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BIOLOQX LIBB. 



**** 



LIBRARY 

TR.^inr o 

i -OP!-*?* / 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BBITANNICA 



NINTH EDITION 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



ARTS, SCIENCES, AND GENERAL LITERATURE 



NINTH EDITION 



INDEX 

WITH LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS AND KEY TO THEIR INITIALS 



NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER S SONS 

MDCCCLXXXIX 

[ All Riyhts reserved. ] 



Add l 



GIFT 



</- 



BIOLOGY 
LIBRARY 



PREFACE. 



AN iiidex commonly needs no preface, but it seems not unreasonable to explain why 
an alphabetical Encyclopaedia is furnished with an alphabetical index. In smaller 
works of reference which partake of the nature of verbal lexicons no such thing is needed ; 
but the plan of the Encyclopsedia Britannica is to deal with subjects rather than words, 
and to discuss large subjects in a connected way, under general headings, so that the book 
may be used not only for occasional reference but for systematic study. Many things, 
therefore, which a reader may wish to understand are explained, not under their own 
names, but in the course of a larger discussion, and those who desire to learn about them 
will find the explanation in its proper place by the aid of this index volume. The index 
has been compiled by Mr William Cairns, and arranged and revised by the Rev. Geo. 
M Arthur, with the assistance of Miss Emily Stevenson and Mr J. T. Bealby. 

Besides the index, the present volume contains a complete list of those who have 
written articles for the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia, with a key to the initial letters 
affixed to the longer contributions. It is to be observed that the use of these initials was 
not designed to lighten the responsibility of the editors. No editor can possess the know 
ledge which would enable him to control the work of his contributors in all the subjects 
treated of in the Encyclopsedia, but no effort has been spared on the part of the editorial 
staff to secure the accuracy and sufficiency of every contribution, and to prevent those 
repetitions and inconcinnities which necessarily occur where each contributor is absolutely 
and solely responsible for the articles that bear his name. 

In this endeavour the editors have been heartily supported by the contributors 
themselves : a large proportion of the unsigned articles have been written by scholars of 
the first name, who kindly undertook to do small things as well as large in order to secure 
the uniform treatment of a whole group of subjects, and in all departments leading 
authorities at home and abroad have been found ready to help, not merely by their direct 
contributions, but by valuable counsels as to the plan of articles and the choice of 
writers often also by revising what others had written, and suggesting corrections and 

improvements. 

* -7 o 
J- JLo 



Vi PREFACE. 

The list of contributors, and the initials appended to the longer articles, are sufficient 
to show that the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica is no mere compilation, 
but the work of specialists writing from firsthand knowledge, to an extent that had not 
been attempted in previous works of the kind. But an Encyclopaedia, however brilliant its 
list of contributors, must always owe much to the constant and stated labours of a resident 
staff, whose members give their whole time to the work, and to these gentlemen a special 
acknowledgment is due. The Rev. George M Arthur read every sheet of the book down 
to 1883, after which date he had the assistance of Mr J. T. Bealby, but continued to take 
the chief and most responsible share in that minute revision which every line of such a 
work demands. The late Mr W. Browning Smith from 1873 to 1878, Prof. Adamson from 
1874 to 1876, Mr H. A. Webster from 1874 to 1887, Mr F. H. Butler in 1876 and 1877, 
and Mr T. F. Henderson from 1877 to 1884 gave their daily service to the work of 
the Encyclopaedia,^ writing regularly on their own subjects, and helping the editors in 
various other ways. From the year 1878 Mr J. Sutherland Black acted as assistant 
editor, and from 1883 to the close of the work he was chief of the resident staff. To his 
knowledge, zeal, and judgment the work owes more than can be here expressed. It ought 
to be added that the task of the editors has at all times been much facilitated by 
the excellent administration of the publishers, who, quite apart from the ability and 
liberality with which they have conducted the business part of the undertaking, have 
throughout taken the greatest interest in the literary work of the Encyclopaedia, and 
have given to the editors the manifold assistance which can be derived from a practical 
knowledge of affairs. 

W. ROBERTSON SMITH. 

CHRIST S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, 
February 18, 1889. 



INDEX 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA. 



INDEX 



A the first letter of the alphabet, 
i. i. 
AA, rivers, various European countries, 

I, 2. 

AACHEN (Aix-la-Chapelle, q.v.\ town, 

Germany, I. 431. 

AAHMES, king of Egypt, vn. 736. 
AALBORG, town, Denmark, I. 2. 
AALEN, town, Wiirtemberg, i. 2. 
AALST (Alost), town, Belgium, I. 597. 
AALUM, or Alam, emperor of Delhi, VI. 

12; xn. 802. 
AAR, river, Switzerland, I. 2; xx. 519; 

xxn. 776. 
AARAU, town, Switzerland, I. 3 ; xxn. 

778. 
AARD-VARK, species of Edentata, i. 3; 

xv. 389. 
AARD-WOLF, species of Carnivora, I. 3; 

xv. 437. 
AARGAU, canton, Switzerland, i. 3 ; 

xxn. 778, 785, 794. 
AARHUUS, town, Denmark, I. 3. 
AARON, of Scripture, I. 3; xvm. 510; 

family of, x. 143; Aaronite priest 
hood, xiv. 489. 

BAR MADANI, Syriac writer, x.xii. 

853. 

AARSSENS, Francis van, Dutch diplo 
matist, I. 4. 

AASEN, Ivar, Norwegian philologist, 
xvn. 592; xxi. 374. 

ABABDE, African tribe, i. 4, 260; xvn. 
611. 

ABACA, plant, I. 4; xv. 488; culture of, 
in Philippines, XVIII. 751. 

ABACI, Liber, Leonardo of Pisa s work, 
xix. 125. 

ABACO, islands, Bahamas, in. 236. 

ABACUS, i. 4; xvii. 626. 

ABADAVINE, bird, xxu. 99. 



A ABD 



, town, Greece, I. 4; xvm. Soi. 
ABAI (Blue Nile), river, Abyssinia, I. 

62; xvii. 507. 

ABAKANSK, town, Siberia, i. 4. 
ABANA, river, Syria, i. 4; vi. 790; xxn. 

821. 

ABANCAY, town, Pern, i. 4. 
ABANDONING, in law, i. 5. 
ABANDONMENT, in marine assurance, i. 

4; xin. 186. 

, in law of railways, I. 5. 
ABANO, town, Italy, I. 5 ; mineral water 

of, xvi. 434. 

, Pietro d , Italian philosopher, I. 5 ; 
on physiognomy, XIX. 4. 

ABARIS, the Hyperborean, I. 5; VII. 478. 
ABASIA, district, Russia, I. 50. 
ABATED WORK, in architecture, II. 459. 
ABATEMENT, in law and commerce, 

1.5. 

ABATI, Niccolo, Italian painter, I. 5. 
ABATTIS, in fortification, ix. 422. 
ABATTOIR, i. 5. 

ABAUZIT, Firmin, French writer, I. 7. 
ABB, town, Arabia, I. 8. 
ABBACOMITES, lay abbots, i. 24. 
ABBADIE, James, Protestant divine, I. 8. 
ABBA JARED, mountain, Abyssinia, I. 

250. 
ABBAS I., the Great, shah of Persia, I. 8; 

xvm. 637. 
- II., of Persia, xvm. 638. 

III., of Persia, xvm. 640. 

, Persian poet, xvm. 655. 

, Theophilus, instructor of Justinian, 
xxm. 276. 

MIRZA, prince of Persia, I. 8; xvm. 



648. 

ABBASIDS, or Abbassides, caliphs of 
Baghdad, I. 8; xvi. 578; n. 259; vn. 
749; their coins, xvn. 660. 



ABBASINATION, kind of torture, vi 

802. 

ABBE, French title, I. 9. 
ABBE, Prof. E., his researches on the 

microscope, xvi. 264, 269, 274. 
ABBEOKUTA (Abeokuta), town, West 

Africa, I. 9; xxiv. 754. 
ABBESS, i. 9; xvi. 706. 
ABBEVILLE, town, France, I. 10; xxn. 

261. 

ABBEY, i. 10. 

ABBIATE GRASSO, town, Italy, i. 22. 
ABBON of Fleury, French writer, I. 22. 
ABBOT, i. 22; xvi. 700; in House of 

Lords, xvm. 459, 463. 

, Charles, Lord Colchester, vi. 124. 

, George, archbishop of Canterbury, 

1.25. 

, George, the Puritan, I. 25. 

, Robert, Puritan divine, I. 25. 

OF UNREASON, v. 704. 
ABBOTSFORD, i. 26. 

CLUB, i. 26. 

ABBREVIATIONS, with list, i. 26 ; in 

inscriptions, Xlll. 126. 
ABBREVIATORS, writers in papal chan 
cery, i. 29. 
ABBT, Thomas, German philosopher, x. 

535- 
ABDALLAH, Omayyad caliph in Spain, 

xxn. 312. 
B.-YAZIM, founder of the Almo- 

ravides, I. 595. 

B.-ZOBAIR, pseudo-caliph, xvi. 



567. 
ABDALLATIF, physician and traveller, 

I. 30; on anatomy, I. 805. 
ABD AL-MELIK, Omayyad caliph, xvi. 

569. 
ABD AL-MUMIN, Moorish prince in 

Spain, I. 593; xxii. 316. 

XXV. i 



A B D A B R 



ABD AL-RAHMAN I., emir of Cordova, 
xvi. 578, 579; xxn. 310. 

II., emir of Cordova, XXII. 312. 

III., caliph of Cordova, xxil. 

3i3- 
ABD-EL-CAABA (Abu-Bekr), i. 60. 

ABD-EL-KADER, Algerian emir, I. 30, 

567- 
ABD-EL-WAHHAB, founder of the Wah- 

habees, II. 260. 
ABDERA, town, Thrace, I. 30; coins of, 

xvii. 640. 

, town, ancient Spain, I. 30. 

ABDERAME (Abd al-Rahman), emir of 

Cordova, xxn. 310. 
ABDICATION, with list, 1. 30 ; of emperor 

Charles V., v. 417. 
ABDOMEN, i. 31, 835; vn. 223; surgery 

of, xxn. 690; wounds of, xv. 781. 
ABDOMINALES, subdivision of fishes, i. 

3i- 

ABDOMINALIA, division of Crustacea, vi. 

666. 
ABDUCTION, in law, i. 31 ; xiv. 69; xxiv. 

642. 
ABD-UL-AziZ, Turkish sultan, xxm. 

651. 
ABD-UL-HAMID, Turkish sultan, xxm. 

652. 
ABD-UL-LATIF (Abdallatif), physician, 

i. 30. 

, Persian sovereign, XVIII. 632. 

ABD-UL-MEJID, Turkish sultan, i. 31; 

xxm. 650. 

A BECKET, or Becket, Thomas, arch 
bishop of Canterbury, I. 31. 
A BECKETT, Gilbert Abbott, English 

humorist, I. 33. 
ABEL, of Scripture, I. 33. 
, Sir Frederick A., his experiments 

on gun-cotton, XI. 277 ; on gunpowder, 

xi. 322; xvi. 445, 460. 
, Karl Friedrich, German musician, 

1-33- 

, Niels Henrik, Norwegian mathe 
matician, I. 33, 516; vin. 508; xin. 40, 
66, 67, 69. 

, Thomas, English divine, I. 33. 

ABELARD, Peter, scholastic philosopher, 
i. 34; XXI. 424; his contest with St 
Bernard, in. 602; his relations with 
William of Champeaux, v. 386. 

ABELIAN FUNCTIONS, vi. 726; ix. 821. 

ABELIANS, religious sect, i. 33. 

ABENCERRAGES, Moorish family, i. 35. 

ABENDANAS, translators of Mishnah, 
xvi. 506. 

ABENEZRA, Jewish writer, I. 36. 

ABENSBERG, town, Bavaria, I. 36. 

ABEOKUTA, town, West Africa, i. 9; 
xxiv. 754. 

ABERAVON, town, Wales, i. 36. 

ABERBROTHOCK (Arbroath), town, Scot 
land, n. 324. 

ABERCIUS, Phrygian saint, XVIII. 853. 

ABERCONWAY (Con way), town, Wales, 
vi. 330. 



ABERCROMBIE, John, Scottish physician 
and philosopher, I. 36; XV. 817. 

ABERCROMBY, David, Scottish physician 
and philosopher, I. 36. 

, James, speaker of the House of 

Commons, I. 37. 

, Patrick, Scottish writer, I. 37. 

-, Sir Ralph, British general, I. 38. 



ABERDARE, town, Wales, I. 38. 

ABERDEEN, town, Scotland, I. 39; lib 
raries, XIV. 523, 542 ; newspapers, 
XVII. 423 ; population, XXI. 528 ; uni 
versity, XXIII. 843, 854. 

, Fourth Earl of, I. 46; English 

premier, VIII. 366. 
-, Old, town, Scotland, I. 43. 



ABERDEENSHIRE, Scotland, i. 43 ; area 
and population, XXI. 528 ; representa 
tion, xxm. 727. 

ABERDEVINE, bird, xxn. 99. 

ABERDOUR, village, Scotland, i. 46. 

ABERFELDY, village, Scotland, i. 46. 

ABERGAVENNY, town, Monmouthshire, 
England, I. 46; XVI. 754; wood sculp 
ture in church, xxiv. 646. 

ABERNETHY, town, Scotland, 1. 46 ; xvin. 
667 ; xx. 477. 

, John, Irish divine, I. 47. 

, John, English surgeon, I. 47. 



ABERRATION, of light, i. 47; xiv. 584, 
589; xvi. 259; xvin. 246, 252; xxiv. 
424, 435, 439 ; its discovery by 
Bradley, 1 1. 757 ; chromatic, xvi. 259; 
XVII. 803; xxm. 141; in the eye, VIII. 
819; of lenses, xvn. 803; xxm. 140. 

ABERTEIFI (Cardigan), town, Wales v. 

95- 

ABERYSTWITH, town, Wales, I. 48 ; Uni 
versity College at, xxm. 856. 

ABESHR, town, Wadai, Central Africa, 
xxn. 279. 

ABETTOR, in law, i. 83. 

ABEYANCE, in law, i. 48. 
, Peerages in, xvn I. 467. 



ABGAR, kings of Edessa, I. 48 ; VII. 653. 

ABGEORDNETENHAUS, Prussian cham 
ber, xx. 1 8. 

ABHA, Syriac writer, xxn. 828. 

, patriarch, Syriac writer, xxn. 

844. 

ABHD-ISHO, Syriac writer, xxn. 827. 

ABHD-ISHO BAR BAHRIZ, metropolitan 
of Mosul, xxn. 849. 

ABHD-ISHO BAR BERIKHA, metropolitan 
of Nisibis, Syriac writer, xxn. 855. 

ABHIDHARMA, the philosophy of Bud 
dhism, iv. 432. 

ABHSAMYA, Syriac writer, xxn. 828. 

ABHZUDH, Syriac writer, xxn. 849. 

ABIAD, Bahr-el (White Nile), river, 
Africa, I. 48 ; XVII. 506, 508. 

ABIDE WITH ME, Lyte s hymn, xv. 
121. 

AB-l-ISTADA, lake, Afghanistan, I. 230. 

ABILA, ancient town, Syria, i. 49. 

ABILDGAARD, Nikolaj, Danish painter, 
1.49; vn. 93. 



ABIMELECH, of Scripture, i. 49; xin. 
401. 

ABINGDON, town, England, I. 49. 

ABIOGENESIS, in biology, i. 49; in. 
688. 

ABIPONES, Indian tribe, I. 50; Dobriz- 
hoffer s history of them, vii. 308. 

ABJURATION, Oath of, i. 581; xvn. 701. 

ABKHASIA, district, Asiatic Russia, I. 
50. 

ABKHASIANS, race of Circassians, v. 
257. 

ABLATION, of glaciers, x. 627. 

ABLUTION, i, 50. 

ABNER, of Scripture, i. 51. 

ABNEY, Capt. William de W., his con 
tributions to photography, xvii. 826, 
830, 834; xxm. 142 ; investigations 
in spectroscopy, xxn. 380. 

ABNICUM (Anni), ancient town, Asia 
Minor, n. 72. 

ABO, province, Finland, ix. 217. 
, town, Finland, I. 5 1 ; observatory 
at, xvii. 714. 

ABOLITION OF SLAVERY, general move 
ment for, xxn. 141 ; Wilberforce s 
part in, xxiv. 565 ; in United States, 
xxm. 752, 763, 767, 781 ; Garrison s 
advocacy, x. 85. 

ABOMASUM, fourth stomach of rumin 
ants, i. 51. 

ABOMEY, town, Dahomey, Africa, I. 51; 
vi. 765. 

ABONG ABONG, mountain, Sumatra^ 
xxn. 638. 

ABOO ARESH, district, Arabia, II. 253. 

ABOOSEER (Abusir), town, Egypt, iv. 
576; pyramids of, vn. 772; xx. 123. 

ABOOSIMBEL (Abu-Simbel), temple of, 
Nubia, n. 388. 

ABORIGINES, i. 51. 

ABORTION, in midwifery, I. 52 ; crimi 
nal, xin. 4; xv. 780; in cows, xxiv. 
204. 

ABOUKIR, town, Egypt, I. 52 ; Nelson s 
victory off (1798), xvn. 322; Napo 
leon s victory off (1799), xxm. 648; 
Abercromby s debarkation at (1801), 

1.38- 

ABOU-MENGEL, bird, xn. 606. 
ABOUT, Edmond, French writer, ix. 

679. 
ABRABANEL, Isaac, Jewish statesman 

and writer, I. 52. 
ABRACADABRA, charm, i. 52. 
ABRAHAM, Hebrew patriarch, I. 52. 
of Kaslikar, Syriac writer, xxn. 



837- 



of Nephtar, Syriac writer, xxn. 

836. 

of Nisibis, Syriac writer, XXII. 836. 

, Plains of, Quebec city, xx. 168. 

BAR DASHANDADH, Syriac writer, 

xxn. 844. 

B. DAVID, rabbis, xx. 191. 

A SANCTA CLARA, German preacher 



and satirist, I. 55; x. 531. 



A B R A C A 



ABRAHAM S BOSOM, limbus patrum, 

xiv. 646. 
ABR ANTES, town, Portugal, I. 55. 

, Duchess of, xm. 779. 

, Duke of (Jiuiot), French general, 

xm. 779; xix. 551. 
ABRASION, by rivers, x. 275. 
ABRAXAS, or Abrasax, charm, I. 56; 

Gnostic name of the Supreme God, ill. 

420; x. 141. 

ABRIACHANITE, mineral, xvi. 418. 
ABRIDGMENTS, in copyright law, vi. 

361. 
ABRlNCATvE (Avranches), ancient town, 

France, m. 157. 
ABRO, island in Baltic, Russia, xvii. 

732. 

ABRUZZO, province, Italy, I. 56. 
ABSALOM, of Scripture, I. 56; vi. 840; 

xm. 405 ; tomb of, n. 393. 

AND ACHITOPHEL, Dryden s poem, 

vii. 492. 
ABSALON, Danish statesman, i. 57; vi. 

345- 
ABSAROKA MOUNTAINS, Wyoming, 

U.S.A., xxiv. 737. 
ABSCESS, in surgery, I. 57 ; treatment 

of, xxii. 683 ; in ophthalmology, xvii. 

781, 786; of liver, tropical, xvm. 396. 
ABSENTEEISM, of landlords in Ireland, 

xm. 229, 269. 
ABSINTHE, liqueur, i. 57. 
ABSOLUTE, in philosophy, i. 57. 
, Philosophy of the, XXL 393; xxm. 

247. 
MEASUREMENTS, in electricity, 

vm. 15, 103. 

SPIRIT, Hegel s, xvi. 87. 

TEMPERATURE, XL 566; xxm. 

285. 

UNIT FORCE, xv. 699. 

ABSOLUTION, i. 58; xvm. 487. 
ABSOLVITOR, in Scots law, i. 58. 
ABSORPTION, I. 58 ; of food into blood, 

xvii. 677; of light, xiv. 600; xx. 213; 

in plants, IV. 119; xix. 44. 
ABSTEMII, religious sect, I. 58. 
ABSTINENCE, ascetic, n. 677. 

SOCIETIES, xxm. 159. 

ABSTRACTION, in philosophy, i. 58; m. 

47- 

ABSURDUM, Reductio ad, i. 59. 

ABU, sacred mountain, India, I. 59; xm. 
543; xxii. 98. 

ABU-ABDULLAH MAHOMMED (Ibn Ba- 
tuta), geographer, xn. 607. 

ABU-ALI AL-HASAN (Alhazen), mathe 
matician, i. 572. 

ABU-ALI AL-HOSEIN IBN-SlNA (Avi- 

cenna), philosopher and physician, 
ill. 152. 

ABUAM, town, Morocco, xxm. 21. 

ABUBACER, Spanish Moslem philo 
sopher, II. 269. 

ABUBAKER, rajah of Johore, xm. 730. 

ABU-BASIR, runaway from Mecca, xvi. 
55 8. 



ABU-BEKR, caliph, successor of 

Mohammed, I. 60; II. 257; xvi. 561. 
ABU-BEKR MOHAMMED IBN-JAKYA 

(Avempace), philosopher, ill. 144; II. 

269. 

ABU-BISHIR, fish, xix. 429. 
ABU-DANI (Eldacl Ben Malchi), Jewish 

traveller, VII. 827. 

ABU-FARAJ, Arabian writer, n. 263. 
ABU-GHALIB BAR SABUNI, Syriac 

writer, XXII. 850. 
ABU-HAMED MUHAMMAD AL-GAZALI, 

Arabian philosopher, I. 510. 
ABU-JAFAR AL-MANSUR, caliph, xv. 

500; xvi. 578. 
ABU-JAFAR MOHAMMED B. JARIR AT- 

TABARI, Arabian historian, xxm. 3. 
ABULA (Avila), ancient town, Spain, 

in. 156. 
ABUL-ABBAS, first Abbasid caliph, xvi. 

578. 
ABUL-ABBAS AHMED (Ibn Khallikan), 

Arabian writer, XII. 609. 
ABUL-ABBAS AHMED IBN-MOHAMMED 

EL-MAKKARI, Arabian w r riter, XV. 31 1. 
ABULCASIM, Arabian surgeon, XV. 805 ; 

xxn. 675. 
MANSUR (Firdousi), Persian poet, 



IX. 225. 
ABULFARAGIUS, Gregorius (Abiil-Faraj, 

Bar-Hebrteus), Arabian historian, I. 

60; xxii. 853; xxm. 5. 
ABULFAZL, Indian historian, I. 60. 
ABULFEDA, Arabic historian, I. 60; n. 

263, 264. 
ABULGHAZI-BAHADUR, khan of Khiva, 

i. 61. 
ABUL-HAKAM, Moorish invader of 

Spain, xxii. 319. 
ABUL-HASSAN, Arabian diallist, vii. 

153- 

ABUL-HIN, mountain, Syria, xiv. 394. 
ABUL-KASIM, Arabian physician, xv. 

805; xxii. 675. 

ABULKHAIR, Mongol khan, xvi. 729. 
ABULMAJD MAJDUD B. ADAM (Sanai), 

Persian poet, xxi. 254. 
ABUL-TAYYIB (Al-Motanabbi), Arabian 

poet, xvii. i. 

ABULWAFA, Mohammed, Arabian alge 
braist, i. 512. 
ABUL-WALID MERWAN (Rabbi Jonah), 

Jewish philologist, XIII. 737. 
ABUL-WALID MOHAMMED IBN-ROSHD 

(Averroes), philosopher, in. 149. 
ABU-MAASCHAR (Abumazar), Arabian 

astronomer, I. 456; XVI. 596. 
ABU-MERWAN ABDALMALEC IBN- 

ZOHR (Avenzoar), ill. 145; xv. 805. 
ABU-MOSLIM, founder of the Abbasid 

dynasty, xvi. 576, 578. 
ABUNA, title of the archbishop of Abys 
sinia, I. 6 1. 
ABU-NASR IBN-HAMMAD EL-JAUHARY, 

Arabic lexicographer, xm. 598. 
ABU-NASR MUHAMMAD AL-FARABI, 

Arabian philosopher, I. 501. 



ABU-OBAIDA, Arabian historian, xxm. 3. 

ABU-SAID, Persian sovereign, xvin. 
632. 

ABU-SAID B. ABUL-KHAIR, Persian 
poet, xvii. 771; xvm. 658. 

ABUSCHEHR, or Abushehr (Bushire), 
town, Persia, IV. 574. 

ABU-SIMBEL, or Ipsambul, Nubia, I. 61 ; 
temple of, II. 388. 

ABUSIR, town, Egypt, IV. 576 ; pyra 
mids of, vii. 772; xx. 123. 

ABU-TAHIR AL-MANSUR, Fatimite 
caliph, xv. 500. 

ABU-TEMAN, or Abu-Temmam, Arabian 
poet, I. 61; II. 263; XI. 402; XVI. 539. 

ABUTMENTS, Stability of, iv. 324. 

ABU-YAHYA AL-MARWAZI, Syrian 
physician, XXII. 847. 

ABU-YUSUF AL-KiNDi, Arabian philo 
sopher, I. 578. 

ABU-ZAKARIYA, prince of Tunis, xxm. 
621. 

ABU-ZEID ABDARRAHMAN (Ibn Khal- 
dovm), Arabic writer, xil. 609. 

ABYDOS, ancient town, Asia Minor, i. 
61; xvii. 122. 

, ancient town, Egypt, I. 61; VII. 
775 > pyramids of, xx. 124. 

ABYSSINIA, I. 61, 262; Arabian settle 
ments in, XXIV. 739; birds of, ill. 758 ; 
filigree from, IX. 164 ; Gallas of, X. 38 ; 
introduction of Christianity, IX. 804 ; 
languages, XVI. 654 ; Lobo s travels in, 
Xiv. 743; Prester John of, XIX. 717. 

ABYSSINIAN CHURCH, Canon of the, v. 

13- 

ABYSSINIAN MONTHS, v. 716. 
ABYSSINIANS, i. 262. 
ACACIA, genus of plants, I. 68 ; catechu 

from, v. 220; gum from, XI. 275. 

, False, culture of, II. 318. 

ACACIANS, early Christian sect, XV. 

145. 
ACACIUS, patriarch of Constantinople, 

xix. 492. 
of Amid, Syriac writer, xxii. 829. 

of Seleucia, Syriac writer, xxii. 

830. 

ACADEMIA ESPANOLA, XXII. 360. 

ACADEMICAL PRECEDENCE, xix. 668. 
ACADEMIC SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY, i. 

68. 

ACADEMIC VESTMENTS, vi. 463. 
ACADEMIES, I. 68; importance of, for 

the advance of science, XXIV. 800; of 

Italy, xm. 507; musical, xvii. 83. 
ACADEMUS, grove of, I. 68; XIX. 194. 
ACADEMY, i. 68. 

, at Athens, I. 68; ill. 2; xix. 194. 

, French, founded by Richelieu, IX. 

570 ; its influence on French literature, 

IX. 658. 
-, Royal, London, Xiv. 836. 



ACADIA, or Acadie, former name of Nova 
Scotia, I. 79; xvii. 375, 60 1 ; its rela 
tion to Maine, U.S.A., xv. 301. 

ACALEPH^E, group of animals, I. 79. 



A C A A C I 



ACAMARCHIS AVICULARIA, species of 

Polyzoa, xix. 437. 

ACANTHIAS, genus of sharks, xxi. 775. 
ACANTHITE, mineral, xvi. 392. 
ACANTHOCEPHALA, parasitic worms, I. 

79; n. 54; xvin. 259; in Lankester s 

classification, xxiv. 813. 
ACANTHOCYSTUS, genus of Protozoa, 

xix. 845. 
ACANTHODINI, suborder of fishes, xn. 

686. 
ACANTHODRILUS, genusof worms, xxiv. 

678. 
ACANTHOGLOSSUS, genus of mammals, 

xv. 378. 

ACANTHOMETRIDEA, subclass of Proto- 

zoa, xix. 851. 

ACANTHOMYS, genus of Rodentia, XVII. 6. 
ACANTHOPTERYGll, order of fishes, I. 79; 

xn. 688. 
PHARYNGOGNATHI, order of fishes, 

xii. 691. 

ACANTHUS, genus of plants, i. 79. 
ACANTHYLLIS, genus of birds, xxil. 

760. 

ACAPULCO, town, Mexico, I. 79. 
ACARIDEA, order of Arachnida, II. 274. 
ACARNANIA, province, ancient Greece, 

I. 79 ; coins of, xvu. 642. 
ACARUS, genus of Arachnida, I. 79; II. 

276; XVI. 528 ; gall-producers, X. 43. 
AUTUMNALIS, harvest bug, XI. 501; 

xvi. 529. 

ACCAD, or Akkad, subdivision of Baby 
lonia, in. 185; xvi. 51. 
ACCADIAN INSCRIPTIONS, vn. 795; xin. 

114; language of, I. 604; dictionary, 

vn. 189. 
ACCA LARENTIA, in Roman legend, xiv. 

3*3- 

ACCARON, or Ekron, town of the Phili 
stines, vn. 794. 

ACCELERATION, in dynamics, i. 79; xv. 
682; diagram of, VII. 150; energy of, 
xv. 769; lunar, n. 799. 

ACCENT, ACCENTUATION, in language, 
I. 80; XI. 37; xvin. 788; XXII. 384; in 
Latin, xiv. 329; in Romance languages, 
XX. 664; in Sanskrit, XXI. 272. 

ACCENTOR, genus of birds, XXII. 369. 

ACCENTS, in ancient MSS., xvin. 165. 

ACCEPTANCE, in commerce, I. 82. 

ACCEPTATIONS, The, supplement to Book 
of the Consulate, VI. 317. 

ACCESSION, i. 83. 

ACCESSORY, in criminal law, I. 83; vi. 
588. 

ACCIAJUOLI, Donato, Italian writer, I. 

83- 

ACCIDENCE, in grammar, xi. 38. 
ACCIDENT, in logic, I. 83. 
ACCIDENT INSURANCE, xm. 161. 
ACCIDENTS, in mines, xvi. 466; vi. 72 ; 

railway, XX. 250; at sea, xxi. 60 1. 
ACCIPITRES, group of birds, XI. 534; 

XVIII. 47. 
AcciUS, poet of 1 6th century, I. 83. 



ACCIUS, Lucius, Latin tragic poet, I. 83; 
XVIII. 129; his language, xiv. 332. 

ACCLAMATION, i. 83. 

ACCLIMATIZATION, i. 84; iv. 248; of 
fish, xii. 665; xix. 128; of fish in New 
Zealand, xvu. 470; of insects, xin. 
141. 

ACCOLADE, in conferring knighthood, 
i. 90; xiv. 1 1 8. 

ACCOLTI, Benedict, Tuscan lawyer, I. 90. 
, Bernard, improvisatore, I. 90. 

, Pietro, cardinal, I. 90. 

ACCOMMODATION, in Biblical interpre 
tation, i. 90. 

, in commerce, I. 90. 

-, Ophthalmic disorders of, xvu. 785. 



ACCOMPTANT (Accountant), I. 92. 
ACCORAMBONI, Vittoria, Italian lady, 

I. 90. 

ACCORDION, musical instrument, I. 91. 
ACCORSO, Francis, Florentine lawyer, 

I. 91 ; his Glossa, X. 686. 
-, Mariangelo, Neapolitan critic, 1. 91. 



ACCOUNT, Stock Exchange term, I. 91. 

ACCOUNTANT, i. 92. 

ACCOUNTANT-GENERAL, Court of Chan 
cery official, i. 92. 

ACCOUNT BOOKS, Manufacture of, xxn. 
461. 

ACCOUNTS, Banking, ill. 332. 

ACCRA, town, West Africa, I. 92. 

ACCRINGTON, town, England, I. 92. 

ACCUM, Frederick, chemist, I. 92. 

ACCUMULATOR, electrical machine, I. 
92; vin. 34. 

MACHINERY, Hydraulic, xii. 522. 



ACCURSIUS (Accorso, q.v.\ i. 91. 
ACCUSED PERSONS, Torture of, xxm. 

462. 

ACE, on cards and dice, I. 92. 
ACELUM (Asolo), ancient town, Italy, II. 

714. 
ACEPHALA, section of molluscs, I. 92; 

xvi. 633, 684. 

ACEPHALI, I. 92. 

ACER, genus of trees, xv. 523. 

ACERA, genus of molluscs, xvi. 655, 656. 

ACERATHERIUM, fossil rhinoceros, XX. 

523. 

ACERBI, Joseph, Italian traveller, I. 93. 
ACERINA CERNUA, species of fish, xix. 

481. 

ACERNUS, Polish poet, I. 93. 
ACERRA, incense box, I. 93. 

, town, Italy, I. 93. 

ACERVETIS (Mangalia), ancient town, 

Thrace, xv. 479. 
ACETALS, in chemistry, V. 567. 
ACETATE OF LEAD, xiv. 378. 
ACETIC ACID, i. 93; v. 569. 
ACETYLENE, in chemistry, v. 521, 559; 

XVIIL 237. 
ACHAEAN LEAGUE, i. 93; ix. 62; xi. 107 ; 

under Philopocmen, XVIIL 790; in 

time of Polybius, Xix. 411. 
ACH^EMENIAN DYNASTY, Persia, XVIII. 

565. 



M, form of fruit, iv. 151. 
ACHAIA, state, ancient Greece, 1. 93; Xix. 

411 ; coins of, xvu. 642. 
ACHAN, of Scripture, I. 94. 
ACHARD, Franz Carl, Prussian chemist, 

I. 94; his platinum process, Xix. 190; 

manufactures beet-sugar, xxil. 625. 
ACHARIUS, Erik, Swedish botanist, I. 

94 ; his classification of lichens, Xiv. 

560. 
ACHARNIANS, The, play of Aristophanes, 

n. 508. 

ACHATES, friend of ./Eneas, I. 94. 
ACHEEN (Acliin), in Sumatra, I. 95 ; 

XXIL 639. 
ACHELNOTUS (Agelnoth), archbishop of 

Canterbury, I. 279. 
ACHELOUS, river, Greece, I. 94. 
ACHENWALL, Gottfried, German writer, 

I. 94; on statistics, xxn. 461. 
ACHERON, in classical mythology, I. 

94- 

, river, Albania, I. 447; v. 266. 

ACHILL, island, Ireland, I. 94; xin. 216; 

xv. 650. 
ACHILLES, in Greek legend, I. 94; xii. 

117; XX. 643 ; his obsequies, ill. 398 ; 

his connexion with Scyros, XXI. 574 ; 

shield of, II. 347. 

- PONTARCHES, Cult of, XVII. 753. 

TATIUS, Greek writer, I. 95 ; xx. 

635. 

ACHILLINI, Alessandro, Italian ana 
tomist, i. 95, 806. 

, Claudio, Italian poet, xin. 511. 

ACHIMENES, genus of stove plants, xn. 
265. 

ACHIN, state and town, Sumatra, I. 95; 
xxil. 639. 

Ac H MET (Ahmed, q.v.), sultans of 
Turkey, I. 97. 

PASHA, French adventurer, IV. 36. 

ACHRADINA, suburb of Syracuse, XXIL 
814. 

ACHRAY, lake, Scotland, I. 97. 

ACHROMATIC BANDS, in spectrum, 
xxiv. 425, 427. 

ACHROMATIC GLASSES, i. 97; xiv. 595; 
xvi. 250,260,262; xvii. 804; Amici s, 
i. 738; xvi. 262; Dollond s, vii. 345; 
xvi. 262 ; Fraunhofer s, IX. 728. 

ACHROMATIC TELESCOPE, xxm. 137. 

ACHROMATIN, in tissues, xix. 832. 

ACHROMATISM, in optics, xiv. 592, 595, 
60 1 ; xvii. 804 ; of the eye, xiv. 60 1. 

AciCULlD^E, family of snails, XXII. 
187. 

ACID, in chemistry, I. 97; v. 477, 486 ; 
acetic, I. 93 ; lactic, Xiv. 196 ; oxalic, 
XVIIL 91 ; phthalic, XVIIL 855; prussic, 
xx. 21 ; tartaric, xxm. 69 ; uric, 

XXIV. II. 

ACIDALIUS, Valens, German writer, I. 

98. 

ACID-AMIDES, in chemistry, xvii. 519. 
ACIDS, Fatty, X. 697 ; organic, v. 553, 

568; xix. 52 ; vegetable, xix. 52. 



A C I A D A 



5 



ACIDULATED SPRINGS, xvi. 436. 
ACINACES, Persian sword, I. 98. 
ACINETARIA, class of Protozoa, xix. 

865; xxiv. 812. 

ACIPENSER, genus of fishes, xxil. 611. 
ACIREALE, town, Sicily, I. 97; xxn. 31. 
Acis, in mythology, I. 98. 
ACKEN, town, Prussia, I. 435. 
ACKERMANN, Johann C. G., German 

physician, I. 98. 
ACMITE, mineral, XVI. 416. 
ACNE, skin disease, xxn. 121. 
ACNODE, in geometry, vi. 723; xxn. 

669. 

ACCELA, tribe of worms, xix. 172, 174. 
ACCEMETVE, or Accemeti, order of monks, 

I. 98; xvi. 700. 
ACOLHUAS, people, ancient Mexico, xvi. 

209. 
ACOLYTE, order of clergy, i. 98; xvn. 

820. 
ACONCAGUA, province, Chili, I. 98; v. 

616. 

, volcano, Chili, II. 16; v. 616. 

ACONCIO, Giacomo, jurist and theolo 
gian, I. 98. 
ACONITE, genus of plants, I. 98 ; poison, 

XIX. 279; extract of, in different 

pharmacopoeias, xvill. 731. 
ACONTIID/E, family of lizards, XIV. 

733- 

ACONTIUS, jurist and theologian, I. 98. 

ACORNS, Economic uses of, XVII. 692. 

ACORUS, genus of plants, I. 99. 

ACOSTA, Christoval d , Portuguese natu 
ralist, I. 99. 

, Joseph d , Spanish writer, I. 99. 

, Uriel d , Portuguese Jewish noble 
man, I. 99. 

ACOTYLEDONES, class of plants, I. 99. 

ACOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS, IV. 92. 

ACOUSTICS, I. too ; of speech-organs, 
xvni. 811; xxiv. 273; in relation to 
telephony, XXIII. 127. 

ACOUSTIC TRICKS, in magic, xv. 307. 

ACQUAVIVA, Claudio, general of the 
Jesuits, xin. 651, 653. 

ACQUI, town, Italy, I. 120; mineral 
water of, xvi. 434. 

ACQUISITIVENESS, in phrenology, xvm. 
845. 

ACRA, town, Gold Coast, Africa, I. 92 ; 
race and language, X. 756. 

A.CRJE, Syracusan settlement, Sicily, 
xxn. 814; xvm. 167. 

ACRE, measure of surface, I. 120. 

, or St Jean d Acre, town, Syria, I. 

120; capture of, by Saladin (1191), 
vn. 754; xxin. 161; Knights Hospital 
lers at, xxi. 174 ; Napoleon s repulse at 
(1799), xvn. 201; xxn. 179. 

ACREDULA, genus of birds, xxm. 419. 

ACROBAT, i. 120. 

ACROBATA, genus of phalangers, xvm. 
729. 

ACROCEPHALUS, genus of birds, xxiv. 
366. 



ACROCERAUNIA, promontory, Greece, 

i. 120. 
ACROCERAUNIAN MOUNTAINS, Greece, 

1. 447. 

ACROCHORDID^E, family of snakes, 

xxn. 193. 

ACRODYNIA, toxic disease, xvm. 407. 
ACROGEN^E, or Acrogens, division of 

plants, i. 120; iv. 99. 
ACROLEIN, a vapour from oils, xvn. 740. 
ACROLITH, in statuary, I. 120. 
ACROMYODI, group of birds, XVIII. 40, 

47- 

Ac RON, Sicilian physician, I. 120. 
ACROPOLIS, citadel, Athens, i. 121; 

m. i, 5, 6. 
ACROPOLITA, Georgius, Byzantine 

historian, IV. 613. 
ACROSTIC, i. 121. 

ACROTERIUM, in architecture, 1 1. 459. 
ACRYDIID^E, family of insects, XL 60; 

xm. 153; xiv. 765. 
ACT, in dramatic literature, I. 121. 

, in law, I. 122. 

OF CONGRESS, xxn. 471. 

OF PARLIAMENT, i. 122; xvm. 

313; xxn. 468. 
OF SEDERUNT, in Scots law, i. 



123. 

OF SETTLEMENT, of English 
crown, xxi. 696 ; in Isle of Man, xv. 

454- 

OF UNIFORMITY (1662), xix. 690. 



ACTA CONSISTORII, Roman edicts, I. 

128. 

ACTA DIURNA, Roman gazette, I. 128. 
AdVEON, in mythology, I. 129. 
ACTA SANCTORUM, of the Bollandists, 

iv. 1 8. 
ACTA SENATUS, minutes of the Roman 

senate, I. 129. 
ACTA THOM^, apocryphal book, xxm. 

308. 

ACTE, peninsula, Macedonia, xv. 138. 
ACTIAN GAMES, at Rome, i. 129; xvn. 

490. 
ACTIA NlCOPOLiS, town, ancient 

Greece, xvn. 490. 
ACTING, dramatic art, vn. 391, 396; IX. 

202, 209. 

ACTINIA, genus of animals, I. 129. 
ACTINISM, property of solar rays, I. 

129. 

ACTINOLITE, mineral, xvi. 417. 
ACTINOMETER, thermometer for solar 

rays, I. 129. 
ACTINOMYCOSIS, disease, xvm. 270 ; 

in cattle, xxiv. 204. 
ACTINOPHRYS, genus of Protozoa, xix. 

845. 
ACTINOSPH^ERIUM, genus of Protozoa, 

xix. 845. 

ACTINOTE, mineral, xvi. 417. 
ACTINOZOA, group of animals, I. 129; 

VI. 369; VII. 277, 283; their relation 

to Hydrozoa, xn. 548 ; skeletal struc 
ture of, xxn. 106. 



ACTINURUS, genus of rotifers, xxi. 4. 

ACTION, Chemical, v. 474. 

, in law, i. 132; limitations of, xiv. 

650; in Roman law, xx. 68 1, 707; 

xix. 217. 
, Least and varying, in mechanics, 

xv. 723 ; in optics, xiv. 598. 

, Mental, xx. 42. 

ACTIUM, in ancient geography, I. 133 ; 

battle of (31 B.C.), I. 418; xx. 769. 

, Era of, v. 716. 

ACTON, village, England, I, 133. 
, Sir John F. E., Neapolitan com 
mander, I. 133; IX. 79. 
ACTORS, Dramatic, vn. 396; Chinese, 

vii. 402 ; English, vii. 434, 437, 439 ; 

Greek, vn. 408 ; Hindu, vn. 399 ; 

Roman, vn. 411. 
ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, i. 123; in. 

644; XXII. 79; apocryphal, II. 184. 
ACTS OF PETER AND PAUL, apocryphal 

book, xvm. 696. 

ACTUALITY, in psychology, xx. 55. 
ACTUARIES, Institute of, their mortality 

tables, xm. 170. 
ACTUARY, i. 133. 
ACULEATA, group of insects, xm. 

148. 
ACUNA, Christoval d , Spanish traveller, 

I- 133- 
, Juan de, Spanish viceroy of 

Mexico, xvi. 219. 
ACUPRESSURE, in surgery, I. 133. 
ACUPUNCTURE, in surgery, i. 133; 

xxn. 673. 
ACUSIUM (Montelimar), ancient town, 

France, xvi. 779. 
ADAFUDIA, town, Western Africa, I. 

133- 

ADAGIA, work of Erasmus, vm. 517. 
ADAH, wife of Lamech of Scripture, 

xiv. 238. 
ADAI KHOKH, mountain, Caucasus, v. 

253- 

ADAL, country, Eastern Africa, I. 134. 
ADALBERO, archbishop of Rheims, xx. 

508; xxn. 74. 
ADALBERT, archbishop of Bremen and 

Hamburg, I. 134. 
, bishop of Prague, I. 134; xix. 

286. 

, marquises of Tuscany, xxm. 671. 

ADALIA (Satali), town, Asia Minor, xxi. 

317. 
ADAM, of Scripture, I. 134; in relation 

to Eve, vm. 733 ; Manichsean view of, 

xv. 483. 
, Life of, Jewish apocalyptic book, 

n. 177. 
of Bremen, ecclesiastical historian, 

i. 138. 
, Alexander, classical teacher, I. 



139- 
, Melchior, German writer, I. 139; 

xiv. 850. 
, Robert, Scottish architect, I. 139; 

xiv. 850. 



6 



A D A A D 



ADAM, William, Scottish politician, I. 

139- 

DE LA HALLE, early French 

writer, IX. 642. 

ADAMANTIUS, on physiognomy, xix. 4. 

ADAMAS, diamond, vn. 162. 

ADAMAWA, or Adamaua, country, Cen 
tral Africa, I. 140, 272; xxn. 248, 
278, 279. 

GROUP, of Negroes, xvn. 319. 

ADAM BLAIR, Lockhart s novel, xiv. 

763- 

ADAMIANS, heretical sect, I. 140. 
ADAMITE, mineral, xvi. 405. 
ADAMITES, heretical sect, i. 140. 
ADAMNAN, Scottish saint and author, i. 

140; viii. 405; xxi. 540. 
ADAMS, John, president of United 

States, I. 141; xxill. 755; champions 

Declaration of Independence, xxill. 

743- 

, John, Pitcairn Islander, XIX. 132. 

, John Couch, his share in the dis 
covery of the planet Neptune, 1 1. 813; 
his logarithmic formulae, xiv. 778. 

, John Quincy, president of United 

States, I. 142; xxill. 762; as a poet, 
I. 722. 

, Richard, English divine, I. 143. 

, Samuel, American statesman, I. 

143- 
, Thomas, English Puritan divine, 

I. 143. 
, William, first Englishman in Japan, 

xin. 584. 
ADAM S BRIDGE, chain of sandbanks, 

Ceylon, I. 140; v. 359; xx. 266. 
ADAM S DAUGHTERS, Book of, Jewish 

apocalyptic book, II. 177. 
ADAM S NEEDLE, plant, xxiv. 760. 
ADAMSON, Patrick, archbishop of St 

Andrews, I. 143; XXI. 507. 
ADAM S PEAK, mountain, Ceylon, I. 

140; v. 359. 
ADANA, town, Asiatic Turkey, I. 144; 

v. 777; province, XXIII. 653. 
ADANGME, dialect, Gold Coast, Africa, 

x. 756. 
ADANSON, Michel, French naturalist, 

I. 144. 
ADAPIS, genus of extinct lemurs, xiv. 

444- 

ADAPTATION, in biology, i. 145. 
ADARBAIJAN, or Azerbijan, province, 

Persia, in. 167; xvm. 626. 
ADDA, river, Italy, i. 145; xm. 435. 
ADDANKI, town, Nellore, India, XVII. 

321. 

ADD AX, kind of antelope, II. 101. 
ADDER, reptile, I. 145; xxiv. 247; death 

adder, xxn. 198. 
ADDINGTON, Henry, English prime 

minister, I. 145; viii. 363; his relations 

with Pitt, XIX. 146. 
ADDISON, Joseph, English essayist and 

poet, I. 146; his place in English 

literature, viii. 425, 427; as drama 



tist, VII. 435; his essays on the ima 
gination, I. 222 ; his hymns, XII. 592 ; 
his relations with Pope, xix. 484; his 
connexion with Steele, xxn. 527. 

ADDISON, Thomas, English physician, 
xv. 817. 

ADDISON S DISEASE, xvni. 384; xxn. 

122. 

ADDITION, in algebra, I. 520; in arith 
metic, II. 527, 534. 

ADEL, country, Eastern Africa, I. 1 50. 

ADELAAR, Cort Sivartsen, naval com- 
.mander, I. 150. 

ADELAIDE, town, South Australia, i. 151; 
xxii. 284; observatory at, xvn. 717; 
university of, xxill. 856. 

, wife of William IV. of England, 

xxiv. 581. 

, wife of emperor Otto I., x. 483. 

ISLAND, Antarctic regions, xix. 



33- 

ADELHEID, queen of Italy, xin. 469. 

ADELINA LONGA, station, AVest Africa, 
xvn. 733. 

ADELM (Aldhelm, q.v.), St, bishop of 
Sherborne, I. 474. 

ADELPHI, Terence s play, xxin. 187. 

ADELSBERG, town, Austria, i. 151. 

ADELUNG, Friedrich von, German philo 
logist, i. 151. 

, Johann Christoph, German philo 
logist, I. 151. 

ADEN, town, Arabia, I. 152. 
., Gulf of, xx. 316. 



ADENOMA, glandular tumour, xvni. 

379; xxii. 687. 
ADERNO, town, Sicily, I. 152. 
ADERSBACH ROCKS, Germany, i. 153. 
ADFOO, town, Egypt, vil. 783. 
ADGHAGH PLATEAU, Sahara, Africa, 

xxi. 149. 
ADHEMAR, bishop of Puy, crusader, vi. 

624, 626. 

ADHERBAL, Numidian prince, xin. 766. 
ADHESION, in physics, I. 153; causing 

capillary action, v. 56. 
ADHESIVENESS, in phrenology, xvni. 

844- 
ADIABATIC COMPRESSION, xi. 570. 

EXPANSION, of gases, xn. 480; 



xxii. 480; of steam, xxn. 485, 

ADIABENE, in Assyria, xvni. 605. 

ADIAPHORISTS, ADIAPHORISTIC CON 
TROVERSY, i. 153; xv. 834. 

ADIB SABIR, Persian writer, xvni. 658. 

ADIGE, river, Austria and Italy, I. 153; 
in. 117; xin. 436. 

ADI GRANTH, sacred book of the 
Sikhs, xx. no. 

ADIL SHAH, Persian sovereign, xvni. 

643- 

ADINIDA, order of Protozoa, xix. 859. 
ADINOLE, mineral, xvi. 419. 
ADIPOCERE, i. 153. 
ADIPOSE TISSUE, i. 154, 851. 
ADIRONDACK MOUNTAINS, New York, 

U.S.A., i. 154; xvn. 450; xxin. 792. 



ADIT, drainage tunnel in a mine, I. 154; 

xvi. 457 ; in tunnelling, xxill. 622. 
ADITI, in Hindu mythology, II. 739; 

xvn. 152. 
ADJUDICATION, in law, i. 154; in 

Roman law, xx. 690. 
ADJUSTMENT, in commerce, I. 1 54. 
ADJUTAGE, delivery tube for liquids, 

i. 154. 

ADJUTANT, military officer, i. 1 54. 
, bird, I. 154; xin. 529. 



ADJYGURH, town, India, i. 1 54. 
ADLER, Kaspar (Aquila), German 

theologian, II. 230. 

ADLERBETH, Gudmund Goran, Swed 
ish writer, xxn. 756. 
ADMENSURATIO, obsolete English writ, 

xxiv. 694. 
ADMETUS, chieftain of Epirus, vin. 

484. 
ADMINISTRATION, in government, XL 

16; in intestacy, xin. 197. 
ADMINISTRATOR, in law, i. 154; vm. 

800. 

ADMIRABLE CRICHTON, vi. 577. 
ADMIRAL, naval officer, i. 154; xvn. 

291 ; of the fleet, I. 155. 
, Lord High, of England, I. 155; 

xxn. 458. 
ADMIRALTY, Black Book of the, xxi. 

584. 
, British Board of, I. 157; xvn. 292. 

, First Lords of the, xvi. 474; list 

of, i. 156. 
-, High Court of, I. 158; vice- 



admiralty courts, I. 160; xxi. 607. 
, Secretaries of the, list of, I. 158. 

CHARTS, i. 162; xvn. 263. 

DEPARTMENTS, of different 



countries, I. 158. 
ISLAND, United States, I. 162. 
ISLANDS, Pacific Ocean, I. 162; xv. 



835- 
ADNA - MUORKI - KORTJE, waterfall, 

Sweden, xxn. 737. 
ADOLF, count of Nassau, emperor, x. 

493; xvn. 239. 
ADOLPHUS, John, English historian, I. 

162. 
, John Leycester, his letters on the 

authorship of Waverley, I. 162. 
FREDERICK, king of Sweden, xxn. 



ADOMNAN (Aclamnan, q.v.\ St, I. 140. 

ADON, Semitic god-name, xxin. 237. 

ADONIS, of Greek legend, I. 163; xiv. 
678. 
, genus of plants, I. 163. 

, river, Syria, I. 163. 

ADOPTIAN CONTROVERSY (8th cen 
tury), i. 163. 

ADOPTIANISTS (3d century), xxi. 127. 

ADOPTION, in law, I. 163; in Roman 
law, xx. 672, 713. 

, Biblical term, I. 164. 

ADORATION, i. 164. 

ADOUR, river, France, I. 164; XX. 126. 



A D O M S C 



ADOWA, town, Abyssinia, I. 164, 64. 
ADRA, town, Spain, i. 164. 
ADRAMYTTIUM, town, Asia Minor, 

XVII. 122. 

ADRASTUS, in Greek legend, I. 164. 
ADRIA, town, Italy, I. 164. 

, part of Mediterranean, I. 165. 

ADRIAN, or Hadrian, Eoman emperor, 

xi. 363. 

I.-V., popes, I. 165. 

VI., pope, I. 1 66. 

, town, Michigan, U.S.A., I. 165. 

of Utrecht, regent in Spain (Pope 

Adrian VI.), xxn. 328. 

DE CASTELLO, cardinal, i. 166. 

ADRIANI, Giovanni Battista, Florentine 

historian, I. 166. 

, Marcello Virgilio, Florentine chan 
cellor, xv. 146. 
ADRIANOPLE, province, Turkey in 

Europe, xxni. 653. 
, town, Turkey, I. 166; battle of 

(378), xxiv. 36; treaty of (1829), xxi. 

20; xxii. 590; xxm. 650. 
ADRIATIC SEA, i. 166; xv. 820; under 

protection of Venice, xxiv. 142. 
ADROGATION, in Koman law, i. 163; 

xx. 672. 
ADRUMETUM, ancient town, North 

Africa, XI. 366. 

ADULARIA, mineral, xvi. 419. 
ADULE, or Adulis, ancient town, Eastern 

Africa, I. 166; xxiv. 826. 
ADULLAM, Cave of, i. 166. 
ADULTERATION, i. 167 ; of beer, iv. 

273; of butter, IV. 591; of coffee, VI. 

114; of honey, XII. 137; of linseed, 

XIV. 677 ; of milk, XVI. 305 ; of oils, 

xvii. 745, 748; of opium, xvn. 790, 

792; of perfumery, xvill. 527; of silk, 

xxn. 64; of tea, xxm. 100; of wine, 

xvii. 795; xxiv. 603. 
ADULTERY, i. 177; in Koman law, xx. 

675 ; divorce for, VI I. 301. 
ADUR, river, England, xxn. 723. 
ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING, Bacon s 

work, in. 210. 

ADVENT, in the calendar, I. 177. 
ADVENTISTS, American religious sect, 

xvi. 320. 
ADVENTURES OF PHILIP, Thackeray s, 

xxm. 216. 

ADVERBS, in grammar, XL 41. 
ADVERSUS GENTES, Arnobius s treatise, 

ii. 625. 

ADVERTISEMENT, i. 177. 
ADVOCATE, legal pleader, 1.178; Roman, 

xviii. 413. 

ADVOCATE-GENERAL, Admiralty, 1. 161. 
ADVOCATES, Faculty of, in Scotland, i. 

179; xiii. 91. 
ADVOCATES LIBRARY, Edinburgh, xiv. 

522. 

AD VOCATION, in Scots law, I. 179. 
ADVOWSON, in English law, I. 179; 

simoniacal sale of, xxii. 85 ; in reign 

of Henry II., VIII. 305. 



ADYAR, suburb of Madras, xv. 189. 
ADYTUM, of temple, i. 179; xxm. 166. 
ADZE, edge-tool, XL 437. 
/E, diphthong, I. 179. 
/EACUS, in mythology, i. 179. 
ALEUTIAN LAW, Roman, xx. 696. 
AED, Irish king, xni. 250. 

, Laws of, Scotland, xxi. 478. 
AEDAN, or Aidan, bishop of Lindisfarne, 

I. 424; xni. 249. 
/EDILE, Roman public officer, I. 180; 

xxm. 557; xx. 738, 771. 
/EETES, in Greek legend, II. 496. 
/EGADES, or zEgates, islands, west of 

Sicily, i. 1 80; xxn. 31. 
ALGJE, or Edessa, ancient town, Mace 
donia, vii. 652; xv. 137. 
/Ec^EON, in Greek mythology, IV. 277. 
AGATES, islands, Sicily, I. 180; xxn. 

31 ; battle near (241 B.C.), XL 410. 
/EGEAN SEA, Mediterranean, i. 180; xv. 

820; archipelago of, II. 381. 
/EGEID.E, Greek clan, xix. 98. 
/EGERINE, mineral, xvi. 416. 
/EGEUS, in Greek legend, I. 180; xxm. 

294. 

/EGIALITIS, genus of birds, xiv. 76. 
/EciDius (Giles), St, x. 595. 
/EGILIA, island, Greece, v. 346. 
/EGINA, in mythology, I. 180. 
, island, Greece, I. 180; coins of, 

xvii. 642 ; sculptures of, II. 350, 352. 
/EGINETA, Paulus, Greek surgeon, I. 181; 

xv. 804. 

/EGIS, in mythology, I. 181; XXI. 135. 
/EGISTHUS, in Greek legend, I. 181. 
/EGITHALUS, genus of birds, xxm. 

419. 

/EGITHOGNATHOUS TYPE, of birds, III. 

715; xviii. 35. 

/EGOSPOTAMI, river, Thrace, I. 182; 
battle of (405 B.C.), XL 102; xxm. 

222. 

ALFRED, or Alfred, the Great, English 

king, I. 506; vin. 283, 285. 
/ELFRIC, old English writer, I. 182; vin. 

371, 406; his Heptateuch, vin. 382. 
yELiA CAPITOLINA, or ^Elia, a name of 

Jerusalem, I. 182; xni. 636. 
/ELLE INSULT, Lipari Islands, I. 182. 
/E LI ANUS, Casperius, avenger of Domi- 

tian, xvii. 353. 
, Claudius (Julian), Roman writer, 

I. 182; on birds, xviii. 3. 

/ELIUS CALLUS, his Arabian expedition, 

II. 257; xxiv. 739. 

/ELIUS LAMPRIDIUS, Augustan his 
torian, in. 74. 

/ELius SPARTIANUS, Augustan historian, 
in. 74. 

/ELIUS THEON, his rhetoric, xx. 514. 

./ELLA, king of Deira, England, xvii. 
569. 

/ELUROIDEA, section of Carnivora, xv. 
434- 

/EMILIUS, Paulus, Italian historian, I. 
182. 



/EMILIUS PAULUS, Lucius, Roman 

general, xviii. 435. 
/EMONA (Laibach), ancient town, Austria, 

xiv. 215. 

/ENACHS, ancient Irish fairs, IV. 253. 
/ENARIA (Ischia), island, Italy, xni. 385. 
TINEAS, in classical legend, I. 182. 

SYLVIUS, Pope Pius II., xix. 152, 

53- 

/ENEID, Virgil s epic, xxiv. 253. 
/ENESIDEMUS, Alexandrian sceptic, xxi. 

380. 

/ENOS, Mount, Cephalonia, v. 344. 
/EOLIA, or ^Eolis, country, Asia Minor, 

I. 182. 

ALOLUE INSULT (/Eolian Islands), Medi 
terranean, i. 182; xiii. 441; xiv. 682; 

xxii. 31. 
/EOLIAN HARP, musical instrument, I. 

182. 

/EOLIANS, ancient people, Greece, XL 90. 
/EoLic DIALECT, of Greek, XL 132. 
/EoLis, country, Asia Minor, I. 182; 

coins of, xvii. 646. 
/EOLOPILE, ancient heat engine, in. 839; 

xxn. 473. 

/EOLOSOMA, genus of worms, xxiv. 679. 
/EOLOTROPY, vii. 804; magnetic, xv. 

243- 

/EOLUS, in mythology, I. 183. 
/EON, space of time, I. 183. 
/EONS, of Gnosticism, x. 701 ; of the 

Manda3ans, xv. 468; of Valentinus, 

xxiv. 39. 
/EPINUS, Franz Maria, German chemist, 

i. 183; his electrical researches, VIII. 

8. 

/EPYORNIS, extinct bird, xv. 171. 
/EPYORNITHES, order of birds, xym. 

44- 
/EPYPRYMNUS, genusof marsupials, xni. 

840. 
/EQUI, or /Equians, ancient people, Italy, 

i. 183; xni. 445; xx. 739, 742. 
/ERARIANS, class of citizens, ancient 

Rome, i. 183. 

/ERARIUM, Roman treasury, I. 183. 
AERATED BREAD, in. 255. 
AERATED WATERS, i. 184. 
AEROE, island, Denmark, I. 184. 
AEROLITE, i. 184; xvi. 108. 
AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY, i. 202. 
AERONAUTICS, i. 185; electric motors in, 

xxni. 496. 

AEROPHORES, for mines, vi. 73. 
AERO-PLANES, for flying machines, ix. 

3i9> 322. 

AEROSTAT, Henson s, ix. 322. 
AEROSTATICS, AEROSTATION, ix. 308; 

in the Dark Ages, I. 185; works on, 

i. 207. 

/ERTSZEN, Pieter, Dutch painter, I. 208. 
/ERULI, ancient German tribe, XL 774. 
ALs, metal, money, I. 208; xvi. 726; 

xvn. 637, 652. 
/ESCHINES, Athenian philosopher, I. 

208. 



8 



M S C A G A 



/ESCHINES, Greek orator, I. 208; vu. 

70. 

/ESCHNID/E, family of insects, VU. 385. 
/EscHYLUS, Greek tragedian, i. 208; 

VII. 405; XI. 140; his place in poetry, 
xix. 268. 

/ESCHYNITE, mineral, xvi. 427. 
/ESCULAPIUS, god of healing, I. 209; vi. 

444; xv. 799. 

AESCULAPIUS S SNAKE, xxn. 194. 
/ESCULUS, genus of trees, XII. 205. 
/ESERNIA (Isernia), ancient town, Italy, 

xin. 386; xxi. 249. 
/EsiR, gods of the Northmen, I. 209; 

vii. 650. 
/Esis, or ^Esium (Jesi), ancient town, 

Italy, xili. 644. 
/Esop, Greek fabulist, I. 211; in. 181, 

vill. 837; Syriac translation of his 

fables, xxn. 850. 

, Greek historian, I. 212. 

/EsOPUS, Clodius, Roman actor, I. 

212; vn. 412. 
/ESTHACYTES, sense-cells, in sponges. 

xxn. 420. 

/ESTHESIOMETER, for measuring sensi 
tiveness of touch, xxin. 480. 

/ESTHETIC FEELINGS, XX. 70. 

/ESTHETICS, I. 212; xvin. 795 ; in rela- 

to the fine arts, IX. 194; the name 

due to Baumgarten, ill. 447 ; Herbart 

on, XI. 720; Hutcheson on, xn. 411; 

Kant on, xin. 852. 
ESTIVATION, of animals, XL 787; of 

plants, IV. 13. 
AETAS, aborigines of the Philippines, 

xvin. 752. 

AETH, town, Belgium, n. 827. 
/ETHALEIA (Lemnos), island, /Egean 

Sea, xiv. 436. 
^ETHELBERHT (Ethelbert), king of 

Kent, vni. 278, 567. 
/ETHELFRITH (Ethelfrith), king of 

Northumberland, vm. 271, 278; xvn. 

569. 
/ETHELINGS, Saxon princes, vni. 289; 

xvin. 302. 
/ETHELNOTH (Agelnoth), archbishop of 

Canterbury, I. 279. 
/ETHELRED, Saxon king of England, 

vni. 286, 567. 
/ETHELSTAN, Saxon king of England, 

ii. 830; vni. 285. 
/ETHELWULF, Saxon king of England, 

VIII. 568. 

AETHER, in interstellar space, vni. 568. 

, of pharmacy, vni. 568. 

/ETHIOPIA (Ethiopia, q.v.), country, 

Africa, vni. 611. 
/ETHIOPICA, Greek romance by Helio- 

dorus, XL 632; XX. 635. 
/ETHRA, of Greek legend, xxin. 294. 
/ETIOLOGY, in biology, in. 688; its 

relation to pathology, xvin. 361 ; of 

parasitism, xvin. 262; of sponges, 

xxn. 426. 
AETION, Greek painter, I. 224. 



AETIUS, founder of Arian sect, I. 224. 

, Greek physician, I. 225; XV. 804. 

, Roman general, I. 224; xx. 781; 

xxiv. 37. 
/ETNA (Etna), volcano, Sicily, vni. 

627. 

AETOBATIS, genus of fishes, xx. 300. 
/ETOLIA, province, Greece, I. 225 ; coins 

of, xvii. 642. 

/ETOLIAN LEAGUE, i. 225; XL 107. 
/ETOLIANS, people of Messenia, Greece, 

xvi. 53. 

AETOMORPHjE, group of birds, ill. 713. 
/Ex, genus of birds, xxin. 105. 
AFANASIEF, Aleksandr Nikolaevich, 

Russian writer, I. 225. 
AFARS, people of Central Africa, xxn. 

255. 
AFER, Domitius, Roman orator, I. 225; 

xx. 187. 

AFFECTIONS, The, in Butler s philo 
sophy, iv. 586; Stoic doctrine of, xxn. 

567. See also Ethics. 
AFFIDAVIT, in law, i. 226. 
AFFILIATION, in law, in. 426; xv. 

779- 
AFFINITY, or relationship, I. 226; 

systems of, IX. 22. 
, Chemical, I. 226, 153; v. 463, 464, 

473- 

AFFIRMATION, in place of oath, i. 226; 
xvn. 701. 

AFFONSO (Alphonso) I., king of Por 
tugal, I. 618; xix. 540. 

- II., of Portugal, i. 618; xix. 541. 
III., of Portugal, i. 618; xix. 542. 

- IV., of Portugal, I. 618; xix. 543. 

V., of Portugal I. 618; xix. 544. 

VI., of Portugal, I. 618; xix. 548. 

AFFRE, Denis Auguste, archbishop of 

Paris, I. 226. 

AFGHANISTAN, i. 227; n. 685, 694; con 
quest of, by Alexander, I. 483 ; policy 
of Ellenborough towards, vni. 146; 
relations with India, xn. 807, 811; 
with Persia, xvin. 648; Ghur terri 
tory in, I. 231; X. 569. 

AFGHANS, in India, xn. 792. 

AFGHAN TURKESTAN, i. 241. 

AFGHAN WAR, of 1839, xn. 807; of 
1878, xn. 811. 

AFlUM-KARA-HlSSAR, town, Asiatic 
Turkey, I. 244; xiv. 2. 

AFNU, language, Central Africa, xn. 

318- 

AFRAGOLA, town, Italy, i. 244. 

AFRANIUS, Lucius, Latin poet, I. 244. 

, Lucius, Roman consul, I. 244. 

AFRICA, I. 245 ; ancient geography of, x. 
14; xiv. 551; Ptolemy s geography 
of, xx. 95 ; ancient, conquest of by 
Vandals, xxiv. 58 ; coalfields, vi. 58 ; 
diamond mines, vn. 164; XL 204; 
xxin. 518; explorations of, x. 182, 188, 
194; xvn. 498, 504; xxiv. 763; by 
Barth, in. 401; by Bruce, IV. 393; 
by Livingstone, xiv. 720; by Mun- 



zinger, xvn. 33; by Park, xvin. 

297 ; by Speke and Grant, xxn. 390 ; 

flora, vn. 289; forests, IX. 407; fresh 
water fishes, XII. 672 ; gold, X. 744 ; 

languages, xvin. 778, 780; xxi. 643, 

654; dictionaries of languages, vn. 

192; Christian missions, xvi. 517; 

Negro race in, xvn. 316; oases, xvn. 

695; rainfall, xvi. 153; religions, XX. 

362; slave trade in, xxn. 143. 
AFRICA, Petrarch s Latin poem, xvin. 

711. 

, South, birds of, XVin. 16. 

AFRICAN RACE, in United States, xxin. 

821. 
AFRICANUS, Julius, church historian, 

i. 273. 
AFSOS, Slier Ali, Hindustani writer, XL 

849. 

AFTER-EFFECT, in magnetism, xv. 258. 
AFTER-GLOW, in twilight, xxin. 674. 
AFZELIUS, Adam, Swedish naturalist, 

I. 273. 
, Arwid August, Swedish historian, 

I. 273. 

AGA, Turkish title, I. 273. 
AGADAH, of the Jewish Midrash, xvi. 

285, 503; xxin. 36. 
AGADES, town, Central Africa, I. 273; 

xvn. 695. 
AGADIR, town, Algeria, xxin. 422. 

, town, Morocco, xvi. 831. 

AGALMATOLITE, mineral, xvi. 425. 
AGAMAS, sacred books of the Jains, xin. 

544- 
AGAMEMNON, in Greek legend, i. 273; 

XL 92; xvn. 827. 

, drama of /Eschylus, I. 209. 

AGAMI, bird, xxin. 594. 

AGAMID^E, family of lizards, xiv. 733, 

736. 
AGAMOGENESIS, in biology, in. 686; of 

insects, XIII. 146. 
AGAN, town, Ladrone Islands, xiv. 

200. 

AGAPE, love feast, i. 274. 
AGAPETUS I., pope, xix. 493. 

II., pope, xx. 788. 

, Byzantine writer, I. 274. 

AGAPORNIS, genus of birds, XV. 28. 
AGARDE, Arthur, English antiquary, I. 

274. 
AGAR-ELLIS, G. J. W., Lord Dover, vii. 

381. 
AGARICUS, mushroom, IX. 832 ; xvn. 

74- 

AGARISTE, Wooing of, at Sicyon, xxn. 32. 

AGARPARA, town, India, xxin. 673. 

AGASIAS, Greek sculptor, I. 274. 

AGASSIZ, Louis John Rudolph, naturalist, 
I. 274; his classification of animals, 
xxiv. 810; of fishes, xn. 634; on 
Echinodermata, n. 52; on naturaliza 
tion, I. 84; on the origin of man, n. 
1 10. 

AGATE, stone, i. 277; xvi. 389; xvn. 
776. 



A G A A G U 



9 



AGATHARCHIDES, Greek grammarian, 

i. 278. 

AGATHARCHUS, Greek painter, i. 278. 
AGATHIAS, Greek historian and poet, I. 

278; ii. 103; iv. 612. 
AGATHI ISLAND, Laccadives, xiv. 183. 
AGATHO, Greek tragedian, I. 278. 
AGATHOCLES, tyrant of Syracuse, I. 278; 

xxn. 20, 8 1 6. 
AGATHYRSIANS, people of Transylvania, 

xxi. 575. 

AGAVE, American aloe, I. 597; xn. 262. 
SlSALENSlS, sisal-hemp plant, 

xxiv. 758. 
AGAW, or Agow, Abyssinian language, 

I. 64; xxi. 655. 
AGDE, town, France, I. 278. 
AGDISTIS, mother of the gods, XVI II. 

691. 
AGE, I. 278; its influence on suicide, 

xxn. 631 ; proportion of, in popula 
tion, xix. 515; longevity, xiv. 857. 
AGEING, in calico-printing, IV. 687. 
AGELADAS, Greek sculptor, I. 279; n. 

350; xviii. 734. 
AGELNOTH, archbishop of Canterbury, 

I. 279. 

AGEMA, Macedonian cavalry, xv. 140. 
AGEN, town, France, I. 279. 
AGENARDUS (Eginhard), biographer of 

Charlemagne, vn. 697. 
AGENCY, in law, i. 280. 
AGENDA, liturgical service book, Xiv. 

710. 
AGENT, in diplomacy, commerce, and 

law, I. 280; in partnership, xvin. 

330. 

DE CHANGE, in France, I. 281. 
AGE OF REASON, Paine s, xvin. 136. 
ACER PUBLICUS, Roman public lands, 

i. 289; xx. 673. 

AGESANDER, Rhodian sculptor, xiv. 293. 
AGESILAUS,king of Sparta, I. 281 ; xvm. 

577- 
AGEUSIA, disease (loss of taste), xxm. 

So. 
AGGLUTINATIVE LANGUAGES, XL 39; 

xvi. 749; xvin. 774. 
AGGREGATE COMBINATIONS, in me 
chanics, xv. 762. 
AGGREGATION, States of, in physics, i. 

282. 
AGGTELEK, cave, Hungary, i. 420; xn. 

362. 
AGHA, Turkish title, i. 273. 

- MUHAMMAD, shah of Persia, 

xvm. 645. 
AGHLABITES, African Moslem dynasty, 

xvi. 579. 
AGHRIM, Ireland, Battle of (1691), I. 

282. 
AGILULF, king of the Lombards, xiv. 

815. 
AGINCOURT, or Azincourt, Battle of 

(1415), i. 282; vni. 320; ix. 549. 
AGIO, in commerce, I. 283. 
AGIS, kings of Sparta, I. 283. 



AGISTMENT, Tithe of, i. 283. 

AGISYAMBA, African country, in Pto 
lemy s geography, xx. 95. 

AGLAOPHAMUS, Lobeck s work, xvn. 
124. 

AGLY, river, France, xx. 128. 

AGMONDESHAM (Amersham), town, 
England, I. 735. 

AGNANO, lake, Italy, i. 283. 

AGNATES, in Roman law, I. 283; xx. 
688. 

AGNESI, Maria Gaetana, Italian mathe 
matician, i. 283. 

, Maria Teresa, Italian musician, I. 

284. 

AGNI, Hindu god of fire, xn. 780; xxi. 
276. 

AGNOET/E, heretical sect, I. 284. 

AGNOIOLOGY, theory of ignorance, IX. 
1 10. 

AGNOLO, Baccio d , Florentine sculptor, 
I. 284. 

DA SIENA, Italian architect, I. 285; 
xxn. 39, 44. 

AGNONE, town, Italy, i. 284; tablet 

found at, XIII. 446. 
AGNOSTICISM, Kantian, xvin. 794; 

xxm. 246; in modern theology, xxm. 

249. 

AGNUS DEI, i. 284. 
AGOBARD, archbishop of Lyons, I. 284. 
.AGOLANTI, Sandro di Giovanni, glass 

paintings of, x. 670. 
AGONA, Carnival sports of the, Rome, v. 

122. 

AGONALIA, Roman festivals, I. 284. 
AGONIC LINES, in magnetism, I. 284. 
AGONOSTOMA, genus of fishes, xvn. 18. 
AGONOTHETA, superintendent of Greek 

games, I. 284. 
AGORA, Greek market place, I. 285 ; of 

Athens, in. 2, 8 ; Olympian, XVII. 

769. 

AGORACRITUS, Greek sculptor, n. 356. 
AGORANOMOl, Greek magistrates, I. 285. 
AGORATUS, Lysias s speech against, xv. 

119. 

AGORDO, town, Italy, i. 285. 
AGOSTA, town, Sicily, I. 285. 
AGOSTINI, Leonardo, Italian antiquary, 

i. 285. 
AGOSTINO, Paolo, Italian musician, I. 

285. 

DA SlENA, Italian architect, I. 285. 
- VENEZIANO, Italian engraver, xv. 

AGOUTI, genus of rodent mammals, 1. 285. 

AGRA, division and district, North- 
Western Provinces, India, I. 285; xvn. 
572 ; town, I. 286. 

AGRAM, town, Austria, i. 287; vi. 592 ; 
university of, xxm. 852. 

AGRAPHIA, disease, n. 171. 

AGRARIAN LAWS, Roman, i. 287; xiv. 
261; xx. 737, 757, 759, 765, 767. 

AGREDA, town, Spain, i. 289. 

AGREEMENT, in law, vi. 322. 



AGRET, town, Asiatic Russia, xxn. 821. 

AGRICOLA, Christoph Ludwig, German 
painter, I. 290. 

, Cna3us Julius, Roman general, I. 

289 ; in Britain, IV. 353 ; his invasion 
of Caledonia, IV. 663 ; XXI. 47 1 ; life 
of, by Tacitus, XXIII. 20. 

, Georg, German mineralogist, I. 290. 

, Johannes, German Reformer, I. 

290; II. 129. 

, Johann Friedrich, German musi 
cian, I. 290. 

, Rudolphus, German scholar, I. 

290. 

AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS ACT, of 
1875 (English), Xiv. 275 ; of 1883, XX. 
306. 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES, i. 305 ; list 
of, xxn. 227. 

AGRICULTURE, i. 291 ; effects of foreign 
competition on, VI. 414 ; Arthur 
Young s contributions to knowledge of, 
xxiv. 755; small farms, I. 412; XIV. 
268. 

AGRICULTURISTS, Education of, i. 408. 

AGRI-DAGH, mountains, Transcaucasia, 
xxm. 514. 

AGRIGENTUM (Girgenti), ancient town, 
Sicily, I. 417; XVill. 729; XXII. 15, 16. 

AGRIONIA, Greek festival, I. 417; vn. 
249. 

AGRlONlDjE, family of insects, vn. 385. 

AGRIPPA, sceptical philosopher, xxi. 
380. 

, Henry Cornelius, German philo 
sopher, I. 418. 

, Herod, king of Judaea, I. 417; Xlli. 



426. 



, Herod, II., king of Chalcis, I. 41$; 
Xlli. 426. 
-, Marcus Vipsanius, Roman general, 



I. 418. 
AGRIPPINA, wife of Germanicus, I. 419. 

, mother of Nero, I. 419; xvi I. 347. 
AGROTERAS THUSIA, Greek festival, i. 

420. 
AGTELEK, village and cave, Hungary, I. 

420; xn. 362. 
AGUA, Volcano do, Central America, I. 

420. 
AGUADO, Alexander Maria, Jewish 

banker, I. 420. 

AGUARICO, river, Ecuador, vn. 646. 
AGUAS CALIENTES, town, Mexico, i. 420; 

xvi. 214; state, xvi. 214. 
AGUE, disease, ix. 126; xv. 316; xvin. 

394- 
AGUESSEAU, Henry Frangois d , French 

chancellor and author, vi. 761; ix. 

670. 
ACUILAR, Grace, English authoress, I. 

420. 
DE LA FRONTERA, town, Spain, 

i. 420. 
AGUILLON, Frangois d (Aguilonius), 

mathematician, I. 420; on binocular 

vision, XXII. 537. 

XXV. 2 



10 



A G U A J M 



AGUIRRA, Josef Saenz d , Spanish writer, 

I. 420. 
AGULHAS, Cape, South Africa, I. 420. 

: CURRENT, xn. 822; xvn. 276. 

AGULIANS, Caucasian tribe, xiv. 475. 
AGUSAN, river, Philippine Islands, xvm. 

752. 
AGYLLA, or Caere, town, Etruria, iv. 

632; viii. 635. 
AHA, bishop of Seleucia, Syriac writer, 

xxn. 829. 
AHAB, king of Israel, I. 420; vin. 134; 

XIH. 406. 
AHAGGAR, plateau, Sahara, Africa, xxi. 

149. 

AH ALA, Roman family, I. 421. 
AHALKALAKI, town, Transcaucasia, 

Russia, xxm. 514. 
AHAMS, race of people, Assam, n. 718; 

xn. 791. 
AHANTA, territory, Gold Coast, Africa, 

I. 421. 
AHASUERUS, king of Persia, i. 421; vm. 

560. 

, the Wandering Jew, xni. 673. 

AHAZ, king of Judah, I. 422 ; xm. 412. 
AHAZIAH, king of Israel, i. 422. 
AHENOBARBUS, Roman family, i. 422. 
AHIRS, tribe, India, xvm. 72; xv. 303. 
AHITHOPHEL, of Scripture, i. 422. 
AHL HADR, settled Arabs, ii. 249. 
AHMAD, Sayyid, Hindu Wahhabist, xi. 

849- 
AHMADABAD, district and town, British 

India, i. 422. 
AHMAD KHAN BAHADUR, Urdu writer, 

xi. 850. 
AHMADNAGAR, district and town, British 

India, I. 423. 
AHMED I., Turkish sultan, xxm. 644. 

- II., sultan, xxm. 646. 

III., sultan, i. 97; xxm. 646. 

- KHAN, Mongol ruler, xvi. 748; 
xxi. 91. 

PASHA, Turkish vizier and poet, 

xxm. 656. 

PASHA, Turkish vizier, xxm. 645. 

SHAH, Afghan ruler, I. 239, 424; 



xii. 796. 
B. TuLUN, founder of an Egyptian 

dynasty, xvi. 586. 

AHOMS, Shan tribe, Burmah, xxi. 773. 
AHR, river, Germany, xx. 20, 519. 
AHRIMAN, Zoroastrian principle of evil, 

1.424; vn. 136; xvn. 858; xxm. 238; 

xxiv. 822. 
AHTS, American race, Mythology of, 

xvii. 148. 
AHUACHAPAN, town, San Salvador, 

Central America, xxi. 268. 
AHUDHEMMEH, Syriac writer, xxn. 

834- 

AHUITZOTL, ancient Mexican ruler, xvi. 
210. 

AHURA-MAZDA, or Ormuzd (q.v.\ Zoro 
astrian principle of good, XVIII. 327; 
xxm. 238; xxiv. 822. 



AHWAZ, town, Persia, I. 424. 
Al, three-toed sloth, xxn. 162. 
-, town, Palestine, I. 424. 



AlBUGHlR, gulf, Sea of Aral, XXIII. 634. 
AIDAN, St, bishop of Lindisfarne, I. 424; 
xin. 249; xxi. 475. 
, ancient Scottish king, I. 424. 



AIDE-DE-CAMP, military officer, I. 425. 
AIDIN, town, Asiatic Turkey, I. 425; 

province, XXIII. 653. 
AIDS, feudal tribute, I. 425. 

TO REFLECTION, Coleridge s work, 



VI. 138. 

AIGUILLE DU MIDI, mountain, France, 
xni. 385. 

AIKEN, town, South Carolina, U.S.A., 
xxii. 288. 

AIKENHEAD, David, Leighton s epi 
gram on, xiv. 427. 

AIKIN, John, English writer, I. 425. 
-, Lucy, English writer, I. 425. 



AIKINITE, mineral, xvi. 395. 
AIKMAN, William, Scottish portrait 

painter, I. 425. 
AILANTHUS SILKWORM, xxn. 60; silk 

from, XIV. 216. 
AILANTO, tree, n. 320. 
AILLY, Pierre d , French cardinal, X. 

549; xvn. 132; xx. 320; xxi. 431. 
AILRED, English historian, I. 425. 
AILSA CRAIG, rock, Firth of Clyde, I. 

426. 
AiLURiDjE, family of Carnivora, xv. 

441. 
AIME, G., on the temperature of the 

Mediterranean, xv. 823. 
AIN, department, France, I. 426. 

-, river, France, xni. 782; xx. 528. 



AINAD, town, Arabia, I. 426. 
AlNE-CLlACH, ancient division, Ireland, 

xiv. 649. 
AlNHARDUS (Eginhard), biographer of 

Charlemagne, vii. 697. 
AINMULLER, Maximilian Emmanuel, 

German glass-painter, I. 426. 
AlNOS, tribe, Japan, I. 426; xm. 581; 

their language, xni. 586; dictionary 

of, VII. 192; in Saghalin, xxi. 147. 
AINSWORTH, Henry, English divine, I. 

426; xii. 724. 
, Michael, Shaftesbury s letters to, 

xxi. 732. 
, Robert, author of Latin Dic 



tionary, I. 427. 

AlNTAB, town, Syria, I. 427. 

AlR, I. 427; ill. 28, 381; xvi. 114; XIX. 
240; xxiv. 157; constituents of, ill. 
32 ; measurement of density of, ill. 
381; expansion of, xii. 480; experi 
ments on, by Cavendish, v. 272 ; flow 
of, in pipes, xii. 490; force of, under 
compression, vin. 209 ; geological 
influences of, x. 264; in relation to 
health, xii. 567 ; use of hot in fur 
naces, IX. 846; measurement of 
humidity in, xii. 569 ; impurities in, 
xxiv. 157; navigation of, I. 187; 



physical properties of, in. 28; XIX 
240; purification of, by fire, I. 120; 
as medium of conveying sound, I. 
100; sound waves in, xxiv. 418; 
temperature of$ at different elevations, 
I. 196; temperature of, over open sea, 
xvi. 117; thermometric properties of, 
XI. 574; diffusion of aqueous vapour 
in, vin. 729 ; errors from weighing 
in, xxiv. 478; weight of, ill. 28, 32. 

AIR, country, Central Africa, I. 429; 
XVII. 695. 

, mountain, Sahara, Africa, xxi. 149. 

- AND FIRE, Scheele s treatise on, 



xxi. 388. 

AIRAY, Henry, Puritan divine, I. 430. 
AIR BLAST, in forging, IX. 412; in iron 

smelting, xm. 290. 
AIRDRIE, town, Scotland, I. 430. 
AIRE, river, England, I. 430. 
, town, Landes, France, I. 430. 

, town, Pas-de-Calais, France, I. 



430; XVlll. 340. 

AlRECHT, ancient Irish court, IV. 254. 

AIREDALE COLLEGE, Bradford, Eng 
land, iv. 197. 

AIR-ENGINE, i. 428; xxn. 522. 

AIR-GUN, i. 428. 

AlROLO, town, Switzerland, xxm. 351. 

AIR-PUMP, i. 429; xvi. 30; xix. 246; 
Guericke s invention of, XL 245 ; 
Papin s improvements on, XVlll. 228. 
MANOMETER, xv. 496. 



AIR THERMOMETER, xi. 563. 

AIRY, Sir George B., on aberration of 
eye-pieces, xxm. 144; on the lunar 
theory, xvi. 80 1 ; on the solar paral 
lax, XVlll. 250; on tides and waves, 
xxm. 372. 

AISHA, wife of Mohammed, xvi. 552. 

AISIN GlORO, Manchu legendary hero, 
v. 649; xv. 467 

AISLE, in architecture, I. 430. 

AlSNE, department, France, I. 431. 

AlSTULF, king of the Lombards, Xiv. 
815. 

AITKEN, W., on brass manufactures, IV. 
217. 

AITON, William, British botanist, I. 431. 

AITZEMA, Leon van, Dutch historian, 
i. 431. 

Aix, town, France, I. 431. 

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, town, Rhenish 
Prussia, I. 431; xx. 21 ; mineral water 
of, xvi. 435; peace of (1748), vi. 270; 
IX. 586; treaty of (1668), IX. 576. 

AIX-LES-BAINS, town, France, I. 431; 
xxi. 332; mineral water of, xvi. 435. 

AjACClO, town, Corsica, i. 432. 

AjAN, region, Africa, I. 432. 

AjAX, in Greek legend, I. 432. 

, Sophocles s drama, xxn. 272. 

OlLEUS, in Greek legend, I. 433. 

AjEHO, town, Manchuria, I. 433. 

Ajl, people, Central Africa, xxn. 256. 

AJMIR, or Ajmere, district and town 
India, I. 433; division, XX. 260. 



A J O A L B 



11 



AjODHYA, town, British India, vill. 855. 
AjURUOCA, town, Brazil, I. 434. 
AKABA, Gulf of, Red Sea, i. 434; xx. 316. 
, station for Moslem homages, xvi. 

AKABAH, town, Arabia, I. 434. 

AKAKIA, Diatribe du Docteur, Voltaire s 
Avork, ix. 671; xxiv. 289. 

AKATZIRS (Khazars), people, xiv. 60. 

AKBAR, the Great, emperor of Delhi, I. 
434; ii. 700; xn. 794; xx. 1 10. 
KHAN, Afghan prince, I. 240. 

AK-DAGH (Ararat), mountain, Armenia, 
ii. 309. 

AK DENIZ, lake, Syria, xxii. 821. 

AKE, Pyramid of, Yucatan, xxiv. 759. 

AKEMAN STREET, Roman road, England, 
xvin. 94. 

AKEN, toAvn, Prussia, I. 435. 

, Hein van, Dutch romancist, xn. 

90. 

AKENSIDE, Mark, English poet, I. 435. 

AKERBLAD, Jan David, Swedish Orien 
talist, i. 436. 

AKERMAN, town, Russia, I. 436 ; conven 
tion of (1826), xxi. 20. 

, John Yonge, English numismatist, 

I. 436. 

AKERMANN, Prof., on iron and steel, 
xm. 282. 

AKHAF, desert, Arabia, II. 240. 

AKH ALZIKH, or Akhaltsikh, toAvn, Trans 
caucasia, Russia, I. 436; xxiii. 514. 

AKHBAR (Akbar, q.v.), emperor of Delhi, 

I- 434- 
AKHBARIS, Mohammedan theological 

school, xxii. 665. 
AKHDAR, Jebel, province and moiintain 

range, Arabia, 1 1. 238, 255. 
, Jebel al, district, Tripoli, North 

Africa, xxiii. 575. 

AKHISSAR, town, Asiatic Turkey, I. 436. 
AKHMIN, toAvn, Upper Egypt, vn. 794. 
AKHTUBA, branch from the Volga, 

Russia, xxiv. 279. 
AKHTYRKA, town, Russia, i. 436. 
AKIBA, Ben Joseph, rabbi, I. 436. 
AKIERMAN, or Akerman, convention of 

(1826), xxi. 20. 

AKKA (Acre), toAvn, Syria, I. 120. 
AKKAD (Accad), district, Mesopotamia, 

xvi. 51. 

AKODAH, settlement, West Africa, x.755- 
AKOLA, district and town, British India, 

i. 436. 

AKRA, citadel, Jerusalem, xm. 641. 
, Jebel, mountain, Syria, XXII. 

821. 
AKRAGAS (Agrigentum), ancient toAvn, 

Sicily, i. 417; xxii. 16. 
AKRON, town, Ohio, U.S.A., i. 437; xvn. 

737- 
AKROPONG, settlement, West Africa, 

n. 217; x. 755. 
AKROSTOMUM, genus of nemertine 

worms, XVII. 326. 
AKSA, E1-, mosque, Jerusalem, xm. 642. 



AKSARAl, river, Afghan Turkestan, I. 

241. 
AK-SU, town, Chinese Turkestan, I. 437; 

xxiii. 638. 
AK-TUBE, town, Asiatic Russia, xxiii. 

627. 

AKUAMU, country, West Africa, ii. 217. 
AKYAB, district and town, British Bur- 

mah, I. 437; II. 305. 
ALABAMA, State, U.S.A., i. 438; xxiii. 

761 ; population, xxiii. 802. 
, Confederate cruiser, XXIII. 777, 



782. 

GROUP, Eocene rocks, X. 365. 
ALABANDINE, mineral, xvi. 392. 

- RUBY, mineral, xvi. 386. 
ALABASTER, mineral, i. 439; xv. 529, 

xvi. 401. 
-, William, English Avriter, I. 439. 



ALACALUFS, race, Tierra del Fuego, 

xxiii. 384. 
ALACHUA, savanna, Florida, U.S.A., ix. 

338. 

ALACHUN DAGH, mountain range, Cau 
casus, v. 255. 
ALACRANES, islands, Gulf of Mexico, i. 

440. 
ALA-DAGH, mountains, Asia Minor, n. 

705. 
AL - AGHLAB, founder of a Moslem 

dynasty, xvi. 579. 
ALAGHOZ, mountain, Transcaucasia, 

XXIII. 514; sulphur from, xxii. 634. 
ALAGOAS, province, Brazil, i. 440. 
ALAHA-ZEKHA, Syriac writer, xxii. 

844. 
ALAI, plateau and mountains, Central 

Asia, xvin. 103; xxii. 3. 
ALAIN DE LILLE, theologian, i. 440; 

xxi. 325. 

ALAIS, town, France, I. 440. 
ALAJUELA, town, Costa Rica, i. 441. 
ALA-KUL, lake, Central Asia, xxi. 

640. 

ALALITE, mineral, xvi. 416. 
ALAM, emperor of Delhi, XII. 802. 
ALAMANNI, Luigi, Italian poet, I. 441. 
ALAMANNIC LAW, xxi. 215. 
ALAMO, town, Texas, U.S.A., xxi. 254. 
ALAMOS, Los, town, Mexico, I. 441. 

DE B ARRIENTOS, Balthazar, Spanish 

philologist, i. 441. 
ALAMUT, mountain fortress, Persia, II. 

723- 

ALAN, William, cardinal, I. 441. 
ALAND ISLANDS, Gulf of Bothnia, i. 

441. 
ALANG-ALANG, grass, in Java, xm. 602 ; 

in Sumatra, xxii. 639. 
ALANS, or Alani, Eastern tribes, I. 441 ; 

in Spain, XX. 780; XXII. 308; their 

inroads on Persia, XVIII. 602; on 

Rome, XX. 780. 
ALANTIKA, mountain, Soudan, Africa, 

xxii. 248, 277. 

ALANUS AB INSULIS, theologian, I. 440. 
ALAOTRA, lake, Madagascar, xv. 169. 



ALAPHION, early 

xxii. 291. 
ALARCON, Hernando 

navigator, I. 442. 
Y MENDOZA, Juan 



Syrian Christian, 
de, Spanish 

Ruiz de, 
Spanish dramatist, I. 442; VII. 421; 
xxii. 359. 

ALARIC, king of the West Goths, i. 
442; x. 849; destruction of Athens 
by, III. 10 ; in Italy, XX. 780; his 
relations to Stilicho, xxii. 550. 
II., king of the Goths, I. 443. 

ALARUM CLOCK, vi. 24. 

ALASCO, John, Polish theologian, I. 443. 

ALA-SHEHR, town, Asia Minor, I. 443. 

ALASKA, Territory, U.S.A., I. 443 ; area 
and population, xxi 1 1. 802 ; purchased 
from Russia, I. 711; XXIII. 782; birds 
of, ill. 752; seal fisheries of, xxi. 583. 

ALATAU, mountains, Central Asia, xxi. 
64; xxiii. 633, 637. 

ALATRI, town, Italy, I. 444. 

ALATYR, town, Russia, xxii. 77. 

ALAUDA, genus of birds, xiv. 314. 

ALAVA, province, Spain, I. 444; XXII. 
298. 

, Miguel Ricardo d , Spanish general, 

i. 445. 

ALAY, Turkish ceremony, I. 445. 

ALAZUN, river, Caucasus, v. 255. 

ALB, ecclesiastical vestment, I. 445; VI. 
461. 

ALBA, town, Italy, I. 445. 

, or Alba Longa (^.v.), ancient town, 

Italy, xiv. 344. 
-, or Alva (q.v.\ Duke of, I. 647. 



ALBACETE, province, Spain, I. 445; XXII. 

298; town, i. 446. 
ALBACORE, fish, xxiii. 625. 
ALBA LONGA, ancient town, Italy, i. 

445; xii. 166; xiv. 344; xvin. 489. 
ALBAN, St, British martyr, I. 446. 

HILLS, Rome, xx. 807. 
ALBANI, Francesco, Italian painter, I. 

446; xx. 396. 
, Giovanni Francesco (Pope Clement 

XL), v. 822. 
ALBANIA, ancient country, Asia, I. 448. 

, Scottish kingdom, xxi. 477. 
, province, Turkey in Europe, I. 

446; xxiii. 653. 

ALBANIAN LANGUAGE, xvm. 784; dic 
tionaries of, vn. 189. 
ALBANIANS, in Greece, XL 83. 
ALBAN MOUNT, Jupiter worshipped on, 

xm. 780. 
ALBANO, town and lake, Italy, I. 448. 

, Francesco, Italian painter, I. 446; 

xx. 396. 
ALBANY, town, New York, U.S.A., i. 

448; xvii. 454, 457; State library at, 

xiv. 535, 55- 

, town, Western Australia, xxiv. 

508. 



-, Louisa of Stolberg, countess of, I. 
449; xxii. 99; her relations with 
Alfieri, I. 502. 



12 



A L B A L C 



ALBANY, Dukes of, regents of Scotland, 

xxi. 491, 497; xxii. 610. 
ALBARINE, river, France, xin. 782. 
ALBARRACIN, district, Spain, xxn. 293. 
ALBATEGNI, Arabian astronomer, I. 

449; ii. 751; xvi. 596; xxin. 561. 
ALBATROSS, bird, i. 449; xv. 334. 
AL-BATTANI (Albategni), Arabian astro 
nomer, I. 449; ii. 751; xvi. 596. 
ALBAY, town, Philippines, I. 449; vol 
cano, xviii. 749. 

ALBAZIN, town, Asiatic Russia, I. 747. 
ALBE, ecclesiastical vestment, I. 445. 
ALBEMARLE (Aumale), town, France, in. 

85. 
, George Monk, duke of, XVI. 751. 

, island, Galapagos, Pacific, X. 17. 
ALBERIC, patrician of Rome, xx. 787. 
ALBERONI, Giulio, cardinal and Spanish 

minister, I. 450; IX. 584; xxn. 337. 
ALBERT I.-V., dukes of Austria, L 450. 
, Achilles, elector of Brandenburg, 

xx. 4. 
,the Bear, margrave of Brandenburg, 

I. 451; XX. 2. 
I., king of Germany, I. 450; x. 493; 

his rule in Switzerland, xxii. 782. 
II., of Germany, I. 450; X. 496. 

, cardinal, elector of Mainz, I. 451. 

, first duke of Prussia, I. 451. 
, king of Saxony, XXI. 356. 

, king of Sweden, xxii. 746. 

, prince consort, of England, I. 

451. 

of Saxony, monk, on floating in the 

air, I. 1 86. 

of Stade, romancist, xx. 639. 

ALBERTA, district, North- West Territory, 

British America, XVII. 573. 
ALBERT EDWARD, Mount, Vancouver 

Island, xxiv. 57. 

ALBERT HALL, London, xiv. 836. 
ALBERTI, Leon Battista, Italian architect, 

I. 453; ii. 437; xin. 508; xx. 558. 
ALBERTINE TRACTS, on political 

economy, xix. 356. 
ALBERTI N i, Ippolito Francesco, Italian 

physician, xv. 815. 

, J. B., Swiss poet, xxn. 799. 

ALBERTITE, mineral, xvi. 428. 
ALBERT NYANZA, lake, Africa, i. 453; 

xvii. 505. 
ALBERTRANDY, John Christian, Polish 

historian, I. 453. 

ALBERTUS MAGNUS, scholastic philo 
sopher, i. 453; xvi. 710; xxi. 427; on 

alchemy, I. 464; on birds, xvm. 3; 

his recipe for flying, I. 186. 
ALBERTVILLE, town, France, xxi. 332. 
ALBI, town, France, I. 454. 
ALBIGENSES, religious sect, i. 454; xvi. 

710; xviii. 434; xx. 322; crusades 

against them, IX. 541. 
ALBIN, Eleazar, on birds, xvm. 5. 
ALBINISM, skin disease, xxn. 122. 
ALBINO, person abnormally white, I. 

455- 



ALBINUS, Bernard Siegfried, anatomist, 
i. 455, 814. 
, Clodius, Roman general, XXI. 699. 

, Flaccus (Alcuin), learned ecclesi 
astic, I. 471. 

ALBION PRINTING PRESS, xxin. 704. 

AL-BlRUNl, Arabian geographer, xiv. 

57- 
ALBIS (Elbe), river, Germany, vn. 

825. 

ALBITE, mineral, xvi. 419. 
ALBIZZESCHI, St Bernardino, Sienese 

preacher, in. 603; xxn. 43. 
ALBIZZI, their contests with the Medici, 

xv. 783. 
ALBOIN, king of the Lombards, I. 455; 

xin. 467; xiv. 814; xvn. 234. 
ALBORNOZ, Spanish cardinal, I. 455; 

xx. 80 1. 
ALBRECHT, or Albert, dukes of 

Austria, I. 450. 
ALBRECHTSBERGER, Johann Georg, 

musician, I. 455. 
ALBRECHTSBURG CASTLE, Meissen, 

Saxony, xv. 831. 
ALBRET, Henri d , king of Navarre, xv. 

538. 

ALBUERA, village, Spain, I. 456. 
ALBUFERA, Duke of (Suchet), French 

marshal, xxn. 617. 
DE VALENCIA, lagoon, Spain, i. 

456; xxn. 295; xxiv. 33. 
ALBUM, i. 456. 
ALBUMAZAR, Arabian astronomer, i. 

456. 
ALBUMEN, i. 456; in milk, xvi. 303; 

of plants, iv. 155. 
- PROCESS, in photography, xviii. 

824. 

ALBUMENOIDS, nitrogenous carbon com 
pounds, xvn. 520. 
ALBUMINOID SUBSTANCES, of animal 

origin, V. 579. 
ALBUMINOUS DEGENERATION, in 

pathology, XVIII. 390. 
ALBUMINURIA, disease, iv. 345; xvin. 

387- 

ALBUQUERQUE, town, Spain, i. 456. 
, Alphonso d , Portuguese governor 

of India, I. 456; XII. 797. 
, Juan Alonzo de, minister of Pedro 

I. of Castile, xvin. 450. 
ALCA, genus of birds, x. 78; xx. 302. 
ALC^EUS, Greek poet, i. 457. 
ALCAICS, in poetry, I. 457. 
ALCAIDE, Spanish officer, I. 457. 
ALCALA DE GUADAIRA, town, Spain, i. 

457- 
ALCALA DE HENARES, town, Spain, i. 

458 ; birthplace of Cervantes, v. 347. 
ALCALA LA REAL, town, Spain, i. 

458. 

ALCALDE, Spanish official, I. 458. 
ALCAMENES, Greek sculptor, i. 458; ii. 

356. 

ALCAMO, town, Sicily, I. 458. 
ALCANTARA, seaport, Brazil, i. 458. 



ALCANTARA, town, Spain, i. 458. 

, Knights of, I. 458; XXII. 316. 
ALCARAZ, town, Spain, i. 458. 
ALCARRAZAS, Spanish water-jars, n. 24. 
ALCAVALA, Spanish tax, i. 458; xxn. 

320. 

ALCAYDE, Spanish officer, I. 457. 
ALCAZAR, palace, of Segovia, xxi. 623 ; 

of Seville, xxi. 709; of Toledo, xxin. 

436. 

DE SAN JUAN, town, Spain, I. 

459- 



KEBIR, town, Morocco, i. 459. 

ALCEDO, genus of birds, XIV. Si. 

ALCELAPHUS CAAMA, species of ante 
lopes, XL 496. 

ALCEO, pastoral by Ongaro, xvin. 345. 
ALCESTE, in Greek legend, i. 459. 

, opera by Gluck, x. 694. 

ALCESTER, town, England, i. 459; xxiv. 

379- 
ALCESTIS, in Greek legend, I. 459. 

, play of Euripides, vin. 674. 
ALCHEMY, i. 459; connexion of 

chemistry with it, V. 459. 
ALCHERIUS, Jehan, early writer on 

dyeing, vn. 571. 
ALCHRED, Northumbrian king, xvn. 

570. 
ALCHUKU (Ajeho), town, Manchuria, i. 

433- 

ALCIATI, Andrea, Italian jurist, i. 467. 
ALCIBIADES, Greek leader, i. 468; xi. 

102; xvin. 576. 
ALCIDAMAS, Greek political sophist, 

xxn. 265. 

ALCIMUS, Jewish high priest, xin. 422. 
ALCINOUS, of Greek mythology, I. 468; 

xix. 559. 

, Greek philosopher, I. 468. 

ALCIONIUS, Petrtis, Italian classical 

scholar, I. 472. 
ALCIPHRON, Greek letter- writer, I. 468; 

xx. 636. 

ALCIRA, town, Spain, I. 469; xxiv. 33. 
ALCMAN, or Alcmaeon, Alexandrian 

critic, I. 469 ; ancient MS. of his writ 
ings, xvin. 146. 

ALCMENE, mother of Hercules, i. 469. 
ALCOCK, John, English bishop, i. 469. 

PROVINCE, North Borneo, xxi. 
123. 

ALCOHOL, I. 469; its action on the 
brain, VII. 482; xin. 102, 109; its 
dietetic uses, vn. 204; diseases caused 
by, vn. 50; XVIII. 407 ; in fermenting 
dough, in. 254; formation of, IV. 275; 
vn. 264; IX. 92; Liebig s investiga 
tions on, xiv. 566. 
, Methyl, XVI. 194. 

ALCOHOLOMETER, xii. 540. 

ALCOHOL THERMOMETER, XL 562. 

ALCOHOLS, in chemistry, v. 553, 562. 

ALCOY, town, Spain, I. 471. 

ALCUDIA, Duke of (Godoy), Spanish 
statesman, I. 471; xix. 550; xxn. 342. 

ALCUIN, early English ecclesiastic, i. 



A L C A L E 



13 



471; vill. 406; xvi. 707; academy 
originated by, I. 69 ; as librarian, XI v. 

5i3- 
ALCVONARIA, order of corals, vi. 384; 

xxin. 609. 

ALCYONE, genus of birds, xiv. 82. 

ALCYONIDIUM, genus of Polyzoa, xix. 
440. 

ALCYONIUS, Petrus, Italian classical 
scholar, I. 472. 

AL - DAJJAL, the Mohammedan anti 
christ, n. 126. 

ALDAN, river, Siberia, I. 472; xxn. 5; 
xxiv. 726. 

MOUNTAINS, Siberia, I. 472. 

ALDBOROUGH, town, Suffolk, England, 
i. 472; xxii. 622. 

, town, Yorkshire, England, I. 472. 

ALDE, river, England, xxii. 621. 

ALDEBERT (Hildebert), bishop of Tours, 
XL 814. 

ALDEBURGH (Aldborough), town, Eng 
land, I. 472; xxn. 622. 

ALDEGONDE, St, F. van Marnix, lord 
of, Dutch Reformer, XII. 92. 

ALDEGREVER, or Aldegraf, Heinrich, 
German painter, I. 472. 

ALDEHYDES, in chemistry, v. 567. 

ALDEN, island, Norway, xvn. 576. 

ALDER, tree, I. 472 ; culture of, n. 318. 

ALDERMAN, i. 472; xvn. 27. 

ALDERNEY, Channel Islands, England,- 

i- 473- 

CATTLE, xin. 635. 

ALDERSHOT, town and camp, England, 

i. 474; XL 431; xxn. 694. 
ALDERSON, Amelia (Mrs Opie), xvn. 

787. 
ALDFRID, king of Northumberland, 

xvn. 570. 
ALDHELM, St, early English author, i. 

474; VIIL 403; his Psalter, vin. 382. 
ALDINE PRESS, xv. 512. 
ALDINI, Giovanni, Italian physicist, I. 

474- 
ALDOBRANDINI, Ippolito (Pope Clement 

VIIL), v. 822. 

ALDOBRANDO, Italian writer, xnr. 501. 
ALDO MANUZIO, Venetian printer, xv. 

512; his Greek classics, in. 656. 
ALDONA, Anna, wife of Casimir III. of 

Poland, xix. 288. 

ALDRED, archbishop of York, I. 475. 
ALDRICH, Dr Henry, English writer, I. 

475- 
ALDRISI (Edrisi), Arabian geographer, 

vn. 669. 
ALDROVANDA, genus of insectivorous 

plants, xin. 137. 
ALDROVANDI, Ulisse, Italian naturalist, 

i. 475 ; on birds, xvin. 4. 
ALDSTONE, town, England, I. 476. 
ALDUS MANUTIUS, xv. 512; his edition 

of Greek classics, in. 656. 
ALE, i. 476; iv. 275 ; adulteration of, I. 

172 ; Burton, iv. 572. 
ALEANDRO, Girolamo, cardinal, i. 476. 



ALE-CONNER, assize officer, I. 476. 
ALECTO, one of the Furies, vm. 524. 
ALECTORIDES, group of birds, xvin. 

45- 
ALEMAN, Louis, cardinal, i. 476. 

, Mateo, Spanish romancist, XXII. 

357- 
ALEMANNI, German tribe, I. 476; x. 476; 

invasion of Roman empire by, XX. 777, 

779; xxii. 729; Narses s campaigns 

against, xvn. 233. 

, Luigi, Italian poet, I. 441. 

, Nicholas, editor of Procopius, XXIII. 

276. 
ALEMANNUS, translator from Arabic, n. 

270. 

, Johannes, Venetian painter, xxi. 

436, 442. 

ALEMBIC, for distillation, I. 477. 
ALEMTEJO, province, Portugal, I. 477; 

xix. 537. 
ALENCON, town, France, i. 477; xvin. 2; 

lace of, xiv. 186. 

, Duke of, ix. 562. 

, Marguerite d , princess, XV. 538. 



ALENIO, Giulio, Jesuit missionary, I. 

477- 
ALEPPI, town, Travancore, India, xxin. 

525. 
ALEPPO, town, Syria, I. 477; province, 

xxin. 653. 
ALES, Alexander, Scottish Reformer, I. 

478; xxi. 542. 

ALESHKI, town, Russia, xxin. 83. 
ALESIUS (Ales), or Aless, Alexander, 

Scottish Reformer, I. 478; XXI. 542. 
ALESS ANDRI, Alessaiidro, Italian juris 
consult, I. 479. 
ALESSANDRIA, province and town, Italy, 

I. 479. 
ALESSI, Galeazzo, Italian architect, I. 

479- 
ALETH (St Servan), ancient town, 

France, xxi. 197. 
ALEUROMETER, flour measurer, ix. 

347- 
ALEUTIAN ISLANDS, i. 479; birds of, 

i". 753- 
ALEUTS, race of people, America, xn. 

826. 
ALEVIN, newly-hatched salmon, xxi. 

224. 
ALEXANDER I., pope, i. 486. 

- II., pope, i. 486; xix. 498; xx. 
791. 

III., pope, I. 486; xix. 500; xx. 

794 ; resists Frederick Barbarossa, 
XIII. 471. 

- IV., pope, I. 487; XIII. 475; XX. 



797- 



V., pope, i. 487; xix. 502; xx. 



804. 



VI., pope, I. 487; XIII. 481; XX. 

323, 806; his hostility to Savonarola, 

xxi. 336. 

VII., pope, i. 490. 

- VIIL, pope, I. 490; xix. 506. 



ALEXANDER, of Battenberg, prince of 
Bulgaria, XXin. 652. 
, kings of Epirus, vin. 484. 

, Leopold Franz Emmerich, prince 

of Hohenlohe, priest, and miracle- 
worker, XII. 51. 

, the Great, king of Macedonia, I. 
480; XI. 104; xv. 139; extent of his 
conquests, X. 175; his invasion of 
India, xn. 786; of Persia, xvin. 581 ; 
his capture of Persepolis, xvin. 559; 
his concpaest of Phrygia, xvin. 852 ; 
his siege of Tyre, xvin. 809 ; Arrian s 
history of, II. 631 ; romancing histories 
of, xx. 640; marble head of, n. 362; 
coins of, xvn. 641. 

, king of Poland, XIX. 290. 

- L, czar of Russia, I. 491; xvn. 485; 
xxi. 100. 

II., of Russia, xxi. 102. 

- III., of Russia, xxi. 102. 

L, king of Scotland, I. 491; XXI. 



- II., of Scotland, I. 491; XXI. 484. 
-III., of Scotland, I. 491; XXI. 485. 
-, voivode of Walachia, xxi. 17. 

- of Aboniteichos, mystic, xvn. 130. 

- of JLtolia, Alexandrian critic, I. 



499. 



of Aphrodisias, Peripatetic philo 
sopher, I. 486; XVlil. 546. 

of Hales, theologian and philo 
sopher, 1. 486 ; xxi. 427 ; Roger Bacon s 
tirade against him, in. 219. 

of Tralles, Byzantine physician, I. 

486 ; xv. 804. 

, Lucian s dialogue, xv. 45. 

, Era of, v. 715. 

, Archibald, American divine, 1. 492. 

, Joseph Addison, American divine, 



I- 493- 

, Sir "William, earl of Stirling, Scot 
tish poet, I. 493 ; his relations to Maine 
and Nova Scotia, xv. 301 ; xvn. 603. 
AB ALEXANDRO, Italian juriscon 
sult, I. 479. 
- BALAS, king of Syria, I. 486. 

JANN^EUS, king of the Jews, I. 



486. 



JAROSLAWITZ NEVSKI, saint, i. 



492. 

NEVSKI, of Novgorod, xxi. 90. 



ALEXANDRA, Lycophron s poem, I. 499. 

LAND, South Australia, xxn. 283. 

NILE, river, Central Africa, xvn. 

SOS- 
PALACE, London, Xiv. 836. 



ALEXANDRE, Racine s drama, xx. 205. 

ALEXANDRETTA, town, Asia Minor, xxi. 
366. 

ALEXANDRIA, town, Egypt, i. 493; vn. 
767; founding of, I. 482; xv. 140; 
battle of (1801), I. 38; catacombs at, 
v. 215 ; coins of, xvn. 651 ; commerce 
of, xxin. 655; glass-making at, x. 
650; libraries, xiv. 510; burning 
of them, i. 778 ; literature, XI. 143 ; 



A L E A L K 



museum, I. 69; observatory, xvil. 

709; schools of learning, I. 498; XV. 

144; xvn. 839. 
ALEXANDRIA, Era of, v. 714. 

, town, Scotland, I. 496. 

, town, Virginia, U.S.A., I. 496 ; 

xxiv. 259. 
TROAS, city, Asia Minor, xxm. 

580. 

ALEXANDRIAN CANON, v. 5. 
ALEXANDRIAN MANUSCRIPT, i. 496; 

xvin. 147. 

ALEXANDRIAN SCHOOL, i. 498; ana 
tomy in, I. Soi ; astronomy, II. 748 ; 

medicine, XV. 801; xxn. 674. 
ALEXANDRINE VERSE, i. 500. 
ALEXANDRITE, mineral, xvi. 386. 
ALEXANDROFF, town, Russia, xxiv. 

271. 
ALEXANDROPOL, town, Transcaucasia, 

Russia, XI. 277; xxm. 515. 
ALEXANDROVSK, town, Transcaspian 

Region, Russia, xxm. 513. 
ALEXANDROVSKAYA, town, Russia, xxn. 

472. 
ALEXANDROVSKII POSAD, town, Russia, 

xx. 36. 
ALEXIAD, historical work, by Anna 

Comnena, 1 1. 60. 

ALEXIN, town, Russia, xxm. 605. 
ALEXIPHARMACA, poem by Nicander, 

xvii. 476. 
ALEXIS, Greek poet, i. 501. 

, czar of Russia, xxi. 96. 

, son of Peter the Great, XVlli. 699. 

, Wilibald, German novelist, XI. 

479- 
ALEXIUS I., Comnenus, Byzantine 

emperor, I. 501; his relations with the 

crusaders, VI. 625. 

, emperor of Trebizond, xxm. 533. 

ALFANI, Domenico, Italian painter, I. 

501. 
AL-FARABI, Arabian philosopher, I. 501 ; 

li. 267. 

ALFEEYAH, Arab grammar, n. 265. 
AL-FEZI (Riph), Jewish rabbi, xx. 

566. 
ALFIERI, Vittorio, Italian poet, I. 502 ; 

vii. 417; xiii. 513. 
ALFOLD, plain, Hungary, xn. 361. 
ALFONSO. See Alphonso. 
ALFORD, Henry, dean of Canterbury, I. 

503- 

ALFRED, the Great, English king, I. 
506; vill. 283, 285 ; his translation of 
Caxlmon s poems, iv. 630; his influence 
on English literature, vin. 404. 

CROQUIS, iiom-de-crayon of D. 

Maclise, painter, xv. 165. 

JEWEL, Enamelling of, Vill. 183. 

ALFWOLD, Northumbrian king, xvn. 
570. 

ALG^E, order of plants, I. 507; xxiv. 125 ; 
their relations to Fungi, III. 692; IX. 
834; to lichens, xiv. 556; as para 
sitic plants, xvin. 266; reproduction of, 



IV. 107, 162; XX. 425, 430; in her 
barium, XI. 717; diatoms, vii. 170. 

ALGARDI, Alessandro, Italian sculptor, 
i. 509; xxi. 570. 

ALGAROTTI, Francesco, Italian author, i. 
509. 

ALGARROBO, Peruvian trees, xvin. 671. 

ALGARVE, or Algarves, province, Portu 
gal, i. 509; xix. 536. 

ALGAU, district, Bavaria, I. 510. 

AL-GAZALI, or Algazel, Arabian philo 
sopher, I. 510; II. 268. 

ALGAZEL, species of antelope, n. 101. 

ALGEBRA, I. 511; its place in mathe 
matics, xv. 630 ; determinants in, vill. 
497 ; Cardan s work on, v. 90 ; 
Leonardo of Pisa s contributions to, 
xix. 125 ; Vieta s, xxiv. 224; "Wallis s, 
xxiv. 332. 

ALGECIRAS, town, Spain, I. 562. 

ALGER, of Clugny, French author, I. 
562. 

ALGERIA, country, Africa, I. 562; ix. 
525; xvn. 628; forests, ix. 407; mines, 
xvi. 469 ; wine industry, xxiv. 607. 

ALGERINE PIRATES, i. 566. 

ALGERUS MAGISTER, French author, i. 
562. 

ALGEZIRAS, town, Spain, i. 562. 

AL-GHAZALI, Arabian philosopher, I. 
510; n. 268. 

ALGHERO, town, Sardinia, I. 569; xxi. 
309- 

ALGIERS, town, Algeria, I. 570 ; cap 
tivity of Cervantes at, v. 350 ; conquest 
of, by the Turks, xxm. 643 ; observa 
tory at, xvn. 716. 

ALGIN, mucilage, xvn. 12. 

ALCOA BAY, Cape Colony, I. 570. 

ALGODONITE, mineral, xvi. 393. 

ALGOMA, district, Ontario, Canada, XVII. 
776. 

ALGONQUINS, American Indians, i. 688, 
690; xii. 827. 

ALGORITHM, xvn. 626. 

ALGUM, incense, xii. 718; tree, I. 596. 

ALHAGI MANNA, xv. 493. 

AL-HAKAM, emir of Cordova, xxn. 
310. 
II., caliph of Cordova, xxn. 313. 

ALHAMA, town, Granada, Spain, I. 570. 
, town, Murcia, Spain, I. 570 ; 
mineral spring at, XVII. 51. 

ALHAMBRA, palace, Granada, Spain, i. 
570; architecture of, II. 447; wall- 
decorations of, XVII. 36. 

ALHASAN IBN-MOHAMMED ABWAZZAN 
ALFASI (Leo Africanus), traveller, xiv. 

453- 
ALHAZEN, Arabian mathematician, I. 

572; on optics, xiv. 578. 
ALHUCEMAS, bay and islets, Morocco, 

xvi. 830. 
ALI, caliph, i. 572; xvi. 548, 563, 566, 

592; xxn. 663; shrine of, at Meshed - 

Ali, xvi. 46; house of, xvi. 574, 579, 

584. 



ALI, Seyed Mohammed, founder of 
Babism, in. 180. 

- BEY, sultan of Egypt, I. 572; vn. 

758. 

BEY (Domingo Badia y Leblich), 

Spanish traveller, in. 227. 

. PASHA (Arslan), ruler of Albania, 

i. 573; XL 125; xxm. 649; hisattack 

on Parga, xvin. 273. 

- PASHA, pasha of Egypt, vn. 761. 
PASHA, Turkish vizier, xxm. 646. 



ALIAS, in law, I. 574. 

ALIASKA (Alaska, q.v.\ territory, U.S.A., 

i- 443- 

ALIBI, in law, I. 574. 
ALICANTE, province and town, Spain, i. 

574; xxn. 298. 
ALICATA, town, Sicily, i. 574. 
ALICE, Lytton s novel, xv. 122. 
ALICUDI, Lipari Islands, Mediterranean, 

xiv. 683. 
ALIEN, in law, I. 574; relations of, in 

war, xin. 194. 

ALIENATION, of land, vi. 434; xx. 307. 
ALIEN-HOUSES, in architecture, II. 459. 
ALIGARH, district, British India, I. 576. 
ALIGHIERI, Dante, Italian poet, vi. 809. 

See Dante. 
ALIGNMENTS, lines of stone monuments, 

xxi. 51. 

ALIMENT, in Scots law, i. 576. 
ALIMENTA, Trajan s, for poor and orphan 

children, XXIII. 504. 
ALIMENTARY CANAL, vn. 221; xvn. 

668 ; in mammals, xv. 362. 
ALIMENTARY SYSTEM, of birds, in. 725 ; 

of reptiles, xx. 457. 
ALIMENTIVENESS, in phrenology, xvin. 

845. 

ALIMONY, in English law, I. 576. 
ALI MURAD, Persian khan, xvin. 644. 
ALI-OLLAHIS, community of Kurds, xiv. 

158. 

ALISCANS, French chanson, IX. 638. 
ALISMA, genus of plants, xix. 176. 
ALISON, Archibald, Scottish divine, I. 

576; on the principles of taste, I. 223. 

, Sir Archibald, historian, I. 577. 

, William P., Scottish phvsician, xv. 

817. 
ALIZARIN, colouring matter, i. 577; iv. 

687; xv. 176. 
ALKALI, in chemistry, I. 578; volatile, 

I. 741. 
ALKALIES, Metals of the, v. 524; their 

spectra, xxn. 375. 
ALKALINE DEVELOPER, in photography, 

xvin. 826. 

ALKALINE PHOSPHATES, xvin. 819. 
ALKALINE SPRINGS, xvi. 435. 
ALKALINITY, of sea-water, xxi. 612. 
ALKALOIDS, in chemistry, I. 578; natu 
ral, or native, v. 576; xvn. 520; vege 
table waste-products, XIX. 53. 
ALKAMA, Arabic poet, xvi. 537. 
ALKANET, plant, i. 578. 
AL-KANTARA, town, Morocco, xvi. 832. 



A L K A L M 



15 



AL-KHARIZMI, Arabian mathematician, 

xvii. 626. 

AL-KlNDi, or Alkindius, Arabian philo 
sopher, I. 578; II. 267. 
ALKMAAR, town, Netherlands, i. 578. 
, Heinrik von, German satirist, I. 

578. 
ALKOSH, Mesopotamia, Nahum s tomb 

at, xvii. 165. 

ALKYLAMINES, in chemistry, xvii. 519. 
ALLADA, towns, Dahomey, Africa, vi. 

766. 
ALLAH, Arabian name of God, I. 578; 

xvi. 546. 
ALLAHABAD, division, district, and town, 

British India, I. 578; XVII. 572. 
ALLAH-DAGH, mountains, Transcaspian 

Region, Russia, xxin. 511. 
ALLAH-UD-DIN KHILJI, sultan of Delhi, 

xii. 793- 
ALLAMAND, Jean Nicolas Sebastian, 

natural philosopher, I. 579. 
ALLAN, David, Scottish painter, I. 580. 
, Sir William, Scottish painter, I. 

580. 

ALLANITE, mineral, xvi. 409. 
ALLANTOIS, of mammals, xv. 369. 
ALLAS, mountain, Timor, Indian Archi 
pelago, xxin. 397. 
ALLASCH, liqueur, xiv. 687. 
ALLEGHANY, Virginia, U.S.A., mineral 

water of, xvi. 436. 
, river, United States, i. 580. 

- MOUNTAINS, U.S.A., i. 580, 678; 

xviil. 499; xxill. 795; birds of the, 

Hi. 751. 
ALLEGHENY, town, Pennsylvania, 

U.S.A., i. 580; xix. 150; observatory 

at, xvii. 715. 
ALLEGIANCE, in law, i. 580; in relation 

to domicile, vil. 351; oath of, I. 580; 

xvii. 701. 
ALLEGORICAL INTERPRETATION, of 

Scripture, XI. 743. 

ALLEGORIES, of the Physiologus, xix. 6. 
ALLEGORY, i. 581; vin. 837. 
ALLEGRA, daughter of Lord Byron, xxi. 

792. 
ALLEGRI, Antonio (Correggio), painter, 

vi. 437; xxi. 437, 443. 

, Gregorio, Italian musician, I. 581. 

ALLEINE, Joseph, English divine, I. 

58!. 

, Richard, English divine, I. 582. 

ALLELUIA HYMNS, xn. 582. 
ALLEMONTITE, mineral, xvi. 380. 
ALLEN, Bog of, Ireland, i. 582. 

, Ethan, American patriot, xxm. 

787. 

, John, political writer, I. 583. 

-, Ralph, inventor of cross-roads 



postal system, xix. 565. 
, Thomas, English mathematician, 

i. 583. 

, William, cardinal, I. 441. 

, William, pianoforte maker, xix. 

75- 



ALLENTOWN, town, Pennsylvania, 
U.S.A., i. 583. 

ALLESTR Y, or Allestree, Richard, English 
Royalist, I. 583. 

ALLEYN, Edward, founder of Dulwich 
College, London, I. 583; vil. 520. 

, Thomas, English mathematician, 

I. 583. 

ALL FOOL S DAY, n. 214. 

ALLGAU, district, Bavaria, I. 510. 

ALLGEMEINE ZEITUNG, German news 
paper, vi. 480; xvii. 428. 

ALL-HALLOWS, or Allhallowtide, fes 
tival, i. 578; XIIL 245. 

ALLIA, Battle of (390 B.C.), xx. 740. 

ALLIANCE, i. 585. 
, The Holy (1815), IX. 619. 
DES TROIS COTILLONS (1756), ix. 
588. 

ALLIER, department, France, I. 585. 
, river, France, I. 585 ; xx. 119. 

ALLIGATOR, reptile, i. 585; vi. 594; 
xx. 446. 
, river, South Australia, XXII. 284. 

- LEATHER, xiv. 389. 

- PEPPER, xvm. 517. 

- TERRAPIN, tortoise, xxm. 458. 
ALLINGTON CASTLE, Kent, England, 

xiv. 40. 

ALLIS SHAD, fish, xxi. 726. 
ALLITERATION, i. 585. . 
ALLITERATIVE CONCORD, in philology, 

XIIL 820; XVIIL 780; xxiv. 827. 
ALLIUM, genus of plants, x. 81 ; xiv. 

409. 

ALLIX, Pierre, French divine, I. 586. 
ALLMAN, G. J., on Polyzoa, xix. 431; 

on Protozoa, Xix. 860. 
ALLOA, town, Scotland, i. 586. 
ALLODIUM, in land tenure, I. 587. 
ALLOIOCCELA, tribe of worms, xix. 172, 

174- 

ALLOMORPHITE, mineral, xvi. 400. 
ALLOPALLADIUM, mineral, xvi. 383. 
ALLOPHANE, mineral, xvi. 424. 
ALLOLOBOPHORA, genus of worms, 

xxiv. 678. 
ALLORI, Alessandro, Italian painter, I. 

587. 
, Cristofano, Italian painter, I. 

587. 

ALLOTROPY, in chemistry, i. 587. 
ALLOWAY KIRK, Ayrshire, Scotland, 

m. 164. 

ALLOXAN, in chemistry, I. 587. 
ALLOY, i. 587; in coinage, xvi. 483, 

725. 
ALLOYS, in assaying, n. 724; fusing 

point of, XX. 132; of gold, x. 750; of 

mercury, XVI. 33; of platinum, XIX. 

191 ; of silver, xxil. 71. 
ALL-SAINTS DAY, i. 578. 
ALLSOPP S BREWERIES, Burton, Eng 
land, iv. 572. 
ALL SOULS COLLEGE, Oxford, xvm. 

96. 
ALL SOULS DAY, xvii. 606. 



ALLSPICE, or Pimento, xix. 97; xvm. 

5i7- 

ALLSTEDT, district, Germany, xxi. 349. 
ALLSTON, Washington, American painter 

and poet, I. 588, 722. 
ALL THE TALENTS, English ministry 

of, vm. 363. 
ALLUCINGOLI, Ubaldo (Pope Lucius 

III.), xv. 48. 
ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS, x. 365; xii. 62, 

54, 736. 

ALLUVION, Law in regard to, xx. 565. 
ALLUVIUM, land made up of sediment, 

I. 589. 

ALLYGHUR, or Aligarh, India, i. 576. 
ALLYN, William, cardinal, L 441. 
ALMA, river, Russia, I. 589; battle of 

the (1854), I. 589. 
DAGH, mountains, Syria, xxn. 

821 

ALMADEN, town, Spain, I. 589. 
ALMAGEST, Ptolemy s astronomical work, 

i. 589; xx. 87; n. 750; x. 177. 
ALMAGRO, town, Spain, i. 589. 

, Diego d , Spanish commander, I. 

589; xvm. 677. 

ALMAI, singing girls of Egypt, I. 592. 
ALMALl, town, Asiatic Turkey, I. 589. 
AL-MAMUN, caliph, i. 589; xvi. 582. 
ALMANAC, i. 590. 

, Nautical, xvii. 260. 
ALMANACK DE GOTHA, i. 592. 
ALMANACK, Poor Richard s, i. 721; ix. 

712. 
ALMANSA, or Almanza, town, Spain, I. 

592; battle of (1707), ix. 582. 
ALMANSOR, Moorish ruler in Spain, 

xv. 500; XXIL 314. 

AL-MANSUR, or Almanzor, Moham 
medan princes, XV. 500. 
ALMATY, town, Central Asia, xxiv. 

33- 

ALME, singing girls of Egypt, I. 592. 
ALMEIDA, town, Portugal, i. 592. 

-, Francisco de, viceroy of Portuguese 



India, I. 592. 
ALMELO, town, Holland, xvm. 78. 
ALMERIA, province and town, Spain, I. 

593; xxn. 298 

ALMERY, in architecture, n. 459. 
ALMOHADES, Mohammedan dynasty, I. 

593; in Spain, xxil. 316; in Tunis, 

xxm. 621. 
AL-MOKANNA, Moslem impostor, xvi. 

580. 
ALMON, John, political writer and 

publisher, I. 594. 
ALMOND, tree and fruit, i. 594; xn. 269; 

xvm. 442. 

, river, Scotland, xiv. 669. 

ALMONDBURY, town, England, i. 595. 
ALMONDELL HOUSE, Linlithgow, Scot 
land, xiv. 670. 
ALMOND NUT, xvii. 664. 
ALMOND OIL, xvii. 744 ; chemistry of, 

xxiv. 626. 
ALMONER, ecclesiastical officer, i. 595. 



16 



A L M A L T 



ALMONRY, in architecture, n. 459. 

ALMORA, town, India, I. 595. 

ALMORAVIDES, Moliammedan dynasty, 
i. 595, 565; xv. 525; xxii. 316. 

ALMQVIST, Karl Jonas Luclwig, Swed 
ish writer, I. 596; xxii. 757. 

ALMS, in early church, xvm. 422. 

ALMSGIVING, in relation to poor laws, 
xix. 463. 

ALMSHOUSES, English, xix. 465. 

ALMUCE, church vestment, vi. 463. 

ALMUG TREE, of Scripture, I. 596. 

ALMUNECAR, town, Spain, i. 596. 

AL-NAHR (Oxus), river, Central Asia, 

XVIII. 101. 

AL-NASIRA (Nazareth), town, Palestine, 

xvii. 302. 

ALNE, river, England, xvii. 565. 
ALNWICK, town, England, I. 596; XVII. 

567, 568. 
ALOD, or Alodium, in land tenure, I. 

587; ix. 120. 
ALOE, plant, I. 597; xn. 262; incense, 

XII. 718. 
ALOID^E, or Aloiadee, in Greek legend, 

i. 597. 
ALOIN, bitter principle in plants, XIX. 

53- 

ALOMBRADOS, Spanish mystics, xn. 706. 

ALOMPRA, Burmese king, i. 597; iv. 
556. 

ALONZO, kings of Spain and Portugal, I. 
615. See Alphonso. 

ALOPECIA, skin disease, xxii. 121. 

ALOPECIAS, genus of sharks, xxi. 777. 

ALOST, town, Belgium, I. 597. 

ALOURIE, town, West Africa, xn. 710. 

ALP, mountain pasture, I. 620, 632. 

ALPACA, wool-bearing animal, I. 597; 
iv. 12; xiv. 740; relation of domesti 
cated to wild forms, IV. 251. 

ALP ARSLAN, Seljuk sultan, i. 598; 
xvi. 44, 588; xx. 730; xxi. 634. 

ALPE DI SUCCISA, Apennines, Italy, 
XIIL 437. 

ALPEN-HORN, trumpet, xxm. 593. 

ALPES, three departments (Basses, 
Hautes, Maritimes), France, I. 599. 

ALPHA AND OMEGA, i. 599. 

ALPHABET, I. 600; letters of, as numerals, 
xvii. 62 5 ; characters in ancient inscrip 
tions, xni. 114; Celtiberian, xil. 605; 
deaf and dumb, vn. 8 ; Egyptian, XL 
807; early Greek, XII. 112; Hebrew, 
XI. 597 ; hieroglyphic, XL 796 ; A. J. 
Ellis s palaeotype, xxii. 381, 385; 
Phoenician, XI. 807; xvm. 802, 806; 
phonetic, XVlll. 812; xxii. 39; phono 
graphic, XXI. 836; Roman, xni. 125; 
Sabsean, xxiv. 740; Sanskrit, xxi. 
270. 

ALPH^EUS, father of the apostle James, 
xni. 552. 

ALPHARABIUS (Al-Farabi), Arabian 
philosopher, 1 1. 267. 

AL-PHASI (Riph), Jewish rabbi and 
Talmudist, XX. 566. 



ALPHEN, Hieronymus van, Dutch 

writer, XI I. 97. 
ALPHEUS, river, Greece, I. 615; xvii. 

765. 
ALPHONSINE TABLES, in astronomy, i. 

617. 
ALPHONSO, or Alfonso, I., king of 

Aragon, L 617; xxii. 316. 

II., of Aragon, I. 618; xxii. 316. 

- III., of Aragon, I. 618; XXII. 322. 

- IV., of Aragon, I. 618; xxn. 323. 

- V., of Aragon (I. of Sicily), I. 618 ; 
xni. 478 ; xxn. 324. 

I.-III., kings of the Asturias, L 
615 ; xxii. 311. 

IV., king of Leon, I. 615. 

- V., of Leon, I. 615 ; xxii. 312. 

- VI., king of Castile, I. 615 ; XXII. 
316 ; xix. 539. 

- VII., of Castile, I. 616 ; xix. 540; 
xxn. 316. 

- VIII., of Castile, I. 617; xxn. 317. 
IX., king of Leon, I. 616 ; xxii. 



317. 



X., the Wise, king of Castile, I. 
616; xxii. 318. 
- XL, of Castile, I. 617 ; xxii. 319 

XIL, king of Spain, xxn. 346. 

I.-IV., princes of Este, vin. 559. 

I. -VI., kings of Portugal, I. 618. 
See also Affonso. 

DE CARTAGENA, Spanish historian, 



i. 619. 

ALPHONSUS A SANCTA MARIA, Spanish 
historian, I. 619. 

ALPINI, Prospero, Italian physician and 
botanist, I. 619. 

ALPINIA, genus of plants, x. ij. 

ALPNACHERSEE, Lake of Lucerne, 
Switzerland, xv. 41. 

ALPS, the, I. 619 ; geological structure 
of, x. 371, 373 ; Hannibal s passage 
of, XI. 441; XX. 749; heights of, 
compared with the Himalayas, XL 
826; Saussure s observations on, xxi. 
324; Southern, Xin. 434; Styrian, 
xxii. 614; Swiss, xxn. 776, 779. 

ALPUJARRAS, or Alpuxaras, district, 
Spain, I. 636. 

ALRED, archbishop of York, i. 475. 

ALREDUS, early English historian, I. 
636. 

ALRESFORD, New, town, England, i. 636. 

AL-RUSS, town, Arabia, xvii. 774. 

ALSACE, province, Germany, I. 636; 
ceded to Spain, XXII. 330; annexed to 
France (1675), ix. 577; x. 502; re 
stored to Germany (1871), ix. 627; x. 

5I3- 
ALSEN, island, Schleswig-Holstein, i. 

637; xxi. 414. 

ALSOP, Vincent, Puritan divine, I. 637. 
ALSOPHILA, genus of tree-ferns, xxm. 

534- 

ALSTED, Johann Heinrich, German 
author, I. 637; his Encyclopaedia, vm. 
193- 



ALSTON, Charles, Scottish botanist, I. 
638; on the sexes of plants, IV. 82. 
, Mount, Vancouver Island, xxiv. 



57- 

ALSTONIA GUM, XL 339. 

ALSTONITE, mineral, xvi. 398. 

ALSTON MOOR, town, England, I. 476. 

ALSTROEMER, Jonas, Swedish indus 
trial reformer, I. 638. 

ALT, river, Transylvania, I. 638. 

ALTAI MOUNTAINS, Siberia, i. 638; n. 
686; xxii. 2; xxm. 438. 

ALTAITE, mineral, xvi. 391. 

ALTAMAHA, river, Georgia, U.S.A., x. 

434- 

ALTAMURA, town, Italy, i. 638. 
ALTAN KHAN, Mongol chief, xvi. 744. 
ALTAR, i. 638. 

ALTAR-WORSHIP, xxm. 165. 
ALTAZIMUTH THEODOLITE, x. 165. 
ALTDORF, town, Switzerland, i. 642; 

XXIV. II. 

, Bavaria, University of, xxm. 845, 

848. 
ALTDORFER, Albrecht, German painter, 

i. 642. 

ALTEN, river, Norway, xvii. 576. 
ALTENBURG, town, Germany, I. 642; 

xxi. 347. 

ALTEN GETTING, town, Bavaria, i. 642. 
ALTENSTEIN, castle, Saxe-Meiningen, 

Germany, I. 642. 
ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS, in. 

687; iv. 159; XIIL 146; xx. 429. 
ALTH.EA ROSEA, species of plants, xn. 

102. 
AL-THING, parliament of Iceland, xn. 

618, 621. 
ALTHORP, Lord (Earl Spencer), English 

statesman, xxn. 391. 
ALTIERI, Emilio (Pope Clement X.), v. 

822. 

ALTIN, lake, Siberia, I. 642. 
ALTING, Heinrich, German theologian, 

I. 642. 

, Jacob, German theologian, I. 642. 

ALTIONOS (Tours), ancient town, France, 

xxm. 491. 
ALTIS, in ancient Olympia, xvii. 766, 

768. 
ALTITUDES, Geodesic determination of, 

x. 171; meridian, xvn. 269; deter 
mination of, in surveying, xxn. 707, 

711. 
ALTMARK, district, Prussian Saxony, 

xxi. 359. 
ALTO DOURO, Portugal, wine industry 

of, xvn. 795 ; xxiv. 607. 
ALTOETTING, town, Bavaria, I. 642. 
ALTOFTS, parish, Yorkshire, England, 

xvn. 552. 
ALTON, town, England, I. 642. 

, town, Illinois, U.S.A., I. 643. 
- LOCKE, Kingsley s novel, xiv. 88. 
ALTONA, town, Schleswig-Holstein, i. 

643; XL 404; xx. 16; xxi. 415; 

observatory at, xvn. 712. 



A L T A M B 



17 



ALTOONA, town, Pennsylvania, i. 643. 
ALTO ORINOCO, territory, Venezuela, 

xxiv. 140. 
ALTORF, town, Switzerland, I. 642 ; 

xxn. 778. 
ALTO-RlLlEVO, in sculpture, I. 643; the 

largest in the world, I. 509. 
ALTRINGHAM, town, England, i. 643. 
ALTRUISM, in Comtist system, vi. 

237- 
ALTVATER, mountain, Moravia, xvi. 

810; xxn. 53. 

ALUCO, genus of birds, xvm. 91. 
ALUM, chemical salt, I. 643 ; mineral, 

xvi. 402. 

ALUMAT, king of Persia, xvm. 633. 
ALUMBAGH, enclosure, Lucknow, I. 647. 
ALUMINITE, mineral, I. 645; xvi. 401. 
ALUMINIUM, chemical element, I. 647 ; 

v. 532; first isolated by Wohler, xxiv. 

627 ; ores of, xvi. 58 ; spectrum of, 

XXII. 377 ; sulphate of, XXII. 637. 

BRONZE, iv. 367. 

ALUNITE, mineral, xvi. 402. 
ALUNOGENE, mineral, I. 645; xvi. 401. 
ALURED, early English historian, i. 

636, 425. 
ALUTA, river, Transylvania, I. 638; 

xxiii. 521. 
ALVA, village, Scotland, I. 647; xxn. 

554- 

, Duke of, Spanish general, I. 647; 

xvm. 744; in Holland, xn. 75. 

ALVARADO, Pedro de, Spanish dis 
coverer, i. 648. 

ALVAREZ, Francisco, Portuguese tra 
veller, i. 648. 

, Jose, Spanish sculptor, I. 649. 
, Manuel, Spanish sculptor, I. 649. 

ALVARO DE LUNA, Spanish minister, 
xxn. 321. 

ALVEOLAR SARCOMA, disease, xvm. 

369- 

ALWAR, state, India, I. 649; xx. 260. 

ALWIN, Henry Fitz, first mayor of Lon 
don, xiv. 844. 

ALYATTES, Lydian king, xv. 100; xxn. 
1 86; his tomb, near Sardis, II. 401; 
xv. 98. 

ALYPIUS, Greek writer on music, I. 649. 

of Antioch, geographer, I. 649. 

ALYTH, town, Scotland, i. 649; XVIH. 
667. 

AMADAVAT, bird, xxiv. 463. 

AMADEUS I.-IV., counts of Savoy, xxi. 
339- 

V., of Savoy, I. 650; xxi. 341. 

VI., VII., of Savoy, xxi. 341. 

VIII., duke of Savoy (Felix V., 
antipope), I. 650; xix. 503; xxi. 341. 

IX., duke of Savoy, xxi. 341. 

of Aosta, king of Spain, xxn. 346. 

A-MADi, African nation, xvn. 473. 
AMADIS OF GAUL, Spanish romance, 

i. 650; ix. 653; xx. 653; xxii. 355. 
AMADIS OF GREECE, romance, xx. 655. 
AMADOU, fungus, i. 650. 



AMAGAT, E. H. M., his experiments on 
pressure of gases, XV. 495; xix. 242. 

AMAGER, or Amak, island, Denmark, I. 
651; vi. 343. 

AMALABERGA, Frankish queen, x. 476. 

AMALARIC, Gothic chief, x. 851. 

AMALASONTHA, daughter of Theodoric, 
i. 651; x. 851; xxni. 257. 

AMALEKITES, of Scripture, i. 65 1 ; xvm. 

175- 

AMALFI, town, Italy, I. 652. 
AMALGAM, mercurial alloy, i. 652; xvi. 

33 ; mineral, xvi. 382. 
AMALGAMATION, of metals, xvi. 58 ; of 

gold, X. 747 ; of silver, xxii. 69. 
AMALGAM-WORK, Japanese, xm. 591. 
AMALIA, Anna, duchess of Saxe- Weimar, 

i. 652; x. 728. 
AMALRIC, or Amaury,king of Jerusalem, 

vii. 752; xxni. 161. 
, or Amalrich, of Bena, mystic, I. 

652; xvn. 132; xxi. 426. 
AMALRICANS, sect of the Free Spirit, 

xvn. 132. 
AMALRICH of Bena, mystic, I. 652; 

xvii. 132; xxi. 426. 
AMALTEO, Italian family, i. 652. 

, Pomponio, Venetian painter, I. 652. 

AMANA (Abana), river of Scripture, 

Syria, xiv. 394. 
COMMUNITY, communistic society, 

U.S.A., vi. 216. 

AMANCAES, Peruvian lily, xvm. 670. 
AMAPALA, port, Honduras, xn. 130. 
AMAR, Asiatic people, in Egyptian litera 
ture, i. 747. 
AMARANTH, i. 653. 
AMARAPURA, or Ummerapoora, town, 

Burmah, I. 653 ; in. 144. 
AMARA SINHA, Sanskrit writer, I. 652. 
AMAR DAS, Sikh ruler, India, xx. 1 10. 
AMARGOSA, river, Nevada, U.S.A., xvn. 

367- 

AMARYLLIS, plant, xn. 265. 
AMARYNTHOS, Amphictyony of, I. 773. 
AMASIA, or Amasiayah, town, Turkey in 

Asia, i. 653 ; xix. 459. 
AMASIS, king of Egypt, I. 653; iv. 733; 

vii. 743; xix. 417. 
AMASTRIS, Persian princess, xv. 119. 
, ancient town, Paphlagonia, xvm. 

227. 

AMAT, Felix, Spanish historian, i. 653. 
AM ATI, family of violin makers, I. 654; 

xvii. 98; xxiv. 245. 
j AMATITLAN, lake and town, Guatemala, 

i. 654 ; XL 239. 
AMATIVENESS, in phrenology, xvin. 

844. 
AMAURI, or Amalric, of Bena, mystic, I. 

652; xvii. 132; xxi. 426. 
AMAUROSIS, disease of the eye, I. 654 ; 

xvn. 784. 
AMAURY, or Amalric, king of Jerusalem, 

vn. 752; xxni. 161. 
AMAXICHI, or Amaxikhi, town, Ionian 

Islands, I. 654 ; xxi. 297. 



AMA-XOSAS, race, South Africa, xm. 

819. 
AMAZON, or Amazons, river, South 

America, I. 654, 674; IV. 221; birds 

of, in. 746. 
AMAZON AS, territory, Venezuela, xxiv. 

140. 
AMAZONS, female warriors, i. 655; xxi. 

310; of Dahomey, vi. 767. 
AMAZON-STONE, mineral, XL 48; xvi. 

419. 
AMA-ZULU RACE, South Africa, xm. 

818; xvii. 319; xxiv. 828. 
AMBALA, division, district, and town, 

British India, I. 655; xx. 109. 
AMBARAWA, town, Java, xm. 606. 
AMBARVALIA, Roman festival, i. 656; 

xv. 570. 
AMBASSADOR, i. 657; his position and 

rights, xm. 193. 
AMBATO, town, Ecuador, I. 659. 
AMBER, i. 659; xvi. 428; xx. 143; 

electric properties of, vill. 3; Phoe 
nician, xvm. 806. 

, Liquid, liquidambar, XIV. 687. 

AMBERBAKI, Papuan tribe, xvn. 388. 
AMBERG, town, Bavaria, i. 660. 
AMBERGRIS, concretion in sperm whale, 

i. 660; xv. 396; xxiv. 525; as 

perfume, xvm. 526. 
AMBERNO, river, New Guinea, xvn. 

386. 

AMBERT, town, France, I. 661; xx. 120. 
AMBLESIDE, town, England, i. 661 ; 

xxiv. 516. 

AMBLETEUSE, town, France, i. 66 1. 
AMBLYCEPHALID/E, family of snakes, 

xxn. 193. 

AMBLYGONITE, mineral, xvi. 408. 
AMBLYOPIA, eye disease, xvn. 784. 
AMBLYOPSIS SPEL^EUS, blind fish, xv. 

450. 

AMBLYPODA, suborder of ungulate mam 
mals, xv. 426. 
AMBLYRHYNCHUS, genus of reptiles, 

xx. 453. 

AMBLYSTEGITE, mineral, xvi. 415. 
AMBLYSTOMA, metamorphosed siredon 

(amphibian), I. 760; xxn. 96. 
AMBO, reading desk, I. 661. 
AMBOHI MANGA, town, Madagascar, xv. 

175- 

AMBOISE, town, France, I. 66 1. 
, Cardinal, tomb of, at Rouen, xxi. 

13- 

AMBON, reading desk, I. 66 1. 
AMBOYNA, island and town, Moluccas, I. 

661. 
AMBRA, poem by Lorenzo dei Medici, 

xv. 786. 

AMBRACIA, ancient town, Epirus, I. 661. 
AMBREIN, constituent of ambergris, i. 

660. 

AMBRIZIANS, tribe, Congo, vi. 267. 
AMBRO, Cape, Madagascar, xv. 168. 
AMBROGINI, Angelo (Politian), Italian 

scholar and poet, xix. 345; xx. 384. 
XXV. 3 



18 



A M B A M M 



AMBROGIO LORENZETTI, Italian painter, 
xxi. 434. 

AMBROSE of Alexandria, I. 662. 

, St, bishop of Milan, I. 662 ; his 

ethical teaching, vm. 592 ; as hymn 
writer, XII. 581 ; promoter of music, 
xvii. 80; his relations with Augus 
tine, III. 76; with Theodosius I., 
XXIIL 259. 

, Isaac, Puritan divine, I. 664. 

AMBROSIA, in Greek mythology, xvn. 

3i3- 

AMBROSIAN BREVIARY, iv. 263. 
AMBROSIAN CHANT, xix. 169. 
AMBROSIAN LIBRARY, at Milan, xiv. 

53i- 

AMBROSIAN Music, xvn. 80. 
AMBROSIO, or the Monk, M. G. Lewis s 

romance, XIV. 493. 
AMBROSIUS, Aurelianus, leader of the 

Britons, I. 665. 
AMBRYM, island, New Hebrides, xvn. 

395- 
AMBULACRAL SYSTEM, of Echinoder- 

niata, vn. 629. 
AMBULANCE, i. 665. 
AMBURBIUM, Roman festival, xv. 66. 
AMCHENSK (Mtsensk), town, Russia, 

XVII. 12. 

A.M.D.G., Jesuits motto, xm. 649. 

AMEER, Oriental title, I. 1 54. 

AL-HAJJ, leader of Meccan pilgrim 
age, xvi. 592. 

AMELIA, novel by Fielding, IX. 146. 

AMELIE-LES-BAINS, spa, France, xx. 
128; mineral water of, xvi. 435. 

AMELIUS, Neoplatonist philosopher, 
xvn. 336. 

AMELOT DE LA HOUSSAYE, Abraham 
N., French writer, I. 668. 

AMELOTTE, Denis, French writer, I. 668. 

AMEN, Egyptian god, i. 740; vn. 717. 

AMENEMHAT I.-III., kings of Egypt, 
vii. 734. 

AMENOPHIS I.-IV., kings of Egypt, vii. 

737, 738- 

AMENOPHIUM, temple, Egypt, vn. 779. 

A MENSA ET THORO, in divorce suits, 
vii. 301. 

AMENTI, Egyptian divinities, vii. 718. 

AMENTIFER.E, division of plants, i. 668. 

AMERICA, I. 669; origin of the name, 
x. 182; XXIV. 192; early knowledge 
of, x. 178; discovered by Columbus, 
VI. 173; x. 1 80; influence of its dis 
covery on commerce, VI. 201; effect of 
its discovery on Spain, xxn. 327; 
alleged discovery of, by Bjarni, XI. 
171; Icelandic works on its discovery, 
XII. 624; ancient architecture, II. 450; 
birds, ill. 744, 748, 750; breeding 
of cattle in, I. 387; coins, XVII. 658; 
cotton supply, vi. 484; flora, vii. 289, 
290; forests, IX. 405; gold, x. 743; 
Indians, XII. 822, 830; original in 
habitants, xvi. 206; languages, xvm. 
780; dictionaries of languages, vn. 



193; Methodist churches in, xvi. 191; 

Christian missions to, XVI. 513, 516; 

rainfall, xvi. 153; aboriginal religions, 

xx. 364. 
AMERICA, Central, birds of, in. 748; 

ancient culture in, xvi. 213. 

, North, birds of, in. 750; xvm. 

1 6; coalfields, vi. 60; fishes, xn. 676, 

679. 

, South, birds of, in. 744; coal 
fields, vi. 60; fishes, xn. 673. 

, United States of, XXin. 729. 

AMERICAN ALOE, i. 597. 

AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA, vin. 204; xx. 

568. 
AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE, struggle 

for, vin. 357; xxin. 741; Burke s 

attitude to, iv. 544; declaration of, 

xxin. 743. 
AMERICAN INDIANS, i. 685; xn. 822, 

830. 

AMERICAN LEATHER CLOTH, xiv. 391. 
AMERICAN LITERATURE, i. 718. 
AMERICAN NOTES, Dickens s work, vn. 

176. 

AMERICAN ORGAN, XL 483. 
AMERICAN OSTRICH, xx. 505. 
AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 

xvin. 740. 
AMERIGO VESPUCCI, xxiv. 192; his 

discoveries, x. 181. 
AMERSFOORT, town, Holland, i. 735; 

xxiv. 21. 

AMERSHAM, town, England, i. 735. 
AMES, Fisher, American statesman and 

author, I. 735, 721. 

, Joseph, English writer, I. 735. 

, William, Puritan divine and mor 
alist, I. 735; xxin. 850. 
AMESBURY, town, England, I. 736. 
AMESIUS (William Ames), divine and 

moralist, I. 735; XXIIL 850. 
AMETHYST, precious stone, i. 736; xvi. 

389; oriental, xvi. 385. 
AMETO, Boccaccio s work, in. 843. 
AMHARA, province, Abyssinia, I. 64. 
AMHARIC LANGUAGE, xxi. 655; dic 
tionaries of, vii. 192. 
AMHERST, district and town, British 

Burmah, I. 737. 

, town, Massachusetts, U.S.A., I. 737; 

observatory at, xvn. 715. 
, Earl, I. 737; his embassy to China, 

v. 651; governor-general of India, XII. 
806. 
COLLEGE, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 

XL 349; xxin. 857. 
AMHURST, Nicholas, English writer, I. 

738. 
AMIANTHUS, mineral, I. 738; n. 675; 

xvi. 416, 417. 
AMIATA, Monte, mountain, Italy, xin. 

438. 
AMICABLE SOCIETY, insurance company, 

xin. 1 80. 

AMIC ACIDS, v. 578. 
AMICE, ecclesiastical vestment, vi. 462. 



AMICI, Giovanni Battista, Italian opti 
cian, I. 738; his microscopic objectives, 

xvi. 263. 
AMIDES, in chemistry, v. 577; vegetable, 

xix. 54. 

AMIDO- ACIDS, in chemistry, xvn. 519. 
AMIENS, town, France, I. 738; xxn. 261; 

organ at, xvn. 837; sculptures in the 

cathedral, xxi. 562; peace of (1802) 

I. 146; ix. 614; xvn. 205. 
AMIN, caliph, xvi. 583. 
AMINES, in chemistry, v. 574. 
AMINI, island, Laccadives, Indian Ocean, 

xiv. 183. 
AMINTA, Tasso s drama, xvin. 345; 

xxin. 76. 

AMIOIDEI, suborder of fishes, xn. 688. 
AMIOT, Joseph, Jesuit missionary, I. 

738. 
AMIR, Oriental title, I. 1 54. 

Muizzi, Persian writer, xvm. 

658. 
AMIS ET AMILE, French chanson, ix. 

638. 
AMISUS, ancient town, Asia Minor, 

xvin. 228; xix. 459. 
AMITERNUM, Sabine town, Italy, xxi. 

129. 

AMIURUS, genus of fishes, xxi I. 68. 
AMLWCH, town, Wales, i. 738. 
AM-MACHU, river, Sikkim, India, xxn. 

SI- 
AMMAN, Johann Conrad, Swiss physi 
cian, I. 739; teacher of deaf mutes, 
vn. 6. 

, Jost, Swiss wood-engraver, I. 739; 

vin. 437. 

, Paul, German physician and botan 
ist, I. 739. 

AMMANATI, Bartolomeo, Florentine 
architect, I. 739. 

AMMANITES, Swiss sect, xvi. 1 2. 

AMMARIUNO (Murano), island, Venice, 
xvn. 48. 

AMMIANUS, Marcelliuus, Roman his 
torian, i. 739. 

AMMIRATO, Scipio, Italian historian, I. 
740. 

AMMODYTINA, genus of fishes, xxi. 
257. 

AMMOMANES, genus of birds, xiv. 315. 

AMMON, of Scripture, I. 742; xvi. 533. 
, Egyptian divinity, I. 740; vn. 
717. 



, in Libyan oasis, oracle at, I. 482. 

, Christoph Friedrich von, German 

theologian, I. 741. 

AMMONIA, in chemistry, I. 741; v. 509; 
xvn. 516; product of shale, xvin. 
241; salts of, v. 510; XL 234; xvin. 
819; salts as manure, xv. 512. 

AMMONIAC, Sal, chemical salt, I. 741. 

AMMONIACUM, resinous exudation, I. 
742. 

AMMONIA PROCESS, in soda manufac 
ture, xxn. 244. 

AMMONITE MARBLE, xv. 529. 



A M M A N A 



19 



AMMONITES, of Scripture, 1.742; xin. 

397; xvm. 175. 
, fossil Mollusca, xvi. 669, 671, 

674. 
AMMONIUM, Cyanide of, xx. 23. 

SALTS, xvm. 92. 

AMMONIUS HERMI/E, philosopher of 

Alexandria, I. 743. 
AMMONIUS LITHOTOMUS, surgeon of 

Alexandria, xxil. 674. 
AMMONIUS SACCAS, founder of Alex 
andrian school of Neoplatonists, I. 

743; xvii. 335. 

AMMOPERDIX, genus of birds, xvm. 333. 
AMMOTHEA, genus of Arachnida, II. 277. 
AMMUNITION, i. 744; ix. 453; sporting, 

xxi. 835. 

WAGGONS, n. 66 1. 

AMNESTY, i. 746. 

AMOEBA, genus of Protozoa, xix. 828, 

842; xn. 4. 
AMCEBOID MOVEMENT, of plants, xix. 

6r. 

AMOL, town, Persia, I. 746. 
AMOLE, plant, xvii. 401. 
AMONTILLADO WINE, xvi. 791; xxiv. 

607. 

AMONTONS, Guillaume, French physic 
ist, i. 746. 
AMOOR, Amour, or Amur, river, Eastern 

Asia, I. 746; XV. 548; xvni. 117; 

xxi. 68; xxil. 5. 

, government, Russia, XXII. 2. 

AMORAIM, expounders of the Talmud, 

XXIII. 36. 

AMORAL, Ferreira do, governor of 
Macao, xv. 125. 

AMORITES, of Scripture, I. 747; iv. 763; 
xin. 397; xvi. 533. 

AMORPHISM, in chemistry and miner 
alogy, i. 747. 

AMORPHOUS ROCKS, x. 308. 

AMORTIZATION, of loans, xvii. 244. 

AMOS, Old Testament prophet, I. 747; 
XIIL 410; xix. 817. 

AMOUR (Amoor, q.v.), river, Asia, I. 746. 

AMOV, town, China, I. 748; v. 636. 

AMPANAN, harbour, Lombok, Indian 
Archipelago, Xiv. 817. 

AMPELIS, genus of birds, xxiv. 460. 

AMPERE, electrical unit of measure 
ment, xxm. 1 1 6. 

AMPERE, Andre Marie, French scientist, 
I. 748; his contributions to electrical 
science, vm. 10, 67, 70, 74; his mag 
netic molecule hypothesis, xv. 276. 

, Jean Jacques Antoine, French 

writer, I. 749; on the ballads of 
France, in. 284. 

AMPHIARAUS, in Greek mythology, I. 
749; vin. 524; oracle of, xvii. 808; 
xvm. 50. 

AMPHIARTHRODIAL JOINTS, i. 833. 

AMPHIBIA, class of vertebrate animals, 
I. 750; xx. 432; distribution of, vn. 
270, 282; hibernation, XI. 789; their 
relation to Mammalia, xv. 370; in 



Lankester s classification, xxiv. 812; 
olfactory organs of, xxn. 166; skele 
ton of, xxn. 106; works on develop 
ment of, vm. 1 68. 

AMPHIBOLE, mineral, xvi. 417. 

AMPHIBOLOGY, Liguorian doctrine of, 
Xiv. 638. 

AMPHICONDYLA, branch of the Verte- 
brata, xxiv. 812. 

AMPHICTYONY, Greek religious con 
federation, i. 772; XL 92; xvn. 766. 

AMPHIDOZOTHERIUM, genus of fossil 
Insectivora, XV. 405. 

AMPHILINID^, family of tape-worms, 
xxm. 54. 

AMPHILOCHIA, work of Photius, XVIIL 
821. 

AMPHIMORPH/E, group of birds, in. 
712. 

AMPHION, in Greek mythology, I. 774; 
tomb of, at Thebes, xxm. 230. 
, spa, France, xxi. 332. 

AMPHIOXUS, genus of fishes, i. 774; n. 
53; Xiv. 258; xxm. 609; xxiv. 180, 
183, 184. 

AMPHIPERATHERIUM, fossil opossum, 
xvn. 797. 

AMPHIPODA, order of Crustacea, vi. 
661. 

AMPHIPOLIS, town, Macedonia, I. 774; 
xv. 137; xvn. 326. 

AMPHISB^TNA, genus of lizards, i. 774; 
xx. 457. 

AMPHITHEATRE, i. 774; Roman, x. 65; 
xx. 830; architecture of, II. 419; near 
Dorchester, England, VII. 372; at 
Nhnes, France, xvii. 510; at Pola, 
Dalmatia, xix. 284; atSaintes, France, 
xxi. 167; at Verona, xxiv. 172. 

AMPHITHERIUM, fossil mammal, xv. 

375- 
AMPHITRITE, in Greek legend, I. 776; 

xvii. 346; xix. 558. 
AMPHITRUO, Plautus s comedy, xxi. 

216. 
AMPHITRYON, Moliere s play, xvi. 

629. 

AMPHODELITE, mineral, xvi. 420. 
AMPHORA, ancient vessel, i. 776; xix. 

182, 614; Roman measure, xxiv. 486. 
AMPLEPIUS, town, France, xx. 529. 
AMPLITUDE, in astronomy, i. 776. 
AMPRACIA (Ambracia), ancient town, 

Epirus, I. 66 1. 
AMPSAGA, river, Numidia, xv. 636; 

xvn. 627. 

AMPSANCTI VALLIS, Italy, i. 778. 
AMPTHILL, town, England, I. 776. 
AMPULLA, ancient vessel, I. 776. 
AMPULLARID^E, family of snails, xxn. 

187. 
AMPUTATION, in surgery, xxn. 678, 

688. 
AMR, Mosque of, Cairo, xvi. 864. 

B. AL-As, Moslem conqueror of 

Egypt, i. 778; vii. 749 ; xvi. 558, 565, 

567; his capture of Alexandria, I. 494. 



AMR B. KOLTHUM, Arabic poet, xvi. 

537- 

B. SAID, pseudo-caliph, xvi. 570. 



AMRAALKAIS, or Amru-el-Kais, Arabic 

poet, i. 778; xvi. 537. 
AMRAOTI, district and town, India, I. 

777- 
AMRIT MAHAL, breed of cattle, India, 

xn. 752. 
AMRITSAR, district and town, India, I. 

777; xx. 109, 1 10. 
AMRU, fabulous bird, XX. 611. 
BEN-EL-Ass, Moslem conqueror of 

Egypt,l. 778; vn. 749; xvi. 558, 565; 

his capture of Alexandria, I. 494. 
EL-KAis, or Amraalkais, Arabian 



poet, i. 778; xvi. 537. 
AMSANCTI VALLIS, Italy, i. 778. 
AMSDORF, Nicolaus, Reformer, I. 778; 

xv. 85. 

AMSLER, Samuel, engraver, I. 779. 
AMSTEL, river, Netherlands, i. 779. 
AMSTERDAM, capital of Holland, i. 779; 

XII. 65; academy of sciences, I. 73; 

bank of, ill. 337; canal, IV. 788; 

libraries, Xiv. 532; ordinances of, XXI. 

584; university, xxm. 850. 

, island, Indian Ocean, I. 781. 
AMU DARIA, or Amu (Oxus), river, Cen 
tral Asia, XVIII. 101 ; IV. i ; XXIII. 

512. 

AMUL, or Amol, town, Persia, I. 746. 
AMULET, charm, i. 781. 
AMUR (Amoor), river, Eastern Asia, I. 

746; xv. 548; xvm. 117; xxi. 68; 

xxn. 5. 

, government, Russia, XXIL 2. 

AMURATH, or Murad, I., Turkish sultan, 

i. 781; xxm. 641. 

- II., sultan, I. 781; XXlll. 641; his 
victory over the Poles, XIX. 289. 

- III., sultan, I. 782; XXIII. 644. 

- IV., sultan, I. 782; xxm. 645. 
V., sultan, xxm. 652. 



AMURSAMA, Kalmuk khan, xvi. 746. 
AMWELL, village, England, i. 782. 
AMY, Pierre, friend of Rabelais, XX. 194. 
AMYGDALON, reservoir, Jerusalem, xin. 

638. 

AMYLOID DEGENERATION, in patho 
logy, xvni. 390. 

AMYMONE, in Greek legend, i. 782. 
AMYNTAS, king of Macedonia, xv. 138. 
AMYNTOR, Toland s work, xxm. 434. 
AMYOT, Jacques, French bishop and 

writer, I. 782; in. 143; IX. 656; Xiv. 

868. 
AMYRALDISTS, sect, followers of Amy- 

raiit, iv. 742. 
AMYRAUT, Moses, French theologian, I. 

782; iv. 741; xvni. 492. 
AMYRT^EUS, Egyptian king, vn. 744; 

xvm. 574. 
ANA, i. 783; in. 655; French, ix. 657. 

, town, Mesopotamia, II. 59; XVI. 48. 

ANABAPTISTS, religious sect, I. 786; in. 

353; xvi. 12. 



20 



A N A A N D 



ANABAPTIST TUMULTS, in Germany, i. 

786; xv. 78. 
ANABASIS, Xenoplion s work, I. 787; 

xxiv. 721. 
ANABOLISM, constructive processes, in 

physiology, xix. 13, 19, 22, 49; xxi. 

724. 

ANACANTHINI, order of fishes, xu. 691. 
ANACAPRI, town, Italy, v. 77. 
ANACHARSIS, Scythian philosopher, I. 

787. 

, Lucian s dialogue, xv. 45. 
, Voyage de, Barthelemy s work, ill. 

402. 

CLOOTZ, French Revolutionist, vi. 



37- 

ANACHRONISM, i. 787. 
ANACLETUS II., antipope, xix. 500. 
ANACOLUTHON, grammatical incongru- 

ity, i. 787. 

ANACONDA, snake, i. 788; in. 841. 
, Copper mines of, Montana, U.S.A., 

xxin. 816. 

ANACREON, Greek poet, i. 788. 
ANADYOMENE, epithet of Aphrodite, i. 

788. 
ANADYR, gulf and river, Siberia, I. 789; 

xv. 547. 
AN/EMIA, disease, xiu. 359; diet in, 

VII. 206; as caused by parasites, XVlll. 

270; pernicious, xvni. 377. 
ANAEROBIOTIC PLANTS, xix. 51. 
ANESTHESIA, in medicine, I. 789; pro 
duced by chloroform, v. 680. 
ANAESTHETICS, xvn. 230; as poisons, 

xix. 279. 

ANAGHMORE, Lough, Ireland, xx. 171. 
ANAGNI, town, Italy, i. 790. 
ANAGRAM, transposition of letters, i. 

790. 

ANAH, town, Turkey in Asia, II. 59. 
ANAHUAC, plateau, Mexico, i. 791; xvi. 

206. 

ANAKA, Egyptian goddess, n. 90. 
ANAKAPALLE, town, India, xxiv. 267. 
ANALCIME, mineral, xvi. 421. 
ANALOGICAL CHANGE, in philology, 

xvni. 783. 

ANALOGY, logical process, i. 791. 
, in comparative anatomy, I. 793; 

contrasted with homology, xxiv. 807. 
, Divine, Bishop Browne s work, iv. 

389- 

OF RELIGION, Bishop Butler swork, 

iv. 583. 

ANALYSIS, i. 793. 
, Chemical, I. 795; ultimate, v. 

544- 

, Harmonic, in physics, XL 481. 
, Logical, i. 796; XIV. 785. 

, Mathematical, I. 793; ix. 818; 

residual, Landcn s theorem of, XIV. 

271. 

, Psychological, I. 796. 
OF THE MIND, James Mill s work, 



xvi. 307. 
ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY, x. 408. 



ANALYTICAL TRIGONOMETRY, xxm. | 
568. 

ANALYTIC JUDGMENTS, i. 797. 

ANALYTICS, in logic, xiv. 785. 

, Aristotle s work, n. 516. 

ANAM, kingdom, Cochin China, I. 798; 
VI. 94; Roman Catholic missions in, 
xix. Si i. 

ANAMESE, people and language, vi. 95; 
dictionary of language, vil. 182. 

ANAMIS, river, Persia, xvn. 856. 

ANAMOBOE, settlement, West Africa, n. 
61; x. 755. 

ANAN, founder of the Karaites, xiv. 2. 

ANANASSA SATIVA, plant, xix. 106. 

AN ANDA, Buddha s attendant, IV. 43 1 . 

ANANG-PAL, raja of Lahore, xv. 286. 

ANAN-ISHO, Syriac writer, xxn. 843. 

ANAO, islets, Tuamotu, South Pacific, 
xxin. 602. 

ANARCHISM, socialistic, xxn. 216. 

ANARCHY, defined, xiv. 356. 

ANARRHICHAS LUPUS, species of fishes, 
xxi. 614. 

ANAS, genus of birds, vn. 505; xix. 
647; xxi. 378; xxin. 105; xxiv. 
56!. 

AN AST AS i AN WALL, from Propontis to 
Euxine, I. 798. 

ANASTASIOPOLIS, town, Mesopotamia, 
xvi. 48. 

ANASTASIUS I.-IL, emperors of Con 
stantinople, i. 798. 

, Hope s novel, xu. 158. 

ANASTATES, in physiology, xix. 19. 

ANASTATIC PRINTING, xxn. 716. 

ANATASE, mineral, xvi. 387; xxin. 410. 

ANATHEMA, i. 798; vm. 791. 

ANATHO (Ana), ancient town, Mesopo 
tamia, xvi. 48. 

ANATIDE, family of birds, vn. 505. 

ANATOLIA, division, Asiatic Turkey, 
ii. 703; xxin. 654. 

ANATOMY, i. 799 (index, 908); vn. 221; 
in relation to medicine, xv. 794; to 
physiology, Xix. 8; to phrenology, 
xviil. 846; its importance in zoolo 
gical study, xxiv. 814; comparative, 
VI. 225; XXIV. 800; of the digestive 
organs, vn. 221; of the skeleton, xxn. 
105; of Amphibia, I. 751; of birds, 
ill. 699; of fishes, XII. 635; of mam 
mals, xv. 347; of man, I. 799; vn. 
221; of reptiles, XX. 445; Blumen- 
bach s works on, ill. 841 ; researches in, 
by Malpighi, xv. 338; by Morgagni, 
xvi. 822; by Rokitansky, XX. 624. 

ACT (1871), xv. 799. 

OF MELANCHOLY, Burton s work, 
iv. 571. 

ANAUXITE, mineral, xvi. 424. 

ANAXAGORAS, Greek philosopher, n. i ; 
on astronomy, n. 746; on evolution, 
vm. 756; his influence on Pericles, 
xvni. 529. 

ANAXARCHUS, Greek philosopher, n. 2; 
i. 484. 



ANAXILAUS of Larissa, physician, n. 2. 
ANAXIMANDER, Greek philosopher, n. 

2; on astronomy, 1 1. 746. 
ANAXIMENES of Lampsacus, Greek 

rhetorician, II. 2; his Rhetoric, xx. 

of Miletus, Greek philosopher, n. 

2; on astronomy, n. 746. 
ANAXONIA, morphological forms, xvi. 

843- 
ANBIYANAMA, Persian books, xvni. 

657. 
ANCELOT, Jacques A. F. P., French 

dramatist, n. 2. 
ANCESTOR WORSHIP, xvn. 141; xxin. 

467. 

ANCHAR, tree, xxin. 859. 
ANCHINIA, genus of Tunicata, xxin. 

615. 

ANCHISES, in classical legend, n. 3. 
ANCHOR, ii. 3; xxi. 597. 
ANCHORAGE, n. 8. 
ANCHORETS, or Anchorites, hermits, I. 

10; xvi. 698. 
ANCHOVY, fish, n. 9; xn. 694; fishery, 

in Italy, xin. 455. 
ANCHYLOSIS, stiffness of joint, n. 9; 

xxn. 686. 
ANCIENT MARINER, Coleridge s poem, 

vi. 136. 
ANCILLON, Charles, French writer, n. 9. 

, David, French divine, n. 9. 

, Johann P. F., Prussian historian 

and statesman, 1 1. 9. 
ANCLAM, town, Prussia, n. 59. 
ANCONA, province, Italy, n. 9; town, 

n. 10. 

ANCUS MARCIUS, Roman king, ii. 10. 
ANCYLUS, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 661. 
ANCYRA (Angora), ancient town, Asia 

Minor, n. 45; battle of (r. 242 B.C.), 

XVII. 588. 
ANDA-EL-MlSK (Dizful), town, Persia, 

vn. 305. 
ANDALIYEH (Satali), town, Asia Minor, 

xxi. 317. 
ANDALUSIA, province, Spain, n. 10; 

xxn. 298. 

ANDALUSIAN DIALECT, xxn. 351. 
ANDALUSITE, mineral, xvi. 408. 
ANDAMAN ISLANDS, Bay of Bengal, n. 

ii, 685; xn. 815; birds of, in. 761. 
ANDEIRA, Joao Fernancles, Portuguese 

ambassador, xix. 543. 
ANDELYS, Les, town, France, n. 13. 
ANDENNE, town, Belgium, n. 13. 
ANDERIDA, in Kent, Storming of (491), 

vin. 270. 
ANDERNACH, town, Rhenish Prussia, 

n. 13. 
ANDERSEN, Hans Christian, Danish 

writer, vn. 93. 
ANDERSON, Adam, Scottish economist, 

ii. 14. 

, Alexander, mathematician, n. 14. 
, Andrew, his laws of draughts, vn. 



A N D A N G 



21 



ANDERSON, Sir Edmund, lord chief- 
justice of England, II. 14. 

, James, Scottish antiquary, II. 14. 

, James, LL.D., Scottish economist, 

ii. 14; xix. 374. 

, John, founder of Anderson s 

College, Glasgow, u. 14. 

, John, founder of School of Science 

at Penikese, U.S.A., I. 277. 

, John Henry, the Wizard of the 

North, XV. 208. 

, Robert, Scottish author and critic, 

n. 14. 

ANDERSON S COLLEGE, Glasgow, n. 14; 
x. 644. 

ANDERSSEN, Adolphus, German chess 
player, v. 602. 

ANDES, mountains, n. 15; i. 670; birds 
of, ill. 746; of Argentine Republic, II. 
488; of Bolivia, IV. 11; of Chili, v. 
616; of Ecuador, vil. 644; of Peru, 
xviil. 672. 

, Los, state, Venezuela, xxiv. 140. 

ANDESINE, mineral, xvi. 420. 

ANDEVO, class of society, Madagascar, 
xv. 171. 

ANDIANS, Caucasian tribe, xiv. 475. 

ANDIGENA, genus of birds, xxm. 477. 

ANDIJAN, town, Turkestan, ix. 85 ; 
xxm. 637. 

ANDIRA, genus of trees, x. 707. 

ANDKHUI, province, Afghanistan, I. 243.- 

ANDO, island, Norway, Xiv. 769. 

ANDOCIDES, Greek orator, n. 18. 

ANDOMA, river, Russia, xvu. 772. 

ANDORRE, or Andorra, state, between 
France and Spain, n. 18. 

ANDOVER, town, England, n. 18. 

, town, Massachusetts, U.S.A., n. 
1 8. 

ANDRADA, Antonio d , traveller in Tibet, 
xiv. 502. 

, Diego Payva d , Portuguese theo 
logian, ii. 19. 

E SYLVA, Bonifacio Jose d , Bra 



zilian naturalist and statesman, n. 19. 

ANDRE, Major John, soldier in American 
war, n. 19; xxm. 744, 787. 

ANDREA, Giovanni, Italian canonist, II. 
19. 

DELLA ROBBIA, Florentine sculp 
tor, xx. 590. 

DEL SARTO, Italian painter, xxi. 

3i5- 

ANDREW, Johann Valentin, Rosicrucian 
writer, XX. 852. 

, Laurentius, Swedish theologian, 

xxii. 754. 

ANDRE^EACE^E, family of mosses, xvn. 
73- 

ANDREANI, Andrea, Italian wood-en 
graver, n. 20. 

, Paul, his balloon, I. 190. 

ANDREAS, early English poem, vin. 
404. 

ANDREASBERG, town, Prussia, n. 20. 

ANDREEVA, town, Russia, ii. 20. 



ANDREEVKA, town, Russia, xxm. 83. 
ANDRENOVIAN ISLANDS, North Pacific, 

i. 479. 
ANDREOLI, Giorgio, majolica worker, 

xix. 626. 
ANDREOSSI, Antoine Frangois, Comte 

d , French officer, II. 20. 
ANDRES, Juan, Spanish author, n. 20. 
ANDREW, St, of Scripture, n. 20. 

I. -1 1 1., kings of Hungary, XII. 368. 

-, John Albion, governor of Massa 



chusetts, xxm. 773, 787. 
ANDREWES, Lancelot, English bishop, 

ii. 20; vni. 388. 
ANDREWS, James Pettit, English writer, 

II. 21. 

, Thomas, his researches on carbonic 

acid gas, xix. 244. 
ANDRIA, town, Italy, n. 21. 

, Terence s play, xxm. 187. 

ANDRIACUS, river, Asia Minor, xv. 94. 
ANDRLE, Gudmund, Icelandic writer, 

xxi. 368. 
ANDRIAMANITRA, in Malagasy religion, 

xv. 173. 
ANDRIANA, class of society, Madagascar, 

xv. 171. 
ANDRIEU, Bertrand, French engraver, 

II. 22. 

ANDRISCUS, the false Philip, ii. 22. 

ANDRO, island, Greece, n. 23. 

ANDROCLUS, Roman lion-tamer, n. 22. 

ANDROLEPSIA, Greek custom of re 
prisal, i. 1 60. 

ANDROMACHE, in Greek legend, ii. 22. 

, Euripides s play, vin. 676. 

ANDROMAQUE, Racine s drama, xx. 206. 

ANDROMEDA, in Greek legend, ii. 22; 
XVIIL 560. 

ANDROMEDS, meteors, xvi. in. 

ANDRONICUS I.-III., Byzantine em 
perors, ii. 22, 23; XVIIL 166. 

of Cyrrhus, Greek astronomer, II. 

23- 

of Rhodes, Peripatetic philosopher, 
n. 23; XVIIL 546; editor of Aris 
totle s writings, II. 512. 

ANDROS, island, Greece, n. 23. 

, Sir Edmund, governor, New York, 

xvn. 455. 
ANDROSCOGGIN, river, Maine, U.S.A., 

xv. 298. 

ANDROS ISLANDS, West Indies, in. 236. 
ANDROT, island, Laccadives, Indian 

Ocean, xiv. 183. 
ANDROTION, Demosthenes s speech 

against, vn. 69. 
ANDRUSZOWO, Treaty of (1667), xix. 

295. 

ANDUJAR, town, Spain, n. 23. 
ANDUZE, town, France, n. 24. 
ANECDOTA, of Procopius, xix. 791. 
ANECDOTE, n. 24. 
ANEGADA ISLAND, West Indies, xxiv. 

261. 
ANEITEUM, island, New Hebrides, xvn. 

395- 



ANEL, Dominique, French surgeon, n. 
24. 

ANELLO, Tommaso (Masaniello), Neapo 
litan revolutionist, xv. 606. 

ANEMOMETER, wind-measurer, n. 24; 
xx. 608. 

ANEMONE, flower, xn. 253. 

ANEMONES, Sea, i. 129; vi. 369; as 
parasites, XVIIL 261. 

ANENCEPHALOUS MONSTER, xvi. 763. 

ANEROID BAROMETER, in. 383. 

ANET, town, France, n. 26. 

ANETHUM, genus of plants, vn. 240. 

ANEURIN, Book of, Welsh poems, v. 317. 

ANEURISM, disease, u. 26; treatment of, 
xii. 388; xxii. 683. 

A NEW WAY TO PAY OLD DEBTS, Mas- 
singer s play, xv. 619. 

ANEYSA, town, Arabia, xvn. 773. 

AN FA (Casa Blanca), town, Morocco, xvi. 

831- 

ANGAD, Sikh ruler, India, xx. 1 10. 
ANGAKOK or Angekok, Eskimo wizard, 

VIL 63; VIIL 546. 
ANGARA, rivers, Siberia, ii. 26; xxii. 5; 

xxm. 510; xxiv. 742. 
ANGARIA, ancient Persian and Roman 

postal system, n. 26. 
ANGASTON, town, South Australia, xxii. 

284. 
ANGEKOK, or Angakok, Eskimo wizard, 

vii. 63; VIIL 546. 
ANGEL, of Scripture, n. 26, 183. 

, gold coin, II. 28. 

ANGEL-FISH, xn. 686. 
ANGELICA, genus of plants, n. 28. 
ANGELIC BRETHREN, German sect, x. 

