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on, published in three 

volumes, 1768 1771. 

ten 17771784. 

eighteen 1788 1797. 

twenty 1801 1810. 

twenty 1815 1817. 

twenty 1823 1824. 

twenty-one 1830 1842. 

twenty-two 1853 1860. 

twenty-five 1875 1889. 
ninth edition and eleven 

supplementary volumes, 1902 1903. 

published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910 1911. 


in all countries subscribing to the 
Bern Convention 


of the 

All rights reserved 










Cambridge, England: 

at the University Press 

New York, 35 West 32nd Street 
191 1 


Copyright, in the United States of America, 1911, 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 


A. A. R. A. ADAMS REILLY. f _ 

Joint-author of Life and Letters of J. D. Forbes. \ Tisserand, FraDQOlS. 


Professor of Canon Law at the Catholic University of Paris. Honorary Canon of 4 Syllabus. 
Paris. Editor of the Canonists contemporain. I 


Sometime Casberd Scholar of St John s College, Oxford. English Lector in the \ Swabian League. 
University of Kiel, 1896-1905. I 

A. Ca. ARTHUR CAYLEY, LL.D., F.R.S, -{Surface (in part). 

See the biographical article: CAYLEY, ARTHUR. I 

A. Ch. ALFRED CHAPMAN, M.lNST.C.E. /Sugar: Sugar Manufacture (in 

Designer and Constructor of Sugar-Machinery. I part). 


Fellow and Tutor of Queen s College, Oxford, and University Reader in Latin. -\ Theocritus. 
Editor of Cicero s Speeches (Clarendon Press). I 


Keeper of the Zoological Department, British Museum, 1875-1895. Gold Medallist, J . . 
Royal Society, 1878. Author of Catalogues of Colubrine Snakes, Batrachia, Salientia, 1 oWOrnllSa. 
and Fishes in the British Museum; &c. I 


Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of J ThonHnrof fit, *r,ri\ 
History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age; &c. Editor of the Historia Ecctesia] 
of Eusebius. 


Fellow and Tutor of Magdalen College, Oxford, and Public Orator in the University. < Tacitus (in part) 
Author of Socrates and Athenian Society; &c. Editor of editions of Tacitus. (. 


Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls Taylor Rowland 1 
College, Oxford. Assistant-editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-^ _ f . 
1901. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of Aetze - 
England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c. I 


H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate-A Tlcket-of-Leave. 
Secrets of the Prison House; &c." 

f Tertullian (in part): 
A. Ha. ADOLF HARNACK, D PH. I Theodore , M opsuestia; 

See the biographical article: HARNACK, ADOLF. 

[Theodoret (in part). 


Formerly Musical Critic to the Horning Post and to Vanity Fair. Author of Masters -{ Thomas Charles. 
of French Music; French Music in the Nineteenth Century. 


General in the Persian Army. Autnor of Eastern Persian Irak. \ Teheran. 


See the biographical article: SAYCE, ARCHIBALD H. L 


Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent I Swedenborg, Emanuel; 
College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of] Tithes (Religion). 
Mysore Educational Service. I 


See the biographical article: LANG, ANDREW. \ . 

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume. 




A. Mtt. 

A. M. F.* 

A. P. H. 

A. R. S. K. 

A. SI. 

A. Sp. 
A. S. C. 

A. S. P.-P. 
A. Wa. 

A. W. H.* 
A. W. R. 

C. B.* 
C. C. 

C. El. 

C. F. A. 
C. F. B. 

C. H. Ha. 
C. H. K. 

C. H. W. 
C. J. B. 
C. L. K. 


AUGUST MULLER, PH.D. (1848-1892). 

Formerly Professor of Semitic Languages in the University of Halle. Author of 

Der Islam im Morgen- und Abendland. Editor of Orientalische Bibliographic. 

Vice-Admiral R.N. Admiralty Representative on Port of London Authority. 

Acting Conservator of River Mersey. Hydrographer of the Royal Navy, 1904- 

1909. Author of Hydrographical Surveying; &c. 


See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED. 

Sunnites (in part). 

Surveying: Nautical. 

Sugar-bird; Sun-bird; 
Sun-bittern; Swallow; 
Swan; Swift; Tanager; 
Tapaculo; Teal; Tern; 
Thrush; Tinamou; 
Titmouse; Tody. 

Swaziland (in part). 


Author of South African Studies; The Commonweal; &c. Served in Kaffir War, 
1878-1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in medical practice in South Africa till 
1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, and Political Prisoner at 
Pretoria, 1895-1896. M.P. for the Hitchin division of Herts, 1910. 


Professor of Hebrew and Semitic Languages in the University of Edinburgh. Tabernacle- 
Professor ofHebrew in the University of Aberdeen, 1887-1894. Editor of " Exodus " "] Xemole (in 

in the Temple Bible. 

iMember of the Council of Epidemiological Society. Author of The London Water 
Supply; Industrial Efficiency; Drink, Temperance and Legislation. 


Consulting Engineer and Chartered Patent Agent. 




Formerly Assistant Secretary, Board of Education, South Kensington. Author of Ta P estr y; 
Ornament in European Silks; Catalogue of Tapestry, Embroidery, Lace and Egyptian ] Textile-Printing: 
Textiles in the Victoria and Albert Museum; &c. Archaeology 


"V nf FTrlinHnrrrti CliffrtrA I 

(in part). 

Art and 

Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of 
Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of me onu 
Author of Man s Place in the Cosmos; The Philosophical Radicals; &c. 

~. u .v.ut* w . ^i *^ & ^ e*i*va i*icudpiiyaii_3 in LUC university of Edinburgh. Gifford j 

Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of the British Academy. I Theosophy 

Alll-Vir\f /-if il/fV-r p T31nfn V*t tit n /^^^.. ... T*L _ 731. -7 i_7.- J Tt _ J _ _ 7 . o 

Symonds, John Addington. 

Bacon Scholar of Gray s Inn, 1900. 1 


Managing Director of Chapman & Hall, Ltd., Publishers. Formerly literary adviser 
to Kegan Paul & Co. Author of Alfred Lord Tennyson; Legends of the Wheel- 
Robert Browning in " Westminster Biographies." Editor of Johnson s Lives of the 


Formerly Scholar of St John s College, Oxford. 

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws 4 Thurlow, Lord. 

of England. 


See the biographical article : BEMONT, C. 


King s College, Cambridge. Author of A History of Epidemics in Britain; Jenner\ Sunrprv- 
and Vaccination; Plague in India; &c. [ surgery. 


Vice-Chancellor _ of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, 

Oxford. H. M. s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East Africa -I Tatars (in ttart) 

Protectorate; Agent and Consul-General at Zanzibar; Consul-General for German 

East Africa, 1900-1904. 

f Thierry; 

I Thou, Jacques. 


Formerly Scholar of Queen s College, Oxford. 
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbor. 

f Supply and Transport 
Captain, 1st City of London (Royal j (Military); 

[ Thirty Years War. 


Regius Professor of Laws and Professor of Political Economy in the University of 
Dublin. Author of Public Finance; Commerce of Nations; Theory of International 
Trade; &c. 


Member of 

Token Money. 

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City, 
the American Historical Association. 




Vice- President and General Manager of the Bond and Mortgage Guarantee Company 4 Title Guarantee 
New York City. Director of the Corn Exchange Bank; &c. 


Librarian and Secretary of the London Library. "j Tobtoy, Leo. 


Major, Royal Artillery. Ordnance Officer. Served through Chitral Campaign. \ Tirah Campaign. 



Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. 
of Chronicles of London, and Stow s Survey of London. 

Editor \ Suffolk, William de la Pole, 
( Duke of. 



Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of 

Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. -| Tasman; 

Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell "Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry Thorfinn Karlsefni. 

the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c. 


Professor of Physiology, University of Liverpool. Foreign Member of Academies j e..,,,*!,,,*:,, c ,., 

of Rome, Vienna, Brussels, Gottingen, &c. Author of The Integrating Action of the 1 Bym m 

Nervous System. (_ 

C. Wi. C. WlLHELM. / Theatrp . <!^ fl -, nr r p 

Author of Essays on Ballet and Spectacle. \ " 

D. Br. SIR DIETRICH BRANDIS, K.C.I. E., F.R.S. (1824-1907). /Teak (in tart} 

Inspector-General of Forestry to the Indian Government, 1864-1883. L 


Rector of VVorplesdon, Surrey. Editor of The Letters of Thomas Gray; &c. \ 

D. F. T. DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY. f Suite: Music; 

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The-< Symphonic Poem; 

Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works. Svmphonv 

D. Gi. SIR DAVID GILL, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S. , F.R.A.S., D.Sc. 

H.M. Astronomer at the Cape of Good Hope, 1879-1907. Served on Geodetic 

Survey of Egypt, and on the expedition to Ascension Island to determine the Solar J _ 

Parallax by observations of Mars. Directed the Geodetic Survey of Natal, Cape") Telescope (in Part). 

Colony and Rhodesia. Author of Geodetic Survey of South Africa; Catalogue of 

Stars for the Equinoxes, 1850, 1860, 1885, 1890, 1900; &c. 


Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and Fellow of Magdalen College. Fellow Syria; 
of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 1903;-^ Tobruk; 
Ephcsus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Athens, Tokat 
1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 


Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal ] & Ten> Aamiral ; 
Navy; Life of Emilia Castelar; &c. [ Swold, Battle of. 


Professor of Botany, Royal College of Science, London, 1885-1892. Formerlyl n,.,.-, ril< . 
President of the Royal Microscopical Society and of the Linnean Society. Author | ^ faUStave. 

of Structural Botany; Studies in Fossil Botany; &c. 


Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln s Inn. Stipendiary Magistrate at Pontypridd and < Swansea. 


Curator of Egyptian Department, University of Pennsylvania. Formerly Worcester J Sudan: Archaeoloev (in t>ari) 
Reader m Egyptology, University of Oxford. Author of Medieval Rhodesia; &c. [ 

D. S.* DAVID SHARP, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

Editor of the Zoological Record. Formerly Curator of the Museum of Zoology, I Tnrtnifo 
University of Cambridge, and President of the Entomological Society of London. 1 
Author of " Insecta " in the Cambridge Natural History ;&c. { 


Formerly Senior Investigator and Statistician in the Labour Department of the T Sweating System. 
Board of Trade. Author of Methods of Industrial Remuneration; &c. I 


Trinity College, Cambridge. Professor in Yorkshire United Independent College "i Superintendent. 
Bradford. [ 


See the biographical article: FREEMAN, E. A. { Syracuse. 


Fellowand Lecturer in Modern History, St John s College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow J Tanked; 

and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895. ^ Teutonic Order. 


Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius " J Tertianes ; 

in Cambridge Texts and Studies. } Thomas of Celano. 


See the biographical article: GOSSE, EDMUND. 

Sweden: Literature and 

Swinburne, Algernon C.; 

Tegner, Esaias; 
Tennyson, Alfred; 
Terza Rima. 

E. Ga. EMILE GARCKE, M.lNST.E.E. f Telegraph: Commercial 

Managing Director of the British Electric Traction Co. Ltd. Author of Manual of J Aspects; 
Electrical Undertakings ; &c. 1 Telephone: Commercial 


See the biographical article : GARDNER, PERCY. 

Tiryns (in part). 



FUowand Lecturer in Classics, Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Studies in j Terence (in part). 


Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Librarian of the Royal Geographical^ Tanganyika Lake 
Society, London. [ 


University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian \ Theodosia: Ancient; 
of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College. [ Thyssagetae. 


Professor of Technological Chemistry, Manchester University. Head of Chemical T,,. 

Department, Municipal School of Technology, Manchester. Examiner in Dyeing, J Te lle-prmtmg: Manu- 

City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of A Manual of Dyeing ; &c. Editor Jactunng. 

of the Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists. 

Ed. M. EDUARD MEYER, PH.D., D.Lrrx., LL.D. fTigranes; 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des \ Tiridates 
Alterthums; Geschichte des alien Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstdmme. T.-.,. 

^ i iab<tpriurnes. 


Fellow, Senior Tutor and Librarian of Queen s College, Oxford. \ Tne POmpUS. 

E. 0.* EDMUND OWEN, F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary s Hospital, London, and to the Children s Hospital, I Surgery: Modern practice- 

Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of 1 Tetanus 

A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. 

E. 0. S. EDWIN OTHO SACHS, F.R.S. (Edin.), A.M.lNST.M.E. 

Chairman of the British Fire Prevention Committee. Vice-President, National Fire J Theatre: Modern stage 
Brigades Union. Vice-President, International Fire Service Council. Author of 1 mechanism 
Fires and Public Entertainments; &c. [ 

E. Wh. EMMANUEL WHEELER, M.A. T Theophrastus. 


Norrisian Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of the 

British Academy. Part-editor of The Four Gospels in Syriac transcribed from the -\ Thomas, St (in tart) 

Smaitic Palimpsest. Author of The Gospel History and its Transmission; Early 

Eastern Christianity; &c. I 

F. G. M. B. FREDERICK GEORGE MEESON BECK, M.A. J Suebi 5 Sussex, Kingdom of; 

Fellow and Lecturer of Clare College, Cambridge. | Sweden: Early History; 

( Teutoni. 

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on _, 
Anatomy at St Thomas s Hospital, London, and the London School of Medicine for ] leetn - 
Women. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. 

F. G. P.* FRANK GEORGE POPE. f Terpenes 

Lecturer on Chemistry, East London College (University of London). \ 

F. H. H. FRANKLIN HENRY HOOPER. f Tammanv Hal , 

Assistant Editor of the Century Dictionary. \ 


See the biographical article : GOLDSMID : Family. Timur. 


Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of 
Brasenose College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Censor, Student, \ Thule. 
Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford s Lecturer, 1906-1907 
Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain, &c. 


Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey Thphps (Fvvbfi- 
and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial \ i? 
German Archaeological Institute. Author of Stories of the Hieh Priests of lnoln - 
Memphis; &c. 

F. P. FRANK PODMORE, M.A. (1856-1910). [ 

Sometime Scholar of Pembroke College, Oxford. Author of Modern Spiritualism- \ Table-turning. 

Mesmerism and Christian Science; &c. 


See the biographical article: POLLOCK: Family. \ 

F. Pu. FREDERICK PURSER, M.A. (1840-1910). f 

Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. Professor of Natural Philosophy in \ Surface (in part). 
the University of Dublin. Member of the Royal Irish Academy. I 

I Sudan: Geography and 

F. R. C. FRANK R. CANA. Statistics Archaeology (in 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. P ari > and History; 

Swaziland (in part); 
{ Timbuktu; Tlemgen. 

Managing Director of Messrs Vincent Brooks, Day & Son, Ltd., Lithographic \ Sun Copying. 
Printers, London. 



F. W. Ga. 

F. W. R.* 

F. W. T. 

G. A. B. 

G. G. P.* 
G. H. Bo. 

G. H. C. 
G. H. D. 

G. J. A. 

G. L. 

G. Sa. 
G. Sn. 

G. U. 
G. W. P. 

G. W. T. 
H. B. Wa. 

H. Ch. 

H. De. 

H. D. T. 
H. F. T. 

H. H. 
H. H. L. 
H. Ja. 


Professor of Zoology in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Assistant Director J 

of the Zoological Laboratories and Lecturer in Zoology in the University of 1 Tapeworms. 

Manchester. Author of Animal Life. Editor of Marshall and Hurst s Practical I 

Zoology; &c. 


Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. 
President of the Geologists Association, 1887-1889. 


See the biographical article: TAUSSIG, FRANK WILLIAM. 


Keeper of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British 
Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London. 


Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. 


| Tariff. 


Tithes: English. 


Rector of Sutton Sandy, Beds. Formerly Lecturer in the Faculty of Theology, -s Teraplilm (in part). 
University of Oxford, 1908-1909. Author of Translation of the Book of Isaiah; &c. L 


Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: -j Thysanoptera. 
their Structure and Life. I 


Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Plumian Professor of Astronomy and J Tide. 
Experimental Philosophy in the University. President of the British Association, | 
1905. Author of The Tides and Kindred Phenomena in the Solar System ; &c. 

GEORGE JOHNSTON ALLMAN, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., D.Sc. (1824-1905). f 

Professor of Mathematics in Queen s College, Galway, and in Queen s University of 
Ireland, 1853-1893. Author of Greek Geometry from Thales to Euclid; &c. 


See the biographical article : LUNGE, G. 

Thales of Miletus. 

Sulphuric Acid. 


See the biographical article: SAINTSBURY, GEORGE EDWARD BATEMAN. 


Professor of Latin at the University of Wisconsin. Member of the Archaeological J Syncretism; 
Institute of America. Member of the American Philological Association. Author I Taurobolium. 
of With the Professor ; The Great Mother of the Gods ; &c. 


Formerly Chancellor of the Japanese Legation, London. Author of Wealth of~\ Tokyo. 
Canada (in Japanese). L 


Editor of the Quarterly Review. Honorary Fellow, formerly Fellow of King s 

College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Professor of History in the \ Temple, Sir William. 
University of Edinburgh, 1894-1899. Author of Life and Times of Simon de Mont- 
fort; &c. Joint-editor of the Cambridge Modern History. 


Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old -\ Tarafa; Tha Alibi"; 
Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. I TirmidhT. 


Assistant to the Keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum. Author -j Terracotta (in part). 
of The Art of the Greeks ; History of Ancient Pottery; &c. ( 

r Sullivan, Sir Arthur; 
HUGH CHISHOLM, M.A. Tennent Sir E 

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christ! College, Oxford. Editor of the I ith edition of J _. ,. 

the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Co-editor of the loth edition. Theatre. Modern (in part); 

[ Thompson, Francis. 

JSymeon Metaphrastes; 
1 Synaxarium; Thecla, St. 


Inventor of the Cooke Photographic Lens. Author of A System of Applied Optics. \ 


Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford. Fellow of the J Thessaly; 
British Academy. Corresponding Member of the Historical Society of Greece. 1 Thrace 
Author of History of Ancient Geography; Lectures on the Geography of Greece; &c. L 


Keeper of the Bibliotheque Royale de Belgique, Brussels. Author of Rubens: sa J Teniers (in part), 
vie et son ceuvre. 

HENRY HARVEY LITTLEJOHN, M.A., F.R.C.S. (Edin.)., F.R.S. (Edin.). 

Professor of Forensic Medicine and Dean of the Faculty of Medicine in the University { Suicide, 
of Edinburgh. 


Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of Trinity J Thalp<s of Milptnv 
College. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Texts to Illustrate the History 1 
of Greek Philosophy from Thales to Aristotle. 


Bollandist. Joint-editor of the Ada Sanctorum and the Analecta Bollandiana. 

( * f\ 


H. L. C. HUGH LONGBOURNE CALLENDAR, F.R.S., LL.D. f Thermodynamics- 

Professor of Physics Royal College of Science, London. Formerly Professor oH Thermoelectricity- 
Physics in McGill College, Montreal, and in University College London tncity, 

L Thermometry. 

H. M. C. HECTOR MUNRO CHAD WICK, M. A. f Teutonic Languages- 

Fellow and Librarian of Clare College, Cambridge, and University Lecturer in 4 Teutonic Peonies 
Scandinavian. Author of Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions. \ Thor 

H. R. K. HARRY ROBERT KEMPE, M.lNST.C.E. fTplp?ranh- 

Electrician to the General Post Office, London. Author of The Engineer s Year j Telephone 


Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, and Director of the British I 

School at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute 1 Theatre: Ancient (in part) 
Author of The Roman Empire ; &c. 


London Editor of the Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant. \ Thorbecke. 

H. W. B. SIR HILARO WILLIAM WELLESLEY BARLOW, Bart. f Sword: Modern Military (in 

Lieut.-Col. Royal Artillery. Superintendent of the Royal Laboratory, Woolwich. I part). 


Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, 1 Theobald 
1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins ; Charlemagne. I 

H. W. H. HOPE W. HOGG, M.A.. f Th 

Professor of Semitic Languages and Literatures in the University of Manchester. I 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge J Synagogue, United; 

formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A 1 lam > Jacob ben Meir; 

Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c. L Tanna. 


Assistant Professor of History in the University of Cincinnati. President of the J 
Ohio Valley Historical Association. Author of The Journeys of La Salle and his 1 Ta y lor Zachary. 

Companions; &c. 


Fender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow 

of University College, London. Formerly Fellow of St John s College, Cambridge 4 Telegraph: Wireless 
and University Lecturer on Applied Mechanics. Author of Maenets and Electric Telegraphy. 
Currents. [ 


Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author oH Tertiary. 

The Geology of Building Stones. 


See the biographical article: SYMONDS, J. ADDINGTON. "I Tasso. 


See the biographical article: BRYCE, JAMES. -j Theodora. 

J. Bra. JOSEPH BRAUN, S.J. f ... 

Author of Die liturgische Gewandung ; &c. -\ . f 

L 1 13 Til. 


Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c., at King s J 
College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of lunior 1 Timber. 


Regius Professor of Zoology in the University of Edinburgh. Swiney Lecturer on 

Geology at the British Museum, 1907. Author of The Multiple Orivin of Horses ) Teje g n y- 

and Ponies ; &c. 


Professor of Semitic Languages in Columbia University, New York. Took part \ Sumer and Sumerian. 
in the Expedition to Southern Babylonia, 1888-1889. 


H^Jf SS^tySA ySSESS & The 10gical Sembary | Thessalonians, Epistles to the. 


Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Tamavo y Baus 
Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. 4 Tirtin dp Molina 
Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of moima. 

Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c. 


Dean, Fellow and Lecturer in Divinity and Hebrew, Wadham College, Oxford 1 Targum. 
University Lecturer in Aramaic. (_ 


See the biographical article : GAIRDNER, JAMES. |Talbot (Family) (in part). 


See the biographical article: FITCH, SIR J. G. I Thrmg Edward - 


J. G. Fr. 
J. G. M. 
J. G. Sc. 
J. H. M. 

J. H. R. 
J. HI. R. 

J. Ja. 

J. K I. 
J. K. L. 


Professor of Social Anthropology, Liverpool University. Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of The Golden Bough; &c. 

Thesmophoria (In part). 


Emeritus Professor of Physiology in the University of Glasgow. Professor of -\ Taste. 
Physiology, 1876-1906. Author of Life in Motion; Life of Helmholtz; &c. 


Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. Author of Burma; \ IT 
The Upper Burma Gazetteer. [ Tmbaw. 

JOHN HENRY MIDDLETON, M.A., LITT.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896). 

Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, 1886-1895. Director Theatre: Ancient (in 
of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1889-1892. Art Director of the South H Modern (in part); 
Kensington Museum, 1892-1896. Author of The Engraved Gems of Classical Tiryns (in part) 
Times; Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaeval Times. 


Talbot (Family} (in part). 



Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Feudal England ; Studies in Peerage and Family 
History; Peerage and Pedigree. 


Christ s College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge . 
University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I. ; Napoleonic 
Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c. 


Professor of English Literature in the Jewish Theological Seminary, New York. 

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. Corresponding 4 Tabernacles, Feast of. 
Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid. Author of Jews of Angevin 
England; Studies in Biblical Archaeology; &c. 

J. L. E. D. 
J. M. 

J. Mt. 

J. MeE. 
J. M. G. 

J. M. M. 
J. Pu. 
J. P. E. 

J. P. P. 

J. P. Pe. 

J. S. F. 


See the biographical article : INGRAM, JOHN KELLS. 


Professor of Modern History, King s College, London. Secretary of the Navy 
Records Society. Served in the Baltic, 1854-1855; in China, 1856-1859. Mathe 
matical and Naval Instructor, Royal Naval College, Portsmouth, 1866-1873; 
Greenwich, 1873-1885. President, Royal Meteorological Society, 1882-1884. 
Honorary Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Fellow of King s 
College, London. Author of Physical Geography in its Relation to the Prevailing 
Winds and Currents; Studies in Naval History; Sea Fights and Adventures; &c. 


Director of Armagh Observatory. Author of Planetary Systems from Thales to 
Kepler; &c. 

Sumptuary Laws. 

Tegetthoft, Admiral. 

Time, Measurement of. 


Master of the Supreme Court. Formerly Counsel to the Board of Trade and 
the London Chamber of Commerce ; Quain Professor of Comparative Law, Uni- J Suzerainty 
versity College, London. Editor of State Trials; Civil Judicial Statistics; &c. } 
Author of Survey of Political Economy; The Land Question; &c. 


Minister of the United Free Church of Scotland. 
Author of Historical New Testament; &c. 


r Timothy, First Epistle to; 

Jowett Lecturer, London, 1907. -I Timothy, Second Epistle 

I Titus, Epistle to. 



JOHN MILLER GRAY (1850-1894). 

Art Critic. Curator of the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, 1884-1894. Author J Tassie, James. 
of David Scott, R.S.A.; James and William Tassie. 


Sometime Scholar of Queen s College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London 
College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote s History of Greece. 


Formerly Professor of Mathematics in Queen s College, Belfast. 
Royal Irish Academy. 

Thucydides (in part). 

Member of the J Surface (in part). 


Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. 
Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours elementaire d histoire du droit 
franc.ais; &c. 


Professor of Latin in the University of Liverpool. Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Editor of the Classical Quarterly. 
Editor-in-Chief of the Corpus poetarum Latinorum ; &c. 


Textual Criticism; 
Tibullus, Albius. 


Canon Residentiary of the Protestant Episcopal Cathedral of St John the Divine, 
New York City. Formerly Professor of Hebrew in the University of Pennsylvania. J Tigris. 
In charge of the University Expedition to Babylonia, 1888-1895. Author of 
Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates. 

JOHN SMITH FLETT, D.Sc., F.G.S. r Syenite- 

Petrographer to the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. Formerly Lecturer J T*, 
en Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of 1 , 

Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London. [_ Tuerallte. 


J. S. Ga. JAMES SYKES GAMBLE, M.A., C.I.E., F.R.S., F.L.S. f 

Indian Forest Service (retired). Formerly Director of the Imperial Forest Schools Teak (in barf) 
at Dehra Dun. Author of A Manual of Indian Timbers; &c. t 


Professor of Ancient History and Fellow and Tutor of Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge. Honorary Fellow, formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Christ s College. -{ Tiberius. 
Browne s and Chancellor s Medals. Editor of editions of Cicero s Academia: De 
Amicitia; &c. 


Joint-author of Stanford s Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical. 
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin s Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. 


Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow J 
of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in the 1 


Syr-Darya (River) (in part); 
Syr-Darya (Province) (in part); 
Takla Makan; 
Tambov (in part); 
Tarim; Tian-Shan; 
Tiflis (Town) (in part); 
Tobolsk (Government) (in part) ; 
Tomsk (Government) (in part). 

Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow 
of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural Histor 
University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. 

J. W. JAMES WILLIAMS, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D. f Theatre: Law relating to 

All Souls Reader in Roman Law in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln < Theatres 
College. Author of Wills and Succession; &c. Tithes (Law) 

J. Wai. JAMES WALKER, D.Sc., PH.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Professor of Chemistry in the University of Edinburgh. Professor of Chemistry, J TVior nho> 
University College, Dundee, 1894-1908. Author of Introduction to Physical \ llry 

Chemistry. [_ 


Professor of Geology in the University of Glasgow. Professor of Geology and J 
Mineralogy in the University of Melbourne, 1900-1904. Author of The Dead "Heart 1 Tasmania: Geology. 
of Australia; &c. 


Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education, London. Tanffo rnnnt- 
Formerly Fellow of King s College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient J f* 
History at Queen s College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the inun-Honenstem. 
German Empire ; &c. 


Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Formerly President of the Cambridge J Table, Mathematical. 
Philosophical Society and the Royal Astronomical Society. Editor of Messenger ] 
of Mathematics and the Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics. 



Lincoln College, Oxford. Professor of Early Christian Literature and New Testa- J 
ment Exegesis in the University of Leiden. Author of The Text of the New Testa- "1 Tatian. 
ment ; The Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus Christ ; &c. (_ 

K. S. KATHLEEN SCHLESINGER. ( Svmphonia- Tambourine- 

Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra. Editor of The Portfolio of Musical J. _. 
Archaeology. \ Timbrel. 

L. A. W. LAURENCE AUSTINE WADDELL, C.B., C.I.E., LL.D. f f ti>et (in part) 

Lieut.-Colonel I. M.S. (retired). Author of Lhasa and its Mysteries; &c. \ 

L. J. S. LEONARD JAMES SPENCER, M.A. f Sylvanite; Sylvite; 

Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar I _ , , .. 
of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the 1 
Miner alogical Magazine. I Tetrahedrite; Thorite. 

M. B. MONTAGU BROWNE. f T ,,_ iH _, 

Author of Practical Taxidermy; Collecting Butterflies and Moths. \ Aaxiuermy. 


Sometime Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge. War Correspondent for the ] 

Morning Post in Manchuria, 1904; and Special Correspondent in Russia, 1905-1908, -{ Taine. 
and in Constantinople, 1909. Author of Landmar 
the Russians in Manchuria; A Year in Russia; &c. 

and jn Constantinople, 1909. Author of Landmarks in Russian Literature; With I 


Formerly Editor of the Magazine of Art. Member of the Fine Art Committee of the 

International Exhibitions of Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires, Rome and the Franco- J Thomycroft William Hamo. 

British Exhibition, London. Author of History of "Punch"; British Portrait- 

Painting to the Opening of the Nineteenth Century; Works of G. F. Watts, R. A.; 

British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day ; Henriette Ronner ; &c. 

M. J. de G. MICHAEL JAN DE GOEJE. f Thousand and one Nights. 

See the biographical article: GOEJE, MICHAEL JAN DE. j_ 


Fellow of Bombay University. M.P. for N.E. Bethnal Green, 1895-1906. Author Takhtsingji. 

of History of the Constitution of the East India Company ; &c. L 



M. O. B. C. 

N. M. 
N. M.* 

N. W. T. 

0. H. D. 
0. J. R. H. 

P. A. K. 

P. Gi. 

P. G. K. 
P. La. 


P. McC. 
P. Vi. 
R. A. N. 

R. A. Sa. 

R. A. S. M. 

R. C. J. 

R. G. 
R. Gn. 

R. H. C. 

R. I. P. 


Reader in Ancient History in London University. Lecturer in Greek in Birmingham J Theramenes; 
University, 1905-1908. |_ Thrasybulus. 

NORMAN M LEAN, M.A. f Syriae Language; 

Lecturer in Aramaic, Cambridge University. Fellow and Hebrew Lecturer, Christ s J Syriae Literature- 
College, Cambridge. Joint-editor of the larger Cambridge Septuagint. I T j, omas Qf 


Major, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. Served N.W. Frontier, India, 1897- 

1898; South Africa, 1899-1900; Somaliland, 1903-1904; British Mission to Fez, -i. Tactics. 

1905. Editor of The Science of War. 


Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the J Taboo; 
Soci6t6 d Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and j Telepathy. 
Marriage in Australia; &c. L 


Formerly Editor of foreign news in the Nya Dagligt Allehanda. 


Christ Church, Oxford. Geographical Scholar, Oxford, 1901. 
of the British Association. 


See the biographical article: KROPOTKIN, PRINCE P.A. 


Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philo- 
logical Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology. 


Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of the Artist. 
Author of The Art of Walter Crane ; Velasquez, Life and Work ; &c. 


Lecturer in Regional Geography in the University of Cambridge. Formerly of the I 

Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian Trilobites. J, Sweden: Geology. 

Translator and Editor of Keyset s Comparative Geology. 


M.P. for the University of London. Superintendent and Secretary of the City and 
Guilds of London Institute. President of Council of College of Preceptors; Chair-, 
man of Secondary Schools Association. Member of the Royal Commission on 
Technical Instruction, 1881-1884. Author of Industrial Education; &c. 


Member of the Royal Agricultural Society. Author of Diary of a Working Farmer. ( irasning. 

j Sweden: History (in part). 

f Sweden: Geography and 
Assistant Secretary -j Statistics; 

I Tibet (in part). 

Syr-Darya: River (in part); 
Syr-Darya: Province (in part); 
Tambov (in part); 
Tatars (in part); 
Tiflis: Town (in part); 
Tobolsk: Government (in part) ; 
Tomsk: Government (in part). 


Teniers (in part). 

Technical Education. 


See the biographical article: VINOGRADOFF, PAUL. 


Lecturer in Persian in the University of Cambridge. Sometime Fellow of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and Professor of Persian at University College, London. . 
Author of Selected Poems from the Divani Shamsi Tabriz; A Literary History of the 
Arabs ; &c. j 


Astronomer Royal for Scotland. Formerly Professor of Mathematics and 
Astronomy in the University of Durham, and Fellow of St John s College, Cambridge. 
Author of Tables of the Four Great Satellites of Jupiter ; &c. 


St John s College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Ex- . 
ploration Fund. 


See the biographical article: JEBB, SIR RICHARD CLAVERHOUSE. 


See the biographical article: GARNETT, RICHARD. 


See the biographical article: GIFFEN, SIR ROBERT. 


Sufiism; Sunnites (in part). 


/Thucydides (in part). 
-! Swift, Jonathan (in part). 

J Taxation. 

REV. ROBERT HENRY CHARLES, M.A., D.D., LITT.D. (Oxon). f Testaments of the Three 

Grinfield Lecturer and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford, and Fellow of Merton _ , ----i... 
College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Senior Moderator of Trinity I 
College, Dublin. Author and Editor of Book of Enoch; Book of Jubilees; Apoca- Testaments 
lypse of Baruch; Assumption of Moses; Ascension of Isaiah; &c. Patriarchs. 

of the Twelve 


Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London. 

f Tarantula; 

"I Tardigrada; Ticks. 

R. J. M. 

R. L.* 
R. Ma. 

R. N. B. 



Calefte ^London) Barnster-at-Law. 

r Sussex, 3rd Earl of; 
I-ormerly Editor of the St James s J Tandy, James Napper; 

L Temple, Earl. 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of Swine ! Tapir (in part); 

Catalogue of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The Deer 1 Tarsier; Tiger (in part); 

of all Lands; The Came Animals of Africa; &c. [ Tillodontia; Titanotheriidae. 


Tutor in Lancashire Independent College, Manchester. -\ Theism; Theology. 


Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia the 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, /y/j-jpoo; The First Romanovs, 
1613 to 1725; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 
1469 to 1796 ; &c. 

R. P. S. 

R. R. 

S. A. C. 

S. Bl. 

St G. L. F.-P. 

St G. S. 
S. K. 

S. N. 
T. As. 

Svane, Hans; 

Sweden: History (in part); 

Sweyn I.; 

Szechenyi, Istvan, Count; 

Szigligeti, Ede; 

Tarnowski, Jan; 

Tausen, Hans; Tessin, Count; 

Theodore I.-III. of Russia; 

Thokoly, Imre; Tisza, Kalman; 

Toll, Johan, Count; 

Tolstoy, Petr, Count. 


Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past 

President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King s College 

London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson s 

History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c. 
REINHOLD Rosx, C.I.E., LL.D. (1822-1896). 

Secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1863-1869. Librarian at the India Office, 

London, 1869-1893. Editor of H. H. Wilson s Essays on the Religions of the Hindus- 

Hodgson s Essays on Indian Subjects; &c. 


Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac and 
formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Examiner in Hebrew and 
Aramaic, London University, 1904-1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic In- 
scnptions; The Laws of Moses and Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old 
Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c. 


Librarian of the University of Copenhagen. 


Associate of King s College, London. Treasurer and Vice- President of the Moral J Theosonhv Oriental 
Education League and the International Moral Education Congress. |_ 


Pembroke College, Oxford. Lecturer in Greek in the University of Birmingham 1 Tner aPeutae; 

I Tobit, The Book of. 


Professor of Indian Philology in the University of Christiania. Officier de 1 Academic J Tibeto-Burman Laneuaffes 
Franchise. Author of Stamavidhana Brahmana; &c. \ languages. 

Temple (in part). 

Tamils; Thugs. 


f Thomsen, Grimur; 
I Thdroddsen, J6n. 


See the biographical article : NEWCOMB, SIMON. 


Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of 
Christ Church, Oxford. CravenFellpw, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 19.06. Member 
of the imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topo 
graphy of the Roman Campagna. 

