authority, there are no 
newer formations than the Trias in China other than alluvial 
deposits of enormous thickness, but Palaeozoic strata, from 
the Silurian Howards, are developed on a very large 



scale. Coal of Carboniferous age exists in Manchuria, 
mostly in inaccessible mountain valleys, and further west 
all along the Great Wall. Near Peking there are beds 95 
feet thick, which supply the city with fuel. The most 
extensive development is to the west and north-west, on 
the south of the great mountain range which stretches 
across Western China, where there is an area of Carboni 
ferous strata of 100,000 square miles. The great plain 
of China is bounded by a limestone escarpment from 
2000 to 3000 feet high, which is capped by a plateau 
covered by 30,000 square miles of coal measures, in 
which the coal seams, 30 feet thick, lie perfectly hori 
zontal for 200 miles, and are reported to extend beyond 
the frontier into Mongolia. Most of the localities are, how 
ever, far in the interior. The coal of Shantung, though 
not near good harbours, is the most accessible of all Chinese 
coal from the sea. It also occurs in the other maritime 
provinces, but in districts offering fewer facilities for export. 
It is obvious, from the enormous dimensions given to these 
coal-fields, that it will be a long time before anything like 
a moderately accurate estimate of their value can be 
obtained. 

In Japan coal is worked at several points, but no detailed Japan 
account of the mode of its occurrence has been published. 
At the island of Takasima, near Nagasaki, a colliery is 
worked by the Japanese Government for the supply of their 
steamers on a tolerably large scale. 

In the great islands of the Indian and South Pacific 
Oceans, coal-bearing strata are known at many different 
points ; but in the absence of systematic investigation, no 
general estimate can be formed of their position, extent, or 
value. In the Dutch settlements, coal has been found in 
Sumatra and Borneo, the best known deposit being that of Borneo. 
Pengaron, on the south-east of the latter island, where a mine 
has bsen worked by the Dutch authorities for several years. 
The section of the strata, as proved by a level, shows a 
series of 15 seams above 1 foot in thickness, together about 
36 feet, in about 520 feet of measures, 6 of these having 
been worked. The best appear to be somewhat similar to 
the steam coal of the North of England. In the British 
settlement of Labuan, off the north coast of Borneo, 5 Labuan. 
workable seams, together about 27 feet thick, are estimated 
to cover the whole island. This is probably of Tertiary 
age, but approximates in composition to many of the non- 
coking coals of the coal measures. The Labuan coal is 
also remarkable for containing large masses of fossil resin. 

The most important southern coal deposits, however, are Australia 
those of Australia, which extend, with short intervals, from 
the Gulf of Carpentaria to Bass s Straits. In the northern 
districts, the distribution appears to be somewhat similar to 
that seen in South America, Secondary and Tertiary basins 
occupying the ground near the sea, while true Carboniferous 
coal is found further inland; but in New South Wales, 
where their development is greatest, older coal-bearing 
strata extend along the eastern slope of the continent, be 
tween the parallels of 29 and 35 degrees S. latitude, covering 
a very large area in several detached portions, the largest 
probably exceeding 12,000 miles, and come down to the sea. 
The principal workings are situated near Newcastle, at 
the mouth of the Hunter River, at Wollongong, 60 miles 
south of Sydney, and at Hartley, about 90 miles inland. 
The coal seams vary from 3 to 30 feet in thickness Li the 
Newcastle district, 16 seams above three feet thick being 
known. The coals are mainly of a free-burning class, but 
some are bituminous, giving a good coke. In the upper 
most part of the series oil shales and cannel are found. The 
age of the Australian coal measures has been the subject of 
considerable controversy. Formerly it was supposed that 
they were Oolitic, from the supposed affinities of the fossil 
plants ; but it has since been shown that the coal -bearing 



COAL 



[COAL. FIELDS. 



portions of the series are interstratifiecl with marine strata, 
containing fossils of Carboniferous and Devonian types. The 
same association is observed in the coal series of Bowen 
River in Queensland, and on those of the Mersey River in 
Tasmania, showing the extension of the Carboniferous strata 
in a chain of detached basins from the 20th to the 40th 
parallel of S. lat, or about 1400 miles. In Queensland the 
strata are estimated to cover an area of 24,000 square miles, 
without taking into account possible extension under the 
Cretaceous strata of the interior. Up to the present time, 
however, very little has been done towards their develop 
ment, the districts in which they occur being too far from 
the settled portions of the country. The principal mines 
now open are on newer strata of Cretaceous age nearer the 
sea, at Ipswich, in the neighbourhood of Brisbane. Some 
of these coals are remarkably like those of South Durham, 
and yield a good hard coke, suitable for blast-furnace 
purposes. 

New Zea- True coal measures are not known to exist in New Zea 
land- land, but coal-bearing strata of two different periods have 
been described by Dr Hector, Dr Haast, Captain Hutton, 
and other geologists. The newer series yield a lignite, 
which is described in the reports as hydrous coal ; while 
the older, which is probably of Cretaceous or Jurassic age, 
yields a superior class of combustible, known as anhydrous 
coal. These minerals occur at many different points in 
the two larger islands, and although no systematic detailed 
account of them is as yet available, a considerable amount of 
information on this subject is contained in the various geolo 
gical reports published by the New Zealand surveyors. 
North In North America, the Carboniferous strata are divided 
America, by geologists into two principal groups, the lower or 
sub-Carboniferous, which correspond to the Carboniferous 
limestone of Europe, and the Carboniferous, which includes 
the millstone grit and coal measures. 

The first of these is about 5000 feet thick in Penn 
sylvania, consisting mainly of shales and sandstones ; but 
in the Mississippi valley, in Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri, a 
considerable thickness of limestone is developed in this 
part of the series. In the former region some thin coal 
seams are found, the relation between the two areas being 
in this respect similar to that of the Carboniferous lime 
stone in England to the coal-bearing formations of similar 
age in Scotland. 

The millstone grit forms a mass of sandstones and 
conglomerates from 1200 to 1400 feet thick in Eastern 
Pennsylvania, but thins rapidly to the westward, being only 
from 100 to 250 feet thick in Ohio and Tennessee. In 
Arkansas, the compact siliceous rock known as novaculite, 
or Arkansas hone stone, occurs in this member of the Car 
boniferous series. 

The coal measures proper cover a very large area, both 
in the United States and in Canada. First in importance is 
the Appalachian coal-field, covering about 60,000 square 
miles, extending through parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
Virginia, eastern Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama. The 
maximum thickness of strata is from 2500 to 3000 feet ; 
that of included coal is 120 feet near Pottsville, G2 feet at 
Wilkesbarre, and about 25 feet at Pittsburg, showin" a 
gradual diminution to the westward. The most persistent 
coal is the Pittsburg seam, which is known over an area 
measuring 225 miles by 100 miles, but with a thickness 
varying from 2 to 1 4 feet. 

The anthracite district of central Pennsylvania occupies 
an area of about G50 miles on the left bank of the Susque- 
hanna River. The strata between Pottsville and Wyo 
ming, which belong to the lowest portion of the coal 
measures, are probably about 3000 feet thick, but it 
is difficult to arrive at an exact estimate, owing to the 
numerous folds and contortions. There are from ten to 



twelve seams above 3 feet in thickness ; the principal one, 
known as the Mammoth or Baltimore vein, is 29-| feet 
thick at Wilkesbarre, and in places even exceeds 60 feet. 

The Illinois and Missouri basin covers a considerable 
part of these States, as well as of Indiana and Kentucky, 
Iowa, Kansas, and Arkansas. Its area is estimated at 
60,000 square miles, the thickness varying from 600 feet 
in Missouri to 3000 feet in western Kentucky. The 
aggregate thickness of coal is about 70 feet. A good 
furnace coal is obtained in Indiana, the so-called block 
coal of Brazil near Ind ianopolis, which, like the splint 
coals of Scotland and those of Staffordshire, can be used 
in the blast furnace without coking. 

In Michigan a nearly circular area of coal measures, of 
about 5000 square miles, occurs in the lower peninsula 
between lakes Huron and Erie. The thickness is only 
120 feet, and the coals unimportant. 

Other coal-bearing areas of less value are known in 
Texas and Rhode Island. 

The Carboniferous strata are largely developed in the 
eastern provinces of the Dominion of Canada, notably ic 
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The lower Carbonifer 
ous group here consists of about 6000 feet of red sand 
stones and green marls, with thick beds of fossiliferous 
limestones, accompanied by gypsum. The limestones in 
crease in thickness southward. In this series occurs the 
peculiar pitch-like or asphaltic coal of the Albert mine in 
New Brunswick, of which an analysis is given in Table I., 
supra. The overlying coal measures, including the mill 
stone grit, occupy an area estimated at 18,000 square 
miles. The whole thickness of this group at South, 
Joggins is about 14,750 feet, with 76 included coal seams, 
together 45 feet in thickness, which are contained in the 
middle division of the series. At Pictou there are six 
seams, together measuring 80 feet in thickness. The coal 
measures in this area approach more near to the great coal 
fields of Europe in thickness than those of the other 
American Carboniferous districts. Rocks of Carboniferous 
age occur in various places on both flanks of the Rocky 
Mountains, and in the Arctic Archipelago, but have not yet 
been explored. 

Lignite-bearing strata of Cretaceous and Tertiary age 
occupy a very considerable area in the central and western 
portions of North America, especially in the upper 
Missouri and Saskatchewan valleys, in Utah and Texas, 
and in California, Oregon, and Vancouver Island. In 
the last locality coal has been extensively mined near 
Nanaimo, on the east coast, for several years past, in strata 
of Cretaceous age. Tertiary lignites are worked in Belling- 
ham Bay, at Goose Bay in Oregon, and at Monte Diabolo, 
near San Francisco. The lignitic formations of the eastern 
flank of the Rocky Mountains, which are considered by 
Hayden to occupy a position between the Cretaceous and 
Eocene Tertiary strata, occupy an area estimated at about 
50,000 square miles within the United States, and extend 
both northward into Canada and southward into Mexico. 

In South America coal, probably of Carboniferous age, South 
is found in the Brazilian provinces of Sao Pedro, Rio Americ 
Grande do Sul, and Santa Catharina, and in the neighbouring 
state of Uraguay. The largest area is that known as the 
Candiota coal-field, which is exposed for about 50 miles in 
the valley of the river of the same name. The sections ex 
posed show 5 seams from 9 to 25 feet each, or together 
about 65 feet of coal. Other basins are known at S. 
Sepe" and S. Jeronimo, on the Jacahahay River. The 
latter is the only point at which mines are worked, as 
the coals, though thinner than those of the other localities 
mentioned, are situated within the reach of navigable 
waters, having only to bear a land carriage of 8 miles to 
the river. 



MINING. 1 



COAL 



Cl 



On the west coast of South America, Cretaceous coals 
are worked at Lota, iu Chili, and at Sandy Point, in the 
Straits of Magellan. In Peru both Secondary and Carboni 
ferous coals are known at various points in the interior, the 
former occupying a position on the first rise of the table 
land of the Andes, while the latter occur in higher ground, 
at a greater distance from the coast. Good coal is also 
found at many points in the Santa valley. 

Much of the Peruvian coal has undergone considerable 
disturbance and metamorphism subsequent to its deposi 
tion. At Porton, 45 miles east of Truxillo, a ridge of 
coal-bearing sandstones has been changed into a hard 
quartzite, with an interstratified seam of anthracite in a 
nearly vertical position. The coal is remarkable as con 
taining a large amount of sulphur (see analysis Table I.). 
The hitherto inaccessible position of these places, which 
are usually more than 10,000 feet above the sea-level, 
has prevented the development of coal-mining in Peru ; 
but the extension of railways into the mountains will 
probably bring them into importance, by stimulating a 
local demand for fuel. 

Extent of existing Workable Coal. 

The following summary of the amount of coal estimated 
as workable remaining in the different districts, which is 
taken from the report of the Royal Commission on coal, and 
founded upon investigations made in the years 18G6-71, 
furnishes an approximate measure of the comparative value, 
present and prospective, of the different coal-fields of the 
United Kingdom. The quantities represent the probable 
aggregate yield of all seams above 1 foot thick. 



Coal-Fields. 



Within 4000 feet. 
Tons. 



Coal remaining in exposed Coal-fields. 

Below 4000 feet. 
Tons. 

32,456,208,913 4,109,987,004 

265,000,000 
4,218,970,762 1,885,340,220 



South Wales, 

Forest of Dean, 

Somersetshire, 

South Staffordshire, \ 

Shropshire, f 

Forest of Wy re f 

Clee Hills, ) 

Leicestershire 

Warwickshire, 

North Wales, 

Anglesea, 

North Staffordshire, 

Yorkshire and Derbyshire, 
Yorkshire (Oolitic, &c.) ... 
Lancashire and Cheshire, . 
Northumberland and 

Durham, 

Cumberland, 

Scotland, 

do (Oolitic), 

Ireland, 



1,906,119,768 

836,798,734 

458,652,714 

2,005,000,000 

5,000,000 

3,825,488,105 

18,172,071,433 

70,000,000 

5,546,000,000 

10,036,660,236 

405,203,792 

9,839,965,930 

3,500,000 

155,600,000 



1,000,785,488 
234,728,010 

90,000,000 



90,206,240,387 7,320,840,722 

The quantity estimated as lying above the workable limit 
of 4000 feet under the Permian and other formations, in the 
central and northern counties of England, is 56,248,000,000 
tons, covering an area of 2044 square miles, in addition 
to which, in the flat ground between the Mersey, Denbigh 
shire, the North Staffordshire hills, Cannock Chase, and 
Colebrookdule, a further area of 843 square miles at inac 
cessible depths is computed to contain 

Between 4000 and 6000 feet, 29,341,649,067 tons. 

6000 ,, 10000 15,302,741,333 ,, 

41,144,300,400 , 
Adding to this the amount 
below 4000 feet from the previous table, 7,320,840,722 ,, 



Total unavailable coal, 48,465,141,122 ,, 

As compared with 146,454,240,387 ,, 

the quantity of workable coal, as made up of the two 



amounts, 90,200,240,387 and 56,248,000,000 tons, given 
above. From this it follows that, out of the probable total 
quantity of coal in the P>ritish coal measures, rather more 
than three-fourths may become available for consumption, 
or about 1170 times the amount of the present annual out 
put of 125 million tons. 

Similar estimates have been formed for the coal-fields 
of other countries, especially in France and Germany, but 
it is doubtful whether the necessary structural details are 
sufficiently well known to admit of more than a tolerably 
rough guess being made. 

COAL-MINING. 

The opening and laying out, or, as it is generally called, Prelimin- 
" winning," of new collieries is rarely undertaken without a ary trial 
preliminary examination of the character of the strata by coal-work 
means of borings, either for the purpose of determining ings 
the number and nature of the coal-seams in new ground, 
or the position of the particular seam or seams which it 
is proposed to work in extensions of known coal-fields. 



A/.3 



N.4 




The principle of proving a mineral field by boring is 
illustrated by figure 3, which represents a line direct from 
the dip to the rise of the field, the inclination of the 
strata being one in eight. No. 1 bore is commenced at 
the dip, and reaches a seam of coal A, at 40 fathoms ; at 
this depth it is considered proper to remove nearer to 
the outcrop, so that lower strata may be bored into at a less 
depth, and a second bore is commenced. To find the 
position of No. 2, so as to form a continuous section, it is 
necessary to reckon the inclination of the strata, which is 
1 in 8 : and as bore No. 1 was 40 fathoms in depth, we 
multiply the depth by the rate of inclination, 40 x 8 = 320 
fathoms, which gives the point at which the coal seam A 
should reach the surface. But there is generally a certain 
depth of alluvial cover which requires to be deducted, 
and which we call 3 fathoms, then (40 - 3 = 37) x 8 = 296 
fathoms ; or say 286 fathoms is the distance that the 
second bore should be placed to the rise of the first, so as 
to have for certain the seam of coal A in clear connection 
with the seam of coal B. In bove No. 3, where the seam 
B, according to the same system of arrangement, should 
have been found at or near the surface, another seam C is 
proved at a considerable depth, differing in character and 
thickness from either of the preceding. This derangement 
being carefully noted, another bore to the outcrop on the 
same principle is put down for the purpose of proving the 
seam C ; the nature of the strata at first is found to agree 
with the latter part of that bored through in No. 3, but 
immediately on crossing the dislocation seen in the figure 
it is changed, and the deeper seam D is found. 

The evidence therefore of these bores (3 and 4) indicates 
some material derangement, which is then proved by other 
bores, either towards the dip or the outcrop, according 
to the judgment of the borer, so as to ascertain the best 
position for sinking pits. 

The methods of boring are similar to those adopted for Methods of 
deep wells, or in other departments of mining. For shal- boring. 



U O A L 



[MINING. 



low bores, the boring is generally with wrought iron rods 
screwed together in lengths, armed with a cutting chisel 
and workin^ by percussion, the tool being lifted by hand 
and allowed to fall with its full weight upon the rock. 
The pounded material is removed at intervals, by substi 
tuting a shell pump or tube with valves at the bottom, 
whose action is similar to that of the foot valves of an 
ordinary lifting pump. The sludge brought to the sur 
face indicates the nature of the ground passed through. 
In very deep borings, however, the use of rigid rods and 
fixed tools is found to present two serious evils, namely, 
the excessive weight on the tool caused by the increased 
length of the rods, and the great length of time required 
to withdraw the tool and remove the detritus. The first 
of these difficulties has been overcome by the _use of the 
free falling cutters, where the tool, instead of being attached 
rigidly to" the rod, moves in a guide-block in such a 
manner as to be lifted with the rods, falling freely when 
the top of the stroke is reached. The rods, when lowered, 
pick up the tool at the bottom of the hole in readiness 
for the next lift. By this means the momentum of the 
tool is kept constant whatever may be the weight of rods 
employed. 

The use of a wire rope winding on a drum, instead of 
rods for suspending the boring tool, allows the latter to be 
withdrawn and replaced with much greater rapidity than can 
be done with rods. This method has been very successfully 
adopted by Messrs Mather & Platt of Salford. But perhaps 
the best methods of expeditious boring are those (Fauvelle s) 
whereby the detritus is removed as it forms by con 
tinuously flushing out the hole with water, hollow rods 
being used down which the water flows while it rises through 
the annular space between the rod and the lining tube of 
the bore hole. This has the advantage of giving a clear 
surface for the tool to cut on, instead of its having to work 
through its own sludge, as is the case when the shell pump 
is only used at intervals. Of late years the value of boring 
for exploratory purposes has been much increased by the 
adoption of tubular or crown borers, which cut out an annu 
lar groove, leaving a core of unbroken rock in the centre, 
which is then brought out by a grapnel in a solid piece. 
One of. the m^st successful of these methods is that due to 
Leschot of Geneva, where a rotating cutter, armed with 
amorphous black diamond, the hardest known substance, 
is used, the detritus being continuously removed by water 
on Fauvelle s plan. The machinery adopted for this pur 
pose, as modified by Messrs Beaumont & Appleby. has been 
employed with great success to bore holes exceeding 2000 
feet in depth. 

Methods of The working of coal may be conducted either by means 
working, of levels or galleries driven from the outcrop in a valley, or 
by shafts or pits sunk from the surface. In the early days 
of coal mining, open working, or quarrying from the out 
crop of the seams, was practised to a considerable extent ; 
but there are now few if any places in England where 
this can be done. In 1873 there could be seen, in the thick 
coal seams of Bengal, near Raniganj, a seam about 50 
feet thick laid bare, over an area of several acres, by 
stripping off a superficial covering varying from 10 to 30 
feet, in order to remove the whole of tbe coal without loss 
by pillars. Such a case, however, is quite exceptional. 
The operations by which the coal is reached and laid out 
for removal are known as "winning," the actual working 
or extraction of the coal being termed "getting." In 
the accompanying figure, No. 4, A B is a cross cut-level, by 
which the seams of coal 1 and 2 are won, and C D a ver 
tical shaft by which the seams 1, 2, and 3 are won. When 
the field is won by the former method, the coal lying above 
the level is said to be " level-free." The mode of winning 
by level is of less general application than that by shafts 



as the capacity for production is less, owing to the smaller 
size of roadways by which the coal must be brought to the 




Fig. 4. 

surface, levels of large section being expensive and difficult 
to keep open when the mine has been for some time at 
work. Shafts, on the other hand, may be made of almost 
any capacity, owing to the high speed in drawing which 
is attainable with proper mechanism, and allow of the 
use of more perfect arrangements at the surface than can 
usually bo adopted at the mouth of a level on a hill side. 
A more cogent reason, however, is to be found in the fact 
that the principal coal-fields are in flat countries, and where 
the coal can only be reached by vertical sinking. 

The methods adopted in driving levels for collieries are 
generally similar to those adopted in other mines. The 
ground is secured by timbering, or more usually by arching 
in masonry or brick- work. Levels like that in fig. 4, which 
are driven across the stratification, or generally anywhere not 
in coal, are known as " stone drifts." The sinking of colliery 
shafts, however, differs considerably from that of other mines, 
owing to their generally large size, and the difficulties that 
are often encountered from water during the sink in sc. The 

O O 

actual coal measure strata, consisting mainly of shales 
and clays, are generally impervious to water, but when 
strata of a permeable character are sunk through, such as 
the magnesian limestone of the north of England, the 
Permian sandstones of the central countries, or the chalk 
and greensand in the north of France and Westphalia, 
special methods are required in order to pass the water 
bearing beds, and to protect the shaft and workings from 
the influx of water subsequently. Of these methods one 
of the chief is the plan of tubbing, or lining the excava 
tion with an impermeable casing of wood or iron, gene 
rally the latter, which is built up in segments forming 
rings, that are piled upon each other throughout the 
whole depth of the water-bearing strata. This method 
necessitates the use of very considerable pumping power 
during the sinking, as the water has to be kept down in 
order to allow the sinkers to reach a water-tight stratum 
upon which the foundation of the tubbing can be placed. 
This consists in a heavy cast-iron ring, known as a 
wedging crib, or curb, also fitted together in segments, 
which is lodged in a square-edged groove cut for its recep 
tion, tightly caulked with moss, and wedged into posi 
tion. Upon this the tubbing is built up in segments, 
usually from 10 to 12 being required for the entire cir 
cumference, the edges being made perfectly true. The 
thickness varies according to the pressure expected, but 
may be taken at from f to 1| inches. The inner face is 
smooth, but the back is strengthened with angle brackets 
at the corners. A small hole is left in the centre of each 
segment, which is kept open during the fitting to prevent 
undue pressure upon any one, but is stopped as soon as the 
circle is completed. In the north of France and Belgium 
wooden tubbings, built of polygonal rings, were at one time 
in gc.ieral use. The polygons adopted were of 20 or more 
sides approximating to a circular form. 

The second principal method of sinking through water 
bearing ground is that which was first adopted by M. 



Sinking 
shafts . 



Pnenma- 

sinking. 



MIXING. 



C A L 



Trigor, in France, and has also been used by civil 
engineers in putting down deep foundations for bridge 
piers, namely, by compressed air. The shaft is lined with 
a cylinder of "wrought iron, within which a tubular cham 
ber, provided with doors above and below, known as an 
air-lock, is fitted by a telescopic joint, which is tightly 
packed so as to close the top of the shaft air-tight. Air is 
then forced into the inclosed space by means of a compressing 
engine, until the pressure is sufficient to oppose the flow 
of water into the excavation, and to drive out any that 
may collect in the bottom of the shaft through a pipe 
which is carried through the air-sluice to the surface. The 
miners work in the bottom in the same manner as divers 
in an - ordinary diving-bell. Access to the surface is 
obtained through the double doors of the air sluice, the pres 
sure being reduced to that of the external atmosphere 
when it is desired to open the upper door, and increased to 
that of the working space below when it is intended to 
communicate with the sinkers, or to raise the stuff broken 
in the bottom. This method has been adopted in various 
sinkings on the Continent. At Bracquenie, near Mons, 
the miners worked in an atmosphere up to 45 !b pressure 
on the square inch, without experiencing any great difficulty, 
but they were found to be more susceptible to pulmonary 
disorder upon changes of weather than those who worked 
under the ordinary conditions of pressure. 

The third method of sinking through water-bearing 
strata is that of boring, adopted by Messrs Kind & Chau- 
dron in Belgium and Germany. For this purpose a horizon 
tal bar armed with vertical cutting chisels is used, which 
cuts out the whole section of the shaft simultaneously. In 
the first instance, a smaller cutting frame is used, boring 
a hole from 3 to 5 feet in diameter, which is kept some 50 or 
GO feet in advance, so as to receive the detritus, which is 
removed by a shell pump of large size. The large trepan 
or cutter weighs about 16 tons, and cuts a hole of from 
9 to 15 feet in diameter. The water-tight lining may be 
either a wrought iron tube, which is pressed down by jack 
screws as the bore hole advances, or cast-iron tubbing put 
together in short complete rings, in contradistinction to 
the old plan of building them up of segments. The 
tubbing, which is considerably less in diameter than the 
bore hole, is suspended by rods from the surface until a bed 
suitable for a foundation is reached, upon which a sliding 
length of tube, known as the moss box, bearing a shoulder, 
which is filled with dried moss, is placed. The whole 
weight of the tubbing is made to bear on the moss, which 
squeezes outwards, forming a completely water-tight joint. 
The interval between the back of the tubbing and the sides 
of the bore hole is then filled up with concrete, which on 
setting fixes the tubbing firmly in position. 

The introduction of these special methods has consider 
ably simplified the problem of sinking through water-bear 
ing strata. Some of the earlier sinkings of this kind, when 
pumps had to be depended on for keeping down the water, 
were conducted at great cost, as, for instance, at South 
Hetton, and more recently Ryhope, near Sunderland, 
through the magnesian limestone of Durham. 

The size and form of colliery shafts varies in different dis 
tricts, but the tendency is now generally to make them 
round, and from 12 to 15 feet in diameter. In the Midland 
counties, from 7 to 9 feet is a very common size, but larger 
dimensions are adopted where a large production is re 
quired. At Bagillt, on the Dee, a shaft of 22 feet in 
diameter was commenced a few years ago, but was reduced 
in diameter a short distance down. Since the accident at 
Hartley colliery, caused by the breaking of the pumping 
engine beam, which fell into the shaft and blocked it up, 
whereby the whole company of men in the mine were 
starved to death it has been made compulsory upon 



mine owners to have two pits for each working, in place 
of the single one divided by walls or brattices which was 
formerly thought sufficient. Ths use of two indepen 
dent connections whether separate pits or sections of the 
same pit, between the surface and the workings is neces 
sary for the service of the ventilation, fresh air from the 
surface being carried down one, known as the " downcast," 
while the foul or return air of the mine rises through the 
other or " upcast" pit back to the surface. Where the mine is 
heavily watered, it is often necessary to establish a special 
engine pit, with pumps permanently fixed, or a division of 
one of the pits may be devoted to this purpose. The use 
of direct-acting high-pressure pumping engines placed at 
the bottom of the shaft has become common during the last 
ten years. They have the advantage of doing away with the 
heavy reciprocating rod from the engine at the surface, and 
may be worked either by steam pipes carried down the pit, 
or, what is now more common, by boilers underground, 
which supply also steam for the underground hauling 
engines. Where the water does not accumulate very 
rapidly it is a very common practice to allow it to collect 
in a pit or sump below the working bottom of the shaft, 
and to draw it off in a water tub or bucket by the main 
engine, when tlie latter is not employed in raising coal. 

The laying out of a colliery, after the coal has been won, Laying out 
by sinkings or levels, may be accomplished in various ways, workings. 
according to the nature of the coal, its thickness and dip, and 
the extent of ground to be worked. In the South Stafford 
shire and other Midland coal-fields, where only shallow pits 
are required, and the coals are thick, a pair of pits may be 
sunk for a very few acres, while in the North of England, 
on the other hand, where sinking is expensive, an area of 
some thousands of acres may be commanded from the 
same number of pits. In the latter case, which represents 
the most approved practice, the sinking is usually placed 
about the centre of the ground, so that the workings may 
radiate in every direction from the pit bottom, with the 
view of employing the greatest number of hands to ad 
vantage. Where a large area cannot be commanded, it is 
best to sink to the lowest point of the field for 
the convenience of drawing the coal and water which 
become level-free in regard to the pit. Where properties 
are much divided, it is always necessary to maintain a 
thick barrier of unwrought coal between the boundary of 
the mine and the neighbouring workings, especially if the 
latter are to the dip. If a prominent line of fault crosses 
the area, it may usually be a convenient division of the 
field into sections or districts. The first process in laying 
out the workings consists in driving a gallery on the level 
along the course of the coal seam, which is known as a " dip 
head level," and a lower parallel one, in which the water 
collects, known as a " lodgment level." Galleries driven at 
right angles to these are known as " dip " or " rise headings," 
according to their position above or below the pit bottom. 
In Staffordshire the main levels are also known as "gate 
roads." To secure the perpendicularity of the shaft, it is 
necessary to leave a large mass or pillar of the seam un 
touched around the pit bottom. This pillar is known in 
Scotland as the " pit bottom stoop." The junction of the 
levels with the pit is known as the " pit eye ; " it is usually 
of an enlarged section, and lined with masonry or brick 
work, so as to afford room for handling the waggons or 
trams of coal brought from the working faces. In this 
portion of the pit are generally placed the furnaces for 
ventilation, and the boilers required for working steam- 
engines underground, as well as the stables and lamp cabin. 

Figs. 5 and G represent the pit bottom arrangements 
at Cambois colliery in Northumberland, which are of an ex 
tremely commodious character. There are four large 
Cornish boilers, supplying steam to the engines drawing 



coals from the workings, as well as to a direct-acting pump 
ing engine, the flame and smoke being discharged by drifts 
into the upcast pit. For the purpose of handling large 
pieces of machinery and boilers, the level at the bottom is 
increased to a chamber 18 feet high, and roofed with 
rolled iron girders of a double T section. To protect the 
fillers working at the bottom, strong diagonal guard timbers 
are placed at S in order to deflect any materials falling 
down the shaft, and prevent them falling into the work 
ings. This is an unusually large example, but is taken 
from a pit in the highest state of development, and making 
a very large daily outturn. 




Fia. 5. Pit eye, Gambols Colliery Vertical Section. 

Method of The removal of the coal after the roads have been driven 
working may be effected in many different ways, according to the 

out coal. 




Pillar 

working. 



FIG. 6. Pit bottom arrangements, Cambois Colliery 

custom of the district, These may, however, all be con 
sidered as modifications of two systems viz., pillar work 
and long-wall work, In the former, which is also known 
as "port and stall" or " bord and pillar" in the north of 
England, "pillar and stall" in South Wales, and "stoop 
and room " in Scotland, the field is divided into strips by 
numerous openings driven parallel to the main rise head 
ings, called " bords " or " bord gates," which are again 
divided by cutting through them at intervals, so as to 
leave a series of pillars arranged chequer-wise over the 
entire area. These pillars are left for the support of the 
roof as the workings advanc.3, so as to keep the mine open 
and free from waste. Fig. 1, Plate III. represents the oldest 
form of this class of working as practised in Scotland, from 
which it will be seen that if the size of the pillar is equal 
to tho wiilth of the stall or excavation, about f of the 



[MINING. 

whole seam will be removed, the remainder being left in 
the pillars. A portion of this may be got by the process 
known as robbing the pillars, but the coal so obtained is 
liable to be very much crushed from the pressure of the 
superincumbent strata. This crushing may take place 
either from above or below, producing what are known as 
" creeps " or " sits." 

A coal seam with a soft pavement and a hard roof is 
the most subject to a " creep." The first indication is a 
dull hollow sound heard when treading on the pavement or 
floor, probably occasioned by some of the individual 
layers parting from each other as shown at a fig. 7 ; 





FIG. 7. " Creeps" in Coal-Mines. 

the succeeding stages of creep are shown at b, c, d, f, and 
g, in the same figure ; the last being the final stage, when 
the coal begins to sustain the pressure from the overlying 
strata, in common with the disturbed pavement. 

" Sits " are the reverse of creeps ; in the one case the 
pavement is forced up, and in the other the roof is forced 
or falls down, for want of proper support or tenacity in 
itself. This accident generally arises from an improper 
size of pillars ; some roofs, however, are so difficult to 
support that sits take place where the half of the coal is 
left in pillars. 

Fig. 8 will convey a general idea of the appearance of 
sits, k, m, n showing different stages. 




FIG. 8. " Sits " in Mines. 

The modern method of pillar working is shown in Plate 
IV. In the Northumberland steam-coal district, where it 
is carried out in the most perfect manner, the boards are 
5 to 6 yards in width, while the pillars are 22 yards broad 
and 30 yards long, which are subsequently got out on 
coming back. In the same figure is also shown the method 
of working whole coal and pillars at the same time, a barrier 
of two or three ranges of pillars or a rib of solid coal being 
left between the working in the solid and those in the 
pillars. The space from which the entire quantity of 
coal has been removed is known in different districts as the 
"goaf," "gob," or " waste." 

Fig. 9 represents the Lancashire system of pillar- 
working. The area is laid out by two pairs of level drifts, 
parallel to each other, about 150 yards apart, which 
are carried to the boundary. About 100 yards back from 
the boundary a communication is made between these 
levels, from which other levels are driven forward, dividing 
the coal into ribs of about 25 or 30 yards wide, which are 
then cut back by taking off the coal in slices from the level 
tov ards the rise in breadths of about six yards. By this 
method the whole of the coal is got backwards, the main 
roads being kept in solid coal ; the intermediate levels not 
being driven till they are wanted, a greater amount cf sup- 



VOL 



COAL 



pj.ATi;nr 



BOK..H9 ATSTU BANKS 



HJtFBKEXVE : 
c I Jnors 

Mappings, 
lir crossing. 

-tinn nl air current 



fy.J. 
PILLAR WORKING 




ENCYCLOP/tDIA BRITANNICA, NINTH EDITION 



MODES OF WORKING.] 



COAL 



65 



port is given, and the pillars are less crushed than is 
usual in pillar working. 




,: 8 U N D A R Y 

Fio. 9. Lancashire method of working Coal 

In the South Wales system of working, cross headings are 
driven from the main roads obliquely across the rise to get 
a sufficiently easy gradient for horse roads, and from 
these the stalls are opened out with a narrow entrance, in 
order to leave support on either side of the road, but aftsr- 
wards widening to as great a breadth as the seam will 
allow, leaving pillars of a minimum thickness. The cha 
racter of such workings is very irregular in plan, and as the 
ventilation is attended with considerable difficulty, it is now 
becoming generally superseded by more improved methods. 

The second great principle of working is that known as 
long-wall or long-work, in which the coal is taken away 
either in broad faces from roads about 40 or 50 yards 
apart and parallel to each other, or along curved faces 
between roads radiating from the pit bottom the essential 
feature in both cases being the removal of the whole of 
the coal at once, without first sub-dividing it into pillars, 
to be taken away at a second working. The roof is tem 
porarily supported by wooden props or pack walling of stone, 
for a sufficient breadth along the face to protect the work 
men, and allow them to work together behind. The general 
character of a long- wall working is shown iu fig. 10, which 




Fid. 10. Long-will method of working Coal in Derbyshire. 

represents an area of about 500 acres of the bottom hard 
steam coal at Shipley in Derbyshire. The principal road 
extends from the shafts southward ; and on both sides of 
it the coal has been removed from the light-shaded area by 
cutting it back perpendicularly towards the boundaries, 
along faces about 50 yards in length, those nearest to the 
shaft being kept in advance of those farther away, pro 
ducing a step-shaped outline to the face of the whole coal. 
It will be seen that by this method the whole of the seam, 
with the exception of the pillars left to protect the main 
roadways, is removed. The roads for drawing the coal from 



the working faces to the shaft are kept open by walling 
through the waste or goaf produced by the fall of the un 
supported roof. The straight roads are the air-ways for 
carrying pure air from the down-cast shaft to the working 
faces, while the return air passes along the faces and back 
to the up-cast by the curved road. The above is the method 
of working long-wall forward, i.e., taking the coal iu 
advance from the pit towards the boundary, with roads 
kept open through the gob. Another method consists in 
driving towards the boundary, and taking the coal back 
ward towards the shafts, or working homeward, allowing 
the waste to close up without roads having to be kept 
open through it. This is of course preferable, but is only 
applicable where the owner of the mine can afford to 
expend the capital required to reach the limit of the field 
in excess of that necessary when the raising of coal pro 
ceeds pari passu with the extension of the main roads. 
Fig. 9 is substantially a modification of this kind of long- wall 
work. Plate III. fig 2, represents a method of working prac 
tised in the South Yorkshire district, known as bords and South 
banks. The field is divided by levels and headings into Yorks 
rectangular banks, while from the main levels bords or method - 
wickets about 30* yards wide, separated from each other by 
banks of about the same width, are carried forward in long- 
wall work, as shown on the left side of the figure, the waste 
being carefully packed behind so as to secure the ventila 
tion. When these have been worked up to the extremity, 
as shown on the right side, the intermediate bank is 
removed by working backward towards the level. This 
system, therefore, combines both methods of long-wall 
working, but is not generally applicable, owing to the diffi 
culty of ventilation, due to the great length of air-way that 
has to be kept open around the waste on each bank. 

The relative advantages of the different methods may be 
generally stated as follows. Long-wall work is best suited 
for thin coals, and those having a good roof, i.e., one that 
gives way gradually and fills up the excavation made by 
removing the coal without scaling off suddenly and falling 
into the working faces, when practically the whole of the 
coal may be removed. Against these advantages must be 
placed the difficulties attending the maintenance of roads 
through the goaves, and in some cases the large proportion 
of slack to round or large coal obtained. Pillar working, in 
the whole coal, is generally reputed to give a more advan 
tageous proportion of round coal to slack, the latter being 
more abundantly produced on the removal of the pillars, but 
as these form only a small portion of the whole seam, the 
general yield is more advantageous than in the former 
method. The ventilation of pillar working is often attended 
with difficulty, and the coal "is longer exposed to the influ 
ence of the air, a point of importance in some coals, which 
deteriorate in quality when exposed to a hot damp atmo 
sphere. The great increase in the size of the pillars in 
the best modern collieries worked upon this principle has, 
however, done much to approximate the two systems to an 
equality in other respects. 

The working of very thick seams presents certain special Working 
peculiarities, owing to the difficulties of supporting the roof tnick 
in the excavated portions, and supplying fresh air to the sc 
workings. The most typical example of this kind of work 
ing in England is afforded by the thick coal of South 
Staffordshire, which consists of a series of closely associated 
coal seams, varying from 8 to 12 or 13, divided from each 
other by their partings, but making together one great bed 
of from 25 to 40 feet or more in thickness. The partings 
together do not amount to more than 2 or 3 feet. The 
method of working which has been long in use is repre 
sented in fig. 11. The main level or gate road is driven 
in the benches coal, or lower part of the seam, while a 
smaller drift for ventilation, called an air heading, is 

VI - 9 



f)f> 



(J A L 



[MINING. 



carried above it in one of the upper beds called the slipper 
coal From the gate road a heading called a bolt-hole is 
opened, and extended into a large rectangular chamber, 
known as a " side of work," large pillars being left at regular 




Fro. 11. South Staffordshire method of working Thick Coal. 



intervals, besides smaller ones or cogs. The order in which 
the coal is cut is shown in the dotted and numbered squares 
in the figure. The coal is first cut to the top of the slipper 
coal from below, after which the upper portion is either 
broken down by wedging or falls of itself. The working of 
these upper portions is exceedingly dangerous, owing to the 
great height of ths excavations, and fatal accidents from 
falls of roof are in consequence more common in South 
Staffordshire than in any other coal-field in this country. 
The air from the down-cast shaft enters from the gate road, 
and passes to the up-cast through the air heading above. 
About one-half of the total coal (or less) is obtained in the 
first working ; the roof is then allowed to fall, and when 
the gob is sufficiently consolidated, fresh roads are driven 
through it to obtain the ribs and pillars left behind by a 
second or even, in some cases,. a third working. The loss 
of coal by this method is very considerable, besides great 
risk to life and danger from fire. It has, therefore, been 
to some extent superseded by the long-wall method, the 
upper half being taken at the first working, and removed as 
completely as possible, working backwards from the bound 
aries to the shaft. The lower half is then taken in the 
same manner, after the fallen roof has become sufficiently 
consolidated to allow the mine to be re-opened. 

In the working of thick seams inclined at a high angle, 
such as those in the south of France, and in the lignite 
mines of Styria and Bohemia, the method of working in 
horizontal slices, about 12 or 15 feet thick, and filling up 
the excavation with broken rock and earth from the sur 
face, is now generally adopted in preference to the systems 
formerly used. At Monceaux les Mines, in France, a seam 
40 fe<:t thick, and dipping at an angle of 20 degrees, is 
worked in the following manner. A level is driven in a 
sandstone forming the floor, along the course of the coal, 
into which communications are made by cross cuts at 
intervals of 16 yards, which are driven across to the roof, 
dividing up the area to be worked into panels- These are 
worked backwards, the coal being taken to a height of 
20 feet, the opening being packed up with stone sent down 
from the surface. As each stage is worked out, the floor 
level is connected with that next below it by means of an 
incline, which facilitates the introduction of the packing 
material. Stuff containing a considerable amount of clay 
is found to be the best suited for the purpose of filling, at 
it consolidates readily under pressure 



The actual cutting of the coal is chiefly performed by Method 
manual labour, the tool employed being a sharp-pointed of cutti 
double-armed pick, which is nearly straight, except when 
required for use in hard rock, when the arms are made 
with an inclination or " anchored." The terms pike, pick, 
mandril, and slitter are applied to the collier s pick in 
different districts, the men being known as pikemen or 
hewers. In driving levels it is necessary to cut grooves 
vertically parallel to the walls, a process known as shearing; 
but the most important operation is that known as holing 
or kirving, which consists in cutting a notch or groove in 
the floor of the seam to a depth of about 3 feet, measured 
back from the face, so as to leave the overhanging part 
unsupported, which then either falls of its own accord 
within a few hours, or is brought down either by driving 
wedges along the top, or by blasting with gunpowder. The 
process of holing in coal is one of the severest kinds of 
human labour. It has to be performed in a constrained posi 
tion, and the miner lying on his side has to cut to a much 
greater height, in order to get room to carry the groove in 
to a sufficient depth, than is required to bring the coal 
down, giving rise to a great waste in slack as compared 
with machine work. This is sometimes obviated by holing 
in the beds below the coal, or in any portion of a seam of 
inferior quality that may not be worth working. This loss is 
proportionately greater in thin than in thick seams, the same 
quantity being cut to waste in either case. The method of 
cutting coal on the long- wall system is seen in fig. 1 2, repre- 




Fio. 12. Long- wall working-face Plan and Section. 

senting the working at the Shipley colliery. The coal is 40 
inches thick, with a seam of fire-clay and a roof of black 
shale , about 6 inches of the upper part, known as the roof 
coal, not being worth working, is left behind. A groove of 
triangular section of 30 inches base and 9 inches high is cut 
along the face, inclined timber props being placed at inter 
vals to support the overhanging portion until the required 
length is cut. These are then removed, and the coal is 
allowed to fall, wedges or blasting being employed when 
necessary. The roof of the excavation is supported as the 
coal is removed, by packing up the waste material, and by 
a double row of props, two feet from each other, placed tem- 



CUTTING MACHINES.] 



COAL 



67 



porarily along the face. These are placed 5 feet apart, the 
props of the back row alternating with those in front. The 
props used are preferably of small oak or English larch, 
but large quantities of fir props, cut to the right length, 
aro also imported from the north of Europe. As the work 
proceeds onwards, the props are withdrawn and replaced in 
advance, except those that may be crushed by the pressure 
or buried by sudden falls of the roof. 

In Yorkshire hollow square pillars, formed by piling up 
short blocks of wood or chocks, are often used instead of 
props formed of a single stem. Iron pit props have been 
proposed at different times, but their use has not become 
general. When the coal has been under-cut for a sufficient 
length, the struts are withdrawn, and the overhanging mass 
is allowed to fall during the time that the workmen are out 
of the pit, or it may be brought down by driving wedges, 
or if it be of a compact character a blast of gunpowder in 
a bore hole near tho roof may be required. Sometimes, but 
rarely, it happens that it is necessary to cut vertical grooves 
in the face to determina the limit of the fall, such limits 



being usually dependent upon the cleet or divisional planes 
in the coal, especially when the work is carried perpen 
dicular to them or on the end. 

The substitution of machinery for hand labour in cut- Coal- 
ting coal has long been a favourite problem with iuven- c 
tors, the earliest plan being that of Menzies, in 1761, who 
proposed to work a heavy pick underground by power 
transmitted from an engine at the surface, through the 
agencies of spear-rods and chains passing over pulleys; 
but none of the methods suggested proved to be prac 
tically successful until the general introduction of com 
pressed air into mines furnished a convenient motive 
power, susceptible of being carried to considerable distances 
without any great loss of pressure. This agent has of late 
years been applied in various ways, in machines which 
either imitate the action of the collier by cutting with a pick 
or make a groove by rotating cutters attached to an endless 
chain or a revolving disc or wheel. The most successful 
of the first class, or pick machines, is that of Mr William 
Firth of Sheffield, represented in fig. 13. It consists esseu- 




FIG. 13. Firth s Coal-cutting Machine. 



tially of a horizontal piston and cylinder engine fixed upon 
a platform carried upon four wheels, which are coupled to 
gether by side rods, so that on motion being communi 
cated by means of a mitre wheel in the hind axle, it can 
be moved forward by hand. On the forward end of the 
frame are two bosses forming the centres for a pair of bell 
cranks or bent levers placed close to the ground, and facing 
in opposite directions, either one of which can be con 
nected with the piston rod. The outer arm of each lever 
carries a square socket, into which is fixed the pick, which 
has two cutting heads, one placed a little in front of the 
other so as to cut to the whole depth at one operation. 
In the older forms picks of different length were used, and 
it was necessary to go over the work a second or third 
time, in order to hole to the full depth. The cutting- 
points are loose, being secured by cotters to the pick head, 
so that broken or blunted ones can be readily replaced 
without removing the pick arm. The power used is air, 
at about 40 to 60 ft> above atmospheric pressure. It is con 
ducted from the reservoir connected with a compressing 
engine at the surface, through iron pipes fixed in the pit, 
and along the main roads to the working face, where thick 
vulcanized india-rubber pipes are used, sufficient length of 
pipe lying loose on the ground to allow the engine to 
move freely, the connection being made by a screwed joint 
at the back of the slide-valve chest. The valve is worked 
by tappets on the piston-rod, so as to be perfectly self- 
acting when properly adjusted ; it can also be moved by 
hand. The pick holders face in opposite directions, in order 



that the machine may be worked from either side. The 
size of the machine as ordinarily made is about 4 feet in 
length, 2 feet 2 inches high, and from 18 to 24 inches gauge 
of rails. The weight is about 15 cwt. The working speed is 
from 60 to 90 strokes per minute, corresponding to a length 
of from 10 to 20 yards, cut to a depth of 3 feet per hour. 
At the former rate, or 60 yards per shift of 6 hours, the 
work done corresponds to that of twelve average men. The 
width of the groove is from 2 to 3 inches at the face, 
diminishing to 1^ inches at the back, the proportion of waste 
being very considerably diminished as compared with the 
system of holing by hand. The use of this machine has 
allowed a thin seam of cannel, from 10 to 14 inches in 
thickness, to be worked to profit, which had formerly been 
abandoned as too hard to be worked by hand-labour. 

An earlier form of the second class of machine, in which 
the cutters have a continuous motion like those of a 
slotting machine, is that invented by Mr William Peace 
in the Wigan district, which is reproduced from the last 
edition as illustrating the principle which has since been 
carried out by other inventors in a more convenient and 
simplified form. It is represented in Plate V., figs, 1, 
2, and 3. AAA is the frame, upon which are fixed one or 
more cylinders B, arranged so as to turn a crank shaft 
C, fixed to the frame, as is also another shaft D. This 
latter is capable of being turned by the former, by 
means of mitre or bevel wheels EEE ; upon the lower 
end of the latter shaft D is placed a wheel termed the 
driving wheel, having upon its periphery a groove with 



08 



C A L 



[MINING. 



suitable projections for working into and propelling a chain 
or band. Beneath or to the side of the frame (or both) 
is fixed temporarily or otherwise a lever, the extremity 
of which is constructed to carry a wheel called the ter 
minal wheel, marked II H ; a chain or band is made to pass 
round the driving and terminal wheels, and by means of 
the driving wheel FF it is made to revolve. Into the 
chain are fixed cutters of different forms (see the parts 
marked, figs. 4, 5, 6, and 7), which, when the machine is in 
action, revolve with it, and upon being pressed or drawn 
against the coal, erode and excavate the same. The dis 
tance of the excavation from the face of the coal is 
governed by the dimensions of the machine, and by the 
length of the lever and the distance between the driving 
and terminal wheels. The arrangements of the lever allow 
it to revolve, and to excavate any given range ; see dotted 
lines fig. 1. 

If found necessary, two or even three levers may be in 
operation at the same time, and arranged to cut in any 
direction. Other parts of the machine not particularly de 
scribed are capable of elevating and depressing the front 
part of the machine, marked V, T, U, W ; and those 
marked X, Y, Z, and K are capable of propelling the 
machine whilst at work, by acting against the prop. 

The Gartsherrie machine of Messrs Baird is of the same 
character, but the chain of cutters works round a fixed 
frame or jib projecting at right angles from the engine car 
riage, instead of traversing upon a centre, an arrangement 
which makes it necessary to cut from the end of the block 
of coal to the full depth, instead of holing into it from the 
face. The forward feed is given by a chain winding upon 
a drum, which hauls upon a pulley fixed to a prop about 30 
yards in advance. This is one of the most compact form 
of machines, the smaller size being only 20 inches high. 
With an air pressure of from 35 to 40 ft> per square inch, 
a. length of from 300 to 350 feet of coal is holed, 2 ft, 9 in. 
deep, in the shift of from 8 to 10 hours. 

One of the simplest forms of coal-cutting machines is 
that of Messrs Winstanly & Barker (fig. 14), which is driven 




Fro. 14. Winstanly & Barker s Coal-cutting Machine Plan. 
by a pair of oscillating engines placed on a frame run 
ning on rails in the usual way. The crank shaft carries a 
pinion which gears into a toothed wheel of a coarse pitch, 
carrying cutters at the ends of the teeth. This wheel is 
mounted on a carrier which, being movable about its centre 
by a screw gearing worked by hand, gives a radial sweep 
to the cutting edges, as in the machine figured in Plate V. 
When at work it is slowly turned until the carrier is at right 
angles to the frame, when the cut has attained the full 
depth. The forward motion is given by a chain-winding 
upon a crab placed in front, which is worked by a boy who 
hauls it slowly forward. With 25 R) pressure it will hole 
3 feet deep, at the rate of 30 yards per hour, the cut being 



only 2| in. high, but it will only work on one side of the 
carriage. 

Another kind of application of machinery to coal mining 
is that of Messrs Bidder & Jones, which is intended to 
replace the use of blasting with gunpowder for bringing 
down the coal, a practice which in fiery collieries is often 
attended with considerable danger from the flash of the ex 
plosion firing the gas given off the coal. It consists of 
a small hydraulic press, which forces a set of expanding 
bits or wedges into a bore-hole previously bored by a long 
screw augur or drill, worked by hand, the action of 
the press being continued until a sufficient strain is 
obtained to bring down the coal. The arrangement is, 
in fact, a modification of the plug and feather system 
used in stone quarrying for obtaining large blocks, but 
with the substitution of the powerful rending force of 
the hydraulic press for hand -power in driving up the 
wedges. This apparatus has been used at Harecastle in 
North Staffordshire, and found to work well, but with the 
disadvantage of bringing down the coal in unmanageably 
large masses. The use of gunpowder in very fiery mines is 
always attended with danger, and a method of wedging 
down coal sufficiently perfected to be of general application 
would add greatly to the security of the colliers in work 
ing such mines. 

The removal of the coal when broker from the work- 
ing faces to the pit bottom or to the main levels is effected 
mainly by hand labour when the mine is small, and the 
distances to be traversed inconsiderable, and in mines of 
greater extent by horse or steam traction. The simplest 
method is that of loading the broken coal on to a sledge, 
which is dragged along the floor to the level, but now 
the practice of carrying railways to the face is almost 
universal. The old form of flat rail or tram is still largely 
used, the waggons having sharp- edged disc wheels, but 
probably edge rails and flanged wheels are now more 
general. The class of rail used is generally a flat-bottomed 
or bridge section, weighing from 15 to 25 ft> per yard, 
laid upon cross sleepers, which, in roads that are intended 
to be kept open for some time, are fixed down firmly, 
but are laid in a temporary manner along the working 
faces, and in similar positions where it is necessary to be 
continually shifting them, as, for instance, wheie coal-cut 
ting machines are used. The arrangement of the drawing 
roads at the face of a long-wall colliery is seen in the plan 
fig. 12, where the rails are brought to the face upon a 
smooth iron plate, upon which the trams can be easily 
handled by turning on the flanges of the wheels. The 
names applied to the vehicles in which the coal is carried 
vary considerably, as do also their size and capacity. The 
word " corf " or " corve," representing the old basket sledge, 
is one of the most generally used, as are " tram," signifying 
a tram waggon, and " tub," of the same signification as the 
last, but a representative of the old method of drawing in 
wooden buckets. In South Staffordshire and other Midland 
districts, a contrivance called a "skip" is the representative 
method of conveyance ; this consists of a platform with 
tram wheels, upon which the coal is built up to a consider 
able height, the large pieces round the sides being kept to 
gether by loose rings of sheet iron, and the intermediate 
spaces packed full with small coal, the whole arrange 
ment representing a kind of cask. This, however, like 
most of the similar primitive methods, is giving way to the 
more improved system of tubs or trams. These are small 
railway trucks, generally with flanged wheels and square- 
sided bodies, either of wood or wrought iron, varying in 
capacity from 4 cwt. in thin seams to 10 or 12 cwt. in 
thicker seams. 

In the removal of the coal from the workings the first 
portion of the journey .is generally performed by hand- 



Coal 
wedging 



Under- 
g r undc 

ve y ance - 



CONVEYANCE.] 



COAL 



power, boys being employed to push the trams before 
them to the main roads. In the thin seams jf South York 
shire and other places, considerable journeys are often 
performed in this way, the boys known, as " hurriers" or 
" putters" being obliged to crawl at full length, owing to the 
lowness of the excavation. As a general rule boys are not 
allowed to work in collieries when below 12 years of age, 
but in these thin mines special exemptions are granted, 
permitting the use of younger boys as putters when re 
quired. Where the levels are large, horse traction is in 
common use; the trams are formed up into trains, and from 
6 to 15 vehicles are drawn by one horse. A considerable 
number of ponies are imported into the northern ports of 
this country from Norway and Iceland for this purpose 
every year. The supply of horses is, however, becoming 
scarcer, and the price higher, so that the use of under 
ground engines is generally adopted where the output is 
sufficiently large to justify the expenditure. This is done 
by hauling or, as it is called in the North of England, lead 
ing the trains of tubs by rope traction. In a large colliery 
where the shafts are situated near the centre of the field, 
and the workings extend on all sides, both to the dip and 
rise, the drawing roads for the coal may be of three differ 
ent kinds, (1) levels driven at right angles to the dip, 
suitable for horse roads, (2) rise ways, known as jinny roads, 
jig-brows, or up-brows, which, when of sufficient slope, may 
be used as self-acting planes, i.e., the loaded waggons may 
be made to pull back the empty ones to the working faces, 
and (3) dip or down-brows, requiring engine power. A 
road may be used as a self-acting or gravitating incline when 
the gradient is 1 in 30 or steeper, in which case the train 
is lowered by a rope passing over a pulley or brake drum 
at the upper end, the return empty train being attached to 
the opposite end of the rope and hauled up by the descend 
ing load. The arrangements for this purpose vary, of course, 
with the amount of work to be done with one fixing of the 
machinery ; where it is likely to be used for a considerable 
time, the drum and brake are solidly constructed, and 
the ropes of steel or iron wire carefully guided over fric 
tion rollers, placed at intervals between the rails to pre 
vent them from chafing and wearing out on the ground. 
Where the load has to be hauled up a rising gradient, 
underground engines, driven by steam or compressed air, are 
now generally used. In some cases steam generated in 
boilers at the surface is carried in pipes to the engines 
below, but this can be done with less loss of power by send 
ing down compressed air in the same way. The use of 
underground boilers placed near the upcast pit, as in 
fig. 6, so that the smoke and gases help the ventilat 
ing furnace, is most convenient in the majority of cases. 
Water-pressure engines, driven by a column of water equal 
to the depth of the pit, have also been employed for 
hauling. These can, however, only be used advantageously 
where there are fixed pumps, the fall of water generating 
the power resulting in a load to be removed by the expen 
diture of an equivalent amount of power in the pumping 
engine above that necessary for keeping down the mine 
water. 

There are four principal methods in which steam power 
can be applied to underground traction. These, which have 
been discussed in the fullest manner in the Report of the 
North of England Institute of Mining Engineers for 1867- 
68, are as follows : 

1. Tail rope system. 

2. Endless chain system. 

3. Endless rope system on the ground. 

4. Endless rope system overhead. 

The three last may be considered as modifications of 
the same principle. In the first, which is that generally 
used in Northumberland and Durham, a single line of rails 



is used, the loaded tubs being drawn "out bye," i.e., towards 
the shaft, and the empty ones returned " in bye," or towards 
the working faces, by reversing the engine ; while in the 
other systems, double lines, with the rope travelling continu 
ously in the same direction, are the rule. On the tail rope 
plan the engine has two drums worked by spur gearing-, 
which can be connected with, or cast loose from, the driving 
shaft at pleasure. The main rope, which draws out the 
loaded tubs, coils upon one drum, and passes near the floor 
over guide sheaves placed about 20 feet apart. The tail 
rope, which is of lighter section than the main one, 
is coiled on the second drum, passes over similar guide 
sheaves placed near the roof or side of the gallery round a 
pulley at the bottom of the plane, and is fixed to the end 
of the train or set of tubs. When the load is being drawn 
out, the engine pulls directly on the main rope, coiling it 
on to its own drum, while the tail drum runs loose pay 
ing out its rope, a slight brake pressure being used to pre 
vent its running out too fast. When the set arrives out bye, 
the main rope will be wound up, and the tail rope pass out 
from the drum to the end and back, i.e., twice the length 
of the way; the. set is returned in bye, by reversing the 
engine, casting loose the main, and coupling up the tail 
drum, so that the tail rope is wound up, and the main rope 
paid out. This method, which is the oldest, having been 
in use for twenty-five years or more in the North of Eng 
land, is best adapted for ways that are nearly level, or 
when many branches are intended to be worked from one 
engine, and can be carried round curves of small radius 
without deranging the trains; but as it is intermittent in 
action, considerable engine-power is required in order to 
get up the required speed, which is from 8 to 10 miles per 
hour. From 8 to 10 tubs are usually drawn in a set, the 
ways being often from 2000 to 3000 yards long. In dip 
workings the tail rope is often made to work a pump con 
nected with the bottom pulley, which forces the water back 
to the cistern of the main pumping engine in the pit. 

For the endless chain system, which is much iised in the 
Wigan district a double line of way is necessary, one line for 
full and the other for empty tubs. The chain passes over a 
pulley driven by the engine, placed at such a height as to 
allow it to rest upon the tops of the tubs, and round a 
similar pulley at the far end of the plane. The forward 
edge of the tub carries a projecting pin or horn, with a 
notch into which the chain falls which drags the tub forward. 
The road at the outer end is made of a less slope than the 
chain, so that on arrival the tub is lowered, clears the pin, 
and so becomes detached from the chain. The tubs are 
placed on at intervals of about 20 yards, the chain moving 
continuously at a speed of from 2^ to 4 miles per hour. 
This system presents the greatest advantages in point of 
economy of driving power, especially where the gradients 
are variable, but is expensive in first cost, and is not well 
suited for curves, and branch roads cannot be worked con 
tinuously, as a fresh set of pulleys worked by bevel gear 
ing is required for each branch. 