588. 
ANGELICO, Fra, Italian painter, ix. 148, 

772. 
ANGELIQUE DE SAINTE MAGDELEINE, 

Marie, abbess of Port- Royal, n. 62 r ; 

xix. 533. 
ANGELIQUE DE SAINT JEAN, abbess of 

Port-Royal, n. 620. 
ANGELN, peninsula, Schleswig-Holstein, 

xxi. 415. 
ANGELO, Michel (Michelangelo), xvi. 

229. 
ANGELUS, Isaac II., Byzantine emperor, 

xni. 374. 

SILESIUS, German poet, II. 28. 

ANGER, suburb, Passau, Bavaria, XVIIL 

o 341- 

ANGERMANN, river, Sweden, n. 29; 
xxii. 736. 

ANGERMUNDE, town, Prussia, ii. 29. 

ANGERS, town, France, II. 29; univer 
sity of, xxm. 839, 851. 

ANGERSTEIN, John Julius, patron of 
fine arts, n. 29. 

ANGHIARI, town, Italy, n. 29. 

, Baldaccio d , Florentine soldier, 

xv. 784. 

ANGILBERT, St, mediaeval poet, ii. 29. 

ANGINA PECTORIS, disease, n. 29; XL 
554- 



22 



A N G A N N 



ANGIOLELLO, Giovan Maria, Italian 

traveller, x. 179. 
ANGIOLIERI, Cecco, Italian poet, xin. 

501. 
ANGIOSPERM;E, class of plants, xxiv. 

131; fertilization in, XX. 4-28. 
ANGKOR, Euins of, Siam, iv. 726; xxi. 

853- 
ANGLE, in geometry, n. 29 ; x. 377 ; 

magnitude and measurement of, XV. 

667; xxm. 563; measurement of, in 

surveying, xxn. 698, 703. 

, of a crystal, XVI. 347, 352. 

ANGLES, Teutonic tribe, II. 30; their set 
tlement in England, vill. 268,270; XXI. 

739; in Northumberland, xvil. 568. 
ANGLESEA, or Anglesey, county, Wales, 

II. 30; population and representation, 

xxm. 727. 

, Earl of (Annesley), n. 30. 

ANGLESEY, Marquis of (Paget), n. 30. 
ANGLESITE, lead ore, xiv. 375; xvi. 

400. 
ANGLING, n. 32; Izaak Walton on, 

xxiv. 342. 

ANGLO-SAXON ALPHABET, i. 612. 
ANGLO-SAXON LANGUAGE, vni. 391, 

392; dictionaries of, vn. 187. 
ANGLO-SAXON LITERATURE, vm. 403. 
ANGLO-SAXONS, Weapons of the, n. 555. 
ANGOCHE, district, East Africa, XVIL 7. 
ANGOLA, country, West Africa, II. 45 ; 

I. 269; xxiv. 828. 

ANGON, ancient Prankish dart, 1 1. 555. 
ANGORA, province, Turkey in Asia, 

xxm. 653. 
, town, Turkey in Asia, II. 45 ; battle 

of (1402), xxm. 641. 
GOAT, n. 710; x. 708; hair of 

(mohair), xvi. 544. 

ANGORNO, town, Central Africa, n. 45. 
ANGOSCIOLA, Sophonisba, Italian pain 
ter, II. 47. 

ANGOSTURA, town, Venezuela, n. 45. 
ANGOULEME, town, France, n. 45. 
, Charles de Valois, duke of, II. 46; 

IX. 619. 
ANGOUMOIS, old province, France, n. 

46. 

ANGOY, district, West Africa, Xiv. 742. 
ANGRA, town, Azores, n. 46; in. 171. 

PEQUENA, German settlement, 

South Africa, xvn. 168. 
ANGRI, town, Italy, n. 46. 
ANGSTROM, Anders J., on the spectrum 

of the aurora, in. 94; on thermal 

conductivity, XI. 578. 
ANGUIER, Frangois and Michel, French 

sculptors, II. 46. 
ANGUILLA, genus of fishes, vn. 692. 

, island, British West Indies, II. 46. 

ANGUILLULA TRITICI, wheat pest, xvn. 

325; xxiv. 536. 
ANGUILLULID/E, family of worms, xvn. 

325- 

ANGUINEUM, Druidic charm, vn. 477. 
ANGULAR VELOCITY, xv. 682. 



ANGUS (Forfar, q.v.), county, Scotland, 

ix. 410. 

, Earl of (Bell the Cat), XXL 495. 
, Earl of, husband of Margaret 

Tudor, XXI. 497. 
MACFERGUS, Pictish king, xxi. 

476. 
ANGUSSOLA, Sophonisba, Italian portrait 

painter, 1 1. 47. 

ANHALT, duchy, Germany, n. 47. 
ANHER, Egyptian divinity, vn. 718. 
ANHIMA, bird, xxi. 552. 
ANHYDRIDES, in chemistry, v. 571. 
ANHYDRITE, mineral, xvi. 400; xix. 

588. 

ANHYDROSULPHURIC ACID, v. 507. 
ANI, ruined town, Turkey in Asia, n. 72. 

, bird, VI. 687. 
ANIANUS, Breviary of, iv. 262. 
ANICETUS, bishop of Rome, xix. 416, 

488. 

, officer of Nero, XVIL 349. 

ANICHINI, Luigi, Italian engraver, n. 47. 
ANICIUM (Le Puy), ancient town, France, 

xx. 119. 

ANIE, mountain, France, xx. 126. 
ANIELLO, Tommaso (Masaniello), Nea 
politan revolutionist, XV. 606. 
ANIEN (Anio), river, Italy, n. 57. 
ANILINE, in chemistry, n. 47; xii. 844. 
BLACK, iv. 690; from vanadium, 

xxiv. 54. 

- DYES, v. 577; vn. 572. 
ANIMALCULISTS, versus Ovists, xxiv. 

815. 

ANIMAL HISTOLOGY, xn. 4. 
ANIMAL KINGDOM, n. 49; xxiv. 801; 

Oken s classification of. xvn. 750; 

Lankester s, xxiv. 812. 
ANIMAL MAGNETISM, xv. 277. 
ANIMAL MEDICINE, xxiv. 197. 
ANIMAL METAMORPHOSES, Myths of, 

xv. 90. 

ANIMAL MORPHOLOGY, xvi. 841. 
ANIMAL MOUNDS, of Wisconsin, xxiv. 

618. 

ANIMAL PARASITISM, xvin. 258. 
ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY, xix. 10. 
ANIMALS, n. 49; xxiv. 801; breeds of, 

iv. 244; geographical distribution of, 

vn. 267; X. 212; distribution of, in 

time, VII. 281; geological action of, x. 

289, 290; longevity in, Xiv. 857; dis 
tinction between them and plants, XIX. 

830; as totems, xxm. 468. 
ANIMAL SPEECH, xvin. 769. 
ANIMAL SPIRITS, xix. 10. 
ANIMAL SUBSTANCES, Baths of, in. 439. 
ANIMAL WORSHIP, xvn. 144, 151. 
AN I ME, resinous gum, n. 55. 
ANIMISM, in anthropology, n. 55; xv. 

91, 2015; xx. 367; of the Buddhists, 

xiv. 228; Stahl s theory of, XV. 812. 
ANIMUCCIA, Giovanni, Italian musical 

composer, n. 57; xvn. 85; xvin. 179. 
ANIO, river, Italy, n. 57. 
NOVUS, ancient aqueduct, II. 220. 



ANISE, herb, n. 57; xn. 289. 
ANISEIA, desert plant, xvin. 670. 
ANISOMETROPIA, defect of vision, xxn. 

373- 

ANISOPLEURA, subclass of Mollusca, 
xvi. 644. 

ANJAR, town and district, India, n. 58. 

ANJENGO, town, India, n. 58. 

ANJER, town, Java, 11. 58. 

ANJOU, old province, France, n. 58; 
connexion of counts and dukes of, 
with the Capet family, v. 55; their 
rule in Naples, xvn. 191; their rela 
tions with Normandy, XVIL 545. 

, Geoffrey of (Plantagenet), XIX. 

175- 

, Margaret of, wife of Henry VI. 

of England, XV. 536. 
-, Rene, duke of, n. 58. 



ANKA, fabulous bird, xvin. 81 r. 
ANKARATRA, mountains, Madagascar, 

xv. 1 68. 
ANKARSTROM, Johan Jakob, Swedish 

regicide, II. 59. 

ANKERITE, mineral, xvi. 397. 
ANKLAM, town, Prussia, n. 59. 
ANKLE, Anatomy of the, I. 830. 

-JOINT, Amputation of, XXII. 678; 

muscles of, I. 841. 
ANKOBAR, town, Abyssinia, n. 59. 
ANKYLOSIS, stiffness of joint, n. 9. 
ANLACE, weapon, xxn. 802. 
ANN, or Annat, in Scots law, n. 62. 
ANNA, town, Turkey in Asia, n. 59. 
, Baldasarre d , Venetian painter, 

n. 60. 

CARLOVNA, Russian regent, n. 59. 

COMNENA, princess and authoress, 

II. 59; her History of Alexius, iv. 613. 
IVANOVNA, empress of Russia, 1 1. 



60; xxi. 

ANNABA (Bone), town, Algeria, iv. 31. 
ANNABERG, town, Saxony, n. 60. 
ANNABERGITE, mineral, xvi. 404. 
ANNABONA, island, West Africa, n. 72. 
ANNALES, Stow s chronicle of England, 

xxn. 579. 
ANNALS, chronological record, 1 1. 60. 

, Tabari s, Arabic history, xxm. 4. 

, Tacitus s work, xxm. 20. 
-, Spring and Autumn, Confucius * 



work, v. 66 r. 
OF THE PARISH, Gait s novel, x. 



47- 

ANNAM (Anam), kingdom, Asia, I. 798. 
ANNAMABOE, town, Gold Coast, Africa, 

ii. 61. 

ANNAMESE DICTIONARY, vn. 182. 
ANNAN, town, Scotland, II. 61; river, 

n. 61; vn. 526. 
ANNAPOLIS, town, Maryland, U.S.A., 

n. 61; xv. 603; observatory at, xvn. 

715- 
, town, Nova Scotia, n. 61; xvn. 

603; river, xvn. 60 1. 
ANN ARBOR, town, Michigan, U.S.A., 
n. 61; observatory at, xvn. 715. 



A N N A N T 



23 



ANNAT, or Ann, in Scots law, n. 62. 
ANNATES, ecclesiastical tax, II. 61. 
ANNATTO (Arnotto), dyestuff, n. 627. 
ANNE, <|ueen of England, II. 62; vin. 

353; her favom- f or Harley, xvm. 100. 

of Austria, wife of Louis XIII. of 

France, IX. 567, 571, 574. 
of Beaujeu, regent of France, v. 

411; ix. 553. 
of Bohemia, wife of Richard II. 

of England, xx. 541. 
of Brittany, wife of Charles VIII. 

of France, v. 411; ix. 554; at Nantes, 

xvn. 173. 
of Cleves, wife of Henry VIII. of 

England, vin. 336; XI. 665. 
of Denmark, wife of James VI. of 

Scotland, xxi. 508. 

BOLEYN, wife of Henry VIII. of 



England, IV. 4; vin. 334; XI. 664. 

ANNEALING, in glass and metal 

manufacture, II. 63 : of steel, xill. 

352. 
ANNECY, town, France, II. 64 ; XXI. 

332; lake, xiv. 218; xxi. 332. 
ANNELIDA, class of animals, n. 65. 
ANNERODITE, mineral, xvi. 426. 
ANNESLEY, Arthur, earl of Anglesea, 

n. 30. 

BAY, Red Sea, xx. 316. 

ANNEX, Peter, writer on Deism, VII. 35. 
ANNEXATION, of territory, law of, xm. 

192. 
ANNI, ruined town, Turkey in Asia, II. 

72. 
ANNIHILATION, in eschatology, vin. 

538. 

ANNIVITE, mineral, xvi. 395. 
ANNO, archbishop of Cologne, x. 487. 

BOM, island, West Africa, II. 72. 

ANNONAY, town, France, n. 72. 
ANNUALS, in horticulture, xn. 248. 
ANNUITIES, n. 72; post office, xix. 

574; repayment of loans by, xvil. 

244; values of, in life assurance, xm. 

172. 

, Consolidated, British, vi. 293. 

ANNUNCIATION, Feast of the, n. 90 ; 

xv. 592. 

ANNWEILER, town, Bavaria, n. 147. 
ANODON, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 686, 

688, 690. 

CYGNEUS, mussel, xvn. no. 

ANODYNE, in medicine, n. 90; xvil. 

230. 

ANOINTING, n. 90; vin. 813. 
ANOLIS, genus of lizards, xiv. 735. 
ANOMALURUS, species of rodent mam 
mals, xv. 417; xxii. 107. 
ANOMIA, former name for Brachiopoda, 

iv. 188. 

ANOMITE, mineral, xvi. 413. 
ANOMODONTIA, order^of reptiles, xx. 

442. 
ANOMCEANISM, species of Arianism, 

vni. 667. 
ANONA, genus of plants, vi. 729. 



ANONYMOUS BOOKS, in. 657. 

ANOPLA, division of nemertine worms, 
XVIL 326. 

ANOPLOTHERIUM, fossil ungulate mam 
mal, xv. 430. 

ANOPLURA, group of insects, xm. 153; 
xv. 24. 

ANORTHIC SYSTEM, of crystals, xvi. 
361. 

ANORTHITE, mineral, xvi. 419. 

ANOUKIS, Egyptian goddess, II. 90. 

ANGUS, genus of birds, XVIL 531. 

ANQUETIL, Louis Pierre, French 
historian, II. 90. 

DU PERRON, Abraham Hyacinthe, 



French Orientalist, II. 90; XXIV. 775. 
AN RIABHACHAN, mountain, Scotland, 

xx. 854. 

ANSAIRI HILLS, Syria, xxii. 821. 
ANSAN, ancient province, Persia, xm. 

395- 
ANSARI, Abdallah, Persian pantheistic 

writer, xvm. 658. 
ANSBACH, town, Bavaria, n. 91. 
ANSELM, archbishop of Canterbury, n. 

91; vni. 303, 372; xvn. 543, 548; 

xxi. 422; on the idea of God, XXIII. 

241; his dispute with William II., 

xxiv. 578; his contests with Henry I., 

XL 656. 

of Laon, theologian, 1 1. 93. 
ANSER, genus of birds, x. 777; xix. 

647. 

ANSGARIUS, or Anskar, St, first arch 
bishop of Hamburg, XL 408; his mis 
sionary labours in Denmark, vu. 84; 
in Sweden, xvi. 708; xxii. 745. 

ANSHAN, ancient town, Persia, xvm. 
565. 

ANSLO, Reyer, Dutch poet, xn. 95. 

ANSON, Lord, British navigator, n. 93; 
x. 189. 

ISLANDS, Micronesia, xvi. 256. 
ANSPACH (Ansbach), town, Bavaria, II. 

91. 
ANSTER FAIR, Tennant s poem, xxiu. 

i75- 
ANSTEY, Christopher, English poet, II. 

93- 
ANSTRUTHER-EASTER, town, Scotland, 

n. 94. 

ANSTRUTHER-WESTER, town, Scot 
land, ii. 94. 
ANSUINO of Forli, Italian painter, xv. 

501. 

ANSWER, in law, xix. 218. 
ANT, insect, n. 94; xn. 577; xm. 148; 

honey -bearing, xil. 136; white, I. 

260; XIII. 146, 152. 
ANT^E, in architecture, n. 459. 
ANTAEUS, in Greek mythology, n. 100; 

XIX. 559. 

ANTAKIE (Antioch), town, Syria, II. 132. 
ANTALCIDAS, Spartan politician, n. 100; 

peace of (387 B.C.), xvm. 578; xxii. 

370. 
ANTALO, town, Abyssinia, n. 100. 



ANTANANARIVO, town, Madagascar, xv. 

175- 

ANTAR, Arabian romance, n. 100, 713. 
ANTARA, or Antar, Arabian warrior and 

poet, n. 100; xvi. 537. 
ANTARCTIC EXPLORATIONS, vu. 530; 

x. 195; xix. 329. 
ANTARCTIC OCEAN, n. 100. 
ANTEATER, families of mammals, xv. 

385, 388, 389; their relation to the 

megatherium, xv. 830; porcupine, 

vu. 628; scaly, xv. 388; xvm. 210. 
ANTECHINOMYS, genus of marsupial 

mammals, XV. 380; XXII. 285. 
ANTELAMI, Benedetto, Italian sculptor, 

xxi. 567. 

ANTELOPE, group of ungulate mam 
mals, ii. 100; xv. 431; chamois, v. 

384; eland, vu. 796; gemsbok, x. 141; 

gnu, x. 705; harte-beest, XL 496; 

nylghau, XVIL 688; Indian species, 

XII. 742. 
ANTEMN^E, ancient town, Italy, ii. 102; 

xiv. 344. 
ANTENNAE, of insects, xm. 143; in ants, 

ii. 96. 

ANTENOR, Greek sculptor, II. 102. 
, Trojan elder, ii. 102. 



ANTEQUERA, town, Spain, ii. 102. 
ANTHEM, musical composition, u. 102; 

XVIL 82. 
ANTHEMIUS, emperor of the West, xiv. 

452. 

, Greek mathematician, II. 103. 
ANTHER, of plants, i v. 1 36. 
ANTHER^A, genus of silkworms, xxii. 

60. 
ANTHERIDIA, sexual organs of plants, iv. 

140; ix. 101, 105; XVIL 65; xx. 42,5. 
ANTHESTERIA, Athenian festival, n. 

103. 

ANT-HILLS, n. 96. 
ANTHOCEROTE^E, family of liverworts, 

xvn. 70. 

ANTHOLOGY, n. 103. 
ANTHON, Charles, American philologist, 

ii. 106. 
ANTHONY, or Antony, St, Egyptian 

hermit, II. 106; I. 10; xvi. 699. 

, St, of Padua, xvm. 131. 
ANTHOPHYLLITE, mineral, xvi. 417. 
ANTHOXANTHIN, colouring matter in 

plants, xix. 53. 

ANTHOZOA, group of animals, XII. 549. 
ANTHRAC^EMIA, disease, xxiv. 663. 
ANTHRACENE, in chemistry, xvm. 238; 

xxm. 58. 
ANTHRACITE, kind of coal, ii. 106; vi. 

45; xvi. 429; in Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 

XVIII. 501; use of, for smoke abate 
ment, xxii. 182. 

ANTHRACNOSE, vine disease, xxiv. 240. 
ANTHRACONITE, mineral, xv. 528; xvi, 

397- 

ANTHRAX, animal disease, xvil. 58; 
xxi. 400; in wool-workers, xxiv. 
663. 



24 



A N T A N U 



ANTHROPINI, human family, in zoo 
logy, ii. 1 08. 

ANTHROPOLOGY, n. 107; in relation 
to evolution, vm. 766; to language, 
xvin. 765; to mythology, xvn. 143; 
Prichard s contributions to, xix. 723 ; 
anthropological societies, xxn. 226. 

ANTHROPOMORPHISM, n. 123, 190; 
Celsus on, v. 296. See also article 
Theism, xxni. 234. 

ANTHROPOPHAGY, cannibalism, iv. 807. 

ANTHROPOTOMY, human anatomy, i. 

799- 

ANTHUS, genus of birds, xix. 112. 
ANTIARIS, genus of trees, xxni. 859. 
ANTIBES, town, France, n. 124. 
ANTIBRACHIUM, the fore-arm, i. 826; of 

mammals, XV. 358. 

ANTIBURGHERS, Scottish religious de 
nomination, x. 572; xv. 132; xxni. 

728. 
ANTICHINOMYS, genus of marsupial 

mammals, xxn. 285. 
ANTICHRIST, of Scripture, n. 124; xx. 

499; xxni. 298. 

ANTICLIMAX, in rhetoric, n. 127. 
ANTICLINAL FOLDS, in geology, x. 300. 
ANTI-CORN-LAW LEAGUE, vi. 84. 
ANTICOSTI, island, Canada, n. 127; xx. 

165. 
ANTICYCLONES, in meteorology, in. 34; 

vi. 7; xvi. 154. 
ANTICYRA, three ancient towns, Greece, 

n. 127. 

ANTIDOTES, to poisons, xix. 276. 
ANTIETAM, U.S.A., Battle of (1862), n. 

127; xxni. 777. 
ANTIGONE, daughter of (Edipus, n. 

127. 

, wife of Peleus, II. 127. 

, Sophocles s drama, xxn. 273. 

, island, Sea of Marmora, Xix. 742. 

ANTIGONUS CYCLOPS, king of Asia, n. 

127; xv. 142; xvin. 585. 
ANTIGONUS GONATAS, king of Mace 
donia, ii. 128; xv. 142. 
ANTIGORITE, mineral, xvi. 414. 
ANTIGUA, island, West Indies, n. 128; 

xxiv. 510. 
ANTILEGOMENA, disputed books of 

Scripture, II. 128; ill. 645. 
ANTILIBANUS, mountain, Syria, Xiv. 

392; xxni. 654. 
ANTILLES, islands, West Indies, II. 128; 

xxiv. 509; birds of, ill. 748; lost birds 

of, in. 734. 
ANTILOGARITHMS, Tables of, xiv. 776; 

XXIII. 12. 

ANTIMACHUS, Greek poet, n. 129; xn. 

115. 

ANTIMILO, island, Greece, xv. 841. 
ANTIMONY, chemical element, ii. 129; 

v. 540; xvi. 380; ores of, xvi. 58. 
ANTINOMIANS, ANTINOMIANISM, n. 

129; i. 290; xi. 737. 
ANTINOMY, in philosophy, ii. 130. 
ANTINOOPOLIS, town, Egypt, vn. 775. 



ANTINOUS, Hadrian s page, II. 130. 
ANTIOCH, ancient town, Pisidia, Asia 

Minor, II. 133; XIX. 130. 
, ancient town, Syria, II. 130; XXII. 

822; St Paul s connexion with, xvin. 

419; aqueduct at, 1 1. 221; coins of, 

xvn. 649; siege of, by the crusaders, 

vi. 625. 

, Cresarean era of, v. 715. 

, Mundane era of, v. 714. 



ANTIOCHE, ancient town, Isle of Re, 

France, xx. 302. 
ANTIOCHIA MARGIANA, ancient Greek 

town, Merv, xvi. 42, 44. 
ANTIOCHUS I., Soter, king of Syria, n. 

133; xvm. 587. 

II., Theos, n. 133; XVIII. 587. 
III., Magnus, n. 133; xin. 420; 

xvm. 588; his war with Rome, xx. 

752. 

IV., Epiphanes, II. 133; xvm. 



589; desecration of Jewish holy places 
by, xni. 421. 

- V., Eupator, xvin. 590. 

- VII., xvm. 594. 
VIII, ii. 133. 

of Ascalon, Greek philosopher, II. 



133; his influence on Varro, xxiv. 

92. 

ANTIOPE, mother of Amphion, n. 133. 
, wife of Theseus, n. 133; xxm. 

294. 

ANTIOQUIA, state, Colombia, vi. 154. 
ANTIPAROS, island, Greece, ii. 133. 
ANTIPATER, father of Herod the Great, 

xi. 754; xin. 424. 
, Macedonian general and regent, n. 

134; xv. 142; xvin. 585. 
-, Stoic philosopher, XXI I. 570. 



ANTIPAXO, one of the Ionian Islands, 

Greece, xvin. 440. 

ANTIPHATES, mythic giant, xiv. 200. 
ANTIPHILUS, ancient painter, n. 134. 
ANTIPHON, Athenian orator, n. 134; 

xx. 509; xxm. 323. 
ANTIPHONARY, liturgical service book, 

n. 134; xiv. 710; xvi. 508. 
ANTIPHONY, in music, n. 134; xvn. 79. 
ANTIPODES, ii. 134. 
ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES, n. 135; xxn. 

227. 

ANTIQUE, remains of ancient art, ii. 134. 
ANTIQUITIES, ii. 134, 333; of America, 

I. 692; classical, n. 344. 
ANTIQUITY OF MAN, n. 115. 
ANTIROBIDO, island, Sea of Marmora, 

xix. 742. 
ANTIRRHINUM, garden plant, xn. 249, 

253- 
ANTISANA, mountain, Ecuador, vn. 

644. 
ANTISEPTICS, ii. 135; as disinfectants, 

VII. 258; used for preserving food, 

Xix. 708; in surgery, XXII. 678. 
ANTI-SLAVERY MOVEMENT, xxn. 141. 
ANTISOZZO, anti-Socinian work by 

Alsop, I. 637. 



ANTISSA, town, Lesbos, Asia Minor, 

xiv. 474. 
ANTISTHENES, Greek philosopher, n. 

136; vi. 745; his logic, xiv. 784. 
ANTITHEISM, xxni. 234. 
ANTITHESIS, in rhetoric, n. 138. 
ANTITHETA, Bacon s, xx. 515. 
ANTITRINITARIANISM, xxni. 244, 725. 
ANTITYPE, theological term, n. 138. 
ANTIUM, ancient town, Italy, ii. 138. 
ANTIVARI, town, Montenegro, n. 138; 

xvi. 781. 

ANTLERS, of deer, vn. 23; xv. 431. 
ANT-LION, insect, v. 363; xin. 152; 

allegorical animal, Xix. 6. 
ANTONELLO DA MESSINA, Italian 

painter, II. 138; XXI. 436, 442. 
ANTONGIL BAY, Madagascar, xv. 168. 
ANTONIA, tower, Jerusalem, xin. 638; 

xxni. 168. 
ANTONIDES, Hans (Vander Goes), Dutch 

poet, n. 138; xn. 95. 
ANTONINI ITINERARIUM, road book, 

ii. 139. 

ANTONINUS, Marcus Aurelius, in. 86. 
, Wall of, Scotland, n. 139; IV. 353; 



xxi. 471; xxn. 554. 
AND FAUSTINA, Temple of, n. 416; 

xx. 820. 
LIBERALIS, Greek grammarian, n. 

139- 
PlUS, Titus Aurelius, Roman 

emperor, n. 139; in. 87. 
ANTONIO, Portuguese pretender, xix. 

547- 

, Nicolao, Spanish bibliographer, II. 

140. 

DA TEMPO, Italian writer, xin. 501. 

ANTONIOPOLIS, town, Mesopotamia, xvi. 
48. 

ANTONIUS, the Rhetorician, Syriac 
writer, xxn. 846. 

, Marcus, Roman orator, n. 140. 

, Marcus (Mark Antony), Roman 

triumvir, II. 140; in. 79; xx. 768; 
his relations with Cleopatra, v. 826. 

ANTONOMASIA, in rhetoric, n. 141. 

ANTONY (Anthony), St, II. 106; I. 10; 
xvi. 699; xvin. 131. 
, king of Saxony, XXI. 355. 

ANTOZONE, in chemistry, xvin. 1 13. 

ANTRIM, county, Ireland, n. 142; popu 
lation and representation, XXIII. 727; 
town, Ii. 144. 

ANT-SPIDER, ii. 299. 

ANT-THRUSH, bird, xix. 149. 

ANTWERP, province, Belgium, n. 144. 

, town, Belgium, n. 144; bombard 
ment of (1830), in. 528; fortifications 
of, IX. 449; details of siege of (1832), 
ix. 458; xn. 83; pictures in, xxi. 43, 
446. 

ANTYLLUS, Roman surgeon, xxn. 675. 

ANUBIS, Egyptian divinity, II. 146; VIL 
325, 718. 

ANUND, Swedish king, xxn. 745. 

ANUP, Egyptian divinity, vn. 718. 



A N U A P 



25 



ANURA, order of Amphibia, I. 751. 
ANUS, Anatomy of the, vn. 228 ; piles, 

XI. 366. 
ANVERS (Antwerp, q.v.), town, Belgium, 

II. 144. 

ANVIL, for smith work, II. 147; XI. 426. 
ANWARI, Persian poet, 1 1. 147; xvm. 658. 
ANWEILER, town, Bavaria, n. 147. 
ANXENOR, Greek sculptor, n. 147. 
ANXIA (Lanciano), ancient town, Italy, 

xiv. 259. 
ANXUR (Terracina), ancient town, Italy, 

XXlll. 190. 

ANYER, town, Java, xm. 605. 
ANZIN, town, France, n. 147; XVH. 535. 
ANZITENE, ancient district, Asia, xiv. 

159. 

AOIDOI, ancient Greek singers, XVIII. 51. 
AONYX, genus of otters, xvm. 69. 
AORSI, or Aorses, Asiatic people, XVI. 

813; xvm. 594. 

AORTA, in anatomy, I. 801, 902. 
AOSTA, town, Italy, n. 147. 
AOUDAD, goat-like sheep, xxi. 785. 
AOULIAS, Nepalese race, xvn. 341. 
APACHES, American Indian tribe, XII. 

832- 

APAMEA (Birejik), ancient town, Meso 
potamia, n. 147; xvi. 48. 
ancient town, Phrygia, II. 147; 

xvm. 852. 
, ancient town, Syria, II. 147; XXI I. 

823; coins of, xvn. 649. 
APANAGE, feudal term, n. 147. 
APANAGES, Period of the, in Russia, 

xxi. 89. 
APANOMERIA, town, Thera island, 

Greece, xxiii. 280. 
APAR, kind of armadillo, XV. 387. 
APATELITE, mineral, xvi. 401. 
APATIN, town, Hungary, II. 147. 
APATITE, mineral, x. 228; xvi. 407; 

xvm. 818; polarity of, xix. 313. 
APATURIA, Greek festival, II. 147. 
APAUARCTICENE, Parthian kingdom, 

xvm. 592. 
APE, zoological group, II. 148; XV. 444; 

man s relation to the, 1 1. 107 ; organs 

of touch in, xxiii. 479; in Spain, 

XXII. 297; South American forms, I. 

68 1 ; Sumatran forms, xxn. 640. 
APELDOORN, town, Netherlands, n. 169. 
APELLAS, Greek sculptor, n. 169. 
APELLES, Greek painter, n. 169, 363; 

xvn. 41; xvm. 853. 
APELLON, form of name Apollo, II. 185. 
APENNINES, mountains, Italy, n. 169; 

xm. 434, 437; crossed by Via Flaminia, 

IX. 289. 

APENRADE, town, Prussia, n. 170. 
APHANIPTERA, group of insects, vn. 

256; xm. 150. 
APHASIA, disease, n. 171. 
APHEK, town, Phoenicia, Xix. 91. 
APHID.E, group of insects, xm. 146, 153. 
APHIS GRANARIA, wheat pest, xxiv. 

535- 



APHONIA, nervous disease, xxiii. 320. 
APHORISM, n. 171. 
APHRAATES, Syriac writer, xxn. 827. 
APHRITE, mineral, xvi. 397. 
APHRODITE, Greek goddess (the Eoman 

Venus), II. 171; xvm. 295; the Egyp 
tian Athor, III. 13; Praxiteles s statue 

of, xvm. 853; temple of, at Paphos, 

Cyprus, xvm. 228. 

, mineral, XVI. 414. 

AND CUPIDS, statuette, xxiii. 191. 
URANIA, Phoenician goddess, xvm. 

756. 
APHROTHORACA, order of Protozoa, xix. 

845. 
APHTHA, Epizootic, cattle disease, xvn. 

60. 
APHTHARTODOCETISM, ancient heresy, 

xm. 796. 
APHTHONGIA, defect of speech, xxn. 

448. 
APHTHONIUS, Greek rhetorician, XX. 

514; his fables, vin. 838. 
APIA, town, Navigators Islands, Pacific, 

xvn. 279. 
APIARIES, in. 499. 
APICIUS, Roman epicures, n. 173. 
APICULTURE, bee-keeping, in. 499; xii. 

138. 

APION, Greek grammarian, n. 173. 
APIS, Egyptian deity, II. 173; vn. 717. 
APLANATIC LENSES, xvi. 260; xxni. 

144. 
APLANOGAMETES, cells in plants, xx. 

425. 
APLYSIA, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 656, 

657. 

APNCEA, Signs of, in drowning, vn. 474. 
APO, mountain, Philippine Islands, 

xvin. 748. 
APOCALYPSE, book of Scripture, n. 174; 

xx. 496. 
APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE, n. 174; 

xvi. 315. 
APOCRYPHA, of the Old Testament, n. 

180; Syriac version, xxn. 824, 826; 

book of Baruch, in. 404; Esdras, vin. 

541; Judith, xm. 765; Maccabees, 

xv. 131; Tobit, xxni. 428. 
APODICTIC REASONING, in logic, xiv. 

785, 786. 
APOGAMY, in plant reproduction, xx. 

424. 
APOLDA, town, Germany, n. 184; xxi. 

349- 
APOLLINARIS, Sulpicius, grammarian 

of Carthage, n. 185. 

MINERAL WATER, xxiv. 399. 

SlDONIUS, early Christian writer, 



II. 184. 
APOLLINOPOLIS MAGNA (Edfu), town, 

Egypt, vii. 783; temple at, n. 389. 
APOLLO, Greek god, n. 185; vn. 51; his 

relation to Latona, Xiv. 345; oracle of, 

xvn. 808; Belvidere statue of, n. 186; 

temple of, at Delphi, vn. 52; temples 

of, at Thebes, xxni. 230. 



APOLLO AND DAPHNE, Max Miiller s 

theory of, xvn. 138. 
APOLLO EPICURIUS, temple of, Bassoe, 

Greece, xvin. 735. 
APOLLODORUS, Roman architect, n. 186. 

, Athenian grammarian, n. 186. 

, Greek painter, 1 1. 186. 

APOLLONIA, ancient town, Cyrenaica, 

n. 186; xxiii. 575. 

, ancient town, Illyria, II. 186. 

, ancient town, Thrace, n. 186. 

, town, Siphanto, Greek Archipelago, 

xxn. 95. 
, lake, Asia Minor, II. 709; xvn. 



APOLLONIATIS, Parthian kingdom, 

xvin. 592. 
APOLLONIUS, Alexandrian grammarian, 

n. 187. 
, Dyscolus, grammarian, n. 187. 

, Molo, Greek rhetorician, II. 187. 

, Pergseus, Greek geometrician, u. 

187; his application of geometry to 

astronomy, n. 749; on conic sections, 

vi. 273. 
-, Rhodius, Greek epic poet, II. 187; 



his Argonautica, I. 499. 

of Tralles, sculptor, II. 187. 



, Tyanseus, philosopher and magi 
cian, n. 188; xxiii. 420; his life, by 

Philostratus, xvin. 796. 

OF TYRE, Greek romance, xx. 635. 

APOLLOS, of Scripture, II. 189. 
APOLOGETICS, in theology, n. 189; 

dogmatic, vn. 339; xxni. 274; 

Origen s work on, xvn. 841. 
APOLOGETICUS, Tertullian s work, 

xxni. 197. 

APOLOGIA, of Plato, ix. 198. 
APOLOGUE, fable, n. 193; vin. 837. 
APOLOGY, Justin Martyr s, xin. 790. 
APOMORPHIA, emetic, xvn. 793. 
APOPHTHEGM, 11. 193; i. 783. 
APOPHYLLITE, mineral, xvi. 421. 
APOPLEXY, disease, n. 193; from heat, 

xxn. 666. 
APOSPORY, in plant reproduction, xx. 

424. 
APOSTASY, n. 194; legal aspects of, XL 

733. 

A POSTERIORI, in philosophy, n. 214. 
APOSTLE, of Scripture, 1 1. 194; of the 

Gentiles (Paul), xvin. 416; of Rome 

(Philip Neri), xvn. 346. 
APOSTLES, their relation to the Christian 

church, v. 700. 

, Acts of the, I. 123. 

APOSTLES CREED, n. 194; vi. 561. 
APOSTOLIC, designation of churches, n. 

194. 

BISHOP, title of the pope, xix. 



498. 
BRETHREN, Christian sects, n. 198; 

xx. 322. 

CANONS, 11. 194; v. 16. 

CONSTITUTIONS, n. 195, 196; v. 



1 6. 



XXV. 4 



26 



A P O A K A 



APOSTOLIC FATHERS, n. 195. 
APOSTOLICI, Christian sects, n. 198. 

, monks, xvi. 711. 

APOSTOLIC VISIT, congregation of the 

Church of Rome, XX. 629. 
APOSTOLIUS, Michael, Greek theologian, 

II. 198. 

APOTACTICI, Christian sect, II. 198. 
APOTHECARY, n. 198; xvm. 730. 
APOTHECIA, female organs, in lichens, 

xiv. 554. 

APOTHEOSIS, deification, n. 199; de 
manded by Alexander the Great, I. 

484; xv. 141. 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS, North 

America, II. 200; I. 678; xvn. 396; 

XXIII. 792. 

APPALACHIAN RACES, American In 
dians, xii. 828. 
APPARITIONS, n. 202. 
APPEAL, in law, ll. 208; English courts 

of, vi. 516; xin. 765. 
APPENDICULARIIDE, family of Tuni- 

cata, xxin. 609, 614. 
APPENDICULATA, in Lankestcr s zoo 
logical classification, XXIV. 813. 
APPENDINI, Francesco Maria, Italian 

historian, II. 210. 
APPENZELL, canton, Switzerland, n. 

210; xxil. 778, 784, 789; town, II. 

210; XXIL 778. 
APPENZELLER, J. C., Swiss novelist, 

XXIL 799. 
APPERLEY, Charles James, sporting 

writer, II. 211. 

APPIAN, Greek historian, n. 211. 
APPIANI, Andrea, Italian painter, n. 

211. 
APPIA VIA (Appian Way), of Claudius, 

II. 211 ; v. 816. 
APPLE, tree and fruit, n. 211; IV. 152; 

xii. 269; culture of, in Kansas, 

U.S.A., Xlll. 843; for cider, v. 775. 

OF DISCORD, xvm. 295. 

APPLEBY, town, England, 11.212; xxiv. 

516. 

APPLE-SEED OIL, xvn. 744. 
APPLETON, town, Wisconsin, U.S.A., 

xxiv. 617. 
APPLETON S AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA, 

vni. 204. 

APPLIED MECHANICS, xv. 750. 
APPRAISER, valuator, n. 212. 
APPREHENSION, Stoic theory of, XXIL 

566. 
APPRENTICESHIP, 11.212; enforced, ix. 

760. 
APPROBATION, Love of, in phrenology, 

XVIIL 845. 

APPROXIMATION, in algebra, I. 553. 
APPULEIUS, or Apuleius (q.v.\ n. 215; 

diction and style of, XIV. 338. 
APRAKSIN, Russian general, xxi. 99. 
AFRICA PASS, North Italy, xxiv. 45. 
APRICOT, tree and fruit, II. 214; XII. 

269. 
APRIES, Egyptian king, n. 214. 



APRIL, month, II. 214. 

A PRIORI, in philosophy, II. 214. 

APSE, in architecture, n. 215; French, 

II. 430. 
APSHERON, peninsula, Caspian Sea, n. 

215; v. 177; xxm. 513. 
APSYRTUS, Roman veterinarian, xxiv. 

197. 

APT, town, France, n. 215; xxiv. 114. 
APTENODYTES, genus of birds, xvm. 

491. 
APTERYX, genus of birds, xiv. 104; 

xvm. 44. 

APTORNIS, genus of birds, xvi. 809. 
APUANI, Ligurian tribe, Italy, xiv. 

640. 
APULEIUS, or Appuleius, Lucius, Latin 

romance writer, II. 215; XX. 636; 

xxi. 319; diction and style of, xiv. 

338; his place in Roman literature, 

xx. 726. 
APULIA, district, Italy, n. 216; duchy 

of, XIIL 471. 
APULIANS, ancient Italian tribe, XIII. 

445- 

APURE, river, Venezuela, II. 217. 

APURIMAC, river, Peru, n. 217. 

AQUA APPIA, AQUA CLAUDIA, etc., 
ancient Roman aqueducts, II. 220. 

AQUE SOLIS (Bath), Roman spa, Eng 
land, in. 433, 437. 

AQUAFORTIS, or Nitric Acid, xvn. 518. 

AQUAMARINE, precious stone, in. 613; 
xvi. 418. 

TOPAZ, xxin. 446. 



AQUAMBO, country, West Africa, n. 217. 
AQUAPIM, country, West Africa, II. 

217. 
AQUARIANS, early Christian sect, n. 

217. 

AQUARIUM, n. 217. 
AQUATINT, etching, vni. 444. 
AQUEDUCT, n. 219; iv. 284; xxiv. 

408; at Lisbon, xiv. 692; of Trajan, 

at Segovia, xxi. 623. 
AQUICULTURE, fish-culture, xix. 126. 
AQUILA, town, Italy, n. 230. 
, translator of Old Testament, II. 

230; Targum of, xxin. 63. 

, or Arno, archbishop of Salzburg, 

II. 625. 

, genus of birds, VII. 590. 

, Caspar, German theologian, 1 1. 230. 

, Serafino dell , Italian poet, II. 230. 

AQUILEIA, ancient town, Italy, II. 230; 

synod of (381), I. 662. 
AQUILINE, family of birds, vn. 589. 
AQUILLIUS, Manius, Roman consul, .n. 

231. 
AQUILONIA, Samnite town, Italy, xxi. 

249. 
AQUINAS, Thomas, scholastic philosopher, 

11.231; xvi. 710; xxi. 427; his ethical 

system, vm. 594; on the idea of God, 

xxin. 241; hymns by, xii. 584. 
AQUISGRANUM (Aix-la-Chapelle), an 
cient town, Rhenish Prussia, I. 432. 



AQUITAINE (Aquitania), acquired by 
England, vni. 202; French conquest 
of, vin. 321. 

AQUITANI, Gallic tribe, x. in. 

AQUITANIA, division of Gaul, n. 233. 

AQUITANUS, Prosper, early Christian 
writer, xix. 824. 

ARA, genus of birds, xv. 130. 

ARABESQUE, ornamentation, n. 233. 

ARABGIR, town, Turkey in Asia, II. 234. 

ARABIA, n. 235, 686; division of Asiatic 
Turkey, xxin. 653; in time of Mo 
hammed, XVI. 545; birds of, III. 758; 
coffee of, VI. 113; coins of, xvn. 650; 
Jews in, xin. 687; language of, xxi. 
650. 

FELIX, xxiv. 738. 

ARABIAN ASTRONOMY, n. 751. 

ARABIAN HISTORIANS, Early, xxin. i. 

ARABIAN HORSES, xii. 182, 184. 

ARABIAN LIBRARIES, xiv. 514. 

ARABIAN MATHEMATICIANS, i. 512. 

ARABIAN MEDICINE, i. 805; xv. 805. 

ARABIAN NIGHTS ENTERTAINMENTS, 
XXlll. 316; 11.263; French translation 
of, x. 37; Lane s translation, xiv. 282. 

ARABIAN PHILOSOPHY, n. 265; i. 501; 
xxi. 426. 

ARABIAN SEA, n. 270. 

ARABICI, Christian sect, II. 270. 

ARABIC LANGUAGE, x. 595; xvni. 778; 
xxi. 650; dialects, II. 253; diction 
aries, vii. 189; grammar, ll. 253. 

ARABIC LITERATURE, n. 262; Hama- 
sah, XL 402 ; histories, xxm. i ; 
Koran, xvi. 597; Moallakat, xvi. 536; 
Thousand and One Nights, XXI 1 1. 316. 

ARABIC NUMERALS, n. 525; xvn. 626. 

ARABISTAN, district, Persia, xiv. 68. 

ARABKIR, town, Turkey in Asia, n. 234. 

ARABONA (Raab), Roman station, Hun 
gary, xx. 190. 

ARABS, origin of the race, n. 245; in 
Africa, I. 262; of Algeria, I. 564; their 
first intervention in Persia, xvni. 610; 
their invasion of Spain, XXII. 309; re 
ligions of, XVI. 546; xx. 361. 

ARACAN (Arakan), division, British Bur- 
mah, II. 305. 

ARACARIS, bird, xxin. 477. 

ARACATI, town, Brazil, n. 270. 

ARACHIS HYPOGEA, ground nut, XL 221. 

ARACHNIDA, class of animals, n. 271; 
in Lankester s classification, XXIV. 813; 
parasitic, xvm. 259. 

ARACHNOID MEMBRANE, in human 
brain, I. 865. 

ARACHOSIA, Parthian satrapy, xvm. 
586, 592. 

ARACHOTUS, river, Asia, I. 229. 

ARACHTHUS (Arta), river, Albania, II. 
640. 

ARAD, town, Hungary, n. 300. 

ARAFAT, mountain, Arabia, n. 300. 

ARAGO, Frangois J. D., French physicist, 
n. 300. 

ARAGON, kingdom of, Spain, xxn. 312, 



A R A A R C 



27 



31 e 317, 322, 326; its connexion with 

Naples, xvn. 191. 
ARAGON, province, Spain, II. 304; xxn. 

298. 

ARAGONA, town, Sicily, n. 305. 
ARAGONESE DIALECT, xxu. 351. 
ARAGONITE, mineral, xvi. 398. 
ARAGUAYA, river, Brazil, n. 305; IV. 

221. 

ARAHAL, town, Spain, n. 305. 
ARAHATSHIP, Buddhist doctrine, xiv. 

226. 
ARAKAN, division, British Burmah, II. 

305; iv. 556. 
ARAKCHEEFF, Russian minister, xxi. 

101. 
ARAL, Sea or Lake of, Asia, n. 306; v. 

177; xvin. 104; xxii. SiS; xxiii. 

511, 512, 634. 
ARAL: A PAPYRI FERA, ri.ce paper, xx. 

539- 
ARAM, Eugene, murderer, II. 306. 

ARAMAEANS, people of Syria, xxu. 822; 
xvi. 533; name applied to Nabatseans, 

XVII. 1 60. 

ARAMAIC LANGUAGES, n. 307; xxi. 

645, 647; their influence on Hebrew, 

XI. 597; inscriptions, xm. 116. 
ARAM NAHARAYIM (Mesopotamia), 

xvi. 47. 

ARAMUS, genus of birds, xx. 223. 
ARANDA, Count of, Spanish statesman, 

n. 308; xxu. 341. 
ARANEIDEA, order of Arachnida, n. 

290. 

ARAN ISLANDS, Ireland, n. 308. 
ARANJUEZ, town, Spain, n. 308. 
ARANMORE, island, Ireland, n. 308. 
ARANY, John, Hungarian poet, XH. 378. 
ARANYAKAS, Sanskrit treatises, xxi. 

273- 

ARANZI, Julius Caesar, Italian anato 
mist, I. 809; xxiv. 96. 
ARAPA, lake, Peru, xvm. 673. 
ARAPAHOES, American Indian tribe, 

xu. 831. 

ARAR, timber tree, Morocco, xvi. 833. 
ARARAT, mountains, Armenia, II. 309; 

xvn. 523; xxni. 514. 
ARARGE (Harar), town, North-East 

Africa, XL 454. 

ARAS, river, Turkey in Asia, II. 309. 
ARATUS of Sicyon, ruler, n. 309. 

of Soli, Greek poet, II. 309. 

ARAUCANA, La, Spanish poem, vm. 

519. 
ARAUCANIA, territory, South America, 

n. 310. 

ARAUCANIAN PINE, in Chili, v. 623. 
ARAUCANIANS, South-American race, 

i. 701; v. 619; xii. 829. 
ARAUCARIA, genus of trees, n. 310. 
ARAUCO, province, Chili, v. 617. 
ARAUSIO (Orange), ancient town, France, 

XVII. 8l2. 

ARAVALLI HILLS, India, n. 310; xx. 
260. 



ARAVIAS, Portuguese tales, xix. 556. 
ARAWAN, oasis, Africa, xvn. 695. 
ARAXES (Aras), river, Transcaucasia, II. 

309; xxni. 514. 
ARBACES, founder of Median empire, II. 

310. 

ARBAT (Rabat), town, Morocco, xx. 192. 
ARBELA (Arbil), ancient town, Asiatic 

Turkey, II. 311; battle of (331 B.C.), I. 

482. 

ARBIL, town, Asiatic Turkey, 11. 311. 
ARBITER, Petronius, Latin writer, xvin. 

720. 

ARBITRAGE, in stock -broking, n. 311. 
ARBITRATION, n. 311. 
ARBOGA, town, Sweden, II. 313. 
ARBOGAST, Frankish warrior, xx. 779; 

xxiv. 37. 

, L. F. A., his theorem, Xlll. 20. 
A R BO IS, town, France, 1 1. 313. 
ARBOR ACTIONUM, Azo s work, in. 169. 
ARBORICULTURE, n. 314. 
ARBOR VnvE, coniferous tree, n. 313. 
ARBROATH, town, Scotland, n. 324. 
ARBUTHNOT, Alexander, early Scottish 

poet, xxi. 542. 

, John, English writer, II. 325; as 

satirist, xxi. 320. 
ARC, Circular, graduation of, XI. 28. 

, Joan of, xm. 695; ix. 550. 
- LIGHTS, electric, xiv. 632. 

OF THE MERIDIAN, measurement 

of, n. 792; vii. 597, 606; x. 189. 
ARCA, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 688. 
ARCACHON, Bay of, Gironde, France, x. 

624. 

ARCADE, in architecture, II. 325. 
ARCADIA, country, ancient Greece, II. 

326; coins of, xvn. 643. 

, Sannazaro s poem, xvn I. 345. 

, Sir Philip Sidney s poem, XVIII. 

346; xx. 660; xxii. 35. 

, Academy of, I. 74; xm. 511. 
ARCADIAN DIALECT, of Greek, XL 133. 
ARCADIANS, Academy of, I. 74. 
ARCADIUS, emperor of the East, xx. 

779, 780; xxiii. 259. 
ARCAGNUOLO, Italian painter and sculp 
tor, xvii. 814. 

ARCANITE, mineral, xvi. 400. 
ARCESILAUS, Greek philosopher, n. 326; 

i. 69; xxi. 379. 

, Roman sculptor, II. 366. 

I.-IV., kings of Libya, ill. 446. 
ARCH, in building, II. 327; in ancient 

American monuments, n. 450; in 

brickwork, IV. 464 ; in bridges, IV. 

305; depressed and discharging, n. 463; 

in masonry, IV. 474; pointed, intro 
duced into Europe, II. 422; at Rome, 

II. 414; xx. 809, 819, 830. 
ARCHAEAN ROCKS, x. 327. 
ARCH^EOCETI, fossil whales, xv. 395. 
ARCHAEOLOGY, n. 333; academies of, i. 

76; American, I. 692; prehistoric, II. 

115; Raphael s contributions to, xx. 

282; archasological societies, xxu. 227. 



ARCHAEOLOGY, Classical, n. 343 (index, 

368); Winckelmann s contributions to, 

xxiv. 597. 
ARCH^EOPTERYX, fossil bird, in. 728; 

xvm. 34; xxi. 323. 
ARCHAGATHUS, Roman physician, xv. 

802. 
ARCHANGEL, government and town, 

Russia, II. 368; xxi. 69. 
ARCHBISHOP, ecclesiastical dignitary, n. 

369; place of, in British peerage, XVIII. 

459- 
ARCHDEACON, ecclesiastical dignitary, 

ii. 370; v. 228. 

ARCHDUKE, title, n. 370; xix. 738. 
ARCHEGONIA, sexual organs in plants, 

iv. 157; ix. 101, 105; xvii. 65. 
ARCHEGONIATA, group of plants, xx. 

426. 
ARCHELAUS, king of Cappadocia, v. 76. 

, king of Judaea, II. 371; XIII. 426. 

, king of Macedonia, II. 371; XV. 

138- 

, Greek general, n. 371. 
, Greek philosopher, n. 371. 
, Greek sculptor, II. 371. 

ARCHENA, town, Spain, n. 370; mineral 
water of, xvi. 435; xvn. 51. 

ARCHENTEROM, cavity in animals, vin. 
746. 

ARCHER, Thomas, publisher of early 
English newspaper, xvn. 413. 

ARCHERINA BOLTONI, species of 
Protozoa, Xix. 840. 

ARCHERS, Royal Company of, in 
Scotland, II. 373. 

ARCHERY, n. 370; glossary of terms, n. 
378. 

ARCHES, Court of, n. 378, 369. 

ARCHETYPAL MAN, of the Kabbalah, 
xm. 811. 

ARCHIANNELIDA, subclass of worms, 
xxiv. 683. 

ARCHIDONA, town, Spain, 11. 379. 

ARCHIL, purple dye, n. 379; xiv. 559. 

ARCHILOCHUS, Greek poet, n. 379; 
xxi. 318. 

ARCHIMANDRITE, title in Greek Church, 
11. 380; i. 11, 23; xvi. 700. 

ARCHIMEDES, mathematician and in 
ventor, n. 380; xxn. 21, 817; his 
knowledge of conic sections, vi. 273; 
his geometrical discoveries, xm. 5; 
on hydrostatics, xii. 435, 441; his 
planetarium, 11. 749; on squaring the 
circle, xxn. 434. 
, Screw of, n. 381. 

ARCHIPELAGO, Grecian, n. 381. 
, Indian, XII. 815. 

ARCHIPRESBYTER, ecclesiastical digni 
tary, vn. 14. 

ARCHITECTURE, n. 382 (index, 458; 
glossary of terms, 459); as a fine art, 
IX. 204; relation of building to, IV. 
447; use of the cross in, VI. 612; terra 
cotta in, xxni. 193; zodiacal symbol 
ism in, xxiv. 796; of Babylonia, in. 



28 



A R C A R G 



189; in England, vill. 280, 300, 310, 
317, 326, 330; Etruscan, vill. 637; 
Gothic, of Pugin, XX. 103; Greek, II. 
346, 354, 359, 364; ancient Mexican, 
xvi. 214; Norman, xvil. 551; Phoe 
nician, xviii. 810; Pompeiian, XIX. 
449; Eoman, 1 1. 367; xx. 809; Vene 
tian, xxiv. 148; Veronese, XXIV. 172; 
academies of, I. 78; works on, n. 457; 
Palladio s works on, xv 1 1 1. 187; Ra 
phael s contributions to, xx. 281; 
Street s, XXH. 594; Vitruvius s work 
on, XXIV. 265; architectural societies, 
xxn. 226. 

ARCHITRAVE, in architecture, n. 459; 
iv. 492. 

ARCHIVES, n. 476; of Belgium, in. 521; 
English, xx. 310. 

ARCHLUTE, musical instrument, xv. 

71- 
ARCHON, Athenian magistrate, II. 476; 

xv. 217. 
ARCHYTAS, of Tarentum, philosopher, 

II. 477; his flying dove, I. 185. 
ARCIS-SUR-AUBE, town, France, n. 477. 
ARCOLA, Italy, Battle of (1796), xvn. 

197. 
ARCOS DE LA FRONTERA, town, Spain, 

n. 477. 

ARCOSOLIUM, arched tomb, in the Cata 
combs, v. 209, 210. 
ARCOT, districts, India, n. 477. 
, town, India, II. 478; siege of 

(1751), vi. 9; xn. 800. 
ARCS, Circular, graduation of, XI. 28. 
ARCTIC CURRENT, in. 20. 
ARCTIC EXPLORATIONS, x. 190, 192; 

XIX. 315; Franklin s, IX. 721. 
ARCTIC OCEAN, n. 478; xix. 315. 
ARCTIUM, genus of plants, xxni. 307. 
ARCTOIDEA, section of Carnivora, xv. 

439- 
ARCTOMYS, genus of rodent mammals, 

xv. 417,418, 559- 

ARCTONYX, genus of carnivorous mam 
mals, xv. 439. 
ARCUEIL, France, aqueduct at, n. 222. 

, Societe d , x. 122. 

ARCULPH, French bishop, on the Holy 

Sepulchre, XXL 672. 
ARCUS SENILIS, eye disease, xvn. 781. 
ARDABIL, town, Persia, n. 479; xvni. 

626. 
ARDAHAN, town, Transcaucasia, Russia, 

xxni. 515. 

ARDAKAN, town, Persia, xvni. 628. 
ARDASHIR I., king (Sasanian) of Persia, 

xvni. 607. 

- II., of Persia, xvni. 610. 
III., of Persia, xvin. 615. 
ARDATOFF, town, Russia, xxn. 77. 
ARDEA, ancient town, Italy, n. 479; 

xiv. 343. 

, genus of birds, XI. 760. 

ARDEBIL, town, Persia, n. 479. 
ARDECHE, department, France, n. 479; 

river, xx. 528. 



ARDELAN, province, Persia, n. 479. 
ARDEN, woodland division, Warwick 
shire, England, xxi. 738. 
, Mary, Shakespeare s mother, xxi. 



745, 747, 765- 
ARDENNES, department, France, n. 479. 
ARDENNITE, mineral, xvi. 426. 
ARDERN, mountain, Ireland, xx. 170. 
ARDFERT, village, Ireland, n. 480; 

cathedral at, xiv. 52. 
ARDGLASS, town, Ireland, n. 480. 
ARDJARI, town, Transcaucasia, Russia, 

xxni. 514. 
ARDMORE, Ireland, round tower and 

cathedral at, xxiv. 401. 
ARDOCH, parish, Scotland, n. 480; 

Roman remains at, xvin. 667. 
ARDOIN, Lombard king, xin. 469. 
ARDRES, town, France, n. 480. 
ARDROSSAN, town, Scotland, n. 480; in. 

163. 

AREA, Mensi;ration of, xvi. 13. 
, Standards of, xxiv. 485. 



AREAS, parabolic and elliptic, projec 
tion of, xix. 798. 

ARECA, genus of palms, in. 616; xvin. 
190. 

ARED, province, Arabia, n. 240, 254. 

AREKHA, Abba (Rab), Jewish scholar, 
xx. 190. 

ARELATE (Aries), ancient town, France, 

n. 543- 

AREM, Flood of, in Arabia, n. 255. 
AREMBERG, town, Prussia, n. 481. 
, Dukes of, n. 481. 



ARENA, in the amphitheatre, I. 775. 
ARENACEA, group of Foraminifera, ix. 

375- 
ARENARI^E, sandpits used as catacombs, 

V. 212. 

ARENAS GORDAS, district, Spain, xxn. 

293- 

ARENDAL, town, Norway, n. 481. 
ARENDALITE, mineral, n. 481. 
ARENICOLA MARINA, lobworm, n. 71. 
ARENSBURG, town, Russia, xvn. 732. 
ARENSKRONE, town, Prussia, vn. 134. 
AREOPAGITICA, Greek writings, vn. 

248. 

, Milton s work, xvi. 330. 
AREOPAGUS, hill, Athens, II. 481; XL 

97; xvin. 531; xxn. 255. 
AREQUIPA, department and town, Peru, 

n. 484; xvin. 674. 
ARES, Greek god (the Roman Mars), II. 

484; XV. 569; festival of, at Papremis, 

xix. 91; fountain of, at Thebes, xxni. 

o 2 3- 
ARESKUTAN, mountain, Sweden, xxn. 

736. 

ARESON, Jon, Icelandic poet, n. 485. 
ARET^US, Greek physician, n. 485; I. 

802; xv. 804. 
ARETHUSA, fountain, Syracuse, n. 485; 

xxn. 813. 

, ancient town, Macedonia, n. 486. 

, ancient town, Syria, n. 486. 



ARETIN, J. C. F. von, writer on mne 
monics, xvi. 533. 

ARETINO, Pietro, Italian satirist, n. 486; 
xx. 609; xxni. 414. 

ARETINUS, Guido, Italian musician, xi. 
257; xvn. 80. 

AREZZO, town, Italy, n. 486; xxn. 41; 
altar in cathedral, xix. 123; its school 
of painting, XXI. 436, 442; university, 
xxni. 836. 

ARFVEDSONITE, mineral, xvi. 418. 

ARG^EUS, mountain, Asia Minor, n. 
705; V. 75; xxni. 654. 

ARGALI, kind of sheep, xxi. 785. 

ARC AM, village, India, n. 486. 

ARC AN, tree and fruit, Morocco, xvi. 

833- 

ARGAND, Aime, his burner for lamps, 
x. 98; Xiv. 245; his anticipation of 
quaternions, xx. 161. 

ARGAUM (Argam), village, India, n. 
486. 

ARGELANDER, Friedrich W. A., Ger 
man astronomer, n. 486. 

ARGELES, town, France, xx. 127. 

ARGENIS, Barclay s romance, ill. 369. 

ARGENS, river, France, xxiv. 68. 

ARGENSOLA, Bartolomeo Leonardo, 
Spanish poet, 1 1. 487. 
-, Lupercio Leonardo, Spanish dram 



atist, II. 486; XXII. 356. 
ARGENTAN, town, France, n. 487; xvni. 

2; lace of, xiv. 1 86. 
ARGENTEUIL, town, France, n. 487; 

xxi. 625. 
ARGENTIERA (Cimolos), island, .Egean 

Sea, xv. 841. 
ARGENTINA, genus of Salmonidoe, xxi. 

221, 224. 
ARGENTINE REPUBLIC, n. 487; i. 712; 

debt, xvn. 247; libraries, xiv. 536, 

551; newspapers, xvn. 437; observa 
tory at Cordova, xvn. 716. 
ARGENTITE, mineral, xvi. 392. 
ARGENTORATUM (Strasburg), Roman 

station, Germany, XX 1 1. 589. 
ARGHAND-AB, river, Afghanistan, i. 

229. 
ARGHOUL, musical instrument, xvn. 

707. 
ARGIOPE, genus of Brachiopoda, xix. 

441. 
ARGIPP/EI, ancient nomadic race, xxi. 

575- 
ARGIVE CHIEFS, their expedition against 

Thebes, vin. 477. 
ARGO, Voyage of the, n. 496. 
ARGOL, crude tartar, n. 496; VI. 556; 

xxiv. 602. 
ARGONAUTA, genus of Mollusca, vi. 739; 

xvi. 675. 
ARGONAUTICA, epic by Flaccus, ix. 

275. 

, epic by Varro, xxiv. 94. 
ARGONAUTS, of Greek legend, n. 496; 

xv. 776; xxni. 280; in Lemnos, xiv. 

436. 



A R G A R M 



29 



ARGONNE, plateau, France, n. 497. 
ARGOS, ancient town, Greece, II. 497; 
xi. 93 ; its school of sculpture, u. 

35- 
ARGOSTOLI, town, Cephalonia, Greece, 

n. 497; v. 344. 
ARGOSY, slap, named from Ragusa, xn. 

710; xx. 221. 

, magazine, XXIV. 644. 

ARGOVIE (Aargau), Swiss canton, I. 3. 
ARGUIN, island, West Africa, n. 497. 
ARGUN, river, Siberia, I. 746; xxm. 

510. 

ARGUS, in Greek legend, II. 498. 
ARGUSA (Ragusa), ancient town, Dal- 

matia, xx. 221. 
ARGYLL, Earls and dukes of, n. 498; 

eighth earl, XXI. 515; ninth earl, xxi. 

5I7- 
ARGYLLSHIRE, county, Scotland, n. 

499; area and population, xxi. 528; 

representation, xxill. 727; its herring 

fishery, IX. 260. 
ARC YRO- CASTRO, town, Albania, n. 

501. 
ARGYROPULUS, John, learned Greek, II. 

501. 

ARI, Icelandic historian, XII. 624. 
ARIA, Parthian satrapy, xviu. 586, 

592- 

ARIADNE, in Greek mythology, II. 501. 
FLORENTINA, Ruskin s work, vin. 

445- 
ARIALDUS, leader of the Patarene sect, 

xviii. 354. 
ARIANISM, system of doctrine, n. 537; 

xin. 671. 

ARIANO, town, Italy, n. 501. 
ARIARATHES I. -IX., kings of Cappa- 

docia, v. 75, 76. 
ARIAS MONTANUS, Benedictus, Oriental 

scholar, 1 1. 501. 
ARIBAU, B. Carlos, Spanish writer, xxn. 

364- 
ARICA, town, South America, n. 501; 

xviii. 674, 679. 

ARIEGE, department, France, II. 502. 
ARIKAREES, American Indian tribe, xn. 

832. 
ARIMANES (Ahriman, q.v.), Zoroastrian 

principle of evil, I. 424. 
ARIMASPIANS, ancient race, Scythia, 

xxi. 577. 
ARIOBARZANES I., II., kings of Cappa- 

docia, v. 76. 

, Persian general, XVIII. 559. 

, Persian satrap, xviii. 579. 

, king of Pontus, xix. 459. 

ARION, Greek poet, 1 1. 502. 

ARIOSTO, Lodovico, Italian poet, II. 502; 

VII. 418; XIII. 509; his place in the 

Renaissance, xx. 385. 
ARIOVISTUS, German leader, x. 474. 
ARISBAYA, town, Madura, Indian Archi 
pelago, xv. 193. 
ARISTVENETUS, Greek letter-writer, xx. 

636. 



, in Greek legend, n. 504. 
ARISTAGORAS, lord of Miletus, XL 98; 

xviii. 570. 

ARISTANDER, Greek soothsayer, n. 504. 
ARISTARCHUS of Samos, astronomer, n. 

504, 748. 
of Samothrace, grammarian, II. 



504; XL 43, 143; xn. 115. 
ARISTEAS, mythical poet, n. 504. 
ARISTIDES, Athenian general, n. 504; 

XL 99; rival of Themistocles, xxm. 

250. 
of Thebes, Greek painter, II. 506. 

, JElius, Greek rhetorician, II. 505. 
-, Quintilianus, writer on music, II. 



506. 
ARISTILLUS, Alexandrian astronomer, 

II. 748. 
ARISTIPPUS, Greek philosopher, II. 506; 

his ethical system, vill. 578; founder 

of the Cyrenaic school, vi. 750. 
ARISTO of Chios, Stoic philosopher, 1 1. 

507. 
ARISTOBULUS I., II., princes of Judeua, 

xm. 423, 424. 

, Peripatetic philosopher, n. 507; I. 

500. 

of Cassandria, general of Alexander 

the Great, II. 507. 
ARISTOCLES, alleged name of Plato, xix. 

194. 
ARISTOCRACY, xvn. 524; xviii. 458; 

government by, XI. 1 1 ; Roman, of the 

Middle Ages, xx. 782, 787, 792, 806. 
ARISTOCRATES, Demosthenes s oration 

against, vn. 69. 

ARISTOLOCHIA, genus of plants, XL 228. 
ARISTOPHANES, Greek dramatist, n. 

507; vii. 407; XL 140; as satirist, 

xxi. 318. 
of Byzantium, Alexandrian critic, 



II. 510. 

ARISTOTELIANISM, or Aristotelian Philo 
sophy, its different epochs, II. 523 ; 
Abelard s resuscitation of, I. 35 ; 
Ramus s opposition to, XX. 268 ; re 
lation of, to scholasticism, XXI. 417, 
426; Trendelenburg s revival of, xxm. 
542. 

ARISTOTLE, n. 510; xvin. 545; tutor of 
Alexander the Great, I. 480; founder 
of the Peripatetics, XVIII. 545; his in 
fluence on Greek literature, XL 142; 
his relations with Theophrastus, xxm. 
277; on analogy, I. 791; his Analytics, 
! 7935 founder of comparative ana 
tomy, I. 800; his classification of 
animals, xxiv. 804; his influence on 
Arabian philosophy, II. 266; on associ 
ation of ideas, II. 730; on astronomy, 
II. 747; on axioms, in. 158; on the 
beautiful, I. 215; on birds, xviii. 2; 
on the categories, v. 222; his economic 
theories, xix. 349; his ethics, vill. 581; 
on evolution, Vill. 757; on fishes, XII. 
630; his logic, XIV. 784; on medicine, 
xv. 80 1 ; his metaphysic, XVI. 79; on 



the mysteries, XVII. 126; on physio 
gnomy, xix. 3 ; on reptiles, xx. 432 ; 
his rhetoric, xx. 510;. on slavery, XXII. 
131 ; on the Tethyum, one of the Tuni- 
cata, xxm. 609; commentaries on, by 
Albertus Magnus, I. 454; by Alex 
ander of Aphrodisias, I. 486; edition 
of his works by Brandis, I v. 2 1 5 ; trans 
lations of his works by Boetius, in. 
856. 

ARISTOXENUS, Greek writer on music 
and philosopher, II. 524; XVII. 78; 
xviii. 545. 

ARITHMETIC, 11. 524; Cardan s work on, 
V. 90; contributions to, by Leonardo 
of Pisa, xix. 125; by Napier, xvn. 
184; by the Pythagoreans, xx. 140; 
tables of, xxm. 7. 
SERIES, xxi. 678. 



ARITHMOLOGY, theory of numbers, 

xvn. 614. 
ARIUS, theologian of Alexandria, II. 537; 

at council of Niceea, vi. 560. 
-, genus of fishes, xxn. 



ARIZONA, Territory, U.S.A., n. 538; 

xxm. 802. 
ARJUN MAL, Sikh ruler, India, xx. 

no. 
ARK, of Noah, n. 539; vn. 55. 

, of the Covenant, II. 539; XIII. 398. 
ARKANSAS, State, U.S.A., n. 539; xxm. 

802; river, II. 540; xvi. 518. 
ARKANSITE, mineral, xvi. 387. 
ARKLET, Loch, Scotland, xxn. 553. 
ARKLOW, town, Ireland, n. 540; xxiv. 

557- 

ARKSUTITE, mineral, xvi. 384. 

ARKWRIGHT, Sir Richard, English in 
ventor, n. 540; vi. 490; xvii. 600. 

ARLBERG TUNNEL, Alps, xxm. 624. 

ARLECCHINO (Harlequin), of the panto 
mime, xviii. 215. 

ARLES, town, France, II. 543. 

ARLINGTON, Earl of, English statesman, 

"I- 573- 

ARLON, town, Belgium, II. 543. 
ARLOTTI, Jacopo, captain of the people, 

Rome, xx. 798. 

ARM, Human, anatomy of, I. 827, 839. 
ARMADA, Spanish, n. 543; xvin. 745; 

xxn. 329. 
ARMADILLO, family of Edentata, n. 544; 

xv - 35 8 > 3 86 ; skeleton of, xxn. 108. 
ARMAGH, county, Ireland, n. 545; 

population and representation, xxm. 

727. 
, town, Ireland, n. 546; library, 

XIV. 524; observatory, xvii. 710. 

, Archbishop of, 1 1. 370. 

, Book of, Irish MS., xvin. 158, 



412. 

ARMAGNAC, district, France, n. 546. 
ARMAGNACS, party, in France, v. 410; 

IX. 548; their struggles in Paris, 

XVIII. 290. 
ARMATOLI, special constables in Greece, 

XL 124. 



30 



A R M A II S 



ARMATURE, Electric, Siemens s, xxii.38. 
ARMED NEUTRALITY, The (1780), ix. 

594- 
ARMENIA, country, Western Asia, n. 

546; xvin. 595; xxiii. 653. 
, History of, by Moses of Chorene, 

xvi. 861. 

, Russian, Transcaucasia, xxin. 513. 

ARMENIAN CHURCH, The, n. 548; xx. 

631; primate s seat at Etchmiadzin, 

vin. 566. 
ARMENIAN LANGUAGE, n. 549; xvin. 

784; dictionaries of, Vil. 190. 
ARMENIAN LITERATURE, n. 550. 
ARMENIANS, connected with Church of 

Rome, XX. 631. 

, Era of the, v. 716. 
ARMENIAN VERSION, of the Bible, n. 

550. 

ARMENT, village, Egypt, vn. 782. 
ARMENTA, Franciscan missionary, 

Paraguay, xvm. 245. 
ARMENTIERES, town, France, n. 551; 

xvii. 535. 

ARMET, variety of helmet, xi. 637. 
ARMFELT, Count, Swedish general, n. 

55i- 
ARMIJO, Manuel, governor of New 

Mexico, xvii. 402. 
ARMILLARY SPHERES, Invention of, n. 

748. 
ARMILLUS, the Jewish anti-Messiah, 

II. 126. 
ARMINIANISM, system of doctrine, II. 

552. 

ARMINIUS, German chief, x. 475. 
, James, Dutch theologian, II. 551; 

XII. 78. 

ARMISTICE, in war, u. 552. 
ARMISTICIO, territory, Venezuela, xxiv. 

140. 

ARMLET, bracelet, iv. 187. 
ARMORIAL BEARINGS, xi. 683. 
ARMORICA, district, France, n. 553. 
ARMORIC LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, 

v. 298, 324; dictionaries of, vn. 188. 
ARMOUR, n. 553. 
ARMOUR-PLATED SHIPS, xvii. 285; 

xxi. 822. 
ARMOUR-PLATING, of sea fortresses, 

ix. 451. 
ARMS, of the British army, II. 588; 

early Irish, xni. 254; small, XI. 278. 

, Coats of, xi. 683, 688. 

AND ARMOUR, n. 553. 

ARMSTRONG, Archie, jester, ix. 366. 
, John, English writer, II. 558. 

GUN, XI. 290, 307. 
ARMY, n. 559; employment of, in war, 

XXIV. 343; ofiicial precedence in 

British, XIX. 667; Austrian, in. 123; 

British, Vlll. 244; European armies, 

vin. 705; French, IX. 516; German, 

X. 467; Indian (British), xn. 774; 

Italian, XIH. 458; Persian, xvin. 628; 

ancient Roman, xx. 734, 746, 759; 

Russian, xxi. 72; Spanish, xxn. 203; 



Turkish, xxiii. 655; United States, 
xxin. 828; barracks, in. 391; courts 
martial, vi. 517; dietary, vn. 212; 
savings banks, xxi. 330; transport 
corps, xxiv. 295; military societies, 
xxn. 227. 

ARMY ACT, English (1881), xvi. 296. 

ARNA, wild buffalo, iv. 442. 

ARNAOUTS (Albanians), Greece, xi. 83. 

ARNAUD, Henri, Waldensian leader, II. 
620; xxiv. 325. 
DE VILLA NOVA, alchemist, n. 



620. 

ARNAULD, Angelique, abbess of Port 
Royal, n. 620. 

, Antoine, French theologian, II. 

620; xvm. 335; XXII. 82; his con 
nexion with Jansenism, xill. 566. 
-, Jacqueline Marie, abbess of Port 



Royal, n. 621; xix. 533. 
ARNAUT DANIEL, Provenal poet, xix. 

874. 
ARNDT, Ernst Moritz, German writer, 

n. 622; x. 543. 

, John, German Protestant theolo 



gian, II. 622; X. 529; xix. 83. 

ARNE, Thomas Augustine, musical com 
poser, II. 623. 

ARNHEIM, town, Netherlands, n. 623. 
, Johan Georg, Baron von, German 



general, II. 624. 
ARNHEM (Arnheim), town, Netherlands, 
ii. 623. 

LAND, Australia, in. 107. 



ARNICA, genus of plants, n. 623. 
ARNIM, Bettina von, German authoress, 
n. 624. 

Johan Georg, Baron von, German 



general, II. 624. 
, Karl Otto Ludwig von, German 
writer of travels, n. 624. 
-, Ludwig Achim von, German poet 



and novelist, II. 624. 

ARNI MAGNUSSON, Icelandic writer, 
xn. 626; xv. 284. 

ARNIS, Greek festival, xiv. 678. 

ARNIS/EUS, Henningus, German phy 
sician, n. 624. 

ARNO, river, Italy, n. 624; xni. 438. 
-, archbishop of Salzburg, II. 625. 



ARNOBIUS, the Elder, Christian writer, 

n. 625. 
, the Younger, Biblical commentator, 



n. 625. 

ARNOLD, town, England, xvn. 598. 

, German hymn-writer, xn. 587. 

of Brescia, forerunner of the Re 
formation, 11.625; xni - 47 2 ! xx - 79 2 - 
, Benedict, American adventurer, 
XXin. 744, 787. 
, Samuel, musical composer, II. 626. 

, Thomas, headmaster of Rugby 

school, England, n. 626. 

DE TORROGE, grand-master of 



ARNOTT, Neil, physicist, n. 627. 
ARNOTTO, vegetable dye, n. 627. 
ARNSBERG, town, Westphalia, n. 628; 

xxiv. 517. 
ARNSTADT, town, Germany, n. 628; 

xxi. 461. 

ARNULF, king of Germany, x. 481. 
, archbishop of Rheims, XXII. 75. 



Knights Templars, xxin. 161. 
ARNOLDUS DE VILLA NOVA, alchemist, 
n. 620. 



ARNUS (Arno), river, Italy, II. 624. 
AROK-SZALLAS, town, Hungary, n. 628. 
AROLSEN, town, Waldeck, Germany, 

xxiv. 321. 

ARON, river, France, xvn. 495. 
ARONA, town, Italy, n. 628. 
AROUET, Franois Marie, real name of 

Voltaire, I. 791; XXIV. 285. 
ARPAD, Hungarian dynasty, xn. 367. 
ARPINO, town, Italy, n. 628. 
ARPOXAIS, Scythian legendary hero, 

xxi. 576. 

ARQUA, town, Italy, n. 628. 
ARQUERITE, mineral, xvi. 382. 
ARQUES, town, France, n. 628; forest, 

xxi. 626. 
ARRABBIATI, Florentine faction, xxi. 

336. 
ARRACHEL, Arabian mathematician, 

xxin. 562. 
ARRACK, spirituous liquor, II. 628; VI. 

103; distillation of, vn. 264. 
ARRAH, town, India, XXI. 735. 
ARRAIGNMENT, in law, n. 628. 
ARRAN, island, Scotland, n. 628. 

, Earl of, regent of Scotland, xxi. 

499- 

ARRAS, town, France, n. 629; xvin. 
339; tapestry of, XXIII. 212; treaty of 
(1435), ix. 550. 

ARREBO, Anders, Danish poet, vn. 90. 

ARREST, in law, n. 629; without warrant, 
xxiv. 371. 

ARRESTMENT, in Scots law, n. 630, 

ARREST OF JUDGMENT, 11. 630. 

ARRETIUM (Arezzo), ancient town, 
Italy, n. 486; vin. 635. 

ARRETOPHORIA, Greek festive cere 
mony, xxin. 296. 

ARRIA, wife of Caecina Pa?tus, n. 630. 

ARRIAN, Greek historian, n. 630. 

ARRIGAL, mountain, Ireland, vn. 361. 

ARRIUS DlOMEDES, Villa of, Pompeii, 
xix. 450. 

AR-RiYASHl, Arabian historian, XXIII. 3. 

ARROE, island, Denmark, I. 184. 

ARRONDISSEMENT, administrative di 
vision, France, IX. 509. 

ARROW, Lough, Ireland, xxn. 159. 

POISONS, xxn. 608. 

ARROWROOT, n. 631; Brazilian, v. 182; 
in Polynesia, xix. 419. 

ARROWS, manufacture of, n. 376. 

ARROWSMITH, family of geographers, n. 
632. 

ARROYO, river, Cochin-China, xxi. 152. 

ARSACES I., king of Parthia, xv. 143; 
xvin. 587. 

II., of Parthia, xvin. 589. 



A K S A R Y 



31 



ARSACID^E, dynasty of Partliian kings, 
ii. 632; xvin. 587, 605. 

ARSACIDS, in Armenia, n. 547. 

ARSAMASS, town, Russia, n. 632; xvn. 
501. 

ARS AMATORIA, Ovid s poem, xvm. 79. 

ARSENAL, n. 632; of ancient Venice, 
xxiv. 143, 155. 

ARSENIATE OF NICKEL, mineral, xvi. 
404. 

ARSENIC, chemical element, n. 634; v. 
539; xvi. 380; as poison, xix. 277. 

ARSENIDES, as impurities of ores, xvi.6i. 
, Methyl, XVI. 197. 

ARSENIOSIDERITE, mineral, xvi. 406. 

ARSENOLITE, mineral, xvi. 388. 

ARSES, king of Persia, xvin. 581. 

ARSICAS (Artaxerxes II.), king of Persia, 
xvm. 576. 

ARSINOE, wife of Lysimaclms, xv. 120. 

, ancient town, Egypt, XXII. 620. 

, Spring of, Greece, xvi. 52. 

ARSISSA PALUS (Lake Van), Asia 
Minor, XXIV. 53. 

ARSON, in law, ii. 635 ; in relation to 
insurance, xin. 167. 

ART, n. 636; beginnings of, VI 1 1. 622; 
illustrated by coins, XVII. 629, 633; 
copyright in works of, VI. 360; func 
tions of, I. 213; Etruscan, vin. 637, 
639; early Greek, n. 345; Japanese, 
Xlll. 588; poetical, Xix. 258; in the 
Kenaissance, XX. 385, 390; Schopen 
hauer on, XXI. 451. 

ARTA, town, Albania, II. 639; river, ii. 
640. 

, Gulf of, Ionian Sea, II. 640. 

ARTABA, Egyptian measure, xxiv. 485. 

ARTABANUS I., king of Parthia, xvin. 

594- 

II., of Parthia, xvm. 595. 

III., of Parthia, xvin. 600. 

IV., of Parthia, xvin. 605. 

, murderer of Xerxes I., xvm. 573. 

ARTABAZUS, Persian satrap, negotiates 

with Pausanias, XVIII. 573. 
, Persian satrap, his revolt under 

Artaxerxes, xvm. 580. 
ARTAMUS, genus of birds, xxn. 730. 
ART AND PART, in Scots law, n. 639. 
ARTAPHERNES, Persian general, xvm. 

57i- 
ARTAXERXES, kings of Persia, n. 640; 

tombs of, xvm. 558. 
I., Longimanus, XVIII. 573. 

- II., Mnemon, vi. 753; xvin. 576. 

- III., Ochus, XVIII. 580; his con 
quest of Egypt, vn. 744. 

IV., Bessus, XVlll. 582. 

ARTEDI, Peter, Swedish naturalist, n. 

642; xn. 632; xiv. 672. 
ARTELS, Russian co-operative societies, 

xxi. 84. 
ARTEMIDORUS, of Ephesus, writer on 

dreams, II. 642. 
ARTEMIS, Greek goddess (the Roman 

Diana), n. 643; vn. 167; xvn. 154; 



festival of, at Bubastis, XIX. 90; myths 

of, xvn. 135; her relation to Hecate, 

XI. 609; to Latoua, xiv. 345; temple 

of, at Ephesus, vin. 468; at Magnesia, 

xv. 217. 
ARTEMISIA, queen of Halicarnassus, n. 

644; XL 383. 
, wife of Mausolus, king of Caria, 1 1. 

644. 
ARTEMUS WARD (Charles Farrar 

Browne), American humorist, IV. 389; 

I. 727. 
ARTERIES, blood-vessels, xxiv. 103, 106; 

anatomy of, I. 902; in. reptiles, XX. 

459- 

ARTESIAN WELLS, ii. 644; x. 269. 
ARTEVELDE, Jacob van, Flemish popular 

leader, II. 646. 

Philip van, popular leader, 1 1. 



647. 



, Philip van, Sir Henry Taylor s 

poem, xxill. 93. 

ARTHENICE (Marquise de Rambouillet), 
xx. 264. 

ARTHRITIS, Rheumatoid, disease, xx. 
5I 8. 

ARTH ROBACTERIACE/E, family of Schizo- 
mycetes, XXL 405. 

ARTHROPODA, group of animals, n. 647; 
xin. 141; xvii. 115; in Lankester s 
classification, xxiv. 813; embryology 
of, xx. 419; histology of, XII. 7; re 
production of, XX. 409; skeletal struc 
ture of, xxn. 106; their touch-organs, 
XXIIL 478. 

ARTHROSPORE.42, group of Schizomy- 
cetes, xxi. 405. 

ARTHUR, early British king and hero of 
romance, II. 649; vin. 271; romances 
and legends of, V. 322; vill. 309, 407; 
IX. 639; x. 172; xx. 642, 647, 649; 
his connexion with Caerleon, IV. 632. 

of Brittany, nephew of John, king 

of England, vm. 306; IX. 541; xill. 

713- 
, Chester Alan, president of the 

United States, XXIIL 787. 
ARTHUS DE BRETAGNE, romance of, xx. 

648. 
ARTIBEUS PLANIROSTRIS, species of bat, 

xxiv. 52. 
ARTICHOKE, vegetable, n. 653; xn. 

278. 
, Jerusalem, vegetable, I. 369; XII. 



283. 

ARTICLES, The Thirty-Nine, of the 
Church of England, II. 653; vill. 338, 

377, 379- 

OF WAR, English, vi. 517; xvi. 



296. 
ARTICULATA, division of animals, n. 

654, 271; vi. 633; xin. 141. 
ARTICULATION, or Joint, in anatomy, I. 

832. 
, of sounds, in teaching deaf-mutes, 

vn. 8; loss of the function in aphasia, 

II. 171. 



ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS, ix. 348. 
ARTIFICIAL TEETH, vn. 99. 
ARTILLERY, n. 655, 557; field, XL 

313; marine, XV. 545; penetrating 

power of, ix. 428, 448, 450; royal 

regiment of, in British army, II. 578; 

tactical management of, xxiv. 359. 
ARTIODACTYLA, suborder of ungulate 

mammals, xv. 429. 
ARTISAN LABOUR, xiv. 166. 
ARTIST, Aims of the, ix. 197. 
ARTISTS, Greek and Roman, ii. 368. 
ARTOIS, ancient province, France, ii. 

670. 

, Count of (Charles X. of France), V. 



412. 



, House of, its connexion with Capet 

family, v. 55. 

ART POETIQUE, of Boileau, in. 863. 
ARTS, Faculty of, in universities, xxill. 

833. 
-, The Fine, IX. 194. 



ARTUS (Arthur), British hero, 1 1. 649. 
ARTUSI, Giovanni Battista, Italian 

musician, xvn. 87. 
ARTVIN, town, Transcaucasia, Russia, 

XXIIL 514. 
ARUBA, island, West Indies, xxiv. 

510. 
ARU ISLANDS, Moluccas, ii. 670; xn. 

815. 

ARUKH, Talmudic lexicon, xxill. 37. 
ARUN, river, Sussex, England, xxn. 

723- 
ARUN-BARUN BASIN, Tibet, XXIIL 

34i- 
ARUNDEL, town, England, II. 670; 

xxn. 724. 
, Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, 

ii. 670; his Constitutiones against 

heresy, xiv. 812. 

MSS. AND LIBRARY, xxi. 38 ; 

music in, xvn. 83. 
ARUNDELIAN MARBLES, n. 671; 

Parian Chronicle in, xvin. 273. 
ARUNDO, ancient writing implement, 

xvm. 483. 
ARUSHA (Eros), in Vedic mythology, 

vin. 527. 
ARUWIMI, affluent of the Congo, 

Africa, XXIV. 764. 
ARVAL BROTHERS, priesthood, ancient 

Rome, n. 671. 
ARVE, river, France and Switzerland, n. 

672; xx. 527; xxi. 332. 
ARVICOLA, genus of rodent mammals, 

xv. 419; xxiv. 277. 
ARWADH, Syriac writer, XXII. 828. 
ARYABHATA, Indian astronomer, I. 517; 

XXIIL 561. 
ARYAN LANGUAGES, n. 672; xvin. 

771, 778, 781; in Europe, VIII. 699, 

forms of grammar in, XL 39. 
ARYAN RACES, n. 674, 697, 698; in 

India, xn. 779; native home of, xvin. 

102; their cosmogony, vi. 447; early 

worship, IV. 202. 



32 



A R Y A S M 



ARYBALLUS, ancient Greek vase, xix. 

614. 
ARZAMAS, town, Russia, n. 632; xvn. 

501. 
ARZANENE, ancient district, Asia, xiv. 

159. 
ARZEN-REDHWAN, affluent of the 

Tigris, xxiii. 387. 
As, ancient Roman coin and weight, 1 1. 

675; xvn. 652. 
ASADI, Ali b. Ahmad al, Persian writer, 

xvin. 656. 

ASAFI, town, Morocco, xxi. 145. 
ASAFCETIDA, gum resin, II. 675; I. 232, 

742. 
ASAMA-YAMA, volcano, Japan, xm. 

571- 
ASAMON^EUS, or Asmoneus, ancestor of 

the Maccabees, n. 714; xv. 131. 
ASANGA, Buddhist teacher, XIV. 228. 
ASASEEF, or Asasif, Egypt, tombs at, 

vii. 781. 
ASBEN, oasis, Central Africa, I. 429; 

xvii. 695; mountain, xxi. 149. 
ASBESTOS, mineral, II. 675; xv. 217; 

xvi. 417; as fire-proof paint, xix. 88. 
ASBJORNSEN, Peter Christen, Norwegian 

writer on folk-lore, XVII. 592. 
ASBURY, Francis, American Methodist, 

xvi. 191. 
PARK, town, New Jersey, U.S.A., 

xvn. 397. 

ASBUZI, town, Asia Minor, xv. 320 
ASCALON, town of the Philistines, II. 

676; xviii. 755. 
ASCANIAN LINE, rulers of Brandenburg, 

xx. 2. 

ASCANIUS, son of ^Eneas, I. 182. 
ASCARIS, genus of nematode worms, 

xvii. 325; parasitic forms, xxiv. 205, 

206; spermatozoon of, xx. 411. 
ASCENSION, island, Atlantic Ocean, n. 

676; I. 272. 
, Right, in astronomy, II. 765 ; vi. 

182. 
DAY, church festival, n. 676; IX. 

116. 

OF MOSES, apocalyptic book, n. 

177. 
ASCENSIUS (Badius), Belgian printer, ill. 

228. 
ASCETICISM, n. 676; xv. 484; Brah- 

manist, IV. 205; Buddhist, IV. 435; of 

the Essenes, VIII. 550; of Schopenhauer, 

XXI. 452; in relation to mysticism, 

xvn. 131. 

ASCETICS, Early Christian, XVI. 699. 
ASCETIC WRITERS, of Italy, xm. 505. 
ASCETTA PRIMORDIALIS, sponge, xxn. 

412. 

ASCH, town, Bohemia, II. 677. 
ASCHAFFENBURG, town, Bavaria, II. 

677- 
ASCHAM, Roger, English scholar, II. 

677- 
ASCHE, Rabbi (Rab Ashe), editor of 

Talmud, n. 679; xx. 190; xxm. 37. 



ASCHERSLEBEN, town, Prussia, II. 679; 

xxi. 360. 
ASCHMEDAI (Asmodeus,5.v.),evil demon, 

in Jewish legend, II. 714. 
ASCIDIA, genus of Tunicata, early stages 

of, xxm. 613; xxiv. 170; develop 
ment of, xxm. 610, 613. 
ASCIDIACEA, order of Tunicata, xxm. 

616. 
ASCIDIANS, Simple and Compound, 

xxm. 609. 
ASCLEPIADES of Prusa, Greek physician, 

n. 679; xv. 802. 
ASCLEPIADS, descendants of ^Esculapius, 

II. 511; xv. 800. 
ASCLEPIUS, Greek god of medicine 

(the Roman .<Esculapius), xv. 799; 

worship of, at Pergamum, xvm. 527. 
ASCOLI, town, Italy, II. 679. 
, Girolamo de (Pope Nicholas IV.), 

XVII. 484. 
ASCOMYCETES, order of Fungi, ix. 833; 

xiv. 552, 556; xxiv. 127; reproduc 
tion of, xx. 426. 

ASCON, type of sponges, xxn. 413. 
ASCONIUS PEDIANUS, Quintus, Roman 

writer, II. 679. 
ASCOPODARIA, genus of Polyzoa, xix. 

438. 

ASCOT RACES, England, xn. 202. 
ASCUE, Anne, English martyr, II. 713. 
ASCULUM PlCENUM (Ascoli), ancient 

Roman city, n. 679. 
ASCUTNEY, mountain, Vermont, U.S.A., 

xxm. 792. 
ASELLI, or Asellius, Gasparo, Italian 

physician, II. 679; I. 811. 
ASELLUS, genus of Crustacea, vi. 646. 
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION, in animals, 

xx. 407; vegetable, xx. 424. 
ASGAR, plateau, Sahara, Africa, xxi. 

149. 

ASGARD, in Norse mythology, II. 679. 
ASGILL, John, English writer, n. 680. 
ASH, tree, n. 680, 317; weeping, n. 320; 

in United States, XXIII. 808; strength 

of wood, xxn. 603. 

, product of combustion, VI. 47 ; 



xix. 49; volcanic, x. 242. 
ASHA, Arabic poet, xvi. 537. 
ASHANTEE, country, West Africa, 1 1. 

68 1 ; I. 269; forests of, IX. 408. 
ASHARISM, philosophic theology of Islam, 

xvi. 593. 

ASHBURTON, town, England, II. 682. 
, Lord, English lawyer, vii. 544. 



ASHBY CASTLE, Northampton, England, 

xvn. 557. 
ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCH, town, England, 

II. 682. 
ASHDOD (Azotus), town, Palestine, ill. 

172; xviii. 755; language of, xxi. 

645. 
ASHE (Asche), Rabbi, editor of Talmud, 

n. 679; xx. 190; xxm. 37. 
A-SHE-HOH (Ajeho), town, Manchuria, 

I. 433; xv. 466. 



ASHER, Rabbenu (Rosh), German rabbi, 

xx. 852. 
ASHERA, or Asherah ("grove"), Canaan- 

itish goddess or symbol, in. 175; xvin. 

803. 

ASHFORD, town, England, II. 682. 
ASHIK PASHA, Ottoman poet, xxm. 

656. 
ASHKENAZIM, division of the Jews, xm. 

683. 

ASHLAR, in building, n. 460; iv. 471. 
ASHLEY, Lord (first earl of Shaftesbury), 

xxi. 728. 

ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM, Oxford, XVIII. 

95- 

ASHREF, town, Persia, vm. 543. 

ASHTARKHANIDES, dynasty, Bokhara, 
iv. 3. 

ASHTAROTH, plural of Ashtoreth, ill. 
176. 

ASHTON, John, English Lollard, xiv. 
811. 

ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE, town, England, 
n. 682. 

ASHTORETH, or Astarte (q.v.), Phoenician 
goddess, II. 735; in. 176; xvin. 756; 
festival of, at Aphaca, xix. 91. 

ASHWANIPI, river, Labrador, XIV. 175. 

ASH-WEDNESDAY, n. 680. 

ASIA, II. 683 (index, 702); coalfields of, 
vi. 58; distribution of fauna of, vn. 
269, 271; distribution of flora, vn. 
287; forests, IX. 404; gold, X. 743; 
languages, XVIII. 779; dictionaries of 
languages, vn. 192; in Ptolemy s geo 
graphy, xx. 95. 

, Central, explorations in, x. 194; 

xxm. 338. 

MINOR, II. 703 (index, 713), 656; 

coins of, XVII. 644; conquest of, by 
Alexander, I. 481 ; effects of Mace 
donian conquest on, xv. 143; under 
the Seljuks, xxi. 636; modern Turkish 
provinces of, xxm. 653. 

ASIATIC TURKEY, xxm. 653. 

ASID^EANS (Assideans), Jewish party, II. 
729; XIII. 421, 422. 

AsiDO (Jerez or Medina Sidonia), ancient 
Roman town, Spain, xin. 629; xv. 819. 

ASIENTO, clause in treaty of Utrecht 
(1713), xxm. 734. 

D AMBATO, town, Ecuador, i. 659. 



Asio, genus of birds, xvin. 90. 
AsiOOT (Siut, Asyoot), town, Upper 

Egypt, xxn. 103; vii. 775. 
ASISIUM (Assisi), ancient town, Italy, 

II. 729. 
ASKABAD, town, Transcaspian Region, 

Russia, xvi. 42; xxm. 512. 
ASKELON (Ascalou), town of the 

Philistines, n. 676; xviii. 755. 
ASKEW, Anne, English martyr, n. 713. 
ASKI SHAHR (Kashgar), town, East 

Turkestan, XIV. 7; xxm. 639. 
ASMAI, or Asmayi, Arabic writer, n. 713. 
ASMODEUS, evil demon, in Jewish 

legend, n. 714; VII. 64; xxm. 428. 



A S M A S T 



33 



ASMONEANS, or Hasmonteans, Jewish 
family, n. 714; xm. 421; xv. 131. 

ASMONEUS, or Asamonaeus, ancestor of 
the Maccabees, 1 1. 714; xv. 131. 

ASMUS, Matthias Claudius, German poet, 
v. 817. 

ASNYK, Adam, Polish poet, xix. 306. 

ASOKA, Buddhist lawgiver, xil. 784; in 
scriptions of, xm. 118; XVlll. 183; 
XXI. 272. 

ASOLANUS, Andrea, Venetian pr inter, xv. 

5I3- 

ASOLO, town, Italy, 1 1. 714. 
ASOV (Azoff), town, Russia, ill. 169. 
ASP, poisonous snake, II. 714. 
ASPALATHUM (Spalato), ancient town, 

Dalmatia, xxn. 366. 
ASPAR, Byzantine soldier, XIV. 452. 
ASPARAGIN, in chemistry, XV. 335; 

XVII. 519. 
ASPARAGUS, vegetable, n. 714; xn. 

278. 
ASPASIA, of Miletus, Athenian hetasra, 

II. 714; xvm. 532. 
ASPASIUS, Peripatetic philosopher, II. 

714. 

of Ravenna, rhetorician, 1 1. 714. 

ASPEN, tree, 11.715; xix. 511; in Rocky 

Mountains, U.S.A., xxm. 810. 
ASPENDUS, ancient town, Asia Minor, 

II. 715; xvm. 207; Greek theatre at, 

xxm. 223. 

ASPER, Hans, Swiss painter, II. 715. 
ASPERGILLUM, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 

687. 
ASPERN, Austria, Battle of (1809), ill. 

133; xiv. 289. 
ASPHALT, or Asphaltum, mineral, 11.715; 

xvi. 428; xxm. 58; its use as paving 

material, XX. 586. 
ASPHYXIA, arrest of respiration, II. 716; 

XX. 485; XV. 780; from drowning, VII. 

473; from heat, xxn. 666. 
ASPINWALL, town, Panama, n. 716; 

xvm. 209. 
ASPIRATES, i. 609; xx. 663; xxn. 382; 

in Aryan languages, xvm. 787; 

hieroglyphic, xi. 796; in ancient MSS., 

xvm. 165. 
ASPIRATOR, ventilator in mines, xvi. 

461. 
ASPORE/E, group of Schizomycetes, XXI. 

405. 

ASPREDO, fish, xix. 481. 
ASPROMONTE, Italy, Battle of (1862), 

xm. 491. 

ASPUZI, town, Asia Minor, XV. 320. 
Ass, II. 716; xn. 175; xvn. 13; Arabian, 

n. 242; Egyptian, vn. 711; wild, of 

India, xn. 742; milk of, xvi. 303; 

strength of, XV. 772. 
ASSAI, Brazilian beverage, xvni. 234. 
ASSAM, province, British India, II. 717; 

xn. 744; tea culture in, xn. 750; 

XXIII. 98. 

ASSAMONEUS (Asamonseus), ancestor of 
the Maccabees, II. 714; xv. 131. 



ASSAROTTI, Ottavio G. B., teacher of 
deaf mutes, in Italy, n. 722. 

ASSASSINATION, thuggee, in India, 
xxm. 327. 

ASSASSINS, Moslem sect, n. 722; xvi. 
594; xvn. 771. 

ASSAULT, in law, n. 724; on a wife, 
xxiv. 642. 

Ass AYE, India, Battle of (1803), n. 724; 
xxiv. 495. 

ASSAYING, in metallurgy, II. 724; xvi. 
63; by blowpipe, xix. 213; muffle 
furnace for, ix. 843; of coal, VI. 80; 
of gold, x. 751; of gold and silver 
plate, xix. 1 86; of silver, xxn. 72. 

ASSELYN, Hans, Dutch painter, II. 
728. 

ASSEMANI, family of Oriental scholars, 
n. 728; xxn. 825. 

ASSEMBLY, General, of Church of Scot 
land, xix. 680; xxi. 539; xxm. 728. 
OF NOTABLES, France, ix. 595. 

ASSEN, town, Holland, II. 728. 

ASSENS, town, Denmark, n. 728. 

ASSER, John (Asserius), bishop of Sher- 
borne, England, II. 728. 

ASSESSOR, in law, n. 728. 

ASSETS, in law, n. 729. 

ASSHUR, Assyrian god, in. 193; xxm. 

237- 

ASSIDEANS, or Asidseans, Jewish party, 
II. 729; xm. 421, 422. 

ASSIGNATS, French, IX. 601, 606, 608. 

ASSIGNMENT, in law, n. 729. 

ASSINI, English settlement, West Africa, 
x. 755. 

ASSINIBOIA, district, North-West Terri 
tory, British America, xvn. 573. 

Assist, town, Italy, II. 729. 

ASSIZE, in law, n. 729; courts of, vi. 
516; trial by, xm. 784. 

ASSOCIATE PRESBYTERY, Constitu 
tional, Scottish Seceders, xv. 132; 
xxm. 728. 

ASSOCIATE REFORMED CHURCH, in 
U.S.A., xix. 698. 

ASSOCIATE SYNOD, Scottish Seceders, 
xxm. 728. 

ASSOCIATE SYSTEM, in prison dis 
cipline, xix. 755. 

ASSOCIATION, Working Men s Inter 
national, xm. 189. 

OF IDEAS, in philosophy, n. 730; 

vill. 607; xx. 60; in dreaming, VII. 
458; Dr Thomas Brown on, IV. 388; 
Hartley s theory of, XL 498. 

ASSOCIATIONS, guilds, XL 259. 

, Scientific and literary, XXII. 221. 

ASSOILZIE, in Scots law, I. 58. 

ASSONIUM (Auxonne), ancient town, 
France, ill. 143. 

Assos, or Assus, ancient town, Asia 
Minor, XVII. 122; XXIII. 579. 

ASSUAY, province, Ecuador, 1 1. 734. 

ASSUMPSIT, in law, xxm. 454. 

ASSUMPTION, church festival, n. 734; 
xv. 592. 



ASSUMPTION (Asuncion), town, Para 
guay, n. 825; xvm. 244. 

OF MOSES, Jewish apocalyptic 

book, n. 177. 

ASSURANCE, Life, xm. 168. 

ASSUR-BANI-PAL, king of Assyria, in. 
1 88; his palace at Nineveh, xvn. 512. 

ASSUR-NASIR-PAL, Palace of, at Nineveh, 
xvn. 512. 

ASSUS, ancient town, Asia Minor, XVII. 
122; xxm. 579. 

ASSYNT, Loch, Scotland, xxn. 726. 

ASSYRIA, 11. 734; in. 183; contests of, 
with Israel, Xill. 412; with the Phoeni 
cians, xvni. 808; architecture of, n. 
397; coins, xvn. 650; glass-making 
x. 648; language, in. 192; xxi. 650; 
dictionaries of language, VII. 189; 
libraries, xiv. 509; pottery, XIX. 604; 
religions, xx. 361; xxm. 237. 

ASSYRIAN ALPHABETIC SYMBOLS, i. 
604. 

ASSYRIAN INSCRIPTIONS, xin. 114. 

ASSYRIAN MURAL DECORATIONS, xvn. 

34- 
ASSYRIANS, n. 698. 

ASSYTHMENT, ill Scots law, XVIII. 272. 

AST, George A. F., German philosopher 
and philologist, n. 735. 

ASTA, town, Madura, Indian Archi 
pelago, xv. 194. 

ASTARTE, Phoenician goddess, II. 735; 
xvni. 803; her relation to Aphrodite, 
II. 172; worship of, in Israel, I. 421. 

ASTAUENE, Parthian kingdom, xvni. 
592. 

ASTELL, Mary, English authoress, n. 

735- 
ASTENBERG, mountain, Germany, xxiv, 

516. 
ASTEPA (Estepa), ancient town, Spain, 

vin. 559. 

ASTER, garden plant, n. 735; xn. 250. 
ASTERABAD (Astrabad), province and 

town, Persia, n. 738. 
ASTERIAS GLACIALIS, species of star 
fishes, xx. 416. 
ASTERIDEA, order of Echinodermata, 

vn. 632. 
ASTERIUS of Amasia, writer of homilies, 

n. 736. 
of Cappadocia, Arian writer, n. 

736. 
ASTEROIDEA, class of Echinodermata, 

xxiv. 813. 

ASTEROIDS, minor planets, n. 736, 806. 
ASTEROPHERUS, Magnus Olai, Swedish 

dramatist, XXI I. 754. 
ASTHMA, disease, n. 736. 
ASTI, town, Italy, n. 737. 
ASTIBAS (Istib), ancient town, Asia 

Minor, XIII. 433. 
ASTIGMATISM, defect of the eye, vin. 

819; xvn. 785; spectacles for, xxn. 

373- 

ASTOR, John Jacob, American fur 
merchant, n. 737. 

XXV. - 5 



34 



A S T A T H 



ASTOR, William C., Bunsen s connexion 
with, iv. 522. 

FUR COMPANY, U.S.A., xxiv. 387. 

ASTORGA, town, Spain, II. 737; XXII. 

307- 

, Emanuel d , Italian musical com 
poser, II. 737. 

ASTORIA, town, Oregon, U.S.A., n. 737; 
xvii. 825. 

ASTOR LIBRARY, New York, n. 737; 
xiv. 536. 

ASTRABAD, province and town, Persia, 
ii. 738; xvin. 627. 

ASTR^EA, asteroid, II. 807. 

ASTR^ID/E, family of corals, VI. 376. 

ASTRAKANITE, mineral, XVI. 402. 

ASTRAKHAN, government and town, 
Russia, n. 738; xxi. 69. 

TARTARS, xxm. 70. 

A STRANGE TRUTH, Ford s drama, ix. 

395- 

ASTROLABE, instrument used in navi 
gation, X. 181; XVII. 251. 

, French ship, voyages of, vil. 530. 

ASTROLOGY, n. 738; vn. 294; xxiv. 
795; its relation to magic, XV. 201; 
among the Parsees, xvin. 325; Car 
dan s work on, v. 90; Kepler s rela 
tions to, xiv. 46; Lilly s contributions 
to, xiv. 642; Napier s belief in, XVII. 
183; Michael Scot s contributions to, 
XXI. 470. 

ASTRONOMICA, Manilius s poem, xv. 
489. 

ASTRONOMICAL INSTRUMENTS, Pond s, 
xix. 452; Roemer s, XX. 620; micro 
meter, XVI. 242 ; sextant, xxi. 724; 
telescope, xxm. 135; transit circle, 
xxm. 515. 

ASTRONOMICAL RING, Gemma s, xvii. 
251. 

ASTRONOMY, n. 744 (index, 823); 
applications of, in geodesy, vn. 597; 
x. 165; xxn. 696; in measurement of 
time, XXIII. 392; musical analogies 
with, xvii. 78; Assyrian, in. 191; 
Babylonian, in. 190; Hindu, xxi. 
294; Moslem, xvi. 596; Pythagorean, 
XX. 139; contributions to, by Her- 
schel, XI. 766; by Kepler, Xiv. 46; 
by Lagrange, xiv. 210; by Laplace, 
xiv. 301; by Leverrier, xiv. 486; by 
Maskelyne, XV. 609 ; by Newton, 
xvii. 447; by Pond, xix. 452; Pto 
lemy s system of, XX. 89; by Thales, 
XXIII. 218; Delambre s history of, 
VII. 41 ; works on, by Longomontanus, 
XIV. 866; by Regiomontanus, XX. 342; 
astronomical societies, XXII. 225. 

ASTROPHOTOMETER, XXIV. 798. 

ASTROPHYLLITE, mineral, xvi. 413. 
ASTRORHIZIDEA, order of Protozoa, 

xix. 846. 
ASTRUC, Jean, French physician, n. 

824; xv. 815; on the Pentateuch, 

xvni. 505. 
ASTUR, genus of birds, x. 788. 



ASTURIAN DIALECT, xxn. 350. 
ASTURIAS, province, Spain, II. 824; 

XXII. 298; kingdom of, xxil. 311. 
, Prince of, son of John of Gaunt, 



xxn. 321. 

ASTURICA AUGUSTA (Astorga), ancient 

town, Spain, n. 737; XXH. 307. 
ASTYAGES, Median king, xvm. 564. 
ASUA, affluent of the Nile, Africa, xvn. 

506, 507. 

ASUNCION (Assumption), town, Para 
guay, n. 825; xvm. 244. 
ASURAS, in Hindu theology, XVII. 152; 

xxiv. 821. 

ASWAN, town, Egypt, vn. 783. 
ASYLUM, in ancient Greece, II. 825. 
ASYLUMS, Lunatic, XIIL 110; vin. 255. 

, for the poor, XIX. 475. 
ASYMMETRY, of crystals, xix. 313. 
ASYMPTOTES, in geometry, vi. 280, 723; 

x. 398; XIIL 25; XXIL 671. 
As You LIKE IT, Shakespeare s play, 

xxi. 764. 
ASYUT (Asioot), town, Upper Egypt, 

VIL 775; xxil. 103. 
ATA (Al-Mokaiiua), veiled projohet of 

Khorasan, xvi. 608. 
ATABAPO, town, Venezuela, xvii. 843. 
ATACAMA, department, Bolivia, n. 825; 

IV. n; XVIII. 670. 
, province, Chili, II. 825; v. 617. 



ATACAMITE, mineral, vi. 347; xvi. 385. 
ATACAZO, mountain, Ecuador, vn. 645. 
ATAHUALLPA, Inca prince of Peru, n. 

825; xvm. 677. 
ATAKOR, plateau, Sahara, Africa, xxi. 

149. 

ATALA, Chateaubriand s work, v. 437. 
ATALANTA, in Greek legend, n. 826. 
ATALANTIS, in Greek legend, in. 27. 

, Mrs Mauley s novel, xv. 492. 

ATALIK GHAZI (Amir Yakub Beg), 

ruler of Kashgar, xiv. 7; xxm. 640. 
ATAULF, Gothic chief, x. 849. 
ATAVISM, recurrence of ancestral type, 

vill. 615; in animals, iv. 247. 
ATAXY, Locomotor, disease, n. 826; 

XIII. 101. 

ATBARA, affluent of the Nile, Africa, I. 

62; n. 827; xvii. 507, 508. 
ATBO, or Edfu, town, Upper Egypt, vn. 

653. 
ATCHAFALAYA, river, Louisiana, U.S.A., 

n. 827. 

ATCHINSK, town, Siberia, xxiv. 743. 
ATCHISON, town, Kansas, U.S.A., xm. 

844. 

ATE, in Greek mythology, n. 827. 
ATEAS, Scythian king, xxi. 578. 
ATELES, genus of apes, I. 681; n. 153. 
ATELIER, artist s work-room, xvin. 

137- 

ATELLA, town, Italy, n. 827. 
ATELLAN^E, Roman comedies, vn. 409. 
ATELORNIS, genus of birds, XX. 627. 
ATERNO, river, Italy, xin. 439. 
ATESTE, town, Italy, vin. 558. 



ATH, or Aeth, town, Belgium, n. 827. 
ATHABASCA, river and lake, North 
America, n. 827. 

district, North - West Territory, 



British America, xvn. 573. 
ATHABASCANS, American Indians, 1 xn. 

827. 

ATHALARIC, Gothic chief, x. 851. 
ATHALIAH, of Scripture, n. 827; xin. 

412. 
ATHALIA SPINARUM, turnip saw-fly, 

xxi. 343. 

ATHALIE, Racine s drama, xx. 208. 
ATHANARIC, chief of the Visigoths, x. 

848; xxm. 258, 720. 
ATHANASIAN CREED, vi. 562. 
ATHANASIUS, St, bishop of Alexandria, 

n. 828; at council of Niciea, vi. 560; 

his canon, v. 10. 

of Balad, Syriac writer, xxn. 840. 



ATHAPESCOW (Athabasca), river and 

lake, North America, n. 827. 
ATHAR, collection of Moslem legal 

decisions, xvi. 594. 
(Attar), Ferid Eddin, Persian poet, 

ix. 89; xvin. 658. 
ATHARVA-VEDA, sacred book of Brah- 

manism, xxi. 279. 
ATHEOE, suborder of Chelonia, xxm. 

456. 
ATHEISM, xxm. 234; of Holbach, xn. 

53- 
ATHELING, Edmund, king of Mercia, 

vii. 669. 
ATHELSTAN, or ^thelstan, Saxon king 

of England, II. 830; vin. 285; union 

of Anglo-Saxons under, xvn. 570. 
ATHENA, or Athene (q.v.), Greek goddess 

(the Roman Minerva), II. 830; xvin. 

295. 
- NIKE, Temple of, in. 7. 

POLIAS, Temple of, at Pergamum, 
xvin. 527. 

PROMACHUS, Statue of, at Athens, 

in. 5. 

ATHENAEUM, ancient academy, n. 831. 
ATHEN^EUS, Greek writer, n. 831. 

, physician, in Rome, XV. 803. 

ATHENAGORAS, Christian apologist, n. 

831- 

, Syracusan demagogue, xxn. 814. 
ATHENAIS (Eudocia), wife of Theodosiua 

II., vin. 659. 
ATHENE, or Athena (q.v.), Greek goddess 

(the Latin Minerva), n. 830; xvn. 138; 

xvm. 295; feast of, at Sais, xix. 91; 

brazen house of, at Sparta, xxn. 

370. 

ALEA, Temple of, at Tegea, xxm. 
no. 

ATHENIS, Greek sculptor, iv. 531. 
ATHENODORUS, Greek sculptor, n. 832; 
xiv. 293. 

CANANITES, Stoic philosopher, n. 

832- 

CORDYLION, Stoic philosopher, II. 
832. 



A T H A T T 



35 



ATHENRY, town, Ireland, n. 832; x. 56. 

ATHENS, ancient town, Greece, in. i; 
XI. 100, 113; plain of, ill. 60; anti 
quities of, II. 444; coins of, XVII. 642; 
public finance of, IX. 171; early history 
of, XI. 95; orders of nobility at, xvil. 
526; its school of sculpture, II. 351; 
slaves in, xxn. 130; Dionysiac theatre 
at, in. 3; xxill. 223; water-works of, 
II. 219; its supremacy in Greece, XI. 
100; in Peloponnesian War, XI. 101; 
relations with Persia, XI. 98; XVill. 
570, 574; under the Romans, XI. 107; 
connexion with Sicily, xxn. 17; its 
relations with Sparta, XXII. 370; siege 
of Syracuse, xxn. 814; in time of 
Demosthenes, vii. 68; of Herodotus, XI. 
757; of Justinian, XI. 113; of Pericles, 
XVill. 529; of Pisistratus, xix. 130; of 
Plato, xix. 194; of Solon, xi. 96; xxn. 
254; of Themistocles, xxill. 250; of 
Thucydides, xxill. 322; St Paul s visit 
to, xvm. 420. 

, capital of modern Greece, ill. 1 1 ; 

XI. 85; library at, xiv. 549; observa 
tory, xvil. 714; university, xxill. 852. 
-, town, Georgia, U.S.A., ill. 11. 



, town, Ohio, U.S.A., in. n. 

ATHERIS, genus of vipers, xxiv. 248. 
ATHERSTONE, town, England, xxiv. 

379- 

ATHERTON, town, England, in. u. 
ATHERURA, genus of rodent mammals, 

xix. 518. 
ATHIAS, Joseph, Jewish rabbi and 

printer, in. n. 
ATHLETE, competitors in ancient games, 

in. ii. 
ATHLETIC CONTESTS, Greek and Roman, 

x. 63; XVIL 766. 
ATHLETIC SPORTS, contemporary, ill. 

12; XXI. 60; training diet for, vn. 

203. 
ATHLONE, town, Ireland, in. 13; xxiv. 

5i3- 

, Earl of (Ginckell), general, x. 602. 

ATHOLE, district, Scotland, xvin. 667. 
, Dukes of, their connexion with the 

Isle of Man, xv. 454. 
ATHOR, Egyptian divinity, in. 13; vn. 

717; temple of, in Upper Egypt, vn. 

77- 
ATHOS, peninsula and mountain, Turkey 

in Europe, ill. 14; xv. 140; monastery 

of St Laura at, I. 1 1 ; pilgrimages to, 

Xix. 95. 

ATHTAR, Sabasan god, xxiv. 741. 
ATHUR, Ruins of, at Nineveh, XVII. 

512. 

ATHY, town, Ireland, in. 15; xiv. 73. 
ATHYR (Athor, q.v.\ Egyptian divinity, 

in. 13. 

ATINA, town, Italy, in. 15. 
ATISHA, Lamaist high priest, Tibet, 

xxin. 346. 
ATITLAN, lake and volcano, Guatemala, 

in. 15; XL 239. 



ATJEH (Acheen), government, Sumatra, 

xxn. 639. 

ATKARSK, town, Russia, xxi. 305. 
ATKINSON, H. G., his correspondence 

with Harriet Martineau, xv. 584. 
ATLAND ER MANHEM, Rudbeck s work 

on Sweden, xxn. 755. 
ATLANTA, town, Georgia, U.S.A., in. 15; 

captured by Sherman (1864), xxin. 779. 

, genus of Mollusca, XVI. 654. 

ATLANTACEA, suborder of Mollusca, xvi. 

653- 

ATLANTICA, in Greek mythology, in. 27. 
ATLANTIC CITY, town, New Jersey, 

U.S.A., xvn. 397. 
ATLANTIC OCEAN, in. 15; xvi. 132; 

xxi. 612; density of its water, XVill. 

120; birds of, in. 756; fishes of, xn. 

680 ; railways between it and the 

Pacific, I. 715; first line of steam-ships 

across, vi. 707. 
ATLANTIS, island, in Greek mythology, 

in. 27. 

ATLAS, in Greek mythology, in. 27. 
-, mountains, Africa, in. 27; I. 563; 



xvi. 831. 

ATLI, in Nibelungenlied, xvn. 474. 

ATMOSPHERE, The, in. 28, 381; x. 211, 
220; xvi. 114; geological influences of, 
x. 264; height of, in. 381; impurities 
in, xxiv. 157; physical properties of, 
Xix. 240; refractive power of, II. 769; 
speed of sound relatively to, XXIV. 
418; temperature of, at different eleva 
tions, I. 196; tides in, XXIII. 353; its 
effect on weighing and measuring, 
xxiv. 478. 

OF THE SUN, xxn. 645; x. 215. 



ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE, xxn. 474. 
ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAY, in. 36. 
ATMU, Egyptian divinity, vn. 716. 
ATOK, district, Transcaspian Region, 

Russia, xxni. 510, 511. 
ATOLLS, coral reefs enclosing lagoons, 

vi. 378; xiv. 27; xvi. 257; xix. 418, 

420 ; Murray s theory of origin of, 

XVill. 128; in Maldive Islands, XV. 

328; in Tahiti Archipelago, XXIII. 22; 

in Tuamotu Archipelago, XXIII. 602. 
ATOM, in. 36; xvi. 610. 
ATOMIC THEORY, in chemistry, v. 465; 

vi. 785. 
ATOMIC THEORY, Cosmical, early forms 

of, vin. 756; of Democritus, vn. 59; 

of Empedocles, Vin. 179; of Epicurus, 

vin. 474; of Leucippus, xiv. 484; 

Cudworth s history of, VI. 689. 
ATOMIC WEIGHTS, v. 467, 470; laws of 

combination of, v. 468. 
ATONEMENT, Day of, Jewish fast, vin. 

806. 

, Sacrificial, XXI. 136. 
ATOOI, island, Sandwich Islands, Pacific, 

in. 49. 

ATOPITE, mineral, xvi. 404. 
ATRA, or Atrse, ancient town, Meso 
potamia, xvi. 48; xvin. 605. 



ATRACHELIA, group of beetles, vi. 

i33- 
ATRACTASPIDID^, family of snakes, 

xxn. 193. 
ATR^E, ancient town, Mesopotamia, xvi. 

48; xvin. 605. 
ATRAI, river, India, xx. 261. 
ATRAK (Atrek, q.v.), river, Persia, xvin. 

620. 
ATRATO, river, Colombia, South 

America, ill. 49; vi. 153. 
ATREK, river, Persia, in. 50; xvin. 620; 

xxin. 511. 
ATREUS, in Greek legend, in. 50; xvin. 

480; treasury of, at Mycense, n. 346, 

402. 

ATRI, or Atria, town, Naples, in. 50. 
ATRICHIA, genus of birds, xxi. 554. 
ATRIUM, in Roman and ecclesiastical 

architecture, ill. 50. 

Rome, XX. 819. 



ATROPATENE, Grseco-Persian kingdom, 

XVIII. 586. 

-, ancient province, Persia, xvin. 



626. 

ATROPATES, Persian chief, xv. 143. 
ATROPHY, disease, in. 50; xvin. 256, 

392; in Mollusca, xvi. 644. 

, Acute yellow, of liver, xvin. 386; 

xni. 598; xxiv. 735. 
ATROPIA, ATROPINE, in chemistry, in. 

543; iv. 650; xvn. 231; xix. 279. 
ATROPOS, in Greek mythology, in. 51. 
ATTACHMENT, in law, in. 51; xxiv. 

696. 
ATTACUS, genus of silkworms, xxn. 

60. 
ATTADILLO, edentate mammal, xvin. 

211. 
ATTAGAS, or Attagen, genus of birds, 

xvin. 333. 

ATTAGIS, genus of birds, XIX. 228. 
ATTAINDER, in English law, in. 52; 

Acts of, vin. 330. 
ATTAINT, obsolete writ, in English law, 

xni. 785; xxiv. 694. 
ATTALIA (Adalia), ancient town, Asia 

Minor, in. 52; xvin. 207. 
ATTALICA, Roman cloth of gold, xxin. 

208. 
ATTALUS, king of Pergamum, xv. 143; 

xvin. 527. 
ATTAR, Farid-Uddin, Persian poet, 

ix. 89; xvin. 658. 
OF ROSES, perfume, in. 52; xx. 

851. 
ATTARS, essential oils in perfumes, 

xvin. 525. 
ATTEMPERATOR, brewing utensil, iv. 

275. 
ATTENTION, in psychology, in. 52; xx. 

41. 
ATTERBOM, Per Daniel A., Swedish 

poet, in. 52; xxn. 757. 
ATTERBURY, Francis, bishop of 

Rochester, ill. 53. 
ATTERSEE, lake, Austria, xxi. 241. 



36 



A T T - A U G 



ATTI, Isotta clegli, mistress of Sigis- 

niondo of Rimini, XX. 557. 
ATTIC, in architecture, U. 460. 
- DIALECT, xi. 134. 
DRAMA, vn. 404. 

LITERATURE, xi. 140. 

ATTICA, Greece, in. 57; . xi. 95; coins 

of, xvii. 642. 
ATTICOTTI, ancient British tribes, xin. 

245. 
ATTICUS, Titus Pomponiiis, friend of 

Cicero, III. 61. 
H ERODES, Tiberius Claudius, 

wealthy citizen of Athens, ill. 61. 
ATTIDIAN BRETHREN, Etrurian priests, 

VIII. 664. 

ATTILA, king of the Huns, in. 61; xn. 

381; xx. 781. 
ATTIS, or Atys, in Greek mythology, 

in. 65; xv. 99. 

ATTIUS, Lucius, Latin poet, I. 83. 
ATTOCK, town and fort, India, ill. 62. 
ATTORNEY, in law, in. 62. 

, Power of, in. 62. 

ATTORNEY-GENERAL, in. 63. 
ATTRACTION, in magnetism, xv. 219, 

221. 
, in physics, ill. 63; XL 66; xv. 

702; local, affecting pendulum, vn. 

602. 
ATTRUCK (Atrek), river, Persia, in. 50; 

xvin. 620; xxni. 511. 
ATTWOOD, Thomas, English musical 

composer, ill. 65. 
ATURES, tribe of American Indians, 

xvin. 323. 
, cataract, South America, xvn. 

844. 

ATWOOD, George, English mathemati 
cian, ill. 65; his machine, XV. 716, 

727, 733- 
ATYS, in Greek mythology, in. 65; xv. 

99- 
Au, suburb, Munich, Germany, xvn. 

24. 

AUBAGNE, town, France, in. 65. 
AUBAINE, Proudhon s theory of, XIX. 

867. 
AUBE, department, France, in. 65; 

river, XXI. 624. 

AUBENAS, town, France, in. 66. 
AUBER, Daniel F. E., French musical 

composer, in. 66. 
AUBERGINE, vegetable, xn. 282. 
AUBERT, David, Frankish romancist, 

xx. 649. 

, Stephen (Pope Innocent VI.), xin. 

84. 
AUBERVILLIERS, town, France, XXI. 

624. 

AUBIN, town, France, in. 66. 
AUBRAY, Claude d , French writer, IX. 

655. 
AUBRIOT, Hugues, provost of merchants, 

Paris, XVIII. 289. 
AUBURN, town, New York, U.S.A., in. 

66; xvn. 457. 



AUBUSSON, town, France, in. 67. 
AUCH, town, France, in. 67. 
AUCHENIA, genus of ungulate mammals, 

i. 597; xiv. 738. 
AUCHTERARDER, town, Scotland, in. 

67. 

CASE, in Scottish Church, v. 376; 

ix. 743. 
AUCHTERMUCHTY, town, Scotland, in. 

67. 
AUCKLAND, province, New Zealand, in. 

67; town, in. 68. 
, Earl of, governor-general of India, 

in. 68; xn. 807. 

, Lord, English politician, in. 68. 
ISLANDS, South Pacific, in. 68; 



xvii. 466. 
AUCTION, Sale by, in. 68; XXL 206. 
AUD^EUS, Syrian reformer, in. 69. 
AUDE, department, France, in. 69. 
AUDEBERT, Jean Baptiste, French 

naturalist and artist, in. 69; xvin. 11. 
AUDEFROI LE BASTARD, French song 
writer, ix. 642. 

AUDIGIER, early French satire, IX. 642. 
AUDITA QUERELA, obsolete writ, in 

English law, xxiv. 694. 
AUDITOR, certifier of accounts, in. 69. 
AUDITORY NERVE, in anatomy, I. 895. 
AUDITORY SENSATIONS, vn. 594. 
AUDI US (Audams), Syrian reformer, in. 

69. 

AUDOENUS (John Owen), Latin epigram 
matist, xvin. 85. 

AUDOUIN, Jean Victor, French natural 
ist, ill. 70. 
AUDRAN, Gerard, French engraver, in. 

70; VIIL 442. 

, Jean, French engraver, in. 70. 
AUDUBON, John James, American 

naturalist, in. 70; on American birds, 

xvin. u, 12, 16, 25, 27, 28. 
AUE, Hartmann von der, German poet, 

x. 518, 523; XL 499. 
AUENBRUGGER, Leopold, Austrian 

physician, ill. 145; xv. 815; his 

method of auscultation, in. 100. 
AUERBACH, F., his experiments in 

magnetism, xv. 259. 
AUERSPERG, Count von (Anastasius 

Griin), Austrian poet, X. 546; XL 224. 
AUERSTADT, Battle of (1806), xvn. 210. 
AUFIDENA, ancient town, Italy, xxi. 

249. 
AUFIDUS (Ofanto), river, Italy, xin. 

440. 
AUGEAN STABLES, in Greek legend, in. 

71; XL 726. 
AUGEIAS, or Augeas, in Greek legend, 

in. 71. 

AUGER, boring tool, XL 438. 
AUGEREAU, Pierre Frangois Charles, 

French general, ill. 71. 
AUGHRIM (Aghrim), Ireland, Battle of 

(1691), I. 282. 
AUGITE, mineral, X. 228; XV. 217; XVI. 

416. 



AUGITE-ANDESITE, mineral, x. 235. 

AUGSBURG, town, Germany, in. 71; its 
sculptures, XXI. 566; diet and confes 
sion of (1530), v. 414; vi. 564; x. 498; 
XV. 82, 834; XX. 333; league of (1686), 
IX. 579; XII. 81; peace of (1555), X. 
499. 

AUGUILMIN, town, Morocco, xvi. 834. 

AUGURS, Roman diviners, in. 72; xv. 
202. 

AUGURY, in divination, vn. 293. 

AUGUST, month, in. 73. 

AUGUSTA, town, Georgia, U.S.A., III. 

73- 

, town, Maine, U.S.A , in. 73. 

(Agosta), town, Sicily, I. 285. 
, Ceesarea (Zaragoza), ancient town, 

Spain, xxii. 307; xxiv. 770. 

AUSCORUM (Audi), ancient town, 
France, in. 67. 

EMERITA (Merida), ancient town, 
Spain, xvi. 36; xxn. 307. 

PRETORIA (Aosta), ancient town, 



Italy, u. 147. 

AUGUSTAN AGE, in. 79; xx. 721. 

AUGUSTAN HISTORY, in. 73; Salma- 
sius s notes on, xxi. 220. 

AUGUSTENBURG, Prince Frederick of, 
vn. 88. 

AUGUSTI, John Christian William, Ger 
man theologian, in. 75. 

and C/ESARES, at Rome, xx. 777. 



AUGUSTINE, St, bishop of Hippo, in. 
75; his conference with the Donatists, 
vn. 360; influence of Neoplatonism 
on, xvn. 339; as Biblical interpre 
ter, XL 745; his canon of Scripture, 
v. 11; his ethics, vni. 592; on bap 
tism, in. 349; on the beautiful, I. 216; 
on monachism, xvi. 702; on predesti 
nation, xix. 669. 
-, St, first archbishop of Canterbury, 



in. 78; xvi. 707. 
AuGUSTlNlANS, or Austin Canons, order 

of monks, I. 19; in. 78; xvi. 702. 
AUGUSTINUS, The, Jansen s work, xin. 

566. 
AUGUSTOBONA (Troyes), ancient town, 

France, xxill. 590. 
AUGUSTOMAGUS (Senlis), ancient town, 

France, XXI. 664. 
AUGUSTOVO, or Augustowo, town, 

Russian Poland, in. 79; xxn. 728. 
AUGUSTULUS, Romulus, Roman ern- 

peror, xvn. 726. 
AUGUSTUS (C. Julius Caesar Octavianus), 

Roman emperor, in. 79; XX. 769; in 

Spain, XXII. 307; his relations with 

Tiberius, xxni. 335; his division of 

Rome into regiones, XX. 832; coins 

of, xvn. 653; references to, in the 

^Eneid, xxiv. 254. 

I.-1 1 1., kings of Poland, xix. 297. 

- I., elector of Saxony, XXI. 354. 

- II., of Saxony (II. of Poland), in. 
84; xix. 297; xxi. 354. 

III., of Saxony, in. 85. 



A U G A U W 



AUGUSTUS, mountain, Western Australia, 

xxiv. 507. 

, Era of, v. 716. 

AUJALA, oasis, Tripoli, xxm. 574. 
AUK, bird, in. 85, 734; great, X. 78; 

razor-billed, XX. 302. 
AULACORHAMPHUS, genus of birds, 

XXIII. 477. 
AULDJO VASE, ancient glass vessel, x. 

649. 
AULIC COUNCIL, court of the empire, 

in. 85. 
AULIE-ATA, town, Syr-Daria, Eussia, 

xxn. 821. 

AULIS, ancient town, Greece, m. 85. 
AULLAGAS, lake, Peru, xvm. 673. 
AULNE, Marquis de 1 (Turgot, q.v.\ 

French statesman, XXIII. 627. 
AULOS, Greek musical instrument, XVII. 

707. 
AULUS GELLIUS, Roman author, x. 135; 

xx. 726. 

AUMA, town, Germany, XXI. 349. 
AUMALE, town, France, ill. 85. 
AUMUCE (Almuce), hood, church vest 
ment, vi. 463. 
AUNGERVYLE, Richard (Richard de 

Bury), bishop of Durham, ill. 85. 
AUNT JUDY (Mrs Alfred Gatty), Eng 
lish tale writer, x. 109. 
AURAL DISEASES, vn. 594. 
AURANGZEB, or Aurungzebc, emperor of 

Delhi, in. 99; xii. 795. 
AURANITIS, province, Bashan, ill. 410. 
AURASIUS, mountain, Numidia, xvu. 

628. 
AURATUS, Jean Daurat, French poet, 

vi. 835. 

AURAY, town, France, in. 86. 
AUREA CHERSONESUS, or Malay Penin 
sula, xv. 321. 
AUREATUM (Ingolstadt), ancient town, 

Bavaria, Xlll. 74. 
AURELIAN, Roman emperor, xvm. 

202; XX. 773,776; walls of, at Rome, 

xx. 832. 
AURELIANUS, Caelius, Roman physician, 

in. 86; xv. 804. 
AURELIUS ANTONINUS (Caracalla), 

Roman emperor, v. 81; XXI. 700. 
AURELIUS ANTONINUS, Marcus, Roman 

emperor and philosopher, in. 86; 

xx - 773, 775; as Stoic, xxn. 573. 
AUREOLA, in sacred paintings, in. 89. 
AURES, mountains, Algeria, xvii. 628. 
AUREUS, Roman coin, xvii. 653; de 
preciations of, xvi. 726. 
AURICH, town, Prussia, in. 89. 
AURICHALCITE, mineral, xvi. 399. 
AURICULA, garden plant, xn. 253; xix. 

737- 

AURICULAR CONFESSION, vi. 257. 
AURICULID;E, family of snails, xxn. 1 87. 
AURIFABER, Joannes, friend of Luther, 

in. 89. 
, Joannes, of Breslau, Lutheran 

divine, in. 90. 



AURILLAC, town, France, IIJ. 90. 
AURIPIGMENTUM, orpiment, pigment, 

xvm. 51. 

AUROCHS, European bison, in. 792. 
AURORA, Roman goddess, in. 90. 
BOREALIS, or Northern Lights, in. 

90; xvi. 177, 183; its connexion with 

sun spots, II. 787. 
LEIGH, Mrs Browning s poem, iv. 



392- 

- POLARIS, in. 90. 
AURUNCANS, or Ausonians, ancient 

people, Italy, XIV. 344. 
AURUNGABAD, town, India, in. 99. 
AURUNGZEBE, emperor of Delhi, ill. 

99; XIL 795. 
AUSA (Vich), ancient toAvn, Spain, 

xxiv. 210. 

AUSCHWITZ, town, Austria, in. 100. 
AUSCULTATION, in medicine, in. 100; 

xv. 8 1 6. 
AUSONIANS, or Auruncans, ancient 

people, Italy, XIV. 344. 
AUSONIUS, Decimus Magnus, Roman 

poet, in. 101. 

AUSPEX, Roman diviner, xv. 202. 
AUSPICES, signs in divination, ill. 72. 
AUSSEE, spa, Styria, Austria, xxn. 614. 
AUSSIG, or Aussyenad, town, Bohemia, 

III. 101. 

AUSTEN, Jane, English writer, in. 101. 
, William, English sculptor, XXI. 

559- 

AUSTERLITZ, town, Austria, in. 102; 
battle of (1805), in. 132, 444; ix. 615; 

XVII. 210. 

AUSTIN, town, Texas, U.S.A., xxm. 205. 

, or Augustine (q.v.), Sts, III. 75, 78. 
, Ann, English Quakeress, xx. 152. 

, Captain, Arctic explorer, xix. 321. 

, John, English hymn writer, xii. 

592. 
, John, English jurist, in. 102; on 

government, XI. 9; on jurisprudence, 

XIV. 354. 

, Sarah Taylor, English writer, in. 

102. 
CANONS, order of monks, i. 19; 

xvi. 709. 

AUSTIN S ARTIFICIAL STONE, vi. 243. 
AUSTRALASIA, in. 102; statistics of 

immigration to, VIII. 177. 
AUSTRALIA, in. 103; aborigines, in. 

112; their languages, xvm. 780; 

dictionaries of languages, vn. 192; 

their myths, xvn. 147; their religions, 

xx. 365; totemism among them, 

XXin. 467; birds, ill. 741; xvm. 16; 

coalfields, vi. 59; colonization of, x. 

190; convict settlements, XIX. 750; 

explorations of, ix. 324; x. 186, 195; 

fishes, xn. 674, 676, 681; flora, vn. 

289; forests, IX. 406; gold in, x. 744; 

libraries, XIV. 534, 550; mineral pro 
ducts, xvi. 471; observatories, xvu. 

716; opium cultivation, xvn. 792; 

pearl fisheries, xvin. 447; post office, 



xix. 578; railways, xx. 252; rainfall, 
xvi. 151; universities, xxm. 856; 
wine industry, XXIV. 611. 

AUSTRALIA DEL ESPIRITU SANTO, 
island, New Hebrides, xvu. 395. 

AUSTRALIAN REGION, in zoology, vn. 
272. 

AUSTRALIOID TYPE, of man, n. 113; in 
Asia, n. 697. 

AUSTRASIA, country of the Franks, IX. 
530; X. 477; under Charles Martel, v. 
427. 

AUSTRIA- HUNGARY, European empire, 
in. 115; struggles of Austria with the 
Swiss, XXII. 784; its relations with 
the papacy, vi. 242; its share in the 
partition of Poland, XIX. 298; under 
Joseph II., xni. 750; Napoleon s 
invasion of (1805), xvn. 209; under 
Metternich s policy, xvi. 200; its rule 
in Italy, XIII. 486; war with Prussia, 
(1866), X. 508, 511; army, II. 604, 
660, 666; arsenals, II. 634; coalfields, 
vi. 57; forests, IX. 401; foundling 
hospitals, IX. 483; Jews in, XIII. 685; 
libraries, XI v. 527, 547; mines, xvi. 
468; national debt, xvn. 246; navy, 
xvii. 300; newspapers, xvu. 429; 
observatories, xvn. 713; police system, 
XIX. 343; post office, XIX. 582; prison 
system, XIX. 758; railways, XX. 251; 
university statistics, XXin. 849; 
weights and measures, xxiv. 490; 
wine industry, XXIV. 610. 

AuSTRU, scorching wind, XXI. 15. 

AuTHARi,Flavius, king of the Lombards, 
xiv. 814. 

AUTHIE, river, France, xxn. 261. 

AUTHONNE, river, France, xvn. 749. s 

AUTHORITY, Sovereign, its source, xiv. 
356. 

AUTISSIODURUM (Auxerre), ancient 
town, France, in. 143. 

AUTOCHTHONES, in Greek mythology, 
in. 141. 

AUTO-DA-FE, in. 141; xni. 94. 

AUTOGRAPH, in. 141. 

AUTOLYCUS, Greek astronomer, in. 142; 
n. 748. 

AUTOLYTUS, genus of Annelida, n. 67. 

AUTOMATISM, Descartes on, vn. 125. 

AUTOMATON, self-moving machine, in. 
142; as used in conjuring, xv. 208. 

AUTOPHRADATES, satrap of Lydia, xvin. 

579- 

AUTOS SACRAMENTALES, Spanish re 
ligious dramas, iv. 660; vn. 421; xxiv. 
124. 

AUTUN, town, France, in. 142. 

AUTUNOIS, district, France, xxi. 301. 

AUVERGNE, district, France, ill. 142. 

, Henri de la Tour d (Turenne), 

French general, xxin. 626. 

AUVERNIER, Switzerland, lake-dwelling, 
remains at, Xiv. 224. 

AUWERS, Dr, on parallax measurements, 
xvin. 248. 



38 



A U X A Z I 



AUXENTIUS of Capparlocia, Arian theo 
logian, in. 143. 
AUXERRE, town, France, in. 143; xxiv. 

746. 

AUXONNE, town, France, in. 143. 
AUXUME (Axum, q.v.), ancient Abys 
sinian kingdom, in. 162; I. 65; xxi. 

654. 

AVA, town, Burmah, in. 143. 
AVAHIS, genus of lemurs, xiv. 441. 
AVALLON, town, France, in. 144; xxiv. 

746. 
AVALON, peninsula, Newfoundland, 

xvn. 382. 
, St Hugh of, bishop of Lincoln, 

XII. 336. 

AVANTURINE, mineral, xvi. 389. 
AVARS, ancient people of Asia, xxni. 

659; their invasion of Greece, XI. 112; 

their overthrow by Charlemagne, v. 

403; xiv. 60. 

, Caucasian tribe, XIV. 475. 

AVATCHA, volcano, Kamchatka, ill. 144. 
AVEBURV, village, England, in. 144; 

cromlech at, XXI. 51; stone circles at, 

II. 383; xxiv. 594. 
AVEDICK, Armenian patriarch, XIII. 

36r. 

AVEIRO, town, Portugal, in. 144. 
AVELLA, town, Italy, in. 144. 
AVELLINO, town, Italy, in. 144. 
AVEMPACE, Arabian philosopher, in. 

144; II. 269; XXI. 426. 
AVENA, genus of grasses, xvn. 696. 
AVENERUGGER, Leopold, Austrian phy 
sician, in. 145; XV. 815; his method 

of auscultation, in. 100. 
AVENCHES, district, Switzerland, xxiv. 

114, 115. 
AVENTINE HILL, at Rome, xx. 731, 

807. 

AVENTINUS, Johann Thurmayr, Ger 
man writer, III. 145. 
AVENTURINE, Venetian glass, xvn. 48. 
AVENZOAR, Arabian physician, ill. 145; 

xv. 805. 
AVERAGE, in maritime commerce, in. 

145; in marine insurance, xni. 187. 
, mathematical and statistical, XIX. 

780; xxn. 465. 

AVERNUS, lake, Italy, in. 149. 
AVERROES, Arabian philosopher and 

physician, in. 149; n. 269; xv. 805; 

xxi. 426. 
AVERRUNCUS, epithet of Jupiter, xni. 

780. 

AVERSA, town, Italy, in. 152. 
AVESNES, town, France, in. 152. 
AVESTA, sacred book of the Parsees, 

xxiv. 775; xvni. 584, 653. 
AVEYRON, department, France, III. 152. 
AVEZZANO, town, Italy, in. 152. 
AVIANUS, Latin fabulist, vin. 838. 
AVICEBRON, Jewish philosopher, III. 

152; n. 268; vin. 758; XXI. 426. 
AVICENNA, Arabian philosopher and 

physician, in. 152; n. 267; xv. 805; 



XXI. 426; as writer in Persian, xvni. 

656. 

AVICENNIA, genus of trees, xv. 481. 
AVIENUS, Rufus Festus, Latin poet, in. 

155- 

AVIGLIANO, town, Italy, in. 155. 

AVIGNON, town, France, in. 155; xxiv. 
114; seat of papal court, v. 821; xni. 
476; xix. 501 ; "in time of Petrarch, 
xvni. 706; bridge at, IV. 330; uni 
versity, XXin. 839. 

AVILA, province, Spain, in. 156; xxn. 
298; town, in. 156. 

, Gil Gonzalez d , Spanish writer, 

in. 157. 

Y ZUNIGA, Luis d , Spanish his 



torian, in. 157. 
AVILES, San Nicolas de, town, Spain, 

in. 157. 

AVLONA, town, Albania, III. 157. 
AVOCA, or Ovoca, river, Ireland, xxiv. 

557- 
AVOCADO OIL, xvn. 744, 747. 

AVOGADRO S LAW OF GASES, V. 465; 

xvi. 611; xx. 131. 
AVOIRDUPOIS, system of weights, in. 

157; ii. 533; xxiv. 489. 
AVOLA, town, Sicily, in. 157. 
AVON, rivers, England, Scotland, France, 

in. 157. 

, river, Nova Scotia, xvn. 601. 
-, river, Linlithgow, Scotland, XIV. 



669. 



, Lower, river, Somerset, England, 
xxn. 257; xxiv. 594. 
, Southern, river, Wilts, England, 
xxiv. 594. 
-, Upper, or Shakespearean, river, 



England, xvn. 555; xxiv. 379. 
AVOSET, bird, XXII. 552. 
AVRANCHES, town, France, in. 157. 
AVRANCHIN, district, France, xv. 458. 
AWAJI, island, Japan, xni. 569. 
AWANTIBO, lemur, xiv. 443. 
AXAN (Alp Arslan), Seljuk sultan, I. 598. 
AXAYACATL, Mexican ruler, xvi. 210. 
AXE, hand-tool, XL 437; battle-axe, n. 

555- 
, river, Somerset, England, xxn. 257. 



AXELHOLM (Axholm), Isle of, England, 

III. 157; xiv. 653. 
AXES, of crystals, xvi. 347. 
AXHOLM, Isle of, England, in. 157; xiv. 

653- 
AXIM, river, Gold Coast, Africa, I. 421; 

x. 755. 

AXINITE, mineral, XVI. 411. 
AXINOMANCY, ordeal, xvn. 818. 
AXIOM, in philosophy, III. 158; in 

geometry, x. 376. 
AXIS, of a magnet, XV. 220, 238. 
-, Earth s, Stability of, x. 216. 



AXUM, ancient town, Abyssinia, in. 162; 
i. 65; inscriptions at, vin. 613; xxi. 
654. 

j AXYLUS, or Axylum, district, Asia 
Minor, n. 704; xvni. 852. 

AYACUCHO, town, Peru, xvni. 675. 
, La Paz de, town, Bolivia, xiv. 298. 

AYAMONTE, town, Spain, in. 162. 

AYANI, Hasani Shabistari, Persian his 
torian, xvni. 657. 

AYE-AYE, lemur, xiv. 443; xv. 170. 

AYEN, count and dukes of, xvn. 523. 

AYLESBURY, town, England, in. 162. 

AYLESFORD, village, England, in. 162. 

AYLMER, John, bishop of London, in. 
162. 

AYMARAS, South-American Indians, iv. 
15; xvni. 676; religion of, xx. 364. 

AYMON, Four Sons of, romance, xx. 
652. 

AYR, town, Scotland, in. 164. 

AYRER, Jacob, German dramatist, in. 
165. 

AYRSHIRE, county, Scotland, in. 162; 
coalfield of, vi. 53; area and population, 
xxi. 528; representation, xxni. 727. 
CATTLE, i. 388. 

AYTON, Sir Robert, early Scottish poet, 
in. 165. 

AYTOUN, William Edmonstoune, Scot 
tish man of letters, in. 165. 

AYUKA KHAN, Mongol chief, iv. 710; 
xvi. 745. 

AYUTHIA, town, Siam, xxi. 852. 

AYYUBITES, Moslem dynasty, Egypt, 
xvi. 588. 

AZAIS, Pierre Hyacinthe, French writer, 
in. 166. 

AZALEA, plant, xii. 262; xx. 527. 

AZAMMUR, town, Morocco, xvi. 831. 

A-ZANDEY, African race, xvn. 473. 

AZANIA, district, Africa, I. 432; XXIV. 

739- 

AZARA, Felix de, Spanish naturalist, in. 
1 66. 
-, Jose Nicholas d , Spanish diplo- 



AxiUS, river, Macedonia, XV. 136. 
AXMINSTER, town, England, in. 162; 

carpets of, v. 131. 
AXOLOTL, amphibian, xxn. 96. 
AXONIA, morphological form, xvi. 843. 



matist, in. 167. 
AzcAPUZALCO, ancient Mexican town, 

xvi. 209. 
AZEGLIO, Marqxus d , Italian writer and 

statesman, in. 167; xni. 487, 489. 
AZERBIJAN, or Adarbaijan, province, 

Persia, in. 167; xvni. 626. 
AZEUS, or Azeis, epithet of Zeus at 

Laodicea, Xiv. 293. 
AZHAR, moscp.ie and college, Cairo, iv. 

646; xxn. 660. 

AZILA, town, Morocco, xvi. 831. 
AziMGARH, district and town, India, in. 

168. 
AZIMUTH, denned, x. 198; in surveying, 

xxn. 700, 705, 712. 
COMPASS, xvi. 160. 



AZINCOURT (Agincourt), Battle of 
(1415), i. 282; vin. 320; ix. 549. 

Aziz, province, Asiatic Turkey, xxni. 
653. 



A Z O B A C 



39 



AZO, Italian writer on law, III. 169. 
AZOFF, town, Russia, in. 169. 

, Sea of, Russia, in. 169, 796. 

Azoic STRATA, in geology, x. 327. 
AZOLITMIN, chemical substance, XIV. 

73- 
AZORES, islands, Atlantic Ocean, in. 

169, 1 8. 

AzOTUS (Aslidod, q.v.\ town, Palestine, 
in. 172. 

AZPEITIA, town, Spain, in. 172. 

AzRAK, Bahr el (Blue Nile), Africa, 
xvn. 507, 508. 

AZRAKI, Arab historian, xxm. 3. 

AZTECS, ancient people of Mexico, in. 
172; I. 695, 706; xn. 828; xvi. 206; 
in Nicaragua, XVII. 479; their hiero 
glyphic symbols, I. 602; their mytho 
logy, xvn. 150. 

AZULEJOS, Moorish wall-tiles, xvn. 36. 

AZUNI, Domenico Alberto, Italian jurist, 
in. 172. 

AZURE, blue pigment, xix. 87. 

AZURITE, mineral, xvi. 399; XV. 315. 

AZYGOBRANCHIA, order of Mollusca, 
xvi. 648; xxii. 187. 

Azzo (Azo), Italian writer on law, in. 
169. 

I. -VI 1 1., princes of Este, Italy, 

VIII. 558. 



T) the second letter of the alphabet, 
D > in. 173. 
BAADER, Franz Xaver von, German 

philosopher, in. 173; xxm. 247, 279. 
BAAL, title of Semitic deities, in. 175; 

iv. 764; xin. 402; xvi. 696; xvni. 

803; XXIII. 237; human sacrifices to, 

xvni. 730; worship of, in Israel, I. 

421. 

BAALBEC, ancient town, Syria, in. 176. 
BAAL-ZEBUB, Philistine god, in. 503; 

xvni. 756. 

BAANES, Paulician teacher, xvni. 434. 
BAARAS, fabulous herb, xv. 476. 
BAB, The (Mohammed Ali), founder of 

Babism, in Mohammedanism, ill. 180; 

xvni. 650; xxn. 665. 
BABA-DAGH, mountains, Asia Minor, n. 

706; v. 254. 
BABAR (Baber, q.v.), founder of the 

Mogul empire, in. 179; n. 700. 
BABATAG, town, Bulgaria, in. 178. 
BABBA, town, Mauritania, Africa, xv. 

637- 

BABBAGE, Charles, English mathema 
tician, in. 178; his calculating machine, 

iv. 654 > logarithmic tables by, xxm. 

10. 
BABCOCK, Alphseus, pianoforte maker, 

xix. 77. 
BABEGAN (Artaxerxes I.), king of 

Persia, n. 642. 

BABEL, of Scripture, in. 178. 
BAB-EL-MANDEB, strait, Red Sea, in. 

179; xx. 316. 



BABER (Zehir-ed-din Mohammed), foun- | 

derof Mogul dynasty, in. 179; 11.700; 

xn. 793, 794; xvni. 632. 
BABEUF, Francois Noel, French socialist, 

in. 179; ix. 609; xxn. 207. 
BABHAI, the Archimandrite, Syriac 

writer, xxn. 842. 

BAR NESIBHNAYE, Syriac writer, 

xxn. 844. 

BABHAVUTI, Hindu dramatist, vii. 397. 
BABI, Mohammedan sect in Persia, in. 
- 180; xvni. 650; xxn. 665. 
BABIA GORA, mountain, Carpathians, 

Austria, x. 25. 

BABIL, part of modern Babylon, in. 183. 
BABINGTON, Anthony, conspirator 

against Elizabeth of England, xv. 600. 
BABINGTONITE, mineral, xvi. 417. 
BABIRUSSA, genus of ungulate mammals, 

xxn. 774. 
BABLE, Asturian dialect, n. 824; xxm. 

35- 
BABOONS, genus of apes, n. 152; xv. 

477- 

BABOUVISM, the communism of Babeuf, 
in. 180; xxn. 207. 

BABRIUS, or Babrias, Greek fabulist, in. 
181; vin. 838. 

BABUNGERA (Niam-Niam), Central- 
African race, xvn. 473. 

BABUYANES, islands, Philippines, xvni. 

751- 
BABY (Babi), Mohammedan sect in 

Persia, in. 180; xvni. 650; xxn. 665. 
BABYLON, city, in. 182; as the capital 

of Alexander s empire, XVIII. 583; 

captivity of the Jews in, xin. 417; 

under Medo-Persian rule, xvin. 566, 

572; carpets of, v. 128; embroideries, 

vin. 161; wall-sculptures, xvn. 34. 
BABYLONIA, in. 183; chronology of, by 

Berosus, III. 607; geographical extent 

of, xvi. 50; contest with Israel, xin. 

379; conquest of, by Cyrus, VI. 753; 

Parthian kingdom of, XVin. 592 ; 

coins of, xvn. 650; Jewish schools in, 

XIII. 429; language of, XXI. 649; 

pottery of, XIX. 604. 
BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY OF THE 

CHURCH, Luther s work, xv. 78. 
BABYLONIAN COSMOGONIES, vi. 446. 
BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS, xin. 114. 
BABYLONIAN NUMERALS, xvn. 625. 
BABYLONIAN PHILOSOPHERS, i. 461. 
BABYLONIANS, n. 698; their religion, 

xx. 362; xxm. 237. 
, The, Aristophanes s comedy, n. 

509. 

BABYLONICA, Greek novel, xx. 634. 
BACASIS (Manresa), ancient town, Spain, 

xv. 497. 

BACCARAT, town, France, in. 194. 
BACCH^E, worshippers of Bacchus, xvn. 

839- 

, Euripides s play, Vin. 667. 

BACCHANALIA, Greek religious festivals, 

vii. 247. 



BACCHIAD^, ruling family in ancient 

Corinth, VI. 397. 

BACCHIGLIONE, river, Italy, in. 194. 
BACCHUS, Roman god (the Greek 

Dionysus), vn. 248; II. 103; orgies of, 

xvn. 839; xxi. 137. 
BACCHYLIDES, Greek poet, in. 194. 
BACCIO DELLA PORTA, Italian painter, 

in. 194; xx. 275. 
BACH, Johann Sebastian, German 

musician, in. 194; XIX. 67; character 

of his music, xvn. 90. 
, Karl Philip Emmanuel, German 

musical composer, ill. 196; XIX. 67; as 

symphonist, xvil. 96. 
BACHE, Mount, California, U.S.A. 

xxni. 801. 

, Alexander Dallas, American physi 
cist, in. 196. 
BACHELOR, in. 196. 

, Knight, xiv. 117. 

OF ARTS, university degree, xxni. 



835.. 
BACHIAN (Batchian), island, Indian 

Archipelago, in. 197. 
BACILLARIACE^E, former name of 

Diatomaceoe, vn. 169. 
BACILLUS, vegetable organism, XXI. 399. 
ANTHRACIS, infective organism, 



xvn. 59; xxi. 400; xxn. 679. 
BACK, George, Arctic explorer, x. 193; 

xix. 319, 320. 
BACKERGUNJE (Bakarganj), district, 

India, in. 247. 
BACKERS, Americus, pianoforte maker, 

xix. 73. 

BACKGAMMON, game, in. 197. 
BACKHUYSEN, Ludolf, Dutch painter, 

in. 200. 

BACKING, in betting, in. 619. 
BACKLEYS, cattle of the Kaffres, v. 246. 
BACKOVSKY, F., Bohemian writer, xxn. 

153- 

BACKSWORD, weapon, xxn. 801. 

BACKWARDATION, Stock Exchange term, 
i. 92. 

BACON, Francis (Lord Verulam), lord 
chancellor of England and philosopher, 
111.200; vin. 344; on aeronautics, 1. 187; 
on astrology, 1 1. 742; his cryptographic 
system, vi. 670; his logic, xiv. 791; 
his rhetoric, xx. 515; his theism, 
xxni. 244; his place in English litera 
ture, vin. 422. 

, John, English sculptor, in. 218; 
xxi. 560. 

, or Baconthorpe, John, learned 

English monk, III. 222. 

, Sir Nicholas, keeper of the great 

seal, in. 218. 

, Roger, English philosopher and 

scientist, ill. 218; VIII. 409; XVI. 710; 
imprisoned by Pope Nicholas IV., 
xvn. 484; on alchemy, I. 464; his 
claim of power to fly, I. 186; his 
magical inventions, XV. 208; on 
mnemonics, xvi. 532 ; on optical glasses, 



40 



B A C B A H 



xxiii. 135; on the travels of Friar 
William, xxi. 47. 
BACONTHORPE, John, learned English 

monk, in. 222. 
BACSANYI, Jaiios, Hungarian poet, in. 

222; xn. 377. 
BACTERIA, vegetable organisms, xxi. 

398 ; in animal tissues, XXII. 680 ; 

their power of resisting heat, ill. 680, 

688. 
BACTERIUM, genus of Schizomycetes, 

xxi. 399, 405. 
BACTHIAN (Cachao), town, Anam, iv. 

624. 

BACTRA (Balkh), ancient town, Afghani 
stan, in. 282; I. 243. 
BACTRIA, or Bactriana, ancient country, 

Asia, ill. 222; XVlll. 101; kingdom, 

XViil. 587, 589, 599, 603; conquest of, 

by Alexander, xv. 141; Greek colonies 

in, xvni. 583; language of, XVlll. 653. 
BACUP, town, England, in. 222. 
BADAGAS, hill tribes, India, xvn. 509. 
BADAGRY, town, West Africa, xxiv. 

754- 
BADAJOS, province, Spain, 111.223; VIIL 

564; xxil. 298. 

, town, Spain, ill. 223; capture of 

(1812), xxiv. 496. 
BADAKHSHAN, country, Central Asia, 

in. 223, 241; rubies of, xxi. 48. 
BADALOCCHIO, Sisto (Rosa), Italian 

painter, in. 224. 
BADARINATH, or Badrinath, town 

and temple, India, in. 229; XI. 835. 
BADBURY, town, England, xxiv. 594. 
BADEN, grand-duchy, Germany, in. 

224. 

, town, Austria, in. 227 ; mineral 

water of, xvi. 435. 

, town, Switzerland, in. 227; min 
eral water of, xvi. 433. 

BADEN, town, Germany, in. 226; 

mineral water of, xvi. 434. 
BADENOCH, Wolf of, brother of Robert 

III. of Scotland, XXI. 491. 
BADENWEILER, town, Baden, mineral 

water of, xvi. 433. 
BADGE, in heraldry, xi. 709. 
BADGER, group of carnivorous mam 
mals, in. 227; XV. 440; hibernation 

of, XI. 788; skins of, IX. 837. 

, Honey, XX. 288. 

BADHYZ, district, Transcaspian Region, 

Russia, xxin. 512. 
BADIA Y LEBLICH, Domingo, Spanish 

traveller, in. 227. 
BADIUS, Jodocus or JOSSL, Belgian 

printer, in. 228. 
BADKU, government and town, Russia, 

in. 258. 

BADMWTON, game, in. 228. 
BADNUR, town, India, in. 228. 
BAD PYRMONT, town, Germany, xxiv. 

321. 
BADRINATH, town and temple, India, 

in. 229; xi. 835. 



BADURIA, town, India, xxin. 673. 

B/EDA (Bede, g.r.), early English his 
torian, in. 480. 

BAELE, tribe, North Central Africa, 
xxin. 334. 

BAENA, town, Spain, in. 229. 

, Alfonso de, Spanish writer, XXI I. 

355- 

BAENID^E, family of reptiles, xxin. 457. 
BAER, Carl Ernst von, Russo-German 

naturalist, xxiv. 807; on embryology, 

vin. 165; xvi. 839; on evolution, 

vin. 749,763; his law of development, 

xx. 421. 
BJETICA (Andalusia), ancient Roman 

province, Spain, n. 10; xxil. 307. 
BAEZA, town, Spain, in. 229. 
BAFFIN, William, English navigator, in. 

229; x. 184; his northern explorations 

and discoveries, xix. 317. 
BAFFIN S BAY, North America, in. 

229. 

BA-FING, river, West Africa, xxi. 660. 
BAFIOTE, people, West Africa, xiv. 742. 
BAGAMOYO, town, East Africa, xxiv. 

768. 

BAGARIUS, genus of fishes, xxn. 68. 
BAGATELLE, game, in. 229. 
BAG AY, Nouvelles Tables Astrono- 

miques by, XXIII. ir. 
BAGEHOT, Walter, English economist, 

xix. 396; vin. 259. 
BAGGER, Carl Christian, Danish writer, 

vn. 93. 
BAGGESEN, Jens Emmanuel, Danish 

humorist, III. 230; VII. 92. 
BAGGIO, Anselmo (Pope Alexander II.), 

I. 486. 
BAGHDAD, province, Asiatic Turkey, in. 

231; xxin. 653. 
-, town, Asiatic Turkey, in. 231; 



founding of, n. 259; xvi. 579; caliphs 

of, I. 8; capture of, by the Mongols, 

xvi. 742; conquest of, by the Turks, 

xxin. 645; observatory, xvn. 709; 

school of philosophy, n. 267. 
BAGHERMI, or Bagirmi, district, Central 

Africa, in. 234; i. 271; xxn. 279; 

group of Negroes, xvil. 319. 
BAGHMATI, or Bagmati, river, India, 

in. 235; xvn. 340. 
BAGHTCHASARAI, town, Russia, in. 249; 

vi. 586. 

BAGIMOND S ROLL, Scotland, i. 491. 
BAGIRMI, district, Central Africa, in. 

234; i. 271; xxn. 279; group of 

Negroes, xvn. 319. 
BAGLEY, Thomas, Lollard preacher, xiv. 

812. 
BAGLIONI, Gian Paolo and Rodolfo, 

tyrants of Perugia, xvni. 680. 
BAGLIVI, Giorgio, Italian physician, in. 

235- 
BAGMATI (Baghmati), river, Nepal, in. 

235; xvn. 340. 
BAGNACAVALLO, Bartolommco, Italian 

painter, in. 235. 



BAGNERES-DE-BIGORRE, town, France, 

in. 235; xx. 127; mineral waters of, 

xvi. 433. 
BAGNERES-DE-LUCHON, town, France, 

in. 235. 
BAGNI, Casciano dei, town, Italy, v. 

175- 

DI LUCCA, commune, Italy, xv. 39. 

BAGNOLES, mineral spring, France, 

XVIII. I. 

BAGNYON. Jean, French romancist, xx 

650. 

BAGOAS, Persian satrap, xvni. 581. 
BAGPIPE, musical instrument, in. 235. 
BAGRADAS (Mejerda), river, North 

Africa, xxin. 619. 
BAGRAT I. -IV., rulers of Georgia, x. 

432. 
BAGRATION, Prince Peter, Russian 

general, in. 235; xvn. 217. 
BAGRU, river, Sierra Leone, Africa, xxn. 

45- 

BAGRUS, genus of fishes, xxn. 68. 
BAGURA (Bogra), district, India, in. 

859. 
BAHADUR, Sir Jung, ruler of Nepal, 

xvn. 344. 
BAHALUL, jester of Haroun al Raschid, 

ix. 366. 
BAHAMAS, islands, West Indies, in. 236; 

xxiv. 510. 
BAHARA SAPHINQUE, sulphur mine, on 

Red Sea, xxn. 634. 
BAHA-UDDIN WALAD, Persian doctor, 

xxi. 59. 
BAHIA, province and town, Brazil, in. 

239- 

BAHIR, Midrash, xvi. 287. 
BAHIUDA, desert, Nubia, Africa, xvn. 

610. 
BAH RAICH, district and town, India, 

xvni. 72. 
BAHR AL-ABIAD (White Nile), river, 

Africa, I. 48; 1 1. 62; xvn. 506, 508. 
BAHR AL-ASWAD, or Atbara, tributary of 

the Nile, Africa, n. 62, 827; xvn. 

507, 508. 
BAHR AL-AZRAK (Blue Nile), river, 

Africa, II. 62; xvn. 507. 
BAHR AL-GHAZAL, tributary of the 

Nile, Africa, xvn. 506. 
BAHR AL-JEBEL, headwaters of the 

Nile, Africa, xvn. 505, 507. 
BAHR AL-ZERAF, branch of the Nile, 

Africa, xvn. 506. 
BAHRAM I. -I I., kings of Persia, xvni. 

608. 

- III., of Persia, xvni. 609. 

- IV.-V., of Persia, xvni. 610. 

CnOBIN, Persian general, xvni. 

613- 

- KHAN, Turkoman noble, I. 434. 
BAHRDT, Karl Friedrich, German theo 
logian, in. 240. 

BAHREIN, island, Persian Gulf, in. 240; 

n. 254; pearl fisheries of, xvni. 447. 
BAHR EL-ASWAD. See Bahr al-Aswad. 



B A H B A L 



41 



BAHREYN (Bahrein, q.v.), island, Persian 
Gulf, in. 240; n. 254. 

BAHRIYA, oasis, Africa, xvn. 695. 

BAHR-YOOSUF, canal, Egypt, vn. 710. 

BAI^E, ancient town, Italy, ill. 240; II. 
221; bay of, XVii. 1 88. 

BAIBURT, town, Asiatic Turkey, in. 
240. 

BAIERN (Bavaria, q.v.), in. 453. 

BAIE ST PAUL, town, Canada, xx. 
167. 

BAIF, Jean Antoine cle, French poet, 
Hi. 240; IX. 650; xx. 841. 

BAIKAL, Lake, Siberia, in. 241; xiv. 
217; xxii. 5; xxiii. 510. 

BAIKALITE, mineral, xvi. 416. 

BAIKIE, William Balfour, African ex 
plorer, in. 241. 

BAIL, in law, in. 241. 

BAILEN, or Baylen, town, Spain, in. 
241. 

BAILEY, in architecture, II. 460. 

, or Baily, Nathanael, English lexi 
cographer, in. 241. 
-, Samuel, English philosopher, in. 



241. 
BAILIE, Captain, Erskine s defence of, 

vin. 530. 

BAILIFF, ancient magistrate, iv. 62. 
BAILLET, Adrien, French writer, in. 

242. 
BAILLEUL, town, France, in. 242; xvn. 

535- 
BAILLIE, Joanna, English writer, in. 

243- 

, Matthew, anatomist and physician, 

in. 243; XV. 813. 

, Robert, Scottish Presbyterian 

divine, in. 243. 

BAILLY, Jean Sylvain, French astro 
nomer and Revolutionist, in. 244. 

BAILMENTS, in law, vn. 239. 

BAILY, Edward Hodges, English sculp 
tor, in. 245; xxi. 561. 

, Francis, English astronomer, in. 

245- T 

, Nathanael, English lexicographer, 

in. 241. 

BAIN, Alexander, on the beautiful, I. 
223; on education, vn. 678; on emo 
tional expression, xx. 43; on psycho 
logy of belief, in. 534. 

BAINBRIDGE, John, English physician 
and astronomer, in. 245. 

BAINES, Edward, English journalist, in 
245. 

, Matthew Talbot, English lawyer, 

in. 245. 

BAINI, Giuseppe, Italian musician, in. 
246. 

BAINSHA, tame buffalo, iv. 442. 

BAIRAKTAR, Turkish vizier, xxm. 
648. 

BAIRAM, Turkish festival, in. 246. 

ALI, town, Merv, Asia, xvi. 43. 

BAIRAMITCH, Plain of, Asia Minor, 
xxm. 578. 



BAIRD, Sir David, British general, in. 

246. 
, Spencer F., on North American 

birds, xvin. 16; on American fisheries, 

ix. 267. 
BAIREUTH, or Bayreuth, town, Bavaria, 

in. 246; Wagner s opera-house at, 

xxiv. 316. 
BAIRUT (Beyrout, q.v.), town, Syria, in. 

622. 

BAISA BOL, gum resin, xvn. 121. 
BAISI, district, Nepal, xvn. 340. 
BAISUN, town, Hissar, Central Asia, 

xn. 3. 
BAIT, in angling, II. 35; mussels as, 

xvn. no. 

BAITARANI, river, India, v. 243. 
BAITOOL, or Betul, district, India, in. 

619. 

BAIZE, coarse woollen stuff, IX. 292. 
BAJA, town, Hungary, in. 246. 

, town, Tunis, xxm. 620. 
BAJAZET, or Bayezid, I., Turkish sultan, 

in. 247; xxm. 641. 

II., Turkish sultan, ill. 247; XXI 1 1. 

642. 

, Racine s drama, xx. 207. 

BAJAZID, town, Armenia, in. 458. 
BAJREE, Egyptian millet, xvi. 321. 
BAJUS, Michael (De Bay), Belgian 

theologian, in. 247. 
BAJZA, Joseph, Hungarian poet, in. 247; 

xn. 378. 

BAKARGANJ, district, India, in. 247. 
BAKEL, town, Senegal, Africa, xxi. 

660. 
BAKER, Henry, English physicist, in. 

249. 

, J. G., on the varieties of the 

potato, xix. 595. 

, Sir Richard, English chronicler, 

in. 249. 
-, Sir Samuel, his Egyptian expedi 



tion, I. 248; his Nile explorations, 
xvn. 506. 

, Thomas, English antiquary, in. 
249. 
-, Mount, Cascade Mountains, U.S.A., 



xxm. 800. 
BAKERIES, Public, in Rome, in. 250. 
BAKEWELL, town, England, in. 249. 

, Robert, English agriculturist, I. 

302. 
BAKHCHISARAI, or Baghtchasarai, town, 

Russia, in. 249; vi. 586. 
BAKHMUT, town, Russia, in. 250. 
BA-KHOY, river, Senegal, West Africa, 

xxi. 660. 
BAKI, Ottoman elegiac poet, xxm. 

656. 

BAKING, in. 250; of meat, vi. 332. 
BAKU, government and town, Russia, j 

in. 258; xxi. 69; xxm. 513, 514. 
BAKUNIN, Michael, Russian socialist, 

xin. 190; xxii. 216. 
BAKYR TCHAI, river, Asia Minor, n. 

708. 



BALA, town, Wales, in. 258; lake, xvi. 

39- 

BALAAM, of Scripture, in. 258. 
BALACLAVA, harbour, Crimea, Russia, 

vi. 587. 
BALADHORI, Moslem historian, xvi. 

596. 
BALTENA, genus of cetacean mammals, 

xxiv. 523; xv. 395. 
BAL^NICEPS, genus of birds, xxn. 

577- 
BAL^ENOIDEA, suborder of Cetacea, xv. 

394- 
BAL/ENOPTERA, genus of cetacean 

mammals, xxiv. 524; xv. 395. 
BAL^EUS, of Aleppo, Syriac writer, 

xxn. 828. 
BALAFRF, (Francis of Guise), French 

soldier, XI. 266. 
BALAGHAT, district, Central India, in. 

260. 
, The, tracts of hill country, India, 

v. 608; xxi. 210. 
BALAI (Balaeus), Syriac writer, xxn. 

828. 

BALAMIR, leader of the Huns, xn. 381. 
BALANCE, measuring apparatus, in. 

261; automatic, xvi. 490; spring, 

invention of, xn. 149. 

, Compensation, for watch, xxiv. 

395- 

OF POWER, in. 267. 



BALANCING LETTER, The, Somers s 

pamphlet, xxii. 257. 
BALANID^, suborder of Crustacea, vi. 

651, 665. 

BALANINUS, genus of insects, xxiv. 477. 
BALANOGLOSSUS, species of worms, 

xxiv. 179, 187. 
BALANOPHORACE^E, parasitic plants, 

xvin. 266. 
BALANTES, people, Senegambia, xxi. 

662. 
BALANTIUM, genus of tree-ferns, xxm. 

534- 
BALARUC, France, mineral water of, 

xvi. 434. 
BALAS, Alexander, Syrian ruler, I. 846; 

xin. 422. 

BALASH, king of Persia, xvin. 611. 
BALASHOFF, town, Russia, xxi. 305. 
BALASOR, district, India, in. 272; town, 

in. 273; xvn. 845. 
BALAS RUBY, xxi. 48. 
BALASSA-GYARMAT, town, Hungary, XL 

346. 
BALATA GUM, substitute for gutta 

percha, XI. 339. 
BALATON, Lake, Hungary, in. 171; xn. 

362. 
BALBI, Adrian, Italian geographer, in. 

273- 

BALBIN, Aloys B., Bohemian Jesuit his 
torian, xxn. 152. 

BALBO, Cesare, Italian writer and states 
man, in. 273; xin. 487, 516. 

BALBOA, Vasco Nunez de, Spanish navi- 
XXV. 6 



42 



B A L B A L 



gator and explorer, in. 273; xvm. 
115; discovers Pacific Ocean, x. 182. 
BALBRIGGAN, town, Ireland, in. 274. 
BALBULUS, Notker, musical composer, 

xvii. 597. 

BALDACHIN, canopy, n. 462; xxni. 723. 
BALDASARRE D ANNA, Venetian 

painter, II. 60. 
BALDE, Jakob, modern Latin poet, in. 

274. 

BALD EAGLE, bird, vn. 590. 
BALDER, Norse divinity, in. 275; I. 210; 

xvn. 156. 

, Dobell s poem, vn. 307. 

BALDI, Bernardino, Italian mathe- 

matican, in. 274. 
BALDINGER, Ernest Gottfried, German 

physician, ill. 275. 
BALDINI, Baccio, Italian engraver, vni. 

441. 
BALDINUCCI, Filippo, Italian writer, 

in. 275. 

BALDNESS, skin affection, xxn. 121. 
BALDOON CASTLE, Wigtown, Scotland, 

xxiv. 563. 
BALDOVINETTI, Alessio, Italian painter, 

in. 275. 
BALD PEAK, mountain, Massachusetts, 

U.S.A., xxin. 792. 
BALDUCCIO Di PISA, Italian sculptor, 

xix. 122; xxi. 568. 
BALDUINUS, Jacobus, Italian jurist, in. 

275. 
BALDUNG, Hans (Griin), German 

painter, XI. 224. 
BALDUR, or Balder, Norse divinity, in. 

275; I. 210; xvn. 156. 
BALDUS, Italian jurist, in. 276. 
BALDWIN, Byzantine emperor (IX. of 

Flanders), VI. 629. 
I.-IX., counts of Flanders, ix. 290, 

291. 
I.-V., kings of Jerusalem, vi. 627; 

xxni. 161. 

I., of Jerusalem, vi. 627; ix. 538. 
, Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, 

in. 276. 
BALDY, mountain, New Mexico, U.S.A., 

xvn. 399. 
BALE (Basel, q.v.), canton and town, 

Switzerland, in. 408. 
BALE, John, bishop of Ossory, in. 276; 

Xlll. 263. 
BALEARIC ISLANDS, Spain, in. 276; 

xv. 820; xxn. 298; pottery of, xix. 

623; their historical connexion with 

Spain, XXIL 323. 
BALEARICUS, Metellus, colonizer of 

Majorca, xvm. 191. 
BALEEN, whalebone, xv. 394; xxiv. 

523, 528. 
BALES, Peter, shorthand writer, in. 

279; xxi. 836. 

BALFE, Michael William, musical com 
poser, in. 279. 
BALFOUR, Arthur J., on philosophic 

doubt, xxi. 383. 



BALFOUR, Francis M., 011 embryology, 

xx. 418; vni. 169. 
, Sir James, Scottish antiquary, 

in. 280. 

, Sir James, Scottish judge, ill. 280. 

, Robert, Scottish scholar, in. 280; 

xxi. 543. 

BALFROOSH, town, Persia, in. 280. 
BALGUY; John, English moralist, in. 

280. 
BALI, island, Indian Archipelago, in. 

281; birds of, ill. 764. 
BALIA, magistracy of Florence and 

Siena, xv. 785; xxn. 41. 
BALIER, Heinrich der, German sculptor, 

xxi. 565. 
BALIOL, Edward, claimant of the 

Scottish throne, vni. 318; xxi. 489. 

, John, king of Scotland, vill. 312; 

xx. 592; xxi. 486. 
-, or Balliol, Sir John de, English 



baron, in. 282. 
BALISTES, genus of fishes, ix. 161. 
BALKAN MOUNTAINS, Turkey, in. 282. 
BALKANS, Great and Little, mountains, 

Transcaspian Region, Russia, xxni. 

511. 
BALKASH, Lake, Central Asia, xiv. 217; 

xxi. 640. 

BALKH, river and province, Afghani 
stan, I. 242, 243; town, in. 282. 
BALKIZ, town, Asia Minor, vi. 753. 
BALL, John, English Puritan divine, in. 

282. 

BALLADES, Early French, ix. 644. 
BALLAD OPERAS, English, xvn. 99. 
BALLADS, in. 283, 288; of romance 

literature, xx. 632; Servian, xxi. 690. 
BALLALAS, dynasty of Mysore, India, 

xvn. 123. 
BALLANCHE, Pierre Simon, French 

moralist, in. 285. 
BALLANTYNE, John and James, Scottish 

printers, their relations with Scott, 

xxi. 548. 

BALLARAT, town, Australia, in. 286. 
BALLARI (Bellary), district and town, 

India, ill. 286. 

BALLATER, village, Scotland, in. 287. 
BALLENSTEDT, town, Germany, in. 287. 
BALLENY ISLAND, South Polar regions, 

xix. 330. 
BALLET, theatrical representation, in. 

288; VI. 800; of action, xvm. 215. 
, variety of song, xvn. 



BALLEY, mountain, California, U.S.A., 

xxni. 801. 

BALL-FLOWER, in architecture, n. 460. 
BALLINA, town, Ireland, in. 288; xxn. 

159. 
BALLINASLOE, town, Ireland, in. 288; 

x. 56. 

BALLINROBE, town, Ireland, xv. 650. 
BALLIOL, Sir John de, English baron, 

in. 282. 

COLLEGE, Oxford, xvin. 96. 



BALLISTICS, theory of gunnery, XI. 297. 



BALLONS, rounded summits in Vosges 

Mountains, France, xxiv. 298. 
BALLOON, i. 187; electric motors for, 

xxni. 496. 
POST, xix. 581. 
BALLOT, system of voting, in. 288. 
BALLOT S LAW OF THE WINDS, xvi. 

147. 
BALLOT Y TORRES, Joseph Pau, Spanish 

writer, xxn. 364. 
BALLOU, Hosea, American Univcrsalist, 

xxni. 831. 

BALLSPIEL, German tennis, xxni. 179. 
BALLYBLAY, town, Ireland, xvi. 718. 
BALLYCASTLE, town, Ireland, in. 292. 
BALLYMENA, toAvn, Ireland, in. 292. 
BALLYMORE, fort, Westnieath, Ireland, 

xxiv. 513. 

BALLYMOTE, town, Ireland, xxn. 159. 
-, Book of, Irish MS., v. 306. 



BALLYSADARE, river, Ireland, xxn. 

159. 
BALLYSHANNON, town, Ireland, in. 

292; vn. 362. 

BALM, perennial herb, xn. 289. 
BALMER, E. J., his law in spectroscopy, 

xxn. 379. 
BALMERINO, Lord, Scottish Jacobite, 

trial of, xxi. 511. 
BALMEZ, or Balmes, Jaime Lucien, 

Spanish writer, ill. 292; xxn. 362. 
BALM OF GILEAD, oleo-resin, in. 293; 

used as incense, xii. 718. 
BALMORAL CASTLE, Aberdeenshire, 

Scotland, in. 292. 
BALNAVES, Henry, Scottish Protestant, 

in. 292; xiv. 130. 
BALNE/E, Roman baths, in. 434. 
BALNEUM MARI/E, process in alchemy, 

i. 462. 
BALQUHIDDER, district, Scotland, xvin. 

667. 
BALSAM, oleo-resin, in. 292; n. 237; 

xx. 474; used as incense, xii. 718. 

- BOG, vegetable production, Falk 
land Islands, ix. 15. 

FIR, American tree, xxni. 809. 
MOUNTAIN, Virginia, U.S.A., xxni. 



794- 

BALSAMO, Joseph (Count Cagliostro), ad 
venturer, iv. 641. 

BALSAMODENDRON, genus of trees, in. 
293; xvii. 121. 

BALSAR, town, India, xxn. 667. 

BALTA, town, Russia, in. 293; xix. 
254. 

BALTAJI MUHAMMED, Turkish vizier, 

XXIII. 646. 

BALTARD, Louis Pierre, French engraver, 

in. 293. 

BALTI, district, Tibet, xiv. 198. 
BALTIC LANGUAGES, xvin. 785. 
BALTIC SEA, in. 293; x. 447; xxn. 

737; amber deposits of, I. 659. 
BALTIMORE, town, Maryland, U.S.A., 

in. 298; xv. 603; xxni. 822; libraries, 

xiv. 550; newspapers, xvn. 434. 



B A L B A P 



43 



BALTIMORE, Lord, governor of New 
foundland, iv. 713; xvn. 385; his 
settlement of Maryland, XV. 605; his 
relations with Penn, xviil. 495. 

BALTIMORITE, mineral, xvi. 414. 

BALUCHES, race of people, Asia, I. 235; 
in. 303. 

BALUCHISTAN, country, Asia, in. 299. 

BALUE, Jean, French cardinal, ill. 303. 

BALUSAN, volcano, Philippines, xvm. 

749- 
BALUZE, Etienne, French scholar, in. 

34- 
BALZAC, Honore de, French novelist, 

in. 304; IX. 679. 
, Jean Louis Guez de. French writer, 

in. 305; IX. 659. 

BAM, town, Persia, xvill. 627, 628. 
BAMBA, province of Congo, Africa, in. 

35- 
, town, Niger, Africa, xvil. 500. 

BAMBARA, people, Senegambia, xxi. 

662. 
BAMBARRA, country and town, Soudan, 

Africa, ill. 305; I. 271; xxil. 279. 
BAMBERG, town, Bavaria, in. 305; 

sculptures in cathedral, XXI. 564; uni 
versity, xxin. 846. 
BAMBOROUGH, village, England, in. 