T. A. A. 
T. A. C. 

T. de L. 
T. H. 
T. H. H.* 


Author of The Crusade of Richard I. ; &c. 


Time, Standard. 

Suessula; Sulci; Surrentum; 
Sutri; Sybaris; 

Syracuse (in part); Taormina; 
Taranto; Tarentum; Tarquinii; 
Teggiano; Tergeste; 
Termini Imerese; Terracina; 
Tharros; Thurii; Tibur; 
Tiburtina, Via; Tieinum. 

-I Templars (in part). 

Agent-General for New South Wales. Government Statistician, New South Wales, I 
886-1905. Honp^rary^Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society. Author of Wealth J Tasmania: Geography, Statistics 

Statistical Arr.ntint. nf Ati<;trnl4n n-nJ A//. 7o n _\ anr? WVc//>fu 

,. y aisica ociey. utor o 

and Progress of New South Wales; Statistical Account of Australia and New 
land; &c. 


Formerly Professor of Indo-Chinese at University College, London. 


See the biographical article : HODGKIN, THOMAS. 


Superintendent of Frontier Surveys, India, 1892-1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S , 
London, 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King s 
Award; India; Tibet. 

a- 1 and History. 

Tibet (in part). 

Surveying (in part); 
Tibet (in part). 


T. H. W. T. HUDSON^LXAMS. n ^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ { Theognis of Megara . 


Consulting Physician to St Bartholomew s Hospital, London. Author of Modern 1 Therapeutics. 
Therapeutics; Therapeutics of the Circulation; &c. 


, ..., .. 

Assistant Secretary to the Treasury, London. Formerly Fellow- of Trinity College, I Tneo( } osius of Tripolis. 
Cambridge. Author of Apollonius of Perga; Treatise on Conic Sections; The j 
Thirteen Books of Euclid s Elements ; &c. 


Principal and Professor of Church History, United Free Church College, Glasgow. -! Thomas a KemplS. 

Author of Life of Luther; &c. 

Fellow of King s College, London. Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and T utor, ol I Xhvroslraca. 

Worcester College, Oxford. Zoological Secretary of the Linnaean Society, 1903- 

1907. Author of A History of Crustacea; The Naturalist of Cumbrae; &c. 

Balliol College, Oxford. Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, I Swift, Jonathan (in part); 

University of London. Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of the | Tichbome Claimant. 
Dictionary of National Biography, 1891-1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c. L 

f Sugar: Sugar 

W. Ay. WILFRID AIRY, M.lNST.C.E. I Tacheometry. 

Sometime Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge. Technical adviser to the Standards *i 
Department of the Board of Trade. Author of Levelling and Geodesy; &c. 


Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David s 
College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Haul Dauphins; The Range of 
the Todi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in 
History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1881 ; &c. 

Switzerland: Geography, 
Government, &c., History 
and Literature; 

Tell, William; Thun (Town}-, 

Thun, Lake of; Thurgau; 

Tieino (Canton); 

. Tirol; Toggenburg, The. 
w A>p , A T> m , HT i f Surplice: Church of England; 

i v,.u rc .., ^^^ College and Senior Scholar of St John s College, 1 Tf m Plars .(in part); 

Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c. L Titles of Honour. 

W. B.* WILLIAM BURTON, M.A., F.C.S. . /Terracotta (in part); 

Chairman of the Joint Committee of Pottery Manufacturers of Great Britain, -j . 
Author of English Stoneware and Earthenware ; &c. 

W. B. B. W. BAKER BROWN { Submarine Mines. 

Lieut.-Colonel, Commanding Royal Engineers at Malta. 


Assistant in charge of Printed Music, British Museum. Hon. Secretary of the I . 

Purcell Society. Formerly Musical Critic of the Westminster Gazette, the Saturday 1 Tnomas, Arthur Goring. 
Review and the Globe. [ 


Bishop of Gibraltar. Formerly Professor of Ecclesiastical History, King s College, J Tait, Archbishop; 
London. Lecturer at Selwyn and St John s Colleges, Cambridge. Author of The 1 Testamentum Domini. 
Study of Ecclesiastical History ; Beginnings of English Christianity ; &c. L 

W. F. C. WILLIAM FEILOEN CRAIES, M.A. f Summary Jurisdiction; 

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, Kings College,^ c nmmnn< .. e lln( i av (r n ..,\ 
London. Editor of Archbold s Criminal Pleading (2 3 rd edition). 


Joint-author of Nature Teaching ; The World s Commercial Products ; &c. Joint- -j Tobacco, 
editor of Science Progress in the Twentieth Century. 


Founder and Chief Secretary to the Royal Life Saving Society. Associate of the J Swimmin". 
Order of St John of Jerusalem. Joint -author of Swimming (Badminton Library) ; 1 
&c. L 

W. H. F. SIR WILLIAM HENRY FLOWER, F.R.S. /Tapir (in part); 

See the biographical article: FLOWER, SIR W. H. I Tiger (in part). 


Trinity College, Cambridge. Editor of the Saturday Review, 1883-1894. Author-^ Thackeray, 
of Lectures on French Poets; Impressions of Henry Irving; &c. L 


Formerly Fellow of St John s College, Cambridge, and Rector of Wootton-Rivers, 4 Tacitus (in part). 
Wilts. L 


Directorial Assistant of the Royal Ethnographical Museum, Munich. Conducted J Toltecs. 
Exploring Expedition in Mexico and Central America, 1907-1909. Author of I 
publications on Mexican and Central American Archaeology. 


Wilde Reader in Mental Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Formerly Fellow 4 Suggestion, 
of St John s College, Cambridge. 

W. M. R. 
W. M. Ra. 

W. N. S. 

W. P. A. 
W. Ri. 

W. R. S. 
W. Sh. 
W. S. R. 

W. W. R.* 
W. Y. S. 


f Tintoretto; 
I Titian. 

1 Tarsus. 



See the biographical article: ROSSETTI, DANTE GABRIEL. 


See the biographical article: RAMSAY, SIR W. MITCHELL. 


Director of the Meteorological Office. Reader in Meteorology in the University of 
London. President of Permanent International Meteorological Committee. Member . 
of Meteorological Council, 1897-1905. Hon. Fellow of Emmanuel College, Cam 
bridge. Fellow of Emmanuel College, 1877-1906; Senior Tutor, 1890-1899. 
Joint Author of Text-Book of Practical Physics; &c. 


Chief-Engineer, Department of Marine and Fisheries of Canada. Member of the I 
Geographical Board of Canada. Past President of the Canadian Society of Civil 1 oupenor: Lake. 
Engineers. I 


Disney Professor of Archaeology, and Brereton Reader in Classics, in the University 

of Cambridge. Fellow of Gonville and Caius College. Fellow of the British ] Thrace: Ancient Peoples. 

Academy. President of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 1908. Author of 

The Early Age of Greece; &c. l_ 


See the biographical article: SMITH, W. ROBERTSON. 


See the biographical article: SHARP, WILLIAM. 


Author of A Great History of Music from the Infancy of the Greek Drama to the 
Present Period; &c. 


Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. 


See the biographical article: SELLAR, WILLIAM YOUNG. 

J Teraphim (in part). 
< Thoreau, Henry David. 

Tallis, Thomas. 
Toledo, Councils of. 

J Terence (in part). 


Succession Duty. 
Succinic Acid. 
Suez Canal. 

Suffolk, Earls and Dukes of. 

Sulphonic Acids. 

Surgical Instruments and 


Sussex, Earls of. 
Sutherland, Earls 

Dukes of. 

Swithun, St. 
Sydney (N.S.W.). 
Syracuse (N.Y.). 
Sze-ch uen. 













Test Acts. 










Tierra del Fuego. 











SUBMARINE MINES. A submarine mine is a weapon of war 
used in the attack and defence of harbours and anchorages. 
It may be defined as " A charge of explosives, moored at or 
beneath the surface of the water, intended by its explosion to 
put out of action without delay a hostile vessel of the class it is 
intended to act against." It differs from the torpedo (q. j.) in 
being incapable of movement (except in the special form of 
drifting mines, which are not moored, but move with the tide or 
current). But this subdivision into two distinct classes was 
not made till 1870. Prior to that date the teim " torpedo " 
was used for all explosive charges fired in the water. 

Submarine mines may be divided into two main classes, con 
trollable and uncontrollable, or, as they are often classified, 
" electrical " or " mechanical." In the first class the method of 
firing is by electricity, the source of the electric power whether 
by battery or dynamo being contained in a firing station on 
shore and connected to the mines by insulated cables. By 
simply switching off the electricity in the firing station, such 
mines are rendered inert and entirely harmless. In the 
second class, the means of firing are contained in the mine 
itself, the source of power being a small electric battery, 
or being obtained from a pistol, spring or suspended weight. 
In all mines of this class the impulse which actuates the firing 
gear is given by a ship or other floating object bumping against 
the mine. When mechanical mines have once been set for firing 
they are thus dangerous to friend and foe alike. Safety arrange 
ments are employed to prevent the firing apparatus working 
while the mine is being laid, and clockwork is sometimes added 
to render the mine inactive after a certain definite time or in 
case the mine breaks away from its mooring. Their principal 
advantages, as compared with the electrically controlled mines, 
are cheapness and rapidity of laying. " Controllable " mines are 
absolutely under the control of the operator on shore, their 
condition is always accurately known, and if any break adrift 
not only is the fact at once known but the mines themselves are 
harmless. Another advantage is that when fired by " observa 
tion " as described below, they are placed at depths which will 
be well below the bottom of any vessels passing through the 
mine field. They can thus be used in channels which have to 
be kept open for traffic during hostilities. 

Electrical mines take rather longer to prepare and lay out 
than the other class, as the electrical cables have to be laid and 
jointed, and they require rather more skill and training in 
the operators employed to lay and fire the mines. Such mines 
represent the highest development of this form of warfare, and 
the details given below refer mainly to this class of mine. 

Electrical mines are arranged on two systems according to the 
method of ascertaining the proper moment to apply the firing 

current to the mine cables. These methods are by " observa 
tion " or by " circuit closer." 

The " observation " system depends on two careful observa 
tions made by an operator on shore, one of the exact position 
in which the mines are laid, the other of the track of hostile 
ships passing over the mine field. The position of the mines 
when laid is marked on a special chart, on which the track of 
ships crossing the mine field can also be plotted. When the track 
is seen to be crossing the position of a mine, a switch is closed on 
shore and the mine is fired. To allow for errors in observation 
such mines are fitted with large charges of explosive and are 
usually arranged in lines of two, three or four mines placed across 
the channel, all the mines in a line being fired together. Observa 
tion mines are placed either resting on the bottom or moored 
at depths which are well below the bottom of any friendly 
vessels and (except that anchoring in the mine field must be 
forbidden for fear of injury to cables) such mines offer no obstruc 
tion to friendly traffic. 

In the " circuit closer " or " C.C." system, each mine contains 
a small piece of apparatus which is set in action by the blow of a 
vessel or other object against the mine. When set in action, 
this apparatus completes an electrical circuit in the mine, 
through which the mine can be fired, if the main switch on 
shore is closed. If it is not wished to fire, the C.C. is restored 
to its ordinary condition either automatically by a spring in 
the mine, or by an electrical device operated from the shore. 

Such mines are necessarily placed near the surface, and are 
to this extent an interference with friendly traffic. A vessel 
passing by mistake through a mine field of this class would 
run no risk of an explosion while the mines are inactive, but 
might do some damage to the mines. 

This class of mine is used in side channels which it is intended 
to close entirely, or to reduce the width of navigable channels 
where too wide to be defended by observation mines. Their 
principal advantage is that if the firing switch is closed they are 
effective in fog or mist, when observation mines could not be 
worked, and when the guns of the defence would be equally out 
of action. As they are fired only when close against the side 
of a ship, the charge can be comparatively small and the mines 
themselves are handy and easy to lay. 

Compared with observation mines they use much less cable, 
as the action of the C.C. is such that only the mine which is struck 
can be fired. Several mines of this class can therefore share 
one cable from the shore, though in practice details of mooring 
and arrangement limit the number connected to one cable to 
four. A set of mines on one cable is referred to as a " group." 

The arrangements for firing the mines are contained in a firing 
station on shore, in which is the battery or other source of 


electrical power for firing, and the necessary apparatus for 
testing the system of mines, which is usually done daily. To 
let the operator in the firing station know when the C.C. of a 
mine has been struck and the mine is ready to fire, a small 
electrical apparatus is provided in the firing station for each 
group of mines. This arrangement strikes a bell when the C.C. 
is worked and also closes a break in the firing circuit. The 
operator can then close the main switch and fire the mine, 
or if acting on the order to "fire all mines that signal" he has 
already closed his main switch, the signalling apparatus, in the 
act of striking the bell, completes the firing circuit. A similar 
piece of apparatus is connected to each observing instrument, 
the completion of the circuit of any line at the observing station 
then gives a signal in the firing station and the firing circuit is 

The firing station can be on a vessel moored near the mine 
field, but is more usually on shore, where it can be made abso 
lutely secure against any form of attack. But the observing 
stations must be on shore to give stability to the observing 
instruments, they cannot be entirely protected as they must 
have a small opening facing the mine field, but can be made 
very inconspicuous. 

Any explosive can be used in submarine mines, provided 
adequate means are taken to explode the charge, but the explo 
sive which is easiest to handle and is in most general use is wet 
gun-cotton with a small dry primer and detonator to start 
ignition. The detonators for electrical mines are on the " low 
tension " system, that is, firing is effected by the heating of a 
small length of wire called a " bridge," round which is placed a 
priming which ignites and detonates a small charge of fulminate 
of mercury. 

The charge is contained in a steel mine-case, which has an 
" apparatus " inside to contain the electrical arrangements 
and the C.C. when used. Cases for observation mines are 
usually cylindrical in shape for mines to rest on the bottom 
and spherical for buoyant mines. The weight of charge is 
about 500 Ib and the size of a buoyant case for this charge 
would be four feet in diameter. Cases for contact mines are 
spherical, about 39 in. in diameter, and can hold 100 Ib of gun- 
cotton. They are always buoyant. Buoyancy is provided for 
by an air-space inside the case. Buoyant cases are moored to a 
heavy weight or " sinker," the connexion being by a steel wire 
rope, or in electrical mines, the cable itself. The cable is care 
fully insulated and protected with a layer of steel wires. An 
earth return is used for the electrical circuit. 

The employment of mines in any defence must depend entirely 
on the general character of the defence adopted, which will 
itself depend on the size and importance of the harbour to be 
defended and other details (see COAST DEFENCE). The r61e 
of mines in a defence is to act as an obstacle to detain ships 
under fire and compel them to engage the artillery of the defence. 
Thus mines find their greatest usefulness in the defence of har 
bours with long channels of approach. Mine fields can be de 
stroyed by " creeping " for and cutting the electric cables, by 
" sweeping " for the mines themselves with long loops of chain 
or rope or by destroying the mines with "countermines." To 
guard against any of these, the mine field should be protected 
by gun fire and lit at night by electric lights. As vessels sunk 
by mines may obstruct the channel, mines should not be used 
in very narrow channels. 

Although the scientific development of submarine mining 
is the work of the last fifty years, attempts to use drifting charges 
against ships and bridges are recorded as early as the i6th 
century. Mines were used by the Americans in 1777, and in 
1780 Robert Fulton produced an explosive machine which he 
called a " torpedo," and which was experimented with, not very 
successfully, up to 1815. In 1854 the Russians used mechanical 
mines in the Baltic, but without any marked success. 

The first application of electricity to the explosion of sub 
merged charges was made by Sir Charles Pasley in the destruc 
tion of wrecks in the Thames and of the wreck of the " Royal 
George " at Spithead in 1839 and subsequent years. The first 

military use of electrically-fired mines was made in the American 
Civil War of 1861-65 when several vessels were sunk or damaged 
by mines or torpedoes. From this date onwards most European 
nations experimented with mines, and they were actually used 
during the Franco-German War of 1870, the Russo-Turkish War 
of 1878 and the Spanish-American War of 1898. But the most 
interesting example of mine warfare was in the attack and 
defence of Port Arthur during the Russo-Japanese War (q.v.) of 
1904-05 Both sides used mechanical mines only, and both 
suffered heavy losses from the mine warfare. Mines and tor 
pedoes were first introduced into the English service about 1863, 
defence mines being placed in the charge of the Royal Engineers, 
while torpedoes were developed by the Royal Navy. Up to 
1904 there were mine defences at most of the British ports, 
but in that year the responsibility of mines was placed on 
the navy, and since then the mine defences have been much 
reduced. (W. B. B.) 

SUBSIDY (through Fr. from Lat. subsidium, reserve troops, 
aid, assistance, from subsidere, literally " to sit or remain behind 
or in reserve "), an aid, subvention, assistance granted especially 
in money. The word has a particular use in economic history 
and practice. In English history it is the general term for a tax 
granted to the king by parliament, and so distinguished from those 
dues, such as the customs dues, which were raised by the royal 
prerogative; of these subsidies there were many varieties; such 
was the subsidy in excess of the customs on wool, leather, wine 
or cloth exported or imported by aliens, later extended to other 
articles and to native exporters and importers (see TONNAGE 
AND POUNDAGE); there was also the subsidy which in the i4th 
century took the place of the old feudal levies. Apart from 
this application the term, in modern times, is particularly applied 
to the pecuniary assistance by means of bounties, &c., given by 
the state to industrial undertakings (see BOUNTY). Subsidies 
granted by the state to literary, dramatic or other artistic 
institutions, societies, &c., are generally styled " subventions " 
(Lat. subvenire, to come to the aid of). 

SUCCESSION (Lat. successio, from succedere, to follow after) 
the act of succeeding or following, as of events, objects, places 
in a series, &c., but particularly, in law, the transmission or 
passing of rights from one to another. 

In every system of law provision has to be made for a readjust 
ment of .things or goods on the death of the human beings 
who owned and enjoyed them. Succession to rights may be 
considered from two points of view: in some ways they depend 
on the personality of those who are concerned with them: if 
you hire a servant, you acquire a claim against a certain person 
and your claim will disappear on his death. But personal 
relations are commonly implicated in the arrangement of pro 
perty: if a person borrows money, the creditor expects to be 
paid even should the debtor die, and the actual payment will 
depend to a great extent on the rules as to inheritance. Succes 
sion, in the sense of the partition or redistribution of the pro 
perty of a former owner is, in modern systems of law, the subject 
of many rules. Such rules may be based on the will of a de 
ceased person. They will be found in such articles as ADMINIS 
TANCE; INTESTACY; LEGACY; WILL; &c. There are cases, 
however, in which a will cannot be expressed; this eventuality 
is discussed in the present article, and there can be no doubt 
that it is the most characteristic one from the point of view of 
social conditions. It represents the view of society at large 
as to what ought to be the normal course of succession in the 
readjustment of property after the death of a citizen. We shall 
dwell chiefly on the customs of succession among the nations of 
Aryan stock. Other customs are noticed in the articles on 

We have to start from a distinction between personal goods and 
the property forming the economic basis of existence for the 
family which is strongly expressed in early law. War booty, pro 
ceeds of hunting, clothes and ornaments, implements fashioned by 
personal skill, are taken to belong to a man in a more personal 
way than the land on which he dwells or the cattle of a herd. 


It is characteristic that even in the strict law of paternal power 
formulated by the Romans an unemancipated son was protected 
in his rights in regard to things acquired in the camp (peculium 
castrense) and later on this protection spread to other chattels 
(peculium quasi-castrense) . The personal character of this kind 
of property has a decisive influence on the modes of succession 
to it. This part of the inheritance is widely considered in 
early law as still in the power of the dead even after demise. 
We find that many savage tribes simply destroy the personal 
belongings of the dead: this is done by several Australian and 
Negro tribes (Post, Grundriss der ethnologischen Jurisprudenz, 
pp. 174-5) . Sometimes this rule is modified in the sense that the 
goods remaining after deceased persons have to be taken away 
by strangers, which leads to curious customs of looting the house 
of the deceased. Such customs were prevalent, for example, 
among the North American Indians of the Delaware and Iro- 
quois tribes. Evidently the nearer relations dare not take 
over such things on account of a tabu rule, while strangers may 
appropriate them, as it were, by right of conquest. 

The continuance of the relation of the deceased to his own 
things gives rise in most cases to provisions made for the dead 
out of his personal succession. The habit of putting arms, 
victuals, clothes and ornaments in the grave seems almost 
universal, and there can be no doubt that the idea underlying 
such usages consists in the wish to provide the deceased with all 
matters necessary to his existence after death. A very char 
acteristic illustration of this conception may be given from the 
customs of the ancient Russians, as described about 921 by the 
Arabian traveller Ibn Fadhlan. The whole of the personal 
property was divided into three parts: one-third went to the 
family, the second third was used for making clothes and other 
ornaments for the dead, while the third was spent in carousing 
on the day when the corpse was cremated. The ceremony itself 
consisted in the following: the corpse was put into a boat 
and was dressed up in the most gorgeous attire. Intoxicating 
drinks, fruit, bread and meat were put by its side; a dog was cut 
into two parts, which were thrown into the boat. Then, all the 
weapons of the dead man were brought in, as well as the flesh of 
two horses, a cock and a chicken. The concubine of the de 
ceased was also sacrificed, and ultimately all these objects were 
burned in a huge pile, and a mound thrown up over the ashes. 
This description is the more interesting because it starts from 
a division of the goods of the deceased, one part of them being 
affected, as it were, to his personal usage. This rule continues 
to be observed in Germanic law in later times and became 
the starting point of the doctrine of succession to personal 
property in English law. According to Glanville (vii. 5, 4) 
the chattels of the deceased have to be divided into three 
equal parts, of which one goes to his heir, one to his wife 
and one is reserved to the deceased himself. The same reser 
vation of the third to the deceased himself is observed in 
Magna Charta (c. 26) and in Bracton s statement of Common 
Law (fol. 60), but in Christian surroundings the reservation 
of " the dead man s part " was taken to apply to the property 
which had to be spent for his soul and of which, accordingly, 
the Church had to take care. This lies at the root of the com 
mon law doctrine observed until the passing of the Court of 
Probate Act 1857. On the strength of this doctrine the 
bishop was the natural administrator of this part of the 
personalty of the deceased. 

The succession to real property, if we may use the English 
legal expression, is not governed by such considerations or the 
needs of the dead. Roughly speaking, three different views 
may be taken as to the proper readjustment in such cases. 
Taking the principal types in a logical sequence, which differs 
from the historical one, we may say that the aggregate of things 
and claims relinquished by a deceased person may: (i) pass 
to relatives or other persons who stood near him in a way deter 
mined by law. Should several persons of the kind stand 
equally near in the eye of the law the consequence would be a 
division of the inheritance. The personal aspect of succession 
rules in such systems of inheritance. (2) The deceased may be 

considered as a subordinate member of a higher organism 
a kindred, a village, a state, &c. In such a case there can be no 
succession proper as there has been no individual property to 
begin with. The cases of succession will be a relapse of certain 
goods used by the member of a community to that community 
and a consequent rearrangement of rights of usage. The law 
of succession will again be constructed on a personal basis, 
but this basis will be supplied not by the single individual whose 
death has had to be recorded but by some community or union 
to which this individual belonged. (3) The aggregate of goods 
and claims constituting what is commonly called an inheritance 
may be considered as a unit having an existence and an object 
of its own. The circumstance of the death of an individual 
owner will, as in case 2, be treated as an accidental fact. The 
unity of the inheritance and the social part played by it will con 
stitute the ruling considerations in the arrangement of succession. 
The personal factor will be subordinated to the real one. 

In practice pure forms corresponding to these main concep 
tions occur seldom, and the actual systems of succession mostly 
appear as combinations of these various views. We shall try 
to give briefly an account of the following arrangements: (i) 
the joint family in so far as it bears on succession; (2) 
voluntary associations among co-heirs; (3) division of inheri 
tance; (4) united succession in the shape of primogeniture and 
of junior right. 

The large mass of Hindu juridical texts representing customs 
and doctrines ranging over nearly 5000 years contains many 
indications as to the existence of a joint family which was 
considered as the corporate owner of property and therefore 
did not admit in principle of the opening of succession through 
the death of any of its members. The father or head of such 
a joint family was in truth only the manager of its property 
during lifetime, and though on his demise this power and right 
of management had to be regulated anew, the property itself 
could not be said to pass by succession: it remained as formerly 
in the joint family itself. In stating this abstract doctrine 
we have to add that our evidence shows us in practice only 
characteristic consequences and fragments of it, but that we 
have not the means of observing it directly in a consistent 
and complete shape during the comparatively recent epochs 
which are reflected in the evidence. It is even a question 
whether such a doctrine was ever absolutely enforced in regard 
to chattels: even in the earliest period of Hindu law articles 
of personal apparel and objects acquired by personal will and 
strength fell to a great extent under the conception of separate 
property. Gains of science, art and craft are mentioned in early 
instances as subject to special ownership and corresponding 
rules of personal succession are framed in regard to them 
(Jolly, Tagore lectures on Partition, Inheritance and Adoption, 
94). But on the other hand there are certain categories of 
movable goods which even in later law are considered as belong 
ing to the family community and incapable of partition, e.g. 
water, prepared food, roads, vehicles, female slaves, property 
destined for pious uses and sacrifices, books. When law became 
rationalized these things had to be sold in order that the pro 
ceeds of the sale should be divided, but originally they seem 
to have been regarded as owned by the joint family though 
used by its single members. And as to immovables land and 
houses they were demonstrably excluded in ancient customary 
law from partition among co-heirs. 

In Greek law the most drastic expression of the joint family 
system is to be found in the arrangements of Spartan households, 
where brothers clustered round the eldest or " keeper of the 
hearth" 1 (taTia.iraij.iov), and not only the management of 
family property but even marriages were dependent on the unity 
of the shares and on the necessity of keeping down the offspring 
of the younger brothers. With the Romans there are hardly 
any traces of a primitive family community excluding succession, 
but the Celtic tribal system was to a great extent based on this 
fundamental conception (Seebohm, Tribal System in Wales). 

1 The term illustrates the intimate connexion between inheritance 
and household religion in ancient Aryan custom. 


During three generations the offspring of father, grandfather 
and great-grandfather held together in regard to land. The 
consequence was that, although separate plots and houses were 
commonly reserved for the uses of the smaller families included 
within the larger unit, the death of the principal brought about 
an equalization of shares first per slirpes and ultimately per 
capita until the final break-up of the community when it reached 
the stage of the great-grandsons of the original founder. But 
the most elaborate system of family ownership is to be observed 
in the history of the latest comers among the Aryan races the 
Slavs. In the backward mountain regions which they occupied 
in the Balkan Peninsula and in the wilderness of the forests and 
moors of Eastern Europe they developed many characteristic 
tribal institutions and, among these, the joint family, the 
Zadruga, inokoshtina. The huge family communities of the 
southern Slavs have been described at length by recent observers, 
and there can be no doubt that their roots go back to a distant 
past (see VILLAGE COMMUNITIES). There is no room in them 
for succession proper: what has to be provided for is the con 
tinuity of business management by elders and the repartition of 
rights of usage and maintenance, a repartition largely depen 
dent on varying customs and on the policy of the above-men 
tioned elders. In Russia the so-called large family appears as a 
much less extensive application of the same idea. It extends 
rarely over more than three generations, but even as a cluster 
of members gathering around a grandfather or a great-uncle 
it presents an arrangement which hampers greatly private enter 
prise and staves off succession until the moment when the great 
household breaks up between the descendants of a great-grand 

In Germanic law we catch a glimpse of a state of things in 
which side relations were not admitted to succession at all. 
The Prankish Edict of Chilperic (A.D. 571) tells us that if some 
body died without leaving sons or daughters, his brother was to 
succeed him and not his neighbours (non vicini). This has to 
be construed as a modification of the older rule according to 
which the neighbours succeeded and not the brother. Under 
" neighbours " we cannot understand merely people connected 
with a person by proximity of settlement, but rather his kinsmen 
in their usual capacity of neighbours. The fact that kinsmen 
forming a settlement have precedence of such near relations as 
the brothers is characteristic enough, especially, as even the 
succession of sons and daughters is mentioned in a way which 
shows that there was still some doubt whether neighbouring 
kinsmen should not take inheritance instead of the latter. 
These are systems of a very archaic arrangement based on a 
close tribal community between the members of a kindred. 
Such a community is not apparent in later legal custom, but there 
are many signs of a close union between members of the same 
family. The law of Scania, a province of southern Sweden, 
shows us a group settled around a grandfather. His sons even 
when ma rried hold part of the property under him and it 
is with some difficulty that they and their wives succeed in 
separating some of the goods acquired by personal work or 
brought in by marriage from the rest of the household property 
(Scanian Law, Danish Text i. 5). The same arrangement 
appears in Lombard law as regards brothers who remain settled 
in a common house (Edict of Rothari c. 167). Of course, in all 
such cases, there could be no real inheritance and succession, 
but merely the stepping in of the next generation into the rights 
and duties of the representative of an older generation on the 
latter s demise. In legal terminology it is a case of accretion 
and not of succession. 

The next stage in the development of succession is presented 
by an arrangement which was common in Germany, viz. by the 
management of property under the rule of so-called Ganerb- 
schaft. Ganerben is the same as the Latin coheredes, com- 
participes, consortes. A capitulary of 818 mentions such com 
munities of heirs holding in common (cf. Boretius Capitularia, 
i. 282). While the community lasted none of the shareholders 
could dispose of any part of the property by his single will. 
Legally and economically all transactions had to proceed from 

common consent and common resolve. This did not preclude the 
possibility of any one among the shareholders claiming his own 
portion, in which case part of the property had to be meted 
out to him according to fair computation (swascara). There 
was no legal constraint over the shareholders to remain in 
common: division could be brought about either by common 
consent or by claims of individuals, and yet the constant occur 
rence of these settlements of co-heirs shows that as a matter of 
fact it was more profitable to keep together and not to break 
up the unit of property by division. The customary union of 
co-heirs appears in this way as a corrective of the strict legal 
principle of equal rights between heirs of the same degree. In 
English practice the joint management of co-heirs is not so fully 
described, but there can be no doubt that under the older Saxon 
rule admitting heirs of the same degree to equal rights in suc 
cession the interests of economic efficiency were commonly pre 
served by the carrying on of common husbandry without any 
realization of the concurrent claims which would have broken 
up the object of succession. This accounts for the fact that 
notwithstanding the prevalence among the early English of 
the rule admitting all the sons or heirs in the same position to 
equal shares in the inheritance, the organic units of hides, 
yardlands, &c. are kept up in the course of centuries. In 
the management of so-called gavelkind succession in Kent 
partition was legally possible and came sometimes to be effected, 
but there was the customary reaction against it in the shape of 
keeping up the " yokes " and " sulungs." A trace of the same 
kind of union between co-heirs appears in the so-called parage 
communities so often mentioned in Domesday Book. 

In all these cases the principle of union and joint manage 
ment is kept up by purely economic means and considerations. 
The legal possibility of partition is admitted by the side of it. 
It is interesting to watch two divergent lines of further develop 
ment springing from this common source; on the one side we 
see the full realization of individual right resulting in frequent 
divisions; on the other side we watch the rise of legal restraints 
on subdivision resulting in the establishment, in respect of 
certain categories of property, of rules excluding the plurality 
of heirs for the sake of preserving the unity of the household. 
The first system is, of course, most easily carried out in countries 
where individualistic types of husbandry prevail. In Europe 
it is especially prevalent in the south with its intense cultivation 
of the arable and its habits of wine and olive growing. We 
shall not wonder, therefore, that the unrestricted subdivision 
among heirs is represented most completely by Roman law. 
Not to speak of the fact that already in the XII. Tables the 
principal mode of inheritance was considered to be inheritance 
by will while intestate succession came in as a subsidiary ex 
pedient, we have to notice that there is no check on the dis 
persion of property among heirs of the same degree. The only 
survival of a regime of family community may be found in the 
distinction between heredes sui (heirs of their own) and heredes 
extranei (outside heirs of the deceased). The first entered by 
their own right and took possession of property which had 
belonged to them potentially even during their ancestor s life. 
The latter drew their claims from their relationship to the 
deceased and this did not give them a direct hold on the property . 
in question. Apart from that the civil law of ancient Rome 
favoured complete division and the same principle is represented 
in all European legislation derived from Roman law or strongly 
influenced by it. Sometimes, as in the French Code Civil, even 
the wish of the owner cannot alter the course of such succession 
as no person can make a will depriving any of his children of their 
legal share. 

In full contrast with this mode of succession prevailing in 
romanized countries we find the nations proceeding from 
Germanic stock and strongly influenced by feudalism developing 
two different kinds of restraints on subdivision. In Scandi 
navian law this point of view is expressed by the Norwegian 
customs as to Odal. The principal estates of the country, which, 
according to the law of the Gulathing have descended through 
five generations in the same family, cannot be dispersed and 



alienated at pleasure. They are considered as rightly belong 
ing to the kindred with which a historical connexion has been 
established. In order to keep these estates within the kindred 
they are to descend chiefly to men: women are admitted to 
property in them only in exceptional cases. Originally it is 
only the daughter of a man who has left no sons and the sister 
of one who has left no children and no brothers that are admitted 
to take Odal as if they were men. Nieces and first-cousins are 
admitted in the sense that they have to pass the property to 
their nearest male heir. They may, in certain eventualities, 
be bought out by the nearest male relative. A second peculiarity 
of Odal consists in the right of relations descending from one of 
the common ancestors to prevent strangers from acquiring Odal 
estate. Any holder of such an estate who wants to sell it in its 
entirety or in portion has first to apply te his relatives and they 
may acquire the estate at the price proposed by a stranger less 
one-fifth. Even if no relative has taken advantage of this 
privilege an Odal estate sold to a stranger may be bought back 
into the family by compulsory redemption if the relatives 
subsequently find the means and have the wish to resort to 
such redemption. Odal right does not curtail the claims of the 
younger sons or of any heirs in a similar position. As a matter 
of fact, however, customary succession in Norwegian peasant 
families sets great price on holding the property of the household 
well together. It is keenly felt that a guard (farm) ought not 
to be parcelled up into smaller holdings, and in the common 
case of several heirs succeeding to the farm, they generally make 
up among themselves who is to remain in charge of the ancestral 
household: the rest are compensated in money or helped to 
start on some other estate or perhaps in a cottage by the side 
of the principal house. In medieval England, France and Ger 
many the same considerations of economic efficiency are felt 
as regards the keeping up of united holdings, and it may be said 
that the lower we get in the scale of property the stronger these 
considerations become. If it is possible, though not perhaps 
profitable, to divide the property of a large farm, it becomes 
almost impossible to break-up the smaller units so-called 
yardlands and oxgangs. Through being parcelled up into 
small plots, land loses in value, and, as to cattle, it is impossible 
to divide one ox or one horse in specie without selling them. 
No wonder that we find practices and customs of united suc 
cession arising in direct contradiction with the ancient rule that 
all heirs of the same degree should be admitted to equal shares. 
Glanville mentions expressly that the socagers of his time held 
partly by undivided succession and partly by divided inherit 
ance. The relations of feudalism and serfdom contributed 
strongly towards creating such individual tenancies. It was 
certainly in the interest of the lord that his men, whether holding 
a military fief or an agricultural farm, should not weaken the 
value of their tenancies by dispersing the one or the other 
among heirs. But apart from these interests of over-lords 
there was the evident self-interest of the tenants themselves 
and therefore the point of view of unification of holdings is by 
no means confined to servile tenements or to military fiefs. 
The question whether the successor should be the eldest 
son or the youngest son is a secondary one. The latter 
practice was very prevalent all through Europe and pro 
duced in England what is termed the Borough English 
rule. The quaint name has been derived from the contrast 
in point of succession between the two parts of the borough 
of Nottingham. The French burgesses transmitted their 
tenements by primogeniture, while in the case of the English 
tenants the youngest sons succeeded. A usual explanation 
of this passage of the holdings to the youngest is found in the 
fact that the youngest son remains longest in his father s house, 
while the elder brothers have opportunities of going out into 
the world at a time when the father is still alive and able to take 
care of his land. This is well in keeping with the view that 
customs of united succession arise in connexion with compensa 
tion provided for co-heirs waiving their claims in regard to 
settlement in the original household. The succession of the 
youngest appears also very characteristic in so far as it illustrates 

the break up into small tenancies, as the youngest in the family 
is certainly not a fit representative of hierarchy and authority 
and could not have been meant to rule anything but his own 
restricted household. 