The endless rope system may be used with either a 
single or double line of way, but the latter is more gene 
rally advantageous. The rope, which is guided upon 
sheaves between the rails, is taken twice round the 
head pulley; or a Fowler s clip pulley may be used. It is 
also customary to use a stretching pulley to keep the rope 
strained when the pull of the load diminishes. This is 
done by passing a loop at the upper end round a pulley 
mounted in a travelling frame, to which is attached a 
weight of about 15 cwt. hanging by a chain. This weight 
pulls directly against the rope ; so if the latter slacks, the 
weight pulls out the pulley frame and tightens it up again. 
The tubs are usually formed into sets of from 2 to 12, 
the front one being coupled up by a short length of chain 



70 



COAL 



[MINING. 



to a clamping hook formed of two jaws moulded to the 
curve of the rope which are attached by the " run rider," 
as the driver accompanying the train is called. This 
system in many respects resembles the tail rope, but has 
the advantage of working with one-third less length of 
rope for the same length of way. 

The endless rope system overhead is substantially 
similar to the endless chain. The waggons are attached at 
intervals by short lengths of chain lapped twice round the 
rope and hooked into one of the links, or in some cases 
the chains are hooked into hempen loops on the main 
rope. 

One of the most important branches of colliery work is 
the management of the ventilation, involving as it does 
the supply of fresh air to the men working in the pit, as 
well as the removal of inflammable gases that may be 
given off by the coal. This is effected by carrying through 
the workings a large volume of air Avhich is kept continu 
ally moving in the same direction, descending from the 
surface by one or more pits known as intake or downcast 
pits, and leaving the mine by a return or upcast pit. Such 
a circulation of air can only be effected by mechanical 
means when the workings are of any extent, as will be 
apparent from the following considerations : 

If the shafts A and B, 
fig. 15, were of equal 
depth from the horizon 
tal plane, and connected 
by the mine C, the air 
would fill the openings 
and remain quiescent. 
If the one were to the 
dip of the other, but 
communicating with the 
surface at a higher level, 
as by fig. 16, it would 
sometimes happen, in summer, that D would be the down 
cast, and E the upcast, and in winter, E the downcast, and 
D the upcast. These conditions are induced by the tern- 





Fig. 16. 

perature of the earth at a certain depth being nearly con 
stant, while the atmosphere is changeable, the column of 
air in D d being at a lower temperature in summer than 
the column of air E e, and the reverse in winter. 

The methods actually adopted are (1 ) The rarefaction of 
the air in the upcast pit by a furnace placed at the bottom; 
and (2) Exhaustion by machinery at the surface. The 
former plan, although hitherto most generally used, is in 
many places becoming replaced by some form of machine. 
Furnace. The usual form of ventilating furnace is a plain fire 
grate placed under an arch, and communicating with the 
upcast shaft by an inclined drift. It is separated from 
the coal by a narrow passage walled and arched in brick 
work on both sides. The size of the grate varies with 
the requirements of the ventilation, but from G to 10 feet 
broad and from G to 8 feet long are usual dimensions. 



At Shircoaks Colliery, in Nottinghamshire, a furnace con 
suming G tons of slack per 24 hours upon a grate surface 
of 72 square feet maintains a circulation of about 120,000 
cubic feet per minute. At Iletton Colliery, Durham, 
the grate is a long, narrow rectangle, 25 feet by 5 feet, 
with numerous furnace-doors on the long side, so arranged 
that the surface fired may be varied according to the 
amount of draught required. There are two bunker- 
holes for coals, and a stoking passage, 7 feet wide, in 
front of the furnace. The fire should be kept as thin and 
bright as possible, to reduce the amount of smoke in the 
upcast. When the mine is free from gas, the furnace may 
be worked by the return air, but it is better to take fresh 
air directly from the downcast by a scale, or split, from 
the main current. The return air from fiery workings is 
never allowed to approach the furnace, but is carried into 
the upcast by a special channel, called a dumb drift, some 
distance above the furnace drift, so as not to come in con 
tact with the products of combustion until they have been 
cooled below the igniting point of fire-damp. Where the 
upcast pit is used for drawing coal, it is usual to discharge 
the smoke and gases through a short lateral drift near the 
surface into a tall chimney, so as to keep the pit-top as 
clear as possible for working. Otherwise the chimney is 
built directly over the mouth of the pit. 

Various kinds of machines for ventilation, both by direct M 
exhaustion and centrifugal displacement, have been tried ven 
both in England and in Belgium. Of the former class 
are the great bell machines, resembling gasometers, 12 feet 
to 22 feet in diameter, and 9 feet high, moving in a water 
tank with balanced flap valves for alternately admitting 
and exhausting the air. These were used at Marihaye, 
near Li6ge, and at Cwm Avon in South Wales, by Mr 
Struve". Perhaps the largest of the class of piston machines 
is that at Nixon s Navigation Pit, near Aberdare, which 
has rectangular pistons, 30 feet by 22 feet, moving hori 
zontally through a stroke of 7 feet, the lower edge being 
supported by rollers running on rails. The great weight 
of the moving parts in this class of machine makes them 
incapable of acting at any very high speed, and conse 
quently expensive for the amount of work done. This is 
in some degree obviated in the rotary piston machines of 
Fabry and Lemielle, the former resembling in principle 
Hoot s blower, now so much used in blowing foundry and 
smiths fires, but on a larger scale. Lemielle s ventilator 
is a vertical drum revolving eccentrically within a cylin 
drical casing. The drum carries three jointed blades, 
which are drawn in or out by radius bars as it revolves, so 
as to enclose and sweep out at each revolution tbe body of 
air included between the two cylinders. This is one of 
the best machines of its class, producing a comparatively 
high effect for the power expended. An American machine 
of this kind is described and figured in the article BELLOWS, 
vol. iii. p. 552, fig. 5. 

Of late years, various kinds of centrifugal machines, or 
fans, have come into use instead of ventilating furnaces. 
One of the most successful of these is that invented by Mr 
Guibal of Lie ge, represented in fig. 17. The fan has eight 
arms, framed together of wrought-iron bars, with diagonal 
struts, so as to obtain rigidity with comparative lightness, 
carrying flat close-boarded blades at their extremities. It 
revolves with the smallest possible clearance in a chamber 
of masonry, one of the side walls being perforated by a large 
round hole, through which the air from the mine is admitted 
to the centre of the fan. The lower quadrant of the casing 
is enlarged spirally, BO as to leave a narrow rectangular 
opening at the bottom, through which the air is discharged 
into a chimney of gradually increasing section carried to a 
height of about 25 feet. The size of the discharge aperture 
can be varied by means of a flexible wooden shutter sliding 



VENTILATION.] 



COAL 



71 



in a groove in a cast-iron plate, curved to the slope of 
the casing. By the use of the spiral guide casing and the 




FIG. 17. Guibal s Fan. 

chimney, the velocity of the effluent air is gradually reduced 
up to the point of final discharge into the atmosphere, 
whereby a greater useful effect is realized than is the case 
when the air streams freely from the circumference with a 
velocity equal to that of the rotating fan. The power is 
applied by steam acting directly on a crank at one end 
of the axle. In most of the newer examples, which are 
generally of large size, the power is divided, an engine 
being placed on each side. At Washington Colliery, 
Durham, a machine of 36 feet diameter, 12 feet breadth 
of face, and 13 feet diameter of intake passage, draws 
120,000 cubic feet of air per minute, when making 38 
revolutions Another at Usworth, 48 feet diameter and 
12 feet breadth of face, driven by two high-pressure 
engines, with cylinders 3 feet in diameter and 3 feet 
stroke, equal to about 280 horse-power, exhausts 200,000 
cubic feet per minute. The useful effect realized under 
the most favourable conditions is as much as 50 per cent, 
of that of the steam power employed. 

Waddle s fan, represented in fig. 18, is an example of 




FIG. 18. -Waddle s Fan. 

another class of centrifugal ventilator, in which a close cas 
ing is not used, the air exhausted being discharged from 
the circumference directly into the atmosphere. It con 
sists of a hollow sheet-iron drum formed by two conoidal 
tubes, united together by numerous guide blades, dividing 
it up into a series of rectangular tubes of diminishing sec 
tion, attached to a horizontal axle by cast-iron bosses and 
wrought-iron arms. The tubes at their smallest part are 
connected to a cast-iron ring, 10 feet in diameter, but 
at their outer circumference they are only 2 feet apart. 
The extreme diameter is 25 feet. A fan of these dimen 
sions atBrownhills in Staffordshire, in making 50 revolutions 
per minute, circulates 47,000 cubic feet of air through the 
workings. It has also been in use for some years in South 
Wales, and is found to work well; it is less expensive 
in first cost than Guibal s, although proportionally less 



economical from the smaller effect realized for the power 
expended. 

Another method of colliery ventilation is that by jets of 
steam blowing off at a high velocity into the upcast shaft, 
and producing a draught similar to that of the exhaust 
blast in the chimney of a locomotive. This plan found 
several advocates some years since, and was the subject 
of numerous comparative trials against the ventilating fur 
nace in the North of England, but the results were unfa 
vourable, the amount of air circulation produced being 
exceedingly small for the fuel expended. It seems probable^ 
however, that this want of success was in great part due 
to the defective character of the apparatus applied, and 
that, with properly-constructed aspirators and discharge 
passages, the steam jet may prove to be a very efficient 
means of ventilation. 

The comparative merits of furnace and machine ventila 
tion have long been discussed without any definite result. 
The former was at one time regarded in England as practi 
cally superior in every respect, but this opinion has been 
modified since the introduction of the improved forms of 
fans which have been worked to a considerable extent. In 
France and Belgium, on the contrary, machine ventilation 
has been more generally in favour. For a deep and ex 
tensive mine where the coal is not fiery, the furnace is 
undoubtedly the simplest and most efficacious method 
of producing a large circulation of air ; but for moderate 
depths, especially with fiery return air, a ventilating machine 
at the surface is in many cases to be preferred. There ia 
also an important advantage procured by the latter, 
namely, that of reserve power, so that a larger circulation 
may be obtained immediately in case of need, e.g., when 
the barometer falls suddenly, by merely increasing the 
speed of rotation, which cannot so readily be done with 
the furnace, which has a tendency to slacken at the time 
when the increased work is wanted. 

The quantity of air required for a large colliery depends Distribu- 
upon the number of men employed, as for actual respira- tion of air 
tion from 100 to 200 cubic feet per minute should be 
allowed. In fiery mines, however, a very much larger 
amount must be provided in order to dilute the gas to the 
point of safety. Even with the best arrangements a dan 
gerous increase in the amount of gas is not un frequent 
from the sudden release of stored up masses in the coal, 
which, overpowering the ventilation, produce magazines of 
explosive material ready for ignition when brought in con 
tact with the flame of a lamp or the blast of a shot. The 
management of such places, therefore, requires the most 
constant vigilance on the part of the workmen, especially 
in the examination of the working places that have been 
standing empty during the night, in which gas may have 
accumulated, to see that they are properly cleared before 
the new shift commences. 

The actual conveyance or coursing of the air from the 
intake to the working faces is effected by splitting or 
dividing the current at different points in its course, so as to 
carry it as directly as possible to the places where it is 
required. In laying out the mine, it is customary to drive 
the levels or roads in pairs, communication being made 
between them at intervals by cutting through the inter 
mediate pillar, the air then passes along one, and returns 
by the other. As the roads advance other pillars are 
driven through in the same manner, the passages first made 
being closed by stoppings of broken rock, or built up 
with brick and mortar walls, or both. When it is desired 
to preserve a way from one road or similar class of work 
ing to another, double doors placed at sufficient intervals 
apart to take in one or more trams between them whon 
closed are used, forming a kind of lock or sluice. These 
are made to shut air-tight against their frames, so as to 



72 



C A L 



[MINING. 



prevent the air from taking a short cut back to the up 
cast, while preserving free access between the different 
districts without following the whole round of the air 
ways. The ventilation of ends is effected by means of 
brattices or temporary partitions of thin boards placed 
midway in the drift, and extending to within a few feet of 
the face. The air passes along one side of the brattice, 
courses round the free end, and returns on the other side. 
In many cases a light but air-proof cloth, specially made 
for the purpose, is used instead of wood for brattices, as 
being more handy and more easily removed. In large mines 
where the air- ways are numerous and complicated, it often 
happens that currents travelling in opposite directions are 
brought together at one point. In these cases it is neces- 

Crossings. sary to cross them in the manner shown in fig. 2, Plate III. 
The return air is usually made to pass over the intake by 
a curved drift carried some distance above in the solid 
measures, both ways being arched in brickwork, or even 
in some cases lined with sheet-iron so as to ensure a 
separation not likely to be destroyed in case of an ex 
plosion. The relation of the ventilation to the workings 
under the different systems is indicated on the several 
plates by arrows and other signs, from which the general 
character of the arrangements adopted can be made out 
without further description. 

Lighting. The lighting of underground workings in collieries is 
closely connected with the subject of ventilation. In 
many of the smaller pits in the Midland districts, and 
generally in South Staffordshire, the coals are sufficiently 
free from gas, or rather the gases are not liable to become 
explosive when mixed with air, to allow the use of naked 
lights, candles being generally used. Oil lamps are em 
ployed in many of the Scotch collieries, and are almost 
universally used in Belgium and other Continental coun 
tries. The buildings near the pit bottom, such as the 
stables and lamp cabin, and even the main roads for some 
distance, are often in large collieries lighted with gas 
brought from the surface, or in some cases the gas given 
off by the coal is used for the same purpose. Where the 
gases are fiery, the use of protected lights or safety lamps 
becomes a necessity. 

Composi- The nature of the gases evolved by coal when freshly 

tion of gas exposed to the atmosphere has been investigated by several 
y chemists, more particularly by Playfair and Meyer. The 
latter observer found the gases given off by coal from the 
district of Newcastle and Durham to contain carbonic acid 
(anhydride), marsh gas or light carburet ted hydrogen (the 
fire-damp of the miner), oxygen, and nitrogen. A newer 
investigation, by Mr J. W. Thomas, of the gases dissolved 
or occluded in coals from South Wales basin shows them 
to vary considerably with the class of coal. The results 
given below, which are selected from a much larger series 
published in the Journal of the Chemical Society, were 
obtained by heating samples of the different coals in vacuo 
for several hours at the temperature of boiling water. 






Composition in Volumes per cent. 
\ olunie L 


Quality. 


Colliery. 


per ton 
in cubic 
feet. 


Car 
bonic 
Acid 


Oxvgen. 


Marsh 
Gas. 


Nitro 
gen. 


Bituminous. 


Cwm Clydach. 


1972 


5-41 


1-05 


6"- 76 


2970 





Lnntwlt. 


14-34 


9-4:i 


2-25 


31-95 


5G 34 


Steam. 


Navigation. 


89-62 


13-21 


0-49 


81-64 


4-C6 


Anthracite. -J I 


19894 


2-C2 


... 


93-13 


4-25 



In one instance, about 1 per cent, of bydride of ethyl was 
found in the gas from a blower in a pit in the Rhondda dis 
trict, which was collected in a tube and brought to the surface 
to be used in lighting the engine-room and pit-bank. The 
gases from the bituminous house coals of South Wales are 



comparatively free from marsh gas, as compared with thosa 
from the steam coal and anthracite pits. The latter class 
of coal contains the largest proportion of this danger 
ous gas, but holds it more tenaciously than do the steam 
coals, thus rendering the workings comparatively safer. 
It was found that, of the entire volume of occluded gas iu 
an anthracite, only one-third could be expelled at the tem 
perature of boiling water, and that the whole quantity, 
amounting to 650 cubic feet per ton, was only to be 
driven out by a heat of 300 C. Steam coals being 
softer and more porous give off enormous volumes of gas 
from the working face in most of the deep pits, many of 
which have been the scene of disastrous explosions. 

The gases evolved from the sudden outbursts or blowers 
in coal, which are often given off at a considerable tension, 
are the most dangerous enemy that the collier has to con 
tend with. They consist almost entirely of marsh gas, 
with only a small quantity of carbonic acid, usually under 
1 per cent., and from 1 to 4 per cent, of nitrogen. 

Fire-damp when mixed with from four to twelve times 
its volume of atmospheric air is explosive ; but when the 
proportion is above or below these limits, it is inflam 
mable, burning quietly with a pale blue flame. When a 
lighted candle is exposed in a non-explosive mixture of this 
gas, the flame gradually elongates, forming a conical cap, 
floating above the wick, which may be extinguished by 
cautious withdrawal without communicating the fire to the 
surrounding atmosphere. This method of testing for gas 
in the working places and wastes, which is obviously only 
to be trusted in skilled hands, used to be commonly 
practised, but since the introduction of safety lamps it has 
fallen into disuse. 

The principle involved in the construction of safety- Safe 
lamps consists in surrounding the flame of a lamp by lami 
a protecting metal case, perforated with numerous small 
holes, through which the air for feeding the flame may freely 
enter, and the products of combustion pass out, while the 
passage of flame, or gases sufficiently heated to cause the 
ignition of the external air when laden with explosive 
gases, is prevented. In 1816 Sir Humphrey Davy made 
the great discovery that these conditions are fulfilled by 
the use of tubes reduced to a mere section, such as the 
apertures in wire gauze, when the substance of the wire is 
rightly proportioned to the size of the aperture. The 
standard adopted as the limit for safety at that time was 
a gauze of 28 iron wires to the linear inch, having 784 
apertures per square inch, which has been used ever since. 
The common safety or Davy lamp consists of a small 
cylindrical oil lamp, covered with a cylinder of wire gauze 
about 6 inches long and 1J inches in diameter, with a flat 
gauze top. The upper part of the gauze is doubled to 
prevent its being worn into holes by the products ot 
combustion, and the air for feeding the flame enters round 
the wick. The gauze is mounted in a cage, consisting of 
three upright wires, screwed into a flat brass ring at each 
end. A handle is attached to the upper ring, while the lower 
one screws on to a collar on the oil-vessel of the lamp. 
When the two parts are screwed together the lamp is locked 
by a bolt passing through both parts, which is screwed 
down flush with or below the surface of the outer ring, so 
that the gauze cannot be removed without the use of a key. 

In Stephenson s safety-lamp, generally known as the 
" Geordie," from the inventor George Stephenson, the light 
is covered by a glass chimney, surrounded by an outer 
casing and top of wire gauze. The feed air is admitted 
through numerous small holes in a copper ring a little 
below the level of the wick. This is one of the safest 
forms of lamp, but requires considerable care in use, espe 
cially in keeping the small feed holes clear from dust and 
oil ; the glass protects the gauze from becoming overheated, 



SAFETY LAMPS.] 



COAL 



and when the air is dangerously charged with gas the light 
is extinguished. 

Various forms of safety-lamps have been introduced at 
different times, for the purpose of increasing the amount of 
light by substituting a glass cylinder for the lower portion 
of the wire gauze. The oldest of these is that of Dr 
Clanny, contemporary with those of Davy and Stepheuson. 
The air for supplying the flame, entering at the bottom of 
the gauze, and passing down the iiner side of the glass, 
protects the latter to some extent from becoming over 
heated, but a large amount of light is lost; by absorption 
in the glass, so that there is no great advantage over the 
ordinary Davy lamp to compensate for the extra weight 
and cost, especially as the safety property of the lamp 
depends upon the glass cylinder, which may be readily 
broken when subjected to the ordinary accidents of work 
ing. A more perfect form of lamp of the same character 
is that of Museler, which is extensively used in Belgium. 
It differs from Clanny s lamp by the addition of a conical 
chimney above the flame, which produces a rapid draught, 
and consequently a more perfect cooling of the glass 
cylinder by the down-draught of feed air for the flame. 

Boty s lamp, which was recommended by a commission 
of the Belgian Government as being safe in use, is essen 
tially that of Dr Clanny with Stephenson s perforated ring 
for admitting air at the level of the wick. Another 
Belgian variety is that of Eloin, in which the glass is 
shaped to the surface produced by the revolution of a 
parabolic arc, so as to disperse the light in parallel lines. 
The air is admitted by a Stephenson ring, combined with 
an Argand cap, the glass being surrounded by a brass 
chimney with a gauze top. In another form of the same 
lamp Museler s chimney is added. 

The locking of safety-lamps, so as to render them in 
capable of being opened by the miners when at work, is a 
point that has given play to a large amount of ingenuity. 
One of the most favourite devices is a combination of the 
wick-holder with the locking bolt, so that the latter cannot 
be withdrawn without lowering the wick and extinguishing 
the flame. Another method consists in the use of a lead 
rivet, uniting the two parts of the lamp, impressed with a 
seal, which cannot be removed without defacing the device. 
All this class of contrivances have the defect of only being 
efficacious when the miners are not provided with matches, 
or other means of obtaining a light. A more physically 
perfect method is that adopted by Bidder, where the 
locking bolt is magnetized and held in place by a force 
which can only be overcome by the application of a battery 
of heavy and powerful steel magnets. These are kept in 
the lamp cabin at the pit bottom, where the lamps are 
cleaned and served out lighted to the miners at the com 
mencement of the shift, and are collected before they return 
to the surface. 

When a Davy lamp is exposed to an atmosphere con 
taining less than 8 per cent, of marsh gas, the flame lengthens 
and becomes smoky ; when that amount is reached the 
flame returns to its usual size, but a column of blue flame 
rises to the top of the gauze. With 10 per cent, the flame 
of the wick is extinguished, the whole of the space within 
the gauze being filled with a blue flame of burning gas. 
If the lamp is allowed to remain too long in a fiery atmo 
sphere it becomes dangerous, as the gauze being heated to 
redness may fire the gas. The safety of the lamp is also 
endangered by an exposure to a current of gas moving at 
the rate of more than 6 or 8 feet per second, as the flame 
can then be readily driven through the gauze. It is there 
fore usual to protect the flame by a sliding shield of tin 
plate, horn, or mica from the direct action of any sudden 
outburst of gas in the workings. Lamps with glass cylin 
ders are generally very safe, except from the risk of acci 



dental breakage, which, however, is less frequent than 
might be imagined, and those taking air through a feed 
ring, such as Stephenson s, are readily extinguished in a 
foul atmosphere. 

The danger arising from gas in the workings may be 
considerably increased by the presence of coal dust in the 
air. This point has been the subject of investigation by 
Galloway, who found that an explosion may be produced 
by ignited particles of coal dust through the agency of a 
safety-lamp which under ordinary circumstances would be 
perfectly trustworthy. At Blanzy, in France, several fatal 
explosions have been traced to the firing of coal dust from 
the flame of a shot, even in cases where no fire-damp was 
present in the workings. 

An electric lamp, where the light is obtained from the Electric 
discharge in a Geissler vacuum tube, has been proposed amps, 
by Benoit-Dumas, instead of the ordinary safety lamps, or 
for use in exploring after explosions or in bad air ways. 
This consists of a box containing a galvanic battery, con 
sisting of two Bunsen cells, and a small induction coil, 
with connecting wires which convey the current to the 
lamp. The Bunsen cells may be conveniently replaced by 
a single bottle-ishaped bichromate battery. The cost and 
complication of this apparatus must necessarily limit its use. 

Apparatus, originating in France, known as aerophores, Aero- 
which enable the miner to carry sufficient fresh air for i llores - 
his own respiration, and to keep a lamp alight for a 
short time in a totally irrespirable atmosphere, have of late 
years come into use for the purposes of saving life after 
explosions, and repairing shafts and pit-work under 
water. There are two principal patterns, those of Galibert 
and Denayrouze. The former, which is the simplest, con 
sists of an air- tight bag of about 12 cubic feet capacity, con 
taining air at a little above atmospheric pressure, which is 
carried on the miner s back like a knapsack. The air, after 
being used, is returned with the products of respiration into 
the bag, and can be used over again until it becomes too 
impure for further use. It is obvious, therefore, that such 
an apparatus must be of very limited application, but its 
simplicity and cheapness are points in its favour for use in 
sudden emergencies. The Denayrouze apparatus consists 
of a series of sheet metal cylinders, containing air compressed 
to 300 or 350 S> to the square inch, which can be carried on 
the back, and served out at a pressure very slightly above 
that of the atmosphere by means of a reducing valve, whose 
construction is essentially the same in principle as that of 
the ordinary pressure regulator used in gas-works, i.e., a 
conical plug closed against its seat by the pressure of the 
air in the reservoir, which is constantly opposed by an 
external force tending to open it. This force is supplied 
by a disc of vulcanized india-rubber, which opens the valve 
at each inspiration, and allows a fresh supply of air to 
escape into the chamber of the regulator through the small 
aperture of the valve. Of course, all communication with 
the external air must be cut off, so that respiration can 
only take place through the mouth, the air-tube being 
attached by an india-rubber mask called a mouth-closer, 
and the nostrils closed by a spring clip. A similar regu 
lator valve, so constructed as to keep tlic india-rubber spring 
under a slight excess pressure in order to maintain a flow 
of air, is in connection with the lamp. This is of the 
ordinary Museler construction, with the addition of a 
chamber outside the gauze to receive the products of com 
bustion, which are discharged through a conical valve at 
the top, a reflux of the exterior gases being prevented by 
the pressure of a counter spring. The air is carried to 
the lamp by an india-rubber tube, which is sufficiently 
flexible to allow a certain freedom of motion. The dis 
tance that an explorer can penetrate with this apparatus 
is obviously limited by the capacity of the air-cylinders. 

VT. 10 



COAL 



[MINING. 



These have been made large enough to supply air to a man 
with a lamp for an hour, but this is an inconvenient size, 
being too large to be carried on the back. 

Fires in Underground fires are not uncommon accidents in coal 

mines, mines. In the thick coal workings in South Staffordshire 
the slack left behind in the sides of work is especially 
liable to fire from so-called spontaneous combustion, due 
to the rapid oxidization that is set up, when finely-divided 
coal is brought in contact with air. The best remedy in 
such cases is to prevent the air from gaining access to the 
coal by building a wall round the burning portion, which can 
in this way be isolated from the remainder of the working, 
and the fire prevented from spreading, even if it cannot 
be extinguished. When the coal is fired by the blast of 
an explosion it is often necessary to completely isolate the 
mine by stopping up the mouths of the pits with earth, or 
in extreme cases it must be flooded with water or carbonic 
acid before the fire can be brought under. There have 
been several instances of this being done in the fiery pits 
in the Barnsley district, notably at the great explosion at 
the Oaks colliery in 18G6, when 360 lives were lost. 
Methods of The drawing or winding of the coal from the pit bottom 
winding, to the surface is one of the most important operations in 
coal mining, and probably the department in which me 
chanical appliances have been brought to the highest state 
of development. In the simplest case, where the mine is 
worked by levels, the trains of coal may be drawn from the 
working faces directly to the level mouth by horse power, 
or in some exceptional cases locomotives worked by com 
pressed air are used. In South Wales the power for lifting 
the load in the shaft is still in some small workings fur 
nished by a water balance, that is, a box which is filled 
with water at a high level, and in descending raises 
the loaded trucks by a rope passing over a pulley at the 
surface. This method is only available when there is a 
free drainage level for the water to run off w r hen the box 
reaches the lowest point. Other hydraulic motors, such 
as wheels, pressure engines, &c., are used in different locali 
ties as well as animal power, where the amount of coal to 
be drawn is small, but as a general rule it is necessary to 
have recourse to steam power to maintain an adequate 
output. The old custom of drawing the coals in tubs or 
hutches (cu/at of the French miner), swinging freely from 
the end of the drawing rope, is now almost entirely super 
seded by the adoption of cages sliding between fixed guides, 
which allow the load to move freely up and down while 
checking lateral oscillation. This improvement, which is 
due to Mr John Curr of Sheffield, was originally intro 
duced in 1798, but made surprisingly little progress for 
nearly half a century. It was first brought into general 
use in the North of England, but in many of the smaller 
pits of the Midland counties the older custom prevailed 
until recently. 

The different elements making up the drawing arrange 
ments of a colliery are (1) the cage, (2) the shaft or pit 
fittings, (3) the drawing-rope, (4) the engine, and (5) the 
Cage. surface arrangements. The cage, as its name implies, 
consists of one or more platforms connected by an open 
framework of vertical bars of wrought iron or steel, with 
a top bar to which the drawing-rope is attached. It is 
customary to have a curved sheet-iron roof or bonnet when 
the cage is used for raising or lowering the miners, to pre 
vent them from injury by falling materials. The number 
of platforms or decks varies considerably ; in small mines 
only a single one may be used, but in the larger modern 
pits two, three, or even four-decked cages are used. The 
use of several decks is necessary in old pits of small sec 
tion, where only a single tram can be carried on each. In 
the large shafts of the Northern and Wigan districts the 
cages are made about 8 feet lon^ and 3 feet broad, being 



sufficient to carry two large trams on one deck. These 
are received upon a railway made of two strips of angle 
iron of the proper gauge for the wheels, and are locked 
fast by a latch falling over their ends. 

The guides or conductors in the pit may be constructed Gui 
of wood, in which case rectangular fir beams, about 3 by 4 
inches, are used, attached at intervals of a few feet to 
buntons or cross-beams, built into the lining of the pit. 
Two guides are required for each cage ; they may be 
placed opposite to each other, either on the long or short 
sides the latter being preferable. The cage is guided by 
shoes of wrought iron, a few inches long and bell-mouthed 
at the ends, attached to the horizontal bars of the framing, 
which pass loosely over the guides on three sides. In 
some of the large collieries in Northumberland wrought 
iron guides have been adopted with advantage. They are 
applied on one side of the cage only, forming a complete 
vertical railway, light flange rails such as are used for the 
roadways underground being used instead of wooden rods 
and iron cross sleepers, with proper seats for the rails 
instead of wooden buntons ; the cage is guided by curved 
shoes of a proper section to cover the heads of the rails. 
Rigid guides connected with the walling of the pit are 
probably the best and safest, but they have the disadvan 
tage of being liable to distortion, in case of the pit altering 
its form, owing to irregular movements of the ground, or 
other causes, Wooden guides being of considerable size, 
block up a certain portion of the area of the pit, and thus 
offer an impediment to the ventilation, especially in up 
cast shafts, where the high temperature, when furnace 
ventilation is used, is also against their use. In the 
Wigan district, wire-rope guides have been introduced to 
a very considerable extent, with a view of meeting the 
above objections. These are simply wire-ropes, from f to 1 
inches in diameter, hanging from a cross-bar connected 
with the pit-head framing at the surface, and attached to 
a similar bar at the bottom, which are kept straight by 
a stretching weight of from 30 cwt. to 4 tons attached to 
the lower bar. In some cases four guides are used two to 
each of the long sides of the cage ; but a more general 
arrangement is to have three two on one side, and the 
third in an intermediate position on the opposite side. 
Many colliery managers, however, prefer to have only two 
opposite guides, as being safer. The cage is connected 
by tubular clips, made in two pieces and bolted together, 
which slide over the ropes. In addition to this, it is ne 
cessary to have an extra system of fixed guides at the 
surface and at the bottom, where it is necessary to keep 
the cage steady during the operations of loading and 
landing, there being a much greater amount of oscillation 
during the passage of the cage than with fixed guides. 
For the same reason it is necessary to give a considerable 
clearance between the two lines of guides, which are kept 
from 15 to 18 inches apart, to prevent the possibility of 
the two cages striking each other in passing. With 
proper precautions, however, wire guides are perfectly 
safe for use at the highest travelling speed. 

The cage is connected with the drawing-rope by short Ro] 
lengths of chain from the corners known as tackling clia 
chains, gathered into a central ring, to which the rope is 
attached. Round steel wire-ropes, about 2 inches in 
diameter, are now commonly used ; but in very deep pits 
they are sometimes tapered in section to reduce the dead 
weight lifted. Flat ropes of steel or iron wire were and are 
still used to a great extent, but round ones are now gene 
rally preferred. In Belgium flat ropes of aloe fibre are 
in high repute, being considered preferable by many 
colliery managers to wire, in spite of their great weight. 
In South Staffordshire, flat link chains made with three 
or more parallel links, with a stud of wood filling up the 



WINDING.] 



COAL 



hollow, are or were in general use in the numerous shallow 
pits working the thick coal in the neighbourhood of 
Dudley, &c. 

The best modern engines for drawing in collieries are 
usually direct-acting, with either horizontal or vertical 
cylinders. In the north of England a single engine with 
a heavy fly-wheel is often used, but the more general 
arrangement is to have two engines coupled to the opposite 
ends of the winding drum-shaft. In almost all cases steam 
is used at high pressure without condensation. 

The drum, when round ropes are used, is a plain broad 
cylinder, with flanged rims, and cased with soft wood 
packing, upon which the rope is coiled ; the breadth is 
made sufficient to take the whole length of the rope at two 
laps. One drum is usually fixed to the shaft, while the 
other is loose, with a screw link or other means of coup 
ling, in order to be able to adjust the two ropes to exactly 
the same length, so that one cage may be at the surface 
when the other is at the bottom, without having to pay 
out or take up any slack rope by the engine. 

For flat ropes, the drum or bobbin consists of a solid 
disc, of the width of the rope fixed upon the shaft, with 
numerous parallel pairs of arms or horns, arranged radially 
on both sides, the space between being just sufficient to 
allow the rope to enter and coil regularly upon the preced 
ing lap. This method has the advantage of equalizing 
the wark of the engine throughout the journey, for when 
the load is greatest, with the full cage at the bottom and 
the whole length of rope out, the duty required in the first 
revolution of the engine is measured by the length of the 
smallest circumference ; while the assistance derived from 
gravitating action of the descending cage in the same 
period is equal to the weight of the falling mass through a 
height corresponding to the length of the largest lap, and 
so on, the speed being increased as the weight diminishes, 
and vice versa. 

The same thing can be effected in a more perfect manner 
by the use of spiral or scroll drums, in which the rope is 
made to coil in a spiral groove upon the surface of the 
drum, which is formed by the frusta of two obtuse cones 
{laced with their smaller diameters outwards. This plan, 
though mechanically a very good one, has certain defects, 
especially in the possibility of danger resulting from the 
rope slipping sideways, if the grooves in the bed are not 
perfectly true. The great size and weight of such drums 
are also disadvantages, as giving rather unmanageable 
dimensions in a very deep pit. 

The use of a counterbalance chain for the winding 
engines is common in the collieries of the Midland dis 
tricts of England. In this method a third drum is used 
to receive a heavy flat link chain, shorter than the main 
drawing-ropes, the end of which hangs down a special or 
balance pit. At starting, when the full load is to be 
lifted, the balance chain uncoils, and continues to do so 
until the desired equilibrium between the working loads is 
attained, when it is coiled up again in the reverse direc 
tion, to be again given out on the return trip. 

The surface arrangements of a modern colliery are often 
of considerable extent and complexity, the most important 
feature being the pit-frame carrying the guide-pulleys or 
rope-rolls which lead the drawing-ropes from the verti 
cal line of the pit to the engine-drum. This consists 
essentially of an upright framework, carefully braced 
together, and strutted by diagonal beams against the wall 
of the engine-house, or other solid abutment. It is gene 
rally necessary to have a clear head-room, 10 or 20 feet or 
more, for the working arrangements at the surface above 
the level of the ground, especially in flat countries ; the pit- 
frames are made of considerable height, from 50 to 70 
feet being not uncommon ; and when, as is generally the 



case, they are made of wood, they afford opportunities for 
the exercise of skilful carpentry. Of late years, however, 
wrought iron pit-frames have been adopted to some extent, 
which allows of a comparatively simpler construction 
being used, the main elements of the frame consisting of 
hollow latticed pillars and beams, similar to the construc 
tion now generally adopted for the pillars of railway 
signals, but of course of a more solid construction. They 
have one great advantage over wooden frames, in not 
being liable to destruction by fire, an accident which has 
occasionally happened with the latter. The guide-pulleys 
for iron or steel wire-ropes are made of very large dimen 
sions, to avoid strain upon the wires by sudden change of 





direction when moving at a high 
speed. The usual construction is 
a deep channeled rim or tire of 
cast-iron, from 7 to 20 feet in 
diameter, supported by numerous 
thin wrought iron arms, inclining 
inwards from a central cast iron 
boss, a form combining rigidity 
with comparative lightness. They 
are in fact very similar to the 
driving wheels of the large modern 
bicycles, supposing a channeled 
rim to be substituted for the india- 
rubber tire. 

To prevent accidents from the Safety 
breakage of the rope on the shaft, catches. 
or from overwinding when the 
engine is not stopped at the right 
moment, whereby the cage may be 




C 

Fig. 21. 
FIGS. 19-21. White and Grant s Safety Catch. 

dragged up to the head pulleys (both which kinds of acci 
dent are unhappily not uncommon), various forms of safety 
catch and disengaging hooks have been proposed. These 
consist of variously-constructed toothed levers, cams, or 
eccentrics, mounted upon transverse axes, attached to the 
top of the cage, whose function is to take hold of the 
guides, and support the cage in the event of its becoming 
detached from the rope. They are generally applied by 
means of springs acting against the pull of the rope. Figs. 
19-21 represent a form of safety catch, introduced some 
years since by Messrs White and Grant of Glasgow. The 
catches BB consist of partially toothed eccentrics, which 
when released are forced inwards against the wooden guide 
a by the coiled springs d d, as shown in fig. 21. 

When the rope is drawing, the catches are lifted by the 



7(5 



COAL 



[MIXING. 



pull of the chains attached to the pulleys c c, which turn 
the broad toothed portions outwards, and away from the 
guides. The connection with the rope is made by the 
slide bar C and spring catch h having a projecting 
trigger, which, if the cage is lifted too high, strikes against 
the cross-bar of the framing k, and detaches the cage, 
which is then left hanging by the catches to the guides in 
the pit. The use of safety catches is more common in the 
collieries of France, Belgium, and Germany than in Eng 
land, where they are not generally popular, owing to 
their uncertainty in action, as they are often fouud to fail 
when most wanted. The constant drag of the catches on 
the guides when the rope slacks is also objectionable, but 
this has been overcome to a great extent in a very in 
genious contrivance invented by Mr Calow, where the 
catches are not brought into action unless the cage is 
actually falling clear of the rope, with a certain acquired 
momentum of its own. The only real safeguards against 
accidents in winding are to be found in constant vigilance, 
in maintaining the ropes in working efficiency, and in the 
use of proper signals and brake power in the engine house. 
The speed attained by the load in the shaft in the best- 
appointed English collieries is very considerable, and may 
be paralleled with that of a fast railway train. At Shire- 
oaks Colliery, Nottinghamshire, the cage with a load of 
34 cwts. of coal in five tubs, and weighing in all 60 cwts., 
or with the rope at the bottom 92^ cwts., is raised from a 
depth of 51 G yards in 45 seconds, corresponding to an 
average of 35 feet per second, or 24 miles per hour, the 
maximum speed when the load is mid- way being 50 feet 
per second, or nearly 35 miles an hour. The ropes used 
are round, of steel wire, weighing 13 Ibs. to the yard, 
winding on to a spiral drum, increasing from 17 to 20 
ftet in diameter. Thera are two engines with vertical 
cylinders, 32 inches diameter and 6 feet stroke, developing 
a useful effect of about 320 horse-power. The guide pul 
leys are 12 feet in diameter. 

The above may be taken as a good example of the mo 
dern class of winding engines, such as are required to 
draw from 600 to 1200 tons in the shift of 10 hours. 
When the pits are of small depth it is better to increase 
the weight of the load than to draw at a very high speed, 
as the loss of time in filling and unloading or striking the 
cages is the same for a short as for a long journey, so that 
it becomes advantageous to diminish the number of journeys 
for a given quantity of coal drawn. 

The great amount of dead weight required to be raised 
in the ordinary system of winding (e.g., in the instance 
given above, the total weight moved is nearly four times 
that of the nett load drawn, that of the ropes being nearly 
1 1 times as much as the latter), has led to the proposal of 
various plans to obtain a more mechanically economical 
method, but none of these have at present been brought 
into successful use. One of the latest is that of M. 
Blanchet, who proposes to draw a number of tubs linked 
together into a long vertical train in a closed tube about 
5 1 feet in diameter, by exhausting the air above them in 
the manner adopted in the pneumatic tubes used for the 
transmission of parcels. An experimental apparatus of 
this class has been recently constructed at Creusot, in 
France, designed to lift a cage with 9 tubs, attached to a 
piston, weighing in all about 12| tons. 

Striking When the cage arrives at the surface, or rather the plat- 

ail( j " form forming tho working top above the mouth of the pit, 

scrcening.it is received upon the keeps, a pair of hinged gratings 

which are kept in an inclined position over the pit-top by 

counterbalance weights, so that they are pushed aside to 

allow the cage to pass upwards, but fall back and receive 

it when the engine is reversed. The tubs are then removed 

or struck by the landers, who pull them forward on to the 



platform, which is covered with cast-iron plates; at the 
same time empty ones are pushed in from the opposite 
side. The cage is then lifted by the engine clear of the 
keeps, which are opened by a lever worked by hand, and 
the empty tubs start on the return trip. When the cage 
has several decks, it is necessary to repeat this operation 
for each, unless there is a special provision made for load- 
ipg and discharging the tubs at different levels. An 
arrangement of this kind for shifting the load from a large 
cage at one operation has recently been introduced by Mr 
Fowler at Hucknall, in Leicestershire, where the trains are 
received into a framework with a number of platforms cor 
responding to those of the cage, carried on the head of a 
plunger movable by hydraulic pressure in a vertical 
cylinder. The empty tubs are carried by a corresponding 
arrangement on the opposite side. By this means the 
time of stoppage is reduced to a minimum, 8 seconds for 
a three-decked cage as against 28 seconds, as the operations 
of lowering the tubs to the level of the pit-top, discharging, 
and replacing them are performed during the time that 
the following load is being drawn up the pit. 

The tub when brought to the surface, after passing over 
a weigh-bridge, where it is weighed and tallied by a weigher 
specially appointed for the purpose by the men and the owner 
jointly, is run into a tipping cage, and the contents are dis 
charged into an inclined screen with bars about 1 inch to 
1 -| inches apart. The large coal remaining passes through 
a spout into a railway waggon placed below, the discharge 
being regulated by a valve at the lower end. The small 
coal passing through is either sold as such, or may be lifted 
by an elevator to a second series of screens, either fixed or 
rotating, with half-inch apertures. These make a further 
separation of larger pieces, which are sold as "nuts," while 
the small, or slack, passing through is sent to the coke 
ovens, if the quality of the coal is suitable. Asa rule, non- 
caking coals are not very closely screened, as the small is 
of comparatively little valu?, and therefore must have a 
proportion of larger sizes mixed with it to form saleable 
slack. 

Figs. 22-24, representing the surface arrangements Illustr 
adopted at a pair of pits in the Wigan district, may be tions f 
taken as fairly representative of the fittings of a large ^ ra ^ ( 
modern colliery, where a considerable output of coal has to men t 8 . 
be screened and loaded in an ordinary working day of less 
than twelve hours. The details, of course, will vary, ac 
cording to the nature of the outlet or vend, which may be 
by retailing into carts sent by purchasers, or by canals or 
railways, or by a combination of all three. In the example 
selected, the coal is loaded directly from the screens into 
full-sized trucks, each carrying from 6 to 8 tons, on a main 
line of railway. Of the two pits, one is an upcast, and 
is surmounted by a chimney at the surface, the drawing 
being confined to the downcast, which is 310 yards deep 
and 10| feet in diameter. GOO tons of coal are drawn 
from this depth in 10 hours by a pair of direct-acting 
engines, with vertical cylinders working a spiral drum, in 
creasing from 13i feet to 1 7| feet in diameter. The pit-head 
frame is of wood, with guide pulleys 7 feet in diameter, 
a much, smaller size than is now usually adopted ; the iron 
wire drawing-ropes are round, weighing 5 ft) to the yard. 
Double-decked cages of a light construction in wrought 
iron are used, carrying four tubs at a time. The landing 
platform is raised upon pillars 20 feet above the surface of 
the ground, and covered with iron plates. As soon as the 
cage arrives at the surface, the tubs are run into tumbling 
cages, which discharge their contents on to fixed screens, 
witL bars of 1 to 1^ inch aperture. The large coal passes 
by a shoot directly into the railway waggon, while the first 
screenings fall into a channel below, which is traversed by 
a series of scrapers attached to an endless chain, and are 



SURFACE ARRANGEMENTS.] 



COAL 



t 



carried to an elevator or Jacob s ladder, and discharged 
into rotatory drum sieves of about ^-inch aperture, pro 
ducing a second size of saleable coal, known as nuts, and 




FIG. 22. Elevation. 




FIG. 23. Plan. 




FIG. 24. Transverse Elevation. 
Fias. 22-24. Surface arrangements of Colliery. 

slack, which is sent away to the coke ovens attached to 
the colliery. The whole of the labour required in the 
screening the output of 600 tons in the day of ten hours is 
performed by one engineman, who has charge of all the 
mechanical arrangements, and nine boys, who pick out any 
large lumps of stone from the coal as it passes the first 
screens. The engine driving the screens and elevators is 
in charge of a special engineman. 

Fig, 25 represents one of a pair of pits at Pemberton 
Colliery, near Wigan, having the pit frames constructed in 
wrought iron lattice truss-work instead of wood. The 
screens for large coal (S) are arranged symmetrically on the 
landing platform, three on each side of the pit top, and 
discharge directly into waggons on the railway below. The 
small coal from these screens is passed by a screw creeper 
C, like those used in flour mills, to a bucket elevator E, 
which delivers it at the top of the second set of screens R, 
where the nuts and slack are separated. The platform, as 
in most of the new collieries in this district, is roofed over 
to protect the workmen from the weather. The second 
pit, which occupies a corresponding position on the oppo 
site side of the engine-house, is in every respect similar. 



The large collieries in the steain-coal district of North 
umberland are among the most productive ; thus, at Bed- 
lington, near Morpsth, 1200 tons are raised daily, and at 
North Seaton from. 1500 to 1800 tons. 

When the coal is very much mixed with shale, the slack Coal- 
often contains so much mineral matter as to be quite worth- washing 
less, until at least a partial separation has beeu effected. maclunes - 
This is now done by means of coal-washing machines, 
which were first adopted in France, but have now become 
general in other countries. There are many different 
forms, but the most usual is a fixed sieve plate, upon which 
the slack is received and subjected to the action of a 
current of water forced through the holes by the action of 
a fast-moving short-stroke plunger pump, which puts the 




Elevation 





tfvr /m 


1 






1 r 


3 


3 






[ R 




3 






c 



Fro. 25. Surface arrangements, Pemberton Pit, Wigan. 

whole of the materials into suspension, and allows them to 
fall through the water at each stroke. By this means the 
coal, being the lighter material, travels to the surface, and 
the heavier shale and stone going to the bottom are dis 
charged through a valve there. The apparatus is in fact a 
form of the hydraulic jigging hutch used for the dressing 
of lead and other ores, except that in this case the lighter 
and not the heavier part is the valuable mineral. In 
another form of coal-dressing machine introduced by Mr 
Evrard, the jigging action is produced by a jet of steam 
acting directly upon the water instead of a plunger piston. 
Washed slack when suitable is used for conversion into 
coke, but in France and Belgium it is now generally 
employed in the production of agglomerated fuel, or bri 
quettes, or what is usually known in England as patent 
fuel. These consist of coal dust mixed with a sufficient 
amount of gas-pitch to be moulded into coherent bricks 
or cylinders, which are afterwards dried at a high tem 
perature, but below the point of carbonization. The con 
solidation of the slack may also be effected by the use of 
starch or dextrine, or even by cement or clay. This class 
of fuel is much used upon the French railways, being con 
venient for stowage and economical in use; but as a rule 
it is disagreeable to the passengers from the large amount 
of coal-dust carried off by the exhaust steam, and the 
unpleasant vapours produced by the burning pitch. The 



78 



O A 



I PRODUCTION. 



principal production of patent fuel in Britain is in South 

Wales. 

The anthracite coal of Pennsylvania is subjected to the 
exceptional treatment of breaking between toothed rollers, 
and an elaborate system of screening before it is fit for 
sale. The largest or lump coal is that which remains upon 
a riddle having the bars four inches apart ; the second, 
or steamboat coal, is above 3 inches ; broken coal includes 
sizes above 2 or 2f inches ; egg coal, pieces above 2 j 
inches square; large stove coal, If inches; small stove, 
1 to 1 or 1 inches; chestnut coal, f to inch; pea 
coal, $ inch ; and buckwheat coal, inch. The most valu 
able of these are the egg and stove sizes, which are 
broken to the proper dimensions for household use, the 
larger lumps being unfit for burning in open fire-places. 
Proportion The proportion of coal utilized in the working, as com- 
of coal ob- p are d with the total contents of the seam, varies very 
tained in considerably in different districts, being greatest in seams 
of moderate thickness, from 3 to 5 feet, which on the 
long-wall system can be entirely removed. In thick coals, 
such as the ten-yard seam of South Staffordshire, the waste 
is very considerable. In Cheshire and Lancashire about 
1330 tons of saleable coal are obtained from an acre for 
each foot of thickness in the seam, only 8 per cent, of the 
total being left behind in the workings. 

At Dowlais, on the north of the South Wales coal-field, 
the yield is 1190 tons to the foot by long-wall, but only 
866 tons when the same seam was worked by the pillar and 
stall system ; but on the south side of the basin, where the 
seams lie at a steep slope, the loss is often much greater, 
being from 20 to 50 per cent, on pillar and stall workings. 
In the Barnsley district, the yield is from 1150 to 1280 
tons in thick seams, and a maximum of 1417 tons has been 
obtained in a thin seam, the solid contents of the whole 
coal being estimated at 1556 tons per foot per acre. In 
Northumberland about 1200 tons are got out of a total 
of 1300. In the thick coal of South Staffordshire, from 
12,000 to 16,000 tons per acre are got at the first working 
on an average thickness of 25| feet, or about 640 tons to 
the foot, or from 50 to 60 per cent, of the whole, which 
is increased by the second and third working to 70 or 75 
per cent, making a loss of from 25 to 30 per cent. This 
amount is reduced, however, by the long-wall method of 
working. 

Probably from 10 to 15 per cent, may be taken as the 
unavoidable loss in working under the most favourable 
conditions, but in many cases the proportion is consider 
ably higher. 

Ownership In the United Kingdom the ownership of coal, like that 
of other minerals, is in the proprietor of the soil, and 
passes with it, except when specially reserved in the sale. 
The greater number of collieries are worked upon leases, 
the rents or royalties being variously charged in different 
localities. A minimum reserved rent to cover a certain 
output, with a rate per ton on any quantity in excess, is 
the most general practice ; but in Lancashire and York 
shire the royalties are charged at a fixed rate per acre per 
annum upon each seam worked, and in South Staffordshire 
at a proportion (from to -fa) of tho coal at the pit s 
mouth. 

Coal lying under the sea below low-water mark belongs 
to the Crown, and can only be worked upon payment of 
royalties, even when it is approached from shafts sunk 
upon land in private ownership. 

In the Forest of Dean, which is the property of the 
Crown as a royal forest, there are certain curious rights 
held by a portion of the inhabitants known as the Free 
Miners of the Forest, who are entitled to mine for coal and 
iron ore, under leases, known as gales, granted by the 
principal agent or gaveller representing the Crown, in 



tracts not otherwise occupied. This is the only instance 
in Great Britain of the custom of free mining under a 
Government grant or concession, which is the rule in almost 
every country on the Continent. 

The working of collieries in the United Kingdom is Coal 
subject to the provisions of the Coal Mines Regulation rtegi 
Act of 1872, 35 and 36 Viet. cap. 76, which is ad ministered Act> 
by inspectors appointed by the Home Office, and forms a 
complete disciplinary code in all matters connected with 
coal-mining. Among the chief provisions of the Act are 
the following : 

1. Females and boys under 10 are not allowed to work under 
ground. 

2. Boys between 10 and 12 are not allowed to work except in 
tliin mines. 

3. No boy under 12 to drive a gin horse, or under 18 a steam- 
engine. 

I. Wages not to be paid at public-houses. 

5. Working of mines by a single shaft prohibited. 

6. Managers to be certificated as competent by a board of 
examiners. 

7. Annual return of coal wrought to be made to Inspectors. 

8. Notice of accidents to be sent to Inspector. 

9. Openings of abandoned workings to be fenced. 

10. Plans to be kept up to within six months of date. 

II. Plans of abandoned mines to be deposited with Home 
Office. 

12. General rules for the safety of miners in fiery mines, man 
agement of ventilation, safety lamps, and gunpowder, protection 
against accidents in shafts and levels, &c. 

13. Power to frame special rules subject to approval of the 
Secretary of State. 

Breaches of the provisions of the Act are punishable by 
fine and imprisonment by a court of summary jurisdiction, 
subject to appeal to the Quarter Sessions, or to the Circuit 
Court in Scotland. 

The relation between the number of hands employed 1 ro 
and the output of collieries varies considerably in different of * 
districts, being highest in those where the coal is moder- out - 
ately thick, soft, easily cut, regularly shaped, and with a 
good roof, and least in faulted and disturbed seams, and 
those with a bad roof, where the accessory operations of 
timbering and driving stone drifts require the employ 
ment of a large proportion of the working staff on non 
productive work, i.e., other than cutting coal. The follow 
ing figures give the relative force employed above and 
below ground in two large steam-coal collieries in South 
Wales, each producing about 500 tons per day : 

Colliers cutting coal 225 200 

Other underground hands 229 174 

Surface hands 43 36 



497 410 

showing in the one case an average of about 1 ton, in the 
other about 1^ ton per hand per day, but if the hands 
cutting coal be alone considered, the amount is about the 
same in both cases, or a little over two tons per day. 

The annual output per man on the total force employed 
in several of the principal European coal-fields has been 
computed as follows : 

Newcastle 315 tons per man per annum. 

Westphalia 215 

Saarbriicken 170 

France Loire 200 

,, Nord 149 

Belgium Charleroi... 147 
Mons 121 

These figures refer to some years back, and are probably 
not quite accurate at the present date, as the amount of 
work done by the individual collier has sensibly decreased 
in most countries. It will be seen that the output is 
smallest in the thin disturbed measures of the Franco- 
Belgian coal-field. 

In Prussia in 1874, with an output of 33,000,000 tons 
of coal and 8,000,000 tons of lignite, the average per 



ACCIDENTS-, i 



C A L 



underground hand was about 243 tons for the former and 
about 600 tons for the latter. The larger comparative 
yield in lignite mines is due to the fact that a very large 
proportion are worked as quarries. 

The annual production of coal throughout the world 
may be roughly estimated at about 260 millions of tons 
for 1874, which quantity includes about 17 million tons of 
lignite and coal from formations newer than the coal 
measures in Europe. Nearly one-half of the total is raised 
in the United Kingdom, the approximate quantities of the 
different countries being as follows : 

Tons. 

United Kingdom 125,000,000 

United States of America 48,000,000 

Germany 35,000,000 Lignite, 9,000,000 

Belgium 17,000,000 

France 17,500,000 320,000 

Austria 4,700,000 ,, 5,700,000 

New South Wales 1,300,000 

Russia 1,000,000 



Spain 

India 

Smaller European States. 
British North America . . . 

Chili 

Other Australian Colonies 



30,000 
50,000 



750,000 
700,000 

125,000 105,000 

750,000 
200,000 
50,000 

There is no trustworthy information as to the produce of 
China and Japan, but these probably do not exceed 
100,000 tons. In the larger coal-producing European 
countries the output was very high in 1873, the following 
year having shown a slight falling off, but in America the 
annual increase was maintained. 

According to the official mineral statistics, the produce 
of coal in the United Kingdom for the years 1873, 1874, 
1875, classified according to districts, was as shown in 
the following table, from which it will be seen that the 
check in 187^ was followed by great increase of production 
in 1875 : 





1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


N Durham 


Tons. 


Tons. 
( 6,180,000 


Tons, 


Northumberland 
Cumberland 


1 12,204,340 
1,747,064 


| 6,463,550 
1,102.267 


, 12,640,789 
1,226,737 


Westmoreland 


1,972 


1,200 




S. Durham 


17,436,045 


17,900,250 


19,456,534 


Yorkshire 


15,311,778 


14,812,515 


15,425,278 


Derbyshire 




( 7,150,570 


7,091,325 


Nottinghamshire 
Leicestershire 


11,568,000 


) 3,127,750 
) 1,100,465 


3,250,000 
1,154,619 


Warwickshire 




851,500 


799,750 


S. Staffordshire 
Worcestershire 


| 9,463,539 


8,389,343 


9,251,791 


Shropshire 


1,570,000 


1,187,950 


1,229,785 


N. Staffordshire 
Cheshire 


3,892,019 
1,150,500 


4,313,096 
615,105 


4,496,213 
658,945 


N. and E. Lancashire 
W\ Lancashire 


9,560,000 
7,500,000 


8,095,570 
7,442,950 


8,825,798 
8,250,246 


N. Wales 


2,450,000 


2,425,300 


2,337,308 


Gloucestershire 




( 1,147,272 


1,273,080 


Somersetshire . 


( 1,858,540 


( 609,684 


654,878 


Monmouthshire . 


4,500,000 


5,038,820 


3,525,975 


S.Wales 


9,841,523 


10,184,885 


10,632,597 


Scotland E. 


10,142,039 


10,182,326 


11,419,619 


Do. W 


6,715,733 


6, 606, y 35 


7,177,888 


Ireland 


103,435 


139,213 


127,750 










Total 


127,016,747 


125,067,916 


131,908,105 


Amount exported, 
including coke and 
patent fuel 


12,748,390 


14,045,325 


14,544,916 










Leaving for home ) 
consumption .. .. ) 


115,268,357 


111,022,591 


117,363,189 


Value at pit s mouth. . 


47,629,787 


45,848,194 


43,969,370 



The quantities of coal consumed by the different branches 
of manufacturing industry as well as for lighting, heating, 



and other purposes, was investigated by the Royal Com 
mission on Coal, from vol. iii. of whose Report, published 
in 1 870, the following summary is taken. The figures refer 
to the year 1869. 

Tons. 

Total quantity of coal raised 107,427,537 

Do. exported 9,775,470 



Leaving for home consumption 97,652,087 

1. Coal used for iron manufacture .... , 32,446,606 

2. Do. producing power and general 

manufacturing purposes. . . 26, 327, 21 3 

3. Do. domestic purposes 18,481,527 

4. Do. gas and water supply 7,811,980 

5. Do. mines and collieries 7,225,423 

6. Do. steam navigation 3,277,562 

7. Do. railways 2,027,500 

8. Do. smelting metals other than 

iron 859,231 

9. Do. miscellaneous purposes 195,045 

97,e;52 z OS7 

The above quantities may be proportionally classified as 
follows : 

Mineral and metallurgical industries (1, 5, 8) 44 percent. 

Domestic consumption, including gas and water (3, 4) 26 ,, 

General manufacturing purposes (2) 25 ,, 

Locomotion by sea and land (6, 7) 5 ,, 



100 

Coal-mining is unfortunately a dangerous occupation, Accidents, 
more than a thousand deaths from accident being reported 
annually by the inspectors of mines as occurring in the 
collieries of the United Kingdom. The following table 
shows the number of lives lost during the last five years, 
classified according to the inspectors returns : 



Year. 


Explo 
sions of 
fire-damp. 


Falls of 
ground. 


Other under 
ground acci 
dents. 


Accidents 
in shafts. 


Accidents 
at sur 
face. 


Total. 


