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BIOLOQl LIBR. 

LIBRARY 



UNIVERSITY OP 
CALIFORNIA 



7 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



NINTH EDITION 



THE 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BEITANNICA 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



ARTS, SCIENCES, AND GENERAL LITERATURE 



NINTH EDITION 



VOLUME XVIII 



NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER ; S SONS 

MDCCCLXXXV 
[ All Eights reserved. 



Add l 



Gin 



BIOLOGY 
LIBRARY 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BEITANNICA 



ORNE 



ORNE, a department of the north-west of France, about 
half of which formerly belonged to the province of 
Normandy and the rest to the duchy of Alen^on and to 
Perche, lies between 48 10 and 48 58 N. lat., and 
between 1 E. and 50 W. long., and is bounded N. 
by Calvados, N.E. by Eure, S.E. by Eure-et-Loir, S. by 
Sarthe and Mayenne, and W. by Manche. The greatest 
length from east to west is 87 miles, and the area 2635 
square miles. The population in 1881 numbered 376,126. 
Geologically there are two distinct regions : to the west of 
the Orne and the railway from Argentan to Alen9on lie 
primitive rocks connected with those of Brittany ; to the 
east begin the Jurassic and Cretaceous formations of Nor 
mandy. The latter district is agriculturally the richest 
part of the department ; in the former the poverty of the 
soil has led the inhabitants to seek their subsistence from 
industrial pursuits. Between the northern portions, drain 
ing to the Channel, and the southern portion, belonging to 
the basin of the Loire, stretch the hills of Perche and 
Normandy, which generally have a height of from 800 to 
1000 feet. The highest point in the department, situated 
in the forest of Ecouves north of Alengon, reaches 1378 
feet. The department gives birth to three Seine tribu 
taries the Eure, its affluent the Iton, and the Ilille, which 
passes by Laigie. The Touques, passing by Vimoutier, 
the Dives, and the Orne fall into the English Channel, 
the last passing Sdies and Argentan, and receiving the 
Noireau with its tributary the Vere, which runs past Flers. 
Towards the Loire flow the Huisne, a feeder of the Sarthe 
passing by Mortagne, the Sarthe, which passes by Alencon, 
and the Mayenne, some of whose affluents rise to the 
north of the dividing range and make their way through 
it by the most picturesque defiles. Nearly the whole 
department, indeed, with its beautiful forests containing 
oaks several centuries old, its green meadows peopled with 
herds, its limpid streams, its deep gorges, its stupendous 
rocks, is one of the most picturesque of all France, though 
neither bathed by the sea nor possessing a truly moun 
tainous character. In the matter of climate Orne be 
longs to the Seine region. The mean temperature is 
50 Fahr. ; the summer heat is never extreme ; the west 
winds are the most frequent ; the rainfall, distributed 
over about a hundred days in the year, amounts to 

106 



nearly 3 feet, or half as much again as the average 
for France. 

Arable land occupies seven-twelfths of the surface, 
woods one-eighth, and pasture land almost as much. The 
live stock comprises 70,000 horses, 4000 asses, 122,000 
sheep (35,500 high-bred), yielding in 1878 660,000 Bb of 
wool of the value of nearly 25,000, 53,000 pigs, 2800 
goats, 210,000 horned cattle, 30,000 dogs, 700,000 fowls, 
53,000 geese, and 15,800 beehives, each producing on the 
average 2 ft) of wax and 20 Ib of honey. Horse-breeding 
is the most flourishing business in the rural districts ; 
there are three breeds those of Perche, Le Merlerault (a 
cross between Norman and English horses), and Brittany. 
The great Government stud of Le Pin is situated 
between Le Merlerault and Argentan. Several horse- 
training establishments exist in the department. A large 
number of lean cattle are bought in the neighbouring 
departments to be fattened ; the farms in the vicinity of 
Vimoiitier, on the borders of Calvados, produce the famous 
Camenbert cheese, and others excellent butter. In 1882 
Orne produced 3,288,000 bushels of wheat, meslin 431,000, 
rye 315,700, barley 1,510,000, oats 3,410,000, buckwheat 
600,000, potatoes 654,000, beetroot 939,000 cwt., colza 
seed 5000 cwt., hemp 8300 cwt., besides fodder in great 
quantity and variety, pulse, flax, fruits, kc. The variety 
of production is due to the great natural diversity of the 
soils. Small farms are the rule, and the fields in those 
cases are surrounded by hedges relieved by pollard trees. 
Along the roads or in the enclosures are planted numer 
ous pear and apple trees (nearly 3,000,000), yielding 
58,000,000 gallons of cider and perry, part of which is 
manufactured into brandy. Beech, oak, birch, and pine 
are the chief timber trees in the extensive forests of the 
department, of which a third belongs to the state. Orne 
contains iron ore of poor quality, granite quarries employ 
ing from 400 to 500 workmen, and a kind of smoky quartz 
known as Alengon diamond. Its most celebrated mineral 
waters are those of the hot springs of Bagnoles, which 
contain salt, sulphur, and arsenic, and are employed for 
tonic and restorative purposes in cases of general debility. 
In the forest of Belleme is the chalybeate spring of La 
Hesse, which was used by the Romans. The other 
mineral springs of the department are chalybeate or 

XVIII. i 



R N R N 



sulphurous. Cotton and linen weaving forms the staple 
industry of Orne, 51 establishments (123,000 spindles 
and 12, 170 looms) being devoted to cotton, 2 establish 
ments (500 spindles) to wool, and 3 establishments (2400 
spindles and 2800 looms) to linen. Flers manufactures 
ticking, table-linen, furniture satin, cotton cloth, and 
thread, employs 28,000 workmen, and produces to the 
annual value of 1,520,000. La Ferte" Mace" employs 
10,000 workmen in the hand-loom manufacture of cotton. 
Alencon and Vimoutier are engaged in the production of 
linen and canvas, and have also dye-works and bleacheries. 
About 2000 workmen are employed at Alencon in the 
making of the lace which takes its name from the town. 
Foundries, wire-works, and one blast furnace also exist in 
the department, and cutlery, boilers, and articles in copper, 



zinc, and lead are manufactured. Tin wares, pins, and 
needles are produced at Laigle. Glass-works give employ 
ment to 600 workmen, and turn out glass to the value of 
more than 100,000. There are nourishing paper-mills, 
tanneries (the waters of the Orne giving a special quality 
to the leather), and glove-works. There are in all 133 
establishments making use of steam (2128 horse-power). 
There are 848 miles of railway. The department consists 
of four arrondissements (Alengon, Argentan, Domfront, 
and Mortagne), 36 cantons, and 511 communes, forms the 
diocese of Sees, depends on the Caen court of appeal, and 
is included in the corps d amitSe of Le Mans. The com 
munes with more than 5000 inhabitants are Ale^on 
! (17,237), Flers (12,304), La Ferte Mace (9396), Argentan 
(6300), and Laigle (5303). 



/"XTCXITHOLOGY 1 in its proper sense is the methodi- 
\J cal study and consequent knowledge of Birds with all 
that relates to them; but the difficulty of assigning a limit 
to the commencement of such study and knowledge gives 
the word a very vague meaning, and practically procures 
its application to much that does not enter the domain of 
Science. This elastic application renders it impossible in 
the following sketch of the history of Ornithology to draw 
any sharp distinction between works that are emphatically 
ornithological and those to which that title can only be 
attached by courtesy; for, since Birds have always attracted 
far greater attention than any other group of animals with 
which in number or in importance they can be compared, 
there has grown up concerning them a literature of corre 
sponding magnitude and of the widest range, extending 
from the recondite and laborious investigations of the 
morphologist and anatomist to the casual observations of 
the sportsman or the schoolboy. The chief cause of the 
disproportionate amount of attention which Birds have 
received plainly arises from the way in which so many of 
them familiarly present themselves to us, or even (it may 
be said) force themselves upqn our notice. Trusting to 
the freedom from danger conferred by the power of flight, 
most Birds have no need to lurk hidden in dens, or to 
slink from place to place under shelter of the inequalities 
of the ground or of the vegetation which clothes it, as is 
the case with so many other animals of similar size. 
Besides this, a great number of the Birds which thus 
display themselves freely to our gaze are conspicuous for 
the beauty of their plumage ; and there are very few that 
are not remarkable for the grace of their form. Some j 
Birds again enchant us with their voice, and others i 
administer to our luxuries and wants, while there is scarcely 
a species which has not idiosyncrasies that are found to be 
of engaging interest the more we know of them. Moreover, 
it is clear that the art of the fowler is one that must have 
been practised from the very earliest times, and to follow 
that art with success no inconsiderable amount of acquaint 
ance with the haunts and habits of Birds is a necessity. 
Owing to one or another of these causes, or to the combina 
tion of more than -.one, it is not surprising that the obser 
vation of Birds has been from a very remote period a 
favourite pursuit among nearly all nations, and this obser 
vation has by degrees led to a study more or less framed 
on methodical principles, finally reaching the dignity of a 



science, and a study that has its votaries in almost all 
classes of the population of every civilized country. In 
the ages during which intelligence dawned on the world s 
total ignorance, and even now in those districts that have 
not yet emerged from the twilight of a knowledge still 
more imperfect than is our own at present, 2 an additional 
and perhaps a stronger reason for paying attention to the 
ways of Birds existed, or exists, in their association with 
the cherished beliefs handed down from generation to 
generation among many races of men, and not unf requently 
interwoven in their mythology. 3 

Moreover, though Birds make a not unimportant appear 
ance in the earliest written records of the human race, the 
painter s brush has preserved their counterfeit presentment 
for a still longer period. What is asserted and that, so 
far as the writer is aware, without contradiction by 
Egyptologists of the highest repute to be the oldest picture 
in the world is a fragmentary fresco taken from a tomb at 
Maydoom, and happily deposited, though in a decaying 
condition, in the Museum at Boolak. This picture is said 
to date from the time of the third or fourth dynasty, some 
three thousand years before the Christian era. In it are 
depicted with a marvellous fidelity, and thorough apprecia 
tion of form and colouring (despite a certain conventional 
treatment), the figures of six Geese. Four of these figures 
can be unhesitatingly referred to two species (Anser 
albifrons and A. ruftcollis) well known at the present day ; 
and if the two remaining figures, belonging to a third 
species, were re-examined by an expert they would very 
possibly be capable of determination with no less certainty. 4 
In later ages the representations of Birds of one sort or 
another in Egyptian paintings and sculptures become 
countless, and the bassi-rilievi of Assyrian monuments, 
though mostly belonging of course to a subsequent period, 
are not without them. No figures of Birds, however, seem 
yet to have been found on the incised stones, bones, or 
ivories of the prehistoric races of Europe. 

It is of course necessary to name ARISTOTLE (born B.C. 
385, died B.C. 322) as the first serious author on Ornithology 
with whose writings we are acquainted, but even he had, 



1 Ornithologia, from the Greek opi/i&-, crude form of opvis, a bird, 
and -\oyia, allied to Aoyor, commonly Englished a discourse. The 
earliest known use of the word Ornithology seems to be in the third 
edition of Blount s Olossographia (1670), where it is noted as being 
the title of a late Book." See Prof. Skcat s Etymnloyical Dictionary 
of the English Language. 



2 Of the imperfection of our present knowledge more must be said 
presently. 

3 For instances of this among Greeks and Romans almost any 
dictionary or treatise of "Classical Antiquities" maybe consulted, 
while as regards the superstitions of barbarous nations the authorities 
are far too numerous to be here named. 

4 The portion of the picture containing the figures of the Geese has 
been figured by Mr LOFTIE (Ride in E jypt, p. 209), and the present 
writer owes to that gentleman s kindness the opportunity of examining 
a copy made on the spot by an accomplished artist, as well as the 
information that it is No. 988 of Mariette s Catalogue. See art. MUIIAL 
DKCORATION, vol. xvii. p. 39, fig. 7. 



ORNITHOLOGY 



as he tells us, predecessors ; and, looking to that portion of 
his works on animals which has come down to us, one finds 
that, though more than 170 sorts of Birds are mentioned, 1 
yet what is said of them amounts on the whole to very 
little, and this consists more of desultory observations in 
illustration of his general remarks (which are to a con 
siderable extent physiological or bearing on the subject of 
reproduction) than of an attempt at a connected account 
of Birds. Some of these observations are so meagre as to 
have given plenty of occupation to his many commentators, 
who with varying success have for more than three hundred 
years been endeavouring to determine what were the Birds 
of which he wrote ; and the admittedly corrupt state of the 
text adds to their difficulties. One of the most recent 
of these commentators, the late Prof. Sundevall equally 
proficient in classical as in ornithological knowledge was, 
in 1863, compelled to leave more than a score of the Birds 
unrecognized. Yet it is not to be supposed that in what 
survives of the great philosopher s writings we have more 
than a fragment of the knowledge possessed by him, though 
the hope of recovering his Zo>t/ca or his Avaro/xtKa, in which 
he seems to have given fuller descriptions of the animals 
he knew, can be hardly now entertained. A Latin transla 
tion by Gaza of Aristotle s existing zoological work was 
printed at Venice in 1503. Another version, by Scaliger, 
was subsequently published. Two wretched English trans 
lations have appeared. 

Pliny. Next in order of date, though at a long interval, comes 
CAIUS PLINIUS SECUNDUS, commonly known as PLINY the 
Elder, who died A.D. 79, author of a general and very dis 
cursive Historia Naturalis in thirty-seven books, of which 
Book X. is devoted to Birds. A considerable portion of 
Pliny s work may be traced to his great predecessor, of 
whose information he freely and avowedly availed himself, 
while the additions thereto made cannot be said to be, 
on the whole, improvements. Neither of these authors 
attempted to classify the Birds known to them beyond a 
very rough and for the most part obvious grouping. 
Aristotle seems to recognize eight principal groups : (1) 
Gampsonyches, approximately equivalent to the Accipitres 
of Linnasus ; (2) Scolecophaga, containing most of what 
would now be called Oscines, excepting indeed the (3) 
Acanthophaga, composed of the Goldfinch, Siskin, and a 
few others ; (4) Scnipophaga, the Woodpeckers ; (5) 
Peristeroi.de, or Pigeons ; (6) Schizopoda, (7) Steganopocla, 
and (8) Barea, nearly the same respectively as the Linna^an 
Grallse, Ansercs, and Gallinse. Pliny, relying wholly on 
characters taken from the feet, limits himself to three 
groups without assigning names to them those which 
have " hooked tallons, as Hawkes ; or round long clawes, 
as Hennes ; or else they be broad, flat, and whole-footed, as 
Geese and all the sort in manner of water-foule " to use 
the words of Philemon Holland, who, in 1601, published a 
quaint and, though condensed, yet fairly faithful English 
translation of Pliny s work. 

^Elian. About a century later came ^ELIAN, who died about A.D. 
140, and compiled in Greek (though he was an Italian 
by birth) a number of miscellaneous observations on the 
peculiarities of animals. His work is a kind of common 
place book kept without scientific discrimination. A con 
siderable number of Birds are mentioned, and something 
said of almost each of them ; but that something is too 
often nonsense according to modern ideas though 
occasionally a fact of interest may therein be found. It 
contains numerous references to former or contemporary 
writers whose works have perished, but there is nothing 
to shew that they were wiser than yElian himself. 

1 Tliis is Sundevall s estimate ; Drs Aubert and Wimmer in their 
excellent edition of the lo-ropiai irepl ipcav (Leipzig : 1868) limit the 
number to 126. 



The twenty-six books De Animalibus of ALBERTUS Albe 
MAGNUS (GKOOT), who died A.D. 1282, were printed in Mag: 
1478 ; but were apparently already well known from manu 
script copies. They are founded on the works of Aristotle, 
many of whose statements are almost literally repeated, and 
often without acknowledgment. Occasionally Avicenna, 
or some other less-known author, is quoted ; but it is 
hardly too much to say that the additional information is 
almost worthless. The twenty-third of these books is De 
Avibus, and therein a great number of Birds names make 
their earliest appearance, few of which are without interest 
from a philologist s if not an ornithologist s point of view, 
but there is much difficulty in recognizing the species to 
which many of them belong. In 1485 was printed the 
first dated copy of the volume known as the Ortus 
Sanitatis, to the popularity of which many editions testify. 
Though said by its author, JOHANN WONNECKE VON CAUB Cube 
(Latinized as JOHANNES DE CUBA), 2 to have been composed 
from a study of the collections formed by a certain noble 
man who had travelled in Eastern Europe, Western Asia, 
and Egypt possibly Breidenbach, an account of whose 
travels in the Levant was printed at Mentz in 1486 it is 
really a medical treatise, and its zoological portion is mainly 
an abbreviation of the writings of Albertus Magnus, with 
a few interpolations from Isidorus of Seville (who flour 
ished in the beginning of the seventh century, and w r as the 
author of many works highly esteemed in the Middle Ages) 
and a work known as PHYSIOLOGUS (q.v.). The third trac- 
tatus of this volume deals with Birds including among 
them Bats, Bees, and other flying creatures; but as it is the 
first printed book in which figures of Birds are introduced 
it merits notice, though most of the illustrations, which are 
rude woodcuts, fail, even in the coloured copies, to give 
any precise indication of the species intended to be repre 
sented. The scientific degeneracy of this work is mani 
fested as much by its title (Ortus for Hortus) as by the 
mode in which the several subjects are treated ; 3 but the 
revival of learning was at hand, and WILLIAM TURNER, a Turn 
Northumbrian, while residing abroad to avoid persecution 
at home, printed at Cologne in 1544 the first commentary 
on the Birds mentioned by Aristotle and Pliny conceived 
in anything like the spirit that moves modern naturalists. 4 
In the same year and from the same press was issued a 
Dialogus de Avibus by GYBERTUS LONGOLIUS, and in 1570 Long 
CAIUS brought out in London his treatise De rariorum nus - 
animalium atque stirpium historia. In this last work, small 
though it be, ornithology has a good share ; and all three 
may still be consulted with interest and advantage by its 
votaries. 5 Meanwhile the study received a great impulse 
from the appearance, at Zurich in 1555, of the third book 
of the illustrious CONRAD GESNER S Historia Animalium Gesn 
"qvi est de Auium natura," and at Paris in the same year 

- On this point see G. A. Pritzel, Botan. Zeitung, 1846, pp. 785-790, 
and Thes. Literal. Botanica (Lipsise : 1851), pp. 349-352. 

3 Absurd as much that we find both in Albertus Magnus and the Ortus 
seems to modern eyes, if we go a step lower in the scale and consult the 
Bestiaries" or treatises on animalswhich were common from the twelfth 
to the fourteenth century we shall meet with many more absurdities. 
See for instance that by PHILIPPE DE THAUN (PHILIPPUS TAOXENSIS), 
dedicated to Adelaide or Alice, queen of Henry I. of England, and pro 
bably written soon after 1121, as printed by the late Mr Thomas Wright, 
in his Popular Treatises on Science written during the Middle Ages 
(London: 1841). 

4 This was reprinted at Cambridge in 1823 by the late Dr George 
Thackeray. 

5 The Seventh of WoTTON s De differentiis animalium Libri Decem, 
published at Paris in 1552, treats of Birds; but his work is merely a 
compilation from Aristotle and Pliny, with references to other classical 
writers who have more or less incidentally mentioned Birds and other 
animals. The author in his preface states "Veterum scriptorum 
sententias in unum quasi cumulum eoaceruaui, de meo nihil addidi." 
Nevertheless he makes some attempt at a systematic arrangement of 
Birds, which, according to his lights, is far from despicable. 



OKNITHOLOGY 



Belou. of Pierre BELON S (BELLONius) Jlistoire de la nature des 
Oyseaiuc. Gesner brought an amount of erudition, hitherto 
unequalled, to bear upon his subject ; and, making due allow 
ance for the times in which he wrote, his judgment must in 
most respects be deemed excellent. In his work, however, 
there is little that can be called systematic treatment. 
Like nearly all his predecessors since ^Elian, he adopted an 
alphabetical arrangement, 1 though this was not too pedanti 
cally preserved, and did not hinder him from placing 
together the kinds of Birds which he supposed (and gene 
rally supposed rightly) to have the most resemblance to that 
one whose name, being best known, was chosen for the 
headpiece (as it were) of his particular theme, thus recog 
nizing to some extent the principle of classification. 2 Belon, 
with perhaps less book-learning than his contemporary, 
was evidently no mean scholar, and undoubtedly had more 
practical knowledge of Birds their internal as well as 
external structure. Hence his work, written in French, 
contains a far greater amount of original matter ; and his 
personal observations made in many countries, from 
England to Egypt, enabled him to avoid most of the 
puerilities which disfigure other works of his own or of a 
preceding age. Besides this, Belon disposed the Birds 
known to him according to a definite system, which (rude 
as we now know it to be) formed a foundation on which 
several of his successors were content to build, and even 
to this day traces of its influence may still be discerned in 
the arrangement followed by writers who have faintly 
appreciated the principles on which modern taxonomers 
rest the outline of their schemes. Both his work and that 
of Gesner were illustrated with woodcuts, many of which 
display much spirit and regard to accuracy. 

Belon, as has just been said, had a knowledge of the 
anatomy of Birds, and he seems to have been the first to 
institute a direct comparison of their skeleton with that of 
Man ; but in this respect he only anticipated by a few 

Colter, years the more precise researches of VOLCHER GOITER, a 
Frisian, who in 1573 and 1575 published at Nuremberg 
two treatises, in one of which the internal structure of 
Birds in general is very creditably described, while in the 
other the osteology and myology of certain forms is given 
in considerable detail, and illustrated by carefully-drawn 
figures. The first is entitled Externarum et intemarum 
principalium humani corporis Tabulae, &c., while the second, 
which is the most valuable, is merely appended to the 
Lectiones Gabrielis Fallopii de partibus similaribus humani 
corporis, &c., and thus, the scope of each work being 
regarded as medical, the author s labours were wholly over 
looked by the mere natural-historians who followed, though 
Goiter introduced a table, " De di/erentiis Auium" furnish 
ing a key to a rough classification of such Birds as were 
known to him, and this as nearly the first attempt of the 
kind deserves notice here. 

Aldro- Contemporary with these three men was ULYSSES ALDRO- 

vandus. VANDUS, a Bolognese, who wrote an Historia Naturalium 
in sixteen folio volumes, most of which were not printed 
till after his death in 1605 ; but those on Birds appeared 
between 1599 and 1603. The work is almost wholly a 
compilation, and that not of the most discriminative kind, 
while a peculiar jealousy of Gesner is continuously displayed, 
though his statements are very constantly quoted nearly 
always as those of " Ornithologus," his name appearing but 
few times in the text, and not at all in the list of authors 

1 Even at the present day it may be shrewdly suspected that not 
a few ornithologists would gladly follow Gesner s plan in their despair 
of seeing, in their own time, a classification which would really deserve 
the epithet scientific. 

2 For instance, under the title of "Accipiter" we have to look, not 
only for the Sparrow-Hawk and Gos-Hawk, but for many other Birds 
of the Family (as we now call it) removed comparatively far from those 
species by modern ornithologists. 



cited. With certain modifications in principle not very 
important, but characterized by much more elaborate detail, 
Aldrovandus adopted Belon s method of arrangement, but 
in a few respects there is a manifest retrogression. The work 
of Aldrovandus was illustrated by copper-plates, but none 
of his figures approach those of his immediate predecessors 
in character or accuracy. Nevertheless the book was 
eagerly sought, and several editions of it appeared. 3 

Mention must be made of a medical treatise by GASPAR Schwc 
SCHWENCKFELD, published at Liegnitz in 1603, under the frU- 
title of Theriotropheum Silesise, the fourth book of which 
consists of an " Aviarium Silesia;," and is the earliest of 
the works we now know by the name of Fauna. The 
author was well acquainted with the labours of his predeces 
sors, as his list of over one hundred of them testifies. Most 
of the Birds he describes are characterized with accuracy 
sufficient to enable them to be identified, and his obser 
vations upon them have still some interest ; but he was 
innocent of any methodical system, and was not exempt 
from most of the professional fallacies of his time. 4 

Hitherto, from the nature of the case, the works aforesaid 
treated of scarcely any but the Birds belonging to the orbis 
veteribus notus ; but the geographical discoveries of the 
sixteenth century began to bear fruit, and many animals of 
kinds unsuspected were, about one hundred years later, 
made known. Here there is only space to name BONTIUS, 
CLUSIUS, HERNANDEZ (or FERNANDEZ), MARCGRAVE, 
NIEREMBERG, and Piso, 5 whose several works describing 
the natural products of both the Indies whether the 
result of their own observation or compilation together 
with those of OLINA and WORM, produced a marked effect, 
since they led up to what may be deemed the foundation of 
scientific Ornithology. 6 

This foundation was laid by the joint labours of FRANCIS Wil- 
WILLUGHBY (born 1635, died 1672) and JOHN KAY (born 1 ".? 111 ; 
1628, died 1705), for it is impossible to separate their 
share of work in Natural History more than to say that, 
while the former more especially devoted himself to zoology, 
botany was the favourite pursuit of the latter. Together 
they studied, together they travelled, and together they 
collected. Willughby, the younger of the two, and at first 
the other s pupil, seems to have gradually become the 
master ; but, he dying before the promise of his life was ful 
filled, his writings were given to the world by his friend 
Ray, who, adding to them from his own stores, published 
the Ornithologia in Latin in 1676, and in English with 
many emendations in 1678. In this work Birds generally 
were grouped in two great divisions " Land-Fowl " and 
" Water-Fowl," the former being subdivided into those 
which have a crooked beak and talons and those which have 
a straighter bill and claws, while the latter was separated 
into those which frequent waters and watery places and 
those that swim in the water each subdivision being 
further broken up into many sections, to the whole of which 
a key was given. Thus it became possible for almost any 
diligent reader without much chance of error to refer to its 

3 The Historia Naturalis of JOHANNES JOHNSTONUS, said to be of 
Scottish descent but by birth a Pole, ran through several editions 
during the seventeenth century, but is little more than an epitome 
of the work of Aldrovandus. 

4 The Hicrozoicon of Bochart a treatise on the animals named in 
Holy Writ was published in 1619. 

5 For Lichtenstein s determination of the Birds described by 
Marcgrave and Piso see the Abkantllunyeu of the Berlin Academy 
for 1817 (pp. 155 sq.). 

6 The earliest list of British Birds seems to be that in the Pinnje 
Rerum Naturalium of CHRISTOPHER MEKRETT, published in 1667. 
In the following year appeared the Onomasticon Xooicon of WALTER 
CHARLETON, which contains some information on ornithology. An 
enlarged edition of the latter, under the title of Excrcitalioncs &c., was 
published in 1677; but neither of these writers is of much authority. 
In 1684 SIBBALD in his Scotia illustratn published the earliest Fauna 
of Scotland. 



OKNITHOLOGY 



proper place nearly every bird he was likely to meet with, 
liay s interest in ornithology continued, and in 1694 he 
completed a Synopsis Metkodica Avium, which, through 
the fault of the booksellers to whom it was entrusted, 
was not published till 1713, when Derham gave it to the 
world. 1 

Linnaeus. Two years after Hay s death, LINN.^US, the great 
reformer of Natural History, was born, and in 1735 ap 
peared the first edition of the celebrated Systema Naturx. 
Successive editions of this work were produced under its 
author s supervision in 1740, 1748, 1758, and 17G6. 
Impressed by the belief that verbosity was the bane of 
science, he carried terseness to an extreme which frequently 
created obscurity, and this in no branch of zoology more 
than in that which relates to Birds. Still the practice 
introduced by him of assigning to each species a diagnosis 
by which it ought in theory to be distinguishable from any 
other known species, and of naming it by two words the 
first being the generic and the second the specific term, 
was so manifest an improvement upon any thing which had 
previously obtained that the Linnsean method of differ 
entiation and nomenclature established itself before long 
in spite of all opposition, and in principle became almost 
universally adopted. The opposition came of course from 
those who were habituated to the older state of things, 
and saw no evil in the cumbrous, half-descriptive half- 
designative titles which had to be employed whenever a 
species was to be spoken of or written about. The 
supporters of the new method were the rising generation 
of naturalists, many of whose names have since become 
famous, but among them were sonic whose admiration of 
their chief carried them to a pitch of enthusiasm which 
now seems absurd. Careful as Linnaeus was in drawing up 
his definitions of groups, it was immediately seen that they 
occasionally were made to comprehend creatures whose 
characteristics contradicted the prescribed diagnosis. His 
chief glory lies in his having reduced, at least for a time, 
a chaos into order, and in his shewing both by precept and 
practice that a name was not a definition. In his classifica 
tion of Birds he for the most part followed Ray, and where 
he departed from his model he seldom improved upon it. 

Ban-ore. ]n 1745 BARRERE brought out at Perpignan a little 
book called Ornithologist, Specimen nouum, and in 1752 

Mb hring. MoiiRiXG published at Aurich one still smaller, his Avium 
Genera. Both these works (now rare) are manifestly 
framed on the Linna3an method, so far as it had then 
reached; but in their arrangement of the various forms of 
Birds they differed greatly from that which they designed 
to supplant, and they deservedly obtained little success. 
Yet as systematists their authors were no worse than 

Klein. KLEIN, whose Historic Avium Prodromus, appearing at 
Liibeck in 1750, and Stemmata Avium at Leipzig in 1759, 
met with considerable favour in some quarters. The chief 
merit of the latter work lies in its forty plates, whereon 
the heads and feet of many Birds are indifferently figured. 2 
But, while the successive editions of Linnaeus s great work 
were revolutionizing Natural History, and his example of 
precision in language producing excellent effect on scientific 
writers, several other authors were advancing the study of 
Ornithology in a very different way a way that pleased 
the eye even more than his labours were pleasing the mind. 

Catesby. Between 1731 and 1743 MARK CATESBY brought out in 



1 To this was added a supplement l>y PETIVER on the Bird of Madras, 
taken from pictures and information sent him by one Edward Buckley 
of Fort St George, being the first attempt to catalogue the Birds of 
any part of the British possessions in India. 

- After Klein s death his Prodromus, written in Latin, had the 
unwonted fortune of two distinct translations into German, published 
in the same year 1760, the one at Leipzig and Liibeck by BEHN, 
the other at Danzig by REYG:;R each of whom added more or less to 
tho ori inal. 



London his Natural History of Carolina two large folios 
containing highly-coloured plates of the Birds of that 
colony, Florida, and the Bahamas^ the forerunners of 
those numerous costly tomes which will have to be men 
tioned presently at greater length. 3 ELEAZAR ALBIX 
between 1738 and 1740 produced a Natural History of 
Eirds in three volumes of more modest dimensions, seeing 
that it is in quarto ; but he seems to have been ignorant 
of Ornithology, and his coloured plates are greatly inferior 
to Catesby s. Far better both as draughtsman and as 
authority was GEORGE EDWARDS, who in 1743 began, Edw 
under the same title as Albin, a series of plates with letter 
press, which was continued by the name of Gleanings in 
Natural History, and finished in 1760, when it had reached 
seven parts, forming four quarto volumes, the figures of 
which are nearly always quoted with approval. 4 

The year which saw the works of Edwards completed 
was still further distinguished by the appearance in France, 
where little had been done since Belun s days, 5 in six 
quarto volumes, of the Ornitholoyie of MATHURIN JACQUES 
BRISSON a work of very great merit so far as it goes, for Bri.si 
as a descriptive ornithologist the author stands even now 
unsurpassed ; but it must be said that his knowledge, 
according to internal evidence, was confined to books and 
to the external parts of Birds skins. It was enough for 
him to give a scrupulously exact description of such 
specimens as came under his eye, distinguishing these by 
prefixing two asterisks to their name, using a single asterisk 
where he had only seen a part of the Bird, and leaving 
unmarked those that he described from other authors. 
He also added information as to the Museum (generally 
Reaumur s, of which he had been in charge) containing 
the specimen he described, acting on a principle which 
would have been advantageously adopted by many of his 
contemporaries and successors. His attempt at classifica 
tion was certainly better than that of Linnaeus ; and it is 
rather curious that the researches of the latest ornitho 
logists point to results in some degree comparable . with 
Brisson s systematic arrangement, for they refuse to keep 
the Birds-of-Prey at the head of the Class Aves, and they 
require the establishment of a much larger number of 
: Orders " than for a long while has been thought advisable. 
Of such " Orders " Brisson had twenty-six, and he gave 
Pigeons and Poultry precedence of the Birds which are 
plunderers and scavengers. But greater value lies in his 
generic or sub-generic divisions, which, taken as a whole, are 
far more natural than those of Linnaeus, and consequently 
capable of better diagnosis. More than this, he seems to be 
the earliest ornithologist, perhaps the earliest zoologist, to 
conceive the idea of each genus possessing what is now called 
a " type " though such a term does not occur in his work ; 
and, in like manner, without declaring it in so many words, 
he indicated unmistakably the existence of subgenera 
all this being effected by the skilful use of names. Unfor 
tunately he was too soon in the field to avail himself, even 
had he been so minded, of the convenient mode of nomencla 
ture brought into use by Linnaeus. Immediately on the 
completion of his Rtyne Animale in 1756, Brisson set about 
his Omithologie, and it is only in the last two volumes of 
the latter that any reference is made to the tenth edition 
of the Systema Naturae, in which the binomial method 



3 Several Birds from Jamaica 
(1705-1725), and a good many 
of SEBA (1734-1765)" but from 
little effect upon Ornithology. 

4 The works of Catesby and 
at Nuremberg and Amsterdam 
Gorman, French, and Dutch. 

5 Birds were treated of in a 
Dictionnaire raisonne et univei 
1759. 



were figured in SLOANE S Voyage, &c. 
exotic species in the Thesaurus, &c., 
their faulty execution these plates had 

Edwards were afterwards reproduced 
by SKLIGMANN, with the letterpress in 

worthless fashion by one D. B. in a 
sel des animaux, published at Paris in 



6 



ORNITHOLOGY 



was introduced. It is certain that the first four volumes 
were written if not printed before that method was 
promulgated, and Avhen the fame of Linmeus as a 
zoologist rested on little more than the very meagre sixth 
edition of the Systema yaturw and the first edition of his 
Fauna Suecica. Brisson has been charged with jealousy 
of if not hostility to the great Swede, and it is true that in 
the preface to his Omithologie he complains of the insuffici 
ency of the Linn&an characters, but, when one considers 
how much better acquainted with Birds the Frenchman 
was, such criticism must be allowed to be pardonable if 
not wholly just. Busson s work was in French, with a 
parallel translation in Latin, which last was reprinted 
separately at Leyden two years afterwards. 

salerne. In 1767 there was issued at Paris a book entitled 
L kistoire naturelle edaircie dans une de ses pat-ties princi- 
pales, I Omithologie. This was the work of SALERNE, 
published after his death, and is often spoken of as being 
a mere translation of Ray s Synopsis, but is thereby very 
inadequately described, for, though it is confessedly founded 
on that little book, a vast amount of fresh matter, and 
mostly of good quality, is added. 

D Auben- The success of Edwards s very respectable work seems 
tou - to have provoked competition, and in 1765, at the instiga 
tion of Buffon, the younger D AUBENTON began the pub 
lication known as the Planches Enlumincez dhistoire 
naturelle, which appearing in forty-two parts was not com 
pleted till 1780, when the plates 1 it contained reached the 
number of 1008 all coloured, as its title intimates, and 
nearly all representing Birds. This enormous work was 
subsidized by the French Government ; and, though the 
figures are utterly devoid of artistic merit, they display the 
species they are intended to depict with sufficient approach 
to fidelity to ensure recognition in most cases without fear of 
error, which in the absence of any text is no small praise. 2 
But BCTFOX was not content with merely causing to be 
published this unparalleled set of plates. He seems to 
have regarded the word just named as a necessary precursor 
to his own labours in Ornithology. His Histoire Naturelle, 
generale et particuliere, was begun in 1749, and in 1770 
he brought out, with the assistance of GUEXAU BE 
MoxTBEiLLARD, 3 the first volume of that grand undertaking 
relating to Birds, which, for the first time since the days 
of Aristotle, became the theme of one who possessed real 
literary capacity. It is not too much to say that Buffon s 
florid fancy revelled in such a subject as was now that on 
which he exercised his brilliant pen ; but it would be unjust 
to examine too closely what to many of his contemporaries 
seemed sound philosophical reasoning under the light that 
has since burst upon us. Strictly orthodox though he pro 
fessed to be, there were those, both among his own country 
men and foreigners, who could not read his speculative 
indictments of the workings of Nature without a shudder; 
and it is easy for any one in these days to frame a reply, 
pointed Avith ridicule, to such a chapter as he wrote on the 
wretched fate of the Woodpecker. In the nine volumes 
devoted to the Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux there are 
passages which will for ever live in the memory of those 



1 They were drawn and engraved by MARTINET, who himself began 
in 1787 a Histoire des Oiseaux with .small coloured plates which, have 
some m erit, but the text is worthless. The work seems not to have 
been finished and is rare. For the opportunity of seeing a copy the 
writer is indebted to Mr Gurney. 

2 Between 1767 and 1776 there appeared at Florence a Storia 
Naturale deyli Uccelli, in five folio volumes, containing a number of 
ill-drawn and ill-coloured figures from the collection of Giovanni 
Gerini, an ardent collector who died in 1751, and therefore must be 
acquitted of any share in the work, which, though sometimes attributed 
to him, is that of certain learned men who did not happen to be ornitho 
logists (<f. Savi, Ornitoloyia Toscana, i. Introduzione, p. v). 

3 lie retired on the completion of the sixth volume, and thereupon 
Buffon associated Bexoa with himself. 



that carefully read them, however much occasional expres 
sions, or even the general tone of the author, may grate 
upon their feelings. He too was the first man who formed 
any theory that may be called reasonable of the Geographical 
Distribution of Animals, though this theory was scarcely 
touched in the ornithological portion of his work, and has 
since proved to be not in accordance with facts. He pro 
claimed the variability of species in opposition to the views 
of Linnams as to their fixity, and moreover supposed that 
this variability arose in part by degradation. 4 Taking his 
labours as a whole, there cannot be a doubt that he enor 
mously enlarged the purview of naturalists, and, even if 
limited to Birtls, that, on the completion of his work upon 
them in 1783, Ornithology stood in a very different position 
from that which it had before occupied. Because he 
opposed the system of Linmeus he has been said to be 
opposed to systems in general ; but that is scarcely correct, 
for he had a system of his own ; and, as we now see it, it 
appears neither much better nor much worse than the 
systems which had been hitherto invented, or perhaps than 
any which was for many years to come propounded. It is 
certain that he despised any kind of scientific phraseology 
a crime in the eyes of those who consider precise 
nomenclature to be the end of science ; but those who deem 
it merely a means whereby knowledge can be securely 
stored will take a different view and have done so. 

Great as were the services of Buffon to Ornithology in Latham. 
one direction, those of a wholly different kind rendered by 
our countryman JOHN LATHAM must not be overlooked. 
In 1781 he began a work the practical utility of which 
was immediately recognized. This was his General 
Synopsis of Birds, and, though formed generally on the 
model of Linnaeus, greatly diverged in some respects there 
from. The classification was modified, chiefly on the old 
lines of Willughby and Ray, a nd certainly for the better ; 
but no scientific nomenclature was adopted, which, as the 
author subsequently found, was a change for the worse. 
His scope was co-extensive with that of Brisson, but Latham 
did not possess the inborn faculty of picking out the 
character wherein one species differs from another. His 
opportunities of becoming acquainted with Birds were 
hardly inferior to Brisson s, for during Latham s long life 
time there poured in upon him countless new discoveries 
from all parts of the world, but especially from the newly- 
explored shores of Australia and the islands of the Pacific 
Ocean. The British Museum had been formed, and he 
had access to everything it contained in addition to the 
abundant materials afforded him by the private Museum of 
Sir Ashton Lever. 5 Latham entered, so far as the limits 
of his work would allow, into the history of the Birds he 
described, and this with evident zest, whereby he differed 
from his French predecessor; but the number of cases in 
which he erred as to the determination of his species must 
be very great, and not unfrequently the same species is 
described more than once. His Synopsis was finished in 
1785; two supplements were added in 1787 and 1802, 6 
and in 1790 he produced an abstract of the work under 
the title of Index Ornitkoloaicus, wherein he assigned names 
on the Linnaian method to all the species described. Not 
to recur again to his labours, it may be said here that 
between 1821 and 1828 he published at Winchester, in 
eleven volumes, an enlarged edition of his original work, 
entitling it A General History of Birds ; but his defects as 

4 See Prof. Mivart s address to the Section of Biology, Rep. Erit. 
Association (Sheffield Meeting^, 1879, p. 356. 

5 In 1792 SHAW began the Museum Lcvcri.anum in illustration of 
this collection, which was finally dispersed by sale, and what is known 
to remain of it found its way to Vienna. Of the specimens in the 
British Museum described by Latham it is to be feared that ;;iarc(-ly 
any exist. They were probably very imperfectly prepared. 

* A German translation by Bechstein subsequently appeared. 



ORNITHOLOGY 



a compiler, which had been manifest before, rather increased 
with age, and the consequences were not happy. 1 

About the time that Buffon was bringing to an end his 
[amtuyt. studies of Birds, MAUDUYT undertook to write the Orni- 
thologie of the Encyclopedic Methodique a compara 
tively easy task, considering the recent works of his fellow- 
countrymen on that subject, and finished in 1784. Here 
it requires no further comment, especially as a new edition 
was called for in 1790, the ornithological portion of which 

ionna- was begun by BoNNATERRE, who, however, had only 

em - finished three hundred and twenty pages of it when he lost 
his life in the French Revolution ; and the work thus 

. 7 ieillot. arrested was continued by VIEILLOT under the slightly 
changed title of Tableau encyclopcdique et methodi^ue des 
trois regnes de la Nature the Ornithologie forming 
volumes four to seven, and not completed till 1823. In 
the former edition Mauduyt had taken the subjects alpha 
betically ; but here they are disposed according to an 
arrangement, with some few modifications, furnished by 
D Aubenton, which is extremely shallow and unworthy of 
consideration. 

Several other works bearing upon Ornithology in general, 
but of less importance than most of those just named, 
belong to this period. Among others may be mentioned 

Pennant, the Genera of Birds by THOMAS PENNANT, first printed at 
Edinburgh in 1773, but best known by the edition which 
appeared in London in 1781 ; the Elementa Ornithologica 
and Museum Ornithologicum of SCHAFFER, published at 
Ratisbon in 1774 and 1784 respectively; PETER BROWN S 
Neiv Illustrations of Zoology in London in 1776 ; 
HERMANN S Tabidx Ajfinitatum Animalium at Strasburg 
in 1783, followed posthumously in 1804 by his Observa- 
tiones Zoologies ; JACQUTN S Beytraege zur Geschichte der 
Voegel at Vienna in 1784, and in 1790 at the same place 
the larger work of SPALOWSKY with nearly the same title ; 
SPARRMAN S Museum Carlsonianum at Stockholm from 
1786 to 1789; and in 1794 HAYES S Portraits of rare 
and curious Birds from the menagery of Child the banker 
at Osterley near London. The same draughtsman (who 
had in 1775 produced a History of British Birds) in 
1822 began another series of Figures of rare and curious 
Birds. 2 

The practice of Brisson, Buffon, Latham, and others of 
neglecting to name after the Limuean fashion the species 
they described gave great encouragement to compilation, 
and led to what has proved to be of some inconvenience to 

P. L. S. modern ornithologists. In 1773 P. L. S. MULLER brought 

Miiller. out at Nuremberg a German translation of the Systema 
Naturae,, completing it in 1776 by a Supplement containing 
a list of animals thus described, which had hitherto been 
technically anonymous, with diagnoses and names on the 

kxklaert. Linnttan model. In 1783 BODDAERT printed at Utrecht a 
Table des Planches Enlumineez^ in which he attempted to 
refer every species of Bird figured in that extensive series 
to its proper Linnsean genus, and to assign it a scientific 
name if it did not already possess one. In like manner in 

kopoli. 1786, SCOPOLI already the author of a little book published 



1 He also prepared for publication a second edition of his Index 
Ornithologiciis, but this was never printed, and the manuscript is now 
in the present writer s possession. 

" The Naturalist s Miscellany or Vivarium Xaturale, in English 
and Latin, of SHAW and NODDER, the former being the author, the 
latter the draughtsman and engraver, was begun in 1789 mid carried 
on till Shaw s death, forming twenty-four volumes. Jt contains 
figures of more than 280 Birds, but very poorly executed. In 1814 
a sequel, The Zoological Miscellany, was begun by LEACH, Nodder 
continuing to do the plates. This was completed in 1817, and forms 
three volumes with 149 plates, 27 of which represent Birds. 

3 Of this work only iif ty copies were printed, and it is one of the 
rarest known to the ornithologist. Only two copies are believed to 
exist in England, one in the British Museum, the other in private 
hands. It was reprinted in 1874 by Mr Tegetmeier. 



at Leipzig in 1769 under the title of Annus I. Historico- 
naturalis, in which are described many Birds, mostly from his 
own collection or the Imperial vivarium at Vienna was at 
the pains to print at Pavia in his miscellaneous Delicix 
Florae et Faunae, Insubricse, a Specimen Zoologicum* contain 
ing diagnoses, duly named, of the Birds discovered and 
described by SONNERAT in his Voyage aux Indes orientales Sonnerat. 
and Voyage a la Nouvelle G uinee, severally published at 
Paris in 1772 and 1776. But the most striking example 
of compilation was that exhibited by J. F. GMELIN, who Ginelin. 
in 1788 commenced what he called the Thirteenth Edition 
of the celebrated Systema Naturae, which obtained so wide 
a circulation that, in the comparative rarity of the original, 
the additions of this editor have been very frequently 
quoted, even by expert naturalists, as though they were 
the work of the author himself. Gmelin availed himself 
of every publication he could, but he perhaps found his 
richest booty in the labours of Latham, neatly condensing 
his English descriptions into Latin diagnoses, and bestow 
ing on them binomial names. Hence it is that Gmelin 
appears as the authority for so much of the nomenclature 
now in use. He tock many liberties with the details of 
Linnajus s work, buc left the classification, at least of the 
Birds, as it was a few new genera excepted. 

During all this time little had been done in studying the 
internal structure of Birds since the works of Goiter already 
mentioned 6 ; but the foundations of the science of Embry 
ology had been laid by the investigations into the develop 
ment of the chick by the great HARVEY. Between 1666 
and 1669 PERRAULT edited at Paris eight accounts of the 
dissection by Du VERNEY of as many species of Birds, 
which, translated into English, were published by the 
Royal Society in 1702, under the title of The Natural 
History of Animals. After the death of the two anatomists 
just named, another series of similar descriptions of eight 
other species was found among their papers, and the whole 
were published in the Memoires of the French Academy of 
Sciences in 1733 and 1734. But in 1681 GERARD BLASIUS Gera . r * 
had brought out at Amsterdam an Anatome Animalium, 
containing the results of all the dissections of animals that 
he could find ; and the second part of this book, treating of 
Volatilia, makes a respectable show of more than one 
hundred and twenty closely-printed quarto pages, though 
nearly two-thirds is devoted to a treatise De Ovo et Pidlo, 
containing among other things a reprint of Harvey s 
researches, and the scientific rank of the whole book may 
be inferred from Bats being still classed with Birds. In 
1720 VALENTINI published, at Frankfort-on-the-Main, his Valentini, 
Amjjhitheatrum Zootomicum, in which again most of the 
existing accounts of the anatomy of Birds were reprinted. 
But these and many other contributions, 7 made until nearly 
the close of the eighteenth century, though highly meritori 
ous, were unconnected as a whole, and it is plain that no 
conception of what it was in the power of Comparative 
Anatomy to set forth had occurred to the most diligent 
dissectors. This privilege was reserved for GEORGES 
CUVIER, who in 1798 published at Paris his Tableau Cuvier. 
Elementaire de Vhistoire naturelle des Animaux, and thus 
laid the foundation of a thoroughly and hitherto unknown 

4 This was reprinted in 1882 by the Willughby Society. 

5 DAUDIN S unfinished Traite elementaire et complet d 1 Ornithologie 
appeared at Paris in 1800, and therefore is the last of these general 
works published in the eighteenth century. 

6 A succinct notice of the older works on Ornithotomy is given by 
Prof. SELENKA in the introduction to that portion of Dr Eronn s 
Klassen und Ordnungen des Thierreichs relating to Birds (pp. 1-9) 
published in 1869 ; and Prof. CARUS S Geschichte der Zoologie, pub 
lished in 1 872, may also be usefully consulted for further information 
on this and other heads. 

7 The treatises of the two BARTHOLINIS and BoRRiCHirs published 
at Copenhagen deserve mention if only to record the activity of Danish 
anatomists in those days. 



8 



O 11 N I T H L O G Y 



mode of appreciating the value of the various groups of the 
Animal Kingdom. Yet his first attempt was a mere sketch. l 
Though he made a perceptible advance on the classification 
of Linna?us, at that time predominant, it is now easy to see 
in how many ways want of sufficient material being no 
doubt one of the chief Cuvier failed to produce a really 
natural arrangement. His principles, however, are those 
which must still guide taxonomers, notwithstanding that 
they have in so great a degree overthrown the entire scheme 
which he propounded. Confining our attention here, as 
of course it ought to be confined, to Ornithology, Cuvier s 
arrangement of the Class Aves is now seen to be not very 
much better than any which it superseded. But this view 
is gained by following the methods which Cuvier taught. 
In the work just mentioned few details arc given ; but 
even the more elaborate classification of Birds contained in 
his Lecom d Anatomic Comparee of 1805 is based wholly 
on external characters, such as had been used by nearly all 
his predecessors; and the Rcyne Animal of 1817, when he 
was in his fullest vigour, afforded not the least evidence 
that he had ever dissected a couple even of Birds 2 with the 
object of determining their relative position in his system, 
which then, as before, depended wholly on the configuration 
of bills, wings, and feet. But, though apparently without 
such a knowledge of the anatomy of Birds as would enable 
him to apply it to the formation of that natural system 
which he was fully aware had yet to be sought, he seems 
to have been an excellent judge of the characters afforded 
by the bill and limbs, and the use he made of them, coupled 
with the extraordinary reputation he acquired on other 
grounds, procured for his system the adhesion for many 
years of the majority of ornithologists, and its influence 
though waning is still strong. Regret must always be felt 
by them that his great genius was never applied in earnest 
to their branch of study, especially when we consider that 
had it been so the perversion of energy in regard to the 
classification . of Birds witnessed in England for nearly 
twenty years, and presently to be mentioned, would most 
likely have been prevented. 3 

Hitherto mention has chiefly been made of works on 
General Ornithology, but it will be understood that these 
were largely aided by the enterprise of travellers, and as 
there were many of them who published their narratives in 
separate forms their contributions have to be considered. 
Of those travellers then the first to be here especially named 
Marsigli. is MARSiGLi, the fifth volume of whose Damioius Pannonico- 
Mysicm is devoted to the Birds he met with in the valley 
of the Danube, and appeared at the Hague in 1725, 
fallowed by a French translation in 1744. 4 Most of the 
many pupils whom Linnaeus sent to foreign countries sub 
mitted their discoveries to him, but KALM, HASSELQVIST, 
and OSBECK published separately their respective travels 



1 It had no effect on LACPKDK, who in the following year added a 
Tableau Mtthodique containing a classification of Birds to his 
JHscours d Ourerture(Mem. del fnstitut, iii. pp. 454-468, 503-519). 

2 So little regard did he pay to the Osteology of Birds that, 
according to De Blainville (Jour, de Physique, xcii. p. 187, note), 
the skeleton of a Fowl to which was attached the head of a Hornbill 
was for a long time, exhibited in the Museum of Comparative 
Anatomy at Paris ! Yet, in order to determine the difference of 
structure in their organs of voice, Cuvier, as he says in his Lemons 
(iv. p. 464), dissected more than one hundred and fifty species of 
Birds. Unfortunately for him, as will appear in the .sequel, it seems 
not to have occurred to him to use any of the results he obtained as 
the basis of a classification. 

3 It is unnecessary to enumerate the various editions of the Riyiie 
Animal. Of the English translations, that edited by Griffiths and 
Pidgeon is the most complete. The ornithological portion of it 
contained in these volumes received many additions from JOHN" EDWARD 
GRAY, and appeared in 1829. 

4 Though much later in date, the Iter per Poser/anam Rclavoniae 
of PILLER and MITTKRPACHER, published at Buda in 1783, may perhaps 
be here most conveniently mentioned. 



in North America, the Levant, and China. 5 The incessant 
journeys of PALLAS and his colleagues FALK, GEOEGI, 
S. G. GMELIN, GULDENSTADT, LEPECIIIX, and others in the 
exploration of the recently extended Russian empire sup 
plied not only much material to the Commentarii and Actn of 
the Academy of St Petersburg, but more that is to be found 
in their narratives, all of it being of the highest interest 
to students of Palicarctic or Nearctic Ornithology. Nearly 
the whole of their results, it may here be said, were 
summed up in the important Zooyrapliia Roxso-Asiatica of 
the first-named naturalist, which saw the light in 1811, 
the year of its author s death, but, owing to circumstances 
over which he had no control, was not generally accessible 
till twenty years later. Of still wider interest are the 
accounts of Cook s three famous voyages, though unhappily 
much of the information gained by the naturalists who accom 
panied him on one or more of them seems to be irretriev 
ably lost: the original observations of the elder FORSTER 
were not printed till 1844, and the valuable collection of 
zoological drawings made by the younger FORSTER still 
remains unpublished in the British Museum. The several 
accounts by JOHN WHITE, COLLINS, PHILLIPS, HTJNTER, and 
others of the colonization of New South Wales at the 
end of the last century ought not to be overlooked by any 
Australian ornithologist. The only information at this 
period on the Ornithology of South America is contained in 
the two works on Chili by MOLINA, published at Bologna in 
1776 and 1782. The travels of LE VAILLANT in South Africa 
having been completed in 1785, his great Oiseaux d Afrique 
began to appear in Paris in 1790 ; but it is hard to speak 
properly of this work, for several of the species described in 
it are certainly not, and never were in his time, inhabitants 
of that country, though he sometimes gives a long account 
of the circumstances under which he observed them. 6 

From travellers who employ themselves in collecting the 
animals of any distant country the zoologists who stay at 
home and study those of their own district, be it great or 
small, are really not so much divided as at first might 
appear. Both may well be named " Faunists," and of the 
latter there were not a few who having turned their atten 
tion more or less to Ornithology should here be mentioned, 
and first among them RZACZYNSKI, who in!721 brought out 
at Sandomirsk the Ifistoria naturaUs curiosa regni Polonix, 
to which an Auctuarium was posthumously published at 
Danzig in 1742. This also may be perhaps the most 
proper place to notice the Ilistoria Avium Hungarise of 
GROSSINGER, published at Posen in 1793. In 1734 J. L. 
FRISCH began the long series of works on the Birds of 
Germany with which the literature of Ornithology is 
enriched, by his Vorstellung dcr Vogel Teutschlands, which 
was only completed in 17G3, and, its coloured plates 
proving very attractive, was again issued at Berlin in 1817. 
The little fly-sheet of ZORN 7 for it is scarcely more on 
the Birds of the Hercynian Forest made its appearance at 
Pappenheim in 1745. In 1756 KRAMER published at 
Vienna a modest Elenc/ms of the plants and animals of 
Lower Austria, and J. D. PETERSEN produced at Altona 
in 1766 a Verzeichniss lalthischer Vogel; while in 1791 
J. B. FISCHER S Versuck einer Naturgeschichte von Livland 
appeared at Kimigsberg, next year BESEKE brought out at 
Mitau his Beytray zur Naturgeschichte der Vogel Kurlands, 

5 The results of FORSKAI/S travels in the Levant, published after his 
death by Isiebuhr, require mention, but the ornithology they contain 
is but scant. 

6 It has been charitably suggested that, his collection and notes 
having suffered shipwreck, he was induced to supply the latter from 
his memory and the former by the nearest approach to his lost specimens 
that he could obtain. This explanation, poor as it is, fails, however, 
in regard to some species. 

7 His earlier work under the title of Fetinothcoloyie can hardly be 
deemed scientific. 



Pallas 



The 
Forst< 



Le 

Vailhi 



Gross; 
ger. 

Friscl: 



Kram 



Besek. 



ORNITHOLOGY 



and in 1794 SIEMSSEN S Handbuch of the Birds of Mecklen 
burg was published at Rostock. But thesa works, locally 
useful as they may have been, did not occupy the whole 
attention of German ornithologists, for in 1791 BECHSTEIN 
reached the second volume of his Gemeinnutzige Naturge- 
schichte Deutschlands, treating of the Birds of that country, 
which ended with the fourth in 1795. Of this an abridged 
edition by the name of Omithologisches Taschenbuch 
appeared in 1802 and 1803, with a supplement in 1812; 
while between 1805 and 1809 a fuller edition of the 
original was issued. Moreover in 1795 J. A. NAUMANN 
humbly began at Cothen a treatise on the Birds of 
the principality of Anhalt, which on its completion in 1 804 
was found to have swollen into an Ornithology of Northern 
Germany and the neighbouring countries. Eight supple 
ments were successively published between 1805 and 1817, 
and in 1822 a new edition was required. This Naturge- 
schichte der Vdgel Deutschlands, being almost wholly re 
written by his son J. F. NAUMANN, is by far the best 
thing of the kind as yet produced in any country. The 
fulness and accuracy of the text, combined with the neat 
beauty of its coloured plates, have gone far to promote the 
study of Ornithology in Germany, and while essentially a 
popular work, since it is suited to the comprehension of all 
readers, it is throughout written with a simple dignity that 
commends it to the serious and scientific. Its twelfth and 
last volume was published in 1844 by no means too long 
a period for so arduous and honest a performance, and a 
supplement was begun in 1847 ; but, the editor or author 
as he may be fairly called dying in 1857, this continua 
tion was finished in 1860 by the joint efforts of J. H. 
BLASIUS and Dr BALDAMUS. In 1800 BORKHAUSEN with 
others commenced at Darmstadt a Teutsche Ornithologie in 
folio which appeared at intervals till 1812, and remains 
unfinished, though a reissue of the portion published took 
place between 1837 and 1841. 

Other countries on the Continent, though not quite so 
prolific as Germany, bore some ornithological fruit at 
this period ; but in all Southern Europe only four faunistic 
products can be named : the Saggio di Storia Naturale 
Bresciana of PILATI, published at Brescia in 1769; the 
Ornitologia dell Europa Meridionale of BERNINI, published 
at Parma between 1772 and 1776 ; the Uccelli di Sardegna 
of CETTI, published at Sassari in 1776 ; and the Romano, 
Ornithologia of GILIUS, published at Rome in 1781 the 
]-ist being in great part devoted to Pigeons and Poultry. 
More appeared in the North, for in 1770 Amsterdam sent 

. forth the beginning of NOZEMAN S Nederlandsche Vogelen. 
a fairly illustrated work in folio, but only completed by 
HOUTTTJYN in 1829, and in Scandinavia most of all was 
done. In 1746 the great LIXX^EUS had produced a Fauna 
Svecica, of which a second edition appeared in 1761, and a 

. third revised by RETZIUS in 1 800. In 1764 BRUNNICH pub 
lished at Copenhagen his Ornithologia Borealis, a com 
pendious sketch of the Birds of all the countries then sub 
ject to the Danish crown. At the same place appeared 
in 1767 LEEM S work De Lapponibus Finmarchix, to which 
GUNNERUS contributed some good notes on the Ornitho 
logy of Northern Norway, and at Copenhagen and Leipzig 
was published in 1780 the Fauna Groenlandica of OTHO 

. FABRICIUS. 

Of strictly American origin can here be cited only 
BARTRAM S Travels through North and South Carolina and 
BARTON S Fragments of the Natural History of Pennsyl 
vania, 1 both printed at Philadelphia, one in 1791, the other 
in 1799 ; but J. R. FORSTER published a Catalogue of the 
Animals of North America in London in 1771, and the 



1 This extremely rare book has been reprinted by the Willughby 
Society. 



following year described in the Philosophical Transactions 

a few Birds from Hudson s Bay. 2 A greater undertaking 

was PENNANT S Arctic Zoology, published in 1785, with a Pennant. 

supplement in 1787. The scope of this work was originally 

intended to be limited to North America, but circumstances 

induced him to include all the species of Northern Europe 

and Northern Asia, and though not free from errors it is a 

praiseworthy performance. A second edition appeared in 

1792. The Ornithology of Britain naturally demands 

greater attention. The earliest list of British Birds we 

possess is that given by MERRETT in his Pinax Rerum Merrett. 

Naturalium Britannicarum, printed in London in 1667. 3 

In 1677 PLOT published his Natural History of Oxfordshire, Plot. 

which reached a second edition in 1705, and in 1686 that 

of Staffordshire. A similar work on Lancashire, Cheshire, 

and the Peak was sent out in 1700 by LEIGH, and one on Leigh. 

Cormvall by BORLASE in 1758 all these four being printed Borla.se. 

at Oxford. In 1766 appeared PENNANT S British Zoology, Pennant, 

a well-illustrated folio, of which a second edition in octavo 

was published in 1768, and considerable additions (forming 

the nominally third edition) in 1770, while in 1777 there 

were two issues, one in octavo the other in quarto, each 

called the fourth edition. In 1812, long after the author s 

death, another edition was printed, of which his son-in-law 

Hanmer was the reputed editor, but lie received much 

assistance from Latham, and through carelessness many of 

the additions herein made have often been ascribed to 

Pennant. In 1769 BERKENHOUT gave to the world his Berken- 

Outlines of the Natural History of Great Britain and ^ out - 

Ireland, which reappeared under the title of Synopsis of the 

same in 1795. TUNSTALL S Ornithologia Britannica, which Tunstall. 

appeared in 1771, is little more than a list of names. 4 In 

1781 NASH S Worcestershire included a few ornithological 

notices; and WALCOTT in 1789 published an illustrated Wakot. 

Synopsis of British Birds, coloured copies of which are rare. 

In 1791 J. HEYSHAM added to Hutchins s Cumberland a 

list of Birds of that county, and in 1794 DONOVAX began Donovan. 

a History of British Birds which was only finished in 1819 

the earlier portion being reissued about the same time. 

In 1800 LEWIN brought out a very worthless work with Lewin. 

the same title. 

All the foregoing publications yield in importance to 
two that remain to be mentioned, a notice of which will 
fitly conclude this part of our subject. In 1767 Pennant, 
several of whose works have already been named, entered 
into correspondence with GILBERT WHITE, receiving from Gilbart 
him much information, almost wholly drawn from his own White, 
observation, for the succeeding editions of the British 
Zoology. In 1769 White began exchanging letters of a 
similar character with Barrington. The epistolary inter 
course with the former continued until 1780 and with 
the latter until 1787. In 1789 White s share of the corre 
spondence, together with some miscellaneous matter, was 
published as The Natural History of Selborne from the 
name of the village in which he lived. Observations on 
Birds form the principal though by no means the whole 
theme of this book, which may be safely said to have done 
more to promote a love of Ornithology in this country than 
any other work that has been written, nay more than all 
the other works (except one next to be mentioned) put 
together. It has passed through a far greater number of 

2 Both of these treatises have also been reprinted by the Willughby 
Society. 

3 In this year there were two issues of this book ; one, nominally a 
second edition, only differs from the first in having a new title-page. 
No real second edition ever appeared, but in anticipation of it Sir 
THOMAS BROWNE prepared in or about 1671 (?) his "Account of Birds 
found in Norfolk," of which the draught, now in the British Museum, 
was printed in his collected works by Wilkin in 1835. If a fair copy 
was ever made its resting-place is unknown. 

4 It has been republished by the Willughby Society. 

XVIII. 2 



ORNITHOLOGY 



editions than any other work in Natural History in the ! 
whole world, and has become emphatically an English 
classic the graceful simplicity of its style, the elevating , 
tone of its spirit, and the sympathetic chords it strikes ; 
recommending it to every lover of Nature, while the 
severely scientific reader can scarcely find an error in any 
statement it contains, whether of matter of fact or opinion. 
It is almost certain that more than half the zoologists of the 
British Islands for the past seventy years or more have been 
infected with their love of the study by Gilbert White ; 
and it can hardly be supposed that his influence will cease. 1 

The other work to the importance of which on Ornith- 
Bewkk. ology in this country allusion has been made is BEWICK S 
History of British inls. The first volume of this, contain 
ing the Land-Birds, appeared in 1797 2 the text being, it 
is understood, by Beilby the second, containing the 
Water-Birds, in 1804. The woodcuts illustrating this 
work are generally of surpassing excellence, and it takes 
rank in the category of artistic publications. Fully ad 
mitting the extraordinary execution of the engravings, 
every ornithologist may perceive that as portraits of the 
Birds they are of very unequal merit. Some of the figures 
were drawn from stuffed specimens, and accordingly perpetu 
ate ail the imperfections of the original; others represent 
species with the appearance of which the artist was not 
familiar, and these are either wanting in expression or are 
caricatures ; 3 but those that were drawn from live Birds, 
or represent species which he knew in life, are worthy of 
all praise. It is well known that the earlier editions of this 
work, especially if they be upon large paper, command 
extravagant prices ; but in reality the copies on smaller 
paper are now the rarer, for the stock of them has been 
consumed in nurseries and schoolrooms, where they have 
been torn up or worn out with incessant use. Moreover, 
whatever the lovers of the fine arts may say, it is nearly 
certain that the " Bewick Collector " is mistaken in attach 
ing so high a value to these old editions, for owing to the 
want of skill in printing indifferent ink being especially 
assigned as one cause many of the earlier issues fail to 
shew the most delicate touches ,of the engraver, which the 
increased care bestowed upon the edition of 1847 (published 
under the supervision of Mr John Hancock) has revealed, 
though it must be admitted that certain blocks have 
suffered from wear of the press so as to be incapable of any 
more producing the effect intended. Of the text it may 
be said that it is respectable, but no more. It has given 
satisfaction to thousands of readers in time past, and will, 
it may be hoped, give satisfaction to thousands in time to 
come. 

The existence of these two works explains the widely- 
spread taste for Ornithology in this country, which is to 
foreigners so puzzling, and the zeal not always according 
to knowledge, but occasionally reaching to serious study 
with which that taste is pursued. 

Having thus noticed, and it is to be hoped pretty 
thoroughly, the chief ornithological works begun if not 
completed prior to the commencement of the present cen- 

1 Next to the original edition, that known as Bennett s, published 
in 1837, which was reissued in 1875 by Mr Hailing, was long 
deemed the best ; but it must give place to that of Bell, which appeared 
in 1877, and contains much additional information of great interest. 
But the editions of Markwick, Herbert, Blyth, and Jardine all possess 
features of merit. An elaborately prepared edition, issued of late years 
under the managementof one who gained great reputation as a naturalist, 
only shews his ignorance and his vulgarity. 

2 There were two issues virtually two editions of this with the 
same date on the title-page, though one of them is said not to have 
been published till the following ye;ir. Among several other indicia 
this may be recognized by the woodcut of the " Sea Eagle " at page 1 1 
bearing at its base the inscription " VVyclitfe, 1791," and by the addi 
tional misprint on page 115 of Saheeniclus for Schsenicjus. 

3 This is especially observable in the figures of the Birds-of-Prey. 



tury, together with their immediate sequels, those which 
follow will require a very different mode of treatment, for 
their number is so great that it would be impossible for 
want of space to deal with them in the same extended 
fashion, though the attempt will finally be made to enter 
into details in the case of works constituting the founda 
tion upon which apparently the superstructure of the 
future science has to be built. It ought not to need stat 
ing that much of what was, comparatively speaking, only 
a few years ago regarded as scientific labour is now no 
longer to be so considered. The mere fact that the prin 
ciple of Evolution, and all its admission carries with it, 
has been accepted in some form or other by almost all 
naturalists, has rendered obsolete nearly every theory 
that had hitherto been broached, and in scarcely any 
branch of zoological research was theory more rife than in 
Ornithology. One of these theories must presently be 
noticed at some length on account of the historical import 
ance which attaches to its malefic effects in impeding the 
progress of true Ornithology in Britain ; but charity 
enjoins us to consign all the rest as much as possible to 
oblivion. 

On reviewing the progress of Ornithology since the end 
of the last century, the first thing that will strike us is the 
fact that general works, though still undertaken, have 
become proportionally fewer, and such as exist are apt to 
consist of mere explanations of systematic methods that 
had already been more or less fully propounded, while 
special works, whether relating to the ornithic portion of 
the Fauna of any particular country, or limited to certain 
groups of Birds works to which of late years the name 
of " Monograph " has become wholly restricted have 
become far more numerous. But this seems to be the 
natural law in all sciences, and its cause is not far to 
seek. As the knowledge of any branch of study extends, 
it outgrows the opportunities and capabilities of most men 
to follow it as a whole ; and, since the true naturalist, by 
reason of the irresistible impulse which drives him to 
work, cannot be idle, ho is compelled to confine his 
energies to narrower fields of investigation. That in a 
general way this is for some reason to be regretted is true ; 
but, like all natural operations, it carries with it some 
recompense, and the excellent work done by so-called 
" specialists " has over and over again proved of the 
greatest use to advancement in different departments of 
science, and in none more than in Ornithology. 4 

Another change has come over the condition of Ornith 
ology, as of kindred sciences, induced by the multiplica 
tion of learned societies which issue publications as 
well as of periodicals of greater or less scientific pretension 
the latter often enjoying a circulation far wider than 
the former. Both kinds increase yearly, and the despond 
ing mind may fear the possibility of its favourite study 
expiring through being smothered by its own literature. 
Without anticipating such a future disaster, and looking 
merely to what has gone before, it is necessary here to 
premise that, in the observations which immediately 
follow, treatises which have appeared in the publications 
of learned bodies or in other scientific periodicals must, 
except they be of prime importance, be hereinafter passed 
unnoticed ; but their omission will be the less felt because 
the more recent of those of a " faunal " character have 
generally been mentioned in a former dissertation (BiKDS, 
vol. iii. pp. 737-764) under the different Regions or 

4 The truth of the preceding remarks may be so obvious to nio.-t 
men who have acquaintance with the subject that their introduction 
here may seem unnecessary ; but it is certain that the facts they state 
have been very little appreciated by many writers who profess to give 
an account of the progress of Natural History during the present 
century. 



O K 



NITHOLOGY 



11 



,e Vail- 
!mt. 



Vk-illut. 



countries with which they deal, while reference to the older 
of these treatises is usually given by the writers of the 
newer. Still it seems advisable here to furnish some con 
nected account of the progress made in the ornithological 
knowledge of those countries in which the readers of the pre 
sent volume may bo supposed to take the most lively interest 
for example, the British Islands and those parts of the 
European continent which lie nearest to them or are most 
commonly sought by travellers, the Dominion of Canada 
and the United States of America, South Africa, India, 
together with Australia and New Zealand. The more 
important Monographs, again, will usually be found cited 
in the series of special articles on Birds contained in this 
work, though, as will be immediately perceived, there are 
some so-styled Monographs, which by reason of the changed 
views of classification that at present obtain have lost 
their restricted character, and for all practical purposes 
have now to be regarded as general works. 

It will perhaps be most convenient to begin by mention 
ing some of these last, and in particular a number of them 
which appeared at Paris very early in this century. First 
in order of them is the Histoire Naturelle d une parlie 
dOiseaux nouveaux et rares de I Amerique et des Indes, a 
folio volume J published in 1 801 by LE VAILLANT. This is 
devoted to the very distinct and not nearly-allied groups 
of Hornbills and of birds which for want of a better name 
we must call "Chatterers," and is illustrated, like those 
works of which a notice immediately follows, by coloured 
plates, done in what was then considered to be the highest 
style of art and by the best draughtsmen procurable. 
The first volume of a Histoire Naturelle des Perroquets, a 
companion work by the same author, appeared in the 
same year, and is truly a Monograph, since the Parrots 
constitute a Family of birds so naturally severed from all 
others that there has rarely been anything else confounded 
with them. The second volume came out in 1805, and a 
third was issued in 1837-38 long after the death of its pre 
decessor s author, by BOTJRJOT ST-HILAIRE. Between 1803 
and 1806 Le Vaillant also published in just the same style 
two volumes with the title of Histoire Naturelle. des Oiseaux 
de Paradis et des Rolliers, suivie de celle des Toucans et des 
Barbus, an assemblage of forms, which, miscellaneous as it 
is, was surpassed in incongruity by a fourth work on the 
same scale, the Histoire Naturelle des Promerops et des 
Guepiers, des Couroucous et des Touracos, for herein are 
found Jays, Waxwings, the Cock-of-the-Rock (Rupicola), 
and what not besides. The plates in this last are by 
Barraband, for many years regarded as the perfection of 
ornithological artists, and indeed the figures, when they 
happen to have been drawn from the life, are not bad ; 
but his skill was quite unable to vivify the preserved 
specimens contained in Museums, and when he had only 
these as subjects he simply copied the distortions of the 
" bird-stuff er." The following year, 1808, being aided by 
Temminck of Amsterdam, of whose son we shall presently 
hear more, Le Vaillant brought out the sixth volume of 
his Oiseaux d Afrique, already mentioned. Four more 
volufnes of this work were promised ; but the means of 
executing them were denied to him, and, though he lived 
until 1824, his publications ceased, 

A similar series of works was projected and begun about 
t the same time as that of Le A T aillant by AUDEBERT and 
VIEILLOT, though the former, who was by profession a 
painter and illustrated the work, was already dead more 
than a year before the appearance of the two volumes, 
bearing date 1802, and entitled Oiseaux d ores ou a rejlets 
metalliques, the effect of the plates in which he sought to 
heighten by the lavish use of gilding. The first volume 

1 There is also an issue of this, as of the same author s other works, 
on large quarto paper. 



contains the " Colibris, Oiseaux-mouches, Jacamars et 
Promerops," the second the "-Grimpereaux" and " Oiseaux 
de Paradis" associations which set all the laws of system 
atic method at defiance. His colleague, Vieillot, brought 
out in 1805 a Histoire Naturelle des plus leaux Chanteurs 
de la Zone Torride with figures by Langlois of tropical 
Finches, Grosbeaks, Buntings, and other hard-billed birds ; 
and in 1807 two volumes of a Histoire Naturelle des 
Oiseaux de I Amerique Septentrionale, without, however, 
paying much attention to the limits commonly assigned by 
geographers to that part of the world. In 1805 ANSELME 
DESMAREST published a Histoire naturelle des Tangaras, Desmarest 
des Manakins et des Todiers, which, though belonging to 
the same category as all the former, differs from them in 
its more scientific treatment of the subjects to which it 
refers; and, in 1808, TEMMINCK, whose father s aid to Le Temminck. 
Vaillant has already been noticed, brought out at Paris a 
Histoire Naturelle des Pigeons illustrated by Madame 
Knip, who had drawn the plates for Desmarest s volume. 2 

Since we have begun by considering these large 
illustrated works in which the text is made subservient to 
the coloured plates, it may be convenient to continue our 
notice of such others of similar character as it may be 
expedient to mention here, though thereby we shall be led 
somewhat far afield. Most of them are but luxuries, and 
there is some degree of truth in the remark of Andreas 
Wagner in his lleport on the Progress of Zoology for 1843, 
drawn up for the Ptay Society (p. 60), that they " are not 
adapted for the extension and promotion of science, but 
must inevitably, on account of their unnecessary costliness, 
constantly tend to reduce the number of naturalists who 
are able to avail themselves of them, and they thus enrich 
ornithology only to its ultimate injury." Earliest in date 
as it is greatest in bulk stands AUDUBON S egregious Birds Audubon. 
of America in four volumes, containing four hundred and 
thirty-five plates, of which the first part appeared in London 
in 1827 and the last in 1838. It does not seem to have 
been the author s original intention to publish any letter 
press to this enormous work, but to let the plates tell their 
own story, though finally, with the assistance, as is now 
known, of WILLIAM MACGILLIVRAY, a text, on the whole Macgil- 
more than respectable, was produced in five large octavos livray. 
under the title of Ornithological Biography, of which more 
will be said in the sequel. Audubon has been greatly ex 
tolled as an ornithological artist ; but he was far too much 
addicted to representing his subjects in violent action and 
in postures that outrage nature, while his drawing is very 
frequently defective. 3 In 1866 Mr D. G. ELLIOT began, and Elliot. 
in 1869 finished, a sequel to Audubon s great work in two 
volumes, on the same scale The New and Hitherto 
unjigured Species of the Birds of North America, containing 
life-size figures of all those which had been added to its 
fauna since the completion of the former. 

In 1830 JOHN EDWARD GRAY commenced the Illustra- Gray and 
tions of Indian Zoology, a series of plates of vertebrated Hardwkke. 
animals, but mostly of Birds, from drawings it is believed by 
native artists in the collection of General HARDWICKE, whose 
name is therefore associated with the work. Scientific 

2 Temminck subsequently reproduced, with many additions, the text 
of this volume in his Histoire naturelle des Pigeons et des Gallinacees, 
published at Amsterdam in 1813-15, in 3 vols. 8vo. Between 18o8 
and 1848 M. FLORENT-PROVOST brought out at Paris a further set of 
illustrations of Pigeons by Mdme. Knip. 

3 On the completion of these two works, for they must lie regarded 
as distinct, an octavo edition in seven volumes under the title of The 
Birds of America was published in 1840-44. In this the large plates 
were reduced by means of the "camera lucida," the text was revised, 
and the whole systematically arranged. Other reprints have since 
been issued, but they are vastly inferior both in execution and value. 
A sequel to the octavo Birds of America, corresponding with it in 
form, was brought out in 1853-55 by CASSIS as Illustrations of the 
Birds of California, Texas, Oregon, British and Prussian America. 



12 



O It N I T H L G Y 



names arc assigned to tlie species figured ; but no text was 
Lear. ever supplied. In 1832 Mr LEAR, afterwards well known 
as a painter, brought out his Illustrations of the Family of 
Psittacidx, a volume which deserves especial notice from 
the extreme fidelity to nature and the great artistic skill 
with which the figures were executed. 

This same year (1832) saw the beginning of the 
marvellous series of illustrated ornithological works by 
Gould, which the name of JOHN GOULD is likely to be always 
remembered. A Century of Birds from the Himalaya 
Mountains was followed by The Birds of Europe in five 
volumes, published between 1832 and 1837, while in the 
interim (1834) appeared A Monograph oftheRamphastidiv, 
of which a second edition was some years later called for, 
then the Icones Avium, of which only two parts were 
published (1837-38), and A Monograph of the Trogonidx 
(1838), which also reached a second edition. Sailing 
in 1838 for New South Wales, on his return in 1840 he 
at once commenced the greatest of all his works, The Birds 
of Australia, which was finished in 1848 in seven volumes, 
to which several supplementary parts, forming another 
volume, were subsequently added. In 1849 he began A 
Monograph of the Trochilidx or Humming-birds extending 
to five volumes, the last of which appeared in 1861, and 
has since been followed by a supplement now in course of 
completion by Mr SALVIN. A Monograph of the Odonto- 
phorinse. or Partridges of America (1850); The Birds of 
Asia, in seven volumes, the last completed by Mr SHAHPE 
(1850-83) ; The Birds of Great Britain, in five volumes 
(1862-73) ; and The Birds of New Guinea, begun in 1875, 
and, after the author s death in 1881, undertaken by Mr 
Sharpe, make up the wonderful tale consisting of more 
than forty folio volumes, and containing more than three 
thousand coloured plates. The earlier of these works were 
illustrated by Mrs Gould, and the figures in them are fairly 
good; but those in the later, except when (as he occasionally 
did) he secured the services of Mr WOLF, are not so much 
to be commended. There is, it is true, a smoothness and 
finish about them not often seen elsewhere ; but, as though 
to avoid the exaggerations of Audubon, Gould usually 
adopted the tamest of attitudes in which to represent his 
subjects, whereby expression as well as vivacity is want 
ing. Moreover, both in drawing and in colouring there is 
frequently much that is untrue to nature, so that it. has 
not uncommonly happened for them to fail in the chief 
object of all zoological plates, that of affording sure means 
of recognizing specimens on comparison. In estimating 
the letterpress, which was avowedly held to be of secondary 
importance to the plates, we must bear in mind that, to 
ensure the success of his works, it had to be written to suit 
a very peculiarly composed body of subscribers. Never 
theless a scientific character was so adroitly assumed that 
scientific men some of them even ornithologists -have 
thence been led to believe the text had a scientific value, and 
that of a high class. However it must also be remembered 
that, throughout the whole of his career, Gould consulted 
the convenience of working ornithologists by almost 
invariably refraining from including in his folio works the 
technical description of any new species without first pub 
lishing it in some journal of comparatively easy access. 

An ambitious attempt to produce in England a general 
Frasrr. series of coloured plates on a large scale was Mr FRASKR S 
Zoologist Typica, the first part of which bears date 1841- 
42. Others appeared at irregular intervals until 1849, 
when the work, which seems never to have received the 
.support it deserved, was discontinued. The seventy plates 
(forty-six of which represent birds) composing, with some 
explanatory letterpress, the volume are by C. Cousens and 
H. N. Turner, the latter (as his publications prove) a 
zoologist of much promise Mio in 1851 died, a victim to 



TVmmh 
au< * 

m < 



his own zeal for investigation, of a wound received in 
dissecting. The chief object of the author, who had been 
naturalist to the Niger Expedition, and curator to the 
Museum of the Zoological Society of London, was to figure 
the animals contained in its gardens or described in its 
Proceedings, which until the year 1848 were not illustrated. 

The publication of the Zoological Si-etches of Mr WOLF, "Woli. 
from animals in the gardens of the Zoological Society, was 
begun about 1855, with a brief text by MITCHELL, at that 
time the Society s secretary, in illustration of them. After 
his death in ] 859, the explanatory letterpress was rewritten 
by Mr SCLATER, his successor in that office, and a volume 
was completed in 1861. Upon this a second series was 
commenced, and brought to an end in 1868. Though a 
comparatively small number of species of Birds are figured 
in this magnificent work (seventeen only in the first series, 
and twenty-two in the second), it must be mentioned here, 
for their likenesses are so admirably executed as to place 
it in regard to ornithological portraiture at the head of all 
others. There is not a single plate that is unworthy of the 
greatest of all animal painters. 

Proceeding to illustrated works generally of less preten 
tious size but of greater ornithological utility than the 
books last mentioned, which are fitter for the drawing-room 
than the study, we next have to consider some in which the 
text is not wholly subordinated to the plates, though the 
latter still form a conspicuous feature of the publication. 
First of these in point of time as well as in importance is 
the Nouveau Re.cue.il des Planches Coloriees d Oiseaux of 
TEMMINCK and LATTGIER, intended as a sequel to the 
Planches Enluminees of D Aubenton before noticed (page 
6), and like that work issued both in folio and quarto 
size. The first portion of this was published at Paris in 
1820, and of its one hundred and two livraisons, which 
appeared with great irregularity (Ibis, 1868, p. 500), the 
last was issued in 1839, containing the titles of the five 
volumes that the whole forms, together with a " Tableau 
Methodique " which but indifferently serves the purpose 
of an index. There are six hundred plates, but the exact 
number of species figured (which has been computed at 
six hundred and sixty-one) is not so easily ascertained. 
Generally the subject of each plate has letterpress to cor 
respond, but in some cases this is wanting, while on the 
other hand descriptions of species not figured are occasion 
ally introduced, and usually observations on the distribu 
tion and construction of each genus or group are added. 
The plates, which shew no improvement in execution on 
those of Martinet, are after drawings by Huet and Pretre, 
the former being perhaps the less bad draughtsman of the 
tw r o, for he seems to have had an idea of what a bird when 
alive looks like, though he was not able to give his figures 
any vitality, while the latter simply delineated the stiff 
and dishevelled specimens from museum shelves. Still 
the colouring is pretty well done, and experience has proved 
that generally speaking there is not much difficulty in 
recognizing the species represented. The letterpress is 
commonly limited to technical details, and is not always 
accurate ; but it is of its kind useful, for in general know 
ledge of the outside of Birds Temminck probably surpassed 
any of his contemporaries. The " Tableau Methodique 
offers a convenient concordance of the old J /tuic///^ 
Enluminees and its successor, and is arranged after the 
system set forth by Temminck in the first volume of the 
second edition of his Manuel d Omithologie, of which 
something must presently be said. 

The Galtrie des Oiseaux, a rival work, with plates by 
OUDART, seems to have been begun immediately after the Oudart. 
former. The original project was apparently to give a 
figure and description of every species of Bird ; but that 
was soon found to be impossible ; and, when six parts had 



OKNITHOLOGY 



13 



been issued, with text by some unnamed author, the 
scheme was brought within practicable limits, and the 
writing of the letterpress was entrusted to VIETLLOT, who, 
proceeding on a systematic plan, performed his task very 
creditably, completing the Avork, which forms two quarto 
volumes, in 1825, the original text and fifty-seven plates 
being relegated to the end of the second volume as a supple 
ment. His portion is illustrated by two hundred and 
ninety-nine coloured plates that, wretched as they are, have 
been continually reproduced in various text-books a fact 
possibly due to their subjects having been judiciously 
selected. It is a tradition that, this work not being favour 
ably regarded by the authorities of the Paris Museum, its 
draughtsman and author were refused closer access to the 
specimens required, and had to draw and describe them 
through the glass as they stood on the shelves of the cases. 
In 1825 JARDINE and SELBY began a scries of Illustra- 
tions of Ornithology, the several parts of which appeared 
at long and irregular intervals, so that it was not until 
1839 that three volumes containing one hundred and fifty 
plates were completed. Then they set about a Second 
Series, which, forming a single volume with fifty- three 
plates, was finished in 1843. These authors, being zealous 
amateur artists, were their own draughtsmen to the extent 
even of lithographing the figures. In 1828 JAMES WILSON 
(author of the article ORNITHOLOGY in the 7th and 8th 
editions of the present work) began, under the title of Illus 
trations of Zoology, the publication of a series of his own 
drawings (which he did not, however, himself engrave) 
with corresponding letterpress. Of the thirty- six plates 
illustrating this volume, a small folio, twenty are devoted to 
Ornithology, and contain figures, which, it must be allowed, 
are not very successful, of several species rare at the time. 
Though the three works last mentioned fairly come 
under the same category as the Planches Enluminees and 
the Planches Coloriees, no one of them can be properly 
deemed their rightful heirs. The claim to that succession 
was made in 1845 by DES MURS for his Iconographie 
Ornithologique, which, containing seventy-two plates by 
Pre vot and Oudart a (the latter of whom had marvellously 
improved in his drawings since he worked with Vieillot), 
was completed in 1849. Simultaneously with this Du 
Bus began a work on a plan precisely similar, the Esquisses 
OrnitJioloyiques, illustrated by Severeyns, which, however, 
stopped short in 1849 with its thirty-seventh plate, while 
the letterpress unfortunately does not go beyond that 
belonging to the twentieth. In 1866 the succession was 
again taken up by the Exotic Ornithology of Messrs SCLATER 
and SALVIN, containing one hundred plates, representing 
one hundred and four species, all from Central or South 
America, which are neatly executed by Mr Smit. The 
accompanying letterpress is in some places copious, and 
useful lists of the species of various genera are occasionally 
subjoined, adding to the definite value of the work, which, 
forming one volume, was completed in 1869. 

Lastly here must be mentioned ROWLEY S Ornithological 
Miscellany in three quarto volumes, profusely illustrated, 
which appeared between 1875 and 1878. The contents 
are as varied as the authorship, and, most of the leading 
English ornithologists having contributed to the work, 
some of the papers are extremely good, while in the plates, 
which are in Mr Keulemans s best manner, many rare 
species of Birds are figured, some of them for the first 
time. 

All the works lately named have been purposely treated 
at some length, since being very costly they are not easily 
accessible. The few next to be mentioned, being of smaller 
size (octavo), may be within reach of more persons, and 

1 On the title page credit is given to the latter alone, but only t\\o- 
thirds of the plates (from pi, 25 to the end) bear his name. 



therefore can be passed over in a briefer fashion without 
detriment. In many ways, however, they are nearly as 
important. SWAINSON S Zoological Illustrations in three Sw;dnson. 
volumes, containing one hundred and eighty-two plates, 
whereof seventy represent Birds, appeared between 1820 
and 1821, and in 1829 a Second Series of the same was 
begun by him, which, extending to another three volumes, 
contained forty-eight more plates of Birds out of one 
hundred and thirty six, and was completed in 1833. All 
the figures were drawn by the author, who as an ornitho 
logical artist had no rival in his time. Every plate is not 
beyond criticism, but his worst drawings shew more know 
ledge of bird-life than do the best of his English or French 
contemporaries. A work of somewhat similar character, 
but one in which the letterpress is of greater value, is the 
Centime Zooloyi jue of LESSON, a single volume that, Lesson, 
though bearing the date 1830 on its title page, is believed 
to have been begun in 1829, 2 and was certainly not 
finished until 1831. It received the benefit of Isidore 
Geoffroy St-Hilaire s assistance. Notwithstanding its name 
it only contains eighty plates, but of them forty-two, all 
by Pretre and in his usual stiff style, represent Birds. 
Concurrently with this volume appeared Lesson s Traite 
d Ornitholoyie, which is dated 1831, and may perhaps be 
here most conveniently mentioned. Its professedly system 
atic form strictly relegates it to another group of works, but 
the presence of an " Atlas " (also in octavo) of one hundred 
and nineteen plates to some extent justifies its notice in this 
place. Between 1831 and 1834 the same author brought 
out, in continuation of his Centime, his Illustrations de 
Zooloyie with sixty plates, twenty of which represent Birds. 
In 1832 KITTLITZ began to publish some Kupfertafeln zur Kittlitz. 
Naturyeschichte der Voyel, in which many new species are 
figured ; but the work carne to an end with its thirty-sixth 
plate in the following year. In 1845 REICHENBACH com- Reichen- 
menced with his Praktische Naturyeschichte der Vijyel the kach. 
extraordinary series of illustrated publications which, under 
titles far too numerous here to repeat, ended in or about 
1855, and are commonly known collectively as his Voll- 
stdndiyste Naturyeschichte der Vogel? Herein are contained 
more than nine hundred coloured and more than one 
hundred uncoloured plates, which are crowded with the 
figures of Birds, a large proportion of them reduced copies 
from other works, and especially those of Gould. 

It now behoves us to turn to general and particularly 
systematic works in which plates, if they exist at all, 
form but an accessory to the text. These need not 
detain us for long, since, however well some of them 
may have been executed, regard being had to their epoch, 
and whatever repute some of them may have achieved, 
they are, so far as general information and especially 
classification is concerned, wholly obsolete, and most of 
them almost useless except as matters of antiquarian 
interest. It will be enough merely to name DUMERIL S 
Zooloyie Analytique(l806) and GRAVENHORST S Veryleich- 
ende Uebersicht des linneischen und einiyer neuern zooloyischen 
Systeme (1807); nor need we linger over SHAW S General shaw and 
Zoology, a pretentious compilation continued by STEPHENS. Stephens. 
The last seven of its fourteen volumes include the Class 
Aves, and the first part of them appeared in 1809, but, 
the original author dying in 1815, when only two volumes 
of Birds were published, the remainder was brought to an 
end in 1826 by his successor, who afterwards became well 
known as an entomologist. The engravings which these 
volumes contain are mostly bad copies, often of bad figures, 

In 1828 he had brought out, under the title of Manuel d Orni- 
thologie, two handy duodecimos which are very good of their kind. 

3 Technically speaking they are in quarto, but their size is so 
small that they may be well spoken of here. In 1870 Dr A. B. 
Meyer brought out an Index to them. 



u 



ORNITHOLOGY 



though many are piracies from Bewick, and the whole is 
a most unsatisfactory performance. Of a very different 
kind is the next we have to notice, the Prodromus 

linger. Systematis Mdmmalium et Ainum of ILLIGER, published at 
Berlin in 1811, which must in its day have been a valu 
able little manual, and on many points it may now be 
consulted to advantage the characters of the Genera 
being admirably given, and good explanatory lists of the 
technical terms of Ornithology furnished. The classifica 
tion was quite new, and made a step distinctly in advance 

Vieillot. of anything that had before appeared. 1 In 1816 VIEILLOT 
published at Paris an Analyse d une nouvelle Ornithologie 
elementaire, containing a method of classification which he 
had tried in vain to get printed before, both in Turin and in 
London. 2 Some of the ideas in this are said to have been 
taken from Illiger ; but the two systems seem to be wholly 
distinct. Yieillot s was afterwards more fully expounded 
in the series of articles which he contributed between 
1816 and 1819 to the Second Edition of the Nouveau 
Dictionnaire d Histoire NatureUe containing much valuable 
information. The views of neither of these systema- 

Tem- tizers pleased TEMMINCK, who in 1817 replied rather 

mitick. sharply to Vieillot in some Observations sur la Classification 
mfthodique des Oiseaux, a pamphlet published at Amster 
dam, and prefixed to the second edition of his Manuel 
d Ornithologie, which appeared in 1820, an Analyse du 
Systeme General d" Ornithologie. This proved a great suc 
cess, and his arrangement, though by no means simple, 3 
was not only adopted by many ornithologists of almost 
every country, but still has some adherents. The follow- 

Ranzani. ing year RANZAXI of Bologna, in his Elementi di Zoologia 
a very respectable compilation came to treat of Birds, 
and then followed to some extent the plan of De Blain 
ville and Merrem (concerning which much more has to 
be said by and by) placing the Struthious Birds in an 

"VVagler. Order by themselves. In 1827 WAGLER brought out the 
first part of a Systema Avium, in this form never com 
pleted, consisting of forty-nine detached monographs of 
as many genera, the species of which are most elaborately 
described. The arrangement he subsequently adopted for 
them and for other groups is to be found in his Natiirliches 
System der Amphibien (pp. 77-128), published in 1830, 
and is too fanciful to require any further attention. The 

Kaup. several attempts at system-making by KATTP, from his 
Allgemeine Zoologie in 1829 to his Ueber Classification der 
Vogel in 1849, were equally arbitrary and abortive; but 
his Skizzirte Entwickelungs-Geschichte in 1829 must be 
here named, as it is so often quoted on account of the 
number of new genera which the peculiar views he had 
embraced compelled him to invent. These views he 
shared more or less with Vigors and Swainson, and to 
them attention will be immediately especially invited, 
while consideration of the scheme gradually developed 

1 Illiger may be considered the founder of the school of nomencla- 
tural purists He would not tolerate any of the " barbarous " generic 
terms adopted by other writers, though some had been in use for many 
years. 

2 The method was communicated to the Turin Acndemy,10th January 
1814, and was ordered to be printed (Mem. Ac. Sc. Turin, 1813-14, 
p. xxviii); but, through the derangements of that stormy period, the 
order was never carrie d out (Mem. Accad. Sc. Torino, xxiii. p. xcvii). 
The minute-bonk of the Linnean Society of London shews that his Pro- 
bisio was read at meetings of that Society between 15th November 1814 
and 21st February 1815. Why it was not at once accepted is not 
told, but the entry respecting it, which must be of much later date, in 
the " Register of Papers " is " Published already. " It is due to Vieillot 
to mention these facts, as he has been accused of publishing his method 
in haste to anticipate some of Cuvier s views, but he might well 
complain of the delay in London. Some reparation has been made 
to his memory by the reprinting of his Analyse, by the Willughby 
Society. 

3 He recognized sixteen Orders of Birds, while Vieiilot had been 
content with five, and Illiger with seven. 



from 1831 onward by CHARLES LUCIEN BONAPARTE, and Bona- 
still not without its influence, is deferred until we come parte. 
to treat of the rise and progress of what we may term the 
reformed school of Ornithology. Yet injustice would be 
done to one of the ablest of those now to be called the 
old masters of the science if mention were not here made 
of the Conspectus Generum Avium, begun in 1850 by the 
naturalist last named, with the help of SCHLEGEL, and Schlege 
unfortunately interrupted by its author s death six years 
later. 4 The systematic publications of GEORGE ROBERT G. i;. 
GRAY, so long in charge of the ornithological collection of Gray, 
the British Museum, began with A List of the Genera of 
Birds published in 1810. This, having been closely, 
though by no means in a hostile spirit, criticized by 
STRICKLAND (Ann. Nat. History, vi. p. 410; vii. pp. 26 Strick- 
and 159), was followed by a Second Edition in 1841, in lan(J - 
which nearly all the corrections of the reviewer were 
adopted, and in 1844 began the publication of The Genera 
of Birds, beautifully illustrated first by MITCHELL and 
afterwards by Mr WOLF which will always keep Gray s 
name in remembrance. The enormous labour required 
for this work seems scarcely to have been appreciated, 
though it remains to this day one of the most useful books 
in an ornithologist s library. Yet it must be confessed 
that its author was hardly an ornithologist but for the 
accident of his calling. He was a thoroughly conscientious 
clerk, devoted to his duty and unsparing of trouble. 
However, to have conceived the idea of executing a work 
on so grand a scale as this it forms three folio volumes, 
and contains one hundred and eighty-five coloured and one 
hundred and fi>rty-eight uncoloured plates, with references 
to upwards of two thousand four hundred generic names 
was in itself a mark of genius, and it was brought to a suc 
cessful conclusion in 1849, Costly as it necessarily was, 
it has been of great service to working ornithologists. In 
1855 Gray brought out, as one of the Museum publica 
tions, A Catalogue of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, 
a handy little volume, naturally founded on the larger 
works. Its chief drawback is that it does not give any 
more reference to the authority for a generic term than 
the name of its inventor and the year of its application, 
though of course more precise information would have at 
least doubled the size of the book. The same deficiency 
became still more apparent when, between 1869 and 1871, 
he published his Hand-List of Genera and Species of Birds 
in three octavo volumes (or parts, as they are called). 
Never was a book better named, for the working ornitho 
logist must almost live with it in his hand, and though 
he has constantly to deplore its shortcomings, one of 
which especially is the wrong principle on which its index 
is constructed, he should be thankful that- such a work 
exists. Many of its defects are, or perhaps it were better 
said ought to be, supplied by GIEBEL S Thesaurus Ornitho- Gk-bt-1. 
logix, also in three volumes, published between 1872 and 
1877, a work admirably planned, but the execution of 
which, whether through the author s carelessness or the 
printer s fault, or a combination of both, is lamentably 
disappointing. Again and again it will afford the 
enquirer who consults it valuable hints, but he must be 
mindful never to trust a single reference in it until it has 
been verified. It remains to warn the reader also that, 
useful as are both this work and those of Gray, their 
utility is almost solely confined to experts. 

With the exception to which reference has just been 
made, scarcely any of the ornithologists hitherto named 
indulged their imagination in theories or speculations. 
Nearly all were content to prosecute their labours in a 
plain fashion consistent with common sense, plodding 



4 To this very indispensable work 
1805 by Dr Finsch. 



index was supplied in 



ORNITHOLOGY 



15 



Quinary 

svstem. 

" 



steadily onwards in their efforts to describe and group the 
various species of Birds, as one after another they were 
made known. But this was not always to be, and 
now a few words must be said respecting a theory 
which was promulgated with great zeal by its upholders 
during the end of the first and early part of the second 
quarter of the present century, and for some years seemed 
likely to carry all before it. The success it gained was 
doubtless due in some degree to the difficulty which most 
men had in comprehending it, for it was enwrapped in 
alluring mystery, but more to the confidence with which 
it was announced as being the long looked-for key to the 
wonders of creation, since its promoters did not hesitate to 
term it the discovery of " the Natural System," though 
they condescended, by way of explanation to less exalted 
intellects than their own, to allow it the more moderate 
appellation of the Circular or Quinary System. 

A comparison of the relation of created beings to a number of 
intersecting circles is as old as the days of NIKREMBERG, who in 
1635 wrote (Historic Naturte,, lib. iii. cap. 3) " Xullus hiatus est, 
nulla fractio, nulla dispersio formarum, inviccm connexa snnt velut 
annulus aimulo"; but it is almost clear that he was thinking only 
of a chain. In 1806 FISCHER, DE WALDHEIM, in his Tableaux 
Synoptiques de -oognosic (p. 181), quoting Nieremberg, extended 
his figure of speech, and, while justly deprecating the notion that 
the scries of forms belonging to any particular group of creatures 
the Mammalia was that whence he took his instance could be 
placed in a straight line, imagined the various genera to be arrayed 
in a series of contiguous circles around Man as a centre. Though 
there is nothing to shew that Fischer intended, by what is here 
said, to do anything else than illustrate more fully the marvellous 
interconnexion of different animals, or that he attached any realistic 
meaning to his metaphor, his words were eagerly caught up by the 
prophet of the new faith. This was WILLIAM SHAUPE MACLEAY, 
a man of education and real genius, who in 1819 and 1821 brought 
out a work under the title of HoriK Entomologies, which was soon 
after hailed by VIGORS as containing a new revelation, and applied 
by him to Ornithology in some " Observations on the Natural 
Affinities that connect the Orders and Families of Birds," read 
before the Linnean Society of London in 1823, and afterwards 
published in its Transactions (xiv. pp. 395-517). In the following 
year Vigors returned to the subject in some papers published in the 
recently established Zoological Journal, and found an energetic 
condisciple and coadjutor in SWAINSOX, who, for more than a 
dozen years to the end, in fact, of his career as an ornithological 
writer was instant in season and out of season in pressing on all 
his readers the views he had, through Vigors, adopted from 
Macleay, though not without some modification of detail if not of 
principle. What these views were it would be manifestly improper 
tor a sceptic to state except in the terms of a believer. Their 
enunciation must therefore be given in Swainson s own words, 
though it must be admitted that space cannot be found here for 
the diagrams, which it was alleged were necessary for the right 
understanding of the theory. This theory, as originally pro 
pounded by Macleay, was said by Swainson in 1835 (Gcogr. and 
Classific. of Animals, p. 202) to have consisted of the following 
propositions i 1 

" 1. That the series of natural animals is continuous, forming, 
as it were, a ci /cle ; so that, upon commencing at any one given 
poii v, and thence tracing all the modifications of structure, we 
shall be imperceptibly led, after passing through numerous forms, 
again to the point from which we started. 

" 2. That no groups are natural which do not exhibit, or show 
an evident tendency to exhibit, such a circular scries. 

" 3. That the primary divisions of every large group are ten, five 
of which are composed of comparatively large circles, and five of 
smaller : these latter being termed osculant, and being intermediate 
between the former, which they serve to connect. 

" 4. That there is a tendency in such groups as are placed at the 
opposite points of a circle of affinity to meet each other. 

" 5. That one of the five larger groups into which every natural 
circle is divided bears a resemblance to all the rest, or, more strictly 
speaking, consists of types which represent those of each of the four 
other groups, together with a type peculiar to itself. 

As subsequently modified by Swainson (torn. tit. pp. 224, 225), 
the foregoing propositions take the following form : 

" L That every natural series of beings, in its progress from 

1 We prefer giving them here in Swainson s version, because he 
seems to have set them forth more clearly and concisely than Macleay 
ever did, and, moreover, Swainson s application of them to Ornithology 
a branch of science that lay outside of Macleay s proper studies 
appears to be more suitable to the present occasion. 



a given point, cither actually returns, or evinces a tendency to 
return, again to that point, thereby forming a circle. 

"II. The primary circular divisions of every group are three 
actually, or five apparently. 

"III. The contents of such a circular group are symbolically (or 
analogically) represented by the contents of all other circles in the 
animal kingdom. 

" IV. That these primary divisions of every group are character 
ized by definite peculiarities of form, structure, and economy, 
which, under diversified modifications, are uniform throughout the 
animal kingdom, and are therefore to be regarded as the PRIMARY 

TYPES OF N ATTIRE. 

" V. That the different ranks or degrees of circular groups 
exhibited in the animal kingdom are NINE in number, each being 
involved within the other." 

Though, as above stated, the theory here promulgated owed its 
temporary success chiefly to the extraordinary assurance and perti 
nacity with which it was urged upon a public generally incapable 
of understanding what it meant, that it received some support from 
men of science must be admitted. A " circular system " was 
advocated by the eminent botanist FRIES, and the views of Macleay 
met with the partial approbation of the celebrated entomologist 
KIKKY, while at least as much may be said of the imaginative 
OKEN, whose mysticism far surpassed that of the Quinarians. But 
it is obvious to every one who nowadays indulges in the profitless 
pastime of studying their writings that, as a whole, they failed in 
grasping the essential difference between homology (or "affinity, " 
as they generally termed it) and analogy (which is only a learned 
name for an uncertain kind of resemblance) though this difference 
had been fully understood and set forth by Aristotle himself and, 
moreover, that in seeking for analogies on which to base their 
foregone conclusions they were often put to hard shifts. Another 
singular fact is that they often seemed to be totally unaware of the 
tendency if not the meaning of some of their own expressions : thus 
Macleay could write, and doubtless in perfect good faith (Trans. 
Linn. Society, xvi. p. 9, note), "Naturalists have nothing to do 
with mysticism, and but little with a priori reasoning." Yet his 
followers, if not he himself, were ever making use of language in 
the highest degree metaphorical, and were always explaining facts 
in accordance with preconceived opinions. FLEMING, already the Fleming, 
author of a harmless and extremely orthodox Philosophy of Zoology, 
pointed out in 1829 in the Quarterly Review (-xli. pp. 302-327) 
some of the fallacies of Macleay s method, and in return provoked 
from him a reply, in the form of a letter addressed to Vigors On 
the Dying Struggle of the Dichotomous System, couched in language 
the force of which no one even at the present day can deny, though 
to the modern naturalist its invective power contrasts ludicrously 
with the strength of its ratiocination. But, confining ourselves to 
what is here our special business, it is to be remarked that perhaps 
the heaviest blow dealt at these strange doctrines was that delivered 
by RENNIE, who, in an edition of Montagu s Ornithological 
Dictionary (pp. xxxiii-lv), published in 1831 and again issued in 
1833, attacked the Quinary System, and especially its application 
to Ornithology by Vigors and Swainson, in a way that might, 
perhaps have demolished it, had not the author mingled with his 
undoubtedly sound reasoning much that is foreign to any question 
with which a naturalist, -as such, ought to deal though that 
herein he was only following the example of one of his opponents, 
who had constantly treated the subject in like manner, is to be 
allowed. This did not hinder Swainson, who had succeeded in 
getting the ornithological portion of the first zoological work ever 
published at the expense of the British Government (namely, the 
Fauna Borcali- Americana] executed in accordance with his own 
opinions, from maintaining them more strongly than ever in 
several of the volumes treating of Natural History which he con 
tributed to the Cabinet Cydopxdia among others that from which 
we have just given some extracts and in what may be deemed the 
culmination in England of the Quinary System, the volume of the 
" Naturalist s Library " on The Natural Arrangement and History 
of Flycatchers, published in 1838, of which unhappy performance 
mention has already been made in this present work (vol. ix. p. 
350, note). This seems to have been his last attempt ; for, two 
years later, his Bibliography of Zoology shows little trace of his 
favourite theory, though nothing he had uttered in its support was 
retracted. Appearing almost simultaneously with this work, an 
article by STRICKLAND (Mag. Nat. History, ser. 2. iv. pp. 219-226) Strick- 
entitled Observations upon the Affinities and Analogies of Organ- land. 
ized Beings administered to the theory a shock from which it 
never recovered, though attempts were now and then made by its 
adherents to revive it ; and, even ten years or more later, KAUP, 
one of the few foreign ornithologists who had embraced Quinary 
principles, was by mistaken kindness allowed to publish Mono 
graphs of the Birds-of-Prey (Jardine s Contributions to Ornithology. 
1849, pp. 68-75, 96-121; 1850, pp. 51-80; 1851, pp. 119-130; 
1852, pp. 103-122 ; and Trans. Zool. Society, iv. pp. 201-260), in 
which its absurdity reached the climax. 

The mischief caused bv this theorv of a Quinary System was 



16 



ORNITHOLOGY 



very great, but was chiefly confined to Britain, for (as has boon 
already stated) the extraordinary views of its adherents found little 
favour on the continent of Europe. The purely artificial character 
of the System of Linmeus and his successors had been perceived, 
and men were at a loss to find a substitute for it. The new doctrine, 
loudly proclaiming the discovery of a " Natural " System, led away 
many from the steady practice which should have followed the 
teaching of Cuvier (though he in Ornithology had not been able to 
act up to the principles he had lain down) and from the extended 
study of Comparative Anatomy. Moreover, it veiled the honest 
attempts that were making both in France and Germany to find 
real grounds for establishing an improved state of things, and con 
sequently the labours of DK BLAIXVILLK, &HENNE, GEOFFIHY ST- 
HILAIRE, and L HEiiMiNiEu, of MKUUEM, JOHANNES MULLEK, i 
and NrrzsfH to say nothing of others were almost wholly un 
known on this side of the Channel, and even the value of the 
investigations of British ornithotomists of high merit, such as I 
MACARTNEY and MACGILLIVKAY, was almost completely over 
looked. True it is that there were not wanting other men in these 
islands whose common sense refused to accept the metaphorical 
doctrine and the mystical jargon of the Quinarians, but so strenu 
ously and persistently had the latter asserted their infallibility, and 
so vigorously had they assailed any who ventured to doubt it, that 
most peaceable ornithologists found it be>t to bend to the furious 
blast, and in some sort to acquiesce at least in the phraseology of 
the self-styled interpreters of Creative Will. But, while thus 
lamenting this unfortunate perversion into a mistaken channel of 
ornithological energy, we must not over-blame those who caused it. 
Macleay indued never pretended to a high position in this branch 
of science, his tastes lying in the direction of Entomology; but few j 
of their countrymen knew more of Birds than did Swainson in id 
Vigors; and, while the latter, as editor for many years of the 
Zoological Journal, and the first Secretary of the Zoological Society, 
has especial claims to the regard of all zoologists, so the former s 
indefatigable pursuit of Natural History, and conscientious labour 
in its behalf among other ways by means of his graceful pencil 
deserve to be remembered as a set-off against the injury he unwit 
tingly caused. 

Faunae. It is now incumbent upon us to take a rapid survey 
of the ornithological works which come more or less under 
the designation of " Faunae "; l but these are so numerous 
that it will be necessary to limit this survey, as before 
indicated, to those countries alone which form the homes 
of English people, or are commonly visited by them in 
ordinary travel. 

Beginning with our Antipodes, it is hardly needful to go further 
New back than Mr Buller s beautiful Birds of New Zcalaiul (4to, 
Zealand. 1872-73), with coloured plates, by Mr Keulemans, since the publi 
cation of which the same author has issued a Manual of the 
Birds of New Zealand (8vo, 1882), founded on the former; but 
justice requires that mention be made of the labours of G. R. 
Gray, first in the Appendix to Dieffenbach s Travels in New 
Zealand (1843) and then in the ornithological portion of the. Zoology 
of the Voyaye of H.M.S. "Erebus " and " Terror," begun in 1864, 
but left unfinished from the following year until completed by 
Mr Sharpe in 1876. A considerable number of valuable papers 
on the Ornithology of the country by Drs Hector and Von Haast, 
Prof. Hutton, Mr Potts, and others are to be found in the Trans 
actions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 

Australia. Passing to Australia, we have the first good description of some 
of its Birds in the several old voyages and in Latham s works before 
mentioned (pages 6 and 8). Shaw s Zoology <>f New Holland (4to, 
1794) ad led those of a few more, as did J. W. Lewin s Natural 
History of the Birds of New South Wales (4to, 1822), which reached 
a third edition in 1838. Gould s great Birds of Australia has been 
already named, and he subsequently reproduced with some additions 
the text of that work under the title of Handbook to the Birds of 
Australia (2 vols. 8vo, 1865). In 1866 Mr Diggles commenced a 
similar publication, The Ornithology of Australia, but the coloured 
plates, though fairly drawn, are not comparable to those of his pre 
decessor. This is still incomplete, though the parts that have 
appeared have been collected to form two volumes and issued with 
title-pages. Some notices of Austialian Birds by Mr Ramsay and 
otlurs arc to be found in the Proce&linf/s of the Limitean Sodcty ff 
New Mouth Wales and of the Royal Society <>f Tasmania. 
Ceylon. Coming to our Indian possessions, and beginning with Ceylon, 
we have Kelaart s Prodronus Faunae, Zcyhmioe (8vo, 1852), and 
the admirable Birds of Ceylon by Capt. Legge (4to, 1878-80), with 
coloured plates by Mr Keulemans of all the peculiar species. It is 
hardly possible to name any book that has been more conscien- 
India. tiously executed than this. In regard to continental India many 

1 A very useful list of more general scope is given as the Appendix 
to an address by Mr Sclater to tiie British Association in 1875 (Report, 
pt. ii. pp. 114-133). 



of the more important publications have been named in a former 
article (BiRDS, iii. pp. 762, 763), and since that was written the 
chief work that lias appeared is Blyth s Mammals and Birds of 
Burma (Svo, 1875).- Jerdon s Birds of India (Svo, 1862-64; re 
printed 1877) still reigns supreme as the sole comprehensive work 
on the Ornithology of the Peninsula. A very fairly executed 
compilation on the subject by an anonymous writer is to be found 
in a late edition of the Cyclopaedia of India published at Madras. 
It is needless to observe that Stray Feathers, an ornithological 
journal for India and its dependencies, and maintained with much 
spirit by Mr A. O. Hume, contains many interesting and sonic 
valuable papers. 