One more feature of the ancient law of succession has to be 
noticed in conclusion, viz. the exclusion of women from 
inheritance in land. There can be no doubt that as regards 
movable goods women held property and transmitted it on a par 
with males right from the earliest time. According to Germanic 
conception personal ornaments and articles of household furni 
ture are specially effected to their use and follow a distinct line 
of succession from woman to woman (Gerade). Norse law puts 
women and men on the same footing as to all forms of property 
equated to " movable money " (Losb re); but as to land there is 
a prevalent idea that men should be privileged. Women are 
admitted to a certain extent, but always placed behind men of 
equal degree. Frankish and Lombard law originally excluded 
women from inheritance in land, and this exclusion seems as 
ancient as the patriarchial system itself, whatever we may think 
about the position of affairs in prehistoric times when rules 
of matriarchy were prevalent. A common-sense explanation 
of one side of this doctrine is tendered by the law of the Thurin- 
gians (Lex Anglorum et Werinorum,c. 6). It is stated there that 
inheritance in land goes with the duty of taking revenge for the 
homicide of relatives and with the power of bearing arms. One 
of the most potent adversaries of this system of exclusion proved 
to be the Church. It favoured all through the view that land 
should be transmitted in the same way as money or chattels. 
A Frankish formula (Marculf) shows us a father who takes care 
to endow his daughter with a piece of land according to natural 
affection in spite of the strict law of his tribe. Such instruments 
were strongly backed by the Church, and the view that women 
should be admitted to hold land on certain occasions had made 
its way in England as early as Anglo-Saxon times. 

AUTHORITIES. Mayne, Hindu Law and Usage (1878); Julius 
Jolly, Outlines of a History of the Hindu Law of Partition, Inheritance 
and Adoption (Tagore law lectures) (Calcutta, 1883); B. W. Leist, 
Altarisches jus Civile (1892); F. Seebohm, Tribal System in Wales 
(2nd ed., 1904); the same, Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law 
(1902) ; Arbois de Jubainville, La Famille celtique (1906) ; A. Heusler, 
Instilutionen des deulschen Privatrechts, i. (1885); H. Brunner, 
Deutsche Rechtsgeschichte (vol. i., and. ed., 1907); Jul. Ficker, Unler- 
suchungen zur Erbenfolge (Innsbruck, 1891 ff.); Kraus, Sitte und 
Brauch der Sud-Slaven; Pollock and Maitland, History of English 
Law, ii. (1895); Kenny, Law of Primogeniture (1878); P. Vinogradoff, 
The Growth of the Manor (1905); Brandt, Forelaesninger om norsk 
Retshistorie Kristiania (1880); Boden, "Das Odalsrecht " in the 
Zeitschrift der Savignystiftung fur Rechtsgeschichte (Ger. Abth. 
xxiii.); H. Brunner, "Der Totentheil " in the same Zeitschrift 
(Ger. Abth. xix.); L. Mitteis, Romisches Privatrecht (1908), 
vol. i.; Fustel de Coulanges, La Cite antique (4th ed., 1872). 

(P. Vi.) 

SUCCESSION DUTY, in the English fiscal system, "a tax 
placed on the gratuitous acquisition of property which passes 
on the death of any person, by means of a transfer from one 
person (called the predecessor) to another person (called the 
successor)." In order properly to understand the present 
state of the English law it is necessary to describe shortly the 
state of affairs prior to the Finance Act 1894 an act which 
effected a considerable change in the duties payable and in the 
mode of assessment of those duties. 

The principal act which first imposed a succession duty in 
England was the Succession Duty Act 1853. By that act a 
duty varying from i to 10 % according to the degree of con 
sanguinity between the predecessor and successor was imposed 
upon every succession which was defined as " every past or 
future disposition of property by reason whereof any person 
has or shall become beneficially entitled to any property, or 
the income thereof, upon the death of any person dying after 
the time appointed for the commencement of this act, either 
immediately or after any interval, either certainly or contin 
gently, and either originally or by way of substitutive limitation 
and every devolution by law of any beneficial interest in pro 
perty, or the income thereof, upon the death of any person dying 
after the time appointed for the commencement of this act to 


any other person in possession or expectancy." The property 
which is liable to pay the duty is in realty or leasehold estate 
in the United Kingdom and personalty not subject to legacy 
duty which the beneficiary claims by virtue of English, 
Scottish or Irish law. Personalty in England bequeathed by a 
person domiciled abroad is not subject to succession duty. 
Successions of a husband or a wife, successions where the princi 
pal value is under 100, and individual successions under 20, 
are exempt from duty. Leasehold property and personalty 
directed to be converted into real estate are liable to succession, 
not to legacy duty. Special provision is made for the collection 
of duty in the cases of joint tenants and where the successor 
is also the predecessor. The duty is a first charge on property, 
but if the property be parted with before the duty is paid the 
liability of the successor is transferred to the alienee. It is, 
therefore, usual in requisitions on title before conveyance, to 
demand for the protection of the purchaser the production of 
receipts for succession duty, as such receipts are an effectual 
protection notwithstanding any suppression or misstatement 
in the account on the footing of which the duty was assessed 
or any insufficiency of such assessment. The duty is by this 
act directed to be assessed as follows: on personal property, if 
the successor takes a limited estate, the duty is assessed on the 
principal value of the annuity or yearly income estimated 
according to the period during which he is entitled to receive 
the annuity or yearly income, and the duty is payable in four 
yearly instalments free from interest. If the successor takes 
absolutely he pays in a lump sum duty on the principal value. 
On real property the duty is payable in eight half-yearly instal 
ments without interest on the capital value of an annuity equal to 
the annual value of the property. Various minor changes were 
made. By the Customs and Inland Revenue Act 1881, personal 
estates under 300 were exempted. By the Customs and Inland 
Revenue Act 1888 an additional % was charged on successions 
already paying i% and an additional ij% on successions 
paying more than i%. By the Customs and Inland Revenue 
Act 1889 an additional duty of i% called estate duty was 
payable on successions over 10,000. 

The Finance Acts 1894 and 1909 effected large changes in 
the duties payable on death (for which see ESTATE DUTY; 
LEGACY). As regards the succession duties they enacted that 
payment of the estate duties thereby created should include 
payment of the additional duties mentioned above. Estates 
under 1000 (2000 in the case of widow or child of deceased) 
are exempted from payment of any succession duties. The 
succession duty payable under the Succession Duty Act 1853 
was in all cases to be calculated according to the principal 
value of the property, i.e. its selling value, and though still 
payable by instalments interest at 3% is chargeable. The 
additional succession duties are still payable in cases where 
the estate duty is not charged, but such cases are of small 
importance and in practice are not as a rule charged. 

United States. The United States imposed a succession duty by 
the War Revenue Act of 1898 on all legacies or distributive shares 
of personal property exceeding $10,000. It is a tax on the privilege 
of succession. Devises or distributions of land are not artected by 
it The rate of duty runs from 75 cents on the $too to $5 on the 
$ioo if the legacy or share in question does not exceed $25,000. 
On those of over that value the rate is multiplied I 2 times on 
estates up to $100,000, twofold on those from $100,000 to $500,000, 
2\ times on those from $500,000 to a million, and threefold for 
those exceeding a million. This statute has been supported as 
constitutional by the Supreme Court. Many of the states also 
impose succession duties, or transfer taxes ; generally, however on 
collateral and remote successions; sometimes progressive, according 
to the amount of the succession. The state duties generally touch 
real estate successions as well as those to personal property, 
citizen of state A owns registered bonds of a corporation charterec 
by state B, which he has put for safe keeping in a deposit vault 
in state C, his estate may thus have to pay four succession taxes 
one to state A, to which he belongs and which, by legal fiction, is 
the seat of all his personal property; one to state B, for permitting 
the transfer of the bonds to the legatees on the books ot the 
corporation; one to state C, for allowing them to be remoyec 
from the deposit vault for that purpose; and one to the United 

SUCCINIC ACID, C 2 H4(CO 2 H) 2 . Two acids corresponding 
o this empirical formula are known namely ethylene suc- 
cinic acid, HO 2 C-CH 2 -CH2-C0 2 H and ethylidene succinic acid 
:H 3 -CH(CO 2 H) 2 . 

Ethylene succinic acid occurs in amber, in various resins and 
ignites, in fossilized wood, in many members of the natural 
orders of Papaveraceae and Compositae, in unripe grapes, 
urine and blood. It is also found in the thymus gland of calves 
and in the spleen of cattle. It may be prepared by the oxidation 
of fats and of fatty acids by nitric acid, and is also a product of 
the fermentation of malic and tartaric acids. It is usually 
obtained by the distillation of amber, or by the fermentation of 
calcium malate or ammonium tartrate. Synthetically it may 
DC obtained by reducing malic or tartaric acids with hydriodic 
acid (R. Schmitt, Ann., 1860, 114, p. 106; V. Dessaignes, ibid., 
1860, 115, p. 120; by reducing fumaric and maleic acids with 
sodium amalgam; by heating bromacetic acid with silver to 
130 C.; in small quantity by the oxidation of acetic acid with 
potassium persulphate (C. MoritzandR.Wolffenstein, Ber., 1899, 
32, p. 2534); by the hydrolysis of succinonitrile (from ethylene 
dibromide) C 2 H 4 -^C 2 Il4Br 2 ->C 2 H4(CN) 2 -^C 2 H 4 (CO 2 H)2; by the 
lydrolysis of /3-cyanpropionic ester; and by the condensation 
of sodiomalonic ester with monochloracetic ester and hydrolysis 
of the resulting ethane tricarboxylic ester (RO 2 C) 2 CH- CH 2 - CO 2 R ; 
this method is applicable to the preparation of substituted 
succinic acids. It is also produced by the electrolysis of a 
concentrated solution of potassium ethyl malonate. 

It crystallizes in prisms or plates which melt at 185 C. and boil 
at 235 C. with partial conversion into the anhydride. It is 
readily soluble in water. Aqueous solutions of the acid are 
decomposed in sunlight by uranium salts, with evolution of 
carbon dioxide and the formation of propionic acid. Potassium 
permanganate, in acid solution, oxidizes it to carbon dioxide 
and water. The sodium salt on distillation with phosphorus 
trisulphide gives thiophene. The esters of the acid condense 
readily with aromatic aldehydes and ketones to form 7-di- 
substituted itaconic acids and 7-alkylen pyrotartaric acids 
(H. Stobbe, Ann., 1899, 308, p. 71). 7-Oxyacids are formed 
when aldehydes are heated with sodium succinate and sodium 
acetate. Numerous salts of the acid are known, the basic 
ferric salt being occasionally used in quantitative analysis for 
the separation of iron from aluminium. 

Succinyl chloride, obtained by the action of phosphorus penta- 
chloride on succinic acid, is a colourless liquid which boils at 190 C. 
In many respects it behaves as though it were dichlorbutyro-lactone, 

C 2 H<^ 2 \O; e.g. on reduction it yields butyro-lactone, and when 

condensed with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride it 
yields chiefly 7-diphenylbutyro-lactone. Succimc anhydride, 
C 2 H4(CO) 2 O, is obtained by heating the acid or its sodium salt with 
acetic anhydride; by the action of acetyl chloride on the barium salt; 
by distilling a mixture of succinic acid and succinyl chloride, or by 
heating succinyl chloride with anhydrous oxalic acid. It crystallizes 
in plates which melt at 120 C., and distils without decomposition. 
It is slowly dissolved by water with the formation of the acid. It 
combines readily with the meta-aminophenols to form rhodamines, 
which are valuable dyestuffs. Heated in a current of ammonia 
it gives succinimide, which is also obtained on heating acid ammon 
ium succinate. It crystallizes in colourless octahedra which melt 
at 125-126 C., and is easily soluble in water. When warmed with 
baryta water it yields succinamic acid, HOjC-CHz-C HrCONHz; 
and with alcoholic ammonia at 100 C. it gives succinamide. The 
imino hydrogen atom is easily replaced by metals. Distillation 
with zinc dust gives pyrrol (q.v.). By the action of bromine in 
alkaline solution it is converted into /3-aminopropionic acid. 
Succinamide, C 2 H 4 (CONH 2 ) 2 , best obtained by the action of ammonia 
on diethyl succinate, crystallizes in needles which melt at 242- 
243 C., and is soluble in hot water. Succinomlnle, C 2 H 4 (CN) 2 , 
is obtained by the action of potassium cyanide on ethylene 
dibromide or by the electrolysis of a solution of potassium cyan- 
acetate. It is an amorphous solid which melts at 54-55 <-. On 
reduction with sodium in alcoholic solution it yields tetraethylene 
diamine (putrescein) and pyrolUdine. rwrPH 1 CD H 

Methyl succinic acid (pyrotartaric acid) , H O 2 L < , H 2 - 1_ H (C H 3 J HJ s n , 
is formed by the dry distillation of tartaric acid; by heating pyruyic 
acid with concentrated hydrochloric acid to 1 80 C. ; by the reduction 
of citraconic and mesaconic acids with sodium amalgam; and by 


the hydrolysis of /3-cyanbutyric acid. It crystallizes in small prisms 
which melt at 1 12 C. and are soluble in water. It forms an 
anhydride when heated. The sodium salt on heating with 
phosphorus trisulphide yields methylthiophen. 

Ethylidene succinic acid or isosuccinic acid, CH3-CH(CO 2 H)2, 
is produced by the hydrolysis of a-cyaupropionic acid and by the 
action of methyl iodide on sodio-malonic ester. It crystallizes in 
prisms which melt at 120 C. (T. Salzer, Journ. prak. Chem., 1898 [2], 
57, p. 497), and dissolve in water. It does not yield an anhydride, 
but when heated loses carbon dioxide and leaves a residue of 
propionic acid. It may be distinguished from the isomeric 
ethylene succinic acid by the fact that its sodium salt does not give 
a precipitate with ferric chloride. 

SUCHER, ROSA (1849- ), German opera singer, nte 
Hasselbeck, was the wife of Josef Sucher (1844-1908), a well- 
known conductor and composer. They were married in 1876, 
when she had already had various engagements as a singer and he 
was conductor at the Leipzig city theatre. Frau Sucher soon 
became famous for her performances in Wagner s operas, her 
seasons in London in 1882 and 1892 proving her great capacity 
both as singer and actress; in 1886 and 1888 she sang at 
Bayreuth, and in later years she was principally associated with 
the opera stage in Berlin, retiring in 1903. Her magnificent 
rendering of the part of Isolde in Wagner s opera is especially 

(1770-1826), marshal of France, one of the most brilliant of 
Napoleon s generals, was the son of a silk manufacturer at Lyons, 
where he was born on the 2nd of March 1770. He originally 
intended to follow his father s business; but having in 1792 
served as volunteer in the cavalry of the national guard at 
Lyons, he manifested military abilities which secured his rapid 
promotion. As chef de bataillon he was present at the siege of 
Toulon in 1793, where he took General O Hara prisoner. During 
the Italian campaign of 1796 he was severely wounded at Cerea 
on the nth of October. In October 1797 he was appointed to the 
command of a demi-brigade, and his services, under Joubert in the 
Tirol in that year, and in Switzerland under Brune in 1 797-98, were 
recognized by his promotion to the rank of general of brigade. 
He took no part in the Egyptian campaign, but in August was 
made chief of the staff to Brune, and restored the efficiency 
and discipline of the army in Italy. In July 1799 he was made 
general of division and chief of staff to Joubert in Italy, and 
was in 1800 named by Massena his second in command. His 
dexterous resistance to the superior forces of the Austrians with 
the left wing of Massena s army, when the right and centre were 
shut up in Genoa, not only prevented the invasion of France 
from this direction but contributed to the success of Napoleon s 
crossing the Alps, which culminated in the battle of Marengo 
on the i4th of June. He took a prominent part in the Italian 
campaign till the armistice of Treviso. In the campaigns of 
1805 and 1806 he greatly increased his reputation at Austerlitz, 
Saalfeld, Jena, Pultusk and Ostrolenka. He obtained the title 
of count on the i9th of March 1808, married Mile de Saint 
Joseph, a niece of Joseph Bonaparte s wife, and soon afterwards 
was ordered to Spain. Here, after taking part in the siege of 
Saragossa, he was named commander of the army of Aragon and 
governor of the province, which, by wise and (unlike that of most 
of the French generals) disinterested administration no less 
than by his brilliant valour, he in two years brought into com 
plete submission. He annihilated the army of Blake at Maria 
on the i4th of June 1809, and on the 22nd of April 1810 defeated 
O Donnell at Lerida. After being made marshal of France 
(July 8, 1811) he in 1812 achieved the conquest of Valencia, 
for which he was rewarded with the title of due d Albufera da 
Valencia (1812). When the tide set against the French Suchet 
defended his conquests step by step till compelled to retire into 
France, after which he took part in Soult s defensive campaign. 
By Louis XVIII. he was on the 4th of June made a peer of 
France, but, having during the Hundred Days commanded 
one of Napoleon s armies on the Alpine frontier, he was deprived 
of his peerage on the 24th of July 1815. He died near Marseilles 
on the 3rd of January 1826. Suchet wrote Memoires dealing 
with the Peninsular War, which were left by the marshal in an 

unfinished condition, and the two volumes and atlas appeared 
in 1829-1834 under the editorship of his former chief staff 
officer, Baron St Cyr-Nogues. 

See C. H. Barault-Roullon, Le Marichal Suchet (Paris, 1854); 
Choumara, Considerations militaires sur les memoires du Marechal 
Suchet (Paris, 1840), a controversial work on the last events of the 
Peninsular War, inspired, it is supposed, by Soult ; and Lieutenant - 
General Lamarque s obituary notice in the Spectateur mililaire 
(1826). See also bibliography in article PENINSULAR WAR. 

SU-CHOW. There are in China three cities of this name 
which deserve mention. 

1. Su-chow-Fu, in the province of Kiang-su, formerly one 
of the largest cities in the world, and in 1907 credited still with 
a population of 500,000, on the Grand Canal, 55 m. W.N.W. of 
Shanghai, with which it is connected by railway. The site is 
practically a cluster of islands to the east of Lake Tai-hu. The 
walls are about 10 m. in circumference and there are four large 
suburbs. Its silk manufactures are represented by a greater 
variety of goods than are produced anywhere else in the empire; 
and the publication of cheap editions of the Chinese classics is 
carried to great perfection. There is a Chinese proverb to the 
effect that to be perfectly happy a man ought to be born in 
Su-chow, live in Canton and die in Lien-chow. The nine- 
storeyed pagoda of the northern temple is one of the finest in 
the country. In 1860 Su-chow was captured by the T aip ings, 
and when in 1863 it was recovered by General Gordon the city 
was almost a heap of ruins. It has since largely recovered its 
prosperity, and besides 7000 silk looms has cotton mills and 
an important trade in rice. Of the original splendour of the 
place some idea may be gathered from the beautiful plan on a 
slab of marble preserved since 1 247 in the temple of Confucius and 
reproduced in Yule s Marco Polo, vol. i. Su-chow was founded 
in 484 by Ho-lu-Wang, whose grave is covered by the artificial 
" Hill of the Tiger " in the vicinity of the town. The literary 
and poetic designation of Su-chow is Ku-su, from the great tower 
of Ku-su-tai, built by Ho-lu-Wang. Su-chow was opened to 
foreign trade by the Japanese treaty of 1895. A Chinese and 
European school was opened in 1900. 

2. Su-chow, formerly Tsiu-tsuan-tsiun, a free city in the 
province of Kan-suh, in 39 48 N., just within the extreme 
north-west angle of the Great Wall, near the gate of jade. It is 
the great centre of the rhubarb trade. Completely destroyed 
in the great Mahommedan or Dungan insurrection (1865-72), 
it was recovered by the Chinese in 1873 and has been rebuilt. 

3. Su-chow, a commercial town situated in the province of 
Sze-ch uen at the junction of the Min River with the Yang-tse- 
Kiang, in 28 46 50" N. Population (1907) about 50,000. 

SUCKLING, SIR JOHN (1609-1642), English poet, was born 
at Whitton, in the parish of Twickenham, Middlesex, and bap 
tized there on the loth of February 1609. His father, Sir John 
Suckling (1569-1627), had been knighted by James I. and was 
successively master of requests, comptroller of the household 
and secretary of state. He sat in the first and second parlia 
ments of Charles I. s reign, and was made a privy councillor. 
During his career he amassed a considerable fortune, of which 
the poet became master at the age of eighteen. He was sent 
to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1623, and was entered at Gray s 
Inn in 1627. He was intimate with Thomas Carew, Richard 
Lovelace, Thomas Nabbes and especially with John Hales 
and Sir William Davenant, who furnished John Aubrey with 
information about his friend. In 1628 he left London to travel 
in France and Italy, returning, however, before the autumn of 
1630, when he was knighted. In 1631 he volunteered for the 
force raised by the marquess of Hamilton to serve under 
Gustavus Adolphus in Germany. He was back at Whitehall in 
May 1632; but during his short service he had been present at 
the battle of Breitenfeld and in many sieges. He was hand 
some, rich and generous; his happy gift in verse was only one 
of many accomplishments, but it commended him especially 
to Charles I. and his queen. He says of himself (" A Sessions 
of the Poets ") that he " prized black eyes or a lucky hit at 
bowls above all the trophies of wit." He was the best card- 
player and the best bowler at court. Aubrey says that he 



invented the game of cribbage, and relates that his sisters came 
weeping to the bowling green at Piccadilly to dissuade him from 
play, fearing that he would lose their portions. In 1634 great 
scandal was caused in his old circle by a beating which he 
received at the hands of Sir John Digby, a rival suitor for the 
hand of the daughter of Sir John Willoughby; and it has 
been suggested that this incident, which is narrated at length 
in a letter (Nov. 10, 1634) from George Garrard l to Strafford, 
had something to do with his beginning to seek more serious 
society. In 1635 he retired to his country estates in obedience 
to the proclamation of the aoth of June 1632 enforced by 
the Star Chamber 2 against absentee landlordism, and employed 
his leisure in literary pursuits. In 1637 "A Sessions of the 
Poets " was circulated in MS., and about the same time he 
wrote a tract on Socinianism entitled An Account of Religion 
by Reason (pr. 1646). 

As a dramatist Suckling is noteworthy as having applied to 
regular drama the accessories already used in the production 
of masques. His Aglaura (pr. 1638) was produced at his own 
expense with elaborate scenery. Even the lace on the actors 
coats was of real gold and silver. The play, in spite of its 
felicity of diction, lacks dramatic interest, and the criticism 
of Richard Flecknoe (Short Discourse of the English Stage), 3 
that it seemed " full of flowers, but rather stuck in than growing 
there," is not altogether unjustified. The Goblins (1638, 
pr. 1646) has some reminiscences of The Tempest; Brennoralt, 
or the Discontented Colonel (1639, pr. 1646) is a satire on the 
Scots, who are the Lithuanian rebels of the play; a fourth play, 
The Sad One, was left unfinished owing to the outbreak of the 
Civil War. Suckling raised a troop of a hundred horse, at a 
cost of 12,000, and accompanied Charles on the Scottish expedi 
tion of 1630. He shared in the earl of Holland s retreat before 
Duns, and was ridiculed in an amusing ballad (pr. 1656), 
in Musarum deliciae, " on Sir John Suckling s most war 
like preparations for the Scottish war." 4 He was elected as 
member for Bramber for the opening session (1640) of the Long 
Parliament; and in that winter he drew up a letter addressed 
to Henry Jermyn, afterwards earl of St Albans, advising the 
king to disconcert the opposition leaders by making more con 
cessions than they asked for. In May of the following year he 
was implicated in an attempt to rescue Strafford from the Tower 
and to bring in French troops to the king s aid. The plot was 
exposed by the evidence of Colonel George Goring, and Suckling 
fled beyond the seas. The circumstances of his short exile are 
obscure. He was certainly in Paris in the summer of 1641. 
One pamphlet related a story of his elopement with a lady to 
Spain, where he fell into the hands of the Inquisition. The 
manner of his death is uncertain, but Aubrey s statement that 
he put an end to his life by poison in May or June 1642 in fear 
of poverty is generally accepted. 

Suckling s reputation as a poet depends on his minor pieces. 
They have wit and fancy, and at times exquisite felicity of 
expression. " Easy, natural Suckling," Millamant s comment 
in Congreve s Way of the World (Act iv., sc. i.) is a just tribute 
to their spontaneous quality. Among the best known of them 
are the " Ballade upon a Wedding," on the occasion of the 
marriage of Roger Boyle, afterwards earl of Orrery, and Lady 
Margaret Howard, "I prithee, send me back my heart," 
"Out upon it, I have loved three whole days together," and 
"Why so pale and wan, fond lover?" from Aglaura. "A 
Sessions of the Poets," describing a meeting of the con 
temporary versifiers under the presidency of Apollo to decide 
who should wear the laurel wreath, is the prototype of many 
later satires. 

A collection of Suckling s poems was first published in 1646 as 
Fragmenta aurea, the so-called Selections (1836) published by the 

1 Stafford s Letters and Despatches (1739). i- 336. 

2 For an account of the proceedings see Historical Collections, ed. 
by Rushworth (1680), 2nd pt., pp. 288-293. 

Reprinted in Eng. Drama and Stage, ed. W. C. Hazlitt, Rox- 
burghe Library (1869), p. 277. 

4 Attributed by Aubrey to Sir John Mennis (1599-1671). See 
also a song printed in the tract, Vox borealis (Harl. Misc. iii. 235). 

Rev. Alfred Inigo Suckling, author of the History and Antiquities of 
Suffolk (18461848) with Memoirs based on original authorities and 
a portrait after Van Dyck, is really a complete edition of his works, 
of which W. C. Hazlitt s edition (1874; revised ed., 1892) is little more 
than a reprint with some additions. The Poems and Songs of Sir 
John Suckling, edited by John Gray and decorated with woodcut 
border and initials by Charles Ricketts, was artistically printed at 
the Ballantyne Press in 1896. In 1910 Suckling s works in prose 
and verse were edited by A. Hamilton Thompson. For anecdotes 
of Suckling s life see John Aubrey s Brief Lives (Clarendon Press 
ed., ii. 242). 

SUCRE, or CHTJQUISACA, a city of Bolivia, capital of the 
department of Chuquisaca and nominal capital of the republic, 
46 m. N.E. of Potosi in 19 2 45" S., 65 17 W. Pop. (1900), 
20,967; (1906, estimate), 23,416, of whom many are Indians and 
cholos. The city is in an elevated valley opening southward 
on the narrow ravine through which flows the Cachimayo, the 
principal northern tributary of the Pilcomayo. Its elevation, 
8839 ft., gives it an exceptionally agreeable climate. There are 
fertile valleys in the vicinity which provide the city s markets 
with fruit and vegetables, while the vineyards of Camargo 
(formerly known as Cinti), in the southern part of the depart 
ment, supply wine and spirits of excellent quality. The city is 
laid out regularly, with broad streets, a large central plaza and 
a public garden, or promenade, called the prado. Among its 
buildings are the cathedral, dating from 1553 and once noted 
for its wealth; the president s palace and halls of congress, 
which are no longer occupied as such by the national govern 
ment; the cabildo, or town-hall; a mint dating from 1572; the 
courts of justice, and the university of San Xavier, founded 
in 1624, with faculties of law, medicine and theology. There 
is a pretty chapel called the " Rotunda," erected in 1852 at 
the lower end of the prado by President Belzu, on the spot where 
an attempt had been made to assassinate him. Sucre is the 
seat of the archbishop of La Plata and Charcas, the primate 
of Bolivia. It is not a commercial town, and its only note 
worthy manufacture is the " clay dumplings " which are eaten 
with potatoes by the inhabitants of the Bolivian uplands. 
Although the capital of Bolivia, Sucre is one of its most isolated 
towns because of the difficult character of the roads leading to 
it. It is reached from the Pacific by way of Challapata, a 
station on the Antofagasta & Oruro railway. 

The Spanish town, according to Velasco, was founded in 1538 
by Captain Pedro Angules on the site of an Indian village called 
Chuquisaca, or Chuquichaca (golden bridge), and was called 
Charcas and Ciudad de la Plata by the Spaniards, though the 
natives clung to the original Indian name. It became the capital 
of the province of Charcas, of the comarca of Chuquisaca, and of 
the bishopric of La Plata and Charcas, and in time it became 
the favourite residence and health resort of the rich mine-owners 
of Potosi. The bishopric dates from 1552 and the archbishopric 
from 1609. In the latter year was created the Real Audiencia 
de la Plata y Charcas, a royal court of justice having jurisdiction 
over Upper Peru and the La Plata provinces of that time. Sucre 
was the first city of Spanish South America to revolt against 
Spanish rule on the 2Sth of May 1809. In 1840 the name 
Sucre was adopted in honour of the patriot commander who won 
the last decisive battle of the war, and then became the first 
president of Bolivia. The city has suffered much from partisan 
strife, and the removal of the government to La Paz greatly 
diminished its importance. 

SUCZAWA (Rumanian, Suceava), a town in Bukovina, 
Austria, 50 m. S. of Czernowitz by rail. Pop. (1900), 10,955. 
It is situated on the river Suczawa, which forms there the 
boundary between Bukovina and Rumania. One of its two 
churches, dating from the I4th century, contains the grave of 
the patron saint of Bukovina. The principal industry is the 
tanning and leather trade. Not far from Suczawa lies the 
monastery of Dragomirna, in Byzantine style, built at the 
beginning of the i7th century. Suczawa is a very old town and 
was until 1565 the capital of the principality of Moldavia. It 
was many times besieged by Poles, Hungarians, Tatars and 
Turks. In 1675 it was besieged by Sobiaski, and in 1679 it 
was plundered by the Turks. 


SUDAN (Arabic Bilad-es-Sudan, country of the blacks), 
that region of Africa which stretches, south of the Sahara and 
Egypt, from Cape Verde on the Atlantic to Massawa on the 
Red Sea. It is bounded S. (i) by the maritime countries of the 
west coast of Africa, (2) by the basin of the Congo, and (3) by 
the equatorial lakes, and E. by the Abyssinian and Galla high 
lands. The name is often used in Great Britain in a restricted 
sense to designate only the eastern part of this vast territory, 
but it is properly applied to the whole area indicated, which 
corresponds roughly to that portion of negro Africa north of the 
equator under Mahommedan influence. The terms Nigritia 
and Negroland, at one time current, referred to the same region. 

The Sudan has an ethnological rather than a physical unity, 
and politically it is divided into a large number of states, all 
now under the control of European powers. These countries 
being separately described, brief notice only is required of the 
Sudan as a whole. 

Within the limits assigned it has a length of about 4000 m., 
extending southwards at some points 1000 m., with a total 
area of over 2,000,000 sq. m., and a population, approximately, 
of 40,000,000. Between the arid and sandy northern wastes 
and the well-watered and arable Sudanese lands there is a 
transitional zone of level grassy steppes (partly covered with 
mimosas and acacias) with a mean breadth of about 60 m. 
The zone lies between 17 and 18 N., but towards the centre 
reaches as far south as 15 N. Excluding this transitional 
zone, the Sudan may be described as a moderately elevated 
region, with extensive open or rolling plains, level plateaus, and 
abutting at its eastern and western ends on mountainous country. 
Crystalline rocks, granites, gneisses and schists, of the Central 

African type, occupy the greater part of the country. Towards 
the south-east, slates, quartzites and iron-bearing schists octfur, 
but their age is not known. The Congo sandstones do not appear 
to extend as far north. The Nubian sandstone borders the 
Libyan desert on the south and south-west, but it is doubtful 
if this sandstone is of Cretaceous or earlier date. 

The Sudan contains the basin of the Senegal and parts of 
three other hydrographic systems, namely: the Niger, draining 
southwards to the Atlantic; the central depression of Lake Chad; 
and the Nile, flowing northwards to the Mediterranean. Lying 
within the tropics and with an average elevation of not more 
than 1500 to 2000 ft. above the sea, the climate of the Sudan 
is hot and in the river valleys very un 
healthy. Few parts are suitable for the 
residence of Europeans. Cut off from 
North Africa by the Saharan desert, the 
inhabitants, who belong in the main to 
the negro family proper, are thought to 
have received their earliest civilization 
from the East. Arab influence and the 
Moslem religion began to be felt in the 
western Sudan as early as the gth century 
and had taken deep root by the end of 
the nth. The existence of native Chris 
tian states in Nubia hindered for some 
centuries the spread of Islam in the 
eastern Sudan, and throughout the 
country some tribes have remained 
pagan. It was not until the last quarter 
of the ipth century that the European 
nations became the ruling force. 

The terms western, central and eastern 
Sudan are indicative of geographical 
position merely. The various states are 
politically divisible into four groups: 
(i) those west of the Niger; (2) those 
between the Niger and Lake Chad; (3) 
those between Lake Chad and the basin 
of the Nile; (4) those in the upper Nile 

The first group includes the native 
states of Bondu, Futa Jallon, Masina, 
Mossi and all the tribes within the great 
bend of the Niger. In the last quarter 
of the igth century they fell under the 
control of France, the region being 
styled officially the French Sudan. In 
1900 this title was abandoned. The 
greater part of what was the French 
Sudan is now known as the Upper 
Senegal and Niger Colony (see SENEGAL, 

The second group of Sudanese states 
is almost entirely within the British 
protectorate of Northern Nigeria. It includes the sultanate 
of Sokoto and its dependent emirates of Kano, Bida, Zaria, 
&c., and the ancient sultanate of Bornu, which, with Adamawa, 
is partly within the German colony of Cameroon (see NIGERIA 

The third or central group of Sudanese states is formed of 
the sultanates of Bagirmi (q.v.) with Kanem and Wadai (g.v.). 
Wadai was the last state of the Sudan to come under European 
influence, its conquest being effected in 1909. This third group 
is included in French Congo (q.v.). 

The fourth group consists of the states conquered during 
the igth century by the Egyptians and now under the joint 
control of Great Britain and Egypt. These countries are known 
collectively as the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (see below). 

For the regions west of Lake Chad the standard historical work 
is the Travels of Dr Heinrich Earth (5 vols., London, 1857-1858). 
Consult also P. C. Meyer, Erforschungsgeschichte und Staatenbildungen 
des Westsudan (Gotha, 1897), an admirable summary with biblio 
graphy and maps; Karl Kumm, The Sudan (London, 1907); Lady 

Emeiy Walker 



Lugard, A Tropical Dependency (London, 1905); and the biblio 
graphies given under the various countries named. For sources 
and history see TIMBUKTU. For the central Sudan the most im 
portant work is that of Gustav Nachtigal, Sahara und Sudan (3 vols., 
Berlin 1870-1889). See also Boyd Alexander, From the Niger to the 
Nile (2 vols., London, 1907) ; Karl Kumm, From Haussaland to Egypt 
(London, 1910). For the eastern Sudan see the bibliographies under 
the following section. A good general work is P. Paulitschke s 
Die Suddnldnder (Freiburg, 1885). 


The region which before the revolt of the Arabized tribes 
under the Mahdi Mahommed Ahmed in 1881-84 was known 
ar as the Egyptian Sudan has, since its reconquest by 
sf* tne Anglo-Egyptian expeditions of 1896-98, been 
under the joint sovereignty of Great Britain and 
Egypt. The limits of this condominium differ slightly from 
those of the Egyptian Sudan of the pre-Mahdi period. It is 
bounded N. by Egypt (the 22nd parallel of N. lat. being the 
dividing line), E. by the Red Sea, Eritrea and Abyssinia, S. by 
the Uganda Protectorate and Belgian Congo, W. by French 
Congo. North of Darfur is the Libyan Desert, in which the 
western and northern frontiers meet. Here the boundary is 
undefined. 1 

As thus constituted the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan forms a com 
pact territory which, being joined southwards by the Uganda 
Protectorate, brings the whole of the Nile valley from the 
equatorial lakes to the Mediterranean under the control of Great 
Britain. The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan extends north to south 
about 1200 m. in a direct line, and west to east about 1000 m. 
also in a direct line. It covers 950,000 sq. m., being about one- 
fourth the area of Europe. In what follows the term Sudan 
is used to indicate the Anglo-Egyptian condominium only. 