1871 


269 


435 


176 


123 


72 


1075 


1872 


154 


456 


217 


155 


78 


1060 


1873 


100 


491 


221 


171 


86 


1069 


1874 


166 


413 


214 


154 


109 


1056 


1875 


288 


458 


227 


172 


99 


1244 



The principal sources of danger to the collier, as dis 
tinguished from other miners, are explosion of fire-damp 
and falls of roof in getting coal, these together make up 
about 70 per cent, of the whole number of deaths. It will 
be seen that the former class of accidents, though attended 
with great loss of life at one time, are le.ss fatal than the 
latter. The great increase in the deaths from explosion 
in 1875, over the preceding year, is to be attributed to the 
Swaithe Main explosion at Barnsley on December 6th, 
when 143 lives were lost. 

The following return expresses the relation between the 
fatal accidents and the total number of miners employed, 
and the amount of coal raised for each death. The latter 
quantities are in some degree conjectural, being dependent 
upon estimated returns of produce, and are probably some 
what too large. 



Tear. 


1 death for 


1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 


345 miners employed 
394 
479 ,, 
510 
430 


109,246 tons coal raised 
116,409 
133,667 ,, ,, 
133,251 ,, ,, 
118,730 ,, ,, 



In Prussia, in the year 1874, there were 484 deaths 
from accidents, which corresponds to about three deaths 
per thousand hands employed, or, according to the above 



80 



COAL 



[ANALYSIS. 



classification, 1 in 334, with a produce of about G5,000 
tons of coal for each death. It would appear, therefore, 
that the proportional loss of life, in the collieries of the 
United Kingdom, is less than that in foreign countries. 
Analysis of Assay and Analysis. The chemical examination of a 
coal. C oal may be cither complete or partial. When it is desired 

to obtain information as to the exact composition, the 
analysis is conducted in the same manner as the analysis 
of organic compounds by combustion with oxide of copper 
or chromate of lead in a hard glass tube, the carbonic 
acid and water formed being absorbed by solution of 
hydrate of potassium and dry chloride of calcium respec 
tively, and the proportion of carbon and hydrogen being 
calculated from the increase of weight in the tubes con 
taining the absorbing media. It is usual to operate 
upon a small sample (about 5 grains), which is very 
finely powdered and placed in a small trough or boat 
of platinum in the tube, the combustion being aided by 
a stream of oxygen from a gasholder. By this means the 
incombustible residue or ash is left in a condition for 
weighing, being free from admixture of foreign substances. 
Sulphur is determined by the fusion of a weighed 
quantity with a mixture of salt and nitrate of potassium 
in a platinum vessel, producing sulphate of potassium, 
which, on the addition of a salt of barium, is precipitated 
as sulphate of barium. Care must be taken to perform the 
operation over a flame free from the vapour cf sulphur com 
pounds, which may vitiate the result by apparently increas 
ing the amount of sulphur present. For this reason, the 
flame of a spirit lamp is to be preferred in making the fusion 
to that of coal gas, which is rarely free from sulphur coin- 
pounds. Sulphur existing in the form of gypsum or sul 
phate of calcium may be removed by washing a sample 
with boiling water, and determining the sulphuric acid in 
the solution. The washed sample is then fused with nitre 
in the usual way to determine the proportion of sulphur 
existing as iron pyrites. This distinction is of importance 
in the examination of coals intended for iron smelting, as 
the sulphates of the earthy metals are reduced by the 
gases of the furnace to sulphides, which pass into the slag 
without affecting the quality of the iron produced, while 
the sulphur of the metallic sulphides in the ash acts pre 
judicially upon the metal. 

The difference between the original weight of the sample 
and that of the carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, and ash, after 
making allowance for hygroscopic water, is attributed 
to oxygen and nitrogen, which are not directly deter 
mined. 

The character of the ash affords some guide to the 
quality of the coal from which it is derived. Thus, a red 
tint is generally indicative of the presence cf iron pyrite s, 
and a light or white colour of its absence. Phosphorus if 
present will be found in the ash, and may be determined by 
the ordinary processes of analysis. A useful approximate 
method of determining the character of a coal is by ex 
posing a coarsely powdered sample of known weight, in 
a covered crucible, to a strong red heat as long as 
inflammable vapours are given off, when it is cooled and 
weighed. The loss of weight represents the volatile con 
stituents hydrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbon gases, pro 
duced by destructive distillation, while the residual coke 
includes the ash, and is called fixed carbon. The character 
of the button of coke obtained is a good indication as to 
the caking or non-caking quality of the coal from which it 
is derived, and the amount of ash may be determined by 
burning it in a muffle or over the flame of a Bunsen 
burner, The fitness of a coal for gas -making is usually 
determined by operating upon a sample of a few pounds 
weight in a special apparatus which reproduces the pro- 
Besses of manufacture upon a small scale. 



One of the most important factors in the economic 
valuation of a coal, is the so-called calorific power or 
value, by which is usually understood the number of 
pounds of water at boiling point that can be evaporated 
by the complete combustion of one pound of coal. This 
may be obtained theoretically, when the composition of 
the coal is known, by computing the heating effect of the 
carbon and the disposable hydrogen ; but in the absence 
of an analysis, it may also be determined directly by 
several approximate methods. One of the most con 
venient instruments for this purpose is Thompson s 
calorimeter. This consists of a copper cylinder in 
which a weighed quantity of coal intimately mixed with 
chlorate or nitrate of potassium is deflagrated under a 
copper case like a diving-bell, placed at the bottom of a 
deep glass jar filled with a known weight of water. The 
gases produced by the combustion rising through the water 
are cooled, with a corresponding increase of temperature in 
the latter, so that the difference between the temperature 
observed before and after the experiment furnishes a mea 
sure of the evaporative power desired. The instrument is 
so constructed that 30 grains of coal are burnt in 29,010 
grains of water, or in the proportion of 1 to 937, these 
numbers being selected that the observed rise of tempera 
ture iu Fahrenheit degrees corresponds to the required 
evaporative value in pounds, subject only to a correction 
for the amount of heat absorbed by ths mass of the instru 
ments, for which a special co-efficient is required, and must 
be experimentally determined. Another approximate 
method, due to Berthier, is based upon the reduction of 
oxide of lead by the carbon and hydrogen of the coal, the 
amount of lead reduced affording a measure of the oxygen 
expended, whence the heating power may be calculated, 
1 part of pure carbon being capable of producing 34i 
times its weight of lead. The operation is performed by 
mixing the weighed sample with a large excess of litharge 
in a crucible, and exposing it to a bright red heat for a 
short time. After cooling, the crucible is broken and the 
reduced button of lead is cleaned and weighed. The re 
sults obtained by this method are less accurate with coals 
containing much disposable hydrogen and iron pyrites 
than with those approximating to anthracite, as the heat 
equivalent of the hydrogen in excess of that required to 
form water with the oxygen of the coal is calculated 
as carbon, while it is really about four times as great. 
Sulphur in iron pyrites also acts as a reducing agent upon 
litharge, and increases the apparent effect in a similar 
manner. 

The theoretical evaporative power of a coal found by 
either of the above methods is always considerably above 
that obtained by actual combustion under a steam boiler, as 
in the latter case numerous sources of loss, such as imperfect 
combustion of gases, loss of unburnt coal in cinders, &c., 
come into play, which cannot be allowed for in theoretical 
experiments. It is usual, therefore, to determine the value 
of a coal by the combustion of a weighed quantity in the 
furnace of a standard boiler, and measuring the amount of 
water evaporated by the heat developed. Various investi 
gations of this kind have been made at different times, 
both in Europe and America, the most extensive being the 
following : 

Johnson, Report on American Coals, Washington, 1844 ; De la 
Beche and Playfair, Three Reports on Coal suited to the Steam Navy, 
London, 1848-49-51 ; P. W. Brix, On the Heating Power of Fuel 
used in Prussia, Berlin, 1853 ; Hartig, Heating Power of Saxon 
Coal, Dresden, 1860. 

Tne following table of the average results obtained from 
these investigations shows the number of pounds of water 
evaporated for every pound of the different kinds of coal 
burnt. 



C O A - C b 



81 



17 


8-37 


28 


7.94 


8 


7-70 


8 


7-58 


7 


3-66 to 4-19 


5 


3 43 to 3 66 


6 


2-41 to 3-92 


51 


6-42 to 8-16 



<D .. f S. Wales Average of 37 kinds, 9 05 tt> 
f|N. of England, 
K * < Lancasliire, 
~& I Scotland, 
ft ^ Derbyshire, 
Wood, 
Peat, 
Lignite, 

Coal (Prussian), 

The literature relating to coal and coal mining, is very extensive, 
but the following list includes the titles of the more important 
works upon these subjects. 

ENGLAND AND AMERICA. The Report of the Royal Coal Com 
mission (3 vols., fol., with Atlas, London, 1870). This is the 
most comprehensive work upon the subject. Hull, Coal Fields 
of Great Britain (3d ed. London, 1873). Reports and Maps of the 
Geological Surveys of the United Kingdom. Descriptive memoirs 
of each coal field published as completed. Percy, Metallurgy, 
vol. i., on Fuel (2d ed. London, 1875), containing full details of 
the chemistry of coal. Greenwell, Practical Treatise on Mine 
Engineering (2d ed. London, 1869). Andre, Practical Treatise 



on Coal Mining (London, 1876). Smyth, Coal and Coal Mining 
(2d ed. London 1872). Jevons, The Coal Question (2d ed. Lon 
don, 18C6). Rogers, Geology of Pennsylvania (2 vols., Edinburgh, 
1850). Proceedings of the South Wales Institute of Engineering (8 
vols., Merthyr, 1858-73). Transactions of the North of England 
Institute of Alining Engineers (1% vols., Newcastle, 1852-74). Various 
Geological Reports of the State an.d General Governments of the 
United States ; including Newberry s OhioReports, Cox s Indiana lie- 
ports, and Hayden s Reports of Geological Survey of the Territories. 

FRANCE AND BELGIUM. Burat, Geologic de, la France (8vo. 
Paris, 1864). Cours d Exploitation de Mines (1871). Matiricl 
des Houilliercs en France, <L-c. (1861-68). Bulletin de la Societi de 
Vlndustrie Mineralc, S. Etienne (20 vols. since 1855). Ponson, 
Traiti de T Exploitation dcs Mines de Houillc (2d ed. Liege, 1868-71). 
Supplement to the above (1867-72). De Kuyper, Revue Universelk 
des Mines, <L~c. (Liege, since 1854). 

GERMANY. Geinitz, Die SteinJcohlcn Leutschlands, <L-c. (3 vols. 
4to, Munich, 1865). This is the most complete book on the sub 
ject. Zinckcn, Die Bramikoldc (2 vols., Hanover, 1865-71). 
Zeitschrift fur Berg Hiittcn und Salinemvesen, <c. (4to. Berlin, 
22 vols. since 1854). (H. B.) 



COANZA, or QUAKZA, an important river of Western 
Africa, in the country of Angola. It takes its rise in the 
Mossamba Mountains, not far from the source of the Cunene, 
probably in 14 S. lat., and its total length is about 600 
miles It receives a large number of tributaries, the most 
important of which are the Loando and the Cutato in the 
upper part of its course, the Gango and the Quige in the 
middle portion, and the Lucalla in the lower. Its progress 
is broken by several falls, and in the last 200 miles of its 
journey it descends no less than 4800 feet This diminishes 
its value as a means of transit ; but it is navigable for 
large boats about 140 miles from its mouth, which is 
situated 50 miles south of Loando, in 9 15 S. lat. It 
there forms a number of islands, and pours into the sea a 
turbid current, which is visible for some distance outwards 
by its contrast of colour. 

COATBRIDGE, a town of Scotland, in the county of 
Lanark, and parish of Old Monkland, ten miles east of 
Glasgow by rail, and about two miles west of Airdrie. It 
owes it rise to the importance of the surrounding district 
as a mining field. The town itself is of a straggling descrip 
tion, and is intersected by a branch of the North Cahler 
Water, the Monkland Canal, and the Caledonian Railway. 
It contains eight places of worship, a literary association, 
and five branch banks. In the immediate neighbourhood 
are the Gartsherrie iron works, and there are engineering 
establishments in the town itself. The population of town 
in 1871, including Gartsherrie, High Sunnyside, and Lang- 
loan, numbered 15 ; 802 ; of whom 8599 were males and 
7203 females, 

COBALT, a metal of the iron group. The name is 
derived from the German Kolold, a miner s term for gnome, 
or evil spirit, akin to the English gollin, which was applied 
to a mineral found associated with silver ores, and often 
replacing them in the mines of Schneeberg in Saxony. The 
use of the oxide of cobalt in colouring glass was only dis 
covered in 1540 by Scheurer, and till then the metal had 
been supposed to be worthless. It was first produced, but 
in an imperfectly purified condition, in 1733, by Brandt. 

Cobalt is found alloyed in small quantity together with 
nickel in many meteoric irons. The principal mode of 
occurrence, however, is in various complex minerals con 
taining arsenic and sulphur and the allied metal nickel. 
The following are the most important : 

1. Smaltine or speiss cobalt, an arsenide of the 
isomorphous bases, cobalt, nickel, and iron, of the formula 
(CoNiFe)As 2 , is a mineral of the cubical system, forming 
steel or lead-grey crystals of a metallic lustre, tarnishing in 
damp air to a pink or green tint according to the pre 
ponderance of cobalt or nickel that is present In the 



purest condition it may contain 28 2 per cent, of cobalt to 
71 8 per cent, of arsenic, but nickel and iron are almost 
invariably present to some extent. The principal locality 
is at Schneeberg in Saxony, where it is associated with 
silver, bismuth, and nickel ores. 

2. Cobalt glance, or cobaltine, is a compound of 
sulphide and arsenide of cobalt, CoS 2 + CoAs 2 , the typical 
composition being cobalt 35 5, arsenic 45 2, and sulphur 
19 - 3 per cent. It occurs in very brilliant complex crystals 
belonging to the cubical system, the principal locality 
baing at Tunaberg in Sweden. A part of the metal is 
sometimes replaced by iron, but as a rule it is free from 
nickel, 

3, Linnaeite, or cobalt pyrites, is analogous in composi 
tion to copper pyrites, being represented by the formula 
Co<,S + Co 2 S 3 , with 58 per cent, of cobalt and 42 of sulphur. 
As a general rule a portion of the base is replaced by copper, 
nickel, or iron. It is a rare mineral, being found only in 
the Siegen district in Prussia and in Sweden. Cobalt 
bloom is a hydrated arseniate produced by the action of 
air and water upon the above minerals ; the composition ia 
Co 2 As 2 O 8 4- 8H 2 O, i.e., 37| per cent, of oxide of cobalt. 
Earthy cobalt ore is a variety of bog manganese, or wad, a 
mineral of indefinite composition, but containing at times 
as much as 8 or 10 per cent, of oxide of cobalt with oxides 
of manganese, iron, and copper. Cobaltic bismuth ore ia 
a mixture of finely crystalline speiss cobalt with native 
bismuth, found occasionally in the Schneeberg mines. 

The materials from which cobalt is produced by the 
smelter consist generally of iron or arsenical pyrites, con 
taining a minute quantity of the two metals cobalt and 
nickel, or various products derived from the smelting of the 
ores of silver and copper in which these metals are concen 
trated as sulphur or arsenic compounds. 

When in a compact form cobalt is a steel grey metal 
with a slightly reddish tint, taking a very high lustre when 
polished, and breaking with a finely granular fracture. The 
specific gravity is variously stated at from 8 52 to 8 70. 
It is slightly malleable, and. when quite pure of a higher 
degree of tenacity than iron, according to Deville. The 
brittle character attributed to it by former observers is clue 
to impurities, such as arsenic and manganese. It melts at 
about the same temperature as iron, or a little lower, 
requiring the strongest heat of a wind furnace. The 
specific heat is 0-10696 (Regnault). It is susceptible of 
being magnetized by touch, and retains its magnetism at 
temperatures below a strong red heat when free from 
arsenic. Chemically it belongs to the same group as iron, 
zinc, nickel, manganese, and chromium, which cannot be 
separated as sulphides by H.,S from an acid solution. It is 

VI. Ji 



82 

diatomic; its atomic weight is 58 6, and its symbol Co. 
Like iron it may be reduced from its oxides by heating with 
charcoal or in hydrogen gas ; in the former case a small 
quantity of carbon is retained, forming a substance ana 
logous to cast-iron. When reduced by hydrogen at a low 
temperature it forms a black powder which is pyrophoric, 
or ignites spontaneously in the air, especially if mixed with 
finely-divided alumina. At a red heat it decomposes water 
vapour, producing hydrogen and oxide of cobalt. 

There are two principal oxides. The protoxide, CoO, 
is obtained as a black powder by calcining the hydrate 
CoH 2 2 . The latter is a red substance obtained by pre 
cipitation with alkalies from the solution of a cobalt salt. 
The higher, or sesquioxide, Co 2 O 3 , is produced in a hy- 
drated form from the hydrated protoxide by the action 
of chlorine, bromine, chloride of lime, or similar oxidizing 
agents. It may be rendered anhydrous by careful heating, 
but at a red heat it decomposes, giving off part of its 
oxygen, and produces a compound analogous in composi 
tion to magnetic oxide of iron, Fe 3 O 4 . 

The protoxide forms numerous salts, which are usually 
of a fine rose-red colour. A weak solution of the nitrate 
or chloride forms the so-called sympathetic ink, which gives 
a colourless writing when cold, but appears of a bluish- 
green colour when heated, and fades again on cooling. 
This effect may be reproduced a great number of tim es if 
the writing is not too strongly heated, in which case the 
colour becomes permanent from the formation of a basic 
salt. With ammonia the oxides of cobalt form a series of 
compound bases, which give rise to salts of great interest 
and complexity; these may be regarded as ammonium 
salts, in which part of the hydrogen is replaced by 
ammonium and another part by cobalt in various conditions 
of atomicity corresponding to the oxides. 

The alloys of cobalt are not of much importance. It 
combines most readily with arsenic or antimony, forming 
the highly crystalline compounds known by the general 
name of speiss, which can scarcely be considered as alloys. 
With gold and silver it forms brittle compounds, with 
mercury a silver-white magnetic amalgam. With copper 
and zinc the alloy is white, resembling the corresponding 
compounds of the same metals with nickel and manganese. 
With tin it forms a somewhat ductile alloy of a violet 
colour. The presence of cobalt in the alloy of copper, zinc, 
and nickel, known as German silver, is objectionable, as 
it renders it hard and difficult to roll. 

The chief use of cobalt in the arts is for the preparation 
of colours. The protoxide has an intense colouring power 
when vitrified, and forms the basis of all the blue colours 
used in glass and porcelain manufacture. The purity of 
the tint is much affected by traces even of other metallic 
oxides, especially those of iron, nickel, or copper. Another 
preparation, known as smalts, is a glass formed by melting 
cobalt oxide with pure quartz sand and carbonate of potas 
sium. _ Sometimes the first two substances are subjected to 
a preliminary heating to produce fritted silicate of a reddish 
or purple colour, known as za/re, which when fused with 
the alkaline carbonate in an ordinary glass furnace produces 
a deep blue glass. This is rendered friable by running it 
into water, and is then ground between granite millstones, 
and finally levigated in water. The various products of 
the levigation are classified into different qualities according 
to the fineness of the grain and the strength of the colour, 
the best being those occupying a medium position, the colour 
diminishing as the fineness of the grain increases. The 
coarsest variety, known as strewing blue, consisting of rough 
angular fragments up to about inch diameter, is used for 
the ground-work of the old-fashioned blue and gold sign 
boards^ a very effective and durable kind of surface orna 
mentation. The highest coloured varieties contain from 



6 to 7 per cent, of oxide of cobalt. Glass containing only 
^J-jj-th part of the oxide is of a distinct blue j with more thai* 
18 per cent, it is black. 

The principal use of smalts is for bluing paper ; it was 
formerly employed almost exclusively for this purpose, 
but has now been to a very considerable extent superseded 
by the use of artificial ultramarine, which is cheaper and 
,more easily applied, but is less permanent, as the colour is 
easily discharged by acids, which is not the case when 
smalts is used. The pigment known as cobalt blue, used 
both in oil and water-colour painting, is obtained by mixing 
the solutions of a cobalt salt and alum, precipitating with ac 
alkaline carbonate, and strongly heating the gelatinous 
precipitate of the hydrated oxides of the two metals. 
Thenard s blue, a phosphate of cobalt and alumina, is pro 
duced in a similar manner, by precipitation with an alkaline 
phosphate. Cobalt green, or Rinman s green, is a mixture 
of the oxides of zinc and cobalt produced from the solu 
tions of their sulphates by precipitation with carbonate of 
sodium and ignition. 

In analysis cobalt is always determined as protoxide, but 
the separation from the metals with which it is usually 
associated, especially nickel, is a difficult and tedious 
operation. Many different processes have been devised, 
but the most accurate are those of H. Rose and Liebig. 
The former depends upon the power possessed by chlorine 
(or bromine) of converting protoxide of cobalt when in 
solution into sesquioxide, while the corresponding oxide 
of nickel is not changed. The solution when completely 
saturated with chlorine is precipitated by carbonate of 
barium, which carries down the whole of the cobalt 
as sesquioxide ; the precipitate is redissolved in hydrochloric 
acid, the whole of the barium salt separated by sulphuric 
acid, and the cobalt finally precipitated by means of hydrate 
of potassium. In Liebig s method the oxides of the two 
metals are heated with cyanide of potassium and boiled, 
which produces cobalticyanide of potassium, K 2 Co 2 Cy 6 , 
and cyanide of nickel and potassium, KNiCy 2 . By the 
addition of finely-divided red oxide of mercury the whole 
of the nickel is precipitated, partly as cyanide and partly 
as hydrate, while the cobalt compound remains in solution, 
and is afterwards separated by means of sulphate of copper 
as cobalticyanide of copper, which is redissolved ; the copper 
is separated by sulphuretted hydrogen, and the cobalt then 
obtained as oxide by boiling with caustic potash. The 
complexity of the composition of the ores, and the high 
value of the two metals, has led to the application of more 
refined methods of chemical analysis in their investigation 
than are required in the assay of the ores of the commoner 
metals. Plattner s method of dry assay of cobalt and nickel 
ores is much more rapidly performed than an analysis, and 
in practised hands is susceptible of considerable accuracy. 
It depends upon the fact that when a speiss or arsenical 
compound, containing the four metals iron, cobalt, nickel, 
and copper is melted with a vitreous flux such as borax 
in an oxidizing atmosphere, the metals will be oxidized and 
pass into a slag with the borax in the order indicated above, 
no cobalt being taken up until the iron has been entirely 
removed, and similarly the nickel remaining until the cobalt 
has been completely oxidized. The steps in the process 
may be easily recognized owing to the difference in the 
characteristic colour of the oxides, the dark green or black 
of the iron slag being rendered distinctly blue by the 
faintest trace of cobalt, and the blue of the latter being 
similarly affected by nickel, which has a strong brown 
colouring power. The arsenides of cobalt and nickel, 
being of a constant composition, are weighed at each 
step of the process in the proportion of the metal re 
moved calculated from the difference. Cobalt may be 
readily detected by the blow-pipe even when in very small 



B G B 



83 



quantity, or by the characteristic blue imparted to a bead 
of borax or salt of phosphorus. 

On the large scale cobalt is produced chiefly as an 
accessory in the treatment of nickel ores. These consist 
chiefly of mixtures of small quantities of the purer minerals 
with pyrites, sulphuretted copper ores, or lead and silver ores, 
which require to be subjected to concentrating processes in 
order to get rid of the bulk of the iron, sulphur, and arsenic, 
aud produce a small amount of enriched regulus or metal, 
in which the more valuable metals are in combination with 
sulphur and arsenic. This is done by calcination, which 
drives off the sulphur and arsenic combined with the iron, 
the latter being oxidized and subsequently converted into 
slag by fusion with fluxes containing silica. Small quanti 
ties of cobalt, nickel, and copper ores, when associated 
with lead and silver ores, are in like manner gradually 
accumulated in a regulus by passing the regulus of the 
first fusion several times through the smelting furnace, 
whereby the lead and silver are in great part removed. 
The treatment of these purified and enriched products is 
conducted ou the large scale in a somewhat similar manner 
to a chemical analysis, in order to obtain both cobalt and 
nickel. The speiss, or regulus, is calcined and treated 
with strong hydrochloric acid to dissolve the oxides formed. 
By the addition of caustic lime, iron and arsenic are pre 
cipitated, and the clear liquid is treated with sulphuretted 
hydrogen so long as metallic sulphides are produced, the 
precipitate being allowed to settle. The solution then con 
taining only cobalt and nickel compounds, the former is 
separated by the addition of bleaching powder and caustic 
lime as sesquioxide, Co 2 O 3 , and the latter as hydrated 
oxide by a subsequent precipitation with lime. 

In making smalts the purer arsenical ores are used. 
They are first calcined in a reverberatory or muffle furnace 
provided with chambers for condensing the arsenical fumes 
as completely as possible. The roasted ore, if it does not 
contain quartz, is mixed with a proportion of fine glass 
house sand and carbonate of potassium, but when it is 
sufficiently siliceous, as in the mixtures of cobalt ore and 
silica known as zaffre, only the alkaline carbonate is 
required. The fusion takes place in pots like those used 
in plate-glass making, aud requires about eight hours. The 
blue glass is led out into water till the pot is nearly empty, 
when a speiss containing the whole of the nickel of the ore 
is found at the bottom. The blue glass is then ground and 
levigated as already described. 

The chief localities producing cobalt ores are Modum in 
Norway, Tunaberg in Sweden, Schneeberg in Saxony, Musen 
in Rhenish Prussia, and Mine Lamotte in Missouri ; a con 
siderable amount has also been obtained from Bolivia. In 
the Transvaal in South Africa a very pure variety of speiss 
cobalt free from nickel has been recently discovered. 
Smaller quantities of speiss or regulus are obtained from 
the smelting of silver and lead ores, at Freiberg, in the 
Harz, in Bohemia, and elsewhere. (H. B.) 

COBAN, or SANTO DOMINGO COBAN, a city of Central 
America, in the republic of Guatemala, and the department 
of Vera Paz, situated about 90 miles north of the city of 
Guatemala, on the direct route to Flores, not far from the 
source of the Rio de Cajabon, which flows into the Golfo 
Dolce. It occupies the slopes of a rounded hill, on the top 
of which is the central square or plaza, with the cathedral 
aud the ruins of the once magnificent Dominican monastery 
on the one side, and on the others the shops and houses of 
the merchants and artizans. The houses of Coban are low 
and covered with tiles ; and, as each with its garden and 
croft attached is curtained by a dense and lofty hedge, the 
streets have rather the appearance of woodland avenues. 
The cathedral is a large and imposing edifice, decorated in 
the interior with a barbaric profusion of ornament ; but 



like the rest of the public buildings of the town it shows 
signs of decay. Since the removal of the seat of the Pro 
vincial Government to Salama, the prosperity of Coban has 
greatly declined, but it still contains about 12,000 
inhabitautSjWho carry on the weaving of cotton cloth, the 
cultivation of coffee, sugar, and pimento, and a considerable 
trade with the neighbouring provinces. The Spanish and 
Ladino part of the population does not exceed 2000 ; and 
the rest are Indians originally from the mountains of 
Chichen and Jucamel, who still speak the Kacchi or 
Quecchi language. Coban owes its origin to the missionary 
labours of the Dominicans of the 16th century, and more 
especially to Fray Pedro de Augulo, whose portrait is pre 
served in the cathedral. It was made the political capital 
of the province of Vera Paz, and obtained the arms of a city 
of the first rank. 

COBBETT, WILLIAM (1766-1835), one of the most 
vigorous of English political writers, was born near Farn- 
ham in Surrey, according to his own statement, on the 9th 
March 1766. He was the grandson of a farm-labourer, 
and the son of a small farmer ; and during his early life 
he worked on his father s farm. At the age of sixteen, 
inspired with patriotic feeling by the sight of the men-of- 
war in Portsmouth harbour, he offered himself as a sailor ; 
and at seventeen (May 1783) having, while on his way to 
Guildford fair, met the London coach, he suddenly resolved 
to accompany it to its destination. He arrived at Ludgate 
Hill with exactly half-a-crown in his pocket, but an old 
gentleman who had travelled with him invited him to his 
house, and obtained for him the situation of copying clerk 
in an attorney s office. He greatly disliked his new occupa 
tion; and rejecting all his father s entreaties that he would 
return home, he went down to Chatham early in 1784 
with the intention of joining the marines. By some mis 
take, however, he was enlisted in a regiment of the line, 
which rather more than a year after proceeded to Sfc 
John s, New Brunswick. All his leisure time during the 
months he remained at Chatham was devoted to reading the 
contents of the circulating library of the town, and getting 
up by heart Lowth s English Grammar. His uniform good 
conduct, and the power of writing correctly which he had 
acquired, quickly raised him to the rank of corporal, from 
which, without passing through the intermediate grade of 
sergeant, he was promoted to that of sergeant-major. In 
November 1791 he was discharged at his own request, 
and received the official thanks of the major and the 
general who signed his discharge. But Cobbett s connection 
with the regiment did not end in this agreeable manner. 
He brought a serious charge against some of its officers, 
and instead of appearing at the trial fled to France (March 
1792). The inquiry which was held in his absence resulted 
in a complete acquittal of the accused. 

In the previous February Cobbett had married the 
daughter of a sergeant-major of artillery ; he had met hex- 
some years before in New Brunswick, and had proved her 
to be endowed with energy and self-control equal to his 
own. In September of the same year (1792) he crossed 
to the United States, and for a time supported himself 
at Wilmington by teaching English to French emigrants. 
Among these was Talleyrand, who employed him, according 
to Cobbett s story, not because he was ignorant of English, 
but because he wished to purchase his pen, Cobbett made 
his first literary sensation by his Observations on the Emi 
gration of a Martyr to the Cause of Liberty, a clever 
retort on Dr Priestley, who had just landed in America 
complaining of the treatment he had received in England. 
This pamphlet was followed by a number of papers, signed 
" Peter Porcupine," and entitled Prospect from the, Congress 
Gallery, the Political Censor, and the Porcupine s Gazette. 
In the spring of 1796, having quarrelled with his publisher, 



GOBBET T 



he set up in Philadelphia as bookseller and publisher of his 
own works. On the day of opening, his windows were 
filled with prints of the most extravagant of the French 
Revolutionists and of the founders of the American Republic 
placed side by side, along with portraits of George III., 
the British ministers, and any one else he could find likely to 
be obnoxious to the people ; and he continued to pour forth 
praises of Great Britain and scorn of the institutions of the 
United States, with special abuse of the French party. 
Abuse and threats were of course in turn showered upon 
him, and in August, for one of his attacks on Spain, he 
was prosecuted, though unsuccessfully, by the Spanish 
ambassador. Immediately on this he was taken up for 
libels upon American statesmen, and bound in recognizances 
to the amount of $4000, and shortly after he was pro 
secuted a third time for saying that a certain Dr Rush, 
who was much addicted to bleeding, killed nearly all the 
patients he attended. The trial was repeatedly deferred, 
and was not settled till the end of 1799, when he was fined 
$5000. After this last misfortune, for a few months 
Cobbett carried on a newspaper called the Rushlight ; but 
in June 1800 he set sail for England. 

At home he found himself regarded as the champion of 
order and monarchy. Windham invited him to dinner, 
introduced him to Pitt, and begged him to accept a share 
in the True Briton. He refused the offer and joined an 
old friend, John Morgan, in opening a book shop in Pall 
Mall. For some time he published the Porcupine s Gazette, 
which was followed in January 1802 by the Weekly 
Political Register. In 1801 appeared his Letters to Lord 
Havvkesbury (afterwards earl of Liverpool) and Mr 
Addington, in opposition to the peace of Amiens, the 
terms of which had been agreed to by the former on behalf 
of Great Britain in the October of that year, but which 
was not finally concluded till 1802. On the conclusion of 
the peace Cobbett made a still bolder protest ; he deter 
mined to take no part in the general illumination, and 
assisted by the sympathy of his wife, who, being in delicate 
health, removed to the house of a friend he carried out 
his resolve, allowing his windows to be smashed and his 
door broken open by the angry mob. The Letters to the. 
Rt. Hon. Henry Addington are among the most polished 
and dignified of Cobbett s writings; but by 1803 he was 
once more revelling in personalities. The government of 
Ireland was singled out for wholesale attack ; and a letter 
published in the Register remarked of Hardwicke, the lord- 
lieutenant, that the appointment was like setting the sur 
geon s apprentice to bleed the pauper patients. For this, 
though not a word had been uttered against Hardwicke s 
character, Cobbett was fined 500 ; and two days after the 
conclusion of this trial a second commenced, at the suit "of 
Plunkett, the solicitor-general for Ireland, which resulted 
in a similar fine. About this time he began to write in 
support of Radical views; and to cultivate the friendship of 
Sir Francis Burdett, from whom he received considerable 
sums of money, and other favours, for which he gave no 
very grateful return. In 1809 he was once more in the 
most_ serious trouble. He had bitterly commented on the 
flogging of some militia, because their mutiny had been 
repressed and their sentence carried out by the aid of a 
body of German troops, and in consequence he was fined 
1000 and imprisoned for two years. His indomitable 
vigour was never better displayed. He still continued to 
publish the Register, and to superintend the affairs of his 
farm ; a hamper containing specimens of its produce and 
other provisions came to him every week ; and he amused 
himself with the company of some of his children and with 
weekly letters from the rest. On his release a public dinner, 
presided over by Sir F. Burdett, was held in honour of the 
event. He returned to his farm at Botley in Hampshire, 



and continued in his old course, extending his influence by 
the publication of the Tivopenny Trash, which, not being 
periodical, escaped the newspaper stamp tax. Meanwhile, 
however, he had contracted debts to the amount of 34,000 
(for it is said that, notwithstanding the aversion he publicly 
expressed to paper currency, he had carried on his business 
by the aid of accommodation bills to a very large amount) ; 
and in March 1817 he fled to the United States. But 
his pen was as active as ever ; from Long Island the 
Register was regularly despatched to England; and it 
was here that he wrote his clear and interesting English 
Grammar, of which 10,000 copies were sold in a month. 

His return to England was accompanied by his weakest 
exhibition the exhuming and bringing over of the bones 
of Tom Paine, w r hom he had once heartily abused, but on 
whom he now wrote a panegyrical ode. Nobody paid any 
attention to the affair ; the relics he offered were not 
purchased ; and the bones were reinterred. 

Cobbett s great aim was now to obtain a seat in the 
House of Commons. He calmly suggested that his friends 
should assist him by raising the sum of 5000 ; it would 
be much better, he said, than a meeting of 50,000 persons. 
He first offered himself for Coventry, but failed; in 1826 
he was by a large number of votes last of the candidates 
for Preston ; and in 1828 he could find no one to propose 
him for the office of common councillor. In 1830, that 
year of revolutions, he was prosecuted for inciting to 
rebellion, but the jury disagreed, and soon after, through 
the influence of one of his admirers, Mr Fielden, who was 
himself a candidate for Oldham, he was returned for that 
town. lu the House his speeches were listened to with 
amused attention. His position is sufficiently marked by 
the sneer of Peel that he would attend to Mr Cobbett s 
observations exactly as if they had been those of a 
" respectable member ; " and the only striking part of his 
career was his absurd motion that the king should be 
prayed to remove Sir Robert Peel s name from the list of 
the privy council, because of the change he had proposed 
in the currency in 1819. In 183i Cobbett was again 
member for Oldham, but his health now began to give way, 
and in June 1835 he left London for his farm, where he 
died on the 16th of that month. 

Cobbett s account of his home-life makes him appear 
singularly happy ; his love and admiration of his wife never 
failed ; and his education of his children seems to have 
been distinguished by great kindliness, and by a good deal 
of healthy wisdom, mingled with the prejudices due to the 
peculiarities of his temper and circumstances. Cobbett s 
ruling characteristic was a sturdy egotism, which had in it 
something of the nobler element of self-respect. A firm will, 
a strong brain, feelings not over-sensitive, an intense love of 
fighting, a resolve to get on, in the sense of making himself 
a power in the world these are the principal qualities 
which account for the success of his career. His opinions 
were the fruits of his emotions. It was enough for him to 
get a thorough grasp of one side of a question, about the 
other side he did not trouble himself ; but he always firmly 
seizes the facts which make for his view, and expresses 
them with unfailing clearness. His argument, which is 
never subtle, has always the appearance of weight, however 
flimsy it may be in fact. His sarcasm is seldom polished 
or delicate, but usually rough, and often abusive, while 
coarse nicknames were his special delight. His style is 
always extremely forcible, and marked by unusual gramma 
tical correctness. 

Cobbett s contributions to periodical literature occupy IOC 
volu ies, twelve of which consist of the papers published at 
Philadelphia between 1794 and 1800, and the rest of the Weekly 
Political Register, which ended only with Cobbett s life (June 1835). 
An abridgment of these works, with notes, has been published by 
his sons, John M. Cobbett and James P. Cobbett. Besides this ha 



C Q B C B 



published An Account of the Horrors of the French Revolution, 
and a \vork tracing all these horrors to " the licentious politics and 
infidel philosophy of the presentage" (both 1798); A Year s Residence 
in the United States; Parliamentary History of England from the Nor 
man Conquest to 1800 (1806) ; Cottage Economy ; Roman History; 
French Grammar, and English Grammar, both in the form of letters ; 
Geographical Dictionary of England and Wales ; History of the 
Regency and Reign of George IV"., containing a defence of Queen 
Caroline, whose cause he warmly advocated (1830-4) ; Life of 
Andrew Jackson, President of the United States (1834); Legacy to 
Labourers; Legacy to Peel; Legacy to Parsons, an attack on the 
secular claims of the Established Church; Doom of Tithes ; Rural 
Rides; Advice toYoungMen and Women; CobbctPs Corn; wAHistory 
of the Protestant Reformation in England and Ireland, in which he 
defends the monasteries, Queen Mary, and Bonner, and attacks the 
Reformation, Henry VIII., Elizabeth, and all who helped to brin<* 
it about, with such vehemence that the work was translated 
into French and Italian, and extensively circulated among Roman 
Catholics. 

In 1798 Cobbett published in America an account of his early life, 
under the title of The Life and Adventures of Peter Porcupine; and 
he left papers relating to his subsequent career. These materials 
were embodied in an anonymous Life of Cobbett which appeared 
soon after his death. See also Sir Henry Bulwer s Historical 
Characters; Biographies of John Wilkes and William Cobbett by Rev. 
John Watson; and the abridged and annotated edition of the 
Register. 

COBDEN", RICHARD (1804-1865), was born at a farm 
house called Dunford, near Midhurst, in Sussex, on the 3d 
of June 1804. The family had been resident in that 
neighbourhood for many generations, occupied partly in 
trade and partly in agriculture. Formerly there had been 
in the town of Midhurst a small manufacture of hosiery 
with which the Cobdens were connected, though all trace 
of it had disappeared before the birth of Richard. His 
grandfather was a maltster in that town, an energetic and 
prosperous man, almost always the bailiff or chief 
magistrate, and taking rather a notable part in county 
matters. But his father, forsaking that trade, took to 
farming at an unpropitious time. He was amiable and 
kind-hearted, and greatly Hked by his neighbours, but not 
a man of business habits, and he did not succeed in his 
farming enterprise. He died when his son Richard was 
a child, and the care of the family devolved upon the 
mother, who was a woman of strong sense and of great 
energy of character, and who, after her husband s death, 
left Dunford and returned to Midhurst. 

The educational advantages of Richard Cobden were 
not very ample. There was a grammar school at Midhurst, 
which at one time had enjoyed considerable reputation, 
but which had fallen into decay. It was there that he 
had to pick up such rudiments of knowledge as formed 
his first equipment in life, but from his earliest years he 
was indefatigable in the work of self-cultivation. When 
fifteen or sixteen years of age he went to London to the 
warehouse of Messrs Partridge and Price, in East Cheap, 
one of the partners being his uncle. His relative noting 
the lad s passionate addiction to study, solemnly warned 
him against indulging such a taste, as likely to prove a 
fatal obstacle to his success in commercial life, Happily 
the admonition was unheeded, for while unweariedly 
diligent in business, as his rapid after success abundantly 
proved, he was in his intervals of leisure a most assiduous 
student. During his residence in London he found access 
to the London Institution, and made ample use of its 
large and well-selected library. 

When he was about twenty years of age he became a 
commercial traveller, and throwing into that, as he ever 
did into whatever his hand found to do, all the thorough 
ness and vigour of his nature, he soon became eminently 
successful in his calling. But never content to sink into 
the mere trader, he sought to introduce among those he 
met on the " road " a higher tone of conversation than 
usually marks the commercial room, and there were many 
of his associates who, when he had attained eminence, 



recalled the discussions on political economy and kindred 
topics with which he was wont to enliven and elevate the 
travellers table. In 1830 Cobden learnt that Messrs 
Fort, calico printers at Sabden, near Clitheroe, were about 
to retire from business, and he, with two other young 
men, Messrs Sheriff and Gillet, who were engaged in the 
same commercial house as himself, determined to make an 
effort to acquire the succession. They had, however, very 
little capital among them. But it may be taken as an 
illustration of the instinctive confidence which Cobden 
through life inspired in those with whom he came into 
contact, that Messrs Fort consented to leave to these 
untried young men a large portion of their capital in the 
business. Nor was their confidence misplaced. The new 
firm had soon three establishments, one at Sabden, where 
the printing works were, one in London, and one in 
Manchester for the sale of their goods. This last was 
under the direct management of Cobden, who, in 1830 
or 1831, settled in the city with which his name became 
afterwards so closely associated. The success of this enter- 
prize was decisive and rapid, and the " Cobden prints" soon 
became known through the country as of rare value both 
for excellence of material and beauty of design. There 
can be no doubt that if Cobden had been satisfied to 
devote all his energies to commercial life he might soon 
have attained to great opulence, for it is understood that 
his share in the profits of the business he had established 
amounted to from 8000 to 10,000 a year. But he had 
other tastes, which impelled him irresistibly to pursue those 
studies which, as Lord Bacon says, " serve for delight, for 
ornament, and for ability." Mr Prentice, the historian of 
the Anti-Corn-Law League, who was then editor of the Man 
chester Times, describes how, in the year 1835, he received 
for publication in his paper a series of admirably written 
letters, under the signature of " Libra," discussing com 
mercial and economical questions with rare ability. After 
some time he discovered that the author of these letters 
was Cobden, whose name was until then quite unknown 
to him. 

In 1 835 he published his first pamphlet, entitled Eng 
land, Ireland, and America, by a Manchester Manufacturer. 
It attracted great attention, and ran rapidly through several 
editions. It was marked by a breadth and boldness of 
views on political and social questions which betokened 
an original mind. In this production Cobden advo 
cated the same principles of peace, non-intervention, re 
trenchment, and free trade to which he continued faithful 
to the last day of his life. Immediately after the publica 
tion of this pamphlet, he paid a visit to the United States, 
landing in New York on the 7th June 1835. He devoted 
about three months to this tour, passing rapidly through 
the seaboard States and the adjacent portion of Canada, 
and collecting as he went large stores of information 
respecting the condition, resources, and prospects of the 
great Western Republic. Soon after his return to England 
he began to prepare another work for the press, which 
appeared towards the end of 1836, under the title of 
Russia. It was mainly designed to combat a wild out 
break of Russophobia which, under the inspiration of Mr 
David Urquhart, was at that time taking possession of the 
public mind. But it contained also a bold indictment of 
the whole system of foreign policy then in vogue, founded 
on ideas as to the balance of power and the necessity of 
large armaments for the protection of commerce. While 
this pamphlet was in the press, delicate health obliged him 
to leave England, and for several months, at the end of 
1836 and the beginning of 1837, he travelled in Spain, 
Turkey, and Egypt. During his visit to Egypt he had an 
interview with the redoubtable ruler of that country, 
Mehemet Ali, of whose character as a reforming monarch 



C B D E N 



he did not bring away a very favourable impression. He 
returned to England in April 1837. From that time 
Cobdeu became a conspicuous figure in Manchester, taking 
a leading part in the local politics of the town and district. 
Largely owing to his exertions, the Manchester Athenaeum 
was established, at the opening of which he was chosen to 
deliver the inaugural address. He became a member of 
the Chamber of Commerce, and soon infused new life into 
that body. He threw himself with great energy into the 
agitation which led to the incorporation of the city, and 
was elected one of its first aldermen. He began also to 
take a warm interest in the cause of popular education. 
Some of his first attempts in public speaking were at meet 
ings which he convened at Manchester, Salford, Bolton, 
Rochdale, and other adjacent towns, to advocate the estab 
lishment of British schools. It was while on a mission for 
this purpose to Rochdale that he first formed the acquaint 
ance of Mr John Bright, who afterwards became his 
distinguished coadjutor in the free trade agitation. Nor 
was it long before his fitness for parliamentary life was 
recognized by his friends. In 1837, the death of William 
IV. and the accession of Queen Victoria led to a general 
election. Cobden was candidate for Stockport, but was 
defeated, though not by a large majority. 

In 1838 an Anti-Corn-Law Association was formed at 
Manchester, which, on his suggestion, was afterwards 
changed into a national association, under the title of the 
Anti-Corn-Law League. This is not the place to recount 
the history of that famous association, of which from first 
to last Cobden was the presiding genius and the animating 
soul. During the seven years between the formation of 
the league and its final triumph, he devoted himself wholly 
to the work of teaching his countrymen sound economical 
doctrines, for the agitation which he and his associates 
conducted with such signal ability and success was pre 
eminently an educational agitation. His labours were as 
various as they were incessant, now guiding the councils 
of the League, now addressing crowded and enthusiastic 
meetings of his supporters in London or the large towns 
of England and Scotland, now invading the agricultural 
districts, and challenging the landlords to meet him in the 
presence of their own farmers, to discuss the question in 
dispute, and now encountering the Chartists led on by 
Feargus O Connor, who had deluded a portion of the 
working classes into fanatical opposition to free frade. But 
whatever was the character of his audience he never failed, 
by the clearness of his statements, the force of his reasoning, 
and the felicity of his illustrations, to carry conviction to 
the minds of his hearers. 

In 1841, Sir Robert Peel having defeated the Melbourne 
ministry in Parliament, there was a general election, when 
Cobden was returned for Stockport. His opponents had 
confidently predicted that he would fail utterly in the 
House of Commons. He did not wait long, after his 
admission into that assembly, in bringing their predic 
tions to the test. Parliament met on the 19th August. 
On the 24th, in course of the debate on the Address, 
Cobden delivered his first speech. " It was remarked, " 
pays Miss Martineau, in her History of tJie Peace, " that 
he was not treated in the House with the courtesy usually 
accorded to a new member, and it was perceived that he 
did not need such observance." With perfect self-posses 
sion, which was not disturbed by the jeers that greeted some 
of his statements, and with the utmost simplicity, direct 
ness, and force, he presented the argument against the corn- 
laws in such a form as startled his audience, and also 
irritated some of them, for it was a style of eloquence 
very unlike the conventional style which prevailed in 
Parliament. 

From that day he became an acknowledged power in the 



House, and though addressing a most unfriendly audience, 
ie compelled attention by his thorough mastery of his 
subject, and by the courageous boldness with which he 
harged the ranks of his adversaries. He soon came to 
be recognized as one of the foremost debaters on those 
:conomical and commercial questions which at that time so 
much occupied the attention of Parliament ; and the most 
prejudiced and bitter of his opponents were fain to acknow 
ledge that they had to deal with a man whom the most 
practised and powerful orators of their party found it 
hard to cope with, and to whose eloquence, indeed, the 
great statesman in whom they put their trust was obliged 
ultimately to surrender. On the 17th of February 1843 
an extraordinary scene took place in the House of 
Commons. Cobden had spoken with great fervour of the 
deplorable suffering and distress which at that time pre 
vailed in the country, for which, he added, he held Sir 
Robert Peel, as the head of the Government, responsible. 
This remark, when it was spoken, passed unnoticed, being 
indeed nothing more than one of the commonplaces of party 
warfare. But a few weeks before, Mr Drummond, who 
was Sir Robert Peel s private secretary, had been shot dead 
in the street by a lunatic. In consequence of this, and 
the manifold anxieties of the time with which he was 
harassed, the mind of the great statesman was no doubt 
in a moody and morbid condition, and when he arose to 
speak later in the evening, he referred in excited and 
agitated tones to the remark, as an incitement to violence 
against his person. Sir Robert Peel s party, catching at 
this hint, threw themselves into a frantic state of excitement, 
and when Cobden attempted to explain that he meant 
official, not personal responsibility, they drowned his voice 
with clamorous and insulting shouts. But Peel lived to 
make ample and honourable amend for this unfortunate 
ebullition, for not only did he "fully and unequivocally 
withdraw the imputation which was thrown out in the 
heat of debate under an erroneous impression," but when 
the great free trade battle had been Avon, he took the wreath 
of victory from his own brow, and placed it on that of his 
old opponent, in the following graceful words : "The name 
which ought to be, and will be associated with the success 
of these measures, is not mine, or that of the noble Lord 
(Russell), but the name of one who, acting I believe from 
pure and disinterested motives, has, with untiring energy, 
made appeals to our reason, and has enforced those appeals 
Avith an eloquence the more to be admired because it Avas 
unaffected and unadorned; the name Avhich ought to be 
chiefly associated with the success of these measures is the 
name of Richard Cobden." Cobden had, indeed, with 
unexampled devotion, sacrificed his business, his domestic 
comforts, and for a time his health to the public interests. 
His friends therefore felt, at the close of that long campaign, 
that the nation owed him some substantial token of gratitude 
and admiration for those sacrifices. No sooner was the 
idea of such a tribute started than liberal contributions 
came from all quarters, which enabled his friends to present 
him Avith a sum of ,80,000. Had he been inspired with 
personal ambition, he might have entered upon the race of 
political advancement Avith the prospect of attaining the 
highest official prizes. Lord John Russell, who, soon after 
the repeal of the corn laA\ r s, succeeded Sir Robert Peel as 
first minister, invited Cobden to join his Government. 
But he preferred keeping himself at liberty to serve his 
countrymen ur>shackled by official ties, and declined the 
invitation. He Avithdrew for a time from England. His 
fin t intention Avas to seek complete seclusion in Egypt or 
Italy, to recover health and strength after his long and 
exhausting labours. But his fame had gone forth throughout 
Europe, and intimations reached him from many quarters 
that his voice would be listened to everywhere with favour. 



C B D E N 



87 



in advocacy of the doctrines to the triumph of which he 
had so much contributed at home. Writing to a friend in 
July 184G, he says, " I am going to tell you of a fresh 
project that has been brewing in my brain. I have given 
up all idea of burying myself in Egypt or Italy. I am 
going on an agitating tour through the continent of Europe." 
Then, referring to messages he had received from influential 
persons in France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, and Spain to 
the effect mentioned above, he adds: "Well, I will, with 
God s assistance, during the next twelve months, visit all the 
large states of Europe, see their potentates or statesmen, 
and endeavour to enforce those truths which have been 
irresistible at home. Why should I rust in inactivity? 
If the public spirit of my countrymen affords me the means 
of travelling as their missionary, I will be the first ambas 
sador from the people of this country to the nations of the 
Continent. I am impelled to this by an instinctive emotion 
such as has never deceived me. I feel that I could succeed 
in making out a stronger case for the prohibitive nations of 
Europe to compel them to adopt a freer system than I had 
here to overturn our protection policy." This programme 
he fulfilled. He visited in succession France, Spain, Italy, 
Germany, and Russia. He was received everywhere with 
marks of distinction and honour. In many of the principal 
capitals he was invited to publicbanquets, which afforded him 
an opportunity of propagating those principles of which he 
was regarded as the apostle. But beside these public demon 
strations he sought and found access in private to many of 
the leading statesmen, in the various countries he visited, 
with a view to indoctrinate them with the same principles. 
During his absence there was a general election, and he 
was returned for Stockport and for the West Riding of 
Yorkshire. He chose to sit for the latter. 

When Cobden returned from the Continent he addressed 
himself to what seemed to him the logical complement of 
free trade, namely, the promotion of peace and the reduc 
tion of naval and military armaments. His abhorrence of 
war amounted to a passion. Throughout his long labours 
in behalf of unrestricted commerce he never lost sight of 
this, as being the most precious result of the work in which 
he was engaged, its tendency to diminish the hazards of 
war and to bring the nations of the world into closer and 
more lasting relations of peace and friendship with each 
other. He was not deterred by the fear of ridicule or the 
reproach of Utopianism from associating himself openly, 
and with all the ardour of his nature, with the peace party 
iu England. In 1849 he brought forward a proposal in 
Parliament in favour of international arbitration, and in 
1851 a motion for mutual reduction of armaments. He 
was not successful in either case, nor did he expect to be. 
In pursuance of the same object, he identified himself with 
a series of remarkable peace congresses international 
assemblies designed to unite the intelligence and 
philanthropy of the nations of Christendom in a league 
against war which from 1848 to 1851 were held succes 
sively in Brussels, Paris, Frankfort, London, Manchester, 
and Edinburgh. 

On the establishment of the French empire in 1851-2 a 
violent panic took- possession of the public mind. Without 
the shadow of producible evidence the leaders of opinion 
in the press promulgated the wildest alarms as to the 
intentions of Louis Napoleon, who was represented as con 
templating a sudden and piratical descent upon the English 
coast without pretext or provocation. Shocked by this 
pitiful display of national folly, Cobden did not hesitate to 
throw himself into the breach and withstand the madness 
of the hour. By a series of powerful speeches in and out 
of Parliament, and by the publication of his masterly 
pamphlet, 1793 and 1853, he sought to calm the passions 
of his countrymen. By this course he sacrificed the great 



popularity he had won as the champion of free trade, and 
became for a time the best abused man in England. 
Immediately afterwards, owing to the quarrel about the 
Holy Places which arose in the east of Europe, public 
opinion suddenly veered round, and all the suspicion and 
hatred which had been directed against the emperor of the 
French were diverted from him to the emperor of Russia. 
Louis Napoleon was taken into favour as our faithful ally, 
and in^a whirlwind of popular excitement the nation was 
swept into the Crimean war. Cobden, who had travelled 
in Turkey, and had studied the condition of that country 
with great care for many years, utterly discredited the 
outcry about maintaining the independence and integrity 
of the Ottoman empire which was the battle-cry of the 
day. He denied that it was possible to maintain them, 
and no less strenuously denied that it was desirable even if 
it were possible. He believed that the jealousy of Russian 
aggrandizement and the dread of Russian power to which 
our countrymen delivered themselves at that time were 
absurd exaggerations. He maintained that the future of 
European Turkey was in the hands of the Christian 
population, and that it would have been our wisdom to 
ally ourselves with them rather than with the doomed and 
decaying Mahometan power. " You must address your 
selves," he said in the House of Commons, " as men of 
sense and men of energy, to the question what are you to 
do with the Christian population ? for Mahometanism 
cannot be maintained, and I should be sorry to see this 
country fighting for the maintenance of Mahometanism 

You may keep Turkey on the map of Europe, you 

may call the country by the name of Turkey if you like, 
but do not think you can keep up the Mahometan rule in 
the country/ The reader may be left to judge how far 
his sagacity and statesmanship have been vindicated by the 
event. But for the time the torrent of popular sentiment 
in favour of war was irresistible; and Messrs Cobden and 
Bright, who with admirable courage and eloquence with 
stood what they deemed the delusion of the hour, were 
overwhelmed with obloquy. 

At the beginning of 1857 tidings from China reachcsd 
England of a rupture between the British plenipotentiary 
in that country and the governor of the Canton provinces 
in reference to a small vessel orlorcha called the " Arrow," 
which had resulted in the English admiral destroying the 
river forts, burning 23 ships belonging to the Chinese navy, 
and bombarding the city of Canton. After a careful 
investigation of the official documents, Cobden became con 
vinced that those were utterly unrighteous proceedings. 
He brought forward a motion in Parliament to this effect, 
which led to a long and memorable debate, lasting over 
four nights, in which -he was supported by Mr Sydney 
Herbert^ Sir James Graham, Mr Gladstone, Lord John 
Russell, and Mr Disraeli, and which ended in the defeat of 
Lord Palmerston by a majority of sixteen. But this 
triumph cost him his seat in Parliament, On the dissolu 
tion which followed Lord Palmerston s defeat, Cobden 
became candidate for Hucldersfield, but the voters of that 
town gave the preference to his opponent, who had 
supported the Russian war and approved of the proceedings 
at Canton. Cobden was thus relegated to private life, and 
retiring to his country house at Dunford, l;e spent his time 
In perfect contentment in cultivating his land and feeding 
his pigs. 

He took advantage of this season of leisure to pay 
another visit to the United States. During his absence 
the general election of 1859 occurred, when he was returned 
unopposed for Rochdale. Lord Palmerston was again 
prime minister, and having discovered that the advanced 
liberal party was not so easily " crushed " as he had 
apprehended, he made overtures of reconciliation, and invited 



COBDEN 



Cobden and Milner Gibson to "become members of his 
government. In a frank, cordial letter which was delivered 
to Cobden on his lauding in Liverpool, Lord Palmerston 
offered him the Presidency of the Board of Trade, with a 
seat in the Cabinet. Many of his friends urgently pressed 
him to accept ; but without a moment s hesitation _ he 
determined to decline the proposed honour. On his arrival 
in London he called on Lord Palmerston, and with the 
utmost frankness told hiui that he had opposed and 
denounced him so frequently in public, and that he still 
differed so widely from his views, especially on questions 
of foreign policy, that he could not, without doing violence 
to his own sense of duty and consistency, serve under him 
as minister. Lord Palmerston tried good-humouredly to 
combat his objections, but without success. 

But though he declined to share the responsibility of 
Lord Palmerston s administration, he was willing to act as 
its representative in promoting freer commercial intercourse 
between England and France. But the negotiations for 
this purpose originated with himself in conjunction with 
Mr Bright and M. Michel Chevalier. Towards the close 
of 1859 he called upon Lord Palmerston, Lord John Russell, 
and Mr Gladstone, and signified his intention to visit 
France and get into communication with the emperor and 
his ministers, with a view to promote this object. These 
statesmen expressed in general terms their approval of his 
purpose, but he went entirely on his own account, clothed 
at first with no official authority. His name, however, 
carried an authority of its own. On his arrival in Paris he 
had a long audience with Napoleon, in which he urged 
many arguments in favour of removing those obstacles 
which prevented the two countries from being brought into 
closer dependence OK. one another, and he succeeded in 
making a considerable impression on his mind in favour of 
free trade. He then addressed himself to the French 
ministers, and had much earnest conversation, especially 
with M. Fould, Ministre d Etat, and M. Rouher, minister 
of commerce, both of whom, and especially the latter, he 
found well inclined to the economical and commercial 
principles which ho advocated. After a good deal of time 
spent in these preliminary and unofficial negotiations, the 
question of a treaty of commerce between the two countries 
having entered into the arena of diplomacy, Cobden was 
requested by the British Government to act as their 
plenipotentiary in the matter in conjunction with Lord 
Cowley, their ambassador in France. But it proved a very 
long and laborious undertaking. He had to contend with 
the bitter hostility of the French protectionists, which 
occasioned a good deal of vacillation on the part of the 
emperor and his ministers. There were also delays, 
hesitations, and cavils at home, which were more inexpli 
cable. He was, moreover, assailed with great violence by a 
powerful section of the English press, while the large 
number of minute details with which he had to deal in 
connection with proposed changes in the French tariff, 
involved a tax on his patience and industry which would 
have daunted a less resolute man. But there was one 
source of embarrassment greater than all the rest. One 
strong motive which had impelled him to engage in this 
enterprise was his anxious desire to establish more friendly 
relations between England and France, and to dispel those 
feelings of mutual jealousy and alarm which were so 
frequently breaking forth and jeopardizing peace between 
the two countries. This was the most powerful argument 
with which he had plied the emperor and the members of 
the French Government, and which he had found most 
efficacious _\vith them. But unhappily, while he was in 
the very thick of the negotatious, Lord Palmerston brought 
forward in the House of Commons a measure for fortifying 
the naval arsenals of England, which he introduced in a 



warlike speech pointedly directed against France, as the 
source of danger of invasion and attack, against which it 
was necessary to guard. This produced irritation and 
resentment in Paris, and but for the influence which 
Cobden had acquired, and the perfect trust reposed in his 
sincerity, the negotiations would probably have been alto 
gether wrecked. At last, however, after nearly twelve 
months incessant labour, the work was completed in 
November 1860. "Rare," said Mr Gladstone, " is the 
privilege of any man who, having fourteen years ago 
rendered to his country one signal service, now again, 
within the same brief span, of life, decorated neither by 
land nor title, bearing no mark to distinguish him from 
the people he loves, has been permitted to perform another 
great and memorable service to his sovereign and his 
country." 