In regard to South Africa, besides the well-known work of 
Le Vaillant already mentioned, there is the second volume of Sir 
Andrew Smith s Illustrations if the Zoology of .South Africa (4to, 
1838-42), which is devoted to birds. This is an important but 
cannot be called a satisfactory work. Its one hundred and four 
teen plates by Ford truthfully represent one hundred and twenty- 
two of the mounted specimens obtained by the author in his 
explorations into the interior. Mr Layard s handy Birds of South 
Africa (Svo, 1867), though by ho means free from faults, has 
much to recommend it. A so-called new edition of it by Mr 
Sharpe has since appeared (1875-84), but is executed on a plan 
so wholly different that it must be regarded as a distinct work. 
Andersson s Notes on the Birds of Damara Land (Svo, 1S72) has 
been carefully edited by Mr Gurney, whose knowledge of South- 
African ornithology is perhaps greater than that of any one else. 
It is much to be regretted that of the numerous sporting books 
that treat of this part of the world so few give any important 
information respecting the Birds. 

Of special works relating to the British \\ r est Indies, Waterton s 
well-known Wanderings has passed through several editions since 
its first appearance in 1825, and must be mentioned here, though, 
strictly speaking, much of the country he traversed was not British 
territory. To Dr Cabanis we are indebted for the ornithological 
results.of Richard Schomburgh s researches given in the third volume 
(pp. 662-765) of the latter a Ilciscn irn Britisch- Guiana (Svo, 1848). 
and then in Leotaud s Oiscau.v de Tile de la Trinidad (Svo, 
1S66). Of the Antilles there is only to be named Mr Gosse s 
excellent Birds of Jamaica (12mo, 1847), together with its Illustra 
tions (sm. fol. , 1849) beautifully executed by him. A nominal 
list, with references, of the Birds of the island is contained in the 
Handbook of Jamaica for 1S81 (pp. 103-117). 

So admirable a " List of Faunal Publications relating to North 
American Ornithology" up to the year 1878 has been given by Dr 
Cones as an appendix to his Birds of the Colorado Valley (pp. 567- 
784) that nothing more of the kind is wanted except to notice the 
chief separate works which have since appeared. These may be 
said to be Mr Stearns s New England Bird Life (2 vols. Svo, 
1881-83), revised by Dr Coues, and the several editions of his own 
Check List of North, American Birds (Svo, 1SS2), and Key to North 
American Birds (1884) ; while it maybe added that the conclud 
ing volumes of the North American Birds of Prof. Baird, the late 
Dr Brewer, and Mr Ridgway (the first three of which were pub 
lished in 1874) are expected to be issued about the time that these 
lines will meet the reader s eye. Yet some of the older works are 
still of sufficient importance to be especially mentioned here, and 
especially that of Alexander Wilson, whose American Ornithology, 
originally published between 1808 and 1814, has gone through more 
editions than there is room to specify, though mention should bo 
made of those issued in Great Britain, by Jameson (4 vols. 16mo, 
1831), and Jardirie (3 vols. Svo, 1S32). The former of these has 
the entire text, but no plates ; the latter reproduces the. plates, but 
the text is in places much condensed, and excellent notes are added. 
A continuation of Wilson s work, under the same title and on the 
same plan, was issued by Bonaparte between 1825 and 1833, and 
most of the later editions include the work of both authors. The 
works of Audubon, Avith their continuations by Cassin and Mr 
Elliot, and the Fauna Boreali- Americana of Richardson and 
Swainson have already been noticed (pages 11 and 15); but they 
need naming here, as also does Nuttall s Manual of the Ornithology 
of the United States ami of Canada (2 vols., 1832-34 ; 2d ed., 1840) ; 
the Birds of Long Island (Svo, 1S44) by Giraud, remarkable for 
its excellent account of the habits of shore-birds ; and of course the 
Birds of North America (4to, 1858) by Prof. Baird, with the co 
operation of Cassin and Mr Lawrence, which originally formed a 
volume (ix. ) of what are known as the "Pacific Railroad Reports. 
Apart from these special works the scientific journals of Boston, 
New York, Philadelphia, and Washington contain innumerable 
papers on the Ornithology of the country, while in 1876 the 
Bulletin of t/ic Nuttall Ornithological Club began to appear and 
continued until 1884, when it was superseded by The Auk, estab 
lished solely for the promotion of Ornithology in America, and 

- This is a posthumous publication, nominally forming an extra 
number of the Journal of the Asiatic Society; but, since it was separ 
ately issued, it is entitled to notice here. 



South 
Africa. 



West 

Indies 



North 
Ameri 



17 



numbering among its supporters almost every American ornitholo 
gist of repute, its editors being Messrs Allen, Coues, Ridgway, 
Brewster, and Chamberlain. 

Returning to the Old World, among the countries whose Orni 
thology will most interest British readers we have first Iceland, 
the fullest indeed the only full account of the Birds of which is 
Faber s Prodromus dcr isldndisdi.cn Ornithologic (8vo, 1822), though 
the island has since been visited by several good ornithologists, 
Proctor, Kriipcr, and Wolley among them. A list of its Birds, with 
some notes, bibliographical and biological, has been given as an 
Appendix to Mr Baring-Gould s Iceland, its Scenes and Sagas (8vo, 
1802); and Mr Shepherd s North-west Peninsula of Iceland (Svo, 
1867) recounts a somewhat profitless expedition made thither 
expressly for ornithological objects. For the Birds of the Freroes 
there is Herr II. C. Miiller s Fser oerncs Fuglcfauna (Svo, 1862), of 
which a German translation has appeared. 1 The Ornithology of 
Norway has been treated in a great many papers by II err Collett, 
some of which may be said to have been separately published as 
Norgcs Fuylc (Svo, 1868 ; with a supplement, 1871), and The 
Ornithology of Northern Norway (Svo, 1872) this last in English. 
For Scandinavia generally the latest work is Herr Collin s 
Skandinavicns Fugle (Svo, 1873), being a greatly bettered edition of j 
the very moderate Danmarks Fugle of Kjan-bblling ; but the orni 
thological portion of Nilsson s Skandinavisk Fauna, Foglarna 
(3d ed., 2 vols. Svo, 1858) is of great merit; while the text of 
Sundevall s Svcnska Foglarna (obi. fol., 1856-73), unfortunately 
unfinished at his death, and Herr Holmgren s Skandinaviens Foglar 
(2 vols. Svo, 1866-75) deserve naming. 

Works on the Birds of Germany are far too numerous to be 
recounted. That of the two Naumanns, already mentioned, and 
yet again to be spoken of, stands at the head of all, and perhaps at 
the head of the "Faunal" works of all countries. For want of 
space it must here suffice simply to name some of the ornitholo 
gists who in this century have elaborated, to an extent elsewhere 
unknown, the science as regards their own country : Alturn, 
Baldamus, Bcchstein, Blasius (father and two sons), Bolle, 
Borggreve, whose fogel-Fauna von Norddcutschland (Svo, 1869) 
contains what is practically a bibliographical index to the subject, 
Brehm (father and sons), A r ou Droste, Gatke, Gloger, Hint/, Alex 
ander and Eugen von Homeyer, Ja ckel, Koch, Kb nig-Wart- 
hausen, Kriiper, Kutter, Landbeck, Landois, Leisler, Von Maltzan, 
Bernard Meyer, Yon der Miihle, Neumann, Tobias, Joliann Wolf, 
and Zander. 2 Were we to extend the list beyond the boundaries 
of the German empire, and include the ornithologists of Austria, 
Bohemia, and the other states subject to the same monarch, the 
number would be nearly doubled ; but that would overpass our pro 
posed limits, though Herr von Pelzeln must be named. 3 Passing 
onward to Switzerland, we must content ourselves by referring to 
the list of works, forming a Bibliographia Ornithologica Helvetica, 
drawn up by Dr Stolker for Dr Fatio s Bulletin de la Societe Ornitho- 
logiquc HJuissc (ii. pp. 90-119). As to Italy, we can but name here 
the Fauna d Italia, of which the second part, Uccclli (Svo, 1872), 
by Count Salvador!, contains an excellent bibliography of Italian 
works on the subject, and the posthumously published Orni- 
tologia Italiana of Savi (3 vols. Svo, 1873-77). 4 Coming to the 
Iberian peninsula, we must in default of separate works depart 
. from our rule of not mentioning contributions to journals, for of 
the former there are only Col. Irby s Ornithology of the Straits of 
Gibraltar (Svo, 1S75) and Mr A. C. Smith s Spring Tour in 
Portugal 5 to be named, and these only partially cover the ground. 
However, Ur A. E. Brehm lias published a list of Spanish Birds 
(Allgem. deutsche Naturhist. Zcitung, iii. p. 431), and 2 lie Ib iy con 
tains several excellent papers by Lord Lilford and by Mr Sauuders, 
the latter of whom there records (1871, p. 55) the few works on 
Ornithology by Spanish authors, and in the Bulletin de la Societe 
Zoologiquc dc France (i. p. 315; ii. pp. 11, 89, 185) has given a list 
of the Spanish Birds known to him. 

Returning northwards, we have of the Birds of the whole of 
France nothing of real importance more recent than the volume 

1 Journal fur Ornithologie, 1869, pp. 107, 341, 381. One may almost say an 
English translation also, for Major Keilden s contribution to the Zoologist for 
1872 on the same subject gives the most essential part of Herr Muller s infor 
mation. 

2 This is of course no complete list of German ornithologists. Some of the 
most eminent of them have written scarcely a line on the Birds of their own 
country, as Cabanis (editor since 1853 of the Journal fur Ornithologie), b insch, 
llartlaub, Prince Max of Wied, A. 15. Meyer, Nathusius, Nehrkorn, Keichcnbach, 
Ileiclienow, nnd Sclialow among others. 

3 A useful ornithological bibliography of the Austrian-Hungarian dominions W;is 
printed in the Verliandhingen of the Zoological and Botanical Society of Vienna 
for 1878. by Victor Hitter von Tschusi zu Schmidhofen. A similar bibliography 
of Russian Ornithology by Alexander Brandt was printed at St Petersburg in 
1877 or 1878. 

4 A useful compendium of Greek and Turkish Ornithology by Drs Kriiper and 
llartlaub is contained in Mommsen s Griechische Jahrzeiten for 1875 (Heft III.). 
For other countries in the Levant there are Canon Tristram s Fauna and Flora 
of Palestine (4ro, 1884) and Capt, Shellev s Handbook to the Birds of Egypt (Svo, 
187. ). 

5 In the final chapter of this work the author gives a list of Portuguese Birds, 
including besides those observed by him those recorded by Prof. Barboza du 
liocago in the Gazeta ifeJica de Lisboa, 18(51, pp. 17-21 



Oiscaux in Yieillot s Fauna, Franqaise (Svo, 1822-29) ; but there is 
a great number of local publications of which Mr Saunders has 
furnished (Zoologist, 1878, pp. 95-99) a catalogue. Some of these 
seem only to have appeared in journals, but many have certainly 
been issued separately. Those of most interest to English orni 
thologists naturally refer to Britanny, Normandy, and Picanly, and 
are by Baillon, Benoist, Blandin, Bureau, Canivet, Chesnon, 
Degland, Demarle, De Norguet, Gentil, Hardy, Lemetteil, Lemon- 
nicier, Lesauvage, Maignon, Marcotte, Nourry, and Tasle, while 
perhaps the Ornithologic Parisicnne of M. Rene Paquet, under the 
pseudonym of Neree Quepat, should also be named. Of the rest 
the most important are the Ornithologie Prorencalc of Roux (2 vols. 
4to, 1825-29) ; Risso s Histoire naturcllc .... dcs environs de 
Nice (5 vols. Svo, 1826-27) ; the Ornithologie du Dauphine of 
Bouteille and Labatie (2 vols. Svo, 1843-44) ; the Faune Mcri- 
dionaleot Crespou (2 vols. Svo, 1844) ; the Ornithologic dc la Saroic 
of Bailly (4 vols. Svo, 1853-54), and Lcs Richesscs ornithologiqucs 
du midi dc la France (4to, 1859-61) of MM. Jaubert and 
Barthulcmy-Lapommeraye. For Belgium i\icFaunc Beige of Baron Belgium. 
De Selys-Longchamps (Svo, 1842), old as it is, remains the classical 
work, though the Planches colorucs dcs Oiscaux de la Bclgique of 
M. Dubois (Svo, 1851-60) is so much later in date. In regard to 
Holland we have Schlegel s De Vogcls van Ncderland (3 vols. 8vo, Holland. 
1854-58 ; 2d ed. , 2 vols., 187S), besides his Dc Dieren van Ncder 
land : Vogcls (Svo, 1861). 

Before considering the ornithological works relating solely to the Europe ii 
British Islands, it may be well to cast a glance on a few of those general, 
that refer to Europe in general, the more so since most of them 
are of Continental origin. First we have the already-mentioned 
Manuel d Ornithologic of Temminck, which originally appeared as 
a single volume in 1815 ; 6 but that was speedily superseded by the 
second edition of 1820, in two volumes. Two supplementary parts 
were issued in 1835 and 1840 respectively, and the work for many 
years deservedly maintained the highest position as the authority 
on European Ornithology indeed in England it may almost 
without exaggeration be said to have been nearly the only foreign 
ornithological work known ; but, as could only be expected, grave 
defects are now to be discovered in it. Some of them were already 
manifest when one of its author s colleagues, Schlegel (who had 
beeii employed to write the text for Susemihl s plates, originally 
intended to illustrate Temminck s work), brought out his bilingual 
Revue critique dcs Oiscaux d Europe (Svo, 1844), a very remarkable 
volume, since it correlated and consolidated the labours of French 
and German, to say nothing of Russian, ornithologists. Of Gould s 
Birds of Europe (5 vols. fol., 1832-37) nothing need be added to 
what has been already said. The year 1849 saw the publication 
of Degland s Ornithologic Europccnne (2 vols. 8vo), a work fully 
intended to take the place of Temminck s; but of which Bonaparte, 
in a caustic but by no means ill-deserved Revue Critique (12mo, 
1850), said that the author had performed a miracle since he had 
worked without a collection of specimens and without a library. 
A second edition, revised by M. Gerbe (2 vols. Svo, 1867), strove to 
remedy, and to some extent did remedy, the grosser errors of the 
first, but enough still remain to make few statements in the work 
trustworthy unless corroborated by other evidence. Meanwhile in 
England D"r Bree had in 1858 begun the publication of The irdi 



(5 vols.). 

on the "Especes 11011 observers en Belgiqne, being supplemen 
tary to that of his above named. In 1870 Dr Fritsuh completed 
his Naturgcschichte dcr Vogcl Europas (8vo, with atlas in folio); 
and in 1871 Messrs Sharpe and Dresser began the publication of 
their Birds of Europe, which was completed by the latter in 1879 
(8 vols. 4to), and is unquestionably the most complete work of its 
kind, both for fulness of information and beauty of illustration 
the coloured plates being nearly all by Mr Keulemans, or when 
not by him from the hardly inferior hand of Mr Neale. In so 
huge an undertaking mistakes and omissions are of course to be 
found if any one likes the invidious task of seeking for them; 
but many of the errors imputed to this work prove on investigation 
to refer to matters of opinion and not to matters of fact, while 
many more are explicable if we remember that while the work was 
in progress Ornithology was being prosecuted with unprecedented 
activity, and thus statements which were in accordance with the 
best information at the beginning of the period were found to need 
modification before it was ended. As a whole European ornitho 
logists are all but unanimously grateful to Mr Dresser for the 
way in which he performed the enormous labour lie had under 
taken. 

Coming now to works on British Birds only, the first of the British 
present century that requires remark is Montagu s Ornithological Isles. 
Dictionary (2 vols. Svo, 1802 ; supplement 1813), the merits of 
which have been so long and so fully acknowledged both abroad 
and at home that no further comment is here wanted. In 1831 

c Copies are said to exist bearing the date 1S14. 

XVIIT. - 3 



18 



Rennie brought out a modified edition of it (reissued in 1833), and 
Newman another in 1866 (reissued in 1883); but those who wish 
to know the author s views had better consult the original. Next 
in order come the very inferior British Ornithology of Graves 
(3 vols. 8vo, 1811-21), and a work with the same title by Hunt 
(3 vols. 8vo, 1815-22), published at Norwich, but never finished. 
Then we have Selby s Illustrations of- British Ornithology, two 
folio volumes of coloured plates engraved by himself, between 1821 
and 1833, with letterpress also in two volumes (Svo, 1825-33), a 
second edition of the fir.*,t volume being also issued (1833), for the 
author, having yielded to the pressure of the " Quinarian " doctrines 
then in vogue, thought it necessary to adjust his classification 
accordingly, and it must be admitted that for information the. 
second edition is best. In 1828 Fleming brought out his History 
of British Animals (Svo), in which the Birds are treated at con 
siderable length (pp. 41-146), though not with great success. In 
1835 Mr Jenyns (now Blometield) produced an excellent Manual 
of British Vertebrate Animals, a volume (Svo) executed with great 
scientific skill, the Birds again receiving due attention (pp. 49-286), 
and the descriptions of the various species being as accurate as they 
are terse. In the same year began the Coloured Illustrations of 
British Birds and their Eggs of H. L. Meyer (4to), which was 
completed in 1843, whereof a second edition (7 vols. Svo, 1842-50) 
was brought out, and subsequently (1852-57) a reissue of the 
latter. In 1836 appeared Ey ton s History of the rarer British 
Birds, intended as a sequel to Bewick s well-known volumes, to 
which no important additions had been made since the issue of 
1821. The year 1837 saw the beginning of two remarkable works 
by Macgiliivray and Yarrell respectively, and each entituled A 
History of British Birds. Of the first, undoubtedly the more 
original and in many respects the more minutely accurate, mention 
will again have to be made (page 24), and, save to state that its five 
volumes were not completed till 1852, nothing more needs now to 
be added. The second has unquestionably become the standard 
work on British Ornithology, a fact due in part to its numerous 
illustrations, many of them indeed ill drawn, though all carefully 
engraved, but much more to the breadth of the author s views and 
the judgment with which they were set forth. In practical acquaint 
ance with the internal structure of Birds, and in the perception of 
its importance in classification, he was certainly not behind his 
rival ; but he well knew that the British public in a Book of Birds 
not only did not want a series of anatomical treatises, but would 
even resent their intrO luction. He had the art to conceal his art, 
and his work was therefore a success, while the other was unhappily 
a failure. Yet with all his knowledge he was deficient in some of 
the qualities which a great naturalist ought to possess. His concep 
tion of what his work should be seems to have been perfect, his 
execution was not equal to the conception. However, he was not 
the first nor will he be the last to fall short in this respect. For 
him it. must be said that, whatever may have been done by the 
generation of British ornithologists now becoming advanced in life, 
he educated them to do it ; nay, his influence even extends to a 
younger generation still, though they may hardly be aware of it. 
Of Yarrell s work in three volumes, a second edition was published 
in 1845, a third in 1856, and a fourth, begun in 1871, and almost 
wholly rewritten, is still unfinished. Of the compilations based 
upon this work, without which they could not have been composed, 
there is no need to speak. One of the few appearing since, with 
the same scope, that arc not borrowed is Jardine s Birds of Great 
Britain and Ireland (4 vols. Svo, 1838-43), forming part of his 
Naturalist s Library ; and Gould s Birds of Great Britain has been 
already mentioned.* 

A considerable number .of local works deserving of notice have 
also to be named. The first three volumes of Thompson s Natural 
History of Ireland (Svo, 1849-51) contain an excellent account of 
the Birds of that island, and Mr Watters s Birds of Ireland (Svo, 
1853) has also to be mentioned. For North Britain there is Mi- 
Robert Gray s Birds of the West of Scotland (Svo, 1871), which 
virtually is an account of those of almost the whole of that part of 
the kingdom. To these may be added Dunn s Ornithologist s Guide 
to Orkney and Shetland (8vo, 1837), the unfinished Historia 
Natural Orcat.lcnsisof Baikieand Heddle (Svo, 1S48), and Saxby s 
Birds of Shetland (Svo, 1874), while the sporting works of Charles 
St John contain much information on the Ornithology of the 
Highlands. 2 The loc"al works on English Birds arc still more 
numerous, but among them may be especially named Dillwyn s 
Fauna and Flora of Swansea (1848), Mr Knox s Ornithological 
Rambles in Sussex (1849), Mr Stevenson s Birds of Norfolk 
(1866-70), Mr Cecil Smith s Birds of Somerset (1869) and Birds of 



1 Though contravening our plan, we must for its great merits notice 
here Mr More s series of papers in The Ibis for 1865, " On the Distri 
bution of Birds in Great Britain during the Nesting Season." 

2 Did onr scheme permit us, we should be glad to mention in detail 
the various important communications on Scottish Birds of Alston, 
Messrs Bnrkley, Harvie-Brown, Lum.iden, and others. 



Guernsey (1879), Mr Cordeanx s Birds of the Humbcr District 
(1872), Mr John Hancock s Birds of Northumberland and Durham 
(1874), Tlic Birds of Nottinghamshire by Messrs Sterland and 
Whitaker (1879), Rodd s Bird s of Cornwall edited by Mr Harting 
(1S80), and the Vertebrate Fauna of Yorkshire (1881), of which the 
" Birds" arc by Mr W. E. Clarke. 

The good effects of " Faunal " works such as those 
named in the foregoing rapid survey none can doubt. 
" Every kingdom, every province, should have its own 
monographer," wrote Gilbert White more than one hundred 
years ago, and experience has proved the truth of his 
assertion. In a former article (Bmrs, iii. pp. 73G-7G4) 
the attempt has been made to shew how the labours of 
monographers of this kind, but on a more extended scale, 
can be brought together, and the valuable results that 
thence follow. Important as they are, they do not of 
themselves constitute Ornithology as a science ; and an 
enquiry, no less wide and far more recondite, still remains. 
By whatever term we choose to call it Classification, 
Arrangement, Systematizing, or Taxonomy that enquiry 
which has for its object the discovery of the natural 
groups into which Birds fall, and the mutual relations of 
those groups, has always been one of the deepest interest, 
and to it we must now recur. 

But nearly all the authors above named, it will have 
been seen, trod the same ancient paths, and in the works 
of scarcely one of them had any new spark of intelligence 
been struck out to enlighten the gloom which surrounded 
the investigator. It is now for us to trace the rise of the 
present more advanced school of ornithologists whose 
abours, preliminary as we must still regard them to be, 
yet give signs of far greater promise. It would probably 
be unsafe to place its origin further back than a few 
scattered hints contained in the " Pterographische Frag- 
mente " of CHRISTIAN LUDWIG NITZSCII, published in the Nitzsck 
^fctf/azin fur den neuesten Zustand der Naturkunde (edited 
by Voigt) for May 1806 (xi. pp. 393-417), and even these 
might be left to pass unnoticed, were it not that we recog 
nize in them the germ of the great work which the same 
admirable zoologist subsequently accomplished. In these 
"Fragments," apparently his earliest productions, we find 
him engaged on the subject with which his name will 
always be especially identified, the structure and arrange 
ment of the feathers that form the proverbial characteristic 
of Birds. But, though the observations set forth in this 
essay were sufficiently novel, there is not much in them 
that at the time would have attracted attention, for 
perhaps no one not even the author himself could have 
then foreseen to what important end they would, in con 
junction with other investigations, lead future naturalists ; 
but they are marked by the same close and patient deter 
mination that eminently distinguishes all the work of their 
author ; and, since it will be necessary for us to return to 
this part of the subject later, there is here no need to say 
more of them. In the following year another set of hints 
of a kind so different that probably no one then living would 
have thought it possible that they should ever be brought 
in correlation with those of Nitzsch are contained in 
a memoir on Fishes contributed to the tenth volume of 
the Annales du Museum d /iistoire naturdle of Paris by 
ETIENNE GEOFFROY ST-HILAIRE in 1807. 3 Here we have ft G. St 
it stated as a general truth (p. 100) that young birds have Hilaire. 
the sternum formed of five separate pieces one in the 
middle, being its keel, and two " annexes " on each side to 
which the ribs are articulated all, however, finally uniting 
to form the single "breast-bone." Further on (pp. 101, 
102) we find observations as to the number of ribs which 
are attached to each of the "annexes" there being some- 

3 In the Philosophic Anatomir/ue (i. pp. 69-101, and especially 
pp. 135, 136), which appeared in 1818, Geoffroy St-Hilaire explained 
the views he had adopted at greater length. 



ORNITHOLOGY 



19 



times more of them articulated to the anterior than to the 
posterior, and in certain forms no ribs belonging to one, 
all being applied to the other. Moreover, the author 
goes on to remark that in adult birds trace of the origin 
of the sternum from five centres of ossification is always 
more or less indicated by sutures, and that, though these 
sutures had been generally regarded as ridges for the 
attachment of the sternal muscles, they indeed . mark 
the extreme points of the five primary bony pieces of the 
sternum. 

In 1810 appeared at Heidelberg the first volume of 

l|.le- TIEDEMANN S carefully- wrought Anatomic imd Natur- 

4m. geschickte der Vogel which shews a remarkable advance 
upon the work which Cuvier did in 1805, and in some 
respects is superior to his later production of 1817. It is, 
however, only noticed here on account of the numerous 
references made to it by succeeding writers, for neither in 
this nor in the author s second volume (not published until 
1814) did he propound any systematic arrangement of 
the Class. More germane to our present subject are the 
Osteographische Beitrdge zur Naturgeschichte der Vogel of 

zscli. Nitzsch, printed at Leipzig in 1811 a miscellaneous set 
of detached essays on some peculiarities of the skeleton or 
portions of the skeleton of certain Birds one of the most 
remarkable of which is that on the component parts of the 
foot (pp. 101-105) pointing out the aberration from the 
ordinary structure exhibited by the Goatsucker (Capri- 
mulgus] and the Swift (Cypsehis) an aberration which, if 
rightly understood, would have conveyed a warning to 
those ornithological systematists who put their trust in 
Birds toes for characters on which to erect a classification, 
that there was in them much more of importance, hidden 
in the integument, than had hitherto been suspected; but 
the warning was of little avail, if any, till many years had 
elapsed. However, Nitzsch had not as yet seen his way 
to proposing any methodical arrangement of the various 
groups of Birds, and it was not until some eighteen months 
later that a scheme of classification in the main anatomical 
was attempted. 

irrein. This scheme was the work of BLASIUS MERREM, who, 
in a communication to the Academy of Sciences of Berlin 
on the 10th December 1812, which was published in its 
Abkandlunyen for the following year (pp. 237-259), set 
forth a Tentamen Systematis natumlis Avium, no less 
modestly entitled than modestly executed. The attempt 
of Merrem must be regarded as the virtual starting-point 
of the latest efforts in Systematic Ornithology, and in that 
view its proposals deserve to be stated at length. Without 
pledging ourselves to the acceptance of all its details some 
of which, as is only natural, cannot be sustained with our 
present knowledge, resulting from the information accumu 
lated by various investigators throughout more than 
seventy years it is certainly not too much to say that 
Merrem s merits are almost incomparably superior to those 
of any of his predecessors as well as to those of the majority 
of his successors for a long time to come ; while the neglect 
of his treatise by many (perhaps it would not be erroneous 
to say by most) of those who have since written on the 
subject seems inexcusable save on the score of inadvert 
ence. Premising then that the chief characters assigned 
by this ill-appreciated systematist to his several groups are 
drawn from almost all parts of the structure of Birds, and 
are supplemented by some others of their more prominent 
peculiarities, we present the following abstract of his 
scheme -, 1 - 



1 The names of the genera are, he tells us, for the most part those 
of Linnaus, as being the best-known, though not the best. To some 
of the Linnsean genera lie dare not, however, assign a place, for instance, 
Ruceros, Ileematopus, Merops, Glareola (Gmelin s genus, by the bye), 
and Palamedea. 



I. AVES CARINAT/E. 

1. Aves aerese. 

A. Rapaces. a. Accipitres Vultur, Falco, Sagittarius. 

b. Strix. 

B. Hymenopodes. a. Chelidones: o. 0. nocturnae Capri- 

midyiis; /3. C. diurnse Hirundo. 
1. Oscines: a. O. comrostres Loxia,Frin- 
gilla, Einberiza, Tangara ; /3. 0. ten- 
uirostres Alanda, Motacilla, Musci- 
capa, Todus, Lanius, Ampelis, Tur- 
dus, Paradisea, Buphaga, Sturnus, 
Oriolus, Gracula, Coracias, Corvus, 
Pipra 1, Parus, Silta, Ccrildsz queedam. 

C. Mellisugre. Trochihis, Ccrthise, et Upuyee, plurimse. 

D. Dendroeolaptre. Picus, Yunx. 

E. Brcvilingues. a. Upupa ; b. Ispidse,. 

F. Levirostres. a. PMmpliastus, ticythrops ? ; 1. Psittacus. 

G. Coccyges. Cuculus, Trogom, Bucco, Crotophaga. 

2. Aves terrestres. 

A. Columba. 

B. Gallinae. 

3. Aves aquaticse. 

A. Odontorhynchi : a. Boscades Anas; b. Me/ryus; c. Phceni- 

copterus. 

B. Platyrhynclii. Pelicanus, Phaeton, Plotus. 

C. Aptenodytcs. 

IX Urinatrices: a. Cepplii Alca, Colymli pedibus palmatis; 

b. Podiccps, Colymbi pedibus lobatis. 
E. Stenorhynclii. Proccllarin, Diomedea, Larus, Sterna, 

fihynchops. 

4. Aves palustres. 

A. Rusticolai : a. Phalarides Hall us, Fidica, Parra ; b. 

Limosugffi Numcnius, Scolopax, Tringa, CharadriitA, 
Recurvirostra. 

B. Grallse : a. Erodii Ardcse, ungue intermedio serrato, 

Cancroma; b. Pelargi Ciconia, Mydcria, Tantali quidam, 
Scojjiis, Platalea ; c. Gerani Ardess cristatse. Grues, 
Psophia. 

C. Otis. 

II. AVES KATITVE. Strutldo. 

The most novel feature, and one the importance of 
which most ornithologists of the present day are fully pre 
pared to admit, is of course the separation of the Class 
Aves into two great Divisions, which from one of the most 
obvious distinctions they present were called by its author 
Carinatee 2 and Ratitse* according as the sternum possesses 
a keel (crista in the phraseology of many anatomists) or 
not. But Merrem, who subsequently communicated to 
the Academy of Berlin a more detailed memoir on the 
" flat-breasted " Birds, 4 was careful not here to rest his 
Divisions on the presence or absence of their sternal 
character alone. He concisely cites (p. 238) no fewer than 
eight other characters of more or less value as peculiar to 
the Carinate Division, the first of which is that the feathers 
have their barbs furnished with hooks, in consequence of 
which the barbs, including those of the wing-quills, cling 
closely together ; while among the rest may be mentioned 
the position of the furcula and coracoids, 5 which keep the 
wing-bones apart ; the limitation of the number of the 
lumbar vertebra to fifteen, and of the carpals to two ; as 
well as the divergent direction of the iliac bones, the 
corresponding characters peculiar to the Ratite Division 
being (p. 259) the disconnected condition of the barbs of 
the feathers, through the absence of any hooks whereby they 
might cohere ; the non-existence of the furcula, and the 
coalescence of the coracoids with the scapulae (or, as he 
expressed it, the extension of the scapula? to supply the 
place of the coracoids, which he thought were wanting) ; 
the lumbar vertebrae being tiventy and the carpals thrft in 
number; and the parallelism of the iliac bones. 

" From carina, a keel. 

3 From rates, a raft or flat-bottomed barge. 

4 Beschreibung der Gerippes eines Casuars nebst einigen beilaufigen 
Bemerkungen iiber die flachbriistigen Vogel" Abhandl. der Berlin. 
Akademie, Phys. Klasse, 1817, pp. 179-198, tabb. i.-iii. 

5 Merrem, as did many others in his time, calls the coracoids clttvi- 
cul&"; but it is now well understood that in Birds the real clacicxiic 
form the furcula or " merry-thought." 



20 



ville. 



As for Merrem s partitioning of the inferior groups there 
is less to be said in its praise as a whole, though credit 
must be given to his anatomical knowledge for leading 
him to the perception of several affinities, as well as 
differences, that had never before been suggested by 
superficial systematists. But it must be confessed that 
(chiefly, no doubt, from paucity of accessible material) he 
overlooked many points, both of alliance and the opposite, 
which since his time have gradually come to be admitted. 
For instance, he seems not to have been aware of the dis 
tinction, already shown by Nitzsch (as above mentioned) 
to exist, between the Swallows and the Swifts ; and, by 
putting the genus Coracias among his Oscines Tenuirostres 1 
without any remark, proved that he was not in all respects 
greatly in advance of his age ; but on the other hand he 
most righteously judged that some species hitherto referred 
to the genera Certhia and Upiqm required removal to 
other positions, and it is much to be regretted that the 
very concise terms in which his decisions were given to the 
world make it impossible to determine with any degree 
of certainty the extent of the changes in this respect which 
he would have introduced. Had Merrem published his 
scheme on an enlarged scale, it seems likely that he would 
have obtained for it far more attention, and possibly some 
portion of acceptance. He had deservedly attained no 
little reputation as a descriptive anatomist, and his claims 
to be regarded as a systematic reformer would probably 
have been admitted in his lifetime. As it was his scheme 
apparently fell flat, and not until many years had elapsed 
were its merits at all generally recognized. 

Notice has next to be taken of a Memoir on the 
Employment of Sternal Characters in establishing Natural 
De Families among Birds, which was read by DB BLATNVILLE 
BUiiu- before the Academy of Sciences of Paris in 1815, 2 but not 
published in full for more than five years later (Journal 
de Physique . . . . et des Arts, xcii. pp. 185-215), though an 
abstract forming part of a Prodrome d une nouvellc. distribu 
tion du Regne Animal appeared earlier (op. cit., Ixxxiii. pp. 
252, 253, 258, 259; and Bull. Sue. Philomath, de Paris, 
1816, p. 110). This is a very disappointing performance, 
since the author observes that, notwithstanding his new 
classification of Birds is based on a study of the form of 
the sternal apparatus, yet, because that lies wholly within 
the body, he is compelled to have recourse to such outward 
characters as are afforded by the proportion of the limbs 
and the disposition of the toes even as had been the 
practice of most ornithologists before him ! It is evident 
that the features of the sternum on which De Blainville 
chiefly relied were those drawn from its posterior margin, 
which no very extensive experience of specimens is needed 
to show are of comparatively slight value; for the number 
of " echancrures " notches as they have sometimes been 
called in English w-hen they exist, goes but a very short 
way as a guide, and is so variable in some very natural 
groups as to be even in that short way occasionally mis 
leading. 3 There is no appearance of his having at all taken 
into consideration the far more trustworthy characters 
furnished by the anterior part of the sternum, as well as 
by the coracoids and the furcula. Still De Blainville 
made some advance in a right direction, as for instance by 
elevating the Parrots 4 and the Pigeons as " Ordres," equal 
in rank to that of the Birds-of-Prey and some others. 

1 He also placed the genus Todm in the same group, but it must 
be borne in mind that in his time a great many Birds were referred to 
that genus which (according to modern ideas) certainly do not belong 
to it, and it may well have been that he never had the opportunity of 
examining a specimen of the genus as nowadays restricted. 

" Not 1812, as has sometimes been stated. 

3 Cf. Philos. Transactions, 1869, p. 337, note. 

4 This view of them had been long before taken by Willughby, 
but abandoned bv all later authors. 



According to the testimony of L Herminier (for whom see 
later) he divided the " Passereaux " into two sections, the 
"faux " and the " vrais "; but, while the latter were very 
correctly defined, the former were most arbitrarily separated 
from the " Grimpeurs." He also split his Grallatores and 
Xatatores (practically identical with the Gndlse and 
Anseres of Linnaeus) each into four sections ; but he failed 
to see as on his own principles he ought to have seen 
that each of these sections was at least equivalent to 
almost any one of his other " Ordres." He had, however, 
the courage to act up to his own professions in collocating 
the Rollers (Coracias) with the Bee-eaters (Merojis), and 
had the sagacity to surmise that Menura was not a 
Gallinaceous Bird. The greatest benefit conferred by this 
memoir is probably that it stimulated the efforts, presently 
to be mentioned, of one of hie pupils, and that it brought 
more distinctly into sight that other factor, originally dis 
covered by Merrem, of which it now clearly became the 
duty of systematizers to take cognizance. 

Following the chronological order we are here adopting, 
we next have to recur to the labours of NITZSCH, w r ho, in 
1820, in a treatise on the Nasal Glands of Birds a 
subject that had already attracted the attention of 
JACOBSON (Nouv. Bull. /Soc. Philomath, de Paris, iii. pp. Jacob 
267-269) first put forth in Meckel s Deidsches Archiv son - 
filr die Physiologic (vi. pp. 251-269) a statement of his 
general views on ornithological classification which were Nil/so 
based on a comparative examination of those bodies in 
various forms. It seems unnecessary here to occupy space 
by giving an abstract of his plan, 5 which hardly includes 
any but European species, because it was subsequently 
elaborated with no inconsiderable modifications in a way 
that must presently be mentioned at greater length. But 
the scheme, crude as it w r as, possesses some interest. It 
is not only a key to much of his later work to nearly all 
indeed that was published in his lifetime but in it are 
founded several definite groups (for example, Passerinse, 
and Picarise) that subsequent experience has shewn to be 
more or less natural ; and it further serves as additional 
evidence of the breadth of his views, and his trust in the 
teachings of anatomy ; for it is clear that, if organs so 
apparently insignificant as these nasal glands were found 
worthy of being taken into account, and capable of form 
ing a base of operations, in drawing up a system, it would 
almost follow that there can be no part of a Bird s organiza 
tion that by proper study would not help to supply some 
means of solving the great question of its affinities. This 
seems to the present writer to be one of the most certain 
general truths in Zoology, and is probably admitted in 
theory to be so by most zoologists, but their practice is 
opposed to it ; for, whatever group of animals be studied, 
it is found that one set or another of characters is the 
chief favourite of the authors consulted each generally 
taking a separate set, and that to the exclusion of all 
others, instead of effecting a combination of all the sets 
and taking the aggregate. 

That Nitzsch took this extended view is abundantly 
proved by the valuable series of ornithotomical observa 
tions which he must have been for some time accumulating, 



5 This plan, having been repeated by Schopss in 1829 (op. cit., xii. 
p. 73), became known to Sir K. Owen in 1835, who then drew to it 
the attention of Kirby (Seventh Bridgewaler Treatise, ii. pp. 444, 445), 
and in the next year referred to it in his own article " Aves " in Todd s 
Ci/clopfedia of Anatomy (i. p. 266), so that Englishmen need no 
excuse for not being aware of one of Nitzsch s labours, though his 
more advanced work of 1829, presently to be mentioned, was not 
referred to by Sir R. Owen. 

6 A very remarkable instance of this may be seen in the Si/stemo 
Avium, promulgated in 1830 by Wagler (a man with great knowledge 
of Birds) in his Natiirliches System der Amphibien (pp. 77-128). He 
took the tongue as his chief guide, and found it indeed an unruly 
member. 



ORN ITHOL G Y 



21 



and almost immediately afterwards began to contribute 
to the younger Naumann s excellent Naturyeschichte der 
Voyel DeutsddandSy already noticed above (page 9). 
Besides a concise general treatise on the Organization of 
Birds to be found in the Introduction to this work (i. pp. 
23-52), a brief description from Nitzsch s pen of the 
peculiarities of the internal structure of nearly every genus 
is incorporated with the author s prefatory remarks, as 
each passed under consideration, and these descriptions 
being almost without exception so drawn up as to be com 
parative are accordingly of great utility to the student of 
classification, though they have been so greatly neglected. 
Upon these descriptions he was still engaged till death, in 
1837, put an end to his labours, when his place as 
Naumann s assistant for the remainder of the work was 
taken by Rudolph "Wagner ; but, from time to time, a 
few more, which he had already completed, made their 
posthumous appearance in it, and, even in recent years, 
some selections from his unpublished papers have through 
the care of Giebel been presented to the public. Through 
out the whole of this series the same marvellous industry 
and scrupulous accuracy are manifested, and attentive study 
of it will shew how many times Nitzscli anticipated the 
conclusions at whi-ch it has taken some modern taxonomers 
fifty years to arrive. Yet over and over again his de 
termination of the affinities of several groups even of 
European Birds was disregarded ; and his labours, being 
contained in a bulky and costly work, were hardly known 
at all outside of his own country, and within it by no 
means appreciated so much as they deserved l for even 
Naumann himself, who gave them publication, and was 
doubtless in some degree influenced by them, utterly failed 
to perceive the importance of the characters offered by the 
song-muscles of certain groups, though their peculiarities 
were all duly described and recorded by his coadjutor, 
as some indeed had been long before by Cuvier in his 
famous dissertation 2 on the organs of voice in Birds 
(Lecuns danatomie comparce, iv. pp. 450-491). Xitzsch s 
name was subsequently dismissed by Cuvier without a 
word of praise, and in terms which would have been 
applicable to many another and inferior author, while 
Temminck, terming Naumann s work an " ouvraye de luxe," 

it being in truth one of the cheapest for its contents 
ever published, effectually shut it out from the realms of 
science. In Britain it seems to have been positively 
unknown until quoted some years after its completion by 
a catalogue-compiler on account of some peculiarities of 
nomenclature which it presented. 3 

Now we must return to France, where, in 1827, 
L HERMINIEK, a crcole of Guadaloupe and a pupil of De 
Blainville s, contributed to the Actes of the Linmean Society 
of Paris for that year (vi. pp. 3-93) the " Recherches sur 
1 appareil sternal des Oiseaux, " which the precept and 
example of his master had prompted him to undertake, 
and Cuvier had found for him the means of executing. A 
second and considerably enlarged edition of this very 
remarkable treatise was published as a separate work in 
the following year. \Y"e have already seen that De 
Blainville, though fully persuaded of the great value of 
sternal features as a method of classification, had been 
compelled to fall back upon the old pedal characters so 
often employed before ; but now the scholar had learnt to 
excel his teacher, and not only to form an at least provi- 

1 Their value was, however, understood by Gloger, who in 1834, as 
will presently be seen, expressed his regret at not being able to use 
them. 

2 Cuvier s first observations on the subject seem to have appeared 
in the Magazin Encydopedique for 1795 (ii. pp. 330, 358). 

3 However, to this catalogue- compiler the present writer s grati 
tude is due, for thereby he became acquainted -\vith the work and its 
merits. 



sional arrangement of the various members of the Clats, 
based on sternal characters, but to describe these characters 
at some length, and so give a reason for the faith that was 
in him. There is no evidence, so far as we can see, of 
his having been aware of Merrem s views ; but like that 
anatomist he without hesitation divided the Class into two 
great "coupes" to which he gave, however, no other names 
than "Oiseaux Normaux" and "Oiseaux Anomaux,"- 
exactly corresponding with his predecessor s Carinatae and 
Ratitge, and, moreover, he had a great advantage in 
founding these groups, since he had discovered, apparently 
from his own investigations, that the mode of ossification 
in each was distinct ; for hitherto the statement of there 
being five centres of ossification in every Bird s sternum 
seems to have been accepted as a general truth, without 
contradiction, whereas in the Ostrich and the Rhea, at any 
rate, L Herminier found that there were but two such 
primitive points, 4 and from analogy he judged that the 
same would be the case with the Cassowary and the Emeu, 
which, with the two forms mentioned above, made up the 
whole of the " Oiseaux . Anomatix " whose existence was 
then generally acknowledged. 5 These are the forms which 
composed the Family previously termed Cursores by De 
Blainville ; but L Herminier was able to distinguish no 
fewer than thirty-four Families of " Oiseaux Normaux," 
and the judgment with which their separation and defini 
tion were effected must be deemed on the whole to be most 
creditable to him. It is to be remarked, however, that 
the wealth of the Paris Museum, which he enjoyed to the 
full, placed him in a situation incomparably more favour 
able for arriving at results than that which was occupied 
by Merrem, to whom many of the most remarkable forms 
were wholly unknown, while L Herminier had at his dis 
posal examples of nearly every type then known to exist. 
But the latter used this privilege wisely and well not, 
after the manner of De Blainville and others subsequent 
to him, relying solely or even chiefly on the character 
afforded by the posterior portion of the sternum, but 
taking also into consideration those of the anterior, as well 
as of the in some cases still more important characters 
presented by the pre-sternal bones, such as the furcula, 
coracoids, and scapulas. L Herminier thus separated the 
Families of " Normal Birds": 



9. 
10. 
11. 



14. 
15. 



Accipitres " - Accipitrcs, 18, 

Linn. 
Serpentaives " Gypogera- 19. 

nus, llliger. 20 

Chouettes" Strix, Linn. 21 
"Touracos" Opaetus,~Yi&llot 
Perro([iiets " - Psittacus, 

Linn. 

Colibris " Trochihis, Linn. 23. 
Martinets " Cypselus, Illi- 24, 

ger. 
Engoule vents" Caprimul- 

gus, Linn. 

Coucous " Cucuhis, Linn. 
Couroucous" Trogon,IAim. 26, 
Kolliers " Galgulus, Bris- 

son. 27 

Guepiers "Mcrops, Linn. 28. 
Martins-FGcheurs" Akcdo, 29, 

Linn. 30. 

Calaos "- -Buceros, Linn. j 31. 
: Toucans " Ranrphantos, 32. 

Linn. 

; Pies" Pirns, Linn. | 33. 

Epopsides" - Epopsidex, 34. 

Vieillot. 



" Passereaux " - Passcrcs, 

Linn. 

" Pigeons " Columba, Linn. 
Gallinaces " Gallinacea. 
" Tinamous " - Tinamus, 

Latham. 
" Foulquea on Ponies d ean" 

Fulicci, Linn. 
" Grues " Grits, Pallas. 
" Herodions " Herodii, Illi- 

ger. 
Xo name given, but said to 

include " les ibis et les 

spattiles." 
"Gralles ou Echassiera "- 

G rail IF. 

" Mouettes " Lams, Linn. 
" Petrels" ProcfUaria,\J\im. 
"Pelicans" Pclecanus,~L\\m. 
" Canards " Anas, Linn. 
" Grebes" 1 odiccps, Lat]iam, 
" Plongeons" - Culymbus, 

Latham. 

" Pingoitins" Alca, Latham. 
" Manchots" Aptenodytcs, 

Forster. 



4 This fact in the Ostrich appears to have been known already to 
Geoffrey St-Hilaire from his own observation in Egypt, but does not 
seem to have been published by him. 

5 Considerable doubts were at that time, as said elsewhere (Kiwi, 
vol. xiv. p. 104), entertained in Paris as to the existence of the 
Apteryx, 



22 



ORNITHOLOGY 



The preceding list is given to shew the very marked 
agreement of L Herminier s results compared with those 
obtained fifty years later by another investigator, who 
approached the subject from an entirely different, though 
still osteological, basis. The sequence of the Families 
adopted is of course open to much criticism ; but that 
would be wasted upon it at the present day; and the 
cautious naturalist will remember that it is generally 
difficult and in most cases absolutely impossible to deploy 
even a small section of the Animal Kingdom into line. 
So far as a linear arrangement will permit, the above list 
is very creditable, and will not only pass muster, but 
cannot easily be surpassed for excellence even at this 
moment. Experience has shewn that a few of the Families 
are composite, and therefore require further splitting ; but 
examples of actually false grouping cannot be said to 
occur. The most serious fault perhaps to be found is the 
intercalation of the Ducks (No. 30) between the Pelicans 
and the Grebes but every systematist must recognize 
the difficulty there is in finding a place for the Ducks in 
any arrangement we can at present contrive that shall be 
regarded as satisfactory. Many of the excellencies of 
L Herminier s method could not be pointed out without 
too great a sacrifice of space, because of the details into 
which it would be necessary to enter ; but the trenchant 
way in which he showed that the " Passereaux" a group 
of which Cuvier had said " Son caractere semble d abord 
purement ne gatif," and had then failed to define the 
limits differed so completely from every other assem 
blage, while maintaining among its own innumerable 
members an almost perfect essential homogeneity, is very 
striking, and shews how admirably he could grasp his sub 
ject. Not less conspicuous are his merits in disposing of 
the groups of what are ordinarily known as Water-birds, his 
indicating the affinity of the Rails (No. 22) to the Cranes 
(No. 23), and the severing of the latter from the Herons 
(No. 24). His union of the Snipes, Sandpipers, and 
Plovers into one group (No. 26) and the alliance, especially 
dwelt upon, of that group with the Gulls (No. 27) are 
steps which, though indicated by Merrem, are here for the 
first time clearly laid down ; and the separation of the 
Gulls from the Petrels (No. 28) a step in advance already 
taken, it is true, by Illiger is here placed on indefeasible 
ground. With all this, perhaps on account of all- this, 
L Herminier s efforts did not find favour with his scientific 
superiors, and for the time things remained as though his 
investigations had never been carried on. 1 

Two years later Nitzsch, who was indefatigable in his 
endeavour to discover the Natural Families of Birds, and 
had been pursuing a series of researches into their vascular 
system, published the result, at Halle in Saxony, in his 
Observationes <h Avium arteria carotide communi, in which 
is included a classification drawn up in accordance with the 
variation of structure which that important vessel presented 
in- the several groups that he had opportunities of examin 
ing. By this time he had visited several of the principal 
museums on the Continent, among others Leyden (where 
Temminck resided) and Paris (where he had frequent 
intercourse with -Cuvier), thus becoming acquainted with 
a considerable number of exotic forms that had hitherto 
been inaccessible to him. Consequently his labours had 
attained to a certain degree of completeness in this direc 
tion, and it may therefore te expedient here to name the 
different groups which he thus thought himself entitled to 
consider established. They are as follows: 

1 With the exception of a brief and wholly inadequate notice in the 
Edinburgh Journal of Natural History (i. p. 90), the present writer 
is not aware of attention having been directed to L Herminier s labours 
by British ornithologists for several years after ; but considering how 
they were employing themselves at the time (as is shewn in another 
place) this is not surprising. 



T. AVES CAKINAT.E [L H. Oiseaux Normaux "]. 

A. Avcs Carinatse aerere. 

1. Accipitrinx [L H. 1, 2 partim, 3] ; 2. Passerines, [L H. 18] ; 3. 
Macrochires [L H. 6, 7]; 4. Cuculinx [L YL. 8, 9, 10 (qu. 11, 
12?)]; 5. Picinie [L H. 15, 16]; 6. Psittacinse, [L H. 5]; 7. 
Lipoglossas [L H. 13, 14, 17] ; 8. AmpUMae, [L H. 4]. 

B. Avcs Carinate terrestres. 

1. Columbinte [L H. 19] ; 2. Gallinacese [L H. 20]. 

C. Aves Carinatse aquaticse. 

Grallre. 

1. Ahdoridcs (= Dicholophus + Otis) [L H. 2 partim, 26 partim]; 
2. Gruinse [L H. 23]; 3. Fulicarise [L H. 22]; 4. Hcrodiss 
[L H. 24 partim]; 5. Pelargi [L H. 24 partim, 25]; 6. Odonto- 
glossi ( = Phasnico23terus) [L H. 26 partim]; 7. Limicolse. [L H. 
26 panic onmes]. 

Palmatae. 

8. Longipenncs [L H. 27] ; 9. Nasutse [L H. 28] ; 10. Unguirostres 
[L H. 30] ; 11. Steganopodes [L H. 29] ; 12. Pygopodes [L H. 
31, 32, 33, 34]. 

II. AVES RATIT.E [L H. " Oiseanx Anomaux "]. 

To enable the reader to compare the several groups of 
Nitzsch with the Families of L Herminier, the numbers 
applied by the latter to his Families are suffixed in square 
brackets to the names of the forme:: ; and, disregarding the 
order of sequence, which is here immaterial, the essential 
correspondence of the two systems is worthy of all atten 
tion, for it obviously means that these two investigators, 
starting from different points, must have been on the right 
track, when they so often coincided as to the limits of 
what they considered to be, and what we are now almost 
justified in calling, Natural Groups. 2 But it must be 
observed that the classification of Nitzsch, just given, rests 
much more on characters furnished by the general struc 
ture than on those furnished by the carotid artery only. 
Among all the species (188, he tells us, in number) of 
which he examined specimens, he found only four varia 
tions in the structure of that vessel, namely : 

1. That in which both a right carotid artery and a left 
are present. This is the most usual fashion among the 
various groups of Birds, including all the " aerial " forms 
excepting Passerines, Macrochires, and Picinse. 

2. That in which there is but a single carotid artery, 
springing from both right and left trunk, but the branches 
soon coalescing, to take a midway course, and again divid 
ing near the head. This form Nitzsch was only able to 
find in the Bittern (Ardea stellaris). 

3. That in which the right carotid artery alone is 
present, of which, according to our author s experience, the 
Flamingo (Phoenicopterus) was the sole example. 

4. That in which the left carotid artery alone exists, as 
found in all other Birds examined by Nitzsch, and there 
fore as regards species and individuals much the most 
common since into this category come the countless 
thousands of the Passerine Birds a group which out 
numbers all the rest put together. 

Considering the enormous stride in advance made by L Herminier, 
it is very disappointing for the historian to have to record that the 
next inquirer into the osteology of Birds achieved a disastrous failure 
in his attempt to throw light on their arrangement by means of a 
comparison of their sternum. This was BEUTHOLD, who devoted Bertholi 
a long chapter of his Bcitr&ge zur Anatomic, published at Gottingen 
in 1831, to a consideration of the subject. So far as his introduc 
tory chapter went the development of the sternum he was, for 

- Whether Nitzsch was cognizant of L Herniinier s views is in no 
way apparent. The latter s name seems not to be even mentioned by 
him, but Nitzsch was in Paris in the summer of 1827, and it is almost 
impossible that he should not have heard of L Herminier s labours, 
unless the relations between the followers of Cuvier, to whom Nitzsch 
attached himself, and those of De Blainville, whose pupil L Hermi 
nier was, were such as to forbid any communication between the rival 
schools. Yet we have L Herniinier s evidence that Cuvier gave him 
every assistance. Nitzsch s silence, both on this occasion and after 
wards, is very curious ; but ho cannot be accused of plagiarism, for 
the scheme given above is only an amplification of that foreshadowed 
by him (as already mentioned) in 1820 a scheme which seems to 
have been equally unknown to L Herminier, perhaps through linguistic 
difficulty. 



K 



NITHOLOGY 



23 



his time, right enough and somewhat instructive. It was only 
when, after a close examination of the sternal apparatus of one 
hundred and thirty species, which he carefully described, that he 
arrived (pp. 177-183) at the conclusion astonishing to us who know 
of L Herminier s previous results that the sternum of Birds cannot 
be used as a help to their classification on account of the egregious 
anomalies that would follow the proceeding such anomalies, for 
instance, as the separation of Cypsclus from Birundo and its alliance 
with Trochilus, and the grouping of Hiruntlo and Fringilla 
together. He seems to have been persuaded that the method of 
Linnojus and his disciples was indisputably right, and that any 
method which contradicted it must therefore be wrong. Moreover, 
he appears to have regarded the sternal structure as a mere function 
of the Bird s habit, especially in regard to its power of flight, and 
to have wholly overlooked the converse position that this power of 
flight must depend entirely on tho structure. Good descriptive 
anatomist as he certainly was, he was false to the anatomist s creed; 
but it is plain, from reading his careful descriptions of sternurns, 
that he could not grasp the essential characters he had before him, 
and, attracted only by the more salient and obvious features, had 
not capacity to interpret the me ining of the whole. Yet he did not 
amiss by giving many figures of stern urns hitherto unrepresented. 
We pass from him to a more lively theme. 

At the very beginning of the year 1832 Cuvier laid 
before the Academy of Sciences of Paris a memoir on the 
progress of ossification in the sternum of Birds, of which 
memoir an abstract will be found in the Ann r des des 
Sciences Naturelles (xxv. pp. 260-272). Herein he treated 
of several subjects with which we are not particularly con 
cerned at present, and his remarks throughout were chiefly 
directed against certain theories which F^tienne Geoffroy 
St-Hilaire had propounded in his Philosophic Anatomique, 
published a good many years before, and need not trouble us 
here ; but what does signify to us now is that Cuvier traced 
in detail, illustrating his statements by the preparations 
he exhibited, the progress of ossification in the sternum of 
the Fowl and of the Duck, pointing out how it differed 
in each, and giving his interpretation of the differ 
ences. It had hitherto been generally believed that 
the mode of ossification in the Fowl was that which 
obtained in all Birds the Ostrich and its allies (as 
L Herminier, we have seen, had already shewn) excepted. 
But it was now made to appear that the Struthi- 
ous Birds in this respect resembled, not only the Duck, 
but a great many other groups Waders, Birds-of-Prey, 
Pigeons, Passerines, and perhaps all Birds not Galli 
naceous, so that, according to Cuvier s view, the five 
points of ossification observed in the Gallinx, instead 
of exhibiting the normal process, exhibited one quite 
exceptional, and that in all other Birds, so far as he had 
been enabled to investigate the matter, ossification of the 
sternum began at two points only, situated near the 
anterior upper margin of the side of the sternum, and 
gradually crept towards the keel, into which it presently 
extended ; and, though he allowed the appearance of 
detached portions of calcareous matter at the base of the 
still cartilaginous keel in Ducks at a certain age, he seemed 
to consider this an individual peculiarity. This fact was 
fastened upon by Geoffroy in his reply, which was a week 
later presented to the Academy, but was not published 
in full until the following year, when it appeared in the 
Annales du Museum (ser. 3, ii. pp. 1-22). Geoffroy here 
maintained that the five centres of ossification existed in 
the Duck just as in the Fowl, and that the real difference 
of the process lay in the period at which they made their 
appearance, a circumstance, which, though virtually proved 
by the preparations Cuvier had used, had been by him 
overlooked or misinterpreted. The Fowl possesses all 
five ossifications at birth, and for a long while the middle 
piece forming the keel is by far the largest. They all 
grow slowly, and it is not until the animal is about six 
months old that they are united into one firm bone. The 
Duck on the other hand, when newly hatched, and for 
nearly a month after, has the sternum wholly cartilaginous. 



Then, it is true, two lateral points of ossification appear 
at the margin, but subsequently the remaining three are 
developed, and when once formed they grow with much 
greater rapidity than in the Fowl, so that by the time the 
young Duck is quite independent of its parents, and can 
shift for itself, the whole sternum is completely bony. 
Nor, argued Geoffroy, was it true to say, as Cuvier had 
said, that the like occurred in the Pigeons and true 
Passerines. In their case the sternum begins to ossify 
from three very distinct points one of which is the centre 
of ossification of the keel. As regards the Struthious Birds, 
they could not be likened to the Duck, for in them at no 
age was there any indication of a single median centre of 
ossification, as Geoffroy had satisfied himself by his own 
observations made in Egypt many years before. Cuvier 
seems to have acquiesced in the corrections of his views 
made by Geoffroy, and attempted no rejoinder ; but the 
attentive and impartial student of the discussion will see 
that a good deal was really wanting to make the latter s 
reply effective, though, as events have shewn, the former 
was hasty in the conclusions at which he arrived, having 
trusted too much to the first appearance of centres of 
ossification, for, had his observations in regard to other 
Birds been carried on with the same attention to detail as 
in regard to the Fowl, he would certainly have reached 
some very different results. 

In 1834 GLOGER brought out at Breslau the first (and unfortu- Gloger. 
nately the only) part of a V ollstandiyes Handbuch dcr Natur- 
//cschichte der Vogd Europas, treating of the Land-birds. In the 
introduction to this book (p. xxxviii., note) he expressed his regret 
at not being able to use as fully as he could wish the excellent 
researches of Xitzsch which were then appearing (as has been above 
said) in the successive parts of Naumann s great work. Notwith 
standing this, to Gloger seems to belong the credit of being the first 
author to avail himself in a book intended for practical ornitho 
logists of the new light that had already been shed on Systematic 
Ornithology ; and accordingly we have the second Order of his 
arrangement, the Arcs Passerine, divided into two Suborders : 
Singing Passerines (meloditsze), and Passerines without an apparatus 
of Song-muscles (anomalas) the latter including what some later 
writers called Picariss. For the rest his classification demands no 
particular remark ; but that in a work of this kind he had the 
courage to recognize, for instance, such a fact as the essential 
difference between Swallows and Swifts lifts him considerably above 
the crowd of other ornithological writers of his time. 

An improvement on tiie old method of classification by purely 
external characters was introduced to the Academy of Sciences of 
Stockholm by SUNDKVALL in 1835, and was published the following Sunde- 
year iu its Handlingnr (pp. 43-130). This was the foundation of vail, 
a more extensive work of which, from the influence it still exerts, 
it will be necessary to treat later at some length, and there will be 
no need now to enter much into details respecting the earlier per 
formance. It is sufficient here to remark that the author, even then 
a man of great erudition, must have been aware of the turn which 
taxonomy was taking ; but, not being able to divest himself of the 
older notion that external characters were superior to those fur 
nished by the study of internal structure, and that Comparative 
Anatomy, instead of being a part of Zoology, was something dis 
tinct from it, he seems to have endeavoured to form a scheme which, 
while not running wholly counter to the teachings of Comparative 
Anatomists, should yet rest ostensibly on external characters. With 
this view he studied the latter most laboriously, and in some 
measure certainly not without success, for he brought into promin 
ence several points that had hitherto escaped the notice of his pre 
decessors. He also admitted among his characteristics a physio 
logical consideration (apparently derived from Oken 1 ) dividing the 
class Arcs into two sections Altriccs and Preecocas, according as the 
young were fed by their parents or, from the first, fed themselves. 
But at this time he was encumbered with the hazy doctrine of 
analogies, which, if it did not act to his detriment, was assuredly 
of no service to him. He prefixed an "Idea Systematis" to his 
"Expositio"; and the former, which appears to represent his real 
opinion, differs in arrangement very considerably from the latter. 
Like Gloger, Sundevall in his ideal system separated the true 
Passerines from all other Birds, calling them Volucrcs ; but he took 
a step further, for he assigned to them the highest rank, wherein 

1 He says from Oken s NnturrjcschicMe far Schulen, published in 
1821, but the division is to be found in that author s earlier Lehrbuch 
der Zoologie (ii. p. 371), which appeared in 1816. 



ORNITHOLOGY 



VHer- 

ninier 

ind 

sidore 

leoffroy 

Jt- 

ililaire. 



nearly every recent authority agrees with him ; out of them, how 
ever, he chose the Thrushes and Warblers to stand iirst as his ideal 
" Centrum a selection which, though in the opinion of the pre 
sent writer erroneous, is still largely followed. 

The points at issue between Cuvier and Etienne Geoffrey 
St-Hilaire before mentioned naturally attracted the atten 
tion of L HERMINIER, who in 1836 presented to the French 
Academy the results of his researches into the mode of 
growth of that bone which in the adult Bird he had 
already studied to such good purpose. Unfortunately the 
full account of his diligent investigations was never 
published. We can best judge of his labours from an 
abstract printed in the Comptes JRendus (iii. pp. 12 -20) 
and reprinted in the Annales des Sciences Naturdles (ser. 
2, vi. pp. 107-115), and from the report upon them by 
ISIDORE GEOFFROY ST-HILAIRE, to whom with others they 
were referred. This report is contained in the Comptes 
Rendus for the following year (iv. pp. 565-574), and is 
very critical in its character. It were useless to conjecture 
why the whole memoir never appeared, as the reporter 
recommended that it should ; but, whether, as he suggested, 
the author s observations failed to establish the theories 
he advanced or not, the loss of his observations in an 
extended form is greatly to be regretted, for no one seems 
to have continued the investigations he began and to 
some extent carried out ; while, from his residence in 
Guadeloupe, he had peculiar advantages in studying 
certain types of Birds not generally available, his remarks 
on them could not fail to be valuable, quite irrespective 
of the interpretation he was led to put upon them. 
L Herminier arrived at the conclusion that, so far from 
there being only two or three different modes by which 
the process of ossification in the sternum is carried out, 
the number of different modes is very considerable 
almost each natural group of Birds having its own. The 
principal theory which he hence conceived himself justified 
in propounding was that instead oijive being (as had been 
stated) the maximum number of centres of ossification in 
the sternum, there are no fewer than nine entering into 
the composition of the perfect sternum of Birds in general, 
though in every species some of these nine are wanting, 
whatever be the condition of development at the time of 
examination. These nine theoretical centres or " pieces " 
L Herminier deemed to be disposed in three transverse 
series (rangees), namely the anterior or " prosternal," the 
middle or "mesosternal," and the posterior or "metasternal" 
each series consisting of three portions, one median piece 
and two side-pieces. At the same time he seems, accord 
ing to the abstract of his memoir, to have made the some 
what contradictory assertion that sometimes there are 
more than three pieces in each series, and in certain 
groups of Birds as many as six. 1 It would occupy more 
space than can here be allowed to give even the briefest 
abstract of the numerous observations which follow the 
statement of his theory and on which it professedly rests. 
They extend to more than a score of natural groups of 
Birds, and nearly each of them presents some peculiar 
characters. Thus of the first series of pieces he says that 
when all exist they may be developed simultaneously, or 
that the two side-pieces may precede the median, or again 
that the median may precede the side-pieces according 
to the group of Birds, but that the second mode is much 
the commonest. The same variations are observable in 
the second or middle series, but its side-pieces are said to 
exist in all groups of Birds without exception. As to the 
third or posterior series, when it is complete the three 
constituent pieces are developed almost simultaneously; 



1 We shall perhaps he justified in assuming that this apparent incon 
sistency, and others which present themselves, would be explicable if 
the whole memoir with the necessary illustrations had been published. 



but its median piece is said often to originate in two, 
which soon unite, especially when the side-pieces are 
wanting. By way of examples of L Herminicr s observa 
tions, what he says of the two groups that had been the 
subject of Cuvier s and the elder Geoffrey s contest may 
be mentioned. In the Galling? the five well-known pieces 
or centres of ossification are said to consist of the two 
side-pieces of the second or middle series, and the three of 
the posterior. On two occasions, however, there was found 
in addition, what may be taken for a representation of 
the first series, a little " noyau " situated between the 
coracoids forming the only instance of all three seri.es. 
being present in the same Bird. As regards the Ducks, 
L Herminier agreed with Cuvier that there are commonly 
only two centres of ossification the side-pieces of the 
middle series ; but as these grow to meet one another a 
distinct median " noy(m" also of the same series, some 
times appears, which soon forms a connexion with each 
of them. In the Ostrich and its allies no trace of this 
median centre of ossification ever occurs ; but with these, 
exceptions its existence is invariable in all other Birds. 
Here the matter must be left ; but it is undoubtedly a 
subject which demands further investigation, and naturally 
any future investigator of it should consult the abstract of 
L Herminier s memoir and the criticisms upon it of the 
younger Geoff roy. 

Hitherto it will have been seen that our present busi 
ness has lain wholly in Germany and France, for, as is 
elsewhere explained, the chief ornithologists of Britain 
were occupying themselves at this time in a very useless 
way not but that there were several distinguished men 
in this country who were paying due heed at this time to 
the internal structure of Birds, and some excellent descrip 
tive memoirs on special forms had appeared from their 
pens, to say nothing of more than one general treatise on 
ornithic anatomy. 2 Yet no one in Britain seems to have 
attempted to found any scientific arrangement of Birds on 
other than external characters until, in 1837, WILLIAM Mac - 
MACGILLIVRAY issued the first volume of his History o/gillivra 
British Birds, wherein, though professing (p. 19) "not to 
add a new system to the many already in partial use, or 
that have passed away like their authors," he propounded 
(pp. 16-18) a scheme for classifying the Birds of Europe 
at least founded on a " consideration of the digestive 
organs, which merit special attention, on account, not so 
much of their great importance in the economy of birds, 
as the nervous, vascular, and other systems are not behind 
them in this respect ; but because, exhibiting great diver 
sity of form and structure, in accordance with the nature 
of the food, they are more obviously qualified to afford a 
basis for the classification of the numerous species of 
birds " (p. 52). Experience has again and again exposed 
the fallacy of this last conclusion, but it is no disparag- 
ment of its author, writing nearly fifty years ago, to .say 
that in this passage, as well as in others that might bo 
quoted, he was greater as an anatomist than as a logician. 



2 Sir Richard Owen s celebrated article "Avcs," in Todd s Cyclo- 
ptedia nf Anatomy and Physiology (i. pp. 265-358), appeared in 1836, 
and, as giving a general view of the structure of Birds, needs no praise 
here ; but its object was not to establish a classification, or throw light 
especially on systematic arrangement. So far from that being the case, 
its distinguished author was content to adopt, as he tells us, the 
arrangement proposed by Kirby in the Screnlh Bridrjeivater Treatise 
(ii. pp. 445-474), being that, it is true, of an estimable zoologist, but 
of one who had no special knowledge of Ornithology. Indeed it is, 
as the latter says, that of Linnaeus, improved by Cuvier, with an 
additional modification of Illiger s all these three authors having 
totally ignored any but external characters. Yet it was regarded "as 
being the one which facilitates the expression of the leading anatomical 
differences which obtain in the class of Birds, and which therefore may 
be considered as the most natural." 



He was indeed thoroughly grounded in anatomy, 1 and I 
though undoubtedly the digestive organs of Birds have a 
claim to the fullest consideration, yet Macgillivray himself 
subsequently became aware of the fact that there were 
several other parts of their structure as important from 
the point of view of classification. He it was, apparently, 
who first detected the essential difference of the organs 
of voice presented by some of the New-World Passerines 
(subsequently known as Clamatores), and the earliest 
intimation of this seems to be given in his anatomical 
description of the Arkansas Flycatcher, Tyrannus verticalis, 
which was published in 1838 (Ornithol. Biography, iv. p. 
425), though it must be admitted that he did not because 
he then could not perceive the bearing of their difference, 
which was reserved to be shown by the investigation of a 
still greater anatomist, and of one who had fuller facilities 
for research, and thereby almost revolutionized, as will 
presently be mentioned, the views of systematists as to 
this Order of Birds. There is only space here to say that 
the second volume of Macgillivray s work was published 
in 1839, and the third in 1840 ; but it was not until 1852 
that the author, in broken health, found an opportunity of 
issuing the fourth and fifth. His scheme of classification, 
being as before stated partial, need not be given in detail. 
Its great merit is that it proved the necessity of combin 
ing another and hitherto much-neglected factor in any 
natural arrangement, though vitiated as so many other 
schemes have been by being based wholly on one class of 
characters. 

But a bolder attempt at classification was that made in 
1838 by BLYTH in the New Series (Mr CharlesworthV) of 
the Magazine of Natural History (ii. pp. 256-268, 314- 
319, 351-361/420-426, 589-601; iii. pp. 76-84). It 
was limited, however, to what he called Insessores, being 
the group upon which that name had been conferred by 
Vigors (Trans. Linn. Society, xiv. p. 405) in 1823 (see 
above, p. 15), with the addition, however, of his Raptores, 
and it will be unnecessary to enter into particulars con 
cerning it, though it is as equally remarkable for the insight 
shewn by the author into the structure of Birds as for the 
philosophical breadth of his view, which comprehends 
almost every kind of character that had been at that time 
brought forward. It is plain that Blyth saw, and perhaps 
he was the first to see it, that Geographical Distribution 
was not unimportant in suggesting the affinities and 
differences of natural groups (pp. 258, 259) ; and, unde 
terred by the precepts and practice of the hitherto 
dominant English school of Ornithologists, he declared 
that anatomy, when aided by every character which the 
manner of propagation, the progressive changes, and other 
physiological data supply, is the only sure basis of classi 
fication." He was quite aware of the taxonomic value of 
the vocal organs of some groups of Birds, presently to be 
especially mentioned, and he had himself ascertained the 
presence and absence of caeca in a not inconsiderable 
number of groups, drawing thence very justifiable infer 
ences. He knew at least the earlier investigations of 



1 This is not the place to expatiate on Macgillivray s merits ; but the 
writer may perhaps be excused for here uttering the opinion that, after 
Willughby, Macgillivray was the greatest and most original ornitho 
logical genius save one (who did not live long enough to make his 
powers widely known) that this island has produced. The exact 
amount of assistance he afforded to Audubon in his Ornithological 
Biography will probably never be ascertained ; but, setting aside " all 
the anatomical descriptions, as well as the sketches by which they are 
sometimes illustrated," that on the latter s own statement (o^?. c/ t. , iv. , 
Introduction, p. xxiii) are the work of Macgillivray, no impartial 
reader can compare the style in which the History of British Birds is 
written with that of the Ornithological Biography without recogniz 
ing the similarity of the two. On this subject some remarks of 
Prof. Cones (Bull. Xutt. Ornithol. Club, 1880, p. 201) may well be 
consulted. 



25 

L Herminier, and, though the work of Nitzsch, even if he 
had ever heard of it, must (through ignorance of the 
language in which it was written) have been to him a 
sealed book, he had followed out and extended the hints 
already given by Temminck as to the differences which 
various groups of Birds display in their moult. With all 
this it is not surprising to find, though the fact has been 
generally overlooked, that Blyth s proposed arrangement 
in many points anticipated conclusions that were subse 
quently reached, and were then regarded as fresh dis 
coveries. It is proper to add that at this time the greater 
part of his work was carried on in conjunction with Mr 
BARTLETT, the present Superintendent of the Zoological Bartlett. 
Society s Gardens, and that, without his assistance, Blyth s 
opportunities, slender as they were compared with those 
which others have enjoyed, must have been still smaller. 
Considering the extent of their materials, which was limited 
to the bodies of such animals as they could obtain from 
dealers and the several menageries that then existed in or 
near London, the progress made in what has since proved 
to be the right direction is very wonderful. It is obvious 
that both these investigators had the genius for recognizing 
and interpreting the value of characters ; but their labours 
do not seem to have met with much encouragement ; and 
a general arrangement of the Class laid by Blyth before 
the Zoological Society at this time 2 does not appear in its 
publications, possibly through his neglect to reduce his 
scheme to writing and deliver it within the prescribed 
period. But even if this were not the case, no one need 
be surprised at the result. The scheme could hardly fail 
to be a crude performance a fact which nobody would 
know better than its author ; but it must have presented 
much that was objectionable to the opinions then generally 
prevalent. Its line to some extent may be partly made 
out very clearly, for the matter of that, so far as its 
details have been published in the series of papers to 
which reference has been given and some traces of its 
features are probably preserved in his Catalogue of the 
specimens of Birds in the Museum of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal, which, after several years of severe labour, 
made its appearance at Calcutta in 1849 ; but, from the 
time of his arrival in India, the onerous duties imposed 
upon Blyth, together with the want of sufficient books of 
reference, seem to have hindered him from seriously con 
tinuing his former researches, which, interrupted as they 
were, and born out of due time, had no appreciable effect 
on the views of systematizers generally. 

Next must bo noticed a series of short treatises communicated 
by JOHAXX FRIEDRICH BRANDT, between the years 1836 and 1839, Brandt, 
to the Academy of Sciences of St Petersburg, and published in its 
Mewoircs. In the year last mentioned the greater part of these 
Avas separately issued under the title of Bcitrage zur Kcnntniss 
Her Naturgcschichte der Vogel. Herein the author first assigned 
anatomical reasons for rearranging the Order Anscres of Linnaeus 
and Natatorcs of Illiger, who, so long before as 1811, had proposed 
a new distribution of it into six Families, the definitions of which, 
as was his wont, he had drawn from external characters only. 
Bnmdt now retained very nearly the same arrangement as his 
predecessor ; but, notwithstanding that he could trust to the 
firmer foundation of internal framework, he took at least two retro 
grade steps. First he failed to see the great structural diffe:ence 
between the Penguins (which Illiger had placed as a group, 
Iwpcnncs, of equal rank to his other Families) and the Auks, 
Divers, and Grebes, Pygopodes combining all of them to form a 
" Typus " (to use his term) Urino tores ; and secondly he admitted 
among the Natatorcs, though as a distinct "Typus" Podoida\ the 
genera Podoa and Fulica, which are now known to belong to the 
Rallidie the latter indeed (see COOT, vol. vi. p. 341) being but 
very slightly removed from the MOOU-HEX (vol. xvi. p. 808). At 
the same time he corrected the error made by ]lliger in associating 
the PiiALARorr.s (q.r.) with these forms, rightly declaring their 

2 An abstract is contained in the Minute-book of the Scientific 
Meetings of the Zoological Society, 26th June and 10th July 1838. 
The Class was to contain fifteen Orders, but only three were dealt 
with in any detail. 

XVIII. --4 



26 



OKNITHOLOGY 



relationship to Trinya (see SANDPIPER), a point of order which 
other systematists were long in admitting. On the whole Brandt s 
labours were of no small service in asserting the principle that con 
sideration must be paid to osteology ; for his position was such as 
to gain more attention to his views than some of his less favourably 
placed brethren had succeeded in doing. 

leyser- In the same year (1839) another slight advance was made in the 
ng and classification of the true Passerines. KEYSEULIXG and BLASIUS ! 
tlasius. briefly pointed out in the ArchivfurNaturgeschichU (v. pp. 332-334) 
that, while all the other Birds provided with perfect song-muscles j 
had the " planta " or hind part of the " tarsus " covered with two 
long and undivided horn} 7 plates, the LAUK.S (vol. xiv. p. 316) had 
this part divided by many transverse sutures, so as to be scutellated | 
behind as well as in front ; just as is the case in many of the j 
Passerines which have not the singing-apparatus, and also in the ; 
HOOPOK (vol. xii. p. 154). The importance of this singular but 
superficial departure from the normal structure has been so need 
lessly exaggerated as a character that at the present time its value 
is apt to be unduly depreciated. In so large and so homogeneous , 
a group as that of the true Passerines, a constant character of this j 
kind is not to be despised as a practical mode of separating the 
Birds which possess it ; and, more than this, it would appear that 
the discovery thus announced was the immediate means of leading 
to a series of investigations of a much more important and lasting 
nature those of Johannes Miiller to be presently mentioned. 

Again we must recur to that indefatigable and most 
ritzsch. original investigator NITZSCH, who, having never inter 
mitted his study of the particular subject of his first con 
tribution to science, long ago noticed, in 1833 brought 
out at Halle, where he was Professor of Zoology, an essay 
with the title Pterylographix Avium Pars prior. It seems 
that this was issued as much with the object of inviting 
assistance from others in view of future labours, since the 
materials at his disposal were comparatively scanty, as 
with that of making known the results to which his 
researches had already led him. Indeed he only com 
municated copies of this essay to a few friends, and 
examples of it are comparatively scarce. Moreover, he 
stated subsequently that he thereby hoped to excite other 
naturalists to share with him the investigations he was 
making on a subject which had hitherto escaped notice or 
had been wholly neglected, since he considered that he 
had proved the disposition of the feathered tracts in the 
plumage of Birds to be the means of furnishing characters 
for the discrimination of the various natural groups as 
significant and important as they were new and un 
expected. 1 There was no need for us here to quote this 
essay in its chronological place, since it dealt only with 
the generalities of the subject, and did not enter upon any 
systematic details. These the author reserved for a second 
treatise which he was destined never to complete. He 
kept on diligently collecting materials, and as he did so 

1 It is still a prevalent belief among near y all persons but well- 
informed ornithologists, that feathers grow almost uniformly over the 
wholj surface of a Bird s body ; some indeed are longer and some are 
shorter, but that is about all the difference perceptible to most people. 
It is the easiest thing for anybody to satisfy himself that this, except 
in a few cases, is altogether an erroneous supposition. In all but a 
small number of forms the feathers are produced in very definite clumps 
or tracts, called by Nitzsch /><eryZ/E (irrtpAv, penna, V\TI, sylva], a rather 
fanciful term it is true, but one to which no objection can be taken. 
Between these pterylse, are spaces bare of feathers, which he named 
apteria. Before Nitzsch s time the only men who seem to have noticed ! 
this fact were the great John Hunter and the accurate Macartney. But 
the observations of the former on the subject were not given to the world | 
until 1836, when Sir R. Owen introduced them into his Catalogue of 
the Museum of the College of Surgeons in London (vol. iii. pt. ii. p. 
311), and therein is no indication of the fact having a taxonomical 
bearing. The same may be said of Macartney s remarks, which, though 
subsequent in point of time, were published earlier, namely, in 1819 
(Rees s Cyclopaedia, xiv., art. "Feathers"). Ignorance of this simple 
fact has led astray many celebrated painters, among them Sir Edwin 
L-mdseer, whose pictures of Birds nearly always shew an unnatural 
representation of the plumage that at once betrays itself to the trained 
eye, though of course it is not perceived by spectators generally, who 
regard only the correctness of attitude and force of expression, which 
in that artist s work commonly leave little to be desired. Every 
draughtsman of Birds to be successful should study the plan on which 
their feathers are disposed. 



was constrained to modify some of the statements he had 
published. He consequently fell into a state of doubt, 
and before he could make up his mind on some questions 
which he deemed important he was overtaken by death. 2 
Then his papers were handed over to his friend and suc 
cessor Prof. BORMEISTER, now and for many years past of Bur- 
Buenos Aires, who, with much skill elaborated from mdster. 
them the excellent work known as Nitzsch s Pterylo- 
cjraphie, which was published at Halle in 1840. There 
can be no doubt that Prof. Burmeister (fortunately yet 
spared to us) discharged his editorial duty with the 
most conscientious scrupulosity ; but, from what has been 
just said, it is certain that there were important points 
on which Nitzsch was as yet undecided some of 
them perhaps of which no trace appeared in his manu 
scripts, and therefore as in every case of works posthum 
ously published, unless (as rarely happens) they have 
received their author s "imprimatur," they cannot be 
implicitly trusted as the expression of his final views. It 
would consequently be unsafe to ascribe positively all that 
appears in this volume to the result of Nitzsch s mature 
consideration. Moreover, as Prof. Burmeister states in 
his preface, Nitzsch by no means regarded the natural 
sequence of groups as the highest problem of the system- 
atist, but rather their correct limitation. Again the 
arrangement followed in the Pterylographie was of course 
based on pterylographical considerations, and we have its 
author s own word for it that he was persuaded that the 
limitation of natural groups could only be attained by the 
most assiduous research into the species of which they are 
composed from every point of view. The combination 
of these three facts will of itself explain some defects, or 
even retrogressions, observable in Nitzsch s later systematic 
work when compared with that which he had formerly 
done. On the other hand some manifest improvements 
are introduced, and the abundance of details into which 
he enters in his Pterylographie render it far more instruc 
tive and valuable than the older performance. As an 
abstract of that has already been given, it may be 
sufficient here to point out the chief changes made in his 
newer arrangement. To begin with, the three great 
sections of Aerial, Terrestrial, and Aquatic Birds are 
abolished. The Accipitres " are divided into two groups, 
Diurnal and Nocturnal ; but the first of these divisions is 
separated into three sections: (1) the Vultures of the 
New World, (2) those of the Old World, and (3) the 
genus Falco of Linnaeus. The "Passerines," that is to 
say, the true Passeres, are split into eight Families, not 
wholly with judgment; 3 but of their taxonomy more is 
to be said presently. Then a new Order " Picarix " is 
instituted for the reception of the Macrochires, Cuculinse, 
Picinx, Psittadnsc, and Amphibolx of his old arrangement, 
to which are added three 4 others Caprimnlyinx, Todidae, 
and Lipoy/ossoe the last consisting of the genera Buceros, 
Upupa, and Alcedo. The association of Alcedo with the 

2 Though not relating exactly to our present theme, it would be 
improper to dismiss Nitzsch s name without reference to hi.s extra 
ordinary labours in investigating the insect and other external parasites 
of Birds, a subject which as regards British species was subsequently 
elaborated by DENNY in his Monographia Anoplurorum Britannia?- 
(1842) and in his list of the specimens of British Anoplura in the col 
lection of the British Museum. 

3 A short essay by Nitzsch on the general structure of the Passerines, 
written, it is said, in 1836, was published in 1862 (Zeitschr. Oes. 
Naturwisxenschaft, xix. pp. 389-408). It is probably to this essay 
that Prof. Burmeister refers in the Pli .rylo jraphie, (p. 102, note ; 
English translation, p. 7 2, note) as forming the basis of the article 
" Passerinae " which he contributed to Er.sch and Gruber s Encyklo- 
pridie (sect. iii. bd. xiii. pp. 139-144), and published before the 
Pterylographie. 

4 By the numbers prefixed it would look as if there should be four 
new members of this Order ; but that seems to be due rather to a slip 
of the pen or to a printer s error. 



ORNITHOLOGY 



27 



other two is no doubt a misplacement, but the alliance of j 
Buceros to Upupa, already suggested by Gould and Blyth ; 
in 1838 1 (Mag. Nat. History, ser. 2, ii. pp. 422 and 589), | 
though apparently unnatural, has been corroborated by , 
many later systematizers; and taken as a whole the estab 
lishment of the PicariiR was certainly a commendable pro- ! 
ceeding. For the rest there is only one considerable 
change, and that forms the greatest blot on the whole 
scheme. Instead of recognizing, as before, a Subclass in ; 
the Ratitx of Merrem, Nitzsch now reduced them to the 
rank of an Order under the name " Platystemse," placing 
them between the " Gallinacex " and " Grallx" though 
admitting that in their pterylosis they differ from all other 
Birds, in ways that he is at great pains to describe, in each 
of the four genera examined by him Stridhio, Rhea, 
Drommis, and Casuarius. 2 It is significant that notwith 
standing this he did not figure the pterylosis of any one 
of them, and the thought suggests itself that, though his 
editor assures us he had convinced himself that the group 
must be here shoved in (eingeschdben is the word used), 
the intrusion is rather due to the necessity which Nitzsch, 
in common with most men of his time (the Quinarians 
excepted), felt for deploying the whole series of Birds into 
line, in which case the proceeding may be defensible on 
the score of convenience. The extraordinary merits of 
this book, and the admirable fidelity to his principles 
which Prof. Burmeister shewed in the difficult task of 
editing it, were unfortunately overlooked for many years, 
and perhaps are not sufficiently recognized now. Even in 
Germany, the author s own country, there were few to 
notice seriously what is certainly one of the most remark 
able works ever published on the science, much less to 
pursue the investigations that had been so laboriously 
begun. 3 Andreas Wagner, in his report on the progress 
of Ornithology, as might be expected from such a man as 
he was, placed the Pterylographie at the summit of those 
publications the appearance of which he had to record for the 
years 1839 and 1840, stating that for " Systematik " it was 
of the greatest importance. 4 On the other hand Oken (/ .<, 
1842, pp. 391-394), though giving a summary of Nitzsch s 
results and classification, was more sparing of his praise, and 
prefaced his remarks by asserting that he could not refrain 
from laughter when he looked at the plates in Nitzsch s 
work, since they reminded him of the plucked fowls 
hanging in a poulterer s shop it might as well be urged 
as an objection to the plates in many an anatomical book 
that they called to mind a butcher s and goes on to say 
that, as the author always had the luck to engage in 
researches of which nobody thought, so had he the luck 
to print them where nobody sought them. In Sweden 

1 This association is one of the most remarkable in the whole series 
of Blyth s remarkable papers on classification in the volume cited above. 
He states that Gould suspected the alliance of these two forms "from 
external structure and habits alone ;" otherwise one might suppose that 
he had obtained an intimation to that effect on one of his Continental 
journeys. Blyth " arrived at the same conclusion, however, by a different 
train of investigation," and this is beyond doubt. 

2 He does not mention Apteryx, at that time so little known on the 
Continent. 

3 Some excuse is to be made for this neglect. Nitzsch had of course 
exhausted all the forms of Birds commonly to be, obtained, and speci- | 
lueus of the less common forms were too valuable from the curator s or 
collector s point of view to be subjected to a treatment that might end 
in their destruction. Yet it is said, on good authority, that Nitzsch 
had the patience so to manipulate the skins of many rare species that 
he was able to ascertain the characters of their pterylosis by the inspec 
tion of their inside only, without in any way damaging them for the 
ordinary purpose of a museum. Nor is this surprising when we con 
sider the marvellous skill of Continental and especially German taxi 
dermists, many of whom have elevated their profession to a height of 
art inconceivable to most Englishmen, who are only acquainted with 
the miserable mockery of Nature which is the most sublime result of all 
but a few " bird-stufters. " 

4 Archiv far Naturgeschickte, vii. 2, pp. 60, 61. 



Sundevall, without accepting Nitzsch s views, accorded 
them a far more appreciative greeting in his annual reports 
for 1840-42 (i. pp. 152-160); but of course in England 
and France 5 nothing was known of them beyond the 
scantiest notice, generally taken at second hand, in two or 
three publications. Thanks to Mr Sclater, the Ray Society 
was induced to publish, in 1867, an excellent translation 
by Mr Dallas of Nitzsch s Pterylography, and thereby, 
however tardily, justice was at length rendered by British 
ornithologists to one of their greatest foreign brethren. 6 

The treatise of KESSLEK on the osteology of Birds feet, published Kessler. 
in tin; Built tin of the Moscow Society of Naturalists for 1841, next 
claims a few words, though its scope is rather to shew differences 
than affinities ; but treatment of that kind is undoubtedly useful 
at times in indicating that alliances generally admitted are 
unnatural ; and this is the case here, for, following Cuvier s 
method, the author s researches prove the artificial character of 
some of its associations. While furnishing almost unconsciously, 
however -additional evidence for overthrowing that classification, 
there is, nevertheless, no attempt made to construct a better one ; 
and the elaborate tables of dimensions, both absolute and pro 
portional, suggestive as is the whole tendency of the author s 
observations, seem not to lead to any very practical result, though 
the systematist s need to look beneath the integument, even in 
parts that are so comparatively little hidden as Birds feet, is once 
more made beyond all question apparent. 

It has already been mentioned that MACGILLIVRAY con- Macgil- 
tributed to Audubon s Ornithological Biography a series of hvray 
descriptions of some parts of the anatomy of American ^ , 
Birds, from subjects supplied to him by that enthusiastic i jon 
naturalist, whose zeal and prescience, it may be called, in 
this respect merits all praise. Thus he (prompted very 
likely by Macgillivray) wrote : " I believe the time to be 
approaching when much of the results obtained from the 
inspection of the exterior alone will be laid aside ; when 
museums filled with stuffed skins will be considered 
insufficient to afford a knowledge of birds ; and when the 
student will go forth, not only to observe the habits and 
haunts of animals, but to preserve specimens of them to 
be carefully dissected " (Ornith. Biography, iv., Introduc 
tion, p. xxiv). As has been stated, the first of this series 
of anatomical descriptions appeared in the fourth volume 
of his work, published in 1838, but they were continued 
until its completion with the fifth volume in the following 
year, and the whole \vas incorporated into what may be 
termed its second edition, The Birds of America, which 
appeared between 1840 and 1844 (see p. 1 1). Among 
the many species whose anatomy Macgillivray thus partly 
described from autopsy were at least half a dozen 7 of those 
now referred to the Family Tyrannidx (see KING-BIRD, 
vol. xiv. p. 80), but then included, with many others, ac 
cording to the irrational, vague, and rudimentary notions of 
classification of the time, in what was termed the Family 
" MuscicapiniR. " In all these species he found the vocal 
organs to differ essentially in structure from those of other 
Birds of the Old World, which we now call Passerine, or, 
to be still more precise, Oscinian. But by him these last 
were most arbitrarily severed, dissociated from their allies, 
and wrongly combined with other forms by no means 
nearly related to them (Brit. Birds, i. pp. IT, 18) which 

5 In lS36J.\CQri-:Miy communicated to the French Academy (Comptes 
Itendus, ii. pp. 374, 375, and 472") some observations on the order in 
which feathers are disposed on the body of Birds ; but, however general 
may have been the scope of his investigations, the portion of them 
published refers only to the Crow, and there is no mention made of 
Nitzsch s former work. 

6 The Ray Society had the good fortune to obtain the ten original 
copper-plates, all but one drawn by the author himself, wherewith the 
work was illustrated. It is only to be regretted that the Society did 
not also stick to the quarto size in which it appeared, for by issuing 
their English version in folio they needlessly put an impediment in the 
way of its common and convenient use. 

7 These are, according to modern nomenclature, Tyranmis caroU- 
nensis and (as before mentioned) T. vcrticalis, Mijiarchus crinilus, 
Sciyornis fuscus, C onto pus virens, and Empidonax acadicus. 



28 



ORNITHOLOGY 



he also examined ; and he practically, though not literally, 1 
asserted the truth, when he said that the general struc 
ture, but especially the muscular appendages, of the lower 
larynx was " similarly formed in all other birds of this 
family " described in Audubon s work. Macgillivray did 
not, however, assign to this essential difference any 
systematic value. Indeed he was so much prepossessed 
in favour of a classification based on the structure of the 
digestive organs that he could not bring himself to con 
sider vocal muscles to be of much taxonomic use, and it 
was reserved to JOHANXES MULLER to point out that the 
ller - contrary was the fact. This the great German compara 
tive anatomist did in two communications to the Academy 
of Sciences of Berlin, one on the 26th June 1845 and the 
other on the 14th May 1846, which, having been first 
briefly published in the Academy s Monats?>ericht, were 
afterwards printed in full, and illustrated by numerous 
figures, in its Abhand1un<jen y though in this latter and 
complete form they did not appear in public until 1 847. 
This very remarkable treatise forms the groundwork of 
almost all later or recent researches in the comparative 
anatomy and consequent arrangement of the Passeres, and, 
though it is certainly not free from imperfections, many of 
them, it must be said, arise from want of material, not 
withstanding that its author had command of a much 
more abundant supply than was at the disposal of Nitzsch. 
Carrying on the work from the anatomical point at which 
he had left it, correcting his errors, and utilizing to the 
fullest extent the observations of Keyserling and Blasius, 
to which reference has already been made, Miiller, though 
hampered by mistaken notions of which he seems to have 
been unable to rid himself, propounded a scheme for the 
classification of this group, the general truth of which has 
been admitted by all his successors, based, as the title of 
his treatise expressed, on the hitherto unknown different 
types of the vocal organs in the Passerines. He freely 
recognized the prior discoveries of, as he thought, 
Audubon, though really, as has since been ascertained, of 
Macgillivray ; but Miiller was able to perceive their system 
atic value, which Macgillivray did not, and taught others 
to know it. At the same time Miiller shewed himself, his 
power of discrimination notwithstanding, to fall behind 
Nitzsch in one very crucial point, for he refused to the 
latter s Picarix the rank that had been claimed for them, 
and imagined that the groups associated under that name 
formed but a third " Tribe " Picarii of a great Order 
Insessores, the others being (1) the Oscines or Polymyodi 
the Singing Birds by emphasis, whose inferior larynx 
was endowed with the full number of five pairs of song- 
muscles, and (2) the Tracheophones, composed of some 
South-American Families. Looking on Miiller s labours 
as we now can, we see that such errors as he committed 
are chiefly due to his want of special knowledge of 
Ornithology, combined with the absence in several 
instances of sufficient materials for investigation. Nothing 
whatever is to be said against the composition of his first 
and second " Tribes" ; but the third is an assemblage still 
more heterogeneous than that which Nitzsch brought 
together under a name so like that of Miiller for the 
fact must never be allowed to go out of sight that the 
extent of the Picarii of the latter is not at all that of the 
Picarix of the former. 2 For instance, Miiller places in his 

1 Not literally, because a few other forms such as the genera Polio- 
ptikin.n<\ Plilogonys, now known to have no relation to the Tyrannidir, 
were included, though these forms, it would seem, had never been dis 
sected by him. On the other hand he declares that the American 
Redstart, Muscicapa, or, as it now stands, Ketnphaga ruticilla, when 
young, has its vocal organs like the rest an extraordinary statement 
which is worthy the attention of the many able American ornithologists. 

2 It is not needless to point out this fine distinction, for more than 
one modern author would seem to have overlooked it. 



third " Tribe " the group which he called Ampelufa, mean 
ing thereby the peculiar forms of South America that are 
now considered to be more properly named Cotingidse, and 
herein he was clearly right, while Nitzsch, who (misled by 
their supposed affinity to the genus Am pelts peculiar to 
the Northern Hemisphere, and a purely Passerine form) 
had kept them among his Passerinx, was as clearly wrong. 
But again Miiller made his third "Tribe" Picarii also to 
contain the Tyrannidx, of which mention has just been 
made, though it is so obvious as now to be generally 
admitted that they have no very intimate relationship to 
the other Families with which they are there associated. 
There is no need here to criticize more minutely his pro 
jected arrangement, and it must be said that, notwithstand 
ing his researches, he seems to have had some misgivings 
that, after all, the separation of the Insessores into those 
" Tribes " might not be justifiable. At any rate he wavered 
in his estimate of their taxonomic value, for he gave an 
alternative proposal, arranging all the genera in a single 
series, a proceeding in those days thought not only defens 
ible and possible, but desirable or even requisite, though 
now utterly abandoned. Just as Nitzsch had laboured 
xinder the disadvantage of never having any example of 
the abnormal Passeres of the New World to dissect, and 
therefore was wholly ignorant of their abnormality, so 
Miiller never succeeded in getting hold of an example of 
the genus Pitta for the same purpose, and yet, acting on 
the clew furnished by Keyserling and Blasius, he did not 
hesitate to predict that it would be found to fill one of 
the gaps he had to leave, and this to some extent it has 
been since proved to do. 

The result of all this is that the Oscines or true Pnssors are 
found to be a group in which the vocal organs not only attain the 
greatest perfection, but are nearly if not quite as uniform in their 
structure as is the sternal apparatus ; while at the same time each 
set of characters is wholly unlike that which exists in any other 
group of Birds. In nearly all Birds the inferior larynx, or syrinx, 
which i., as proved long ago by the experiments of Cuvier, the scat 
of their vocal powers, is at the bottom of the trachea or windpipe, 
and is formed by the more or less firm union of several of the bony 
rings of which that tube is composed. In the Ratitie, the genus 
Jlhca excepted, and in one group of Carinatse, the American 
Vultures Cathartidse, but therein it is believed only, there is no 
special modification of the trachea into a syrinx ; 3 but usually, at 
a little distance from the lungs, the trachea is somewhat enlarged, 
and here is found a thicker and stouter bony ring, which is bisected 
axially by a septum or partition extending from behind forwards, 
and thus dividing the pipe, 4 each half of which swells out below the 
ring and then rapidly contracts to enter the lung on its own side. 
The halves of the pipe thus formed are the bronchi, tubes whose 
inner side is flattened and composed of the mcmlrana fi/)i>piiiii- 
formis, on the change of form and length of which some of the 
varieties of intonation depend, while the outer and curved side is 
supported by bony half-hooj s, connected by membrane just as arc 
the entire hoops of the upper part of the trachen. The whole of 
this apparatus is extremely flexible, and is controlled by muscles. 
the real vocal muscles of which mention has previously been so 
frequently made. These vary in number in different groups of 
Birds, and reach their maximum in the Oscim:*, which have always 
five pairs, or even more according to some authorities. 5 But sup 
posing five to be the number of pairs, as it is generally allowed to 
be in this group of them, two pairs have a common origin about 
the middle of the trachea, and, descending on its outside, divide at 
a short distance above the lower end of the tube ; one of them, the 
tensor posterior tom/ns, being directed downward and backward, is 
inserted at the extreme posterior end of the first half-ring of the; 
bronchus, while its counterpart, the tensor anterior loiiyits, passing 
from the place of separation downward and forward, is inserted 
below the extreme point of the lust ring of the trachea. "\Vithin 
the angle formed by the divergence of each of these pairs of 
muscles, a third slender muscle the stcrno-lrac/tealis is given oil 

3 See BIRDS, vol. iii. p. 726 ; but rf. Forbes, Prac. ZooL Society, 
1881, pp. 778, 788. 

4 In a few forms belonging to the Xpheniscidx. and ProcettariidK, 
this septum is prolonged upwards, to what purpose is of course 
unknown. On the other hand, the Parrots have no septum (see BIKDS, 
ut supra). 

5 See BIRDS, vol. iii. p. 726. 



on each side and is attached to the sternum. 1 The fourth pair, the 
tcnsorcs jwsteriores breves, is the smallest of all, and, arising near 
the middle of the lower end of the trachea, has its fibres inserted 
on the extremity of tlic first of the incomplete rings of the bronchi. 
The fifth pair, the tc/isorcs antcriorcs, originates like the last from 
the middle of the trachea, but is somewhat larger and thicker, 
appearing as though made up of several small muscles in close 
contact, and by some ornithotomists is believed to be of a com 
posite nature. Its direction is obliquely downward and forward, 
and, attached by a broad base to the last ring of the trachea and 
cartilage immediately below, reaches the first or second of the half- 
rings of the bronchi in the normal Oschws at their extremity; 
but, in another section of that group, which it will be necessary to 
mention later, it is found to be attached to their middle. There 
is no question of its being by the action of the syringeal mnscles 
just described that the expansion of the bronchi, both as to length 
and diameter, is controlled, and, as thereby the sounds uttered by 
the Bird are modified, they are properly called the Song-muscles. 

It must not be supposed that the muscles just denned 
were first discovered by Miiller; on the contrary they had 
been described long before, and by many writers on the 
anatomy of Birds. To say nothing of foreigners, or the 
authors of general works on the subject, an excellent 
account of them had been given to the Linnean Society 

Yarrell. by YARRELL in 1829, and published with elaborate figures 
in its Transactions (xvi. pp. 305-321, pis. 17, 18), an 
abstract of which was subsequently given in the article 
" Raven " in his History of British Birds, and Macgillivray 
also described and figured them with the greatest accuracy 
ten years later in his work with the same title (ii. pp. 21-37, 
pis. x.-xii.), while Blyth and Nitzsch had (as already 
mentioned) seen some of their value in classification. But 
Miiller has the merit of clearly outstriding his predecessors, 
and with his accustomed perspicuity made the way even 
plainer for his successors to see than he himself was able 
to see it. What remains to add is that the extraordinary 
celebrity of its author actually procured for the first 
portion of his researches notice in England (Ann. Nat. 
History, xvii. p. 499), though it must be confessed not 
then to any practical purpose ; but more than thirty years 
after there appeared an English translation of his treatise 
by Prof. Jeffrey Bell, with an appendix by Garrod con 
taining a summary of the latter s own continuation of the 
same line of research, and thus once more Mr Sclater, for 
it was at his instigation that the work was undertaken, 
had the satisfaction of rendering proper tribute to one 
who by his investigations had so materially advanced the 
.study of Ornithology. 2 

Cornay. It is now necessary to revert to the year 1842, in which Dr 
COUXAY of Rochefort communicated to the French Academy of 
Sciences a memoir on a new Classification of Birds, of which, how 
ever, nothing hut a notice has been preserved (Compf.es Rendus, 
xiv. p. 164). Two years later this was followed by a second contri 
bution from him on the same subject, and of this only an extract 
appeared in the official organ of the Academy (ut supra, xvi. pp. 
94, 95), though an abstract was inserted in one scientific journal 
(L fnstitut, xii. p. 21), and its first portion in another (Journal dcs 
iJ&ouvcrtcs, i. p. 250). The Revue Zoologiquc for 1847 (pp. 360-369) 
contained the whole, and enabled naturalists to consider the merits 
of the author s project, which was to found a new Classification of 
Birds on the form of the anterior palatal bones, which he declared 
to be subjected more evidently than any other to certain fixed laws. 
These laws, as formulated by him, are that (1) there is a coincidence 
of form of the anterior palatal and of the cranium in Birds of the 
same Order ; (2) there is a likeness between the anterior palatal 
bones in Birds of the same Order ; (3) there are relations of likeness 
between the anterior palatal bones in groups of Birds which are 
near to one another. These laws, he added, exist in regard to all 

1 According to Blytli (May. Xat. History, ser. 2, ii. p. 264). 
Varrell ascertained that this pair of muscles was wanting in "the 
mina genus" (qu. Graculal], a statement that requires attention 
cither for confirmation or contradiction. 

2 The title of the English translation is Johannes Mailer on Certain 
Variations in the Vocal Organs of the Fasseres that have hitherto 

escaped notice. It was published at Oxford in 1878. By some 
unaccountable accident, the date of the original communication to the 
Academy of Berlin is wrongly printed. It has been rightly given 
above 



Eirts that offer characters fit for the methodical arrangement of 
irds, but it is in regard to the anterior palatal bone that they 
unquestionably offer the most evidence. In the evolution of these 
laws Dr Cornay had most laudably studied, as his observations 
prove, a vast number of different types, and the upshot of his whole 
labours, though not very clearly stated, was such as to wholly sub 
vert the classification at that time generally adopted by French 
ornithologists. He of course knew the investigations of L llermiuier 
and De Blainville on sternal formation, and he also seems to have 
been aware of some pterylological differences exhibited by Birds 
whether those of Nitzsch or those of Jacquemin is not stated. True 
it is the latter were never published in full, but it is quite conceiv 
able that Dr Cornay may have known their drift. Be that as it 
may, he declares that characters drawn from the sternum or the 
pelvis hitherto deemed to be, next to the bones of the head, the 
most important portions of the Bird s framework are scarcely- 
worth more, from a classificatory point of view, than characters 
drawn from the bill or the legs ; while pterylological considerations, 
together with many others to which some systematists had attached 
more or less importance, can only assist, and apparently must never 
be taken to control, the force of evidence furnished by this bone of 
all bones the anterior palatal. 

That Dr Cornay was on the brink of making a discovery of con 
siderable merit will by and by appear ; but, with every disposition 
to regard his investigations favourably, it cannot be said that he 
accomplished it. No account need be taken of the criticism which 
denominated his attempt " unphilosophical and one-sided," nor does 
it signify that his proposals either attracted no attention or were 
generally received with indifference. Such is commonly the fate 
of any deep-seated reform of classification proposed by a compara 
tively unknown man, unless it happen to possess some extraordinarily 
taking qualities, or be explained with an abundance of pictorial 
illustration. This was not the case here. Whatever proofs Dr 
Cornay may have had to satisfy himself of his being on the right 
track, these proofs were not adduced in sufficient number nor 
arranged with sufficient skill to persuade a somewhat stiff-necked 
generation of the truth of his views for it was a generation whose 
| leaders, in France at any rate, looked with suspicion upon any 
one who professed to go beyond the bounds which the genius of 
| Cuvier had been unable to overpass, and regarded the notion of 
i upsetting any of the positions maintained by him as verging 
! almost upon profanity. Moreover. Dr Cornay s scheme was not 
! given to the world with any of those adjuncts that not merely 
please the eye but are in many cases necessary, for, though on 
| a subject which required for its proper comprehension a series of 
j plates, it made even its final appearance unadorned by a single ex 
planatory figure, and in a journal, respectable and well-known in 
deed, but one not of the highest scientific rank. Add to all this 
| that its author, in his summary of the practical results of his in- 
| vestigations, committed a grave sin in the eyes of rigid systematists 
by ostentatiously arranging the names of the forty types which he 
selected to prove his case wholly without order, and without any 
intimation of the greater or less affinity any one of them might bear 
I to the rest. That success should attend a scheme so inconclusively 
; elaborated could not be expected. 

The same year which saw the promulgation of the crude scheme 
! just described, as well as the publication of the final researches of 
Miiller, witnessed also another attempt at the classification of Birds, 
much more limited indeed in scope, but, so far as it went, regarded 
by most ornithologists of the time as almost final in its operation. 
Under the vague title of " Ornithologische Notizen" Prof. Cabanis C abanis 
of Berlin contributed to the Archiv filr Naturgeschichte (xiii. 1, 
pp. 186-256, 308-352) an essay in two parts, wherein, following 
the researches of Miiller 3 on the syrinx, in the course of which 
a correlation had been shewn to exist between the whole or divided 
condition of the planta or hind part of the " tarsus," first noticed, 
as has been said, by Keyserling and Blasius, and the presence or 
absence of the perfect song-apparatus, the younger author found an 
agreement which seemed almost invariable in this respect, and he 
also pointed out that the planta of the different groups of Birds in 
which it is divided is divided in different modes, the mode of division 
being gem-rally characteristic of the group. Such a coincidence of 
the internal and external features of Birds was naturally deemed a 
discovery of the greatest value by those ornithologists who thought 
most highly of the latter, and it was unquestionably of no little 
practical utility. Further examination also revealed the fact 4 that 

3 On the other hand, Miiller makes several references to the labours 
of Prof. Cabanis. The investigations of both authors must have 
been proceeding simultaneously, and it matters little which actually 
appeared first. 

4 This seeni.s to have been made known by Prof. Cabanis the 
preceding year to the Gesellschaft dcr Xaturforschender Freunde 
(cf. Miiller, Stimmo-rgancn dcr Passerinen, p. 65). Of course the 
variation to which the number of primaries was subject had not 
escaped the observation of Nitzsch, but he had scarcely used it as a 
classificatorv character. 



30 



in certain groups the number of " primaries," or quill-feathers grow 
ing from the mantis or distal segment of the wing, formed another 
characteristic easy of observation. In the Oscincs or Pohjmyodi of 
Miiller the number was either nine or ten and if the latter the 
outermost of them was generally very small. In t\vo of the other 
groups of which Prof. Cabanis especially treated groups which hail 
been hitherto more or less confounded with the Oscincs the number 
of primaries was invariably ten, and the outermost of them was 
comparatively large. This observation was also hailed as the dis 
covery of a fact of extraordinary importance ; ami, from the results 
of these investigations, taken altogether, Ornithology was declared 
by Sundevall, undoubtedly a man who had a right to speak with 
authority, to have made greater progress than had been achieved 
since the, days of Cuvier. The final disposition of the " Subclass 
Inscssores" all the perching Birds, that is to say, which are neither 
Birds-of-Prey nor Pigeons proposed by Prof. Cabanis, was into 
four " Orders," as follows : 

1. Oscines, equal to Miiller s group of the same name ; 

2. Clamatorcs, being a majority of that division of the Picariie 
of Nitzsch, so called by Andreas Wagner, in 1841, 1 which have 
their feet normally constructed ; 

3. Strisorcs, a group now separated from the Clamatorcs of 
Wagner, and containing those forms which have their feet abnor 
mally constructed ; and 

4. Scansorcs, being the Grimpeurs of Cuvier, the Zygodadyli of 
several other systematists. 

The first of these four " Orders " had been already indefensibly 
established as one perfectly natural, but respecting its details more 
must presently be said. The remaining three are now seen to be 
obviously artificial associations, and the second of them, Clamatorcs, 
in particular, containing a very heterogeneous assemblage of forms ; 
but it must be borne in mind that the internal structure of some of 
them was at that time still more imperfectly known than now. 
Yet even then enough had been ascertained to have saved what are 
now recognized as the Families Todidse, and Tyrannidse, from being 
placed as " Subfamilies" in the same " Family Coloptcridse" ; and 
several other instances of unharmonious combination in this "Order" 
might be adduced were it worth while to particularize them. More 
than that, it would not be difficult to shew, only the present is not 
exactly the place for it, that some groups or Families which in 
reality are not far distant from one another are distributed, owing 
to the dissimilarity of their external characters, throughout these 
three Orders. Thus the Podarginse are associated with the Coradidie 
under the head Clnmatorcs, while the Caprimulyidae, to which they 
are clearly most allied, if they do not form part of that Family 
(GOATSUCKER, vol. x. p. 711), are placed with the Strisorcs ; and 
again the Mu&ophogidse also stand as Strisorcs, while the Cucnlidse, 
which modern systematists think to be their nearest relations, are 
considered to be Scansores. 