306. 
BAMBOO, plant, in. 305; XL 54; its use 

in wicker-work, in. 423. 
BAMBOUK, country, West Africa, in. 

306. 
B AMI AN, ancient town, Afghanistan, in. 

307; caves of, I. 244. 
BAM-I-DUNIA, plateau, Central Asia, 

XVIII. 102. 

BAMLITE, mineral, xvi. 408. 
BAMPTON, John, English divine, founder 

of Bampton Lectures, III. 307. 
BAMPUR, town, Persia, xviu. 627. 
BANANA, plant and fruit, in. 307; xix. 

176; introduction of, into Polynesia, 

xix. 419. 

, town, Loango, Africa, xiv. 743. 

BANAS, river, Rajputana, India, xx. 

260; XXIL 98. 
BANASA, town, Mauretania, Africa, xv. 

637. 
BAN AT, district, Hungary, in. 308; xvi. 

295. 
BANAZ OVA, plateau, Asia Minor, XVIIL 

853. 

BANBRIDGE, town, Ireland, in. 308. 
BANBURY, town, England, in. 308. 
BANCA, island, Indian Archipelago, ill. 

308; birds of, ill. 763; tin, xvi. 469. 
BANCROFT, George, American historian, 

I. 723. 
, Richard, archbishop of Canterbury, 

in. 308. 

BAND, in architecture, II. 460. 
BANDA, district, India, ill. 309. 
ISLANDS, Indian Archipelago, in. 

309; nutmegs of, xvn. 666. 
BAND AMIR, river, Persia, xxi. 829. 



BANDA NIAM-NIAM, Central African 

tribes, xvn. 473. 
BANDA ORIENTAL (Uruguay), country, 

South America, xxiv. 14 ; invasion 

of, by Brazil, n. 491. 
BANDAR-ABBAS (Bender Abbasi), town, 

Persia, ill. 557; xvm. 620, 627. 
BANDELLO, Matteo, Italian novelist, 

in. 310; xni. 510. 
BANDE NERE, Giovanni delle (Medici), 

xv. 787. 
BANDERESI, mediaeval Roman officials, 

xx. 802. 

BANDICOOT, marsupial mammal, Aus 
tralia, in. in; xv. 381. 

, Great, rodent mammal, India, XI I. 

743; xvn. 5. 
BANDINELLI, Bartolommeo, Italian 

sculptor, in. 310. 
BANDINI, Angelo Maria, Italian writer, 

in. 310. 

, Salustio Antonio, Italian economist, 

xix. 362; xxn. 43. 

BAND OF HOPE SOCIETIES (Temper 
ance), xxin. 159. 
BANDOL, town, France, xxiv. 69. 
BANDON, town, Ireland, ill. 311; river, 

vi 403. 

BANDRA, town, India, xxin. 221. 
BANDUNG, town, Java, xni. 606. 
BANFF, town, Scotland, in. 311. 
BANFFSHIRE, county, Scotland, in. 311; 

area and population, xxi. 528; repre 
sentation, xxin. 727. 
BANG, Stephensen, Norse writer, xvn. 

589. 
BANGALORE, town, India, in. 313; 

xvn. 123. 
BANGKA (Banca, q.v.), island, Indian 

Archipelago, ill. 308. 
BANGKALANG, town, Madura, Indian 

Archipelago, XV. 193. 
BANGKOK, town, Siam, in. 313; xxi. 

852. 
BANGOR, town, Ireland, in. 314. 

, town, Maine, U.S.A., in. 314. 

, town, Wales, in. 314; University 

College at, xxin. 856. 
BANGORIAN CONTROVERSY, vi. 328; 

xn. 29. 
BANGWEOLO, Lake, Central Africa, i. 

248; xxiv. 763; discovery of, by 

Livingstone, xiv. 722. 
BANIALUKA, town, Turkey, in. 314. 
BANIANA (Baena), ancient town, Spain, 

in. 229. 

BANIER, Abbe, on mythology, xvn. 137. 
BANIM, John and Michael, Irish novelists, 

in. 314. 
BANJARMASSIN, district and town, 

Borneo, in. 315; river, IV. 56. 
BANK AND BANKING, in. 315. 
BANKA (Banca, q.v.), island, Indian 

Archipelago, in. 308. 
BANK CLEARING HOUSE, London, i. 91. 
BANKEN VELD, district of Transvaal, 

South Africa, xxin. 518. 



BANKING, in. 315; communistic views 
of, vi. 214; in U"nited States, xxin. 
766, 776. 

BANKIVA JUNGLE FOWL, xix. 644. 

BANK OF ENGLAND, in. 316, 329; 
founding of, xi. 386; XVin. 359; its 
relations with the Mint, XVI. 485. 

BANK OF FRANCE, origin of, xiv. 367. 

BANKRUPTCY, in law, in. 341. 

BANKS, of Newfoundland, xvn. 382. 
, Sir Joseph, president of the Royal 
Society, in. 345; xxi. 39; his patron 
age of Robert Brown, IV. 386. 
, Savings, xxi. 327. 
ISLANDS, Melanesia, Pacific Ocean, 
xv. 835; xvn. 396. 
OF ISSUE, in. 315. 



BANKURA, district and town, India, in. 

346. 
BANMO (Bhamo), town, Burmah, in. 

627. 

BANN, river, Ireland, in. 346. 
BANNACKS, American Indians, xn. 832. 
BANNATYNE, George, early Scottish 

writer, xxi. 542. 
BANNER, of knight, xiv. 117; military, 

ix. 276. 
BANNERET, Knight, grade of knighthood, 

in. 346; xiv. 117, 119. 
BANNOCKBURN, town, Scotland, in. 

347; xxn. 554; battle of (1314), vn. 

683; viii. 313; xx. 594; xxi. 488. 
BANNOVALLUM (Horncastle), Roman 

fort, Lincolnshire, England, XII. 170. 
BANNS, Marriage, xv. 566. 
BANNU, district, India, xx. 109. 
BANQUETERS, The, comedy of Aristo 
phanes, n. 509. 

BANQUETS, sacrificial, xxi. 134. 
BANQUETTE, in fortification, ix. 421. 
BANSHEE, of fairy mythology, v. 300. 
BANSWARA, tributary state, India, in. 

347; xx. 260. 
BANTAM, residency, Java, xni. 605; 

town, in. 347. 

- FOWLS, poultry, xix. 646. 
BANTING, William, on corpulence, vi. 

436. 

BANTRY, town, Ireland, in. 347. 
BANTU, groups of Negroes, xn. 312; 

xvn. 319; xxn. 729; languages, xni. 

820; xvn. 318; xvin. 780; xxn. 729; 

xxiv. 827. 
BANU, district, India, in. 347. 

NADIR, Jewish family in Medina, 

xvi. 556. 
BANVILLE, Theodore de, French critic, 

xiv. 206. 

BANYAK ISLANDS, Sumatra, xxn. 639. 
BANYAN, tree, in. 348; iv. 94. 
BANYANS, race, Mozambique, xvn. 7. 
BANYUMAS, town, Java, xni. 606. 
BANYUWANGI, town, Java, xni. 606. 
BAOBAB, tree, i. 268; ix. 408; xxi. 662; 

xxn. 278. 
BAPHOMET, alleged symbol of Knights 

Templars, in. 348. 



44 



B A P B A R 



BAPTISM, Christian sacrament, in. 348; 
XXI. 131, 139; Luther s views on, xv. 
78; St Paul s doctrine, xvm. 428; 
Quaker doctrine, XX. 150; registra 
tion of, XX. 343; sponsors at, XXII. 
429. 

BAPTIST, John the, xiu. 709. 

BAPTISTERY, chapel for baptism, in. 
352; IX. 361; in the Catacombs, v. 

211. 

BAPTISTS, religious denomination, ill. 

353- 

, Freewill, in America, IX. 762. 

BAQUEROS, nomadic clan, Asturias, II. 

824. 
BAR, at mouth of a river, x. 277; xx. 

575- 

, town, Eussian Poland, in. 356; 

confederation of (1768), xix. 297. 

, The legal, Costumes of, vi. 476. 
BARA, tribe, Madagascar, xv. 171. 
BARABA, steppe, Siberia, xxm. 429. 
BARA BANKI, district, India, in. 357. 
BARABA TARTARS, Ural-Altaic tribe, 

xxm. 70. 
BARA-BUDUR, Temple of, Java, xm. 

609. 

BARADA, river, Damascus, vi. 790. 
BARAD^EUS, Jacobus, Syrian monk, 

founder of the Jacobite sect, vi. 354 ; 

xm. 539; xxn. 832. 
BARADLA, stalactite grotto, Hungary, i. 

420. 

BARAHAT, town, India, in. 357. 
BARAK, river, India, xv. 489. 
BARAKHATTA, town, India, xx. 272. 
BARAKISH, Minsean town, Arabia, xxiv. 

740. 
BAR ALI, Syriac lexicographer, xxn. 

847. 
BARAMAHAL, tract in Salem district, 

India, xxi. 210. 

BARAMGALI, fort, Kashmir, xiv. 11. 
BARAMINDANA, prince of Mandingo, 

Africa, xv. 475. 

BARANGAR, town, India, xxm. 673. 
BARANTE, Amable G. P., French states 
man and historian, in. 357. 
BARANYA, province, Hungary, in. 357. 
BARANZANO, Jean Antoine, Italian 

scientist, Hi. 358. 
BARASAT, town, India, in. 358; xxm. 

673- 
BARAT, Tibetan festive exhibition, xiv. 

501. 
BARATIERE, John Philip, precocious 

scholar, in. 358. 
BARATYNSKI, Jewgenij Abramovitch, 

Russian poet, in. 358. 
BARBA, district, Central Africa, IV. 54. 
BARBACENA, town, Brazil, in. 358. 
BARBADOS, island, West Indies, in. 358; 

xxiv. 510. 
LEG, or Elephantiasis, disease, vin. 

126. 
BAR BAHLUL, Syriac lexicographer, 

xxn. 849. 



BARBARELLA, Giorgio (Giorgione), 

Italian painter, x. 607. 
BARBARIAN, origin of the name, in. 

463- 

LAWS, Teutonic codes, xxi. 212. 
BARBARO, Venetian envoy to Persia, 

xvin. 633. 
BARBAROSSA, Aruch and Khair ed-Din, 

Turkish corsairs, in. 362; I. 565; xxi. 

621, 643. 
(Frederick I.), emperor, IX. 729; x. 

489; xni. 374; his struggle with 

Adrian IV., I. 165; his homage to 

Alexander III., I. 487; in Italy, XIII. 

472; his patronage of Bologna uni 
versity, xxm. 833. 
BARBARY, country, North Africa, in. 

363; I. 265. 

BARBASTELLE BAT, xv. 410. 
BARBASTRO, town, Spain, in. 363. 
BARBAULD, Anna Letitia, English 

writer, in. 363. 
BARBEL, fish, xn. 692; angling for, n. 

42; Indian, xv. 285. 
BARBER, in. 363. 
BARBERI, races of riderless horses, at 

Rome, v. 124. 

, Philip de, inquisitor, xni. 93. 

BARBERINI, Italian family, in. 363. 

, Maffeo (Pope Urban VIII.), in. 

363; xxiv. 9. 
BARBERINO, Francesco da, Italian writer, 

xni. 501. 
BARBER OF SEVILLE, Rossini s opera, 

xx. 86r. 
BARBERTON, town, Transvaal, Africa, 

xxm. 518. 

BARBET, bird, xx. 101. 
BARBETS (Camisards), Huguenot sect, 

iv. 743- 

BARBETTE, in fortification, ix. 432. 
WAR-SHIPS, xvn. 286. 



BARBEYRAC, Jean, French jurist, in. 

363- 
BARBIERE DI SIVIGLIA, Rossini s opera, 

xx. 861. 
BARBIERI, Giovanni Francesco (Guer- 

cino), Italian painter, in. 364. 
, Paolo Antonio, Italian painter, in. 

364- 
BARBO, Pietro (Pope Paul II.), xvin. 

43- 
BARBOSA DU BOCAGE, Portuguese poet, 

xix. 557. 
B ARBOUR, John, Scottish poet, in. 364; 

vin. 395. 
BARBUDA, island, West Indies, in. 

366. 
BARCA (El-Medinah), ancient town, 

Cyrenaica, North Africa, in. 366. 
, district, North Africa, III. 366; 

xxm. 574. 

BARCELONA, province, Spain, xxn. 298. 
, town, Spain, ill. 366; XXII. 298; 

libraries of , xiv. 549; siege of (1705), 

xvin. 701. 
, County of, Spain, xxn. 311. 



BARCHESTER TOWERS, Anthony Trol- 

lope s novel, XXIII. 585. 
BARCLAY, Alexander, English poet, in. 

368; xvin. 345. 

, David, Scottish Quaker, XX. 152. 

, John, author of Argenis, ill. 369. 
, John, founder of a Scottish sect, 

in. 369. 

, John, Scottish anatomist, in. 369. 
, J. G., his observatory at Leyton, 

Essex, England, xvii. 711. 

, Robert, Scottish Quaker and writer, 

in. 369; xvin. 496; xx. 148. 

, William, Scottish jurist, in. 370; 

xxi. 543. 

DE TOLLY, Michael, Russian 



general, in. 370; xvn. 217. 
BAR-COCHEBAS, Jewish leader, in. 370; 

xni. 428. 
BARD, ancient Celtic poet, in. 370; v. 

318. See Bards. 
BARDANES, Byzantine general, xvn. 

481. 
- PHILIPPICUS, emperor of the East, 

xni. 798; xvin. 748. 
BARD AS, Crcsar, regent of Constantinople, 

xvin. 819. 
BAR-DEISAN (Bardesanes), Gnostic and 

Syriac writer, ill. 370; x. 703; xxn. 

827; xxiv. 38. 
BARDEN TOWER, Yorkshire, England, 

xxiv. 749. 
BARDESANES, Gnostic and Syriac writer, 

in. 370; x. 703; xxn. 827; his rela 
tions to Valentinianism, xxiv. 38. 
BARDIA, island, Malay Peninsula, xv. 

321. 
BARDIGLIO, kind of Italian marble, xv. 

528. 
BARDILI, Christoph Gottfried, German 

metaphysician, in. 371. 
BARDO, town, Tunis, xxm. 622. 
BARDS, in. 370; early British, n. 650; 

early Irish, XIII. 250; Welsh, V. 318; 

vn. 791. 

BARDSEY, island, Wales, in. 371. 
BARDULUM (Barletta), ancient town, 

Italy, in. 376. 
BARDWAN, district and town, India, in. 

371- 

BARDYLIS, Illyrian chief, xn. 709. 
BAREGES, town, France, in. 372; 

mineral water of, XVI. 435. 
BAREILLY, district and town, India, in. 

372- 
BARELI, or Bareilly, district and town, 

India, III. 372. 
BARENTS, William, Dutch navigator, 

x. 184; xix. 317. 

LAND, island, Spitzbergen, xxn. 



408. 



SEA, Arctic Ocean, xvn. 592, 

604. 
BARERE DE VIEUZAC, Bertram!, 

French Revolutionist, III. 373. 
BARETTI, Giuseppe, Italian critic, in. 

374; xni. 512. 



B A 11 B A E 



45 



BARETTIER (Baratiere), John Philip, 

precocious scholar, ill. 358. 
BARFF, John, on wool, i. 398. 
BARFLEUR, town, France, in. 374. 
BARFURUSH, or Balfroosh, town, Persia, 

in. 280. 
BARGAGLI, Scipione, Sienese writer, 

xxn. 43. 
BARGE, boat, xxi. 30. 

BOARD, in architecture, II. 475. 

BARGES, lighthouse, Sables d Olonne, 

France, xxi. 129. 
BARGUERLAC, bird, xxi. 259. 
BARGUZIN, river, Transbaikalia, Russia, 

xxiii. 510; town, xxni. 51 1 ; moun 
tains, xxn. 3; xxiii. 509. 
BARH, town, India, xvm. 409. 
BARHAM, Richard Harris, English 

humorist, III. 374. 
BAR-HEBRTEUS (Abulfaragius), Syriac 

and Arabic writer, I. 60; XXII. 853; 

xxiii. 5. 

BARI, Mola di, town, Italy, xvi. 608. 
, Terra di, province and town, 

Italy, in. 374. 
BARI DOAB, tract, Punjab, India, xx. 

107. 

BAR-IDTA, Syriac writer, xxn. 838. 
BARINAS, town, Venezuela, xxiv. 140. 
BARISAL, town, India, in. 248. 
BARISAN MOUNTAINS, Sumatra, xxn. 

638. 
BARISANOS, Italian metal-worker, xvi. 

760. 

BARITO, river, Borneo, iv. 56. 
BARIUM, chemical element, v. 525. 

(Bari), ancient town, Italy, in. 375. 

BARK, of trees, IV. 101; used in tanning, 

xiv. 381. 
BARKAYA, Simeon, Syriac writer, xxn. 

838. 
BARKER, Robert, inventor of panoramas, 

xvni. 214. 
, Thomas, English writer on angling, 

xxiv. 342. 
BARKHANS, sand-dunes, Syr-Daria, 

Asia, xxn. 820. 

BARKING, town, England, in. 375. 
BARKIYAROK, Seljuk ruler, xxi. 635. 
BARKOMETER, hydrometer for tan 

liquors, XIV. 383. 
BARLAAM, monk, condemns Hesychasm 

in Greek Church, XI. 782. 
AND JOSAPHAT, Sts, Story of, in. 

375; xx. 636. 

BAR-LE-DUC, town, France, in. 356. 
BARLETTA, town, Italy, in. 376. 
BARLEY, cereal plant, in. 376; use of, in 

brewing, iv. 266; culture of, I. 358; 

experiments in manuring, XV. 507. 

SUGAR, confection, vi. 257. 

BAR-LINES, in music, xvn. 82. 
BARLINGS OXNEY, abbey, Lincolnshire, 

England, xiv. 656. 
BARLOW, Sir George, governor-general 

of India, xn. 805. 
, Joel, American poet, in. 377. 



BARLOW, Peter, English mathematician, 
in. 377; on magnetic induction, xv. 
250. 

BARM, yeast, xxiv. 734. 

BARMAK, founder of the Barmecides, in. 

377- 
BARMECIDES, Persian family, in. 377; 

xvi. 581. 
BARMEN, town, Rhenish Prussia, in. 

377; xx. 16. 

BARMOUTH, town, Wales, xvi. 39. 
BARNABAS, St Paul s companion, in. 

377; xvni. 417. 
, Epistle of, early Christian work, n. 

197; its relation to the Gospels, x. 

815. 

BARNABITE MONKS, xvi. 711. 
BARNABY RUDGE, Dickens s novel, vn. 

176. 

BARNACLES, their distribution, vn. 279. 
BARNARD, Henry, American educa 
tionist, vn. 679. 

CASTLE, town, England, in. 378. 



BARNAUL, town, Siberia, 111.378; xxn. 

ii ; xxni. 439. 
BARNAVE, Antoine Pierre, French 

orator, ill. 378. 
BARNES, Albert, American expositor, in. 

379- 

, Joshua, English scholar, in. 379. 

, Thomas, English journalist, xvn. 
418. 
-, William, Dorset poems of, VII. 372. 



BARNET, town, England, in. 379. 
BARNEVELDT, Jan van Olden, Dutch 

statesman, in. 379; xn. 77. 
BARNFIELD, Richard, English pastoral 

poet, xvni. 347. 
BARNSLEY, town, England, in. 380; 

xxiv. 748. 
BARNSTABLE, town, Massachusetts, 

U.S.A., in. 380. 

BARNSTAPLE, town, England, in. 380. 
BARNUEVO, Pedro de Peralta y, Peru 
vian writer, xvni. 675. 
BARNWELL CASTLE, Northampton, 

England, xvn. 557. 
BAROCCHIO, Giacomo da Vignola, 

Italian architect, ill. 380. 
BAROCCI, or Baroccio, Federigo, Italian 

painter, in. 380. 
BARODA, town, India, in. 380. 
BAROLO, Marchesa di, Italian prison 

reformer, xvni. 478. 
BAROLUM (Barletta), ancient town, 

Italy, in. 376. 
BAROMETER, in. 381; invention of, by 

Torricelli, XXIII. 453; applications of, 

xix. 241; Pascal s experiments with, 

xvni. 338. 
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, Oscillations 

of, in. 30; xvi. 121. 
BARON, title of nobility, in. 387; xvni. 

462, 464. 
BARONET, title of nobility, in. 388; 

xiv. 120. 
OF NOVA SCOTIA, xvn. 603. 



BARONIUS, Caesar, church historian, III. 

389; V. 765; his Ecclesiastical Annals, 

i. 785; xix. 505. 
BARONS WAR, in England, vni. 311; 

XL 659. 

BARONY, Burghs of, in Scotland, iv. 63. 
BAROSSA, town, South Australia, xxn. 

284. 
BAROZZI, or Barocchio, Giacomo da 

Vignola, Italian architect, HI. 380. 
BARQUISIMETO, town, Venezuela, in. 

389; xxiv. 140. 
BARR, town, Alsace, Germany, in. 390. 

, town, India, xvni. 409. 
BARRA, island, Hebrides, Scotland, in. 

390; xi. 607. 
BARRACKPUR, subdivision and town, 

India, in. 390. 
BARRACKS, for soldiers, in. 390; of the 

British army, II. 587; ventilation of, 

xxiv. 1 60. 

BARRAL, aeronaut, i. 195. 
BARRANCAS, valleys, Spain, xxn. 294. 
BARRANDE, Joachim, his theory of fossil 

colonies, x. 323. 

BARRAS, Comte de, French Revolu 
tionist, ill. 392. 
BARREL-MAKING, vi. 338. 
BARREL ORGAN, xvn. 106. 
BARRERE, Pierre, on birds, xvni. 5. 
BARRETT, Elizabeth (Mrs Browning), 

English poetess, IV. 391. 

, George, his annuity tables, II. 81. 
BARRHEAD, town, Scotland, in. 392. 
BARRI, Giraldde (Giraldus Cambrensis), 

ecclesiastic and historian, in. 392. 
BARRIER ACT, of the Scottish Church 

(1639), xix. 682. 

BARRIER REEFS, x. 257; vi. 378. 
BARRINGTON, First Viscount, theo 
logian, in. 393. 

, Second Viscount, in. 393. 

, Hon. Daines, naturalist, ill. 393. 

, Samuel, English admiral, III. 394. 

, Shute, bishop of Durham, in. 394. 
BARRISTERS, English legal pleaders, 

in. 394; xin. 87. 
BARROCOE, settlement, West Africa, 

x. 755. 

BARRON S LOCK, xiv. 744. 
BARROS, Jo5o de, Portuguese historian, 

in. 395; xix. 557. 
BARROW, river, Ireland, xin. 216; xx. 

171. 
, Isaac, English mathematician and 

divine, in. 396; on differential 

calculus, xin. 7. 
, Sir John, English writer and 

administrator, in. 396; advocate of 

northern exploration, XIX. 319; his 

comparison of Chinese and Peruvians, 

i. 698. 

, Reuben, on Hindu algebra, I. 517. 

BARROWE, Henry, English Independent, 

xn. 724. 
BARROW-IN-FURNESS, town, England, 

in. 395. 



46 



B A K B A S 



BARROWS, sepulchral mounds, in. 397; 

in ancient America, I. 692. 
BARROW S STRAITS, Polar Sea, in. 399. 
BARRULE, North and South, mountains, 

Isle of Man, xv. 450. 
BARRY, Sir Charles, English architect, 

in. 399. 

, James, Irish painter, III. 399. 

, Madame du, mistress of Louis XV., 

ix. 593. 
CORNWALL (B. W. Procter), 

English poet, XIX. 792. 
BARS, county, Hungary, in. 400. 
, River, Formation of, x. 277; XX. 

575- 
BAR SAROSHWAI, Syriac Biblical critic, 

xxn. 849. 
BARSAUMA, Syriac writer, xxn. 830, 

831- 

BARSI, town, India, xxi. 832. 
BARSOVITE, mineral, xvi. 420. 
BAR-SUR-AUBE, town, France, in. 356. 
BAR SUR-ORNAIN, town, France, in, 

356. 

BAR-SUR-SEINE, town, France, in. 357. 
BART, or Earth, Jean, French admiral, 

in. 401. 

BARTAN, town, Asiatic Turkey, in. 401. 
BARTANG, river, Turkestan, xvm. 103. 
BARTAS, Gtiillaume de Salluste dn, 

French poet, in. 401. 
BARTFELD, or Bartfa, town, Hungary, 

in. 401. 
EARTH, Heinrich, African explorer, in. 

401; I. 247. 

, Jean, French admiral, in. 401. 

BARTHELEMY, Auguste Marseille, 

French writer, III. 401, 
, Jean Jacques, French writer, in. 

401. 
BARTHEZ, or Barthes, Paul Joseph, 

French physician, III. 402. 
BARTHOLDI S STATUE OF LIBERTY, 

New York, xvn. 459. 
BARTHOLIN, Danish historian, xn. 626. 
EARTHOLINUS, Erasmus, on crystals, 

vi. 672. 

, Gaspard, Swedish writer, ill. 403. 

, Thomas, Swedish physiologist, III. 

403- 
BARTHOLOMEW, St, apostle, in. 403. 

, Revelations of, apocalyptic work, 

II. 179. 

, St, Massacre of, IX. 561; v. 412. 

BARTIZAN, in architecture, n. 460. 
BARTLETT, A. D., on the structure of 

birds, xvni. 25. 
BARTOLINI, Lorenzo, Italian sculptor, 

in. 403. 
BARTOLOMMEO DI S. MARCO (Baccio 

della Porta), Italian painter, in. 194; 

his influence on Raphael, XX. 275. 
BARTOLOZZI, Francesco, Italian en 
graver, in. 403. 

BARTOLUS, Italian jurist, in. 403. 
BARTON, Andrew, Scottish sea captain, 

xxi, 496. 



BARTON, Benjamin Smith, American 
naturalist, in. 404; on birds, xvni. 9. 
, Elizabeth (Maid of Kent), re 
ligious enthusiast, in. 404; I. 33. 

, William, his version of the Psalms, 



xn. 590. 
BARTRAM, W., on American birds, xvni. 

9- 
BARTSCH, Karl, on the Nibelungenlied, 

xvii. 476. 

BARUCH, of Scripture, in. 404. 
, Apocalypse of, n. 179; xvi. 315. 

, Book of, in Apocrypha, in. 404; 

II. 181. 

BARUNG, Nusa, island, Java, xin. 600. 
BARWON, river, Australia, XXIV. 216. 
BARWOOD, red dye, vii. 576. 
BARYTA, or Barytes, oxide of barium, 

ill. 406; in glass manufacture, x. 664. 

MICA, mineral, xvi. 413. 

- WHITE, pigment, xix. 86. 
BARYTE, mineral, xvi. 400. 
BARYTO-CALCITE, mineral, XVL 398. 
BARYTO-CELESTINE, mineral, xvi. 400. 
BASALT, variety of rocks, x. 235. 
BASCINET, headpiece, XL 637. 

BASE, in architecture, n. 460. 
, in chemistry, v. 477, 486. 

- BALL, game, in. 406. 
BASEDOW, Johann Bernhard. German 

educationist, in, 407; vii. 676 
BASEL (Bale, or Basle), canton, Switzer 
land, in. 408; xxn. 778, 791. 
, town, Switzerland, XXII. 778, 789; 
council of (1431-43), in. 409; xix. 
502; XX. 320; treaty of (1795), I. 471; 
libraries, xiv. 548; university, xxin. 
842, 851. 

CONFESSION (1531), xv. 83. 



BASE LINE, Measurement of, in survey 
ing, x. 163; xxn. 696, 704. 

BASEMENT, in architecture, n. 460. 

BASE OF SUPPLY, in war, xxiv. 350. 

BASHAN, country of Scripture, in Syria, 
in. 410. 

BASHFORTH, Prof., on the velocity of 
projectiles, XL 302. 

BASHGALIS, tribe, Afghanistan, xm. 822. 

BASHI-BAZOUKS, Turkish irregular sol 
diery, n. 6 1 8. 

BASHKIR-MESCHERYAKS, people, Rus 
sia, xvi, 46. 

BASHKIRS, people, Russia, in. 411; 
xxi. 79. 

BASHMURIC, Egyptian dialect, vi. 355; 
XL 799. 

BASIDIOMYCETES, order of Fungi, ix. 
832; xxiv. 127. 

BASIL, the Great, early theologian, in. 
412; his monastic rule, XVI. 700. 

, bishops of Ancyra and Seleucia, 

in. 412. 

, or Basilius, I., emperor of the East, 

in. 419; XL 116. 

II., emperor, XL 116. 

, prince of Russia, XXI. 91. 

, culinary herb, xn. 289. 



BASIL SHUISKI, Russian revolutionist, 

xxi. 95. 

BASILEUS, title of Greek archon, 11. 476. 
BASILIA (Basel), ancient town, SAvitzer- 

land, in. 408. 
BASILICA, Greek code of laws, in. 419; 

Dorotheus s scholia on, vn. 369. 
-, BASILICAS, in architecture, in. 412; 



II. 421; of Italy, II. 434; Roman, xx. 
816, 823. 

BASILICATA, province, Italy, in. 420. 
BASILICON DORON, book by James VI. 

of Scotland, xin. 558; xxi. 509. 
BASILICUS, Jacob, Moldavian pretender, 

xxi. 19. 
BASILIDES, Gnostic teacher, in. 420; x. 

703; his connexion with Neoplaton- 

ism, xvn. 335. 
BASILISK, fabulous animal, in. 421; vi. 

98. 
BASILIUS (Basil I.), emperor of the East, 

XL 1 16; his code of law, in. 419. 
BASINGSTOKE, town, England, in. 421. 
BASKERVILLE, John, English printer, 

in. 421. 

BASKET, in. 421. 

BASKING-SHARK, xxi. 777; xn. 646. 
BASLE (Basel, q.v.\ canton and town, 

Switzerland, in. 408. 
BASMANOFF, Russian general, xxi. 94. 
BASNAGE, Jacques, Protestant pastor, 

in. 423. 
BASODINE, mountain, Switzerland, xxin. 

35i- 
BASOMMATOPHORA, suborder of Mol- 

lusca, xvi. 660. 
BASQUE PROVINCES, Spain, in. 423; 

xxn. 298. 
BASQUES, European race, xn. 605; their 

language, in. 424; xvm. 780; diction 
aries of the language, vn. 188; their 

prehistoric origin, v, 269; x. in. 
BASRA, province, Asiatic Turkey, xvi. 

51; xxin. 653; (Bussorah), town, iv. 

577; vin. 671; province and town 

under the caliphs, xvi. 562, 590; 

Moslem theological school of, xvi. 

592. 
BAS RELIEFS, in sculpture, ix. 205; 

Greek, n. 352. 
BASS, George, Australasian explorer, in. 

104. 
& Co. s BREWERIES, Burton, 

England, IV 265, 572, 
BASS^:, ruins, Greece, xvm. 735. 
BASSAHIR, state, India, in. 424. 
BASSAM, Grand, river and settlement, 

West Africa, X. 755. 
BASSANO, town, Italy, in. 424. 
, Giacomo da Ponte, Italian painter, 

in. 424. 
BASSANTIE, James, Scottish astronomer, 

xxi. 543. 
BASSEIN, district, India, in. 425; town, 

III. 425; XXIII. 221. 

BASSELIN, Olivier, French poet, in. 
425. 



BASSES-ALPES, department, France, I. 

599- 
BASSES-PYRENEES, department, France, 

xx. 126. 

BASSET, or Outcrop, in geology, x. 298. 

BASSE TERRE, district and town, Guade 
loupe, West Indies, XI. 230. 

BASSETERRE, town, St Christopher, 
West Indies, xxi. 159. 

BASSET HORN, musical instrument, 

xvn. 708. 
BASSEVILLE, Hugo, French Republican 

agent in Rome, xix. 155. 
BASS I, Laura Maria Caterina, learned 

Italian lady, in. 425. 
BASSIANUS, Joannes, Italian jurist, in. 

425. 
, Varius Avitus (Heliogabalus), 

emperor of Rome, XI. 632. 
BASSIGNY, district, France, xv. 561. 
BASSO DA CAMERA, musical instrument, 

xxiv. 245. 
BASSOON, musical instrument, in. 425; 

xvn. 707. 
BASSORA (Bussorah), town, Asiatic 

Turkey, iv. 577; viii. 671; xvi. 562, 

590; gum of, xi. 276. 
BASS ROCK, islet, Firth of Forth, Scot 
land, in. 424. 

BASS S STRAITS, Australia, in. 424. 
BASSUS, Ccesius, Roman poet, xvin. 

662. 
BASS WOOD, tree, United States, XXIII. 

808. 

BAST, bark of lime tree, xiv. 648. 
(Bubastis), Egyptian divinity, IV. 

408; vn. 718. 

BASTAR, feudatory state, India, in. 425. 
BASTARD, in. 426. 
OF ORLEANS (Dunois), French 

general, vn. 544. 

BASTEI, mountain, Saxony, xxi. 357. 
BASTI, district and town, India, in. 

428. 

BASTIA, town, Corsica, in. 428. 
BASTIANINI, Italian sculptor, xxi. 570. 
BASTIAT, Frederic, French political 

economist, in. 428; xix. 385. 
BASTIE, Sieur Antoine d Arces de la, 

French envoy in Scotland, xxi. 497. 
BASTILLE, fortress, Paris, in. 429; xxin. 

289; its fall, ix. 598; the Man of the 

Iron Mask in, xin. 360. 
BASTION, in fortification, ix. 434, 440. 
BASTITE, mineral, xvi. 415. 
BASTNAESITE, mineral, xvi. 383. 
BASTWICK, John, English physician and 

anti-Catholic, in. 430. 
BASURHAT, town, India, xxin. 673. 
BASUTOS, South-African tribe, V. 47; 

XXin. 518; languages of, XXIV. 828. 
BAT, chiropterous mammal, in. 431; 

XV. 405; hibernation of, xi. 788; sense 

of touch in, xxin. 479; in Sumatra, 

xxn. 640. 

, Fox, ix. 352; xxn. 640. 

, Vampire, xxiv. 52. 



B A S B A T 

BATAGUR, genus of chelonian reptiles, 

xxin. 457. 

BATAK LANGUAGE, in. 442. 
BATALA, town, India, XL 331. 
BATALDEN, island, Norway, xvn. 576. 
BATAN^EA, ancient province, Syria, in. 

410. 
BATANES, islands, Philippines, xvin. 

75i- 
BATANG, island, Malay Peninsula, 

xv. 321. 

, town, Tibet, XXlll. 342. 

- LUPAR, river, Borneo, xxi. 306. 
BATAVI, Germanic tribe, xn. 69. 
BATAVIA, town, Java, in. 431; xin. 

606; library at, XIV. 534, 549. 
BATAVIAN REPUBLIC, Netherlands 

(1795), xii. 82. 
BATCHIAN, island, Indian Archipelago, 

xin. 692. 
BATCHING, in jute manufacture, xin. 

802. 

BATEGNIUS (Al-Battani), Arabian mathe 
matician, I. 449; xvi. 596; xxni. 561. 
BATEMAN, John, colonizer of Victoria, 

Australia, xxiv. 218. 
, J. F., on Loch Katrine aqueduct, 

II. 226. 
BATES, William, English Nonconformist 

divine, in. 432. 
BATH, town, England, in. 432; xxn. 

258; mineral waters of, XVI. 433; 

Nash s connexion with, xvn. 235. 

, town, Maine, U.S.A., III. 434. 
, Syriac measure, xxiv. 485. 

, Earl of, English politician, XX. 

103. 

, Order of the, xiv. 124. 

AND WELLS, bishopric of, England, 

xxiv. 499. 

BATHGATE, town, Scotland, in. 434. 
BATHING, in. 437. 
BATHOMETER, measure of sea-depths, 

xxn. 38. 

BATHORI, Christopher, prince of Tran 
sylvania, xxii. 230. 
, Sigmund, prince of Transylvania, 

xxi. 17. 

, Stephen, governor of Transylvania 

and king of Poland, XII. 369; XIX. 

293; xxi. 92. 
BATHS, in. 434; ancient Roman, at 

Pompeii, XIX. 448; hydropathic, XII. 

544; swimming, xxn. 771. 
BATHURST, town, Gambia, West Africa, 

I. 269; x. 59. 
, town, New Brunswick, xvn. 375. 

, town, New South Wales, in. 441. 

, village, Sierra Leone, XXII. 45. 

, Earl of, English statesman, in. 

441. 

, Ralph, English poet, physician, and 

divine, ill. 442. 

BATHYCLES, Greek sculptor, in. 442. 
BATHYLAGUS, genus of fishes, xxi. 222, 

224. 
BATINEH, district, Arabia, n. 255. 



47 

BATISCAN, river, Canada, XX. 165. 
BATIUSHKOFF, Constantine, Russian 

poet, xxi. 107. 

BATLEY, town, England, xxiv. 748. 
BATMAN Su, affluent of Tigris, xxin. 

387- 

BATNA, town, Algeria, xiv. 238. 
BATOIDEI, group of fishes, xn. 686; xx. 

299. 
BATON i, Pompeo Girolamo, Italian 

painter, in. 442. 
BATON-ROUGE, town, Louisiana, U.S.A., 

in. 442; xv. 21. 
BATORY, Stephen, king of Poland and 

ruler of Transylvania, XII. 369; XIX. 

293; xxi. 92. 
BATOUM, seaport, Transcaucasia, Russia, 

in. 446; xxin. 514; ceded to Russia 

(1878), xxin. 653. 
BATRACHIANS, group of animals, I. 750; 

xx. 432. 

BATRACHUS, Greek architect, in. 442. 
BATSHA, Tong-King, peculiarity of tides 

at, xiv. 606. 
BATTA, Negro tribe, Sokoto, Africa, xxn. 

248. 

BATTAFUOCO, Matteo, Corsican politi 
cian, xvn. 193. 
BATTAKS (Battas, q.v.\ race of people, 

Sumatra, in. 442; xxn. 640. 
BATTALION, body of infantry, in. 

442. 
BATTAS, or Battaks, race of people, 

Sumatra, in. 442; xxii. 640; their 

cannibalism, IV. 808. 
BATTER, in architecture, II. 460. 
BATTERING RAM, military engine, in. 

443- 

BATTERSEA, district, London, xiv. 822. 
BATTERY, of artillery, in. 443; n. 662; 

coast batteries, IX. 451. 

, electric, vni. 13, 90; galvanic, 

vin. 92. 
-, in law, n. 724. 



BATTEUX, Charles, French writer on art, 
in. 443; I. 220. 

BATTHYANI, Count Louis, Hungarian 
leader, xn. 371. 

BATTIAD/E, dynasty of Libyan kings, in. 
446. 

BATTICALOA, town, Ceylon, in. 443. 

BATTIKS, Javanese cloth, xin. 604. 

BATTLE, engagement between armies, 
in. 443; xxiv. 361. 

, town, England, in. 445. 

, Ordeal of, xvn. 820. 

AXE, weapon of war, n. 555. 

HARBOUR, fishing station, Labra 
dor, xiv. 175. 

BATTLEMENT, in architecture, 11. 460. 

BATTLE OF THE BOOKS, Swift s work, 
xxn. 762; Wotton s share in the con 
troversy, xxiv. 685. 

BATTLE OF THE STANDARD (1138), 
xvn. 555. 

BATTLE OF THE STANDARD, Leonardo 
da Vinci s picture, xiv. 459. 



48 

BATTLESBURY, ancient camp, Wilts, 

England, xxiv. 370. 
BATTUS, kings of Cyrene, Africa, in. 

445, 446; xxm. 280. 
BATU, Mongol chief, xvi. 741, 746; 

xxi. 46, 90. 

ISLANDS, Sumatra, in. 446; xxn. 

BATUM, or Batoum, seaport, Trans 
caucasia, Russia, in. 446; xxm. 514; 
ceded to Russia (1878), XXIII. 653. 

BAUDEKIN, variety of gold cloth, xxm. 
210. 

BAUDELAIRE, Charles, French poet, in. 
446; ix. 677. 

BAUDOUIN, F. J., French journalist, 
xvn. 425. 

DE SEBOURC, French chanson, ix. 

BAUDRILLART, Henri, French econo 
mist, xix. 395. 

BAUER, Mayer Anselm, founder of the 
Rothschild family, xxi. 3. 

BAUHIN, Gaspard, French botanist, in. 
446. 

, Jean, French botanist, III. 447. 

BAUM, Antoine, French chemist, in. 

447- 

BAUME FOCOT, gum, xix. 512. 

BAUMGARTEN, Alexander Gottlieb, Ger 
man philosopher, in. 447 ; his limi 
tation of aesthetics, I. 212; on the 
beautiful, I. 217. 

BAUMGARTEN-CRUSIUS, Ludwig F. 0., 
German theologian, in. 447. 

BAUR, Ferdinand Christian, German 
theologian, ill. 447; on church history, 
V. 766; 011 origin of Synoptic Gospels, 
x. 841; on New Testament canon, ill. 

BAUTAIN, Louis E. M., French philo 
sopher and theologian, ill. 450. 

BAUTISTA DE TOLEDO, Juan, Spanish 
architect, Vin. 540. 

BAUTZEN, town, Germany, in. 450; xxi. 
357; battle of (1813), xvn. 219. 

BAUXITE, or Beauxite, mineral, xin. 295; 
xvi. 388. 

BAVARIA, in. 450; conquest of, by 
Charlemagne, x. 479; Count Rum- 
ford s administration in, XXIII. 310; 
its army, II. 600; libraries, xiv. 526, 
547; newspapers, xvn. 429; prison 
system, xix. 760. 

BAVARIAN ALPS, i. 628. 

BAVARIANS, Law code of the, ancient, 
xxi. 215. 

BAVEAN, or Bawean, island, Java, xin. 
600. 

BAXAR, or Buxar, town, India, in. 454; 
xxi. 735. 

BAXTER, Andrew, Scottish metaphy 
sician, in. 454. 

, Richard, English divine, in. 455; 

hymns by, xn. 592; on Presby- 
terianism, xix. 689. 

BAYAD, fish, xxn. 68. 



B A T - - B E A 

BAYAM, Affonso Lopes de, Portuguese 

poet, xix. 555. 

BAYAN, Mongol general, xiv. 151. 
BAYARD, the steed, Romance of, xx. 

653. 
, Chevalier de, French knight, in. 

457- 

BAYAZID, town, Armenia, in. 458. 
BAYBERRY OIL, xvn. 744, 747. 
BAYER, John, his notation of stars, n. 

754- 
BAYERBERG, mountain, Germany, xxi. 

349- 

BAYERN (Bavaria, q.v.), in. 450. 
BAYEUX, town, France, in. 458; xvn. 

539- 

TAPESTRY, vin. 162. 

BAYEZID, or Bajazet, I., Turkish sultan, 
in. 247; xxm. 641. 
- II., Turkish sultan, xxm. 642. 

BAYHAM, Viscount, lord chancellor of 
England, IV. 735. 

ABBEY, Sussex, England, I. 20. 

BAY-LAUREL, tree, xiv. 348. 

BAYLE, Gaspard L., French physician, 
xv. 8 1 6. 

, Pierre, lexicographer, in. 458; 
XVIII. 539; his Dictionnaire Historique 
et Critique, VIII. 194; his influence on 
French literature, ix. 661; his scepti 
cism, xxi. 383. 

BAYLEN, Duke of, Spanish general, v. 
1 86. 

BAYNARD S CASTLE, old London, xiv. 

843- 
BAYONET, weapon, n. 558; XL 284; 

xxn. 802. 

BAYONNE, town, France, in. 459. 
BAYOUS, river offshoots, xv. 20; xvi. 

520. 

BAY PSALM BOOK, xv. 614. 
BAYREUTH (Baireuth, q.v.), town, Ba 
varia, in. 246. 
BAY SALT, xxi. 228. 
BAY-WINDOW, in architecture, n. 460. 
BAYWOOD, Honduras mahogany, xv. 

288. 

BAZA, town, Spain, in. 459. 
BAZAINE, Francois Achille, French 

marshal, ix. 627; his capitulation at 

Metz (1870), xvi. 204. 
BAZARAD, Alexander, voivode of Wa- 

lachia, xxi. 16. 
BAZARD, Armand, French socialist, in. 

459; vin. 212; xxi. 198. 
BAZARDJUSI, mountain, Caucasus, v. 

254. 
BAZARUTO ARCHIPELAGO, East Africa, 

xvn. 7. 

BAZIGARS, tribe, India, in. 459. 
BAZIN S HYDRAULIC FORMULA, xn. 

497- 
BAZOCHE, Clerks of the, actors of 

moralities, vn. 414; ix. 645. 
BAZTAN, town, Spain, xvn. 249. 
BAZZI, Giannantonio (II Sodoma), Italian 

painter, XXII. 245; XXI. 434. 



BDELLID/E, family of Arachnida, n. 

276; xvi. 528. 
BDELLIUM, gum-resin, in. 460; xvn. 

121 ; used as incense, XII. 718. 
BDELLOIDA, order of Rot if era, xxi. 8. 
BEACHES, Raised, x. 256. 
BEACHY HEAD, promontory, England, 

in. 460; xxn. 723. 
BEACON, at sea, xiv. 625. 

CONTROVERSY, among Quakers, 

xx. 149. 
BEACONSFIELD, town, England, in. 

460. 

, Earl of (B. Disraeli), British states- 
mail, vin. 367. 
BEACONS OF BRECKNOCK, hills, Wales, 

iv. 243. 
BEAD, ornament, in. 460; of glass, x. 

652. 
BEAGLE, dog, vn. 329; xn. 316. 

CHANNEL, Tierra del Fuego, xxm. 

384- 

BEAM, in carpentry, iv. 477; in bridges, 
iv. 289. 

BEAN, leguminous plant, in. 460; cul 
ture of, I. 360; xn. 279, 283; as forage 
crop, I. 377; straw as fodder, I. 361. 

BEAR, carnivorous mammal, in. 461; 
XV. 441; hibernation of, XI. 788; 
arctic, colour of, xvi. 343; of India, 
xn. 741; skins of, IX. 837. 

ACCOUNT, Stock Exchange term, 

I. 92. 

BAITING, in. 461. 



BEARD, in. 462. 
BEAR ISLAND, Spitzbergen, xxn. 408. 
BEAR LAKE, Great, Canada, in. 462. 
BEAR LODGE, natural pillar, Rocky 

Mountains, U.S.A., xxm. 797. 
BEAR-MOUSE, or Marmot, xv. 559. 
BEARN, province, France, in. 465. 
BEAR S-FOOT, plant, XL 635. 
BEAS, river, India, xxi. 146. 
BEAST, of the Apocalypse, n. 125; xx. 

499- 
BEAST-FORMS, Myths of, xv. 90; xvn. 

135; xxm. 467. 
BEATIA (Baeza), ancient town, Spain, in. 

229. 

BEATIFICATION, v. 23. 
BEATINE, nitrogenous carbon compound, 

xvn. 520. 
BEATON, David, Scottish cardinal, in. 

465; xxi. 498. 
BEATRICE, town, Nebraska, U.S.A., 

xvn. 309. 

, Dante s, vi. 811. 
BEATS, in music, I. 117; xvn. 105. 
BEATTIE, James, Scottish poet and 

essayist, in. 466; his place in English 

literature, Vin. 429. 
BEAUCAIRE, town, France, in. 467. 
BEAUCE, district, France, xiv. 809. 
BEAUCHAMP, Alphonse de, French his 
torian, in. 467. 
BEAUFORT, town, South Carolina, 

U.S.A., xxn. 288. 



B E A B E E 



49 



BEAUFORT, Pierre Roger de (Pope Gre 
gory XL), xi. 178. 

FAMILY, earls and dukes of Somer 
set, vin. 327. 
BEAUHARNAIS, Eugene de, stepson of 

Napoleon I., ill. 467. 
, Eugenie Hortense de, Louis 

Napoleon s mother, XII. 209; xvn. 

226. 
, Josephine de, wife of Napoleon I., 

xin. 751; xvn. 196; divorce of, xvn. 

215. 
BEAUHARNAISIUS, genus of birds, 

xxni. 477. 
BEAUJEU, Anne of, regent of France, 

v. 411; ix. 553. 
BEAULIEU, Augustin, French admiral, 

I. 566. 
, Jacques, French surgeon, xxn. 

676. 
BEAUMANOIR, Philippe de, French 

jurist, ill. 467. 
BEAUMARCHAIS, Pierre Augustin Caron, 

French dramatist, III. 467; VII. 426; 

ix. 666. 
BEAUMARIS, town, Wales, in. 468. 

SHARK, xix. 518. 

BEAUMOND CROSS, Newark, England, 

xvn. 370. 
BEAUMONT, Francis, English dramatist, 

in. 469; vn. 432. 
BEAUMONTITE, mineral, xvi. 422. 
BEAUNE, town, France, in. 474; Hos 
pice de, xxiv. 606. 
BEAUSOBRE, Isaac de, French Protestant 

writer, in. 475. 
BEAUTIFUL, Theory of the, I. 212; xvni. 

795; Burke s work on, iv. 540; Jouf- 

froy on, xin. 754. 
BEAUTY, its nature, IX. 194; Hutcheson 

on, xil. 411; Plato on, xix. 201. 

AND THE BEAST, folk-tale, xv. 91. 

BEAUVAIS, town, France, in. 475; xvn. 

749- 
, Vincent of, encyclopaedist, vin. 

192; xxiv. 235. 
BEAUXITE, or Bauxite, mineral, xin. 

295; xvi. 388. 
BEAVER, rodent mammal, in. 475; xv. 

418; skins of, ix. 838. 

, perfume, xvni. 526. 

BEAVER-WOOD, tree, XL 360. 
BEBAJIAS, Gipsy tribe, India, in. 248. 
BEBBA, British princess, xvn. 569. 
BEBE (Nicholas Ferry), French dwarf, 

vn. 567. 

BEBEERINE (Bibirine), vegetable alka 
loid, in. 633. 

EEC, Monastery of, Normandy, II. 91. 
BECCAFICO, bird, xvni. 53. 
BECCAFUMI, Domenico, Italian painter, 

in. 476; xxn. 44. 
BECCARI, Agostino, Italian pastoral 

dramatist, vn. 418; xvni. 345. 
BECCARI A, Marquis, Italian jurist and 

economist, in. 477; xix. 362. 
, Giovanni Battista, Italian astrono- * 



mer, in. 477; his experiments in elec 
tricity, VIII. 7. 
BECCLES, town, England, 111.477; xxn. 

622. 
BECERRA, Gaspar, Spanish painter and 

sculptor, in. 477. 
BECHE-DE-MER, or Trepang, edible 

echinoderm, ill. 477. See also vn. 

640. 
BECKER, Johann Joachim, German 

chemist, ill. 477; v. 460. 
BECHSTEIN, Johann M., on birds, xvni. 

9, 17- 

BECHTERMUNZE, Henry and Nicholas, 
German printers, xxill. 685. 

BECHUANA LANDS, Africa, Languages 
of, xxiv. 828. 

BECHWANA, or Bechuanas, Negro tribes, 
ill. 478; xvn. 319; their totemism, 
xxni. 468; of Transvaal, xxni. 518. 

BECK, David, Dutch painter, in. 479. 

BECKER, Wilhelm Adolf, German arch 
aeologist, in. 479. 

BECKET, Thomas, or Thomas A, arch 
bishop of Canterbury, I. 31; v. 29; 
Vin. 304, 372; his contests with Henry 
II., XI. 657; his bones burnt, VI. 606. 

BECKETT S LOCK, xiv. 749. 

BECKFORD, William, English writer, in. 

479- 

BECKLEY S SELF-REGISTERING ANE 
MOMETER, ii. 25. 

BECKMANN, Johann, German writer, in. 
479; i. 644. 

BECKWITH, Agnes, English swimmer, 
xxn. 771. 

, Colonel, Waldensian philanthropist, 

xxiv. 325. 

BECUIBA TALLOW, vegetable fat, xvn. 

744- 

BED, in furniture, IX. 849. 
BEDA (Bede, q.v.), early English his 
torian, in. 480. 

BEDARRIEUX, town, France, in. 479. 
BED-CHAMBER, Ladies of the royal, 

xxi. 37. 
BEDDOES, Thomas, English physician, 

in. 479. 
, Thomas Lovell, English dramatist, 

in. 480. 
BEDE, early English historian, ill. 480; 

vin. 280; xin. 593; xvn. 569, 570; 

his account of Caedmon, IV. 630; on 

monachism, XVI. 707; his place in 

English literature, Vin. 405. 
BEDELL, William, bishop of Kilmore, 

in. 482. 

BED-FEATHERS, ix. 59. 
BEDFORD, town, England, in. 482. 
, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., mineral 



water of, xvi. 436. 
, Duke of, English regent in France, 

vin. 321; ix. 549. 

- HOURS, illuminated MS., XII. 708. 
LEVEL, district, England, in. 

482; draining of, I. 404; iv. 727. 
BEDFORDSHIRE, county, England, in. 



483; population and representation, 
xxni. 727. 

BEDJA, town, Tunis, xxni. 620. 

BEDLAMS, for detention of lunatics, xin. 
no. 

BEDLIS, town, Armenia, in. 617. 

BEDLOE S ISLAND, New York, U.S.A., 
xvn. 459. 

BEDMAR, Marquis of, Spanish ambas 
sador to Venice, xxiv. 147. 

BEDNOR, town, India, HI. 483. 

BEDOUINS, nomad Arabs, n. 246; I. 564; 
xxi. 651; in Syria, xxn. 823. 

BEDR, Battle of, near Medina (623), XVI. 

555- 

BEDSTEAD, in furniture, IX. 849. 
BEE, insect, in. 484, 493; xn. 576; 

xin. 148; honey of, xn. 136, 138; 

wax, xxiv. 459. 

, Humble, XH. 342. 

BEECH, tree, in. 503; culture of, 11. 

317; in U.S.A., xxin. 808; strength 

of the wood, xxn. 603. 
BEECHER, Lyman, American temper 
ance reformer, XXIII. 158. 
BEECHEY, Frederick William, Arctic 

explorer, III. 503; X. 193; Xix. 319. 
, Sir William, English painter, in. 

503- 

BEECH-NUT OIL, xvn. 744. 
B EEC KM AN, Isaac, his friendship with 

Descartes, VII. 116. 

BEEF-MEASLE, xxni. 52; xxiv. 206. 
BEE-HIVES, in. 499. 
BEEK, David, Dutch painter, in. 479. 
BEE-KEEPING, HI. 501; xii. 138. 
BEELTHAN, George of, Syriac writer, 

xxn. 842. 
BEELZEBUB, in. 503; vn. 136; xvni. 

756. 

BEE-MARTIN, bird, xiv. 81. 
BEE-PASTURAGE, in. 498. 
BEER, beverage, IV. 264; xv. 338; 

adulteration of, I. 172; Burton, IV. 

5 72; consumption of, in Munich, XVII. 

26; tax on, in England, xv. 339. 
, Dob, Jewish sectarian leader, xin. 



681. 



-, Herz, father of Meyerbeer, xvi. 



BEERBERG, Grosser, mountain, Ger 
many, xxni. 332. 

BEERBHOOM (Birbhum), district and 
town, India, III. 697. 

BEERSHEBA, town, Palestine, HI. 504; 
xvni. 172. 

BEESTON, town, England, xvn. 598. 

BEESWAX, in. 486; xxiv. 459; bleach 
ing of, in. 825. 

BEET, vegetable, in. 504; xn. 279; cul 
ture of, I. 381; rum from, XXI. 58; 
sugar from, I. 381; XXII. 625, 626. 

BEETHOVEN, Ludwig van, musician, 
ill. 504; as symphonist, XVII. 97. 

BEETLE, insect, HI. 507; vi. 126; xin. 
148; mimicry in, xvi. 343. 

MITE, xvi. 528. 

XXV. 7 



50 



B E E B E L 



BEETLING, in bleaching, in. 818. 
BEETS, Nicolaes, Dutch writer, xn. 98. 
BEGARELLI, Antonio, of Modena, Italian 

sculptor, xxi. 569. 

BEGAS, Karl, German painter, in. 507. 
BEGBAZAAR, town, Asiatic Turkey, in. 

507. 
BEGGARS, English laws against, xix. 

462. 

BEGGAR S OPERA, Gay s, vn. 437; x. 120. 
BEGHARDS, communistic mystics, in. 

507; i. 140; xvi. 711; xvn. 132; 

Eckhart s connexion with them, vn. 

642. 

BEGONIA, stove plant, xii. 265. 
BEGUINES, communistic mystics, in. 

507; xvi. 709; xvn. 132. 
BEHAIM, Martin, cartographer and navi 
gator, in. 509; x. 680. 
BEHAR, province, India, in. 508, 567; 

town, in. 509; xvin. 409. 
BEHBEHAN, town, Persia, in. 509. 
BEHEM,or Behaim, Martin, cartographer 

and navigator, in. 509; x. 680. 
BEHISTUN, Persia, rock inscriptions at, 

in. 509; xvin. 567. 
BEHMEN, Jakob (Boehme, </.v.), German 

mystic, in. 852. 
BEHN, Aphra, English dramatist, in. 

509; vin. 424. 
BEHRING, Vitus, Danish Arctic explorer, 

in. 510; xix. 318. 
BEHRING S ISLAND, North Pacific, in. 

509. 
BEHRING S STRAIT, in. 509; xvin. 

116; whale fishery in, xxiv. 528. 
BEHRISCH, E. W., friend of Goethe, x. 

722. 
BEI BAZAAR (Begbazaar), town, Asiatic 

Turkey, in. 507. 
BEIGHTON, Henry, his steam-engine 

improvement, xxn. 474. 
BEING, Science of, xvi. 79. 

AND NOT BEING, in Eleatic philo 
sophy, xvin. 315. 
BEIRA, province, Portugal, in. 510; 

xix. 537. 
BEIROUT, or Beyrout, town, Syria, in. 

622; commerce of, xxin. 655. 
BEIT-EL-FAKIH, town, Arabia, in. 510. 
BEJA, town, Portugal, in. 510. 
BEJAPORE (Bijapur), state and town, 

India, in. 669. 

BEJAR, town, Spain, in. 510; xxi. 203. 
BEJARD, Arniande, wife of Moliere, xvi. 

625. 
BEKA, district, Asiatic Turkey, xxin. 

654. 
BEKE, Charles T., English traveller, in. 

510. 

BEKES, town, Hungary, in. 511. 
BEKKER, Balthazar, Dutch theologian, 

in. 511; xn. 95. 
, or Wolff, Elizabeth, Dutch 

novelist, in. 511. 
, Immanuel, German philologist, 

in. 511. 



BEKR, tribe of Arabs, Mesopotamia, 

xvi. 48. 

BEL, Assyrian deity, in. 175. 
, Matthias, Hungarian historian, 



in. 511. 

BELA, town, Baluchistan, in. 511. 
BELABANZA, town, Hungary, xxi. 393. 
BELADHORI, Arab historian, xxin. 3. 
BELANDA NIAM-NIAM, Central African 

tribes, xvn. 473. 
BEL AND THE DRAGON, History of, in 

Apocrypha, II. 181. 
BELASPOOR (Bilaspur), town, India, 

xin. 823. 

BELBEIS, town, Upper Egypt, in. 511. 
BELCHEN, mountain, Black Forest, 

Germany, xxiv. 700. 
BELCHER, Sir Edward, Arctic explorer, 

xix. 321. 

BELEBEI, town, Russia, xxin. 717. 
BELEMNITE, fossil mollusc, xvi. 676. 
BELESME, Robert of, Norman noble, XL 

656. 
BELFAST, town, Ireland, in. 511; xin. 

237; library, xiv. 524; newspapers, 

xvn. 423; Queen s College at, xxin. 

855. 

LOUGH, Ireland, in. 512. 



BELFORT, town, France, in. 513; xm. 

781. 

BELFRY, in architecture, n. 461. 
BELG.E, or Belgians, Gallic tribe, ix. 

527; x. in. 
BELGAM, or Belgaum, district, India, 

in- SU- 

BELGIUM, in. 514; united to and separ 
ated from Holland, XII. 83; its relations 
to the papacy, VI. 242; academy of, 
I. 76; its army, n. 615; birds, xvin. 
17; coalfields, vi. 55; coins, xvn. 
656; small farms, I. 412; forests, IX. 
400; foundling hospitals, IX. 483; 
irrigation works, Xin. 370; libraries, 
XIV - S3 1 ) 549! mines, xvi. 468; 
national debt, xvn. 246; newspapers, 
xvn. 430; observatories, xvn. 715; 
oyster culture, xvin. 108; periodical 
literature, xvin. 542; police system, 
Xix. 343; prison system, xix. 758; 
railways, XX. 250; Walloons, xxiv. 

332- 
BELGRADE, town, Servia, in. 531; xxi. 

688; battle of (1717), vin. 66 1; treaty 

of (1739), xxin. 647. 
BELHAVEN, Lord, on farming in East 

Lothian, Scotland, I. 301. 
BELIEF, in. 532; psychology of, xx. 

83; in relation to theology, XXIII. 

264; Jacobi s theory of, xin. 537. 
BELINSKI, Russian critic, xxi. 108. 
BELISARIUS, Byzantine general, in. 

535; xin. 797; xvn. 233; xvin. 612; 

XX. 782; African campaign of, xxiv. 

59; Procopius s relations with, xix. 

789. 
BELIUS, Matthias, Hungarian historian, 

in. 511. 



BELIZE, town, British Honduras, in. 

536; xn. 132. 
BELKNAP, Jeremy, American writer, 

in. 536. 
BELL, and bell manufacture, in. 536; 

IV. 366; of Moscow (Tsar-Kolokol), 

xvi. 867 ; of Nara, Japan, xvn. 

229. 
, Alexander Graham, on telephony, 

xxin. 127, 128, 130. 
, Alexander Melville, his system 

of shorthand, xxi. 840; on visible 

speech, I. 608; vn. 9; xxn. 3,85. 
, Andrew, English educationist, in. 

539; vn. 678; educational system of, 

xiv. 258. 
-, Andrew, printer of first edition of 



Encyclopaedia Britannica, vin. 200. 
, Sir Charles, English anatomist, 
in. 540; XV. 817; his Anatomy of 
Expression, I. 817; on physiognomy, 
Xix. 5. 
-, Currer, Ellis, and Acton (the 



sisters Bronte), iv. 365. 

, George Joseph, Scottish jurist, in. 



542. 



-, Henry, Scottish mechanician, in. 



542. 



, Henry Glassford, Scottish writer, 
in. 542. 

, John, American politician, xxin. 
772, 788. 
, John, Scottish anatomist and sur 



geon, in. 543. 

, John, Scottish traveller, ill. 542. 

, Patrick, inventor of reaping ma 
chine, I. 322. 
, Robert, editor of British poets, III. 



543- 

BELLA, suburb, Nicastro, Italy, xvn. 
480. 
, Stefano de la, Italian engraver, III. 

543- 
BELLADONNA, plant, in. 543; xvn. 

231; as poison, xix. 279. 

OIL, xvn. 744. 
BELLAI, Guillaume du, French general 

and writer, in. 543. 
BELLAMAR, Caves of, Cuba, xv. 624. 
BELLAMY, Jacobus, Dutch poet, in. 543; 

xn. 96. 
BELLARMINE, Robert F. R., cardinal, 

in. 544; his relations with Galileo, X. 

32- 
BELLARY (Ballari), district and town, 

India, in. 286. 
BELLAY, or Bellai, Guillaume du, 

French general and writer, in. 543. 

, Joachim du, French poet, in. 544; 

xx. 841. 
BELL-BIRD, of New Zealand, xn. 139 

, of Venezuela, xxiv. 139. 
BELL-COT, in architecture, n. 461. 
BELLEAU, Remy, French pastoral poet, 

in. 545; xvin. 345; XX. 841. 
BELLE- ISLE, Duke of, French marshal, 

ix. 586. 



BELLE-ISLE, Marquis of (Nicolas Fou- 

quet, q.v.), French statesman, IX. 487. 
BELLE-ISLE-EN-MER, island, west of 

France, in. 545. 
BELLENDEN, John, Scottish poet, in. 

545; xxi. 541; his translation of 

Boece s history, in. 850. 
, William, French classical scholar, 

in. 545. 

BELLENZ (Bellinzona, q.v.), town, Switz 
erland, in. 548. 
BELLEROPHON, in Greek legend, in. 

546; xvni. 468. 

BELLES-LETTRES, Academies of, i. 73. 
BELLEVILLE, town, Ontario, Canada, 

xvn. 775. 

, town, Illinois, U.S.A., III. 546. 

BELLEY, town, France, in. 546. 
BELLIGERENTS, in international law, 

xin. 194. 
BELLINGER, river, New South Wales, 

xvn. 408. 
BELLINGHAM, Sir Edward, viceroy of 

Ireland, xin. 263. 
, John, assassin of Spencer Perceval, 

xvni. 521. 
BELLINI, Gentile, Italian painter, in. 

547; XXL 436; tutor of Titian, XXIII. 

414. 
, Giovanni, Italian painter, in. 547; 

xxi. 436; tutor of Titian, xxn I. 414. 

, Jacopo, Italian painter, ill. 546; 

xv. 501. 
, Lorenzo, Italian anatomist and 

physician, ill. 548. 
-, Vincenzo, Italian musical composer, 



in. 548; xvn. 99. 
BELLINZONA, town, Switzerland, in. 

548; xxn. 778; XXIIL 351. 
BELLMAN, Carl Mikael, Swedish poet, 

in. 549; xxn. 755. 
BELL METAL, iv. 366. 
BELLOMONT, Lord, English governor of 

New York, xvn. 455. 
BELLONA, in Roman mythology, in. 

549- 
BELLONIUS, Petrus (Belon, q.v.), French 

naturalist, III. 553; on birds, xvni. 4. 
BELLOT, Joseph Rene", French Arctic 

explorer, ill. 549; xix. 321. 
BELLOVACENSIS, Vincentius (Vincent of 

Beauvais), mediaeval encyclopaedist, 

vni. 192; xxiv. 235. 
BELLOVACI, Gallic tribe, xvni. 286. 
BELLOVESUS, founder of Milan, xvi. 

292. 
BELLOWS, in. 549; for organ, xvn. 836; 

for smelting ores, XVI. 60. 
BELL-RINGING, in. 538. 
BELL ROCK LIGHTHOUSE, on Scottish 

coast, xiv. 6 1 6. 

BELL S PALSY, disease, xvni. 257. 
BELLU^E, Linnaean order of Mammalia, 

xv. 421; xxiv. 805. 
BELLUNO, town, Italy, in. 553. 
, Duke of (C. P. Victor), French 

marshal, xxiv. 213. 



B E L B E N 

BELLY-FISH, in Java, xin. 606. 
BELMONTE, river, Brazil, iv. 222. 
BELON, Pierre, French, naturalist, in. 

553; on birds, xvni. 4; on fishes, 

XII. 631. 

BELONE, genus of fishes, x. 80. 
BELOOCHISTAN (Baluchistan), country, 

Asia, in. 299. 

BELPASSO, town, Sicily, in. 553. 
BELPER, town, England, in. 553. 
BELSHAM, Thomas, English Unitarian 

writer, in. 553. 
, William, English political writer, 

i- 553- 

BELSHAZZAR, of Scripture, in. 188, 553. 
BELT, mechanical connector, xv. 760. 
, Great and Little, straits, Denmark, 

in. 554- 
BELTANE, or Beltein, Celtic festival, 

in. 554. 
BELTIRS, race of people, Kussia, xxi. 

251. 
BELUGA, cetacean mammal, xv. 398; 

xxiv. 525; xix. 522. 
BELUNUM (Belluno), ancient town, 

Italy, in. 553. 
BELVACENSIS, Vincentius (Vincent of 

Beauvais), encyclopaedist, VIIL 192; 

xxiv. 235. 
BELVEDERE, town, Italy, in. 554. 

STATUE, of Apollo, n. 186. 

BELZONI, Giovanni Battista, explorer 

of Egypt, in. 554. 

BEM, Joseph, Polish general, XII. 372. 
BEMA, in architecture, II. 461. 

, Manichaean festival, XV. 485. 

BEMBA, lake, Central Africa, xxiv. 763. 
BEMBO, Pietro, cardinal, in. 554. 
BEMBRIDGE, town, Isle of Wight, 

England, xxiv. 562. 
BENACUS (Garda), lake, Italy, x. 75. 
BENARES, division, district, and town, 

India, in. 554; xvn. 572; Ghoosla 

Ghat, landing place at, n. 397. 
BEN ATTOW, mountain, Scotland, XX. 

854. 

BENAVENTE, town, Spain, in. 556. 
BENBECULA, island, Scotland, XL 607. 
BENBOW, John, English admiral, III. 556. 
BENBULBIN, mountain, Ireland, xxn. 

159. 

BENCH, legal term, in. 556. 
BENCHERS, English lawyers, in. 556; 

xiii. 87. 
BENCOOLEN, town, Sumatra, in. 556; 

residency, xxil. 639. 
BEND, in heraldry, XL 695, 706. 

, seaman s knot, xiv. 128; xxi. 590. 

BENDALL, Cecil, on Nepalese chronology, 

xvn. 344. 
BENDER, town, Russia, in. 557; Charles 

XII. s residence at, V. 421. 
BENDER-ABBASI (Bandar Abbas), town, 

Persia, III. 557; xvm. 620, 627. 
BENDER EREGLI, town, Asiatic Turkey, 

XL 681. 
BENDING MOMENT, in beams, iv. 290. 



51 

BEND-I-NUH (Noah s Hill), mountain, 

Kurdistan, xiv. 156. 
BENEDEK, Laid wig von, Austrian general, 

in. 140. 
BENEDICT, St, founder of order of 

monks, in. 557; i. 11; xvi. 703; his 

monastic rule, xvi. 704. 

- I. -IV., popes, in. 558. 

- V., pope, in. 558; xix. 497; XX. 
789. 

- VI., pope, in. 558; xx. 789. 

- VII., pope, in. 558. 

- VIIL, pope, in. 558; xx. 790. 
IX., pope, in. 558; state of Rome 



under, xx. 790. 

X., pope, in. 558; xvn. 484. 

XL, pope, in. 558. 

XII., pope, in. 558; xx. 799. 

XIII., pope, in. 558; xx. 803. 
XIV., pope, in. 559; xix. 507; 



his opposition to the Jesuits, XI II. 

654. 

BENEDICTINE MONASTERIES, i. u. 
BENEDICTINES, or Benedictine order 

of monks, III. 558; xvi. 704; in 

England, VIIL 372; their libraries, 

xiv. 513. 
BENEDICTIONAL, church service book, 

xiv. 710. 
BENEDICTUS LEVITA, his collection of 

church laws, v. 17. 
BENEE- HASAN, Egypt, Sepulchral 

grottoes at, vn. 774. 
BENEE-SUWEYF, town, Egypt, vn. 

774- 
BENEFICE, Ecclesiastical, in. 559; origin 

of the system, IX. 121; right of 

presentation to, I. 179; xx. 158; 

simony in regard to, xxn. 85 ; 

vicarial, XXIV. 209; dilapidations of, 1 

vn. 239. 
BENEFIT OF CLERGY, in law, v. 827; 

VIIL 372. 
BENEKE, Friedrich Eduard, German 

philosopher, ill. 560. 
BENEVENTO, town, Italy, in. 561. 
, Prince of (Talleyrand), French 

statesman, XXIIL 29. 
BENEVENTUM (Benevento), ancient 

town, Italy, III. 561; XXI. 249; battle 

of (275), xx. 744. 
BENEVOLENCE, in phrenology, xvni. 

845- 
, Universal, Cumberland s theory of 

vi. 702. 

BENEVOLENCES, enforced loans, ix. 177. 
BENFEY, Theodor, German philologist, 

xvni. 781; xin. 682. 
BENGAL, lieutenant -governorship, India, 

ill. 562; early British connexion with, 

xn. 799; army of, II. 590. 
BENGALEE ERA, ^719. 
BENGALI LANGUAGE, Dictionaries of 

vii. 190. 
BENGAL LIGHT, in pyrotechny, xx. 

136- 
BENGAWAN, river, Java, xin. 601. 



52 



B E N B E R 



BENGAZI, town, North Africa, in. 571; 

xxni. 575. 
BENGEL, John Albert, German Biblical 

scholar, ill. 571. 
BEN GERSON, Levi, Jewish philosopher, 

x. 550. 
BENGHAZI, town, Tripoli, Africa, ill. 

571; xxm. 575. 
BENGUELA, country, West Africa, in. 

572. 
BENHADAD, king of Damascus, xin. 

406. 
BEN HOPE, mountain, Scotland, xxn. 

726. 

BENI, department, Bolivia, iv. 10. 
BENICARLO, town, Spain, in. 572. 
BENI ISRAEL, Jewish settlement, Bom 
bay, xin. 685. 

BENIN, country, West Africa, in. 572. 
BENINCASA, Catherine (St Catherine 

of Siena), v. 229; xxn. 43. 
BENJAMIN, of Scripture, in. 573. 
of Tudela, Jewish rabbi, in. 

573- 
BEN KLIBRECK, mountain, Scotland, 

xxn. 726. 
BENKULEN (Bencoolen), town, Sumatra, 

in. 556; xxii. 639. 
BEN LAWERS, mountain, Scotland, 

xviii. 666. 
BEN LOMOND, mountain, Scotland, 

xxn. 553. 
BEN LOMOND, mountain, Tasmania, 

xxni. 73. 
BEN MORE, mountain, Scotland, xvm. 

666. 
BENMORE ASSYNT, mountain, Scotland, 

xxn. 726. 
BEN MUICHDHUI, mountain, Scotland, 

1-43- 

BENNET, Henry, earl of Arlington, 

English statesman, in. 573. 
BENNETTS ELECTROSCOPE, vin. 118. 
BENNETT, James Gordon, American 

journalist, in. 574; xvii. 434. 
, John Hughes, English physio 
logist, in. 574. 
, Sir William Sterndale, English 

musical composer, in. 574; XVII. 97. 
BENNEVILLE, George de, American 

Universalist, xxni. 831. 
BEN NEVIS, mountain, Scotland, xin. 

199. 
BENNINGTON, town, Vermont, U.S.A., 

xxiv. 167. 

BENNU, Egyptian phoenix, xvm. 811. 
BEN NUT, xvii. 664; oil of, xvii. 744. 
BENOIT DE SAINTE-MORE, French 

writer, XIII. 499; XX. 638. 
BENOZZO GOZZOLI, Italian painter, IX. 

773; XL 24; xxi. 435. 
BENSERADE, Isaac de, French poet, in. 

575- 
BEN SLIOCH, mountain, Scotland, XX. 

854. 

BENSON, George, English divine, ill. 
575- 



BENTENG, town, Indian Archipelago, 

XXI. 210. 

BENTHAM, George, on plant classifica 
tion, iv. 8 1. 

, Jeremy, English writer on politics 
and jurisprudence, III. 575; on codi 
fication of law, VI. 1 06; his ethical 
system, vin. 606; on prison discipline, 
XIX. 748; promoter of savings banks, 
xxi. 32 7; on Smith s Wealth of Nations, 
xix. 370; his relations with Dumont, 
VII. 529. 

BENTINCK, William, first earl of Port 
land, English diplomatist, xix. 530. 
, Lord William, governor-general of 
India, xn. 806. 

, Lord William George F. C., English 

statesman, in. 577. 

, WiUiam H. C., third duke of Port 
land, English statesman, XIX. 530. 

BENTIVOGLIO, Giovanni, Bolognese 
statesman, ill. 577. 

, Guido, cardinal, ill. 577. 

BENTLEY, Eichard, English scholar, in. 
578; on the ^Esopian fables, in. 181; 
his controversies with Conyers Mid- 
dleton, xvi. 282; on the Letters of 
Phalaris, XVIII. 730. 

BENTON, Thomas Hart, American poli 
tician, xxni. 764, 788. 

BENUA, race of people, Malay Peninsula, 
xv. 323. 

BENUE, river, Africa, I. 253; XVII. 496. 

BENVOGLIENTI, Ulberto, Sienese his 
torian, xxn. 43. 

BEN VOIRLICH, mountain, Scotland, 
xvin. 666. 

BEN WYVIS, mountain, Scotland, xx. 
854. 

BEN Y GLOE, mountain, Scotland, xvm. 
666. 

BENZENE, in chemistry, xxni. 59; v. 
560. 

BENZERT (Bizerta), town, Tunis, Africa, 
in. 794; xxni. 620. 

BENZOIC ACID, in chemistry, in. 580. 

BENZOIN, gum, in. 581; xxii. 639; as 
incense, XII. 718. 

BENZOL, in chemistry, xxni. 59; xvm. 

237- 

BENZOYL, in chemistry, xxiv. 626. 
BEOWULF, Anglo-Saxon poem, vin. 403, 

404; xx. 657. 
BERANGER, Jean Pierre, Swiss historian, 

xxn. 799. 

, Pierre Jean de, French poet, in. 

581; IX. 675. 

BERAPI, mountain, Sumatra, XXII. 638. 
BERAR, province, India, in. 582. 
BERARD, Frederic, French physician, 

in. 584. 
BERARDI, Angelo, Italian musician, 

xvn. 87. 

BERARDIUS, genus of Cetacea, xv. 397. 
BERAUNA, tribe, Fezzan, Africa, IX. 

130. 
BERAUNITE, mineral, xvi. 405. 



BERBER, town, Egypt, in. 584; xvn. 
507. 

BERBERA, town, Eastern Africa, in. 584. 

BERBERINES, people, Nubia, i. 260. 

BERBER LANGUAGE, xvm. 778; its 
relation to Semitic, XXI. 643; diction 
aries of, vii. 192. 

BERBERS, people, North Africa, i. 261; 
xxi. 151; xin. 814; xxn. 278; of 
Algeria, I. 564; of Morocco, xvi. 834; 
in Spain, xxii. 310; of Tunis, xxm. 
620. 

BERBICE, county, British Guiana, xi. 
249; river, xi. 250. 

BERCEO, Gonzalo de, Spanish poet, x. 
773; xxn. 353. 

BERCHEM, or Berghem, Nicholas, 
Dutch painter, m. 584. 

BERCHORIUS, Petrus, French Biblical 
encyclopaedist, vin. 193. 

BERCHTESGADEN, or Berchtolsgaden, 
town, Bavaria, in. 584. 

BERDIANSK, town, Russia, in. 584; 
xxm. 83. 

BERDICHEFF, town, Russian Poland, in. 
585. 

BERDYANSK (Berdiansk), town, Russia, 
m. 584; xxm. 83. 

BERE, cereal, ill. 376; culture of, I. 359. 

BEREA (Berrhoea), ancient town, Mace 
donia, xv. 137. 

BEREANS, or Barclayites, Scottish sect, 
in. 369. 

BEREKE KHAN, Mongol ruler, xvi. 746. 

BERENGAR I., III., IV., counts of Cata 
lonia, xxii. 311. 

II., king of Italy, X. 483; xm. 468; 

w *?QQ 
XX. 700. 

BERENGARIA, wife of Richard Cceur de 

Lion, king of England, xx. 540. 
BERENGARIUS, of Tours, theologian and 

scholastic philosopher, m. 585; xxi. 

421; his connexion with Lanfranc, 

xiv. 283. 

BERENGELITE, mineral, xvi. 428. 
BERENGER, James, of Carpi, Italian 

anatomist, I. 806. 
BERENICE, daughter of Agrippa I. of 

Judaea, in. 586; her relations with 

Titus, xxm. 420. 
-, wife of Ptolemy Euergetes of 



Egypt, III. 586. 

, town, Red Sea, m. 586. 
BERENICE, Racine s drama, xx. 206. 
BERESFORD, Marshal, English envoy in 

Portugal, xix. 551. 
BEREZINA, river, Russia, in. 586; xxiv. 

233- 
BEREZOFF,town, Siberia, m. 587; xxm. 

430- 

BERG, duchy, Germany, in. 587. 
BERGAMO, town, Asia Minor, xvm. 

528. 
-, province, Italy, m. 587. 



, town, Italy, in. 587; church of 

Sta Maria Maggioreat, n. 456; pictures 
in, XXI. 447. 



B E R B E R 



53 



BERGAMOT, Oil of, in. 587. 
BERGANDER, bird, xxi. 788. 
BERGEDORF, town, Germany, xi. 404; 

xv. 33. 
BERGEN, town, Norway, in. 588; xvn. 

582. 

, town, Riigen, Germany, XXI. 57. 

, Charles Auguste de, anatomist, I. 

814. 
BERGEN-OP-ZOOM, town, Holland, III. 

< QO 
500. 

BERGERAC, town, France, in. 588. 

, Cyrano de, on travelling to the 

moon, I. 1 86. 

BERGERITE, mineral, xvi. 391. 
BERGHEM, Nicholas, Dutch painter, in. 

584. 

BERGHOLZ, mineral, xvi. 425. 
BERGISCH-GLADBACH, town, Prussia, x. 

631. 
BERGMANN, or Bergman, Torbern Olof, 

Swedish chemist and naturalist, ill. 

588; v. 463; xxn. 756; on alum, I. 

643; on crystals, VI. 673; on the 

transit of Venus, II. 791. 
BERGOMUM (Bergamo), ancient town, 

Italy, in. 587. 

BERGUES, town, France, xvii. 535. 
BERING, Vitus (Behring), Danish Arctic 

explorer, in. 510; xix. 318. 
BERKELEY, town, England, in. 589. 

, West Virginia, U.S.A., mineral 

water of, xvi. 436. 
-, George, bishop of Cloyne, philo 



sopher, ill. 589; on mental association, 
ii. 731; on the existence of God, n. 
192; his philosophy in relation to 
Collier s, VI. 144; his view of psycho 
logy, XX. 38; as economist, XIX. 364; 
his place in English literature, VIII. 
428. 

, Lord John, grantee of New Jersey, 

U.S.A., xvii. 398. 

BERKENHOUT, John, on British birds, 
xvin. 9. 

BERKHAMPSTEAD, Great, town, Eng 
land, in. 591. 

BERKSHIRE, county, England, in. 592; 
ancient monuments of, XXI. 5 1 ; popu 
lation and representation, XXIII. 727. 
- HOG, I. 400. 

BERLIN, capital of Prussia, in. 593 ; 
xx. 16; treaty of (1879), xxin. 652; 
academy of sciences, I. 71 ; bourse, XXII. 
557; libraries, xiv. 526, 546; news 
papers, xvn. 428; observatory, xvn. 
712; picture gallery, xxi. 445; porce 
lain, xix. 640; sculptures, XXI. 566; 
university, xxin. 848. 

NEEDLE; WORK, VIII. 162. 

BERLINER, Emile, telephonic inven 
tor, xxin. 129. 

BERLIOZ, Hector, French musical com 
poser, in. 598. 

BERM, in fortification, IX. 428, 429. 

BERMUDAS, islands, Atlantic Ocean, in. 
599) *8; Berkeley s proposed college 



at, in. 590; birds of, ill. 753; floating 

dock in, vil. 318. 

BERMUDEZ, state, Venezuela, xxiv. 140. 
BERMUDO II., king of Leon, xxn. 311; 

xix. 539. 

III., of Leon, xxn. 312. 



BERN, or Berne, canton, Switzerland, 
in. 600; xxn. 778, 784, 790; town, in. 
600; xxn. 778; university, xxin. 851. 

BERNACLE-GOOSE, X. 778. 

BERNADOTTE, Jean Baptiste Jules, 
French general and king of Sweden, 
in. 601; xxn. 752; in coalition against 
Napoleon (1813), xvn. 220. 

BERNAM, river, Malay Peninsula, xv. 
321. 

BERNARD, St, of Clairvaux, mediaeval 
philosopher and theologian, in. 601; I. 
35; IX. 539; xix. 500; xxi. 425; 
hymns by, XII. 584; mystical teaching 
of, xvn. 131. 

of Chartres, scholastic philosopher, 

xxi. 423. 

of Saxe-Weimar, general, IX. 569. 

of Trevisa, his chemical experi 
ments, I. 465. 
-, James, Dutch divine, in. 603. 



, Jeanne Frangoise Julie Adelaide 

(Madame Re camier), xx. 309. 

, Simon, French general, in. 603. 

BERNARDES, Diogo, Portuguese poet, 
xix. 556. 

BERNARDIN, St, of Siena, in. 603. 

DE SAINT-PIERRE, French writer, 



xxi. 195; ix. 666. 
BERNARDINO DI BETTI (Pinturicchio), 

Italian painter, XIX. 108; XXI. 436. 
BERN ART, of Ventadour, Provenal poet, 

xix. 874. 
BERNAT DES CLOT, Catalan chronicler, 

xxn. 363. 
BERNAT DES COLL, Catalan chronicler, 

xxn. 364. 
BERNAUER, Agnes, killed at Straubing, 

xxn. 591. 

BERNAY, town, France, in. 603. 
BERNAYS, Jacob, classical scholar, xni. 

682. 

BERNBURG, town, Germany, in. 604. 
BERNEC, Peter, Spanish metal-worker, 

xix. 184; xxi. 567. 
BERNERS, Lord (Bourchier), English 

writer, iv. 174. 

, Juliana, English writer on field- 
sports, ill. 604. 
BERNESE ALPS, i. 625. 
BERNESQUE POETRY, in Italian litera 
ture, xni. 510. 
BERNI, Francesco, Italian poet, in. 604; 

xni. 510. 
BERNICIA, district, Celtic Britain, v. 

301; kingdom of, vni. 270; xvn. 

568. 

BERNINA PASS, North Italy, xxiv. 45. 
BERNINI, Giovanni Lorenzo, Italian 

architect and sculptor, in. 604; xx. 

836; xxi. 570. 



BERNIS, Abbe, adviser of Madame de 
Pompadour, ix. 587, 589; xix. 443. 

BERNOULLI (or Bernouilli), family of 
mathematicians and scientists, ill. 604. 

, Daniel, his theory of the motion 

of fluids, in. 606; XII. 437, 466; his 
theory of musical pipes, I. 114; on 
tides, xxin. 355. 

, James, mathematician (d. 1705), in. 
604; on probability, XIX. 769, 772. 
, James (d. 1789), ill. 607. 
, John (d. 1748), III. 605; his hy 
pothesis of perpetual motion, xvin. 
555; his contributions to trigonometry, 
XXlll. 562; his problems solved by 
Newton, xvn. 446. 
, John (d. 1790), in. 607. 
, John (d. 1807), in. 607. 
, Nicholas (d. 1726), in. 606. 
-, Nicholas (d. 1759), in. 607. 



BERNOULLI AN NUMBERS, Tables of, 
xxin. 14. 

BERNSTORFF, family of Danish states 
men, VIL 87. 

BERN WARD, bishop of Hildesheim, 
niello-worker, XVII. 494. 

BEROZA (Aleppo), ancient town, Syria, I. 
478. 

BEROID^E, family of Actinozoa, I. 132. 

BEROSUS, Chaldsean historian and chron- 
ologist, in. 607; v. 710; xv. 144; 
XVlll. 561; on Babylonian cosmogony, 
VI. 446; on Deluge legends, vil. 54. 

BEROZOVKA, town, Russia, xxin. 717. 

BERRI, Due de, son of Charles X. of 
France, in. 608; murder of, ix. 619. 

, Duchesse de, in. 608. 

BERRIDGE, John, hymns by, xii. 594. 

BERRIO, Spanish writer of comedias, 
xxn. 356. 

BERRUGUETE, Alonso, Spanish sculptor, 
xxi. 567. 

BERRY, form of fruit, iv. 151. 

BERRYER, Pierre Antoine, French 
advocate and orator, in. 608. 

BERTAUT, Fran9oise (Madame de Motte- 
ville), xvii. 4. 

BERTHARIUS, abbot of Monte Cassino, 
xxin. 832. 

BERTHELOT, Pierre M., his researches 
on carbon, v. 86. 

BERTHIERINE, mineral, xvi. 415. 

BERTHIERITE, mineral, xvi. 394. 

BERTHOLD, Arnold A., on the sternum 
of birds, XVIII. 22. 

BERTHOLLET, Claude Louis, French 
chemist, in. 609; v. 464. 

BERTHOUD (Burgdorf), town, Switzer 
land, iv. 532. 

, Ferdinand, Swiss chronometer- 
maker, ill. 609. 

BERTIN, Louis F., French journalist, 
xvn. 425. 

, St, abbey of, St Omer, France, 

xxi. 1 88. 

BERTINORO, town, Italy, in. 610. 

BERTOLDO, Italian jester, ix. 367. 



B E R B H A 



BERTRAND DE GOTH (Pope Clement 
V.), v. 821; ix. 544; xix. 501. 

BERTRAN DE BORN, Provencal poet, 
xix. 874. 

BERUSH (Dob Beer), Jewish sectarian 
leader, xin. 68 1. 

BERVIE, village, Scotland, xiv. 79. 

BERWICK (Berwick-upon-Tweed, q.v.\ 
town, England, in. 610. 

, Duke of, marshal of France, ill. 

610; ix. 582. 

BERWICKSHIRE, county, Scotland, in. 
612; area and population, XXI. 528; 
representation, xxill. 727. 

BERWICK-UPON-TWEED, town, Eng 
land, in. 610; xvn. 567; in time of 
Alexander III. of Scotland, xxi. 486. 

BERYL, mineral and precious stone, in. 
613; xvi. 418. 

BERYLLIUM, or Glucinum, chemical ele 
ment, v. 526; x. 693; spectrum of, 
xxn. 376. 

BERYTUS, town, Phoenicia, xvni. 804. 

BERZELINITE, mineral, xvi. 392. 

BERZELITE, mineral, xvi. 404. 

BERZELIUS, Jons Jakob, Swedish chem 
ist, in. 614; xxii. 758; on atomic 
weights, V. 465; on the blowpipe, III. 
837 ; on fermentation, IX. 94 ; on 
uranium, xxiv. 7. 

BERZSENYI, Daniel, Hungarian poet, 
xn. 377. 

BES, Egyptian god, in. 614. 

BESALU, district, Roussillon, France, 
xxi. 28. 

BESANCON, town, France, in. 614. 

BESAYA, pass of, Spain, xxn. 293. 

BESCHI, Joseph, Italian Jesuit, East 
Indian missionary, xxin. 44. 

BESEKE, J. M. G., on birds, xvni. 8. 

BESHT (Israel Baal Shem), Jewish sec 
tarian leader, xin. 68 1. 

BESH-TARYK, town, Turkestan, xxiv. 
728. 

BESHTAU MOUNTAINS, Caucasia, 
Russia, xxn. 472. 

BESKOW, Baron von, Swedish dramatist, 
in. 615. 

BESSARABIA, government, Russia, in. 
615; xxi. 69. 

BESSARION, Johannes, cardinal, in. 616. 

BESSEGES, town, France, in. 616. 

BESSEL, Friedrich Wilhelm, Prussian 
astronomer, in. 616; on measuring 
arc of meridian, vn. 598. 

BESSEL S FUNCTIONS, Table of,xxin. 14. 

BESSEMER METAL, xin. 284. 

BESSEMER PROCESS, of steel-making, 
xin. 332; spectrum of flame in, xxn. 

377- 

BESSLER, Orffyreus, on perpetual mo 
tion, xvni. 554. 

BESSUS, satrap of Bactria, betrayer of 
Darius III., XVIII. 582; n. 641. 

BESTIARY, book of allegories, xix. 6. 

BESTUZHEFF-RIUMIN, Prof., Russian 
historian, XXI. 108. 



BESUKI, town, Java, xin. 606. 
BETCHUANA, tribe, South Africa, in. 

478; xvn. 319; xxin. 468, 518. 
BETEL-LEAF, spice, India, xn. 748. 
BETEL NUT, in. 616; xvn. 664. 
BETHANY, town, Palestine, in. 617. 
BETHEL, town, Palestine, in. 617. 
BETHELL, Richard, Lord Westbury, 

lord chancellor of England, xxiv. 

506. 
BETHENCOURT, Jean de, his conquest 

of the Canary Islands, iv. 795. 
BETHESDA, pool near Jerusalem, in. 

617; xin. 638. 
-, Wisconsin, U.S.A., mineral water 



of, xvi. 436. 

BETHLEHEM, town, Palestine, in. 617; 
Church of the Nativity at, ill. 418. 

BETHLEN, Gabriel, governor of Transyl 
vania, xn. 369. 

BETHUNE, town, France, in. 617; 
xvni. 340. 
-, Maximilien de, duke of Sully, 



French statesman, xxn. 633. 

BETLIS, town, Armenia, in. 617. 

BETSIBOKA, river, Madagascar, xv. 169. 

BETSILEO, district and tribe, Mada 
gascar, xv. 1 68, 171. 

BETSIMISARAKA, tribe, Madagascar, xv. 
171. 

BETTERTON, Thomas, English actor and 
dramatist, in. 617. 

BETTI, Bernardino di (Pinturicchio), 
Italian painter, xix. 108. 

BETTINELLI, Saverio, Italian writer, in. 
618. 

BETTING, in. 618; law relating to, 
x. 66; xxiv. 305. 

BETTONGIA, genus of marsupial mam 
mals, xni. 840. 

BETTS COVE, copper mine, Newfound 
land, xvn. 384. 

BETUL, district, India, in. 619. 

BETWA, river, India, in. 620; xvn. 
572. 

BEUDANITE, mineral, xvi. 408. 

BEUDANT, Francois Sulpice, French 
mineralogist, in. 620. 

BEULE, Charles Ernest, French arclieo- 
logist, in. 620. 

BEURBACH, George, Austrian astro 
nomer, ii. 751. 

BEUST, Baron, Saxon and Austrian 
statesman, in. 141; xxi. 356. 

BEUTHEN, town, Germany, in. 621; 
xxn. 53. 
, Nieder, town, Germany, in. 621. 

BEVEL-WHEELS, in - mechanics, xv. 

759- 
BEVERLEY, town, England, in. 621; 

xxiv. 748. 
, town, Massachusetts, U.S.A., in. 

621. 
, town, Western Australia, xxiv. 



508. 



-, John of, archbishop of York, III. 



621. 



BEVIS OF HAMPTON, Romance of, xx 

653. 

BEVOIBETTA, mountain, India, xvn. 
509. 

BEWDLEY, town, England, in. 621; 
xxiv. 666. 

BEWICK, Thomas, English wood- 
engraver, in. 621; vin. 438; his 
History of British Birds, xvni. 10, 
14, 18. 

BEX, France, mineral water of, xvi. 

434- 

BEY, sovereign of Tunis, xxin. 621. 

BEYBARS, Mameluke sultan of Egypt, 
vn. 755; xvn. 301; xxin. 162. 

BEYLA, town, Baluchistan, in. 511. 

BEYLE, Marie Henri (De Stendhal), 
French writer, in. 621. 

BEYNEN, Koolenians, Dutch northern 
explorer, xix. 325. 

BEYROUT, town, Syria, in. 622; com 
merce of, xxin. 655. 

BEZA, Theodore, French scholar, in. 
623. 

BEZ^, CODEX, i. 123; xvni. 148. 

BEZANOZANO, tribe, Madagascar, xv. 
171. 

BEZETHA, hill, Jerusalem, xni. 638. 

BEZIERS, town, France, in. 625. 

BEZIQUE, game, in. 625. 

BEZIRK, Prussian administrative divi 
sion, xx. 1 8. 

BEZWARA, town, India, xiv. 103. 

BHABAR, district, India, XL 824. 

BHADAR, river, India, xiv. 15. 

BHAGALPUR, district and town, India, 
in. 626. 

BHAGATS, in Hindi literature, XL 

844- 
BHAKTAMALA (Roll of the Bhagats), 

Hindu work, XL 846. 
BHAMO, town, Burmah, in. 627. 
BHANDARA, district and town, India, 

in. 627. 
BHANG, Indian hemp, and narcotic 

drug from it, in. 627; XL 648; xvn. 

231. 

BHARAICH, district, India, in. 628. 
BHARS, non -Aryan race, India, xn. 

791. 
BHARTPUR, or Bhurtpore, native state, 

India, in. 628; xx. 260. 
, town, in. 629; siege of (1826), 

in. 628; xn. 805, 806. 
BHARUCH (Broach), district and town, 

India, IV. 356. 

BHASCARA ACHARYA, Oriental alge 
braist, i. 517. 
BHATGAON, town, Nepal, India, in. 

629; xvn. 342. 

BHATIANA, district, India, in. 629. 
BHATNIAR (Bhattis), people, India, in. 

629; xx. 1 10. 
BHATTA-NARAYANA, Hindu dramatist, 

xxi. 286. 
BHATTIS, people, India, in. 629; xx. 

no. 



B H A B I G 



55 



BHAVABHUTI, Hindu dramatist, xxi. 

286. 

BHAWALPUR, state, India, in. 630. 
BHAYACHARA, land tenure, in North 

Western Provinces, India, xvil. 573. 
BHER, tree, xxn. 60. 
BHERA, town, India, xxi. 735. 
BHIL, British political agency, India, in. 

630. 

BHi-LENG, river, Burmah, xxi. 239. 
BHILS, people, India, in. 630; xn. 791; 

xv. 346. 

BHILSA (Bilsa), town, India, in. 678. 
BHIWANDI, town, India, xxin. 221. 
BHOGDABARI, town, India, xx. 272. 
BHONSLA RAJAHS, Mahratta rulers, 

India, xv. 292. 

BHOPAL, state, India, in. 630. 
BHOT, district, Tibet, xxin. 338. 
BHOTAN (Bhutan), state, India, in. 631; 

xi. 822. 
BHOTIA Kosi, district, Tibet, xxin. 

34i- 
BHOTIYAS, Nepalese race, India, xvn. 

34i- 

BHUJ, town, Cutch, India, vi. 731. 
BHURTPORE (Bliartpur, g.-y.), state and 

town, India, in. 628. 
BHUTAN, state, India, in. 631; XL 822. 
BHUTIAS, people of Bhutan, India, in. 

631- 
BHUTTEEANA (Bhatiana), district, India, 

in. 629. 
BIAFARES, people, Senegambia, West 

Africa, xxi. 662. 

BIAFRA, country, West Africa, ill. 633. 
BIAMRILLAHI, Hakim, founder of the 

sect of the Druses, vii. 484, 751; XL 

378. 
BIANCA CAPPELLO, wife of Francesco I. 

of Tuscany, xv. 791. 
BIANCHI, political party, Florence, ix. 

334- 
BIANCHINI, Francis, Italian astronomer, 

in. 633. 
, Ludovico, Italian economist, XIX. 

387. 

BlANCHl S AlR-PUMP, XIX. 246. 

BIANDRATA, Giorgio, physician and 
Antitrinitarian, xxn. 230; xxin. 725. 

BIAS, river, India, in. 633; xiv. 154; xx. 
107. 

of Priene, one of the seven sages 

of Greece, in. 633. 

BIATA, town, Russian Poland, xxn. 37. 

B I BARS (Bey bars), Mameluke sultan of 
Egypt, vii. 755; xxin. 162; Nawawi 
resists him, xvn. 301. 

BIBERACH, town, Wiirtemberg, in. 633. 

BIBIRINE, vegetable alkaloid, in. 633. 

BIBIRU, or Greenheart, tree, in. 633; 
XL 165. 

BIBLE, The, in. 634; inspiration of, xni. 
154; interpretation of, XL 741; its re 
lation to Christianity, v. 690; to the 
Koran, xvi. 600; circulation of, in. 
649 ; decrees respecting, at council of 



Trent, XXIII. 546; monopoly of print 
ing of, in. 650; Reiniarus s view of, 
XX. 353; American-Indian translation, 
vin. 137; Armenian version, II. 550; 
English, vin. 381; the Bishops , vin. 
388; Coverdale s English translation, 
vi. 531; Geneva version, vin. 387; 
Tyndale s English version, xxin. 675; 
Wy cliff e s, xxiv. 710; Ethiopic version, 
vin. 613; Diodati s Italian translation, 
vn. 245; Luther s German, xv. 76; 
Ulfila s Gothic, X. 852; Polish, xix. 
301; Septuagint version, xxi. 667; 
Syriac versions, xxil. 824; Polyglott 
versions, xix. 417; Antwerp Polyglott, 
II. 501; Complutensian Polyglott, xni. 
694; Plantin s Polyglott, xix. 177; 
Walton s Polyglott, xxiv. 341. 

BIBLE CHRISTIANS, Methodist church, 
xvi. 192. 

BIBLE CHRISTIANS, Temperance Society 
of, xxin. 159. 

BIBLE GLOSSES, x. 687. 

BIBLE SOCIETIES, in. 649. 

BIBLIA PAUPERUM, in. 653; xxin. 
682. 

BIBLICAL CRITICISM, Baur s contribu 
tions to, in. 448; Bleek s, in. 824; De 
Wette s, vn. 114; xvni. 505; Ewald s, 
vin. 775; Hupfeld s, xn. 399; xvni. 
506; Morinus s, XVI. 824; Origen s, 
xvn. 840; R, Simon s, XXIL 83; 
Spinoza on, XXIL 402. 

BIBLICAL THEOLOGY, xxin. 239, 264, 
275. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY, in. 651; De Morgan s 
works on, vn. 67; Dibdin s, vn. 172; 
of Shakespeare literature, XXI. 768. 

BIBLIOMANIA, in. 655. 
, Dibdin s, in. 655; vn. 172. 

BlBLIOPEGY, bookbinding, IV. 42. 

BIBLIOTECA VATICANA, Rome, xiv. 
528, 548. 

BIBLIOTHECA, Apollodorus s work, I. 
499; II. 186. 
, Photius s work, xvni. 819. 

CLASSICA, series of works, xiv. 856. 

BlBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALS, Paris, XIV. 

524. 

BIBRON, G., on reptiles, XX. 437. 
BIBULUS, Lucius Calpurnius, Roman 

general, in. 664. 
, Marcus Calpurnius, Roman consul, 

in. 664. 
BICANEER (Bikanir), state, India, in. 

670; xx. 260. 

BICARBONATE OF SODA, xxn. 241. 
BICHAT, Marie Frangois Xavier, French 

anatomist, in. 664; xv. 815; his de 
scriptive anatomy, I. 816. 
BICHO DE PE, or Chigoe, insect, ix. 301. 
BlCKFORD, on the construction of 

water meadows, Xin. 365. 
BICYCLE, in. 665; records of its speed, 

xxin. 560. 
BIDA, town, Soudan, Africa, in. 665; 

xxn. 279. 



BIDASOA, river, Spain, xvn. 249. 
BIDDELLIANS, English Unitarian sect, 

in. 666. 
BIDDLE, or Bidle, John, English 

Unitarian, ill. 665; xxin. 726. 
BIDEFORD, town, England, ill. 666. 
, Gerard de, grand-master of Knights 

Templars, xxin. 161. 
BIDLE, John, English Unitarian, in. 665 ; 

xxin. 726. 
BIDONE, Giorgio, his experiments on 

waves and running water, XII. 438. 
BIDPAI, Hindu fabulist, ill. 666. 
BIDRI, ornamentation, Xin. 81; XVII. 

495- 

BIEBERITE, mineral, xvi. 401. 

BIEL (Bienne), town, Switzerland, ill. 
666; xxn. 779. 

, Gabriel, German scholastic philo 
sopher, in. 666; xxi. 431. 

BIELA S COMET, vi. 192; xvi. in. 

BiELAU, village, Prussia, ill. 666. 

BIELAYA TSERKOV, town, Russia, in. 
667. 

BIELEFELD, town, Westphalia, in. 667. 

BIELEFF, or Byeleff, town, Russia, ill. 
667; xxin. 605. 

BIELGOROD, town, Russia, in. 667. 

BIELITZ, town, Austria, in. 667. 

BIELLA, town, Italy, ill. 667. 

BIELOPOLI, town, Russia, in. 668. 

BIELORUSSES, or White Russians, XXI. 

79- 

BIELOSTOK, town, Russia, in. 668. 
BlELSKl, Martin, Polish writer, XIX. 

301. 

BIENHOA, town, Cochin China, in. 668. 
BIENNE (Biel), lake, Switzerland, xiv. 

218; xvn. 361; xxn. 777. 

, river, Jura, France, Xin. 782. 

(Biel), town, Switzerland, in. 666; 

xxn. 779. 
BIEQUES ISLAND, West Indies, xxiv. 

261. 

BIEVRE, stream, Paris, xvni. 274. 
BlEZHETZ, or Byezhetsk, town, Russia, 

in. 668; xxni. 672. 
BlGA, Roman chariot, v. 401. 
, province, Asiatic Turkey, xxin. 

653- 

BIGAMY, in. 668. 

BIGARADE, bitter orange, xvn. 810. 
BIG BEN, bell at Westminster, England, 

in. 539. 
BlGG, cereal, III. 376; culture of, I. 359; 

in malting, IV. 269. 
BIGGAR, town, Scotland, xiv. 251. 
BlGHINl, or Fratricelli, mediaeval sect, 

IX. 725; in. 507. 
BIGHORN, American mountain sheep, 

xxi. 785. 

BIG HORN MOUNTAINS, Rocky Moun 
tains, U.S.A., xxin. 797; xxiv. 713. 
BIGHT OF BENIN, West Africa, in. 

572. 
BIGHT OF BIAFRA, West Africa, in. 

623. 



B I G B I R 



BIGIO, Francia, Florentine artist, his 

relations Avith Sarto, XXI. 315. 
BIGLOW PAPERS, by Lowell, I. 728, 734. 
BlGNON, Jerome, French lawyer, in. 

669. 
BlGORDl, Domenico (Ghirlandajo), 

Italian painter, x. 567; XXI. 435. 
BlGORRE, Bagneres de, town, France, 

in. 235. 
BlGOTlERE, Seigneur de la, French 

mathematician, xxiv. 224. 
BIHARI LAL, Hindi writer, XI. 846. 
BlHSUTUN (Behistun), Persia, rock in 
scriptions at, ill. 509; xvin. 567. 
BIJAINAGAR, ancient town, India, ill. 

669. 
BljAPUR, state and town, India, III. 

669. 
BIJNAUR, district and town, India, in. 

670. 

BlJNS, Anna, Dutch poetess, xil. 92. 
BIKANIR, state, India, in. 670; xx. 

260. 
BlLASPUR, district, India, ill. 670; 

town, in. 671 ; Xin. 823. 
BlLAUR, tract of country, Afghanistan, 

xm. 821. 

BILBAO, town, Spain, in. 672. 
BILBERRY, plant, xxiv. 556. 
BILBOA (Bilbao), town, Spain, ill. 672. 
BILBOES, The, torture, XXIII. 465. 
BILDERDIJK, Willem, Dutch poet, xn. 

96. 
BILE, in physiology, XVII. 674, 675. 

DUCT, in anatomy, vil. 231. 

BILFINGER, George Bernhard, German 

philosopher and administrator, 111.672. 
BILGE- KEELS, in ships, xxi. 813. 
BILHARZIA HTEMATOBIA, human para 
site, xxin. 540. 
BILIKH, affluent of Euphrates, vm. 

669. 
BlLlKTU KHAN, Mongol ruler, XVI. 

743- 
BILIN, Bohemia, mineral water of, xvi. 

435- 
BILINI, Eussian popular tales, xxi. 

IO2, IO7, 109. 

BILIOUS ATTACK, gastric catarrh, xxn. 

574- 
BILIOUS FEVER, in the horse, xxiv. 

203. 

BILL, in parliament, ill. 673; xvin. 313. 
IN CHANCERY, in. 674. 

OF EXCHANGE, in. 673; vin. 

784, 795; discounting of, III. 329. 
OF LADING, in. 674. 

OF RIGHTS, English (1689), xx. 

555- 
OF SALE, in. 674; xxi. 207; 

registration of, xx. 343. 
BILL-COCK, bird, xx. 223. 
BILLETING, in. 674. 
BILLETS D ETAT, of Law s Banque 

General, xiv. 367. 
BILLIARDS, game, in. 674; balls for, 

xni. 524. 



BILLING, Hermann, duke of Saxony, 

xxi. 352. 
BILLINGSGATE MARKET, London, xiv. 

829. 
BILLITON, island, Indian Archipelago, 

in. 677. 

BILLON, base metal, xvn. 630. 
BILLS OF MORTALITY, xxn. 462; of 

London, xiv. 820. 
BILMA, oasis and town, Africa, in. 678; 

xvn. 695. 

BILSA, town, India, in. 678. 
BILSTON, or Bilsreton, town, England, 

ill. 678. 
BlLUCHiS, race of people, Baluchistan, 

I. 235. 

BIMA, state, Sumbawa, Indian Archi 
pelago, xxii. 641. 
BIMANA, Cuvierian order of Mammalia, 

xv. 444. 
BIMETALLISM, system of currency, xvi. 

736; xxii. 73. 

BINA, river, India, xxi. 146. 
BINALUND MOUNTAINS, Transcaspian 

Region, Russia, xxm. 511. 
BINCK, JACOB, Danish wood-engraver, 

vm. 437- 

BINDING, of books, iv. 41; xiv. 538. 
BINGEMMA HILLS, Malta, xv. 340. 
BiNGEN, town, Germany, in. 678. 
BlNGHAM, Joseph, English scholar, in. 

678. 

BINGLEY, town, England, in. 678. 
BlNIANA (Baena), ancient town, Spain, 

in. 229. 
BINNEY, Thomas, English preacher, ill. 

678. 

BlNNlTE, mineral, xvi. 394. 
BINOCULAR MICROSCOPE, xvi. 272. 
BINOMIAL THEOREM, in algebra, i. 555; 

table of coefficients, xxin. 13. 
BlNTANG, island, Indian Archipelago, 

in. 679; xv. 321. 
BINTURONG, carnivorous mammal, xv. 

436. 
BiNUE, river, confluent of Niger, Africa, 

XVII. 497; XXII. 248, 277. 
BIOBIO, river, Chili, v. 617. 
BIOGENESIS, in biology, I. 49; in. 689. 
BIOGENETIC LAW, Haeckel s, xx. 422. 
BIOLOGY, in. 679; divisions of, xxiv. 

799; evolution in, VIII. 744; in relation 

to morphology, XVI. 841 ; to physiology, 

XIX. 8; to zoology, XXIV. 799. 
BION, Greek poet, in. 696. 
BIONOMICS, in zoology, xxiv. 817. 
BiOSCHI (Fratricelli), mediaeval sect, IX. 

725. 
BlOT, Jean Baptiste, French physicist, 

in. 696; I. 194; his investigations in 

electricity, vm. 9. 
BlOTlTE, mineral, XVI. 412. 
BlR, town, Asiatic Turkey, in. 697. 
BlRAN, F. P. G. Maine de, French 

philosopher, XV. 302. 
BIRARA (New Britain), island, South 

Pacific, xvn. 372. 



BlRARS, Tungus tribe, Siberia, XXIII. 

608. 
BIRBHUM, district and town, India, in. 

697. 
BIRCA (Bjorko), ancient town, Sweden, 

xxn. 558, 737. 
BIRCH, tree, in. 697; in United States, 

xxin. 808; culture of, II. 317. 
, J. W., British resident, Perak, 

xxn. 587. 
-, Thomas, English writer, ill. 698. 



BIRD, island, Seychelles, Indian Ocean, 
xxi. 725. 

, William, English musical com 
poser, in. 698. 

LOUSE, insect, xv. 24. 



BIRDS, III. 699 (index, 777); XVIII. 2; 
their relations to reptiles, xxi. 323; 
fossil, in. 728; mimicry in, xvi. 341; 
olfactory organs of, xxn. 166; organs 
of touch, xxin. 479; reproduction, 
xx. 409; skeleton, xxii. 106; their 
swimming and flying powers, IX. 308; 
taxidermy, xxin. 90; parasites of, 
xvin. 260; geographical distribution 
of, in. 736; Vil. 269; of America, I. 
684; of India, xn. 743; of the Hima 
layas, XI. 834; works on development 
of, vm. 168. 

, The, of Aristophanes, II. 509. 

OF AMERICA, by Audubon, in. 70. 

OF PARADISE, in. 778; xv. 504. 

OF PASSAGE, Longfellow s poem, 
xiv. 861. 

BIREJIK, town, Asiatic Turkey, III. 697. 

BIREME, Greek ship, xxi. 805. 

BIREN, E. J., favourite of Anna of 
Russia, II. 60; xxi. 98. 

BlRGER, king of Sweden, XXII. 745. 

BIRGITTA, or Bridget, St, of Sweden, 
xvi. 711, 716; xxn. 753. 

BIRJAND, town, Persia, xvin. 627, 628. 

BiRKARLlANS, Swedish adventurers in 
Lapland, xiv. 307. 

BIRKBECK, George, English philanthrop 
ist, in. 779. 

BIRKEBEINAR, Norwegian political 
party, XVII. 588. 

BIRKENFELD, principality, Germany, 
xvn. 757. 

BlRKENHEAD, town, England, ill. 779; 
xiv. 715. 

, Sir John, early newspaper writer, 

xvn. 414. 

BlRMENSTORF, Switzerland, mineral 
water of, xvi. 436. 

BIRMINGHAM, town, England, in. 780; 
libraries, Xiv. 521, 542; newspapers, 
XVII. 422; population and representa 
tion, xxiv. 379. 

BlRON, Armand, duke of, marshal of 
France, in. 786. 

, Charles, duke of, French admiral, 

in. 786; ix. 565. 

, Louis Antoine, Marshal, friend of 

Admiral Rodney, xx. 618. 

BIRR, town, Ireland, XVIII. 328. 



B I K B L A 



BiRS NIMRUD, part of Babylon, in. 183. 
BlRSK, town, Eussia, XXIII. 717. 
BlRTH, Ceremonies connected with, in 

relation to totemism, xxm. 469; law 

in regard to concealment of, XIII. 4; 

registration of, XX. 343. 

, in comparative physiology, XX. 410. 
BIRTH-RATE, its average in different 

countries, XIX. 516. 
BIRTHRIGHT, xix. 733. 
BIRYUTCH, town, Russia, xxiv. 298. 
BlSACClA, town, Italy, ill. 786. 
Bis ACCUSATUS, Lucian s dialogue, xv. 

44- 
BlSANTHE (Eodosto), ancient town, 

Turkey in Europe, XX. 618. 
BISBAL, La, Count of (Henry Joseph 

O Donnell), Spanish marshal, xvn. 

727. 
BISCAY, province, Spain, in. 787; xxn. 

298. 

, Bay of, in. 787. 
BiSCEGLlA, town, Italy, III. 787. 
BISCHWEILER, town, Alsace, Germany, 

ill. 787. 
BlSCOP, Benedict, English monk, ill. 

481; XVI. 707. 

BISCUIT, in pottery, XIX. 601. 
BISCUITS, Manufacture of, in. 252. 

, Concentrated meat, xix. 707. 

BlSHARl, tribes, Nubia, XVII. 610. 
BlSHlR, African fish, I. 260; xix. 429. 
BISHOP, in. 787; v. 700; vin. 484; xix. 

674; XX. 629; election of, VI. 265; 

position of, in British peerage, xvill. 

459, 465. 
, Apostolic, a title of the pope, Xix. 

498. 



, George, his observatory, Eegcnt s 
Park, London, xvii. 711. 
-, Sir Henry Eowley, English musi 



cal composer, ill. 789. 

BISHOP-AUCKLAND, town, England, in. 
790. 

BISHOP ROCK LIGHTHOUSE, Scilly 
Islands, England, xiv. 616. 

BISHOPS, Roman (popes), List of, xix. 
488, 509. 

AND REGULARS, Congregation of. 

Church of R-ome, XX. 629. 

BISHOP S HATFIELD, town, England, 
xi. 520. 

BISHOP-STORTFORD, town, England, in. 
790. 

BISHOPWEARMOUTH, suburb of Sunder- 
land, England, in. 790; xxii. 657. 

BISKARA, or Biskra, town, Algeria, ill. 
790. 

BISMARCK, Prince von, German states 
man, ix. 625; x. 510; xx. 12; xxiv. 
582. 

BISMITE, mineral, xvi. 388. 

BISMUTH, chemical element, in. 790; 
v. 539; xvi. 380, 395; magnetic pro 
perties of, XV. 267; in medicine, VII. 
587; ores of, in. 790; XVI. 58; telluric, 
XVI. 380. 



BISMUTHINE, mineral, in. 790; xvi. 

394- 

BiSMUTHITE, mineral, xvi. 399. 
BISMUTOFERRITE, mineral, xvi. 425. 
BlSMUTO-SPH^ERITE, mineral, XVI. 399. 
BISON, ungulate mammal, in. 792; xv. 

432; of India, XII. 742. 
BlSSAGOS, islands, West Africa, XXI. 

661. 
BlSSCHOP, Simon (Episcopius), Dutch 

theologian, vill. 493. 
BlSSEN, W., Danish sculptor, xxi. 570. 
BISTRE, pigment, xix. 88. 
BlSUTUN (Behistun), Persia, rock inscrip 
tions at, in. 509; XVlll. 567. 
BIT, boring tool, xi. 438. 
BITHYNIA, province, Asia Minor, in. 

792; coins of ancient, xvn. 645. 

, genus of snails, xxn. 188. 
BITLIS, town, Armenia, in. 617. 
BITOLIA, town, Turkish Roumelia, xvi. 

7i9- 

BITONTO, town, Italy, in. 793. 
BlTSCH, town, Lorraine, Germany, in. 

794- 

BITTER-ALMOND OIL, its chemical re 
lations, xxiv. 626. 
BITTER APPLE, or Colocynth, plant, vi. 

150. 
BITTERN, bird, in. 794; XL 761; xni. 

576. 

, Sun, bird, XXII. 652. 
BITTER ROOT MOUNTAINS, Rocky 

Mountains, U.S.A., xxin. 797. 
BITTERS, alcoholic beverage, ill. 794; 

xiv. 686. 

BITTERSWEET, plant, xvn. 499. 
BITTER WATERS, xxiv. 399. 
BITUMEN, mineral, xvi. 428. 
BITUMINOUS COAL, vi. 45. 
BlTZIUS, Albert, Swiss writer, XXII. 

799- 
BIVAR, Rodrigo Diaz de (the Cid), 

Spanish hero, v. 773. 
BIWA, lake, Japan, xni. 572. 
BIXIO, aeronaut, I. 195. 
BIYERRE, affluent of the Congo, Africa, 

xxiv. 764. 
BIYSK, town, Siberia, xxn. 11; xxin. 

439- 

BlZERTA, town, Tunis, North Africa, 
in. 794; xxin. 620. 

BJARNI, early Danish navigator, XL 
171. 

BjERREGAARD, Henrik Anker, Nor 
wegian poet, xvii. 590. 

BJOREIA, river, Norway, xvn. 575. 

BJORKO, island and ancient town, 
Sweden, xxn. 558, 737. 

BjORN, Greenland voyager, I. 706. 

BJORNSON, B., Norwegian poet and 
dramatist, xvn. 591; xvin. 348. 

BLACK, Adam, publisher of Encyclo 
paedia Britannica, vin. 202. 
, Joseph, chemist, in. 794; on the 
properties of air, v. 462; his balloon 
experiments, I. 189. 



BLACK, W. H., on ancient London, xiv. 
841. 
, Aniline, from vanadium, xxiv. 

54- 



-, Pigments of, xix. 88. 

, Platinum, xix. 191. 

ASH MAKING, in soda manufac 
ture, xxn. 243. 

BLACKBALL, wheat disease, i. 354. 
BLACKBAND IRON, xni. 285. 
BLACKBIRD, bird, in. 799; xvin. 74; 

of America, XI. 27. 
BLACK BOOK OF THE ADMIRALTY, i. 

157; xxi. 584. 
BLACK BOOK OF THE EXCHEQUER, 

xxi. 36. 

BLACK BOOK OF WALES, v. 318. 
BLACKBURN, town, England, in. 799. 
BLACK CANONS, i. 19. 
BLACKCAP, bird, xxiv. 553. 
BLACK CART, river, Scotland, xx. 395. 
BLACK CASTLE, Wicklow, Ireland, 

xxiv. 558. 
BLACKCOCK, bird, in. 800; XL 222; as 

game, xx i. 835. 

BLACK COLOURS, in dyeing, vn. 579. 
BLACK DEATH, plague, xix. 164; vn. 

684; vin. 325; xiv. 122. 
BLACK DOME, mountain, Blue Ridge, 

U.S.A., xxin. 794. 
BLACK DOME, mountain, Catskills, 

U.S.A., xxin. 793. 
BLACKDOWN, Somerset, England, xxn. 

257. 

BLACK DUCK, xxi. 470. 
BLACK-EYED SUSAN, song by Douglas 

Jerrold, xni. 632. 
BLACKFACED SHEEP, i. 392. 
BLACKFISH, American fish, xxiv. 686. 
BLACK FLAGS, in Tong-King, xxin. 

441. 
BLACK FOREST, Germany, in. 795; 

xxiv. 699. 
BLACKFRIARS, London, accident at 

Vespers at (1623), xiv. 847. 
BLACK GUM, tree, U.S.A., xxin. 809. 
BLACKHEAD, bird, xxi. 378. 
BLACKHEATH COMMON, London, xiv. 

824. 
BLACK HILLS, Rocky Mountains, 

U.S.A., xxin. 797. 
BLACK HOLE OF CALCUTTA, iv. 656; 

xn. 801. 

BLACK ISLE, Scotland, xx. 854. 
BLACK JACK, zinc ore, xxiv. 785. 
BLACK LEAD, xix. 230. 
BLACKLEG, cattle disease, I. 390. 
BLACK-LETTER TYPE, xxm. 694. 
BLACKLOCK, Thomas, Scottish poet and 

divine, in. 800. 

BLACK-MAILING, crime, xxin. 233. 
BLACKMORE, Sir Richard, English 

writer, ill. 800. 
BLACK MOUNTAINS, North Carolina, 

U.S.A., xvn. 559. 

BLACKNESS CASTLE, Linlithgow, Scot 
land, xiv. 670. 

XXV. 8 



58 



B L A B L O 



BLACKPOOL, town, England, in. 800. 
BLACK PRINCE, Edward, the, vn. 686; 

vni. 319. 
BLACK QUARTER, cattle disease, xvn. 

58. 
BLACK RIVER, New York, U.S.A., xvn. 

451. 

BLACK ROD, Usher of the, xxi. 37. 
BLACK ROT, vine disease, xxiv. 240. 
BLACK SEA, in. 795; xv. 820; restric 
tions on its navigation, XXin. 647, 

650. 

BLACKSTART, bird, xx. 318. 
BLACKSTONE, Sir William, English 

jurist, in. 800; his definition of law, 

xiv. 355, 362. 
BLACK TOWN, part of Madras city, 

India, xv. 187. 
BLACKWALL, John, on the reproduction 

of spiders, II. 294. 
BLACK WARE, kind of pottery, xix. 

618; Etruscan, vni. 641. 
BLACKWATER, river, Ireland, vi. 403; 

xiv. 51; xxiv. 400. 
BLACK WITCH, bird, 687. 
BLACKWOOD, Adam, early Scottish 

jurist, xxi. 543. 

, Henry, Scottish writer on medi 
cine, xxi. 543. 
BLACKWOOD S MAGAZINE, xvin. 537; 

Lockhart s connexion with, xiv. 763; 

Wilson s connexion with, xxiv. 592. 
BLADDER, Diseases of the, xxiv. 188. 

NUT, tree, n. 320; xvn. 664. 

- WORMS, xxin. 49, 52. 
BLADES, TV., on the sizes of books, iv. 

38. 

BLADON, Alabama, U.S.A., mineral 
water of, xvi. 436. 

BLAEN AVON, town, Monmouth, England, 
xvi. 754. 

BLAEU, William Jansson, his geographi 
cal globes, x. 683. 

BLAGOVYESCHENSK, town, Siberia, xxii. 
1 1. 

, monastery, Nijni-Novgorod, Rus 
sia, xvn. 501. 

BLAG ROVE, Henry, English musician, 
xvn. 93. 

BLAINVILLE, Henri Marie Ducrotay de, 
French naturalist, III. 802; on birds, 
xvin. 20, 22, 29; on reptiles, xx. 435. 

BLAIR, Hugh, Scottish preacher and 
writer, III. 802; XX. 515. 

, Robert, Scottish poet, ill. 803. 

, Port, town, Andaman Islands, III. 
802; n. 13. 

ATHOL, English race-horse, Pedi 
gree of, xn. 186. 

CASTLE, Perthshire, Scotland, 



xvin. 667. 

BLAIRGOWRIE, town, Scotland, xvin. 
667. 

BLAKE, Francis, his telephone trans 
mitter, xxin. 130, 132. 

, Robert, English admiral, ill. 803; 

xii. 80. 



BLAKE, William, English poet and 

painter, in. 804. 
BLANC, Louis, French socialist, xxi 1. 208; 

on communism, VI. 213. 
, Mont, Alps, in. 807; I. 625; xxi. 

332- 
BLANCA PEAK, Rocky Mountains, 

U.S.A., xxin. 796. 
BLANCHARD, Emile, on birds, xvin. 31. 

, J. P., French aeronaut, I. 190. 
BLANCHE of Castile, mother of Louis 

IX. of France, IX. 542. 
BLANCO, Guzman, president, Venezuela, 

xxiv. 141. 
BLANE, Sir Gilbert, British physician, 

in. 807. 

BLANES, toAvn, Spain, in. 807. 
BLANFORD, W. J., on geology of Persia, 

xvin. 621. 
BLANKENBURG, town, Germany, xxi. 

461. 
BLANK VERSE, Marlowe s introduction 

of, xv. 556. 

BLANPAIN S COMET, vi. 191. 
BLANQUEFORT, Bertrand de, Knight 

Templar, xxi 1 1. 161. 
BLARINA, genus of shrews, xxi. 844. 
BLARNEY, village, Ireland, in. 807. 

CASTLE, Cork, Ireland, vi. 405. 
BLASIUS, Gerard, on birds, xvin. 7. 
-, J. H., on birds, xvin. 9, 26. 



BLASPHEMY, in. 807. 

BLAST ENGINES, used in metallurgy, 

in. 551; xvi. 60. 
BLAST FURNACE, ix. 840; in. 550; 

xni. 297. 
BLASTING, in. 808; most extensive ever 

attempted, xxin. 622; in mines, xvi. 

445- 
BLASTOCCELE, in animal development, 

n. 51. 
BLASTOIDEA, order of Echinodermata, 

vn. 638. 
BLASTOMERES, in animal development, 

n. 51. 
BLASTOSPORE, in animal development, 

vni. 746. 

BLATTID^E, group of insects, xni. 152. 
BLAXTON, William, early settler at 

Boston, U.S.A., iv. 73. 
BLAZONRY, in heraldry, XI. 684, 705. 
BLEACHING, in. 811; of linen yarn, 

xiv. 666. 

POWDER, chloride of lime, v. 678. 

BLEDA, king of the Huns, xn. 381. 
BLEEDING, as disease, xvin. 375. 
BLEEK, Friedrich, German Biblical 

scholar, in. 823; on the Pentateuch, 

xvin. 506. 
, Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel, 

African traveller and scholar, in. 

824. 

BLEINIERE, mineral, xvi. 428. 
BLEKINGE, province, Sweden, v. 112; 

xxn. 741. 
BLEMMYES, native tribes, Africa, xvn. 

612. 



BLENDE, or Zinc Blende, mineral, xvi. 

392; xxiv. 785. 

, Nickel, mineral, xvn. 487. 
BLENHEIM, village, Bavaria, in. 825; 

battle of (1704), in. 126; vni. 353; 

ix. 581; xv. 554. 
HOUSE, Oxford, England, in. 

825; xxiv. 653; Vanbrugh s design, 

xxiv. 55 

BLENNY, fish, xn. 690; xxi. 614. 
BLESBOK, kind of antelope, 11. 101. 
BLESENSIS, Petrus (Peter of Blois), 

mediaeval writer, xvin. 698. 
BLESSINGTON, Countess of, English 

writer, III. 825; her relation to Count 

D Orsay, vn. 370. 
BLICHER, Steen Steensen, Danish 

writer, in. 825; vn. 92; xvin. 348. 
BLIDAH, town, Algeria, in. 825. 
BLIGH, William, English admiral and 

explorer, in. 825; x. 190; xix. 132; 

xxin. 24. 
BLIND, The, in. 826; print ing types for, 

xxin. 696; associations and colleges 

for, in. 816. 

- FISH, in caves, xn. 693; xv. 
450. 

- HARRY, Scottish minstrel and 
writer, XI. 496; XXI. 541; XXIV. 326. 

MAN S BUFF, Wilkie s picture, 



xxiv. 568. 

BLINDNESS, xvn. 784. 

BLIND TRAVELLER, The (James Hoi- 
man), English traveller, XII. 103. 

BLISTERING BEETLE, or Spanish 
Fly, insect, VI. 133; V. 31. 

BLITHE, or Blythe, Walter, writer on 
agriculture, I. 297, 329, 331. 

BLITONG (Billiton), island, Indian 
Archipelago, in. 677. 

BLOATERS, Curing of, ix. 253. 

BLOCH, Mark Eliezer, German natural 
ist, in. 833; on fishes, xn. 632. 

BLOCK, Maurice, on statistics, xxn. 
461. 

BLOCKADE, in war, in. 834; xni. 194; 
xxiv. 364. 

BLOCKADE-RUNNING, in American 
civil war, ill. 237; xxin. 775. 

BLOCK-BOOKS, in. 652; xxin. 683; 
printing of, XXIII. 682. 

BLOCK MACHINERY, in. 833; invention 
of, iv. 398; xv. 152. 

BLOCKS, in mechanics, xv. 763. 

BLOCKSBERG, hill in Budapest, Hun 
gary, xvin. 691. 

BLOCK SYSTEM, Railway, xx. 238. 

BLODITE, mineral, xvi. 402. 

BLOEMFONTEIN, town, Orange River 
Free State, South Africa, xvn. 813. 

BLOEMHOFF, district, Transvaal, South 
Africa, xxin. 518. 

BLOIS, town, France, in. 835; treaties 
of (1504), ix. 555. 

, Peter of, medieval theologian and 
moralist, xvin. 698. 

BLOMBERG, or Blumbergcr, Barbara, 



B L O B O D 



59 



mother of Don John of Austria, XI 1 1. 

716; xx. 291. 
BLOMFIELD, Charles James, bishop of 

London, in. 835. 

BLOMSTRANDITK, mineral, xvi. 426. 
BLONDEL, David, French Protestant 

clergyman, in. 836. 
BLONIE, town, Russian Poland, xxiv. 

375- 
BLOOD, of mammals, xv. 364; human, 

I. 845; in relation to nutrition, XVII. 
677; in relation to respiration, XX. 
482; diseases of the, xvm. 376; as 
manure, I. 349; ordeal by, XVII. 819; 
sacrifice of, xxi. 136; in slaughter 
houses, I. 7; John Hunter s work on 
the, xn. 389. 

, Circulation of the, xxiv. 98 ; I. 

899; XI. 503; xiv. 411; discovery of, 
xv. 810; demonstrated by Harvey, I. 
810; first seen by Malpighi, XV. 338; 
hinted at by Mondino, I. 806; partially 
announced by Servetus, I. 810; during 
sleep, xxil. 155; in crustaceans, VI. 
640; in fishes, xn. 658. 
-, Thomas (Colonel), Parliamen 



tarian officer, in. 836. 
BLOOD-BATH OF STOCKHOLM, XL 333. 
BLOOD-COVENANT, xxi. 138. 
BLOOD-FEUD, vi. 582; in relation to 

totemism, XXIII. 472. 
BLOODHOUND, vn. 328. 
BLOOD-LYMPH, of molluscs, xvi. 634. 
BLOOD-POISONING, xxi. 666. 
BLOOD-RAIN, x. 266. 
BLOODSTONE, mineral, I. 278; XI. 634; 

xvi. 389. 
BLOOD-VESSELS, Diseases of, xxn. 683; 

granulations of, xvm. 364; influence 

of nerves on, Xix. 30. 
BLOODWITH AND FLEDWITH, Cinque 

Port right, V. 787. 
BLOODWORT, plant, vn. 310. 
BLOODY ASSIZE, Jeffreys s, xm. 618. 
BLOODY FLUX, disease, vn. 584. 
BLOOM, compacted mass of iron, xm. 

327- 

, in tanning, xiv. 384. 

BLOOMERY, iron forge, xm. 290. 
BLOOMFIELD, Robert, English poet, in. 

836. 
BLOUNT, Charles, English writer, III. 

836; on deism, vi I. 34. 
BLOW, John, English musical composer, 

ill. 836; xx. 112. 
BLOWING MACHINES, in. 549. 
BLOWPIPE, in. 837; Plattner s use of, 

Xix. 213; oxyhydrogen, xvm. 105. 
BLUBBER, Whale, xxiv. 523, 529; con 
sumption of, by Eskimo, vm. 545. 
BLUCHER, Gebhard Leberecht von, 

Prussian field-marshal, III. 840; xvi I. 

220; at Waterloo (1815), xvn. 224. 
BLUDENZ, town, Vorarlberg, Austria, 

xxiv. 297. 
BLUE, Pigments of, xix. 8>; from cobalt, 

vi. 82. 



BLUE, Prussian, dye, xx. 24. 
BLUEBEARD, Legend of, xx. 258. 
BLUE-BELL, plant, XL 478. 
BLUE BILLY, variety of ferric oxide, 

xm. 285. 

BLUECAP, bird, xxm. 419. 
BLUE COAT SCHOOL, London, xiv. 835. 
BLUE COLOURS, in dyeing, vii. 576. 
BLUEFIELDS, town, Nicaragua, xvn. 

477- 
BLUE-FISH, fish-destroyer and food-fish, 

U.S.A., ix. 267. 
BLUE GUM, tree, vm. 649. 
BLUE JAY, bird, xm. 611. 
BLUE OINTMENT, in pharmacy, xvi. 

34- 

BLUE ORE, clay ironstone, xm. 288. 

BLUE PILL, in pharmacy, xvi. 34. 

BLUE RIDGE MOUNTAINS, North Caro 
lina and Virginia, U.S.A., xvil. 559; 
xxm. 794; xxiv. 256. 

BLUE STONE, sulphate of copper, vi. 

35i- 

BLUETHROAT, bird, xx. 318. 
BLUE VITRIOL, sulphate of copper, xxn. 

637- 

BLUMBERGER, Barbara, mother of Don 
John of Austria, xm. 716; xx. 291. 

BLUMENBACH, Johann Friedrich, Ger 
man physiologist, III. 840. 

BLUNDEVILLE, Thomas, English geo 
grapher, xvii. 253. 

BLYTH, Edward, on birds, xvm. 25. 

BLYTHE, or Blithe, Walter, writer on 
agriculture, I. 297, 329, 331. 

Bo, or Sacred Fig, tree, IX. 154. 

BOA, family of serpents, in. 841; xxn. 
195. 

BOA-CONSTRICTOR, snake, xxn. 195; 
xx. 144. 

BOADES, Bernat, Catalan historian, xxn. 

364- 
BOADICEA, British queen, m. 841; IV. 

353- 
BOANERGES, the apostles James and 

John, xm. 552. 
BOAR, Wild, family of mammals, in. 

841; xxn. 773. 

BOARD OF GREEN CLOTH, xxi. 37. 
BOARD OF TRADE, English, xvi. 474; 

xxm. 497; American difficulties with, 

xxm. 733, 736. 
BOAT, xxi. 804, 825; for racing, xxi. 

31; whale, xxiv. 526; of wicker-work, 

m. 421. 

BOATBILL, bird, XI. 762. 
BOATBUILDING, xxi. 825. 
BOAT-RACING, xxi. 30. 
BOATSWAIN, his duties, xvn. 293. 

BOATSWAIN-BIRD, XXII. 125; XXIII. 

i-OQ 
500. 

BOAT-TAIL, bird, XL 27. 

BOA VISTA, one of the Cape Verd Islands, 

v. 52. 
, suburb of Pernambuco, Brazil, 

xvm. 551. 
BOAZ, of Scripture, XXI. in. 



BOBADILLA, Francisco de, governor of 

Hispaniola, vi. 175. 
BOBBILI, town, India, xxiv. 267. 
BOBOLINK, North- American bird, xvni. 

53- 

BOBROFF, town, Russia, xxiv. 298. 

BOBRUISK, town, Russia, in. 842. 

BOBRZYNSKI, Michael, Polish historian, 
xix. 305. 

BOB- WHITE, bird, xx. 147. 

BoCAGE, district, France, xv. 458. 

BOCASOTI, mediaeval sect, IX. 725. 

BOCCACCINO, Boccaccio, Italian painter, 
xxi. 437. 

BOCCACCIO, Giovanni, Italian writer, 
m. 842; xm. 504; Petrarch s friend 
ship with, xvm. 708; his place in the 
Renaissance, xx. 385. 

BOCCALINI, Trajano, Italian satirist, in. 
846. 

BOCCARDO, Girolamo, Italian econo 
mist, xix. 387. 

BOCCHUS, king of Mauretania, xm. 766. 

BOCCONIO, Marino, Venetian conspira 
tor, xxiv. 143. 

BOCHART, Samuel, Oriental scholar, in. 

847- 

BOCHNIA, town, Austria, in. 847. 

BOCHUM, town, Prussia, m. 847. 

BOCKHOLD, Johann (John of Leyden), 
Anabaptist, I. 787. 

BOCKLET, Bavaria, mineral water of, 
xvi. 434. 

Boc-LAND, or Bookland, in English law, 
ix. 357; vm. 275. 

BOCSKAY, Stephen, Transylvanian 
prince, XII. 369. 

BOD, Country of, native name of Tibet, 
xxm. 338. 

BODDAERT, Petrus, on birds, xvni. 7. 

BODE, Johann Elert, German astro 
nomer, m. 847; his law of planetary 
distances, n. 806. 

BODENITE, mineral, xvi. 410. 

BODENSEE, or Lake of Constance, VI. 
297. 

BODENSTEIN, Andreas Rudolf (Carl- 
stadt), German Reformer, v. 113; on 
the canon of Scripture, v. 14. 

BODH, Syriac writer, XXII. 837. 

BODHNATHA, town, Nepal, xvn. 342. 

BODIES, Physical constitution of, vi. 
310. 

BODILY ENERGY, its source, xix. 9. 

BODIN, Jean, French economist, III. 
847; IX. 655; Xix. 356. 

BODISATSHIP, in Buddhism, Xiv. 226. 

BODJO, town, Sumbaya, Indian Archi 
pelago, xxn. 641. 

BODLEIAN LIBRARY, Oxford, m. 848; 
xiv. 519; xvm. 95. 

BODLEY, Sir Thomas, founder of Bod 
leian library, III. 848; xvm. 95. 

BODMER, J. J., Swiss critic and poet, 
x. 533; xvn. 476; xxn. 797; his 
relations with Wieland, xxiv. 558. 

BODMIN, town, England, m. 848. 



(50 



B O D B L 



BODONI, Giambattista, Italian painter, 

in. 849. 

BOD-PAS, people of Tibet, xxm. 338. 
Boo-SKAD, language of Tibet, xxm. 

346. 
BODTCHER, Ludwig Adolf, Danish poet, 

vii. 92. 

BODY, The human, Process of repair in, 
xvill. 363; theories of its relations 
to the soul, xvin. 843. 
BOD-YUL, district, Tibet, XXIII. 338. 
BOE, Francis cle le (Sylvius), Dutch 

physician, XV. 810. 
BOECE, Hector, Scottish historian, ill. 

849; XXI. 541. 
BOECK, C. W., Norwegian physiologist, 

xvn. 592. 

BOECKH, August, German scholar, in. 
850; on Greek inscriptions, xill. 122. 
BOEH.M, Martin, Mennonite preacher, 
Pennsylvania, U.S.A., xxm. 727. 

, Theobald, his improvements in 

flute construction, xvil. 98; xxm. 
521. 

BOEHME, Jakob, German mystic, in. 
852; x. 529; xvn. 134; xxm. 245, 
278. 
BOENDALE, Jan van, Dutch writer, XII. 

90. 
BCEOTIA, country, ancient Greece, in. 

854; xxm. 229; coins of, xvn. 642. 
BCEOTIAN, dialect of Greek, xi. 132. 
BOERHAAVE, Hermann, Dutch physi 
cian, in. 854; XV. 812. 
BOERO (Burn), island, Indian Archi 
pelago, iv. 572. 

BOERS, in Cape Colony, v. 45; Orange 
Free State, xvn. 813; Transvaal, 
xxm. 5^8. 
BOETIE, Etienne de la, French writer, 

IX. 655. 

BOETIUS, Anicius Manlins Severinus, 

Roman statesman and philosopher, in. 

855; XXI. 420; on music, XVII. 80; on 

numerals, xvn. 626; King Alfred s 

translation of his work, I. 507. 

BOGAERS, Adrianus, Dutch poet, XII. 97. 

BOGBUTTER, mineral, xvi. 429; found 

in peat, i. 154. 

BOGDAN, voivode of Moldavia, XXI. 19. 
BOGDANOVICH, Ippolyt F., Russian 

poet, XXI. 106. 
BOGHAZ-KEUY, town, Asia Minor, in. 

858; xvin. 850. 
BOGHEAD MINERAL, source of paraffin, 

xvin. 240. 

BOG IRON ORE, xin. 285, 287. 
BOGLE, George, traveller in Tibet, xxm. 

338. 

BOG-Moss, plant, xvn. 65. 
BOG-OAK, wood, xvn. 691. 
BOGODUKHOFF, town, Russia, ill. 858. 
BOG OF ALLEN, Ireland, i. 582. 
BOGOLIUBSKI, Andrew, prince of Suzdal, 

Russia, xxi. 89. 
BOGOMIL, biographer of Justinian, xxm. 
276. 



BOGOMILI, heretical sect, Greek Church, 
in. 858; xv. 487. 

BOGONG, mountain, Victoria, Australia. 
xxiv. 215. 

BOGORIS, king of Bulgaria, xvn. 483. 

BOGORODITSK, town, Russia, xxm. 605. 

BOGOSLOVSKITE, mineral, xvi. 411. 

BOGOTA, capital of Colombia, in. 858. 

BOGRA, district, India, III. 859. 

BOGS, Reclamation of, I. 403. 

BOGUTCHARY, town, Russia, xxiv. 298. 

BOHADDIN, or Boha-Eddyn, Arabian 
writer and statesman, in. 859. 

BOHAEDDIN, Moktana, Druse apostle, 
vii. 484. 

BOHEA TEA, v. 636; xxm. 99. 

BOHEIRA, lake, Tunis, xxm. 621. 

BOHEMIA, in. 860; its connexion with 
Silesia, xxil. 51; the Reformation in, 
XX. 336; language, xxil. 151; dic 
tionaries of language, vii. 188; litera 
ture, xxn. 151; xvin. 543; Palacky s 
contributions to history of, xvin. 142. 

BOHEMIAN BRETHREN, xix. 697. 

BOHEMIANISM, Literary, xvn. 54. 

BOHEMIANS, xxn. 145, 147. 

BOHEMOND, Marc, crusader, in. 861 ; 
vi. 624; ix. 538. 

BOHL VON FABER, Cecilia, Spanish 
novelist, vni. 833. 

BOHME, or Boehme, Jakob, German 
mystic, III. 852; X. 529; XVII. 134; 
xxm. 245, 278. 
, Prof., Goethe s relations with, x. 



722. 

BOHMEN (Bohemia, q.v.), in. 860. 
BOHMERIA, plant, xx. 506. 
BOHOL, island, Philippines, xvin. 752. 
BOHTAN Su, affluent of the Tigris, 

xxm. 387. 
BOIARDO, Matteo Maria, Italian poet, 

in. 862; II. 503; vn. 418; xin. 508; 

Panizzi s editions of his Orlando, 

XVIII. 212. 

BOIARS, class of Russian aristocracy, 
xxi. 8 1, 92, 95; in Moldavia, XXI. 
20. 

BOID^E, family of snakes, xxn. 193, 
195. 

BOIELDIEU, Franois Adrien, French 
musical composer, in. 862. 

Bon, ancient Celtic people, in. 863; xin. 
446. r 

BOILEAU, Etienne, founder of industrial 
guilds in Paris, xvin. 288. 

BOILEAU-DESPREAUX, Nicolas, French 
writer, in. 863; ix. 657; as satirist, 
XXI. 319; his relations with Racine, 
xx. 204. 

BOILER, for plant-houses, xn. 228; for 
steam-engine, xxn. 496 ; improve 
ments in, for smoke abatement, XXIL 
181. 

BOILING, of meat, vi. 332. 

BOILING-POINT, vni. 728; of water at 
different heights, in. 387; measure 
ment of, xx. 130, 134. 



BoiNEBURG, Johann Christian von, his 
relations with Leibnitz, xiv. 418. 

BoiS, John, translator of English Bible, 
iv. 1 86. 

BoiS-BRULES, French-Indian half- 
breeds, xx. 315. 

Bois DE BOULOGNE, Paris, xvin. 275. 

BOIS DE VlNCENNES, Paris, XVIII. 276. 

BOISGUILLEBERT, Pierre, French econo 
mist, xix. 359. 

BoiS-LE-Duc, town, Holland, in. 864. 
BOISSARD, Jean Jacques, French scholar, 

in. 864. 
BOISSONADE, Jean Francois, French 

scholar, in. 864. 
BoiSY, Frangois de (St Francis of Sales), 

ix. 695. 

BojA, mediaeval race, Africa, xxn. 615. 
BOJANUS, Organ of, in Mollusca, xvi. 

692, 695. 
BojUK MENDER, river, Asia Minor, n. 

708. 
BOKHARA, country and town, Central 

Asia, IV. i; XVIII. 101; conquest of, 

by Alexander, xv. 141. 
BOKHARI, Moslem jurist, xvi. 594. 
BOLAN, river, Baluchistan, in. 302. 
BOLANOS, Franciscan missionary to 

Paraguay, xvin. 245. 
BOLBEC, town, France, IV. 4; xxi. 626. 
BOLDENSELE, William of, German 

mediaeval traveller, xv. 474. 
BOLE, mineral, xvi. 425. 
BOLESLAW, or Boleslaus, I., king of 

Poland, xix. 286; x. 486. 

II., of Poland, xix. 286. 

III.-V., of Poland, xix. 287. 



BOLEYN, Anne, wife of Henry VIII. of 
England, iv. 4; vni. 336; xi. 664; 
Cranmer s relations with, VI. 549. 

BOLI, town, Asiatic Turkey, IV. 4. 

BOLIDE, meteor, xvi. 108. 

BOLING BROKE, Viscount (Henry St 
John), IV. 4; Burke s satirical imita 
tion of, iv. 539; his deism, vn. 35; 
his relations with Harley, xvin. 100; 
with Swift, xxn. 764. 

BOLIVAR, state, Venezuela, xxiv. 140. 

, Simon, South-American liberator, 

iv. 7; in Peru, xvin. 678. 

BOLIVIA, country, South America, IV. 
10; L 713; burial towers in, II. 452; 
Indian tribes, XII. 828. 

BOLIVITE, mineral, xvi. 396. 

BOLKHOFF, town, Russia, XVIL 826. 

BOLLAND, John, Jesuit father, iv. 18. 

BOLLANDIST FATHERS, authors of Acta 
Sanctorum, iv. 18. 

BOLOGNA, province, Italy, IV. 19. 
, town, Italy, IV. 19; concordat of 
(1516), XIX. 503; sittings of council 
of Trent at (1547), xxm. 546; early 
law school, iv. 517; library, xiv. 530, 
548; museum, I. 475; observatory, 
xvn. 714; school of painting, xxi. 
437, 443; pictures, xxi. 447; sculp 
ture, Xix. 124; university, XXin. 832. 



B O L B O N 



61 



BOLOGNA, Giovanni da, sculptor, iv. 19; 

xxi. 569. 
PHIALS, illustrative of annealing, 

ii. 63. 
BOLOGNE, Jean (Giovanni da Bologna), 

sculptor, iv. 19; xxi. 569. 
BOLOR (Kashkar), state, Central Asia, 

xiv. 9. 
BOLSEC, Jerome, his controversy with 

Calvin, iv. 718. 
BOLSENA, town, Italy, IV. 20. 
BOLSHOYE, lake, Siberia, xxiv. 742. 
BOLSHOY TOKMAK, town, Eussia, xxm. 

83- 
BOLSON DE MAPIMI, district, Mexico, 

xvi. 216. 
BOLTON, town, Lancashire, England, 

IV. 20. 

ABBEY, Yorkshire, England, xxiv. 

749- 

CASTLE, Yorkshire, England, 

xxiv. 749. 

BOLTONITE, mineral, xvi. 410. 

BOLTS, law exercises, xin. 88. 

BOLTZMANN, L., his electrical measure 
ments, vill. 37; on radiation, XX. 216; 
on strains in solids, vi. 312. 

BOLZANO, town, Austria, iv. 169. 

, Bernhard, Catholic theologian, IV. 

20. 

BOMARSUND, fortress, Aland Islands, 
Russia, I. 441. 

BOMBA, harbour, Tripoli, North Africa, 
xxm. 575. 

, nickname of Ferdinand II., king 

of Naples, ix. 79; xin. 489. 

BOMBARDES, ancient cannon, II. 557. 

BOMBARDIER, beetle, vi. 129. 

BOMBARDT, musical instrument, xvn. 
706. 

BOMBAY, presidency, India, iv. 21; 
acquisition of, XII. 799; army, II. 590. 

, town, India, iv. 25; Jewish settle 
ment in, xin. 685; libraries, xiv. 
533; newspapers, XVII. 432; Parsees 
in, xvill. 327; university, xxm. 856. 

BOMBELLI, R., his work on algebra, I. 
514. 

BOMBERG, Daniel, Venetian printer, XIX. 
176; his Hebrew Bibles, ill. 647. 

BOMBON, lake, Philippine Islands, XVIII. 

749- 

BOMBUS, genus of bees, XII. 342. 
BOMBYX MORI, silkworm, xxn. 57. 
BOMVANILAND, territory, South Africa, 

xin. 817. 
BON, Bartolomeo, Venetian sculptor, 

xxi. 568. 

BONA, town, Algeria, iv. 31. 
BONABE, island, Pacific Ocean, xvi. 

257. 
BONAFEDE, Paganino, Italian poet, xin. 

506. 

BONAGRATIA, Franciscan, xvn. 717. 
BONAI, tributary state, India, v. 769. 
BONAIRE, island, West Indies, xxiv. 

510. 



BONALD, Vicomte de, French philo 
sopher, IV. 27; ix. 672. 
BONANNUS, Italian metal-worker, xvi. 

74, 760. 
BONANZA, rich mineral lode, xvi. 441; 

xvn. 368. 
BONAPARTE, Corsican family, iv. 27; 

xxi. 192. 

, Charles Lucien, naturalist, iv. 29; 

on birds, xvill. 14, 16, 17, 31. 

, Frangois Charles Joseph (Napoleon 

II. ), xvn. 226. 
, Jerume, king of Westphalia, iv. 30. 

, Joseph, king of Naples and Spain, 

iv. 27; ix. 616; xvii. 191; xxn. 344. 

, Louis, king of Holland, IV. 29. 

, Louis Lucien, philologist, IV. 29. 

, Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III., 

q.v., emperor of the French), xvn. 

226; iv. 29; IX. 622; his intervention 

in Italy, xin. 490. 

, Lucien, prince of Canino, IV. 28; 

ambassador to Spain, xix. 550. 
, Marie Anne Elisa, sister of 

Napoleon I., iv. 29. 
, Marie Annonciade Caroline, wife 

of Murat, iv. 30. 

, Marie Pauline, sister of Napoleon 

L, iv. 29. 
-, Napoleon (Napoleon L, q.v., empe 



ror of the French), xvn. 192; IX. 608; 
his campaigns against Austria, in. 
130; his rule in Italy, xin. 485; his 
invasion of Russia, xxi. 100. 
, Pierre Napoleon, adventurer, IV. 



29. 
BONA SFORZA, queen of Poland, xix. 

290. 
BONAVENTURA, St, theologian and 

philosopher, iv. 30; xvi. 710; xxi. 

427; his mystical teaching, xvn. 132. 
BONAVENTURE, island, Canada, xx. 

165. 
BONAVISTA BAY, Newfoundland, xvn. 

383- 

BOND, Henry, his contributions to 
navigation, xvi I. 255. 

BONDAR, Swedish landed freemen, 
XXII. 744. 

BONDMEN, European peasants, I. 294. 

BONDONE, Giotto di (Giotto), Italian 
painter, x. 609; xxi. 434. 

BONDU, kingdom, West Africa, IV. 31. 

BONDUC NUT, xvn. 664. 

BONE, xxii. 109; I. 853; diseases of, 
xxii. 684; fracture of, xxn. 681, 684; 
repair of broken, xvill. 366; tumours 
of, XVIIL 370; of fishes, XII. 640; of 
mammals, XV. 355; for gelatin 
making, x. 132; coloured by madder- 
feeding, xv. 176; Duhamel s experi 
ments on, VII. 518. See Bones. 
, town, Algeria, IV. 31. 
-, Henry, English enamel painter, IV. 



32; vni. 185. 
BONE-BLACK, v. 399. 
BONE-CAVES, v. 267. 



BONE NAPHTHA, xvn. 175. 

BONE PHOSPHATES, of Charleston, 

U.S.A., v. 428. 
BONER (Bonner), Edmund, bishop of 

London, iv. 34; vui. 338, 340. 
BONES, as manure, I. 305, 347; xv. 

512; as source of phosphorus, xvill. 

815. 

BO NESS (Borrowstounness), town, Scot 
land, iv. 65. 
BONFIGLI, Benedetto, Italian painter, 

iv. 32; xxi. 436. 

BONG A, town, Central Africa, xill. 816. 
BONGO, people, Central Africa, iv. 32. 
BONI, kingdom, Celebes, IV. 32; v. 288; 

bay of, v. 287. 
BONIFACE, St, apostle of Germany, iv. 

335 x. 478. 

- I., pope, iv. 33; xix. 491. 

- II., pope, iv. 33; xix. 492. 

- III., pope, iv. 33; xix. 494. 

- IV. -VI., popes, iv. 33. 
-VII., pope, iv. 33; xix. 497. 

- VIII., pope, iv. 33; xin. 476; xix. 
501; xx. 798; his quarrel with Philip 
IV. of France, IX. 544. 

- IX., pope, iv. 33; xx. 803. 
, prince of Savoy, xxi. 339. 

-, marquis of Tuscany, XXIII. 671. 



BONIFACIO, town, Corsica, iv. 33; strait 
of, xxi. 307. 

BONI MORES, in Roman law, xx. 671. 

BONIN ISLANDS, Japan, xin. 569, 570; 
XVIIL 128. 

BONITO, fish, xxm. 625. 

BON-MOTS, ana, i. 784. 

BONN, town, Rhenish Prussia, IV. 33; 
observatory, xvn. 712; university, 
xxm. 848. 

, Andrew, on the anatomy of mem 
branes, I. 814. 

BONNATERRE, Pierre Jean, on birds, 
XVIIL 7. 

BONNER, Edmund, bishop of London, 
iv. 34; viii. 338, 340. 

BONNET, head-dress, vi. 476; straw- 
plaiting for, xxn. 593. 

, Charles, Swiss naturalist and philo 
sopher, IV. 35; XXII. 799; XXIV. 806; 
on development of germs, vni. 745, 760. 

BONNETTE, in fortification, IX. 427. 

BONNEVAL, Comte de, French adven 
turer, IV. 36. 

BONNEVILLE, town, France, xxi. 333. 

, Lake, Utah, U.S.A., xxiv. 19. 

BONNIVARD, Frangois de (Prisoner of 
Chillon), Swiss writer, iv. 36; xxn. 

797- 

BONO of Ferrara, Italian painter, xv. 501. 

BONONIA (Widdin), Roman town, Bul 
garia, xxiv. 558. 

BONPA RELIGION, in Tibet, xxm. 344. 

BON PAYS, district, France, xvn. 496. 

BONPLAND, mountain, Nevada, U.S.A., 
xxm. 798. 

, Aime, French botanist and tra 
veller, IV. 36. 



62 



B N B R 



BONSDORFITE, mineral, xvi. 418. 
BONSTETTEN, Charles Victor de, Swiss 

writer, IV. 36. 

BONTEBOK, kind of antelope, II. 101. 
BONTHAIN, Peak of, Celebes, v. 288. 
BONUS, in life assurance, Xin. 178. 
BONVECINO of Riva, Italian poet, xni. 

499- 
BONVICINO, Alessandro (II Moretto), 

Italian painter, xvi. 821; XXI. 436. 
BOOBY, bird, x. 71. 
BOOK, iv. 37; in. 651. See Books. 
OF ARMAGH, Irisli MS., xvm. 158, 

412. 
OF CANONS, Scottish liturgy, xxi. 



511. 



OF CHANGES, Chinese, v. 660. 

OF COMMON PRAYER, English, vin. 



BOOM, for harbours, XI. 463. 
, for supporting sails, xxi. 153. 
-, town, Belgium, iv. 



379- 



OF THE COVENANT, in the Penta 
teuch, xvm. 509. 

OF DAYS, by Chambers, v. 381. 

OF DEER, Celtic, xiv. 709. 

OF DlMMA, Irish MS., xvm. 158. 

OF DISCIPLINE, Scottish, xxi. 503. 

OF HISTORY, Chinese, v. 660. 

OF HUSBANDRY, Fitzherbert s, i. 



295. 



OF INVASIONS, Irish legends, Xlll. 

3- 

OF KELLS, Irish MS., xvm. 158. 
OF LEINSTER, Irish, xni. 246. 
OF LISMORE, xiv. 694. 
OF MARTYRS, Foxe s, ix. 503. 
OF MORMON, xvi. 826. 
OF ODES, Chinese, V. 665. 
OF RITES, Chinese, v. 66 1. 
OF SURVEYING, Fitzherbert s, I. 



296. 
OF THE THORN ROSE, by Alm- 

qvist, I. 596. 

BOOKBINDING, iv. 41; xiv. 538. 
BOOKCASES, xiv. 536. 
BOOK CATALOGUES, xiv. 537, 539. 
BOOK-KEEPING, iv. 44. 
BOOKLAND, in mediaeval England, VIII. 

275; ix. 357. 
BOOK- LOUSE, xm. 152. 
BOOKMAKING, in betting, ill. 618. 
BOOK-POST, xix. 571. 
BOOKS, Ancient forms of, xvm. 144; 

anonymous and pseudonymous, III. 

657; classification of, ill. 661; cleaning 

of, ill. 821 ; condemned and prohibited, 

ill. 658; copyright in, VI. 357; famous, 

included in chronological table, V. 720; 

early printed, in. 652; early printing 

of, xxin. 686; prohibited, ill. 658; 

XII. 730; rare and curious, ill. 654; 

selection of, for libraries, xiv. 540. 
BOOKSELLING, iv. 39. 
BOOK TRADE, inEurope, x. 472; at Leip- 

sic, xiv. 430. 
BOOLAK (Bulak), town, Egypt, vn. 769; 

museum at, xv. 543. 
BOOLE, George, English mathematician 

and logician, IV. 47. 



BOOMAH NUT, xvii. 664. 

BOOMERANG, Australian missile, iv. 48 ; 
in. 113. 

BOONDEE (Bundi), state, India, iv. 521. 

BOONE, Daniel, American pioneer, xxin. 
739, 788. 

, Nicholas, American journalist, j 
xvii. 433. 

BOORDE, Andrew, jester, ix. 366. 

BOOT, The, torture, XXI II. 466. 

BOOTH, Barton, English tragedian, I v. 48. 

, Felix, promoter of Arctic explora 
tion, xix. 320. 
-, John "Wilkes, assassin of President 



Lincoln, Xiv. 662. 
BOOTHIA FELIX, peninsula, North 

America, IV. 49. 

BOOTLE, town, England, xiv. 715. 
BOOT-MAKING, xxi. 830. 
BOOTY, in war, xix. 766. 
BOPP, Franz, German philologist, iv. 49; 

on Aryan philology, XVIII. 781. 
BOQUE, river, Canton, v. 37. 
BORA, Catherine von, wife of Luther, 

xv. 79. 
BORA-BORA, island, South Pacific, xxm. 

22. 
BORACITE, mineral, xvi. 396; xix. 588; 

polarity of, xix. 313. 
BORAHS, class of Mohammedans, India, 

xii. 746. 
BORAITHO, piece of Mishnic literature, 

xvi. 508. 

BORAN, queen of Persia, xvm. 615. 
BORATES, group of minerals, xvi. 396. 
BORAX, mineral, IV. 50; xvi. 396. 
BORBETOMAGUS (Worms), Roman 

town, Germany, xxiv. 685. 
BORCETTE (Burtscheid), town, Prussia, 

IV. 572. 

BORDA, Jean Charles, French mathe 
matician, IV. 51. 
BORDEAUX, town, France, IV. 51; 

assembly of (1871), IX. 627; lib 
raries, xiv. 526, 545; university, 

xxm. 842. 

WINE (Medoc), xxiv. 604. 
BORDERERS, The, Wordsworth s poem, 

xxiv. 669. 
BORDONI, Faustina, Italian singer, XL 

510. 

BORE, in rivers, xxin. 353. 
BOREAS, in Greek mythology, IV. 53; 

in. 59. 

BORECOLE, vegetable, xii. 279. 
BOREIDA, town, Arabia, xvn. 774. 
BOREL, count of Barcelona, XXII. 74. 
BORELLI, Giovanni Alfonso, Italian 

physician, iv. 53; vii. 128; xv. 810; 

on the circulation of the blood, xxiv. 

96; on the principles of flight, I. 186; 
IX. 317. 

BOREZ, hag-fish, XI. 370. 
BORGA, town, Russian Finland, iv. 53. 



BORGERHOUT, town, Belgium, IV. 53. 

BOR-GHAT, pass, India, Xii. 734. 

BORGHESE, Italian family, iv. 53. 
, Camillo (Pope Paul Y.), xvm. 431. 

BORGHESI, Scipione, Italian historian, 
XXii. 43. 

BORGHOLM, town, Oland, Sweden, xvn. 
752. 

BORGIA, Alphonso de (Pope Calixlus 
III.), iv. 707. 

, Co.>sar, son of Pope Alexander VI., 
iv. 53; I. 487, 489; xni. 481; his 
influence in France, IX. 554; -Machi- 
avelli s idealization of him, xv. 147. 
, St Francis, general of the Jesuits, 
ix. 694; xm. 653. 

, Lueretia, daughter of Pope Alex 
ander VI., iv. 53; I. 487, 489. 
, Rodrigo (Pope Alexander VI.), I. 



487. 

MAP, of 1 5th century, X. 180. 



BORGNE, lake, Louisiana, xv. 20. 
BORGO, town, Russian Finland, iv. 53. 
BORGOGNONE, Ambrogio, Italian pain 
ter, IX. 472; xxi. 437. 
BORGO SAN DONNINO, town, Italy, iv. 

54- 

BORGS, ancient forts, Orkney and Shet 
land, xvii. 848. 

BORGU, district, Central Africa, iv. 54. 

BORGUE, Scotland, ancient fort at, xiv. 
98. 

BORIC ACID, v. 520. 

BORINAGE, district, Belgium, xvi. 761. 

BORING, in mining, xvi. 443; vi. 61. 
MACHINES, xv. 156; xvi. 443. 



BORINQUEN (Porto Rico), island, West 

Indies, xix. 533. 
BORIS GODUNOFF, czar of Russia, xxi. 

93- 

BORISOFF, town, Russia, xvi. 479. 
BORISSOGLIEBSK, town, Russia, iv. 54; 

xxm. 41. 
BORKHAUSEN, M. B., on German birds, 

xvm. 9. 

BORKU, district, Central Africa, IV. 54. 
I3ORLASE, William, English naturalist, 

iv. 54. 

BORLASIA, genus of worms, xvn. 326. 
BORMIO, town, Valtellina, North Italy, 

xxiv. 45; mineral water of, xvi. 433; 

xxiv. 45. 
BORN, Ignatius, Baron von, Austrian 

mineralogist, iv. 55. 
BORNE, H., French potter, xix. 630. 
BORNE, Ludwig, German satirist, iv. 

55- 
BORNEO, island, Indian Archipelago, iv. 

55; II. 687; birds of, in. 763; coal 
fields, vi. 59; forests, ix. 405. 

, British North, xxi. 123. 

- CORAL ISLANDS, Indian Ocean, 
xiv. 26. 

BORNHAUSER, T., Swiss poet, xxil. 

799- 

BORNHOLM, island, Denmark, iv. 60. 
BORNITE, mineral, xvi. 393. 



B R B O U 



63 



BORNU, or Bornon, kingdom, Central 

Africa, iv. 60; I. 271; xxn. 279. 
BOROCALCITE, mineral, xvi. 396. 
BORODINO, Russia, Battle of (1812), IX. 

616; xvn. 217; xxi. 101. 
BORON, chemical element, v. 520, 532; 

modifications of, xxiv. 627. 
BORONATROCALCITE, mineral, iv. 50. 
BORO-POOLOO, silkworm of Bengal, 

xxn. 60. 
BOROUGH, iv. 62; municipal, xvn. 27. 

, The, Crabbe s poem, VI. 540. 

BOROUGH-ENGLISH, succession custom, 

iv. 64; xix. 733. 

BOROVICHI, town, Eussia, iv. 64. 
BOROVSK, town, Russia, iv. 64. 
BORROMEAN ISLANDS, Lago Maggiore, 

Italy, iv. 64; xv. 198. 
BORROMEO, Carlo, saint and cardinal, 

iv. 65; xxii. 791; his treatment of the 

Jesuits, xin. 650. 
BORROMINI, Francesco, Italian architect, 

iv. 65. 
BORRON, Helie de, French ruinancist, 

XX. 645. 
, Robert de, French romancist, xx. 

644. 
BORROWING, Ancient conditions of, 

xxiv. 18. 
BoRROWSTOUNNESS, or Bo ness, town, 

Scotland, iv. 65. 

BORSIPPA, suburb of Babylon, ill. 183. 
BORSO, duke of Modena, patron of 

literature, vill. 558; xvi. 542. 
BORULWASKI, Polish dwarf, vn. 568. 
BORUSSIANS, tribes, Lithuania, xiv. 

701. 
BORY DE SAINT - VINCENT, French 

naturalist, IV. 66. 
BORYSTHENES (Dnieper), river, Russia, 

vil. 306. 
BORYSTHENIS, Greek colony, Scythia, 

xvn. 753. 

BORZNA, town, Russia, xxm. 96. 
BOSA, town, Sardinia, IV. 66. 
Bosc, Louis Augustine Guillaume, 

French naturalist, IV. 66. 
BOSCAN, Juan, Spanish poet, iv. 66; 

xxii. 357, 363. 
BOSCAWEN, Edward, British admiral, 

iv. 66. 
BOSCH, Johannes van den, governor of 

Dutch East Indies, XII. 820; his cul 
ture system in Java, XIII. 604. 
BOSCHETTO, architect of Pisa cathedral, 

xix. 122. 
BOSCH VELD, bush country, Transvaal, 

xxm. 518. 
BOSCOVICH, Roger Joseph, Italian 

mathematician, iv. 67; his theory of 

atoms, in. 37. 
BOSELAPHUS, genus of antelopes, xvn. 

688. 
Bos GRUNNIENS, ruminant mammal, 

xxiv. 725. 
BOSHETH, for Baal, in Hebrew proper 

names, in. 175. 



BosiO, Antonio, on the Catacombs of 
Rome, v. 207. 
-, Joseph, French sculptor, xxi. 564. 



BOSJESMANS (Bushmen), African race, 
iv. 575; i. 264. 

BOSNA SERAI, town, European Turkey, 
iv. 68. 

BOSNIA, province, Turkey, IV. 68; ac 
quired by Austria, xxm. 652. 

BOSPHORUS, strait, IV. 68; ill. 797; xv. 
820. 
-, Kingdom of the, XIV. 52; coins 



of, xvn. 645. 
BOSS, in architecture, 1 1. 461. 
Bossi, Giuseppe, Italian painter and 

critic, iv. 69. 
-, Giuseppe Carlo Aurelio, Baron de, 



Italian poet, IV. 69. 

BOSSU, Rene le, French critic, IV. 69. 

BOSSUET, Jacques Benigne, French 
ecclesiastic and orator, iv. 70; ix. 662; 
his four propositions, IX. 578. 

BOSTON, town, England, iv. 72. 
, town, Massachusetts, U.S.A., iv. 
72; xxm. 822; revolutionary move 
ment at (1768-70), vni. 358; xxm. 
738; institution for the blind, III. 830; 
libraries, xiv. 535, 550; newspapers, 
xvn. 433. 
-, Thomas, Scottish divine, IV. 77. 



BOSTROM, Kristofer Jakob, Swedish 
philosopher, xxn. 757. 

BOSWELL, James, biographer of John 
son, iv. 77; xin. 726; Croker s edition 
of his life of Johnson, vi. 595. 

BOSWELLIA, genus of gum-yielding 
trees, ix. 709. 

BoszoRMENY, Hajdu, town, Hungary, 
XI. 377. 

BOTANICAL SOCIETIES, xxn. 225. 

BOTANIC GARDENS, their institution, 
IV. So; at Kew, England, xiv. 55. 

BOTANY, iv. 79 (index, 162); xix. 43; 
XX. 423; xxiv. 124; scope of the 
science, xxiv. 799; of America, I. 684; 
European, vni. 690; of Himalayas, XL 
831; Civsalpinus s work on, iv. 633; 
Brown s contributions to, IV. 386; De 
Candolle s, vn. 18; Jussieu s, xin. 
788; Linnjeus s, xiv. 673; Lindley s, 
xiv. 663; Ray s, xx. 301; Sprengel s, 
xxn. 432 ; Theophrastus s, xxm. 
277. 

BAY, settlement, New South Wales, 

iv. 164; xxn. 806. 

BOTAURUS, genus of birds, XI. 761. 

BOT-FLY, vn. 256; its larva parasitic, 
xxiv. 205. 

BOTH, Pieter, governor of Dutch East 
Indies, xil. 820. 

BOTHKAMP, Germany, observatory at, 
xvii. 712. 

BOTHNIA, province, Sweden, iv. 164. 
, Gulf of, in. 294; xxn. 738. 

BOTHRIOCEPHALUS, genus of tape- 
worms, XXIII. 54 ; spermatozoon of, 
xx. 411. 



BOTHWELL, village, Scotland, IV. 164. 
-, Earl of, IV. 164; xv. 595; his re 



lations with Mary, queen of Scots, 
xxi. 504. 

- BRIDGE, Scotland, Battle of (1679), 
xiv. 251; xxi. 516. 

BOTHY SYSTEM, in Scotland, i. 409. 

BOTTA, Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo, 
Italian historian, iv. 164; Xin. 514. 
, Paul Emile, his Assyrian re 
searches, iv. 165. 

BOTTGER, Frederick, discoverer of porce 
lain, xix. 639; xxi. 355. 

BOTTICELLI, Sandro, Italian painter, iv. 
165. 

BOTTIGER, Karl August, German arch 
aeologist, iv. 167. 

BOTTLE, iv. 167; manufacture, x. 664. 

BOTTLENOSE, bird, XX. IOI. 

, or True Dolphin, vn. 346; xv. 
399- 



- WHALE, xxiv. 525, 528. See also 
xv. 397. 

BOTTOM FISHING, in angling, n. 32. 
BOTTOM-ICE, in the Baltic, in. 295. 
BOTTOMRY, maritime contract, iv. 167; 

in. 148. 
BOTRYLLID/E, family of Tunicata, xxm. 

617. 

BOTRYOGENE, mineral, XVI. 402. 
BOTRYOLITE, mineral, xvi. 409. 
BOTY S LAMP, for coal-mines, vi. 73. 
BOTZEN, town, Austria, iv. 169. 
BOUALI, town, Africa, IV. 1 78. 
BOUCHES - DU - RHONE, department, 

France, IV. 169. 

BOUCHET, Jean, French poet, XX. 194. 
BOUCNEMIA (Elephantiasis), disease, 

vni. 126. 

BOUFARIK, town, Algeria, iv. 169. 
BOUFLERS, Due de, marshal of France, 

iv. 169; ix. 581. 
BOUGAINVILLE, Louis Antoine de, 

French circumnavigator, IV. 169; 

explorer of Tahiti, xxm. 24. 

- ISLAND, South Pacific, xxn. 252. 

BOUGIE, town, Algeria, iv. 170. 

BOUGUER, Pierre, French mathe 
matician, IV. 170; n. 757; VIL 598; 
his wind-pressure guage, II. 24. 

BOUHOURS, Dominique, French critic, 

iv. 170. 
BOUILLON, Godfrey de, crusader, IV. 

171; vi. 624. 
BOULAINVILLIERS, Henri de, French 

writer, iv. 171; ix. 667. 
BOULANGERITE, mineral, xvi. 395. 
BOULDER-CLAY, geological formation, 

x. 367- 
BOULDERS, x. 368; in the Baltic, in. 

295; x. 367. See also x. 281, 285. 
BOULE, Andre Charles, inventor of buhl- 
work, iv. 446. 
BOULENGER, G. A., his classification of 

reptiles, xx. 439. 
BOULEUTERION, council-hall at Olym- 

pia, Greece, xvn. 767. 



64 



B IT B Y 



BOULINIKON, floorcloth, IX. 330. 
BOULOGNE-SUR-MER, town, France, IV. 

171; xviii. 339; Louis Napoleon s 

landing at (1840), xvu. 227. 
BOULOGNE-SUR-SEINE, town, France, 

xxi. 624. 

BOULOU, spa, France, XX. 128. 
BOULOUS, tribe, West Coast, Africa, x. 3. 
BOULTON, Matthew, English engineer, 

iv. 172; xxiv. 413. 
BOUNTY, Mutiny of the, in. 826; xix. 

132. 

BOURBON, island, Indian Ocean, XX. 491. 
, House of, iv. 173; connexion with 

Capet family, v. 55; their rule in 

France, IX. 565; in Italy, xm. 484; 

XVII. 191; their restoration (1815), IX. 

618; XVII. 223; the Family Compacts, 

v. 68 1 ; IX. 590; XXII. 338; princes of 

Conde, VI. 244; princes of Conti, VI. 

3i9- 

, Charles de, constable of France, IX. 

55 6. 
, Louis August de, French savant, 

xviii. 539. 

BOURBON-LANCY, spa, France, xxi. 302. 
BOURBON-L ARCHAM BAULT, town, 

France, iv. 174. 
BOURBONNE-LES-BAINS, town, France, 

iv. 174; XV. 562; mineral water of, 

xvi. 434. 
BOURBOULE, La, spa, France, xx. 120; 

mineral water of, xvi. 435. 
BOURCHIER, John, English writer, iv. 

174. 
BOURDALOUE, Louis, French preacher, 

iv. 174; ix. 662. 
BOURDEILLES, Pierre de (Brantome), 

French historian, IV. 216. 
BoURDELOT,his influence with Christina 

of Sweden, v. 703. 
BOURDON, organ stop, xvn. 830. 
BOURDU, J., French potter, XIX. 630. 
BOURG, town, France, iv. 175. 
BOURGAS, town, Turkey, iv. 1 76. 
BOURGELAT, Claude, French veterin 
arian, iv. 176; xxiv. 198. 
BOURGERY, Marc J., his treatise on 

anatomy, I. 817. 

BoURGES, town, France, IV. 176; uni 
versity of, XXlll. 842. 
BOURGET, lake, France, xiv. 218. 
BOURG- LASTIC, coal-mines, France, xx. 

120. 
BOURGOGNE (Burgundy, q.v.), province, 

France, IV. 535. 
BOURGUET, Louis, Swiss writer, xxn. 

798. 

BOURIGNIANISM, heresy, IV. 177. 
BOURIGNON, Antoinette, French enthu 
siast, iv. 176. 
BOURMONT, Comte de, his expedition 

against Algiers, I. 566. 
BOURNE, intermittent spring, Croydon, 

England, vi. 621. 
, Hugh, founder of Primitive 

Methodism, xvi. 192. 



BOURNE, Nicholas, publisher of early 
English newspaper, xvu. 413. 

, Vincent, English writer of Latin 

verse, iv. 177. 
-, William, English writer on naviga 



tion, Xiv. 769. 
BOURNEMOUTH, town, Hampshire, iv. 

177. 
BOURNONITE, mineral, xiv. 375; xvi. 

395- 
BOURO, island, Indian Archipelago, iv. 

572. 
BOURON, Robert of, French romancist, 

xx. 644. 

BOUROU, Cape, New Guinea, xvi I. 386. 
BOURRIENNE, Louis A. F. de, biographer 

of Napoleon I., iv. 177. 
BOURSAULT, Edmund, French satirist, 

IV. 178. 

BOURSE, stock exchange, xxn. 557. 
BOURSEL, Charles, on telephony, xxin. 

128. 

BOURTREE (Elder), tree, vn. 828. 
BOUSHREVIEH, Hussein, propagator of 

Babism, in. 180. 

BOUSSA, town, Africa, I v. 1 78, 54. 
BOUTARGUE, French condiment, XV. 

580. 

BOUTERWEK, Friedrich, German philo 
sopher, IV. 178. 
BOUTHILLIER DE RANGE, abbot of La 

Trappe, xx in. 523. 

BOUTTEVILLE, Count de, French duel 
list, vu. 513. 

BOUTY, Edmond, his researches in 
magnetism, xv. 257. 

BOUVARDIA, stove plant, xn. 265. 

Bou VINES, Flanders, Battle of (1214), 
ix. 542. 

BOUVRAY, France, Battle of (1429), IX. 

549- 

BOVALI, town, Loango, Africa, iv. 178. 
BOVES, township, Italy, IV. 178. 
BOVIANUM (Bojano), ancient town, 

Italy, xxi. 249. 
BOVID^E, family of ungulate mammals, 

xv. 432. 
BOVILL^E, ancient town, Italy, xiv. 

344- 

BOVINO, town, Italy, iv. 178. 
Bow, form of salutation, xxi. 236. 

, London, Porcelain of, XIX. 641. 

, Violin, xxiv. 242, 246. 

AND ARROWS, n. 371 ; ancient, n. 

554; manufacture of, II. 376. 
BOWAIB, Battle of (c. 635), xviii. 616. 
BOWDICH, Thomas Edward, English 

traveller, IV. 178. 

BOWDITCH, Nathaniel, American mathe 
matician, iv. 178. 
BOWDLER, John, English hymn-writer, 

XII. 595. 
, Thomas, editor of Shakespeare, 

xxi. 768. 

BOWEL, Anatomy of the, vu. 225. 
BOWER, Walter, Scottish chronicler, 

IX. 397; XXI. 540. 



BOWER ANCHORS, n. 5, 7. 

BOWES CASTLE, Yorkshire, England, 

xxiv. 749. 
Bow FELL, mountain, England, xxiv. 

5i3- 

Bow-FlN, fish, XII. 688. 
BOWKING, in bleaching, ill. 815. 
Bow LEG, Surgical treatment of, xxn. 

692. 
BOWLES, Caroline Ann (Mrs Southey), 

English poetess, xxn. 289. 

, William Lisle, English poet, iv. 



178. 

BOWLINE KNOT, xiv. 128. 
BOWLS, game, iv. 179. 

-, ancient plate, xix. 178. 



BOWNESS, town, England, XXIV. 516. 
BOWRING, Sir John, English writer, iv. 

181. 
Bows, river, Nebraska, U.S.A., xvu. 

37- 

BOWSPRIT, of ships, xxi. 153. 
BOXING, in athletics, xxiv. 691 ; ancient 

x. 64. 
BOXWOOD, IV. 181; used for carving, 

xxiv. 645. 

BOYACA, town, Colombia, iv. 182. 
BOYCE, Hector, Scottish historian, in. 

849; xxi. 541. 

, William, English musical com 
poser, iv. 182. 
BOYCOTT, The, in United States, xxin. 

786. 
BOYD, Scottish family, time of James 

III., xxi. 495. 
, Zachary, Scottish clergyman, iv. 

182. 
BOYDELL, John, English engraver, iv. 

182. 
BOYER, Abel, English writer, IV. 182. 

, Alexis, French surgeon, iv. 182. 
, Jean Baptiste, French physician, 

iv. 183. 
-, Jean Pierre, president of Hayti, 



iv. 183. 

BOYLE, town, Ireland, XX. 850. 
, Charles, carl of Orrery, iv. 183; in. 



54- 



-, Elizabeth, wife of Spenser, xxn. 



395- 



-, John, earl of Cork and Orrery, iv. 



183- 



, Richard, earl of Cork, IV. 183. 
, Richard, earl of Cork and Burling 
ton, iv. 184. 
-, Robert, British physicist, iv. 184; 



his contributions to chemistry, v. 460; 
to electricity, vin. 3; his interest in 
Christian missions, xvi. 514. 
-, Roger, earl of Orrery, soldier and 



statesman, IV. 185. 
- LECTURES, found ed by Robert 

Boyle, iv. 184. 
BOYLE S LAW, of gases, xxn. 479; in. 