On the conclusion of this work honours were offered to 
Cobden by the Governments of both the countries which he 
had so greatly benefited. Lord Palmerston offered him a 
baronetcy and a seat in the Privy Council, and the emperor 
of the French would gladly have conferred upon him some 
distinguished mark of his favour. But with characteristic 
disinterestedness and modesty he declined all such honours. 

It has already been remarked that Cobdeu s efforts in 
furtherance of free trade were always subordinated to the 
highest moral purposes the promotion of peace on earth 
and good-will among men. This was his desire and hope 
as respects the Commercial Treaty with France. He was 
therefore deeply disappointed and distressed to find the old 
feeling of distrust towards our neighbours still actively 
fomented by the press and some of the leading politicians 
of the country. He therefore, in 1862, published his 
pamphlet entitled The Three Panics, the object of which 
was to trace the history and expose the folly of those 
periodical visitations of alarm, as respects the designs of 
our neighbours with which this country had been afflicted 
for the preceding fifteen or sixteen years. 

There was one other conspicuous service which Cobden 
rendered, or tried to render, to his country before his 
death. When the great civil war threatened to break out 
in the United States, it was matter to him of profound 
affliction. But after the conflict became inevitable his 
sympathies were wholly with the North, because the South 
was fighting for slavery. His great anxiety, however, was 
that the British nation should not be committed to any 
unworthy course during the progress of that struggle. 
And when our relations with America were becoming 
critical and menacing in consequence of the depredations 
committed on American commerce by vessels issuing from 
British ports, he brought the question before the House of 
Commons in a series of speeches of rare clearness and force, 
in which he pointed out the perilous responsibilities we 
were incurring by connivance or neglect in regard to those 
vessels. He was first attacked with great animosity both 
in and out of Parliament for taking this line, but after 
results amply vindicated his political sagacity and 
patriotism. 

For several years Cobden had been suffering severely at 
intervals from bronchial irritation and a difficulty of 
breathing. Owing to this he had spent the winter of 
1860 in Algeria, and every subsequent winter he had to be 
very careful and confine himself to the house, especially in 
damp and foggy weather. In November 1864 he went 
down to Rochdale and delivered a speech to his consti 
tuents the last heeverdelivered. That effort was followed 
by great physical prostration, and he determined not to 
quit his retirement at Midhurst until spring had fairly 
set in. But in the month of March there were discussions 
in the House of Commons on the alleged necessity of 
constructing large defensive works in Canada. He was 



O 13 C B 



89 



deeply impressed with the folly of such a project, and he 
was seized with a strong desire to go up to London and 
driver his sentiments on the subject. But on the 21st of 
March, the day on which he left home a bitter easterly 
wiiid blew, and struck him in the throat and chest. He 
recovered a little for a few days after his arrival in 
London ; but on the 29th there was a relapse, and on the 
2d of April 18G5, he expired peacefully at his apartments 
in Suffolk Street. 

On the following day there was a remarkable scene in 
the House of Commons. When the clerk read the orders 
of the day Lord Palmerston rose, and in impressive and 
solemn tones declared " it was not possible for the House 
to proceed to business without every member recalling to 
his mind the great loss which the House and country had 
sustained by the event which took place yesterday morn 
ing." He then paid a generous tribute to the virtues, the 
abilities, and services of Cobden, and he was followed by 
Mr Disraeli, who with great force and felicity of language 
delineated the character of the deceased statesman, who, 
he said, " was an ornament to the House of Commons and 
an honour to England. " Mr Bright also attempted to 
address the House, but after a sentence or two delivered in 
a tremulous voice, he was overpowered with emotion, and 
declared he must leave to a calmer moment what he had to 
say on the life and character of the manliest and gentlest 
spirit that ever quitted or tenanted a human form. 

In the French Corps Legislatif, also, the vice-president, 
M. ForQade la Roquette, referred to his death, and warm 
expressions of esteem were repeated and applauded on 
every side. " The death of Richard Cobden, " said M. la 
Roquette, " is not alone a misfortune for England, but a 
cause of mourning for France and humanity." M. Drouyn 
de Lhuys, the French minister of foreign affairs, made his 
death the subject of a special despatch, desiring the French 
ambassador to express to the Government " the mournful 
sympathy and truly national regret which the death, as 
lamented as premature, of Richard Cobden had excited on 
that side of the Channel. " He is above all, " he added, 
" in our eyes the representative of those sentiments and 
those cosmopolitan principles before which national frontiers 
and rivalries disappear ; whilst essentially of his country, 
he was still more of his time ; he knew what mutual 
relations could accomplish in our day for the prosperity of 
peoples. Cobden, if I may be permitted to say so, was an 
international man." 

He was buried at West Lavington Church, on the 7th 
of April, by the side of his only son, whose death, eight or 
nine years before, had nearly broken his father s heart. 
His grave was surrounded by a large crowd of mourners, 
among whom were Mr Gladstone, Mr Bright, Mr Milner 
Gibson, Mr Villiers, and a host besides from all parts of 
the country. (H. RI.) 

COBIJA, or, as it is officially called in honour of the 
first president of the republic, PUERTO LA MAR, is the 
principal port of Bolivia, and the chief town of the province 
of Atacama or Cobija. It is situated on the coast of the 
Pacific, about 800 miles north of Valparaiso in Chili, in 
22 9 32 50" S. lat. and 70 21 2" W. long. ; and it 
occupies a low-lying position on the beach, at the foot of a 
lofty range of hills. The surrounding district is desolate 
in the extreme, and Cobija is totally dependent on impor 
tation even for the common necessaries of life. Water is 
very scarce ; the wells only satisfy the wants of about 400 
or 500 persons, and the rest of the population has to be 
supplied by the distillation of the salt water from the sea. 
At one time fish formed a valuable article of consumption ; 
but since the rise of the mining industries the fishers have 
for the most part forsaken their nets. The town itself is 
poorly built, and consists of little more than one broad, 



long street. The harbour is comparatively safe ; but the 
landing-place is bad, and the danger from the surf con 
siderable. As a free port and the principal means of com 
munication with the interior, Cobija attracts a considerable 
amount of foreign trade. It owes its foundation in the 
course of last century to Charles III. of Spain ; it was 
declared a free port in 1827 ; and it attained the rank of 
capital of the department in 1837. In 1827 it consisted 
of little more than a few huts inhabited by Changas, or sea 
faring Indians ; and in 1855 it only numbered 500 or 6CO 
of a population. In 1858, however, the permanent inhabi 
tants were no fewer than 2000, and the floating population 
amounted to 4000 souls. (See Tschudi, lieise von San 
Pedro de Atacama nacli Cobija, 18GO.) 

COBLENTZ (German, Coblenz), the capital of Rhenish 
Prussia, is pleasantly situated at the confluence of the 
Rhine and Moselle. From this circumstance it derived its 
ancient name of Confluentes, of which Coblentz is a corrup 
tion. This city is still of consequence from a military 
point of view, since it commands the junction of two great 
rivers. Its fortifications, which are very extensive, not 
only protect the town, but connect the works on the left 
bank of the Rhhie with the fortress of Ehrenbreitstein on 




Plan of Coblentz. 



Military Prison and Lazaretto. 

Florins Church (Evang.) 

Market Hall. 

School of Art. 

Hospital. 

General Commando. 

Deutsches Hans. 

I.iebfrauenkirche. 

Casino (Civil). 

Commissariat Magazine. 

Woisser Thor. 
Liihr Thor. 



11. Theatre. 

12. Post Office. 

13. Prison (Civil). 

14. Government Buildings. 

15. Building-yard for the Forti 

fications. 

16. Gouvernement. 

17. Commandantur. 

18. Castle. 

19. Capuchin Church. 

C. Mainzer Thor. 

D. JIosol Thor. 



the other side of the river. The city is almost triangular in 
shape ; two sides are bounded by the RLine and Moselle, 
the third by strong fortifications. These are pierced by 
two massive gates, the Lohr and Mayence gates, with draw 
bridges over the fosse. The military works, which were 
constructed on the combined systems of Carnot and 
Montalembert, include no fewer than 2G forts, and form a 
fortified camp capable of containing 100,000 men. The 
Rhine is crossed here by a bridge of boats 485 yards long, 
and by the Iron Bridge, built for railway purposes iu 
1866 The Moselle is spanned by a Gothic freestone 
bridge of 14 arches, 1100 feet in length, erected in 1344, 
and also by a railway bridge. In the more ancient part of 
Coblentz are several buildings which possess an historical 



90 



C B C B 



interest. Prominent among tl: ^e, at the point of conflu 
ence of the rivers, is the church of St Castor, built in the 
early Lombard style of architecture,, and surmounted by 
four towers. The church was originally founded in 836 
by Lewis the Pious, but the present edifice is considerably 
less ancient. It was here that the sons of Charlemagne 
met in 843, when they divided the empire into France, 
Germany, and Italy. In front of the church of St Castor 
stands a fountain, erected by the French in 1812, with an 
inscription to commemorate Napoleon s invasion of Russia. 
Not long after, the Russian troops occupied Coblentz ; and 
St Priest, their commander, added in irony these words 
" Vu et approuve par nous, Commandant Russe de la Ville 
de CoUence: Janvier ler, 1814." In this quarter of the 
town there is also the Liebfrauenkirche, a fine specimen 
of the old cathedral style, built in 1259 ; the ancient town- 
hall ; the Castle of the Electors of Treves, erected in 1280, 
now converted into a manufactory of japan-ware ; and 
the family-house of the Metternichs, where Prince 
Metternich, the Austrian statesman, was born in 1772. 
The more modern part of the town has open, regular 
streets, and many of its public buildings are handsome. 
The principal of these is the Palace or Royal Castle, with 
one front looking towards the Rhine, the other into the 
Neustadt, or Great Square. It was built in 1778-86, and 
contains among other curiosities some fine Gobelin tapestry 
work. Another large edifice is the Palace of Justice, where 
the law courts sit, and assizes are held every three mouths, 
Coblentz has also a gymnasium (formerly a convent of 
Jesuits), a hospital, managed by the sisters of charity, an 
orphan asylum, a valuable town library, a theatre, a casino, 
a picture gallery, a musical institute, and a medical school. 
Above the Iron Bridge are Anlagen, or pleasure-grounds, 
much resorted to by the town s-people. The manufactures 
consist chiefly of linens, cottons, japan-ware, furniture, and 
tobacco. Coblentz is a free port, and carries on an exten 
sive commerce by means of the Rhine, Moselle, and Lahn. 
Being in the centre of the hock wine district, a large trade 
in this class of produce is carried on with Great Britain, 
Holland, and other countries. Large exports of mineral 
waters are also made, about one million jars of seltzer 
being shipped annually. Among the products of the neigh 
bouring provinces which are exported from Coblentz are 
corn, iron, volcanic stones, potter s clay, stoneware, and 
bark. The population is 28,000. 

Coblentz was one of the military posts established by Drusus 
about 9 B.C. It is not unfrequently mentioned during the early 
centuries of the Christian era as the residence of the Frankish kings, 
and in 860 and 932 it was the seat of ecclesiastical councils. In 
1018 it obtained the rights of a city from Henry II., but at the 
Bame time was made subject to the Bishop of Treves, who entrusted 
the administration to the count palatine of the Rhine. In the 
following century the fief was held by the counts of Arnstein and 
the counts of Nassau; but it returned to the bishops in 1253. 
Archbishop Arnold surrounded the city with new walls in 1249-54, 
and, in spite of an insurrection on the part of the inhabitants 
founded the citadel which still overlooks the town. As a member 
of the League of the Rhenish cities which took its rise in the 13th 
century, Coblentz attained to great prosperity; and it continued to 
advance till the disasters of the Thirty Years War occasioned a 
rapid decline. When in 1632 the Elector Philip Christopher of 
feotern surrendered Ehrenbreitstein to the French the town received 
an- imperial garrison, which was soon, however, expelled by the 
Swedes. _ They in their turn handed the city over to the French 
but the imperial forces succeeded in retaking it by storm In 1688 
it was besieged by the French Marshal Bouflers, but was success 
fully defended by Count Lippe. In 1786 the elector of Treves 

lemons \\ enceslas, took up his residence in the town, and gave 
great assistance in its extension and improvement; and a few years 
later it became, through the invitation of his minister, Dominique 
one of the principal rendezvous of the French emigres. In 1794 it 
was taken by the Revolution army, and, after the peace of Luneville 
it was made the chief town of the Rhine and Moselle department 
in 1814 it was occupied by the Russians, and by the Congress at 
v K lina it was assigned to Prussia. 



COBRA (Naja tripudians), a poisonous Colubrine Snake, 
belonging to the family Elapidce, known also as the 
Hooded Snake, or Cobra di Capello. In this species the 
anterior ribs are elongated, and by raising and bringing 
forward these, the neck, which otherwise is not distinct 
from the head, can be expanded at will into a broad disc or 
hood, the markings on which bear a striking resemblance 
to a pair of barnacles, hence the name " Spectacle Snake " 
also applied to the cobra. It possesses two rows of palatine 
teeth in the upper jaw, while the maxillary bones bear the 
fangs, of which the anterior one only is in connection with 
the poison gland, the others in various stages of growth 
remaining loose in the surrounding flesh until the destruc 
tion of the poison fang brings the one immediately behind 
to the front, which then gets anchylosed to the maxillary 
bone, and into connection with the gland secreting the 
poison, which in the cobra is about the size of an almond. 
Behind the poison fangs there are usually one or two 
ordinary teeth. The cobra attains a length of nearly 6 feet 
and a girth of about 6 inches, and with the exception of 
the markings on the hood is of a uniform brown colour 
above and bluish-white beneath. There are, however, many 
distinct varieties, in some of which the spectacle markings 
on the hood are awanting. The cobra may be regarded as 
nocturnal in its habits, being most active by night, although 
not unfrequently found in motion during the day. It 
usually conceals itself under logs of wood, in the roofs of 
huts, and in holes in old walls and ruins, where it is often 
come upon inadvertently, inflicting a death wound before 
it has been observed. It feeds on small quadrupeds, frogs, 
lizards, insects, and the eggs of birds, in search of which it 
sometimes ascends trees. When seeking its prey it glides 
slowly along the ground, holding the anterior third of its 
body aloft, with its hood distended, on the alert for any 
thing that may come in its way. " This attitude," says Sir 
J. Fayrer, " is very striking, and few objects are more cal 
culated to inspire awe than a large cobra when, with his 
hood erect, hissing loudly, and his eyes glaring, he prepares 
to strike." It is said to drink large quantities of water, 
although, like reptiles in general it will live for many 
months without food or drink. The cobra is oviparous ; 
and its eggs, which are from 18 to 25 in number, are of 
a pure white colour, somewhat resembling in size and 
appearance the eggs of the pigeon, but sometimes larger. 
These it leaves to be hatched by the heat of the sun. It 
is found in all parts of India from Ceylon to the Himalayas, 
where it occurs at a height of 8000 feet, and it is justly 
regarded as the most deadly of the Indian Thanatophidia. 
A large proportion of the deaths from snake bite, where 
the species inflicting the wound has been ascertained, 
is shown to be due to the cobra ; and it is estimated 
that fully one-half of the 20,000 deaths that annually 
occur in India from this cause may be attributed to this 
unluckily common species. The bite of a vigorous cobra 
will often prove fatal in a few minutes, and as there is no 
known antidote to tho poison, it is only in rare instances 
that such mechanical expedients as cauterizing, con 
striction, or amputation can be applied with sufficient 
promptitude to prevent the virus from entering the cir 
culation. Of late years, owing to a small reward offered 
by the Indian Government for the head of each poisonous 
snake, great numbers of cobras have been destroyed ; 
but only low caste Hindus will engage in such work 
the cobra being regarded by the natives generally 
with superstitious reverence, as a divinity powerful to 
injure, and therefore to be propitiated; and thus oftentimes 
when found in their dwellings this snake is allowed to 
remain, and is fed and protected. " Should fear," says Sir J. 
Fayrer, " and perhaps the death of some inmate bitten by 
accident prove stronger than superstition, it may be caught. 



C B G C 



91 



tenderly handled, and deported to some field, where it is 
released and allowed to depart in peace, not killed" 
(Thanatophidia of India). Great numbers, especially of 
young cobras, are killed by the adjutant birds and by the 
mungoos a small mammal which attacks it with impunity, 
apparently not from want of susceptibility to the poison, 
but by its dexterity in eluding the bite of the cobra. Mere 
scratching or tearing does not appear to be sufficient to 
bring the poison from the glands ; it is only when the fangs 
care firmly implanted by the jaws being pressed together that 
the virus enters the wound, and in those circumstances it 
has been shown by actual experiment that the mungoos, 
like all other warm-blooded animals, succumbs to the poison. 
In the case of reptiles, the cobra poison takes effect much 
more slowly, while it has been proved to have no effect 
whatever on other venomous serpents. The cobra is the 
snake usually exhibited by the Indian jugglers, who show 
great dexterity in handling it, even when not deprived of 
its fangs. Usually, however, the front fang at least is 
extracted, the creature being thus rendered harmless until 
the succeeding tooth takes its place, and in many cases all 
the fangs, with the germs behind, are removed the cobra 
being thus rendered innocuous for life. The snake charmer 
usually plays a few simple notes on the flute, and the cobra, 
apparently delighted, rears half its length in the air and 
sways its head and body about, keeping time to the music. 
The cobra, like almost all poisonous snakes, is by no means 
aggressive, and when it gets timely warning of the approach 
of man endeavours to get out of his way. It is only when 
trampled upon inadvertently, or otherwise irritated, that it 
attempts to use its fangs. It is a good swimmer, often 
crossing broad rivers, arid probably even narrow arms of the 
sea, for it has been met with at sea at least a quarter of a 
mile from land. 

COBURG, or, in German Koburg, the capital of the 
duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and, alternately -with Gotha, 
the residence of the duke and the seat of the administration, 
is situated on the left bank of the Itz, an affluent of the 
Regen, and on the southern slope of the Frankenwald, 40 
miles S.S.E. of Gotha. The town is for the most part old, 
and contains a large number of remarkable buildings. The 
ducal palace, or Ehrenburg, is a fine Gothic edifice, with an 
extensive library, and collections of coins, paintings, and 
specimens in natural history; it was originally a convent 
of the Barefooted Friars, received its present appropriation 
from John Ernest in 1549, and was restored by Ernest in 
1844. In front of the palace is a bronze statue of the lattet 
duke by Schwanthaler, and in the court-garden is the ducal 
mausoleum. Among the churches the most remarkable is 
the Moritzkirche, with a tower 335 feet high, the beauti 
ful Hofkirche, and the modern Roman Catholic church. 
The educational institutions include a gymnasium, founded 
in 1604 by Casimir, and thus known as the Casimirianum ; 
a Realschule, established in 1848, a normal college, a 
deaf and dumb asylum, and a school of architecture. The 
arsenal contains a pu-blic library ; and the so-called Aitgiis- 
tenstift, where the ministry of the duchy is located, has an 
extensive collection of objects in natural history. Coburg 
further possesses a town-house, Government buildings, 
an observatory, and a theatre. On a commanding eminence 
in the vicinity is the ancient castle of Coburg, which dates 
at least from the llth century. Till 1348 it was the 
residence of the counts of Henneberg, and till 1547 belonged 
to the dukes of Saxony ; in 1781 it was turned into a 
penitentiary and lunatic asylum ; but in 1835-8 it received 
a complete restoration. The most interesting room in this 
building is that which was occupied by Luther for three 
months in 1530, and thus became the birthplace of his 
famous hymn, Eine feste Burg ist unset Gott ; the bed on 
which he slept and the pulpit from which he preached in 



the old chapel are still shown. Coburg is a place of con 
siderable industry, and possesses a large brewery, factories 
for the weaving of linen and cotton goods, tanneries, and 
dye-works ; and there is an important trade in the cattle 
reared in the neighbourhood. Among various places of 
interest in the vicinity are the ducal residences of Callenberg 
and Rosenau, in the latter of which Albert, the Prince 
Consort, was born in 1819 ; the castle of Lauterberg; and 
the village of Neuses, with the house of the poet Riickert, 
who died there in 1866, and on the other side of the river the 
tomb of the poet Thummel. Population in 1871, 12,819. 

COCA. See CUCA. 

COCCEIUS, or COCH, JOHAKN (1603-1669), a Dutch 
theologian, was born at Bremen. After studying at 
Hambuig and Franecker he became in 1629 professor of 
Hebrew in his native town. In 1636 he was transferred 
to Franecker, where he held the chair of Hebrew, and from 
1 643 the chair of theology also, until 1 650, when he became 
professor of theology at Leyden. He died on the 4th 
November 1669. Cocceius was a profound Oriental 
scholar, and his chief services were rendered in the depart 
ment of Hebrew philology and exegesis. The common 
statement that he held that every passage has as many 
meanings as it can be made to bear is founded on an entire 
misconception of his fundamental law of interpretation. 
What he really maintained was the sound principle that- 
individual words and phrases are to be interpreted according 
to their contextual connection, and not according to any 
predetermined dogmatic system, whether patristic or 
scholastic. As one of the leading exponents of the 
"federal" theology, he spiritualized the Hebrew scriptures 
to such an extent that it was said that Cocceius found 
Christ everywhere in the Old Testament and Grotius found 
him nowhere. He held millenarian views, and was the 
founder of a school of theologians who were called after 
him Cocceians. His most distinguished pupil was the 
celebrated Vitringa. He wrote commentaries on most of 
the books of the Old Testament, but his most valuable 
work was his Lexicon et Commentarius Sermonis Ileb. et 
Chald. (Leyden, 1669), which has been frequently repub- 
lished. The federal or covenant theology which he taught 
is fully expounded in his Summa Doctrines de Foedere et 
Testamento Dei (1648). His collected works were pub 
lished in twelve folio volumes at Amsterdam in 1701. 

COCHABAMBA, a city and bishop s see of Bolivia, 
capital of a province and department, is situated about 
8370 feet above the level of the sea, on both banks of the 
Rio de la Rocha, a sub-tributary of the Rio Grande, to the 
south of a considerable Cordillera. It is about 122 miles 
N.N W. of Sucre, its latitude is 17 27 S., and its longi 
tude 65 46 W. The streets are broad, and the houses for 
the most part of one story and surrounded by gardens, so 
that the area of the city is great in comparison with its 
population. There are fifteen churches, a gymnasium, and 
a cabildo ; and an extensive industry is maintained in the 
production of woollen and cotton stuffs, leather, soap, 
glass-ware, and pottery. The population is largely com 
posed of Indians ; and the prevailing language is Quichua. 
Cochabamba was founded in the 16th century, and for a 
time was called Oropesa. In the revolution of 1815 the 
women of the city distinguished themselves by their bravery, 
and successfully attacked the Spanish camp ; and in 
1818 a number of the heroines were put to death by the 
Spanish forces. In 1874 the city was seized by Miguel 
Aguirre, and a large part of it laid in ruins, but peace was 
soon afterwards restored, and the regular authorities 
reinstated. The population in 1858 was 40,678. 

COCHIN, a feudatory state of Southern India, situated 
within the presidency of Fort St George or Madras, between 
9 48 and 10 50 N. lat.. and between 76 5 and 76 58 



92 



C C 



E. long. The state, which is of irregular shape, is bounded 
on the W., N., and E. by the districts of South Malabar 
and Coimbatore, and for some distance on the W. by the 
Indian Ocean ; on the S. it is bounded by the state of 
Travancore. Cochin contains a total area of 1361 square 
miles, and a population, according to a census taken in 
1875, of 598,353 souls, dwelling in 118,196 houses. The 
state is divided into seven taluks, or sub -districts, viz., 
Cochin, Cannanore, Mugundapuram, Trichur, Tallapalli, 
Chitur, and Cranganore. 

Cochin consists for the most part of a maritime lowland 
hemmed in between the sea and the Ghdts. It includes, 
however, the mountains which thus wall it out from inner 
India, and the lower portion is copiously watered by the 
torrents which pour down them. These torrents dwindle 
in the hot weather to rivulets, but during the rains they 
swell into great cataracts, rising in one instance at least 16 
feet in twenty-four hours. Oil the lowlands, they unite as 
elsewhere on the western coast into shallow lakes or " back 
waters," lying behind the beach line and below its level. 
In the monsoon the Cochin backwaters are broad navigable 
channels and lakes ; in the hot weather they contract into 
shallows in many places not 2 feet deep. The vegetation 
is luxuriant ; rich crops of rice are grown on the lowlands ; 
the hills send down vast quantities of timber by means of 
the torrents. The remains of once fine forests of teak are 
preserved in the north-eastern corner of the state, and still 
form a considerable source of wealth. Coffee has of late 
years received much attention and promises well. The 
other products are the usual ones of an Indian state, cotton, 
pepper, betel nut, chillies, ginger, various spices, cardamoms, 
arrowroot, &c. An excellent account of Cochin will be 
found in Dr Day s Land of tlie Permauls. The rajas of 
Cochin claim to hold the territory by descent from Cherman 
Perumal, who governed the whole of the surrounding 
country, including Travancore and Malabar, as viceroy of 
the Chola kings, about the beginning of the 9th century, 
and who afterwards established himself as an independent 
raja. In 1776 Cochin was subjugated by and became 
tributary to Hyder AH. In 1792 Tippu ceded the 
sovereignty to the British, who made over the country to 
the hereditary raj A, subject to a tribute of Us. 100,000. 
The state is now in subsidiary alliance with the British 
Government, under a treaty dated 17th October 1809. By 
this engagement, which was entered into on the suppression 
of an insurrection on the part of the rajas of Cochin and 
Travancore against the British power, the Cochin chief 
agreed to pay, in addition to the tribute of Rs.100,000, 
an annual sum, equal to the expense of maintaining a bat 
talion of native infantry, or Arcot Ils.176,037, making an 
aggregate annual payment of Rs. 276,037. In return for 
this payment, and certain engagements entered into by the 
raja, the East India Company undertook to defend the 
integrity of the state territory against all enemies. Subse 
quently the annual tribute to the British Government was 
reduced to Us. 240,000, and again afterwards to Rs. 200,000 
(20,000) at which it now stands. A British resident 
represents the government of India in Cochin conjointly 
with Travancore. The present rajA succeeded to the throne 
in March 1864. 

The total revenue of Cochin for the Malabar year 1049 
(1873-74 A.D.), amounted to 130,851, being the highest in 
come recorded for any year; the principal items were the land 
revenue, 61,764; customs, 11,035; and salt, 15,713. 
The disbursementsfor the same year amounted to 1 1 1 858 
leaving a surplus for the year of 18,993. The state has 
now the sum of 200,000 invested in British Government 
securities. A high school, with an average of 170 pupils, 
and 5 district schools are maintained by the state. 
Hospitals and dispensaries and a post-office are also kept 



up, and a considerable sum, amounting to 13,669 in 
1874, is annually spent in public works. The military force 
is a nominal one of 1 commissioned officer and 340 non 
commissioned officers and men. The two trading ports 
(exclusive of the British port of Cochin) are Malipuram and 
Narakel, at which 31 vessels, a burden of 22,626 tons, 
arrived in 1873-74. The capabilities of Narakel as a port 
of shelter during the S.W. monsoon have been satisfactorily 
proved, and the mail-steamers of the British India Company 
touch there for four or five months of the year, when the 
neighbouring English port of Cochin is unapproachable. 

COCHIN, a town and port of British India, belonging to 
the Malabar district of Madras, situated in 9 58 5" N. 
lat. and 76 13 55" E. long. The town lies at the northern 
extremity of a strip of land about twelve miles in length, 
but at few places more than a mile in breadth, which is 
nearly insulated by inlets of the sea and estuaries of 
streams flowing from the Western Ghats. These form the 
Cochin backwater described in the article on the 
Cochin state. The town of Cochin is about a mile in 
length by half a mile in breadth. Its first European 
possessors were the Portuguese, from whom it was captured 
by the Dutch in 1 663. Under the Dutch the town prospered, 
and about 1778 an English traveller describes it as a 
place of great trade ; " a harbour filled with ships, streets 
crowded with merchants, and warehouses stored with goods 
from every part of Asia and Europe, marked the industry, 
the commerce, and the wealth of the inhabitants." In 
1796 Cochin was captured from the Dutch by the British, 
and in 1806 the fortifications and public buildings were 
blown up by order of the authorities. The explosion 
destroyed much private property, and for a long time 
seriously affected the prosperity of the town. Under 
Dutch rule Cochin was very populous, containing Europeans, 
Moplas or Musalrncins, Hindus, Arabs, Persians, and 
Christians of various sects, comprising natives, Armenians, 
Indo-Fortuguese, and those denominated Syrian Christians. 
The Jews have also a settlement here. They are of two 
classes, the Fair or White Jews, of more recent arrival and 
settlement in the country, and the Black Jews, who 
reside apart in a village outside the town. According to 
the census of 1871, Cochin town contains 2731 houses and a 
population of 13,840 souls, classified as follows: Hindus, 
3883, Muhammadans, 2174; Christians, 7783; and 
" Others," 46. The town is constituted a municipality, 
and in 1873-74 the municipal income (excluding balances) 
amounted to 1573 10s., and the expenditure to 1560 
10s. The entrance to the port of Cochin is obstructed by 
a bar across the mouth of the river, and during the S.W. 
monsoon, which lasts for four or five months, vessels can 
neither enter nor depart from it in safety. Notwithstand 
ing the difficulties of navigation, however, the port has a 
considerable maritime trade. In 1873-74, 171 British 
vessels of a burden of 108,579 tons, 27 foreign vessels 
of 7010 tons, and 1644 native craft of a total of 49,215 
tons burden entered the port, and paid a total of 1974 
as port dues, by far the greater part, 1 520, being paid by 
the British ships. The value of the exports in 1873-74 
amounted to ?55,796, and of the imports to 547,252, 
paying a total customs duty of 5161. A lighthouse at 
the south entrance of the harbour marks the entrance to 
the port, and is visible at a distance of 15 miles. 

COCHIN CHINA, a name applied to the eastern division 
of the Indo-Chinese peninsula, composed of the territories 
of Anam proper, Tong-king, and the French colony of 
Cochin China. It forms a long strip of country which 
stretches in an arc of a circle along a coast-line of 1 240 
miles from 8 30 to 23 N. lat. With a breadth of 372 
miles in the north of Tong-king, it is afterwards narrowed 
by a chain of mountains parallel to the China Sea, and has 



COCHIN CHINA 



93 



no more than 50 miles of breadth in the greater part of the 
kingdom of Hue" ; but in Lower Cochin China it widens 
out again to about 190 miles. The most western point, 
in Tong-kiug, reaches 102 20 E. long., and the most 
eastern, Cape Varela, in Cochin China, is in 109 40 . The 
boundaries are on the N. the Chinese provinces of Yun-nan 
and Kwang-se, on the E. and S. the China Sea, on the W. 
the Gulf of Siaui, the kingdom of Cambodia, and the Laos 
country tributary to the Siamese empire. According to 
the most probable estimates the empire of Anam has an 
area of from 190,000 to 230,000 square miles, or about 
the same extent as France ; while the French colony 
occupies about 21,630. The western limits of this empire 
are, however, very imperfectly determined, and the regions 
to the west of Tong-king are still unexplored. The N". of 
Cochin China is washed by the Gulf of Tong-king, a great 




Sketch-Map of Cochin China. 

inlet formed by the coast of Tong-king on the W. and the 
island of Hai-nan and the peninsula of Lien-chow on the 
E. At its mouth, towards Tiger Island and the S. W. part 
of Hai-nan, the gulf has a breadth of about 138 English 
miles, which almost represents its medium breadth. Near 
the west coast are several islands, and towards the head of 
the gulf a great number of islets and banks. From sound 
ings which have been taken throughout its whole extent, it 
has been found that in the middle of the entrance there is 
a depth of from 210 to 330 feet, which diminishes towards 
tt.e coasts ; and the depth is less half-way up the gulf, 
where the bottom is generally soft. 

Passing along the coast from Cape Pak-loung, where the 
frontier commences between China and Tong-king, we find 
that all the part north of the Gulf of Tong-king is little 
known ; it is said to be fringed with banks and rocks, 
and some large islands have been visited by English vessels 
in pursuit of pirates. The most important are the Pirate 
Islands, a group of multitudinous islets in a bay of which 
the Chinese name is Fie-tzi-long, and the Pearl Islands. 
Next we find the mouth of the Kiver Lach-Huyen, which 
is deep, but obstructed about a mile inland by a bar prevent 
ing the entrance of any vessel drawing more than 11| feet, 
Next come the mouths of the River of Tong-king, Song-Coi, 
or Houg-kiang (Red River). The delta of this river is 
formed by four main branches Cua 1 tra lay, Cua lac, Cua 

1 Cua signifies embouchure. 



dhai, Cua ba lat which communicate with each other both 
by natural channels, called arroyos, and by artificial canals. 
These are charged with alluvial matter, and produce con 
siderable increase of soil. Mr E. Ploix, a hydrographic 
engineer who visited the gulf between 1857 and 1859, 
estimates the annual advance of the coast at about 330 
feet. It is by these rivers that Ke-cho, or Ha-noi, the 
capital of Tong-king, can be reached. This town and the 
port of Ninh-hai,in the province of Hai-dzuong, were opened 
to foreign commerce by a treaty concluded between France 
and the Government of Hue", March 15, 1874. To allow a 
ship to pass up the river at any season its draught must not 
exceed 5| feet, and from the end of May to the end of 
November, vessels drawing 12 feet can cross the bars. 

About 18 10 N. lat. lies the island Hoii-tseu, or Goats 
Island, near a prominent cape about 1410 feet high. A 
little to the south of Hon-tseu is the point to the north of 
which there is only one tide in 24 hours, except during a 
period of two weeks, when on three or four days there 
are two tides of little force. At Cape Boung-Qui-hoa there 
is a good anchorage well sheltered by islands, of which 
the chief is South Watcher Island, or South Vigie. 
In front of Cape "Lay is the little Tiger Island, where the 
west coast of the Gulf of Tong-king terminates. On the 
China Sea the coast presents successively, as we pass south 
ward, the mouth of the River Hu4, defended by a fort ; 
the Bay of Tourane, wide, deep, and well sheltered, but 
unfortunately situated in an unhealthy district, and in the 
poorest part of the country; the Bay of Quit-Quit, a very 
good anchorage, and the safest on this coast during the 
N.E. monsoon; the Island Cu-lao-re, or Pulo Canton; 
the port of Qui-nhon, or Binh dhinh, in the province of 
this name, opened to European commerce by the treaty 
of March 1874 ; the bay and the commodious port of Phu- 
yen ; Cape Yarela, or Mui-nai, a very lofty peak visible 
30 nautical miles out at sea, and to the south of the capo 
the port of Hon-ro, safe at all seasons of the year ; the 
Bay of Phan-rang and Cape Padaran, or Mui-Din, districts 
bordered by coral banks ; Cape Ke-ga ; and Cape Ba-kee, 
which forms the limit between lower Cochin China and 
the kingdom of Anam. Between Cape Padaran and Cipo 
Ba-kee the coast is low, and bordered by dangerous 
banks. In front are the little islands of Pulo Cecir, 
Catwick, and Pulo Sapate, of difficult access. 

The whole of lower Cochin China being formed of 
alluvial deposits, its coast is very low, has little irregularity 
of surface, and is covered with mangroves. The different 
mouths of the River Cambodia or Me-kong form a delta of 
mors than 70 miles in extent. The soil is subject to fre 
quent changes on account of the alluvial deposits of the river, 
which is bordered by sand banks stretching seawards out 
of sight of land. At the entrance of the River Don-nai, 
which leads to Saigon, rises Cape St Jacques, a peak 920 
feet above the level of the sea. At 45 sea-miles from the 
coast and from the mouths of the Me-kong, is the island of 
Pulo Condore, with a good port, and a penitentiary esta 
blished by the French Government. On the west coast of 
Lower Cochin China, in the Gulf of Siam, is the port of 
Ha- Tien, communicating by a canal with one of the arms 
of the Me-kong. 

To the north of Tong-king terminate the last underfalls 
of the high plateau of Thibet; a long chain stretches 
parallel to the Sea of China as far as the south of the 
kingdom of Anam of which it forms the western boundary. 
The highest point of this chain does not exceed 5250 feet. 
Between the last ramifications of the mountains of Thibet 
there descend from the plateau of Yun-nan and in a south 
east direction the affluents of the great River Song-Coi 
or Hong-kiang, which undergoes periodic variations in the 
supply of its waters. In the month of March it is very 



94 



COCHIN CHINA 



low ; but every year about the month of July it leaves its 
channel, floods a part of the country, and rolls along with 
a very powerful current. Before passing Ha-noi it receives 
the tribute of two great rivers, known to the natives by 
the names of the Black River and the Clear River. 

The kingdom of Aiiarn, closely shut in between the 
mountains and the sea, is drained by numerous but 
unimportant streams. Lower Cochin China, or French 
Cochin China, is abundantly watered by the numerous 
mouths and the canals which form the delta of the Me 
kong or Cambodia. This river takes its rise in the 
mountains of Thibet, waters the southern provinces of China 
and the district of Laos tributary to Siam, and crosses 
through the kingdom of Cambodia, where it divides into 
three branches. The first, which does not penetrate into 
Cochin China, turns towards the north-west and loses itself 
in the Lake of Touli Sap. The second, which takes the 
name of Hinder River (Hau-giang or Song-sau) flows 
south-east, enters Cochin China, communicates with the 
Sea of Siam by the Canal Vinh-te of Ha-tien and by that 
of Each-gia, and enters the China Sea by two mouths. 
The third branch, named Front River (Tien-giang or 
Song-truoc), flows parallel to the preceding, divides at 
Vinh-long into four arms, and debouches by six mouths. 
These streams form numerous islands and communicate 
with each other by means of canals or arroyos. In spite of 
the length of its course and the great mass of its waters, 
the Me-koug cannot be utilized as a means of communica 
tion with Central China, because of the numerous ressauts 
and rapids which encumber its course. It is besides 
subject to an annual flood ; the waters begin to rise in 
May, attain their maximum in October, and decrease until 
March. From the month of March to the month of May 
the level is almost constant. Two other streams water the 
east of Lower Cochin China, the Vaico, divided into two 
branches, and the Donnai. These rivers .communicate 
with each other and with the mouths of the Me-kong by 
numerous arroyos. The Donnai receives the Saigon River ; 
and it is by this means that the largest vessels reach the 
town of that name. 

The climate of the north of Anam differs much from that 
of the south. In Tong-king, though it is usual to divide 
the year into a dry and a wet season, there is properly 
speaking no dry season. In December and January the 
thermometer falls to 41 or 43 Fahr. Summer corresponds 
to the period of the rains from the end of April to the 
month of August ; and at that time it is excessively hot. 
Storms are frequent, and the coasts are often visited by 
typhoons. At the same time Tong-king is a healthy 
country ; the weather during four months is excellent ; 
and the French colony of Saigon might find there what has 
never been discovered in Cochin China proper a suitable 
site for a sanatorium. The climate of the French colony 
is unhealthy for Europeans ; they cannot be acclimatized. 
The mortality of the troops is rather high ; and before 
their residence was shortened to two years it might be 
calculated at 9 or 10 per cent, for a three years residence. 
The chief cause of the maladies which affect Europeans is 
the character of the soil. On the banks of the rivers, in 
the salt marshes, and along the shores of the sea, inter 
mittent fevers of great severity are frequent. In the 
forest land rages the terrible wood-fever, from which the 
native himself cannot escape, though be lives unharmed 
in the midst of the rice swamps. But the great plague of 
Lower Cochin China is dysentery, a disease which, 
endemic in all warm countries, proves in Cochin China 
particularly fatal. It is to it that the greater part of 
the deaths among Europeans are to be ascribed ; and they 
often succumb to its effects after their return to their native 
country. Most of the children born of European parents 



in Cochin China die a short time after birth. White 
women are there exposed to many dangers, especially 
during their delivery ; and there is consequently little hope 
of forming there a race of Creoles. The native women, on 
the contrary, are very prolific, and suft er surprisingly little 
in childbirth. It is also interesting to observe that the 
Anamites, like the races of the extreme East, recover from 
..wounds of the greatest severity, which would infallibly 
kill Europeans even in their own country. 

The mean temperature of Lower Cochin China is 83 
Fahr. The greatest heat in April and May within doors is 
97 Fahr. In the mornings of December the temperature 
falls to 65 Fahr. The year is divided into the dry season, 
which corresponds to the N.E. monsoon, and the rainy 
season / which corresponds to the S.W. monsoon. What 
renders the climate peculiarly injurious and enervating is 
that, besides the very slight difference between the tempera 
tures of day and night, the hygrometric readings are always 
very high. The surface of Cochin China, composed of 
recent alluvial deposits, is absolutely flat, and in some 
places is below the level of the sea. The slightness of the 
slope of this vast plain allows the tide to advance far 
mland, and the borders of the rivers to be alternately 
covered with water and exposed to the perpendicular raya of 
the sun. All the coasts are covered by mangroves (the 
marsh-tree of the tropics), which with their dull monotonous 
foliage everywhere betoken the uuhealthiness of the soil. 

The finest species of tiger, the royal tiger, is to be met Anim; 
with from the mountains which bound Tong-king on the 
north as far as the south of Lower Cochin China ; and a 
short time ago it was still to be found in the wooded hills 
close to Saigon. The other wild animals are the panther, the 
rhinoceros, the elephant which the people of Anam have 
not learned to domesticate the cocoa-nut bear, the stag, 
the wild boar, the wild ox, and monkeys of various kinds. 
The domestic animals are goats, horses, buffaloes (with 
which the Indo-Chinese carry on the difficult and unhealthy 
cultivation of the rice-fields), and pigs, which are kept in 
great numbers. There are numerous birds of many species, 
which at in all tropical regions are remarkable for the 
beauty of their plumage. Among the rest may be men 
tioned pea-fowl, pheasants, turtle-doves, the green pgeons 
of Pulo Condore, paroquets, hornbills, sultana fowls, and 
various species of wading birds and palmipeds. The 
rivers abound with life ; and the fish, though of poor 
quality, form an important part of the food of the people. 
They are caught, along with frogs and snakes, even in the 
mud of the rice-fields. The crocodile is frequently met 
with, and adds another item to the native cuisine. This 
hot damp country swarms with reptiles, of which some 
species are very dangerous. Among these are the huge 
cobra di capello (Najct), many species of adders, and the 
immense python, which is of much use in destroying 
during the night all kinds of rats, including the intolerable 
musk-rat. 

The forests furnish several kinds of timber for build- Yeget 
ing. In the plains and valleys are numerous fruit-trees, produ 
the banana, the guava, the papaw, the medlar-tree, the 
orange, the citron, and, most abundant of all, the cabbage- 
palm and the cocoa-tree, and the cinnamon of which Toiig- 
king furnishes a superior quality. The people of Anam 
are essentially agricultural. Besides rice, which is the 
chief production of the country, the cultivated lauds furnish 
cotton, mulberry, sugar-cane, maize, betel-nut, and veget 
ables, especially potatoes, earth-nuts, and pepper. Tea is 
cultivated also, especially in Tong-king, but the people of 
Anam do not know how to prepare it. 

To the traveller who pays only a brief visit the kingdom 
of Anam appears ill provided with metals. If a mine be 
discovered the natives forbid access to it, and still more fre- 



COCHIN CHINA 



95 



quently, for fear of the authorities, are unwilling to give any 
information. Two excellent authors, Messrs T. Crawfurd 
and M Culloch have supported this false opinion in their 
works. More precise information has, however, been 
obtained, recent explorers of the country stating that 
Toug-king is very rich in metals, and furnishes especially 
gold, silver, brass, zinc, and iron. It is from Toug-king 
that the famous tam-tams, the manufacture of which is 
still a secret to Europeans, are obtained. Cochin China, 
properly so-called, furnishes also gold, silver, brass, and 
marble ; and coal is found there in several places. Lower 
Cochin China, like all alluvial plains, is poor in minerals ; 
quarries, however, of granite and of jet are worked. 

itr J r> There is little industrial activity in Anam, but in 
Tong-king the manufacture of articles inlaid with mother- 
of-pearl is carried on. From China Cochin China re 
ceives a large quantity of manufactured goods, cotton and 
silk stuffs, porcelain, and tea. The importation from 
France is also very considerable. The principal exports are 
rice (which forms of itself half the sum total), salt fish, 
provided principally by the fisheries at the mouth of the 
two chief rivers, salt, undyed cotton, pepper, and the skins 
of animals. The great commercial importance of Cochin 
China arises from the excellence of its situation, as a way 
of communication with the rich and populous provinces of 
middle China. England has long been seeking to open a 
route for trade between the north-east of India, or Pegu, 
and the south-west of China, but up to the present time, 
notwithstanding the courage and devotion of explorers, 
these attempts have failed. 

mm- From 1866 to 1868 a French expedition, commanded by 
Captain Doudart de Lagrde, followed up the course of the 
Me-kong, and penetrated into middle China. This expedi 
tion cost its chief his life, for he died in consequence of the 
fatigue which he underwent in Yun-nan. This examination 
of the Me-kong proved that this fine river is, as already 
noticed, unfit for regular navigation. Another route, 
however, by the Tong-king, may be opened up ; and it is 
comparatively easy and habitually used by the natives. In 
1872 Mr Dupuis, a French merchant, passed up the course 
of the Hong-kiang as far as Maug-Hao, a town of Yun-nan, 
where the river ceases to be navigable. He came down 
the river again in 1873. He declares it to be navigable 
in every season, and has thus solved the problem which 
Captain Doudart de Lagre e sought to solve by means of 
the Me-kong. M. Dupuis s expedition led the French 
authorities, at the solicitation of the Government of 
Hue , to despatch M. Francis Gamier to the Tong-king ; 
but the gallant explorer was assassinated by pirates in the 
neighbourhood of Ha-noi. 

logy. The native of Anam is the worst built and the ugliest of 
all the Indo-Chinese who belong to the Mongolian race. 
He is scarcely of middle height, and is shorter and less 
vigorous than his neighbours. His complexion is tawny, 
darker than that of the Chinese, but clearer than that of the 
Cambodian; his skin is thick; his forehead low; his skull 
slightly depressed at the top, but well developed at the 
sides. His face is flat, with highly protruding cheek-bones, 
and is lozenge-shaped or eurygnathous to a degree that is 
nowhere exceeded. His nose is not only the flattest, but 
also the smallest among the Indo-Chinese ; his mouth is 
large, and his lips thick ; his teeth are blackened and his 
gums destroyed by the constant use of the betel-nut, the 
areca-nut, and lime, a custom which perhaps originated in 
hygienic reasons. His neck is short, his shoulders slope 
greatly, his body is thick-set, large, all of one piece, as it 
were, and wanting in suppleness. His pelvis is large, 
with a considerable separation of the upper part of the 
femora, giving to his gait a curious swagger, which has, 
uot without reason, been described as theatrical. This 



odd swagger by itself suffices to distinguish Jie Anamese 
from every other Indo-Chinese people without exception. 
Another peculiarity, which especially distinguishes this 
race from the other Indo-Chinese branches, is a greater 
separation of the big toe from the rest than is found 
in any of the other peoples that walk bare-footed. It 
is sufficiently general and well marked to serve as an 
ethnographic test ; and it indicates that the people of Anam 
are not descended as some authors have asserted from a 
mingling of indigenous savages with the Chinese, but have 
existed as a distinct race for a long time. According to 
Father Legrand de la Liraye (Notes historiques sur 
la nation Annamitc, Saigon, 1865), this curious feature 
has served to distinguish the people of Anam since the year 
2285 B.C., that is to say, 63 years after the Biblical deluge. 
This statement, taken as it is from the Chinese annals, 
shows that the Anamese could not have received this char 
acteristic from their neighbours ; and it is a very curious 
fact that it has been transmitted to the present inhabitants 
despite the frequent intermarriages with other races" which 
must have taken place during this period of forty centuries. 
The inhabitants of Lower Cochin China are evidently 
weaker and smaller than those of Tong-king, and this pro 
bably results from their dwelling in marshy rice-fields. 

In the midst of the Anamese live Cambodians and 
immigrant Chinese, the latter, associated together- accord 
ing to the districts they come from, carrying on nearly 
all the commerce of the country. In the forests on the 
frontiers of Cochin China dwell certain wretched savages 
called Mois, or Stiengs, of whom little is known ; and 
alongside of these are the Chams, a Mahometan people 
which appear to be of Arab origin, and, in spite of 
a strong infusion of Chinese blood, preserve the warlike 
qualities of their ancestors, their love of lighting, their gay 
and open character, and their abstinence from theft. Their 
stature is tall, and they are characterized by the enormous 
projection of the soft parts of the abdomen. Their women, 
while mixing freely in society without veiling, have a high- 
spirited virtue which forms a contrast to the corruption that 
prevails around them. Their language shows that they 
once knew the lion and the chamois ; and while they are 
now inferior in civilization, they preserve traces in their 
vocabulary of a higher condition. Among the different 
races which inhabit Indo-China numerous mixtures take 
place. There are crosses of the Anamite with the Hindu, 
with the Malay, with the Cambodian, and with the 
Chinese. The last of these half breeds, who are called 
Min-huongs, are the most numerous and interesting. 

Evidently derived from the Chinese, of which it appears Language, 
to be a very ancient dialect, the Anamese language is com 
posed of monosyllables, of slightly varied articulation, 
expressing absolutely different ideas according to the tone 
in which they are pronounced. It is quite impossible to 
connect with our musical system the utterance of the 
sounds of which the Chinese and Auamese languages are 
composed. What is understood by a "tone" in this 
language is distinguished in reality, not by the number of 
sonorous vibrations which belong to it, but rather by a use 
of the vocal apparatus special to each. Thus, the sense 
will to a native be completely changed according as the 
sound is the result of an aspiration or of a simple utterance 
of the voice. Thence the difficulty of substituting our 
phonetic alphabet for the ideographic characters of the 
Chinese, as well as for the ideophonetic writing partly 
borrowed by the Anamese from the letters of the celestial 
empire. We owe to the Jesuit missionaries the introduc 
tion of an ingenious though very complicated system, which 
has caused remarkable progress to be made in the employ 
ment of phonetic characters. By means of six accents, 
one bar, and a crotchet, it is possible to note with sufficient 



COCHIN CHINA 



precision the indications of tone without which the Anamese 
words have no sense for the natives. This system is 
universally adopted in French Cochin China, and the new 
generation, almost without exception, are able to read and 
write in Latin characters. 

National The Anamese are idle, incapable of deep emotion, and 
haracter f on d O f ease. They show much outward respect for 
ntl superiors and parents, but they take great delight in 

ms mocking and banter. They cherish great love of their 
native soil and native village, and cannot long remain far 
from home. On the whole they are mild, or rather 
apathetic, but the facility with which they learn is remark 
able. Buddhism, mingled with coarse popular beliefs, is 
the dominant creed, but the learned hold the doctrine of 
Confucius, and in truth the people of Anam are but slightly 
religious. Nevertheless, like their neighbours, the Chinese 
and the Cambodians, they have a great respect for the 
dead, and their worship almost entirely consists of 
ceremonies in honour of their ancestors. Like the Chinese 
they dispose of the body by inhumation. Among the 
savage tribes of the interior there is scarcely any idea of a 
God, and the superstitious practices to which they are 
addicted can scarcely be considered as the expression of a 
definite religious idea. Christianity counts 400,000 
adherents in Tong-kiug and 5000 in Lower China. 
overu The system of government in the empire of Anam is 

tent. p ure an( j absolute monarchy without any other constitution 
than powerful custom. The succession to the throne 
follows the order of primogeniture. Between the citizens 
there exists the most complete equality, since public offices 
are open to all, and there are no other social distinctions 
than those due to office or fortune. The sovereign, at once 
high priest and supreme judge, governs despotically with 
the assistance of six ministers. The army, or rather the 
military list, for a large part of the force exists only on 
paper, is composed of 80 regiments, with 500 men in each. 
It is recruited from Cochin China ; Tong-king furnishes 
no soldiers. It is under the command of a commander- 
in-chief, a kind of constable of the kingdom, or grand 
marshal, who is personally responsible for the defence of 
the citadel of Hue. The marine, which has no ships, 
is composed of 30 regimerits, under an admiral-in-chief, 
who is assisted by a vice-admiral and two rear-admirals, 
each of whom commands 10 regiments. The mandarins, 
as in China, form two distinct classes the civil and the 
military. The first class are scholars who have passed 
literary examinations. The latter are chosen chiefly on 
account of physical fitness; and it is only in the highest ranks 
that well-educated respectable men are to be found. The 
people have a great regard for the learned, who have all 
received a higher moral education, that of Confucius. 
The mandarins are divided into nine degrees, and each 
degree comprises two classes. Besides the French colony, 
the empire of Anam is divided into 24 provinces placed 
each under the authority of a governor. The province is 
subdivided into departments, arrondissements, cantons, and 
communes. The French colony, administered by a governor 
assisted by a privy council, comprehends the six ancient 
provinces of the south. It is now divided into four 
provinces, bearing the names of their chief cities, Saigon, 
Mi-tho, Vinh-long, and Bassac. The provinces form to 
gether 19 inspectorships with an administrator of native 
affairs at the head of each. 

hief The chief town and the ancient capital of Tong-king, 

Ha-noi, or Ke-cho (i.e., the market), situated on one of the 
branches of the Song-Coi, though at present greatly fallen, 
still contains at least 50,000 inhabitants. It possesses a 
very large citadel, which serves as the residence of the 
viceroy and of the special envoy or royal commissioner, who 
is the first authority in Tong-king. This citadel, at present 



badly kept in repair and poorly equipped, was built in the 
course of last century according to plans furnished by 
European engineers, The provincial capitals of Hai-dzuong 
(30,000 inhabitants), Bac-Ninh, Nam-Dinh, likewise possess 
important citadels ; and that of Minh-binh, also the 
chieMown of a province, is the strongest of all Tong-king. 
Hue", or Fhu-tua-tien, capital of the kingdom of Anam, is 
composed of two portions the inner town, a vast fortress 
built on the Vauban system according to the plans of French 
engineers, and occupied by the Government ; and the outer 
town, which is inhabited by the mass of the population, 
who are estimated at 100,000 souls. Mention may also be 
made of Tourane and Quin-nhon, or Binh-dhiuh, important 
ports open to European commerce. Saigon, the capital of 
the French colony, is composed of three towns: 1st, 
an Asiatic town, inhabited by Auamese husbandmen, 
fishers, or servants, by mercantile Chinamen, by Malays, 
Tagals, and Hindus engaged in various occupations ; 2d, 
the town of the colonists ; and 3d, the Government town, 
inhabited by the Government employe s, administrators, 
officers, and physicians. The houses are mainly built of 
brick. Two gardens, one belonging to the governor and 
the other the botanical, overlook the town. The latter is 
very interesting, containing as it does a fine collection of 
trees and plants, both indigenous and exotic, as well as a 
very curious menagerie. At the port of Saigon 387 vessels 
entered and 398 left in 1874, which forms about half of 
the whole maritime trade in the colony. Eight miles from 
Saigon is the town of Cho-len (i.e., the great market), a 
Chinese town with an extensive commerce, and according 
to some writers 80,000, according to others 30,000 or 
40,000 inhabitants. The other towns of the colony are 
Go-cong to the south-west of Saigon, where, in the midst 
of the rice fields, there lives an agricultural population, 
which presents in all its purity the true Anamese type ; 
Mi-tho, a port on one of the arms of the Me-kong, and the 
second town of the colony ; the fort and the town of Yinh- 
long ; the fort and town of Chaudoc ; Ha-tien, on the 
Gulf of Siam, one of the most unhealthy places on the 
coast, inhabited by Chinese and Anamese ; and at the 
Cape St Jacques, the military port and fort of Ba-ria. 

It is difficult to state the exact number of the population Popult 
of the empire of Anam, and authors vary greatly in their tioi >- 
estimates. The data which appear most worthy of credit 
give a total sum of 10 or 12 millions. As to the French 
colony, the last official census of which the results have 
been published was made in 1873; it gives 1,487,200 
inhabitants, of whom 49,500 were Chinese and 82,700 
Cambodians. The Europeans numbered 1114, exclusive 
of the Government officials and the garrison. 

The Anamese, according to their own annals, are natives Histor 
of the south of China. " In the 2d or 3d century before 
Abraham," says Pere Legraud de la Liraije, " four barbarous 
tribes occupied the limits of the Chinese empire ; to the 
south was the tribe of the Giao-chi." It is from this tribe 
that the Anamese claim to have descended ; and at the time 
when history begins to acquire some degree of certitude, 
about 2357 before our era, the Chinese annals mention the 
Anamese under the name of Giao-chi, which signifies " with 
the big toe." According to native scholars the history 
of this epoch is of a legendary character. It results from 
their labours that for twenty centuries the race of Giao-chi 
was governed in vassalage to the empire by a dynasty of 
Chinese origin, which lasted till 257 B.C. From that date 
till 110 before the Christian era the throne was held by 
two other vassal dynasties; and from 110 B.C. till 907 
A.D. these dynasties were replaced by Chinese governors. 
In the beginning of the 10th century some of the native 
chiefs, weary of the Chinese rule, revolted ; and their 
efforts were crowned with success. From 960 downwards, 



c o c o o c 



97 



under the government of native princes, the Auamese lived 
independent, and preserved rather the name than the reality 
of vassalage to the Chinese empire. Since that time the 
nation, with a most remarkable aptitude for expansion, has 
aggrandized itself at the expense of its neighbours, and has 
conquered from the Cambodians Tsiampa and the six pro 
vinces of the south which now form the French colony. 
It is to be noted that the Cambodians, though endowed 
with physical force far superior to that of the Cochin Chinese, 
have been beaten by them in every encounter, 

It is nearly a century since the first treaty of alliance 
was signed between France and the kingdom of Anam. By 
this treaty, dated the 28th November 1787, the king of 
Cochin-China ceded to France in full property the Penin 
sula of Tourane and the Isle of Pulo-Condore. The agree 
ment was only partially executed, but it was sufficient to 
render the influence of France predominant in Cochin 
China; and Christianity made rapid progress in Tong-king. 
At the death of the king Gia-long, in 1820, the party 
hostile to strangers prevailed; and several attempts to pro 
tect the French missionaries and establish the French influ 
ence had failed, when in 1858, in consequence of the murder 
of M. Diaz, who was put to death by order of the king, 
merely on account of the news that a French ship was 
cruising in sight of the coast, a squadron was sent under 
the command of Admiral Iligault de Genouilly, who seized 
Tourane. Shortly after the admiral made explorations in 
the south, seeking a better situation for a settlement than 
Tourane, and passing up the River Don-nai, he took posses 
sion of Saigon, the true capital of Lower Cochin China. On 
the 5th June 1862 the court of Hue" accepted a treaty, b} T 
which it abandoned three provinces to France, and bound 
itself to pay an indemnity of war. After various expedi 
tions occasioned by revolts, Francs occupied in 1867 the 
three other provinces of Lower Cochin China, and after 
long negotiations a treaty was signed at Saigon, on the 15th 
March 1874, definitively abandoning the six provinces to 
France. This treaty opens besides to the commerce of all 
nations one port in eastern Cochin China and one port in 
Tong-king, and guarantees liberty of transit from the sea 
as far as Vim-nan. 