But to return to the Oscines, the arrangement of which 
in the classification now under review has been deemed its 
greatest merit, and consequently has been very generally 
followed. That by virtue of the perfection of their vocal 
organs, and certain other properties though some of 
these last have perhaps never yet been made clear enough 
they should stand at the head of the whole Class, may 
here be freely admitted, but the respective rank assigned 
to the various component Families of the group is certainly 
open to question, and to the present writer seems, in the 
methods of several systematists, to be based upon a fallacy. 
This respective rank of the different Families appears to 
have been assigned on the principle that, since by reason 
of one character (namely, the more complicated structure 
of their syrinx) the Oscines form a higher group than the 
Clamatsires, therefore all the concomitant features which 
the former possess and the latter do not must be equally 
indicative of superiority. Now one of the features in 
which most of the Oscines differ from the lower " Order " 
is the having a more or less undivided planta, and accord 
ingly it has been assumed that the Family of Oscines in 
which this modification of the planta is carried to its 
extreme point must be the highest of that "Order." 
Since, therefore, this extreme modification of the planta is 

1 Archiv fur Xaturgeschichte, vii. 2, pp. 93, 94. The division 
seems to have been instituted by this author a couple of years earlier 
in the second edition of his Handbuch der Naturyeschichte (a work 
not seen by the present writer), but not then to have received a 
scientific name. It included all Picariie which had not " xygodacty- 
lous " feet, that is to say, toes placed in pairs, two before and two 
behind. 



exhibited by the Thrushes and their allies, it is alleged 
that they must be placed first, and indeed at the head 
of all Birds. The groundlessness of this reasoning ought 
to be apparent to everybody. In the present state of 
anatomy at any rate, it is impossible to prove that there 
is more than a coincidence in the facts just stated, and in 
the association of two characters one deeply seated and 
affecting the whole life of the Bird, the other superficially, 
and so far as we can perceive without effect upon its 
organism. Because the Clamutores^ having no song- 
muscles, have a divided planta, it cannot be logical to 
assume that among the Oscines, which possess song-muscles, 
such of them as have an undivided planta must be higher 
than those that have it divided. The argument, if it can 
be called an argument, is hardly one of analogy; and yet 
no stronger ground has been occupied by those who invest 
the Thrushes, as do the majority of modern systematists, 
with the most dignified position in the whole Class. But 
passing from general to particular considerations, so soon 
as a practical application of the principle is made its 
inefficacy is manifest. The test of perfection of the vocal 
organs must be the perfection of the notes they enable 
their possessor to utter. There cannot be a question that, 
sing admirably as do some of the Birds included among 
the Thrushes, 2 the Larks, as a Family, infinitely surpass 
them. Yet the Larks form the very group which, as has 
been already shewn (LAKK, vol. xiv. p. 314), have the 
planta more divided than any other among the Oscines. 
It seems hardly possible to adduce anything that would 
more conclusively demonstrate the independent nature of 
each of these characters the complicated structure of the 
syrinx and the asserted inferior formation of the planta 
which are in the Alaiididx associated. 3 Moreover, this 
same Family affords a very valid protest against the 
extreme value attached to the presence or absence of the 
outermost quill-feather of the wings, and in this work it 
has been before shewn (vt svpra) that almost every stage 
of magnitude in this feather is exhibited by the Larks from 
its rudimentary or almost abortive condition in Alavda 
arvensis to its very considerable development in Mefano- 
corypha calandra. Indeed there are many genera of 
Oscines in which the proportion that the outermost primary 
bears to the rest is at best but a specific character, and 
certain exceptions are allowed by Prof. Cabanis (p. 313) 
to exist. Some of them it is now easy to explain, inas 
much as in a few cases the apparently aberrant genera 
have elsewhere found a more natural position, a contin 
gency to which he himself was fully awake. But as a rule 
the allocation and ranking of the different Families of 
Oscines by this author must be deemed arbitrary. 4 Yet 
the value of his Ornithologische Notizen is great, not only 
as evidence of his extraordinarily extensive acquaintance 
with different forms, which is proclaimed in every page, 
but in leading to a far fuller appreciation of characters 
that certainly should on no account be neglected, though 



- Prof. Cabanis would have strengthened his position had he included 
in the same Family with the Thrushes, which lie called Rha- 
cnemidse, the Birds commonly known as Warblers, Sylviidw, which the 
more advanced of recent systematists are inclined with much reason 
to unite with the Thrushes, Turdidse ; but instead of that he, trusting 
to the plantar character, segregated the Warblers, including of course 
the Nightingale, and did not even allow them the second place in his 
method, putting them below the Family called by him Sylvicolidse, 
consisting chiefly of the American forms now known as Mniotiltidie,, 
none of which as songsters approach those of the Old World. 

3 It must be observed that Prof. Cabanis does not place the Alaudidss 
lowest of the seventeen Families of which he makes the Oscines to be 
composed. They stand eleventh in order, while the Corvidas are last 
a matter on which something has to be said in the sequel. 

4 By a curious error, probably of the press, the number of primaries 
assigned to the Paradiseid.se and Con^idse. is wrong (pp. 334, 335). In 
each case 10 should be substituted for 19 and 14. 



ORNITHOLOGY 



31 



too much importance may easily be, and already has been, 
assigned to them. 1 

This will perhaps be the most convenient place to mention 
another kind of classification of Birds, which, based on a principle 
wholly different from those that have just been explained, requires 
a few words, though it has not been productive, nor is likely, from 
all that appears, to be productive of any great effect. So long ago j 

iona- as 1831, BONAPARTE, in his Saggio di una distributions metodica j 

>arte. degli Animali Vertebrati, published at Rome, and in 1837 com- i 
municated to the Linnoan Society of London, "A new Systematic ! 
Arrangement of Vertebrated Animals," which was subsequently J 
printed in that Society s Transactions (xviii. pp. 247-304), though 
before it appeared there was issued at Bologna, under the title of j 
Synopsis Vcrtebratorum Sijstematis, a Latin translation of it. j 
Herein he divided the Class Avcs into two Subclasses, to which he 
applied the names of Insessores and Grallatorcs (hitherto used by 
their inventors Vigors and Illiger in a different sense), in the latter 
work relying chiefly for this division on characters which had not 
before been used by any systematist, namely, that in the former 
group Monogamy generally prevailed and the helpless nestlings 
were fed by their parents, while the latter group were mostly 
Polygamous, and the chicks at birth were active and capable of 
feeding themselves. This method, which in process of time was 
dignified by the title of a Physiological Arrangement, was insisted 
upon with more or less pertinacity by the author throughout a long 
series of publications, some of them separate books, some of them 
contributed to the memoirs issued by many scientific bodies of 
various European countries, ceasing only at his death, which in 
July 1857 found him occupied upon a Conspectus Gencrum Arium, 
that in consequence remains unfinished (see p. 14). In the course 
of this series, however, he saw fit to alter the name of his two Sub 
classes, since those which he at first adopted were open to a variety 
of meanings, and in a communication to the French Academy 
of Sciences in 1853 (Comptcs Jtcndus, xxxvii. pp. 641- 647) the 
denomination Inscssorcs was changed to Altriccs, and Grallatorcs to 
Prsscoces the terms now preferred by him being taken from 
Sundevall s treatise of 1835 already mentioned. The views of 
Bonaparte were, it appears, also shared by an ornithological 

rlogg. amateur of some distinction, HOGG, who propounded a scheme 
which, as he subsequently stated (Zoologist, 1850, p. 2797), was 
founded strictly in accordance with them ; but it would seem that, 
allowing his convictions to be warped by other considerations, he 
abandoned the original "physiological" basis of his system, so 
that this, when published in 1846 (Edinb. N. Philosoph. Journal, 
xli. pp. 50-71), was found to be established on a single character 
of the feet only ; though he was careful to point out, immediately 
after formulating the definition of his Subclasses Constridipedes 
and IiKconstrictipcdes, that the former "make, in general, compact 
and well-built nests, wherein they bring up their very weak, blind, 
and mostly naked young, which they feed with care, by bringing 
food to them for many days, until they are fledged and sufficiently 
strong to leave their nest," observing also that they "are princi 
pally monogamous " (pp. 55, 56) ; while of the latter he says that 
they "make either a poor and rude nest, in which they lay their 
eggs, or else none, depositing them on the bare ground. The young 
are generally born with their full sight, covered with down, strong, 
and capable of running or swimming immediately after they leave 
the egg-shell." He adds that the parents, which "are mostly 
polygamous," attend their young and direct them where to find 
their food (p. 63). The numerous errors in these assertions hardly 
need pointing out. The Herons, for instance, are much more 
" Constrictipcdes" than are the Larks or the Kingfishers, and, so far 
from the majority of " Inconstridipedes" being polygamous, there 
is scarcely any evidence of polygamy obtaining as a habit among 
Birds in a state of nature except in certain of the GaUinx and a 
very few others. Furthermore, the young of the Goatsuckers are 
at hatching far more developed than are those of the Herons or the 
Cormorants ; and, in a general way, nearly every one of the as 
serted peculiarities of the two Subclasses breaks down under careful 
examination. Yet the idea of a "physiological" arrangement on 
the same kind of principle found another follower, or, as he 

Newman, thought, inventor, in NEWMAN, who in 1850 communicated to the 
Zoological Society of London a plan published in its Proceedings 
for that year (pp. 46-48), and reprinted also in his own journal 
The Zoologist (pp. 2780-2782), based on exactly the same consider 
ations, dividing Birds into two groups, " Hesthogenous " a word so 
vicious in formation as to be incapable of amendment, but intended 
to signify those that were hatched with a clothing, of down and 
"Gymnogenous," or those that were hatched naked. These three 
systems are essentially identical ; but, plausible as they may be at 

1 A much more extensive and detailed application of his method 
was begun by Prof. Cabauis in the Museum Heineanum, a very useful 
catalogue of specimens in the collection of Herr Oberamtmann Heine, of 
which the first part was published at Halberstadt in 1850, and the last 
which has appeared, the work being still unfinished, in 1863. 



the first aspect, they have been found to be practically useless, 
though such of their characters as their upholders have advanced 
with truth deserve attention. Physiology may one day very likely 
assist the systematist; but it must be real physiology and not a sham. 

In 1856 Prof. GERVAI.S, who had already contributed to the Gervais. 
Zoologie of M. do Castelnau s Expedition dans les parties centrales 
de VAmerique du Sud some important memoirs describing the 
anatomy of the HOACTZTN (vol. xii. p. 28) and certain other Birds 
of doubtful or anomalous position, published some remarks on the 
characters which could be drawn from the sternum of Birds (Ann. 
Sc. Nat. Zoologie, ser. 4, vi. pp. 5-15). The considerations are not 
very striking from a general point of view ; but the author adds to 
the weight of evidence which some of his predecessors had brought 
to bear on certain matters, particularly in aiding to abolish the 
artificial groups " Deodactyls," "Syndactyls, "and " Zygodactyls," 
on which so much reliance had been placed by many of his 
countrymen ; and it is with him a great merit that he was the first 
apparently to recognize publicly that characters drawn from 
the posterior part of the sternum, and particularly from the 
" echancrurcs, commonly called in English "notches" or "emar- 
ginations," are of comparatively little importance, since their 
number is apt to vary in forms that are most closely allied, and 



the other hand foramina may exceptionally change to "notches," 
and not unfrequently disappear wholly. Among his chief system 
atic determinations we may mention that he refers the Tinamous 
to the Rails, because apparently of their deep "notches," but 
otherwise takes a view of that group more correct according to 
modern notions than did most of his contemporaries. The Bustards 
he would place with the " Limicoles," as also Dromas and Chionis, 
the SHEATH-BILL (q.v.}. Phaethon, the TROPIC-BIRD (q.v.), lie 
would place with the "Larides" and not with the " Peleeanides," 
which it only resembles in its feet having all the toes connected 
by a web. Finally Divers, Auks, and Penguins, according to him, 
form the last term in the series, and it seems iit to him that they 
should be regarded as forming a separate Order. It is a curious 
fact that even at & date so late as this, and by an investigator so 
well informed, doubt should still have existed whether Apleryx 
(Kiwi, vol. xiv. p. 104) should be referred to the group containing 
the Cassowary and the Ostrich. On the whole the remarks of this 
esteemed author do not go much beyond such as might occur to any 
one who had made a study of a good series of specimens ; but many 
of them are published for the first time, and the author is careful 
to insist on the necessity of not resting solely on sternal characters, 
but associating with them those drawn from other parts of the body. 

Three years later in the same journal (xi. pp. 11-145, pis. 2-4) Blan- 
M. BLANC HARD published some Recherches sur les caracteres osteo- chard. 
logiqiies des Oiseaux appliquics a la Classification naturelle de ces 
animaux, strongly urging the superiority of such characters over 
those drawn from the bill or feet, which, he n marks, though they 
may have sometimes given correct notions, have mostly led to mis 
takes, and, if observations of habits and food have sometimes 
afforded happy results, they have often been deceptive ; so that, 
should more be wanted than to draw up a mere inventory of creation 
or trace the distinctive outline of each species, zoology without 
anatomy would remain a barren study. At the same time he states 
that authors who have occupied themselves with the sternum alone 
have often produced uncertain results, especially when they have 
neglected its anterior for its posterior part ; for in truth every bone 
of the skeleton ought to be studied in all its details. Yet this dis 
tinguished zoologist selects the sternum as furnishing the key to 
his primary groups or "Orders" of the Class, adopting, as Merrem 
had done long before, the same two divisions Carinatse, and Ratify, 
naming, however, the former Tropidosternii and the lattt-r 
Ifomaloslcrnii. 3 Some unkind fate has hitherto hindered him from 
making known to the world the rest of his researches in regard to 
the other bones of the skeleton till he reached the head, and in the 
memoir cited he treats of the sternum of only a portion of his first 
"Order." This is the more to be regretted by all ornithologists, 
since he intended to conclude with what to them would have been 
: a very great boon the shewing in what way external characters 
j coincided with those presented by Osteology. It was also within 
- the scope of his plan to have continued on a more extended scale 
the researches on ossification begun by L Herminier, and thus M. 

- Thus he cites the cases of Machetes pugnax and Scolopax riisti^- 
cola among the " Limicoles," and Larus cataractes among the " Larides, 
| as differing from their nearest allies by the possession of only one 
i " notch " on either side of the keel. Several additional instances are 
cited in Philos. Transactions, 1869, p. 337, note. 

3 These terms were explained in his great work L Organisation du 
Regne Animal, Oiseaux (p. 16), begun in 1855, and still (1884) no 
further advanced than its fourth part, comprehending in all but thirty- 
two pages of letter-press, to mean exactly the same as those applied 
by Merrem to his two primary divisions. 



32 



ORNITHOLOGY 



Blanchard s investigations, if completed, would obviously have 
taken extraordinarily high rank among the highest contributions 
to ornithology. As it is, so much of them us we have are of con 
siderable importance ; for, in this unfortunately unfinished memoir, 
he describes in some detail the several differences which the sternum 
in a great many different groups of his Tropidosternii presents, and 
to some extent makes a methodical disposition of them accordingly. 
Thus he separates the Birds -of -Prey into three great groups (1) 
the ordinary Diurnal forms, including the Fakonidse and Vulturidse 
of the systematist of his time, but distinguishing the American 
Vultures from those of the Old World; (2) Qypogeranus, the 
SECRETARY-BIRD (q.v.) ; and (3) the Owls (infra, p. 88). Next 
lie places the PAKHOTS (q.v. ), and then the vast assemblage of 
" Passereaux " which he declares to be all of one type, even 
genera like Pipra (MAXAKIX, vol. xv. p. 455) and Pitta and con 
cludes with the somewhat heterogeneous conglomeration of forms, 
beginning with Cypselus (SwiFT, q.v.), that so many systematists 
have been accustomed to call Picariai, though to them as a group 
lie assigns no name. A continuation of the treatise was promised 
in a succeeding part of the Annalcs, but a quarter of a century has 
passed without its appearance, 1 

Important as are the characters afforded by the sternum, that 
bone even with the whole sternal apparatus should obviously not be 
considered alone. To aid ornithologis s in their studies in this 
Eyton. respect, EYTOX, who for many years had been forming a collection 
of Birds skeletons, began the publication of a scries of plates repre 
senting them. The tirst part of this work, Ostcologia Avium, 
appeared early in 1859, and a volume was completed in 18G7. A 
Supplement was issued in 1869, and a Second Supplement, in three 
parts, between 1873 and 1875. The whole work contains a great 
number of figures of Birds skeletons and detached bones ; but 
they are not so drawn as to be of much practical use, and the 
accompanying letter-press is too brief to be satisfactory. 

That the eggs laid by Birds should offer to some extent characters 
of utility to systeir.atists is only to be expected, when it is con 
sidered that those from the same nest generally bear an extraordin 
ary family-likeness to one another, and also that in certain groups 
thg essential p culiarities of the egg-shell are constantly and dis 
tinctively characteristic. Thus no one who has ever examined the 
egg of a Duck or of a Tinamou would ever be in danger of not 
referring another Tinamou s egg or another Duck s, that he might 
see, to its proper Family, and so on with many others. Yet, as 
has been stated on a former occasion (BiRDS, vol. iii. p. 772), the 
expectation held out to oologists, and by them, of the benefits to 
be conferred upon Systematic Ornithol )gy from the study of Birds 
eggs, so far from being fulfilled, has not unfrequently led to dis 
appointment. But at the same time many of the shortcomings of 
Oology in this respect must be set down to the defective informa 
tion and observation of its votaries, among whom some have been 
very lax, not to say incautious, in wot ascertaining on due evidence 
the parentage of their specimens, and the author next to be named 
is open to this charge. After several minor notices that appeared 
D es in journals at various times, DES Muus in 1860 brought out at 
Murs. Paris his ambitious Traite general d Ooloyie Ornithologique au point 
de vuc dc la Classification, which contains (pp. 529-538) a : Systema 
Oologicum" as the final result of his labours. In this scheme 
Birds are arranged according to what the author considered to be 
their natural method and sequence ; but the result exhibits some 
unions as ill-assorted as can well be met with in the whole range 
of tentative arrangements of the Class, together with some very 
unjustifiable divorces. Its basis is the classification of Cuvier, the 
modifications of which by Des Murs will seldom commend them 
selves to systematists whose opinion is generally deemed worth 
having. Few, if an} , of the faults of that classification are removed, 
and the improvements suggested, if not established by his successors, 
those especially of other countries than France, are ignored, or, as 
is the case with some of those of L Herminier, are only cited to 
be set aside. Oologists have no reason to be thankful to Des Murs, 
notwithstanding his zeal in behalf of their study. It is perfectly 
true that in several or even in many instances he acknowledges and 
deplores the poverty of his information, but this does not excuse 
him for making assertions (and such assertions are not (infrequent) 
based on evidence that is either wholly untrustworthy or needs 
further enquiry before it can be accepted (Ibis, 1860, pp. 331-335). 
This being the case, it would seem useless to take up further space 
by analysing the several proposed modifications of Cuvier s arrange 
ment. The great merit of the work is that the author shews the 
necessity of taking Oology into account when investigating the 
classification of Birds ; but it also proves that in so doing the 
paramount consideration lies in the thorough sifting of evidence as 
to the parentage of the eggs which are to serve as the building 
stones of the fabric to be erected. The attempt of Des Murs was 

1 M. Blanchard a animadversions on tlie employment of external 
characters, and on trusting to observations on the habits of Birds, 
called forth a rejoinder from Mr Wallace (Ibis, 1864, pp. 36-41), who 
successfully shewed that t iey are not altogether to be despised. 



praiseworthy ; but in effect it has utterly failed, notwithstanding 
the encomiums passed upon it by friendly critics (Rev. dc Zoologic, 
1860, pp. 176-183, 313-325, 370-373). - 

Until about this time systematists, almost without 
exception, may be said to have been wandering with no 
definite purpose. At least their purpose was indefinite 
compared with that which they now have before them. 
No doubt they all agreed in saying that they were pro 
secuting a search for what they called the True System of 
Nature ; but that was nearly the end of their agreement, 
for in what that True System consisted the opinions of 
scarcely any two would coincide, unless to own that it was 
some shadowy idea beyond the present power of mortals 
to reach or even comprehend. The Quinarians, who boldly 
asserted that they had fathomed the mystery of Creation, 
had been shewn to be no wiser than other men, if indeed 
they had not utterly befooled themselves ; for their theory 
at best could give no other explanation of things than that 
they were because they were. The conception of such a 
process as has now come to be called by the name of 
Evolution was certainly not novel ; but except to two men 
the way in which that process was or could be possible had 
not been revealed. 3 Here there is no need to enter into 
details of the history of Evolution ; but the annalist in 
every branch of Biology must record the eventful 1st of 
July 1858, when the no\v celebrated views of DARWIN and Darwin 
Mr WALLACE were first laid before the scientific world, 4 "d 
and must also notice the appearance towards the end of the " a " ace - 
following year of the former s Origin of Species, which has 
effected the greatest revolution of human thought in this 
or perhaps in any century. The majority of biologists 
who had schooled themselves on other principles were of 
course slow to embrace the new doctrine ; but their hesita 
tion was only the natural consequence of the caution which 
their scientific training enjoined. A few there were who 
felt as though scales had suddenly dropped from their 
eyes, when greeted by the idea conveyed in the now 
familiar phrase "Natural Selection"; but even those who 
had hitherto believed, and still continued to believe, in the 
sanctity of " Species " at once perceived that their life-long 
study had undergone a change, that their old position was 
seriously threatened by a perilous siege, and that to make 
it good they must find new means of defence. Many 
bravely maintained their posts, and for them not a word 
of blame ought to be expressed. Some few pretended, 
though the contrary was notorious, that they had always 
been on the side of the new philosophy, so far as they 
allowed it to be philosophy at all, and for them hardly a 
word of blame is too severe. Others after due deliberation, 
as became men who honestly desired the truth and nothing 
but the truth, yielded wholly or almost wholly to argu 
ments which they gradually found to be irresistible. But, 
leaving generalities apart, and restricting ourselves to what 
is here our proper business, there was possibly no branch 
of Zoology in which so many of the best informed and con 
sequently the most advanced of its workers sooner accepted 
the principles of Evolution than Ornithology, and of course 
the effect upon its study was very marked. New spirit was 
given to it. Ornithologists now felt they had something 
before them that was really worth investigating. Ques 
tions of Affinity, and the details of Geographical Distribu 
tion, were endowed with a real interest, in comparison with 

2 In this historical sketch of the progress of Ornithology it has not 
been thought necessary to mention other oological works, since they 
have not a taxonomic bearing, and the chief of them have been already 
named (BiUDS, vol. iii. p. 774, note 1). 

3 Neither Lamarck nor Robert Chambers (the now acknowledged 
author of Vestiges of Creation), though thorough evolutionists, 
rationally indicated any means whereby, to use the old phrase, "the 
transmutation of species " could be effected. 

4 Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, vol. iii., 
Zoology, pp. 45-62. 



ORNITHOLOGY 



33 



which any interest that had hitherto been taken was a 
trifling pastime. Classification assumed a wholly different 
aspect. It had up to this time been little more than the 
shuffling of cards, the ingenious arrangement of counters in 
a pretty pattern. Henceforward it was to be the serious 
study of the workings of Nature in producing the beings we 
see around us from beings more or less unlike them, that 
had existed in bygone ages and had been the parents of a 
varied and varying offspring -our fellow- creatures of to 
day. Classification for the first time was something more 
than the expression of a fancy, not that it had not also its 
imaginative side. Men s minds began to figure to them 
selves the original type of some well-marked genus or 
Family of Birds. They could even discern dimly some 
generalized stock whence had descended whole groups that 
now differed strangely in habits and appearance their 
discernment aided, may be, by some isolated form which 
yet retained undeniable traces of a primitive structure. 
More dimly still visions of what the first Bird may have 
been like could be reasonably entertained ; and, passing 
even to a higher antiquity, the Reptilian parent whence 
all Birds have sprung was brought within reach of man s 
consciousness. But, relieved as it may be by reflexions of 
this kind dreams some may perhaps still call them the 
study of Ornithology has unquestionably become harder 
and more serious ; and a corresponding change in the style 
of investigation, followed in the works that remain to be 
considered, will be immediately perceptible. 

That this was the case is undeniably shewn by some 

stram. remarks of Canon TRISTRAM, who, in treating of the 
Alaiididse and Saxicolinse, of Algeria (whence he had 
recently brought a large collection of specimens of his own 
making), stated (Ibis, 1859, pp. 429-433) that he could 
" not help feeling convinced of the truth of the views set 
forth by Messrs Darwin and Wallace," adding that it was 
" hardly possible, I should think, to illustrate this theory 
better than by the Larks and Chats of North Africa." It 
is unnecessary to continue the quotation ; the few words 
just cited are enough to assure to their author the credit 
of being (so far as is known) the first ornithological 
specialist who had the courage publicly to recognize and 
receive the new and at that time unpopular philosophy. 1 
But greater work was at hand. In June 1860 Prof. 

irker. PARKER broke, as most will allow, entirely fresh ground, 
and ground that he has since continued to till more deeply 
perhaps than any other zoologist, by communicating to 
the Zoological Society a memoir " On the Osteology of 
Bal&niceps, " subsequently published in that Society s Trans 
actions (iv. pp. 269-351). Of this contribution to science, 
as of all the rest which have since proceeded from him, 
may be said in the words he himself has applied (ut 
supra, p. 271) to the work of another labourer in a not 
distant field : " This is a model paper for unbiassed 
observation, and freedom from that pleasant mode of 
supposing instead of ascertaining what is the true nature 
of an anatomical element." Indeed the study of this 
memoir, limited though it be in scope, could not fail to 
convince any one that it proceeded from the mind of one 
who taught with the authority derived directly from 
original knowledge, and not from association with the 
scribes a conviction that has become strengthened as, in 
a series of successive memoirs, the stores of more than 
twenty years silent observation and unremitting research 

1 Whether Canon Tristram was anticipated in any other, and if so 
i:i what, branch of Zoology will be a pleasing inquiry for the historian 
of the future. 

2 It is fair to state that some of Prof. Parker s conclusions respect 
ing T>aleeniceps were contested by the late Prof. J. T. Reinhardt 
(Overs. K. D. Vid. Selsk. Forhandlinyer, 1861, pp. 135-154 ; Ibis, 
1862, pp. 158-175), and as it seems to the present writer not ineffec 
tually. Prof. Parker replied to his critic (Ibis, 1862, pp. 297-299). 



were unfolded, and, more than that, the hidden forces of 
the science of Morphology were gradually brought to bear 
upon almost each subject that came under discussion. 
These different memoirs, being technically monographs, 
have strictly no right to be mentioned in this place ; but 
there is scarcely one of them, if one indeed there be, that 
does not deal with the generalities of the study; and the 
influence they have had upon contemporary investigation 
is so strong that it is impossible to refrain from noticing 
them here, though want of space forbids us from enlarging 
on their contents. 3 Moreover, the doctrine of Descent 
with variation is preached in all seldom, if ever, conspicu 
ously, but perhaps all the more effectively on that account. 
There is no reflective thinker but must perceive that 
Morphology is the lamp destined to throw more light than 
that afforded by any other kind of study on the obscurity 
that still shrouds the genealogy of Birds as of other 
animals ; and, though as yet its illuminating power is 
admittedly far from what is desired, it has perhaps never 
shone more brightly than in Prof. Parker s hands. 
The great fault of his series of memoirs, if it may be 
allowed the present writer to criticize them, is the 
indifference of their author to formulating his views, so as 
to enable the ordinary taxonomer to perceive how far he 
has got, if not to present him with a fair scheme. But 
this fault is possibly one of those that are " to merit near 
allied," since it would seem to spring from the author s 
hesitation to pass from observation to theory, for to theory 
at present belong, and must for some time belong, all 
attempts at Classification. Still it is not the less annoying 
and disappointing to the systematist to find that the man 
whose life-long application would enable him, better than 
any one else, to declare the effect of the alliances and differ 
ences that have been shewn to exist among various mem 
bers of the Class should yet be so reticent, or that when 
he speaks he should rather use the language of Morphology, 
which those who are not morphologists find difficult of 
correct interpretation, and wholly inadequate to allow of 
zoological deductions. 4 



3 It may be convenient to our readers that a list of Prof. Parker s 
works which treat of ornithological subjects, in addition to the 
two above mentioned, should here be given. They are as follows : 
In the Zoological Society s Transactions, 25th November 1862, "On 
the Osteology of the Gallinaceous Birds and Tinamous," v. pp. 
149-241; 12th December 1865, "On some fossil Birds from the 



On the Skull of the /Egithognathous Birds," Pt, II. x. pp. 251-314. 

In the Proceedings of the same Society, 8th December 1863, " On the 
1 systematic position of the Crested Screamer," pp. 511-518 ; 28th 
1 February 1865, "On the Osteology of Microglossa alecto," pp. 
! 235-238. In the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 

9th March 1865, "On the Structure and Development of the Skull 
I in the Ostrich Tribe," pp. 113-183; llth February 1869, "On the 
j Structure and Development of the Skull of the Common Fowl," pp. 
! 755-807. In the Linnean Society s Transactions, 2d April 1874, 
! "On the Morphology of the Skull in the Woodpeckers and 
j Wrynecks," ser. 2, Zoology, i. pp. 1-22 ; 16th December 1875, "On 

the Structure and Development of the Bird s Skull," torn, cit., pp. 

99-154. In the Monthly Microscopical Journal for 1872, "On the 

Structure and Development of the Crow s Skull," pp. 217-253 ; for 
1 1873, "On the Development of the Skull in the genus Turdus," pp. 

102-107, and "On the Development of the Skull in the Tit and 

Sparrow Hawk," parts i. and ii., pp. 6-11, 45-50. There is besides 
| the great work published by the Ray Society in 1868, A Monograph 

on the Structure and Development of the Shoulder-girdle and Sternum, 

of which pp. 142-191 treat of these parts in the Class Aves ; and our 
1 readers will hardly need to be reminded of the article BIRDS in the 

present work (vol. iii. pp. 699-728). Nearly every one of this mar- 
| vdlous series of contributions is copiously illustrated by plates from 
j drawings made by the author himself. 

4 As an instance, take the passages in which Turnix and Thinocorus 
! are apparently referred to the JSgithognathse (Trans. Zool. Society, ix. 
1 pp. 29lets>>qq. ; and supra, vol. iii. p. 700), a view which, as shewn by 
! the author ( Transactions, x. p. 310), is not that really intended by him. 

XVIII. -- 5 



34 



ORNITHOLOGY 



For some time past rumours of a discovery of the 
highest interest had been agitating the minds of zoologists, 

Wagner, for in 1861 ANDREAS WAGNER had sent to the Academy 
of Sciences of Munich (Sitzungsberichte, pp. 146-154; 
Ann. Nat. History, ser. 3, ix. pp. 261-267) an account of 
what he conceived to be a feathered Reptile (assigning to 
it the name Gnphosaurus}, the remains of which had been 
found in the lithographic beds of Solenhofen ; but he him 
self, through failing health, had been unable to see the 
fossil. In 1862 the slabs containing the remains were 
acquired by the British Museum, and towards the end of 

Owtu. that year Sir R. OWEN communicated a detailed descrip 
tion of them to the Philosophical Transactions (1863, pp. 
33-47), proving their Bird-like nature, and referring them 
to the genus Archxopteryx of Hermann von Meyer, 
hitherto known only by the impression of a single feather 
from the same geological beds. Wagner foresaw the use 
that would be made of this discovery by the adherents of 
the new Philosophy, and, in the usual language of its 
opponents at the time, strove to ward off the " misinter 
pretations " that they would put upon it. His protest, it 
is needless to say, was unavailing, and all who respect his 
memory must regret that the sunset of life failed to give 
him that insight into the future which is poetically ascribed 
to it. To Darwin and those who believed with him 
scarcely any discovery could have been more welcome ; 
but that is beside our present business. It was quickly 
seen even by those who held Arclixopteryx to be a Reptile 
that it was a form intermediate between existing Birds 
and existing Reptiles while those who were convinced 
by Sir R. Owen s researches of its ornithic affinity saw 
that it must belong to a type of Birds wholly unknown 
before, and one that in any future for the arrangement of 
the Class must have a special rank reserved for it. 1 It 
has been already briefly described and figured in this work 
(BIRDS, vol. iii. pp. 728, 729). 

It behoves us next to mention the " Outlines of a Systematic 
Lillje- Review of the Class of Birds," communicated by Prof. LILLJEBOKG 
borg. to the Zoological Society in 1866, and published in its Proceedings 
for that year (pp. 5-20), since it was immediately after reprinted 
by the Smithsonian Institution, and with that authorization has 
exercised a great influence on the opinions of American ornitholo 
gists. Otherwise the scheme would hardly need notice here. This 
paper is indeed little more than an English translation of one 
published by the author in the annual volume (Arsskrift) of the 
Scientific Society of Upsala for 1860, and belonging to the pre- 
Darwinian epoch should perhaps have been more properly treated 
before, but that at the time of its original appearance it failed to 
attract attention. The chief merit of the scheme perhaps is that, 
contrary to nearly every precedent, it begins with the lower and 
rises to the higher groups of Birds, which is of course the natural 
mode of proceeding, and one therefore to be commended. Other 
wise the " principles " on which it is founded are not clear to the 
ordinary zoologist. One of them is said to be "irritability," and, 
though this is explained to mean, not "muscular strength alone, 
but vivacity and activity generally,"^ it does not seem to fi>rm a 
character that can be easily appreciated either as to quantity or 
quality ; in fact, most persons would deem it quite immeasurable, 
and, as such, removed from practical consideration. Moreover, 
Prof. Lilljeborg s scheme, being actually an adaptation of that of 
Sundevall, of which we shall have to speak at some length almost 
immediately, may possibly be left for the present with these 
remarks. 

Huxley. In the spring .of the year 1867 Prof. HUXLEY, to 
the delight of an appreciative audience, delivered at the 
Royal College of Surgeons of England a course of lectures 
on Birds, and it is much to be regretted that his many 
engagements hindered him from publishing in its entirety 
his elucidation of the anatomy of the Class, and the results 

1 This was done shortly afterwards by Prof. Hik kel, who pro 
posed the name Suururae for the group containing it. 

2 On this ground it is stated that the Passeres should be placed 
highest in the Class. But those who know the habits and demeanour 
of many of the Limicolse would no doubt rightly claim for them much 
more " vivacity and activity" than is possessed by most Passeres. 



which he drew from his investigations of it ; for never 
assuredly had the subject been attacked with greater skill 
and power, or, since the days Buffon, had Ornithology 
been set forth with greater eloquence. To remedy, in 
some degree, this unavoidable loss, and to preserve at least 
a portion of the fruits of his labours, Prof. Huxley, a 
few weeks after, presented an abstract of his researches to 
the Zoological Society, in whose Proceedings for the same 
year it will be found printed (pp. 415-472) as a paper 
" On the Classification of Birds, and on the taxonomic 
value of the modifications of certain of the cranial bones 
observable in that Class." Starting from the basis (which, 
undeniably true as it is, not a little shocked many of his 
ornithological hearers) " that the phrase Birds arc greatly 
modified Reptiles would hardly be an exaggerated expres 
sion of the closeness " of the resemblance between the two 
Classes, which he had previously brigaded under the name 
of Sauropsida (as he had brigaded the Pisces and Amjihihia 
as Ichthyopsida), he drew in bold outline both their like 
nesses and their differences, and then proceeded to inquire 
how the Avcs could be most appropriately subdivided 
into Orders, Suborders, and Families. In this course of 
lectures he had already dwelt at sonic length on the 
insufficiency of the characters on which such groups as 
had hitherto been thought to be established \verc founded; 
but for the consideration of this part of his subject there 
was no room in the present paper, and the reasons why he 
arrived at the conclusion that new means of philosophically 
and successfully separating the Class must be sought are 
herein left to be inferred. The upshot, however, admits 
of no uncertainty : the Class Aves is held to be composed 
of three " Orders " (I.) SAURUR.E, Htickel; (II.) RATIT.E, 
Merrem: and (III.) CARINAT/E, Merrem. The Saururse 
have the metacarpals well developed and not ancylosed, 
and the caudal vertebra} are numerous and large, so that 
the caudal region of the spine is longer than the body. 
The furcula is complete and strong, the feet very Passerine 
in appearance. The skull and sternum were at the time 
unknown, and indeed the whole Order, without doubt 
entirely extinct, rested exclusively on the celebrated fossil, 
then unique, Arch&opteryx (BIRDS, vol. iii. pp. 728, 729). 
The Ratitx comprehend the Struthious Birds, which differ 
from all others now extant in the combination of several 
peculiarities, some of which have been mentioned in the 
preceding pages. The sternum has no keel, and ossifies 
from lateral and paired centres only ; the axes of the 
scapula and coracoid have the same general direction ; 
certain of the cranial bones have characters very unlike 
those possessed by the next Order the vomer, for 
example, being broad posteriorly and generally intervening 
between the basisphenoidal rostrum and the palatals and 
pterygoids ; the barbs of the feathers are disconnected ; 
there is no syrinx or inferior larynx ; and the diaphragm 
is better developed than in other Birds. 3 The Ratitse are 
divided into five groups, separated by very trenchant 
characters, principally osteological, and many of them 
afforded by the cranial bones. These groups consist of 
(i.) Struthio (OSTRICH, infra, p. 62), (ii.) RHEA (Y.V.), (iii.) 
Casuarius and Dromseus (EMEU, vol. viii. 171), (iv.) 
Dinornis, and (v.) Apturyx (Kiwi, vol. xiv. p. 104) ; but 
no names are here given to them. The Carinatse comprise 
all other existing Birds. The sternum has more or less of 
a keel, and is said to ossify, with the possible exception of 
Strir/nps (KAKAPO, vol. xiii. p. 825), from a median centre 
as well as from paired and lateral centres. The axes of 
the scapula and coracoid meet at an acute, or, as in Didus 
(DoDO, vol. vii. p. 321) and Ocydromw (OCYDROME, vol. 
xvii. p. 222), at a slightly obtuse angle, while the vomer is 

3 This peculiarity had led some zoologists to consider the Struthious 
Birds more nearly allied to the Mammalia than any others. 



ORNITHOLOGY 



35 



comparatively narrow and allows the pterygoids and 
palatals to articulate directly with the basispnenoidal 
rostrum. The Carinatx are divided, according to the 
formation of the palate, into four " Suborders," and named 
(i.) DromxognatJix, (ii.) Schizognathx, (iii.) Desmognathx, 
and (iv.) JEgitftognathx. 1 The Dromxognathx resemble 
the Ratitie, and especially the genus Dromsaus, in their 
palatal structure, and arc composed of the TINAMOUS 
(</.> .). The Schizoynathoe include a great many of the 
forms belonging to the Linmean Orders Gallinx, Grallx, 
and Anseres. In them the vomer, however variable, 
always tapers to a point anteriorly, while behind it includes 
the basisphenoidal rostrum between the palatals ; but 
neither these nor the pterygoids are borne by its posterior 
divergent ends. The maxillo-palatals are usually elongated 
and lamellar, uniting with the palatals, and, bending 
backward along their inner edge, leave a cleft (whence the 
name given to the " Suborder ") between the vomer and 
themselves. Six groups of Schizognathx are distinguished 
with considerable minuteness : (1) Charadriomorpfiee, con 
taining Charadriidse, (PLOVER, q.i .), Otidldx (BUSTARD, 
vol. iv. p. 578), and Scolopacidse ] (2) Geranomorphss, 
including Gruidse (CRANE, vol. vi. p. 546) and R<dlida>, 
between which Psophiidie and Rhinochetidx are intermedi 
ate, while the SEHIEMA (q.v.) would also seem to belong 
here ; (3) Cccomorphae, comprising Laridx (GULL, vol. xi. 
p. 274), Procellariidse (PETREL, q.v.), Colymlidx (DIVER, 
vol. vii. p. 292), and Alcidx (GUILLEMOT, vol. xi. p. 262); 
(4) SpheniscomorphsB, composed of the PENGUINS (q.v.) ; 
(")) Alectoromorphee (FOWL, vol. ix. p. 491), being all the 
Gallinx except the Tinamous ; and finally (6) Peristero- 
morphx, consisting of the DOVES (vol. vii. p. 379) and 
PIGEONS (q.v.). In the third of these Suborders, the 
Dcsmoynatkse, the vomer is either abortive or so small as 
to disappear from the skeleton. When it exists it is 
always slender, and tapers to a point anteriorly. The 
maxillo-palatals are bound together (whence the name of 
the " Suborder") across the middle line, either directly or 
by the ossification of the nasal septum. The posterior ends 
of the palatals and anterior of the pterygoids articulate 
directly with the rostrum. The groups of Desmognatkx 
are characterized as carefully as are those of the preceding 
"Suborder," and are as follows: (1) Ckenomorpkse, con 
sisting of the Anatidse (DucK, vol. vii. p. 505 ; GOOSE, 
vol. x. p. 777) with Palamedea, the SCREAMER (q.v.) ; (2) 
Ampliimwphx, the FLAMINGOES (vol. ix. p. 286) ; (3) 
Pdaryomorphx, containing the Ardcidx (HERON, vol. xi. 
p. 760), Ciconiidx (STORK, q.v.), and Tantalidse ; (4) 
Dyxporomorphos, the CORMORANTS (vol. vi. p. 407), 
FRIGATE-BIRDS (vol. ix. p. 786), GANNETS (vol. x. p. 
70), and PELICANS (q.v.) ; (5) Aetomorphx, comprising all 
the Birds-of-Prey ; (6) Psittacomorphse, the PARROTS (q. v.) ; 
and lastly (7) Coccyyomorphae, which are held to include 
four groups, viz., (a) Coliidx (MOUSE-BIRD, vol. xvii. 
p. 6) ; (h) Musopliwjidsz (PLANTAIN-EATERS and TOURA- 
KOOS, q.v.} Cuculidx (CucKOW, vol. vi. p. 685), Bucconidse, 
JRkampJuistidx (TOUCANS, q.v.), Capitonidiv, Gallulidx 
(JACAMAR, vol. xiii. p. 531 ); (c) Alcedinidx (KING 
FISHER, xiv. p. 81,) Bucerotidse (HORNBILL, xii. p. 169), 
Vpupidae (HOOPOE, xii. p. 154), Meropidae, Momotidx 
(MOTMOT, xvii. p. 3), Coraciidse (ROLLER, q.v.); and (d) 
Trtjfjonidse, (TROGON, q.v.]. Next in order come the Celeo- 
morphae or WOODPECKERS (q.v.), a group respecting the 
exact position of which Prof. Huxley was uncertain, 2 

1 These names are compounded respectively of Dromssus, the generic 
name applied to the Emeu, erx C a > a split or cleft, 5e o>ta, a bond or 
tying, ctfyidos, a Finch, and, in each case, yvddos, a jaw. 

2 Prof. Parker subsequently advanced the Woodpeckers to a higher 
rank under the name of Sauroynathw (Monthly Microscop. Journal, 
1872, p. 219, and Tr. Linn. Sue., ser. 2, Zoology, i. p. 2). 



though he inclined to think its relations were with the next 
group, jEgitkognathse, the fourth and last of his " Sub 
orders," characterized by a form of palate in some respects 
intermediate between the two preceding. The vomer is 
broad, abruptly truncated in front, and deeply cleft behind, 
so as to embrace the rostrum of the sphenoid ; the palatals 
have produced postero-external angles ; the maxillo-palata s 
are slender at their origin, and extend obliquely inwards 
and forwards over the palatals, ending beneath the vomer in 
expanded extremities, not united either with one another 
or with the vomer, nor does the latter unite with the 
nasal septum, though that .is frequently ossified. Of 
the ^Egithognathss, two divisions are made (1) Cypsclo- 
morphix, including Trockilidse (HUMMING-BIRD, vol. xii. 
p. 357), Cypselidx (SwiFT, q.v.), and Caprimulyidx (GOAT 
SUCKER, vol. x. p. 711) ; and (2) Cor/icomorphse, which last 
are separable into two groups, one (<i) formed of the genus 
Mtnura (LYRE-BIRD, vol. xv. p. 115), which then seemed 
to stand alone, and the other (6) made up of Polymyodw, 
Tracheopkonx, and Oligomyodie, sections founded on the 
syringeal structure, but declared to be not natural. 

The above abstract 3 shews the general drift of this very 
remarkable contribution to Ornithology, and it has to be 
added that for by far the greater number of hi.s minor 
groups Prof. Huxley relies solely on the form of the 
palatal structure, the importance of which Dr Cornay, as 
already stated (p. 29), had before urged, though to so little 
purpose. That the palatal structure must be taken into 
consideration by taxonomers as affording hints of some 
utility there can no longer be a doubt ; but the present 
writer is inclined to think that the characters drawn thence 
owe more of their worth to the extraordinary perspicuity 
with which they have been presented by Prof. Huxley 
than to their own intrinsic value, and that if the same 
power had been employed to elucidate in the same way 
other parts of the skeleton say the bones of the sternal 
apparatus or even of the pelvic girdle either set could 
have been made t j appear quite as instructive and perhaps 
more so. Adventitious value would therefore seem to 
have been acquired by the bones of the palate through the 
fact that so great a master of the art of exposition selected 
them as fitting examples upon which to exercise his skill. 4 
At the same time it must be stated this selection was not 
premeditated by Prof. Huxley, but forced itself upon him 
as his investigations proceeded. 5 In reply to some critical 
remarks (Ibis, 18C8, pp. 85-96), chiefly aimed at shewing 
the inexpediency of relying solely on one set of characters, 
especially when those afforded by the palatal bones were 
not, even within the limits of Families, wholly diagnostic, 
the author (Ibis, 1868, pp. 357-362) announced a slight 
modification of his original scheme, by introducing three 
more groups into it, and concluded by indicating how its 
bearings upon the great question of " Genetic Classifica 
tion " might be represented so far as the different groups 
of Carinatae are concerned : 

3 This is adapted from that given in the Record of Zoological 
Literature (iv. pp. 46-49), which is believed to have not inadequately 
represented the author s views. 

4 The notion of the superiority of the palatal bones to all others for 
purposes of classification has pleased many persons, from the fact that 
these bones are not unfrequently retained in the dried skins of Birds 
sent home by collectors in foreign countries, and are therefore available 
for study, while such bones as the sternum and pelvis are rarely pre 
served. The common practice of ordinary collectors, until at least 
very recently, has been tersely described to the present writer as being 
to "shoot a bird, take off its skin, and throw away its characters." 

5 Perhaps this may be partially explained by the fact that the 
Museum of the College of Surgeons, in which these investigations were 
chiefly carried on, like most other museums of the time, contained a 
much larger series of the heads of Birds than of their entire skeletons, 
or of any other portion of the skeleton. Consequently the materials 
available for the comparison of different forms consisted in great part 
of heads only. 



36 



ORNITHOLOGY 



Tinamomorphsp. 












Turniconiorplia-. 






1 








1 




| 




Charodriomorphe. 


Alectoromorpliae. 

1 


CVcomorplue. 


Geranomorphep. 




1 

PtlTOClO- 


ralnmedca. 








morplisB. 




Sphenisco- 
morpha?. 


Actomorplur. 




Periatero 

niorplise. 


Clienoinorplm . 






Hetero- 




AmphimorpliiE. 






morplia;. 




I 






: 




PelargomorphsB. 




Psittaco- 


Corey RO- 


JEgitho- 


Dysporo- 




morphce 


....morphie. 


gnathse. 


morphse. 



The above scheme, in Prof. Huxley s opinion, nearly re- 
j tresents the affinities of the various Carinate groups, the 
great difficulty being to determine the relations to the rest 
of the Coccygomorphy, Psittacomorphse, and jEgithognathx, 
which he indicated " only in the most doubtful and 
hypothetic fashion. " Almost simultaneously with this he 
expounded more particularly before the Zoological Society, 
in whose Proceedings (1868, pp. 294-319) his results 
were soon after published, the groups of which he believed 
the Alectoromorpkx to be composed and the relations to 
them of some outlying forms usually regarded as Gallina 
ceous, the Turnicidx and Pteroclidas, as well as the singular 
HOACTZIX (vol. xii. p. 28), for all three of which he had to 
institute new groups the last forming the sole representa 
tive of his Heteromorphte. More than this, he entered 
upon their Geographical Distribution, the facts of which 
important subject are here, almost for the first time, since 
the attempt of Blyth already mentioned, 1 brought to bear 
practically on Classification, as has been previously hinted 
(BIRDS, vol. iii. pp. 736, 737) ; but, that subject having 
been already treated at some length, there is no need to 
enter upon it here. 

Nevertheless it is necessary to mention here uhe intimate 
connexion between Classification and Geographical Dis 
tribution as revealed by the palseontological researches 
A. Milne- of Prof. ALPHOXSE MILNE-EDWARDS, whose magnificent 
Iwards. Qiseaux Fossiles de la France, began to appear in 1867, 
and was completed in 1871 the more so, since the 
exigencies of his undertaking compelled him to use 
materials that had been almost wholly neglected by other 
investigators. A large proportion of the fossil remains 
the determination and description of which was his object 
were what are very commonly called the " long bones, " that 
is to say, those of the limbs. The recognition of these, 
minute and fragmentary as many were, and the referring 
them to their proper place, rendered necessary an attentive 
study of the comparative osteology and myology of Birds 
in general, that of the "long bones," whose sole char 
acters were often a few muscular ridges or depressions, 
being especially obligatory. Hence it became manifest 
that a very respectable Classification can be found in 
which characters drawn from these bones play a rather 
important part. Limited by circumstances as is that 
followed by M. Milne-Edwards, the details of his arrange 
ment do not require setting forth here. It is enough to 
point out that we have in his work another proof of the 
multiplicity of the factors which must be taken into 
consideration by the systematist, and another proof of 
the fallacy of trusting to one set of characters alone. 
But this is not the only way in which the author has 
rendered service to the advanced student of Orni- 



1 It is true that from the time of Buffon, though lie scorned any 
regular Classification, Geographical Distribution had been occasionally 
he-Id to have something to do with systematic arrangement ; but the 
way in which the two were related was never clearly put forth, though 
people who could read between the lines might have guessed the secret 
from Darwin s Journal of Researches, as well as from his introduction 
to the Zfiolfir/y of the "7>f/<7/ " Vnyaije. 



thology. The unlooked-for discovery in France of re 
mains which he has referred to forms now existing it is 
true, but existing only in countries far removed from 
Europe, forms such as Collocalia, Leptosomus, Psittacus, 
iSerpentariw, and Trogon, is perhaps even more suggestive 
than the finding that France was once inhabited by forms 
that are wholly extinct, of which, as has been already 
mentioned (BIRDS, vol. iii. pp. 730, 731), in the older 
formations there is abundance. Unfortunately none of 
these, however, can be compared for singularity with 
ArcJi&opteryx or with some American fossil forms next to 
be noticed, for their particular bearing on our knowledge 
of Ornithology will be most conveniently treated here. 

In November 1870 Prof. MARSH, by finding the im- im 
perfect fossilized tibia of a Bird in the Middle Cretaceous 
shale of Kansas, began a series of wonderful discoveries 
which will ever be associated with his name, 2 and, making 
us acquainted with a great number of forms long since 
vanished from among the earth s inhabitants, has thrown 
a comparatively broad beam of light upon the darkness 
that, broken only by the solitary spark emitted on the 
recognition of Archesopteryx, had hitherto brooded over our 
knowledge of the genealogy of Birds, and is even now for 
the most part palpable. Subsequent visits to the same 
part of North America, often performed under circum 
stances of discomfort and occasionally of danger, brought 
to this intrepid and energetic explorer the reward he had 
so fully earned. Brief notices of his spoils appeared from 
time to time in various volumes of the American Journal 
of Science and Arts (Silliman s), but it is unnecessary here 
to refer to more than a few of them. In that Journal for 
May 1872 (ser. 3, iii. p. 360) the remains of a large 
swimming Bird (nearly 6 feet in length, as afterwards 
appeared) having some affinity, it was thought, to the 
Colymbidge, were described under the name of Hesperomis 
regalis, and a few months later (iv. p. 344) a second fossil 
Bird from the same locality was indicated as Ichthyornis 
dispar from the Fish-like, biconcave form of its vertebra^. 
Further examination of the enormous collections gathered 
by the author, and preserved in the Museum of Yale 
College at New Haven in Connecticut, shewed him that this 
last Bird, and another to which he gave the name of 
Apatornis, had possessed well-developed teeth implanted 
in sockets in both jaws, and induced him to establish (v. 
pp. 161, 162) for their reception a "Subclass" Odontor- 
nithes and an Order Ickthyarnithes, Two years more and 
the originally found Ilesperornis was discovered also to 
have teeth, but these were inserted in a groove. It was 
accordingly regarded as the type of a distinct Order 
Odontolcae (x. pp. 403-408), to which were assigned as 
other characters vertebrae of a saddle-shape and not 
biconcave, a keelless sternum, and wings consisting only 
of the humerus. In 1 880 Prof. Marsh brought out a grand 
volume, Odontornithes, being a monograph of the extinct 
toothed Birds of North America. Herein remains, attri 
buted to no fewer than a score of species, which were 
referred to eight different genera, are fully described and 
sufficiently illustrated, and, instead of the ordinal name 
Ichthyornithcs previously used, that of Odontotormse was 
proposed. In the author s concluding summary he remarks 
on the fact that, while the Odontolcse, as exhibited in 
ffespefornit, had teeth inserted in a continuous groove a 
low and generalized character as shewn by Reptiles, they 
had, however, the strongly differentiated saddle-shaped 
vertebrae such as all modern Birds possess. On the other 
hand the Odontotormse, as exemplified in Ichthyornis, having 
the primitive biconcave vertebrae, yet possessed the highly 

2 It will of course be needless to remind the general zoologist of 
Prof. Marsh s no less wonderful discoveries of wholly unlookud-for 
types of Reptiles and Mammals. 



specialized feature of teeth in distinct sockets. Hesperomis 
too, with its keelless sternum, had aborted wings but strong 
legs and feet adapted for swimming, while Ickthyomia had 
a keeled sternum and powerful wings, but diminutive legs 
and feet. These and other characters separate the two 
forms so widely as quite to justify the establishment of as 
many Orders for their reception, and the opposite nature 
of the evidence they afford illustrates one fundamental 
principle of evolution, namely, that an animal may attain 
to great development of one set of characters and at the 
same time retain other features of a low ancestral type. 
Prof. Marsh states that he had fully satisfied himself that 
Archseopteryx belonged to the Odontornithes, which he 
thought it advisable for the present to regard as a Subclass, 
separated into three Orders- Odontolcse, Odontotormse, and 
8<nirur% all well marked, but evidently not of equal rank, 
the last being clearly much more widely distinguished from 
the first two than they are from one another. But that 
these three oldest-known forms of Birds should differ so 
greatly from each other unmistakably points to a great 
antiquity for the Class. All are true Birds ; but the 
Reptilian characters they possess converge towards a more 
generalized type. He then proceeds to treat of the 
characters which may be expected to have occurred in 
their common ancestor, whose remains may yet be hoped 
for from the Palaeozoic rocks if not from the Permian beds 
that in North America are so rich in the fossils of a 
terrestrial fauna. Birds, he believes, branched off by a 
single stem, which gradually lost its Reptilian as it assumed 
the Ornithic type ; and in the existing Ratitx we have 
the survivors of this direct line. The lineal descendants 
of this primal stock doubtless at an early time attained 
feathers and warm blood, but, in his opinion, never 
acquired the power of flight, which probably originated 
among the small arboreal forms of Reptilian Birds. In 
them even rudimentary feathers on the fore-limbs would 
be an advantage, as they would tend to lengthen a leap 
from branch to branch, or break the force of a fall in leap 
ing to the ground. As the feathers increased, the body 
would become warmer and the blood more active. With 
still more feathers would come increased power of flight as 
we see in the young Birds of to-day. A greater activity 
would result in a more perfect circulation. A true Bird 
would doubtless require warm blood, but would not 
necessarily be hot-blooded, like the Birds now living. 
Whether Archge.opte.ryx was on the true Carinate line can 
not as yet be determined, and this is also true of Ichthy- 
ornis ; but the biconcave vertebra; of the latter suggest its 
being an early offshoot, while it is probable that 
Hesperomis came off from the main " Struthious " stem 
and has left no descendants. 

Bold as are the speculations above summarized, there 
seems no reason to doubt the probability of their turning 
out to be, if not the exact truth, yet something very 
like it. 

From this bright vision of the poetic past a glimpse, 
some may call it, into the land of dreams we must 
relapse into a sober contemplation of the prosaic present 
a subject quite as difficult to understand. The former 
lunde- efforts at classification made by Sundevall have already 
all> several times been mentioned, and a return to their con 
sideration was promised. In 1872 and 1873 he brought 
out at Stockholm a Methodi Natumlis Avium Disponend- 
arum Tentamen, two portions of which (those relating to 
the Diurnal Birds-of-Prey and the " Cichlomorphx," or 
forms related to the Thrushes) he found himself under the 
necessity of revising and modifying in the course of 1874, 
in as many communications to the Swedish Academy of 
Sciences (K, V.-Ak. Forhandlingar, 1874, No. 2, pp. 
21-30; No. 3, pp. 27-30). This Tentamen, containing the 



latest complete method of classifying Birds in general, has 
naturally received much attention, the more so perhaps, 
since, with its appendices, it was nearly the last labour of its 
respected author, whose industrious life came to an end in 
the course of the following year. From what has before 
been said of his works it may have been gathered that, while 
professedly basing his systematic arrangement of the groups 
of Birds on their external features, he had hitherto striven 
to make his schemes harmonize if possible with the dictates 
of internal structure as evinced by the science of anatomy, 
though he uniformly and persistently protested against the 
inside being better than the outside. In thus acting he 
proved himself a true follower of his great countryman 
| Linnaeus ; but, without disparagement of his efforts in 
this respect, it must be said that when internal and exter 
nal characters appeared to be in conflict he gave, perhaps 
with unconscious bias, a preference to the latter, for he 
belonged to a school of zoologists whose natural instinct 
was to believe that such a conflict always existed. Hence 
his efforts, praiseworthy as they were from several points 
of view, and particularly so in regard to some details, failed 
to satisfy the philosophic taxonomer when generalizations 
and deeper principles were concerned, and in his practice 
in respect of certain technicalities of classification he was, 
in the eyes of the orthodox, a transgressor. Thus instead 
of contenting himself with terms that had met with pretty 
general approval, such as Class, Subclass, Order, Sub 
order, Family, Subfamily, and so on, he introduced into 
his final scheme other designations, "Agmen," " Cohors," 
" Phalanx," and the like, which to the ordinary student of 
Ornithology convey an indefinite meaning, if any meaning 
at all. He also carried to a very extreme limit his views 
of nomenclature, which were certainly not in accordance 
with those held by most zoologists, though this is a matter 
so trifling as to need no details in illustration. It is by 
no means easy to set forth briefly, and at the same time 
intelligibly, to any but experts, the final scheme of Sunde 
vall, owing to the number of new names introduced by him, 
nevertheless the attempt must be made ; but it must be 
understood that in the following paradigm, in which his 
later modifications are incorporated, only the most remark 
able or best-known forms are cited as examples of his 
several groups, for to give the whole of them would, if any 
explanations were added, occupy far more space than the 
occasion seems to justify, and without such explanations 
the list would be of use only to experts, who would rather 
consult the original work. 

First, Sundevall would still make two grand divisions 
(" Agmina ") of Birds, even as had been done nearly forty 
years before; but, having found that the names, Altricesand 
Prsecoces, he had formerly used were not always applicable, 
or the groups thereby indicated naturally disposed, he at 
first distinguished them as Psilopsedes and Ptilopxdes. 
Then, seeing that the great similarity of these two words 
would produce confusion both in speaking and writing, he 
changed them (p. 158) into the equivalent Gymnopsedcs 
and Dasypszdes, according as the young were hatched 
naked or clothed. The Gymnopsedes are divided into two 
" Orders" seines and Volucres the former intended to 
be identical with the group of the same name established 
by older authors, and, in accordance with the observations 
of Keyserling and Blasius already mentioned, divided into 
two " Series "Laminiplantares, having the hinder part 
of the "tarsus" covered with two horny plates, and Scuttlh- 
plantares, in which the same part is scutellated. These 
Laminiplantares are composed of six Cohorts as follows : 

Cohors 1. CiMomorphie. 

Phalanx 1. Ocrcatse. 7 Families: the Nightingales standing 
first, and therefore at the head of all Birds, with the Redbreast, 
Redstart, and the American Blue-bird ; after them the Chats, 



38 



ORNITHOLOGY 



Tli rushes pro]x?r, Dippers, Water-Chats (ITcnicunis), Bush-Chats, 
and (under the name of Euchlinte) the singular group commonly 
known as Pittas or Water-Thrushes. 

Phalanx 2. Xoi cmpninatiK.S Families: Pipits, Wagtail*, 
American Fly-catching Warblers, and Australian Diamond-birds 
(Pardalotus). 

Phalanx 3. Syh-iiformes. 17 Families: divided geographi 
cally (?) into two groups the Old- World forms, and those of the 
New. The first is further broken up into three sections (a) 4 
Families with moderately long wings aud a slender bill, containing 
what may be called perhaps the normal Warblers, as the Willow- 
Wrens, Whitethroats, Sedge-birds, and others; (b) 5 Families, with 
short wings and a slender bill, what are often called by Indi.-m 
and African writers Bush-babblers (Brady ptenis, Crateropns, and 
others) ; (<) 3 Families, with a somewhat stout or blunt bill, the 
Thick-heads of some writers (Pachycephalus) and Titmouse 
Family. The second or American group comprehends 5 Families, 
Viieos, Cat-birds, Wrens (not, by the way, peculiar to America), 
and some other forms for which it is impossible to find names that 
will pass as English. 

Phalanx 4. Brachypterse. 3 Families: the short-winged Wren- 
Warblers, with long tails, of the Australian (Maliirus}, Indian, 
and Ethiopian Regions. 

Phalanx 5. Latirostres. 7 Families: the true Flycatchers 
(iluscicapa), and several others of fly-catching habits. 

Phalanx 6. Erachypodes.S Families : Waxwings, Orioles, 
Swallow- Flycatchers (Artamus), Caterpillar-catchers (Camj^haga), 
and Drongos (Dicrurus}. 

Phalanx?. Dcntirostres or Lanii formes. 2, Families : Shrikes, 
Puff-backed Shrikes. 

Phalanx 8. Subcorviformcs.l Family : Bower-birds and some 
others. 

Cohors 2. Conirostrcs. 

Phalanx 1. Decempcjina/as.B Families : Weaver-birds(PZoccws), 
Whydah-birds ( Vidua), and Hedge-Sparrows (Accentor). 

Phalanx 2. Amplipalatalea.2 Families : Grosbeaks, true 
Finches. 

Phalanx 3. Arctipalatales. 6 Families: Crossbills, Buntings, 
Rice-birds, and many hard-billed forms which are usually placed 
among the Tanagers. 

Phalanx 4. Simplicirostrcs. 4 Families : Tanagers. 
Cohors 3. Coliomorpha. 

Phalanx 1. Novompennatss. 3 Families : Crackles or American 
Starlings. 

Phalanx 2. Ifumilinarcs.! Families: True Starlings, Ox- 
peckers, Choughs. 

Phalanx 3. AUinares.% Families: Nutcrackers, Jays, Crows. 

Phalanx 4. Idiodactylie.5 Families : Crow-Shrikes, Birds-of- 
Paradise. 

Cohors 4. CferthiomorpTue. 3 Families : Tree-creepers, Nut 
hatches. 

Cohors 5. Cinnyrimorpha. 5 Families: Sun-birds, Honey- 
suckers. 

Cohors 6. Chdidonomorpfus. 1 Family: Swallows. 
The Scutelliplantarea include a much smaller number of 
forms, and, with the exception of the first " Cohort " and 
a few groups of the fourth and fifth, all are peculiar to 
America. 

Cohors 1. IIolaspidcsR. 2 Families: Larks, Hoopoes. 
Cohors 2. Endfisiiidcse. 3 Families all Neotropical: Oven-birds 
(Funtariui), Synallaxis, and the Piculules (Dendrocolaptes). 

Cohors 3. Excupidex, 4 Families: the first two separated as 
e, including the King-birds or Tyrants, of which twelve 



groups are made ; the remaining two as Syndoctylse, composed of 
the Todies and ilanakins. 

Cohors 4. Pycnnspiihie. 3 Families: Cocks-cf-the-Rock (Rupi- 
cold), to which the Indian genus C/dyptomcna, Eurylaemiis, and 
some others are supposed to be allied, the Chatterers and Fruit- 
Crows (Chasmorhynchua, Ccphalopterus, and others), as well as 
Tityra and Lijtaugiis. 

Cohors 5. Taxaspidete. 5 Families : the very singular Madagas 
car form Philepitta; the Bush-Shrikes ( Thamnophilux}, Ant-Thrushes 
(Formic/iritis), and Tapaculos (Ptcroptoclius) of the Neotropical 
Region; and tlie Australian Lyre-bird. 

"We then arrive at the Second Order Volucres, which is 
divided into two " Series." Of these the first is made to 
contain, under the name Zygodactyli, 

Cohors 1. Psittaci. 6 Families : Parrots; 

Cohors 2. Pici. 6 Families: Woodpeckers, Piculets (Picumnux), 
and Wrynecks; 

Cohors 3. CCCCJKJCS. 12 Families: divided into two groups 
(1) Altinarea, containing the Honey-Guides, Barbots, Toucans, Jaca- 
mars, Puff-birds, and the Madagascar genus Leptosomus ; and (2) 
HumUm/irex, comprising all the forms commonly known as Cucu- 
lidx, broken np, however, into three sections 



while to the second " Series" are referred, as Anisodactyli, 

Cohors 4. Ctenomorplise. 4 Families : Plantain-eaters or Toura- 
cous, Mouse-birds, Rollers, and tlio peculiar Madagascar forms 
Atelornis and Brachypteracias ; 

Cohors 5. Ampligulares.l Families : Trogons, Goatsuckers, and 
Swifts ; 

Cohors 6. Longilingucs or Mcllisncjie. 12 Families : Humming 
birds, arranged in three "Series ;" 

Cohors 7. Syndactylx. 4 Families: Bee-eaters, Motmots, King 
fishers, and Hornbills ; 

Cohors 8. Pcristcroidcsc. 3 Families : Didunculus, with the Dodo, 
Pigeons, and the Crowned Pigeons (Goum] separated from the last. 

The Dasypsedes of Sundevall are separated into six 
" Orders " ; but these will occupy us but a short while. 
The first of them, Accijritres, comprehending all the Birds- 
! of-Prey, were separated into 4 " Cohorts " in his original 
work, but these were reduced in his appendix to two 
Nyctiiarpages or Owls with 4 Families divided into 2 series, 
! and Hemeroharpages containing all the rest, and compris 
ing 10 Families (the last of which is the Seriema, 
Dicholopkus) divided into 2 groups as Rrtpaces and 
Saprophaffithe latter including the Vultures. Next 
stands the Order Gcdlinx with 4 "Cohorts" :(!) Tetraono- 
morp/tge, comprising 2 Families, the Sand-Grouse (Pteroclex) 
and the Grouse proper, among which the Central- American 
Oreophasis finds itself; (2) Phasianomorphx, with 4 
Families, Pheasants, Peacocks, Turkeys, Guinea Fowls, 
Partridges, Quails, and Hemipodes (Turnir) ; (3) Macro- 
nyches, the Megapodes, with 2 Families ; (4) the Duodecim- 
pennatx, the Curassows and Guans, also with 2 Families ; 
(5) the Stntthioniformes, composed of the Tinamous ; and 
(G) the Sitbgrallatores with 2 Families, one consisting of the 
curious South-American genera T/iinoco?"iis and Attagis and 
the other of the Sheathbill (Chionis). The Fifth Order 
(the third of the Dasypxdes) is formed by the Grallatores, 
divided into 2 "series" (1) Altinares, consisting of 2 
" Cohorts," Herodii with 1 Family, the Herons, and Pelanji 
with 4 Families, Spoonbills, Ibises, Storks, and the 
Umbre (Scopuft), with Balxniceps ; (2) Humilinares, also 
consisting of 2 " Cohorts," Limicolae with 2 Families, 
Sandpipers and Snipes, Stilts and Avocets, and Cursores 
with 8 Families, including Plovers, Bustards, Cranes, 
Rails, and all the other "Waders." The Sixth Order, 
Natdtores, consists of all the Birds that habitually swim 
and a few that do not, containing G Cohorts : 
Longipennes and Pygopodes with 3 Families each ; Toti- 
palmatse, with 1 Family ; Tulnnnres with 3 Families ; 
Impennes with 1 Family, Penguins ; and Lamellirostres 
with 2 Families, Flamingoes and Ducks. The Seventh 
Order, Process, is divided into 2 Cohorts Veri with 2 
Families, Ostriches and Emeus ; and Subnobiles, consisting 
of the genus Aptcryx. The Eighth Order is formed by 
the Snururce. 

Such then is Sundevall s perfected system, which has in 
various quarters been so much praised, and has been 
partially recognized by so many succeeding writers, that 
it would have been impossible to pass it over here, though 
the present writer is confident that the best-informed 
ornithologists will agree with him in thinking that the com 
pilation of the above abstract has been but so much waste 
of time, and its insertion here but so much waste of space. 
Without, however, some such abstract its shortcomings 
could not be made apparent, and it will be seen to 
what little purpose so many able men have laboured if 
arrangement and grouping so manifestly artificial the 
latter often of forms possessing no real affinity can pass 
as a natural method. We should be too sanguine to hope 
that it may be the last of its kind, yet any one accustomed 
to look deeper than the surface must see its numerous 
defects, and almost every one, whether so accustomed or 
not, ought by its means to be brought to the conclusion 
that, when a man of Sundevall s knowledge and experience 



ORNITHOLOGY 



39 



could not, by trusting only to external characters, do better 
than this, the most convincing proof is afforded of the 
inability of external characters alone to produce anything 
save ataxy. The principal merits it possesses are con 
fined to the minor arrangement of some of the Oscines ; 
but even here many of the alliances, such, for instance, 
as that of Pitta with the true Thrushes, are indefensible 
on any rational grounds, and some, as that of Accentor 
with the Weaver-birds and Whydah-birds, verge upon the 
ridiculous, while on the other hand the interpolation of 
the American Fly-catching Warblers, Mniotiltidx, between 
the normal Warblers of the Old World and the Thrushes is 
as bad especially when the genus Mniotilta is placed, not 
withstanding its different wing-formula, with the Tree- 
creepers, Certhiidse. The whole work unfortunately betrays 
throughout an utter want of the sense of proportion. In 
many of the large groups the effect of very slight differ 
ences is to keep the forms exhibiting them widely apart, 
while in most of the smaller groups differences of far 
greater kind are overlooked, so that the forms which 
present them are linked together in more or less close 
union. Thus, regarding only external characters, great 
as is the structural distinction between the Gannets, 
Cormorants, Frigate-birds, and Pelicans, it is not held to 
remove them from the limits of a single Family; and yet 
the Thrushes and the Chats, whose distinctions are barely 
sensible, are placed in separate Families, as are also the 
Chats and the Nightingales, wherein no structural distinc 
tions at all can be traced. Again, even in one and the 
same group the equalization of characters indicative of 
Families is wholly neglected. Thus among the Pigeons 
the genera Didus and Didunculus, which differ, so far as 
we know it, in every external character of their structure, 
are placed in one Family, and yet on the slightest pre 
text the genus Goura, which in all respects so intimately 
resembles ordinary Pigeons, is set apart as the represen 
tative of a distinct Family. The only use of dwelling 
upon these imperfections here is the hope that thereby 
students of Ornithology may be induced to abandon the 
belief in the efficacy of external characters as a sole means 
of classification, and, by seeing how unmanageable they 
become unless checked by internal characters, be per 
suaded of the futility of any attempt to form an arrange 
ment without that solid foundation which can only be 
obtained by a knowledge of anatomy. Where Sundevall 
failed no one else is likely to succeed; for he was a man 
gifted with intelligence of a rare order, a man of cultiva 
tion and learning, one who had devoted his whole life to 
science, who had travelled much, studied much and 
reflected much, a man whose acquaintance with the 
literature of his subject probably exceeded that of any of 
his contemporaries, and a man whose linguistic attainments 
rendered him the envy of his many friends. Yet what 
should have been the crowning work of his long life is one 
that all who respected him, and that comprehends all who 
knew him, must regret. 

larrod Of the very opposite kind was the work of the two men 
111( 1 next to be mentioned GARROD and FORBES both cut 
short in a career of promise * that among students of 
Ornithology has rarely been equalled and perhaps never 
surpassed. The present writer finds it difficult to treat of 
the labours of two pupils and friends from whose assistance 
he had originally hoped to profit in the preparation of this 
very article, the more so that, while fully recognizing the 
brilliant nature of some of their researches, he is compelled 
very frequently to dissent from the conclusions at which 

1 Alfred Henvy Garrod, Prosector to the Zoological Society of 
London, died of consumption in 1879, aged thirty-three. His successor 
in that office, William Alexander Forbes, fell a victim to the deadly 
climate of the Niger in 1883, and in his twenty-eighth year. 



they arrived, deeming them to have often been of a kind 
that, had their authors survived to a maturer age, they 
would have greatly modified. Still he well knows that 
learners are mostly wiser than their teachers ; and, making 
due allowance for the haste with which, from the exigencies 
of the post they successively held, their investigations had 
usually to be published, he believes that much of the 
highest value underlies even the crudest conjectures con 
tained in their several contributions to Ornithology. 
Putting aside the monographical papers by which each of 
them followed the excellent example set by their predecessor 
in the office they filled Dr MURIE 2 and beginning with 
Garrod s, 3 those having a more general scope, all published 
in the Zoological Society s Proceedings, may be briefly con 
sidered. Starting from the level reached by Prof. Huxley, 
the first attempt made by the younger investigator was in 
1873, " On the value in Classification of a Peculiarity in 
the anterior margin of the Nasal Bones in certain Birds." 
Herein he strove to prove that Birds ought to be divided 
into two Subclasses one, called " Holorhinal," in which a 
straight line drawn transversely across the hindmost points 
of the external narial apertures passes in front of the 
posterior ends of the nasal processes of the prsemaxillae, 
and the other, called " Schizorhinal, " in which such a line 
passes behind those processes. If this be used as a 
criterion, the validity of Prof. Huxley s group Schizognathx 
is shaken ; but there is no need to enlarge upon the pro 
posal, for it was virtually abandoned by its author within 
little more than a twelvemonth. The next subject in con 
nexion with Systematic Ornithology to which Garrod 
applied himself was an investigation of the Carotid 
Arteries, and here, in the same year, he made a consider 
able advance upon the labours of Nitzsch, as might well 
be expected, for the opportunities of the latter were very 
limited, and he was only able, as we have seen (page 22), 
to adduce four types of structure in them, while Garrod, 
with the superior advantages of his situation, raised the 
number to six. Nevertheless he remarks that their " dis 
position has not much significance among Birds, there 
being many Families in which, whilst the majority of the 
species have two, some have only one carotid." The 
exceptional cases cited by him are quite sufficient to prove 
that the condition of this artery has nearly no value from 
the point of view of general classification. If relied upon 
it would split up the Families Bucerotidse, and Cypselidx, 
which no sane person would doubt to be homogeneous and 
natural. The femoral vessels formed another subject of 
investigation, and were found to exhibit as much 
exceptional conformation as those of the neck for instance 
in Centropus phasianus, one of the Birds known as Coucals, 
the femoral artery accompanies the femoral vein, though 
it does not do so in another species of the genus, C. 
rufipennis, nor in any other of the Cuculidx (to which 
Family the genus Centropus has been always assigned) 
examined by Garrod. Nor are the results of the very 
great labour which he bestowed upon the muscular con 
formation of the thigh in Birds any more conclusive when 
they come to be impartially and carefully considered. 
Myology was with him always a favourite study, and he 

2 Dr Mnrie s chief papers having a direct hearing on Systematic Murie. 
Ornithology are: in the Zoological Society s Transactions (vii. p. 465), 

" On the Dermal and Visceral Structures of the Kagn, Sun-Bittern, and 
Boatbill"; in the same Society s Proceedings (1871, p. 647) "Addi 
tional Notice concerning the Powder-Downs of Rhinochetus jubatus," 
(1872, p. 664) "On the Skeleton of Todus with remarks as to its 
Allies," (1879, p. 552) "On the Skeleton and Lineage of Frcgilupus 
varius" ; in The Ibis (1872, p.262) " On the genus Col his," (1872, 
p. 383) " Motmots and their affinities," (1873, p. 181) "Relationships 
of the Upupidce." 

3 Garrod s Scientific Pa2)ers have been collected and published in a 
memorial volume, edited by Forbes. There is therefore no need to dve 
a list of them here. Fcrbes s papers are to be edited by Prof. F. J. iiull. 



40 



OKNITHOLOGY 



may be not unreasonably supposed to have a strong feeling 
as to its efficacy for systematic ends. It was in favour of 
an arrangement based upon the muscles of the thigh, and 
elaborated by him in 1874, that he gave up the arrange 
ment he had published barely more than a year before 
based upon the conformation of the nostrils. Neverthe 
less it appears that even the later of the two methods did 
not eventually content him, and this was only to be 
expected, though he is said by Forbes (/6w, 1881, p. 28) 
to have remained " satisfied to the last as to the natural 
ness of the two main groups into which he there divided 
birds" Homalogonatx and Anomalogonatse. The key to 
this arrangement lay in the presence or absence of the 
ambiens muscle, " not because of its own intrinsic import 
ance, but because its presence is always associated with 
peculiarities in other parts never found in any Anomalo- 
gonatous bird. Garrod thought that so great was the 
improbability of the same combination of three or four 
different characters (such as an accessory femoro-caudal 
muscle, a tufted oil-gland, and ca^ca) arising independently 
in different Birds that similar combinations of characters 
could only be due to blood-relationship. The ingenuity 
with which he found and expressed these combinations of 
characters is worthy of all praise ; the regret is that time 
was wanting for him to think out all their consequences, 
and that he did not take also into account other and 
especially osteological characters. Every osteologist must 
recognize that the neglect of these makes Garrod s proposed 
classification as unnatural as any that had been previously 
drawn up, and more unnatural than many. So much is 
this the case that, with the knowledge we have that ere 
his death he had already seen the need of introducing 
some modifications into it, its reproduction here, even 
in the briefest abstract possible, would not be advisable. 
Two instances, however, of its failure to shew natural 
affinities or differences may be cited. The first Order 
G al/iformes of his Subclass Homalogonatx is made to 
consist of three "Cohorts" Strutkiones, Galliiiacese, and 
Psittaci a somewhat astonishing alliance ; but even if 
that be allowed to pass, we find the second "Cohort" 
composed of the Families Palamedeidx, Gallinse., Rallid.se, 
Otididse, (containing two Subfamilies, the Bustards and the 
Flamingoes), Musophagidsn, and Cuculidie. Again the 
Subclass Anomalogonatx includes three Orders Pici- 
formes, Passeriformes, and Cypseliformes a preliminary to 
which at first sight no exception need be taken ; but 
immediately we look into details we find the Alcedinidx 
placed in the first Order and the Meropidx in the second, 
together with the Passeres and a collection of Families 
almost every feature in the skeleton of which points to a 
separation. Common sense revolts at the acceptance of 
any scheme which involves so many manifest incongruities. 
With far greater pleasure we would leave these investiga 
tions, and those on certain other muscles, as well as on the 
Disposition of the deep plantar Tendons, and dwell upon 
his researches into the anatomy of the Passerine Birds 
with the view to their systematic arrangement. Here he 
was on much safer ground, and it can hardly be doubted 
that his labours will stand the test of future experience, for, 
though it may be that all his views will not meet with 
ultimate approval, he certainly made the greatest advance 
since the days of Miiller, to the English translation of 
whose classical work he added (as already mentioned) an 
excellent appendix, besides having already contributed to 
the Zoological Proceedings between 1876 and 1878 four 
memoirs replete with observed facts which no one can 
gainsay. As his labours were continued exactly on the 
same lines by Forbes, who, between 1880 and 1882, 
published in the same journal six more memoirs on the 
subject, it will be convenient here to state generally, and 



in a combined form, the results arrived at by these two 
investigators. 

Instead of the divisions of Passerine Birds instituted by 
Miiller, Garrod and Forbes having a wider range of experi 
ence consider that they have shewn that the Passeres con 
sist of two primary sections, which the latter named 
respectively Desmodactyli and Eleutkerodactyli, from the 
facts discovered by the former that in the JSurylsemidse, or 
Broadbills, a small Family peculiar to some parts of the 
Indian Region, and consisting of some nine or ten species 
only, there is a strong band joining the muscles of the 
hind toe exactly in the same way as in many Families 
that are not Passerine, and hence the name Desmodactyli, 
while in all other Passerines the hind toe is free. 
This point settled, the Eleutlierodadyli form two great 
divisions, according to the structure of their vocal 
organs ; one of them, roughly agreeing with the Cla- 
matores of some writers, is called Mesomyodi, and the 
other, corresponding in the main, if not absolutely, with 
the Oscines, Polymyodi, or true Passeres of various authors, 
is named Acromyodi " an Acromyodian bird being one in 
which the muscles of the syrinx are attached to the 
extremities of the bronchial semi-rings, a Mesomyodian 
bird being one in which the muscles of the syrinx join the 
semi-rings in their middle." Furthermore, each of these 
groups is subdivided into two : the Acromyodi into 
"normal" and "abnormal," of which more presently; the 
Mesomyodi into Homceomeri and Heteromeri, according as 
the sciatic or the femoral artery of the thigh is developed 
the former being the usual arrangement among Birds 
and the latter the exceptional. Under the head Hetero 
meri come only two Families the Cotingidse. (Chatterers) 
and Pipridx (MANAKINS, vol. xv. p. 455) of most orni 
thologists, but these Garrod was inclined to think should 
not be considered distinct. The Homoeomeri form a larger 
group, and are at once separable, on account of the struc 
ture of their vocal organs, into Tracheophons& (practically 
equivalent to the Tracheophones of Miiller) and Haploo- 
pkonse (as Garrod named them) the last being those 
Passeres which were by Miiller erroneously included among 
his Picarii, namely, the Tyrannidoe (see KING-BIRD, vol. 
xiv. p. 80) with Bupicola, the Cocks-of-the-Rock. To these 
are now added Families not examined by him, but 
subsequently ascertained by Forbes to belong to the same 
group, Pittidae, Philepiltidse, and Xenicidx (more pro 
perly perhaps to be called Acanthisittidai), and it is 
remarkable that these last three Families are the only 
members of the Mesomyodi which are not peculiar to 
the New World nay more, if we except the Tyrannidx, 
which in North America occur chiefly as migrants, 
not peculiar to the Neotropical Region. The Tracheo- 
phonse are held to contain five Families Furnariidss 
Oven-birds), Pteroptochidss (TAPACULOS, q.v.), Dendro- 
colaptidx (Piculules), Conopophagidse, and Formicariidx 
(Ant-Thrushes). Returning now to the Acromyodi, 
which include, it has just been said, a normal and an 
abnormal section, the latter consists of birds agreeing 
in the main, though not absolutely, as to the structure of 
the syrinx with that of tike former, yet differing so con 
siderably in their osteology as to be most justifiably 
separated. At present only two types of these abnormal 
Acromyodi are known Menura (the LYRE-BIRD, vol. xv. 
p. 115) and Atrichia (the SCRUB-BIRD, q.v.}, both from 
Australia, while all the remaining Passeres, that is to say, 
incomparably the greater number of Birds in general, belong 
to the normal section. Thus the whole scheme of the 
Passeres, 1 as worked out by Garrod and Forbes, can be 



1 It is right to observe that this scheme was not a little aided by a 
consideration of palatal characters, as well as from the disposition of 
some of the tendons of the wing-muscles. 



RNITHOLOGY 



41 



briefly expressed as below; and this expression, so far as 
it goes, is probably very near the truth, though for 
simplicity s sake some of the intermediate group-names 
might perhaps be omitted : 

PASSERES, 

ELEUT HEROD A CT YLI, 
ACROMYODI, 

NOKMALES, 

ABNOUMALES, Mcnura, Atricliia, 
MESOMYODI, 

HOMCEOMEIU, 

Traclieophona?, 

Furnariidne, Pteroptochidie, Dcndrocolaptidw, Conopo- 

phagtdce, Formicariidx. 
Haploophona?, 

Tyrannidae, Rupicola, Pittidx, Philepittidee, Xcnicidiv. 
HETEROMERI, Cotingidee, Pipridae. 
DESMODACTYLI, 
EurylasmidK. 

It will be seen that no attempt is here made to separate 
the Normal Acromyodians into Families. Already, in The 

Wallace. Ibis for 1874 (pp. 406-416), Mr WALLACE had published a 
plan, which, with two slight modifications that were mani 
festly improvements, he employed two years later in his 
great work on The Geographical Distribution of Animals, 
and this included a method of arranging the Families of 
this division. Being based, however, wholly on alar char 
acters, it has of course a great similarity to the schemes of 
Dr Cabanis and of Sundevall, and, though simpler than 
either of those, there is no need here to enter much into 
its details. The Birds which would fall under the category 
of Garrod s Acromyodi normales are grouped in three 
series : A. " Typical or Turdoid Passeres" having a wing 
with ten primaries, the first of which is always more or 
less markedly reduced in size, and to this 21 Families are 
allotted ; B. " Tanagroid Passeres" having a wing with 
nine primaries, the first of which is fully developed and 
usually very long, and containing 10 Families; and C. 
" Sturnoid Passeres" having a wing with ten primaries, the 
first of which is " rudimentary," with only 4 Families. 
The remaining Families, 10 in number, Avhich are not nor 
mally acromyodian are grouped as Series D. and called 
" Formicaroid Passeres." 

clater. In The Ibis for 1 880 (pp. 340-350, 399-411) Mr SCLATER 
made a laudable attempt at a general arrangement of 
Birds, 1 trying to harmonize the views of ornithotomists 
with those taken by the ornithologists who only study the 
exterior ; but, as he explained, his scheme is really that of 
Prof. Huxley reversed, with some slight modifications 
mostly consequent on the recent researches of Prof. Parker 
and of Garrod, and (he might have added) a few details 
derived from his own extensive knowledge of the Class. 
Adopting the two Subclasses Carinafss and Ratitx, he 
recognized 3 " Orders " as forming the latter and 23 the 
former a number far exceeding any that had of late years 
met with the approval of ornithologists. It is certainly 
difficult in the present state of our knowledge to get on 
with much fewer groups ; whether we call them " Orders " 
or not is immaterial. First of them comes the Passeres, 
of which Mr Sclater would make four Suborders:- (1) 
the Acromyodi normales of Garrod under the older name 
of Oscines, to the further subdivision of which we must 
immediately return ; (2) under Prof. Huxley s term 
Oligomyodi, all the Haploophonx, Heteromeri, and Desmo- 
dfictyli of Garrod, comprehending 8 Families Oxyrhamph- 
idse, 2 Tyrannidx, Pipridy, Cotingidse, Phytotomidse,- 
Pittidx, Philepittidx, and Eurylsemidx ; 3 (3) Tracheophonse, 

1 An abstract of this was read to the British Association at Swansea 
iu the same year, and may be found in its Report (pp. 606-609). 

2 Not recognized by Garrod. 

3 To these Mr Sclater would now doubtless add Forbes s Xenlcidtr. 



containing the same groups as in the older scheme, but here 
combined into 3 Families only Dendrocolaptidw, Formi- 
cariidx, and Pteroptochidx ; and (4) the Acromyodi abnor- 
males of Garrod, now elevated to the rank of a Suborder 
and called Pseudoscines.^ With regard to the Acromyodi 
normales or Oscines, Mr Sclater takes what seems to be 
quite the most reasonable view, when he states that they 
" are all very closely related to one another, and, in reality, 
form little more than one group, equivalent to other so- 
called families of birds," going on to remark that as there 
are some 4700 known species of them "it is absolutely 
necessary to subdivide them," and finally proceeding to do 
this nearly on the method of Sundevall s Tentamen (see 
above pp. 37, 38), merely changing the names and position 
of the groups in accordance with a plan of his own set 
forth in the Nomendator Avium Neotropicalium, which 
he and Mr Salvin printed in 1873, making, as did 
Sundevall, two divisions (according as the hind part of the 
" tarsus " is plated or scaled), A. Lamini plantar es and B. 
Scutiplantares but confining the latter to the Alaudidx 
alone, since the other Families forming Sundevall s 
Scutelliplantares are not Oscinian, nor all even Passerine. 
The following table shews the comparative result of the 
two modes as regards the Laminiplantares, and, since the 
composition of the Swedish author s groups was explained 
at some length, may be found convenient by the reader : 

Mr Sclater, 1880. Sundevall, 1872-73. 

1. DentirostiTS, 5 practically equal to 1. Cichlomorphffi. 

2. Latirostres, 5 6. Chelidonomorphffi. 



4. Certhiomorphse." 

5. Cinnyrimorphte. 

2. Conirostres. 

3. Coliomorplise. 



3. Curvirostres, 

4. Tenuirostres, 

5. Oonirostres, 

6. Cultriiostres, 

These six groups Mr Sclater thinks may be separated 
without much difficulty, though on that point the proceed 
ings of some later writers (a notable instance of which he 
himself cites) shew that doubt may still be entertained ; 
but he rightly remarks that, " when we come to attempt 
to subdivide them, there is room for endless varieties of 
opinion as to the nearest allies of many of the forms," and 
into further details he does not go. It will be perceived 
that, like so many of his predecessors, he accords the 
highest rank to the Dentirostres, which, as has before been 
hinted, seems to be a mistaken view that must be con 
sidered in the sequel. 

Leaving the Passeres, the next " Order " is Picarise, of 
which Mr Sclater proposes to make six Suborders :(!) 
Pici, the Woodpeckers, with 2 Families; (2) Cypseli, with 
3 Families, 7 practically equal to the Macrochires of Nitzsch ; 
(3) Anisodactylx, with 12 Families Collides (MOUSE-BIRD, 
vol. xvii. p. 6), Alcedinidse (KINGFISHER, vol. xiv. p. 
81), Bucerotidae, (HORNBILL, vol. xii. p. 169), Upupidx 
(HOOPOE, vol. xii. p. 154), Irrisoridse, Meropidee, Momotidae 
(MoTMOT, vol. xvii. p. 3), Todidse, (ToDY, q.v.), Coraciidae 
(ROLLER, q.v.), Leptosomidx, Podargidse, and Steatornitkidse 
(GUACHARO, vol. xi. p. 227) ; (4) Heterodactylx, consist 
ing only of the TROGONS (q.v.) ; (5) Zygodactylx with 5 
Families, Galbulidse, (JACAMAR, vol. xiii. p. 531), Bucconidse, 
(PUFF-BIRD, q.v.), Rhamjihastidx (TOUCAN, q.v.), Capitonidx, 
and Indicatoridx (HONEY-GUIDE, vol. xii. p. 139) ; and (6) 
Coccyges, composed of the two Families Cuculidne and 
Musophagidse,. That all these may be most conveniently 



4 A term unhappily of hybrid origin, and therefore one to which 
purists may take exception. 

5 These are not equivalent to Sundevall s groups of the same names. 

6 Mr Sclater (p. 348) inadvertently states that no species of 
Sundevall s Certhiomorphte is found in the New World, having 
omitted to notice that in the Tentamen (pp. 46, 47) the genera 
Mniotilta (peculiar to America) as well as Certhia and Sitta are 
therein placed. 

7 Or 2 only, the position of the Caprimvlgidse being left un 
decided, but in 1883 (see next note) put here. 

XVIII. 6 



42 



ORNITHOLOGY 



associated under the name Picarix seems likely enough, 
and the first two " Suborders" are probably natural groups, 
though possibly groups of different value. In regard to 
the rest comment is for the present deferred. The Psittaci, 
Stnijfs, and Accipitres, containing respectively the PARROTS 
(q.v), OWLS (?.? .), and diurnal Birds-of Prey, form the next 
three " Orders " the last being held to include 3 Families. 
Falconidx, Cuthurtidae, and SerpentariidsR, which is perhaps 
the best that can be done with them the difficult question 
as to the position of Curiama (SERIEMA, q.v.) being 
decided against the admission of that form to the last 
Family, notwithstanding its remarkable resemblance to 
Strpentarius (SECRETARY-BIRD, q.v.). We have then the 
Ster/annpodes to make the Sixth " Order," consisting of the 
5 Families usually grouped together as by Brandt (supra, 
p. 25) and others, and these are followed naturally enough 
by the HERONS (vol. xi. p. 760) under the name of 
Heroiliones, to which the 3 Families Ardeidx, Ciconiidx 
(STORK, q.v.), and Pldtaleidx (SPOONBILL, q.v.) are referred; 
but the FLAMINGOES (vol. ix. p. 286), under Prof. Huxley s 
title Odmitoylosstf, form a distinct " Order." The Ninth 
" Order " is now erected for the Palamedeee (SCREAMER, 
q.v.), which precede the Anseres a group that, disen 
cumbered from both the last two, is eminently natural, and 
easily dealt with. A great break then occurs, and the 
new series is opened by the Eleventh " Order," Cohimbee, 
with 3 Families, Carpnphayidx, Columbidse, and Gourid&, 
" or perhaps a fourth," Didunculidee, 1 the DODOS (vol. vii. 
p. 321) being "held to belong to quite a separate section 
of the order." The Twelfth " Order " is formed by the 
Pterocletes, the Sand-Grouse ; and then we have the very 
natural group Gcdlinx ranking as the Thirteenth. The 
next two are the Opisthocomi and Ilemipodii for the 
HOACTZIN (vol. xii. p. 28) and the Turnicidx (often 
known as Button-Quails) respectively, to which follow as 
Sixteenth and Seventeenth the Fulicarix and Aledorides 
the former consisting of the Families Rallidx (RAIL, q.v.) 
and Heliornithidse., and the latter of what seems to be a 
very heterogeneous compound of 6 Families Aramidx, 
Eurypygida (SriN BITTERN, q<v.), Gruidx (CRANE, vol. vi. 
p. 546), Psop/mdx (TRUMPETER, 7. v.), Cariamidx (SERIEMA, 
q.v.), and Otididx - (BUSTARD, vol. iv. p. 578). It is con 
fessedly very puzzling to know how these varied types, or 
some of them at least, should be classed ; but the need for the 
establishment of this group, and especially the insertion in 
it of certain forms, is not explained by the author. Then 
we have " Orders " Eighteen and Nineteen, the Limwolx, 
with 6 Families, and Gavise, consisting only of Laridie(GuL L, 
vol. xi. p. 274), which taken in their simplest condition do 
not present much difficulty. The last are followed by 
Tubinares, the PETRELS (q.v.), and these by Pygopodes, to 
which only 2 Families Colyiitbidse, (DiVER, vol. vii. p. 292) 
and Alcidx are allowed the GREBES (vol. xi. p. 79) being 
included in the former. The Impennes or PENGUINS (q.v.) 
form the Twenty-second, and TINAMOUS (q.v.) as Crypturi 
complete the Carinate Subclass. For the Ratitse only 
three "Orders" are allotted Apteryges, Casuarii, and 
Struthionea, 

As a whole it is impossible not to speak well of the 
scheme thus sketched out ; nevertheless it does seem in 
some parts to be open to amendment, though the task of 
attempting to suggest any modifications of it by way of 
improvement is one that the present writer approaches 
with reluctance and the utmost diffidence. Yet the task, 
it appears, must be undertaken. From the preceding 

1 In the eighth edition of the List of Vertebratrd Animals in the 
Zoological Gardens, which, being published in 1883, may be taken as 
expressing Mr Sclater s latest views, the first two Families only are 
recognized, the last two being placed under Colvmbidse. 

2 Wrongly spelt Otidiv. 



pages, recounting the efforts of many system-makers 
good, bad, and indifferent it will have been seen what a 
very great number and variety of characters need to be had 
in remembrance while planning any scheme that will at 
all adequately represent the results of the knowledge 
hitherto attained, and the best lesson to be learnt from 
them is that our present knowledge goes but a very little 
way in comparison with what we, or our successors, may 
hope to reach in years to come. Still we may feel pretty 
confident that we are on the right track, and, moreover, 
that here and there we can plant our feet on firm ground, 
however uncertain, not to say treacherous, may be the 
spaces that intervene. Now that geographical exploration 
has left so small a portion of the earth s surface unvisited, 
we cannot reasonably look for the encountering of new 
forms of ornithic life that, by revealing hitherto unknown 
stepping stones, will quicken our course or effectively point 
out our path. Indeed, as a matter of fact, the two most 
important and singular types of existing Birds Balaeniceps 
and Rhinochetns that in later years have rewarded the 
exertions of travelling naturalists, have proved rather 
sources of perplexity than founts of inspiration. Should 
fortune favour ornithologists in the discovery of fossil 
remains, they will unquestionably form the surest guide to 
our faltering steps ; but experience forbids us to expect 
much aid from this quarter, however warmly we may wish 
for it, and the pleasure of any discovery of the kind would 
be enhanced equally by its rarity as by its intrinsic worth. 
However, it is now a well accepted maxim in zoology that 
the mature forms of the past are repeated in the immature 
forms of the present, and that, where Palaeontology fails to 
instruct us, Embryology may be trusted to no small extent 
to supply the deficiency. Unhappily the embryology of 
Birds has been as yet very insufficiently studied. We have 
indeed embryological memoirs of a value that can scarcely 
be rated too highly, but almost all are of a monographic 
character. They are only oases in a desert of ignorance, 
and a really connected and continuous series of investiga 
tions, such as the many morphological laboratories, now 
established in various countries, would easily render 
possible, has yet to be instituted. No methodical attempt 
at this kind of work seems to have been made for nearly 
half a century, and, with the advantage of modern 
appliances, no one can justifiably doubt the success of a 
renewal of such an attempt any more than he can possibly 
foresee the precise nature of the revelations that would 
come of it. 

The various schemes for classifying Birds set forth by the authors 
of general text-books of Zoology do not call for any particular 
review here, as almost without exception they are so drawn up as 
to be rather of the nature of a compromise than of a harmony. 
The best and most notable is perhaps that by Prof. CARVS in 18(!8 
(Handluch dcr Zoologie, i. pp. 191-368) ; but it is of course now 
antiquated. The worst scheme is one of the most recent, that by 
Prof. CI.AUS in 1882 (Grundzilye dcr Zooloyic, ii. pp. 318-388). Of 
most other similar text-books that have come under the writer s 
notice, especially those issued in the United Kingdom, the less 
said the better. It is unfortunate that neither Prof. Gegenbaur 
nor the late Prof. F. M. Balfour should have turned their attention 
to this matter ; but an improvement may be expected from Dr 
Gadow, who is engaged in completing the ornithological portion 
of Bronn s Thicrreieh, so long left unfinished. 

Birds are animals so similar to Reptiles in all the most Relatio: 
essential features of their organization that they may be of Rini! 
said to be merely an extremely modified and aberrant t ?j C * 
Reptilian type. These are almost the very words of Prof. 
Huxley twenty years ago, 3 and there are now but few 
zoologists to dissent from his statement, which by another 
man of science has been expressed in a phrase even more 

3 Lectures on the Elements of Comparative Anatomy, p. 69; see also 
Carus, Handbuch der Zo<~>lo<jie.. i. p. 192. 



ORNITHOLOGY 



pithy -"Birds are only glorified Reptiles." It is not 
intended here to enter upon their points of resemblance 
and differences. These may be found summarized with 
more or less accuracy in any text-book of zoology. We 
shall content ourselves by remarking that by the naturalist 
just named Birds and Reptiles have been brigaded together 
under the name of Sauropsida as forming one of the three 
primary divisions of the Vertebrata the other two being 
Ichtkyopsida and Mammalia. Yet Birds have a right to 
be considered a Class, and as a Class they have become so 
wholly differentiated from every other group of the Animal 
Kingdom that, among recent and even the few fossil forms 
known to us, there is not one about the assignation of 
which any doubt ought now to exist, though it is right to 
state that some naturalists have even lately refused a place 
among Aves to the singular Archxopteryx, of which the 
remains of two individuals most probably belonging to 
as many distinct forms 1 have been discovered in the 
quarries of Solenhofen in Bavaria. Yet one of them has 
been referred, without much hesitation, by Prof. Vogt to 
the Class Reptilia on grounds which seem to be mistaken, 
since it was evidently in great part if not entirely clothed 
with feathers. 2 The peculiar structure of Archceopteryx 
has already been briefly mentioned and partly figured in 
this work (BiEDS, vol. iii. p. 728-9), and, while the present 
writer cannot doubt that its Bird-like characters predomin 
ate over those which are obviously Reptilian, he will not 
venture to declare more concerning its relations to other 
Birds, and accordingly thinks it advisable to leave the 
genus as the sole representative as yet known of the Sub 
class Saurursef established for its reception by Prof. 
Hiickel, trusting that time may shew whether this pro 
visional arrangement will be substantiated. The great use 
of the discovery of Archxopteryx to naturalists in general 
is well known to have been the convincing testimony it 
afforded as to what is well called " the imperfection of the 
Geological Record." To ornithologists in particular its 
chief attraction is the evidence it furnishes in proof of the 
evolution of Birds from Reptiles; though, as to the group 
of the latter from which the former may have sprung, it 
tells us little that is not negative. It throws, for instance, 
the Pterodactyls so often imagined to be nearly related to 
Birds, if not to be their direct ancestors completely out 
of the line of descent. Next to this its principal advan 
tage is to reveal the existence at so early an epoch of Birds 
with some portions of their structure as highly organized 
as the highest of the present day, a fact witnessed by its 
foot, which, so far as can be judged by its petrified relics, 

1 See Prof. Seeley s remarks on the differences between the two 
specimens, in the Geological Magazine for October 1881. 

2 Prof. Vogt lays much stress on the absence of feathers from certain 
parts of the body of the second example of Archxopteryx now, thanks 
to Dr Werner Siemens, in the museum of Berlin. But Prof. Vogt 
himself shews that the parts of the body devoid of feathers are also 
devoid of skin. Now it is well known that amongst most existing 
Birds the ordinary "contour-feathers" have their origin no deeper 
than the skin, and thus if that decayed and were washed away the 
feathers growing upon it would equally be lost. This has evidently 
happened (to judge from photographs) to the Berlin specimen just 
as to that which is in London. In each case, as Sir R. Owen most 
rightly suggested of the latter, the remains exactly call to mind the 
very familiar relics of Birds found on a seashore, exposed perhaps for 
weeks or even months to the wash of the tides so as to lose all but the 
deeply-seated feathers, and finally to be embedded in the soft soil. 
Prof. Vogt s paper is in the Revue Scienfifique, ser. 2. ix. p. 241, and 
an English translation of it in The Ibis for 1880, p. 434. 

3 Prof. Ha ekel seems first to have spelt this word Sauriurie,, in 
which form it appears in his Attgemeine Entwickelungeschichte der 
Organismen, forming the second volume of his Generelle Morpholoyie 
{pp. xi. and cxxxix. ), published at Berlin in 1866, though on plate 
vii. of the same volume it appears as Sauriuri. Whether the masculine 
or feminine termination be preferred matters little, though the latter 
is come into general use, but the interpolation of the i in the middle of 
the word appears to be against all the laws of orthography. 



might well be that of a modern Crow. The fossil remains 
of many other Birds, for example Prof. SEELEY S Enaliornis 
(Quart, Journ. Geol. Society, 187G, pp. 496-512), Sir R. 
OWEN S Odontopteryx (BIRDS, vol. iii. p. 729), Gastorms, 
Prof. COPE S Diatryma (Proc. Acad. N. Sc. Philadelphia, 
April 1876), and some more, are too fragmentary to serve 
the purposes of the systematist ; but the grand discoveries 
of Prof. Marsh, spoken of above, afford plentiful hints as 
to the taxonomy of the Class, and their bearing deserves 
the closest consideration. First of all we find that, while Antiquity 
Birds still possess the teeth they had inherited from their of the 
Reptilian ancestors, two remarkable and very distinct types * 
of the Class had already made their appearance, and we ^ r i mite 
must note that these two types are those which persist at types. 
the present day, and even now divide the Class into 
Ratitse and Carinatse, the groups whose essentially distinct 
characters were recognized by Merrem. Furthermore, 
while the Ratite type (Hesperornis) presents the kind of 
teeth, arrayed in grooves, which indicate (in Reptiles at 
least) a low morphological rank, the Carinate type (Ich- 
thyornis) is furnished with teeth set in sockets, and shew 
ing a higher development. On the other hand this early 
Carinate type has vertebrae whose comparatively simple, 
biconcave form is equally evidence of a rank unquestion 
ably low ; but the saddle-shaped vertebrae of the con 
temporary Ratite type as surely testify to a more exalted 
position. Reference has been already made to this com 
plicated if not contradictory state of things, the true 
explanation of which seems to be out of reach at present. 
It has been for some time a question whether the Ratite 
is a degraded type descended from the Carinate, or the 
Carinate a superior development of the Ratite type. 
Several eminent zoologists have declared themselves in 
favour of the former probability, and at first sight most 
people would be inclined to decide with them ; for, on this 
hypothesis, the easiest answer to the question would be 
found. But the easiest answer is not always the true one ; 
and to the present writer it seems that before this question 
be answered, a reply should be given to another Was the 
first animal which any one could properly call a " Bird," as 
distinguished from a "Reptile," possessed of a keeled 
sternum or not 1 Now Birds would seem to have been 
differentiated from Reptiles while the latter had biconcave 
vertebrae, and teeth whose mode of attachment to the jaw 
was still variable. There is no reason to think that at 
that period any Reptile (with the exception of Pterodactyls, 
which, as has already been said, are certainly not in the 
line of Birds ancestors) had a keeled sternum. Hence it 
seems almost impossible that the first Bird should have 
possessed one ; that is to say, it must have been practically 
of the Ratite type. Prof. Marsh has shewn that there is 
good reason for believing that the power of flight was 
gradually acquired by Birds, and with that power would 
be associated the development of a keel to the sternum, on 
which the volant faculty so much depends, and with 
which it is so intimately correlated that in certain forms 
which have to a greater or less extent given up the use of 
their fore-limbs the keel though present has become pro 
portionally aborted. Thus the Carinate type would, from 
all we can see at present, appear to have been evolved 
from the Ratite. This view receives further support from 
a consideration of the results of such embryologies! research 
as has already been made the unquestionable ossification 
of the Ratite sternum from a smaller number of paired 
centres than the Carinate sternum, in which (with the 
doubtful exception of the Anatvlse] an additional, unpaired 
centre makes its appearance. Again the geographical dis 
tribution of existing, or comparatively recent, Ratite forms 
points to the same conclusion. That these forms Moa, 
Kiwi, Emeu and Cassowary, Rhea, and finally Ostrich 



44 



O 11 N I T H O L O G Y 



must have had a common ancestor nearer to them than is 
the ancestor of any Carinate form seems to need no proof. 
If we add to these the ^Epyornis of Madagascar, the fossil 
Ratitx of the Siwalik rocks, 1 and the as yet but partially 
recognized Strutkiolithus of Southern Russia, 2 to say no 
thing of G astornis, the evidence is stronger still. Scattered 
as these Birds have been or are throughout the world, it 
seems justifiable to consider them the survivals of a very 
ancient type, which has hardly undergone any essential 
modification since the appearance of Bird-life upon the 
earth even though one at least of them has become very 
highly specialized. 

No doubt the difficulty presented by the biconcave 
vertebra of the earliest known representative of the 
Carinate type is a considerable obstacle to the view just 
taken. But in the American Journal of Science (April 
1879), and again in his great work (pp. 180, 181), Prof. 
MARSH has shewn that in the third cervical vertebra of 
Ichthyornis " \ve catch nature in the act as it were " of 
modifying one form of vertebra into another, for this single 
vertebra in Ichthyornis is in vertical section " moderately 
convex, while transversely it is strongly concave, thus 
presenting a near approach to the saddle-like articulation "; 
and he proceeds to point out that this specialized feature 
occurs at the first bend of the neck, and, greatly facilitating 
motion in a vertical plane, is " mainly due originally to 
its predominance." The form of the vertebrae would 
accordingly seem to be as much correlated with the 
mobility of the neck as is the form of the sternum with 
the faculty of flight. If therefore the development of the 
saddle shape be an indication of development, as well may 
be the outgrowth of a keel. However, the solution of this 
perplexing problem, if a solution be ever found, must 
remain for future palaoontological or embryological dis 
coverers. The present writer is far from attempting to 
decide a question so complicated, though he does not 
hesitate to say, notwithstanding the weight of authority 
on the other side, that according to present evidence the 
probability is in favour of the Carinate having been 
evolved from a more ancient Ratite type. One thing 
only is certain, and that is the independent arid contempo 
raneous existence of each of these great divisions at the 
earliest period when Birds at all like recent forms are 
known to have lived. The facts that each of these types 
was provided with teeth, and that the teeth were of a dif 
ferent pattern, are of comparatively secondary importance. 
The three It seems therefore quite justifiable to continue, after the 
Sub- fashion that has been set, to separate the Class Aves into 
three primary groups : I. Saururx, II. Ratitx, III. 
Carinatx the earliest members of the two last, as well as 
possibly all of the first, being provided with teeth. These 
three primary groups we may call " Subclasses." 3 Thus 
we shall have : 

SAURUR/E, Hackel. Arckseopteryx the only known form. 
RATIT^E, Merrem. a. with teeth ; 

. with biconcave vertebra as 

yet unknown; 
b . with saddle-shaped vertebrae 

Hesperornis. 

1>. without teeth recent and existing 
forms. 

1 For notice of these see the papers by Mr Davies in the Geological 
Magazine (new series, decade ii. , vol. vii. p. 18), and Mr Lydekker in 
the Records of the Geological Survey of India (xii. p. 52). 

* Bull. Acad, Sc. St Petersburg, xviii. p. 158; Ibis, 1874, p. 4. 

3 Prof. Huxley has termed them " Orders " ; but it is more in 
accordance with the practice of ornithological writers to raise them to 
a higher rank, and to call the secondary groups " Orders." There is 
a good deal to be said in behalf of either view ; but, as in most cases 
of mere terminology, the matter is not worth wasting words over it, 
so long as we bear in mind that what here is meant by an " Order " of 
Aves is a very different thing from an " Order " of Reptilia. 



classes. 



CARINA1VE, Merrem. a. with teeth ; 

a , with biconcave vertebra? 

- Ichthyornis ; 
b . with saddle-shaped verte 

bra as yet unknown. 
b. without teeth recent and 
existing forms. 