35, 39; vn. 804; xvi. 611; xix. 241; 

xxin. 287. 
BOYL-YA, in Australian magic, xv. 199. 



BOYNE, river, Ireland, iv. 185; xv. 668; 
battle of the (1690), xni. 268; xxi. 

BOYSE, John, translator of English Bible, 

iv. 1 86. 
Boz, Sketches by, Dickens s work, vn. 

174. 
BOZEMAN, town, Montana, U.S.A., xvi. 

774- 

BOZEN, town, Austria, iv. 169. 
BOZRAH, Scripture cities, IV. 186. 
BOZZARIS, Marcos, Greek patriot, iv. 

1 86. 

BRA, town, Italy, IV. 186. 
BRABANT, district, Netherlands, IV. 186. 

, North, province, Holland, iv. 187. 

, South, province, Belgium, IV. 187- 

BRACCIOLINI, Francesco, Italian poet, 

iv. 187. 
, Gian Francesco Poggio, Italian 

humanist, xix. 274; author of Facetiae, 

I. 784- 

BRACE, boring tool, xi. 438. 
BRACELET, iv. 187. 
BRACHELYTRA, group of beetles, vi. 

130. 
BRACHIOPODA, class of invertebrate 

animals, IV. 188; XIX. 429, 440; in 

Lankester s classification, xxiv. 813. 
BRACK ISTOCHRONE, curve of swiftest 

descent, xv. 643, 710. 
BRACHIUM, upper arm, in man, I. 826; 

in mammals, xv. 358. 
BRACHYCERA, group of insects, xni. 

150. 

BRACHYDOME, crystal, xvi. 360. 
BRACHYLOGUS, book of Roman law, iv. 

196. 
BRACHYLOPHUS, genus of lizards, xn. 

700. 
BRACHYMYSTAX, genus of Salmonidas, 

xxi. 221. 
BRACHYPTERACIAS, genus of birds, xx. 

627. 
BRACHYTARSOMYS, genus of rodent 

mammals, xvn. 6. 

BRACHYURUS, genus of apes, n. 154. 
BRACKENRIDGE, Hugh H., American 

author, I. 722. 

BRACKET, in architecture, n. 461. 
BRACTON, Henry de, English jurist, IV. 

196; his connexion with the Britton, 

IV - 355- 

BRACTS, of plants, iv. 119. 
BRADANUS, river, Lucania, Italy, xv. 

37- 

BRADAWL, boring tool, XL 438. 

BRADFORD, Wilts, England, Saxon 
church at, xxiv. 595. 

, town, Yorkshire, England, IV. 197; 

xxiv. 748; its silk manufacture, xxn. 
63- 

, John, English martyr, IV. 198. 

, William, colonial printer, Phil 
adelphia, xvin. 740. 

BRADING, Isle of Wight, England, 
Roman villa at, xxiv. 562. 



B Y - - B R A 

BRADLAUGH, Charles, English journalist 
and politician, xxm. 312. 

BRADLEY, James, British astronomer, 
IV. 198; II. 756; xvn. 260; his dis 
covery of aberration of light, I. 48. 

BRADSHAW, Henry, English poet, iv. 
198. 

, Henry, on Barbour s poems, III. 

364- 

, John, judge of Charles I., IV. 198. 

BRADWARDIN, Thomas, archbishop of 

Canterbury, IV. 199. 
BRADY, Nicholas, translator of the 

Psalms, iv. 199; his Psalms and 

Hymns, XII. 590. 
BRADYPODID^E, family of edentate 

mammals, xv. 384; xxii. 161. 
BRAEMAR FOREST, Scotland, i. 44. 
BRAGA, town, Portugal, iv. 199; xix. 

537; XXII. 307. 

BRAGANCA, or Braganza, town, Por 
tugal, iv. 199; xxm. 525. 
BRAGANZA, Ducal family of, xix. 545, 

548. 
BRAGG, Braxton, American general, 

xxm. 778, 788. 
BRAGI, Northern god, I. 211. 
BRAHAM, John, English vocalist and 

composer, iv. 199. 
BRAKE, Tycho, Danish astronomer, iv. 

200; II. 752; Xiv. 46; on the lunar 

theory, xvi. 800 ; his patronage of 

Longomontanus, Xiv. 866 ; his rela 
tions with Napier, xvn. 182; his 

observatory on Huen island, xvn. 

709. 
BRAHMA, Hindu deity, iv. 207; xxiv. 

118; figure of, vin. 126. 
FOWLS, xix. 645. 
BRAHMANAS, Sanskrit theological 

writings, XXI. 273,276; mythic stories 

in them, xvn. 152. 
BRAHMANBARIA, town, India, xxm. 

405. 

BRAHMANI, river, India, v. 243. 
BRAHMANICAL LAW, xn. 782; xxi. 

287. 
BRAHMANISM, iv. 201; xn. 782, 785; 

xx. 360; its relations to Lamaism, 

xiv. 227. 
BRAHMANS, Hindu caste, v. 188; 

among the Mahrattas, XV. 289. 
BRAHMAPUTRA, river, Tibet and India, 

iv. 2iij n. 718; xii. 732; xxm. 341. 
BRAHMA SAMAJ, theistic church, India, 

iv. 200; xvi. 518; xxi. 35. 
BRAHMEGUPTA, Oriental algebraist, i. 

BRAHMS, Johannes, musical composer, 
xvn. 97. 

BRAHOES, race of people, Baluchistan, 
in. 300, 303. 

BRAID, James, on neuro-hypnotism, xv. 
278. 

BRAIDWOOD, Thomas, teacher of deaf- 
mutes, vn. 6. 

BRAILA, town, Roumania, xn. 610. 



65 

BRAIN, of apes, n. 164; of birds, in. 

724; of fishes, XII. 650; of mammals, 

xv. 366. 
, The human, anatomy of, I. 869; 

Sir Charles Bell on anatomy of, ill. 

541 ; physiology of, xix. 32; circulation 

in, xix. 42; diseases of, xx. 431; 

xill. 95; paralysis caused by disease of, 

xviii. 255; membranes of, I. 864; 

in relation to phrenology, xviii. 842; 

during sleep, xxn. 155; weight of, n. 

108. 

BRAINERD, David, missionary to Ameri 
can Indians, IV. 211. 
BRAINTREE, town, England, iv. 211. 
BRAITHWAITE, Richard, pastoral poet, 

xviii. 347. 

BRAJ BHASHA, Indian dialect, XL 840. 
BRAKE, iv. 211; xv. 770; railway, 

xx. 248. 
-, town, Germany, I v. 211. 



BRAMAH, Joseph, English machinist, 

iv. 213. 

BRAMAH S LOCK, xiv. 744. 
BRAMANTE, Lazzari, Italian architect 

and painter, iv. 213; n. 438; xx. 836. 
BRAMANTINO (Bartolommeo Suardi), 

Italian painter, xxn. 615. 
BRAMBANAN, Hindu ruins, Java, IV. 

214. 

BRAMBER, town, England, xxn. 724. 
B RAMBLING, bird, IX. 193. 
BRAMHALL, John, bishop of Derry, 

his discussion with Hobbes, XII. 36; 

his oppression of Presbyterians, xni. 

266. 
BRANAS, Alexis, Byzantine general, 

xni. 374. 

BRANCA, Giovanni, designer of a steam- 
engine, xxn. 473. 

BRANCACCI CHAPEL, Florence, paint 
ings in, xv. 606. 
BRANCALEONE DEGLI ANDALO, Roman 

senator, xx. 796. 
BRANCHES, of plants, iv. 97. 
BRANCHIOBDELLID^E, family of leeches, 

xiv. 405. 
BRANCHIOPODA, division of Crustacea, 

vi. 663. 
BRANCHIOSTOMA, genus of fishes, xn. 

695; xiv. 258. 
BRANCOVAN, Constantine, voivode of 

Walachia, xxi. 17. 
BRANDE, William Thomas, English 

chemist, IV. 214. 
BRANDENBURG, province, Prussia, iv. 

214; xx. 14, 16; mark of, xx. 2; 

royal house of, x. 495. 
, town, Prussia, iv. 214; terra-cotta 

work at, xxm. 194. 

BRANDES, Georg, Danish critic, vn. 93. 
BRANDIS, Christian August, German 

writer, iv. 215. 

BRANDISHING, in architecture, n. 461. 
BRANDISITE, mineral, xvi. 413. 
BRANDT, Count, Danish courtier, vn. 

87- 

XXV. 9 



66 



B R A B R E 



BRANDT, Geeraerdt, Dutch writer, xn. 

95- 

, Joliann Friedrich, on birds, XVIII. 

25, 42, 45. 

, Sebastian, German satirist, iv. 215; 

x. 527. 

BRANDY, spirituous liquor, iv. 216; 
distillation of, vn. 264. 

BRANDYWINE, U.S.A., Battle of (1777), 
xxni. 744. 

BRANKOVICH, George, despot of Servia, 
xxi. 689, 690. 

BRANKS, disease, xvi i. 22. 

BRANT, Isabella, wife of Rubens, xxi. 
42. 

BRANTAS, river, Java, xm. 601. 

BRANTFORD, town, Canada, iv. 216. 

BRANTOME, Seigneur de, French his 
torian, iv. 216; ix. 654. 

BRANXHOLM CASTLE, Roxburgh, Scot 
land, xxi. 34. 

BRASCHI, Giovanni Angelo (Pope Pius 
VI.), xix. 154. 

BRAS-DE-FER (Fra^ois de la Noue), 
Huguenot captain, xiv. 289. 

BRAS D OR, lake, Nova Scotia, xvn. 
602. 

BRASENOSE COLLEGE, Oxford, xvm. 
96. 

BRASIDAS, Spartan general, iv. 216. 

BRASS, alloy of copper and zinc, iv. 
217; its composition, VI. 351; xxiv. 
784; strength of, xxn. 603. 

BRASSAC, France, coal-mines at, xx. 
119. 

BRASSAGE, cost of coining, xvi. 725. 

BRASSES, Monumental, iv. 219; vn. 
694. 

BRASSEY, Thomas, English railway con 
tractor, iv. 219. 

BRASS-HORN, musical instrument, xvn. 
778. 

BRASSICA, genus of plants, iv. 617; 
xvn. 112; xx. 273. 

BRASS-WORK, xvi. 71. 

BRATSLAFF, town, Russia, xix. 254. 

BRATTISHING, in architecture, II. 461. 

BRATTLEBORO, town, Vermont, U.S.A., 
xxiv. 167. 

BRATTON, Wilts, England, British re 
mains at, xxiv. 594. 

BRAULIEVE MOUNTAINS, Ireland, xx. 

849- 
BRAUNITE, mineral, xv. 479; xvi. 

387- 

BRAUNSBERG, town, Prussia, iv. 220. 
BRAUNSCHWEIG (Brunswick, q.v.\ 

duchy, Germany, iv. 401. 
BRAVA, Cape Verd Islands, v. 52. 
BRAVAISITE, mineral, xvi. 425. 
BRAVO DEL NORTE, river, New 

Mexico, U.S.A., xvn. 400. 
BRAVOS, town, Mexico, xvi. 214. 
BRAWNE, Fanny, Keats s letters to, 

xiv. 24. 
BRAY, town, Ireland, iv. 220; xxiv. 

557- 



BRAY, Sir Reginald, English architect, 
iv. 220. 

, Dr Thomas, missionary to Ameri 
can Indians, IV. 220. 

BRAYNFORD (Brentford), town, Eng 
land, iv. 258. 

BRAZEN BULL, of Phalaris, xvin. 730. 

BRAZIL, iv. 221; I. 712; its connexion 
with Portugal, I. 710; birds of, ill. 
746; proportion of coloured race in, 
xvii. 320; cotton supply, VI. 485; 
diamond mines, VII. 164; forests, IX. 
406; Indian tribes, XII. 829; libraries, 
xiv. 536, 551; national debt, xvn. 
247; newspapers, xvii. 437; observa 
tory at Rio, xvn. 716 ; prison system, 
xix. 759; railways, xx. 252; slavery 
in, xxil. 142. 

, Island of, IV. 241. 

CURRENT, in Atlantic, in. 20. 



BRAZILIAN RUBY, or Burnt Topaz, 

xxni. 446. 

BRAZIL NUT, iv. 241. 
BRAZIL-NUT OIL, xvii. 744, 746. 
BRAZIL WOOD, iv. 241; iv. 226. 
BRAZOS, river, Texas, xxiil. 203. 
BRAZZA, island, Adriatic Sea, iv. 241. 
BRAZZAVILLE, town, on Congo, Africa, 

xxiv. 765. 
BREACH OF PROMISE OF MARRIAGE, 

xxiv. 643. 

BREAD, Manufacture of, in. 250; adul 
terations of, I. 170. 
BREADALBANE, district, Scotland, xvin. 

667. 

BREAD AND SALT, bond, xxi. 134. 
BREAD FRUIT, iv. 241; in Polynesia, 

xix. 419. 

BREAD NUT, xvn. 664. 
BREAKERS, their formation, xxiv. 419. 
BREAKING, of hunting horses, xn. 188. 
BREAKSPEARE, Nicholas (Pope Adrian 

IV.), i. 165. 
BREAKWATER, iv. 242; construction of, 

XI. 459; at Cherbourg, v. 585; at 

Holyhead, xii. 105. 
BREAM, fish, xn. 692; angling for, n. 

42. 
BREAST, xvi. 302; cancer of the, xvin. 

383- 

BREAST-ARMOUR, vi. 693. 
BREASTPLATE, Jewish high priest s, x. 

138- 
BREATHING, or Respiration, xx. 474; 

movements of muscles in, I. 835; 

disordered, n. 736; restoration of, in 

apparently drowned, VII. 475. 
BRE-BUNG, convent, Lhasa, xiv. 501. 
BRECCIA, rock, x. 237. 
BRECHE, Charles de, betrayer of 

Pallavicino, xvin. 189. 
BRECHIN, town, Scotland, iv. 242. 
BRECKINRIDGE, John Cabell, American 

politician, xxiil. 772, 774, 788. 
BRECKNOCK PENINSULA, Tierra del 

Fuego, xxni. 384. 
BRECON, or Brecknock, county, Wales, 



iv. 243; population and represen 
tation, XXIIL 727; town, iv. 244. 
BREDA, town, Holland, iv. 244. 

, Jan van, Dutch painter, IV. 244. 

, Surrender of, Velazquez s picture, 

xxiv. 135. 
BREDAL, Niels Krog, Norse dramatist, 

xvn. 590. 
BREDEROO, Gerbrand Adriaanssen, 

Dutch writer, xn. 94. 
BREDOW, suburb of Stettin, Prussia, 

xxn. 543. 

, Gabriel Gottfried, German histo 
rian, iv. 244. 

BREECHES BIBLE, vin. 387. 
BREECH-LOADER, gun, XL 280, 
BREEDING OF ANIMALS, i. 389, 393; iv. 

244; xxi. 722. 
BREEDS AND BREEDING, iv. 244; in 

relation to natural selection, XXiv. 78. 
BREGENTZ, or Bregenz, town, Tyrol, 

Austria, IV. 251; xxiv. 297. 
BREHON LAW, ancient Irish law, iv. 

252; landholding under it, XIII. 218. 
BREIDDEN HILLS, England and Wales, 

xvi. 788; xxi. 847. 
BREISLACKITE, mineral, xvi. 416. 
BREISLAK, Scipione, Italian geologist, 

iv. 255. 

BREITHAUPTITE, mineral, xvi. 393. 
BREITINGER, J. J., Swiss writer, x. 533; 

xxn. 797. 
BRELLINGTON (Bridlington), town, 

England, iv. 342. 
BREMANGERLAND, island, Norway, xvn. 

576. 

BREMEN, free town, Germany, IV. 255. 
BREMER, Fredrika, Swedish novelist, 

iv. 256; xxn. 757. 

BEITRAGE, in German literature, x. 



533- 
BREMERHAVEN, town, Germany, iv. 

257. 
BREMETENRACUM (Penrith), Roman 

town, England, xvin. 504. 
BREMNER PRINTING-MACHINE, XXIIL 

706. 
BRENDAN, St, early Irish navigator, xm. 

250. 

BRENNAN TORPEDO, xxni. 451. 
BRENNER PASS, Tyrolese Alps, i. 629. 
BRENNUS, Celtic kings, iv. 257. 
BRENNY, district, Leitrim, Ireland, xiv. 

433- 

BRENT, river, England, xvi. 279. 
BRENTA, river, Italy, xm. 436. 
BRENTANO, Clemens, German writer, 

iv. 257; x. 542. 
BRENTFORD, town, England, iv. 258; 

xvi. 280. 

BRENT-GOOSE, bird, x. 778. 
BRENTHID.E, family of insects, xxiv. 

477- 

BRENT S HILL, ancient fortress, Eng 
land, xvii. 598. 

BRENZ, John, his scheme of church 
order, xix. 676. 



B R E B 11 I 



67 



BREOGAN, in Irish legend, xm. 244. 
BRERA, Picture Gallery of the, Milan, 

xvi. 291. 

BRESCIA, province, Italy, iv. 258. 
, town, Italy, iv. 258; its ancient 

college, xxni. 834; pictures in, xxi. 

447; its school of painting, xxi. 436, 

443- 
BRESLAU, town, Prussian Silesia, iv. 

258; XX. 16; xxn. 53; libraries, XIV. 

546; observatory, XVII. 712; univer 
sity, xxni. 846. 

BRESLE, river, France, xxn. 261. 
BRESSAY, island, Shetland, Scotland, 

xvii. 846. 

BRESSUIRE, town, France, xxi. 710. 
BREST, town, France, iv. 259. 

, old town, Labrador, iv. 177. 

BREST-LITOVSK, town, Russia, iv. 260. 
BRETAGNE (Brittany, q.v.), province, 

France, iv. 354. 
BRETHREN, or Plymouth Brethren, 

religious sect, XIX. 238. 
OF THE COMMON LIFE, religious 

community, XL 207; xvi. 711; xvii. 

134; as educationists, VII. 672. 
BRETIGNY, Peace of (1360), ix. 547. 
BRETON, Nicholas, pastoral poet, xvm. 

347- 
, P., on porisms, XIX. 520. 

- DE LOS HERREROS, Manuel, 
Spanish dramatist, xxn. 361. 

- LANGUAGE, .298, 327; dictionaries 
of, vii. 1 88. 

LITERATURE, v. 324. 



BRETONNE, Eestif de la, French writer, 

xx. 486. 

BRETONS, people of Brittany, iv. 354. 
BRETSCHNEIDER, Karl Gottlieb, German 

scholar, iv. 260. 

BRETWALDAS, rulersof Britain, vni. 271. 
BREUGHEL, Jan, Flemish painter, iv. 

262. 
, Peeter, Flemish caricaturist, IV. 

262; v. 104. 

BREUNI, Rhtetian people, xx. 505. 
BREUNNERITE, mineral, xvi. 397. 
BREVE DE RECTO, in English law, 

xxiv. 694. 
BREVE TESTATUM, in English law, 

xxiv. 693. 
BREVIARIUM ALARICANUM, Roman 

law, iv. 262; i. 443; xxi. 216. 
BREVIARY, church service book, iv. 

263; English, viii. 378; Roman, xiv. 

709. 
BREVOORTIA TYRANNUS, species of 

fishes, xvi. 10. 
BREWERIES, of Burton, England, iv. 

572. 

BREWING, iv. 264; xv. 308. 
BREWSTER,Sir David, Scottish physicist, 

iv. 276; inventor of kaleidoscope, 

XIII. 826; in relation to invention of 

stereoscope, xxn. 538; on the analysis 

of light, xvii. 802; on polarization 

of light, Xiv. 611. 



BREWSTERITE, mineral, xvi. 422. 
BRIAN BOROIMHE, legendary Irish 

king, v. 308; xm. 253. 
BRIANCHON S THEOREM, in geometry, 

x. 397- 

BRIANC.ON, town, France, iv. 277. 
BRIANSK, town, Russia, iv. 277; xxi. 

89- 

BRIARE, town, France, xiv. 809. 
BRIAREUS, in Greek mythology, iv. 277. 
BRIAR-ROOT PIPE, for tobacco, xix. 

112. 
BRIBERY, iv. 278; Greek proverb about, 

vi. 754. 
BRICK, iv. 279; as building material, 

IV. 448; combination of, with stone, 

II. 457; strength of, xxil. 603. See 

Bricks. 

, Fire, ix. 238. 
ARCHITECTURE, in Germany, n. 



432. 



FACINGS, Roman, xx. 809 

BRICKLAYING, iv. 460. 

BRICKMAKING, iv. 280. 

BRICKS, iv. 279; ancient, XIX. 604, 619; 
ancient enamelled, vm. 182; of Baby 
lon, in. 185, 189; glazed, in wall-linings, 
xvii. 35. 

BRICK TEA, xxm. 99. 

BRICK TOWERS, in Spain, n. 434. 

BRICKWORK, in building, iv. 457. 

BRIDAINE, Jacques, French preacher, 
iv. 284. 

BRIDE OF LAMMERMOOR (Janet Dal- 
rymple), XXII. 444. 

BRIDES, Savoy, mineral water of, xvi. 

434- 
BRIDGE, iv. 284; at Brooklyn, U.S.A., 

xvii. 465; at Dirschau, Prussia, vii. 

257; suspension, at Kieff, Russia, XIV. 

69; suspension, ancient, in Peru, I. 

697; at St Louis, U.S.A., xxi. 185. 

FORTIFICATION, ix. 435. 

BRIDGENORTH (Bridgnorth), town, Eng 
land, iv. 284 ; xxi. 648. 
BRIDGE OF ALLAN, town, Scotland, 

XXIL 544. 
BRIDGEPORT, town, Connecticut, U.S.A., 

iv. 284. 
BRIDGES, iv. 284 (index, 341); pontoon, 

XIX. 456; railway, xx. 233; Roman, 

xx. 831; skewed, II. 331; Venetian, 

XXIV. 148. See Bridge. 
BRIDGET, St, of Ireland, iv. 342. 

, St, of Sweden, iv. 342; XXII. 753; 

nuns of, xvi. 711. 

BRIDGETOWN, town, Barbados, in. 359. 
BRIDGEWATER (Bridgwater), town, Eng 
land, iv. 342; XXIL 258. 

, Third Duke of, IV. 342. 

, Eighth Earl of, IV. 342. 

CANAL, iv. 342, 783. 
- TREATISES, iv. 342. 
BRIDGNORTH, town, England, iv. 284; 

xxi. 648. 
BRIDGWATER, town, England, iv. 342 ; 

xxii. 258. 



BRIDLE, Horse, xn. 198. 
BRIDLINGTON, town, England, iv. 342. 
BRIDPORT, town, England, iv. 343. 
BRIE, district, Seine-et-Marne, France, 

xxi. 625. 

BRIEF, papal letter, iv. 520. 
BRIEG, town, Prussia, iv. 343. 
-, town, Switzerland, xxiv. 31. 



BRIEL, or Brielle, town, Holland, IV. 343. 
BRIENNE, France, Battle of (1814), xvii. 

221. 

, Jean de, crusader in Egypt, vn. 

754- 
BRIENZ, lake, Switzerland, xiv. 218; 

xxii. 777. 

BRIER, plant, xx. 851. 
BRIERE DE L ISLE, French general, 

xxni. 441. 
BRIGADE, subdivision of an army, IV. 

343- 

BRIGADE-MAJOR, iv. 343. 
BRIGADIER, iv. 343. 
BRIGANTES, British tribe, iv. 353. 
BRIGANTIA (Bregentz), ancient town, 

Tyrol, IV. 251. 
BRIGANTIUM (Briangon), ancient town, 

France, iv. 277. 
BRIGGS, Henry, English mathematician, 

IV - 343! XVII. 1 80; his logarithms, 

xiv. 773; xxm. 9. 
BRIGHT, Richard, English physician, 

xv. 8 1 6. 
BRIGHTHELMSTONE (Brighton, q.v.), 

town, England, IV. 345. 
BRIGHTLING HILL, Sussex, England, 

xxn. 723. 
BRIGHTNESS, intensity of light, xxiv. 

423, 429, 433, 437. 
BRIGHTON, town, England, iv. 344; 

xxii. 725; aquarium at, II. 218. 
BRIGHT S DISEASE, iv. 345; xvm. 387, 

388; diet in, vn. 206. 
BRIGNOLES, town, France, iv. 346; 

xxiv. 69. 

BRIHTNOTH, East-Saxon earl, vm. 287. 
BRIL (Briel), town, Holland, iv. 343. 

, Paul, Flemish painter, iv. 346. 
BRILL, fish, xn. 692. 
BRILLIANTS (Diamonds), Cutting of, vn. 

165; xiv. 299. 
BRIMSTONE, sulphur of commerce, 

xxn. 634. 

BRINDISI, town, Italy, iv. 346. 
BRINDLEY, James, English engineer, 

iv. 346, 783. 

BRINE-SHRIMP, crustacean, vi. 663. 
BRINE-SPRINGS, x. 271. 
BRINIATES, Ligurian tribe, xiv. 640. 
BRINJARIS, tribe, India, xv. 185. 
BRINK, R. C. B. van den, Dutch critic, 

xii. 98. 
BRINKBURN PRIORY, Northumberland, 

England, XVII. 568. 
BRIOCUS, St, Welsh missionary, XXI. 

159. 
BRION, Frederike, friend of Goethe, X. 

724. 



68 



B R I B R O 



BRION, Simon de (Pope Martin IV.), 

xv. 582. 
BRIONIAN ISLANDS, Adriatic Sea, xix. 

284. 

BRIONNAIS, district, France, xxi. 301. 
BRIONY, Black, plant, xxiv. 727. 
BRIOT, Franois, Swiss metal-worker, 

xix. 184. 
BRIOUDE, town, France, iv. 347; bridge 

at, iv. 332. 
BRIOVIRA (St L6), ancient town, France, 

xxi. 182. 

BRISBANE, town, Queensland, iv. 347. 
, Sir Thomas M., astronomer, iv. 

347; his observatory, at Paramatta, 

New South Wales, xvn. 716. 
BRISSON, Mathurin Jacques, French 

naturalist, iv. 347; on birds, XVlil. 5. 
BRISSOT, Jean Pierre, Girondist, iv. 

347- 

, Pierre, French physician, XV. 808. 
BRISTLES, Economic uses of, XL 376; in 

brush-making, iv. 403. 
BRISTOL, town, England, iv. 348; 

siege of (1645), xxi. 62; St Augustine s 

abbey, I. 19; libraries, xiv. 521, 542; 

newspapers, xvn. 421; porcelain 

works, xix. 642. 
, town, Rhode Island, U.S.A., iv. 

352. 
, Earl of, persecution of, by Charles 

I., v. 404. 
BRITAIN, Ancient, iv. 352; history of, 

vni. 263; Caesar s invasion of, IV. 636; 

under the Romans, XX. 775, 780; their 

influence on the language, v. 317; 

coins of, xvn. 636; Celtic dialects of, 

V. 298. 
BRITANNIA, iv. 352. See Britain. 

, Camden s work, IV. 734. 

BRIDGE, across Menai Straits, 

Wales, iv. 334; xx. 234. 

METAL, XVIIL 725. 

ROMANA, Horsley s work, xn. 



200. 

BRITANNICUS, son of the Roman 
emperor Claudius, iv. 354; xvil. 348. 

, Racine s drama, xx. 206. 

BRITANNY (Brittany, q.v.), province, 
France, IV. 354. 

BRITFORD, Wilts, England, Gothic arch 
way in church, II. 425. 

BRITISH ALMANAC, i. 591. 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE 
SOCIETY, in. 649. 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN SCHOOL 
SOCIETY, xiv. 258. 

BRITISH ARMY, Historical sketch of the, 
n. 568. 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION, its origin, iv. 
277. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA, North America, 
vi. 169. 

BRITISH GUIANA, XL 249. 

BRITISH HONDURAS, xn. 132. 

BRITISH KAFFRARIA, South Africa, 
xiii. 816. 



BRITISH MUSEUM, London, xiv. 837; 

under Panizzi, xvm. 212; library of, 

Xiv. 515. 

BRITISH NORTH BORNEO, xxi. 123. 
BRITISH SUBJECTS, their privileges, I. 

575- 

BRITO, port, Nicaragua, xvn. 477. 
, Bernardo de, Portuguese historian, 

Xix. 557. 
BRITONS, Ancient, iv. 352; vm. 263; 

XXI. 472; ethnic character and dis 
tribution of, v. 301. 
BRITONUM HISTORIA, Nennius s work, 

xvn. 332. 
BRITTANY, province, France, iv. 354; 

ancient stone monuments of, XXI. 5 1 ; 

dukes of, xx. 401. 
BRITTLE-STARS, order of Echinoder- 

mata, vil. 634. 
BRITTON, summary of early English 

law, iv. 355. 
-, John, English antiquary, IV. 355. 



BRIVA ISAR^E (Pontoise), ancient town, 

France, XIX. 456. 
BRIVES-LA-GAILLARDE, town, France, 

iv. 356- 

BRIXEN, town, Tyrol, iv. 356. 
BRIXHAM, town, England, iv. 356; its 

fisheries, IX. 249. 
BRIXIA (Brescia), ancient town, Italy, 

iv. 258. 
BROACH, district and town, India, IV. 356. 

, boring tool, xi. 438. 

BROAD ARROW, in heraldry, XL 703. 
BROAD-BOTTOM ADMINISTRATION, 

England, v. 441. 
BROAD LAW, mountain, Scotland, xvm. 

451. 
BROADSIDE, or Broadsheet, pamphlet, 

XVIIL 204. 

BROADSTAIRS, town, England, iv. 357. 
BROADWAY, New York, xvn. 458. 
BROADWOOD, James, pianoforte maker, 

xix. 76. 

, John, pianoforte maker, XIX. 74. 

BROCCHI, Giovanni Battista, Italian 

geologist, iv. 357. 

BROCCOLI, vegetable, IV. 618; xn. 279. 
BROCHANTITE, mineral, xvi. 401. 
BROCKS, Scottish round towers, xvn. 

848; xxi. 22. 
BROCKEDON S BLACK-LEAD PENCILS, 

xvm. 490. 
BROCKEN, mountain, Germany, XL 507; 

spectre of the, XI. 399. 
BROCKES, Barthold H., German poet, 

x. 532. 
BROCKHAUS, Friedrich Arnold, German 

publisher, iv. 357; publisher of 

Conversations-Lexicon, vm. 203. 
BROCKLESBY, Richard, English physi 
cian, iv. 357. 

BRODERIP, William John, English natu 
ralist, iv. 358. 
BRODIE, Sir Benjamin Collins, English 

surgeon, IV. 358. 
BRODY, town, Austria, iv. 359. 



BRODZINSKI, Casimir, Polish poet, xix. 

34- 
BROEKHUIZEN, Jan, Dutch scholar, iv. 

382. 
BROGHILL, Lord (Roger Boyle), soldier 

and statesman, IV. 185. 
BROGLIE, Achille L. V. C., Due de, 

French statesman, IV. 359. 

, Albert, Due de, IV. 360. 

, Victor Frangois, Due de, marshal 

of France, IV. 359; ix. 590. 
BROILING, of meat, vi. 332. 
BROKEN HEART, The, Ford s tragedy, 

ix. 395. 
BROKER, intermediate agent, iv. 360; 

member of stock exchange, xxn. 557. 
, Nicolas, English sculptor, xxi. 



559- 

BROKERAGE, Calculation of, n. 536. 
BROMBERG, town, Prussia, iv. 360. 
BROME, Alexander, English poet, iv. 36 1 . 
, Richard, English dramatist, iv. 

36i. 
BROMIDES, in chemistry, iv. 361; of 

potassium, Xix. 592; of silver, xxn. 

72. 

BROMIDROSIS, skin disease, xxn. 120. 
BROMINE, chemical element, IV. 361; 

v. 490; as a poison, xix. 279. 
BROMITE, mineral, xvi. 384. 
BROMLEY, town, England, iv. 362; xiv. 

822. 
BROMSGROVE, town, England, iv. 362; 

xxiv. 666. 
BROMWICH, West, town, England, xxiv. 

506. 
BRONCHIAL TUBES, air-passages, xx. 

475- 

BRONCHITIS, disease, iv. 362. 

BRONCHOCELE (Goitre), disease, X. 739. 

BRONCHO-PNEUMONIA, disease, xix. 
250. 

BRONDSTED, Peter Oluf, Danish arch 
aeologist, iv. 364. 

BRONGNIART, Alexandre, French min 
eralogist, iv. 364; on reptiles, xx. 

434- 

BRONGNIARTINE, mineral, xvi. 400. 
BRONTE, town, Sicily, iv. 364. 

, Anne, English writer, iv. 366. 

, Charlotte, English novelist, IV. 



364- 



, Emily, English writer, IV. 366. 

BRONZE, alloy of copper and tin, iv. 366; 

composition of, VI. 351; early Greek 

casting of, II. 348; strength of, xxn. 

603; ancient weapons of, n. 553. 

, Manganese, XIII. 352. 
AGE, II. 122; existing remains of, 



n. 339- 

BRONZES, ancient, iv. 367; Etruscan, 
vni. 642. 

BRONZE-WORK, xvi. 71; Japanese, 
xin. 591; Sicyonian, xxn. 32; Vene 
tian, xxiv. 156. 

BRONZING, iv. 367. 

BRONZITE, mineral, xvi. 415. 



R B K U 



69 



BROOCH, ornamental pin, IV. 369. 
BROOKE, Frances, English novelist, IV. 

369- 
, Henry, English writer, IV. 369. 

-, Sir James, rajah of Sarawak, IV. 



369, 60; XXL 306. 
BROOKES, Joshua, English anatomist, iv. 

370. 
BROOK FARM ASSOCIATION, United 

States, xx. 567. 

BROOKITE, mineral, xvi. 387; xxm.4io. 
BROOKLYN, town, New York, U.S.A., 

iv. 370 ; xvn. 457 ; xxm. 822 ; 

libraries at, XI v. 5 50. 

BRIDGE, New York, xvn. 465. 

BROOKS, Charles Shirley, English writer, 

iv. 371. 

, Maria, American poetess, I. 731. 

BROOM, for sweeping, iv. 403. 
BROOME, William, English writer, iv. 372. 
BROOMRAPES, parasitic plants, xvm. 

265. 

BRORA, town, Scotland, xxn. 727. 
BRORSEN S COMETS (1846, 1847), vi. 

192, 193. 

BRORSON, Hans Adol, Danish hymn- 
writer, vii. 90. 
BROSCHI, Carlo (Farinelli, q.v.), Italian 

singer, IX. 34. 
BROSELY, town, England, iv. 372; xxi. 

848. 

BROSNA, river, Ireland, xiv. 87. 
BROSSES, Charles de, French writer, iv. 

372- 
BROTHERHOOD S STEAM ENGINE, xxn. 

514. 
BROTHER JONATHAN, origin of the 

epithet, VI. 289; xxin. 592. 
BROTHERS OF CHARITY, Italian monks, 

xvi. 712. 
BROTHERS OF THE SWORD, mediaeval 

order, Livonia, Xiv. 724; XXIII. 201. 
BROTHERYEELD (Brotherhood), Court 

of, Cinque Ports, England, v. 787. 
BROUGHAM, Lord, lord chancellor of 

England, iv. 373; on instinct in bees, 

in. 488. 
BROUGHTON, J. Cam Hobhouse, Lord, 

English statesman, IV. 381. 

, Hugh, English divine, IV. 381. 

, Thomas, English divine, IV. 381. 

BROUGHTY-FERRY, town, Scotland, vii. 

536. 
BROUKHUSIUS, Jan, Dutch scholar, iv. 

382. 
BROUSSA, town, Asiatic Turkey, IV. 382; 

ill. 793; province, xxm. 653. 
BROUSSAIS, Francois Joseph Victor, 

French physician, IV. 383; XV. 815. 
BROUSSONET, Pierre Marie Auguste, 

French naturalist, IV. 383. 
BROUWER, Adrian, Dutch painter, iv. 

383; xvm. 58; his influence on 

Teniers, xxm. 173. 
BROW-AGUE, disease, xvn. 364. 
BROWN, Charles Brockden, American 

novelist, IV. 383; I. 725. 



BROWN, Ford Madox, his influence on 
Eossetti, xx. 858. 
-, John, English divine (d. 1766), IV. 



384- 



-, John, of Haddington, Scottish 
divine (d. 1787), iv. 384. 
, John, Scottish physician (d. 1788), 
iv. 384; xv. 813. 
-, John, Scottish divine (d. 1858), iv. 



384- 
, John, American abolitionist (d. 

1859), iv. 385; XI. 490; xxn. 142; 

xxm. 772. 
, or Browne, Robert, founder of the 

Brownist sect, IV. 385; XII. 723. 
, Robert, Scottish botanist, IV. 385; 

on the classification of plants, iv. 8 1 ; 

vxri C-Q 

xvi. 030. 
-, Robert, his exploration of Green 



land, xix. 324. 
, Samuel, chemist, poet, and essayist, 
iv. 386. 
-, Thomas, English humorist, IV. 



387. 



, Thomas, Scottish psychologist, IV. 
387; on mental suggestion, II. 732. 

, Ulysses Maximilian, imperial 

general, IV. 388. 

, William Laurence, Scottish theo 
logian, iv. 388. 

COAL, or Lignite, V. 46 ; xvi. 
429. 

COLOURS, in dyeing, vii. 579. 
BROWNE, Charles Farrar (Artemus 

Ward), American humorist, IV. 389; I. 
727. 

, Felicia Dorothea (Mrs Hemans), 

English poetess, XL 643. 
-, Isaac Hawkins, English poet, iv. 



389- 



-, James, Scottish litterateur, iv. 



, Peter, bishop of Cork, theologian, 
iv. 389. 

, or Brown, Robert, English Inde 
pendent, iv. 385; xii. 723. 
-, Sir Thomas, English moralist, iv. 



389- 



, William, English pastoral poet, IV. 
390; XVIIL 347. 
, William George, English traveller, 



iv. 390. 

BROWNIES, goblins, n. 204. 
BROWNING, Elizabeth Barrett, English 

poetess, iv. 391. 

BROWNISTS, religious sect, iv. 392. 
BROWN PIGMENTS, xix. 88. 
BROWN-SEQUARD, C. E., on heredity in 

guinea-pigs, iv. 246. 
BROWN SPAR, mineral, xvi. 397. 
BROWN UNIVERSITY, Providence, 

U.S.A., xix. 884; xxm. 857. 
BRUCE, David, king of Scotland, xxi. 

489; captive in England, vni. 319. 
, Edward, brother of King Robert 

of Scotland, xx. 594; his wars in Ire 
land, xili. 260. 



BRUCE, James, African traveller, iv. 393; 
i. 64; x. 1 88. 

, Michael, Scottish poet, IV. 393; 

hymns by, XII. 593; his connexion 
with John Logan, xiv. 771. 

, Robert, lord of Annandale, Scottish 

baron, xxi. 486. 

, Robert (The Bruce), king of Scot 
land, xx. 592; xxi. 488; in relation 
to Edward I., Vlll. 313. 

, The, Barbour s poem, ill. 364. 

FAMILY, earls of Elgin, vm. 131. 



BRUCHID^E, family of insects, xxiv. 

477- 
BRUCHIUM LIBRARY, Alexandria, xiv. 

510. 

BRUCHSAL, town, Germany, iv. 394. 
BRUCIA, poisonous alkaloid, xvil. 687. . 
BRUCITE, mineral, xvi. 388. 
BRUCK, two towns, Austria, IV. 394. 
BRUCKE, E., his theory of binocular 

vision, XXII. 538. 
BRUCKENAU, town, Bavaria, iv. 394; 

mineral water of, XVI. 436. 
BRUCKER, James, German philosophical 

writer, IV. 394. 
BRUE, river, Somerset, England, xxn. 

257. 
BRUEYS, Peter de, French preacher, xiv. 

287. 
BRUGES, or Brugge, town, Belgium, iv. 

395; library of, Xiv. 549; newspapers, 

xvn. 430; tapestry of, XXIII. 212. 
BRUGSCH, Henri, on Egyptian history, 

vii. 728. 
BRUHL, Graf von, Saxon statesman, xxi. 

355- 
BRULEE ISLAND, river Yonne, France, 

weir at, XX. 574. 

BRUMAIRE 18-19, Revolution of (1799), 
ix. 612; XVIL 202. 

BRUMATH, or Brumpt, town, German 
Alsace, iv. 396. 

BRUN, town, Moravia, IV. 399. 

BRUN, Nordahl, Danish writer, vii. 91. 

, Rudolph, Swiss leader, xxn. 783. 

B RUNANBURGH, England, Battle of (937), 
vni. 285; xvn. 570; xxi. 479. 

BRUNCK, Richard Francois Philippe, 
French scholar, IV. 396. 

BRUNDISIUM, or Brundusium (Brindisi), 
ancient town, Italy, iv. 346. 

BRUNE, G. M. A., French marshal, in 
Switzerland, XXII. 793. 

BRUNEI, sultanate, Borneo, xxi. 123. 

BRUNEL, Isambard Kingdom, English 
engineer, IV. 396. 

, Sir Marc Isambard, engineer and 

architect, IV. 398. 

BRUNELLESCHI, Filippo, Italian archi 
tect, iv. 399; II. 436, 438. 

BRUNET, Jacques Charles, French biblio 
grapher, iv. 399. 

BRUNETTO LATINI, Florentine ency 
clopaedist, vm. 192; tutor of Dante, VI. 
809; his Tesoretto, Xili. 501. 

BRUNHILD, queen of Austrasia, ix. 530. 



70 



B II U B U D 



BRUNHILD, heroine in the Nibelungen- 

lied, XVII. 474. 
BRUNI, state, Borneo, vi. 59. 
, Leonardo, Italian scholar, IV. 

399- 
BRUNN, town, Moravia, iv. 399; xvi. 

811. 

BRUNNE, Robert of, English chronicler, 

xv. 494. 
BRUNNENBERG, mountain, Germany, 

xx. 552. 
BRUNNER S PROCESS, for producing 

potassium, xix. 590. 
BRUNNICH, Danish naturalist, on birds, 

XVIII. 9. 

BRUNO, St, founder of the Carthusians, 

iv. 400; I. 20; v. 163. 

(Pope Leo IX.), xiv. 449. 

, Giordano, Italian philosopher, IV. 

400; on evolution, vni. 758; his 

influence on Spinoza, XXII. 401. 
BRUNONIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE, 

xv. 813; iv. 384. 
BRUNSMANN, Johan, Norse hymn-writer, 

xvn. 589. 
BRUNSWICK, duchy, Germany, iv. 401; 

town, iv. 402. 

, town, Maine, U.S.A., IV. 403. 

GREEN, pigment, xix. 88. 

BRUNTON, Mrs Mary, Scottish novelist, 

iv. 403. 
BRUSHES, iv. 403; painters , xvui. 137, 

140. 

BRUSHITE, mineral, xvi. 404. 
BRUSH-MAKING, iv. 403. 
BRUSH-TURKEY, Australian bird, xv. 

827. 

BRUSSA, town, Asiatic Turkey, IV. 382. 
BRUSSELS, capital of Belgium, IV. 404; 

academies, in. 521; libraries, xiv. 

531; newspapers, xvn. 430; royal 

observatory, xvn. in, 521, 715; 

tapestry, xxin. 212; university, in. 

519; xxiii. 850. 

, Union of (1577), XII. 76. 

CARPETS, v. 130. 

LACE, xiv. 1 88. 

SPROUTS, vegetable, iv. 618; xn. 
279. 

BRUT, Layamon s Saxon chronicle, vni. 

408; xiv. 374. 

BRUTE, The, Barbour s poem, in. 364. 
BRUTON, town, England, iv. 406. 
BRUTS, The, early Welsh writings, v. 

3I5- 
BRUTTIANS, ancient Italian tribe, xin. 

445- 

BRUTUS, Roman family, iv. 406. 
, or Brute, fabulous king of Britain, 

iv. 407. 
-, Lucius Junius, first Roman consul, 



iv. 406; vi. 313. 

, Marcus Junius, assassin of Julius 

Csesar, iv. 407, 639. 
BRUX, town, Bohemia, IV. 407. 
BRUXELLES (Brussels, q.v.), capital of 

Belgium, iv. 404. 



BRUYERE, Jean de la, French moralist, 

xiv. 177; ix. 663. 

BRYANITES, Methodist sect, xvi. 192. 
BRYANSK, town, Russia, xvn. 826. 
BRYANT, Jacob, English writer, iv. 407; 

on mythology, xvn. 137. 
, William Cullen, American poet, I. 



732. 

BRYAXIS, Greek sculptor, iv. 407. 
BRYDGES, Sir Samuel Egerton, English 

writer, iv. 408. 
BRYHER, island, Scilly Isles, England, 

xxi. 465. 

BRYINE^E, class of mosses, xvn. 73. 
BRYNElCH(Bcrnicia), English kingdom, 

xvn. 568. 
BRYOPHYTA, group of plants, xxiv. 

128; in. 694. 

BRYOZOA, group of animals, xix. 429. 
BRZESC (Brest Litovsk), town, Russia, 

iv. 260. 

BRZEZANY, town, Austria, iv. 408. 
BUAL WINE, Madeira, xv. 1 78. 
BUBASTIS, Egyptian goddess, iv. 408. 
, ancient town, Egypt, iv. 408; vii. 

769; festival at, xix. 90. 
BUBBLE ACT (1719), vi. 221. 
BUBENBERG, Adrian von, Swiss states 
man, xxn. 787. 

BUBO, genus of birds, xvin. 90. 
BUBONIC PLAGUE, xix. 159. 
BUCCANEERS, piratical adventurers, iv. 

408; xix. 117. 

BUCCARI, town, Hungary, iv. 411. 
BUCCINA, Roman trumpet, xxin. 592. 
BUCCINO, town, Italy, IV. 411. 
BucciNUM, genus of molluscs, XVI. 649; 

xx. 417. 

BUCCO, genus of birds, XX. 101. 
BUCEPHALUS, Alexander s horse, I. 484. 
, Manger of, monument, Philippi, 



xvin. 746. 
BUCER, Martin, German Reformer, IV. 

411; xv. 73. 

BUCEROS, genus of birds, XII. 169. 
BUCK, Leopold von, German geologist, 

iv. 411. 

BUCHAN, district, Scotland, I. 43. 
, Alexander, on mean pressure of 

the atmosphere, in. 30. 
, David, Northern explorer, XIX. 

3i9- 
BUCHANAN, George, Scottish scholar, 

iv. 412; his Latinity, xiv. 342. 
, James, president, United States, 

iv. 413; xxin. 773. 
BUCHAREST, town, Roumania, iv. 414; 

xxi. 16; treaty of (1812), xxn. 590; 

xxin. 649. 
BUCHEZ, Philippe Joseph Benjamin, 

French writer, IV. 414. 
BUCHOLZITE, mineral, xvi. 408. 
BUCHU LEAVES, drug, iv. 415. 
BUCKEBURG, town, Germany, iv. 415; 

xiv. 683. 

BUCKETS, Use of, in mining, xvi. 456. 
BUCKETT STEAM ENGINE, xxn. 523. 



BUCKEYE, tree, xn. 206. 

BUCKHURST, Lord, first carl of Dorset, 
vn. 372. 

BUCKINGHAM, county, England, iv. 
415; population and representation, 
xxin. 727; town, iv. 416. 

, George Villiers, first duke of, IV. 

417; vni. 345; Bacon s connexion 
with, ill. 206. 

, George Villiers, second duke of, 

iv. 419. 

, William Alfred, governor of Con 
necticut, U.S.A., xxin. 788. 
PALACE, London, xiv. 838. 

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, John Sheffield, 
duke of, iv. 419. 

BUCKLAND, William, dean of West 
minster, geologist, IV. 420; his investi 
gation of bone-caves, V. 267. 

BUCKLE, Henry Thomas, English his 
torian, iv. 421; as chess-player, v. 
602. 

BUCKLEY, Samuel, founder of first 
London daily newspaper, xvn. 415. 

BUCKRAM, a rich woven cloth, xxin. 
210. 

BUCKS (Buckingham), county, England, 
IV. 41 5; population and representation, 
xxin. 727. 

BUCKWHEAT, edible plant, iv. 423. 

BUCSESD, mountain, Hungary, xn. 361. 

BUDA, town, Hungary, IV. 423. See also 
Budapest. 

BUDyEUS, Gulielmus, French writer, iv. 
424; XX. 194. 

BUDAN, French algebraist, I. 516. 

BUDANTSAR, mythic ancestor of the 
Mongols, xvi. 740. 

BUDAPEST, capital of Hungary, xvin. 
691; libraries, xiv. 547; observatory, 
xvn. 713; university, xxin. 852. 

BUDAUN, district, India, iv. 424. 

BUDD^EUS, John Francis, Lutheran 
divine, IV. 424. 

BUDDAI, Australian god, in. 113. 

BUDDHA (Siddhartha Gautama), founder 
of Buddhism, in. 375; iv. 426; his 
relations to Brahmauism, IV 209 ; 
footprint of, I. 140; pilgrimages con 
nected with, xix. 92 ; colossal statue 
of, in Japan, XVI I. 229. 

BUDDHAGHOSHA S PARABLES, vm. 837. 

BUDDHISM, Asiatic religion, iv. 424; 11. 
698; xx. 360; its influence on caste, 
v. 190 ; Lamaism a corruption of, 
xiv. 226; sacred language of (Pali), 
xvin. 183; in relation to Manichteism, 
XV. 485 ; its pessimistic character, XVIII. 
685; in Biirmali, iv. 556; in Ceylon, v. 
367; in China, V. 671; in India, XII. 
784; in Japan, XIII. 581; among the 
Mongols, xvi. 744; in Persia, xvin. 
606; in Siam, XXI. 853; in Tibet, XXIII. 
344; in Turkestan, xxin. 639. 

BUDDHIST FESTIVALS, ix. 117. 

BUDDHIST IDOLS, of Bamian, in. 307. 

BUDDHIST TEMPLES, Java, xin. 609. 



B U D B U N 



71 



BUDDING, propagation of plants by, XII. 

237; xx. 423. 

BUDDLE, mining apparatus, XVI. 465. 
BUDE, Guillaume (BucUeus), French 

writer, IV. 424; XX. 194. 
BUDGELL, Eustace, English writer, iv. 

433. 
BUDGET, financial statement, iv. 439; 

xviii. 313. 

, Water, in heraldry, XI. 704. 

BUDINI, nomadic race, eastern Europe, 

xxi. 575. 

BUDJAK STEPPES, Bessarabia, in. 615. 
BUDRUN, town, Asia Minor, XI. 384. 
BUDS, in plants, iv. 96; propagation by, 

xii. 237. 

BUDWEIS, town, Bohemia, iv. 439. 
BUEE, Adrian Q., his anticipation of 

quaternions, XX. 161. 
BUENA VISTA, Mexico, Battle of (1847), 

xxni. 767. 
BUENOS AYRES, province and town, 

Argentine Republic, IV. 439, 440; 

libraries in, XIV. 551. 
BUFF, Lotte, friend of Goethe, x. 725. 
BUFFALO, genus of ruminant mammals, 

iv. 442; xv. 432; of India, xii. 742; 

skins of, IX. 838. 
, town, New York, U.S.A., IV. 443; 

xvn. 457; xxi. 179; xxm. 822. 
BUFFIER, Claude, French philosophical 

writer, iv. 443. 
BUFFON, George Louis Leclerc, Comte de, 

French naturalist, IV. 444; ix. 671; 

on birds, xviii. 6; on germs, vin. 745; 

influence of his writings, IX. 593. 
BUFFOONS, ix. 366. 
BUFO, genus of Amphibia, XXIII. 423. 
BUG, insect, iv. 445; XI. 646; Xlll. 153. 

, river, Russia, xix. 254, 307. 

BIBLE, vm. 387. 

BUGEAUD, Thomas R., governor of 

Algeria, I. 568. 

BUGENHAGEN, Johann, German Re 
former, IV. 445. 

BUGINESE LANGUAGE AND LITERA 
TURE, Celebes, v. 288. 
BUGIS, people, in Celebes, iv. 32; in 

Malacca, xv. 323. 
BUGLE-HORN, musical instrument, xvn. 

778. 
BUGULMA, town, Russia, iv. 446; xxi. 

243- 
BUGURUSLAN, town, Russia, IV. 446; 

xxi. 243. 
BUHLE, Johann Gottlieb, German scholar, 

iv. 446. 

BUHL- WORK, iv. 446; xin. 81. 
BUILDING, iv. 447 (index, 513); n. 382; 

materials and construction in ancient 

Rome, xx. 808; in ancient Venice, 

xxiv. 149. 

SOCIETIES, iv. 513. 
BUILDINGS OF JUSTINIAN, Procopius s 

treatise, xix. 791. 
BUILDWAS ABBEY, Shropshire, England, 

xxi. 848. 



BUINSK, town, Russia, XXII. 77. 
BUITENZORG, town, Java, iv. 514; xin. 

606. 

BUJALANCE, town, Spain, IV 515. 
BujNURD, town, Persia, xviii. 627. 
BUKA, island, Solomon Islands, Pacific, 

xxn. 252. 
BUKAA, valley, Lebanon, Syria, XIV. 

393- 

BUKA LEAVES (Buchu), drug, iv. 415. 
BUKEREBE, lake island, Central Africa, 

xvn. 504. 
BUKHARA (Bokhara, q.v.), country and 

town, Central Asia, iv. i. 
BUKHOREST (Bucharest, q.v.), town, 

Roumania, iv. 414. 
BUKINDO, village, Central Africa, xvn. 

504. 
BUKIT BARISAN, mountains, Sumatra, 

xxii. 638. 

BUKKEN FJORD, Norway, xvn. 576. 
BUKOWINA, duchy, Austria, iv. 515. 
BULACAN, town, Luzon, Philippine 

Islands, iv. 515. 
BULAK (Boolak), town, Egypt, vii. 769; 

museum at, xv. 543. 
BULANDSHAHR, district, India, IV. 515. 
BULANES, ancient European people, 

xix. 285. 
BULANKUL, lake, Central Asia, xviii. 

103. 
BULARCHUS, Greek mural painter, xvn. 

41. 

BULBILS, of plants, iv. 99; xx. 423. 
BULBS, of plants, iv. 99; xx. 423. 
BULDUR, lake, Asia Minor, n. 709. 
BULGARELLI, Marianna, patroness of 

Metastasio, xvi. 104. 
BULGARI, religious sect, xviii. 434. 
BULGARIA, province of European 

Turkey, iv. 516; as autonomous prin 
cipality, xxni. 652. 
, Church of (Greek), XI. 158; United 

Bulgarians (Church of Rome), XX. 631. 
BULGARIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERA 
TURE, xxii. 149; dictionaries of 

language, vn. 188. 
BULGARIANS, subdivision of Slavs, xxn. 

145, 147; their wars with theGreeks, XI. 

115; their relation to the Huns, xii. 

382. 
BULGARIN, Thaddaus, Russian writer, 

iv. 517. 
BULGARINUS, jurist of I5th century, IV. 

517. 

BULGARO-VLACH EMPIRE, XXIV. 269. 

BULGARUS, Italian jurist, iv. 517. 

B u LG HAR- D AG H, mountains, Asia Minor , 

n. 705. 

BULKHEADS, in ships, xxi. 815. 
BULL, papal letter, iv. 519; xxi. 589; 

, Brazen, of Phalaris, xviii. 730. 

, Sacred (Apis), n. 173; v. 244. 

, George, bishop of St David s, iv. 

Si?- 

, John, English composer and organ 
ist, iv. 517. 



BULL, Stephen, English sea-captain, xxi. 

496. 
BULLA, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 655. 

, ornament and seal, IV. 518; xxi. 

589. 
AUREA, important charter, x. 

757- 
BULL ACCOUNT, stock exchange term, 

1.92. 

BULL DOG, vn. 330. 
BULLEN (Boleyn, q.v.\ Anne, wife of 

Henry VIII. of England, iv. 4. 
BULLERS OF BUCHAN, Scotland, I. 44. 
BULLFINCH, bird, iv. 518; ix. 192. 
BULL FROG, ix. 796; heart of, i. 764. 
BULL-HEAD, fish, xii. 690; xxn. 68. 
BULLINGER, Heinrich, Swiss Reformer, 

iv. 518; his relation to Socinus, xxii. 

228. 

BULLION, iv. 518. 
BULLOM, country, Sierra Leone, West 

Africa, xxii. 44. 
BULL RUN, U.S.A., Battles of (1861, 

1862), xxm. 775, 777. 
BULL STEAM-ENGINE, xxn. 476; xxiv. 

414. 

BULL-TERRIER, dog, vn. 331. 
BULL-TROUT, fish, xxi. 222. 
BULOW, Friedrich Wilhelm, Prussian 

general, IV. 520. 
BULOW S OBSERVATORY, Bothkamp, 

Germany, xvn. 712. 
BULOZ, Frangois, French litterateur, 

xvin. 540. 

BULRUSH, plant, xx. 319; xxi. 62. 
BULSAR, town, India, xxii. 667. 
BULWER, Sir Henry, Lord Bailing, VI. 

780. 

, John, on teaching deaf-mutes, 

vn. 6. 

BULWER-CLAYTON TREATY, VI. 782. 

BULWER LYTTON, E. G. F. L. (Lord 

Lytton), English novelist, xv. 121. 
BUMBIREH, lake island, Central Africa, 

xvn. 504, 
BUMPOOR (Bampur), town, Persia, 

xvin. 627. 
BUNARBASHI, Turkey in Asia, reputed 

site of Troy, XXIII. 580. 
BUNDARRA (Bhandara), district and 

town, India, in. 627. 
BUNDELAS, tribe, India, IV. 521. 
BUNDELKHAND, orBundelcund, district, 

India, iv. 520. 
BUNDESRATH, German federal council, 

x. 463- 
BUNDI, Rajput state, India, iv. 521; xx. 

260. 

BUNGARUS, genus of snakes, xxn. 196. 
BUNKER HILL, U.S.A., Battle of (1775), 

iv. 521; xv. 616; xxni. 741. 
BUNNOO (Bannu), district, India, xx. 

109. 

BUNODONTA, group of ungulate mam 
mals, xv. 430. 
BUNOTHERIA, group of fossil mammals, 

xv. 442. 



72 



B U N B U R 



BUNSEN, Christian Charles Josias, 

Baron von, IV. 521. 
BUNSENITE, mineral, XVI. 385. 
BUNTING, bird, iv. 525; xvn. 534. 

, Jabez, Wesleyan divine, IV. 526. 

BUNYAN, John, Puritan divine, IV. 526; 

his place in English literature, VIII. 

424. 
BUNZLAU, town, Bohemia, iv. 530. 

, town, Prussia, iv. 530. 

BUOCHSERSEE, part of the Lake of 

Lucerne, Switzerland, xv. 41. 
BUONAFEDE, Appiano, Italian philo 
sophical writer, IV. 530. 
BUONAPARTE (BONAPARTE) FAMILY, 

iv. 27; xvn. 192. 
BUONARROTI, Michelangelo, Italian 

painter and sculptor, xvi. 229; XXI. 

435. 569- 
BUONCOMPAGNO, Ugo (Pope Gregory 

XIII.), xi. 178. 
BUONONCINI, Giovanni Battista, Italian 

musical composer, XI. 435; XVII. 92. 
BUONVICINI, Domeiiico, disciple of 

Savonarola, xxi. 337. 
BUOY, floating signal, IV. 530; illu 
minated, xiv. 626. 

, Life, xiv. 573. 
BUOYANCY, Centre of, in ships, xxi. 

812. 

BUPALUS, Greek sculptor, iv. 531. 
BUPHONIA, Greek religious festival, iv. 

531- 
BURAECH (Bharaich), district and town, 

India, in. 628; xvm. 72. 
BUR^EUS, Johannes, Swedish scholar, 

xxu. 754. 
BURBAGE, James, theatre manager, xxi. 

760; xxni. 224. 

, Richard, actor, XXI. 761. 

BURCARDUS, Joannes, his diary, I. 

490. 
BURCKHARDT, John Ludwig, Swiss 

traveller, iv. 531. 
BURCKHARDT S COMET, vi. 191. 
BURDEANA, Jacob (Baradaeus), Syriac 

writer, vi. 354; xill. 539; xxil. 833. 
BURDEKIN, river, Queensland, XX. 

171. 
BURDER, George, author of Village 

Sermons, IV. 531. 

BURDETT, Sir Francis, English poli 
tician, iv. 532. 
BURDIGALA (Bordeaux), ancient town, 

France, IV. 52. 
BURDOCK, plant, xxm. 307. 
BURDWAN (Bardwan), district and town, 

India, ill. 371. 

BURE, state, Senegambia, xxi. 663. 
BURG, town, Prussia, iv. 532. 
BURGAGE, form of tenure, iv. 532. 
BURGAS, department, Roumelia, XXI. 

22. 
, Las, mineral springs, Spain, xvn. 

827. 
BURGDORF, town, Switzerland, IV. 532; 

Froebel s schools at, IX. 793. 



BURGER, Gottfried August, German 
poet, IV. 532; X. 540; Scott s transla 
tions from, xxi. 546. 

BURGERSDYK, Francis, Dutch logician, 
iv. 533- 

BURGESS, possessor of borough rights, 
iv. 62; xvn. 27. 

, Daniel, English Dissenting divine, 

iv. 533- 

, Thomas, bishop of Salisbury, iv. 

534- 

BURGH, in Scotland, IV. 63; xvn. 30. 

BURGHAZ (Bourgas), town, Turkey, iv. 
176. 

BURGH CASTLE, Suffolk, England, 
Roman remains at, xxn. 622. 

BURGHEAD, town, Scotland, vm. 130. 

BURGHERS, Scottish religious denomin 
ation, vm. 528 ; x. 572 ; xv. 132 ; 
xxni. 728. 

BURGHLEY, Lord (William Cecil), min 
ister of Queen Elizabeth, v. 283. 

HOUSE, Northampton, England, 



xvii. 557. 
BURGKMAIR, Hans, German engraver, 

iv. 534- 

BURGLARY, crime, iv. 534. 
BURGO, Lucas de, algebraist, I. 512. 
BURGONET, helmet, xi. 637. 
BURGOS, province, Spain, xxil. 298. 
-> , town, Spain, IV. 534; sculptures 

in cathedral, xxi. 567. 
BURGOYNE, John, British general, iv. 

535; xxni. 744. 
, Sir John Fox, British field-marshal, 

iv. 535- 

BURGUNDIANS, party, in France, IX. 
548; xvm. 290. 

BURGUNDIO, Italian jurist, IV. 535. 

BURGUNDIONUM LEX, ancient law code, 
xxi. 215. 

BURGUNDY, duchy and province, 
France, IV. 535; under Charles the 
Bold, v. 424; its connexion with Hol 
land, XII. 73; war with Switzerland, 
xxn. 786. 

, House of, IX. 548; its connexion 
with the Capet family, v. 55. 
- PITCH, ix. 223, 711. 

WINE, xxiv. 606. 

BURHANPUR, town, India, iv. 536; 
xvn. 509. 

BURIAL, iv. 537; ix. 824; in church 
yards and cemeteries, v. 329; regis 
tration of, xx. 343. 

ACTS, IV. 537; as affecting Noncon 
formists, xvii. 533; parishes formed 
by them in England, xvm. 296. 

CUSTOMS, ix. 824; mummy-mak 
ing, xvii. 20; Phoenician, xvm. 810; 
Tibetan, xxm. 344. 

OF SIR JOHN MOORE, Wolfe s 

poem, xxiv. 630. 

VAULTS, ancient, v. 206. 



BURIAS, island, Philippines, xvm. 752. 
BURIATS, Mongolian race, iv. 538; xvi. 
750; xxm. 510. 



BURIDAN, Jean, French philosopher, iv. 
538. 

BURIN, for engraving, vm. 439. 

BURKE, Edmund, British statesman 
and writer, iv. 538; vm. 357; on the 
beautiful, I. 223; on chivalry, xiv. 
126; on Junius, xill. 775; his place in 
English literature, vm. 433. 
, Richard, son of Edmund Burke, 
iv. 549. 

, Robert O Hara, Australian ex 
plorer, iv. 550; in. 1 06. 

BURKHARDT, George (Spalatin), German 
humanist and Reformer, xxn. 365. 

BURLAMAQUI, Jean Jacques, Swiss 
philosopher, IV. 550. 

BURLEIGH, Lord (William Cecil), min 
ister of Queen Elizabeth, v. 283. 

BURLESQUE, kind of comedy, vii. 437. 

BURLINGTON (Bridlington), town, Eng 
land, iv. 342. 

, town, Iowa, U.S.A., iv. 551. 

, town, New Jersey, U.S.A., iv. 

550. 



-, town, Vermont, U.S.A., iv. 550; 
xxiv. 167, 1 68. 
-, First Earl of (Richard Boyle), iv. 



184. 



, Third Earl of, his architectural 

works, II. 444. 
BURMAH, empire, Asia, IV. 551; Shan 

states connected with, xxi. 773; birds 

of, m. 761; ruby mines, xxi. 48; 

weights and measures, xxiv. 490. 
, British, iv. 560; xu. 734, 806, 



BURMANN, Pieter, Dutch scholar, iv. 

562. 
BURMEISTER, Hermann C. C., on birds, 

xvm. 26, 27. 
BURMESE, race, iv. 552; their language 

and literature, IV. 555. 
BURN, Dr Richard, on the poor laws, 

XIX. 470. 

BURNER, for lamps, xiv. 245. 
BURNES, Sir Alexander, traveller, 

Central Asia, iv. 562; his visit to 

Cabul, I. 240. 

BURNET, forage plant, I. 378. 
, Gilbert, bishop of Salisbury, his 
torian, IV. 562; his estimate of Leigh- 
ton, xiv. 428. 

, Thomas, English writer, iv. 564. 

BURNETT, James (Lord Monboddo), 

Scottish philosopher, xvi. 719. 
BURNETT-SALMON, Australian fish, 

xu. 686. 
BURNEY, Charles, English writer on 

music, IV. 564; on the organ, xvn. 

837; on the pianoforte, XIX. 73. 
, Charles, English scholar, iv. 

565. 
, Frances (Madame D Arblay), 

English authoress, VI. 821. 
BURNING-GLASSES, Invention of, n. 

103. 
BURNLEY, town, England, iv. 565. 



B U R B Y E 



73 



BURNOUF, Eugene, French Orientalist, 

iv. 566. 
, Jean Louis, French scholar, IV. 

566. 

BURNS, in surgery, xxn. 68 1. 
, Robert, Scottish poet, IV. 566; his 

place in English literature, vill. 429. 
BURNSIDE, Ambrose Everett, American 

general, xxill. 777, 788. 
BURNT CLAY, as manure, i. 351. 
BURNTISLAND, town, Scotland, iv. 571. 
BURNT UMBER, pigment, xix. 88. 
BURR, Aaron, vice-president of United 

States, xxui. 756, 758, 788; his duel 

with Hamilton, XI. 413. 
BURRA, East and West, islands, Shetland, 

Scotland, xvn. 846. 
BURRA-BURRA, town and copper mine, 

South Australia, in. 109; xxn. 284. 
BURRA Y, island, Orkney, Scotland, xvn. 

846. 

BUR-REED, plant, xx. 319. 
BURRHEL, Nepalese sheep, xxi. 785. 
BURRING, in wool manufacture, xxiv. 

657- 
BURRISAL (Barisal), town, India, in. 

248. 
BURRIUM, Roman station, Monmouth, 

England, xvi. 754. 
BURRO, mountain, Utah, U.S.A., XXIV. 

19. 
BURROUGH, Edward, English Quaker, 

xx. 147. 
, Stephen, Arctic explorer, xix. 

3i6. 

BURROW-DUCK, bird, XXI. 788. 
BURRUS, Afranius, general of Nero, 

xvn. 348. 

BURSEE (Barsi), town, India, xxi. 832. 
BURSLEM, town, England, IV. 571 ; xxil. 

442. 
BURTON, or Burton-on-Trent, town, 

England, iv. 571, 265; XXII. 442. 
, Sir Richard F., his African explor 
ations, I. 247; x. 194; xxn. 390. 
, Robert, English moralist, IV. 571; 

on tobacco, xxui. 427. 
BURTON-ON-TRENT, town, England, iv. 

571; XXIL 442; its breweries, iv. 

265. 

BURTSCHEID, town, Prussia, iv. 572. 
BURU, island, Indian Archipelago, iv. 

572. 
BURUT (Buriats, q.v.), Mongolian tribes, 

xiv. 94. 

BURY, town, England, IV. 573. 
ST EDMUNDS, town, England, iv. 

573; XXIL 622. 
BUSBECQ, Augier Ghislen de, Flemish 

traveller, iv. 574. 

BUSBY, Richard, headmaster of West 
minster School, IV. 574. 
BUSCA, town, Italy, iv. 574. 
BUSCHING, Anton Friedrich, German 

geographer, iv. 574. 
BUSHAHR (Bushire), town, Persia, IV. 

574! xvni. 628. 



BUSH-HAWK, bird, xiv. 54. 

BUSHIRE, or Bushahr, town, Persia, 
iv. 574; xviii. 628. 

BUSHMEN, African race, iv. 575 ; I. 
264. 

BUSHNELL, Horace, American theo 
logian, iv. 576. 

BUSIRIS, mythical Egyptian king, IV. 
576; xix. 559. 

, ancient town, Egypt, IV. 576. 

BUSSA, town, on Niger, Africa, xvil. 

497- 
BUSSAHEER (Bassahir), state, India, 

ill. 424. 
BUSSORAH, or Basra, town, Asiatic 

Turkey, IV. 577; vill. 671; xvi. 562, 

590, 592; gum of, XI. 276. 
BUSSY-RABUTIN, Comte de, French 

author, xx. 202; his relations with 

Madame de Sevigne, xxi. 704. 
BUSTAMITE, mineral, xvi. 417. 
BUSTAR (Bastar), state, India, ill. 425. 
BUSTARD, bird, iv. 578. 
BUSTO ARSIZIO, town, Italy, iv. 579. 
BUSUANGA, island, Philippines, xvni. 

752. 
BUTADES, Greek potter, IV. 579; n. 

347- 

BUTANE, in chemistry, v. 557; xvm. 
238. 

BUTCHER-BIRD, IV. 579; XXI. 845. 

BUTE, county, Scotland, iv. 579; area 
and population, xxi. 528; representa 
tion, xxm. 727. 

, Earl of (John Stuart), English 
statesman, iv. 581; vm. 357. 

BUTEA KINO, drug, xiv. 91. 

BUTI, Lucrezia, reputed mistress of 
Lippi, xiv. 684. 

BuTILIN, leader of the Alemanni, xvil. 

233- 

BUTLER, Alban, author of Lives of the 
Saints, IV. 582. 

, Charles, English writer, IV. 582. 
, James, first earl of Ormonde, xm. 
260. 



, James, twelfth earl (first duke) of 
Ormonde, xvil. 854. 
-, Joseph, bishop of Durham, IV. 



582; his Analogy of Religion, I. 792; 

II. 192; his ethical system, vm. 600; 

on scepticism, xxi. 384; his place in 

English literature, vm. 431. 
, Samuel, author of Hudibras, IV. 

588; as satirist, xxi. 319; his place in 

English literature, vill. 424. 
, William Archer, Irish philoso 
phical writer, IV. 590. 
BUTO, Egyptian goddess, IV. 590. 
BUTRINTO, town, Albania, IV. 590. 
BUTSCHETJE, or Butshetsh, mountain, 

Transylvania, v. 127; xxui. 521. 
BUTTAUF, plain, Palestine, xvm. 171. 
BUTTE, town, Montana, U.S.A., xvi. 

774- 
BUTTE-AUX-CAILLES, heights, Paris, 

xvm. 274. 



BUTTER, iv. 590; vi. 770; xvi. 304; 
adulteration of, I. 171; Cork trade in, 
vi. 406; imitation, XVII. 760. 
-, Nathaniel, publisher of early 



English newspaper, xvil. 413. 
BUTTERCUP, plant, xx. 272. 
BUTTERFLIES, group of insects, iv. 592; 

xm. 151; mimicry in, xvi. 343. 
BUTTERINE, substitute for butter, iv. 

592. 

BUTTERMILK, xvi. 304. 
BUTTER NUT, xvn. 664. 
BUTTERWORT, insectivorous plant, xm. 

137- 

BUTTERWORTH, town, Straits Settle 
ments, XXIL 587. 

BUTTES-CHAUMONT, heights, Paris, 
xviii. 274. 

BUTTMANN, Philipp Karl, German 
philologist, IV. 598. 

BUTTON, and button making, IV. 598. 
, Sir Thomas, Arctic explorer, xix. 

317- 

BUTTRESS, in architecture, n. 461. 

BUTURLINOVKA, town, Russia, xxiv. 
298. 

BUXAR (Baxar), town, India, in. 454. 

BUXTEHUDE, Dietrich, musician, xvn. 
90. 

BUXTON, town, England, iv. 600; mine 
ral water of, xvi. 433. 
, Jedidiah, arithmetical prodigy, iv. 
601. 

, Sir Thomas Fowell, English phil 
anthropist, IV. 60 1 ; slavery abolitionist, 

XXII. 141. 

BUXTORF, John (d. 1629), German 

Hebraist, iv. 601; XI. 601. 

, John (d. 1664), Hebraist, IV. 602. 
BUYANTU KHAN, Mongol ruler, xvi. 

742. 

BUYER, his legal position, XXI. 206. 
BUYS-BALLOT S LAW, of the winds, in. 

29; xvi. 147. 
BUZGHOL-KHANA, pass, Central Asia, 

xii. 3. 

BUZUTUK, town, Russia, xxi. 243. 
BUZZARD, bird, iv. 603; moor-buzzard, 

XL 491. 

BYBLIS, insectivorous plant, xm. 137. 
BYBLUS (Papyrus), Egyptian plant, vn. 

711. 

, town, Phoenicia, XIII. 613; XVIII. 

804. 

BYELAYA, river, Russia, xxiv. 279. 
BYELEFF, or Bieleff, town, Russia, in. 

667; xxm. 605. 
BYELO-OZERO, lake, Russia, xvn. 

606. 

BYELOVYESH PUSHCHA, forest, Lithu 
ania, xiv. 701. 

BYELOZERSK, town, Russia, xvn. 607. 
BYELYI, town, Russia, xxn. 183. 
BYERLY TURK, progenitor of race 
horses, xii. 182, 184. 
BYEZHETSK, or Biezhetz, town, Russia, 

in. 668; xxm. 672. 

XXV. 10 



74 



B Y L C A E 



BYLLINGE, Edward, American Quaker, 
xx. 152. 

BYNG, George, Viscount Torrington, 
admiral, iv. 603. 

, Jolm, British admiral, IV. 604; IX. 

588. 

BYNKERSHOEK, Cornelius van, Dutch 
jurist, iv. 604. 

BYRD, William, English musical com 
poser, xvn. 85; xxin. 34. 

BYRGIUS, Justus, logarithmist, xiv. 775. 

BYRICHRITE, mineral, xvi. 391. 

BYRNE, Nicholas, English journalist, 
xvn. 417. 

BYROM, John, English poet, iv. 604; his 
hymns, xn. 594; his system of short 
hand, XXI. 837. 

BYRON, Lord, English poet, iv. 604; his 
influence on the drama, vn. 438; as 
satirist, XXI. 320; his relations with 
Shelley, xxi. 791 ; his place in English 
literature, vill. 433. 

, John, British admiral, iv. 612; x. 

189. 

BYRSA, citadel of Carthage, v. 162. 

BYSSOLITE, mineral, xvi. 417. 

BYSTROM, Johann Nicolaus, Swedish 
sculptor, iv. 612; xxi. 570. 

BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE, n. 422; at 
Venice, xxiv. 148. 

BYZANTINE EMPIRE, xi. 106, 114. 

BYZANTINE GLASS-MAKING, x. 650. 

BYZANTINE HISTORIANS, iv. 612. 

BYZANTINE LITERATURE, XL 145. 

BYZANTINE PAINTING, xvn. 43. 

BYZANTINE SCULPTURE, xxi. 556. 

BYZANTIUM (Constantinople), ancient 
Greek city, iv. 615; coins of, xvn. 
654; libraries, xiv. 512. 



Cthe third letter of the alphabet, IV. 
> 616. 
CAABA (Kaba, q. v.\ sacred stone, Mecca, 

xv. 672. 

CAB, hackney carriage, v. 136. 
CABAGAN, town, Luzon, Philippine 

Islands, iv. 616. 
CABAL, advisers of Charles II., iv. 619; 

XV. 308 ; the name an acrostic, I. 121. 
CABALE UND LIE BE, Schiller s play, 

xxi. 396. 
CABALLERIAS, Spanish romances, xxn. 

355- 
CABALLERO, Fernan (Cecilia Bohl von 

Faber), Spanish novelist, vin. 833; 

xxn. 362. 
CABALLOS, Puerto, town, Honduras, xn. 

130. 

CABANIS, Jean, on birds, xvni. 29. 
, Pierre Jean George, French physio 
logist, iv. 616; ix. 673; xxin. 497. 
CABARRUS, Francois, Spanish financier, 

iv. 617. 

CABASSOU, kind of armadillo, xv. 387. 
CABATUAN, town, Philippine Islands, 

iv. 617. 



CABAZERA, town, Philippine Islands, iv. 

617. 
CABBAGE, vegetable, iv. 617; xn. 280; 

culture of, I. 369; Kergueleu, xiv. 49. 
CABBALA, or Kabbalah, Jewish theo- 

sophy, XIII. 810; XX. 490; its relation 

to alchemy, I. 461. 
CABENDA, or Kabinda, town, West 

Africa, iv. 618; xiv. 743. 
CABET, Etienne, French communist, iv. 

618. 
CABEZA DEL BUEY, town, Spain, iv. 

618. 
CABEZA DE VACA, Nunez Alvaro, 

Spanish explorer, xvn. 662. 
CABIADIS, Dr, his observations on the 

plague, xix. 159. 
CABINDA, town, West Africa, iv. 618; 

xiv. 743. 
CABINET, The British, iv. 618; vin. 

260; xvi. 472. 

, in United States, xxin. 750. 

GOVERNMENT, XL 13; beginning 



of, in England, vni. 352. 
CABINETMAKING, iv. 499. 
CABINETS, furniture, ix. 850. 
CABIRA, town, Asia Minor, xix. 459. 
CABIRI, in mythology, iv. 620; XL 679; 

xvill. 803; mysteries of the, xxi. 

250. 
CABLE, for ship, iv. 621; xxi. 597; as 

kind of rope, XX. 843. 
-, Submarine telegraphic, XXIII. 114. 



CABLE-HOLDER, v. 78. 
CABLE TRAMWAYS, xxin. 508. 
CABOCHE, Jean, mob-leader in Paris, 

(1412-18), xviii. 290. 
CABOCHIANS, party in Paris, ix. -549; 

xvni. 290. 
CABO CORSO (Cape Coast Castle), town, 

West Africa, v. 41. 

CABOT, John, navigator, IV. 622; x. 183. 
, Sebastian, English navigator, iv. 

622; x. 183; xix. 316; his discoveries 

in South America, II. 489. 
CABRA, town, Spain, iv. 623. 
CABRAL, Pedro Alvarez, Portuguese 

navigator, x. 181; his landing in 

Brazil, iv. 228. 
CABRERA, one of the Balearic Islands, 

in. 278. 

, or Caprera, island, Italy, v. 77. 
CABUL, town and province, Afghanistan, 

IV. 623; river, I. 228. 
CABURET, issue of Indian and Negress, 

xvn. 319. 

CACAO (Cocoa), tree and fruit, vi. 100. 
CACCABIS, genus of birds, xvni. 333. 
CACCIA DEL FALCONE, Lorenzo del 

Medici s work, XV. 786. 
CACCIANIMICI, Gherardo de (Pope 

Lucius II.), xv. 48. 
CACCINI, Giulio, Italian musician, xvn. 

86. 
CACERES, province, Spain, vin. 564; 

xxn. 298. 
, town, Spain, IV. 624. 



CACHALOT, sperm whale, xv. 396; xxiv. 

525- 

CACHAO, town, Anam, iv. 624. 
CACHEO, or Cachao, town, West Africa, 

iv. 624. 
CACHEXIA, disease, xv. 317; xvni. 270, 

395- 

CACHOEIRA, town, Brazil, iv. 624. 
CACONGO, or Kakongo, kingdom, 

West Africa, iv. 625; xiv. 742. 
CACOXENE, mineral, xvi. 405. 
CACTUS, group of plants, iv. 625; in 

United States, xxin. 810; culture of, 

XII. 265. 
CAD AH ALSO, Jose de, Spanish poet, IV. 

626. 

CADDIS-FLIES, insects, xin. 151. 
CADDOS, American-Indian tribe, xn. 

832. 
CADE, Jack, Insurrection in England 

under (1450), vin. 327; xi. 661; xin. 

261; xxn. 725. 

CADENCY, in heraldry, XI. 704. 
CADER IDRIS, mountain, Wales, xvi. 

38. 
CADI, Moslem judge, xvi. 591; xxn. 

664. 

CADIZ, province, Spain, xxn. 298. 
, town, Spain, iv. 626; observatory 

at, xvn. 713. 
CADMEA, citadel, Thebes, Greece, xxin. 

229. 
CADMIUM, chemical element, iv. 628; 

v. 526. 
CADMUS, in Greek legend, iv. 629; xi. 

480; traditional inventor of the 

alphabet, xv in. 806. 

, Mount, Asia Minor, II. 706. 

CADOLOUS (Honorius II., antipope), 

XIX. 498. 
CADOOR (Kadur), district, India, xin. 

815- 
CADORE, Tiziano Vicellio da (Titian), 

Italian painter, xxin. 413. 
CADOUDAL, Georges, French royalist, v. 

687. 
CADUCEUS, Greek symbol of herald s 

office, iv. 629. 
CADUSIANS, Persian expedition against 

them, XVIII. 578. 
CADZOW CASTLE, Lanark, Scotland, xi. 

411. 
CADZOW FOREST, Scotland, Wild cattle 

of, v. 245. 

CJECILIJE, order of Amphibia, I. 751 . 
C/ECILIAN, bishop of Carthage, vn. 

359- 
C/EDMON, Anglo-Saxon poet, iv. 629; 

vin. 280, 405; xvn. 570. 
CiELius ANTIPATER, Roman annalist, 

xiv. 729. 
CAEN, town, France, iv. 631; university 

of, xxin. 841. 
OERE, ancient town, Etruria, iv. 632; 

vin. 634. 
CAEREINION, Wales, remains of British 

camp at, xvi. 789. 



C A E C A L 



75 



CAER-GWENT, ancient British town, 

England, xvn. 595. 
CAERLEON, town, Moiimoutli, England, 

iv. 632; xvi. 754. 
(Chester), England, Battle of 

(c. 613), xvn. 569. 
CAERMARTHEN, county and town, 

Wales, v. 114, 115. 
CAERNARVON, county and town, Wales, 

v. 118, 119. 
CAERWENT, Monmouth, England, Roman 

station at, XVI. 754. 
C^ESALPINUS, Andreas, Italian natural 

philosopher, IV. 633; his botanical 

work, IV. 79; his alleged discovery of 

the circulation of the blood, XI. 504; 

xxiv. 95. 

CAESAR, Roman title, xx. 777. 
, Caius Julius, Roman dictator, iv. 

633; xx. 763; his relations with M. 

Antony, II. 141 ; with Cleopatra, V. 826; 

with Pompey, xix. 451; in Britain, IV. 

352; place of his landing in England, 

xxii. 725; in Gaul, ix. 527; in Spain, 

XXII. 306; his adjustment of the 

calendar, iv. 666; xxn. 276; his Latin 

style, xiv. 333 ; his place in Roman 

literature, xx. 720. 
, Sir Julius, English scholar, IV. 

639- 
CJESARAUGUSTA (Zaragoza), ancient 

town, Spain, xxn. 307; xxiv. 770. 
CAESAR BORGIA, iv. 53; i. 487,489; ix. 

554; xm. 481; xv. 147. 
C;ESAREA, town, Cappadocia, Asia 

Minor, iv. 640; v. 75. 

, town, Mauretania, Africa, xv. 637. 

AUGUSTA (Zaragoza), ancient town, 

Spain, xxii. 307; xxiv. 770. 

PALESTINA, Roman metropolis of 

Palestine, iv. 639. 

PHILIPPI, town, Palestine, iv. 640. 



C^SAREAN ERA, v. 715. 
C^SARODUNUM (Tours), ancient town, 

France, xxm. 491. 
CAESARS, Lives of the, Suetonius s work, 

xxn. 619. 

C^ESENA, ancient town, Italy, V. 357. 
CAESIUM, chemical element, v. 524; xix. 

592. 
CAF LAURENT, Paris literary club, 

xxi. 23. 
CAFFEINE, alkaloid, distinctive of coffee, 

VI. 112. 

CAFFRARIA, CAFFRES, xm. 816, 818. 
See also Kaffraria, Kaffres. 

CAFUSO, issue of Negro and Indian, 
xvii. 319. 

CAGE, as used in mining, vi. 74 ; xvi. 
456, 462. 

GAGLI, town, Italy, iv. 640. 

CAGLIARI, town, Sardinia, iv. 640; xxi. 
309- 

, Paolo (Veronese), Italian painter, 

xxiv. 173. 

CAGLIOSTRO, Alessandro, Count, char 
latan, iv. 641; vii. 52. 



CAGN, South- African god, xvn. 136. 
CAGNIARDELLE, blasting machine, xvi. 

60. 
CAGNIARD-LATOUR, Baron, on the 

temperature and pressure of gases, 

xix. 245. 

CAGNOLA, Luigi, Marquis, Italian archi 
tect, iv. 641. 
CAGNOLI S FORMULAE, in trigonometry, 

xxm. 567. 
CAGO (Oporto), ancient town, Portugal, 

xvii. 796. 
C AGOTS, race of people, France and Spain, 

iv. 641. 
CAGUA, mountain, Philippine Islands, 

xvm. 749. 
CAHIRCIVEEN, stone fort, Ireland, 

xiv. 52. 

CAHORS, town, France, iv. 642; uni 
versity of, xxm. 839. 
CAIAZZO, town, Italy, iv. 648. 
CAICOS ISLANDS, West Indies, in. 236; 

xm. 549. 
CAICUS, river, Mysia, Asia Minor, II. 

708; xvn. 122. 
CAIETA (Gaeta), ancient town, Italy, x. 

14. 
CAILCEDRA, tree, Senegambia, xxi. 

662. 
CAILLETET, his liquefaction of gases, 

XIX. 245 ; his apparatus, XII. 433. 
CAILLETTE, French jester, ix. 366. 
CAILLIE, or Caille, Rene, French African 

traveller, iv. 642; I. 246. 
CAIN, of Scripture, IV. 642. 
CA ING WHALE, cetacean, xxiv. 525. 
CAINITES, Gnostic sect, iv. 642. 
CAINOZOIC ROCKS, x. 360. 
CAIRD, James, on the growing of wheat, 

i- 357- 

CAIRN, pile of stones, iv. 642. 

CAIRNES, John Elliot, political econo 
mist, iv. 643; xix. 380. 

CAIRNGORM, mountain, Scotland, xm. 
199. 

, precious stone, IV. 644; I. 43; xvi. 

389- 

CAIRO, town, Egypt, iv. 645; I. 267; 
VII. 751, 769; library, xiv. 549; 
mosques, II. 446; XVI. 865. 
, town, Illinois, U.S.A., XII. 706. 

CAISSON, in engineering, iv. 647; n. 
461; for harbours, XI. 471; in bridge- 
building, IV. 325; VI. 114. 

CAITHNESS, county, Scotland, iv. 647; 
area and population, xxi. 528; repre 
sentation, xxm. 727; ancient remains 
in, xxi. 51. 

CAIUS, Roman presbyter, on Cerinthus, 
v. 346. 

, John, founder of Caius College, 

Cambridge, IV. 648; XV. 808; on 
birds, xvm. 3; on the sweating sick 
ness, xxn. 734. 

CAESAR CALIGULA, Roman em 
peror, iv. 706; xx. 772, 775. 

COLLEGE, Cambridge, iv. 731. 



CAJAMARCA (Caxamarca), town, Peru, 

v. 279. 

CAJATAMBO, town, Peru, v. 279. 
CAJAZZO, town, Italy, iv. 648. 
CAJEPUT OIL, iv. 648; from Buru, iv. 

573- 
CAJETAN, Benedict (Pope Boniface 

VIII.), iv. 33. 
, Cardinal, papal legate to Germany, 

iv. 649; xv. 73. 

CAKUNTALA, Sanskrit drama, xm. 829. 
CALABAR, country, West Africa, iv. 

649; river, I. 254. 

BEAN, poisonous plant, iv. 650; 



in. 461. 

CALABER, Quintus, Greek poet, xx. 188. 
CALABOZO, town, Venezuela, iv. 650; 

xxiv. 140. 
CALABRIA, district, Italy, iv. 650; xm. 

439> coins of, xvii. 637. 
CALADIUM, stove plant, xn. 266. 
CALAFATE, plant, Patagonia, xvm. 353. 
CALAH, Ruins of, Nineveh, xvn. 512. 
CALAHONDA, village, Spain, xvn. 4. 
CALAHORRA, town, Spain, iv. 651. 
CALAIS, town, France, iv. 651; xvin. 

339- 

CALAITE, mineral, xvi. 405; xxm. 670. 
CALAMARIID^E, family of snakes, xxn. 

192. 
CALAMIANES, islands, Philippines, 

xvin. 752. 
CALAMINE, mineral, xvi. 398; xxiv. 

784; electric, polarity of, xix. 312. 
CALAMIS, Greek sculptor, II. 354. 
CALAMITIES OF AUTHORS, D Israeli s 

work, vii. 260. 
CALAMUS, genus of palms, xvin. 189. 

, incense, XII. 718. 

, ancient writing implement, xvin. 

483- 

DRACO, plant, vn. 389. 
CALAMY, Edmund, Nonconformist 

divine (d. 1666), IV. 652. 
, Edmund, Nonconformist divine 

(d. 1732), iv. 652. 
CALANDRA GRANARIA, wheat pest, 

xxiv. 536. 
CALANDRELLA, genus of birds, xiv. 

3i5- 
CALAPAN, town, Philippine Islands, 

xvm. 752. 
CALAPHATES, Michael V., Byzantine 

emperor, xvi. 226. 
CALAS, Jean, French Protestant, iv. 652; 

Voltaire s vindication of, xxiv. 290. 
CALASANZA, Joseph, founder of the 

Piarists, XIX. 78. 
CALASIO, Mario de, Italian Biblical 

scholar, iv. 653. 

CALATAFIMI, town, Sicily, iv. 653. 
CALATAGIRONE, town, Sicily, iv. 712. 
CALATANISETTA, town, Sicily, iv. 713; 

xxii. 31. 

CALATAYUD, town, Spain, iv. 653. 
CALATRAVA, Spanish crusading order, 

xxn. 316. 



76 



C A L C A L 



CALAURIA, island, Greece, xix. 521; 

amphictyony of, I. 773. 
CALAVERAS, California, U.S.A., gigantic 

trees of, xxi. 674; xxm. 810. 
CALBE-ON-THE-SAALE, town, Prussia, 

xiii. 826. 
CALCAR, John de, German painter, iv. 

653- 

CALCAREA, class of sponges, xxn. 421. 
CALCAREOUS SPAR, iv. 653. 
CALCAREOUS SPRINGS, x. 270. 
CALCEDON (Chalcedon), ancient town, 

Asia Minor, v. 371. 
CALCEDONY, or Chalcedony, precious 

stone, I. 277; xvi. 389; xvn. 776; 

xxi. 310. 
CALCEOLARIA, greenhouse plant, xn. 

262. 

CALCHAS, Greek soothsayer, iv. 653. 
CALCHEDON (Chalcedon), town, Asia 

Minor, v. 371. 
CALCISPONGES, xxn. 418. 
CALCITE, mineral, x. 228; xvi. 396. 
CALCIUM, chemical element, v. 525; 

xiv. 647; as plant food, xix. 49. 
FLUORIDE (Fluor-spar), mineral, 

IX. 349. 

CALCOPHYLLITE, mineral, xvi. 407. 
CALC-SPAR, mineral, iv. 653; xiv. 647; 

xvi. 396. 
CALCULATING MACHINES, iv. 654; 

Babbage s, in. 178. 
CALCULATION, Arithmetical, n. 526. 
CALCULUS, concretion in the bladder, 

xxiv. 189. 

, Infinitesimal, Xin. 5; claims of. 

Leibnitz and Newton to the discovery 

of, xiv. 419; xvn. 446; differential, 

Xin. 13; integral, xiii. 33. 

OF FUNCTIONS, ix. 823. 
OF VARIATIONS, xxiv. 85; due to 



Lagrange, xiv. 207. 
CALCUTTA, capital of India, iv. 656; 

rise of, XII. 800; jute trade of, xin. 

801; libraries, Xiv. 533; newspapers, 

xvn. 432; university, xxm. 856. 
CALDANI, Leopold Marco Antonio, 

Italian anatomist, iv. 659. 
CALDAS, Brazil, hot springs of, iv. 

223. 

DE MOMBUY, Spain, mineral 

water of, xvi. 434. 
CALDEIRAS, boiling fountains, Azores, 

in. 171. 
CALDER, Sir Robert, British admiral, 

iv. 659. 
CALDERON, Serafin Estebanez, Spanish 

satirist, xxn. 361. 
DE LA BARCA, Pedro, Spanish 

dramatist, iv. 659; vn. 422; xxn. 

359- 

CALDERWOOD, David, Scottish historian, 
iv. 66 i. 

CALDICOT CASTLE, Monmouth, Eng 
land, xvi. 754. 

CALDIERO, Italy, Battle of (1796), in. 
131- 



CALE (Oporto), ancient seaport, Portugal, 

xvn. 795. 
CALEB WILLIAMS, Godwin s novel, x. 

718. 
CALEDONIA, ancient Northern Britain, 

iv. 662; xxi. 471. 

, Chalmers s work, v. 373. 

, Canada, mineral water of, XVI. 

436. 

CALEDONIAN CANAL, iv. 787. 
CALEDONITE, mineral, xvi. 402. 
CALENBERG, principality, Hanover, IV. 

664. 
CALENDAR, iv. 664; v. 711; reformation 

of, by Cresar and Sosigenes, IV. 638; 

xxn. 276; by Gregory XIII., XI. 178; 

Accadian, in. 191; Burmese, iv. 555; 

Egyptian, vn. 728 ; French Republican, 

IX. 606; Gregorian, or New Style, IV. 

671; ancient Mexican, I. 695; xvi. 

212; Nepalese, xvn. 343; Siamese, 

xxi. 853. 

CALENDARIO, Filippo, Venetian archi 
tect and conspirator, xxiv. 153. 
CALENDER, machine for dressing cloth, 

iv. 682; for glossing paper, xvni. 

224. 
CALENDERING, in cloth bleaching, in. 

819. 
CALENDS, first day of the Roman month, 

iv. 665. 

CALENDULA, genus of plants, xv. 544. 
CALEPINO, Ambrogio, Italian lexico 
grapher, IV. 683; his polyglott dic 
tionary, Vlll. 843. 
CALF OF MAN, islet, Irish Sea, xv. 

450. 

CALF SKINS, for tanning, xiv. 380, 386. 
CALHOUN, John Caklwell, American 

politician and orator, iv. 683; I. 722; 

xxm. 762, 764, 770. 
CALIARI, Carlo, Italian painter, xxiv. 

174. 
, Paolo (Veronese), Italian painter, 



xxiv. 173. 

CALIBRATION, of thermometers, xxm. 
289. 

CALICHE, nitrate of soda, xvn. 518. 

CALICO, cotton cloth, vi. 488, 500. 

CALICO-PRINTING, iv. 684. 

CALICUT, town, India, iv. 693. 

CALIFORNIA, State, U.S.A., iv. 694; 
topography of, xxm. 801 ; population, 
xxm. 802; discovery of, by Hernan 
Cortes, VI. 442; surveyed by Alarcon, 
I. 442; aborigines of, xn. 826; birds, 
in. 752; marine fishes, xn. 679; 
forests, IX. 405; gold, X. 743; mines, 
xvi. 470; opium cultivation, xvn. 
792; sulphur mines, XXII. 634; trees, 
xxm. 809 ; wine industry, xxiv. 
611. 

, Gulf of, xvni. 116; pearl fisheries, 

xvni. 447. 

, Lower, state, Mexico, xvi. 214. 

CALIFORNIAN TOAD, lizard, xiv. 736. 

CALIGRAPHY, xvni. 143; xxm. 682. 



CALIGULA, Caius Ca?sar, Romanemperor, 

IV. 706; XX. 772, 775; as Antichrist, 

n. 124. 

, Palace of, at Rome, xx. 823. 
CALINGA, ancient kingdom, India, xin. 

829. 

CALINGAPATAM, town, India, xin. 829. 
CALIPH, Mohammedan sovereign, iv. 

706; xvi. 589, 591; xxn. 661. 
CALIPHATE, The Eastern, xvi. 565. 

OF CORDOVA, xxn. 313. 
CALIPHATES, Coins of the, xvn. 659. 
CALIPHS, Tombs of the, Cairo, xvi. 

865. 

CALIPPUS, Greek astronomer, n. 748. 
CALISAYA, quinine, xx. 186. 
CALISIA (Kalish), ancient town, Poland, 

xin. 829. 
CALISTHENICS, gymnastic exercises, XL 

350. 

CALITRI, town, Italy, iv. 707. 
CALIXTINES, Christian sect, xvi. Sir. 
CALIXTUS I., or Callistus, pope, iv. 

707; xix. 489; xxi. 127. 

II., pope, iv. 707; xix. 499. 

III., pope, iv. 707. 

-, Georgius, Lutheran divine, iv. 707. 



CALLAINITE, mineral, xxm. 670. 
CALLAIS, or Callaina, ancient precious 

stone, xxm. 670. 
CALLANDER, town, Scotland, xvm. 

667. 
CALLAO, town, Peru, iv. 707 ; xiv. 

644. 
CALLATIS (Mangalia), ancient town, 

Thrace, XV. 479. 
CALLCOTT, Sir Augustus Wall, English 

painter, IV. 708. 
-, John Wall, English composer, iv. 



708. 



, Mrs Maria Graham, English writer, 

IV. 708. 
CALLERNISH, Druidical stones of, 

Lewis, Scotland, xiv. 492. 
CALLES (Cagli), ancient town, Italy, iv. 

640. 
CALLICHTHYS, genus of fishes, xxn. 

69. 

CALLIGRAPHY, xvni. 143; xxm. 682. 
CALLIMACHUS, Greek architect and 

statuary, iv. 709. 
, Greek poet and librarian of the 

Alexandrian library, iv. 708; I. 498. 
CALLIOPE, Muse of epic poetry, IV. 709; 

xvn. 74. 
CALLIPID^E, Graco-Scythian race, xxi. 

575- 
CALLIPOLIS (Gallipoli), ancient town, 

Italy, x. 43. 

CALLIPUS, Period or Cycle of, iv. 668. 
CALLIRRHOE, in Greek legend, iv. 709. 
CALLISTHENES, Greek philosopher, iv. 

709; his courage and his fate, I. 484. 
, Pseudo-, romancing history of, xx. 

640. 
CALLISTO, in Greek mythology, iv. 709; 

xvni. 208. 



C A L C A M 



77 



CALLISTRATUS, Athenian orator, iv. 709. 

, Athenian poet, IV. 709. 

CALLISTUS, or Calixtus (q.v.), popes, iv. 

707; xix. 489. 

CALLITHRIX, genus of apes, n. 1 54. 
CALLITRIS, genus of trees, xvi. 833; 

xxi. 256. 

GALLON, Greek sculptor, n. 350. 
CALLOPHIS, genus of snakes, xxn. 196. 
CALLOSITIES, in mammals, xv. 348. 
C ALLOT, Jacques, French engraver and 

caricaturist, iv. 709; v. 104. 
CALLOWHILL, Hannah, wife of William 

Penn, xvm. 497. 

CALLUNA, genus of plants, XL 589. 
CALLYODON, genus of fishes, xvni. 324. 
CALMAR, county, Sweden, xxn. 741. 
, town, Sweden, iv. 710; treaty of 

union of (1397), vii. 85; xvn. 746. 
CALMET, Augustine, French Biblical 

critic, iv. 710; ix. 671. 
CALMEYER ISLAND, Indian Archipelago, 

xxii. 653. 

CALMUCKS, or Kalmuks, people, Mon 
golia, iv. 710; xvi. 745, 749; xxm. 70. 
CALNE, town, England, iv. 711; xxiv. 

594- 

CALCENAS, genus of birds, xix. 8 3 
CALOMEL, in chemistry and pharmacy, 

IV. 711; xvi. 33, 35; as mineral, xvi. 

384- 

CALOMPE, town, Cambodia, iv. 725. 
CALONNE, Charles Alexandra de, 

French statesman, iv. 711; ix. 595. 
CALOPRINI, noble family, Venice, xvi. 

836. 

CALOPTENUS, genus of locusts, xiv. 766. 
CALORIMETER, xx. 132; Thompson s, 

for coal, vi. 80. 

CALORIMETRY, measurement of quan 
tities of heat, XL 555. 
CALOTES, genus of lizards, xiv. 736. 
CALOTYPE, in photography, xvm. 824. 
CALPE, the ancient Gibraltar, x. 585. 
CALPRENEDE, Chevalier de la, French 

romancist, xx. 659. 
CALPURNIUS, father of St Patrick, xvm. 

411. 

, Titus, Roman poet, iv. 712. 

PiSO, Lucius, Roman annalist, xiv. 
729. 

CALTAGIRONE, town, Sicily, iv. 712. 
CALTANISETTA, town, Sicily, iv. 713; 

xxii. 31. 

CALTHA, genus of plants, xv. 544. 
CALTHROP, in heraldry, XL 703. 
CALUIRE-ET-CUIRE, town, France, xx. 

529. 
CALUMET, American-Indian pipe of 

peace, xix. in. 

COPPER MINES, Michigan, U.S.A., 
xvi. 239; xxm. 816. 

CALVADOS, department, France, iv. 713. 

CALVART, Denis, painter, iv. 713; xx. 
396. 

CALVERT, George, Lord Baltimore, Eng 
lish statesman, iv. 713; xvn. 385. 



CALVI, town, Corsica, iv. 713. 

CALVIN, Gerard, father of John Calvin, 
iv. 714. 

, John, Reformer, IV. 714; x. 149; 

xx. 334; xxii. 791; his system of 
church order, xix. 676; his doctrine 
of predestination, Xix. 670; his influ 
ence on French prose, IX. 654; his re 
lations with Beza, 111.625; with Farel, 
IX. 32; with Servetus, XXI. 685; with 
Socinus, XXII. 228. 

CALVINISTIC CHURCHES, their litur 
gical service, xiv. 711. 

CALVINISTIC METHODISTS, "Welsh, xvi. 

193- 

CALVISIUS, Sethus, German astronomer, 

iv. 721. 

CALVUS, Licinius, Roman poet, v. 249. 
CALW, town, Wiirtemberg, xui. 830. 
CALYCADNUS, river, Asia Minor, II. 

708. 
CALYDON, ancient town, Greece, IV. 

721. 
CALYMNA, island, Asia Minor, coins of, 

xvil. 647. 

CALYPSO, in Greek mythology, I v. 72 1 . 
-, Grotto of, Malta, xv. 341. 



CALYPTOBLASTEA-LEPTOMEDUS^E, or 
der of Hydrozoa, XI I. 561. 

CALYPTR^A, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 
650. 

CALYX, of plants, iv. 131. 

CAM, in mechanics, xv. 759. 

, Diogo, Portuguese discoverer, IV. 



721. 
CAMAHIEU, Le, a sardonyx cameo, iv. 

739- 
CAMALDULIANS, Camaldoli, or Camal- 

dolites, religious order, IV. 721; xvi. 

708. 
CAMARACUM (Cambray), ancient town, 

France, iv. 726. 
CAMARGUE, district, Bouches-du-Rh6ne, 

France, iv. 169. 
CAMARINA, ancient town, Sicily, iv. 721 ; 

xxii. 814; coins of, XVIL 639. 
CAMAROON, river, West Africa, I. 254. 
MOUNTAINS, West Africa, i. 251. 



CAMBACERES, Jean Jacques Regis de, 

French statesman, IV. 722; IX. 613; 

XVIL 203. 
CAMBADENE, Parthian kingdom, xvm. 

592. 
CAMBALUC, or Cambalu, ancient capital 

of China, IV. 722. 

CAMBARUS PELLUCIDUS, blind cray 
fish, xv. 450. 
CAMBAY, town and gulf, India, iv. 

723- 
CAMBERT, Robert, French musical 

composer, IV. 723. 
CAMBERWELL, district, London, xiv. 

822. 
CAMBIASI, Luca (Luchetto da Genova), 

Italian painter, x. 158. 
CAMBIUM, layer between stem and bark 

in trees, IV. 101; xn. 15. 



CAMBO, France, mineral springs of, xx. 

127. 
CAMBODIA, kingdom, south-eastern Asia, 

iv. 723; its relation to Siam, XXI. 

854. 

, river, VI. 94. 

CAMBODUNUM, Roman town, England, 

xii. 331. 

CAMBOGIA (Gamboge), drug, x. 60. 
CAMBOIS COLLIERY, Northumberland, 

England, VI. 63. 
CAMBOJA (Cambodia, q.v.), kingdom, 

Asia, iv. 723. 

CAMBORNE, town, England, iv. 726. 
CAMBRAY, or Cambrai, town, France, iv. 

726; league and treaty of (1508), ix. 

555, 556; xxiv. 144. 
CAMBRIAN ROCKS, x. 329. 
CAMBRIC, muslin, iv. 726. 
CAMBRIDGE, county, England, iv. 726; 

population and representation, xxm. 

727. 

, town, England, IV. 728 ; univer 
sity, xxm. 838, 848; Trinity College, 

in. 579; libraries, xiv. 520, 542; 

newspapers, xvn. 422 ; observatory, 

XVIL 710; boat racing, xxi. 31. 
, town, Massachusetts, U.S.A., iv. 

732; Harvard College at, XL 500; 

libraries, xiv. 550; observatory, xvn. 

715- 

, O. P., on spiders, II. 294. 
GULF, Western Australia, xxiv. 



507. 



MORALISTS, Ethics of the, vm. 



597- 



PLATONISTS, xix. 211. 



CAMBUSKENNETH ABBEY, Scotland, 

xxii. 555. 
CAMBYSES, king of Persia, father of 

Cyrus, IV. 732. 
-, king of Persia, son of Cyrus, 



iv. 733; xvm. 567; in Egypt, vn. 

743- 
CAMDEN, town, New Jersey, U.S.A., iv. 

734; XVIL 397. 
, town, South Carolina, U.S.A., iv. 

734; battle of (1780), xxm. 744. 
, First Earl, lord chancellor of Eng 
land, iv. 735. 

, First Marquis, lord lieutenant of 

Ireland, XIV. 853. 

, William, English antiquary, iv. 

734; on anagrams, I. 790. 
CAMEL, ungulate mammal, iv. 735; xv. 

430; its affinity to the llama, xiv. 

738; of Arabia, II. 242; of Egypt, 

vn. 711; of Persia, xvm. 625; of 

Turkestan, xxm. 635, 638. 
CAMELINE OIL, xvn. 745. 
CAMELLIA, genus of plants, iv. 737; its 

culture as greenhouse plant, xii. 262; 

allied to tea, xxm. 97. 
CAMELON CAUSEWAY, Roman road, 

Stirling, Scotland, xxii. 554. 
CAMELOPARD, ungulate mammal, x. 

618; xv. 432. 



78 



C A M C A N 



CAMENIATA, Joanne?, Byzantine his 
torian, iv. 613. 

CAMEO, engraved relief work, iv. 738; 
x. 136. 

CAMERA, Photographic, xvm. 839. 

LUCIDA, iv. 740. 

OBSCURA, iv. 741; xvin. 839. 

CAMERARIUS, Joachim, German scholar 
(.1. 1574), iv. 741. 

, Joachim, German physician (d. 
1598), iv. 741. 

CAMERINO, town, Italy, iv. 741. 

CAMERON, Charles D., British consul in 
Abyssinia, I. 66. 

, John, Scottish theologian, IV. 741. 

, Richard, Scottish covenanter, iv. 

742. 

, V. L., explorer of Central Africa, 

i. 249; x. 194. 

CAMERONIANS, Scottish religious de 
nomination, IV. 742; xix. 684; xxi. 
516. 

CAMERONITES, or Uiiiversalists, re 
ligious sect, iv. 741. 

CAMEROONS, mountains, Africa, iv. 742; 
languages of the region, xxiv. 828. 

CAMIGUIN, island, Philippines, xvin. 
751; volcano, xvin. 749. 

CAMILLO, of Sicily, mystic, xxn. 228. 

CAMILLUS, Marcus Furius, Roman 
dictator, iv. 742; xx. 740. 

AND CAMILLA, juvenile assistants 

at Roman sacrifices, iv. 742. 

CAMINHA, Andrade de, Portuguese poet, 
iv. 746. 

CAMIRUS, town, Rhodes, xx. 526; 
gold ornaments from, II. 350. 

CAMISARDS, French insurgents, iv. 
743; v. 260. 

CAMMELLI, Antonio, Italian poet, xin. 
510. 

CAMMIN, town, Prussia, xm. 833. 

CAMOCA, Oriental cloth, xxm. 210. 

CAMOENS, or Cainoes, Luiz de, Portu 
guese poet, IV. 745; xix. 556. 

- COLLECTION, of books and MSS., 
xiv. 533. 

CAMOMILE, or Chamomile, plant, xn. 

289; flowers, v. 384. 
CAMP, Intrenched, ix. 466. 

, Roman, iv. 750. 
CAMPLE (Kampen), town, Holland, xm. 

833; xvm. 78. 

CAMPAGNA, town, Italy, iv. 751. 
DI ROMA, district, Italy, iv. 751; 

xiv. 343. 

CAMPAIGNS, Military, xxiv. 344. 
CAMPAN, Jeanne Louise Henriette, 

French writer, IV. 751. 
CAMPANELLA, Tomaso, Italian philo 
sopher, iv. 751. 

, Punta della, cape, Italy, xvn. 187. 
CAMPANIA, ancient province, Italy, iv. 

752; xm. 439; coins of, xvn. 637. 

- FELIX, Italy, xvn. 187. 
CAMPANI-ALIMENIS, Matteo, Italian 

mechanician, iv. 753. 



CAMPANIANS, Italian people, xxi. 248. 

CAMPANILE, bell-tower, iv. 753; Giot 
to s, at Florence, II. 436; x. 611; cam 
panile at Pisa, xix. 122; campaniles at 
Rome, II. 436; xx. 835; campanile of 
St Mark, Venice, xxiv. 153. 

CAMPANUS ACER, district, Italy, v. 79. 

CAMPASPE, river, Victoria, Australia, 
xxiv. 215. 

CAMPBELL, Lord, lord chancellor of 
England, IV. 757. 

, Sir Archibald, his expedition 

against Burmah, iv. 557. 

, Sir Colin, Lord Clyde, British 

general, vi. 43. 

, George, Scottish theologian and 

critic, iv. 754; on rhetoric, xx. 515. 
, John, American journalist, xvil. 



433- 



, John, Scottish historian, IV. 754. 
, John M Leod, of Row, Scottish 
divine, xxi. 538. 
-, Robert Macgregor (Rob Roy), XX. 



608. 



-, Thomas, English poet, IV. 755. 



CAMPBELL S TOMB, Egypt, vn. 772. 
CAMPBELTOWN, town, Scotland, iv. 

759- 

CAMPE, Joachim Heinrich, German edu 
cationist, iv. 760. 
CAMPECHE, or Campeachy, state, 

Mexico, XVI. 214; xxiv. 757; town, 

iv. 760; xvi. 214; xxiv. 758. 
CAMPEGGIO, Lorenzo, cardinal, iv. 760. 
CAMPELLENSIS, Gulielmus (William of 

Champeaux), scholastic philosopher, v. 

386; III. 602. 
CAMPER, Peter, Dutch anatomist, iv. 

760; I. 815. 
CAMPERDOWN, Holland, Naval battle 

of (1797), vii. 533; vni. 362. 
CAMPHOR, aromatic substance, iv. 760; 

chemistry of, V. 560; xvn. 748; as 

incense, XII. 718; from Formosa, v. 

636. 
CAMPHUYSEN, Dirk Rafaelsz, Dutch 

painter, iv. 761. 
CAMPI, Bernardino, Italian painter, iv. 

761. 

, Giulio, Italian painter, iv. 761. 

CAMPIAN, Edmund, English Jesuit, iv. 

761. 
CAMPIDANO, Plain of, Sardinia, xxi. 

307- 

CAMPLI, town, Italy, iv. 762. 

CAMPOAMOR, Ramon de, Spanish poet, 
xxii. 362. 

CAMPOBASSO, town, Italy, iv. 762; pro 
vince, xvi. 631. 

CAMPOBELLO, town, Sicily, iv. 762. 
DI LlCATA, town, Sicily, IV. 762. 

CAMPODUNUM (Kempten), Roman town, 
Bavaria, xiv. 33. 

CAMPO FORMIC, Italy, Treaty of (1797), 
in. 131; ix. 610; xm. 485; XVIL 200. 

CAMPOLOLAS, African race, v. 281. 

CAMPOMANES, Pedro Rodriguez, Conde 



de, Spanish statesman and economist, 

iv. 762; xix. 363; xxn. 342. 
CAMPO SANTO, cloister, Pisa, vi. 36; 

xix. 122. 
CAMPSIE, Scotland, manufacture of alum 

at, i. 646. 

FELLS, hills, Scotland, xxn. 

553- 
CAMUCCINI, Vincenzo, Italian painter, 

IV. 762. 
CAMUL (Hami), town, Central Asia, xi. 

409. 
CAMULODUNUM (Colchester), ancient 

town, England, vi. 124. 
CAMULOGENUS, Gallic chief, xvin. 

286. 

CAMUNI, Rhrctian people, xx. 505. 
CAMUS, Charles Etienne Louis, French 

mathematician, IV. 762. 
CANA, of Galilee, Palestine, iv. 762. 

, Dahomey, Africa, vi. 765. 

CANAAN, geographical name, iv. 762. 

, son of Ham, xvn. 523. 

CANAANITES, people of Phoenicia and 

Palestine, IV. 763; xin. 397, 401; 

xvi. 533; xvin. 174, 803. 
CANADA, The Dominion of, iv. 765; 

i. 711; early exploration of, x. 187; 

Champlain s settlements in, v. 387; 

as a French possession, IX. 587; 

grant of, to Sir William Alexander, I. 

493; in relation to the United States, 

xxin. 733, 742, 759, 782; official 

precedence in, xix. 667; birds of, in. 

752; xvin. 16; coalfields, vi. 60; 

debt, XVII. 247; fisheries, IX. 266; 

forests, IX. 405; immigration to, vill. 

177; Indian tribes, XII. 830; libraries, 

XIV. 534, 550; militia, II. 593; mines, 

xvi. 469; newspapers, xvn. 437; post 

office, xix. 578; railways, xx. 252; 

universities, xxin. 856. 

, Upper, xvn. 774. 
- BALSAM, in. 293; ix. 225; xxin. 

669. 
CANADIAN, river, New Mexico and 

Texas, U.S.A., xvn. 400; xxin. 203. 
CANAIGRE, plant, xvn. 401. 
CANAL, iv. 782; flow of water in, xn. 

492; Grand, in China, v. 631; 

Panama, xvin. 209; Suez, xxn. 620. 
, or Canaletto, Antonio, Venetian 

painter, IV. 795. 
CANALS, Egyptian, vn. 709; European, 

Vin. 710; of Holland, XI. 63; in India, 

for irrigation, XIII. 369; aqueducts on, 

n. 229; Brindley s construction of, iv. 

347; Telford s, xxin. 155. 
CANANDAiGUA,town, New York, U.S.A., 

iv. 795; lake, xvn. 451. 
CANANUS, Joannes, Byzantine historian, 

iv. 613. 
CANAR, Ecuador, Inca remains at, vn. 

648. 
CANARA, North, district, India, xin. 

834. 
, South, district, India, XIII. 835. 



C A N C A N 



79 



CANARESE LANGUAGE, dictionaries of, 

vii. 191. 
CANARIS, Constantino, Greek leader, xi. 

125. 

CANARIUM, genus of trees, vin. 122. 
CANARY, Grand, longitude reckoned 

from, x. 187. 

CANARY-BIRD, iv. 795; ix. 192. 
CANARY ISLANDS, North Atlantic, iv. 

795; i. 272; xxn. 298. 
CANARY WINE, xxiv. 607. 
CANAS, Peruvian nation, xvm. 676. 
CANCALE, town, France, iv. 800. 
CANCAO, or Cancar, town, Cambodia, iv. 

800. 
CANCEAU, Gut of, strait, Nova Scotia, v. 

40. 
CANCER, disease, iv. 800; xvm. 380; of 

the breast, xvm. 383; of the stomach, 

xxn. 575; of the throat, xxm. 321. 
CANCIONEROS, Spanish collections of 

poems, xxn. 355. 
CANCRIN, Franz Luclwig von, German 

mineralogist, iv. 80 1. 
CANCRINITE, mineral, xvi. 412. 
CANDAHAR, town, Afghanistan, xin. 

835- 

CANDAULES, Lydian king, xv. 100. 

CANDEISH, district, India, xiv. 56. 

CANDELABRUM, ancient lamp-stand, iv. 
802. 

CANDIA, or Crete (q.v.), island, European 
Turkey, vi. 569; xxm. 653. 
, town, Crete, IV. 802; capture of 
by the Turks (1669), xxiv. 147. 

CANDIAC, Jean Louis, precocious French 
child, iv. 802. 

CANDIDE, Voltaire s work, xxiv. 292. 

CANDLE, and candle-making, iv. 802. 

CANDLEMAS, church festival, iv. 804. 

CANDLE-NUT OIL, xvn. 744. 

CANDLESTICK, iv. 804. 

CANDLISH, RobertSmith, Scottish divine, 
iv. 804. 

CANDOLLE, Augustin Pyramus de, vn. 
18; his classification of plants, iv. 80; 
xvi. 838. 

CANDY, Sugar, confection, vi. 257. 

CANE, variety of plants, iv. 805. 

CANEA, town, Crete, iv. 806; vi. 572. 

CANEPHORI, in Greek festival proces 
sions, iv. 806. 

CANE - SUGAR, xix. 54; xxn. 623, 
625. 

CANETE, Mendoza, marquis of, Peruvian 
viceroy, xvm. 677. 

CANFINNY, chief of Irish sept, xix. 735. 

CANGA-ARGUELLES, Jose, Spanish states 
man, iv. 806. 

CANGIAGIO, Luca (Luchetto da Geneva), 
Italian painter, x. 158. 

CAN GRANDE, duke of Verona, xxiv. 
173- 

CANICATTI, town, Sicily, iv. 806. 

CANID^E, family of carnivorous mam 
mals, vn. 324; xv. 437. 

CANIGOU, Mont, France, xx. 128. 



CANINA, Luigi, Italian archaeologist, iv. 

806. 

CANINI, Giovanni Agnolo, Italian en 
graver, iv. 806. 
CANINO, Prince of (Lucien Bonaparte), 

iv. 28. 

CANISP, mountain, Scotland, xxn. 726. 
CANITZ, Baron von, German poet, iv. 

807; x. 531. 
CANMORE, Malcolm, king of Scotland, 

xxi. 480. 
CANNABIN, CANNABENE, resin and oil 

in Indian hemp, XL 649. 
CANNAE, ancient town, Italy, iv. 807; 

battle of (216 B.C.), III. 444; XI. 443; 

xx. 749. 
CANNANORE (Kananur), town, India, 

xin. 834; xv. 312. 
CANNEL COAL, vi. 46; xvi. 429. 
CANNES, town, France, iv. 807; i. 

599- 

CANNIBALISM, iv. 807; evidences of, in 
bone-caves, v. 269; on the Congo, 
xvii. 317; in Fiji, IX. 157; in 
Polynesia, XIX. 426. 

CANNIDAS, in Greek legend, xxm. 294. 

CANNING, Earl, governor-general of 
India, IV. 810; XII. 809. 

, George, English statesman, IV. 809; 

vill. 365; his duel with Castle- 
reagh, xiv. 854; his relations with 
Palmerston, xvm. 193; with Peel, 
xvm. 454. 
-, Stratford (Viscount Stratford dt 



Redcliffe), English diplomatist, xxn. 

590. 

CANNOBIO, town, Italy, xv. 198. 
CANNON, ancient, II. 557; construction 

of, XL 286; naval, XVII. 286. 
, George Q., Mormon delegate to 

United States Congress, xvi. 827. 
STREET RAILWAY STATION, 



London, XX. 235. 
CANNSTATT, or Canstatt, town, Wiirtem- 

berg, v. 26; xxn. 613; population, 

xxiv. 701. 
CANO, Alonzo, Spanish painter and 

sculptor, iv. 811; xxi. 567. 

, Melchior, Spanish bishop, iv. 8 1 1 ; 

his opposition to the Jesuits, XIII. 650. 
CANOBUS, or Canopus, town, ancient 

Egypt, v. 23. 

CANOE, kind of boat, iv. 811; xxi. 804. 
CANON, of Scripture, v. i; m. 644; of 

Hebrew Bible, ill. 635. 

, ecclesiastical officer, v. 1 5, 228. 

, of hymns in Greek Church, XI I. 

580. 

, in music, xvii. 82. 
CANONICAL HOURS, v. 22; iv. 263. 
CANONIZATION, v. 22. 
CANON LAW, v. 15; growth of, xix. 

499; its relations to heresy, XI. 734; 

Cranmer s revision of, vi. 551. 
CANON MIRIFICUS, Napier s work on 

logarithms, xvn. 178. 
CANONS, Apostolic, n. 194. 



CANONS, Book of, for Scottish Church, 

xxi. 511. 
CANONS, of the Colorado river, U.S.A., 

vi. 163; xxm. 799. 
CANONS REGULAR, order of monks, xvi. 

707; of the Holy Sepulchre, xxi. 670. 
CANOPUS, town, ancient Egypt, v. 23. 
CANOPY, in architecture, n. 461. 
CANOSA, town, South Italy, v. 23. 
CANOSSA, North Italy, emperor Henry 

IV. s penance at (1077), x. 488; XL 

177; xin. 471; xv. 632. 
CANOVA, Antonio, Italian sculptor, v. 

24; xxi. 570. 
CANOVAS DEL CASTILLO, Antonio, 

Spanish historian, xxn. 362. 
CANSO, Gut of, strait, Nova Scotia, v. 40; 

xvn. 60 1. 
CANSTATT, town, Wiirtemberg, v. 26; 

xxn. 613; population, xxiv. 701. 
CANSTEIN, Karl Hildebrand, count of, 

German writer, v. 27. 
CANTABRIA, district, ancient Spain, v. 

27. 
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS, Spain, xxn. 

294. 
CANTACUZENE, Serban, voivode of 

Walachia, xxi. 17. 
CANTACUZENUS, Johannes, emperor of 

the East, v. 27; as Byzantine historian, 

IV. 613; on Hesychasm, XL 782. 
CANTAGALLO, town, Brazil, v. 27. 
CANTAL, department, France, v. 27. 
CANTARINA, Simone, Italian painter, v. 

28. 
CANTATA, musical composition, xvn. 

86, 88. 
CANTEMIR, Antiochus, Russian poet, v. 

28. 

, Demetrius, voivode of Moldavia, v. 

28; xxi. 19. 
CANTERBURY, town, England, v. 28; 

xiv. 39; archbishop of, n. 369; list of 

archbishops, v. 30; original Saxon 

cathedral, I. 13; III. 419; architecture 

of cathedral, n. 426; crypt of cathe 
dral, vi. 668; library, xiv. 519; news 
papers, xvn. 421. 

, province, New Zealand, v. 30. 

- TALES, Chaucer s, v. 452; vm. 

412. 
CANTHARIDES, in pharmacy, v. 31; vi. 

133; as poison, xix. 278. 
CANTHARUS, ancient Greek cup, xix. 

180, 614. 

CANTICLES, book of Scripture, v. 32. 
CANTILLON, Napoleon s bequest to, 

xvn. 226. 

CANTING ARMS, in heraldry, XL 691. 
CANTON, town, China, v. 37, 639. 

, town, Ohio, U.S.A., v. 39; xvn. 

737- 



, administrative district in Switzer 
land, xxn. 793, 795. 
-, John, English physicist, v. 39; his 



electrical discoveries, vm. 7. 
CANTOR, M., OP numerals, xvn. 627. 



80 



C A N C A P 



CANTU, or Canturio, town, Italy, v. 39. 
CANULEIAN LAW, in Home, xx. 738. 
CANUS, Melchior, Spanish bishop, iv. 

811; XIIL 650. 
CANUSIUM (Canosa), ancient town, Italy, 

v. 23. 
CANUTE, or Cnut, king of Denmark and 

England, v. 39; vm. 287. 
CANVAS, cloth, v. 40; for painting, 

xviii. 137; for sails, xxi. 154. 
CANVAS-BACK DUCK, bird, xix. 252. 
CANZONIERE, Petrarch s lyrics, xm. 

504; xviii. 711. 
CAOUANA, genus of chelonian reptiles, 

xxin. 458. 
CAOUTCHIN, volatile hydrocarbon, xn. 

840. 
CAOUTCHOUC (India-rubber, q.v.), xn. 

835; iv. 88. 
- NAPHTHA, xvn. 174. 

TREE, Brazil, iv. 226. 
CAPE BRETON, island, Nova Scotia, v. 

40; xvn. 601. 
CAPE COAST CASTLE, town, West Africa, 

v. 41. 
CAPE COLONY, South Africa, v. 41; i. 

270; birds of, xviii. 16; debt, xvn. 

247; diamond mines, VII. 164; 

marine fishes, xn. 681; mines, xvi. 

469; Christian missions, xvi. 517; 

newspapers, xvn. 433; railways, xx. 

252; university, xxm. 857; wine in 
dustry, xxiv. 611. 
CAPEFIGUE, Battiste Honore Eaymond, 

French writer, V. 53. 
CAPE HAYTIEN, town, Hayti, v. 50. 
CAPE HORN, South America, xxm. 

383; rounded by Maire and Schouten, 

x. 1 86. 
CAPEL, Lord, English Royalist leader, v. 

53- 

CAPELIN, fish, xxi. 221, 224. 
CAPELL, Edward, Shakespearean critic, 

v- 53- 

CAPELLA, Martianus Mineus Felix, 
scientific writer, v. 53; his encyclo 
paedia, Vin. 191; on mnemonics, xvi. 
532- 

CAPELLEN, Admiral, his expedition 
against Algiers, I. 566. 

CAPE MAY, town, New Jersey, U.S.A., 
xvn. 397. 

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, South Africa, 
rounded by Bartolommeo Dias, v. 44; 
vii. 169; x. 57; by Vasco da Gama, 
x. 57, 181. 

CAPE-PIGEON, bird, xviii. 712. 

CAPERCALLY, or Capercailzie, bird, v. 

53- 
CAPERNAUM, Palestine, v. 54; site of, 

x. 29. 

CAPERS, pickle, v. 54. 
CAPE ST ROQUE CURRENT, in Atlantic, 

in. 19. 
CAPE ST VINCENT, Portugal, Battle of 

(1797), xvn. 322. 
CAPET, royal family, France, v. 55. 



CAPET, Hugh, king of France, IX. 536; 

abbeys held by, I. 24; Paris his 

capital, xvni. 287. 
CAPE TOWN, South Africa, v. 49; i. 

270; libraries, xiv. 534, 550; observa 
tories, xvn. 716. 
CAPE VERB ISLANDS, v. 50; i. 272; 

birds of, in. 759. 
CAPE WRATH, Scotland, cliffs at, xxi. 

526. 
CAPE YORK PENINSULA, Australia, xx. 

172. 
CAPGRAVE, John, English historian, v. 

55- 

CAPHTOR, original home of the Philis 
tines, xvni. 756. 

CAPIAS, obsolete writs in English law, 
XXIV. 695. 

CAPILLARIES, in blood system, I. 905; 
xxiv. 105, 107. 

CAPILLARY ACTION, v. 56; dependent 
on adhesion, I. 153; perpetual motion 
sought by means of, xvni. 554. 

CAPIO PIGNORIS, in Roman law, xx. 
685. 

CAPIS, town, Philippine Islands, v. 71. 

CAPISTRANO, Giovanni di, Franciscan 
monk, v. 71. 

CAPITAL, in architecture, n. 461. 

-, in political economy, v. 7 1 ; na 



tional, xvii. 247; socialistic views of, 

xxn. 206, 21 1 ; taxes on, xxm. 88; 

theories of, Xix. 374. 
AND LABOUR, in economics, xxiv. 

48; Say s theory of, xxi. 361. 
CAPITALS, in Latin writing, xvni. 152. 
CAPITANATA, province, Italy, v. 73. 
CAPITATION TAXES, xxm. 89. 
CAPITO, Ateius, Roman jurist, xiv. 164. 
, Wolfgang Fabricius, German 

theologian, V. 73 ; on church order, 

XIX. 676. 
CAPITOL (Capitolium), at Rome, v. 73; 

xx. 824. 

, at Washington, U.S.A., II. 454; 

xxiv. 384. 

CAPITOLINE HILL, Rome, xx. 824. 
CAPITOLINE JUPITER, Temple of, at 

Rome, xx. 824; xxin. 193. 
CAPITOLINI FASTI, ix. 43. 
CAPITOLINUS, Julius, Augustan his 
torian, in. 74. 

, Jupiter, xin. 780; temple of, XX. 

824; xxin. 193. 
, Marcus Manlius, Roman soldier, 



XV. 492. 

CAPITULARIES, Frankish laws, v. 73. 

CAPITULATION, surrender, v. 74; autho 
rity for, xxin. 531. 

CAPIZ, town, Philippine Islands, v. 71. 

CAPMANY, Antonio de Montpalan y, 
Spanish historian, v. 74. 

CAPNION (John Reuchlin, q.v.), German 
Reformer, XX. 489. 

CAPOBIANCO, leader of carbonari, v. 88. 

CAPOCCIO, Giovanni, senator, mediaeval 
Rome, xx. 795. 



CAPO D I STRIA, town, Austria, v. 74; 
salt-works at, xxi. 229. 
, or Capodistrias, John, Count, 
Russian diplomatist and president of 
Greece, V. 74; XI. 125; XVII. 353. 

CAPOLAGO, village, Switzerland, xv. 60. 

CAPONNIERE, in fortification, ix. 439. 

CAPON SPRINGS, West Virginia. U.S.A., 
xxiv. 518. 

CAPORCIANITE, mineral, xvi. 422. 

CAPPADOCIA, province, Asia Minor, v. 
74; xix. 458; its relation to Phrygia, 
xvni. 850; coins of, xvn. 648. 

CAPPEL, Switzerland, Battle of (1531), 
xx. 334; xxn. 790; xxiv. 612, 833. 
-, French family of distinguished 



scholars, V. 77. 
-, Louis, French Protestant theo 



logian, v. 77; iv. 603; on inspiration 

of Scripture, xm. 156. 
CAPPELLARI, Bartolommeo Alberto 

(Pope Gregory XVI.), XL 179. 
CAPPELLO, Bianca, grand-duchess of 

Saxony, xv. 791. 
CAPPELLUS, Ludovicus (L. Cappel, q.v.), 

v. 77; iv. 603. 
CAPPERONIER, Claude, French classical 

scholar, v. 77. 
CAPPONI, Gino, Florentine statesman 

and historian, IX. 336; xin. 488. 
, Neri, Florentine soldier, xv. 784. 

, Piero, ally of Savonarola, xxi. 335. 
, Raflaello (Del Garbo), Italian 



painter, x. 73. 

CAPRA, genus of mammals, x. 708. 
CAPRAJA, island, Italy, xin. 440. 
CAPRE^E (Capri), island, -Italy, v. 77. 
CAPRERA, island, Italy, v. 77. 
CAPRI, island, Italy, v. 77; xin. 441. 
CAPRIC ACID, xvn. 731. 
CAPRICES DE MARIANNE, Musset s play, 

XVII. III. 

CAPRIMULGUS, genus of birds, x. 711. 
CAPSICUM, cayenne pepper, v. 280; as 

vegetable, xn. 280. 
CAPSTAN, for raising weights, v. 78. 
CAPSULE, of plants, iv. 152. 
CAPTAIN, warship, Loss of the, xvn. 285. 
, Naval, his rank and duties, xvn. 



- CARLETON, work attributed to 
Defoe, vn. 29. 

OF THE FLEET, his rank and 



duties, xvn. 292. 

SINGLETON, Defoe s work, vn. 28. 



CAPTIVITY OF THE JEWS, Babylonian, 

xin. 417. 

CAPTURE, in war, XIX. 766. 
CAPUA, ancient town, Italy, V. 79; siege 

of (211 B.C.), xi. 443; xx. 749. 
CAPUCHINS, Franciscan monks, v. 79; 

ix. 699; xvi. 711. 
CAPUZINERBERG, mountain, Austria, 

xxi. 239. 

CAPVERN, spa, France, xx. 127. 
CAPYBARA, rodent mammal, v. So; xv. 

421. 



C A 



C A R 



81 



CAR, Railroad, xx. 247. 

, Tramway, xxni. 507. 

CARABINEERS, cavalry, v. 262. 
CARABOBO, state, Venezuela, xxiv. 140. 
CARACAL, or Lynx, carnivorous mam 
mal, v. So; xv. 109. 
CARACALLA, Roman emperor, xxi. 700; 

Ids massacre of Alexandrians, I. 494. 

, Baths of, at Rome, ill. 436. 
CARACARON, ancient town, Central 

Asia, xiv. 2. 
CARACAS, town, Venezuela, v. Si: 

xxiv. 140. 
CARACCI, Agostino, Italian painter, v. 

81. 
, Annibale, Italian painter, v. Si; 

xx. 396. 
, Lodovico, Italian painter, v. 81; 

xx. 396. 
CARACCIOLO, Giamljattista, Neapolitan 

painter, XX. 532. 
CARACENI, Samnite tribe, Italy, xxi. 

248. 
CARACTACUS, or Caradoc, British chief, 

iv. 353; xxi. 848. 

, Mason s tragedy, XV. 611. 
CARAFFA, Giovanni Pietro (Pope Paul 

IV.), xvin. 431. 
CARAHUAIRAZO, mountain, Ecuador, 

vii. 645. 

CARAITES, Jewish sect, xiv. 2. 
CARALES (Cagliari), ancient town, 

Sardinia, IV. 640. 
CARALITIS, lake, Asia Minor, xin. 

384- 
CARALLIA, district, Isauria, Asia Minor, 

xin. 384. 
CARAMAN, or Karaman, town, Asiatic 

Turkey, v. 82; xv. 92. 
CARAMANIA, district, Asiatic Turkey, 

v. 82. 

CARAMURATADES, Albanians, their con 
version to Islam, XI. 122. 
CARAMURU (D. A. Correa, in. 239), 

Portuguese settler in Brazil, IV. 228. 

, Brazilian poem, by DurSo, vn. 

553- 

CARANX, genus of fishes, xil. 206. 
CARAPA OIL, xvn. 746. 
CARASSIUS AURATUS, gold-fish, x. 759. 
CARAUSIUS, ruler of Britain, iv. 353. 
CARAVACA, town, Spain, v. 82. 
CARAVAGGIO, Michelangelo Amerighi 

da, Italian painter, v. 82; XX. 532. 

, Polidoro Caldara da, Italian 

painter, v. 83. 

CARAVAN, company of travellers, v. 83. 
CARAVANSERAI, for shelter of caravans, 

v. 84. 

CARAVELLAS, town, Brazil, v. 85. 
CARAWAY, culinary herb, v. 85; XII. 

289. 
CARBAMIDE, in chemistry, v. 575, 578; 

xvn. 516. 
CARBEAS, leader of the Paulicians, 

xvin. 434. 
CARBIDE, Magnetic, as filter, ix. 168. 



CARBOLIC ACID, v. 85; as antiseptic, 
xxn. 678; as poison, xix. 277. 

CARBOLIC OIL, xxni. 59. 

CARBON, chemical element, v. 86, 
520; determination of, v. 544; as 
plant food, XIX. 48; spectrum of, 
xxn. 375; in charcoal, v. 398; in 
steel, Xin. 281. 

COMPOUNDS, Nitrogenous, xvn. 



519. 



PRINTS, Photographic, xvin. 831. 

CARBONARI, Italian secret societies, v. 

88; xin. 486. 

CARBONATE OF SODA, as flux, xvi. 62. 
CARBONATES, v. 88; in metallurgy, xvi. 

61; of soda, xxn. 241. 
CARBONDALE, town, Pennsylvania, 

U.S.A., v. 89. 
CARBONIC ACID, v. 88; expansion of, by 

heat, XI. 574; liquefaction of, xix. 244; 

oceanic, XXI. 611; as poison, XIX. 279. 
CARBONIFEROUS STRATA, x. 346; in 

Great Britain, VI. 48. 
CARBUNCLE, precious stone, v. 89; x. 

82; xvi. 411. 

, skin affection, V. 89; XXII. 683 
CARCAJENTE, town, Spain, v. 89. 
CARCASO (Carcassonne), ancient town, 

France, v. 90. 

CARCASSONNE, town, France, v. 89. 
CARCHARIAS, genus of sharks, xxi. 774, 

776. 
CARCHARODON, genus of sharks, xxi. 

777; their great length, xxi. 609. 
CARCHEMISH, town, on the Euphrates, 

vni. 669; XL 791. 
CARCINOMA (Cancer, q.v.), disease, IV. 

800. 

CARCLAZITE, rock, xiv. i. 
CARDAMOM, aromatic fruit, v. 90; from 

India, xn. 748. 

CARDAN, Girolamo, Italian mathe 
matician and physicist, v. 90; his 

dispute with Tartaglia, I. 513; xxni. 

68; his work on algebra, I. 513; on 

astrology, 1 1. 742; on teaching of deaf- 
mutes, vn. 6. 

CARDENAS, town, Cuba, v. 92. 
CARD GAMES, x. 67; cheating at, xiv. 

415; bezique, in. 623; cribbage, VI. 

575; ecarte, vn. 620; euchre, vni. 654; 

loo, XV. i ; napoleon, xvn. 229; picquet, 

xix. 114; poker, xix. 282; whist, 

xxiv. 543. 
CARDIFF, town, Wales, v. 92; University 

College at, xxni. 856. 
CARDIGAN, county, Wales, v. 94; popu 
lation and representation, xxni. 727; 

town, v. 95. 
, Seventh Earl of, British general, 

v. 95. 
CARDINAL, in Roman Catholic Church, 

v. 96; xx. 629. 

CARDINALS, College of, xix. 498. 
CARDING, in wool manufacture, xxiv. 

658. 
ENGINES, for cotton, vi. 492. 



CARDIOGRAPH, measurer of heart-beats, 

xxiv. ioo. 

CARDITIS, disease, XL 554. 
CARDIUM, genus of molluscs, VI. ioo. 
CARDONA, town, Spain, v. 98; salt hill 

of, xv. 497; xxi. 231. 
CARDOON, vegetable, xn. 280. 
CARDROSS CASE, in Free Church of 

Scotland, ix. 745. 
CARDS, Playing, v. 99; conjuring tricks 

with, xv. 211. See also Card Games. 
CARDUCCI, or Carducho, Bartolommeo, 

Italian painter, v. ioo. 

, Giosue, Italian poet, XIII. 516. 

-, Vincenzo, Italian painter, v. ioo. 



CARDUELIS, genus of birds, x. 758; 

xxn. 99. 

CARDUUS, genus of plants, xxni. 307. 
CARD WELL, Edward, English church 

historian, v. ioo. 
CARETTA, genus of chelonian reptiles, 

xxni. 458, 460. 
CARETTOCHELYS, genus of chelonian 

reptiles, xxni. 459. 
CAREW, George, earl of Totiiess, writer 

on Ireland, v. 101. 
, George, English diplomatist and 

historian, v. 101. 
-, Sir Peter, in Ireland, XIII. 264. 



, Richard, author of Survey of 

Cornwall, v. 101. 

, Thomas, English poet, V. 101. 

CAREY, Henry, English humorist and 
musician, v. 101. 

, Henry Charles, American econo 
mist, XIX. 384. 
-, William, Indian missionary and 



Orientalist, v. 101. 
CARGILL, Donald, Scottish Covenanter, 

V. 102. 

CARGO, Damage of, in insurance, in. 

146. 
CARIA, province, Asia Minor, v. 102; 

coins of, XVII. 647. 
CARIACO, town, Venezuela, v. 103. 
CARIAMA, bird, xxi. 676. 
CARIANS, people of Asia Minor, n. 711: 

in relation to the Leleges, XIV. 434. 
CARIBBEAN SEA, v. 103; xxiv. 510. 
CARIBBEE ISLANDS, West Indies, v. 

103. 
CARIBE (Caripe), town, Venezuela, v. 

1 06. 
CARIBOCO, issue of Negro and Indian, 

xvn. 319. 
CARIBOU, American reindeer, VII. 25; 

in Newfoundland, xvn. 383. 

, island, Nova Scotia, xvn. 601. 
CARIES, race of people, Central America. 

v. 103; xn. 131; xvn. 479. 
CARICATURE, v. 103. 
CARIES, bone disease, v. 105. 
CARIGNANO, town, Italy, v. 105. 
CARILEPH, Bishop, builder of Durham 

cathedral, vn. 562. 
CARILLON FALLS, Canada, xx. 165. 
CARILLONS, of bells, in. 538. 

XXV. ii 



82 



A K C A 11 



CARIMATA ISLANDS, Indian Archi 
pelago, v. 105. 

CARINA, Parthian kingdom, xvm. 592. 

CARINARIA, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 
654. 

CARINAT^E, division of birds, in. 699; 
xvm. 19. 

CARINELLA, genus of worms, xvn. 326, 
328, 330. 

CARINE NOCTUA, owl of Pallas Athene, 
xvm. 91. 

CARINI, town, Sicily, v. 106. 

CARINOLA, town, Italy, v. 106. 

CARINTHIA, crown-land, Austria, v. 
106; xxn. 614. 

CARINUS, Roman emperor, xvn. 627. 

CARIPE, town, Venezuela, v. 106. 

CARISBROOKE, village and castle, Isle 
of Wight, v. 106; xxiv. 562. 

CARISIACUM (Quiersy-sur-Oise), France, 
Diet of (877), ix. 534. 

CARISSIMI, Giacouio, Italian composer, 
v. 1 06. 

CARLETON, Sir Dudley, English states 
man, v. 107. 

, William, Irish novelist, v. 107. 

- COLLEGE OBSERVATORY, North- 
field, Minnesota, xvn. 715. 

CARLI, Giovanni Rinaldo, count of, 
Italian economist, v. 107; XIX. 362. 

CARLISLE, town, England, v. 108; 
parliament of, vill. 373. 
, town, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., V. 1 10. 
, Fifth Earl of, statesman, v. 1 10. 
, Seventh Earl of, statesman, v. 1 10. 

TABLE, of mortality, xm. 169. 

CARLIST WAR, Spain, xxn. 346. 

CARLO ALBERTO, king of Sardinia, 
xm. 486. 

CARLO EMMANUELE III., king of 
Sardinia, XIII. 484. 

CARLOMAN, son of Charles Martel, ix. 

53i- 
CARLOS, Don, son of Philip II. of Spain, 

xvm. 744. 
, Don, king of Naples (Charles III. 

of Spain), XXII. 338, 340. 
, Don, brother of Ferdinand VII. 

of Spain, XXII. 345. 
CARLOVINGIAN KINGS, of France, ix. 

53- 
CARLOW, county, Ireland, v. 110, in; 

population and representation, XXIII. 

727; town, v. in. 
CARLOWITZ, town, Hungary, v. 112; 

peace of (1699), xiv. 466; xx!. 646; 

wine of, XXIV. 610. 
CARLSBAD, town, Bohemia, v. 112; 

mineral water of, xvi. 435. 

DECREES (1819), x. 505. 

CARLSBURG, town, Transylvania, v. 

112. 
CARLSEN, Captain, Norwegian Arctic 

explorer, xix. 323. 
CARLSHAMN, town, Sweden, v. 112. 
CARLSKRONA, province and town, 

Sweden, v. 112. 



CARLSRUHE, town, Baden, v. 1 1 2. 
CARLSTAD, province and town, Sweden, 

v. 113- 

CARLSTADT, district and town, Bavaria, 
v. 113. 

, town, Croatia, Austria, v. 113. 
(A. R. Bodenstein, q.v.), German 



Reformer, v. 113; XX. 333. 
CARLUKE, town, Scotland, v. 114. 
CARLYLE, Alex., Scottish clergyman, 

xx. 599. 
, Joseph Dacre, English Orientalist, 

v. 114. 

, Thomas, his Letters and Speeches 

of Oliver Cromwell, vi. 604; his Life 

of John Sterling, XXII. 541. 
CARMAGNOLA, town, Italy, v. 114. 

-, Francesco Bussone, count of, 



condottiere, v. 114. 
CARMANIA, Parthian satrapy, xiv. 99; 

xvni. 586. 
CARMARTHEN, county, Wales, v. 114; 

population and representation, xxm. 

727; town, V. 115. 
CARMATHIANS, Moslem sect, n. 259; 

xiv. 15; xvi. 586, 594. 
CARMEL, mountain, Palestine, v. 115; 

xvm. 172; Elijah at, vill. 135. 
CARMELITES, order of monks, v. 116; 

xvi. 709. 

CARMENTA, Roman goddess, xix. 654. 
CARMICHAEL, Gershom, Scottish meta 
physician, v. 117. 
CARMINA NISIBENA, Syriac hymns, 

xxii. 828. 

CARMINE, pigment, v. 117; xix. 88. 
CARMINIC ACID, vi. 97. 
CARMONA, town, Spain, v. 118; xxi. 

708. 

CARMOOT, fish, xxn. 67. 
CARNAC, town, France, v. 118; ancient 

remains at, II. 383; xxi. 51. 
CARNALLITE, mineral, xv. 217; xvi. 

384; xix. 588. 
CARNAN, Thomas, claimant of the right 

to print almanacs, I. 591. 
CARNARVON, county, Wales, v. 1 1 8 ; 

population and representation, XXlll. 

727; town, v. 119. 
CARNATIC, district, India, v. 119. 
CARNATION, flowering plant, xn. 254; 

xix. 106. 

CARNAUBA WAX, xxiv. 459. 
CARNEADES, Greek philosopher, v. 120; 

I. 69; XXI. 380; opponent of the 

Stoic school, xxn. 570. 
CARNEIA, Spartan festival, n. 186. 
CARN ElGE, mountain, Scotland, xx. 

854- 
CARNELIAN, precious stone, i. 277; 

xvi. 389; xxi. 310; gems of, x. 136. 
CARNI, ancient Italian tribe, xm. 447. 
CARNIA, province, Greece., I. 79. 
CARNIC ALPS, i. 630. 
CARNIOLA, province, Austria, v. 121. 
CARNIVAL, season preceding Lenten 

fast, v. 121. 



CARNI VORA, order of mammals, v. 124; 
XV. 432 ; sense of touch in, xxill. 

479- 

CARNIVOROUS PLANTS, xm. 134. 
CARNOT, Lazare Nicolas Marguerite, 

French minister of war, v. 124; IX. 

606, 609; organizer of Revolutionary 

army, II. 601 ; on fortification, IX. 

442, 463. 
, N. L. Sadi, French mathematician, 



xxill. 283; on radiation of heat, xx. 

214; on the theory of steam-power, 

XXII. 478, 481, 485. 
CARNOUSTIE, town, Scotland, ix. 411. 
CARNOVALE, Fra, Italian painter, xxi. 

442. 

CARNTUAL, mountain, Ireland, xm. 215. 
CARNUNTUM, ancient town, Pannonia, 

v. 125. 

CARO, Annibale, Italian poet, v. 125. 
CAROB TREE, or Locust, xiv. 767; v. 

623; beans, ill. 460. 
CAROLAN, Turlogh, Irish bard, v. 125. 
CAROLINA, colony, U.S.A., xxin. 729. 

, North, State, U.S.A., xvn. 558. 

, South, State, U.S.A., xxn. 286. 
JASMINE, plant, xm. 596. 



CAROLINE, Amelia Augusta, wife of 
George IV. of England, v. 125; vin. 
365; x. 427; trial of, IV. 377. 
-, Maria, wife of Ferdinand IV. of 



Naples, ix. 79. 
- ISLANDS, Pacific Ocean, v. 125; 
xvi. 256; xvni. 128. 

MANUSCRIPTS, xvni. 160. 



CAROLINGIANS, French kings, ix. 530. 

CARON, Pierre Augustin (Beaumar- 
chais), French dramatist, in. 467; IX. 
666. 

CARONI, affluent of Orinoco river, South 
America, xvn. 844. 

CARONIUM (Coriuma), ancient town, 
Spain, vi. 443. 

CARORA, town, Venezuela, v. 126. 

CAROSOMO, Benedetto, senator, medi 
eval Rome, xx. 795. 

CAROUGE, town, Switzerland, v. 126. 

CARP, fish, xn. 692; xix. 127; xxin. 
173; angling for, n. 43. 

CARPAL BONES, Anatomy of, i. 827. 

CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS, v. 126; in. 
115; xn. 361; xxin. 521. 

CARPATHUS, island, Asia Minor, v. 127. 

CARPEAUX, J. B., French sculptor, xxi. 
564. 

CARPEL, in plants, iv. 141; xx. 424. 

CARPELLINI, C. F., Sienese librarian, 
xxn. 43. 

CARPENTARIA, Gulf of, Australia, v. 
127; in. 107; xx. 171. 

CARPENTER, Naval, duties of, xvn. 293. 

, W. B., on vertical oceanic circula 
tion, in. 22, 24. 

CARPENTERIANA, ana of Charpeutier, i. 

785- 

CARPENTRAS, town, France, v. 127; 
xxiv. 114. 



C A R C A R 



83 



CARPENTRY, in building, iv. 476. 

CARPET, v. 127; East Indian, xu. 762; 
Kidderminster, XIV. 68; Oriental, 
xxni. 21 1 ; Persian, xvm. 626; Tur 
kish, n. 708. 

CARPHOLITE, mineral, xvi. 425. 

CARPHOSIDERITE, mineral, xvi. 401 

CARPI, town, Italy, v. 131. 

, Girolamo da, Italian painter, v. 

131- 

, Ugo da, Italian painter, v. 131. 

CARPINI, Joannes de Piano, mediaeval 
traveller, v. 132; x. 178; xv. 474; his 
account of Cathay, v. 628. 

CARPINUS, genus of trees, XII. 168. 

CARPOCRATES, Gnostic, v. 132; x. 703. 

CARPOSPORE^E, class of plants, in. 693. 

CARPUS, Anatomy of the, I. 827; in 
mammals, xv. 359. 

CARPZOV, family of distinguished Ger 
mans, v. 133. 

CARQUINEZ STRAITS, California, U.S.A., 
xxi. 262. 

CARR, Robert, earl of Somerset, xxn. 

260. 

CARRAGEEN, Irish moss, kind of sea 
weed, xin. 276; I. 508. 

CARRANCHA, Patagon^m bird, xvm. 

353- 

CARRANZA, Bartoleme de, Spanish theo 
logian, v. 133. 

CARRARA, town, Italy, v. 133. 

MARBLE, xv. 528. 

MOUNTAINS, Italy, xin. 438. 

CARRATRACA, Baths of, Spain, xv. 315. 

CARREL, Armand, French publicist, v. 

134- 

CARRELS, in architecture, n. 461. 
CARRH^E (Haran), Mesopotamia, xi. 454; 

battle of (53 B.C.), xvm. 597; xx. 

766, 774. 
CARRIACOU, island, West Indies, xi. 

184. 
CARRIAGE, v. 134. 

, Gun, XI. 310. 

, Eailway, xx. 247. 

HORSE, xii. 191. 

CARRICK, district, Ayrshire, Scotland, 

in. 163. 
, Earl of (Henry de Percy), xvm. 

522. 



, Earl of (Robert The Bruce), xvm. 

522; XX. 592. 

CARRICKFERGUS, town, Ireland, v. 137. 
CARRICKMACROSS, town, Ireland, xvi. 

718. 
CARRICK-ON-SHANNON, town, Ireland, 

xiv. 433. 
CARRICK-ON-SUIR, town, Ireland, v. 

138; xxni. 406. 
CARRIER, conveyer of goods, v. 138. 

, Jean Baptiste, French Revolu 
tionist, v. 139. 

PIGEON, vn. 379; xm. 159; postal, 

xix. 581. 
CARRINGTON, R. C., his observations 

on sun-spots, II. 784, 786; his obser 



vatory at Redhill, England, XVII. 

711. 

CARRION-CROW, bird, vi. 618. 
CARROCCIO, Lombard war-carriage, Xin. 

470. 
CARRON, town, Scotland, v. 139; river, 

xxii. 553. 

CARRONADE, gun, n. 557; xi. 306. 
CARROT, vegetable, i. 369; xii. 280. 
CARSE, alluvial plain, in Scotland, xxi. 

524; of Gowrie, Perthshire, xvm. 

666; of Stirling, XXII. 553. 
CARSON, river and lake, Nevada, 

U.S.A., xvii. 367. 

CITY, Nevada, U.S.A., xvn. 

368. 
CARSTARES, William, Scottish divine, 

v. 139; xxi. 518. 

CART, White and Black, rivers, Scot 
land, xx. 395. 
CARTAGENA, town, Colombia, South 

America, v. 140; attack on, by Vernon, 

(1740), xxiv. 170. 

, town, Spain, v. 140. 

, Alphonso de, Spanish historian, I. 

619. 
CARTAGO, town, Colombia, South 

America, v. 141. 
, town, Costa- Rica, Central America, 

v. 141. 
CARTAPHILUS, the Wandering Jew, 

xm. 673. 
CARTE, Thomas, English historian, v. 

141. 
CARTER, Elizabeth, English writer, v. 

141. 

, Isaac, pianoforte maker, xix. 

76. 
, John, his illustrations of British 

architecture, n. 445. 
CARTERET, Sir George, grantee of New 

Jersey, U.S.A., xvn. 398. 
, John, Earl Granville, statesman, 

xi. 52. 
, Philip, governor of New Jersey, 

U.S.A., xvii. 398. 
CARTESIANISM, v. 142; vn. 115; vi. 

250; xvi. 91; in relation to logic, 

Xiv. 792; theism of, xxni. 244. See 

also Descartes. 
CARTESIAN PHILOSOPHY, opposed by 

Condillac, vi. 250. 
CARTHAGE, ancient town, Africa, v. 160; 

xxiii. 620; coins of, xvn. 651; col 
onization of, x. 175; commerce, vi. 

199; language, xxi. 646; probably 

the Elishah of Scripture, xm. 593; its 

connexion with Phoenicia, xvm. 806; 

its invasion of Sicily, xxii. 18; its 

rivalry with Rome, xx. 746, 751, 767, 

781; under Hannibal, XI. 441; its 

ascendency over Spain, XXII. 305; its 

power destroyed by Scipio Africanus, 

XXI. 467; wars with Masinissa, XV. 

608; in time of St Augustine, in. 75; 

conquest of, by the Vandals, xxiv. 58; 

Turner s pictures of, xxni. 666. 



CARTHAGENA, town, Colombia, South 
America, v. 140. 

, town, Spain, v. 140. 

CARTHAMINE, dye, xxi. 145. 

CARTHAMUS, genus of plants, xxi. 145; 
xxni. 307. 

CART-HORSE, xn. 192; breeding and 
rearing of, I. 385. 

CARTHUSIAN ABBEYS, i. 20. 

CARTHUSIANS, order of monks, v. 163; 
xvi. 708. 

C ARTIER, Jacques, French explorer, v. 
165; x. 183; xvi. 795. 

CARTILAGE, in anatomy, i. 851; xxii. 
109. 

CARTOGRAPHY, map-making, xv. 515; 
x. 191; ancient, XX. 91, 94. 

CARTOMANCY, divining by playing- 
cards, vii. 293. 

CARTON PIERRE, paper pulp for mould 
ings, xvm. 228. 

CARTOON, in painting, v. 165. 

CARTRIDGE PAPERS, Sizes of, xvm. 
226. 

CARTRIDGES, i. 744. 

CARTWRIGHT, Edmund, inventor of 
power-loom, v. 166; VI. 500. 
, Major John, parliamentary re 
former, v. 1 66. 

, Thomas, Puritan divine, v. 166; 
xix. 685. 
-, William, English poet and dra 



matist, v. 167; vn. 433. 

CARUCCI, Jacopo (Pontormo), Italian 
painter, XIX. 458. 

CARUPANO, town, Venezuela, v. 167; 
xxiv. 140. 

CARUS, Karl Gustav, German physio 
logist, v. 167. 

CARVAHAL, Tonias Jose Gonsalez, Span 
ish poet, v. 167. 

CARVALHO E MELLO, Sebastian Jose de, 
Marquis de Pombal, Portuguese states 
man, xix. 441. 

CARVED WORK, for houses, iv. 508. 

CARVIN, town, France, v. 167; xvm. 
340. 

CARVING, in ivory, v. 167; Japanese, 
xin. 591; in wood, v. 168; XXIV. 
644. 
AND GILDING, v. 169. 

CARWAR, town, India, xiv. 7. 

GARY, Henry Francis, translator of 
Dante, v. 170. 

, Sir Lucius, Viscount Falkland, v. 
170. 

CARYA, genus of trees, xi. 790. 

CARYATIC ORDER, in architecture, n. 
407. 

CARYATIDES, in architecture, n. 357, 
407, 461. 

CARYL, Joseph, Nonconformist divine, 
v. 171. 

CARYOCATACTES, genus of birds, xvn. 
665. 

CARYOPHYLL^EID^E, family of tape 
worms, xxni. 54. 



84 



C A R C A S 



CARYOTA, genus of palms, xvm. 190. 
CASA, Giovanni della, Italian poet, v. 

171. 
, Jose Iglesias de la, Spanish writer, 

xxii. 361. 

CASABA, town, Asia Minor, v. 181. 
CASA BLANCA, town, Morocco, xvi. 83 1 . 
CASA CALENDA, town, Italy, v. 171. 
CASALE, town, Italy, v. 171. 
CASALMAGGIORE, town, Italy, v. 171. 
CASALPUSTERLENGO, town, Italy, v. 

171. 
CASAMICCIOLO, spa, Ischia, Italy, xm. 

385- 
CASANATENSE LIBRARY, Eome, xiv. 

529, 548. 

CASANOVA DE SEINGALT, Venetian ad 
venturer, v. 171. 
CASAS, Bartolome de las, apostle of the 

Indies, XIV. 319; xxii. 138. 

GRANDES, town, Mexico, v. 172. 

CASAUBON, Isaac, Huguenot scholar, v. 

172. 
CASAUBONIANA, ana of Casaubon, i. 

785. 
CASEIN, or Kasbiu, town, Persia, v. 174; 

XVIIL 627, 628. 
CASCADE, Electric, vin. 35. 

- MOUNTAINS, U.S.A., xxm. 800; 
xxiv. 385. 

CASCAROBA, bird, xxn. 732. 
CASCIANO DEI BAGNI, town, Italy, v. 

i75- 

CASCO, mulatto, xvn. 319. 

CASE, Trespass on the, in law, xxm. 
454, 552- 

CASE-HARDENING, in iron manufac 
ture, xm. 342. 

CASEIN, essential constituent of cheese, 
iv. 591; v. 455; vi. 771; in milk, xvi. 

303- 

CASEMENT, in architecture, II. 461 ; 

French, IV. 494. 
CASERTA, town, Italy, v. 175. 
CASE SHOT, i. 745. 
CASES OF CONSCIENCE, v. 203. 
CASH, Chinese money, xvn. 66 1. 
CASHAN, or Kashan, town, Persia, v. 

175; xvm. 626. 

CASH-BOOK, in book-keeping, iv. 46. 
CASH CREDITS, in Scottish banks, in. 

334- 
CASHEL, town, Ireland, v. 175; xxm. 

406; architecture of chapel at, n. 429; 

synod of (1172), Xin. 259. 

, Bock of, v. 175; xxm. 406. 
CASHEW NUT, v. 175; xvn. 664; oil 

from, xvn. 744. 
CASHGAR (Kashgar), town, Turkestan, 

XIV. 7; XXIII. 639. 
CASHMERE (Kashmir), state, Asia, xiv. 

9; xi. 823. 

GOAT, x. 709. 

SHAWLS, xxi. 781. 

CASIMIR I., king of Poland, xix. 286. 

- II., of Poland, xix. 287. 

III., the Great, of Poland, xix. 288. 



CASIMIR IV., of Poland, xix. 289. 
, John, German Presbyterian, XIX. 
697. 

CASINO, or Cassino, Monte, Italy, Bene 
dictine monastery of, xvi. 778, 703; 
in. 557; library and archivio, xiv. 

53i, 548. 

CASIQUIARE, branch of Orinoco river, 
South America, xvn. 843. 

CASIRI, Michael, librarian of the Escorial, 
v. 176. 

CASIUS, Mons, Syria, xxn. 821. 

CASK-MAKING, vi. 338. 

CASLAU, town, Bohemia, vi. 754. 

CASLUHIM, of Scripture (Gen. x. 14), 
xvin. 757. 

CASMEN/E, Syracusan settlement, Sicily, 
xxn. 814. 

CASORIA, town, Italy, v. 176. 

CASPARI, C. P., Norwegian theologian, 
xvn. 592. 

CASPE, town, Spain, v. 176. 

CASPIAN SEA, v. 176; xiv. 217; level 
of, as compared with Oxus and Sea of 
Aral, xvin. 104; Rubruquis s descrip 
tion of, XXI. 47; seal fisheries of, XXI. 
582. 

CASQUE, helmet, XL 637. 

CASQUETS, rocks, Channel Islands, I. 

474- 
CASS, Lewis, American statesman, v. 181; 

xxm. 768. 

CASSABA, town, Asia Minor, v. 181. 
CASSANA, Niccolo, Italian painter, v. 

182. 
CASSANDER, king of Macedonia, v. 182; 

xv. 142. 
, George, Flemish theologian, V. 

182. 
CASSANDRA, in Greek legend, v. 182. 

, Lycophron s poem, xv. 94. 
CASSANO, town, Italy, v. 182. 
CASSAVA, farinaceous plant, v. 182; n. 

631; xxm. 56. 
CASSEGRAIN, N., his telescope, xxm. 

137, 145- 

CASSEL, town, France, v. 183. 
, town, Germany, v. 182; picture 

gallery of, xxi. 445. 

, Hesse, state, Germany, XI. 779. 

- YELLOW, pigment, xiv. 379. 
CASSIA, genus of plants, xxi. 664. 
BARK, v. 184. 
CASSIANUS, Joannes Eremita, monk, V. 

184; xvin. 472; on monachism, xvi. 

702. 
CASSINI, family of French astronomers, 

v. 184. 
, Giovanni Domenico, astronomer, 

v. 184; n. 755; his telescopic dis 
coveries, xxm. 136; his geodetic 

measurements, vil. 597. 
CASSINO, Monte, Italy, Benedictine 

monastery of, xvi. 778, 703; ill. 557; 

library and archivio, xiv. 531, 548. 
CASSIODORUS, or Cassiodorius, Magnus 

Aurelius, Bonian historian, v. 185; 



xxn. 238; on Boetius, in. 856; his 

History of the Goths, Xin. 748. 
CASSIS, town, France, v. 185. 
CASSITERIDES, tin islands, off Cornwall, 

xvin. 806. 
CASSITERITE, mineral, xvi. 387; xxm. 

400. 
CASSIUS, Avidius, Eoman general, xvin. 

604. 

LONGINUS, Cains, assassin of 



Julius Caesar, v. 185; iv. 639; associa 
tions of the name, xiv. 864. 
CASSIVELLAUNUS, British chief, iv. 352, 

637- 
CASSOON, or Casson, in architecture, n. 

461. 
CASSOVA, or Kosova, Battles of (1389, 

1448), i. 781, 782; xxi. 689. 
CASSOVIA (Kaschau), town, Hungary, 

xiv. 7. 

CASSOWARY, bird, v. 185; vin. 171. 
CASSYTHA, parasitic plant, xvin. 265. 
CAST, of gypsum, xi. 353. 
CASTAGNA, Giovanni Battista (Pope 

Urban VIL), xxiv. 9. 
CASTAGNO, Andrea del, Italian painter, 

v. 1 86. 
CASTALIA, fountain, Delphi, Greece, v. 

186; vn. 52. 
CASTAMON (Kastamuni), town, Asia 

Minor, Xiv. 14. 
CASTANOS, Francisco Xavier de, Spanish 

general, v. 186. 
CASTE, social distinction, v. 186; in 

Ceylon, V. 367; in India, IV. 204; xn. 

745, 781. 
CASTEL, suburb of Mainz, Germany, XV. 

305- 

, Jean du, French poet, v. 704. 

, Louis Bertraiid, French mathe 
matician, v. 192. 

CASTEL-A-MARE, town, Italy, v. 193; 
xvn. 187. 

, town, Sicily, v. 193. 

CASTELAR, Emilio, Spanish statesman, 
xxn. 346. 

CASTELEYN, Matthijs de, Dutch writer, 
xn. 92. 

CASTELL, Edmund, English Orientalist, 
v. 193. 

CASTELLAMARE, town, Italy, v. 193; 
xvn. 187. 

CASTELLANE, Frangoise de, Marquise de 
Mirabeau, XVI. 493. 

CASTELLANS, Polish senators, xix. 288. 

CASTELLI, Benedetto, Italian mathe 
matician, x. 32; on the motion of 
fluids, xn. 435. 

, Ignaz Friedrich, Austrian dramatist, 

V. 193. 

CASTELLO, Bernardo, Italian painter, 
v. 193. 

, Giovanni Battista, Italian painter, 

v. 193. 

, Guido di (Pope Celestine II.), v. 



-, Valerio, Italian painter, v. 193. 



C A S C A T 



85 



CASTELLO GIUBILEO, town, Italy, ix. 
141. 

CASTELLON DE LA PLANA, town, Spain, 
v. 193; province, XX 1 1. 298. 

CASTEL MELHOR, Count of, Portuguese 
statesman, xix. 549 

CASTELNAU, Michel de, French chroni 
cler, v. 194; XVIIL 291. 

CASTELNAUDARY, town, France, v. 
194. 

CASTELO BRANCO, town, Portugal, v. 
194. 

CASTEL SARRASIN, town, France, v. 

i93- 
CASTEL VETRANO, town, Sicily, v. 

193- 

CASTERLY, Wilts, England, British re 
mains at, xxiv. 594. 

CASTES, of India, iv. 204; xn. 745, 781. 

CASTI, Giovanni Battista, Italian poet, 
v. 195. 

CASTIGLIONE, Duke of (Augereau), 
French general, ill. 71. 

, Baldassare, Italian writer and dip 
lomatist, v. 195; xili. 510; his Cor- 
tigiano, VII. 672. 

, Carlo Ottavio, Count, Italian 

philologist, v. 195. 

, Giovanni Benedetto, Italian painter, 
V. 195. 
DELLE STIVIERE, town, Italy, v. 



195. 
CASTIGLIONI, Francesco Xaviero (Pope 

Pius VIII.), xix. 156. 

, Godfrey (Pope Celestine IV.), v. 

291. 
CASTIGNEAU, arsenal, Toulon, France, 

xxiii. 483. 
CASTILE, Kingdom of, Spain, v. 196; 

xxii. 312, 315, 318, 326; XVIIL 450; 

language of, xxii. 349, 352. 

, New, province, Spain, v. 196; xxii. 

298. 
, Old, province, Spain, v. 196; xxii. 

298. 
CASTILHO, A. F. de, Portuguese poet, 

xix. 557. 

CASTILIAN LANGUAGE, xxii. 349, 352. 
CASTI LLA, Ramon, president, Peru, 

xvm. 678. 
CASTILLEJO, Cristobal de, Spanish poet, 

v. 196; xxii. 357. 
CASTILLEJOS, Marquis de los (Prim), 

Spanish statesman, xix. 732. 
CASTILLO, Juan del, Spanish painter, 

xvii. 55. 
CASTILLOA ELASTIC A, india-rubber 

plant, xil. 837. 

CASTING, Metal, ix. 479; xvi. 72. 
CAST IRON, XIIL 281, 318. 
CASTLE, v. 197. 

ACRE ABBEY, Norfolk, England, 

i. 15. 
CASTLEBAR, town, Ireland, v. 199; xv. 

650. 
CASTLEBLAYNEY, town, Ireland, xvi. 

718. 



CASTLE-DOUGLAS, town, Scotland, xiv. 

98. 
CASTLE GARDEN, New York, immigrant 

depot, VIIL 175; xvn. 462. 
CASTLE HOWARD, Yorkshire, Van- 

brugh s design, xxiv. 55. 
CASTLE OF INDOLENCE, Thomson s 

poem, xxin. 311. 

CASTLE OF OTRANTO, Walpole s ro 
mance, xxiv. 334. 
CASTLE PILGRIM, Acre, fortress of the 

Templars, xxin. 162. 
CASTLE RACKRENT, Miss Edgeworth s 

novel, vn. 654. 

CASTLEREA, town, Ireland, xx. 850. 
CASTLEREAGH, Viscount, second marquis 

of Londonderry, xiv. 853; VIIL 365. 
CASTLETOWN, town, Isle of Man, v. 199; 

xv. 453. 
CASTOR, mineral, xvi. 416. 

, Roman station, England, xvii. 

557- 

, Temple of, at Rome, xx. Si 8. 

AND POLLUX, in Greek mythology, 

v. 199; electric glow, xiv. 633. 

CASTORID^E, family of rodent mam 
mals, xv. 416, 418. 

CASTOR OIL, v. 200; xvn. 744. 

CASTRATION, vin. 667; of horses, i. 386; 
of sheep, I. 395. 

CASTREN, Matthias Alexander, Russian 
philologist, v. 200. 

CASTRENSIS, Paulus, Italian jurist, v. 
201. 

CASTRES, town, France, v. 201. 

CASTRIES, town, St Lucia, West Indies, 
XXL 1 86. 

CASTRIOTA, George (Scanderbeg), Al 
banian prince, xxi. 365; I. 447; xxin. 
642. 

CASTRO, town, Italy, v. 201. 

-, Guillen de, Spanish dramatist, v. 



202; vn. 421; xxii. 358. 
, Inez de, wife of Pedro I. of Portu 
gal, v. 202; xix. 543. 
, Jouo de, viceroy of Portuguese 
Indies, V. 203. 
-, Vaca de, governor of Peru, xvm. 



677- 
CASTROCARO, Italy, mineral water of, 

xvi. 434. 

CASTRO DEL Rio, town, Spain, v. 201. 
CASTROGIOVANNI, town, Sicily, v. 201; 

xxn. 31. 

CASTRO Nuovo, town, Sicily, v. 201. 
CASTRO REALE, town, Sicily, v. 201. 
CASTRO URDIALES, town, Spain, v. 

201; xxi. 297. 

CASTROVILLARI, town, Italy, v. 203. 
CASTRUCCIO CASTRACANI, Ghibelline 

chief, v. 203; Xili. 477; XIX. 121. 
CAST STEEL, xni. 341. 
CASTULO, ancient village, Spain, xiv. 

653. 
CASUENTUS (Basiento), river, Lucania, 

Italy, xv. 37. 
CASUISTRY, v. 203; Escobar s, vin. 539; 



ethics of, Vlll. 595; Jesuit teachings 

on, xili. 650; as developed in Liguor- 

ianism, xiv. 634. 
CASWALL, Henry, American divine, v. 

205. 
CAT, v. 205; xv. 434; Egyptian, vn. 

712; Manx, xv. 452; Persian, xvm. 

625; skins of, IX. 838. 
CATABAPTISTS, Christian sect, in. 353. 
CATACECAUMENE, plateau, Asia Minor, 

xv. 99. 
CATACOMBS, V. 206; mural paintings in, 

xvii. 43. 
CATADIOPTRIC LIGHTS, for lighthouses, 

xiv. 620. 
CATALAN FORGE, ix. 840; xni. 290, 

335- 

CATALAN GRAND COMPANY, adven 
turers, ix. 330. 

CATALAN LANGUAGE, xxn. 347. 

CATALAN LITERATURE, xxn. 362. 

CATALEPSY, nervous affection, v. 216. 

CATALOGUES OF BOOKS, in. 659; xiv. 

537, 539- 

CATALONIA, province, Spain, v. 217; 
xxn. 298, 322; counts of, xxn. 311. 

CATALPA, ornamental tree, n. 321. 

CATAMARCA, town, Argentine Republic, 
v. 217. 

CATAMENIA, xx. 408. 

CATANA (Catania), ancient town, Sicily, 
v. 218. 

CATANIA, town, Sicily, v. 218; xxn. 31. 

CATANZARO, town, Italy, v. 218; pro 
vince, iv. 651. 

CATAONIA, table-land, Asia Minor, v. 

75- 
CATAPAN, Saracen ruler in Italy, xni. 

468. 

CATAPLEITE, mineral, xvi. 426. 
CATAPULTA, ancient military engine, v. 

218. 
CATARACT, disease of the eye, xvn. 

782. 
CATARRACTES, river, Asia Minor, XVIIL 

206. 
CATARRH, disease, v. 218; xvin. 377, 

403; epidemic, Xin. 73; of the 

stomach, xxn. 574. 
CATARRHAL PNEUMONIA, xix. 250. 
CATAWBAS, North-American tribe, v. 

219; i. 690. 

CATAWBA WINE, v. 219; xxiv. 611. 
CATBALONGAN,town, Philippine Islands, 

xvin. 752. 
CAT-BIRD, xvi. 541. 
CATCH, in music, x. 677; xvn. 82. 
CATCHMENT BASIN, of rivers, xn. 502. 
CATCHWORDS, in MSS., xvin. 144. 
CATEAU CAMBRESIS, town, France, v. 

219; treaty of (1559), IX. 559; xni. 

483; xvin. 744. 

CATECHISM, v. 219; of Church of Eng 
land, vin. 379. 

CATECHISMS, as creeds, vi. 564. 
CATECHU, drug and dyestutf, v. 220; 

in. 617. 



86 



C A T C A U 



CATECHUMEN, candidate for baptism, 

v. 220. 
CATEGORIES, in logic and philosophy, 

v. 221; of Aristotle, II. 514; Gilbert de 

laPorree on the, x. 5925 Kant on the, 

xill. 852; real, in psychology, XX. 79. 
CATENAE, hermeueutical epitomes, xi. 

746. 
CATENARY, or Chain, Equilibrium of, 

in mechanics, xv. 738; v. 68. 
CATENOID, Stability of the, v. 68. 
CATERPILLAR, larva stage of butterfly, 

iv. 593; silkworm, xxn. 57; ravages 

of, in Natal, xvn. 241; destroyed by 

wasps, xxiv. 393. 
CATESBY, Mark, on birds, xvm. 5. 
, Robert, conspirator in Gunpowder 

Plot, IX. 57. 

CAT-FISHES, xn. 692; xxn. 68. 
CATGUT, string, v. 226. 
CATH^EANS, tribe, India, xvi. 789. 
CATHARI, mediaeval sect, xvm. 354, 

434; xx. 321; xxiv. 322. 
CATHARTID^E, family of birds, xxiv. 

301. 

CATHARUS, genus of birds, xxm. 322. 
CATHAY, China as known to mediaeval 

Europe, v. 627, 629. 
CATHCART, Sir George, British general, 

v. 226. 
CATHEDRAL, principal church of a 

diocese, v. 226; office of dean in, vu. 

14. 

MUSIC, English, XXIII. 33. 

CATHERINE, Saints, v. 229. 

, St, of Siena, v. 229; XIII. 505 ; 

XXII. 43; stigmatization of, XXII. 549. 
I., empress of Russia, v. 232; XXI. 

98. 

II., empress of Russia, v. 233; xxi. 
99; her favour for Potemkin, xix. 598. 

of Aragon, wife of Henry VIII. of 

England, v. 236; XI. 662; divorce of, 
viii. 334. 

of Braganza, wife of Charles II. of 

England, v. 237; xix. 548. 

of Valois, wife of Henry V. of Eng 
land, v. 237. 

, Mount, Sinai, Arabia, xxn. 88. 
HOWARD, wife of Henry VIII. 



of England, vm. 337. 

DE MEDICI, wife of Henry II. of 

France, v. 235; XL 670; xv. 787; her 
influence on France, IX. 556. 

PARR, wife of Henry VIII. of 

England, vui. 337. 

WHEEL, in pyrotechny, XX. 136. 

CATHERWOOD, F., on ancient American 

monuments, II. 450. 
CATHETUS, in architecture, II. 461. 
CATHKIN PEAK, mountain, Cape Colony, 

v. 41. 
CATHOLIC, designation of the Christian 

Church, v. 237; XV. 482; first use of 

the name, v. 9. 
APOSTOLIC CHURCH, v. 237; Henry 

Drurnmond s connexion with, VII. 480. 



CATHOLIC CHURCH, Roman, xx. 628. 

CATHOLIC DISABILITIES, in Ireland, 
xiii. 266, 269. 

CATHOLIC EMANCIPATION, Ireland, 
Xin. 271; Castlereagh s advocacy of, 
xiv. 853; O ConneU s contention for, 
xvil. 721; carried on motion of Sir R. 
Peel, xvm. 455; Wellington s part in, 
xxiv. 498. 

CATHOLIC LEAGUE, in France (i57i),ix. 
562; xvin. 745. 

CATHOLIC LEAGUE, in Germany (1608), 
x. 500. 

CATHOLICS, German, dissentients from 
Church of Rome, X. 444. 

, Old, religious party, XVII. 754. 

CATHOLIC SOCIALISM, xxn. 215. 

CATILINA, Lucius Sergius, Roman con 
spirator, v. 238 ; xx. 764 ; Sallust s 
History of his Conspiracy, xxi. 219. 

CATILINE, Jonson s tragedy, xin. 744. 

CATINAT, Nicolas, French general, ix. 
579, 581. 

CAT ISLAND, Bahamas, in. 237. 

CATLIN, George, writer on the American 
Indians, v. 239. 

CATMANDOO (Khatmandu), capital of 
Nepal, xiv. 59. 

CATMOSS, valley, Rutland, England, 
xxi. 114. 

CATO, Addison s tragedy, I. 147, 149. 

, Dionysius, Roman moralist, v. 

241. 

, M. Porcius, the Elder, Roman 

censor, v. 239; in Spain, xxn. 306; 
as economist, XIX. 350; as historian, 
xiv. 729; on surgery, xxil. 674; his 
language, Xiv. 332; his place in 
Roman literature, xx. 717. 
-, M. Porcius, Uticensis, v. 240. 



CATOBLEPAS, genus of ruminant mam 
mals, x. 705. 

CATONIUS, Nikolaus, Swedish dramatist, 
XXIL 754. 

CATOPTRIC ILLUMINATION, of light 
houses, xiv. 6 1 8. 

CATO STREET CONSPIRACY (1820), 
London, xxm. 307. 

CATRAIL, British remains, Scotland, 
xxi. 34, 638. 

CATRIA, Monte, mountain, Italy, xin. 

437- 

CATS, Jacob, Dutch poet, v. 241; xn. 95. 
CATS-EYE, variety of quartz, xvi. 389. 
CATSKILL MOUNTAINS, United States, 

v. 242; xvn. 450; xxm. 793. 
CATSUP, or Ketchup, sauce, xiv. 54. 
CATT, Christopher, London club-house 

keeper, xiv. 103. 
C ATTACK, district, India, v. 242; town, 

v. 244. 

CATTARO, town, Austria, v. 244. 
CATTEGAT, strait, North Sea, xvn. 563; 

xxii. 737. 
CATTERMOLE, George, English painter, 

v. 244. 
CATTI, ancient Germanic people, v. 244. 



CATTIMANDOO, juice-yielding tree, xi. 

339- 
CATTLE, v. 244; xv. 432; breeding of, 

I. 387; diseases of, xvn. 57; xxiv. 

204, 205 ; Podoliau, xill. 45 1 ; wild, of 

Chillingham Park, England, xvil. 566; 

of Hamilton Park, Scotland, xi. 411. 