Physical Features. The Sudan presents many diversified features. 
It may be divided broadly into two zones. The northern portion, 
from about 16 N., is practically the south-eastern continuation 
of the Saharan desert; the southern region is fertile, abundantly 
watered, and in places densely forested. West ot the Nile there 
is a distinctly marked intermediate zone of steppes. In the southern 
district, between 5 and 10 N., huge swamps extend on either side 
of the Nile and along the Bahr-el-Ghazal. 

From south to north the Sudan is traversed by the Nile (q.v.), 
and all the great tributaries of that river are either partly or entirely 
within its borders. The most elevated district is a range of mountains 
running parallel to the Red Sea. These mountains, which to the 
south join the Abyssinian highlands, present their steepest face 
eastward, attaining heights within the Sudan of 4000 to over 7000 ft. 
Jebel Erba, 7480 ft., and Jebel Soturba, 6889 ft. (both between 21 
and 22 N.), the highest peaks, face the Red Sea about 20 m. 
inland. Westward the mountains slope gradually to the Nile 
valley, which occupies the greater part of the country and has a 
general level of from 600 to 1600 ft. In places, as between Suakin 
and Berber and above Roseires on the Blue Nile, the mountains 
approach close to the river. Beyond the Nile westward extend 
vast plains, which in Kordofan and Dar Nuba (between 10 and 
15 N.) are broken by hills reaching 2000 ft. Farther west, in 
Darfur, the country is more elevated, the Jebel Marra range being 
from 5000 to 6000 ft. high. In the south-west, beyond the valley 
of the Bahr-el-Ghazal, the country gradually rises to a ridge of hills, 
perhaps 2000 ft. high, which running south-east and north-west form 
the water-parting between the Nile and the Congo. 

Apart from the Nile system, fully described elsewhere, the Sudan 
has two other rivers, the Gash and the Baraka. These are inter 
mittent streams rising in the eastern chain of mountains in Eritrea 
and flowing in a general northerly direction. The Gash enters 
the Sudan near Kassala and north of that town turns west towards 
the Atbara, but its waters are dissipated before that river is reached. 
The Gash nevertheless fertilizes a considerable tract of country. 
The Khor Baraka lies east of the Gash. It flows towards the Red 
Sea in the neighbourhood of Trinkitat (some 50 m. south of Suakin), 
but about 30 m. from the coast forms an inland delta. Except in 
seasons of great rain its waters do not reach the sea. 

The Coast Region. The coast extends along the Red Sea north 
to south from 22" N. to 18 N., a distance following the indentations 
of the shore of over 400 m. These indentations are numerous but 
not deep, the general trend of the coast being S.S.E. The most 
prominent headland is Ras Rawaya (21 N.) which forms the 
northern shore ot Dokhana Bay. There are few good harbours, Port 

1 It was supposed to be indicated by the line which, according to 
the Turkish firman of 1841, describes a semicircle from the Siwa 
Oasis to Wadai, approaching the Nile between the Second and Third 
Cataracts. This line is disregarded by the Sudan government. 

Sudan and Suakin being the chief ports. South of Suakin is the 
shallow bay of Trinkitat. A large number of small islands lie off the 
coast. A belt of sandy land covered with low scrub stretches inland 
ten to twenty miles, and is traversed by khors (generally dry) with 
ill-defined shifting channels. Beyond this plain rise the mountain 
ranges already mentioned. Their seaward slopes often bear a 
considerable amount of vegetation. 

The Desert Zone. The greater part of the region between the coast 
and the Nile is known as the Nubian Desert. It is a rugged, rocky, 
barren waste, scored with khors or wadis, along whose beds there 
is scanty vegetation. The desert character of the country increases 
as the river is neared, but along either bank of the Nile is a narrow 
strip of cultivable land. West of the Nile there are a few oases 
those of Selima, Zaghawa and El Kab but this district, part of 
the Libyan Desert, is even more desolate than the Nubian Desert. 

The Intermediate Zone and the Fertile Districts. East of the Nile 
the region of absolute desert ceases about the point of the Atbara 
confluence. The country enclosed by the Nile, the Atbara and the 
Blue Nile, the so-called Island of Meroe, consists of very fertile 
soil, and along the eastern frontier, by the upper courses of the 
rivers named, is a district of rich land alternating with prairies and 
open forests. The fork between the White and Blue Niles, the 
Gezira, is also fertile land. South of the Gezira is Sennar, a well- 
watered country of arable and grazing land. 

West of the Nile the desert zone extends farther south than on 
the east, and Kordofan, which comes between the desert and the 
plains of the Bahr-el-Ghazal, is largely barren and steppe land. 
South of 10 N. there is everywhere abundance of water. Darfur 
is mainly open, steppe-like country with extensive tracts of cultiv 
able land and a central mountain massif, the Jebel Marra (see 

Climate. The country lies wholly within the tropics, and as the 
greater part of it is far removed from the ocean and less than 1500 ft. 
above the sea it is extremely hot. The heat is greatest in the 
central regions, least in the desert zone, where the difference between 
summer and winter is marked. Even in winter, however, the day 
temperatures are high. Of this region the Arabs say " the soil is 
like fire and the wind like a flame." Nevertheless, the drynessof the 
air renders the climate healthy. The steppe countries, Kordofan 
and Darfur, are also healthy except after the autumn rains. At 
Khartum, centrally situated, the minimum temperature is about 
40 F., the maximum 113, the mean annual temperature being 80. 
January is the coldest and June the hottest month. Violent sand 
storms are frequent from June to August. Four rain zones may 
be distinguished. The northern (desert) region is one of little or 
no rain. There are perhaps a few rainy days in winter and an 
occasional storm in the summer. In the central belt, where " the 
rainy season " is from mid-June to September, there are some 
10 in. of rain during the year. The number of days on which 
rain falls rarely exceeds, however, fifteen. The rainfall increases 
to about 20 in. per annum in the eastern and south-eastern 
regions. In the swamp district and throughout the Bahr-el-Ghazal 
heavy rains (40 in. or more a year) are experienced. The 
season of heaviest rain is from April to September. In the 
maritime district there are occasional heavy rains between August 
and January. In the sudd region thunderstorms are frequent. 
Here the temperature averages about 85 F., the air is always 
damp and fever is endemic. 

Flora. In the deserts north of Khartum vegetation is almost 
confined to stunted mimosa and, in the less arid districts, scanty 
herbage. Between the desert and the cultivated Nile lands is an 
open growth of samr, hashab (Acacia verek) and other acacia trees. 
Between Khartum and 12 N. forest belts line the banks of the 
rivers and khors, in which the most noteworthy tree is the sant or 
sunt (Acacia arabica). Farther from the rivers are open woods of 
heglig (Balanites aegyptiaca), hashab, &c., and dense thickets of 
laot (Acacia nubica) and kittr (Acacia mellifera). These open woods 
cover a considerable part of Kordofan, the hashab and talh trees 
being the chief producers of gum arable. South of 12 N. the forest 
lands of the White Nile as far south as the sudd region are of similar 
character to that described. On the Blue Nile the forest trees 
alter, the most abundant being the babanus (Sudan ebony) and the 
silag (Anogeissus leiocarpus), while gigantic baobabs, called tebeldi 
in the Sudan, and tarfa (Sterculia cinerea) are numerous. In 
southern Kordofan and in the higher parts of the Bahr-el-Ghazal 
the silag and ebony are also common, as well as African mahogany 
(homraya, Khaya senegalensis) and other timber trees. In the 
Ghazal province also are many rubber-producing lianas, among 
them the Landolphia owariensis. There are also forest regions in 
the Bahr-el- Jebel, in the Mongalla mudiria and along the Abyssinian- 
Eritrean frontier. East of the Bahr-el-Jebel and north of the 
Bahr-el-Ghazal are vast prairies covered with tall coarse grass. 
Cotton is indigenous in the valley of the Blue Nile, and in some 
districts bamboos are plentiful. The castor-oil plant grows 
in almost every province. (See also Agriculture, and, for the 
vegetation of the swamp region, NILE.) 

Fauna. Wild animals and birds are numerous. Elephants are 
abundant in the Bahr-el-Ghazal and Bahr-el-Jebel forests, and 
are found in fewer numbers in the upper valley of the Blue Nile. 


1 1 

The hippopotamus and crocodile abound in the swamp regions, 
which also shelter many kinds of water-fowl. The lion, leopard, 
giraffe and various kinds of antelope are found in the prairies and 
in the open woods. In the forests are numerous bright-plumaged 
birds and many species of monkeys, mostly ground monkeys 
the trees being too prickly for climbing. Snakes are also plentiful, 
many poisonous kinds being found. In the steppe regions of Kordo- 
fan, Darfur, &c., and in the Nubian Desert ostriches are fairly 
plentiful. Insect life is very abundant, especially south of 12 N., 
the northern limit of the tsetse fly. The chief pests are mosqui 
toes, termites and the serut, a brown fly about the size of a wasp, 
with a sharp stab, which chiefly attacks cattle. Locusts are less 
common, but, especially in the eastern districts, occasionally cause 
great destruction. For domestic animals see Agriculture. 

Inhabitants. The population, always sparse in the desert 
and steppe regions, was never dense even in the more fertile 
southern districts. During the Mahdia the country suffered 
severely from war and disease. Excluding Darfur the popula 
tion before the Mahdist rule was estimated at 8,500,000. In 
1905 an estimate made by the Sudan government put the 
population at 1,853,000 only, including 11,000 foreigners, of 
whom 2800 were Europeans. Since that year there has been 
a considerable natural increase and in 1910 the population was 
officially estimated at 2,400,000. There has also been a slight 
immigration of Abyssinians, Egyptians, Syrians and Europeans 
the last named chiefly Greeks. 

The term " Bilad-es-Sudan " (" country of the blacks ") is 
not altogether applicable to the Anglo-Egyptian condominium, 
the northern portion being occupied by Hamitic and Semitic 
tribes, chiefly nomads, and classed as Arabs. In the Nile valley 
north of Khartum the inhabitants are of very mixed origin. 
This applies particularly to the so-called Nubians who inhabit 
the Dongola mudiria (see NUBIA). Elsewhere the inhabitants 
north of 12 N. are of mixed Arab descent. In the Nubian 
Desert the chief tribes are the Ababda and Bisharin, the last 
named grazing their camels in the mountainous districts towards 
the Red Sea. In the region south of Berber and Suakin are 
the Hadendoa. The Jaalin, Hassania and Shukria inhabit the 
country between the Atbara and Blue Nile; the Hassania and 
Hassanat are found chiefly in the Gezira. The Kabbabish 
occupy the desert country north of Kordofan, which is the home 
of the Baggara tribes. In Darfur the inhabitants are of mixed 
Arab and negro blood. 

Of negro Nilotic tribes there are three or four main divisions. 
The Shilluks occupy the country along the west side of the Nile 
northward from about Lake No. The country east of the Nile 
is divided between the Bari, Nuer and Dinka tribes. The 
Dinkas are also widely spread over the Bahr-el-Ghazal province. 
South of Kordofan and west of the Shilluk territory are the 
Nubas, apparently the original stock of the Nubians. In the 
south-west of the Bahr-el-Ghazal are the Bongos and other 
tribes, and along the Nile-Congo water-parting are the A-Zande 
or Niam-Niam, a comparatively light-coloured race. (All the 
tribes mentioned are separately noticed.) 

Social Conditions. In contrast with the Egyptians, a most 
industrious race, the Sudanese tribes, both Arab and negro, 
are as a general rule indolent. Where wants are few and simple, 
where houses need not be built nor clothes worn to keep out 
the cold, there is little stimulus to exertion. Many Arabs " clothed 
in rags, with only a mat for a house, prefer to lead the life of the 
free-born sons of the desert, no matter how large their herds or 
how numerous their followings" (Egypt, No. I [1904], p. 147). 
Following the establishment of British control slave-raiding and 
the slave trade were stopped, but domestic slavery continues. 
A genuine desire for education is manifest among the Arabic- 
speaking peoples and slow but distinct moral improvement is 
visible among them. Among the riverain "Arabs" some were 
found to supply labour for public works, and with the money 
thus obtained cattle were bought and farms started. The 
Dongolese are the keenest traders in the country. The Arab 
tribes are all Mahommedans, credulous and singularly liable 
to fits of religious excitement. Most of the negro tribes are 
pagan, but some of them who live in the northern regions 
have embraced Islam. 

Divisions and Chief Towns. Darfur is under native rule. The 
rest of the Sudan is divided into mudirias (provinces) and these are 
subdivided intomamuria. The mudirias are Haifa, Red Sea, Dongola 
and Berber in the north (these include practically all the region 
known as Nubia) ; Khartum, Blue Nile and White Nile in the centre; 
Kassala and Sennar in the east; Kordofan in the west; and Bahr- 
el-Ghazal, Upper Nile (formerly Fashoda) and Mongalla in the 
south. The mudirias vary considerably in size. 

The capital, Khartum (q.v.), pop. with suburbs about 70,000, 
is built in the fork formed by the junction of the White and Blue 
Niles. Opposite Khartum, on the west bank of the White Nile, 
is Omdurman (q.v.), pop. about 43,000, the capital of the Sudan 
during the Mahdia. On the Nile north of Khartum at the towns 
of Berber, Abu Hamed, Merawi (Merowe), Dongola and Wadi 
Haifa. On the Red Sea are Port Sudan and Suakin. Kassala 
is on the river Gash east of the Atbara and near the Eritrean frontier. 
(These towns are separately noticed.) On the Blue Nile are Kamlin, 
Sennar, Wad Medani (q.v.), pop. about 20,000, a thriving business 
centre and capital of the Blue Nile mudiria, and Roseires, which 
marks the limit of navigability by steamers of the river. Gallabat 
is a town in the Kassala mudiria close to the Abyssinian frontier, 
and Gedaref lies between the Blue Nile and Atbara a little north of 
14 N. El Obeid, the chief town of Kordofan, is 230 m. south 
west by south of Khartum. Duiem, capital of the White Nile 
mudiria, is the river port for Kordofan. El Fasher, the capital of 
Darfur, is 500 m. W.S.W. of Khartum. All the towns named, 
except Roseires, are situated north of 13 N. In the south of 
the Sudan there are no towns properly so called. The native 
villages are composed of straw or palm huts; the places occupied 
by Europeans or Egyptians are merely " posts " where the 
administrative business of the district is carried on. Fashoda (q.v.), 
renamed Kodok, is the headquarters of the Upper Nile mudiria. 

Communications. North of Khartum the chief means of com 
munication is by railway; south of that city by steamer. There are 
two trunk railways, one connecting the Sudan with Egypt, the 
other affording access to the Red Sea. The first line runs from the 
Nile at Wadi Haifa across the desert in a direct line to Abu Hamed, 
and from that point follows more or less closely the right (east) 
bank of the Nile to Khartum. At Khartum the Blue Nile is bridged 
and the railway is continued south through the Gezira to Sennar. 
Thence it turns west, crosses the White Nile near Abba Island, and 
is continued to El Obeid. The length of the line from Haifa to 
Khartum is 575 m. ; from Khartum to Obeid 350 m. The railway 
from the Nile to the Red Sea starts from the Haifa-Khartum line 
at Atbara Junction, a mile north of the Atbara confluence. It runs 
somewhat south of the Berber-Suakin caravan route. At Sallom, 
278 m. from Atbara Junction, the line divides, one branch going 
north to Port Sudan, the other south to Suakin. The total distance 
to Port Sudan from Khartum is 493 m., the line to Suakin being 
4 m. longer. Besides these main lines a railway, 138 m. long, runs 
from Abu Hamed on the right bank of the Nile to Kareima (opposite 
Merawi) in the Dongola mudiria below the Fourth Cataract. (The 
railway which started from Haifa and followed the right bank of the 
Nile to Kerma, 201 m. from Haifa, was abandoned in 1903.) The 
railways are owned and worked by the state. 

In connexion with the Khartum-Haifa railway steamers ply on 
the Nile between Haifa and Shellal (Assuan) where the railway 
from Alexandria ends. The distance by rail and steamer between 
Khartum and Alexandria is about 1490 m. Steamers run on the 
Nile between Kerma and Kareima, and above Khartum the govern 
ment maintains a regular service of steamers as far south as Gondo- 
koro in the Uganda Protectorate. During flood season there is 
also a steamship service on the Blue Nile. Powerful dredgers and 
sudd-cutting machines are used to keep open communications in 
the upper Nile and Bahr-el-Ghazal. 

The ancient caravan routes Korosko-Abu Hamed and Berber- 
Suakin have been superseded by the railways, but elsewhere wells 
and rest-houses are maintained along the main routes between the 
towns and the Nile. On some of these roads a motor car service 
is maintained. 

From Port Sudan and Suakin there is a regular steamship service 
to Europe via the Suez Canal . There are also services to Alexandria, 
the Red Sea ports of Arabia, Aden and India. 

There is an extensive telegraphic system. Khartum is connected 
by land lines with Egypt and Uganda, thus affording direct tele 
graphic connexion between Alexandria and Mombasa (2500 m.). 
From Khartum other lines go to Kassala and the Red Sea ports. 
In some places the telegraph wires are placed 16 ft. 6 in. above 
the ground to protect them from damage by giraffes. 

Agriculture and other Industries. North of Khartum agricul 
tural land is confined to a narrow strip on either side of the Nile 
and to the few oases in the Libyan Desert. In the Gezira and in 
the plains of Gedaref between the Blue Nile and the Atbara there 
are wide areas of arable land, as also in the neighbourhood of Kassala 
along the banks of the Gash. In Kordofan and Darfur cultivation 
is confined to the khors or valleys. The chief grain crop is durra, 
the staple food of the Sudanese. Two crops are obtained yearly 
in several districts. On lands near the rivers the durra is sown after 
the flood has gone down and also at the beginning of the rainy 
season. Considerable quantities of wheat and barley are also 



grown. Other foodstuffs raised are lentils, beans, onions and 
melons. The date-palm is cultivated along the Nile valley below 
Khartum, especially on the west bank in the Dongola mudiria and 
in the neighbouring oases. Dates are also a staple product in 
Darfur and Kordofan. Ground-nuts and sesame are grown in large 
quantities for the oil they yield, and cotton of quality equal to 
that grown in the Delta is produced. The Sudan was indeed the 
original home of Egyptian cotton. 

For watering the land by the river banks sakias (water-wheels) 
are used, oxen being employed to turn them There are also a few 
irrigation canals. In 1910, apart from the date plantations, about 
1,500,000 acres were under cultivation. In 1910 a system of basin 
irrigation was begun in Dongola mudiria. 

Gum and rubber are the chief forest products. The gum is 
obtained from eastern Kordofan and in the forests in the upper 
valley of the Blue Nile, the best gum coming from Kordofan. It 
is of two kinds, hashab (white) and talk (red), the white being the 
most valuable. Rubber is obtained from the Bahr-el-Ghazal 
where there are Para and Ceara rubber plantations and in the 
Sobat district. The wood of the sunt tree is used largely for boat 
building and for fuel, and the mahogany tree yields excellent timber. 
Fibre is made from several trees and plants. Elephants are hunted 
for the sake of their ivory. The wealth of the Arab tribes consists 
largely in their herds of camels, horses and cattle. They also keep 
ostrich farms, the feathers being of good quality. The Dongola 
breed of horses is noted for its strength and hardness. The camels 
are bred in the desert north of Berber, between the Nile and Red 
Sea, in southern Dongola, in the Hadendoa country and in northern 
Kordofan. The Sudanese camel is lighter, faster and better bred 
than the camel of Egypt. The camel, horse and ostrich are not 
found south of Kordofan and Sennar. The negro tribes living 
south of those countries possess large herds of cattle, sheep and 
goats. The cattle are generally small and the sheep yield little 
wool. The Arabs use the cattle as draught-animals as well as for 
their milk and flesh ; the negro tribes as a rule do not eat their oxen. 
Fowls are plentiful, but of poor quality. Donkeys are much used 
in the central regions; they make excellent transport animals. 

Mineral Wealth. In ancient times Nubia, i.e. the region between 
the Red Sea and the Nile south of Egypt and north of the Suakin- 
Berber line, was worked for gold. Ruins of an extensive gold 
mine exist near Jebel Erba at a short distance from the sea. In 
! 95 gold mining recommenced in Nubia, in the district of Um 
Nabardi, which is in the desert, about midway between Wadi 
Haifa and Abu Hamed. A light railway, 30 m. long, opened in 
June 1905, connects Um Nabardi with the government railway 
system. The producing stage was reached in 1908, and between 
September 1908 and August 1909 the mines yielded 4500 oz. of gold. 
Small quantities of gold-dust are obtained from Kordofan, and 
gold is found in the Beni-Shangul country south-west of Sennar, 
but this region is within the Abyssinian frontier (agreement of 
the I5th of May 1902). There is lignite in the Dongola mudiria 
and iron ore is found in Darfur, southern Kordofan and in the 
Bahr-el-Ghazal. In the last-named mudiria iron is worked by the 
natives. The district of Hofrat-el-Nahas (the copper mine) is 
rich in copper, the mines having been worked intermittently from 
remote times. 

Trade. -The chief products of the Sudan for export are gum, 
ivory, ostrich feathers, dates and rubber. Cotton, cotton-seed 
and grain (durra, wheat, barley) sesame, livestock, hides and skins, 
beeswax, mother-of-pearl, senna and gold are also exported. Before 
the opening (1906) of the railway to the Red Sea the trade was chiefly 
with Egypt via the Nile, and the great cost of carriage hindered its 
development. Since the completion of the railway named goods 
can be put on the world s markets at a much cheaper rate. Besides 
the Egyptian and Red Sea routes there is considerable trade between 
the eastern mudirias and Abyssinia and Eritrea, and also some trade 
south and west with Uganda and the Congo countries. The Red 
Sea ports trade largely with Arabia and engage in pearl fishery. 
The principal imports are cotton goods, food-stuffs (flour, rice, 
sugar, provisions), timber, tobacco, spirits (in large quantities), 
iron and machinery, candles, cement and perfumery. The value 
of the trade, which during the Mahdist rule (1884-1898) was a few 
thousands only, had increased in 1905 to over 1,500,000. In 
1908 the exports of Sudan produce were valued at 515,000 ; the 
total imports at 1,892,000. 

Government. The administration is based on the provisions 
of a convention signed on the igth of January 1899 between 
the British and Egyptian governments. The authority of the 
sovereign powers is represented by a governor-general appointed 
by Egypt on the recommendation of Great Britain. In 1910 a 
council consisting of four ex officio members and from two to 
four non-official nominated members was created to advise the 
governor-general in the exercise of his executive and legislative 
functions. Subject to the power of veto retained by the governor- 
general all questions are decided by a majority of the council. 
L l AE(pound Egyptian) is equal to i, os. 6d. British currency. 

Each of the mudirias into which the country is divided is presided 
over by a mudir (governor) responsible to the central govern 
ment at Khartum. The governor-general, the chiefs of the 
various departments of state and the mudirs are all Europeans, 
the majority being British military officers The minor officials 
are nearly all Egyptians or Sudanese. Revenue is derived as 
to about 60% from the customs and revenue-earning depart 
ments (i.e. steamers, railways, posts and telegraphs), and as 
to the rest from taxes on land, date-trees and animals, from 
royalties on gum, ivory and ostrich feathers, from licences to 
sell spirits, carry arms, &c., and from fees paid for the shooting 
of game. Expenditure is largely on public works, education, 
justice and the army. Financial affairs are managed from 
Khartum, but control over expenditure is exercised by the 
Egyptian financial department. The revenue, which in 1898 
was 35,000, for the first time exceeded a million in 1909, when 
the amount realized was 1,040,200. The expenditure in 
1909 was 1,153 ooo. Financially the government had been, 
up to 1910, largely dependent upon Egypt. In the years 1901- 
1909 4,378,000 was advanced from Cairo for public works 
in the Sudan; in the same period a further sum of about 
2,750,000 had been found by Egypt to meet annual deficits 
in the Sudan budgets (see Egypt, No. i [1910], pp. 5-6). 

Justice. The Sudan judicial codes, based in part on those 
of India and in part on the principles of English law and of 
Egyptian commercial law, provide for the recognition of " cus 
tomary law " so far as applicable and " not repugnant to good 
conscience." In each mudiria criminal justice is administered 
by a court, consisting of the mudir (or a judge) and two magis 
trates, which has general competence. The magistrates are 
members of the administrative staff, who try minor cases without 
the help of the mudir (or judge) . The governor-general possesses 
revising powers in all cases. Civil cases of importance are heard 
by a judge (or where no judge is available by the mudir or his 
representative); minor civil cases are tried by magistrates. 
From the decision of the judges an appeal lies to the legal 
secretary of the government, in his capacity of judicial com 
missioner. Jurisdiction in all legal matters as regards personal 
status of Mahommedans is administered by a grand cadi and a 
staff of subordinate cadis. The police force of each mudiria is 
independently organized under the control of the mudirs. 

Education. Education is in charge of the department of 
public instruction. Elementary education, the medium of 
instruction being Arabic, is given in kuttabs or village schools. 
There are primary schools in the chief towns where English, 
Arabic, mathematics, and in some cases land-measuring is 
taught. There are also government industrial workshops, and 
a few schools for girls. The Gordon College at Khartum trains 
teachers and judges in the Mahommedan courts and has annexed 
to it a secondary school. The college also contains the Wellcome 
laboratories for scientific research. Among the pagan negro 
tribes Protestant and Roman Catholic missions are established. 
These missions carry on educational work, special attention 
being given to industrial training. 

Defence. The defence of the country is entrusted to the 
Egyptian army, of which several regiments are stationed in the 
Sudan. The governor-general is sirdar (commander-in-chief) 
of the army. A small force of British troops is also stationed 
in the Sudan chiefly at Khartum. They are under the com 
mand of the governor-general in virtue of an arrangement made 
in I 95, having previously been part of the Egyptian command. 

For topography, &c.,see The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, a compendium 
prepared by officers of the Sudan government and edited by Count 
Gleichen (2 vols., London, 1905); for administration, finance and 
trade the annual Reports [by the British agent at Cairo] on Egypt 
and the Sudan, since 1898; and the special report (Blue Book Egypt, 
No. ii., 1883) by Colonel D. H. Stewart. Consult also J. Petherick, 
Travels in Central Africa (2 vols., London, 1862) ; W. Junker, Travels 
in Africa, 1875-1886 (3 vols., London, 1890-1892); G. Schweinfurth 
The Heart of Africa (2 vols., London, 1873); J. Baumgarten, Ost- 
afnka, der Sudan und das Seengebiet (Gotha, 1890); E. D. Schoenfeld, 
Erythraa und der dgyptische Sudan (Berlin, 1904); C. E. Muriel, 
Report on the Forests of the Sudan (Cairo, 1901); H. F. VVitherby, 
Bird Hunting on the White Nile (London, 1902). For ethnology. 


&c see A. H. Keane, Ethnology of the Egyptian Sudan (London, 
1884) ; H. Frobenius, DieHeiden-Neger des agyptischen Sudan (Berlin, 
1893). Scientific and medical subjects are dealt with in the Reports 
of the Wellcome Research Laboratories, Gordon College, Khartum. 
The Sudan Almanac is a valuable official publication. (F. R. C.) 

A rchaeology Archaeological study in the Sudan was retarded 
for many years by political conditions. The work which had 
been begun by Cailliaud, Champollion, Lepsius and others was 
interrupted by the rise of the Mahdist power; and with the 
frontiers of Egypt itself menaced by dervishes, the country 
south of Aswan (Assuan) was necessarily closed to the student 
of antiquity. Even after the dervishes had been overthrown 
at the battle of Omdurman (1898) it was some time before 
archaeologists awoke to a sense of the historical importance of 
the regions thus made accessible to them. Dr Wallis Budge 
visited several of the far southern sites and made some tentative 
excavations, but no extensive explorations were undertaken 
until an unexpected event produced a sudden outburst of activity. 
This was the resolution adopted by the Egyptian government 
to extend the great reservoir at the First Cataract by raising 
the height of the Aswan dam. As a result of this measure all 
sites bordering the river banks from Aswan to Abu Simbel 
were threatened with inundation and the scientific world took 
alarm. A large sum of money was assigned by the government, 
partly for the preservation of the visible temples in the area 
to be submerged, partly for an official expedition under the 
charge of Dr G. A. Reisner which was to search for all remains 
of antiquity hidden beneath the ground. At the same time 
the university of Pennsylvania despatched the Eckley B. Coxe, 
jun., expedition, which devoted its attention to the southern 
half of Lower Nubia from Haifa to Korosko, while the govern 
ment excavators explored from Korosko to Aswan. Thus 
in the five years 1907-1911 inclusive an immense mass of new 
material was acquired which throws a flood of light on the 
archaeology at once of Egypt and the Sudan. For it must be 
clearly appreciated that though all except the southern twenty 
miles of Lower Nubia has been attached for purposes of admini 
stration of Egypt proper, yet this political boundary is purely 
artificial. The natural geographical and ethnical southern 
frontier of Egypt is the First Cataract; Egyptian scribes of the 
Old Empire recognized this truth no less clearly than Diocletian, 
and Juvenal anticipates the verdict of every modern observer 
when he describes the " porta Syenes " as the gate of Africa. 
It is the more necessary to emphasize this fact as the present 
article must unavoidably be concerned principally with the 
most northern regions of the country of the Blacks for since 
the days of Lepsius there has been little new investigation south 
of Haifa. The hasty reconnaissances of Dr Wallis Budge, 
Professor A. H. Sayce, Mr Somers Clarke and Professor J. 
Garstang must be followed by more thorough and intensive 
study before it can be possible to write in more than very general 
terms of anything but the well-known monuments left by 
Egyptian kings whose history is already tolerably familiar from 
other sources. The inscriptions of these kings and their officials 
have been collected by Professor J. H. Breasted and some 
account of the temples and fortresses from Haifa to Khartum 
will be found in the following section, Ancient Monuments 
south of Haifa, while the history of the early and medieval 
Christian kingdoms is outlined in the articles ETHIOPIA and 
DONGOLA. The central and southern Sudan is therefore almost 
a virgin field for the archaeologist, but the exploration of Lower 
Nubia has made it possible to write a tentative preface to the 
new chapters still unrevealed. 

The Sudan was well named by the medieval Arab historians, 
for it is primarily and above all the country of the black races, 
of those Nilotic negroes whose birthplace may be supposed to 
have been near the Great Lakes. But upon this aboriginal 
stock were grafted in very early times fresh shoots of more 
vigorous and intellectual races coming probably from the East 
(cf. AFRICA: Ethnology). Lower Nubia was one of the crucibles 
in which several times was formed a mixed nation which defiec 
or actually dominated Egypt. There is some scientific grounc 

or dating the earliest example of such a fusion to the exact 

>eriod of the Egyptian Old Empire. It is certain in any case 

hat the process was constantly repeated at different dates 

and in different parts of the country from Aswan to Axum, and 

o the stimulation which resulted from it must be ascribed the 

principal political and intellectual movements of the Sudanese 

lations. Thus the Ethiopians who usurped the crown of the 

Pharaohs from 740-660 B.C. were of a mixed stock akin to the 

modern Barabra; the northern Nubians who successfully defied 

the Roman emperors were under the lordship of the Blemyes 

Blemmyes), an East African tribe, and the empire of the 

Tandace dynasty, no less than the Christian kingdoms which 

succeeded it, included many heterogeneous racial elements 

see also NUBIA). The real history of the Sudan will therefore 

)e concerned with the evolution of what may be called East 

African or East Central African civilizations. 

Up to the present, however, this aspect has been obscured, 
: or until 1907 scholars had little opportunity of studying ancient 
Ethiopia except as a colonial extension of Egypt. From the 
)urely Egyptological standpoint there is much of value to be 
earned from the Sudan. The Egyptian penetration of the 
country began, according to the evidence of inscriptions, as early 
as the Old Empire. Under the Xllth Dynasty colonies were 
planted and fortresses established down to the Batn-el-Hagar. 
During the XVIIIth Dynasty the political subjugation was com 
pleted and the newly won territories were studded with cities and 
temples as far south as the Fourth Cataract. Some two hundred 
years later the priests of Amen (Ammon), flying from Thebes, 
Founded a quasi-Egyptian capital at Napata. But after this date 
Egypt played no part in the evolution of Ethiopia. Politically 
moribund, it succumbed to the attacks of its virile southern neigh 
bours, who, having emerged from foreign tutelage, developed 
according to the natural laws of their own genius and environ 
ment. The history of Ethiopia therefore as an independent 
civilization may be said to date from the 8th century B.C., though 
future researches may be able to carry its infant origins to a 
remoter past. 

Of the thousand years or more of effective Egyptian occupa 
tion many monuments exist, but on a broad general view it must 
be pronounced that they owe their fame more to the accident 
of survival than to any special intrinsic value. For excepting 
Philae, which belongs as much to Egypt as to Ethiopia, Abu 
Simbel is the only temple which can be ranked among first 
rate products of Egyptian genius. The other temples, attractive 
as they are, possess rather a local than a universal interest. 
Similarly while the exploration of the Egyptian colonies south 
of the First Cataract has added many details to our knowledge 
of political history, of local cults and provincial organization, 
yet with one exception it has not affected the known outlines 
of the history of civilization. This exception is the discovery 
made by Dr G. A. Reisner that the archaic culture first detected 
at Nagada and Abydos and then at many points as far north 
as Giza extended southwards into Nubia at least as far as 
Gerf Husein. This was wholly unexpected, and if, as seems 
probable, the evidence stands the test of criticism, it is a new 
historical fact of great importance. The government expedition 
found traces between Aswan and Korosko of all the principal 
periods from this early date down to the Christian era. The 
specimens obtained are kept in a separate room of the Cairo 
Museum, where they form a collection of great value. 

The work of the Pennsylvanian expedition, however, while 
adding only a few details to the archaeology of the Egyptian 
periods, has opened a new chapter in the history of the African 
races. No records indeed were discovered of the founders of 
the first great Ethiopian kingdom from Piankhi to Tirhakah, 
nor has any fresh light been thrown upon the relations which 
that remarkable king Ergamenes maintained with the Egyptian 
Ptolemies. But the exploration of sites in the southern half 
of Lower Nubia has revealed the existence of a wholly unsus 
pected independent civilization which grew up during the first 
six centuries after Christ. The history of the succeeding 
periods, moreover, has been partially recovered and the study 


of architecture enriched by the excavation of numerous churche 
dating from the time of Justinian, when Nubia was first Christian 
ized, down to the late medieval period when Christianity wa 
extirpated by Mahommedanism. 

The civilization of the first six centuries A.D. may be callei 
" Romano-Nubian," a term which indicates its date and suggest 
something of its character. It is the product of a people living 
on the borders of the Roman Empire who inherited much of the 
Hellenistic tradition in minor arts but combined it with a 
remarkable power of independent origination. The sites on 
which it has been observed range from Dakka to Haifa, tha 
is to say within the precise limits which late Latin and Greek 
writers assign to the Blemyes, and there is good reason to identify 
the people that evolved it with this hitherto almost unknown 
barbarian nation. Apart from this, however, the greatest 
value of the new discoveries will consist in the fact that they 
may lay the foundations for a new documentary record of past 
ages. For the graves yielded not only new types of statues 
bronzes, ivory carvings and painted pottery all of the highest 
artistic value but also a large number of stone stelae inscribec 
with funerary formulae in the Meroitic script. 