We have now to consider the recent and existing forms Orders o: 
of toothless Ratitx. These were shewn beyond doubt by &*#<* 
Prof. Huxley to form five separate groups, which we shall 
here dignify by the name of Orders, 4 adding to them a 
sixth, though little is as yet known of its characteristics. 
Of this, which contains the great extinct Birds of Mada 
gascar, he did not take cognizance, as it is here necessary 
to do. In the absence of any certain means of arranging 
all of these orders according to their affinities, it will be 
best to place their names alphabetically, thus : 

^EPYORNITHES. Fain. jEpyornithidx. 

APTERYGES. Fam. Apterygidx (Kiwi, vol. xiv. p. 104). 

IMMANES. Fam. i. Dinornithidsz ; Fam. ii. Pala- 
pteryyidx. 5 

MEGISTANES. Fam. i. Casuariidx ; Fain. ii. Dromgeidos 
(EMEU, vol. viii. p. 171). 

RHE/E. Fam. Rheidx (RHEA, q.v.}. 

STRUTHIOXES. Fam. Struthionidx (OSTRICH, p. G2 
infra). 

Some systematists think there can be little question of 
the Struthiones being the most specialized and therefore 
probably the highest type of these Orders, and the present 
writer is rather inclined to agree with them. Nevertheless 
the formation of the bill in the Apteryyes is quite unique 
in the whole Class, and indicates therefore an extraordinary 
amount of specialization. Their functionless wings, how 
ever, point to their being a degraded form, though in this 
matter they are not much worse than the Megistanes, and 
are far above the Immanes some of which at least appear 
to have been absolutely wingless, and were thus the only 
members of the Class possessing but a single pair of limbs. 

Turning then to the third Subclass, the Carinatx, their 
subdivision into Orders is attended with a considerable 
amount of difficulty ; and still greater difficulty is presented 
if we make any attempt to arrange these Orders so as in 
some way or "other to shew their respective relations in 
other words, their genealogy. In regard to the first of 
these tasks, a few groups can no doubt be at once separated 
without fear of going wrong. For instance, the Crypturi 
or Tinamous, the Impennes or Penguins, the Strides or 
Owls, the Psittaci or Parrots, and the Passeres, or at least 
the Oscines, seem to stand as groups each quite by itself, 
and, since none of them contains any hangers-on about the 
character of which there can any longer be room to hesitate, 
there can be little risk in setting them apart. Next comes 
a category of groups in which differentiation appears not 
to have been carried so far, and, though there may be as 
little doubt as to the association in one Order of the 
greater number of forms commonly assigned to each, yet 
there are in every case more or fewer outliers that do not 
well harmonize with the rest. Here we have such groups 
as those called Pyyopodes, Gavise, Limicofx, G<dlin:e, 
Columbx, Anseres, Herodiones, Steganopodes, and Accipitres. 
Finally there are two groups of types presenting character 
istics so diverse as to defy almost any definition, and, if it 
were not almost nonsense to say so, agreeing in little more 
than in the differences. These two groups are those 
known as Picarix and Alectundes ; but, while the majority 



Orders o 
(. a,-in(i 



4 See Ann. Wat. History, ser. 4, xx. pp. 499, 500. 

5 On the supposition that the opinions of Dr Von Haast (Trans, ard 
Proc. N. Zeal. Institute, vi. pp. 426, 427) can be substantiated; but 
they have since been disputed by Prof. Hutton (op. cit., ix. pp. 363- 
365), and for the present it is advisable to suspend our judgment. 



ORNITHOLOGY 



45 



of Families or genera usually referred to the former plainly 
have some features in common, the few Families or genera 
that have been clubbed together in the latter make an 
assemblage that is quite artificial, though it may be freely 
owned that with our present knowledge it is impossible to 
determine the natural alliances of all of them. 1 

That our knowledge is also too imperfect to enable 
systematists to compose a phylogeny of Birds, even of the 
Carinate Subclass, and draw out their pedigree, ought to 
be sufficiently evident. The uncertainty which still pre 
vails among the best-informed ornithologists as to the 
respective origin of the Ratitx and Carinatse is in itself a 
proof of that fact, and in regard to some groups much less 
widely differentiated the same thing occurs. We can 
point to some forms which seem to be collaterally ancestral 
(if such a phrase may be allowed), and among them 
perhaps some of those which have been referred to the 
group " Alectorides" just mentioned, and from a considera 
tion of their Geographical Distribution and especially 
Isolation it will be obvious that they are the remnants of 
a very ancient and more generalized stock which in various 
parts of the world have become more or less specialized. 
The very case of the New-Caledonian Kagu (Rhinochetus), 
combining features which occasionally recall the Sun- 
Bittern (Eurypyga), and again present an unmistakable 
likeness to the Limicolse or the Rallidge, shews that it is 
without any very near relation on the earth, and, if con 
venience permitted, would almost justify us in placing it in 
a group apart from any other, though possessing some 
characteristics in common with several. 

It is anything but the desire of the present writer to 
invent a new arrangement of Birds. Such acquaintance 
as he possesses with the plans which have been already 
propounded warns him that until a great deal more labour 
has been expended, and its results made clearly known, 
no general scheme of Classification will deserve to be 
regarded as final. Nevertheless in the best of modern 
systems there are some points which, as already hinted, 
seem to be well established, while in them there are also 
some dispositions and assignments which he is as yet 
unable to accept, while he knows that he is not alone in 
his mistrust of them, and lie thinks it his duty here to 
mention them in the hope that thereby attention may be 
further directed to them, and his doubts either dispelled or 
established it matters not which. The most convenient 
way of bringing them to the notice of the reader will per 
haps be by considering in succession the different groups 
set forth by the latest systematist of any authority Mr 
Sclater a sketch of whose method has been above given. 

If we trust to the results at which Prof. Huxley arrived, 
there can be little doubt as to the propriety of beginning 
the Carinate Subclass with his Dromse-ognathae, the Crypturi 
of Illiger and others, or Tinamous, for their resemblance 
to the Ratitcv is not to be disputed ; but it must be borne 
in mind that nothing whatever is known of their mode of 
development, and that this may, when made out, seriously 
modify their position relatively to another group, the 
normal Anseres, in which the investigations of Cuvier and 
L Herminier have already shewn that there is some 
resemblance to the Rat it x as regards the ossification of 
the sternum. It will be for embryologists to determine 
whether this asserted resemblance has any real meaning ; 
but of the sufficient standing of the Cryptvri as an Order 
there can hardly be a question. 

1 Heterogeneous as is the group as left by the latest systematist, it 
is nothing to its state when first founded by Illiger in 1811 ; for it 
then contained in addition the genera Glareola and Cereopsis, but the 
last was restored to its true place among the Anseres by Temminck. 
The Alectn cleft of Dumeril have nothing in common with the A lectorides 
of Illiger, and the. latter is a name most unfortunately chosen, since 
the group so called does not include any Cock-like Bird. 



and 
a 



We have seen that Prof. Huxley would derive all other 
existing Carinate Birds from the Dromseognatkse ; but of 
course it must be understood in this, as in every other 
similar case, that it is not thereby implied that the modern 
representatives of the Dromseognathons type (namely, the 
Tinamous) stand in the line of ancestry. 

Under the name Impennes we have a group of Birds, the Impennes. 
Penguins, smaller even than the last, and one over which 
until lately systematists have been sadly at fault ; for, 
though we as yet know little if anything definite as to 
their embryology, no one, free from bias, can examine any 
member of the group, either externally or internally, 
without perceiving how completely different it is from an} 
others of the Carinate division. There is perhaps scarcely 
a feather or a bone which is not diagnostic, and nearly 
every character hitherto observed points to a low morpho 
logical rank. It may even be that the clothing of Ilesper- 
ornis was not very dissimilar to the " plumage " which 
now covers the Impennes, and the title of an Order can 
hardly be refused to them. 

The group known as Pygopodes has been often asserted 
to be closely akin to the Impennes, and we have seen that 
Brandt combined the two under the name of Urinatores, 
while Mr Sclater thinks the Pygopodea " seem to form a 
natural transition between " the Gulls and the Penguins. 
The affinity of the Alcidse or Auks (and through them the 
Divers or Colymbidie) to the Gulls may be a matter beyond 
doubt, and there appears to be ground for considering 
them to be the degraded offspring of the former ; but to 
the present writer it appears questionable whether the 
Grebes, Podicipedidx, have any real affinity to the two 
Families with which they are usually associated, and this 
is a point deserving of more attention on the part of 
morphologists than it has hitherto received. Under the 
name of Gavise, the Gulls and their close allies form a very 
natural section, but it probably hardly merits the rank of 
an Order more than the Pyyopodes, for its relations to the 
large and somewhat multiform though very natural group 
Limicolse have to be taken into consideration. Prof. 
PARKER long ago observed (Trans. Zool. Society, \. p. 150) 
that characters exhibited by Gulls when young, but lost 
by them when adult, are found in certain Plovers at all 
ages, and hence it would appear that the Gavise are but 
more advanced Limicolx. The Limicoline genera Dramas 
and Ckionis have many points of resemblance to the 
Laridse ; and on the whole the proper inference would 
seem to be that the Limicolse, or something very like 
them, form the parent-stock whence have descended the 
Gavige, from which or from their ancestral forms the Alcidse 
have proceeded as a degenerate branch. If this hypothesis 
be correct, the association of these three groups would 
constitute an Order, of which the highest Family would 
perhaps be Otididse, the Bustards ; but until further 
research shews whether the view can be maintained it is 
not worth while to encumber nomenclature by inventing a 
new name for the combination. On the other hand the 
Petrels, which form the group Tubinares, would seem for Tubinares. 
several reasons to be perfectly distinct from the Gavige, and 
their allies, and possibly will have to rank as an Order. 

Considerable doubt has already been expressed as to the " A lee to- 
existence of an Order Aledorides, which no one can regard 
as a natural group, and it has just been proposed to 
rctransfer to the Limicolte one of the Families, Otididse, 
kept in it by Mr Sclater. Another Family included in it 
by its founder is Cariamidee, the true |>lace of which has 
long been a puzzle to systematizers. The present writer 
is inclined to think that those who have urged its affinity 
to the Acripitres, and among them taxonomers starting 
from bases so opposite as Sundevall and Prof. Parker, 
have more nearly hit the mark, and accordingly would 



46 



11 N 1 T H L O G Y 



now relegate it to that Order. It is doubtless an extremely 
generalized form, 1 the survival of a very ancient type, 
whence several groups may have sprung ; and, whenever 
the secret it has to tell shall be revealed, a considerable 
step in the phylogeny of Birds can scarcely fail to follow. ^ 
Gralte. Allusion has also been made to the peculiarities of two 
other forms placed with the last among the Alectorides 
Eurypyga and Rhinoclietus being each the sole type of a 
separate Family. It seems that they might be brought 
with the Gruidx, Ps^hiidn , and Aramidx into a group 
or Suborder Grues, which, with the Fulicarix 3 of Nitzsch 
and Mr Sclater as another Suborder, would constitute an 
Order that may continue to bear the old Linnajan name 
G nil las. It must be borne in mind, however, that some 
members of both these Suborders exhibit many points of 
resemblance to certain other forms that it is at present 
necessary to place in different groups thus some Rallidx 
to the Gallinx, Grus to Otis, and so forth ; and it is as 
yet doubtful whether further investigation may not shew 
the resemblance to be one of affinity, and therefore of 
taxonomic value, instead of mere analogy, and therefore of 
no worth in that respect. 

We have next to deal with a group nearly as com- 
GaUinse. plicated. The true Gallinx are indeed as well marked a 
section as any to be found ; but round and near them cluster 
some forms very troublesome to allocate. The strange 
Hoactzin (Opisthocom/us) is one of these, and what seems to 
be in some degree its arrested development makes its posi 
tion almost unique, 4 but enough has already been said of 
it before (see vol. xii. p. 28, and supra p. 36). It must for the 
present at least stand alone, the sole occupant of a single 
Order. Then there are the Hemipodes or Button-Quails, 
which have been raised to equal rank by Prof. Huxley as 
Turnicomorphx ; but, though no doubt the osteological 
differences between them and the normal Gallinx, pointed 
out by him as well as by Prof. Parker, are great, they do 
not seem to be more essential than are found in different 
members of some other Orders, nor to offer an insuperable 
objection to their being classed under the designation 
Gallinx. If this be so there, will be no necessity for 
removing them from that Order, which may then be 
portioned into three Suborders 7/c mipodii standing some 
what apart, and Alectoropodes and Feristeropodes, which 
are more nearly allied the latter comprehending the 
Megapodiidx and Cracidx, and the former consisting of 
the normal Gallinx, of which it is difficult to justify the 
recognition of more than a single Family, though in that 
two types of structure are discernible. 

The Family of Sand-Grouse, Pteroclidx, is perhaps one 
of the most instructive in the whole range of Ornithology. 
In Prof. HUXLEY S words (Proceedings, 18G8, p. 303), they 
are "completely intermediate between the Alectoromorphx 
[i.e., Gallinx] and the Peristeromorphx [the Pigeons]. 
They cannot be included within either of these groups 
without destroying its definition, while they are perfectly 
definable themselves." Hence he would make them an 
independent group of equal value with the other two. 
Almost the same result has been reached by Dr GADOW 

1 Cariama is the oldest name for the genus, but being a word of 
"barbarous " origin it was set aside by Illiger and the purists in favour 
of Dicholophus, under which name it has been several times mentioned 
in the foregoing pages. 

2 A brief description of the egg and young of Cariama crtstata pro 
duced in the Jurdin des Plantes at Paris is given in the Zoological 
Society s Proceedings for 1881, p. 2. 

3 This group would contain three families RallidiE, Ileliornithidie 
(the Finfoots of Africa and South America), and the Mesitidse of 
Madagascar whose at least approximate place has been at last found 
fr them by M. A. Milne-Edwards (Ann. Sc. Nuturclles, ser. 6. vii. 
No. 6). 

* Mesites, just mentioned, presents a case which may, however, be 
very similar. 



clidie. 



(<>p. cit., 1882, pp. 331, 332). No doubt there are strong 
and tempting reasons for taking this step ; but peradven- 
ture the real lesson taught by this aggregation of common 
characters is rather the retention of the union of the 
Gallinx and Columbx into a single group, after the fashion 
of by-gone years, under the name, however meaningless, 
of Rasores. Failing that, the general resemblance of most 
parts of the osteology of the Sand-Grouse to that of the 
Pigeons, so well shewn by M. Milne-Edwards, combined 
with their Pigeon-like pterylosis, inclines the present writer 
to group them as a Suborder of Columbse, ; but the many Columke, 
important points in which they differ from the more normal 
Pigeons, especially in the matter of their young being 
clothed with down, and their coloured and speckled eggs, 5 
must be freely admitted. Young Sand Grouse are described 
as being not only "Dasypaides" but even " Pnecoces " at 
birth, while of course every one knows the helpless condition 
of "Pipers" that is, Pigeons newly-hatched from their 
white eggs. Thus the opposite condition of the young of 
these two admittedly very near groups inflicts a severe 
blow on the so-called " physiological ; method of dividing 
Birds before mentioned, and renders the Pterodidx so 
instructive a form. The Columbx, considered in the wide 
sense just suggested, would seem to have possessed another 
and degenerate Suborder in the Dodo and its kindred, 
though the extirpation of those strange and monstrous 
forms will most likely leave their precise relations a matter 
of some doubt ; while the third and last Suborder, the true 
Columbx, is much more homogeneous, and can hardly be 
said to contain more than two Families, Columbidx and 
Didunculidx the latter consisting of a single species 
peculiar to the Samoa Islands, and having no direct con 
nexion with the Dididx or Dodos, though possibly it may 
bo found that the Papuan genus Otidiphups presents a form 
linking it with the Columbidx. 

The Gallinx would seem to hold a somewhat central Groups 
position among existing members of the Carinate division, 7 allied to 
whence many groups diverge, and one of them, the Opis- 
tkocomi or ffeteromorphx of Prof. Huxley, indicates, as he 
has hinted, the existence of an old line of descent, now 
almost obliterated, in the direction of the Musophagidx, 
and thence, we may not unreasonably infer, to the 
Coccygomorphx of the same authority. But these 
" Coccygomorphs " would also appear to reach a higher 
rank than some other groups that we have to notice, and 
therefore, leaving the former, we must attempt to trace 
the fortunes of a more remote and less exalted line. It 
has already been stated that the Gavix are a group closely 
allied to though somewhat higher than the Limicolx, and 
that at least two forms of what have here been called 
Grallx present an affinity to the latter. One of them, 
Rhinochttus, has been several times thought to be con 
nected through its presumed relative Eurypyga (from 
which, however, it is a good way removed both as regards 
distribution and structure) with the Heriodiones, Herons. 
On the other hand the Gavix would seem to be in like 
manner related through Phaethon (the TROPIC-BIRD, f/.v.} 
with the Steganopodes or Dysporomorpksd of Prof. Huxley, 
among which it is usually placed, though according to 
Prof. MIVART (Trans. Zool. Society, x. pp. 364, 36")) 
wrongly. These supposed affinities lead us to two other 
groups of Birds that have, it has been proved, some com 
mon characters ; and from one or the other (no one yet 
can say which) the Accipitres would seem to branch off 

5 This fact tells in favour of the views of Dr Gadow and those who 
hold the Sand-Grouse to be allied to the Plovers ; but then he places 
the Pigeons between these groups, and their eggs tell as strongly the 
other way. 

6 Cf. Phil. Transactions, 1867, p. 349. 

7 Cf. Prof. Parker s remarks in the Philosophical Transactions for 
1809, p. 7S5. 



ORNITHOLOGY 



47 



possibly from some ancestral type akin to and now most 
directly represented by the enigmatical Cariama possibly 
in some other way which we can only dimly foreshadow. 
The Herodiones are commonly partitioned into three groups 
Ardex, Ciconise, and Platalex, the last including the 
Ibises which may certainly be considered to be as many 
Suborders. The second of them, the Storks, may perhaps be 
regarded as the point of departure for the Accipitres in the 
manner indicated, 1 as well as, according to Prof. Huxley, 
for the Flamingoes, of which he would make a distinct 
group, Ampkimorphoe, equivalent to the Odontoglossx of 
Nitzsch, intermediate between the Pelarffomorphte and the 
Chenomorphx, that is, between the Storks and the Geese. 
When the embryology of the P/icenicopteridx is investi 
gated their supposed relationship may perhaps be made 
oat. At present it is, like so much that needs to be here 
advanced, very hypothetical; but there is so much in the 
osteology of the Flamingoes, besides other things, that 
resembles the Aiiseres that it would seem better to regard 
them as forming a Subclass of that group to rank equally 
with the true Anseres and with the Pulamedeas (SCREAMER, 
</.? .), which last, notwithstanding the opinion of Garrod, 
can hardly from their osteological similarity to the true 
Anseres be removed from their neighbourhood. 

Whatever be the alliances of the genealogy of the 
Accipitres, the Diurnal Birds-of-Prey, their main body must 
stand alone, hardly divisible into more than two principal 
groups (1) containing the Cathartidx or the Vultures of 
the New World, and (2) all the rest, though no doubt the 
latter may be easily subdivided into at least two Families, 
Vulturidae. and Falconidse, and the last into many smaller 
sections, as has commonly been done ; but then we have 
the outliers left. The African Serpentariidx, though 
represented only by a single species, 2 are fully allowed to 
form a type equivalent to the true Accipitres composing the 
main body ; but whether to the Secretary-bird should be 
added the often-named Cariama, with its two species, must 
still remain an open question. 

It has so long been the custom to place the Owls next 
to the Diurnal Birds-of-Prey that any attempt to remove 
them from that position cannot fail to incur criticism. 
Yet when we disregard their carnivorous habits, and 
certain modifications which may possibly be thereby 
induced, we find almost nothing of value to indicate 
relationship between them. That the Striges stand quite 
independently of the Accipitres as above limited can hardly 
be doubted, and, while the Psittaci or Parrots would on 
some grounds appear to be the nearest allies of the 
Accipitres, the nearest relations of the Owls must be looked 
for in the multifarious group Picarise. Here we have the 
singular Steatornis (GrjACHARO, vol. ix. p. 227), which, 
long confounded with the Caprimulgidae (GOATSUCKER, 
vol. ix. p. 711), has at last been recognized as an indepen 
dent form, and one cannot but think that it has branched 
off from a common ancestor with the Owls. The Goat 
suckers may have done the like, 3 for there is really not 
much to ally them to the Swifts and Humming-birds, the 
Macrochires proper, as has often been recommended. 
However, the present writer would not have it supposed 
that he would place the Striges under the Picarise, for the 

1 Garrod and Forbes suggest a "Ciconiiform" origin for the 
Tubinares (Zool. Voy. "Challenger," pt. xi. pp. 62, 63). 

^It was long suspected that the genus Polyboroides of South 
Africa and Madagascar, from its general resemblance in plumage and 
outward form, might come into this group, but that idea has now 
been fully dispelled by M. A. Milne-Edwards in his and M. Grandidier s 
magnificent Oiseaux de Madagascar (vol. i. pp. 50-66). 

3 The great resemblance in coloration between Goatsuckers and Owls 
is of course obvious, so obvious indeed as to make one suspicious of 
their being akin ; but in reality the existence of the likeness is no bar 
to the affinity of the groups ; it merely has to be wholly disregarded. 



last are already a sufficiently heterogeneous assemblage, 
and one with which he would not meddle. Whether the 
Woodpeckers should be separated from the rest is a matter 
of deeper consideration after the deliberate opinion of 
Prof. Parker, who would lift them as Saurognathee, to a 
higher rank than that in which Prof. Huxley left them as 
Celeomorphse, indeed to be the peers of Sckizognathx, 
Desmognatkse, and so forth ; but this advancement is based 
solely on the characters of their palatal structure, and is 
unsupported by any others. That the Pici constitute a 
very natural and easily defined group is indisputable; 
more than that, they are perhaps the most differentiated 
group of all those that are retained in the " Order " 
Picarise ; but it does not seem advisable at present to 
deliver them from that chaos when so many other groups 
have to be left in it. 

Lastly we arrive at the Passeres, and here, as already Passeres, 
mentioned, the researches of Garrod and Forbes prove to 
be of immense service. It is of course not to be supposed 
that they have exhausted the subject even as regards their 
J/esomyodi, while their Acromyodi were left almost 
untouched so far as concerns details of arrangement ; but 
the present writer has no wish to disturb by other than 
very slight modifications the scheme they put forth. He 
would agree with Mr Sclater in disregarding the distinc 
tions of Desmodactyli and Eleutherodaetyli, grouping the 
former (Euryleemidx) with the Heteromeri and Ilaploo- 
phonse, which all together then might be termed the their Sub- 
Suborder Oligomyodi. To this would follow as a second orders. 
Suborder the Tracheophonee as left by Garrod, and then as 
a third Suborder the abnormal Acromyodi, whether they 
are to be called Pseudoscines or not, that small group con 
taining, so far as is known at present, only the two 
Families Atrichiidse and Menuridse. Finally we have the 
normal Acromyodi or true seines. 

This last and highest group of Birds is one which, as Oscines, 
before hinted, it is very hard to subdivide. Some two or their homo- 
three natural, because well-differentiated, Families are to K C BCOUS - 
be found in it such, for instance, as the Hirundinidse or n 
Swallows, which have no near relations ; the Alaudidce or 
Larks, that can be unfailingly distinguished at a glance by 
their scutellated planta, as has been before mentioned ; or 
the Meliphagidse with their curiously constructed tongue. 
But the great mass, comprehending incomparably the 
greatest number of genera and species of Birds, defies any 
sure means of separation. Here and there, of course, a 
good many individual genera may be picked out capable of 
the most accurate definition ; but genera like these are in 
the minority, and most of the remainder present several 
apparent alliances, from which we are at a loss to choose 
that which is nearest. Four of the six groups of Mr 
Sclater s " Laminiplantar " Oscines seem to pass almost 
imperceptibly into one another. We may take examples 
in which what we may call the Thrush-form, the Tree- 
creeper-form, the Finch-form, or the Crow-form is pushed 
to the most extreme point of differentiation, but we shall 
find that between the outposts thus established there exists 
a regular chain of intermediate stations so intimately con 
nected that no precise lines of demarcation can be drawn 
cutting off one from the other. 

Still one thing is possible. Hard though it be to find Supposed 
definitions for the several groups of Oscines, whether we high rank of 
make them more or fewer, it is by no means so hard, if we 
go the right way to work, to determine which of them 
is the highest, and, possibly, which of them is the lowest. 
It has already been shewn (page 30) how, by a woe 
ful want of the logical apprehension of facts, the Turdidse 
came to be accounted the highest, and the position ac 
corded to them has been generally acquiesced in by those 
who have followed in the footsteps of Keyserling and 



48 



K NITHOLOG Y 



Blasius, of Prof. Cabanis and of Sundevall. To the 
present writer the order thus prescribed seems to be almost 
the very reverse of that which the doctrine of Evolution 
requires, and, so far from the Turdidte being at the head of 
the Oscines, they are among its lower members. There is 
no doubt whatever as to the intimate relationship of the 
Thrushes (Turdidx) to the Chats (Saxicolinie), for that is 
not borne admitted by nearly every systematizes Now most author- 
out by i^gg on classification are agreed in associating with the 
ces> latter group the Birds of the Australian genus Pctrceca 
and its allies the so-called " Jlobins " of the English- 
speaking part of the great southern communities. But it 
so happens that, from the inferior type of the osteological 
characters of this very group of Birds, Prof. PARKER has 
called them (Trans. Zool. Society, v. p. 152) " Struthious 
Warblers." Now if the Petrceca-group be, as most allow, 
allied to the Saxicolinse, they must also be allied, only 
rather more remotely, to the Turdidce, for Thrushes and 
Chats are inseparable, and therefore this connexion must 
drag down the Thrushes in the scale. Let it be granted 
that the more highly-developed Thrushes have got rid of 
the low " Struthious " features which characterize their 
Australian relatives, the unbroken series of connecting 
forms chains them to the inferior position, and of itself 
disqualifies them from the rank so fallaciously assigned to 
them. Nor does this consideration stand alone. By 
submitting the Thrushes and allied groups of Chats and 
Warblers to other tests we may try still more completely 
their claim to the position to which they have been 
advanced. 

Without attaching too much importance to the system 
atic value which the characters of the nervous system 
afford, there can be little doubt that, throughout the 
Animal Kingdom, where the nervous system is sufficiently 
developed to produce a brain, the creatures possessing one 
are considerably superior to those which have none. Con 
sequently we may reasonably infer that those which are 
the best furnished with a brain are superior to those which 
are less well endowed in that respect, and that this infer 
ence is reasonable is in accordance with the experience of 
every Physiologist, Comparative Anatomist, and Palaeon 
tologist, who are agreed that, within limits, the proportion 
which the brain bears to the spinal marrow in a .vertebrate 
is a measure of that animal s morphological condition. 
These preliminaries being beyond contradiction, it is clear 
that, if we had a series of accurate weights and measure 
ments of Birds brains, it would go far to help us in 
deciding many cases of disputed precedency, and especially 
such a case as we now have under discussion. To the 
nor by dispraise of Ornithotomists this subject has never been 
size of properly investigated, and of late years seems to have been 
wholly neglected. The present writer can only refer to the 
meagre lists given by TIEDEMANX (Anaf. und Naturyesch. 
der Voyel, i. pp. 18-22), based for the most part on very 
ancient observations ; but, so far as those observations go, 
their result is conclusive, for we find that in the Blackbird, 
Turdm merula, the proportion which the brain bears to 
the body is lower than in any of the eight species of Oscines 
there named, being as 1 is to 67. In the Redbreast, 
Erithacus rubecula, certainly an ally of the Turdidse, it is 
as 1 to 32 ; while it is highest in two of the Finches the 
Goldfinch, Cardudis elegans, and the Canary -bird, Serimis 
canarius, being in each as 1 to 14. The signification of 
these numbers needs no comment to be understood. 

Evidence of another kind may also be adduced in proof 
that the high place hitherto commonly accorded to the 
Turdidae, is undeserved. Throughout the Class Aves it is 
observable that the young when first fledged generally 
assume a spotted plumage of a peculiar character nearly 
each of the body-feathers having a light-coloured spot at 



I train, 



its tip and this is particularly to be remarked in most 
groups of Oscines, so much so indeed, that a bird thus 
marked may, in the majority of cases, be set down with 
out fear of mistake as being immature. All the teachings 
of morphology go to establish the fact that any characters 
which are peculiar to the immature condition of an animal, 
and are lost in its progress to maturity, are those \vhich 
its less advanced progenitors bore while adult, and that 
in proportion as it gets rid of them it shews its superiority 
over its ancestry. This being the case, it would follow that 
an animal which at no time in its life exhibits such marks 
of immaturity or inferiority must be of a rank, compared 
with its allies, superior to those which do exhibit these 
marks. The same may be said of external and secondary 
sexual characters. Those of the female are almost invari 
ably to be deemed the survival of ancestral characters, 
while those peculiar to the male are in advance of the 
older fashion, generally and perhaps always the result of 
sexual selection. 1 When both sexes agree in appearance 
it may mean one of two things either that the male has 
not lifted himself much above the condition of his mate, 
or that, he having raised himself, the female has success 
fully followed his example. In the former alternative, as 
regards Birds, we shall find that neither sex departs very 
much from the coloration of its fellow-species ; in the latter 
the departure may be very considerable. Xow, applying 
these principles to the Thrushes, we shall find that without nor by 
exception, so far as is known, the young have their first cnar - 
plumage more or less spotted ; and, except in some three a( r tei 
or four species at most, 2 both sexes, if they agree in 
plumage, do not differ greatly from their fellow-species. 

Therefore as regards capacity of brain and coloration of 
plumage priority ought not to be given to the Turdidx. 
It remains for us to see if we can find the group which is 
entitled to that eminence. Among Ornithologists of the 
highest rank there have been few whose opinion is more 
worthy of attention than Macgillivray, a trained anatomist 
and a man of thoroughly independent mind. Through the 
insufficiency of his opportunities, his views on general 
classification were confessedly imperfect, but on certain 
special points, where the materials were present for him to 
form a judgment, one may generally depend upon it. 
Such is the case here, for his work shews him to have 
diligently exercised his genius in regard to the Birds which 
we now call Oscines. He belonged to a period anterior to 
that in which questions that have been brought uppermost 
by the doctrine of Evolution existed, and yet he seems not 
to have been without perception that such questions might 
arise. In treating of what he termed the Order Vagatores, 3 punk of 
including among others the Family Corvidx the Crows, 
he tells us (Brit. Birds, i. pp. 485, 486) that they "are to 
be accounted among the most perfectly organized birds," 
justifying the opinion by stating the reasons, which are of 
a very varied kind, that led him to it. In one of the 
earlier treatises of Prof. PARKER, he has expressed (Trans. 
Zool. Society, v. p. 150) his approval of Macgillivray s 
views, adding that, " as that speaking, singing, mocking 
animal, Man, is the culmination of the Mammalian series, 
so that bird in which the gifts of speech, song, and 
mockery are combined must be considered as the top and 
crown of the bird-class." Any doubt as to which Bird is 
here intended is dispelled by another passage, written ten 



1 See Darwin, Descent of Man, cliaps. xv., xvi. 

2 According to Mr Seebohm (Cat. Birds Brit. Museum, v. p. 232) 
these are in his nomenclature Merula nigrescens, M. fuscatra, M. 
gigas, and M. gignntodes. 

3 In this Order ho included several groups of Birds which we now 
know to be but slightly if at all allied ; but his intimate acquaintance 
was derived from the Corvidie and the allied Family we now call 
Sturnidfe. 



ORNITHOLOGY 



49 



Ishecl 



years later, wherein (Monthly Microsc. Journal, 1872, p. 
217) he says, " The Crow is the great sub-rational chief of 
the whole kingdom of the Birds ; he has the largest brain ; 
the most wit and wisdom ; " and again, in the Zoological 
Society s Transactions (ix. p. 300), " In all respects, physio 
logical, morphological, and ornithological, the Crow may 
be placed at the head, not only of its own great series 
(birds of the Crow-form), but also as the unchallenged 
chief of the whole of the Carinatse. " 

It is to be supposed that the opinion so strongly expressed 
in the passage last cited has escaped the observation of 
recent systematizers ; for he would be a bold man who 
would venture to gainsay it. Still Prof. Parker has left 
untouched or only obscurely alluded to one other considera 
tion that has been here brought forward in opposing the 
claim of the Turdidx, and therefore a few words may not 
be out of place on that point the evidence afforded by the 
coloration of plumage in young and old. Now the Corvidse 
fulfil as completely as is possible for any group of Birds 
to do the obligations required by exalted rank. To the 
magnitude of their brain beyond that of all other Birds 
Prof. Parker has already testified, and it is the rule for 
their young at once to be clothed in a plumage which is 
essentially that of the adult. This plumage may lack the 
lustrous reflexions that are only assumed when it is necessary 
for the welfare of the race that the wearer should don the 
best apparel, but then they are speedily acquired, and the 
original difference between old and young is of the slightest. 
Moreover, this obtains even in what we may fairly consider 
to be the weaker forms of the Corvidse. the Pies and Jays. 
In one species of Corvus, and that (as might be expected) 
the most abundant, namely, the Rook, C. frugileyus, very 
interesting cases of what would seem to be explicable on 
the theory of Reversion occasionally though rarely occur. 
In them the young are more or less spotted with a lighter 
shade, and these exceptional cases, if rightly understood, 
do but confirm the rule. 1 It may be conceded that even 
among Oscines 2 there are some other groups or sections of 

1 One of these specimens has been figured by Mr Hancock (iV. H. 
Trans. Xorthumb. and Durham, vi. pi. 3); see also Yarrell s British 
Birds, ed 4, ii. pp. 302, 303. 

2 In other Orders there are many, for instance some Humming 
birds and Kingfishers ; but this only seems to shew the exce 

those Orders attained by the forms which enjoy the privilege. 



groups in which the transformation in appearance from 
youth to full age is as slight. This is so among the 
Paridae ; and there are a few groups in which the young r 
prior to the first moult, may be more brightly tinted than 
afterwards, as in the genera Phylloscopus and Antkus. 
These anomalies cannot be explained as yet, but we see that 
they do not extend to more than a portion, and generally a 
small portion, of the groups in which they occur ; whereas 
in the Crows the likeness between young and old is, so far 
as is known, common to every member of the Family. It 
is therefore confidently that the present writer asserts, as 
Prof. Parker, with far more right to speak on the subject, 
has already done, that at the head of the Class Aves must 
stand the Family Corvidse, of which Family no one will 
dispute the superiority of the genus Corvus, nor in that 
genus the pre-eminence of Corvus corax the widely-ranging 
Raven of the Northern Hemisphere, the Bird perhaps best 
known from the most ancient times, and, as it happens, 
that to which belongs the earliest historical association 
with man. There are of course innumerable points in 
regard to the Classification of Birds which are, and for a 
long time will continue to be, hypothetical as matters of 
opinion, but this one seems to stand a fact on the firm 
ground of proof. 

During the compilation of much of the present article 
the writer flattered himself with the hope that he might at 
its conclusion have been able to give a graphic illustration 
of the way in which the various groups of Birds may be 
conceived to be related to one another in the form of a 
map, such as has been so usefully furnished by several of 
his more gifted brethren in regard to other Classes or 
portions of Classes of the Animal Kingdom. This hope 
he has been reluctantly constrained to abandon, whether 
from the inherent difficulty, perhaps impossibility, of at 
present executing the task, or from his own want of charto- 
graphical skill, it is not for him to say. He may, however, 
be allowed to express the belief that there is no group in 
Animated Nature that more assuredly deserves the further 
attention of the highest zoological intellects than Birds ; 
and, looking to the perplexities which on all sides beset 
their scientific study, there is no department of Zoology 
that will better repay the application of those intellects 
than Ornithology. (A. N.) 









INDEX. 








.(Elian, 3, 4. 


Bennett, 10. 


Brandt, J. F., 25, 26 


Claus, 42. 


Droste, 17. 


Gatke, 17. 


Hailing, 10, 18 


Albertus Magnus, 3. 


Benoist, 17. 


42, 45. 


Clusius, 4. 


Dubois, 17. 


Gaza, 3. 


Hartlaub, 17. 


Albin, 5. 


Bcrkenhout, 9. 


Bree, 17. 


Coiter, 4, 7. 


Du Bus, 13. 


Gentil, 17. 


Harvey, 7. 


Aldrovandus, 4. 


Bernini, 9. 


Brehm, A. E., 17. 


Collett, 17. 


Dume ril, 13, 45. 


Georgi, 8. 


Harvie-Brown, 18. 


Allen, 17. 


Berthold, 22. 


Brehm, C. L., 17. 


Collin, 17. 


Dunn, 18. 


Gerbe, 17. 


Hasselqvist, 8. 


Alston, 18. 


Beseke, 8. 


Brewer, 16. 


Collins, 8. 


Edwards, 5, 6. 


Gervais, 31. 


Hayes, 7. 


Altum, 17. 


Bewick, 10, 14, 18. 


Brewster, 17. 


Cope, 43. 


Elliot, 11, 16. 


Gesner, 3, 4. 


Hector, 16. 


Andersson, 16. 


Bcxon, 6. 


Brisson, 5, 6, 7. 


Cordeaux, 18. 


Eyton, 18, 32. 


Giebel, 14, 21. 


Heddle, 18. 


Aristotle, 2, 3, 15. 


Blainville, 8, 14, 20, 


Bronn, 7, 42. 


Con lay, 29, 35. 


Faber, 17. 


Gilins, 9. 


Heine, 31. 


Aubert, 3. 


21, 32, 29. 


Brown, P., 7. 


Coues. 16, 17, 25. 


Fabricius, 9. 


Giraud, 16. 


Herbert, 10. 


Audebert, 11. 


Blanchard, 31, 32. 


Browne, Sir T., 9. 


Cousens, 12. 


Falk, 8. 


Gloger, 17, 21, 23. 


Hermann, 7. 


Audubon, 11, 12, 1C, 


Blandin, 17. 


Briinnich, 9. 


Crespon, 17. 


Fatio, 17. 


Gmelin, J. F , 7, 19. 


Hernandez, 4. 


25, 27, 28, 


Blasius, G., 7. 


Buckley, E. , 5. 


Cuba, 3. 


Feilden, 17. 


Gmelin, S. G., 8. 


Hey sham, 9. 


Baikie, 18. 


Blasius, J. IL, 9, 


Buckley, T. E., 18. 


Cuvier, 7, 8, 14, 16, 


Fernandez, 4. 


Gosse, 16. 


Hintz, 17. 


Baillon, 17. 


17, 26, 28, 29, 37, 


Buffon, 6, 7, 36. 


19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 


Finsch, 14, 17. 


Gould, 12, 13, 16. 17, 


Hogg, 31. 


Bailly. 17. 


48. 


Buller, 16. 


27, 29, 30, 32, 45. 


Fischer, J. B., 8. 


18, 27. 


Holland, 3. 


Baird, 16. 


Blyth, 10, 16, 25, 27, 


Bureau, 17. 


Dallas, 27. 


Fischer de Wald- 


Grandidier, 47. 


Holmgren, 17. 


Baldamus, 9, 17. 


29, 36. 


Burmeister, 26, 27. 


Darwin, 32, 33, 34, 36, 


heim, 15. 


Gravenhorst, 13. 


Homeyer, A. von, 17. 


Barraband, 11. 


Bocage, Barboza du, 


Cabanis, 16, 17, 29, 


48. 


Fleming, 15, 18. 


Graves, 18. 


Homeyer, E. von, 17. 


Barrere, 5. 


17 


30, 31, 41, 48. 


D Aubenton, 6, 7, 12. 


Florent-Provost, 11. 


Gray, G. R., 14, 16. 


Houttuyn, 9. 


Barrington, 9. 


Bochart, 4. 


Caius, 3. 


Daudin, 7. 


Fraser, 12. 


Gray, J. E., 8, 11. 


Huet, 12. 


Barthe lemy - Lapom- 


Boddaert, 7. 


Canivet, 17. 


Davies, 44. 


Fries, 15. 


Gray, R., 18. 


Hume, 16. 


meraie, 17 


Bolle, 17. 


Carus, 7, 42. 


Degland, 17. 


Friseh, 8. 


Griffiths, 8. 


Hunt, 18. 


Bartholini, 7. 


Bonaparte, 14, 16, 17, 


Cassin, 11, 16. 


Demarle, 17. 


Fritsch, 17. 


Groot, 3. 


Hunter, 8, 26. 


Bartlett, 25. 


31. 


Catesby, 5. 


Denny, 26. 


Forbes, 28, 39, 40, 


Grossingw, 8. 


Button, 16, 44. 


Barton, 9. 


Bonnaterre, 7. 


Caub, 3. 


Derham, 5. 


41, 47. 


Giildenstlidt, 8. 


Huxley, 34, 35, 36, 


Bartram, 9. 


Bontius, 4. 


Cetti, 9. 


Desmarest, 11. 


Ford, 16. 


Gunnerus, 9. 


39, 41, 42, 44, 45, 


Bechstein, 6, 9, 17. 


Borggreve, 17. 


Chamberlain, 17. 


Des Murs, 13, 32. 


Forskal, 8. 


Gurney, 6, 16. 


46, 47. 


Behn, 5. 


Borkhausen, 9. 


Chambers, 33. 


Dieffenbach, 16. 


Forster, G., 8. 


Haast, 16, 44. 


Illiger, 14, 22, 24, 25, 


Beilby, 10. 


Borlasc, 9. 


Charles worth, 25. 


Diggles, 16. 


Forster, J. R., 8, 9. 


Hiickel, 34, 43, 44. 


31, 45. 


Bell, F. J., 29, 39. 


Borrichius, 7. 


Charleton, 4. 


Dillwyn, 18. 


Gadow, 42, 46. 


Hancock, 10, 18, 49. 


Irby, 17. 


Bell, T., 10. 


Bouteille, 17. 


Chesnon, 17. 


Donovan, 9. 


Garrod, 29, 39, 40, 


Hardwicke, 11. 


Jackel, 17. 


Belon, 4. 


Brandt, A., 17. 


Clarke, 18. 


Dresser, 17. 


41, 47. 


Hardy, 17. 


Jacobson, 20. 



XVIII. -- 7 



50 



R N R 



Jacquemin, 27, 29. 


Lear, 12. 


Martinet, 6, 12. 


Nitzsch, 16, 18, 19, 


Kay, 4, 5, 6. 


Seeley, 43. 


Tiedemann, 19, 48. 


Jacquin, 7. 


Lepge, 1C. 


Mauduyt, 7. 


20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 


Reaumur, 5. 


Selby, 13, 18 


Tobias, 17. 


Jameson, 16. 


Leigh, 9. 


Max, 17. 


26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 


Heichenbach, 13, 17. 


Selenka, 7. 


Tristram, 17, 33. 


Jardine, 10, 13, 16. 


Leisler. 17. 


Merrem, 14, 16, 19, 


39, 46. 


Reichenow, 17. 


Seligmann, 5. 


Tschusl-Schmidhofen 


18. 


Lemetteil, 17. 


20, 21, 22, 27, 31, 


Nodder, 7. 


Reinhardt, 33 


Selys - Longcliainps, 


17. 


Jaubert, 17. 


Lemonnicier, 17. 


34, 43, 44. 


Norguet, 17. 


Hennie, 15, 18. 


17. 


Tunstall, 9. 


Jenyns, 18. 


Le"otaud, 16. 


Merrett, 4, 9. 


Nourry, 17. 


Retzius, 9. 


Severeyns, 13. 


Turner, II. N., 12 


Jerdon, 16. 


Lepechin, 8. 


Meyer, A. B , 13, 17. 


Nozeman, 9. 


Reyger, 5. 


Shai-pe, 12, 16, 17 


Turner, W., 3. 


Johnstonus, 4 


Lesauvage, 17. 


Meyer, B., 17. 


Nuttall, 10. 


Richardson, 1C. 


Shaw, 6, 7, l;l. 


Valentini, 7. 


Kalm, 8. 


Lesson, 13. 


Meyer, II. L., 18. 


Oken, 15, 23, 27 


Ridgway, Ifi, 17. 


Shelley, 17. 


Verney, 7. 


Kaup, 14, 15. 


Le Vaillant, 8, 11, 16. 


Meyer, II. von, 34. 


Olina, 4. 


Risso, 17. 


Shepherd, 17. 


Vieillot, 7,11, 13, 14,17. 


Kelaart, 16. 


Lever, 6. 


Milne-Edwards, 36, 


Osbeck, 8. 


Rodd, 18. 


Sibbald, 4. 


Vigors, 14, 15, 16, 25, 


Kessler, 27. 


Lewin, 3. W., 1C. 


46, 47. 


Oudart, 12, 13. 


Roux, 17. 


Siemssen, 9 


31. 


Keulemans, 13,16, 17. 


Lewiu, W., 9. 


Mitchell, 12, 14. 


Owen, 20, 24, 26, 34, 


Rowlev, 13. 


Sloane, 5. 


Vogt, 43. 


Keyserling, 26, 28, 


L Herminier, 16, 20, 


Mitterpacher, 8. 


43. 


Rzaczynski, 8. 


Smit, 13. 


Wagler, 14, 20. 


29, 37, 47. 


21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 


Mivart, 6, 46 


Pallas, 8. 


St-IIilaire, Bourjot,ll. 


Smith, Alfred C., 17. 


Wagner, A., 11, 27, 


Kirby, 15, 20, 24. 


29, 31, 32, 45. 


Miihring, 5. 


Paquet, 17. 


St-Hilaire, . Geof- 


Smith, Andrew, 16. 


30, 34. 


Kittl itz, 13. 


Lichtenstein, 4. 


Molina, 8. 


Parker, 33, 35, 41, 45, 


froy, 16, 18,21, 23, 


Smith, Cecil, 18. 


Wagner, R., 21 


Kjasrbolling, 17. 


Lilford, 17. 


Montagu, 15, 17. 


46, 47, 48, 49. 


24. 


Sonnerat, 7. 


Walcott, 9. 


Klein, 5. 


Lilljeborg, 34. 


Montbeillard, 6. 


Pelzeln, 17. 


St-IIilaire, I. Geof- 


Spalowsky, 7. 


Wallace, 32, 33, 41. 


Knip, 11. 


Linnreus, 5, 6, 7, 8, 


More, 18. 


Pennant, 7, 9. 


froy, 13, 24. 


Sparrman, 7. 


Waterton, 16. 


Knox, 18. 


9, 16, 19, 20, 24, 25, 


Miihle, 17. 


Perrault, 7. 


St John, 18. 


Steams, 16. 


Watters, 18. 


Koch, 17. 


26, 37. 


Mfiller, H. C., 17. 


Petersen, 8. 


Salerne, 6. 


Stephens, 13. 


Whitaker, 18. 


Konig - Warthausen, 


Loftie, 2. 


Mailer, Johannes, 16, 


Petiver, 5. 


Salvador!, 17. 


Sterland, 18. 


White, G , 9, 10, 18 


17. 


Longolius, 3. 


28, 29, 30, 40. 


Philippus Taonensis, 


Salvin, 12, 13, 41. 


Stevenson, 18. 


White, J., 8. 


Kramer, 8. 


Lumsden, 18. 


Miiller, P. L. S., 7. 


3. 


Saunders, 17. 


Stolker, 17. 


Willughby, 4, 6, 20, 


Kriiper, 17. 


Lydekker, 44. 


Murie, 39. 


Phillips, 8. 


Savi, 6, 17. 


Strickland, 14, 15. 


25. 


Kutter, 17. 


Macartney, 16, 26. 


Nash, 9. 


Pilati, 9. 


Saxby 18. 


Sundevall, 3, 17, 23, 


Wilson, Alexander, 16 


Labatie, 17. 


Macgillivray, 11, 16, 


Nathusius, 17. 


Piller, 8. 


Schaffer, 7. 


27, 30, 31, 34, 37, 


Wilson, James, 13. 


Lace pede, 8. 


18, 24, 25, 27, 28, 


Naumann, J. A., 9, 


Piso, 4. 


Schalow, 17. 


38, 39, 41, 45, 48. 


Wimmer, 3. 


Lamarck, 32. 


29, 48. 


17. 


Pliny, 3. 


Schlegel, 14, 17. 


Susemihl, 17. 


Wolf, Joliann, 17. 


Landbeck, 17. 


Macleay, 15, 1C. 


Naumann, J. ., 9, 17, 


Plot, 9. 


Schomburgh, 16. 


Swainson, 13, 14, 15, 


Wolf, Joseph, 12, 14. 


Landois, 17. 


Maignon, 17. 


21, 23. 


Potts, 16. 


Schopss, 20. 


16. 


Wolley, 17. 


Landseer, 26. 


Maltzan, 17. 


Neale, 17. 


Pretre, 12, 13. 


Schwenckfeld, 4. 


Tasle", 17. 


Worm, 4. 


Latham, 6, 7, 9, 16. 


Marcgrave, 4. 


Nehrkorn, 17. 


PreVot, 13. 


Sclater, 12, 13, 16, 27, 


Tegetmeier, 7. 


Wotton, 3. 


Laugier, 12. 


Marcotte, 17. 


Neumann, 17. 


Proctor, 17. 


29, 41, 42, 45, 46, 47. 


Temminck, 11, 12, 14, 


Wright, T., 3. 


Lawrence, 16. 


Markwick, 10. 


Newman, 18, 31. 


Qudpat, 17. 


Scopoli, 7. 


17, 21, 22, 25, 4f>. 


Van-ell, 18, 29, 49. 


Layard, 16. 


Marsh, 36, 37, 43, 44 


Nieremberg, 4, 15, 


Ramsay, 16. 


Seba, 5. 


Thaun, 3. 


Zander, 17. 


Leach, 7. 


Marsigli, 8. 


Nilsson, 17. 


Ranzani. 14. 


Seebohm, 48. 


Thompson, IS. 


Zorn, 8. 



ORNITHORHYNCHUS. See PLATYPUS. 

ORONTES. See SYRIA. 

OROPUS, a Greek seaport, on the Euripus, in the district 
;, opposite Eretria. It was a border city between 
Boaotia and Attica, and its possession was a continual 
source of dispute between the two countries ; but at last 
it came into the final possession of Athens, and is always 
alluded to under the Roman empire as an Attic town. 
The actual harbour, which was called Delphinium, was at 
the mouth of the Asopus, about a mile north of the city. 
The famous oracle of Amphiaraus was situated in the ter 
ritory of Oropus, 12 stadia from the city. A village still 
called Oropo occupies the site of the ancient town. 

OROSIUS, PATTLUS, author of the once widely read 
Historiarum adversum Paganos Libri VII., was born in 
Spain towards the close of the 4th century; that he was 
a native of Tarragona is a somewhat precarious inference 
from his manner of referring to " Tarraco nostra " in Hist. 
vii. 22. Having entered the Christian priesthood, he 
naturally took an interest in the Priscillianist controversy 
then going on in his native country, and it was in connexion 
with this that he went (or was sent) to consult Augustine 
at Hippo in 413 or 414. After staying for some time in 
Africa as the disciple of Augustine, he was sent by him 
in 415 to Palestine with a letter of introduction to Jerome, 
then at Bethlehem. The ostensible purpose of his mission 
(apart, of course, from those of pilgrimage and perhaps 
relic hunting) was that he might gain further instruction 
from Jerome on the points raised by the Priscillianists 
and Origenists ; but in reality, it would seem, his business 
was to stir up and assist Jerome and others against 
Pelagius, who, since the synod of Carthage in 411, had 
been living in Palestine, and finding some acceptance there. 
The result of his arrival was that John, bishop of 
Jerusalem, was induced to summon at his capital in June 
415 a synod at which Orosius communicated the decisions 
of Carthage and read such of Augustine s writings against 
Pelagius as had at that time appeared. Success, however, 



was scarcely to be hoped for amongst Orientals who did 
not understand Latin, and whose sense of reverence was 
unshocked by the question of Pelagius " et quis est mihi 
Augustinus 1 " All that Orosius succeeded in obtaining 
was John s consent to send letters and deputies to Innocent 
of Rome ; and, after having waited long enough to learn 
the unfavourable decision of the synod of Diospolis or 
Lydda in December of the same year, he returned to north 
Africa, where he is believed to have died. According to 
Gennadius he carried with him recently discovered relics 
of the protomartyr Stephen from Palestine to the West. 

The earliest work of Orosius, Consultatio sive Commonitorium ad 
Augustinum de errore Priscillianistarum ct Origcnistarum, explains 
its object by its title; it was written soon after liis arrival in 
Africa, and is usually printed in the works of Augustine along with 
the reply of the latter, Contra Priscillianistas et Origenistas Liber ad 
Orosium. His next treatise, Liber Apologcticus de arbitrii libcrtatc, 
was written during his stay in Palestine, and in connexion with 
the controversy which engaged him there. It occurs in the 
Biblioth. Max. Pair., and also in Hardouin and Maiisi. The 
Histories adversum Paganos was undertaken at the suggestion of 
Augustine, to whom it is dedicated. When Augustine proposed 
this task he had already planned and made some progress with his 
own De Civitatc Dei ; it is the same argument that is elaborated 
by his disciple, namely, the evidence from history that the circum 
stances of the world had not really become worse since the intro 
duction of Christianity. The work, which is thus a pragmatical 
chronicle of the calamities that have happened to mankind from 
the fall down to the Gothic period, has little accuracy or learning, 
and even less of literary charm to commend it ; but its purpose 
gave it value in the eyes of the orthodox, and the Hormcsta, 
Ormesta, or Ormista (Oifosii] M[undi] Hist[oria]), as it was called, 
speedily attained a wide popularity. A free abridged translation by 
King Alfred is still extant (Old English text, with original in Latin, 
edited by H. Sweet, 1883). The cditio princeps of the original 
appeared at Vienna (1471); that of Havercamp (Leydcn, 1738 and 
1767) has now been superseded by Zangemeister, who has edited the 
Hist, and also the Lib. Apol. in vol. v. of the Corp. Scr. Eccl. Lat. 
(Vienna, 1882). The "sources" made use of by Orosius have been 
investigated by Miirner (De Orosii vita cjusque hist. libr. VII. 
adversus Paganos, 1844); besides the Old and New Testaments, he 
appears to have consulted Livy, Justin, Tacitus, Suetonius, Florus, 
and a cosmography, attaching also great value to Jerome s transla 
tion of the Chronicles of Eusebius. 



R P_ O K P 



51 



ORPHEUS, a very important figure in Greek legend. 
The name is an ancient Indo-European one ; the original 
Arbhu can be traced in the Ribhu of the Rigveda and the 
Alp or Elf of Teutonic folklore. It is, however, impossible 
to establish any connexion between the Orpheus legend in 
the highly developed form which alone has come down to 
us and the beliefs entertained about Ribhu and Elf. In 
Greece, Orpheus was always associated with the early 
Thraciau race, which was supposed to have inhabited the 
neighbourhood of Mount Helicon, the district of Pieria in 
Macedonia, and the coasts and country generally on the 
north of the ^Egean Sea. The religion of the Muses and 
the religion of Dionysus, with both of which Orpheus 
is connected, are intimately associated with this race (see 
MUSES). Orpheus was son of the river god CEagrus and 
the Muse Calliope. He played so divinely on the lyre 
that all nature stopped to listen to his music. When his 
wife Eurydice died, he went after her to Hades, and the 
strains of his lyre softened even the stern gods of the dead. 
Eurydice was released, and followed him to the upper 
world, but he looked back towards her before she was clear 
of the world of death and she vanished again from his 
sight. The Thracian women, jealous of his unconquerable 
love for his lost wife, tore him to pieces during the frenzy 
of the Bacchic orgies ; his head and his lyre floated " down 
the swift Hebrus to the Lesbian shore," where a shrine of 
Orpheus was built near Antissa. The legend, with all its 
melancholy, its love, and its sympathy with nature, has 
obviously taken shape in the hands of an early school of 
lyric poetry, associated with the worship of the Muses ; 
the ancient Thracian aoidoi are recognized as the earliest 
singers in Greece, but their art and their Muse-religion 
have passed to Lesbos, which was the chief seat of Greek 
lyric poetry in the 7th and 6th centuries B.C. The tragic 
death of Orpheus is obviously connected with the Bacchic 
ritual (see OEGIES). Orpheus is the representative of the 
god torn to pieces every year by the envious powers of 
nature, a ceremony that was duly enacted by the Bacchas, 
in earlier times with a human victim, afterwards with a 
bull to represent the bull-formed god. 

The Orpheus legend is closely analogous with that of 
Marsyas. Orpheus and Marsyas are embodiments of the 
supposed origin of music in Thrace and in Phrygia, 
countries inhabited by kindred races, viz., the influences of 
nature (both being closely connected with river-worship) 
and the teaching or gift of a goddess. The melancholy 
history of both must have its origin in the character of 
the Thrace-Phrygian people : the divine gift brings sorrow 
as well as power. Each uses the musical instrument that 
characterized his country. 

The name of Orpheus is equally important in the 
religious history of Greece ; and in this respect also it is 
associated with Thrace. He was the mythic founder of a 
religious school or sect, with a code of rules of life, a 
mystic eclectic theology, a system of purificatory and 
expiatory rites, and peculiar mysteries. This school is 
first observable under the rule of Pisistratus at Athens in 
the Gth century B.C. Its doctrines are founded on two 
elements (1) the Thraco-Phrygian religion of Bacchus 
with its enthusiastic orgies, its mysteries, and its purifica 
tions, and (2) the tendency to philosophic speculation on 
the nature and mutual relations of the numerous gods, 
developed at this time by intercourse with Egypt and the 
East, and by the quickened intercourse between different 
tribes and different religions in Greece itself. These 
causes produced similar results in different parts of 
Greece. The close analogy between Pythagoreanism and 
Orphism has been recognized from Herodotus (ii. 81) to 
the latest modern writers. Both inculcated a peculiar 
kind of ascetic life ; both had a mystical speculative 



theory of religion, with purificatory rites, abstinence from 
beans, &c. ; but Orphism was more especially religious, 
while Pythagoreanism, at least originally, inclined more to 
be a political and philosophical creed. 

The rules of the Orphic life (/Sib? Op<f>u<6<;) prescribed 
abstinence from beans, flesh, certain kinds of fish, &c., the 
wearing of a special kind of clothes, and numerous other 
practices and abstinences, for all of which reasons were 
given in religious myths (tepoi Aoyoi). The ritual of 
worship was peculiar, not admitting bloody sacrifices. 
The belief was taught in the homogeneity of all living 
things, in the transmigration of souls, in the view that the 
soul is imprisoned in the body, and that it may gradually 
attain perfection during connexion with a series of bodies. 
It is not possible here to treat of the Orphic mysteries (see 
Lobeck, Aglaophamus). The influence of Orphism on the 
Eleusinian mysteries has been described under MYSTERIES, 
and points of similarity and diversity noted. Greek litera 
ture was always hostile to the Orphic religion (cf. Eur., 
Hipp., 952 sq.; Plato, Rep., ii. 364; Theophr., Char., 25). 

A large number of writings in the tone of the Orphic 
religion existed and were ascribed to Orpheus, as the 
poems of the Trojan and Theban cycles to Homer and 
Hesiod. The real names of the authors of these works 
were in many cases known to those who inquired into the 
matter, though the common people believed that all were 
written before the time of Homer by Orpheus (Herod., ii. 
53). Aristotle declared that there had never been a poet 
Orpheus. The names of poets of the Orphic cycle can be 
traced as early as 550 B.C. Onomacritus is the most 
famous of them all (see ONOMACRITUS). These poems 
were recited at rhapsodic contests alongside of Homeric 
and Hesiodic works (Plato, Ion, 536). Orphic hymns 
were used in the mysteries at Phlya and Eleusis (Paus., ix. 
27, 2; 30, 5; i. 14). The poems were a favourite sub 
ject of study for the Alexandrian grammarians. Again in 
the controversies between Christian and pagan writers in 
the 3d and 4th centuries after Christ the Orphic religious 
poems played a great part : pagan writers quoted them to 
show the real meaning of the multitude of gods, while 
Christians retorted by reference to the obscene and 
disgraceful fictions by which they degraded the gods. 

The Orphic literature was united in ^corpus, entitled TO Opened, 
or Ta els Opcpfa a.va<pfp6^fva ; the different parts were connected, 
and the whole prefaced by a dedication to Musseus as son and first 
initiate of Orpheus. The chief poem was ^ TOV Optyf cos 6fo\oyia 
or /j.v0oTroua, which existed in several versions, showing consider 
able variations. There was also a collection of Orphic hymns, con 
taining numerous liturgic songs used in the mysteries^ and in exo 
teric ceremonial ; also practical treatises, "Ep-ya ital Hyuspcu, and 
poems on stones, herbs, and plants, &c. These works have been 
lost, except fragments collected by Lobeck. There exist several 
poems called Orphic (Argonautica, Hymns, Lithica). These are 
very late works, composed at the time when paganism was passing 
away before Christianity. 

The story of Orpheus, as was to be expected of a legend told 
both by Ovid and Boetius (bk. iii. cap. xxxv.), retained its popu 
larity throughout the Middle Ages and was transformed into the 
likeness of a northern fairy tale. In English medieval literature 
it appears in three somewhat different versions: Sir Orphco, a "lay 
of Brittany " printed from the Harleian MS. in Ritson s Ancient 
English Metrical Romances, vol. ii ; Orphco and Hcurodis from the 
Auchinleck MS. in David Laing s Select Remains of the Ancient 
Popular Poetry of Scotland ; and Kyng Orfciv from the Ashmolean 
MS. in Halliwell s Illustrations of Fairy Mjiliology (Shakespeare 
Soc., 1842). The poems bear trace of French influence. 

ORPIMENT (auripiymentum), the trisulphide of arsenic, 
As 2 S 3 , or yellow realgar, occurs in small quantities as a 
native mineral of a brilliant golden -yellow colour in 
Bohemia, Peru, &c. For industrial purposes an artificial 
orpiment is manufactured by subliming one part of sulphur 
with two of arsenious acid. The sublimate varies in colour 
from yellow to red, according to the intimacy of the 
combination of the ingredients ; and by varying the relative 



52 



R R - - O R T 



quantities used many intermediate tones may be obtained. 
These artificial preparations all contain free -arsenious acid, 
and are therefore highly poisonous. Formerly, under the 
name of king s yellow, a preparation of orpiment was in 
considerable use as a pigment, but now it has been largely 
superseded by chrome-yellow. It was also at one time 
used in dyeing and calico-printing, and for the unhairing 
of skins, &c.; but safer and equally efficient substitutes 
have been found. 

ORRERY, EARLS OF. See BOYLE. 

ORRIS-ROOT consists of the rhizomes or underground 
stems of three species of Iris, I. germcuiica, I. Jlorentina, 
and /. pallida, closely allied plants growing in subtropical 
and temperate latitudes, but principally identified with 
North Italy. The three plants are indiscriminately culti 
vated in the neighbourhood of Florence as an agricultural 
product under the name of "ghiaggiuolo." The rhizomes 
form joints of annual growth from 3 to 4 inches long ; they 
branch and give off rootlets at the joints, and when these 
attain five years of age they begin to decay. When taken 
out of the ground the branches and rootlets are trimmed 
off, the brown bark removed, and the separated joints are 
put up to dry and mature. In its fresh condition orris- 
root contains an acrid juice and has an earthy odour, but 
it is quite destitute of the fragrance which ultimately 
characterizes the substance, and which develops fully only 
after a lapse of about two years, probably by fermenta 
tion. As it comes into the market, orris-root is in the 
form of contorted sticks and irregular knobby pieces up 
to 4 inches in length, of a compact chalky appearance, 
having a delicate but distinct odour of violets. By distil 
lation with water a crystalline body known as orris-camphor 
or oil of orris, possessing the fragrant properties of orris- 
root, is obtained. It is present in exceedingly small 
quantity, from (HO to 80 per cent., and Professor 
Fliickiger has demonstrated that the crude distillate con 
sists only of myristic acid impregnated with or scented by 
the essential oil of orris, a body which may never be 
isolated owing to the necessarily minute quantities in 
which it could be produced. - Orris-root has been a well- 
known and esteemed perfume from early Greek times. It 
is principally powdered for use in dentifrices and other 
scented dry preparations ; but to some extent the crude 
oil is distilled for general perfumery purposes. It is also 
used in small pellets as issue peas. 

ORSIXI, FELICE (1819-1858), Italian patriot, was born 
in December 1819 at a small town in the Roman states not 
far from Forli. He was educated for the church, but soon 
abandoned that career, and joined Mazzini s Young Italy 
Society in 1838. For engaging in revolutionary projects 
he was arrested 1st May 1844, and sentenced at Rome to 
the galleys for life, but by the amnesty proclaimed on the 
accession of Pius IX. he was restored to liberty. In 1848 
he became leader of a band of youthful Romagnoli, 
distinguishing himself greatly at Vicenza and Treviso ; and 
in 1849 he was chosen a deputy to the Roman parliament. 
After the suppression of the revolution he became one of 
the most active agents of Mazzini, and while engaged in a 
mission to Hungary he was in December 1854 arrested at 
Hermannstadt and imprisoned at Mantua. A few months 
afterwards he made his escape by sawing through the bars 
of his cell, and in 1856 he published a narrative of his 
prison experiences under the title Austrian Dungeons in 
Italy. Some time after a rupture with Mazzini he went to 
Paris with the determination to assassinate Napoleon III., 
whom he regarded as the chief stumbling-block in the 
way of Italian independence, and the principal cause of the 
anti-liberal reaction in Europe. While the emperor and 
empress were returning from the opera on the evening of 
January 14, 1858, bombs were exploded at their carriage, 



but without inflicting any injury on either. In th 
attempt Orsini had three associates, Pieri, Rudio, and 
Gomez. Gomez was pardoned, the sentence against Rudio 
was commuted on the scaffold, but Orsini and Pieri were 
executed 13th March 1858. Orsini, whose action had an 
important influence in precipitating the campaign of 1859 
(see vol. ix. p. 624), met his fate with great dignity and 
stoicism. 

See Memoirs and Adventures of Felice Orsini written lij himself, 
translated by George Carboncl, Edinburgh, 1857 ; Lcttere Edite cd 
Incdite di Felice Orsini, 2 vols. , Milan, 1861 ; / Contemporanei 
Italiani Felice Orsini, by Enrico Montazio, Turin, 1862; La Vcriti 
sur Orsini, par un ancien Proscrit, 1879. 

ORSK (Yaman-kala of the Kirghiz), a district town 
of Orenburg, Russia, 155 miles to the east-south-east of 
the capital of the government, on the right bank of the 
Ural, was originally founded in 1735 as the principal 
Russian fort against the attacks of the Kirghiz, Though 
this was afterwards transferred to Orenburg, the town of 
Orsk has increased rapidly within the last few years, 
owing to the fertility of the surrounding country, to 
immigration, and to the growth of trade with the 
Kirghiz. The population, only 6000 some fifteen years 
ago, reached 14,350 in 1880, and has since become larger. 

ORTELIUS, ORTELL, or OERTEL, ABRAHAM, next to 
Mercator the greatest geographer of his age, was born at 
Antwerp in 1527, and died in the same city on June 28, 
1598. He visited various parts of the Netherlands and 
Germany (1575), England and Ireland (1577), and Italy 
on several occasions. His Theatrum Orbis Tcrrintm 
(published at Antwerp in 1570, and reissued in a revised 
form five times during his lifetime) was the first modern 
atlas, Mercator having, it is said, delayed the appearance of 
his collection out of consideration for his friend. Most of 
the maps were admittedly reproductions, and no attempt 
was made to reconcile discrepancies of delineation or nomen 
clature. To the modern eye even England and Scotland 
appear with amusing distortions (the Mons Grampius, e.g., 
lies between the Forth and the Clyde); but, taken as a 
whole, the noble folio, with its well-nigh one hundred maps, 
and its careful accompaniment of text, was a monument of 
rare erudition and industry ; and the author well deserved 
the appointment to be cosmographer to Philip II. bestowed 
upon him in 1575. A few years later he laid the basis of 
a critical treatment of ancient geography by his Synonymia 
geographica (Antwerp, 1578), reissued as Thesaurus geogra- 
phicus in 1 596. Other works from his pen are Itimrarium 
per nonnullas Gallise Belgicse, jmrtes, 1584 (reprinted in 
Hegenitius, Itin. Frisio-Ifoll.); Deorum dearumque capita, 
1573 (reprinted in Gronovius, Thes. Gr. Ant., vol. vii.). 

See Mamlo in Annalcs des Voyages, ii., and Gerard in Lull, de 
la soc. yeogr. d Anvers, 1880. 

ORTHONYX, the scientific name given in 1820, by 
Temminck, to a little bird, which, from the straightness 
of its claws, a character somewhat exaggerated by him, 
its large feet and spiny tail, he judged to be generically 
distinct from any other form. Concerning its affinities 
much doubt has long prevailed, and this has been only 
lately set at rest. The typical species, 0. spinicaiida, is 
from south-eastern Australia, where it is said to be very 
local in its distribution, and strictly terrestrial in its habits. 
In the course of time two other small birds from New 
Zealand, where they are known as the " Whitehead " and 
" Yellowhead," were referred to the genus, under the 
names of 0. albicilla 1 and 0. ochrocephala, and then the 
question of its affinity became more interesting. By some 
systematists it was supposed to belong to the otherwise 
purely Neotropical Dendrocolaptidx, and in that case 
would have been the sole representative of the Tracheo- 

1 It may be charitably conjectured that the nomenclator intended 
to write albicapilla. 



K T R V 



53 



phone Passeres in the Australian Region. Others con 
sidered it one of the nearest relatives of Menura, and if 
that view were correct it would add a third form to the 
small section of Pseudoscines (see LYRE-BIRD, vol. xv. p. 
115); while Sundevall, in 1872, placed it not far from 
Timdia, among a group the proper sorting of which will 
probably for years tax the ingenuity of ornithologists. 
The late Mr W. A. Forbes shewed (Proc. Zool. ,$oc., 1882, 
p. 544) that this last position was the most correct, as 
Orthonyx spinicauda proved on dissection to be one of 
the true Oscines, but yet to stand, so far as is known, alone 
among birds of that group, or any other group of Passeres, 
in consequence of the superficial course taken by the (left) 
carotid artery, wkich is nowhere contained in the subver- 
tebral canal. Whether this discovery will require the 
segregation of the genus as the representative of a separate 
Family Orlhonycidx which has been proposed by Mr 
Salvin (CataL Coll. Strickland, p. 294) remains to be 
seen. Forbes also demonstrated that one at least of the 
two New-Zealand species above mentioned, 0. ochrocephala, 
had been wrongly referred to this genus, and they there 
fore at present stand as Clitonyx. This is a point of some 
little importance in its bearing on the relationship of the 
fauna of the two countries, for Orthonyx was supposed to 
be one of the few genera of Land-birds common to both. 

The typical species of Orthonyx for the scientific 
name has been adopted in English is rather larger than 
a Skylark, coloured above not unlike a Hedge-Sparrow. 
The wings are, however, barred with white, and the chin, 
throat, and breast are in the male pure white, but of a 
bright reddish-orange in the female. The remiges are very 
short, rounded, and much incurved, showing a bird of 
weak flight. The rectrices are very broad, the shafts stiff, 
and towards the tip divested of barbs. Two other species 
that seem rightly to belong to the genus have been 
described 0. spaldingi from Queensland, of much greater 
size than the type, and with a jet-black plumage, and 0. 
noviv-guinete, from the great island of that name, which 
seems closely to resemble 0. spinicauda. (A. N.) 

ORTOLAN (French, Ortolan), the Emberiza hortulana 
of Linnaeus, a bird so celebrated for the delicate flavour of 
its flesh as to have become proverbial. A native of most 
European countries the British Islands (in which it 
occurs but rarely) excepted as well as of western Asia, it 
emigrates in autumn presumably to the southward of the 
Mediterranean, though its winter quarters cannot be said 
to be accurately known, and return.s about the end of 
April or beginning of May. Its distribution throughout 
its breeding-range seems to be very local, and for this no 
reason can be assigned. It was long ago said in France, 
and apparently with truth, to prefer wine-growing districts ; 
but it certainly does not feed upon grapes, and is found 
equally in countries w r here vineyards are unknown reach 
ing in Scandinavia even beyond the arctic circle and then 
generally frequents corn-fields and their neighbourhood. 
In appearance and habits it much resembles its congener 
the YELLOW-HAMMER (q.v.\ but wants the bright colouring 
of that species, its head for instance being of a greenish- 
grey instead of a lively yellow. The somewhat monotonous 
song of tho cock is also much of the same kind ; and, 
where the bird is a familiar object to the country people, 
who usually, associate its arrival with the return of fair 
weather, they commonly apply various syllabic interpreta 
tions to its notes, just as our boys do to those of the 
Yellow-hammer. The nest is placed on or near the ground, 
but the eggs seldom shew the hair-like markings so 
characteristic of those of most Buntings. Ortolans are 
netted in great numbers, kept alive in an artificially 
lighted or darkened room, and fed with oats and other 
seeds. In a very short time they become enormously fat, 



and are then killed for the table. If, as is supposed, the 
Ortolan be the Miliaria of Varro, the practice of artifici 
ally fattening birds of this species is very ancient. In 
French the word Ortolan is used so as to be almost syn 
onymous with the English " Bunting" thus the Ortolan- 
de-neige is the Snow-Bunting (Plectrophanes nivalis), the 
Ortolan-de-riz is the Rice-bird or " Bobolink " of North 
America (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), so justly celebrated for 
its delicious flavour ; but the name is also applied to other 
birds much more distantly related, for the Ortolan of some 
of the Antilles, where French is spoken, is a little Ground- 
Dove of the genus Chamxpelia. 

In Europe the Eeccafico (Figeater) shares with the 
Ortolan the highest honours of the dish, and this may be 
a convenient place to point out that the former is a name 
of equally elastic signification. The true Eeccafico is said 
to be what is known in England as the Garden-Warbler 
(the Motacilla salicaria of Linnaeus, the Sylvia hortensi* 
of many writers); but in Italy any soft-billed small bird 
that can be snared or netted in its autumnal emigration 
passes under the name in the markets and cook-shops. 
The "Beccafico," however, is not as a rule artificially 
fattened, and on this account is preferred by some sensi 
tive tastes to the Ortolan. (A. N.) 

ORVIETO, a town in Umbria, Italy, on the main road 
from Florence to Rome, situated on an almost isolated 
volcanic rock, about 770 feet above the plain. It is now 
the capital of a province, the seat of a bishop, and in 1881 
had a population of 8626. The town is of Etruscan origin, 
and is said to have joined the Volscians in their war 
against Rome ; it is the Urbibentum of Procopius (with 
which the Herbanum of Pliny has been conjecturally 
identified), and the mediaeval Urbs Veins (whence the 
modern name). Owing to the strong Guelphic sympathies 
of the inhabitants, and the inaccessible nature of the site, 
Orvieto has been constantly used as a place of refuge by 
the popes, of whom no less than thirty-two have at 
different times found shelter there. The town is very 
picturesque, both from its magnificent position and also 
from the unusually large number of fine 13th-century 
houses and palaces which still exist in its streets. The 
chief glory of the place is its splendid cathedral, dedicated 
to the Virgin ; it was founded in 1290 by Nicholas IV. on 
the site of an older church ; it was designed by Lorenzo 
Maitani, a Sienese architect, and from the 13th till the 16th 
century was enriched by the labours of a whole succession 
of great Italian painters and sculptors (see ORCAGNA). 
The exterior is covered with black and white marble ; the 
interior is of grey limestone with bands of a dark basaltic 
stone. The plan consists of large rectangular nave, with 
semicircular recesses for altars, opening out of the aisles, 
north and south. There are two transeptal chapels, and 
a short choir. The most magnificent part of the exterior 
is the west facade, built of richly-sculptured marble, 
divided into three gables with intervening pinnacles, much 
resembling the front of Siena cathedral, the work of the 
same architect. The mosaics are modern, and the whole 
church has suffered greatly from recent "restoration." 
The four wall-surfaces that flank the three western door 
ways are decorated with very beautiful sculpture in relief, 
once ornamented with colour, the work mainly of pupils of 
Niccolo Pisano, at the end of the 13th century. This at 
least is Vasari s statement. Giovanni Pisano, Arnolfo del 
Cambio, and Fra Guglielmo da Pisa were the chief of 
these. The subjects are scenes from the Old and New 
Testaments, and the Final Doom, with Heaven and Hell. 
In the interior on the north, the Cappella del Corporale 
possesses a large silver shrine, enriched with countless 
figures in relief and subjects in translucent coloured enamels 
one of the most important specimens of early silver- 



54 



K Y S C 



smith s work that yet exists in Italy. It was begun by 
Ugolino Veri of Siena in 1338, and was made to contain 
the Holy Corporal from Bolsena, which, according to the 
legend, became miraculously stained with blood during the 
celebration of mass to convince a sceptical priest of the 
truth of the doctrine of transubstantiation. This is 
supposed to have happened in the middle of the 13th 
century, while Urban IV. was residing at Orvieto; and 
it was to commemorate this miracle that the existing 
cathedral was built. On the south side is the chapel of 
S. Brizio, separated from the nave by a fine 14th-century 
wrought-iron screen. The walls and vault of this chapel 
are covered with some of the best-preserved and finest 
frescos in Italy among the noblest works of Fra 
Angelico, his pupil Benozzo Gozzoli, and Luca Signorelli, 
mainly painted between 1450 and 1501, the latter being 
of especial importance in the history of art owing to their 
great influence on Michelangelo in his early days (see 
Symonds, Renaissance in Italy Fine Arts, pp. 278-291). 
The choir stalls are fine and elaborate specimens of tarsia 
and rich wood-carving the work of various Sienese artists 
in the 14th century. In 16th-century sculpture the 
cathedral is especially rich, containing many statues, groups, 
and altar-reliefs by Simone Mosca, Ippolito Scalza, and 
Gian di Bologna, some of them well designed and care 
fully executed, but all showing strongly the rapid decay 
into which the art of that time was falling. The well, 
now disused, called II pozzo di S. Patrizio, is one of the 
chief curiosities of Orvieto. It is 180 feet deep to the 
water-level and 46 feet in diameter, cut in the rock, with 
a double winding inclined plane, so that oxen could ascend 
and descend to carry up the water from the bottom. It 
was begun by the architect San Gallo in 1527 for Clement 
VII., who fled to Orvieto after the sack of Rome, and was 
finished by Simone Mosca under Paul III. It resembles 
in many respects the " Well of Joseph " (Saladin) in the 
citadel of Cairo. The Palazzo Faina has an interesting 
collection of objects found in Etruscan tombs, of which a 
large number exist in the neighbourhood of Orvieto. The 
church of S. Domenico contains one of the finest works in 
sculpture by Arnolfo del Cambio. This is the tomb with 
recumbent effigy of the Cardinal Brago or De Braye 
(1282), with much beautiful sculpture and mosaic. It is 
signed HOC OPVS FECIT ARNVLFVS. It was imitated by 
Giovanni Pisano in his monument to Pope Benedict XI. 
at Perugia. 

See Guglielmo della Valle, Storia del Duomo di Orvieto (1791), 
and Stampe del Duomo di Orvieto (1791) ; Luzi, Descrizione del 
Duomo di Orvieto, &c., 1836; Cicognara, Storia della Scultura, 
2d eel, 1823-24; Perkins, Tuscan Scutytors, 1864; Yasari, File dci 
jrittori, &c., Milanesi s ed., 1878-82; Gruner, Die Basreliefs des 
Doms zu Orvieto, 1858 ; Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Painting in Italy, 
vols. i. and iii., 1866; Benois, Cathedrale d Orvieto, 1877. For 
Etruscan remains see Dennis, Cities of Etruria, ii. p. 36, 1878. 

ORYEKHOFF-ZUYEFF, or ORYEKHOVSKIY POGOST, a 
village of European Russia, in the Pokroff district of the 
Vladimir government, 12 miles west of Pokroff by rail, on 
the Klyazrna, a subtributary of the Volga. A great cotton 
factory in the vicinity has become the centre of a new 
town, which is called after the village, but also frequently 
Nikolskoye. About 12,600 hands are employed in the 
cotton manufacture itself, and about 6000 in digging peats 
and making bricks for the firm. There are forty-two steam 
engines (978 horse-power), and goods were manufactured 
to the value of 8,328,000 roubles in 1881 (2,590,000 in 
1861). The cotton is procured from Asia and western 
Europe, and the goods are sold throughout southern and 
south-eastern Russia. 

OSBORX, SHERARD (1822-1875), English admiral and 
explorer, was the son of Lieutenant-Colonel Osborn of the 
Madras army, and was born 25th April 1822. Entering 



the navy as a first-class volunteer in 1837, he was in the 
following year entrusted, though only a midshipman, with 
the command of a gunboat, the " Emerald, " at the attack 
on Kedah. He was present at the reduction of Canton 
in 1841, and at the capture of the batteries of Woo- 
sung in the following year. Having passed lieutenant in 
1844, he was in the same year appointed gunnery mate 
of the " Collingwood," under Sir George Seymour in the 
Pacific. On account of his interest in the fate of many 
of his friends and messmates, he took a prominent part in 
advocating a new search expedition for Sir John Franklin. 
When it was agreed upon he was appointed to the com 
mand of one of the ships, and performed a remarkable 
sledge journey to the western extremity of Prince of Wales 
Island, of which he published an account entitled Stray 
Leaves from an Arctic Journal, 1852. In the new expedi 
tion fitted out in the spring of that year he also took part as 
commander of the " Pioneer," and, after spending two trying 
winters up Wellington Channel, returned home in 1855. 
In 1856 he published the journals of Robert M Clure, 
giving a narrative of the discovery of the North- West 
Passage. Shortly after his return he was called to active 
service in connexion with the Russian war ; and in com 
mand of a light squadron of gunboats on the Sea of Azoff 
he distinguished himself in the destruction of the stores 
of the enemy at various points on the coast. Receiving 
post rank, he was appointed to the " Medusa," in which 
he continued to command the Sea of Azoff squadron until 
the conclusion of peace. As commander of the " Furious " 
he took a prominent part in the second Chinese war, during 
which he performed the remarkable feat of proving the 
navigability of the Yang-tsze, by taking the " Furious " 
as far up the river as Hankow, 600 miles from the sea. 
In 1859 he returned to England in broken health, and to 
support his family engaged in literary pursuits, contribut 
ing many important articles to Blackwood s Magazine, and 
publishing in December of that year The Career, Last 
Voyage, and Fate of Sir John Franklin. In 1864 he was 
appointed to the command of the "Royal Sovereign," to 
assist Captain Coles in his experiments regarding the 
turret system of shipbuilding. Retiring soon afterwards 
on half pay, he was in 1865 appointed agent to the Great 
Indian Peninsula Railway Company, and in 1867 man 
aging director of the Telegraph Construction and Main 
tenance Company, for the construction of a submarine 
system of telegraphy between Great Britain and her Eastern 
and Australian dependencies. In 1873 he was promoted 
rear-admiral. Continuing to interest himself in Arctic 
exploration, he induced A. H. Markham to visit Baffin s 
Bay in a whaler to report on the possibility of ice-naviga 
tion with the aid of steam. A record of his observations 
was published under the title of a Whaling Cruise to 
Baffin s Bay in 1873, with the result that a new Arctic 
expedition was fitted out in 1874. Osborn died 6th May 
1875. 

OSCANS, or OPICANS, was the name given both by 
Greeks and Romans to one of the ancient nations of cen 
tral Italy. There can be no doubt that the original form 
of the name was Opscus, which, as we learn from Festus, 
was still used by Ennius. This the Greeks softened into 
Opicus, while the Latin writers always used Oscus as a 
national appellation, though they occasionally employ the 
term " opicus " in the sense of barbarous or ignorant. It 
is singular that, though there can be no doubt the name 
was a national one, it is not found in history as the 
name of any particular nation. No mention occurs of the 
Oscans among the populations of Italy that were succes 
sively reduced by the Roman arms ; but we learn inciden 
tally from a passage in Livy (x. 20) that the language of 
the Samnites and Campanians was Oscan ; and it is cer- 



O S H O S N 



55 



tain that this continued to be the vernacular tongue of the 
people of Italy until long after the Roman conquest. Of 
the ethnical affinities or origin of the Oscans we know 
nothing, except what may be gathered philologically from 
the remains of their language ; and their relations with the 
Sanmites and other Sabellian tribes, whom we find during 
the historical period settled in this part of Italy, are 
extremely obscure. Perhaps the most plausible theory is 
that they were in very early times the inhabitants of the 
regions subsequently occupied by a race of invaders from 
the north, who were known as Sabines, Samnites, and 
Sabellians, but who, being comparatively few in numbers, 
and in an inferior stage of civilization, gradually adopted 
the language of the conquered race (see ITALY, vol. xiii. 
p. 445). 

It is certain that the Oscan language continued in com 
mon use as a vernacular dialect till the close of the Roman 
republic. Ennius boasted that he was possessed of three 
tongues because he could speak Latin, Greek, and Oscan 
(Gell. xvii. 17); and at the time of the Social War (88 
B.C.) the allies made an attempt to introduce it as the 
official language, and struck coins with Oscan inscriptions 
bearing the names of Viteliu (for Italia), Safinim, &c. 
After the failure of that movement there can be no doubt 
that the language was never again employed for official 
purposes, though it would linger long in use among the 
rustic populations of the mountains. Nor was it altogether 
without a literature, for the FabulasAtellanse, a kind of rude 
farces popular among the Romans, not only derived their 
names and origin from the Oscan district of Campania, 
but were undoubtedly in the first instance composed and 
recited in the Oscan dialect. The monuments of the 
language which have been preserved to us by inscriptions 
are much more numerous than those of any other ancient 
Italian dialect. The principal of them are enumerated in 
the article above referred to, and they are all collected and 
examined in detail by Professor Mommsen in his Unter- 
Italischen Dialekte (Leipsic, 1850). The general result is 
that the Oscan language must have resembled the Latin 
much more closely than any other of the Italian dialects, 
but wanted almost entirely the Greek or Pelasgic element 
which is found so distinctly in the more cultivated 
language, and which formed the basis of the Messapian and 
other dialects of the southern part of the Italian penin 
sula. 

See Huschke, Die Oskischcn und Sabcllischcn Dcnkmdler, Elber- 
fekl, 1856. 

OSHKOSH, a city of the United States, capital of 
Winnebago county, Wisconsin, stretches from the west 
side of Lake Winnebago for about 3 miles up Fox River 
to Lake Buttes des Morts, and covers an area of about 
8 square miles. By rail the distance from Milwaukee is 
84 miles. Oshkosh is the seat of the United States 
district court for the eastern district of Wisconsin ; and, 
besides the court-house, it contains the State normal 
school, a fine high school, and two opera-houses. The 
leading industry is the manufacture of sashes, doors, and 
blinds. Lumber shingles, matches, trunks, and carriages 
are also manufactured, and there are foundries, match- 
factories, flour-mills, and breweries. The population was 
G085 in 1860, 12,663 in 1870, and 15,748 in 1880. 
Oshkosh may be said to date from 1836; it was in 
corporated in 1853. In 1859, 1866, 1874, and 1875 it 
suffered severely from conflagrations. 

OSIANDER, ANDREAS (1498-1552), German Reformer, 
was born at Gunzenhausen, near Nuremberg, on December 
19, 1498. His German name was Heiligmann, or, ac 
cording to others, Hosemann. After studying at Leipsic, 
Altenburg, and Ingolstadt, he was ordained in 1520 to the 
priesthood, when he became Hebrew tutor in the Augus- 



tinian convent at Nuremberg. Two years afterwards ho 
was appointed preacher in the St Lorenz Kirche, and 
about the same time he publicly joined the Lutheran 
party, taking a prominent part in the discussion which 
ultimately led to the adoption of the Reformation by the 
city. He married in 1525. As a theologian of recognized 
ability and influence, he was present at the Marburg con 
ference in 1529, at the Augsburg diet in 1530, and at the 
signing of the Smalkald articles in 1537, and took part in 
other public transactions of importance in the history of 
the Reformation ; if he had an exceptionally large number 
of personal enemies the circumstance can be readily 
explained by his vehemence, coarseness, and arrogance as 
a controversialist. The introduction of the Augsburg 
Interim in 1548 necessitated his departure from Nurem 
berg ; he went first to Breslau, and afterwards settled at 
Konigsberg as professor in the new university there at the 
call of Duke Albert of Prussia. Here in 1550 he published 
two disputations, the one De Lcge et Evany elio and the other 
De Justijicatione, which aroused a vehement controversy 
that was not brought to a close by his death in 1552 (Octo 
ber 17). The nature of the dispute has been indicated 
elsewhere (see LUTHERANS, vol. xv. p. 85). The party 
was afterwards led by Funk, Osiander s son-in-law, but 
disappeared after his execution for high treason in 1566. 

Osiander, besides a number of controversial writings, published 
a corrected edition of the Vulgate, with notes, in 1522, and a 
Harmony of the Gospels the first work of its kind in 1537. His 
son Lukas Osiander (1534-1604), a prominent ecclesiastic in Wiir- 
temberg, published a Biblia Latino, ad fontes Hcbr. text, emcndata 
cum breri et perspicua expositione illustrata (1573-86) in seven 
quarto volumes, which was highly appreciated in its day, an Insti- 
tutio ChristiansB Religionis (1576), and, his best-known work, an 
Epitome of the Magdeburg Centuries. Several other Osianders, also 
descendants of Andreas, figure with more or less prominence in the 
theological literature of Germany. 

OSIRIS. See EGYPT, vol vii. p. 716. 

OSKALOOSA, a city of the United States, capital of 
Mahaska county, Iowa, about 55 miles south-east of Des 
Moines. It lies on high ground between the Des Moines 
and the South Skunk, in a fine agricultural district, with 
coal and iron mines in the vicinity ; and it contains two 
colleges Oskaloosa College (1861), belonging to the 
"Disciples," and Penn College (1873), a Quaker institu 
tion flour-mills, wool-factories, iron and brass foundries, 
lumber yards, &c., and an artesian well 2900 feet deep. 
The population, 3204 in 1870 and 4598 in 1880, is esti 
mated at over 7000 in 1884. 

OSMAN. This transcription of the Arabic name 
OthrnAn (which first appears in history as borne by the 
famous companion of Mohammed, and third caliph, see 
vol. xvi. pp. 548, 563) corresponds to the pronunciation 
of the Persians and Turks, and is therefore commonly used 
in speaking of Osman I. Ghazi, the founder of the dynasty 
of Osmanli or Ottoman Turks. He took the title of sultan 
in 699 A.H. (1299 A.D.), ruled in Asia Minor, and died in 
726 A.H. Osman II., the sixteenth Ottoman sultan, came 
to the throne in 1616 A.D., and was strangled in a sedition 
of the Janissaries in 1621. See TURKEY. 

OSMIUM.. See PLATINUM. 

OSNABRUCK, a prosperous manufacturing town of 
Prussia, the see of a Roman Catholic bishop, and the 
capital of a district of its own name in the province of 
Hanover, is pleasantly situated on the Hase, 70 miles to 
the west of the town of Hanover. The older streets are 
narrow and crooked, containing many interesting examples 
of Gothic and Renaissance domestic architecture, while the 
substantial houses of the modem quarters testify to the 
present well-being of the town. The old fortifications have 
been converted into promenades. The Roman Catholic 
cathedra], with its three towers, is a spacious building of 
the 12th century, partly in the Romanesque and partly in 



S S P 



the Transitional style ; but it is inferior in architectural 
interest to the Marienkirche, a fine Gothic structure of the 
14th century. The town-house contains portraits of the 
plenipotentiaries engaged in concluding the peace of West 
phalia, the negotiations for which were partly carried on 
here. Among the other principal buildings are the episco 
pal residence, the law courts, the two gymnasia, the com 
mercial school, and various other educational and charitable 
institutions. The museum contains antiquities and objects 
of natural history. The lunatic asylum on the Gertruden- 
berg occupies the site of an ancient nunnery. Linen was 
formerly the staple product of Osnabriick, but no longer 
takes so prominent a position among its manufactures, 
which now include paper, dyes, chemicals, machinery, nails, 
pianos, tobacco, and cotton. There are also large iron and 
steel works and a rolling mill. A brisk trade is carried on 
in grain, drugs, linen, and "Westphalian hams, and import 
ant cattle and horse fairs are held here at regular inter 
vals. Osnabriick contains (1880) 32,812 inhabitants, one- 
third of whom are Roman Catholics. The patriotic writer 
and philanthropist Julius Moser (1720-94) was a native of 
Osnabriick, and has a statue in the cathedral square. 

Osnabriick is a place of very ancient origin, and in 888 received 
the right to establish a mint, an annual fair, and a custom-house. 
It was surrounded with walls towards the close of the llth century. 
The bishopric to which it gave name was founded by Charlemagne 
after the subjugation of the Saxon inhabitants of the district 
(c. 790), and embraced what was afterwards the south-west part of 
the kingdom of Hanover. The town maintained a very independent 
attitude towards its nominal rulers, the bishops, and joined the 
Hanseatic League. It reached the height of its prosperity in the 
15th century, but the decay inaugurated by the dissensions of the 
Reformation was accelerated by the trials of the Thirty Years War. 
The peace of A\ f estphalia decreed that the bishopric of Westphalia 
should be held alternately by a Roman Catholic and a Protestant 
bishop, and this curious state of affairs lasted down to its seculariza 
tion in 1803. The last bishop was the late duke of York. Since 
1859 Osnabriick has again been the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, 
who, of course, has no territorial jurisdiction. The revived pro 
sperity of the town dates from the middle of last century. 

OSORIO., GEROHYMO (1506-1580), "the Cicero of 
Portugal," belonged to a noble family, and was born at 
Lisbon in 1506. After studying languages at Salamanca, 
philosophy at Paris, and theology at Bologna, he rose 
through successive ecclesiastical dignities to the bishopric 
of Sylves. He evaded the necessity of accompanying Dom 
Sebastian on his first African expedition (which he did all 
in his power to discourage) only by setting out for Rome, 
where he was well received by Gregory XIII. The disaster 
which overtook the Portuguese arms at Alcazarquivir in 
1578 had a serious effect on Osorio s health and spirits ; he 
withdrew into solitude, and died at Tavira on August 20, 
1580. 

His principal work, a history of the reign of King Emanuel I. 
(De rebus Emmanuelis Lusitaniee rcyis invictissimi virtute et 
auspicio domi forisque gestis libri XII., 1571), undertaken at the 
request of Cardinal Henry, entitles him to considerable literary 
lank, not only ay pure Latinity and artistic arrangement, but also 
by historical accuracy and insight, as well as by impartiality and 
elevation of tone. An English translation appeared in 1752; and 
versions in French, German, and Dutch also exist. Osorio s DC 
gloria libri V. (1552), and his double treatise De nobilitate civiliet 
de nobilitate Christiana (1542) have been often reprinted; of the 
former D Alembert is reported to have declared that it was really 
a production of Cicero s palmed off by the modern as his own. 
Osorio also publishc l De rcgis iiistitutione et discipllna libri VIII. 
(1574) and a large mass of theological matter, including commen 
taries on the Epistle to the Romans, the Gospel according to John, 
and some of the minor prophets. His Adnwnitio and Epistola to 
Queen Elizabeth of England are polemical treatises. The Opera 
Oinnia of Osorio were collected and published at Rome by his 
nephew in 1592 (4 vols. folio). 

OSPREY, or OSPRAY, a word said to be corrupted 
from " Ossifrage, " in Latin OsKifraga or bone-breaker. 
The Ossifraga of Pliny (//. N., x. 3) and some other classical 
writers seems, as already said, to have been the LAMMER- 
GEYER (vol. xiv. p. 244); but the name, not inapplicable 



in that case, has been transferred through a not 
uncommon but inexplicable confusion to another bird 
which is no breaker of bones, save incidentally those of 
the fishes it devours. 1 The Osprey is a rapacious bird, of 
middling size and of conspicuously-marked plumage, the 
white of its lower parts, and often of its head, contrasting 
sharply with the dark brown of the back and most of its 
upper parts when the bird is seen on the wing. It is the 
Falco haliaetus of Linnaeus, but unquestionably deserving 
generic separation was, in 1810, established by Savigny 
(Ois. de VEgypte, p. 35) as the type of a new genus which 
he was pleased to term Pandion a name since pretty 
generally accepted. It has commonly been kept in the 
Family Falconidx, but of late regarded as the representa 
tive of a separate Family, Pandionidoc, for which view not 
a little can be said. 2 Pandion differs from the Falconidse 
not only pterylologically, as long ago observed by Nitzsch, 
but also osteologically, as pointed out by M. Alphonse 
Milne-Edwards (Ois. Foss. France, ii. pp. 413, 419), and it 
is a curious fact that in some of the characters in which it 
differs structurally from the Falconidse, it agrees with 
certain of the Owls ; but the most important parts of its 
internal structure, as well as of its pterylosis, quite forbid 
a belief that there is any near alliance of the two groups. 

The Osprey is one of the most cosmopolitan Birds-of- 
Prey. From Alaska to Brazil, from Lapland to Natal, 
from Japan to Tasmania, and in some of the islands of the 
Pacific, it occurs as a winter-visitant or as a resident. The 
countries which it does not frequent would be more easily 
named than those in which it is found and among the 
former are Iceland and New Zealand. Though migratory 
in Europe at least, it is generally independent of climate. 
It breeds equally on the half-thawed shores of Hudson s 
Bay and on the cays of Honduras, in the dense forests of 
Finland and on the barren rocks of the Red Sea, in 
Kamchatka and in West Australia. Where, through 
abundance of food, it is numerous as in former days \vas 
the case in the eastern part of the United States the nests 
of the Fish-Hawk (to use its American name) may be 
placed on trees to the number of three hundred close 
together. Where food is scarcer and the species accord 
ingly less plentiful, a single pair will occupy an isolated 
rock, and jealously expel all intruders of their kind, as 
happens in Scotland. 3 The lover of birds cannot see many 
more enjoyable spectacles than an Osprey engaged in 
fishing poising itself aloft, with upright body, and wings 
beating horizontally, ere it plunges like a plummet beneath 
the water, and immediately after reappears shaking a 
shower of drops from its plumage. The feat of carrying 
off an Osprey s eggs is often difficult, and attended with 
some risk, but has more than once tempted the most 
daring of birds nesters. Apart from the dangerous situa 
tion not unfrequently chosen by the birds for their eyry, 
a steep rock in a lonely lake, only to be reached after a 

1 Another supposed old form of the name is " Orfraie "; but that is 
said by M. Holland (Faune popul. France, ii. p. 9, note), quoting M. 
Suchier (Zeitschr. Rum. Philol., i. p. 432), to arise from a mingling of 
two wholly different sources: (1) Oripelargvs, Qriperayus, Orjmu x, 
and (2) Ossifrac/a. " Orfraie " again is occasionally interchanged with 
Effraie (which, through such dialectical forms as Fresaie, Fressaia, 
is said to corne from the Latin pr/vsaya), the ordinary French name 
for the Barn-Owl, Aluco flammeus (see OWL, infra, p. 91) ; but the 
subject is too complex for any but an expert philologist to treat. 
According to Prof. Skeat s Dictionary (i. p. 408), "Asprey" is the 
oldest English form ; but " Osprey" dates from Cotgrave at least. 

2 Mr Sharpe goes further, and makes a " Suborder " Pandiones ; 
but the characters on which he founds such an important division are 
obviously inadequate. The other genus associated with Pandion by 
him has been shown by Mr Gurney (Ibis, 1878, p. 455) to be nearly 
allied to the ordinary Sea-Eagles (Haliaetus), and therefore one of the 
true Falconidee. 

3 Two good examples of the different localities chosen by this bird 
for its nest are illustrated in Oothcca Wollcyana, pis. B. & H. 



S R O S T 



57 



long swim through chilly water, or the summit of a very 
tall tree, their fierceness in defence of their eggs and 
young is not to be despised. Men and boys have had 
their head gashed by the sharp claw of the angry parent, 
and this happening when the robber is already in a pre 
carious predicament, and unable to use any defensive 
weapon, renders the enterprise formidable. But the prize is 
worthy of the danger. Few birds lay eggs so beautiful or 
so rich in colouring: their white or pale ground is spotted, 
blotched, or marbled with almost every shade of purple, 
orange, and red passing from the most delicate lilac, buff, 
and peach-blossom, through violet, chestnut, and crimson, 
to a nearly absolute black. A few years ago some of the 
best informed ornithologists were led to think that perse 
cution had exterminated the Osprey from Great Britain, 
except as a chance visitant. This opinion proved to be 
incorrect, and at the present time the bird is believed still 
to breed in at least two counties of Scotland, but the secret 
of its resorts is carefully guarded by those who wish to 
retain it as a member of the country s fauna, for publica 
tion would doubtless speedily put an end to its occu 
pancy. (A. N.) 

OSRHOENE, or ORRHOENE, the district of western 
Mesopotamia of which Edessa was the capital (see 
MESOPOTAMIA, vol. xvi. p. 47). It may be here added 
that the older form of the name appears to be Chosroene 
(Chosdroene). Edessa or Orrhoi thus appears to have 
been "the city of Chosrau," implying an early Parthian 
influence. See G. Hoffmann in Z. D. M. G., xxxii. 743. 

OSSETT-CUM-GAWTHORPE, a township and urban 
sanitary district in the West Riding of Yorkshire, includ 
ing the contiguous hamlets of Ossett, South Ossett, and 
Gawthorpe, is situated about 3 miles west-north-west of 
Wakefield, and 1| north-west from the Horbury station 
on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. The Great 
Northern Railway has two stations in the township. The 
church of the Holy Trinity, a fine cruciform structure in 
the Early Decorated style, was erected in 1865 at a cost of 
20,000. There are woollen cloth and mungo mills, and 
in the neighbourhood extensive collieries. The population 
of the township (3105 acres) in 1871 was 9190, and in 
1881 it was 10,957. 

OSSIAN, or OISIN. See CELTIC LITERATURE, vol. v. 
pp. 311, 313, and GAELIC LITERATURE, vol. x. p. 13. 

OSSOLT, SARAH MARGARET FULLER, MARCHIONESS, 
(1810-1850), an American authoress, was the eldest child 
of Timothy Fuller, a lawyer and politician of some 
eminence, and was born at Cambridge Port, Massachusetts, 
23d May 1810. Her education was conducted by her 
father, who, she states, made the mistake of thinking to 
"gain time by bringing forward the intellect as early as 
possible," the consequence being "a premature develop 
ment of brain that made her a youthful prodigy by day, 
and by night a victim of spectral illusions, nightmare, and 
somnambulism." At six years she began to read Latin, 
and at a very early age she had selected as her favourite 
authors Shakespeare, Cervantes, and Moliere. Soon the 
great amount of study exacted of her ceased to be a 
burden, and reading became a habit and a passion. 
Having made herself familiar with the masterpieces of 
French, Italian, and Spanish literature, she in 1833 began 
the study of German, and within the year had read some 
of the masterpieces of Goethe, Korner, Novalis, and 
Schiller. Her father dying in 1835, she went in 1836 to 
Boston to teach languages, and in 1837 she was chosen 
principal teacher in the Green Street school, Providence, 
Rhode Island, where she remained till 1839. From this 
year until 1844 she stayed at different places in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Boston, forming an intimate 
acquaintance with the colonists of Brook Farm, and number 



ing among her closest friends R. W. Emerson, Nathaniel 
Hawthorne, and W. E. Channing. In 1839 she pub 
lished a translation of Eckermann s Conversations with 
Goethe, which Avas followed in 1841 by a translation of 
the Letters of G under ode and Bettina. Aided by R. W. 
Emerson and George Ripley, she in 1840 started The Dial, 
a poetical and philosophical magazine representing the 
opinions and aims of the New England Transcendentalists. 
This journal she continued to edit for two years, and while 
in Boston she also conducted conversation classes for ladies 
in which philosophical and social subjects were discussed 
with a somewhat over- accentuated earnestness, and which 
may be regarded as perhaps the beginning of the modern 
movement in behalf of women s rights. R. W. Emerson, 
who had met her as early as 1836, thus describes her 
appearance: " She was then twenty-six years old. She 
had a face and frame that would indicate fulness and 
tenacity of life. She was rather under the middle height ; 
her complexion was fair, with strong fair hair. She was 
then, as always, carefully and becomingly dressed, and of 
ladylike self-possession. For the rest her appearance had 
nothing prepossessing. Her extreme plainness, a trick of 
incessantly opening and shutting her eyelids, the nasal 
tone of her voice, all repelled ; and I said to myself we shall 
never get far." On fuller acquaintance this unprepossess 
ing exterior seemed, however, to melt away, and her 
inordinate self-esteem to be lost in the depth and univer 
sality of her sympathy. She possessed an almost irresist 
ible power of winning the intellectual and moral confidence 
of those with whom she came in contact, and " applied 
herself to her companion as the sponge applied itself to 
water." She obtained from each the best they had to 
give. It was indeed more as a conversationalist than as 
a writer that she earned the title of the Priestess of 
Transcendentalism. It was her intimate friends who 
admired her most. Smart and pungent though she is as a 
writer, any originality that seems to characterize her views 
partakes more of wayward eccentricity than either intel 
lectual depth or imaginative vigour. In 1844 she removed 
to New York to become contributor to The Tribune, and in 
1846 she published a selection from her criticisms on con 
temporary authors in Europe and America, under the title 
Papers on Art and Literature. The same year she paid a 
visit to Europe, passing some time in England and France, 
and finally taking up her residence in Italy. There she 
was married in December 1847 to the Marquis Giovanni 
Angelo Ossoli, a friend of Mazzini. During 1848-49 she 
was present with her husband in Rome, and when the city 
was besieged she, at the request of Mazzini, took charge 
of one of the two hospitals while her husband fought on 
the walls. In May 1850, along with her husband and 
infant son, she embarked at Leghorn for America, but 
when they had all but reached their destination the vessel 
was wrecked on Fire Island beach, and the Ossolis were 
among the passengers who perished. 

The Autobiography of Margaret Fuller Ossoli, with additional 
Memoirs by J. F. Clarke, R. W. Emerson, and W. E. Channiug, 
was published in 1852, the last edition being that of 1874. See 
also Margaret Fuller (Marchcsa Ossoli}, by Julia Ward Howe, 1883, 
in the Eminent Women Series. Her collected works were also 
published in 1874. 

OSTADE. The Ostades are Dutch painters of note, 
whose ancestors were settled at Eyndhoven, near the small 
village of Ostaden, from which they took their name. 
Early in the 17th century Jan Hendricx, a weaver, moved 
with his family from Eyndhoven to Haarlem, where he 
married arid founded a large family. The eldest and 
youngest of his sons became celebrated artists. 

I. ADRIAN OSTADE (1610-1685), the first of Jan Hen- 
dricx s boys, was born at Haarlem shortly before the 
10th December 1610, when he was christened in presence 

XVIII. 8 



58 



of several witnesses. His death took place on the 27th 
April, his burial on the 2d May 1685, at Haarlem. 
According to Houbraken he was taught by Frans Hals, at 
that time master of Adrian Brouwer. At twenty-six he 
joined a company of the civic guard at Haarlem ; at twenty- 
eight he married his first wife, who lived till 1642. He 
speedily married again, but again became a widower in 
1666. Persons curious of matters connected with the lives 
of famous men may visit the house in the Konigsstraat at 
Haarlem where Adrian Ostade lived in 1657, or that of 
the Ridderstraat which he occupied in 1670. He took 
the highest honours of his profession, the presidency 
of the painters guild at Haarlem, in 1662. Amongst the 
treasures of the Louvre collection, a striking picture 
represents the father of a large family sitting in state with 
his wife at his side in a handsomely furnished room, sur 
rounded by his son and five daughters, and a young 
married couple. It is an old tradition that Ostade here 
painted himself and his children in holiday attire ; yet the 
style is much too refined for the painter of boors, and 
pitiless records tell us that Ostade had but one daughter. 
The number of Ostade s pictures is given by Smith at 
three hundred and eighty-five. It is probable that he 
painted many more. At his death the stock of his unsold 
pieces was over two hundred. His engraved plates were 
put up to auction, with the pictures, and fifty etched 
plates most of them dated 1647-48 were disposed of 
in 1686. At the present time it is easy to trace two 
hundred and twenty pictures in public and private collec 
tions, of which one hundred and four are signed and dated, 
seventeen are signed with the name but not with the date, 
and the rest are accepted as genuine by modern critics. 

Adrian Ostade is the contemporary of David Teniers 
and Adrian Brouwer. Like them he spent his life in the 
delineation of the homeliest subjects tavern scenes, village 
fairs, and country quarters. Between Teniers and Ostade 
the contrast lies in the different condition of the agri 
cultural classes of Brabant and Holland, and the atmo 
sphere and dwellings that were peculiar to each region. 
Brabant has more sun, more comfort, and a higher type of 
humanity; Teniers, in consequence, is silvery and sparkling; 
the people he paints are fair specimens of a well-built 
race. Holland, in the vicinity of Haarlem, seems to have 
suffered much from war ; the air is moist and hazy, 
and the people, as depicted by Ostade are short, ill- 
favoured, and marked with the stamp of adversity on their 
features and dress. Brouwer, who painted the Dutch 
boor in his frolics and passion, imported more of the spirit 
of Frans Hals into his delineations than his colleague ; but 
the type is the same as Ostade s, only more animated and 
vicious. How was it that the disciples of Hals should 
have fallen into this course, whilst Hals himself drew 
people of the gentle classes with such distinction 1 It was 
probably because of his superiority and the monopoly 
which he and a few colleagues at Haarlem enjoyed that 
his pupils were forced into a humbler walk, and into this 
walk Hals was able to lead them, because he was equally 
able in depicting the strolling waif or fishwife, or the 
more aristocratic patrician who strutted about in lace 
collar, with his racier at his side. But the practice of 
Hals in this form was confined to the city, or to those 
wanderers from the country who visited towns. Brouwer 
and Ostade went to the country itself and lived in the 
taverns and cottages of peasants, where they got the 
models for their pictures. Neither of them followed the 
habits of the artists of the Hague, who took sitters into 
their studios and made compositions from them. Their 
sitters were people, unconscious that they sat, taken on 
the spot and from life, and transferred with cunning art to 
pictures. 



There is less of the style of Hals in Adrian Ostade than 
in Brouwer, but a great likeness to Brouwer in Ostade s 
early works. During the first years of his career, Ostade 
displayed the same tendency to exaggeration and frolic as 
his comrade. He had humour and boisterous spirits, but 
he is to be distinguished from his rival by a more general 
use of the principles of light and shade, and especially by 
a greater concentration of light on a small surface in con 
trast with a broad expanse of gloom. The key of his 
harmonies remains for a time in the scale of greys. But 
his treatment is dry and careful, and in this style he shuns 
no difficulties of detail, representing cottages inside and 
out, with the vine leaves covering the poorness of the 
outer side, and nothing inside to deck the patch-work of 
rafters and thatch, or tumble-down chimneys and ladder 
staircases, that make up the sordid interior of the Dutch 
rustic of those days. His men and women, attuned to 
these needy surroundings, are invariably dressed in the 
poorest clothes. The hard life and privations of the race 
are impressed on their shapes and faces, their shoes and 
hats, worn at heel and battered to softness, as if they had 
descended from generation to generation, so that the boy 
of ten seems to wear the cast-off things of his sire and 
grandsire. It was not easy to get poetry out of such 
materials. But the greatness of Ostade lies in the fact 
that he often caught the poetic side of the life of the 
peasant class, in spite of its ugliness and stunted form and 
misshapen features. He did so by giving their vulgar 
sports, their quarrels, even their quieter moods of enjoy 
ment, the magic light of the sungleam, and by clothing 
the wreck of cottages with gay vegetation. 