- FOODS, Adulterations of, i. 174; 
apparatus for cooking, I. 327. 

- PLAGUE, i. 304; v. 589; xvn. 59. 

QUARANTINE, xx. 158. 

SHOWS, their influences, I. 390. 

SPOIL OF COOLY, ancient Irish 
tale, v. 310. 

CATTOLICA, town, Sicily, v. 247. 
CATULLIACUM (St Denis), ancient town, 

France, xxi. 161. 
CATULLUS, C. Valerius, Latin poet, v. 

247; his language and style, xiv. 334; 

his place in Roman literature, xx. 721. 
CATULUS, C. Lutatius, Roman general, 

xx. 747. 
CAUB, Johann Wonnecke von, on birds, 

xvm. 3. 
CAUCA, river, Colombia, South America, 

VI. 153. 

CAUCASIA, government, Russia, v. 251. 
CAUCASIAN GATES, mountain pass, v. 

255. 

CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES, xvin. 780. 
CAUCASIAN RACE, of mankind, n. 113; 

x. 433- 
CAUCASUS, chain of mountains, v. 251; 

xxm. 513. 

CAUCHY, Augustin L., his demonstra 
tions in algebraical equations, I. 515; 

vni. 502. 
CAUCUS, convention to select candidates, 

in United States, xxm. 764. 
CAUDETE, town, Spain, v. 259. 
CAUDINE FORKS, Italian valley, v. 259; 

battle of (321 B.C.), xx. 742. 
CAUDLE S CURTAIN LECTURES, Doug 
las Jerrold s work, xill. 633. 
CAULIFLOWER, vegetable, iv. 618; xn. 

281. 

CAULKING, of ships, xxi. 820. 
CAURA, territory, Venezuela, xxiv. 140. 
CAURALE, bird, xxn. 652. 
CAUSALITY, psychological analysis and 

origin of the conception, xx. 82 ; 

Locke s analysis, xiv. 760; as a logical 

category, v. 224; xiv. 789; principle 

of, in theistic argument, xxm. 248. 
CAUSATION, Divine, theory of, in 

Arabian philosophy, u. 266; I. 510. 
CAUSERIES DU LUNDI, Sainte-Beuve s, 

xxi. 164. 
CAUSID^E, family of snakes, xxii. 193, 

197. 
GAUSSES, limestone plateaus, France, 

xv. 8, 31. 
CAUSTIC, of light, xiv. 589. 

- POTASH, xix. 589. 

SODA, xxn. 241. 
CAUTERETS, France, mineral water of, 

xvi. 435; xx. 127. 



C A U C E L 



87 



CAUTIOUSNESS, in phrenology, xvm. 

845- 
CAUVERV, river, India, xiv. 19; xv. 

184; xvii. 123; xxin. 47. 
CAVA, or La Cava, town, Italy, v. 259; 

library of, XIV. 530, 548. 
CAVAIGNAC, Louis Eugene, French 

general, v. 259; I. 568; ix. 622. 
CAVAILLON, town, France, v. 260; 

xxiv. 114. 
CAVALCANTI, Guido, Italian poet, v. 

260; xin. 502. 
CAVALIER, bird, xix. 228. 
, Jean, chief of the Carnisards, 

France, V. 260; IV. 744. 
-, Memoirs of a, by Defoe, VII. 28. 



CAVALIERI, Bonaventura, on the geo 
metry of indivisibles, xin. 5. 

, Emilio del, Italian musician, xvii. 

85, 86. 

CAVALIERS, or Royalists, in England, 
vin. 348. 

CAVALLINI, Pietro, Italian painter, v. 
261. 

CAVALLO, town, Turkey, xiv. 18. 

, Tiberius, Italian electrician, v. 

261; his electroscope, Vlil. 118. 

CAVALRY, v. 261 ; Austrian, n. 605 ; 
British, II. 578; Prussian, II. 596; 
tactical management of, XXIV. 358 ; 
horses for, XII. 191. 

CAVAN, county, Ireland, v. 263; popula 
tion and representation, xxill. 727; 
town, v. 264. 

CAVANILLES, Antonio Jose, Spanish 
botanist, v. 265. 

CAVCIC, Vetranic, Ragusan dramatist, 
xxi. 690. 

CAVE, or Cavern, v. 265; x. 271, 320, 
369; at Adelsberg, I. 1 5 1 ; in Hungary, 
XII. 362 ; Luray, Virginia, U.S.A., xv. 
67; Mammoth, in Kentucky, U.S.A., 
xv. 448. 

, Edward, English publisher and 

editor, V. 271; XVIII. 537. 
-, William, English theologian, v. 27 1 . 



CAVE A, in the amphitheatre, I. 775. 
CAVEAU, Society of the, in France, VI. 

141. 
CAVEDONE, Jacopo, Italian painter, v. 

271. 
CAVE-DWELLERS, Ancient, n. 336; v. 

267; xxni. 583. 
CAVENDISH, Henry, English chemist 

and physicist, V. 271; his chemical 

discoveries, v. 462; his experiments 

on the density of the earth, II. 793; 

his electrical experiments, vin. 8. 

, Thomas, English navigator, v. 272; 

x. 185. 

, William, first duke of Devonshire, 

vn. 143. 
-, AVilliam, first duke of Newcastle, 



xvii. 380. 
, Sir William, English courtier, v. 

273- 
EXPERIMENT, n. 793; v. 272. 



CAVERN, or Cave (q.v.), v. 265. 
CAVES, v. 265; bone, with fossil remains, 

x. 320. See Cave. 
CAVIARE, preserved roe of sturgeon, 

xxii. 612. 
CAVICORNIA, hollow-horned ruminant 

mammals, II. 100. Compare xv. 431. 
CAVIL, F., English swimmer, xxn. 771. 
CAVITE, town, Philippine Islands, v. 

273; xv. 487. 
CAVOLINI, Felippo, Italian naturalist, 

xxiv. 806. 

CAVOLINIA, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 666. 
CAVORE, or Cavour, town, Italy, v. 273. 
CAVOUR, Count, Italian statesman, v. 

273; XIIL 487, 489. 

CAVY, rodent mammal, v. 277; xv. 421. 
CAWDOR CASTLE, Nairn, Scotland, xvii. 

167. 
CAWNPUR, or Cawnpore, district and 

town, India, v. 277; massacre at town 

(1857), xii. 810. 
CAWOOD CASTLE, Yorkshire, England, 

xxiv. 749. 
CAXAMARCA, town, Peru, v. 279; xvm. 

675- 

CAXATAMBO, town, Peru, v. 279. 
CAXTON, spa, Canada, xvi. 436. 

, William, first English printer, v. 



279; xxill. 694; books printed by, 

vni. 413; English language in his time, 

vin. 398. 

CAXTONS, The, Lytton s novel, xv. 123. 
CAYAMBI, mountain, Ecuador, vn. 644. 
CAYENNE, town, French Guiana, v. 280; 

XL 254. 

PEPPER, v. 280. 

CAYEUX, district, Somme, France, xxii. 

261. 
CAYLEY, Arthur, English mathematician, 

I. 516; on geometrical measurement, 

xv. 665. 

, Sir George, his air-engine, I. 428; 

his Hying model, IX. 320. 
CAYLUS, Comte de, French artist and 

writer, v. 281; his encaustic process, 

Vin. 186. 
CAYMAN, South-American alligator, vi. 

594- 
CAYMANAS, islands, West Indies, xin. 

548. 
CAYOR, kingdom and lake, Senegal, 

Africa, XX I. 660. 

CAYSTER, river, Asia Minor, n. 708. 
CAYUGA, lake, New York, U.S.A., xvii. 

451. 
CAZALLA DE LA SIERRA, town, Spain, 

v. 281. 
CAZEMBE, chief and his territory, Africa, 

v. 281. 
CAZLONA, mining village, Spain, Xiv. 

653- 

CAZORLA, town, Spain, v. 281. 
CAZOTTE, Jacques, French writer, v. 281. 
CEADWALLA, British king, xvii. 569. 
CEARA, town, Brazil, v. 282. 
CEAWLIN, early English king, vm. 271. 



CEBES, of Thebes, Greek philosopher, 

v. 282. 
CEBID^E, family of apes, n. 152; xv. 

444- 
CEBU, island, Philippines, v. 282; xvm. 

752; town, v. 282; xvm. 750, 752. 
CEBUS, genus of apes, II. 153. 
CECCHI, Giovan Maria, Italian writer, 

xni. 510. 
CECCO D ASCOLI, Francesco degli Stabili, 

Italian encyclopaedist and poet, v. 282. 
CECH, Svatopluk, Bohemian poet, xxii. 

152. 
CECIDOMYIA, genus of insects, XL 781; 

xxiv. 535. 
CECIL, Robert, earl of Salisbury, lord 

high treasurer of England, v. 282. 
, William, Lord Burghley, minister 

of Queen Elizabeth, v. 283. 
CECILIA, St, v. 284. 

, Madame D Arblay s story, vi. 822. 
- METELLA, Tomb of, at Rome, n. 

419. 

CECROPS, king of Attica, v. 285. 
CEDAR, tree, v. 285; culture of, n. 319; 

of Lebanon, xiv. 392 ; red, or Ameri 
can, Xlll. 774; white, in United States, 

xxill. 809; wood of, for carving, xxiv. 

645- 

CEDAR-BIRD, xxiv. 461. 

CEDASPE, Pablo do (Cespedes), Spanish 
painter and poet, v. 357. 

CEDERBORGH, Frederik, Swedish novel 
ist, xxn. 757. 

CEDO FEITA, chapel at Oporto, xvii. 

795- 

CEDRON, brook, Jerusalem, xin. 636. 
CEELY, Robert, his experiments in 

vaccination, xxiv. 24. 
CEFALONIA (Cephalonia), island, Greece, 

v. 343; xni. 205. 
CEFALU, town, Sicily, v. 286. 
CEHEGIN, town, Spain, v. 286. 
CEILING, in architecture, n. 462 ; iv. 

454- 

CELADONITE, mineral, xvi. 415. 
CELADON WARE, pottery, xix. 622. 
CELAKOVSKY, Franz L., Bohemian poet, 

xxii. 152. 

CELAN, fish, xix. 90. 
CELANDINE, plant, xx. 273. 
CELANO, town and lake, Italy, v. 286; 

xni. 440. 
CELEBES, island, Indian Archipelago, 

v. 287; II. 687; birds of, ill. 739. 
CELER, Quintus Crccilius Metellus, 

Roman general, xvi. 106. 
CELEREN (Celan), fish, xix. 90. 
CELERIAC, vegetable, xn. 281. 
CELERY, vegetable, v. 290; xn. 281. 
CELESTINA, musical instrument, xix. 

72. 

, La, F. de Rojas s novel, xxn. 356. 
CELESTINE, mineral, xvi. 400. 
I., pope, v. 291; xix. 491. 

1 1. -IV., popes, v. 291. 

V., pope, v. 291; XIX. 501. 



C E L C E K 



CELESTINES, order of monks, v. 291. 

CELETRUM (Kastoria), ancient town, 
Macedonia, xiv. 14. 

CELIBACY, v. 292; in early Church of 
England, vm. 371. 

CELL, in biology, xn. 5; in. 682; evolu 
tion from the, vm. 746; in human 
anatomy, I. 843; vegetable, XII. 10, 
12; iv. 83; xix. 44; xx. 425, 427; 
of spermatozoa, XX. 411; of Fungi, 
IX. 827; in Protozoa, XIX. 832; of 
sponges, xxn. 420. See also Cell 
Theory below. 
, in architecture, II. 462. 
, in honeycomb, in. 490. 

, Monastic, I. 10, 22. 

CELLE, town, Prussia, xxiv. 775. 

CELLINI, Benvenuto, Italian sculptor 
and metal-worker, v. 294; XIX. 183; 
xxi. 569. 

CELL THEORY, in biology, xxi. 460; 
xxiv. 8 1 6; in relation to protoplasm, 
Xix. 828; to embryology, xxiv. 810; 
to morphology, xvi. 840; to physio 
logy, XIX. II. 

CELLULOID, substitute for ivory, xin. 
524. 

CELSIUS, Anders, Swedish astronomer, 
v. 294; his thermometric scale, XXlii. 
289. 

, Olaf, Swedish theologian, xiv. 



CELSUS, anti-Christian writer, v. 295; 
xin. 658; Origen s answer to, XVII. 
841. 

, A. Cornelius, Roman Avriter on 
medicine, XV. 803; on anatomy, I. 
802; on surgery, XXII. 674. 

CELTIBERI, early Spanish tribes, xn. 
604; xxn. 305. 

CELTIBERIA, ancient division of Spain, 
v. 297. 

CELTIC ACADEMY, at Paris, i. 77. 

CELTIC CHURCH, in Scotland, xxi. 
475, 481. 

CELTIC LANGUAGES, xvin. 785 ; dic 
tionaries of, vn. 1 88; Gaelic, x. 6. 

CELTIC LITERATURE, v. 297; xx. 642; 
Gaelic, x. 7. 

CELTIC MONKS, xvi. 706. 

CELTIS, genus of trees, xi. 360; xvn. 
360. 

CELTS, Race, language, and literature of 
the, v. 297; x. 6; xxi. 473, 480; their 
tribal system, v. 799; their attacks on 
Rome, xx. 740, 743; of Britain, vin. 
263; in central England, XXI. 739; 
their first appearance in Ireland, xin. 
244. 

CEMENTATION PROCESS, in steel-mak 
ing, xin. 339. 

CEMENTS, v. 328; natural and artificial, 
iv. 458, 459; hydraulic, xiv. 647; 
Keene s, xi. 351; Parian, XI. 351; 
Roman, XX. 808. 

CEMENT STONES, nodules of clay iron 
stone, xin. 287. 



CEMETERY, CEMETERIES, v. 328 ; Eng 
lish law in relation to, iv. 537; at 

Paris, xvin. 284; in ancient Rome, v. 

208. 

CENCI, Beatrice, parricide, v. 332. 
, Francesco, father of Beatrice Cenci, 

v. 332- 
, Giovanni, captain of the people, 

Rome, xx. 802. 

, The, Shelley s drama, XXI. 793. 
CENDAL, silk stuff, xxm. 210. 
CENEDA, district, Italy, v. 333. 
CENIS, Mont, Cottian Alps, pass across, 

I. 624; tunnel through, xxm. 624. 
CENNICK, John, English hymn-writer, 

xn. 594. 
CENOMANI, Gallic tribe, Italy, xin. 

446. 
CENSOR, Roman magistrate, v. 334; xx. 

738. 
CENSORSHIP, of books, iv. 39; of the 

press, xix. 710. 
CENSUS, enumeration of people, v. 334; 

of United States, xxm. 818. 

, register, in Roman law, xx. 676. 

CENTAURS, in Greek mythology, v. 

340; xiv. 300; xxm. 295. 
CENTETID^E, family of insectivorous 

mammals, xv. 404. 
CENTIGRADE THERMOMETRIC SCALE, 

xxm. 289. 
CENTILOGIUM THEOLOGICUM, Occam s 

work, xvn. 718. 
CENTIMETRE - GRAMME - SECOND 

(C.G.S.) SYSTEM, of measurement, 

xv. 668. 

CENTIPEDES, insects, v. 340; xvn. 115. 
CENTLIVRE, Susanna, British dramatist, 

v. 341. 
CENT NOUVELLES NOUVELLES, early 

French tales, IX. 649. 
CENTO, composition made up of extracts, 

v. 341. 
, town, Italy, v. 341. 

NOVELLE ANTICHE, Italian stories, 

xin. 501. 

CENTORBI, town, Sicily, v. 341. 
CENTRAL AMERICA, v. 341; birds of, 

111.748; climate, I. 68 1 ; ancient civili 
zation in, xvi. 213; ancient monu 
ments in, n. 450; xxiv. 758. 
CENTRAL INDIA POLITICAL AGENCY, 

v. 341. 
CENTRAL PARK, New York city, xvn. 

466. 

CENTRAL PROVINCES, India, v. 342. 
CENTRE OF GRAVITY, in mechanics, 

xi. 69; xv. 729. 
CENTRE OF MASS, in mechanics, xv. 

699. 
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE, in mechanics, 

xv. 682. 
CENTRIPETAL FORCE, in mechanics, 

xv. 682. 

CENTROLITE, mineral, xvi. 411. 
CENTROPHORUS, genus of sharks, xxi. 

778. 



CENTUMVIRAL COURT, in Roman law, 

xx. 678. 

CENTUMVIRI, Roman judges, v. 343. 
CENTURIA, in the Roman army, xx. 

735- 
CENTURION, Roman military officer, 

v- 343- 
CENTURIPE (Centorbi), town, Sicily, v. 

34i- 
CEOLFRID, abbot of Jarrow, England, 

in. 481. 
CEOLWULF, king of Northumbria, Eng 

land, xvn. 570. 
CEORL, Saxon freeman, vin. 274; x\ in. 

302. 

CEOS, island, Greece, v. 343. 
CEPEDA, Teresa de (St Theresa), Spanish 

saint, xxm. 281. 
CEPHAELIS IPECACUANHA, species of 

plants, xin. 210. 
CEPHALAS, Constantinus, compiler of 

Greek Anthology, n. 103. 
CEPHALLENIA (Cephalonia), island, 

Greece, V. 343 ; xin. 205 ; coins of, 

xvn. 643. 
CEPHALOBRANCHS, group of Annelida, 

n. 66. 
CEPHALOCHORDA, branch of Vertebrata, 

xxiv. 184, 812. 
CEPHALODISCUS, genus of Polyzoa, xix. 

434, 435- 
CEPHALONIA, island, Greece, v. 343; 

xin. 205. 
CEPHALOPODA, class of Mollusca, vi. 

735; xvi. 664; skeletal structure of, 

xxn. 106; parasites of, xvin. 259; 

in" Lankester s classification, xxiv. 

813. 

CEPHALOTES, genus of bats, xv. 410. 
CEPHALOTHRIX, genus of nemertine 

worms, XVII. 326. 
CEPHALOTUS FOLLICULARIS, insecti 

vorous plant, xin. 139. 
CEPHALUS, of Greek mythology, xxm. 

4i3- 

, father of the orator Lysias, xv. 



117. 
CEPHAS (Simon Peter), the apostle, 

XVIII. 693. 
CEPHISODOTUS, Athenian sculptor, II. 

365. 
CEPHISSUS, river, Greece, in. 60; xi. 

82. 
CEPHUS PYGM^US, wheat pest, xxiv. 

536. 
CERAM, island, Indian Archipelago, V. 

344- 
CERAMICUS, part of ancient Athens, in. 

^> 

CERAMIC WARE, or Pottery, xix. 600; 

in Italy, Xin. 454; Japanese, xin. 

590. 

CERARGYRITE, mineral, xvi. 384. 
CERASUS, genus of plants, xiv. 348. 

, town, Asia Minor, XIX. 459. 
CERATODUS, genus of fishes, xiv. 



C E R C H A 



89 



CERATONIA, genus of trees, xiv. 767. 
CERATONOTA, suborder of Mollusca, xvi. 

656. 

CERATOSA, order of sponges, xxn. 423. 
CERBALL, king of Ossoiy, Ireland, xm. 

252. 
CERBERUS, in Greek mythology, v. 

345- 
CERCAMON, Provencal poet, xix. 874. 

CERCIS, genus of trees, xm. 761. 
CERCOPITHECUS, genus of apes, n. 151. 

See also xv. 444. 
CERCOSPORA VITIS, vine-fungus, xxiv. 

240. 
CERDAGNE, district, Eoussillon, France, 

xxi. 28. 
CERDO, Syrian Gnostic v. 345; xv. 

534- 

CERDONIANS, Gnostic sect, v. 345. 
CEREALIN, in chemistry, in. 254. 
CEREBELLUM, xix. 38; anatomy of, i. 

871. 

CEREBRATION, Unconscious, xxn. 406. 
CEREBRATULUS, genus of nemertine 

worms, xvil. 326. 
CEREBRUM, xix. 38 ; anatomy of, i. 

872. 
CEREDO, Torre de, mountain, Spain, 

xxn. 294. 
CERES, in Roman mythology (the Greek 

Demeter), v. 345; xiv. 508; mysteries 

in honour of, vm. 126. 

, asteroid, II. 806. 
CERESIN, mineral wax, xvin. 113. 
CERESIO, Lago (Lake of Lugano), Switz 
erland and Italy, xv. 60. 
CRET, town, France, xx. 128. 
CEREUS, group of Cactacese, iv. 625. 
CERIGNOLA, town, Italy, v. 345. 
CERIGO, island, Greece, v. 346; xm. 

205. 

CERIGOTTO, island, Greece, v. 346. 
CERINE, mineral, xvi. 409, 410. 
CERINTHUS, early heretic, v. 346; x. 

702. 

, in Tibullus s poems, xxm. 349. 

CERISOLLES, Italy, Battle of (1544), ix. 

557- 

CERITE, mineral, xvi. 410; xiv. 291. 
CERIUM, chemical element, v. 542; xiv. 

291; spectrum of, xxn. 376. 
CEROXYLON, genus of palms, xvin. 

191. 

CERRETO, town, Italy, v. 347. 
CERRO DE PASCO, town, Peru, v. 347; 

xvm. 675. 
CERRO HERMOSO, mountain, Ecuador, 

vii. 645. 

CERTALDO, town, Italy, v. 347. 
CERTHIA, genus of birds, xxm. 534. 
CERTHILAUDA, genus of birds, xiv. 

3i5- 

CERTHIOLA, genus of birds, xxn. 628. 
CERTIORARI, in law, xxiv. 696. 
CERTOSA, Carthusian monastery, I. 20 ; 
v. 163; of Pavia, xvin. 438; xxi. 569; 
xxm. 194. 



CERUSITE, or Cerussite, lead ore, xiv. 

3755 xvi. 398. 
CERVANTES-SAAVEDRA, Miguel de, 

author of Don Quixote, V. 347; XXII. 

356; birthplace of, I. 458; his influence 

on Spanish drama, VII. 420; as pastoral 

poet, xvm. 346; as satirist, xxi. 319; 

his praise of Amaclis of Gaul, I. 650. 
CERVANTITE, mineral, xvi. 388. 
CERVELA, musical instrument, xvil. 

705. 
CERVETRI, town, Italy, iv. 632; Etruscan 

tombs at, 1 1. 414; v. 216. 
CERVIA, town, Italy, v. 356. 
CERVID^E, family of ungulate mammals, 

vii. 23; xv. 432. 
CERVINI, Marcellus (Pope Marcellus II.), 

xv. 533. 

CERVULUS, genus of deer, XVIL 32. 
CERYLE, genus of birds, xiv. 82. 
CESALPINO, Andrea, Italian naturalist, 

iv. 633; xxiv. 95. See Crcsalpinus. 
CESAREWICH, Russian title, xix. 738. 
CESARI, Antonio, Italian writer, xm. 
514. 
, Giuseppe, Italian painter, v. 356. 



CESAROTTI Melchiore, Italian poet, v. 

356. 

CESENA, town, Italy, v. 357. 
CESI, Federigo, Italian natural philo 
sopher, I. 70. 
CESPEDES, Andres Garcia de, Spanish 

geographer, xvil. 253. 
, Pablo de, Spanish painter and 

poet, v. 357. 

CESS, origin of the term, v. 334. 
CESSPOOLS, iv, 468. 
CESTODA, group of worms, xxm. 49; 

their relation to Trematoda, XXI II 

540; parasitic forms, xvm. 259; xxiv 

205. 
CESTOIDEA, in Lankester s classification, 

xxiv. 813. 
CESTOIDS, parasitic forms, xvm. 259; 

xxiv. 205. 
CESTONA, Spain, mineral water of, xvi. 

434- 
CESTRACION, genus of sharks, xxi. 

775- 
CESTRUS, river, Asia Minor, n. 708; 

xix. 130. 

CESTUI QUE TRUST, in law, xxm. 597. 
CETACEA, order of Mammalia, v. 357; 

xv. 391; xxiv. 523; skeleton of, xxn. 

108; mammary glands of, xvi. 302; 

olfactory organs of, xxn. 167; sense 

of touch in, XXIII. 479; distribution 

of, vii. 280, 346. 
CETINA, Gutierre de, Spanish soldier 

and poet, v. 357. 
CETSHWAYO, or Cetywayo, king of the 

Zulus, xvil. 242; xxiv. 829. 
CETTE, town, France, v. 358. 
CETTI, F., Italian naturalist, on birds, 

xvm. 9. 

CETTINJE, or Cettinye, town, Monte 
negro, v. 358; xvi. 780. 



CETYWAYO, king of the Zulus, xvn. 
242; xxiv. 829. 

CEUTA, town, Morocco, v. 358 ; xvi. 
830. 

CEVA, town, Italy, v. 358. 

CEVENNES, mountains, France, v. 358; 
IX. 506; Camisards of the, IV. 743. 

CEYLON, v. 359; n. 685; birds of, in. 
763; xvm. 1 6; cinnamon production, 
V. 785; forests, IX. 405; Pali language, 
xvm. 183; Paumben ship-canal, iv. 
792; pearl fisheries, xvm. 446; rail 
ways, XX. 252; ruby mines, xxi. 48; 
Veddahs (primitive people), xxiv. 
120; weights and measures, xxiv. 
490. 

CEYX, genus of birds, xiv. 82. 

C.G.S. (Centimetre - Gramme - Second), 
system of measurement, xv. 668. 

CHABASITE, mineral, xvi. 421. 

CHABLIS, town, France, v. 370. 
, wine, xxiv. 606. 



CHABORAS (Khabar), river, Mesopo 
tamia, xvi. 47. 
CHABOT, Gui, Baron de Jarnac, xm. 

593- 
CHABRIAS, Athenian general, v. 370; 

xvin. 579. 
CHAD, or Tchad (q.v.\ Lake, Soudan, 

Africa, I. 255; xxn. 277. 

- BASIN, Negroes of the, xvn. 319. 
CHADERTON, Laurence, English Puritan 

divine, v. 371. 

CHOREAS AND CALLIRRHOE, Greek 
romance, xx. 636. 

CH/ERONEIA, or Chrcronea, ancient 
town, Greece, v. 371; battle of (338 
B.C.), i. 281, 480; xv. 139. 

CH^ETODERMA, order of Mollusca, xvi. 
641. 

CH^TOGNATHA, group of marine worms, 
xxi. 148; n. 52. 

CH^TOMYS, genus of rodent mammals, 
xix. 519. 

CH/ETOPODA, group of worms, xxiv. 
677; xvi. 652; spermatozoa of, xx. 
411; parasites of, xvm. 259; in 
Lankester s classification, xxiv. 813. 

CH^TURA, genus of birds, xxn. 760. 

CHAFF-CUTTER, agricultural imple 
ment, i. 326. 

CHAFFINCH, bird, v. 371. 

CHAGHANSERAI, in Kafiristan, Afghan 
istan, xm. 820. 

CHAGOS, islands, Indian Ocean, xv. 
642. 

CHAGRES, town, Panama, v. 371. 

CHAIBASA, town, India, xxn. 94. 

CHAIN, Kinetics of a, xv. 741 ; statics 
of, xv. 738. 
BALANCE, in. 261. 
CABLE, iv. 621; n. 4; xxi. 597. 

- ISLAND, South Pacific, xxm. 
602. 

CHAIRS, furniture, ix. 849. 

, Railway, xx. 241. 

CHAJA, or Chaka, bird, xxi. 552. 
XXV. 12 



90 



C H A C H A 



CHAJ DOAB, district, Punjab, India, 

xx. 107. 

CHAKA, bird, xxi. 552. 
CHAKHANSUR, district, Sistan, Persia, 

XXII. 100. 

CHAKHARS, Mongol tribe, xvi. 743. 
CHAKIR BEG, Seljuk ruler, xxi. 634. 
CHAKRATA, military station, India, vil. 

33- 

CHALA, town, Pern, xvm. 674. 
CHALAMARI, town, India, v. 625. 
CHALAN, lake, India, xx. 261. 
CHALAROTHORACA, order of Protozoa, 

xix. 845. 

CHALCANTHITE, mineral, xvi. 401. 
CHALCEDON, ancient town, Asia Minor, 

v. 371; council of (451), ii. 548; XIIL 

796; decrees of, XL 155. 
CHALCEDONY, or Calcedony, mineral, I. 

277; xvi. 389; xvii. 776; xxi. 310. 
CHALCIDENE, Coins of, xvn. 649. 
CHALCIDIAN ALPHABET, i. 610. 
CHALCIDICE, district, Macedonia, xv. 

137- 
CHALCIS, town, Eubcea, Greece, vm. 

649. 

CHALCOCITE, copper ore, vi. 347. 
CHALCOCONDYLES, Laonicus, Byzantine 

historian, IV. 614. 
CHALCOLITE, mineral, xvi. 407. 
CHALCOMENITE, mineral, xvi. 396. 
CHALCOPHANITE, mineral, xvi. 388. 
CHALCOPSITTACUS, genus of birds, xv. 

7- 
CHALCOPYRITE, mineral, vi. 347; xvi. 

393- 

CHALCOSIDERITE, mineral, xvi. 406. 
CHALCUAPA, town, San Salvador, 

Central America, xxi. 268. 
CHALDEA, or Chaldsca, ancient country, 

Asia, III. 184; architectural remains of, 

II. 398- 
CHALDEANS, Astronomy of the, H. 744; 

zodiac of, XXIV. 791; their invasion of 

Judah, xill. 416; their contests with 

the Phoenicians, xvm. 808. 
, in the Roman Catholic Church, 

xx. 631. 

, Patriarch of the (Nestorian patri 
arch), xvii. 358. 
CHALDEE LANGUAGE, xxi. 647; n. 

307; XI. 596; dictionaries of, vn. 189. 
CHALDIRAN, Asia Minor, Battle of 

(1514), xxiii. 643. 
CHALDON, Surrey, England, mural 

decorations of church, xvn. 46. 
CHALEUR, Bay of, New Brunswick, 

xvii. 373. 

CHALICE, sacramental cup, xix. 185. 
CHALICOTHERIID/E, fossil ungulate 

mammals, xv. 429. 
CHALK, v. 372; x. 358; as fertilizer, I. 

35i- 
CHALLENGER EXPEDITION (1872), in. 

24; xvm. 115; xxin. 311. 
CHALLES, Savoy, France, mineral water 

of, xvi. 435; xxi. 332. 



CHALLIS, James, on attraction, in. 64. 
CHALLONER, Richard, English Roman 

Catholic bishop, v. 372. 
CHALMERS, Alexander, English writer, 

v. 373- 

, George, Scottish historiographer 

and antiquary, v. 373. 

, James, inventor of adhesive post 
age stamp, xix. 585. 
-, Thomas, Scottish divine, v. 374; 



his influence in the Scottish Church, 
xxi. 538. 

CHALONER, Sir Thomas, English states 
man and poet, V. 378. 

CHALONITIS, Parthian kingdom, xvm. 
592. 

CHALONNAIS, district, France, xxi. 
301. 

CHALONS-SUR-MARNE, town, France, 
v. 378; battle of (451), in. 62; xx. 
781. 

CHALON-SUR-SAONE, town, France, v. 
378; xxi. 302. 

CHALOSSE, La, district, Landes, France, 
xiv. 272. 

CHALOTAIS, Louis Rene de Caradeuc cle 
la, French politician, xiv. 191. 

CHALUKYAS, dynasty, Mysore, India, 
xvn. 123. 

CHALUMEAU, or Shawm, musical instru 
ment, xvn. 707. 

CHALUS, town, France, xxiv. 223. 

CHALYBAUS, Heinrich Moritz, German 
philosopher, V. 379. 

CHALYBEATE WATERS, x. 270; xm. 
360; xvi. 434. 

CHALYBITE, mineral, x. 228; xvi. 397. 

CHAMELEON, genus of lizards, v. 381; 
xiv. 734, 737; skull of, xx. 451. 

CHAM^EROPS, genus of palms, xvin. 
189. 

CHAMALHARI, mountain, Himalayas, 
xxn. 51. 

CHAMARS, race of people, India, in. 671; 
xv. 303. 

CHAMBA, state, India, v. 379. 

CHAMBAL, river, India, xvn. 572; xx. 
260. 

CHAMBERLAIN, v. 379. 

, Lord, of the royal household, 

England, xxi. 37. 

, Lord Great, XXII. 459. 

CHAMBERLAINE, Frances (Mrs Sheri 
dan), English novelist, XXI. 796. 

CHAMBERLAIN LAKE, Maine, U.S.A., 
xv. 298. 

CHAMBER Music, xvn. 88. 

CHAMBERS, Ephraim, English encyclo 
paedist, v. 380; his Cyclopaedia, vin. 
196. 

, George, English painter, v. 380. 

, Robert, English writer and 

publisher, V. 380. 

, Sir William, English architect, n. 



444. 

CHAMBERSBURG, town, Pennsylvania, 
U.S.A., v. 381. 



CHAMBERS OF RHETORIC, Dutch, xn. 

91. 
CHAMBERS S CYCLOPAEDIA (1728), vin. 

196. 
CHAMBERS S ENCYCLOPAEDIA (1860- 

68), vin. 204. 

CHAMBERS S JOURNAL, v. 380. 
CHAMBERY, town, France, v. 381; xxi. 

332- 
CHAMBESI, tributary of the Congo, 

Africa, xxiv. 763. 
CHAMBORD, chateau, Loire-et-Chcr, 

France, v. 381. 
, Henry, count of, French Legitimist, 

IX. 620. 
CHAMELEON, kind of lizard, v. 381; 

X1V - 734, 7375 skull of, xx. 451; 

Aristotle on, xx. 432. 
CHAMFER, in architecture, n. 462. 
CHAMFORT, Nicolas, French wit and 

writer, V. 382; XI. 670. 
CHAMISSO, Adalbert von, German 

writer, v. 383; x. 542. 
CHAMOIS, kind of antelope, V. 384 ; 

I. 633; II. 102; XV. 432. 
CHAMOISITE, mineral, xvi. 415. 
CHAMOMILE, or Camomile, plant, xn. 

289; flowers, v. 384. 
CHAMOND, St, archbishop of Lyons, 

xxi. 159. 
CHAMOUNI, or Chamonix, village and 

valley, Savoy, v. 385. 
CHAMPAGNE, province, France, v. 385. 
-, wine, xxiv. 603, 605 ; adulteration 



of, I. 173. 
, Philippe de, Flemish painter, v. 

386. 
CHAMPAGNE - POUILLEUSE, district, 

France, xv. 561. 
CHAMPAGNOLE, town, Switzerland, xin. 

782. 

CHAMPARAN, district, India, v. 386. 
CHAMPAUBERT, France, Battle of (1814), 

xvn. 221. 
CHAMPEAUX, William of, scholastic 

philosopher, v. 386; in. 602. 
CHAMPFER, in architecture, 11. 462. 
CHAMPFLEURY (Jules Fleury), French 

writer, IX. 679. 

CHAMPIER, Symphorien, French phy 
sician, xv. 808. 

CHAMPIGNON, fungus, xvn. 76. 
CHAMPION, in judicial combat, xvn. 

820. 
-, Richard, English potter, xix. 642. 



CHAMPIONS, squatters, xiv. 264. 
CHAMPLAIN, Lake, New York and 

Vermont, U.S.A., v. 387; xvn. 451; 

xxiv. 1 66. 

, Samuel de, French explorer and 

governor of Canada, v. 387; x. 187; 

XVI. 795; XVII. 454; founder of 

Quebec, xx. 167. 

DEPOSITS, in geology, x. 370. 



CHAMP-LEVE, enamelling process, vin. 
184; xin. 679; Japanese work, xin. 
591. 



C H A C H A 



91 



CHAMPMESL, Mademoiselle de, French 

actress, XX. 206. 
CHAMPOLLION, Jean Frangois, French 

Egyptologist, v. 387. 
CHAMPOLLION-FlGEAC, Jean Jacques, 

French scholar, v. 387. 
CHANCAS, people of Peru, xvm. 676. 
CHANCE, Mathematical theory of, xix. 

768. 

CHANCEL, in architecture, n. 462. 
CHANCELLOR, v. 387. 
, Lord High, of England, xxil. 458; 

list of lord chancellors, vin. 368. 
, Richard, English explorer, x. 183; 

xix. 316; xxi. 92. 
OF THE EXCHEQUER, England, 



viii. 797; xvi. 474. 
CHANCELLORS, Lives of the, Campbell s 

work, iv. 759. 
CHANCELLORSVILLE, U.S.A., Battle of 

(1863), xxiii. 778. 
CHANCERY, Court of, England, v. 389; 

bill in, in. 674; guardianship of 

infants by, xin. 2 ; records of, XX. 

3ii- 
CHANCES, Mathematical theory of, xix. 

768; Demoivre s treatise on, VII. 60. 
CHANCE S GLASSES, optical, xvn. 801. 
CHANCHAN, Peru, cyclopean wall at, II. 

452. 

CHANCROID, disease, XXIL 686. 
CHANCTONBURY RING, hill, Sussex, 

England, xxil. 723. 
CHANDA, district and town, India, v. 

390- 
CHANDARNAGAR, or Chundernagore, 

French settlement, India, v. 391. 
CHAND BARDAI, Hindi writer, v. 758; 

XL 841, 843. 
CHANDIEU, Antoine, leader of French 

Presbyterians, xix. 693. 
CHANDLER, Richard, British anti 
quary, v. 391. 
, Samuel, English Presbyterian 

divine, v. 391. 
CHANDRA-BARDAI, or Chand, Hindi 

writer, V. 758; XI. 841, 843. 
CHANDRA GUPTA, Hindu king, xn. 

787- 

CHANDRAKONA, town, India, xvi. 284. 
CHANG BHAKAR, state, India, v. 769. 
CHANG-CHOW, town, China, v. 391, 

673- 

CHANGHWA, town, Formosa, China, ix. 
417. 

CHANG-KEA-KOW, town, China, xm. 
828. 

CHANG-LAM, road, Tibet, xxm. 342. 

CHANGOS, Peruvian tribe, xvm. 676. 

CHANG PIH SHAN, mountains, Man 
churia, xv. 465. 

CHANG-SHA Foo, town, China, v. 637. 

CHANG-TANG, mountain region, Tibet, 
xxin. 339, 341. 

CHANGWE, province, Uganda, Africa, 
xxin. 717. 

CHANNEL ISLANDS, England, v. 391; 



population, xxin. 727; newspapers, 

XVII. 422; Alderney, I. 473; Guernsey, 

XI. 247; Jersey, xm. 634. 
CHANNING, William Ellery, American 

theological writer, V. 393; I. 728; his 

influence on Unitarianism, xxm. 726. 
CHANSON DE ROLAND, early French 

poem, ix. 637; xx. 626. 
CHANSONS, early French poems, ix. 638. 

, in music, xvil. 84. 

DE GESTE, narrative poems, ix. 



637; xix. 875; xx. 642. 
CHANT, Plain, in music, xix. 168. 
CHANTABURI, town, Siam, xxi. 852. 
CHANTAL, Baron de, father of Madame 

de Sevigne, XXI. 703. 
, Madame de, Sainte de Monthelon, 



IX. 696. 

CHANTELOUP, Count of (J. A. Chaptal), 
French chemist and statesman, v. 397; 
I. 647. 

CHANTIBAN, town, Siam, v. 395. 

CHANTILLY, town, France, v. 395. 

CHANTREY, Sir Francis, English sculp 
tor, v. 395; xxi. 561. 

CHANTRY, in architecture, n. 462. 

CHAO, island, Peru, xvm. 671. 

-, Santiago de, town, Peru, xvm. 



674. 
CHAONES, ancient Greek tribe, vin. 

483- 

CHAPALA, Lake, Mexico, xvi. 216. 
CHAPAPOTE, Mexican asphalt, n. 715. 
CHAP-BOOKS, xvm. 204. 
CHAPEL, in architecture, II. 462. 
CHAPELAIN, Jean, French poet, v. 396; 

ix. 657; xx. 204. 
CHAPEL-HILL, town, North Carolina, 

U.S.A., v. 396. 

CHAPELLE DE FER, helmet, XL 637. 
CHAPLAINS, in British army, II. 584. 
CHAPLET, Devotional, xx. 848. 
CHAPLIN S APPARATUS, for distilling 

sea-water, vn. 264. 
CHAPMAN, George, English poet and 

dramatist, v. 396; VII. 432. 
CHAPOO, or Chapu, town, China, v. 398. 
CHAPPARAL-COCK, American bird, vi. 

687. 
CHAPPE, Claude, French engineer, v. 

397- 
CHAPPELL, William, Milton s tutor, xvi. 

324- 
CHAPTAL, Jean Antoine, French chemist 

and statesman, V. 397; his methods of 

extracting alum from clay, I. 647. 
CHAPTER, of a cathedral, v. 398, 228; 

vn. 14. 

HOUSE, in architecture, II. 462. 
CHAPU, town, China, v. 398. 
CHARACENE, kingdom, Mesopotamia, 

xvi. 51; xvm. 590. 
CHARACTER, physiognomic expression 

of, xix. 3. 
CHARACTERISTICS, Shaftesbury s work, 

vni. 427; xxi. 732. 
CHARACTERIZATION, Dramatic, vn. 394. 



CHARADE, v. 398. 

CHARADRIUS, genus of birds, xiv. 76; 

xix. 227. 

CHARA PUNJI, station, India, xiv. 58. 
CHARAS, hemp-resin, XL 648. 
CHARAXUS, brother of Sappho, xxi. 

303- 
CHARBON, disease of the lemon tree, 

xiv. 437. 
, woolsorter s disease, xxiv. 663. 



CHARBONNIERE, spa, France, xx. 529. 

CHARCOAL, v. 398; its use for the blow 
pipe, HI. 837 ; in nitration, IX. 167; 
as an ingredient of gunpowder, xi. 
319, 323; in iron-smelting, XIII. 292, 

FINERY, for cast-iron, xm. 319. 
CHARD, town, England, v. 399; XXIL 
258. 
-, vegetable, xn. 280. 



CHAR-DAGH, mountain, Turkey, in. 

282. 

CHARDIN, Sir John, traveller, v. 400. 
CHARENTE, department, France, v. 400. 
-, wine, xxiv. 606. 



CHARENTE-lNFERlEURE, department, 

France, v. 400. 
CHARENTON-LE-PONT, town, France, v. 

400. 
CHARES of Lindus, Greek sculptor, vi. 

166; xx. 526. 
CHARGE D AFFAIRES, i. 657 ; xm. 

i93- 

CHARGER, war-horse, xn. 191. 

CHARIKAR, town, Afghanistan, i. 230. 

CHARIOT, v. 401 ; racing, in ancient 
games, X. 64. 

CHARIS, in Greek mythology, XI. 26. 

CHARISMATA, in the early church, xix. 
675. 

CHARITES, The, in Greek mythology, XL 
26. 

CHARITIES, English, v. 401. 

CHARITON, of Aphrodisias, Greek 
romancist, v. 402; xx. 636. 

CHARIVARI, Le, French comic journal, 
v. 105. 

CHARLCOTE PARK, Warwickshire, Eng 
land, xxi. 738, 753. 

CHARLEMAGNE (Charles the Great), 
emperor, V. 402; IX. 531; x. 478; 
coronation of, vi. 429 ; the empire 
he created, xx. 382; academy he 
founded, I. 69; his friendship for 
Alcuin, I. 472; his influence in 
England, vin. 282; his conquests in 
Italy, xm. 468; xiv. 816; xx. 786; 
MSS. of his time, xvm. 160; treaty 
with Nicephorus I., XVII. 481; pope- 
dom in his time, xix. 495; his sub 
jugation of the Saxons, xxi. 351; his 
expedition to Spain, xx. 626, 778; 
XXIL 310; his tomb, I. 432. 

, Jean Armand, French dramatist, v. 

404. 



AND HISTWELVE PEERS, romances, 
xx. 649. 



92 



C H A C H A 



CHARLEMONT, citadel of Givet, France, 

x. 626. 

CHARLEROI, town, Belgium, v. 404. 
CHARLES I., the Great, or Charlemagne 

(c[.v-\ emperor, v. 402. 
II., the Bald, emperor (I. of France), 

v. 409; ix. 534; x. 480. 
III., the Fat, emperor (II. of 

France), v. 409; IX. 535; x. 481. 
IV., emperor, v. 412; x. 494; 



his interference with Sieiiese, xxil. 40. 

V., emperor (I. of Spain), v. 413; 
X. 497; xin. 716; xxil. 328; his 
attitude towards the Reformation, xv. 
74; XX. 328; towards the council of 
Trent, xxm. 546; his treatment of 
Hernan Cortes, VI. 442; his relations 
with Henry VIII. of England, XL 
663; his rivalry with Francis I. of 
France, IX. 556; as ruler of Holland, 
xii. 73; his power in Italy, xm. 482; 
his relations with Spain, xvni. 743. 

VI., emperor, .418; x. 502. 
- VII., emperor, v. 418; X. 503. 

or Charles Louis, archduke 



f 

Austria, v. 423. 
-, the Bold, duke of Burgundy, .424; 



IX. 552; his invasion of Switzerland, 
XXIL 786. 

I., king of England, v. 404; vm. 
345; parliament under, xvni. 307; 
his policy in Ireland, xm. 266; in 
Scotland, xxi. 511; his relations with 
Buckingham, IV. 418 ; with Earl 
Strafford, XXIL 584; xxiv. 17; defence 
of, by Salmasius, XXL 220. 

- II., of England, v. 408; vm. 348; 

his relations with Monmouth, xvi. 

755; with the Popish Plot, xvn. 697; 

with Presbyterianism, xix. 690; his 

rule in Ireland, xm. 267; his policy 

in Scotland, xxi. 514. 
I., the Bald, king of France (emperor 

Charles II.), v. 409; ix. 534; x. 480. 
II., the Fat, of France (emperor 

Charles III.), v. 409 ; IX. 535 ; x. 

481. 

III., the Simple, of France, v. 409, 
ix. 535- 

IV., the Fair, of France, v. 409; IX. 



545- 



V., the Wise, of France, v. 409; IX. 

547- 

- VI., of France, v. 410; ix. 548. 

VII., of France, v. 410; IX. 549. 
-VIII., of France, v. 411; ix. 553; 

in Italy, ix. 335; xin. 481. 

- IX., of France, .412; IX. 560. 

X., of France, v. 412; ix. 619. 

(count of Anjou and Provence), 



king of Naples, V. 422; his relations 
with Pope Martin IV., xv. 582; as 
senator of Rome, XX. 797; his rule in 
Sicily, XXIL 27 ; as lord of Tuscany, 
xin. 475. 

II., the Bad, king of Navarre, v. 

423; XXIL 324. 



CHARLES III., of Navarre, XXIL 324. 

IV., of Navarre, v. 423; xxil. 324. 

(of Hohenzollern), king of Rou- 
mania, xxi. 21. 

- I.-III., dukes of Savoy, xxi. 341. 

I., king of Spain (emperor Charles 
V., q.v.), v. 413; XXIL 328. 

II., of Spain, v. 418; ix. 580; XXIL 



333- 



III., of Spain, v. 419; ix. 582; 
336, 340. 

- IV., of Spain, v. 419; XXIL 342. 

VIII., king of Sweden, xxil. 747. 

- IX., of Sweden, v. 419; XXIL 748. 

X., of Sweden (Charles Gustavus), 
v. 419; XXIL 749. 

XL, of Sweden, V. 420; XXIL 749. 
XII., of Sweden, v. 420; XXIL 



750; his conflict with Russia, xxi. 
97 ; Voltaire s History of his Life, 
xxiv. 292. 

XIII., of Sweden, v. 422; XXIL 752. 

XIV., of Sweden (Bernaclotte), ill. 
601; xvii. 220; XXIL 752. 

XV., of Sweden, v. 422 ; xxil. 753. 

, duke of Guise, XL 267. 

, duke of Orleans (Charles d 

Orleans), early French writer, xvn. 

851; IX. 647. 
-, Jaccpaes A. C., French aeronaut, I. 



1 88. 

, Thomas, Welsh Methodist preacher, 

xvi. 193. 

ALBERT (of Savoy- Car ignano), 
king of Sardinia, v. 425; xm. 486; 
xxi. 342. 

AUGUSTUS, grand-duke of Saxe- 



Weimar, v. 425; xxi. 350. 

- EDWARD STUART, prince, v. 426; 
vm. 355; xxi. 526. 

EMMANUEL I., duke of Savoy, v. 
427; xxi. 341. 

EMMANUEL II.-IV., of Savoy, 
XXL 342. 

- ET GEORGES, Affair of. Portugal, 
xix. 553. 

ISLAND, Galapagos, Pacific, x. 17. 
Louis MOUNTAINS, New Guinea, 



xvii. 386. 

M ARTEL, mayor of the palace, 



France, v. 427; IX. 531. 
O MALLEY, Lever s novel, xiv. 



CHARLES S LAW, of gases, xvi. 61 1 ; xix. 

243; XXIL 479. 
CHARLESTON, town, South Carolina, 

U.S.A., v. 428; XXIL 288. 
, town, West Virginia, U.S.A., xxiv. 



519. 

CHARLESTOWN, town, Massachusetts, 
U.S.A., v. 429. 
, town, Nevis, West Indies, xvn. 

369- 
CHARLET, Nicolas Toussaint, French 

painter, v. 429. 

CHARLETON, Walter, on birds, xvni. 4. 
CHARLEVILLE, town, France, v. 429. 



CHARLEVOIX, Pierre Francois Xavier 

de, French traveller, v. 429. 
CHARLIER, John, of Gerson, chancellor 

of Paris university, x. 549. 
CHARLOTTE, town, North Carolina, 

U.S.A., xvii. 561. 
- AMALIE, town, St Thomas, West 

Indies, xxi. 200. 
CHARLOTTENBURG, town, Prussia, v. 

429. 
CHARLOTTESVILLE, town, Virginia, 

U.S.A., v. 430. 

, Canada, mineral water of, xvi. 436. 

CHARLOTTETOWN, town, Prince Edward 

Island, North America, v. 430; xix. 

740. 
CHARLOTTEVILLE, town, Dominica, 

West Indies, VII. 354. 
CHARLTON WHITE, pigment, xix. 86. 
CHARMIDES, dialogue of Plato, xix. 196. 
CHARMOISE, French breed of sheep, IV. 

246. 

CHARMS, Magical, xv. 202. 
CHARNEL-HOUSE, in architecture, n. 

462. 

CHAROLLAIS, district, France, xxi. 301. 
CHAROLLES, town, France, v. 430; xxi. 

302. 
CHARON, in Greek mythology, v. 430; 

terra-cotta group, xxm. 192. 
CHARONDAS, Greek lawgiver, v. 430. 
CHARONNE, heights, Paris, xvni. 274. 
CHARPENTIER, Frangois, French archaeo 
logist, v. 430. 
-, Jean de, on glaciers, x. 628. 



CHARR, fish, xii. 693; xxi. 223, 225. 
CHARRAN (Haran), of Scripture, XL 454. 
CHARRIERE, Madame de, Swiss writer, 

XXIL 799. 
CHARRON, Pierre, French philosopher, 

v. 430; IX. 655; on scepticism, xxi. 

382. 
CHARRUA, Indian tribe, South America, 

xxiv. 1 6. 

CHARSADDA, town, India, xvin. 684. 
CHARTA BOMBYCINA, cotton paper, 

XVIIL 217. 
CHARTER, v. 431. 
CHARTERGUS, genus of wasps, xxiv. 

392- 

CHARTER HOUSE, Carthusian monas 
tery, I. 20; v. 163. 

CHARTERHOUSE SCHOOL, London, xiv. 

835- 
CHARTERIS, Hi-iiry, early Scottish 

printer, xxi. 541. 
CHARTER-PARTY, shipping contract, v. 

433- 
CHARTERS, English, Early forms of, vn. 

255. 

CHARTER WRITING, xvni. 161. 

CHARTIER, Alain, French writer, v. 433; 
ix. 647. 

CHARTISM, movement for political re 
form, v. 433; VIII. 366; in relation 
to socialism, xxil. 210. 

CHARTRES, town, France, v. 434; cathe- 



C H A C H E 



93 



dral, architecture of, II. 430; sculptures 

in cathedral, xxi. 562. 
CHARTRES, Humanist school of, xxi. 

421. 
, William de, grand-master of the 

Templars, XXIII. 162. 
CHARTREUSE, liqueur, v. 435; xiv. 687. 
, La Grande, monastery, France, v. 

434, 163. 
CHARTS, Marine, xvn. 263; xv. 518; 

their early use in navigation, xvn. 

253- 
CHARVAKHAS, Hindu materialistic sect, 

xxi. 291. 
CHARYBDIS, whirlpool, xxiv. 541. 

, Scylla and, legend of, xxi. 574. 
CHASE, The, hunting, XII. 393; Nor 
man laws of, IX. 409. 
, Salmon Portland, American states 
man, v. 435; xxni. 770. 
CHASIDIM (Asidseans), ancient Jewish 

party, II. 729. 

, modern Jewish sect, xm. 

68 1. 
CHASING, ornamentation of metals, vin. 

189. 
CllASSERON, mountain, Switzerland, 

xm. 781. 
CHASTAIGNER, Louis de, patron of 

Scaliger, xxi. 363. 
CHASTELAIN, Georges, Burgundian 

chronicler, v. 435. 
CHASTELARD, Pierre Boscobel de, 

French poet, v. 436; his relations 

with Mary, queen of Scots, xv. 595. 
CHASTENOY, France, Peace of (1576), 

ix. 562. 
CHASUBLE, ecclesiastical vestment, vi. 

462. 

CHAT, bird, xxiv. 537. 
CHATEAU BARRIERE, ruin, Perigueux, 

France, xvm. 534. 
CHATEAUBRIAND, Frangois Rene, Vi- 

comte de, French essayist, V. 436; ix. 

672, 674. 
CHATEAUBRIANT, town, France, v. 

438- 
CHATEAU - CHINON, town, Nievre, 

France, XVII. 496. 
CHATEAU D OLERON, town, France, 

xvii. 761. 

CHATEAUDUN, town, France, v. 438. 
CHATEAU-GONTIER, town, France, v. 

438; XV. 648. 

CHATEAUNEUF, spa, France, xx. 120. 
CHATEAUROUX, town, France, v. 438. 
CHATEAU-THIERRY, town, France, v. 

439; battle of (1814), xvn. 221. 
CHATELDON, France, mineral water of, 

xvi. 436; xx. 120. 

CHATELET, Madame du, Voltaire s asso 
ciation with, xxiv. 287. 
CHATELGUYON, spa, France, xx. 120. 
CHATELLERAULT, town, France, v. 439; 

xxiv. 222. 

CHATER, river, England, xxi. 114. 
CHATHAM, town, England, v. 439; dock 



yard, vii. 311, 318; school of military 
engineering, 1 1. 586. 
CHATHAM, town, Ontario, Canada, xvn. 

775- 

, town, New Brunswick, xvn. 375. 

First Earl of, (William Pitt), English 

statesman, v. 440; vni. 356; x. 423; 
xix. 134. 

ISLANDS, Pacific Ocean, v. 444; 
xvn. 466. 

ISLE, Galapagos, Pacific, x. 17. 



CHATILLON, Gaultier de, author of the 
romance Alexandreis, xx. 641. 

CHATILLON-SUR-SEINE, town, France, 
v. 444. 

CHATISGARH (Chhatisgarh), district, 
India, v. 608. 

CHAT Moss, England, Reclamation of, I. 
404; railway works at, xx. 233. 

CHATSWORTH, seat of duke of Devon 
shire, Derby, England, v. 445. 

CHATTAHOOCHEE, river, Georgia, U.S.A., 
x. 434. 

CHATTANOOGA, town, Tennessee, U.S.A., 
v. 445; xxni. 178. 

CHATTERTON, Thomas, English poet, v. 

445- 

CHATTI, ancient German people, v. 244. 
CHATURANGA, Hindu game, v. 598. 
CHAUBISI, district, Nepal, xvn. 340. 
CHAUCER, Geoffrey, English poet, v. 

449; his connexion with London, XIV. 

845; English language in time of, vin. 

397 ; his place in English literature, 

viii. 411. 
CHAUCI, ancient German tribe, X. 473; 

xm. 758. 
CHAUDES-AIGUES, town, France, v. 

454- 
CHAUDET, Antoine, French sculptor, 

xxi. 564. 
CHAUDIERE, river and falls, Canada, 

xvin. 68; xx. 165. 
CHAUHANS, clan of Rajputs, India, xv. 

303- 
CHAULIAC, Guy de, French surgeon, 

xxn. 675. 
CHAUMONT, town, France, v. 45.;; 

district, xv. 562. 
CHAUNA, genus of birds, xxi. 552. 
CHAUNCY, Charles, American Univer- 

salist, xxin. 831. 
CHAUNY, town, France, v. 454. 
CHAUVIN, Etienne, French Reformed 

divine, V. 454; his Lexicon Rationale, 

vni. 194. 
CHAUX DE FONDS, town, Switzerland, 

v. 454; xvii. 361; xxn. 779. 
CHAVES, town, Portugal, v. 454. 
CRAY-ROOT, dye, xv. 177. 
CHA-YUL, district, Tibet, xxni. 341. 
CHAZELLES, Jean Matthieu de, French 

mathematician, v. 454. 
CHEATING, in law, ix. 726; xxni. 233. 
CHECK, or Cheque, V. 583; III. 315. 
CHECQUY, in heraldry, XL 698. 
CHEDDAR CHEESE, v. 456; in. 163. 



CHEDUBA, island, Bay of Bengal, v. 

454- 

CHEE, or Tshi, tribe and language, Gold 
Coast, Africa, X. 756. 

CHEEK, Anatomy of the, i. 825. 

CHEER-PINE, tree, xix. 105. 

CHEESE, v. 455; xvi. 304; Cheddar, v. 
456; 111.163; Dunlop,in. 163; Glarus, 
x. 636; Milanese, xvi. 292; Stilton, 
xiv. 424; Italian varieties, XIII. 452; 
Swiss, xxn. 779. 

CHEESE-MAKING, in England, v. 589; 
vi. 771. 

CHEESE-MITE, xvi. 529. 

CHEETAH, or Hunting Leopard, v. 456; 
xii. 396; xiv. 463; xv. 435. 

CHE-Foo, town, China, v. 455, 634. 

CHEFREN, Chephren, or Khafra, Egyp 
tian king, v. 582 ; vii. 733 ; pyramid 
of, II. 386; xx. 123. 

CHE HWANG-TE, emperor of China, v. 

643- 
CHEKE, Sir John, English scholar, v. 

457- 

CHE-KEANG, province, China, v. 636. 

CHEKHS (Czechs, q.v.), Slav race, xxn. 
145, 147. 

CHELCICKY, Peter, leader of a Moravian 
sect, xvi. Sii; xxn. 151. 

CHELEBI, Ali and Katib, Ottoman 
writers, xxni. 657. 

CHELIDON, genus of birds, xv. 581. 

CHELIDONIAN ISLANDS, Asia Minor, 
xv. 93. 

CHELIDOPTERA, genus of birds, xx. 101. 

CHELLIA, Jebel, mountain, Numidia, 
xvii. 628. 

CHELMSFORD, town, England, v. 457. 

CHELONIA, group of reptiles, xx. 440, 
445; xxin. 455; in Lankester s classi 
fication, xxiv. 812. 
, genus of reptiles, XXIII. 458. 

CHELSEA, borough, London, v. 457; 
xiv. 821; porcelain works at, xix. 
640; Roval Military Asylum at, n. 
586. 

, town, Massachusetts, U.S.A., v. 

458. 

CHELTENHAM, town, England, v. 458. 

CHELYDlDiE, family of chelonian rep 
tiles, xxni. 457. 

CHELYDRID^E, family of chelonian 
reptiles, xxin. 457. 

CHELYS, Greek lyre, xv. 114. 
, genus of chelonian reptiles, XX. 
452; xxni. 459. 

CHEMICAL MEDICINE, Schools of, xv. 
808, 8 10. 

CHEMICALS, Magnetism of, xv. 264. 

CHEMICKING, in bleaching, in. 817. 

CHEMISTRY, v. 459 (index, 579); inor 
ganic, V. 467; organic, v. 544; origin 
of, in alchemy, I. 459; analysis and 
synthesis in, I. 795; Dalton s atomic 
theory, vi. 785 ; molecules in, XVI. 
620 ; in relation to minerals, xvi. 
379; to physiology, XIX. 9; to zoo- 



94 



C H E C H I 



logical study, XXIV. 815; of iron, XIII. 
279; of lichens, xiv. 558; of rubies, 
XXI. 48; thermometers used in, XXIII. 
290; contributions to the science by 
Gay Lussac, x. 122; by Liebig, xiv. 
566; by Newton, xvn. 448; by 
Priestley, xix. 732; by Regnault, XX. 
347; by Ste-Claire Deville, XXI. 166; 
by Scheele, XXI. 388; by Wohler, 
xxiv. 626; by Wurtz, XXIV. 703; 
societies for promotion of, xxil. 225. 
CHEMMIS, ancient town, Egypt, vn. 

794- 
CHEMNITZ, town, Saxony, v. 580; xxi. 

358. 

, Martin, German Lutheran divine, 

v. 580. 

Philipp Bogislaw von, German 



publicist, XX. 100. 
CHEMOSH, god of the Moabites, xvi. 

534- 

CHEMY, or Alchemy, I. 459. 
CHEN, genus of birds, x. 777. 
CHENCHUS, tribe, Karnul, Indian Archi 
pelago, xiv. 6. 
CHENDWARA (Chhiiidwara), district and 

town, India, v. 608. 
CHENEDOLLE, C. J. Pioult de, French 

poet, ix. 672. 

CHENGHIZ KHAN (Jenghiz Khan), Mon 
gol ruler, xm. 620; II. 699; XVI. 

740. 
CHENG-TE Fu (Jehol), town, China, 

xm. 619. 
CHENIER, Andre Marie de, French poet, 

v. 581; ix. 665. 
, Marie Joseph de, French poet and 

dramatist, v. 581. 
CHENOMORPH^E, group of birds, in. 

712. 
CHEOPS, Egyptian king, v. 582; vn. 

732; pyramid of, XX. 123. 
CHEPANGS, tribe, Nepal, xvn. 341. 
CHEPHREN, or Khafra, Egyptian king, 

v. 582; VII. 733; pyramid of, n. 386; 

XX. 123. 
CHEPING WALDEN (Saffron Walden), 

town, England, xxi. 146. 
CHEPSTOW, town, Monmouth, England, 

v. 583; castle, xvi. 754. 
CHEQUE, in banking, v. 583; in. 315. 
CHER, department, France, v. 584; 

river, Xiv. 806. 
CHERAS, dynasty, Mysore, India, xvn. 

123. 

CHERASCO, town, Italy, v. 584. 
CHERBOURG, town, France, v. 584; 

xv. 459. 
CHERBULIEZ, Swiss family of writers, 

xxn. 799. 

, Victor, Swiss novelist, xxn. 799. 

CHERCHELL, town, North- West Africa, 

xv. 637. 

CHEREMISS, or Tcheremissian, Ural- 
Altaic language, IX. 219; XXIV. I; 

dictionary of, vn. 188. 
CHERETHITES, of Scripture, xvin. 757. 



CHERIBON, town, Java, v. 585; xm. 

606; residency, xm. 606. 
CHERKASSK, or Tcherkassk, district, 

Russia, vn. 356; xvn. 609. 
CHEROKEES, American-Indian tribe, v. 

585; x. 437; xn. 828, 834. 
CHEROOT, variety of cigar, v. 776; 

xxin. 426. 
CHERRA POONJEE, station, India, xiv. 

58. 

CHERRY, tree and fruit, v. 586; xn. 270. 
CHERRY-KERNEL OIL, xvn. 744. 
CHERRY-LAUREL, tree, xiv. 348. 
CHERSO, island, Illyria, v. 586. 
CHERSONESE, peninsula, v. 586. 

, Demosthenes s oration on the, vn. 



-, Heracleotic, part of Crimea, xxi. 



616. 
, Tauric, Crimea, VI. 585; coins of, 

xvn. 640. 
CHERSONESUS, ancient town, Russia, 

vi. 587; xxi. 616. 
, Aurea, or Malay Peninsula, XV. 



321. 

CHERT, siliceous rock, x. 239; xvi. 

389- 

CHERTSEY, town, England, v. 586. 
CHERUBIM, of Scripture, v. 587. 
CHERUBINI, M. L. Z. C. Salvatore, 

Italian musical composer, v. 587; as 

symphonist, xvn. 97. 
CHERUSCI, ancient German tribe, v. 

588. 
CHERWELL, river, England, xvn. 555; 

XVIII. 93; XXIII. 220. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY, Maryland, U.S.A., 

xv. 602. 
CHESELDEN, William, English surgeon, 

i. 815; xxiv. 189. 
CHESHIRE, county, England, v. 588; 

population and representation, xxin. 

727; salt mines of, XXI. 231. 
CHESIL, raised beach, Dorset, England, 

vn. 371. 
CHESNEY, Charles Cornwallis, English 

military writer, v. 591. 
CHESS, game, v. 592. 
CHESS-PLAYING AUTOMATONS, xv. 

210. 

CHESSYLITE, mineral, vi. 347; xv. 315. 
CHEST, Anatomy of the, I. 822; xx. 476; 

inflammation of, xix. 222. 

, for clothes, in furniture, IX. 848. 
CHESTER, or Cheshire (i-v.\ county, 

England, v. 588. 
, town, England, v. 604. 

, town, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., v. 606. 
CHESTERFIELD, town, England, v. 606. 

, Fourth Earl of, v. 606. 
CHESTER-LE-STREET, town, England, 

v. 608. 
CHESTER PLAYS, English miracle-plays, 

vn. 414. 
CHESTNUT, tree and fruit, v. 608; xvn. 

664; in United States, xxin. 808; 

culture of, n. 317. 



CHESUNCOOK, lake, Maine, U.S.A., xv. 

298. 
CHETA, district, ancient Syria, xxn. 

822. 
CHETHAM LIBRARY, Manchester, xv. 

463- 
CHETLAT, island, Laccadivcs, Indian 

Ocean, xiv. 183. 

CHETTLE, Henry, English poet, vi. 296. 
CHEVALIER, Michel, French economist, 

xix. 395. 

, Sulpice Guillaume, French cari 
caturist, x. 1 1 8. 

, Sulpice Paul, French caricaturist, 

v. 105. 

DE ST GEORGE (James Stuart, the 



Pretender), xin. 560. 
CHEVAUX-DE-FRISE, in fortification, ix. 

423-, . 
CHEVE, Emile, French musician, xvn. 

100. 

CHEVETS, in architecture, n. 430. 
CHEVIOT HILLS, Great Britain, v. 608; 

xvn. 564; xxi. 34. 
CHEVIOT SHEEP, i. 392. 
CHEVR/EANA, ana of Chcvreau, i. 785. 
CHEVRON, in heraldry, XL 694. 
CHEVROTAIN, ungulate mammal, xv. 

430. 
CHEYENNE, town, Wyoming, U.S.A., 

xxiv. 713. 
CHEYENNES, American-Indian tribe, 

xn. 831,834. 
CHEYLETID^E, family of Arachnida, xvi. 

528. 
CHEYNE, George, English physician, xv. 

811. 

CHEZY, Antoine Leonard, French Orien 
talist, v. 608. 

CHHAPRA, town, India, xxi. 304. 
CHHATISGARH, district, India, v. 608. 
CHHINDWARA, district and town, India, 

v. 608. 

CHHUIKHADAN, state, India, xx. 257. 
CHIABRERA, Gabriello, Italian lyric 

poet, v. 609; xin. 511. 
CHIAMDO, town, Tibet, xxin. 342; river, 

xxin. 339. 

CHIAPAS, state, Mexico, xvi. 214. 
CHIARAMONTE, town, Sicily, v. 609. 
CHIARAMONTI, Gregorio Luigi Barnaba 

(Pope Pius VII.), xix. 155. 
CHIARI, town, Italy, v. 609. 
CHIAROSCURO, in drawing, vn. 449. 
CHIASTOLITE, mineral, xvi. 408. 
CHIAVARI, town, Italy, v. 610. 
CHIAVENNA, town, Italy, v. 610. 
CHIAZZA, town, Sicily, xix. 79. 
CHIBCHAS, Indians, Colombia, vi. 156. 
CHICAGO, town, Illinois, U.S.A., v. 710; 

xxi. 178; xxin. 822; libraries of, 

xiv. 535, 550; newspapers, xvn. 435. 
CHICARA, kind of antelope, n. 102. 
CHICHELE, or Chichcly, Henry, arch 
bishop of Canterbury, v. 613. 
CHlCHEN-lTZA, ancient town, Yucatan, 

I. 694; xxiv. 43, 759. 



C H I C H I 



CHICHEREE, bird, xiv. 81. 
CHICHESTER, town, England, v. 613; 

XXII. 724; sculptures in cathedral, 

xxi. 557. 
CHICHIMECS, people, ancient Mexico, 

xvi. 209. 

CHICK, in various stages, n. 700. 
CHICKAMAUGA, U.S.A., Battle of (1863), 

xxiii. 778. 
CHICKASAWS, American-Indian tribe, v. 

614; xii. 828, 835. 
CHICKERING, Jonas, pianoforte maker, 

xix. 77. 

CHICK-PEA, plant, xi. 36. 
CHICLANA, town, Spain, v. 614. 
CHICLAYO, town, Peru, xvm. 674. 
CHICOPEE, town, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 

v. 614. 
CHICORY, plant, v. 614; culture of, I. 

383; xii. 281; as forage, I. 378; root 

mixed with coffee, I. 169; VI. 114. 
CHICOVA, town, on Zambesi river, 

Africa, xxiv. 765. 
CHIEF, in heraldry, XI. 694. 

, of Scottish clans and Irish septs, 

xxiii. 418. 

JUSTICE, legal title, xm. 788. 



CHIEFTAINSHIP, Celtic, v. 800. 
CHIENG MAI, Shan state and town, 

Eastern Asia, xxi. 773, 853. 
CHIERI, town, Italy, v. 615. 
CHIETI, town, Italy, v. 615. 
CHIFFCHAFF, bird, xxiv. 688. 
CHIGI, Agostino, Italian patron of art, 

xx. 279. 
, Fabio (Pope Alexander VII.), I. 

490. 

FRESCOS, Raphael s, xx. 279. 
CHIGNECTO BAY, New Brunswick, xvn. 

373- 

CHIGOE, insect, ix. 301; xm. 150. 
CHIHIL MENARE, ruins of Persepolis, 

Persia, xvm. 558. 
CHIHIL SUTUN, palace, Ispahan, xm. 

394- 

CHIH-LI, province, China, v. 633. 
CHIHUAHUA, town, Mexico, v. 615; 

xvi. 214; province, XVI. 214. 

, town, Texas, U.S.A., xxi. 254. 
CHILBLAIN, form of frost-bite, xvi. 

849. 

CHILD, its position in law, xm. i. 
, Sir Josiah, English economist, XIX. 

357- 

, Lydia American authoress, I. 727. 

CHILD-CROWING, false croup, vi. 617; 
xxm. 320. 

CHILDE HAROLD, Byron s poem, iv. 
606. 

CHILDERIC I., king of the Franks, x. 
476. 

CHILDERS, Robert Ceesar, English 
Orientalist, v. 615. 

CHILDHOOD, Period of, xv. 778. 

CHILD MURDER, xm. 3. 

CHILDREN, Diet for, vn. 201; law relat 
ing to, xm. i. 



CHILDRENITE, mineral, xvi. 407. 
CHILDREN S CRUSADE, vi. 627. 
CHILE (Chili, q.v.), country, South 

America, v. 616. 
CHILENITE, mineral, xvi. 393. 
CHILES, mountain, Ecuador, vn. 645. 
CHILI, country, South America, V. 616; 

i. 713; new northern boundary, xvm. 

669; revolt against Spain, 1.709; Lord 

Cochraiie s naval exploits in, VII. 540; 

war with Peru (1879), XVIII. 679; 

marine fishes of, xii. 68 1; forests, IX. 

406; Indian tribes, xn. 829; news 
papers, xvn. 437 ; observatory at 

Santiago, xvn. 716; railways, xx. 252. 

, vegetable, xii. 280. 

CHILIANS, Ancient, I. 700. 
CHILIANWALA, India, Battle of (1849), 

v. 624; xn. 808. 

CHILIASM, or Millenarianism, in Chris 
tian eschatology, vm. 534; xvi. 315; 

xvm. 427; xx. 497. 
CHILLAN, town, Chili, v. 624; mineral 

spring at, v. 617. 
CHILLIANWALLA, town, India, v. 624; 

battle of (1849), xii. 808. 
CHILLICOTHE, town, Ohio, U.S.A., v. 

624. 
CHILLINGHAM PARK, Northumberland, 

England, xvn. 566; wild cattle of, v. 

245. 
CHILLINGWORTH, William, English 

divine, v. 624. 
CHILLON, Castle of, Switzerland, xxiv. 

115; Prisoner of (Bonuivard), IV. 36. 
CHILLY, pickle, v. 280. 
CHILMAREE, town, India, v. 625. 
CHILOANGA, river, West Africa, xiv. 

742. 
CHILOE, island and province, Chili, v. 

617, 625. 
CHILOGNATHA, order of Myriapoda, 

xvii. 1 1 8. 

CHILON, Greek sage, v. 626. 
CHILOPODA, order of Myriapoda, xvn. 

119. 
CHILOSCYLLIUM, genus of sharks, xxi. 

774- 
CHILOSCYPHUS, genus of liverworts, 

xvii. 68. 
CHILOSTOMA, suborder of Polyzoa, xix. 

437- 
CHILOSTOMELLIDEA, order of Protozoa, 

xix. 847. 
CHILTERN HILLS, England, v. 626; 

xvm. 93. 
CHILTERN HUNDREDS, Bucks, England, 

IV. 416; stewardship of, v. 626. 
CHILUNGA, district, West Africa, xiv. 

742. 
CHIM/ERA, in Greek mythology, v. 626; 

xv. 94; in heraldry, xi. 701. 
CHIMAY, town, Belgium, v. 626. 
CHIMBORAZO, mountain, Ecuador, vn. 

645. 

CHIMBOTE, town, Peru, xvm. 674. 
CHIME, of bells, in. 539. 



CHIMNEY, in building, iv. 466; ventila 
tion by, xxiv. 1 59. 

CHIMPANZEE, ape, n. 149. 

CHINA, v. 626 (index, 672); II. 684; in 
Ptolemy s geography, xx. 95; early 
history of, II. .117, 700; its conquests in 
Turkestan, xxm. 639; invasion of, by 
the Bactriaus, xvm. 590, 592, 599; by 
Jenghiz Khan, xm. 621; conquest of 
by the Mongols, xiv. 151; xvi. 742; 
its rule in Tibet, xxm. 343; in time of 
Marco Polo, xix. 406; architecture, II. 
448; birds, in. 762; coalfields, VI. 59; 
coins, xvn. 661; cotton supply, VI. 484; 
emigration from, vm. 175; forests, 
ix. 405 ; glass-making, x. 651 ; 
libraries, xiv. 534, 549; Confucian 
literature, vi. 263; mines, XVI. 469; 
Christian missions, xvi. 517; Jesuit 
missions, xm. 652; xx. 536; news 
papers, xvii. 432; observatories, xvn. 
716; opium cultivation and trade, xv 1 1 . 
788, 791; pearl oysters, xvm. 448; 
porcelain, xix. 633; railways, xx. 
252 ; religion, XX. 363 ; ancient 
religion, xxm. 236; Taoist religion, 
Xiv. 296; Roman Catholic Church in, 
xix. 810; silk industry in, xxu. 56; 
tea culture, xxm. 98; weights and 
measures, xxiv. 490; survey of, by 
Jesuit missionaries, X. 188. 

ASTER, plant, n. 736; xn. 249. 



CHINAB, river, Punjab, India, xx. 107. 
CHINA BLUE, for calico printing, iv. 

690. 

CHINA CLAY, xiv. i. 
CHINA GRASS, xx. 506. 
CHINA INK, xm. 80. 
CHINALI MOUNTAINS, Texas, U.S.A., 

xxm. 204. 
CHINANDEGA, town, Nicaragua, xvn. 

477- 

CHINA SEA, xvm. 116. 
CHINCHA, town, Peru, xvm. 674. 

ISLANDS, Peru, v. 673; xvm. 



671; guano of, xi. 233. 
CHINCHAY-COCHA, lake, Peru, xvm. 

673- 

CHINCHEW, town, China, v. 673. 
CHINCHILLA, rodent mammal, v. 673; 

iv. 13; xv. 420; skins of, IX. 838. 
-, town, Spain, v. 673. 



CHINCHON, Countess of, her connexion 

with cinchona, v. 781. 
CHINCHONA (Cinchona, g.v.), tree, v. 

780; xvm. 673. 
CHINCHU, town, China, v. 673. 
CHIN-COUGH, or Hooping-Cough, xn. 

154. 
CHINESE, people of China, II. 697; their 

relations to American Indians, XII. 

823; compared to the Peruvians, I. 

698; in California, iv. 706; their use 

of explosives in war, 1 1. 655. 

ASTRONOMY, 11. 745. 
CHRONOLOGY, v. 717. 
COOLIES, vi. 334. 



96 



C H I C H 



CHINESE DRAMA, vn. 400. 

CHINESE HOG, i. 400. 

CHINESE LANGUAGE, v. 653; xvni. 774; 
alphabetisni of, I. 602 ; its relation to 
Japanese, xni. 585; Julien s works on, 
xill. 770; dictionaries, VII. igi. 

CHINESE LITERATURE, v. 653. 

CHINESE PINK, garden annual, xn. 249. 

CHINESE TALLOW, vegetable fat, xvn. 
744, 746. 

CHING-HAI, or Chin-hae, town, China, v. 
674; xvn. 513. 

CHINGLEPUT, town, India, v. 674. 

CHING-SZE, Jenghiz Khan (q.i\), xni. 
620. 

CHING-TOO Foo, town, China, v. 638. 

CHIN-HAE, town, China, v. 674; xvn. 

5i3- 
CHIN-KEANG Foo, town, China, v. 

674. 
CHINNERETH, Sea of, or Sea of Galilee, 

Palestine, x. 29. 
CHINO, Negro and Indian half-caste, 

XVII. 317. 
CHINON, town, France, v. 674; peace of 

(1214), xni. 714. 
CHINSURAH, town, India, v. 674. 
CHINTAMANI, Tamil poem, xxm. 43. 
CHIOGGIA, town, Italy, v. 674; war of 

(1379), xin. 480; xxiv. 144. 
CHIOLITE, mineral, xvi. 384. 
CHIONIS, genus of birds, xxi. 782. 
CHIOS (Scio), Greek island, XXI. 465; 

coins of, XVII. 647; school of sculpture 

at, II. 349. 
CHIOZZA (Chioggia), town, Italy, v. 674; 

xxiv. 144. 

CHIPLUN, town, India, xx. 292. 
CHIPMUNK, American squirrel, xxn. 

438. 
CHIPPENHAM, town, England, v. 674; 

xxiv. 594. 
CHIPPEWAYS, American Indians, xn. 

827, 831. 
CHIPPING BARNET, town, England, in. 

379- 

CHIPPING WYCOMBE, toAvn, England, 
xxiv. 712. 

CHIPUTNETICOOK, lakes, New Bruns 
wick, xvii. 373. 

CHIQUITOS, American Indians, XII. 
829. 

CHIRA, town, Turkestan, xiv. 67. 

CHIRIMOYA, Peruvian fruit, xvin. 673. 

CHIRK. Wales, Aqueduct of, n. 229. 

CHIROGALEUS, genus of lemurs, xiv. 
442. 

CHIROMACH^ERIS, genus of birds, xv. 

455- 
CHIROMANCY, palmistry, xv. 206; xix. 

4- 

CHIROMYS, genus of lemurs, xiv. 443. 
CHIRON, in Greek mythology, v. 675. 
CHIRONECTES, genus of marsupial 

mammals, xvn. 796. 
CHIROPTERA, order of Mammalia, xv. 

405. 



CHIROXIPHIA, genus of birds, xv. 455. 
CHIRU, antelope, u. 102. 
CHISEL, cutting tool, xi. 437. 
CHISWICK, village, England, v. 675. 
CHITARRONE, Roman lute, xv. 70. 
CHITON, Greek article of dress, vi. 453. 
CHITONS, order of Mollusca, xvi. 641. 
CHITRAL, state and town, Hindu Kush, 

Asia, XL 838; xiv. 9. 
CHITTAGONG, district and town, India, 

v. 675. 

HILL TRACTS, district, India, v. 



675- 

CHIUS, or Chios (q.v.), island, II. 349. 

CHIUSA, town, Italy, v. 676. 

CHIUSHINGURA, Japanese tale, vn. 
402. 

CHIUSI, town, Italy, v. 676; vni. 635. 

CHIVALRY, xiv. no; in England, vni. 
299; in German literature, x. 523; 
romances of, xx. 632; Spanish books 
of, xxil. 354; treatment of, in Ville- 
hardouin s Chronicle, xxiv. 230. 

CHIVASSO, town, Italy, v. 676. 

CHIVES, vegetable, xn. 281. 

CHIVIATITE, mineral, xvi. 396. 

CHLADNI S FIGURES, in acoustics, i. 

"3- 

CHLADNITE, mineral, xvi. 415. 

CHL^ENACEyE, order of plants, Madagas 
car, xv. 170. 

CHLAMYDOPHORA, order of Protozoa, 
xix. 845. 

CHLAMYDOPHORE, edentate mammal, v. 
676; xv. 386. 

CHLAMYDOSAURUS, genus of lizards, 
xiv. 736; xx. 457, 458. 

CHLAMYDOSELACHUS, genus of sharks, 
xxi. 778. 

CHLAMYS, Greek article of dress, vi. 

453- 

CHLOANTITE, mineral, xvi. 390. 
CHLOASMA, skin disease, xxn. 122. 
CHLODWIG (Clovis, q.v.), Frankish king, 

x. 476. 

CHLOEIA, genus of Annelida, n. 68. 
CHLOPICKI, Joseph, Polish insurgent, 

xix. 298. 
CHLORAL, in chemistry, v. 676; hydrate 

of, v. 677; xvii. 232. 
CHLORATE OF POTASH, xix. 591 ; as 

explosive, vni. 807. 
CHLORATE OF SODA, xxn. 241. 
CHLORHYDRATE OF AMYLENE, Wurtz s 

investigation of, xxiv. 703. 
CHLORIDE of iron, xni. 280; of lime, 

V. 678 ; of mercury, xvi. 33 ; of 

methyl, xvi. 196; of potash, xix. 591; 

of silver, xxn. 72 ; of sulphur, xxn. 

635; of titanium, xxin. 410. 

, Ferric, magnetism of, xv. 267. 

CHLORINE, chemical element, v. 678, 

490 ; xvn. 62 ; discovery of, by Ber- 

thollet, III. 609; its action on metals, 

xvi. 71 ; as plant food, xix. 49; as 

poison, XIX. 279; use of, in bleaching, 

in. 812. 



CHLORITE, mineral, x. 228; xvi. 413. 

CHLORITOID, mineral, xvi. 413. 

CHLOROCALCITE, mineral, xvi. 384. 

CHLOROFORM, in chemistry, v. 679; as 
anaesthetic, I. 790 ; its use first ad 
vocated by Simpson, XXIL 86. 

CHLOROMELANITE, mineral, xni. 541. 

CHLOROPAL, mineral, xvi. 425. 

CHLOROPH/EITE, mineral, xvi. 415. 

CHLOROPHYLL, green-producing colour 
ing matter in plants, xix. 48, 52, 57, 
831; in. 690; iv. 87; xn. 12. 

CHLOROPHYLLITE, mineral, xvi. 418. 

CHLOROPLATINIC ACID, xix. 191. 

CHLOROPS, wheat pests, xxiv. 535. 

CHLOROSIS, disease, xni. 360; xvin. 

375- 
CHLOROSPERME^E, suborder of Alga-, 

i. 508. 

CHLOROSPINEL, mineral, xvi. 386. 
CHLOROXYLON, genus of trees, XM. 

317- 

CHLORUS, Constantius, Roman emperor, 

at Paris, xvin. 287. 

CHNUPHIS, Egyptian divinity, vn. 718. 
CHOANOFLAGELLATA, subclass of Pro 

tozoa, xix. 858. 
CHOARENE, Parthian kingdom, xvin. 

592. 
CHORE, town, Zanzibar, Africa, xxiv. 

768. 
CHOCOLATE, preparation from Cocoa 

(q.v.), v. 680; vi. ioi. 
CHOCTAWS, North-American Indians, 

V. 680. 
CHOCZIM (Khotin), town, Russia, xiv. 

67. 

CHODNEFFITE, mineral, xvi. 384. 
CHODOWIECKI, Daniel Nicolas, Polish 

painter, v. 68 1. 
CHCERONYCTERIS, genus of bats, xv. 

414. 
CHCEROPSIS, genus of ungulate mam 

mals, xxn. 772. 
CHCEROPUS, genus of marsupial mam 

mals, xv. 381; xxn. 285. 
CHOIR, in architecture, n. 462. 

, Musical, xvii. 84, 85. 
CHOISEUL, island, South Pacific, xxn. 

2 52. 

, Cesar, Due de, French general, v. 



681. 



, Claude Antoine Gabriel, Due de, 
French royalist, v. 68 1. 
-, Etienne Francois, Due de, French 



statesman, v. 68 1; ix. 590, 593. 
CHOlSY-LE-Roi, town, France, xxi. 

624. 

CHOKE-BORE GUN, XL 281; xxi. 833. 
CHOLERA, V. 682; quarantine for, xx. 

157- 
CHOLESTERIN, chemical compound in 

nerves, XIX. 24. 
CHOLET, town, France, v. 685. 
CHOLM, town, Russia, xx. 36. 
CHOLO, issue of Negro and Indian, xvn. 



C H C H R 



97 



CHOLCEPITS, genus of edentate mammals, 

xxn. 162. 

CHOLON, town, Cochin-China, XXL 152. 
CHOLULA, town, Mexico, v. 685. 
CHOLUM, Indian grain, xvi. 321. 
CHOLUTEC, language, Nicaragua, XVI I. 

479- 
CHOLUTECA, department, Honduras, 

xii. 132. 

CHOMTO DONG, lake, Tibet, xxm. 341. 
CHONDRARSENITE, mineral, xvi. 405. 
CHONDRIN, substance akin to gelatin, 

x. 130. 

CHONDRITE, meteoric stone, xvi. 112. 
CHONDRODITE, mineral, xvi. 410. 
CHONDROPTERYGII, order of fishes, xii. 

685. 
CHONDROSINA, order of sponges, xxn. 

422. 
CHONDROSTEI, suborder of fishes, xii. 

687. 
CHONDROSTEUS, genus of fossil fishes, 

xxn. 612. 
CHONDRUS CRISPUS, species of Algte, 

xiii. 276. 

CHONICRITE, mineral, xvi. 414. 
CHONOS ARCHIPELAGO, Patagonia, 

xvm. 352. 
CHONS, or Khuns, Egyptian deity, v. 

685; VII. 718. 
CHONTAL, language, Nicaragua, xvn. 

479- 

CHONTALES, gold mines, Nicaragua, 
xvn. 478. 

CHOO YUEN-CHANG, founder of Ming 
dynasty, China, v. 648; xvi. 743. 

CHOPIN, Frederic Frangois, Polish 
musical composer, v. 685. 

CHORAGIC MONUMENTS, n. 411. 

CHORALS, hymn-tunes, xvn. 85. 

CHORASMIA, ancient kingdom, Turke 
stan, xiv. 62; XVIIL 101. 

CHORAZIN, Palestine, Site of, x. 29. 

CHORDA FILUM, species of Algee, i. 509. 

CHORDATA, group of animals, xxm. 
614, 618; xxiv. 179. 

CHORDS, Ptolemy s table of, xx. 88. 

CHOREA, disease, v. 686; xvm. 391, 
398; xx. 517; xxi. 201. 

CHORENE, Moses of, Armenian historian, 
xvi. 861. 

CHOREPISCOPUS, ecclesiastical digni 
tary, vn. 14. 

CHORIN, Cistercian monastery, Prussia, 
xvn. 366. 

CHORISTIDA, order of sponges, xxii. 423. 

CHORIZONTES, advocates of dual author 
ship of Homeric poems, xii. 119. 

CHORLEY, town, England, v. 686. 

CHOROGRAPHY, notation for dancing, 
vi. 800. 

CHOROID COAT, of the eye, i. 887; 
diseases of, xvii. 783. 

CHOROIDITIS, eye disease, xvn. 782, 
783- 

CHOROTEGAN, language, Nicaragua, 
xvii. 479. 



CHORRILLOS, town, Peru, xiv. 644. 

CHORUS, in the Greek drama, xvii. 
79; vin. 674. 

CHOSES IN ACTION, CHOSES IN POS 
SESSION, in law, XVIIL 665. 

CHOSROENE, district, Mesopotamia, 
xvm. 57. 

CHOSROES I. (Khosrau I.), king of 
Persia, xvm. 612; xm. 797. 

II., xvm. 614; palace of, at 



Mashita in Moab, xvii. 35. 
CHOTA NAGPUR, or Chutia Nagpur, 

British division, and tributary states, 

India, v. 767, 768; population of, in. 

567. 
CHOTCHIM (Khotin), town, Kussia, xiv. 

67. 

CHOTI, kind of cloth, XI. 315. 
CHOTTS, or Shotts, lakes, Algeria, I. 563; 

xxi. 151; xxm. 620. 
CHOTZEMITZ, Bohemia, Battle of (1757), 

xiv. 137. 
CHOUANS, royalist insurgents, France, 

v. 686; ix. 607. 
CHOUGH, bird, vi. 618. 
CHOUMARA, F. M. T., on fortification, 

ix. 464. 
CHOUTH, Mahratta impost, India, xv. 

291. 

CHOW, Dynasty of, China, v. 643. 
CHOWBENT, or Atherton, town, Eng 
land, in. ii. 
CHOZARS (Khazars), ancient people, 

Caucasus, xiv. 59; xxi. 78. 
CHRESTIANI, CHRESTUS, for Christians, 

Christ, xm. 657. 
CHRESTIEN, Florent, French satirist 

and Latin poet, v. 687. 
DE TROVES, early French romancist, 

v. 687; xx. 649; xxiv. 632. 
CHRESTUS, CHRESTIANI, for Christ, 

Christians, XIII. 657. 
CHRISSIE, lake, Transvaal, South Africa, 

xxm. 517. 
CHRIST, Jesus, v. 687; xm. 656; the 

Messiah, xvi. 54.- 

CHRISTABEL, Coleridge s poem, vi. 137. 
CHRISTCHURCH, town, England, v. 

687. 

, town, New Zealand, v. 688. 

CHRIST CHURCH, college, Oxford, xvm. 

96. 

CHRISTIAN, origin of name, xm. 657. 
I.-II., electors of Saxony, xxi. 

354- 

II., king of Sweden, xxn. 747. 

, Fletcher, Bounty mutineer, in. 

826; xix. 132. 
- BRETHREN, religious sect, xix. 



238- 

ERA, v. 712. 



- HERO, The, by Steele, xxn. 
527. 

CHRISTIANIA, town, Norway, v. 688; 
xvn. 582; library, xiv. 532; observa 
tory, xvn. 714; university, xxm. 
850. 



CHRISTIANITY, v. 688; xx. 360; creeds 
of, vi. 558; doctrines of, vn. 332; 
xxm. 275; doctrine of sacrifice, XXI. 
138; ethics of, vill. 588; ethical con 
nexion with socialism, xxi I. 206; 
in relation to inspiration, xm. 155; 
theology of, xxm. 239; attacks on, II. 
191; Celsus s attack on, v. 296; in the 
2nd century, xvi. 774; Constantino s 
relations to, VI. 30x3; early, in Persia, 
xvm. 609; in Spain, xxn. 311; pro 
phets in the early church, xix. 822; 
its economic effects, xix. 352 ; its in 
fluence on classical art, n. 344; on 
Roman law, xx. 710; on slavery, xxn. 
134; as influenced by Gnosticism, x. 
705; by Neoplatonism, xvii. 338; its 
introduction into England, vin. 277; 
into Ireland, xm. 247; into Japan, 
xm. 584; into Russia, XXI. 89; into 
Scotland, xxi. 474; in relation to Mani- 
chseism, XV. 485; Pliny s references to, 
xix. 226; recognized as the religion of 
the Roman empire, XX. 778; Clement s 
views of, v. 820; Irenceus s, xm. 274; 
Lessing s, xiv. 482 ; Locke s, xiv. 
756; Origen s, xvn. 841. 

AS OLD AS THE CREATION, 
Tindal s work, xxm. 404. 
NOT MYSTERIOUS, Toland s work, 
xxm. 434. 

CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHER, Dick s work, 
vn. 173. 

CHRISTIAN REPUBLIC, of France, ix. 
565. 

CHRISTIAN SOCIALISM, xxn. 210. 

CHRISTIANS AND, town, Norway, v. 702; 
xvn. 582. 

CHRISTIANSHAAB, trading district, 
Greenland, XL 170. 

CHRISTIANS OF ST THOMAS, sect in 
India, xxm. 308. 

CHRISTIANSTAD, town, Sweden, v. 702; 
county, xxn. 741. 

CHRISTIANSUND, town, Norway, v. 702; 
xvn. 582. 

CHRISTIANUS DEMOCRITUS (J. C. Dip- 
pel), German theologian and alchemist, 
vn. 255. 

CHRISTIAN YEAR, Keble s, xiv. 26. 

CHRISTINA, regent of Savoy, xxi. 

342- 

, queen regent of Spain, xxn. 345. 

, queen of Sweden, V. 702 ; XXII. 

749; her correspondence with Des 
cartes, vn. 120. 
CHRISTINE DE PISAN, early French 

writer, v. 703. 
CHRISTIS KIRK ON THE GRENE, poem 

by James I. of Scotland, xm. 556. 
CHRISTMAS DAY, v. 704; xm. 659. 
CHRISTODULUS, St, of Patmos, xvm. 

408. 
CHRISTOFLE, C., his method of working 

nickel, xvn. 487. 
CHRISTOPHE, Negro chief, Hayti, XL 

545- 

XXV. 13 



98 



C E B C H W 



CHRISTOPHER, St, v. 704; wall paint 
ings of, xvii. 44. 

of Bavaria, king of Sweden, xxn. 

746. 

, duke of Wiirtemberg, xxiv. 702. 

NORTH, assumed name of John 

Wilson, Scottish writer, xxiv. 591. 

CHRISTOPOULOUS, Athanasias, modern 
Greek poet, v. 704; XL 151. 

CHRIST S COLLEGE, Cambridge, iv. 

73i- 
CHRIST S HOSPITAL, school, London, 

xiv. 835. 
CHRIST S VICTORY, poem by Giles 

Fletcher, IX. 305. 
CHRIST S WOUNDS, marks of stigmatiz- 

ation, xxii. 548. 
CHRODEGANG, bishop of Metz, xvi. 

707. 
CHROMATES, chemical salts, v. 705; in 

photographic printing, xvili. 831; as 

poisons, xix. 278. 
CHROMATIC ABERRATION, in lenses, 

xvi. 259; xvii. 803; xxiii. 141. 
CHROMATIC CHORDS, in music, Purcell s 

use of, xvii. 90. 
CHROMATIC SCALE, in music, I. 108; 

xvii. 79, 91. 
CHROMATOPHORES, organs of molluscs, 

xvi. 665, 681. 
CHROMATROPE, slide for magic lantern, 

xv. 213. 

CHROME, Pigments of, xix. 87. 
BLACK, for calico printing, iv. 

690. 
CHROMEISEN, or Chromium-Steel, alloy 

of chromium and iron, v. 706; xm. 

352- 

CHROME TANNING, xiv. 389. 
CHROMIC ACID, v. 705. 
CHROMITE, mineral, xvi. 386. 
CHROMIUM, chemical element, v. 705, 

534 ; discovery of, by Vauquelin, 

xxiv. 116; combined with iron, xill. 

284; spectrum of, xxii. 377. 
CHROMIUM-STEEL, xm. 352. 

CHROMO-LlTHOGRAPHY, XIV. 700; 

xxin. 708. 
CHROMOSPHERE, envelope of the sun, 

ii. 788; vi. 429; xxn. 645. 
CHROMO-TYPOGRAPHY, xxm. 708. 
CHRONICA MAJORA, of Matthew of 

Paris, xv. 634. 
CHRONICLE, of Villehardouin, xxiv. 

229. 

, of Villani, xxiv. 227. 

, Saxon, vill. 406, 408. 

HISTORIES, in English drama, vn. 

428. 

CHRONICLES, Books of, v. 706; in. 636. 
, mediaeval records, their historical 

value, XII. 20; Latinity of, xiv. 341; 

English, Stew s editions of, xxn. 580; 

early French, IX. 645 ; German, x. 

527; Italian, xm. 505; Judcean, xiv. 

85; Polish, xix. 299; Russian, XXI. 

103; Spanish, xxii. 354, 363. 



CHRONICON EDESSENUM, Syriac work, 
xxii. 835. 

CHRONICON HELVETICUM, Tschudi s, 
xxm. 601. 

CHRONICON PASCHALE, Byzantine his 
tory, iv. 614. 

CHRONOGRAPH, electric velocity in 
strument, XL 298; xxm. 395. 

WATCH, xxiv. 398. 

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE, from earliest 
times to 1875, V. 720. 

CHRONOLOGY, v. 709; archaeological, 
II. 334; Egyptian, VII. 728; Scaliger s 
contributions to, XXI. 363. 

CHRONOMETER, timepiece, v. 755; xxm. 
392, 395; xxiv. 394; Berthoud s, HI. 
610; Harrison s, xi. 494; navigating, 
xvii. 259, 263, 273. 

CHRONOSCOPE, electric velocity instru 
ment, XL 298. 

CHRUDIM, town, Bohemia, v. 755. 

CHRYSALIS, pupa stage of butterflies, iv. 

594- 
CHRYSANTHEMUM, plant, xn. 254; xv. 

544- 

CHRYSIPPUS, Greek philosopher, v. 755; 
xxii. 562. 

CHRYSOBERYL, mineral, xvi. 386. 

CHRYSOCHEIR, leader of the Paulicians, 
xvni. 434. 

CHRYSOCHLORID^:, family of insecti 
vorous mammals, xv. 405. 

CHRYSOCOLLA, mineral, vi. 347; xvi. 
411. 

CHRYSOLITE, precious stone, xvi. 410; 
xvm. 534. 

CHRYSOLORAS, Manuel, Greek gram 
marian, v. 755; xi. 149. 

CHRYSOPHAN, constituent of rhubarb, 
xx. 530. 

CHRYSOPOLIS (Ingolstadt), ancient town, 
Bavaria, xm. 74. 

(Parma), mediaeval town, Italy, 

xvm. 314. 

(Scutari), ancient town, Turkey in 

Asia, xxi. 573. 

CHRYSOPRASE, mineral, i. 278 ; xvi. 389. 

CHRYSOSTOM, Dion, Greek rhetorician, 
VII. 247; on Indian epic poems, XXI, 
281 ; his romance, The Hunter, xx. 

634- 

, John, St, archbishop of Constanti 
nople, v. 755; against monasteries, 
xvi. 703. 

CHRYSOTHRIX, genus of apes, n. 154. 

CHRYSOTILE, mineral, xvi. 414. 

CHU, the rhea plant, xx. 506. 

CHUBB, or Chub, fish, n. 42; xn. 692; 
xx. 582. 

, Thomas, English deist, V. 757; on 

natural religion, VII. 35. 

CHUBB S LOCKS, xiv. 746. 

CHUBB S SAFES, xxi. 144. 

CHUBUT, river, Patagonia, xvm. 353. 

CHUKCHEES, or Tchuktchis, Land of 
the, Eastern Siberia, xv. 547; xxn. 
9; xxiv. 726. 



CHULPAS, burial towers, Peru, n. 451. 
CHUMBE, mineral, xxiv. 785. 
CHUNAR, or Chunarghur, town, India, 

v. 757. 
CHUND, or Chand, Hindi writer, v. 

758; xi. 841, 843. 
CHUNDERNAGORE, French settlement, 

India, V. 391. 
CHUNDRAKONA (Chandrakona), town, 

India, xvi. 284. 
CHUNNIA, bird, xxi. 677. 
CHUPRAH, town, India, v. 758. 
CHUQUISACA, department, Bolivia, iv. 

10; town, xxii. 618. 
CHUQUITO, lake, Bolivia, iv. 11. 
CHUR, or Coire, town, Switzerland, vi. 

117; xxii. 778. 
CHURCH, The, v. 758, 9; clergy of the, v. 

827; discipline of the, vm. 800; offices 

in, XIX. 674; organization of, v. 698; 

in time of St Paul, xvm. 428; views 

of Irenaeus on, xm. 274. 

, Catholic, V. 9. 

, Greek, XI. 154. 

, Lutheran, xv. 84. 

AND STATE, Eolations of, v. 758; 

XI. 16, 18; Calvin on, xix. 677; 

Erastus on, VIII. 518. 

CLOCKS, vi. 27. 

- FATHERS, ix. 49. 
GOVERNMENT, Erastus on, vm. 



518. 

HISTORY, v. 760. 

CHURCHILL, Charles, English satirist, 

V. 766; his place in English literature, 

vm. 429. 
-, John, duke of Maiiborough, 



English general, XV. 553. 
CHURCH Music, xvn. 80, 84, 88. 
CHURCH OF ENGLAND, vm. 370; the 

king the head of, xix. 674; order of 

precedence in, XIX. 667. 
CHURCH OF ROME, xx. 628. 
CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, xxi. 536. 
CHURCH PATRONAGE, in Scotland, xxi. 

519. 

CHURCHWARDENS, English, xvm. 296. 
CHURCHYARD, Thomas, English soldier 

and writer, v. 767. 
CHURCHYARDS, Right of burial in, iv. 

537 ; effects of overcrowding, v. 

329- 
CHURLS, social class in early England, 

vm. 274. 

CHURRIGUERRA, Joseph, Spanish archi 
tect, n. 442. 
CHURRUS, or Charas, hemp-resin, in. 

627; xi. 648. 

CHUSAN, island, China, v. 767. 
CHUTIA NAGPUR, district, India, v. 767; 

division, XIV. 806. 
CHUTIA NAGPUR TRIBUTARY STATES, 

India, v. 768. 
CHUTISGURH (Chhatisgarh), division, 

India, v. 608. 

CHUTTERPUR, town, India, v. 769. 
CHWANCHOW, town, China, v. 673. 



C H W C I R 



CHWEN-CHANG (Kirin), town, Man- 

cliuria, xiv. 96. 
CHYLE, secretion in digestion, I. 846; 

vii. 226; xvii. 678. 
CHYLURIA, disease, xvm. 270. 
CHYME, digested contents of the stomach, 

vn. 225; xvii. 670. 
CHYTRIDIE/E, parasitic fungi, xvm. 

267. 
GIBBER, or Cibert, Gains Gabriel, 

Danish sculptor, v. 769. 
, Colley, English dramatist and 

laureate, v. 769; vn. 436. 
CIBERT, Caius Gabriel, Danish sculptor, 

v. 769. 
CIBO, Giovanni Battista (Pope Innocent 

VIII.), xiii. 85. 

ClBORlUM, in architecture, II. 462. 
CIBRARIO, Luigi, Italian economist, 

xix. 387. 

ClCACOLE, town, India, V. 770. 
CICERO, Marcus Tullius, Roman orator 

and writer, v. 770; XX. 764; as 

Academician, I. 69 ; his knowledge 

of anatomy, I. 802 ; his economic 

theories, xix. 350; his Latinity, 

xiv. 333; his rhetorical works, xx. 

514; his opposition to Catiline, V. 238; 

his relations with Hortensius, XII. 210; 

his connexion with Tusculum, XXIII. 

671; his place in Roman literature, 

xx. 719. 
ClCi, Vlach colony in Istria, xxiv. 

270. 
ClCLATOUN, variety of gold cloth, xxm. 

210. 
CICOGNARA, Leopoldo, Count, Italian 

archaeologist, v. 772. 
ClCONlA, genus of birds, XXII. 577. 
CID, The (Buy Diaz Campeador), Spanish 

hero, v. 773; xxn. 315; literature 

relating to, xxn. 353. 

, Le, Corneille s play, vi. 420. 

CIDER, beverage, v. 775; n. 212. 
CIECHANOW, town, Russian Poland, 

xix. 227. 

CIENFUEGOS, Nicasio Alvarez de, Span 
ish poet, v. 775; xxn. 361. 
CIGAR, v. 775; xxm. 426; Cuban, vi. 

68 1 ; manufacture of, in Philippine 

Islands, xvm. 751. 
CIGARETTES, v. 776; xxm. 426. 
CIGNANI, Carlo, Italian painter, v. 776. 
ClGOLi, Luigi Cardi da, Italian painter, 

v. 776. 

CILIATA, class of Protozoa, XIX. 861. 
CILICIA, ancient province, Asia Minor, 

v - 7?6, 75; coins of, xvii. 648. 
CILICIAN GATES, pass, Asia Minor, H. 

705. 
CIMABUE, Giovanni, Italian painter, v. 

778; xxi. 434; his method of fresco- 
painting, ix. 770. 
CIMA DEL MERCEDARIO, mountain, 

Chili, v. 6 1 6. 
ClMAROSA, Donienico, Italian musical 

composer, v. 779; xvii. 99. 



CIMBRI, ancient Germanic tribe, v. 780; 
x. 474. 

CIMBRIC ALPS, i. 630. 

CIMENTO, Accademia del, of Florence, 
1.70. 

CIMMERII, or Cimmerians, ancient Scy 
thian race, v. 780; xxi. 577; inLydia, 

XV. 100. 

-, mythical people, v. 780; supposed 



locality of, in. 149. 
ClMOLITE, mineral, XVI. 424. 
CIMOLOS, island, ^Egean Sea, xv. 841. 
CIMON, Athenian statesman and general, 

v. 780; xi. 101; xvm. 529, 573. 
CIMONE, Monte, mountain, Italy, xiii. 

437- 

CIN^ETHUS, poet of Chios, xxi. 466. 
CINCHONA, tree and bark, v. 780; xx. 

184; cultivation of, in India, ill. 568; 

xn. 751; on the Himalayas, XI. 833; 

in Peru, xvm. 673. 
CINCHONIDINE, alkaloid in cinchona, 

xx. 185. 
CINCINNATI, town, Ohio, U.S.A., v. 780; 

xvii. 737; population, xxm. 822; 

libraries, xiv. 535, 550; observatory, 

xvii. 715. 
CINCINNATUS, Lucius Quinctius, Roman 

hero, v. 784. 

ClNCLUS, genus of birds, xvm. 75. 
CINCTUS GABINUS, in Roman costume, 

X. 2. 

CINDER, in iron smelting, xiii. 296, 

306. 
CINEAS, adviser of Pyrrhus, v. 785; xx. 

136- 

CINERARIA, greenhouse plant, xn. 262. 
CINERARY URNS, xix. 602, 623. 
CINNA, Lucius Cornelius, Roman consul, 

v. 785; xx. 760. 

, Corneille s play, vi. 420. 
CINNABAR, mineral, v. 785; xvi. 32, 

393- 

, of Pliny, resin, vn. 389. 

RED, pigment, xix. 87. 



CINNAMON, spice, v. 785; cultivation of, 

in Ceylon, v. 369; as incense, xn. 718. 
STONE, mineral, xiii. 532; xvi. 

411. 
CINNAMUS, Joannes, Byzantine historian, 

iv. 613. 

CINNYRIS, genus of birds, xxn. 652. 
CINO DA PISTOIA (Guittoncino de 

Sinibuldi), Italian poet and jurist, V. 

786; xiii. 502. 
CINOSTERNID.E, family of chelonian 

reptiles, XXI n. 457. 
CINQ-MARS, Vigny s romance, xxiv. 

226. 
CINQ-MARS, Marquis de, French 

courtier, v. 786 ; conspiracy of, IX. 

570. 

CINQUA MIGLIA, plain, Italy, xiii. 438. 
CINQUECENTO, Period of the, in archi 
tecture, n. 436, 438 ; Arabesque of 

the, n. 234. 
WORK, in cameos, iv. 739. 



CINQUEFOIL, in architecture, n. 462. 
CINQUE PORTS, England, v. 786 ; vin. 

218; their establishment, xvii. 279. 
CINQUE PORTS, Barons of the, in. 388. 
CINTHIO, or Cintio (Giovanni Battista 

Giraldi), Italian novelist, x. 620. 
CINTO, Mont, Corsica, vi. 439. 
CINTRA, town, Portugal, v. 787. 
CINYXIS, genus of chelonian reptiles, 

xxm. 457. 
CIOLEK, Stanislaus, Pulish statesman, 

xix. 453. 
CIOMPI, Rebellion of the, Florence, IX. 

334- 
CIONE, Andrea di (Orcagna), Italian 

painter and sculptor, xvii. 814. 

, Jacopo, Italian painter, xvii. 814. 

, Lionardo, Italian painter, xvii. 

814. 
, Matteo, Italian sculptor and 

niosaicist, xvii. 814. 
CiONOCRANlA, suborder of lizards, xiv. 

733- 

CIPHER-WRITING, vi. 669. 

ClPOLLlNO, mineral, xvi. 397. 

CIPRIANI, Giovanni Battista, Italian 
painter, V. 787. 

CIRCAR, province, India, v. 787. 

CiRCASSlA, region of the Caucasus, v. 
787. 

CIRCASSIAN LANGUAGE, Dictionary of 
the, vn. 190. 

CIRCASSIANS, race of people, v. 257 ; 
Kuban tribes of, xiv. 1 50. 

CIRCE, in Greek mythology, v. 789 ; 
xv. 202. 

CIRCEII, ancient town, Italy, v. 789. 

ClRCESiUM, town, Mesopotamia, xvi. 
48. 

CIRCLE, in geometry, x. 380 ; mensura 
tion of the, XVI. 17; Archimedes on, 
II. 380 ; ratio of circumference to 
diameter, XXII. 434 ; XXIII. 563; 
squaring of the, XXI I. 433. 

, Transit, astronomical instrument, 



xxm. 515. 
CIRCLES, Stone, ancient, xxi. 51 ; in 

Peru, n. 451. 
CIRCUIT, in law, v. 789. 
CIRCUITS, Telegraphic, xxm. 122. 

, Telephonic, xxm. 132. 
CIRCULATION, Capillary, of the blood, 

xxiv. 105 ; Malpighi s discovery of, 

xv. 338. 

, Osmotic, in plants, xix. 46. 

OF THE BLOOD, i. 899; xxiv. 98; 



Harvey s discovery of, XL 503; xv. 
810; in mammals, xv. 364. 

ClRCUMCELLlONES, Eastern ascetics, 
xvi. 701. 

CIRCUMCISION, v. 789 ; among the 
Bechuanas, in. 478; among the Mala 
gasy, xv. 173. 

CIRCUS, Roman, v. 791 ; x. 65 ; xx. 
829. 

, genus of birds, XI. 491. 

CIRENCESTER, town, England, v. 792 i 



100 



C I R C L A 



agricultural college at, I. 408; x. 

688. 

CIRENCESTER, Kichard of, English his 
torian, xx. 542. 
CIREY, Haute-Marne, France, Voltaire s 

residence, xxiv. 287. 
CIRILLO, Domenico, Italian physician 

and patriot, V. 792. 

CIRPHIS, mountain, Greece, xvm. 801. 
CIRRHA, ancient town, Greece, vi. 590. 
CIRRHIPEDIA, or Cirripedia, vi. 632, 

653, 664 ; distribution of, VII. 279, 

283; in Lankester s classification, 

xxiv. 813. 
CIRRHOSIS OF THE LUNG, disease, xix. 

251. 

CIRRUS, cloud, xvi. 127. 
CIRTA (Constantine), ancient town, 

Africa, v. 793; VI. 298; XV. 609; 

xvn. 628. 
CISMONTANE PRINCIPLES, of Bonian 

Catholicism, vi. 241. 
CISSA, island, Adriatic, XXL 29. 
CIS-SUTLEJ STATES, India, v. 793. 
CISTEAUX (Citeaux, g-.u), village, France, 

v. 794. 

CISTERCIAN ABBEYS, i. 15. 
CISTERCIANS, order of monks, v. 793; 

xvi. 709; in England, vin. 372. 
CISTERNS, in houses, iv. 503; xxi. 715. 
CISTICOLA, genus of birds, xxiv. 367. 
CISTUDO, genus of chelonian reptiles, 

xxni. 457. 

CITATION, in law, XXH. 642. 
CITEAUX, village, France, v. 794; I. 15, 

17; monastery of, I. 17; III. 601 ; v. 

793; xvi. 709. 
CITH^RON, mountain, Greece, V. 794; 

in. 58. 

CITHARA, Greek lyre, xv. 114. 
CITIES, English, growth of, vill. 276, 

303; European, population of, Vill. 

705. 
CITIZENSHIP, i. 575; municipal, xvn. 

27; Komau, xx. 687, 704, 736. 
CITLALTEPETL, mountain, Mexico, xvn. 

845. 

CITRATE OF MAGNESIA, xv. 218. 
CITRATES, chemical salts, v. 795. 
CITRIC ACID, v. 794; xiv. 438. 
CITRINE OINTMENT, xvi. 34. 
CITRON, tree and fruit, V. 795. 
CITRUS, genus of fruit trees, XI v. 437; 

xvii. 8 10. 

ClTTA BELLA PlEVE, town, Italy, V. 

795- 
CITTA DI CASTELLO, town, Italy, v. 

795; xx. 275. 
CITTADINI, Celso, Sienese historian, 

xxii. 43. 
CITTA VECCHIA, town, Malta, v. 796; 

xv. 340. 

CITY, v. 796; county of a, VI. 513; in 
corporated, in United States, XXill. 

827; municipal, xvn. 27, 31. 
OF DREADFUL NIGHT, Thomson s 

poem, xxm. 312 



CITY OF GOD, Augustine s work, in. 78. 
CIUDAD BOLIVAR, town, Venezuela, n. 

45; xxiv. 140. 
CIUDAD DEL PRINCIPE, town, Cuba, 

xx. 99. 
CIUDAD DE VICTORIA, town, Mexico, 

vn. 553; xvi. 214. 
CIUDADELA, town, Minorca, v. 796. 
CIUDAD REAL, town, Spain, v. 796; 

province, xv. 458; xxn. 298. 
CIUDAD REAL, town, Mexico, xxi. 255. 
CIUDAD RODRIGO, town, Spain, v. 796; 

xxi. 203. 
CIULLO D ALCAMO, Italian poet, xin. 

499- 
CIVET, carnivorous mammal, v. 796; 

xv. 436. 

, perfume, v. 796; xvm. 526. 

ClVlDALE, town, Italy, v. 797. 
CIVIL COURTS, in England, vi. 516. 
CIVILIS, Claudius, Germanic leader, x. 

475- 
CIVILIZATION, its earliest seats, n. 342; 

development of, II. 120; in relation to 

ethnology, vill. 614, 624. 

, History of, Buckle s, IV. 421. 

, History of, Condorcet s, VI. 255. 



CIVIL LAW, v. 797; xx. 678. 

CIVIL LAWS OF THE EMPERORS, Syriac 

versions, xxn. 834. 
CIVITA CASTELLANA, town, Italy, v. 

797- 

CIVITA DI CHIETI, town, Italy, v. 615. 
CIVITA DI PENNE, town, Italy, v. 797. 
C i VITAS CADURCORUM (Cahors), ancient 

town, France, iv. 642. 
CIVITA VECCHIA, town, Italy, v. 797. 
ClVOLl, or Cigoli, Luigi Cardi da, 

Italian painter, v. 776. 
CLACKMANNAN, county, Scotland, v. 

798; area and population, xxi. 528; 

representation, xxni. 727. 
CLADDAGH, village, Ireland, x. 57. 
CLADOBATES, mammal, mimicry in, 

xvi. 341. 
CLADODACTYLA ROSEA, sea cucumber, 

xx. 411. 
CLADORHYNCHUS, genus of birds, xxn. 

552. 
CLADOTRICHE/E, group of Schizomy- 

cetes, xxi. 405. 
CLAFEN (Chiavenna), town, Italy, v. 

610. 
CLAIRAULT, Alexis Claude, French 

mathematician, v. 798 ; n. 759 ; on 

the ellipticity of the earth, vn. 600. 
CLAIRMONT, Claire, her relations Avith 

Shelley and Byron, xxi. 791. 
CLAIR-ON-EPTE, France, Treaty of (912), 

xvn. 539. 
CLAIRVAUX, France, Monastery of, 1.15; 

in. 602; v. 793. 
CLAIRVOYANCE, xv. 277; xxn. 405; in 

conjuring, XV. 208. 
CLAM, Soft, mussel, xvn. 1 10. 
CLAMECY, town, France, v. 798 ; xvn. 

496. 



CLAN, v. 799; marriage relationships in, 
XXin. 472 ; relationships of, among 
the Sawaioris, xix. 424; totems of, 
xxni. 467. 

CLANGULA, genus of birds, xvi. 824. 

CLANNY S LAMP, for mines, vi. 73. 

CLANS KAY AND CHATTAN, Fight 
between, at Perth, xxi. 491. 

CLAN TARTANS, xxni. 68. 

CLAPAREDE, J. L. R. A. Edouard, Swiss 
naturalist, v. Soi; on Annelida, n. 69. 

CLAPHAM, district, London, xiv. 822. 

CLAPPERTON, Hugh, African traveller, 
v. 801; i. 246; x. 192. 

CLARAS, Poor, religious sisterhood, IX. 
693, 699; xvi. 711. 

CLARE, county, Ireland, v. 802 ; popu 
lation and representation, XXIII. 727; 
transferred to Munster, xni. 246. 
, John, English poet, V. 804. 



CLARE CONSTAT, writ, in Scots law, 

xxiv. 697. 

CLARE ISLAND, Ireland, xv. 650. 
CLARENCE, river, New South Wales, 

xvii. 408. 
, Lionel, duke of, son of Edward 

III. of England, XXIV. 752. 
, George, duke of, brother of 



Edward IV., vn. 685. 
-, William, duke of (William IV. of 



England), xxiv. 580. 
CLARENDON, First Earl of (Edward 
Hyde), English statesman and his 
torian, v. 804. 

- Fourth Earl of (G. W. F. Villiers), 
English statesman, V. 807. 

, Constitutions of, I. 32; vin. 372; 

xi. 657, 658. 

PRESS, Oxford, xvm. 96. 



CLARES, or Claras, Poor, religious sister 
hood, IX. 693, 699; xvi. 711. 

CLARET, wine, xxiv. 604. 

CLARGES, Anne, wife of General Monk, 
xvi. 752. 

CLARI, Giovanni Carlo Maria, Italian 
musical composer, v. 809. 

CLARIAS, genus of fishes, xxn. 67. 

CLARINET, musical instrument, xvn. 
707, 708. 

GLARING PART, trumpet music, xxni. 

593- 

CLARISSA HARLOWE, Richardson * 
novel, vin. 430; xx. 544. 

CLARISSES, religious sisterhood, IX. 693, 
699. 

CLARITE, mineral, xvi. 396. 

CLARK, B. J., American temperance re 
former, xxni. 158. 

, George Rogers, American revolu 
tionary officer, xxni. 745. 

, Sir James, English physician, v. 

809. 



, Thomas, Scottish chemist, V. 809. 
CLARKE, Adam, Wesleyan divine, v. 

809. 
, Edward Daniel, English traveller, 

v. 8 10. 



C L A C L E 



101 



CLARKE, Samuel, English philosopher 
and theologian, v. 810; Butler s corre 
spondence with, IV. 582; 011 deism, 
xxiil. 234; his conception of ethics, 
vni. 598. 

, Captain William, American ex 
plorer, xiv. 494. 

, "W. B., on the geology of Australia, 

in. 108. 

CLARKE S FORK, river, Montana, U.S. A., 
xvi. 772; xxm. 797. 

CLARK S FILAR MICROMETER, xvi. 
245, 247. 

CLARKSON, Thomas, English philan 
thropist, v. 813; xxn. 139; his rela 
tions with Wilberforce, xxiv. 565. 

CLARUS, Julius, on the infliction of tor 
ture, xxm. 466. 

CLASS DISTINCTIONS, v. 186. 

CLASSICS, Early editions of the, ill. 655. 

CLASSIFICATION, Botanical, in. 683; 
xvi. 845; xx. 421; xxii. 372. 

, Zoological, n. 49; in. 683; xvi. 

845; xxn. 372; xxiv. 805. 

CLAUBERG, John, German philosopher, 
v. 814; vii. 126. 

CLAUD A, island, Crete, vi. 570. 

CLAUDE of France, daughter of Louis 
XII, ix. 555. 

of Lorraine (Claude Gelee), French 

painter, v. 814; Turner s rivalry of, 
xxm. 664. 

of Lorraine, founder of the Guise 

family, XI. 265. 

, Jean, French Protestant writer, v. 

814. 

CLAUDET, Antoine Franois, French 
photographer, V. 815. 

CLAUDIANUS, Claudius, Konian poet, 
v. 815; his place in Roman literature, 
xx. 727. 

CLAUDIA PROCULA, wife of Pontius 
Pilate, xix. 89. 

CLAUDIOPOLIS (Klausenburg), ancient 
town, Hungary, xiv. 107. 

CLAUDIUS, Appius Ctecus, Roman patri 
cian, v. 8 1 6. 

, Appius Crassus, Roman decemvir, 

v. 816. 

, Marcus Aurelius, Roman emperor, 

v. 817. 

, Matthias, German poet, v. 817; x. 

541. 

, Tiberius, Roman emperor, v. 816; 

xvii. 348; xx. 772, 773. 
QUADRIGARIUS, Q., Roman his 
torian, xiv. 729. 

CLAUGHTON - CUM - GRANGE, part of 
Birkenhead, England, in. 780. 

CLAUSEL, Bertrand, French general, I. 
567. 

CLAUSENBURG, town, Hungary, xiv. 
107. 

CLAUSIUS, Rudolf J. E., his theorem in 
dynamics, in. 39. 

CLAUSSEN, or Clausson, Peder, Norse 
writer, vn. 90; xvn. 589. 



CLAUSTHAL, town, Prussia, xiv. 108. 

CLAUSTHALITE, mineral, xvi. 391. 

CLAUSTHAL TURN-TABLE, ore-dressing 
machine, XVI. 59. 

CLAVELINID^E, family of Tunicata, 
xxm. 609. 

CLAVERHOUSE, John Graham of, Vis 
count Dundee, vn. 536; xxi. 516. 

CLAVERING, Captain, Arctic explorer, 
xix. 319. 

CLAVICHORD, musical instrument, xix. 
65- 

CLAVICIMBALUM, musical instrument, 
xix. 67. 

CLAVICITERIUM, musical instrument, 
xix. 70. 

CLAVICLE, or Collar-bone, anatomy of, I. 
826. 

CLAVICORNES, group of beetles, vi. 131. 

CLAVIERES, Etienne, Mirabeau s col 
laborator, xvi. 497. 

CLAVIGO, Goethe s play, x. 726. 

CLAVIJO, Ruy Gonzalez de, Spanish 
traveller, v. 817; x. 179; xxn. 354. 

CLAVIS UNIVERSALIS, Arthur Collier s 
work, VI. 143. 

CLAVIUS, Christopher, his calculations 
for the Gregorian calendar, iv. 671; 
on prosthaphreresis, xvii. 183. 

CLAWS, of animals, xxii. 107; xv. 348. 

CLAY, x. 237; xvi. 424; for brick-mak 
ing, iv. 280; for pottery and porce 
lain, xix. 600 ; used as food, by 
Indians, I. 703; burnt, used as manure, 
I. 351; in England, vm. 229; reel, 
deposits of, in Pacific, xvni. 123. 

, Cornish, or China, xiv. i. 

, Fire, IX. 238. 

, London, geological formation, x. 

361; xvi. 279. 
, Henry, American politician, v. 



817; xxm. 762, 764, 770. 
CLAYEATERS, tribe of Indians, i. 703. 
CLAY IRONSTONE, xin. 287. 
CLAYMORE, weapon, xxn. Soi. 
CLAYTON S BRICK-MAKING MACHINES, 

iv. 282. 
CLAZOMEN^E, ancient town, Asia Minor, 

v. 818. 
CLEANLINESS, in relation to health, xn. 

568. 
CLEANTHES, Greek philosopher, v. 818; 

xxn. 562. 
CLEARCHUS, Spartan general, v. 818; 

xvni. 576. 
of Rhegium, bronze sculpture by, 

n. 348. 

CLEARING-HOUSE, for banks, in. 328. 
CLEARING NUT, xvn. 664. 
CLEAVAGE, in crystals, vi. 672 ; in 

rocks, x. 261, 306, 372; xvi. 378. 
CLEDDY, river, "Wales, xvni. 481. 
CLEIRAC, on the sea laws, xxi. 583. 
CLEITOPHON, Leucippe and, classical 

romance, xx. 636. 

CLEMENGES, Nicholas de, on corrup 
tions in the church, xx. 320. 



CLEMENS ALEXANDRINUS, theologian, 

v. 819; as Biblical interpreter, XL 745; 

on the canon of Scripture, V. 8; on 

the Mysteries, xvn. 128. 
CLEMENS ROMANUS, early Christian 

writer, n. 195; xix. 489; on the 

Gospels, x. 814. 
CLEMENT I., pope, v. 821. 
II., pope, v. 821; xix. 498; xx. 

790. 

III., pope, v. 821; xx. 794. 



III., antipope, XI. 255. 

IV., pope, v. 821; xin. 475; xx. 



797- 

- V., pope, v. 821; xix. 501; xx. 
798; his subjection to Philip IV. of 
France, IX. 544; suppression of the 
Templars under, xxm. 164. 

VI., pope, v. 822. 

-VII., pope, v. 822; xin. 482; XV. 
787; xix. 502 ; his attitude towards 
the Reformation, xx. 328. 

VII., antipope, xx. 803. 

VIII., pope, v. 822; xix. 505; his 



opposition to Father Sarpi, xxi. 311. 

IX., X., popes, V. 822. 

XL, pope, v. 822; xix. 507. 

- XII., pope, v. 823. 

XIII., pope, v. 823; xix. 507; his 
relations to the Jesuits, xin. 654. 

- XIV., pope, v. 823; xix. 507; his 
measures against the Jesuits, xin. 
655. 

of Alexandria, v. 819, 8; XI. 745; 



xvn. 128. 

of Rome, II. 195; x. 814; Xix. 489. 

, Frangois, French historian, v. 823. 

CLEMENTI, Muzio, Italian musical com 
poser, v. 823. 

CLEMENTINE LEAGUE, xx. 328. 
CLEMENTINES, The, early work on the 

church, II. 196. 
CLEMMYS, genus of chelonian reptiles, 

xxm. 457. 

CLEOBULUS, Greek sage, v. 824. 
CLEOMENES I., king of Sparta, v. 824. 

III., of Sparta, v. 825; xvni. 790. 

CLEON, Athenian leader, v. 825. 
CLEOPATRA I.-VI., queens of Egypt, 

vn. 746, 747. 
-VI., queen of Egypt, v. 826; vn. 

747 ; xx. 769 ; her relations with 

Mark Antony, n. 141. 
CLEOPATRA S NEEDLES, i. 495; n. 390; 

vii. 768; xvn. 703. 
CLEOPATRIS, ancient town, Egypt, xxn. 

620. 
CLEOPHAS, or Clopas, of Scripture, xin. 

552. 
CLEPH, king of the Lombards, xiv. 

814. 
CLEPSINID.E, subfamily of leeches, xiv. 

404. 

CLEPSYDRA, hydraulic clock, v. 826. 
CLERC, Jean fe, or Clericus, xiv. 397; 

his Parrhasiana, I. 785. 
CLERESTORY, in architecture, n. 462. 



102 



C L E C L Y 



CLERGY, v. 826; an estate of the realm 

of England, vm. 557. 

, Benefit of, in law, V. 827. 

CLERGYMAN S SORE THROAT, xxm. 

320. 

CLERICIS LAICOS, papal bull, ix. 544. 
CLERICUS (Jean le Clerc), Protestant 

theologian and writer, XIV. 397; I. 

785. 
CLERKENWELL PRISON, London, xiv. 

334. 

CLERK S GAS-ENGINE, xxn. 524. 

CLERMONT, Count of, French general, 
ix. 589. 

EN BEAUVOISIS, town, France, v. 

828; xvii. 749. 

CLERMONT-FERRAND, town, France, v. 
828; church of Notre-Dame-du-Port, 
n. 456; monastery, I. 20; opium culti 
vation, xvn. 792. 

CLERMONT-L HERAULT, town, France, 
v. 828. 

CLERMONT MANUSCRIPT, of the Scrip 
tures, v. 9. 

CLEVEDON, town, England, xxn. 258. 

CLEVELAND, town, Ohio, U.S.A., v. 
828; xvii. 737; population, xxm. 
822. 

, Duchess of, her relations with 

Wycherley, xxiv. 706. 

, Grover, president of the United 

States, xxm. 785. 

, John, English poet, V. 829. 

BAYS, breed of horses, i. 385. 

MONUMENTS, at Bhagalpur, India, 

in. 626. 

CLEVES, town, Prussia, v. 829. 

CLICHY, town, France, VI. i ; XXI. 624. 

CLIENT, Patron and, Koman relationship 
of, xvni. 412; xx. 669, 736. 

CLIFDEN, village, Ireland, x. 56. 

CLIFF, hills, Lincolnshire, England, xiv. 

653- 
CLIFFORD, Rosamond (Fair Rosamond), 

mistress of Henry II., xx. 848. 

, W. K., on evolution, vm. 765. 

CLIFFORT, George, friend of Linnaeus, 

xiv. 673. 

CLIFTON, town, England, vi. i. 
CLIMATE, vi. i; science of, xvi. 114; 

adaptation of animals and plants to, 

I. 84; affected by cosmical causes, x. 

218; James Croll on, x. 218. 
CLIMAX, mountain pass, Asia Minor, 

xv. 93. 
CLIMBERRUM (Auch), ancient town, 

France, ill. 67. 

CLINE, Henry, his experiments in vac 
cination, xin. 623. 

CLINICAL THERMOMETER, xxm. 292. 
CLINKSTONE, rock, x. 234. 
CLINOCHLORE, mineral, xvi. 414. 
CLINOCLASE, mineral, xvi. 406. 
CLINTON, town, Iowa, U.S.A., vi. 7. 

, town, Massachusetts, U.S.A., vi. 7. 

, De Witt, American statesman, 

vi. 7. 



CLINTON, Sir Henry, British general, 

xxm. 744. 
, Henry Fynes, English scholar, 

vi. 7. 

CLINTONITE, mineral, xvi. 413. 
CLIO, Muse of history, xvn. 74. 
CLIONE, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 667. 
CLIPPING, of coins, xvi. 482. 
CLISSON, Oliver, constable of France, 

ix. 548. 
CLISTENTERATA, group of Brachiopoda, 

iv. 189, 194. 

CLISTHENES, tyrant of Sicyon, xxn. 32. 
CLITANDRE, Corneille s play, vi. 420. 
CLITARCHUS, on the taking of Perse- 

polis, xvni. 559. 

CLITHEROE, town, England, vi. 7. 
CLITO, William of, son of Robert of 

Normandy, IX. 539. 

CLITOMACHUS, Greek philosopher, vi. 8. 
CLITOR, ancient town, Greece, VI. 8. 
CLITUS, killed by Alexander, I. 483. 
CLIVE, Lord, of Plassy, vi. 8; in India, 

XII. 800; at siege of Arcot (1751), n. 

478. 

CLOACAE, sewers, Roman, xx. 814. 
CLOBBERGOLL, social institution, Pelew 

Islands, v. 126. 
CLOCK, VI. 13; XXlll. 392; driving, for 

telescope, xxm. 154; hydraulic, v. 

826. 
CLOCK-MAKING, in Switzerland, xxn. 

779- 

CLODION, Claude Michel, French sculp 
tor, xxi. 563. 

CLODIUS, Christian August, his relations 
with Goethe, x. 722. 

, Publius, Roman tribune and dem 
agogue, XVI. 323; XX. 765; his oppo 
sition to Cicero, v. 771. 

CLODOALD, or Cloud, founder of St 
Cloud, France, xxi. 160. 

CLOEON, insect, larval stage of, vm. 

457- 

CLOGG ALMANACS, i. 590. 
CLOG-SHOES, xxi. 830. 
CLOISONNES, partitioned artistic work, 

in enamelling, VIII. 183; Xlll. 679; in 

mosaics, xvi. 850; Japanese, Xlll. 591. 
CLOISTER, vi. 35; i. 12. 
CLONCURRY, district, Queensland, xx. 

172. 

CLONES, town, Ireland, xvi. 718. 
CLONMACNOISE, Ireland, its seven 

churches, xiv. 87. 
CLONMEL, town, Ireland, vi. 36; xxm. 

406. 
CLONTARF, Ireland, Battle of (1014), 

xin. 254; xxi. 479. 
CLOONFINLOUGH, Ireland, Crannog of, 

vi. 552. 
CLOOTZ, Jean Baptiste, Baron, French 

Revolutionist, VI. 37. 
CLOPAS, or Cleophas, of Scripture, xin. 

552. 
CLOSTER SEVEN, Prussia, Capitulation 

of (1757), v. 74; vi. 706; ix. 588. 



CLOT, Antoine, French physician, vi. 

37- 
, Bernat des, Catalan chronicler, 

xxii. 363. 
CLOTH, dressed by calendering, iv. 682; 

painted, in wall decoration, XVII. 37; 

printing on, iv. 684; trade in, at 

Leeds, XIV. 407; weaving of, xxiv. 

463, 466; ancient weaving of, xxm. 

206; woollen, xxiv. 66r. 
CLOTHING, in relation to health, xii. 

568; of British army, 11. 588. 
CLOTILDA, St, wife of Clovis, vi. 37; 

ix. 529. 

CLOTTED CREAM, vi. 771. 
CLOUDS, xvi. 126, 138; their connexion 

with the aurora, in. 91. 

, The, of Aristophanes, II. 508. 
CLOUGH, Arthur Hugh, English poet, 

vi. 37. 
CLOVER, first introduced by Weston, I. 

297; culture of, I. 375. 

SEED, i. 383. 

CLOVES, tree and fruit, VI. 38; xii. 817; 
yield of, in Amboyna, I. 66 1. 

CLOVESHOE(Abingdon), England, Synod 
of (747), vin. 371. 

CLOVIO, Giulio, Italian painter, vi. 38. 

CLOVIS, king of the Franks, IX. 528; x. 
476; XVlll. 287; conversion of, XX. 
378. 

CLOWES, John, Swedenborgian clergy 
man, xxii. 760. 

,William, Methodist preacher, xvi. 
192. 

CLOWN, jester, ix. 366. 

CLOYNE, town, Ireland, vi. 38. 

CLUB, CLUBS, early types, vi. 38; xi. 

259; modern, vi. 41; the Kit-Cat, 

Xiv. 103; rowing, xxi. 31; scientific 

and literary, XXII. 221; social, VI. 38. 
CLUB-FOOT, vi. 42. 
CLUB-HAULING, of ships, xxi. 600. 
CLUB-MOSSES, xv. 95. 
CLUFF, English Plymouthist, xix. 239. 
C LUG i A (Chioggia), town, Italy, v. 674. 
CLUGNI, or Cluny (q.v.), town and abbey, 

France, I. 14; v. 794; vi. 43. 
CLUNIAC MONASTERIES, i. 14. 
CLUNIAC MONKS, v. 793. 
CLUNY, town, France, I. 14; vi. 43; 

monastery of, v. 794; XVI. 708; library 

in, xiv. 513. 

- MUSEUM, Paris, xvni. 282. 
CLUPEA, genus of fishes, xi. 764; xvi. 

10; xix. 90, 275; xxi. 726; xxii. 

432. 
CLUSIUM (Chiusi), ancient town, Italy, 

v. 676; vm. 635. 
CLUSIUS (Charles de 1 Esclusu), on the 

potato plant, xix. 59^, 
CLUTHA, river, New Zealand, xvn. 

467. 
CLUVER, Philip, German geographer, 

vi. 43. 
CLYDE, river, Scotland, vi. 43; xiv. 

250; XX. 395; dredging of, vil. 466; 



C L Y C O C 



103 



improvement works, XX. 579; naviga 
tion, x. 640. 

CLYDE, Lord, British general, VI. 43. 

CLYDESDALE HORSES, i. 385. 

CLYMENE AMPHISTOMA, species of 
Annelida, II. 67. 

CLYT^EMNESTRA, wife of Agamemnon, 
vi. 44; xvn. 827. 

CNICNODE, CNICTROPE, in geometry, 
xxn. 669. 

CNIDUS (Tekir), ancient town, Asia 
Minor, VI. 44; battle of (394 B.C.), 
xi. 103; xvni. 578; Greek school of 
medicine at, XV. 800; lion-tomb at, 
II. 412. 

CNOSSUS, town, Crete, vi. 44. 

CNUT, or Canute, Danish and English 
king, v. 39; vni. 287. 

COACH, and coach-making, v. 135, 137. 

COAHUILA, state, Mexico, xvi. 214. 

COAL, vi. 45; x. 238; xvi. 429; anthra 
cite, in United States, xxin. 81 1 ; com 
bustion of, and its products, XXII. 
1 80; f or gas-making, X. 88; production 
of, xvi. 467; for steam-boilers, xxn. 
500, 519; in Australia, III. 109; in 
Brazil, iv. 224; in China, v. 633, 634, 
637, 639; in England and Wales, vm. 
226; in India, XII. 737, 764; industry, 
in United States, xxni. 812. See also 
Coalfields, below. 

COALBROOKDALE, Shropshire, England, 
xxi. 847. 

COAL CUTTING, Machines for, vi. 67. 

COAL-DUST FURNACE, ix. 844. 

COALFIELDS AND COAL-MINES, of Bel 
gium, III. 523; of Bengal, ill. 568; 
British, VI. 49; of British Columbia, 
vi. 169; in Formosa, China, IX. 416; of 
Derbyshire, England, VII. 107; of Lan 
cashire, England, XI v. 252; of North 
umberland, England, xvn. 566; of 
Staffordshire, England, XXII. 442; of 
France, ix. 522 ; of Germany, x. 453; 
of India, ill. 371 ; of Ireland, II. 142; 
xiii. 217; of Labuan, Indian Archi 
pelago, xiv. 178; of New South Wales, 
xvii. 409; of Prussia, xx. 1 5 ; of Queens 
land, xx. 173; of Russia, xxi. 85; of 
Fifeshire, Scotland, IX. 150; of Lanark 
shire, Scotland, XIV. 250; of Linlith- 
gowshire, Scotland, xi v. 669; of Silesia, 
xxii. 53; of the United States, I. 680; 
of Colorado, U.S.A., vi. 161; of Ken 
tucky, U.S.A., xiv. 42; of Missouri, 
U.S.A., xvi. 525 ; of Pennsylvania, 
U.S.A., xviii. 501; of West Virginia, 
U.S.A., xxiv. 518. 

COAL-MEASURES, in geology, x. 349. 

COAL-MINING, vi. 61; xxm. 811. See 
also article Mining, xvi. 440. 

COAL-TAR, xxm. 57; aniline from, n. 
47; as fuel in iron-smelting, xiii. 293; 
naphtha from, xvii. 174. 

COANZA, river, Africa, vi. 81; I. 254. 

COAPIM, kind of grain, xvi. 321. 

COAST SURVEYS, xvii. 262. 



COATBRIDGE, town, Scotland, vi. 81. 
COATI, or Coati-mundi, carnivorous 

mammal, xv. 441. 
COAT OF ARMS, xi. 683. 
COAT OF MAIL, n. 556. 
COATS, Captain, Arctic explorer, xix. 

318. 

COB, horse, xii. 190. 
COBALT, chemical element, vi. 81; v. 

5355 cyanide of, xx. 23; magnetization 

of, XV. 256, 261; mines of, in Chili, 

v. 622; ores of, xvi. 58. 

BLUE, pigment, vi. 82; xix. 87. 

GREEN, pigment, vi. 82; xix. 88. 

COBALTITE, mineral, xvi. 390. 
COBALTSPATH, mineral, xvi. 398. 
COBAN, town, Central America, VI. 83. 
COBBETT, William, English political 

writer, VI. 83; his Weekly Register, 

XVII. 419. 
COBDEN, Richard, English politician, 

vi. 85; vm. 366. 
COBEQUID MOUNTAINS, Nova Scotia, 

xvii. 601. 
COBHAM, Lord (Sir John Oldcastle), 

Lollard martyr, xiv. 812; xvn. 753. 
COBIJA, town, Bolivia, vi. 89. 
COBITIDINA, genus of fishes, xiv. 741. 
COBLENTZ, town, Prussia, vi. 89; xx. 

21 ; bridge at, IV. 339. 
COB NUT, xvn. 664. 
COBOURG, town, Ontario, Canada, xvn. 

775- 
COBRA, genus of snakes, VI. 90; XII. 743; 

xxii. 196. 
COBURG, town, Germany, VI. 91; XXL 

347; duchy, XXI. 347. 
COCA, or Cuca, plant, vi. 684; XVin. 

673- 

, river, South America, vn. 646. 

COCAINE, vegetable alkaloid, vi. 685. 
COCAJO, Merlino (T. Folengo), Italian 

poet, ix. 355. 
COCCACE^E, class of Schizomycetes, xxi. 

405. 
COCCAJO, Merlino (T. Folengo),. Italian 

poet, IX. 355. 
COCCEIUS, Joannes, Dutch theologian, 

VI. 91. 
Cocci, cells in Schizomycetes, xxi. 

402. 
COCCIDIIDEA, subclass of Protozoa, xix. 

854. 

COCCINITE, mineral, xvi. 384. 
COCCOLITE, mineral, XVI. 416. 
COCCOTHRAUSTES, genus of birds, XI. 

533- 

COCCULUS INDICUS, adulterant for 
beer, I. 172. 

COCCUS CACTI, cochineal insect, vi. 97. 

COCCUS CERIFERUS, wax-bearing in 
sect, xxiv. 459. 

Coccus LACCA, lac-yielding insect, xiv. 
181. 

Coccus VERMILIO, kermes-yielding in 
sect, xiv. 49. 

Coccus VITIS, vine pest, xxiv. 238. 



COCCYGOMORPH.-E, group of birds, in. 

715- 

COCCYX, Anatomy of the, I. 821. 
COCH, Johann (Cocceius), Dutch theo 
logian, vi. 91. 
COCHABAMBA, town, Bolivia, VI. 91 ; 

department, IV. 10. 
COCHIN, state. India, vi. 91; town, vi. 

92. 
CHINA, country, Asia, vi. 92; II. 

685. 
COCHIN-CHINA FOWLS, i. 401; xix. 

645. 
COCHINEAL, dyestuff, vi. 97; vn. 574. 

INSECT, iv. 626; xiii. 153. 

COCHLEA, of the ear, i. 893. 
COCHLEARIA, genus of plants, XII. 207. 
COCHRANE, Robert, favourite of James 

III. of Scotland, xxi. 495. 
, Thomas, tenth earl of Dundonald, 

vii. 539. 
COCKAMAROO, Russian bagatelle, in. 

230. 

COCK AND HEN PADDLE, fish, xv. 65. 
COCKATOO, bird, vi. 98; xvni. 322. 
COCKATRICE, fabulous animal, vi. 98. 
COCKBURN, Lord, Scottish judge, vi. 

99- 

, Mrs Alison, Scottish ballad-writer, 



VI. 



Sir George, British admiral, VI. 



99- 



COCKCHAFER, beetle, vi. 131; as vine 

pest, xxiv. 238; as wheat pest, xxiv. 

536. 
COCKER, Edward, English arithmetician, 

vi. 99; n. 527. 
COCKERELL, Charles Robert, English 

architect, vi. 99; his excavations at 

Bassos, xviii. 735. 
COCKERILL, John, his machine works 

at Seraing, Belgium, XXI. 674. 
COCKERMOUTH, town, England, vi. 99. 
COCKING S PARACHUTE, i. 201. 
COCKLE, mollusc, vi. 100; xvi. 688. 

COCK-OF-THE-WOOD, bird, V. 54. 

COCKROACH, insect, vi. 100; xiii. 152. 
COCKSCOMB MOUNTAINS, British 

Honduras, XII. 133. 
COCLES, Horatius, Roman hero, VI. 

100. 
COCOA, or Cacao, tree and fruit, vi. 100; 

adulterations of, I. 170; culture of, in 

Philippines, xvin. 751; in Venezuela, 

xxiv. 140. 

- BUTTER, vegetable fat, xvn. 744. 
COCOA-NUT, vi. 103; xvii. 664. 
COCOA-NUT OIL, xvn. 744. 
COCOA-NUT PALM, vi. 103; xvni. 190; 

of Ceylon, v. 363. 
Coco DE MER, tree and fruit, Seychelles 

Islands, xvni. 191; xxi. 726. 
COCOON, of bees, in. 492; of moths, iv. 

594; of the silkworm, XXII. 58. 
Cocos, genus of palms, xvni. 190. 
ISLANDS, Indian Ocean, xiv. 26; 

xxii. 586. 



C C C O L 



Cocx, or Coques, Gonzalez, Flemish 
painter, vi. 368. 

COCYTUS, river, Greece, vi. 103. 

, legendary river, vi. 103; xxn. 

614. 

COD, fish, vi. 103; xii. 691; organs of 
touch in the, XXIII. 478; fishery, off 
Newfoundland, xvn. 384; North Sea 
fishery, IX. 255. 

CODE, body of laws, vi. 104. 

CODEIA, alkaloid in opium, XVII. 793. 

CODE NAPOLEON, ix. 614; xvn. 205. 

CODES, of Roman law, xx. 710. 

CODEX, writing tablets, xviir. 143; 
ancient manuscript, xvm. 144. 

ALEXANDRINUS, MS. of the Scrip 
tures, i. 496. 

AUREUS, MS. of the Gospels, xxin. 
553- 



MS. of Gospels and the 
Acts, I. 123; in. 646; in university 
library, Cambridge, IV. 730. 

EPHRAEMI, MS. of New Testa 
ment, in. 646. 

JURIS ECCLESIASTICI ANGLICANI, 
of Bishop Gibson, x. 586. 

OF JUSTINIAN, xin. 794; xx. 712. 
SINAITICUS, MS. of the Scriptures; 
in. 646; xiv. 533; xxin. 409. 

VATICANUS, MS. of New Testa- 



ment, in. 646. 

CODICANAL (Kodaikanal), town, India, 
xv. 192. 

CODICIL, to a will, xxiv. 571. 

CODIFICATION, of law, vi. 106. 

CODILLA, of flax, ix. 298, 

COD-LIVER OIL, vi. 104; xvn. 744. 

CODOGNO, town, Italy, VI. 107. 

CODOMANNUS (Darius III.), king of 
Persia, vi. 826; xvni. 581. 

CODRINGTON, Sir Edward, British 
admiral, vi. 107. 

CODRUS, king of Athens, vi. 107; n. 
476. 

COEFFICIENT, in algebra, i. 519. 

COEFFICIENTS, Laplace s, xiv. 303. 

COEHORN, Menno, Baron van, Dutch 
military engineer, vi. 107; on forti 
fication, IX. 441, 462. 

COZLA, Pass of, Thessaly, Greece, xxm. 
299. 

COZLEBS IN SEARCH OF A WIFE, by 
Hannah More, xvi. 814. 

CCELENTERA, or Ccelenterata, group of 
animals, vi. 107, 369; I. 129; xn. 
547; xvni. 259; embryology of, xx. 
419; histology of, XII. 7; reproduction 
of, xx. 408; skeletal structures of, 
xxn. 106; in Lankcster s classifica 
tion, xxiv. 812. 

CCELESTINE, mineral, xxn. 607. 

CCELESTINUS I., pope, V. 291; XIX. 491. 

See Celestine. 
CCELESTIUS, Pelagian teacher, in. 77; 

xvni. 471. 
COZLESYRIA, Roman province, Asia 

Minor, xiv. 393; xxn. 822; xxiu.654. 



COELHO, Estevan, Portuguese poetj 
xix. 555. 

CCELIAN HILL, Rome, xx. 828. 

CCELIUS AURELIANUS, Roman medical 
writer, in. 86; XV. 804. 

COELLO, Alonso Sanchez, Spanish 
painter, VI. 108. 

CCELOCORMID^E, family of Tunicata, 
xxin. 617. 

COEN, Jan Pieterszoon, founder of 
Batavia, Java, vi. 108; xn. 820. 

CCENINA, ancient town, Italy, xiv. 
344- 

CCENOBIA, monastic communities, I. 10, 
n; vi. 109; xvi. 700. 

COENRED, Northumbrian king, xvn. 
570. 

COZNURUS CEREBRALIS, animal para 
site, xxiv. 206. 

CCERULEOLACTIN, mineral, xvi. 405. 

CCESYRA, wife of Pisistratus, xix. 131. 

COETLOGON, Denis de, his Universal 
History of Arts and Sciences, vin. 197. 

COZUR, Jacques, early French trader and 
economist, vi. 109; v. 411. 

DE LION, Richard I. of England, 

xx. 539. 

COFFEE, vi. no; adulterations of, I. 
169; use of chicory in, v. 615; culti 
vation of, in Arabia, II. 237 ; in Brazil, 
IV. 227; in Cuba, vi. 68 1 ; in Celebes, v. 
289; in Ceylon, v. 369; in India, xn. 
750; in Java, xin. 603; in the Philip 
pines, xvni. 751; in Sumatra, XXII. 
639; in Venezuela, xxiv. 140. 
- HOUSES, origination of, VI. 1 10. 

RAT, in Sumatra, xxn. 639. 

COFFER-DAMS, in engineering, vi. 114; 
iv. 325. 

COFFIN, ix. 824; of clay, xix. 605; of 
wicker work, v. 330. 

COGGIA S COMET, 11. 815. 

COGIDUBNUS, British king, XXII. 725. 

COGITO ERGO SUM, Descartes s proposi 
tion, v. 142. 

COGNAC, town, France, vi. 116. 

, brandy, IV. 216. 

COGNI, Konia, or Koniyeh, town, Asiatic 
Turkey, xn. 696. 

COGNITION, xx. 40; in relation to logic, 
xiv. 797; Fichte s theory of, ix. 137; 
Hume s, xn. 353; Kant on, xin. 851. 

COGNIZANCE, or Badge, in heraldry, XL 
709. 

COHELETH, Book of Ecclesiastes, vii. 
624. 

COHEN, Francis (Sir Francis Palgrave), 
English historian, xvni. 182. 

COHESION, in capillary action, v. 56. 

COHN, F., his researches on protoplasm, 
xix. 829; on Schizomycetes, xxi. 399. 

COHOES, town, New York, U.S.A., vi. 
116. 

COIGNET, Michael, Flemish cartogra 
pher, xvn. 253. 

COIMBATORE, district, India, VI. 116. 

COIMBRA, town, Portugal, vi. 117; xix. 



537; observatory at, xvn. 713; uni 
versity, xxin. 839, 851. 
COIN, town, Spain, vi. 117. 
COINAGE, xvi. 723; xvn. 628; counter 
feit, I. 176; of gold and silver, iv. 518; 

depreciation of, xvi. 726; relations to 

units of weight, xxiv. 482; British, 

xvi. 480; French, ix. 525; ancient 

Lydian, xv. 100; in Tibet, XIV. 498. 

, Decimal, vii. 20. 

COINING, xvi. 480; Boulton s apparatus 

for, iv. 173. 
COINS, xvn. 628; Etruscan, vin. 641; 

Greek and Roman bronze, IV. 367; 

Tibetan, xiv. 498. 
COIR, fibre, vi. 103. 
CoiRE, town, Switzerland, vi. 117; 

xxn. 778. 

GOITER, Volcher, on birds, xvni. 4. 
Coix LACHRYMA, species of grasses, 

xin. 703. 

COJUTEPEC, town, San Salvador, vi. 1 18. 
COKE, fuel, vi. 46, 118; use of, for 

smoke abatement, xxn. 182. 
, Sir Edward, English lawyer, vi. 

119; rival of Bacon, in. 202. 

, Thomas, American Methodist, xvi. 

192. 
COKUM BUTTER, vegetable fat, xvn. 

744, 746. 
COLAC, lake, Victoria, Australia, xxiv. 

216. 

COL/EUS, Samian navigator, xxi. 249. 
COLA NUT, xvn. 664. 
COLAPTES, genus of birds, xxiv. 652. 
COLAR, district, India, xiv. 136. 
COLAXAIS, Scythian hero, xxi. 576. 
COLAY, lake, Ecuador, vii. 646. 
COLBATH, Jeremiah J. (Henry Wilson), 

vice-president of United States, xxiv. 

590. 

COLBERG, town, Prussia, vi. 121. 
COLBERT, Jean. Baptiste, French states 
man, VI. 12 1 ; IX. 574; his economic 

policy, xix. 356. 

COLCHAGUA, province, Chili, v. 617. 
COLCHESTER, town, England, vi. 123; 

house of Austin Canons at, I. 19. 

, Lord, English statesman, vi. 124. 

COLCHICINE, vegetable alkaloid, vi. 

125. 

COLCHICUM, plant, vi. 124. 
COLCHIS, ancient country, Caucasus, vi. 

125; xvi. 437; coins of, xvn. 645. 
COLD, Death from, xv. 781. 
, catarrh, v. 218. 

BLAST FURNACE, xin. 317. 
COLDSTREAM, town, Scotland, VI. 125. 
COLD-WATER CURE, hydropathy, xii. 

542. 
COLD WAVES, of air, in United States, 

xxin. 805. 

COLE, W., English physician, xv. 811. 
COLEBROOKE, Henry Thomas, English 

Orientalist, VI. 125; I. 517. 
COLEMAN, Edward, English veterinary 

teacher, xxiv. 199. 



C O L C L 



105 



COLENSO, J. W., bishop of Natal, xvn. 

242; on the Pentateuch, xvm. 512. 
COLEOPTERA, order of insects, VI. 126, 

Xiii. 148; mimicry in, XVI. 343. 
COLERAINE, town, Ireland, vi. 134. 
COLERIDGE, Hartley, English writer, 

vi. 135. 
, Sir John Taylor, English lawyer 

and critic, VI. 135. 
, Samuel Taylor, English poet, VI. 

135; as dramatist, vn. 438; as jour 
nalist, XVII. 417; his sonnets, XXII. 

262; his place in English literature, 

vili. 433; his relations with Southey, 

xxn. 290; with "\Vordsworth, xxiv. 

669. 
, Sara, English writer, VI. 138 ; 

translator, vn. 308. 
COLEROON, branch from the Kaveri, 

India, xiv. 19; xxm. 47. 
COLERUS, Johannes, biographer of 

Spinoza, XXII. 402. 

COLESHILL, town, England, xxiv. 379. 
COLET, John, dean of St Paul s, London, 

vi. 139; vin. 414. 
, Louise Revoil, French poetess and 

novelist, VI. 139. 
COLEUS, stove plant, xn. 266. 
COLFAX, Schuyler, vice-president of 

United States, xxm. 788. 
COLIC, disease, vi. 140. 
COLIGNI, or Coligny, Gaspard de, admiral 

of France, VI. 140; IX. 559. 
COLIGNY, House of, ix. 559. 
COLI MA, town, Mexico, vi. 141; xvi. 214; 

state, xvi. 214; mountain, xvi. 215. 
COLIN, bird, xx. 147. 
, Alexander, Flemish sculptor, vi 

141. 

CLOUT, Skelton s song, xxn. 120. 

CLOUT S COME HOME AGAIN, 

Spenser s poem, xxn. 394. 
COLIUS, genus of birds, xvn. 6. 
COLL, Bernat des, Catalan chronicler, 

xxn. 364. 
COLLAERT, Hans, Flemish engraver, vi 

141. 

COLLAR-BONE, Anatomy of the, I. 826. 
COLLARD, W. F., pianoforte maker, xix. 

75- 

COLLAS, Peruvian tribe, XVIII. 676. 
COLLE, Charles, French dramatist, vi. 

141. 
COLLE, Rafaelle del, Italian painter, vi. 

142. 
COLLECTARIUM, liturgical service book, 

xiv. 710. 

COLLECTIVISM, economic basis of social 
ism, xxn. 207. 

COLLEGE, vi. 142; xxm. 834, 837. 
COLLEGE DE FRANCE, xxm. 851. 
COLLEGES DE RHETORIQUE, in Dutch 

literature, xn. 91. 
COLLEGIA, Roman guilds, vi. 432; xi. 

260. 

COLLEGIANT BROTHERHOOD, Dutch 

religious sect, xxn. 400. 



COLLEGIUM CURIOSUM, academy, in 

Germany, I. 71. 
COLLEMCOLA, group of insects, xm. 

153- 

COLLENCHYMA, tissue ill plants, xn. 
18. 

COLLEONI, Bartolomeo, Statue of, at 
Venice, XXI. 568; xxiv. 156, 176. 

COLLET, John, English caricaturist, v. 
104. 

COLLETT, J. Camilla, Norwegian novel 
ist, xvii. 592. 

COLLETTA, Pietro, Italian historian, 
xm. 514. 

COLLIBERTS, or Cagots, race of people, 
France, IV. 641. 

COLLIE, dog, vn. 326. 

COLLIER, Arthur, English metaphysi 
cian, vi. 143. 

, Jeremy, English divine, VI. 145 ; 

on the English stage, vn. 436. 

COLLIERIES, in England and Wales, 
vm. 226; modes of working, vi. 64. 
See Coal, Coalfields, and Coal-Mining. 

COLLIMATOR, optical instrument, xvn. 
800; in spectroscopy, XXII. 373. 

MAGNET, xv. 238. 

COLLING, Messrs, breeders of shorthorn 

cattle, I. 303. 
COLLINGWOOD, suburb of Melbourne, 

Victoria, xv. 836. 

, Lord, English admiral, VI. 145. 
COLLINS, Anthony, English philosopher, 

VI. 146; XXIV. 644; his Discourse of 

Freethinking, VII. 35. 
, Mortimer, English poet and novel 
ist, vi. 147. 

, Samuel, English anatomist, I. 813. 

, William, English painter, VI. 148. 

, William, English poet, VI. 148. 
COLLINSON, Captain, Arctic explorer, 

xix. 321. 

COLLISION, at sea, xxi. 60 r. 
COLLOCALIA, genus of birds, XXII. 760. 
COLLODION, its composition and uses, 

vi. 149. 

PROCESS, in photography, xvm. 
824. 

COLLOQUE, French presbytery, Xix. 693. 

COLLOQUIA, of Erasmus, vm. 512. 
MENSALIA, of Luther, i. 785. 

COLLOREDO, Lazarus Johannes Baptista, 
parasite-bearing monster, xvi. 766. 

COLLOT D HERBOIS, Jean Marie, French 
Revolutionist, vi. 149. 

COLMAN, George, the Elder, English 
dramatist, vi. 149; vn. 438. 

, George, the Younger, English 

dramatist, vi. 150. 

COLMAR, town, German Alsace, vi. 150. 

COLMATA, or Warping, method of re 
claiming land, I. 406; xm. 367. 

COLN (Cologne, q.v.), town, Germany, 
vi. 151. 

COLNE, river, Herts, England, xi. 771; 

XVI. 279; XXIII. 220. 

, river, Essex, England, vm. 552. 



COLNE, town, England, VI. 150. 

COLOBOMA OF THE IRIS, eye disease, 
xvn. 782. 

COLOBUS, genus of apes, n. 151. 

COLOCYNTH, plant and drug, vi. 150. 

COLOGNA, town, Italy, vi. 151. 

COLOGNE, town, Rhenish Prussia, vi. 
151; xx. 1 6, 21 ; architecture of 
churches, II. 431; sculptures in cathe 
dral, xxi. 565; university of, xxm. 
840, 848 ; Wallraf-Richartz museum, 
xxi. 445; congress of Old Catholics 
at (1872), xvii. 755. 

COLOMBIA, United States of, South 
America, vi. 152; I. 712; xxiv. 141; 
under Bolivar, IV. 9; Indian tribes, 
Xii. 828; mines, xvi. 471; railways, 
xx. 252. 

COLOMBINI, Giovanni, Italian writer, 
xm. 505. 

COLOMBO, town, Ceylon, vi. 157. 

COLON, territory, Venezuela, xxiv. 140. 

(Aspinwall), town, Panama, n. 716; 

xvm. 209. 

COLONEL JACK, Defoe s work, vn. 29. 

COLONEUS, CEdipus, Sophocles s drama, 
xxn. 272. 

COLONIA, town, Uruguay, xxiv. 15. 

COLONIAL GOVERNMENT, XL 20. 

COLONIES, vi. 158; growth of and com 
merce with, vi. 202 ; their legal rela 
tions to aboriginal tribes, xm. 196; 
British, in America, their relations to 
the crown, xxm. 730, 736; Roman, 
xx. 745. 

COLONIZATION, Wakefield s theories of, 

xxiv. 319. 
COLONNA, Giacomo, bishop of Lombez, 

France, xvm. 707. 
, Giovanni Paolo, Italian composer, 

vi. 157. 

, Otto di (Pope Martin V.), xv. 582. 

-, Sciarra, mediaeval Roman senator, 



xx. 798. 
, Vittoria, Neapolitan princess and 

poetess, vi. 157; friend of Michel 
angelo, xvi. 234. 

- FAMILY, Rome, xx. 796, 804, 806. 
COLONNE, Guido delle, Italian writer, 

xm. 499; xx. 639. 

COLONUS, Roman cultivator, xxil. 135. 
COLONY, vi. 158. See Colonies. 
COLOPHON, ancient town, Asia Minor, 

vi. 161. 

, in bibliography, VI. 161. 

COLOPHONITE, mineral, xvi. 411, 
COLOPHONIUS, Nicander, Greek poet, 

XVII. 476. 
COLOPHONY, rosin, vi. 161 ; xx. 852; 

xxiv. 242. 
COLOQUINTIDA (Colocynth), plant, vi. 

!50. 

COLORADO, State, U.S.A., vi. 161 ; 
population, xxm. 802; mines of, xvi. 
470; xxm. 815. 

BEETLE, vi. 134, 163. 



COLORADOITE, mineral, xvi. 394. 
XXV. 14 



106 



C L C O M 



COLORADO MOUNTAINS, U.S.A., xxm. 
796. 

COLORADO RIVER, U.S.A., vi. 163; 
xvii. 367; xviii. 116; xxm. 203; 
canons of, xxm. 799. 

COLOSSI, ancient town, Asia Minor, vi. 
164. 

COLOSSEUM, amphitheatre at Rome, I. 
774; II. 419 ; dedication of, xxm. 420. 

COLOSSI ANS, Epistle to the, vi. 164; its 
relation to the Epistle to Ephesians, 
vni. 463. 

COLOSSUS, statue at Rhodes, vi. 166; n. 
365; xx. 526. 

COLOT, Laurence, French surgeon, xxn. 
676. 

COLOUR, Sensations of, vm. 823; ideas 
of the ancients about, XIV. 577 ; its 
application to architecture, II. 454; in 
crystals, xvi. 372; of metals, xvi. 68; 
animal mimicry of, XVI. 343; photo 
graphy of, xviii. 834; Goethe s 
investigations on, X. 734; Newton s, 
XVII. 440; Schopenhauer s, XXI. 450. 

, Acoustic, timbre, I. 118. 

BLINDNESS, vni. 824; xiv. 579; 

affected by magnetism, XV. 282; Dai- 
ton s exposition of, VI. 784. 

CORRECTION, of object glasses, 

xxm. 141. 

COLOURED RACE, in United States, 

xxin. 821. 

COLOUR PRINTING, xxm. 708. 
COLOURS, used by artists, XVIII. 138; 

XIX. 85; in dyeing, VII. 574; steam, 

in calico printing, IV. 690; vegetable, 

xix. 52. 
COLSTON, Edward, English merchant, 

vi. 1 66. 
COLSTON S HOSPITAL, Bristol, England, 

v. 446. 
COLT, Samuel, inventor of the revolver, 

vi. 166. 

COLTA, lake, Ecuador, vil. 646. 
COLUBER, genus of snakes, xxn. 194. 
COLUCCIO SALUTATI, Italian scholar, 

xx. 802. 
COLUMBA, Celtic saint, vi. 167; XIII. 

204, 249; his mission in Scotland, xxi. 

474; monastic rule of, XVI. 706. 
COLUMBjE, group of birds, vn. 379; 

xviii. 46. 
COLUMBANUS, Irish monk, VI. 167; 

monastic rule of, XVI. 707. 
COLUMBELLA (Dyveke), mistress of 

Christian II. of Denmark, vil. 587. 
COLUMBIA, town, South Carolina, 

U.S.A., vi. 168; xxn. 288. 
, British, North America, VI. 169. 

, District of, U.S.A., vi. 168; xxiv. 

382; population, xxm. 802. 
COLLEGE, New York, U.S.A., 

xvii. 456, 461; xxm. 857. 
- RIVER, U.S.A., xvii. 822; xviii. 

116; xxm. 798; xxiv. 386. 
COLUMBINE, of the pantomime, xviii. 

216. 



COLUMBITE, mineral, xvi. 427. 

COLUMBO, Matthieu R., on the vas 
cular system, I. 809; xxiv. 95. 

COLUMBUS, town, Georgia, U.S.A., vi. 
171. 

, town, Ohio, U.S.A., vi. 170; xvii. 

737- 

, Christopher, discoverer of America, 

vi. 171; I. 707; ix. 82; x. 180; xili. 

375- 

, Johan, Swedish poet, XXII. 755. 

, M. R., Italian anatomist, I. 809; 



xxiv. 95. 

, Samuel, Swedish poet, XXII. 755. 

COLUMCILLE, or Columba (i-v.), Celtic 
saint, vi. 167; XIIL 249. 

COLUMELLA, Lucius Junius Moderatus, 
Roman writer on agriculture, VI. 176; 
xix. 350. 

COLUMN, in architecture, n. 462; Cary- 
atic, II. 407; Corinthian, II. 407; Doric, 
II. 403; Egyptian, n. 391; Persian, II. 
400; Roman, xx. 831; Roman Corin 
thian, II. 416; Roman Doric, II. 418; 
Roman Ionic, n. 417. 
, strength of, xxn. 606. 



COLVILL, Surgeon-Major, his observa 
tions on the plague, xix. 159. 

COLVILLE RESERVATION, Washington 
Territory, U.S.A., xxiv. 386. 

COLYMBID^E, family of birds, vn. 292; 
xv. 2. 

COLZA, plant, i. 383; vi. 176. 

OIL, vi. 176; xvii. 744; xx. 



COMACCHIO, town, Italy, VI. 177 ; 

eel beds of, vn. 693; lagoons of, xix. 

251. 

COMAN, Turkish tribe, xxm. 660. 
COM AN A, ancient town, Pontus, Asia 

Minor, vi. 177; xix. 459. 
(Chryse), ancient town, Cappadocia, 

Asia Minor, VI. 177; temple of Bellona 

at, v. 75. 
COMANCHES, North-American Indians, 

vi. 177. 
COMAYAGUA, town, Honduras, xii. 131; 

departmental. 177. 
COMB, VI. 177 ; manufacture of, at 

Aberdeen, I. 42. 
, of bees, in. 489. 



COMBACONUM, town, India, vi. 178; 

xxm. 47. 

COMBAT, Judicial, vn. 511; xvii. 820. 
COMBATIVENESS, in phrenology, xviji. 

844- 
COMBE, Abram, disciple of Robert 

Owen, xviii. 88. 
, Andrew, Scottish physiologist, vi. 

179. 



, George, Scottish physiologist, VI. 

179; xvin. 844. 

, William, English writer, VI. 180. 

COMBERMERE, Viscount, English gene 
ral, vi. 1 8 1. 

COMBINATIONS, among workmen, vi. 
181; xxm. 499. 



COMBO, British colony, West Africa, x. 

59- 
COMBUSTION-HEAT, of oil, as compared 

with coal, xvin. 239. 
COMEDIE HUMAINE, Balzac s, in. 304. 
COMEDONES, skin disease, xxn. 121. 
COMEDY, vn. 395; Greek, n. 508. 
OF ERRORS, Shakespeare s play, 

xxi. 763. 
COMENIUS, or Komensky, Johann Amos, 

Moravian educationist, vi. 182; vn. 

673; xxn. 152. 
COMET, The, H. Bell s steamboat, in. 

542. 
COMETS, VI. 182; ll. 813; in relation to 

meteors, xvi. no; exchided from 

nebular theory, XVII. 310; spectra of, 

XXII. 651 ; Kepler s observations on, 

xiv. 47; Leverrier s, xiv. 486; Gibers s, 

xvn. 752. 

COMFITS, confections, vi. 257. 
COMFREY, Prickly, forage plant, i. 

378. 
COMICAL REVENGE, Etheridge s comedy, 

vni. 573. 

COMIC OPERA, xvn. 99. 
COMILLAH, town, India, XXIII. 405. 
.COMINES, town, France, vi. 194. 

, Philippe de, French historian, VI. 



194; ix. 648. 
COMING RACE, The, Lytton s tale, xv. 

123. 
COMINO, island, Mediterranean Sea, xv. 

339- 
COMINOTTO, islet, Mediterranean Sea, 

xv. 339. 
C OMISENE, Parthian kingdom, XVIII. 

592. 
COMITAN, or Comitlan, town, Mexico, 

vi. 194. 
COMITIACENTURIATA, of ancient Rome, 

vi. 195; xx. 679, 735. 
COMITIA CURIATA, of ancient Rome, vi. 

194; xx. 733. 
COMITIA TRIBUTA, of ancient Rome, vi. 

195; xx. 679, 737, 771. 
COMITIUM, at Rome, xx. Si 6. 
COMITLAN, town, Mexico, vi. 194. 
COMMAGENE, Syria, Coins of, xvn. 649. 
COMMAND, distinguished from law, xiv. 

355- 
COMMANDER, Naval, duties of, xvn. 

292. 
COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF, of British 

army, II. 572. 

COMMANDMENTS, The Ten, vn. 15. 
COMMEDIA DELL ARTE, improvised 

comedy, in Italy, vn. 418. 
COMMEMORATION OF SAINTS, xxi. 155. 
COMMENDAMS, Bacon versus Coke on, 

III. 206. 
COMMENSALISM, Parasitic, xvin. 261; 

n. 67. 
COMMERCE, vi. 196; beginnings of, vni. 

617; economic extension of, xix. 354; 

European, vni. 706 ; commercial 

societies, xxn. 227. 



O M C N 



107 



COMMERCIAL AGENTS, in the United 

States, vi. 317. 

COMMERCY, town, France, VI. 207. 
COMMISSION, Calculation of, n. 536. 
COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY, in 

France, IX. 605. 

COMMITTEES, Parliamentary, xvm. 312. 
COMMIUS, British king, XXII. 725. 
COMMODORE, naval officer, xvn. 292. 
COMMODUS, Lucius Aurelius, Roman 

emperor, VI. 207. 

COMMON, Rights of, in law, vi. 209. 
, A. A., his observatory at Ealing, 

London, xvn. 711; his reflecting 

telescope, xxm. 152. 

LAW, vi. 208. 

LIFE, or Common Lot, Brethren of 

the, mediaeval religious society, VII. 

672; IX. 725; xvii. 134. 
PLEAS, Court of, England, VI. 208; 

Records of, XX. 312. 

PRAYER, Book of, Church of Eng 
land, VIII. 379; xiv. 710; revision of, 

vi. 328. 

COMMONS, waste lands, vi. 208. 
, estate of the realm, British, VIII. 

557- 

, House of, xvm. 304, 307, 311. 

COMMON SENSE, Hamilton s theory of, 
XI. 418; Reid s philosophy of , XX. 350. 

COMMONWEALTH, The English, under 
Cromwell, vi. 602; vill. 348; parlia 
ment in time of, xvm. 307. 

COMMUNE, administrative division, in 
France, vi. 211; IX. 509; xvn. 28; in 
Italy, XIII. 464, 471; Polish, xix. 311; 
Roman, xx. 783; Russian, xxi. 83. 

OF PARIS (1792), ix. 603; (1872), 

ix. 627. 

COMMUNION, or Holy Communion, vm. 
651; xxi. 131, 139; order for admin 
istration of, Xiv. 706 ; given to the 
dying (Viaticum), XXIV. 208; Luther s 
doctrine of, xv. 81; St Paul s, xvm. 
428; Zwingli s, xxiv. 833. 

OFFICE, Roman, xvi. 509; Angli 
can, vm. 379. See also article Liturgy. 

COMMUNISM, vi. 211; xxn. 207; 
applied to land, XIV. 265; exemplified 
in Oneida Community, U.S.A., XVI I. 
773 ; Fourier s system, IX. 489 ; 
Owen s promotion of, xvm. 87. 

COMMUTATION TABLES, 11. 81. 

COMMUTATOR, Electric, xiv. 630. 

COMNENA, Anna, princess and author 
ess, II. 59. 

COMNENI, dynasty, Byzantine empire, 
XI. 117. 

COMNENUS, Alexius, Byzantine emperor, 

I. 501; XI. 117; his relations with the 
crusaders, vi. 625. 

, Alexius, emperor of Trebizond, 

XXin. 533. 
, Andronicus I., Byzantine emperor, 

II. 22. 

, Isaac I., Byzantine emperor, xin. 

374- 



COMNENUS, John II., Byzantine em 
peror, xin. 713. 
, Manuel I., Byzantine emperor, 



xv. 505. 
COMO, town, Italy, VI. 219. 

-, Lake of, Italy, vi. 220; xiv. 217. 



COMONFORT, Ignacio, Mexican soldier 

and politician, vi. 220. 
COMORES, or Comoro Islands, East 

Africa, VI. 220. 
COMORN, or Komorn, town, Hungary, 

xiv. 138. 

COMORO ISLANDS, East Africa, vi. 220. 
COMPAGNACCI, Florentine faction, xxi. 

337- 
COMPAGNI, Dino, Italian writer, xin. 

505. 
COMPAGNIA DELLA MORTE, in Naples, 

xx. 847. 

COMPANIES, Registration of, xx. 344. 
-, Livery, of London, vi. 223 ; xiv. 



819. 

COMPANY, corporate association, vi. 221, 
434; xvm. 330. 

OF JESUS, xin. 645. 

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, vi. 225; 
xxiv. 800; advance of, 1.813; investi 
gators in, I. 8 1 8. 

COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR, XL 38 ; 
Bopp s work on, iv. 49. 

COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY, of Aryan 
languages, xvm. 781. 

COMPASS, Azimuth, xvi. 160. 

, Mariner s, VI. 225; XV. 219, 518; 

discovery of, X. 179; as known to 
early navigators, xvn. 250; deviation 
or variation of, x. 187 ; xv. 250; 
xvi. 163; xvn. 274. 
-, Surveying, XXII. 718. 



COMPASSES, mathematical instrument, 

xxn. 721. 
COMPENSATION BALANCE, for watches, 

xxiv. 395. 
COMPETITION VALUES, in economics, 

xxiv. 48. 
COMPETITIVE EXAMINATIONS, vm. 

781. 
COMPIEGNE, town, France, vi. 228 ; 

xvii. 749. 

COMPITALIA, Roman festival, xiv. 313. 
COMPLAYNT OF SCOTLAND, early Scot 
tish work, xxi. 541. 
COMPLEAT ANGLER, Walton s work, 

xxiv. 342. 
COMPLEX, system of lines, in geometry, 

xxn. 670. 

COMPLEXITY, in psychology, xx. 56. 
COMPLEX VARIABLE, xxiv. 69. 
COMPLINE, canonical hour, iv. 263. 

COMPLUTENSIAN POLYGLOTT, I. 458; 

xin. 694; xix. 417. 
COMPOSING, in printing, XXIII. 700; 

machines for, xxm. 700. 
COMPOSTELLA (Santiago), town, Spain, 

VI. 229; pilgrimages to, xix. 94. 
COMPOUND RULES, in arithmetic, n. 

534- 



COMPRESS, Hydropathic, xn. 544. 
COMPRESSED AIR, Force of, vm. 209. 
COMPRESSED FUEL, ix. 808. 
COMPRESSIBILITY, of materials, vn. 

815; xxn. 595, 601. 
COMPRESSION, in steam-engine, xxn. 

486, 487; in air and gas engines, xxn. 

523- 

COMPSA, Samnite town, Italy, XXI. 249. 

COMPTON, Henry, bishop of London, VI. 
229. 

, Spencer, earl of Northampton, 

xvn. 558. 

COMPURGATION, ancient mode of trial, 
xin. 785. 

COMPUTATION, Arithmetical, n. 526. 

COMSTOCK MINES, Nevada, U.S.A., xvi. 
441, 470; xvn. 368; xxm. 815. 

COMTE, Auguste, French philosopher, 
VI. 229; IX. 674; his ethical system, 
vm. 609 ; on evolution, vm. 763 ; 
his metaphysic, xvi. 101; on philo 
sophy, xvm. 794; on sociology and 
political economy, xix. 390; the Three 
Ages of his scheme, I. 279; Littre s 
relations to, xiv. 706. 

COMUM (Como), ancient town, Italy, vi. 
220. 

COMUS, in Greek mythology, vi. 238. 

, Milton s poem, xvi. 326. 

, French conjurer, xv. 210. 

COMYN, John, the Red, slain by Bruce, 
xx. 593; xxi. 488. 

CON, George, papal agent in England, 
XI. 655. 

CONATION, Psychology of, xx. 40, 42, 
72. 

CONCA, Sebastiano, Italian painter, vi. 
238. 

CONCAN, district, India, VI. 238. 

CONCEALMENT OF BIRTH, in law, xin. 4. 

CONCENTRATIVENESS, in phrenology, 
xvm. 844. 

CONCEPCION, town, Chili, vi. 239; pro 
vince, v. 617. 

, town, Paraguay, xvm. 244. 

CONCEPTION, in physiology, xx. 407. 
, in psychology, XX. 57, 76. 

, Feast of the, xn. 715; xv. 592. 

BAY, Newfoundland, xvn. 383. 

CONCEPTUALISM, in scholastic philo 
sophy, i. 35; xxi. 424. 

CONCHIFERA, class of Mollusca, xvi. 
684. 

CONCILIUM PLEBIS, of Rome, xx. 678. 

CONCINI, Concino, French courtier, IX. 
566. 

CONCLAVE, meeting for election of a 
pope, vi. 239. 

CONCLUSION, in logic, xiv. 788. 

CONCLUSIONS, The Lollard, xiv. Sn. 

CONCORD, town, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 
vi. 240; battle of (1775), xxm. 740. 

, town, New Hampshire, U.S.A., vi. 

240; xvn. 392. 

, Temple of, at Rome, II. 417; xx. 

820. 



108 



C N C N 



CONCORDANCE, verbal index, vi. 240; 

of the Bible, by Calasio, IV. 653; by 

Cruden, vi. 621. 
CONCORDAT, papal agreement, vi. 241; 

xxm. 531 ; Austrian, abolished, in. 

141; with Napoleon, xvn. 205; of 

Worms (1122), xix. 500. 
CONCORDIA, Roman goddess, VI. 243. 

, Lombard league, xin. 473. 

, town, Italy, vi. 243. 

, town, Xamaqualand, Africa, xvn. 

1 68. 

CONCORDS, Musical, xvn. 82. 
CONCRETE, substitute for stone, vi. 243; 

in building, IV. 453, 456; Roman, XX. 

808. 

CONCUBINAGE, vi. 243; xv. 569. 
COND, Irish king, xiu. 245. 
CONDAMINE, Charles Marie de la, 

French geographer and mathematician, 

xiv. 193; his South- American ex 
plorations, x. 189; measuring arc of 

meridian, vn. 598. 
CONDATE (Libourne), ancient town, 

France, xiv. 509. 
(Rennes), ancient town, France, 

xx. 401. 
CONDE, town, France, vi. 244. 

, Princes of, France, VI. 244. 

, Louis, Prince of (Concle the Great), 

vi. 245; IX. 571; his relations with 

Turenne, xxm. 626. 
, Louis de Bourbon, Prince of, vi. 



, Louis Henry Joseph, duke of 

Bourbon, vi. 248. 

CONDE, Jose Antonio, Spanish Orien 
talist, vi. 248. 

CONDENSATION, of gaseous bodies, vi. 
311; vii. 217; vm. 727; of steam, 
xxii. 487. 

CONDENSED MILK, xvi. 304. 

CONDENSER, in distillation, vn. 261. 

, Electric, vm. 34. 

, Steam-engine, xxii. 513, 518. 

CONDER, Josiah, English writer, vi. 249. 