Bibliography. M. Barbie du Bocage, secretary of the Central 
Commission of the Geographical Society at Paris, published in 1867 
a very complete bibliography of the books, periodicals, manuscripts, 
and plans relating to the history and geography of Anam, in a 
pamphlet of 105 pages, 8vo. In M Vivien de Saint Martin s well- 
known work L Annee Geographique, Hachette and Cie there is 
to be found a list well up to date of new works on Indo-China, 
among which we may mention Fr. von Hichthofen, Sur Us Pro 
vinces Sud-ouest de la Chine; MacMahon (Colonel A. P.) Emitcs du 
Sud-oucst de la Chine; Edinburgh Review, April 1873; F. Vial, 
Les premier is annecs de la Cochinchine, 1874 ; Romanet du Cail- 
laux, La France au Tong King; Aymonnier, Dictionnaire francais- 
cambodgien et Geographie du Cambodge, 1876; G. Coryton, " On the 
Routes between British Burmah and the West of China," in vol. 
xix. of Journ. R. G. S., 1849; Papers read by Docteur Mondieres 
and Doeteur A. Morice before the Societe d Anthropologie, in Jan. 
1875 ; DrHarmand, Apercu pctthologique sur la Cochinchine ; Bigrel, 
Carte generale de. la Cochinchine francaise, with an interesting note 
on the proper naines. The following recent works have not been 
mentioned in the Annee Geographique. Instructions nautiques 
publiecs par le Ministere de la Marine; Tableaux de Population, 
dc Culture, de Commerce, et de Navigation, publics par le Ministere 
de la Marine ; Petit cours de Geographie de la Basse Cochinchine, 
by P. J. B. Truong-vinh-ky, Saigon, 1875; Cours d histoire 
annamite d Vusage dcs ecoles de la Basse Cochinchine, by Truong- 
vinh-ky ; Voyage d Exploration en Indo-Chine pendant les annecs 
1866, 1867, 1868, sous le Commandement de M. Doudart de Lagree, 
public sous la direction de M. Francis Gamier, 2 vols., Hachette, 
1873 a magnificent work. The following are of earlier date: 
Viaggi di Tre Vescovi in 1669 ; Barrow, A Voyage to Cochin China 
in the years 1792 and 1793; Bissachere, Etat actucl dc Cochin- 
chine, 1812 : Crawfurd s Embassy to tlic Courts of Siarn and Cochin 
China, 1828 ; Gutzlaff " Geography of the Cochin Chinese Empire," 
in Journ. Roy. &oc., 1849); Bouillevaux, Voyage dans V Indo-Chine, 
1848-56, Paris, 1858; Veuillot, La Cochinchine ct la Tonquin, 



1859; Cortambert and De Rosny, Tableau de la Cochinchine; 
Mouhot, Siam, Cambodia, and Lao, 1864. A Dictionnarium an- 
amiticum, lusitanum, ct latinum was published at Home in 1671 by 
Pere Alex, de Rhode ; and another, the combined work of Pigneaux 
and Tabard, appeared in 1838. An essay on the language and 
writing was published by Schott in 1855. " (C. MA.) 

COCHINEAL, a dye-stuff used for the production of 
scarlet, crimson, orange, and other tints, and for the pre 
paration of lake and carmine. It consists of the females 
of Coccus cacti,. an insect of the order Hemipttra, which 
feeds upon various species of the Cactacece, more especi 
ally the nopal plant, Opuntia coccinellifera, a native of 
Mexico and Peru. The dye was introduced into Europe 
from Mexico, where it had been in use long before the 
entrance of the Spaniards in the year 1518, and where it 
formed one of the staple tributes to the Crown for certain 
districts. In 1523 Cortes received instructions from the 
Spanish court to procure it in as large quantities as 
possible. It appears not to havs been known in Italy so 
late as the year 1548, though the art of dyeing then 
flourished there. Cornelius van Drebbel, at Alkmaar, first 
employed cochineal for the production of scarlet in 1650. 
Until about 1725 the belief was very prevalent that 
cochineal was the seed of a plant, but Dr Lister in 1672 
conjectured it to be a kind of kermes, and in 1703 Leeu- 
wenhoeck ascertained its true nature by aid of the micro 
scope. Since its introduction cochineal has supplanted 
kermes (Coccus ilicis) over the greater part of Europe. 
The male of the cochineal insect is half the size of the 
female, and, unlike it, is devoid of nutritive apparatus ; it 
has long white wings, and a body of a deep red colour, 
terminated by two diverging setse. The female is apterous, 
and has a dark-brown plano-convex body ; it is found in 
the proportion of 150 to 200 to one of the male insect. 
The dead body of the mother insect serves as a protection 
for the eggs until they are hatched. Cochineal is now 
furnished not only by Mexico and Peru, but also by 
Algiers and the S. of Spain. In Teneriffe it was success 
fully cultivatsd in 1858, on the failure of the vines there 
through disease, but the diminished value of cochineal of 
late years has much affected its production in the Canaries 
Cochineal is collected thrice in the seven months of tho 
season. The insects are carefully brushed from the 
branches of the cactus into bags, and are then killed by 
immersion in hot water, or by exposure to the sun, steam, 
or the heat of an oven much of thf3 variety of appear 
ance in the commercial article being caused by the 
mode of treatment. The dried insect has the form of 
irregular, fluted, and concave grains, which weigh about 
YQ- of a grain, as many as 70,000 insects being estimated to 
weigh 1 It. Cochineal has a musty and bitterish taste 
There are two principal varieties silver cochineal, which 
has a greyish-red colour, and the furrows of the body 
covered with a white bloom or fine down , and black 
cochineal, which is of a dark reddish-brown, and destitute 
of bloom. Granilla is an inferior kind, gathered from 
uncultivated plants. The best crop is the first of the 
season, which consists of the unimpregnated females ; the 
later crops contain an admixture of young insects and 
skins, which contain proportionally little colouring matter. 

Cochineal owes its tinctorial power to the presence of 
a substance termed cochinealin, or carminic acid, a com 
pound of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, which may be 
prepared from the aqueous decoction of cochineal. The 
comparative value of different specimens of cochineal may 
be ascertained by a method based upon the bleaching action 
of ferricyanide of potassium upon a weak potash solution 
of the dye. The black variety of cochineal is sometimes 
sold for silver cochineal by shaking it with powdered talc, 
or heavy-spar : but these adulterations can be readily 
detected by means of a lens. The duty on cochineal was 

VI. TJ 



98 



Q C C G 



repealed in 1845. In 1869 the exports of cochineal from 
the Canaries reached 6,310,000 Ib, value 842,921. Of 
this amount 4,232,600 tt>, consisting of g rana,graniUa, 
and polro, were shipped to Great Britain, value 554,092 
More than half of this quantity was supplied by the Island 
of Grand Canary. In three months ending 31st March 
1376 the imports were 10,094 cwts, value 112,534. 




HandbucJi dcr Entomologie ; Vincent, Ann. 8d. Nat., vol. viii., 1st 
scr.; Westwood, Modern Classification of Insects, pp. 448, 449. 



1691, pp. 502-3 ; and lioyle s Essay on the Productive Resources of 
India, pp. 47-65, 1840. 

COCKATOO (Cacatuidce), a family of Scansorial Birds, 
distinguished from other Old World parrots by their greater 
size, by a crest of feathers on the head, which cau be raised 
or depressed at will, and by their enormously developed 
bills. They inhabit the Indian Archipelago, New Guinea, 
aud Australia, and are gregarious, frequenting woods and 
feeding on seeds, fruits, and the larvre of insects. Their note 
is generally harsh and unmusical, and although they are 
readily tamed when taken young, becoming familiar, and in 
some species showing remarkable intelligence, their powers 
of vocal imitation are exceedingly limited. Of the true 
cockatoos (Cacatua) ths best known is the Crested Cockatoo 
(Cacatua galerita), of a pure white plumage with the 
exception of the crest, which is deep sulphur yellow, and of 
the ear and tail coverts, which are slightly tinged with 
yellow. The crest when erect stands 5 inches high. Those 
birds are found in Australia in flocks varying from 1 00 to 
1000 in number, and do great damage to newly sown grain, 
for which reason they are mercilessly destroyed by farmers. 
They deposit their eggs two in number, and of a pure 
white colour in the hollows of decayed trees, or in the 
fissures of rocks, according to the nature of the locality in 
which they reside. This is the species usually kept in 
Europe as a cage bird. Leadbetter s Cockatoo (Cacatua 
Leadbeateri), an inhabitant of South Australia, excels all 
others in the beauty of its plumage, which consists in 
great part of white, tinged with rose colour, becoming a 
deep salmon colour under the wings, while the crest is 
bright crimson at the base, with a yellow spot in the centre 
and white at the tip. It is exceedingly shy and difficult of 
approach, and its note is more plaintive while less harsh than 
that of the preceding species. In the cockatoos belonging 
to the genus Calyptorhynchus the general plumage is black 
or dark brown, usually with a large spot or band of red or 
yellow on the tail, and in some species behind the ear also. 
The largest of these is known as the Funereal Cockatoo 
(Calyptorhynchus funereus), from the lugubrious note or 
call which it utters, resembling the two syllables Wy la , 
the native name of the species. It deposits its eggs in the 
hollows of the large gum trees of Australia, and feeds 
largely on the larvae of insects, in search of which it peel 
off the bark of trees, and when thus employed it may be 
approached closely. " When one is shot, the remainder of 
the company," says Gould, " fly round for a short distance, 
and perch on the neighbouring trees until the whole are 
brought down." 

COCKATRICE, a fabulous monster, the existence 
which was firmly believed in throughout ancient and 
mediaeval times, descriptions and figures of it appearing 
in the natural history works of such writers as Pliny and 
Aldrovandus, those of the latter published so late as the 
beginning of the 17th century. Produced from a cock s 
egg hatched by a serpent, it was believed to possess the 
most deadly powers, plants withering at its touch, and men 



and animals dying poisoned by its look. It stood in awe, 
lowever, of the cock, the sound of whose crowing killed it, 
and consequently travellers were wont to take this bird 
with them in travelling over regions supposed to abound in 
cockatrices. The weasel alone among mammals was 
unaffected by the glance of its evil eye, and attacked it at 
all times successfully ; for when wounded by the monster s 
teeth it found a ready remedy in rue the only plant which 
;he cockatrice could not wither. This myth reminds one 
of the real contests between the weasel-like mungoos of 
India and the deadly cobra, in which the latter is generally 
cilled. The term " cockatrice " is employed on four 
occasions in the English translation of the Bible, in all of 
which it denotes nothing more than an exceedingly 
venomous reptile ; it seems also to be synonymous with 
" Basilisk," the mythical king of serpents. 

COCKBURN, MRS ALISON (1712-1794), justly cele 
brated for having written one of the most exquisite of 
Scottish ballads, the " Flowers of the Forest," * was the 
daughter of a border laird, Robert Rutherfurd of Fairnalee, 
and was born in the heart of the Southern Highlands in 
the autumn of 1712. Her education was slight, She 
spent her youth in rambling and riding about the country 
side, and in paying visits to an aged minister in the neigh 
bourhood, of whose " heavenly affection " for her she 
wrote enthusiastically in after years. She was a graceful 
dancer, spent two winter seasons in Edinburgh, and was 
one of the Edinburgh belles of her time. Different causes 
have been assigned for the composition of the " Flowers of 
the Forest." Mr Chambers states that it was written on 
the occasion of a great commercial disaster which ruined 
the fortunes of some Selkirkshire lairds. Her later bio 
graphers, however, think it more probable that it was 
written on the departure to London of a certain John 
Aikman, between whom and Alison there appears to have 
been an early attachment. In 1731 Alison Rutherfurd 
was married to Patrick Cockburn of Ormiston, one of a 
family of stanch Whigs and Presbyterians, and an advo 
cate at the Scottish bar. After her marriage she knew all 
the intellectual and aristocratic celebrities of her day. In 
the memorable year 1745 she vented herWhiggism in a squib 
upon Prince Charlie, and narrowly escaped being taken by 
the Highland guard as she was driving through Edinburgh 
in the family coach of the Keiths of Ravelston, with the 
parody in her pocket. Mrs Cockburn was an indefatigable 
letter-writer and a composer of parodies, squibs, toasts, and 
"character-sketches" then a favourite form of composi 
tion like other wits of her day ; but the " Flowers of the 
Forest" is the only thing she wrote that possesses great lite 
rary merit. She survived her husband forty-one years, 
living to the age of eighty-two, and to the last she main 
tained her social popularity. At her house on Castle-hill, 
and afterwards in Crighton Street, she received many illus 
trious friends, among whom w y ere Mackenzie, Robertson, 
Hume, Home, Monboddo, the Keiths of Ravelston, the 
Balcarres family, and Lady Anne Barnard, the authoress 
of " Auld Robin Gray." She was in Edinburgh when Dr 
Johnson visited that city, towed thither by the triumphant 
Boswell. She saw and commented upon Burns s short, 
bright Edinburgh career. As a Rutherfurd she was a con 
nection of Sir Walter Scott s mother, and was her intimate 

1 There are two versions of this song, the one by Mrs Cockburn, 
the other by Miss Jean Elliot of Minto. Both were founded on the 
remains of an ancient Border ballad. It is believed by the descendants 
of her family that Mrs Cockburn composed her version that beginning 
" I ve seen the smiling of fortune beguiling" before her marriage in 
1/31. Anyhow, it was composed many years before Jean Elliot s 
sister verses, beginning, " I ve heard them lilting at our ewe-milking." 
These were written in 1756, and printed soon afterwards. Mrs 
Cockburn s song, however, was not pxiblished until 1765, when Jean 
Elliot s was already popular. 



c o c c o c 



99 



friend. Loikhart quotes an interesting letter written by 
Mrs Cockbuni in 1777, describing the precocious conduct 
of little Walter Scott, then scarcely six years old, during a 
visit which she paid to his mother. It was Mrs Cockburn 
also who wrote the character-sketch of Scott s father, which, 
when it was given as a toast, was so true as to be 
immediately recognized. Scott himself spent pleasant 
evenings at Mrs Cockburn s house when she was a very 
old lady and he a young advocate. Mrs Cockburn died in 
1794, having survived her only child, Captain Adam 
Cockburn, fourteen years. 

COCKBURN, SIE GEORGE (1772-1853), admiral, was 
of Scottish extraction, and was born in London. He 
entered the navy in his ninth year. After serving on the 
home station, and in the East Indies and the Mediterranean, 
he assisted, as captain of the " Minerve," at the blockade 
of Leghorn in 1796, and a year afterwards he fought 
in the battle of Cape St Vincent. In 1809, in command 
of the naval force on shore, he contributed greatly to 
the reduction of Martinique, and signed the capitulation by 
which that island was handed over to the English ; for his 
services on this occasion he received the thanks of the 
House of Commons. After service in the Scheldt and at 
the defence of Cadiz he was sent in 1811 on an unsuc 
cessful mission for the reconciliation of Spain and her 
American colonies. He was made rear-admiral in 1812, 
and in 1813-14 he took a prominent part in the American 
war, especially at the battle of Bladensburg and the cap 
ture of Washington. Early in 1815 he received the Order 
of the Bath, and in the autumn of the same year he carried 
out, in the "Northumberland," the sentence of deportation 
to St Helena which had been passed upon Bonaparte. 
In 1818 he received the Grand Cross of his Order, and was 
made a Lord of the Admiralty ; and the same j r ear he was 
returned to parliament for Portsmouth. He was promoted 
to the rank of vice-admiral in 1819, and to that of admiral 
in 1837 ; he became senior naval lord in 1841, and held 
office in that capacity till 1846. From 1827 he was a privy 
councillor. In 1851 he was made Admiral of the Fleet, and 
in 1852, a ysar before his death, his brother s baronetcy 
fell to him by inheritance. See O Byrne, Naval Biography; 
James, Naval History ; Gentleman s Magazine for 1853. 

COCKBURN, HENRY DUNDAS (1779-1854), known as 
Lord Cockburn, was born in Edinburgh, October 26, 1779. 
He was educated at the High School and at the university 
of Edinburgh; and he was a member of the famous 
Speculative Society, to which Scott, Brougham, and Jeffrey 
belonged. He entered the faculty of advocates in the year 
1 800, and attached himself, not to the party of his relatives, 
who could have afforded him most valuable patronage, but 
to the Whig or Liberal party, and that at a time when it 
held out few inducements to men ambitious of success in 
life. On the accession of Earl Grey s ministry in 1830, he 
became Solicitor-General for Scotland, In 1834 he was 
raised to the bench, and on taking his seat as a judge in 
the Court of Session he adopted the title of Lord Cockburn. 
Cockburu s forensic style was remarkable for its clearness, 
pathos, and simplicity ; and his conversational powers were 
unrivalled among his contemporaries. The extent of his 
literary ability only became known after he had passed his 
seventieth year, on the publication of his biography of Lord 
Jeffrey in 1852, and from the Memorials of his Time, which 
appeared posthumously in 1856. He died on the 26th of 
April 1854, at his mansion of Bonaly, near Edinburgh. 

COCKER, EDWARD, the reputed author of the famous 
Arithmetick, the popularity of which has added a phrase to 
the list of English proverbialisms, was born about 1632, 
and died between 1671 and 1675. He was an engraver, 
and also taught writing and arithmetic. He is credited 
with the authorship and execution of some fourteen sets of 



copy slips, one of which, Daniel s Copy-Bool; ingraven by 
Edward Cocker, Philomath, is preserved in the British 
Museum. Pepys, in his Diary, makes very favourable 
mention of Cocker, who appears to have displayed great 
skill in his art. Cocker s Arithmetick, the fifty-second 
edition of which appeared in 1748, and which has passed 
through some sixty editions in all, was not published during 
the lifetime of its reputed author, the first impression bear 
ing date of 1678. The late Professor De Morgan in his 
Arithmetical Books (1847) adduces proofs, which may be 
held to be conclusive, that the work was a forgery of the 
editor and publisher, John Hawkins ; and there appears to 
be no doubt that the Decimal Arithmetic (1684), and the 
English Dictionary (second edition, 1715), issued by 
Hawkins under Cocker s name, are forgeries also. De 
Morgan condemns the Arithmetick as a diffuse compilation 
from older and better works, and dates " a very great de 
terioration in elementary works on arithmetic " from the 
appearance of the book, which owed its celebrity far more 
to persistent puffing than to its merits. He pertinently 
adds, " This same Edward Cocker must have had great 
reputation, since a bad book under his name pushed out 
the good ones." 

COCKEREL!,, CHARLEsRoBERT (] 788-1863), architect, 
was born in London. After a severe preliminary training 
in his profession, he visited and studied the great architec 
tural remains of Greece, Italy, and Asia Minor. At ^Egina, 
Phigalia, and other places of interest, he conducted exca 
vations on a large scale, enriching the British Museum 
with many fine fragments, and adding several valuable 
monographs to the . literature of archaeology, the best of 
which is said to be that on the mausoleum of Halicarnassus. 
Elected in 1829 an associate of the Royal Academy, he 
became a member in 1836, and in 1839 he was appointed 
professor of architecture, Ids lectures in which capacity 
were so greatly esteemed as to be attended by all the 
students of the several arts professed within the school. 
On the death in 1837 of Soane, the distinguished architect 
of the Bank of England, Cockerell was appointed Lis suc 
cessor, and successfully carried out the alterations that have 
been needed in that building. In addition to branch 
banks at Liverpool and Manchester he erected in 1840 the 
New Library at Cambridge, and in 1845 the university 
galleries at Oxford, the last one of the architect s least 
happy efforts, as well as the Sun and the Westminster Fire 
Offices in Bartholomew Lane and in the Strand ; and Tite 
and he were joint architects of the London and Westminster 
Bank. On the death of Henry Lonsdale Elmes in 1847, 
Cockerell was selected to finish the St George s Hall, Liver 
pool, a task which he executed with great success. Cocker- 
ell s best conceptions were those inspired by classic models ; 
his essays in the Gothic the college at Lampeter, for 
instance, and the chapel at Harrow are by no means so 
successful. Among his numerous publications, however, 
may be mentioned those On the Iconography of Wells 
Cathedral, and On the Sculptures of Lincoln and Eoccter 
Cathedrals, which prove his thorough knowledge of Gothic 
art as well as of Greek. His Tribute to the Memory of Sir 
Christopher Wren (1838) is a collection of the whole of 
Wren s works drawn to the same scale. 

COCKEEMOUTH, a parliamentary borough and market- 
town of England, in the county of Cumberland, 25 miles by 
rail from Carlisle, at the confluence of the Derwent and the 
Cocker, both of which are crossed by bridges in the 
immediate vicinity. The town is irregularly built, but is 
clean and well paved. It has remains of au old castle, built 
soon after the Conquest, a town-hall, a free grammar school, 
and a house of correction ; and its manufactures include 
linen and woollen goods, thread, hosiery, hats, and papor. 
In the neighbourhood are extensive coal mines, which give 



100 



C O 



employment to nearly 2000 workmen. In 1871 the town- | 
ship had a population of 5115; the borough (which 
returns one member to parliament), with an area of 8467 
acres, had 6936. Of the early occupation of the site of 
Cockermouth conclusive evidence is atl orded by the relics 
discovered from time to time ; directly north of the town is 
a tumulus called Toot s Hill ; and at Pap Castle, about half 
a mile to the north-west, are the remains of a Roman camp. 
The barony or honour of Cockermouth was held shortly 
after the Conquest by Waltheof, lord of Allerdale, and has 
since passed through a long series of possessors, including 
the Umfravilles, Multens, Lucies, Percies, and Nevilles, 
down to the present Lord Leconfield. The town was 
captured in 1387 by the Scotch under Douglas; and in 1648 
the castle, garrisoned for king Charles, was taken and 
dismantled by the Parliamentarians. Wordsworth the poet 
was born at Cocksrmouth in 1770 ; and Tickell, the friend 
of Addison, at the village of Bridekirk, about two miles to 
the north. 

COCKLE (Cardium}, a genus of Acephalous Mollusks 
belonging to the family Cardiadce, and comprising about 
200 species, nearly a third of which are said to occur in 
the Indian Ocean, while only a few, but these exceedingly 
abundant in individuals, and widely distributed, are found 
in northern and temperate latitudes. The shells of cockles 
are highly convex, and almost invariably show a ridge-and- 
furrow sculpture, the ridges or ribs being often spiny, 
and the valves locking closely together. The animal 
inhabiting the shell is provided with a large, fleshy, and 
highly elastic foot, by means of which it can rapidly bury 
itself in the soft muddy sand which it frequents, reappear 
ing above the surface with equal facility. In performing 
those leaps, for which it is remarkable, " the long taper 
foot," says Gosse, " is thrust to its utmost, and feels about 
for some resisting surface, a stone for instance, which it 
no sooner feels than the hooked point is pressed stiffly 
against it, the whole foot, by muscular contraction, is made 
suddenly rigid, and the entire creature mantle, siphons, 
foot, shell, and all is jerked away in an uncouth manner." 
Many of the species are of considerable value as articles of 
food, especially the Common Cockle (Cardium edule), 
gregarious everywhere in the sandy bays and estuaries 
around the British coast, from low-water mark to a few 
fathoms deep, and extending from Iceland to the Canaries, 
and as far east as the Caspian and Aral Seas, where it 
occurs in one of its varieties. The shell of the cockle is 
liable to considerable variation, getting thinner and more 
elongated posteriorly in sheltered situations and in muddy 
ground, more convex and thicker when exposed to rougher 
conditions. They vary also in size from 1 inch to 2J 
inches in breadth. They occur in great abundance on 
several parts of the British coast, and in many places 
cockle-gathering gives employment to large numbers of 
people ; thus at Penclawdd in Glamorganshire, the women 
and children are regularly employed in gathering and 
preparing cockles, which they afterwards dispose of in the 
Swansea market. At Starcross they have " cockle-gardens," 
where those mollusks are reared, and these are said to 
possess a better flavour than the ordinary cockle. Some 
species or other of Cardium is used for food by the maritime 
populations of almost every country in the world, and the 
dietetic value of these mollusks appears to have been 
equally appreciated in prehistoric times, as the shell-mounds 
or kjokkenmoddings of many countries abundantly testify. 
As cockle shells contain about 90 per cent, of carbonate of 
lime, they are calcined and used instead of common lime 
where the latter cannot readily be obtained. 

COCKROACH (Blattidce), a family of Orthopterous 
Insects, distinguished by their flattened bodies, long 
thread-like antenna), and shining leathery integuments. 



Cockroaches are nocturnal creatures, secreting themselves 
in chinks and crevices about houses, issuing from their 
retreats when the lights are extinguished, and moving 
about with extraordinary rapidity in search of food. 
They are voracious and omnivorous, devouring, or at least 
damaging, whatever comes in their way, for all tbe species 
emit a disagreeable odour, which they communicate to 
whatever article of food or clothing they may touch. The 
Common Cockroach (Blatta oritntalis) is not indigenous to 
Europe, but is believed to have been introduced from the 
Levant in the cargoes of trading vessels. The wings in 
the male are shorter than the body ; in the female they are 
rudimentary. The eggs, which are 16 in number, are 
deposited in a leathery capsule fixed by a gum-like sub 
stance to the abdomen of the female, and thus carried 
about till the young are ready to escape, when the capsule 
becomes softened by the emission of a fluid substance. 
The larvae are perfectly white at first, although in other 
respects not unlike their parents, but they are not mature 
insects until after the sixth casting of the skin. The 
American Cockroach (Blatta arnericana) is larger than the 
former, and is not uncommon in European seaports trading 
with America, being conve} r ed in cargoes of grain and other 
food produce. The largest known species is the Drummer 
of the West Indies (Blatta gigantea], so called from the 
tapping noise it makes on wood, sufficient, when joined in 
by several individuals, as usually happens, to break the 
slumbers of a household. It is about 2 inches long, with 
wings 3 inches in expanse, and forms one of the most 
noisome and injurious of insect pests. The best mode of 
destroying cockroaches is, when the fire and lights are 
extinguished at night, to lay some treacle on a piece of 
wood afloat on a broad basin of water. This proves a 
temptation to the vermin too great to be resisted. The chinks 
and holes from which they issue should also be filled up with 
unslaked lime, and some may be scattered on the ground. 

COCLES, HORATIUS, a Roman hero, who, with Spurius 
Lartius and Titus Herminius as sole companions, defended 
the Sublician bridge against Lars Porsena and the whole 
army of the Etruscans. While the three heroes kept back 
the enemy the Romans cut down the bridge behind. 
When it was almost ready to fall his comrades retreated, 
but Horatius waited till the work was complete, and Rome 
was saved. Then, despite the arrows of the enemy, he 
swam in safety to the opposite shore. A statue was 
erected in his honour, and he received as much land as he 
could plough round in a single day. According to another 
story, Horatius w r as alone in his heroism, and gave his life 
for his country. The former version is adopted by Lord 
Macaulay in his Lays of Ancient Home. 

COCOA, or more properly CACAO, is a valuable dietary 
substance yielded by the seeds of several small trees 
belonging to the genus Theobroma, of the natural order 
Sterculiacew. The w : hole genus, which comprises nine or 
ten species, belongs to the tropical parts of the American 
continent; and although the cocoa of commerce is probably 
the produce of more than one species, by far the greatest 
and most valuable portion is obtained from the TJnobroma 
Cacao of Linnaeus. The generic name is derived from $o s 
(god) and j3pw/j.a (food), and was bestowed by Linnaeus as 
an indication of the high appreciation in which he held the 
beverage prepared from the seeds, which he considered to 
be a food fit for the gods. 

The common cocoa tree is of low stature, seldom exceed 
ing 16 or 18 feet in height, but it is taller in its native 
forests than it is in cultivated plantations. The leaves are 
large, smooth, and glossy, elliptic-oblong and acuminate in 
form, growing principally at the ends of branches, but 
sometimes springing directly from the main trunk. The 
flowers are small, and occur in numerous clusters on the 



COCO A 



101 



main branches and the trunk, a very marked peculiarity 
which gives the matured fruit the appearance of being 
artificially attached to the tree. Generally only a single 
fruit is matured from each cluster of flowers. When ripe 
the fruit or " pod " is elliptical-ovoid in form, from 7 to 10 
inches in length, and from 3 to 44- inches in diameter. It 
has a hard, thick, leathery rind of a rich purplish yellow 
colour, externally rough and marked with ten very distinct 
longitudinal ribs or elevations. The interior of the fruit 
has five cells, in each of which is a row of from 5 to 10 
seeds embedded in a soft delicately pink acid pulp. Each 
fruit thus contains from 20 to 40 or more seeds, which 
constitute ths raw cocoa or "cocoa beans" of commerce. 




Branch of Cocoa Tree, with Fruit in section. 

The tree appears to have been originally a native of Mexico ; 
but it can be cultivated in suitable situations within the 
25th parallels of latitude. It, however, nourishes best 
within the 15th parallels, at elevations ranging from near 
the sea-level up to about 2000 feet in height. It is now 
cultivated in Mexico, Honduras, Guatenfala, Nicaragua, 
Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, New Granada, Venezuela, Guiana, 
and most of the West Indian Islands. Its cultivation has 
also been attempted in other tropical regions of the globe ; 
but the industry has hitherto not been developed on any 
considerable scale away from the American continent and 
the West Indian Islands. 

For the successful cultivation of the cocoa tree a rich 
well-watered soil and a humid atmosphere, with freedom 
from cold winds and protection from violent storms, are 
necessary. As the young plants are extremely delicate and 
tender, they are reared in nursery grounds till they attain 
a height of from 15 to 18 inches, and after planting out 
they still require protection from the wind and sun, which 
is provided by growing " provisions " (food-yielding plants), 
and the coral-beau tree, Erythrina Corallodendron, among 
the young trees. The trees begin to bear in the fourth or 
fifth year, but they do not attain their full productive 
vigour till about their eighth year, and they ought to con 
tinue prolific for from thirty to forty years thereafter. As 
the trees carry buds, flowers, and fruit in all stages at the 
same time, ripe pods may be collected at any period of the 
year, but there are periodical harvests dependent on the 
suitability of the weather for collecting the fruit and curing 
the seeds. In Venezuela, where the famous Caracas cocoa 
is grown, the gathering takes place in June and December, 



these being the crop cf St John and the Christmas crop 
respectively. In gathering the workman is careful to cut 
down only fully ripened pods, which he adroitly accom 
plishes with a long pole armed with two prongs or a knife 
at its extremity. The pods are left in heaps on the ground 
for about twenty-four hours ; they are then cut open, and the 
seeds are taken out, and carried in baskets to the place 
where they undergo the operation of sweating or curing. 
There the acid juice which accompanies the seeds is first 
drained off, after which they are placed in a sweating box, 
in. which they are enclosed and allowed to ferment for some 
time, great care being taken to keep the temperature from 
rising too high. The fermenting process is, in some cases, 
effected by throwing the seeds into holes or trenches in the 
grouna, and covering them with earth or clay. The seeds 
in this process, which is called claying, are occasionally 
stirred to keep the fermentation from proceeding too 
violently. The .sweating is a process which requires the 
very greatest attention and experience, as on it to .a great 
extent depend the flavour of the seeds and their fitness 
for preservation. The operation varies in duration according 
to the state of the weather, but a period of about two days 
yields the best results. Thereafter the seeds are exposed 
to the sun for drying, and those of a fine quality should 
then assume a warm reddish tint, which characterizes 
beans of a superior quality. 

The cocoa tree was cultivated, and its produce held in 
the highest esteem, in Mexico and Peru previous to the 
discovery of the American continent by Columbus. 
Frescott, in his Conquest of Peru, says of the followers 
of Fizarro, that as they sailed along the Pacific coast 
they saw " hill-sides covered with the yellow maize 
and the potato, or checkered in the lower levels with 
blooming plantations of cacao." The same writer, referring 
to the use of cocoa in Mexico, says of the Emperor 
Montezuma that " he was exceedingly fond of it, to judga 
from the quantity, no less than 50 jars or pitchers being 
prepared for his own daily consumption ; 2000 more were 
allowed for that of his household." "Traffic," he adds 
again, " was carried on partly by barter and partly by 
means of a regulated currency of different values. This 
consisted of transparent quills of gold dust, of bits of tin 
cut in the form of a T, and bags of cacao containing a 
specified number of grains." 

A knowledge of this valuable article of food was first 
1 rough t to Europe by Columbus, but some time elapsed ere 
ils virtues were appreciated in the Old World. Spain was 
the first nation in which its use became common ; and to 
this day cocoa is much more extensively consumed among 
the Spaniards than by any other European community. 
The earliest intimation of the introduction of cocoa into 
England is found in an announcement in the Public 
Advertiser of Tuesday, 16th June 1657, notifying that 
" In Bishopgate Street, in Queen s Head Alley, at a 
Frenchman s house, is an excellent West India drink, called 
chocolate, to be sold, where you may have it ready at any 
time, and also unmade, at reasonable rates." About the 
beginning of the 18th century chocolate had become an 
exceedingly fashionable beverage, and the cocoa tree was a 
favourite sign and name for places of public refreshment. 
Cocoa and chocolate are frequently mentioned- in contem 
porary literature, and among others Pope, in his Rape of tlu 
Lock, alludes to it ; the negligent spirit, fixed liko Ixion- 

"In fumes of burning chocolate shall glow, 
And tremble at the sea that froths below." 

The high price at which it was retailed kept chocolate 
among the luxuries of the wealthy ; and coffee, which had 
been introduced two or three years before chocolate, and 
tea, which came a year later, both soon far out-stripped their 
rival beverage in public estimation. 



102 



COCOA 



Haw cocoas are distinguished iu commerce by the name 
of the localities of their growth ; and it is foun d that the 
produce of particular regions maintains, pretty constantly, 
a distinctive character and appearance. The most esteemed 
of all varieties is that obtained from Venezuela, known in 
commerce as Caracas cocoa, next to which in value stand 
the red " nuts " of Trinidad. The finest qualities are in 
form and size not unlike thick round almonds ; they have a 
husk of a clear brick-red colour, and the cotyledons, which 
are of a deep chocolate brown, have a fine membrane 
permeating their entire substance, and dividing them into 
numerous irregular segments, into which the seeds are easily 
broken down. The kernels are astringent in taste, with a 
mild, not disagreeable ilavour. In chemical composition, 
as well as in physical characteristics, they vary within 
certain limits ; but the analysis by Payen may be taken as 
representing their average constitution. It is as follows : 

Fat (Cocoa Butter) 52-00 

Nitrogenous compounds 20 00 

Starch lO OO 

Cellulose 2 00 

Tlieobromiue 2 - 00 

Saline substances 4 00 

Water 10 00 

Cocoa red . . ) , 

Essential oil .. ... trace3 



100-00 

The constituent upon which the peculiar value of cocoa 
depends is the theobromine, an alkaloid substance which 
till recently was supposed to be distinct from, though 
closely allied to, the theino of tea and coffee. It is now, 
however, known that the alkaloid in these and in two or 
three ether substances similarly used is identical, and their 
physiological value is consequently the same. The fat or 
cocoa butter is a firm, solid, white substance at ordinary 
temperatures, having an agreeable taste and odour, and 
very remarkable for its freedom from any tendency to 
become rancid. It consists essentially of stearin with a 
little olein, and is used in surgical practice, and in France 
as a material for soap and pomade manufacture. Tho 
starch grains present in raw cocoa are small in size, and of 
a character so peculiar that there is no difficulty in distin 
guishing them under the microscope from any other starch 
granules. As an article of food cocoa differs essentially 
from both tea and coffee. While only an infusion of these 
substances is used, leaving a large proportion of their total 
weight unconsumed, the entire substance of the cocoa seeds is 
prepared as an emulsion for drinking, and the whole is thus 
utilized within the system. While the contents of a cup 
of tea or coffee can thus only be regarded as stimulant in 
its effect, and almost entirely destitute of essential nutritive 
properties, a cup of prepared cocoa is really a most nourish 
ing article of diet, as, in addition to the value of the 
theobromine it contains, it introduces into the system no 
inconsiderable proportion of valuable nitrogenous and 
oleaginous elements. 

The manufacturing processes through which raw cocoa 
passes have for their object the development of the aroma 
peculiar to the substance, and its preparation in a soluble 
palatable and digestible form. The first operation consists 
in roasting the seeds, whereby the empyreumatic aromatic 
substance is formed, and the starch particles are changed 
into dextrin. The roasting is accomplished in large 
revolving cylinders, after the completion of which the 
roasted seeds are taken to the crushing and winnowing 
machine. Here the seeds are reduced to the form of nibs 
which are separated from the shells or husks by the action 
of a powerful f.iu blast. The nibs are next subjected to a 
process of winnowing in small quantities in hand sieves, 
by which the hard cocoa "germs" are sifted out, and 



mouldy or discoloured fragments are at the same time 
removed by hand. Nibs so prepared constitute the 
simplest and purest preparation in which manufactured 
cocoa is sold ; but they require prolonged boiling to effect 
their complete disintegration. The nibs when ground to 
a fine meal can be cooked with much greater facility. 
Another form in which the pure seeds are prepared is in 
flaked cocoa, which consists of the nibs ground up into u 
rather coarse uniform paste. The grinding is effected in 
cylinder machines, having an outer fixed casing within 
which a drum revolves. The nibs are fed in by a hopper 
on the upper part of the apparatus, and are carried round 
its circumference by the revolution of the drum, and 
delivered as a thin uniform pasty mass, the heat developed 
by the friction within the cylinder being sufficient to 
liquefy the oil, which again sets on cooling of the paste. 
Of late years a preparation culled extract of cocoa has como 
into extensive use. It is made by removing a certain 
proportion of the fat from the seeds, whereby the remaining 
substance can be ground to an impalpable powder, which 
yields a beverage much more palatable and agreeable to 
many stomachs then either entire nibs or the so-called 
soluble cocoas. The removal of the fat is effected Ly 
placing nibs, after they have been reduced by grinding to 
a fine yniooth paste, in bags, and subjecting them to power 
ful pressure in heated presses. The fat exudes slowly arid 
quickly solidifies, and a solid compact cake is left in the 
press, which only requires to be broken up and finely 
powdered for use. 

Most other preparations, whether sold as cocoa or cho 
colate, are mixtures of various substances with ground 
nibs, the object of the mixture being to mask the presence 
of the cocoa fat, and to render the whole readily miscible 
with boiling water. The ordinary distinction between thet>e 
soluble cocoas and chocolate is that the cocoa is usually 
sold in the form of a powder, the chocolate being made up 
in cakes, which require to be scraped down, boiled, and 
" milled " or frothed before being ready for drinking. la 
making the soluble cocoa, which is sold under such names 
as homoeopathic, Iceland moss, pearl cocoa, &c., the nibs aro 
first ground up in a heated stone mill, and, while in a soft 
pasty condition, thoroughly mixed with certain proportions 
of sugar and arrowroot, or other and inferior starches. Tho 
compound is afterwards ground to fine powder and sold 
under various names and at different prices, according to 
the quality of the cocoa and the nature and proportion of 
the ingredients which are combined with it. The finer 
chocolates are combinations of cocoa with sugar aloue, 
flavoured with some aromatic substanqg, generally vanilla; 
but into the composition of cheap qualities starchy 
substances enter, The nibs for chocolate are brought to a 
fine pasty state in a heated mill, and the sugar or sugar 
and starch with vanilla are then added and thoroughly in 
corporated in the mill. The paste is next passed several 
times between heavy horizontal rollers to produce a 
thoroughly homogeneous mixture. It is lastly cast into 
moulds while still in a thin pasty state, and after cooling it 
forms hard solid cakes, and is ready to wrap up for the 
market. Chocolates for eating are prepared with largs 
proportions of sugar and various flavouring substances, and 
the elegant preparations of these and of chocolate creams 
by Menier of Paris and Fry and Sons of Bristol undoubtedly 
form most wholesome, palatable, and nutritious confections. 
To the last-named firm we have to express our obligation 
for information courteously placed at our disposal. 

Preparations of cocoa are still much more largely con 
sumed in Spain than in any other European country. In 
Great Britain the consumption, [tartly stimulated by the 
improvements effected in its manufacture, is steadily increas 
ing, although as compared with the consumption of tea and 



C O C C D 



103 



coffee its employment is yet on a very restricted scale. The 
following figures exhibit the ratio of increase of cocoa 
entered for home consumption since 1820 : 



1820 267,321 ft 
1830 425,382 

1840 2,645,470 

1850 3,080,641 



1860 
1870 
1874 

1875 



4,583,124ft 
6,943,102 
8,863,646 
9,973,926 



In addition to these quantities of raw cocoa, a considerable 
quantity of prepared cocoa and chocolate is now imported 
from France. In 1820 the imports of manufactured cocoa 
only amounted to 14 lb, but in 1874 91,466 Bb were im 
ported. An import duty of Id. per lb on raw and 2d. per 
lb on manufactured cocoa is levied in Great Britain. 

COCOA-NUT PALM (Cocos nudfera), sometimes, and 
perhaps more correctly, called the coco-nut palm, is a very 
beautiful and lofty palm-tree, growing to a height of from 60 
to 100 feet, with a cylindrical stem which atta-ns a thickness 
of 2 feet. The tree terminates in a crown of graceful waving 
pinnate leaves. The leaf, which may attain to 20 feet in 
length, consists of a strong mid-rib, whence numerous long 
acute leaflets spring, giving the whole the appearance of a 
gigantic feather. The flowers are arranged in branching 
spikes 5 or 6 feet long, enclosed in a tough spathe, and the 
fruits mature in bunches of from 10 to 20. The fruits 
when mature are oblong, and triangular in cross section, 
measuring from 12 to 18 inches in length and 6 to 8 inches 
in diameter. The fruit consists of a thick external husk or 
rind of a fibrous structure, within which is the ordinary 
cocoa-nut of commerce. The nut has a very hard, woody 
shell, enclosing the nucleus or kernel, within which again 
is a milky liquid called cocoa-nut milk. The palm is so 
widely disseminated throughout tropical countries that it is 
impossible to distinguish its original habitat. It flourishes 
with equal vigour on the coast of the East Indies, through 
out the tropical islands of the Pacific, and in the West 
Indies and tropical America. It, however, attains its 
greatest luxuriance and vigour on the sea shore, and it is 
most at home in the innumerable small islands of the 
Pacific seas, of the vegetation of which it is eminently char 
acteristic. Its wide distribution, and its existence in even 
the smallest coral islets of the Pacific, have been favoured 
by the peculiar triangular shape of the fruit, which drop 
ping into the sea from trees growing on any shores would 
be carried by tides and currents to be cast up and to 
vegetate on distant coasts. 

The cocoa-nut palm, being the most useful of its entire 
tribe to the natives of the regions in which it grows, and 
furnishing many valuable and important commercial pro 
ducts, is the subject of careful cultivation in many countries. 
On the Malabar and Coromandel coasts of India the trees 
grow in vast numbers ; and in Ceylon, which is peculiarly 
well suited for their cultivation, it is estimated that twenty 
millions of the trees flourish. The wealth of a native in 
Ceylon is estimated by his property in cocoa-nut trees, and 
Sir J. Emerson Tennent notes a law case in a district court 
in which the subject in dispute was a claim to the 2520th 
part of ten of the precious palms. The cultivation of cocoa- 
nut plantations in Ceylon is thus described by Sir J. E. 
Tenuent. " The first operation in cocoa-nut planting is the 
formation of a uurssry, for which purpose the ripe nuts are 
placed in squares containing about 400 each ; these are 
covered an inch deep with sand and sea-weed or soft mud 
from the beach, and watered daily till they germinate. 
The nuts put down in April are sufficiently grown to be 
planted out before the rains of September, and they are 
then set out in holes 3 feet deep and 20 to 30 feet apart. 
. . Before putting in the young plant it is customary 
to bed the roots with soft mud and sea-weed, and for the 
first {.wo years they must be watered and protected from 
tho glare of the suu under shades made of the plaited 



fronds of the cocoa-nut palm, or the fan-like leaves of the 
palmyra." The palm begins to bear fruit from the fifth 
to the seventh year of its age, each stock carrying from 
5 to 30 nuts, the tree maturing on an average 60 nuts 
yearly. 

The uses to which the various parts of the cocoa-nut palm 
are applied in the regions of their growth are almost 
endless, The nuts supply no inconsiderable proportion of 
the food of the natives, and the milky juice enclosed within 
them forms a pleasant and refreshing drink. The juico 
drawn from the unexpanded flower spathes forms " toddy, " 
which may be boiled down to sugar, or it is allowed to 
ferment and is distilled, when it yields a spirit which, in 
common with a like product from other sources, is known 
as "arrack." The trunk yields a timber (known in 
European commerce as porcupine wood) which is used for 
building, furniture, firewood, &c.; the leaves are plaited 
into cajan fans and baskets, and used for thatching the 
roofs of houses ; the shell of the nut is employed as a water 
vessel ; and the external husk or rind yields the coir fibre, 
with which are fabricated ropes, cordage, brushes, &c. The 
cocoa-nut palm also furnishes very important articles of 
external commerce, of which the principal is cocoa-nut oil. 
It is obtained by pressure or boiling from the kernels, 
which are first broken up into small pieces and dried in 
the sun, when they are known as copperah or copra. It is 
estimated that 1000 full-sized nuts will yield upwards of 
500 lb of copra, from which 25 gallons of oil should be 
obtained. The oil is a white solid substance at ordinary 
temperatures, with a peculiar, rather disagreeable odour, 
from the volatile fatty acids it contains, and a mild taste. 
Under pressure it separates into a liquid and a solid portion, 
the latter, cocoa-stearin, being extensively used in the 
manufacture of candles. Cocoa-nut oil is also used in the 
manufacture of marine soap, which forms a lather with sea 
water. Coir is also an important article of commerce, 
being in largo demand for the manufacture of coarse 
brushes, door mats, and woven coir matting for lobbies and 
passages. A considerable quantity of fresh nuts is 
imported, chiefly from the West Indies, and sold as a dainty 
among the poorer classes, or used in the preparation of a 
kind of confection. 

COCYTUS, a tributary of the Acheron, a river of 
Thesprotia, which flows into the Ionian Sea. Its modern 
name is the Vuvo. The name is also applied, in classical 
mythology, to a tributary of the Acheron, a river in Hades. 
The etymology suggested is from KIOKVCIV, to wail. 

COD (Morrhua vulgaris), a well-known speciesof Gadidce, 
a family of Anacanthine Fishes, possessing, in common with 
the other members of the genus, three dorsal and two anal 
fins, and a single barbel at the chin. It is a widely 
distributed species, being found throughout the northern 
and temperate seas of Europe, Asia, and America, extending 
as far south as Gibraltar, but not entering the Mediter 
ranean, and inhabits water from 25 to 50 fathoms deep, 
where it always feeds close to the bottom. It is exceed 
ingly voracious, feeding on the smaller denizens of the 
ocean fish, crustaceans, worms, and moliusks, and greedily 
taking almost any bait the fisherman chooses to employ. 
The cod spawns in February, and is exceedingly prolific, 
the roe of a single female having been known to contain 
upwards of eight millions of ova, and to form more than 
half the weight of the entire fish. Only a small proportion 
of these get fertilized, and still fewer ever emerge from the 
egg. The number of cod is still further reduced by tho 
trade carried on in roe, large quantities of which are used 
in France as ground-bait in the sardine fishery, while it 
also forms an article of human food. The young are about 
an inch in length by the end of spring, but are not fit for 
the market till the second year, and it has been stated that 



1C4 



C D C O D 



they do not reach maturity, as shown by the power of 
reproduction, till the end of their third year. They usually 
measure about 3 feet in length, and weigh from 12 to 20 
ft, but specimens have been taken from 50 to 70 tb in 
weight. As an article of food the cod-fish is in gre itest 
perfection during the three months preceding Christmas. 
It is caught on all parts of the British and Irish coasts; bat 
the Djgger Bank, and Rockall. off the Outer Hebrides, have 
been specially noted for their cod-fisheries. Until recently, 
the London market was in great part supplied from the 
former of these ; but now the fishery is chiefly carried on 
along the coast of Norfolk and Suffolk, where gre it 
quantities of the fish are caught with hook and line, and 
conveyed to market alive in " well-boats " specially built 
for this traffic. Such boats have been in use since the 
beginning of the 18th century. The most important cod- 
fishery in the world is that which has been prosecuted for 
centuries on the Newfoundland banks, where it is not 
uncommon for a single fisherman to take over 500 of these 
fish in 10 or 11 hours. The fish have lately been decreas 
ing in that well-worn locality, but that the yield is still 
enormous is seen from recently published returns, from 
which it appears that the quintity of cod obtained by the 
Canadian fishery alone in 1875 weighed over 31,000 tons, 
while in 1874 it reached 3i,500 tons. These, salted and 
dried, are exported to all parts of the world, and form, 
when taken in connection with the enormous quantity of 
fresh cod consumed, a valuable addition to the food 
resources of the human race. The swimming bladder of 
this fish furnishes isinglass, little, if at all, inferior to that 
obtained from the sturgeon, while from the liver is obtain 3d 
cod-liver oil, now lirgely used in medicine as a remedy in 
scrofulous complaints and pulmonary consumption. " The 
Norwegians," says Cuvier, " give cod heads with marine 
plants to their cows for the purpose of producing a greater 
proportion of milk. The vertebrae, the ribs, and the bones 
in general, are given to their cattle by the Icelanders, and 
by the Kamtchatdales to their dogs. These same parts, 
properly dried, are also employed as fuel in the desolate 
steppes of the Icy Se;i." At Port Logan in Wigtonshire 
cod-fish are kept in a large reservoir, scooped out of the 
eolid rook by the action of the sea, egress from which is 
prevented by a barrier of stones, which does not prevent 
the free access of the water. These cod are fed chiefly on 
mussels, and when the keeper approaches to feed them they 
may be seen rising to the surface in hundreds and eagerly 
seeking the edge. They have become comparatively tame 
and familiar. Frank Buckland, who some years ago visited 
the place, states that after a little while they allowed him 
to take hold of them, scratch them on the back, and play 
with them in various ways. Their flavour is considered 
superior to that of the cod taken in the open sea. 

COD-LIVER OIL is an oil of great medicinal value, 
obtained from the liver of the common cod (Morrhua vid- 
<7Tm),and also to some extent from the ling (Lota molva), the 
whiting (Merlanyus vulgaris), the pollack (Merlanrjus polla- 
chius], as well as other members of the Gadidce. The oil ob 
tained from the livers differs in quality from a very pure 
pale-coloured liquid to a dark evil-smelling product, accord 
ing to the care exercised and the processes adopted for its 
extraction. The very dark coloured rank oils are used only 
for burning and lubricating, and in commerce are known 
as cod oil. The purer qualities, up to an oil having a 
brown sherry colour, are alone used medicinally as cod-liver 
oil. Various methods of extracting the oil are adopted in 
the different countries where its preparation is prosecuted. 
Generally it may be stated that the medicinal oil is 
obtained from selected livers, which are carefully examined, 
cleaned, split up, and thrown together into a large vessel! 
From these a very small proportion of a pure and almost 



colourless oil exudes spontaneously, and exposure to the 
heat of the sun causes a further exudation. By the 
application of heat in a steam or water bath to a tempera 
ture not exceeding 180 Fahr., a proportion of still pale, 
or straw-coloured oil is obtained. The oil which results 
from the application of a higher heat and pressure, and 
that obtained from imhealthy and from putrid livers, are 
only used industrially as cod oil. The extraction of the 
oil is most extensively prosecuted in Newfoundland and in 
Norway ; but a considerable quantity is also prepared in 
the Shetland Islands and along the east coast of Scotland. 

Three varieties of medicinal oil are recognized in com 
merce -pale, light brown, and brown ; but these insensibly 
merge into each other, and are only the result of different 
processes or periods of preparation, as mentioned above. 
The pale oil possesses a fishy odour and a slightly acrid 
taste, while with the darker oil there is a distinctly dis 
agreeable empyreumatic odour and taste. In composition 
the oil contains olein and margarin, with small proportions 
of free butyric and acetic acids, a peculiar principle termed 
gaduin, certain bile acids, free phosphorus, phosphatic salts, 
and traces of iodine and bromine. Cod-liver oil is valuable 
in medicine on account of its great nutrient properties ; it 
adds rapidly to tho store of fat within the human frame, 
and it enriches the blood in red corpuscles. It is much 
more digestible than other animal oils, a fact which may 
account for its superior therapeutic value. At one time it 
was supposed that its virtues resided in the iodine and 
bromine which the oil generally contains ; but these are 
present only in exceedingly minute proportions, and some 
times they cannot be traced at all. The oil has long been 
favourably known in medicine as a remedy for rheumatic 
complaints, but its great value in pulmonary consumption has 
been demonstrated only in comparatively recent times. It 
is administered internally in chronic rheumatism, scrofula, 
phthisis, chronic skin diseases, and general debility; and it 
is sometimes externally applied in affections of the skin. 
The oil is taken with facility by young children ; but the 
repugnance of adults to its taste and eructations is not 
easily overcome, and many methods have been suggested 
for masking its taste. With that view the oil is enclosed 
in gelatinous capsules, or prepared in the form of aromatized 
emulsions, of equal parts of mucilage, of gum tragacanth, 
and the oil. There are numerous other forms of emulsions 
recommended, as well as combinations with medicinal 
syrups, and cod-liver oil creams, jellies, and bread; and 
various devices are familiarly employed as in the adminis 
tration of unpleasant medicines. Failing all these, cod-liver 
oil has been introduced into the system by injection. 

CODE. A code is a complete and systematic body of 
law, or a complete and exclusive statement of some portion 
of the law. Such, at least, is the sense in which the word 
is used when it is proposed to recast the laws of a country 
like England in the form of a code. Many collections of 
laws, however, which are commonly known as codes, would 
not correspond to this definition. The Code of Justinian, 
the most celebrated of all, is not in itself a complete and 
exclusive system of law. It is a collection of imperial 
constitutions, just as the Pandects are a collection of the 
opinions of jurisconsults. The Code and the Pandects 
together being, as Austin says, " digests of Roman law in 
force at the time of their conception," would, if properly 
arranged, constitute a code. Codification in this sense is 
merely a question of the form of the laws, and has nothing 
to do with their goodness or badness from an ethical or 
poUtical point of view. Sometimes codification only 
means the changing of unwritten into written law ; in the 
stricter sense it means the changing of unwritten or bartiy 
written law into law well written. 

Roman (lodes. Under the empire the constitutions or 



edicta of the chief of the state had the force of law. The 
practice of collecting the constitutions of the emperors seems 
to have been begun by private lawyers such at all events 
is the character of the oldest collection, known as the 
Codex Gregorianns ft Hermogenianus, which formed the 
model for the imperial codes of Theodosius and Justinian. 
The Theodosian code was the work of a commission of 
sixteen, to whom, in 435 A.D., the emperor intrusted the 
task of collecting the edicts and constitutions from the time 
of Constantine. It was finished in 438, and promulgated 
as the law of the empire. 

In 528 the Emperor Justinian ordered a new collection 
to be made, and appointed a commission of ten for that 
purpose, including the celebrated Tribonian. The com 
missioners were to compile one code out of the " three 
codes Gregorian, Hermogenian, and Theodosian," and 
the constitutions which had been ordained since the last of 
these was confirmed. The commissioners had full power 
to make such changes as might be necessary in the 
language of the constitutions, and to omit all that was 
unnecessary, obsolete, or inconsistent. The collection was 
to include rescripts as well as constitutions, and was to 
supersede (as the Theodosian code also did) the sources 
from which it had been compiled. The code was finished 
within fourteen months, but a revised edition was rendered 
necessary by some new decisions and constitutions of the 
emperor. In 534 the new code was published and the first 
edition superseded. The second is the Code we now possess ; 
the first has been lost. The Code is divided into twelve 
books, and each book into titles, under which the constitu 
tions are arranged in chronological order, arid with the 
names of the emperors by whom they were enacted. There 
is a general correspondence between the order of the 
Digest and the Code of Justinian, but neither the Digest 
nor any of the codes pretended to scientific classification. 
The arrangement was dictated by the order of writers on 
the Praetorian Edict. 

The same causes which made these collections necessary 
in the time of Justinian have led to similar undertakings 
among modern peoples. The actual condition of laws until 
the period when they are consciously remodelled is one of 
confusion, contradiction, repetition, and disorder ; and to 
these evils the progress of society adds the burden of 
perpetually increasing legislation. Some attempt must be 
made to simplify the task of learning the laws by improving 
their expression and arrangement. This is by no means an 
easy task in any country, but in our own it is surrounded 
with peculiar difficulties. The independent character of 
English law has prevented us from attempting what has 
already been done for other systems which have the basis 
of the Roman law to fall back upon. 

The most celebrated modern code is the Code Napoleon, 
The necessity of a code in France was mainly caused by 
the immense number of separate systems of jurisprudence 
existing in that country before 1789, justifying Voltaire s 
sarcasm that a traveller in France had to change laws 
about as often as he changed horses. The conception of a 
general code for the whole country had occurred to jurists 
and statesmen before Napoleon, and the Convention, in fact, 
discussed two projects presented by Cambace res, one of 
which had been found too complicated and the other too 
condensed. Napoleon, on becoming consul, appointed a 
commission headed by M. Tronchet to review previous 
efforts and present a new project. In four mouths the 
project was presented to the Government, submitted to the 
judges, and discussed by the Council of State Napoleon 
himself taking part in the deliberations. At first published 
under the title of Code Civil des Francois ; it was afterwards 
entitled the Code Napoleon,- the emperor wishing to attach 
his name to a work which he regarded as the greatest glory 



105 

of his reign. The Code Napoleon consists of 2281 articles, 
arranged under titles and divided into three books, preceded 
by a preliminary title. The subjects of the different books 
are 1st, "Des personnes"; 2d, " Des biens et des differents 
modifications de la propriete ; " 3d, " DCS diffe"rents manieres 
d a-;qu6rir la proprieleV The code, it has been said, is the 
product of Roman and customary law, together with the ordi 
nances of the kings and the laws of the Revolution. In form 
it has passed through several changes caused by the politi 
cal vicissitudes of the country, and it has of course suffered 
from time to time important alterations in substance, but it 
still remains virtually the same in principle as it left the 
hands of its framers. The code has produced a vast number 
of commentaries, among which may be named those of 
Duranton, Troplong, and Demolombe. The remaining 
French codes are the Code de procedure civile, the Code de 
commerce, the Code ^instruction criminelle, and the Code 
penal. The merits of the French code have entered into the 
discussion on the general question of codification. Austin 
agrees with Savigny in condemning the ignorance and 
haste with which it was compiled. " It contains," says 
Austin, " no definitions of technical terms (even the most 
leading), no exposition of the rationale of distinctions 
(evtn the most leading), no exposition of the broad 
principles and rules to which the narrower provisions 
expressed in the code are subordinate ; hence its fallacious 
brevity." The French coces have, however, taken firm 
root in most of the countries of continental Europe. Intro 
duced by French conquest they nevertheless were eagerly 
adopted by the people after the French arms had withdrawn. 
The Penal Code, for .example, was thus established in Italy, 
Sicily, Holland, Belgium, the Ehine Provinces, Poland, and 
Switzerland. The principles of the French code prevail in 
most of the Latin races. 