It was natural that, with the tendency to effect which marked 
Ostade from the first, he should have beee fired by emulation to 
rival the masterpieces of Rembrandt. His early pictures are not so 
rare but that we can trace how he glided out of one period into the 
other. Before the dispersion of the Gsell collection at Vienna in 
1872, it was easy to study the steel-grey harmonies and exaggerated 
caricature of his early works in the period intervening between 
1632 and 1638. There is a picture of Rustics, dated 1632, in the 
Koslolt collection at St Petersburg ; a Countryman having his 
Tooth Drawn, in the Belvedere of Vienna, of a similar date though 
unsigned ; a Bagpiper of 1635 in the Lichtenstein gallery at Vienna; 
Cottage Scenes of 1635 and 1636, in the museums of Carlsruhe, 
Darmstadt, and Dresden ; Smokers in the House of Count Berchem 
at Munich ; and Card Players of 1637 in the Lichtenstein palace at 
Vienna, which make up for the loss of the Gscll collection. The 
same style marks most of those pieces. About 1638 or 1640 the in- 
lluence of Rembrandt suddenly changed his style, and he painted the 
Annunciation of the Brunswick museum, where the angels appearing 
in the sky to Dutch boors half asleep amidst their cattle, sheep, 
and dogs, in front of a cottage, at once recall the similar subject by 
Rembrandt, and his effective mode of lighting the principal groups 
by rays propelled to the earth out of a murky sky. But Ostade 
was not successful in this effort to vulgarize Scripture. He might 
have been pardoned had he given dramatic force and expression to 
his picture ; but his shepherds were only boors without much 
emotion, passion, or surprise. His picture was a mere effect of 
light, as such masterly, in its sketchy rubbings, of dark brown 
tone relieved by strongly impasted lights, but without the very 
qualities which made his usual subjects at tractive. When, in 1642, 
he painted the beautiful interior at the Louvre, in which a mother 
tends her child in a cradle at the side of a great chimney near which 
her husband is sitting, the darkness of a country loft is dimly 
illumined by a beam from the sun that shines on the casement ; 
and one might think the painter intended to depict the Nativity, 
but that there is nothing holy in all the surroundings, nothing 
attractive indeed except the wonderful Rembrandtesrjue trans 
parency, the brown tone, and the admirable keeping of the minutest 
parts. The sparkle of Brouwer is not there; nor as yet the concen 
trated evenness of such pictures of Rembrandt as the Meditative 
Philosopher at the Louvre. Yet there is perhaps more conscien 
tiousness of detail. Ostade was more at home in a similar effect 
applied to the commonplace incident of the Slaughtering of a Pig, one 
of the masterpieces of 1643, once in the Gsell collection at Vienna. 
In this and similar subjects of previous and succeeding years, he 
returned to the homely subjects in which his power and wonderful 
observation made him a master. He never seems to have gone 
back to gospel illustrations till 1667, when he produced the admirable 
Nativity of Mr Walter of Bearwood, which is only surpassed as regards 



S T O S T 



59 



arrangement and colour by Rembrandt s Carpenter s Family at the 
Louvre, or the Woodcutter and Children in the gallery of Cassel. 
Innumerable almost are the more familiar themes to which he 
devoted his pencil during this interval, from small single figures, 
representing smokers or drinkers, to vulgarized allegories of the five 
senses (Hermitage and Brunswick galleries), half-lengths of fish 
mongers and bakers, and cottage brawls, or scenes of gambling, or 
itinerant players and quacks, and nine-pin players in the open air. 
The humour in some of these pieces is contagious, as in the Tavern 
Scene of the Lacaze collection (Louvre, 1653), where a boor squeezes 
the empty beer-pot in his hands to show that the last drop has been 
sucked out of it. It would be tedious to enumerate the masterpieces 
of this kind. But those who have no other opportunities may study 
with pleasure and advantage the large series of dated pieces which 
adorn every European capital, from St Petersburg to London. 
Buckingham Palace has a large store, and many and many a good 
specimen lies hid in the private collections of England. But if we 
should select a few as peculiarly worthy of attention, we might point 
to the Rustics in a Tavern of 1662 at the Hague, the Village School 
of the same year at the Louvre, the Tavern Court-yard of 1670 at 
Cassel, the Sportsmen s Rest of 1671 at Amsterdam, and the Fiddler 
and his Audience of 1673 at the Hague. At Amsterdam we have 
the likeness of a painter, in a red bonnet and violet coat, sitting 
with his back to the spectator, at his easel. The colour-grinder is 
at work in a corner, a pupil prepares a palette, and a black dog sleeps 
on the ground. The same picture, with the date of 1666, is in the 
Dresden gallery. Both specimens are supposed to represent Ostade 
himself. But unfortunately we see the artist s back and not his 
face. Ostade painted with equal vigour at all times. Two of his 
latest dated works, the Village Street and Skittle Players in the 
Ash burton and Ellesmere collections, were executed in 1676 without 
any sign of declining powers. The prices which he received are not 
known, but those of the present day are telling when compared with 
those of the close of last century. Early pictures, which may have 
been sold by the painter for a few shillings, now fetch 200. Later 
ones, which were worth 40 in 1750, are now worth 1000, and Earl 
Dudley gave 4120 for a cottage interior in 1876. The signatures 
of Ostade vary at different periods. But the first two letters are gene 
rally interlaced. Up to 1635 Ostade writes himself Ostaden, e.g., 
in the Bagpiper of 1635 in the Lichtenstein collection at Vienna. 
Later on he uses the long s (f), and occasionally he signs in capital 
letters (Strauss collection, Vienna, 1647 ; and Hague museum, 
1673). His pupils are his own brother Isaac, Cornells Bega, 
Cornells Dusart, and Richard Brakenburg. 

II. ISAAC OSTADE (1621-1649) was christened on the 
2dof June 1621, at Haarlem. He began his studies under 
Adrian, with whom he remained till 1641, when he started 
on his own account. At an early period he felt the influ 
ence of Rembrandt, and this is apparent in a Slaughtered 
Pig of 1639, in the gallery of Augsburg. But he soon 
reverted to a style more suited to his pencil. He pro 
duced pictures in 1641-42 on the lines of his brother, 
amongst these, the Five Senses, which Adrian after 
wards represented by a Man Reading a Paper, a Peasant 
Tasting Beer, a Rustic Smearing his Sores with Oint 
ment, and a Countryman Sniffing at a Snuff-box. The 
contract for these pieces was made before 1643, when 
Leendert, a dealer, summoned him for a breach of his 
agreement before the burgomaster of Haarlem. The 
matter was referred to the guild, and evidence was adduced 
to prove that Isaac had promised in 1641 to deliver six 
pictures and seven rounds, including the Five Senses, for 
27 florins. Isaac, in his defence, urged that he had 
finished two of the pictures and two of the rounds, 
which Leendert had seen, but neglected to fetch ; that he 
had begun the remainder of the series, but that in the 
meanwhile the value of his works had risen, so that he 
thought that on that ground alone he was freed from the 
obligations he had assumed. The guild decided that Isaac 
was bound to furnish the pictures before Easter 1643. 
But they reduced the number of the rounds to five, and 
assessed the price of the whole at 50 florins. A specimen 
of Isaac s work at this period may be seen in the Laughing 
Boor with a Pot of Beer, in the museum of Amsterdam; 
the cottage interior, with two peasants and three children 
near a fire, in the Berlin museum; a Concert, with people 
listening to singers accompanied by a piper and flute 
player, and a Boor Stealing a Kiss from a Woman, in the 



Lacaze collection at the Louvre. The interior at Berlin is 
lighted from a casement in the same Rembrandtesque style 
as Adrian s interior of 1643 at the Louvre. The value of 
these panels, which we saw estimated in 1643 at two 
florins apiece, was greatly enhanced in the following 
century, when the Laughing Boor at Amsterdam was sold 
for 56 florins. But the low price fixed by the guild 
of Haarlem must have induced Isaac to give up the 
practice, in which he could only hope to remain a satellite 
in the orbit of Adrian, and accordingly we find him gradu 
ally abandoning the cottage subjects of his brother for 
landscapes in the fashion of Esaias Van de Velde and 
Salomon Ruisdael. Once only, in 1645, he seems to have 
fallen into the old groove, when he produced the Slaughtered 
Pig, with the boy puffing out a bladder, in the museum of 
Lille. But this was a mere accident. Isaac s progress in 
the new path which he had cut out for himself was greatly 
facilitated by his previous experience as a figure painter; 
and, although he now selected his subjects either from 
village high streets or frozen canals, he was enabled to 
give fresh life and animation to the scenes he depicted by 
groups of people full of movement and animation, which 
he relieved in their coarse humours and sordid appearance 
by a refined and searching study of picturesque contrasts. 
Unfortunately he did not live long enough to bring his 
art to the highest perfection. He died at twenty-eight, 
on the 16th October 1649. 

The first manifestation of Isaac s surrender of Adrian s style is 
apparent in 1644 when the skating and sledging scenes were 
executed which we see in the Lacaze collection and the galleries of 
the Hermitage, Antwerp, and Lille. Three of these examples bear 
the artist s name, spelt Isack van Ostade, and the dates of 1644 
and 1645. The road-side inns, with halts of travellers, form a 
compact series from 1646 to 1649. In this, the last form of his 
art, Isaac has very distinct peculiarities. The air which pervades 
his composition is warm and sunny, yet mellow and hazy, as if the 
sky were veiled with a vapour coloured by moor smoke. The trees 
are rubbings of umber, in which the prominent foliage is tipped 
with touches hardened in a liquid state by amber varnish 
mediums. The same principle applied to details such as glazed 
bricks or rents in the mud lining of cottages gives an unreal and 
conventional stamp to those particular parts. But these blemishes 
are forgotten when one looks at the broad contrasts of light 
and shade and the masterly figures of steeds and riders, and 
travellers and rustics, or quarrelling children and dogs, poultry, 
and cattle, amongst which a favourite place is always given to 
the white horse, who seems as invariable an accompaniment as 
the grey in the skirmishes and fairs of Wouvermans. But it is 
in winter scenes that Isaac displays the best qualities. The 
absence of foliage, the crisp atmosphere, the calm air of cold 
January days, unsullied by smoke or vapour, preclude the use 
of the brown tinge, and leave the painter no choice but to ring 
the changes on opal tints of great variety, upon which the figures 
come out with masterly effect on the light background upon which 
they are thrown. Amongst the road-side inns which will best 
repay attention we should notice those of Buckingham Palace, 
the National Gallery, the Wallace, Ellesmere, Ashburton, Holford, 
Robarts, and Bearwood collections in England, and those of the 
Louvre, Berlin, Hermitage, and Rotterdam museums and? the 
Rothschild collections at Vienna on the Continent. The finest of 
the ice scenes is the famous one at the Louvre. (J. A. C. ) 

OSTASHKOFF, a town of Tver, Russia, 163 miles by 
rail south-east from the capital of that government, on Lake 
Seliger, has a population of 12,500. The fisheries, which 
still employ a considerable number of the inhabitants, 
attracted settlers at an early date, but it is not till 1500 
that the Ostashkoff villages are mentioned in Russian 
annals. The advantageous site, the proximity of the 
Smolenskiy Jitnyi monastery, a pilgrim-resort on an island 
of the lake, and the early development of certain petty 
trades, combined to bring prosperity to Ostashkoff; and 
its cathedral (1672-85) still contains rich offerings, as 
also do two other churches of the same century. About 
200,000 pairs of boots are now manufactured annually; 
hatchets, scythes, shears, and similar implements are also- 
made; and tanning is another important industry. 



60 



O S T S T 



JY 


O 


It 


T 


Tf 
// ** -V ^^ J^J 



OSTEND, a seaport of Belgium, in the province of 
West Flanders, 70 miles west-north-west from Brussels, is 
surrounded on the north and west by the sea ; its site is 
an extensive plain, lying below high-water level, the town 
and surrounding country being protected by a sea-wall 
built of granite with a brick revetment, upon which the 
waves generally exhaust their force even in the roughest 
weather, though the town has occasionally been inundated 
through a combination of westerly gales and unusually 
high tides. The port is dangerous in unfavourable weather ; 
the channel leading into the two interior basins (which are 
calculated to hold more than a thousand vessels) is formed 
by two long wooden piers, and at its mouth has a width of 
only 165 yards. The rise of the tide in the harbour is 
about 15 feet, and as the bed of the sluice lies 3 feet 
under low-water mark, the depth at high water should 
amount to 18 feet; but the entrance to the harbour is 
obstructed by sandbanks, which frequently shift their posi 
tion under the influence of wind and tide, and leave a 
free depth of only about 9 
feet. At the north-west 
extremity of the sea-wall 
(digue de mer) is a light 
house erected in 1771, and 
subsequently modernized, 
with a light visible at a 
distance of 45 miles. The 
town has an active trade 
in refined salt, ropes, sails, 
soap, tobacco, lace, and 
wool. The imports greatly 
exceed the exports. In 
1883 1345 vessels entered 
with 175,987 tons cargo, 
and 1342 cleared with 
32,010. 

The large fishing popu 
lation is chiefly occupied 
in the cod or herring 
fisheries ; the trade in 
oysters is important, these 
being brought over in 
large quantities from the 
English coast, principally 
about Harwich or Col 
chester, and fattened in 
the Ostend oyster-beds. 
There are no manufacture 
of any consequence ; and, 
unlike other Flemish cities, 

Ostend has no monument or building in any way worthy 
of notice. The town owes its repute and prosperity chiefly 
to its sea-beach, which is admirably adapted for bathing 
purposes, being composed of perfectly smooth sands, firm, 
level, and of great extent. Ostend is the yearly resort, 
from August to October, of many thousand visitors, com 
prising not only members of the fashionable society of 
Brussels and the larger provincial towns of Belgium, but 
also foreigners, principally Germans and Russians. During 
the season the digue and piers are crowded ; entertain 
ments and festivities are offered to guests at the Kursaal, 
Casino, &c. ; a good deal of private and promiscuous 
gambling is carried on. The influx of bathers and pleasure- 
seekers has led to the development of some quieter resorts 
in the immediate vicinity, such as Blankerbergh (lately a 
mere fishing village), Heyst, Middelkerk, and others. In 
1880 the population of the town was 16,823. 

In the 10th century Ostend was but a cluster of fishermen s huts, j 
In 1072 Robert I. of Flanders built a church there in honour of > 
St Peter. The place thenceforth grew in importance, and the ] 



harbour became noted. Margaret of Constantinople, countess of 
Flanders, raised it to the rank of a city in 1267. In 1445 Philip 
the Good caused it to be walled round, but the prince of Orange 
was the first to fortify it in earnest (1583) ; and a short time after 
wards it sustained a memorable siege, during the reign of Albert 
and Isabella, being invested on the 5th of July 1601, and taken 
by Spinola on the 14th of September 1604, after a resistance of 
more than three years. It was then in a state of almost absolute 
ruin, but was speedily rebuilt by the archduke, who granted the 
citizens many privileges. The prosperity of Ostend, however, was 
constantly impeded by rivalries and dissensions. In the beginning 
of the 18th century it appeared in a fair way to attain commercial 
eminence, the emperor Charles VI. having selected it as the seat 
of the East Indian Company; but the interference of powerful 
neighbours, and principally of England and Holland, caused a stop 
to be put to this by the treaty of Vienna in 1732. Ostend was 
taken by the French in 1794, and belonged to the republic until 
1814, after which it formed part of the Netherlands, and subse 
quently, since 1830, of the kingdom of Belgium. 

OSTERVALD, JEAN FREDERIC (1663-1747), Swiss 
Protestant theologian, was born at Neufchatel on November 
25, 1663, was educated at Zurich and at Saumur (where 




Plan of Ostend. 

he graduated), studied theology at Orleans, Paris, and 
Geneva, and was ordained to the ministry in his native 
place in 1683. As preacher, pastor, lecturer, and author, he 
attained a position of great influence in his day, he and his 
friends J. A. Turretin of Geneva and S. Werenfels of Basel 
forming what was once called the " Swiss triumvirate." 
He died on April 14, 1747. 

His principal works are Traite dcs sources dc la corruption qui 
regne aujourd huy parmi les Chretiens (1700), practically a pica for 
a more ethical and less doctrinal type of Christianity; Catechisme 
ou Instruction dans la Religion Chrcticnnc, 1702 ; Traite centre I 
Impurete, 1707 ; Sermons sur divers Textes, 1722-24 ; Thcolo/jias 
Compendium, 1739 ; and Traduction de la Bible, 1724. All his 
writings attained great popularity among French Protestants ; 
many were translated into various languages; and "Ostervald s 
Bible," in particular, was long well known and much valued in 
Britain. A Life by Durand was published in London in 1778. 

OSTIA, a city of ancient Latium, situated at the mouth 
of the Tiber, from which circumstance it obviously derived 
its name. Owing to this position it became from an early 
period the port of Rome, but its foundation as a regular 
colony of that city is ascribed by ancient authors to Ancus 



O S T S T 



Marcius, who is said to Lave at the same time established 
there extensive salt-works, which long continued to supply 
Rome and its neighbourhood with that necessary article. 
As the wealth and importance of Rome itself increased, the 
prosperity of Ostia naturally rose with it, and it continued 
throughout the period of the Roman republic to be at 
once the principal emporium of trade in this part of Italy 
and the permanent station of the Roman fleet. It was, 
however, at no period a really good port, and the natural 
disadvantages of its position were not merely felt the more 
keenly as its commercial importance increased, but they 
were continually aggravated by natural causes, the allu 
vial matter continually brought down by the Tiber having 
filled up the port, and at the same time in great measure 
blocked the mouth of the river, so as to render it inacces 
sible to the larger class of vessels. Strabo gives a lively 
picture of the difficulties with which these had to contend 
in his time, and which were only surmounted on account 
of the great pecuniary advantages arising from its 
proximity to the capital. The necessity of taking some 
steps to obviate these evils had indeed already presented 
itself to the dictator Caesar, who had proposed to construct 
an artificial port at Ostia, with all the appurtenances 
requisite for so extensive a trade, but no steps were taken 
towards the execution of this project till the reign of the 
emperor Claudius, who constructed an entirely new basin 
or artificial port at a distance of about two miles north of 
Ostia, and communicating by an artificial channel with the 
Tiber on one side and the sea on the other. These works 
were afterwards largely augmented by Trajan, so that the 
port came to be known as the Portus Trajani, and the 
channel from thence to the sea was called the Fossa Tra 
jani. This was undoubtedly the same with what is now 
become the right branch of the Tiber, entering the sea at 
Fiumicino. From this time the great mass of the trade 
was transferred to the new port, while that of Ostia con 
tinually diminished, though the city itself continued to be 
a populous and flourishing place throughout the period of 
the Roman empire. It was not till the close of the 
western empire that Ostia itself, which was unprotected 
by walls, and consequently exposed to the attacks of the 
barbarians, fell into decay ; and after it was plundered by 
the Saracens in the 9th century the site became alto 
gether abandoned, the modern village of Ostia (a very poor 
place) being situated at a distance of about half a mile 
from the ruins of the ancient city. The extent and variety 
of these, as well as the beauty of the works of art dis 
covered on the site, confirm the accounts given by ancient 
writers of the opulence and prosperity of Ostia in the days 
of the empire; while those of Porto, as the port of Trajan 
is still called, are of great interest as exhibiting not only 
the artificial basin of the port, with its quays and the 
remains of the surrounding magazines, but a large part of 
the circuit of walls and towers by which it was protected. 
Such was the importance of Portus under the Roman 
empire that it became an episcopal see, and still gives that 
title to one of the cardinals of Rome. 

The continual advance of the coast-line, owing to the 
alluvial deposits brought down by the Tiber, has left the 
ruins of Ostia more than two miles from the sea. Those 
of Portus are separated from it by an equal interval, and 
even the tower of Fiumicino, which was built in the last 
century at the entrance of the right branch of the Tiber 
the only one now navigable is already a considerable 
distance inland. 

For a detailed account of the history and topography of Ostia and 
the neighbouring Portus, as well as of the changes in the coast-line 
and channel of the Tiber, the reader may consult Nibby. Dintorni 
diEoma, vol. ii. p. 426-474, 602-660; and an elaborate paper by 
Pieller in the Berichtc dcr Sachsischcn GcscIlschaftfoT 1849. 



OSTIAKS, or OSTYAKS, a tribe of Finnish origin, who 
inhabit the basin of the Obi in western Siberia; a few 
hundreds also are nomads in the basin of the lower Yenisei. 
Piano Carpi ni and Marco Polo in the 13th century knew 
them on the flat lands of the Obi, and the best investigators 
(Castre"n, Lerberg, A. Schienck) consider the trans-Uralian 
Ostiaks and Samoyedes as identical with the Yugra of 
the Russian annals During the Russian conquest their 
abodes extended much farther south than now, and they 
had numerous settlements on the basin of the Obi, no 
less than forty one of their fortified places having been 
destroyed by the Cossacks in 1501, in the region of 
Obdorsk alone. Remains of these " towns " are still to be 
seen at the Kunovat river, on the Obi 20 miles below 
Obdorsk, and elsewhere. The total number of the Ostiaks 
may be estimated at a little over 27,000. Those on 
the Irtish are mostly settled, and have adopted the 
manner of life of Russians and Tartars. Those on the 
Obi are mostly nomads; along with 8000 Samoyedes in 
the districts of Beryozoff and Surgut, they own 93,600 
reindeer. The Obi Ostiaks are Russified to a great 
extent. They live almost exclusively by fishing, buying 
from Russian merchants corn for bread, the use of which 
has become widely diffused. 

The Ostiaks call themselves Ass-yakh (people of the Obi), and 
it is supposed that their present designation is a corruption of 
this name. By language they belong (Gastren, Jlciseberichte, 
Rtiselricfe ; Ahlqvist, Ofvers. af Finska F et.-Soc. Fork., xxi.) to 
the Ugriari branch of the eastern Finnish stem, a classification 
confirmed by a grammar of their language, compiled in 1875, 
in Hungarian, by Hunfalvy. All the Ostiaks speak the same 
language, mixed to some extent with foreign elements ; but three 
or four leading dialects can be distinguished. 

The Ostiaks are middle-sized, or of low stature, mostly meagre, 
and not ill made, however clumsy their appearance in winter, in 
their thick fur-clothes. The extremities are fine, and the feet are 
usually small. The skull is brachycephalic, mostly of moderate 
size and height. The hair is dark and soft for the most part, fair 
and reddish individuals being rare ; the eyes are dark, generally 
narrow ; the nose is flat and broad; the mouth is large and with 
thick lips ; the beard is scanty. The younger men and women 
are sometimes of an agreeable appearance. The Mongolian type 
is more strongly pronounced in the women than in the men. On 
the whole, the Ostiaks are not a pure race; the purest type is 
found among the fishers on the Obi, the reindeer-breeders of the 
tundra being largely intermixed with Samoyedes (see Castrt-n ; Fr 
Finsch s Reisc nachWest-Sibirien, &c. ). 

Investigators are unanimous in describing them as very kind, 
gentle, and honest ; rioting is almost quite unknown among them, 
as also theft, this In.st occurring only in the vicinity of Russian settle 
ments, and the only penalty enforced being the restitution two 
fold of the propei ty stolen. The farther they are removed from 
contact witli Russian dealers and traders the higher do their moral 
qualities become (Middendorff and Castren). 

They are very skilful in the arts they practise, especially in carving 
wood and bone, tanning (with egg-yolk and brains), preparation of 
implements from birch bark, &c. Some of their carved or decorated 
bark implements (like those figured in Middendorffs Sibirische 
Reisc, iv. 2) show great artistic skill. Only a few have guns, the 
great majority continuing to hunt with bow and arrows. 

Their folk lore, like to that of other Finnish stems, is imbued 
with a deep feeling of natural poetry, and reflects also the sadness, 
or even the despair, which has been noticed among them. The 
number of those who are considered Christians reaches 2000; but 
their Shamanism is still retained, hardly anything being borrowed 
from Christianity beyond the worship of St Nicholas, who is a 
most popular saint among them. 

OSTRACISM, a peculiar political institution in Athens, 
designed by Clisthenes as a safeguard against any citizen 
acquiring too great power and aspiring to make himself 
tyrant of the state. Before it could be carried into effect, 
a decree of the people had to be passed that an ostracism 
was necessary. If this was done, the voting was fixed for 
a special day in the agora. The votes were given accord 
ing to tribes ; and each citizen wrote on an oyster shell 

-rpaKov) the name of the person who he thought should 
be ostracized. The person who obtained the majority was 
exiled for ten years, provided the votes against him were 



62 



S T--0 S T 



GOOO. If no person were designated on so many shells, 
the proceedings were at an end. The ostracized person 
might return at the end of his term of banishment, having 
then the full rights of citizenship, or his term might be 
shortened by a special vote of the people. The institution 
was intended as a precaution in view of the weakness of 
the central Government, which, having no standing army 
at its disposal, was liable to be disturbed or overturned by 
a sudden attack arranged by a powerful partisan. When 
party strife ran high, ostracism was frequently resorted to 
with the consent of the two parties, in order to test their 
strength; but when an ostracism had been arranged in 
416 B.C. the parties subsequently compromised their dis 
pute and directed their votes against an insignificant person 
named Hyperbolus. After this the institution fell into 
disuse. According to Aristotle and Philochorus, the people 
were required every year in the first assembly of the sixth 
prytany to determine whether or not an ostracism should 
take place. The same institution is said to have been in 
use at Argos, Miletus, and Megara, and a similar one called 
petalismus was employed at Syracuse for a short time 
during the 5th century B.C. ; the latter was named from 
the olive leaves (-n-eraXa) used instead of oyster-shells. 

OSTRICH (Old English, Estridge; French, Autruche; 
Spanish, Avestruz; Latin, Avis strutkio). Among exotic 
birds there can be hardly one better known by report 
than the strange, majestic, and fleet-footed creature that 
"scorneth the horse and his rider," or one that from the 
earliest times to the present has been oftener more or less 
fully described; and there must be few persons in any 
civilized country unacquainted with the appearance of 
this, the largest of living birds, whose size is not insig 
nificant in comparison even with the mightiest of the 
plumed giants that of old existed upon the earth, since 
an adult male will stand nearly 8 feet in height, and 
weigh 300 ft. 

As to the ways of the Ostrich in a state of nature, not 
much has been added of late years to the knowledge 
acquired and imparted by former travellers and natural 
ists, many of whom enjoyed opportunities that will 
never again occur of discovering its peculiarities, for even 
the most favourably-placed of their successors in recent 
years seem to content themselves with repeating the 
older observations, and to want either leisure or patience 
to make additions thereto, their personal acquaintance with 
the bird not amounting to more than such casual meetings 
with it as must inevitably fall to the lot of those who 
traverse its haunts. Thus there are still several dubious 
points in its natural history. On the other hand we 
unquestionably know far more than our predecessors 
respecting its geographical distribution, which has been 
traced with great minuteness in the Vogel Ost-Afrikas of 
Drs Finsch and Hartlaub, who have therein given 
(pp. 597-G07) the most comprehensive account of the 
bird that is to be found in the literature of ornithology. 1 
As with most birds, the Ostrich is disappearing before 
the persecution of man, and this fact it is which gives 
the advantage to older travellers, for there are many 
districts, some of wide extent, known to have been 
frequented by the Ostrich within the present century, 
especially towards the extremities of its African range 
as on the borders of Egypt and the Cape Colony in 
which it no longer occurs, while in Asia there is evidence, 
more or less trustworthy, of its former existence in most 
parts of the south-western desert-tracts, in few of which it 

1 A good summary of it is contained in the Ostriches and Ostrich 
farminyof Messrs De Mosenthal and Harting, from which the accom 
panying iigure is, with permission, taken. Von Heuglin, in his 
Ornitholoyie Nvrdost-Afrikvi s (pp. 925-93;)), lias given more parti 
cular details of the Ostrich s distribution in Africa. 



is now to be found. Xenophon s notice of its abundance 
in Assyria (Anabasis, i. 5) is well known. It is probable 
that it still lingers in the wastes of Kirwan in eastern 
Persia, whence examples may occasionally stray northward 
to those of Turkestan, 2 even near the Lower Oxus; but 
the assertion, often repeated, as to its former occurrence 
in Baloochistan or Sinclh, though not incredible, seems to 
rest on testimony as yet too slender for acceptance. 
Apparently the most northerly limit of the Ostrich s 
ordinary range at the present day cannot be further than 
that portion of the Syrian Desert lying directly to the 
eastward of Damascus; and, within the limits of what 
may be. called Palestine, Canon Tristram (Fauna and Flora 
of Palestine, p. 139) regards it as but a straggler from 
central Arabia, though we have little information as to 
its appearance and distribution in that country. Africa, 
however, is still, as in ancient days, the continent in which 




Ostrich. 

the Ostrich most flourishes, and from the confines of 
Barbary to those of the European settlements in the 
south it appears to inhabit every waste sufficiently exten 
sive to afford it the solitude it loves, and in many wide 
districts, where the influence of the markets of civilization 
is feebly felt, to be still almost as abundant as ever. 
Yet even there it has to contend with deadly foes in the 
many species of Carnivora which frequent the same tracts 
and prey upon its eggs and young the latter especially; 
and Lichtenstein long ago remarked that if it were not 
for its numerous enemies "the multiplication of Ostriches 
would be quite unexampled." The account given of the 
habits of the species by this naturalist, who had excellent 
opportunities of observing it during his throe years 

2 Drs Finsch and Hartlaub quote a passage from Remusat s 
Remarque.s sur Vcxtcnsion de I Empire Chinoise, stating that in 
about the seventh century of our era a live " camel-bird " was sent 
as a present with an embassy from Turkestan to China. 



S T O S W 



63 



travels in South Africa, is perhaps one of the best we 
have, and since his narrative l has been neglected by most 
of its more recent historians we may do well by calling 
attention thereto. Though sometimes assembling in 
troops of from thirty to fifty, and then generally associat 
ing with zebras or with some of the larger antelopes, 
Ostriches commonly, and especially in the breeding 
season, live in companies of not more than four or 
five, one of which is a cock and the rest are hens. All 
the latter lay their eggs in one and the same nest, a 
shallow pit scraped out by their feet, with the earth 
heaped around to form a kind of wall against which the 
outermost circle of eggs rest. As soon as ten or a dozen 
eggs are laid, the cock begins to brood, always taking his 
place on them at nightfall surrounded by his wives, while 
by day they relieve one another, more it would seem to 
guard their common treasure from jackals and small 
beasts-of-prey than directly to forward the process of 
hatching, for that is often left wholly to the sun. 2 Some 
thirty eggs are laid in the nest, and round it are scattered 
perhaps as many more. These last are said to be broken 
by the old birds to serve as nourishment for the newly- 
hatched chicks, whose stomachs cannot bear the hard food 
on which their parents thrive. The greatest care is taken 
by them not only to place the nest where it may not be 
discovered, but to avoid being seen when going to or from 
it, and their solicitude for their tender young is no less. 
Andersson in his Lake N gami (pp. 253-269) has given a 
lively account of the pursuit by himself and Mr Francis 
Galton of a brood of Ostriches, in the course of which the 
father of the family flung himself on the ground and 
feigned being wounded to distract their attention from 
his offspring. Though the Ostrich ordinarily inhabits the 
most arid districts, it requires water to drink; more than 
that, it will frequently bathe, and sometimes even, accord 
ing to Von Heuglin, in the sea. 

The question whether to recognize more than one 
species of Ostrich, the Struthio cameliis of Linnaeus, has 
been for some years agitated without leading to a satis 
factory solution. It has long been known that, while eggs 
from North Africa present a perfectly smooth surface, 
those from South Africa are pitted (see BIRDS, vol. iii. 
p. 775, note 1). It has also been observed that northern 
birds have the skin of the parts not covered with feathers 
flesh-coloured, while this skin is bluish in southern birds, 
and hence the latter have been thought to need specific 
designation as >S. aiistralis. Still more recently examples 
from the Somali country have been described as forming 
a distinct species under the name of 8. molybdophanes 
from the leaden colour of their naked parts. 

The genus Struthio forms the type of one group of the 
Subclass Ratitx, which differs so widely from the rest, in 
points that have been concisely set forth by Prof. Huxley 
(Proc. Zool. Society, 1867, p. 419), as to justify us in 
regarding it as an Order, to which the name Struthiones 
may be applied (see ORNITHOLOGY, p. 44); but that term, 
as well as Struthionidx, has been often used in a more 
general sense by systematists, even to signify the whole of 
the Ratitse, and hence for the present caution must be 

1 M. H. K. Lichtenstein, Reise im siidlichen Africa, ii. pp. 42-45 
(Berlin, 1812). 

2 By those whose experience is derived from the observation of 
captive Ostriches this fact has been often disputed. But, to say 
nothing of the effects of the enforced monogamy in which such birds live, 
the difference of circumstances under which they find themselves, and 
in particular their removal from the heat-retaining sands of the desert 
and its burning sunshine, is quite enough to account for the change 
of habit. Von Heuglin also (p. 933) is explicit on this point. That 
the female Ostriches while on duty crouch down to avoid detection is 
only natural, and this habit seems to have led hasty observers to 
suppose they were really brooding. 



exercised as to whether certain fossil remains from the 
Sivalik formation, referred to " Struthionidse, " be re 
garded as true Ostriches or not. The most obvious 
distinctive character presented by the Ostrich is the pre 
sence of two toes only, the third and fourth, on each 
foot, a character absolutely peculiar to the genus Struthio. 
The great mercantile value of Ostrich-feathers, and the 
increasing difficulty, due to the causes already mentioned, 
of procuring them from wild birds, has led to the forma 
tion in the Cape Colony and elsewhere of numerous 
"Ostrich-farms," on which these birds are kept in con 
finement, and at regular intervals of time deprived of their 
plumes. In favourable localities and with judicious man 
agement these establishments are understood to yield very 
considerable profit; while, as the ancient taste for wearing 
Ostrich-feathers shews no sign of falling off, but seems 
rather to be growing, it is probable that the practice will 
yet be largely extended. 

Among the more important treatises on this bird may be men 
tioned : E. D Alton, Die Skclcte dcr Straussartigcn Vogel abgebildet 
und beschrieben, folio, Bonn, 1827; P. L. Sclater, "On the Stru- 
thious Birds living in the Zoological Society s Menagerie," Trans 
actions, iv. p. 353, containing the finest representation (pi. 67), by 
Mr Wolf, ever published of the male Struthio camelus ; Prof. 
Mivart, "On the Axial Skeleton of the Ostrich," op. tit., viii. p. 
385 ; Prof. Haughton, " On the Muscular Mechanism of the Leg of 
the Ostrich," Ann. Nat. History, ser. 3, xv. pp. 262-272 ; and 
Prof. Macalister, " On the Anatomy of the Ostrich, " Proc. R. Irish 
Academy, ix. pp. 1-24. (A. N.) 

OSTUNI, a city of Italy, in the province of Lecce, 23 
miles by rail north-west of Brindisi. It is a bishop s see, has 
a cathedral of the 15th century with a fine Romanesque 
fagade, several other churches of some interest, a municipal 
library with a collection of antiquities, and a technical 
school. The population was 14,422 in 1871 and 15,199 
in 1881, that of the commune being 16,295 and 18,226. 

OSUNA, a town of Spain, in the province of Seville, 
distant 48 miles by road and 57 by rail east-south-east from 
that city, is built in a semicircular form on the slope of a 
hill, at the edge of a fertile plain watered by the Salado, a 
sub-tributary of the Guadalquivir. On the top of the hill, 
which commands an extensive view, stands the collegiate 
church, a mixed Gothic and cinquecento building, contain 
ing several good specimens of Kibera, which, however, as 
well as the sculptures over the portal, suffered considerably 
during the occupation of the place by Soult. The vaults, 
which are supported by Moorish arches, contain the tombs 
of the Giron family, by one of whom, Don Juan Tellez, the 
church was founded in 1534. The university of Osuna, 
founded also by him in 1549, was suppressed in 1820 ; but 
the large building is still used as a secondary school. A 
great number of the inhabitants of Osuna are engaged 
in agriculture, and the making of esparto mats employs 
many of the poorer people. Earthenware, bricks, oil, 
soap, linen, hats, are also manufactured; and barley, 
oil, and wheat are sent in large quantities to Seville and 
Malaga. The population of the ayuntamiento in 1877 
was 17,211. 

Osuna, the Urso of Hirtius, where the Pompeians made their 
last stand, was afterwards called by the Romans Gemina Urbanorum, 
from the fact, it is said, that two urban legions were simultaneously 
quartered there. The place was taken from the Moors in 1239, and 
Driven by Alphonso the Wise to the knights of Calatrava in 1264. 
Don Pedro Giron appropriated it to himself in 1445. One of his 
descendants founded the university, and another, Don Pedro Tellez, 
was made duke of Osuna by Philip II. (1562). 

OSWALD (c. 604-642), "most Christian king of the 
Northumbrians," was the son of King Ethelfrith, and was 
born about 604. On the death of his father on the battle 
field in 617, he and his brothers were compelled to take 
refuge among the northern Celts, Avhere they are said to 
have received baptism. The fall of King Edwin in 633 
permitted their return, and after the death of Eanfrid, 



64 



S AV O T H 



who had received Deira, and of Osric, who had been ! 
chosen to Bcrnicia, Oswald was called to the throne of the 
united kingdoms, and established his claim to it by his 
great victory over Ceadwalla at Heavenfield near Hexham 
in 635. His beneficent reign, which was chiefly devoted 
to the establishment of Christianity throughout his 
dominions, was brought to an end by his defeat and death 
on August 5, 642 (see NORTHUMBERLAND). The cross 
erected by Oswald on the scene of his victory in 635 was 
afterwards the scene or the instrument of many miracles, 
and gradually his name found a place in the calendar, 
August 5th being the day sacred to his memory. A 
German " Spielmannsgedicht " of the 12th or 13th century 
takes its name from St Oswald, but the narrative has no 
relation to anything recorded about the hero in authentic 
history (see monographs by Zingerle, 1856 ; Strobl, 1870; 
and Edzardi, 1876). Oswald, bishop of Winchester, who 
died February 29, 992, is also commemorated as a saint 
(October 15). 

OSWALDTWISTLE, a township of Lancashire, Eng 
land, is situated on the Leeds and Liverpool Canal and the 
East Lancashire Railway, 3|- miles east-south-east of Black 
burn and 2-4 north of Manchester. It possesses cotton- 
mills, printworks, bleachworks, and chemical works, and in 
the neighbourhood there are collieries, stone quarries, and 
potteries. The population of the township and urban 
sanitary district (area 4883 acres) in 1871 was 10,283, 
and in 1881 it was 12,206. 

OSWEGO, a city and port of entry of the United 
States, capital of Oswego county, New York, stretches 
between 2 and 3 miles along the south-east shore of Lake 
Ontario, on the low bluffs and hilly ground near the mouth 
of the Oswego river, which divides it into two nearly equal 
portions, and is spanned by three iron drawbridges. By \ 
the Delaware, Lacka wanna, and Western Railroad it is 305 
miles from New York, and by the New York, Ontario, and \ 
Western Railway 326 miles. The Oswego Canal connects 
at Syracuse with the Erie Canal. The situation of the j 
city is a beautiful and healthful one : most of the streets j 
are 100 feet wide, and there are two finely-shaded public 
parks, one on each side of the river. Among the more 
conspicuous buildings are the conjunct custom-house, post- 
office, and United States court-house, erected in 1858 at 
a cost of $120,000, the city-hall, the county court-house, ! 
the State armoury, the church of the Evangelists, the 
large Roman Catholic church in Mohawk Street, the public 
library (10,000 volumes), the normal and training schools, i 
the city almshouse (2 miles outside the city limits), and } 
the orphan asylum. Falling 34 feet in its passage through 
the city, Oswego river furnishes a good supply of water- ! 
power, rendered available by a canal on each side. Besides 
the Oswego starch factory (founded in 1848, and now 
probably the largest in the world, occupying 10 acres of , 
ground, partly with fireproof buildings seven stories high, 
and producing 35 tons of starch daily), the manufactories ( 
of Oswego comprise flour-mills, large iron-works (making 
steam-engines, steam-shovels, dredges, itc.), knitting works, i 
.--hade-cloth factories, railway carriage works and repair 
shops, box factories, planing-mills, and a large number of : 
subsidiary establishments. In the extent of its trade l 
Oswego is the principal United States port on Lake 
Ontario, importing vast quantities of grain and timber, 
and exporting coal, flour, and salt. The annual duties on | 
imports average over -SI, 000,000. The inner harbour, \ 
formed by the river mouth being enclosed by jettie: has j 
about 3 miles of wharfage, and a depth at low water of | 
from 9 to 1 3 feet ; and the outer harbour, formed by the 
construction since 1871 of a breakwater 5700 feet long, 
has about 4 miles of wharfage, and a depth of 20 feet. 
Fort Ontario, rebuilt by the United States Government in ; 



1839, guards the entrance to the harbour ; it is a place of 
some strength. The population of Oswego was 12,205 in 
1850, 20,910 in 1870, and 21,112 in 1880. 

Oswego was visited by Champlain in 1615, by the Jesuits Le 
Mayne in 1654, and by other early explorers. In 1722 the 
English established a trading post here, and in 1727 Governor 
William Burnet (son of Bishop Unmet) erected Fort Oswego. A 
body of about 700 men, left here by Governor Shirley, constructed 
in 1755-56 two other forts Fort Ontario on the east and Oswego 
New Fort on the west side of the river. In 1756 the place 
was bombarded and captured by Montcalm ; but between 1757 
and 1759 new works were constructed by the English, who kept 
possession till Oswego was transferred to the United States by the 
Jay treaty in 1796. In 1814 Sir James Yeo took the fortress after 
a bombardment of three hours. The little hamlet of Oswego, 
commenced by Xeil M Mullen, rapidly increased after the intro 
duction of steam navigation cm the lake (1816) and the construction 
of the Welland and the Oswego Canal (1828). In 1828 it was 
incorporated as a village, in 1848 as a city. 

OSWESTRY, a market-town and municipal borough in 
Shropshire, England, on the borders of Wales, on two 
railway lines and near the Shropshire Canal, 18 miles north 
west of Shrewsbury and 16 north from Welshpool. It is a 
well-built town with wide and regular streets, although 
some of the old wooden houses still remain. There are still 
some traces of the ancient castle erected in the reign of 
Stephen. The church of St Oswald, originally conventual, 
has been very much altered, the original structure having 
been more than once damaged, and the tower taken down 
by the Royalists in 1644. It was restored in 1872 at a 
cost of ,10,000. For the free grammar school, founded 
in the reign of Henry IV., a new building was erected in 
1810, which was enlarged in 1863 and 1878. Among the 
other public buildings are the public hall, the Victoria 
Rooms, the guildhall, the general market-hall, the literary 
institute, the union workhouse, and the cottage hospital. 
The town possesses locomotive repairing works, steam- 
engine, threshing machine, and agricultural implement 
works, steam printing works, corn mills, malting works, 
breweries, and a leather factory. In the vicinity are coal 
mines and limestone quarries. The population of the 
municipal borough (area 1888 acres) in 1871 was 7306, 
and in 1881 it was 7847. 

Oswestry was called by the Britons Tre r Cadeiriau, the town of 
chairs or seats commanding an extensive view, in reference to the 
eminences in the neighbourhood. It existed in the 4th century, 
and, having been given in the 5th century by Cunedda "VVledig, 
prince of North Wales, to his son Oswael, it received the name of 
Osweiling and subsequently Maserfield. After a battle in 642 
between Oswald the Christian king of Northumbria, and Penda the 
pagan king of Mercia, in which the former was slain, the name was 
changed to Oswaldstre (Welsh, Crocs Oswallt), which was gradually 
corrupted into Oswestry. On the spot where Oswald was slain a 
monastery was afterwards erected, and near its site there is a spring 
still called Oswald s well. In 777 Oswestry was disjoined from 
Powis and added to Mercia. It stands between Ofl a s and Wat s 
dykes. About a mile from the town is an old British earthwork, 
known as Old Port, a corruption of Old Fort (Welsh, H(n Dinas\ 
and sometimes called Old Oswestry, from a tradition that Oswestry 
originally occupied its site. Oswestry is not mentioned in Domesday. 
The castle is said to have been built about 1149 by Madoc, the ruler 
of Powis Yadog. It was burned in 1216 and in 1233. Edward I. 
began in 1277 to surround the town with walls, which were about 
one mile in circumference and had four gates. During invasions of 
the Welsh the town was burned in 1400 and 1403 ; it also suffered 
severely from a similar cause in 1542, 1544, and 1567, and in 1559 
it was devastated by the plague. Oswestry was garrisoned for the 
Royali>ts, but surrendered 22.1 June 1644, and a few years afterwards 
the castle was demolished. The town obtained the grant of a fair 
from Henry III. It received its first charter from William Fitz- 
Alan in the reign of Henry II., and a royal charter from Kichard 
II. Its present charter was granted by Charles II. 

Sen Price, History of Oiwettry, 1815; enthrall, Hittory of Otwettry and TOJIO 
graphy of the lioroiiijh, 185-5; Pennant, Tour ; Ej ton, Antiquities of Shropshire. 

OTAGO. See NEW ZEALAND. 

OTAHEITE, or TAHITI. See SOCIETY ISLANDS. 

OTHO, MARCUS SALVIUS, Roman emperor from 
January 15 to April 15, 69 A.D., was born April 28, 32 
A.D. He belonged to an ancient and noble Etruscan 



O T H 



65 



family, settled at Ferentinum in Etruria. His grandfather 
had been a senator and held the prsetorship ; his father 
had added to the family honours the dignity of a consul 
ship. Otho himself first appears in history as one of the 
most reckless and extravagant of the young nobles who 
surrounded Nero and shared his revels. But his friend 
ship with that emperor was brought to an abrupt close in 
58 A.D., when Otho was only twenty-six years old, by his 
refusal to divorce his beautiful wife Poppasa Sabina at the 
bidding of Nero, who was enslaved by her charms. The 
emperor, impatient as usual of anything that hindered the 
gratification of his passions, at once removed Otho from 
the scene by appointing him governor of the remote pro 
vince of Lusitania. In this honourable exile Otho 
remained for ten years, and, contrary to all expectation, his 
administration was marked by a moderation unusual at the 
time. When in 68 his neighbour Galba, the governor of 
Hispania Tarraconensis, rose in revolt against Nero, Otho 
at once joined him and accompanied him to Rome. 
Resentment at the treatment he had received from Nero 
may very well have impelled him to this course, but to 
this motive was added before long that of personal ambi 
tion. Galba was far advanced in years, and Otho, 
encouraged by the predictions of astrologers, aspired to 
succeed him, and, as a preliminary step, to be adopted as 
his heir by the emperor himself. With this object in view 
he set himself to win the affections of the soldiery and the 
populace in Rome, who, disgusted by Galba s old-fashioned 
parsimony and severity, were easily brought to look 
favourably upon a claimant for the imperial purple whose 
open-handed generosity and easy manners promised a return 
of the golden years of Nero. But in January 69 his 
hopes in this direction were dissipated by Galba s formal 
adoption of L. Calpurnius Piso as the fittest man to 
succeed him. Nothing now remained for Otho but to 
strike a bold blow for the prize which seemed to be slipping 
from his grasp. Desperate as was the state of his finances, 
thanks to his previous extravagance, he found money 
enough to purchase the services of some three-and-twenty 
soldiers of the praetorian guard, with whom he arranged 
his plan of operations. On the morning of January 15, 
five days only after the adoption of Piso, Otho attended as 
usual to pay his respects to the emperor, and then hastily 
excusing himself on the score of private business hurried 
from the Palatine to meet his slender band of accomplices 
in the forum. By them he was escorted to the praetorian 
camp, where, after a few moments of surprise and indeci 
sion, he was saluted imperator by the assembled troops. 
At the head of an imposing force he returned to the 
forum, and at the foot of the Capitol encountered Galba 
himself, who, alarmed by vague rumours of treachery, was 
making his way through a dense crowd of wondering citizens 
towards the barracks of the guard. The cohort on duty 
at the Palatine, which had accompanied the emperor, 
instantly deserted him ; Galba himself was brutally 
murdered by the fierce praetorians, and his fate was shared 
by his adopted heir Piso, and by his chief confidants and 
advisers. The brief struggle over, Otho returned in 
triumph to the camp. Towards sunset on the same day 
he proceeded to the senate-house, and there was duly 
invested by the senato:-s with the name of Augustus, the 
tribunician power, and the other dignities belonging to the 
principate. Otho had owed his success largely, not only 
to the resentment felt by the praetorian guards at Galba s 
well-meant attempts to curtail their privileges in the 
interests of discipline, but also to the attachment felt in 
Rome for the memory of Nero ; and his first acts as 
emperor showed that he was not unmindful of the fact. 
He accepted, or appeared to accept, the cognomen of Nero 
conferred upon him by the shouts of the populace, whom 



his comparative youth and the effeminacy of his appear 
ance reminded of their lost favourite. Nero s statues were 
again set up, his f reedmen and household officers reinstalled 
in their places, and the intended completion of the Golden 
House announced. At the same time the fears of the 
more sober and respectable citizens were allayed by Otho s 
liberal professions of his intention to govern equitably, and 
by his judicious clemency towards Marius Celsus, consul- 
designate, a devoted adherent of Galba. These favourable 
symptoms were eagerly seized upon as promising better 
things than could have been hoped for from one who was 
only known as yet in Rome as a passionate and reckless 
profligate and spendthrift. 

But any further development of Otho s policy was speedily 
checked by the news which reached Rome shortly after his accession, 
that the army in Germany had declared for Vitellius, the com 
mander of the legions on the lower Rhine, and were already 
advancing upon Italy under the conmand of Vitellius s two 
lieutenants, Fabius Valens and Alienus Czecina. After in vain 
attempting to conciliate Vitellius by the offer of a share in the 
empire, Otho, with unexpected vigour, prepared for war. His 
resources were not contemptible. From the remoter provinces, 
indeed, which had acquiesced in his accession little help was to be 
expected ; but the legions of Dalmatia, Pannonia, and Moesia were 
eager in his cause, the prsetorian cohorts were in themselves a 
formidable force, and an efficient fleet gave him the master} of the 
Italian seas. Nor was he himself wanting in promptitude. The 
fleet was at once despatched to secure Liguria, and on March 14 
Otho, undismayed by omens and prodigies, started northwards at 
the head of his troops, in the hopes of preventing the entry of the 
Vitellian troops into Italy. But for this he was too late. Both 
Valens and Csecina- had already crossed the Alps, the former by 
the Cottian, the latter by the Pennine passes, and all that could 
be done was to throw troops into Placentia and hold the line of 
the Po. The campaign opened favourably for Otho. His advanced 
guard successfully defended Placentia against Ciecina, and com 
pelled that general to fall back on Cremona. But the arrival of 
Valens altered the aspect of affairs. The Vitellian commanders 
now resolved to bring on a decisive battle, and their designs were 
assisted by the divided and irresolute counsels which prevailed in 
Otho s camp. The more experienced officers urged the importance 
of avoiding a battle, until at least the legions from Dalmatia had 
arrived. But the inconsiderate rashness of the emperor s brother 
Titianus and of Proculus, prefect of the praetorian guards, added to 
Otho s feverish impatience of prolonged suspense, overruled all 
opposition, and an immediate advance was decided upon, Otho 
himself remaining behind with a considerable reserve force at 
Brixellum, on the southern bank of the Po. At the time when 
this decision was taken the Othonian forces had already crossed the 
Po and were encamped at Bedriacum, a small village on the Via 
Postumia, and on the route by which the legions from Dalmatia 
would naturally arrive. Leaving a strong detachment to hold the 
camp at Bedriacum, the Othonian forces advanced along the Via 
Postumia in the direction of Cremona. At a short distance from 
that city they unexpectedly encountered the Vitellian troops, and a 
battle at once ensued. The Othonians, though taken at a dis 
advantage, fought desperately, but were finally defeated at all 
points and forced to fall back in disorder upon their camp at 
Bedriacum. Thither on the next day the victorious Vitellians 
followed them, but only to come to terms at once with their 
disheartened enemy, and to be welcomed into the camp as friends. 
More unexpected still was the effect produced by the news of the 
battle at Brixellum. Otho was still in command of a formidable 
f orce the Dalmatian legions had already reached Aquileia ; and 
the spirit of his soldiers and their officers was still unbroken. But 
he was resolved to accept the verdict of the battle which his own 
impatience had hastened. He had made a bold throw for success 
and had failed. He was weary of the suspense and anxieties of a 
protracted struggle, and he may even have been sincere in his pro 
fessed unwillingness to cause further bloodshed. In a dignified 
speech he bade farewell to those about him, and then retiring to 
rest slept soundly for some hours. Early in the morning he 
stabbed himself to the heart with a dagger which he had concealed 
under his pillow, and died as his attendants entered the tent. His 
funeral was celebrated at once, as he had wished, and not a few of 
his soldiers followed their master s example by killing themselves 
at his pyre. A plain tomb was erected in his honour at Brixellum, 
with the simple inscription " Diis Manibus Marci Othonis. " At 



the time of his death (April 15, 69) he was only in, his thirty-eighth 
year, and had reigned just three months. In all his life nothing 
became him so well as his manner of leaving it ; but the fortitude 
he then showed, even if it was not merely the courage of despair, 
cannot blind us to the fact that he was little better than a reckless 

XVIII. --9 



T H 



aud vicious spendthrift, who was not the less dangerous because his 
fiercer passions were concealed beneath an affectation of effeminate 
dandyism. (H. F. P.) 

OTH.O I. (912-973), called The Great, Holy Roman 
emperor, was born in 912. After the death of his father, 
Henry, king of Germany, he was elected and crowned king 
in 936 at Aix-la-Chapelle; and he occupied the throne 
upwards of thirty-six years. His reign was one of the most 
momentous in mediaeval history, its chief incident being his 
assumption of the imperial crown, whereby he rendered 
impossible the growth of a compact German monarchy. 
Otho was a man of great ambition, stern and resolute ; 
and soon after his coronation as king of Germany his 
leading vassals saw that he intended to claim from them 
something more than nominal allegiance. First he had 
to suppress a rebellion headed by Eberhard, duke of 
Franconla, in association with Thankmar, a son of King 
Henry by a marriage which had been declared invalid. 
When this insurrection was put down, Thankmar having 
died, there was a more formidable rising, in which 
Eberhard secured the alliance of Otho s younger brother 
Henry, of Giselbcrt, duke of Lorraine, of Frederick, 
archbishop of Mainz, and of other powerful prelates. 
The king was again triumphant, and on this occasion he 
strengthened his position by retaining Franconia in his 
own hands, and by granting Lorraine to his supporter 
Conrad, who married Otho s daughter Liudgard. To his 
brother Henry, whom he pardoned, he gave Bavaria ; and 
over S \vabia, after the death of its duke, he placed his 
own son Ludolf. His native duchy, Saxony, was 
entrusted to Count Hermann, called Billung, a brave 
njble who had distinguished himself in wars on the 
eastern borders of Germany. Thus all the great offices of 
the state were held by Otho s kinsmen and friends ; and 
he exercised more direct control over his subjects than 
any sovereign, except Charlemagne, had done before him. 
In wars with the Bohemians, the Wends, and the Danes 
Otho was not less successful. In 951 he crossed the Alps 
to help Queen Adelaide, and, having conquered Berengar 
II., he married her and became king of Lombardy. On 
his return to Germany his s on Ludolf rebelled against 
him, and was aided by Duke Conrad, by Archbishop 
Frederick of Mainz, and by many discontented magnates. 
In the midst of the struggle Germany was attacked by 
the Magyars, whom Duke Conrad had summoned to his 
aid. This common danger led to the establishment of 
internal peace, and Otho succeeded in defeating the 
Magyars. When in 955 they returned in greater 
numbers than ever, he inflicted on them so decisive a 
defeat that they did not again invade Germany. In 961, 
in response to the appeal of Pope John XII., Otho 
returned to Italy to punish his rebellious vassal Berengar ; 
and on the 2d February 962 he was crowned emperor 
by the pope, for the deposition of whom he soon after 
wards summoned a council. At this time Otho remained 
two years in Italy, and a later visit extended over six years, 
during which he not only maintained his authority in Lom 
bardy, but sought to assert it in southern Italy. In Germany 
his policy was directed chiefly to the strengthening of the 
church, which wa& to act as a counterpoise to the influence 
of the secular nobles. He died on the 7th May 973, at 
Memleben, and was buried in Magdeburg, which he had 
made the seat of an archbishopric. 

See Kopke and Dummler, Kaiser Otto der Grosse, 1876. 

OTHO II. (955-983), Holy Roman emperor, son of 
Otho I. and Adelaide, was born in 955. In the lifetime 
of his father he was twice crowned, in 961 as king of 
Germany, and in 967 (at Rome) as emperor. He became 
sole ruler after the death of Otho I. in 973. Early in his 
reign he had to suppress a great conspiracy organized by 



his cousin, Duke Henry of Bavaria ; and at the same time 
he was repeatedly attacked by Harold, king of the Danes. 
In 978, when his authority had been in some measure 
re-established, he was confronted by a new danger, for 
Lothair, king of France, suddenly invaded Lorraine. 
Otho hastily assembled an army, drove Lothair from 
Lorraine, and pushed on to Paris, which he unsuccessfully 
besieged. In the treaty by which peace was concluded, 
France formally recognized the right of Germany to 
Lorraine. Otho next went to restore order in Rome, 
from which Pope Benedict VII. had been expelled by 
Crescentius. In southern Italy Otho (who, in virtue of 
his wife, Theophano, claimed Apulia and Calabria) 
waged war with the Saracens, and defeated them in a 
great battle. On the 13th July 982, however, he himself 
was defeated, and was very nearly taken prisoner. At a 
diet in Verona, attended by German and Italian princes, 
his son Otho, three years of age, was chosen to be his suc 
cessor, and arrangements were made for a new campaign 
in the south. On the 7th December 983 Otho II. died, 
leaving the empire in a state of confusion, the Danes and 
the Wends, encouraged by his defeat, having risen against 
German supremacy. Although warlike and impetuous, 
Otho II. was a man of refined and scholarly tastes, which 
had been carefully cultivated by his mother. 

See Giesebrecht, Gcschichtc dcr dcutschcn Kaiscrzcit. 

OTHO III. (980-1002), Holy Roman emperor, son of 
Otho II. and Theophano, was born in 980, and crowned 
king of Germany at Aix-la-Chapelle in 983. After his 
coronation his kinsman, Duke Henry of Bavaria, who had 
been imprisoned by Otho II. in Utrecht, made his escape 
and seized the young king, in whose name he proposed 
to govern the empire. His pretensions were resisted, 
however, and he agreed to submit on condition of being 
reinstated in his dukedom. During Otho s minority 
public affairs were administered, with the aid of Willegis, 
archbishop of Mainz, by his mother Theophano, his 
grandmother Adelaide, and his aunt Matilda, sister of 
Otho II. and abbess of Quedlinburg. Otho was a 
dreamy and imaginative youth of brilliant talents, which 
were carefully developed by Gerbert, the greatest scholar 
of the age. In 996, when Otho was declared to have 
reached his majority, he went to Rome, where Crescentius 
had made himself supreme. After the death of Pope 
John XV. Otho caused Bruno, who was related to the 
Saxon dynasty, to be elected to the holy see ; and by him 
(Gregory V.) Otho was crowned emperor on the 21st May 
996. After Otho s departure Crescentius again rose, 
drove Gregory V. from Rome, and set up an anti-pope. 
Otho immediately returned, and Crescentius, with twelve 
of his supporters, was executed. On the death of Gregory 
V., Otho s tutor, Gerbert, archbishop of Ravenna, was 
appointed pope ; and, in part through his influence, the 
emperor began to form great plans, deciding to make 
Rome the centre of the secular as well as of the spiritual 
world. At the approach of the year 1000, when it was 
commonly supposed that the earth was about to be 
destroyed, Otho returned to Germany and made a 
pilgrimage to the tomb of St Adalbert at Gncsen. 
Afterwards, in Aix-la-Chapelle, he entered the vault in 
which the body of Charlemagne sat upon a throne, and 
took away the golden cross which hung on the mighty 
emperor s breast. In 1001 Otho went back to Italy for 
the purpose of carrying out his far-reaching schemes ; but 
popular disturbances in Rome compelled him to quit the 
city ; and on the way to Ravenna, where he proposed to 
wait for a German army, he died at Paterno, near Viterbo, 
on the 21st January 1002. 

See Wilmans, Jahrbiichcr des dcutschcn Rcichs untcr Kaiser Otto 
III. ; Giesebrecht, Gcschichte dcr deutschcn Kalserzeit. 



T H T I 



67 



OTHO IV. (c. 1174-1218), Holy Roman emperor, the ; 
second son of Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, j 
of the house of Guelph, was born about 1174. After the 
banishment of his father to England in 1180, Otho was 
educated at the court of Richard L, whose sister Matilda was 
Otho s mother. Otho distinguished himself in the war 
between England and France, and in 1196 llichard I. made 
him duke of Aquitaine and count of Poitou. In 1197, 
when the majority of the German princes, disregarding the 
previous election of Frederick II., offered the crown to 
Philip of Swabia, a party in the Rhine country, headed 
by the archbishop of Cologne, set up Otho as anti-king, 
and he was crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle. The result was a 
civil war which lasted about ten years, Philip being 
supported by most of the German princes and by the king 
of France, Otho by the kings of England and Denmark. 
For some time Pope Innocent hesitated to take part with 
either side, but at last he declared for Otho, who promised 
to make over certain fiefs claimed by the holy see. 
Notwithstanding the pope s aid, Otho s cause did not 
prosper; but in 1208 Philip was murdered by Otho of 
Wittelsbach, and then Otho IV. was universally acknow 
ledged as king. On the 27th September 1209, at Rome, 
he was crowned emperor by the pope, to whom he had 
made new and more important concessions. Otho gave 
deadly offence to Innocent by seizing Ancona and Spoleto, 
which had been united to the papal territories ; and, when 
the emperor, having conquered Apulia, was about to cross 
to Sicily, the pope excommunicated him, released the 
German princes from their oath of allegiance, and 
recognized the right of Frederick II. to the throne. In 
1212 Otho returned to Germany, where he acted with so 
much vigour that he seemed to be capable of defying the 
papacy ; but he immediately lost ground when Frederick 
II., a youth of brilliant genius, appeared as his rival. 
After the battle of Bouvines (July 27, 1214), in which 
Otho, with King John of England, was defeated by the 
French, the discredited emperor had no chance of recover 
ing his position. He made some ineffectual attempts to 
assert his claims, but ultimately he contented himself with 
the principality of Brunswick, which he had inherited 
when the Guelphic territories were divided in 1202. On 
the 19th of May 1218 he died at the Harzburg. 

Sec Laugcrfeldt, Kaiser Otto IV~., 1872; Winkelmami, Philipp 
ron Schwaben und Otto IV., 1873. 

OTHO OF FREISING, German historian, was the son of 
Leopold IV., margrave of Austria, and of Agnes, the 
daughter of the emperor Henry IV. He became a priest, 
and was made provost of the monastery of Neuburg, which 
had been founded by his father. Soon afterwards he 
went to Paris to prosecute his studies ; and on his way 
back he joined the Cistercian order in the monastery of 
Morimont, in Burgundy, of which he became abbot. In 
1137 he was elected bishop of Freising, and this position 
he held until his death on September 22, 1158. 

He was the author of two important works, a universal history, 
in which lie brought the record down to 1146, and a history of the 
reign of the emperor Frederick I. The first of these works was 
continued (to 1209) by Otho of St Blasien, the second by Ragewin. 
Otho was not a very accurate historian, but he was much more than a 
mere chronicler, his materials being clearly and effectively arranged, 
and his narrative giving evidence of a penetrating and philosophical 
judgment. A critical edition of his writings was presented for the 
iirst time in the Monumcnta Germanic, and this was afterwards 
separately published with the title, Ottonis Episcopi Frisingcnsis 
Opera, 1867. 

OTIS, JAMES (1724-1783), was born at Barnstable, 
Massachusetts, U.S., on February 5, 1724 (o.s.). He 
graduated with honours at Harvard in 1743, and for a year 
or two afterwards devoted himself to the study of literature 
before reading law. He had been a dozen years at the bar, 
and had risen to professional distinction, when in 1760 he 



published a Rudiments of Latin Prosody, a book long ago 
out of print as well as out of date, but of authority in its 
time. He wrote also a similar treatise upon Greek prosody; 
but that was never published, because, as he said, there was 
not a fount of Greek letters in the country, nor, if there 
were, a printer who could have set it up. These, however, 
were his first and last works upon any other subject than 
politics. As the long war between Great Britain and 
France drew towards its close in 1762, measures were taken 
to enforce anew, in the British colonies in America, the 
commercial laws which had been in a measure lost sight 
of. The relaxation had taught the colonists that the 
burden was heavier than they thought when they bent 
beneath it; now the war had given them confidence in their 
own power, and the time had come, therefore, when 
resistance was inevitable. A trade with the West Indies 
in colonial vessels had been specially developed. This was 
in violation of the navigation laws, and to break it up an 
order in council was sent from England in 1760 directing 
the issue of writs of assistance, which would authorize the 
custom-officers to enter any man s house on suspicion of 
concealment of smuggled goods. The legality of a measure 
which would put so dangerous a power into the hands of 
irresponsible men was questioned, and the superior court 
consented to hear argument. Otis was a law-officer under 
the crown, and it was his duty to appear on behalf of the 
Government. He refused, resigned his office, and appeared 
for the people against the issue of the writs. His plea 
was profound for its legal lore, fearless in its assertion of 
the rights of colonial Englishmen, and so fervid in its 
eloquence that it was said he " was a flame of fire." 
Though it failed to convince a court where the lieutenant- 
governor, Hutchinson, sat as chief justice, Otis was from 
that moment a man of mark. John Adams, who heard him, 
said, " American independence was then and there born. " 
The young orator was soon afterwards unanimously elected 
a representative from Boston to the Colonial Assembly. 
To that position he was re-elected nearly every year of the 
remaining active years of his life, serving there with his 
father, who was usually a member, and often speaker, of 
that body. Of most of the important state papers addressed 
to the colonies to enlist them in the common cause, or sent 
to the Government in England to uphold the rights or set 
forth the grievances of the colonists, the younger Otis was 
the author. His influence at home in controlling and 
directing the movement of events which led to the revolution 
was universally felt and acknowledged ; and abroad no 
American was so frequently quoted, denounced, or applauded 
in parliament and the English press, as the recognized head 
and chief of the rebellious spirit of the colonies. 1 In 1765 
Massachusetts sent him as one of her representatives to the 
first Continental Congress, where he was a conspicuous 
figure. Four years later his brilliant public career was 
brought to a close. In consequence of a newspaper con 
troversy with some Tory office-holders in Boston, he was 
attacked in a darkened room in a public coffee-house by a 
dozen men, and wounded by a blow upon the head from 
which he never recovered. His health gave way, and he 
was subject to frequent attacks of insanity. Hewas killed 
by lightning on the 23d May 1783. 

A biography of Otis by William Tudor appeared in 1823 ; and a 
much briefer one, by Francis Bowen, in 1844. 

1 The political writings of Otis were chiefly controversial, and were 
published in the Boston newspapers. His more important pamphlets 
were A Vindication of the Conduct of the House of Representatives 
of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, published in 1763 ; The lliyhts 
of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved, 1764; A Vindication of 
the British Colonies against the Aspersions of the Halifax Gentleman, 
in his Letter to a Rhode Island Friend, a letter known at the time as 
the " Halifax Libel," 1765; Considerations on Behalf of the Colonists 
in a Letter to a Noble Lord, published in England the same year. 



68 



O T L O T T 



OTLEY, a market-town in the West Riding of York 
shire, is picturesquely situated on the south bank of the 
Wharf e, at the foot of the precipitous Chevin Hill, 10 miles 
north of Bradford and 9 south-west of Harrogate. The 
river is crossed by a stone bridge of seven arches. The 
church of All Saints contains what is said to be a Saxon 
doorway belonging to the original building, and several in 
teresting monuments. A free grammar school took its 
origin from a bequest by Thomas Cave in 1602, and was 
named in honour of Henry, prince of Wales, son of James I. 
A mechanics institute was erected in 1869 in the Italian 
style, and a court-house in 1875. Worsted spinning and 
weaving, machine making, tanning and leather dressing, 
organ-building, and paper-making are the principal indus 
tries. Otley is a very old town. It is mentioned in 
Domesday, the name being possibly derived from Othelai 
the field of Otho. The population of the town and 
urban sanitary district (area 2370 acres) was 5855 in 1871 
and 6806 in 1881. 

OTRANTO, a city of Italy in the province of Lecce 
(Terra d Otranto), 53 miles by rail south of Brindisi on 
the coast of the Adriatic, within sight on a clear day of 
the mountains of Albania. Though at present a small 
place with a communal population of only 2333 (1881), it 
was formerly one of the most celebrated cities of southern 
Italy, and the seat of an archbishop who bore the title of 
primate of the Salentines. 

Probably of Greek origin, Hydruntum or Hydrus, as it was 
called, seems for a time to have suffered from the prosperity of 
Brundusium, but by the 4th century it had become the regular 

?ort for travellers bound for the East by Apollonia and Dyrraehiivm. 
t remained in the hands of the Greek emperors till its second 
capture by Robert Guiscard in 1068. In 1480 the Turkish fleet 
under Achmet, grand-vizier of Mohammed II., destroyed the city 
and massacred or enslaved the inhabitants ; and, though Otranto 
was recovered for Ferdinand by Alphonso, duke of Calabria, and 
fortified by King Alphonso and Charles V., it never rose to its 
former importance. During the war of the League of Cambrai, 
Ferdinand of Aragon expelled the Venetians, who had been for 
some time in possession of the city. In 1810 Napoleon made 
Fouche duke of Otranto. The cathedral (S. Annunziata), a three- 
aisled basilica ending in three apses, contains a mosaic floor 
dating from 1163, greatly injured by tl^e Turkish horses; and the 
castle still stands which gave its title to "VValpole s well-known 
novel, The Castle of Otranto. 

OTTAWA, the capital of the Dominion of Canada, the 
seat of the supreme court, and the residence of. the 
governor-general, of the Church of England bishop of 
Ontario, and of the Roman Catholic bishop of Ottawa, is 
situated in 45 25 59" N. lat. and 75 42 4" W. long., in 
the province of Ontario, on the south bank of the Ottawa 
(which forms the boundary between Ontario and Quebec), 
about 90 miles above its junction with the St Lawrence. 
By the Canadian Pacific Railway, which here crosses from 
the north to the south side of the Ottawa valley, the city 
is 120 miles west of Montreal (by the Canada Atlantic 
Railway the distance is 116 miles), and from Prescott on 
the Grand Trunk Railway and opposite Ogdensburg in 
New York it is distant 54 miles. The site of Ottawa is 
sufficiently remarkable, extending as it does for about 2 
miles along the Ottawa from the Chaudiere Falls (where 
the river, narrowed to 200 feet, rushes down about 40 
feet over a broken ledge of rock) to the falls at the mouth 
of the Rideau (a right-hand tributary), and rising about 
midway into a cluster of hills Parliament or Barrack 
Hill (160 feet), Major s Hill, &c. which front the river 
with bold bluffs. The Rideau Canal, which skirts the 
east side of Parliament Hill, separates what is known as 
the higher from the lower town. To the south of 
Parliament Hill is the more commercial part of the city, 
stretching westward to the suburb of Rochesterville and 
the lumber district round the Chaudiere Falls. Major s 
Hill, east of the canal, is laid out as a public park ; and 



Sandy Hill, to the south of the lower town, forms a resi 
dential quarter. Beyond the Rideau river lies the sub 
urban village of New Edinburgh, with the official residence 
of the governor-general, Rideau Hall. The city of Hull 
too, on the opposite side of the Ottawa, in the province of 
Quebec, may be regarded as a suburb of the capital, with 
which it is connected by a suspension bridge. The Govern 
ment buildings, which give the name to Parliament Hill, 
rank among the finest specimens of architecture in North 
America. The central pile, or Parliament House, is in 
Italian Gothic, of the 13th century, the material mainly 
Potsdarn sandstone from Nepean. The main (south) front 
is 470 feet long and 40 feet high, and in the middle over 
the principal entrance stands Victoria Tower, 180 feet high, 
and surmounted by a great iron crown. In the centre of 
the north front is a semi-detached polygonal (almost cir 
cular) hall, 90 feet in diameter, appropriated to the library. 
The corner stone of the building was laid by the Prince 
of Wales in 1860. The total cost was about 1,000,000. 




Plan of Ottawa. 

(For ground plan and elevation see The Builder, 1859 and 
1860.) Two extensive blocks of departmental buildings 
are placed like detached wings forming the sides of the 
quadrangle in front. Ottawa also contains a Roman 
Catholic cathedral (Notre Dame) with twin spires 200 feet 
high, the Gray Nunnery (the mother-house of the province 
of Ontario), the Black Nunnery, two convents, a Roman 
Catholic college (Ottawa University), a Roman Catholic 
hospital, a Protestant hospital, a Protestant ladies college, 
a city-hall, a custom-house, the Government normal school 
for central Canada, the museum of the geological survey, 
tfcc. Besides being a great seat of the lumber trade, 
with saw-mills and match-works, it manufactures flour, 
cast-iron wares, leather, and bricks. The exports were 
valued at $1,683,148 in the fiscal year ending June 1874, 
and at $2,444,723 in the fiscal year 1883, the im 
ports at the same dates amounting to $1,495,169 and 
$1,562,344. The revenue arising from customs duties 
amounts to about 260,000 annually. The population of 
the city (about half being Roman Catholics and half Pro 
testants) was 14,669 in 1861, 21,545 in 1871, and 27,412 
in 1881. A mayor and board of aldermen constitute the 
: municipal government, and the city is divided into five- 
wards Wellington, Victoria, St George s, By, and Ottawa. 



T T T T 



69 



Steamers ply in summer down to Montreal, and for about 
200 miles up the river above the falls, as well as through 
the Rideau Canal to Kingston. 

Philemon Wright of Woburn, in Massachusetts, settled in 1800 
at the foot of the portage round the Chaudiere Falls on the site of 
Hull, and some twenty years later he transferred his claim to the 
hills on the other side of the river to a teamster named Sparks, who 
would have preferred the $200 due to him. Sparks Street is now 
the fashionable commercial street of Ottawa. In 1827 the Ridi-au 
Canal was constructed at a cost of $2,500,000 to connect lower 
Canada with Kingston on Lake Ontario, and in that way prevent the 
necessity of gun-boats, &c., passing up the St Lawrence exposed to the 
enemy s fire ; and soon afterwards a town sprang up at the Ottawa 
end, called Bytown after Colonel By, R. E. , who had surveyed the 
canal. At its incorporation as a city in 1854 Bytown received the 
name of Ottawa. In 1858 the queen, to whom the matter was 
referred, selected Ottawa as the capital of the Dominion of Canada, 
partly because of the advantages of its site, and partly to avoid 
invidious preference among the rival claims of Quebec, Montreal, 
Kingston, and Toronto. The first session of parliament in Ottawa 
was opened in 1865. 

OTTAWA, a city of the United States, capital of La 
Salle county, Illinois, on both sides of the Illinois above and 
below the mouth of the Fox river (which furnishes abund 
ant water-power by a fall of 29 feet), on the Illinois and 
Michigan Canal, and at the junction of the Fox river branch 
of the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railway with the 
Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific Railway, 84 miles south 
west of Chicago. Ottawa ships large quantities of produce 
and live stock, and has manufactories of agricultural imple 
ments, carriages, glass, and clothing. The more conspicuous 
buildings are those occupied by the county courts and jail, 
and the supreme court for the northern division of the State. 
Near the south bank of the Illinois there are mineral 
springs possessing important medicinal properties. In 
1880 the population was 7834 (811 in South Ottawa). 

OTTENSEN, a town of Prussia, in the province of 
Schleswig-Holstein, lies on the right bank of the Elbe, 
immediately below Altona, of which it practically forms a 
part. It contains numerous villas of Hamburg merchants, 
and carries on manufactures of machinery, tobacco, soap, 
gilt frames and cornices, glass, iron, and other articles. 
Ottensen, which received its municipal charter in 1871, 
contained 15,375 inhabitants at the census of 1880. The 
three "Graves of Ottensen," besung by the poet Riickert, 
are those of 1138 citizens, who were expelled from Ham 
burg by Marshal Davoust in 1813-14, and perished here, 
of Charles, duke of Brunswick, who died at Ottensen of 
wounds received at the battle of Jena, and of Klopstock 
and his wife Meta. The last alone now remains. 

OTTER, a group of animals belonging to the family 
Mustelidve, of the order Carnivora (see MAMMALIA, vol. 
xv. p. 439), distinguished from their allies by their aquatic 
habits. The true otters constitute the genus Lutra of 
zoologists, of which the common species of the British 
Isles, L. vulgaris, may be taken as the type. It has an 
elongated, low body, short limbs, short broad feet, with 
five toes on each, connected together by webs, and all 
with short, moderately strong, compressed, curved, pointed 
claws. Head rather small, broad, and flat ; muzzle very 
broad ; whiskers thick and strong ; eyes small and black ; 
ears short and rounded. Tail a little more than half the 
length of the body and head together, very broad and 
strong at the base, and gradually tapering to the end, some 
what flattened horizontally. The fur is of very fine quality, 
consisting of a short soft under fur of a whitish grey colour, 
brown at the tips, interspersed with longer, stiffer, and 
thicker hairs, very shining, greyish at the base, bright 
rich brown at the points, especially on the upper parts 
and outer surface of the legs ; the throat, cheeks, under 
parts and inner surface of the legs brownish grey through 
out. Individual otters vary much in size. The total 
length from the nose to the end of the tail averages about 



3 1 feet, of which the tail occupies 1 foot 3 or 4 inches. 
The weight of a full size male is from 18 to 24 ft, that of 
a female about 4 flb less. 

As the otter lives almost exclusively on fish, it is rarely 
met with far from water, and usually frequents the shores 
of brooks, rivers, lakes, and, in some localities, the sea 
itself. It is a most expert swimmer and diver, easily over 
taking and seizing fish in the water, but when it has cap 
tured its prey it brings it to shore to devour it. When 
lying upon the bank it holds the fish between its fore-paws, 
commences at the head and then eats gradually towards 
the tail, which it is said always to leave. The female 
produces three to five young ones at a time, in the month 
of March or April, and brings them up in a nest formed of 
grass or other herbage, usually placed in a hollow place in 
the bank of a river, or under the shelter of the roots of 
some overhanging tree. The Common Otter is found in 
localities suitable to its habits throughout Great Britain 
and Ireland, though far less abundantly than formerly, for, 
being very destructive to fish, and thus coming into keen 
competition with those who pursue the occupation of fish 
ing either for sport or for gain, it is rarely allowed to live 
in peace when once its haunts are discovered. Otter 
hunting with packs of hounds of a special breed, and trained 
for the purpose, was formerly a common pastime in the 
country. When hunted down and brought to bay by the 
dogs, the otter is finally despatched by long spears carried 
for the purpose by the huntsmen. 

The Common Otter ranges throughout the greater part of Europe 
and Asia. A closely allied but larger species, L. canadensis, is 
extensively distributed throughout North America, where it is 
systematically pursued by professional trappers for the value of its 
fur. An Indian species, L. nair, is regularly trained by the natives 
of some parts of Bengal to assist them in fishing, by driving the fish 
into the nets. In China also otters are taught to catch fish, being 
let into the water for the purpose attached to a long cord. 

Otters are widely distributed over the earth, and, as they are much 
alike in size and coloration, their specific distinctions are by no 
means well defined. Besides those mentioned above, the following 
have been described, L. californica, North America ; L. felina, 
Central America, Peru, and Chili ; L. brasiliensis, Brazil ; L. 
maculicollis, South Africa ; L. whiteleyi, Japan ; L. chinensis, China 
and Formosa, and other doubtful species. A very large species from 
Demerara and Surinam, with a prominent flange-like ridge along 
each lateral margin of the tail, L. sandbachii, constitutes the genus 
Pteronura of Gray. Others, with the feet only slightly webbed, and 
the claws exceedinglysmall or altogether wanting on someof the toes, 
and also with some difference in dental characters, are with better 
reason separated into a distinct genus called A onyx. These are A. 
inunguis from South Africa and A. leptonyx from Java and Sumatra. 

More distinct still is the Sea-Otter (Enhydra lutris). It 
differs from all other known Carnivora in having but two 
incisors on each side of the lower jaw, the one correspond 
ing to the first (very small in the true otters) being con 
stantly absent. Though the molar teeth resemble those 
of Lutra in their proportions, they differ very much in the 
exceeding roundness and massiveness of their crowns and 
bluntness of their cusps. The fore feet are very small, 
with five short webbed toes, and naked palms ; the hind 
feet are altogether iinlike those of the true otters, but 
approaching those of the seals, being large, flat, palmated, 
and furry on both sides. The outer toe is the largest and 
stoutest, the rest gradually diminishing in size to the first. 
The tail is about one-fourth of the length of the head and 
body, cylindrical and obtuse. The entire length of the 
| animal from nose to end of tail is about 4 feet, so that the 
body is considerably larger and more massive than that 
of the English otter. The skin is peculiarly loose, and 
stretches when removed from the animal so as to give the 
idea of a still larger creature than it really is. The fur is 
remarkable for the preponderance of the beautifully soft 
woolly under fur, the longer stiffer hairs being very scanty. 
The general colour is a deep liver-brown, everywhere 
silvered or frosted with the hoary tips of the longer stiff 



70 



T T T W 



hairs. These are. however, removed when the skin is 
dressed for commercial purposes. 

Sea-otters are only found upon the rocky shores of certain 
parts of the North Pacific Ocean, especially the Aleutian 
Island.* and Alaska, extending as far south on the American 




The Sea-Otter (Enhydra hitris). From Wolf in the Proceedings of 
the Zoological Society of London, 1865, pi. vii. 

coast as Oregon ; but, owing to the unremitting persecution 
to which they are subjected for the sake of their skins, which 
rank among the most valuable known to the furrier, their 
numbers are greatly diminishing, and, unless some restric 
tion can be placed upon their destruction, such as that 
which protects the fur seals of the Pribyloff Islands, the 
species is threatened with extermination, or, at all events, 
excessive scarcity. When this occurs, the occupation of five 
thousand of the half-civilized natives of Alaska, who are 
dependent upon sea-otter hunting as a means for obtaining 
their living, will be gone. The principal hunting grounds 
at present are the little rocky islets and reefs around the 
island of Saanach and the Chernobours, where they are 
captured by spearing, clubbing, or nets, and recently by 
the more destructive rifle bullet. They do not feed on 
fish, like the true otters, but on clams, mussels, sea-urchins, 
and crabs, and the female brings forth but a single young 
one at a time, apparently at no particular season of the 
year. They are excessively shy and wary, and all attempts 
to rear the young ones in captivity have hitherto failed. 

See Elliott Coues, Monograph of North American Fur-bearing 
Animals, 1877. (W. H. F.) 

OTTOMAN EMPIRE. See TURKEY. 

OTTUMWA, a city of the United States, capital of 
Wapello county, Iowa, lies on the Des Moines river (here 
spanned by a bridge), 75 miles north-west of Burlington by 
the main line of the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Rail 
road. An important railway junction, in the heart of the 
coal-region of Iowa, and in possession of good water-power, 
Ottumwa, whose existence as a city dates from 1856, is 
growing in commercial and industrial activity. There is 
a large pork-packing establishment, killing 100,000 hogs 
annually. Among the manufactures are waggons and 
carriages, ploughs, sewing machine attachments, table- 
cutlery, corn-starch, linseed oil, harness, and furniture. 
The population was 1632 in 1860, 5214 in 1870, and 
9004 in 1880. 

OTWAY, THOMAS (1651-1685), the best English tragic 
poet of the classical school, was the son of the Rev. 
Humphrey Otway, rector of Woolbeding, near Midhurst 
in Sussex, and was born at the adjoining village of 
Trotton, March 3, 1651. He acknowledges his obligations 
to the care and education of his parents. He went to 



school at Wickham, near Winchester, and in 1669 pro 
ceeded to Christ Church, Oxford. In 1671 he appeared at 
the Duke s Theatre, Lincoln s Inn Fields, in the Forced 
Marriage, a new play by Aphra Behn, but failed ignomini- 
ously. Declining to take orders, he quitted the university 
in 1674, and obtained a cornetcy in a troop of horse. 
Within a twelvemonth he sold his commission, and came to 
London as a literary adventurer. In 1675 his Alcibiades, 
a poor play, was performed with indifferent success at the 
Duke s Theatre. In the following year Don Carlos, a 
vigorous rhymed tragedy, puerile in conception and show 
ing little knowledge of human nature, but full of declama 
tory energy, took the town fairly by storm. He followed 
it up with translations of Racine s Berenice and Moliere s 
Fourberies de Scapin, and with a very dull and indecent 
comedy of his own, Friendship in Fashion. He next went 
as a volunteer to the wars in Flanders, an unfortunate 
expedition which pointed the merciless lampoons of 
Rochester, to whom Berenice had been dedicated, but with 
whom he had now quarrelled. It also prompted his 
mediocre but not uninteresting play, The Soldier s Fortune 
(1679), in which he has turned his military experience to 
account. Next year he produced The Orphan, founded upon 
a novel called English Adventures, one of the two plays 
which have placed him in the first rank of English tragic 
poets; and Caitts Marius, a wholesale but acknowledged 
plagiarism from Romeo and Juliet. In i682 appeared his 
masterpiece, Venice Preserved, the plot of which is taken 
from Saint Real s Histoire de la Conjuration du Marquis <h 
Bedemar. Its success was decisive, but it brought little 
pecuniary advantage to the author, who was already sink 
ing into abject poverty, and, as appears by some letters 
attributed by Mr Gosse to this date, was further tormented 
by a hopeless passion for the beautiful Mrs Barry, the 
principal female performer in his plays. Some of his 
letters to her were first published with Rochester s works, 
and subsequently included in his own. Desponding arid 
broken-hearted, he seems to have given himself up to dissi 
pation, and produced but one more insignificant play, The 
Atheist, a second part of the Soldier s Fortune (1684). On 
April 14, 1685, he died on Tower Hill, under most melan 
choly circumstances if the tradition can be believed that 
he was choked by a piece of bread begged from a passer 
by. There is no absolute confirmation of this sad story, 
or of a later account which attributes his death to a fever 
caught by over-exertion in pursuing a robber. Whatever 
the exact manner of his decease, he certainly expired in 
obscurity and want. A tragedy called Heroic Friendship 
was published under his name in 1719. It has generally 
been regarded as wholly spurious ; but Mr Gosse, his most 
sympathetic critic, recognizes some traces of his hand. 

Otway s strong point is pathos. In this respect, though 
in no other, he is the Euripides of the English stage. 
When he would excite compassion he is irresistible. 
Unlike Shakespeare s, however, his pathos springs entirely 
out of the situation. His characters in themselves are not 
interesting, but the circumstances in which they are placed 
afford scope for the most moving appeals, and merit and 
demerit are altogether lost sight of in the contemplation 
of human suffering. The love scenes between Jaffier and 
Belvidera cannot be surpassed; and no plot more skilfully 
calculated to move the emotions than that of Venice Pre 
served was ever contrived by dramatist. It is to be 
regretted that modern fastidiousness has banished from 
the stage The Orphan, in which Johnson saw no harm. 
In everything but pathos Otway is mediocre : he has no 
deep insight into the human heart ; his ideas are circum 
scribed and commonplace ; and his attempted eloquence is 
frequently mere rant. Even the affecting madness of 
Belvidera verges dangerously on burlesque, and is no 



U D U D 



71 



doubt parodied in Sheridan s Critic. His boyish Alcibiades 
is positively absurd, and even Don Carlos produces much 
the same effect in the closet, though its rattling vigour 
carried it off well in the theatre at a time when nature 
was little regarded. It was probably not unknown to 
Schiller. The comedies and melodramas are simply tire 
some, although a certain interest attaches to the military 
scenes in the Soldier s Fortune. There has hardly been 
another instance of a poet whose best and whose worst are 
at such an immeasurable distance from each other as 
Otway s ; but his supreme excellence in one of the most 
difficult branches of the dramatic art must always be held 
to entitle him to an exalted place as a tragic poet. It has 
been remarked that Dryden, with all his splendour, has 
but one truly pathetic passage in the whole range of his 
dramas. Otway, writing simply from the heart, reached 
at a bound an eminence inaccessible to the laborious 
efforts of the greater poet. His miscellaneous poems are 
only interesting in so far as they illustrate his life and 
character. Of the latter little is known. He was a man 
about town in a dissipated age ; but his references to his 
parents and friends, and his letters to the object of his 
unfortunate passion, show that he possessed deep and 
refined feeling. 

See Baker, Biographia Dramatica ; Johnson, Lives of the Poets ; 
Gosse, Seventeenth Century Studies ; and Ward, History of English 
Dramatic Literature, vol. ii. (R. G.) 

OUDENARDE, or OUDENAERDE, a small town of 
Belgium, in the province of East Flanders, on the Scheldt, 
17 miles south-south-west from Ghent, with a population 
(1880) of 5880. It has manufactures of cotton and 
woollen fabrics, lace, tobacco, and starch, dyeing and 
bleaching establishments, salt refineries, distilleries, and 
so on. The town-hall, built in 1530 by Van Pede, is 
remarkable for the elegance of its architecture and the 
profusion of its ornament ; the portal of the council 
chamber is a masterpiece of wood-carving, executed in 
1534 by Paul van der Schelden. Among other buildings 
of interest are the old church of St Walburga, of the 10th 
century, partly rebuilt in the 14th, and that of Our Lady 
of Pamele, an example, rare in Belgium, of the transition 
Gothic style. A monument was erected at Oudenarde in 
1867 to the memory of the Belgians who fell in Mexico, at 
the battle of Zacamburo. 

The origin of Oudenarde is unknown ; it appears to have been a 
stronghold of some importance under the Romans. A fortress was 
erected there by Count Baldwin of Flanders in 1053. It was 
besieged in 1452 by the citizens of Ghent, who were repulsed by 
Simon de Lalaing after a memorable siege. Alexander Farnese took 
the town in 1581. Close to its walls was fought, on July 11, 1708, 
the battle of Oudenarde,- in which the French were defeated by the 
allied army under the command of Marlborough and Prince Eugene. 
It was retaken by the French in 1745. 

OUDH, a province of British India, now under the 
political administration of the lieutenant-governorship of 
the North-Western Provinces, but in respect of its land 
and courts still a distinct chief-commissionership. Lying 
between 25 34 and 28 42 N. lat. and between 79 44 
and 83 9 E. long., it is bounded on the N.E. by Nepal, on 
the N.W. by the Rohilkhand division, on the S.W. by the 
Ganges river, on the E. and S.E. by the Benares division. 
The administrative headquarters of the province are at 
Lucknow. 

Physical Aspects. Oudh forms the central portion of 
the great Gangetic plain, sloping downwards from the 
Nepal Himalayas in the north-east to the Ganges on the 
south-west. For 60 miles along the northern border of 
Gonda and Bahraich districts the boundary extends close 
up to the lower slopes of the Himalayas, embracing the 
damp and unhealthy sub-montane region known as the 
tardi. To the westward of this, the northern boundary 
recedes a little from the mountain tract, and the tardi in 



this portion of the range has been for the most part ceded 
to Nepal. With the exception of a belt of Government 
forest along the northern frontier, the rest of the province 
consists of a fertile and densely peopled monotonous plain. 
The greatest elevation (600 feet) is attained in the jungle- 
clad plateau of Khairigarh in Kheri district, while the 
extreme south-east frontier is only 230 feet above sea- 
level. Four great rivers traverse or skirt the plain of 
Oudh in converging courses the Ganges, the Gumti, the 
Gogra, and the Rapti. Numerous smaller channels seam 
the whole face of the country, carrying off the surplus 
drainage in the rains, but drying up in the hot season. All 
the larger rivers, except the Gumti, as well as most of the 
smaller streams, have beds hardly sunk below the general 
level ; and in time of floods they burst through their con 
fining banks and carve out new channels for themselves. 
Numerous shallow ponds or jkils mark the former beds of 
the shifting rivers. These jkils have great value, not only 
as preservatives against inundation, but also as reservoirs 
for irrigation. The soil of Oudh consists of a rich alluvial 
deposit, the detritus of the Himalayan system, washed 
down into the Ganges valley by ages of fluvial action. 
Usually a light loam, it passes here and there into pure 
clay, or degenerates occasionally into barren sand. The 
uncultivable land consists chiefly of extensive usor plains, 
found in the southern and western districts, and covered 
by the deleterious saline efflorescence known as re h. Oudh 
possesses no valuable minerals. Salt was extensively 
manufactured during native rule, but the British Govern 
ment has prohibited this industry for fiscal reasons. 
Nodular limestone (kankar) occurs in considerable deposits, 
and is used as road metal. 

The general aspect of the province is that of a rich 
expanse of waving and very varied crops, interspersed by 
numerous ponds or lakes. The villages lie thickly scattered, 
consisting of low thatched cottages, and surrounded by 
patches of garden land, or groves of banyan, pipal, and 
pdkar trees. The dense foliage of the mango marks the site 
of almost every little homestead, no less an area than 1000 
square miles being covered by these valuable fruit-trees. 
Tamarinds overhang the huts of the poorer classes, while 
the neighbourhood of a wealthy family may be recognized 
by the graceful clumps of bamboo. Plantains, guavas, 
jack-fruit, limes, and oranges add further beauty to the 
village plots. The flora of the Government reserved 
forests is rich and varied. The sal tree yields the most 
important timber ; the finest logs are cut in the Khairigarh 
jungles and floated down the Gogra to Bahramghat, where 
they are sawn. The hard wood of the shisham is also 
valuable ; and several other timber-trees afford materials 
for furniture or roofing shingle. Among the scattered 
jungles in various parts of the province, the mahud tree is 
prized alike for its edible flowers, its fruits, and its timber. 
ThQj hils supply the villages with wild rice, the roots and 
seeds of the lotus, and the sinyhdra water-nut. The fauna 
comprises most of the animals and birds common to the 
Gangetic plain ; but many species, formerly common, have 
now almost, if not entirely, disappeared. The wild elephant 
is now practically unknown, except when a stray specimen 
loses its way at the foot of the hills. Tigers are now 
only found in any numbers in the wilds of Khairigarh. 
Leopards still haunt the cane-brakes and thickets along 
the banks of the rivers ; and nilgai and antelopes abound. 
Game birds consist of teal and wild duck, snipe, jungle 
fowl, and peacock. 

Climate. The climate of Oudh is less damp than that 
of Lower Bengal, and has greater varieties of temperature. 
The year falls naturally into three seasons the rainy, from 
the middle of June to the beginning of October ; the cold 
weather, from October to February or March ; and the 



72 



U D H 



hot season, from March to June. The mean temperature 
at Lucknow for the thirteen years ending 1880 was 78; 
in 1881 it was the same, the maximum temperature on 
any one day during the year being 111, and the minimum 
35. The heat proves most oppressive in the rainy season. 
The heaviest downpours occur in July and September, but 
are extremely capricious. The average annual rainfall at 
Lucknow for the fourteen years ending 1881 amounted to 
3 7 5 7 inches. 

Population. Oudh is probably more densely peopled than any 
other equal rural area in the world. The census of 1881 returned the 
population at 11,387,741 (5,851,655 males and 5,536,086 females), 
distributed over an area of 24,245 square miles. The following 
table exhibits the areas and populations of the districts separately. 



Divisions. 


Districts. 


Area in 
Square Miles. 


Population 
(1881). 


Lucknow. 


Lucknow 


989 
1,747 
1,768 
2,251 
2,312 
2,992 
1,689 
2,741 
2,875 . 
1,738 
1,707 
1,436 


696,824 
899,069 
1,026,788 
958,251 
987,630 
831,922 
1,081,419 
878,048 
1,270,926 
951,905 
957,912 
847,047 


Unao 


Sitapur 

Faizabad 
(Fyzabad). 

Rai Bareli \ 
Tota 


Bara Banki 


Sitapur 


Hardoi 


Kheri 


Faizabad ... . 


Bahrdich (Bharaich) 
Gonda 


Rai Bareli 


Sultanpur 


Partabgarh (Pratapgarh) 
1 


24,245 


11,387,741 





Divided according to religion, the population consisted of 9,942,4 1 1 
Hindus, 1,433,443 Mohammedans, 1154 Sikhs, 9060 Christians, 
and 1673 others. The Mohammedans are subdivided into the four 
classes of Sayyids, Shaikhs, Pathans, and Mughals, but they have 
lost greatly in social prestige since the downfall of the royal line. 
In the higher rank they still number seventy-eight tdlukddrs. 
Some of these, as the rajas of Utraula and Nanpara, trace their 
descent from local Mohammedan chieftains. Others belong to 
ancient Hindu families. The Mohammedans still furnish the ablest 
public servants in the province, and supply almost entirely the 
native bar. The lower orders make industrious cultivators and 
weavers. Among the Hindu population, the Brahmans preponder 
ate, numbering 1,364,783, about one-eighth of the entire population. 
They include, however, only six tdlukddrs in the whole province, 
and two of these acquired their wealth during the later days of 
Mohammedan rule. Large numbers of them follow agriculture, 
but they make undesirable tenants, most of them refusing to hold 
the plough, and cultivating their fields by hired labour. They 
supply good soldiers, however, and many are employed in trade. 
The Kshattriyas, or Rajputs, form the great landholding class, but 
the majority are now in decayed circumstances. The Mohammedans, 
Brahmans, and Kshattriyas compose the higher social stratum of 
society, and number altogether about a fourth of the entire popu 
lation. Amongst the lower Hindus, the Kayasths, or clerk and 
scrivener class, number 147,432. The Sudras or lowest class of 
Hindus include 1,185,512 Ahirs, cattle graziers and cultivators. 
The best tenantry and most industrious cultivators are to be found 
amongst the Kurmis, who number nearly 800, 000. Of the aboriginal 
or semi-Hinduized tribes some, such as the Pasis, who number 
718,906, make good soldiers, and furnish the greater part of the 
rural police. Others, like the Bhars and Tharus, live in small 
isolated groups on the outskirts of the jungle or the hill country, 
and hold no communication with the outer world. The Nats and 
Kanjars wander like gipsies over the country, with their small 
movable villages or wigwams of matting and leaf-screens. The 
Koris and Chamars, weavers and leather-cutters, reach the lowest 
depth of all. In the northern districts many still practically occupy 
the position of serfs, bound to the soil, having seldom spirit enough 
to avail themselves of the remedy afforded by the courts of law. 
They hold the plough for the Brahman or Kshattriya master, and 
dwell with the pigs in a separate quarter of the village, apart from 
their purer neighbours. 

Fifteen towns in the province have a population exceeding 10,000 
persons, according to the census of 1 881 , namely Lucknow, 239, 773 ; 
Faizabad, 38,828 ; Lucknow Cantonment, 21,530 ; Bahraich, 
19,439; Shahabad, 18,510; Tanda, 16,594; Sandila, 14,865; 
Khairabad, 14,217; Nawabganj, 13,933; Ajudhia, 11,643; Rudauli, 
11,394 ; Bilgram, 11,067 ; Mallawan, 10,970 ; Laharpur, 10,437 ; 
Hardoi, 10,026. Thirty-six other towns have a population exceed 
ing 5000. The general population is essentially rural, spread over 
the surface of the country in small cultivating communities. Over 
90 per cent, of the population belong to the rural class. 



Agriculture. There are three harvests, reaped respectively in 
September, December, and March, while sugar-cane comes to 
maturity in February, cotton in May, and sdmcun in almost any 
month of the year. The principal September crops are rice, Indian 
corn, and millets. Fine rice, transplanted in August from nurseries 
near the village sites, forms the most valuable item of the December 
harvest, the other staples being mustard-seed and pulses. Wheat 
forms the main spring crop. Sugar-cane occupies the land for an 
entire year ; it requires much labour and several waterings, but 
the result in ordinary years amply repays the outlay. 

At the date of the annexation of Oudh in 1856, 23,500 villages, 
or about two-thirds of the entire area of the province, were in the 
possession of the great tdlukddrs, heads of powerful clans and 
representatives of ancient families, a feudal aristocracy, based upon 
rights in the soil, which went back to traditional times, and which 
were heartily acknowledged by the subordinate holders. The new 
settlement paid no regard to their claims, and many landholders 
were stripped of almost their entire possessions. The mutiny of 
1857 suddenly put a stop to this work of disinheritance, and it 
is hardly to be wondered at that throughout Oudh, the whole 
tdlukddri, with a very few isolated exceptions, joined the sepoys. 
On the restoration of order the principle adopted was to restore to 
the tdlukddrs all that they had formerly possessed, but in such a 
manner that their rights should depend upon the immediate grant 
of the British Government. About two-thirds of the number 
accepted an invitation to come to Lucknow, and there concluded 
political arrangements with the Government. On the one hand, 
the tdlukddrs bound themselves to level all foils, give up arms, and 
act loyally, to pay punctually the revenue assessed upon them and 
the wages of the village officials, and to assist the police in keeping 
order. On the other hand, the British Government conferred a 
right of property unknown alike to flindu and to Mohammedan 
law, comprising full power of alienation by will, and succession 
according to primogeniture in case of intestacy. The land revenue 
demand was fixed at one-half the gross rental ; subordinate tenure- 
holders were confirmed in their ancient privileges ; and a clause was 
introduced to protect the actual cultivators from extortion. Snch 
were the main features of the sanads issued by Sir C. Wingfield in 
October 1859, which constitute the land system of Oudh to the 
present day, subject to a few minor modifications. The detailed 
operations for giving effect to this settlement were carried out by 
a revenue survey, conducted both by fields and villages, begun in 
1860, and finished in 1871. The total assessed area in 1881-82 
was 14,877,020 acres, the total assessmi-nt as land revenue being 
1,449,147, or an average of Is. ll^d. per acre. The total culti 
vated area is 8,274,560 acres ; cultivable and grazing lands are 
set down at 4,035,351 acres ; and uncultivable waste at 2,567,109 
acres. 

The estates on the revenue roll are divided into three classes : 
(1) those held under the tdlukddri rules described above ; (2) those 
held by ordinary zaminddri tenure ; and (3) those held in fee-simple. 
There are altogether about 400 tdlukddrs in the province, of whom 
about two-thirds, with an area of about 2^ million acres, hold their 
estates under the rule of primogeniture. The zaminddri estates, 
locally known by the name of mufrdd, may be the undivided pro 
perty of a single owner ; but far more commonly they are owned 
by a coparcenary community who regard themselves as descendants 
of a common ancestor. The fee-simple estates, which are very few 
in number, consist of land sold under the Waste Land Rules. The 
sub-tenures under the above estates are (1) sub-settled villages 
comprised within tdlukddri estates; (2) lands known as sir, daswant, 
ndnkdn, and dihddri, held by proprietors who have been unable to 
prove their right to the sub-settlement of a whole village ; (3) groves 
held by cultivators, who, according to immemorial custom, give 
the landlord a certain share of the produce ; (4) lands granted, 
either by sale or as gifts, for religious endowments ; and (5) lands 
held rent-free by village servants and officials. 

Commerce and Manufactures. Under native rule the only 
exports were salt and saltpetre, while the imports were confined to- 
articles of luxury required for the Lucknow court. Since the 
introduction of British authority, although Lucknow has declined, 
countless small centres of traffic have sprung up throughout 
the country. The staple exports consist of wheat and other 
food grains, and oil-seeds ; the main imports are cotton piece 
goods, cotton twist, and salt. Cawiipur, though lying on the 
southern bank of the Ganges within the North-Western Provinces, 
is, in fact, the emporium for the whole trade of Oudh, by rail, road, 
and river. The enormous exports of wheat and oil-seeds from 
Cawnpur represent to a great extent the surplus harvest of the 
Oudh cultivator. A brisk trade is also carried on with Nepal, 
along the three frontier districts of Kheri, Bahraich, and Gonda. 
The policy of the Nepal court is to compel this traffic to be trans 
acted at marts within its own dominions. At all of these a con 
siderable number of Oudh merchants are permanently settled, 
whereas Nepalis rarely cross the frontier to trade except for tha 
purchase of petty necessaries. The principal exports from Oudh 
into Nepal are Indian and European piece goods, salt, sugar, 



U D U D 



73 



tobacco, spices, and chemicals. The imports from Nepal, which 
considerably exceed the exports in value, consist chiefly of rice, 
oil-seeds, ghi or clarified butter, metal-wares, timber, spices, drugs, 
and cattle. 

No province of India is more destitute of wholesale manufac 
tures than Oudh. Almost all manufactured articles of any nicety 
require to be imported. The only specialties are gold and silver 
lace-work, silver chasing, and rich embroidery, all confined to 
Lucknow, and the weaving of a peculiar class of cotton goods, 
which still flourishes at Tanda. 

Communication. The Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway forms the 
great trunk of communications. A branch runs from Lucknow 
through Unao to Cawnpur ; and another diverges at Bara Baiiki 
for Bahramghat on the Gogra. The whole railway forms a loop- 
line between the East Indian and the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi 
systems. Good roads connect all the principal towns, and much 
traffic passes along the rivers. 

Administration. The administration belongs to the non-regu 
lation system, under which a single officer discharges both fiscal 
and judicial functions. The province contains twelve districts, 
each under a deputy-commissioner. The chief-commissionership 
is now amalgamated with the governorship of the North- Western 
Provinces. The high court, presided over by the judicial com 
missioner, forms the ultimate court of appeal. The principal items 
of revenue consist of the land revenue, which stands at about 
1,400,000 ; stamps, 116,770 ; excise, 100,411 ; forests, 31,114 ; 
and cesses over 101,000. In 1881 the total police force numbered 
7634 officers and men, maintained at a cost of 95,815. 

History. At the dawn of history Oudh appears as a nourishing 
kingdom, ruled over from Sravasti by a powerful sovereign. In 
its capital Sakya Muni (Buddha) began his labours, and the city long 
remained a seat of learning for Buddhist disciples. For six centuries 
Sravasti maintained a high position among the states of northern 
India, but in the 1st century of our era the Buddhist monarch of 
Kashmir was defeated by the Brahmanical king of Ujjain, who 
restored the fanes and holy places of Ajodhya, the Hindu sacred 
city, which had fallen into decay. A long struggle between 
Buddhism and Brahmanism followed, and when the Chinese 
pilgrim Fa Hian (c. 400 A.D.) visited Sravasti, as one of the most 
famous historical places of his religion, he found the once populous 
city still marked by lofty walls, enclosing the ruins of numerous 
temples and palaces, but inhabited only by a few destitute monks 
and devotees. In the 7th century the desolation was complete. 
According to local tradition, about the 8th or 9th century the 
Tharus, an aboriginal tribe, descended from the hills and began 
to clear the jungle which had overgrown the deserted kingdom, 
as far as the sacred city of Ajodhya. To the present day these 
aborigines are the only people who can withstand the influence 
of malaria, and so become the pioneers of civilization in the 
jungle tracts. About a century later, a family of Sombansi 
lineage, from the north-west, subjected the wild settlers to their 
sway. The new dynasty belonged to the Jain faith, and still 
ruled at or near the ruins of Sravasti at the time of the invasion 
of Mahmud s famous general, Sayyid Salar. Towards the close 
of the llth century Oudh was added to the kingdom of 
Kanauj by conquest. After its downfall Shahab-ud-din Ghori, 
or his lieutenant, overran Oudh in 1194. Mohammed Bakhtiyar 
Khilji was the first Mohammedan to organize the administration, 
and establish in Oudh a base for his military operations, which 
extended to the banks of the Brahmaputra. On the death of 
Kutb-ud-dln he refused allegiance to Altamsh as a slave, and his 
son Ghiyas-ud-din established an hereditary governorship of Bengal. 
Oudh, however, was wrested from the Bengal dynasty, and remained 
an outlying province of Delhi. Although nominally ruled in the 
name of the Delhi empire by great Mohammedan vassals from 
Bahraich or Manikpur, Oudh continued to be a congeries of Rajput 
principalities and baronies, which made war, collected revenues, and 
administered justice within their territories at their own pleasure. 
During the early days of Mohammedan supremacy the Hindu 
chiefs of southern Oadh were engaged in a desultory warfare with 
the receding Bhars, an aboriginal tribe who had obtained a tem 
porary ascendency after the first Moslem invasions. Upon their 
subjection the Mohammedan kingdom of Jaunpur arose in the 
valley of the Ganges. Ibrahim Shah Sharki, the ablest of the 
Jaunpur rulers, turned his attention to the fruitful province which 
lay in the direct path between his capital and Delhi. He attempted 
thoroughly to reduce Oudh to the condition of a Moslem country, 
and, as long as he lived, the people sullenly acquiesced. But on 
his death the national spirit successfully reasserted itself under the 
leadership of Raja Tilok Chand, probably a descendant of the 
Kanauj sovereigns ; and for a hundred years the land had peace. 

During the troubled times which followed the death of Babar, 
the first Mughal emperor of Delhi, Oudh became a focus of dis 
affection against the reigning house. After the final defeat of the 
Afghan dynasty at Panipat, and the firm establishment of Akbar s 
rule, the province settled down into one of the most important 
among the imperial viceroyalties. Under the Mughal dynasty in 



its flourishing days, the Hindu chieftains accepted their position 
without difficulty. But when the rise of the Mahratta power broke 
down the decaying empire of Aurangzeb, the chieftains of Oudh 
again acquired an almost complete independence. About 1732 
Saadat All Khan, a Persian merchant, received the appointment of 
governor of Oudh, and founded the Mohammedan dynasty which 
ruled over Oudh down to our own days. Before his death, in 1743, 
Oudh had become practically an independent kingdom, the rulers 
retaining the title of nawab wazir, or chief minister of the empire. 
Saadat Khan was succeeded by his brother-in-law, Safdar Jang, 
under whose wise rule the country enjoyed internal prosperity, 
although exposed to constant attacks from the Rohillas on one side 
and the Mahrattas on the other. The next nawab, Shuja-ud-daula, 
who succeeded his father Safdar Jang in 1753, attempted to take 
advantage of the war in Bengal between the British and Mir 
Kasim to acquire for himself the rich province of Behar. He 
therefore advanced upon Patna, taking with him the fugitive 
emperor Shah Alain and the exiled nawab of Bengal. The enter 
prise proved a failure, and Shuja-ud-daula retired to Baxar, where, 
in October 1764, Major Munro won a decisive victory, which laid 
the whole of upper India at the feet of the Company. The nawab 
fled to Bareli (Bareilly), while the unfortunate emperor joined the 
British camp. 

By the treaty of 1765 Korah and Allahabad, which had hitherto 
formed part of the Oudh viceroyalty, were made over to the 
emperor for the support of his dignity and expenses, all the remain 
ing territories being restored to Shuja-ud-daula, who had thrown 
himself upon the generosity of the British. A few years later, in 
1771, the titular Mughal emperor, Shah Alam, was a virtual 
prisoner in the hands of the Mahrattas, who extorted from him the 
cession of Korah and Allahabad. This was considered to be 
contrary to the terms of the treaty of 1765, and, as the emperor 
had abandoned possession of them, the British sold them to the 
Oudh nawab. Saadat Ali Khan, threatened by Sindhia on the 
advance of Zaman Shah to the Indus, concluded a new treaty with 
the British in 1801, by which he gave up half his territories in 
return for increased means of protection. Rohilkhand thus passed 
tmder British rule, and the nawab became still more absolute 
within his restricted dominions. Saadat s son, Ghazi-ud-diu 
Haidar (1814), was the first to obtain the title of king. In 1847 
Wajid Ali Shah, the last king, ascended the throne. The condi 
tion of the province had long attracted the attention of the British 
Government. The king s army, receiving insufficient pay, recouped 
itself by constant depredations upon the people. The Hindu 
chiefs, each isolated in his petty fort, had turned the surrounding 
country into a jungle as a means of resisting the demands of the 
court and its soldiery. Before 1855 the chronic anarchy and 
oppression had reduced the people of Oudh to extreme misery. 