CONDESCENDENCE, ill Scots law, XIX. 
2 2O. 

CONDE -SUR-NOIREAU, town, France, 
vi. 244. 

CONDICTION, in Roman law, xx. 683. 

CONDILLAC, Etienne Bonnot de, French 
philosopher, VI. 249; IX. 669; on the 
association of ideas, II. 732; his logic, 
Xiv. 794; on logical analysis, I. 797. 

CONDITIONED, Hamilton s philosophy 
of the, xi. 418. 

CONDIVICENUM (Nantes), ancient town, 
France, xvn. 173. 

CONDOLMIERI, Gabriel (Pope Eugenius 
IV.), vm. 663. 

CONDOM, town, France, vi. 253. 

CONDOR, bird, vi. 253; xxiv. 302; in 
Chili, V. 623. 

CONDORCET, Marquis de, French philo 
sopher and politician, vi. 254; IX. 667. 

CONDORE, India, Battle of, vi. 11. 



CONDOTTIERI, Italian mercenary troops, 

vi. 256; xill. 477. 

CONDUCTION, Electric, vm. 4, 41, 106. 
, Electrolytic, vn. 219; viu. 106. 
OF HEAT, xi. 577; xx. 212. 
CONDUCTIVITY, Electric, vm. 52. 

, Thermal, xi. 578, 586. 

BOXES, Electric, vm. 45. 
CONDUCTOR, Lightning, xiv. 633. 
CONDUIT, in water-works, xxiv. 408. 
CONDURRITE, mineral, xvi. 393. 
CONDYLOPODA, or Arthropoda, n. 271, 

647- 

CONE, in geometry, vi. 282; x. 417; 
xxii. 668; mensuration of, xvi. 25. 

, On the Section of the, Serenus s 

work, xxi. 675. 

CONECTE, Thomas, French monk and 
preacher, vi. 256. 

CONEGLIANO, town, Italy, vi. 256. 

CONEN DE PREPEAN, French steno 
grapher, xxi. 841. 

CONEPATL, skunk of Central America, 
xxii. 126. 

CONEY, islet, Sligo, Ireland, xxii. 1 59. 
ISLAND, village, Long Island, New 



York, U.S.A., xiv. 

CONFARREATIO, form of Roman mar 
riage, vi. 256; xx. 671. 

CONFECTIONERY, vi. 256. 

CONFEDERATE STATES, of America, 
xxm. 773. 

CONFEDERATION, German, in. 135 ; x. 
505. 

OF THE RHINE, in. 133; vm. 363; 

xvn. 210; its dissolution, xvn. 220. 

CONFEDERATIONS, Political, ix. 62. 

CONFERENCE, in diplomacy, vi. 269. 

CONFESSIO, in early Christian archi 
tecture, vi. 667; xx. 834. 

CONFESSION, of sin, vi. 257; its place 
in the Eastern, Latin, and Lutheran 
Churches, XVIII. 487. 

CONFESSIONAL, vi. 258. 

CONFESSION OF FAITH, Westminster, 
vi. 558; xxi. 503. 

CONFESSIONS, Rousseau s, xxi. 16. 

OF AN ENGLISH OPIUM-EATER, 

De Quincey s work, vn. 102. 

OF FAITH, or Creeds, vi. 558. 

CONFESSOR, vi. 258. 

CONFIRMATION, ecclesiastical rite, vi. 
258. 

CONFLAGRATIONS, ix. 233. 

CONFLANS, France, Treaty of (1465), IX. 
552. 

CONFUCIUS, Chinese sage, vi. 258; his 
doctrines, V. 662, 671; XX. 363; his 
relation to Mencius, xvi. 3; temple of, 
at Shanghai, n. 448. 

CONGE D ^LIRE, mandate for election 
of a bishop, vi. 265. 

CONGER-EEL, fish, vn. 693. 

CONGLETON, town, England, VI. 265. 

, Lord, chancellor of Irish ex 
chequer, VI. 265. 
CONGLOMERATE, rock, x. 237. 



CONGO, country, West Africa, vi. 266. 
, or Zaire, river, Africa, xxiv. 763 ; 
I. 254; exploration of, x. 192. 

FREE STATE, Central Africa, xxn. 

144; xxiv. 765. 

LANGUAGES, group of Bantu dia 
lects, xxiv. 828. 

CONGOU TEA, xxm. 99. 

CONGREGATIO DE PROPAGANDA FlDE, 

xvi. 514. 

CONGREGATION, Christian, early organi 
zation of, xix. 675. 

, Lords of the, Scotland, xxi. 501. 

, University, XXIII. 835. 

OF THE ORATORY, Rome, xvn. 

347- 

CONGREGATIONALISTS, religious de 
nomination, vi. 268 ; xii. 722; 
American, in relation to Unitarianism, 
xxm. 726. 

CONGREGATIONS, administrative bur 
eaus of Roman Catholic Church, XX. 
629. 

CONGRESS, in diplomacy, vi. 269; of 
Minister or Westphalia (1643-1648), 
in. 268; of Vienna (1815), in. 135, 
270. 

, of the United States, its constitu 
tion, xxm. 749 ; first meeting of, 
xvin. 741. 

, American Continental, xxi 1 1. 737, 



74, 743- 
CONGREVE, Sir William, inventor of 

the rocket, vi. 272. 
, William, English dramatist, vi. 

271; vii. 436; vin. 424. 
CONGRUENCE, in geometry, xxn. 670. 
CONI, town, Italy, vi. 272. 
CONIC SECTIONS, or Conies, vi. 273; x. 

395; projection of, xix. 798. 
CONIDIA, reproductive organs in plants, 

ix. 829; xx. 424. 
CONIFERS, order of trees, n. 315, 321; 

ix. 222; xix. 102; xxiv. 131. 
CONINE, vegetable alkaloid, xi. 647. 
CONINGTON, John, English scholar, VI. 

284. 
CONISBROUGH CASTLE, Yorkshire, 

England, xxiv. 749. 

CONISTON OLD MAN, mountain, Eng 
land, xiv. 252. 
CONIUM, genus of plants, xi. 646; XVII. 

232. 

CONJEVERAM, town, India, vi. 285. 
CONJUNCTIONS, in grammar, xi. 41. 
CONJUNCTIVITIS, eye disease, xvn. 780. 
CONJURING, by tricks and illusions, xiv. 

414; xv. 207. 
CONNAUGHT, province, Ireland, vi. 285; 

area and population of, xin. 215; first 

mention of, xill. 246. 
CONNECTICUT, State, U.S.A., vi. 285; 

xxm. 748; population, xxm. 802; 

original colony of, xxin. 730, 731. 
CONNELLITE, mineral, xvi. 385. 
CONNEMARA, district, Ireland, vi. 289; 

X. 55. 



C N C O N 



109 



CONNOR, Bernard, English physiologist, 

vi. 289. 
CONNUBIUM, or Conubium, form of 

Koman marriage, XV. 568; XX. 671. 
CONOIDS, Archimedes on, II. 380. 
CONOLLY, John, English physician, VI. 

289. 
CONOMEDUS^E, order of Hydrozoa, xn. 

559- 
CONON, Athenian general, vi. 289; as 

ally of the Persians, xvm. 577. 
, (Leo III.), emperor of the East, xiv. 

452. 
of Samos, his record of eclipses, n. 

748. 
CONOTEUTHIS, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 

671. 

CONQUEST, in Scots law, xin. 77. 
OF MEXICO, History of the, by 

Prescott, xix. 703. 
OF TREBIZOND, romance, xx. 653. 

CONQUETE DE CONSTANTINOPLE, Ville- 

hardouin s, xxiv. 229. 
CONRAD I., king of Germany, x. 482. 

II., emperor, x. 486; his influence 

in Rome, xx. 790. 

III., emperor, x. 489. 

IV., emperor, x. 492. 

of Montferrat, crusader, xx. 540; 

xxm. 161. 

of "Wurzburg, German poet, x. 524. 

CONRADIN, king of Sicily, vi. 289; xxn. 

27. 
CON R ART, Valentin, first secretary of 

the French Academy, VI. 290. 
CONSALVI, Ercole, Italian cardinal and 

statesman, vi. 290. 

CONSANGUINITY, or Kindred, vi. 291; 
systems of reckoning it, IX. 22; closeness 
of, in relation to deaf-muteism, VII. 4. 
CONSCIENCE, or Moral Sense, Butler s 
doctrine of, IV. 587; Hutcheson s, xn. 
409 ; Shaftesbury s, XXI. 733. See 
also article Ethics. 

, Hendrik, Flemish writer, xn. 98. 

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS, in phrenology, 

xvm. 845. 

CONSCIOUSNESS, in metaphysics, xvi. 
92; states of, xx. 38; physiology of, 
XIX. 20, 41 ; Christian, vn. 336 ; 
Cousins s theory of, VI. 525 ; Des 
cartes s, v. 142; Hamilton s, XL 417; 
Locke s, xiv. 758. 
CONSCRIPTION, Military, n. 565, 566; 

its effect on emigration, Viil. 175. 
CONSECRATION, vi. 291. 
CONSEIL DE PRUD HOMMES, tribunal of 
employers and employed, xiv. 173; at 
Paris, XVIII. 286. 
CONSENSUS SANDOMIRIENSIS, church 

congress (1570), XXL 259. 
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY, VIIL 208; 

xvm. 553. 
CONSERVATISM, as influenced by the 

Renaissance, xx. 394. 
CONSERVATIVE PARTY, British, xxiv. 
540. 



CONSERVATOIRE DES ARTS ET DES 

METIERS, Paris, xvni. 281. 
CONSERVATORY, Garden, xn. 222. 

, or Conservatoire, Musical, vi. 291; 



xvii. 83. 
CONSIDERATION, in legal contracts, vi. 

322. 
CONSISTOIRE, French Presbyterian 

court, XIX. 693. 
CONSISTORIAL CONGREGATION, of 

Church of Rome, XX. 629. 
CONSISTORIAUX, section of French 

Presbyterians, XIX. 694. 
CONSISTORY, ecclesiastical council, vi. 

292. 

COURT, Canterbury, n. 370. 



CONSIVA, or Ops, Roman goddess, xxi. 

321. 
CONSOLATION OF PHILOSOPHY, Boetius s 

work, in. 857. 
CONSOLATIONS AGAINST THE FEAR OF 

DEATH, Drelincourt s work, vu. 468. 
CONSOLE, in architecture, II. 462. 
CONSOLIDATION ACTS, English, vi. 292. 
CONSOLS, British Government annuities, 

vi. 293; xvii. 245. 
CONSONANCE, Musical, xvii. 105. 
CONSONANTS, Pronunciation of, xxn. 

385- 

CONSPIRACY, in law, vi. 293; in rela 
tion to trade unions, XXIII. 500. 

CONSTABLE, officer of the peace, vi. 
294. 

, Lord High, of England, xxn. 459; 

xxi. 36. 

, Archibald, Scottish publisher, VI. 

295; vin. 201. 

, Henry, English poet, VI. 295. 

, John, English painter, vi. 296. 

CONSTABULARY, police force, xix. 332; 
in Ireland, XIII. 239. 

CONSTANCE, town, Baden, Germany, vi. 
297; congress of Old Catholics at 
(1873), xvii. 755; council of (1414-18), 
x. 550; xii. 405; xin. 712; xix. 502; 
xx. 320, 805; peace of (1183), xin. 

474- 

, Lake of, Switzerland, vi. 297; XIV. 

217; xx. 519; xxii. 776. 

of Aquitaine, wife of Robert I. of 

France, IX. 536. 

CONSTANT DE REBECQUE, Henri Ben 
jamin, French philosopher and econo 
mist, vi. 297; IX. 673; xvm. 223; 
xxii. 799; on the philosophy of caste, 
v. 187, 189. 

CONSTANTIANA (Kustendje), ancient 
town, Roumania, xiv. 162. 

CONSTANTINA, town, Spain, XXI. 708. 

CONSTANTINE, town, Algeria, VI. 298. 

I., the Great, Roman emperor, vi. 

298; xi. 110; xx. 778; cross in the 
sky, seen by, XL 399. 

V. (Copronymus), Byzantine em 
peror, xii. 713. 

VI., Byzantine emperor, xm. 274. 

VII. (Porphyrogenitus), Byzantine 



emperor, VI. 301; his encouragement 
of literature, iv. 613; xi. 145. 

CONSTANTINE XIII. (Palreologus), By 
zantine emperor, xvm. 166. 

, emperor of Gaul, Spain, and 

Britain, vi. 301. 

I-II., kings of Scotland, xxi. 478. 

, missionary to the Slavs, xvi. 194. 

, bishop of Harran, Syriac writer, 



xxii. 841. 
, Basilica of, at Rome, in. 414; xx. 

826. 
BRANCOVAN, voivode of Walachia, 

xxi. 17. 
PAVLOVICH, Russian prince, vi. 

302; xvii. 485. 
SYLVANUS, founder of the Paul- 

icians, xvni. 433. 
CONSTANTINOPLE, capital of Turkey, 

VI. 302; founding of, XI. in; xx. 

778; council of (381), xxm. 259; 

repulse of Moslems at (717), xvi. 574; 

taken by the Crusaders (1204), vi. 629, 

803; by the Turks (1453), xvii. 484; 

xxm. 642; Renaissance dates from its 

capture, xx. 381 ; aqueducts, n. 221; 

cemeteries, v. 331; ancient libraries, 

xiv. 512 ; newspapers, xvn. 432; 

plague in, xix. 166; its suburb, Scu 
tari, xxi. 573. 
, province, Turkey in Europe, xxm. 

653- 

, Era of, v. 714. 

CONSTANTINUS CEPHALAS, compiler of 
an anthology, 1 1. 103. 

CONSTANTIUS I., Flavins Valerius, 
Roman emperor, vi. 309; XX. 777; in 
Scotland, xxi. 472. 

II., Flavins Julius, Roman emperor, 

xin. 768; xx. 778. 

CONSTANTS, Mathematical, Tables of, 
xxm. 13. 

, Tidal, xxm. 366. 

CONSTELLATIONS, groups of stars, n. 
816; xxiv. 791. 

CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY, of France, 
ix. 598. 

CONSTITUTION, and Constitutional Law, 
vi. 309. 

CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF ENG 
LAND, Hallam s, xi. 393. 

CONSTITUTIONALISM, Metternich s op 
position to, xvi. 20 1. 

CONSTITUTIONNEL, Le, Paris news 
paper, xvii. 426. 

CONSTITUTION OF BODIES, vi. 310. 

CONSTITUTION OF ENGLAND, De- 
lolme s work, vn. 51. 

CONSTITUTION OF MAN, Combe s work, 
vi. 1 80. 

CONSTITUTIONS, Apostolic, early 
Christian work, n. 195, 196. 

, of Justinian, xin. 793; XX. 712. 

OF CLARENDON, vin. 372. 

CONSTRAINT, in mechanics, xv. 678. 

CONSTRUCTION, Principles of, in build 
ing, iv. 447. 



110 



C N C O 



CONSTRUCTIVENESS, in phrenology, 

xviii. 845. 
CONSUBSTANTIATION, Eucharistical 

doctrine, vm. 653; XV. 85; taught by 

Occam, xvn. 718. 
CONSUEGRA, town, Spain, vi. 313. 
CONSUETUDE, in Eoman law, xx. 698. 
CONSUL, commercial and legal officer 

in foreign country, VI. 315; British, 

precedence of, XIX. 667. 
, Roman magistrate, VI. 313; XX. 

735) 738, 771, 785; in the provinces, 

VTV QQ f 
XIX. 005. 

CONSULATE, French, ix. 612; xvn. 

203. 
OF THE SEA, Book of the, vi. 317; 

xxi. 584. 
CONSULS, The Three, in France 

(1799-1800), ix. 612; xvii. 203. 
CONSUMPTION, pulmonary disease, 

xvni. 405, 855. 
CONTADES, Louis G. E., French marshal, 

ix. 589. 
CONTAGION, or Infectiveness, in 

pathology, xviii. 401; in case of the 

plague, xix. 161. 
CONTAGIOUS DISEASES (ANIMALS) 

ACTS, British, xx. 158. 
CONTANGO, stock exchange term, I. 92; 

xxn. 557. 
CONTARINI, Ambrogio, Venetian envoy 

to Persia, xviii. 633. 

, Andrea, doge of Venice, xxiv. 144. 

CONTE, Nicolas Jacques, French pencil- 
maker, xvni. 490. 

CONTEMPT OF COURT, offence, vi. 318. 
CONTES, La Fontaine s, xiv. 205. 

DROLATIQUES, Balzac s, in. 305. 

CONTI, Prince of (Arniand de Bourbon), 

VI. 319. 
, Gregorio (Victor IV., antipope), 

xxiv. 213. 
, Lothario (Pope Innocent III.), 

XIII. 82. 
, Michael Angelo (Pope Innocent 

XIII.), xiii. 86. 

, Nicolo, Italian traveller, x. 179. 

CONTIGUITY, in mental association, n. 

733- 
CONTINENTAL CONGRESS, of American 

colonies, XXIII. 737, 740, 743. 
CONTINENTAL SYSTEM, of Napoleon, 

XVII. 212. 

CONTINUITY, Temporal, in psychology, 

xx. 56. 
CONTOURS, in mapping, x. 210; xxn. 

709, 711. 

CONTRABAND, vi. 320; xxn. 185. 
CONTRABASSOON, musical instrument, 

xvn. 707. 
CONTRACT, in law, vi. 322; xxi. 205; 

under Brehon law, IV. 253; in Eoman 

law, XX. 675, 677, 692, 699; freedom 

of, economic aspects of, XIX. 360; of 

partnership, xvni. 330. 
CONTRACTIONS, in ancient MSS., 

xvni. 164. 



CONTRAST, in mental association, n. 

733- 
CONTRASTO, love-song, by Ciullo 

d Alcamo, xni. 499. 

CONTREXEVILLE, spa, France, xvi. 433. 
CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE, in law, 

xvii. 316; xxin. 455. 
CONTROL DEPARTMENT, British army, 

11.581. 
CONTUBERNIUM, in Roman marriage 

law, xv. 568. 
CONTUCCI, Andrea, Florentine sculptor, 

xxi. 295. 

CONTUSION, in surgery, xxn. 68 1, 686. 
CONUBIUM, form of Roman marriage, 

xv. 568; xx. 671. 
CONUNDRUM, interrogative pun, xx. 

549- 

CONURUS, genus of birds, xvni. 322. 
CONVECTION, mode of transference of 

heat, xx. 212. 

CONVENT, or Conventual Establish 
ment, I. 10; xvi. 700; Lamaist, in 

Tibet, Xiv. 499. 
CONVENTICLE ACT, of 1664, in England, 

vin. 348; xix. 690; of 1670, xix. 

690; xx. 149. 
CONVENTION, French National (1792), 

ix. 604. 

, International, denned, XXIII. 530. 

OF PHILADELPHIA (1787), xxin. 

748. 

CONVENTUALS, order of monks, ix. 699. 
CONVERSANO, town, Italy, vi. 324. 
CONVERSATIONS-LEXICON, of Brock- 

haus, vin. 203. 
CONVERSION AND TROVER, in law, 

xxin. 589. 

CONVEYANCING, in law, vi. 324. 
CONVICTS, Treatment of, xix. 747; on 

ticket of leave, vi. 590; agitation 

against, in Cape Colony, v. 45. 
CONVITO, Dante s work, VI. 814; xni. 

502. 
CONVIVIUM SEU LAPITH^:, Lucian s 

dialogue, xv. 44. 
CONVOCATION, of Church of England, 

vi. 325; vin. 380. 
CONVOLVULIN, vegetable resin, xni. 

547- 
CONVOLVULUS BATATAS, vegetable, 

xix. 596; xxiv. 727. 
CONVULSIONS, in pathology, xvni. 

391- 
CONWAY, town, Wales, VI. 330; river, 

v. 119. 
, Lady, friend of Henry More, XVI. 

815. 
CONWAY S CABAL, against George 

Washington, xxiv. 389. 
CONY, of Scripture, xii. 599. 
CONYBEARE, John, English divine, VI. 

330. 

, William Daniel, English geologist, 
vi. 330. 

COOK, Captain James, English navigator 
and explorer, vi. 330; x. 189; his 



discoveries in Australasia, in. 104; his 
Arctic and Antarctic explorations, 
xix. 319, 329; his exploration of New 
Zealand, xvn. 471; of Tahiti, xxin. 
24. 

COOK, Prof., meteorological spectro- 
scopist, xx. 256. 

, Mount, New Zealand, xvn. 466. 

COOKE, Thomas, telescope-maker, XXIII. 
149; his micrometers, xvi. 244. 
, Sir W. F., his contributions to 



telegraphy, xxin. 113. 
COOKERY, vi. 331. 
COOKING STOVES, xxn. 579. 
COOK S ISLANDS, or Harvey Archi 
pelago, South Pacific, vi. 331. 
COOKSTOWN, town, Ireland, xxin. 713. 
COOK STRAIT, New Zealand, xvn. 467. 
COOKTOWN, town, Queensland, XX. 172. 
COOKWORTHY, William, English potter, 

xix. 642. 
COOLIE, or Cooly, Asiatic labourer, vi. 

333; coolie emigration, vin. 175. 
COOLING, Newton s law of, xx. 1 29. 
COOLY (Coolie), Asiatic labourer, VI. 

332; vin. 175. 
COOMASSIE, capital of Ashantee, West 

Africa, vi. 336; II. 68 1. 
COOMPTAH, or Kumpta, town, India, 

xiv. 155. 
COOPER, Abraham, English painter, VI. 

336. 

Anthony Ashley, three earls of 



Shaftesbury, xxi. 727, 731, 734. 
, Sir Astley Paston, English surgeon, 

vi. 336. 

, Charles Henry, English historio 
grapher, VI. 337. 

, James Fenimore, American novel 
ist, VI. 337; I. 725. 

, John, English musician, XVII. 87. 

COOPERAGE, handicraft, vi. 338. 
CO-OPERATION, vi. 338, 218; xiv. 321; 

productive and distributive, xxil. 

210; agricultural, its results, I. 416; 

Fourier s system, IX. 489. 
CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES, in Russia, 

xxi. 84. 
COOPER INSTITUTE, New York, xvn. 

466. 

COOPER S HILL, Denham s poem, vii. 79. 
COOPER S OBSERVATORY, Markree 

Castle, Ireland, xvn. 711. 
COOPER S WELL, spa, Mississippi, 

U.S.A., xvi. 436. 
COORDINATES, in geometry, x. 408; 

polar, x. 414; transformation of, in 

surveying, xxn. 706. 
COORDS, or Kurds (q.v.), tribes, Asia, 

xiv. 156. 

COORG, province, India, VI. 341. 
COORNHERT, Dirck Volckersten, Dutch 

writer, xn. 93. 
COORONG, lake, South Australia, XXII. 

284. 
COOS BAY, town, Oregon, U.S.A., XVII. 

824. 



C C O K 



111 



COOSH BEHAR, or Kuch Behar, state, 
India, xiv. 152. 

COOT, water-fowl, VI. 341. 

COOTE, Sir Eyre, British general, VI. 342. 

COPAIBA, Balsam of, in. 293. 

COPAL, resin, vi. 342. 

COPALINE, mineral, xvi. 428. 

COPAN, town, Honduras, vi. 343; ruins 
of, I. 693; xxiv. 758. 

COPARCENERS, in English law of in 
heritance, xiii. 77. 

COPE, ecclesiastical vestment, VI. 463. 

, E. D., on the classification of rep 
tiles, xx. 438. 

, Sir John, English general, V. 426. 

COPENHAGEN, capital of Denmark, vi. 
343; population, xxiv. 771; ix. 614; 
battle of (1801), xvn. 323; academy, 
I. 73; libraries, Xiv. 532, 549; news 
papers, xvii. 430; observatory, xvn. 
715; university, XXlll. 842. 

FIELDS, London, xiv. 828. 

COPEPODA, group of crustaceans, VI. 
664 ; in Lankester s classification, XXI v. 

813- 

COPERNICAN SYSTEM, n. 778. 

COPERNICIA CERIFERA, wax-yielding 
palm, xviii. 191. 

COPERNICUS, Nicolaus, German astro 
nomer, VI. 346; his astronomical 
system, n. 752, 778 ; his theory of the 
earth s rotation anticipated, VI. 729; 
on the lunar theory, xvi. 800; his 
treatise on money, XIX. 356; on trigo 
nometry, xxiii. 562. 

COPHO, mediaeval writer on medicine, 
xv. 806. 

COPIAPITE, mineral, xvi. 401. 

COPIAPO, town, Chili, vi. 346. 

COPING, in architecture, II. 462; IV. 
464. 

COPLEY, John Singleton, historical 
painter, vi. 347. 

, John Singleton (Lord Lyndhurst), 

lord chancellor of England, xv. 106. 

COPNICK, town, Prussia, xiv. 139. 

COPPER, metal, chemical element, vi. 
347; XVI. 382; chemistry of, v. 528; 
cyanide of, xx. 23; sulphate of, xxu. 
637 ; sulphate in electrotyping, VIII. 
115; spectrum of, xxu. 376; strength 
of, xxii. 603; as a poison, xix. 278; 
constituent of brass, IV. 217 ; of 
bronze, iv. 366; as alloy of silver, 
XXII. 71; in pig iron, Xlll. 284; ores 
of, xvi. 58; dressing of ores, xvi. 466; 
deposits or mines in Australia, ill. 
109 ; in Bolivia, iv. 14; in Brazil, iv. 
224; California, iv. 702; in Chili, v. 
622; in China, v. 639; in Cuba, vi. 
680 ; in Cyprus, VI. 747 ; in Cornwall, 
England, vi. 425; in India, xn. 765; 
in Ireland, Xlll. 218; in Japan, xiii. 
572; in Newfoundland, xvn. 384; in 
New South Wales, xvn. 409; in Phi 
lippine Islands, xvm. 749; in Queens 
land, xx. 173; in Russia, xxi. 85; 



XXIV. 5; in Michigan, U.S.A., XVI. 

239; in Missouri, U.S.A., xvi. 525; 

production of, XVI. 467 ; production 

in England, Vlll. 229; production in 

United States, xxin. 816. 
COPPERAS, mineral, vi. 352 ; xvi. 

401. 

COPPER-GLANCE, mineral, xvi. 391. 
COPPER MINING, xvi. 452. 
COPPERNIN, English dwarf, Vii. 568. 
COPPERPLATE ENGRAVING, vm. 439. 
COPPER PYRITES, mineral, xx. 129. 
COPPER SMELTING, at Swansea, xxu. 

733- 

COPPER WIRE, xxiv. 615. 

COPPET, Switzerland, Madame de Stael s 
residence, xxii. 439. 

COPPICE, or Copse, Culture of, n. 319. 

COPROLITES, Fossil, vi. 353; as manure, 
I. 348; xvm. 818. 

COPRONYMUS (Constantine V.), Byzan 
tine emperor, XII. 713. 

COPTIC CHURCH, Egypt, xx. 631. 

COPTIC LANGUAGE, vn. 721 ; xvm. 
778; dictionaries of, vn. 192. 

COPTIC MONASTERY, Plan of a, i. 11. 

COPTOS, ancient town, Egypt, vi. 355. 

COPTS, Egyptian people, vi. 354; I. 260; 
vil. 728. 

COPULATION, of animals, xx. 410. 

COPYHOLD, land tenure, VI. 355; XIV. 
264; xx. 307; its relation to feu 
dalism, IX. 122; surrender of, xxii. 
692 ; copyhold rents, xx. 402. 

COPYRIGHT, vi. 356; xix. 710; inter 
national, I. 720; English Acts relating 
to, xiv. 541. 

COQUEREL, Athanase Josue", French 
Protestant theologian, VI. 367. 

, Athanase Laurent Charles, French 

Protestant theologian, VI. 368. 

COQUES, Gonzalez, Flemish painter, vi. 
368. 

COQUET, river, Northumberland, Eng 
land, xvii. 565. 

COQUILLA NUT, xvn. 665. 

COQUILLART, Guillaume, early French 
writer, ix. 648. 

COQUIMBITE, mineral, xvi. 401. 

COQUIMBO, province, Chili, v. 617. 

CORA, Greek myth of, xvn. 127. 

(Cori), ancient town, Italy, vi. 368; 

temple at, n. 418. 

CORACIAS, genus of birds, XX. 627. 

CORAIS, Adamantios, Greek scholar, XL 
151. 

CORAL ISLANDS AND REEFS, xix. 420, 
421; theories of their formation, vi. 
377; xvm. 128. 

CORALLIGENA, subdivision of Actinozoa, 
I. 129. 

CORALLINE, dye, v. 86. 

CORAL ROCK, x. 238; in Kentucky, 
U.S.A., xiv. 42. 

CORALS, or Coral Animals, vi. 369; I. 
129; fisheries, VI. 387; Italian fisheries, 
xin. 455. 



CORAM, Thomas, English philanthropist, 

vi. 388. 
CORANGAMITE, lake, Victoria, Australia, 

xxiv. 216. 
COR ANGLAIS, musical instrument, 

xvn. 706. 

CORANTYN, river, Guiana, XI. 250. 
CORARIO, Angelo (Pope Gregory XII.), 

XL 178. 
CORAX, of Syracuse, rhetorician, xx. 

508. 
CORAY, Adamantius, Greek scholar, vi. 

oQQ 
308. 

CORAZON, mountain, Ecuador, vn. 645. 
CORBEIL, town, France, VI. 388; XXI. 
625. 

Gilles de, mediaeval writer on 



medicine, XV. 806. 
CORBEL, in architecture, n. 462. 
CORBIE MONASTERY, Picardy, Library 

of, xiv. 513. 
CORBIERES, mountains, France, xx. 

125. 
CORBILO (St Nazaire), ancient town, 

France, xxi. 187. 
CORBUEIL (Francis Villon), French poet, 

xxiv. 232; ix. 647. 

CORBULO, Domitius, Roman commis 
sioner to the Parthians, xvm. 602. 
CORCHORUS, genus of plants, xin. 

798- 

CORCOBADO, island, Peru, xvni. 671. 
CORCYRA (Corfu), island, Greece, vi. 

395; xin. 205; coins of, XVII. 641. 
CORD, Manufacture of, xx. 845. 
CORDAY D ARMANS, Marie Anne Char 
lotte, assassin of Marat, VI. 388 ; IX. 

606; xv. 527. 
CORDELIER, rope-spinning machine, XX. 

844. 
CORDELIERS, Franciscan monks, vi. 389; 

ix. 698. 

, French Revolutionists, VI. 389. 

CORDERIUS (Mathurin Cordier), French 

writer, vi. 389; his Colloquies as a 

school book, xxi. 751. 
CORDIALS, liqueurs, xiv. 686. 
CORDIER, Mathurin, French writer, vi. 

389; his Colloquies, xxi. 751. 
CORDIERE, La Belle (Louise Labe), 

French poetess, ix. 651. 
CORDIERITE, mineral, XVI. 418. 
CORDILLERAN SYSTEM, North America, 

xxin. 796. 
CORDILLERAS, of the Andes, i. 670; n. 

15; in Ecuador, vn. 644. 
CORDOBA, town, Argentine Republic, 

vi. 390. 

CORDOVA, province, Spain, xxii. 298. 
, town, Spain, VI. 389 ; mosque at, 

xvi. 864; xxii. 310. 
, or Cordoba, town, Argentine Re 
public, VI. 390; observatory at, XVII. 

716. 
, town, Mexico, vi. 390. 



CORDUBA (Cordova), ancient town, 
Spain, vi. 390. 



112 



C O R C R 



CORE, Magnetic, xv. 252. 

COREA, kingdom, Asia, vi. 390; language 

of, xviii. 779; xxiv. 3; dictionaries 

of language, vn. 192. 
COREGGIO, or Correggio, Antonio Al- 

legri, Italian painter, vi. 437 ; xxi. 

437, 443- 
COREGONUS, genus of fishes, XL 346; 

XIX. 402, 650; XXI. 221, 223; XXIV. 

137, 552. 

CORELLI, Arcangelo, Italian musical 

composer, vi. 394; xvn. 93. 
CORENTIN, St, bishop of Cornouailles, 

France, xx. 181. 
CORENZIO, Belisario, Greek Neapolitan 

painter, vi. 395; xx. 532. 
CORFU, island, Greece, vi. 395; xm. 205; 

town, vi. 396. 
CORI, town, Italy, vi. 368. 
CORIANDER, plant and fruit, vi. 396; 

xii. 289. 
CORIANDOLI, in Koniau carnival, v. 

124. 

CORIGLIANO, town, Italy, vi. 396. 
CORINGA, town, India, vi. 396. 
CORINNA, Greek poetess, vi. 397. 
CORINNE, Madame de Stael s novel, 

xxii. 441. 
CORINTH, town, ancient Greece, vi. 397; 

coins of, xvii. 642 ; slaves in, xxn. 

130; St Paul at, xviii. 420. 
CORINTHIAN ARCHITECTURE, Greek 

order, n. 407; Roman order, II. 415; 

inventor of the column in, IV. 709. 
CORINTHIANS, Epistles to the, vi. 

399; xviii. 421. 
, Third Epistle to the, apocryphal 

book, xviii. 423. 
CORIOLANUS, Caius Marcius, Roman 

patrician, vi. 401. 

, Shakespeare s play, xxi. 764. 

CORIOLI, ancient town, Italy, vi. 402. 
CORITANI, early British tribe, xiv. 655; 

xvii. 556. 
CORK, bark of tree, VI. 402; formation 

of, xii. 17; the tree, xvii. 694; in 

Portugal, XIX. 538; in Tunis, XXIII. 

620. 

, county, Ireland, vi. 402; popula 
tion and representation, xxui. 727. 
, town, Ireland, vi. 405 ; library, 

xiv. 524; observatory, xvii. 711; 

Queen s College at, xxm. 855. 
, Earl of (Richard Boyle), English 

statesman, iv. 183. 
AND ORRERY, Earl of (John Boyle), 

English writer, iv. 183. 
CORKWING, fish, XXIV. 686. 
CORLEAR, early Dutch settler, New 

York, xvii. 454. 
CORLEONE, town, Italy, vi. 406. 
CORLISS STEAM - ENGINE, xx. 507, 

514. 

CORM, of plants, iv. 98; xx. 423. 
CORMAC, Irish king, XIII. 246. 
CORMENIN, Vicomte de, French jurist, 

vi. 406. 



CORMONTAIGNE, Louis de, French mili 
tary engineer, vi. 407. 

CORMOPHYTA, division of vegetable 
kingdom, III. 694. 

CORMORANT, bird, vi. 407. 

CORMORNE, musical instrument, xvii. 

70S- 

CORN, British trade in, vi. 413. 
, local thickening of the skin, XXll. 

121. 

-, Indian (Maize), XV. 309. 



CORNALIA, Corpuscles of, parasites in 

silkworms, xxii. 59. 
CORNARIUS, Janus, German physician, 

xv. 808. 
CORNARO, Luigi, Italian writer, VI. 

417. 
CORNAVll, ancient British tribe, XXI. 

648. 
CORNAY, Joseph Emile, on classification 

of birds, xviii. 29, 35. 
CORN-BRUISER, agricultural implement, 

I. 326. 
CORN BURY, Lord, governor of New 

Jersey, U.S.A., xvii. 398. 
CORN CRAKE, bird, vi. 543; xx. 222. 
CORN-CRUSHER, agricultural imple 
ment, I. 326; primitive, IX. 343. 
CORNEA, of the eye, vm. 817; i. 886; 

diseases of the, xvii. 781. 
CORNEILLE, Mont, France, XX. 118. 
, Pierre, French dramatist, VI. 417; 

vii. 424; ix. 658; xx. 206. 
-, Thomas, French dramatist, VI. 421 ; 



IX. 658; his Dictionnaire des Arts et 

des Sciences, vm. 194. 
CORNELIA, mother of the Gracchi, vi. 

421. 
CORNELIUS, Peter von, German painter, 

vi. 421; xiv. 16. 
- O DOWD (Charles Lever), Papers 

by, XIV. 486. 
CORNELLI, Vincenzo Maria, his Biblio- 

teca Universale, vm. 195. 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY, at Ithaca, New 

York, U.S.A., xxm. 857. 
CORNET, musical instrument, xxiv. 

787; ix. 351. 
CORNETO, town, Italy, vi. 423; vm. 

634- 

CORN FLOUR, xv. 310. 
CORNHERT, Theodore, Dutch writer, VI. 

423- 

CORNICE, in architecture, II. 462. 
CORNISH DIALECT, v. 298; dictionaries 

of, vii. 1 88. 
CORNISH LITERATURE, ancient, v. 

323- 
CORN-LAW RHYMES, by Elliott, vm. 

149. 

CORN LAWS, English, vi. 408; ix. 754; 
their effect on agriculture, I. 304; 
agitation against, vm. 366; repeal of, 
vi. 84; xviii. 457. 

CORN-MILDEW, XVI. 293. 

CORNO, Monte, Italy, II. 170; xm. 
437- 



CORNO DI BASSETTO, musical instru 
ment, xvii. 708. 

CORNOUAILLES, Counts of, France, xx. 
181. 

CORN-SALAD, vegetable, xii. 281. 

CORN THRIPS, insect, xxiv. 534. 

CORN TRADE, British, vi. 413; early 
laws regarding, I. 298. 

CORNU, Roman trumpet, XXIII. 592. 

, A., his simplification of dili raction 

problems, xxiv. 444. 

CORNUS, genus of plants, VII. 342. 

CORNUTUS, L. Amuxnis, Roman Stoic 
philosopher, VI. 423; xviii. 662. 

CORNWALL, county, England, vi. 424; 
population and representation, xxm. 
727; ancient remains, XXI. 51; Celtic 
language of, v. 298; Celtic literature, 
v. 323; fisheries, IX. 253; miracle plays 
in, vn. 414; serpentine rocks of, XXL 
683. 

CORNWALLIS, First Marquis, British 
general, vi. 428 ; in American War, 
xxm. 744; governor-general of India, 
xii. 803, 805. 

CORNWALLITE, mineral, XVI. 405. 

CORN WEEVIL, wheat pest, xxiv. 

536. 

CORO, town, Venezuela, VI. 428. 
CORODY, Right of, obsolete prerogative 

of English crown, XIX. 672. 
COROLLA, of plants, iv. 132. 

COROMANDEL COAST, India, VI. 428. 
CORONA, envelope of the sun, vi. 428; 

xxii. 645, 647; ii. 789; XL 398; xiv. 

597; xxiv. 435. 

CORONADO, F. Vasquez-de, Spanish ex 
plorer, xvii. 309, 401. 
CORONATION, vi. 429. 

ISLAND, Antarctic Ocean, xvii. 

407. 

OATH, England, xvii. 701. 

CORONEA, Greece, Battle of (394 P,.C.), 

xxm. 229. 

CORONELLI, Vincenzio, Italian geogra 
pher, vi. 430. 

CORONER, officer of the law, VI. 430. 
CORONER S JURY, xm. 786. 
CORONET, in heraldry, XL 711; ducal, 

vn. 519. 
COROT, Jean Baptiste Camille, French 

painter, VI. 431. 
COROZO NUT, or Vegetable Ivory, xm. 

525; xvii. 664. 
CORPANCHO, Manuel Nicolas, Peruvian 

poet, xviii. 676. 
CORPI SANTI, suburb of Milan, Italy, 

xvi. 290. 
CORPORAL PUNISHMENT, Law of,xxm. 

465. 
CORPORA QUADRIGEMINA, CORPORA 

STRIATA, in the brain, I. 872; xix. 

37- 
CORPORATION, vi. 432; in United 

States, xxm. 785. 
CORPORATION-SOLE, xviii. 296. 
CORPULENCE, vi. 435 ; in pathology, 



C R C S 



113 



xvili. 389; diet for reduction of, vil. 
204. 
CORPUS CHRISTI, church festival, vi. 

436. 
CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE, Cambridge, 

iv. 731- 
CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE, Oxford, 

xvin. 96. 

CORPUSCLES, Blood, i. 845. 
, Ultramundane, in Le Sage s atomic 

theory, ill. 46. 
CORPUSCULAR THEORY, of light, xiv. 

580, 598. 

CORPUS INSCRIPTIONUM GR^CARUM, 
XIII. 122. 

CORPUS INSCRIPTIONUM LATINARUM, 

XIIL 127. 

CORPUS JURIS, of Justinian, XIII. 794. 
CORPUS JURIS CANONICI, v. 18. 
CORREA, greenhouse plant, xn. 263. 
DA SERRA, Jose Francisco, Portu 
guese politician and scientist, vi. 436. 
CORRECTION, Houses of, xix. 748. 
CORREGGIO, Antonio Allegri, Italian 

painter, VI. 437; xxi. 437, 443. 
CORRESPONDENCE, in geometry, x. 

392. 

CORREZE, department, France, vi. 438. 
CORRIB, Lough, Ireland, x. 55; xill. 

216; xv. 650. 
CORRICHIE, Scotland, Battle of (1562), 

xv. 595. 

CORRIE, mountain recess, xxi. 525. 
CORRIENTES, town, Argentine Republic, 

vi. 439. 
CORRIEVRECKAN, whirlpool, Scotland, 

xxiv. 542. 
CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE, a chloride of 

mercury, xvi. 33 ; as poison, XIX. 

277. 
CORRUPT PRACTICES PREVENTION 

ACT (1854), iv. 278. 
CORRY, town, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., vi. 

439- 
CORSICA, island, Mediterranean, vi. 

439; xill. 440; xv. 820; dialect of, 

XIIL 494; ceded to ancient Rome, XX. 

748; its connexion with France, XVII. 

193; under Theodore I., xvn. 362. 
CORSINI, Lorenzo (Pope Clement XII.), 

v. 823. 
, Marietta, wife of Machiavelli, xv. 

147. 
CORSINIE^E, class of liverworts, xvn. 

69. 

CORSLET, defensive armour, vi. 692. 
CORSOTHE, town, Mesopotamia, xvi. 

48. 

CORSSEN, Wilhelm Paul, German philo 
logist, vi. 440. 
CORT, Cornelius, Dutch engraver, vi. 

441. 
CORTAILLOD, town, Switzerland, xvii. 

362. 

CORTE NOVA, town, Italy, xvn. 608. 
CORTE-REAL, family of Portuguese 

navigators, vi. 441. 



CORTES, Spanish legislature, XXII. 303. 
, Hernan, conqueror of Mexico, VI. 

441; I. 707; X. 182. 
, Martin, his Art of Navigation, 

xvii. 252. 
CORTHOL, musical instrument, xvii. 

705. 
CORTI, Rods of, in the ear, I. 894 ; vn. 

593- 
CORTICATA, division of Protozoa, xix. 

852. 

CORTICINE, floorcloth, xiv. 676. 
CORTICIUM CANDELABRUM, species of 

sponge, xxil. 414. 
CORTONA, town, Italy, vi. 442 ; vin. 

635. 

, Luca da, Italian painter, xxn. 

50. 

CORTOREAL, Gaspar, explorer of New 
foundland, xvn. 385. 

CORUISK, Loch, Skye, Scotland, xxil. 
127. 

CORUNA, province, Spain, xxil. 298 ; 
town, VI. 443. 

CORUNDOPHYLLITE, mineral, XVI. 414. 

CORUNDUM, mineral, xvi. 385 ; xxi. 
47 ; deposits of, in North Carolina, 
U.S.A., xvii. 560. 

CORUNNA, or Coruua, town, Spain, vi. 
443; battle of (1809), XVI. 805; Lord 
Paget at, 1 1. 31. 

CORVARA, Pietro di (Nicholas V., anti- 
pope), xvii. 484. 

CORVEY, Benedictine abbey, Saxony, vi. 
443; library of, XIV. 513. 

CORVID.E, family of birds, vi. 617 ; 

XVIII. 48. 

CORVINUS, John Hunyady, king of 
Hungary, xn. 367, 368; xxin. 642. 
-, Marcus Valerius Messala, friend 



and patron of Tibullus, xxi 1 1. 348. 
-, Matthias, of Hungary, XII. 367, 



368; xv. 634; library of, xiv. 515. 
CORVISART-DESMARETS, Baron de, 

French physician, VI. 443; xv. 816. 
CORVO, island, Azores, in. 172. 
CORVUS, genus of birds, VI. 617; XIII. 

532; XX. 295, 842. 
, M. Valerius, Roman general, VI. 



444. 
CORY, Giles, executed for witchcraft, in 

U.S.A., xxiv. 622. 
CORYATT, Thomas, English writer, vi. 

444- 
CORYBANTES, in Greek mythology, vi. 

444. 

CORYLUS, genus of trees, XL 548. 
CORYPHAEUS, leader of chorus, in Greek 

tragedy, VI. 444. 
CORYPHODON, fossil ungulate mammal, 

xv. 426. 
CORYTH^EOLA, genus of birds, xxin. 

487. 
CORYTHUS, or Cortona, ancient town, 

Italy, vi. 443. 
Cos, island, Asia Minor, vi. 444; ancient 

aqueduct at, n. 219; coins of, xvn. 



647; Greek school of medicine at, xv. 

800. 

COSCAROBA, bird, xxn. 732. 
COSCINOMANCY, divining with a sieve, 

VIL 293; xvn. 818. 

COSECANT, in trigonometry, xxin. 563. 
COSEGUINA, volcano, Nicaragua, xvn. 

477- 
COSENZA, town, Italy, VI. 445; province, 

iv. 651. 
COSIMO I. (dei Medici), grand-duke of 

Tuscany, xv. 789. 

II., of Tuscany, xv. 792. 

III., of Tuscany, xv. 793. 

DEI MEDICI (the Elder), ruler of 

Florence, xv. 784; ix. 138. 
COSIN, John, bishop of Durham, VI. 445; 

as hymn-writer, XII. 592. 
COSINE, in trigonometry, XXJIL 563. 
COSLIN, town, Prussia, xiv. 143. 
COSMAS, Byzantine hymn-writer, XL 146. 
, surnamed Indicopleustes, ancient 

geographer, vi. 445; x. 177. 
of Prague, Bohemian historian, vi. 

446. 
COSMATI, family of architects and 

sculptors, Rome, XX. 834. 
COSMO DE MEDICI. See Cosimo. 
COSMOGONY, vi. 446; Chaldean, in. 

193; myths of, I. 460; XVII. 143, 156; 

of the Stoics, xxn. 564. 
COSMOGRAPHY, Heylin s, XL 785. 

COSMOLOGICAL THEISM, XXIII. 248. 

COSMOLOGY, Parmenides s, xvin. 315; 
Philo s, XVIII. 762; Pythagorean, XX. 

139- 

COSMOS, Humboldt s work, XII. 345. 
, Anaxagoras s theory of the, II. i; 

Kepler s, xiv. 47. 
COSNE, town, France, vi. 448; xvn. 

496. 
COSSA, Balthasar (Pope John XXIII.), 

xin. 712. 

, Luigi, Italian economist, xix. 394. 

COSSACKS, Russian tribes, VI. 448; V. 

263; xxi. 79; origin of the name, xiv. 

95; in Russian army, n. 610. 
COSSIMBAZAR, town, India, xiv. 14. 
COSSYA HILLS (Khasi Hills), district, 

India, xiv. 58. 
COSSYRA, island, Mediterranean, xvin. 

214. 
COSTA, Lorenzo, Italian painter, xxi. 

437, 443- 

COST/E, or Ribs, Anatomy of, I. 822. 
COSTAL JOINTS, Anatomy of, i. 835. 
CoSTAMBONE(Kastamuni), town, Asiatic 

Turkey, xiv. 14. 
COSTANZO, Angelo di, Italian historian, 

vi. 451. 
COSTA RICA, republic, Central America, 

VI. 449; Indian tribes in, xn. 828," 

newspapers, xvn. 437. 
COSTE, Jean J. C. V., on embryology, 

vin. 166, 167. 
COSTELLO, Dudley, English journalist, 

VI. 451. 

XXV. 15 



114 



C S C U 



COSTELLO, Louisa Stuart, English writer, 

vi. 451. 
COSTER, Laurens, Dutch printer, XIV. 

143; XXIII. 689, 691. 

, Samuel, Dutch writer, xil. 94. 

COSTERMONGERS, in London, xiv. 829. 
COSTILLA, mountain, New Mexico, 

U.S.A., xvii. 399. 
COSTNITZ, or Constance (q.v.) town, 

Baden, vi. 297. 
COSTS, Legal, vi. 451. 
COSTUME, vi. 453; Celtic, v. 801; 

Egyptian, VII. 723; early Irish, xin. 

254; Persian, XVIII. 630. 
COSTUS, incense, XII. 718. 
COTA, Eodrigo, Spanish poet, vi. 479; 

vii. 420. 
COTAN (Khotan), district and town, 

Turkestan, Xiv. 67. 
COTANGENT, in trigonometry, xxni. 

A 56 3 . 

COTE D OR, department, France, vi. 479. 
COTENTIN, district, Normandy, France, 

xv. 458; xvn. 540. 
COTES, Roger, English mathematician, 

VI. 479; his Logometria, XVII. 256; 

Newton s correspondence with, xvii. 

447- 

COTES-DU-NORD, department, France, 
VI. 479. 

COTESWOLD HILLS, Gloucestershire, 
England, X. 687. 

GOTHAM STONE, or Landscape Marble, 
xv. 529. 

COTHEN, town, Germany, xiv. 144. 

COTILE, genus of birds, XV. 581. 

COTOCACHI, mountain, Ecuador, vn. 
645. 

COTOPAXI, volcano, Ecuador, vi. 480; 
vn. 644. 

COTRONE, town, Italy, vi. 616. 

COTSWOLD SHEEP, i. 392. 

COTTA, Johann Friedrich, German theo 
logian, VI. 480. 

, Johann Georg, German publisher, 

vi. 480. 

VON COTTENDORF, Georg, German 

publisher, vi. 481. 

VON COTTENDORF, Johann Fried- 
rich, German publisher, VI. 480; XVII. 
428. 

COTTABATO, volcano, Philippines, xvni. 

749- 

COTTABUS, Greek game, VI. 481. 

COTTAGERS OF GLENBURNIE, Mrs 
Hamilton s story, XL 415. 

COTTAGE SYSTEM, for farm labourers, 
in Scotland, I. 409. 

COTTBUS, town, Prussia, xiv. 144. 

COTTENDORF, Cotta von, German pub 
lishers, vi. 480. See Cotta. 

COTTEREAU, Jean, French royalist, V. 
686. 

COTTIAN ALPS, I. 623. 
COTTIN, Sophie, French novelist, VI. 481. 
COTTIUS, chief of Segusio (Susa), Italy, 
xxii. 722. 



COTTON, vi. 482; of Brazil, iv. 227; 
of Egypt, VII. 708, 786; of India, xil. 
748; bleaching of, III. 812; growth of, 
in Bombay, IV. 23; in the United 
States, xxni. 824; in Georgia, U.S.A., 
x. 435; manufacture of, vi. 487; 
manufacture in England, vill. 230; 
in India, xil. 761, 763; in Russia, 
xxi. 849; at Lowell, U.S.A., xv. 
29 ; dyeing of red colours on, VII. 
576. 
, Charles, English writer, VI. 508; 



his share in the Compleat Angler, 
xxiv. 342. 

, George Edward Lynch, bishop of 
Calcutta, vi. 508. 
-, John, New England Puritan, Xil. 



726. 



, Sir Robert Brace, political writer 

and founder of Cottonian library, vi. 
509. 

, Stapleton, Viscount Combermere, 

vi. 181. 

FIBRE, ix. 133. 

COTTONIAN LIBRARY, in British 
Museum, VI. 509. 

COTTONIAN MSS., British Museum, 
xiv. 515. 

COTTON PAPER, xvni. 218. 

COTTON-SEED CAKE, xvn. 739. 

COTTON-SEED OIL, xvn. 745. 

COTTON-SPINNING, Robert Owen s im 
provements in, xvin. 87. 

COTTON-SPINNING FRAME, Invention 
of, n. 541. 

COTTONSTONE, mineral, xvi. 423. 

COTTON-WOOD, tree, XIX. 512. 

COTTON YARNS, xxiv. 731. 

COTTUS, genus of fishes, xvi. 320. 

COTUNNITE, mineral, xvi. 384. 

COTURNIX, genus of birds, XX. 146. 

COTYLE, Greek measure, xxiv. 485. 

COTYLEDONS, in plants, iv. 92, 156. 

COTYLOPHORA, group of ungulate 
mammals, xv. 430. 

COTYORA, town, Asia Minor, xix. 

459- 

COTYS, Thracian kings, vi. 509. 
COUAGGA (Quagga), ungulate mammal, 

xx. 146. 

COUCH, fish, xxi. 223. 
COUCHES, furniture, ix. 850. 
COUGHING, abnormal respiration, xx. 

479- 
COUGOUAR, carnivorous mammal, xv. 

435; xx. 104. 
COULANGES, Christophe cle, Abbe" de 

Livry, XXI. 703. 
COULOMB, Charles Augustin, French 

physicist, VI. 509; his contributions to 

the science of electricity, vi 1 1. 9, 18; to 

science of magnetism, XV. 237, 249. 
, electrical unit of measurement, 

xxni. 116. 
COULTER, Loch, Stirlingshire, Scotland, 

xxii. 553. 

COULTERNEB, bird, XX. IOI. 



COUMARIN, perfume, xvni. 526. 
COUNCIL, Ecclesiastical, vi. 510; list of 
oecumenical councils, vi, 511. 

, Municipal, xvn. 27. 

, Vatican (1869-70), xxiv. no. 

BLUFFS, town, Iowa, U.S.A., vi. 



512. 



OF BASEL (1431-43), in. 409. 

OF CONSTANCE (1414-18), vi. 

297. 
OF TEN, Venetian, xxiv. 143. 

OF TRENT (1545-63); xxni. 543; 

Sarpi s History of, xxi. 312. 
COUNT, title, vi. 512; xxni. 418; 

German, xvni. 461. 
COUNTERPOINT, in music, xvn. 82. 
COUNTERSCARP, in fortification, ix. 

422. 

COUNTESS, title, vi. 512; vn. 595. 
COUNT JULIAN, Landor s tragedy, xiv. 

278. 
COUNTRY WIFE, The, Wycherley s play, 

xxiv. 706. 
COUNTY, administrative area, vi. 512; 

origin of, in England, vin. 273 ; 

American, xxni. 731, 827. 

COURT, Jurisdiction of, vi. 513. 

COUP D ETAT,of Louis Napoleon(i85i), 

xvn. 228. 
COUP DE SOLEIL, or Sunstroke, xxn. 

666. 
COURAYER, Pierre Frangois le, French 

theologian, vi. 514. 
COURBARIL, tree, n. 55. 
COURIER, of ambassador, I. 658 ; 

Government, Xix. 562. 
, Paul Louis, French writer, VI. 514; 

ix. 673. 

COURLAN, bird, XX. 223. 
COURLAND, province, Russia, vi. 515; 

xxi. 69. 
COURNOT, Augustin, French economist, 

xix. 386. 

COURONS, tribe, Lithuania, xiv. 702. 
COURS, town, France, xx. 529. 
COURSER, bird, xix. 228. 
COURSING, with greyhounds, vi. 515. 
COURT, COURTS, Judicial, vi. 516; of 

appeal, II. 209; of summary jurisdic 
tion, XXII. 641; English, vin. 261; 

records of English, xx. 311; Federal, 

United States, xxni. 750; Moslem, 

XVI. 591. 

, Contempt of, VI. 318. 

, Antoine, French Protestant, VI. 

519; XIX. 695; missionary of the 

Camisards, IV. 744. 
DE GEBELIN, Antoine, French 

scholar, VI. 520. 

COURTESY TITLES, British, xix. 665. 
COURT FOOLS, ix. 366. 
COURTHOSE, Robert, founder of New- 

castle-on-Tyne, XVII. 379. 
COURT MARTIAL, vi. 517; xvi. 297. 
COURTNEY, William, archbishop of 

Canterbury, XXIV. 711. 
COURT OF LOVE, by Chaucer, v. 451. 



C U C R A 



115 



COURT OF SESSION, in Scotland, xxi. 

535- 
COURTOIS, Jaques and Guillaume, 

French painters, VI. 520. 
COURTRAI, town, Belgium, vi. 520; 

battle of (1302), ix. 544. 
COURTS. See Court. 
COURTSHIP OF MILES STANDISH, 

Longfellow s poem, XI v. 86 1. 
COUSA, or Phalanger, marsupial mam 
mal, xvm. 727. 
COUSIN, Victor, French philosopher, vi. 

521; ix. 674. 
COUSTOU, Nicholas and Guillaume, 

French sculptors, VI. 528. 
COUTANCES, town, France, VI. 529; 

district, xvil. 539. 

COUTHON, Georges, French Revolu 
tionist, vi. 529; xx. 604. 
COUTTS, Thomas, English banker, VI. 

529. 

COVELLINE, mineral, xvi. 393. 
COVENANT, Book of the, Pentateuchal, 
xvm. 509. 

, National (1638), in Scotland, XI. 

651; xxi. 512. 

, Solemn League and, in Scotland 

(1643), vi. 530; xxi. 513. 
COVENANTERS, in Scottish history, vi. 
529; xix. 682; xxi. 515; persecution 
of, by Claverhouse, vn. 537. 
COVENT GARDEN MARKET, London, 

xiv. 829, 847. 

COVENTRY, town, England, vi. 530; 
population, XXIV. 379; ribbons of, 
xx. 532. 

CHAIR, driven as tricycle, xxm. 

560. 

PLAYS, English miracle-plays, vn. 

414. 
COVE OF CORK (Queenstown), town, 

Ireland, XX. 175. 

COVERDALE, Miles, translator of 
English Bible, VI. 531; his version, 
viii. 385. 
COVERED WAY, in engineering, xxm. 

622; in fortification, IX. 445. 
COVILHA, town, Portugal, vi. 531; xix. 

537- 
COVILHAM, Pedro de, Portuguese 

traveller, I. 65; x. 180. 
COVINGTON, town, Kentucky, U.S.A., 

vi. 531; XVIL 406. 

Cow, Milch, management of, I. 390; vi. 
768; diseases of, XXIV. 204; milk of, 
xvi. 303; respect paid to, by Hindus, 
iv. 211 ; by Zoroastrians, xxiv. 822. 

, The, statue by Myron, XVII. 120. 

COWELL, John, English jurist, VI. 531. 
COWES, West and East, towns, Isle of 

Wight, vi. 531. 
COWEY STAKES, in Thames, Middlesex, 

England, xvi. 281. 
COWLEY, Abraham, English poet, vi. 

532; vin. 418. 

COW-PARSNIP, as forage plant, i. 378. 
COWPER, William, English poet, vi. 533: 



his friendship with John Newton, 
XVII. 449; hymns by, xil. 594; hi 
place in English literature, viii. 429. 

COWPER, William, anatomist, I. 813. 

COWPER S WRITING - TELEGRAPH, 
xxm. 121. 

Cow-Pox, xm. 623; xxiv. 25, 204. 

COWRY, shell and money, vi. 535, 766. 

COWSLIP, plant, xix. 737. 

Cows OF ATHOR, in Egyptian 
mythology, III. 14. 

Cox, David, English painter, VI. 535. 
-, Richard, bishop of Ely, VI. 537. 



COXCIE, Michael, Flemish painter, vi. 

537- 

Coxcox, the Mexican Noah, xvi. 209. 
COXE, William, archdeacon, English 

writer, VI. 537. 

COXON, John, buccaneer, IV. 410. 
COXWELL, Henry T., aeronaut, I. 193. 
COYNE AND LIVERY, right of free 

quarters, in Ireland, xm. 262. 
COYPEL, family of French painters, vi. 

537- 
COYPU, rodent mammal, XV. 420; XVI. 

301. 
COYSEVOX, or Coyzevox, Charles An- 

toine, French sculptor, VI. 537; XXI. 

563- 

CRAB, crustacean, vi. 538, 655; sperma 
tozoon of, xx. 411; fisheries, ix. 265. 

CRABBE, George, English poet, vi. 539. 

CRAB ISLAND, West Indies, xxiv. 261. 

CRAB ORCHARD, spa, Kentucky, U.S.A., 
xvi. 436. 

GRACING, group of birds, VI. 709. 

CRACKER, in pyrotechny, xx. 136. 

CRACKNELS, biscuits, in. 252. 

CRACOW, town, Austrian Poland, vi. 
540; university of, XIX. 300, 306; 
xxm. 840, 851. 

CRADLE MOUNTAIN, Tasmania, xxm. 
72. 

CRAFT-GUILDS, vi. 39; XL 261. 

CRAFTSMAN, The, Amhurst s news 
paper, i. 738; xx. 104. 

CRAFTSMEN, as distinct from labourers, 
xiv. 1 66. 

CRAIG, John, Scottish Reformer, VI. 541. 
, Dr John, friend of Napier, xvu. 



182. 

, Sir Thomas, Scottish jurist and 

poet, vi. 541; xvu. 177; xxi. 543. 

CRAIGENTINNY MEADOWS, Edinburgh, 
Sewage irrigation of, I. 374. 

CRAIGNETHAN CASTLE, Lanark, Scot 
land, xiv. 251. 

CRAIK, George Lillie, English writer, 
vi. 542. 

CRAIL, town, Scotland, vi. 542. 

CRAJOVA, town, Roumania, xiv. 146. 

CRAKE, bird, vi. 542; xx. 224. 

CRAMALT CRAIG, mountain, Scotland, 
xvm. 451. 

CRAMER, Gabriel, his method of deter 
minants, I. 516. 

CRAMMING, for examinations, vin. 779. 



CRAMP, muscular disease, vi. 543; rings 
worn as preservative against, XX. 561. 

CRAN, river, England, xvi. 279. 

CRANACH, Lucas, German painter and 
caricaturist, VI. 543 ; v. 104 ; XXI. 

438, 443- 
CRANBERRY, plant and fruit, VI. 545 ; 

xn. 270. 
CRANBORNE CHASE, Wilts, England, 

xxiv. 593. 

CRANBROOK, town, England, vi. 546. 
CRANE, bird, vi. 546. 

, hoisting machine, vi. 547. 

, Francis, English tapestry designer, 

xxm. 213. 
DANCE, in Greece and Siberia, 



xxm. 294. 

CRANE-FLY, insect, vn. 256. 
CRANESBILL, plant, x. 439. 
CRANGANORE, town, India, xiv. 135. 
CRANGON, genus of Crustacea, xxi. 

846. 
CRANIAD/E, family of Brachiopoda, iv. 

194. 

CRANIAL NERVES, i. 880; xix. 42. 
CRANIATA, division of vertebrate 

animals, xxiv. 181, 812. 
CRANIUM, or Skull, i. 822; xxn. 113; 

of American Indians, xil. 824; surgery 

of, xxii. 688; successive stages of, in 

the fowl, ill. 700. 
CRANK-SHAFT, of steam-engine, xxii. 

509. 

CRANMER, Thomas, archbishopof Canter 
bury, vi. 548; vin. 333, 340; XL 664; 

leader of the Reformation in England, 

xx. 330; his influence on the English 

Church, VIII. 376. 
CRANNOGS, Celtic lake dwellings, vi. 

552; n. 384; xiv. 223. 
GRANTOR, Greek philosopher, vi. 552. 
CRANTZ, Albert, German historian, xiv. 

146. 
CRAON, Robert de, grand-master of 

Knights Templars, xxm. 160. 
CRAPE, silk fabric, vi. 553. 
CRASHAW, Richard, English poet, vi. 

553- 

CRASSAPUILL TROUT, fish, xxi. 223. 
CRASSUS, L. Calpurnius, conspirator 

against the emperor Nerva, xvu. 353. 
, Lucius Licinius, Roman orator, 

VI- 553- 
, Marcus Licinius, Roman triumvir, 



VI. 554; xix. 451; xx. 763, 765; his 
invasion of Mesopotamia, xvin. 596. 

CRAT^EGUS, genus of plants, XL 536. 

CRATER, ancient cup, xix. 180, 614. 

CRATES of Athens, actor and writer of 
comedies, vi. 554. 

of Mallus, grammarian and Stoic 
philosopher, VI. 554; XL 43; xv. 516. 

of Thebes, Cynic philosopher, VI. 

554- 

CRATHIS, river, Lucania, Italy, xv. 37. 
CRATINUS, Greek comedian, vi. 554. 
CRATIPPUS, Greek historian, vi. 554. 



116 



C R A C E I 



CRATIPPUS, Peripatetic philosopher, vi. 

554- 

CRATYLUS, Plato s dialogue, xix. 202. 
CRAU, district, France, IV. 169. 
CRAUFORD, Quentin, English antiquary, 

vi. 554. 
CRAWFORD, Earl of, his observatory, 

Dun Echt, Scotland, xvn. 711. 
, Thomas, American sculptor, vi. 

554- 



, William Harris, American states 
man, xxiii. 759, 761, 788. 
ISLAND, Sierra Leone, Africa, 



xxii. 45. 
CRAWFURD, John, English political 

writer, VI. 555. 
GRAYER, Gaspard de, Flemish painter, 

vi. 555. 
CRAY-FISH, crustacean, vi. 643, 658; of 

Mammoth Cave, U.S.A., xv. 450. 
CRAYON, material for drawing, vi. 

555- 
CRAZY MOUNTAINS, U.S.A., xxm. 

797- 

CREAM, of milk, xvi. 303, 305; clotted, 
vi. 771- 

OF TARTAR, chemical salt, vi. 

556; xxm. 69. 

CREAMOMETER, xvi. 305. 

CREASOTE, or Creosote, antiseptic, drug, 
and poison, vi. 556; xxm. 57. 

CREATIN, or Creatine, nitrogenous car 
bon compound, XVIL 519; xix. 24. 

CREATION, in Arabian philosophy, n. 
266; evolutionist view of, vin. 752; 
myths of, xvn. 146, 156; theories of, 
VI. 446. 

, The, Haydn s oratorio, XL 539. 

OF MAN, The, early traditions 

regarding, I. 136, 137 ; myths of, 
xvn. 157. 

OF THE WORLD, Era of the, v. 

7i3- 

CREBILLON, Claude Prosper Jolyote, 

French novelist, vi. 556; ix. 666. 
, Prosper Jolyote de, French poet, 

VI. 557; vii. 425; ix. 665. 
CRECY, or Cressy, town, France, VI. 

557; battle of (1346), Vii. 686; vm. 

318; ix. 546. 
CREDI, Lorenzo di, Italian painter, vi. 

557; xxi. 435, 442. 
CREDIT BANKS, in Germany, Schulze 

Delitzsch s, vi. 214, 339. 
CREDIT COMPANIES, in. 328. 
CREDIT FONCIER, CREDIT MOBILIER, 

credit banks, vi. 557. 
CREDITON, town, England, vi. 558. 
CREDITOR AND DEBTOR, xvm. 440 ; 

in Roman law, xx. 685. 
CREDNERITE, mineral, xvi. 387. 
CREDOS, Sierra de, mountains, Spain, 

xxii. 294. 
CREECH, Thomas, English translator, 

vi. 558. 
CREEDS, authorized formularies of 

doctrine, vi. 558. 



CREEK INDIANS, North America, x. 

437; xii. 828, 835. 
CREEK TOWN, Calabar, West Africa, 

iv. 649. 
CREFELD, town, Germany, vi. 565; silk 

manufacture of, xxii. 65. 
CREIL, town, France, xvn. 749. 
CREMA, town, Italy, vi. 565. 
CREMAILLERE LINES, in fortification, 

ix. 435, 437- 
CREMATION, method of disposing of 

human corpses, vi. 565. 
CREMNA, town, Asia Minor, xix. 130. 
CREMONA, province, Italy, vi. 567. 
, town, Italy, VI. 567; its school of 

painting, xxi. 437, 443; violin makers 

of, xvn. 98. 
CREMORNE, musical instrument, xxm. 

489. 

CRENELLE, in architecture, n. 463. 
CRENIDES (Philippi), ancient town, 

Macedonia, xvm. 746. 
CRENILABRUS, genus of fishes, xxiv. 

686. 

CREOLE, vi. 567; xvn. 319. 
CREON, king of Corinth, in Greek fable, 

vi. 567; XIIL 596. 
, king of Thebes, in Greek fable, VI. 



567. 

CREOSOL, product of wood-tar distilla 
tion, xxm. 57. 

CREOSOTE, or Creasote, antiseptic, drug, 
and poison, vi. 556; xxm. 57. 
OIL, xxm. 59; as fuel, ix. 



CRESCENT, The, its adoption by the 
Turks as their symbol, IV. 615. 

AND THE CROSS, Warburton s 



work, xxiv. 367. 
CRESCENTIA, Roman martyr, xxiv. 

266. 
CRESCENTIUS, or Crescenzio, Roman 

patrician, XIIL 711; xx. 789. 
CRESCENZIO, Cardinal, president of 

council of Trent, XXIII. 546. 
CRESCIMBENI, Giovanni Mario, Italian 

poet, vi. 568; xv. 145. 
CRESOL, product of wood-tar distilla 
tion, xxm. 57. 
CRESPHONTES, king of Messenia, 

Greece, xvi. 53. 
CRESPI, Daniele, Italian painter, vi. 

568. 
, Giovanni Battista, Italian sculptor, 

vi. 568. 
, Giuseppe Maria, Italian painter, 

vi. 568. 

CRESPY, France, Peace of (i 544), ix. 557. 
CRESS, vegetable, xii. 281, 289. 

, Water, plant, xvn. 239. 

CRESS-SEED OIL, xvn. 744. 
CRESSWELL, Sir Cresswell, English 

judge, vi. 568. 
CRESSY, or Crecy, town, France, vi. 557; 

battle of (1346), vn. 686; vill. 318; 

ix. 546. 

CREST, in heraldry, XI. 709. 
, town, France, vi. 568. 



CRESWICK, Thomas, English painter, 
vi. 568. 

CRETACEOUS ROCKS, x. 357. 

CRET DE LA NEIGE, mountain, Switzer 
land, xin. 781. 

CRETE, or Candia, island, Mediterranean, 
VI. 569; xv. 820; xxm. 653; its con 
nexion with Phoenicia, xvm. 805 ; 
cession of, to the Turks (1669), XI. 
121 ; xxiv. 147; coins of, xvn. 635, 
643; Greek dialect of, XI. 133; weights 
and measures, xxiv. 490. 

CRETIN, Guillaume, early French writer, 
ix. 647. 

CRETINISM, disease, vi. 572; xin. 98; 
xvm. 375, 385. 

CREUSE, department, France, vi. 574. 

CREUSOT, or Creuzot, town, France, VI. 
575; xxi. 302. 

COMPANY, France, their iron 

works, xxi. 332. 

CREUTZ, Gustav Philip, Count, Swedish 
poet, vi. 574; xxii. 756. 

CREUZER, Georg Friedrich, German 
philologist, VI. 574; on mythology, 
XVII. 137. 

CREUZNACH, town, Prussia, xiv. 148. 

CREUZOT, or Creusot, Le, town, France, 
vi. 575; xxi. 302. 

CREVASSES, in glaciers, x. 627. 

CREVAUX, Jules, explorer of Pilcomayo 
river, xix. 188. 

CREVE-CCEUR, fowl, XIX. 645. 

CREVIER, Jean Baptiste Louis, French 

writer, VI. 575. 

CREWE, town, England, vi. 575. 
CREWELS, worsteds, xiv. 127. 
CREX, genus of birds, xx. 222. 
CRIBBAGE, game, vi.?575. 
CRIBLE, method of engraving, vin. 437. 
CRICETUS, genus of rodent mammals, 

XL 433; xv. 419. 
CRICHTON, James, The Admirable 

Crichton, VI. 577. 
, Sir William, Scottish chancellor, 

XXI. 493. 
CRICKET, game, vi. 578. 

insect, vi. 578; xin. 152; mole 



cricket, as wheat pest, XXI v. 534. 

CRICKLADE, town, England, vi. 582; 
representation, xxiv. 594. 

CRIEFF, town, Scotland, vi. 582; xvm. 
667. 

CRIME, vi, 582; in primitive communi 
ties, vni. 624; in British army, xvi. 
299; juvenile, XX. 338; police action 
in regard to, XIX. 334; punishment 
of, Xix. 747; Roman law in relation 
to, xx. 675. 

CRIMEA, peninsula, Russia, vi. 585; in. 
796; population of, XXIII. 70; conquest 
of, by Russia (1771), xxi. 100; annexed 
by Russia (1783), xxni. 647; ancient 
plate found in, XIX. 182. 

CRIMEAN WAR (1854), xxni. 651; i. 
46; vin. 366; ix. 623; xvn. 228, 486; 
xx. 220; xxi. 102; its influence on 



C K I C K O 



117 



Germany, x. 509; siege of Sebastopol, 

xxi. 6 1 6. 

CRIMINAL COURTS, England, vi. 516. 
CRIMINALIS, Antonio, Jesuit missionary, 

xvi. 513. 
CRIMINAL LAW, vi. 587; Feuerbach on, 

ix. 124. 
CRIMMITZSCHAU, town, Saxony, vi. 

590. 
CRIMSON DYES, vu. 575; cochineal, vi. 

97; kermes, xiv. 49. 
CRIM (or KRIM) TATARS, xvi. 748; 

xxii. 174. 

CRINAN CANAL, Scotland, n. 500. 
CRINOIDEA, order of Echinodermata, 

vii. 635. 
CRISA, or Crissa, ancient town, Greece, 

vi. 590; xviii. Soi. 
CRISIA EBURNEA, species of Polyzoa, 

xix. 438. 
CRISPIN, Le Sage s drama, xiv. 472. 

AND CRISPINIAN, Sts, vi. 590. 
CRISPINUS, satirized by Juvenal, Xlll. 

805. 
CRISSA, ancient town, Greece, vi. 590; 

xviii. 801. 
CRIST ATELLA MUCEDO, species of 

Polyzoa, xix. 432. 
CRISTOFANO, Francesco di, Italian 

painter, IX. 689. 
CRISTOFORI, Bartolomeo, inventor of 

pianoforte, XVII. 94; xix. 70. 
CRITIAS, Greek orator and poet, vi. 591; 

on the development of man, vm. 756. 

-, Plato s dialogue, xix. 209. 

CRITIC, The, Sheridan s play, xxi. 799. 
CRITICISM, relation of Italian humanism 

to, XX. 386. 
CRITIQUE OF PURE REASON, Kant s 

work, xin. 850. 

CRITO, Plato s dialogue, xix. 199. 
CRIVELLI, Carlo, Venetian painter, vi. 

591; xxi. 436. 
, Uberto (Pope Urban III.), xxiv. 

8. 
CRIVETS, north-east wind, in Roumania, 

xxi. 15. 
CROAGH PATRICK, mountain, Ireland, 

xv. 650. 
CROATIA AND SLAVONIA, crown-land, 

Hungary, VI. 591. 
CROATS, race of people, xxi. 688; xxii. 

145. 
CROBO, tribe and language, Gold Coast, 

Africa, x. 756. 
CROCE, Pania clella, mountain, Italy, 

xiil. 438. 

CROCHET, looped thread work, xiv. 127. 
CROCIN, red-colouring matter, xxi. 

146. 

CROCKET, in architecture, n. 463. 
CROCODILE, reptile, vi. 592; in Africa, 
1.260; in Egypt, VII. 713; Aristotle 

on, xx. 432. 
(Limpopo), river, South Africa, I. 

250; XXIIL 517. 
CROCODILIA, order of reptiles, vi. 592; 



xx. 439, 444; olfactory organs of, 
xxii. 166; in Lankester s classification, 
xxiv. 812. See Crocodile. 

CROCOISITE, mineral, xvi. 403. 

CROCUS, plant, xn. 255. 

-, Autumn, plant, VI. 124. 



CRCESUS, king of Lydia, vi. 594; n. 712; 
XV. 99; overthrown by Cyrus, VI. 
753 ; xviii. 565. 

CROFT, William, English musical com 
poser, vi. 594. 

CROFTERS, Scottish, xxi. 531 ; xxii. 
127; in Orkney and Shetland, XVIII. 
847. 

CROFTING, in bleaching, in. 820. 

CROFTON, Sir Walter, his system of 
prison discipline, XIX. 754. 

CROGAN PALACE, Roscommon, Ireland, 
xx. 850. 

CROGHAN KINSHELA, mountain, Ire 
land, xxiv. 521. 

CROIX-DE-RAU (Rocroi), town, France, 
xx. 6 1 6. 

CROKE, Richard, early English scholar, 
vm. 414. 

CROKER, John Wilson, English critic, 
vi. 595. 

, Thomas Crofton, Irish antiquary, 



VI. 595. 

CROLL, James, on climate, x. 218. 
CROLY, George, English divine and poet, 

VI. 595. 
CROMARTY, county, Scotland, vi. 596; 

xx. 853; xxi. 528; town, VI. 596; xx. 

854. 
CROME, John, English painter, VI. 596; 

xxi. 441, 444. 
CROMLECH, monumental stone or circle 

of stones, vi. 597; n. 383; in. 397; 

xxi. 51; in Cornwall, England, vi. 

427; in Wiltshire, England, in. 144; 

in Ireland, VII. 383; in Peru, n. 451. 
CROMMYONIAN Sow, of Greek legend, 

xxni. 294. 
CROMPTON, Samuel, inventor of the 

spinning mule, VI. 597, 496. 
CROMWELL, Oliver, Lord Protector of the 

British Commonwealth, VI. 597; VIII. 

347, 348; his rule in Ireland, xin. 

267; his invasion of Scotland, XXI. 

514; his relations with Presbyterian- 
ism, xix. 689; Milton s relations with, 

xvi. 332. 
, Thomas, earl of Essex, vi. 604; 

vm. 334; XL 664. 
CRONION, sacred hill, Olympia, Greece, 

xvn. 768. 
CRONSTADT, town, Austria, vi. 608. 

, town, Russia, vi. 607. 
CRONSTEDTITE, mineral, xvi. 414. 
CRONUS, of Greek legend, xxi. 320. 
CROOKED LAKE, New York, U.S.A., 

xvn. 451. 
CROOKESITE, mineral, xvi. 392; xxni. 

219. 
CROOMEN, or Croos, Negro race, West 

Africa, xiv. 149. 



CROPS, Agricultural, I. 354; in Middle 

Ages, I. 294 ; rotation of, I. 340 ; 

Liebig s chemical analysis of, xiv. 

567. 

CROQUET, out-door game, vi. 608. 
CROQUIS, Alfred (Daniel Maclise), 

Scottish painter, xv. 165. 
CROSBIE, aeronaut, I. 191. 
CROSBY S STEAM INDICATOR, xxn. 

490. 
CROSIER, or Crozier, archbishop s staff, 

vi. 463, 614. 
CROSS, instrument for inflicting capital 

punishment, VI. 610 ; sacred symbol, 

VI. 612; supposed relics of Christ s, VI. 

611; stigmatization of, xxii. 549. 

, in architecture, II. 463. 

-, in heraldry, xi. 695. 



CROSS-BEARINGS, of the sun, in naviga 
tion, xvn. 271. 

CROSSBILL, bird, vi. 614; migrations of, 
in. 769. 

CROSS-BRED SHEEP, i. 393. 

CROSSES, Sculptured, English, xxi. 557 

CROSSING OF BREEDS, of animals, iv. 
246, 250. 

CROSSING THE BROOK, Turner s 
picture, xxni. 666. 

CROSSLEY S OBSERVATORY, Bermerside, 
England, xvn. 711. 

CROSSOPUS, genus of insectivorous 
mammals, xv. 403; xxi. 844. 

CROSSORHINUS, genus of sharks, xxi. 

775- 

CROSSRAGWELL, Abbot of, his disputa 
tion with Kuox, xiv. 132. 

CROSS - STAFF, astronomical and 
nautical instrument, xvn. 251, 254, 
use of, in finding latitude, X. 187. 

CROTALID.E, family of snakes, xxn. 
193, 198. 

CROTALUS, genus of snakes, xx. 293; 
xxn. 198. 

CROTCH, William, English musical com 
poser, VI. 615; xvn. 97. 

CROTONA, or Croton, ancient town, Italy, 
vi. 615; Pythagoras at, xx. 138. 

CROTON AQUEDUCT, New York, U.S.A., 
11. 223; xvn. 465; tunnel, xxni. 
624. 

CROTON OIL, vi. 615; xvn. 744. 

CROUCHBACK, Edmund, earl of Lan 
caster, xiv. 255. 

CROUP, disease, VI. 616; spasmodic, 
XXIIL 320. 

CROUSAZ, Jean Pierre de, Swiss philo 
sopher, VI. 617; xxii. 798. 

CROW, bird, vi. 617; xx. 842. 

CROWBOROUGH BEACON, Sussex, Eng 
land, xxii. 723. 

CROWD, musical instrument, xxiv. 242. 

CROWE, Eyre Evans, English historian, 
vi. 619. 

CROWLAND, town, England, vi. 619; 
abbey of, xiv. 656; bridge at, iv. 331. 

CROWN, of king or emperor, VI. 619. 

, in heraldry, XL 710. 



118 



C R C U E 



CROWN, Deinosthenes s oration on the, 
vii. 71. 

, The British, prerogatives of, XVIII. 

310; xix. 672. 

IMPERIAL, plant, xn. 255. 

LANDS, in England, Vlll. 298. 

CROWS, American-Indian tribe, xn. 
832. 

CROWTHER, Samuel, Negro bishop, 
xvii. 498; xxiv. 754. 

CROYDON, town, England, vi. 62 1 ; xxn. 
694. 

CROYLAND, or Crowland (q.v-), town, 
England, vi. 619; bridge at, iv. 331. 

CROZAT, Antoine, settler in Louisiana, 
U.S.A., xv. 22. 

CROZIER, archbishop s staff, VI. 463, 
614. 

CRUCHADE, kind of porridge, used in 
Gascony, France, XVIII. 476. 

CRUCIBLE MELTING FURNACE, ix. 843. 

CRUCIBLE STEEL, xm. 342. 

CRUCIFIX, vi. 612. 

CRUCIFIXION, vi. 610; of Jesus Christ, 
xm. 660, 669. 

CRUDEN, Alexander, author of Concord 
ance to Bible, VI. 621. 

CRUIKSHANK, George, English carica 
turist, v. 105. 

, William, on the anatomy of the 

lymphatic system, I. 815. 

CRUISERS, Iron-clad, xvii. 286. 

CRUM, Walter, of Thornliebank, on the 
chemistry of dyeing, VI I. 580. 

CRUMEN GLAND, of antelopes and deer, 
xv. 348. 

CRUMLIN VIADUCT, Wales, iv. 338. 

CRUMN, king of Bulgaria, xvii. 481. 

CRUMWELL, or Cromwell (q.v.), Thomas, 
earl of Essex, vi. 604. 

CRUNODE, in geometry, xxn. 669. 

CRUONINGA (Groningen), ancient town, 
Holland, xi. 207. 

CRUSADERS, Coins of the, xvii. 658. 

CRUSADES, vi. 622 ; xvi. 588 ; their 
economic effects, xix. 352; England s 
share in them, VIII. 296; their 
influence on Egypt, VII. 752; on 
France, IX. 537; on the Greek empire, 
XL 118; on the military system of 
Europe, II. 564; connexion of knights 
with, xiv. 115; XXlll. 160; in rela 
tion to geographical knowledge, X. 
178; to the popedom, XIX. 499; 
effects of the first in Asia Minor, n. 
713; St Bernard s preaching of the 
second, in. 603; under Richard I. of 
England, XX. 540; Joinville s History 
of, xm. 734; Villehardouin s chronicle 
of the fifth, xxiv. 229. 

CRUSADING ORDERS, of knighthood, in 
Spain, xxn. 316. 

CRUSCA, Accademia della, I. 73. 

CRUSENSTOLPE, Magnus Jakob, Swedish 
historian, VI. 632; XXII. 758. 

CRUSIUS, Christian August, German 
theologian, vi. 632. 



CRUSTACEA, class of animals, vi. 632; 
xvii. 116; embryology of, xx. 419; 
organs of touch in, XXlll. 478 ; dis 
tribution of, vii. 278, 283 ; parasites 
of, xviil. 259; in Lankester s classi 
fication, xxiv. 813. 

CRUVEILHIER, Jean, French anatomist, 
vi. 667; I. 8 1 6. 

CRUZ, Juan de la, Spanish mystic, vi. 
667; xxn. 359. 

, Ramon de la, Spanish dramatist, 

vi. 667. 

CRYING, abnormal form of respiration, 
xx. 479. 

CRYOLITE, mineral, vi. 667; xvi. 384; 
xxii. 240. 

SODA, xxn. 244. 

CRYOPHORUS, freezing apparatus, vin. 

73i- 

CRYOPHYLLITE, mineral, xvi. 413. 
CRYPT, in architecture, VI. 667 ; II. 463. 
CRYPTOBRANCHUS, genus of Amphibia, 

i. 759. 
CRYPTODIRA, group of chelonian 

reptiles, xxin. 457. 
CRYPTOGAMOUS PLANTS, iv. 92, 140, 

157- 

CRYPTOGAMS, Cellular, xiv. 552; vas 
cular, xx. 426. 
CRYPTOGRAPHY, writing in cipher, VI. 

669 ; Wheatstone s contributions to, 

xxiv. 538. 

CRYPTOLITE, mineral, xvi. 403. 
CRYPTOPIA, vegetable alkaloid, xvii. 

232. 
CRYPTOPROCTA, genus of carnivorous 

mammals, xv. 170, 435. 
CRYPTURI, group of birds, xvm. 45; 

xxni. 403. 
CRYSTAL, or Flint Glass, Manufacture 

of, x. 663. 
CRYSTALLINE PLATES, Colours of, 

xxiv. 450. 

CRYSTALLIZATION, of rocks, x. 259. 
CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, vi. 671; xvi. 346; 

Haiiy s contributions to, xi. 523 ; 

Mitscherlich s, XVI. 531. 
CRYSTAL PALACE, London, vm. 803; 

xiv. 836; architecture of, II. 453. 
CRYSTALS, vi. 671; xiv. 613; xvi. 346; 

magnetism of, XV. 265 ; uniaxal and 

biaxal, xiv. 613; xxiv. 449. 
CSOKONAI, Mihaly Vitez, Hungarian 

poet, VI. 677; xii. 377. 
CSOMA DE KOROS, Alexander, Hun 
garian philologist, VI. 677; XXlll. 346, 
CTENIDIOBRANCHIA, suborder of Mol- 

lusca, xvi. 645, 655. 
CTENODRILUS, genus of worms, xxiv. 

678. 
CTENOLABRUS, genus of fishes, xxiv. 

686. 
CTENOPHORA, group of animals, I. 131; 

xn. 547, 565 ; in Lankester s classi 
fication, xxiv. 812. 
CTENOSTOMA, group of Polyzoa, xix. 

437- 



CTESIAS, Greek physician and historian, 
vi. 677 ; on the topography of 
Babylon, in. 182 ; on the Medo- 
Persian empire, XVIII. 561 ; on 
Semiramis, XXI. 639. 

CTESIBIUS, inventor of forcing pump, 
xn. 435. 

CTESIPHON, ancient town, Assyria, vi. 
677; xvi. 51; siege of (199), xvm. 
605. 

, friend of Demosthenes, I. 208; 

vn. 71. 

CUBA, island, West Indies, vi. 678; 
XXII. 298; XXIV. 510; freshwater 
fishes of, XII. 674; forests, IX. 406; 
slavery in, XXII. 142. 

, Johannes de, on birds, xvm. 3. 

CUBAN, mineral, xvi. 393. 

CUBATUREOF SOLIDS, in calculus, xm. 

53- 

CUBE, in geometry, x. 388. 
CUBEBS, in pharmacy, vi. 683. 
CUBE ROOT, in algebra, I. 528 ; in 

arithmetic, II. 533. 
CUBES, Tables of, xxin. 8. 
CUB HUNTING, xn. 396. 
CUBICS, Twisted, in geometry, X. 407. 
CUBIC SURFACES, in geometry, xxn. 

670. 

CUBICULA, in the Catacombs, v. 210 
CUBIT, measure of length, XXIV. 483 
CUBITT, Thomas, London builder, vi. 

683. 
-, Sir William, English engineer vi. 



683. 
CUBRANOVIC, Andrew, Ragusan poet, 

xxi. 690, 

CUCA, plant, vi. 684; xvm. 673. 
CUCKING STOOL, tor punishment, xix 

96. 

CUCKMERE, river, England, xxii 723. 
CUCKOO, or Cuckow, bird, vi. 685; in 

769. 
, Ode to the, its authorship, iv. 



393- 

CUCKOO-SPIT, insect, xm. 153. 
CUCKOW, bird, VI. 685; III. 769. 
CUCULLANUS, genus of nematode worms, 

xvn. 325. 
CUCUMBER, vegetable, vi. 687; xn. 282. 

, Squirting, plant, VI. 688; vii. 825. 

TREE, xv. 283. 



CUCUMIS, genus of plants, v. 687; xv. 
841. 

CUCURBITA, genus of plants, XI. 4; xn. 
283. 

CUDBEAR, dyestuff, n. 379; xiv. 559. 

CUDDALOR, town, India, VI. 688 ; II. 
478. 

CUDDAPAH, district, India, vi. 689. 

CUDWORTH, Ralph, English philo 
sopher, VI. 689 ; his ethical system, 
VIII. 597; anti-evolutionist, VIII. 759. 

CUELEN, Ludolph van, German mathe 
matician, XXII. 434 

CUENCA, province, Spain, VI. 692; xxn 
298 ; town, VI. 692. 



C U E C U B 



119 



CUENCA, town, Ecuador, VI. 692. 
CUERNAVACA, town, Mexico, xvi. 214. 
CUEVA, Juan de la, Spanish dramatist, 

xxn. 356. 

CUFA, town, Persia, xvi. 564, 570. 
CUIABA, or Cuyaba, town, Brazil, VI. 

742. 

CUIJA, lake, San Salvador, xxi. 268. 
CUILLINS, mountains, Skye, Scotland, 

xxn. 127. 

CUIRASS, defensive armour, vi. 692. 
CUIRASSIERS, cavalry, v. 263. 
CUISINIER, bird, XVIII. 106. 
CujAS, or Cujacius, Jacques de, French 

jurisconsult, VI. 693. 
CULDEES, order of ecclesiastics, vi. 693 ; 

in Scotland, I. 46; xvni. 667; XXI. 

477- 
CULEBRA ISLAND, West Indies, xxiv. 

261. 
CULEX, poem, attributed to Virgil, xxiv. 

251. 

, genus of insects, x. 700; xvi. 866. 

CULIACAN, town, Mexico, xvi. 214. 
CULINARY APPLIANCES, vi. 332. 
CULLEN, "William, Scottish pathologist, 

vi. 694; xv. 813. 
CULLENDER, Rose, Suffolk witch, xxiv. 

621. 

CULLERA, town, Spain, vi. 696. 
CULLEY, Messrs, their improvements in 

agriculture, I. 303. 
CULLODEN, Scotland, Battle of (1746), 

vi. 696, 705; v. 427; VIIL 355; xxi. 

526. 

CULM, or Anthracite (q.v.), coal, II. 106. 
CULMBACH, town, Bavaria, xiv. 1 54. 
CULNA (Kalna), town, Bardwan district, 

India, Xlll. 829. 
(Khulna), town, Jessor district, 

India, XI v. 67. 

CULPABLE HOMICIDE, crime, xvn. 53. 
CULPEE (Kalpi), town, India, xm. 830. 
CULROSS, village, Scotland, xvin. 667. 
CULTIVATOR, Steam, agricultural imple 
ment, I. 315. 
CULTURE, its influence on language, 11. 

120; xviii. 769. 
CULVERT, wide and short drain, iv. 

284. 
CUM.E, or Cuma, ancient Greek colony, 

Italy, vi. 696; coins of, xvn. 637. 
CUMANA, town, Venezuela, vi. 696. 
CUMANI, or Comans, Turkish tribes, 

xxi. 16; xxin. 660. 
CUMARA NUT, xvn. 664. 
CUMBERLAND, county, England, vi. 

696 ; population and representation, 

xxin. 727; the ancient Cumbria, xxi. 

479; coalfield of, vi. 52; plumbago 

mines, XIX. 231. 
, town, Maryland, U.S.A., vi. 700; 

xv. 603. 
, river, Tennessee, U.S.A., xxm. 

177. 
, "William Augustus, duke of, 

English general, vi. 705; xxi. 520. 



CUMBERLAND, Richard, bishop of Peter 
borough, vi. 700; ethics of, VIIL 598. 

, Richard, English dramatist, vi. 

702; vii. 438. 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, U.S.A., 

xix. 700; xxiv. 829. 

CUMBRAES, islands, Scotland, IV. 579. 

CUMBRIA, ancient district, England, 
xxi. 479. 

CUMIN, or Cummin, plant, vi. 706. 

GUMMING, Roualeyn Gordon, African 
traveller and hunter, VI. 706. 

CUMMINGS, of malt, iv. 269. 

CUNAPIRU, town, Uruguay, xxiv. 15. 

CUNARD, Sir Samuel, founder of line of 
steamships, vi. 706. 

CUNAXA, Babylonia, Battle of (401 B.C.), 
vi. 753; xviii. 577. 

CUNCTATOR (Fabius Maximus), Roman 
general, VIIL 836; XI. 442. 

CUNDWAH (Khandwa), town, India, xiv. 

57- 

CUNEATOR, officer of the mint, xvi. 
480. 

CUNEIFORM WRITING, vi. 707; i. 604; 
xm. 114; inventors of, in. 184; 
Grotef end s decipherment of, XI. 217. 

CUNENE, river, Africa, I. 254. 

CUNEO, or Coni, town, Italy, VI. 272. 

C UN ING HAM, William, English carto 
grapher, xvn. 253. 

CUNITZ, Maria, German astronomer, 
vi. 707. 

CUNNINGHAM, district, Ayrshire, Scot 
land, in. 163, 

, Allan, Australian botanist and 

explorer, ill. 104, no. 

, Allan, Scottish writer, VI. 707. 

, J. T., his observations on Mollusca, 
xvi. 658. 

, Peter, 



English miscellaneous 
writer, VI. 707. 
-, William, Scottish theologian and 



ecclesiastic, VI. 708. 
CUPAR-FIFE, town, Scotland, vi. 708. 
CUPELLATION, method of separating 

metals, II. 725; xiv. 376. 
CUPEL MOULD, in assaying, n. 726. 

CUPEL-SlLVER, XXII. JO. 

CUPID, Roman god (the Greek Eros), vi. 

708; VIIL 527. 
CUPOLA, or Dome, in architecture, vn. 

347; n. 463. 

CUPPING, surgical operation, vi. 709. 
CUPREINE, vegetable alkaloid, xx. 185. 
CUPRESSUS, genus of trees, vi. 745. 
CUPRITE, mineral, vi. 347; xvi. 385. 
CUPROPLUMBITE, mineral, xvi. 391. 
CUPS, Ancient Greek and Roman, xix. 

180, 614, 618. 

CURACA, Peruvian chief, xviii. 678. 
CURACOA, or Curagao, island, West 

Indies, VI. 709 ; population, XXIV. 

510. 

, liqueur, xiv. 687. 

CURARAY, river, South America, vii. 

646. 



CURASSOW, bird, VI. 709. 

CURATE, vi. 709; perpetual, xxiv. 209. 

CURATOR, in law, xm. i. 

CURCAS PuRGANS, species of plants, 

xvii. 665. 
CURCHOD, Suzanne, Madame Necker, 

x. 574; xvn. 312. 
CURCULIONID^E, family of insects, XXIV. 

477- 
CURCUMIN, colour ing matter of turmeric, 

xxm. 662. 
CURCUNNO, France, Cromlech at, xxi. 

SI- 
CURD, of milk, XVI. 304. 

CUR DEUS HOMO, work by Anselni, n. 
92. 

CURE, river, France, xvn. 495. 

CUREPIPE, town, Mauritius, xv. 640. 

CURES, ancient town, Italy, vi. 710. 

CURETON, William, English Orientalist, 
vi. 710. 

CURETONIAN GOSPELS, Syriac recen 
sion, xxn. 824. 

CURFEW, bell, vi. 710; in. 538. 

CURIA, ancient Roman tribal division, 
vi. 710; xvn. 527; xx. 732. 

, Roman senate-house, xix. 815. 

CURIALIS, Roman official, vi. 710. 

CURIA REGIS, English court, vi. 517. 

CURIA ROMAN A, papal court, vi. 7115 
xix. 497. 

CURIATII, Alban brothers, opponents of 
the Horatii, xn. 166. 

CURICO, province, Chili, v. 617. 

CURING, mode of preserving food, xix. 
708; of bloaters, IX. 253; of herrings, 
IX. 259; of pilchards, IX. 254. 

CURIOSITIES OF LITERATURE, Isaac 
D Israeli s work, vii. 260. 

CURLEW, bird, vi. 711. 

CURLING, game, vi. 712. 

CURRAGH, plain, with military camp, 
Kildare, Ireland, vi. 714. 

CURRAN, John Philpot, Irish orator, VI. 
714. 

CURRANTS, fruit, vi. 715; XL 88; red, 
white, and black, xn. 270; culture of, 
in Zante, xxiv. 767. 

CURRENCY, or Current Money, its early 
forms, XVI. 722 ; depreciation of, 
IX. 178; in relation to exchange, VIIL 
788 ; bank notes as, in. 320 ; paper 
(greenbacks), in U.S.A. (1862), xxm. 
775 ; Locke s observations on, xiv. 
754; Ricardo s, xx. 534. 

CURRENTS, as distinguished from waves, 
xxiv. 416; hydraulic theory of, xn. 
468; of the ocean, X. 283; in naviga 
tion, xvn. 275; of the Atlantic, in. 
1 8; of the Dardanelles and Bosphorus, 
in. 798; of the Indian Ocean, xn. 82 1 ; 
of the Pacific, xvni. 117. 

CURRER BELL (Charlotte Bronte), 
English novelist, IV. 365. 

CURRIE, James, Scottish physician and 
critic, vi. 715. 

CURRY, condiment, vi. 715. 



120 



CURGYM 



CURRYING, in leather manufacture, xiv. 

386. 

CURSE-OATH, xvn. 698. 
CURSING, Laws against, in. 807. 
CURSIVE WRITING, xvni. 149; xxin. 

682; Latin, xvin. 154. 
CURTIS, Mrs, wife of George Washington, 

xxiv. 388. 
CURTIUS, Mettus, Eoman legendary 

hero, vi. 716. 
, RUFUS, Quintus, biographer of 

Alexander the Great, vi. 716. 
CURUBAS, fruit of passion-flower, xvin. 

343- 

CURVATURE, in geometry, xin. 26; in 
conic sections, vi. 283; of spherical 
surfaces, xv. 659. 

CURVE, CURVES, vi. 716; x. 395, 419; 
xv. 630; xxiv. 86; in integral cal 
culus, xin. 50; in relation to surface, 
xxii. 668; Pliicker on intersections 
of, his six equations, XIX. 229; Des- 
cartes s application of algebra to, xin. 
6; tidal, xxm. 366, 370. 

CURVILINEAR COORDINATES, xxn. 
671. 

CURWEN, John, promoter of the tonic 
sol-fa musical notation, xvn. 100. 

CURZOLA, town, Austrian Dalmatia, vi. 
728; battle of (1298), xix. 406. 

CUSA, Nicolas de (Cusanus), cardinal and 
Reformer, vi. 728; XX. 323. 

Cuscus, genus of marsupial mammals, 
xvm. 728. 

CUSCUTA, genus of plants, vn. 320. 

CUSCUTACE^E, parasitic plants, xvin. 
264. 

CUSH, of Scripture, vi. 729; xvn. 
511. 

CUSHAT, ring-dove, vn. 379. 

CUSHITES, of Scripture, xxiv. 738; xvn. 
511. 

CUSP, in architecture, II. 463. 

, of a curve, xxn. 669. 

CUSSO, or Kousso, drug, XIV. 145. 

CUSTARD APPLE, vi. 729. 

CUSTOM, in law, xiv. 362; xix. 705. 

HOUSES, vi. 729. 

CUSTOMS DUTIES, vi. 729. 

CUSTOMS OF THE SEA, book of mari 
time ordinances, VI. 318. 

GUSTOS ROTULORUM, keeper of records, 
vi. 730. 

CUSTRIN, town, Prussia, xiv. 162. 

CUSUMANO, Vito, Italian economist, 
xix. 395. 

CUTCH, state, India, vi. 730; Ran, Runn, 
or Lake of, iv. 22; vi. 730. 
, or Catechu, vegetable extract, V. 
220; Xiv. 382. 

, Goldbeater s, x. 753. 

GUNDAVA, district, Baluchistan, 

vi. 732. 

CUTHBERT, St, bishop of Lindisfarne, 
England, VI. 732 ; xvn. 570 ; his 
labours in Lothian, XV. 10 ; xxi. 
475; his tomb at Durham, vn. 562. 



CUTICLE, or Epidermis, Anatomy of 

the, I. 897. 
CUTLERY, vi. 733; English, xxi. 787; 

Indian, XII. 762. 
CUTTACK, district and town, India, v. 

242; xvn. 845. 
CUTTER, boat, xxi. 825. 
CUTTHROAT, bird, xxiv. 463. 
CUTTINGS, Railway, xx. 232. 
CUTTLE-BONE, for polishing, XXI. 

666. 

CUTTLE-FISH, VI. 735; XVI. 670. 

CUTWA (Katwa), town, Bengal, India, 
xiv. 15. 

CUT -WATER, bird, xxn. 120. 

CuviER, Georges (Baron Cuvier), French 
naturalist, vi. 740; on birds, xvin. 7; 
on Buffon s theories of the iiniverse, 
IV. 445; on classification and morpho 
logy, XVI. 838 ; his classification of 
animals, XXIV. 806; of reptiles, XX. 
435 ; on evolution, vin. 749 ; on 
ichthyology, XII. 633. 

CUXHAVEN, town, Germany, VI. 742 ; 
xi. 404. 

CUYABA, town, Brazil, vi. 742. 

CUY-COCHA, lake, Ecuador, vn. 646. 

CUYP, Albert, Dutch painter, vi. 742; 
his connexion with Van der Neer, 
xvn. 314. 

, Jacob Gerritsz, Dutch painter, vi. 

742. 

CUYUNI, river, British Guiana, XI. 250. 

CUZA, Alexander John, prince of 
Roumania, xxi. 21. 

Cuzco, town, Peru, vi. 744; xvin. 675; 
ancient fortresses at, II. 452; pilgrim 
age to temple at, xix. 92. 

CwM-HiR, abbey, Wales, xx. 217. 

CYANATES, in chemistry, xx. 25 ; of 
ammonia, XXIV. n. 

CYANECULA, genus of birds, xx. 318. 

CYANIC ACID, xx. 25 ; Wohler s dis 
covery of, xxiv. 626. 

CYANIDE OF HYDROGEN (Prussic Acid), 
v. 554; xx. 23. 

CYANIDES, Analysis of, xx. 24; metallic, 
v. 554; methyl, xvi. 197. 

CYANITE, mineral, xvi. 408. 

CYANOGEN, in chemistry, v. 554; xx. 
22 ; Gay-Lussac s experiments on, x. 
123. 

CYANOMETER, Saussure s invention of 
the, XXI. 324. 

CYANOSIS, facial deformity, xvi. 765. 

CYANOSPIZA, genus of birds, xvn. 534. 

CYANURUS, genus of birds, xin. 611. 

CYATHEA, genus of tree-ferns, xxin. 

534 
CYAXARES, Median king, xvin. 563; 

xxi. 577. 
CYBELE, in Greek mythology, vi. 744; 

xv. 99, 294; xvin. 853; worship of, 

xvin. 691 ; statue of, at Rome, xx. 

821. 
CYBO, Innocent, Florentine cardinal, xv. 

789. 



CYBULSKI, Prof., Polish writer, xix. 

305- 

CYCADACE^E, order of plants, xxiv. 131. 
CYCLADES, group of islands, Greece, vi. 

744; coins of the, xvn. 644. 
CYCLAMEN, greenhouse plant, xii. 263. 
CYCLAS, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 695. 
CYCLE, Metonic, in astronomy, n. 747; 

iv. 668; other cycles, iv. 669, 670. 
CYCLIC POEMS, Greek, xi. 137. 
CYCLING, velocipede riding, in. 665; 

xxin. 559. 
CYCLOID, Quadrature of the, Pascal s, 

xvni. 338. 
CYCLOMYARIA, suborder of Tunicata, 

xxin. 615. 
CYCLONES, areas of low atmospheric 

pressure, in. 33; vi. 7; xvi. 129, 154; 

at sea, xvn. 276; of Asia, n. 690; 

xv. 189; in Polynesia, xix. 421; in 

the West Indies, XXIV. 511. 
CYCLOPEDIA, or Encyclopaedia (<i.v.), 

vin. 190. 

, American, vin. 204; XX. 568. 

, Chainbers s (1728), vin. 196. 

, English, vin. 204. 

, Penny, vin. 204; xiv. 856. 

CYCLOPEAN MASONRY, in archaeology, 

II. 346, 401 ; remains of, in Ithaca, 

xin. 517. 
CYCLOPES, in Greek mythology, vi. 744; 

11. 346. 
CYCLOPS, Euripides s satyric drama, 

vin. 678. 

, monster, xvi. 764. 

CYCLOPTERUS, genus of fishes, xv. 65. 
CYCLORHAPHA, group of insects, vn. 

256. 
CYCLOSTOMA, suborder of Polyzoa, xix. 

437- 

, genus of snails, xxn. 187. 

CYCLOSTOMATA, subclass of fishes, xn. 
694. 

CYCLOTURUS, genus of edentate mam 
mals, xv. 386. 

CYCNUS, of Greek legend, xix. 559. 

CYDNUS, river, Asia Minor, n. 709; v. 

777- 

CYDONIA, genus of trees, xx. 182. 
CYDONIUM EOSASTER, species of 

sponges, XXII. 414. 

CYGNET, young of the swan, xxn. 731. 
CYGNUS, genus of birds, xxii. 731. 
CYLINDER, in geometry, x. 417 ; 

mensuration of, XVI. 25; Archimedes 

on, n. 380; Serenus on, xxi. 675. 
, of steam-engine, behaviour of 

steam in, xxn. 487; strength of, xxn. 

606. 

PRINTING PRESSES, xxin. 706. 



CYLIX, ancient Greek vase, xix. 614. 
CYLON, Athenian insurgent, in. 2; xi. 

96. 
CYMBALUM MUNDI, of Bonaventure 

des Periers, IX. 654. 
CYMBULIA, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 665, 

666. 



C Y M D M D 



121 



CYMENE, hydrocarbon found in oils, 

xvii. 748. 

CYMOPHANE, mineral, xvi. 386. 
CYMRl, or Cymry (q_.v.\ IV. 352. 
CYMRIC LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, 

xx. 642. 
CYMRY, branch of the Celtic family, n. 

651; iv. 352; v. 300. 
CYNANCHE PAROTID^EA, disease, xvii. 

22 

CYNEGETICA, Oppian s poem, xn. 393; 

xvii. 797. 
CYNEWULF, Anglo-Saxon writer, vm. 

403- 

CYNICS, school of Greek philosophy, vi. 
745; n. 137; xxi. 379; xxn. 562; 
ethics of, vm. 578. 

CYNOCEPHALUS, genus of apes, n. 152; 
xv. 476. 

CYNOGALE, species of carnivorous mam 
mals, xv. 436. 

CYNOIDEA, section of Carnivora, xv. 437. 

CYNOMYS, genus of rodent mammals, 
xv. 418, 560. 

CYNOPHONTIS, Greek festival, xiv. 678. 

CYNOPTERUS, genus of bats, xv. 409. 

CYNOSCEPHAL^E, Greece, Battle of (197 

B.C.), IX. 288; XX. 752; XXIII. 222 ,299. 

CYNTHIA, mistress of Propertius, xix. 

812. 
CYNTHIID^E, family of Tunicata, xxm. 

617. 
CYNTHIUS (Giovanni Battista Giraldi), 

Italian novelist, X. 620. 
CYPERUS BABYLONICUS, aromatic drug, 

x. 17. 
CYPERUS PAPYRUS, paper reed, xvni. 

231. 

CYPERUS-ROOT OIL, XVII. 744. 

CYPHOPHTHALMIDES, family of Arach- 

nida, n. 279. 
CYPR/EA MONETA, cowry-shell mollusc, 

vi. 535- 

CY-PRES, in law, vi. 745. 

CYPRESS, tree, vi. 745; culture of, n. 
320; in United States, xxm. 809. 

CYPRESSE GROVE, Drummond s work, 
vii. 481. 

CYPRIAN, bishop of Carthage, vi. 746; 
his conception of the episcopate, v. 
701; vm. 487. 

, bishop of Nisibis, Syriac writer, 

xxn. 844. 
- DIALECT, of Greek, XI. 133. 

CYPRINE, mineral, xvi. 410. 

CYPRIPEDIUM, genus of orchids, xvii. 
818. 

CYPRUS, island, Mediterranean, VI. 747; 
xv. 820; xxm. 653; its connexion 
with Phoenicia, XVIII. 805; coins of, 
xvii. 648; captured by the Turks 
(1570-71), xxm. 644; ceded to Eng 
land, XXIII. 652; Cyprian dialect, XI. 
133- 

CYPSELUS, genus of birds, xxn. 760. 

, Chest of, early Greek sculpture, II. 

3475 vi. 397. 



CYRANO DE BERGERAC, on travelling 
to the moon, I. 186. 

CYRENAICA, district, Africa, vi. 750. 

CYRENAICS, school of Greek philo 
sophers, VI. 750; II. 506; their philo 
sophical system, xxi. 379; its relation 
to Epicureanism, Vlll. 475. 

CYRENE, ancient town, Africa, vi. 750; 
xxm. 280; coins of, xvn. 651. 

CVRIACUS, patriarch of the Jacobites, 
Syriac writer, xxn. 842. 

CYRIL, St, bishop of Jerusalem, vi. 751; 
his canon, v. 10. 

, St, early missionary to the Slavs, 

xvi. 194. 

, bishop of Turoff, Eussian sermon- 
writer, xxi. 103. 

of Alexandria, vi. 751; opponent 



of Nestorius, XVII. 353. 
of Berytus, Byzantine jurist, VI. 



752. 



LUCARIS, patriarch of Constan 
tinople and reformer of the Greek 
Church, XL 158; I. 496. 

CYRILLIC ALPHABET, i. 613. 

CYRILLONA, Syriac writer, xxn. 828. 

CYRILLUS. See Cyril. 

CYRIL THORNTON, novel by Thomas 
Hamilton, XL 416. 

CYROP/EDIA, Xenophon s work, xxiv. 
721; vi. 752. 

CYRRHESTICA, Syria, coins of, xvn. 
649. 

CYRUS, the Elder, founder of the Persian 
empire, VI. 752; xvni. 564; his con- 
cjuest of Babylonia, in. 188; his re 
lations to the Jews, xm. 417; his re 
ligious policy, xin. 384; his tomb, at 
Murgab, n. 399; xvni. 558, 567. 

, the Younger, Persian satrap, vi. 

753; xvin. 576. 

CYST FORMATIONS, in human body, 
xvni. 365. 

CYSTICERCUS Bovis, beef measle, 
xxm. 52; xxiv. 206. 

CYSTIC SARCOMA, disease, xvni. 369. 

CYSTIDEA, order of Echinodermata, vn. 
638. 

CYSTITIS, disease, xxiv. 188. 

CYSTOPHORA, genus of seals, xv. 444; 
xxi. 581. 

CYTHERA (Cerigo), island, Greece, v. 
346; xin. 205. 

CYTHEREA, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 686. 

CYTINACE^E, order of parasitic plants, 
xvni. 265. 

CYTISUS, genus of trees, xiv. 179. 

CVTODE, mass of protoplasm, I. 843. 

CYTOGENESIS, in plants, xn. 13. 

CYZICUS, ancient town, Asia Minor, vi. 
753; xvn. 122; coins of, xvn. 645; 
siege of, by Mithradates (74 B.C.), 
xv. 56. 

CZACKI, Tadeusz, Polish statesman and 
writer, VI. 754. 

CZAR, title of emperor of Russia, xxi. 
92. 



CZARTORYSKI, Adam George, Polish 
prince and patriot, VI. 754; XIX. 298. 

CZASLAU, town, Bohemia, VI. 754 ; 
battle of (1742), in. 127. 

CZECHS, Slavonic people, VI. 754; ill. 
861 ; xvi. 8n; xix. 285; xxn. 145, 
147, 151; their language and litera 
ture, in. 861 ; XXII. 151 ; dictionaries 
of language, vn. 188. 

CZEGLED, town, Hungary, vi. 754. 

CZENSTOCHOVA, Old and New, towns, 
Poland, VI. 754. 

CZERNA, river, Macedonia, xv. 136. 

CZERNOWITZ, town, Austria, vi. 755.; 
university of, xxm. 852. 

CZERNY, Karl, Austrian musical com 
poser and pianist, vi. 755. 

GEORGE, Tsrni George, or Kara- 

georgevich, Servian leader, VI. 755; 
xxi. 689. 

CZERSKI, Johann, leader of the Catholic 
Apostolic Christians, x. 444. 

CZOLBE, Heinrich C., on evolution, vm. 
767- 



T"^ the fourth letter of the alphabet, 

*-* y vi. 756. 

DABCHICK, bird, XL 80. 

DA C ADORE (Titian, q.v.), Italian painter, 

xxm. 413. 

DA CAPO, musical term, xvn. 87, 93. 
DACCA, district and town, India, VI. 

756: 
DACE, fish, vi. 758; xn. 692; xx, 582; 

angling for, n. 42. 
DACELO, genus of birds, Xiv. 82. 
DACH, Simon, German hymn-writer, 

xn. 587. 
DACHSTEIN, mountain, Austria, I. 628; 

xxi. 241; xxn. 614. 
DACIA, ancient country, Europe, vi. 758; 

xxiv. 269; conquest of, by Trajan 

(105), xxm. 504. 

DACIER, Andre, French scholar, vi. 759. 
, Anne Lefevre, French scholar, vi. 

759- 

DA COSTA, Isaak, Dutch poet and theo 
logian, vi. 759. 
DACTYLOPSILA, genus of marsupial 

mammals, xvni. 729. 
DACTYLOPTERUS, fish, ix. 352. 
D ADAM, L Isle, grand-master of Knights 

Hospitallers, xxi. 174. 
DADDY LONG LEGS, insect, xin. 150; 

as wheat pest, xxiv. 535. 
DADHA, Syriac monk and writer, xxn. 

830. 
DADH-ISHO, abbot of Mount Izla, Syriac 

writer, XXII. 838. 
DADH-ISHO, of Seleucia, Syriac writer, 

xxn. 830. 

DADO, in architecture, n. 463. 
D^EDALA, Mount, Asia Minor, xv. 93. 
DAEDALUS, in Greek legend, vi. 760; I. 

185; n. 347. 

, reef, Red Sea, xx. 316. 

XXV. 1 6 



122 



D 



M D A M 



DAEMON, vii. 60; in Greek mythology, 

XV. 477; of Socrates, xxil. 233. 
DAFFODIL, plant, vi. 760. 
DA GAMA, Vasco, Portuguese navigator, 

x. 57, 181; liis expedition to India, 

xn. 796. 
DAGANA, town, Senegal, Africa, xxi. 

660. 
DAGGER, weapon, vi. 760; xxn. 800; 

ancient, II. 553; of Albacete, Spain, I. 

446. 
D AGHESTAN, government, Asiatic Eussia, 

vi. 760. 
D AciNCOURT, Jean Baptiste, French 

archaeologist, VI. 760. 
DAGMAR CROSS, vi. 614. 
DAGO, island, Eussia, Baltic Sea, xvn. 

732- 
DAGOBERT, king of France, ix. 530; 

tomb of, at St Denis, XXI. 161. 
DAGON, Philistine deity, vi. 761; xvm. 

756. 
DAGUERRE, Louis Jacques Mande, 

French painter and physicist, vi. 761; 

his contributions to photography, 

xvm. 822. 
DAGUERREOTYPE, vi. 761 ; xvm. 

823. 

D AGUESSEAU, Henri Francois, chan 
cellor of France, vi. 761. 
DAH/E, ancient Iranian nomads, xvm. 

rOO 
508. 

DAHHAK B. KAIS, governor of Damascus, 

xvi. 569. 

DAHIRAH, province, Arabia, II. 255. 
DAHL, Johann Christian, Norwegian 

painter, VI. 762. 
, Michael, Swedish painter, vi. 762. 

, Vladimir Ivanovitch, Eussian 

writer, vi. 762. 

DAHLAK, island, Eed Sea, XX. 316. 
DAHLGREN, Karl Fredrik, Swedish poet 

and humorist, VI. 763; XXII. 757. 
DAHLIA, plant, vi. 763; xn. 255. 
DAHLMANN, Friedrich Christian, Ger 
man historian, VI. 763. 
D AHLSTJERNA, GunnoEurelius, Swedish 

poet, vi. 764; xxil. 755. 
DAHNA, desert, Arabia, n. 240. 
DAHOMEY, kingdom, West Africa, vi. 

764. 
DAHSHOOR, or Dahshur, Egypt, 

Pyramids of, n. 386; vn. 773; XX. 

124. 
DAI BUTSU, colossal statue, Japan, 

xvn. 229. 
DAILLE, Jean, French Protestant divine, 

vi. 767. 
D AlLLY, Pierre, French cardinal, x. 

549; xvn. 132; xx. 320; xxi. 431. 
DAILY NEWS, London newspaper, xvn. 

419. 
DAILY TELEGRAPH, London newspaper, 

xvn. 419. 

DAIMIEL, town, Spain, vi. 767. 
DAIMIO, territorial nobles of Japan, 

xni. 578, 583. 



DAINIHONSHI, Japanese history, xin. 

587- 
DAIR AL-BAHARI, Egypt, Mummy vault 

at, xvii. 22. 
DAIRY, vi. 768; treatment of milk in, 

xvi. 304. 

BREEDS, of cattle, i. 388. 

DAIS, in architecture, n. 463. 
DAISY, plant, vi. 773. 
DAJJAL, Masih al, Mohammedan Anti 
christ, n. 126. 

DAKAR, town, Senegal, Africa, xxi. 660. 
DAKER-HEN, bird, xx. 222. 
DAKHEL, or Dakhila, oasis, Africa, xvn. 

695. 
DAKIKI, Persian poet, ix. 225; xvin. 

656. 

DA-Klo (Mekong), river, Asia, xv. 832. 
DAKOTA, Territory, U.S.A., vi. 773; 

population, xxn I. 802. 
DAKOTAS, American Indians, xn. 827, 

831- 

DAKSHIN (Deccan, q.v.\ India, vn. 18. 
SHAHBAZPUR, delta island, India, 

xv. 830. 

DAKSHIPUTRA (Panini), Sanskrit gram 
marian, xxi. 292. 
DALAI-LAMA, of Tibet, xiv. 230, 502; 

xxiii. 343. 

DALBEATTIE, town, Scotland, xiv. 98. 
DALBERG, Prince of, patron of German 

literature, vi. 774. 

DALBERGIA, genus of trees, xx. 851. 
DALBURG, John of, bishop of Worms, 

xx. 490. 
DAL-CAIS, dynasty of Irish kings, Xlll. 

253- 

DALE, or Dahl, Vladimir Ivanovitch, 
Eussian writer, VI. 762. 

D ALEMBERT, Jean le Eond, French 
mathematician and philosopher, vi. 
774; IX. 671; his connexion with the 
Encyclopedic, Vlil. 197; on astro 
nomy, II. 759; on the motion of fluids, 
XII. 437. 

DALGARNO, George, Scottish educational 
writer, vi. 776; on teaching deaf- 
mutes, vii. 6. 

DALHOUSIE, town, New Brunswick, 
xvii. 375. 

, Marquis of, governor-general of 

India, VI. 776; XII. 808. 

DALI, Cyprus, Tablet of, VI. 750. 

DALIMIL, Chronicle of, Bohemian work, 
XXIL 151. 

DALIN, Olof von, Swedish poet, vi. 780; 
XXIL 755. 

DALKEITH, town, Scotland, vi. 780. 

DALKEY ISLAND, Ireland, vii. 494. 

DALLA BELLA, his magnetic researches, 
xv. 237. 

DALL^US (Jean Daille), French Pro 
testant theologian, vi. 767. 

DALLAS, town, Texas, U.S.A., xxm. 
205. 

DALLING AND BULWER, Lord, British 
diplomatist, VI. 780. 



DALMATIA, crown land, Austria, vi 

783; wine industry of, xxiv. 610. 
, Duke of (Soult), French general, 

xxn. 279. 

DALMATIAN DOG, vn. 330. 
DALMATIC, ecclesiastical vestment, vi 

462. 

DALMAU, town, India, xx. 222. 
DALMENY PARK, Linlithgow, Scotland, 

xiv. 670. 
DALRIADS, Celtic race, in Ireland, xm, 

247; in Scotland, xxi. 473, 477. 
DALRYMPLE, Sir David (Lord Hailes), 

Scottish lawyer and historian, XI. 374, 

xxn. 446. 

, G. E., explorer of Australian coast, 

in. 107. 

, Sir Hew, Scottish lawyer, xxn. 

446. 

, James, first Viscount Stair, Scot 
tish jurist, xxn. 444. 
-, Sir James, Scottish antiquary, xxn. 



446. 



-, Janet, Bride of Laimnermoor, xxn 



-, Thomas, Scottish physician, xxn. 



446. 

DALSGAARD, Danish painter, vn. 94. 
DALTON, John, English physicist, vi. 

784; his atomic theory, v. 465; on the 

specific gravity of air, III. 386. 
DALTONISM, or Colour Blindness, vi. 

784; vin. 824. 
DALTON S LAW, of gases, vi. 785, xvi 

611. 
DALY, Eobert, bishop of Kildare, xni. 

265. 
DALYELL, Sir John Graham, his 

aquarium, II. 217. 
DAM, reservoir, XXIV. 406. 
DAMAD ALI, Turkish vizier, xxm. 646. 
DAMAGES, in law, vi. 787. 
DAMAN, Syrian hyrax, mammal, xn. 

598. 
DAMARALAND, district, South Africa, 

XI. 731; languages of, xxiv. 828. 
DAMARAS, race, South Africa, their 

totems, xxm. 468. 
DAMARMENUS, fisherman, in Greek 

mythology, XVIII. 480. 
DAMAS (Damask, q. r.), cloth, xxm. 210. 
DAMASCENING, or Damaskeening, in 

metal work, vi. 793; xin. 81; xvi. 

78; of sword blades, vi. 733; xxn. 803. 
DAMASCENUS, Johannes, theologian, 

early Greek Church, VI. 789. 
-, Nicolaus, Greek historian, vi. 790. 



DAMASCIUS, Neoplatonic philosopher, 

vi. 790; xvn. 338. 

DAMASCUS, ancient kingdom, xni. 406. 
-, province, Asiatic Turkey, xxm. 



653- 



-, town, Syria, vi. 790; xxn. 822; 
taken by the Arabs (635), n. 257, 
XVI. 562; as capital of Demetrius III. 
of Syria, XVIII. 595; mosque of, xvi. 



D A M D A R 



123 



DAMASCUS STEEL, vi. 793. 

DAMASCUS WARE, xix. 620. 

DAMASK, cloth, vi. 792; xxiv. 464; 
Persian, xxm. 208, 210; manufacture 
of, at Dunfermline, Scotland, vil. 542. 

DAMASKEENING, or Damascening (q.v.), 

vi. 793- 

DAMASK STEEL, vi. 793. 
DAMASUS I., pope, vi. 793 ; xin. 630; 

xix. 490. 

II., pope, vi. 793. 

DAMAUN, town, India, vi. 793. 
DAMAVAND, mountain, Persia, XV. 65 1 ; 

xviii. 619. 
D AMBOISE, George, French cardinal, 

vi. 793- 
DAMBONITE, volatile body in caoutchouc, 

xii. 840. 
DAMBOVITZA, river, Roumania, xxi. 

14. 
DAMDAMA (Dumdum), town, India, vn. 

525; xxm. 673. 
DAMI, Giuliano, Florentine courtier, xv. 

793- 

DAMlAT(Damietta), town, Egypt, VI. 794. 

DAMIENS, Robert Frangois, assailant of 
Louis XV. of France, vi. 794. 

DAMIETTA, town, Egypt, vi. 794; vn. 
768; siege of (1219), xxm. 162. 

DAMIRI, Arabian naturalist, vi. 794; 
xvi. 597. 

DAMIRON, Jean Philibert, French philo 
sophical writer, vi. 795. 

DAMMAR, or Dammer, resin, vi. 795. 

DAMME, Thomas, Longevity of, xiv. 

Q r-Q 
050. 

DAMNUM ABSQUE INJURIA, in law, vi. 

789. 
DAMOCLES, courtier of Dionysius, vi. 

795- 
DAMODAR, coal and ironstone fields, 

India, xn. 737. 

DAMON, friend of Pythias, vi. 795. 
DAMPIER, William, English navigator, 

VI. 795; his discoveries in Australasia, 

in. 103. 

DAMPNESS, Measure of, xii. 569. 
DAMSON, variety of plum, xix. 230. 
DAN, town, Judaea, vi. 796. 

, Tribe of, xin. 401. 

DANA, river, Africa, I. 255. 

, family of eminent Americans, VI. 

796. 
, James Dwight, on amber in 

America, I. 659; on the Atlantic basin, 

in. 16. 
, Richard Henry, American author, 

vi. 796; i. 723. 
DANAE, mother of Perseus, vi. 797; xviii. 

560. 

DANALITE, mineral, xvi. 411. 
DANAPRIS (Dnieper), river, Russia, vil. 

306; xxi. 73. 

DANAUS, in Greek legend, vi. 797. 
DANBURITE, mineral, xvi. 411. 
DANBURY, town, Connecticut, U.S.A., 

vi. 797. 



DAN BY, Earl of, minister of Charles II., 

vm. 349- 

, Francis, English painter, vi. 797. 

DANCE, vi. 798. 

, George (d. 1768), English architect, 

vi. Soi. 
, George (d. 1825), English architect 

and painter, VI. 80 1. 

, Nathaniel, English painter, VI. 801. 

OF DEATH, v. 104; xii. 55. 

DANCING, as branch of education, VI. 

Soi. 
MASTER, English ballad collection, 

xvii. 88. 
DANCOURT, Florent Carton, French 

dramatist, vi. 802. 

DANDELION, plant, vi. 802; xxm. 61. 
DANDHU PANTH (Nana Sahib), xii. Sio; 

xvii. 170, 345. 
DANDOLO, patrician family of Venice, 

vi. 802. 
, Andrea, Venetian admiral, VI. 803; 

xix. 406. 
, Enrico, doge of Venice, VI. 802 ; 

XXIV. 143; his relations with the 

crusaders, vi. 629. 
-, Vincenzo, Count, Italian scientist, 



vi. 803. 

DANEGELD, English land tax, vm. 294, 
567. 

DANELAGE, district, England, xiv. 656. 

DANES, The, vu. 84; their invasions of 
England, I. 506; vm. 283, 568; xvii. 
570; invasions of Ireland, xin. 252; in 
Lincolnshire, XIV. 656; their influ 
ence on English literature, vm. 404. 

DANEWERK, or Dannewerk, entrench 
ments, Schleswig, vil. 89; XXI. 414. 

DANEWORT, or dwarf elder tree, vil. 
828. 

DANICHICH, Dyuro, Servian philologist, 
xxi. 691. 

DANIEL, of Scripture, vi. 803. 
, Apocalypse of, n. 180. 
, Book of, vi. 803; in. 640. 
of Salah, Syriac writer, xxil. 841. 

of Tahal, Syriac writer, XXII. 849. 
, Arnaud, troubadour, XX. 649. 
, Gabriel, French Jesuit historian, 
vi. 807. 

, Samuel, English poet, vi. 807; 
xviii. 346. 

BAR KHATTAB, Syriac writer, xxn. 



855. 



BAR MOSES, Syriac writer, XXII. 



841. 



- NEVSKI, prince of Moscow, XXI. 
90. 

DANIELE DA VOLTERRA (Ricciarelli), 
Italian painter and sculptor, XX. 537. 
DAMELL, John Frederick, English 
chemist, VI. 808; his electric cell, vm. 
93; his hygrometer, xn. 570; his 
pyrometer, XX. 133. 
-, Samuel, Thomas, and William, 



English painters, vi. 808. 
DANILOFF, town, Russia, xxiv. 731. 



DANILOVGRAD, town, Montenegro, xvi. 
781. 

DANISH DRAMA, vn. 444. 

DANISH LANGUAGE, vn. 89; xxi. 373; 
dictionaries of, vil. 186. 

DANISH LEATHER, xiv. 389. 

DANISH LITERATURE, vn. 89. 

DANISHMAND, Seljuk dynasty, xxi. 636. 

DANKOFF, town, Russia, xxi. 116. 

DANNECKER, Joliann Heinrich von, 
German sculptor, vi. 809. 

DANNEWERK, entrenchments, Schleswig, 
vn. 89; xxi. 414. 

DANSE MACABRE, v. 104. 

DANTE (Dante Alighieri), Italian poet, 
VI. 809; xill. 502; his influence on 
the Renaissance, XX. 384; Gary s 
translation of the Divina Commedia, 
V. 170. 

DANTON, George Jacques, French Re 
volutionist, vi. 815; IX. 602,603; xx - 
603. 

DANTONISTS, French Revolutionary 
party, IX. 606. 

DANTZIC, or Danzig, town, Germany, vi. 
818; XX. 16; siege of (1807), IX. 459. 
DEAL, timber, ix. 223. 



DANUBE, river, Europe, vi. 819; in. 

116; xn. 362; xxi. 14; delta of, xx. 

580; mouths of, ill. 795. 
DANUM (Doncastcr), ancient town, 

England, vn. 361. 
DANVERS, town, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 

vi. 820. 
DANVILLE, town, Illinois, U.S.A., vi. 

820. 
-, town, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., vi. 



820. 

, town, Virginia, U.S.A., xxiv. 259. 

D ANVILLE, Jean Baptiste, French geo 
grapher, VI. 820; his map of India, X. 
1 88. 

DANZIG (Dantzic, q.v.\ town, Germany, 
vi. 818; ix. 459; xx. 16. 

DAPHNAIDA, Spenser s poem, xxn. 395. 

DAPHNE, in Greek mythology, vi. 821; 
grove of, II. 131. 
, genus of plants, xiv. 349. 

AND APOLLO, Max Miiller s theory 



of, xvii. 138. 
DAPHNEPHORIA, Greek festival, vi. 821. 
DAPHNIS AND CHLOE, Longus s Greek 

romance, xiv. 868; xx. 635. 
DARABJIRD, or Darab-Gherd, town, 

Persia, VI. 821. 
D ARANDA, Count, Spanish minister, 

ii. 308; XXIL 341. 
D ARANTHON, Bishop, his relations with 

Madame Guyon, XL 342. 
DARASUN, spa, East Siberia, xxm. 510. 
DARAZI, Ismael, leader of the Druses, 

vn. 484. 

DAR-BANDA,groupof Xegroes,xvn.3i9. 
DARBHANGAH, district, India, xvii. 

114; xxm. 407. 
D ARBLAY, Madame (Frances Burney), 

English novelist, vi. 821. 



124 



D A R D A V 



DARBOY, Georges, archbishop of Paris, 

vi. 822. 
DARBY, J. N., founder of community of 

Plymouth Brethren, XIX. 238. 
D ARC, Jeanne (Joan of Arc), Maid of 

Orleans, xin. 695; ix. 550. 
DARCHIENDO, town, Tibet, xxm. 342. 
DARCY WATER GAUGE, xn. 508. 
DARDANELLES, Strait of, vi. 823; in. 

797; XL 636. 
DARDANIA (Dacia), ancient district, 

Europe, VI. 758. 
DARDANUS, in Greek mythology, vi. 

823; xxm. 583. 
DARDS, people, India and Tibet, x. 598; 

xiv. 198; dictionaries of their language, 

vii. 191. 

DARE (Dace, q.v.\ fish, vi. 758. 
DARENT, river, England, xiv. 37. 
DARES of Phrygia, on the legends of 

Troy, VI. 823; xin. 499; xx. 637. 
DARFELD, Westphalia, Abbey of, xxm. 

524. 
DARFUR, country, Central Africa, VI. 

823; I. 271; xxn. 278. 
DAR-GE, district, Tibet, xxin. 342. 
DARGINIANS, Caucasian tribe, xiv. 475. 
DARGLE, glen, Wicklow, Ireland, xxiv. 

557- 

DARIC, ancient Persian coin, XVII. 659. 
DARIEL, Pass of, Caucasus, v. 255. 
DARIEN, isthmus and district, South 

America, vi. 824; crossed by Balbao, 

in. 274; proposed canal at, iv. 793; 

Scottish settlement of, XXI. 518. 

SCHEME, Paterson s, xvm. 360. 

DARINGAMBADI, town, India, xxi. 210. 
DARIORIGUM (Vannes), ancient town, 

France, xxiv. 68. 
DARIUS I., king of Persia, vi. 825; xvm. 

568; XL 98; in Egypt, vii. 744; tomb 

of, xvm. 558. 
II., Ochus or Nothus, of Persia, VI. 

826; xvm. 575. 

III., Codomannus, of Persia, xvm. 



581; defeat of, by Alexander, I. 481; 

xv. 140. 
DARJILING, or Darjeeling, district and 

town, India, VI. 827; its trade with 

Tibet, xxm. 343. 

DARLEY ARABIAN, progenitor of race 
horses, XII. 183, 184. 
DARLING, river, Australia, xvn. 62; 

xvn. 408. 
MOUNTAINS, Western Australia, 

xxiv. 507. 

DARLINGTON, town, England, vi. 828. 
DARLINGTONIA, genus of insectivorous 

plants, XIIL 138. 
DARMSTADT, town, Germany, vi. 828; 

libraries of, Xiv. 527, 546. 
, Hesse-, grand-duchy, Germany, xi. 

780. 

DARNETAL, town, France, vi. 829. 
DARNLEY, Lord, husband of Mary, queen 

of Scots, xv. 595; xxi. 504; murder 

of, iv. 164. 



DARO, mountain, Senegambia, XXI. 

661. 
DARODE, Somali tribes, Central Africa, 

xxn. 256. 
DAROSHA PHARSAYA, Syriac writer, 

xxii. 832. 

D ARREST S COMET, vi. 192. 
DART (Dace, q.v.\ fish, vi. 758. 
DARTER, bird, xxn. 188. 
DARTFORD, town, England, vi. 829. 
DARTMOOR, Devonshire, England, vn. 

i39- 
DARTMOUTH, town, England, vi. 829. 

COLLEGE CASE (1818), xxiv. 471. 

COLLEGE OBSERVATORY, New 

Hampshire, U.S.A., XVII. 715. 
DARTS, Ancient, II. 555. 
DARU, Pierre Antoine, Comte de, French 

writer and statesman, VI. 829. 
DARWAZ, state, Central Asia, xvm. 104. 
DAJIWEN, Over, town, England, xviil. 

77- 

DARWIN, Charles, his doctrine of organic 
evolution, vm. 764, 769; xxiv. Soi; 
011 adaptation of animals, i. 86; 011 
birds, xvm. 32; on the descent of 
man, 1 1. no; on the expression of 
emotions, XIX. 5; geological researches 
in the Argentine Republic, II. 488 ; on 
hybridism, XII. 423; on morphology, 
xvi. 840; on the origin of species, 
in. 689 ; his work, The Origin of 
Species, vm. 749, 764; xxiv. 77, 81; 
on the curvature of rootlets of plants, 
xix. 60. 

, Erasmus, English poet and 

scientist, VI. 830; XV. 816; on evolu 
tion, vm. 748. 
-, Mount, Tierra del Fuego, xxm. 



384- 
, Port, town, South Australia, xxn. 

284. 
DARWINISM, vm. 769; in relation to 

socialism, xxn. 219. 
DARWINITE, mineral, xvi. 393. 
DASA, tribe, North Central Africa, xxm. 

334- 
DASE, Zacharias, German logarithmist, 

xiv. 777. 
DASHKOFF, Catherina R. W;, Russian 

princess, vi. 830; v. 233. 
DASHOUR, Egypt, Pyramids of, II. 386; 

vn. 773; xx. 124. 
DASH-WHEEL, bleaching apparatus, in. 

813- 
DASS, Fetter or Peder, Norwegian poet, 

vi. 831; xvn. 589. 
DASSEE SILKWORM, xxn. 60. 
DASSERAH, Hindu festival, xv. 290. 
DASYPELTIS, genus of snakes, xxn. 

194. 
DASYPODID^E, family of Edentata, xv. 

386. 
DASYPROCTID/E, family of Rodentia, 

xv. 420. 
DASYPUS, genus of edentate mammals, 

xv. 387. 



DASYU, Punjab tribe, India, xx. no. 
DASYURID^E, family of marsupial mam 
mals, xv. 379, 380. 
DATAMES, satrap of Cappadocia, xvm. 

579- 

DATE, fruit, vi. 831. 
PALM, vi. 831; 1.258; xvm. 190; 

of Arabia, II. 237; of Fezzan, Tunis, 

ix. 129. 
DATES, of principal events from earliest 

times to 1875, v. 720-754. 
DATHOLITE, mineral, xvi. 409. 
DATUM LEVELS, Tidal, xxm. 369. 
DATURA STRAMONIUM, poisonous 

plant, xvn. 231. 
DAUBENTON, Louis Jean Marie, French 

naturalist, vi. 832; on birds, xvm. 6; 

his connexion with Buffoii s natural 

history, IV. 444. 
DAUBENY, Charles Giles Bridle, English 

man of science, vi. 832. 
D AUBIGNE, FranQoise, Madame de 

Maintenou, xv. 304; IX. 578; xxi. 

3/8. 
, Jean Henri Merle, historian of the 

Reformation, VI. 833. 
-, Theodore Agrippa, French his 



torian and poet, VI. 833; IX. 651. 

D AUBUSSON, Pierre, grand-master of 
Knights of St John, VI. 834 ; 1m 
defence of Rhodes (1480), xxi. 174. 

DAUDIN, F. M., on reptiles, xx. 434. 

DAUGLISH APPARATUS, for manu 
facture of aerated bread, ill. 255. 

DAULIAS LUSCINIA, species of birds, 
xvn. 499. 

DAUMAT, Jean, French jurisconsult, vn. 

346- 
DAUN, Count von, Austrian general, vi. 

834; in. 128. 
DAUNIANS, ancient Italian tribe, xin. 

446. 
DAUPHIN, French title, IX. 546; xix. 

738. 
DAUPHINE, old province, France, vi. 

835. 

ALPS, i. 624. 

DAURAT, Jean, French poet, vi. 835; 

xx. 84. 
DAURIANS, Tungus tribe, Siberia, xxin. 

608. 
D AUVERGNE, Henri de la Tour 

(Turenne), French marshal, xxin. 626; 

ix. 571. 

DAUW, Burchell s zebra, XII. 175. 
DAVAO, town, Philippine Islands, xvm. 

7 SO 
DA VEN ANT, Charles, on the balance of 

trade, xix. 357. 
, Sir William, English poet and 

dramatist, VI. 835; vn. 434. 
DAVENPORT, town, Iowa, U.S.A., vi. 

836. 
, Horace, English amateur champion 

swimmer, XXII. 771. 
, John, founder of New Haven, 

Conn., U.S.A., xvn. 395. 



D A V D E C 



125 



DAVENTRY, town, England, xvn. 556. 
DAVEY S SAFETY MOTOR, xxn. 516. 
DAVID, king of Israel, vi. 836; xin. 

404; xxi. 253. 

, City of (Jerusalem), XI II. 639. 
, Psalms of, XX. 32 ; in. 638 ; VI. 

841. 



-, St, patron saint of Wales, vi. 842. 

- I., king of Scotland, xxi. 482. 

- II., of Scotland, vin. 319; xxi. 
489. 

-, Jewish pretender, XX. 269. 



of Beth Rabban, Syriac writer, 

xxil. 844. 

of Dinant, French scholastic philo 
sopher, vi. 844; xxi. 426. 

, Christian, leader of Moravian 



Brethren, XVI. 812. 

, Felicien Cesar, French musical 
composer, VI. 842. 
, Francis, Transylvanian bishop, 



XXII. 230; XXlll. 725. 
, Jacques Louis, French painter, VI. 

842. 
, Jean Pierre (David d Angers), 

French sculptor, vi. 843; xxi. 564. 
BAR PAUL, Syriac writer, XXII. 

852. 
COPPERFIELD, Dickens s novel, 

vn. 177. 

HA-COHEN, Spanish rabbi, VI. 843. 

DAVIDISTS, Christian sects, vi. 844. 
DAVIE, James, inventor of ballot 

machine, ill. 291. 
DAVIES, Edward, on Neo-Druidism, v. 

3i8. 

, Griffith, on annuities, II. 81. 

, Howell, Welsh preacher, XVI. 193. 

, Sir John, English poet and states 
man, vi. 844; xiii. 265. 
-, John, of Hereford, English poet, 



vi. 844. 

DAVILA, Gil Gonzalez, explorer, Nica 
ragua, xvii. 479. 

, Henrico Caterino, Italian historian, 

vi. 844. 

DA VINCI, Leonardo, Italian painter, 
author, and man of science, XI v. 455 ; 
xxi. 435; his influence on Raphael, 
xx. 275; on binocular vision, xxil. 

537- 

DAVINE, mineral, xvi. 412. 

DAVIS, Andrew Jackson, American 
spiritualist, XXll. 405. 

, Edward, buccaneer, IV. 410. 

, Jefferson, president, Confederate 

States, North America, xxm. 773. 

, John, English navigator, vi. 845; 

x. 184; xvii. 254; his Arctic explor 
ations, xix. 317. 

- STRAIT WHALE FISHERY, xxiv. 
527. 

DAVOS, district, Switzerland, XI. 205. 

DAVY, Sir Humphrey, English man of 
science, VI. 845; on electro-chemical 
science, v. 466; Gay-Lussac s relations 
with, x. 122. 



DAVY LAMP, for mining, vi. 72. 

DAW, bird, xiii. 532. 

DAWES, W. R., his observatory, England, 

xvii. 711. 

DAWLEY, town, England, xxi. 848. 
DAWLISH, town, England, vi. 848. 
DAWN, morning twilight, xxm. 674. 
DAWSON, William, on the use of lime 

as manure, I. 350. 

SALMON, fish, xn. 686. 



DAX, town, France, vi. 848; mineral 
water of, xvi. 433. 

DAY, in the calendar, IV. 664; sidereal, 
II. 765; solar, II. 771; iv. 664; pro 
posal of a universal, xxm. 392, 

394- 
, Alfred, English writer on harmony, 

XVII. 100. 

-, Benjamin Franklin, American 



journalist, xvii. 434. 

, Francis, founder of Madras city, 

xv. 189. 

, John, English dramatist, VI. 848. 

, Thomas, English tale writer, VII. 

655. 

BOOK, in book-keeping, iv. 46. 

OF THE FOSSE, massacre (807), 
Toledo, Spain, xxil. 310. 

OF THE SPURS, battle at Courtrai, 



Flanders (1302), vi. 521; ix. 544. 
DAYS, of the week, u. 740; iv. 664; 

xxi. 125. 
DAYTON, town, Ohio, U.S.A., vi. 848; 

xvn. 737. 
DAZA (Maximinus), Roman emperor, xv. 

645. 
D AzEGLiO, Massimo, Italian writer and 

statesman, in. 167; Xiii. 487, 489. 
DEACON, Office of, in the church, vn. i; 

in primitive church, vill. 484; Xix. 

674 ; in Presbyterian churches, xix. 

677. 

DEACONESS, vn. i. 
DEACONESSES HOMES, at Kaiserswerth, 

Germany, ix. 307. 

DEAD, Resurrection of the, VIII. 535. 
DEAD-HOUSES, v. 331. 
DEA DIA, Roman goddess, n. 671. 
DEADLY NIGHTSHADE, plant, in. 543. 
DEADLY SINS, The seven, vin. 592. 
DEAD MARCH IN SAUL, Handel s, XL 

435- 

DEAD-RECKONING, in navigation, xvn. 
264. 

DEAD SEA, Palestine, vn. i; xiv. 217; 
xvin. 17!, 173. 

DEADWOOD, mining settlement, Wyo 
ming, U.S.A., xxm. 797. 

DEAF AND DUMB, or Deaf-Mutes, vn. 3; 
schools for, 11. 722; Amman s method 
of training, I. 739; Abbe de 1 Epee s, 
labours on behalf of, VIII. 457. 

DEAF AND DUMB MAN S TUTOR, by 
Dalgarno, vi. 776. 

DEAFNESS, vn. 594. 

DEAK, Franz, Hungarian statesman, vn. 
12; xii. 374. 



DEAL, town, England, vn. 13; xiv. 

39- 

DEAN, ecclesiastical dignitary, vn. 13; 
v. 228. 

DEANE, Sir Anthony, English ship 
builder, xvn. 283. 

DEAN S ISLANDS, South Pacific, xxm. 
602. 

DEARBORN OBSERVATORY, Chicago, 
U.S.A., xvii. 715. 

DEARG, Loughs, Ireland, xin. 217. 

DEATH, Causes of, xvn. 686; of Entero- 
zoa as compared with Protozoa, XIX. 
837; ceremonies connected with, IX. 
824; xxm. 470; myths of, xvn. 158; 
Sisyphus myth, XXIL 102. 

ADDER, xxn. 198. 

DUTIES, xxm. 88. 

DEATH-RATE, Average, in different 
countries, XIX. 517. 

DEATHS, Registration of, xx. 343. 

, by suicide, xxn. 629. 

DEAUVILLE, town, France, xxm. 589. 

DEBASEMENT OF COINAGE, xvi. 726; 
xvii. 653. 

DE BEAUMARCHAIS, Pierre A. C., 
French dramatist, III. 467. 

DEBEN, river, Suffolk, England, xxn. 
621. 

DE BENNEVILLE, George, American 
Universalist, xx in. 831. 

DEBENTURE, vn. 15. 

DE BLAINVILLE, H. M. D., on birds, 
xvin. 20. 

DEBONNAIRE, Le, Louis (Louis the 
Pious, q.v.), emperor, xv. 15. 

DEB RAJA, ruler of Bhutan, India, in. 
632. 

DEBRA TABOR, town, Abyssinia, i. 
64. 

DEBRECZYN, or Debretzn, town, Hun 
gary, vn. 15; university of, XXIII. 
852. 

DE BROSSES, Charles, on mythology, 
xvn. 137. 

DEBT, Law of, vn. 15. See also Bank 
ruptcy, in. 341. 
, National, xvn. 243. 

DEBTOR AND CREDITOR, xvin. 440; 
in Roman law, XX. 685. 

DEBTS, Attachment of, in. 51. 
, Preferred, XIX. 764. 

DECALOGUE, vn. 15; xin. 399. 

DECAMERON, Boccaccio s work, in. 845; 
xin. 504. 

DECAMPS, Alexander Gabriel, French 
painter, vn. 17. 

DE CANDOLLE, Augustin Pyramus, 
Swiss botanist, vn. 18; his classifica 
tion of plants, IV. 80; xvi. 838. 

DECANUS, French and Lombard magi 
strate, vn. 14; xv. 217. 

DECAPODA, suborder of Mollusca, xvi. 
669. 

DECAPOLIS, district, Palestine, vn. 18; 
xvin. 177. 

DECARBONIZATION, of iron, xin. 318. 



D E C D E L 



DECATUR, town, Illinois, U.S.A., vn. 

1 8. 
, Stephen, American naval officer, 

xxni. 760. 

DE CAUS, Solomon, inventor of a steam- 
engine, xxn. 473. 
DECAY, Animal, xvn. 686; xix. 9. 
DECAZES, Duke, favourite minister of 

Louis XVIII., IX. 619. 
DECCAN, territory, India, vn. 18; xn. 

733; birds of, III. 763; its connexion 

with Berar, ill. 583. 
DECEBALUS, Dacian prince, xxm. 503. 
DECEMBER, month, vn. 19. 
DECEMVIRI, Roman magistrates, vn. 

19; xx. 737. 
DECEPTION ISLAND, Antarctic Ocean, 

xvn. 407. 
DE CHARPENTIER, Jean, on glaciers, x. 

628. 

DECHENITE, mineral, xvi. 404. 
DECIATES, Ligurian tribe, xiv. 639. 
DECIMAL COINAGE, vn. 20; xvi. 732. 
DECIMAL FRACTIONS, in arithmetic, 

II. 531 ; methods of marking, by 

Napier, xvn. 185; Stevinus s use of, 

II. 526; xxn. 546. 
DECIUS, Roman emperor, xx. 773, 776. 

- Mus, Publius, Roman consul, xvil. 

64. 

DECIZE, town, France, xvn. 496. 
DECK, of ship, xxi. 820. 
DECKEN, Baron von der, African ex 
plorer, i. 247. 
DECKENDORF, or Deggendorf, town, 

Bavaria, vn. 32. 

DECLAMATIONS, Scholastic, xx. 515. 
DECLARATION, in law, vn. 21 ; xix. 

218. 

OF INDEPENDENCE, American, 
XIIL 614; xxm. 743, 754; xvin. 741. 

OF PARIS (1856), vn. 21 ; xvn. 



290. 



OF RIGHTS, English (1689), xx. 
555; accepted by William III., XXIV. 

579- 

OF SPORTS, of James I., xxn. 431. 
DECLARATOR, in Scots law, vn. 22. 
DECLINATION, in astronomy, n. 765. 

, or Variation, Magnetic, XV. 220, 
238; xvi. 163; table of values of, xvi. 
166. 

DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN 
EMPIRE, Gibbon s work, x. 578. 

DECLINOGRAPH, astronomical instru 
ment, xvi. 256. 

DECLINOMETER, Bond s, astronomical 
instrument, xvi. 255; magnetic, xvi. 
159, 162. 

DECORATION, Mural, xvn. 34. 

DECREE, in law, vn. 22; Roman, xin. 
132; imperial Roman, XX. 705. 

DECREET, in law, vn. 22. 

DECRETALS, in canon law, vn. 22; v. 
16, 17, 19; xix. 491; the false, 
(c. 850), v. 17; xvn. 483; xix. 496. 

DECRETUM, Papal, of Gratian, xix. 499. 



DECURIO, Roman cavalry officer, vn. 22. 
DEDAN, of Scripture, xxiv. 738. 
DEDUCTION, in logic, i. 797; xiv. 785, 

790. 
DEE, river, England and Wales, v. 589; 

vn. 76; xvi. 38. 

, rivers, Scotland, I. 44; xiv. 97. 
, John, English mathematician and 

astrologer, vn. 22. 
DEED, in law, yn. 23. 
DEEDS, Registration of, xx. 342. 
DEEMLA (Dimlah), town, India, xx. 

272. 

DEEMSTER, judge, Isle of Man, xv. 452. 
DEEPING FEN, England, Draining of, 

i. 405. 

DEEP-SEA THERMOMETER, xxni. 291. 
DEER, ungulate mammal, vn. 23 ; xv. 

431, 432; of India, xn. 742. 

FORESTS, Scotland, xxi. 532. 

DEFECATION, xvn. 670. 
DEFAMATION, in law, vn. 25; xiv. 505. 
DEFENDER OF THE FAITH, vn. 25. 
DEFFAND, Marquise du, leader in 

French literary society, vn. 25. 
DEFILADING, in fortification, ix. 425. 
DEFINITION, in logic, xiv. 785, 790; 

Socratic use of, XXII. 236. 
DEFLORATION, in medical jurispru 
dence, xv. 780. 
DEFOE, Daniel, English writer, vn. 26; 

his connexion with newspapers, XVII. 

415; pamphlets of, xvin. 205; his 

place in English literature, vin. 425, 

428; projector of savings banks, XXI. 

327- 
DEFORMITIES, Surgical treatment of, 

xxii. 691. 

DEGAID, Irish clan, xin. 245. 
DE GEER, Charles, Swedish entomo 
logist, xxiv. 806. 
DE GERANDO, Marie Joseph, French 

metaphysician, vn. 31. 
DEGGENDORF, town, Bavaria, vn. 32. 
DEGH, river, India, xxi. 850. 
D EGLANTINE, P. F. N. Fabre, French 

dramatist and Revolutionist, vin. 840. 
DEGLUTITION, Process of, i. 838; xvn. 

670. 
DEGRADATION, from knighthood, xiv. 

125. 
DEGREE, angular magnitude, xxni. 9, 

563; of the meridian, length of, X. 

198. 
DEGREES, Academical, VIII. 777; origin 

of, xxni. 835; Scottish, xxni. 855. 
DE-GUE, district, Tibet, XXIII. 342. 
DE HEEM, Johannes, Dutch painter, XL 

611. 

DE HERBERAY, Nicolas, French trans 
lator of Amadis, XX. 654. 
DEHLI (Delhi, q.v.), India, vn. 45. 
DEHRA, town, India, vn. 33. 

- DUN, district, India, vn. 32. 
DEHRI SHAH AN, village, Punjab, India, 

xx. 298. 
DEIFICATION, n. 199. 



DEI FlLIUS, constitution passed by 

Vatican council, xxiv. 112. 
DEIFR (Deira, q.r.), Celtic kingdom, 

England, xvn. 568. 
DEIOCES, Median king, xvin. 562. 
DEIPNOS.OPHIST/E, Athenojus s work, n. 

831. 

DEIRA, Celtic kingdom, England, v. 

301; vin. 270; xvn. 568. 
DEIR-EL-KAMAR, town of the Druses, 

vn. 483. 
DIERMEN TEPE, hill, near Smyrna, 

Asia Minor, xxn. 186. 
DEISM, vn. 33 ; xxin. 244 ; Lord 

Herbert s, XI. 722 ; Sliaftesbury s, 

xxi. 734 ; Tindul s, xxin. 404; 

Clmbb s writings on, v. 757. 
DEISTS, English, their writings, vin. 

427 ; Bishop Butler s opposition to, 

iv. 583. 
, SHORT AND EASY METHOD WITH 

THE, Leslie s work, xiv. 476. 
DEITY, Idea of the, xxin. 235. See 

also God. 
DE JUSSIEU, French family of botanists, 

XIII. 788. 
DEKABRISTS, Rebellion of, in Russia, 

XXI. 101. 

DEKEN, Aagjen, Dutch writer, xn. 96. 
DEKKER, Jeremias de, Dutch poet, vn. 

37- 

, Thomas, English dramatist, vil. 

37, 432- 
DE LA BADIE, Jean, French Pietist, xiv. 

163. 
DE LA BASTIE, Sieur, French envoy in 

Scotland, xxi. 497. 
DE LA BECHE, Henry Thomas, English 

geologist, vn. 38. 
DE LA CONDAMINE, Charles Marie, 

French savant, x. 189; xiv. 193; 

measuring arc of meridian, vn. 598. 
DELACROIX, Ferdinand Victor Eugene, 

French painter, vn. 39. 
DE LAGARDIE, Count, Swedish general 

and chancellor, xxn. 748. 
DELAGOA BAY, South-East Africa, vn. 

40. 
DE LA LIVE D EPINAY, Madame, French 

authoress, vin. 482. 
DELAMBRE, Jean Baptiste Joseph, 

French mathematician and astronomer, 

vn. 40; 11.758; his logarithmic tables, 

xxin. 10; his formulae in spherical 

trigonometry, xxin. 566. 
DELANE, John Thaddeus, English 

journalist, XVII. 418. 
DE LANGLE, P. A. M. Fleuriot, French 

navigator, xiv. 298. 
DE LANNOY, Baroness, Dutch poetess, 

xn. 96. 
DE LA RIVE, Auguste, Swiss physicist, 

vn. 41. 
DELAROCHE, Hippolyte, French painter, 

vn. 41. 
DELARUE, Gervais, French historian, 

vn. 42. 



D E L D E M 



127 



DE LA RUE, W., on sun spots, n. 786 

his observatory, at Cranford, England 
xvn. 711. 
DELAUNAY, Charles, on the lunar 

theory, xvi. 80 1. 
, Charles, assumed name of Madame 

Girardin, French writer, x. 621. 
, Marguerite Jeanne Cordier, Baronne 

cle Staal, xxn. 439. 
DELAVIGNE, Jean Francois Casimir, 

French poet and dramatist, VII. 43, 

427; IX. 672. 
DELAWARE, river, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 

vn. 44; xviii. 500, 736. 
, State, U.S.A., vn. 44; population, 

xxm. 802; colony of, xxm. 730. 

, town, Ohio, U.S.A., vn. 45, 
DELA WARES, American -Indian tribe, 

xii. 831. 
DE LA WARR, Peter, speaker of House 

of Commons, XVIIL 306. 
DEL CHIARO, on Walachia, xxi. 17. 
DEL ClMENTO, Florentine academy, I. 

70; xv. 793. 

DELCOURT, Dupuis, aeronaut, I. 193. 
DEL CREDERE AGENT, in commerce, 

vn. 45. 
DE L EPEE, Abbe, vm. 457; his labours 

on behalf of deaf-mutes, vn. 7. 
DELESSITE, mineral, x. 228; xvi. 414. 
DELFICO, Melchiorre, Italian jurist, vn. 

45- 
DELFT, town, Holland, vn. 45. 

WARE, xix. 631. 

DELHI, district, India, vn. 45; xx. 109. 
, or Dehli, town, India, VII. 46; 

siege of (1857), xii. Sio; school of 

poets at, XI. 848. 

DELI, district, Sumatra, xxn. 639. 
, island, Java, xm. 600. 

, town, Timor, Indian Archipelago, 

xxm. 398. 
DELIA, Greek festival, vn. 49. 

, Tibullus s love, xxm. 349. 

DELICT, in law, xxm. 454. 

DELILLE, Jacques, French poet, VII. 49; 

IX. 665. 

DELINEATION, in drawing, vn. 447. 
DELIRIUM, mental disorder, vn. 50; 

xm. 106. 

TREMENS, vn. 50. 

DELISLE, Guillaume, his map of the 

Old World, x. 1 88. 

, Joseph Nicolas, on astronomy, n. 

757; his thermometer, xxm. 289. 

, Rome, on crystals, VI. 672. 
DELITZSCH, town, Prussia, vn. 51. 
DELLA CHIAJE, Italian naturalist, 

xxiv. 806. 

DELLA PORT A, Giacomo, Italian archi 
tect, II. 439. 
DELLA PORTA, Giovanni Battista, 

Italian natural philosopher, xix. 525; 

his steam-engine, xxn. 473; his con 
nexion with the telescope, xxm. 135. 
DELLA ROBBIA, Florentine family of 

artists, xx. 588. 



DELLA VALLE, Pietro, Italian traveller 
xxiv. 43. 

DELLMAN S ELECTROMETER, vm. 119 

DEL MONTE, Gian Maria (Pope Julius- 
Ill.), xm. 772. 

DELOLME, Jean Louis, Swiss jurist, vn 

SI 
DE LONG, Lieut., Arctic explorer, XIX. 

326. 
DELOS, island, Greece, yii. 51; 11. 185; 

amphictyony of, I. 773; XI. 100; 

worship of Latona in, xiv. 345. 
DE LOUTHERBOURG, Philip James, 

painter, vn. 52. 
DELPHI, town, Greece, vn. 52; II. 185; 

amphictyony of, I. 772; oracle and 

temple at, xvn. 808; vn. 53; XL 98; 

xiv. 345. 

, Mount, Euboea, Greece, Vin. 647. 

DELPHINAPTERUS, genus of cetacean 

mammals, xv. 398; xxiv. 525. 
DELPHIN EDITIONS, of the classics, in. 

657. 

DELPHINIA, Greek festival, vn. 53. 
DELPHINID/E, family of Cetacea, xv. 

398. 
DELPHINIUM, Greek harbour, xvin. 

50. 

, plant, Xii. 255. 
DEL Rio, Ercole, Italian chessplayer, v. 

601. 

DELRIO, Martin, on demoniacal posses 
sion, vn. 62. 
DELTA, at mouth of a river, x. 278, 319; 

XX. 580; formation of, xn. 504; of 

the Nile, VII. 768. 

, territory, Venezuela, xxiv. 140. 

, assumed name of David Macbeth 



Moir, Scottish poet, xvi. 608. 
DELUC, Jean Andre, Swiss geologist, 

vn. 53; xxn. 799. 
DELUGE, in primitive cosmogonies, vn. 

54; xvn. 143. 
DELUSION, in insanity, xin. 105. 
DEMADES, Greek orator, vn. 57. 
DEMAGNETIZATION, xv. 254. 
DE MAILLET, Benoit, his evolutionist 

views, vm. 748. 

DE MAISTRE, Joseph, French dip 
lomatist and polemical writer, xv. 

306. 
DE MAISTRE, Xavier, French writer, 

xv. 307; IX. 672. 
DEMAK, town, Java, xin. 606. 
DEMAND AND SUPPLY, in economics, 

xxiv. 47. 
DEMATOPHORA NECATRIX, vine fungus, 

xxiv. 240. 
DEMBINSKI, Henry, Hungarian general, 

xn. 372. 
D EM BOWS K I, Baron, his observatory 

at Gallarate, Italy, xvn. 714. 
DEMENTIA, mental disease, xin. 107. 
DEMERARA, county, British Guiana, XL 

249; river, XL 250. 
DEMETER, Greek goddess (the Roman 

Ceres), v. 345; xvn. 127; festival of 



(Thesmophoria), XXIII. 295; mysteries 

of, vm. 126. 

DEMETRIA, Greek festival, vn. 57. 
DEMETRIAS, ancient town, Thessaly, 

Greece, xxm. 299; xxiv. 282. 
DEMETRIUS, Bactrian king, xvin. 590. 
L, Poliorcetes, king of Macedonia, 

vn. 57. 

II., of Macedonia, vn. 58. 



L, Soter, king of Persia and Syria, 

vn. 58; xin. 422; xvin. 590. 
II., Nicator, of Persia and Syria, 

vn. 58; xin. 423; xvin. 591. 
III., Euergetes, of Syria, vn. 58; 

xvin. 595. 
, bishop of Alexandria, his relations 

with Origen, xvn. 840. 

, Greek Cynic philosopher, vn. 58. 

(Dmitri, q.v.), Russian pretender, 



xxi. 108. 
of Scepsis, ancient writer on the 

Trojans, xxm. 581. 
PHALEREUS, Greek Peripatetic 

philosopher, vn. 58. 
DEMIDOFF, Russian noble family, vn. 

59- 

DEMIDOWITE, mineral, xvi. 411. 
DEMISE, in law, xiv. 273. 
DEMIURGE, in Gnosticism, x. 704; 

Marcion s doctrine of the, xv. 534. 
DEMMIN, town, Prussia, vn. 59. 
DEMOCRACY, Government by, xi. u; 

in France (1789), IX. 597; in relation 

to socialism, xxil. 221. 
DEMOCRATIC PARTY, United States, 

xxm. 755, 764, 771. 
DEMOCRITUS, Greek philosopher, vn. 

59- 
, Christianus, assumed name of J. C. 

Dippel, German theologian and al 
chemist, vn. 255. 

DEMOGRAPHY, or Statistics, xxn. 463. 
DEMOIVRE, Abraham, mathematician, 

vn. 60; his law of mortality, n. 76; 

on probability, xix. 769. 
DEMOIVRE S THEOREM, in analytical 

trigonometry, XXin. 568. 
DEMON, vn. 60. See Daemon. 
DEMONESI, or Demonnesi, islands, Sea 

of Marmora, xix. 742. 
DEMONIACAL POSSESSION, Theories of. 

11. 56; vn. 61. 
DEMONOLOGY, vn. 60; xv. 199. 
DE MONTCORBIER (F. Villon), French 

poet, xxiv. 232. 
DE MONTE, G. B. (Montanus), Italian 

physician, xv. 809. 
DE MONTS, French settler, Maine, 

U.S.A., XV. 300. 
DE MORGAN, Augustus, English mathe 
matician and logician, vii. 64. 
DEMOS, Athenian, compared with Roman 

plebs, xvn. 526. 
3EMOSPONGlyE, subclass of sponges, 

xxn. 421, 425. 
DEMOSTHENES, Athenian general in 

Syracusan war, xxn. 815. 



128 



D E M D E R 



DEMOSTHENES, Greek orator, vn. 67; 
XL 103, 142 ; his ridicule of Alex 
ander, I. 481 ; liis connexion with 
Isseus, xni. 376. 

DEMOTICA, town, European Turkey, vii. 

74- 

DEMOTIC WRITING, in Egypt, xi. 794. 
DEMPO, mountain, Sumatra, xxil. 638. 
DEMPSTER, Thomas, Scottish scholar, 

vii. 74. 
DEMTER (Deventer), town, Holland, vn. 

i35- 

DEMURRAGE, in maritime law, vn. 75. 
DEMURRER, in law, vn. 75. 
DENAIN, town, France, vii. 75; xvn. 

535- 

DENAIR, town, Asia Minor, n. 147. 
DENARIUS, Roman coin, xvn. 652, 655. 
DENBIGH, county, Wales, vn. 76; popu 
lation and representation, xxni. 727; 

coalfield, vi. 52. 
DENDERAH, or Dendarah, village, Upper 

Egypt, vn. 77; temple of, vn. 776. 
DENDERMONDE, town, Belgium, vn. 

78. 
DENDROCOPUS, genus of birds, xxiv. 

652. 

DENDRCECA, genus of birds, xxiv. 367. 
DENDROHYRAX, genus of ungulate 

mammals, xn. 599; xv. 423. 
DENDROLAGUS, genus of marsupial 

mammals, xin, 840. 
DENDROPHID^E, family of snakes, xxn. 

192, 195. 
DENESHKIN (or DENEZHKIN) KAMEN, 

mountain, Russia, xvin. 549; xxiv. 4. 
D ENGHiEN, Due, French Royalist, vin. 

214; his execution, xvn. 207. 
DENGHIZ (Balkash, q.v.), lake, Central 

Asia, xxi. 640. 

DENHA, Syriac writer, xxn. 848. 
DENHAM, Dixon, African traveller, I. 

246; v. 801. 

, Sir John, English poet, VII. 78; 

vin. 424. 

DENIER, medioeval coin, xvn. 654. 
DEN IN A, Carlo Giovanni Maria, Italian 

historian, vn. 79. 
DENIS, St, patron saint of France, vn. 

79; xvin. 286. 

, king of Portugal, XIX. 542, 555. 

, island, Seychelles, XXI. 725. 

DENISON, town, Texas, U.S.A., xxni. 

205. 

DENIZ, Ak, lake, Syria, xxn. 821. 
DENIZEN, in law, vn. 79. 
DENMAN, Lord, chief-justice of England, 

vn. 79. 

DENMARK, vn. 80; union with Nor 
way, XVII. 589; union with Sweden 

(1397), xxn. 746; seizure of fleet by 

England (1807), xvn. 212; Prussian 

and Austrian invasion ( 1 864), in. 139; 

IX. 625; academy, I. 73; army, 11.615; 

birds, xvin. 17; church, vin. 491 ; coins, 

xvn. 658; drama, vn. 444; forests, IX. 

400; language, xxi. 373; libraries, xiv. 



532, 549; literature, vn. 89; national 

debt, xvn. 246; newspapers, xvn. 430; 

observatories, XVII. 714; oyster culture, 

xvin. 108; periodical literature, xvin. 

543; prison system, xix. 759; railways, 

XX. 251; Reformation in, XX. 336; 

weights and measures, xxiv. 490. 
DENNEWITZ, Prussia, Battle of (1813), 

xvn. 220. 
DENNIS, John, English critic and poet, 

vn. 94. 

DENNY, town, Scotland, xxn. 554. 
DENON, Baron de, French artist and 

archaeologist, vn. 95. 
DENSITY, of bodies, defined, xv. 698; 

unit of, vii. 241 ; determination of, xn. 

536; tables of, xn. 541; of water of 

Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, xvin. 

1 20. 
DENT, Alfred, English settler, North 

Borneo, xxi. 124. 
, E. J., English watchmaker, xxiv. 

396. 
DENTALIUM, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 

663. 

DENTIFRICES, xvin. 526. 
DENTINE, or Ivory, vn. 233; xin. 520; 

xv. 349. 
DENTISTRY, vn. 95; artificial teeth, xin. 

523 ; in relation to medicine, xv. 

797- 
DENTITION, of man, vn. 96, 232; of 

fishes, xn. 654; of mammals, xv. 349 

(and article Mammalia throughout); 

of the horse, XII. 178; of the vole, 

xxiv. 277; of the walrus, xxiv. 337. 
D ENTRECASTEAUX, J. A. Bruni, French 

navigator, vin. 454; x. 190. 

ISLANDS, New Guinea, xvn. 386. 

DENUDATION, in geology, x. 372. 
DEOBAND, town, India, xxi. 152. 
DEODAND, in English law, vn. 100. 
DEODAR, tree, v. 286; ix. 405; culture 

of, n. 319. 

DEODATUS, St, of Nevers, xxi. 161. 
DEOGAN, chief god of the Kafirs, Asia, 

xin. 822. 

DEOGHAR, town, India, xxi. 297. 
DEOGURH (Dowletabad), fortress, India, 

vn. 382. 
DEOR S COMPLAINT, Anglo-Saxon poem, 

vin. 403. 
DPARCIEUX, Antoine, his mortality 

tables, n. 76. 
DEPARTMENT, French administrative 

division, ix. 509, 600. 
DEPARTURE, in navigation, xvn. 264. 
D EPINAY, Madame, French authoress, 

vin. 482; as patroness of Rousseau, 

xxi. 25. 

DEPLOYMENT, of an army, xxiv. 352. 
DEPOSITS, geological, x. 276; in North 

Sea, XVII. 563; in Norwegian Sea, 

xvn. 593; in Pacific Ocean, xvin. 

121. 
, in savings banks, xix. 573; XXI. 



DEPOTS, Military, xxiv. 353. 
-, Railway, xx. 234. 



DEPRES, Josquin, Flemish musical com 
poser, vn. 101; xvn. 83; xvin. 180. 

DEPRESSION, in insanity, xin. 105. 

DEPTFORD, town, England, vn. 101; 
dockyard, vn. 310; Trinity House at, 
xxni. 574. 

DEPULSOR, epithet of Jupiter, xin. 780. 

DE QUATREFAGES, J. L. A., on silk 
worm disease, XXIL 59; on Teredo, 
xxni. 185. 

DE QUINCEY, Thomas, English writer, 

VII. 101. 

DERA, river, Morocco, xvi. 832. 

GHAZI KHAN, district, India, vn. 

104; xx. 109. 
ISMAIL KHAN, district, India, vn. 



105; xx. 109. 
DERAJAT, division, India, vn. 105; xx. 

109. 
DE RANC, Armand J. B., abbot of La 

Trappe, xxni. 523. 
DERAYA, or Dereyeh, town, Arabia, vn. 

113- 

DERBE, town, Asia Minor, xv. 92. 
DERBEND, town, Hissar, Central Asia, 
xn. 3. 
-, or Derbent, town, Russia, vn. 105. 



DERBY, county, England, vn. 106; popu 
lation and representation, xxni. 727; 
coalfield, vi. 51. 

, town, England, vn. 108; porcelain 

factory at, xix. 641. 
, horse race, England, xn. 201. 
-, Earls of, their connexion with Isle 



of Man, XV. 454; fourteenth carl, 

English statesman, VII. 109; vin. 

366. 

DERBYSHIRE NECK, disease, x. 739. 
DEREHAM, town, England, xvn. 536. 
DE RETZ, Cardinal, leader of Fronde, 

xx. 488; ix. 572. 
DEREVERAGH, Lough, Ireland, xxiv. 

512. 

DEREYEH, town, Arabia, vn. 113. 
DERG, Lough, Ireland, vn. 362. 
DERHAM, William, English divine and 

man of science, vn. 113. 
D ERLON, Count Drouet, French 

general, vii. 473. 
DERMATEMYS, genus of chelonian 

reptiles, xxni. 457. 
DERMATINE, mineral, xvi. 415. 
DERMATOCHELYS, genus of chelonian 

reptiles, XXIII. 457. 
DERMATOGEN, primary epidermis of 

plants, xn. 15. 
DERMATOLOGY, in relation to medicine, 

xv. 797. 
DERMATOPHYTA, group of vegetable 

parasites, xxiv. 206. 
DERMATOZOA, group of animal parasites, 

xxiv. 206. 
DERMOD MACMURROUGH, king of 

Leinster, Ireland, xin. 258. 
DERMOID CYST, disease, xvin. 372. 



D E R D E U 



129 



DERMOPTERA, suborder of insectivorous 
mammals, XV. 401. 

DERNA (Darnis), seaport, Tripoli, 
North Africa, XXIII. 575. 

DE Rossi, Gian Battista, on the Cata 
combs, v. 207. 

DE ROSSI, J. B., his edition of the 
Hebrew Bible, ill. 647. 

DERRY, or Londonderry (q.v.), town, 
Ireland, Xiv. 853. 

DERTONA (Tortona), ancient town, Italy, 

XXIII. 460. 

DERTOSA (Tortosa), ancient town, Spain, 

xxm. 460. 
DERVISH, DERVISHES, vn. 113; xxn. 

662,665; Egyptian, VII. 726; dancing 

(Maulawi), xxi. 59. 
DERWENT, river, Derbyshire, England, 

VII. 1 06. 

, river, Northumberland, England, 

XVII. 565. 

, river, Tasmania, xxm. 72. 
DERWENTWATER, lake, England, vi. 699. 
DERZHAVIN, Gabriel, Russian poet, 

xxi. 1 06. 
DE SACY, Antoine Isaac, Baron Silvestre, 

French Orientalist, xxi. 140. 

, Isaac Louis Le Maitre, Port 

Royalist, xxi. 141. 
DESAGULIERS, Jean Theophile, his 

electrical experiments, vill. 4. 
DESAIX DE VOYGOUX, Louis C. A., 

French general, VII. 114. 
DE SALLO, Denis, French man of letters, 

xvin. 539. 
DESARGUE S THEOREM, of projections, 

xix. 794. 
DESAUGIERS, Marc Antoine Madeleine, 

French dramatist, vu. 114. 
DESAULT, Pierre Joseph, French 

anatomist, VII. 115; Bichat s connexion 

with, in. 664. 
DE SAUSSURE, Horace Benedict, xxi. 

323; on glaciers, x. 629. 
DE SAUSSURE, Nicolas T., xxi. 324. 
DE SAUTY, his electric telegraph test, 

xxm. 118. 

DESCANT, musical, xvn. 81. 
DESCARTES, Rene, French philosopher, 

vu. 115; his application of algebra to 

geometry, I. 514; xm. 6; on axioms, 

111.159; on evolution, vill. 747, 759; on 

the extension of matter, ill. 37; his 

logic, Xiv. 791; his metaphysic, XVI. 

91; on squaring the circle, XXII. 435; 

his influence on French literature, ix. 

660; his connexion with Pascal, XVIII. 

334; Leibnitz s criticism of, Xiv. 421. 
DESCENT, in law, xm. 77; rules of, in 

aboriginal tribes, xxm. 473. 
DESCHAMPS, Eustache, French poet, 

vn. 128; ix. 644. 
DESCHAPPELLES, A. L. H. L., French 

chessplayer, v. 601. 
DES CHUTES, river, Oregon, U.S.A., 

XVII. 822. 
DESCLOIZITE, mineral, xvi. 406. 



DES CLOT, Bernat, Catalan chronicler, 

xxii. 363. 

DESEADO, river, Patagonia, xvin. 353. 
DESERT, DESERTS, Oases in, xvn. 695; 

of Arabia, n. 239; Gobi, Central Asia, 

x. 712; Sahara, Africa, xxi. 149. 
DESERTAS, islands, Madeira, xv. 181. 
DESERTED VILLAGE, Goldsmith s poem, 

x. 762. 
DESERTION, in military law, xvi. 298. 

of a wife, vu. 301 ; xxiv. 643. 
DESFONTAINES, Rene Louiche, French 

botanist, vn. 129. 
DESFUL (Dizful), town, Persia, vu. 305; 

xviii. 627. 
DESHOULIERES, Antoinette, French 

poetess, vil. 129. 
DESIDERI, P. Ipolito, traveller in Tibet, 

xiv. 503. 
DESIDERIO DA SETTIGNANO, Italian 

sculptor, vil. 129. 
DESIGN, Artistic, vil. 446; copyright in, 

vi. 364. 
, Doctrine of (Teleology), xviii. 182; 

xx. 301; xxm. 248; xxiv. 802. 
DESIGNATIONS, Abbreviations of, i. 28. 
DESIMA, island, Japan, xvn. 164. 
DESIRE, Psychological analysis of, xx. 

74- 
DES LOGES (F. Villon), French poet, 

xxiv. 232. 
DESMAREST, Anselme, on birds, xviii. 

n. 
DESMIDIE^E, division of Alga?, I. 508; 

vu. 170. 
DESMODUS RUFUS, blood-sticking bat, 

xv. 415; xxiv. 52. 
DESMOGNATHOUS TYPE, of birds, in. 

711. 
DES MoiNES, town, Iowa, U.S.A., vn. 

ISO- 
DESMOND, Earls of, Ireland, vi. 404; 
xiv. 52; their rebellions, XIII. 264, 
265 ; first earl (Maurice Fitzgerald), 
Xlll. 260. 
DESMOTHORACA, order of Protozoa, 

xix. 845. 

DESMOULINS, Camille, French journal 
ist and Revolutionist, vn. 130; ix. 

673- 
, Roger, grand-master of Knights of 

St John, xxi. 174. 
DES MURS, M. A. P. CE., on birds, 

xvin. 13, 32. 
DESOLATION ISLAND, Southern Ocean, 

xiv. 48. 
DESOLATION LAND, Tierra del Fuego, 

South America, xxm. 384. 
DE SOTO, Ferdinando, Spanish explorer, 

VIL 131. 

DESPENAPERROS, pass, Spain, xxn. 294. 
DESPENSER, Hugh, minister of Edward 

II. of England, vn. 683. 
DES PERIERS, Bonaventure, French 

writer, IX. 653. 
DESPORTES, Abbe, French poet, xx. 

347- 



DESPREZ (Depres, q.v.), Josquin, Flemish 

composer, vil. 101. 
DESSAIX, Joseph Maria, Count, French 

general, vn. 132. 
DESSALINES, Negro chief, Hayti, XL 

545- 

DESSAU, town, Germany, vn. 132. 
DESSAUER, Der Alte, Leopold, duke of 

Anhalt-Dessau, xiv. 467. 
DESSLER, Wolfgang C., German hymn- 
writer, xil. 587. 
DE STAEL, Madame, French writer, 

xxii. 439; ix. 672. 
D ESTE, princely house, Italy, vill. 558; 

IX. 108; xvi. 542; xx. 341. 
, Leonora, friend of Tasso, xxm. 

76. 
DE STENDHAL (M. H. Beyle), French 

writer, ill. 621. 

DESTERRO, town, Brazil, vn. 132. 
DESTINY, Oriental ideas of, I. 464. 

, novel, by Miss Ferrier, IX. 111. 

DESTRUCTION OF THE PHILOSOPHERS, 

Al-Gazali s treatise, I. 510. 
DESTRUCTIVENESS, in phrenology, 

xviii. 845. 
DESTUTT DE TRACY, A. L. C., French 

philosopher, XXIII. 497. 
DETECTIVES, Police, xix. 337. 
DETERMINANTS, in algebra, i. 516; 

vill. 497; Spottiswoode on, xxn. 

432. 
DETERMINISM, in philosophy, xxm. 

234- 
DE THOU, Jacques A., French historian, 

XXIII. 315; IX. 659. 
DETMOLD, town, Germany, vn. 133; 

xiv. 683. 
DE TOCQUEVILLE, A. H. C. ChereV 

Comte, French writer, xxm. 430; 

IX. 675. 

DETONATION, of explosives, vin. 809. 
DETROIT, town, Michigan, U.S.A., vn. 

133; population, XXIII. 822. 
DETTINGEN, Bavaria, Battle of (1743), 

ix. 586. 

DEUCALION, in Greek legend, VIL 134. 
DEULWARA, India, Temples of, I. 59. 
D EUSE, Jacques (Pope John XXII.), 

xm. 712. 
DEUTERONOMY, Book of, in. 637; XIIL 

415; xvin. 505. 
DEUTSCH, use of the word, x. 473; as 

applied to language, x. 514. 
, Emanuel Oscar Menahem, German 

Orientalist, vil. 134. 
DEUTSCHE THEOLOGIE, mystical book 

of devotion, xv 1 1. 133. 
DEUTSCHKATHOLIKEN, or German 

Catholics, x. 444. 
DEUTSCHKRONE, town, Prussia, vn. 