In the course of sixty years the small collection of Meroitic 
inscriptions made by Lepsius had not been enlarged and no 
progress had been made towards decipherment. But the 
cemeteries of Shablul and Karanog alone yielded 170 inscriptions 
on stone, besides some inscribed ostraka. This mass of material 
brought the task of decipherment within the range of possibility, 
and even without any bilingual record to assist him, Mr F. LI. 
Griffith rapidly succeeded in the first stages of translation. As 
further explorations bring more inscriptions to light the records 
of Ethiopia will gradually be placed on a firm documentary 
basis and the names and achievements of its greatest monarchs 
will take their place on the roll of history. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. C. R.Lepsius,DenkmalerausAcgyptenundAethio- 
pien (1849), Abh. vi., Briefe aus Aegypten, Aethiopien, &c. (i8s2) 
Nubische Grammalik (1880) ; H. Brugsch, Zeitschnft fur aegyptische 
Sprache (1887); F. Cailliaud, Voyage a Meroe et au Fleuve Blanc 
(1826); E. A. Wallis Budge, The Egyptian Sudan (1907); G. A. 
Reisner and C. M. Firth, Reports on The Archaeological Survey of 
Nubia; G. Elliott Smith and F. Wood Jones, ibid. vol. ii. "The 
Human Remains" (1910); J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt 
(1906-1907), A History of Egypt (1905), Temples of Lower Nubia 
(1906), Monuments of Sudanese Nubia (1908); D. Randall-Maclver 
and C. L. Woolley, Reports of the Eckley B. Coxe, jun. expedition, 
viz. vol. i. Areika (1909), vols. iii., iv., v. Karanog (vol.- iii. 
The Romano-Nubian Cemetery," text, vol. iv. ibid., plates 1910) 
vol. vii. Behen; G. S. Mileham, Reports of the Eckley B Coxe jun 
expedition, vol. ii. Churches in Lower Nubia (1910); F. LI. Griffith ! 
Reports on the Eckley B. Coxe, jun., expedition, vol. vi. Meroitic 
Inscriptions from Shablul and Karanog, Meroitic Inscriptions and 
2 vols. on Tombs of-El Amarna; and the " Archaeological Survey " 
of the Egypt Exploration Fund. (D. R.-M.) 

Ancient Monuments south of Haifa. Ruins of pyramids, 
temples, churches and other monuments are found along both 
banks of the Nile almost as far south as the Fourth Cataract, 
and again in the " Island of Meroe." In the following list the 
ruins are named as met with on the journey south from Wadi 
Haifa. Opposite that town on the east bank are the remains 
of Bohon, where was found the stele, now at Florence, com 
memorating the conquest of the region by Senwosri (Usertesen) I. 
of Egypt (c. 2750 B.C.). Forty-three miles farther south are 
the ruins of the twin fortresses of Kumma and Semna. Here 
the Nile narrows and passes the Semna cataract, and graven 
on the rocks are ancient records of " high Nile." At Amara, 
some 80 m. above Semna, are the ruins of a temple with Meroitic 
hieroglyphics. At Sai Island, 130 m. above Haifa, are remains 
of a town and of a Christian church. Thirteen miles south of 
Sai at Soleb are the ruins of a fine temple commemorating 
Amenophis (Amenhotep) III. (c. 1414 B.C.) to whose queen Taia 
was dedicated a temple at Sedeinga, a few miles to the north. 
At Sesebi, 40 m. higher up the Nile, is a temple of the heretic king 
Akhenaton re-worked by Seti I. (c. 1327 B.C.). Opposite 
Hannek at the Third Cataract on Tombos Island are extensive 
ancient granite quarries, in one of which lies an unfinished 
colossus. On the east side of the river near Kerma are the 

remains of an Egyptian city. Argo Island, a short distance 
higher up, abounds in ruins, and those at Old Dongola, 320 m. 
from Haifa, afford evidence of the town having been of consider 
able size during the time of the Christian kingdom of Dongola. 
From Old Dongola to Merawi (a distance of 100 m. by the river) 
are numerous ruins of monasteries, churches and fortresses of 
the Christian era in Nubia notably at Jebel Deka and Magal. 
In the immediate neighbourhood of Jebel Barkal (the " holy 
mountain " of the ancient Egyptians), a flat-topped hill which 
rises abruptly from the desert on the right bank of the Nile a 
mile or two above the existing village of Merawi (Merowe), 
are many pyramids and six temples, the pyramids having a 
height of from 35 to 6p ft. Pyramids are also found at Zuma 
and Kurru on the right "bank, and at Tangassi on the left bank 
of the river, these places being about 20 m. below Merawi. 
That village is identified by some archaeologists with the ancient 
Napata, which is known to have been situated near the " holy 
mountain." On the left bank of the Nile opposite Merawi are 
the pyramids of Nuri, and a few miles distant in the Wadi 
Ghazal are the ruins of a great Christian monastery, where were 
found gravestones with inscriptions in Greek and Coptic. Ruins 
of various ages extend from Merawi to the Fourth Cataract. 
Leaving the Nile at this point and striking direct across the 
Bayuda Desert, the river is regained at a point above the Atbara 
confluence. Thirty miles north of the town of Shendi are the 
pyramids of Meroe (or Assur) in three distinct groups. From one 
of these pyramids was taken " the treasure of Queen Candace," 
now in the Berlin Museum. Many of the pyramids have a 
small shrine on the eastern side inscribed with debased Egyptian 
or Meroite hieroglyphics. These pyramids are on the right 
bank of the Nile, that is in the " Island of Meroe." Portions (in 
cluding a harbour) of the site of the city of Meroe, at Begerawia, 
not far from the pyramids named, were excavated in 1909-1910 
(see MERGE). In this region, and distant from the river, are 
the remains of several cities, notably Naga, where are ruins 
of four temples, one in the Classic style. On the east bank 
of the Blue Nile, about 13 m. above Khartum at Soba, are ruins 
of a Christian basilica. Farther south still, at Ceteina on the 
White Nile (in 1904), and at Wad el-Hadad, some miles north 
of Sennar, on the Blue Nile (in 1908), Christian remains have 
been observed. 

Between the Nile at Wadi Haifa and the Red Sea are the 
remains of towns inhabited by the ancient miners who worked 
the district. The most striking of these towns is Deraheib 
(Castle Beautiful), so named from the picturesque situation 
of the castle, a large square building with pointed arches. The 
walls of some 500 houses still stand. 

For a popular account (with many illustrations) of these ruins 
see J. Ward, Our Sudan: Its Pyramids and Progress (London 1905) 

(F. R. C.) 

A. From the Earliest Time to the Egyptian Conquest. The 
southern regions of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan are without 
recorded history until the era of the Egyptian conquest in the 
igth century. In the northern regions, known as Ethiopia 
or Nubia, Egyptian influence made itself felt as early as the 
Old Empire. In process of time powerful states grew up with 
capitals at Napata and Meroe (see ante Archaeology and 
ETHIOPIA and EGYPT). The Nubians that is the dwellers 
n the Nile valley between Egypt and Abyssinia did not embrace 
Christianity until the 6th century, considerably later than their 
Abyssinian neighbours. The Arab invasion of North Africa 
n the 7th century, which turned Egypt into a Mahommedan 
ountry, had not the same effect in Nubia, the Moslems, though 
hey frequently raided the country, being unable to hold it. 
Dn the ruins of the ancient Ethiopian states arose Christian 
he Christian kingdoms of Dongola and Aloa, with Kingdoms of 
apitals at Dongola and Soba (corresponding roughly Nubia - 
o Napata and Meroe). These kingdoms continued to exist 
until the jniddle of the I4th century or later (see DONGOLA: 
fudirio). Meanwhile Arabs of the Beni Omayya tribe, under 
pressure from the Beni Abbas, had begun to cross the Red Sea 


as early as the 8th century and to settle in the district around 
Sennar on the Blue Nile, a region which probably marked the 
southern limits of the kingdom of Aloa. The Omayya, who 
during the following centuries were reinforced by further 
immigrants from Arabia, intermarried with the negroid races, 
and gradually Arab influence became predominant and Islam 
the nominal faith of all the inhabitants of Sennar. In this way 
a barrier was erected between the Christians of Nubia and those 
of Abyssinia. By the 15th century the Arabized negro races 
of the Blue Nile had grown into a powerful nation known as 
the Funj (q.v.), and during that century they extended their 
conquests north to the borders of Egypt. The kingdom of 
Dongola had already been reduced to a condition of anarchy 
by Moslem invasions from the north. Christianity was still 
professed by some of the Nubians as late as the i6th century, 
but the whole Sudan north of the lands of the pagan negroes 
(roughly 12 N.) was then under Moslem sway. At that time 
the sultans of Darfur (q.v.) in the west and the sultans or kings 
of Sennar (the Funj rulers) in the east were the most powerful 
of the Mahommedan potentates. 

The first of the Funj monarchs acknowledged king of the 
whole of the allied tribes, of which the Hameg were next in 
importance to the Funj, was Amara Dunkas, who 
reigned c. I484-I526. 1 During the reign of Adlan, 
c. 1596-1603, the fame of Sennar attracted learned 
men to his court from such distant places as Cairo and Bagdad. 
Adlan s great-grandson Badi Abu Baku attacked the Shilluk 
negroes and raided Kordofan. This monarch built the great 
mosque at Sennar, almost the only building in the town to survive 
the ravages of the dervishes in the ipth century. In the early 
part of the i8th century there was war between the Sennari 
and the Abyssinians, in which the last named were defeated 
with great slaughter. It is said that the cause of quarrel was 
the seizure by the king of Sennar of presents sent by the king 
of France to the Negus. The victory over the " infidel " 
Abyssinians became celebrated throughout the Mahommedan 
world, and Sennar was visited by many learned and celebrated 
men from Egypt, Arabia and India. Towards the end of the 
1 8th century the Hameg wrested power from the Funj and the 
kingdom fell into decay, many of the tributary princes refusing 
to acknowledge the king of Sennar. These disorders con 
tinued up to the time of the conquest of the country by the 

B. From the Egyptian Conquest to the Rise of the Mahdi. The 
conquest of Nubia was undertaken in 1820 by order of Mehemet 
Ali, the pasha of Egypt, and was accomplished in 
6 * ^ tne *- wo vears following. In its consequences this 
proved one of the most important events in the 
history of Africa. Mehemet Ali never stated the reasons which 
led him to order the occupation of the country, but his leading 
motive was, probably, the desire to obtain possession of the 
mines of gold and precious stones which he believed the Sudan 
contained. He also saw that the revenue of Egypt was falling 
through the diversion, since about 1800, of the caravan routes 
from the Nile to the Red Sea ports, and may have wished to 
recapture the trade, as well as to secure a country whence 
thousands of slaves could be brought annually. Mehemet Ali 
also wished to crush the remnant of the Mamelukes who in 1812 
had established themselves at Dongola, and at the same time 
to find employment for the numerous Albanians and Turks 
in his army, of whose fidelity he was doubtful. 

Mehemet Ali gave the command of the army sent to Nubia 
to his son Ismail, who at the head of some 4000 men left Wadi 
Haifa in October 1820. Following the Nile route he occupied 
Dongola without opposition, the Mamelukes fleeing before him. 
(Some of them went to Darfur and Wadai, others made their 
way to the Red Sea. This was the final dispersal of the Mame 
lukes.) With the nomad Shagia, who dominated the district, 

1 Various lists and dates of reign of the rulers of Sennar are 
given; reference may be made in Stokvis s Manuel d histoire vol. i. 
(Leiden, 1888), and to The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, vol. i. (London, 

Ismail had two sharp encounters, one near Korti, the other 
higher up the river, and in both fights Ismail was successful. 
Thereafter the Shagia furnished useful auxiliary cavalry to the 
Egyptians. Ismail remained in the Dongola province till Feb 
ruary 1821, when he crossed the Bayuda Desert and received 
the submission of the meks (kings) of Berber, Shendi and Halfaya, 
nominal vassals of the king of Sennar. Continuing his march 
south Ismail reached the confluence of the White and Blue Niles 
and established a camp at Ras Khartum. (This camp developed 
into the city of Khartum.) At this time Badi, the king of 
Sennar, from whom all real power had been wrested by his 
leading councillors, determined to submit to the Egyptians, 
and as Ismail advanced up the Blue Nile he was met at Wad 
Medani by Badi who declared that he recognized Mehemet Ali 
as master of his kingdom. Ismail and Badi entered the town of 
Sennar together on the I2th of June 1821, and in this peaceable 
manner the Egyptians became rulers of the ancient empire o! 
the Funj. In search of the gold-mines reported to exist farther 
south Ismail penetrated into the mountainous region of Fazokl, 
where the negroes offered a stout resistance. In February 1822 
he set out on his return to Sennar and Dongola, having received 
reports of risings against Egyptian authority. The Egyptian 
soldiery had behaved throughout with the utmost barbarity, 
and their passage up the Nile was marked by rapine, murder, 
mutilation and fire. Of the rulers who had submitted to Ismail, 
Nair Mimr, the mek of Shendi, had been compelled to follow in 
the suite of the Egyptians as a sort of hostage, and this man 
entertained deep hatred of the pasha. On Ismail s return to 
Shendi, October 1822, he demanded of the mek 1000 slaves to 
be supplied in two days. The mek, promising compliance, 
invited Ismail and his chief officers to a feast in his house, around 
which he had piled heaps of straw. Whilst the Egyptians were 
feasting the mek set fire to the straw and Ismail and all his 
companions were burnt to death. 

Ismail s death was speedily avenged. A second Egyptian 
army, also about 4000 strong, had followed that of Ismail s 
up the Nile, and striking south-west from Debba had wrested, 
after a sharp campaign, the province of Kordofan (1821) from 
the sultan of Darfur. This army was commanded by Mahommed 
Bey, the Defterdar, son-in-law of Mehemet Ali. Hearing of 
Ismail s murder the Defterdar marched to Shendi, defeated the 
forces of the mek, and took terrible revenge upon the inhabitants 
of Metemma and Shendi, most of the inhabitants, including 
women and children, being burnt alive. Nair Mimr escaped to 
the Abyssinian frontier, where he maintained his independence. 
Having conquered Nubia, Sennar and Kordofan the Egyptians 
set up a civil government, placing at the head of the administra 
tion a governor-general with practically unlimited power. 1 
About this period Mehemet Alt leased from the sultan of Turkey 
the Red Sea ports of Suakin and Massawa, and by this means 
got into his hands all the trade routes of the eastern Sudan. 
The pasha of Egypt practically monopolized the trade of the 
country except that in slaves, which became a vast " industry," 
the lands inhabited by negro tribes on the borders of the con 
quered territories being raided annually for the purpose. From 
the negro population the army was so largely recruited that in 
a few years the only non-Sudanese in it were officers. The 
Egyptian rule proved harmful to the country. The governors- 
general and the leading officials were nearly all Turks, Albanians 
or Circassians, and, with rare exceptions, the welfare of the 
people formed no part of their conception of government.* 
Numerous efforts were made to extend the authority of Egypt. 
In 1840 previous attempts having been unsuccessful the 
fertile district of Taka, watered by the Atbara and Gash and 
near the Abyssinian frontier, was conquered and the town of 

2 For a list of the governors-general see The Anglo-Egyptian 
Sudan, i. p. 280 (London, 1905). 

8 Khurshid Pasha, governor-general for 13 years (1826-1839), 
was one of these exceptions. He gained a great reputation both for 
rectitude and vigour. He led expeditions up the White Nile against 
the Dinkas as far as Fashoda; defeated the Abyssinians on the 
Sennar frontier, and taught the natives of Khartum to build houses 
of brick. 



Kassala founded. In 1837 the pasha himself visited the Sudan, 
going as far as Fazokl, where he inspected the goldfields. 

In 1849 Abd-el-Latif Pasha became governor-general and 
attempted to remedy some of the evils which disfigured the 
administration. He remained in office, however, little more 
than a year, too short a period to effect reforms. The Sudan 
was costing Egypt more money than its revenue yielded, though 
it must not be forgotten that large sums found their way illicitly 
into the. hands of the pashas. The successors of Mehemet Ali, 
in an endeavour to make the country more profitable, extended 
their conquests to the south, and in 1853 and subsequent years 
trading posts were established on the Upper Nile, the pioneer 
European merchant being John Petherick, British consular 
agent at Khartum. 1 Petherick sought for ivory only, but those 
who followed him soon found that slave-raiding was more 
profitable than elephant hunting. The viceroy Said, who made 
a rapid tour through the Sudan in 1857, found it in a deplorable 
condition. The viceroy ordered many reforms to be executed 
and proclaimed the abolition of slavery. The reforms were 
mainly inoperative and slavery continued. The project which 
Said also conceived of linking the Sudan to Egypt by railway 
remained unfulfilled. The Sudan at this time (c. 1862) is described 
by Sir Samuel Baker as utterly ruined by Egyptian methods 
of government and the retention of the country only to be 
accounted for by the traffic in slaves. The European merchants 
above Khartum had sold their posts to Arab agents, who 
oppressed the natives in every conceivable fashion. Ismail 
Pasha, who became viceroy of Egypt in 1863, gave orders, for 
the suppression of the slave trade, and to check the operations 
of the Arab traders a military force was stationed at Fashoda 
(1865), this being the most southerly point then held by the 
Egyptians. Ismail s efforts to put an end to the slave trade, 
if sincere, were ineffective, and, moreover, south of Kordofan 
the authority of the government did not extend beyond the posts 
occupied by their troops. Ismail, however, was ambitious to 
extend his dominions and to develop the Sudan on the lines he 
had conceived for the development of Egypt. He obtained 
(1865) from the sultan of Turkey a firman assigning to him the 
administration of Suakin and Massawa; the lease which Mehemet 
Ali had of these ports having lapsed after the death of that 
pasha. Ismail subsequently (1870-1875) extended his sway 
over the whole coast from Suez to Cape Guardafui and garrisoned 
the towns of Berbera, Zaila, &c., while in 1874 the important 
town of Harrar, the entrepot for southern Abyssinia, was seized 
by Egyptian troops. The khedive had also seized Bogos, in 
the hinterland of Massawa, a province claimed by Abyssinia. 
This action led to wars with Abyssinia, in which the Egyptians 
were generally beaten. Egyptian authority was withdrawn 
from the coast regions south of Suakin in 1884 (see below and 

At the same time that Ismail annexed the seaboard he was 
extending his sway along the Nile valley to the equatorial lakes, 
and conceived the idea of annexing all the country between 
the Nile and the Indian Ocean. An expedition was sent (1875) 
to the Juba River with that object, but it was withdrawn at 
the request of the British government, as it infringed the rights 
of the sultan of Zanzibar. 2 The control of all territories south 
of Gondokoro had been given (April i, 1860) to Sir Samuel 
Baker, who, however, only left Khartum to take up his governor- 
The ship in February 1870. Reaching Gondokoro on 

Equatorial the 26th of May following, he formally annexed 
Regions: that station, which he named Ismailia, to the khedival 
domains. Baker remained as governor of the Equa 
torial Provinces until August 1873, an d in March 1874 
Colonel C. G. Gordon took up the same post. Both Baker and 

1 The government monopoly in trade ceased after the death of 
Mehemet Ali in 1849. 

* The Juba was quite unsuitable as a means of communication 
between the Indian Ocean and the Nile. The proposal made to 
Ismail by Gordon was to send an expedition to Mombasa and thence 
up the Tana River, but for some unexplained reason, or perhaps 
by mistake, the expedition was ordered to the Juba (see Col. Gordon 
in Central Africa, 4th ed., 1885, pp. 65, 66, 150 and 151, and Geog. 
Journ., Feb. I, 1909, p. 150). 



Gordon made strenuous efforts towards crushing the slave trade, 
but their endeavours were largely thwarted by the inaction of 
the authorities at Khartum. Under Gordon the Upper Nile 
region as far as the borders of Uganda came effectively under 
Egyptian control, though the power of the government extended 
on the east little beyond the banks of the rivers. On the west 
the Bahr-el-Ghazal had been overrun by Arab or semi-Arab 
slave-dealers. Nominally subjects of the khedive, they acted 
as free agents, reducing the country over which they terrorized 
to a state of abject misery. The most powerful of the slave 
traders was Zobeir Pasha, who, having defeated a force sent 
from Khartum to reduce him to obedience, invaded Darfur 
(1874). The khedive, fearing the power of Zobeir, also sent 
an expedition to Darfur, and that country, after a stout resist 
ance, was conquered. Zobeir claimed to be made governor- 
general of the new province; his request being refused, he went 
to Cairo to urge his claim. At Cairo he was detained by the 
Egyptian authorities. 

Though spasmodic efforts were made to promote agriculture 
and open up communications the Sudan continued to be a con 
stant drain on the Egyptian exchequer. The khedive Ismail 
revived Said s project of a railway, and a survey for a line from 
Wadi Haifa to Khartum was made (1871), while a branch line 
to Massawa was also contemplated. As with Said s project 
these schemes came to naught. 3 In October 1876 Gordon 
left the Equatorial Provinces and gave up his appointment. 
In February 1877, under pressure from the British General 
and Egyptian governments, he went to Cairo, where Gordon 
he. was given the governorship of the whole of the Ooveraor- 
Egyptian territories outside Egypt; namely, the ** 
Sudan provinces proper, the Equatorial Provinces, Darfur, and 
the Red Sea and Somali coasts. He replaced at Khartum Ismail 
Pasha Eyoub, a Turk made governor-general in 1873, who had 
thwarted as much as he dared all Gordon s efforts to reform. 
Gordon remained in the Sudan until August 1879. During his 
tenure of office he did much to give the Sudanese the benefit 
of a just and considerate government. In 1877 Gordon 
suppressed a revolt in Darfur and received the submission of 
Suliman Zobeir (a son of Zobeir Pasha), who was at the head 
of a gang of slave-traders on the Bahr-el-Ghazal frontier. In 
1878 there was further trouble in Darfur and also in Kordofan, 
and Gordon visited both these provinces, breaking up many 
companies of slave-hunters. Meantime Suliman (acting on 
the instructions of his father, who was still at Cairo) had broken 
out into open revolt against the Egyptians in the Bahr-el- 
Ghazal. The crushing of Suliman was entrusted by Gordon 
to Romolo Gessi (1831-1881), an Italian who had previously 
served under Gordon on the Upper Nile. Gessi, after a most 
arduous campaign (1878-79), in which he displayed great military 
skill, defeated and captured Suliman, whom, with other ring 
leaders, he executed. The slave-raiders were completely broken 
up and over 10,000 captives released. A remnant of Zobeir s 
troops under a chief named Rabah succeeded in escaping west 
ward, (see RABAH). Having conquered the province Gessi was 
made governor of the Bahr-el-Ghazal and given the rank of pasha. 

When Gordon left the Sudan he was succeeded at Khartum 
by Raouf Pasha, under whom all the old abuses of the Egyptian 
administration were revived. At this time the high European 
officials in the Sudan, besides Gessi, included Emin Pasha (q.v.) 
then a bey only governor of the Equatorial Province since 
1878, and Slatin Pasha then also a bey governor of Darfur. 
Gessi, who had most successfully governed his province, found 
his position under Raouf intolerable, resigned his post in Sep 
tember 1880 and was succeeded by Frank Lupton, an English 
man, and formerly captain of a Red Sea merchant steamer, 
who was given the rank of bey. At this period (1880-1882) 
schemes for the reorganization and better administration of 
the Sudan were elaborated on paper, but the revolt in Egypt 
under Arabi (see EGYPT: History) and the appearance in the 
Sudan of a Mahdi prevented these schemes from being put into 

3 Up to 1877, when the work was abandoned, some 50 m. of 
rails had been laid from Wadi Haifa at a cost of some 450,000. 


execution (assuming that the Egyptian authorities were sincere 
in proposing reforms). 

C. The Rise and Power of Mahdism. The Mahdist move 
ment, which was utterly to overthrow Egyptian rule, derived its 
strength from two different causes: the oppression under which 
the people suffered, 1 and the measures taken to prevent the 
Baggara (cattle-owning Arabs) from slave trading. Venality 
and the extortion of the tax-gatherer flourished anew after the 
departure of Gordon, while the feebleness of his successors 
inspired in the Baggara a contempt for the authority which 
prohibited them pursuing their most lucrative traffic. When 
Mahommed Ahmed (q.v.), a Dongolese, proclaimed himself the 
long-looked-for Mahdi (guide) of Islam, he found most of 
.his original followers among the grossly superstitious villagers 
of Kordofan, to whom he preached universal equality and a 
community of goods, while denouncing the Turks 2 as unworthy 
Moslems on whom God would execute judgment. The Baggara 
perceived in this Mahdi one who could be used to shake off 
Egyptian rule, and their adhesion to him first gave importance 
to his "mission." Mahommed Ahmed became at once the 
leader and the agent of the Baggara. He married the daughters 
of their sheikhs and found in Abdullah, a member of the Taaisha 
section of the tribe, his chief supporter. The first armed conflict 
The between the Egyptian troops and the Mahdi s 

Massacre ol followers occurred in August 1881. In June 1882 
Hicks the Mahdi gained his first considerable success. 

Pasha s The capture of El Obeid on the iyth of January 
Army. t gg^ an( j tne ann ihilation in the November following 

of an army of over 10,000 men commanded by Hicks Pasha 
(Colonel William Hicks [q.v.] formerly of the Bombay army) 
made the Mahdi undisputed master of Kordofan and Sennar. 
The next month, December 1883, saw the surrender of Slatin 
in Darfur, whilst in February 1884 Osman Digna, his amir in 
the Red Sea regions, inflicted a crushing defeat on some 4000 
Egyptians at El Teb near Suakin. In April following Lupton 
Bey, governor of Bahr-el-Ghazal, whose troops and officials had 
embraced the Mahdist cause, surrendered and was sent captive 
to Omdurman, where he died on the 8th of May 1888. 

On learning of the disaster to Hicks Pasha s army, the British 
government (Great Britain having been since 1882 in military 
occupation of Egypt) insisted that the Egyptian government 
should evacuate such parts of the Sudan as they still held, and 
General Gordon was despatched, with Lieut. -Colonel Donald 
H. Stewart, 3 to Khartum to arrange the withdrawal of the 
Egyptian civil and military population. Gordon s instructions, 
based largely on his own suggestions, were not wholly consistent; 
they contemplated vaguely the establishment of some form of 
stable government on the surrender of Egyptian 
authority, and among the documents with which 
he was furnished was a firman creating him governor- 
general of the Sudan. 4 Gordon reached Khartum on the i8th 
of February 1884 and at first his mission, which had aroused 
great enthusiasm in England, promised success. To smooth 
the way for the retreat of the Egyptian garrisons and civilians 
he issued proclamations announcing that the suppression of 
the slave trade was abandoned, that the Mahdi was sultan of 
Kordofan, and that the Sudan was independent of Egypt. He 
enabled some thousands of refugees to make their escape to 

1 Writing from Darfur in April 1879 Gordon said: " The govern 
ment of the Egyptians in these far-off countries is nothing else but 
one of brigandage of the very worst description. It is so bad that 
all hope of ameliorating it is hopeless." 

2 The Sudanese spoke of all foreigners as " Turks." This arose 
from the fact that most of the higher Egyptian officials were of 
Turkish nationality and that the army was officered mainly by 
Turks, Albanians, Circassians, &c., and included in the ranks many 
Bashi-Bazuks (irregulars) of non-Sudanese origin. 

3 Colonel Stewart had been sent to Khartum in 1882 on a mission 
of inquiry, and he drew up a valuable report, , Egypt, No. II (1883). 

4 It is unnecessary here to enter upon a discussion of the precise 
nature of Gordon s instructions or of the measure in which he carried 
them out. The material for forming a judgment will be found in 
Gordon s Journals (1885), Morley s Life of Gladstone (1903), Fitz- 
maurice s Life of Granville (1905), and Cromer s Modern Egypt 
(1908). (See also GORDON, CHARLES GEORGE.) 

Gordon at 

Assuan and collected at Khartum troops from some of the out 
lying stations. By this time the situation had altered for the 
worse and Mahdism was gaining strength among tribes in the 
Nile valley at first hostile to its propaganda. As the only means 
of preserving authority at Khartum (and thus securing the 
peaceful withdrawal of the garrison) Gordon repeatedly tele 
graphed to Cairo asking that Zobeir Pasha might be sent to 
him, his intention being to hand over to Zobeir the government 
of the country. Zobeir (q.v.), a. Sudanese Arab, was probably the 
one man who could have withstood successfully the Mahdi. 
Owing to Zobeir s notoriety as a slave-raider Gordon s request 
was refused. All hope of a peaceful retreat of the Egyptians 
was thus rendered impossible. The Mahdist movement now 
swept northward and on the 2Oth of May Berber was 
captured by the dervishes and Khartum isolated. From this 
time the energies of Gordon were devoted to the defence of 
that town. After months of delay due to the vacillation of the 
British government a relief expedition was sent up the Nile 
under the command of Lord Wolseley. It started too late to 
achieve its object, and on the 2$th of January 1885 Khartum 
was captured by the Mahdi and Gordon killed. Colonel Stewart, 
Frank Power (British consul at Khartum) and M. Herbin (French 
consul), who (accompanied by nineteen Greeks) had been sent 
down the Nile by Gordon in the previous September to give 
news to the relief force, had been decoyed ashore and murdered 
(Sept. 18, 1884). The fall of Khartum was followed by the 
withdrawal of the British expedition, Dongola being evacuated 
in June 1885. In the same month Kassala capitulated, but 
just as the Mahdi had practically completed the destruction 
of the Egyptian power 6 he died, in this same month of June 
1885. He was at once succeeded by the khalifa Abdullah, 
whose rule continued until the 2nd of September i8cj8, 6 when 
his army was completely overthrown by an Anglo-Egyptian 
force under Sir H. (afterwards Lord) Kitchener. The military 
operations are described elsewhere (see EGYPT: Military Opera 
tions), and here it is only necessary to consider the internal 
situation and the character of the khalifa s govern- The 
ment. The Mahdi had been regarded by his adhe- Khalifa s 
rents as the only true commander of the faithful, * u e - 
endued with divine power to conquer the whole world. He 
had at first styled his followers dervishes (i.e. religious mendi 
cants) and given them the jibba as their characteristic garment 
or uniform. Later on he commanded the faithful to call them 
selves ansar (helpers), a reference to the part they were to play 
in his Career of conquest, and at the time of his death he was 
planning an invasion of Egypt. He had liberated the Sudanese 
from the extortions of the Egyptians, but the people soon found 
that the Mahdi s rule was even more oppressive than had been 
that of their former masters, and after the Mahdi s death the 
situation of the peasantry in particular grew rapidly worse, 
neither life nor property being safe. Abdullah set himself 
steadily to crush all opposition to his own power. Mahommed 
Ahmed had, in accordance with the traditions which required 
the Mahdi to have four khalifas (lieutenants), nominated, besides 
Abdullah, Ali wad Helu, a sheikh of the Degheim and Kenana 
Arabs, and Mahommed esh Sherif, his son-in-law, as khalifas. 
(The other khalifaship was vacant having been declined by the 
sheikh es Senussi [q.v.]). Wad Helu and Sherif were stripped 
of their power and gradually all chiefs and amirs not of the 
Baggara tribe were got rid of except Osman Digna, whose sphere 
of operations was on the Red Sea coast. Abdullah s rule was 
a pure military despotism which brought the country to a state 
of almost complete agricultural and commercial ruin. He was 
also almost constantly in conflict either with the Shilluks, Nuers 
and other negro tribes of the south; with the peoples of Darfur, 
where at one time an anti-Mahdi gained a great following; with 
the Abyssinians; with the Kabbabish and other Arab tribes who 

5 Sennar town held out until the igth of August, while the Red 
Sea ports of Suakin and Massawa never fell into the hands of the 
Mahdists. The garrisons of some other towns were rescued by the 

* This period in the history of the Sudan is known as the Mahdia. 



had never embraced Mahdism, or with the Italians, Egyptians 
and British. Notwithstanding all this opposition the khalifa 
found in his own tribesmen and in his black troops devoted 
adherents and successfully maintained his position. The 
attempt to conquer Egypt ended in the total defeat of the 
dervish army at Toski (Aug. 3, 1889). The attempts to subdue 
the Equatorial Provinces were but partly successful. Emin 
Pasha, to whose relief H. M. Stanley had gone, evacuated 
Wadelai in April 1889. The greater part of the region and also 
most of the Bahr-el-Ghazal relapsed into a state of complete 

In the country under his dominion the khalifa s government 
was carried on after the manner of other Mahommedan states, 
but pilgrimages to the Mahdi s tomb at Omdurman were substi 
tuted for pilgrimages to Mecca. The arsenal and dockyard and 
the printing-press at Khartum were kept busy (the workmen 
being Egyptians who had escaped massacre) . Otherwise Khartum 
was deserted, the khalifa making Omdurman his capital and 
compelling disaffected tribes to dwell in it so as to be under 
better control. While Omdurman grew to a huge size the 
population of the country generally dwindled enormously from 
constant warfare and the ravages of disease, small-pox being 
endemic. The Europeans in the country were kept prisoners at 
Omdurman. Besides ex-officials like Slatin and Lupton, they 
included several Roman Catholic priests and sisters, and numbers 
of Greek merchants established at Khartum. Although several 
were closely imprisoned, loaded with chains and repeatedly 
flogged, it is a noteworthy fact that none was put to death. 
From time to time a prisoner made his escape, and from the 
accounts of these ex-prisoners knowledge of the character of 
Dervish rule is derived in large measure. The fanaticism with 
which the Mahdi had inspired his followers remained almost 
unbroken to the end. The khalifa after the fatal day of Omdur 
man fled to Kordofan where he was killed in battle in November 
1899. In January 1900 Osman Digna, a wandering fugitive 
for months, was captured. In 1902 the last surviving dervish 
amir of importance surrendered to the sultan of Darfur. 
Mahdism as a vital force in the old Egyptian Sudan ceased, 
however, with the Anglo-Egyptian victory at Omdurman. 1 

D. The Anglo- Egyptian Condominium. Of the causes which 
led to the reconquest of the Sudan the natural desire of the 
Egyptian government to recover lost territory, the equally 
natural desire in Great Britain to "avenge " the death of "Gordon 
were among them the most weighty was the necessity of 
securing for Egypt the control of the Upper Nile, Egypt being 
wholly dependent on the waters of the river for its prosperity. 
That control would have been lost had a European power other 
than Great Britain obtained possession of any part of the Nile 
valley; and at the time the Sudan was reconquered (1896-98) 
France was endeavouring to establish her authority on the river 
between Khartum and Gondokoro, as the Marchand expedition 
from the Congo to Fashoda demonstrated. The Nile constitutes, 
in the words of Lord Cromer, the true justification of the 
policy of re-occupation, and makes the Sudan a priceless 
possession for Egypt. 2 

The Sudan having been reconquered by " the joint military 
and financial efforts" of Great Britain and Egypt, the British 
government claimed " by right of conquest " to share in the 
settlement of the administration and legislation of the country. 
To meet these claims an agreement (which has been aptly 
called the constitutional charter of the Sudan) between Great 
Britain and Egypt, was signed on the igth of January 1899, 
establishing the joint sovereignty of the two states throughout 

1 In the autumn of 1903 Mahommed-el-Amin, a native of Tunis, 
proclaimed himself the Mahdi and got together a following in Kor 
dofan. He was captured by the governor of Kordofan and publicly 
executed at El Obeid. In April 1908 Abd-el-Kader, a Halowin 
Arab and ex-dervish, rebelled in the Blue Nile province, claiming to 
be the prophet Issa (Jesus). On the 2gth of that month he murdered 
Mr C. C. Scott-Moncrieff, deputy inspector of the province, and the 
Egyptian mamur. The rising was promptly suppressed, Abd-el- 
Kader was captured and was hanged on the I7th of May. 

2 Egypt, No. i (1905), p. 119. 

the Sudan. The reorganization of the country had already 
begun, supreme power being centred in one official termed the 
" governor-general of the Sudan." To this post was appointed 
Lord Kitchener, the sirdar (commander-in-chief) of the Egyptian 
army, under whom the Sudan had been reconquered. On Lord 
Kitchener going to South Africa at the close of 1899 he was 
succeeded as sirdar and governor-general by Major-General Sir 
F. R. Wingate, who had served with the Egyptian army since 
1883. Under a just and firm administration, which from the 
first was essentially civil, though the principal officials were 
officers of the British army, the Sudan recovered in a surprising 
manner from the woes it suffered during the Mahdia. At the 
head of every mudiria (province) was placed a British official, 
though many of the subordinate posts were filled by Egyptians. 
An exception was made in the case of Darfur, which before the 
battle of Omdurman had thrown off the khalifa s rule and was 
again under a native sovereign. This potentate, the sultan Ali 
Dinar, was recognized by the Sudan government, on condition 
of the payment of an annual tribute. 