A treaty was proposed to the king in 1856, which provided that 
the sole civil and military government of Oudh should be vested in 
the British Government for ever, and that the title of king of Oudh 
should be continued to him and his heirs male, with certain privi 
leges and allowances. He refused to sign the treaty, and on the 
18th February 1856 the British Government assumed the admin 
istration of the province, Oudh thus becoming an integral part of 
the British empire. A provision of 12 lakhs a year was made to 
the king, who resides in a palace at Garden Reach, a few miles 
south of Calcutta. Wajid Ali Shah has been allowed to retain the 
title of king of Oudh, but on his death the title will cease 
absolutely, and the allowance will not be continued on its present 
scale. 

Immediately after annexation in 1856, Oudh was constituted into 
a chief-commissionership, and organized on the ordinary British 
model. In March 1857 Sir Henry Lawrence assumed the admin 
istration at Lucknow ; and on the 30th of May five of the native 
regiments broke into mutiny. The remainder of the events con 
nected with the siege and recovery of the capital have been narrated 
in the article on LUCKNOW. Since 1858 the province has been 
administered without further vicissitudes. On the 17th of 
January 1877 Oudh was partially amalgamated with the North- 
Western Provinces by the unification of the two offices of chief- 
commissioner and lieutenant-governor. 

OUDINOT, CHARLES NICOLAS (1767-1847), duke of 
Reggio, one of the most distinguished of Napoleon s 
marshals, came of a good bourgeois family in Lorraine, 
and was born at Bar-le-duc on April 25, 1767. From his 
youth he had a passion for a military career, and served 
in the regiment of Medoc from 1784 to 1787, when he 
retired with the rank of sergeant, and the knowledge that 
as a bourgeois he could never obtain a commission. The 
Revolution changed his fortunes, and in 1792, on the out 
break of war, he was elected lieutenant-colonel of the 3d 
battalion of the volunteers of the Meuse. His gallant 
defence of the little fort of Bitche in the Vosges in 1792 

xvn r. 10 



74 



U G U S 



drew attention to him ; be was transferred to the regular 
army in November 1793, and after serving in all the 
numerous actions on the Belgian frontier he was promoted : 
general of brigade in June 1794 for his conduct at the 
battle of Kaiserslautern. He continued to serve with the , 
greatest distinction on the German frontier under Hoche, j 
Pichegru, and Moreau, and was repeatedly wounded and J 
once (in 1795) made prisoner. He was Masse na s right 
hand all through the great Swiss campaign of 1799 first 
as a general of division, to which grade he was promoted 
in April, and then as chief of the staff and was instru 
mental in winning the battle of Zurich. He was present 
under Massena at the defence of Genoa, and so distinguished 
himself at the combat of Monzambano that Napoleon pre 
sented him with a sword of honour. On the declaration 
of the empire he was given the Grand Cross of the Legion 
of Honour, but was not included in the first creation of 
marshals. In the same year he received the command of 
ten battalions of the army of the reserve, which he formed 
into the famous division of the "grenadiers Oudinot," and 
with which he won the battle of Ostrolenka and decided 
the fate of at least three great battles Austerlitz, Fried- 
land, and Wagram. A week after the last-named battle 
he was promoted to the rank of marshal, and he was 
made Due de Reggio in the following month. He admin 
istered the government of Holland from 1810 to 1812, 
and commanded the 2d corps of the grand army in the 
Russian campaign. He was present at Liitzen and 
Bautzen, and when holding the independent command of 
the corps directed to take Berlin was defeated at Gross 
Beeren. He was then superseded by Ney, but the 
mischief was too great to be repaired, and Napoleon was 
utterly defeated at Leipsic. Though superseded, Oudinot 
was not disgraced, and held an important command 
throughout the campaign of 1814. On the abdication of 
Napoleon he rallied to the new Government, and was 
made a peer by Louis XVIII., and, unlike many of his old 
comrades, he remained faithful to his new sovereign, and 
did not desert to his old master in 1815. He died on 
September 13, 1847. 

Oudinot s son, Charles Nicolas Victor, second duke of Reggio 
(1791-1S63), served through the later campaigns of Napoleon from 
1809 to 1814, but is chiefly known by his capture of Rome from 
Garibaldi in 1849. 

OUGHTRED, WILLIAM (1574-1660), an eminent 
mathematician, was born at Eton in 1574, and educated j 
there and at King s College, Cambridge, of which he became 
fellow. Being admitted to holy orders, he left the uni 
versity about 1603, and was presented to the rectory of j 
Aldbury, near Guildford in Surrey ; and about 1628 he i 
was appointed by the earl of Arundel to instruct his son 
in mathematics. He corresponded with some of the most 
eminent scholars of his time on mathematical subjects ; and 
his house was generally full of pupils from all quarters. 
It is said that he expired in a sudden transport of joy upon 
hearing the news of the vote at Westminster for the restora 
tion of Charles II. 

He published, among other mathematical works, Claris Mathe- 
matica, in 1631; A Description of the Double Horizontal Dial, in 
1636; and OjnisculaMathematica, in 1676. 

OUNCE. See MAMMALIA, vol. xv. p. 435. 

OURO PRETO, a city of Brazil, the chief town of 
the extensive province of Minas Geraes, lies 170 miles 
north by west of Rio de Janeiro, in the upper part of the 
Rio Sao Francisco basin, at a height of 3757 feet above 
the sea. A steep hill to the north of the peak of Ita- 
colurni (5740) is broken up by ravines into a number of 
distinct plateaus ; and it is round these plateaus, generally 
crowned by a church, that most of the houses of Ouro 
Preto cluster in irregular and almost independent groups. 
The streets run up and down hill in such a way as to 



make riding on horseback hazardous and the use ot 
carriages impossible. The stream which passes through 
the town and was formerly the scene of the most exten 
sive gold washing operations, the Ribeirao de Ouro Preto 
or Do Carmo, is a subtributary of the Sao Francisco. 
Besides the churches, the prominent buildings are the pre 
sident s palace, the town-house, and the prison, all fronting 
the principal square, the treasury, the theatre (the oldest 
in Brazil, and restored in 1861-62), and the hospital. The 
botanical garden, dating from 1825, used to distribute speci 
mens of different kinds of tea, but is now practically defunct. 
A public library has been in existence since before 1865. 
At present the importance of Ouro Preto is almost entirely 
administrative ; formerly it was one of the great mining 
centres of Brazil. Its population is about 8000. 

The first " prospectors," finding the hills full of a gold ore which, 
from the presence of silver alloy, turned black on exposure to the 
air, called them Serra do Ouro Preto, and the village, built in 1701 
by Antonio Dias of Taubate, bore at first the same name (meaning 
Black Gold). In 1711 the settlement was formally constituted as 
the city of Villa Rica, and for sixty or seventy years it continued 
to deserve its new title, the population amounting to 25,000 or 
30,000, and 12,000 slaves being employed in its gold mines. When 
in 1720 Minas Geraes was separateofrom the captaincy of S. Paulo, 
Villa Rica was made the capital of the new province. In 1788 it 
was the centre of the disastrous attempt made by Tiradentes, the 
poet Gonzaga, &c., to found an independent republic in Brazil with 
Sao Joao d el Rei as its capital and Villa Rica as its university 
town (see GONZAGA) ; and in 1821 it took a vigorous part in the 
successful revolution. A comarca of Ouro Preto was created in. 
1823, and Villa Rica received back its original name. 

OUSEL, or OUZEL, Anglo-Saxon Osle, equivalent of the 
German Amsel (a form of the word found in several old 
English books, and perhaps yet surviving in some parts of 
the country), apparently the ancient name for what is 
now more commonly known as the Blackbird, the Turdus 
merula of ornithologists, but at the present day not often 
applied to that species, though, as will immediately be 
seen, used in a compound form for two others. In many 
parts of Britain the Blackbird is still called the Merle, a 
name had directly from the French, and abbreviated from 
the Latin Merula, which has the same meaning. The adult 
male of this beautiful and well-known species scarcely needs 
any other description than that of the poet : 

" The Ouzel-cock, so black of hue 
With orange-tawny bill." 

Midsummer Night s Dream, act iii. sc. 1. 

But the female is of an uniform umber- brown above, 
has the chin, throat, and upper part of the breast orange- 
brown, with a few dark streaks, and the rest of the 
plumage beneath of a hair-brown. The young of both 
sexes resemble the mother. The Blackbird is found in 
every country of Europe, even breeding though rarely 
beyond the arctic circle, and in eastern Asia, as well as in 
Barbary and the Atlantic islands. Resident in Britain 
as a species, its numbers yet receive considerable accession 
of passing visitors in autumn, and in most parts of its 
range it is very migratory. The song of the cock has a 
peculiarly liquid tone, which makes it much admired, but 
it is rather too discontinuous to rank the bird very high as a 
musician. The species is very prolific, having sometimes as 
many as four broods in the course of the spring and summer. 
The nest, generally placed in a thick bush, is made of 
coarse roots or grass, strongly put together with earth, 
and is lined with fine grass. Herein are laid from four 
to six eggs of a light greenish-blue closely mottled with 
reddish-brown. Generally vermivorous, the Blackbird 
will, when pressed for food, eat grains and seeds, while 
berries and fruits in their season are eagerly sought by it, 
thus earning the enmity of gardeners. More or less allied 
to and resembling the Blackbird are many other species 
which inhabit most parts of the world, excepting the 
Ethiopian Region, New Zealand and Australia proper, and 



U 



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75 



North America. Some of them have the legs as well as 
the bill yellow or orange ; and, in a few of them, both sexes 
alike display a uniformly glossy black. The only other 
species that need here be mentioned is the Ring-Ousel, 
Tunlus torquatus, which differs from the Blackbird in the 
dark colour of its bill, and in possessing a conspicuous 
white gorget whence its name. It has also very different 
habits, frequenting wild and open tracts of country, shun 
ning woods, groves, and plantations, and preferring the 
shelter of rocks to that of trees. Its distribution is 
accordingly much more local, and in most parts of England 
it is only known as a transitory migrant in spring and 
autumn from and to its hardly as yet ascertained winter 
quarters. It does not seem to have an extensive range to 
the eastward, though it has been recorded from Persia. 

The Water-Ousel, or Water-Crow, now commonly named 
the " Dipper," a term apparently invented and bestowed 
in the first edition of Bewick s British Birds (ii. pp. 16, 
17), not, as is commonly supposed, from the bird s habit 
of entering the water in pursuit of its prey, but because 
" it may be seen perched on the top of a stone in the midst 
of the torrent, in a continual dipping motion, or short 
courtesy often repeated." This, the Cindus aquaticus of 
most ornithologists, is the type of a small but remarkable 
group of birds, the position of which many taxonomers 
have been at their wits end to determine. It would be 
useless here to recount the various suppositions that have 
been expressed ; suffice it to say that almost all ornitho 
logists are now agreed in regarding the genus Cindus x as 




Cindus mexicanus. 

differing so much from other birds that, though essentially 
one of the true Passeres (i.e., Oscines), it forms a distinct 
Family, Cindidx, which has no very near allies. That 
some of its peculiarities (for instance, the sternum in adult 
examples having the posterior margin generally entire, and 
the close covering of down that clothes the whole body a 
character fully recognized by Nitzsch) are correlated with 
its aquatic habit is probably not to be questioned; but 
this fact furnishes no argument for associating it, as has 
often been done, with the Thrushes (Turdidas), the Wrens 
(Troglodytidsi), or much less with other groups to which it 
has undoubtedly no affinity. The Dipper haunts rocky 
streams, into which it boldly enters, generally by deliber 
ately wading, and then by the strenuous combined action of 
its wings and feet makes its way along the bottom in quest 
of its living prey freshwater mollusks, and aquatic insects 
in their larval or mature condition. By the careless and 
ignorant it is accused of feeding on the spawn of fishes, 
and it has been on that account subjected to much perse 
cution. Innumerable examinations of the contents of its 
stomach have not only proved that the charge is baseless, 
but that the bird clears off many of the worst enemies of the 
precious product. Short and squat of stature, active and 



1 Some writers have used for this genus the name Ilydrobata. 



restless in its movements, silky black above, with a pure 
white throat and upper part of the breast, to which 
succeeds a broad band of dark bay, it is a familiar figure 
to most fishermen on the streams it frequents, while the 
heerful song of the cock, often heard in the hardest frost, 
helps to make it a favourite with them in spite of the 
obloquy under which it labours. The Water-Ousel s nest 
is a very curious structure, outwardly resembling a 
Wren s, but built on a wholly different principle, an 
ordinary cup-shaped nest of grass lined with dead leaves, 
placed in some convenient niche, but encased with moss 
so as to form a large mass that covers it completely except 
only a small hole for the bird s passage. The eggs laid 
within are from four to six in number, and are of a pure 
white. These remarks refer to the Water-Ousel of central 
and western Europe, including the British Islands ; but, 
except as regards plumage, it is believed that they will 
apply to all the other species, about a dozen in number, 
which have been described. These inhabit suitable places 
throughout the whole Palaearctic Region as well as the 
southern slopes of the Himalaya and the hill-country of 
Formosa, besides the Rocky Mountains and a great part 
of the Ancles. Mr Salvin, in a very philosophical paper on 
the genus (Ibis, 1867, pp. 109-122), refers these species 
some of which are wholly black and one slate-coloured to 
five well-marked forms, of which the other members are 
either " representative species " or merely " local races " ; 
but all seem to occupy distinct geographical areas, that 
which is represented in the accompanying woodcut having 
a wide range along the mountainous parts of North 
America to Mexico ; and it is quite possible that their 
number may yet be increased, for the general habits of the 
birds preclude any invasion of territory, and thus produce 
practical isolation. (A. N.) 

OUSELEY, SIR WILLIAM (1769-1842), Orientalist, 
was the eldest son of Captain Ralph Ouseley, of an old 
Irish family, and was born in Monmouthshire in 1769. 
After a private education he went to Paris, in 1787, to 
perfect himself in French, and in the following year 
became cornet in the 8th regiment of dragoons. After 
obtaining the grade of lieutenant he, on the conclusion of 
the campaign of 1794, sold his commission in order to 
devote his attention to the study of Oriental literature, 
especially Persian. In 1795 he published Persian Mis 
cellanies; in 1797, Oriental Collections; in 1799, Epitome 
of the Ancient History of Persia; in 1801, Tales of 
Bakthyar and Observations on Some Medals and Gems ; 
and in 1804, The Oriental Geography of Ebn Haukal. 
He received the degree of LL.D. from the university of 
Dublin in 1797, and in 1800 he was knighted by the 
Marquis Cornwallis. On his brother, Sir Gore Ouseley, 
being appointed ambassador to Persia in 1810, Sir William 
accompanied him as secretary. He returned to England 
in 1813, and in 1819-23 published, in three volumes, 
Travels in Various Countries of the East, especially Persia, 
in 1810, 1811, and 1812. He also published editions of 
the Travels and Arabian Proverbs of Burckhardt. He was 
a member of various learned societies, and contributed 
a number of important papers to the Transactions of the 
Royal Society of Literature. He died at Boulogne in 
September 1842. 

OUTLAW, in English law, is a person put out of the 
protection of the law by process of outlawry. A woman 
is properly said to be waived rather than outlawed. Out 
lawry was usually the result of non-appearance of the de 
fendant or accused at the trial, and involved deprivation 
of all civil rights. It was finally abolished in civil pro 
ceedings in 1879 by 42 & 43 Viet. c. 59, 3. In criminal 
proceedings it has become practically obsolete, and the 
Criminal Code, 458, proposes to formally abolish it. 



76 



U T Y E 



In Scotland outlawry or fugitation may be pronounced by the 
supreme criminal court in the absence of the panel on the day of 
trial. In the United States outlawry never existed in civil cases, 
and in the few cases where it existed in criminal proceedings it has 
become obsolete. 

OUTRAM, SIK JAMES (1803-1863), English general, 
was the son of Benjamin Outram of Butterley Hall, 
Derbyshire, civil engineer, and was born 29th January 
1803. His father died in 1805, and his mother, a 
daughter of Dr James Anderson, the Scottish writer on 
agriculture, removed in 1810 to Aberdeenshire. From 
Udny school the boy went in 1818 to Marischal College, 
Aberdeen; and in 1819 an Indian cadetship was given him. 
Soon after his arrival in India his remarkable energy 
attracted notice, and in July 1820 he became acting 
adjutant to the first battalion of the 12th regiment on its 
embodiment at Poona, an experience which he found to be 
of immense advantage to him in his after career. In 1825 
he was sent to Khandesh, where he succeeded in training 
a light infantry corps, formed of the wild robber Bhils, 
gaining over them a marvellous personal influence, and 
employing them with great success in checking outrages 
and plunder. Their loyalty to him had its principal 
source in their boundless admiration of his hunting 
achievements, which in their cool daring and hairbreadth 
escapes have perhaps never been equalled. Originally a 
" puny lad," and for many years after his arrival in India 
subject to constant attacks of sickness, Outram seemed to 
win strength by every new illness, acquiring a constitution 
of iron, " nerves of steel, shoulders and muscles worthy 
of a six-foot Highlander." In 1835 he was sent to 
Gujerat to make a report on the Mahi Kantha district, 
and for some time he remained there as political agent. 
On the outbreak of the Afghan war in 1838 he was 
appointed extra aide-de-camp on the staff of Sir John 
Keane, and besides many other brilliant deeds performed 
an extraordinary exploit in capturing a banner of the 
enemy before Ghazni. After conducting various raids 
against different Afghan tribes, he was in 1839 promoted 
major, and appointed political agent in Lower Sind, and 
later in Upper Sind. On his return from a short visit 
to England in 1843, he was, with the rank of brevet lieu 
tenant-colonel, appointed to a command in the Mahratta 
country, and in 1847 he was transferred from Satara to 
Baroda. In 1854 he became chief-commissioner of Oudh, 
and in 1856 he received the honour of knighthood 
Appointed in 1857, with the rank of lieutenant-general, to 
command an expedition against Persia, he defeated the 
enemy with great slaughter at Khushab, and otherwise 
conducted the campaign with such rapid decision that 
peace was shortly afterwards concluded, his brilliant 
services being rewarded by the Grand Cross of the Bath. 
From Persia he was summoned in June to India, with the 
brief explanation, " We want all our best men here." 
Immediately on- his arrival in Calcutta he was appointed 
to command the two divisions of the Bengal army, 
occupying the country from Calcutta to Cawnpur ; and 
to the military control was also joined the commissioner- 
ship of Oudh. Already the rebellion had assumed such 
proportions as to compel Havelock to fall back on 
Cawnpur, which he only held with difficulty, although a 
speedy advance was necessary to save the garrison at 
Lucknow. On arriving at Cawnpur with reinforcements, 
Outram, " in admiration of the brilliant deeds of General 
Havelock," conceded to him the glory of relieving Luck- 
now, and, waiving his rank, tendered his services to him as 
a volunteer. During the advance he commanded a troop 
of volunteer cavalry, and performed exploits of great 
brilliancy at Mangalwar, and in the attack at the Alam- 
bagh ; and in the final conflict he led the way, charging 
through a very tempest of fire. Resuming supreme eom- 



j mand, he then held the town till the arrival of Sir Colin 
Campbell, after which he conducted the evacuation of the 
residency so as completely to deceive the enemy. In the 
second capture of Lucknow, on the commander-in-chief s 
return, Outram was entrusted with the attack on the side 
of the Gumti, and afterwards, having recrossed the river, 

i he advanced "through the Chattar Manzil to take the 
residency," thus, in the words of Sir Colin Campbell, 
"putting the finishing stroke on the enemy." After the 
capture of Lucknow he was gazetted lieutenant-general. 
In February 1858 he received the special thanks of both 
Houses of Parliament, and in the same year the dignity 

I of baronet with an annuity of 1000. When, on account 
of shattered health, he returned finally to England in 1860, 
a movement was set on foot to mark the sense entertained, 
not only of his military achievements, but of his constant 
exertions in behalf of the natives of India, whose " weal," 
in his own words, "he matje his first object." The move 
ment resulted in the presentation of a public testimonial 
and the erection of statues in London and Calcutta. He 
died llth March 1863, and was buried in Westminster 
Abbey, where the marble slab on his grave bears the 
pregnant epitaph " The Bayard of India." 

See James Outram, a Biography, by Major-General Sir F. J. 
Goldsmid, C.B., K. C.S.I., 2 vols., 1880, 2ded., 1881. 

OVAR, a town of Portugal, in the district of Aveiro 
(Beira), with a station on the railway 20 miles south of 
Oporto, lies at the northern end of the Aveiro lagoon, 
an extremely unhealthy position. It contains 10,022 
inhabitants (1878), and carries on a brisk trade with the 
colonies and northern Africa. 

OVATION, an honour awarded in Rome to victorious 
generals. It was less distinguished than the triumph (see 
TRIUMPH), and was awarded either when the campaign, 
though victorious, had not been important enough for the 
higher honour, or when the general was not of rank 
sufficient to give him the right to a triumph. The 
ceremonial was on the whole similar in the two cases, but 
in an ovation the general walked or more commonly rode 
on horseback. 

OVEN, a close chamber or compartment in which a 
considerable degree of heat may be generated either from 
internal or from external sources. In English the term is 
generally restricted to a chamber for baking bread and 
other food substances, being equivalent to the French 
four or the German Backofen ; but the chambers in which 
coal is coked are termed coke ovens. See BAKING, vol iii. 
257, and COKE, vol. vi. 118. 

OVERBECK, JOHANN FRIEDRICH (1789-1869), the 
reviver and leader of "Christian art" in the 19th 
century, was born in Liibeck 4th July 1789. His 
ancestors for three generations had been Protestant pastors ; 
his father was doctor of laws, poet, mystic pietist, and 
burgomaster of Liibeck. Within stone s throw of the 
family mansion in the Konigstrasse stood the gymnasium, 
where the uncle, doctor of theology and a voluminous 
writer, was the master; there the nephew became a classic 
scholar and received instruction in art. 

The young artist left Liibeck in March 1806, and 
entered as student the academy of Vienna, then under the 
direction of F. H. Fiiger, a painter of some renown, but of 
the pseudo-classic school of the French David. Here was 
gained thorough knowledge, but the teachings and associa 
tions proved unendurable to the sensitive, spiritual-minded 
youth. Overbeck wrote to a friend that he had fallen 
among a vulgar set, that every noble thought was suppressed 
within the academy, and that losing all faith in humanity 
he turned inwardly on himself. These words are a key to 
his future position and art. It seemed to him that in 
Vienna, and indeed throughout Europe, the pure springs of 



O V E -0 V E 



77 



Christian art had been for centuries diverted and corrupted, 
and so he sought out afresh the living source, and, casting 
on one side his contemporaries, took for his guides the early 
and pre-Raphaelite painters of Italy. At the end of four 
years, differences had grown so irreconcilable that Overbeck 
and his band of followers were expelled from the academy. 
True art, he writes, he had sought in Vienna in vain 
" Oh ! I was full of it ; my whole fancy was possessed by 
Madonnas and Christs, but nowhere could I find response." 
Accordingly he left for Rome, carrying his half-finished 
canvas Christ s Entry into Jerusalem, as the charter of his 
creec l " I w ill abide by the Bible ; I elect it as my stand 
ing-point." 

Overbeck in 1810 entered Rome, which became for 
fifty-nine years the centre of his unremitting labour. He 
was joined by a goodly company, including Cornelius, 
Wilhelm Schadow, and Philip Veit, who took up their 
abode in the old Franciscan convent of San Isidoro on the 
Pincian Hill, and were known among friends and enemies 
by the descriptive epithets " the Nazarites," " the pre- 
Raphaelites," " the new-old school," " the German-Roman 
artists," "the church-romantic painters," "the German 
patriotic and religious painters." Their precept was hard 
and honest work and holy living; they eschewed the 
antique as pagan, the Renaissance as false, and built up 
a severe revival on simple nature and on the serious art of 
Perugino, Pinturicchio, Francia, and the young Raphael. 
The characteristics of the style thus educed were nobility 
of idea, precision and even hardness of outline, scholastic 
composition, with the addition of light, shade, and colour, 
not for allurement, but chiefly for perspicuity and com 
pletion of motive. Overbeck was mentor in the movement ; 
a fellow-labourer writes: "No one who saw him or heard 
him speak could question his purity of motive, his deep 
insight and abounding knowledge ; he is a treasury of art 
and poetry, and a saintly man." But the struggle was hard 
and poverty its reward. Helpful friends, however, came 
in Niebuhr, Bunsen, and Frederick Schlegel. Overbeck 
in 1813 joined the Roman Catholic Church, and thereby 
he believed that his art received Christian baptism. 

Faith in a mission begat enthusiasm among kindred 
minds, and timely commissions followed. The Prussian 
consul, Bartholdi, had a house on the brow of the Pincian, 
and he engaged Overbeck, Cornelius, Veit, and Schadow 
to decorate a room 24 feet square with frescos from the 
Story of Joseph and his Brethren. The subjects which fell 
to the lot of Overbeck were the Seven Years of Famine 
and Joseph Sold by his Brethren. These tentative wall- 
pictures, finished in 1818, produced so favourable an im 
pression among the Italians that in the same year Prince 
Massimo commissioned Overbeck, Cornelius, Veit, and 
Schnorr to cover the walls and ceilings of his garden 
pavilion, near St John Lateran, with frescos illustrative of 
Tasso, Dante, and Ariosto. To Overbeck was assigned, 
in a room 15 feet square, the illustration of Tasso s 
Jerusalem Delivered; and of eleven compositions the largest 
and most noteworthy, occupying one entire wall, is the 
Meeting of Godfrey de Bouillon and Peter the Hermit. 
The completion of the frescos very unequal in merit 
after ten years delay, the overtaxed and enfeebled painter 
delegated to his friend Joseph Fiihrich The leisure thus 
gained was devoted to a thoroughly congenial theme, the 
Vision of St Francis, a wall-painting 20 feet long, figures 
life size, finished in 1830, for the church of Sta Maria degli 
Angeli near Assisi. Overbeck and the brethren set them 
selves the task of recovering the neglected art of fresco and 
of monumental painting ; they adopted the old methods, 
and their success led to memorable revivals throughout 
Europe. 

Fifty years of the artist s laborious life were given to 



oil and easel paintings, of which the chief, for size and 
import, are the following : Christ s Entry into Jerusalem 
(1824), in the Marien Kirche, Liibeck ; Christ s Agony in 
the Garden (1835), in the great hospital, Hamburg ; Lo 
Sposalizio (1836), Raczynski gallery, Berlin; the Triumph 
of Religion in the Arts (1840), in the Stadel Institut, 
Frankfort; Pieta (1846), in the Marien Kirche, Liibeck; 
the Incredulity of St Thomas (1851), in the possession of 
Mr Beresford Hope, London ; the Assumption of the 
Madonna (1855), in Cologne Cathedral; Christ Delivered 
from the Jews (1858), tempera, on a ceiling in the Quirinal 
Palace, a commission from Pius IX., and a direct attack 
on the Italian temporal government, therefore now covered 
by a canvas adorned with Cupids. All the artist s works 
are marked by religious fervour, careful and protracted 
study, with a dry, severe handling, and an abstemious 
colour. 

Overbeck belongs to eclectic schools, and yet was 
creative ; he ranks among thinkers, and his pen was 
hardly less busy than his pencil. He was a minor poet, 
an essayist, and a voluminous letter-writer. His style is 
wordy and tedious ; like his art it is borne down with 
emotion and possessed by a somewhat morbid " subjec 
tivity." His pictures were didactic, and used as propa 
gandas of his artistic and religious faith, and the teachings 
of such compositions as the Triumph of Religion and 
the Sacraments he enforced by rapturous literary effusions. 
His art was the issue of his life : his constant thoughts, 
cherished in solitude and chastened by prayer, he trans 
posed into pictorial forms, and thus were evolved countless 
and much-prized drawings and cartoons, of which the most 
considerable are the Gospels, forty cartoons (1852) ; Via 
Crucis, fourteen water-colour drawings (1857); the Seven 
Sacraments, seven cartoons (1861). Overbecks composi 
tions, with few exceptions, are engraved. His life-work he 
sums up in the words " Art to me is as the harp of 
David, whereupon I would desire that psalms should at 
all times be sounded to the praise of the Lord." He died 
in Rome in 1869, aged eighty, and lies buried in San 
Bernardo, the church wherein he worshipped, (j. B. A.) 

OVER DARWEN, a municipal borough of Lancashire, 
is situated in the vale of the Darwen river, shut in by 
heath-covered hills, and on the Lancashire and Yorkshire 
Railway, 3 miles south from Blackburn and 9 north from 
Bolton. There are four ecclesiastical parishes, each of 
which has a handsome church ; and among the other 
public buildings are the market-house, the Liberal and 
Conservative club-houses, a free public library with 10,000 
volumes, and the Peel baths, erected in memory of Sir 
Robert Peel. The town possesses cotton factories, iron and 
brass foundries, machine works, paper mills, paper-staining 
works the first and probably the largest of their kind. 
In the neighbourhood there are collieries and stone 
quarries. The population of the municipal borough (area 
5918 acres) in 1881 was 29,744. It includes part of 
Lower Darwen and Eccleshill, with 2118 inhabitants. The 
postal designation is Darwen. 

Over Darwen was at one time included in "Walton-le-dale, which 
was granted by Henry de Lacy to Robert Banastre in the reign of 
Henry II. In the 4th of Edward II. (1310) it is mentioned along 
with Livesey and Tockholes, the three containing a carucate of 
land in fee of the castle of Clitheroe. In 38 Edward III. (1364) a 
moiety of the manor of Over Darwen was held by Thomas 
Molyneux, the other moiety being held by the Osbaldeston family. 
Subsequently the whole manor became the property of the Traffords, 
of whom it was purchased in 1810 by the present owners the 
Duckworths. Over Darwen was incorporated as a municipal 
borough in 1878, and a commission of the peace was granted in 
1881. 

OVERTURE. See Music, vol. xvii. p. 95 sq. 

OVERYSSEL, or OVERIJSSEL, a province of Holland, 
bounded N.W. by the Zuyder Zee, N. by Friesland and 



v I V 1 



Drenthe, N.E. by Hanover (Prussia), S.E. by Westphalia 
(Prussia), and S. and S.W. by Guelderland, with an area 
of 1291 square miles. The southern district belongs to 
the basin of the Yssel ; the northern is watered by the 
Vecht and various small streams falling into the Zwarte- 
water, the river which was for so many generations the 
object of dispute between Zwolle and Hasselt. A large 
proportion of the surface is a sandy flat relieved by hillocks, 
rising at times to a height of 230 feet above the sea. 
Husbandry, stock-raising, and dairy-farming are the prin 
cipal means of subsistence in the province, though the 
fisheries, turf-cutting, the shipping trade, and a number of 
manufacturing industries are also of importance. In the 
district of Tweuthe (towards the east) more especially there 
are a great many cotton-mills and bleaching-works ; brick 
and tile making is prosecuted in the neighbourhood of the 
Yssel; and along the coast a good many people are engaged 
in making mats and besoms. During the present century 
the province has been opened up by the construction of 
several large canals the Dedemsvaart, the Noord-Willems- 
vaart (between the Yssel and the Zwartewater), the 
"Overyssel canals" (running near the eastern frontier), 
&e.; and a fairly complete railway system has come into 
existence. The province is divided into the three adminis 
trative districts of Zwolle, Deventer, and Almelo. Its popu 
lation, 234,376 in 1859 and 263,008 in 1875 (134,201 
males, 128,807 females), was 247,136 in 1879. Of the 
total for 1875, 181,863 were Protestants, 76,891 Roman 
Catholics, and 4018 Jews. The chief town, Zwolle, had 
in 1879 a communal population of 22,759, and there were 
fourteen other communes with more than 2000 inhabitants, 
including Deventer, 19,162; Kampen, 17,444; Almelo, 
7758; Hengelo, 6502. 

Both the present name Overyssel and the older designation 
Oversticht are explained by the fact that the province lies mainly 
oil the other side of the Yssel from Utrecht, with which it long 
constituted an episcopal principality. Vollenhove was bestowed 
on the bishops in 943, Oldenzaal in 970, the land north-east of 
Vollenhove in 1042, Deventer in 1046, a part of Salland in 1226, 
the countship of Goor in 1248, the lordship of Diepenheim in 1331, 
anl that of Almelo in 1406. In 1527 Bishop Henry of Bavaria 
alvised the recognition of Charles V. as protector and ruler of 
the district, and Oversticht became Overyssel. It was the sixth 
province to join the Union in 1579. During the French occupa 
tion it bore the name of the department of Bouches de 1 Issel. 

OVID (P. OVIDIUS NASO) was the last in order. of 
time of the poets of the Augustan age, whose works have 
given to it the distinction of ranking among the great eras 
in the history of human culture. As is the case with 
most other Roman writers, his personal history has to be 
gathered almost entirely from his own writings. The 
materials for his life are partly the record of the immediate 
impressions of the time in which they were written con 
tained in the Amores, partly the reminiscences of his 
happier days, to which his mind constantly recurred in the 
writings from his place of exile. 

His life is almost coincident in extent with that of the 
Augustan age. The year of his birth, 43 B.C., the year 
of the consulship of Hirtius and Pansa, which inter 
vened between the death of Julius Caesar and the partition 
of the Roman world among the Triumvirs, may be 
regarded as the last year of the republic. It was the year 
of the death of Cicero, which marks the close of the re 
publican literature. Thus the only form of political life 
known to Ovid was that of the ascendency and absolute 
rule of Augustus and his successor. His character was 
neither strengthened nor sobered, like that of his older con 
temporaries, by personal recollection of the crisis through 
which the republic passed into the empire. There is no 
sense of political freedom in any of his writings. The 
spirit inherited from his ancestors was that of the Italian 
country districts and municipia, not that of Rome. He 



was sprung from the Peligni, one of the four small 
mountain peoples whose proudest memories were of the 
part they had played in the Social War. They had no 
old race-hostility with Rome, such as that which made 
the most powerful representative of the Sabellian stock 
remain till the last her implacable enemy ; and their 
opposition to the senatorian aristocracy in the Social War 
would predispose them to accept the empire. Ovid 
belonged by birth to the same social class as Tibullus and 
Propertius, that of old hereditary landowners ; but he 
was more fortunate than they in the immunity which his 
native district enjoyed from the confiscations made by the 
triumvirs. His native town and district, Sulmo, lay high 
among the Apennines, and is described by Mr Hare as 
"grandly situated on an isolated platform, backed by 
snowy mountains." The poet himself describes this 
district as remarkable for the abundance of its streams 
and for its salubrity 

" Parva, sed irriguis ora salubris aquis ;" 

and he recalls the fresh charm of its scenery from the 
desolate waste of his Scythian exile. To his early life in 
such a district he may have owed his eye for natural 
beauty, and that interest in the common sights of the 
country which relieves the monotony of his life of pleasure 
in Rome and the dreary record of the life spent within the 
walls of Tomi, and enables him to add the charm of 
natural scenery to the romantic creations of his fancy. 
The pure air of this mountain home may have contributed 
to the vigorous vitality which prevented the life of plea 
sure from palling on him, and which beats strongly even 
through all the misery of his exile. But if this vitality 
with its natural accompaniment, a keen capacity for 
enjoyment was a gift due to his birthplace, it was 
apparently a gift transmitted to him by inheritance : for 
he tells us that his father lived till the age of ninety, and 
that he performed the funeral rites to his mother after his 
father s death. While he mentions both with the piety 
characteristic of the old Italian, he tells us little more 
about them than that " their thrift curtailed his youthful 
expenses," 1 and that his father did what he could to dissuade 
him from poetry, and to force him into the more profitable 
career of the law courts. He had one brother, exactly a 
year older than himself, who, after showing promise as a 
speaker, died at the age of twenty. The tone in which 
Ovid speaks of him is indicative of sincere affection, but 
not of such depth of feeling as was called forth in Catullus 
by a similar loss. The two brothers had been brought 
early to Rome for their education, where they attended the 
lectures of the most eminent rhetoricians of their time. 
Education had become more purely rhetorical and literary, 
less philosophical and political, than it had been in a pre 
vious generation. Ovid is said to have attended these 
lectures eagerly, and to have shown in his exercises that his 
gift was poetical rather than oratorical, and that he had a 
distaste for the severer processes of thought. Like Pope, 
"he lisped in numbers," and he wrote and destroyed many 
verses before he published anything. The earliest edition 
of the Amores, which first appeared in five books, and the 
Heroides were given by him to the world at an early age. 
He courted the society of the older and younger poets of 
his time, and formed one among those friendly coteries who 
read or recited their works to one another before they gave 
them to the world. " He had only seen Virgil " ; but 
Virgil s friend and contemporary yEmilius Macer used in 
his advanced years to read his didactic epic to him ; and, 
although there is no indication in the works of either the 
reigning or the rising poet of any intimacy between them, 
even the fastidious Horace sometimes delighted his ears 

1 Ex Ponto, i. 8, 42. 



OVID 



79 



with the music of his verse. He had a closer bond of 
intimacy with the younger poets of the older generation, 
Tibullus, whose death he laments in one of the few 
pathetic pieces among his earlier writings, and Propertius, 
to whom he describes himself as united in the close ties 
of comradeship. The name of Maecenas occurs nowhere 
in his poems. The time of his paramount influence both 
on public affairs and on literature was past before Ovid 
entered on his poetical career, but Messala and Fabius 
Maximus, whose name is mentioned by Juvenal along 
with that of Maecenas as the type of a munificent patron 
of letters in the Augustan age, encouraged his earliest 
efforts. With their sons he lived in intimacy in after 
years, and, as he speaks of having known the younger 
Fabius in his cradle, his friendship with his family must 
have begun early in his career. He enjoyed also the 
intimacy of poets and men of literary accomplishment 
belonging to a younger generation ; and with one of 
them, Macer, he travelled for more than a year. It is not 
mentioned whether he travelled immediately after the 
completion of his education, or in the interval between 
the publication of his earlier poems and that of the 
Medea and Ars Amatoria ; but it is in his later works, 
the Fasti and Metamorphoses, that we seem chiefly to 
recognize the impressions of the scenes he visited. In one 
of the epistles written from Pontus to his fellow-traveller 
there is a vivid record of the pleasant time they had 
passed together. Athens was to a Roman of that time 
what Rome is to an educated Englishman of the present 
day. Ovid speaks of having gone there under the 
influence of literary enthusiasm ("studiosus ") ; but the 
impression of his visit which remains on his writings is 
not of the wisdom taught "among the woods of 
Academus," but of the flowers that grow on the neighbour 
ing Hymettus. A similar impulse induced him to visit the 
supposed site of Troy. The two friends saw together the 
splendid cities of Asia, which had inspired the enthusiasm 
of travel in Catullus, and had become familiar to Cicero 
and Horace during the years they passed abroad. They 
spent nearly a year in Sicily, which attracted him, as it had 
attracted Lucretius 1 and Virgil, 2 by its manifold charm of 
climate, of sea-shore and inland scenery, and of legendary 
and poetical association, a charm which has found its most 
enduring expression in some of his most delightful tales. 
He recalls with a fresh sense of pleasure the incidents of 
their tour (which they made sometimes in a pinnace or 
yacht, sometimes in a light carriage), and the endless 
delight which they had in each other s conversation. We 
would gladly exchange the record of his life of pleasure 
in Rome for more of these recollections. The highest 
type of classic culture realized in ancient Rome the type 
realized in such men as Cicero and Catullus, Virgil and 
Horace, Ovid and Germanicus shows its affinity to a type 
which is the result of essentially similar studies in modern 
times by nothing more clearly than the enthusiasm for 
travel among lands famous for their natural beauty, their 
monuments of art, and their historical associations. 

When settled at Rome, although a public career, leading 
to senatorian position, was open to him, and, although he 
filled various judicial offices, and claims to have filled them 
well, he had no ambition for such distinction, and looked 
upon pleasure and poetry as the occupations of his life. 
He tells us that he was married, when little more than a 
boy, to a wife for whom he did not care, who, he implies, 
was not worthy of him, and from whom he was soon 

* Cf. Lucret., i. 726 

" Quae cum magna modis multis miranda videtur 

Gentibus humanis regio visendaque fertur. " 

2 " Quanquam secessu Campanise Siciliaeque plurimum uteretur." 
Donat. 



separated, and afterwards to a second wife, with whom 
his union, although through no fault of hers, did not last 
long. But he had other objects of his volatile affections, and 
one of them, Corinna, after the example of his predecessors 
Gallus, Propertius, and Tibullus, and their Alexandrian 
prototypes Callimachus, Philetas, &c., he makes the 
heroine of his love elegies. It is doubtful whether, like 
Lesbia, Delia, and Cynthia, she belonged to the class of 
Roman ladies of recognized position, or to that to which 
the Chloes and Lalages of Horace s artistic fancy evidently 
belong. If trust can be placed in the later apologies for 
his life, in which he states that he had never given occasion 
for any serious scandal, it is probable that she belonged 
to the class of " libertinse." Ovid is not only a less constant 
but he is a much less serious lover than Catullus, Tibullus, or 
Propertius. His tone is that either of mere sensual self- 
regarding feeling or of persiflage. That tone is in many ways 
offensive to modern taste, but in nothing is it more charac 
teristic of his age than in his light-hearted justification of his 
choice both of a theme and of a career. In his complete 
emancipation from all sense of restraint or wish for better 
things, Ovid goes beyond all his predecessors, although 
Tibullus and Propertius, and even Horace in the ironical dis 
claimers of his earlier Odes, give indication of the same state 
of feeling. In this Ovid reflects the tastes and tone of 
fashionable, well-born, and wealthy Roman society between 
the years 20 B.C. and the beginning of our era. The memory 
of the civil wars no longer weighed on the world. The 
career of ambition was so far from attracting men that 
they had to be urged and coerced into filling official places 
and carrying on the routine duties of the senate. Society 
was bent simply on amusement. There was less of coarse 
ness in the pursuit of pleasure than had prevailed among 
the contemporaries of Catullus. We find little trace in 
Ovid of the convivial pleasures which Horace celebrates in 
his lighter odes, or of the excesses of which Propertius 
makes confession. Ovid says of himself that he drank 
scarcely anything but water, and from what he tells us of 
his appearance and constitution he was evidently not of 
the temperament to which convivial excesses bring any 
temptation. 3 But probably it was not the fashion of the 
time to live intemperately. As a result of the loss of 
political interests, women came to play a more important 
and brilliant part in society, and the tone of fashionable 
conversation and literature was adapted to them. Julia, 
daughter of the emperor, was by her position, her brilliant 
gifts, and her reckless laxity of character the natural 
leader of such a society. The awakening of the Roman 
world out of this fool s paradise of pleasure was due to 
the discovery of her intrigue with lulus Antonius, son of 
Mark Antony, and to the open and violent display of anger 
with which Augustus resented what was at once a shock 
to his affections and a blow to his policy. Nearly coinci- 
dently with the publicity given to this scandal appeared the 
famous Ars Amatoria of Ovid, perhaps the most immoral 
and demoralizing work ever written, at least in ancient 
times, by a man of genius. Ovid was the favourite poet 
of the fashionable world ; he lived on terms of intimacy 
with its leading members, the younger representatives of 
the old nobility, who had survived the proscriptions and 
the fatal day of Philippi. His poetical accomplishment 
would naturally recommend him to lulus Antonius, of 
whose gifts Horace has spoken so eulogistically. His 
marriage with his third wife, a lady of the great Fabian 
house, and a friend of the empress Livia, had probably 
taken place before this time. It thus seems likely that 
he may have been admitted into the intimacy of the 

3 Compare Am. , ii. 23 

" Graciles, non sunt sine viribus artus ; 
Pondere, non nervis, corpora nostra careiit." 



80 



OVID 



younger society of the Palatine, although in the midst of 
his most fulsome flattery he does not claim ever to have 
enjoyed the favour of Augustus. Whether he was in any 
way mixed up with this intrigue is not known. But that 
the work which appeared coincidently with it excited deep 
resentment in the mind of the emperor, as the pander to 
the passions by which the dignity of his family had been 
outraged and his state policy thwarted, is shown by his 
edict, issued ten years later, against the book and its author. 
Augustus had the art of dissembling his anger ; and Ovid 
appears to have had no idea of the storm that was gather 
ing over him. He still continued to enjoy the society of 
the court and of the fashionable world ; he passed before 
the emperor in the annual procession among the ranks of 
the equites ; he filled a more important judicial place; 
and he had developed a richer vein of genius than he had 
shown in his youthful prime. But he was aware that 
public opinion had been shocked, or professed to be shocked, 
by his last work ; and after writing a kind of apology for 
it, called the Remedia Amoris, he directed his genius into 
other channels, and wrote during the next ten years the 
Metamorphoses and the Fasti. He had already written 
one work, the Heroides, in which he had imparted a modern 
and romantic interest to the heroines of the old mythology, 1 
and a tragedy, the Medea, which must have afforded greater 
scope for the dramatic and psychological treatment of the 
passion with which he was most familiar. In the Fasti 
Ovid assumes the position of a national poet 2 by 
imparting poetical life and interest to the ceremonial 
observances of Roman religion ; but it is as the brilliant 
narrator of the romantic tales that have got so strangely 
blended with the realistic annals of Rome that he succeeds 
in the part assumed by him. The Metamorphoses professed 
to trace the relations of the gods with human affairs from 
the reign of Chaos to the deification of Augustus ; and 
in the later books that work also may claim something of 
a national character. But it consists for the most part of 
a series of tales of the love adventures of the gods with 
nymphs and heroines, told in a tone of mixed irony and 
romance. This work, which he regards as his most 
serious claim to immortality, had not been finally revised 
at the time of his disgrace, and he committed it to 
the flames ; but other copies were in existence, and the 
book was given to the world in his absence. He often 
regrets that it had not obtained his final revisal. The 
Fasti also was broken off by his exile, after the comple 
tion and publication of the first six books, treating of the 
first six months of the year. 

The actual offence which gave occasion for his banish 
ment is not exactly known. In his frequent references to 
it he wavers between assertions of his innocence of anything 
beyond simplicity and error and the admission that, though 
he had done nothing, he yet deserved his punishment. He 
had witnessed something which was a cause of pain and 
offence to the emperor. In a letter to one of his intimate 
friends, to whom he had been in the habit of confiding all 
his secrets, he says that had he confided this one he would 
have escaped condemnation. In writing to another friend 
in reference to his disgrace, he warns him against the 
danger of courting too high society " praelustria vita." 
The cause which excited or renewed the anger of Augustus 
was connected with the old offence of writing and publish 
ing the Ars Amatoria. All this points to his having 
been in some way mixed up with some scandal affecting 
the imperial family. He distinctly disclaims the idea that 
he had anything to do with any treasonable plot ; and he 

1 The essentially modern character of the work appears in his 
making a heroine of the time of the Trojan war speak of visiting 
"barned" Athens (lleroid., ii. 83). 

8 " Animos ad publica cariuina flexi " (Trist., v. 23). 



certainly appears to have been the last man who ever could 
have been made the confederate of a serious conspiracy. 
All this seems to connect him with one event, coincident 
in time with his disgrace, the intrigue of the younger 
Julia, granddaughter of the emperor, with Silanus, 
mentioned by Tacitus in the third book of the Annals. 
Tacitus tells us how deeply Augustus felt these family 
scandals, looking upon them as acts of treason and sacrilege. 
It seems, at first sight, strange that the chief punishment 
fell, not on the real offenders, but on Ovid, who at the 
worst could only have been the confidant of their intrigue, 
perhaps may have lent his house as a place of rendezvous 
for the lovers. To Julia herself was assigned the lighter 
penalty of seclusion in one of the towns of Italy, and 
Silanus had no other punishment than that of exclusion 
from the court. Augustus must have regarded Ovid and 
his works as, if not the corrupter of the age, yet the 
most typical representative of that corruption which in 
its effects on his own family might be regarded as the 
nemesis attending on, as it was the direct consequence of, 
the outward success of his policy. The date of this scandal 
must have been 7 or early in 8 A.D., as Tacitus, under 
the date 28 A.D., mentions the death of Julia after twenty 
years of seclusion. 

A delay of nearly two years seems to have taken 
place between the disgrace and the sentence passed on 
Ovid, and it must have been during this interval that 
he visited his friend Fabius at Elba, 3 probably with the 
view of inducing him to intercede for him. At last the 
edict, dictated by relentless policy rather than personal 
vindictiveness, was published. He was left in the enjoy 
ment of the rights of citizenship and in the possession of 
his property (perhaps through the exercise of the influence 
of Li via in favour of his wife), but was ordered to leave 
Rome on a particular clay, and to settle at the very out 
skirts of civilization, in the semi-Greek semi-barbaric town 
of Tomi, near the mouth of the Danube. He tells vividly 
the story of the agony of his last night at Rome, of the 
dangers and hardships of his winter voyage down the 
Adriatic, and of his desolate feelings on his first arrival at 
his new abode. But this was merely the beginning of his 
miseries. For eight years he bore up in his solitude, in 
the dreariest circumstances, suffering from the unhealthi- 
ness of the climate and exposed to constant alarm from the 
incursions of the neighbouring barbarians. He continued 
to be buoyed up by hopes first of a remission of his 
sentence, afterwards of at least a change to another place 
of exile. He wrote his complaints first in a series of books 
sent successively to Rome, afterwards in a number of 
poetical epistles, also collected into books, addressed to all 
his friends who were likely to have influence at court. 
He believed that Augustus had softened towards him 
before his death, but his successor was inexorable to his 
complaints. Perhaps the person who most deeply resented 
the offence was the one who exercised the greatest influence 
over both, the empress Livia, whose life and example were 
a protest against the laxity of the age, and who was an 
unsympathetic stepmother to the members of the imperial 
family. His chief consolation was the exercise of his art, 
and the only expression of a worthy feeling of resistance 
to his misery is in a letter to his daughter Perilla, in which 
he asserts that over his genius Augustus had no control : 
" Ingenio tamen ipsc ineo comitorque fruorquc : 
Csesar in hoc potuit juris liabcre iiihil." 

Tristia, iii. 7, 47. 

Yet as time goes on he is painfully conscious of failure 
in power, and of the absence of all motive to perfect his 
work. He had access to no books except such as he may 
have brought with him, and the zest for reading, as for all 

3 Ex Ponto, ii. 3, 83. 



OVID 



81 



other pleasure, was gone. He recalls the memories of the 
happy days he had spent at Rome ; and the chief relief to 
the misery of his exile was the receipt of letters from his 
friends. M. Gaston Boissier says that he left his genius 
behind him at Rome ; and it is true that the works written 
in exile have not the brilliant versatility, the buoyant spirit, 
or the finished art of his earlier writings. They harp 
eternally on the same theme. All his faults of diffuseness 
and self-repetition appear in an exaggerated form. But 
there is the same power of vivid realization and expression, 
the same power of making his thought, feeling, and situ 
ation immediately present to the reader. What they lose 
in art they gain in personal interest. They have, like the 
letters of Cicero to Atticus, the fascination exercised by 
those works which have been given to the world under the 
title of Confessions ; and they are the sincerest expression 
in literature of the state of mind produced by a unique 
experience, that of a man, when well advanced in years, 
but still retaining extraordinary sensibility to pleasure 
and pain, withdrawn from a most brilliant position in the 
centre of social and intellectual life and material civiliza 
tion, and cast upon his own resources in a place and among 
people affording the dreariest contrast to all that had 
gratified his eye, heart, and mind through the whole of his 
previous life. How far these letters and confidences are to 
be regarded as equally sincere expressions of his affection 
or admiration for his correspondents is another question, 
which need not be pressed. Even in those addressed to his 
wife, in which he might be supposed to pour out his heart 
naturally, there may perhaps be detected a certain ring of 
insincerity. He pays her compliments, addresses her in the 
studied language of gallantry, and compares her to Penelope 
and Laodamia and the other famous heroines of ancient 
legend. Had she been a Penelope or a Laodamia she would 
have accompanied him in his exile, as we learn from Tacitus 
was done by other wives l in the more evil days of which he 
wrote the record. There is a note of truer affection in the 
one letter to his daughter Perilla, of whose genius and 
beauty he was proud, and who in her tastes and character 
was more in sympathy with him. This is one of several 
points of resemblance in the position, feelings, and fortunes 
of Ovid with one whose career and character were so essen 
tially different Cicero. He shows a regard for many of his 
friends, and dependence on their sympathy and apprecia 
tion, and he recalls with some bitterness the coldness with 
which some of those in whom he had trusted treated him 
when his disgrace first overtook him. He was moved by the 
persistent hostility of one whom he had regarded as a friend 
to an act of retaliation for which neither his temper nor his 
genius was adapted, the composition of a lampoon, the 
Ibis, in imitation of a poem of Callimachus, called by the 
same name. His affections, like his genius, were diffused 
widely rather than strongly concentrated, and he seems to 
have had rather a large circle of intimate acquaintances 
than any close friends to whom he was attached as 
Cicero was to Atticus, Horace to Maecenas, Catullus to 
Calvus and Verannius. He was evidently a man of gentle 
and genial manners ; and, as his active mind induced him 
to learn the language of the new people among whom he 
was thrown, his active interest in life enabled him to gain 
their regard and various marks of honour. One of the last 
acts of his literary career was to revise the Fasti and re-edit 
it with a dedication to Germanicus. The last lines of the 
Ex Ponto sound like the despairing sigh of a drowning 
man who had long struggled alone with the waves : 

Omnia perdidimus, tan turn modo vita rclicta cst 
Praebeat ut scnsum materiamque mails. " 

(Shortly after these words were written the poet died, at the 

1 " Comitatfc profugos liberos matres, secutre maritos in exilia 
conjuges" (Tac. , Hist., i. 3). 



age of sixty-one, in the year 17 A.D., the third year of the 
reign of Tiberius. 

The natural temperament of Ovid, as indicated in his 
writings, has more in common with the suppleness and 
finesse of the modern Italian than with the strength and 
direct force of the ancient Roman. That stamp of her own 
character and understanding which Rome impressed on the 
genius of those other races, Italian, Celtic, or Iberian, 
which she incorporated with herself, is fainter in Ovid 
than in any other great writer. He ostentatiously dis 
claims the manliness which in the republican times was 
regarded as the birthright not of Romans only but of the 
Sabellian races from which he sprung. He is as devoid 
of dignity in his abandonment to pleasure as in the weak 
ness with which he meets calamity. He has no depth of 
serious conviction, no vein of sober reflexion, and is sus 
tained by no great or elevating purpose. Although the 
beings of a supernatural world fill a large place in his 
writings, they appear stripped of all sanctity and mystery. 
It is difficult to say whether the tone in which the adven 
tures of the gods and goddesses of mythology are told, or 
his prayer offered to the gods of heaven and of the sea, 
when in danger of shipwreck, 

" Pro superi viridesque dei, quibus aequora curse," 

implies a kind of half-believing return to the most childish 
elements of paganism, or is simply one of mocking unbelief. 
He has absolutely no reverence, and consequently almost 
alone among the greater poets of Greece or Rome (the 
" sancti " of Lucretius, the " pii vates " of Virgil) he inspires 
no reverence in his reader. With all a poet s feeling fcr 
the life, variety, and subtlety of nature, he has no sense of 
her mystery and majesty. Though he can give dramatic 
expression to pathetic emotion, the profound melancholy 
of Lucretius, the spiritual sadness, half-relieved by dim 
spiritual hopes, of Virgil, the thoughtful renunciation with 
which Horace fronts " the cloud of mortal destiny," are 
states of mind which were seemingly inconceivable by him. 
Nor is he more capable of sounding the deeper sources of 
joy than of sorrow. The love which he celebrates is 
sensual and superficial a matter of vanity as much as of 
passion. He prefers the piquant attraction of falsehood 
and fickleness to the charm of truth and constancy. Even 
where he follows Roman tendencies in his art he per 
verts them. Didactic poetry has set before itself many 
false ends in ancient Roman as in modern English litera 
ture ; but the pedantry of systematic teaching has never 
been so strangely misapplied, as it never has been so 
strangely combined with brilliant power of execution, as 
in the methodical teaching of the art " corrumpere et 
corrumpi." The Fasti is a work conceived in the prosaic 
spirit of Roman antiquarianism. But this conception 
might have been made poetical had it been penetrated by 
the religious and patriotic spirit in which Virgil treats the 
origin of ancient ceremonies, or the serious, half mystic 
spirit in which he accepts the revelations of science. The 
contrast between the actual trivialities of ancient science 
and ancient ceremonial, on the one hand, and the new 
meaning which both were capable of receiving from a 
reverential treatment, could not be more effectually enforced 
than by a comparison of passages in the Georgics and 
^ Eneid treating the astronomical fancies and religious 
ceremonies of early ages with the literal definiteness or the 
light persiflage of the Fasti. 

These grave defects in strength and gravity of character 
had an important effect on the artistic result of Ovid s 
writings. Though he wanted neither diligence, persever 
ance, nor literary ambition, he seems incapable of conceiv 
ing a great and serious whole. Though his mind works 
very actively in the way of observing and reflecting on 

XV TTT. TT 



OVID 



the superficial aspects of life, yet he has added no great 
thoughts or maxims to the moral or intellectual heritage 
of the world. With a more versatile dramatic faculty than 
any of his countrymen, he has created no great character, 
comparable either with the grand impersonations of Greek 
tragedy, or with the Dido and Turnus of Virgil. He has 
both the psychological power of reading and the rhetorical 
power of expressing passion and emotion of different 
kinds ; but he has not a genuine and consistent sense of 
human greatness or heroism. He represents with impartial 
sympathy the noble heart of Laodamia and the unhallowed 
lust of Myrrha. His spirit seems thoroughly ironical or 
indifferent in regard to the higher ideals or graver convic 
tions of men. 

But with all the laxity and levity of his character he 
must have had qualities which made him, if not much 
esteemed, yet much liked in his own day, and which have 
perpetuated themselves in the genial amiability of his 
writings. He claims for himself two social virtues, highly 
prized by the Romans, " fides " and " candor," the quali 
ties of social honour and kindly sincerity, the qualities 
which made a man a pleasant member of society and a 
friend who might be relied on in the ordinary relations of 
life. There is no indication of anything base, anything 
ungenerous, or anything morose in his relations to others. 
The literary quality of " candor," the generous appreciation 
of all sorts of excellence, he possesses in a remarkable 
degree. He heartily admires everything in the literature 
of the past, Greek or Roman, that had any merit. In him 
more than in a..y of the other Augustan poets we find 
words of admiration more than once applied to the rude 
genius of Ennius and the high spirit of Accius. It is by 
him, not by Virgil or Horace, that Lucretius is first named 
and the sublimity of his genius is first acknowledged. The 
image of Catullus that most haunts the imagination is that 
of the poet who died so early 

.... " hedera juvenalia cinctus 
Tempora," 

as he is represented by Ovid coming to meet the shade of 
the young Tibullus in Elysium. To his own contempor 
aries, known and unknown to fame, he is as liberal in 
his words of recognition. He enjoyed society too in a 
thoroughly amiable and unenvious spirit. He lived on a 
friendly footing with a large circle of men of letters, poets, 
critics, grammarians, c., but he showed none of that sense 
of superiority which is manifest in Horace s estimate of the 
" tribes of grammarians " and the poetasters of his day. 
Like Horace, too, he courted the society of the great, and 
probably he did not maintain an equally independent 
attitude towards it ; but unlike Horace he expresses no 
contempt for the profane world outside. With his gifts of 
irony and knowledge of the world one might have expected 
him to be the social satirist of the later phase of the 
Augustan age. But he wanted the censorious and critical 
temper necessary for a social, and the admixture of gall in 
his disposition necessary for a successful personal satirist. 

" Candidas a salibus suflusis felle rcfugi" 

is a claim on our regard which he is fully justified in making. 
In his exile, and in imitation of his model Callimachus, he 
did retaliate on one enemy and persistent detractor; but 
the Ibis is a satire more remarkable for irrelevant learning 
than for epigrammatic sting. 

But his chief personal endowment was his vivacity, and 
his keen interest in and enjoyment of life. He had no 
grain of discontent in his composition. He had no regrets 
for an ideal past nor longings for an imaginary future. 
The age in which his lot was cast was, as he tells us, that 
in which more than any other he would have wished to live. 1 

1 Ars Amatoria, iii. 121, &c. 



He is its most gifted representative, but he does not rise 
above it. The great object of his art was to amuse and 
delight it by the vivid picture he presented of its actual 
fashions and pleasures, and by creating a literature of 
romance which reflected these fashions and pleasures, and 
which could stimulate the curiosity arid fascinate the fancy 
of a society too idle and luxurious for serious intellectual 
effort. The sympathy which he felt with the love adven 
tures and intrigues of his contemporaries, to which he 
probably owed his fall, quickened his creative power to the 
composition of the Heroides and the romantic tales of the 
Metamorphoses. Catullus, by his force of concentration, 
makes the actual life of his age more immediately present; 
but none of the Roman poets can people a purely imaginary 
world with such spontaneous fertility of fancy as Ovid. 
In heart and mind he is inferior to Lucretius and Catullus, 
to Virgil and Horace, perhaps to Tibullus and Propertius ; 
but in the power and range of imaginative vision he is 
surpassed by no ancient and by few modern poets. This 
power of vision is the counterpart of his lively sensuous 
nature. He has a keener eye for the apprehension of out 
ward beauty, for the life and colour and forms of nature, 
than any Roman or perhaps than any Greek poet. This 
power, acting upon the wealth of his varied reading, 
gathered with eager curiosity and received into a singu 
larly retentive mind, has enabled him to body forth scenes 
of the most varied and picturesque beauty in all the lands 
of Europe and Asia famous in ancient song and story. If 
his tragedy the Medea, highly praised by ancient critics, 
had been preserved, we should have been able to judge 
whether Roman art was capable of producing a great 
drama. In many of the Heroides, and in several speeches 
attributed to his imaginary personages, he gives evidence 
of true dramatic creativeness. Catullus, in his Ariadne and 
his Attis, has given a voice to deeper and more powerful 
feeling, and he presents an idyllic picture of the heroic 
age with a purer charm. But the range and variety of 
his art were limited by the shortness as well as the turmoil 
of his life. Catullus is unsurpassed as the author of an 
epic idyll. Ovid is not idyllic in his art, or whatever 
there is of idyllic in it is lost in the rapid movement of 
his narrative. But he is one, among the poets of all times, 
who can imagine a story with most vivid inventiveness and 
tell it with most unflagging animation. An ideal world, 
poetical and supernatural, but never fantastic or grotesque, 
of beings rich with the beauty and fulness of youth, play 
ing their part in scenes of picturesque beauty, is brought 
before us in verse and diction of apparently inexhaustible 
resource and unimpeded flow, partly created or rising 
up spontaneously for the occasion, partly borrowed boldly 
and freely from all his predecessors in Latin poetry, but 
always full of genuine life and movement. The faults of 
his verse and diction are those which arise from the vitality 
of his temperament, too facile a flow, too great exuber 
ance of illustration. He has as little sense of the need of 
severe restraint in his art as in his life. He is not without 
mannerism, but he is quite unaffected, and, however far 
short he might fall of the highest excellence of verse or 
style, it was not possible for him to be rough or harsh, dull 
or obscure. 

As regards the school of art to which he belongs, he may 
be described as the most brilliant representative of Roman 
Alexandrinism. The latter half of the Augustan age was, 
in its social and intellectual aspects, more like the 
Alexandrian age than any other era of antiquity. The 
Alexandrian age was like the Augustan, one of refine 
ment and luxury, of outward magnificence and literary 
dilettanteism flourishing under the fostering influence of 
an absolute monarchy. Poetry was the only important 
branch of literature cultivated, and the chief subjects of 



OVID 



83 



poetry were mythological tales, various phases of the 
passion of love, the popular aspects of science, and some 
aspects of the beauty of nature. These, too, were the chief 
subjects of the later Augustan poetry. The higher feelings 
and ideas which found expression in the poetry of Virgil, 
Horace, Varius, and the writers of an older generation no 
longer acted on the Roman world. It was to the private 
tastes and pleasures of individuals and society that Roman 
Alexandrinism had appealed both in the poetry of 
Catullus, Cinna, Calvus, &c., and in that of Gallus, 
Tibullus, and Propertius. Ovid was the last of this 
school of writers ; he profited at the very entrance on his 
poetical career by the artistic accomplishment in form, 
metre, and diction which had been gained by the slow 
labours of his predecessors ; his fancy was much more 
active and brilliant than that of any of them ; and 
his spirit was more unreservedly satisfied with the condi 
tions imposed both by the art to which he devoted him 
self and the political and social circumstances by which 
he was surrounded. Like all his countrymen, he wanted 
power to create a new form of art and a new vehicle of 
expression. But if he could have foreseen his future fame 
his literary ambition would have been completely satisfied 
by the consciousness that he had not only immeasurably 
surpassed, but had, for all after time, practically superseded 
his Greek models. He has confined himself to two vehicles 
of expression the elegiac metre and the hexameter. In 
the first the great mass of his poetry is written, the 
Heroides, the Amores, the Ars Amatoria, the Remedia 
Amoris, the Fasti, the Tristia, the Ex Ponto, the Ibis, the 
Medicamina Faciei ; in the hexameter we have the work 
which he regarded as that on which his hope of immor 
tality was based, the Metamorphoses, and a fragment of a 
didactic poem written in the style of the Alexandrians, 
probably with the mere desire to kill time in the place of 
his exile, called the Halieutica. Of the first metre he is 
the acknowledged master. He brought it to its highest 
perfection, and all the immense mass of elegiac verse 
published and written in modern times has merely 
endeavoured to reproduce the echo of his rhythm and 
manner. In the direct expression and illustration of feel 
ing, his elegiac metre has much more ease, vivacity, and 
sparkle than that of any of his predecessors, while he 
alone has communicated to it, without altering its essential 
characteristic of recurrent and regular pauses, a fluidity 
and rapidity of movement which makes it an admirable 
vehicle for tales of pathetic and picturesque interest. It 
was impossible for him to give to the hexameter a greater 
perfection than it had already attained, but he imparted 
to it also a new character, wanting indeed the weight, and 
majesty, and intricate harmonies of Virgil, but rapid, 
varied, animated, and in complete accord with the swift, 
versatile, and fervid movement of his imagination. One 
other proof he gave of his irrepressible energy and vitality 
by composing, during his exile, a poem in the Gothic 
language, in praise of Augustus, the loss of which, what 
ever it may have been to literature, is one much to be 
regretted in the interests of philological science. 

Ovid would, in any previous century since the revival of classical 
studies, have been regarded as a more important representative of 
ancient life and feeling, and as a greater poet, than he is in the 
present day. During the earlier period of this revival, the beauty 
and refinement of ancient literature, and of the life to which that 
literature is the key, were better appreciated than their moral and 
intellectual greatness. As the representative writer of an age of 
great material civilization and luxury, he gained the attention of 
a time and a class struggling towards a similar civilization and 
animated by the same love of pleasure. It was in his writings 
that the world of romance and wonder, created by the early Greek 
imagination, was first revealed to the modern world. The vivid, 
sensuous fancy through which he reproduced the tales and beings 
of mythology, as well as the transparent lucidity, the unfailing 
liveliness, the ease and directness of the medium through which 



this is done, made his works the most accessible and among the 
most attractive of the recovered treasures of antiquity. His in 
fluence was first felt in the literature of the Italian Renaissance. 
But in the most creative periods of English literature he seems to 
have been more read than any other ancient poet, not even except 
ing Virgil ; and it was on the most creative minds, such as those 
of Marlowe, Spenser, Shakespeare, 1 Milton, and Dryden, that he 
acted most powerfully. The continuance of his influence is equally 
unmistakable during the classical era of Addison and Pope. The 
most successful Latin poetry of modern times has been written in 
imitation of him ; and the accomplishment by which the faculty of 
literary composition and the feeling for ancient Roman culture 
were most developed in the great schools of England and France 
was the writing of Ovidian elegiacs. His works gave also a 
powerful stimulus and supplied abundant materials to the great 
painters who flourished during and immediately subsequent to 
the Renaissance. The mythological figures and landscapes which 
crowd the great galleries of Europe reproduce on canvas the forms, 
life, colour, and spirit which first were clothed in words and metre 
in his Elegies and Metamorphoses. 

But, whatever charm individual readers of ancient literature may 
still find in him, no one would claim for him anything like the 
same influence on literature, art, and education in the present day 
as he formerly enjoyed. Judged by the attention given to their 
works by professional scholars and also in current criticism, not 
only Virgil and Horace, but Lucretius and Catullus, appear to be 
more in esteem than Ovid. This may perhaps be due as much to 
a loss in imagination as to a gain in critical power. Although the 
spirit of antiquity is better understood now than it was in the 16th 
and 17th centuries, yet in the capacity of appreciating works of 
brilliant fancy we can claim no superiority over the centuries 
which produced Spenser, Shakespeare, and Milton, nor over those 
which produced the great Italian, French, and Flemish painters. 
Still, whatever be the cause of the change in taste, Ovid is not one 
of those poets who seem to have much to teach us, or much power 
to move and interest us now. Perhaps the very liveliness and 
clearness of his style and manner, which made him the most 
accessible of ancient authors in times of less exact learning, have 
tended to deaden curiosity about him in the present day. There 
is no deep or recondite meaning to be extracted from him. The 
sensuous and more superficial aspects of the later phase of ancient 
civilization, of which he is the most brilliant exponent, have much 
less interest for us than the heroic aspects of its earlier phase, and 
the spiritual, ethical, and political significance of its maturity. 
The art which chiefly ministers to pleasure, though it had its 
place in the great ages of antiquity, had then only a subordinate 
one ; and it is to that place that it has been relegated by the 
permanent judgment of the world. It is of that art that Ovid is 
the chief master, and it is that with which he is identified. There 
miglit almost seem to be some danger of his falling into the neglect 
which has deservedly overtaken the authors of the epics of the 
Flavian era. It is therefore perhaps worth while to indicate some 
of the grounds on which his works must continue to hold an 
important place in any comprehensive study of Roman literature 
or human culture. 

His first claim on the attention of modern readers is that already 
indicated the influence which he exercised on the earlier develop 
ment of modern art and literature. Just as certain Greek poets 
and literary periods (the Alexandrian for instance) claim attention 
as much on account of their influence on the development of 
Roman literature as on their own account, so, if for no other reason, 
the works of Ovid must always retain an importance, second only 
to those of Virgil and Horace, as one of the chief media through 
which the stream of ancient feeling and fancy mingled with the 
great river of modern literature. 

He is interesting further as the sole contemporary exponent of 
the last half of the Augustan age. The whole of that age is a time 
of which the outward show and the inner spirit are known from the 
works, not of contemporary historians or prose-writers, but of its 
poets. The successive phases of feeling and experience through 
which the world passed during the whole of this critical period of 
human affairs are revealed in the poetry of Virgil, Horace, and Ovid. 
Virgil throws an idealizing and religious halo around the hopes and 
aspirations of the first rise of the empire. His aim seems to be to 
bring the new regime into living connexion with the past, not of 
Rome only but of the civilized world. Horace presents the most 
complete image of his age in its most various aspects, realistic and 
ideal. Ovid, in all his earlier writings, reflects the life of the world 
of wealth and fashion under the influence of the new court. It is a 
life of material prosperity, splendour, refinement, of frivolity and 
intrigue, of dilettanteism in literature, of decay in all the nobler 
energies, of servility and adulation. He is the most characteristic 
painter such a time could have found. For the continuous study 

1 The influence of Ovid on Shakespeare is shown conclusively in 
the interesting papers on "What Shakespeare learned at School," 
contributed to Fraser s Magazine (1879, 1880) by Prof. Baynes. 



V I O V I 



of the Roman world in its moral and social relations, his place is 
important as marking a stage of transition between the representa 
tion of Horace, in which the life of pleasure and amusement has 
its place, but one subordinate to the life of reflexion and of serious 
affairs, and the life which reveals itself in the cynicism of Martial 
and the morose disgust of Juvenal. 

From the times of Ennius and Lucilius, Roman poetry occupied 
itself much with the lives, pursuits, and personal feelings of its 
authors, and this is one element of interest which it has in common 
with such works as the Letters of Cicero and of Plin) . Few poets 
of any age or country bring themselves into such close relation 
with their readei-s as Catullus, Horace, Ovid, and Martial. Ovid 
is in mind and character perhaps the least interesting of the four. 
But an exceptional interest attaches to his history. He attracts 
curiosity by having a secret, which, though it may be guessed with 
an approach to certainty, is not fully revealed. He excites also 
personal sympathy by the contrast presented in his writings 
between the unclouded gaiety of his youth and prime and the long 
heart-break of his exile. If we knew him only from the personal 
impression which he makes in the Amores and the Ars Ama- 
tvria, it would be allowed that few men of equal genius had 
so little claim on the esteem of the world. In the ten books of 
complaint which he pours out from his place of exile, though he 
shows no sign of a manlier temper than when he wrote his 
"imbelles elegi," yet by the vividness with which he realizes the 
contrast between his past and present, by his keen capacity for 
pleasure and pain, by the unreserve with which he exposes all his 
feelings, he forces himself on our intimacy, and awakens those sym 
pathies which all sincere and passionate confessions create, where 
there is nothing base or malignant in the temper of their author to 
alienate them. Though his fate does not rouse the powerful interest 
inspired by the "h ery courage" and "Titanic might" with which 
Byron struggled during his self-imposed exile, yet to it, too, apply 
the sympathetic words of Virgil "Mentem mortalia tangunt." 

But it was not owing to the historical and personal interest 
of his works that he gained his great name among his countrymen 
and the readers of a former generation, nor is it on that ground 
solely that he claims attention now. He is the last true poet of the 
great age of Roman literature, which begins with Lucretius and 
closes with him, of the age which drew the most powerful stimulus 
from the genius and art of Greece, from the sentiment inspired 
by Rome, and from the Italian love of nature. Among the live or 
six great poets of that time Ovid is distinguished both as a 
brilliant artist who brought one branch of poetry to the highest 
perfection and also as a poet in whom one rich vein of the genius 
of Italy most conspicuously manifested itself. It is mainly through 
his reproduction of the forms, metres, and materials of the chief 
Alexandrian poets that these have maintained an enduring place 
in literature. But, great as he was, in art and imitative faculty, 
his spontaneous gifts of genius were still more remarkable. If his 
works had perished we should have had a most inadequate idea of 
what the fervid Italian genius could accomplish in ancient times. 
Xo other Roman poet can invent and tell a story and make an 
outward scene and dramatic situation present to the eye and mind 
with such vivid power. If he does not greatly move the deeper 
.sources of emotion, he has the power of lightly stirring many of 
them. No Roman poet writes with such ease, life, and rapidity of 
movement. None is endowed with such fertility of fancy, such 
quickness of apprehension. In respect of his vivacity and fertility 
we recognize in him the countryman of Cicero and Livy. But the 
type of genius of which he affords the best example is more familiar 
in modern Italian than in ancient Roman literature. While the 
.serious spirit of Lucretius and Virgil reappeared in Dante, the 
qualities attributed by his latest and most accomplished critic to 
Ariosto may be said to reproduce the light-hearted gaiety and the 
brilliant fancy of Ovid. 

There were several editions of Ovi i s collected works in the 16th and 17th 
centuries, the time in which he enjoyed his greatest popularity. Recent editions 
of the text have been published by R. Merkel and A. Riese. The most important 
aids to the study of Ovid recently made in England are the editions of the Jlti.i 
by Mr Robinson Ellis, and those of the //eroides by .Mr A. Palmer. Much 
light is thrown on the diction of Ovid by lingerie in his Ovidius und sein Verhdlt- 
niss zu den Vorgiingern. The most interesting discussion on the cause of his 
exile is that of M. Gaston Boissier, which originally appeared in the Revue 
des iJtux Mondes, and novv forms part of his volume entitled L Opposition sous 
let Ce iart. ( W. y. S.) 

OVIEDO, a city in the north of Spain, capital of a 
province of the same name, 1 stands on a gentle northern 
slope, about 72 miles by rail and diligence to the north 

1 The province of Oviedo, corresponding to the ancient province and 
principality of ASTURJAS (<?..), has an area of 4091 square miles and 
a population (1877) of 576,352. At that census the ayuntamientos 



12,614 ; Pilona, 18,648 ; Salas, 16,394 ; Siero, 21,494 ; Tiueo! 21,41 4; 
Valdes, 22,014; and Villaviciosa, 20,179. 



of Leon, and 14 miles to the south of the Bay of 
Biscay. About a mile to the north-west is the Sierra 
de Naranco, a Red Sandstone hill 1070 feet above the 
sea and about 470 above the town, which is thus shel 
tered from the north wind, but subject in consequence 
to a large rainfall. Most of the town was burnt in 1521, 
and the reconstruction, till recently, has been irregular. 
The four main streets are formed by the roads connecting 
Gijon and Leon (north and south) and Grado and 
Santander (east and west), which cross each other in a 
central square, the Plaza Mayor. The streets are clean 
and well lighted ; the projecting roofs of the houses give 
a characteristic effect, and some portions of the old Calle de 
la Plateria are highly picturesque. In the Plaza Mayor 
are the handsome Casas Consistoriales, dating from the 
17th century ; one or two deserted mansions of the nobility 
are architecturally interesting. The university, founded 
by Philip III. in 1604, is lodged in a plain building, 180 
feet square ; connected with it are a small library and 
physical and chemical museums. The cathedral, an 
elegant Perpendicular building of the 14th century, 
occupies the site of an earlier edifice, founded in the 8th 
century, of which only the Camara Santa remains. The 
west front has a fine portico of ornamented arches between 
the two towers. Of these one, very richly adorned, has 
been completed, and is 284 feet high ; the other, which is 
larger, does not as yet rise above the nave. The interior 
has some fine stained glass, but has been much disfigured 
with modern rococo additions. The Capilla del lley Santo 
(Alphonso II., who died in Oviedo in 843) contains the 
remains of many successive princes of the house of Pelayo ; 
and the Camara Santa (dating from 802) preserves in an 
area the crucifix, sudarium, and other relics saved by Don 
Pelayo in his flight. The cathedral library has some 
curious old MSS., mostly from Toledo. On the Sierra de 
Naranco is the ancient Santa Maria de Naranco, originally 
built by liamiro in 850 as a palace, and afterwards turned 
into a church. Higher up the hill is San Miguel de Lino, 
also of the 9th century ; and on the road to Gijon, about 
a mile outside the town, is the Santullano or church of St 
Julian, also of very early date. The modern town has the 
usual equipments in the way of hospitals, schools, theatre, 
casino, and the like ; and in the neighbourhood are some 
pleasant paseos or promenades (San Francisco, Bombe, 
Jardin Botanico). The industries of the town include hat- 
making and tanning, and there is also a manufactory of arms. 
The population of the ayuntamiento in 1877 was 34,460. 

Oviedo, founded in the reign of Fruela (762), became the fixed 
residence of the kings of the Asturias in the time of Alphonso the 
Chaste, and continued to be so until about 924, when the advancing 
rcconquest led them to remove their capital to Leon. From that 
date the history of the city was comparatively uneventful. It was 
twice plundered during the war of independence by Ney in 180i> 
and by Bonnet in the following year. 

OYIEDO Y VALDEZ, GONZALO FERNANDEZ DK 
(1478-1557), an early historian of Spanish America, was 
born at Madrid, of noble Asturian descent, in 1478. He 
was brought up at the court of Ferdinand and Isabella as 
one of the pages of Prince John ; in this capacity he was 
present at the surrender of Granada in 1492, and saw 
Columbus at Barcelona on his first return from America 
in 1493. In 1514 he was sent out to San Domingo as 
supervisor of the gold-smeltings. He only occasionally 
afterwards visited his native country and the American 
mainland. Among other offices subsequently added to his 
original appointment was that of historiographer of the 
Indies, in the discharge of which he produced, besides 
some unimportant chronicles, two large works of abiding 
interest and value La general y natural Historia de lax 
Indias and Quimuayenas de lus Notables de Espawt. He 
died at Valladolid in 1557. 



O W E O W E 



85 



The History of the Indies first appeared at Madrid in the form of a 
Sumario in 1526. Of the full work, consisting of fifty books, the 
first twenty-one were published at Seville in 1535 (Eng. transl. by 
Eden, 1555 ; Fr. transl. by Poleur, 1556). The whole has recently 
been published for the first time by the Madrid Royal Academy 
of History (4 vols. fol., 1851-55). It contains a large mass of 
valuable information, but written in a loose rambling moralizing 
style which makes it somewhat difficult to use. According to Las 
Casas, it is " as full of lies almost as pages," but the judgment of 
the humane ecclesiastic was, necessarily perhaps, somewhat preju 
diced. The Qtiincnagcnas, devoted to reminiscences of the princi 
pal characters who had figured in Spain during his lifetime, consists 
of a series of imaginary conversations full of gossip and curious 
anecdote of great interest to the student of history. Several MSS. 
are extant, but the work has never been printed. 

OWEGO, a post village and township of the United 
States, capital of Tioga county, New York, lies at the 
mouth of Owego Creek, on the north side of the Susque- 
lianna (here crossed by a bridge), 237 miles north 
west of New York by the New York, Erie, and Western 
Railroad, which here connects with the Delaware, 
Lackawanna, and Western and the Southern Central Rail 
roads. The village, built at the foot of a considerable hill 
in the heart of a fine agricultural district, is a pleasant 
place with broad maple-shaded side- walks along its principal 
streets. Grist-mills, soap-works, marble-works, a piano 
factory, and carriage-works are among the industrial 
establishments. The population of the village was 4756 
in 1870 and 5525 in 1880; that of the whole township 
9442 and 9984 respectively. 

OWEN, JOHN (Ovenus or Audoenus) (1560-1622), a 
writer of Latin epigrams, once very popular all over 
Europe, was of Welsh extraction, and was born at Armon, 
Caernarvonshire, in 1560. He was educated under Dr 
Bilson at Wykeham s School, Winchester, and afterwards 
studied at New College, Oxford, where he received a 
fellowship in 1584, and took the degree of bachelor of laws 
in 1590. Throwing up his fellowship during the follow 
ing year, he turned schoolmaster, and taught successively 
at Trylegh, near Monmouth, and at Warwick, where he 
was master of the free school founded by Henry VIII. 
He soon became distinguished for his perfect mastery of 
the Latin language, and for the humour, felicity, and 
point of his epigrams. As a writer of Latin verse he 
takes rank with Buchanan and Cowley. Those who, with 
Dryden, place the epigram "at the bottom of all poetry" 
will not estimate Owen s poetical genius very high ; yet 
the Continental scholars and wits of the day used to call 
him "the British Martial." "In one respect he was a 
true poet," says a biographer ; " namely, he was always 
poor." He was a staunch Protestant besides, and could 
not resist the temptation of turning his wit against Popery 
occasionally. This practice caused his book to be placed 
on the Ind?x Prohibitorius of the Roman Church in 1654, 
find, what was yet more serious, led a rich old uncle of the 
Roman Catholic communion, from whom he had "great 
expectations," to cut the epigrammatist out of his will. 
When the poet died in 1622, his countryman and relative, 
Bishop Williams of Lincoln, had him buried at St Paul s 
Cathedral, London, where he erected a monument to his 
memory bearing an elegant epitaph in Latin. 

Owen s Epigrammata are divided into twelve books, of which 
the first four were published in 1606, and the rest at four different 
times. Owen frequently adapts and alters to his own purpose the 
lines of his predecessors in Latin verse, and one such borrowing 
lias become celebrated as a quotation, though few know where it is 
to be found. It is the first line of this epigram : 

"Tempora mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis: 
Quo modo? fit semper tempore pejor homo." 

(Lib I. ad Edoardum Noel, epig. 58.) 

This first line is altered from an epigram by Matthew Borbonius, 
one of a series of mottoes for various emperors, this one beino- for 
Lothaire I. 

" Omnia mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis: 

Ilia vices quasdam res liabet, il a vices." 
There are editions of the Emgrammita by Elzevir and by Didot ; 



the be.st is that edited by Renouard (2 vols., Paris, 1795). Transla 
tions into English, either in whole or in part, have been made by 
Vicars, 1619; by Pecke. in his Parnassi I ucrpcrium, 1659; and 
by Harvey in 1677, which is the most complete. La Torre, the 
Spanish epigrammatist, owed much to Owen, and translated his 
works into Spanish in 1674. French translations of the best of 
Owen s epigrams have been published by A. L. Lebrun, 1709, ami 
by Kerivalant, 1819. 

OWEN, JOHN (1616-1683), theologian, was born of 
Puritan parents at Stadham in Oxfordshire in 1616. At 
twelve years of age he was admitted at Queen s College, 
Oxford, where he took his B.A. degree in 1632 and M.A. in 
1635. During these years he worked with such diligence 
that he allowed himself but four hours sleep a night, 
and damaged his health by this excessive labour. In 1637 
lie was driven from Oxford by his refusal to comply with 
the requirements of Laud s new statutes. Having taken 
orders shortly before, he became chaplain and tutor in the 
family of Sir Robert Dormer of Ascot in Oxfordshire. At 
the outbreak of the civil troubles he adopted Parliamentary 
principles, and thus lost both his place and the prospects 
of succeeding to his uncle s fortune. For a while he lived 
in Charterhouse Yard, in great unsettlement of mind on 
religious questions, which was removed at length by a 
sermon which he accidently heard at St Michael s in Wood 
Street. 

His first publication, in 1642, The Display of Arminian- 
ism, dedicated to the committee of religion, gained him the 
living of Fordham in Essex, from which a "scandalous 
minister" had been ejected. Here he was married, and 
by his marriage he had eleven children. 

Although he was thus formally united to Presbyterianism, 
Owen s views were originally inclined to those of the Inde 
pendents, and, as he acquainted himself more fully with 
the controversy, he became more resolved in that direction. 
He represented, in fact, that large class of persons who, 
falling away from Episcopacy, attached themselves to the 
very moderate form of Presbyterianism which obtained in 
England as being that which came first in their way. His 
views at this time are shown by his Duty of Pastors 
and People Distinguished. At Fordham he remained until 

1646, when, the old incumbent dying, the presentation 
lapsed to the patron, who gave it to some one else. He 
was now, however, coming into notice, for on April 29 
he preached before the Parliament. In this sermon, and 
still more in his Thoughts on Church Government, which 
he appended to it, his tendency to Ireak away from 
Presbyterianism is displayed. 

The people of Coggeshall in Essex now invited him to 
become their pastor. Here he declared his change by 
founding a church on Congregational principles, and, in 

1647, by publishing Uthcol, as well as various works 
against Arminianism. He made the friendship of Fairfax 
while the latter was besieging Colchester, and urgently 
addressed the army there against religious persecution. 
He was chosen to preach to Parliament on the day after 
the execution of Charles, and succeeded in fulfilling his 
task without mentioning that event, and again on April 19, 
when he spake thus : " The time shall come when the 
earth shall disclose her slain, and not the simplest heretic 
shall have his blood unrevenged ; neither shall any atone 
ment or expiation be allowed for this blood, while a toe 
of the image, or a bone of the beast, is left unbroken. 

He now became acquainted with Cromwell, who carried 
him off to Ireland in 1649 as his chaplain, that he might 
regulate the affairs of Trinity College; while there he began 
the first of his frequent controversies with Baxter by 
writing against the lattcr s Aphorisms of Justification. In 
1650 he accompanied Cromwell to Scotland, and returned 
to Coggeshall in 1651. In March Cromwell, as chancellor, 
gave him the deanery of Christ Church, and made him 



86 



OWEN 



vice-chancellor in September 1652. In 1651, October 24, 
after Worcester, he preached the thanksgiving sermon 
before Parliament. In October 1653 he was one of 
several ministers whom Cromwell, probably to sound their 
views, summoned to a consultation as to church union. 
In December in the same year he had the honour of D.D. 
conferred upon him by his university. In the Parliament 
of 1654 he sat, but only for a short time, as member for 
Oxford university, and, with Baxter, was placed on the 
committee for settling the " fundamentals " necessary for 
the toleration promised in the Instrument of Government. 
He was, too, one of the Triers, and appears to have 
behaved with kindness and moderation in that capacity. 
As vice-chancellor he acted with readiness and spirit when 
a general rising in the west seemed imminent in 1655; 
his adherence to Cromwell, however, was by no means 
slavish, for he drew up, at the request of Desborough 
and Pride, a petition against his receiving the kingship 
(see Ludlow s Memoirs, ed. 1751, p. 224). During the 
years 1654-58 his chief controversial works were Divina 
Justitia, The Perseverance of Saints (against Goodwin), and 
Vindidse. Evangelicx (against the Socinians). In 1658 he 
took a leading part in the conference which drew up the 
Savoy Declaration. 

Baxter declares that at the death of Cromwell Owen 
joined the Wallingford House party. This, though 
supported by the fact that under the Restoration he had 
among his congregation a large number of these officers, 
Owen himself utterly denied. He appears, however, to 
have assisted in the restoration of the Rump Parliament, 
and, when Monk began his march into England, Owen, in 
the name of the Independent churches, to whom Monk 
was supposed to belong, and who were keenly anxious as 
to his intentions, wrote to dissuade him from the enter 
prise. 

In March 1660, the Presbyterian party being upper 
most, Owen was deprived of his deanery, which was given 
back to Reynolds. He retired to Stadham, where he 
wrote various controversial and theological works, in 
especial the laborious Theologoumena Pantodapa, a history 
of the rise and progress of theology. In 1661 was 
published the celebrated Fiat Lux, a work in which the 
oneness and beauty of Roman Catholicism are contrasted 
with the confusion and multiplicity of Protestant sects. 
At Clarendon s request Owen answered this in 1662 in his 
Animadversions ; and this led of course to a prolonged 
controversy. Clarendon now offered Owen perferment if 
he would conform. Owen s condition for making terms 
was liberty to all who agree in doctrine with the Church 
of England ; nothing therefore came of the negotiation. 

In 1663 he was invited by the Congregational churches 
in Boston, New England, to become their minister, but 
declined. The Conventicle and Five Mile Acts soon 
drove him to London; and in 1666, after the Fire, he, as 
did other leading Nonconformist ministers, fitted up a room 
for public service and gathered a congregation, composed 
chiefly of the old Commonwealth officers. Meanwhile he 
was incessantly writing; and in 1667 he published his 
Catechism, which led to a proposal from Baxter for union. 
Various papers passed, and after a year the attempt was 
closed by the following laconical note from Owen : " I am 
still a well-wisher to these mathematics." It was now, 
too, that he published the first part of his vast work upon 
the Epistle to the Hebrews. 

In 1669 Owen wrote a spirited remonstrance to the 
Congregationalists in New England, who, under the influ 
ence of Presbyterianism, had shown themselves perse 
cutors. At home, too, he was busy in the same cause. 
In 1670 Parker attacked the Nonconformists in his own 
style of clumsy intolerance. Owen answered him ; Parker 



repeated his attack ; Marvell wrote The Rehearsal Trans- 
prosed; and Parker is remembered by this alone. 

At the revival of the Conventicle Acts in 1670, Owen 
was appointed to draw up a paper of reasons which was 
submitted to the House of Lords in protest. In this or the 
following year Harvard university invited him to become 
their president ; he received similar invitations from some 
of the Dutch universities. 

When Charles issued his Declaration of Indulgence in 
1672, Owen drew up an address of thanks. This indulg 
ence gave the dissenters an opportunity for increasing their 
churches and services, and Owen was one of the first 
preachers at the weekly lectures which the Independents 
and Presbyterians jointly held in Plummer s Hall. He 
was held in high respect by a large number of the nobility 
(one of the many things which point to the fact that 
Congregationalism was by no means the creed of the poor 
and insignificant), and during 1674 both Charles and James 
held prolonged conversations with him in which they assured 
him of their good wishes to the dissenters. Charles gave 
him 1000 guineas to relieve those upon whom the severe 
laws had chiefly pressed. In 1674 Owen was attacked by 
one Dr Sherlock, whom he easily vanquished, and from this 
time until 1680 he was engaged upon his ministry and the 
writing of religious works. In 1680, however, Stillingfleet 
having on May 11 preached his sermon on "The Mischief 
of Separation," Owen defended the Nonconformists from 
the charge of schism in his Brief Vindication. Baxter 
and Howe also answered Stillingfleet, who replied in The 
Unreasonableness of Separation. Owen again answered 
this, and then left the controversy to a swarm of eager 
combatants. From this time to his death he was occupied 
with continual writing, disturbed only by an absurd charge 
of being concerned in the Rye House Plot. His most 
important work was his Treatise on Evangelical Churches, 
in which were contained his latest views regarding church 
government. During his life he issued more than eighty 
separate publications, many of them of great size. Of 
these a list may be found in Orme s Memoirs of Owen. 
For somo years before his death Owen had suffered greatly 
from stone and asthma. He died quietly, though after 
great pain, at Ealing, on August 24, 1683, and was buried 
on September 4th in Bunhill Fields, being followed to the 
grave by a large procession of persons of distinction. " In 
younger age a most comely and majestic form ; but in the 
latter stages of life, depressed by constant infirmities, 
emaciated with frequent diseases, and above all crushed 
under the weight of intense and unremitting studies, it 
became an incommodious mansion for the vigorous exer 
tions of the spirit in the service of its God." 

For engraved portraits of Owen see first edition of Palmer s Non 
conformists Memorial and Vertue s Sermons and Tracts, 1721. 
The chief authorities for the life are Owen s Works ; Orme s Memoirs 
of Owen ; Wood s Athcnae Oxonicnses ; Baxter s Life ; Real s History 
of the Puritans ; Edwards s Gangrsena ; and the various histories 
of the Independents. (0. A.) 

OWEN, ROBERT (1771-1858), philanthropist, and 
founder of English socialism, was born at the village of 
Newtown, Montgomeryshire, in North Wales. His father 
had a small business in Newtown as saddler and ironmonger, 
and there young Owen received all his school education, 
which terminated at the age of nine. At ten he went to 
Stamford, where he served in a draper s shop for three or 
four years, and, after a short experience of work in a 
London shop, removed to Manchester. His success at 
Manchester was very rapid. When only nineteen years of 
age he became manager of a cotton mill, in which five 
hundred people were employed, and by his administrative 
intelligence, energy, industry, and steadiness soon made it 
one of the very best establishments of the kind in Great 
Britain. In this factory Owen used the first bags of 



87 



American sea-island cotton ever imported into the country; 
it was the first cotton obtained from the Southern States 
of America. Owen also made remarkable improvement in 
the quality of the cotton spun ; and indeed there is no 
reason to doubt that at this early age he was the first 
cotton-spinner in England, a position entirely due to his 
own capacity and knowledge of the trade, as he had found 
the mill in no well-ordered condition, and was left to 
organize it entirely on his own responsibility. Owen had 
become manager and one of the partners of the Chorlton 
Twist Company at Manchester, when he made his first 
acquaintance with the scene of his future philanthropic 
efforts at New Lanark. During a visit to Glasgow he had 
fallen in love with the daughter of the proprietor of the 
New Lanark mills, Mr Dale. Owen induced his partners 
to purchase New Lanark; and after his marriage with 
Miss Dale he settled there, as manager and part owner 
of the mills (1800). Encouraged by his great success in 
the management of cotton factories in Manchester, he had 
already formed the intention of conducting New Lanark 
on higher principles than the current commercial ones. 

The factory of New Lanark had been started in 1784 
by Dale and Arkwright, the water-power afforded by the 
falls of the Clyde being the great attraction. Connected 
with the mills were about two thousand people, five 
hundred of whom were children, brought, most of them, at 
the age of five or six from the poorhouses and charities 
of Edinburgh and Glasgow. The children especially had 
been well treated by Dale, but the general condition of the 
people was very unsatisfactory. Many of them were the 
lowest of the population, the respectable country people 
refusing to submit to the long hours and demoralizing 
drudgery of the factories ; theft, drunkenness, and other 
vices were common ; education and sanitation were alike 
neglected ; most families lived only in one room. It was 
this population, thus committed to his care, which Owen 
now set himself to elevate and ameliorate. He greatly 
improved their houses, and by the unsparing and bene 
volent exertion of his personal influence trained them to 
habits of order, cleanliness, and thrift. . He opened a store, 
where the people could buy goods of the soundest quality 
at little more than cost price ; and the sale of drink was 
placed under the strictest supervision. His greatest 
success, however, was in the education of the young, to 
which he devoted special attention. He was the founder 
of infant schools in Great Britain ; and, though he was 
anticipated by Continental reformers, he seems to have 
been led to institute them by his own views of what 
education ought to be, and without hint from abroad. In 
all these plans Owen obtained the most gratifying success. 
Though at first regarded with suspicion as a stranger, he 
soon won the confidence of his people. The mills con 
tinued to be a great commercial success, but it is needless 
to say that some of Owen s schemes involved considerable 
expense, which was displeasing to his partners. Tired at 
last of the restrictions imposed on him by men who wished 
to conduct the business on the ordinary principles, Owen 
formed a new firm, who, content with 5 per cent, of 
return for their capital, were ready to give freer scope to 
his philanthropy (1813). In this firm Jeremy Bentham 
and the well-known Quaker, William Allen, were partners. 
In the same year Owen first appeared as an author of 
essays, in which he expounded the principles on which his 
system of educational philanthropy was based. From an 
early age he had lost all belief in the prevailing forms of 
religion, and had thought out a creed for himself, which 
he considered an entirely new and original discovery. The 
chief points in this philosophy were that man s character 
is made not by him but for him ; that it has been formed 
by circumstances over which he had no control ; that he 



is not a proper subject either of praise or blame, these 
principles leading up to the practical conclusion that the 
great secret in the right formation of man s character is to 
place him under the proper influences physical, moral, and 
social from his earliest years. These principles of the 
irresponsibility of man and of the effect of early influences 
are the keynote of Owen s whole system of education and 
social amelioration. As we have said, they are embodied 
in his first work, A New View of Society, or Essays on 
the Principle of the Formation of the Human Character, 
the first of these essays (there are four in all) being 
published in 1813. It is needless to say that Owen s new 
views theoretically belong to a very old system of 
philosophy, and that his originality is to be found only 
in his benevolent application of them. For the next few 
years Owen s work at New Lanark continued to have a 
national and even a European significance. His schemes 
for the education of his workpeople attained to something 
like completion on the opening of the institution at New 
Lanark in 1816. He was a zealous supporter of the 
factory legislation resulting in the Act of 1819, which, 
however, greatly disappointed him. He had interviews 
and communications with the leading members of Govern 
ment, including the premier, Lord Liverpool, and with 
many of the rulers and leading statesmen of the Continent. 
New Lanark itself became a much-frequented place of 
pilgrimage for social reformers, statesmen, and royal 
personages, including Nicholas, afterwards emperor of 
Kussia. According to the unanimous testimony of all who 
visited it, the results achieved by Owen were singularly 
good. The manners of the children, brought up under 
his system, were beautifully graceful, genial, and uncon 
strained ; health, plenty, and contentment prevailed ; 
drunkenness was almost unknown, and illegitimacy was 
extremely rare. The most perfect good feeling subsisted 
between Owen and his workpeople, and all the operations 
of the mill proceeded with the utmost smoothness and regu 
larity; and the business was a great commercial success. 

Hitherto Owen s work had been that of a philanthropist, 
whose great distinction was the originality and unwearying 
unselfishness of his methods. His first departure in 
socialism took place in 1817, and was embodied in a report 
communicated to the Committee of the House of Commons 
on the Poor Law. The general misery and stagnation of 
trade consequent on the termination of the great war was 
! engrossing the attention of the country. After clearly 
tracing the special causes connected with the war which 
had led to such a deplorable state of things, Owen pointed 
out that the permanent cause of distress was to be found 
in the competition of human labour with machinery, and 
that the only effective remedy was the united action of 
men, and the subordination of machinery. His proposals 
for the treatment of pauperism were based on these 
principles. He recommended that communities of about 
twelve hundred persons each should be settled on quanti 
ties of land of from 1000 to 1500 acres, all living in one 
large building in the form of a square, with public kitchen 
and mess-rooms. Each family should have its own private 
apartments, and the entire care of the children till the 
age of three, after which they should be brought up by the 
\ community, their parents having access to them at meaJs 
and all other proper times. These communities might be 
! established by individuals, by parishes, by counties, or by 
I the state; in every case there should be effective supervision 
j by duly qualified persons. Work, and the enjoyment of its 
results, should be in common. The size of his community 
was no doubt partly suggested by his village of New 
Lanark; and he soon proceeded to advocate such a scheme 
| as the best form for the reorganization of society in general. 
In its fully developed form and it cannot be said to have 



() \V E O W I 



changed much during Owen s lifetime it was as follows. 
He considered an association of from 500 to 3000 as the 
fit number for a good working community. While mainly 
agricultural, it should possess all the best machinery, 
should offer every variety of employment, and should, as 
far as possible, be self-contained. " As these townships, 
as he also called them, "should increase in number, unions 
of them federatively united shall be formed in circles of 
tens, hundreds, and thousands," till they should embrace 
the whole world in a common interest. 

His plans for the cure of pauperism were received 
with great favour. The Times and The Morning Post 
and many of the leading men of the country countenanced 
them ; one of his most steadfast friends was the duke of 
Kent, father of Queen Victoria. He had indeed gained 
the ear of the country, and had the prospect before him 
of a great career as a social reformer, when he went out 
of his way at a large meeting in London to declare his 
hostility to all the received forms of religion. After this 
defiance to the religious sentiment of the country, Owen s 
theories were in the popular mind associated with infi 
delity, and were henceforward suspected and discredited. 
Owen s own confidence, however, remained unshaken ; 
and he was anxious that his scheme for establishing a 
community should be tested. At last, in 1825, such an 
experiment was attempted under the direction of his 
disciple, Abram Combe, at Orbiston near Glasgow; and in 
the same year Owen himself commenced another at New 
Harmony in Indiana, America. After a trial of about 
two years both failed completely. Neither of them was a 
pauper experiment ; but it must be said that the members 
were of the most motley description, many worthy people 
of the highest aims being mixed with vagrants, adventurers, 
and crotchety, wrong-headed enthusiasts. After a long 
period of friction with William Allen and some of his other 
partners, Owen resigned all connexion with New Lanark 
in 1828. On his return from America he made London 
the centre of his activity. Most of his means having been 
sunk in the New Harmony experiment, he was no longer 
a- flourishing capitalist, but the, head of a vigorous pro 
paganda, in which socialism and secularism were combined. 
One of the most interesting features of the movement at 
this period was the establishment in 1832 of an equitable 
labour exchange system, in which exchange was effected 
by means of labour notes, the usual means of exchange 
and the usual middlemen being alike superseded. The 
word " socialism " first became current in the discussions 
of the Association of all Classes of all Nations, formed by 
Owen in 1835. During these years also his secularistic 
teaching gained such influence among the working classes 
us to give occasion for the statement in the Westminster 
Review (1839) that his principles were the actual creed 
of a great portion of them. His views on marriage, which 
were certainly lax, gave just ground for offence. At this 
period some more communistic experiments were made, 
of which the most important were that at Ralahine, in 
the county of Clare, Ireland, and that at Tytherly in 
Hampshire. It is admitted that the former (1831) was 
a remarkable success for three and a half years, till the 
proprietor, having ruined himself by gambling, was obliged 
to sell out. Tytherly, begun in 1839, was an absolute 
failure. By 1846 the only permanent result of Owen s 
agitation, so zealously carried on by public meetings, 
pamphlets, periodicals, and occasional treatises, was the 
co-operative movement, and for the time even that seemed 
to have utterly collapsed. In his later years Owen 
became a firm believer in spiritualism. He died at his 
native town at the age of eighty-seven. 

The exposition and criticism of Owen s socialism and of his 
socialistic experiments belong to the general subject (see SOCIAL 



ISM). Robert Owen was essentially a pioneer, whose work and 
influence it would be unjust to measure by their tangible results. 
Apart from his socialistic theories, it should, nevertheless, be 
remembered that he was one of the foremost and most energetic 
promoters of many movements of acknowledged and enduring 
usefulness, lie was the founder of infant schools in England; he 
was the first to introduce reasonably short hours into factory 
labour, and zealously promoted factory legislation one of the 
most needed and most beneficial reforms of the century ; and he 
was the real founder of the co-operative movement. In general 
education, in sanitary reform, and in his sound and humanitarian 
views of common life, he was far in advance of his time. Still 
he had many serious faults; all that was quixotic, crude, and 
superficial in his views became more prominent in his later years ; 
and by the extravagance of his advocacy of them he did vital 
injury to the cause he had at heart. In his personal character 
he was without reproach frank, benevolent, and straightforward 
to a fault ; and he pursued the altruistic schemes in which In- 
spent all his means with more earnestness than most men devote 
to the accumulation of a fortune. 

Of R. Owen s numerous works in exposition of liis system, the most importmit 
are the New View of Society, already mentioned; the Report communicated to 
the Committee on the Poor Law; the Boot of the Xew iforal World , and 
Revolution in the Mind and Practice of the Human Race. See Life of Robert 
Oicen written by himself, London, 1857, and Threading my Way, Twenty-seven Years 
of Autobiography by hobeit Dale Owen, his son, London, 1874. There are nlso 
Lieu of Owen by A. J. Booth (London, 18C9) and by W. L. Sargant (London, 
1860). For woiks of a more general character see G. J. Holyoake, History of 
Co-operation in England, London, 1875; Keybaud, Etudes sur les reformatetirs 
modernes, Paris, 1856; Adolf Held, Zicei Bucher zur socialen Geschichte England*, 
Leipsic, 1881. (T. K.) 

OWENSBOROUGH, a city of the United States, 
capital of Daviess county, Kentucky, on the Ohio, 1GO 
miles below Louisville. It engages extensively in the 
manufacture of whisky and the curing of tobacco, and has 
waggon factories, flour mills, and foundries. The popula 
tion, 6231 in 1880, exceeded 11,000 in 1883. 

OWL, the Anglo Saxon Vie, Swedish Uggla, and German 
Eule all allied to the Latin Ulula y and evidently of imita 
tive origin the general English name for every nocturnal 
Bird-of-prey, 1 of which group nearly two hundred species 
have been recognized. The Owls form a very natural assem 
blage, and one about the limits of which no doubt has for a 
long while existed. Placed by nearly all systematists for 
many years as a Family of the Order Acdpitres (or what 
ever may have been the equivalent term used by the 
particular taxonomers), there has been of late a disposition 
to regard them as forming a group of higher rank. On 
many accounts it is plain that they differ from the ordinary 
diurnal Birds-of-prey, more than the latter do among 
themselves ; and, though in some respects Owls have a 
superficial likeness to the GOATSUCKERS (vol. x. p. 711), 
and a resemblance more deeply seated to the GUACHARO 
(vol. xi. p. 227), even the last has not been made out to 
have any strong affinity to them. A good deal is therefore 
to be said for the opinion which would regard the Owls as 
forming an independent Order, or at any rate Sub-order, 
Striyes. Whatever be the position assigned to the group, 
its subdivision has always been a fruitful matter of discus 
sion, owing to the great resemblance obtaining among all 
its members, and the existence of safe characters for its 
division has only lately been at all generally recognized. 
By the older naturalists, it is true, Owls were divided, as 
was first done by Willughby, into two sections one in 
which all the species exhibit tufts of feathers on the head, 
the so-called " ears " or "horns," and the second in which 
the head is not tufted. The artificial and therefore 
untrustworthy nature of this distinction was shewn by 
Isidore Geoffroy St-Hilaire (Ann. Sc. Naturdles, xxi. pp. 
194-203) in 1830; but he did not do much good in the 

1 The poverty of the English language generally so rich in 
.synonyms is here very remarkable. Though four well-known if not 
common species of Owls are native to Britain, to say nothing of half 
a dozen others which occur with greater or less frequency, none of 
them has ever acquired an absolutely individual name, and various 
prefixes have to be used to distinguish them. In Greece and Italy, 
Germany and France, almost each indigenous species has had its own 
particular designation in the vulgar tongue. The English Owlet or 
Howlet is of course a simple diminutive only. 



O W L 



arrangement of the Owls which he then proposed ; and it 
was hardly until the publication ten years later of Nitzsch s 
Pterylographie that rational grounds on which to base a 
division of the Owls were adduced. It then became 
manifest that two very distinct types of pterylosis existed 
in the group, and further it appeared that certain differ 
ences, already partly shewn by Berthold (lieitr. zur 
Anatomie, pp. 166, 167), of sternal structure coincided 
with the pterylological distinctions. By degrees other 
significant differences were pointed out, till, as summed 
up by Prof. Alphonse Milne-Edwards (Ois. foss. de la 
France, ii. pp. 474-492), there could no longer be any 
doubt that the bird known in England as the Screech-Owl 
or Barn-Owl, with its allies, formed a section which should 
be most justifiably separated from all the others of the 
group then known. Space is here wanting to state 
particularly the pterylological distinctions which will be 
found described at length in Nitzsch s classical work 
(English translation, pp. 70, 71), and even the chief osteo- 
logical distinctions must be only briefly mentioned. These 
consist in the Screech-Owl section wanting any manubrial 
process in front of the sternum, which has its broad keel 
joined to the clavicles united as a furcula, while posteriorly 
it presents an unbroken outline. In the other section, 
of which the bird known in England as the Tawny or 
Brown Owl is the type, there is a manubrial process; the 
furcula, far from being joined to the keel of the sternum, 
often consists but of two stylets which do not even meet 
one another; and the posterior margin of the sternum pre 
sents two pairs of projections, one pair on each side, with 
corresponding fissures between them. Furthermore the 
Owls of the same section shew another peculiarity in 
the bone usually called the tarsus. This is a bony ring 
or loop bridging the channel in which lies the common 
extensor tendon of the toes which does not appear in the 
Screech-Owl section any more than in the majority of 
birds. The subsequent examination by M. Milne-Edwards 
(Souv. Arch, du Museum, ser. 2, i. pp. 185-200) of the 
skeleton of an Owl known as Fhodilus (more correctly 
Photodilus) badius, hitherto attached to the Screech-Owl 
section, shews that, though in most of its osteological 
characters it must be referred to the Tawny Owl section, 
in several of the particulars mentioned above it resembles 
the Screech-Owls, and therefore we are bound to deem 
it a connecting link between them. The pterylological 
characters of Photodilus seem not to have been investigated, 
but it is found to want the singular bony tarsal loop, as 
well as the manubrial process, while its clavicles are not 
united into a furcula and do not meet the keel, and the 
posterior margin of the sternum has processes and fissures 
like those of the Tawny Owl section. Photodilus having 
thus to be removed from the Screech-Owl section, Prof. 
Milne-Edwards has been able to replace it by a new form 
JIdiod dus from Madagascar, described at length by him 
in M. Grandidier s great work on the natural history of 
that island (Oiseaux, i. pp. 113-118). The unexpected 
results thus obtained preach caution in regard to the 
classification of other Owls, and add to the misgivings 
that every honest ornithologist must feel as to former 
attempts to methodize the whole group misgivings that 
had already arisen from the great diversity of opinion 
displayed by previous classifiers, no two of whom seem 
able to agree. Moreover, the difficulties which beset the 
study of the Owls are not limited to their respective 
relations, but extend to their scientific terminology, which 
lias long been in a state so bewildering that nothing but 
the strictest adherence to the very letter of the laws of 
nomenclature, which are approved in principle by all but 
an insignificant number of naturalists, can clear up the 
confusion into which the matter has been thrown by heed 



less or ignorant writers some of those who are in general 
most careful to avoid error being not wholly free from 
blame in this respect. 