134- 

DEUTZ, town, Rhenish Prussia, VI I. 134. 
DEUX FONTS (Zweibriicken), town, 

Bavarian Palatinate, VII. 134. 
DEUX SEVRES, department, France, 
xxi. 710. 

XXV. 17 



130 



D E V D I A 



DEVA, in Hindu theology, xxiv. 821. 

DEVANAGARI, the current Sanskrit 
character, xxi. 272; numerals in, 
xvii. 626. 

DEVAPRAYAGA, town, India, vn. 135. 

DEVASTAVIT, in law, xxiv. 394. 

DEVELOPMENT, Animal, Doctrine of, 
vin. 745; XX. 420; xxiv. 815, 801; 
in relation to ethnology, vin. 616, 
618; Lamarck s theory of, xiv. 232. 

, Embryonic, vin. 163; in human 

anatomy, I. 830, 842, 850, 853, 855, 
858, 863, 908; of Mollusca, xvi. 637, 
682; of tapeworms, xxm. 52; of 
trematode worms, xxni. 537. 

DEVENTER, town, Holland, vii. 135; 
xvni. 78; educationists of, vn. 672; 
mediaeval college of, xiv. 31. 

DEVEREUX, Walter and Robert, earls of 
Essex, vin. 555, 556. 

DE Vice s COMET, vi. 192, 193. 

DE VIGNY, Alfred Victor, Comte, French 
poet and novelist, vn. 135. 

DEVIL, vii. 136, 60; in miracle plays, 
vii. 415. 

FISH, vii. 138; xn. 686; xx. 300. 

DE VILLE, Antoine, French military 
engineer, IX. 441. 

DEVILLE, Etienne Henri Sainte-Claire, 
French chemist, xxi. 165; on alu 
minium, I. 647; on chemical dissocia 
tion, v. 475; on platinum, XIX. 190; 
his pyrometer, xx. 131. 

DE VILLIERS, John, grand-master of 
Knights of St John, XXI. 174. 

DEVIL S DARNING NEEDLE, insect, 
vii. 385. 

DEVIL S DUST, adulterant of cloth, 1. 176. 

DEVIL S DYKE, Sussex, England, xxn. 

723- 

DEVIL S SONATA, Tartini s, xxni. 71. 
DEVIL S TOWER, natural pillar, Rocky 

Mountains, U.S.A., xxni. 797. 
DEVIL-WORSHIP, by Rais (or Retz), xx. 

258. 
DE VISE, Donneau, French journalist, 

xvii. 424. 
DEVIZES, town, England, vii. 138; 

population, xxiv. 594. 
DEVOLUTION WAR, between England 

and the Netherlands, ix. 575. 
DEVON (Devonshire, q.v.), county, Eng 
land, vii. 139; xxni. 727. 

, river, Scotland, v. 798. 

DEVONIAN ROCKS, x. 340. 
DEVONPORT, town, England, vn. 138; 

Xix. 236; dockyard, vii. 318. 
DEVONS, North, breed of cattle, I. 388. 
DEVONSHIRE, county, England, vn. 
139; population and representation, 

xxni. 727; fisheries of, ix. 253. 

, First Duke of, vn. 143. 

DEVR, dance of the dervishes, vn. 114. 

DEW, xvi. 120. 

DE WARVILLE, Jean Pierre Brissot, 

French Revolutionist, IV. 347. 
DEWBERRY, plant, vn. 143. 



D EWES, Sir Simonds, English chronic 
ler, vii. 143. 
DE WETTE, Wilhelm Martin Leberecht, 

German theologian, vn. 144; on the 

Pentateuch, xvni. 505 ; on German 

rationalism, xx. 290. 
DE WINTER, Jan Willem, Dutch 

admiral, vn. 144. 
DE WITT, Cornelius, Dutch burgomaster, 

vii. 145. 
, John, Dutch statesman, vn. 145; 

xii. 80. 

DEW-POINT, vm. 727; xii. 570. 
DEWSBURY, town, England, vii. 146 ; 

population and representation, xxiv. 

748. 
DEXTRIN, or British gum, vii. 146; xv. 

338. 

DEXTROGLUCOSE, in honey, xn. 136. 
DEXTROSE, or Grape Sugar, ix. 96; xv. 

338; xxii. 623. 
DEY, governor of Algiers, I. 566 ; of 

Tunis, xxni. 621. 
DEYRSIMLIS, Kurdish tribe, xiv. 157. 
DHAKA (Dacca), district and town, 

India, VI. 756. 
DHAMMASAT, Burmese code of law, iv. 

553- 

DHAMRA, river, India, v. 243. 
DHAR, native state, India, vn. 146. 
DHARMA, doctrine or laws, in Tibet and 

India, XXI. 287; xiv. 227. 
DHARMASUTRAS, Sanskrit laws, xxi. 

288. 

DHARMNATH, India, Temple at, i. 423. 
DHARM RAJA, spiritual ruler of Bhutan, 

in. 632. 

DHARNA, Hindu custom, xiv. 360. 
DHARWAR, district, India, vn. 146. 
DHAWALAGIRI, or Diwalgiri, mountain, 

Himalayas, XL 825. 
DHEBAR, artificial lake, India, xxni. 

716. 
DHOLIBA, name of the Niger, river, 

Africa, XVII. 496. 
DHOLPUR, native state, India, vn. 147; 

xx. 260. 
D HoziER, Pierre, French genealogist 

and journalist, XVII. 424. 
DHU HEARTACH ROCK LIGHTHOUSE, 

Scotland, xiv. 616. 
DHULIP SINK, or Dhalip Singh, Sikh 

ruler, India, xn. 808; xx. 112. 
DHUPAN, river, India, xxi. 146. 
DIABASE, rock, x. 235. 
DIABETES, disease, vii. 147; xvii. 681; 

xvni. 386; diet in, vn. 207. 
D I ABLE BOITEUX, Le Sage s work, xiv. 

472. 

DIABLERETS, mountain, Vaud, Switzer 
land, xxiv. 115. 
DIABLO, Monte, California, U.S.A., 

xxni. 801. 
DIACRIOI, Athenian political party, Xix. 

130. 
DIADEM, crown, VI. 619; ancient, xin. 

676. 



DIADOCHITE, mineral, xvi. 408. 
DIAGORAS, Greek poet, vn. 148. 
DIAGRAMS, geometrical figures, vn. 149. 
DIAL, or Gnomon, sun-dial, vii. 153; first 

construction of, n. 746. 

, of a clock, vi. 31. 

, American magazine, I. 729. 



DIALECTIC, in logic, xiv. 785, 786; 
Zeno s invention of, xxiv. 778 ; in 
ancient Greece, n. 516; Socrates s 
use of, xxn. 236. 

DIALECTICIANS, school of Greek philo 
sophy, xxn. 562. 

DIALECTS, xvni. 776. 

DlALLAGE, mineral, X. 235; xvi. 416. 

DIALLING, vn. 153. 

DlALOGITE, mineral, XVI. 398. 

DIALOGUE ON ORATORS, by Tacitus, 
xxni. 20. 

DIALOGUES, Plato s, xix. 195. 

ON NATURAL RELIGION, Hume s, 
xn. 355. 

DIALYSIS, in physics, vn. 217. 

DlAMAGNETIC BODIES, XV. 244, 262. 

DIAMAGNETISM, of flames, ix. 285. 

DIAMANTE, Fra, Italian painter, vn. 
162. 

DIAMANTINA, district, Queensland, xx. 
171. 

, or Tejuco, town, Brazil, VII. 162. 

DIAMANTINO, town, Brazil, vn. 162. 

DlAMASTIGOSIS, flogging of youths, 
Spartan custom, ix. 280. 

DIAMETER, of circle, ratio of circum 
ference to, xxni. 563. 

DIAMOND, precious stone, vn. 162; 
xvi. 381; as carbon, v. 86; cutting of, 
XIV. 298; I. 780; mining, XVI. 455; 
of Brazil, iv. 224; of India, xn. 766; 
of South Africa, v. 42, 46 ; XI. 204; 
xxni. 518; tools, XI. 439; xvi. 443 

BEETLE, vi. 133. 

DRILL, in mining, xvi. 443. 

- NECKLACE, Intrigue of the, xx. 
623. 
PEAK, mountain, Oregon, U.S.A.. 



xvii. 822. 
DIANA, Roman goddess (the Greek 

Artemis), vn. 167; n. 643; xin. 568; 

her association with Apollo, n. 186; 

temple of, at Ephesus, n. 406, 410; 

vin. 468. 

DIANA S PEAK, St Helena, xxi. 170. 
DIANO, town, Italy, vn. 167. 
DIANTHUS, genus of plants, xix. 106. 
DIAPASON, organ pipe, xvii. 830. 
DIAPER, in architecture, n. 463. 
, kind of cloth, xxni. 210; Japanese, 

xin. 590. 

DIAPHANEITY, transparency, in mine 
rals, xvi. 373. 
DIAPHONOMETER, Saussure s invention, 

xxi. 324. 

D I APHONY, in music, XVII. 81. 
DIAPHORETICS, in medicine, vn. 167. 
DIAPHRAGM, of mammals, xv. 365; in 

human anatomy, xx. 476. 



D I A D I G 



131 



DIARBEKIR, or Diarbekr, town, Asiatic 
Turkey, VII. 168; province, XXIII. 653. 
DIARMAIT, Irish king, xm. 250. 
DIARRHCEA, disease, vn. 168. 

DlARTHRODIAL JOINTS, I. 833. 

DIARY OF A LATE PHYSICIAN, by 
S. Warren, xxiv. 373. 

DIAS, Antonio Gongalves, Brazilian 
poet and historian, vil. 168. 

, Bartolommeo, Portuguese navi 
gator, vil. 169; x. 1 80. 

DIASPORA, the Jewish dispersion, xm. 
429. 

DIASPORE, mineral, xvi. 387. 

DIASTALTIC SPINAL SYSTEM, of Mar 
shall Hall, XL 390. 

DIASTASE, nitrogenoiis ferment, IX. 96; 
iv. 267; xv. 338. 

DIATESSARON, Tatian s, xxn. 824; 
xxin. Si. 

DIATHERMANCY, of air, in. 33. 

DlATOMACE^, subdivision of Alga?, vil. 
169; I. 508; haematite deposits formed 
by, XIII. 286. 

DIATOM OOZE, of North Sea, XVH. 563; 
of Norwegian Sea, XVII. 593 ; of 
Pacific Ocean, xvm. 123. 

DIATONIC SCALE, in music, i. 108 ; 
xvn. 79, 91. 

DIAZ, Eodrigo, The Cid (q.v.), V. 773. 

DE LA PENA, Narcisse Virgile, 

French painter, vn. 171. 

DlAZO-BODiES, nitrogenous carbon com 
pounds, xvii. 519. 

DIBDIN, Charles, English song- writer 
and composer, vn. 171. 

, Thomas, English dramatist, VIL 

172. 

, Thomas Frognall, English biblio 
grapher, VIL 172. 

DIBRANCHIATA, order of Mollusca, xvi. 
669. 

DIBRUGARH, station, Assam, India, xiv. 
225. 

DIBUTADES (Butades), Greek modeller 
in clay, iv. 579. 

DIC^EARCHIA (Pozzuoli), ancient town, 
Italy, xix. 651. 

DIC^EARCHUS, Greek philosopher and 
geographer, vn. 172; XVIII. 545; XXII. 
20. 

DICHOPSIS GUTTA, species of trees, XL 
337- 

DICHOTOMY, Law of, in psychology, xx. 

79- 

DICHROISM, in mineralogy, xvi. 375. 
DICHROITE, mineral, xvi. 418. 
Di-CHU, river, Tibet, xxin. 339. 
DICK, Thomas, Scottish writer, vn. 173. 
, William, Scottish veterinarian, 

xxiv. 199. 
- BEQUEST, for schools in North of 

Scotland, I. 45. 
DICKENS, Charles, English novelist, vn. 

173- 
DICKENSON, John, English pastoral 

poet, xvin. 346. 



DICKINSONITE, mineral, XVI. 405. 
DICKSON, David, Scottish hymn- writer, 

XIL 591. 
DICKSONIA, genus of tree-ferns, xxin. 

534- 
DICKSON S GLACIER, Spitzbergen, xxn. 

408. 

DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS, iv. 92. 
DICOTYLEDONS, subclass of plants, xxiv. 

131- 

DICOTYLES, genus of ungulate mammals, 
xvm. 449; xxn. 775. 

DICTATOR, in the Koman republic, vn. 
179. 

DICTIONARY, DICTIONARIES, vn. 179; 
bibliographical, III. 659 ; historical 
and critical (Bayle s), 111.458; Arabic, 
XVI. 595; English (Johnson s), XIII. 
723; English (Webster s), xxiv. 474; 
French (Furetiere s), IX. 839; French 
(Littre s), XIV. 706 ; Sanskrit, XXL 

293- 
DICTYONINA, order of sponges, xxn. 

422. 
DICTYOPTERA, order of insects, xm. 

152. 

DICTYS CRETENSIS, early Greek his 
torian, VIL 193; on the legends of 

Troy, xx. 637. 
DICYEMIDA, group of parasites, XVIII. 

259; embryology of, xx. 419. 
DIDASCALOCOPHUS, Dalgarno s work, 

vi. 776. 
DIDELPHIA, subclass of Mammalia, xv. 

37i, 378. 

DIDELPHYS, genus of marsupial mam 
mals, xv. 380; xvn. 796. 

DIDEMNID^:, family of Tunicata, xxin. 
617. 

DIDEROT, Denis, French Encyclopedist, 
vn. 193; vin. 197; ix. 666, 668; his 
connexion with Raynal, XX. 302; his 
relations with Rousseau, xxi. 25. 

DIDIAN LAW, Roman, xxn. 644. 

DIDIUS JULIANUS, Roman emperor, xxi. 
699. 

DIDO, legendary founder of Carthage, 
vn. 196. 

, Caucasian tribe, xiv. 475. 

AND ^NEAS, Purcell s opera, XX. 

ii3- 
DIDOT, family of French printers and 

publishers, vil. 196. 
DIDRON, Aclolphe Napoleon, French 

archaeologist, vn. 196. 
DIDUNCULUS, genus of birds, xix. 420. 
DIDYMIUM, chemical element, v. 542; 

xiv. 291; spectrum of, xxn. 376. 
DIDYMUS, of Alexandria, ecclesiastical 

writer, VII. 196. 
DIE, in architecture, n. 463. 

, for stamping medals, VII. 197. 

, town, France, vn. 197. 

DlEBITSCH-SABALKANSKIjIvanK.F.A., 

Count, Russian general, vn. 197. 

DlECI DI LlBERTA E PACE, state 

officers, Florence, xv. 146. 



DIEDRICH OF BERN, Legend of, xm. 

674; xvn. 475. 
DIEGO GARCIA, island, Indian Ocean, 

xv. 642. 
DIEGO RUY S ISLAND (Rodriguez), 

Indian Ocean, xx. 619. 
DIEGO SUAREZ, bay, Madagascar, xv. 

168. 

DIEKIRCH, town, Luxemburg, xv. 87. 
DIELECTRIC, Faraday s theory of the, 

vm. 36. 
DIEPENBECK, Abraham van, Flemish 

painter, vn. 197. 
DIEPPE, town, France, vn. 198; xxi. 

626. 
DIES, Christoph Albert, German painter, 

vn. 199. 

FESTI, in ancient Rome, ix. 114. 

GENIALES, Alessandri s work, i. 

479- 
DIE SINKING, n. 64; vn. 197; Greek, 

ii. 362. 
DIES IR.E, hymn, XIL 583; xxin. 308; 

xxiv. 781. 
DIESPITER (Jupiter), Roman god, xm. 

780. 

DIEST, town, Belgium, vn. 199. 
DIET, German state assembly, vn. 199; 

X. 463; history of, X. 501, 505, 508, 

513; of Aiigsburg, q.v. (1530), v. 414; 

of Roncaglia (1154), xm. 472; (1158), 

xm. 473; of Worms (1521), v. 414. 
DIETETICS, vn. 200; Lord Combermere s 

rules of, vi. 181 ; Plutarch on, xix. 234; 

water in, xxiv. 399. 
DIETRICH, Christian Wilhelm Ernst, 

German painter, vil. 213. 
DIETRICHITE, mineral, xvi. 402, 
DIEZ, Friedrich Christian, German 

philologist, vn. 214; XX. 668. 
DIFFERENCE, Mental perception of, 

xx. 49, 80. 

DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS, xm. n, 13. 
DIFFERENTIATION, in biology, xvi. 79. 

, in psychology, XX. 45. 
DIFFRACTION, of light, xxiv. 430, 442, 

454- 

DIFFUSION, in physics, vn. 214; of 
gases, xvi. 617. 
-, Psychological, XX. 46. 



DIFFUSIVITY, Thermal, XL 581, 586. 

DIGAMBARAS, division of the Jains. 
India, XIII. 544. 

DIGARCHI, town, Tibet, xxin. 340. 

DIGBY, Sir Kenelm, English physicist, 
vn. 221. 

DIGENEA, group of trematode worms, 
xxin. 539. 

DIGENIS ACRITAS, Exploits of, modern 
Greek poem, XI. 148, 150. 

DIGEST, of Justinian, xm. 793; xx. 
712. 

DIGESTER, Steam, Papin s, xvm. 228. 

DIGESTION, vn. 207; xvn. 667. 

DIGESTIVE ORGANS, vn. 221; of Am 
phibia, I. 762; of birds, in. 725; of 
fishes, XIL 654; of mammals, xv. 361; 



132 



D I G D I 



of reptiles, XX. 457; of trematode 

worms, XXIII. 536. 
DIGGES, Leonard, his connexion with 

invention of the telescope, xxni. 135. 
DIGIT, measure of length, xxiv. 483. 
DIGITALIS, genus of plants, vn. 237. 
DIGITATA, group of chelonian reptiles, 

xxin. 457. 
DIGITS, in the skeleton, I. 828; xxn. 

118; of mammals, xv. 359. 
DIGNE, town, France, vn. 238. 
, La, island, Seychelles, Indian 

Ocean, xxi. 725. 
DIGNITY, or Precedence, Order of, xix. 

660. 
DIHANG, or Dihong, river, India and 

Tibet, n. 718; xxin. 341. 
DIHYRITE, mineral, xvi. 406. 
DIIPOLIA, Greek festival, iv. 531; xxi. 

137- 

DIJON, town, France, vn. 238. 
DIKA BUTTER, vegetable fat, xvn. 744, 

746. 

DIKA NUT, xvn. 664. 
DIKRAN (Tigranes), Armenian kings, 

xvm. 595, 600, 602; xxm. 386. 
DILAPIDATIONS, in English law, vn. 

239- 
DILI, Megali and Mikri (Delos), islands, 

Greece, vn. 51. 
DILIGENCE, in law, vii. 239; in Scots 

law, xxiv. 697. 
DILKE, Sir Charles Wentworth, English 

art organizer, VI I. 240. 
DILL, plant, vn. 240; n. 57; xn. 289. 
DlLLEN, or Dillenius, Johann Jakob, 

German botanist, vii. 240. 
DILLINGEN, town, Bavaria, vii. 240. 
DILLON, "Wentworth, earl of Rosconimon, 

xx. 850. 

DILUVIAN EPOCH, n. 335. 
DILUVIUM, distinguished from alluvium, 

I. 589. 

DIMENSIONS, in geometry, vn. 240. 
DIMETHYL, in chemistry, xvi. 194. 
DIMLAH, town, India, xx. 272. 
DIMMA, Book of, Irish MS., xvm. 158. 
DIMORPHISM, sexual specialization, xxi. 

721. 

DIMORPHITE, mineral, xvi. 394. 
DiMORPHODON, genus of fossil reptiles, 

xx. 87. 
DINA CHARIYAWA, manual of Buddhism, 

iv. 436. 
DINAJPUR, district and town, India, vn. 

241. 

DINAN, town, France, VII. 242. 
DINANDERIE, copper wares of Dinant, 

Belgium, VII. 242. 
DINANT, town, Belgium, vn. 242; 

destruction of, by Charles the Bold 

(1466), v. 424. 
DINAPUR, town, India, vn. 242; xvm. 

409. 

DlNARCHUS, Greek orator, vn. 242. 
DINAWARI, Arab historian, xxin. 3. 
DINDIGAL, town, India, xv. 192. 



DlNDlNGS, territory and islands, Straits 
Settlements, Asia, xxn. 586, 587. 

DINGAAN, or Dingane, Zulu chief, 
xxin. 518; xxiv. 828. 

DlNGISWAYO, Zulu chief, XXIV. 828. 
DlNGO, wild dog of Australia, in. 112; 

vn. 325; xv. 438. 
DINGWALL, town, Scotland, vn. 243 ; 

xx. 854. 

DINGY, kind of boat, xxi. 825. 
DlNIFERA, order of Protozoa, XIX. 859. 
DINIZ, king of Portugal, XIX. 542, 

555- 

DINKEL, delineator of Agassiz s fossils, 
I. 275. 

DINKELSBUHL, town, Bavaria, VI I. 243. 

DlNOCRATES, or Dinochares, Greek 
architect, vn. 243. 

DINOFLAGELLATA, class of Protozoa, 
xix. 859. 

DINOMYID/E, family of rodent mam 
mals, xv. 420. 

DINOPHID^E, family of snakes, xxn. 

i93 ? 197- 

DINORNIS, genus of extinct birds, vn. 
243; in. 731. 

DINOSAURIA, order of fossil reptiles, 
xx. 442. 

DINOTHERIUM, extinct ungulate mam 
mal, vn. 244; xv. 425. 

DlN-TlR, name for Babylon, in. 182. 

DIOCESE, vn. 244; in. 787. 

DIOCLES, of Carystus, on anatomy, I. 
801. 
-, Syracusan demagogue, xxn. 815. 



DIOCLETIAN, Roman emperor, vn. 244; 
xx. 777; baths of, at Rome, in. 436; 
palace of, at Spalato, Dalmatia, xxn. 
366. 
-, Era of, v. 716. 



DIODATI, Charles, friend of Milton, 

xvi. 324. 

, Giovanni, Swiss Reformed theo 
logian, vn. 245. 

DlODON, genus of fishes, x. 685. 
DlODORUS SlCULUS, Greek historian, 

vn. 245. 

DICECISM, in plants, xx. 428. 
DIOGENES, Greek Cynic philosopher, 

vn. 245. 
(Romanus IV.), Roman emperor, 

xx. 730. 

of Apollonia, Greek physicist, vn. 

245. 
of Seleucia, Stoic philosopher, 

xxn. 570. 
, Antonius, Greek novelist, xx. 

634- 
LAERTIUS, Greek writer, vn. 246; 

on Aristotle s works, II. 513. 
DIOLAS, people, Senegambia, West 

Africa, XXI. 662. 
DlOMEDEA, genus of birds, I. 449; xv. 

334- 

DlOMEDES, of Greek legend, VII. 246. 
DION, tyrant of Syracuse, vn. 246; 

xxn. 19, 816. 



MUSCIPULA, insectivorous 

plant, Xin. 136. 
DION CASSIUS COCCEIANUS, historian 

of Rome, vn. 246. 
DION CHRYSOSTOM, Greek writer, vn. 

247; xx. 634; on Indian epic poetry, 

xxi. 281. 
DIONIS, Peter, his lectures on anatomy, 

I. 811. 

DIONYSIA, Greek festivals, vn. 247. 
DIONYSIACA, poem of Nonnus, XVII. 533. 
DIONYSIAC RITES, Phrygia, xvn. 839; 

xvm. 853. 
DIONYSIAN PERIOD, in the calendar, 

iv. 670. 
DIONYSIUS, St (Denis), patron saint of 

France, vii. 79; xvin. 286. 
, the Areopagite, vn. 248; his work 

011 mysticism, xvn. 131 ; on the 

heavenly hierarchy, xi. 792. 

, the Elder, tyrant of Syracuse, vn. 

247; xxn. 18, 815; coins of, xvn. 

638. 
, the Younger, tyrant of Syracuse, 

vn. 247; xxn. 19, 816. 
of Halicarnassus, Greek writer, 

vii. 247; xi. 144. 

of Tell-Mahre, Syriac writer, xxn. 



845. 



BAR SALIBI, Syriac writer, xxn. 



851. 



- EXIGUUS, chronologist, vii. 248; 
Xix. 492; his collection of the canons, 
v. 1 6. 

PERIEGETES, Greek geographical 



writer, vn. 248. 
- THRAX, Roman grammarian, xi. 

37- 
DIONYSUS, Greek divinity (the Roman 

Bacchus), vn. 248; xvn. 128; orgies 

of, xvn. 839. 
DlOPHANTUS, Greek writer on algebra, 

I. 511; on porisms, xix. 520. 
DlOPSlDE, mineral, xvi. 416. 
DlOPTASE, mineral, xvi. 411. 
DIOPTRIC, unit for measurement of 

lenses, xxn. 373. 
DIOPTRICS, Descartes s treatise on, vn. 

125. 
DIOPTRIC SYSTEM, for lighthouses, xiv. 

619. 

DIORITE, rock, x. 235. 
DIOSCOREA, genus of plants, XXIV. 727. 
DlOSCORlDES, Greek writer on materia 

medica, II. 79; MS. of his work, 

xvin. 147. 

, island, Indian Ocean, XXII. 231. 
DIOSCURI (Castor and Pollux), in Greek 

legend, V. 199. 
DIOSCURIAS (Iskuriah), ancient Greek 

colony, Caucasus, xvi. 437. 
DlOSCURlDES, Greek gem-engraver, x. 

140. 
DlOSPOLlS, Palestine, Synod of, on 

Pelagianism, xvin. 472. 
MAGNA (Thebes), ancient town, 

Egypt, vn. 776. 



D I D I V 



133 



DiOSPYROS, genus of trees, VII. 619; 

xviii. 661. 
DIP, of rocks, x. 298. 

, Magnetic, XV. 221, 227. 

CIRCLE, magnetic instrument, XVI. 

159. 

DiPHANITE, mineral, XVI. 413. 
DIPHTHERIA, disease, vn. 249. 
DIPHTHONGS, Pronunciation of, xxn. 

382. 

DlPHYLLA ECAUDATA, blood-Slicking 

bat, xxiv. 52. 
DlPHYLLlDjE, family of tapeworms, 

xxiii. 54. 
DIPLOMA, Ancient forms of, vn. 

254. 

DIPLOMACY, vn. 251; i. 658. 
DIPLOMATIC PRECEDENCE, xm. 193; 

xix. 667. 
DIPLOMATICS, science dealing with 

ancient documents, VII. 253. 
DlPLOPODA, order of Myriapoda, XVII. 

118. 
DIPLOPTERA, group of insects, xxiv. 

39i- 
DlPLOSOMiD. E, family of Tunicata, 

xxin. 617. 
DIPLOZOON PARADOXUM, species of 

trematode worms, xxiii. 539. 
DIPNOI, suborder of fishes, xn. 686; 

xiv. 468; in Lankester s classification, 

xxiv. 812. 
DIPODID/E, subfamily of rodent 

mammals, XV. 419. 

DIPPEL, Johann Conrad, German theo 
logian and alchemist, vn. 255. 
DIPPEL S ANIMAL OIL, or Bone 

Naphtha, xvn. 175. 
DIPPER, bird, xvm. 75. 
DIPROTODON, fossil marsupial mammal, 

xv. 383; xx. 172. 
DIPSADID^;, family of snakes, xxu. 

193- 
DIPSOMANIA, alcoholic insanity, xm. 

1 02, 109. 
DIPTERA, order of insects, VII. 255 ; 

xm. 150; mimicry in, xvi. 343. 
DIPTERIX, genus of trees, xxiii. 443. 
DIPTEROS, in architecture, II. 463. 
DIPTYCH, Roman writing tablet, vn. 

257; xvm. 143. 
DIPUS, genus of rodent mammals, xm. 

626; xv. 419. 
DIR/E, the Furies, in Roman mythology, 

IX. 840. 

DlRCE, in Greek legend, vn. 257. 
DIRCEU (T. A. Gonzaga), Portuguese 

poet, x. 772. 
DiRCKS, Henry, on perpetual motion, 

xvm. 554. 
DIRCKS S GHOST, optical illusion, xiv. 

587. 
DIRECT-ACTING ENGINES, xxn. 512, 

514. 

DIRECTORY, The French, ix. 608. 
OF PUBLIC WORSHIP, Scottish, 

xiv. 711; ix. 746. 



DIRHEM, Arab coin, xvn. 654. 

DIRK I.-VII., counts of Holland, xn. 

7i. 

DiRSCHAU, town, Prussia, VII. 257. 

Dis, Roman god (the Greek Pluto), xix. 
236. 

DISABILITIES, Roman Catholic, in Eng 
land, xx. 632. 

DISAPPOINTMENT, Psychological ana 
lysis of, xx. 70. 

DISCHARGE, Soldier s, in British army, 
II. 575- 

DlSClNlD^E, family of Brachiopoda, IV. 
194. 

DISCIPLINE, Church, vin. 800; xvm. 
485. 

, First Book of, in Scottish Church, 

xix. 68 1 ; xiv. 132; xxi. 503; Second 
Book of, xix. 68 1 ; xxi. 503. 
-, Military, xxiv. 353. 



DISCOBOLUS, statue by Myron, XVII. 

120. 
DISCOMEDUS^E, order of Hydrozoa, XII. 

556. 
DiSCOMYCETES, suborder of Fungi, IX. 

833 ; xxiv. 127 ; parasitic forms, 

xvm. 267. 

DiSGOPHORA, order of Annelida, II. 69. 
DlSCORDlA, in Greek mythology, VIII. 

524. 

DISCORDS, Musical, xvn. 82. 
DlSCORSl, Machiavelli s treatise, XV. 

149. 
DISCOUNT, in commerce, calculation of, 

n. 536; rates of, from 1694 to 1845, 

in. 330. 

AGENCIES, in. 328. 
DISCOURSE OF METHOD, Descartes s, 

vii. 119. 
DISCOURSES UPON TRADE, by Sir 

Dudley North, XVII. 554. 
DISCOVERIES, Remarkable, in chrono 
logical table, v. 720. 
DISCOVERY, Geographical, x. 175. 
DISCRASITE, mineral, xvi. 392. 
DISCUS, Greek quoit, vii. 258. 
DISEASE, defined, xv. 794; science of 

(pathology), xvm. 361 ; germ theory 

of, xxi. 400, 407; homoeopathic theory 

of, xil. 126; as attributed to demons, 

vn. 61 ; due to parasites, xvm. 269; 

prevention of, xn. 568. 
DISEASED MEAT, xv. 782. 
DISGRAZIA, Monte della, North Italy, 

xxiv. 45. 
DISINFECTANTS, vn. 258; n. 136; iv. 

361; XIL 569. 

DISLOCATION, in surgery, vn. 258. 
DISMAL SWAMP, United States, vii. 

259. 

DlSNA, town, Russia, XXIV. 234. 
DISPENSARIES, Provident, xn. 305. 
DISPENSATION, relaxation of law, vii. 

259. 
DISPERSION, The, of the Jews, xm. 

420, 429. 
OF LIGHT, xiv. 592, 601. 



DISPLACEMENT, Dynamical, vii. 581; 

law of, in ships, xxi. 812. 
DISPUTATIONS, Academic, vm. 777. 
DISRAELI, Benjamin (Lord Beacons- 
field), English statesman, VIII. 367. 
D lSRAELl, Isaac, English writer, vii. 

259. 
DISRUPTION, The, of the Church of 

Scotland, v. 377; ix. 742; xxi. 538. 
Diss, town, England, xvn. 536. 
DISSOCIATION, Chemical, Deville s work 

on, v. 475; xxi. 166. 
DISSOLVING VIEWS, with magic lanterns, 

xv. 213. 
DISSONANCE, Intervals of, in music. 

xvn. 105. 

DISTAFF, for spinning, xiv. 664. 
DiSTEARIN, in chemistry, x. 697. 
DISTEMPER, disease in dogs, xxiv. 205. 
, or Tempera, method of painting, 

xxiii. 157; xvn. 39. 
DlSTHENE, mineral, XVI. 408. 
DISTILLATION, vn. 260; of spirits, vn. 

264; of spirits, in Ireland, xm. 233; 

of sulphur, xxil. 635; of wood and 

coal, xxin. 57. 
DISTOECHURUS, genus of marsupial 

mammals, xvm. 729. 
DISTOMA HyEMATOBiUM, trematode 

worm, XVIII. 271. 
DISTOMID^, family of trematodes, 

xxiii. 539. 

, family of Tunicata, XXIII. 617. 
DISTRAINT, Law of, vii. 266; its effects 

on agriculture, I. 407. 
DISTRESS, Law of, vn. 266; xiv. 274, 

276; xx. 402. 

DISTRIBUTING, of types, xxin. 701. 
DISTRIBUTION, of animals, vn. 267; in. 

684; of fishes, xn. 668; of mammals, 

xv - 373! f reptiles, XX. 465; of 

sponges, xxn. 427; of plants, vn. 286; 

in. 684. 

DISTRIBUTIONS, Statute of, xm. 197. 
DISTRIBUTOR, Manure, agricultural 

implement, I. 321. 
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, U.S.A., vi. 

1 68 ; xxiv. 382 ; population, xxin. 

802. 
DITCHLING BEACON, Sussex, England, 

xxn. 723. 

DITHIONIC ACID, v. 507. 
DiTHMARSCHEN, or Ditmarsh, district, 

Holstein, vn. 291; xxi. 415. 
DITHYRAMBIC VERSE, Invention of, n. 

502. 
DITMARSH, district, Holstein, vii. 291; 

xxi. 415. 

DITTON, Humphry, English mathema 
tician, vii. 291. 

DlU, island and seaport, India, vn. 291. 
DIURETICS, in medicine, vn. 291. 
DIURNATION, day-sleep, of bats, xi. 

788. 
DIVAN, or Diwan, Eastern Government 

office, vn. 292; xvi. 589, 591. 
, The, Hafiz s poem, xi. 367. 



134 



D I V D L 



DIVER, bird, vn. 292. 

DIVERSIONS OF PURLEY, Home Tooke s 
treatise, xxm. 445. 

DlVES, river, France, xvm. i. 

DIVIDIVI, astringent pods, vii. 292; xiv. 
382. 

DIVINA COMMEDIA, Dante s, VI. 815; 
xni. 503. 

DIVINATION, revelation by omens, vii. 
293; II. 204; xv. 199; its connexion 
with ordeals, XVII. 819; in relation to 
priesthood, XIX. 725; Stoic doctrine 
of, XXII. 570; ancient Roman, III. 72; 
XI. 500; in Lapland, xiv. 307. 

DIVINE, The, Names expressive of, xxm. 

235- 
DIALOGUES, Henry More s, xvi. 

815. 
RIGHT, of kings, xix. 672; Filmer s 

theory of, IX. 166. 
DIVING, vii. 294; xxn. 771. 

BELL, vii. 294. 

DIVINING ROD, vii. 293; XL 549. 
DIVISION, in algebra, I. 524; in arith 
metic, n. 528. 
, in logic, xiv. 785. 
DIVISORS, Tables of, xxin. 7. 
DIVODURUM (Metz), ancient town, 

France, xvi. 204. 
D I VON A (Cahors), ancient town, France, 

iv. 642. 
DIVORCE, Law of, vii. 300; in New 

Hampshire, U.S.A., xvii. 392; Milton 

on, xvi. 329. 
Divus JULIUS, Temple of, at Rome, 

xx. 818. 
DIWALGIRI, or Dhawalagiri, mountain, 

Himalayas, xvii. 340. 
DIWAN, or Divan, vn. 292; xvi. 589, 

591. 
DIXCOVE, settlement, West Africa, x. 

755- 
DIXMERIE, Nicolas Bricaire de la, 

French writer, XIV. 198. 
DlXON, George, English navigator, vii. 

305- 

, Jeremiah, English astronomer, xv. 

611. 

Diz, or Dizful, river, Persia, XV. 68; 
XVlll. 620. 

DIZFUL, town, Persia, vn. 305; xvm. 
627. 

DJEBAIL (Jebeil), ancient town, Syria, 
xui. 613. 

DJEDDAH (Jiddah), town, Arabia, XIII. 
691; xx. 316. 

DjERNANG, resin, vii. 389. 

DjIDDAH (Jiddah), town, Arabia, Xlli. 
691; xx. 316. 

DJILOLO (Jilolo), island, Indian Archi 
pelago, xni. 692. 

DjOUN, Syria, Lady Hester Stanhope s 
villa at, xxii. 450. 

DJUSTENDIL (Kostendil), town, Bul 
garia, Turkey, xiv. 143. 

DLUGOSZ, Jan, Polish historian, xix. 
300. 



DMITRI (Demetrius), The False, Russian 

pretender, xix. 294; xxi. 94, 108. 
DONSKOi, prince of Moscow, XXI. 



91. 
IVANOVICH, prince of Russia, 

assassination of, XXL 93. 
DMITRIEFF, Ivan Ivanovitch, Russian 

statesman and poet, vii. 305; xxi. 106. 
DMITROFF, town, Russia, vii. 305. 
DMITROVSK, town, Russia, vn. 306; 

xvii. 826. 
DNIEPER, river, Russia, vii. 306; xxi. 

73) 575; xxii. 183; its mouth, xvii. 

724. 
DNIESTER, river, Russia, vn. 306; in. 

615; xix. 254; xxi. 73; its mouth, 

xvii. 724; in Austria, in. 116. 
DOAB, Indian geographical term, vn. 

307; xx. 107; of Jalandhar, XIII. 545. 
DOANE, Bishop G. W., American hymn- 
writer, XII. 596. 
DOBBERAN, or Doberan, town, Germany, 

vn. 308. 
DOBBO, town, Aru Islands, .Indian 

Archipelago, II. 670. 
DOBELL, Sydney, English poet, vn. 307; 

his relations with Alexander Smith, 

xxn. 172. 

DOBELN, town, Saxony, vn. 308. 
DOBERAN, town, Germany, vn. 308. 
DOBLER, Louis, German conjuror, xv. 

209. 

DOBRENTEI, Gabor, Hungarian philo 
logist, vii. 308. 
DOBRIZHOFFER, Martin, Roman Catholic 

missionary, vn. 308; his history of 

the Abipones, I. 50; VI. 138; on 

mythology, xvii. 145. 
DOBROWSKY, or Dobrovsky, Joseph, 

Slavonic philologist, vn. 308; xxn. 
152. 
DOBRUDJA, or Dobrudscha, district and 

province, Roumania, Vii. 309; XXI. 
14, 21 ; xxin. 653. 
DOBSCHAU, or Dobsina, town, Hungary, 

vn. 309. 
DOBSON, William, English painter, vn 

309- 
DOBUNI, ancient people, England, xvm. 

94- 
DOCET^E, heretics in early church, vn. 

309- 

DOCHMIUS, genus of nematode worms, 
xvn. 325. 

DOCIMIA, Turkey in Asia, Marble cjuar- 
ries of, xiv. 2. 

DOCK, plant, vn. 309. 

DOCKS, for ships, XL 465; of London, 
xiv. 831. 

DOCKWRA, William, founder of London 
penny post, xix. 565. 

DOCKYARDS, Naval, vn. 310; at Ports 
mouth, xix. 535. 

DOCMAC, fish, xxn. 68. 

DOCTOR, title, vii. 319. 

FAUSTUS, Marlowe s, xv. 556. 

DOCTORS COMMONS, vn. 319. 



DOCTRINAIRES, French political party, 

vn. 319; XL 269. 
DODABETTA, mountain, India, xv. 184; 

xvn. 509. 
DODD, Dr William, English divine, vn. 

DODDER, parasitic plant, vn. 319; 
xvin. 264. 

DODDRIDGE, Philip, English Noncon 
formist divine, vn. 320; hymns by, 
XII. 593. 

DODECAHEDRON, in geometry, x. 388; 
crystals, XVI. 348, 351. 

DODECASTYLE, iii architecture, n. 463. 

DoDERLElN, Johann Christoph, Ger 
man philologist, vn. 320. 

DODO, extinct bird, vn. 321; in. 732; 
xv. 641. 

DODONA, Temple of, Greece, vn. 322. 

DODSLEY, Robert, English writer and 
bookseller, vn. 323. 

DODWELL, Edward, English antiquary, 
vn. 323. 

Henry, English controversialist, 



VII. 323; on deism, VII. 35. 
DOE, John, and Richard Roe, in law, 

vii. 792. 
DOES, Jan van der (Dousa), Dutch 

statesman and poet, vn. 378. 
DOG, DOGS, vn. 324; xv. 355, 437; 

Arabian, n. 243; Egyptian, vn. 712; 

tailless breeds, IV. 248; wild, of India, 

xn. 741; diseases of, xxiv. 205, 206; 

rabies in, xn. 546; xx. 199. 
DOGE, ruler of Venice, vn. 331; xni. 

479; xxiv. 141. 

, ruler of Genoa, vn. 332. 

DoG-FiSH, species of sharks, vn. 332; 

xn. 685; xxi. 774; organs of touch 

in, xxin. 478; of British Columbia, 

vi. 170. 
DOGGER BANK, North Sea, xvn. 563; 

fisheries of, IX. 249. 
DOGMATIC, in theology, vn. 332; of 

Origen, xvn. 841; of Theodoret, xxin. 

256. 

DOGRA, Punjab tribe, India, XX. 110. 
DOG S GROTTO, Naples, Italy, xxiv. 

399- 

DOG TICK, arachnid, xvi. 529. 
DOG-TOOTH, in architecture, n. 463. 
DOGWOOD, plant, vn. 342. 
DOHNA, Christoph von, his letters on 

Sarpi, XXI. 312. 
DOHRN, Anton, German naturalist, 

xxiv. 183; his doctrine of animal 

degeneration, xxiv. Sii. 
DOKTHOL, region, Tibet, XXIII. 340. 
DDL, town, France, vn. 342. 
DOLABELLA, Publius Cornelius, Roman 

general, vn. 343. 

DOLANOR, town, Mongolia, Xiv. 230. 
DOLBEAR, Prof., his condenser telephone, 

XXIIL 129. 

DOLCE, Luigi, Italian writer, vn. 343. 
DOLCI, Carlo, Italian painter, vn. 

343- 



D O L D R 



135 



DOLCINISTS, or Apostolici, Christian 

sect, II. 198. 
DOLCINO, Fra, leader of the Dolciiiists, 

II. 198. 
DOLCOATH MINE, Corn-wall, England, 

xvi. 452. 
D6LE, town, France, vn. 344. 

, mountain, Switzerland, XIII. 781. 

DOLET, Etienne, French scholar and 

printer, VII. 344. 

DOLGELLY, town, Wales, vn. 345. 
DOLGORUKI, Alexis, Kussian prince, 

xxi. 98. 
, George, prince of Suzdal, Russia, 

xxi. 89. 
DOLIOLUM, genus of Tunicata, XXIII. 

609, 615. 
DOLLAR LAW, mountain, Scotland, 

xvin. 451. 

DOLLART ZEE, North Sea, xvn. 563. 
DOLLINGER, Johann J. I., leader of the 

Old Catholics, xvn. 754. 
DOLLOND, John, English optician, VII. 

345; his double-image micrometer, 

xvi. 250; his object-glasses for tele 
scopes, xxiii. 138, 142. 
DOLMENS, stone monuments, II. 383; 

xxi. 52; at Carnac, France, V. 118. 
DOLOMIEU, Deodat G. S. T. Gratet de, 

French mineralogist, vil. 345. 
DOLOMITE, mineral, x. 228, 232; xv. 

217; xvi. 397; in the Alps, I. 630. 
DOLOPES, ancient inhabitants of Scyros, 

Greece, xxi. 574. 
DOLORIDA, De Vigny s poem, XXI v. 

226. 
DOLPHIN (Delphmus, etc.), cetacean 

mammal, vn. 346; xv. 352, 392, 399; 

XIX. 521; distribution of, vn. 280. 
(Coryphsena), fish, vn. 346 ; XII. 

690. 

, in Greek mythology, n. 502. 

RISE, elevation in Atlantic, in. 17. 



DOM, mountain, Switzerland, xxiv. 31. 
, or Domberg, part of Eeval, Russia, 

xx. 495. 
DOMAIRI (Damiri), Arabian naturalist, 

vi. 794; xvi. 597. 
DOMAT, Jean, French jurisconsult, vn. 

346. 
DOMBROWSKI, Jan Henryk, Polish 

general, vn. 347. 

DOME, in architecture, vn. 347; intro 
duction of, into Italy, II. 435. 
DOME-Boc, King Alfred s register, vn. 

350. 

DOME MOUNTAINS, France, xx. 119. 
DOMENICHINO, or Domenico, Zampieri, 

Italian painter, vn. 348; xx. 396. 
DOMENICO BIGORDI, Italian painter, 

x. 567. 
DOMENICO BUONVICINI, Fra, disciple 

of Savonarola, xxi. 337. 
DOME OF THE ROCK, Jerusalem, xxi. 

671. 

DOMESDAY BOOK, vn. 349; vin. 294. 
DOMESTICATION, of animals, i. 84; 



XXIV. 78; its influence on breeding, 

IV. 248; on instinct, xni. 159; of 

plants, IV. 248; xxiv. 78. 
DOMESTIC SERVANTS, in United States, 

xxin. 822. 

DOMETT, variety of flannel, ix. 292. 
DOMEYKITE, mineral, xvi. 393. 
DOMICILE, in law, vn. 351; xin. 191; 

as affecting marriage, vn. 305. 
DOMINIC, St, founder of Dominican 

order, vn. 353; xvi. 710; as inquisitor, 

XIII. 92. 
DOMINICA, island, West Indies, vn. 354; 

population, xxiv. 510. 
DOMINICAL LETTER, in the calendar, iv. 

669. 
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, West Indies, 

ii. 546. 
DOMINICANS, mendicant order of monks, 

VII. 354; xvi. 710; their connexion 

with the Inquisition, Xlil. 93. 
DOMINION, Arms of, in heraldry, XI. 

688. 

OF CANADA, iv. 765. 

DOMINIQUE (Dominica), island, West 

Indies, vn. 354. 
DOMINIS, Marc Antonio de, Italian 

theologian and man of science, vn. 

355- 

DOMINUS AC REDEMPTOR, brief sup 
pressing the Jesuits, xin. 655. 

DOMITIAN, Roman emperor, vn. 355; 
xx. 773; Statius s praise of, xxn. 467. 

DOMOSTROI, early Russian work, xxi. 
104. 

DOMPO, state, Sumbawa, Indian Archi 
pelago, xxn. 641. 

DON, river, Russia, vn. 356; xxi. 74; 
mouth of, XX. 862; Cossacks of the, 
vi. 449. 

DONAGHADEE, town, Ireland, vn. 357. 

DONALD I. -I I., kings of Scotland, xxi. 
478. 

BAIN, king of Scotland, xxi. 481. 

DONALDSON, James, on husbandry, i. 
300. 

, John William, English philologist, 

vn. 357. 

DONATELLO, Italian sculptor and painter, 
vn. 358; xxi. 568. 

DON ATI, Giovanni Battista, Italian astro 
nomer, vn. 359; his comet, 11. 815. 

DONATIO MORTIS CAUSA, in law, xxiv. 

573- 
DONATISTS, early Christian sect, vn. 

359; Augustine s relations with, III. 77. 
DONATUS, bishop of Casoe Nigrse, vn. 

359- 
, ^Elius, Roman grammarian and 

rhetorician, VII. 360; XX. 726. 
MAGNUS, bishop of Carthage, vn. 



359- 
DONAU (Danube, q.v.), river of Europe, 

vi. 819. 

DONAUWORTH, town, Bavaria, vn. 360. 
DON CARLOS, Schiller s drama, xxi. 

396. 



DONCASTER, town, England, vn. 361; 
population, xxiv. 748; horse-racing at, 

XII. 201. 

DON COSSACK COUNTRY, Russia, vn. 

356; vi. 449; xxi. 69. 
DONDUK OMBO, Mongol ruler, xvi. 745. 
DONEGAL, county, Ireland, vii. 361; 

population and representation, xxiii. 

727; town, vii. 361. 
DONETZ, river, Russia, vn. 356; xxi. 

74- 

DONGALA, district, Celebes, v. 290. 
DONGAN, Thomas, governor, New York, 

XVII. 455. 
DON GIOVANNI, Mozart s opera, vn. 

357; xvn. ii. 
DONGO (Angola), district, West Africa, 

ii. 45. 

DONGOLA, town, Egypt, vn. 363. 
DONGOLAWI, people, Nubia, xvn. 612. 
DONIZETTI, Gaetaiio, Italian musical 

composer, VI I. 363; XVII. 99. 
DONJON, in architecture, n. 464, 466. 
DON JUAN, of European legend, vn. 

357- 

DON JUAN, Moliere s play, XVI. 628. 
DONKOLA (Dongola), town, Egypt, VII. 

363- 
DONNE, John, English poet and divine, 

vii. 364. 
DONNER, Lake, Nevada, U.S.A., xvn. 

367- 
DONNIER, Colonel, French officer in 

long-King, xxin. 442. 
DONNIGES, Helene von, her relations 

with Lassalle, xiv. 321. 
DONNYBROOK, village, Ireland, vn. 495. 
DONOVAN, Edward, English naturalist, 

VII. 365; on British birds, xvin. 9. 
DON PASQUALE, Donizetti s opera, vn. 

364- 
DON QUIXOTE, of Cervantes, v. 352; 

xxn. 358. 
DOOLIN OF MAYENCE, romance, xx. 

652. 
DOOM (or DOUM) PALM, of Arabia, n. 

237; xvin. 190. 

DOONDIAH, Indian chieftain, XXIV. 494. 
DOON OF MAYENCE, romance, xx. 

652. 
DOOPSGEZINDEN (Mennonites), Dutch 

religious sect, xvi. 12. 
DOOR, in joinery, iv. 491. 
DOORKEEPERS (Ostiarii), in orders of 

Roman Catholic Church, xvn. 820. 
DOPPLERITE, mineral, xvi. 429. 
DOPPLER S PRINCIPLE, of wave-move 
ments, xiv. 614; as applied to radi~ 

ation, xx. 216. 

DORA BALTEA, river, Italy, xin. 435. 
DORA RIPARIA, river, Italy, xin. 435. 
DORAS, genus of fishes, xxn. 68. 
DOR AT, or Daurat, Jean, French poet 

and scholar, vi. 835; xx. 84; XXL 

363- 

DORCHESTER, town, England, vn. 365. 
, town, New Brunswick, xvn. 375. 



136 



D O R D K A 



DORCOPSIS, genus of marsupial mam 
mals, xiu. 840. 
DORDOGNE, department and river, 

France, VII. 365. 
DORDRECHT (Dort, q.v.), town, Holland, 

vii. 373. 
DORE, Monts, mountains, France, xx. 

119. 
DORIA, Andrea, Genoese admiral, VII. 

366; x. 157. 

, Laniba, Genoese admiral, xix. 406. 

DORIAN LAWS, xv. 95. 

DORIANS, people, ancient Greece, vn. 

366; xi. 90, 92. 

DORIC DIALECT, of Greek, xi. 133. 
DORIC ORDER, of architecture, II. 403, 

409; Roman Doric, U. 418. 
DORIDID^;, family of Mollusca, xvi. 655. 
DORIS, district, ancient Greece, vii. 368. 

, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 657. 

DORKING, town, England, vn. 368; 

xxii. 694. 

- FOWLS, i. 401; xix. 645. 
D ORLEANS, Louis, French poet, VII. 368. 
DORMER WINDOW, in architecture, n. 

463- 

DORMITOR, mountain, Montenegro, xvi. 
780. 

DORMITORY, in architecture, II. 463. 

DORMOUSE, rodent mammal, vii. 368; 
XV. 418; hibernation of, XL 788. 

DORNBIRN, or Dornbuhren, town, 
Austria, vii. 368. 

DORNOCH, town, Scotland, XXII. 727. 

DOROG, Hajdu, town, Hungary, XL 377. 

DOROGOBUSH, or Dorogobuzh, town, 
Russia, vn. 369; xxii. 183. 

DOROGOi, or Dorohoi, town, Roumania, 
vii. 369. 

DOROTHEUS, Roman jurist, vn. 369; 
xiu. 794. 

, bishop of Marcianopolis, his rela 
tions with Nestorianism, xvil. 353. 

DORP, town, Prussia, VII. 369. 

DORPAT, or Dorpt, town, Russia, vii. 
369; observatory at, xvn. 714; obser 
vatory telescope, xxill. 148; univer 
sity, XXlll. 845. 

DORRINGTON, Theophilus, hymns by, 
xn. 592. 

DORSAL VERTEBRA, Anatomy of the, i. 
821. 

D ORSAY, Count, French savant, vn. 369. 

DORSET, county, England, vii. 370; 
population and representation, xxm. 
727. 

, First Earl of, English poet, VI I. 

372- 

, Sixth Earl of, English politician 

and poet, vii. 373. 

SHEEP, i. 392. 

DORSIBRANCHS, section of Annelida, 11. 
66. 

DORT, town, Holland, vii. 373; synod 
of (1578), xix. 696; synod of (1618), 
vn. 374; xn. 78. 

DORTMUND, town, Germany, vn. 374. 



DORY, or John Dory, fish, vii. 374. 
DORYL^EUM, Phrygia, Battle of (1097), 

VI. 625. 
DORYLAUS, ancestor of Strabo, xxn. 

580. 
DOST MOHAMMED, Afghan ruler, i. 

240. 
DoSTOlEVSKl,FeodorM., Russian writer, 

xxi. 108. 
DOUAI, town, France, vii. 375; college 

at, I. 441. 
DOUANY, town, Comoro Islands, Africa, 

VI. 221. 

DOUARNENEZ, town, France, vii. 375. 
DOUAY, or Douai, town, France, vii. 

375; college at, I. 441. 
DOUBLE BASS VIOL, xxiv. 243, 245. 
DOUBLED AY, Thomas, English writer, 

vii. 375. 
DOUBLE ENTRY, in book-keeping, iv. 

45- 
DOUBLET AND HOSE, mediaeval dress, 

vi. 468. 
DOUBLET DE PERSAN, Madame, French 

journalist, xvil. 425. 
DOUBS, department, France, VII. 375; 

river, xiu. 782; XX. 528. 
DOUCE, Francis, English antiquary, vii. 

376- 
HILL, Wicklow, Ireland, xxiv. 



557- 

DOUCHE BATHS, in. 439. 
DOUGLAS, town, Isle of Man, vii. 376; 

xv. 453. 
, knight of Liddesdale, xxi. 489. 

, Earls of, XXI. 490, 491, 493. 
-, Gawain, or Gavin, Scottish poet, 



vn. 376. 

, George, favourite of Mary, queen 

of Scots, xv. 599. 

, James, fourth earl of Morton, 

regent of Scotland, xvi. 849; XXI. 
506. 

, James, second duke of Queens- 
berry, xx. 170. 

, Stephen Arnold, American states 
man, vii. 377; xxill. 772. 

, Sir William, Scottish chief, XXI. 

487. 

, TheTragedy of, Home s drama, xn. 

108. 

SPRUCE, tree, ix. 224. 

DOUM PALM, of Arabia, n. 237; xvm. 
190. 

DOUNE CASTLE, Perthshire, Scotland, 
xvm. 667. 

DOUR, town, Belgium, vii. 378. 

DOURDAN, town, France, XXI. 625. 

DOURO, river, Spain and Portugal, XXII. 
295; mouth of, xvil. 795. 

DOUSA, or Douza, Janus (Van der Does), 
Dutch statesman and poet, vn. 378; 
xxm. 850. 

DOUVILLE, Jean Baptiste, French tra 
veller, vii. 378. 

Douw, Gerhard, Flemish painter, vii. 
379- 



Doux, river, France, xx. 528. 
DOVE, bird, vii. 379; xix. 84, 647. 

, Heinrich W., his syren, I. 109. 

DOVER, town, England, vn. 380; xiv. 

39; treaty of (1670), ix. 576. 

, town, Delaware, U.S.A., vii. 381. 

, town, New Hampshire, U.S.A., 

vii. 381; XVIL 392. 

, Lord, English writer, vn. 381. 

CASTLE, Kent, England, v. 198. 

STRAITS, Proposed tunnelling of, 



xxm. 623. 
DOVRE FJELD, mountains, Norway, 

xvil. 575. 
Dow, or Douw, Gerhard, Flemish 

painter, vn. 379. 
, Lorenzo, American preacher, vn. 

38i. 

DOWALTON, Wigtown, Scotland, Cran- 
nogs of, vi. 552; xxiv. 563. 

DOWLAIS IRON WORKS, Wales, Blowing 
engine at, in. 550. 

DOWLETABAD, town and fortress, India, 
vii. 381. 

DOWN, county, Ireland, vii. 382; popu 
lation and representation, xxill. 727. 

DOWNHAM MARKET, town, England, 
XVIL 536. 

DOWNING COLLEGE, Cambridge, iv. 

73i- 

DOWNING STREET, London, xiv. 839. 
DOWNPATRICK, town, Ireland, vn. 

383. 

CASTLE, Mayo, Ireland, xv. 651. 

DOWNS, Sussex, England, xxii. 723. 

DOWN SURVEY OF IRISH LANDS, Sir 
William Petty s book, XVIII. 724. 

DOXOLOGY, vn. 384. 

DOXOPATER, Johannes, Greek rheto 
rician, XL 147. 

DOYEN, Gabriel Frangois, French 
painter, vii. 384. 

DOYLE, John, English caricaturist, v. 
105. 

, Richard, English caricaturist, v. 

105. 

DRACAENA, stove plant, xn. 266. 

DRACHM, Greek money, xvn. 631. 

, or Drachma, weight, xxiv. 487. 

DRACO, Athenian legislator, vn. 384; 
xi. 96. 

DRACONTIASIS, disease, xvm. 271. 

DRAGMASTRA NORMANI, .species of 
sponges, XXII. 418. 

DRAGOMANS, interpreters, Greek, at 
Constantinople, XI. 124. 

DRAGON, fabulous monster, vn. 385. 
, in heraldry, XI. 701. 
, lizard, vii. 385; xiv. 736. 

FLY, insect, vii. 385; xm. 152. 

DRAGONNADES, persecution of Protes 
tants in France, xv. 27, 305. 

DRAGON S BLOOD, resin, vn. 389 ; 
xvm. 191. 

DRAGOONS, cavalry, v. 262. 

DRAGOSH, traditional founder of Mol 
davia, xxi. 1 8. 



D K A D R U 



137 



DRAGUIGNAN, town, France, vn. 389; 
population, xxiv. 69. 

DRAINAGE, for sewage, xxi. 713; in 
London, xiv. 826; in Paris, xvm. 
280; of houses, iv. 467; xxi. 714. 

, of mines, XVI. 457. 

ACTS, Agricultural, England, I. 334. 

DRAINING, in agriculture, I. 328; in 
relation to manuring, XV. 508; of the 
Fens, England, ill. 482; Xiv. 653; of 
Haarlem Meer, Holland, XL 356; of 
Lake Celano, Italy, v. 286; imple 
ments for, I. 333. 

DRAINS, for houses, iv. 467; xxi. 714. 

, Open, in hill pastures, I. 402. 

DRAKE, Sir Francis, English admiral 
and navigator, vil. 389; x. 184; his 
astrolabe, xvn. 252. 

, Friedrich, German sculptor, xxr. 

566. 

DRAKENBERG, mountains, South Africa, 
xvii. 240; xxni. 517. 

DRAKENBORCH, Arnold, Dutch scholar 
and editor, vn. 390. 

DRAMA, vn. 391; censorship of, xxni. 
227; the lyrical, music of, xvn. 86; 
modern theatres, XXIII. 224; panto 
mime, xvm. 215; English, vill. 419; 
in time of Shakespeare, XXI. 759, 761 ; 
its place and influence in English litera 
ture, vni. 416; French, IX. 644; in 
time of Corneille, vi. 420; of Moliere, 
xvi. 625; of Racine, XX. 205; Greek, 
XI. 140 ; Indian, xxi. 284 ; Italian, 
xin. 506; Persian, xvm. 660; Polish, 
xix. 303; Portuguese, XIX. 556; Pro- 
vengal, xix. 876; Spanish, XXII. 356, 
358; Swedish, xxn. 754, 756. 

DRAMATIC POETRY, xix. 264. 

DRAMATIS PERSONS, vn. 394. 

DRAMBURG, town, Prussia, vn. 444. 

DRAMMEN, town, Norway, vn. 444; 
xvn. 582. 

DRAMS ELV, river, Norway, xvn. 575. 

DRANCE, river, Switzerland, XX. 527. 

DRANGIANA (Sistan), district, Persia, 
xvm. 586; xxn. 101. 

DRAPER, Henry, his observatory, at 
Hastings, New York, U.S.A., xvn. 

715- 
DRAPIER S LETTERS, by Swift, xxn. 

766. 

DRAUGHTS, game, vn. 444. 
DRAVIDA, South-Indian peoples, xxni. 

41. 

DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES, xvin. 779. 
DRAVIDIANS, Indian races, xn. 778; 

xxni. 41. 

DRAWING, delineation, vn. 446; litho 
graphic, xiv. 698; mathematical, xv. 

628; perspective in, XIX. 806. 

PAPER, Sizes of, xvin. 226. 

DRAVTON, Michael, English poet, vn. 

451; xvin. 346; his Polyolbion, I. 

50!. 
DREAM, DREAMS, vn. 452, 293; xv. 

201; xxn. 157; phantoms of, regarded 



as demons, vn. 62; Artemidorus on, 

II. 642. 
DREDGE, The Naturalist s, vn. 459; its 

use in zoological study, XXIV. 814. 
DREDGE S SUSPENSION BRIDGE, iv. 

323- 
DREDGING, in engineering, vn. 463; of 

rivers, xx. 578. 
DRED SCOTT CASE, United States, 

xxni. 772. 
DREIKRETCHAM (Kamenz), town, 

Saxony, Xin. 832. 
DREISSENA, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 

689. 
DRELINCOURT, Charles, French Cal- 

vinist, vn. 467. 
DREME, The, Sir David Lyndsay s poem, 

xv. 107. 
DRENTHE, province, Holland, xn. 64; 

dolmens in, xxi. 52. 
DREPANOPHORUS, genus of nemertine 

worms, XVII. 326. 
DREPANUM, or Drepana (Trapani), 

ancient town, Sicily, XXIII. 522. 
DRESDEN, town, Saxony, vn. 468; xxi. 

358; battle of (1813), xvn. 220; peace 

of (1745), ix. 586; libraries, xiv. 527, 

546; organ in royal Catholic church, 

xvii. 837; picture gallery, XXL 445; 

porcelain ware of, XV. 831; xix. 639. 
CHINA, works at Meissen, Saxony, 

xv. 831; xix. 639. 
DRESS, costume, vi. 453; laws against 

extravagance in, xxn. 644. 
DREUX, town, France, vn. 469. 
DREW, Samuel, English theologian, vn 

469. 
DREYSE, Johann Nicholas von, inventor 

of the needle-gun, vil. 470. 
DRIED FRUITS, xix. 707. 
DRIFFIELD, town, England, vn. 470. 
DRIFT FISHERIES, ix. 250. 
DRIFT PERIOD, in geology, x. 365, 368; 

caves of, n. 337. 

DRIFTWAY, in tunnelling, xxni. 622. 
DRILL, ape, xv. 477. 
, boring tool, XI. 438; mining imple 
ment, XVI. 443, 446. 

, implement for sowing, I. 320. 

, Military, xxiv. 344, 355. 
DRILLING-MACHINE, xv. 155. 
DRINKING CUP, in Roman pottery, 

xix. 618. 
DRIOS, port, Paros, ^Egean Sea, xvin. 

3i9- 

DRISSA, town, Russia, xxiv. 262. 
DRIVA, river, Norway, xvn. 575. 
DRIVER, in applied mechanics, xv. 755. 
DROOE (Dreux), ancient town, France, 

vn. 469. 
DROGHEDA, town, Ireland, vn. 470; 

parliament of (1494), XIII. 261; siege 

of (1649), VI. 600. 
, Countess of, wife of Wycherley, 

xxiv. 707. 

DROHOBYCZ, town, Austria, vn. 471. 
DROITS OF ADMIRALTY, i. 156. 



DROITWICH, town, England, vn. 471; 
xxiv. 666; mineral water of, xvi. 

434- 
DROM^OGNATHOUS TYPE, of birds, in. 

711. 

DROM^EUS, genus of birds, vni. 172. 
D ROMAS, genus of birds, xix. 228. 
DROME, department, France, vn. 471; 

river, xx. 528. 
DROMEDARY, iv, 737; of Arabia, n. 

242. 
DROMICIA, genus of marsupial mammals, 

xvin. 729. 

DROMION, or Dromon, mediseval war 
ship, vn. 310; xxi. 808. 
DRONE, male bee, in. 484, 496. 
DRONKE, his experiments in magnetic 

induction, XV. 250. 

DRONTHEIM, town, Norway, xxni. 321. 
DROPSY, disease, vn. 472; xvin. 388. 
DROSERA, genus of plants, xin. 134. 
DROSOPHYLLUM LUSITANICUM, insec 
tivorous plant, xin. 137. 
DROSTE-HULSHOFF, Baroness of, Ger 
man poetess, vn. 472. 
DROUAIS, Jean Germain, French painter, 

vn. 472. 

DROUET, Jean Baptiste, French Revolu 
tionist, vn. 473. 
D ERLON, Count, French general, 

vn. 473. 
DROUGHT, Meteorological conditions of, 

vi. 5; xvi. 150; in Africa, I. 257; 

xvi. 153. 
DROWNING, vn. 473; death from, xv. 

780; apparatus for saving from, xiv. 

570. 
DROZ, Francois Xavier Joseph, French 

writer, vn. 476. 

, Gustave, French writer, IX. 679. 
DRUGGIST, 11. 198. 
DRUGS, of the pharmacopoeia, XVin. 

730; adulterations of, I. 175. 
DRUIDISM, DRUIDS, vn. 477; v. 302, 

318; reverence for the mistletoe, xvi. 

527; in Scotland, XXI. 475; festivals, 

in Ireland, XIII. 245, 249; monuments, 

xxi. 52. 

DRUIMCETA, or Drumceat, Irish con 
vention at (c. 575), in. 302 ; vi. 167; 

xin. 250. 
DRUM, musical instrument, vn. 479. 

, of the ear, I. 892. 
DRUMCEAT, Ireland, Council of (c. 575), 

in. 302; vi. 167; xin. 250. 
DRUMCLOG, Scotland, Battle of (1679), 

vn. 537; xiv. 251; xxi. 516. 
DRUMMOND, Henry, English politician, 

vn. 479. 
, Thomas, English surveyor, vn. 

480. 
, William, of Hawthornden, Scottish 

poet, vn. 480. 
DRUNKENNESS, vn. 481; xvin. 407; 

in relation to insanity, xin. 102, 109; 

bearing of liquor laws on, xiv. 688; 

societies against, xxni. 159. 

XXV. 1 8 



138 



D R U D U L 



DRUPE, form of fruit, IV. 151. 

DRURY LANE THEATRE, London, xiv. 
836. 

DRUSES, Syrian people, vn. 483. 

DRUSIUS, Johannes (Van den Driesche), 
Flemish divine, vil. 486. 

DRUSUS, Marcus Livius, Roman patri 
cian, vn. 487. 

, Marcus Livius, Roman tribune, VII. 

487; xx. 759. 

, Nero Claudius, brother of the 



emperor Tiberius, xxm. 335. 

DRUZBACKA, Elizabeth, Polish poetess, 
XIX. 302. 

DRYADES, or Dryads, in Greek mytho 
logy, vn. 487; xvn. 688. 

DRYANDER, Jonas, Swedish naturalist, 
vn. 487. 

DRYDEN, John, English poet, vn. 488; 
as dramatist, vil. 435; hymns by, xn. 
592; as satirist, XXI. 319; his place in 
English literature, vill. 423, 424, 425; 
his relations with Shadwell, XXI. 
727. 

DRYOPHID^E, family of snakes, xxn. 

193, 195- 
DRY ROT, in timber, vn. 493; cause of, 

iv. 94. 
DSCHABIR, Abu Musa (Qeber), Arabian 

alchemist, x. 125. 
D SONG ARIA, or Dzungaria, district, 

Central Asia, vil. 587 ; XXIII. 632, 

639- 

DUAB (Doab, q.v.), India, vil. 307. 
DUALIN, kind of dynamite, XVII. 521. 
DUALITY, in geometry, x. 395. 

, Law of, in psychology, xx. 79. 

Du BARRY GOMARD DE VAUBERNIER, 

Countess, mistress of Louis XV., vil. 

494- 

Du BARTAS, Guillaume de Salluste, 
French poet, ill. 401; IX. 651. 

DUBBING, conferring knighthood, xiv. 
118. 

DUBLIN, county, Ireland, vn. 494 ; 
population and representation, xxm. 
727. 

, metropolis of Ireland, vn. 496; 

Irish Academy at, I. 73; foundling 
hospital, ix. 483; law courts, xin. 90; 
libraries, xiv. 523, 542; newspapers, 
xvn. 423; observatory, xvn. 710 ; 
Trinity College, XXIII. 855. 

DUBNO, town, Russia, vil. 502; popu 
lation, xxiv. 282. 

DUBOFKA, town, Russia, VII. 502; XXI. 

305- 
DUBOIS, Guillaume, French cardinal 

and statesman, vn. 502; ix. 584. 

, Jacques, French anatomist, I. 807. 

DUBOS, Jean Baptiste, French political 

writer, vil. 503; IX. 667. 
DUBOSSARi, town, Russia, vil. 503. 
DUBOVKA (Dubofka), town, Russia, VII. 

502; XXI. 305. 
DUBRAVIUS, bishop, Bohemian writer, 

xxn. 152. 



DUBRIS (Dover), ancient town, England, 

vn. 380. 
DUBROVIN, Russian historian, XXI. 

1 08. 

DUBROVNA, town, Russia, vn. 503. 
DUBUAT, Chevalier, on the motion of 

fluids, XII. 437. 
DUBUQUE, town, Iowa, U.S.A., vn. 

504. 

Du Bus, B. A. L., on birds, xvm. 13. 
DUCANGE, Charles Dufresne, French 

historian and philologist, vil. 504. 
DUCAS, Michael, Greek historian, vn. 

504; IV. 613. 
DUCCIO Dl BUONINSEGNA, Italian 

painter, XXI. 433; XXII. 43. 
DUCETIUS (Douketios), Sicilian chief, 

XXII. 17. 
Du CHAILLU, Paul Belloni, his African 

explorations, I. 247. 
DUCHENIUS (A. Duchesne), French 

writer, vil. 504. 
DUCHENNE, G. B., on physiognomy, 

xix. 5. 
DUCHESNE, Andre", French geographer 

and historian, vil. 504. 

, Le Pere (Hebert), French Revolu 



tionist, XI. 594. 
DUCHESS OF MALFY, Webster s tragedy, 

xxiv. 473. 
DUCHY OF LANCASTER, Chancellor of 

the, v. 389; xvi. 474. 
DuciS, Jean Frangois, French dramatist, 

vn. 505. 
DUCK, bird, vil. 505 ; organs of touch 

in, xxm. 479; parasite of, xxm. 540; 

domestic, xix. 647; golden-eye, x. 

757 ; Labrador, ill. 735 ; pochard, 

xix. 252; scoter, XXI. 470. 
DUCKWORTH, Sir John Thomas, English 

admiral, vn. 506. 
DUCLOS, Charles Pineau, French writer, 

VIL 507. 

DUCTILITY, of metals, xvi. 65. 
DUDDON, river, England, xiv. 252. 
DUDEVANT, Madame (George Sand), 

French novelist, vil. 507; ix. 678. 
DUDIK, Beda, Bohemian writer, xxn. 

53- 

DUDINO, town, Siberia, xxiv. 742. 
DUDLEY, town, England, vn. 510; 

population, xxiv. 666. 
, Lord Guildford, husband of Lady 

Jane Grey, XI. 192. 

, Robert, earl of Leicester, xiv. 



425. 

OBSERVATORY, Albany, New York, 
U.S.A., xvn. 715. 
DUDO, early Norman chronicler, XVII. 

539- 

DUEL, VIL 511; as ordeal, xvn. 820. 

DUERO (Douro, q.v.), river, Spain, XXII. 
295. 

DUFAY, C. F. de C., his electrical re 
searches, VIII. 4. 

DUFFERIN, Lord, his observations on 
Canada, IV. 782. 



DUFF HILL, Wicklow, Ireland, xxiv. 
557- 

DUFOUR, Wilhelm Heinrich, Swiss 
general, Vil. 515. 

DUFRENITE, mineral, xvi. 405. 

DUFRENOY, Pierre Armand, French 
geologist, vil. 515. 

DUFRENOYSITE, mineral, xvi. 394. 

DUFRESNY, Charles Riviere, French 
dramatist, VIL 515. 

DUFTON FELL, mountain, England, 
xxiv. 513. 

DUGDALE, Sir William, English anti 
quary, vii. 516. 

DUGONG, cetacean mammal, vii. 516; 
xv. 390. 

DUGONICS, Andrew, Hungarian writer, 
XII. 377. 

DUG-OUT, canoe, iv. 811; xxi. 804. 

DUGUAY-TROUIN, Rene, French admiral, 
vii. 517. 

Du GUESCLIN, Bertrand, constable of 
France, vn. 517; IX. 547. 

Du HAILLAN, B. de Girard, Seigneur, 
French historian, IX. 653. 

DUHALDE, Jean Baptiste, French geo 
grapher, vii. 518. 

DUHAMEL, Jean Baptiste, French astro 
nomer, VII. 518. 

DU MONCEAU, Henri Louis, French 
botanist and agriculturist, vn. 518. 

DUHOVSHINA, town, Russia, xxn. 183. 
Dui, town, Saghalin, Russia, xxi. 147. 
DUILIUS, Column of, at Rome, inscrip 
tion on, xiv. 329. 
DUILLIER, Fatio de, on the invention 

of the calculus, xin. 9. 
DuiSBURG, town, Prussia, vn. 518. 
DUJARDIN, F., on sarcode or protoplasm, 

xix. 828. 
DUK-DUK, mysterious judge, in New 

Britain, xvn. 372. 
DUKE, order of nobility, VII. 519; XXIII. 

418; in the English peerage, xvin. 

464; German, xvin. 461. 

OF CORNWALL, title, xix. 739. 

OF ROTHESAY, title, XIX. 739. 

OF YORK ISLANDS, South Pacific, 

xvn. 372. 

DUKE S LAWS, New York, xvn. 463. 
DUKINFIELD, township, England, VII. 

520. 
DUKLJAMIN, Pop, early Servian writer, 

xxi. 689. 
DULCAMARA, drug, vn. 520; plant, 

xvn. 499. 

DULCAMARIN, in chemistry, XVII. 499. 
DULCE LAMENTAR DE LOS PASTORES, 

Garcilaso de la Vega s pastoral, xvin. 

346. 
DULCIGNO, town, Albania, vn. 520; 

xvi. 781. 
DULLAH, town, Kei Islands, Indian 

Archipelago, Xiv. 27. 
DULONG AND PETIT, on radiation, XX. 

216; their law of gases, in. 40. 
DULSE, edible Algae, I. 508. 



D U L D U P 



139 



DULUTH, town, Minnesota, U.S.A., vn. 

520. 

DULWICH, town, England, vil. 520. 
COLLEGE, at Dulwich, England, i. 

584; VII. 520; library of, xiv. 517; 

picture gallery in, XXI. 445. 
DUMA, administrative assembly, Russia, 

xxi. 70. 
DUMANGAS, town, Philippine Islands, 

vn. 520. 
UUMARSAIS, Cesar Chesneau, French 

philologist, vil. 520. 
DUMAS, Alexandre, the Elder, French 

novelist, vil. 521; IX. 676. 

, Alexandre, the Younger, IX. 676. 
, J. B., on substitution in chemistry, 

v. 466. 
-, Matthieu, Count, French general 



and historian, vn. 523. 

DUMBARTON, county, Scotland, vn. 523; 
population, xxi. 528; representation, 
xxin. 727; town and castle, vn. 525. 

DUMB-BELL, for gymnastic exercise, XI. 

3 SO- 
DUMB-SHOW, Dramatic, xvm. 215. 
DUMDUM, town, India, vn. 525; xxin. 

673- 
DUMERIL, A. M. C., zoologist, XIII. 45; 

his classification of reptiles, XX. 435, 

437- 

DUMERY, bell-founder, ill. 538. 
DUMFRIES, county, Scotland, vn. 526; 

population, xxi. 528; representation, 

xxin. 727; town, vn. 527. 
DUMMLER, E. L., on the Roland legend, 

XX. 626. 

DUMMY, in whist, xxiv. 548. 
DUMNONIA, British kingdom, England, 

vn. 141. 
DUMONT, Jean, French publicist, vn. 

529- 

, Pierre Etienne Louis, Genevese 
political writer, vn. 529; as collabor 
ator with Mirabeau, xvi. 497. 

D URVILLE, Jules Sebastien Cesar, 



French navigator, vn. 530; X. 193. 
DUMOURIEZ, Charles FranQois, French 

Republican general, vil. 530; ill. 130; 

ix. 603. 
DUM PALM, Arabia, n. 237; xvm. 

190. 

DUMRAON, town, India, xxi. 735. 
DiJNA (Southern or West Dwina), river, 

Russia, VIL 569; in. 294; xx. 553; 

xxi. 73. 
DUNABURG, town, Russia, vn. 531; 

population, xxiv. 262. 
DUNA F6LDVAR, town, Hungary, IX. 

355- 
DUNBAR, town, Scotland, VIL 531; 

battle of (1650), VI. 601; XVII. 371; 

XXI. 514. 
, Gavin, archbishop of Glasgow, 

xxi. 498. 
, William, Scottish poet, Vil. 532; 

vni. 415. 
DUNBIRD, bird, XIX. 252, 



DUNBLANE, town, Scotland, vn. 533; 

xvm. 667. 
DUNCAN, king of Scotland, xxi. 480. 

, Viscount, British admiral, vil. 533. 
, John, Niger explorer, I. 246. 

, Thomas, Scottish painter, VII. 533. 
DUNCIAD, Pope s poem, xix. 486; Lewis 

Theobald, butt of the, xxm. 252. 
DUNDALK, town, Ireland, vil. 534. 
DUNDAS, Henry, Viscount Melville, XV. 

843- 

CASTLE, Linlithgow, Scotland, xiv. 



670. 

DUNDEE, town, Scotland, vn. 534; 
population, XXI. 528; newspapers of, 
xvn. 423. 
-, Viscount (Graham of Claverhouse), 



vn. 536; xxi. 516. 
DUN DIVER, bird, xvi. 35. 
DUNDONALD, Tenth Earl of (Lord Coch- 

rane), naval officer, vil. 539. 
DUNEDIN, town, New Zealand, vil. 

541. 
DUNES, or Sand Hills, x. 265; of 

Western Asia, xxn. 820; xxin. 511; 

of Holland, xn. 60; of Sahara, Africa, 

xxi. 149. 
-, Battle of the (1658), xxm. 626. 



DUN FELL, mountain, England, xxiv. 

5i3- 

DUNFERMLINE, town, Scotland, vil. 542. 
-, James Abercromby, Lord, I. 37. 



DUNG, its use in agriculture, I. 342; 

farmyard, its composition, XV. 509. 
DUNGANNON, town, Ireland, vn. 543; 

xxm. 713. 

DUNGARPUR, state, India, xx. 260. 
DUNGARVAN, town, Ireland, vn. 543; 

population, xxiv. 401. 
DUNGEON, in architecture, II. 464. 
- GILL FORCE, waterfall, England, 

xxiv. 514. 

DUNGHUNTER, bird, XXII. 125. 
DUNIPACE, town, Scotland, xxn. 554. 
DUNKELD, town, Scotland, vil. 543. 
DUNKERQUE (Dunkirk), town, France, 

vn. 543. 
DUNKERRY HILL, Somerset, England, 

xxil. 257. 
DUNKERS, sect of American Baptists, 

VIL 543. 
DUNKIRK, town, France, vn. 543. 

, town, New York, U.S.A., vn. 544. 

DUNLEARY (Kingstown), town, Ireland, 

xiv. 90. 

DUNLIN, bird, xxi. 260. 
DUN LOP, R. H. Wallace, inventor of 

swimming plates, XXII. 771. 
CHEESE, v. 456. 
DUN MAC UISNEACHAIN, Scotland, 

Vitrified fort at, xxiv. 264. 
DUNMOW, town, England, vn . 544. 
DUNN, Samuel, Wesleyan seceder, xvi. 

190. 
DUNNET HEAD, Caithness, Scotland, 

iv. 647. 
DUNNING, John, Lord Ashburton, 



English lawyer and statesman, vn. 

544- 

DUNNOCK, bird, xxn. 369. 
DUNOIS, Jean, bastard of Orleans, 

French soldier, Vil. 544; IX. 549, 551. 
DUNOON, town, Scotland, Vil. 545. 
DUNOYER, Charles, French economist, 

xix. 383. 
DUN RIG, mountain, Scotland, xxi. 

638. 

DUNSE, town, Scotland, ill. 613. 
DUNSINANE, Scotland, Battle of (1054), 

xvm. 667. 
DUNSINK, near Dublin, Astronomical 

observatory at, vn. 498; xvn. 710. 
DUNS SCOTUS, John, mediaeval scho 
lastic writer, vil. 545; xvi. 710; xxi. 

429; on the being of God, xxm. 241; 

his ethical teaching, VIII. 594; on 

evolution, vni. 758. 
DUNSTABLE, town, England, vil. 546. 
DUNSTAN, St, archbishop of Canter 
bury, vn. 546; viii. 286, 405; his 

influence on the Church of England, 

viii. 371; his relations with King 

Edwy, VIL 692. 
DUNTON, John, English bookseller and 

author, vil. 547. 
DUNY, Annie, Suffolk witch, xxiv. 

621. 
DUODENUM, Anatomy of the, vn. 225; 

xvii. 668. 
DUPERRE, Victor Guy, Baron, French 

admiral, i. 566. 
DUPERREY, Louis Isidore, French 

navigator, VII. 547. 
DUPERRON, Abraham H. Anquetil, 

French Orientalist, II. 90; XXiv. 778. 

, Jacques Davy, French cardinal, 

vn. 548; i. 784; ix. 654. 
Du PETIT-THOUARS, L. M. A., French 

admiral, xxin. 22. 
DUPIN, Andre Marie J. J., French 

advocate and politician, vn. 548. 

, Aurore (George Sand), French 

writer, vn. 507. 
, Louis Ellies, French ecclesiastical 

historian, vil. 548. 
FAMILY, friends of Rousseau, xxi. 



24. 
DUPLEIX, Joseph, governor-general of 

French India, vil. 549; IX. 587; XII. 

800. 
DUPLESSIS, Lucile, wife of Desmoulins, 

vil. 131. 

Du PLESSIS-MORNAY, P., French Pro 
testant writer, IX. 654; xvi. 828. 
DUPLEX TELEGRAPHY, xxm. 122. 
DUPONT, Peter, grand-master of Knights 

of St John, XXI. 174. 

, Pierre, French poet, vn. 549. 
- DE L EURE, Jacques Charles, 

French lawyer and statesman, VI I. 

549- 

DE NEMOURS, Pierre Samuel, 

French economist and statesman, vil. 
550; xix. 361. 



140 



D U P D Y IS 



DUPPLIN MUIR, Scotland, Battle of 
(1332), xxi. 489. 

DUPRE, A., on the elimination of alcohol 
from the body, I. 471; on thermody 
namics, v. 58. 

DUPUIS, Charles Francois, French scien 
tific writer, vn. 550. 
, Joseph, his mission to Ashantee, 
n. 681. 

, French trader in Tong-King, xxin. 



441. 

DUPUYTREN, Guillaume, Baron, French 
surgeon, vn. 551. 

DUQUESNE, Abraham, Marquis, French 
naval officer, vn. 551; his bombard 
ments of Algiers (1682, 1683), I. 
566. 

DUQUESNOY, Frangois, Flemish sculp 
tor, XXI. 563. 

DURA MATER, membrane of the brain, 
I. 864. 

DURAN, Augustin, Spanish writer, vn. 
552; xxii. 361. 

D UR AND, Amand, photographic engraver, 
viii. 440. 

DURANDUS, Wilhelmus, papal legate and 
canonist, vn. 552. 

DURANGITE, mineral, XVI. 408. 

DURANGO, state, Mexico, xvi. 214. 

, or Duranga, town, Mexico, VII. 553; 

XVI. 214. 

, town, Spain, vil. 552. 

DURANTE, Francesco, Italian musical 
composer, vn. 553. 

DURANTl,or Durantis (Durandus), papal 
legate, vn. 552. 

DURAO, Jose" de Santa Ritta, Brazilian 
poet, vn. 553. 

DURAZZO, town, European Turkey, vil. 

553- 
DURBAN, or D Urban, town, Natal, 

South Africa, VII. 553; XVII. 240; 

observatory at, XVII. 716. 
DURBOTS, or Dorbod, Mongol tribe, 

iv. 710; xvi. 749. 
DURBUNGA (Darbhangah), town, India, 

xxin. 407. 

DiJREN, town, Prussia, VII. 553. 
DiJRER, Albrecht, German painter, vn. 

554; xxi. 438; as engraver, vin. 441; 

as sculptor, xxi. 565; as writer, x. 

529; on fortification, ix. 443, 465; 

medals by, xvil. 658; his house at 

Nuremberg, xvil. 663; his connexion 

with Marcantonio, XV. 531; his rivalry 

with Lucas of Leyden, xv. 38. 
D URFEY, Thomas, English satirist, vil. 

559- 

DURHAM, county, England, vn. 559; 
population and representation, xxin. 
727; breed of cattle in, I. 387; coal 
field, vi. 51. 

, town, England, vil. 561; observa 
tory at, XVIL 710; university, XXIII. 

853- 

, First Earl of (John George 

Lambton), vn. 563. 



DURHAM, Arthur E., his observations on 

sleep, xxn. 155. 

BOOK, MS. of Gospels, xvm. 159. 

DURIAN, fruit of durio tree, Vil. 563; 

iv. 57. 

DURKHEIM, town, Germany, vn. 564. 
DURLACH, town, Bavaria, vn. 564. 
DURMAST OAK, xvn. 690. 
DURNESS, Kyle of, sea-loch, Scotland, 

xxn. 726. 
DURNOVARIA (Dorchester), ancient 

town, England, vn. 365. 
DUROCASSIS (Dreux), ancient town, 

France, vn. 469. 
DUROCORTORUM (Rheims), Roman 

settlement, France, XX. 508. 
DUROSTORUM (Silistria), ancient town, 

Bulgaria, xxn. 54. 
DUROVERAY, collaborator with Mira- 

beau, xvi. 497. 
DUROVERNUM (Canterbury), ancient 

town, England, v. 29. 
DURRA, Indian millet, vil. 564; xvi. 

321. 

DURRANIS, Afghan clan, I. 234. 
D URViLLjEA, genus of Algae, I. 509. 
D URVILLE, Dumont, French explorer, 

vn. 530; x. 193. 
DURY, Giles, English news-book writer, 

xvil. 414. 
DUSHAN, Stephen, king of Servia, xxi. 

688. 
DUSHETY, town, Transcaucasia, Russia, 

xxin. 514. 
DUSSEK, Johann Ludwig, Bohemian 

pianist and composer, vn. 564. 
DiiSSELDORF, town, Prussia, vn. 565; 

XX. 16, 21 ; observatory at, xvn. 712. 
DiJSSELTHAL, village, Rhenish Prussia, 

vn. 565. 

DUST SHOWERS, x. 266. 
DUST STORMS, xvi. 131. 
DUTCH, their national character, xn. 

69; settlements of, in Asia, n. 701; 

settlements at Cape of Good Hope, v. 

440. 

- DRAMA, vn. 443. 
EAST INDIA COMPANY, Establish 
ment of, xn. 78. 

EAST INDIES, xn. 818. 

GUIANA, South America, XI. 251. 
LANGUAGE, xn. 84; dictionaries 



of, vn. 187. 

LITERATURE, xn. 90. 
REFORMED CHURCH, America, 

xix. 701. 

DUTENS, Louis, French writer, VII. 566. 
DUTROCHET, Rend Joachim Henri, 

French man of science, vn. 566. 
DUTY, see article Ethics; Stoic theory 

of, xxn. 568. 
Du VAIR, Guillaume, French jurist and 

writer, xxiv. 31. 

DUVAL, Jules, French economist, vn. 566. 
DUVEKE, or Dyveke, mistress of 

Christian II. of Denmark, vn. 587. 
DUVERGIER DE HAURANNE, Jean, 



French theologian, vn. 567; his rela 
tions with Jansen, xin. 566. 
DUVERNEY, J. G., French anatomist, i. 

812. 
D U VET, Frangois Joseph, French sculptor, 

xxi. 564. 
DVINA, or Dwina (q.v.\ rivers, Russia, 

vn. 568, 569; xxi. 73. 
DWALE, or Belladonna, plant, in. 543. 
DWARAKA, or Dwarka, town, India, vn. 

567. 

DWARF, vn. 567; xvi. 762. 
DWARKA, town, India, vn. 567. 
DWARS, Western, district, India, xin. 

548. 
DwiGHT, John, English potter, XIX. 

632. 

, Timothy, American theological and 

miscellaneous writer, vn. 568; l. 722. 
DWINA, Northern, river, Russia, vn. 

568; xxi. 73. 
, Southern, or West, river, Russia, 

vn. 569; in. 294; xx. 553; xxi. 73. 
DYAKS, race of people, Borneo, IV. 58; 

Sir James Brooke s treatment of, iv. 

370. 
DYCE, Alexander, English critic, vn. 

569. 

, William, Scottish painter, vn. 569. 

DYCH TAU, mountain, Caucasus, v. 

252. 
DYE, DYES, vn. 574; in photography, 

xvin. 836. 
COLOURS, in calico-printing, iv. 

686. 

DYEDINOVO, town, Russia, xxi. 116. 
DYEING, vn. 570; of silk, xxn. 64. 
DYER, Sir Edward, English pastoral 

poet, xvin. 346. 

, John, English poet, vn. 580. 
DYER S MADDER, xv. 176. 
DYKES, in geology, x. 312. 

, embankments, Holland, xn. 60. 

DYMPHNA, St, Legend of, x. 562. 
DYNAMICAL THEORY OF HKAT, xxin. 

283. 
DYNAMICS, vn. 581; xv. 698; xix. 2; 

abstract, XV. 676; applied, xv. 764; 

transformation of energy in, vin. 206. 
DYNAMITE, explosive, vn. 583; vin. 

810; xvn. 520; as used in blasting, 

in. 809. 
DYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINE, xiv. 

630; xxin. 494; Siemens s invention 

of, xxn. 38. 
DYNAMOMETER, vn. 584; xv. 764; 

Stephenson s marine, XI. 458. 
DYNE, unit of force, vin. 206; xv. 668; 

xxin. 116. 
DYRRACHIUM (Durazxo), ancient town, 

Albania, vn. 553; vin. 476; xn. 709. 
DYSANALYTE, mineral, xvi. 426. 
DYSART, town, Scotland, vn. 584. 
DYSENTERY, disease, vn. 584; xvin. 

395; in Egypt, vn. 704. 
DYSMEROGENESIS, in growth of com 
posite organisms, xn. 555. 



D Y 



E A U 



141 



DYSON, Jeremiah, friend of Akenside, 

I- 435- 
DYSPEPSIA, disease, vn. 586; diet in 

relation to, vn. 206. 
DYSPHONIA CLERICORUM, disease, 

xxm. 320. 
DYSPNCEA, arrest of respiration, xx. 

485. 
DYSPOROMORPH^E, group of birds, in. 

7i3- 
DYVEKE, mistress of Christian II. of 

Denmark, vn. 587. 
DZERIN, antelope, n. 101. 
DzuNGANS, people, Turkestan, XXIII. 

636. 
DzUNGARlA, region, Central Asia, VII. 

587; xxni. 632, 639. 
DZUNGARIAN GATE, pass, Central 

Asia, xxni. 634. 



17 the fifth letter of the alphabet, 

Cy > vii. 588. 

EA, Accadian god, in. 193. 

EACHARD, John, English divine and 
humorist, vn. 588. 

EADBERT, Northumbrian king, xvn. 
570. 

EADGAR, or Edgar, king of Northum- 
bria, vin. 286; xvn. 571. 

EADGYTH, wife of Harold II. of Eng 
land, xi. 487. 

EADIE, John, Scottish Biblical critic, 
vn. 588. 

EADMER, English ecclesiastic and his 
torian, vn. 589. 

EADMUND (Edmund), king of East 
Anglia, vn. 669. 

I. and II., kings of the West 

Saxons, England, vn. 669. 

EADRED, king of Northumbria, xvn. 

57o, 57i- 
EADS, Captain, American engineer, XX. 

580. 
EADWARD (Edward) I., early English 

king, vn. 68 1 ; vin. 284. 
II., early English king, VII. 68 1; 

vin. 286. 
III., the Confessor, early English 

king, vn. 68 1 ; vin. 289. 
EADWIG (Edwy), the Fair, king of 

Wessex, vn. 692; vin. 286. 
EADWINE (Edwin), king of Northumbria, 

vn. 691; xvn. 569. 
EAGER, or Bore (q.v.), tidal wave, xiv. 

654. 
EAGLE, bird, vn. 589; golden, xiv. 

244. 
MOUNTAINS, Texas, U.S.A., xxni. 

204. 

EAGLE-RAY, fish, xx. 300. 
EAGLEWOOD, a fragrant wood, iv. 725. 
EALDHUNE, Bishop, founder of Durham 

cathedral, vn. 561. 
EALDORMAN, Saxon executive officer, 

xvin. 302. 
EALDRED, archbishop of York, i. 475. 



EALRED, or Ailred, English ecclesiastic 
and historian, I. 425. 

EANFRID, Anglo-Saxon prince, xvn. 
569. 

EAR, vn. 591; anatomy of, I. 891; as 
affected by sound vibrations, I. 100; 
its powers of musical perception, xvn. 
102; in birds, in. 725; in reptiles, 
XX. 461. 

EAR-ACHE, disease, vn. 594. 

EAR COCKLE, in wheat, xxiv. 536. 

EARL, title of nobility, vn. 595; xxni. 
418; early English, vin. 274; position 
of, in peerage, xvni. 459, 464. 

EARLE, John, English bishop and author, 
vn. 596. 

EARL-MARSHAL, officerof state, xv. 574. 

EARLOM, Richard, English engraver, vn. 
596. 

EARL S BARTON, England, steeple of 
church, n. 425. 

EARN, loch and river, Scotland, xvin. 
666. 

EARNEST, in sale, xxi. 207. 

EAR-RING, ornament, vn. 596. 

EAR-SHELL, mollusc, xvi. 645. 

EARTH, Figure of the, vn. 597; n. 792; 
xn. 442; its place in solar system, n. 
766, 792; X. 214; age of, X. 226; changes 
in its centre of gravity, X. 217; early 
observations on its circumference, XX. 
92; its geological relations, x. 216; gra 
vitation at its surface, XI. 66; its action 
on a magnet, XV. 223, 238; magnetic 
state of, xvi. 159; first measurement 
by Eratosthenes, II. 748; its motion 
round the sun maintained by Arist- 
archus, n. 504; by Galileo, X. 33; 
shown by aberration of light, I. 48; its 
motions in relation to dialling, vn. 
154; rigidity of, xxni. 374; effect 
of its rotation on the winds, n. 
690; tidal retardation of its rotation, 
xxni. 377, 378; Cusanus on its rota 
tion, VI. 729; sphericity of, X. 197; 
irregularities of its surface, X. 170; 
tidal deformation of, xxni. 373; 
influence of tidal friction on its 
evolution, XXIII. 378; Button s theory 
of, xii. 415; Thales s, xxni. 218. 

, Sacred Theory of the, Burnet s 

work, iv. 564. 
, Medicinal, of Lemnos, xiv. 436. 

EARTH-CLOSET, i. 349; iv. 468; xxi. 
717. 

EARTH-FLEA, insect, ix. 301. 

EARTH FLEA-BEETLE, xxni. 668. 

EARTHKIN, Gilbert s spherical magnet, 
xv. 222. 

EARTH NUT, XL 221. 

EARTH PIG, edentate mammal, I. 3; xv. 

389- 

EARTHQUAKE, EARTHQUAKES, vn. 
608; x. 254 ; measurement of, XXI. 
626; at Antioch, n. 131; in the Azores, 
in. 170; in Chili, v. 616; European, 
vin. 683; at Ischia (1883), XVII. 



188; in Japan, xin. 574; in Java, 
xin. 601; of Lisbon (1755), XIV. 690; 
in Peru, xvin. 672; in the Philip 
pines, xvin. 749; in South America, 
i. 673; in United States, iv. 700; 
xxn. 287. 

EARTHS, for brick-making, IV. 280; 
xiv. i. 

, Alkaline, v. 525, 543. 

EARTH THERMOMETER, xxni. 291. 

EARTHWORKS, fortifications, ix. 430. 

EARTHWORM, xxiv. 677. 

EARWIG, insect, vn. 612; xin. 152. 

EASBY ABBEY, Yorkshire, England, i. 20. 

EASEL, Painter s, xvin. 137. 

EASEMENT, in law, vn. 613. 

EASKY, river, Ireland, xxn. 159. 

EASTBOURNE, town, England, vn. 613; 
xxn. 724. 

EASTER, church festival, vn. 613; 
feast of the Jews, xvin. 511; time of 
celebrating, IV. 668, 675; Xin. 273. 
ISLAND, South-East Pacific, xix. 
428; xx. 273. 

EASTERN CHURCH, xi. 154. 

EASTERN ROUMELIA, province of Tur 
key in Europe, xxni. 652. 

EASTER SUNDAY, x. 774. 

EAST GIRT HILL, Scotland, xx. 395. 

EAST GRINSTEAD, town, England, 
xxn. 724. 

EAST HILL, New York, U.S.A., xxni. 

793- 
EAST INDIA COMPANY, 11. 701; xn. 

798, 811; XXI. 827; its beginning, vi. 

12; incorporation of, X. 185; gover 
nors-general of India under, ill. 570; 

in time of Hastings, xi. 514. 
EAST INDIA COMPANY, Dutch, x. 186; 

establishment of, XII. 78. 
EAST INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO, xn. 731, 

815. 
EASTLAKE, Sir Charles Lock, English 

painter, vn. 615. 

EASTLAND COMPANY, English, xxi. 827. 
EAST LONDON, town, British Kaffraria, 

xin. 817. 
EAST LOTHIAN (Haddington, q.v.\ 

county, Scotland, xi. 361. 
EAST LYNNE, Mrs H. Wood s novel, 

xxiv. 644. 
EAST MOULSEY, town, England, xxn. 

694. 
EASTON, town, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 

vn. 616. 

EAST RETFORD, town, England, xx. 487. 
EAST SAGINAW, town, Michigan, U.S.A., 

vn. 616. 
EATA, abbot of Melrose, Scotland, vi. 

732- 

EATON, Theophilus, founder of New 
Haven, Conn., U.S.A., xvn. 395. 
-, William, his improvements on 



cotton-spinning mule, VI. 498. 
EAU CLAIRE, town, Wisconsin, U.S.A., 

xxiv. 617. 
EAU DE COLOGNE, perfume, vn. 616. 



142 



E A U E D E 



EAUX-BONNES, spa, France, xvi. 435; 

xx. 127. 

EAUX-CHAUDES, spa, France, xx. 127. 
EBAL, Mount, Palestine, x. 444; xxi. 

244. 
EBEL, Hermann Wilhelm, German 

philologist, vn. 616. 
EBER, Hebrew patriarch, XI. 594. 
EBERHARD, duke of Wiirtemberg, vn. 

616; xxiv. 702. 
, August Gottlob, German poet, vn. 

617. 

, Johann Augustus, German theo 
logian, vn. 617; xx. 290. 
EBERSWALDE, town, Prussia, xvn. 366. 
EBERT, Friedrich Adolf, German biblio 
grapher, vn. 6 1 8. 

EBINGEN, town, Wiirtemberg, vn. 618. 
EBIONITES, early Christian sect, vn. 

618; Irenseus on, Xlll. 273, 274. 
EBISUMINATO, town, Japan, xvn. 500. 
EBOE (Ibo), district, AVest Africa, xn. 

610. 

EBOLI, to\vn, Italy, vn. 619. 
EBONITE, or Vulcanite, xn. 842. 
EBONY, wood, vn. 619. 
EBORACUM (York), Roman station, Eng 
land, xxiv. 751. 
EBNER, Christina and Margaretha, 

German mystics, xvn. 133. 
EBN-MALEK, Arabic grammarian, n. 

265. 
EBRO, river, Spain, vn. 619; xxn. 

295. 
EBRODUNUM (Embrun), ancient town, 

France, vin. 162. 
EBURODUNUM (Yverdon), ancient town, 

Switzerland, xvn. 361. 
EBUSUS (Ivic,a), one of the Balearic 

Islands, Spain, in. 278; xvm. 808. 
ECARTE, card game, VII. 620. 
ECBALIUM, genus of plants, vi. 688; vn. 

825. 
ECBATANA, various ancient Asiatic 

towns, vn. 621. 
(Hamadan), ancient town, Persia, 

vii. 621; xvm. 561; ruins of, n. 399. 
ECBOLIN, vegetable alkaloid, vill. 521. 
ECCA (lea), town, Peru, xn. 61 1. 
ECCARD, Johannes, German composer, 

vn. 621. 
ECCELINO, or Ezzelino (q.v.\ Italian 

Ghibelline chief, vn. 622. 
ECCHELLENSIS, Abraham, learned 

Maronite, vii. 622. 
ECCHONDROSIS, disease, xvm. 370. 
ECCLES, town, England, vn. 622. 
ECCLESIA, Athenian assembly, vn. 622. 
ECCLESIASTES, Book of, VII. 623; III. 

639- 

ECCLESIASTICAL COMMISSION, Eng 
lish, vii. 627. 

ECCLESIASTICAL LAW, vn. 627; v. 16. 
ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY, Laws of, 

Hooker s work, xil. 151. 
ECCLESI ASTICUS, Book of, in Apocrypha, 

n. 181. 



ECCLESIAZUS/E, Aristophaiies s comedy, 
II. 509. 

ECDEMITE, mineral, XVI. 408. 

ECGBERHT (Egbert), king of the West 
Saxons, vn. 695; vin. 282. 

ECHELLENSIS, Abraham, Maronite, vn. 
622. 

ECHIDNA, genus of monotrematous mam 
mals, vn. 628; xv. 378. 

ECHINIDEA, order of Echinodermata, 
vn. 629. 

ECHINOCACTUS, group of Cactaceae, iv. 
625. 

ECHINODERMA, iii Lank ester s classifica 
tion, xxiv. 813. 

ECHINODERMATA, vn. 629; embryology 
of, xx. 419; reproduction, XX. 409; 
skeletal structures, xxn. 106; distribu 
tion, vn. 278, 283; Agassiz on fossil 
forms, i. 275. 

ECHINOPSIS, group of Cactacese, iv. 625, 
626. 

ECHINORHINUS, genus of sharks, XXI. 
778. 

ECHINORHYNCHUS GiGAS, parasite of 
the pig, xxiv. 206. 

ECHINOTHRIX, genus of rodent mam 
mals, xvn. 6. 

ECHINUS, in architecture, n. 464. 

, genus of Echinodermata, vn. 629, 

631; fisheries, Italy, ix. 268. 

ECHIS, genus of snakes, xxn. 199; xxiv. 
247. 

ECHO, in Greek mythology, vn. 640. 

, in acoustics, I. 107. 

, Porch of, at Olympia, Greece, xvn. 

769. 

ECHTERNACH, town, Luxemburg, XV. 87. 

EcHUCA,town, Victoria, Australia, xxi v. 
215. 

EciJA, town, Spain, vn. 641; xxi. 708. 

EciTON, foraging ant, II. 97. 

ECK, Johann Maier von, opponent of 
Luther, vn, 641; xv. 73. 

ECKERMANN, John Peter, German 
writer, vn. 641. 

ECKERSBERG, Carl Vilhclm, Danish 
painter, vn. 641. 

ECKHART, Johannes, German mystic, 
vn. 642; x. 526; xvn. 132; xxin. 
278; on the nature of God, xxn I. 241. 

ECKHEL, Joseph Hilarius, German 
numismatist, vn. 643. 

ECKHOF, C., German dramatist, vii. 441. 

ECKHOLD S OMNIMETER, theodolite, 
xxn. 719. 

ECKMUHL, Bavaria, Battle of (1809), in. 

133- 

ECLAMPSIA, disease, xvm. 391. 
ECLECTICISM, in Greek philosophy, 

XXI. 380; of the Stoics, xxn. 571; 

Jouffroy s, Xlll. 754. 
ECLECTIC PHILOSOPHY, vn. 643. 
ECLECTUS, genus of birds, xv. 7. 
ECLIPSE, ECLIPSES, of the sun, n. 788, 

802; XIV. 581; xxn. 650; records of, 

by the Assyrians, III. 191; by the 



Chinese, II. 745; predicted by Thales, 

xxin. 217; of the moon, n. 802. 
ECLIPSE, race horse, xn. 184. 
ECLIPTIC, apparent path of the sun, n. 

771; obliquity of, n. 794; change in 

obliquity, X. 216. 

ECLOGUE, in literature, xvm. 345. 
ECLOGUES, of Virgil, xxiv. 251. 
ECNA, ancient learned class in Ireland, 
. v. 303- 
ECOLE DES FEMMES, Moliere s play, 

xvi. 628. 

ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE, Paris, xxin. 
,851- 
ECOLE PRATIQUE DES HAUTES 

ETUDES, Paris, xxin. 851. 
ECONOMICS, or Political Economy, xix. 

346. 
ECONOMITES, American communistic 

society, vi. 216. 

ECSTASY, nervous disorder, vn. 644. 
ECTHYMA, skin disease, xxn. 123. 
ECTODERM, layer of animal tissue, n. 

51; xn. 4. 

CELLS, xix. 14. 



ECTOPARASITES, in Leuckart s classifica 
tion, xvm. 261. 

ECTOPLASM, in histology, xn. 4. 

ECTOPROCTA, subclass of Polyzoa, xix. 
436. 

ECUADOR, state, South America, vn. 
644; I. 712; liberation of, by Bolivar, 
iv. 8; forests of, IX. 406. 

ECUMENICAL COUNCILS, of the church, 
vi. 510. 

ECZEMA, skin disease, xxn. 122 ; mer 
curial preparations used for, xvi. 34. 

EPIZOOTICA, cattle disease, xvn. 



60. 

EDAM, town, Holland, vn. 649. 
EDAY, island, Orkney, Scotland, xvn. 

846. 
EDCHMIADZIN (Etchmiadzin), town, 

Russia, vin. 566; xxin. 515. 
EDDA, collections of Icelandic literature, 

vn. 649; xn. 622; XXI. 368; Snorro s, 

XXII. 201. 

EDDVSTONE LIGHTHOUSE, in English 

Channel, xiv. 615. 
EDE, town, West Africa, xxiv. 754. 
EDELINCK, Gerard, Flemish engraver, 

vn. 651. 
EDEN, Garden of, vn. 651; I. 135; xvi. 

5i- 
, Ashley, English envoy to Bhutan, 

ill. 632. 

, Hon. Emily, English authoress, 
vn. 652. 

, George, earl of Auckland, in. 68. 
-, William, Lord Auckland, ill. 68. 



EDENTATA, order of mammals, vn. 652; 

xv. 372, 383. 
EDER, J. M., on photography, xvm. 

822. 
EDESSA, town, Macedonia, vn. 652; xv. 

137- 
(Orfa), town, Turkey in Asia, vn. 



E D E E G G 



143 



652; XVI. 47; language of, XXI. 649; 
massacre of (1144), XV. 18; schools 
and writers of, xxil. 830. 

EDESSA, Latin principality of, vi. 625. 

EDEYEN, sand-dunes, Sahara, Africa, 
xxi. 149. 

EDFU, or Edfoo, town, Upper Egypt, VII. 
653, 783; temple at, n. 389. 

EDGAR, king of Northumbria, vin. 286; 
xvn. 571. 
, king of Scotland, xxi. 481. 

EDGEHILL, England, Battle of (1642), 
VIH. 347. 

EDGE TOOLS, xi. 437. 

EDGEWORTH, Maria, novelist, vn. 653. 

, Ki chard Lovell, writer and 

mechanician, vn. 655. 

EDGYTH, wife of Harold II. of Eng 
land, xi. 487. 

EDIBLE BIRDS NESTS, xxn. 760. 

EDICT OF NANTES (1598), ix. 564; 
xix. 695; revocation of (1685), iv. 
743; ix. 579. 

EDICT OF RESTITUTION, of the emperor 
Ferdinand (1629), ill. 125. 

EDICTS, in Roman law, xx. 697, 704. 

EDINBURGH, county, Scotland, vn. 656; 
area and population, XXI. 528; repre 
sentation, xxiii. 727; coalfield, vi. 

54- 

, metropolis of Scotland, vn. 659; 

population, xxi. 528 ; origin of the 
name, vn. 691; XV. 10; treaty of 
(1560), xxi. 502; abattoirs, I. 7; 
libraries, xiv. 522, 542; newspapers, 
XVII. 422; observatory, xvn. 710; 
university, xxiii. 846, 854. 

REVIEW, its history, xm. 617; 

its influence in English literature, 
vin. 434; Macaulay s contributions 
to, XV. 126; Brougham s connexion 
with, iv. 375; Sydney Smith s, XXII. 
177; John Wilson s, xxiv. 592. 

EDINGTONITE, mineral, xvi. 423. 

EDIRNEH (Adrianople), province, Tur 
key in Europe, XXIII. 653. 

EDISON, Thomas Alva, his contribu 
tions to telephony, XXIII. 129, 132. 

EDISTO INLET, South Carolina, U.S.A., 
xxn. 287. 

EDMER (Eadmer), English ecclesiastic 
and historian, vn. 589. 

EDMONDSON, William, Irish Quaker, 
xx. 152. 

EDMONTON, Fort, Canada, xv. 490. 

EDMUND, St, archbishop of Canterbury, 
vn. 668. 

, king of East Anglia, VII. 669. 

I., II., kings of the West Saxons, 

England, vil. 669. 

, Swedish king, XXII. 745. 

CROUCH BACK, earl of Lancaster, 

xiv. 255. 

EDOM, or Esau, son of the patriarch 
Isaac, vni. 533. 

, or Idumea, district south of Pales 
tine, xn. 699. 



EDOMITES, of Scripture, xm. 397; xvi. 
533; xvn. 702; xvin. 175. 

EDRENEH (Adrianople, q.v.), town, Tur 
key in Europe, I. 166. 

EDRIOASTERIDA, order of Echinoder- 
mata, vn. 638. 

EDRIOPHTHALMIA, division of Crus 
tacea, vi. 658. 

EDRIS, town, Morocco, xvi. 834. 

EDRISI, or Idrisi, Arabian geographer, 
VIL 669; x. 177. 

EDUCATION, History of, vn. 670; phy 
sical, XI. 348; technical, XXIII. 105; 
laws relating to, vil. 679; in relation 
to the poor laws, xix. 476; in the 
Middle Ages, xxiii. 831; effects of the 
Renaissance on, xx. 386; Bell and 
Lankester s system of, in. 540; xiv. 
257; communistic theories of, VI. 213; 
Condillac s theory of, VI. 253; Froe- 
bel s advancement of, ix. 792; Locke s 
views on, xiv. 757; Plutarch s, xix. 
233; Socrates s theory of, xxn. 236; 
TrotzendorfFs system, xxiii. 589; in 
Belgium, ill. 518; at Berlin, ill. 596; 
of British army, II. 584; in Canada, 
iv. 780; in European countries, vill. 
710; in France, ix. 512; in Germany, 
X. 470; in India, XII. 774; in Italy, 
xm. 460; at London, xiv. 834; at 
Paris, XVlll. 280; in Prussia, XX. 17; 
in Russia, xxi. 71; in United States, 
xxiii. 828; Cousin s reports on, vi. 
523; Locke s works on, Xiv. 756; 
Milton on, xvi. 330; societies for 
promotion of, xxil. 226. 

EDWARD, or Eadward, I., early English 
king, vn. 68 1 ; vni. 284. 
- II., early English king, vn. 68 1; 
vin. 286. 

III., the Confessor, early English 



king, vil. 68 1 ; vin. 289. 

I., king of England, vil. 



VIII. 311; his power in Ireland, XIII. 
260; parliament under, XVlll. 304; 
his claims to the Scottish crown, xx. 
592; xxi. 486. 

II., of England, vil. 683; vill. 313; 

state of Ireland under, xm. 260; his 
relations with Scotland, XX. 594; 
xxi. 488. 

- III., of England, vil. 683; vin. 314, 
318; XIV. 255; his connexion with 
institution of the Order of the Garter, 
xiv. 122; Ireland under, XIII. 260; 
parliament in time of, xvin. 305; his 
relations with Scotland, XXI. 489; 
with William of Wykeham, XXIV. 
585. 

- IV., of England, vn. 684; vill. 327; 
xv. 536; xxiv. 381, 752. 

- V., of England, vn. 685; Vill. 328. 
VI., of England, vil. 685; vin. 

338. 
, the Elder, king of Northumbria, 

XVII. 570. 
, king of Portugal, xix. 544. 



EDWARD, the Black Prince, vn. 686; 

vill. 319; in France, IX. 547. 
EDWARDES, Sir Herbert Benjamin, 

English general and administrator, 

vn. 687. 
EDWARDS, Bryan, English historian, 

vn. 688. 
, George, English antiquary and 

ornithologist, vil. 688; on birds. 

xvin. 5. 

, Jonathan, American theologian, 

vn. 688; I. 720. 
-, Richard, English musician and 



dramatist, vn. 691. 

EDWIN, king of Northumbria, vn. 691; 
xvn. 569. 

EDWY, Eadwig, or Edwin, the Fair, king 
of the West-Saxons, England, vn. 692; 
vin. 286. 

EECKHOUT, Gerbrand van den, Dutch 
painter, vn. 692. 

EECLOO, town, Belgium, vil. 692. 

EEL, fish, vil. 692; xn. 694; angling for, 
n. 43. 

, Sand, fish, xxi. 257. 

- PIE ISLAND, Twickenham, Eng 
land, xxiii. 673. 

EFFEN, Justus van, Dutch writer, xn. 96. 

EFFIGIES, Monumental, vil. 694; in 
Temple Church, London, XXI. 558. 

EFIK, African tribe and language, iv. 
649. 

EFREMOFF, town, Russia, xxiii. 605. 

EGB ALAND, state, West Africa, I. 9. 

EGBERT, king of the West-Saxons, Eng 
land, VIL 695; vill. 282. 

EGBO, African secret society, iv. 649. 

EGEDE, Hans, Norse missionary to 
Greenland, vn. 695; xvil. 590. 
, Paul, missionary in Greenland, vn. 
696. 

EGEDESMINDE, district, Greenland, xi 
170. 

EGER, river, Bohemia, vn. 825. 

, town, Bohemia, vn. 696. 

(Erlau), town, Hungary, vni. 525. 

EGERBRUNNEN (Franzensbad), water 
ing-place, Bohemia, IX. 724. 

EGERDIN (or EGERDIR) GOL, lake, Asia 
Minor, 1 1. 709; XIX. 130. 

EGERTON, Francis, third duke of Bridge- 
water, IV. 342; his canals, IV. 783. 

, Francis, first earl of Ellesmere, 

vin. 148. 

EGESTA (Segesta), ancient town, Sicily, 
xxi. 622. 

EGFRID, king of Northumberland, xvn. 
570. 

EGG, EGGS, vn. 696; as an article of diet, 
vn. 201; of birds, ill. 772; of bees, in. 
494; of fishes, XII. 660; of reptiles, 
xx. 463; xxil. 192; xxin. 456. 
, or Germ-Cell, in embryology, vin. 
163. 



-, Augustus Leopold, English painter, 
vn. 697. 
EGGA, town, Soudan, Africa, xxn. 279. 



144 



E G G E L B 



EGG-BIRD, xxm. 189. 

EGG-EATER, snake, xxn. 194. 

EGGERTZ, on iron and steel, xni. 282. 

EGG OIL, xvn. 744, 747. 

EGG PLANT, xn. 282. 

EGGS, vii. 696. See Egg. 

EGIDIO (Giles), St, x. 595. 

EGINA, or /Egina (q.v.), island, Greece, 

i. 1 80. 
EG IN HARD, biographer of Charlemagne, 

vn. 697. 

EGLANTINE, sweet brier, vii. 698. 
EGLINTON, Thirteenth Earl of, vii. 699. 
CASTLE, Ayrshire, Scotland, xiv. 

77- 

EGMONT, or Egmond, Lamoral, Count 
of, vii. 699. 

, Goethe s play, x. 730. 

, Mount, New Zealand, XVII. 466. 

EGMORE, suburb of Madras, India, xv. 
188. 

EGO, in psychology, XX. 39, 70, 83; in 
Schleiermacher s system, XXI. 412. 

EGORIEVSK, town, Russia, xxi. 116. 

EGRET, bird, XL 761. 

EGYPT, country, Africa, vii. 700 (index, 
788); I. 266; antiquity of the dynas 
ties, II. 117; contests with Assyria, 
ill. 187; relations with ancient Persia, 
XVlll. 571, 574, 579, 580; with the 
Philistines, xvin. 757; conquest of, by 
Cambyses (525 B.C.), IV. 733; xvm. 
567; by Alexander (332 B.C.), I. 482; 
XV. 140; Hellenism in, xv. 143; ac 
knowledges suzerainty of Rome (168 
B.C.), XX. 751, 754; conquest of, 
by the Arabs (640), I. 778; II. 257; 
by the Turks (1517), xxm. 643; 
French expedition to (1798), IX. 611; 
Napoleon I. in, XVIL 200; plague in, 
xix. 166; agriculture of, I. 291; archi 
tecture, II. 384; armies, II. 559; birds, 
in. 758; caste in, v. 192; coins of, 
xvn. 650; Copts of, VI. 354; cosmo 
gonies, VI. 447; methods of embalm 
ing the dead, vm. 158; glass-making, 
x. 647; hieroglyphics, I. 605; XI. 794; 
language, XI. 794; xvin. 778; XXI. 
642; libraries, Xiv. 509, 549; monach- 
ism in, I. 23; xvi. 698, 699; mum 
mies, xvn. 20; mythology, xvn. 150; 
pottery, XIX. 603; pyramids, XX. 122; 
religions, xxm. 236; ships and vessels, 
xxi. 805 ; wall-paintings, XVII. 39 ; 
weights and measures, XXIV. 490; 
cotton supply, VI. 484; opium culti 
vation, XVII. 792; railways, XX. 252. 

EGYPTIAN ASTRONOMY, n. 744. 

EGYPTIAN DRAMA, vn. 403. 

EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE, vn. 721; XL 
794; xvill. 778; its relation to Semitic 
languages, XXI. 642; dictionaries of, 
vn. 192. 

EGYPTIAN LITERATURE, vn. 721. 

EHLITE, mineral, xvi. 406. 

EHRENBERG, C. G., on the Rotifera, 
xxi. 4. 



EHRENBREITSTEIN, town, Rhenish 

Prussia, vn. 788. 
EHRENSVARD, Karl August, Swedish 

critic, xxn. 757. 
EHSTS (Esthonians, q.v.), people, Russia, 

xiv. 724. 

ElBENSTOCK, town, Saxony, vii. 788. 
EICHENDORFF, Joseph, Freiherr von, 

German poet, vn. 788; x. 542. 
ElCHHOLZHElM, Castle of, Mannheim, 

Germany, XV. 494. 
ElCHHORN, Johann Gottfried, German 

Biblical critic, vn. 788; xx. 290. 
, Karl Friedrich, German jurist, vn. 

789; his relations with Savigny, xxi. 

326. 

EICHSTADT, town, Bavaria, vn. 789. 
EIDER, marine duck, vn. 789; xix. 

252. 

, river, Schleswig-Holstein, xxi. 414. 

ElDOGRAPH, instrument for surveying, 

xxil. 721. 
ElDOPHUSlCON, panoramic invention of 

De Loutherbourg, vn. 52. 
EIFEL, plateau, Rhenish Prussia, XX. 

20. 
EIKON BASILIKE, controversy as to its 

authorship, v. 407; x. 109. 
ElKONOKLASTES, Milton s pamphlet, 

xvi. 332. 

EILDON HILLS, Scotland, xxi. 34. 
EILENBURG, town, Prussia, vn. 790. 
EILETHYIA, ruined town, Egypt, vn. 

736, 782. 
EILSEN, Germany, mineral water of, 

xvi. 435. 

EIMAK, tribe, Afghanistan, I. 235. 
ElMBECK, or Einbeck, town, Prussia, 

vn. 790. 
ElMEO, island, Tahiti Archipelago, 

Pacific, XXlli. 22. 
EINBECK, town, Prussia, vii. 790. 
ElNHARDUS (Eginhard), biographer of 

Charlemagne, vii. 697. 
EINSIEDELN, town, Switzerland, vii. 

790; XXI. 465. 

ElON, port, Macedonia, xv. 137. 
EISENACH, town, Germany, vii. 790; 

xxi. 349. 
ElSENBERG, town, Germany, vn. 790; 

xxi. 347. 

ElSENBURG, county, Hungary, vn. 790. 
EiSENNlCKELKlES, mineral, xvi. 392. 
ElSENSTADT, town, Hungary, vii. 790. 
ElSFELD, town, Germany, xxi. 348. 
EISLEBEN, town, Prussia, vn. 791. 
EISTEDDFOD, Welsh bardic congress, 

vn. 791; in. 370. 
EISTHALER THURM, mountain, Austria, 

in. 116. 

EJECTMENT, in English law, vn. 792. 
EJIGBO, town, West Africa, xxiv. 754. 
EKATERINBURG, town, Asiatic Russia, 

vn. 793; xvin. 550; xxn. u; xxiv. 

6; thunderstorms at, xvi. 128. 
EKATERINODAR, town, Russia, vn. 793; 

xiv. 150. 



EKATERINOSLAFF, government, Russia, 

vii. 793; xxi. 69; town, vn. 794. 
EKATERINSTADT, village, Russia, xvn. 

504. 
EKBATANA (Ecbatana, q.v.), ancient 

town, Media, vii. 621. 
EKDALAH, town, India, x. 112, 115. 
EKERSBERG, Danish painter, vii. 93. 
EKHMIN, town, Upper Egypt, vn. 794. 
EKREM BEY, Turkish poet, xxm. 657. 
EKRON, town of the Philistines, vn. 

7945 xvm. 755. 

EL, Phoenician deity, xvin. 803. 
ELABUGA, town, Russia, xxiv. 303. 
EL^EOLITE, mineral, xvi. 412. 
EL^EOPTENE OIL, xvn. 747. 
ELAGABALUS (Heliogabalus), Roman 

emperor, XL 632. 
ELAIS GuiNEENSiS, source of palm oil, 

xvin. 190. 

EL AKSA, mosque, Jerusalem, XIII. 642. 
EL-AKSUR, town, Egypt, xv. 89. 
EL-ALTAR, mountain, Ecuador, vn. 

645. 
ELAM, province, ancient Persia, vn. 

794; in. 185; xiv. 68. 
ELAND, antelope, vn. 796; n. 101; xv. 

432- 

ELANUS, genus of birds, xiv. 104. 
ELAPS, genus of snakes, xxn. 193, 

196. 

EL-ARAISH, town, Morocco, vn. 796. 
EL ARISH, town, Syria, capitulation of 

(1800), v. 74; taken by Napoleon 

(1799), xvn. 201. 
EL-ASEE (Amr b. al-As, .q.v.), Arab 

conqueror of Egypt, vn. 749. 
EL-ASMAI, Arabic writer, n. 713. 
ELASMODON, genus of ungulate mam 
mals, xv. 425. 
ELASMOGNATHUS, genus of ungulate 

mammals, XV. 428; xxm. 56. 
ELASMOSAURUS, fossil reptile, xix. 220. 
ELASTICITY, vn. 796; xxn. 595, 598, 

603; of metals, xvi. 65, 378; coefficient 

of, vi. 311; modulus of, iv. 287; xxn. 

595; in relation to sound, I. 101. 
ELASTIC SOLID, Dynamics of, xv. 743. 
ELATEA (Citheeron), mountain, Greece, 

v. 794. 

ELATERITE, mineral, xvi. 428. 
ELATER LINEATUS, wheat pest, xxiv. 

536. 

ELATERUM, drug, vn. 825; vi. 688. 
ELATH, of Scripture, i. 434. 
ELATMA, town, Russia, xxm. 41. 
ELATO, mountain, Cephalonia, Greece, 

v. 344- 
ELATOBRANCHIA, group of Mollusca, 

xvi. 684. 

ELAVER (Allier), river, France, I. 585. 
ELBA, island, Mediterranean, vn. 825; 

xni. 440; Napoleon at (1814), xvn. 

222. 
ELBE, river, Germany, vn. 825; x. 449; 

in Austria, in. 116. 
ELBE-DUES, of Stade, xxn. 439. 



E L B E L I 



145 



ELBERFELD, town, Rhenish Prussia, vn. 
826; xx. 16. 

ELBEUF,town, France, vil. 826; xxi. 626. 

ELBING, town, Prussia, vn. 826. 

ELBODUS, or Elbotus, bishop of North 
Wales, xvn. 332. 

ELBOW JOINT, Anatomy of the, I. 838. 

ELBRUZ, or Elburz, mountain, Caucasus, 
v. 252; xxiii. 186. 

EL-BURULLUS, lake, Egypt, vn. 709. 

ELBURZ, mountain range, Persia, xv. 
651; xin. 395. 

EL CARMEN, town, Mexico, xxiv. 758. 

ELCHE, town, Spain, vn. 827. 

ELCHINGEN, Duke of (Ney), French 
general, xvn. 472. 

ELDAD BEN MALCHI, Jewish traveller, 
VIL 827. 

ELDER, ecclesiastical officer, vn. 827; 
xix. 674, 724; Jewish, xxii. 812. 

, tree, vn. 828. 

ELDON, Earl of, lord chancellor of 
England, vn. 828. 

EL DORADO, mythical country, South 
America, vil. 830; Raleigh s expedi 
tion to, XX. 262. 

ELEAN DIALECT, of Greek, XL 132. 

ELEANOR, wife of Henry II. of England, 
vni. i; ix. 539. 

ELEATIC SCHOOL, of philosophy, vni. 
i; logic of, xiv. 784; philosophy of, 
xvi. 80; xvin. 315; xxiv. 719, 779. 

ELECAMPANE, plant, vin. 2. 

ELECTIONS, Parliamentary and munici 
pal, VIII. 2; British, xvin. 313; corrupt 
practices at, IV. 279; voting by ballot, 
ill. 289; petitions against returns, 
xvin. 705. 

ELECTOR,TheGreat(Frederick William), 
of Brandenburg, ix. 733; xx. 6. 

ELECTORS, Parliamentary, Registration 
of, xx. 344. 

ELECTRA, of Greek legend, xvn. 827. 
, Euripides s play, vni. 677. 

ELECTRIC CLOCKS, vi. 25. 

ELECTRIC EARTH CURRENTS, xvi. 178, 
183- 

ELECTRIC FISHES, vn. 694; xn. 649, 
694; xx. 299; xxii. 68. 

ELECTRICITY, vni. 3 (index, 105); 
as a physical science, XIX. 3; atmo 
spheric, xxin. 329 ; its connexion 
with the aurora, ill. 96; blasting by, 
ill. 810; xvi. 446; mechanical power 
of, xv. 773; in minerals, XVI. 376; its 
effect on the motor nerve, Xix. 24; 
Ohm s law, xvil. 738; Peltier effect, 
xvin. 481; propulsive force of, on 
railways, XX. 249; contributions to 
the science by ^Epintifl, I. 183; by 
Ampere, I. 749; by Canton, V. 39; 
by De La Rive, VII. 41; by Franklin, 
IX. 712; by Sir Wm. Harris, XI. 494; 
by Henry, XI. 675; by Clark Max 
well, xv. 647; by Pliicker, Xix. 229; 
by Siemens, xxii. 38; by Volta, xxiv. 
284; electrical societies, xxii. 225. 



ELECTRIC LAMPS, vi. 73; xiv. 632. 

ELECTRIC LIGHT, vni. 58; xiv. 630; 
discovery of, vni. 4; use of, in light- 
houses, Xiv. 627; in mines, xvi. 461. 

ELECTRIC LIGHTING, xiv. 630. 

ELECTRIC MACHINES, for traction, 
xxiii. 494. 

ELECTRIC PEAK, Wyoming, U.S.A., 
xxiv. 737. 

ELECTRIC RAILWAYS, xx. 249. 

ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH, xxin. 112; 
anticipation of, by Ampere, I. 749. 

ELECTRIC TRACTION, xxin. 495, 508. 

ELECTRIC TRAMWAY, xxin. 495, 508. 

ELECTRO-BIOLOGY, xv. 277. 

ELECTRO-CHEMICAL EQUIVALENTS, 

VIII. I 3 , 112. 

ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY, Davy s contribu 
tions to, vi. 846. 
ELECTRODYNAMICS, vni. 105. 
ELECTROGILDING, vni. 116; De La 

Rive s discovery of, vn. 41. 
ELECTROLYSIS, vni. 106; as related to 

diffusion, vil. 219; theories of, Vin. 13. 
ELECTROLYTE, vin. 46, 107. 
ELECTROMAGNET, xiv. 631; xv. 226, 

240, 246; power of, xv. 274. 
ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINES, vin. 10. 
ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT, 

xxiv. 422, 450. 

ELECTRO-MAGNETISM, vin. 66; Fara 
day s discoveries in, IX. 30; functions 

of aether in, vin. 571. 
ELECTRO-METALLURGY, vin. 114. 
ELECTROMETER, vin. 117; xxin. 117; 

Volta s, xxiv. 284. 
ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE, vin. 83. 
ELECTROPHORUS, Volta s instrument, 

vin. 101; xxiv. 284. 
ELECTROPLATING, vin. 116; nickel, 

xvn. 488. 
ELECTROSCOPE, vin. 118; dry pile, 

vin. 121. 
ELECTROSTATICS, vin. 24; history of, 

vni. 14. 

ELECTROSTATIC UNIT, vin. 22. 
ELECTROTYPES, vin. 115. 
ELECTROTYPING, Process of, xxin. 703; 

of maps, xxii. 715. 
ELECTRUM, mineral, xvi. 383; in coins, 

xvn. 630. 

ELEGIT, in law, xxiv. 696. 
ELEGY, form of poetry, xix. 273; Greek, 

XL 138. 

, Gray s poem, XI. 77. 

ELEIA (Elis, q.v.), country, ancient 

Greece, vin. 139. 
EL-ELFEE (Mohammed Bey), Egyptian 

leader, vn. 761. 

ELEME, Smyrna raisins, xx. 258. 
ELEMENTS, Chemical, with list, v. 467. 
ELEMI, resin, vni. 122; as incense, xn. 

718. 

ELEONORITE, mineral, xvi. 405. 
ELEPHANT, ungulate mammal, vm. 

122; XV. 350, 423; of Ceylon, v. 363; 

of India, xn. 741; tusks of, xin. 520. 



ELEPHANTA ISLE, India, vni. 126. 
ELEPHANTIASIS, disease, vin. 126; xiv. 

468; in Polynesia, XIX. 422. 
ELEPHANT S ISLAND, West Africa, x. 

59- 

ELEPHAS PRIMIGENIUS, fossil mammal, 
xv. 447. 

ELETS, town, Russia, xvn. 826. 

ELEUSINIA, Greek festival, vin. 126; 
celebration of mysteries at, xvn. 124; 
pilgrimages to, xix. 91. 

ELEUSIS, town, Attica, vin. 128; plain 
of, in. 59. 

ELEUTHERA ISLAND, West Indies, in. 
236. 

ELEUTHEROPOLIS, ancient town, Pales 
tine, vin. 128. 

ELEUTHERUS, river, Syria, xxn. 821. 

ELEUTHS, Mongol tribes, xvi. 744. 

ELEVATED RAILROAD, New York, 
xvn. 465; xx. 240. 

ELEVATOR, lifting apparatus, xiv. 573; 
for blast furnaces, xin. 301; hydrau 
lic, xii. 520. 

ELFRIDA, Mason s tragedy, xv. 611. 

ELFSBORG, county, Sweden, xxn. 741. 

EL-FUSTAT, ruined town, Egypt, vn. 
770. 

EL-GEEZEH, or Ghizeh, Pyramids of, 
ii. 385; vn. 770; xx. 123. 

ELGIN, county, Scotland, vin. 129; area 
and population, xxi. 528; represen 
tation, xxiii. 727; town, vili. 130. 

, town, Illinois, U.S.A., xii. 706. 

, Seventh Earl of, collector of Elgin 

Marbles, vni. 131. 

AND KINCARDINE, Earl of, gover 
nor-general of India, vin. 131; his 
treaty with China (1858), v. 652. 

MARBLES, British Museum, n. 

356; vin. 131. 

ELGIVA, wife of Edwy, king of the 
West Saxons, England, VI I. 692. 

EL-GOLEA, town, Algeria, vin. 133. 

EL GRAO, town, Valencia, Spain, xxiv. 

34- 

EL GRECO (Domenico Theotocopuli), 
painter, XI. 80. 

EL-HADDAD, chief of the Kabyles, I. 
569. 

EL-HAMRA, town, Egypt, vn. 775. 

EL-HASA, province, Asiatic Turkey, 
xxin. 653. 

EL-HASAN (Alhazen), Arab mathema 
tician, i. 572; on optics, xiv. 578. 

ELI, priest and judge of Israel, vni. 

133- 
ELI A, Essays of, by C. Lamb, xiv. 

235- 

ELIAS (Elijah, q.v.), Hebrew prophet, 
vin. 134. 
-, patriarch of Antioch, Syriac writer, 



xxn. 841. 
, bishop of Merv, Syriac writer, 

xxii. 843. 
, Nestorian patriarch, Syriac writer, 

xxn. 849. 

XXV. 19 



146 



E L I E L S 



ELI AS of Al-Anbar, Syriac writer, 

xxii. 849. 
, Ney, on the Grand Canal, China, 

v. 631. 

BAR SHINAYA, Syriac writer, 

xxn. 850. 

- LEVITA, Jewish rabbi, vin. 133. 

, Mount, Thera, Greece, xxin. 280. 

ELIASITE, mineral, xvi. 388. 

ELIBERITANUS (Johannes Leo), Moorish 
geographer, XIV. 453. 

ELICIUS, epithet of Jupiter, xin. 780. 

ELIE DE BEAUMONT, J. B. A. L. L., 
French geologist, vm. 134. 

ELIJAH, Hebrew prophet, vm. 134; 
XIIL 407; xix. 816. 

ELIMINATION, in equations, vm. 497. 

ELIOT, Sir John, English statesman, 
vm. 138. 

, John, apostle of the Indians, vm. 

136; xvi. 514; xvii. 243. 

ELIS, country, ancient Greece, vm. 139; 
xvii. 766; coins of, xvii. 643; town, 
vm. 140. 

ELISA (Dido), queen of Carthage, vn. 
196. 

ELISABETHENKIRCHE, church at Mar 
burg, Prussia, xv. 530. 

ELISABETHPOL, government, Trans 
caucasia, Russia, xxin. 513. 

ELISABETHSTADT, part of Pesth, 
Hungary, xvm. 691. 

ELISHA, Hebrew prophet, Vlll. 140; 
xin. 407; xix. 8 1 6. 

ELIZABETH, queen of England, vm. 142, 
340; her relations with the earl of Essex, 
vm. 556; withtheearlof Leicester, xiv. 
425; with Raleigh, XX. 262; her treat 
ment of Mary, queen of Scots, XV. 599 ; 
excommunication of, by Pius V., Xix. 
154; state of Ireland under, xm. 263; 
parliament under, xvm. 307; her 
embassy to Russia, XXL 93 ; her 
interference in Scottish affairs, xxi. 
502, 507. 

, St, of Hungary, vm. 145; founder 

of convents, xvii. 132; her tomb, xv. 
530. 

of Schonau, mediaeval mystic, 



xvii. 132; xxiv. 13. 
, or the Exiles of Siberia, Cottin s 

work, VI. 481. 
, town, New Jersey, U.S.A., vm. 

145; xvii. 397. 
FARNESE, wife of Philip V. of 



Spain, ix. 36; xxii. 337. 
PETROVNA, empress of Russia, 

vm. 145; XXL 98. 
ELIZABETHGRAD, town, Russia, vm. 

146. 

ELIZABETHPOL, town, Russia, vm. 146. 
EL-JEZIREH, plain, Mesopotamia, in. 

i83 A - 

EL- JIB (Gibeon), town, Palestine, x. 583. 
ELK, or Moose Deer, vn. 24, 25; Irish, 

extinction of, II. 336; of Norway, 

xvii. 581. 



EL-KAHIREH, or Cairo, town, Egypt, iv. 

645; vn. 751, 769. 

EL-KAMIL, sultan of Egypt, vn. 754. 
EL-KARN, lake, Egypt, vn. 709, 774. 
EL-KARNAK, Egypt, Temple at, vn. 

777- 

EL-KATIF, town, Arabia, xiv. 15. 
EL-KEFF, or Kef, town, Tunis, xiv. 27; 

xxni. 620. 

ELKESAITES, eastern sect, xxi. 128. 
EL-KHALIL, or Hebron, town, Palestine, 

XL 608. 
ELKHORN, river, Nebraska, U.S.A., 

xvii. 307. 
EL-KiNDl, Arab Christian apologist, 

XXII. 848. 

ELKINGTON, his plan of draining, I. 

33- 
ELK-MOUNTAINS, Colorado, U.S.A., vi. 

161; xxni. 796. 
ELKOSH, birthplace of Nahuin, xvii. 

165. 
EL-KUDS, Arabic name of Jerusalem, 

xin. 636. 
EL-KURNEH, ruined village, Egypt, 

vii. 779. 

ELLENBOROUGH, Earl of, governor- 
general of India, vm. 146; XII. 807. 
, Lord, chief justice of England, vm. 

146. 
ELLEN S PEAK, Western Australia, 

xxiv. 507. 
ELLESMERE, lake, England, xxi. 847; 

town, xxi. 848. 
-, Earl of, English litterateur, vm. 



148. 

ELLICE ISLANDS, Polynesia, xix. 420. 
ELLICHPUR, district, India, vm. 148. 
ELLIOT, D. G., on North- American birds, 

xvm. ii. 
, Sir Gilbert, earl of Minto, British 

statesman, xvi. 492. 
ELLIOTSON, John, English physician, 

vm. 148. 
ELLIOTT, Ebenezer, corn-law rhymer, 

vm. 149. 
ELLIPSE, in geometry, vi. 275; x. 398; 

mensuration of, xvi. 19. 
ELLIPSOIDS OF REVOLUTION, Legendre 

on attractions of, xiv. 414; MacLaurin 

on, XV. 162; magnetic experiments 

on, XV. 255. 
ELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS, xm. 58; 

Landen s theorem, xiv. 271; tables 

connected with, XXIII. 14. 
ELLIPTICITY OF THE EARTH, vii. 600. 
ELLIPTIC MOTION, in mechanics, xv. 

685. 
ELLIS, Alexander J., his palteotype 

alphabet, I. 608. See also xxn. 381. 

, George, English writer, vm. 1 50. 
, G. J. Welbore Agar, Lord Dover, 

Vii. 381. 
, G. V., his Demonstrations of 

Anatomy, I. 817. 
, Sir Henry, English antiquary, 

vm. 150. 



ELLIS, William, English missionary, vm. 

150. 
ISLAND, New York, U.S.A., xvii. 



459- 
ELLMAN, John, improver of Southdown 

sheep, I. 392. 

ELLOR, town, India, vm. 151. 
ELLORA, town, India, vm. 151; cave 

temple at, II. 394, 395. 
ELLRIG, Loch, Scotland, xxn. 553. 
ELLSWORTH, town, Maine, U.S.A., vm. 

151. 
, Oliver, American chief justice, 

xxni. 748. 

ELLUR (Ellor), town, India, vm. 151. 
ELLWOOD, Thomas, English theological 

writer, vm. 151; xvi. 335. 
ELM, tree, vm. 151; culture of, n. 317; 

in United States, XXIII. 808. 
EL-MAASARAH, quarries, Egypt, vn. 

773- 

ELMACIN, or Elmakyn, George, Egyp 
tian historian, vm. 152. 

ELM CITY (New Haven), Connecticut, 
U.S.A., xvii. 394. 

EL-MECHEREF (Berber), town, Egypt, 
m. 584. 

EL-MEDEENEH, town, Egypt, vn. 774. 

EL-MENZELEH, lake, Egypt, vn. 709. 

ELMES, Harvey Lonsdale, English archi 
tect, vm. 152; xiv. 714. 

, James, English architect, vm. 



152. 

ELMINA, town, West Africa, vm. 152; 

x. 755. 

EL-MINYEH, town, Egypt, vn. 774. 
ELMIRA, town, New York, U.S.A., vm. 

153; xvii. 457. 
EL-Moizz, Fatimite caliph, Egypt, vn. 

750; xvi. 588. 
EL MUDO (J. F. Navarrete), Spanish 

painter, xvii. 250. 
ELNBOGEN, mountain, Germany, xxi. 

349- 

ELNYA, town, Russia, xxn. 183. 
EL-OBEID, town, Kordofan, Africa, vm. 

153- 

ELOHIST, of the Old Testament, I. 54; 
m. 637; xvm. 506. 

ELOHISTIC PSALMS, xx. 30. 

ELOI, St, bishop of Noyon, vm. 153. 

ELOPURA, town, North Borneo, XXI 
123. 

ELOQUENCE, iv. 542. See also article 
Rhetoric, xx. 508. 

EL PASO DEL NORTE, town, Mexico, 
vm. 153. 

ELPHINSTONE, Mountstuart, Indian 
statesman, VIII. 153; envoy to Afghan 
istan, I. 240. 

, William, Scottish bishop and states 
man, vm. 154. 

EL RANCHO, mineral spring, New 
Mexico, U.S.A., xvn. 400. 

EL ROSARIO, town, Mexico, vm. 155. 

ELSASS (Alsace, q.v.\ province, Ger 
many, I. 636. 



E L S E N C 



147 



ELSINORE, town, Denmark, vm. 155; 

population, xxiv. 771. 
ELSTER, Saxony, mineral water of, xvi. 

434, 435- 
ELTAVONA (Newark), ancient town, 

England, XVII. 370. 
ELTHAM, Statutes of, xxi. 36. 

PALACE, Kent, England, xiv. 40. 

ELTON, John, English trader in Persia, 

xvm. 643. 
EL-UKSUR (Luxor), Egypt, Temple at, 

xin. 89; vn. 776. 

ELUL/EUS, king of Tyre, xvm. 808. 
ELVANS, veins of quartz-porphyry, X. 

312; XI. 49. 
ELVAS, town, Portugal, vm. 155; xix. 

537- 

ELVERS, young eels, vn. 693. 
ELVES, fairies, vm. 854. 
ELVODUGUS, Welsh ecclesiastic, xvn. 

332. 
ELY, town, England, vm. 155. 

, Isle of, district, England, IV. 727. 

ELYMAIS, district, Persia, vn. 794; xin. 

395; xvm. 592. 
ELYMOI, tribe, Sicily, xxn. 15. 
ELYOT, Sir Thomas, English scholar, 

vm. 156. 

ELYSIUM, of Greek mythology, vin. 156. 
ELYTRA, wings of beetles, vi. 126. 
EL YUNQUE, mountain, Porto Rico, 

xix. 532. 
ELZEVIR, family of Dutch printers, vm. 

156; their editions of the classics, m. 

657- 

EMANATION, Theory of, in philosophy, 
vm. 752. 

EMANATIONS, World of, Kabbalistic, 
xin. 811. 

EMANCIPATION, in Roman law, xx. 687. 
, of slaves, in Jamaica, XIII. 551; in 
United States, xxm. 777. See also 
article Slavery. 

EMANUEL, or Emmanuel, king of Por 
tugal, vm. 157; xix. 545, 547. 

B. SALOMON, Hebrew poet, vm. 157. 

EMBALLONURID^;, family of bats, xv. 
412. 

EMBALMING, of dead bodies, vm. 158; 
in Egypt, xvn. 20; use of myrrh in, 

XVII. 121. 

EMBANKMENT, in engineering, vm. 158; 
railway, XX. 232; of rivers, XX. 572; 
of the Mississippi, xvi. 519; for water 
works, xxiv. 406. 

EMBARGO, in international law, xm. 194. 

EMBASSIES, Resident, i. 657. 

EMBDEN, or Emden, town, Prussia, 
vm. 169. 

EMBER DAYS AND WEEKS, vm. 159. 

EMBERIZA, genus of birds, xvn. 534. 

EMBEZZLEMENT, in English law, vm. 
159; xxm. 232. 

EMBID^E, group of insects, xm. 152. 

EMBLEMENTS, in English law, vm. 160; 
xiv. 274. 

EMBLEMS, of the Physiologus, xix. 7. 



EMBLEMS, Quarles s book, xx. 159. 
EMBOLITE, mineral, xvi. 384. 
EMBOSSING, vm. 160. 
EMBRASURE, in fortification, ix. 432. 
EMBROIDERY, pictorial needlework, 

vm. 160; lace, xiv. 184; Japanese, 

xm. 591. 

EMBRUN, town, France, vm. 162. 
EMBRYO, of plants, iv. 155. 
EMBRYOLOGY, vm. 163; rise of the 

science, xvi. 839; cellular, XXIV. 810; 

in relation to evolution, vm. 745 ; 

animal, xx. 418; of ascidians, xxm. 

613; of Crustacea, VI. 648; ofMollusca, 

xvi. 637; of iiemertine worms, XVII. 

330; of reptiles, xx. 463; of sponges, 

XXII. 425; of plants, IV. 82. 
EMBRYO-SACS, in plants, xx. 424. 
EMDEN, town, Prussia, vm. 169. 
EMEER, or Emir, Oriental title, I. 154; 

n. 249; xvi. 587. 
EMERALD, precious stone, vm. 170; in. 

613; xvi. 418; mines, Colombia, VI. 

154- 

HILL, suburb of Melbourne, Vic 
toria, xv. 836. 

EMERALD-NICKEL, mineral, xvi. 399. 
EMERALD TABLE, in alchemy, i. 462. 
EMERIC - DAVID, Toussaint - Bernard, 

French archaeologist, vm. 170. 
EMERSON, Ralph Waldo, American 

writer, I. 729, 733. 
, William, English mathematician, 

vm. 170. 

EMERY, mineral, vm. 171. 
EMESA (Hems), ancient town, Syria, XI. 

649; xxii. 823. 

EMETICS, in medicine, vm. 171. 
EMETINE, vegetable alkaloid, xm. 210. 
EMEU, bird, vm. 171; m. 112; xx. 505. 
EMIGRATION, vm. 173; from England, 

vm. 222; from Ireland, XIII. 238. 
EMIGRES, French, ix. 600; return of, 

ix. 614. 

EMILE, Rousseau s work, xxi. 26. 
EMILIA, Italian dialect of, xm. 493. 
GALOTTI, Lessing s tragedy, xiv. 

481. 

EMILIAN WAY, Italy, xm. 435; xx. 555. 
EMILIO, Paolo, historian, I. 182. 
EMIR, Oriental title, I. 154; II. 249; 

xvi. 587. 

EMMA MINE, Utah, U.S.A., xxm. 815. 
EMMANUEL, king of Portugal, xix. 545, 

547- 

BAR SHAHHARE, Syriac writer, 
xxn. 849. 

COLLEGE, Cambridge, iv. 731. 

PHILIBERT, prince of Savoy, xxi. 



EMMAUS, village near Jerusalem, vm. 

177. 

EMMERICH, town, Prussia, vm. 177. 
, Anna Katharina, stigmata of, xxn. 

550. 
EMMET, Robert, Irish revolutionist, 

vm. 178; xm. 271. 



EMMET, Thomas Addis, Irish lawyer 

and revolutionist, vm. 178. 
EMMIUS, Ubbo, Dutch historian, VIII. 

178. 

EMMONITE, mineral, xvi. 398. 
EMODIN, constituent ef rhubarb, xx. 

530- 
EMONA (Laibach), ancient town, Austria, 

xiv. 215. 
EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION, pleasurable 

and painful, in psychology, xx. 43, 72. 
EMOTIONS, Muscular expression of, 

xix. 5. 

, Stoic theory of the, XXII. 567. 
EMPEDOCLES, Greek philosopher, vm. 

178; xxn. 16; on evolution, vm. 756. 
EMPEROR, sovereign title, vm. 179; 

xxm. 417. 
-, Roman, in Augustan age, in. 80; 

xx. 769. 
EMPERORS, Roman, Chronological table 

of, xx. 781. 
EMPHYSEMA, affection of the lungs, 

vm. 180. 

EMPHYTEUSIS, in Roman law, xx. 713. 
EMPIRE, vm. 181; the first French, 

xvn. 208; the Holy Roman, x. 484. 
STATE (New York), United States, 

xvn. 455. 
EMPIRICISM, Greek, in medicine, xv. 

802. 

EMPLECTITE, mineral, xvi. 394. 
EMPLOYERS AND WORKMEN, Laws re 
lating to, xiv. 170. 
EMPLOYER S INSURANCE, xm. 161. 
EMPLOYER S LIABILITY, xxm. 455. 
EMPOLI, town, Italy, vm. 182. 
EMPYEMA, or Empyamia, medical term, 

vm. 182; xix. 222. 
EMS, town, Prussia, VIII. 182; mineral 

water of, xvi. 435. 
EMU, or Emeu (g.u), bird, vm. 171; m. 

112. 
EMULSINE, constituent of almonds, ix. 

96. 
EMYS, genus of chelonian reptiles, xxm. 

457- 
ENAMEL, glaze on metal, vm. 182; in 

jewellery, XIII. 679; niello work, XVII. 

494; in pottery, XIX. 601. 
ENANTIOMORPHISM, xix. 313. 
ENARE, Lake, Russian Lapland, xiv. 

305- 

ENARGITE, mineral, xvi. 395. 
ENARIANS, Scythian priests, xxi. 576. 
ENCAUSTIC PAINTING, vm. 185. 
ENCAUSTIC TILES, vm. 187; iv. 283. 
ENCEPHALON, Anatomy of the, i. 869. 
ENCHANTMENT, magic, xv. 199. 
ENCHASING, or Chasing, industrial art, 

vm. 189. 
ENCHIRIDION ETHICUM, Henry More s 

work, vm. 597. 

ENCHONDROMA, disease, xvm. 370. 
ENCINA, or Enzina, Juan del, Spanish 

dramatist, vm. 189; vn. 420; xxn. 

356. 



148 



E N C E N G 



ENCKE, Johann Franz, German astrono 
mer, vin. 190. 

ENCKE S COMET, vi. 191. 

ENCOLPIUS, hero of Petronius s Satiroe, 
xviii. 722. 

ENCOUBERT, edentate mammal, xv. 

387- 

ENCRATITES, early Christian sect, n. 
217. 

ENCUiMBERED ESTATES COURT, Ire 
land, XIIL 229. 

ENCYCLOPEDIA, vin. 190; Americana, 
xiv. 564; American Cyclopaedia, xx. 
568; of Antiquities, Fosbroke s, IX. 
470; Arabic, of Hajji Khalfa, XL 376; 
Britannica, history of, vin. 199; 
Metropolitana, VIIL 204; Penny Cy 
clopaedia, XIV. 856; Vincent of Beau- 
vais s, xxiv. 235. 

OF THEOLOGY, theological disci 
pline, xxin. 272. 

ENCYCLOPAEDIAS, Chinese, v. 663. 

ENCYCLOPEDIE, The French, VIIL 197; 
IX. 671; its influence, IX. 593; Dide 
rot s and D Alembert s contributions 
to, vii. 194; Voltaire s, xxiv. 292. 

METHODIQUE, of Panckoucke,vm. 

202. 

ENDE, Franz van den, Dutch physician 
and teacher, xxn. 400. 

ENDEH (Flores), island, Indian Archi 
pelago, IX. 337. 

ENDERBY LAND, South Polar regions, 
xix. 330. 

ENDERI (Andreeva), town, Russia, II. 
20. 

ENDERLEIN, Caspar, Swiss metal 
worker, xix. 184. 

ENDICOTT, John, governor of New Eng 
land, xx. 152. 

ENDIVE, esculent plant, VIIL 205; v. 
615; xn. 282. 

ENDOCARDITIS, disease, ix. 554; xx. 

5i7. 

ENDODERM, layer of animal tissue, n. 
51; cells, xix. 14. 

ENDODERMIS, layer of cells in plants, 
xn. 18. 

ENDOGAMY, marrying within the com 
munity, VIIL 619; classes among 
whom it prevails, v. 187. See also 
XXIIL 472. 

ENDOPARASITES, in Leuckart s classi 
fication, xvin. 261. 

ENDOPLASM, internal protoplasm, xn. 4. 

ENDOPLASTICA, group of Protozoa, n. 
50. 

ENDOR, ancient town, Palestine, vni. 
205. 

ENDOSKELETON, i. 820; xxn. 106, 109. 

ENDOSPERM, reproductive tissue in 
plants, xx. 430. 

ENDOSPOREA, order of Protozoa, xix. 
840. 

ENDOSPOREyE, group of Schizomycetes, 
XXI. 405. 

ENDOTHELIUM, in anatomy, i. 846, 848. 



ENDOTRICHEA, suborder of Protozoa, 
xix. 841. 

ENDOWED SCHOOLS ACTS, VIIL 205. 

ENDOWMENTS, Charitable and educa 
tional, v. 402. 

ENDRICK, river, Scotland, xxn. 553. 

ENDYMION, of Greek mythology, VIIL 
205. 

, Keats s poem, xiv. 23. 

ENEAS, The, romance, xx. 639. 

ENEIT, H. von Veldeke s poem, x. 523. 

ENERGETICS, branch of dynamical 
science, Xix. 2; applied, in mechanics, 
xv. 772. 

ENERGY, in physics, VIIL 205; xv. 676, 
746; kinetic, xv. 698; potential, xv. 
700, 748; conservation of, xvni. 553; 
conservation and transformation of, 
XXIIL 283; conservation of, in rela 
tion to radiation of heat, xx. 213; 
Mohr s enunciation of conservation of, 
xvi. 607; dissipation of, XXIIL 285; 
differential equation of, vn. 822 ; 
transformation of, in nutrition, xvil. 
685; transmissibilityof, thro ugh ether, 
VIIL 570; in applied mechanics, xv. 
764; of moving molecules, xvi. 612; 
in liquids, xn. 466; in a wave, xxiv. 
415. 

, Bodily, its sources, xix. 9. 

-, Vegetable, Xix. 55. 



ENFANS SANS Souci, French actors, 
ix. 645. 

ENFANTIN, Barthelemy Prosper, French 
socialist, vni. 211; XXI. 198; his 
connexion with Bazard, ill. 459. 

ENFIELD, town, England, vni. 212; 
small-arms factory at, II. 633. 

, town, Connecticut, U.S.A., vni. 

212. 

, William, English miscellaneous 

writer, vin. 212. 

ENFILADE, in fortification, ix. 426. 

ENFLEURAGE, method of extracting 
perfumes, Xlll. 595; xvil. 748; xvin. 
526. 

ENGADINE, valley, Switzerland, VIIL 
213; XL 205. 

ENGAGERS, in Scottish history, XXL 
514. 

ENGEL, Johann Jakob, German writer, 
VIIL 214; x. 535. 

ENGELBRECHTSDATTER, Dorthe, Nor 
wegian poetess, VIIL 214; XVIL 589. 

ENGELBRECHTSSON, Engelbrecht, Swed 
ish patriot, xxn. 746. 

ENGELHARDT, Baron von, his obser 
vatory at Dresden, Germany, xvil. 712. 

ENGELMANN, Dr, his refractor telescope, 
XXIIL 149. 

ENGELS, Friedrich, German socialist, 

XXII. 210. 

ENGHIEN, France, mineral water of, 

xvi. 435. 
, Ducd , French prince, VIIL 214; vi. 

245; execution of, xvn. 207; XXL 325. 
ENGIA, island, Greece, I. 180. 



ENGINEER AND RAILWAY TRANSPORT 
CORPS, xxiv. 295. 

ENGINEERING, VIIL 215; military, ix. 
421. 

SOCIETIES, xxn. 226. 

ENGINEERS, Amalgamated Society of, 
XXIIL 500. 

, Naval, duties of, xvn. 294. 

, Royal, in British army, II. 579. 

ENGINE HOUSES, Railway, xx. 237. 

ENGINES, Air, i. 428; xxn. 522. 

, Gas, xxii. 523. 

, Locomotive, xx. 225, 244; xxn. 

520. 

, Marine, XXL 824; xxn. 517. 

, Steam and other Heat, xxn. 473. 

ENGLAND, Geography and statistics of, 
vin. 215 (index, 262); the name, vin. 
263, 283; origin of name, xxi. 476; 
academies of science, I. 73 ; of art, 
I. 78; progress of agriculture, I. 299; 
architecture, n. 425, 442; army, n. 
568; artillery service, II. 659; bank 
ing, in. 316; birds, xviii. 17; census 
returns, v. 335; coalfields, vi. 49; 
coins, XVIL 656; colonies, vi. 159; 
American colonies, I. 708 ; cotton 
manufacture, vi. 489; drama, vii. 
427; fisheries, IX. 249; marine fishes, 
XII. 678; forests, IX. 399; government, 
XL 12; Jews in, xni. 684; land tenure 
in, xiv. 263 ; language, VIIL 390; 
legitimacy laws in, in. 426; libraries, 
XIV - S J 3> 5 J 5> 54 2 ; mines, xvi. 467; 
national debt, xvn. 245; navy, xvn. 
287; newspapers, XVIL 413; nobility, 
xvn. 529; observatories, xvn. 710; 
parliament, XVIII. 302; parliamentary 
representation, xxni. 727; population, 
XXIIL 727; post office, xix. 571; 
railway system, XX. 226; settlements 
in Asia, II. 701 ; technical schools, 
xxni. 109; shipping trade, xxi. 826; 
weights and measures, xxiv. 489. 

, History of, vni. 263 (index, 

367); Anglo-Saxons in, xvn. 568 ; 
Anglo-Saxon law code, xxi. 215 ; 
Danish invasion of, I. 506 ; its con 
nexion with Normandy, xvn. 539 ; 
Norman settlement in, xvn. 548; 
genealogical table of the Norman 
kings, XXIV. 576; Reformation in, xx. 
327, 337; Cranmer s part in the Refor 
mation, VI. 550 ; Renaissance period, 
XX. 392 ; sweating-sickness in, xxn. 
734; taxation and finance, history of, 
IX. 174 ; Templars in, xxni. 163 ; 
under coalition ministry (1783), xix. 
139 ; under Cromwell, vi. 598 ; in 
time of Ethelred, vin. 567; of Fox, 
IX. 496; of Pitt, xix. 139; under 
Walpole, xxiv. 335; union of English 
and Scottish crowns (1603), XXI. 509; 
union of parliaments (1707), xxi. 518; 
Macaulay s History of, xv. 128 ; 
Pauli s, xvin. 433; Polydore Virgil s, 
xxiv. 255. 



E N G E P H 



149 



ENGLAND, Church of, vm. 370; Thirty- 
Nine Articles of, II. 653 ; form of bap 
tism in, ill. 352; benefices, in. 560; 
bishops, in. 788; Broad Churchism in, 
xxn. 453; Convocation, vi. 325; Eccle 
siastical Commission, VII. 627; govern 
ment of, Vlli. 247; the king the head 
of, xix. 674; liturgy, xiv. 710; music 
of, XVII. 88; order of precedence in, 
xix. 667; Tractarian and Gorham con 
troversies, XXII. 451. 

, Presbyterian Church of, xix. 685. 

IN TIME OF WAR, Dobell s poem, 
vn. 307. 

ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE, n. 425, 442. 

ENGLISH BARDS AND SCOTCH RE 
VIEWERS, Byron s, iv. 606. 

ENGLISH BIBLE, vm. 381. See Bible. 

ENGLISH CHURCH, Early, its national 
character, vui. 279. 

ENGLISH CYCLOPAEDIA, vm. 204. 

ENGLISH DRAMA, vn. 427. 

ENGLISH GRAMMAR, XL 42. 

ENGLISH LANGUAGE, vm. 390; xvm. 
782,787; origin of, vm. 272; accentu 
ation of, I. Si, 82; dialects of, vm. 
400; dictionaries of, VII. 187; infusion 
of Norman words in, vm. 299. 

ENGLISH LAW, Codification of, vi. 
1 06. 

ENGLISH LITERATURE, vm. 403 (index, 
435). See also index, vm. 367. 

ENGLISH MEDIEVAL MSS., xvm. 159. 

ENGLISH PEOPLE, Origin of, vm. 266, 
268. 

ENGRAVED PLATES, Invention of print 
ing from, IX. 215. 

ENGRAVING, vm. 435; of gems, x. 137; 
of maps, xxil. 715; photo-engraving, 
xvni. 834; wood, early, v. 99; xxm. 
683; substitutes for, xxm. 704; in 
time of Albrecht Diirer, vn. 554; in 
Florence in i5th century, iv. 166; 
Marcantonio s improvements in, xv. 
531; Turner s influence on, xxm. 666. 

ENGROSSING GRAIN, Laws against, vi. 
412. 

ENGUERA, town, Spain, vm. 446. 

ENGURI (Angora), town, Turkey in 
Asia, II. 45. 

ENHARMONICS, in music, xvn. 79, 91. 

ENHYDRA, genus of carnivorous mam 
mals, xvm. 69. 

ENKHUIZEN, town, Holland, vm. 446. 

ENLISTMENT, in British army, vm. 446. 

ACT, British, n. 574. 

ACTS, Foreign, xin. 196. 

ENNA (Castro Giovanni), ancient town, 

Sicily, v. 201. 
EN-NASIR MOHAMMED, sultan of Egypt, 

vn. 756. 

ENNEADS, of Plotinus, xvn. 335. 
ENNEMOND, St, archbishop of Lyons, 

xxi. 159. 
ENNEPER STRASSE, valley, Westphalia, 

xxiv. 517. 
ENNIS, town, Ireland, vm. 446. 



ENNISCORTHY, town, Ireland, vm. 447; 

population, xxiv. 521. 
ENNISKILLEN, town, Ireland, vin. 447. 
ENNIUS, Q., Roman poet and dramatist, 

vm. 447; vn. 410; xvni. 129; xix. 

215; his place in Roman literature, 

XX. 717; language of, xiv. 332. 
ENNS, river, Styria, Austria, xxn. 614. 
ENOCH, of Scripture, vm. 449. 
, Book of, ii. 175. 



ENOPLA, division of nemertine worms, 

xvn. 326. 
ENOS, town, Turkey in Europe, vm. 

449- 

ENRIQUE (Henry), Don, brother of 
Pedro I. of Castile, xvni. 450. 

ENRIQUEZ GOMEZ, Antonio, Spanish 
dramatist, vui. 449. 

ENSCHEDE, town, Holland, vm. 450. 

ENSIGNS, Military, ix. 276. 

ENSILAGE, method of preserving fodder, 
XXIL 67. 

EN SOPH, the Deity in the Kabbalah, 
xin. 811. 

ENSTATITE, mineral, xvi. 415. 

ENT, of Eleatic philosophy, xvin. 315. 

ENTABLATURE, in architecture, n. 464; 
Egyptian, II. 391; Greek, II. 403. 

ENTAIL, in law, vm. 450; xin. 77; of 
land, XIV. 264; settlement in, XXI. 
694. 

ENTASIS, in architecture, n. 464. 

ENTERIC FEVER, or Typhoid Fever, 
xxm. 678. 

ENTEROZOA, division of the animal king 
dom, xix. 830; in Lankester s classi 
fication, xxiv. 812. 

ENTFUHRUNG AUS DEM SERAIL, Moz 
art s opera, xvn. 10. 

ENTHYMEME, in rhetoric, xx. 510. 

ENTLEBUCH, valley, Switzerland, xv. 
40. 

ENTOMOLOGY, the science of insects, 
Xlll. 141 ; Swammerdam s entomo 
logical collection, xxn. 730. 

ENTOMOPHAGA, group of insects, xiu. 
148. 

ENTOMOPHTHORE/E, parasitic fungi, 
xvm. 267. 

ENTOPROCTA, subclass of Polyzoa, xix. 
438. 

ENTOPTIC PHENOMENA, in the eye, vm. 
819. 

ENTOZOA, internal parasites, xvm. 258; 
xxm. 49. 

ENTRECASTEAUX, Joseph Antoine Bruni 
d , French navigator, vm. 454. 

ENTRENCHMENTS, in fortification, ix. 

431- 
ENTROPY, in thermodynamics, xxm. 

285. 
ENVELOPES, in geometry, xin. 27. 

, Paper, Manufacture of, xxn. 461. 

ENVIRONMENT, Effect of, on plants and 

animals, xxiv. 82. 

ENVOYS, Diplomatic, I. 657; xm. 193. 
ENYO (Bellona), Greek divinity, in. 549. 



ENZELI, or Enzelli, town, Persia, v. 177; 

xx. 285. 

GULF, Caspian Sea, v. 177. 
ENZIANBRANNTWEIN, spirituous liquor, 

x. 1 60. 
ENZINA, or Encina, Juan del, Spanish 

dramatist, vil. 420; vui. 189; XXIL 

356. 
ENZIO, king of Sardinia, vm. 454; xin. 

475- 
ENZYMES, ferments in alimentary juices, 

xvii. 671. 

EOA, island, South Pacific, IX. 779. 
EOBANUS, Helius (Hessus), German 

humanist, XI. 781. 
EOCENE ROCKS, x. 360. 
EOLIS, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 656, 657. 
EON DE BEAUMONT (Chevalier D Eon), 

French adventurer, vin. 455. 
EONYCTERIS, genus of bats, xv. 410. 
EORD^EA, district, Macedonia, xv. 137. 
EORLS, nobility of early England, vin. 

274; xvii. 529; xviii. 302. 
Eos, genus of birds, xv. 7. 

-, Myth of, vm. 205; xxm. 413. 



EOSINE, potassium salt, iv. 361, 
EOSITE, mineral, xvi. 403. 
EOSPHORITE, mineral, xvi. 407. 
EOTVOS, Jozsef, Baron, Hungarian states 

man and poet, VIII. 455; XII. 371, 379. 
EOZOON, fossil or mineral, x. 328. 
- CANADENSE, supposed fossil fora- 

minifer, I. 679; IX. 384. 
EPACT, in the calendar, iv. 672. 
EPAKTO (Lepanto), town, Greece, xiv. 

467. 
EPAMINONDAS, Theban general, vin. 

456; XL 103; XVI. 52; his friendship 

with Pelopidas, xvni. 479; his inva 

sion of Sparta, xxn. 371. 
EPARCH, ecclesiastical title, xvni. 410. 
EPAULEMENT, in fortification, ix. 424. 
EPE, town, West Africa, xxiv. 754. 
EPEE, Charles-Michel, Abbe de 1 , teacher 

of deaf-mutes, vin. 457; vn. 7. 
EPERIES, town, Hungary, vin. 457. 
EPERNAY, town, France, vin. 457. 
EPHA, Syrian measure, xxiv. 485. 
EPHEMERID^E, family of insects, vin. 

457; xm. 152. 

EPHESIACA, Greek novel, xx. 635. 
EPHESIANS, Epistle to the, vin. 458; 

xviii. 422. 
EPHESUS, ancient town, Asia Minor, 

vm. 466; coins of, xvii. 646; council 

of (431), xvii. 356; St Paul at, xvni. 

420; temple of Diana at, II. 406, 410. 

, The Seven Sleepers of, legend, xxi. 

697. 



, Court of the, at Athens, n. 482. 
EPHIPPIORHYNCHUS, genus of birds, 

xin. 529. 
EPHORI, Greek magistrates, vin. 469; 

of Sparta, xv. 96. 
EPHORUS, Greek historian, vin. 469; 

v. 710. 
EPHRAEMI CODEX, xvni. 147. 



150 



E P H E R B 



EPHRAEM SYRUS, early Christian writer, 

viii. 470; xxii. 827; as hymn-writer, 

xn. 579. 
EPHRAIM, of Scripture, vm. 471; tribe 

of, xiii. 749. 
, the Syrian, early Christian writer, 

vm. 470; xii. 579; xxii. 827. 
EPHTHALITES, or Hephthalites (White 

Huns), ancient people of Europe and 

Asia, xiv. 59; xvm. 610, 613; xxin. 

639, 659. 
EPI BLAST, layer of tissue in animal 

embryo, II. 51; vm. 746; xxn. 106. 
EPIBOULANGERITE, mineral, xvi. 396. 
EPICHARMUS, Greek poet, vm. 471; 

xxii. 16. 

EPICHLORITE, mineral, xvi. 414. 
EPIC POETRY, xix. 264; of the Alexan 
drine school, I. 499; of Greece, XL 137; 

Sanskrit, xxi. 280, 283. 
EPICRIUM GLUTINOSUM, species of 

Amphibia, I. 761. 
EPICTETUS, Greek philosopher, vm. 

471; Stoic teaching of, xxii. 573; his 

discourses and manual published by 

Arrian, n. 630. 
EPICUREANISM, vm. 473; xvm. 685; 

xxi. 379; ethics of, vm. 586. 
EPICURUS, Greek philosopher, vm. 472; 

ethics of, vm. 586. 
EPIDAMNUS (Durazzo), ancient town, 

Illyricum, vm. 476; vn. 553. 
EPIDAURUS, ancient town, Argolis, 

Greece, vm. 476. 
, ancient town, Laconia, Greece, vm. 

477- 
(Vecchia Ragusa), ancient town, 

Illyricum, vin. 477. 
EPIDERMIS, or Cuticle, xxii. 107 ; 

anatomy of, I. 897; of plants, IV. 89; 

xii. 17. 

EPIDOTE, mineral, x. 228; xvi. 409. 
EPIFAN, town, Russia, xxin. 605. 
EPIGENESIS, biological theory, in. 682; 

vm. 744 ; Wolffs demonstration of, 

vin. 165; xxiv. 631. 
EPIGENITE, mineral, xvi. 396. 
EPIGONI, in Greek mythology, Vin. 

477- 

, school of economists, xix. 376. 

EPIGRAMMATA, John Owen s, xvm. 85. 

EPIGRAMS, vm. 477; n. 103; of the 
Alexandrian school, I. 499. 

EPIGRAPHY, the science of inscriptions, 
xni. 114; xvin. 143. 

EPILEPSY, disease, vin. 479; xni. 100; 
xvin. 391 ; its connexion with de 
moniacal possession, vn. 61; hystero- 
epilepsy, xn. 60 1. 

EPILOGUES, Dramatic, vn. 392. 

EPI MANES, or Epiphanes, Antiochus 
IV., king of Syria, II. 133; XIII. 421; 
xvin. 589. 

EPIMENIDES, Greek poet, vin. 481. 

EPIMETHEUS, of Greek legend, xxiv. 
782. 

EPINAL, town, France, vnr. 482. 



E PIN AY, Madame d , French authoress, 

vm. 482; her patronage of Rousseau, 

xxi. 25. 

EPINICIA, odes by Pindar, xix. 100. 
EPIPHANES, Antiochus IV., king of 

Syria, n. 133; xni. 421; xvin. 589. 
EPIPHANIUS, St, early Christian writer, 

vin. 482; xvi. 503. 
EPIPHANY, church festival, vin. 483; 

xni. 660. 
EPIPHYLLUM, group of Cactacece, IV. 

626. 
EPIPHYTES, plants growing on others, 

iv. 94; xvin. 264. 
EPIRUS, district, Greece, vin. 483 ; I. 

446; coins of, xvii. 641. 
EPISCOPACY, vin. 484; in the early 

church, v. 700; in Scotland, XIX. 683; 

xxi. 507, 510, 515, 780; Milton s 

writings against, xvi. 329. 
EPISCOPAL CHURCH, of Ireland, vin. 

490 ; of Scotland, viii. 490 ; its 

liturgy, xiv. 711 ; Protestant, of 

United States, vin. 493; its liturgy, 

XIV. 711. 
EPISCOPAL METHODISM, American, 

xvi. 191. 

EPISCOPI, hill, Greece, xxiv. 282. 
EPISCOPIUS, Simon, Dutch theologian, 

vin. 493; at synod of Dort, vii. 374. 
EPISTEMOLOGY, or Theory of Know 
ledge, XVlll. 793; Ferrier s, IX. no. 
EPISTILBITE, mineral, xvi. 422. 
EPISTLES OF PHALARIS, in. 53, 579 ; 

xvin. 730. 
EPISTOLA AD DORPIUM, Sir Thomas 

More s, xvi. 819. 
EPITAPH, vin. 493. 
EPITHALAMION, Spenser s poem, xxn. 

395- 
EPITHALAMIUM, nuptial song, vm. 

496. 
EPITHELIOMA, cancer of skin, xvin. 

382. 
EPITHELIUM, EPITHELIUM CELLS, in 

anatomy, I. 847; xii. 4; xvii. 673. 
EPITRAPEZIUS, Greek statuette of 

Hercules, xv. 120. 
EPIZOOTY, cattle disease, xvn. 57. 
EPOCHS, or Eras, iv. 68 1. 
EPOMEO, Monte, Ischia, Italy, xni. 385. 
EPOMOPHORUS, genus of bats, xv. 408, 

409. 
EPONYMOS, first archon at Athens, XI. 

96. 
EPOREDIA (Ivrea), ancient town, Italy, 

xni. 525. 
EPPING FOREST, England, vin. 553; 

xiv. 824. 
EPREMENIL, or Espremesnil, J. J. 

Duval d , French politician, Vin. 548. 
EPSOM, town, England, vin. 496; xxn. 

694; horse-racing at, xn. 201. 
EPSOMITE, mineral, vm. 496; xvi. 401. 
EPSOM SALTS, in pharmacy, vin. 496; 

xv. 218; xvi. 401. 
EPTE, river, France, xvn. 538. 



EQUATION, EQUATIONS, Algebraic, vin. 

497; i- 5!5) 538; xv. 630; of curves, 

VI. 717; functional, IX. 823. 

OF TIME, n. 772; xxin. 392. 

EQUATIONS OF MOTION, in tides, xxin 

358. 

EQUATOR, x. 198. 
EQUATORIAL CURRENT, in Atlantic, 

in. 19. 

EQUATORIAL DIAL, vn. 157. 
EQUATORIAL TELESCOPES, n. 768 ; 

xxin. 146. 
EQUID/E, family of ungulate mammals, 

xv. 429. 
EQUILIBRIUM, in mechanics, xv. 722; 

747; of rotating fluid mass, Laplace s 

investigations of, xiv. 303; of tides, 

xxin. 357, 363. 
EQUINIA, disease, x. 634. 
EQUINOX, mountain, Vermont, U.S.A., 

xxin. 792. 
EQUINOXES, Precession of the, II. 794; 

x. 216; its discovery, II. 749. 
EQUISETIN/E, class of plants, ix. 106; 

xxiv. 129. 

EQUISETUM, genus of plants, xn. 207. 
EQUITABLE SOCIETY, insurance com 
pany, xni. 1 80. 

EQUITES, Roman order, vin. 509. 
EQUITY, in law, vin. 510; xiv. 365. 

, Court of, in England, v. 389. 

EQUIVOCATION, Liguorian doctrine of, 

xiv. 638. 
ERA, ERAS, Chronological, iv. 68 1; v. 

711. 

ERANOI, Greek guilds, XL 260. 
ERARD, Sebastien, French musical in 
strument-maker, vin. 512; xix. 74. 
ERASISTRATUS, Alexandrian physician, 

xv. 80 1 ; on anatomy, I. Soi; on brain 

and mind, xvin. 842. 
ERASMUS, Desiderius, Dutch scholar, 

Vin. 512; on education, VII. 672; his 

influence on Biblical interpretation, 

XI. 747; his Latin style, XIV. 342; his 

connexion with Thomas More, xvi. 

816; his relation to the Reformation, 

xx. 325; to the Renaissance, XX. 388; 

as satirist, xxi. 319. 
ERASTIANISM, Erastus s theory of church 

government, vin. 518. 
ERASTUS, Thomas, Swiss theologian, 

vm. 518. 

ERATO, Muse of erotic poetry, xvn. 74. 
ERATOSTHENES, Greek astronomer and 

geographer, vin. 519; n. 748; as 

chronologist, v. 710; on geography, 

i. 499; x. 176; xx. 92; Strabo on, 

xxii. 582. 
, tyrant of Athens, Lysias s speech 

against, XV. 118. 

ERBACH, town, Germany, vin. 519. 
ERBEN, Karel, Bohemian poet, xxn. 

152. 
ERBIL (Arbela), town, Asiatic Turkey, 

n. 311. 
ERBIUM, chemical element, v. 543; 



E R C E R Y 



151 



xiv. 292; spectrum of its salts, xxn. 

376. 
ERCELDOUNE, Thomas of, early Scottish 

poet, xxm. 308. 
ERCILLA Y ZUNIGA, Alonso de, 

Spanish poet, vni. 519; xxn. 357. 
ERDELYI, Janos, Hungarian poet, vni. 

519; XH. 378. 
ERDEVEN, France, Alignments of, xxi. 

5i- 

ERDJISH-DAGH, or Erjish-Dagh, moun 
tain, Asia Minor, II. 705; v. 75 ; 

xxm. 654. 
ERDMANN, Otto Linne, German chemist, 

vni. 520. 

EREBUS, in Greek mythology, vm. 520. 
AND TERROR, Expedition of, ix. 

720. 
ERECH, Necropolis of, Babylonia, ill. 

189. 
ERECHTHEUM, or Erechtheium, temple, 

Athens, ill. 6; II. 357, 412; building 

of, xvin. 529. 
ERECHTHEUS, in Greek legend, vm. 

520. 
EREKLI, town, Turkey in Asia, XI. 

68r. 
EREMACAUSIS, chemical process, ix. 

98. 
EREMITES OF ST FRANCIS, order of 

monks, ix. 695. 
EREMITES OF ST JEROME, order of 

monks, XI. 809; XVI. 711, 716. 
ERESUS, town, Lesbos, Asia Minor, xiv. 

474- 
ERETHIZON, genus of rodent mammals, 

xix. 518. 
ERETRIA, town, Eubcea, Greece, vm. 

649. 

EREWASH, river, England, xvn. 598. 
ERFT, river, Germany, xx. 519. 
ERFURT, town, Prussia, vm. 520; 

electoral academy at, I. 72; university 

of, xxm. 840. 

ERG, plateaus, Sahara, Africa, xxi. 149. 
, unit of energy or work, vm. 206; 

xv. 668. 

ERGANE, epithet of Athena, Greek god 
dess, ii. 830. 
ERGHIK-SHAN, mountains, Siberia, 

xxm. 437. 

ERGIR CASTRI, town, Albania, n. 501. 
ERGOT, drug, vm. 521. 
ERGOTISM, disease, vm. 521 ; xvm. 

407. 

ERIC, or Erik, Menved, king of Den 
mark, his contest with the Hanse 

towns, XI. 450. 
, the Victory-Blest, Swedish king, 

xxn. 744. 
IX., Edwardson, Swedish king, 

XXII. 745. 
XL, the Halt, Swedish king, xx. 

745- 
XI 1 1., of Pomerania, king of 

Sweden, xxn. 746. 
XIV., of Sweden, xxn. 747. 



ERIC, or Heiricus, scholastic philosopher, 
xxi. 420. 

ERICA, genus of plants, xi. 589; xn. 
263. 

ERICHT, Loch, Scotland, xiv. 217; 
xvm. 666. 

ERICHTHONIUS, or Erechtheus, in Greek 
legend, vm. 520. 

ERICSSON, John, inventor of an air- 
engine, I. 428; his air-engine, XXII. 
523; his torpedo, xxm. 451. 

ERIDANUS (Po), river, Italy, xix. 251. 

ERIE, Lake, North America, XIV. 217; 
xvii. 451; xxi. 179, 182. 

, town, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., vm. 



ERIEUX, river, France, xx. 528. 

ERIGENA, Johannes Scotus, mediaeval 
philosopher, vm. 522, 371; on evolu 
tion, vm. 758; on the nature of God, 
xxm. 241; mystical teaching of, XVII. 
131; scholastic system of, xxi. 419. 

ERIGON (Czerna), river, Macedonia, 
xv. 136. 

ERIGONE, in Greek mythology, vm. 
524. 