The first duty of the new administration, the restoration of 
public order, met with comparatively feeble opposition, though 
tribes such as the Nuba mountaineers, accustomed from time 
immemorial to raid their weaker neighbours, gave some trouble. 
In 1906, in 1908, and again in 1910 expeditions had to be sent 
against the Nubas. In the Bahr-el-Ghazal the Niam-Niams at first 
disputed the authority of the government, but Sultan Yambio, the 
recalcitrant chief, was mortally wounded in a fight in February 
1905 and no further disturbance occurred. The delimitation 
(1903-1904) of the frontier between the Sudan and Abyssinia 
enabled order to be restored in a particularly lawless region, 
and slave-raiding on a large scale ended in that quarter with 
the capture and execution of a notorious offender in 1904. In 
Kordofan, Darfur and the Bahr-el-Ghazal the slave trade 
continued however for some years later. 

With good administration and public security the population 
increased steadily. The history of the country became one of 
peaceful progress marked by the growing content- The Ke . 
ment of the people. The Sudan government devoted generative 
much attention to the revival of agriculture and Work of 
commerce, to the creation of an educated class of ^ a< 
natives, and to the establishment of an adequate 
judicial system. Their task, though one of immense difficulty, 
was however (in virtue of the agreement of the rgth of January 
1899) free from all the international fetters that bound the 
administration of Egypt. It was moreover rendered easier by 
the decision to govern, as far as possible, in accordance with 
native law and custom, no attempt being made to Egyptianize 
or Anglicize the Sudanese. The results were eminently satis 
factory. The Arab-speaking and Mahommedan population 
found their religion and language respected, and from the first 
showed a marked desire to profit by the new order. To the 
negroes of the southern Sudan, who were exceedingly suspicious 
of all strangers whom hitherto they had known almost 
exclusively as slave-raiders the very elements of civilization 
had, in most cases, to be taught. In these pagan regions the 
Sudan government encouraged the work of missionary societies, 
both Protestant and Roman Catholic, while discouraging 
propaganda work among the Moslems. 

In their general policy the Sudan government adopted a 
system of very light taxation; low taxation being in countries 
such as Egypt and the Sudan the keystone of the political arch. 
This policy was amply justified by results. In 1899 the revenue 
derived from the country was 126,000, in 1909 it had risen to 
1,040,000, despite slight reductions in taxation, a proof of 
the growing prosperity of the land. This prosperity was brought 
about largely by improving the water-supply, and thus bringing 
more land under cultivation, by the creation of new industries, 
and by the improvement of means of communication. A shorter 
route to the sea than that through Egypt being essential for the 

At first Suakin was excepted from some of the provisions 
of this agreement, but these exceptions were done away with by 
a supplementary agreement of the loth of July 1899. 


commercial development of the country, a railway from the Nile 
near Berber to the Red Sea was built (1904-1906). This line 
shortened the distance from Khartum to the nearest seaport by 
nearly 1000 m., and by reducing the cost of carriage of mer 
chandise enabled Sudan produce to find a profitable outlet in 
the markets of the world. At the same time river communi 
cations were improved and the numbers of wells on caravan roads 
increased. Steps were furthermore taken by means of irrigation 
works to regulate the Nile floods, and those of the river Gash. 

To the promotion of education and sanitation, and in the 
administration of justice, the government devoted much energy 
with satisfactory results. Indeed the regenerative work of 
Great Britain in the Sudan has been fully as successful and even 
more remarkable than that of Great Britain in Egypt. A large 
part of this work has been accomplished by officers of the British 
army. Some of the most valuable suggestions about such matters 
as land settlement, agricultural loans, &c., emanated from officers 
who a short time before were performing purely military duties. 

Nevertheless civil servants gradually replaced military officers 
in the work of administration, army officers being liable to be 
suddenly removed for war or other service, often at times when 
the presence of officials possessed of local experience was most 
important. In efficiency and devotion to duty the Egyptian 
officials under the new regime also earned high praise. 

The relations of the Sudan government with its Italian, 
Abyssinian and French neighbours was marked by cordiality, 
Bahr-ei- but with the Congo Free State difficulties arose over 
ohazai and claims made by that state to the Bahr-el-Ghazal 
Lado. (sgg AFRICA, 5). Congo State troops were in 1904 

stationed in Sudanese territory. The difficulty was adjusted 
in 1906 when the Congo State abandoned all claims to the Ghazal 
province (whence its troops were withdrawn during 1907), and 
it was agreed to transfer the Lado enclave (q.v.) to the Sudan 
six months after the death of the king of the Belgians. Under 
the terms of this agreement the Lado enclave was incorporated 
in the Sudan in 1910. As to the general state of the country Sir 
Eldon Gorst after a tour of inspection declared in his report for 
1909, " I do not suppose that there is any part of the world in 
which the mass of the population have fewer unsatisfied wants." 

AUTHORITIES. Summaries of ancient and medieval history 
will be found in E. A. Wallis Budge, The Egyptian Sudan (2 vols., 
1907) and The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1095), edited by Count 
Gleichen. The story of the Egyptian conquest and events up to 
1850 are summarized in H. Deherain s Le Soudan egyptien sous 
Mehemet Ali (Paris, 1898). For the middle period of Egyptian rule 
see Sir Samuel Baker s Ismailia (1874) ; Col. Cordon in Central Africa, 
edited by G. Birkbeck Hill (4th ed., 1885), being extracts from 
Gordon s diary, 1874-1880; Seven Years in the Soudan, by Romolo 
Gessi Pasha (1892); and Der Sudan unter dgyptischer Herrschaft, by R. 
Buchta (Leipzig, 1888). The rise of Mahdism and events down to 
1900 are set forth in (Sir) F. R. Wingate s Mahdiism and the Egyptian 
Sudan (1891). This book contains translations of letters and 
proclamations of the Mahdi and Khalifa. For this period the 
Journals of Major General Gordon at Khartoum (1885); F. Power s 
Letters from Khartoum during the Siege (1885), and the following 
four books written by prisoners of the dervishes are specially valuable : 
Slatin Pasha, Fire and Sword in the Sudan (1896); Father J. 
Ohrwalder (from the MSS. of, by F. R. Wingate), Ten Years Captivity 
in the Mahdi s Camp (1882-1892) (1892); Father Paolo Rosignoli, / 
miei dodici anni di prigionia in mezzo ai dervice del Sudan (Mondovi, 
1898); C. Neufeldt, A Prisoner of the Khaleefa (1899). See also 
G. Dujarric, L Etat mahdiste du Soudan (Paris, 1901). For the 
" Gordon Relief " campaign, &c., see the British official History of 
the Sudan Campaign (1890); for the campaigns of 1896-98, H. S. L. 
Alford and VV. D. Sword, The Egyptian Soudan, its Loss and Recovery 
(1898); G. W. Steevens, With Kitchener to Khartum (Edinburgh, 
1898) ; Winston S. Churchill, The River War (revised ed., 1902). The 
story of the Fashoda incident is told mainly in British and French 
official despatches; consult also for this period G. Hanotaux, Fachoda 
(Paris, 1910) ; A. Lebon, La Politique de la France 1896-1898 (Paris, 
1901); and R. de Caix, Fachoda, la France et I Angleterre (Paris, 
1899). Lord Cromer s Modern Egypt (1908) covers Sudanese history 
for the years 1881-1907. Consult also the authorities cited under 
EGY_PT) : Modern History, and H. Pensa, L Egypte et le Soudan egyptien 
(Paris, 1895). Unless otherwise stated the place of publication is 
London. (F. R. C.) 

SUDATORIUM, the term in architecture for the vaulted 
sweating-room (sudor, sweat) of the Roman thermae, referred 
to in Vitruvius (v. 2), and there called the concamerata sudalio. 

In order to obtain the great heat required, the whole wall was 
lined with vertical terra-cotta flue pipes of rectangular section, 
placed side by side, through which the hot air and the smoke 
from the suspensura passed to an exit in the roof. 

SUDBURY, SIMON OF (d. 1381), archbishop of Canterbury, 
was born at Sudbury in Suffolk, studied at the university of 
Paris, and became one of the chaplains of Pope Innocent VI., 
who sent him, in 1356, on a mission to Edward III. of England. 
In October 1361 the pope appointed him bishop of London, and 
he was soon serving the king as an ambassador and in other ways. 
In 1375 he succeeded William Wittlesey as archbishop of Canter 
bury, and during the rest of his life was a partisan of John of 
Gaunt. In July 1377 he crowned Richard II., and in 1378 John 
Wycliffe appeared before him at Lambeth, but he only took 
proceedings against the reformer under great pressure. In 
January 1380 Sudbury became chancellor of England, and the 
revolting peasants regarded him as one of the principal authors 
of their woes. Having released John Ball from his prison at 
Maidstone, the Kentish insurgents attacked and damaged the 
archbishop s property at Canterbury and Lambeth; then, 
rushing into the Tower of London, they seized the archbishop 
himself. Sudbury was dragged to Tower Hill and, on the i4th 
of June 1381, was beheaded. His body was afterwards buried 
in Canterbury Cathedral. Sudbury rebuilt part of the church of 
St Gregory at Sudbury, and with his brother, John of Chertsey, 
he founded a college in this town; he also did some building at 
Canterbury. His father was Nigel Theobald, and he is some 
times called Simon Theobald or Tybald. 

See W. F. Hook, Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury. 

SUDBURY, a post town and outport of Nipissing district, 
Ontario, Canada, on the Canadian Pacific railway, 443 m. W. of 
Montreal. Pop. (1901), 2027. It has manufactures of explosives, 
lumber and planing mills, and is the largest nickel mining centre 
in the world. Gold, copper and other minerals are also raised. 
Practically all the ore is shipped to the United States. 

SUDBURY, a market town and municipal borough of England, 
chiefly in the Sudbury parliamentary division of Suffolk, but 
partly in the Saffron Walden division of Essex. Pop. (1901), 
7109. It lies on the river Stour (which is navigable up to the 
town), 59 m. N.E. from London by the Great Eastern railway. 
All Saints parish church, consisting of chancel, nave, aisles and 
tower, is chiefly Perpendicular the chancel being Decorated. 
It possesses a fine oaken pulpit of 1490. The church was restored 
in 1882. St Peter s is Perpendicular, with a finely carved nave 
roof. St Gregory s, once collegiate, is Perpendicular. It has a rich 
spire-shaped font-cover of wood, gilt and painted. The grammar 
school was founded by William Wood in 1491. There are some 
old half-timbered houses, including one very fine example. The 
principal modern buildings are the town-hall, Victoria hall 
and St Leonard s hospital. Coco-nut matting is an important 
manufacture; silk manufactures were transferred from London 
during the igth century, and horsehair weaving was established 
at the same time. There are also flour-mills, malt-kilns, lime- 
works, and brick and tile yards. The town is governed by a 
mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors. The borough lies wholly 
in the administrative county of West Suffolk. Area, 1925 acres. 

The ancient Saxon borough of Sudbury (Sudbyrig, Sudberi, 
Suthberia) was the centre of the southern portion of the East 
Anglian kingdom. Before the Conquest it was a borough owned 
by the mother of Earl Morcar, from whom it was taken by 
William I., who held it in 1086. It was alienated from the 
Crown to an ancestor of Gilbert de Clare, gth earl of Gloucester. 
In 1271 the earl gave the burgesses their first charter confirming 
to them all their ancient liberties and customs. The earl of 
March granted a charter to the mayor and bailiffs of Sudbury in 
1397. In 1440 and again in 1445 the men and tenants of Sudbury 
obtained a royal confirmation of their privileges. They were 
incorporated in 1553 under the name of the mayor, aldermen and 
burgesses of Sudbury, and charters were granted to the town by 
Elizabeth, Charles II. and James II. Its constitution was re 
formed by the act of 1835. It was represented in parliament 
by two burgesses from 1558 till its disfranchisement in 



1844. The lord of the borough had a market and fair in the i3th 
century, and three fairs in March, July and December were held 
in 1792. Markets still exist on Thursdays and Saturdays. 
Weavers were introduced by Edward III., and the town became 
the chief centre of the Suffolk cloth industry after the Restoration. 

SUDD, or SADD (an Arabic word meaning "to dam"), the 
name given to the vegetable obstruction which has at various 
dates closed the waters of the Upper Nile to navigation. It is 
composed of masses of papyrus and um suf ( Vossia procera) and 
the earth adhering to the roots of those reeds. Mingled with the 
papyrus and um suf (Arabic for " mother-of-wool " ) are small 
swimming plants and the light brittle ambach. The papyrus 
and um suf grow abundantly along the Nile banks and the con 
nected lagoons between 7 N. and 13 N. Loosened by storms 
these reeds drift until they lodge on some obstruction and form a 
dam across the channel, converted by fresh arrivals into blocks 
that are sometimes 25 m. in length, and extend 15 to 20 ft. 
below the surface. These masses of decayed vegetation and 
earth, resembling peat in consistency, are so much compressed 
by the force of the current that men can walk over them every 
where. In parts elephants could cross them without danger. 
The pressure of the water at length causes the formation of a side 
channel or the bursting of the sudd. (For sudd cutting see NILE.) 

In the Bahr-el-Ghazal the sudd, being chiefly composed of 
small swimming plants, is of less formidable nature than that 
of the main stream. 

Consult, O. Deuerling, Die Pflanzenbarren der afrikanischen 
Fliisse (Munich, 1909), a valuable monograph; and the bibliography 
under NILE, especially Captain H. G. Lyons, The Physiography of 
the Nile and its Basin (Cairo, 1906). 

SUDERMANN, HERMANN (1857- ), German dramatist 
and novelist, was born on the 3oth of September 1857 at Matzi- 
ken in East Prussia, close to the Russian frontier, of a Mennonite 
family long settled near Elbing. His father owned a small 
brewery in the village of Heydekrug, and Sudermann received 
his early education at the Realschule in Elbing, but, his parents 
having been reduced in circumstances, he was apprenticed to a 
chemist at the age of fourteen. He was, however, enabled to 
enter the Realgymnasium in Tilsit, and to study philosophy and 
history at Konigsberg University. In order to complete his 
studies Sudermann went to Berlin, where he was tutor in several 
families. He next became a journalist, was from 1881-1882 
editor of the Deutsches Reichsblatt, and then devoted himself to 
novel-writing. The novels and romances Im Zwielicht (1886), 
Frau Sorge (1887), Geschwister (1888) and Der Katzensleg (1890) 
failed to bring the young author as much recognition as his first 
drama Die Ehre (1889), which inaugurated a new period in the 
history of the German stage. Of his other dramas the most 
successful were Sodoms Ende (1891), Heimat ( 1 893 ) , Die Schmetler- 
lingsschlacht (1894), Das Cluck im Winkel (1895), Morituri (1896), 
Johannes (1898), Die drei Reiherfedern (1899), Johannesfeuer 
(1900), Es lebe das Leben f (1902), Der Sturmgeselle Sokrates 
(1903) and Stein unter Steinen (1905). Sudermann is also the 
author of a powerful social novel, Es war (1904), which, like Frau 
Sorge and Der Katzensteg, has been translated into English. 

See W. Kawerau, Hermann Sudermann (1897); H. Landsberg, 
Hermann Sudermann (1902); H. Jung, Hermann Sudermann (1902); 
H. Schoen, Hermann Sudermann, poete dramatique et romancier 
(1905); and I. Axelrod, Hermann Sudermann (1907). 

SUE, EUGENE [JOSEPH MARIE] (1804-1857), French novelist, 
was born in Paris on the 2oth of January 1804. He was the son 
of a distinguished surgeon in Napoleon s army, and is said to have 
had the empress Josephine for godmother. Sue himself acted 
as surgeon both in the Spanish campaign undertaken by France 
in 1823 and at the battle of Navarino (1828). In 1829 his father s 
death put him in possession of a considerable fortune, and he 
settled in Paris. His naval experiences supplied much of the 
materials of his first novels, Kernock le pirate (1830), A tar-Gull 
(1831), La Salamandre (2 vols., 1832), La Coucaratcha (4 vols., 
1832-1834), and others, which were composed at the height of the 
romantic movement of 1830. In the quasi-historical style he 
wrote Jean Cavalier, ouLes Fanatiques des Cevennes (4 vols., 1840) 
and Latreaumont (2 vols., 1837). He was strongly affected by the 

Socialist ideas of the day, and these prompted his most famous 
works: Les Mysteres de Paris (10 vols., 1842-1843) and Le Juif 
errant (10 vols., 1844-1845), which were among the most popular 
specimens of the roman-feuilleton. He followed these up with some 
singular and not very edifying books: Les Sept peches capitaux 
(16 vols., 1847-1849), which contained stories to illustrate each 
sin, Les Mysteres du peuple (1840-1856), which was suppressed 
by the censor in 1857, and several others, all on a very large scale, 
though the number of volumes gives an exaggerated idea of their 
length. Some of his books, among them the Juif errant and the 
Mysteres de Paris, were dramatized by himself, usually in collab 
oration with others. His period of greatest success and popu 
larity coincided with that of Alexandre Dumas, with whom some 
writers have put him on an equality. Sue has neither Dumas s 
wide range of subject, nor, above all, his faculty of conducting 
the story by means of lively dialogue; he has, however, a com 
mand of terror which Dumas seldom or never attained. From 
the literary point of view his style is bad, and his construction 
prolix. After the revolution of 1848 he sat for Paris (the Seine) 
in the Assembly from April 1850, and was exiled in consequence 
of his protest against the coup d etat of the 2nd of December 
1851. This exile stimulated his literary production, but the 
works of his last days are on the whole much inferior to those 
of his middle period. Sue died at Annecy (Savoy) on the 
3rd of August 1857. 

SUEBI, or SUEVI, a collective term applied to a number of 
peoples in central Germany, the chief of whom appear to have 
been the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones and 
Langobardi. From the earliest times these tribes inhabited the 
basin of the Elbe. The Langobardic territories seem to [have 
lain about the lower reaches of the river, while the Semnones lay 
south. The Marcomanni occupied the basin of the Saale, but 
under their king, Maroboduus, they moved into Bohemia during 
the early part of Augustus s reign, while the Quadi, who are first 
mentioned in the time of Tiberius, lay farther east towards the 
sources of the Elbe. The former home of the Marcomanni was 
occupied by the Hermunduri a few years before the Christian 
era. Some kind of political union seems to have existed among 
all these tribes. The Semnones and Langobardi were at one 
time subject to the dominion of the Marcomannic king Marobo 
duus, and at a much later period we hear of Langobardic troops 
taking part against the Romans in the Marcomannic War. The 
Semnones claimed to be the chief of the Suebic peoples, and 
Tacitus describes a great religious festival held in their tribal 
sanctuary, at which legations were present from all the other 

Tacitus uses the name Suebi in a far wider sense than that 
defined above. With him it includes not only the tribes of the 
basin of the Elbe, but also all the tribes north and east of that 
river, including even the Swedes (Suiones). This usage, which is 
not found in other ancient writers, is probably due to a confusion 
of the Suebi with the agglomeration of peoples under their 
supremacy, which as we know from Strabo extended to some 
at least of the eastern tribes. 

In early Latin writers the term Suebi is occasionally applied to 
any of the above tribes. From the 2nd to the 4th century, 
however, it is seldom used except with reference to events in the 
neighbourhood of the Pannonian frontier, and here probably 
means the Quadi. From the middle of the 4th century onward 
it appears most frequently in the regions south of the Main, and 
soon the names Alamanni and Suabi are used synonymously. 
The Alamanni (9.11.) seem to have been, in part at least, the 
descendants of the ancient Hermunduri, but it is likely that 
they had been joined by one or more other Suebic peoples, from 
the Danubian region, or more probably from the middle Elbe, 
the land of the ancient Semnones. It is probably from the 
Alamannic region that those Suebi came who joined the 
Vandals in their invasion of Gaul, and eventually founded a 
kingdom in north-west Spain. After the ist century the term 
Suebi seems never to be applied to the Langobardi and seldom 
to the Baiouarii (Bavarians), the descendants of the ancient 
Marcomanni. But besides the Alamannic Suebi we hear 



also of a people called Suebi, who shortly after the middle of 
the 6th century settled north of the Unstrut. There is 
evidence also for a people called Suebi in the district above 
the mouth of the Scheldt. It is likely that both these settle 
ments were colonies from the Suebi of whom we hear in the 
Anglo-Saxon poem Widsith as neighbours of the Angli, and 
whose name may possibly be preserved in Schwabstedt on the 
Treene. The question has recently been raised whether these 
Suebi should be identified with the people whom the Romans 
called Heruli. After the 7th century the name Suebi is practically 
only applied to the Alamannic Suebi (Schwaben), with whom it 
remains a territorial designation in Wurttemberg and Bavaria 
until the present day. 

See Caesar, De bello gattico, i. 37, 51 sqq., iv. i sqq., vi. 9 sqq. ; 
Strabo, p. 290 seq. ; Tacitus, Germania, 38 sqq. ; K. Zeuss, Die 
Deutschenund die Nachbarstamme, pp. 55 sqq., 315 sqq.; C. Bremer 
in Paul s Grundriss (2nd ed.), iii. 9157950; H. M.Chadwick, Origin of 
the English Nation, 216 sqq. (Cambridge, 1907). (F. G. M. B.) 

SUECA, a town of eastern Spain, in the province of Valencia, 
near the left bank of the river Jucar, and on the Silla-Cullera 
railway. Pop. (1900), 14,435. Sueca is separated from the 
Mediterranean Sea (7 m. east) by the Sierra de Cullera. It is a 
modern town, although many of the houses have the flat roofs, 
view-turrets (miradores) and horseshoe arches characteristic of 
Moorish architecture. There are a few handsome public 
buildings, such as the hospital, town-hall and theatre. Sueca 
has a thriving trade in grain and fruit from the Jucar valley, 
which is irrigated by waterways created by the Moors. 

SUESS, EDUARD (1831- ), Austrian geologist, was born 
in London on the 2oth of August 1831, his father, a native of 
Saxony, having settled there as a German merchant. Three 
years later the family removed to Prague, and in 1845 to Vienna. 
Eduard Suess was educated for commercial life, but early dis 
played a bent for geology. At the age of nineteen he published 
a short sketch of the geology of Carlsbad and its mineral waters; 
and in 1852 he was appointed an assistant in the Imperial 
museum of Vienna. There he studied the fossil Brachiopoda, and 
manifested such ability that in 1857 he was appointed professor 
of geology at the university. In 1862 he relinquished his museum 
duties, and gave his whole time to special research and teaching, 
retaining his professorship until 1901. Questions of ancient 
physical geography, such as the former connexion between 
northern Africa and Europe, occupied his attention; and in 1862 
he published an essay on the soils and water-supply of Vienna. 
He was elected a member of the town council, and in 1869 to a 
seat in the Diet of Lower Austria, which he retained until 1896. 
Meanwhile he continued his geological and palaeontological 
work dealing with the Tertiary strata of the Vienna Basin, also 
turning his attention to the problems connected with the evolu 
tion of the earth s surface-features, on which he wrote a monu 
mental treatise. This, the great task of his life, embodied the 
results of personal research and of a comprehensive study of the 
work of the leading geologists of all countries; it is entitled 
Antlitz der Erde, of which the first volume was published in 1885, 
the second in 1888, and pt. i. of the third volume in 1901. The 
work has been translated into French, and (in part) into English. 
Suess was elected a corresponding member of the Institute of 
France in 1889, and a foreign member of the Royal Society in 
1894. In 1896 the Geological Society of London awarded to him 
the Wollaston medal. 

Memoir (with portrait), by Sir A. Geikie, Nature (May 4, 1905). 

SUESSULA, an ancient town of Campania, Italy, in the plain 
i| m. W. of the modern Cancello, 9 m. S.E. of the ancient Capua. 
Its earlier history is obscure. In 338 B.C. it obtained Latin 
rights from Rome. In the Samnite and Hannibahc wars it was 
strategically important as commanding the entrance to the 
Caudine pass. Sulla seems to have founded a colony here. It is 
frequently named as an episcopal see up till the loth century A.D., 
and was for a time the chief town of a small Lombard principality. 
It was several times plundered by the Saracens, and at last 
abandoned by the inhabitants in consequence of the malaria. The 
ruins of the town lie within the Bosco d Acerra, a picturesque 
forest. They were more conspicuous in the i8th century than 

they now are, but traces of the theatre may still be seen, and 
debris of other buildings. Oscan tombs were excavated there 
between 1878 and 1886, and important finds of vases, bronzes, 
&c., have been made. The dead were generally buried within 
slabs of tufa arranged to form a kind of sarcophagus (see F. von 
Duhn in Romische Mitteilungen, 1887, p. 235 sqq.). Suessula lay 
on the line of the Via Popillia, which was here intersected by a 
road which ran from Neapolis through Acerrae, and on to the Via 
Appia, which it reached just west of the Caudine pass. On 
the hills above Cancello to the east of Suessula was situated 
the fortified camp of M. Claudius Marcellus, which covered 
Nola and served as a post of observation against Hannibal in 
Capua. (T. As.) 

SUET (M. Eng. sewet, a diminutive of 0. Fr. seu, suis, mod. 
suif, lard, from Lat. sebum, or sevum, tallow, grease, probably 
allied to sapo, soap), the hard flaked white fat lying round the 
kidneys of the sheep or ox; that of the pig forms lard. Beef- 
suet is especially used in cookery. 

lived during the end of the ist and the first half of the 2nd 
century A.D. He was the contemporary of Tacitus and the 
younger Pliny, and his literary work seems to have been 
chiefly done in the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian (A.D. 98-138). 
His father was military tribune in the XIHth legion, and he 
himself began life as a teacher of rhetoric and an advocate. 
To us he is known as the biographer of the twelve Caesars 
(including Julius) down to Domitian. The lives are valuable 
as covering a good deal of ground where we are without the 
guidance of Tacitus. As Suetonius was the emperor Hadrian s 
private secretary (magister epislolarum) , he must have had 
access to many important documents in the Imperial archives, 
e.g. the decrees and transactions oi the senate. In addition 
to written and official documents, he picked up in society a 
mass of information and anecdotes, which, though of doubtful 
authenticity, need not be regarded as mere inventions of 
his own. They give a very good idea of the kind of court 
gossip prevalent in Rome at the time. He was a friend and cor 
respondent of the younger Pliny, who when appointed governor 
of Bithynia took Suetonius with him. Pliny also recommended 
him to the favourable notice of the emperor Trajan, " as a most 
upright, honourable, and learned man, whom persons often 
remember in their wills because of his merits," and he begs that 
he may be made legally capable of inheriting these bequests, for 
which under a special enactment Suetonius was, as a childless 
married man, disqualified. Hadrian s biographer, Aelius 
Spartianus, tells us that Suetonius was deprived of his 
private secretaryship because he had not been sufficiently 
observant of court etiquette towards the emperor s wife 
during Hadrian s absence m Britain. 

The Lives of the Caesars has always been a popular work. It 
is rather a chronicle than a history. It gives no picture of the 
society of the time, no hints as to the general character and tenden 
cies of the period. It is the emperor who is always before us, and 
yet the portrait is drawn without any real historical judgment or 
insight. It is the personal anecdotes, several of which are very 
amusing, that give the lives their chief interest; but the author 
panders rather too much to a taste for scandal and gossip. None the 
less he throws considerable light on an important period, and next to 
Tacitus and Dio Cassius is the chief (sometimes the only) authority. 
The language is clear and simple. The work was continued by 
Marius Maximus (3rd century), who wrote a history of the emperors 
from Nerva to Elagabalus (now lost). Suetonius was a voluminous 
writer. Of his De viris illustribus, the lives of Terence and Horace, 
fragments of those of Lucan and the elder Pliny and the greater 
part of the chapter on grammarians and rhetoricians, are extant. 
Other works by him (now lost) were: Praia (= Xtc/ium = patch 
work), in ten books, a kind of encyclopaedia ; the Roman Year, Roman 
Institutions and Customs, Children s Games among the Greeks, Roman 
Public Spectacles, On the Kings, On Cicero s Republic. 

Editio princeps, 1470; editions by great scholars: Erasmus, 
Isaac Casaubon, J. G. Graevius, P. Burmann; the best complete 
annotated edition Is still that of C. G. Baumgarten-Crusius (1816); 
recent editions by H. T. Peck (New York, 1889); Leo Preud homme 
(1906); M. Ihm (1907). Editions of separate lives: Augustus, by 
E. S. Shuckburgh (with useful introduction, 1896); Claudius, by H. 
Smilda (1896), with notes and parallel passages from other authorities. 
The best editions of the text are by C. L. Roth (1886), and A. Reiffer- 
scheid (not including the Lives, 1860). On the De viris illustribus, see 



G. Kort^e in Dissert, philolog. halenses (1900), vol. xiv. ; and, above all, 
A. Mace, Essai sur Suetone (1900), with an exhaustive bibliography. 
There are English translations by Philemon Holland (reprinted in 
the Tudor Translations, 1900), and by Thomson and Forester (in 
Bohn s Classical Library). 

SUEZ, a port of Egypt on the Red Sea and southern terminus 
of the Suez Canal (q.v.), situated at the head of the Gulf of Suez 
in 29s8 37"N.,323i i8"E. It is 80 m. E. by S. of Cairo in a 
direct line but 148 m. by rail, and is built on the north-west 
point of the gulf. Pop. (1907), 18,347. From the heights to the 
north, where there is a khedival chalet, there is a superb view to 
the south with the Jebel Ataka on the right, Mt Sinai on the 
left and the waters of the gulf between. Suez is supplied with 
water by the fresh-water canal, which starts from the Nile at 
Cairo and is terminated at Suez by a lock which, north of the 
town, joins it to the gulf. Before the opening of this canal in 
1863 water had to be brought from " the Wells of Moses," a 
small oasis 3 m. distant on the east side of the gulf. About 
2 m. south of the town are the harbours and quays constructed 
on the western side of the Suez Canal at the point where the 
canal enters the gulf. The harbours are connected with the 
town by an embankment and railway built across a shallow, 
dry at low water save for a narrow channel. On one of the 
quays is a statue to Thomas Waghorn, the organizer of the 
" overland route " to India. The ground on which the port is 
built has all been reclaimed from the sea. The accommodation 
provided includes a dry dock 410 ft. long, 100 ft. broad and 
nearly 36 ft. deep. There are separate basins for warships 
and merchant ships, and in the roadstead at the mouth of the 
canal is ample room for shipping. Suez is a quarantine 
station for pilgrims from Mecca; otherwise its importance is 
due almost entirely to the ships using the canal. 

In the 7th century a town called Kolzum stood, on a site 
adjacent to that of Suez, at the southern end of the canal which 
then joined the Red Sea to the Nile. Kolzum retained some of 
the trade of Egypt with Arabia and countries farther east long 
after the canal was closed, but by the i3th century it was in 
ruins and Suez itself, which had supplanted it, was also, according 
to an Arab historian, in decay. On the Ottoman conquest of 
Egypt in the i6th century Suez became a naval as well as a trad 
ing station, and here fleets were equipped which for a time dis 
puted the mastery of the Indian Ocean with the Portuguese. 
According to Niebuhr, in the i8th century a fleet of nearly 
twenty vessels sailed yearly from Suez to Jidda, the port of Mecca 
and the place of correspondence with India. When the French 
occupied Suez in 179811 was a place of little importance, and the 
conflicts which followed its occupation in 1800 by an English 
fleet laid the greater part in ruins. The overland mail route from 
England to India by way of Suez was opened in 1 83 7 . The regular 
Peninsular & Oriental steamer service began a few years later, 
and in 1857 a railway was opened from Cairo through the desert. 
This line is now abandoned in favour of the railway which follows 
the canal from Suez to Ismailia, and then ascends the Wadi 
Tumilat to Zagazig, whence branches diverge to Cairo and 

SUEZ CANAL. Before the construction of the Suez Canal 
there was no direct water communication between the Mediter 
ranean and the Red Sea, but at various eras such communication 
existed by way of the Nile. Trade between Egypt and countries 
to the east was originally overland to ports south of the Gulf of 
Suez; the proximity of the roadstead at the head of that gulf to 
Memphis and the Delta nevertheless marked it as the natural 
outlet for the Red Sea commerce of Lower Egypt. The fertile 
Wadi Tumilat extending east of the Nile valley almost to the 
head of the gulf (which in ancient times reached north to the 
Bitter Lakes) afforded an easy road between the Nile and the 
Red Sea, while the digging of a navigable canal connecting the 
river and the gulf gave the northern route advantages not 
possessed by the desert routes farther south, e.g. that between 
Coptos and Kosseir. Aristotle, Strabo and Pliny attribute to 
the legendary Sesostris (q.v.) the distinction of being the first 
of the pharaohs to build a canal joining the Nile and the Red Sea. 
From an inscription on the temple at Karnak it would appear 

that such a canal existed in the time of Seti I. (1380 B.C.). This 
canal diverged from the Nile near Bubastis and was carried along 
the Wadi Tumilat to Heroopolis, near Pithom, a port at the head 
of the Heroopolite Gulf (the Bitter Lakes of to-day) . The channel 
of this canal is still traceable in parts of the Wadi Tumilat, and 
its direction was frequently followed by the engineers of the fresh 
water canal. Seti s canal appears to have fallen into decay or 
to have been too small for later requirements, for Pharaoh Necho 
(609 B.C.) began to build another canal; possibly his chief object 
was to deepen the channel between the Heroopolite Gulf and 
the Red Sea, then probably silting up. Necho s canal was not 
completed according to Herodotus 120,000 men perished in the 
undertaking. Darius (520 B.C.) continued the work of Necho, 
rendering navigable the channel of the Heroopolite Gulf, which 
had become blocked. Up to this time there appears to have been 
no connexion between the waters of the Red Sea and those of the 
Bubastis-Heroopolis canal ; vessels coming from the Mediterranean 
ascended the Pelusiac arm of the Nile to Bubastis and then sailed 
along the canal to Heroopolis, where their merchandise had to be 
transferred to the Red Sea ships. Ptolemy Philadelphus (285 B.C.) 
connected the canal with the waters of the sea, and at the 
spot where the junction was effected he built the town of Arsinoe. 
The dwindling of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile rendered this 
means of communication impossible by the time of Cleopatra 
(31 B.C.). Trajan (A.D. 98) is said to have repaired the canal, and, 
as the Pelusiac branch was no longer available for navigation, 
to have built a new canal between Bubastis and Babylon (Old 
Cairo), this new canal being known traditionally as Amnis 
Trajanus or Amnis Augustus. According to H. R. Hall, however, 
" It is very doubtful if any work of this kind, beyond repairs, was 
undertaken in the times of the Romans; and it is more probable 
that the new canal was the work of Amr " (the Arab conqueror 
of Egypt in the 7th century). The canal was certainly in use in 
the early years of the Moslem rule in Egypt; it is said to have been 
closed c. A.D. 770 by order of Abu Ja far (Mansur), the second 
Abbasid caliph and founder of Bagdad, who wished to prevent 
supplies from reaching his enemies in Arabia by this means. 
Amr s canal (of which the Khalig which passed through Cairo 
and was closed in 1897 is said to have formed part) had its ter 
minus on the Red Sea south of the Heroopolite Gulf near the 
present town of Suez. In this neighbourhood was the ancient 
city of Clysma, to which in Amr s time succeeded Kolzum, 
perhaps an Arabic corruption of Clysma. The exact situation 
of Clysma is unknown, but Kolzum occupied the site of Suez, 
the hills north of which are still called Kolzum. After the closing 
of the canal in the 8th century it does not appear for certain that 
it was ever restored, although it is asserted that in the year 1000 
Sultan Hakim rendered it navigable. If so it must speedily have 
become choked up again. Parts of the canal continued to be 
filled during the Nile inundations until Mehemet Ali (A.D. 1811) 
ordered it to be closed; the closing, however, was not completely 
effected, for in 1861 the eld canal from Bubastis still flowed as 
far as Kassassin. This part of the canal, after over 2500 years 
of service, was utilized by the French engineers in building the 
fresh-water canal from Cairo to Suez in 1861-1863. This canal 
follows the lines of that of Amr (or Trajan). 