A few words are therefore here needed on this most 
unprofitable subject. 1 Under the generic term Strix 
Linnaeus placed all the Owls known to him ; but Brisson 
most justifiably divided that genus, and in so doing fixed 
upon the S. stridula the aforesaid Tawny Owl as its 
type, while under the name of Asia he established a second 
genus, of which his contemporary s S. otus, afterwards to 
be mentioned, is the type. Some years later Savigny, 
who had very peculiar notions on nomenclature, disregard 
ing the act of Brisson, chose to regard the Linnsean 8. 
flammea the Screech-Owl before spoken of as the type 
of the genus Strix, which genus he further dissevered, and 
his example was largely followed until Fleming gave to 
the Screech-Owl the generic name of Aluco, 2 by which it 
had been known for more than three hundred years, and 
reserved Strix for the Tawny Owl. He thus anticipated 
Nitzsch, whose editor was probably unacquainted with 
this fact when he allowed the name Hyhris to be conferred 
on the Screech-Owl. No doubt inconvenience is caused 
by changing any general practice ; but, as will have been 
seen, the practice was not universal, and such inconveni 
ence as may arise is not chargeable on those who abide by 
the law, as it is intended in this article to do. The reader 
is therefore warned that the word Strix will be here used 
in what is believed to be the legitimate way, for the genus 
containing the Strix stridula of Linnaeus, while Aluco is 
retained for that including the S. flammea of the same 
naturalist. 

Except the two main divisions already mentioned, any 
further arrangement of the Owls must at present be 
deemed tentative, for the ordinary external characters, to 
which most systematists trust, are useless if not mislead 
ing. 3 Several systematizers have tried to draw characters 
from the orifice of the ear, and the parts about it ; but 
| hitherto these have not been sufficiently studied to make the 
attempts very successful. If it be true that the predomin 
ant organ in any group of animals furnishes for that group 
the best distinctive characters, we may have some hope of 
future attempts in this direction, 4 for we know that few 
birds have the sense of hearing so highly developed as the 
Owls, and also that the external ear varies considerably in 
form in several of the genera which have been examined. 
Thus in Surnia, the Hawk-Owl, and in Nyctea, the Snowy 
Owl, the external ear is simple in form, and, though pro 
portionally larger than in most birds, it possesses no very 
remarkable peculiarities, a fact which may be correlated 
with the diurnal habits of these Owls natives of the far 
north, where the summer is a season of constant daylight, 
and to effect the capture of prey the eyes are perhaps more 
employed than the ears. 5 In Bubo, the Eagle-Owl, though 

1 It has been dealt with at greater length in The Ibis for 1876 
(pp. 94-105). 

2 The word seems to have been the invention of Gaza, the trans 
lator of Aristotle, in 1503, and is the Latinized form of the Italian 
A llocco. 

3 It is very much to be regretted that a very interesting form of 
Owl, Sceloglaux albifacies, peculiar to New Zealand, should be rapidly 
becoming extinct, without any effort, so far as is known, being made 
to ascertain its affinities. It would seem to belong to the Strigine 
section, and is remarkable for its very massive clavicles, that unite by 
a kind of false joint, which in some examples may possibly be wholly 
ancylosed, in the median line. 

4 This hope is strengthened by the very praiseworthy essay on the 
Owls of Norway by Herr Collett in the Forhandlinger of Ohristiania 
for 1881. 

5 But this hypothesis must not be too strongly urged; for in 
Carine, a more southern form of nocturnal (or at least crepuscular) 
habits, the external ear is perhaps even more normal. Of course by 
the ear the real organ of hearing is here meant, not the tuft ol 
feathers often so called in speaking of Owls. 

XVIIT. 12 



W L 



certainly more nocturnal in habit, the external ear, how 
ever, has no very remarkable development of conch, which 
may perhaps be accounted for by the ordinary prey of the 
bird being the larger rodents, that from their size are more 
readily seen, and hence the growth of the bird s auditory 
organs has not been much stimulated. In Strix (as the 
name is here used), a form depending greatly on its sense 
of hearing for the capture of its prey, the ear-conch is 
much enlarged, and it has, moreover, an elevated flap or 
operculum. In Asia, containing the Long-eared and 
Short-eared Owls of Europe, Asia, and America, the conch 
is enormously exaggerated, extending in a semicircular 
direction from the base of the lower mandible to above 
the middle of the eye, and is furnished in its whole length 
with an operculum. 1 But what is more extraordinary in 
this genus is that the entrance to the ear is asymmetrical 
the orifice on one side opening downwards and on the 
other upwards. This curious adaptation is carried still 
further in the genus Nyctala, containing two or three 
small species of the Northern hemisphere, in which the 
asymmetry that in Asia is only skin-deep extends, in a 
manner very surprising, to several of the bones of the 
head, as may be seen in the Zoological Society s Proceed 
ings (1871, pp. 739-743), and in the large series of figures 
given by Messrs Baird, Brewer and Kidgway (N. Am. 
Birds, iii. pp. 97-102). 

Among Owls are found birds which vary in length 
from 5 inches as Glaucidium cobanense, which is therefore 
much smaller than a Skylark to more than 2 feet, a size 
that is attained by many species. Their plumage, none of 
the feathers of which possesses an aftershaft, is of the 
softest kind, rendering their flight almost noiseless. But 
one of the most characteristic features of this whole group 
is the ruff, consisting of several rows of small and much- 
curved feathers with stiff shafts originating from a fold 
of the skin, which begins on each side of the base of the 
beak, runs above the eyes, and passing downwards round 
and behind the ears turns forward, and ends at the chin 
and serving to support the longer feathers of the " disk " 
or space immediately around the eyes, which extend over 
it. A considerable number of species of Owls, belonging 
to various genera, and natives of countries most widely 
separated, are remarkable for exhibiting two phases of 
coloration one in which the prevalent browns have a more 
or less rusty-red tinge, and the other in which they incline 
to grey. Another characteristic of nearly all Owls is the 
reversible property of their outer toes, which are not 
unfrequently turned at the bird s pleasure quite back 
wards. Many forms have the legs and toes thickly clothed 
to the very claws ; others have the toes, and even the 
tarsi, bare, or only sparsely beset by bristles. Among 
the bare-legged Owls those of the Indian Ketupa are con 
spicuous, and this feature is usually correlated with their 
fish-catching habits ; but certainly other Owls that are not 
known to catch fish present much the same character. 

Among the multitude of Owls there is only room here to make 
further mention of a few of the more interesting. First must be 
noticed the Tawny Owl the Strix stridula of Linnseus, the type, as 
has been above said, of the whole group, and especially of the Strigine 
section as here understood. This is the Syrnium aluco of some 
authors, the Chat-hudht of the French, the species whose tremulous 
hooting "tu-whit, to- who," has been celebrated by Shakespear, 
and, as well as the plaintive call, "keewick," of the young after 
leaving the nest, will be familiar sounds to many readers, for the 
bird is very generally distributed throughout most parts of Europe, 
extending its range through Asia Minor to Palestine, and also to 
Barb:;ry but not belonging to the Ethiopian Region or to the 
eastern half of the Pala arctic. It is the largest of the species 
indigenous to Britain, and is strictly a woodland bird, only occa 
sionally choosing any other place for its nest than a hollow tree. 
Its food consists almost entirely of small mammals, chieliy rodents ; 

1 Figures of these different forms are given by Macgillivray (Brit. 
Uirdf, iii. pp. 396, 403, and 427). 



but, though on this account most deserving of protection from all 
classes, it is subject to the stupid persecution of the ignorant, and 
is rapidly declining in numbers. 2 Its nearest allies in North 
America are the S. nebulosa, with some kindred forms, one of which, 
the S. occidentalis of California and Arizona, is figured below ; but 
none of them seem to have the " merry note " that is uttered by the 




FIG. 1. Strix occidentalis. 



European species. Common to the most northerly forest-tracts of 
both continents (for, though a slight difference of coloration is 
observable between American examples and those from the Old 
World, it is impossible to consider it specific) is the much larger 
S. cinerea or S. lapponica, whose iron-grey plumage, delicately 
mottled with dark brown, and the concentric circles of its facial 
disks make it one of the most remarkable of the group. Then 
may be noticed the genus Bubo containing several species which 
from their size arc usually known as Eagle-Owls. Here the 
Nearetic and Palrearctic forms are sufficiently distinct the latter, 
B. ignavus, 3 the Due or Grand Due of the French, ranging over 
the whole of Europe and Asia north of the Himalayas, while the 
former, B. virginianus, extends over the whole of North America. 
A contrast to the generally sombre colour of these birds is shown 
bv the Snowy Owl, Nyctca scandiaca, a circumpolar species, and 
the only one of its genus, which disdains the shelter of forests and 
braves the most rigorous arctic climate, though compelled to 
migrate southward in winter when no sustenance is left for it. 
Its large size and white plumage, more or less mottled with black, 
distinguish this from every other Owl. Then may be mentioned 
the birds commonly known in English as "Horned" 0\\ls the 
Hibous of the French, belonging to the genus Asia. One, A. otus 
(the Otus Tulgaris of some authors), inhabits woods, and, distin 
guished by its long tufts, usually borne erected, would seem to be 
common to both America and Europe though experts profess 
their ability to distinguish between examples from each country. 
Another speciee, A. accipitrinus (the Otus brachyotus of many 
authors), has much shorter tufts on its head, and they are frequently 
carried depressed so as to escape observation. This is the Wood 
cock-Owl of English sportsmen, for, though a good many are bred 
in Great Britain, the majority arrive in autumn from Scandinavia, 
just about the time that the immigration of Woodcocks occurs. 
This species frequents heaths, moors, and the open country gene 
rally, to the exclusion of woods, and has an enormous geographical 
range, including not only all Europe, North Africa, and northern 
Asia, but the whole of America, reaching also to the Falklands, 
the Galapagos, and the Sandwich Islands, -for the attempt to 

2 All Owls have the habit of casting up the indigestible parts of 
the food swallowed in the form of pellets, which may often be found 
in abundance under the Owl-roost, and reveal without any manner of 
doubt what the prey of the birds has been. The result in nearly 
every case shows the enormous service they render to man iu destroy 
ing rats and mice. Details of many observations to this effect aie 
recorded in the Bericht ilber die XIV. Versammlung der Deutschen 
Ornitholoyen-Gesdlschaft (pp. 30-34). 

3 This species bears confinement very well, ai d propagates freely 
therein. To it belong the historic Owls of Aruudel Castle. 



O X O X A 



91 



separate specifically examples from those localities only shews that 
they possess more or less well-defined local races. Commonly 
placed near Asia, but whether really akin to it cannot be stated, is 
the genus Scops, of which nearly forty species, coming from 
different parts of the world, have been described ; but this number 
should probably be reduced by one half. The type of the genus, 
S. giu, the Petit Due of the French, is a well-known bird in the 
south of Europe, about as big as a Thrush, with very delicately 
pencilled plumage, occasionally visiting Britain, emigrating in 
autumn across the Mediterranean, and ranging very far to the 
eastward. Further southward, both in Asia and Africa, it is 
represented by other species of very similar size, and in the eastern 
part of North America by S. asio, of which there is a tolerably 
distinct western form, S. kennicotti, besides several local races. /& . 
asio is one of the Owls that especially exhibits the dimorphism of 
coloration above mentioned, and it was long before the true state 
of the case was understood. At first the two forms were thought 
to be distinct, and then for some time the belief obtained that the 
ruddy birds were the young of the greyer form which was called 
S. n&via ; but now the " Red Owl " and the "Mottled Owl " of the 
older American ornithologists are known to be one species. 1 One 
of the most remarkable of American Owls is Speotyto cunicularia, 
the bird that in the northern part of the continent inhabits the 
burrows of the prairie dog, and in the southern those of the 
biscacha, where the latter occurs making holes for itself, says 
Darwin, where that is not the case, rattlesnakes being often also 
joint tenants of the same abodes. The odd association of these 
animals, interesting as it is, cannot here be more than noticed, for 
a few words must be said, ere we leave the Owls of this section, on 
the species which has associations of a very different kind the 
bird of Pallas Athene, the emblem of the city to which science and 
art were so welcome. There can be no doubt, from the many 
representations on coins and sculptures, as to their subject being 
the C arine noctua of modern ornithologists, but those who know 
the grotesque actions and ludicrous expression of this veritable 
buffoon of birds can never cease to wonder at its having been 
seriously selected as the symbol of learning, and can hardly divest 
themselves of a suspicion that the choice must have been made in 
the spirit of sarcasm. This Little Owl (for that is its only name 
though it is not even the smallest that appears in England), the 
Chevcche of the French, is spread throughout the greater part of 
Europe, but it is not a native of Britain. It has a congener in 
C. brama, a bird well known to all residents in India. 

Finally, we have Owls of the second section, those allied to the 
Screech-Owl, Aluco flammcus, the Effraie* of the French. This, 




FIG. 2. Aluco fo.immeus. 

with its discordant scream, its snoring, and its hissing, is far too 
well known to need desciiption, for it is one of the most widely- 
spread of birds, and is the Owl that has the greatest geographical 
range, inhabitirg almost every country in the world, Sweden and 
Norway, America north of lat. 45, and New Zealand being the 
principal exceptions. It varies, however, not inconsiderably, both 
in size and intensity of colour, and several ornithologists have tried 

1 See the remarks of Mr Ridgway in the work before quoted 
(B. N. America, iii. pp. 9, 10), where also response is made to the 
observations of Mr Allen in the Harvard Bulletin (ii. pp. 338, 339). 

2 Through the dialectic forms Fresaie and Presaie, the origin of the 
word is easily traced to the Latin prassayaa. bird of bad omen ; but 
it has also been confounded with Orfraie, a name of the OSPREY (vide 
supra, p. 56). 



to found on these variations more than half a dozen distinct species. 
Some, if not most of them, seem, however, hardly worthy to bo 
considered geographical races, for their differences do not always 
depend on locality. Mr Sbarpe, with much labour and in great 
detail, has given his reasons (Cat. B. Brit. Museum, ii. pp. 
291-309; and Ornith. Miscellany, i. pp. 269-298; ii. pp. 1-21) 
for acknowledging four "subspecies" of A. flammeus, as well as 
five other species. Of these last, A. tcncbricosus is peculiar to 
Australia, while A. novse-hollandias inhabits also New Guinea, and 
has a "subspecies," A. castatKqjs, found only in Tasmania; a third, 
A. candidus, has a wide range from Fiji and northern Australia 
through the Philippines and Formosa to China, Burmah, and 
India ; a fourth, A. ca2)ensis, is peculiar to South Africa ; while 
A. thomensis is said to be confined to the African island of St 
Thomas. To these may perhaps have to be added a species from 
New Britain, described by Count Salvadori as Strix aurantia, but 
it may possibly prove on further investigation not to be an Alucine 
Owl at all. (A. N. ) 

OX. See CATTLE. 

OXALIC ACID, an organic acid of the formula 
(COOH) 2 , which, in a general scientific sense, excites our 
interest chiefly by its almost universal diffusion throughout 
the vegetable kingdom. Traces of oxalates are contained 
in the juices of, probably, all plants at certain stages of 
their growth ; but so are lime-salts, which, in solutions, 
can coexist with the former only in the presence of free 
acid. Hence the frequent occurrence in plant-cells of 
those crystals of oxalates of lime with which all micro- 
scopists are familiar. In certain algas, if they grow on cal 
careous soils, this salt, according to Bracannot, may form 
as much as one-half of the total dry solids. Of phanero 
gamic tissues, the roots of the officinal kinds of rhubarb 
may be named as being peculiarly rich in oxalate of lime- 
crystals. It is perhaps as well to add that the juicy 
stems of the garden rhubarb, although not free of oxalic, 
owe their sourness chiefly to malic acid. The strongly 
sour juices of certain species of Rumexondi. Acetosella, on the 
other hand, are exceptionally rich in acid oxalates. The 
juice of Oxalis Acetosella, when concentrated by evapora 
tion, deposits on cooling a large crop of crystals of bin- 
oxalate of potash. This salt, as an educt from the plant 
juice named, has been known for some three centuries as 
" sal acetosellae " or " salt of sorrel." Oxalic acid and all 
soluble oxalates are dangerous poisons, which almost 
implies that they cannot occur, under normal conditions, 
in the juices of the higher animals. Yet human urine 
always contains traces of oxalate of lime, which, when the 
urine is or becomes alkaline, forms on standing a micro- 
crystalline deposit. In certain diseased conditions of the 
system the oxalate is formed more largely, and may be 
deposited within the bladder in crystals or even develop 
into calculi. 

The discovery of oxalic acid must be credited to Scheele, 
who obtained it in 1776 by the oxidation of sugar with 
nitric acid, and called it saccharic acid. In 1784 he 
proved its identity with the acid of sal acetosellae. Our 
knowledge of the elementary composition of oxalic acid is 
the result of the independent labours of Berzelius, Dobe- 
reiner, and Dulong (1814-21). 

Its artificial synthesis can be effected in various ways. 
Thus, for instance, (1) cyanogen, when dissolved in 
aqueous hydrochloric acid, gradually assimilates 4H 9 per 
N.,C and becomes oxalate of ammonia, C 2 4 (NH 4 ) 2 
(Liebig). Or (2) moist carbonic acid is reduced by potassium 
to formic acid, CO., + H.,O - = CH.,O<>, which, of course, 
assumes the form of potash salt (Kolbe). This latter, when 
heated beyond its fusing point, breaks up into oxalate and 
hydrogen, 2CHKO 2 = H 2 + C,O 4 K 2 (Erlenmeyer). At 350 
dry CO 2 and sodium unite into oxalate C 2 O 4 Na.> (Drechsel). 

Sugar, starch, and many other organic bodies of the 
" fatty " series, when boiled with nitric acid, yield oxalic 
acid as a penultimate product of oxidation In this 
manner oxalic acid used to be produced, industrially, from 



O X E O X E 



starch or molasses ; but this method, though not by any 
means obsolete, is almost superseded by a new process 
which we owe to Mr Dale of Manchester. 

Mr Dale s process is founded upon the old observation 
of Gay-Lussac s that cellulose, by fusion with caustic 
potash, is oxidized into oxalate with evolution of (impure) 
hydrogen. In Mr Dale s works (at Warrington) sawdust 
and wood-shavings do service as cellulose, while a mixed 
caustic alkali lye of 1 3-i to 1*35 specific gravity, containing 
IK HO for every SNaHO, serves as a reagent. Unmixed 
caustic soda gives no or little oxalate. The wood -shavings 
are soaked in a quantity of lye equal to 30 to 40 per cent, 
of their weight of dry alkali, and the mixture is evaporated 
down on iron plates at about 200 C. with constant agita 
tion, until it is converted into a homogeneous brown mass 
completely soluble in water. This mass (which is as yet 
very poor in oxalate) is then dried up fully at a somewhat 
lower temperature, and thus converted into a crude oxalate 
equivalent to 28 to 30 per cent, of its weight of oxalic- 
acid crystals. Messrs Roberts, Dale, & Co. have come, 
latterly, to substitute for the iron plates an iron pipe 
passing slantingly through a heated chamber and provided 
inside with a revolving screw, which draws in the mixture 
of wood and alkali below, and conveys it along at such a 
rate that it comes out above as finished product. The 
crude oxalate is lixiviated with cold water, when the bulk 
of the oxalic acid remains as soda salt, while the rest of 
the alkali passes into solution as, substantially, carbonate. 
The oxalate, after having been washed with the least suffi 
cient quantity of water, is boiled with a dilute milk of 
lime and thus converted into a precipitate of oxalate of 
lime, while caustic soda passes in to solution, which is added 
to the liquors produced in the separation of the oxalate of ] 
soda from the surplus alkali. The oxalate of lime is j 
washed and then decomposed by boiling it with three times i 
the calculated amount of dilute sulphuric acid, the sulphate I 
of lime filtered off, and the solution evaporated to crystal 
lization. The yield as oxalic acid crystals amounts to 50 
to 60 per cent, of the weight of the wood-shavings. The 
united alkali-liquors are causticized with lime, and thus 
(apart from the unavoidable losses) the originally employed 
caustic alkali is recovered in its entirety. 

Commercial (oxalic) acid is contaminated chiefly with 
sulphuric acid and alkali, of which the latter cannot be 
removed by recrystallization from water, but, according to 
Stolba, easily and exhaustively by recrystallization from 
10 to 15 per cent, hydrochloric acid. 

Crystallized oxalic acid forms colourless needles of tlie composi 
tion C 2 4 H 2 + 2H Z 0. It melts at 98 C., and when kept at about this 
temperature readily loses its crystal -water, but at 110 the dry 
acid C 2 4 H 2 already begins to volatilize. The latter sublimes 
most readily at 165 C. , without previous fusion, in needles. At 
higher temperatures it breaks up, more or less completely, into C0 2 + 
formic acid, CH 2 2 (or CO-f II 2 0). The crystallized acid dissolves 
in 10 5 parts of water of 14 5, also in alcohol. The solution 
readily neutralizes basic hydrates and carbonates ; in the case of 
the alkalies and alkaline earths, the point of neutrality to litmus 
corresponds to the normal salt, i.e., to the ratio CO 2 1I : HHO, 
where R=K, Na, (NH 4 ), ^Ba, &c. The normal salt C0 2 R com 
bines with 1C0 2 H into" binoxalate, " and, in the case of 11 = K or 
NH 4 , also witli 3C0 2 H into " quadroxalate." Alkaline oxalates 
are soluble in water the soda aiid ammonia salts rather sparingly; 
of the rest of oxalates, as far as they are normal salts, the majority 
are insoluble or difficultly soluble in water, and therefore most con 
veniently produced, by double decomposition, as precipitates. 

Potash Salts. The normal salt, C 2 4 K 2 -f H 2 0, is soluble in 3 parts 
of water of 16 C. The binoxalate (salt of sorrel) is generally an 
hydrous, but occasionally C a 4 KH + ,jH,,0, the latter soluble in 
26 2 parts of water of 8 C. The elsewhere extinct industry of 
manufacturing this salt from sorrel-juice survives in the Black 
Forest. It is used habitually for removing ink and rust-stains from 
linen, though oxalic ;ieid is better and cheaper. The quadroxalate, 
C 4 4 KH + C,0 4 II 2 + 2H L ,0, soluble in 20 parts of water at 20 C., is 
often sold as salt of sorrel. 

Soda Salts. The normal salt, C.,O 4 Xa.,, gene: ally forms small 



imperfect crystals, soluble in 31 - 6 parts of water of 13 C. Tim 
acid salt, C 2 4 NaII + H.,O, is soluble in 67 6 parts of water at 
10 C. 

Ammonium Salts. The normal salt, C 2 4 (NH 4 ). + H 2 0, found 
native in guano, crystallizes in needles, and is soluble in 237 parts 
of water of 15" C. It is much used in the laboratory as a most delicate 
precipitant for lime suits. The binoxalate, C.,0 4 (NH 4 )H + H 2 0, 
dissolves in 16 parts of water of ll o. There is a quadroxalate, 



Other Salts. The normal lime salt, as obtained by precipitation 
of lime salts with alkaline oxalates or oxalic acid, and found in 
plant cells, is C,0 4 C a + 3ILO ; but 2H 2 are easily lost below 
110 ; the remaining 1ILO is expelled only above 200 C. Ferrous 
oxalate, CO 4 Fe + 2H 2 0, obtainable by precipitation of ferrous 
sulphate with oxalic acid, is a yellow crystalline powder. "When 
heated it breaks up into C0 2 and finely divided metallic iron, 
which latter at once burns into red ferric oxide of a state ol 
aggregation which fits it pre-eminently for the polishing of optical 
glasses. Ferric oxalate dissolves in oxalic acid, the solution, when 
exposed to the light, giving off CO., with precipitation of ferrous 
oxalate. Draper recommends it for measuring the chemical in 
tensity of light. 

Industrially oxalic acid chiefly serves the calico printers as a 
discharge for certain colours, which, unlike the otherwise equivalent 
mineral acids, does not attack the tissue. Minor quantities are 
used, as solution, for cleaning metallic surfaces. It has been 
recommended for the metallurgic precipitation of NICKEL (q. v.). 

Analysis. Solid metallic oxalates, when heated, are decomposed 
without noteworthy elimination of carbon. When heated with 
oil of vitriol they give olf the components of the anhydride C 2 3 
as carbonic oxide and carbonic acid gases, without blackening. 
Oxalate solutions are precipitated by chloride of calcium ; the 
precipitate (C 2 4 Ca . rH 2 0) is insoluble in water, ammonia, 
ammonia salts, and acetic (though soluble in hydrochloric) acid. 
Even a mixture of free oxalic acid and gypsum solution deposits 
oxalate of lime. Oxalic acid is readily oxidized into carbonic acid 
by the conjoint action of dilute sulphuric acid and binoxide of 
manganese or permanganate of potash. In the latter case this re 
action, even with small quantities, becomes visible by the discharge 
of the intensely violet colour of the reagent ; the change, however, 
is slow at first; it becomes more and more rapid as the MnSO 4 
formed increases, and consequently goes on promptly from the 
first, if ready made MnS0 4 be added along with the reagent. The 
permanganate test is readily translatable into a titrimetric method 
for the determination of oxalic acid in solutions. (\V. I). ) 

OXENSTIERNA, AXEL, COUNT OF (1583-1654), 
Swedish statesman, was born at FaniJ in Upland on the 
16th of June 1583. He studied theology at Rostock, 
Wittenberg, and Jena; and in 1602, having spent some 
time in visiting German courts, he returned to Sweden to 
take the oath of allegiance to Charles IX., whose service- 
he entered. In 1606 he was sent as ambassador to the 
court of Mecklenburg, and in 1609 he became a member 
of the Swedish senate. When Gustavus Adolphus 
succeeded to the throne, in 1611, Oxenstierna was 
appointed chancellor, and in 1613 he was plenipotentiary 
in the negotiations for the conclusion of peace between 
Sweden and Denmark. In 1614 he went with the king 
to Livonia, and helped to bring about the cessation of 
hostilities between Sweden and Russia. After the inter 
vention of Gustavus in the Thirty Years War, Oxenstierna 
was made governor-general of all the districts in Prussia 
which had been overrun by the Swedes ; and, when the 
Imperialists were preparing to besiege Stralsund, lie- 
negotiated with the duke of Pomerania for the substitution 
of Swedish for Danish troops in the town, going subse 
quently to Denmark to obtain the sanction of the Danish 
king. While Gustavus pushed on to Franconia and 
Bavaria, Oxenstierna was entrusted with the supreme 
direction of affairs, both political and military, in the 
Rhine country, and he took up his headquarters at 
Mainz. In 1632, when Gustavus fell at the battle of 
Lu tzen, the responsibility for the maintenance of the 
Protestant cause fell chiefly upon Oxenstierna ; and in one 
of the greatest crises in the history of the world he 
displayed splendid courage, discretion, and resource. At 
a congress held in Heilbronn he was appointed director of 
the evangelical confederation, and in this capacity he went 



VOL. xvm. OXFORD, BUCKINGHAM, & BERKS. 



PLATE f. 




ENCYCLOPEDIA 8RITANNICA. NINTH COITION 






O X F X F 



93 



to France and Holland to secure the aid of these countries 
against the emperor. On his return he found the Pro 
testants in a very desponding mood. The battle of 
Nb rdlingen had been lost ; the allies distrusted one 
another ; the troops were dissatisfied and resented any 
attempt to subject them to strict discipline. Oxenstierna 
laboured indefatigably to restore the confidence of his party, 
and to a large extent he succeeded. He then returned, in 
1636, to Sweden, where he resigned his exceptional 
powers and resumed his place in the senate as chancellor 
of the kingdom. He acted also as one of five guardians 
of Queen Christina, whom he carefully instructed in 
what seemed to him the true methods of administra 
tion. Oxenstierna had the reputation of being one of 
the wisest statesmen of his age, and during his absence 
from his country lie had drawn up the scheme of a system 
of government which had been accepted in 1634 by the 
Swedish estates. Abroad he upheld vigorously the honour 
of Sweden, and at home lie maintained strict economy in 
public expenditure, while encouraging, according to the 
ideas of his time, the development of industry and the 
arts. In 1645, when he went back to Sweden after 
taking part in the negotiations with Denmark at 
Bro msebro, he was raised to the rank of count by the 
queen. He died on the 28th of August 1654. 

See Lundblad, Srensk Plutarch, 1824. 

OXFORD, or OXON, an inland county of England, 
is bounded N.E. by Northamptonshire, N.W. by Warwick 
shire, W. by Gloucestershire, S.S.W. and S.E. by Berks, 
and E. by Bucks. In shape it is very irregular, its breadth 
varying from about 7 to 27 i- miles, and its greatest length 
being about 52 miles. The total area is 483,621 acres, or 
about 756 square miles. The character of the scenery 
varies greatly in different districts. The Chiltern Hills 
cross the south-western extremity of the county from north 
east to south-west. On the west side of the ridge Nettle- 
bed Hill expands into Nettlebed Common, an extensive 
table-land, reaching at some points nearly 700 feet above 
sea-level. The Chiltern district is supposed to have been 
at one time covered by forest, and there are still many 
fine beeches, as well as oak and ash trees, although for 
the most part the district is now utilized as a sheep- 
walk or as arable land. Camden mentions the woods of 
Oxfordshire as a special feature of the county. The forest 
of Wychwood extended to 3735 acres of forest proper. 
In the district of Staunton St John there are considerable 
traces of natural woodland. The most extensive of the 
recent plantations is the great belt at Blenheim. Imme 
diately to the east of the city of Oxford a range of hills 
.stretches between the valleys of the Thames and Cherwell, 
the highest point being Shotover Hill, 560 feet. In the 
central district the surface is less varied, and along the 
rivers there are extensive tracts of flat land, but the finely 
cultivated fields and the abundance of wood lend an aspect 
of richness to the landscape. The northern part of the 
county is flat and bare, its bleakness and monotony being 
increased in some districts by the stone fences. Wych 
wood has been recently disafforested by statute. 

Oxfordshire abounds in streams and watercourses, the 
majority of which belong to the basin of the Thames, 
which skirts the whole southern border of the county, 
forming for the most part of its course the boundary with 
Berks. In the earlier part of its course it is called the 
Isis. Before reaching the city of Oxford it receives the 
Windrush, and the united waters of the Evenlode and 
Glyme. It then divides into various channels, but these 
soon unite, and the river flowing round the city receives 
the united streams of the Cherwell and the Kay, and 
passes south-east to Dorchester, where it is joined by the 
Thame. From this point it is called the Thames. The 



Windrush and Evenlode both flow south-east from 
Gloucestershire ; the Cherwell traverses the whole length 
of the county south from Northamptonshire ; and the 
Thame crosses its south-east corner from Bucks. The 
Thames is navigable for small craft to Gloucestershire, and 
for vessels of considerable burden to Oxford. The Oxford 
Canal, 91 miles long, begun in 1769 and finished in 
1790, enters the north-eastern extremity of the county 
near Claydon, and following the course of the Cherwell 
passes south to the city of Oxford. 

Geology. The low ground in the north-west, along the 
vale of Moreton, on the banks of the Cherwell as far as 
Steeple Aston, and along the banks of the Evenlode, is 
occupied by the blue clays of the Lower Lias, the higher 
regions being occupied by the Middle Lias. The Lower Lias 
contains beds of hard shelly limestone called Banbury 
marble, which is worked into chimneypieces ; and associ 
ated with the blue limestone of the Middle Lias there is a 
valuable deposit of brown haematite iron which is largely 
worked at Adderbury near Banbury, the total quantity 
obtained in 1882 being 8614 tons, valued at 1507. At one 
time the marlstone was covered by the U/pper Lias clays, 
but these are now found only in isolated strips and patches. 
Beds of Oolite, called Northampton Sands, rest on the 
higher ridges above the Upper Lias, and the Great Oolite 
is exposed on both sides of the Evenlode and extensively 
quarried for building purposes, the upper beds forming 
also a white limestone containing numerous fossils. Forest 
marble occupies the greater part of Wychwood Forest, 
Blenheim Park, and adjoining regions. A wide extent of 
flat uninteresting country in the south-west, stretching as 
far east as the city of Oxford, belongs to the Oxford clay. 
Coral rag, Kimmeridge clay, and white limestone occur 
at different places in the neighbourhood of the Thames. 
There are also various outliers of Upper and Lower Green- 
sand. At the junction of the Chalk with the Greensand 
there is a line of springs which have determined the sites 
of numerous villages. Chalk forms the ridges of the Chil 
tern Hills, and Upper Chalk with flint extends eastward 
a considerable distance beyond them. In the northern 
and eastern districts there are large accumulations of drift 
along all the old river valleys ; and a considerable breadth 
of flat country on the banks of the Thames and Cherwell 
is occupied by alluvial deposits. Ochre of remarkably fine 
quality is obtained from Shotover Hill. 

Climate, Soil, and Agriculture. The climate is salubrious and 
dry, but generally colder than the other southern districts of Eng 
land, especially in the bleak and exposed regions of the Chilterns. 
Crops are later in the uplands than in more northerly situations at 
a lower elevation. Agriculture is in a fairly advanced condition, 
but the possibilities of improvement are not by any means ex 
hausted, as the soil is on the whole above the average in fertility. 
In the northern districts there is a strong yet friable loam, well 
adapted for all kinds of crops. The centre of the county is 
occupied for the most part by a good friable but not so rich soil, 
formed of decomposed sandstone, chalk, and limestone. A large 
district in the south-east is occupied by the chalk of the Chiltern 
Hills, at one time covered by a forest of beech, but now partly 
arable and partly used as sheep-walks. The remainder of the 
county is occupied by a variety of miscellaneous soils ranging 
from coarse sand to heavy tenacious clay, and occasionally very 
fertile. 

According to the agricultural returns of 1883, as many as 417,509 
acres, or about eight-ninths of the total of the county, were under 
cultivation, corn crops occupying 152,437 acres, green crops 52,451, 
rotation grasses 44,472, and permanent pasture 153,898. AVheat and 
barley, with 51,796 acres and 47,611 acres respectively, occupy the 
largest areas among corn crops, and oats and beans come next with 
31,771 and 14,389. Potatoes are not much grown, but turnips occupy 
as many as 34,618 acres. The most common course of crops on 
lighter soils is a four years rotation, sometimes lengthened to six 
years with pease, oats, or similar crops. On heavier soils the course 
is first turnips or other roots, second barley or oats, third three or 
more years of clover and grass seed, fourth wheat, and finally beans. 
Along the smaller streams there are very rich meadows for grazing, 
but those on the Thames and Cherwell are subject to floods. On tho 



OXFORD 



lulls there are extensive sheep pastures. Horses in 1SS3 numbered 
1 7,454, of which 13,716 were used solely for purposes of agriculture. 
The number of cattle was 50,209, of which 16,914 were cows and 
heifers in milk or in calf. The dairy system prevails in many 
places, but the milk is manufactured into butter, little cheese being 
made. The improved shorthorn is the most common breed, but 
Alderney and Devonshire cows are largely kept. Sheep numbered 
as many as 270,288, of which 157,243 were one year old and upwards. 
Southdowns are kept on the lower grounds, and Leicesters and 
Cots wolds on the hills. Pigs in 1883 numbered 44,682, the county 
being famous for its "brawn." 

According to the latest return, the land was divided among 
10,177 proprietors, possessing 452,232 acres, at an annual value of 
1,073,246, an average per acre of about 2, 7s. Of the owners, 
6833 possessed less than one acre, and the following 10 upwards of 
5000 acres, viz., the duke of Marlborough, 21,945 ; earl of Uucie, 
8799; earl ofAbingdon, 8174; M. P. W. Boulton, 7946; Sir H. 
W. Dash wood, 7515 ; earl of Jersey, 7043 ; Edward W. Harcourt, 
5721 ; earl of Maoclesrield, 5491 ; Viscount Dillon, 5444 ; and Lord 
F. G. Churchhill, 5352. Upwards of 30,000 acres were held by 
various colleges of Oxford, the largest owner being Christ Church, 
4837 acres. 

Manufactures. Blankets are manufactured at "Witney, and 
tweeds, girths, and horsecloths at Chipping Norton. There are 
paper mills at Hampton-Gay, Shiplake, Sandford-on-Thames, \Vool- 
vercot,and Eynsham. Agricultural implements and portable engines 
are made at Banbury, and gloves at Woodstock, where the polished 
steel work has long ago ceased. A large number of women and 
girls are employed in several of the towns and villages in the lace 
manufacture. 

Railways. The county is traversed by several branches of the 
Great Western, which skirts its borders, and by the East Gloucester 
shire and the London and North -Western Railways. 

Administration and Population. Oxfordshire comprises fourteen 
hundreds, the municipal boroughs of Banbury (3600) and Chipping 
Norton (4167), the greater part of the city of Oxford, of which the 
remainder is in Berkshire, and a small portion of the municipal 
borough of Abingdon, of which the remainder is also in Berkshire. 
It has one court of quarter sessions, and is divided into ten petty 
and special sessional divisions. The boroughs of Abingdon and 
Banbury and the city of Oxford have commissions of the peace and 
separate courts of quarter sessions. For parliamentary purposes the 
county is not divided; it returns three members, having previous 
to the Reform Act of 1832 returned only two. The borough of 
Woodstock returns one member ; and there are parts of four other 
boroughs within the county, Oxford city returning two members, 
and Abingdon, Banbury, and Wallingford one each. The uni 
versity of Oxford also returns two members. The county contains 
292 civil parishes, with parts of seven others. It is almost entirely 
in the diocese of Oxford. The population in 1801 was 111,977, 
which by 1841 had increased to 163,143, by 1851 to 170,439, by 
1871 to 177,975, and by 1881 to 179,559. of whom 88,025 were 
males and 91,534 females. The average number of persons to an 
acre was 37, and of acres to a person 2 69. 

History and Antiquities. At the Roman invasion the district 
was inhabited by the Dobuni. To this early British period probably 
belong the circle of stones and cromlech near Chipping Norton, the 
cromlech called the "Hoarstone" at Enstone, and the scattered 
stones called the Devil s Quoits at Stanton-Harcourt. Icknield 
Street crossed the centre of the county from Goring in the south 
west to Chinnor in the north-east, and joined Watling Street in 
Northamptonshire. Akeman Street crossed the county from east to 
west, entering it from Bucks at Ambrosden, and passing through 
Chesterton, Kirtlington, Blenheim Park, Stonesfield, and Asthall 
to Gloucestershire. Between Mongewell and Nuffield there is a 
vallum with embankment 2| miles in length called Grimes Dyke 
or Devil s Ditch ; and there are remains of another with the same 
name between the Glyme and the Evenlode near Ditchley. Traces 
still exist of Roman and British camps, and on the east side of the 
Cotswolds the square and the round camps lie together in pairs. 
Numerous Roman coins have been found at Dorchester, and tes- 
selated pavements at Great Tew and Stonesfield. For a long time 
Oxford was the resilience of the monarchs of Mercia. Cuthred of 
Wessex in 752 disowned the overlordship of Ethelbald of Mercia, 
whom he defeated at Burford. From this time a portion of Oxford 
shire seems to have been subject to Wessex, but OfFu of Mercia 
inflicted in 779 a severe defeat on the West Saxons under Cyne- 
wulf, after which Oxfordshire probably became Mercian. The 
district of Oxford was frequently the scene of conflict during the 
long contests between the Saxons and the Danes, the latter of whom 
reduced the city of Oxford four times to ashes, and in the llth 
century occupied nearly the whole region. In 1387 the insurgent 
nobles defeated the earl of Oxford at Radcot Bridge near Bampton. 
In 1469 the farmers and peasa:its of Yorkshire, to the number of 
15,000, under the leadership of Robin of Kedesdale, marched to 
Banbury, and defeated and captured the earl of Pembroke at Danes 
Moor on the borders of Oxford. During the civil wars the county 



was frequently entered by the armies both of the Parliament and 
the king, the more important incidents being the seizing of Oxford, 
Banbury, and Broughton by the Royalists ; the assembling of the 
adherents of the king at the city of Oxford in 1644; the capture 
of the city by Fairfax in 1646; the surprise of the Parliamentarians 
by Rupert at Caversham; their repulse at Chalgrove Field, where 
Hampden received his death-wound ; and the defeat of the Royalist 
forces by Cromwell at Islip Bridge. 

Some portions still remain of the old Norman castle at Oxford ; 
there are traces of a moat at Banbury ; of the castle at Bampton, 
the seat of Aylmcr de Valence in 1313, there are a chamber and 
other fragments ; and Broughton Castle is a good moated house 
of various periods. Among old mansions, mention may be made 
of Shirburn Castle, Mapledurham House, Chastleton House, 
Rousham Park, Crowsley Park, Hardwick House, Shipton Court, 
Stonor Park, Stanton-Harcourt Manor House, and Wroxton Abbey. 
In regard to Burford Priory, the High Lodge at Blenheim Park, and 
the old manor houses of Hoi ton and Minster Lovell, the interest 
is chiefly historical. The most interesting churches, in addition to 
those in the city of Oxford, are Iffley, Norman, one of the finest 
specimens of early ecclesiastical architecture in England ; Thame, 
with tombs and brasses ; Bampton, mostly transitional from Early 
English and Decorated; Kidlington, Decorated, with a chancel and 
tower of earlier date ; Ewelme, Perpendicular ; Adderbury, with a 
chancel built by AVilliam of Wykeham ; Bloxham, with spire 
said to have been erected by Wolsey ; Burford, Norman and later ; 
Chipping Norton, with brasses of the 14th century ; Dor 
chester, once an abbey church; Stanton-Ilarcourt, with Early 
English chancel ; Witney, Early English and Decorated, with 
Norman doorway. Among the religious foundations in addition to 
those in the city were a college and hospital at Banbury ; an abbey 
of Austin canons at Bicester ; a Cistercian abbey at Bruern ; a 
hospital at Burford; an Austin cell at Caversham; an alien priory 
at Charlton-on-Otmoor ; a Gilbertine priory at Clattercote ; an 
alien priory of Black monks at Coggs ; an Austin priory at Cold 
Norton ; a hospital at Crowmarsh ; a priory of Austin canons at 
Dorchester; a hospital at Ewelme; a Benedictine abbey at Ey us- 
ham ; a priory of Austin nuns at Goring ; a preceptory at Gosford ; 
a Benedictine house at Milton ; an alien priory at Minster Lovell ; 
an abbey of Austin canons at Osney; a preceptory at Sandford-on- 
Thames ; a Cistercian abbey at Thame ; an establishment of the 
Mathurins at Tuflield ; a hospital at Woodstock ; and a house of 
Austin canons at Wroxton. There was a bishopric at Dorchester 
as a West Saxon see from 634 to 705, which was restored towards 
the close of the 9th century as a Mercian see. The bishopric was 
transferred to Lincoln in 1067, from which Oxfordshire was 
separated and erected into a see in 1545. The diocese was enlarged 
by the addition of Berks in 1836 and of Bucks in 1846. 

See Plot, Natural History of Oxfordshire, 1(577; Walker, Flora of Oxfordshire, 
1S33 ; Skelton, Antiquities of Olfordthire, 1823 ; Domesday Hook Facsimile, 18(52 ; 
Davenport, Lords Lieutenant and High Sheriffs of Oxford, 18C8; Id., Oxford 
shire Annals, 1SC9; Phillips, Geology of Oxford and the Thames Valley, 1871. 

OXFORD, the county town of Oxfordshire, a cathedral 
city, a municipal and parliamentary borough, and the seat 
of a famous university, is situated at a distance of 45 miles 
west-north-west from London, in the centre of the south 
midland district. It lies for the most part on a low ridge 
between the rivers Thames (locally called the Isis) and 
Cherwell, immediately above their junction. The soil is 
gravel lying over extensive beds of Oxford clay. From 
some points of view the city seems to be surrounded with 
hills, a line of which runs from Wytham Hill (539 feet) 
to Cumnor Hurst (515 feet) and Stonesheath (535 feet) 
on the west of the Thames valley, while on the east 
Headington Hill approaches still closer, with Shotover 
(5GO feet) behind it. The river bed is about 180 feet 
above sea-level. Both the Thames and Cherwell valleys 
are liable to floods, especially in winter and spring. 

University and City Buildings. The view of the city, 
whether from the Abingdon road and Hinksey Hills, or 
from the old approach from London by Headington, or 
from the top of the Kadcliffe, is a sight not to be for 
gotten. The towers and spires, numerous and yet varied 
in character, the quadrangles old and new with their 
profusion of carved stonework, the absence of large 
factories and tall chimneys, the groves and avenues of 
trees, the quiet college gardens, the well-watered valleys 
and encircling hills all these combine to make Oxford 
the fairest city in England. The first place in importance 
as well as grandeur is taken by the buildings of the 
university, which will be briefly described in order. 



clan. First among the institutions ranks the Bodleian Library 
(see LIBRARIES, vol. xiv. p. 519). This noble home of 
study consists in the first place of the quadrangle once 
known as the " Schools " containing a Jacobean gateway 
tower, erected 1613-18, which exemplifies the so-called five 
orders of architecture and the upper part of an H -shaped 
building immediately adjoining. In this older part the 
manuscripts and most of the printed books are preserved ; 
the fabric of the central part of the H dates from the 15th 
century, when it housed the library given by Humphrey, 
duke of Gloucester ; while the contents and fittings, even 
to the readers seats, have been hardly altered since the 
days of Charles I. The present library, founded by Sir 
Thomas Bodley in 1602, has since 1610 had the right to 
receive a copy of every book published in the United 
Kingdom, and its growth has been accelerated by dona 
tions from Selden, Rawlinsan, Malone, Gough, Douce, and 
others. The modern books 
are contained in the ad 
jacent circular building 
known as the " Camera 
Bodleiana" or "Radcliffe," 
built 1737-49 by James 
Gibbs with money left by 
Dr Radcliffe to erect and 
endow a scientific library. 
The Radcliffe Library pro 
per was removed in 1861 
to the New Museum. The 
height of the dome is 140 
feet. The Bodleian at pre 
sent gives a home to the 
Pomfret and Arundel mar 
bles, including the famous 
Parian Chronicle, to a num 
ber of models and pictures, 
to the Hope collection of 
200,000 engraved por 
traits, and in the tower 
to the archives of the uni- 
iinity versity. The Divinity 
3ol. School, immediately be 
low the older reading- l 
room of the Bodleian, | 
with its beautiful roof and 
pendants of carved Caen 
stone, was finished in 
1480, and is still the finest 
room in Oxford. The 
Proscholium, a rare ex 
ample of an original am 
bulatory, adjoins it on the 
east, and the Convocation House on the west. To the 
1- north of these is the Sheldonian Theatre, built at the 
ian. expense of Archbishop Sheldon from the designs of Sir 
Christopher Wren, and opened in 1669. The annual Act 
or "Encaenia," a commemoration of benefactors, accom 
panied by the recitation of prize compositions and the 
conferment of honorary degrees, has almost invariably been 
held in this building. It contained also the University 
Press from 1669 until, in 1713, the Clarendon Building, a 
conspicuous object in Broad Street, was erected to contain 
the growing establishment, which was finally moved in 1830 
to the present Clarendon Press; the Building is now used 
imo- for university offices. The Ashmolean Museum, which also 
n - faces Broad Street, is an unpretentious edifice, the first 
public museum of curiosities in the kingdom, founded by 
EliasAshmole, and opened in 1683. The nucleus was formed 
by the collections of John Tradescant, and not till lately 
has the museum been made to serve a scientific purpose. 



It contains models, ethnographical collections, English and 
Egyptian antiquities, and miscellaneous curiosities. The 
last and not the least of this central group of university 
buildings is the church of St Mary the Virgin in the High St Mary s, 
Street, which derives peculiar interest from its long 
connexion with academic history. Here were held the 
disputations preparatory to a degree ; here, time out of 
mind, the university sermons have been preached ; and the 
north-east corner is the ancient seat of the Houses of 
Convocation and Congregation. Round it were the earliest 
lecture-rooms, and its bell was the signal for the gathering 
of the students, as St Martin s for the townsmen. It has 
memories too of Wickliffe, of Cranmer, Latimer, and Ridley, 
of Laud, of Newman, and of Pusey. The tower and spire, 
of which the height is about 190 feet, date from 1400, 
the chancel and nave from the succeeding century. The 
design of the porch was the ground of one of the articles 




Plan of Oxford 

in the impeachment of Laud. Farther down on the south New- 
side of the High Street (the curve of which, lined with Schools, 
colleges and churches in its course from the centre of 
the city at Carfax, leads with beautiful effect to Magdalen 
tower and bridge) is an extensive building completed in 
1882, known as the New Examination Schools, on the site 
of the old Angel Hotel. The architect was Mr T. G. 
Jackson, the style Jacobean Gothic. The size and 
elaborate decoration of the rooms, which form three sides 
of an oblong quadrangle with an entrance hall opening on 
the street, well adapt them for the lighter as well as the 
graver uses of the xiniversity. Farther on, and close to 
the Cherwell, is the Botanic Garden, the first of its kind in Botanic 
England, opened in 1683, the design having been supplied Garden, 
by Inigo Jones. The study of plants is unfortunately 
carried on at a great distance from the home of the other 
branches of natural history and science, the New Museum, New 
which was built between 1855 and 1860 in the south-west Museum. 



X F O R I ) 



All Souls, 



Balliol. 



corner of the Park. The architects were Deane and 
Woodward, and the cost about 150,000. In it are 
gathered the numerous scientific collections of the uni 
versity, from the time of Tradescant and Ashmole to that 
of the munificent donations of Mr Hope. The general 
plan is a central hall covered by a glass roof resting on 
iron columns. The lecture-rooms and Radcliffe Library 
surround this on both floors. The chief adjuncts to this 
building are to the south-west a laboratory, an imitation 
of the shape of the Glastonbury Kitchen, to the south a 
chemical laboratory, and to the north-west the Clarendon 
laboratory of physical science. At a short distance to the 
east in the Park is the University Observatory (1873), 
consisting of two dome-shaped buildings connected by 
lecture-rooms (see OBSERVATORY). The Clarendon Press in 
Walton Street is probably the best appointed of provincial 
establishments. Founded partly with the profits arising 
from the copyright of Clarendon s History of the Rebellion, 
the Press was for long, as we have seen, established in the 
Clarendon Building. Of the present classical building, 
completed from Robertson s designs in 1830, the chief 
part forms a large quadrangle. The south side is entirely 
devoted to the printing of Bibles and prayer-books. All 
the subsidiary processes of type-founding, stereotyping, 
electrotyping, and the like are done at the Press, and the 
paper is supplied from the University Mills at Wolvercote. 
Printing in Oxford dates from "1468" (1478?), but 
ceased after 1486 until 1585, except in 1517, 1518, and 
1519. The first university printer was Joseph Barnes, in 
1 585. The Press is to a large extent a commercial firm, 
in which the university has a preponderating influence, as 
well as prior claims in the case of its own works. It is 
managed by the partners, and governed by eleven dele 
gates. Returning towards the centre of the city by St 
Giles s, we pass on the right the Taylor Building, partly 
devoted to the university gallery of pictures, Avhich con 
tains more than two hundred and seventy sketches and 
drawings by Michelangelo and Raphael, besides a Turner col 
lection and individual paintings of interest. The rest of the 
building is divided between the- Ruskin School of Drawing 
and the Taylor Library, which consists chiefly of books in 
modern European languages. The plan and architecture 
is Grecian, designed by Cockerell, and completed in 1849. 
Close by is the Martyrs Memorial (1841), commemor 
ating the burning of Cranmer, Latimer, and Ridley. It 
resembles in shape the Eleanor crosses, and is 73 feet in 
height ; it was the first work which brought Sir George 
Gilbert Scott into notice. 

The colleges may now be described, and for convenience 
of reference in alphabetical order (see also UNIVERSITIES). 
All Souls College (Collegium Omnium Animarum) occupies 
a central position, with fronts to Radcliffe Square and the 
High Street. The chief points of interest are the magnifi 
cent reredos in the chapel, coeval with the college, but 
lost sight of since the Reformation until discovered and 
restored in 1872-76 ; the Codrington Library, chiefly of 
works on jurisprudence; and the turrets (1720) designed by 
Flawksmoor. The west front is due to Sir Christopher 
Wren. Founded in 1437 by Archbishop Chichele, with 
sixteen law fellows out of a foundation of forty, the college 
has always had a legal character which, combined with 
an almost entire absence of undergraduates, sufficiently 
marks it off from all the others. The name records the 
ancient duty of praying for all who fell in the French wars 
of the early 15th century. Balliol College, at present the 
largest in numbers, is also among the oldest. In 1282 
the Lady Dervorgilla, widow of John de Balliol, gave 
effect to his wishes by issuing statutes to a body of 
students in Oxford who two years later settled on the 
present site of the college. The buildings are diverse in I 



style and date, the two most striking being the newest, 
the chapel built in 1856-57, in modern Gothic, by 
Butterfield, and the handsome hall erected by Waterhouse 
in 1876. The King s Hall and College of Brasenose erase- 
(Collegium Aenei Nasi) is the combined work of William nose. 
Smith, bishop of Lincoln, and Sir Richard Sutton. The 
front quadrangle is among the most regular and, taken in 
connexion with the Radclitfe and St Mary s church, among 
the most picturesque in Oxford, remaining exactly as it 
was built at the foundation of the college in 1509, except 
that the third story was added, as in several other colleges, 
in the time of James I. The library and chapel date 
from the Restoration ; the roof of the latter shows some 
rich wooden fan-tracery. The name is that of one of the 
old halls absorbed into the new foundation, and probably 
signifies brew-house (from bracinum, malt, and -house), but 
is popularly connected with a brazen knocker above the 
gate, said to have been brought from Stamford after 
the migration of the university thither in 1334 ; it is, 
however, first found in the 13th century. Christ Church Christ 
(jEdes Christi), the greatest and most imposing college, Church, 
and projected on a still larger scale as Cardinal College by 
its first founder, Wolsey, was established by Henry VIII. 
in 1525. It is of a peculiar dual character, the cathedral 
being wholly within its precincts, and partly used as the 
chapel of the house, while the cathedral chapter shares in 
the government of the whole society. The dean presides 
over both institutions. The lower part of the great gate 
way known as Tom Tower is Wolsey s design, the upper 
and incongruous part is by Wren ; the large bell, 
weighing 7 tons 12 cwts., daily gives the signal for closing 
all the college gates by one hundred and one strokes at 
9.5 P.M. The chief quadrangle, measuring 264 feet by 
261 feet, was designed to have cloisters. The present 
classical buildings of Peckwater quadrangle are not of 
earlier date than 1705 ; the library on the south side was 
built in 1716-61. The latter contains valuable pictures 
and engravings not yet sufficiently known, as well as 
extensive collections of books. The hall (built in 1529), 
from its size (115 feet by 40 feet), the carving of the oak 
roof, the long lines of portraits, and the beauty of the 
entrance staircase, is one of the sights of Oxford. The 
meadow buildings were erected in 1862-66. It is 
commonly said that the three great English religious 
revivals sprang from Christ Church, Wickliffe having been 
warden of Canterbury Hall, now part of the house, John 
Wesley a member of the college, and Pusey a canon. 
Corpus Christi College was founded in 1516 by Bishop Corpus 
Richard Fox, who expressly provided for the study of Christi. 
Greek and Latin ; nor have classical traditions ever left 
the "garden of bees," as the first statutes term it. The 
chief ornament of the college is the library, which is rich 
in illuminated and early English MSS., and in early printed 
books. Exeter College may be said to have been founded Exeter, 
(as Stapeldon Hall) in 1314, by Walter de Stapeldon, 
bishop of Exeter; but Sir William Petre in 1566 largely 
added to the original endowment. Most of the buildings 
date from the present century ; the chapel, the propor 
tions of which resemble those of the Sainte Chapelle at 
Paris, was built in 1856-59 by Sir G. Gilbert Scott, the 
hall in 1818, the Broad Street front in 1855-58. The 
secluded gardens are beautifully situated beneath the 
shadow of the Divinity School and Bodleian. Hertford Hertford 
College, founded in 1874, is on a site of old and varied 
history. From the 13th century until 1740 it was 
occupied by Hart or Hertford Hall ; at the latter date Dr 
Richard Newton refounded the hall with special statutes 
of his own framing as Hertford College. In 1822 the 
society of Magdalen Hall, after the fire at their buildings 
near Magdalen College, migrated thither, and finally the 



OXFORD 



97 



hall was merged in the new college which owes its 
existence to the munificence of Mr T. C. Baring. The 
Welsh College, Jesus, dates from 1571, having been 
founded by Dr Hugh Price. Sir Leoline Jenkins, 
principal at the Kestoration, was a conspicuous benefactor. 
The present buildings are of various dates. The direct 
connexion with the Principality extends to a moiety of 
the fellows and a majority of the scholars. Keble College 
is a testimony to the wide-felt reverence for the character 
and principles of the Rev. John Keble, who died in 1866. 
In his memory the college was founded with a special 
view to economical life and Christian training, based on 
the principles of the Church of England. Since its 
opening in 1870 its growth has been continuous. The 
buildings are the design of Keble s friend Butterfield ; the 
richly ornamented chapel, the gift of Mr William Gibbs, 
was completed in 1876, and the library and hall in 1878. 
The style is Italian Gothic, the material to a large extent 
red brick relieved by white stone, and in the chapel by 
marble and mosaics. Bishop Richard Flemmyng founded 
Lincoln College in 1427, with the object, it is believed, of 
opposing the doctrines of Wickliffe. Like Exeter and Jesus 
it boasts a second founder in Thomas de Rotherham, also 
bishop of Lincoln, in 1478. The library is of consider 
able value, both for MSS. and books. The painted 
windows in the chapel were procured from Italy in the 
15th century. Magdalen College is the most beautiful 
and the most complete in plan of all the colleges. The 
extensive water-walks in the Cherwell meadows, the 
deer park, the cloisters with their ivy-grown walls and 
quaint emblematic sculptures, the rich new buildings of 
pure Gothic, and, above all, the tower, combine in this 
conspicuous result. William Patten, better known as 
William of Waynflete, bishop of Winchester, established 
the college in 1456 for a president, forty fellows, and thirty 
scholars with chaplains and a full choir. The cloister 
quadrangle was first built in 1473, and the chapel in 
1474-80; the latter has a decorated interior, an altarpiece 
of Christ bearing the Cross similar to that in Bolton Abbey, 
and painted windows. The tower, of exquisite proportions 
and harmony of detail, was commenced in 1492, and 
reached its full height of 145 feet in 1505 ; it stood for a 
few years isolated as a campanile. The custom of singing 
a hymn on the top at 5 A.M. on May-day has been kept up 
by the choir since the time of Henry VII. The meadow 
buildings date from 1733. The muniments and library 
are valuable, the former containing some 14,000 deeds, 
chiefly of religious houses suppressed at the Reformation. 
The high-handed attempt of James II. to force a president 
on the college in 1688 is matter of history. Merton 
College is in a very definite sense the oldest ; the earliest 
extant statutes were given in 1264 by Walter de Merton, 
and before 1274 it was settled in Oxford. The statutes 
were a model for all the more ancient colleges both in 
Oxford and Cambridge. The founder s special intention 
was to benefit the order of secular priests, and the 
first century of his society was more prolific of great 
names than any similar period in any college. The fine 
chapel, which is also the parish church of St John the 
Baptist, rose gradually between 1330 and 1450, the tower 
belonging to the later part. The hall, of the 14th 
century, was thoroughly restored in 1872. The library, 
built about 1349, is the oldest existing library in England. 
To the east lie the quiet well-wooded gardens, still bounded 
on two sides by the city wall. New College, or more pro 
perly the college of St Mary Winton, is the magnificent 
foundation of William of Wykeham, who closely connected 
it with his other great work Winchester School. Its name 
is still significant, for the first statutes marked a new 
departure, in the adaptation of monastic buildings and 



rules to the requirements of a less fettered body of 
students ; and they, like those of Merton, were imitated 
by succeeding societies. The foundation-stone was laid 
in 1380, and the hall, chapel, and front quadrangle are of 
that period, except that the third story of the latter was 
added in 1674. The chapel is noteworthy for the west 
window, designed by Sir Joshua Reynolds, and the 
Flemish windows on the south side ; the roof was renewed 
in 1880. The tower is built on one of the bastions of the 
city wall, and faces the new buildings in Holywell Street, 
erected in 1872-75. The gardens and cloisters are among 
the most picturesque sights of Oxford, the former encom 
passed on the north and east by the city wall, still almost 
perfect. Oriel College was founded by Adam de Brome Oriel, 
in 1324, and reconstituted by Edward II. in 1326. The 
present buildings chiefly date from the first half of the 
17th century. The Tractarian movement is closely 
connected with the college of Newman and Keble. 
Pembroke College (1624) derives its name from the Pem- 
chancellor of the university at the time when it was broke, 
established by Richard Wightwick, partly by means of a 
legacy from Thomas Tesdale. The library contains many 
memorials of Dr Johnson, who was a member of the 
college. Queen s College, so called from its first patroness, Queen s. 
Queen Philippa, was founded in 1340 by Robert de 
Eglesfield, whose name is commemorated yearly in the 
custom of presenting a needle and thread ("aiguille et fil," 
a rebus) to each fellow on New-Year s Day. The present 
buildings are not older than the Restoration, while the 
front dates from the middle of the last century, and the 
west part of the front quadrangle was rebuilt after a 
disastrous fire in 1778. The interior of the chapel, which 
is classical in style, with an apse, exhibits some fine wood- 
carving and windows. Queen s possesses the largest and 
most valuable collegiate library of printed books, chiefly 
owing to the munificence of Bishop Barlow in 1691 and 
of Dr Robert Mason in 1841. On Christinas Day a boar s 
head is brought into the hall to the accompaniment of 
an ancient carol. St John the Baptist s College was the St John s. 
work of Sir Thomas White, a London merchant, in June 
1555. Archbishop Laud was closely connected with it, 
and built, almost entirely at his own expense, the second 
quadrangle, including the library ; his body rests within 
the college. The chapel and other parts of the buildings 
belonged to the earlier foundation of St Bernard s College. 
The large gardens are skilfully laid out in alternate lawns 
and groves. Trinity College, founded in February 1555 Trinity. 
by Sir Thomas Pope, was the first post-Reformation 
college and the first established by a layman. The library 
is the original one of Durham College, in which Richard 
de Bury s books were deposited in the 14th century. The 
gardens are extensive, including a fine lime-tree avenue. 
University College, the proper title of which is the Great Uni- 
Hall of the University (Collegium Magnse, Aulx Universi- versit y- 
tatis}, is generally accounted the oldest college, although 
its connexion with Alfred is wholly legendary. It received 
the first endowment given to students at Oxford in 1249 
from William of Durham, but its first statutes date from 
1280, and its tenure of the present site from about 1340. 
None of the present buildings are older than the 17th 
century. The detached library was built in 1860. 
Wadham College was founded in 1610 by Dorothy Watlham. 
Wadham, in pursuance of the designs of her husband 
Nicholas, who died in 1609. The college buildings, made 
of exceptionally firm stone, have been less altered than 
those of any other college. The chapel exhibits a surpris 
ingly pure Gothic style considering its known date, the 
early part of the 17th century. The meetings held in this 
college after the Restoration by Dr Wilkins, Bishop Sprat, 
Sir Christopher Wren, and others directly led to the institu- 

XVIII. 13 



98 



OXFORD 



tion of the Royal Society. The gardens lie to the north 
Wor- and east. Worcester College, which has recently cele- 
cester. brated the sexcentenary of its first building in 1283 as 
Gloucester Hall, was at first a place of study for 
Benedictines from all parts of the country, until it was 
dissolved at the Reformation, when the buildings passed 
to the see of Oxford. In 1560 the founder of St John s 
College reopened it as St John the Baptist s Hall, but after 
changing fortunes, and an attempt in 1689 to form it into a 
college for students of the Greek Church, it came in 1714 
into the hands of the trustees of Sir Thomas Cookes, who 
founded the present college. The garden front still retains 
the antique style of Gloucester Hall, looking over the 
extensive gardens and pond. The other buildings rose at 
various periods in the 18th century, while the splendid 
interior decoration of the chapel, with its profusion of 
marble, inlaid wood, and painted panel-work, designed by 
Burgess, was completed in 1870. 

Halls. Until Laud s time the number of private halls was con 
siderable; by him five only were allowed to survive: 
Magdalen Hall, now merged in Hertford College; St 
Mary Hall, founded in 1333, now destined to be absorbed 
into Oriel, as New Inn Hall into Balliol,. and St Alban 
Hall into Merton ; and St Edmund Hall, which, though 
closely connected with Queen s College, is likely to maintain 
a separate existence. 

City The public buildings of the city, as distinct from the 

build- university, do not require a detailed notice. The town- 
hall dates from 1752, the corn exchange and post-office 
from 1863 and 1882 respectively. The chief hospital is 
the Radcliffe Infirmary, opened in 1770, and due to the 
same liberal benefactor who has been mentioned in con 
nexion with the Radcliffe Library, and who left funds for 
the erection of the large and important Radcliffe Obser 
vatory, completed in 1795. There are two ladies halls, 
Lady Margaret s and Somerville, and High Schools for 
boys and -girls. Port Meadow is a large pasture to the 
north-west of the city, which has belonged from time 
immemorial to the freemen of the city. An extensive 
system of drainage has been recently carried out, involving 
the formation of a sewage farm at Littlemore. Water is 
supplied from large covered tanks on Headington Hill, 
into which the water is forced from reservoirs at New 
Hinksey. The University Park, comprising 80 acres, is 
beautifully situated on the banks of the Cherwell. 

The diocese of Oxford now includes the three "home 
counties" of Berkshire (originally in the diocese of Wessex, 
then till 1836 in that of Sherborne or Salisbury), 
Buckinghamshire (until 1845 under the see of Lincoln), 
and Oxfordshire (formerly in the dioceses of Dorchester, 
Winchester, or Lincoln). The patents for the formation 
of the bishopric bear dates of 1542 and 1546. The 
Cathe- cathedral, already mentioned as part of Christ Church, 
was at first the church of St Frideswide, begun so far as 
the present buildings are concerned in about 1160, and 
forming " a fine example of Late Norman and Transitional 
work of early character." The nave is pure Norman ; the 
choir, with its richer ornament and delicate pendants, is the 
Transitional part; the present remarkable east end, having 
a circular window over two smaller round-headed ones, is 
believed to be a restoration of the original design. Part 
of the western end of the nave was destroyed by Wolsey 
to allow the large quadrangle to be formed. Within the 
cathedral the most noteworthy objects are the 15th 
century "shrine of St Frideswide," the modern reredos, 
and the bishop s throne, a memorial of Bishop Wilberforce. 
The stained glass is of different styles. The octagonal 
spire, 144 feet high, is of a peculiar pitch. The chapter 
house on the south side of the nave, and the fine doorway 
leading from it to the cloisters, are early 13th-century 



dral. 



work. Of the numerous parish churches some have 
already been noticed. All Saints was built early in the 
18th century, from designs by Dean Aldrich, in a classical 
style, but with much originality of detail ; St Philip and 
St James s and St Barnabas s are among the most recent, 
the latter being in imitation of Italian style with separate 
campanile. The Roman Catholic church of St Aloysius in 
St Giles s was opened in 1875. 

History. The legends connecting the city with Brute the Trojan, 
Mempric, and the Druids are not found before the 14th century, 
and are absolutely without foundation. The name, which is found 
in the 10th century as Oxenaford, and in the llth as Oxenford, 
the Welsh (more modern) Rhydychain, points to a ford for oxen 
across the shallow channels of the divided river near Folly ] ridge, 
though many on theoretical grounds connect the first part of the 
word with a Celtic root signifying water, comparing it with Ouse, 
Oseney, Exford. and even Isis. The nucleus of the town was 
probably a nunnery, afterwards a house of secular canons, founded 
in honour of St Frideswide in or before the 9th century, on the 
site of the present cathedral. After the peace of Wedmore (886) 
Oxford became a border town between Mercia and "Wessex, 
and coins of Alfred with the legend OKSNAFORDA (on some types 
ORSNAFORDA) seem to prove that a mint was established there 
before the close of that century. The earliest undoubted mention 
of the city is in the English Chronicle under the year 912, when 
Edward the Elder made London and Oxford a part of his own 
kingdom of Wessex. To this period probably belongs the castle 
mound, still a conspicuous object on the New Road between the 
railway stations and the city, and similar to those found at 
Warwick and Marlborough. The subsequent notices of Oxford in 
the Chronicle before the Conquest prove the rapidly increasing 
importance of the place, both strategically as the chief stronghold 
of the valley of the upper Thames as when the Danes attacked 
and burned it in 1009 and Sweyn took hostages from it and 
Winchester in 1013 and politically as a meeting-place for gemots 
in which the interests of north and south England were alike 
affected. Witenagemots were held there in 1015, when two 
Danish thegns were treacherously murdered ; in 1036, when 
Harold was chosen king ; and in 1065. In 1018, when Cnut first 
became king of all England, he selected the same spot for the 
confirmation by Danes and English of "Edgar s law." But 
the murder of King Edmund in 1016 and the death of Harold in 
1039 seem to have given rise to the saying that it was ill-omened 
for the kings of England to enter or reside at Oxford. The 
Domesday survey of Oxford (c. 1086) is more than usually complete, 
and from it we gather that about six-sevenths of the town was 
held in equal proportions by ecclesiastical owners, by Norman 
followers of the king, and by citizens, one-seventh being in the 
king s hands. The priory church of St Frideswide, and the 
churches of St Mary the Virgin, St Michael, St Peter in the East, 
and St Ebbe are mentioned ; from other sources it is known that 
St Martin s at Carfax was in existence, and not less than seven 
more before the close of the century. It is a curious fact that, 
while two hundred and forty-three houses (domi) paid tax, no less 
than four hundred and seventy-eight were waste (i-astae), and even 
of the mansiones one hundred and ninety-one were habitable and 
not fewer than one hundred and six waste. Oxford grew steadily 
when governed by the strong hand of Robert d Oili (1070?-! 119 ?). 
The existing remains which may be attributed to his building are 
the castle tower containing the church of St George and a crypt, 
the crypt and part of the church of St Peter s in the East, and the 
tower of St Michael s ; but it is known that he repaired other 
churches and built bridges. His nephew founded the abbey of 
Oseney, for Augustinian canons, in 1129. During the 12th century 
Beaumont Palace, built by Henry I. outside the north wall of the 
city, was a favourite royal residence, and the birthplace both of 
Richard I. and of John. In the charter granted by Henry I. the 
privileges of the town rank with those of London, and a large Jewry 
was formed near the site of the present town-hall. The flight of 
the empress Matilda from the castle over the ice-bound river to 
Abingdon in 1142, when besieged by Stephen, is a well-known 
incident. If we may trust the Oseney Chronicle "it is in 1133 that 
wo find the first traces of organized teaching in Oxford, the germ 
of the great university which was destined to far outstrip the city 
in privileges, wealth, and fame (see UNIVERSITIES). During the 
13th century parliaments were often held in the town, notably the 
Mad Parliament in 1258, which led to the enactment of the "Provi 
sions of Oxford." But this time also witnessed the beginning ot 
the long struggle between the town and university, which produced 
serious riots, culminating on St Scholastica s day in 1354, and 
finally subjected the former to serious curtailment of its powers 
and jurisdiction. History has preserved the names of several heroes 
in the struggle for civic independence, but the issue was never 
doubtful, and the annals of the city in succeeding centuries admit 
of briefer narration. The religious orders found their way early 



X F O K D 



99 



into Oxford : in 1221 the Dominicans (whose settlement near the 
site of the present gas-works is still attested by Blackfriars Street, 
Preacher s Bridge, and Friar s Wharf) ; in 1224 the Franciscans (who 
built their house near Paradise Square) ; soon after 1240 the Car 
melites (near Worcester College, to which Friar s Entry led); and 
in 1252 the Austin Friars, who settled near what is now Wadham 
College. The greater orders were not less firmly established, the 
Cistercians at Rewley Abbey (do Regali loco, founded about 1280), 
the Benedictines scarcely later at Gloucester Hall and Durham 
College, now Worcester and Trinity Colleges respectively. In the 
13th and 14th centuries, as the university grew, an increasing 
number of students gathered in Oxford, filling the numerous halls 
and swelling the size, if not the wealth, of the place. The total of 
students in Henry III. s time was placed at thirty thousand in con 
temporary records seen by Thomas Gascoigne, but this can only be 
an exaggeration or a mistake. The town was frequently ravaged by 
plagues, and generally shared in the exhaustion and inactivity 
which marked the 15th century. The Reformation was unaccom 
panied by important incidents other than those which affected the 
university and the see ; but after the troubles of Mary s reign 
Oxford again began to revive under the personal favour of 
Elizabeth, which was continued by the Stuart kings. In the 
civil war Oxford becomes suddenly prominent as the headquarters 
of the Royalist party and the meeting-place of the king s parlia 
ment. It was hither that the king retired after Edgehill, the two 
battles of Newbury, and Naseby ; from here Prince Rupert made 
his dashing raids in 1643. In May 1644 the earl of Essex and 
Waller first approached the city, from the east and south, but 
failed to enclose the king, who escaped to Worcester, returning once 
more after the engagement at Cropredy Bridge. The final invest 
ment of the city, when the king had lost every other stronghold of 
importance, and had himself escaped in disguise, was in May 1646 ; 
and on June 20 it surrendered to Fairfax. Throughout the war 
the secret sympathies of the citizens were Parliamentarian, but 
there was no conflict within the walls. In October 1644 a 
destructive fire burnt down almost every house between George 
Street and St Aldate s church. Charles II. held the last Oxford 
parliament in 1681, the House of Lords sitting in Christ Church 
Hall, the Commons in the Schools. In the first year of George I. s 
reign there were serious Jacobite riots, but from that time the city 
becomes Hanoverian in opposition to the university, the feeling 
coming to a head in 1754 during a county election, which was 
ultimately the subject of a parliamentary inquiry. The public 
works which distinguish the last century have been already men 
tioned ; the general history of the city proper presents few features 
of interest. Since the first railway (from Didcot) in 1844 its rate 
of progress has been accelerated, and it has at length vindicated for 
itself a vigorous and independent municipal life. 

Oxford grew up, as has been seen, on the slope leading from the 
ford near Folly Bridge to Carfax. Its earliest trade must have 
been twofold, partly with London by way of the Thames, and 
partly with the west by the ford. No Roman road of importance 
passed within three miles of the future town, and the Chiltern 
Hills prevented a direct road to the metropolis. The first mention 
of townsmen is " seo buruhwaru " in the English Chronicle sub 
anno 1013, and of its trade in the toll paid to the abbot of Abingdon 
by passing barges from the llth century (Abingdon Chron., vol. ii. 
p. 119). When the Domesday survey was made all the churches 
except St Mary Magdalen were within the line of walls. Mr James 
Parker estimates the population at that time to have been " not 
more than 1700," occupying one hundred and ninety-one mansions 
and two hundred and forty-three houses. By the close of the llth 
century the castle had been partly bnilt, and the walls enclosed 
a space roughly of the shape of a parallelogram, its greater length 
lying nearly east and west, dominated by the castle at its western 
extremity. In Elizabeth s time, as Ralph Agas s view shows, nine- 
tenths of the city was still intra-mural. In 1789 the population 
was about 8300, but more than half lived outside the walls ; in 
1831, 20,650 ; in 1881 the municipal borough comprised 35,264, 
the local board district 38,289, exclusive of about 3000 members of 
the university. The chief extensions have been towards the north, 
including both the fashionable quarter beyond the parks and the 
poorer suburb of Jericho, and on the south-east, where St 
Clement s and CowleySt John have greatly increased. The newly 
built low-lying districts of Oseney town with Botley to the west, 
and Grandpoiit with New Hinksey to the south, are comparatively 
unhealthy, contrasting in that respect with the houses rising on 
Headington Hill. The trade of the city has always been varied 
rather than extensive ; there has never been a staple produce, and 
the few manufactories are of recent introduction. Oxford being an 
agricultural centre has an important market, but the alternations 
of university terms and vacations affect the steadiness of general 
business. The first charter known is one of Henry I., not now 
extant, mentioning a merchants guild (gilda mcrcatoria). That 
of Henry II. specially connects the citizens with London, quia ipsi 
et cives Londinenscs sunt de una et cadem consuetudine et lege ct 
libertate. They were to be butlers with the latter at the king s 



coronation a privilege still retained by their representative. The 
earliest governing body was the mayor and burgesses ; aldermen 
were added in 1255, and the full institution from 1605 until 
1835 consisted of a mayor, two bailiffs, fbur aldermen, eight 
assistants, and twenty-four common council men, together with 
a high steward, recorder, town-clerk, and inferior officers. At 
present the government is in the hands of a high steward, recorder, 
sheriff, and corporation, the latter consisting of a mayor, ten 
aldermen, and thirty councillors. For the election of the last two 
classes the city is divided into five wards. There is a local board 
of forty-seven members and a school board of seven. From the 
earliest times the city has been represented by two burgesses in 
parliament. 

The chief authorities for the general history of Oxford are the works of 
Antony Wood, viz., the ffist. and Antiqu. of the University, 1792-96 (in Latin, 
1674), Hist, and Antiqu. of the Colleges and Halls, 1786-90, and the Ancient and 
Present State of the City, 1773 ; and Ingram, Memorials of Oxford, 1837 and 1847. 



VERSITIES. 



(F. 



OXFORD, ROBERT HARLEY, FIRST EARL OF (1661- 
1724), the eldest son of Sir Edward Harley, a prominent 
landowner in Herefordshire, was born in Bow Street, 
Covent Garden, London, 5th December 1661. His school 
days were passed near Burford, in Oxfordshire, in a small 
school which produced at the same time a lord high 
treasurer, a lord high chancellor, and a lord chief justice 
of the common pleas. The principles of Whiggism and 
Nonconformity were instilled into his mind at an early age, 
and if he changed the politics of his ancestors he never 
formally abandoned their religious opinions. At the 
Revolution of 1688 Sir Edward and his son raised a troop 
of horse in support of the cause of William III., and took 
possession of the city of Worcester in his interest. The 
family zeal for the Revolution recommended Robert Harley 
to the notice of the Boscawen family, and led to his 
election, in April 1689, as the parliamentary representative 
of Tregony, a borough under their control. He remained 
its member for one parliament, when he was elected by 
the constituency of New Radnor, and he continued to 
represent it until his elevation to the peerage in 1711. 
From the first he gave great attention to the conduct 
of public business, bestowing especial care upon the 
study of the forms and ceremonies of the House, and 
acquiring from his labours that distinction which a 
knowledge of parliamentary precedents always bestows. 
This reputation marked him out as a fitting person to pre 
side over the debates of the House, and from the general 
election of February 1701 until the dissolution of 1705 he 
held with general approbation the office of speaker. For 
a part of this period, from 18th May 1704, he combined 
with the speakership the duties of a principal secretary of 
state, displacing in that office the Tory earl of Nottingham, 
a circumstance which may have impelled that haughty 
peer to join the Whigs, some years later, in opposition to 
the treaty of Utrecht. At the time of his appointment as 
secretary of state Harley had given no outward sign of 
dissatisfaction with the Whigs, and it was mainly through 
Marlborough s good opinion of his abilities that he was 
admitted to the ministry. For some time, so long indeed 
as the victories of the great English general cast a glamour 
over the policy of his friends, and the constituencies were 
enthusiastic in support of a war policy, Harley continued 
to act loyally with his colleagues. But in the summer of 
1707 it became evident to Godolphin that some secret 
influence behind the throne was opposing his wishes and 
shaking the confidence of the queen in her ministers. 
The sovereign had resented the intrusion into the adminis 
tration of the impetuous earl of Sunderland, and had 
persuaded herself that the safety of the church depended 
on the fortunes of the Tories. These convictions were 
strengthened in her mind by the new favourite Abigail 



100 



OXFORD 



Hill (a relative of the duchess of Marlborough through her 
mother, and of Harley on her father s side), whose soft and 
silky ways contrasted only too favourably in the eyes of 
the queen with the haughty manners of her old friend, the 
duchess of Marlborough. Both the duchess and Godolphin 
communicated to Marlborough their belief that this change 
in the disposition of the queen was due to the sinister 
conduct of Harley and his relatives, and the persistent 
protestations of the accused persons to the contrary were 
accepted with an ill grace. Although Harley was for the 
present permitted to remain in his office, subsequent 
experience convinced the chiefs of the Government of the 
necessity for his dismissal, and an occurrence which showed 
the remissness of his official conduct, if it did not prove 
his treachery to the nation, furnished them with an 
opportunity for carrying out their wishes. An ill-paid 
and poverty-stricken clerk in Harley s office was detected 
in furnishing the enemy with copies of many documents 
which should have been kept from the knowledge of all 
but the most trusted advisers of the court, and it was 
found that through the carelessness of the head of the 
department the contents of such papers became the 
common property of all in his service. The queen wr.s 
thereupon informed that Godolphin and Marlborough 
could no longer serve in concert with a minister whom 
they distrusted, and of whose incapacity there were such 
proofs. They did not attend her next council, and when 
Harley proposed to proceed with the business of the day 
one of their friends drew attention to their absence, when 
the queen found herself forced (llth February 1708) to 
accept the resignation of her secret adviser. At that time 
it seemed as if Harley s fortunes had sunk for ever. 

Harley went out of office, but his cousin, who had now 
become Mrs Masham, remained by the side of the queen, 
and contrived to convey to her mistress the views of 
the ejected minister. Every device which the defeated 
ambition of a man whose strength lay in his aptitude for 
intrigue could suggest for hastening the downfall of his 
adversaries was employed without scruple, and not 
employed in vain. The cost "of the protracted war with 
France, the danger to the national church, the chief proof 
of which lay in the prosecution of Sacheverell, were the 
weapons which he used to influence the masses of the 
people. Marlborough himself could not be dispensed 
with, but his proud spirit was insulted in a thousand 
ways, and his relations were dismissed from their posts in 
turn. When the greatest of these, Lord Godolphin, was 
sent into private life, five commissioners to the treasury 
were appointed (10th August 1710), and among them 
figured Harley as chancellor of the exchequer. It was the 
aim of the new chancellor to frame an administration from 
the moderate members of both parties, and to adopt with 
but slight changes the policy of his predecessors ; but his 
efforts were doomed to disappointment. The Whigs 
refused to join in an alliance with the man whose rule 
began with the retirement from the treasury of the finance 
minister idolized by the city merchants, and the Tories, 
who were successful beyond their wildest hopes at the 
polling booths, could not understand why their leaders 
should pursue a system of government which copied the 
faults of their political opponents. The clamours of the 
wilder spirits of the party, the country members who met 
at the " October Club," began to be re-echoed even by 
those who were attached to the person of Harley, when, 
through an unexpected event, his popularity was restored 
at a bound. A French refugee, the ex-abbe de la Bourlie 
(better known by the name of the marquis de Guiscard), 
was being examined before the privy council on a charge 
of treachery to the nation which had befriended him, when 
he stabbed Harley in the breast with a penknife (March 



1711). To a man in good health the wounds would not 
have been serious, but the minister had been for some 
time indisposed a few days before the occurrence Swift 
had penned the prayer "Pray God preserve his health, 
everything depends upon it" and the joy of the nation 
on his recovery knew no bounds. Both Houses presented 
an address to the crown, suitable response came from the 
queen, and on Harley s reappearance in the Lower House 
the speaker made an oration which was spread broadcast 
through the country. On the 24th May 1711 the minister 
became Baron Harley of Wigmore and earl of Oxford and 
Mortimer ; before the month was ended he was created 
lord treasurer, and in the following year he became a 
knight of the Garter. Well might his friends exclaim 
that he had " grown by persecutions, turnings out, and 
stabbings." 

With the sympathy which this attempted assassination 
had evoked, and with the skill which the lord treasurer 
possessed for conciliating the calmer members of either 
political party, he passed through several months of office 
without any loss of reputation. He rearranged the 
nation s finances, and continued to support her generals- 
in the field with ample resources for carrying on the 
campaign, though his emissaries were in communication 
with the French king, and were settling the terms of a 
peace independently of England s allies. After many 
weeks of vacillation and intrigue, when the negotiations 
were frequently on the point of being interrupted, the pre 
liminary peace was signed, and in spite of the opposition 
of the Whig majority in the Upper House, which was met 
by the creation of twelve new peers, the much-vexed treaty 
of Utrecht was at last brought to a conclusion. While 
these negotiations were under discussion the friendship 
between Oxford and St John was fast changing into hatred. 
The latter had resented the rise in fortune which the stabs 
of Guiscard had secured for his colleague, and when he 
was raised to the peerage with the title of Baron St John 
and Viscount Bolingbroke, instead of with an earldom, 
his resentment knew no bounds. The royal favourite, 
whose husband had been called to the Upper House as 
Baron Masham, deserted her old friend and relation for his 
more vivacious rival. The Jacobites found that, although 
the lord treasurer was profuse in his expressions of good 
will for their cause, no steps were taken to ensure its. 
triumph, and they no longer placed reliance in promises 
which were repeatedly made and repeatedly broken. Even 
Oxford s friends began to complain of his habitual clilatori- 
ness, and to find some excuse for his apathy in ill health, 
aggravated by excess in the pleasures of the table and by the 
loss of his favourite child. By slow degrees the confidence 
of Queen Anne was transferred from Oxford to Bolingbroke ; 
on the 27th July 1714 the former surrendered his staff as 
lord treasurer, and on the 1st August the queen died. 

On the accession of George I. the defeated minister 
retired to Herefordshire, but a few months later his 
impeachment was decided upon and he was committed to 
the Tower. After an imprisonment of nearly two years 
the prison doors were opened, and he was allowed to 
resume his place among the peers, but he took little part 
in public affairs, and died almost unnoticed 21st May 
1724. Harley s political fame may now be dimmed 
by time, his statesmanship may seem but intrigue and 
finesse, but his character is set forth in the brightest 
colours in the poems of Pope and the prose of Swift. The 
Irish dean was his discriminating friend in the hours of 
prosperity, his unswerving advocate in adversity. The 
books and manuscripts which the first earl of Oxford and 
his son collected were among the glories of their age. The 
manuscripts became the property of the nation ; the books 
were sold to a bookseller called Osbornc. and described in 



x U X U 



101 



a printed catalogue of four volumes, part of which was the 
work of Dr Johnson. In the recollection of the Harleian 
manuscripts, the Harleian library, and the Harleian 
Miscellany, the family name will never die. (w. p. c.) 

OXUS. This river rises in the lofty table-lands which 
are intercepted between the two great mountain ranges 
of central Asia, the Thian Shan and the Hindu Kush, in 
the region where they approach each other most closely. 
It flows westwards through a broad valley, receiving 
numerous affluents from the mountain ranges on either 
side ; then bending to the north-west it traverses the arid 
deserts of western Turkestan on the borders of Bokhara, 
descends into and fertilizes the rich oasis of Khiva, and 
finally disembogues at the southern extremity of the Sea 
of Aral. Its course is roughly parallel to that of its sister 
river the Jaxartes, which rises to the north of the Thian 
Shan water-parting, and disembogues at the northern 
extremity of the Sea of Aral. 

The name Oxus is that by which the river is mentioned 
in the writings of the ancient Greek historians. In the 
older traditions of the Parsi books it is named the Veh- 
riid, in some form of which originates the classical name 
which we find it most convenient to use, and also it may be 
presumed the names of various territories on the banks of 
its upper waters, such as Wakhan, Wakhsh, and Washgird, 
which are no doubt identical in formation, if not in 
application, with the classical Oxiani, Oxii, and Oxi-Petra. 
The classical names have long ceased to be known to the 
inhabitants of the country. In early Mohammedan history 
the river was usually styled Al-Nahr, whence the title 
Ma ward 1 Nahr, or " beyond the river," which came to be 
bestowed on a province of Persia lying to the north of 
tlis Oxus, and which in modern use has been rendered 
Transoxiana. In subsequent Mohammedan writings Al- 
Nahr gives place to Jaihun, corresponding to the Gihon 
of the Mosaic garden of Eden. And now the river is 
known by Asiatics as the Amii Daria, a name of which 
the origin is uncertain. 1 

In the most remote ages to which written history carries us, the 
regions on both sides of the Oxus were subject to the Persian 
monarchy. Of their populations Herodotus mentions the Bactrians, 
Chorasmians, Sogdians, and Saere as contributing their contingents 
to the armies of the great King Darius. The Oxus figures iu 
Persian romantic history as the limit between Iran and Turan, but 
the substratum of settled population to the north as well as the 
south was probably of Iranian lineage. The valley is connected 
with many early Magian traditions, according to 
1 which Zoroaster dwelt at Balkh, where, in the 7th 




Sketch Map of the Oxus. 

century B.C., his proselytizing efforts first came into operation. 
Buddhism eventually spread widely over the Oxus countries, and 
almost entirely displaced the religion of Zoroaster in its very 
cradle. The Chinese traveller Hwen Tsang, who passed through 
the country in 630-644 A.D., fo\md Termedh, Khulm, Balkh, and 
above all Bamian, amply provided with monasteries, stirpas, and 

1 Natives of western India hold that it implies " mother" of rivers, 
in correlation with Abi-san or "father of rivers," a title which is 
frequently given to its great southern neighbour, the river Indus. 



colossal images, which are the striking characteristics of prevalent 
Buddhism ; even the Pamir highlands had their monasteries. 

Christianity penetrated to Khorasan and Bactria at an early 
date ; episcopal sees are said to have existed at Merv and Samarkand 
in the 4th and 5th centuries, and Cosmas (c. 545) testifies to the 
spread of Christianity among the Bactrians and Huns. 

Bactria was long a province of the empire which Alexander the 
Great left to his successors, but the Greek historians give very 
little information of the Oxus basin and its inhabitants. About 
250 B.C. Tiieodotus, the " governor of the thousand cities of Bactria," 
declared himself king, simultaneously with the revolt of Arsaces 
which laid the foundation of the Parthian monarchy. The Grseco- 
Bactrian dominion was overwhelmed entirely about 126 B.C. by the 
Yuechi, a numerous people of Tibet who had been driven westwards 
from their settlements on the borders of China by the Hiongnu, 
the Huns of Deguignes. From the Yuechi arose, about the 
Christian era, the great Indo-Scythian dominion which extended 
across the Hindu Kush southwards, over Afghanistan and Sind. 
The history of the next five centuries is a blank. In 571 the 
Haiathalah of the Oxus, who are supposed to be descendants of the 
Yuechi, were shattered by an invasion of the Turkish khakan ; and 
in the following century the Chinese pilgrim Hwen Tsang found 
the former empire of the Haiathalah broken up into a great 
number of small states, all acknowledging the supremacy of the 
Turkish khakan, and several having names identical with those 
which still exist. The whole group of states he calls Tukhara, by 
which name in the form Tokharistan, or by that of Haiathalah, the 
country continued for centuries to be known to the Mohammedans. 
At the time of his pilgrimage Chinese influence had passed into 
Tokharistan and Transoxiana. Yezdegird, the last of the Sasanian 
kings of Bokhara, who died in 651, when defeated and hard pressed 
by the Saracens, invoked the aid of China ; the Chinese emperor, 
Taitsung, issued an edict organizing the whole country from 
Ferghana to the borders of Persia into three Chinese administra 
tive districts, with 126 military cantonments, an organization which, 
however, probably only existed on paper. 

In 711-12 Mohammedan troops were conducted by Kotaiba, the 
governor of Khorasan, into the province of Khwarizm (Khiva), after 
subjugating which they advanced on Bokhara and Samarkand, the 
ancient Sogdiana, and are said to have even reached Ferghana and 
Kashgar, but no occuption then ensued. In 1016-25 the govern 
ment of Khwarizm was bestowed by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni upon 
Altuntash, one of his most distinguished generals. 

Tokharistan in general formed a part successively of the empires 
of the Sasanian dynasty of Bokhara (terminated 999 A.D. ), of the 
Ghaznavi dynasty, of the Seljukian princes of Persia and of Khorasan, 
of the Ghori or Shansabanya kings, and of the sultans of Khwarizm. 
The last dynasty ended with Sultan Jalal-ud-din, during whose 
reign (1221-31) a division of the Moghul army of Jenghiz Khan 
first invaded Khwarizm, while the khan himself was besieging 
Bamian ; Jalal-ud-din, deserted by most of his troops, retired to 
Ghazni, where he was pursued by Jenghiz Khan, and again retreating 
towards Hindustan was overtaken and driven across the Indus. 

The commencement of the 16th century was marked by the rise 
of the Uzbek rule in Turkestan. The Uzbeks were no one race, but 
an aggregation of fragments from Turks, Mongols, and all the 
great tribes constituting the hosts of Jenghiz and Batu. They 
held Kimduz, Balkh, Khwarizm, and Khorasan, and for a time 
Badakhshan also ; but Badakhshan was soon won by the emperor 
Baber, and in 1529 was bestowed on his cousin Suliman, who by 
1555 had established his rule over much of the region between 
the Oxus and the Hindu Kush. The Moghul emperors of India 
occasionally interfered in these provinces, notably Shah Jehan in 
1646 ; but, finding the difficulty of maintaining so distant a frontier, 
they abandoned it to the Uzbek princes. About 1765 the wazir 
of Ahmed Shah Abdali of Cabul invaded Badakhshan, and from 
that time until now the domination of the countries on the south 
bank of the Oxus from Wakhan to Balkh has been a matter of 
frequent struggles between Afghans and Uzbeks. 

The Uzbek rule in Turkestan has during the last twenty years 
been rapidly dwindling before the growth of Russian power. In 
1863 Russia invaded the Khokand territory, taking in rapid succes 
sion the cities of Turkestan, Chemkend and Tashkend. In 1866 
Khojend was taken, the power of Khokand was completely crushed, 
a portion was incorporated in the new Russian province of 
Turkestan, while the remainder was left to be administered by a 
native chief almost as a Russian feudatory ; the same year the 
Bokharians were defeated at Irdjar. In 1867 an army assembled 
by the amir of Bokhara was attacked and dispersed by the Russians, 
who in 1868 entered Samarkand, and became virtually rulers of 
Bokhara. In 1873 Khiva was invaded, and as much of the khanate 
as lay on the right bank of the Oxus was incorporated into the 
Russian empire, a portion being afterwards made over to Bokhara. 
Russia acquired the right of the free navigation of the Oxus 
throughout its entire course, on the borders of both Khiva and 
Bokhara. The administration of the whole of the states on the 
right bank of the Oxus, down to the Russian boundary line at Ichka 



102 



OXUS 



Yar, is now in the hands of Bokhara, including Karategin which tlic 
Russians have transferred to it from Khokand and Danvaz at the 
entrance to the Pamir highlands. At the present time the states 
on the left bank of the Oxus, from its sources in the Panjah river 
down to the town and ferry of Klnvaja Saleh, are mainly subject 
to Afghanistan ; from Khwaja Saleh to the frontiers of Khiva and 
Russia at Ichka Yar the left bank of the Oxus is subject to Bokhara ; 
from the same point the Afghan boundary is supposed to stretch 
across the Dasht-i-chul plains of the Turkomans, above Maimana, to 
Sarakhs, where it meets the Persian frontier. 

The regions in which the Oxus takes its birth, and 
through which it passes until it becomes lost in the Sea of 
Aral, may be divided into upper, middle, and lower : the 
upper is constituted by the highlands between the Thian 
Shan and the Hindu Kiish ranges, and the middle by the 
plains and uplands which are situated in the broad valley 
between the western prolongations of the same ranges ; the 
lower lies in the plains of western Turkestan. Descrip 
tions of the chief provinces and states in the middle and 
lower regions will be found under AFGHAN TURKESTAN 
(vol. i. p. 241), including the eastern khanates of Kunduz, 
Khulm, Balkh, and Akcha, and the Chahdr Wilayat, or 
Four Domains, viz., the western khanates of Sir-i-pul, 
Shibrghan, Andkhui, and Maimana ; also under BADAKH- 
SHAN, KARATEGIN, HISSAR, BOKHARA, and KHIVA; accounts 
have also been already given of BACTRIA, BALKH, and 
BAMIAN. Here we shall only treat of the highland regions 
of the Oxus, and the river itself in its downward course 
to the Sea of Aral, postponing all other matter to the 
article TURKESTAN (see also the map of Turkestan). 

For a right understanding of the highland region, notice 
must be taken of its position relatively to the two great 
longitudinal systems of mountains, the Thian Shan and the 
Indian Caucasus, and their respective prolongations east 
and west, which form such a prominent feature in the 
physical geography of the continent of Asia. These 
mountain systems include between them a belt of table 
lands of varying breadth, and generally of considerable 
altitude. The forces of nature by which both the 
mountains and the intermediate table-lands were primarily 
evolved from the earth s crust .appear to have acted con 
currently over the entire region, but with greatest elevat 
ing effect along the northern edge of the Caucasus for, 
though the highest peaks of the Hindu Kush and the 
Himalayan ranges are more frequently met with on spurs 
some distance to the south than on the northern water- 
parting, the elevated masses are here of greatest magni 
tude ; here there are mountains whose peaks rise to great 
altitudes above the sea-level, but which are comparatively 
insignificant differentially, the visible height above the 
surrounding table-lands being rarely more than a third, and 
often less than a tenth, of the height above the sea ; and 
here there are passes across great ranges of which the level 
is barely distinguishable from that of the surrounding 
table-lands, so that the traveller may cross a great water- 
parting without being aware of it, a tussock of grass decid 
ing the course of the waters, whether towards the frontiers 
of China or of Europe or towards the Indian Ocean. 

The elevated mass which forms a bridge between the 
Thian Shan and the Hindu Caucasus, in the quarter where 
they approach each other most closely, constitutes the 
governing geographical and political feature of these 
regions, and gives birth to all the principal sources of the 
Oxus. A happy instinct has led the inhabitants to call it 
the Bam-i-dunia, or Roof of the World ; modern European 
geographers have called it the " heart of Asia," the 
central boss of Asia." It is the Tsungling of Chinese 
writers, the northern Imaus of Ptolemy, the Mountain 
Parnassus of Aristotle, " the greatest of all that exist 
toward the winter sunrise." The geographical indications 
of the Puranas, considered in any but a fabulous light, 



point to it as M<h-u, the scene of the primeval Aryan 
paradise. Old Parsi traditions point to it as the origin 
and nucleus of the Aryan migrations. And it is here 
that the Mohammedan invaders are shown, by their iden 
tification of the great rivers with the Gihon and Pison 
of the Mosaic narrative, to have believed that the terres 
trial paradise, the cradle of the human race, was situated. 
Few regions can present claims to interest and just 
curiosity so strong and various as this one. Its past 
history is interwoven with that of all the great Asiatic 
conquerors, and its position on the rapidly narrowing 
borderland between the British and the Russian dominions 
gives it additional interest at the present time. But its 
geography is most intricate and complicated, and has long 
been a fruitful subject of controversy. The region is 
intersected with mountain ridges and depressed river beds 
which are alike difficult to cross ; its altitude is unfavour 
able for the growth of cereals, and it mostly lies buried in 
snow for half the year ; it is, moreover, sparsely inhabited, 
and does not produce sufficient food for the requirements of 
the inhabitants. It interposes a formidable barrier between 
eastern and western Turkestan across the ancient highway 
from Europe to China ; and, though this barrier has been 
repeatedly crossed, the extant narratives of the journeys 
and descriptions of the routes present only occasional 
glimmerings of truth amidst a mass of error and confusion, 
and are at times barely available for sober inquiry ; 
genuine facts of observation have been so mixed up with 
erroneous information that it has become impossible to 
reconcile conflicting statements or separate the true from 
the false. Thus within the last quarter of a century maps 
have been published by eminent geographers in England 
and Germany in which the great cities of eastern Turkestan 
are placed 3 to 4, or over 200 miles, too far to the west, 
and the limits of the " heart of Asia " are materially 
narrowed. 

The interest attaching to the region has even led to the 
fabrication of spurious documents which have darkened 
the mist already enveloping it, and have betrayed eminent 
geographers into error and confusion. 1 

While geography remained under the spell of these mis 
chievous fictions, research was impeded, and an insurmount 
able obstacle placed in the way of the true delineation of 
the region ; doubt was even thrown on the accuracy of the 
work of genuine explorers. But within the last decade the 
mist in which the " Roof of the World " had so long been 
enveloped has been largely dispelled by the labours of 
Russian and British officers, and also by natives of India 
trained to geographical exploration and employed in con 
nexion with the operations of the Great Trigonometrical 
Survey of India. In some parts there is still much doubt 
and uncertainty, but enough is now known to furnish the 
geographical student with a fairly accurate idea of the 
general course of the rivers and configuration of the table 
lands and mountains. 

Two systems of rivers give birth to the sources of the 



1 Thus early in the present century certain papers were lodged in 
the secret archives of the Russian Foreign Office which purported to 
give an account of two unpublished records of exploration in this 

obscure region, one by a German traveller, Georg Ludwig von , 

said to have been an employe of the Anglo-Indian Government, the 
other by a Chinese traveller. They were brought to light in 1861, and 
excited the curiosity of all who were interested in the geography of 
this region. A few years afterwards it was discovered that a parallel 
mass of papers, embodying much of the same peculiar geography and 
nomenclature, but purporting to be the report of a Russian expedition 
sent through Central Asia to the frontiers of India, existed in the 
London Foreign Office. All three documents bear indubitable traces 
of having been fabricated for sale to the British and the Russian 
Governments by an acute geographer who, while availing himself of 
such genuine data as were actually within his reach, did not scruple 
to draw on his own imagination for the filling up of all blanks. 



X U S 



103 



Oxus, one to the north rising in and around the Alai 
plateau, the other to the south rising in the Pamir pla 
teaus, of which there are several. The two systems are 
divided by a great chain of mountains known locally as 
the Kizil-yart range, but called by Fedchenko (looking 
from the north) the Trans-Alai range, and by recent 
Russian surveyors the Peter the Great range; it lies 
from east to west on the southern border of the Alai 
plateau, and throws out spurs westwards to Darwaz ; its 
medium height above the sea-level is 18,000 or 19,000 feet, 
with occasional peaks rising to 25,000 feet. Of the 
Oxianian affluents to its north and west the principal are 
the Wakhsh or Surkh-ab ( = the Kizil-su = the Red River), 
rising in the Alai, and the Muksu and Khing-ab rivers, 
which join the Wakhsh in the district of Karategin. 

The system of southern affluents is, however, the most 
important of the two politically as well as geographically, 
comprising as it does the water-partings which define the 
boundaries between China, Afghanistan, and Bokhara, and 
all the rivers of what is generally known as the Pamir 
region. The name Pamir is suggested by Bournouf to have 
been derived from Upa-Meru, meaning the lands " beyond 
the mountain of Meru" ; a later and more probable sugges 
tion, by Major Trotter, is that it is the Khirgiz equivalent 
of Bdm-i-dunia. It means simply an elevated steppe or 
plateau. By the people of the country it is not applied, as 
European geographers apply it, to the entire region, which 
is one of mountains as well as table-lands, but to each of 
the plateaus with the addition of a distinctive designation. 
Thus there is the Pamir-Kalan (great), the Pamir-Khurd 
(little), the Pamir-Alichur, the Pamir-Khargoshi (of the 
hare), the Pamir-Sarez (of the water-parting), and the Pamir- 
Rangkul, on which the Rangkul lake is situated. There 
is also another, the Pamir-i-Shiva, which, though only 
recently brought prominently to the notice of European 
geographers, is of considerable magnitude, elevation, and 
importance; it lies in that part of Badakhshan which is 
enclosed to the north and east by the Panjah river, and 
to the south and west by a spur from the Hindu Kush 
range. This spur is an offshoot from the vicinity of the 
Tirich Mir peak (25,400 feet) north of Chitral ; it lies 
between Faizabad and Ishkdshim, sinks to 10,900 feet at 
the Zebak pass, and then again, ascending to higher 
altitudes, trends to the north-west, and strikes the western 
spurs of the Kizil-yart range in the Darwaz district ; it 
forms the water-parting between the Kokcha river of 
southern Badakhshan and the Panjah river. Though a spur 
from the main range, it is of itself an important range, and 
has some claim to be regarded as the western boundary 
of the Pamir table-lands, as it lies immediately over the 
Shiva Pamir ; if the claim be admitted, the breadth of the 
elevated barrier between the plains of eastern and western 
Turkestan will be found to be about 250 miles, whereas 
geographers have hitherto accorded to the Pamir plateau 
a breadth of only 100 miles. The Panjah river flows 
downwards through the region where the spurs of this 
western bounding range meet those of the Kizil-yart range, 
passing between narrow and precipitous gorges which form 
a natural gateway to the highlands, though one which in 
many parts is barely accessible, or has to be quitted 
altogether for the easier mountain passes on either hand. 

The most elevated portion of the highlands occurs on 
the north-east border, above the plains of Kashgar and 
Yarkand. Here a chain of mountains, interwoven with 
the Thidn Shdn and the Kizil-yart ranges, trends to the 
east and south-east, and throws up peaks of great height, 
culminating in Tagharma (25,500 feet) ; viewed from the 
plains to the east, it seems to form part of a great chain 
the Belut Tagh of Humboldt which connects the Thian 
Shan range with the Hindu Kush ; but it is broken 



through by rivers, and terminates over the plains of the 
Sarikol district. The line of water-parting which con 
stitutes the real connexion between the Thian Shan and 
the Hindu Kush lies more to the west, in hills which, 
emanating from the Kizil-yart range, pass between the 
Rangkul Pamir and the Kizil-yart plain, and then bending 
southwards strike an angle of the Hindu Kush range on 
the borders of the Sarikol and Kanjut districts ; they are 
probably nowhere of any great altitude above the general 
level of the table-lands; but they are of importance in 
that they may be regarded as the natural boundary 
between the states of eastern Turkestan now subject to 
China, and those of western Turkestan subject to Afghan 
istan and Bokhara. 

The best known river of the Pamir plateaus is the 
Panjah, 1 which receives all the other rivers of this region 
before it enters the plains ; above Kila Panjah it has two 
important affluents, one from the east rising in Kanjut, 
and probably about 120 miles long, the other from the 
north-east rising in the lake- of the Great Pamir (Wood s 
Lake Victoria), and about 80 miles long. From the point 
of junction to Kila-Bar- Panjah is 140 miles; here the 
united waters of the Sochan and Shakhdara rivers from 
the east are received ; 33 miles lower down, near Kila 
Wamar, the Bartang river, also from the east, is received. 
The upper source of the Bartang is the Ak-su (white water) 
river, which rises in the Oikiil or Gazkul lake of Little 
Pamir, and, winding round the highlands, passes through 
the Sarez Pamir, where its name changes to the Murghabi 
(water fowl), which lower down becomes Bartang (narrow 
passage). The Aksii-Bdrtang is probably the longest of 
the Pamir rivers ; its length exceeds 330 miles, while that 
of the Panjah from the source of its longest affluent down 
to the Bartang junction is probably under 300 miles ; thus 
it has been claimed as constituting, rather than the 
Panjah, the proper boundary line between Afghanistan 
and Bokhara. About 120 miles below Kila Wamar the 
Panjah debouches into the plains after receiving the 
Wanjab river of Darwaz on its right bank, and the Kof 
(Kufau) river coming from the Shiva Pamir on its left 
bank. Fifty miles farther on it receives on its right bank 
the Yakhsii river conveying the waters of a system of 
valleys lying between the Panjah and the Wakhsh rivers, 
the courses of which are here nearly parallel; 18 miles 
onwards it receives (left bank) the Kokcha river of 
southern Badakhshan, and at this point it loses its 
individuality and becomes the Amii river ; 80 miles to the 
west the Amu receives the Wakhsh or Siirkh-ab river, 
when the whole of the waters of the Oxianian highlands 
are brought together into one channel. 

Returning to the highlands, we briefly notice the princi 
pal lakes. Chief of all is the Great Karakul the Dragon 
Lake of Chinese writers ; it stands in the Khargoshi 
Pamir, has an area of about 120 square miles, and an 
altitude of 12,800 feet ; it was long regarded as the source 
of the Oxus, but has recently been found to have no out 
let. The Little Karakul and the Biilankul lakes, areas 
15 and 8 square miles, on the Kizil-yart plateau, are 
probably over 13,000 feet. The Rangkul lake, area 15 
square miles, is 12,800 feet. Wood s Victoria, the lake 
of the Great Pamir, height 13,900 feet, has an area of 25 

1 The name Panjah is conjectured to be derived from a confluence 
of five rivers ; but more probably it is taken from the well-known 
fort of the same name, which is situated a little below the junction of 
the two upper affluents of the river. The fort derives its name either 
from the circumstance of its being built on five mounds, or from a 
sacred edifice in the vicinity erected over a stone bearing the supposed 
impress of the palm and fingers (panjah) of Hazrat AH, the son-in-law 
of Mohammed ; lower down the river, in Shiglman, there is a fort built 
over a similar mark, and called the Kila-Bar- Panjah ("the fort over the 
panjah "). 



104 



OXUS 



square miles. The Yashil-Kul, area 16 square miles, 
height 12,550 feet, is in the Alichur Pamir, where in 
1759 the Chinese troops surprised and defeated the 
Khwajas of Badakshdn. The great Shiva-Kul, lately 
visited by Dr Regel, has, according to him, an area ex 
ceeding 100 square miles, and an altitude of 11,800 
feet, and Wood alludes to it as of considerable magnitude. 
There are numerous small lakes, of which the most im 
portant is the Oikul (13,100 feet), the source of the Ak-su 
river, in the Little Pamir. 

Hill ranges crop up out of the table-lands in various 
quarters ; their general direction is from north-east to 
south-west ; they form the boundaries between the several 
Pamirs and the principal water-partings between the 
valleys. The portion of the Hindii Rush range which lies 
immediately to the south of this region is of very varying 
altitude, sinking at the Baroghil pass to 12,000 feet, or 
only 1000 feet above the adjoining table-lands, but rising 
to heights of 22,600 to 25,400 in peaks to the west of 
that pass. 

In 1872 the Panjah river was adopted by the British 
and the Russian Governments as the line of boundary 
between Bokhara and Afghanistan. But rivers which are 
readily crossed, and pass through valleys both sides of 
which have much of life in common, rarely serve as bound 
aries between the people residing on the opposite banks. 
The Panjah river has been found to divide no less than 
four states, Wdkhdn, Shighnan, Roshdn, and Darwdz, into 
two parts each ; the first three of these are claimed by 
Afghanistan and the fourth by Bokhara, by whom they 
are administered or at least are attempted to be admin 
istered without regard to the conventional boundary line 
of the Panjah ; presumably, therefore, this line will have 
to be abandoned for the lines of water-parting along the 
hill ranges which form the natural boundaries of the 
several states. 

The Pamir plateaus are generally covered with a rich 
soil which affords very sweet and nourishing grasses, 
though at too great an altitude for husbandry ; there is 
an unlimited extent of summer pasture lands for the 
Khirgiz and other nomad tribes and the herdsmen of the 
surrounding districts. But for the plentiful supply of 
food for cattle which these regions afford during several 
months of the year, they could never have been crossed 
by the great armies and hordes which are said to have 
passed over them. The culturable areas are small, and are 
usually restricted to narrow ledges on the margins of the 
rivers, which, however, when well cultivated and manured 
yield rich returns ; food stuffs have to be largely obtained 
from the plains below ; mulberry trees thrive well and are 
much prized, because their unripened berries are ground 
to flour and form a serviceable article of food. 