ERIK, Blood-Axe, king of Norway, xvii. 
585. See also Eric. 
, king of Norway, XVII. 588. 



ERIMON, of Irish legend, xm. 244. 
ERINACEID^E, family of Insectivora, xv. 

402. 
ERINACEUS, genus of insectivorous 

mammals, XI. 610. 
ERINITE, mineral, xvi. 406. 
ERINNA, Greek poetess, vm. 524. 
ERINYES, or Erinnyes, in Greek my 
thology, vm. 524; ix. 840; xvii. 827; 

temple of, at Athens, II. 482. 
ERIODES, genus of apes, n. 153. 
ERIPHYLE, in Greek mythology, vm. 

524. 

ERIS, in Greek mythology, vm. 524. 
ERITHACUS, genus of birds, xx. 315. 
ERITHROSIDERITE, mineral, xvi. 384. 
ERIVAN, town, Transcaucasia, Russia, 

vm. 524; xxm. 515; government, 

xxm. 513. 
ERJISH-DAGH, mountain, Asia Minor, 

ii. 705; v. 75; xxm. 654. 
ERLANGEN, town, Bavaria, vm. 525; 

university of, xxm. 848. 
ERLAU, town, Hungary, vm. 525. 
ERLENDSSON, Haukr, Icelandic writer, 

xxi. 368. 
ERLING SHAKKE, Norwegian chief, 

xvii. 588. 

ERL-KlNG, or Erlkonig, mythical char 
acter, vm. 525. 
ERMAN, Paul, German physicist, vm. 

526. 

ERMANARIC, king of the Goths, x. 848. 
ERMENT, or Arment, village, Egypt, vn. 

782. 
ERMINE, carnivorous mammal, vm. 

526; xv. 440; fur of, vm. 526; ix. 

838. 



ERMINE, in heraldry, xi. 692. 

STREET, Roman road, Lincoln 



shire, England, xiv. 656. 
ERNE, loughs, Ireland, v. 263; IX. 90; 
xm. 216; river, v. 263. 
-, sea-eagle, vil. 589. 



ERNEST, count of Mansfeld, German 

general, xv. 498. 
ERNESTI, Johaim August, German 

philologist and theologian, vm. 526. 
-, Johann Christian Gottlieb, German 



scholar, vm. 527. 
ERNEST MALTRAVERS, Lytton s novel, 

xv. 122. 
ERNST, Heinrich Wilhelm, German 

composer and violinist, VIII. 527. 
EROPHILE, Greek drama, xi. 150. 
EROS, Greek god (the Roman Cupid), 

vm. 527; VI. 708; statue of,atThespise, 

xxm. 297. 
EROTIC ROMANCES, Greek and Roman, 

xx. 635. 
EROTOCRITOS, Greek epic poem, xi. 

150. 
ERPE, Thomas von, or Erpenius, Dutch 

Orientalist, vm. 527. 
ERRARD, Jean, French military engineer, 

ix. 441. 

ERRIBOLL, Loch, Scotland, xxn. 726. 
ERROMANGO, island, New Hebrides, 

xvii. 395; scene of Williarns s murder, 

xxiv. 586. 
ERRORS, Theory of, in probability, xix. 

780. 

ERSCH, Johann Samuel, German biblio 
grapher, vm. 528. 
AND GRUBER S ALLGEMEINE 

ENCYKLOPADIE, vm. 204; xi. 224. 
ERSE, or Irish, language, v. 298. 
ERSKINE, Lord, lord chancellor of 

England, vm. 529. 
, Ebenezer, founder of Secession 

Church, Scotland, vm. 528; XXIII. 

728. 

, John, earl of Mar, xv. 525. 
, John 1 (d. 1768), of Carnock, Scot 



tish law writer, VIII. 528. 
, John (d. 1803), minister of Church 
of Scotland, vm. 529. 
-, Ralph, Scottish divine, vm. 529; 



hymns by, XII. 593. 
, Thomas, of Liiilathen, Scottish 

theological writer, vni. 530. 
ER-TOGHRUL, early Turkish chief, 

xxm. 640. 

ERUBESCITE, mineral, vi. 347. 
ERULI, ancient German tribe, xi. 774. 
ERYCID^:, family of snakes, xxn. 

193- 
ERYCINA, epithet of Venus, vni. 532; 

xvi. 782. 

ERYMANTHUS, river, Greece, xvii. 765. 
ERYSIPELAS, disease, vm. 531; xvm. 

398; resulting from vaccination, xxiv. 

26. 
ERYSIPHE/E, group of Fungi, ix. 833; 

xvi. 294. 



152 



E R Y E S T 



ERYSIPHE TUCKERI, parasitic fungus, 

xvm. 267. 

ERYTHEMA, skin disease, xxn. 122. 
ERYTHR/E, ancient Greek town, Asia 

Minor, vill. 532; coins of, xvil. 647. 
ERYTHRAEAN SEA, Periplus of the, xx. 

94- 

ERYTHRITE, mineral, xvi. 404. 
ERYTHROZYNE, vegetable ferment, ix. 

96. 
ERYX (Monte San Giuliano), ancient 

town, and mountain, Sicily, vill. 532; 

xvi. 782. 
ERZEROUM, town, Turkish Armenia, 

vni. 532; xvm. 617; province, xxin. 

653- 
ERZGEBIRGE, mountains, Germany, vni. 

533; xxi. 357. 
ERZKASTEN, mountain, Black Forest, 

Germany, xxiv. 700. 
ERZRUM (Erzeroum), town, Turkish 

Armenia, vni. 532; xvm. 617. 
ERZYA (Aorsi, q.v.), race of people, 

Russia, xvi. 813. 
ESARHADDON, Assyrian king, vni. 533; 

ill. 187; vn. 742; palace of, at Nineveh, 

xvn. 512. 

ESAU, of Scripture, vni. 533. 
ESCALDAS, spa, France, XX. 128. 
ESCAPEMENT, of clocks, vi. 17; of 

watches, xxiv. 396. 
ESCAUT (Scheldt), river, France, xxi. 

389- 
ESCHATOLOGY, doctrine of last things, 

vin. 534; xvi. 315; in St Paul s 

teaching, xvm. 426; Polynesian, xix. 

426; Zoroastrian, xxiv. 823. 
ESCHEAT, in law, vin. 538; xin. 77. 
ESCHENBURG, Johann Joachim, German 

writer, VIII. 538. 
ESCHENMAYER, Karl von, German 

philosopher and physicist, vni. 539. 
ESCHSCHOLTZ, Johann Friedrich, Ger 
man naturalist, vni. 539. 
ESCHWEGE, town, Germany, VIII. 539. 
ESCHWEILER, town, Prussia, VIII. 539. 
ESCOBAR Y MENDOZA, Antonio, 

Spanish casuist, vin. 539. 
ESCORIAL, palace, Spain, vin. 539; 

xvin. 746; library of, XIV. 532. 
ESCORPION, Mexican lizard, xiv. 735. 
ESCOVEDO, Juan de, secretary to Philip 

II. of Spain, xvm. 525. 
ESCUAGE, or Scutage, in law, xxi. 572. 
ESCURIAL (Escorial, q.v.), palace, Spain, 

vill. 539. 
ESCUTCHEON, in architecture, II. 464. 

, in heraldry, XI. 686, 692, 711. 

ESDRAELON, Plain of, Palestine, xvm. 

171. 

ESDRAS, Apocalypse of, II. 179. 
, Books of, in Apocrypha, Vill. 541, 

831; II. 181. 
, Fourth Book of, apocalyptic work, 

II. 175. 
ESEGER SEE, lake, Transylvania, xxm. 

522. 



ESELSFLETH (Itzehoe), ancient town, 

Holstein, xin. 518. 
ESHER, town, England, vin. 543. 
ESHMUNAZAR I.-II., kings of Sidon, 

xvm. 809. 
ESHREF, or Ashraf, town, Persia, Vill. 

543; xv. 651. 
ESK, rivers, Scotland, vn. 526, 656; ix. 

410. 

ESKI-DJUMA, town, Bulgaria, vni. 543. 
ESKI KARA-HISSAR, town, Asiatic 

Turkey, xiv. 2. 

ESKILSTUNA, town, Sweden, vin. 543. 
ESKILUP (Iskelib), town, Asiatic Turkey, 

xin. 387. 
ESKIMO, race of people, vin. 543; i. 

690; xix. 329; their origin, v. 268; 

their relations to American Indians, 

XII. 822; their religions, XX. 364; of 

Labrador, xiv. 176. 
ESKI-SAGRA, town, European Turkey, 

Vin. 547. 
ESKi-SHEHR, town, Asiatic Turkey, 

vin. 547. 

ESKi-ZAGRA, or Eski-Sagra, depart 
ment, Eoumelia, xxi. 22; town, vin. 

547- 
ESKUARA, or Basque language, ill. 424; 

xvin. 780. 

ESMARKITE, mineral, xvi. 418. 
ESMERALDA, settlement on Orinoco 

river, South America, XVII. 843. 
ESMERALDAS, river, Ecuador, vn. 646. 
ESMOND, Thackeray s novel, xxm. 216. 
ESNEH, or Isne, town, Upper Egypt, 

Vin. 547; vn. 782. 
ESOTERIC DISCOURSES, of Aristotle, 11. 

514. 

Esox, genus of fishes, XIX. 88. 
ESPARTERO, Baldomero, Spanish regent, 

XXII. 346. 
ESPARTO, grass fibre, vni. 547; used in 

paper-making, xvin. 225. 
ESPINEL, Vicente, Spanish poet, vill. 

548; xxii. 358. 

ESPINHACO, Sierra do, Brazil, IV. 222. 
ESPIRITU SANTO, town, Brazil, xxiv. 

219. 
ESPIRITU SANTO, island, New Hebrides, 

xvn. 395. 

ESPLANDIAN, romance, xx. 655. 
ESPREMESNIL, Jean Jacques Duval d , 

French politician, vni. 548. 
ESPRIT DES Lois, Montesquieu s work, 

ix. 667; xvi. 784. 
ESPRONCEDA, Jose de, Spanish poet and 

politician, vill. 548; xxii. 361. 
ESQUIMAULT, town, Vancouver Island, 

xxiv. 57. 
ESQUIMAUX, or Eskimo (q.v.), race of 

people, vin. 543; I. 690. 
- DOG, vn. 326. 

ESQUIRE, title, vni. 549; xix. 664. 
ESQUIROL, Jean Etienne Dominique, 

French physician, Vill. 549. 
ESQUIROS, Henri Alphonse, French 

writer, vni. 549. 



Ess, Johann Heinrich van, German 
theologian, vin. 549. 

ESSAIS DETHEODICEE, Leibnitz s work, 
xiv. 420. 

ESSAR-HADDON, or Esarhaddon, king 
of Assyria, vin. 533; in. 187; vn. 
742; his palace, xvil. 512. 

ESSAY ON THE HUMAN UNDERSTAND 
ING, Locke s, xiv. 756, 757. 

ESSAY ON MAN, Pope s, xix. 486. 

ESSEK, town, Hungary, vin. 549. 

ESSEN, town, Prussia, vin. 550; xx. 

21. 

ESSENES, Jewish sect, vin. 550; xvi. 

698. 

ESSENTIAL OILS, with list, xvn. 749. 
ESSEQUIBO, river, Guiana, xi. 250. 
ESSEVELDOBURG (Itzehoe), ancient 

town, Holstein, Xin. 518. 
ESSEX, county, England, vin. 552; 

population and representation, xxin. 

727. 

, Thomas Cromwell (q.v.\ earl of, VI. 

604. 

, Walter Devereux, first earl of 

(Devereux line), vin. 555. 

, Eobert Devereux, second earl of, 

vin. 555; his friendship for Bacon, 

in. 202; relations with Raleigh, xx. 

263. 
-, Robert Devereux, third earl of, 



vni. 556. 
Es-SiouT, or Asioot, town, Egypt, vn. 

775; xxn. 103. 
ESSLING, Austria, Battle of (1809), IX. 

616; xvn. 214. 
, Prince of (Massena, q.v.), French 

marshal, xv. 617. 
ESSLINGEN, town, Wiirtemberg, vin. 

557; population, xxiv. 701. 
ESSONE, affluent of Seine, France, xxi. 

624. 
ESSONITE, precious stone, x. 82; xin. 

532- 

ESSONNE, town, France, xxi. 625. 
ES-SOUAN, or Aswan, town, Egypt, VII. 

783. 
ESTAING, Comte d , French admiral, 

vin. 557. 
ESTAMPES, or Etampes, town, France, 

vin. 565; xxi. 625. 
ESTATE, in English law, vni. 557; 

personal, xvin. 664; real, XX. 304; 

escheat of, vin. 538. 
ESTATES OF THE REALM, vin. 557; 

xvin. 306. 

ESTAVAYER, town, Neuchatel, Switzer 
land, xvn. 361. 
ESTE, town, Italy, vni. 558. 

, Italian princely family, vin. 558. 

-, Leonora d , friend of Tasso, xxm. 



76. 

ESTELLA, town, Spain, vni. 559. 
ESTEPA, town, Spain, vin. 559. 
ESTEPONA, town, Spain, Vin. 559. 
ESTEREL MOUNTAINS, France, xxiv. 

68. 



S T E U B 



153 



ESTERHAZY, or Eszterhazy, Hungarian 

family, vill. 564. 
, Prince Paul, his patronage of 

Haydn, xi. 539. 
ESTFENDYS (Aspendus), town, Pam- 

phylia, n. 715. 
ESTHER, of Scripture, vm. 560; parallel 

of her story in Arabian Nights, xxill. 

3i6. 

, Racine s drama, XX. 208. 

, Book of, in Scripture, vill. 560; 

in. 639; additions to, in Apocrypha, 

II. 181. 
ESTHONIA, province, Russia, vill. 561; 

xxi. 69. 
ESTHONIAN LANGUAGE, Dictionaries of, 

vii. iSS. 
ESTHONIANS, people, Livonia, Russia, 

vm. 562; xiv. 724. 
ESTIENNE, or Stephens, family of French 

printers, xxil. 534. 
ESTLIN, Dr, of Bristol, propagator of 

vaccination, XXIV. 24. 
ESTOC, weapon of war, xxn. 802. 
ESTOPPEL, in law, vm. 563. 
ESTOVERS, Common of, legal right, vi. 

209. 

ESTRADA, La, town, Spain, xix. 455. 
ESTRELLA, mountains, Portugal, XIX. 

536- 
ESTREMADURA, province, Portugal, vm. 

563; xix. 537. 

j old province, Spain, vm. 563; 

xxil. 298. 
ESTREMOZ, town, Portugal, vm. 564. 

ESTREPEMENT, Writ of, XXIV. 393. 

ESTUARY, of river, xx. 576; xxi. 579. 
ESZEK, or Essek, town, Hungary, vm. 

549- 
ESZTERHAZY, Hungarian family, vill. 

564. 
ETAH, district and town, India, vill. 

,565. 
ETAMPES, or Estampes, town, France, 

vm. 565; xxi. 625. 

ETAPLES, Lefevre d (Faber Stapu- 
lensis), French Reformer,vni. 835 ; xx. 

334- 
ETAWAH, district and town, India, vm. 

565. 
ETCHING, vm. 443; Muryon as etcher, 

XVI. 45; Rembrandt as, xx. 377. 
ETCHMIADZIN, town and monastery, 

Transcaucasia, Russia, VI 1 1. 566 ; 

xxni. 515. 

ETEN, town, Peru, xvin. 674. 
ETEOCLES, mythical king of Thebes, 

vm. 567; xi. 26. 
ETHANE, a gaseous paraffin, v. 557 ; 

xvin. 238. 
ETHBAAL, or Ithobal, king of Tyre, 

xvin. 807. 
ETHELBALD, Anglo-Saxon prince, vm. 

568. 

, king of Mercia, XVII. 570. 

ETHELBERGA, wife of Edwin of Deira, 

England, xvn. 569. 



ETHELBERT, king of Kent, England, 

vm. 278, 567. 
ETHELFRITH, king of Northumberland, 

vm. 271, 278; xvn. 569. 
ETHELNOTH, or Agelnoth, archbishop 

of Canterbury, I. 279. 
ETHELRED, early English king, vm. 

286, 567. 

, two kings of Northumbria, XVII. 



570. 

ETHELREDUS, or Ailred, English 
ecclesiastic and historian, I. 425. 

ETHELWALD, Northumbrian king, xvn. 
570. 

ETHELWULF, Saxon king of England, 
vm. 568. 

ETHER, in chemistry, vm. 568 ; 
cenanthic, xvn. 731 ; sulphuric, as 
anaisthetic, I. 789; Liebig s investiga 
tions on, xiv. 566. 
, in interstellar space, vill. 568. 



ETHEREAL SALTS, v. 572. 
ETHEREDGE, Sir George, English 

dramatist, vm. 572; xxiv. 56. 

, John Wesley, Biblical writer, vm. 

573- 

ETHERS, Haloid, v. 564. 

ETHICAL RELIGIONS, xx. 368. 

ETHICS, vm. 574 (table of contents, 
6 1 1) ; xvill. 796; in relation to evolu 
tion, vm. 766; Aristotle s, n. 517; 
Butler s sermons on, IV. 586 ; Cud- 
worth s, vi. 691; Descartes s system, v. 
148 ; Hutcheson s theory, XII. 409; 
Kant on, Xin. 853 ; Malebranche s 
system, v. 151; Manicha3an, xv. 484; 
of Neoplatonism, XVII. 336 ; Price s 
theories, Xix. 722; Pythagorean, xx. 
139; Schleiermacher s, XXI. 412; Scho 
penhauer s, XXI. 454; Shaftesbury s, 

XXI. 733; Adam Smith s, xxil. 171; 
Socratic, XXII. 237; Spinoza s system, 
v. 157; xxil. 402; Stoic doctrine of, 

XXII. 566 ; theological, xxill. 270, 
275; Tucker s contributions to, XXIII. 
603 ; Whe well s, XXIV. 539 ; Wol- 
laston s theory, XXIV.633; Xenocrates s 
system, XX I v. 719. 

ETHIOPIA, vm. 611; Arabian settle 
ments in, XXIV. 739; conquest of, by 
Egypt, VII. 736; relations of, with 
Egypt, I. 65; language, xvm. 778; 
XXI. 654; dictionaries of language, 
vn. 192. 

ETHIOPIAN REGION, in zoology, vn. 
270. 

ETHIOPIANS, in Arabia, i. 65. 

ETHIOPIC RACE, i. 263. 

ETHNOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY, vm. 
613 (index, 626); of Africa, XVII. 316, 
6 1 1 ; XXIV. 828; of American Indians, 
XII. 822; of Europe, Vill. 697; of India, 
Xii. 745, 777; of Polynesia, xix. 422; 
of Russia, xxi. 78; Ural-Altaic, xxiv. 
i; xvi. 740, 749; xxni. 608, 658. 

ETHNOLOGY, vi 1 1.613; Prichard s contri 
butions to, xix. 723. See Ethnography. 



ETHOLOGY (Folk-Lore), Comparative, 
t ix. 358. 

ETIENNE, Charles, French anatomist, I. 
807. 

, or Estienne, family of French 



printers, XXII. 534. 

ETIOLIN, yellow-colouring matter, in 
plants, xix. 52. 

ETNA, volcano, Sicily, vill. 627; obser 
vatory on, xvn. 714. 

ETOILES, Madame le Normant d 
(Madame de Pompadour), ix. 586 ; 
Xix. 443. 

ETON, town and college, England, vm. 
632. 

ETRURIA, Italy, vm. 633; xx. 731, 734, 
739, 742; xxiii. 671; coins of, xvn. 
637; glass-making, x. 648; language, 
xvm. 780; xx. 661; pottery, xix. 
614; influence from, on Roman 
worship, xin. 780; terra-cotta art, 
xxni. 193. 
, England, Wedgwood s potteries at, 



xxiv. 476. 

ETRUSCAN ALPHABET, i. 610. 

ETRUSCAN ARCHITECTURE, n. 414. 

ETRUSCAN ART, vm. 639; xvn. 40. 

ETRUSCAN LANGUAGE, vm. 636; xvin. 
780; xx. 66 1 ; xxiv. 3. 

ETRUSCANS, ancient Italian race, vm. 
636; xin. 446; xx. 669; their con 
tests with Umbrians, xxni. 723; their 
relations with ancient Rome, xx. 
73i, 734, 739, 742; astrology of, 11. 
739- 

ETRUSCAN TOMBS, Remains of, vi. 

423- 

ETRUSCAN VASES, n. 353; xix. 614. 
ETTERSBURG, mountain, Germany, xxi. 

349- 
ETTINGSHAUSEN, A. von, his researches 

in magnetism, xv. 268. 
ETTLINGEN, town, Germany, vm. 645. 
ETTMULLER, Ernst Moriz Ludwig, 

German philologist, vm. 645. 
, Michael, German physician, vm. 



646. 
ETTRICK, river, Scotland, xxi. 638 ; 

xxni. 673. 
SHEPHERD (James Hogg), Scottish 

poet, xn. 50. 
ETTY, William, English painter, vm. 

646. 
ETYMOLOGIES, Isidore of Seville s work, 

xin. 386. 
ETYMOLOGY, xi. 37 ; xvm. 768; of 

Aryan languages, xvin. 789. 
ETZEL (Attila), leader of the Huns, in. 

61; xn. 381; xx. 781. 

, hero of the Nibelungenlied, xvn. 

475- 
Eu, town, France, vm. 647 ; xvn. 

538; xxi. 626; river, xvn. 538. 
EUBCEA, island, Greece, Vill. 647; coins 

of, XVII. 644. 
EUBONIA, ancient name of Isle of Man, 

xv. 453. 

XXV- 20 



154 



E U B E U E 



EUBULIDES, Greek philosopher, Vlll. 
649. 

EUCALYPTUS, genus of trees, vin. 649; 
XIII. 593; in Victoria, Australia, xxiv. 
216; in Western Australia, xxiv. 508. 

KINO, drug, xiv. 91. 

EUCERUS (Demetrius III.), king of 
Syria, vil. 58. 

EUCHARIS, stove plant, XII. 266. 

EUCHARIST, or Lord s Supper, vin. 
650; xxi. 131, 139; xxiv. 208; institu 
tion of, XIII. 668; controversy of Re 
formers on, xx. 332 ; decrees respect 
ing, at council of Trent, xxni. 546, 
550; Berengar s theory, ill. 586; Cal 
vin s views, IV. 719; Luther s views, 
XV. 81; Occam s theory, xvn. 718; 
Quaker doctrine, XX. 150; Zwingli s 
views, xxiv. 833. 

EUCHER, St, bishop of Lyons, XXI. 
238. 

EUCHITES, sect, Greek Church, XI. 
782; XVI. 701. 

EUCHOLOGIUM, of the Oriental Church, 
xx. 630. 

EUCHRE, card game, vin. 654. 

EUCHROITE, mineral, XVI. 406. 

EUCLASE, mineral, XV I. 409. 

EUCLERIA, Schiirman s exposition of 
Labadism, xiv. 163. 

EUCLID, Greek mathematician, vin. 
655; on axioms, ill. 159; on the 
geometry of the sphere, II. 748; on 
mathematical analysis and synthesis, 

I. 793; anticipated by Pythagoras, xx. 
141; his Elements, x. 376. 

of Megara, Greek philosopher, vin. 

658. 
EUCLID S ELEMENTS, geometrical work, 

x. 376. 

EUCRASITE, mineral, XVI. 424. 
EUCRATIDES, ruler of Bactria, xvin. 

590. 

EUCTEMON, Greek astronomer, II. 747. 
EUCYRTIDIUM, genus of Protozoa, XIX. 

850. 
EUDEMUS, Greek astronomer, on the 

obliquity of the ecliptic, II. 747. 
of Rhodes, Peripatetic philosopher, 

XVIII. 545. 

EUDES, early French king, IX. 535. 
, Eudon, or Odo, duke of Aquitania, 

II. 233; IX. 531. 
EUDIALITE, mineral, xvi. 426. 
EUDIOMETER, for analysis of gases, 

Saussure s invention of, xxi. 324. 

EUDNOPHITE, mineral, xvi. 421. 

EUDOCIA, wife of Theodosius II., vin. 
659. 

AUGUSTA, wife of Constantine XL, 

vin. 659; xx. 730. 

EUDOXIA, wife of Arcadius, her persecu 
tion of Chrysostom, v. 756. 

EUDOXUS of Ciiidus, Greek philosopher, 
vin. 659; n. 747. 

of Cyzicus, Greek navigator, vin. 

659. 



EUDYPTES, genus of birds, xvin. 492. 
EUDYTES, genus of birds, xv. 2. 
EUEMERISM, theory of mythology, vin. 

735; xvn. 136. 
EUERGETES, Ptolemy III., king of 

Egypt, VIL 745. 

, Demetrius III., king of Syria, vil. 

58. 
EuGANEANS, ancient Italian tribe, xm. 

447- 

EUGENE, Francois, prince of Savoy, 
Austrian general, vm. 659; IX. 581; 
xxni. 646; in war of succession, ill. 
126. 

ARAM, Hood s poem of, xn. 145. 

EUGENIE, wife of Napoleon III., ix. 
623; xvn. 228. 

EUGENIUS I., pope, vm. 662. 

II., pope, vin. 662; xx. 787. 

III., pope, vm. 662; xx. 792. 

IV., pope, vin. 663; xix. 152, 502; 
xx. 323, 805. 

, emperor of the West, xx. 779; 
XXIV, 37. 

EUGENOL, constituent of oil of cloves, 
XXIV. 66. 

EUGLENOIDEA, order of Protozoa, xix. 
857. 

EUGUBINE TABLES, with Umbrian in 
scriptions, vin. 663. 

EUGUBIUM (Gubbio), ancient town, 
Italy, XI. 243. 

EUHEMERUS, or Eueinerus, Greek 
mythographer, vin. 735; his theory, 
XVII. 136. 

EUKAIRITE, mineral, xvi. 392. 

EUKOLITE, mineral, xvi. 426. 

EULALIA, St, Song of, early French 
poem, ix. 637. 

EULENSPIEGEL, German chapbook, vm. 
664; x. 527. 

EULER, Leonard, Swiss mathematician, 
vm. 665; his contributions to algebra, 
I. 515; to trigonometry, xxm. 562; on 
theory of the balloon, I. 204; on plane 
tary perturbations, n. 760; on tele 
scopic lenses, XXIII. 138. 

EULYTINE, mineral, XVI. 411. 

EUMATHIUS, Greek romancist, xx. 
636. 

EUMENES I., II., kings of Pergamum, 
xvin. 527. 
-, general of Alexander of Macedon, 



vin. 666; I. 485; xvni. 586. 
EUMENID/E, family of insects, xxiv. 

392- 
EUMENIDES, or Erinyes (y.v.), the 

Furies, in mythology, vm. 524. 
-, of /Eschylus, I. 209. 



EUMEROGENESIS, in growth of com 
posite organisms, xil. 554. 

EUMOLPIA (Philippopolis), ancient town, 
Turkey in Europe, xvni. 753. 

EUNAPIUS, Greek sophist and historian, 
vin. 666. 

EUNETTA, genus of birds, xxni. 105. 

EUNOMIUS, Arian heretic, vin. 667. 



EUNUCH, vm. 667; voice of, xxiv. 275; 

in harems, XI. 478. 

EUNUCHUS, Terence s play, xxm. 187. 
EUPALINUS, Greek engineer, n. 219. 
EUPATOR, Antiochus V., king of Syria, 

xviii. 590. 

, Mitlmulates VI. ( /.i .), king of 

Pontus, xvi. 530. 
EUPATORIA, town, Russia, vin. 667; vi. 

587; xxni. 83. 
EUPATRIDS, noble families of Athens, 

xxil. 254. 
EUPEN, town, Rhenish Prussia, vm. 

668. 

EUPHEMIA, St, of Chalcedon, XXI. 29. 
EUPHEMIUS, ruler of Syracuse, xxn. 23. 
EUPHONY, of speech, xvin. 773. 
EUPHORBIUM, resin, vin. 668. 
EUPHORION, Greek poet and gram 
marian, vm. 668. 
EUPHRANOR, Greek painter and sculptor, 

vin. 668; II. 361. 
EUPHRATES, river, Syria, vm. 668; I. 

135; xvi. 47. 

, Turtle of the, xxni. 459. 
EUPHROSYNUS ULPIUS, his globe of 

1542, x. 682. 
EUPHUES, Lyly s work, xv. 104; xx. 

660. 
EUPHUISM, in English literature, vin. 

421. 

EUPHYLLITE, mineral, xvi. 413. 
EUPION, paraffin hydrocarbon, vin. 672; 

xvni. 237. 
EUPLERES, subfamily of carnivorous 

mammals, xv. 437. 
EUPOLIS, Greek poet and dramatist, vm. 

672. 

EUPOLYZOA, class of Polyzoa, xix. 436. 
EUPOMPUS, Greek painter, VIII. 672. 
EUPTILOTIS, genus of birds, XXIII. 584. 
EURE, department, France, VIII. 672. 

, river, France, xvin. i; xxi. 624. 
EURE-ET-LoiR, department, France, 

vin. 673. 
EUREKA, town, Nevada, U.S.A., xvn. 

368. 
- MINES, Nevada, U.S.A., xxni. 

815. 
EURELIUS (Gunno Dahlstjernu), Swedish 

poet, vi. 764; xxn. 755. 

EURIALUS AND LUCRETI A, Pius II. s 

work, xix. 153. 

EURIC, chief of the West Goths, XXII. 
308. 

EURIPIDES, Greek dramatist, vin. 673; 
vn. 405; xi. 140. 

EUROKYLON, wind, Mediterranean Sea, 
xv. 340. 

EUROPA, in Greek mythology, Yin. 680. 

EUROPE, vin. 680 (index, 720); pre 
historic geography of, v. 268 ; invasion 
of, by Turks (1453), xxni. 642; Re 
naissance in, xx. 381 ; armies of, II. 
568; birds, xvin. 17; coalfields, VI. 
55; marine fishes, XII. 678; flora, vn. 
289; forests, ix. 398; gold, x. 742; 



E U K E W A 



155 



early military institutions, II. 563; 

rainfall, XVI. 152. 
EUROPEANS, in the tropics, I. go. 
EUROPEAN TURKEY, xxm. 653. 
EUROTAS, river, Greece, xiv. 193. 
EURYBIADES, Spartan general, xxm. 

250. 
EURYMEDON, Athenian general, vill. 

721. 

, river, Asia Minor, 1 1. 708; xix. 

130. 
EURYPTERIDA, order of Crustacea, VI. 

662. 

EURYPYGA, genus of birds, xxn. 652. 
EURYSTOMATA, group of Actinozoa, I. 

132. 

EURYSTOMUS, genus of birds, xx. 627. 
EUSE, Jacques d (Pope John XXII.), 

xni. 712. 
EUSEBIUS of Cresarea, ecclesiastical 

historian, vill. 721; v. 764; canon of, 

v. 9; early Christian legends preserved 

by, Xin. 658; on Origen, xvn. 840. 
of Emesa, ecclesiastic, Greek Church, 

vill. 722. 
of Nicomedia, defender of Arius, 

vill. 723. 
- FAMPHILI, friend and pupil of 

Pamphilus, xvin. 204. 
EUSPONGIA, Turkey sponge, xxil. 423, 

428. 

EUSTACHIO, Bartolomeo, or Bartho 
lomews Eustachius, Italian anatomist 

and physician, I. 808; xxiv. 96. 
EUSTATHIUS, St, bishop of Beroea, vill. 

723- 
, archbishop of Myra, Byzantine 

scholar, XI. 146. 
, archbishop of Thessalonica, vin. 



723- 
-, Greek romancist, xx. 636. 



EUSTYLE, in architecture, n. 464. 
EUTERPE, Muse of lyric poetry, XVII. 

74- 
EUTHERIA, subclass of Mammalia, XV. 

372, 383- 
EUTHYCRATES, sculptor of Sicyon, 1 1. 

365- 
EUTHYDEMIA, Grreco-Indian capital, 

xviii. 599. 
EUTHYDEMUS, king of Bactria, xviii. 

589. 

, dialogue of Plato, xix. 205. 
EUTHYMIUS, or Euphemius, ruler of 

Syracuse, xxn. 23. 
EUTHYNEURA, branch of Mollusca, xvi. 

6 55 . 
EUTHYPHRO, dialogue of Plato, xix. 

197. 

EUTIN, town, Germany, xvn. 757. 
EUTRACHEATA, group of Myriapoda, 

xvii. 1 1 6, 117. 
EUTROPIUS, St, bishop of Saintes, xxi. 

167. 
, Roman historian, vill. 723; Paul 

the Deacon s continuation of his his 
tory, XVIII. 436. 



EUTYCHES, founder of Eutychian sect, 
viii. 724; Eutychianism, xvn. 356. 

EUXENITE, or Euxinite, mineral, xiv. 
292; xvi. 427. 

EUXINE, or Black Sea, in. 795. 

EUXITHEUS, Greek artist, xix. 612. 

EUYUK, village and ruins, Turkey in 
Asia, vni. 724. 

EvAGORAS, king of Salamis, vin. 724; 
xvin. 578. 

EVAGRIUS, ecclesiastical historian, vin. 
725. 

EVANDER, in Roman legend, vin. 725. 

EVANESCENT QUANTITY, in mathe 
matics, xin. 14. 

EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE, vin. 725. 

EVANGELICAL ASSOCIATION, Ameri 
can, vin. 725; xvi. 192. 

EVANGELICAL UNION, Scottish reli 
gious denomination, vin. 725. 

EVANGELICAL UNION, of Gustavus 
Adolphus, xi. 335. 

EVANGELINE, Longfellow s poem, xiv. 
861. 

EVANS, Sir De Lacy, British general, 
vni. 726. 

, Edmund, English wood engraver, 
vin. 439. 

, F. W., Shaker elder, xxi. 737. 
-, Oliver, American mechanician, 



vin. 726; improver of the steam- 
engine, xxil. 476. 

EVANSITE, mineral, xvi. 405. 

EVANSON, Edward, theological writer, 
vin. 726. 

EVANSTON, town, Wyoming, U.S.A., 
xxiv. 713. 

EVANSVILLE, town, Indiana, U.S.A., 
viii. 727. 

EVAPORATION, vni. 727; vi. 311; of 
liquids, vn. 217; in steam-engine, 
xxn. 487; in relation to water-supply, 
xxiv. 402; effects of, on Mediterranean 
Sea, xv. 820. 

EVAPOROMETER, Saussure s use of 
thermometer as, XXI. 324. 

EVE, of Scripture, vin. 733; I. 137; 
Manichpean views of, xv. 483. 

EVECTION, of the moon, II. 750, 799; 
xvi. 799. 

EVELINA, Madame D Arblay s novel, vi. 
822. 

EVELYN, John, English diarist, vin. 
734; his Sylva, its service to arbori 
culture, II. 314. 

EVEMERUS, Greek mythographer, vni. 
735; his theory, xvn. 136. 

EVENING WALK, Wordsworth s poem, 
xxiv. 668. 

EVENLODE, river, England, xvin. 93. 

EVENTS, Principal, Chronological table 
of, v. 720. 

EVE OF ST AGNES, Keats s poem, xiv. 

23- 
EVERDINGEN, Allart von, Dutch painter, 

vni. 735- 
EVEREST, Sir George, British surveyor 



and geographer, vin. 736 ; his 
measurement of arc of meridian, vn. 

599- 
EVEREST, Mount, Himalayas, XL 825; 

xvii. 340. 
EVERETT, Alexander Hill, American 

writer and diplomatist, vin. 736. 

, Edward, American politician and 

orator, vin. 736; I. 723. 

, James, Wesleyan seceder, xvi. 



190. 



, J. D., his system of shorthand, 

xxi. 840. 

EVERETT S SALT, in chemistry, xx. 24. 
EVERGLADES, marsh, Florida, U.S.A., 

ix. 338. 
EVERGREEN SHRUBS AND TREES, n. 

319- 

EVERLASTING, plant, xn. 716. 

EVERTS, Johann, Dutch poet, xxi. 618. 

EVERY-DAY BOOK, Hone s, xn. 135. 

EVERY MAN IN HIS HUMOUR, Ben 
Jonson s play, Xlll. 741. 

EVESHAM, town, England, vni. 738; 
population, xxiv. 666 ; battle of 
(1265), xvi. 788; xxiv. 666. 

EVIAN, spa, France, xvi. 433 ; xxi. 
332- 

EVICTION, of tenants, xiv. 275 ; xx. 403. 

EVIDENCE, in law, vin. 738; xxiv. 623; 
probability of, XIX. 777; obtained by 
torture, xxm. 462. 

EVIGTOKITE, mineral, xvi. 384. 

EVIL, its existence, xxm. 278 ; pre 
valence of, xvin. 685 ; Leibnitz s 
theory of, xiv. 423; St Paul s doctrine, 
xvin. 424; Pelagian doctrine, xvin. 
472; Stoic theory, xxn. 568; Zoroas- 
trian doctrine, xxiv. 822. 
EYE, The, xv. 205. 

EVOLI, orEboli, town, Italy, vn. 619. 

EVOLUTE, in geometry, xin. 26. 

EVOLUTION, in algebra, I. 528 ; in 
arithmetic, II. 532. 

, in biology, vni. 744 (index, 773); 
organic, Darwin s doctrine of, xxiv. 
76, 80 1 ; development of the idea, 
xxiv. 819; in relation to animal dis 
tribution, VII. 284 ; bearing of, on 
animal mimicry, xvi. 343 ; of birds, 
xviii. 32; of man, n. no; of Tunicata, 
xxm. 618; in Brahman philosophy, 
xxiv. 119; in relation to the history 
of the fine arts, IX. 212; in relation to 
socialism, xxn. 219; Herder on, XL 
729; Lamarck s theory, xiv. 232; 
Treviranus s theory, xxm. 553 ; 
Wolffs researches in, XXIV. 631. 

EVORA, town, Portugal, vin. 773; xix. 

, 537- 
EVREMOND, Sieur de St, French writer, 

IX. 663; I. 785; his relations with 

Ninon de Lenclos, xiv. 445. 
EVREUX, town, France, vni. 773. 
EWALD, Heinrich Georg August von, 

German theologian, VIII. 773; on the 

Pentateuch, xviii. 506. 



15G 



E W A F A B 



EWALD, Johannes, Danish poet, vm. 

775; vii. 91. 

EWE GROUP, of Negroes, xvn. 319. 
E\VES, Breeding and management of, I. 

393; milk of, xvi. 303. 
EWING, Alexander, Scottish bishop, vm. 

776. 
EXAMINATIONS, vm. 777; competitive, 

in China, v. 669. 
EXAMINER, London newspaper, ix. 

360. 
EXANTHEMATA, class of diseases, xvm. 

404. 
EXARCH, title, vm. 783; xvm. 410; in 

the Greek Church, xi. 154. 
EXCAMBION, in Scots law, vm. 783. 
EXCAVATIONS, in mining, xvi. 459. 
EXCELLENCY, title, xxm. 418. 
EXCHANGE, in commerce, vm. 784; of 

commodities, VI. 196; money the 

medium of, xvi. 720; rates of, XXIV. 

52. 

, in law, vm. 783. 
, Royal, London, XIV. 832, 846. 

, Telephonic, xxm. 133. 

VALUE, in economics, xxiv. 46. 

EXCHEQUER, The English, its history, 

ix. 174; origin of, vm. 297. 
, Barons of the, III. 388. 
, Chancellor of the, British minister, 

V. 389; vm. 797. 
, Court of, England, vm. 796; its 

rolls, xx. 312. 

BILLS, IX. 182; first issue of, XI. 



tional, vm. 803; origination of that 

of 1851 at London, I. 452; VII. 240. 
EXIMENIZ, Francesch, Catalan writer, 

xxn. 364. 

EXMOUTH, town, England, vm. 805. 
, Viscount, English admiral, vm. 

805; his expeditions against Algiers, I. 

566. 
EXNER, Johann J., Danish painter, vii. 

94- 

EXOCCETUS, genus of fishes, IX. 352. 

EXODUS, Book of, xvm. 505. 

, of Hebrews from Egypt, vii. 740. 

EXOGAMY, marriage outside the com 
munity, v. 187; vm. 619; xxm. 472. 

EXOGONIUM, genus of plants, xm. 546. 

EXON DOMESDAY, ancient record, vn. 

349- 
EXORCISM, casting out evil spirits, vjn. 

806; vii. 61; xv. 203. 
ExoSKELETON, or External Skeleton, I. 

820; xxii. 106. 
EXOSPOREA, order of Protozoa, XIX. 

841. 
EXOSTOSIS, bone disease, xvm. 371. 

, in laburnum, xiv. 179. 

EXOTERIC DISCOURSES, of Aristotle, 

II. 514. 
EXPANSION, in algebra, i. 555. 

, in steam and heat engines, xxii, 

480, 485, 494- 
-, of solids and liquids by heat, 



386. 



DOMESDAY, ancient record, vn. 



EXCISE, form of taxation, vm. 797; ix. 

1 80. 

EXCITABILITY, of nerves, xix. 24, 28. 
EXCOMMUNICATION, vm. 798; xvm. 

485; law of, XI. 737; Erastus on, vm. 

518. 
EXCRETION, Physiological processes of, 

XVII. 682. 

EXCRETIONS, Vegetable, xix. 53. 
EXCURSION, The, Wordsworth s poem, 

xxiv. 674. 

EXE, river, England, xxii. 257. 
EXECUTORS, in English law, vm. 

800. 
EXEDRA, of Herodes Atticus, ancient 

Olympia, Greece, XVH. 769. 
EXEGESIS, Biblical, xi. 741. 

EXEGETICAL THEOLOGY, XXIII. 274. 
EXELMANS, Eemy Joseph Isidore, 

French general, vm. 801. 
EXEMPTION, in law, xix. 764. 
EXERGUE, nuinismatical term, xvn. 

630. 
EXETER, town, England, vm. 801; 

newspapers of, xvn. 422. 
CODEX, early collection of English 

poetry, vm. 406. 

COLLEGE, Oxford, xvm. 96. 



EXHALATION, of plants, iv. 119. 
EXHIBITIONS, National and Interna- 



Table of, xi. 582; xvi. 66. 

EXPECTATION, or Expectancy, Psycho 
logical analysis of, xx. 63. 

, mathematical probability, xix. 

775- 

EXPERIENCE, Kant on the philosophy 
of, xm. 850; Locke on, xiv. 758, 759. 

EXPIATION, among the Greeks and 
Romans, xv. 69. 

, Day of, Jewish, vm. 806. 

EXPIRATION, of the breath, in respira 
tion, xx. 477. 

EXPLOITATION, in mining, xvi. 451. 

EXPLOITS, river, Newfoundland, xvn. 
382. 

EXPLORATION, geographical, x. 175. 

EXPLOSION WAVES, xxiv. 418. 

EXPLOSIVES, vm. 806; xvi. 445; 
dynamite, vii. 583; gunpowder, XI. 
322; Nobel s, xvn. 521. 

EXPORTS, National, Table of, per head, 
xvii. 247; taxes on, xxm. 89. 

EXPRESSION, in physiognomy, v. 19; 
anatomy of muscles of, I, 836. 

, of ideas and feelings, by voice and 

otherwise, xvm. 767; music as me 
dium of, XVII. 77. 

, Anatomy of, Sir C. Bell s work, III. 

540. 

EXPURGATORIUS INDEX LlBRORUM, 

xii. 730. 
EXTENSIBILITY, of materials, xxii. 

599- 

EXTINCT ANIMALS, in relation to arch 
aeology, II. 336. 



EXTRADITION, in law, vm. 813. 
- TREATIES, xxm. 532. 

EXTRAORDINARY TITHE, Law relating 
to, xxm. 413. 

EXTRA VAGANTES, collections of decre 
tals, v. 19. 

EXTREME UNCTION, sacrament, Church 
of Rome, vm. 813. 

EXUVIATION, in Crustacea, vi. 652. 

EYAS, falconer s hawk, ix. 7, 9. 

EYCK, Hubert van, Flemish painter, 
vm. 814. 

, Jan van, Flemish painter, vm. 
815; xxi. 438. 

EYE, vm. 816; anatomy of the, I. 885; 
in relation to light, xiv. 578; peri 
pheral impressions from, xix. 39; its 
normal length of vision, xvi. 258; its 
vision affected by the imagination, II. 
206; diseases of, xvn. 780; xxm. 53; 
in birds, in. 725; in reptiles, xx. 461; 
representations of, in ancient art, 
xix. 612. 
, The Evil, xv. 205. 

, town. England, xxii. 622. 

EYEBALL, Anatomy of the, i. 885; 
movements of, vm. 825. 

EYE-GLASS, in the microscope, xvi. 258. 

EYE- GLASSES, spectacles, xxii. 372. 

EYELIDS, Anatomy of the, I. 890; dis 
eases of, xvn. 786. 

EYE- PIECE, of telescope, xxm. 139, 

143- 

EYE-SIGHT, Preservation of, xxii. 372. 
EYLAU, Prussia, Battle of (1807), ix. 

616; xvn. 211. 

EYMERICH, N., his Directory of the In 
quisition, xm. 92. 
EYQUEM, Pierre, Montaigne s father, 

xvi. 767. 
EYRE, Edward J., his explorations in 

Australia, ill. 105; his suppression of 

revolt in Jamaica, xm. 551. 
EYSTEIN, Norwegian king, xvn. 588. 
E YTELWEIN, Johann A., his Compendium 

of Hydraulics, xii. 437. 
EYTON, T. C., on birds, xvm. 32. 
EZEHO (Itzehoe), ancient town, Holstein, 

xm. 518. 
EZEKIEL, Old Testament prophet, vm. 

828. 
EZRA, or Esdras, of Scripture, vm. 830; 

xm. 418; XVIII. 512; reformation and 

law-book of, in. 635. 
, Book of, vm. 831. 

, Books of, in Apocrypha, vm. 541. 
, Prophecy of, apocalyptic book, n. 



175- 

EZZELINO DA ROMANO, Ghibelline 
chief, vii. 622; vicar of Frederick II. 
in Italy, xm. 475. 



Tp the sixth letter of the alphabet, 
-*- > vm. 833. 

FABER, family of pencil-makers in 
Nuremberg, xvm. 490. 



F A B F A L 



157 



FABER, Basil, German schoolmaster and 
theologian, vm. 833. 

. , Cecilia Buhl von (Fernan Cabal- 

lero), Spanish novelist, VIII. 833. 

, Frederick William, English hymn- 
writer, vm. 834. 

, George Stanley, English divine, 

vm. 834. 

, Jacobus, early French Protestant 

writer, VIII. 835. 

, Johann, anti-Protestant writer, 

vm. 835. 

, or Le Fevre, Peter, an original 
member of the Company of Jesus, 
xin. 652. 

FABIAN GENS, Roman clan, vm. 835. 

FABIANI, ancient Eoman college of 
Luperci, XV. 66. 

FABIAN TACTICS, vm. 836. 

FABIUS MAXIMUS VERRUCOSUS, Quin- 
tus, surnamed Cunctator, Roman gene 
ral, vm. 836; XI. 442; XX. 749. 

FABIUS PICTOR, Quintus, Roman his 
torian, vm. 836; xiv. 728. 

FABLE, FABLES, vm. 837; ix. 358; 
of ^Esop, I. 212; of Babrius, in. 181; 
La Fontaine s, xiv. 204, 206; early 
French, ix. 640; Sanskrit, xxi. 287. 

- OF THE BEES, Mandeville s, xv. 
472. 

FABLIAUX, Romantic, xx. 633. 
FABRE, Jayme, architect, his place in 
Spanish Gothic, II. 433. 

- D EGLANTINE, French dramatist 
and Revolutionist, vm. 840. 

FABRETTI, Raphael, Italian antiquary, 
vm. 840. 

FABRIANO, town, Italy, vm. 840. 
, Gentile Da, Italian painter, vm. 
841- 

FABRICIUS, Caius Luscinus, Roman 
general and consul, vm. 841. 
, George, German poet and archaeo 
logist, vm. 841. 

, Hieronymus, Italian anatomist, 

vm. 841; I. 809; on the blood organs, 
xxiv. 96; his observations on embryo 
logy, vm. 164. 

, Joannes Albertus, German biblio 
grapher, vm. 841. 

, Johann Christian, Danish natural 
ist, vm. 842. 

FABRIZ VON HILDEN, Wilhelm (Fabri- 
cius Hildanus), his contributions to 
surgery, XXII. 676. 

FABRONI, Angelo, Italian biographer, 
vm. 842. 

FABROT, Charles Annibal, French juris 
consult, vm. 843. 

FABUL^E ATELLAN^:, Roman comedies, 
ir. 827. 

FABURDEN, in music, xvn. 81. 

FABYAN, Robert, English chronicler, 
vm. 843. 

FACCIOLATI, Jacopo, Italian philologist, 
vin. 843; his Latin lexicon, IX. 393. 
Human, Anatomy of the, I. 825. 



884; racial diversities of type, II. 112; 

in physiognomy, xix. 3. 
FACING-POINTS, Railway, xx. 238. 
FACTOR, in mercantile law, VIII. 843. 
FACTORIALS, Tables of, xxm. 14. 
FACTOR TABLES, xxm. 7. 
FACTORY ACTS, vm. 844; their effect 

on wages, xxiv. 311. 
FACTORY ISLAND, Sierra Leone, xxn. 

45- 

FACULTY, in law, vin. 846. 
, in universities, Vlil. 846; XXIII. 

835- 
FADASI, station, East Central Africa, 

xxi. 657. 
FADRIQUE, Don, of Castile, brother of 

Pedro I., xvin. 450. 
FAECES, xvn. 670. 

F^MUNDSO, lake, Norway, xvn. 576. 
FAENZA, town, Italy, vin. 846; majolica 

ware of (Faience), xix. 627. 
F^EREYINGA, Icelandic book, xn. 625. 
FAERY QUEEN, The, Spenser s poem, 

xxn. 394. 

F;SUL/E, ancient town, Etruria, IX. 148. 
FAGGIUOLA, podesta of Pisa, xix. 120. 
FAGOTT, musical instrument, XVII. 707. 
FAHLBERG, his experiments on sugar, 

xxn. 623. 
FAHLCRANTZ, Christian Erik, Swedish 

poet, vin. 846; xxn. 757. 
FAHLERZ, mineral, xvi. 395. 
FAHLUN, town, Sweden, ix. 17. 
FAHLUNITE, mineral, xvi. 418. 
FAHRENHEIT, Gabriel Daniel, German 

physicist, VIII. 847; his thermometric 

scale, xxm. 288. 
FAIDHERBE, Louis L. C., governor of 

Senegal, xxi. 66 1. 
FAINTING, failure of heart s action, XL 

554- 
FAIR, FAIRS, vin. 847; Russian, xxi. 

86; of Nijni-Novgorod, Russia, xvn. 

502. 
FAIRBAIRN, Sir William, engineer, 

vin. 849. 

FAIR ECKBERT, Tieck s tale, xxm. 381. 
FAIRFAX, Lord, Parliamentary general, 

vin. 851. 

, Edward, English poet, vin. 851. 

, Mary (Mrs Somerville), scientific 

writer, xxn. 260. 
FAIRFIELD, town, Connecticut, U.S.A., 

vin. 853. 

FAIRFIELDITE, mineral, xvi. 405. 
FAIR HAVENS, Crete, vi. 570. 
FAIRHOLT, Frederick William, English 

antiquary, vin. 853. 
FAIR ISLAND, Shetland, Scotland, xvn. 

848. 
FAIRLIGHT DOWN, Sussex, England, 

xxn. 723. 
FAIRMOUNT PARK, Philadelphia, 

U.S.A., xvin. 737. 
FAIRY, FAIRIES, vin. 854; n. 203. 

MYTHOLOGY, in Celtic literature, v. 



FAIRY-RING CHAMPIGNON, fungus, 
xvn. 761. 

FAISANS, lie de, France, xx. 126; xxiv. 
136. 

FAITH, as a species of belief, in. 534; in 
relation to ethics, vin. 589; to theo 
logy, xxm. 264; St Paul s doctrine of, 
XVIII. 426. 

FAITHORNE, William, English painter 
and engraver, vin. 855. 

, William, English mezzotint en 
graver, vin. 855. 

FAIZABAD, division, district, and town, 
India, vin. 855; XVIII. 72. 

FAKARAVA, island, Tuamotu, South 
Pacific, xxm. 602. 

FAKIHI, Arab historian, xxm. 3. 

FAKIR, member of Mohammedan 
religious order, vn. 113; xxn. 662, 
665. 

FALABA, town, West Africa, ix. i; xxn. 

45- 
FALAISE, town, France, ix. i ; treaty of 

(1189), xxi. 484. 
FALASHAS, Jews of Abvssinia, ix. i ; 

i. 63. 

FALCIDIAN LAW, Roman, n. 79. 
FALCO, genus of birds, ix. 2; xiv. 53; 

xvin. 56. 
FALCON, bird, ix. 2. 

, state, Venezuela, XXIV. 140. 



FALCONE, Aniello, Italian painter, 

ix. 4. 
FALCONER, Hugh, English naturalist, 

ix. 4. 
-, William, English poet, IX. 4. 



FALCONET, Etienne Maurice, French 

sculptor, ix. 5. 

FALCONRY, ix. 5; kite for, xiv. 103. 
FALERII, ancient town, Etruria, ix. 12; 

vin. 635. 
FALERNUS ACER, district, ancient Italy, 

IX. 12. 

FALICO, affluent of Niger, Africa, XVII. 

496. 
FALIERO, Marino, doge of Venice, ix. 

12; xxiv. 144. 
-, Vitale, doge of Venice, xxiv. 1 50. 



FALK, Johann Daniel, German writer 
and philanthropist, ix. 13. 

FALKE, Johann Friedrich Gottlieb, Ger 
man historian, IX. 13. 

FALKIRK, town, Scotland, ix. 13; xxn. 
554; battle of (1298), xxi. 487; battle 
of (1746), xxi. 526. 

FALKLAND, town, Scotland, ix. 13. 

, Second Viscount (Sir Lucius Gary), 

v. 170. 

ISLANDS, South Atlantic, ix. 14; 



birds of, in. 745. 
FALK LAWS, Germany, x. 513; xvn. 

755- 
FALKNER, Thomas, Patagonian explorer, 

xvin. 354. 

FAL-LA, musical composition, xvn. 84. 
FALLERSLEBEN, Hoffman von, German 

writer, xn. 44; X. 546. 



158 



F A L F A T 



FALLING SICKNESS, disease, vin. 479. 
FALLMERAYER, Jakob Philipp,. German 

ethnologist and historian, ix. 16. 
FALL OF PRINCES, Lydgate s poem, xv. 

98. 
FALLOPIUS, or Fallopio, Gabriello, 

Italian anatomist, ix. 16; I. 809. 
FALLOW DEER, vn. 24. 
FALLOWING, in agriculture, I. 337. 
FALL RIVER, town, Massachusetts, 

U.S.A., ix. 1 6. 

FALMOUTH, town, England, ix. 17. 
FALSE POINT, harbour, Orissa, India, 

ix. 17. 
FALSE PROPHET, Lucian s dialogue, xv. 

45- 

FALSTER, island, Denmark, ix. 17. 
FALTERONA, Monte, mountain, Italy, 

XIIL 437. 
FALUDI, Francis, Hungarian writer, xil. 

376. 

FALUN, town, Sweden, ix. 17. 

FAMAGOSTA, town, Cyprus, vi. 748. 

FAMAKA, town, East Central Africa, XXL 
658. 

FAMATINITE, mineral, xvi. 396. 

FAMILISTS, Christian sect, vi. 844. 

FAMILY, ix. 17; development of, vin. 
618; legal theories of, xiv. 364; in 
Roman law, xx. 671, 674, 688, 706, 
712. 

COMPACT, of House of Bourbon 

(1733), xxii. 338; renewal of (1743)1 
xxii. 339; third compact (1761), v. 
68 1 ; IX. 590; xxii. 340; renewed 
(1796), xxii. 343. 

FAMINE FEVER, xxm. 680. 

FAMINES, ix. 24; in Cape Verd Islands, 
v. 51; in India, XII. 766, 8n; in Ire 
land, xill. 269, 270, 272; emigration 
affected by, vm. 173; how affected by 
the corn-laws, VI. 413. 

FAN, ix. 27; Chinese, v. 639. 

FANAL SIDERAL LIGHT, for lighthouses, 
xiv. 619. 

FANARIOTE PRINCES, of Walachia, XXL 
1 8, 20. 

FANDANGO, bird, xv. 455. 

FANEUIL HALL, Boston, Massachusetts, 
U.S.A., iv. 76. 

FANNIAN LAW, Roman, xxii. 644. 

FANO, town, Italy, ix. 28. 

FANS, tribe, West Coast, Africa, x. 3; 
xvii. 473. 

FANSHAWE, Sir Richard, English poet 
and statesman, IX. 28. 

FANTI, Italian article of food, xv. 125. 
(or FANTEE) TRIBE AND LAN 
GUAGE, Gold Coast, Africa, n. 68 1 ; x. 

756- 

FANTOCCINI, or Marionettes, XV. 546. 
FANUM FORTUNE, ancient town, Italy, 

ix. 28. 
FARABI, Al, Arab writer on music, xvi. 

596. 
FARAD, electrical unit of measurement, 

xxm. 116. 



FARADAY, Michael, English physicist, 
IX. 29; his contributions to chemistry, 
v. 467; to electrical science, vin. 11, 
36, 61, 107, in; to magnetism, ill. 
64; XV. 244; his law of electrolytes, 
VIII. 107. 

FARAFREH, oasis, Africa, xvii. 695. 

FARAJ, Mohammed ibn, Moslem im 
postor, xvi. 585. 

FARALADI, Mohammed, Persian min 
strel, xviii. 656. 

FARBENLEHRE, Goethe s work, x. 734. 

FARCY, horse disease, x. 634; xxiv. 
202. 

FAREHAM, town, England, ix. 32 

FAREL, Guillaume, French Reformer, ix. 
32; XX. 332; XXII. 790; his relations 
with Calvin, iv. 716. 

FARGITE, mineral, xvi. 423. 

FARIA Y SOUSA, Manoel de, Portuguese 
historian and poet, IX. 32; xix. 557. 

FARID-EDDIN ABDALLAH (Rudagi), 
Persian poet, xxi. 49; xvm. 658. 

FARIDKOT, state, North-Western India, 
ix. 33- 

FARIDPUR, district, British India, ix. 

33- 
FARID-UDDIN-ATTAR, Persian mystic 

poet, ix. 89; xvm. 658. 
FARINA, town, Tunis, ix. 34. 
, Giovanni Maria, first manufacturer 

of eau de Cologne, vn. 616. 
-, Giuseppe la, Italian writer and 



politician, xiv. 201. 

FARINACCIUS, on the infliction of 
torture, xxm. 466. 

FARINATO, Paolo, Italian painter and 
architect, IX. 34. 

FARINELLI (Carlo Broschi), Italian 
singer, ix. 34; influence of, at Spanish 
court, ix. 83; friend of Metastasio, xvi. 
104; his range of voice, xxiv. 275. 

FARINERIUS, William, general of Fran 
ciscans, xvii. 717. 

FARINI, Luigi Carlo, Italian physician, 
statesman, and historian, ix. 34. 

FARISAN ARCHIPELAGO, Red Sea, xx. 
316. 

FARM BUILDINGS, i. 308. 

FARMER, Hugh, English theologian, ix. 

35- 
, Richard, Shakespearean commen 



tator, ix. 35. 

FARMERS, Education of, i. 408. 
FARMING, Large and Small, i. 411. 

IMPLEMENTS, i. 311. 
FARM LABOURERS, i. 408. 
FARM MANAGEMENT, of cattle, i. 389; 

of horses, I. 386; of sheep, I. 391. 
FARMS, Extent of, i. 406. 

, Small, Advantages of, xiv. 268. 
FARNABIE, or Farnaby, Thomas, English 

schoolmaster, IX. 34. 
FARNE ISLANDS, off Northumberland, 

England, XVII. 565. 
FARNESE, noble Italian family, IX. 36; 

XIIL 482. 



FARNESE, Alessandro (Pope Paul III.), 
xvm. 430; xix. 504. 
, Alessandro, of Parma, governor of 
Low Countries, ix. 37; XH. 77. 
-, Elizabeth, wife of Philip V. 



Spain, ix. 38; xvm. 746; xxii. 337. 
, Ottavio, duke of Parma, IX. 36; 
xv. 537. 

, Pierluigi, duke of Parma and Pia- 
cenza, ix. 36. 

, Ranuccio, duke of Parma, ix. 36. 
-PALACE, Rome, 11.438,441; xvi. 
235; xxi. 265. 

TAZZA, onyx vessel, xvii. 777. 



FARNHAM, town, England, ix. 39; xxii. 

694. 

FARO, town, Portugal, ix. 39. 
FAROE ISLANDS, North Sea, ix. 39; vn. 

83; XVII. 592; whirlpools of, XXIV. 

542. 

FAROELITE, mineral, xvi. 424. 
FARQUHAR, George, English dramatist, 

ix. 40; vii. 436. 

, Sir Robert, English governor, 



Mauritius, xv. 641. 
FARRAGUT, David Glascoe, American 

admiral, ix. 41. 
FARRAH, toAvn, Afghanistan, I. 230; 

river, I. 229. 
FARRAKHAHAD, district and town, India, 

ix. 42. 
FARRANT, Richard, English musical 

composer, IX. 43. 
FARS, or Farsistan, province, Persia, ix. 

43- 

FARTHINGALE, in costume, vi. 472. 
FARTHINGS, Queen Anne s, xvii. 656. 
FAS, in Roman law, XX. 670. 
FASANI, Raniero, Italian writer, xm. 

500. 

FASANO, town, Italy, ix. 43. 
FASCINATION, Magical, xv. 202. 
FASCIOLA HEPATICA, liver-fluke, xxm. 

535; xxiv. 205. 
FASHODO, town, on the Nile, Africa, 

xvii. 507. 

FASSAITE, mineral, xvi. 416. 
FASTI, Roman calendars and chronicles, 

IX. 43. 

, Ovid s, xvm. Si. 
FASTING, religious discipline, ix. 44; 

xvni. 484. 

, Clans, Danish poet, IX. 49. 
FASTNET ROCK, Ireland, XIIL 216. 
FAT, in anatomy, I. 851; in pathology, 

xviii. 389. See Fats. 
FATE, in philosophy and theology, xix. 

668. 

FATES, in classical mythology, ix. 49. 
FATH ALI, shah of Persia, xvm. 647. 
FATHER AND CHILD, in law, i. 13. 
FATHERS, Apostolic, n. 195. 

OF CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE, mon 
astic order, xvi. 712. 

OF THE CHURCH, ix. 49. 

FATH i MUHAMMAD, ruler of Cutch, vi. 
73i- 



F A T F E L 



159 



P ATHIPUR, district and town, India, IX. 

50. 

SIKRI, town, India, ix. 51. 

FATIHA, Lord s Prayer of the Koran, 

xvi. 603. 
FATIMA, daugliter of Mohammed, ix. 

51; xvi. 546. 
FATIMITES, Moslem dynasty, xvi. 587, 

594; II. 259, 722; vii. 750; xxm. 620. 
FATIO DE UUILLIER, on the invention 

of the calculus, xin. 9. 
FATLINGS, Oit erings of, xvm. 343. 
FATOUHIVA, island, Marquesas, Pacific, 

xv. 564. 
FATRA, Mohammedan doctrine of, xvi. 

548. 
FATS, oils, xvn. 739, 743; vegetable, 

xvii. 744, 746; xix. 53. 
FATSISIO, island, Japan, xin. 569. 
FATTEH KHAN, Afghan king, i. 239. 
FATTORE, II (Giaufrancesco Penni), 

Italian painter, xvm. 498. 
FATTY DEGENERATION, disease, xvm. 

390; of the heart, XL 554. 
FATWA, town, India, xvm. 409. 
FAUCHER, Leon, French political econo 
mist, ix. 51. 

FAUCHET, Claude, historian and anti 
quary (1530-1601), ix. 52. 
, Claude, Abbe, Girondist (1744- 

1793), ix. 52. 
FAUJAS DE SAINT-FOND, Barthelemi, 

French naturalist, ix. 52. 
FAUJASITE, mineral, xvi. 421. 
FAULEN, mountain, Switzerland, XXI. 

465. 
FAULTS, in rocks, x. 261, 301, 372; xvi. 

442. 

FAUN, in classical mythology, IX. 53. 

FAURESMITH, village, Orange River 
Free State, Africa, xvn. 813. 

FAURIEL, Charles Claude, French his 
torian and critic, IX. 53. 

FAUST, in mediaeval legend, IX. 54. 

, Goethe s, X. 539, 733, 735. 

, Spohr s opera, xxil. 411. 

FAUSTA, Roman princess, vi. 300. 

FAUSTINA, Annia, wife of Marcus 
Aurelius, IV. 54. 

, Temple of, at Rome, II. 416; xx. 

820. 

FAUSTUS, in mediaeval legend, ix. 54. 

, Doctor, Marlowe s drama, xv. 556. 

, Johannes, German printer, xxm. 
684. 

FAVARA, town, Sicily, ix. 56. 

FAVART, Charles Simon, French drama 
tist, ix. 56. 

FAVENTIA (Faenza), ancient town, Italy, 
vin. 846. 

(Barcelona), ancient town, Spain, 

ni. 368. 

FAVERSHAM, town, England, ix. 56 ; 
xiv. 39. 

FAVORINUS, Greek sophist, ix. 56. 

FAVORITA, La, Donizetti s opera, vii. 
364- 



FAVRE, his researches in law of energy 

in electricity, vin. 89. 
FAVUS, disease, xvm. 269; Schonlein s 

discovery in relation to, xv. 817. 
FAWCETT, Henry, English economist, 

hispostalreforms, Xix. 570; his manual 

of political economy, xix. 399. 
FAWKES, Francis, English poet, ix. 57. 

, Guy, Gunpowder Plot conspirator, 

IX. 57. 
-, of Farnley Hall, friend of Turner, 



xxm. 664. 
FAWKNER, John Pascoe, colonizer of 

Victoria, Australia, xxiv. 218. 
FAY, Andras, Hungarian poet, IX. 59 ; 

xn. 377. 

FAYAL, island, Azores, in. 172. 
FAYALITE, mineral, xvi. 410. 
FAYE S COMET, vi. 192. 
FAYETTEVILLE, town, North Carolina, 

U.S.A., ix. 59. 
FAYOUM, district and lake, Egypt, vii. 

774; labyrinth of, n. 387; vn. 774. 
FAYS, or Fairies, vin. 854. 
FAZIL AHMED, Turkish vizier, xxm. 

645. 
FAZIO DEGLI UBERTI, mediieval Italian 

poet, xin. 505. 
FAZOKLO, town, East Central Africa, 

xxi. 658. 
FEA, Carlo, Italian archaeologist, ix. 

59- 
FEALTY, Oath of, in feudal system, xiv. 

114; ix. 121; xn. 107. 
FEARNE, Charles, English jurist, ix. 59. 
FEAST-DAYS, ix. 113. 
FEAST OF THE LEARNED (Deipnoso- 

phistse), Athenaitis s work, n. 831. 
FEASTS, Jewish, xvm. 511; feast of the 

passover, xvm. 343, 511; of taber 
nacles, xxm. 6; xvm. 511; of un 
leavened bread, xvm. 343, 511; of 

weeks, xvm. 511, 514. 

, Sacrificial, XXI. 134. 
FEATHERS, ix. 59; of birds, in. 727, 

776; xvin. 26; xxn. 107, 108. 
FEATHER-STARS, crinoid Echinoder- 

mata, vn. 635. 

FEBRILE DISEASES, xvin. 394. 
FEBRONIUS, Justinus (Hontheim), 

writer on Gallican liberties, xn. 143; 

xix. 507. 

FEBRUARY, month, ix. 61; xv. 66. 
FECAMP, town, France, IX. 61; XXI. 

626. 
FECHNER, G. T., on [esthetics, I. 220; his 

metaphysical system, vin. 767. 
FECHNER S LAW, in psycho-physics, 

xxiv. 470; xvn. 104. 
FECKENHAM, or Fecknam, John de, 

abbot of Westminster, ix. 61. 
FECUNDATION, in biology, in. 686; 

of animal ovum, xx. 417; of plants, 

xx. 425. 

FEDAIS, or Assassins (q.v.), n. 723. 
FEDCHENKO, Alexis Paulowitch, Rus 
sian naturalist, IX. 61. 



FEDDERSEN, on electrical discharges, 

vin. 65. 
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, ix. 61; XL 

20; in Switzerland, XXII. 795; in 

United States, xxm. 749. 
FEDERICI, Camillo, Italian dramatist, 

ix. 63. 
FEDKOVICH, Yuri, Russian poet, xxi. 

1 10. 

FEDLIMID, king of Minister, xin. 252. 
FEE, in English law, ix. 63. 
FEEDING STUFFS, their value as 

manure, xv. 511. 
FEEJEE (or FIJI) ISLANDS, Pacific, ix. 

155; xv. 835. 
FEELING, in psychology, xx. 40, 66, 74. 

, Sense of, xxm. 478; in mammals, 

xv. 367; nerves of, I. 897. 
FEET, of mammals, xv. 360. 

- WASHING, Maundy Thursday rite, 

xv. 635. 
FEGATELLA, genus of liverworts, xvn. 

67. 
FEHLING, H., his tests of sugar, xxn. 

624. 
FEHMARN, island, Schlcswig-Holstein, 

xxi. 414. 

FEHMIC COURTS (Fehmgerichte), Ger 
many, ix. 63; x. 495. 
FEHRBELLIN, Prussia, Battle of (1675), 

xx. 7. 
FEINAIGLE, Gregoire de, his system of 

mnemonics, xvi. 533. 
FEIRAN, wady, Sinai, Arabia, xxn. 89. 
FEITAMA, Sybrand, Dutch writer, IX. 

64; xn. 96. 
FEITH, Rhijnvis, Dutch poet, ix. 64; 

xn. 97. 
FEIYOOM, district and lake, Egypt, vn. 

774; labyrinth of, 11. 387; vn. 774. 
FEJER, Gyorgy, Hungarian writer, ix. 

64. 
FELDBERG, mountain, Black Forest, 

Germany, xxiv. 700. 
FELDKIRCH, town, Vorarlberg, Austria, 

ix. 65; xxiv. 297. 

FELDON, district, Warwickshire, Eng 
land, xxi. 739. 

FELEGYHAZA, town, Hungary, ix. 65. 
FELIBIEN, Andre, French architect and 

historiographer, IX. 65. 

, Dom Michel, French historian, IX. 



65. 

FELID^E, family of Carnivora, xv. 434. 
FELINITE, mineral, xvi. 425. 
FELINSKI, Aloysius, Polish dramatist, 

xix. 303. 
FELIX I., pope, ix. 65. 

- II., pope, ix. 66. 

- III. (or H.), pope, ix. 66; xix. 
492. 

- IV. (or III.), pope, IX. 66. 

- V. (or IV.), pope, I. 650; xix. 503; 
xxi. 341. 

of Urgel, Adoptianist, I. 163; XIV. 



449- 



of Valois, founder of order of 



160 



F E L F E K 



Trinitarians, ix. 66; xvi. 709; xxm. 

574- 
FELIX, Antonius, procurator of Judoea, 

ix. 66; xm. 427. 

, Elizabeth, French actress, XX. 203. 

AND REGULA, Sts, Abbey of, 

Zurich, Switzerland, xxn. 781; XXiv. 

830. 
MARTE DE HYRCANIA, romance, 

xx. 659. 

FELL, John, bishop of Oxford, ix. 66. 
, Margaret, English Quakeress, IX. 

501; xx. 148. 

FELLAHS, or Fellaheen, Moslem Egyp 
tians, i. 266; vii. 723. 
FELLATAHS, or Foulahs (q.v.), people, 

Africa, I. 263. 
FELLENBERG, Philipp Emanuel von, 

Swiss educationist, ix. 67. 
FELLER, Franois Xavier de, Belgian 

writer, ix. 67. 
FELLOWS, Sir Charles, English traveller 

and antiquary, IX. 67. 
FELO DE SE, in law, ix. 68. See also 

xxii. 629. 

FELON-GRASS, hellebore, XI. 635. 
FELONY, in law, ix. 68; vi. 588. 
FELSPAR, mineral, x. 227; xi. 48; xvi. 

418. 

FELSTONE, rock, xi. 49. 
FELT, fabric of matted fibres, IX. 68; 

xxiv. 658; in hat industry, XL 518. 
FELTHAM, Owen, English moralist, 

IX. 69. 
FELTON, John, assassin of Buckingham, 

IV. 419. 
FELTRE, town, Italy, ix. 69. 

, Morto da, Italian painter, IX. 69. 

FELTRIA, ancient town, Italy, ix. 69. 
FELUP GROUP, of Negroes, xvn. 319. 
FELWORT, plant, x. 160. 
FEMMES SAVANTES, Les, Moliere s play, 

xvi. 629. 
FEMUR, or Thigh-bone, Anatomy of the, 

I. 829; of birds, III. 722. 
FENCES, in agriculture, I. 309. 
FENCING, in gymnastics, ix. 69. 
FENELON, Bertrand de Salignac, French 

diplomatist, IX. 72. 

, Francois de Salignac, archbishop 

of Cambray, IX. 72, 662; his economic 

teaching, xix. 359. 
FENIANS, in early Irish history, IX. 74; 

in recent history, Xlil. 271. 
FEN LAND, Reclamation of, I. 404. 
FENN, Sir John, English antiquary, 

xviii. 344. 

FENNEL, plant, ix. 76; xn. 289. 
FENNIANS, or Fenians, ix. 74; Fennian 

tales, v. 311. 
FENS, Reclamation of, I. 404; Bedford 

level, England, in. 482 ; in Cam 
bridgeshire, IV. 727; in Lincolnshire, 

Xiv. 653; in Holland, xil. 62. 
FENTON, Elijah, English poet, ix. 76. 
, Sir Geoffrey, English statesman 

and writer, IX. 76. 



FENUGREEK, herb, ix. 76. 

FENWICK, John, Quaker settler in New 

Jersey, xx. 152; his relations with 

Penn, xvm. 494. 
FEODOR I., czar of Russia, xxi. 93. 

II., czar of Russia, xxi. 95. 

III., czar of Russia, xxi. 96. 

FEOFFEE, in English law, xxm. 596. 
FEOFFMENT, in English law, ix. 77. 
FERBERITE, mineral, xvi. 403. 
FERDINAND, the name, ix. 77. 

- I., emperor, IX. 77; x. 499; be 
comes king of Hungary, ill. 124; xil. 

369- 

II., emperor, IX. 77; x. 500; his 
relations with Wallenstein, xxiv. 328. 

III., emperor, IX. 78; x. 502. 
I., king of Aragon and Sicily, IX. 

80; n. 324. 

- II., of Aragon (V. of Castile), IX. 
81; xxii. 325. 

L, emperor of Austria, IX. 78; in. 
136; XIL 371. 

, duke of Brunswick, IX. 84; in the 
Seven Years War, IX. 589. 

I., the Great, king of Castile, ix. 
80; xxii. 315. 

- II., of Leon, IX. 80; XXII. 317. 

- III., St, of Castile and Leon, ix. 
81; xxn. 317. 

IV., of Castile and Leon, IX. Si; 



xxn. 319. 

-V., of Castile, ix. 81; xxn. 325; 
his conquest of Naples, xm. 481 ; 
Prescott s History of, xix. 702. 
VI., king of Spain, IX. 82; xxn. 



339- 



- VII., of Spain, ix. 83; xxii. 345. 

- L, king of Naples, ix. 78. 

- II., of Naples, ix. 78; xm. 488. 

- III., of Naples (V. of Castile), IX. 
81; xxii. 325. 

- IV., of Naples (I. of Two Sicilies), 
ix. 78; xm. 485; xxii. 29. 

, king of Portugal, IX. 79; Xix. 



543- 



VI., VII., kings of Spain. See 
under Ferdinands of Castile. 

I., grand-duke of Tuscany, XV. 791. 

II., of Tuscany, XV. 792. 
- III., of Tuscany, IX. 84. 

L, king of the Two Sicilies (IV. 



of Naples), ix. 78; xm. 485; xxn. 
29. 
II., of the Two Sicilies, IX. 79; 



Xlil. 488. 

AND ISABELLA, Prescott s History 
of, xix. 702. 
-, COUNT FATHOM, Smollett s novel, 



xxii. 184. 

FEREIRA, Antonio de, Portuguese poet, 
xix. 556. 

FERENTINO (the ancient Ferentinum), 
town, Italy, ix. 84. 

FERENTO, town, Italy, ix. 85. 

FERGHANA, province, Russian Turke 
stan, ix. 85; xxn. 818; xxm. 632. 



FERGUSON, Adam, Scottish philosopher 
and historian, IX. 86. 
, James, English mechanist and 
astronomer, IX. 87. 

FERGUSONITE, mineral, xvi. 427; 
polarity of, xix. 313. 

FERGUSSON, James, on the Holy 
Sepulchre, xxi. 671. 
, Robert, Scottish poet, IX. 87. 

, Sir William, surgeon, IX. 88. 

FERINE, Roman festivals, ix. 114; 
Latince, xm. 781. 

FERID-EDDIN-ATHAR, Persian mystic 
poet, IX. 89; xvm. 658. 

FKRISHTA, Mohammed Kasim, Persian 
historian, IX. 89. 

FERMANAGH, county, Ireland, ix. 90; 
population and representation, xxm. 
727. 

FERMAT, Pierre de, French mathema 
tician, IX. 91 ; on maxima and minima, 
Xlil. 7; on porisms, xix. 520. 

FERMENTATION, ix. 91; in animal 
tissues, XXII. 680; in plants, xix. 51; 
due to minute organisms, xxi. 407; 
in brewing, iv. 275; minor, in wine- 
making, xxiv. 602; Schwann s obser 
vations on, xxi. 460. 

FERMO, town, Italy, ix. 98. 

FERMOR, Russian general, xxi. 99. 

FERMOY, town, Ireland, ix. 99. 

FERN, plant, IX. 100. See Ferns. 

FERNAN CABALLERO (Cecilia Bb hl von 
Faber), Spanish novelist, vni. 833. 

FERNANDEZ, Alvaro, Portuguese ex 
plorer, ix. 99. 

, Diego, Spanish adventurer and 

historian, ix. 99. 

, Joam, Portuguese traveller, IX. 

99- 

, Juan, Spanish adventurer, IX. 99. 

, Juan, Spanish navigator, IX. 99. 
FERNANDO DE NORONHA, islands, 

South Atlantic, ix. 99. 
FERNANDO Po, island, West Africa, ix. 

100; I. 272; xxn. 298. 
FERNEL, Jean Francois, French phy 
sician, ix. 100. 

FERNEY, near Geneva (dcp. Ain), Vol 
taire s residence, xxiv. 290. 
FERNOW, Karl Ludwig, German art 

critic and archasologist, IX. 100. 
FERNS, group of plants, ix. 100; xxiv. 

129; reproduction of, IV. 160; xx. 

423; stem in, IV. 106; as garden and 

hot-house plants, Xil. 267. 
FERN-TREE, xxm. 534. 
FEROE ISLANDS, or Faroe Islands (q.v.\ 

Norwegian Sea, IX. 39. 
FEROZEPORE, district, India, ix. 241; 

xx. 109; town, ix. 241. 
FEROZESHAHR (Firoz-shahr), India, 

Battle of (1845), xx - II2 - 
FERRAND, Comte, French statesman and 

writer, IX. 107. 
FERRARA, town, Italy, ix. 107; school 

of painting of, XXI. 437, 443; sword 



F E K F I E 



161 



blades of, XXII. 803; university, xxiii. 

837. 
FERRARA, Francesco, Italian economist, 

xix. 387. 
FERRARI, Lewis, Italian algebraist, i. 

GAUDENZIO, Italian painter, ix. 

108. 
FERREIRA, Antonio, Portuguese poet, 

ix. 109. 
FERRET, albino variety of the polecat, 

ix. 109; xv. 440; xix. 331. 
FERRETTI, Giovanni Maria Mastai 

(Pope Pius IX.), xix. 156. 
FERREUS, Scipio, Italian algebraist, i. 

FERREX AND PORREX, earl of Dorset s 
tragedy, vn. 373, 428. 

FERRI, Ciro, Italian painter, ix. 109. 

FERRICYANIDES, xx. 24. 

FERRIER, David, on motor areas in man, 
xix. 41. 

, James Frederick, Scottish meta 
physician, IX. 109. 

, Susan Edmonston, Scottish novel- 



ist, IX. I 10. 

FERRO, island, Canaries, IV. 800; longi 
tude measured from it, XXIII. 394. 

FERROCYANIDES OF IRON, xx. 24. 

FERROL, town, Spain, ix. in. 

FERROLITO, castle, Nicastro, Italy, xvn. 
480. 

FERRO-MANGANESE, metal, xin. 350. 

FERROTITANITE, mineral, xvi. 426. 

FERRU, Monte, Sardinia, xxi. 307. 

FERRY, Law relating to, ix. in. 
, Nicholas (Bebe), dwarf, VII. 567. 

FERRYBANK, town, Kilkenny, Ireland, 
xxiv. 401. 

FERSEN, Axel, Count, Swedish general, 

IX. 112. 

FERTE MACE, La, town, France, 

XVIII. 2. 

FERTILIZATION, of animal ovum, xx. 

417; xxi. 721; of plants, iv. 147; xx. 

425; of soil, i. 342; XL 234; xv. 505. 
FERTO, lake, Hungary, Xii. 362. 
FESCA, Frederic Ernest, German musical 

composer, IX. 112. 
FESCH, Joseph, French cardinal, IX. 

1 12. 

FESS, in heraldry, xi. 694. 
FESSLER, Ignaz Aurelius, Hungarian 

ecclesiastic and writer, IX. 113. 
FESTAL EPISTLES, giving dates of 

movable feasts, vni. 483. 
FESTIN DE PIERRE, Moliere s play, xvi. 

628. 

FESTING, Colonel, his spectroscopic ob 
servations, xxii. 380. 
FESTINIOG, town, Wales, xvi. 39. 
FESTIVALS, IX. 113; ancient Greek, 

xvii. 124; Jewish, xvin. 511; xxiii. 

6; Mexican, xvi. 212; pilgrimages in 

connexion with, xix. 90. 
FESTUS, Porcius, Roman procurator, 

Xiil. 427. 



FESTUS, Sextus Pompoms, Latin gram 
marian, ix. 1 1 8. 

FETBOL, mineral, xvi. 425. 

FETICHISM, ix. 118; xv. 20; xx. 367. 

FETIS, Frangois Joseph, Belgian writer 
and musical composer, IX. 119. 

FETLAR, island, Shetland, Scotland, 
xvn. 846. 

FETOHOUGO, island, Marquesas, Pacific, 
xv. 564. 

FEU, in Scots law, ix. 119. 

FEUCHTERSLEBEN, Edouard, Freiherr 
von, Austrian medical writer, ix. 119. 

FEUDALISM, FEUDAL SYSTEM, ix. 119; 
XI. ii ; xvin. 303; Celtic, v. 799; 
Chinese, vi. 259; Frankish, IX. 529; 
German, x. 479, 48 1 ; under the Nor 
mans in England, vni. 296; in Scot 
land, xxi. 483, 486; its influence on 
constitution of armies, II. 563 ; its 
economic effects, xix. 351; in relation 
to knighthood and chivalry, xiv. 112. 

FEUERBACH, Ludwig Andreas, German 
philosopher, ix. 123. 

, Paul Johann Anselm von, German 

jurist, IX. 124. 

FEUILLANTS CLUB, France (1791), ix. 
602. 

FEUILLETON, of French newspaper, ix. 
125. 

FEVER, ix. 125; xvm. 394; diet in, 
vn. 206; malarious, xv. 316; relapsing, 
xxiii. 680; scarlet, XXI. 376; typhoid, 
xxiii. 678 ; typhus, xxiii. 676 ; 
yellow, xxiv. 734. 
- THERMOMETER, xxiii. 292. 

FEYDEAU, Ernest- Aime, French writer, 
ix. 126, 679. 

FEYJOO, Benito, Spanish writer, xxii. 
360. 

FEZ, town, Morocco, ix. 126; xvi. 831; 
mosque at, xvi. 865. 

FEZARA, lake, Algeria, I. 563. 

FEZZAN, country, Africa, ix. 128; xvn. 
695; xxiii. 574. 

FIACRE, coach, origin of name, ix. 130. 

, St, French hermit, ix. 130. 

FIALIN, Jean Gilbert Victor, Due de 
Persigny, French general, xvm. 661. 

FIAMINGO, II (Francois Duquesnoy), 
Flemish sculptor, xxi. 563. 

FIAMMETTA, Boccaccio s, ill. 843. 

FIANARANTSOA, town, Madagascar, xv. 

175- 

FIAR, river, France, xx. 528. 

FIARS PRICES, in Scots laAv, ix. 130. 

FIBER, genus of rodent mammals, xv. 
418, 419; xvn. 108. 

FIBONACCI, Leonardo, of Pisa, mathe 
matician, xix. 125. 

FIBRES, Textile, ix. 131; alpaca, I. 597; 
llama, xiv. 738; mohair, xvi. 544; 
silk, xxii. 56; wool, xxiv. 653; coir, 
vi. 103; cotton, vi. 483; flax, ix. 
296; hemp, xi. 647; Manila hemp, 
xv. 488; jute, xin. 800; phormium, 
xvm. 812; rhea, xx. 506; from 



Algeria, I. 565; used in paper-making, 

xvm. 225. 
FIBRIN, albuminoid substance, IX. 133; 

xx. 483. 

FIBROFERRITE, mineral, XVI. 401. 
FIBROIN, core of silk fibre, xxn. 61. 
FIBROLITE, mineral, xm. 541; xvi. 

408. 

FIBROMA, disease, xvin. 368. 
FIBROUS TISSUE, in man, I. 849; 

xn. 6. 
FIBULA, bone of leg, I. 829; in birds, in. 

723- 

FiCHTE, Johann Gottlieb, German meta 
physician, IX. 134; his five ages, I. 
279; his criticism of Kant s categories, 
v. 224; metaphysics of, xvi. 87; his 
influence on German rationalism, xx. 
290; his relations with Schelling, xxi. 

39- 
FICHTELBERG, mountain, Germany, 

vin. 533; xxi. 357. 
FICHTELGEBIRGE, mountain range, 

Bavaria, ix. 138. 
FlCHTELlTE, mineral, XVI. 429. 
FICINO, Marsilio, Italian philosopher, IX. 

138. 
FICTION, in English literature, vni. 421, 

428, 429, 430. See also Romance, xx. 

632. 

FICTIONS, in law, ix. 140; xiv. 365. 
FlCUS, genus of plants, ix. 153. 
FIDANZA, John of (St BonaventuraX 

scholastic philosopher, IV. 30; XX I. 

427. 
FIDDLE, musical instrument, xxiv. 

242. 

FIDDLERS MUSCLES, i. 840. 
FlDElCOMMlSSUM, in Roman law, 

xxiii. 595. 
FIDELITY GUARANTEE, in insurance, 

xm. 161. 
FIDEN^E (Castello Giubileo), ancient 

town, Italy, IX. 141; wooden amphi 
theatre at, i. 775. 
FlDlCULA, ancient musical instrument, 

xxiv. 242. 
FIELD, John, English musical composer 

and pianist, IX. 141. 

, Nathan, English dramatist, ix. 

141; vii. 433. 

ARTILLERY, n. 66 1, 663. 



FIELDFARE, bird, ix. 142. 
FIELD GUNS, xi. 306, 313. 
FIELD HOSPITALS, i. 667. 
FIELDING, Copley, English painter, ix. 

142. 

, Henry, English novelist, IX. 142; 

as satirist, xxi. 320; his place in 

English literature, vill. 430. 
FIELD-MARSHAL, military title, xv. 

574- 
FIELD OF THE CLOTH OF GOLD, France, 

n. 480; xxiv. 635. 
FIELD OF WOODCOCKS, Russia, Battle 

of the (1380), xxi. 91. 
FlERABRAS, romance, xx. 651. 
XXV. 21 



162 



F I E F I R 



FIERI FACIAS, in English law, ix. 147; 
xxiv. 696. 

FIESCHI, Counts of, Italy, xiv. 350. 

, Giovanni Luigi cle , Genoese con 
spirator, IX. 147. 

, Joseph Marie, French conspirator, 



ix. 147. 
, Sinibaldo de (Pope Innocent IV.), 

Xin. 84. 
FlESCO, or Fieschi, Giovanni Luigi de , 

Genoese conspirator, ix. 147. 

, Schiller s play, XXI. 396. 

FIESOLE, town, Italy, ix. 148. 

, Fra Giovanni Angelico da (Fra 

Angelico), Italian painter, IX. 148, 

772; xxi. 434, 435. 
, Mino di Giovanni da, Italian 

sculptor, xvi. 477; xxi. 568. 
FIEVEE, Joseph, French journalist, xvn. 

426; xviii. 540. 
FIFE, county, Scotland, ix. 150; area 

and population, xxi. 528; coalfields, 

vi. 54; representation, xxm. 727. 

, musical instrument, ix. 351. 

FIFTH MONARCHY MEN, Puritan sect, 

ix. 153. 
FIG, tree and fruit, ix. 153; iv. 121; 

xn. 271. 
FIGARO, dramatic character, ix. 155. 

, Paris newspaper, ix. 155; xvii.427. 

, comedy by Beaumarchais, III. 468. 

, opera by Mozart, xvn. u. 

, Jose de Larra, Spanish satirist, 

xxn. 361. 
FIGBURY RING, Wilts, England, xxiv. 

594- 

FlGEAC, town, France, IX. 155. 
FlGlG, town, Sahara, Africa, xxi. 149. 
FlGUERAS, town, Spain, IX. 155. 
FIGURE, Rigid, Kinematics of a, xv. 691. 

OF THE EARTH, vn. 597. 
FIGURES, Lully s logical system of, xv. 

64. 

, Mathematical, xv. 268. 

FIGURE STONE, mineral, xvi. 425. 

FIHR, tribe, Arabia, II. 256. 

FIHRIST, work on Arabic literature, 

xvn. 160; xv. 482, 484. 
FIJI ISLANDS, South Pacific, ix. 155; 

xv. 835. 
FILANGIERI, Carlo, Italian general, ix. 

158. 

, Gaetano, Italian publicist, IX. 159; 

xix. 362. 
FlLARETE, Antonio, Florentine sculptor, 

XXI. 568. 
FlLARlA, genus of nematode worms, 

XVII. 325; xxiv. 206. 
FILATURE, reeling of silk, xxn. 61. 
FILBERT, tree and nut, xi. 548; plan 
tations of, I. 384. 
FILE, steel tool, ix. 160; xi. 438. 

FlLE-FlSH, IX. l6l. 

FlLELFO, Francesco, Italian scholar, ix. 

161. 
FILFLA, islet, Mediterranean Sea, xv. 

339- 



FILI, Irish bards, v. 303. 

FILIBUSTER, buccaneer, ix. 162 ; iv. 

408. 
FILICAIA, Vincenzo da, Italian poet, ix. 

162; xin. 511. 
FILICES, or Ferns, ix. 101. 
FILICIN^E, class of plants, xxiv. 129. 
FILICUDI, Lipari Islands, Mediterranean 

Sea, Xiv. 683. 
FILIGREE, jewel work of threads and 

beads, ix. 163. 
FILING OF DOCUMENTS, in law, xx. 

342- 
FILINTO ELYSIO (F. M. do Nascimento), 

Portuguese writer, xix. 557. 
FILIPPINO LlPPl, Italian painter, xiv. 

685; ix. 773; xv. 606; xxi. 435. 
FILIPPO OTTONIERI, Leopardi s imagi 
nary biography, xiv. 464. 
FILIPPOPEL (Philippopolis), town, Rou- 

melia, Turkey, xvm. 753. 
FILLAN, St, Scottish saint, ix. 164. 
FILLE DU REGIMENT, by Donizetti, vn. 

363- 

FILLES A LA CASSETTE, French emi 
grant girls at New Orleans, XVII. 

43- 

FILLET, in architecture, n. 464. 
FILLMORE, Millard, president of United 

States, ix. 165; xxin. 770. 
FILLOWITE, mineral, xvi. 404. 
FILMER, Sir Robert, English political 

writer, ix. 166. 
FILMS, Liquid, in capillary action, v. 

58, 59, 65. 
, Sensitive, in photography, xviii. 



836. 
FlLOCOPO, tale by Boccaccio, ill. 843; 

xm. 504. 
FlLOSTRATO, poem by Boccaccio, ill. 

844- 
FILTER, apparatus for purifying liquids, 

ix. 1 66. 
FILTER-BEDS, in water-works, xxiv. 

408. 

FIN, of fish, xii. 637; xxn. 119. 
FINALE DELL EMILIA, town, Italy, ix. 

171. 
FINANCE, ix. 171; Law s system 01, xiv. 

369- 
FINCH, bird, ix. 191. 

, Daniel, earlof Nottingham, English 

secretary of state, xvil. 600. 
, Heneage, earl of Nottingham, lord 



chancellor of England, xvn. 600. 
-, Margaret, long-liver, xvn. 596. 



FlNCK, Heinrich, German composer, ix. 

193- 

, Hermann, German musical writer, 

IX. 193. 

FIND, Celtic hero, IX. 215. 
FINDEN, William, English engraver, IX. 

193- 
FINDHORN, river, Scotland, vni. 129; 

XVII. 1 66. 

FINE, in law, ix. 193. 
ARTS, The, IX. 194; theory of, I. 



212; application of, in numismatics, 
XVIL 629, 633 ; position of poetry 
among, xix. 260,262; how affected by 
tlie Renaissance, xx. 385,390; Japanese, 
xm. 588; Winckelmann s studies in, 
xxiv. 5.97; academies of, I. 77, 78. 

FlNFOOT, bird, XX. 223. 

FlNGAL, Celtic hero, IX. 215. 

FINGAL S CAVE, Staffa, Scotland, v. 
265. 

FINGER RINGS, xx. 560. 

FINGERS, Anatomy of the, I. 828; 
joints of, I. 839; use of, to express 
numbers, xvn. 625; redundancy of, 
xvi. 762; whitlow on, xxiv. 555. 
AND TOES, in turnips, I. 367. 

FINGOLAND, South Africa, xin. 817. 

FINI, Tommaso (Masolino), Italian 
painter, xv. 610; xxi. 435. 

FINIAL, in architecture, II. 464. 

FINIGUERRA, Maso, Italian engraver, 
ix. 215. 

FINISTERE, department, France, IX. 
215. 

FINLAND, province, Russia, ix. 216; 
xxi. 69; acquisition of, by Russia 
(1809), XXI. 100; XXII. 752; climate 
of, xxil. 738; newspapers, xvn. 430; 
periodical literature, xviii. 543. 
, Gulf of, Russia, in. 294. 

FINLAV, George, English historian of 
Greece, ix. 220. 

FINNANS, smoked haddocks, i. 44. 

FINNER, cetacean mammal, xv. 395. 

FINNISH LANGUAGE, xxiv. i; diction 
aries of, vii. 1 88. 

FINNS, race of people, ix. 219; xxi. 79; 
religion of, xx. 363. 

FlNSBURV, borough, London, Xiv. 821. 

FINTRY HILLS, Scotland, xxn. 553. 

FiOGO, town, Japan, xi. 851. 

FIORAVENTI, Aristotle, Italian architect, 
XXL 91. 

FlORENTINO, Giovanni, media-val 
Italian writer, xni. 505. 

FIORENZUOLA, town, Italy, ix. 221. 

FlORILLO, Johann Dominions, German 
painter and historian of art, IX. 221. 

FlORITE, mineral, xvi. 390. 

FlOTE, language, Congo, Africa, vi. 
267. 

FIR, coniferous tree, IX. 222; culture of, 
II. 316, 319; Riga, strength of its wood, 
xxn. 603; Scotch, xix. 103; of United 
States, xxin. 808; of California, iv. 
704. 

FIRANDO, island, Japan, xin. 569. 

FlRBOLGS, Irish legendary people, V. 
299; xni. 243; xv. 650. 

FlRDOUSi, or Firdausi, Persian poet, 
ix. 225; xvm. 656; patronage of, by 
Mahmud, xv. 287; his place as epic 
poet, Xix. 267. 

FIRE, element, IX. 227; acquaintance of 
early man with, vni. 617; in mytho 
logy, xvn. 158; xix. 807; sacred, of 
Zoroastrians, xxiv. 193; traditions 



F I R F L A 



163 



concerning, XI. 679; Kant s Thoughts 

on, XIII. 847. 
FIRE, FIRES, Destructive (with list of 

fires), IX. 233; in coal mines, vi. 74; 

construction of houses for protection 

against, IV. 453; extinction of, IX. 235; 

in Chicago (1871), v. 611; in London, 

XIV. 826, 848. 
FIREBALL, Meteoric, xvi. 108; xxm. 

33- 

FIRE-BALLOONS, i. 206. 

FIRE-BRICKS, ix. 238. 

FIRE BRIGADES, ix. 237. 

FIRE-CLAY, ix. 238. 

FIRE-DAMP, in mines, xvi. 194, 459. 

FIRE-ENGINES, ix. 235. 

FIRE-ESCAPES, ix. 236. 

FIRE-FLY, XVIIL 814. 

FIRE INSURANCE, XIIL 161. 

FIRE MARBLE, mineral, xvi. 397. 

FIRENZE (Florence, </.i>.), town, Italy, 
ix. 330. 

FIRENZUOLA, Agnolo, Italian poet, ix. 
240. 

FIREPLACE, xxu. 579; in relation to 
smoke abatement, XXII. 181; ventila 
tion by, XXIV. 1 59. 

FIREPROOF CLOTH, n. 675. 

FIREPROOF SAFES, xxi. 144. 

FIRE-RAISING, crime, n. 635. 

FIRE-STEALING, in mythology, xvn. 
158; xix. 807. 

FIRETAIL, bird, XX. 317. 

FIRE TRICKS, in magic, xv. 208. 

FIREWORKS, xx. 134. 

FIRLE BEACON, Sussex, England, XXII. 

723- 

FIRMIANUS, Lucius Cajlius, early 

Christian writer, xiv. 195. 
FlRMlCUS, Maternus Julius, Latin writer, 

ix. 241; xv. 489. 
FIRMNESS, in phrenology, XVIIL 

845. 
FIRMUM PICENUM (Fernio), ancient 

town, Italy, IX. 98. 
FlROZPUR, district, India, IX. 241; xx. 

109; town, IX. 241. 
FIROZ SHAH, Monument of, at Gaur, 

Bengal, x. 115. 
FIROZ-SHAHR, India, Battle of (1845), 

xx. 112. 
FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF ENGLAND AND 

HER PEOPLE, Hugh Miller s work, 

xvi. 319. 
FIRSTLINGS, Sacrificial offerings of, 

XVIIL 343. 
FIRTH, or Estuary, xxi. 579; formation 

of, x. 257. 
FiRUZ-KoH, ancient town, Afghanistan, 

x. 570. 
FlSA, or Visions, in Irish literature, v. 

310; in Welsh, v. 326. 
FISCHART, Johannes, German satirist, 

ix. 242; x. 528. 

FlSCHERlTE, mineral, XVI. 405. 
FISCHER VON ERLACH, Viennese archi 
tect, XXIV. 220. 



FISH, FISHES, xii. 630; xix. 126; hypo 
thetical primitive form, XXIV. 181; 
blind, of Mammoth Cave, U.S.A., xv. 
450 ; works on development of, VIII. 
168; electric, VII. 694; Vill. 8; xii. 
649, 694; xx. 299; xxu. 68; fossil, 
Agassiz s researches on, I. 275; marine, 
distribution of, VII. 280, 282; mimicry 
in, XVI. 343; olfactory organs of, XXII. 
1 66; poisonous, xv. 782; reproduction 
of, xx. 409; skeleton of, xxii. 106; 
spawning of, IX. 244; taxidermy of, 
XXlll. 90; organs of touch in, xxm. 
478 ; transport of, IX. 243 ; of Amer 
ica, I. 684 ; of Himalayas, XL 834 ; 
of India, xii. 743 ; in Lankester s 
classification, xxiv. 812. 

FiSH-CROW, bird, xin. 533. 

FISH-CULTURE, XIX. 126; XXI. 226. 

FISHER, or Fisher Marten, xv. 577; 

skins of, IX. 838. 

, James, Scottish divine, xxm. 728. 

, John, bishop of Rochester, IX. 242; 

vill. 414; beheaded, Vill. 335. 
, Mary, English Quakeress, xx. 148, 



FISHERIES, Sea, IX. 243; mackerel, xv. 

160; mussel, XVII. no; oyster, XVIIL 

107; pearl oyster, XVIIL 446; pilchard, 

Cornwall, vi. 426; seal, xxi. 581; 

sponge, xxu. 428; sword-fish, xxn. 

804; whale, XXIV. 526; whitebait, 

xxiv. 550; of Canada, iv. 774; xx. 

1 66; of England, vill. 233; of Holland, 

xii. 67 ; of Kinsale, Ireland, VI. 403 ; 

of Labrador, xiv. 176; of Maine, 

U.S.A., xv. 300; of Newfoundland, 

xvn. 384; of Queensland, xx. 174; of 

Russia, xxi. 85 ; of the Volga, xxiv. 

280. 
FISHERMEN, Laws relating to, xxi. 

607. 
FISHERY BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS, 

xix. 129. 
FISHERY LAWS, ix. 268; as affecting 

rivers, xx. 565 ; Avith reference to 

salmon, xxi. 225. 

FISHES, xii. 630. See under Fish, above. 
FISH-EYE PROBLEM, in optics, xiv. 599. 
FlSHGUARD, town, Wales, xvill. 482. 
FISH-HAWK, bird, XVIIL 56. 
FISHING BOATS, ix. 246. 
FISHING-FROG, fish, ix. 269; xii. 690. 
FISHING HOOKS AND TACKLE, for 

angling, n. 32, 33, 38. 
FISHING NETS, xvn. 358. 
FISH MOTH, destructive insect, in Natal, 

xvii. 241. 

FISH OIL, xvii. 744, 747. 
FISH-PLATES, Railway, xx. 242. 
FISK UNIVERSITY, Nashville, Tennessee, 

U.S.A., xvii. 236. 
FISSIPEDIA, suborder of carnivorous 

mammals, xv. 433. 
FISSURELLA, genus of Mollusca, xvi. 

645. 
FISTULA, in surgery, ix. 270. 



FlSTULARUD/E, group of fishes, xxi. 
548. 

FITCH, skin of polecat, ix. 838. 

, John, American steamboat in 
ventor, IX. 270. 

, Ralph, English traveller, ix. 270. 

FITCHBURG, toAvn, Massachusetts, 
U.S.A., ix. 270. 

FITCHET, or Polecat, xix. 332. 

FlTHCHEAL, Irish game, v. 597. 

FITNESS, Stoic doctrine of, xxu. 568. 

FITS, Epileptic, vm. 479. 

FlTTON, Irish chancellor, XIIL 268. 

FITZ ALWIN, Henry, first mayor of 
London, XIV. 844. 

FITZGERALD, Lord Edward, leader of 
United Irishmen, IX. 270. 

, Maurice, first earl of Desmond, 

xin. 260. 
-, Lord Thomas, Irish leader, IX. 271. 



FlTZGERALDS, of Desmond, noble Irish 

family, vi. 404. 
FITZHERBERT, Sir Anthony, English 

judge, IX. 271 ; his Book of Husbandry, 

I. 295. 
-, Maria, her marriage with George 



IV., x. 427. 
FITZINGER, L., on reptiles, xx. 436. 
FlTZMAURlCE, Henry Petty, third mar 
quis of Lansdowne, Xix. 148. 

, William Petty, first marquis of 

Lansdowne, English statesman, xiv. 

289. 
FITZ OSBERT, William, Sedition of, in 

London, vm. 305. 
FITZ RALPH, Richard, bishop of Armagh, 

Ireland, xv. 543; xxiv. 709. 
FITZROY, river, Queensland, XX. 171. 
, suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, 

xv. 836. 

, Henry, natural son of Henry VIII. 

of England, xxii. 694. 
-, Robert, English admiral, hydro- 



grapher, and meteorologist, IX. 271. 

FlTZSTEPHEN, William, English his 
torian, IX. 273 ; his description of 
London (1184), XIV. 844. 

FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM, Cambridge, 
England, IV. 729. 

FIUME, town, Hungary, ix. 273 ; in. 
12 1 ; xn. 363. 

FIUMICINO, town, Italy, XVIIL 61. 

FIVE MILE ACT (1665), England, vm. 
348; xix. 690. 

FIVE NATIONS, American-Indian con 
federacy, xvii. 454. 

FIVES, game, ix. 273. 
, town, France, ix. 273. 

Fix, Theodore, French political econo 
mist, ix. 273. 

FIXED OILS, xvn. 739. 

FIXED STARS, n. Si 6. 

FIXTURES, in law, ix. 274; in land 
tenure, xiv. 274. 

FJORDS, of Scandinavia, xvn. 576; 
xxii. 737; formation of, x. 257. 

FLACCUS, Gains Valerius, Roman poet, 



164 



F L A F L O 



ix. 274; liis place in Roman literature, 

xx. 726. 
FLACIUS, Matthias, German theologian, 

IX. 275; on church history, v. 765; on 

Lutheran theology, xv. 85. 
FLACOURT, Etienne de, French governor 

of Madagascar, ix. 275. 
FLAG, or Iris, genus of plants, IX. 279. 

, FLAGS, Military and naval, ix. 

276; knight s, xiv. 117; of United 

States, XXin. 742; signals by means 

of, xxn. 49. 

FLAGELLANTS, self-chastising frater 
nities, ix. 280. 
FLAGELLATA, class of Protozoa, xix. 

856. 
FLAGEOLET, musical instrument, ix. 

351- 

FLAGSTAFF MINE, Utah, U.S.A., xxm. 

815. 
FLAHAUT DE LA BILLARDERIE, Av.guste 

C. J., Cornte de, French general and 

diplomatist, IX. 281; xvi. 829. 
FLAKSTADO, island, Norway, xiv. 769. 
FLAMBARD, Ranulph or Ralph, bishop 

of Durham, ix. 281; vm. 303; xvn. 548; 

minister of William Rufus, xxiv. 577. 
FLAMBERG, German sword, xxn. 803. 
FLAMBOYANT, in architecture, n. 431, 

464. 
FLAME, ix. 282. 

, Singing, I. 115. 
FLAMEL, Nicolas, French alchemist, ix. 

285. 

FLAME MANOMETER, i. 115, 117. 
FLAMEN, Roman priest, ix. 285; xix. 

455- 

DlALIS, priest of Jupiter, xill. 780; 

xxm. 18. 

FLAMINGO, bird, ix. 286. 
FLAMINIAN WAY, Roman road, Italy, 

xx. 555. 
FLAMININUS, Titus Quinctius, Roman 

general and statesman, ix. 287; xx. 

752. 
FLAMINIUS, Cains, Roman consul 

(223 B.C.), IX. 288; XX. 749. 

, Caius, Roman consul (187 B.C.), 

ix. 289. 
FLAMSTEED, John, English astronomer, 

ix. 289; ii. 756; xvn. 257. 
FLANDERS, countship, Netherlands, IX. 

290; provinces, Belgium, in. 515. 
FLANDRIN, Jean Hippolyte, French 

painter, IX. 291. 

FLANNEL, woollen stuff, ix. 292. 
FLASQUE, in heraldry, XL 697. 
FLATBUSH, town, Long Island, New 

York, U.S.A., IX. 292; xiv. 866. 
FLAT-FISH, ix. 292. 
FLAT HEAD, fish, xn. 686. 
FLATLANDS, town, Long Island, New 

York, U.S.A., xiv. 866. 
FLAVEL, John, English theologian, ix. 

292. 
FLAVIAN I.-IL, patriarchs of Antioch, 

ix. 293. 



FLAVIAN, patriarch of Constantinople, 
ix. 293. 

PALACE, at Rome, xx. 823. 



FLAVIGNY, Valerien, French Hebraist, 

ix. 293. 

FLAVIN, dyestuff, ix. 293; xx. 175. 
FLAVIONAVIA (Aviles), ancient town, 

Spain, ill. 157. 
FLAVIUS, the Armenian (Leo V.), 

emperor of the East, xiv. 453. 
, the Isaurian (Leo III.), emperor 

of the East, xiv. 452. 
, Magnus (Leo L), emperor of the 

East, xiv. 452. 
, Porphyrogenitus (Constantine 



VII.), emperor of the East, VI. 301. 
-, Sapiens (Leo VI.), emperor of the 



East, xiv. 453. 
- VOPISCUS, Augustan historian, ill. 

74- 

FLAX, plant and fibre, ix. 293, 133; 
culture of, I. 380; manufacture of, xiv. 
663 ; of New Zealand (Phormium), 

XVIII. 8l2. 

FLAXMAN, John, English sculptor, ix. 

298; xxi. 560. 
FLAX SPINNING, Girard s machines for, 

x. 620. 
FLEA, insect, ix. 300; xin. 150; 

Leeuwenhoek s study of, xiv. 411. 
FLECHIER, Esprit, bishop of Nimes, poet 

and preacher, ix. 301. 
FLECKNOE, Richard, English poet and 

dramatist, IX. 302. 
FLEECE, of wool, i. 399; xxiv. 656. 
FLEET, river and ditch, London, xiv. 

818, 850; xvi. 279. 

, British, Officers of the, XVII. 291. 
STREET, London, xiv. 



FLEETWOOD, town, England, ix. 302. 

, Charles, lord deputy of Ireland, 

IX. 302. 
-, William, bishop of Ely, IX. 303. 



FLEITMANN, his method of working 

nickel, xvi I. 488. 
FLEMING, John, on animal classification, 

xvm. 15, 18. 
, Paul, Ge.rman poet, ix. 303; x. 

530. 

FLEMISH LANGUAGE, xn. 85; diction 
aries of, vn. 187. 
FLEMMING, Richard, bishop of Lincoln, 

ix. 303. 
FLENSBURG, town, Prussia, ix. 304; 

xxi. 415. 

FLERS, town, France, xvm. 2. 
FLETCHER, Andrew, of Saltoun, Scottish 

politician, IX. 304; xxi. 519. 

, Giles (1548-1610), English poet, 

ix. 304. 

, Giles (1584-1623), English writer, 

IX. 304. 

, Isaac, his observatory, Tarnbank, 

England, XVII. 711. 

, John, English dramatist, ill. 469; 



FLEURANGES, Robert de la Marck, 
Seigneur de, French marshal and his 
torian, ix. 305. 

FLEUR-DE-LIS, heraldic device, ix. 306. 

FLEURV, France, Library of monastery 
at, xiv. 513. 

, Andre Hercule de, French car 
dinal and statesman, IX. 306, 585. 
-, Claude, French ecclesiastical his 



torian, ix. 306. 

FLEXURE, of a beam or rod, vn. 808. 

FLEYDER, on flying, i. 186. 

FLIEDNER, Theodore, German philan 
thropist, IX. 307; his institution of 
Sisters of Charity, xm. 825. 

FLIEGENDE HOLLANDER, Der, Wagner s 
opera, xxiv. 314. 

FLIES, class of insects, vn. 255; xn. 
317; mimicry in, xvi. 343. 
, Artificial, for angling, n. 44. 
, House, xill. 150. 



FLIGHT, Laws of, ix. 308. 

FLINCK, Govert, Dutch painter, ix. 

3^4- 

FLINDERS, Matthew, English navigator, 
ix. 324 ; his explorations in Austral 
asia, in. 104; x. 190. 

FLINT, mineral, ix. 325; x. 239; xvi. 

389- 

, county, Wales, IX. 326; population 
and representation, xxm. 727; coal 
field, VI. 52; town, ix. 327. 
, Timothy, American divine and 



writer, IX. 327. 

GLASS, Manufacture of, x. 663. 
WEAPONS, n. 337, 553. 



FLOCCULI, of spider s silk, n. 296. 
FLODDEN, England, Battle of (1513), 

xm. 557; xxi. 497. 

FLODOARD, French chronicler, IX. 328. 
FLOOD, The, of Scripture, vn. 55. 

, Henry, Irish orator and politician, 

ix. 328. 

ROCK, New York Harbour, Blasting 



vn. 432; xvm. 347. 
, Phineas, English poet, IX. 305. 



of, xxm. 622. 

FLOODS, in rivers, XII. 502; XX. 571. 

FLOOR CLOTH, ix. 329 ; xiv. 676. 

FLOORING, in building, iv. 452, 455, 
482, 493; tiles for, XXIII. 389. 

FLOR, Roger di, military adventurer, 
IX. 330. 

FLORA, in Roman mythology, IX. 330. 

, of different countries, Grouping 

and distribution of, VII. 286. 

FLORAL GAMES, Academy of, Toulouse, 
i. 69. 

FLORALIA, Roman festival, ix. 330. 

FLORENCE, town, Italy, ix. 330; xx. 
275; as a republic, xm. 479; council 
of (1439), XIX - 53; i n ti me f Dante, 
vi. 810; Medici family, xv. 783; its 
rivalry with Pisa, xix. 120; in time of 
Savonarola, xxi. 334; its wars with 
Siena, xxn. 39, 41; academy of, I. 
74 ; Accademia del Cimento, I. 70; 
banking in, in. 316; baptistery, XIX. 
122; bridge, IV. 332; cathedral, 1 1. 



F L F N 



165 



436; campanile of cathedral, n. 456; 
coins, XVII. 656; cupola of church of S. 
Maria del Fiore, iv. 399; dialect of, 
xill. 497 ; libraries, xiv. 530, 548; 
majolica ware, XIX. 628; nobility of, 
xvn. 528; observatory at, xvn. 714; 
its school of painting, xxi. 434, 442; 
picture galleries, XXI. 446; porcelain, 
xix. 636; sculptures, xx. 589; xxi. 
567; terra-cotta art, XXIII. 194; uni 
versity, XXIII. 837. 

FLORENCE, town, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 
xvn. 558. 

of Worcester, English chronicler, 

IX. 337- 
FLORENTIA (Florence), ancient town, 

Italy, ix. 333. 

FLORENTINE DIAMOND, vn. 166. 
FLORES, island, Indian Archipelago, ix. 

337- 

, island, Azores, Atlantic, III. 172. 

, town, Guatemala, XL 239. 

FLOREZ, Enrique, Spanish historian, ix. 

337- 
FLORIAN, patron saint of Poland, ix. 

337- 

, Jean. Pierre Claris de, French poet 

and romancist, ix. 337; XVIII. 348. 

FLORIDA, State, U.S.A., ix. 338; popu 
lation, xxill. 802; orange culture in, 
xvii. 8 1 1. 

FLORIDA-BLANCA, Count of, Spanish 
statesman, ix. 341; xxn. 340. 

FLORIDE^, order of plants, xxiv. 127. 

FLORIDO, Venetian algebraist, I. 513. 

FLORINUS, Polycarp s letter to, xix. 
414. 

FLORIO, Giovanni, English lexicographer 
and translator, ix. 341; teacher and 
friend of Shakespeare, xxi. 756. 

FLORIS I.-V., counts of Holland, XII. 

71. 

, Frans, Flemish sculptor and 

painter, ix. 342. 
FLORUS, Roman historian, ix. 342. 

, Gessius, Roman procurator in 

Juda;a, xill. 427. 

FLOSCULARIA, genus of Rotifera, xxi. 4. 
FLOTATION, Position of animals in, ix. 

309- 
FLOTSAM, in English law, ix. 342; v. 

787- 

FLOTTA, island, Orkney, Scotland, xvn. 
846. 

FLOUNDER, fish, ix. 342. 

FLOUR, Manufacture of, IX. 343; in. 
251; XV. 310; adulteration of, I. 171. 

FLOURENS, Gustave, French communist 
and writer, IX. 347. 
, Marie Jean Pierre, French physio 
logist, ix. 347. 

FLOWER, of plants, defined and de 
scribed, iv. 126; xii. 215; xx. 424. 

FLOWER-DE-LUCE, genus of plants, ix. 
279. 

FLOWER GARDEN, xn. 247. 

FLOWERING, of plants, iv. 121. 



FLOWERS, Artificial, ix. 348. 

OF THE FOREST, Scottish ballad, 



vi. 98. 
FLOYD-CARROLL-GRAYSON PLATEAU, 

Virginia, U.S.A., xxiv. 256. 
FLOYER, Sir John, English physician 

and writer, IX. 349. 
FLUDD, Robert, English physician and 

mystic, IX. 349. 

FLUELLITE, mineral, xvi. 384. 
FLUGEL, Gustav Lebrecht, German 

Orientalist, ix. 349. 

, Johann Gottfried, German lexico 
grapher, ix. 349. 
FLUID, FLUIDS, xn. 435; definition and 

physical properties of, VI. 310; XIX. 

240; friction of, xix. 247; motion of 

surface of, XV. 753; theory of motion 

of, in. 43; resistance of, xxj. 810; 

surface-tension of, v. 56. 
FLUKE, parasitic worm, xxin. 535; 

xxiv. 205. 

FLUOCERITE, mineral, xvi. 383. 
FLUORESCENCE, source of light, xiv. 

579, 602; IX. 350; in crystals, xvi. 

376. 
FLUORESCIN, chemical compound, xv in. 

855. 
FLUORINE, chemical element, IX. 349; 

v. 490. 
FLUOR SPAR, or Fluorite, mineral, ix. 

349; x. 228; xvi. 383; as a flux, xvi. 

62. 
FLUSHING, town, Holland, ix. 350; 

population, xxiv. 772. 
, town, Long Island, New York, 

LT.S.A., ix. 350; xiv. 866. 
FLUTE, musical instrument, IX. 350; 

xxin. 519. 

FLUTE-MOUTH, fish, xxn. 548. 
FLUXES, in smelting ores, xvi. 62; in 

iron smelting, xill. 295. 
FLUXIONS, in mathematics, xin. 8, 10; 

Newton s invention of, xvn. 446; 

Maclaurin s discussion of, xv. 161. 
FLY, insect, vii. 255; xii. 3175x111. 150; 

proboscis of, xxin. 478. 

, river, New Guinea, xvn. 386. 
FLYCATCHER, bird, ix. 351. 
FLY-FISHING, 11. 36; hooks for, n. 33, 

38. 
FLYING, ix. 310; attempts at, i. 186. 

- DOVE, of Archytas, I. 185. 

- DUTCHMAN, legend, xin. 674. 

DUTCHMAN, Wagner s opera, xxiv. 

314- 

FLYING-FISH, ix. 352; xn. 693. 
FLYING-FOX, bat, ix. 352, 310. 
FLYING GURNARD, fish, xn. 690. 
FLYING LEMUR, insectivorous mammal, 

xv. 401. 
FLYING MACHINES, ix. 308, 317; i. 

1 86, 202. 
FLY-WHEEL, xv. 769; of steam-engine, 

xxn. 509, 511. 

FOCA, island, Peru, xvin. 671. 
FOCAL LINES, in optics, xvn. 799. 



FCEDERA, Rymer s historical collection, 

xxi. 119. 

FCENICULUM, genus of plants, ix. 76. 
FCETUS, Circulation of the blood in, 

xxiv. 108; syphilis in, xxn. 687. 
IN FCETU, monstrosity, XVI. 766. 



FOG, London, xiv. 827; causes of, xxn. 

1 80. 

FOGARAS, town, Hungary, ix. 353. 
FOG-BOW, or Fog-Eater, halo, XI. 399. 
FOGELBERG, Benedict Erland, Swedish 

sculptor, IX. 353. 
FOGGIA, town, Italy, IX. 353; province 

(Capitanata), v. 73. 

FOGO, one of Cape Verd Islands, v. 52. 
FOG SIGNALS, xxn. 49. 
FOHN, local wind, Switzerland, xxn. 

777- 
FOHR, island, Schleswig-Holstein, xxi. 

414. 
FOIL, thin sheet-copper, IX. 353. 

, Fencing, IX. 69. 
Foix, town, France, ix. 353. 

, Counts of, IX. 354; II. 1 8. 

, Paul de, French prelate and dip 
lomatist, IX. 354. 

FOKSHAN, town, Roumania, IX. 354. 
FOLARD, Jean Charles de, French 

writer on tactics, IX. 355. 
FOLC-LAND, or Folk-Land (q.v.\ in 

English law, ix. 357. 
FOLDVAR, town, Hungary, IX. 355. 
FOLENGO, Teofilo, Italian poet, IX. 355. 
FOLEY, John Henry, British sculptor, 

ix. 355- 

FOLIGNO, town, Italy, ix. 356. 

FOLK-BOOKS, xvin. 204. 

FOLKES, Martin, English antiquary, IX. 
356. 

FOLKESTONE, town, England, ix. 356; 
xiv. 39. 

FOLK-LAND, in English law, ix. 357, 
305; VIIL 275; Saxon, xvin. 302. 

FOLK- LORE, ix. 357 ; in relation to 
mythology, xvii. 144 ; magical sur 
vivals in, xv. 204 ; totemism in, 
XXIII. 467; Indian, XVIII. 660. 

FOLK-SONGS, III. 283. 

FOLLEN, August Ludwig, German poet, 
ix. 359. 

, Charles, German poet and theo 
logian, IX. 359. 

FOLLETT, Sir William Webb, English 
lawyer, ix. 359. 

FOLLICLE, form of fruit, iv. 151. 

FOLLOWER, in applied mechanics, xv. 

755- 
FOLQUET, of Marseilles, Provengal poet, 

xix. 874. 
FOMORIANS, of Irish legend, v. 300; 

xill. 243. 
FONBLANQUE, Albany William, English 

political writer, IX. 360. 
FONDANTS, French comfit, vi. 257. 
FOND DU LAC, town, Wisconsin, U.S.A., 

IX. 361; population, xxiv. 617. 
FONDI, town, Italy, ix. 361. 



166 



F N F R 



FONS CASTALIUS (Castalia), fountain, 
Parnassus, Greece, v. 186; vn. 52. 

FONS EBRALDI (Fontevrault), ancient 
town, France, IX. 365. 

FONSECA, Bay of, Honduras, XII. 130. 

FONT, Baptismal, ix. 361 ; in archi 
tecture, II. 464. 

FONTAINE, Jean de la (La Fontaine, 
q.v.), French poet, xiv. 203. 

, Pierre Francois Leonard, French 

architect, IX. 362. 

FONTAINEBLEAU, town, France, ix. 
363; xxi. 625. 

FONTANA, Carlo, Italian architect, xx. 
836. 

, Domenico, Italian architect, ix. 

363; ii. 439- 

, Lavinia, Italian painter, IX. 363. 

, Niccolo Tartaglia, Italian mathe 
matician, xxm. 68. 
-, Prospero, Italian painter, IX. 364. 



FONTANES, Louis, Marquis de, French 

poet, IX. 364. 
FONTANET, or Fontenay, France, Battle 

of (841), ix. 533; xv. 9. 
FONTARABIA, town, Spain, ix. 810. 
FONTENAY, France, Battle of (841), ix. 

5335 xv. 9. 
, Lefevrede, French journalist, xvn. 

424. 

, Theresa, Comtesse de, xxm. 33. 

FONTENAY-LE-COMTE, town, France, 

ix. 364. 
FONTENELLE, Bernard le Bovier de, 

French writer, ix. 364, 664. 
FONTENOY, Belgium, Battle of (1745), 

vi. 705; ix. 586; xxi. 346. 
FONTEVRAUD, Order of, monks and 

nuns, XVI. 709. 

FONTEVRAULT, town, France, ix. 365. 
FOO-CHOW, town, China, IX. 812. 
FOOD, vill. 616; dietetics, vn. 200; 

cookery of, vi. 331; digestion of, xvn. 

669; gelatinous, x. 132; laws against 

luxurious, XXII. 644 ; milk as, XVI. 

303; poisonous, xv. 781; preserved, 

XIX. 707; supply of, in Great Britain, 

vi. 415; tabooed, xxm. 16, 468; of 

plants, xix. 48. 
FOOL, jester, ix. 366. 
FOOT, Anatomy of the human, I. 830; 

joints and muscles of, I. 841; club-foot, 

vi. 42; redundant or defective toes on, 

xvi. 762; of mammals, xv. 360. 

, measure of length, XXIV. 483. 

FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, XVII. 60. 

FOOTBALL, game, ix. 367. 

FOOTE, Samuel, English dramatist and 

actor, ix. 368; vii. 438. 
FOOT- POUND, unit for measurement of 

work, vui. 206; xv. 700. 
FOOTSTEPS OF THE CREATOR, Hugh 

Miller s work, xvi. 320. 
FOOTWAYS, in streets, xx. 588. 
FOPPA, Vincenzo, Italian painter, ix. 

371; xxi. 437. 
FORAGE CROPS, Culture of, i. 370. 



FORAMINIFERA, IX. 371; distribution 

of, VII. 277, 283. 
FORBACH, town, German Lorraine, ix. 

387- 

FORBES, Alexander Penrose, bishop of 
Brechin, IX. 387. 

, David, English chemist and geo 
logist, IX. 388. 

, Duncan, of Culloden, Scottish 

lawyer and statesman, ix. 388. 

, Edward, English naturalist, IX. 



389- 

, James David, Scottish natural 
philosopher, IX. 390; on the motion of 
glaciers, x. 629. 

, Sir John, physician and writer, IX. 
393; xv. 8 1 6. 
, William Alexander, on birds, XVIII. 



39- % 

FORBIDDEN FRUIT (Shaddock), xxi. 
727. 

FORBIN, Claude de, French naval com 
mander, IX. 393. 
-, Comte de, French painter, XI. 48. 



FORCE, in dynamics, vn. 581; xv. 676, 
746, 764; electric, vill. 20; its equival 
ent of heat, XI. 558; as the product of 
heat, xxm. 283; measure of, vn. 584; 
XV. 698; Kant on the theories of, xm. 
847; Leibnitz s doctrine of, xiv. 421. 

FORCELLINI, Egidio, Italian philologist, 

ix- 393- 
FORCHHAMMER, Johan Georg, Danish 

mineralogist, IX. 393. 
FORCHHAMMERITE, mineral, XVI. 415. 
FORCHHEIM, town, Bavaria, IX. 394. 
FORCIBLE ENTRY, Law of, vi. 583. 
FORD, Horace A., archer, n. 373. 
, John, English dramatist, ix. 394; 

vii. 432. 
, Kichard, English writer on Spain, 

IX. 396. 
-, Thomas, English musician, ix. 



396. 
FoRDUN, John of, Scottish historian, IX. 

397- 

FOREHEAD, Bone of the, i. 824. 
FOREIGN ENLISTMENT ACTS, xm. 

196. 

FOREIGNERS, in Roman law, xx. 695. 
FORENSIC COSTUME, vi. 476. 
FORENSIC MEDICINE, xv. 778. 
FORENSIC RHETORIC, xx. 511. 

FOREORDINATION, ill theology, XIX. 

668. 

FORESITE, mineral, xvi. 423. 
FOREST ADMINISTRATION, ix. 397. 
FORESTALLING, of corn, Laws against, i. 

298; vi. 412. 
FOREST DISTRICTS, Switzerland, xxn. 

782. 

FORESTERS, Ancient Order of, ix. 782. 
FOREST LAW, English, ix. 409. 
FOREST OF DEAN, district, Gloucester, 

England, x. 687, 689; coalfield of, vi. 

50. 
FORESTS, ix, 397; their effect on climate, 



vi. 4; submerged, x. 256; American, 
distribution of, I. 676; of Africa, I. 
252; European, vui. 692; of India, 

XII. 753; of Kentucky, xiv. 43; of 
the United States, xxm. 807. 

FOREZ, mountains, France, xx. 119; 
plain, xiv. 807. 

FORFAR, county, Scotland, ix. 410; 
area and population, xxi. 528; repre 
sentation, xxm. 727; town, ix. 412. 

FORFICULA, genus of insects, vn. 612. 

FORFICULID^:, order of insects, vn. 
613; xm. 152. 

FORGE, for iron, IX. 412; its history, 

XIII. 290. 

FORGERY, in English law, ix. 413. 

, Literary, in ancient times, I. 461. 
FORGES, Evariste Desire" de, Yicomte de 

Parny, French poet, xvm. 318. 
FORGES-LES-EAUX, spa, France, xvi. 

434- 

FORGET-ME-NOT, plant, IX. 414; XII. 
2^2. 

FORGING MACHINES, ix. 413. 
FORKEL, Johann Nikolaus, German 

musician, IX. 414. 
FORLI, town, Italy, IX. 414; district, 

xx. 560. 

, Melozzo da, Italian painter, IX. 414. 

FORLIMPOPOLI, town, Italy, ix. 415. 
FORM, Abstract idea of, xv. 629. 
FORMAN, Simon, English physician 

and astrologer, IX. 415. 
FORMARTIN, district, Scotland, I. 43. 
FORME, Printer s, xxm. 700. 
FORMENTARA, one of the Balearic 

Islands, Spain, ill. 278. 
FoRMEY, Johann Heinrich Samuel, 

German writer, IX. 415. 
FORMIA, town, Italy, ix. 415. 
FORMICA, genus of insects, n. 94. 
FORMOSA, island, China, ix. 415; n. 

687; V. 636; birds of, III. 762; cam 
phor production, IV. 761; Pwtlmaii- 

azar s work on, XX. 28. 
FORMOSUS, Pope, IX. 418. 
FORMULAR SVSTEM, in Roman law, 

xix. 707. 
FOROJULIUM (Friuli), ancient town, 

Italy, IX. 790. 

FORRES, town, Scotland, vui. 130. 
FORS, constitution of Beam, France, 

in. 465. 
FORSKAL, Peter, Swedish naturalist and 

philosopher, IX. 418. 
FORST, town, Prussia, IX. 418. 
FORSTER, Frangois, French engraver, 

ix. 418. 

, G. S., on birds, xvm. 8. 

, Johann Georg Adam, German 

naturalist, IX. 418. 
, John, English historian and critic, 

ix. 419. 

, John R., on birds, XVIII. 8. 
FORSTER, Friedrich, German historian, 

ix. 418. 
FORSTERITE, mineral, xvi. 410. 



F It F O W 



167 



FORSYTH, William, on tlie origin of 

trial by jury, XIII. 784. 
FORT, Construction of a, IX. 433, 434. 
FORTALEZA (Ceara), town, Brazil, V. 

282. 
FORT CARILLON, New York, U.S.A., 

xxni. 352. 
FORT DE FRANCE, town, Martinique, 

West Indies, IX. 420; XV. 586. 
FORT DE KOCK, Sumatra, xxn. 639. 
FORTEBRACCIO, Nicola, Roman captain, 

xx. 805. 

FORT EDMONTON, Canada, xv. 490. 
FORTESCUE, Sir John, English lawyer, 

IX. 420; vili. 416. 
FORTH, river, Scotland, ix. 420; xxn. 

553- 

- BRIDGE, Scotland, xx. 234. 
FORTIFICATION, ix. 421 (index, 468); of 

ancient Rome, XX. 812. 
FORT NARYN, Syr-Daria, Central Asia, 

xxii, 8 1 8. 

FORTRESS, Armament of a, ix. 454. 
FORTROSE, town, Scotland, IX. 468. 
FORT SCOTT, town, Kansas, U.S.A., 

xiii. 844. 
FORT SUMTER, South Carolina, U.S.A., 

Surrender of (1861), xxni. 774. 
FORTUNA, Roman goddess, IX. 468; 

temple of, at Prseueste, XIX. 654; at 

Rome, II. 417; xx. 827. 
FORTUNATUS, legendary hero, IX. 

468. 

, Venantius H. C., bishop of Poi 
tiers, Latin poet, IX. 469; as hymn- 
writer, xii. 582. 
FORTUNE BAY, Newfoundland, xvn. 

382. 
FORTUNE-TELLING, Laws against, xv. 

204; xxiv. 622. 
FORTUNY, Mariano, Spanish painter, 

XXL 440, 443. 
FORT WAYNE, town, Indiana, U.S.A., 

ix. 469. 
FORT WORTH, town, Texas, U.S.A., 

xxni. 205. 

FORUM, at Pompeii, xix. 446. 
, at Rome, IX. 469; XX. 813, 815, 

825; architecture of, 1 1. 419. 

CORNELII (Imola), ancient town, 

Italy, xii. 717. 
JULII (Cividale), ancient town, 

Italy, v. 797. 
JULII (Frejus), ancient town, 

France, IX. 767. 
JULII (Friuli), ancient town, Italy, 

ix. 790. 
LIVII (Forli), ancient town, Italy, 

ix. 414. 
FOSBROKE, Thomas Dudley, English 

antiquary, IX. 469. 
FOSCARI, Francesco, doge of Venice, ix. 

470; XIII. 480. 

FOSCARINI, Antonio, Venetian con 
spirator, xxiv. 147. 
, Giacomo, Venetian statesman, XL 



FOSCARINI, Marco, doge of Venice, his 
torian, ix. 471. 

, Michele, Venetiauhistorian, ix. 47 1 . 

FOSCOLO, Ugo, Italian Avriter, IX. 471; 
vii. 417; xin. 513. 

FOSS, Edward, English legal writer, ix. 
472. 

, H. H., Norwegian poet, XVII. 591. 

FOSSANO, town, Italy, ix. 472. 

, Ambrogio Stefani da (II Bor- 

gognone), Italian painter, IX. 472 ; 
xxi. 437. 

FOSS DYKE, the oldest British canal, 
iv. 783. 

FOSSE, in fortification, ix. 444. 
, War of the, Arabia (627), xvi. 556. 

FOSSILS, in geology, X. 319; the oldest 
known, ix. 384; birds, ill. 728; fishes, 
xn. 666 ; mammals, xv. 375 (and 
article Mammalia throughout); of 
America, I. 682. 

FOSSOMBRONE, town, Italy, IX. 473. 

FOSSOMBRONI, Vittorio, Italian states 
man and mathematician, IX. 473. 

FOSSORES, or Grave-Diggers, of the Cata 
combs, v. 214. 

FOSSWAY, Roman remains, Lincolnshire, 
England, xiv. 656. 

FOSTER, John, English essayist, IX. 

473- 

, Stephen Collins, American song 
writer, ix. 475. 

FOSTERAGE, under Brehon Law, in Ire 
land, iv. 253. 

FOTHERGILL, John, English physician, 
ix. 475; xv. 815. 

FOTHERINGAY CASTLE, Northampton, 
England, XVII. 557; confinement of 
Mary, queen of Scots, at, xv. 60 1. 

FOUCAULT, Jean Bernard Leon, French 
physicist, IX. 475; his experiment 
showing the earth s rotation, x. 197; 
on radiation, xx. 215. 

FOUCHE, Joseph, French minister of 
police, IX. 476; his relations with 
Wellington, xxiv. 497. 

FOUCHER, Simon, French sceptic, ix. 
478. 

FOUGASSE, in military mining, IX. 464. 

FOUGERES, town, France, IX. 478. 

FOULA, island, Shetland, Scotland, xvn. 
846. 

FOULAHS, or Fulahs, Negro race, Africa, 
xvn. 319; I. 263; xxii. 248, 278, 279. 

FOULD, Achille, French financier, ix. 
478. 

FOULDREY CASTLE, Lancashire, Eng 
land, xiv. 254. 

FOULIS, Andrew and Robert, Scottish 
printers and publishers, IX. 479; their 
editions of the classics, in. 657. 

FOULQUES, Gui (Pope Clement IV.), v. 
821. 

FOUMART, or Polecat, xix. 332. 

FOUNDATIONS, in building, iv. 452, 
456; under water, iv. 326. 

FOUNDING, casting metal, ix. 479. 



FOUNDLING HOSPITALS, ix. 481. 
FOUNDLING WHEEL, in Italy, xin. 

449- 
FOUNDRY OPERATIONS, ix. 479; xin. 

355- 

FOUNTAIN, spring of water, ix. 484. 
FOUNTAINS, Sir Andrew, collector of 

majolica ware, xix. 628. 
FOUNTAINS ABBEY, Yorkshire, Eng 
land, I. 1 8, 19; xxiv. 749. 
FOUNTAINS OF MOSES, hot wells, Sinai, 

Arabia, II. 236. 
FOUQUE, Friedrich Heinrich Karl, 

Baron de la Motte, German writer, 

IX. 486; x. 542; hymns by, xii. 588. 
FOUQUET, Nicolas, French financier 

and statesman, IX. 487, 574; patron 

of La Fontaine, xiv. 204. 
FOUQUIER-TINVILLE, Antoine Quentin, 

French Revolutionist, IX. 488. 
FOURAH BAY COLLEGE, Sierra Leone, 

West Africa, xxii. 45. 
FOUR BOOKS, of China, v. 661. 
FOURCHAMBAULT, town, France, IX. 

488; xvn. 496. 
FOURCROY, Antoine Frangois, Comte 

de, French chemist, IX. 488. 
FOUR GEORGES, The, by Thackeray, 

XXIII. 2l6. 

FOURIER, Francois Charles Marie, 
French socialist writer, IX. 489; XXII. 
208. 

, Jean Baptiste Joseph, French 
mathematician and physicist, IX. 490; 
I. 516; his theorem of simple harmonic 
analysis, xv. 689; XVII. 105; on the 
conduction of heat, XI. 578, 587; XVII. 
738. 

FOUR MASTERS, Annals of the, v. 307, 
326. 

FOURMENT, Helena, Rubeiis s second 
wife, XXI. 45. 

FOURMONT, Etienne, French Orientalist, 
ix. 491. 

, Michel, French Syriac scholar, ix. 



491. 

FoURNEYRON, Benoit, inventor of tur 
bine water-wheel, xn. 438. 

FOURNIER, Pierre Simon, French prin 
ter, IX. 491. 

FOURRE, Marie, heroine at siege of 
Peronne, France, xvm. 552. 

FOUR SONS OF AYMON, romance, xx. 
652. 

FOURVIERES, ancient building, Lyons, 
France, xv. m. 

FOUSSA, Malagasy cat, xv. 435. 

FOVEAUX STRAIT, New Zealand, xvn. 
467. 

FOWL, FOWLS, poultry, ix. 491; xix. 
644; successive stages of cranium of, 
ill. 700; management of, I. 401. 

FOWLER, Charles, English architect, IX. 
492. 

, John, inventor of steam plough, 



IX. 492; I. 314. 

, William, Scottish poet, ix. 492. 



168 



F O W F R A 



FOWLERITE, mineral, xvi. 417. 

FOWLING-PlECE, gun, XI. 279; XXI. 

832. 

FOWNES, George, English chemist, IX. 

493- 
Fox, carnivorous mammal, IX. 493; xv. 

438; Arctic, colour of, XVI. 343; skins 

of, ix. 838. 
, Charles James, English statesman, 

IX. 494; vm. 358; Burke s dissension 

with, IV. 548; his relations with Pitt, 

xix. 137. 
, George, founder of the Quakers, 

ix. 500; xvn. 135; xx. 147, 152; 

friend of Penn, xvm. 496. 
, Henry Kichard Yassall, Lord 

Holland, xn. 99. 

, Kate, American spiritualist, xxn. 



405. 



-, Luke, Arctic explorer, XIX. 318. 
-, Richard, bishop of Winchester, IX. 



502. 
, Robert Were, his dip circle, xvi. 

161. 
, Sir Stephen, English Royalist, IX. 

494- 

- BAT, or Flying Fox, bat, ix. 352. 
FOXDALE MINES, silver and lead, Isle 

of Man, xv. 451. 
FOXE, John, English martyrologist, IX. 

502. 

FOXGLOVE, plant, VH. 237. 
FOXHOUNDS, vn. 329; xn. 314. 
Fox ISLANDS, Aleutian Islands, North 

Pacific, I. 480. 

FOX-SHARK, fish, xxi. 777. 
Fox-TALBOT, William H., photographic 

discoverer, xxill. 27; XVin. 824. 
FOY, Maximilien Sebastien, French 

general and politician, ix. 503. 
FOYLE, river, Ireland, VII. 361. 
FRA AMBROGIO (Paolo della Robbia), 

Florentine sculptor, xx. 591. 
FRA ANGELICO (Fiesole, or Guido di 

Vicchio), Italian painter, IX. 148, 772; 

xxi. 434, 435, 442. 
FRAAS, Karl Nikolas, German botanist, 

ix. 504. 
FRA BARTOLOMMEO (Baccio della 

Porta), Italian painter, in. 194; xxi. 

442. 

FRACASTORIO, Hieronymo, Italian phy 
sician and poet, ix. 504. 
FRACTIONS, in algebra, I. 529, 558; in 

arithmetic, II. 529; decimal, use of, by 

Napier, xvn. 185; by Stevinus, XXII. 
546; vulgar, tables of, xxill. 8, 13. 
FRACTURE, in surgery, xxn. 68 1. 

, of materials, by tension or com 
pression, xxii. 601. 

, in minerals, its varieties, xvi. 



379- 
FRA DIAMANTE, Italian painter, vn. 

162. 

FRA DIAVOLO, Italian brigand, ix. 504. 
FRAGARIA, genus of plants, xn. 276; 

xxii. 592. 



FRA GlOCONDO, Veronese architect, 
xxiv. 154, 172. 

FRAGMENS PHILOSOPHIQUES, Cousin s 
work, vi. 522. 

FRAHN, Christian Martin, German nu 
mismatist and Orientalist, IX. 504. 

FRA LUCA (Marco della Robbia), Floren 
tine sculptor, xx. 591. 

FRAMBCESIA, disease, xxiv. 732. 

FRAMES, for bridges, IV. 3 1 5. 

FRAMING, in joinery, iv. 490, 493. 

FRAMLINGHAM, town, England, ix. 
505; castle, xxii. 622. 

FRANCAIS, of Nantes, Count, French 
politician and writer, IX. 505. 

FRANCAVILLA, town, Italy, ix. 505. 

FRANCE, ix. 505 (including geography 
and statistics, 505; history, 527, see 
below; language, 629; literature, 657; 
index, 687); academies in, I. 70, 71, 
77; architecture, II. 429, 441 ; army, II. 
600; arsenals, II. 634; artillery, II. 658, 
660, 665; Bank of, in. 337; institution 
of banks in, IV. 367; birds, XVIII. 17; 
citizenship in, I. 576; coalfields, vi. 
55; Code Napoleon, VI. 105; coins, 
XVII. 655; colonies, VI. 159; drama, 
vii. 423; drama in time of Corneille,vi. 
420; fisheries, IX. 268; forests, IX. 402; 
foundling hospitals, IX. 482; govern 
ment, XI. 14; history, IX. 527, see 
below; irrigation works, Xlll. 369; 
Jansenist controversies in, XIII. 566; 
Jews in, Xlll. 682; language, IX. 629; 
land laws, xiv. 262; form of land 
tenure, I. 415; libraries, xiv. 513, 
524, 545; literature, IX. 637; mines, 
xvi. 467; national debt, xvn. 246; 
navy, xvn. 298; newspapers, xvn. 
423; nobility, xvn. 530; xvin. 468; 
observatories, XVII. 712; opium culti 
vation, xvn. 792; oyster culture, xvin. 
107; periodicals, xvill. 539; police 
system, xix. 342; post office, xix. 580; 
Presbyterian Church, XIX. 693; prison 
system, xix. 759; railways, xx. 250; 
settlements in India, II. 702; XII. 799, 
800, 804; settlement at New Orleans, 
U.S.A., xvn. 403; technical schools, 
xxin. 108; university of, xxin. 851; 
wine industry, XXIV. 604. 
, History of, IX. 527; conquest of 



Algeria by, I. 566; colonization of 
North America, IV. 766; protectorship 
of Annam, xxin. 440; war with 
Austria, in. 130; the Carbonari in, v. 
89 ; Colbert s financial reforms, vi. 
121 ; war in the East (1799), xxin. 
648; Hundred Years war with Eng 
land, vin. 318; Fouche s police ad 
ministration, ix. 476; Huguenots, xn. 
337; invasion of Italy by (1492), Xlll. 
481; of Prussia (1806), XX. 11; inva 
sion of, by the Arabs, xvi. 576; II. 
258; by William I. of Prussia (1870), 
xxiv. 582; Inquisition established 
in i. 487; suppression of Knights 



Templars in, XXI n. 164; government 
of Louis Philippe, xi. 269; in 
time of Mazarin, xv. 652; under 
Napoleon I., xvn. 192; under Napo 
leon III., xvn. 228; relations to 
Normandy, xvn. 539; to the papacy, 
vi. 241; Reformation in, xx. 334; 
Renaissance period, xx. 390; wars 
with Russia, xxi. 100, 102; connexion 
with long-King, xxin. 440; relations 
with the United States, xxin. 733, 
742, 744, 755, 782. 
FRANCE, Institute of, xin. 160. 

, Isle of, or Mauritius, xv. 639. 

, The twelve peers of, xvin. 468. 



FRANCESCA, Piero de , Italian painter, 
xix. 82; xxi. 435. 

DA RIMINI, daughter of Malatesta, 



xx. 556. 
FRANCESCHI, or Francesca, Piero de , 

Italian painter, xix. 82; xxi. 435. 
FRANCESCHINI, Baldassare, Italian 

painter, IX. 687. 
FRANCESCO I., grand-duke of Tuscany, 

xv. 791. 
DA BARBERINO, mediaeval Italian 

poet, xin. 501. 

DI PUGLIA, Fra, his challenge to 



Savonarola, XXI. 337. 

FRANCEVILLE, station, West Africa, 
xvn. 733. 

FRANCHE COMTE, province, France, ix. 
687. 

FRANCHINA, Descartes s automaton, xv. 
208. 

FRANCHISE, in law, ix. 688; parliamen 
tary, British, xx. 344. 

FRANCIA (Francesco Raibolini), Italian 
painter, ix. 688; xxi. 437. 

, Jose Gaspar Rodriguez, dictator of 



Paraguay, ix. 688. 

FRANCIABIGIO (Francesco di Cristofano), 
Italian painter, IX. 689. 

FRANCIS, St, of Assisi, founder of Fran 
ciscan order, IX. 692; xin. 500; xvi. 
710; stigmatization of, xxn. 549. 

, St, of Paola, founder of order of 

Minims, ix. 695; xvi. 711. 

, St, of Sales, devotional writer, IX. 

695, 654. 
I., emperor, IX. 691; x. 503. 

II. (Francis I. of Austria), emperor, 



IX. 691; his character, in. 136. 
I., emperor of Austria, ix. 691; in. 

136- 
I., king of France, IX. 689, 555; his 

relations with Henry VIII. of England, 

xi. 663; his rule in Italy, xin. 482; 

his attitude towards the Reformation, 

xx. 328, 334. 
II., of France, ix. 691, 559. 

, duke of Guise, xi. 266. 
, Alban, English Benedictine monk, 

xvn. 444. 

, Francis, on fly fishing, II. 37. 
, Sir Philip, English politician and 

writer, ix. 696; his alleged identity 



F R A F R E 



169 



with Junius, xm. 776; his relations 

with Burke, IV. 547. 
FRANCIS-ARMAND, abbot of La Trappe, 

xxm. 524. 
FRANCIS BORGIA, St, general of the 

Jesuits, IX. 694. 
FRANCISCA, Frankish battle-axe, n. 

555- 
FRANCISCANS, monastic order, ix. 698; 

xvi. 710; their revolt against Pope 

John XXII., xvii. 717. 
FRANCISQUE (Jean Franois Millet), 

French painter, IX. 700. 
FRANCK, Gabriel, Flemish painter, IX. 

701. 
, Johann, German hymn- writer, XII. 

587. 
, Sebastian, German writer, IX. 701; 

xvii. 134. 
FRANCKE, August Hermann, German 

philanthropist and theologian, IX. 701 ; 

vn. 675; x. 532; xix. 83; his influence 

on the university of Halle, XXIII. 

847. 
FRANCKEN, family of Flemish painters, 

ix. 702. 
FRANCO of Cologne, musical writer, 

xvii. 81. 
FRANCO-GALLIA, Hotman s treatise, xn. 

39- 
FRANCO-GERMAN WAR (1870), x. 512; 

xx. 13. 
FRANQOIS DE NEUFCHATEAU, Nicolas 

Louis, Count, French statesman and 

poet, ix. 703. 
FRANCOIS DE PARIS, Jansenist, xm. 

567. 

FRANCOLIN, bird, xvm. 333. 
FRANCONIA, territorial division, Ger 
many, ix. 703; in. 453; xxm. 331. 
FRANCUS, or Franck, Sebastian, German 

writer, IX. 701; xvii. 134. 
FRANEKER, town, Holland, ix. 704; 

university of, xxm. 850. 
FRANK, Jacob, leader of Jewish sect, 

xm. 681. 
, John Peter, German physician, 

xv. 815. 
-, Joseph, German physician, XV. 



814. 



, or Franck, Sebastian, German 
writer, IX. 701; XVII. 134. 

FRANKALMOIGN, feudal tenure of land, 
England, XX. 305, 307. 

FRANKENBERG, town, Saxony, ix. 704. 

FRANKENHAUSEN, town, Germany, ix. 
704; xxi. 461. 

FRANKENSTEIN, town, Prussia, ix. 704. 

FRANKENTHAL, town, Bavaria, ix. 704. 

FRANKFORT, town, Kentucky, U.S.A., 
ix. 704. 

FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN, town, Ger 
many, ix. 704 ; xx. 1 6 ; cathedral 
sculptures, xxi. 565 ; libraries, xiv. 
546; newspapers, XVII. 428; assembly 
(1848), x. 506; treaty of (1871), IX. 
627. 



FRANKFORT - ON - THE - ODER, town, 
Prussia, IX. 708 ; university, XXIII. 
843, 848. 

FRANKINCENSE, gum-resin, ix. 709; 
xii. 718. 

FRANKLAND, or Land of the Franks, its 
relations to the popedom, XIX. 494. 

FRANKLIN, State of (now part of Ten 
nessee), U.S.A., xxm. 178. 

, Benjamin, American statesman and 

philosopher, ix. 711; ambassador to 
France, XXin. 743; his connexion with 
American journalism, XVII. 433; with 
Philadelphia, xvm. 740; his electrical 
researches, vin. 6; his postal improve 
ments, xix. 566; as political economist, 
xix. 384; as writer, I. 720; Wedder- 
burn s charge against him, XXIV. 475. 

, Sir John, Arctic explorer, IX. 719; 

x. 195; XIX. 319; his observations 
on the aurora, in. 95; search for, by 
Kane, xm. 837. 

FRANKLINITE, mineral, xvi. 386; xm. 
287; xxiv. 784. 

FRANKMARRIAGE, in English law, xxi. 
694. 

FRANKS, Germanic people, ix. 722; xx. 
776, 785; empire of the, v. 402; their 
laws, v. 73; xxi. 212; in Gaul, ix. 528; 
in Germany, X. 476; in Italy, xm. 
468; in Roman empire, xx. 776, 780; 
their invasion of Spain, XXII. 307; 
their weapons, II. 555. 

FRANKTENEMENT, land tenure, xx. 

305- 

FRANZ, Robert, his edition of Bach s 
works, IIL 195 

FRANZEN, Frans Michael, Swedish poet, 
ix. 724; xxii. 757. 

FRANZENSBAD, watering-place, Bohe 
mia, ix. 724; mineral water of, xvi. 

434, 435- 

FRANZENSFESTE, fort, Tyrol, Austria, 
iv. 356. 

FRANZ- JOSEF LAND, Arctic Regions, its 
discovery, xix. 324. 

FRANZSTADT, part of Budapest, Hun 
gary, xvm. 691. 

FRASCATI, town, Italy, ix. 724. 

FRASER, or Frazer, river, British Col 
umbia, vi. 169; xvm. 116. 

, Alexander, his composing and dis 
tributing type-machines, xxm. 701, 
702. 

, James Baillie, Scottish traveller 

and writer, IX. 725. 

, Louis, on birds, XVlli. 12. 

, Simon, Lord Lovat, Scottish 



Jacobite, xv. 27. 
FRASERBURGH, town, Scotland, ix. 

725. 

FRATERCULA, genus of birds, xx. 101. 
FRATRICELLI, or Fraticelli, mediaeval 

sects, ix. 725; in. 507; xvi. 711; xx. 

322. 

FRAUD, in law, ix. 726. 
FRAUENBURG, town, Prussia, ix. 727. 



FRAUENFELD, town, Switzerland, ix. 

727; xxii. 778; xxm. 331. 
FRAUENLOB (Heinrich von Meissen), 

German poet, IX. 727. 
FRAUENSTADT, C. M. J., friend and 

expositor of Schopenhauer, xxi. 454. 
FRAUNHOFER, Joseph von, German 

optician, IX. 727; xvii. 26; his filar 

micrometer, xvi. 245; on radiation, 

xx. 215; his telescopes, xxm. 139, 

141. 

FRAUSTADT, town, Prussia, ix. 728. 
FRAY BENTOS, town, Uruguay, xxiv. 

15- 

FRAY GERUNDIO, Isla s book, xm. 387. 
FRAYSSINOUS, Denis Antoine Luc, 

Comte de, French ecclesiastic and 

politician, IX. 728. 
FRAZER, or Fraser, river, British 

Columbia, vi. 169; xvm. 116. 
FREDEGOND, early French queen, ix. 

530. 
FREDERICI, German pianoforte maker, 

xix. 71. 
, Cesare de, Venetian traveller, xvii. 

857- 

FREDERICIA, town, Denmark, ix. 728. 
FREDERICK, the name, ix. 729. 

I., Barbarossa, emperor and German 

king, IX. 729; x. 489; XX. 793; his 
homage to Pope Alexander III., I. 486; 
in Italy, xm. 472; his patronage of 
Bologna university, xxm. 833. 

II., emperor and German king, IX. 



731; x. 491; xx. 795; his attitude to 
wards the crusades, VI. 630; as king 
of Italy, xm. 474; his relations to the 
popedom, Xix. 500; to Sicily, xxii. 
27; his quarrels with the Templars, 
xxm. 162. 

III., emperor (IV. of Germany), IX. 
733; X. 496. 

, prince of Augustenburg, vil. 88. 

, king of Bohemia (V. as elector 

palatine), ix. 742; x. 500. 

I., elector of Brandenburg, xx. 4. 

II., of Brandenburg, xx. 4. 
III., German king, ix. 733; x. 



494. 



IV., German king (emperor 
Frederick III.), ix. 733; x. 496. 
- I., king of Prussia, IX. 734; xx. 8. 
II., the Great, of Prussia, IX. 735; 



x. 503; XX. 9; his army, II. 593; his 
battles, ill. 444; his influence on 
France, IX. 585; influence on German 
literature, x. 532 ; his contest with 
Russia, xxi. 99; Ranch s statue of, xx. 
294; Voltaire at court of, xxiv. 288. 
I., elector and duke of Saxony, ix. 
740; xxi. 353. 

II., of Saxony, ix. 741. 

- III., of Saxony, IX. 741; XXI. 353; 
Spalatin s relations with, xxii. 366. 
, king of Sicily, XXII. 28. 

I., king of Sweden, XXII. 751. 

I., king of Wiirtemberg, xxiv. 702. 

XXV. 22 



170 



F R E F R E 



FREDERICK I.-II., electors palatine, ix. 

741. 
III.-IV., electors palatine, ix. 

742. 
V., elector palatine and king of 

Bohemia, ix. 742; x. 500. 

, town, Maryland, U.S.A., XV. 603. 

AUGUSTUS I. (Augustus II. of 

Poland), elector of Saxony, ill. 84. 
AUGUSTUS II. (Augustus III. of 

Poland), elector of Saxony, in. 85; 

xix. 297; xxi. 355. 
AUGUSTUS III., elector (I. as king) 

of Saxony, IX. 741; xxi. 355. 
AUGUSTUS I., king of Saxony, ix. 

741; xxi. 355. 
AUGUSTUS II., king of Saxony, ix. 

741; xxi. 356. 
HENRY, of Orange-Nassau, stadt- 

holder of Holland, xn. 79. 
WILLIAM, elector of Brandenburg, 

ix. 733; xx. 6. 
WILLIAM I., king of Prussia, ix. 

735; xx. 8. 
WILLIAM II., of Prussia, ix. 739; 

XX. II. 

WILLIAM III., of Prussia, ix. 739; 

xx. u; his relations with Stein, XXII. 

530. 
WILLIAM IV., of Prussia, ix. 740; 

XX. 12. 

CITY, town, Maryland, U.S.A., ix. 

742. 
FREDERICKSBURG, town, Virginia, 

U.S.A., ix. 742; battle of (1862), in. 

444; xxm. 777". 
FREDERICKSHALD, town, Norway, ix. 

742. 
FREDERICKSTAD, town, Norway, ix. 

742. 
FREDERICTON, town, New Brunswick, 

ix. 742; xvn. 375. 
FREDERIKSHAAB, district, Greenland, 

XL 170. 
FREDRIKSHALL, Norway, Charles XII. 

killed at, v. 422. 

FREDRO, Count Alexander, Polish com 
edian, xix. 303. 
FREE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, ix. 742; 

xxi. 538; Chalmers s relations to, v. 

377- 

FREEDMAN, Roman, xxn. 133. 
FREEDOM OF CONTRACT, xix. 360. 
FREEDOM OF THE WILL, Jonathan 

Edwards s work on the, VII. 690. See 

also Free- Will below. 
FREE GRACE, Melanchthon s doctrine 

of, xv. 834. 
FREEHOLD, in English law, ix. 746; vi. 

355j xiv. 264; xx. 305. 
FREE" IMPERIAL CITIES, of Germany, 

ix. 747. 
FREE LIBRARIES, in England, xiv. 520, 

542. 

FREEMAN, Edward Augustus, on chiv 
alry, xiv. 126; on the origin of trial 

by jury, XIII. 784. 



FREEMAN S JOURNAL, Dublin news 
paper, xvii. 423. 

FREEMAN S WELL, Alnwick, England, 
i. 596. 

FREEMANTLE, town, "Western Australia, 
xxiv. 508. 

FREEMASONRY, ix. 747; condemned by 
Pope Clement XII., v. 823. 

FREEPORT, town, Illinois, U.S.A., ix. 
752. 

FREE-SOIL PARTY, United States, xxm. 
768. 

FREE SPIRIT, Brethren of the, medineval 
sect, in. 507; xvii. 132. 

FREETHINKING, Anthony Collins on, 
vi. 147. 

FREETOWN, town, Sierra Leone, West 
Africa, IX. 752; I. 269; XXII. 44. 

FREE TRADE, ix. 752 ; its effect on 
commerce, VI. 205 ; List s theory of, 
xix. 389 ; Paterson s advocacy of, 
xvill. 360; Sir Eobert Peel s measures, 
vin. 366; xvni. 456. 

FREE-WILL, in ethics, vni. 608; in re 
lation to predestination, Xix. 670 ; 
Cudworth s theory, VI. 691; St Paul s 
doctrine, xvill. 427. 

FREEWILL BAPTISTS, ix. 762. 

FREEZING-POINT, vni. 731; xn. 611. 

FREGATA, genus of birds, ix. 786. 

FREGELL^; (Pontecorvo), ancient town, 
Italy, xix. 454. 

FREGGA, Frigg, or Freya, in Teiitonic 
mythology, IX. 777; I. 209, 211. 

FREIBERG, town, Saxony, ix. 763; min 
ing school of, xxiv. 502. 

FREIBURG (Freiburg in the Breisgau), 
town, Baden, Germany, IX. 764; 
cathedral sculptures, XXI. 564; uni 
versity, xxm. 842. 

, town, Prussian Silesia, IX. 765. 

-, canton, Switzerland, IX. 763; XXII. 



778; town, ix. 764; xxn. 778, 
FREIDANK, or Freigedank, German poet, 

ix. 765. 
FREILIGRATH, Ferdinand, German poet, 

ix. 766; x. 546. 
FREIND, John, English physician and 

author, ix. 767; xv. 811. 
FREIRE, Francisco Joze, Portuguese 

historian and philologist, IX. 767. 
FREISCHUTZ, in German folklore, ix. 

767. 

, Weber s opera, xxiv. 468. 
FREISING, town, Bavaria, ix. 767. 
FREIWALDAU, town, Austrian Silesia, 

ix. 767. 

FREJUS, town, France, ix. 767. 
FREMONT, town, Ohio, U.S.A., ix. 767. 
, John Charles, his operations in 

California, IV. 695 ; candidate for 

presidency of United States, XXIII. 

771. 
FREMONT S PEAK, Wyoming, U.S.A., 

xxiv. 712. 
FRENEAU, Philip, American writer, I. 

722, 



FRENCH, Nicholas, Irish pamphleteer, 

ix. 768. 

ACADEMY, i. 74, 75; dictionary of, 

vni. 194. 

BEAN, vegetable, xn. 283. 

DRAMA, vn. 423. 

GUIANA, South America, XL 253. 

HORN, musical instrument, xn. 

167. 
LANGUAGE, ix. 629 ; xiv. 340; 

dictionaries of, vn. 184. 

LITERATURE, ix. 637; Renaissance 



period, xx. 391; early romances, xx. 
659; Rabelais s influence on, xx. 197; 
Rousseau s, xxi. 27. 

REVOLUTION (1789), ix. 596; xx. 



602; views of, in England, xix. 143; 
its influence on thepopedom, XIX. 508; 
on Spain, XXII. 342; in Switzerland, 
xxn. 793. 

REVOLUTION, Reflections on the, 



Burke s, IV. 546. 

FRENTANI, ancient Italian people, xxi. 
128, 248. 

FRENZELITE, mineral, xvi. 394. 

FREQUENTS COMMUNION, De la, 
Arnauld s work, II. 620. 

FRERE, John Hookham, English diplo 
matist and writer, IX. 768. 

FRERES DE SAINT-YON, religious 
brotherhood, XI I. 700. 

FRERET, Nicolas, French scholar, ix.768. 

FRERON, Elie Catherine, French critic 
and controversialist, ix. 769. 

, Louis Stanislas, French Revolu 
tionist, ix. 769. 

FREROTS, or Fratricelli, mediseval sect, 
ix. 725. 

FRESCO, ix. 769; xvii. 42; xxm. 158; 
a secco, xxm. 157; ceilings, in ancient 
burial-chapels, v. 214 ; Raphael s 
frescos, xx. 279. 

FRESCOBALDI, Girolamo, Italian musi 
cal composer, ix. 776; xvii. 90. 

FRESE, Jacob, Swedish poet, xxn. 755. 

FRESHWATER, town, Isle of Wight, 
England, xxiv. 562. 

HERRING, fish, xxi. 224. 

FRESNEL, Augustiii Jean, French 
physicist, IX. 776; his improvements 
in lighting apparatus, Xiv. 619, 620. 

FRESNILLO, town, Mexico, ix. 776; 
xxiv. 761. 

FRESNOY, Charles Alphonse du, French 
painter and writer, IX. 776. 

FRESNY, Riviere du, French journalist, 
xvii. 424. 

FRET, in heraldry, XL 697. 

PATTERNS, in Japanese art, xm. 

590. 

FREUDENSTADT, town, Wiirtemberg, 
Germany, ix. 776. 

FREUDENTHAL, town, Austrian Silesia, 
ix. 777. 

FREY, in northern mythology, I. 210. 

FREYA, or Fregga, in Teutonic mytho 
logy, IX. 777; I. 209, 211. 



F R E F R Y 



171 



FREYBERG, or Freiberg, town, Saxony, 

ix. 763. 
FREYBURG, or Freiburg, town, Baden, 

Germany, IX. 764. 
FREYCINET, Louis Claude Desaules de, 

French navigator, IX. 777. 
FREYSING, or Freising, town, Bavaria, 

ix. 767. 
FREYTAG, Georg Willielm Friedricli, 

German Orientalist, ix. 777. 

, Gustav, German novelist, x. 545. 

FREZZI, Federigo, Italian writer, xin. 

SOS- 
FRIAR, member of mendicant order, IX. 
777; v. 116; vii. 354; ix. 698; xvi. 
710; in England, I3th century, vm. 
3i6. 

FRIAR-BIRD, xn. 139. 

FRIAR S CAP, plant, i. 98. 

FRIAR WILLIAM (Rubruquis), Oriental 
traveller, XXI. 46. 

FRIBOURG (Freiburg), canton, Switzer 
land, ix. 763; xxii. 778; town, ix. 
764; xxn. 778, 788. 

FRICHOT, Alexandre, French musical 
instrument maker, XVII. 778. 

FRICKER, Edith, first wife of Robert 
Southey, xxii. 290. 

FRICTION, in physics, ix. 777; xv. 702, 
731,765; expenditure of energy on, vm. 
208; of gases, xvi. 618 ; of liquids, 
XII. 482 ; XIX. 247 ; influence of 
lubricants on, xv. 35 ; stability of, 
xv. 751; tidal, xxni. 360, 374. 

FRICTIONAL ELECTRICITY, vm. 99. 

FRIDA, Emil Bonus, Bohemian poet, 
xxn. 152. 

FRIDERICIA, or Fredericia, town, Den 
mark, ix. 728. 

FRIEDELITE, mineral, xvi. 424. 

FRIEDLAND, town, Bohemia, ix. 778. 

, town, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Ger 
many, ix. 778. 

, town, Prussia, IX. 779 ; battle of 

(1807), xvn. 210. 

, Duke of (Wallenstein), general, 

xxiv. 328. 
-, Valentin (Trotzendorf), German 



educationist, xxni. 588. 
FRIEDRICH (Frederick, q.v.), German 
name, ix. 729. 

- LUDWIG, prince of Hohenlohe, 
Prussian general, XII. 51. 

FRIEDRICHSHALL, spa, Saxe-Meiningen, 

Germany, xvi. 436. 
FRIENDLY ISLANDS, South Pacific, ix. 

779- 

FRIENDLY SOCIETIES, ix. 780; registra 
tion of, xx. 344. 

FRIENDS, Society of (Quakers), xx. 147; 
founder of, ix. 500. 

- IN COUNCIL, Helps s work, XL 

639- 

OF GOD, mystic sect, xvn. 486; 

xxill. 82. 

OF THE PEOPLE, Society of, Eng 



lish political party, XL 190. 



FRIES, Elias Magnus, Swedish botanist, 
ix. 785. 
-, Jacob Friedricli, German philo 



sopher, IX. 785; his relations to 

rationalism, XX. 290. 
FRIESEITE, mineral, xvi. 393. 
FRIESLAND, province, Holland, IX. 785; 

xii. 98. 

FRIESLEBENITE, mineral, xvi. 394. 
FRIEZE, in architecture, n. 464. 
FRIGATE-BIRD, ix. 786. 
FRIKELL, Wiljalba, conjurer, xiv. 415. 
FRINGILLA, genus of birds, xiv. 675; 

xxii. 369. 
FRINIATES, Liguriaii tribe, Italy, xm. 

447; xiv. 640. 

FRISCH, J. L., on birds, xvm. 8. 
FRISCHE HAFF, lagoon, Prussia, xx. 

20. 
FRISCHLIN, Nicodemus, German scholar 

and poet, IX. 786. 
FRISI, Paolo, Italian mathematician and 

astronomer, IX. 787. 
FRISIA, ancient region of Europe, ix. 

787; ancient law code of, XXI. 215. 
FRISIAN LANGUAGE, ix. 788; xii. 84; 

dictionaries of, VII. 187. 
FRISIAN LITERATURE, ix. 788. 
FRISIANS, ancient Teutonic people, IX. 

787; St Willibrord s mission to, XXIV. 

587. 
FRISIUS, Gemma, on navigation, xvn. 

251. 

FRIT FLY, wheat pest, xxiv. 535. 
FRITH, John, early English Reformer, 

ix. 789. 
FRITH-GUILDS, associations for mutual 

defence, XI. 260. 
FRITHIGERN, Gothic chief, x. 848, 849; 

xxni. 258, 720. 
FRITHIOFS SAGA, TegneYs poem, xxm. 

no. 
FRITILLARIA, genus of Tunicata, xxni. 

615; xxiv. 1 86. 
FRITSLAR, Herbert von, romancist, xx. 

639- 

FRITZLAR, town, Prussia, ix. 790. 
, Hermann von, German mystic, 



xvii. 133. 

FRIULI, district, Austria and Italy, IX. 
790. 

FRIZON (Gemma Frisius), on naviga 
tion, xvn. 251. 

FROBEN, or Frobenius, Joannes, German 
printer and scholar, IX. 791; his re 
lations with Erasmus, vm. 514. 

FROBERGER, Johann Jacob German 
musician, XVII. 90. 

FROBISHER, Sir Martin, English navi 
gator, IX. 791; x. 184; his Arctic 
explorations, XIX. 316. 

FRODOART (Flodoard), French chro 
nicler, IX. 328. 

FROEBEL, Friedrich Willielm August, 
German educationist, IX. 792; xiv. 

79- 
FROG, amphibian, ix. 795; anatomy of, 



I. 751; egg of, xx. 418; hibernation 
of, XL 789; parasites of, xvni. 259; 
xxni. 539. 

FROG-FISH, ix. 269. 

FROGMORE, Berkshire, England, Mau 
soleum at, I. 453. 

FROGS, The, Aristophanes s comedy, II. 
509. 

FROHLICH, Abraham Emanuel, German- 
Swiss poet, IX. 797. 

FROISSART, Jean, French chronicler, ix. 
797, 646. 

FROME, town, England, ix. 802; xxn. 
258. 

FROMENTIN, Eugene, French painter, 
ix. 802. 

FROMME, C., his experiments in 
magnetism, XV. 258. 

FRONDE, War of the, in France, ix. 
572; xiv. 867; Conde s connexion 
with, VI. 246; Mazarin s, XV. 652; 
Louise d Orleans s, xvi. 793; Retz s, 
xx. 488. 

FRONSAC, town, France, xiv. 509. 

FRONT, St, early French missionary, 
xviii. 535. 

FRONTINUS, Justinus (Justin), Latin 
historian, XIII. 791. 
-, Sextus Julius, Roman soldier and 



writer, IX. 803; inspector of Roman 

aqueducts, XII. 435; his language 

and style, xiv. 337. 
FRONTO, Marcus Cornelius, Roman 

grammarian, IX. 803; his language 

and style, XIV. 338. 
FROSINONE, town, Italy, ix. 803. 
FROST, Geological action of, x. 265, 280. 
-, William Edward, English painter, 



ix. 803. 

FROST-BITE, xvi. 849; xxn. 683. 
FROTTE, Louis de, French royalist, xvn. 

203. 

FROUDE, William, English naval archi 
tect, XXL 809. 
FROWLE, bird, xi. 262. 
FRUCTIDOR 18, Coup d etat of (1797), 

France, xvn. 199. 

FRUELA I., king of Leon, xxn. 311. 
FRUE-VANNER, mining apparatus, xvi. 

465. 

FRUGALITY BANKS, xxi. 327. 
FRUGONI, Carlo Innocenzo, Italian poet, 

ix. 804; xni. 511. 
FRUIT, of plants, IV. 148; formation 

of, xx. 429; culture of, I. 384; n. 322; 

dried, xix. 707; garden, XII. 268. 
FRUMENTIUS, early Christian missionary 

and first bishop of Abyssinia, IX. 804; 

1.65. 
FRUSINUM, or Frusino (Frosinone), 

ancient town, Italy, IX. 803. 
FRUYTIERS, Philip, Flemish painter, ix. 

804. 
FRY, of fish, as article of food, xxiv. 

550. 
, Elizabeth, English philanthropist, 

ix. 804; on prison discipline, xix. 749. 



172 



F K Y F U S 



FRYING, of meat, vi. 333. 

FRYTH, or Frith, John, early English 

Reformer, ix. 789. 
FRYXELL, Anders, Swedish historian, 

xxn. 758. 
F s, The Three, in Irish land tenure, 

xiv. 277. 

FUAD PASHA, Mehmed, Turkish states 
man and author, IX. 805. 
FUCHITE, mineral, XVI. 413. 
FUCHS (Fux), Johanii Joseph, Austrian 

musical composer, ix. 855; xvil. 90. 
, Johann Nepomuk von, German 

chemist and mineralogist, IX. 805. 
, Leonhard, German physician and 

botanist, ix. 806. 

FUCHSIA, plant, ix. 806; xn. 263. 
FUCINUS (Fucino), lake, Italy, v. 286; 

XIIL 440; drainage tunnel at, xxill. 

623. 
FUEGIA, islands, Tierra del Fuego, 

South America, xxin. 384. 
FUEGIANS, races of Indians, XII. 829. 
FUEL, ix. 807 ; composition of various 

kinds of, VI. 47; for blast furnaces, 

XIIL 292, 315; gas as, Siemens s experi 
ments with, xxil. 37; petroleum as, 

xvill. 720; for smelting ores, XVI. 60; 

in relation to smoke abatement, XXII. 

182 ; for steam boilers, xxil. 500, 

519. 
FUENTE DE CANTOS, town, Spain, ix. 

810. 
FUENTE DEL MAESTRE, town, Spain, 

ix. 810. 
FUENTERRABIA (Fontarabia), town, 

Spain, IX. 810. 
FUENTES, Manuel A., Peruvian writer, 

xvni. 676. 
FUERO, Spanish legal charter and code, 

IX. 8 10. 
FUERTEVENTURA, island, Canaries, IV. 

800. 
FUGGER, Swabian family, Germany, ix. 

811. 
FUGITIVE SLAVE LAWS, in United 

States, ix. 165; xxm. 768. 
FUGUE, in music, xvn. 82. 
FUH-CHOW, or Fuh-Chow Foo (Foo 

Chow), town, China, IX. 812; v. 636. 
FUH-KEEN, province, China, v. 636. 
FiJHRlCH, Joseph von, Austrian painter, 

ix. 812. 
Fujl-SAN, or Fuji, volcano, Japan, xill. 

571; pilgrimages to, XIX. 92. 
FULAHS, or Foulahs, Negro race, Africa, 

i. 263; XVIL 319; xxn. 248, 278, 279. 
FULBERT, Canon, uncle of Heloise, I. 34. 

, scholastic philosopher, xxi. 421. 

FULBROKE PARK, Warwickshire, Eng 
land, xxi. 753. 
FULCHER, Geoffrey, Knight Templar, 

xxm. 161. 
FULDA, monastery and town, Germany, 

IX. 812 ; monastic library of, XIV. 

513; philosophical school, XXI. 420. 
, river, Germany, xxiv. 503. 



FULFORD, England, Battle of (1066), XI. 

485." 

FULGENTIUS, Gottschalk, German theo 
logian, x. 855. 
FULGINIUM (Foligno), ancient town, 

Italy, ix. 356. 

FULGORA, genus of insects, xiv. 290. 
FULHAM, suburb of London, IX. 813; 

xiv. 822. 
FULIGNO, or Foligno, town, Italy, IX. 

356. 
FUHGULA, genus of birds, XIX. 252; 

xxi. 378. 
FULK, count of Anjou, Knight Templar, 

xxm. 160. 

FITZWARIN, romance, XX. 658. 
FULLER, Andrew, English Baptist 

divine, IX. 813. 
, Sarah Margaret, Marchioness Ossoli, 

American writer, xvin. 57. 
, Thomas, English divine and his 
torian, IX. 814. 

FULLER S EARTH, ix. 816; xvi. 424. 
FULLING, in wool manufacture, xxiv. 

661. 
FULLONICA, fuller s shop, at Pompeii, 

xix. 449. 

FULMAR, bird, ix. 817. 
FULMINATES, explosives, vin. SoS. 
FULTON, Robert, American engineer, 

ix. 817; his invention of a steamboat, 

ill. 542. 

FUMARIA, genus of plants, ix. 8 1 7. 
FUMIGATION, Religious, with incense, 

xii. 718, 721. 
FUMITORY, plant, ix. 817. 
FUNARIA HYGROMETRICA, species of 

mosses, xvn. 71, 72. 
FUNCHAL, town, Madeira, XV. 179. 
FUNCTION, in mathematical analysis, ix. 

818; XIIL 13; xv. 630; xxiv. 71. 
FUNCTIONS, Analytical, Theory of, La- 
grange s work, xiv. 209. 
-, Elliptic, Legendre s researches on, 



xiv. 413; Henry J. S. Smith s papers 
on, xxil. 173. 

FUNDI (Fondi), ancient town, Italy, ix. 
361. 

FUNDS, national debt, xvn. 245. 

FUNDY, Bay of, North America, XVII. 
373, 601. 

FUNEN, island, Denmark, vil. 80, 83. 

FUNERAL RITES, ix. 824; in. 398; 
their origin and meaning, II. 56; 
dances, vi. 799; feasts, IX. 113; in 
primitive church, V. 211; XXI. 155; 
in relation to totemism, xxm. 470; 
Egyptian, vn. 722, 728; xvn. 20; 
ancient Mexican, xvi. 213; Parsee, 
xvill. 326; Phoenician, xvill. 8 10; Scy 
thian, xxi. 576; Tibetan, xxm. 344. 

FUNFHAUS, suburb of Vienna, ix. 827. 

FUNFKIRCHEN, town, Hungary, ix. 
827; university of, xxm. 840. 

FUNGUS, FUNGI, division of vegetable 
kingdom, IX. 827; xxiv. 127 ; rela 
tions to Algae, in. 692; xxiv. 128; 



reproduction of, IV. 162; XX. 423,430; 

vegetative organs of, IV. 107; edible 

species, XVIL 74 ; parasitic species, 

xvni. 266; for the herbarium, xi. 718; 

phosphorescence in, xvni. 813; in 

vine diseases, xxiv. 240. 
FUR, ix. 836; of ermine, vm. 526; of 

seals, xxi. 583; Canadian, iv. 775; 

yield in Siberia, xxn. 9. 
, in heraldry, xi. 691. 
, group of Negroes, Africa, VI. 825; 



xvn. 319. 

FURETIERE, Antoine, French lexico 
grapher, ix. 839; his French dictionary, 
vn. 185; his dispute with La Fontaine, 
xiv. 205; ana of, i. 784. 

FURIES (the Greek Erinyes), in Latin 
mythology, ix. 840; vin. 524. 

FURLANIANS, ancient people of Friuli, 
Italy, IX. 790. 

FURNACE, ix. 840; method of measuring 
temperature of, xx. 132; for assaying, 
n. 725; for the garden, xn. 228; for 
glass-making, x. 657; for iron and 
steel making, xin. 293, 349; for lead 
smelting, xiv. 375; for minting opera 
tions, xvi. 486; Siemens s regenerative, 
xxn. 37; for smelting ores, xvi. 60; 
for steam-boilers, xxil. 496. 

FURNEAUX, Captain, his explorations 
of Australian coasts, in. 104. 

FURNESS ABBEY, Lancashire, England, 
in. 396; xiv. 254. 

FURNITURE, ix. 847. 

FURREEDKOTE (Faridkot), state, India, 
ix. 33- 

FURREEDPORE (Faridpur), district, 
British India, ix. 33. 

FURRUCKABAD (Farrakhabad), district, 
India, IX. 42. 

FURSEY, abbot of Lagny, Celtic re 
former, xvi. 707. 

FURST, German title, xix. 739. 

-, Julius, German Orientalist, ix. 



850. 
FURSTENBERG, two noble German 

families, ix. 851. 

FURSTENBUND, league of German prin 
ces, XX. II. 
FiJRSTENWALDE, town, Prussia, IX. 

851. 

FURTH, town, Bavaria, IX. 851. 
FURTUM, or Theft, Law of, xxn I. 

231. 

FURZE, shrub, ix. 851. 
FUSANUS, genus of trees, xxi. 255. 
FUSE, in pyroteclmy, xx. 135; safety, 

for mining, xvi. 445; for ammunition 

shells, I. 745; XI. 305. 
FUSEE, match, xv. 626. 
-, of a watch, xxiv. 394. 



FUSELI, Henry, Swiss painter and writer, 

ix. 852. 

FUSEL OIL, ix. 853. 
FUSIBILITY OF METALS, Table showing 

the, xvi. 66. 
FUSIL, in heraldry, XI. 697. 



F U S G A L 



173 



FUSING-POINTS, of alloys, xx. 132. 
FUSIYAMA, Fuji, or Fujisan, volcano, 

Japan, xin. 571; xix. 92. 
FUSLEE ERA, Mohammedan, in India, 

v. 719. 
FUST, Sir H. Jenner, his decision on 

church altars, I. 641. 
, Johann, early German printer, IX. 

853; xxill. 684, 687; his Psalter, ill. 

653- 

FUSTIAN, cloth, ix. 855; xxm. 210. 
FUSTIC, dyestuff, ix. 855. 
FUTA - JALLON, district, Senegambia, 

West Africa, XXI. 66 1. 
FUTAK, father of Mani, XV. 482. 
FUTTEHPOOR (Fathipur), district and 

town, India, IX. 50. 

SIKRI, town, India, IX. 51. 
FUTURE, Psychological presentation of 

the, xx.