Maritime Canal Projects. Apart from water communication 
between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea by way of the Nile, 
the project of direct communication by a canal piercing the 
isthmus of Suez was entertained as early as the 8th century A.D. by 
Harun al-Rashid, who is said to have abandoned the scheme, 
being persuaded that it would be dangerous to lay open the coast 
of Arabia to the Byzantine navy. After the discovery of the Cape 
route to India at the close of the isth century, the Venetians, 
who had for centuries held the greater part of the trade of the 
East with Europe via Egypt and the Red Sea, began negotiations 
with the Egyptians for a canal across the isthmus, but the con 
quest of Egypt by the Turks put an end to these designs. In 
i67t Leibnitz in his proposals to Louis XIV. of France regarding 
an expedition to Egypt recommended the making of a maritime 
canal, and the Sheikh al-Balad Ali Bey (c. 1770) wished to carry 
out the project. Bonaparte when in Egypt in 1 798 ordered the 


isthmus to be surveyed as a preliminary to the digging of a canal 
across it, and the engineer he employed, J. M. Lepere, came to the 
conclusion that there was a difference in level of 29 ft. between 
the Red Sea and the Mediterranean. This view was combated 
at the time by Laplace and Fourier on general grounds, and was 
finally disproved in 1846-1847 as the result of surveys made at 
the instance of the Societe d Etudes pour le Canal de Suez. This 
society was organized in 1846 by Prosper Enfantin, the Saint 
Simonist, who thirteen years before had visited Egypt in con 
nexion with, a scheme for making a canal across the isthmus 
of Suez, which, like the canal across the isthmus of Panama, was 
part of the Saint Simonist programme for the regeneration of 
the world. The expert commission appointed by this society 
reported by a majority in favour of Paulin Talabot s plan, 
according to which the canal would have run from Suez to 
Alexandria by way of Cairo. 

injure British maritime supremacy, and that the proposal was 
merely a device for French interference in the East. 

Although the sultan s confirmation of the concession was not 
actually granted till 1866, de Lesseps in 1858 opened the sub 
scription lists for his company, the capital of which was 200 
million francs in 400,000 shares of 500 francs each. In less than 
a month 314,494 shares were applied for; of these over 200,000 
were subscribed in France and over 96,000 were taken by the 
Ottoman Empire. From other countries the subscriptions were 
trifling, and England, Austria and Russia, as well as the United 
States of America, held entirely aloof. The residue of 85,506 
shares 1 was taken over by the viceroy. On the 25th of April 
1859 the work of construction was formally begun, the first 
spadeful of sand being turned near the site of Port Said, but 
progress was not very rapid. By the beginning of 1862 the fresh 
water canal had reached Lake Timsa, and towards the end of the 

Plan and Section 

of the 


(Topography only from L lsthme et le Canal de Suez, by G. Charles-Roux, by permission of Messrs Hachette & Co.) 

Emery WUuf K. 

For some years after this report no progress was made; indeed, 
the society was in a state of suspended animation when in 1854 
Ferdinand de Lesseps came to the front as the chief exponent of 
the idea. He had been associated with the Saint Simonists and 
for many years had been keenly interested in the question. His 
opportunity came in 1854 when, on the death of Abbas Pasha, 
his friend Said Pasha became viceroy of Egypt. From Said on 
the 3oth of November 1854 he obtained a concession authorizing 
him to constitute the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime 
de Suez, which should construct a ship canal through the isthmus, 
and soon afterwards in concert with two French engineers, 
Linant Bey and Mougel Bey, he decided that the canal should 
run in a direct line from Suez to the Gulf of Pelusium, passing 
through the depressions that are now Lake Timsa and the Bitter 
Lakes, and skirting the eastern edge of Lake Menzala. In the 
following year an international commission appointed by the 
viceroy approved this plan with slight modifications, the chief 
being that the channel was taken through Lake Menzala instead 
of along its edge, and the northern termination of the canal 
moved some 175 m. westward where deep water was found closer 
to the shore. This plan, according to which there were to be 
no locks, was the one ultimately carried out, and it was embodied 
in a second and amplified concession, dated the 5th of January 
1856, which laid on the company the obligation of constructing, 
in addition to the maritime canal, a fresh-water canal from the 
Nile near Cairo to Lake Timsa, with branches running parallel 
to the maritime canal, one to Suez and the other to Pelusium. 
The concession was to last for 99 years from the date of the open 
ing of the canal between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean, 
after which, in default of other arrangements, the canal passes 
into the hands of the Egyptian government. The confirmation 
of the sultan of Turkey being required, de Lesseps went to Con 
stantinople to secure it, but found himself baffled by British 
diplomacy; arid later in London he was informed by Lord 
Palmerston that in the opinion of the British government the 
canal was a physical impossibility, that if it were made it would 

same year a narrow channel had been formed between that lake 
and the Mediterranean. In 1863 the fresh-water canal was 
continued to Suez. 

So far the work had been performed by native labour; the 
concession of 1856 contained a provision that at least four-fifths 
of the labourers should be Egyptians, and later in the same year 
Said Pasha undertook to supply labourers as required by the 
engineers of the canal company, which was to house and feed 
them and pay them at stipulated rates. Although the wages 
and the terms of service were better than the men obtained 
normally, this system of forced labour was strongly disapproved 
of in England, and the khedive Ismail who succeeded Said on the 
latter s death in 1863 also considered it as being contrary to the 
interests of his country. Hence in July the Egyptian foreign 
minister, Nubar Pasha, was sent to Constantinople with the pro 
posal that the number of labourers furnished to the company 
should be reduced, and that it should be made to hand back to 
the Egyptian government the lands that had been granted it by 
Said in 1856. These propositions were approved by the sultan, 
and the company was informed that if they were not accepted 
the works would be stopped by force. Naturally the company 
objected, and in the end the various matters in dispute were 
referred to the arbitration of the emperor Napoleon III. By his 
award, made in July 1864, the company was allowed 38 million 
francs as an indemnity for the abolition of the conSe, 16 million 
francs in respect of its retrocessions of that portion of the fresh 
water canal that lay between Wadi, Lake Timsa and Suez (the 
remainder had already been handed back by agreement) , and 30 
million francs in respect of the lands which had been granted it by 
Said. The company was allowed to retain a certain amount of 
land along the canals, which was necessary for purposes of con 
struction, erection of workshops, &c., and it was put under the 
obligation of finishing the fresh-water canal between Wadi and 

1 These formed part of the 1 76,602 shares which were bought for 
the sum of 3,976,582 from the khedive by England in 1875 at the 
instance of Lord Beaconsfield (q.v.). 


Suez to such dimensions that the depth of water in it would be 
2 1 metres at high Nile and at least i metre at low Nile. The 
supply of Port Said with water it was allowed to manage by 
any means it chose; in the first instance it laid a double line of 
iron piping from Timsa, and it was not till 1885 that the origina 
plan of supplying the town by a branch of the fresh-water 
canal was carried out. The indemnity, amounting to a total o 
84 million francs, was to be paid in instalments spread over 
15 years. 

The abolition of forced labour was probably the salvation of 
the enterprise, for it meant the introduction of mechanical appli 
ances and of modern engineering methods. The work was divided 
into four contracts. The first was for the supply of 250,000 cubic 
metres of concrete blocks for the jetties of Port Said; the second 
for the first 60 kilometres of the channel from Port Said, involvec 
the removal of 22 million cubic metres of sand or mud; the third 
was for the next length of 13 kilometres, which included the 
cutting through the high ground at El Gisr; and the fourth and 
largest was for the portion between Lake Timsa and the Red Sea. 
The contractors for this last section were Paul Borel and Alex- 
andre Levalley, who ultimately became responsible also for the 
second or 60 kilometres contract. For the most part the material 
was soft and therefore readily removed. At some points, how 
ever, as at Shaluf and Serapeum, rock was encountered. Much 
of the channel was formed by means of dredgers. Through 
Lake Menzala, for instance, native workmen made a shallow 
channel by scooping out the soil with their hands and throwing it 
out on each side to form the banks; dredgers were then floated 
in and completed the excavation to the required depth, the 
soil being delivered on the other side of the banks through long 
spouts. At Serapeum, a preliminary shallow channel having been 
dug out, water was admitted from the fresh-water canal, the level 
of which is higher than that of the ship canal, and the work was 
completed by dredgers from a level of about 20 ft. above the sea. 
At El Gisr, where the soil, composed largely of loose sand, rises 
60 ft. above the sea, the contractor, Alphonse Couvreux, employed 
an excavator of his own design, which was practically a bucket- 
dredger working in the dry. A long arm projecting downwards 
at an angle from an engine on the bank carried a number of 
buckets, mounted on a continuous chain, which scooped up 
the stuff at the bottom and discharged it into wagons at the 

In 1865 de Lesseps, to show the progress that had been made, 
entertained over 100 delegates from chambers of commerce in 
different parts of the world, and conducted them over the works. 
In the following year the company, being in need of money, 
realized 10 million francs by selling to the Egyptian government 
the estate of El Wadi, which it had purchased from Said, and it 
also succeeded in arranging that the money due to it under the 
award of 1864 should be paid off by 1869 instead of 1879. Its 
financial resources still being insufficient, it obtained in 1867 
permission to invite a loan of 100 million francs; but though the 
issue was offered at a heavy discount it was only fully taken up 
after the attractions of a lottery scheme had been added to it. 
Two years later the company got 30 million francs from the 
Egyptian government in consideration of abandoning certain 
special rights and privileges that still belonged to it and of hand 
ing over various hospitals, workshops, buildings, &c., which it 
had established on the isthmus. The government liquidated this 
debt, not by a money payment, but by agreeing to forego for 
25 years the interest on the 176,602 shares it held in the company, 
which was thus enabled to raise a loan to the amount of the debt. 
Altogether, up to the end of the year (1869) in which the canal 
was sufficiently advanced to be opened for traffic, the accounts 
of the company showed a total expenditure of 432,807,882 francs, 
though the International Technical Commission in 1856 had 
estimated the cost at only 200 millions for a canal of larger 

The formal opening of the canal was celebrated in November 
1869. On the 1 6th there was an inaugural ceremony at Port 
Said, and next day 68 vessels of various nationalities, headed 
by the " Aigle " with the empress Eugenie on board, began the 

passage, reaching Ismailia (Lake Timsa) the same day. On the 
igth they continued their journey to the Bitter Lakes, and on the 
20th they arrived at Suez. Immediately afterwards regular traffic 
began. In 1870 the canal was used by nearly 500 vessels, but 
the receipts for the first two years of working were considerably 
less than the expenses. The company attempted to issue a loan of 
20 million francs in 1871, but the response was small, and it was 
only saved from bankruptcy by a rapid increase in its revenues. 
The total length of the navigation from Port Said to Suez 
is loo m. The canal was originally constructed to have a 
depth of 8 metres with a bottom width of 22 metres, but it soon 
became evident that its dimensions must be enlarged. Certain 
improvements in the channel were started in 1876, but a more 
extensive plan was adopted in 1885 as the result of the inquiries 
of an international commission which recommended that the depth 
should be increased first to 8j metres and finally to 9 metres, 
and that the width should be made on the straight parts a 
minimum of 65 metres between Port Said and the Bitter Lakes, 
and of 75 metres between the Bitter Lakes and Suez, increasing 
on curves to 80 metres. To pay for these works a loan of 100 
million francs was issued. These widenings greatly improved 
the facilities for ships travelling in opposite directions to pass 
each other. In the early days of the canal, except in the Bitter 
Lakes, vessels could pass each other only at a few crossing 
places or gares, which had a collective length of less than a mile; 
but owing to the widenings that have been carried out, passing 
is now possible at any point over the greater part of the canal, 
one vessel stopping_while the other proceeds on her way. From 
March 1887 navigation by night was permitted to ships which 
were provided with electric search-lights, and now the great 
majority avail themselves of this facility. By these measures 
the average time of transit, which was about 36 hours in 1886, 
has been reduced by half. The maximum speed permitted in 
the canal itself is 10 kilometres an hour. 

The dues which the canal company was authorized to charge 
by its concession of 1856 were 10 francs a ton. In the first 
instance they were levied on the tonnage as shown by the 
papers on board each vessel, but from March 1872 they were 
charged on the gross register tonnage, computed according to 
the method of the British Merchant Shipping Act 1854. The 
result was that the shipowners had to pay more, and, objections 
being raised, the whole question of the method of charge was 
submitted to an international conference which met at Con 
stantinople in 1873. It fixed the dues at 10 francs per net 
register ton (English reckoning) with a surtax of 4 francs per 
ton, which, however, was to be reduced to 3 francs in the case 
of ships having on board papers showing their net tonnage 
calculated in the required manner. It also decided that the 
surtax should be gradually diminished as the traffic increased, 
until in the year after the net tonnage passing through the canal 
reached 2,600,000 tons it should be abolished. De Lesseps 
protested against this arrangement, but on the sultan threaten 
ing to enforce it, if necessary by armed intervention, he gave 
in and brought the new tariff into operation in April 1874. 
By an arrangement with the canal company, signed in 1876, 
the British government, which in 1875 by the purchase of the 
khedive s shares, had become a large shareholder, undertook 
negotiations to secure that the successive reductions of the tariff 
should take effect on fixed dates, the sixth and last instalment 
of 50 centimes being removed in January 1884, after which the 
maximum rate was to be 10 francs per official net ton. But 
Before this happened British shipowners had started a vigorous 
agitation against the rates, which they alleged to be excessive, 
and had even threatened to construct a second canal. In 
consequence a meeting was arranged between them and repre 
sentatives of the canal company in London in November 1883, 
and it was agreed that in January 1885 the dues should be 
reduced to 9! francs a ton, that subsequently they should be 
owered on a sliding scale as the dividend increased, and that 
after the dividend reached 25% all the surplus profits should be 
applied in reducing the rates until they were lowered to 5 francs 
a ton. Under this arrangement they were fixed at 7f francs 


per ton at the beginning of 1006. For ships in ballast reduced 
rates are in force. For passengers the dues remain at 10 francs 
a head, the figure at which they were originally fixed. 

By the concessions of 1854 and 1856 the dues were to be the 
same for all nations, preferential treatment of any kind being 
forbidden, and the canal and its ports were to be open " comme 
passages neutres " to every merchant ship without distinction 
of nationality. The question of its formal neutralization by 
international agreement was raised in an acute form during 
the Egyptian crisis of 1881-82, and in August of the latter year 
a few weeks before the battle of Tel-el-Kebir, navigation upon it 
was suspended for four days at the instance of Sir Garnet 
Wolseley, who was in command of the British forces. At the 
international conference which was then sitting at Constanti 
nople various proposals were put forward to ensure the use of the 
canal to all nations, and ultimately at Constantinople on the 
29th of October 1888 Great Britain, Germany, Austria, Spain, 
France, Italy, the Netherlands, Russia and Turkey signed the 
Suez Canal Convention, the purpose of which was to ensure 
that the canal should " always be free and open, in time of 
war as in time of peace, to every vessel of commerce or of war, 
without distinction of flag. " Great Britain, however, in signing, 
formulated a reservation that the provisions of the convention 
should only apply so far as they were compatible with the 
actual situation, namely the " present transitory and excep 
tional condition of Egypt, " and" so far as they would not fetter 
the liberty of action of the British government during its occupa 
tion of that country. But by the Anglo-French agreement 
of the 8th of April 1904 Great Britain declared her adherence 
to the stipulations of the convention, and agreed to their being 
put in force, except as regards a provision by which the agents 
in Egypt of the signatory Powers of the convention were to meet 
once a year to take note of the due execution of the treaty. 
It was by virtue of this new agreement that the Russian war 
ships proceeding to the East in 1904-1905 were enabled to 
use the canal, although passage was prohibited to Spanish war 
ships in 1898 during the war between Spain and the United 

L Istkme el le Canal de Suez, historique, etat acttiel, by J. Charles- 
Roux (2 vols., Paris 1901), contains reprints of various official 
documents relating to the canal, with plates, maps and a biblio 
graphy extending to 1499 entries. 

SUFFOLK, EARLS AND DUKES OF. These English titles 
were borne in turn by the families of Ufford, Pole, Brandon, 
Grey and Howard. A certain holder of land in Suffolk, named 
John de Peyton, had a younger son Robert, who acquired the 
lordship of Ufford in that county and was known as Robert 
de Ufford. He held an important place in the government 
of Ireland under Edward I. and died in 1298; his son Robert 
(1279-1316) was created Baron Ufford by a writ of summons 
to parliament in 1309, and increased his possessions by marriage 
with Cicely, daughter and heiress of Robert de Valoines. This 
Robert had several sons, one of whom was Sir Ralph de Ufford 
(d. 1346), justiciar of Ireland, who married Maud, widow of 
William de Burgh, earl of Ulster, and daughter of Henry 
Plantagenet, earl of Lancaster. Robert s eldest surviving son, 
another Robert (c. 1298-1369), was an associate of the young 
king Edward III., and was one of the nobles who arrested Roger 
Mortimer in 1330. In 1337 he was created earl of Suffolk. 
The earl was employed by Edward III. on high military and 
diplomatic duties and was present at the battles of Crecy and 
Poitiers. His son William, the 2nd earl (c. 1339-1382), held 
important appointments under Edward III. and Richard II. 
He played a leading part in the suppression of the Peasants 
Revolt in 1381, but in the same year he supported the popular 
party in parliament in the attack on the misgovernment of 
Richard II. Although twice married he left no sons, and his 
earldom became extinct, his extensive estates reverting to the 

In 1385 the earldom of Suffolk and the lands of the Uffords 
were granted by Richard II. to his friend Michael Pole (c. 1330- 
1389), a son of Sir William atte Pole, a baron of the exchequer 

and a merchant (see POLE FAMILY). After an active public 
life as the trusted adviser of Richard II. Pole was dismissed 
from his office of chancellor, was impeached and sentenced to 
death, but escaped to France, where he died. His titles and 
estates were forfeited, but in 1399 the earldom of Suffolk and 
most of the estates were restored to his son Michael (c. 1361- 
1415). Michael, the 3rd earl (1394-1415), was killed at the battle 
of Agincourt, and the earldom passed to his brother William (1396- 
1450), who was created earl of Pembroke in 1443, marquess 
of Suffolk in 1/14/1, and duke of Suffolk in 1448 (see SUFFOLK, 
WILLIAM DE LA POLE, DUKE OF). The duke s son, John, 
2nd duke of Suffolk (1442-1491), married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Richard, duke of York, and sister of King Edward IV., 
by whom he had six sons. The eldest, John (c. 1464-1487), 
was created earl of Lincoln, and was named heir to the throne 
by Richard III. He was killed fighting against Henry VII. at 
the battle of Stoke, and was attainted. His brother Edmund 
(c. 1472-1513) should have succeeded his father in the duke 
dom in 1491, but he surrendered this to Henry VII. in return 
for some of the estates forfeited by the earl of Lincoln, and 
was known simply as earl of Suffolk. Having incurred the 
displeasure of the king, he left his own country in 1501 and 
sought help for an invasion of England. Consequently he was 
attainted in 1504 and was handed over in 1506 to Henry. He 
was kept in prison until 1513, when he was beheaded by 
Henry VIII. His brother Richard now called himself duke of 
Suffolk, and put forward a claim to the English crown. Known 
as the " white rose," he lived abroad until 1525, when he was 
killed at the battle of Pavia. 

In 1514 the title of duke of Suffolk was granted by Henry 
VIII. to his friend, Charles Brandon (see SUFFOLK, CHARLES 
BRANDON, DUKE OF) and it was borne successively by his two 
sons, Henry and Charles, becoming extinct when Charles died 
in July 1551. In the same year it was revived in favour of 
Henry Grey, marquess of Dorset, who had married Frances, a 
daughter of the first Brandon duke. Grey, who became mar 
quess of Dorset in 1530, was a prominent member of the reform 
ing party during the reign of Edward VI. He took part in the 
attempt to make his daughter, Jane, queen of England in 1553, 
but as he quickly made his peace with Mary he was not seriously 
punished. In 1554, however, he took part in the rising headed 
by Sir Thomas Wyat; he was captured, tried for treason and 
beheaded in February 1554, when the dukedom again became 
extinct. In 1603 Thomas Howard, Lord Howard de Walden, 
son of Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk, was created earl 
of Suffolk, and the earldom has been held by his descendants 
to the present day (see SUFFOLK, THOMAS HOWARD, ist earl of). 

iS45)i was the son of William Brandon, standard-bearer of 
Henry VII., who was slain by Richard III. in person on Bos- 
worth Field. Charles Brandon was brought up at the court 
of Henry VII. He is described by Dugdale as " a person comely 
of stature, high of courage and conformity of disposition to 
King Henry VIII.," with whom he became a great favourite. 
He held a succession of offices in the royal household, becoming 
master of the horse in 1513, and received many valuable grants 
of land. On the i5th of May 1513 he was created Viscount 
Lisle, having entered into a marriage contract with his ward, 
Elizabeth Grey, Viscountess Lisle in her own right, who, how 
ever, refused to marry him when she came of age. He dis 
tinguished himself at the sieges of Terouenne and Tournai in 
the French campaign of 1513. One of the agents of Margaret 
of Savoy, governor of the Netherlands, writing from before 
Terouenne, reminds her that Lord Lisle is a second king and 
advises her to write him a kind letter. At this time Henry VIII. 
was secretly urging Margaret to marry Brandon, whom he 
created duke of Suffolk, though he was careful to disclaim 
(March 4, 1514) any complicity in the project to her father, the 
emperor Maximilian I. The regent herself left a curious account 
of the proceedings (Letters and Papers of Henry VIII. vol. i. 
4850-4851). Brandon took part in the jousts which celebrated 
the marriage of Mary Tudor, Henry s sister, with Louis XII. 



of France. He was accredited to negotiate various matters 
with Louis, and on his death was sent to congratulate the new 
king Francis I. An affection between Suffolk and the dowager 
queen Mary had subsisted before her marriage, and Francis 
roundly charged him with an intention to marry her. Francis, 
perhaps in the hope of Queen Claude s death, had himself been 
one of her suitors in the first week of her widowhood, and 
Mary asserted that she had given him her confidence to avoid 
his importunities. Francis and Henry both professed a friendly 
attitude towards the marriage of the lovers, but Suffolk had 
many political enemies, and Mary feared that she might again 
be sacrificed to political considerations. The truth was that 
Henry was anxious to obtain from Francis the gold plate and 
jewels which had been given or promised to the queen by Louis 
in addition to the reimbursement of the expenses of her marriage 
with the king; and he practically made his acquiescence in 
Suffolk s suit dependent on his obtaining them. The pair cut 
short the difficulties by a private marriage, which Suffolk an 
nounced to Wolsey, who had been their fast friend, on the 5th 
of March. Suffolk was only saved from Henry s anger by 
Wolsey, and the pair eventually agreed to pay to Henry 24,000 
in yearly instalments of 1000, and the whole of Mary s dowry 
from Louis of 200,000, together with her plate and jewels. 
They were openly married at Greenwich on the I3th of May. 
The duke had been twice married already, to Margaret Mortimer 
and to Anne Browne, to whom he had been betrothed before 
his marriage with Margaret Mortimer. Anne Browne died in 
1511, but Margaret Mortimer, from whom he had obtained a 
divorce on the ground of consanguinity, was still living. He 
secured in 1528 a bull from Pope Clement II. assuring the 
legitimacy of his marriage with Mary Tudor, and of the daughters 
of Anne Browne, one of whom, Anne, was sent to the court of 
Margaret of Savoy. After his marriage with Mary, Suffolk 
lived for some years in retirement, but he was present at the 
Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, and in 1523 he was sent to 
Calais to command the English troops there. He invaded 
France in company with Count de Buren, who was at the head 
of the Flemish troops, and laid waste the north of France, but 
disbanded his troops at the approach of winter. Suffolk was 
entirely in favour of Henry s divorce from Catherine of Aragon, 
and in spite of his obligations to Wolsey he did not scruple to 
attack him when his fall was imminent. The cardinal, who 
was acquainted with Suffolk s private history, reminded him of 
his ingratitude: " If I, simple cardinal, had not been, you should 
have had at this present no head upon your shoulders wherein 
you should have had a tongue to make any such report in despite 
of us. " After Wolsey s disgrace Suffolk s influence increased 
daily. He was sent with the duke of Norfolk to demand the 
great seal from Wolsey; the same noblemen conveyed the news 
of Anne Boleyn s marriage to Queen Catherine, and Suffolk 
acted as high steward at the new queen s coronation. He was one 
of the commissioners appointed by Henry to dismiss Catherine s 
household, a task which he found distasteful. He supported 
Henry s ecclesiastical policy, receiving a large share of the 
plunder after the suppression of the monasteries. In 1544 he 
was for the second time in command of an English army for 
the invasion of France. He died at Guildford on the 24th of 
August in the following year. 

After the death of Mary Tudor on the 24th cf June 1533 he 
had married in 1534 his ward Catherine (1320-1580), Baroness 
Willoughby de Eresby in her own right, then a girl of fifteen. 
His daughters by his marriage with Anne Browne were Anne, 
who married firstly Edward Grey, Lord Powys, and, after the 
dissolution of this union, Randal Harworth; and Mary (b. 1510), 
who married Thomas Stanley, Lord Monteagle. By Mary 
Tudor he had Henry earl of Lincoln (1516-1634); Frances, who 
married Henry Grey, marquess of Dorset, and became the 
mother of Lady Jane Grey; and Eleanor, who married Henry 
Clifford, second earl of Cumberland. By Katherine Willoughby 
he had two sons who showed great promise, Henry (1535-1551) 
and Charles (c. 1537-1551), dukes of Suffolk. They died of the 
sweating sickness within an hour of one another. Their tutor, 

Sir Thomas Wilson, compiled a memoir of them, Vita et obitus 
duorum fratrum SuJJolcensium (1551). 

There is abundant material for the history of Suffolk s career in 
the Letters and Papers of Henry VIII. (ed. Brewer in the Rolls 
Series). See also Dugdale, Baronage of England (vol. ii. 1676); 
and G. E. C., Complete Peerage. An account of his matrimonial 
adventures is in the historical appendix to a novel by E. S. Holt 
entitled The Harvest of Yesterday. 

second son of Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk, was born 
on the 24th of August 1561. He behaved very gallantly during 
the attack on the Spanish armada and afterwards took part in 
other naval expeditions, becoming an admiral in 1 599. Created 
Baron Howard de Walden in 1597 and earl of Suffolk in July 
1603, he was lord chamberlain of the royal household from 1603 
to 1614 and lord high treasurer from 1614 to 1618, when he was 
deprived of his office on a charge of misappropriating money. 
He was tried in the Star-chamber and was sentenced to pay a 
heavy fine. Suffolk s second wife was Catherine (d. 1633), 
widow of the Hon. Richard Rich, a woman whose avarice was 
partly responsible for her husband s downfall. She shared his 
trial and was certainly guilty of taking bribes from Spain. One 
of his three daughters was the notorious Frances Howard, 
who, after obtaining a divorce from her first husband, Robert 
Devereux, earl of Essex, married Robert Carr, earl of Somerset, 
and instigated the poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury. The earl 
died on the 28th of May 1626. He built a magnificent residence 
at Audley End, Essex, which is said to have cost 200,000. One 
of Suffolk s seven sons was Sir Robert Howard (1585-1653), who 
inherited Clun Castle, Shropshire, on the death of his brother, 
Sir Charles Howard, in 1622. He was twice imprisoned on 
account of his illicit relations with Frances, Viscountess Purbeck 
(d. 1645), a daughter of Sir Edward Coke, and after sitting in 
six parliaments was expelled from the House of Commons for 
executing the king s commission of array in 1642. He died on 
the 22nd of April 1653. Another of Suffolk s sons, Edward 
(d. 1675), was created baron Howard of Escrick in 1628. He was 
one of the twelve peers who signed the petition on grievances, 
which he presented to Charles I. at York in 1640, and after the 
abolition of the House of Lords in 1649 he sat in the House of 
Commons as member for Carlisle, being also a member of the 
council of state. In 1651 he was expelled from parliament for 
taking bribes and he died on the 24th of April 1675. His second 
son, William, 3rd lord Howard of Escrick (c. 1626-1694), was 
a member of the republican party during the Commonwealth; 
later he associated himself with the opponents of the arbitrary 
rule of Charles II., but turning informer he was partly respon 
sible for the conviction of Lord William Russell and of Algernon 
Sydney in 1683. On the death of William s son, Charles, the 
4th lord, in 1715 the barony of Howard of Escrick became 

Suffolk s eldest son, THEOPHILUS, 2nd earl of Suffolk (1584- 
1640), was captain of the band of gentlemen pensioners under 
James I. and Charles I., and succeeded to the earldom in May 
1626, obtaining about the same time some of the numerous 
offices which had been held by his father, including the lord- 
lieutenancy of the counties of Suffolk, Cambridge and Dorset. 
He died on the 3rd of June 1640, when his eldest son James 
(1619-1689) became 3rd earl. This nobleman, who acted as 
earl marshal of England at the coronation of Charles II., died 
in January 1689 when his barony of Howard de Walden fell 
into abeyance between his two daughters. 1 His earldom, 
however, passed to his brother George (c. 1625-1691), who 

1 Having thus fallen into abeyance in 1689 the barony of Howard 
de Walden was revived in 1784 in favour of John Griffin Griffin, 
afterwards Lord Braybrooke, on whose death in May 1797 it fell 
again into abeyance. In 1799 the bishop of Derry, Frederick 
Augustus Hervey, 4th earl of Bristol, a descendant of the 3rd earl 
of Suffolk, became the sole heir to the barony. On Bristol s death 
in July 1803 it passed to Charles Augustus Ellis (1799-1868), a 
grandson of the bishop s elder son, John Augustus, Lord Hervty 
(1757-1 796), who had predeceased his father. It was thus separated 
from the marquessate of Bristol, which passed to the bishop s only 
surviving son, and it has since been held by the family of Ellis. 



became 4th earl of Suffolk. George s nephew, Henry, the 6th 
earl (c. 1670-1718), who was president of the board of trade 
from 1715 to 1718, left an only son, Charles William (1693- 
1722), who was succeeded in turn by his two uncles, the younger 
of them, Charles (1675-1733) becoming gth earl on the death 
of his brother Edward in June 1731. This earl was the husband 
of Henrietta countess of Suffolk (<;. 1681-1767), the mistress of 
George II., who was a daughter of Sir Henry Hobart, bart., 
of Blickling, Norfolk. When still the Hon. Charles Howard, 
he and his wife made the acquaintance of the future king in 
Hanover; after the accession of George I. to the English throne 
in 1714 both husband and wife obtained posts in the household 
of the prince of Wales, who, when he became king as George II., 
publicly acknowledged Mrs Howard as his mistress. She was 
formally separated from her husband before 1731 when she 
became countess of Suffolk. The earl died on the 28th of Sep 
tember 1733, but the countess, having retired from court and 
married the Hon. George Berkeley (d. 1746), lived until the 
26th of July 1767. Among Lady Suffolk s friends were the 
poets Pope and Gay and Charles Mordaunt (earl of Peterborough). 
A collection of Letters to and from Henrietta Countess of Suffolk, 
and her Second. Husband, the Hon. George Berkeley, was edited by 
J. W. Croker (1824). 

The gth earl s only son Henry, the loth earl (1706-1745), 
died without sons in April 1745, when his estate at Audley End 
passed to the descendants of the 3rd earl, being inherited in 
1762 by John Griffin Griffin (1719-1797), afterwards Lord 
Howard de Walden and Lord Braybrooke. As owners of this 
estate the earls of Suffolk of the Howard line had hitherto been 
hereditary visitors of Magdalene College, Cambridge, but this 
office now passed away from them. The earldom of Suffolk 
was inherited by Henry Bowes Howard, 4th earl of Berkshire 
(1696-1757), who was the great-grandson of Thomas Howard 
(c. 1590-1669), the second son of the ist earl of Suffolk, 
Thomas having been created earl of Berkshire in 1626. Since 
1745 the two earldoms have been united, Henry Molyneux 
Paget Howard (b. 1877) succeeding his father, Henry Charles 
(1833-1898), as igth earl of Suffolk and isth earl of Berkshire 
in 1898. 

second son of Michael de la Pole, second earl of Suffolk, was born 
on the 1 6th of October 1396. His father died at the siege of 
Harfleur, and his elder brother was killed at Agincourt on the 
25th of October 1415. Suffolk served in all the later French 
campaigns of the reign of Henry V., and in spite of his youth held 
high command on the marches of Normandy in 1421-22. In 
1423 he joined the earl of Salisbury in Champagne, and shared 
his victory at Crevant. He fought under John, duke of Bedford, 
at Verneuil on the i7th of August 1424, and throughout the 
next four years was Salisbury s chief lieutenant in the direction 
of the war. When Salisbury was killed before Orleans on the 
3rd of November 1428, Suffolk succeeded to the command. 
After the siege was raised, Suffolk was defeated and taken 
prisoner by Jeanne d Arc at Jargeau on the i2th of June 1429. 
He was soon ransomed, and during the next two years was again 
in command on the Norman frontier. He returned to England 
in November 1431, after over fourteen years continuous service 
in the field. 

Suffolk had already been employed on diplomatic missions 
by John of Bedford, and from this time forward he had an 
important share in the work of administration. He attached 
himself naturally to Cardinal Beaufort, and even thus early 
seems to have been striving for a general peace. But public 
opinion in England was not yet ripe, and the unsuccessful con 
ference at Arras, with the consequent defection of Burgundy, 
strengthened the war party. Nevertheless the cardinal s 
authority remained supreme in the council, and Suffolk, as his 
chief supporter, gained increasing influence. The question of 
Henry VI. s marriage brought him to the front. Humphrey 
of Gloucester favoured an Armagnac alliance. Suffolk brought 
about the match with Margaret of Anjou. Report already 
represented Suffolk as too friendly with French leaders like 

Charles of Orleans, and it was with reluctance that he undertook 
the responsibility of an embassy to France. However, when he 
returned to England in June 1444, after negotiating the marriage 
and a two years truce, he received a triumphant reception. He 
was made a marquess, and in the autumn sent again to France 
to bring Margaret home. The French contrived to find occasion 
for extorting a promise to surrender all the English possessions 
in Anjou and Maine, a concession that was to prove fatal to 
Suffolk and his policy. Still for the time his success was com 
plete, and his position as the personal friend of the young king 
and queen seemed secure. Humphrey of Gloucester died in 
February 1447, within a few days of his arrest, and six weeks 
later Cardinal Beaufort died also. Suffolk was left without an 
obvious rival, but his difficulties were great. Rumour, though 
without sufficient reason, made him responsible for Humphrey s 
death, while the peace and its consequent concessions rendered 
him unpopular. So also did the supersession of Richard of York 
by Edmund Beaufort, duke of Somerset, in the French com 
mand. Suffolk s promotion to a dukedom in July 1448, marked 
the height of his power. The difficulties of his position may have 
led him to give some countenance to a treacherous attack on 
Fougeres during the time of truce (March 1449). The renewal 
of the war and the loss of all Normandy were its direct conse 
quences. When parliament met in November 1449, the oppo 
sition showed its strength by forcing the treasurer, Adam 
Molyneux, to resign. Molyneux was murdered by the sailors 
at Portsmouth on the 9th of January 1450. Suffolk, realizing 
that an attack on himself was inevitable, boldly challenged 
his enemies in parliament, appealing to the long and honourable 
record of his public services. On the 7th of February and again 
on the gth of March the Commons presented articles of accusa 
tion dealing chiefly with alleged maladministration and the ill 
success of the French policy; there was a charge of aiming at the 
throne by the betrothal of his son to the little Margaret Beaufort, 
but no suggestion of guilt concerning the death of Gloucester. 
The articles were in great part baseless, if not absurd. Suffolk, 
in his defence on the i3th of March, denied them as false, untrue 
and too horrible to speak more of. Ultimately, as a sort of 
compromise, the king sentenced him to banishment for five 
years. Suffolk left England on the ist of May. He was inter 
cepted in the Channel by the ship " Nicholas of the Tower, " 
and next morning was beheaded in a little boat alongside. 
The " Nicholas " was a royal ship, and Suffolk s murder was 
probably instigated by his political opponents. 