The Prussian code (Code Frederic) was published by 
Frederick the Great in 1751. It was intended to take 
the place of "lloman, common Saxon, and other foreign 
subsidiary laws and statutes," the provincial laws remaining 
in force as before. One of the objects of the king was to 
destroy the power of the advocates, whom he hoped to 
render useless. The Italian civil code, published in 1866, 
on the establishment of Italian unity, is founded mainly on 
the French code. The object of all these codes was to 
frame a common system to take the place of several systems 
of law, rather than to restate in an exact and exhaustive 
form the whole laws of a nation, which is the problem of 
English codification. The French and Prussian codes, 
although they have been of great service in simplifying the 
law, have failed to prevent outside themselves that 
accumulation of judiciary and statute law which in England 
has been the chief motive for codification. A more exact 
parallel to the English problem may be found in the Code 
of the State of Neiu York. The revised constitution of the 
State, as adopted in 1846, " ordered the appointment of two 
commissions, one to reduce into a written and a systematic 
code the whole body of the law of the State, and the other 
to revise, reform, simplify, and abridge the rules and 
practice, pleadings, etc., of the courts of record." By an 
Act of 1837, the State Legislature declared that the body 
of substantive law should be contained in three codes the 
Political, the Civil, and the Penal. The works of both 
commissions, completed in 1865, now fills six volumes, 
containing the Code of Civil Procedure (including the law 
of evidence), the Book of Forms, the Code of Criminal 
Procedure, the Political Code, the Penal Code, and the Civil 
Code. In the introduction to the Civil Code it is claimed 
that in many departments of the law the codes have 
" provided for every possible case, so that when a new case 
arises it is better that it should be provided for by new 
legislation." The New York code is defective in tho 

VI. 14 



106 



CODE 



important points of definition and arrangement. Much in 
terest has attached to the Penal Code drawn up by Edward 
Livingston for tho State of Louisiana, about 50 years ago. 
The system consists of a Code of Crime and Punishments, 
a Code of Procedure, a Code of Evidence, a Code of Re 
form and Prison Discipline, and a Book of Definitions. 
" Though the State for which the codes were prepared," 
says Chief- Justice Chase, "neglected to avail itself of the 
labours assigned and solicited by itself, they have proved, 
together with their introductions, a treasure of suggestions 
to which many States are indebted for useful legislation." 
A complete edition of Livingston s works has recently been 
published by the National Prison Association of the United 
States. 

Since the time of Bentham, the codification of the law of 
England has been the dream of our most enlightened jurists 
and statesmen. In the interval between Bentham and our 
own time there has been an immense advance in the 
scientific study of law, but it may be doubted whether the 
problem of codification is at all nearer solution. Interest 
has mainly been directed of late to the historical side of 
legal science, to the phenomena of the evolution of laws as 
part of the development of society, and from this point of 
view the question of remodelling the law is one of minor 
interest. To Beutham the problem presented itself in the 
simplest and most direct form possible. What he proposed 
to do was to set forth a body of laws, clearly expressed, 
arranged in the order of their logical connection, exhibiting 
their own rationale, and excluding all other law. On the 
other hand the problem has in some respects become easier 
since the time of Bentham. With the Benthamite codifica 
tion the conception of reform in the substantive law is 
more or less mixed up. If codification had been possible 
in his day, it would, unless it had been accompanied by the 
searching reforms which have been effected since, and 
mainly through his influence, perhaps have been more of 
an evil than a good. The mere dread that, under the guise 
of codification or improvement in form, some change in 
substance may secretly be effected has long been a practical 
obstacle in the way of legal reform. But the law has now 
been brought into a state of which it may be said that, if 
it is not the best in all respects that might be desired, it is 
at least in most respects as good as the conditions of legisla 
tion will permit it to be. Codification, in fact, may now be 
treated purely as a question of form. What is proposed is 
that the law, boing, as we assume, in substance what the 
nation wishes it to be, should be made as accessible as 
possible, and as intelligible as possible. These two essential 
conditions of a sound system of law are, we need hardly 
say, far from being fulfilled in England. The law of the 
land is embodied in thousands of statutes and tens of 
thousands of reports. It is expressed in language which 
has never been fixed by a controlling authority, and which 
has swayed about with every change of time, place, and 
circumstance. It has no definitions, no rational distinctions, 
no connection of parts. Until the passing of the Judica 
ture Act it was pervaded throughout its entire sphere by 
the flagrant antinomy of law and equity, and that Act has 
only ordered, not executed, its consolidation. No lawyer 
pretends to know more than a fragment of it. Few 
practical questions can be answered by a lawyer without a 
search into numberless Acts of Parliament and reported 
cases. To laymen, of course, the whole law is a sealed 
book. As there are no authoritative general principles, it 
happens that the few legal maxims known to the public, 
being apprehended out of relation to their authorities, are 
as often likely to be wrong as to be right, It is hopeless 
to think of making it possible for every man to be his own 
lawyer, but we can at least try to make it possible for a 
lawyer to know the whole law. The earlier advocates of 



codification founded their case mainly on the evils of 
judiciary law, i.e., the law contained in the reported decisions 
of the judges, Bentham s bitter antipathy to judicial 
legislation is well known, Austin s thirty-ninth lecture 
(Lectures, ed, 1869) contains an exhaustive criticism of the 
tenable objections to judiciary law. All such law is 
embedded in decisions on particular cases, from which it 
must be extracted by a tedious and difficult process of 
induction. Being created for particular cases it is 
necessarily uncomprehensive, imperfect, uncertain, and 
bulky, These are evils which are incident to the nature of 
judiciary laws. Of late years the defective form of our exist 
ing statute law has also given rise to loud complaints. Year 
by year the mass of legislation grows larger, and as long as 
the basis of a system is judiciary law, it is impossible that 
the new statutes can be completely integrated therewith. 
The prevailing mode of framing Acts of Parliament, and 
especially the practice of legislating by reference to previous 
Acts, likewise produce much uncertainty and disorder. 

Whether any attempt will ever be made to supersede 
this vast and unarranged mass by a complete code seems 
very doubtful. Writers on codification have for the most 
part insisted that the work should be undertaken as a 
whole, and that the parts should have relation to some 
general scheme of the law which should be settled first. 
The practical difficulties in the way of an undertaking so 
stupendous as the codification uno ccetu of the whole mass 
of the law hardly require to be stated. The probability is 
that attempts will be made from time to time to cast the 
leading portions of the law into the form of a code. Some 
years ago it was believed that the proper preliminary to a 
code would be a digest of the law, and a commission was 
appointed in 1866, under which draughtsmen were set 
to work to prepare specimen digests of three selected 
portions of law, The attempt was abandoned in 1872, the 
commissioners being of opinion that it could not be 
properly proceeded with in detail, and they recommended 
that a general digest should be undertaken. 

In discussions on codification two difficulties are insisted 
on by its opponents, which have some practical interest 
(1) What is to be done in those cases for which the code 
has not provided 1 and (2) How is new law to be incorpo 
rated with the code 1 The objection that a code will hamper 
the opinions of the court, destroy the flexibility and 
elasticity of the common law, &c., disappears when it is 
stated in the form of a proposition, that law codified will 
cover a smaller number of cases, or will be less easily 
adapted to new cases, than law uncodified. The Code 
Napoleon orders the judges, under a penalty, to give a 
decision on all cases, whether contemplated or not by the 
code, and refer them generally to the following sources : (1 ) 
Equite" naturelle, loi naturelle; (2) Roman law; (3) ancient 
customs; (4) usages, examples, decisions, jurisprudence; 
(5) droit commun ; (6) principes g^neraux, maximes, 
doctrine, science, The Prussian code, on the other hand, 
requires the judges to report new cases to the head of the 
judicial department, and they are decided by the legislative 
commission. No provision was made in either case for 
incorporating the new law with the code, an omission which 
Austin justly considers fatal to the usefulness of codifica 
tion, It is absurd to suppose that any code can remain 
long without requiring substantial arbitration. Cases will 
arise when its meaning must be extended and modified by 
judges, and every year will produce its quota of new 
legislation by the state. The courts should be left to 
interpret a code as they now interpret statutes, and 
provision should be made for the continual revision of the 
code, so that the new law created by judges or directly by 
the state may from time to time be worked into the code. 
The process of gradual codification adopted in India has 



C O D C (E L 



107 



been recommended for imitation in England by those who 
have had some experience of its working. The first of the 
Indian codes was the Penal Code drawn up by Macaulay, 
and presented to the Governor-general in 1837. It did not 
become law, however, till 1860. It has been highly 
praised, and its merit is the more remarkable as Macaulay 
had only a slight professional acquaintance with the law 
before he went to India. A code of Civil Procedure 
became law in 1759, and was followed by a code of Penal 
Procedure in 1861. The substantial law was then under 
taken which published its first instalment in 1865. 
The use of illustrations is a peculiar feature of the Indian 
code. (E. R.) 

CODOGNO, a town of Italy, in the province of Milan, 
and district of Lodi, with a station at the junction of the 
railway from Milan to Piacenza with that between Cremona 
and Pa via, about 20 miles from the last-named city. In 
the parish church is an Ascension of the Virgin, the best 
painting of Callista Piazza, an artist of the 16th century. 
The town is chiefly important as the centre of a large trade 
in Parmesan cheese; and it also carries on the manufac 
ture of silk. Population upwards of 11,000. 

CODRINGTON, SIR EDWARD (1770-1851), admiral, 
belonged to an old Gloucestershire family. He entered the 
navy in 1783. In 1794 he served as lieutenant on board 
Ho\\ e s flagship in the actions off Brest, and was sent home 
with despatches announcing the result. In 1805 he re 
ceived the command of the " Orion," a seventy-four, in 
which he fought at Trafalgar, receiving a gold medal for 
his conduct in the action. In 1808 he was gazetted to the 
" Blake/ another seventy-four, in command of which he 
shared in the Walcheren expedition, assisting in the forcing 
of the Scheldt in 1809. During the next three years he 
was on active service off the Spanish coast, In 1813 he 
sailed for North America, where he was made rear-admiral 
and captain of the fleet. Returning to England at the close 
of the war, he received a Knight Commandership of the 
Bath in 1815; and six years afterwards (1821) he was 
gazetted vice-admiral. In 1826 he was appointed to the 
commaud-in-chief of the Mediterranean squadron of eleven 
sail sent to restrain Ibrahim Pasha from operating against 
the Greeks, and sailed in the "Asia" for the Morea. Here 
he was joined by the French and Russian contingents, of 
five and eight sail respectively, under Admirals de Rigny 
and Heiden, who were put under his orders. A literal inter 
pretation of instructions led to the battle of Navarino, in 
which the Turkish and Egyptian fleets, of 36 sail, with a 
cloud of gunboats, schooners, and craft of all sorts, were 
almost entirely destroyed. For his share in this action 
Codrington received a Grand Cross of the Bath ; but the 
steps which led to it occasioned considerable dissatisfaction 
in England, and he was recalled in 1828. He was returned 
to Parliament for Devouport in 1832 in the Liberal interest, 
and was re-elected in 1835 and 1837. In the latter year he 
was gazetted admiral. He accepted the Chiltern Hundreds 
in 1839, on his appointment as commander-in-chief at 
Portsmouth, and his three years tenure of that office con 
cluded his public life. He died in London, April 28, 1851. A 
memoir of Codrington, by his daughter, Lady Bourchier, ap 
peared in 1 873, and an abridgment of the larger work in 1 875. 

CODRUS, the hero of an early Athenian legend, was 
the last king of Athens, and belongs to the 1 1th century 
B.C. According to the story, it was prophesied that the 
Dorians would conquer Attica if they spared the life of the 
Attic king. Devoting himself to his country, Codrus, in 
disguise, provoked a quarrel with some Dorian soldiers. 
He fell, and the Dorians retreated homeward. To so noble 
a patriot no one was thought worthy to succeed ; and the 
title of king was thenceforth abolished, that of archon 
taking its place. 



COEHORN, MENNO, BARON VAN (1641-1704), "the 
Dutch Vauban," was of Swedish extraction, and was born 
at Leeuwarden, in Friesland. He served in the campaign 
of 1667 against Turenne, and later distinguished him 
self at the sieges of Maestricht (1673) and Graave (1674), 
and at the battles of Senef (1674), Cassel (1677), and 
St Denis (1678). The genius of Vauban had made a fine 
art of the attack and defence of fortified places, and Cue- 
horn, who had already invented the mortar, had imposed 
on himself the task of meeting and beating that fine 
engineer on his own ground. But William of Orange 
did not recognize the abilities of his young captain, and 
in despair of success Coehom had determined to transfer 
his services to France. William, hearing of this, seized 
the person of the engineer, and by a mixture of force 
and persuasion obliged him to renounce his design, and 
to accept a colonelcy in the Dutch service, with the com 
mand of two of the Nassau-Friesland battalions. The peace 
secured by the Treaty of Nimegucn (1678) gave Coehorn 
his first great opportunity. Pie repaired and perfected the 
defences of many strong places, and he rushed into 
polemics with a rival engineer, a certain Paen. His criti 
cism and rejoinder appeared at Leeuwarden in 1682 and 
1683, and in 1685 he gave to the world, in Dutch, his 
first great work, The New System of Fortification (Leeu 
warden, folio), two French editions of which appeared in 
1706, while three others were issued from the Hague in 
1711, 1714, and 1741 respectively. From 1688 to 1691 
Coehorn s genius and activity answered the innumerable 
demands that were made upon them. In 1692 Vauban 
himself laid siege to ,Namur, and Coehorn waited within 
the city. The town was reduced in a week; but the 
castle in its quintuple enceinte, manned by Coehorn 
and his own regiment, seemed impregnable. The Dutch 
chief, however, was severely wounded, and the castle 
capitulated, with the honours of war, eight days after 
the city. The campaign of 1695 brought his revenge. 
He reduced the city, on which Vauban in the meanwhile 
had expended all the resources of his art, and the castle fell 
a mouth afterwards. The Peace of Ryswick (1697) sent 
Coehorn back to his task of repairing and improving. He 
laid out the entrenchments round Zwoll and Groningen, 
and built the fortifications round Nimeguen, Breda, Namur, 
and Bergen-op-Zoom. In 1701, however, the war of the 
Spanish succession broke out, and Coehorn went at once 
to the front. By the siege and capture in succession of 
Venloo, Stevens worth, Ruremond, and Liege, he rendered 
the allies masters in a single campaign of the line of the 
Meuse from Holland to Huy. He followed up these 
exploits by the investment and reduction of Bonn (1703), 
and passing thence into Flanders, with Sparr, he forced 
the French lines in the Waes, between the sea and the left 
bank of the Scheldt. Returning to the centre of opera 
tions on the Meuse, he besieged and took Huy in the same 
year, under the very eyes of Villeroi. Thence he went to 
the Hague to confer with Marlborough concerning the 
next campaign, and was there cut off by apoplexy, March 
17, 1704. A monument to him was raised by his children 
at Wykel, and an historical eulogy of him was published 
at Frankfort in 1771. For a description and critical esti 
mate of the engineering theories of Coehorn, see Marini, 
Biblioteca di Fortificazione (1810), and Bonomer, Essai 
general de Fortification (1814). 

CCELENTERA, or, less correctly, COELENTERATA, the 
name of a group of animals, including the classes Hydrozoa, 
Anthozoa, and Cteuophora. (The two last-mentioned 
classes are by Huxley and a few others placed in a single 
class, Actinozoa.) The reader will consult the articles on 
ACTINOZOA, CORALS, and HYDROZOA, with that on the 
ANIMAL KINGDOM, for the more important details touching 



108 



G O E C E 



the structure, classification, and affinities of ccelenterate 
animals. 

According to Van Beneden, R. Leuckart, and some 
others, the Sponges also have their place among Ccelentera, 
a view which has of late years received much support in 
consequence of the profounder study of the calcarious 1 
sponges begun by Miklucho-Maclay and diligently followed 
up by Haeckel. There is much to be said in favour of 
regarding the sponges as an aberrant (and, at the same 
time, degraded) coelenterate class, but, for the present, it 
will be well to treat them as a group apart. 

It is usual to consider the Coelentera (with or without 
the sponges) as a primary group, or sub-kingdom, of 
animals ; and a high authority has stated that the institu 
tion of this group has been the greatest improvement in the 
arrangement of the animal kingdom effected since the time 
of Cuvier. But, should we so interpret the results of 
certain recent embryological inquiries as to throw the 
Ccelentera into one great division along with all the higher 
invertebrates, such a mode of treatment would reduce 
Coelentera to the rank of a province. 

Name. The word Coelentera (or rather its German 
equivalent) first occurs on page 38 of Beitrdge zur 
Kenntniss loirbelloser Thiere, von Frey und Leuckart, 
Braunschweig (Vieweg), 1S47. 2 

Here it should be mentioned that Burmeister (Zoonomische 
Brief e, Zweiter Thail, p. 279) has given the same name to 
a very different group of animals. He denotes by it the 
majority of the nematoid worms, placing in a separate sec 
tion (Amorphocoela) Gordius and its allies, whose alimentary 
canal is more or less atrophied. In this sense Coelentera is 
nearly equivalent to Coelelminthes of Cuvier. 

Ccelentera is derived from KOI AOS (hollow) and evrepov 
(intestine orviscus). 

Definition. Allowing for the difficulty of expressing 
modern scientific concepts by compounds formed from 
words in common use, the meaning of which needs to be 
somewhat stretched, this etymology guides us to the 
definition of the Coelentera as animals having a conspicuous 
alimentary canal, which, with its prolongations, occupies 
the whole interior of the body, 3 and does the work of a 
vascular as well as of a digestive system. It is not true to 
add, however, that the Ccelentera are invariably destitute 
of cavities comparable (morphologically) to the blood 
vessels, perivisceral spaces, and other serous passages of the 
higher animals. Such cavities, hitherto usually overlooked, 
undoubtedly exist in some cases, as appears from the inves 
tigations of Metsclmikoff, 4 Eilhard Schulze, 5 and others. 

The wall of the body in the Coelentera has the same 
fundamental composition as among the higher animals, and 
exhibits various degrees of differentiation. 6 Inner and 



1 See Die Kalkschwdmme. von Ernst Haeckel, Berlin (Reimer) 
1872. 

a See further another work by Leuckart, Ueber die Morpholof/ie 
und die Verwindtschaftsvcrhaltnisse der wirbellosen Thiere, ibid., 
1848 ; and the valuable " Bericht " contributed by the same writer to 
the Archiv fur Naturgeschichte from that date to the present ;. also 
his university programme, entitled De Zoophytorum et historic/, el 
diynitate sijstematica, Lipsioe, 1873. 

3 The (loubts suggested on this point by R. Leuckart (Bericht f. 
1868-9, p. 18.8), in opposition to the views of Noschin, Semper, and 
Kowalewsky, may now at length be regarded as set at rest by the 
appearance of the last-named writer s recent Memoir on the Development 
of the Cielmtera. This indispensable work has unfortunately been 
printed in the Russian language, but the reader may consult its figures, 
in conjunction with the excellent German abstract, by Hoyer, in the 
second vol. of the Jahresberichte of Hofmann and Schwalbe. 

4 " Studien iiber die Entwickelung der Medusen und Siphonophoren," 
in Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool., xxiv. Band, p. 73. 

s Uler d^n Bau von Syncoryne Sarsii, Leipzig (Engelmann), 1 873. 

6 Almost the only comprehensive details on this subject which we 
possess are contained in the Russian memoir by Kowalewsky, already 
referred to. 



outer layers of epithelial tissue, splinted by connective 
tissue (in close relation with which we usually find 
muscular fibres), are always developed. 

Neither the absence of nervous tissues nor the presence 
of those curious microscopic organs known as thread-cells 
can henceforth be enumerated among the characters common 
to and distinctive of Coelentera. Though a nervous system 
.remains to be discovered in many, it certainly exists in 
some ; and in yet other cases, where anatomical evidence is 
wanting, its presence may reasonably be conjectured from 
purely physiological data. 

Most, if not all, Ccelentera have thread-cells ; but these 
exist likewise in other organisms, notably in certain 
mollusks which were formerly supposed to derive them 
from the ccelenterate animals on which they preyed. 

The plant-like aspect of many Ccelentera arises in two 
ways. In the simple (not compound) ccelenterates, such 
as most sea-anemones, the tentacles or prehensile ap 
pendages are so arranged as to simulate, when not too 
closely inspected, the petals of ordinary flowers (particularly 
flowers with numerous narrow petals, e.g., Mesembryanthe- 
rnum) or the strap-shaped corollas of composite plants, 
like dahlias. In the compound species buds and branches 
are formed, marking changes in direction of growth ; and 
hence those wonderful phytoid aggregates which for so 
many centuries puzzled naturalists. 

Affinities. The nearest relations of Ccelentera are 
undoubtedly the Echinoderms, whose remarkable vascular 
system is developed from one or more rudiments primarily 
formed as diverticula of the alimentary canal. The 
Ccelentera exhibit, even more perfectly than the echino- 
derms, a radiated arrangement of their parts, and, to a 
lesser degree, have this primitive disposition controlled by 
a superinduced bilateral symmetry. On the other hand 
the affinities of ccelenterates to worms, save through the 
echinoderms, are very obscure. 7 

Of animals inferior to the Coelentera in complexity of 
structure their nearest reputed allies are the Infusoria. 
We are not yet able, however, to demonstrate the existence 
of any relationship of this kind, in spite of all that has 
been urged in its favour by Claparede, Greef, and other 
eminent anatomists. (j. R. G.) 

COELLO, ALONSO SANCHEZ (1515-1590), painter, ac 
cording to some authorities a native of Portugal, was 
born, according to others, at Benifacio, near the city of 
Valencia. He studied many years in Italy; and return 
ing to Spain in 1541 he settled at Madrid, and worked 
on religious themes for most of the palaces and larger 
churches. He was a follower of Titian, and, like him, 
excelled in portraits and single figures, elaborating the tex 
tures of his armours, draperies, and such accessories in a 
manner so masterly as strongly to influence Velasquez in 
his treatment of like objects. Many of his pictures were 
destroyed in the fires that consumed the Madrid and Prado 
palaces, but many good examples are yet extant, among 
which may be noted the portraits of the Infantes Carlos 
and Isabella, now in the Madrid gallery, and the St Sebastian 
painted in the church of San Ger6nimo, also in Madrid. 
Coello left a daughter, Isabella Sanchez, who studied under 
him, and painted excellent portraits. 

COEN", JAN PIETERSZOON (1587-1630), the founder of 
Batavia, was born at Hooru, and was sent when a youth to 
Home to be instructed in the principles of commerce. In 
1 607 he went to India, but returned some four years after 
wards, and in 1612 was sent out a second time, with the 
command of two ships. He acquitted himself so well oi 

7 On the mutual relations of these groups, consult the concluding 
part of an essay by A. Goette " Vergleichende Entwickelungs- 
geschichte der Comatula mediterranea," in Archiv fiir Mikroskopischa 
Anatomic, xii. Band. 1876. 



C (E N - 

his commission, and made himself so remarkable by the 
brilliance and success of his practice of commerce, that in 
1613 he was named director-general of the Indian trade. 
In 1617 he was made president at Bantam; and in 1619, 
having taken and destroyed Jacatra, he founded on its ruins 
the city of Batavia, which he forthwith proclaimed the 
capital of the Dutch East Indies. In 1622 Coen revisited 
Europe, but five years afterwards he returned to Java. 
In 1629 the Javanese emperor attempted to dislodge the 
interlopers, and laid siege to Batavia ; but Coen beat oft 
all his attacks. He died the following year. 

CCENOBLTES (from KOIVO S, common, and /Stos, life), a 
religious ord&r living in a convent, or in community, in 
opposition to the anchorets or hermits who live in solitude. 
See MONA.STICISM. 

CCEUR, JACQUES, founder of the trade between France 
and the Levant, was born at Bourges, near the close of 
the 14th century. His father, Pierre Coeur, was one of 
the richest peltry merchants of the flourishing city of 
Bourges ; and we hear first of Jacques in 1418, when he 
married Macee de Le"odepart, daughter of an influential 
citizen, afterwards provost, a quondam valet of John of 
Berry. About 1 429 he formed a commercial partnership with 
two brothers named Godard ; and in 1432 he is heard of at 
Damascus, buying and bartering, and transporting Levan 
tine ware (gall-nuts, wools and silks, goats hair, brocades 
and carpets) to the interior of France by way of Narbonne. 
In the same year he established himself at Montpellier, 
and there commenced those gigantic operations which have 
made him illustrious among financiers of all time. Details 
are absolutely wanting; but it is certain that in a few years 
he placed his country in a position to contend not unsuc 
cessfully with the great trading republics of Italy and 
Catalonia, and acquired such reputation as to bs able, 
mere trader as he was, to render material assistance to the 
Order of Rhodes and to Venice herself. 

In 1436 Coeur was summoned to Paris by Charles VII., 
and made master of the mint that had been established in 
that city. The post was of vast importance, and the duties 
were onerous in proportion. The country was deluged 
with the base monies of three reigns, charged with super 
scriptions both French and English ; and Charles had de 
termined on a sweeping reform. In this design he was 
ably .seconded by the great merchant, who, in fact, inspired 
or prepared all the ordinances concerning the coinage of 
France issued between 1435 and 1451. In 1438 he was 
made steward of the royal expenditure ; and in 1440 he 
and his family were ennobled by letters patent. In 1444 
he was sent as one of the royal commissioners to preside 
over the new parliament of Languedoc a dignity he bore 
through successive years till the day of his disgrace. In 
1445 his agents in the East negotiated a treaty between 
the Sultan of Egypt and the Knights of Rhodes ; and in 
1447, at his instance, Jean de Village, his nephew by mar 
riage, was charged with a mission to Egypt. The results 
of this communication" were most important ; concessions 
were obtained which greatly improved the position of the 
French consuls in the Levant, and that influence in the 
East was thereby founded which, though often interrupted, 
was for several centuries a chief commercial glory of France. 
In the same year Coiur assisted in an embassy to the counts 
of Savoy ; and in 1448 he represented the French king at 
the court of Nicholas V., who treated him with utmost 
distinction, lodged him in the Papal palace, and gave him 
a special licence to traffic with the Infidels. From about 
this time he made large advances to Charles for carry 
ing on his wars; and in 1449, after fighting at the 
king s side through the campaign, he entered Rouen in his 
train 

At this moment the great trader s glory was at its height. 



C (E U 



ioy 



He had represented France in three embassies, and had sup 
plied the sinews of that war which had ousted the English 
from Normandy. He was invested with various offices of 
dignity, and possessed the most colossal fortune that had 
ever been amassed by a private Frenchman. The sea was 
covered with his ships ; he had 300 factors in his employ, 
and houses of business in all chief cities of France. He 
had built hotels and chapels and had founded colleges in 
Paris, at Montpellier, at Bourges. Dealing in all things 
money and arms, peltry and jewels, brocades and woollens 
broking, banking, farming, he had absorbed the trade of 
the country, and merchants complained they could make 
no gains on account of "that Jacquet." Soon, however, 
he was a broken man and a fugitive. Charles was sur 
rounded with the enemies of the merchant ; he was " un 
stable as water," and he was always needy. Jacques Cceur 
had to go the way of others who had been the friends and 
favourites of the king. 

In February 1449 Agnes Sorel, the mistress of Charles, 
died of puerperal fever. It was maintained, however, that 
the Dauphin Louis had procured her death; and some con 
siderable time after her death, Jacques Cceur, who had 
been named one of her executors, was accused formally of 
having poisoned her. There was not even a pretext for 
such a charge, but for these and other alleged crimes, 
the king, on the 31st July 1451, gave orders for the 
arrest of Jacques Coeur and for the seizure of his goods, 
reserving to himself a large sum for the war in Guienne. 
Commissioners extraordinary, the merchant s declared 
enemies, were chosen to conduct the trial, and an inquiry 
commenced, the judges in which were either the prisoner s 
debtors or the holders of his forfeited estates. He was 
accused of having .paid French gold and ingots to the 
Infidels, of coining light money, of kidnapping oarsmen 
for his galleys, of sending back a Christian slave who had 
taken sanctuary on board one of his ships, and of committing 
frauds and exactions in Languedoc to the king s prejudice. 
He defended himself with all the energy of his nature. 
His innocence was manifest ; but a conviction was neces 
sary, and in spite of strenuous efforts on the part of his 
friends, after twenty-two months of confinement in five 
prisons, he was condemned to do public penance for his 
fault, to pay the king a sum equal to about 1,000,000 
of modern money, and to remain a prisoner till full satis 
faction had been obtained ; his sentence also embraced 
confiscation of all his property, and exile during royal 
pleasure. On June 5, 1453, the sentence took efl ect ; at 
Poitou the shameful form of making honourable amends 
was gone through ; and for nearly three years nothing is 
known of him. It is probable that he remained in prison ; 
it is certain that his vast possessions were distributed 
among the intimates of Charles. 

In 1455 Jacques Cceur, wherever confined, contrived to 
escape into Provence. He was pursued ; but a party 
headed by Jean de Village and two of his old factors, 
carried him ott to Tarascon, whence, by way of Marseilles, 
Nice, and Pisa, he managed to reach Rome. He was 
honourably and joyfully received by Nicholas V., who was 
fitting out an expedition against the Turks. On the 
death of Nicholas, Calixtus III. continued his work, and 
named his guest captain of a fleet of sixteen galleys sent 
to the relief of Rhodes and the Archipelago. He set out 
on this expedition, but was taken ill at Chios, and died 
there, November 25, 1456. He was buried on the island, 
but his place of sepulchre is not known. The stnin was 
not removed from his honour till the reigo of Louis XL, 
when, at the instance of Geoffroy Cceur, the great mer 
chant s name was finally rehabilitated. 

See the admirable monograph of Pierre Clement Jacques Cceur 
et Charles Sept, 1858 ; Michelet and Martin s histories : Vallet do 



110 



COFFEE 



Vireville, Charles Sept et son Epoque, 3 vols, 1862-1865 ; Bonamy, 
Memoires sur les Derniercs annees de la vie de Jacques C&ur ; 
Trouve, Jacques Cceur, 1840; Louis Raynal, Histoire du Berry, vol. 
iii. ; Louisa Costcllo, Jacques Cceur, the French Argonaut, London, 
1847. 

COFFEE (French, Cafe; German, Ka/ce). This im 
portant and valuable article of food is the produce chiefly 
of Co/eaarabica,& Rubiaceous plant indigenous to Abyssinia, 
which, however, as cultivated originally, spread outwards 
from the southern parts of Arabia. The name is probably 
derived from the Arabic K hfiwah, although by some it has 
been traced to Caffa, a province in Abyssinia, in which 
the tree grows wild. In the genus Co/ea, to which the 
common coffee tree belongs, from 50 to 60 species were 
formerly enumerated, scattered throughout the tropical parts 
of both hemispheres ; but by referring the American plants 
to a different genus, the list is now restricted to about 22 
species. Of these 7 belong geographically to Asia; and of 
the 15 African species 11 are found on the west coast, 2 in 
Central and East Africa, and 2 are natives of Mauritius. 
Besides being found wild in Abyssinia, the common coffee 
plant appears to be widely disseminated in Africa, having 
been seen on the shores of the Victoria Nyanza and in 
Angola on the west coast. Within the last year or two 
considerable attention has been devoted to a West African 
species, C. liberica, belonging to the Liberian coast, with 
a view to its extensive introduction and cultivation. Its 
produce, obtained from native plants, have been several years 
in the English market. 

The common coffee shrub or tree is an evergreen plant, 
which under natural conditions grows to a height of from 
18 to 20 feet, with oblong-ovate, acuminate, smooth, and 
shining leaves, measuring about 6 inches in length by 2-J 
wide. Its flowers, which are produced in dense clusters in 
the axils of the leaves, have a five-toothed calyx, a tubular 
five-parted corolla, five stamens, and a single bifid style. 
The flowers are pure white in colour, with a rich fragrant 
odour, and the plants in blossom have a lovely and 
attractive appearance, but the bloom is very evanescent. 
The fruit is a fleshy berry, 
having the appearance and 
size of a small cherry, and 
as it ripens it assumes a 
dark red colour. Each 
fruit contains two seeds 
embedded in a yellowish 
pulp, and the seeds are en 
closed in a thin membran 
ous endocarp (the parch 
ment). The seeds which 
constitute the raw coffee 
of commerce are plano 
convex in form, the flat 
surfaces which are laid 
against each other within 
the berry having a longi 
tudinal furrow or groove. 
They are of a soft, semi- 
translucent, bluish or 
greenish colour, hard and 
tough in texture. The 
regions found to be best 
adapted for the cultiva 
tion of coffee arc well- 
watered mountain slopes 
at an elevation ranging 
from 1000 to 4000 feet 

above sea-level, in latitudes Fro - * Branch of Cn/ea arabica. 
lying between 15 N. and 15 S., although it is successfully 
cultivated from 25 N. to 30 S. of the equator in situations 
where the temperature does not Tall beneath 55 Fahr. The 




Liberian coffee plant, 0. liberica, which has been brought 
forward as a rival to the ordinarily cultivated species, is 
described as a large leaved and large-fruited plant of a robust 
and hardy constitution. The seeds yield a highly aromatic 
and fine-flavoured coffee ; and so prolific is the plant, that 
a single tree is said to have yielded the enormous quan 
tity of 16 ft weight at one gathering. It is a tree, 
moreover, which grows at low altitudes, and it probably 
would flourish in many situations which have been proved 
to be unsuitable for the Arabian coffee. Should it come 
up to the sanguine expectations of Ceylon planters and 
others to whom it has been submitted, there is no doubt 
that it will prove a formidable rival to the species which 
has hitherto received the exclusive attention of planters. 
It grows wild in great abundance along the whole of the 
Guinea coast. 

The early history of coffee as an economic product is 
involved in considerable obscurity, the absence of historical 
fact being compensated for by an unusual profusion of 
conjectural statements and by purely mythical stories. 
According to a statement contained in a manuscript 
belonging to the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, the use 
of coffee was known at a period so remote as 875 A.D., or 
exactly 1000 years ago. In a treatise published in 156G 
by an Arab sheikh it is stated that a knowledge of coffee 
was first brought from Abyssinia into Arabia about the 
beginning of the 15th century by a learned and pious 
Sheikh Djemal-eddin-Ebn-Abou-Alfagger. According to 
the treatise alluded to the use of coffee as a beverage was 
prevalent among the Abyssinians from the most remote 
period, and in Arabia the beverage when first introduced 
only supplanted a preparation from the leaves of the cat, 
Celastrus edulis. Its peculiar property of dissipating 
drowsiness and preventing sleep was taken advantage of 
in connection with the prolonged religious services of the 
Mahometans, and its use as a devotional antisoporific stirred 
up a fierce opposition on the part of the strictly orthodox 
and conservative section of the priests. Coffee was by 
them held to be an intoxicant beverage, and therefore 
prohibited by the Koran ; and the dreadful penalties of an 
outraged sacred law were held over the heads of all who 
became addicted to its use. Notwithstanding the threats 
of divine retribution, and though all manner of devices were 
adopted to check its growth, the coffee-drinking habit 
spread rapidly among the Arabian Mahometans, and the 
growth of coffee as well as its use as a national beverage 
became as inseparably associated with Arabia as tea is with 
China. For about two centuries the entire supply of the 
world, which, however, was then limited, was obtained 
from the province of Yemen in South Arabia, where the 
celebrated Mocha or Mokha is still cultivated. 

The knowledge of and taste for coffee spread but slowly 
outwards from Arabia Felix, and it was not till the middle 
of the 16th century that coffee-houses were established in 
Constantinople. Here also the new habit excited consider 
able commotion among the ecclesiastical public. The 
popularity of the coffee-houses had a depressing influence 
on the attendance at the mosques, and on that account a 
fierce hostility was excited among the religious orders against 
the new beverage. They laid their grievances before the 
sultan, who imposed a heavy tax upon the coffee-houses, 
notwithstanding which they flourished and extended. After 
the lapse of another hundred years coffee reached Great 
Britain, a coffee-house having been opened in 1652 in 
London by a Greek, Pasqua Rossie. Rossie came from 
Smyrna with Mr D. Edwards, a Turkey merchant, and in 
the capacity of servant he prepared coffee daily for Mr 
Edwards and his visitors. So popular did the new drink 
become with Mr Edwards s friends that their visits 
occasioned him great inconvenience to obviate which he 



COFFEE 



111 



directed Rossie to establish a public coffee-house, which 
he accordingly did. The original establishment was in St 
Michael s Alley, Coruhill, over the door of which Rossie 
erected a sign with his portrait, subsequently announcing 
himself to be " the first who made and publicly sold coffee 
drink in England." It is remarkable that the introduction 
of coffee .into England encountered the same hostility 
that it was fated to meet in other countries. Charles II., 
in 1675, attempted to suppress coffee-houses by a royal 
proclamation, in which it was stated that they were the 
resort of disaffected persons " who devised and spread 
abroad divers false, malicious, and scandalous reports, to 
the defamation of His Majesty s Government, and to the 
disturbance of the peace and quiet of the nation." On the 
opinion of legal officials being taken as to the legality of 
this step, an oracular deliverance was given to the effect 
" that the retailing of coffee might be an innocent trade, 
but as it was used to nourish sedition, spread lies, and 
scandalize great men, it might also be a common nuisance." 
In England as well as in other countries the most effective 
check on the consumption of coffee was found to be a 
heavy tax, which, while restricting honest trade, opened a 
channel for extensive smuggling operations. Coffee is 
spoken of as being in use in France between 1640 and 
1660, and thereafter it may be said that the use of coffee 
was an established custom in Europe. It is noteworthy 
that the three principal dietetic beverages of the world 
were introduced into Great Britain within a few years of 
each other. Cocoa was the first of the three which actually 
appeared in Europe, having been brought to Spain from 
South America ; coffee followed, coming from Arabia by 
way of Constantinople ; and tea, the latest of the series, 
came from China by the hands of the Dutch. 

Down to 1690 the only source of coffee supply was 
Arabia, but in that year Governor-General Van Hoorne of 
the Dutch East Indies received a few coffee seeds by 
traders who plied between the Arabian Gulf and Java. 
These seeds he planted in a garden at Batavia, where they 
grew and flourished so abundantly that the culture, on an 
extended scale, was immediately commenced in Java. One 
of the first plants grown in that island was sent to Holland 
as a present to the governor of the Dutch East India 
Company. It was planted in the Botanic Garden at 
Amsterdam, and young plants grown from its seeds were 
sent to Surinam, where the cultivation was established in 
1718. Ten years later the plant was introduced in the 
West Indian Islands, and gradually the culture extended 
throughout the New World, till now the progeny of the 
single plant sent from Java to Holland produces more 
coffee than is grown by all the other plants in the world. 
The cultivation is now general throughout all civilized 
regions of the tropical world. In point of quantity Brazil 
heads the list of coffee-growing countries, its annual produce 
probably exceeding that of all other localities combined. 
It is calculated that no less than 530,000,000 coffee trees 
are at present nourishing throughout that empire. During 
the Brazilian financial year ending 1872, more than 
2,000,000 bags, each containing 160 Ib, were exported from 
Brazil ; and the United States alone absorb upwards of 
200,000,000 ft of Brazilian coffee annually. The other 
principal American localities for coffee-growing are Costa 
Rica, Guatemala, Venezuela, Guiana, Peru, and Bolivia, with 
Jamaica, Cuba, Porto Rico, and the West Indian Islands 
generally. In the East the principal coffee regions, follow 
ing Brazil in amount, but much superior in the quality of 
their produce, are Java and Ceylon. The annual produce 
of Java reaches to about 130,000,000 ft; and from Ceylon 
about 100,000,000 ft is annually exported. The culture 
of coffee is an important and rapidly growing feature in 
Southern India, and it is also prosecuted in Sumatra, 



Reunion, Mauritius, and Southern Arabia, and on the west 
coast of Africa. The present total annual production of the 
world has been estimated to amount to not less than 
1,000,000,000 ft. At the beginning of the 18th century, 
while Arabia was still the only source of supply, probably 
not more than 7,500,000 ft was yearly exported from 
that country; the consumption of Europe in 1820 was 
stated by A. Von Humboldt at about 140,000,000ft, while 
300,000,000 ft probably represented the quantity used 
throughout the world. The yearly consumption in Great 
Britain has for about 30 years been drooping in the face of 
a rapidly increasing population and consuming capacity, 
while the quantity absorbed by other countries has increased 
with extraordinary rapidity. The whole amount entered for 
home consumption in 1790 was 973,110 ft ; and an increase 
in the duty charged caused the consumption to drop in 1796 
to 396,953 ft. A reduction in the duty caused the con 
sumption in 1808 to shoot up suddenly from 1,069,691 ft 
in that year to 9,251,837 ft in 1809. The quantity con 
sumed, never again mounted so high till in 1825 "it was 
affected by another reduction of duty, and 10,760,112 ft 
was retained for the home market. Thereafter the con 
sumption rapidb/and steadily increased, reaching 22,069,253 
ft in 1830, 28,664,341 ft in 1840, and in 1847 coming 
to its maximum of 37,441,373 ft, from which point it 
again declined. In 1857 the consumption had fallen to 
34,352,123ft; in 1867 it was 31,567,760 ; and in 1869 
it fell so low as 29,1 09,1 13 ft. The total imports for the 
year 1874 amounted to 157,351,376 ft, but of this only 
31,859,408 ft were retained for home consumption. The 
chief cause of the declining popularity of coffee in Great 
Britain is doubtless to be found in the extraordinary hold 
which its rival beverage tea has taken on the community; 
but something of the falling off is also attributable to the 
extent to which coffee was for a long period made the 
subject of adulteration and sophistication. Indeed for some 
years, between 1840 and 1852, much of what was sold 
under the name of coffee was actually chicory, a root which 
at that period was cultivated and manufactured duty free, 
while coffee was subject to a heavy import duty. 

The different estimation in which coffee is held in various 
countries is well brought out in the following estimate of 
the consumption per head calculated from the official returns 
for 1873 : 



Total Imports of Coffee 
for consumption. 

France 98,635,000ft 

Belgium 49,771,000 

Switzerland 18,779,500 

Russia, European 1 4, 740, 920 

Sweden 26,555,213 



Average 
per head. 

273 Ib 
13-48 

7-03 

0-19 

6-11 

9-80 
13-89 
21-00 



Norway 17,636,080 

Denmark 26,035,652 

Holland 72,395,800 

Hamburg (Germany) 178,715,936 

Austria (1871) 76,876,576 2 13 

Greece 2,131,367 1 42 

Italy (1871) 28,511,560 I OO 

United Kingdom 32,330,928 1 00 

United States 293,293,833 7 61 

The commercial distinctions as established in the British 
market relate first, to qualities, as " fine, " " middling, " 
" ordinary, " " low, " and " triage, " the last being broken 
and damaged seeds ; and secondly, to localities of produc 
tion, 

Shape, size, and colour of seeds are the principal elements 
which determine the commercial value of coffee. Shape, 
according to Mr W. P. Hiern (in a communication to the 
Linnean Society, April 20, 1876), is related to the particu 
lar part of the plant upon which the seed grows ; size and 
succulence correspond with the nature of the locality of 
growth ; and colour has reference to the degree of maturity 
attained by the fruit at the time of gathering. The highly 



112 

prized variety known as peaberry is the result of the 
coalescence of the two seeds within the fruit, thus producing 
the appearance of a single rounded seed, usually of small 
size, whence the name. Regarding the famous Mocha or 
" Mokha " coffee of Arabia, Mr W. G. Palgrave has the 
following remarks : 

"The best coffee, let cavillers say what they will, is that of 
Yemen, commonly entitled Mokha, from the main port of ex 
portation. Now, I should be sorry to incur a lawsuit for libel or 
defamation from our wholesale or retail tradesmen ; but were the 
particle not prefixed to the countless labels in London shop windows, 
that bear the name of the Red Sea haven, they would have a more 
truthy import than what at present they convey. Very little, so 
little indeed as to be quite unappreciable, of the Mokha or Yemen 
berry ever finds its way westward of Constantinople. Arabia itself, 
Syria, and Egypt consume fully two-thirds, and the remainder is 
almost exclusively absorbed by Turkish and Armenian oesophagi. Nor 
do these last get for their share the best or the purest. Before reach 
ing the harbours of Alexandria, Jaffa, Beyrout, &c., for further 
exportation, the northern bales have been, while yet on their way, 
sifted and re-sifted, grain by grain, and whatever they may have 
contained of the hard, rounded, half-transparent, greenish-brown 
berry, the only one really worth roasting and pounding, has been 
carefully picked out by experienced fingers; and it is the less 
generous residue of flattened, opaque, and whitish grains which 
alone, or almost alone, goes on board the shipping. So constant is 
this selecting process that a gradation, regular as the degrees in a 
map, may be observed in the quality of Mokha, that is, Yemen 
coffee, even within the limits of Arabia itself, in proportion as one 
approaches to or recedes from Wadi Nejran and the neighbourhood 
of Mecca, the first stages of the radiating mart. 

The "Mocha" of the English market is principally the 
produce of India, but a good deal of American coffee is 
also passed into consumption under that abused name. 

The conditions most favourable for coffee planting are 
found in hilly situations, where the ground is at once 
friable, well drained, and enriched by the washing down 
of new soil from above by the frequent rains. The seeds 
are first sown in a nursery, and the young plants when 
they are a few inches high are planted out in the permanent 
plantation at distances from each other of from 6 to 8 feet. 
The operation of planting is one which requires great 
cire, and much labour must be expended on drainage, 
weeding, and cleaning the plantation, and in pruning or 
"handling" the plants. Chiefly for convenience of secur 
ing the crop, the trees are rarely allowed to exceed from 4 
to 6 feet in height, and being so pruned down they extend 
their branches laterally in a vigorous manner. Tbe plants 
begin bearing in their second year, and by the third year 
they should yield a fairly remunerative crop. The berries 
are ready for picking when they have assumed a dark-red 
colour and the skin shrivels up. Immediately after the 
berries are gathered they are conveyed to the storehouse, 
where they undergo the operation of pulping ; and on some 
hill estates in Ceylon, having suitable situation and water 
supply, the gathered berries are carried by a water run 
through galvanized pipes to the store. The pulping is 
performed in an apparatus having two roughened cylinders 
which move in opposite directions. Between these the 
berries are carried forward with a flow of water, and the 
seeds are deprived of their surrounding pulp, being left 
invested in the skin or parchment. In this condition they 
are spread out to dry, and as soon as practicable they are 
freed from the husk or parchment by passing them 
between heavy wooden rollers and winnowing away the 
broken husks. The shelled coffee is then sized by passing 
it down a tube perforated throughout its length with holes 
of regularly increasing diameter, and the various sizes are 
next hand-picked to free them from defective or malformed 
seeds , the coffee is then ready to pack for export. A tree 
in good bearing will yield from H to 2 ft of berries in a 
year ; but its fertility depends largely upon conditions of 
climate, situation, and soil. Generally trees planted in 
lofty dry situations and in light soils yield small berries, 



which give a rich aromatic coffee, while in low, flat, moist 
climates a more abundant yield of a large-sized berry is 
obtained. The greater weight of the coarser qualities of 
coffee more than makes up for the smaller price obtained 
for them as against the higher cost of the finer growths ; 
and therefore quality is too often sacrificed to quantity. 

The cultivation of coffee is attended with many risks and 
.much anxiety. In Ceylon, where British capital and 
enterprise have hitherto found their principal scope, the 
estates are exposed to the attacks of a most mischievous 
and destructive rodent, the coffee or Goluuda rat. A species 
of insect called the coffee bug, Lecanium coffecv, is a still 
more formidable and alarming pest with which planters 
have to contend. Of recent years prominent attention 
has been drawn to two diseased conditions arising in 
Singalese and Indian plantations by fungus growths. The 
first, called the coffee-leaf disease, appeared in Ceylon in 
1869, and in Mysore a year later. The fungus in this 
case, Hemileia vastatrix, is endophytous, growing within 
the substance of the leaf, and while no effective cure has 
been discovered for it, it is not yet clear that it seriously 
affects the quality or amount of coffee yielded by the plants. 
The second, known as the coffee-rot, on the other hand, 
works great havoc in the Mysore plantations, in which it 
has been observed, 
being especially hurt 
ful in wet seasons. 
This fungus has been 
examined by Mr M. 
C. Cooke, who names 
it Pellicularia kole- 
rota, and describes 
the affected leaves as 
being covered with a 
slimy gelatinous film, 
under which the 
leaves become black 
and quickly drop off, 
as do also the clusters 
of coffee berries. 

Raw coffee seeds 
are tough and horny 
in structure, and are 
devoid of the peculiar aroma and taste which are so 
characteristic of the roasted seeds. In minute structure 
coffee is so distinct from all other vegetable substances that 
it is readily recognized by means of the microscope, and as 
roasting does not destroy its distinguishing peculiarities, 
microscopic examination forms the readiest means of 
determining the genuineness of any sample. The substance 
of the seed, according to Dr Hassall, consists "of an 
assemblage of vesicles or cells of an angular form, which 
adhere so firmly together that they break up into pieces 
rather than separate into distinct and perfect cells. The 
cavities of the cells include, in the form of little drops, 
a considerable quantity of aromatic volatile oil, on the 
presence of which the fragrance and many of the active 
principles of the berry depend" (see fig. 2). The testa or 
investing membrane of the seeds has a layer of long cells 
with a peculiar pitted structure. In chemical composition 
the seeds are complex, and they contain variable pro 
portions of proximate principles. The following represents 
the average constitution of raw coffee according to the 
analysis of M. Payen : - 

Cellulose 34 

Water ]2 

Fat 10 to 13 

Glucose, dextrin, and organic acid ... 15 5 

Legumin and casein 10 

Other nitrogenous substances 3 

Caffeine 8 




FIG. 2. Microscopic structure of Coffee. 



COFFEE 



113 



Caffetannate of caffeine and potassium 
Viscid essential oil (insoluble in water) 
Aromatic oils (some lighter some 

heavier than water) 

Ash .. 



3-5 



to 5-0 

o-ooi 

0-002 
67 



The physiological and dietetic value of coffee depends 
principally upon the alkaloid caffeine which it contains, 
in common with tea, cocoa, mate" or Paraguay tea, 
guarana, and the African kola nut. Its commercial 
value is, however, determined by the amount of the aromatic 
oil, caffeone, which develops in it by the process of roasting. 
By prolonged keeping it is found that the richness of any 
seeds in this peculiar oil is increased, and with increased 
aroma the coffee also yields a blander and more mellow 
beverage. Stored coffee loses weight a.t first with great 
rapidity, as much as 8 per cent, having been found to 
dissipate in the first year of keeping, 5 per cent, in the 
second, and 2 per cent, in the third ; but such loss of weight 
is more than compensated by improvement in quality and 
consequent enhancement of value. 

In the process of roasting, coffee seeds swell up by the 
liberation of gases within their substance, their weight 
decreasing in proportion to the extent to which the operation 
is carried. Roasting also develops with the aromatic 
caffeone above alluded to a bitter soluble principle, and it 
liberates a portion of the caffeine from its combination with 
caffetannic acid. Roasting is an operation of the greatest 
nicety, and one, moreover, of a crucial nature, for equally 
by insufficient and by excessive roasting much of the aroma 
of the coffee is lost; and its infusion is neither agreeable to 
the palate nor exhilarating in its influence. The roaster 
must judge of the amount of heat required for the adequate 
roasting of different qualities, and while that is variable, 
the range of roasting temperature proper for individual 
kinds is only narrow. In Continental countries it is the 
practice to roast in small quantities, and thus the whole 
charge is well under the control of the roaster; but in 
Britain large roasts are the rule, in dealing with which 
much difficulty is experienced in producing uniform 
torrefaction, and in stopping the process at the proper 
moment. The coffee-roasting apparatus is usually a 
malleable iron cylinder mounted to revolve over the fire 
on a hollow axle which allows the escape of gases generated 
during torrefaction. Messrs W. and G. Law of Edinburgh 
have introduced a very ingenious adaptation of the cylinder 
whereby a compound simultaneous horizontal and vertical 
motion is secured, causing the seeds to be tossed about in 
all directions and communicating a uniform heat to every 
portion of the cylinder. The roasting of coffee should be 
done as short a time as practicable before the grinding for 
use, and as ground coffee especially parts rapidly with its 
aroma, the grinding should only be done when coffee is 
about to be prepared. Any ground coffee which may be 
kept should be rigidly excluded from the air. 

While Arabia produces the choicest variety of coffee, the 
roasting of the seeds and the prepararion of the beverage 
are also here conducted with un squalled skill. Mr W. G. 
Palgrave gives the following account of these operations in 
his Central and Eastern Arabia : 

"Without delay Sowelylim begins his preparations for coffee. 
These open by about five minutes blowing with the bellows, and 
arranging the charcoal till a sufficient heat has been produced. 
Next he places the largest of the eoffee-pots, a huge machine, and 
about two- thirds full of clear water, close by the edge of the glowing 
coal-pit, that its contents may become gradually warm while other 
operations are in progress. He then takes a dirty knotted rag out 
of a niche in the wall close by, and having untied it, empties out of 
it three or four handfuls of unroasted coffee, the which he places on 
a little trencher of platted grass, and picks carefully out any 
blackened grains, or other non-homologous substances commonly to 
be found intermixed with the berries when purchased in gross; then, 
after much cleansing and .shaking, he pours the grains so cleansed 
into a large open iron ladle, and places it over the mouth of the 



funnel, at the same time blowing the bellows and stirring the 
grains gently round and round till they crackle, redden, and smoke 
a little, but carefully withdrawing them from the heat long before 
they turn black or charred, after the erroneous fashion of Turkey 
and Europe ; after which he puts them a- moment to cool on the 
grass platter. He then sets the warm water in the large coffee 
pot over the fire aperture, that it may be ready boiling at the right 
moment, and draws in close between his own trouserless legs a 
large stone mortar with a narrow pit in the middle, just enough to 
admit the black stone pestle of a foot long and an inch and a half 
thick, which he now takes in hand. Next pouring the half-roasted 
berries into the mortar he proceeds to pound them, striking right into 
the narrowhollow with wonderful dexterity, not ever missing his blow 
till the beans are smashed, but not reduced into powder. He then 
scoops them out, now reduced to a sort of coarse reddish grit, very 
unlike the fine charcoal powder which passes in some countries for 
coffee, and out of which every particle of real aroma has long since 

been bumed or ground. After all these operations hs 

takes a smaller coffee-pot in hand, fills it more than half with hot 
water from the larger vessel, and then, shaking the pounded coffee 
into it, sets it on the fire to boil, occasionally stirring it with a 
small stick as the water rises, to check the ebullition and prevent 
overflowing. Nor is the boiling stage to be long or vehement ; on 
the contrary, it is and should be as slight as possible. In the 
interim he takes out of another rag-knot a few aromatic seeds called 
heyl, an Indian product, but of whose scientific name I regret to 
be wholly ignorant, or a little saffron, and after slightly pounding 
these ingredients, throws them into the simmering coffee to improve 
its flavour, for such an additional spicing is held indispensable in 
Arabia, though often omitted elsewhere in the East. Sugar, I may 
say, would be a totally unheard-of profanntion. Last of all, he 
strains off the liquor through some fibres of the inner palm-bark, 
placed for that purpose in the jug-spout, and gets ready the tray of 
delicate party-coloured grass and the small coffee-cups ready for 
pouring out." 

There is no doubt that were proper attention bestowed 
upon the preparation of coffee it would become a much 
more popular beverage in Great Britain than it now is; 
but to obtain it in perfection much greater care is requisite 
than is necessary in the case of tea. To obtain coffee with 
a full aroma it must be prepared as an infusion with boiling 
water, or the water may simply be allowed to reach the 
boiling point after infusion and nothing more. Dr Parkes 
has, however, pointed out that by infusion alone much of 
the valuable soluble matter in ground coffee remains 
unextracted ; and he recommends that the coffee which has 
already been used for infusion should be preserved and 
boiled, and that the liquor therefrom should be used for 
infusing a fresh supply. By this means the substance of 
the previously infused coffee and the aroma of the new are 
obtained together. Among the numerous devices which 
have been proposed for preparing coffee, none is more 
elegant and efficient than an apparatus constructed 
by Mr James R. Napier, F.R.S., for which a patent was 
obtained by Mr 
David Thomson 
of Glasgow. It 
consists of a glass 
globe a (fig. 3), an 
infusing jar I, of 
glass or porcelain 
and a bent tube 
c. of block tin or 
German silver 
fitted by a cork 
stopper into the 
neck of the globe 
and passing to the 
bottom of the jar, 
where it ends in 
a finely perforated 
disc. The appa 

ratus also re- 3._ Na pier s Coffee Apparatus, 

quires a spirit 

lamp d or other means of communicating a certain 
amount of heat to the globe. The coffee is infused with 

VI. 15 




C F C F 



boiling water in the jar, and a small quantity of boiling 
water is also placed in the globe. The tube is then fitted 
in, and the spirit lamp is lighted under the globe. The 
steam generated expels the air from the globe, and it bubbles 
up through the jar. When the bubbles of air cease to 
appear almost the whole of the air will have been ejected, 
and on withdrawing the lamp the steam in the globe con 
denses, creating a vacuum, to fill up which the infused 
coffee rushes up through the metal tube, being at the same 
time filtered by the accumulated ccffee grounds around the 
perforated disc. An error of very frequent occurrence in 
the preparation of coffee, which results probably from 
the habit of tea-making, consists in using too little coffee. 
For a pint of the infusion from an ounce to an ounce 
and a half of coffee ought to be used. According to the 
experiments of Aubert a cup of coffee made from a Prus 
sian loth ( 587 oz.) contains from T5 to 1 9 grains of 
caffeine. 

Coffee belongs to the medicinal or auxiliary class of food 
substances, being solely valuable for its stimulant effect 
upon the nervous and vascular system. It produces a feeling 
of buoyancy and exhilaration comparable to a certain stage 
of alcoholic intoxication, but which does not end in depres 
sion or collapse. It increases the frequency of the pulse, 
lightens the sensation of fatigue, antl it sustains the strength 
under prolonged and severe muscular exertion. The value 
of its hot infusion under the rigours of Arctic cold has 
been demonstrated in the experience of all Arctic explorers, 
and it is scarcely less useful in tropical regions, where it 
(beneficially stimulates the action of the skin. It has been 
affirmed that coffee and other substances containing the 
alkaloid caffeine have an influence in retarding the waste of 
tissue in the human frame, but careful and extended 
observation has demonstrated that they have no such effect. 

Although by microscopic, physical, and chemical tests 
the purity of coffee can be determined with perfect certainty, 
yet ground coffee is subjected to many and extensive 
adulterations. Chief among the adulterant substances, if 
it can be so called, is chicory root ; but it occupies a 
peculiar position, since very many people on the Continent 
as well as in Great Britain deliberately prefer a mixture 
of chicory with coffee to pure coffee. Chicory is indeed 
destitute of the stimulant alkaloid and essential oil for 
which coffee is valued ; but the facts that it has stood the 
test of prolonged and extended use, and that its infusion 
is, in some localities, used alone, indicate that it performs 
some useful function in connection with coffee, as used at 
least by Western communities. For one thing, it yields a 
copious amount of soluble matter in infusion with hot 
water, and thus gives a specious appearance of strength .and 
substance to what may be really only a very weak prepara 
tion of coffee. The mixture of chicory with coffee is easily 
detected by the microscope, the structure of both, which 
they retain after torrefaction, being very characteristic and 
distinct. The granules of coffee, moreover, remain hard 
and angular when mixed with water, to which they com 
municate but little colour; chicory, on the other hand, 
swelling up and softening, yields a deep brown colour to 
water in which it is thrown. The specific gravity of an 
infusion of chicory is also much higher than that of coffee. 
Among the numerous other substances used to adulterate 
coffee are roasted and ground roots of the dandelion, carrot, 
parsnip, and beet; beans, lupins, and other leguminous 
seeds; wheat, rice, and various cereal grains; the seeds of 
the broom, fenugreek, and iris; acorns; and "negro coffee," 
the seeds of Cassia occidentalis. These with many more 
similar substances have not only been used as adulterants, 
but under various high-sounding names several of them 
have been introduced as substitutes for coffee ; but they 
have neither merited nor obtained any success, and their 



sole effect has been to bring coffee into undeserved disrepute 
with the public. 