Wakhan contains some twenty-five scattered villages 
with about as many houses in each, and a population 
estimated at 3000 souls. Shighnan and Roshan may at 
present be regarded as one state, as they are governed by 
one ruler ; the valleys of Sochdn-o-Giind and Shakhdara 
belong to the former, and that of Bdrtang to the latter 
(villages, 234 ; houses, 4477 ; souls, 22,000). Darwdz is 
famous for its difficult roads, called "averings," which are 
carried along the faces of perpendicular precipices, on 
planks resting on iron bolts driven into the rock ; the roads 
are, however, said to be much improved since the state 
came under Bokhara. Darwdz extends over the valley of 
the Khing;ib river to the north as well as over the valley 
of the lower Panjah. It has three amlakdarates on the 
Khingab Upper Wakhia, Lower Wakhia, and Khulds 
and one, Sagridasht, on an affluent of the Khingdb, 
containing 84 villages with 2458 habitations ; it has 
also three subdivisions on the Panjah south-eastern or 



upper Darwdz terminating at Kila Khiim, south-western 
Darwdz terminating at Zigor, and lower Darwdz which 
contain 31 villages with 896 habitations on the right bank, 
including those of the Wanjab affluent, and 45 villages 
with 1379 habitations on the left bank, including those 
of the Kufau river, which comes from the Shiva Pamir. 

Russian officers have found that at the point where the 
Panjah enters the plains the level is about 1800 feet above 
the mean sea, or 12,100 feet below the sources of the river 
in Lake Victoria ; 50 miles lower down, at the junction 
with the Kokcha, where the Panjah merges into the Amu 
Daria, the height is given as 1000 feet; at Kilif (214 
miles) it is 730 feet; and at Chahdrjui (203 miles), 510 
feet, thence the length of the course of the river to the 
Sea of Aral is somewhat over 500 miles. The Aral is 158 
feet above the mean sea-level. Thus the average slope of 
the Amu is about 1 4 inches in the mile above and 8 inches 
below Chahdrjui. The river has been reported to be 
navigable for steamers up to the junction with the Wdkhsh 
or Surkhdb; and in 1878 a Russian steamer ascended it 
up to Khwdja Sdleh, at the junction of the boundaries of 
Bokhara and Afghanistan. 

The testimony of antiquity is almost unanimous in 
representing the Oxus as having once flowed into the 
Caspian Sea. Herodotus asserts that in his day the 
Jaxartes also entered the Caspian, but this statement is 
so highly improbable that it throws much doubt on his 
geographical accuracy as regards these regions. Greek 
historians also mention a river Ochus to the south of 
the Oxus, flowing towards the Caspian, into which it is 
supposed to have fallen either directly or after joining a 
branch of the Oxus ; Strabo says that both this river and 
the Oxus were crossed by Alexander in marching from 
Samarkand to Merv. Maps recently published by both 
English and Russian geographers show the supposed 
ancient beds of the two rivers in the Turkomani deserts, 
the Oxus flowing southwards from the province of Khiva 
and joining the Caspian below the Balkhan Bay, the 
Ochus flowing from east to west in a lower latitude, and 
possibly striking the Oxus before it turns towards the 
Caspian. The first is called the old Oxus in English and the 
Uzboi in Russian maps ; the second is called the Ongiiz in 
Russian and the Chahdrjui in English maps, and is some 
times drawn as if it had been a bifurcation from the Oxus 
at some point near Chahdrjui. But the recent explorations 
of the Russian engineer Lessar have shown that what 
hitherto has been taken for the dry bed of the Ochus is 
not the bed of a river, but merely a natural furrow between 
sand-hills, that it cannot be the continuation either of a 
river from the east bifurcating from the upper Oxus or of 
the Tejend river from the south as has been supposed, 
and also that it does not join the Uzboi, but ceases at a 
distance of fully 60 miles from the ancient bed of that 
river. Thus the bed of the Ochus has still to be discovered. 

As regards the Oxus, some eminent geographers are of 
opinion that it has disembogued into the Aral Sea from 
time immemorial as at this day ; other geographers of 
equal weight have asserted that the Aral has fluctuated at 
different periods of history between the condition of a 
great inland sea and that of a reedy marsh, according to 
the varying course of its two feeders the Jaxartes and the 
Oxus. Now the position and height of the head of the 
delta of the Oxus relatively to the Aral and the Caspian 
Seas are such that comparatively slight changes in the 
relations of the river to its banks and bed would readily 
divert its course from one sea to the other. Khwdja-ili, at 
the head of the delta, is 217 feet above the mean sea ; the 
Aral is 158 feet above and the Caspian 85 feet below the 
mean sea. The length of channel from Khwdja-ili to the 
Aral is 110 miles, with a fall of 59 feet, or about 6 inches 



X Y X Y 



105 



in the mile ; the length of channel from the town of 
Urganj near Khwaja-ili to the Caspian is about 600 miles, 
with a fall of (say) 300 feet, or also about 6 inches to the 
mile. Thus the degree of slope is much the same in both 
directions, and consequently the blocking of the channel 
towards one sea either naturally as by an accidental 
deposit of silt, or artificially by the construction of dams 
for the diversion of the river would most probably be 
soon followed by a flow of water towards the other sea. 
The writings of Strabo, Pliny, and Ptolemy indicate that 
from 500 B.C. to 600 A.D. the Oxus flowed into the Caspian. 
About 605 a great change is said to have taken place, 
which turned the full stream of the Oxus into the Aral. 
In subsequent years dams were constructed for irrigation 
purposes which prevented the stream from reverting to 
the Caspian. In 1221, during the siege of Urganj by the 
Turks, the dams were purposely broken down, and the 
stream was allowed to find its way back to the Uzboi, 
which had been deserted for several centuries. But by 
1643 the Oxus is said to have been again debouching into 
the Aral, as at the present time. 

Authorities. Colonel Yule s " Essay " in Wood s Oxus, 2d ed. ; Id. , 
" Papers connected with the Upper Oxus Regions," in Jour. Roy. 
Geog. Soc., xlii. ; Sir Henry Rawlinson, England and Russia in the 
East ; Id., Review of Yule s " Marco Polo," in Edin. Rev., January 
1872; Id., "Monograph on the Oxus," in Jour. Roy. Gcog. Soc., 
xlii.; Id., "Notes on the Oehus," in Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc., xx. ; 
Id., "Road to Merv," in Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc., March 1879; 
Price, Mahomedan History ; Lonz, Ancient Course of the Amu- 
Daria, translated from German by C. G. ; Arendarenko, Darwdz 
and Karateghin, translated from Russian Military Journal by 
R. M. ; General Walker, Map of Turkestan, 6th ed., 1883; "The 
Russian Pamir Expedition," in Proc. Roy. Gcog. Soc., March 
1884. (J. T. W.) 

OXYGEN". See CHEMISTRY, vol. v. p. 479 sq. 

OXYHYDROGEN FLAME. Hydrogen gas readily 
burns in ox-ygen or air with formation of vapour of water. 
The quantity of heat evolved, according to Thomson, 
amounts to 34116 units for every unit of weight of 
hydrogen burned, which means that, supposing the two 
gases were originally at the temperature of, say, C., to 
bring the hot steam produced into the condition of liquid 
water of C., we must withdraw from it a quantity of 
heat equal to that necessary to raise 34116 units of weight 
of liquid water from to 1 C. This heat-disturbance 
is quite independent of the particular mode in which the 
process is conducted ; it is the same, for instance, whether 
pure oxygen or air be used as a reagent, being neither 
more or less than the balance of energy between 1 part of 
hydrogen plus 8 parts of oxygen on the one hand and 9 
parts of liquid water on the other. The temperature 
of the flame, on the other hand, does depend on the 
circumstances under which the process takes place. It 
obviously attains its maximum in the case of the firing 
of pure " oxyhydrogen " gas (we mean a mixture of 
hydrogen with exactly half its volume of oxygen, the 
quantity it combines with in becoming water). It becomes 
less when the " oxyhydrogen " is mixed with excess of one 
or the other of the two co-reagents or an inert gas such 
as nitrogen, because in any such case the same amount 
of heat spreads over a larger quantity of matter. To 
calculate the "calorific effect," we may assume that, in any 
case, for every 1 grain of hydrogen burned 9x637 = 5733 
units of heat are spent in the conversion of the 9 grains 
of liquid water (theoretically imagined to be) produced 
into steam of 100 C., and that only the rest of 
341 16 - 5733 = 28383 units is available for heating up the 
products of combustion. Now the specific heat of steam 
(from 120 to 220 C.) has been found to be equal to 
4805 units ; hence, on the basis of certain obvious (but 
bold) assumptions, in the firing of 9 grains of oxyhydrogen 
gas, as every 9 x 4805 units of heat correspond to an 



increase of 1 C. in temperature, the temperature of the 
flame should be by 28383 + 9 times 4805 (or 6564 C.) 
higher than 100, or equal to 6664 C. 

Let us now consider the case of 1 grain of hydrogen 
mixed with the quantity of air containing 8 grains of 
oxygen, i.e., the case of 1 grain hydrogen mixed with 8 
grains of oxygen and 26 7S grains of nitrogen. Here the 
temperature t of the flame will be governed by the equa 
tion, 28383 = (t - 100) x 9 x 0-4805 + 1 x 26 78 x 0-2438, 
the last coefficient being the specific heat of nitrogen. 
Thus = 2655 C., as against the 6664 obtained with 
pure oxygen. But one of our tacit assumptions is 
obviously untenable ; ready-made vapour of water, if 
subjected to even the less of the two temperatures, 
would suffer far-going dissociation involving an absorption 
of heat and consequently a depression of tempera 
ture. Hence supposing a mass of oxyhydrogen gas to 
have been kindled, as soon as the temperature has passed 
a certain point the progress of the process of combina 
tion will be checked by that of the corresponding dis 
sociation, which latter, as the combustion progresses, will 
go on at a greater and greater rate, or until it just com 
pensates the effect of the process of combination. That 
is to say, as soon as through the combustion of a certain 
fraction of the oxyhydrogen a certain temperature (far less 
than 6664 3 C.) has been produced, there is no further 
increase of temperature, and the uncombined gas-residue 
would remain unchanged, if it were not for the practically 
unavoidable loss of heat by radiation and conduction, 
which enables it to become water. 

This interesting matter was inquired into experimentally 
by Bunsen. He exploded fulminating gas mixtures in 
a close vessel constructed so that the maximum tension 
attained by the gas-contents during the combustion could 
be observed and measured, and from this value and the 
analytical data he calculated the maximum temperature and 
the proportion of gas-mixture which had assumed the form 
of a chemical compound at the moment when the maximum 
temperature prevailed. He found () for the case of 
pure oxyhydrogen gas maximum temperature = 2844 C., 
fraction of burned gas at the respective moment 337 ; 
(b) for the case of a mixture of 1 volume of oxygen, 2 
volumes of hydrogen, and 3 78 of nitrogen (very nearly 
the same as one volume of oxygen in the shape of air) 
maximum temperature = 2024 C., burned gas correspond 
ing =0 547 of the potential water. Hence we see that 
the temperature of a pure oxyhydrogen flame is not so 
much above that produced in the combustion of hydrogen 
by air as we should have concluded from our calculations. 
But, whatever the exact numerical value may be, it has 
long been known that the calorific effect of an oxyhydrogen 
flame exceeds that of any furnace, and the effect has long 
been put to practical use in the oxyhydrogen lamp. 

The most efficient form of this instrument is that which was 
given to it long ago by Newman, who pumps pure oxyhydrogen 
into a strong copper reservoir under 2 to 3 atmospheres pressure, lets 
the gas stream out of a narrow nozzle, and kindles it. The nozzle 
in the original apparatus consisted of a glass tube about 4 inches 
long and of ^-iiich bore. Newman worked long with this ap 
paratus without any accident occurring; but when he once came 
to substitute a tube of ^-inch bore the flame travelled back and 
the apparatus burst like a bomb-shell. Of the many safety 
arrangements suggested we will mention only that of Hare, who 
inserts a plug of (microscopically) porous copper between reservoir 
and nozzle, and forces the gas through this plug by applying a 
sufficient pressure. The plug of course acts on the principle of the 
Davy lamp, and offers protection as long as it has not got heated. 
But it may get hot without the operator noticing it, and probably 
has done so occasionally. At any rate, the use of ready mixed 
oxyhydrogen has long been given up in favour of the very oldest 
form of lamp, which was invented, before Newman s, by Hare. 
Hare s lamp, in all essential points, is our present gas-blowpipe as 
used for glass-blowing. The fuel (hydrogen, or coal-gas, which 
works as well) streams out of the annular space between two co- 

XVIII. --14 



106 



X Y O Y S 



axial tubes, while oxygen is being blown into the hydrogen ilaine 
through the central tube. The calorific effect of a Hare s lamji 
is of course less than that of Newman s, but still exceeds that of 
any ordinary fire ; it is inferior only to that of the electric arc. 
Platinum fuses in the ilaine with facility, and silica and alumina 
(though absolutely infusible in the metallurgist s sense) run into 
viscid glasses. Notwithstanding its enormous temperature, an oxy- 
hydrogen flame emits only a feeble light; but this arises only from 
the absence in it of good radiators. We need only communicate its- 
high temperature to some non-volatile and infusible solid, and a 
considerable portion of the heat is converted into radiant energy 
which streams forth as a dazzling white light. In the oxyhydro- 
gen lamp as used in connexion with the magic lantern or the 
"solar" microscope, a bit of lime fixed to an upright wire serves 
as a radiator. Magnesia is said to be better, and it has been said 
that zircouia excels both. Now that the electric light is com 
ing into general use, the oxyhydrogen lamp as a source of light 
will soon be a thing of the past. It is sure, however, to survive as 
a powerful producer of intense heat, and not for scientific purposes 
only. Thanks to the pioneering activity of Deville and Debray, 
it has found its way into the platinum works, and will hold its 
ground there until it may be superseded by the electric arc. The 
soldering together of the several parts of a platinum apparatus is 
now done " autogynically " (i.e., without the interposition of any 
foreign " solder ) by means of the oxyhydrogen blowpipe, a great 
improvement over the old process of soldering with gold, which 
stripped the platinum-work of its most valuable character, namely, 
its relative infusibility. (W. D. ) 

OXYNOTUS, the name of a genus of birds now ascer 
tained to be peculiar to two of the Mascarene Islands 
Mauritius and Reunion (Bourbon) where the name of 
Cuisinier is applied to them, and remarkable for the fact, 
almost if not quite unique in Ornithology, 1 that, while the 
males of both species are almost identical in appearance, the 
females are wholly unlike each other. Though the habits 
of the Mauritian species, 0. rufiventer, have been very 
fairly observed, there seems to be nothing in them that 
might account for the peculiarity. The genus Oxynotus is 
generally placed in the group known as Campophagidx, 
most or all of which are distinguished from the Laniidx 
(to which they seem nearly allied) by the feathers on the 
lower part of the back and on the rump having the basal 
portion of the shaft very stiff and the distal portion soft 
a structure which makes that part of the body, on being 
touched by the finger, feel as though it were beset with 
blunt prickles. Hence the name of the genus conferred by 
Swainson, and intended to signify " prickly back." The 
males, which look rather like miniature Grey Shrikes 
(Lanius excubitor and others), are except on close exami 
nation, when some slight differences of build and shade 
become discernible quite indistinguishable ; but the 
female of the one species has a reddish-brown back, and is 
bright ferruginous beneath, while the female of the other 
species is dull white beneath, transversely barred, as are the 
females of some Shrikes, with brown. Both sexes of each 
species, and the young of one of them, are described and 
figured in TJie Ibis for 1866 (pp. 275-280, pis. vii. and 
viii.). (A. N.) 

OYER AND TERMENER, in English law, is one of 
the commissions by which a judge of assize sits (see 
ASSIZE). By the commission of oyer and terminer the 
commissioners (in practice the judges of assize, though 
other persons are named with them in the commission) 
are commanded to make diligent inquiry into all treasons, 
felonies, and misdemeanours whatever committed in the 
counties specified in the commission, and to hear and 
determine the same according to law. The inquiry is by 
means of the grand jury ; after the grand jury has found 
the bills submitted to it, the commissioners proceed to 
hear and determine (oyer and terminer) by means of the 
petty jury. The words oyer and terminer are also used to 

1 The only other instance cited by Darwin (Descent of Man, ii. pp. 
192, 193) is that of two species of Paradisea; but therein the males 
differ from one another to a far greater degree than do those of 
Oxynotus. 



denote the court which has jurisdiction to try offences 
within the limits to which the commission of oyer and 
terminer extends. 

By 7 Anne c. 21 the crown has power to issue commissions of 
oyer and terminer in Scotland for the trial of treason and mis- 
prision of treason. Three of the lords of justiciary must be in any 
such commission. An indictment for either of the offences 
mentioned may be removed by certiorari from the court of oyer and 
terminer into the court of justiciary. 

In the United States oyer and terminer is the name given to 
courts of criminal jurisdiction in some States, e.g. , New York, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Georgia. 

OYSTER. The use of this name in the vernacular is 
equivalent to that of Ostrea in zoological nomenclature ; 
there are no genera so similar to Ostrea as to be confounded 
with it in ordinary language. Ostrea is a genus of Lamel- 
libranch Molluscs, belonging to the third order Monomya, 
the valves of its shell being closed by a single large 
adductor muscle. The degeneration produced by sedentary 
habits in all lamellibranchs has in the oyster reached its 
most advanced stage. The muscular projection of the 
ventral surface called the foot, whose various modifications 
characterize the different classes of Mollusca, is almost 
entirely aborted. The two valves of the shell are unequal 
in size, and of different shape ; the left valve is larger, 
thicker, and more convex, and on it the animal rests in its 
natural state. This valve, in the young oyster, is attached 
to some object on the sea-bottom ; in the adult it is some 
times attached, sometimes free. The right valve is flat, 
and smaller and thinner than the left. In a corresponding 
manner the right side of the animal s body is somewhat 
less developed than the left, and to this exterlt there is a 
departure from the bilateral symmetry characteristic of 
lamellibranchs. 

The organization of the oyster, as compared with that 
of a typical lamellibranch such as Anodon (see MOLLUSCA), 
is brought about by the reduction of the anterior part of 
the body accompanying the loss of the anterior adductor, 
and the enlargement of the posterior region. The pedal 
ganglia and auditory organs have disappeared with the 
foot, at all events have never been detected ; the labial 
ganglia are very minute, while the parieto-splanchnic are 
well developed, and constitute the principal part of the 
nervous system. 

According to Spengel the pair of ganglia near the 
mouth, variously called labial or cerebral, represent the 
cerebral pair and pleural pair of a gastropod combined, 
and the parieto-splanchnic pair correspond to the visceral 
ganglia, the commissure which connects them with the 
cerebro-pleural representing the visceral commissure. 
Each of the visceral ganglia is connected or combined 
with an olfactory ganglion underlying an area of special 
ized epithelium, which constitutes the olfactory organ, 
the osphradium. This view (which, it may be pointed 
out, differs from that given under MOLLUSCA) alone admits 
of a satisfactory comparison between the lamellibranch 
and the gastropod ; if the parieto-splanchnic were merely 
an olfactory ganglion its connexion by a commissure with 
its fellow would be an abnormality, and the olfactory 
ganglion in the lamellibranch would innervate the gills, 
adductor muscle, mantle, and rectum, parts which in 
gastropods are innervated from the visceral ganglia. The 
heart and pericardial chamber in the oyster lie along the 
anterior face of the adductor muscle, almost perpendicular 
to the direction of the gills, with which in Anodon they 
are parallel. In Anodon and the majority of lamelli- 
braiuhs the ventricle surrounds the intestine ; in the 
oyster the two are quite independent, the intestine pass 
ing above the pericardium. The renal organs of the 
oyster were discovered by Hoek to agree in their mor 
phological relations with those of other lamellibranchs. 



OYSTER 



107 



The generative organs of the oyster consist of a system 
of branching cavities on each side of the body lying 
immediately beneath the surface. All the cavities of a 
side are ultimately in communication with an efferent duct 
opening on the surface of the body a little above the line 
of attachment of the gills. The genital opening on each 
side is situated in a depression of the surface into which 
the renal organ also opens. The genital products are 
derived from the cells which line the cavities of the genital 
organs. The researches of Hoek have shown that in the 
same oyster the genital organs at one time produce ova, at 
another spermatozoa, and that consequently the oyster 
does not fertilize itself. Ho\v many times the alternation 
of sex may take place in a season is not known. It must 
be borne in mind that in what follows the species of the 
European coasts, Ostrea edulis, is under consideration. 
The ova are fertilized in the genital duct, and before their 
escape have undergone the earliest stages of segmentation. 
After escaping from the genital aperture they find their 
way into the infra-branchial part of the mantle cavity of 
the parent, probably by passing through the supra-branchial 
chamber to the posterior extremity of the gills, and then 
being conducted by the inhalent current caused by the 
cilia of the gills into the infra-branchial chamber. In the 
latter they accumulate, being held together and fastened 
to the gills by a white viscid secretion. The mass of ova 
thus contained in the oyster is spoken of by oyster fishers 
as " white spat," and an oyster containing them is said to 
be " sick." While in this position the ova go through the 
series of changes figured in vol. xvi. p. 638 (fig. 6). At 
the end of a fortnight the white spat has become dark- 
coloured from the appearance of coloured patches in the 
developing embryos. The embryos having then reached 
the condition of " trochospheres " escape from the mantle 
cavity and swim about freely near the surface of the water 
among the multitude of other creatures, larval and adult, 
which swarm there. The larva? are extremely minute, 
about -j-i^ inch long and of glassy transparency, except in 
one or two spots which are dark brown. From the 
trochosphere stage the free larvse pass into that of 
" veligers." How long they remain free is not known ; 
Prof. Huxley kept them in a glass vessel in this condition 
for a week. Ultimately they sink to the bottom and fix 
themselves to shells, stones, or other objects, and rapidly 
take on the appearance of minute oysters, forming white 
disks 2^5- inch in diameter. The appearance of these minute 
oysters constitutes what the fishermen call a " fall of spat." 
The experiment by which Hoek conclusively proved the 
change of sex in the oyster was as follows. In an oyster 
containing white spat microscopic examination of the 
genital organs shows nothing but a few unexpelled ova. 
An oyster in this condition was kept in an aquarium by 
itself for a fortnight, and after that period its genital 
organs were found to contain multitudes of spermatozoa in 
all stages of development. 

The breeding season of the European oyster lasts from 
May to September. The rate of growth of the young 
oyster is, roughly speaking, an inch of diameter in a year, 
but after it has attained a breadth of 3 inches its growth 
is much slower. Prof. Mobius is of opinion that oysters 
over twenty years of age are rare, and that most of the 
adult Schleswig oysters are seven to ten years old. 

The development of the American oyster, 0. virginiana, and of 
the Portuguese oyster, 0. angulata, is very similar to that of 
0. cdulis, except that there is no period of incubation within the 
mantle cavity of the parent in the case of these two species. Hence 
it is that so-called artificial fertilization is possible ; that is to say, 
the fertilization may be allowed to take place in a tank or aqua 
rium in which the conditions are under control. But if it is 
possible to procure a supply of spat from the American oyster by 
keeping the swarms of larvae in confinement, it ought to be pos 



sible in the case of the European oyster. All that would be 
necessary would be to take a number of mature oysters containing 
white spat and lay them down in tanks till the larva? escape. This 
would be merely carrying oyster culture a step further back, and 
instead of collecting the newly fixed oysters, to obtain the free 
larvae in numbers and so insure a fall of spat independently of the 
uncertainty of natural conditions. 

Natural beds of oyster occur on stony and shelly bottoms at 
depths varying from 3 to 20 fathoms. In nature the beds are liable 
to variations, and, although Prof. Huxley is somewhat sceptical on 
this point, it seems that they are easily brought into an unproduc 
tive condition by over-dredging. Oysters do not flourish in water 
containing less than 3 per cent, salt ; and hence they are absent 
from the Baltic. The chief enemies of oysters are the dog-whelk, 
Purpura lapillus, and the whelk-tingle, Murex erinaceus,vf}rich bore 
through the shells. Starfishes swallow oysters whole. Cliona, the 
boring sponge, destroys the shells and so injures the oyster; the 
boring annelid Lcucodorc also excavates the shell. 

The wandering life of the larvae makes it uncertain whether any 
of the progeny of a given oyster-bed will settle within its area 
and so keep up its numbers. It is known from the history of the 
Liimfjord beds that the larvae may settle 5 miles from their place 
of birth. 

The genus Ostrea has a world-wide distribution, in tropical 
and temperate seas ; seventy species have been distinguished. Its 
nearest allies are Anomia among living forms, Gfryphgga among 
fossils. For the so-called Pearl-Oyster see PEARL. (J. T. C.). 

Oyster Indust ;//. 

The oyster industry of the world is seated chiefly in 
the United States and France. Great Britain has still 
a few natural beds remaining, and a number of well-con 
ducted establishments for oyster culture. Canada, Holland, 
Italy, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, Denmark, 
Norway, and Russia have also oyster industries, which are 
comparatively insignificant, and in the case of the two 
countries last named, hardly worthy of consideration in 
a statistical statement. Recent and accurate statistics are 
lacking except in two or three instances. A brief review 
by countries in the order of their importance is here pre 
sented. 

United States. This is by far the most extensive of the fishery 
industries of the country, yielding products three times as valuable 
as those of the cod fishery and six times those of the whale fishery. 
In 1880 it employed 52,805 persons, and yielded 22,195,370 
bushels, worth to the fishermen $9,034,861. On 13,047,922 
bushels there is a rise of value in passing from producers to 
market, which amounts to $4,368,991, and results either from 
replanting or from packing in tin cans. The value of the capital 
invested in the industry is returned as 10,583,295. There are 
employed 4155 vessels, valued at $3,528,700, and 11,930 boats. 
The actual fishermen number 38,249, the shoresmen 14,556. Fully 
80 per cent, of the total yield is obtained from the waters of 
Chesapeake Bay. 1 

France. The oyster industry of France employed in 1881 
29.431 2 men, women, and children in the parks, beds, and preserves. 
The number of such establishments upon the public domain was 
32,364, with an area of 19,891 acres, and 970 establishments upon 
private property, with an area of 926 acres. From these 
374,985,770 oysters were dredged during the season of 1880-81, from 
September 1 to June 15, worth 2,061,753 francs, while the total 
number of oysters disposed of during this period amounted to 
680,372,750, worth 17,951,114 francs. This total includes the 
oysters dredged in the sea as well as those gathered from the arti 
ficial breeding-grounds or parks. 

Great Britain. A brief discussion of the British oyster fisheries 
may be found under FISHERIES, vol. ix. p. 265. A recent estimate 3 
gives the total value of the oysters obtained from British seas at 
2,000,000, worth 2d. each, or, perhaps, 240,000,000 in all. An 
extensive import trade is carried on with the United States, 
which has grown up within the past decade, as is shown by 
the following statement 4 of import values: 1874, $41,419; 

1 The statistical summary prepared for the Fisheries Division of 
the Tenth Census by Mr Ernest Ingersoll shows the details, by States, 
of the oyster industry of the whole country. 

2 Bouchon-Braudely stated in 1877 that the industry of oyster culture 
in France supported a maritime population of 200,000. It is difficult 
to reconcile this statement with the official statistics. 

3 That of Mr James G. Bertram in Brit. Quart. Rev. for January 
1883. 

4 Derived from the records of the United States Treasury. 



108 



O Y 8 T E R 



1875, $38,733 ; 1876, $99,012 ; 1877, 121,301 ; 1878, 254,815 ; 
1879, $306,941 ; 1880, 366,403 ; 1881, 414,584 ; 1882, 372,111 ; 
1883, 371,497. 

Holland. Since 1870 the beds in the province of Zealand have 
been greatly enriched by careful methods of culture and protection; 
and in 1881 the product amounted to 21,800,000 oysters, worth 
about 1,350,000 guilders. 1 About half the product of the Dutch 
oyster fishery is sent to England, and large quantities of the young 
oysters are laid down to fatten in the English oyster-beds. 

Germany. Germany has a small oyster industry on the west 
coast of Schleswig-Holstein. 2 According to Lindeman, the largest 
annual product of these beds has rarely exceeded 4,000,000 oysters. 
From 1859 to 1879 they were rented to a company in Flensburg for 
an annual payment of 80,000 marks. In 1879 the lease was trans 
ferred to a Hamburg firm, who paid for that year 163,000 marks. 

Italy. Oyster culture in Italy, according to Bouchon-Brandely, 3 
is carried on in only one locality, Taranto, though small quan 
tities of natives are obtained from the Gulfs of Genoa and Naples, 
from the coasts of the Adriatic, and from the ponds of Corsica. 
The sea of Taranto is leased by the city to a company that pays an 
annual rent of 38,000 francs. The product of this body of water 
is estimated variously at from 6,000,000 to 10,000,000 oysters 
vearly. The entire annual product of Italy does not probably ex 
ceed 20,000,000 oysters, valued at about 40,000. 

Belgium. Oyster culture is carried on upon a small scale at 
Ostend. There being no native beds, the seed oysters are brought 
from England, a practice which, according to Lindeman, originated 
as early as 1765. The product probably does not exceed 10,000 
bushels a year, and is consumed chiefly in Germany and Holland, 
though there is a small exportation. 

Spain. According to a recent report by Don Francisco Sola, 
there are forty-three establishments in Spain for the cultivation of 
oysters and other shell-fisheries. The amount of oysters annually 
produced is estimated at 167,673 kilogrammes (368,880 Ib), valued 
at 50,296 pesetas (about 2000). These are exported to Algiers, 
France, Portugal, and South America. 

Portugal. There appear to be no statistics for Portugal. Con 
siderable quantities of seed oysters are planted at present in the 
Day of Arcachon and elsewhere in France, and in England the 
Anglo-Portuguese oyster is apparently growing in favour. 4 

Denmark. The very insignificant oyster fishery of Denmark has 
its seat chiefly in the Liimfjord and at Frederikshaven. All the 
oyster-beds, being Government property, are carefully protected by 
law. Statistics for late years are not accessible. In 1847 the product 
of the Frederikshaven beds was about 200,000 oysters ; but the yield 
of late years has been much smaller. The Liimfjord beds were dis 
covered about 1851. From 1876 to 1881 the Danish oyster fisheries 
were leased to a firm in Hamburg, which paid 240,000 kroner 
(13,000) as yearly rental. 

Russia. Grimm states that a specie s of oyster, Ostrea adriatica, 
is found in considerable numbers along the coast of the Crimea, 
and is the object of a considerable trade. Oysters brought from 
Theodosia cost in St Petersburg about 3s. sterling the score. 

Norway. The average value of the yield for the five years ending 
1881 was 7600 kroner (420). The quantity produced in 18 81 
was 267 hectolitres (735 bushels), valued at 7000 kroner (390). 
The industry is seated for the most part in the districts of southern 
Trondhjem and Jarlsberg, the product of the latter province being 
nearly half that of all Norway. 

Subjoined is a rough estimate of the total number of oysters 
obtained annually from the sea (North America, 5,572,000,000; 
Europe, 2,331,200,000): 



United States 5 . ...5,550,000,000 
Canada 22,000,000 

France 680,400,000 

Great Britain 1,600,000,000 

Holland 21,800,000 

Italy 20,000,000 



Germany 4,000,000 

Belgium 2,500,000 

Spain 1,000,000 

Portugal 800, 000 

Denmark 200,000 

Russia 250,000 

Norway 250,000 



1 Hubrecht, "Oyster Culture and Oyster Fisheries of the Netherlands" 
(conference paper, International Fisheries Exhibition) ; Hoek, " Ueber 
Austernzucht in den Niederlanden " (circular 2, Deutsche Fiseherei- 
Verein, 1879 ; translated in Report of the United States Fish Commis 
sion, part viii. pp. 1029-35). 

2 Mobius, Die Auster und die Austernimrthschnft (1877, pp. 126 ; 
translated in Report of the United States Fish Commission, part viii. 
pp. 683-751). 

3 Rapport au Ministre de V Instruction sur la pisciculture en France 
ft L Ostreiculture dans la Mediterranee (Paris, 1878) ; the portion 
relating to oyster culture in the Mediterranean is translated in the 
Report of the United States Fish Commission, part viii. pp. 907-28. 

4 See Renaud, Notice sur V Huitre Porturjaise et Francaise cultivee 
dans la ttaie d Arcachon ; translated in the Report of the United States 
Fish Commission, part viii. pp. 931-41. 

* On basis of 250 oysters to the bushel. The number varies from 
150 to 400. 



The oyster industry is rapidly passing from the hands 
of the fisherman into those of the oyster culturist. The 
oyster being sedentary, except for a few days in the earliest 
stages of its existence, is easily exterminated in any given 
locality ; since, although it may not be possible for the 
fishermen to rake up from the bottom every individual, 
wholesale methods of capture soon result in covering up 
or otherwise destroying the oyster banks or reefs, as the 
communities of oysters are technically termed. The main 
difference between the oyster industry of America and that 
of Europe lies in the fact that in Europe the native beds 
have long since been practically destroyed, perhaps not 
more than 6 or 7 per cent, of the oysters of Europe 
passing from the native beds directly into the hands 
of the consumer. It is probable that 60 to 75 per 
cent, are reared from the spat in artificial parks, the 
remainder having been laid down for a time to increase in 
size and flavour in shoal waters along the coasts. In the 
United States, on the other hand, from 30 to 40 per 
cent, are carried from the native beds directly to market. 
The oyster fishery is everywhere, except in localities 
where the natural beds are nearly exhausted, carried on in 
the most reckless manner, and in all directions oyster 
grounds are becoming deteriorated, and in some cases have 
been entirely destroyed. It remains to be seen whether 
the Government of the States will regulate the oyster 
fishery before it is too late, or will permit the destruction 
of these most important reservoirs of food. At present 
the oyster is one of the cheapest articles of diet in the 
United States ; and, though it can hardly be expected 
that the price of American oysters will always remain so 
low, still, taking into consideration the great wealth of 
the natural beds along the entire Atlantic coast, it seems 
certain that a moderate amount of protection will keep 
the price of seed oysters far below European rates, and 
that the immense stretches of submerged land especially 
suited for oyster planting may be utilized and made to 
produce an abundant harvest at much less cost than that 
which accompanies the complicated system of culture in 
vogue in France and Holland. 

The most elaborate system of oyster culture is that 
practised at Arcachon and elsewhere in France, and, to a 
limited extent since 1865, on the island of Hay ling, near 
Portsmouth, in England. The young oysters, having been 
collected in the breeding season upon tiles or hurdles, are 
laid down in artificial ponds, or in troughs, where the 
water is supplied to them at the discretion of their pro 
prietors. The oysters are thus kept under control like 
garden plants from the time they are laid down to that of 
delivery to commercial control. The numerous modifica 
tions of this system are discussed in various recent 
reports. 6 

The simplest form of oyster culture is the preservation 
of the natural oyster-beds. Upon this, in fact, depends 
the whole future of the industry, since it is not probable 
that any system of artificial breeding can be devised which 
will render it possible to keep up a supply without at least 
occasional recourse to seed oysters produced under natural 
conditions. It is the opinion of almost all who have 
studied the subject that any natural bed may in time be 
destroyed by overfishing (perhaps not by removing all the 
oysters, but by breaking up the colonies, and delivering 
over the territory which they once occupied to other kinds 
of animals), by burying the breeding oysters, by covering 

6 See especially the following English parliamentary papers : Report 
of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the Present State of the 
Oyster Fisheries of France, England, and Ireland, 1870 ; Report of the 
Select Committee appointed to inquire what are the Reasons for the 
Present Scarcity of Oysters, &c., 1876 ; Report on the Principal Oyster 
Fisheries of France, with a short description of the System of Oyster 
Culture pursued at some of the most important places, &c., 1878. 



109 



up the projections suitable for the reception of spat, and 
by breaking down, through the action of heavy dredges, 
the ridges which are especially fitted to be seats of the 
colonies. 1 The immense oyster-beds in Pocomoke Sound, 
Maryland, have practically been destroyed by over-dredg 
ing, and many of the other beds of the United States are 
seriously damaged. The same is doubtless true of all the 
beds of Europe. It has also been demonstrated that 
under proper restriction great quantities of mature oysters, 
and seed oysters as well, may be taken from any region 
of natural oyster-beds without injurious effects. Parallel 
cases in agriculture and forestry will occur to every one. 
Mobius, in his most admirable essay Die Aiister und Die 
Austernitnrt/isckaff, has pointed out the proper means of 
preserving natural beds, declaring that, if the average profit 
from a bed of oysters is to remain permanently the same, 
a sufficient number of mother oysters must be left in it, 
so as not to diminish the capacity of maturing. He 
further shows that the productive capacity of a bed can 
only be maintained in one of two ways : (1) by diminish 
ing the causes which destroy the young oysters, in which 
case the number of breeding oysters may safely be 
decreased ; this, however, is practicable only under such 
favourable conditions as occur at Arcachon, where the beds 
may be kept under the constant control of the oyster- 
culturist ; (2) by regulating the fishing on the natural 
beds in such a manner as to make them produce perma 
nently the highest possible average quantity of oysters. 
Since the annual increase of half-grown oysters is estimated 
by him to be four hundred and twenty-one to every 
thousand full-grown oysters, he claims that not more than 
42 per cent, of these latter ought to be taken from a bed 
during a year. 

The Schleswig-Holstein oyster-beds are the property of 
the state, and are leased to a company whose interest it is 
to preserve their productiveness. The French beds are 
also kept under Government control. Not so the beds 
of Great Britain and America, which are as a general 
rule open to all comers, 2 except when some close-time 
regulation is in force. Prof. Huxley has illustrated the 
futility of " close-time " in his remark that the prohibition 
of taking oysters from an oyster-bed during four months 
of the year is not the slightest security against its being 
.stripped clean during the other eight months. " Suppose," 
he continues, " that in a country infested by wolves, you 
have a flock of sheep, keeping the wolves off during the 
lambing season will not afford much protection if you 
withdraw shepherd and dogs during the rest of the year." 
The old close-time laws were abolished in England in 
1866, and returned to in 1876, but no results can be traced 
to the action of parliament in either case. Prof. Huxley s 
conclusions as regards the future of the oyster industry 
in Great Britain are doubtless just as applicable to other 
countries, that the only hope for the oyster consumer 
lies in the encouragement of oyster-culture, and in the 
development of some means of breeding oysters under 
such conditions that the spat shall be safely deposited. 
Oyster culture can evidently be carried on only by private 
enterprise, and the problem for legislation to solve is how 

1 Even Prof. Huxley, the most ardent of all opponents of fishery 
legislation, while denying that oyster-beds have been permanently 
annihilated by dredging, practically admits that a bed may be reduced 
to such a condition that the oyster will only be able to recover its 
former state by a long struggle with its enemies and competition. in 
fact that it must re-establish itself much in the same way as they have 
acquired possession of new grounds in Jutland, a process which, 
according to his own statement, occupied thirty years (Lecture at the 
Royal Institution, May 11, 1883, printed with additions in the English 
Illustrated Ma/jazine, i. pp. 47-55, 112-21). 

2 Connecticut has within a few years greatly benefited its oyster 
industry by giving to oyster-culturists a fee simple title to the lands 
under control by them. 



to give such rights of property upon those shores which 
are favourable to oyster culture as may encourage com 
petent persons to invest their money in that undertaking. 
Such property right should undoubtedly be extended to 
natural beds, or else an area of natural spawning territory 
should be kept under constant control and surveillance by 
Government, for the purpose of maintaining an adequate 
supply of seed oysters. 

The existing legislation in the United States is thus admirably 
summarized by Lieutenant Francis Winslow: 3 

"The fishery is regulated by the laws of the various States, the Federal 
Government exercising no control, and consequently the conditions under which 
the pursuit is followed are many and various. At the present time the laws 
relating to the oyster fishery may be said to be based upon one of two general 
principles. The first, the basis for the regulations of most of the States, con 
siders the oyster-beds to be inalienable common property. Laws based upon 
this principle are generally of a protective nature, and are in reality regulations 
of the State, made by it in its capacity of guardian of the common property. The 
second principle assumes the right of the State to dispose of the area at the bottom 
of its rivers, harbours, and estuaries, and, having disposed of it, to consider the 
lessee or owner as alone responsible for the success or failure of his enterprises, 
and the State in no way called upon to afford him of her assistance than protect ion 
in legitimate rights, in general terms, under the first principle the beds arc held 
in common ; under the second, in severally. But one State permits the pre 
emption of an unlimited tract of bottom, and the holding of it in fee the State 
of Connecticut. Rhode Island leases her ground for a term of years, at 810 per 
acre ; but the person holding an area linsno legal power of disposing of it beyond 
the limits of the lease. Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, and 
Virginia all permit pre-emption of small tracts by individuals for indefinite 
periods, and on the coast of Long Island the various towns along the shore lease 
tracts of considerable extent to private cultivators. 

" Various restrictions are also placed upon the time and manner of conducting 
the fisheries. Some of the States, noticeably Virginia, prohibit entirely the use 
of the dredge or scrape ; others, noticeably New Jersey, prohibit such use in some 
localities, and permit it in others. All the States, with one exception, prohibit 
the use of steam vessels or machinery, or fishing by other than their own inhabit 
ants. Connecticut again forms the exception, and quite a large fleet of steam 
dredging vessels are employed on her beds. 

"The laws of the various States have several common features. All general 
fishing is suspended during the summer months. No night fishing is permitted. 
No steamers are allowed to be used. No proprietary rights to particular areas arc- 
given beyond the right to plant 1 a limited number of oysters on bottoms adjoin 
ing land owned by the planter, and peace officers and local authorities are charged 
with execution of laws relating to the fishery. In a few States or localities 
licences are required to be obtained for each fishing vessel; and in one State. 
Maryland, a regular police force and fleet of vessels are maintained to support the 
law. These regulations are easily evaded, except those relating to the steamer* 
a::d pre-emption of ground. Naturally, no one will put down oysters without 
being able to protect them ; and steamers are too readily detected to make their 
illegal employment possible. In Connecticut and Hhode Island, the beds being 
virtually private property, there is no restriction of the fishery, except that it shall 
not be conducted at night." 

The method of gathering oysters is simple, and much the same in 
all parts of the world, the implements in use being nippers or 
tongs with long handles, rakes, which are simply many-pronged 
nippers, and dredges. The subjoined account of the American 
method is abridged from that of Lieutenant Winslow: 

The character of the vessel or boat used depends in a measure upon the means 
of the fisherman and the constancy of his employment, and is also influenced by 
the character of the oyster ground, its location, and the laws governing the fish 
ing. The last-named condition also decides the implement to be used ; when 
permitted, it is the dredge either the enormous one employed by the steamers, 
the smaller toothed rake-dredge, or smooth-scrape. When dredging is prohibited, 
the tongs, or nippers, with two handles, sometimes 30 feet long, are used. The 
dredges are usually worked by an apparatus termed a "winder, 1 many forms 
of which are employed, the best and most recent form being so designed that if, 
while reeling in, the dredge should "hang," that is, become immovably fixed by 
some obstruction r-n the bottom, the drum is at once automatically thrown out of 
gearing, and the dredge-rope allowed to run out. Small craft use a more simple 
and less expensive description of winch, and frequently haul in by hand, while 
the steam dredgers have powerful machinery adapted for this special purpose. 
The number of men employed varies with the size of the craft ; two, three, and 
four men are sufficient on board the smaller dredgers, while the larger carry ten 
and twelve. 

While a great many oysters arc transported in the shell to markets distant from 
the seaboard, the largest part of the inland consumption is of "opened" or 
"shucked" oysters, and nearly every oyster dealer along the coast employs a 
larger or smaller number of persons to open the oysters and pack and ship the 
meats. Some of these establishments arc small, having as few as half a dozen 
people engaged ; others are large buildings or sheds, and employ hundreds of 
" shuckers." After having been removed from their shells and thoroughly 
washed, the oysters thus dealt with are transferred either to small cans, holding 
a quart of oysters, or to barrels, kegs, or tubs ; when packed in tubs, kegs, or 
barrels, they go in bulk, with a large piece of ice; when packed in the tin cans, 
the cans are arranged in two rows inside of a long box, a vacant space being left 
in the centre, between the rows, in which is placed ft large block of ice. The cans 
are carefully soldered up before packing, and together with the ice are laid in saw 
dust. Oysters packed in this way ciin, in cool weather, be kept a week or more, 
and sent across the continent, or to the remote western towns. 

The steaming process is that by which the " cove" oysters are prepared. The 
term "cove" is applied to oysters put up in cans, hermetically sealed, and 
intended to be prose i ved an indefinite time. The trade in coves is confined 
principally to the Chesapeake region, and the process of prepaiing them is as 
follows. The oysters, usually the smaller sizes, are taken from the vessels and 
placed in cars of iron frame-work, 6 or 8 feet long. These cars run on a light 
iron track, which is laid from the wharf through the " steam-chest " or " steam- 
box" to the shucking shed. As soon as a car is filled with oysters (in the shell) 
it is run into the steam-chest, a rectangular oak box, 15 to 20 feet long, lined with 
sheet iron and fitted with appliances for turning in steam ; the doors, which wo k 
vertically and shut closely, are then let down, the steam admitted, and the oysters 

3 Catalogue of the Economic Mollusca exhibited by the United 
States National Museum at the International Fisheries Exhibition, 
London, 1883. 



110 



OYSTER 



left for ten or fifteen minutes. The chest is then opened and the cars run into the 
shucking shed, their places in the chest being immediately occupied by othercars. 
In tlie shed the cars are surrounded by the shuckers, each provided with a knife 
and a can arranged so as to hook to the upper bar of the iron frame-work of the cur. 
The steaming having caused the oyster shells to open more or less widely, there is 
no difficulty in getting out the meats, and the cais are very rapidly emptied. The 
oysters are then washed in iced water and transferred to the " fillers " table. The 
cans, having been filled, are removed to another part of the room and packed in 
a cylindrical, iron crate or basket, and lowered into a large cylindrical kettle, 
called the "process kettle" or "tub," where they are again steamed. After this 
they are placed, crate and all, in the "cooling tub;" and when sufficiently cool to 
be handled, the cans are taken to the soldering table, and there " capped" that is, 
are hermetically closed. From the "cappers" they are transported to another 
department, labelled, and packed in boxes for shipment. The whole steaming pro 
cess will not occupy an hour from the time the oysters leave the vessel until they 
aie ready for shipment. 

The extension of the area of the natural beds is the 
second step in oyster culture. As is well known to zoolo 
gists, and as has been very lucidly set forth by Prof. 
Mdbius in the essay already referred to, the location of 
oyster banks is sharply denned by absolute physical con 
ditions. Within certain definite limits of depth, tempera 
ture, and salinity, the only requirement is a suitable place 
for attachment. Oysters cannot thrive where the ground 
is composed of moving sand or where mud is deposited ; 
consequently, since the size and number of these places are 
very limited, only a very small percentage of the young 
oysters can find a resting-place, and the remainder perish. 
Mb bius estimates that for every oyster brought to market 
from the Holstein banks, 1,045,000 are destroyed or die. 
By putting down suitable " cultch " or "stools" immense 
quantities of the wandering fry may be induced to settle, 
and are thus saved. As a fule the natural beds occupy 
most of the suitable space in their own vicinity. Unoccu 
pied territory may, however, be prepared for the reception 
of new beds, by spreading sand, gravel, and shells over 
muddy bottoms, or, indeed, beds may be kept up in loca 
tions for permanent natural beds, by putting down mature 
oysters and cultch just before the time of breeding, thus 
giving the young a chance to fix themselves before the 
currents and enemies have had time to accomplish much 
in the way of destruction. 

The collection of oyster spat upon artificial stools has 
been practised from time immemorial. As early as the 
7th century, and probably before, the Romans practised a 
kind of oyster culture in Lake Avernus, which still sur 
vives to the present day in Lake Fusaro. Piles of rocks 
are made on the muddy bottoms of these salt-water lakes, 
and around these are arranged circles of stakes, to which 
are often attached bundles of twigs. Breeding oysters are 
piled upon the rookeries, and their young become attached 
to the stakes and twigs provided for their reception, where 
they are allowed to remain until ready for use, when they 
are plucked off and sent to the market. A similar though 
ruder device is used in the Poquonnock river in Connecti 
cut. Birch trees are thrown into the water near a natural 
bed of oysters, and the trunks and twigs become covered 
with spat ; the trees are then dragged out upon the shore 
by oxen, and the young fry are broken off and laid down 
in the shallows to increase in size. In 1858 the method 
of the Italian lakes were repeated at St Brieuc under the 
direction of Prof. P. Coste, and from these experiments 
the art of artificial breeding as practised in France has 
been developed. There is, however, a marked distinc 
tion between oyster culture and oyster breeding, as will be 
shown below. The natural beds of France in the Bay of 
Arcachon, near Auray in Brittany, near Cancale and Gran- 
ville in Xormandy, and elsewhere, are, however, carefully 
cultivated,, as it is necessary that they should be, for the 
support of the breeding establishments. 1 

More or less handling or " working" of the oysters is necessary 
both for natural and transplanted beds. The most elaborate is 
that which has been styled the " English system," which is carried 
on chiefly near the mouth of the Thames, by the Whitstable and 
Colchester corporations of fishermen and others. This consists in 

1 See Report of the United States Fish Commission, part viii. pp. 
739-41, 753-59, 885-903, 901-41. 



laying down beds in water a fathom or more in depth at low water 
and constantly dredging over the grounds, even during the close 
time, except during the period when the spat is actually settling. 
By this means the oysters are frequently taken out of the water and 
put back again, and it is claimed that in this way their enemies are 
battled and the ground put in better condition to receive the spat. 
As a matter of fact, however, the oysters have not for many years 
multiplied under this treatment, and the system is practically one 
of oyster-parking rather than one of oyster-culture. One of the 
advantages of the frequent handling is that the fishermen, in 
putting the oysters back, can assort them by sizes, and arrange them 
conveniently for the final gathering for market purposes. 

American oyster culture, as practised in the "East River" (the 
western end of Long Island Sound), in eastern Connecticut, and to 
some extent in Long Island and New Jersey, is eminently success 
ful and profitable, and there seems to be no reason to doubt its 
permanence,, conducted as it is in close proximity to the natural 
beds, and with due regard for preservation. In the Long Island 
Sound alone, in 1879, the labours of 1714 men produced 997,000 
bushels, or perhaps 250,000,000 of native oysters, valued at 
$847,925, while all France produced in the following season 375,000, 
worth about $412,000. There was also a side product of 450,000 
bushels (122,000,000) of transplanted oysters, worth $350,000, 
handled by the same men in the American beds, while France 
employed an additional force of 28,000 people to produce 305,000,000 
artificially bred oysters, worth $3,179,000. The Long Island 
Sound system consists simply in distributing over the grounds, just 
before the spawning season, quantities of old oyster shells to which 
the young oysters become attached, and left undisturbed for from 
three to five years, when, having reached maturity, they are 
dredged for use. Spawning oysters are frequently put down in the 
spring, two months before the ground is shelled ; this is done even 
when the natural beds are near, but is not so essential as when a 
rather remote piece of bottom is to be colonized. 2 

An excellent summary of the methods of planting in different parts 
of the United States may be found in "Winslow s paper alreadyquoted. 

The laying down or temporary deposit of dredged oysters in 
estuaries on floats or in tanks, to fatten, increase in size, or improve 
in flavour, is a concomitant of oyster culture, and may be used in 
connexion with any of the systems above referred to. It is in no 
sense oyster culture, since it has no relation to the maintenance of 
the supply. A system of this kind has been practised since the 16th 
century at Marcnncs and La Tremblade on the west coast of 
France, where oysters from natural beds are placed in shallow 
basins communicating with the sea during the spring tides, and 
where they obtain food which gives them a green colour and a 
peculiar flavour much esteemed by Parisian epicures. 3 Similar 
methods of parking are practised at Cancale and Granville. 

In England, brood oysters are laid down in fattening beds on the 
coast of Essex and in the Thames estuary, where they acquire deli 
cacy of flavour, and to some extent, especially in the Thames, the 
green colour already referred to. Belgium has also, near Ostend, 
fattening beds supplied with foreign spat, chiefly from England. 

In the United States an extensive business is carried on in laying 
down seed oysters from the Chesapeake Bay in the estuaries of 
southern New England and the Middle States. 

Oyster-culturists practise in many places what is called " plump 
ing," or puffing up oysters for market by exposing them for a short 
time to the effects of water fresher than that in which they grew. 
By this process the animal does not acquire any additional matter 
except the water, which is taken up in great amount, but it loses a 
part of its saltness, and, in flavour, becomes more like an oyster 
from brackish waters. 

There are large oyster reservoirs at Husuni in Schlcswig-IIolstein, 
and at Ostend, whi>-h serve the double purpose of fattening the 
oysters and of keeping a uniform supply for the markets at times 
unsuited to the prosecution of the fishery. 

The artificial impregnation of oyster eggs has been successfully 
accomplished by many experimenters, and in 1883 Mr John A. 
Ryder of the United States Fish Commission succeeded in confining 
the swimming embryos in collectors until they had formed their 
shells and become fixed. The utility of this experiment seems to 
consist in the greater facility which it gives to oyster-cnlturists in 
securing a sure supply of spat, independent of the vicissitudes 
which currents and changes of weather entail upon those who rely 
upon its deposit under natural conditions. The spat thus secured 
can be reared either by the American, English, or French systems. 
It is not probable that the common European species, Ostrca cdulis, 
can be so readily handled by this method as the Portuguese 
species, Ostrea angulata, or the American, Ostrea virginica, though 
this can only be determined by trial. For the details of Mr Ryder s 
experiment, see the Bulletin of the United States Fish Commis 
sion, vol. ii. pp. 281-94. (G. B. G.) 

2 The Oyster Industry, by Ernest Ingersoll (Washington, 1881). 

3 Mb bius, Die Auster und Die Austemwirthschaft ; and De Bon, 
Ostrieculture en 1875. 



Y S Z A 



111 



OYSTER-CATCHER, a bird s name which does not 
seem to occur in books until 1731, when Catesby (Nat. 
Hist. Carolina, i. p. 85) used it for a species which he 
observed to be abundant on the oyster-banks left bare at 
low water in the rivers of Carolina, and believed to feed 
principally upon those molluscs. In 1776 Pennant applied 
the name to the allied British species, which he and for 
nearly two hundred years many other English writers had 
called the "Sea-Pie." The change, in spite of the mis 
nomer for, whatever may be the case elsewhere, in 
England the bird does not feed upon oysters met with 
general approval, and the new name has, at least in books, 
almost wholly replaced what seems to have been the older 
one. 1 The Oyster-catcher of Europe is the Ifxmatopus 12 
ostralegus of Linnaeus, belonging to the group now called 
Limicolx, and is generally included in the Family 
Charadriidx ; though some writers have placed it in one 
of its own, Hxmatopodidx, chiefly on account of its peculiar 
bill a long thin wedge, ending in a vertical edge. Its 
feet also are much more fleshy than are generally seen in 
the Plover Family. In its strongly-contrasted plumage of 
black and white, with a coral-coloured bill, the Oyster- 
catcher is one of the most conspicuous birds of the 
European coasts, and in many parts is still very common. 
It is nearly always seen paired, though the pairs collect in 
prodigious flocks ; and, when these are broken up, its shrill 
but musical cry of " tu-lup," " tu-lup," somewhat pettishly 
repeated, helps to draw attention to it. Its wariness, how 
ever, is very marvellous, and even at the breeding-season, 
when most birds throw off their shyness, it is not easily 
approached within ordinary gunshot distance. The hen- 
bird commonly lays three clay-coloured eggs, blotched with 
black, in a very slight hollow on the ground, not far from 
the sea. As incubation goes on the hollow is somewhat 
deepened, and perhaps some haulm is added to its edge, so 
that at last a very fair nest is the result. The young, as 
in all Limicolaz, are at first clothed in down, so mottled in 
colour as closely to resemble the shingle to which, if they 
be not hatched upon it, they are almost immediately taken 
by their parents, and there, on the slightest alarm, they 
squat close to elude observation. This species occurs 
on the British coasts (very seldom straying inland) all 
the year round ; but there is some reason to think that 
those we have in winter are natives of more northern 
latitudes, while our home-bred birds leave us. It ranges 
from Iceland to the shores of the Red Sea, and lives chiefly 
on marine worms, Crustacea, and such molluscs as it is 
able to obtain. It is commonly supposed to be capable 
of prizing limpets from their rock, and of opening the 
shells of mussels ; but, though undoubtedly it feeds on 
both, further evidence as to the way in which it procures 
them is desirable. Mr Harting informs the writer that 
the bird seems to lay its head sideways on the ground, 
and then, grasping the limpet s shell close to the rock 
between the mandibles, use them as scissor-blades to cut 
off the mollusc from its sticking-place. The Oyster-catcher 
is not highly esteemed as a bird for the table. 

Differing from this species in the possession of a longer 

1 It seems however very possible, judging from its equivalents in 
other European languages, such as the Frisian ester visscher, the 
German Augsterman, Austernfischer, and the like, that the name 
" Oyster-catcher " may have been not a colonial invention but 
indigenous to the mother-country, though it had not found its way 
into print before. The French Huitrier, however, appears to be a 
word coined by Brisson. " Sea- Pie" has its analogues in the French 
Pie-de-Mer. the German Meerelster, Seeelster, and so forth. 

2 Whether it be the Hasmatopus whose name is found in some 
editions of Pliny (lib. x. cap. 47) is at best doubtful. Other editions 
have Himantopus; but Hardouin prefers the former reading. Both 
words have passed into modern ornithology, the latter as the generic 
name of the STILT (q.v. ); and some writers have blended the two in 
the strange and impossible compound Ilasmantopus. 



bill, in having much less white on its back, in the paler colour 
of its mantle, and in a few other points, is the ordinary 
American species, already mentioned, Haimatopus palliatus. 
Except that its call-note, judging from description, is unlike 
that of the European bird, the habits of the two seem to be 
perfectly similar ; and the same may be said indeed of all 
the other species. The Falkland Islands are frequented by 
a third, //. leucopus, very similar to the first, but with 
a black wing-lining and paler legs, while the Australian 
Region possesses a fourth, //. longirostris, with a very long 
bill as its name intimates, and no white on its primaries. 
China, Japan, and possibly eastern Asia in general have 
an Oyster-catcher which seems to be intermediate between 
the last and the first. This has received the name of 
H. osculans ; but doubts have been expressed as to its 
deserving specific recognition. Then we have a group of 
species in which the plumage is wholly or almost wholly 
black, and among them only do we find birds that fulfil 
the implication of the scientific name of the genus by having 
feet that may be called blood-red. //. niger, which fre 
quents both coasts of the northern Pacific, has, it is true, 
yellow legs, but towards the extremity of South America 
its place is taken by //. ater, in which they are bright red, 
and this bird is further remarkable for its laterally com 
pressed and much upturned bill. The South African H. 
capensis has also scarlet legs; but in the otherwise very 
similar bird of Australia and New Zealand, H. unicolor, 
these members are of a pale brick-colour. (A. N.) 

OZAKA, or OSAKA, one of the three imperial cities of 
Japan (Kioto and Tokio or Yedo being the other two), is 
situated in a plain in the province of Setsu or Sesshiu, 
measuring about 20 miles from north to south and from 
15 to 20 miles east and west, and bounded, except 
towards the west, where it opens on Idzuminada Bay, by 
hills of considerable height. It lies on both sides of the 
Yodogawa, or rather of its headwater the Aji (the outlet 
of Lake Biwa), and is so intersected by river-branches and 
canals as to suggest a comparison with Venice or Stockholm. 
River steamers ply between Ozaka and its port Hiogo or 
Kobe, and a railway between the two places, opened in 
1873, has since been extended to Kioto and farther. The 
streets are not very broad, but for the most part they are 
regular and well kept ; the houses, about 20 or 25 feet in 
height, are all built of wood. Shin-sal Bashi Suji, the 
principal thoroughfare, leads from Kitahama, the district 
lying on the south side of the Tosabori, to the iron suspen 
sion bridge (Shin-sai Bashi) over the Dotom-bori. The 
foreign settlement is at Kawaguchi at the junction of the 
Shirinashi-gawa and the Aji-Kawa, It is almost deserted 
by the foreign merchants, who prefer to have their 
establishments at Kobe, but it is the seat of a number of 
European mission stations. Though the Buddhist temples 
of Ozaka number 1380 and the Shinto temples 538, few 
of them are of much note. The Buddhistic Tennoji, 
founded by Shotoku Tai-shi, and restored in 1664, covers 
an immense area at the south-east corner of the city, and 
has a fine pagoda from which an admirable view of the 
country is obtained. Two other Buddhist temples, which 
form a conspicuous object in the heart of the city, are 
occupied, one as a Government hospital and the other as a 
Government school. The principal secular buildings are the 
castle, the mint, and the arsenal. The castle was founded 
in 1584 by Hideyoshi; the enclosed palace, "probably the 
finest building Japan ever saw," survived the capture of 
the castle by lyeyasu, and in 1867 and 1878 witnessed 
the reception of the foreign legations by the Tokugawa 
shoguns ; but in the latter year it was fired by the 
Tokugawa party. Externally the whole castle is protected 
by a double enceinte of high and massive walls and broad 
moats the outer moat from 80 to 120 yards across and 



112 



Z A Z 



from 12 to 24 feet deep. Huge blocks of granite_40 feet 
by 10 or 20 feet occur in the masonry. The mint, erected 
by T. J. Waters, and organized by Major T. W. Kinder 
and twelve European officials, covers an area of 40 acres, 
and employs about 600 persons. It was opened in 1871. 
Both cannon and guns are manufactured in the arsenal. 
Apart from these Government establishments Ozaka is the 
seat of great industrial activity, possessing iron foundries, 
copper foundries, and rolling mills, antimony works, large 
glass works, paper mills, a sugar refinery, a cotton spin 
ning mill, rice mills, an oil factory, sulphuric acid works, 
match factories, soap works, sak6 distilleries, a brewery 
(after the German pattern), shipyards, &c. Bronzes, 
sulphuric acid, and matches are among its chief exports. 
In the surrounding district large quantities of rape-seed 
are grown. The population in 1872 was 271,992 ; in 
1877, 284,105. 

Ozaka owes its origin to Ren-nio Sho-nin, the 8th head of the 
Shin-Shin sect, who in 1495-6 built, on the site now occupied by 
the castle, a temple which afterwards became the principal residence 
of his successors. In 1580, after ten years successful defence of 
his position, Ken-nio, the llth "abbot," was obliged to surrender ; 
and in 1583 the victorious Hideyoshi made Ozaka his capital. The 
town was opened to foreign trade in 1868. 

OZAXAM, ANTOIXE FREDERIC (1813-1853), the 
greatest name, as far as literary and historical criticism is 
concerned, of the Neo-Catholic movement in France during 
the first half of the 19th century, was born at Milan on 
April 13, 1813. His family is said (as the name suggests) 
to have been of Jewish extraction, and has a circumstantial 
though possibly fabulous genealogy of extraordinary length. 
At any rate it had been settled in the Lyonnais for many 
centuries. In the third generation before Frederic it had 
reached distinction through Jacques Ozanam, a mathema 
tician of eminence. The critic s father, Antoine Ozanam, 
served in the armies of the republic, but could not stomach 
the empire, and betook himself to commerce, teaching, and 
finally medicine. The boy was brought up at Lyons, and 
was strongly influenced by one of his masters, the Abb6 
Xoirot. His conservative and religious instincts showed 
themselves early, and he published a pamphlet against 
Saint-Simonianism in 1831, which attracted the attention 
of Lamartine. He was then sent to study law in Paris, 
where he fell in with the Ampere family, and through 
them with excellent literary society. He also came under 
the influence of the Abbe Gerbet, the soberest and most 
learned member of the religious school of Lamennais and 
Lacordaire. Ozanam, however, though he joined with all 
the fervour of youth in the Xeo-Catholic polemic, never 
underwent the uncomfortable experiences of the direct 
followers of Lamennais. His journal (for in those years 
every one was a journalist) was not the Avenir, but the 
more orthodox Tribune Catholique of Bailly, and he with 
some other young men founded the famous society of St 
Vincent de Paul, which was occupied in practical good 
works. Meanwhile he did not neglect his studies. He was 
called to the bar, and_in 1838 won his doctor s degree in 
letters with a thesis on Dante, which was the beginning of 
his best-known book. A year later he was appointed to a 
professorship of commercial law at Lyons, and in another 
year assistant professor to Fauriel at the Sorbonne. On 
this latter precarious endowment he married, and visited 
Italy on his wedding tour. At Fauriel s death in 1844 he 
succeeded to the full professorship of foreign literature, 
and his future was thereby tolerably assured. He had, 
however, by no means a strong constitution, and he tried 
it severely by combining with his professorial work a good 
deal of literary occupation, while he still continued his 
custom of district-visiting as a member of the society of 
St Vincent de Paul. The short remainder of his life was 
extremely busy, though it was relieved at intervals by 



visits to Italy, Brittany, England, and other places. He 
produced numerous books, and during the revolution of 
1848 (of which, like not a few of his school, he took an 
unduly sanguine view) he once more became a journalist 
in the Ere Nouvelle and other papers for a short time. 
He was in London at the time of the Exhibition of 1851. 
In little more than two years from that date he died of 
consumption (which he had vainly hoped to cure by visit 
ing Italy) on September 8, 1853, at the age of forty. 

Ozanam deserves the phrase which has been attached to his nama 
at the beginning of this article. He was more sincere, more learned, 
and more logical than Chateaubriand, less of a political partisan 
and less of a literary sentimentalist than Montalembert. "Whether 
his conception of a democratic Catholicism was a possible one is of 
course a matter of opinion, and it may be frankly admitted that, 
well as he knew the Middle Ages, he looked at them too exclusively 
through the spectacles of a defender of the papacy. He confessed 
that his object was to "prove the contrary thesis to Gibbon s." 
And no doubt any historian, literary or other, who begins with the 
desire to prove a thesis is sure to go more or less wrong. But his 
pictures were not so much coloured \>y his prepossessions as some 
contemporary pictures on the other side, and he had not only a 
great knowledge of mediaeval literature, but also a strong and 
appreciative sympathy with mediaeval life. 

His chief works (collected in 1855-58) were Bacon ct St Thomas de 
Cantorbery, 1836; Dante ct la Philosophic Catholique, 1839 (2d ed., 
enlarged, 1845); Etudes Gcrmaniqucs, 1847-49 ; Documents inedits 
pour scrvir a I Histoire (^Italic, 1850; Lcs Poetcs Frandscains, 
1852. There is an interesting life of him in English by K. O Meara 
(2d ed., London, 1878). 

OZOCERITE, or OZOKERITE (owv, odour-emitting, and 
K-qpos, wax; smelling wax, mineral wax), is a combustible 
mineral which may be designated as crude native PARAFFIN 
(q.v.), found in many localities in varying degrees of 
purity. The only commercial sources of supply however 
are in Galicia, principally at Boryslaff and Dzwieniasz. 
Hofstadter in 1854 examined an ozocerite from " Boristoff 
near Drohobiez," Galicia ; he found it to consist chiefly 
of hydrocarbon which, after crystallization from alcohol, 
exhibited the composition CH 2 of the defines ; this, 
however, is quite compatible with their being really 
"paraffins," C u H 2 ,, +2 , which latter formula for a large n 
coincides practically with C,,H 2u . At and near Baku and 
in other places about the Caspian Sea, soft oily native 
paraffins, known as " nefto-gil" or " nefte-degil " and " kir," 
are found with other petroleum products. The theory of 
the formation of ozocerite now generally accepted is that it 
is a product of the decomposition of organic substances, 
which was originally like petroleum, but has lost its more 
volatile components by volatilization. All native petroleum 
in fact, like crude paraffin oil, holds solid paraffin in 
solution. 

Galician ozocerite varies in consistence from that of a 
rather firm and hard wax to that of a soft adherent plastic 
mass, and in colour from yellow to a dark (almost black) 
green. Its melting-point ranges from 58 to 98 C. (136^ 
to 208 Fahr.); the extra high melting point of the paraffin 
extracted from it is one of its distinguishing features. 
Besides the earthy impurities which are always associated 
with the mineral as found in the " nests " containing it, 
it is mixed with liquid hydrocarbons, resinous oxygenated 
compounds, and water. In the following table columns 
I. and II. show the yield in two distillations of a superior 
quality of the ozocerite of Boryslaff, as given by Perutz. 





I. 


II. 


Benzene 


5-67 


0-27 


Naphtha.. . ... 


3-67 


11-00 


Paraffin 


82-33 


78-32 


Pyrene and chrysene.. . . 


2-05 




Coke and loss 


5 -59 


8-28 


Water 


0-33 


2-13 









The purified paraffin of ozocerite makes excellent candles, 
which are said to give more light, weight for weight, than 



Z Z O 



113 



those made from ordinary paraffin, besides being less easily 
fusible. Under the name of ceresin or ozocerotin a large 
proportion of the high-melting paraffin extracted from the 
mineral goes into commerce, to be used chiefly for the 
adulteration of beeswax. The various methods of refining 
used furnish certain proportions of soft paraffin, and of 
heavy and light oils as bye-products, which take their place 
in commerce beside the corresponding products from shale 
and petroleum. 

A kind of mineral wax known as idrialine accompanies the 
mercury ore in Llria. According to Goldschmiedt it can be 
extracted by means of xylol, amyl-alcohol, or turpentine, and 
also, without decomposition, by distillation in a current of hydro 
gen or carbonic acid. It is a white crystalline body, very difficultly 
fusible, boiling above 440 C. (824 F.), of the composition C4 H 28 0. 
Its solution in glacial acetic acid, by oxidation with chromic acid, 
yielded to Goldschmiedt a red powdery solid and a fatty acid 
fusing at 62 C. , and exhibiting all the characters of a mixture of 
palmitic and stearic acids. 

OZONE has been defined and to some extent discussed 
under the heading CHEMISTRY, vol. v. p. 481. 

From the time of Van Marum (1785) at least it was 
known that the passage of electric sparks through air is 
accompanied by the production of a peculiar smell ; but 
the cause of this remained unknown until 1840, when 
Schonbein observed that a similar smell is exhibited by 
electrolytic oxygen (as obtained in the electrolysis of acidu 
lated water), and also develops in the atmosphere of a vessel 
in which phosphorus suffers spontaneous oxidation at 
ordinary temperatures in the presence of water. The three 
kinds of odoriferous gas, he found, had the power of decom 
posing iodide of potassium with liberation of iodine, and 
they agreed also in their behaviour to other reagents, 
whence he concluded that in all the three cases the smell 
was owing to the same peculiar substance which he called 
ozone (from oeu/, to emit an odour). Numerous experi 
ments confirmed his first impression that ozone is chem 
ically similar to, though distinctly different from, chlorine, 
but he got no further towards establishing its nature. 
Having found, however, that dry phosphorus produces no 
ozone, and that ready-made ozone is destroyed by being 
passed through a heated glass tube, he surmised that ozone 
was a peroxide of hydrogen. This surmise was seemingly 
raised to a certainty by an investigation of Baumert s, 
who found that electrolytic (ozonized) oxygen, when de- 
ozonized by heat, yields water, and ascertained that the 
weight of water thus produced amounted to H. 2 O = 18 
parts for every 41 = 4 x 127 parts of iodine which the same 
quantity of gas would have liberated if it had been de- 
ozonized by iodide of potassium. This, if true, would 
prove that ozone is H 2 3 , a conclusion which passed 
current as an established fact, in reference to electrolytic 
ozone at least, until Andrews showed that Baumert s result 
was founded upon incorrect observations. The merit of 
having discovered the true elementary composition of 
ozone belongs to Marignac and De la Bive, who proved 
that it can be produced, as easily and abundantly as in 
any other way, by the electrification of absolutely pure 
oxygen gas, whence it at once followed that unless oxygen 
be a compound of two or more unknown elements ozone 
cannot be anything else than an allotropic modification of 
oxygen. 

With regard to the relations of the two kinds of oxygen to one 
another, our present knowledge is derived mainly from the work of 
Andrews and Prof. Tait. The first important result which they 
arrived at was that the ozonization of pure oxygen gas involves a 
contraction, and that consequently ozone is denser than oxygen gas. 
Presuming (with all their contemporaries) that in the de-ozoniza- 
tion of oxygen by iodide of potassium all the substance of the ozone 
is taken up by the reagent with elimination of its equivalent of 
iodine, they sought to determine the density of ozone by comparing 
the weight of oxygen-matter which goes into the iodide of potassium 
with the contraction involved in the process. But they obtained 
variable results. As their methods became more and more perfect, 



the weight of unit volume of ozone grew greater and greater, and 
at last stood at oo . In other words, what they found and estab 
lished finally was that the removal of ozone from oxygen by means 
of iodide of potassium involves no change of volume whatever, 
although de-ozonization by heat always leads to a (permanent) 
increase of volume. This result, to them and everybody else, 
appeared very singular ; but Andrews, after a while, found the cor 
rect explanation. Supposing at a certain temperature and pressure 
one volume of ordinary oxygen contains a grains of matter, then one 
volume of ozone, being denser, contains a greater quantity of matter, 
say a + x grains ; Avhen the gas acts on iodide of potassium, the a 
grains come out as one volume of oxygen, while the x grains of 
surplus oxygen vanish in the iodide. In the decomposition by heat 
the x grains of surplus oxygen of course assume the form of x/n 
volumes of additional oxygen gas. It is no addition to Andrews s 
explanation, but merely a close translation of it into the language 
of Avogadros law, to say that, if oxygen (proper) consists of 
molecules 0.,, ozone must consist of molecules 0. 2 + x (perhaps 
(Xj-fi), and that in the iodide reaction this molecule breaks up 
into one molecule of oxygen gas and x atoms of oxygen which 
go to the reagent. What did constitute a new discovery w^s 
Berthelot s important observation that the conversion of ozone into 
ordinary oxygen involves an evolution of heat which amounts to 
29,600 units for every 16 parts of oxygen matter available for the 
liberation of iodine from iodide of potassium. What the real 
density of ozone is was made out with a high degree of probability 
by Soret. He took two equal volumes of the same supply of 
ozonized oxygen, and in one determined the contraction produced 
by shaking with oil of turpentine (which he assumes to take away 
the ozone as a whole), while the other served for the (direct or 
indirect) determination of the expansion involved in the destruction 
of the ozone by heat. He found this increase to amount to half a 
volume for every one volume of ozone present ; hence one volume 
of ozone contains the matter of one and a half volumes of ordinary 
oxygen, i.e., its density is 1 5 (if that of ordinary oxygen is taken 
as unity), and its molecular weight is f x 2 = 3 . To check this 
result Soret determined the rate at which ozone diffuses into air, 
and compared it with the rate, similarly determined, for carbonic 
acid. From the two rates, on the basis of Graham s law, he 
calculated the ratio of the density of ozone to that of carbonic 
acid, and found it in satisfactory accordance with 3 : C0 2 = 48 : 44. 

From the facts that ozone is destroyed (i. e. , converted into 2 ) at 
270 (Andrews and Tait), and that this reaction is not reversible, 
it at once follows that it is impossible to convert oxygen completely 
into ozone by electric sparks. Supposing the ozonization to have 
gone a certain way, each additional spark, besides producing ozone, 
will destroy some of that previously produced. 

From Clerk Maxwell s notion concerning the distribution of tem 
peratures amongst the molecules of a gas, it would follow that 
ozonized oxygen, even at ordinary temperatures, will gradually 
relapse into the condition of plain oxygen, because, although the 
temperature, as indicated by the thermometer may be only 20 C. 
(say), there are plenty of molecules at temperatures above the tem 
perature of incipient dissociation (which of course lies below 270), 
and any ozone once destroyed will never come back. But, be this 
as it may, the lower the temperature of the oxygen treated with 
sparks the greater the chance of the ozone formed to remain aliVe. 
This idea forms the basis of an important research by Hautefeuillc 
and Chappuis, who, by operating upon oxygen at very low tem 
peratures, produced iinprecedentedly large percentages of ozone. 
By operating at C. they produced a gas containing 14 9 per cent, 
by weight of ozone (presumably reckoned as 3 ), while at - 23 
the percentage rose to 21 4. They subsequently (1882; Compt. 
Rend., xciv. p. 1249) succeeded in producing even liquid ozone, 
by applying a pressure of 125 atmospheres to richly ozonized 
oxygen at - 100 C. (the boiling point of liquefied ethylene). Liquid 
ozone is of a dark indigo-blue colour, which, as they tell us, is dis 
tinctly visible even in ordinary ozonized oxygen if it is viewed in 
tubes about one metre long. 

According to Carius the coefficient of absorption of ozone by 
water of + 1 C. is about 8 ; that is to say, one volume of water of 
1, if shaken with excess of pure ozone at 1 and a pressure of 760 
mm., would absorb 8 volume of ozone measured dry at and 
760 mm. pressure. But it is not certain that Carius s determina 
tions are correct. 

Antozonc. According to a now obsolete notion of Schb nbein s, 
ordinary oxygen gas is a compound of two kinds of oxygen of which 
one is positively and the other negatively electrical. Ordinary 
ozone would be a mixture of the two in equal parts ; but certain 
peroxides, according to Schonbein, contain the one kind, others 
the other. He supported his view by many ingenious experimental 
arguments. Meissner and others, while adopting Schonbein s idea, 
somehow drifted into the notion that Schonbein s two kinds of 
oxygen correspond to two different substances, of which ordinary 
ozone is one. They naturally searched for the other, and of course 
did not fail to discover it ; but their "antozone," when critically 
looked into, turned out to be peroxide of hydrogen. (W. P. ) 

XVTTT. is 



114 



Pis the sixteenth letter of our alphabet. In the 
original Phoenician form (see ALPHABET) it was not un 
like a crook. In Greece it became angular (n), and later the 
downward strokes were made equal in length (II), though 
in the old Corinthian the rounded form still occurs, closely 
resembling the Phoenician type. In old Latin the angular 
form is found, as in Greece, but also the form with which 
we are familiar, with the bottom of the curve joined to the 
straight line. The old guess that P was at first a rude 
sketch of a mouth must be abandoned unless we are pre 
pared to credit the Phoenicians with having so far anticipated 
Mr Melville Bell s "visible speech." 

The sound it denotes is a closed labial, differing from 
I as a surd from a sonant ; it is heard only when the lips 
open; there is then a percussion as the breath escapes, which 
constitutes the sound. The difference between breath and 
voice can be easily seen in the production of the two sounds, 
p and b. When the lips are closed as they must be closed 
(exactly in the same way) for each of the sounds if we 
then try to articulate p, no effort can produce any kind of 
sound till the lips open ; the chordae vocales do not vibrate, 
and there is therefore nothing in the mouth but mere 
breath. But if we make as though we would sound 6, 
"while still keeping the lips shut, a certain dull sound is 
quite audible, produced by the vocalized breath (or voice) 
within the mouth ; and the action of the top of the larynx 
in producing this sound may be distinctly felt. Of course 
this sound is not a b ; that does not come till the lips part. 

It is noteworthy how very small is the number of pure 
English words which begin with^>. Such words correspond 
to words which began with b in Greek, Latin, and other 
members of the parent Aryan speech ; and these are equally 
few. Nearly all the w r ords which we have in English 
beginning w r ith p are therefore borrowed, such as " pain," 
"pair," "police," which came to us from France; others are 
scientific terms, oftenest modelled upon the Greek. The 
reason of this deficiency of words in the parent language 
commencing with b is not easy to find. 

The Latins denoted the sound of Greek <f> by the double 
symbol ph ; this is a p followed by a slight breathing, 
not so strong as an h ; thus " philosophia " was pro 
nounced not as we now pronounce it, but rather like 
"p hilosop hia." But this sound eventually passed into 
the/-sound, and it is so written in Italian (e.g., " filosofia ") ; 
French and English have kept the old spelling, but not 
the sound. So here, as elsewhere, we have quite unneces 
sarily two symbols, ph and/, expressing the same sound. 

PACCHIA, GIROLAMO DEL, and PACCHIAROTTO (or 
PACCHIAROTTI), JACOPO. These are two painters of 
the Sienese school, whose career and art-work have been 
much misstated till late years. One or other of them 
produced some good pictures, which used to pass as the 
performance of Perugino ; reclaimed from Perugino, they 
were assigned to Pacchiarotto ; now it is sufficiently 
settled that the good works are by G. del Pacchia, while 



nothing of Pacchiarotto s own doing transcends mediocrity. 
The mythical Pacchiarotto who worked actively at Fon- 
tainebleau has no authenticity. 

Girolamo del Pacchia, son of a Hungarian cannon- 
founder, was born, probably in Siena, in 1477. Having 
joined a turbulent club named the Bardotti, he disappeared 
from Siena in 1535, when the club was dispersed, and 
nothing of a later date is known about him. His most 
celebrated work is a fresco of the Nativity of the Virgin, 
in the chapel of S. Bernardino, Siena, graceful and tender, 
with a certain artificiality. Another renowned fresco, in 
the church of St Catherine, represents that saint on her 
visit to St Agnes of Montepulciano, who, having just 
expired, raises her foot by miracle. In the National 
Gallery of London there is a Virgin and Child. The 
forms of G. del Pacchia are fuller than those of Perugino 
(his principal model of style appears to have been in 
reality Franciabigio) ; the drawing is not always unexcep 
tionable ; the female heads have sweetness and beauty of 
feature ; and some of the colouring has noticeable force. 

Pacchiarotto was born in Siena in 1474. In 1530 he 
took part in the conspiracy of the Libertini and Popolani, 
and in 1534 he joined the Bardotti. He had to hide for 
his life in 1535, and was concealed by the Observantine 
fathers in a tomb in the church of St John. He was 
stuffed in close to a new-buried corpse, and got covered 
with vermin and dreadfully exhausted by the close of the 
second day. After a while he resumed w r ork ; he was 
exiled in 1539, but recalled in the following year, and 
in that year or soon afterwards he died. Among the few 
extant works with which he is still credited is an Assump 
tion of the Virgin, in the Carmine of Siena. 

PACHECO, FRANCISCO (1571-1654), Spanish painter 
and art historian, born at Seville in 1571, was the pupil 
of Luis Fernandez, and a diligent and prolific workman. 
Favourable specimens of his style are to be seen in the 
Madrid picture gallery, and also in two churches at Alcala 
de Guadaira near Seville ; they are characterized by care 
ful drawing and correct if somewhat feeble composition, 
but prove that he was no colorist. He attained great 
popularity, and about the beginning of the 17th century 
opened an academy of painting which was largely attended. 
Of his pupils by far the most distinguished was Velazquez, 
who afterwards became his son-in-law. From about 1625 
he gave up painting and betook himself to literary society 
and pursuits ; the most important of his works in this 
department is a treatise on the art of painting (Arte de 
la Pintura: su anteyuedad y yrandezas, 1649), which, 
although characterized by prolixity and pedantry of 
style, and often nonsensical enough in its theories, is of 
considerable value for the information it contains, especi 
ally on matters relating to Spanish art. He died in!654. 

PACHOMIUS, or PACHUMIUS. See MONACHISM, vol. 
xvi. pp. 699, 700. 

PACHYDERMATA. See MAMMALIA. 



PACIFIC OCEAN 



Plates II. -ITIHE ancient world was ignorant of the existence of 
and III. I the vast expanse of water now known as the Pacific 
Ocean. In Ptolemy s map of the world, constructed in 
the 2d century of our era (see MAP, vol. xv. PI. VII.), 
this fact is clearly brought out, for the only space which 
might possibly represent the Pacific is the Magnus Sinus, 



a sea so limited in extent, and represented in such a 
position, that it probably stands for the Gulf of Siam in 
the Indian Ocean. 

Vague reports of a great ocean lying beyond China rrogre 
were current in Europe as early as the period of Arabian f ^s- 
supremacy in learning. Indeed an Arab merchant named cc 



51 <M79 jW> 4*jmn*du*x - 




PACIFIC OCEAN 



115 



Sulaiman, who visited China in the 9th century, declared 
that he had sailed upon it. But for several hundred years 
the reports continued so uncertain, and were so loaded with 
the wild extravagance of travellers tales of the period, that 
it is difficult to get at the facts from which they probably 
took their origin. During the 13th and 14th centuries 
Marco Polo arid his successors travelled far to the East 
and came to an ocean of the extent of which they were 
ignorant, but they partially explored its western coasts. 
The East was the region towards which all the commerce 
and enterprise of the Middle Ages tended, and it was the 
hope of finding a safer and shorter sea route to India that 
led the Spanish court in 1492 to furnish Columbus with 
a fleet for the exploration of the Western Ocean. Although 
convinced of the spherical form of the earth, he greatly 
under-rated its size, and, accepting the popular estimate of 
the great breadth of the Asiatic continent, he set out on 
his voyage confident of soon reaching " the Indies." The 
glowing descriptions of his discoveries in that strange new 
world of the West that rose up before him to bar his 
advance immediately attracted the attention of adventur 
ous Spanish mariners. Headed by Columbus himself, they 
cruised intrepidly amongst the Caribbean Islands, still lured 
by the hope of discovering some western passage to the 
coveted East. Columbus found that what he at first con 
sidered a labyrinthine archipelago was a continent of vast 
extent, but not Asia, and he died without knowing what 
lay beyond. Spain and Portugal were the rival maritime 
powers at that time, and both took up the search for 
new countries with great ardour. Pope Alexander VI., 
in 1493, fearing that the two nations would quarrel over 
their colonies, assigned all the new lands that might be 
discovered west of the Azores to Spain, and all east of 
those islands to Portugal. The Portuguese accepting the 
gift followed Vasco da Gama in opening up the road to 
India by the Cape of Good Hope, and pushed forward 
their trading and piratical excursions into the west Pacific 
far beyond the Spice Islands. The Spaniards confined 
themselves to the New World, visiting, naming, and 
plundering the West India Islands and the headlands of 
Central America. On the 29th of September 1513 Vasco 
Nunez de Balbao, the leader of a Spanish party exploring 
the Isthmus of Panama, saw, from the summit of a 
mountain, a vast ocean stretching to the west the very 
ocean of whose existence Columbus was certain, and which 
he had so long tried vainly to discover. Because he first 
saw it on Michaelmas day, Balbao named it the Golfo de 
San Miguel. Magellan, following the east coast of 
America farther to the south than any previous explorer, 
sailed on, in spite of terrific storms, until he found the 
strait which now bears his name, and, steering carefully 
through it, on the 27th of November 1520 he swept into 
the calm waters of that new sea on which he was the first 
to sail, and which he named the Mar Pacifico. 

The victories of Cortez in Mexico about the same date 
opened the way for the exploration of the west coast of 
America, where Pizarro s conquest of Peru in 1526 gave 
the Spaniards a firm footing. From this time an inter 
mittent trade sprang up between Europe and the Pacific 
through Magellan Strait, and latterly round Cape Horn. 
Before long English fleets, attracted more by the prospects 
of plundering Spanish galleons than of discovering new 
territories, found their way into the Pacific. Sir Francis 
Drake, like Balbao, saw the ocean from the Isthmus of 
Panama. He entered the Pacific in September 1577, 
being the first Englishman to sail upon it ; some months 
later he sailed across it to the Moluccas. Alvaro de 
Mardana, who preceded him, had discovered the Solomon 
Islands in 1567. 

Tasman, Koggewcin, Dampier, and other explorers of the 



17 th century discovered Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, 
and many smaller groups of islands. During the 18th 
century the voyages of Anson, Bass, Behring, the two 
Bougainvilles, Broughton, Byron, Cook, La Perouse, and 
many more practically completed the geographical explora 
tion of the Pacific Ocean. In the beginning of that 
century the Pacific had a curious fascination for commercial 
speculators, and the ill-fated Scottish colony founded at 
Darien in 1698 seemed only to prepare the way for the 
English South Sea bubble that burst in 1720. All the 
navigators who explored these seas believed in the 
existence of a north-west passage between the Atlantic and 
Pacific, and made attempts to find it ; but its discovery 
baffled all enterprise until 1 850, when Maclure proved that 
there was such a channel, but that the ice prevented its 
being of any commercial utility. In the present century 
D Entrecasteaux, Krusenstern, Beechy, Fitzroy, and Bennet 
have taken the lead amongst geographical explorers in the 
Pacific, although the ranks contain many names scarcely 
less worthy of remembrance. Within recent years several 
purely scientific exploring expeditions and British survey 
ing vessels have examined the Pacific, investigating its 
depth, the nature and form of the bottom, the tempera 
ture of the water at various depths and its density, as well 
as the marine fauna and flora. Of those expeditions the 
voyages of the "Challenger," "Gazelle," and "Tuscarora" 
are the most important. 1 

Extent. The Pacific Ocean 2 is bounded on the N. by Extent. 
Behring Strait and the coasts of Kussia and Alaska, on 
the E. by the west coasts of North and South America ; 
on the S. the imaginary line of the Antarctic Circle 
divides it from the Antarctic Ocean, while its western 
boundary is the east coast of Australia, the Malay 
Archipelago separating it from the Indian Ocean, and the 
eastern coasts of the Chinese empire. Some modern 
geographers place the southern limit of the Atlantic, 
Pacific, and Indian Oceans at the 40th parallel, and name 
the body of water which surrounds the earth between that 
latitude and the Antarctic Circle the Southern Ocean. 

Although differing from the Atlantic in its general form, 
being more nearly land-locked to the north, the Pacific 
resembles it in being open to the south, forming, in fact, 
a great projection northwards of that vast southern ocean 
of which the Atlantic is another arm. 

The Pacific is the largest expanse of water in the world, 
covering more than a quarter of its superficies, and com 
prising fully one-half of its water surface. It extends 
through 132 degrees of latitude, in other Avords, it 
measures 9000 miles from north to south. From east to 
west its breadth varies from about 40 miles at Behring 
Strait, where Asia and America come within sight of each 
other, to 8500 miles between California and China on the 
Tropic of Cancer, and to more than 10,000 miles on the 
Equator between Quito and the Moluccas, where the ocean 
is widest. The area has been variously estimated at from 
50,000,000 to 100,000,000 square miles; but, defining its 
boundaries as above, Keith Johnston, from careful measure 
ments, estimated it, with probably a near approach to the 
truth, at 67,810,000 square miles. 

1 The principal ocean tracks followed by trading vessels in the 
Pacific are three : (1) round Cape Horn and along the South Ameri 
can coast the . great rush to California on the discovery of gold 
in 1847 led to the establishment of lines of fast clippers by this 
route and of steamers from Panama to San Francisco ; (2) from San 
Francisco to China a regular service was established in 1867 ; (3) the 
mails began to be carried from Australia to San Francisco in 1873 and 
to Panama in 1866. The trade with the Pacific will no doubt be 
greatly increased when the Panama ship-canal is opened for traffic. 

2 Formerly called the South Sea, and sometimes still so named by 
the French and Germans (la Mer du Sud; Siidsee, Australocean), with 
whom, however, La Mer (L Octan) Pacifique, and Grosser Ocean or 
Stilles Mcer are the more usual designations. 



116 



PACIFIC OCEAN 



Coasts, Seas, dr. The coast-line of the Pacific and 
Indian Oceans, taken together, only amounts to 47,000 
miles ; that of the Atlantic alone measures 55,000, the 
smaller ocean more than making up for its less extent by 
its numerous inland seas and inlets of smaller size. 
Ameri- Speaking broadly, the eastern boundary of the Pacific is 
i-an rugged, barren, mountainous, and singularly free from 
indentations, while its western shores are low, fertile, and 
deeply indented with gulfs and partially enclosed seas. 
Behring Strait unites the Arctic Ocean with the Sea of 
Kamchatka, or Behring Sea, which is bounded on the 
east by the irregular, low, swampy shores of Alaska, and 
on the south by the Alaskan peninsula and the Aleutian 
Islands. Along British North America the coast is rugged, 
rocky, considerably indented, and, between the parallels 
of 50 and 60 N. lat., fringed with islands. The largest 
of these are Vancouver Island in the Gulf of Georgia, 
Queen Charlotte Island, Prince of Wales Island, and the 
islands of King George III. s Archipelago. The Gulf of 
California runs northwards in the Mexican coast, reach 
ing from 23 to 32 N. lat. It is the one important 
inlet on the whole west coast of America, the only 
others which are worth naming being the Gulf of Panama 
and the Gulf of Guayaquil. The Mexican shore is low, 
and contrasts with the coasts to the north and to the 
south, which are generally steep and rocky, though there 
are occasional sandy beaches in Peru and Chili. The 
breadth of the plain between the Rocky Mountains and 
the sea gradually diminishes towards the south, and the 
mountain chain of the Andes runs close along the west 
coast of South America to the very extremity of the con 
tinent. 

A series of volcanoes, active and extinct, runs round 
the Pacific, commencing at Cape Horn, passing along 
the Andes and Rocky Mountains, crossing from the 
American continent by the Aleutian Islands to Kamchatka, 
and thence southwards by Japan and the East Indian 
Archipelago to New Zealand. Earthquakes are frequent 
all along this line. 

There are few islands near the American coast north of 
Patagonia, and these are small and unimportant; but south 
of the 40th parallel there is a complete change. The end 
of the continent seems as if it had been shattered ; there 
are abrupt bays and jagged chasms ; archipelagos of small 
islands rise up in splintered fragments along the shore. 
The Strait of Magellan forms a tortuous channel between 
the mainland and the rocky storm-beaten islands of Tierra 
del Fuego. 

Asiatic The coast-line on the Asiatic side is longer and greatly 
diversified. In the north the Sea of Okhotsk is cut off 
from Behring Sea by the peninsula of Kamchatka, from 
the extremity of which a chain of islands extends to the 
borders of the Antarctic Ocean. These islands are of all 
sizes, ranging from small islets to the island continent of 
Australia. The island chain hangs in loops along the 
Asiatic coast, each loop including an almost land-locked 
sea. These partially enclosed seas are more or less com 
pletely cut off from the general oceanic circulation, and 
they consequently differ considerably from the open ocean 
as regards the temperature of the water, specific gravity, 
fauna and flora, and nature of the deposits. The Kurile 
Islands run from Kamchatka to Japan, cutting off the 
Sea of Okhotsk. The great Japanese Islands, with 
Saghalien to the north and the Chinese coast on the 
west, enclose the Sea of Japan, leaving it in communica 
tion with the Sea of Okhotsk by the Channel of Tartary 
to the north, with the ocean on the west by the Straits 
of La Perouse and Sangar, and on the south by the Straits 
of Corea. The Yellow Sea runs into the Chinese coast, 
and is divided from the Sea of Japan by the peninsula of 



coast. 



Corea. The China Sea, with the two great gulfs of 
Tonquin and Siam, is marked off from the Indian Ocean 
by the peninsula of Malacca remarkable because it runs 
in the same direction as the other two peninsulas of the 
Pacific, Kamchatka and Corea and the islands of 
Sumatra and Java, while Borneo and the Philippine Islands 
separate it from the Pacific. Between the south coast of 
China and the north of Australia the East Indian Archi 
pelago cuts up the ocean into a network of small seas and 
narrow channels. The seas are named the Celebes, the 
Banda, the Sulu, the Java, the Flores, and the Arafura. 
The more important of the sea passages between the islands 
are the Straits and Channel of Formosa, which lead north 
ward from the Pacific to the China Sea ; the Strait of 
Macassar between Borneo and Celebes ; Molucca Passage 
between Celebes, the Moluccas, and Jilolo; and Torres 
Strait between New Guinea and Australia. The east 
coast of Australia is, as a rule, steep and rocky ; there are 
few inlets, and none of them compare in size with the Gulf 
of Carpentaria on the north coast. Moreton Bay and Port 
Jackson are two of the best harbours, and as a haven the 
latter has few equals in the world. The Great Barrier 
Reef lies off this coast for a length of more than a thousand 
miles, the distance between it and the shore varying from 
60 to 100 miles. Bass Strait separates Australia from 
Tasmania on the south ; and the two main islands of 
New Zealand, separated by Cook Strait, lie to the south 
east of the continent. The Gulf of Hauraki, the Bay of 
Plenty, and Pegasus Bay are the chief inlets in these 
islands. 

River-System. The drainage area of the Pacific Ocean 
is estimated at 8,660,000 square miles, while that of the 
Atlantic amounts to more than 19,000,000; the chief 
reason for this disparity is that only half a million square 
miles of the American continent are drained into the 
Pacific, the remaining six and a half millions being con 
nected with the Atlantic river-system, and it is estimated 
that only one-seventh of the area of the Asiatic continent 
drains into the Pacific Ocean. The huge wall of the Ancles Amen- 
practically reduces the Pacific rivers of South America to the can 
rank of mountain streams; the Biobio and the Maypu in l ^.^ m 
Chili are the only ones exceeding 100 miles in length, 
the former having a course of 180, the latter of 160 miles. 
The Rocky Mountain chain, which forms the watershed of 
North America, runs parallel to the Pacific coast at a 
distance of about 1000 miles, and the Cascade and minor 
ranges which skirt the shore are broken through in several 
places to give passage to rivers that are, in some cases, of 
considerable size. The Colorado rises in the State of that 
name, at the base of the Rocky Mountains, flows south 
west through Utah and Arizona, and falls into the head 
of the Gulf of California. Its course measures about 
1100 miles, and it drains a rugged and barren area of 
170,000 square miles. California has only one river, the 
Sacramento, 420 miles long. The Oregon (or Columbia) 
is formed by the union of two streams rising in the Rocky 
Mountains, one in British Columbia, the other in Idaho. 
It is a swift-flowing river, full of rapids and cataracts, and, 
though it is only 750 miles long, the area which it drains 
is greater by one-seventh than that drained by the Colorado. 
The ebb and flow of the tide are perceptible for a hundred 
miles from the mouth of the Oregon, and the river is- 
navigable for that distance. The Frazer, which has a 
length of 600 miles, flows southward through British 
Columbia from the Rocky Mountains, and enters the sea 
in the Gulf of Georgia opposite Vancouver Island, carrying 
off the rainfall of 98,000 square miles. The northern 
limit of the American mountain chains is marked by the 
rise of the great river Yukon, which traverses Alaska ; 
and, after a run of more than 2000 miles, it enters 



PACIFIC OCEAN 



117 



Behring Sea opposite the island of St Lawrence. Its 
tributaries have not been fully explored, so the area which 
they intersect is unknown, but probably it is very large. 

The Asiatic division of the Pacific river-system is very 
much more extensive than the American, and includes 
many streams of great size and of considerable commercial 
importance. In the north the Amur is more than 2000 
miles long, and it receives many tributaries, which rise 
on the north in the Stanovoi mountains, and on the west 
and south on the borders of the great table-land of the 
Gobi, the central Asiatic desert ; altogether its basin 
measures nearly 900,000 square miles. The Hoang-ho 
(Hwang-ho or Whang-ho) and the Yangtze-keang both 
rise near the Kuen-lun mountains of Tibet amongst the 
extensive terraces which form the eastern slope of the 
great table-land of Central Asia. The Hoangho has a 
length of 2(500 miles, and in its course it sweeps in a 
northerly curve close to the In-Shan mountains ; then, after 
being crossed repeatedly by the Great Wall of China, it 
turns sharply to the south, and finally runs due east into 
the Yellow Sea. The Yangtze-keang follows a southward 
direction from its source, but ultimately turns to the 
north-east and enters the Yellow Sea not far from the 
mouth of the Hoang-ho. It is one of the longest rivers 
in the world, for, including its windings, it measures 3200 
miles from its source to the sea. These two rivers drain 
more than a million and a quarter square miles ; and it is 
principally owing to the large amount of suspended matter 
which they carry down that the sea into which they fall 
is called the Yellow Sea. The other rivers of importance 
are the Choo-keang, the Mekong, and the Menam. The 
last two run into the Gulf of Siam, after watering the 
peninsula of Siam and Cochin China, Few rivers enter 
the Pacific on the east coast of Australia, and in conse 
quence of the proximity of the mountains to the shore they 
are short and unimportant. 

Atmospheric Pressure and Prevailing Winds. When the 
mean atmospheric pressure for the year over the entire 
. sur f ace O f the world is considered, it is found that there 
are two broad belts of high pressure which encircle the 
globe, one on each side of the equator. There is a wide 
area of slowly diminishing pressure between them, includ 
ing a narrow central band along which the barometric 
readings attain a minimum. Two other regions of low 
pressure surround the poles, and extend to a considerable 
distance. That around the North Pole is connected with 
an area of still lower pressure over the North Pacific, and 
there is another permanent depression, which is even 
deeper, in the vicinity of Iceland. Atmospheric pressure 
is the fundamental meteorological phenomenon, and the 
mean pressure for the year affords a clue to the cause of 
all such regular and continuous phenomena as trade winds 
and ocean currents, and to the distribution of temperature. 
Similarly a study of the isobars at different seasons throws 
light upon all periodical occurrences in the way of winds 
and currents. 

A low barometer is always accompanied by a high per 
centage of atmospheric aqueous vapour; consequently the 
equatorial belt of continuous low pressure is a region of 
almost continuous rain, excessive cloud, and constant calm 
or light variable winds. The effect of a difference in 
atmospheric pressure being established between two places 
is to produce a flow of air from the region of high towards 
that of low pressure, and the winds in their turn largely 
determine the surface movements or drift currents of the 
ocean. The region of calms between the north and south 
trades in the Pacific is both narrower, more irregular, and 
less clearly marked than the corresponding belt in the 
Atlantic. In the East Pacific it lies, at all seasons, con 
siderably north of the equator ; but during the southern 



summer it is found south of the line in the western parts 
of the ocean, and disappears entirely in the northern 
summer, as the calms of the Indian Ocean do also. The 
reason of the southern position of the west end of the calm 
belt seems to be the simultaneous occurrence of low atmo 
spheric pressure in the interior of Australia and an ex 
ceptionally high barometer in Asia. In the southern 
winter the depression over Asia and the increase of 
pressure over Australia form an unbroken barometric 
gradient, and the result io that the calms are replaced by 
a southerly breeze of great regularity. The region of 
calms included between the zones of the two trade winds, 
and towards which they blow, is not the only one with 
which they are associated ; for the opposite meteorological 
conditions that characterize the northern border of the 
north-east trades and the southern margin of the south 
east winds produce two fringing bands of calms. These 
regions are characterized by a high barometer, a sunny 
sky, and occasionally sudden squalls, contrasting with 
the depressed barometer and dull, wet weather of the 
equatorial region. In January the low atmospheric pres 
sure over the North Pacific produces winds which affect 
the climatological conditions of the shores in very different 
ways. At Vancouver Island the prevailing wind is south 
west, and consequently the winter on the shores of British 
Columbia is mild and moist. The opposite coast of Asia 
is visited during the same season by northerly winds, 
north-east in Alaska, north-north-east in Kamchatka, and 
north-west in Japan ; and, as a result, the weather in these 
regions in winter is dry and bitterly cold. The West Pacific 
and the Indian Ocean are the regions of monsoons, 
winds that blow as steadily as the trades, but which change 
their direction with the season. During the periods of 
transition the steady breeze gives place to variable winds, 
occasional calms, and sometimes terrific hurricanes. The 
general direction of the monsoons in the Pacific between 
April and October is southerly and south-easterly, and 
from November to April they blow from the north-east, 
and on nearing the continent of Asia from the north-west. 
Monsoonal winds are found connected with all continents ; 
they are produced by the great differences in the tempera 
ture and pressure which prevail over the land at different 
seasons as compared with the adjacent ocean. The mon 
soons give rise to oceanic currents which flow in the same 
direction as the wind, and like it run opposite ways during 
alternate half years. Although the velocity of the wind 
over the open sea is always greater than that near shore 
or on land, it was shown by the observations of the " Chal 
lenger," in the Pacific and other oceans, that there is no 
distinct diurnal variation in the wind s force at sea, though 
very decided periods of maxima and minima were noticed 
in the vicinity of land (see METEOROLOGY, vol. xvi. 
p. 125). 

Currents. The system of surface circulation in the Currents. 
Pacific is much more complicated and less clearly defined 
than that in the Atlantic, as might be expected from the 
less constant character of the winds. The latter ocean has 
two wide channels of communication with the Arctic Sea, 
while, so far as currents are concerned, the Pacific is land 
locked to the north Behring Strait being narrow and 
shallow ; consequently water enters the Pacific almost 
entirely from the south, where there is uninterrupted 
communication with the Antarctic Ocean. There is no 
direct information as to the movements of ocean water at 
depths greater than 200 or 300 fathoms ; it is known, 
however, from indirect evidence, that movements do occur. 
Although the subject of under-currents at depths less than 
those just mentioned has been extensively studied, it is 
only with respect to surface currents that anything very 
definite is as yet known. 



PACIFIC OCEAN 



The vast extent of the Pacific Ocean gives full scope for 
the current-producing action of tides and winds, while the 
smooth continental boundary on its eastern side, the 
numerous groups of islands which break its surface, and 
its indented western coast, combine to modify the direction 
of the main streams and to produce innumerable minor 
currents, some permanent, and others varying from time to 
time in velocity and direction. The chief cause of these 
currents is believed to be traceable to the direct or indirect 
action of wind ; but here it is proposed to refer merely to 
their general geography and physical effects, without dis 
cussing the theory of their formation. 

A general surface drift of the cold waters of the 
Antarctic Ocean, having a temperature lower than 40 
Fahr. at all seasons, bears north-east towards Cape Horn, 
where it divides into two branches ; one, the Cape Horn 
current, passes on into the Atlantic, and the other sweeps 
northward along the west coast of South America until it 
strikes the Peruvian shore, which deflects it westward. 
The cooling effect of this current on the water all along 
the coast is illustrated very clearly by the abrupt north 
ward turn of the isothermals (see METEOROLOGY, figs. 
8 and 9), which is more conspicuous in the chart for the 
southern winter than in that for the summer. In summer, 
however, there is a more striking evidence of this current s 
cooling power to be seen in the arrangement of the 
isothermals. The northern line of 70 Fahr. reaches as 
far south as 18 N. lat., and that of 80 makes a short 
loop from 1 8 N. to the equator ; but the southern 
isothermal of 80 does not touch the American coast at 
all, and that of 70 lies farther from the equator than 30 
S. lat., so that the increase of temperature from the south 
is very gradual ; so much so that at the Galapagos Islands, 
under the equator, the temperature of the surface water is 
only 70, while a few hundred miles to the west it is over 
80. Penguins essentially Antarctic birds are found 
living on the shores of these islands. In consequence of 
this current, the highest surface temperature at all seasons 
of the year is found distinctly ,to the north of the equator 
in the eastern Pacific. 

The Peruvian current forms the southern fork of the 
great equatorial current, which runs due west. This 
current is very broad, and divided by a narrow counter- 
current flowing in an opposite direction through its centre. 
The two branches of the equatorial current occupy very 
approximately the two areas of falling barometer between 
the north and south belts of high pressure and the central 
trough of minimum barometric readings. This difference 
of atmospheric pressure on each side produces the north 
east and south-east trade winds, and to these the current 
probably owes its regularity and constant direction. The 
counter-current lies in the narrow belt of low barometric 
pressure to which the trades blow, and probably originates 
from the banking up of the waters to the westward. Its 
rate and position consequently vary greatly at different 
times of the year. The " Challenger," on her cruise 
between the Sandwich and Society Islands, found these 
currents to run with considerable force. In the " Narra 
tive" of the cruise (chap.xviii.) the fact is alluded to thus: 

" From Hawaii Island to the 10th parallel the direction of the 
current was westerly, and its average velocity 18 miles per day, 
ranging from 10 to 23 miles. From the 10th to the 6th parallel 
the direction was easterly, and its average velocity 31 miles per 
day, ranging from 7 to 54 miles per day. From the 6th parallel 
of north latitude to the 10th parallel of south latitude the direction 
was again westerly, and the average velocity 35 miles per day, 
ranging from 17 to 70 miles per day. From thence to Tahiti the 
general tendency of the current was westerly, but its velocity was 
variable. The axis of greatest velocity of the counter-equatorial 
current was between the 7th and 8th parallels of north latitude. 
The axis of greatest velocity of the equatorial current was on the 
parallel of 2 north, where its speed amounted to 3 miles per hour." 



The equatorial current strikes on the East Indian 
Archipelago, where it is split up by the narrow channels 
and shallow waters, and diverted into numberless minor 
currents. The two main divisions, which have acquired a 
high temperature from prolonged exposure to the tropical 
sun, ultimately leave the archipelago ; the southern arm 
curves southwards, carrying its warm water to the east 
coast of Australia and to New Zealand, whence it is 
diverted towards the east, and becomes merged again in 
the general north-easterly antarctic drift. The north 
equatorial current, which varies in volume and velocity 
with the monsoons, strikes the coast of Asia between the 
Philippines and Japan, and is deflected in a north-easterly 
direction as the Kuro-Siwo or Japan current wholly a 
warm oceanic river during the S.E. monsoon similar to the 
Gulf Stream of the Atlantic. The Japan current sends 
many branches into the inland seas and channels of the 
north-eastern coast of Asia, but the main body of water 
flows northward until it bifurcates in 40 N. lat., send 
ing one fork among the Kurile Islands and along the 
Kamchatka peninsula into Behring Sea, whence it escapes- 
by Behring Strait into the Arctic Ocean. A small 
counter-current of arctic water flows southward through 
Behring Sea, but it is not of sufficient volume to make 
its influence felt very decidedly on the general temperature 
of the surface water in the vicinity. The second and larger 
branch of the Japan current crosses the North Pacific, and, 
curving southward by Alaska and British Columbia, part 
of it returns as the north equatorial current, while the rest 
forms the variable Mexican current that runs along the 
coasts of California and Mexico. 

The general direction of surface circulation in the 
Pacific may be remembered by supposing the ocean divided 
into a northern and southern half by the equatorial 
counter- current. In the northern half the water circulates 
in the direction of the hands of a watch, i.e., it passes up 
the west coast and down the east, while in the southern 
half the rotation is in the opposite direction down the 
west coast and up the east; but the latter half does not 
exhibit the complete cycle so distinctly as the former. 
The centre of each area of circulation is occupied by a 
small Sargasso Sea, the northern being the more clearly 
defined, but neither approaches the well-known Sargasso 
Sea of the North Atlantic either in definiteness, extent, or 
amount of weed. 

Temperature of Surface Wafer. The distribution of Surface 
temperature in the surface water of the Pacific varies con- tcrn P eri 
siderably during the year. The equatorial region is of 
course comparatively little affected by the change of season, 
but there is a general rise of temperature in the northern 
parts of the ocean, and a fall in the southern, during the 
northern summer, and a similar rise in the south and fall 
in the north during winter. The charts exhibit a general 
northward move in the isothermals during the former 
season, and a southward tendency in the latter. The 
change in the position of the lines is greatest in the 
temperate zones. The charts of ocean surface tempera 
ture (see METEOROLOGY, figs. 8, 9) for February and 
August show the direction of the isothermals at two 
opposite seasons ; and reference to them will make it plain 
that in temperate regions the lines of equal temperature 
follow the parallels of latitude much more closely in the 
Pacific than in the Atlantic, while their displacement with 
the change of season takes place in a direction nearly north 
and south. There are notable instances of divergence from 
these rules, such as the peculiarity of the isothermal of 80 
already alluded to. Another circumstance is the fact that 
the temperature of the surface water on the western side 
of a great continent is much lower than that on the eastern 
side in the same latitude ; it seems as if the west side of 



PACIFIC OCEAN 



119 



a continent attracted the isothermals, making them con 
verge towards the equator. It has already been pointed 
out that these effects are due to the winds and the cold 
currents which strike the western continental shores and 
run along the coasts. The surface temperature of the 
Pacific, between the latitudes of 45 N. and 45 S., no 
where at any season falls below 50. In August the 
southern isotherm of 50 remains close to the 50th parallel, 
not diverging more than a degree or two on either side. 
Between the 45th parallels and the northern and southern 
limits of the ocean the temperature is almost always below 
50. The southern isotherm of 40 is remarkable for its 
constant position all the year round, between latitudes 55 
and 58, a result brought about by the gigantic antarctic 
icebergs which prevent the surface temperature of the 
water from rising during the southern summer. 

The northern and southern " isocryrnes " of 68, that is 
the lines which pass over water which has a mean 
temperature of 68 during the coldes