The leaves of the coffee tree contain caffeine in larger- 
proportion than the seeds themselves, and their use as a 
substitute for tea has frequently been suggested. The 
leaves are actually so used in Sumatra, but being destitute 
of any attractive aroma such as is possessed by both tea and 
coffee, the infusion is not palatable. It is, moreover, not 
practicable to obtain both seeds and leaves from the same 
plant, and as the commercial demand is for the sesd alone, 
no consideration either of profit or of any dietetic or 
economic advantage is likely to lead to the growth of coffee 
trees on account of their leaves. (j. PA.) 

COFFER-DAMS have from very early times been 
employed as useful, and in some cases indispensable, 
structures in executing works of marine and river 
engineering. By excluding the water from the area they 
enclose, the work can be carried on within them with nearly 
the same ease as on dry land. Whether used on a small 
or a large scale whether as low-tide dams of clay or 
concrete of only a few feet in height, or as high-water dams 
of timber and puddle formed to resist the waves of the sea, 
they are in every sense structures of great importance in 
the practice of hydraulic engineering. 

Tide-dams are chiefly used in laying the foundations of 
piers or other works that must be founded under low-water 
level. They are generally made of clay and planking, 
and are only carried to the height of about 3 feet above 
low-water. The water being pumped out during the last of 
the ebb tide affords one or two hours work at low-water, 
the dam being submerged on the rise of the tide. In such 
dams a sluice should be introduced, which when open may 
allow the water to escape with the falling tide and so save 
pumping. Such tide-dams when exposed to a considerable 
wash of sea may advantageously be made of cement rabble 
masonry, of the application of which to coffer-dams the 
earliest account we know is that stated in Stevenson s 
Account of the Bell-Rock Lighthouse (p. 230), where he 
successfully employed that method of construction in 1808 
in excavating the foundation of that work. When it is 
required to sink the foundation some feet into sand and 
gravel, a convenient expedient is the portable dam proposed 
by Mr Thomas Stevenson described in the Trans, of the 
lioy. Scot. Society of Arts, 1848, to which reference is made. 
The feature in this tide-dam is the use of double framed 
walings to support and direct the driving of the sheet piles, 
and its advantages are its cheapness, its portability, and its 
ready adaptation to a sloping or even very irregular bottom. 

But when it is necessary entirely to exclude the water 
from large areas, as, for example, in dock-works, it is 
necessary to adopt coffer-dams of varied construction suited 
to the circumstances of each case, and as these protecting 
coffer-dam works, notwithstanding their temporary nature, 
demand much of the engineer s skill in their design and 
construction, we propose to notice some of the different 
modes of construction that have been adopted in such cases 
to suit the varying sub-soil and other features of different 
works. 

It may here be mentioned that, particularly in bridge 
building, caissons were employed in early times instead of 
coffer-dams, but they are now entirely out of use. The 
caisson was a flat-bottomed barge constructed of strongly 
framed timber-work, in which the under courses forming 
the foundation of the piers of a bridge, for example, were 
built at any convenient spot near the banks of the river. 
The caisson was then floated to the site of the pier, the 
bed of the river having previously been dredged so as to 
present a comparatively level and smooth surface. Oil the 
bed so prepared the caisson was sunk by admitting the 
water gradually by means of a valve provided for that 



C F F E It-D A M 



115 



purpose. The sides were so constructed as to admit of 
their easy removal from the bottom of the caisson when it 
had been sunk to its bed. llankine mentions a caisson 
described by Becker which measured 63 feet long, 21 feet 
broad, and 15 feet deep over all. The bottom beams used 
in constructing this large caisson were 10 inches square 
and 2 feet 10 inches apart from centre to centre, and the 
uprights forming the sides were 10 inches square and 5 
feet 8 inches apart from centre to centre. 

But to return to the subject of this article. The dams 
used in soft bottoms, where piles can be driven, are con 
structed of timber, and vary in strength according to the 
head of water they have to sustain. But the general style 
of construction is in all cases the same. The dams are 
formed of parallel rows of piles driven into the bottom, 
the space between the rows being filled by a mass of clay 
puddle of sufficient thickness to exclude the water which 
percolates between the joints of the piles. In cases where 
the head of water is not great, the coffer-dam is generally 
constructed as shown in fig 1., where the gauge piles a 




) i a : : ; ; : 


n (h 
















: 


i 








a: 


f 










c 






j 


: 






5 


((j 


~ 




a 

V 


- 


- 
3 

i 


(fll 




a 
V 


?F 



an. 



LBJ UiJ 

FIG. 1. Coffer-dam for Soft Bottom. 

are driven at distances varying from 4 to 8 feet apart, 
to which walings b are fix6d, and between the walings 
sheet piles c are driven. The sheet piles are shod with iron, 
having a sloping edge to cause the piles to cling while being 
driven, and in the centre of each bay there is a key pile 
e, having a slight taper which on being driven down com 
presses the sheet piles on either side of it closely together. 
In cases where the water pressure is great the sheeting piles 
are dispensed with, and the dam is formed of two or some 
times three rows of whole timbers having the clay puddle 
between them. Fig. 2 is a dam on this principle, used in 
the construction of the Thames embankment, and described 
in the Transactions of the Institution of Civil Engineers by 
Mr Thomas Ridley, and after the explanations that have been 
given, its construction will be easily understood as an outer 
and inner dam formed of two rows of close-driven whole 
logs with intervening spaces of 6 feet filled with clay puddle. 
In all cases the dams must be supported by sufficient stays 
or struts, abutting on firm ground, or, when this cannot be 
got, on dwarf piles driven deep enough to afford sufficient 
resistance. It is also important to remove the soft matter 
between the rows of piles to as great a depth as possible, 
and to fill in the excavated space with clay puddle, for 



although the timber-work of the darn must be constructed 
so as to resist pressures, it will generally be found that the 
greatest risk of failure arises from the filtration of water 
under the bottom of the sheeting piles and puddle. 




Fia. 2. Coffer-dam used at Thames Embankment. 

The coffer-dams described illustrate the general construc 
tion of such works, but various arrangements of the timber 
work have been adopted to suit particular situations, such as 
Mr James Walker s coffer-dam for constructing the founda 
tions of the river terrace of the Houses of Parliament at 
Westminster (vide Min. of Proc. of List, of C. E., vol. i.), 
and Sir John Hawkshaw s dam for the middle level drainage 
of Lincoln (Min. of Proc. of lust, of Civil Engineers, vol. 
xxii.) 

All the examples that have been given are applicable 
to situations where the bottom is sufficiently soft to admit 
of piles being driven. But cases occur where this is 
impossible. Such, for example, as the removal of obstruc 
tions from the beds of rivers where it may be necessary to 
lay dry a large area of solid rock, and in that case it is 
necessary to adopt a totally different construction of dam. 
The accompanying cut (fig. 3) shows a coffer-dam designed 
by Mr D. Stevenson, which is specially adapted to a hard 
bottom where piles cannot be driven. 1 It is formed of two 
rows of iron piles placed 3 feet apart and jumped into 
the rock, which supports two linings of planking, the inter 
mediate space being filled with puddle and the whole 
structure properly stayed. This dam has been successfully 
employed on many works, and on the llibble navigation, 
where it was first introduced, it was used to excavate a bed 
of rock 300 yards in length and of a maximum depth of 
13 feet 6 inches. The maximum depth at high water 
against the dam was 16 feet, but in high river floods the 
whole dam was completely submerged, and on the water 
subsiding it was found that the iron rods, although jumped 
only 15 inches into the rock, were not drawn from their 
fixtures. 

Dams must be designed with a special regard to their 
sufficiency to resist the water pressures they have to bear, 
and Professor Rankine gives the following formulre, in his 
Manual of Civil Engineering, p. 612, for calculating the 
pressure which the struts may have to bear. 

Let b breadth in feet of the division of the dam sustained by one 

strut, 

x = the depth of water in feet, 
w^the weight of a cubic foot of water in Ibs. 
P = the pressure of water against that division of dam; 



Transactions of Institution of Civil Engineers, vol. iii. p. 337. 



116 



C O G C I 



Then 



P - 



and the moment of that pressure relative to a horizontal axis at the 
level of the ground is 



Let h be the height above the ground at which the strut abuts 
against the dam, and i its inclination to the horizon ; the thrust 
along the strut is 

T = Msec. i-S-h, 

from which the scantling required, depending on the sort of timber 
employed, can be calculated. 

In conclusion it may be noticed that the introduction of 
iron cylinders and compressed air for founding the piers of 
bridges has not on]y superseded the use of timber Coffer- 




.; G 7 $ a jo 11 ic 



Fia. 3. Cofferdam for Hard Bottom. 
A, High Water ; B, Low Water. 

dams for piers in soft bottoms, but has enabled bridges to 
be securely placed in situations where no timber dams could 
have answered the purpose. On the other hand, there are 
many engineering works connected with river, harbour, and 



dock improvements, to which the cylinder system is quite 
inapplicable, and for which extensive and costly coffer-dam^ 
of the kind we have described must continue to be 
employed. The method of founding by iron cylinders has 
been described in the article BRIDGE, to which the reader 
is referred. (D. s.) 

COGNAC, a town of France, at the head of an arron- 
dissement in the department of Charente, on the left bank 
of the River Charente, about 32 miles by rail west of 
Angouleme. It has a tribunal of commerce, a communal 
college, a prison, a hospital, a church of the 12th cen 
tury dedicated to St Leger, and an old castle, now used 
as a wine-store, in the park of which is a bronze statue of 
Francis L, marking the spot where, according to tradition, 
he was born in 1494. The most important industry of 
Cognac is the distillation and exportation of the celebrated 
brandy to which the town gives its name (see BRANDY). 
Iron is also manufactured, and a considerable trade is main 
tained in grain and cattle. Cognac is probably to be 
identified with one of the many places that bore the name 
of Condate ; it was known as Coniacum in the Middle Ages. 
At an early period it was governed by lords of its own, but 
in the 12th century it became subject to the counts of 
Angoumois. In 1238 it was the seat of an ecclesiastical 
council summoned by Gerard of Bordeaux ; arid in 1526 
it gave its name to a treaty concluded against Charles V. 
by Francis I., Henry VIII. of England, the Pope, Venice, 
and Milan. In 1562 the town was captured by the 
Huguenots, and in 1651 it defied the prince of Conde. 
Before the Revolution it possessed a fine Benedictine 
monastery and two other convents. The population, which 
was only 4000 about the middle of the 18th century, had 
increased by 1872 to 12,950. 

COHESION. See ATTRACTION, CAPILLARY ACTION, 
and CONSTITUTION OF BODIES. 

COHOES, one of the most important manufacturing 
centres in the United States, is situated in Albany County, 
in the State of New York, at the confluence of the 
Mohawk with the Hudson, just below the famous Cohoes 
fall on the former river, to which it is indebted for its 
prosperity. It contains seven churches and twenty-two 
public schools, the most remarkable of the churches 
being the Roman Catholic St Bernard s and the Episcopal 
St John s. The manufacturing establishments comprise 
six cotton mills with 4000 looms, eighteen knitting mills, 
a rolling mill, a pin factory, a knitting-needle factory, two 
foundries, three machine shops, a paper-mill, and a bedstead 
factory. In 1870 there were produced 54,342,000 yards 
of cloth, 33,600,000 knitting-needles, and 350,000 pack 
ages of pins ; while the turn-out of hosiery formed a third 
of the whole amount manufactured in the United States. 
The whole water-power of the river for somo distance both 
above and below the falls is the property of the Cohoes 
Company instituted in 1826; and the various manu 
factories obtain their share at a fixed annual charge for 
each horse-power. The supply is regulated by a dam 
erected above the falls in 1865, and by a system of five 
canals. Cohoes owes its rise to the incorporation of the 
Cohoes Manufactuiing Company in 1811. It obtained 
the rank of a village in 1848 and that of a city in 
1869. Its population in 1850 was 4229 ; in 1860, 8800 ; 
and in 1870, 15,357. A large number of French 
Canadians are to be found amonir the operatives. 

COIMBATORE, a district of British India, in the Pre 
sidency of Fort St George or Madras, situated between 
10* 45 and 11 48 N. lat. and between 76 50 and 78 10 
E. long. It is bounded on the N. by Mysore, on the E. by 
the district of Salem, the Cauveri River marking the entire 
boundary line, on the S. by Madura and Travancore State, 
and on the W. by Cochin State, Malabar District, and the 



C I C I 



117 



Nilgiri Hills. Coimbatore may be described as a flat, open 
country, hemmed in by mountains on the north, west, and 
south, but opening eastwards on to the great plain of the 
Carnatic ; the average height of the plain above sea-level 
is about 900 feet. The principal mountains are the Anamali 
Hills, in the south of the district, rising at places to a 
height of between 8000 and 9000 feet. In the west, the 
Palghat and Vallagirl Hills form a connecting link between 
the Anamali range and the Nilgilis, with the exception of 
a remarkable gap known as the Palghat Pass. This gap, 
which completely intersects the Ghats, is about twenty 
miles wide. In the north is a range of primitive trap-hills 
known as the Cauveri (Kaveri) chain, extending eastwards 
from the Nilgiris, and rising in places to a height of 4000 
feet. The principal rivers are the Cauveri, Bhawani, Noyel, 
and AmrawatL Numerous canals are cut from the rivers 
for the purpose of affording artificial irrigation, which has 
proved of immense benefit to the country. Well and tank 
water is also largely used for irrigation purposes. The 
total area of Coimbatore is 7432 square miles, of which 
3877^ square miles or 2,488,000 acres were returned as 
under cultivation in 1874-75, viz., 2,089,000 acres under 
food grains or corn crops, 80,000 acres oilseeds, 6 1 ,000 acres 
green and garden crops, 5000 acres orchards, and 253,000 
acres under special crops. Excellent cotton and tobacco of 
a superior quality are produced. Extensive teak forests 
exist in the neighbourhood. Coimbatore is subdivided 
into 10_ taluks or sub-districts, and contains 1515 villages. 
The census report of 1872 returns the population of the 
district as follows : Hindus, 1,715,081 ; Muhammadans, 
36,026 ; Native Christians, 11,443 ; Europeans and 
Eurasians, 595 ; Buddhists, or Jains, 56 ; others, 73 ; 
total, 1,763,274. The principal town is Coimbatore, situ 
ated in 10 59 41" lat. and 76 59 46" long.; it forms a 
station on the line of railway between Beypur and Madras. 
Population in 1872 Hindus, 30,801 ; Muhammadans, 
2599; Christians, 1892; Buddhists, 18; total, 35,310. 
The municipal revenue of the town amounted in 1874-75 
to 3720, and the expenditure to 3367. Two other small 
towns Karur and Erode are also constituted municipali 
ties. The total district revenue in 1874-75 amounted to 
304,818, of which 253,536 was derived from land. 
Coimbatore district was acquired by the British in 1799 at 
the close of the war which ended with the death of Tippu. 
COIMBRA, a city of Portugal, capital of the province 
of Beira, on the north bank of the Mondego, 115 miles 
N.N.E. of Lisbon, in 40 14 N. lat. and 8 24 W. long. 
It is built for the most part on rising ground, and presents 
from the other side of the river a picturesque and imposing 
appearance ; though in reality its houses have individually 
but little pretension, and its streets are, almost without 
exception, narrow and mean. It derives its present 
importance from being the seat of the only university in 
the kingdom, an institution which was originally estab 
lished at Lisbon in 1291, was transferred to Coirnbra in 
1306, was again removed to Lisbon, and was finally fixed at 
Coimbra in 1527. There are five faculties, theology, law, 
medicine, mathematics, and philosophy, with fifty-two pro 
fessors and twenty-one substitutes; and in 1874-5 the 
number of students was 667, of whom 15 came from the 
Azores and 11 from Brazil. The library contains 80,000 
volumes, and the museums and laboratories are on an 
extensive scale. In connection with the medical faculty 
there are regular hospitals ; the mathematical faculty 
maintains an observatory from which an excellent view can 
be obtained of the whole valley of the Mondego; and 
outside of the town there is a. botanic garden (especially 
rich in the flora of Brazil), which also serves as a public 
promenade. Among the other educational establishments 
are a military college, a royal college of arts, and an 



episcopal seminary. The city is the seat of a bishop, 
suffragan to the archbishop of Braga ; and it possesses 
two cathedrals, eight parish churches, and several con 
ventual buildings. The new cathedral is of little interest; 
but the old is a fine specimen of the Romanesque style, 
and retains portions of the mosque which it replaced. The 
principal churches are Santa Cruz, of the 16th century, 
and San Salvador, founded by Esterao Martinez in 1169. 
On the bank of the Mondego stand the ruins of the once 
splendid monastery of Santa Clara, established by Don 
Mor Dias in 1286; and on the other side of the river, 
crossed by a fine bridge of several arches, is the celebrated 
Quintet das lagrimas, or Villa of Tears, where Inez de 
Castro is believed to have been murdered. The town is 
supplied with water by means of an aqueduct of 20 arches. 
The trade is purely local, as the river is navigable only in 
flood, and the port of Figueira is 20 miles distant ; but 
there are manufactures of pottery, linen, cloth, and articles 
of horn ; and a three days market is held yearly in front 
of the Clara monastery. The country to the south is the 
most fertile and salubrious in Portugal, and the neighbour 
hood is accordingly thickly studded with farm-houses and 
villas. The population of the city in lb 64 was 18,147. 

Coimbra is identified with the ancient Conembrica, the site of 
which, however, seems to have been a little to the south. The 
city was for a long time a Moorish stronghold, but in 1064 it was 
captured by Ferdinand the Great and the Cid. Previous to the 16th 
century it was the capital of the country, and no fewer than seven 
kings Sancho I. and II., Alphonso I., II., and III.. Pedro, and 
Ferdinand were born within its walls. In 1755 it suffered con 
siderably from the earthquake. In 1810 a division of the French 
army, under Massena, were made prisoners by the English in tlie 
neighbourhood. In 1834 Don iliguel made the city his headquar 
ters ; and in 1846 it was the scene of a Miguelist insurrection. 

COIN, a town of Spain, in the province of Malaga, and 
20 miles west of the city of that name. It is well built, 
and has two large churches, an episcopal palace, and a town 
hall. Population, 8000. 

COINAGE AND COINS. See BULLION, MINT, MONEY. 
and NUMISMATICS. 

COIR, a rough, strong, fibrous substance obtained from 
the outer husk of the cocoa-nut. See COCOA-NUT PALM. 

COIRE (the German C/mr, Italian Coira, and Qitera 
of the Romance language spoken in the district), the 
capital of the Swiss canton of the Grisons or Graubiinden, 
at the foot of the valley of the Plessur, a short distance 
above the confluence of that river with the Rhone, in 
46 50 54" N. lat. and 9 31 26" E. long. It lies 
1830 feet above the level of the sea, and is overshadowed 
by the Mittenberg and Pizokelberg. The streets are 
narrow, and the general appearance of the place bespeaks 
its antiquity. The upper part of the town, or Bishop s 
Quarter, was once surrounded with walls, and it is still 
distinguished from the lower portion as the almost exclusive 
residence of the Roman Catholic population. The cathedral 
church of St Lucius is its most remarkable building, ascribed 
in part to Bishop Tello of the 8th century, and deriving its 
name from a legendary British king, who is reputed to 
have suffered martyrdom in the town. Of antiquarian 
interest are the statues of the Four Evangelists, the ancient 
wood carvings, and several monuments by Holbein and 
Diirer. The episcopal palace on the other side of the court 
is believed to occupy the site of a Roman castle ; and two 
ancient towers, probably dating from the 10th century, are 
popularly regarded as of Roman construction, the opinion 
being supported by deriving their names, Marsoel and 
Spinoel, from the Latin Mars in Oculis and Spina in Oculis. 
The episcopal school is now administered by the canton, 
and contains a rich collection of native literature. In the 
lower town are situated the great town-house, with a public 
library and three stained-glass windows of the 16th century; 



118 



C o J C K 



the churches of St Martin and St Eegula j the administra 
tive buildings ; and the hospital founded by Theodosius, a 
superior of the Capuchins. The prosperity of Coire is 
chiefly maintained by its transit trade between Germany 
and Italy ; but it also engages in the manufacture of cotton, 
wool, leather, and pewter wares, has dye-works and 
breweries, and deals in cattle and grain. The population, 
which is mainly Protestant, numbered 7552 in 1870. 

Coire is identified with Ouria Rhcetorum, a late Boman city, first 
mentioned about the 4th century. Its bishopric, which held sway 
over an extensive district, seems to have been founded in 470 by 
Asimo. In the 15th century the town made itself free from epis 
copal control, and in 1460 obtained from the emperor, Frederick 
IV., the rank of an imperial city ; but before the beginning of the 
next century it split with the empire and joined the confederacy of 
the Grisons. In 1526 the Reformation was introduced ; and a con 
spiracy for the restoration of the former ecclesiastical regime was 
vigorously suppressed. In the 17th century the city was frequently 
the centre of the great struggle between the Cantons and the 
Austrian empire which raged with such fury and so many alterna 
tions of success. In 1802 the French general Massena occupied the 
town, and from that date the bishops have had no territorial pos 
sessions. 

COJUTEPEC, a town of Central America, in the 
republic of San Salvador and the department of Cuscatlan, 
about 15 miles east of the capital. It has a population of 
about 15,000, and from 1854 to 1858 it served as the seat 
of government instead of San Salvador, which had been 
ruined by an earthquake. In 1872 it took part in a 
revolutionary outbreak against the existing Government, 
and the Indian population unsuccessfully attacked the 
garrison. The town gives its name to a neighbouring 
volcano, which rises to a height of 5700 feet, and also to 
the extensive lake, otherwise known as the Lake of Ilopango, 
which lies a few miles to the south and gives rise to the 
Rio Jiboa. 

COKE, the carbonaceous residue produced when coal is 
subjected to a strong red heat, out of contact with the air, 
until the volatile constituents are driven off It consists 
essentially of carbon, the so-called fixed carbon, together 
with the incombustible matters or ash contained in the 
coal from which it is derived. In addition to these it 
almost invariably contains small quantities of hydrogen, 
oxygen, and nitrogen, the whole, however, not exceeding 
2 or 3 per cent. It also contains water, the amount of which 
may vary considerably according to the method of manu 
facture. When produced rapidly and at a low heat, as in 
gas-making, it is of a dull black colour, and a loose spongy 
or pumice-like texture, and ignites with comparative ease, 
though less readily than bituminous coal, so that it may be 
burnt in open fire-places ; but when a long-continued heat 
is used, as in the preparation of coke for iron and steel 
melting, the product is hard and dense, is often prismatic in 
structure, has a brilliant semi-metallic lustre and silvery- 
grey colour, is a good conductor of heat and electricity, and 
can only be burnt in furnaces provided with a strong 
chimney draught or an artificial blast. The strength and 
cohesive properties are also intimately related to the nature 
and composition of the coals employed, which are said to 
be caking or non-caking according to the compact or frag 
mentary character of the coke produced. 

The simplest method of coking, that in open heaps or 
piles, is conducted in a very similar manner to charcoal 
burning. The coal is piled in a domed heap about 30 feet 
in diameter and 5 feet high, with a chimney of bricks 
arranged in open chequer work in the centre, around which 
the largest lumps of coal are placed so as to allow a free 
draught through the mass. The outside of the heap is 
covered with a coating of wet coke dust, except a ring 
about a foot high at the bottom. Fire is communicated by 
putting a few live coals near the top of the chimney, or 
from the interior by throwing them down the chimney, 



and the combustion proceeds downwards and outwards by 
the draught through the uncovered portion at the bottom. 
Whenever the fire takes too strong a hold and burns out to 
the surface it is damped by plastering over the spot with 
wet coke dust and earth, this being a point requiring con 
siderable skill on the part of the coke burner. When flame 
and smoke are no longer given off, which usually happens in 
from five to six days, the whole surface is smothered with 
coke dust, and the chimney is stopped for three or four days 
longer, when the heap is sufficiently cooled to allow of the 
coke being broken up and removed, or, as it is called, 
drawn. The cooling is usually expedited by throwing 
water upon the heap before drawing. The principle of 
coking in rectangular piles is generally similar to the fore 
going, but chimneys are not used. The dimensions 
generally adopted are a height of from 3J to 5 feet, and a 
breadth of 12 feet at the base. 

In coking by clamps or kilns a rectangular pile of coal is 
enclosed between upright walls, having a system of vertical 
and horizontal passages traversing them at intervals, which 
serve as chimneys to conduct the combustion through the 
pile. This system has been used at different times in Soutli 
W r ales, Germany, and other places, but is now generally 
abandoned, as the draught holes have a tendency to consume 
the coal unnecessarily unless very carefully watched. 

The largest proportion of the coke used for industrial 
purposes is made in close kilns or ovens. These vary very 
considerably in form and details of construction, but the 
same general principles are observed in all, the object being 
to effect the coking as much as possible by the consumption 
of the volatile inflammable gases given off above the surface 
of the coal, and to protect the latter from the direct access 
of currents of air. A further object is the utilization of the 
heat given off by the waste gases, which may be employed 
to heat the oven by circulating them in flues round the 
outside, and further by employing them for the accessory 
objects of raising steam, heating air, &c., in collieries and 
iron-works. 

In its oldest and simplest form, the coke oven consists of a round 
chamber from 7 to 10 feet in diameter, with a low cylindrical wall, 
and a domed roof rising about 20 inches in height above the floor. 
A hole about 1 foot in diameter in the crown of the roof serves 
for charging, and the finished coke is drawn through a door in the 
wall, about 2J feet square. When cleared for a fresh charge, 
the oven being red-hot, small coal is introduced through the hole 
in the roof, and spread uniformly over the floor, until it is filled 
up to the level of the springing of the roof, when the doorway 
is filled up with loose bricks which give a sufficient passage between 
them for the admission of air to ignite the gases given off by the 
distillation of the heated coal. After a few hours these air-ways 
must be closed by plastering up the brickwork, except the top layer, 
which is left open for twenty-four hours. The heat developed by 
the burning gases causes the coking to proceed downwards until the 
entire charge is converted, this taking from three to four days, 
according to the quantity of coal. When the escape of flame 
from the hole in the roof ceases, all apertures are stopped whereby 
air can enter to the incandescent mass, which being no longer pro 
tected by an atmosphere of combustible gases, would burn to waste 
if brought in contact with the atmosphere. At this point, there 
fore, all holes in the oven and chimney are completely closed for 
about twelve hours, when the door is opened, and the coke, which 
forms a coherent mass, somewhat less in size than the original 
charge, and divided by a system of columnar joints, is removed by an 
iron drag, or cross-bar, inserted at the far end of the floor, and moved 
by a chain and windlass, a stream of water from a hose being 
used to quench the glowing coke as it is brought out. This 
class of oven, which is now not much used, was adopted by most of 
the railway companies, when coke was burnt exclusively in loco 
motives, and is also common in the Durham Goal-field. They arc 
generally known as beehive ovens, also as bakers ovens. Usually 
from six to ten, or twelve, or more ovens are placed side by side in 
one block of brickwork, which is supplied with a tall chimney, the 
individual ovens being connected by pillars, with well -regulated 
dampers. A railway is generally laid along the top of the range of 
ovens, so that the charging can lie effected directly from the colliery 
trucks. The yield of coke by this method may be from 55 to 65 
per cent. , according to the nature of the coal. With charges vary- 



COKE 



119 



ing from 3 to 10 tons, the operation, including the period of cooling, 
lasts from four to seven days. The coke obtained is of the highest 
quality, being dense and well burned. In some cases the cooling 
of the coke is effected by watering it before drawing. There is a 
certain amount of sulphur removed by this method, as the steam 
generated being brought into contact with the sulphide of iron 
in the heated mass, formed from pyrites in the coal, produces 
sulphuretted hydrogen and magnetic oxide of iron. The amount of 
desulphurization by this method is, however, practically insignifi 
cant, as the operation does not hist a sufficient time to allow the 
mass of the fuel to be affected. The proportion of sulphur in finished 
coke, as compared with that of the original coal, may be roughly 
stated at about one-half. It has been sought to reduce the amount 
by decomposing the residual ferrous sulphide in various ways, as 
by the addition of salt, carbonate of soda, lime, &c., to the coal 
before coking but none of these methods is found to be practically 
useful. 

In the South Wales coal-field the ordinary form of coke oven is 
nearly rectangular, being about 14 feet long, 5 feet wide at the 
back, and 6 feet at the front or drawing ends ; the height to the 
crown of the cylindrical roof is 5 -feet 6 inches, with usually two 
charging holes. Two charges are worked weekly, the first, of 4^ 
tons, is finished in three days, while the second, of 5 tons, is 
allowed four days, so as to remain in the oven over Sunday. The 
yield in both cases is about the same. 

The addition of heating Hues exterior to the wall of the oven 
allows the time of coking to be very much shortened. Of the 
numerous contrivances proposed for this purpose, that of a Belgian 
engineer, Mr Coppee. has latterly come into favour in many places, 
as very well adapted for xise with comparatively dry coal. The 
coking chamber is a long narrow retort of fire brick, measuring 
about 30 feet in length, 17 inches in width at the front, and about 
2 inches more at the back, where the charge is pushed out, with 
vertical walls about 3 feet high, covered by a low arched roof. 
One of these walls is solid, but the other contains twenty-eight 
vertical descending flues (/) which communicate with the interior at 
the springing of the roof, and below with the large flue of the same 
width as the oven, and running along its entire length. As 
usually built, a series or battery includes about thirty ovens, which 
are arranged in pairs as in the figure, from which it will be seen that 



Transverse Section 







Coppee s Coke Oven. 

the left hand oven (A) is heated by the joint current of gases on 
both sides, while B is heated on one side by its own gas, and on 
the other by that of the next oven to the right The current 
then passes along the bottom flue of A, and back through that 
of B, whence it escapes by a flue to the chimney, or may be led 
to a steam boiler if the waste heat is used, as is generally the 
case, for raising steam The working of the adjacent pair of ovens 
IS 80 arranged that they are drawn alternately at exactly inter 
mediate periods; thus supposing the time of coking to be forty- 
eight hours, A is drawn twenty-four hours after the charging of 
1?, while the latter is in full activity, and keeps up the heat of the 
empty oven during charging, while necessarily the burning hydrocar 
bon gases given off during the first heating of the coal tend to keep up 
the heat in the adjoining oven. At Ebbw Vale, in Monmouthshire, 
where the coking requires only twenty-four hours, the ovens are 
numbered consecutively, theodd numbers being drawn and re-charged 
in the morning, and the even ones twelve hours later. The com 
bustion of the gases is effected by air which is brought in through 
special channels (c) in the brickwork communicating with the gas 
flues at the top, and becomes heated in the passage. The object 
sought to be obtained is the combustion of the gases as much as 
possible in the flues, and not in the oven itself. The oven is closed 
at both ends by cast-iron doors in two parts,, which can be opened 
together or separately during the drawing and recharging. The 
charging is effected through three holes (D D) in the roof, the coal, 
in the form of slack, being contained in hopper-shaped trams, 
running upon rails, which are run over the holes and emptied by 



drawing a slide. The charge is about 3 tons, and the yield 
from 36 to 44 cwt., according to the nature of the coal operated 
upon. The finished coke forms a prismatic mass, 30 feet long, 
3 feet high, anil 16 inches broad ; it is pushed out by a ram, 
shaped like the cross section of the oven, which is moved by steam 
power acting upon a long racked rod. This apparatus, together 
with the engine and boiler for moving it, is mounted on a carriage 
moving on a railway in front of the range of ovens, so that it can 
be brought up to any one of them as required. The mass of coke 
is pushed out on to a floor running along the back, where it is 
immediately broken, and quenched by heavily watering the frag 
ments. The whole operation, including the drawing and recharg 
ing of the empty oven, is effected in about eight minutes. The 
yield of coke very closely approximates to that obtained by experi 
ments in crucibles. A similar kind of oven with outside heating 
flues, that of the Brothers Appolt, has been in use for several years on 
the Continent, more particularly in France. It differs from Coppee s 
in the position of the coking chambers, which are vertical instead 
of horizontal, the coal being charged from the top, and the finished 
coke dropped into a truck placed below. Various schemes 
have been proposed at different times for the purpose of utilizing 
the condensible products, such as tar, ammoniacal water, &c., given 
off during the earlier stages of the process of coking, but they are 
not generally found to be applicable to the manufacture of metallur. 
gical coke, being only suited for gas-works, where the quality of the 
coke is only a secondary consideration. 

The slack of dry or non-caking coal, or anthracite, which cannot 
be coked alone, may* be converted into a useful coke by mixing it 
with a proportion of bituminous coal, or gas-pitch, or a mixture of 
both. At Swansea, a mixture of 60 to 70 per cent, of anthra 
cite with from 30 to 35 per cent, of bituminous coal, and 5 or 6 of 
gas pitch, made by grinding the ingredients in one of Carr s disin 
tegrator mills, is coked in the ordinary South Wales ovens, a thin 
layer of bituminous coal being placed above the charge before it is 
lighted, to prevent the pitch from burning to waste. The yield of 
coke : s about 80 per cent, of the weight of the charge. It is ex 
ceedingly hard, and about 23 per cent, heavier than that made from 
bituminous coal, with a correspondingly higher calorific value. 

Coke is used for all purposes where a smokeless fire is 
required, as, for instance, in drying malt or hops, or in 
raising steam in locomotives within the limits of towns, 
also for producing strong local heat, as in melting metals 
(gold, silver, brass, or steel) in crucibles in air furnaces. 
In blast furnaces its value depends upon the difficulty of 
combustion, so that the particles keep their form until they 
reach the proper place of combustion at the point of entry 
of the blast in the lower part of the furnace. The great 
economy of fuel tliat has been effected in the process of 
iron smelting in the Cleveland district by increasing the 
height of the furnaces, is in great part due to the 
strength of the coke used, which is made in the south part 
of the Durham coal-field, and has sufficient cohesive power 
to bear the pressure of a column of iron-making materials 
from 80 to 100 feet in height without crushing, a result 
which cannot be obtained with the coke of other districts. 
Finely ground coke is used mixed with clay for making 
crucibles for steel melting, and also for filling the hearths 
of blast-furnaces in many German smelting works. 

Apart from its convenience for special purposes, coke is 
not an economical fuel, the useful heating effect being 
about the same as that of an equal weight of coal. This 
circumstance lias led to the nearly general abandonment of 
coke and the substitution of raw coal as fuel in locomotive 
engines on railways. 

For full accounts of the different systems of coke ovens 
and details of their construction, see Percy s Metallurgy, 
introductory volume on fuel, &c., 2d edition, London, 
1875, and Jordan s Album du Cours de Metalhirgie, Paris, 
1874. (H. B.) 

COKE, SIR EDWARD (1552-1633,, one of the most 
erudite of English lawyers, was born at Mileham, in Nor 
folk, on February 1, 1552. When only ten years old he 
lost his father, who was a bencher of Lincoln s Inn. From 
the grammar-school of Norwich he passed to Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; and after a course of three years, 
in 1572 ho entered the Inn to which his father had 
belonged, To the study of law he devoted himself from 



120 



COKE 



the first with the intensest application; he slept only six 
hours, and from three in the morning till nine at night he 
read or took notes of the cases tried in Westminster Hall 
with as little interruption as possible. In 1578 he was 
called to the bar, and in the next year he was chosen reader 
at Lyon s Inn. His extensive and exact legal erudition, 
and the skill with which he argued the intricate cases of 
Lord Cromwell and Edward Shelley, soon brought him a 
practice never before equalled, and caused him to be 
universally recognized as the greatest lawyer of his day. 
In 1586 he was made recorder of Norwich, and in 1592 
recorder of London, solicitor-general, and reader in the 
Inner Temple. In 1593 he was returned as member of 
parliament for his native county, and also chosen speaker 
of the House of Commons. In 1594 he was promoted to 
the office of attorney-general, despite the claims of Bacon, 
who was warmly supported by the earl of Essex. As 
crown lawyer his treatment of the accused was marked by 
more than the harshness and violence common in his time ; 
and the fame of the victim has caused his behaviour in the 
trial of Raleigh to be lastingly remembered against him. 
While the prisoner defended himself with the calmest 
dignity and self-possession, Coke burst into the bitterest 
invective, brutally addressing the great courtier as if he had 
been a servant, in the phrase, long remembered for its 
insolence and its utter injustice, " Thou hast an English 
face, but a Spanish heart ! " 

In 1582 Coke married the daughter of John Paston, a 
gentleman of Suffolk, receiving with her a fortune of 
30,000 ; but in six months he was left a widower. 
Shortly after he sought the hand of Lady Elizabeth 
Hatton, daughter of Thomas, second Lord Burghley, and 
granddaughter of the great Cecil. Bacon was again his 
rival, and again unsuccessfully ; the wealthy young widow 
became not, it is said, to his future comfort Coke s 
second wife. 

In 1606 Coke was made chief-justice of the Common 
Pleas, but in 1613 he was removed to the office of chief- 
justice of the King s Bench, which gave him less oppor 
tunity of interfering with the court. The change, though 
it brought promotion in dignity, caused a diminution of 
income as well as of power ; but Coke received some com 
pensation in being appointed a member of the Privy 
Council. The independence of his conduct as a judge, 
though not unmixed with the baser elements of prejudice 
and vulgar love of authority, has partly earned forgiveness 
for the harshness which was so prominent in his sturdy 
character. Full of an extreme reverence for the common 
law which he knew so well, he defended it alike against 
the Court of Chancery, the ecclesiastical courts, and -the 
royal prerogative. In a narrow spirit, and strongly in 
fluenced, no doubt, by his enmity to the chancellor, Egerton, 
he sought to prevent the interference of the Court of 
Chancery with even the unjust decisions of the other 
courts. In the case of an appeal from a sentence given 
in the King s Bench, he advised the victorious, but guilty, 
party to bring an action of praemunire against all tliose 
who had been concerned in the appeal, and his authority 
was stretched to the utmost to obtain the verdict he 
desired. On the other hand, Coke has the credit of hav 
ing repeatedly braved the anger of the king. He freely 
gave his opinion that the royal proclamation cannot make 
that an offonce which was not an offence before. An 
equally famous but less satisfactory instance occurred 
during the trial of Peacham, a divine in whose study 
a sermon had been found containing libellous accusa 
tions against the king and the Government. There was 
nothing to give colour to the charge of high treason with 
which he was charged, and the sermon had never been 
yreached or published ; yet Peacham was put to the 



torture, and Bacon was ordered to confer with the judges 
individually concerning the matter. Coke declared such 
conference to be illegal, and refused to give an opinion, 
except in writing, and even then he seems to have said 
nothing decided. But the most remarkable case of all 
occurred in the next year (1616). A trial was held before 
Coke in which one of the counsel denied the validity of a 
grant made by the king to the bishup of Lichfield of a 
benefice to be held in commendum. James, through 
Bacon, who was then attorney-general, commanded the 
chief-justice to delay judgment till he himself should 
discuss the question with the judges. At Coke s request 
Bacon sent a letter containing the same command to each 
of the judges, and Coke then obtained their signatures to a 
paper declaring that the attorney-general s instructions were 
illegal, and that they were bound to proceed with the case. 
His Majesty expressed his displeasure, and summoned 
them before him in the council-chamber, where he insisted 
on his supreme prerogative, which, he said, ought not to be 
discussed in ordinary argument. Upon this all the judges 
fell on their knees, seeking pardon for the form of their 
letter; but Coke ventured to declare his continued belief 
in the loyalty of its substance, and when asked if he would 
in the future delay a case at the king s order, the only reply 
he would vouchsafe was that he would do what became him 
as a judge. Soon after he was dismissed from all his 
offices on the following charges, the concealment, as 
attorney-general, of a bond belonging to the king, a charge 
which could not be proved, illegal interference with the 
Court of Chancery, and disrespect to the king in the case 
of commendams. He was also ordered by the council to 
revise his book of reports, which was said to contain many 
extravagant opinions (June 1616). 

Coke did not suffer these losses with patience. He 
offered his daughter Frances, then little more than a 
child, in marriage to Sir John Yilliers, brother of the 
favourite Buckingham. Her mother, supported at first by 
her husband s great rival and her own former suitor, 
Bacon, objected to the match, and placed her in conceal 
ment. But Coke discovered her hiding-place; and she was 
forced to wed che man whom she declared that of all others 
she abhorred. The result was the desertion of the husband 
and the fall of the wife. It is said, however, that after his 
daughter s public penance in the Savoy Church, Coke had 
heart enough to receive her back to the home which he had 
forced her to leave. Almost all that he gained by his 
heartless diplomacy was a seat in the council and in the 
Star-Chamber. 

In 1620 a new and more honourable career opened for 
him. He was elected member of parliament for Liskeard ; 
and henceforth he was one of the most prominent of the 
constitutional party. It was he who proposed a remon 
strance against the growth of Popery and the marriage of 
Prince Charles to the infanta of Spain, and who led the 
Commons in the decisive step of entering on the journal of 
the House the famous petition of the 18th December 1621, 
insisting on the freedom of parliamentary discussion, and 
the liberty of speech of every individual member. In con 
sequence, together with Pym and Sir Robert Philips, he 
was thrown into confinement ; and, when in the August 
of the next year he was released, he was commanded to 
remain in his house at Stoke-Poges during his Majesty s 
pleasure. Of the first and second parliaments of Charles I. 
Coke was again a member. From the second he was 
excluded by being appointed sheriff of Buckinghamshire. 
Ii. 1628 he was at once returned for both Buckinghamshire 
and Suffolk, and he took his seat for the former county. 
After rendering othervaluable support to the popular cause, 
he took a most important part in drawing up the great 
Petition of Right. The last act of his public career was to 



L C L 



121 



bewail with tears the ruin which he declared the duke 
of Buckingham was bringing upon the country. At the 
close of the session he retired into private life ; and the 
six years that remained to him were spent in revising and 
improving the works upon which, at least as much as upon 
his public career, his fame now rests. He died on the 3d 
September 1633. 

Coke published Institutes, of which the first is also known as 
"Coke upon Littleton," Reports, A Treatise of Bail and Mainprize, 
The Complete Copyholder, A Reading on Fines and Recoveries. 

COLBERG, or KOLBERG, a fortified seaport town of 
Prussia, in the former province of Pomerania, and the govern 
ment of Kosliu, on the right bank of the Persante, which 
falls into the Baltic about a mile below the town. It has a 
handsome market-place, adorned since 1864 with a statue 
of Frederick William IV. ; and there are several pretty 
extensive suburbs, of which the most important is the 
Munde, in great measure the growth of the present century. 
The principal buildings are the cathedral of St Mary s, one 
of the most remarkable churches in Pomerania, dating 
from 1316, the council-house erected after the plans of 
Zwirner, the citadel, and the aqueduct by which the town 
is supplied with water. Colbergalso possesses several hos 
pitals, a workhouse, a house of correction, an orphan 
asylum, a gymnasium, a preparatory school of navigation, 
and an exchange. Its bathing establishments are largely 
frequented and attract a considerable number of summer 
visitors. Woollen cloth and spirits are manufactured ; 
there is an extensive salt-mine in the neighbouring 
Zillenberg ; the salmon and lamprey fisheries are important ; 
and a fair amount of commercial activity is maintained. 
Population in 1872, 13,106. 

Colberg was the seat of a bishop as early as the 10th century, 
though it not long after lost this distinction. Till 1277 it was the 
chief town of the Cassubian Wends, and after that date it ranked 
as the most important place in the episcopal principality of Kamin, 
with which it passed in 1648 to Brandenburg. In the Thirty 
Years War it was captured by the Swedes, after a protracted siege 
in 1631 ; and in the Seven Years War it was one of the centres of 
the conflict. In 1758 it withstood the attacks of General Palmbach 
and his army of 10,000 men, and in 1760 it held out against the 
Russian and Swedish forces, both by sea and land, till it was 
relieved by the advance of Werner; but in 1761 it was compelled by 
famine to yield to Romanzoff after a four months investment and 
violent bombardment. In 1807 it was surrounded by 18,000 men 
under the command of Feulie, Loison, and Jl oilier ; but the burgher 
Nettelbeck within and the free-fighter Sihill without succeeded in 
defending it till the peace of Tilsit brought the war to a close. 

COLBERT, JEAN BAPTISTE (1619-1683), one of the 
greatest among the great statesmen of France, was born on 
the 29th of August 1619, at Eheims, where his father and 
grandfather were merchants. He claimed to be the 
descendant of a noble Scottish family, but those who have 
investigated the matter have almost without exception 
decided against the pretension. His youth is said to have 
been spent in a Jesuit college, in the office of a Parisian 
banker, and in that of a Parisian notary, Chapelain, 
the father of the poet. But the first fact on which we 
can rely with confidence is that, when not yet twenty, he 
obtained a post in the war-office, by means of the influence 
that he possessed through the marriage of one of his 
uncles to the sister of Michel Le Tellier, the secretary 
of state for war. During some years he was employed 
in the inspection of troops and other work of the kind, 
but at length his ability, his extraordinary energy, and 
his untiring laboriousness induced Le Tellier to make 
him his private secretary. These qualities, combined, it 
must be confessed, with a not over-delicate readiness to 
seize every opportunity of advancement, soon brought 
Colbert both wealth and influence. In 1647 we find him 
receiving the confiscate! goods of his uncle Pussort, in 
1648 obtaining 40,000 crowns with his wife Marie Charron, 
in 1649 appointed councillor of state. 



It was the period of the wars of the Frondo; and 
in 1651 the triumph of the Cond6 family drove Cardinal 
Mazarin from Paris. Colbert, now aged thirty-two, was 
engaged to keep him acquainted with what should happen 
in the capital during his absence. At first Colbert s position 
was far from satisfactory ; for the close wary Italian 
treated him merely as an ordinary agent. On one occasion, 
for example, he offered him 1000 crowns. The gift was 
refused somewhat indignantly; and by giving proof of the 
immense value of his services, Colbert gained all that he 
desired. His demands were not small; for, with an ambition 
mingled, as his letters show, with strong family affection, 
he aimed at placing all his relatives in positions of affluence 
and dignity; and many a rich benefice and important 
public office was appropriated by him to that purpose. For 
these favours, conferred upon him by his patron with no 
stinted hand, his thanks were expressed in a most remark 
able manner ; he published a letter defending the cardinal 
from the charge of ingratitude which was often -brought 
against him, by enumerating the benefits that he and his 
family had received from him (April 1655). Colbert 
obtained, besides, the higher object of his ambition; the 
confidence of Mazarin, so far as it was granted to any one, 
became his, arid he was intrusted with matters of the gravest 
importance. In 1659 he was giving directions as to the 
suppression of the revolt of the gentry which threatened 
in Normandy, Anjou, and Poitou, with characteristic 
decision arresting those whom he suspected and arrang 
ing every detail of their trial, the immediate and arbitrary 
destruction of their castles and woods, and the execution 
of their chief, Bohnesson. In tLe same year we have 
evidence that he was already planning his great attempt at 
financial reform. His earliest tentative was the drawing 
up of a vumoire to Mazarin, showing that of the taxes paid 
by the people not one-half reached the king. The paper 
also contained an attack upon the superintendent, Fouquet, 
who, first recommended to Le Tellier by Colbert himself, 
had since developed into the most shameless of extortioners ; 
and being opened by ll.o postmaster of Paris, who hap 
pened to be a spy of Fouquet s, it gave rise to a bitter 
quarrel, which, however, Mazarin repressed during his 
lifetime. 

In 1661 the death of Mazarin allowed Colbert to take 
the first place in the administration. It was some time 
before he assumed official dignities ; but in January 1664 
he obtained the post of superintendent of buildings; in 
1665 he was mr.de controller-general; in 1669 he became 
minister of the marine ; and he was also appointed minister 
of commerce, the colonies, and the king s palace. In short, 
he soon acquired power in every department except that 
of war. 

A great financial and fiscal reform at once claimed all his 
energies. This he saw was the first step toward raising 
France to the lofty position he intended her to occupy. 
The country was in economic chaos. Those who had the 
fiscal administration in their hands, from the superintendent 
to the meanest of the tax-farmers, robbed and misappro 
priated almost as they pleased. The Government loans 
were arranged, not so as to be most advantageous to the 
state, but so as most to aggrandize the individuals who 
were interested in them. Not only the nobility, but many 
others who had no legal claim to exemption, paid no taxes ; 
the weight of the burden fell on the wretched country-folk. 
Colbert sternly and fearlessly set about his task. Supported 
by the young king, Louis XIV., he aimed the first blow at the 
greatest of the extortioners the bold and powerful superin 
tendent, Fouquet. He was accused of high treason, not 
without sufficient grounds, for it was known that he had 
prepared to meet an arrest formerly contemplated by an 
appeal to force. The most minutely careful precautions 

VI. 16. 



122 



O L B E K T 



were taken by Colbert for his seizure, and he was tried 
before a specially prepared chamber of justice. Neverthe 
less the trial was protracted during three years, and the 
sentence passed was not death but banishment. The 
Government, however, carried out its plans. The superin 
tendent was safely disposed of in the state prison of Pigne- 
rol; just disgrace fell upon Councillor d Ormesson and the 
other judges who had averted the punishment Fouquet 
richly deserved; and many minor officials, convicted of 
peculation, were treated with great severity, some being 
banished, some sent to the galleys, some even hanged. 

The office of superintendent and many others dependent 
upon it being abolished the supreme control of the finances 
was vested in a royal council. The sovereign was its presi 
dent ; but Colbert, though for four years he only possessed 
the title of intendant, was its ruling spirit, great personal 
authority being conferred upon him by the king. The 
career on which Colbert now entered must not be judged 
without constant remembrance of the utter rottenness of 
the previous financial administration. His ruthlessness in 
this case, dangerous precedent as it was, was perhaps 
necessary ; individual interests could not be respected. 
Guilty officials having been severely punished, the fraudu 
lent creditors of the Government remained to be dealt with. 
Colbert s method was simple. Some of the public loans 
were totally repudiated, and from others a percentage was 
cut off, which varied, at first according to his own decision, 
and afterwards according to that of the council which he 
established to examine all claims against the state. 

Much more serious difficulties met his attempts to intro 
duce equality in the pressure of the taxes on the various 
classes. To diminish the number of the privileged was 
impossible, but false claims to exemption were firmly 
resisted, and the unjust direct taxation was lightened by 
.in increase of the indirect taxes, from which the privileged 
could not escape. The mode of collection was at the same 
time immensely improved. 

Order and economy being thus introduced into the 
working of the government, the country, according to 
Colbert s vast yet detailed plan, was to be enriched by 
commerce. Manufactures were fostered in every way he 
could devise. New industries were established, inventors 
protected, workmen invited from foreign countries, French 
workmen absolutely prohibited to emigrate. To maintain 
the character of French goods in foreign markets, as well 
as to afford a guarantee to the home consumer, the quality 
and measure of each article were fixed by law, breach 
of the regulations being punished by public exposure 
of the delinquent and destruction of the goods, and, on 
the third offence, by the pillory. But whatever advantage 
resulted from this rule was more than compensated by the 
disadvantages it entailed. The production of qualities 
which would have suited many purposes of consumption 
was prohibited, and the odious supervision which became 
necessary involved great waste of time and a stereotyped 
regularity which resisted all improvements. And other 
parts of Colbert s scheme deserve still less equivocal con 
demnation. By his firm maintenance of the corporation 
system, each industry remained in the hands of certain 
privileged bourgeois ; in this way, too, improvement was 
greatly discouraged ; while to the lower classes opportunities 
of advancement were closed. With regard to international 
commerce Colbert was equally unfortunate in not being in 
advance of his age ; the tariffs he published were protective 
to an extreme. The interests of internal commerce were, 
however, wisely consulted. Unable to abolish the duties 
on the passage of goods from province to province, he did 
what he could to induce the provinces to equalize them. 
The roads and canals were improved. The great canal of 
Lriiiguedoc was planned and constructed by lliquet under 



his patronage. To encourage trade with the Levant, Senegal, 
Guinea, and other places, privileges were granted to com 
panies; but, like the more important East India Company, 
all were unsuccessful. The chief cause of this failure, 
as well as of the failure of the colonies, on which he 
bestowed so much watchful care, was the narrowness and 
rigidity of the Government regulations. 

-The greatest and most lasting of Colbert s achievements 
was the establishment of the French marine. The royal 
navy owed all to him, for the king thought only of military 
exploits. For its use, Colbert reconstructed the works 
and arsenal of Toulon, founded the port and arsenal of 
Rochefort, and the naval schools of Rochefort, Dieppe, and 
Saint-Malo, and fortified, with some assistance from Vauban 
(who, however, belonged to the party of his rival Luvois), 
among other ports those of Calais, Dunkirk, Brest, and 
Havre. To supply it with recruits he invented his famous 
system of classes, by which each seaman, according to the 
class in which he was placed, gave six months service 
every three or four or five years. For three months after 
his term of service he was to receive half-pay ; pensions 
were promised ; and, in short, everything was done to make 
the navy popular. There was one department, however, 
that was supplied with men on a very different principle. 
Letters exist written by Colbert to the judges requiring 
them to sentence to the oar as many criminals as possible, 
including all those who had been condemned to death ; 
and the convict once chained to the bench, the expiration 
of his sentence was seldom allowed to bring him release. 
Mendicants also, against whom no crime had been proved, 
contraband dealers, those who had been engaged in insur 
rections, and others immeasurably superior to the criminal 
class, nay, innocent men Turkish, Russian, and negro 
slaves, and poor Iroquois Indians, whom the Canadians 
were ordered to entrap were pressed into that terrible 
service. By these means the benches of the galleys were 
filled, and Colbert took no thought of the long unrelieved 
agony borne by those who filled them. 

Nor was the mercantile marine forgotten. Encouragement 
was given to the building of ships in France by allowing a 
premium on those built at home, and imposing a duty on 
those brought from abroad ; and as French workmen were 
forbidden to emigrate, so French seamen were forbidden to 
serve foreigners on pain of death. 

Even ecclesiastical affairs, though with these he had no 
official concern, did not altogether escape Colbert s atten 
tion. He took a subordinate part in the struggle between 
the king and Rome as to the royal rights over vacant 
bishoprics ; and he seems to have sympathized with the 
proposal that was made to seize part of the wealth of the 
clergy. In his hatred of idleness, he ventured to suppress 
no less than seventeen fetes, and he had a project for 
lessening the number of those devoted to clerical and 
monastic life, by fixing the age for taking the vows some 
years later than was then customary. With heresy he 
was at first unwilling to interfere, for he was aware of 
the commercial value of the Huguenots ; but when the 
king, under the influence of Mme. de Maintenon, resolved 
to make all France Catholic, he followed his Majesty, and 
urged his subordinates to do all that they could to promote 
conversions. 

In art and literature Colbert took much interest. He 
possessed a remarkably fine private library, which he 
delighted to fill with valuable manuscripts from every part 
of Europe where France had placed a consul. He has the 
hono T of having founded the Academy of Sciences (now 
called the Institut de France), the Observatory, which he 
employed Perrault to build and brought Cassini from Italy 
to superintend, the Academies of Inscriptions and Medals, 
of Architecture, and of Music, the French Academy at 



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123 



Rome, and Academies at Aries, Soissons, Nimes, and 
many other towns, and he reorganized the Academy of 
Painting and Sculpture which llichelieu had established. 
He was a member of the French Academy ; and one very 
characteristic rule, recorded to have been proposed by him 
with the intention of expediting the great Dictionary, in 
which he was much interested, was that no one should be 
accounted present at any meeting unless he arrived before 
the hour of commencement and remained till the hour 
for leaving. In 1673 he presided over the first exhibition 
of the works of living painters; and he enriched the Louvre 
with hundreds of pictures and statues. He gave many 
pensions to men of letters, among whom we find Moliere, 
Corneille, Eacine, Boileau, Huet, and Varillas, and even 
foreigners, as Huyghens, Vossius the geographer, Carlo 
Dati the Dellacruscan, and Heinsius the great .Dutch 
scholar. There is evidence to show that by this munificence 
he hoped to draw out praises of his sovereign and himself ; 
but this motive certainly is far from accounting for all the 
splendid, if in some cases specious, services that he rendered 
to literature, science, and art. 

Indeed to everything that concerned the interests of 
France Colbert devoted unsparing thought and toil. Be 
sides all that has been mentioned, he found time to do 
something for the better administration of justice (the 
codification of ordinances, the diminishing of the number 
of judges, the reduction of the expense and length of trials), 
for the establishment of a superior system of police, and 
even for the improvement of the breed of horses and the 
increase of cattle. As superintendent of public buildings 
he enriched Paris with boulevards, quays, and triumphal 
arches ; he relaid the foundation-stone of the Louvre, and 
brought Bernin from Rome to be its architect ; and he 
erected its splendid colonnade upon the plan of Claude 
Perrault, by whom Bernin had been replaced. He was not 
permitted, however, to complete the work, being compelled 
to yield to the king s preference for residences outside 
Paris, and to devote himself to Marly and Versailles. 

Amid all these public labours his private fortune was 
never neglected. While he was reforming the finances of 
the nation, and organizing its navy, he always found time 
to direct the management of his smallest farm. He died 
a millionaire, and left fine estates all over France. For 
his eldest son, who was created Marquis de Seignelay, 
he obtained the reversion of the office of minister of 
marine ; his second son became archbishop of Rouen ; and 
a third son, the Marquis d Ormoy, became superintendent 
of buildings. 

In estimating the value of Colbert s ministry, two 
distinct questions must be considered What its results 
would have been in the absence of counteracting influences, 
over which he had no control, and what they actually 
were. To the first it may be answered that France, peace 
ful, enriched by a wide-spread commerce, and freed from 
the weight of taxes, alikeheavy and intrinsically mischievous, 
would probably have developed powers that would have 
enabled her to throw aside what was harmful in his policy, 
and possibly to attain liberty without the frenzied struggle 
of the Revolution. To the second question a very different 
reply must be given. What the great " ministre de la paix" 
built up was torn down, even as he built it, to erect the 
unholy fabric of his master s military glory. The war 
department was in the hands of Colbert s great rival, 
Luvois; and to every appeal for peace Louis was deaf. He 
was deaf also to all the appeals against the other forms of 
his boundless extravagance which Colbert, with all his 
deference towards his sovereign, bravely ventured to make. 1 

1 See especially a vn.em.oire presented to the king in 1666, puolished 
in the; Lettres, etc., de Colbert, vol. ii. 



Thus it came about that, only a few years after he had 
commenced to free the country from the weight of the 
loans and taxes which crushed her to the dust, Colberb was 
forced to heap upon her a new load of loans and taxes more 
heavy than the last. Henceforth his life was a hopeless 
struggle, and the financial and fiscal reform which, with 
the great exception of the establishment of the navy, was 
the most valuable service to France contemplated by him. 
came to nought. 

Depressed by his failure, deeply wounded by the king s 
favour for Luvois, and worn out by overwork, Colbert s 
strength gave way at a comparatively early age. In 
1680 he was the constant victim of severe fevers, from 
which he recovered for a time through the use of quinine 
prescribed by an English physician. But in 1683, at the 
age of sixty-four, he was seized with a fatal illness, and 
on the 6th of September he expired. It was said that 
he died of a broken heart, and a conversation with the 
king is reported in which Louis disparagingly compared 
the buildings of Versailles, which Colbert was superintend 
ing, with the works constructed by Luvois in Flanders. 
He took to bed, k it is true, immediately afterwards, refusing 
to receive all messages from the king ; but his constitution 
was utterly broken before, and a post-mortem examination 
proved that he had been suffering from stone. His body 
was interred in the secrecy of night, for fear of outrage 
from the Parisians, by whom his name was cordially de 
tested. 

Colbert was a great statesman, who did much for France, 
and would have done vastly more had it been possible. Yet 
his insight into political science was not deeper than that 
of his age ; nor did he possess that superiority in moral 
qualities which would have inspired him to bring in a reign 
of purity and righteousness. His rule was a very bad 
example of over-government. In popular liberty he did not 
believe ; the parliaments and the States-General received 
no support from him. The technicalities of justice he 
never allowed to interfere with his plans ; justice herself he 
sometimes commanded to stay her course, and beware of 
crushing any friend of his who happened to lie in her way. 
He trafficked in public offices for the profit of Mazarin and 
in his own behalf. He caused the suffering of thousands 
in the galleys ; he had no ear, it is said, for the cry of the 
suppliant. There was indeed a more human side to his 
character, as is shown in his letters, full of wise advice and 
affectionate care, to his children, his brothers, his cousins 
even. Yet to all outside he was "the man of marble." To 
diplomacy he never pretended; persuasion and deceit were 
not the weapons he employed ; all his work was carried 
out by the iron hand of authority. He was a great states 
man in that he conceived a magnificent yet practicable 
scheme for making France first among nations, and in that 
he possessed a matchless faculty for work, neither shrink 
ing from the vastest undertakings nor scorning the most 
trivial details. 

Numerous vies and doges of Colbert have been published ; but 
the most thorough student of his life and administration was Pierre 
Clement, member of the Institute, who in 1846 published his Vie 
de Colbert, and in 1861 the first of the 9 vols. of the Lettre.s, instruc 
tions, et memoircs de Colbert. The historical introductions prefixed 
to each of these volumes have been published by Mme. Clwnent 
under the title of the Histoire de Colbert et de son administration 
(187 i). Among Colbert s papers are Memoires sur hs affaires de 
finance de France (written about 1663), a fragment entitled Particu- 
larites secretes de la vie du Roy, and other accounts of the earlier part 
of the reign of Louis XIV. (T. M. W. ) 

COLCHESTER, a market-town, municipal and parlia 
mentary borough, and river-port of England, in the county 
of Essex, 51 miles from London by the Great Eastern 
Railway, on the Colne, which is there crossed by three 
bridges. The town within the walls forms an oblong of 



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about 108 acres; but new streets stretch far beyond these 
limits. Large alterations have taken place since the 
accession of Queen Victoria : the Middle Row and various 
other districts have been abolished or rebuilt ; the streets 
have been repaved, and a new supply of water obtained 
for the town. Of the buildings in Colchester of interest 
for their antiquity the first is the castle or keep, which 
occupies an area of 21,168 square feet (or nearly twice that 
of the White Tower of London), and thus forms the largest 
specimen extant of this department of Norman architecture. 
It was founded in 12th century by Eudo, the steward of 




Arms of Colchester. 

Henry L, to whom the town was also indebted for the 
Benedictine abbey of St John s now almost totally 
demolished. Of the churches the oldest is St Peter s, which 
like several others has been restored within recent years ; 
the remains of the church of St Botolph s priory, founded 
in the early part of the 12th century, present fine examples 
of Norman workmanship; and St James s, St Giles s, and 
St Leonard s at the Hythe are all of antiquarian interest. 
The last preserves some early frescoes. The present century 
has added largely to the number of the churches and chapels, 
and many of the newer buildings are not unworthy of the 
town in which they stand. Of secular structures the most 
important are the town hall, the county police station 
(formerly the county jail), the borough jail, the theatre, two 
corn exchanges, the Eastern Counties asylum for idiots 
and imbeciles, the Essex and Colchester hospital, and the 
assembly rooms. The town possesses a free grammar- 
school, in connection with which is a scholarship at St 
John s College, Cambridge ; it has also a literary institute 
with a library attached, a literary, a medical, and other 
societies. Colchester is the centre of a large agricultural 
district, and has very extensive corn and cattle markets. 
Baize was formerly the principal manufacture ; but 
this has been superseded by silk, more especially the 
kind employed for umbrellas. The minor industrial 
establishments include flour-mills, vinegar-works, found 
ries, engineering-works, rope-yards, printing offices, and 
lime-works. The import and export trade is conducted at 
the suburb of Hythe, to which vessels of 150 tons can 
come up the river. In 1874 the value of the imports was 
48,367, and of the exports 9173. The oyster fishery, 
for which the town has been famous for centuries, is not so 
extensive as it once was ; but it is still carried on under 
the control of the Colchester town council, and measures 
are taken for its maintenance and development. The 
borough, which returns two members to parliament, has an 
area of 11,314 acres ; the population was in 1871 26,343, 
an increase since 1861 of 2534, and since 1801 of 14,823! 
Colchester is the head-quarters of the Eastern Military 
District. 

That Colchester occupied the site of some important Roman city 
was all along abundantly evident ; but it is only within the present 
century that it has been definitively identified with Camulodunum. 
This Roman settlement was established by Claudius, to assist in 
the reduction of the fierce Silurians ; but its existence was jeopardized 
by the sudden rise of the Iceni to avenge the wrongs of lioadicea. 
The colonists were massacred, their houses burned, and the site left 
a mass of ruins. The Roman general, Suetonius Paullinus, how 
ever, soon after recovered possession of the place ; strong fortifica 



tions were erected, and the colony soon attained a high degree of 
prosperity. To the present day the walls then erected remain almost 
intact, and form one of the noblest specimens of Roman architecture 
in the island. Minor antiquities such as Samian potteiy, coins, 
articles of ornament occur in the greatest profusion ; and, both 
within the city and in the neighbourhood, numerous villas have 
been discovered, with tesselated pavements, hypocausts, and baths. 
The coins belong to all periods, down to the secession of the Romans 
from the island. On the arrival of the Saxons the old name of 
Camulodunum gave place to that of Colneceastor, or the Castrum 
on the Colne, which is still preserved in the present modification. 
In 921 the town was recovered from the Danes by Edward tho 
Elder, and its fortifications were strengthened. At the time of the 
Domesday Book it was a place of decided importance, and in the 
reign of Edward III. it sent five ships and 140 seamen to the siege 
of Calais. In 1348 and 1360 it was ravaged by the plague, which 
again visited it in the dreadful year of 1665. Meanwhile it was 
the scene of a memorable siege; having in 1648 declared for the 
Royalists, it was captured by Fairfax, after an investment of eleven 
weeks, its gallant defenders, Sir C. Lucas and Sir C. Lisle, were 
put to death, and the castle was dismantled. See Morant s Essex ; 
Rev. Henry Jenkins s "Observations on the Site of Camulodunum" 
in vol. xxix. of the Arcliccologia, 1842, and the same author s 
Colchester Castle built as a Temple of Claudius Cixsar, 1852 ; 
Rev. Edward A. Cutts s Colchester Castle not a Jioman Temple, 
1853. 

COLCHESTER, CHARLES ABBOT, LORD (1757-1829), 
born at Abingdon, was the son of Dr John Abbot, rector 
of All Saints, Colchester, and, by his mother s second 
marriage, half-brother of the famous Jeremy Bentham. 
From Westminster School, Charles Abbot passed to Christ 
Church College, Oxford, where he gained the chancellor s 
medal for Latin verse and the "Vinerian Scholarship. In 
1795, after having practised twelve years as a barrister, 
and published a treatise proposing the incorporation of the 
judicial system of Wales with that of England, he was 
appointed to the office previously held by his brother of 
clerk of the rules in the King s Bench ; and in June of the 
same year he was elected member of parliament for Helston, 
through the influence of the duke cf Leeds. In 1796 
Abbot commenced his career as a reformer in parliament, 
by obtaining the appointment of two committees, the one 
to report on the arrangements which then existed as to 
temporary laws or laws about to expire, the other to devise 
methods for the better publication of new statutes. To 
the latter committee, and a second committee which he pro 
posed some years later, it is owing that copies of new 
statutes were thenceforth sent to all magistrates and 
municipal bodies. To Abbot s efforts were also due the 
establishment of the Royal Record Commission, the reform 
of the system which allowed the public money to lie for 
some time at long interest in the hands of the public 
accountants, and, most important of all, the Act for taking 
the first census, that of 1801. On the formation of the 
Addington ministry in March 1801, Abbot became chief 
secretary and privy seal for Ireland ; and in the February 
of the following year he was chosen speaker of the House 
of Commons a position which he held with universal 
satisfaction till 1817, when an attack of erysipelas com 
pelled him to retire. In response to an address of the 
Commons, he was raised to the peerage as Baron Col 
chester, with a pension of 4000, of which 3000 was 
to be continued to his heir. On the 8th May 1829, he 
died of erysipelas. His speeches against the Roman 
Catholic claims were published in 1828. 

COLCHICUM, the Meadow Saffron, or Autumn Crocus 
(Colchicum autumnale], is a perennial plant of the natural 
order Melanthacece or Colchicaccce, found wild in rich 
moist meadow-land in England and Ireland, in Middle and 
Southern Europe, and in the Swiss Alps. It has pale- 
purple flowers, rarely more than three in number ; the 
perianth is funnel-shaped, and produced inferiorly into a 
long slender tube, in the upper part of which the six 
stamens are inserted. The ovary is three-celled, and lies 
at the bottom of this tube. The leaves are three or four in 



C O L C L 



number, flat, lanceolate, erect, and sheathing ; and there 
is no stem. Propagation is by the formation of conns from 
the parent bulb, and by seeds. The latter are numerous, 
round, reddish-brown, and of the size of black mustard- 
seeds. The bulb of the meadow-saffron attains its full size 
in June or early in July. A smaller bulb is then formed 
from the old one, close to its root ; and this in September 
and October produces the crocus-like flowers. In the 
succeeding January or February it sends up its leaves, 
together with the ovary, which perfects its seeds during the 
summer. The young corm, at first about the diameter of 
the flower-stalk, grows continuously, till in the following 
July it attains the size of a small apricot, The parent 
bulb remains attached to the new one, and keeps its form 
and size till April in the third year of its existence, after 
which it decays. In some cases a single conn produces 
several new plants during its second spring by giving rise 
to immature corms. 

Colchicum owes its medicinal properties to an alkaloid, 
named colchicine, which is present in all parts of the 
plant. It was discovered by Pelletier and Caventon, and 
was identified as distinct from veratrine by Geiger and 
Hesse in 1833. According to Oberlin, colchicine is 
a complex body, containing a crystallizable neutral sub 
stance, colchiceine. Hiibler assigns to colchicine the 
formula C l7 H 19 lSrO 5 , and considers it to be isomeric with 
colchiceine (Arch, tier Pharm., torn. cxi. 194; Journ. de 
Pharm. et de Chim.,tom. ii. 490, 4th ser). It is an intensely 
bitter body, soluble in alcohol and water, but insoluble 
in ether, and is a powerful poison, small quantities causing 
violent vomiting and purging ; tannin, which precipitates 
it from solution, has been recommended as an antidote for 
it. Colchicine is present in smaller quantity in the seeds 
than in the bulbs ; and in the latter, according to Stolze, 
it is more abundant in spring than in autumn ; Shroff, 
however, states that the corms for medicinal use should be 
collected after or during the time of flowering. The 
preparations of colchicum employed as medicine are the 
extract, made by macerating dried shreds of the bulbs in 
sherry or acetic acid, the expressed juice of the bulbs, 
purified and concentrated by heating, straining, and 
evaporation at a temperature below 160 Fahr., and an 
alcoholic tincture of the seeds. Whether swallowed or 
injected into the veins colchicum acts as an irritant of the 
stomach and intestines and a nervine sedative ; small doses 
stimulate the secreting and excreting functions, but when 
continued they impair the appetite, and much disturb the 
stomach. Large quantitiea produce vomiting, profuse 
perspiration, heat in the abdomen, considerable reduction 
of the rate of the pulse, and dysenteric symptoms, and may 
cause death from exhaustion. 

Colchicum was known to the Greeks under the name of Kokx<-n6t>, 
from Ko\xis, or Colchis, a country in which the plant grew ; and 
it is described by Dioscorides as a poison. In the 17th century 
the corrns were worn by some of the German peasantry as a charm 
against the plague. The drug was little used till 1763, when Baron 
Storck of Vienna introduced it for the treatment of dropsy. In 
febrile diseases it was first extensively employed by Mr Haden. 
As a specific for gout colchicum was early employed by the Arabs ; 
.and the preparation known as eau medicinale, much resorted to in 
the last century for the cure of gout, owes its therapeutic virtues to 
colchicum ; but general attention was first directed by Sir Everard 
Home to the use of the drug in gout. Full doses are apt to provoke 
sickness and diarrhoea, but give immediate relief from the sufferings 
caused by arthritic disease; whereas small quantities are not 
effectual for several days. According to Dr A. B, Garrod, the 
beneficial effects of colchicum are not explicable either by its 
purgative properties, or by its sedative influence on the vascular 
system ; nor is there evidence that it produces any of its effects by 
causing an increase in the elimination of urea and uric acid by the 
kidneys. Dr Graves considers that colchicum operates in gout by 
lessening the formation of uric acid in the system. 

Colchicum may often be employed in acute rheumatism, in the 
treatment of bronchitis, asthma, eruptions of the skin, and of 



dyspepsia in gouty patients ; also as a cholagogue instead of mer 
curials. The "hermodactyl" of ancient writers is supposed to be the 
same as the modern drag of that name, which consists of the conns 
of a species of colchicum. 

See Christison, Treatise on Poisons, 4th ed., pp. 381-6(1845); FlUckiger and 
Hanbury, Pharmacographia, p. 636 (1874); Garrod, Gout and Rheumatic Qout, 3d 
ed. chap. xi. (1876) ; English Botany, ed. J. T. Boswell Syme, 3d ed., vol. ix. p. 225 
(1869) ; Balfour, Class Book of Botany, 3d ed., p. 931 (1871). On Colchicine, see 
Watts s Chemical Dictionary, voL i. ; Wurtz, Dictionnaire de Chimie, t. ii. 

COLCHIS, in ancient geography, a nearly triangular 
district of Asia Minor, at the eastern extremity of the 
Black Sea, was bounded on the N. by the Caucasus, which 
separated it from Asiatic Sarmatia, E. by Iberia and the 
Montes Moschici, S. by Armenia and part of Pontus> and 
W. by the Euxine. The ancient district is represented by 
the modern province of Mingrelia, and part of Abasia. 
The name of Colchis is first found applied to this country 
by the Greek poets ^Eschylus and Pindar. It was 
celebrated in Greek mythology as the destination of the 
Argonauts, the residence of Medea, and the special domain 
of sorcery. At a remote period it seems to have been 
incorporated with the Persian empire, though the inhabi 
tants ultimately erected their territory into an independent 
state ; and in k this condition it was found by Alexander 
the Great, when he invaded Persia. From this time till 
the era of the Mithridatic wars nothing is known of the 
history of Colchis. At the time of the Roman invasion it 
seems to have paid a nominal homage to Mithridates, and 
to have been ruled over by Machares, the second son of 
that monarch. On the defeat of Mithridates by Pompey, 
it became a Roman province. After the death of Pompey, 
Pharnaces, the son of Mithridates, rose in rebellion against 
the Roman yoke, subdued Colchis and Armenia, and made 
head, though but for a short time, against the Roman arms. 
After this Colchis was incorporated with Pontus, and the 
Colchians are not again alluded to in ancient history till 
the 6th century, when, along with the Abasci, they joined 
Chosroes I., king of Persia, in his war against Justinian. 
Colchis was inhabited by a number of tribes whose settle 
ments lay chiefly along the shore of the Black Sea. The 
chief of these were the Lazi, Moschi, Apsidse, Abasci, 
Sagadae, Suani, and Coraxi. These tribes differed so 
completely in language and appearance from the surrounding 
nations, that the ancients themselves originated varioua 
theories to account for the phenomenon. Herodotus, for 
example, believed them to have sprung from the relics of 
the army of Sesostris, and thus identified them with tho 
Egyptians. Though this theory was not generally adopted 
by the ancients, it has been defended, but not with 
complete success, by some modern writers. From the 
first-named of these tribes, the Lazi, the country was latterly 
known as Terra Lazica. 

COLDSTREAM, a town of Scotland, in Berwickshire, 
15 miles west of Berwick, on the north bank of the Tweed, 
there crossed by a bridge of five arches. It is situated on 
the principal thoroughfare between England and Scotland, 
and in the neighbourhood of the ford by which the Scotch 
and English armies were wont to cross the river in olden 
times. In the period before the Reformation it was the 
seat of a priory famous in history as the place where the 
Papal legate, in the reign of Henry VIII., published a bull 
against the printing of the Scriptures ; and in the present 
century, by a curious irony of fate, the very site of tho 
building was occupied by an establishment under Dr Adam 
Thomson for the production of Bibles at a low rate. Cold- 
stream, like Gretna Green, was formerly celebrated for its 
irregular marriages. The regiment of Foot Guards known 
as the " Coldstream Guards " was so named from General 
Monk having set out with it from the town on his march 
into England in 1659. Population in 1871, 2619. 

COLEBROOKE, HENRY THOMAS (1765-1837), an 
eminent Oriental scholar, the third son of Sir George, the 



12G 



C O L C O L 



second baronet of that name, was born in London. He was 
educated at home ; and when only fifteen he had made 
considerable attainments in classical and mathematical 
studies. From the age of twelve to sixteen he resided in 
France, and in 1782 was appointed to a writership in 
India. About a year after his arrival there he was placed 
in the Board of Accounts in Calcutta ; and three years later 
he was removed to a situation in the revenue department 
at Tirhoot, where he pursued his studies in Eastern science 
and literature. In 1789 he was removed to Purneah, 
where he investigated the resources of that part of the 
country, and published his Remarks on the Husbandry and 
Commerce of Bengal, in which he advocated free trade 
between Great Britain and India. After eleven years 
residence in India, Colebrooke began the study of Sans 
krit ; and to him was confided the translation of the great 
digest of Hindu law, which had been left unfinished by Sir 
William Jones. After filling a number of important 
offices, and publishing some works on Oriental literature, 
including a Sanskrit grammar and dictionary, he returned 
to London, where he died, March 18, 1837. He was a 
director of the Asiatic Society, and many of the most 
valuable papers in the Society s Transactions were com 
municated by him. 

COLEOPTERA, or BEETLES, a vast and remarkably 
homogeneous order of Insects, characterized, as the name 
implies (*oAeos, a sheath, and Trrepa, wings), by the struc 
ture of the upper wings, or elytra, as they are called, which 
are so modified as to form shields for the protection of the 
under wings the true organs of flight in those insects. 
The name was given, and the principal characters of the 
order defined, by Aristotle ; and owing doubtless to their 
singular and varied forms and habits, the brilliant colouring 
and great size of numerous species, and that solid consist 
ence which renders their collection and preservation com 
paratively easy, Coleopterous insects have since the days of 
the Stagirite received the special attention of entomologists. 
The body in Coleoptera is enclosed in a chitinous integu 
ment of a more or less rigid consistence, and is somewhat 
oval iu form, although in most cases greatly longer than 
broad. In this respect, however, the utmost diversity pre 
vails even among the members of the same family, the form 
being modified to suit the habits of the insect. Thus, 
according to Batas, among the South Americau forms of 
Dermestidce, the species of one group are cubical in shape, 
and live in dung; those of another, inhabiting the stems 
of palm trees, are much flatter; those of a third, only found 
under the bark of trees, are excessively depressed, some 
species being literally " as thin as a wafer ; " while the 
members of a fourth group of the same family are cylindri 
cal in shape, and are woodborers, " looking," says Bates, 
" like animated gimlets, their pointed heads being fixed in 
the wood, while their glossy bodies work rapidly round so 
as to create little streams of saw-dust from the holes" 
(Naturalist on the Amazons). The body, in common with 
that of all other insects, is divided into three parts, head, 
thorax, and abdomen. The head, which is usually rounded 
or somewhat triangular in shape (except in the Weevil tribe, 
where it is produced into an elongated rostrum or snout), 
bears the organs of the senses. The eyes of beetles are 
two in number and compound, and in predaceous species 
are somewhat protuberant, thus affording greater range of 
vision. The simple eyes, or ocelli, common among butter 
flies and moths, are almost unknown among beetles, 
although present in the larvae. In many species, especially 
oi Lamellicorn Beetles, these organs are more or less com 
pletely divided by a process known as the canthus ; and in 
the Gyrinidix, or Whirligigs, the intersection is so complete 
as to give the appearance of a pair of eyes on each side. 
In burrowing and cave-dwelling syecies^ ^-hose lives are 



.spent in almost total darkness, the eyes, although distinctly 
visible in the young, become more or less atrophied in the 
adult forms. The two antennae, supposed by some to be 
organs of hearing, and by others of smell, are placed be 
tween or in front of the eyes, and usually consist of 11 
joints. These differ greatly in form and size, not only in 
different species, but in the two sexes of the same species, 
the most prevalent forms being the setaceous, moniliform, 
serrate, pectinate, clavate, and lamellate. In many groups 
the antennas are exceedingly short, while in such forms as 
the Longicorn Beetles they, in a few cases, measure four 
times the length of the body. 

The parts which go to form the mouth are typically de 
veloped in beetles, and for this among other reasons the 
order Coleoptera has generally been placed at the head of 
the class of insects. It is known as the masticatory mouth, 
and consists of the four parts (Plate VI. fig. 1). (1) The 
labrum, or upper lip, is usually a continuation of the upper 
surface of the head. (2) The mandibles, or true mastica 
tory organs, consist of two powerful arched jaws generally 
dentated, moving horizontally and opposed to each other, 
the teeth in some cases interlocking, in others, as in the 
Tiger Beetles, crossing like the blades in a pair of scissors. 
In many species they are so small as to be almost concealed 
within the cavity of the mouth, while in such forms as the 
Stag Beetles they measure half the length of the entire body. 
The form, and texture of the mandibles are largely depen 
dent on the nature of the insect s food, being acute and 
sharply dentated in predaceous species, and thick and blunt 
in vegetable feeders. Their margins are soft and flexible 
in those which feed on decaying animal and vegetable 
matters, while the entire mandibles are soft and flattened 
in those which live on fluids. (3) The maxillce, or lesser 
jaws, placed beneath the mandibles, and like them moving 
horizontally, serve to hold the food and guide it to the 
mouth. Their extremities are in many cases furnished 
with a movable claw, and their inner surfaces with a series 
of bristles, which are probably of use in straining the juices 
from their food. The maxillae are provided with a pair of 
appendages called maxillary palps delicate organs that 
vibrate intensely, and are supposed to be principal organs 
of touch. (4) The labium, or lower lip, also provided with 
palps. 

The thorax bears the organs of locomotion, consisting of 
three pairs of legs and two pairs of wings (Plate VI. fig. 2). 
The legs vary in their structure and development accord 
ing to the habits of the species ; thus in running and 
walking beetles these organs are usually of equal length, 
and generally similar in other respects, the anterior pair, 
however, being often stronger in the male than in the 
female; and in a few species, as the Harlequin Beetle, 
the anterior legs are enormously elongated and propor 
tionately thickened. In burrowing beetles the anterior 
legs are developed into fossorial organs with broad and 
strongly dentated tarsi, and in arboreal forms the under 
side of the tarsi is usually covered with hair, forming a 
cushion-like sole terminating in toothed claws, by which 
they are enabled to keep their footing on the leaves and 
branches of trees. Water beetles generally have the 
posterior pair of legs elongated, flattened, and ciliated, 
so as to form swimming organs ; those known as Whirligigs 
using the middle and posterior pairs for this purpose, 
while the anterior limbs are employed as rudders ; and 
jumping beetles, as Haltiddae, have the thighs of the 
posterior pair of legs greatly thickened for saltatory 
purposes (Plate VIII. fig. 10). The two anterior wings 
become solidified in beetles, and are thus rendered useless 
as organs of flight. They are termed elytra (ZXvrpov, a 
shield), and serve to protect the delicate wings beneath, 
I as well as the stiymata, or breathing pores v 



VOL 



COLEOPTERA. 



PLATS VI 



.-Cp" Liuzinus 

t (StogBeetlej* *\ 




. // ittfjj-i ni _ 



"WoodTigerBeetUj J 

ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA, NINTH EDITION 



VOL vr 



COLEOPTERA. 



PLATE Vlf 



Stapfylinus 
fHuddy . 



/.amjntris Saytaiw . Calctfoma sycopnantn 



Di/tiscus 7/enii/nicfi , 

I:-:. 



Hister rrsiititrniis . fyrmus sultntus. 

/.arm />/ 16. < Mimic Beetle ) 
IS. 



/ G-lcw-worm.) 
Lampyri.r run- 



a of Cockchafer 
f emaJje. 



Silpha. quadripunctata 




(Seer ten Beetle 



ILlater plagiatuj . Clem? apiarius. HydivphiJus piceiis. 

ENCYCLOP/tOIA BRITANNICA. NINTH EDITION. ^" e Jieeilf -^ (J3ltu:k Weijrr Bcr//, J 



C L E P T E K A 



127 



the sides of the abdouieu. The elytra are always present 
except in the females of a few species, as the Glow-worm, 
and are generally large enough to cover the upper surface 
of the abdomen and to concsal the under wings when 
at rest. In Brachelytrous Beetles, however, they 
are exceedingly short, and the wings in these are only 
shielded by being folded more than once beneath them. 
The elytra when at rest meet on the middle of the back, 
their internal margins forming a straight longitudinal line 
or suture highly characteristic of the Coleoptera ; but even 
this character is not universal, as in the Oil Beetles (Meloe) 
and a few others the one elytron partly folds over the 
other. The posterior wings are large, veined, and 
membranaceous and form the true organs of night, but 
they are much more frequently absent than the elytra, and 
where this occurs, as in manyCarabideous Beetles, the latter 
are more or less soldered together. During flight the elytra 
are either extended horizontally or merely raised without 
being separated, as in the Rose-Chafers (Cetonia) ; and 
as might be expected from their general stoutness of body 
and comparative deficiency of wings, the flight of beetles is 
heavy and seldom long sustained. Their weakness in this 
respect is further shown in the apparent inability of 
many species suddenly to alter their course so as to avoid 
collision with any object that may unexpectedly come in 
their way, a defect popularly but erroneously attributed, 
in. the phrase " as blind as a beetle," to weakness of sight 
rather than of wing. In certain water beetles (Dytiscidce) 
a pair of alula?, or winglets, are developed at the inner 
angle of the elytra. 

The colouring of the chitinous integument of beetles is 
often exceedingly brilliant, and the elytra and other parts 
of many species are largely used in the manufacture of 
personal ornaments. This colouring can in many instances 
be shown to bear a close resemblance to that of surrounding 
nature ; thus burrowing beetles, and those which dwell in 
subterranean .caves, are generally black or brown ; Weevils, 
found on the ground, are earth-coloured ; while arboreal 
species of this and other groups are of various shades of 
green. Bates found a species of beetle, on a particular tree 
in South America, which so resembled the bark on which 
it spent its existence as to be, when motionless, no longer 
visible. This assimilation in colour to surrounding nature 
is probably useful in assisting them to elude their enemies ; 
and when the markings are such as to render the beetle 
conspicuous it is of ten provided with, and no doubt protected 
by, an offensive odour or nauseous juices ; thus the 
naturalist already mentioned found on a sandy beach two 
species of Tiger Beetles, the one of a pallid hue like the 
sand it ran upon, the other of a brilliant and conspicuous 
copper colour, but having " a strong, offensive, putrid, and 
musky odour," from which the other was entirely free. 
Fireflies, a group of Coleopterous insects, are also exceed 
ingly conspicuous, but are similarly protected. The 
phenomena of mimicry, or the imitation of one animal by 
another for protective purposes, have been, observed in 
several instances among beetles. Mr Belt, in his interesting 
work, The Naturalist in Nicaragua, states that he 
captured what he supposed was a hairy caterpillar, but 
on closer inspection he found it to be a Longicorn 
Beetle, the antennae being concealed among the hair. 
Hairy caterpillars are almost universally rejected by insect- 
eating animals, and thus probably this beetle shared in the 
immunity from attack accorded to its model. A species 
of beetle found in South America closely resembles a bee 
found in the same locality, its body being covered with 
hair and its legs similarly tufted ; another, with yellow 
banded abdomen, sufficiently resembled a wasp as to make 
its captor both cautious and timid in handling it at first. 
Oue of the Chrysomdidce (Crioceris mer Jiff era) is said to 



disguise itself by covering its upper surface with its own 
dung ; while many species to be afterwards noticed, when 
in danger, simulate death. Brilliant colouring in beetles 
is not as in some orders of animals a characteristic mainly 
of the male sex, both sexes being usually simihr in this 
respect, while in those cases in which they differ, the female 
is generally the more gaudy insect. The chief external 
difference, however, between the sexes in many beetles is 
to be found in the presence of horns on the head and 
thorax of the males. These vary exceedingly in their 
development even in individuals of the same species, while 
in their form they resemble the horns of the rhinoceros, and 
the antlers of the stag ; and as among mammals the reindeer 
is exceptional in the possession of antlers by both sexes, 
so among beetles there is at least one species, Phanaeus 
landfer, in which both male and female are similarly 
equipped. The male beetle has not been observed to use 
its horns either for purposes of offence or defence, some of 
the most pugnacious species being entirely destitute of 
them ; and in Darwin s opinion these appendages have 
been acquired merely as ornaments. 

The abdomen of Coleopterous insects is sessile, that is, 
attached to the thorax by its largest transverse diameter. 
On the under side it is always of a firm horny consistence, 
while the upper surface is generally soft, being protected 
by the elytra and wings ; when these, however, are absent 
or abbreviated, it is as hard above as below. It bears 
the organs of generation as well as the respiratory openings, 
or stigmata, which form the apertures of the tracheae by 
means of which air is disseminated through all parts of 
the insect system. -Beetles belonging to several distinct 
families possess stridulating organs, and these are generally 
found in both sexes. The apparatus by which the sound, 
loud enough to be heard in many cases at some yards 
distance, is produced, consists of a couple of delicate rasps 
placed on the upper surface of the abdomen, on the elytra, 
or on the prothorax, and a scraper formed by the margins 
of the elytra, the edges of the abdominal segments, or the 
mesothorax, the rapid motion of the latter over the rasps 
producing the sound. In many cases, according to Darwin, 
the males only stridulate, the females being destitute of 
those organs, and in such cases the sound is employed as 
a call to the female ; with most beetles, however, the 
stridulation proceeds from both sexes and serves as a 
mutual call. Beetles are entirely destitute of stinging 
organs, but a few are furnished with a retractile tube, or 
ovipositor, at the extremity of the abdomen, by means of 
which they deposit their eggs in the cracks of wood and 
other suitable localities. 

The eggs of beetles are deposited in a great variety of 
situations, and in the case of a certain group of 
Staphylinidce found in the nests of white ants in South 
America, it was recently discovered by Schb dte that the 
eggs are not deposited at all, but remain in the abdomen 
until they are hatched. These ovo- viviparous beetles are 
only one-tenth of an inch in length, and have the abdominal 
region enormously distended and turned over so as to rest 
on the back. Dung beetles deposit their eggs in the midst 
of the manure on which the future larva; feed ; the Sacred 
Beetle of Egypt rolling each of hers about until a globular 
pellet is formed, when the whole is buried in the ground ; 
while the Sexton Beetle finds an appropriate nidus for her 
eggs in the dead bodies of animals. One species of 
Cleridai selects the nest of the solitary bee, another (Plate 
VII. fig. 31) that of the hive bee, while several species of 
Rose Beetles choose the nest of the ant for this purpose. 
The water beetles belonging to the genus Hydrophilu* 
deposit their eggs in a single mass, which they surround 
with a oocoon, formed of a silky substance secreted by 
certain glands in the abdomen, and then either fix this to 



128 

the leaf of an aquatic plant or leave it to float on the surface 
of the water. Certain species of the Weevil tribe deposit 
their eggs on the leaves of trees, splitting the median 
nervures in several places, and afterwards rolling them up. 
In its progress from the egg to the perfect insect the beetle 
undergoes complete metamorphosis, passing from the larval 
to the pupa stage, and remaining totally quiescent during 
the latter. Coleopterous Iarva3 generally consist of 13 
segments, of which those forming the head and thorax are 
usually of a hard horny texture, the mouth, as in the 
perfect insect, being masticatory, and the eyes, when 
present, simple, or ocelli. They have usually six legs, and 
prolegs, as in caterpillars, are occasionally present; but the 
larvre of many species are legless grubs, while in others the 
limbs are but feebly developed. In those groups in which 
the elytra are abbreviated, the larvae are exceedingly active 
and closely resemble the perfect insect. Like their parents 
the larva; of beetles feed on living animals, on plants, or 
on decaying animal and vegetable substances, but greatly 
exceed the perfect insect in the quantity of food which 
they consume, and it is in this condition that beetles do 
most injury to field crops and forest trees. The larvae of 
burrowing beetles, known as " White Worms," spend their 
existence in the earth, and are destitute of eyes; those of the 
Stag Beetles and other wood-boring groups live in the trunks 
of decaying trees ; mealworms the larvae of Tenebrio 
molitor live enveloped in flour, and those of the Corn Weevil 
in the heart of the wheat grain ; while those of another 
species of Weevil make their homes in the fleshy parts of 
the receptacles of composite flowers. The larvae of Oil 
Beetles (Meloc), or at least certain species of them whose 
life-history has been observed, after leaving the egg, which 
the perfect insect has deposited just beneath the surface of 
the ground, climb upon the stems of plants, and take the 
first opportunity of attaching themselves to any insect that 
may happen to alight near them, and in this way they are 
occasionally conveyed into the hives of bees, in which alone 
they meet with their appropriate food. Only a few of them 
are thus fortunate, the majority of the larvae getting attached 
to the wrong insect, and so perishing of hunger. The 
species probably owes its preservation to the great number 
of eggs, amounting to upwards of 4000, deposited by a 
single female. The larva? of one group of water beetles, 
Hydrophilus, swim readily by means of their ciliated legs, 
those of another group, Dytiscus, make use also of their 
flexible abdomen provided at its extremity with a pair of 
leaf-like appendages (Plate VII. fig. G) ; w r hile the Whirligig 
larvae (Gyrinua), in addition to ciliated swimming organs, 
are provided with four movable hooks on the posterior 
segment, by which they are enabled to take extensive leaps 
(Plate VII. fig. 17). The duration of the larval state varies 
in different groups of beetles, being comparatively short in 
leaf-eating species, but lasting for three or four years in 
those which burrow in the earth or in wood. The larvae 
in the latter case pass the winter in a torpid state, abstain 
ing almost entirely from food, until awakened from their 
temporary trance by the return of genial weather, when 
they greedily attack their favourite food, and grow rapidly. 
In passing from the condition of a larva, the beetle does 
not, like the butterfly, assume a form altogether different 
from that of the perfect insect, but in the pupa or nymph 
state shows all the parts of the future insect, only in a condi 
tion of almost complete immobility. In preparing for this 
quiescent period, the larvae of many species surround 
themselves with a cocoon, consisting, in the case of the 
Scaralioeidce, of earth and small pieces of wood glued 
together with saliva, and in that of the Goliath Beetles, of 
mud. Others resemble the larvae of moths in constructing 
tubes in which to undergo their transformations, while the 
Jarvae of Lady-Birds Coccinrtla suspend themsalves by 



8500 

970 

529 

2686 

7576 



the tail and make use of their larval covering as a protec 
tion to the nymph within. When the condition of nymph 
is assumed in autumn, no further change takes place till 
the ensuing spring, but under suitable conditions of heat 
this stage does not last usually for more than three or four 
weeks, after which it emerges a full-blown beetle. 

The number of known species of beetles is estimated at 
J0,000, and these are probably not more than one-half of 
the total number in existence Great Britain alone 
possessing 3614 indigenous species. They occur in greatest 
abundance in the wooded parts of tropical regions. " A 
large proportion of the beetles of the tropics," says Wallace, 
" are more or less dependent on vegetation and particularly 
on timber, bark, and leaves in various stages of decay. In 
the untouched virgin forest the beetles are found at spots 
where trees have fallen through decay and old age." The 
number gradually decreases towards the poles, only a few 
species occurring as far north as Greenland. The six 
zoological provinces proposed by Mr Sclater in 1859 as 
applicable to the existing distribution of birds, have lately 
been shown by Mr A. R. Wallace, in his admirable work on 
the Geographical Distribution of Animals (1876), to mark 
off equally characteristic groups of Coleopterous insects, a 
conclusion arrived at from a study of the distribution of the 
following six important families : 

Cicindelidce or Tiger Beetles, containing 35 genera and 803 species. 
CaraLida; or Ground Beetles, 620 8500 

Cctoniidrc or Eose- Chafers, 120 

LucanidiE or Stag Beetles, 45 

Buprestidse or Metallic Beetles, 109 

Longicornia or Long-horned Beetles 1488 

The Palaaarctic Region, which comprises Europe, Africa 
north of the Sahara, and Northern Asia, possesses about 
20,000 species of beetles, and is specially characterized by 
abundance of Carabidce, nearly two-fifths of the entire 
number belonging to this region ; Longicorns are also well 
represented by 196 genera, of which 51 are peculiar to it. 
The Coleoptera of the Canary Islands, Madeira, and the 
Azores are Palaearctic, but are peculiar in the total absence 
of such forms as the Tiger Beetles, the Chafers, and the 
Rose-Chafers, also in the great number of wingless species. 
The latter are specially numerous in groups of beetles 
peculiar to those islands, but they also occur in other cases, 
22 genera which either usually or at least sometimes are 
winged in Southern Europe having only wingless species in 
Madeira, while at least three species winged in Europe 
occur in those islands in an apterous condition. On the 
other hand, those species in Madeira which possess wings 
have them more largely developed than they are among 
allied continental forms ; the strong-winged and the wing 
less thus appearing best suited to live in islands exposed, 
as these Atlantic groups are, to frequent storms. The 
Ethiopian Region, which includes Africa south of the 
Sahara and Madagascar, is specially rich in Cetoniidce, 
possessing 76, or more than half of the known genera, with 
64 of these peculiar to it, of which no less than 21 are 
found exclusively in Madagascar. It has also 262 genera 
of Longicorns, 216 of which are peculiar. The Oriental 
Region, comprising Southern Asia and the islands adjacent, 
contains some of the most remarkable forms of Carabidw, 
as Mormolyce <pliyllodes, and is rich in gorgeous metallic 
beetles (Huprestidce) and in Longicorns, having 360 
genera of the latter, with 70 per cent, peculiar to it. The 
Australian Region shows affinity with the Oriental in its 
Coleoptera ; it is equally rich in peculiar forms of Longi 
corns, and is the richest of all the regions in Bvprestidce, 
having 47, or more than one-half of the known genera, and 
20 of these confined to it. Several genera belonging to 
this and other families have their species divided between 
the Australian and Neotropical or South American Regions, 



COLEOPTERA 



129 



and this resemblance has given rise to the supposition that 
at some distant period a land connection existed between 
the two continents ; it is more probable, however, as 
Wallace holds, " that it may have arisen from intercom 
munication during the warm southern period when floating 
timber would occasionally transmit a few larvae from island 
to island across the Antarctic seas." The Neotropical 
Region comprehends southern and Central America and 
the West Indies, and is enormously rich in Longicorn 
Beetles, having no fewer than 516 genera, of which 487 
are found nowhere else. The most remarkable fact in the 
distribution of the Stag Beetles (Lucanidae) is their almost 
total absence from the tropical parts of this region, and 
their presence in North America, while in the old world 
they are specially characteristic of the hottest parts of the 
Oriental and Australian Regions. The Nearctic Region 
comprises the northern and temperate parts of America, 
and is comparatively poor in Coleoptera, showing greater 
affinity, however, with the Pahearctic than with the con 
tiguous Neotropical Region. 

The insects belonging to this extensive Order comprise 
numerous well-defined and generally recognized families, 
but great diversity of opinion exists as to the best mode of 
grouping these together so as to exhibit their natural 
affinities. Geoffrey, a French naturalist, was the first to 
make use of the number of joints in the tarsi for this 
purpose, a method adopted and extended by Olivier, and 
brought into general use by Latreille. According to the 
tarsal system the Coleoptera are divided into the following 
four sections : (1) PENTAMERA, in which all the tarsi are 
five-jointed ; (2) HETEROMERA, with five articulations to 
the first four tarsi and four to the posterior pair ; (3) 
TETRAMERA, with four articulations to all the tarsi ; and 
(4) TRIMERA, with all the tarsi three-jointed. Macleay, an 
English naturalist, altogether rejected the tarsal system of 
Geoffrey, and founded his .five primary divisions on 
characters derived from the larvae of those insects a system 
adopted by Stephens in his Classification of British Insects, 
and by several other English writers on this subject. The 
tarsal system is to a large extent artificial, and when slavishly 
followed brings together forms which in other respects 
differ very widely, while separating many that are as 
obviously related. Its simplicity and consequent easiness 
of application have, in the absence of a more natural system, 
led to its very general adoption by both British and foreign 
naturalists, who do not, however, apply it where obviously 
unnatural. 

PENTAMERA. The majority of the beetles in this section 
have the tarsi of the feet five-jointed, and they comprise 
fully one-half of all the known species of Coleoptera. It 
is subdivided into the following 8 groups : 

I. Geodtphaga, or Predaceous Land Beetles, resemble the 
succeeding group and differ from other Coleoptera in having 
the outer lobe of the maxilla? distinct and articulated, thus 
appearing to possess six palpi. They are extremely active, 
their legs being admirably adapted for running; the majority 
are nocturnal in their habits, secreting themselves under 
stones and clods of earth ; and all are carnivorous, feeding 
on other insects and occasionally devouring individuals of 
their own species, while their larvae are equally predaceous. 
They are exceedingly numerous in temperate regions, and 
are eminently serviceable in checking the increase of insects 
which feed on fruit and grain. The mandibles, by which 
they seize and tear their living prey, are long horny organs, 
hooked and sharp at the [joints, and toothed on the inner 
edges. This group includes the Tiger Beetles, Cidndelidce 
( Plate VI. figs. 4, 9-1 2), so called from the fierceness of their 
disposition, and probably also from the spots and stripes 
with which the elytra are generally adorned. Most of the 
species are diurnal, frequenting hot sandy districts, enjoying 



the bright sunshine, and flying for short distances with 
great velocity. They are elegant in form and adorned with 
brilliant metallic colours, the prevalent hue being a golden 
green. The habits of the larvae of these insects are very 
remarkable. Unfit, from the softness of their bodies and 
the slowness of their motions, effectually to protect them 
selves from the attacks of their enemies, or to capture their 
prey on the surface of the ground, the larvae of the Tiger 
Beetles have recourse to stratagem in order to effect these 
purposes. By means of their short thick legs, assisted by 
their powerful sickle-shaped jaws, they dig burrows in the 
sandy banks which they frequent, vertical for some distance, 
and afterwards curving so as to become horizontal. Thete 
are about a foot in depth, and within them the Tiger Beetle 
remains during its larval and pupa stages. In seeking its 
food the creature makes its way from the bottom of its den 
until the head segment, which is broad and flat, reaches the 
level of the ground, and thus blocks up the aperture of its 
tunnel. It remains fixed in this position by means of two 
bent hooks placed on the upper surface of the "eighth 
segment, which is considerably thicker than the others, until 
an unsuspecting ant or other insect passing over or close to 
it is seized by ite formidable jaws and speedily conveyed to 
the bottom of the pit-fall, where it is greedily devoured. 
Should the tunnels of different individuals happen to come 
in contact, the more powerful larva is eaid to devour its 
weaker neighbour. When full grown it closes the mouth of 
its burrow and there undergoes metamorphosis. The best 
known and most beautiful of British species is the Tiger 
Beetle, Cicindela campestris, of a sea-green colour with 
six whitish spots on the elytra. When handled it exhales, 
according to Westwood, a pleasant odour like that of roses. 
Ground beetles (Carabidce) are generally less brilliant in 
colour than the Tiger forms, being more nocturnal in their 
habits, and with the jaws less formidably toothed. Many 
of the species are entirely apterous, with the elytra more or 
less soldered together, and the majority of them secrete an 
acrid juice which they expel when menaced or attacked. 
Of the latter the most remarkable are the Bombardier 
Beetles, Brachinus (Plate VI. fig. 8). These congregate 
together under stones, and when disturbed discharge a 
caustic fluid of an extremely penetrating odour, and so 
volatile that no sooner does it come in contact with the 
atmosphere than it passes into a vapour, accompanied by 
a considerable explosion, during which they seek to escape. 
When placed on the tongue this fluid causes a sharp pain 
and leaves a yellow spot somewhat similar to that produced 
by a drop of nitric acid. The Bombardiers are said to be 
capable of giving off as many as 1 8 of such discharges at a 
time. One of the most beautiful of European beetles is the 
Calosoma sycophanta (Plate VII. fig. 2), belonging to this 
group. Its body is of a deep violet colour, and the elytra, 
which are striated and punctured, are of a rich green and 
gold tint. Both in the larva and perfect states these beetles 
frequent the trunks and branches of the oak, where they 
find their favourite food the large caterpillars of the 
Procession ary Moth (Bombyx processioned), of which they 
devour enormous numbers, apparently undeterred by the 
hairs which clothe the body of the caterpillar, and which 
when seized by the human hand cause considerable pain. 
One of the most curious of Carabideous Beetles, Mormolyce 
2 Jtyllodcs ( Plate VI. fig. 5), is a native of Java. Its body is 
about 3 inches long and 1 \ inches across the elytra. The 
latter are flat, thin, and greatly dilated, while the other 
parts of the body are remarkably depressed, the beetle thus 
somewhat resembling the Orthopterous leaf-insects, and 
hence the specific name phyllodes, or leaf-like. Many of 
the ground beetles, such as the typical Carali (Plate VI. 
figs. 6, 7) and the Calosoma, live in the sunshine and are 
generally brilliant in colouring ; others spend their existence 

vr 17 



130 



COLEOPTERA 



in subterranean caves, and are both colourless and blind ; 
while such forms as Blennis areolatus, found on the coast 
of Normandy, live for the most part under water, being 
only found when the tide is low. 

II. Hydradephaga, or Carnivorous Water Beetles, are 
oval and somewhat depressed in form, with the two 
posterior pairs of legs flattened and otherwise fitted for 
swimming. They include the Diving Beetles (Dytiscus) 
and the Whirligigs (Gyrinus). The former (Plate VII. figs. 
3-7) occur in all quarters of the globe, and are truly 
amphibious, for although water is their favourite element, 
they survive for a long time on moist land, and most of 
them fly about in the evening and morning twilight with 
great power and speed. When needing to breathe they allow 
themselves to float on the surface of the water, raise their 
elytra, and expose their stigmata to the atmosphere, thus 
getting quit of exhausted air and obtaining a fresh supply, 
which is stored up by closing the elytra. They are 
exceedingly voracious, devouring aquatic insects, as 
Hydrophilus piceiis, much larger than themselves, and doing 
considerable damage in fish ponds by devouring the young 
fish. They are readily kept in confinement, having been 
known to live thus for 3|- years, feeding on raw beef and 
insects. The larvae are even more voracious than the perfect 
insects, sucking the juices of their prey through perforated 
mandibles, and protected from attack by their horny 
integuments. Whirligigs (Gyrinus] (Plate VII. figs. 10, 11) 
differ from the Diving Beetles in the antennae, which are 
short and stout, and are so placed as somewhat to resemble 
ears. They are sociable creatures, and may be seen in 
ponds and ditches, congregated in groups varying from 2 
to 100, swimming upon the surface with their backs above 
the water, and chasing each other in circles or darting 
about in more irregular gyrations. Unlike other water 
beetles their backs show a brilliant metallic lustre, and 
when darting about in the sunshine they look like pearls 
dancing on the surface. Their eyes are so divided as to 
appear to consist of two turned upwards and another pair 
looking downwards. The larvae (Plate VII. fig. 1 7) are long, 
slender creatures somewhat resembling small centipedes, 
having each of the abdominal segments provided with a 
pair of slender ciliated appendages employed as organs of 
respiration as well as of locomotion, while the last segment 
is provided with four hooked organs by means of which 
they leap about. 

III. Philhydrida, or Water-loving Beetles, are aquatic 
or subaquatic in their habits, being found in the water or 
on the moist margins of ponds and marshes. Along with 
the two following groups they feed on decaying animal and 
vegetable substances, and for this reason those insects have 
been classed together as Rhypopliaga, or Cleansers. The 
antennas are short and clavate, and they are specially dis 
tinguished from other aquatic forms by the great length of 
the maxillary palps, a feature which has procured for them 
the name Palpicornes, often applied to them. The best 
known forms belong to the family Hydrophilidce, of which 
one species, and that the largest, Hydroi)hi>us piceus (Plate 
VII. fig. 32), is an inhabitant of Europe. This beetle is oval 
in form, and of a dark olive colour, and measures H inches 
in length. It uses its hind legs for swimming or rather 
paddling, moving them not together, as the true water 
beetles do, but alternately. Its movements in the water are 
thus slower than those of the former, but speed in this case 
13 less necessary, their principal food consisting of aquatic 
leaves. In the larval stage, however, //. piceus makes an 
approach to the true water beetles in its food, and is so 
ferocious as to have earned the name ver assassin on the 
Continent. The mode of respiration in the perfect insect 
is curious ; unable to raise its upper surface above the 
water, it merely protrudes its head, and folding its club- 



shaped antennae, the ends of which are slightly hollow, it 
thus conveys little bubbles of air beneath the surface of the 
water, where it brings them into contact with the tracheal 
openings. The larvae swim with facility, and are provided 
at the posterior extremity with two appendages which serve 
to maintain them at the surface when they ascend to breathe. 

IV. Necrophaya are the beetles of most service in re 
moving decaying animal matter, although a few species live 
on putrescent fungi, and others resemble the carnivorous 
groups in attacking and devouring the larvaa of other 
insects. They are chiefly marked by the form of the an 
tennae, which are not much longer than the head, and get 
thickened or club-shaped at the extremity. This group 
comprises the Sexton Beetles (Necrophorus), of which 
Necropliorus vespillo (Plate VII. fig. 27) may be taken as the 
type. These insects have thick bodies and powerful 
limbs, and owe their popular name to the peculiar manner 
in which they provide a nidus for their eggs. Their 
sense of smell is exceedingly acute, and no sooner does 
one of the smaller quadrupeds, as mice or moles, die, 
than several of those burying beetles, gathering about, 
begin to remove the earth from beneath the dead animal, 
and in a few hours succeed in sinking the carcase beneath 
the level of the ground, which they then cover over 
with earth. Having thus prevented the body from being 
devoured by other carrion-eating animals, or from having 
its juices dried up by exposure to the sun, they make 
their way into the carcase and there deposit their eggs. 
Several individuals generally work together in this 
grave-digging operation, although Necrophorus germanicus 
is said to labour alone, and they have been known to show 
considerable intelligence in performing this operation ; thua 
Gleiditsch states that in order to get possession of the 
body of a mole, fixed on the end of a stick, they under 
mined the latter and thus brought the dead body to the 
ground. The larvce on leaving the egg thus find them 
selves surrounded by an abundance of food ; and when 
full grown they bury themselves fully a foot beneath the 
surface of the ground, where they form an oval chamber, 
the walls of which are strengthened by a coating of a gluey 
liquid, and in which they undergo metamorphosis. Shield 
Beetles (Silpha) (Plate VII. fig. 22) so called from the 
flattened form of their bodies, feed chiefly on carrion ; 
some, however, climb upon plants, particularly the stems 
of wheat and other grain, where they find small helices on 
which they prey ; while others, as Silpha pundata, dwell 
on trees and devour caterpillars. They exhale a disagree 
able odour, probably arising from the nature of their food, 
and when they are seized a thick dark-coloured liquid exudes 
from their bodies. The Dermestidce are a family of small 
but widely-distributed beetles, which work great havoc 
among skins, furs, leather, and the dried or stuffed animals 
in museums. The perfect insects are timid creatures, 
which when disturbed fold their short contractile feet 
under their bodies, and, remaining perfectly motionless, 
admirably counterfeit death. The mischief is mainly 
wrought by the larvae. These shed their skins several 
times, and take nearly a year in attaining their full growth. 
One of the most common and injurious species of this 
family is the Bacon Beetle (Dermestes lardarius) (Plate VII. 
fig. 14) so called from its fondness for lard, but equally 
ready to attack the furrier s wares. Their tastes are 
exceedingly general, as they have been known to destroy a 
whole cargo of cork and even to perforate asbestos. The 
larvoe of Anthrenus museorum, a species not exceeding one- 
tenth of an inch in length, is exceedingly injurious to 
collections of insects, among which it eludes observation by 
its minuteness and by working in the interior of the speci 
mens, which are thus ruined before the damage is observed. 

V. Brachdytra (Plate VII. figs. 12, 15, 20) are readily 



COLEOPTERA 




COLEOPTERA 



131 



distinguished from the other groups of beetles by having 
the elytra much shorter than the abdomen, although they 
still suffice to cover the long membranous wings, which 
when not in use are completely folded beneath. The abdo 
men is long and exceedingly mobile, and is employed 
in folding and unfolding the wings. It is furnished at its 
extremity with two vesicles which can be protruded or 
withdrawn at pleasure, and from which, when irritated, 
many species emit a most disagreeable odour, although in 
a few the scent is more pleasing ; " one species, " says 
Kirby, " which I once took, smelt precisely like a fine high 
scanted pear, another like the water-lily, a third like water- 
cresses, and a fourth like saffron." They are very 
voracious both in the larval and perfect states, feeding 
chiefly upon decaying animal and vegetable matters, 
although a few species devour living prey. Many of the 
smaller forms reside in and feed on mushrooms, some are 
found abundantly under putrescent plants, others in 
manure heaps, where they feed upon the maggots of flies, 
while there are a few forms which make their homes in the 
nests of the hornet and the ant. The larvae bear a con 
siderable resemblance to their parents in form and habits, 
and have the terminal segment of the abdomen prolonged 
into a tube with two conical and hairy appendages attached. 
The Brachelytroua beetles form an extensive group, almost 
entirely confined to the temperate regions of the northern 
hemisphere, Great Britain alone possessing nearly 800 
species. They ara familiarly known in this country as 
Cock-tails, one of the largest and most familiar species 
being that known as the Devil s Coach- horse (Goer ins 
olens) It is about an inch in length, of a black colour, and 
it3 eggs are larger than those of any other British insect. 
It may often be seen crossing garden walks ; and when 
approached or otherwise threatened, it immediately assumes 
a most ferocious aspect and attitude, elevating its head 
and opening wide its formidable jaws, raising and throwing 
back its tail after the manner of the scorpion, protruding 
its anal vesicles, and emitting a disagreeable odour. It is 

/ O O 

carnivorous. 

VI. Clavicornes have the antennae terminating in a 
solid or perfoliated club, and include the Pill Beetles 
(Byrrhidce) and the Mimic Beetles (Histerida), The 
former are small insects, generally short, oval, and highly 
convex, although a few species found under the bark of 
trees are flattened. They most frequently occur in sand 
pits and on pathways, and when in danger withdraw their 
highly contractile legs into cavities prepared for them on 
the under side of the body, at the same time folding up 
their antennae and remaining motionless. In this condition 
they may readily be mistaken for oval seeds or pills, 
hence the common name. The Mimic Beetles (Plate VII. 
fig. 13) seldom exceed one-third of an inch in length, and 
are of very solid consistence, their elytra being so hard 
that the pin of the entomologist is with difficulty made to 
enter. They are somewhat square in form, with the upper 
surface highly polished, feeding chiefly on putrid substances 
and found in great abundance in spring on the dung of 
oxen and horses. Like Pill Beetles they roll themselves 
up on the approach of clanger and feign death with great 
perseverance, and to this they owe their generic name 
Ilister, from kistrio, a stage mimic. 

VII. Lamdlicornes comprise a vast assemblage of beetles, 
many of which, especially such as feed on flowers and 
living plants, are remarkable alike for beauty of form 
and splendour of colour. They are distinguished_ by the 
form of their antenme, which always terminate in a club 
composed of several leaf-like joints, disposed like the spokes 
of a fan, the leaves of a book, or the teeth of a comb, or in a 
series of funnels placed above and within each other. The 
males often differ from the females in having horn-like 



projections on the head and thorax, and in the greater size 
of their mandibles. They are all winged insects, although 
somewhat dull and heavy in their flight ; and alike in the 
larval and perfect states they are herbivorous, feeding either 
on living vegetation and flowers or on putrescent plants and 
excrementitious substances. The following species may be 
regarded as illustrative of the most important subdivisons 
of the Lamellicorn Beetles : Stag Beetles (Lucanidai) 
(Plate VIII. fig. 14), with the club of the antennae com 
posed of leaflets disposed perpendicularly to its axis like 
the teeth of a comb, owe their most striking feature to the 
immense development of the mandibles in the males, the 
purpose served by these formidable looking organs being 
by no means fully understood. The males appear to be 
more numerous than the females, and fierce contests take 
place among the former for possession of the latter. The 
Stag Beetle (Lucanus cerviis), of a uniform brown colour, 
measures 2 inches in length including the mandibles, and 
is the largest of British beetles. It inhabits woods, passing 
its immature stages in the interior of the oak and beech, 
and may be seen flying in the evening in search of the 
female. It has a patch of golden-coloured hair towards the 
base of the foreleg with which it cleans its antennae after 
these have been in contact with any sticky substance. 
After coupling and depositing their eggs both sexes soon 
die. The Dor Beetle (Geotrupes stercorarius) is the type 
of a large tribe of dung-eating beetles (Plate VII. figs. 21, 
25, 26). It is a black insect, with brilliant metallic blue 
or purple reflections on the under side, and well known as 
" wheeling its drowsy flight " during fine evenings. This 
it does in search of a patch of cow-dung, through which it 
makes its way until reaching the ground, where it bores a 
perpendicular tunnel about 8 inches deep, and as wide as a 
man s finger ; then ascending to the surface it conveys a 
quantity of dung to the bottom, and on this it proceeds to 
deposit an egg ; another layer of the same material and 
another egg follow until the entire shaft is filled. The 
larvae on leaving the egg thus find themselves surrounded 
with their appropriate food. The Sacred Beetle of Egypt, 
Ateuchus sacer (Plate VII. fig. 29), somewhat resembles the 
Dor in form and habits. After depositing her egg on a 
piece of dung the female rolls the mass about in the sun 
shine with her forelegs until it forms a rounded ball. The 
process of hatching is thus accelerated, and a thin hardened 
crust is formed around the softer material inclosing the 
egg. A hole is then dug in the earth by means of its 
powerful forelegs, into which the ball is rolled and then 
covered over with earth, where it remains until fully 
developed. Those beetles show great perseverance in 
conveying the egg-laden pellets to their destination, fre 
quently carrying them over rough ground on the broad flat 
surface of their heads, and seeking, when unable singly to 
complete the work, the assistance of their fellows. Two 
species of Sacred Beetles were worshipped by the ancient 
Egyptians, who regarded them as emblems of fertility, and 
as representing the resurrection of the soul, owing to their 
sudden appearance in great numbers on the banks of the 
Nile after the annual subsidence of that river. They form 
a conspicuous feature in the hieroglyphics of that nation, 
and are found sculptured on their monuments, sometimes 
of gigantic size. They were also formed into separate 
figures, as seals and amulets, made of gold and other precious 
materials, and hung around the necks of the living, or 
buried along with their mummies. The insect itself is 
sometimes found in their coffins. The male Hercules 
Beetle (Scarabceus hercules) of Guiana has the head pro 
duced into an enormous horn, bent downwards at the ex 
tremity, and clothed on the under surface with a reddish 
brown pile, and measures 6 inches in length. The Cock 
chafers, Melolontkidce (Plate VII. fig. 2S), have a short 



132 



COLEOPTERA 



labrum and strong mandibles suited for feeding on leaves. 
The club of the antennae consists of a variable number of 
plates, those in the male being considerably elongated and 
resembling a folded fan (Plate VII. fig. 23). The common 
Cockchafer (Melolontha vulgaris) is of a pitchy black 
colour clothed with a white pubescence or layer of minute 
scales. It is one of the commonest and most destructive 
of beetles, feeding in the perfect state on the leaves of the 
oak, beech, poplar, and elm, and sometimes appearing in 
such numbers as to utterly destroy the foliage over large 
districts; thus in the