Popular opinion at the time judged Suffolk as a traitor. This 
view was accepted by Yorkist chroniclers and Tudor historians, 
who had no reason to speak well of a Pole. Later legend made 
him the paramour of Margaret of Anjou. Though utterly 
baseless, the story gained currency in the Mirrour for Magis 
trates, and was adopted in Shakespeare s 2 Henry VI. 
(act m. sc. ii.) . Suffolk s best defence is contained in the touching 
letter of farewell to his son, written on the eve of his departure 
(Paston Letters, i. 142), and in his noble speeches before parlia 
ment (Rolls of Parliament, v. 176, 182). Of the former Lingard 
said well that it is " difficult to believe that the writer could 
have been either a false subject or a bad man. " The policy of 
peace which Suffolk pursued was just and wise; he foresaw from 
the first the personal risk to which its advocacy exposed him. 
This alone should acquit him of any base motive; his conduct 
was " throughout open and straightforward " (Stubbs). What 
ever his defects as a statesman, he was a gallant soldier, a man of 
culture and a loyal servant. 

Suffolk s wife, Alice, was widow of Thomas, earl of Salisbury, 
and granddaughter of Geoffrey Chaucer. By her he had an 
only son John, second duke of Suffolk. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Suffolk is necessarily prominent in all contem 
porary authorities. The most important are J. Stevenson s Wars of 
the English in France, Thomas Beckington s Correspondence, T. 
Wright s Political Poems and Songs, ii. 222-234 (for the popular 
view) these three are in the Rolls Series; and the Paston Letters. 
Of French writers E. de Monstrelet and Jehan de Waurin are most 
useful for his military career, T. Basin and Matthieu d Escouchy 
for his fall (all these are published by the Socie te de 1 Histoire de 


France). For modern accounts see especially W. Stubbs, Constitu 
tional History (favourable), The Political History of England (1906), 
vol. iv., by C. Oman (unfavourable), and G. du Fresne de Beau- 
court s Histoire de Charles VII. See also H. A. Napier s Historical 
Notices of Swincombe and Ewelme (1858). (C. L. K.) 

SUFFOLK, an eastern county of England, bounded N. by 
Norfolk, E. by the North Sea, S. by Essex and W. by Cambridge 
shire. The area is 1488-6 sq. m. The surface is as a whole 
but slightly undulating. In the extreme north-west near 
Mildenhall, a small area of the Fen district is included. 
This is bordered by a low range of chalk hills extending from 
Haverhill northwards along the western boundary, and thence 
by Bury St Edmunds to Thetford. The coast-line has a 
length of about 62 m., and is comparatively regular, the bays 
being generally shallow and the headlands rounded and 
only slightly prominent. The estuaries of the Deben, Orwell 
and Stour, however, are between 10 and 12 m. in length. 
The shore is generally low and marshy, with occasional clay 
and sand cliffs. It includes, in the declivity on which Old 
Lowestoft stands, the most easterly point of English land. 
Like the Norfolk coast, this shore has suffered greatly from 
incursions of the sea, the demolition of the ancient port of Dun- 
wich (q.v.) forming the most noteworthy example. The prin 
cipal seaside resorts are Lowestoft, Southwold, Aldeburgh and 
Felixstowe. The rivers flowing northward are the Lark, in 
the north-west corner, which passes in a north-westerly direction 
to the Great Ouse in Norfolk; the Little Ouse or Brandon, 
also a tributary of the Great Ouse, flowing by Thetford and 
Brandon and forming part of the northern boundary of the 
county; and the Waveney, which rises in Norfolk and forms 
the northern boundary of Suffolk from Palgrave till it falls 
into the mouth of the Yare at Yarmouth. The Waveney 
is navigable from Bungay, and by means of Oulton Broad 
also communicates with the sea at Lowestoft. The rivers 
flowing in a south-easterly direction to the North Sea are the 
Blyth; the Aide or Ore, which has a course for nearly 
10 m. parallel to the seashore; the Deben, from Debenham, 
flowing past Woodbridge, up to which it is navigable; the 
Orwell or Gipping, which becomes navigable at Stowmarket, 
whence it flows past Needham Market and Ipswich; and the 
Stour. which forms nearly the whole southern boundary of 
the county, receiving the Brett, which flows past Lavenham 
and Hadleigh; it is navigable from Sudbury. At the union 
of its estuary with that of the Orwell is the important port of 
Harwich (in Essex). The county has no valuable minerals. 
Flints are worked, as they have been from pre-historic times; 
a considerable quantity of clay is raised and lime and whiting 
are obtained in various districts. 

Geology. The principal geological formations are the Chalk 
and the Tertiary deposits. The former occupies the surface, except 
where covered by superficial drift, in the central and north-west 
portions of the county, and it extends beneath the Tertiaries in the 
south-east and east. In the extreme north-west round Mildenhall the 
Chalk borders a tract of fen land in a range of low hills from Haverhill 
by Newmarket and Bury St Edmunds to Thetford. The Chalk is 
quarried near Ipswich, Bury St Edmunds, Mildenhall and elsewhere; 
at Brandon the chalk flints for gun-locks and building have been 
exploited from early times. The Tertiary formations include 
Thanet sand, seen near Sudbury; and Reading Beds and London 
Clay which extend from Sudbury through Hadleigh, Ipswich, Wood- 
bridge and thence beneath younger deposits to the extreme north-east 
of the county. Above the Eocene formations lie the Pliocene 
" Crags," which in the north overlap the Eocene boundary on to the 
chalk. The oldest of the crag deposits is the Coralline Crag, pale 
sandy and marly beds with many fossils; this is best exposed west 
and north of Aldeburgh and about Sudbourne and Orford. Resting 
upon the Coralline beds, or upon other formations in their absence, 
is the Red Crag, a familiar feature above the London Clay in the 
cliffs at Felixstowe and Baudsey, where many fossils used to be 
found; inland it appears at Bentley, Stutton and Chillesford, where 
the " Scrobicularia Clay " and Chillesford beds of Prestwich appear 
above it. The last-named beds probably correspond with the Norwich 
Crag, the name given to the upper, paler portion of the Red Crag, 
together with certain higher beds in the north part of east Suffolk. 
The Norwich Crag is visible at Dunwich, Bavent, Easton and Wang- 
ford, In the north the Cromer Forest beds, gravels with fresh-water 
fossils and mammalian remains, may be seen on the coast at Gorton 
and Pakefield. Between the top of the London Clay and the base of 

the Crags is the " Suffolk Bone Bed " with abundant mammalian 
bones and phosphatic nodules. Glacial gravel, sand and chalky 
boulder clay are scattered over much of the county, generally forming 
stiffer soils in the west and lighter sandy soils in the east. Pebble 
gravels occur at Westleton and Halesworth, and later gravels, with 
palaeolithic implements, at Hoxne; while old river-gravels of still 
later date border the present river valleys. The chalk and gault 
have been penetrated by a boring at Stutton, revealing a hard 
palaeozoic slaty rock at the depth of about 1000 ft. 

Agriculture. Suffolk is one of the most fertile counties in England. 
In the i8th century it was famed for its dairy products. The 
high prices of grain during the wars of the French Revolution led 
to the extensive breaking up of its pastures, and it is now one of 
the principal grain-growing counties in England. There is con 
siderable variety of soils, and consequently in modes of farming 
in different parts of the county. Along the sea-coast a sandy loam 
or thin sandy soil prevails, covered in some places with the heath 
on which large quantities of sheep are fed, interspersed with tracts, 
more or less marshy, on which cattle are grazed. The best land adjoins 
the rivers, and consists of a rich sandy loam, with patches of lighter 
and easier soil. In the south-west and the centre is much finer 
grain-land having mostly a clay subsoil, but not so tenacious as the 
clay in Essex. In climate Suffolk is one of the driest of the English 
counties; thus, the mean annual rainfall at Bury St Edmunds is 
rather less than 24 in. Towards the north-west the soil is generally 
poor, consisting partly of sand on chalk, and partly of peat and open 
heath. Some four-fifths of the total area of the county is under 
cultivation. Barley, oats and wheat are the most important of 
the grain crops. The breed of horses known as Suffolk punches 
is one of the most valued for agricultural purposes in England. 
The breed of cattle native to the county is a polled variety, on the 
improvement of which great pains have been bestowed. The old 
Suffolk cows, famous for their great milking qualities, were of various 
colours, yellow predominating. The improved are all red. Much 
milk is sent to London, Yarmouth, &c. Many cattle, mostly imported 
from Ireland, are grazed in the winter. The sheep are nearly all 
of the blackfaced improved Suffolk breed, a cross between the old 
Norfolk horned sheep and Southdowns. The breed of pigs most 
common is small and black. 

Manufactures and Trade. The county is essentially agricultural, 
and the most important manufactures relate to this branch of 
industry. They include that of agricultural implements, especially 
at Ipswich, Bury St Edmunds and Stowmarket, and that of artificial 
manures at Ipswich and Stowmarket, for which coprolites are dug. 
Malting is extensively carried on throughout the county. There 
are chemical and gun-cotton manufactories at Stowmarket and 
gun flints are still made at Brandon. At other towns small miscel 
laneous manufactures are carried on, including silk, cotton, linen, 
woollen, and horsehair and coco-nut matting. The principal ports 
are Lowestoft, Southwold, Aldeburgh, Woodbridge and Ipswich. 
Lowestoft is the chief fishing town. Herrings and mackerel are 
the fish most abundant on the coasts. 

Communications. The main line of the Great Eastern railway, 
entering the county from the south, serves Ipswich and Stowmarket, 
continuing north into Norfolk. The east Suffolk branch from Ipswich 
serves Woodbridge, Saxmundham. Halesworth, and Beccles, with 
branches to Felixstowe, to Framlingham, to Aldeburgh, and to 
Lowestoft; while the Southwold Light railway connects with that 
town from Halesworth. The other principal branches are those from 
Stowmarket to Bury St Edmunds and westward into Cambridge 
shire, from Essex into Norfolk by Long Melford, Bury St Edmunds 
and Thetford, and from Long Melford to Haverhill, which is the 
northern terminus of the Colne Valley railway. 

Population and Administration. The area of the ancient county is 
952,710 acres, with a population in 1891 of 371,235 and in 1901 of 
384,293. Suffolk comprises 21 hundreds, and for administrative 
purposes is divided into the counties of East Suffolk (557,854 acres) 
and West Suffolk (390,914 acres). The following are municipal 
boroughs and urban districts. 

(1) EAST SUFFOLK. Municipal boroughs Aldeburgh (pop. 2405), 
Beccles (6898), Eye (2004), Ipswich, a county borough and the 
county town (66,630), Lowestoft (29,850), Southwold (2800). 
Urban districts Bungay (3314), Felixstowe and Walton (5815), 
Halesworth (2246), Leiston-cum-Sizewell (3259), Oulton Broad 
(4044), Saxmundham (1452), Stowmarket (4162), Woodbridge (4640). 

(2) WEST SUFFOLK. Municipal boroughs Bury St Edmunds 
(16,255), Sudbury (7109). Urban districts Glemsford (1975), 
Hadleigh (3245), Haverhill (4862), Newmarket (10,688), which is 
mainly in the ancient county of Cambridge. 

Small market and other towns are numerous, such are 
Brandon, Clare, Debenham, Framlingham, Lavenham, Mildenhall, 
Needham Market and Orford. For parliamentary purposes the 
county constitutes five divisions, each returning one member, viz. 
north or Lowestoft division, north-east or Eye, north-west or Stow 
market, south or Sudbury, and south-east or Woodbridge. Bury 
St Edmunds returns one member and Ipswich iwo; part of the 
borough of Great Yarmouth falls within the county. There is 
one court of quarter sessions for the two administrative counties, 
which is usually held at Ipswich for east Suffolk, and then by 



adjournment at Bury St Edmunds for west Suffolk. East Suffolk 
is divided into II and west Suffolk into 8 petty sessional divisions. 
The boroughs of Bury St Edmunds, Ipswich, Sudbury, Eye, 
Lowestoft and Southwold have separate commissions of the peace, 
and the three first-named have also separate courts of quarter 
sessions. The total number of civil parishes is 519. The ancient 
county contains 465 ecclesiastical parishes and districts, wholly or 
in part; it is situated partly in the diocese of Ely and partly in that 
of Norwich. 

History. The county of Suffolk (Sudfole, Suthfolc) was formed 
from the south part of the kingdom of East Anglia which 
had been settled by the Angles in the latter half of the sth 
century. The most important Anglo-Saxon settlements appear 
to have been made at Sudbury and Ipswich. Before the end 
of the Norman dynasty strongholds had arisen at Eye, Clare, 
Walton and Framlingham. Probably the establishment of 
Suffolk as a separate shire was scarcely completed before the 
Conquest, and although it was reckoned as distinct from Nor 
folk in the Domesday Survey of 1086, the fiscal administration 
of Norfolk and Suffolk remained under one sheriff until 1575. 
The boundary of the county has undergone very little change, 
though its area has been considerably affected by coast 
erosion. Parts of Gorleston and Thetford, which formerly 
belonged to the ancient county of Suffolk, are now within the 
administrative county of Norfolk, and other slight alterations 
of the administrative boundary have been made. Under the 
Local Government Act of 1888 Suffolk was divided into the 
two administrative counties of east and west Suffolk. 

At first the whole shire lay within the diocese of Dunwich 
which was founded c. 631. In 673 a new bishopric was estab 
lished at Elmham to comprise the whole of Norfolk which had 
formerly been included in the see of Dunwich. The latter came 
to an end with the incursion of the Danes, and on the revival 
of Christianity in this district Suffolk was included in the diocese 
of Elmham, subsequently removed from South Elmham to 
Thetford and thence to Norwich. In 1835-1836 the archdeaconry 
of Sudbury was transferred by the ecclesiastical commissioners 
to the diocese of Ely. This archdeaconry had been separated 
from the original archdeaconry of Suffolk in 1127. In 1256 the 
latter included thirteen deaneries which have since been sub 
divided, so that at present it contains eighteen deaneries; Sud 
bury archdeaconry which comprised eight deaneries in 1256 
now includes eleven. There were also three districts under 
peculiar jurisdiction of Canterbury and one under that of 

The shire-court was held at Ipswich. In 1831 the whole 
county contained twenty-one hundreds and three municipal 
boroughs. Most of these hundreds were identical with those 
of the Domesday Survey, but in 1086 Babergh was rated as 
two hundreds, Cosford, Ipswich and Parham as half hundreds 
and Samford as a hundred and a half. Hoxne hundred was 
formerly known as Bishop s hundred and the vills which were 
included later in Thredling hundred were within Claydon 
hundred in 1086. Two large ecclesiastical liberties extended 
over more than half of the county; that of St Edmund included 
the hundreds of Risbridge, Thedwastry, Thingoe, Cosford, 
Lackford and Blackbourn in which the king s writ did not run, 
and St Aethelreda of Ely claimed a similar privilege in the 
hundreds of Carleford, Colneis, Plumesgate, Loes, Wilford and 
Thredling. Among others who had large lands in the county 
with co-extensive jurisdiction were the lords of the honor of 
Clare, earls of Gloucester and Hereford and the lords of the 
honor of Eye, held successively by the Bigods, the Uffords and 
the De la Poles, earls of Suffolk. The Wingfields, Bacons and 
Herveys have been closely connected with the county. 

Suffolk suffered severely from Danish incursions, and after 
the Treaty of Wedmore became a part of the Danelagh. In 1173 
the earl of Leicester landed at Walton with an army of Flemings 
and was joined by Hugh Bigod against Henry II. In 1317 and 
the succeeding years a great part of the county was in arms for 
Thomas of Lancaster. Queen Isabella and Mortimer having 
landed at Walton found all the district in their favour. In 
1330 the county was raised to suppress the supporters of the 

earl of Kent; and again in 1381 there was a serious rising of the 
peasantry chiefly in the neighbourhood of Bury St Edmunds. 
Although the county was for the most part Yorkist it took little 
part in the Wars of the Roses. In 1525 the artisans of the 
south strongly resisted Henry VIII. s forced loan. It was from 
Suffolk that Mary drew the army which supported her claim to 
the throne. In the Civil Wars the county was for the most 
part parliamentarian, and joined the Association of the Eastern 
Counties for defence against the Papists. 

The county was constantly represented in parliament by two 
knights from 1290, until the Reform Bill of 1832 gave four 
members to Suffolk, at the same time disfranchising the boroughs 
of Dunwich, Orford and Aldeburgh. Suffolk was early among 
the most populous of English counties, doubtless owing to its 
proximity to the continent. Fishing fleets have left its ports 
to bring back cod and ling from Iceland and herring and mackerel 
from the North Sea. From the i4th to the i7th century it 
was among the chief manufacturing counties of England owing 
to its cloth-weaving industry, which was at the height of its 
prosperity during the I5th century. In the I7th and i8th 
centuries its agricultural resources were utilized to provide 
the rapidly-growing metropolis with food. In the following 
century various textile industries, such as the manufacture of 
sail-cloth, cocoa-nut fibre, horse-hair and clothing were estab 
lished; silk-weavers migrated to Suffolk from Spitalfields, and 
early in the igth century an important china factory flourished 
at Lowestoft. 

Antiquities. Of monastic remains the most important are those 
of the great Benedictine abbey of Bury St Edmunds, noticed under 
that town; the college of Clare, originally a cell to the abbey 
of Bee in Normandy and afterwards to St Peter s Westminster, 
converted into a college of secular canons in the reign of Henry VI., 
still retaining much of its ancient architecture, and now used as a 
boarding-school; the Decorated gateway of the Augustinian priory 
of Butley ; and the remains of the Grey Friars monastery at Dunwich. 
A peculiarity of the church architecture is the use of flint for purposes 
of ornamentation, often of a very elaborate kind, especially on the 
porches and parapets of the towers. Another characteristic is the 
round towers, which are confined to East Anglia, but are considerably 
more numerous in Norfolk than in Suffolk, the principal being those 
of Little Saxham and Herringfleet, both good examples of Norman. 
It is questionable whether there are any remains of pre-Norman 
architecture in the county. The Decorated is well represented, but 
by far the greater proportion of the churches are Perpendicular, 
fine examples of which are so numerous that it is hard to select ex 
amples. But the church of Blythburgh in the east and the exquisite 
ornate building at Lavenham in the west may be noted as typical, 
while the church of Long Melford, another fine example, should be 
mentioned on account of its remarkable lady chapel. Special 
features are the open roofs and woodwork (as at St Mary s, Bury 
St Edmunds, Earl Stonham and Stonham Aspall, Ufford and 
Blythburgh), and the fine fonts. 

The remains of old castles are comparatively unimportant, the 
principal being the entrenchments and part of the walls of Bungay, 
the ancient stronghold of the Bigods; the picturesque ruins of 
Mettingham, built by John dc Norwich in the reign of Edward III. ; 
Wingfield, surrounded by a deep moat, with the turret walls and the 
drawbridge still existing; the splendid ruin of Framlingham, with 
high and massive walls, originally founded in the 6th century, but 
restored in the I2th; the outlines of the extensive fortress of Clare 
Castle, anciently the baronial residence of the earls of Clare; and 
the fine Norman keep of Orford Castle, on an eminence overlooking 
the sea. Among the many fine residences within the county there 
are several interesting examples of domestic architecture of the 
reigns of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth. Hengrave Hall (c. 1530), 
4 m. north-west from Bury St Edmunds, is a noteworthy example 
an exceedingly picturesque building of brick and stone, enclosing 
a court-yard. Another is Helmingham Hall, a Tudor mansion of 
brick, surrounded by a moat crossed by a drawbridge. West 
Stow Manor is also Tudor; its gatehouse is fine, but the mansion 
has been adapted into a farmhouse. 

See A. Suckling, The History and Antiquities of Suffolk (1846- 
1848); William White, History, gazetteer and directory of Suffolk 
(1855); John Kirby, The Suffolk Traveller (1735); A. Page, Supple 
ment to the Suffolk Traveller (1843); Victoria County History ; Suffolk. 

SUFFRAGAN (Med. Lat. sujjraganeus sujfragator, one who 
assists, from sujjragari, to vote in favour of, to support) 
in the Christian Church, (i) a diocesan bishop in his relation 
to the metropolitan; (2) an assistant bishop. (See the article 


SUFFRAGE (Lat. sufragium), the right or the exercise of the 
right of voting in political affairs; in a more general sense, an 
expression of opinion, assent or approval; in ecclesiastical use 
the short intercessory prayers in litanies spoken or sung by the 
people as distinguished from those of the priest or minister. 
and, for the Women s Suffrage Movement, WOMEN: Political 
Rights.) The etymology of the Latin word sufragium has been 
much discussed. It is usually referred to sub- and the root oi 
frangere, to break, and its original meaning must thus have been 
a piece of broken tile or a potsherd on which the names or 
initials of the candidates were inscribed and used as a voting 
tablet or tabella. There is, however, no direct evidence that 
this was ever the practice in the case of voting upon legislation 
in the assembly (see W. Corssen, Ueber Aussprache, &c., der 
Lateinischen Sprache, i. 397, and Mommsen, Romische Geschichte, 
iii. 412 n. i.). 

French admiral, was the third son of the marquis de Saint 
Tropez, head of a family of nobles of Provence which claimed to 
have emigrated from Lucca in the i4th century. He was born 
in the Chateau de Saint Canat in the present department of Aix 
on the i7th of July 1720. The French navy and the Order of 
Malta offered the usual careers for the younger sons of noble 
families of the south of France who did not elect to go into the 
Church. The connexion between the Order and the old French 
royal navy was close. Pierre Andre de Suffren was destined by 
his parents to belong to both. He entered the close and aristo 
cratic corps of French naval officers as a " garde de la marine " 
cadet or midshipman, in October 1743, in the " Solide, " one 
of the line of battleships which took part in the confused engage 
ment off Toulon in 1744. He was then in the " Pauline" in 
the squadron of M. Macnemara on a cruise in the West Indies. 
In 1746 he went through the due D Anville s disastrous expedi 
tion to retake Cape Breton, which was ruined by shipwreck and 
plague. Next year (1747) he was taken prisoner by Hawke 
in the action with the French convoy in the Bay of Biscay. 
His biographer Cunat assures us that he found British arro 
gance offensive. When peace was made in 1 748 he went to 
Malta to perform the cruises with the galleys of the Order 
technically called " caravans," a reminiscence of the days when 
the knights protected the pilgrims going from Saint John d Acre 
to Jerusalem. In Suffren s time this service rarely went beyond 
a peaceful tour among the Greek islands. During the Seven 
Years War he had the unwonted good fortune to be present 
as lieutenant in the " Orphee " in the action with Admiral Byng 
(q.v.), which, if not properly speaking a victory, was at least not 
a defeat for the French, and was followed by the surrender of 
the English garrison of Minorca. But in 1757 he was again 
taken prisoner, when his ship the " Ocean " was captured by 
Boscawen off Lagos. On the return of peace in 1763 he intended 
again to do the service in the caravans which was required to 
qualify him to hold the high and lucrative posts of the Order. 
He was, however, named to the command of the " Cameleon, " 
a zebec a vessel of mixed square and lateen rig peculiar to the 
Mediterranean in which he cruised against the pirates of the 
Barbary coast. Between 1767 and 1771 he performed his 
caravans, and was promoted from knight to commander of the 
Order. From that time till the beginning of the War of American 
Independence he commanded vessels in the squadron of evolution 
which the French government had established for the purpose 
of giving practice to its officers. His nerve and skill in handling 
his ship were highly commended by his chiefs. In 1778 and 1779 
he formed part of the squadron of D Estaing (q.v.) throughout 
its operations on the coast of North America and in the West 
Indies. He led the line in the action with Admiral John Byron 
off Grenada, and his ship, the " Fantasque " (64), lost 62 men. 
His letters to his admiral show that he strongly disapproved of 
D Estaing s half-hearted methods. In 1780 he was captain of 
the " Zele " (74), in the combined French and Spanish fleets 
which captured a great English convoy in the Atlantic. His 
candour towards his chief had done him no harm in the 

opinion of D Estaing. It is said to have been largely by the 
advice of this admiral that Suffren was chosen to command a 
squadron of five ships of the line sent out to help the Dutch 
who had joined France and Spain to defend the Cape against 
an expected English attack, and then to go on to the East 
Indies. He sailed from Brest on the 22nd of March on the 
cruise which has given him a unique place among French 
admirals, and puts him in the front rank of sea commanders. 
He was by nature even more vehement than able. The dis 
asters which had befallen the navy of his country during the 
last two wars, and which, as he knew, were due to bad adminis 
tration and timid leadership, had filled him with a burning 
desire to retrieve its honour. He was by experience as well as 
by temperament impatient with the formal manoeuvring of 
his colleagues, which aimed at preserving their own ships rather 
than at taking the English, and though he did not dream of 
restoring the French power in India, he did hope to gain some 
such success as would enable his country to make an honourable 
peace. On the i6th of April 1781 he found the English expedi 
tion on its way to the Cape under the command of Commodore, 
commonly called Governor, George Johnstone (1730-1787), at 
anchor in Porto Praya, Cape de Verd Islands. Remembering 
how little respect Boscawen had shown for the neutrality of 
Portugal at Lagos, he attacked at once. Though he was in 
differently supported, he inflicted as much injury as he suffered, 
and proved to the English that in him they had to deal with 
an admiral of quite a different type from the Frenchmen 
they had been accustomed to as yet. He pushed on to the 
Cape, which he saved from capture by Johnstone, and then 
made his way to the Isle de France (Mauritius), then held by the 
French. M. D Orves, his superior officer, died as the united 
squadrons, now eleven sail of the line, were on their way to the 
Bay of Bengal. The campaign, which Suffren now conducted 
against the English admiral Sir Edward Hughes (17207-1794), 
is famous for the number and severity of the encounters between 
them. Four actions took place in 1782: on the I7th of February 
1782, south of Madras; on the I2th of April near Trincomalee; on 
the 6th of July off Cuddalore, after which Suffren seized upon 
the anchorage of Trincomalee compelling the small British 
garrison to surrender; and again near that port on the 3rd of 
September. No ship was lost by Sir Edward Hughes in any of 
these actions, but none were taken by him. Suffren attacked 
with unprecedented vigour on every occasion, and if he had not 
been ill-supported by some of his captains he would undoubtedly 
have gained a distinct victory; as it was, he maintained his 
squadron without the help of a port to refit, and provided him 
self with an anchorage at Trincomalee. His activity encouraged 
Hyder Ali, who was then at war with the Company. He refused 
to return to the islands for the purpose of escorting the troops 
coming out under command of Bussy, maintaining that his 
proper purpose was to cripple the squadron of Sir Edward Hughes. 
During the north-east monsoon he would not go to the islands 
but refitted in the Malay ports in Sumatra, and returned with the 
south-west monsoon in 1783. Hyder Ali was dead, but Tippoo 
Sultan, his son, was still at war with the Company. Bussy 
arrived and landed. The operations on shore were slackly con 
ducted by him, and Suffren was much hampered, but when he 
ought his last battle against Hughes (April 20, 1783), with 
ourteen ships to eighteen he forced the English admiral to retire 
to Madras, leaving the army then besieging Cuddalore in a very 
dangerous position. The arrival of the news that peace had been 
made in Europe put a stop to hostilities, and Suffren returned 
to France. While refitting at the Cape on his way home, several 
)f the vessels also returning put in, and the captains waited on 
ijm. Suffren said in one of his letters that their praise gave 
lim more pleasure than any other compliment paid him. In 
? rance he was received with enthusiasm, and an additional 
office of vice-admiral of France was created for him. He had 
>een promoted bailli in the Order of Malta during his absence. 
His death occurred very suddenly on the 8th of December 1788, 
when he was about to take command of a fleet collected in Brest, 
"he official version of the cause of death was apoplexy, and as 


he was a very corpulent man it appeared plausible. But many 
years afterwards his body servant told M. Jal, the historio 
grapher of the French navy, that he had been killed in a duel 
by the prince de Mirepoix. The cause of the encounter, accord 
ing to the servant, was that Suffren had refused in very strong 
language to use his influence to secure the restoration to the 
navy of two of the prince s relations who had been dismissed for 

Suffren was crippled to a large extent by the want of loyal 
and capable co-operation on the part of his captains, and the 
vehemence of his own temperament sometimes led him to 
disregard prudence, yet he had an indefatigable energy, a wealth 
of resource, and a thorough understanding of the fact so 
habitually disregarded by French naval officers that success 
at sea is won by defeating an enemy and not by merely out- 
manffiuvring him; and this made him a most formidable enemy. 
The portraits of Suffren usually reproduced are worthless, but 
there is a good engraving by Mme de Cernel after an original 

by Gerard. 

The standard authority for the life of Suffren is the Histoire 
du Bailli de Suffren by Ch. Cunat (1852). The Journal de Bord du 
Bailli de Suffren dans I Inde, edited by M. Mores, was published in 
1888. There is an appreciative study in Captain Mahan s Sea 
Power in History. (D. H.) 

SUFliSM (ta$avrwuf) , a term used by Moslems to denote 
any variety of mysticism, is formed from the Arabic word $ufi, 
which was applied, in the 2nd century of Islam, to men or women 
who adopted an ascetic or quietistic way of life. There can be 
no doubt that ufi is derived from $uf (wool) in reference to the 
woollen garments often, though not invariably, worn by such 
persons: the phrase labisa s-$uf (" he clad himself in wool ") 
is commonly used in this sense, and the Persian word pashmina- 
push, which means literally " clothed in a woollen garment, " 
is synonymous with Sufi. Other etymologies, such as Safa 
(purity) a derivation widely accepted in the East and ero<6j, 
are open to objection on linguistic grounds. 

In order to trace the origin and history of mysticism in Islam 
we must go back to Mahomet. On one side of his nature the 
Prophet was an ascetic and in some degree a mystic. Not 
withstanding his condemnation of Christian monkery (rah- 
bdniya), i.e. of celibacy and the solitary life, the example of the 
Hanifs, with some of whom he was acquainted, and the Christian 
hermits made a deep impression on his mind and led him to 
preach the efficacy of ascetic exercises, such as prayer, vigils 
and fasting. Again, while Allah is described in the Koran as 
the One God working his arbitrary will in unapproachable 
supremacy, other passages lay stress on his all-pervading pres 
ence and intimate relation to his creatures, e.g. " Wherever ye 
turn, there is the face of Allah " (ii. 109), " We (God) are nearer 
to him (Man) than his neck- vein " (1. 15). The germs of mys 
ticism latent in Islam from the first were rapidly developed by 
the political, social and intellectual conditions which prevailed 
in the two centuries following the Prophet s death. Devastat 
ing civil wars, a ruthless military despotism caring only for 
the things of this world, Messianic hopes and presages, the luxury 
of the upper classes, the hard mechanical piety of the orthodox 
creed, the spread of rationalism and freethought, all this induced 
a revolt towards asceticism, quietism, spiritual feeling and 
emotional faith. Thou c ands, wearied and disgusted with worldly 
vanities, devoted themselves to God. The terrors of hell, 
so vividly depicted in the Koran, awakened in them an intense 
consciousness of sin, which drove them to seek salvation in 
ascetic practices. Suflism was originally a practical religion, 
not a speculative system; it arose, as Junayd of Bagdad says, 
" from hunger and taking leave of the world and breaking 
familiar ties and renouncing what men deem good, not from 
disputation. " The early Sufis were closely attached to the 
Mahommedan church. It is said that Abu Hashim of Kufa 
(d. before A.D. 800) founded a monastery for Sufis at Ramleh 
in Palestine, but such fraternities seem to have been exceptional. 
Many ascetics of this period used to wander from place to place, 
either alone or in small parties, sometimes living by alms and 
sometimes by their own labour. They took up and emphasized 

certain Koranic terms. Thus dhikr (praise of God) consisting 
of recitation of the Koran, repetition of the Divine names, 
&c., was regarded as superior to the five canonical prayers 
incumbent on every Moslem, and tawakkul (trust in God) was 
defined as renunciation of all personal initiative and volition, 
leaving one s self entirely in God s hands, so that some fanatics 
deemed it a breach of " trust " to seek any means of livelihood, 
engage in trade, or even take medicine. Quietism soon passed 
into mysticism. The attainment of salvation ceased to be the 
first object, and every aspiration was centred hi the Siward life 
of dying to self and living in God. " O God ! " said Ibrahim ibn 
Adham, " Thou knowest that the eight Paradises are little 
beside the honour which Thou hast done unto me, and beside 
Thy love, and Thy giving me intimacy with the praise of Thy 
name, and beside the peace of mind which Thou hast given me 
when I meditate on Thy majesty." Towards the end of the 
2nd century we find the doctrine of mystical love set forth in the 
sayings of a female ascetic, Rabi a of Basra, the first of a long 
line of saintly women who have played an important r61e in 
the history of Suflism. Henceforward the use of symbolical 
expressions, borrowed from the vocabulary of love and wine, 
becomes increasingly frequent as a means of indicating holy 
mysteries which must not be divulged. This was not an unneces 
sary precaution, for in the course of the 3rd century, Suflism 
assumed a new character. Side by side with the quietistic and 
devotional mysticism of the early period there now sprang up 
a speculative and pantheistic movement which was essentially 
anti-Islamic and rapidly came into conflict with the orthodox 
ulema. It is significant that the oldest representative of this 
tendency Ma ruf of Bagdad was the son of Christian parents 
and a Persian by race. He defined Suflism as a theo?ophy; 
his aim was " to apprehend the Divine realities." A little later 
Abu Sulaiman al-Darani in Syria and Dhu 1-Nun in Egypt 
developed the doctrine of gnosis (ma rifat) through illumination 
and ecstasy. The step to pantheism was first decisively taken 
by the great Persian Sufi, Abu Yazid (Bayezld) of Bis^am (d. 
A.D. 874), who introduced the doctrine of annihilation (/ana), 
i.e. the passing away of individual consciousness in the will of 

It is, no doubt, conceivable that the evolution of Suflism 
up to this point might not have been very different even although 
it had remained wholly unaffected by influences outside of 
Islam. But, as a matter of fact, such influences made them 
selves powerfully felt. Of these, Christianity, Buddhism and 
Neoplatonism are the chief. Christian influence had its source, 
not in the Church, but in the hermits and unorthodox sects, 
especially perhaps in the Syrian Euchites, who magnified the 
duty of constant prayer, abandoned their all and wandered as 
poor brethren. Suflism owed much to the ideal of unworldliness 
which they presented. Conversations between Moslem devotees 
and Christian ascetics are often related in the ancient Sufi 
biographies, and many Biblical texts appear in the form of 
sayings attributed to eminent Sufis of early times, while sayings 
ascribed to Jesus as well as Christian and Jewish legends 
occur in abundance. More than one Sufi doctrine that of 
tawakkul may be mentioned in particular show traces of Chris 
tian teaching. The monastic strain which insinuated itself 
intj Sufiism in spite of Mahomet s prohibition was derived, 
partially at any rate, from Christianity. Here, however, 
Buddhistic influence may also have been at work. Buddhism 
flourished in Balkh, Transoxiana and Turkestan before the 
Mahommedan conquest, and in later times Buddhist monks 
carried their religious practices and philosophy among the 
Moslems who had settled in these countries. It looks as though 
the legend of Ibrahim ibn Adham, a prince of Balkh who one 
day suddenly cast off his royal robes and became a wandering 
Sufi, were based on the story of Buddha. The use of rosaries, 
the doctrine of f ana, which is probably a form of Nirvana, and 
the system of " stations" (maqamai) on the road thereto, would 
seem to be Buddhistic in their origin. The third great foreign 
influence on Sufiism is the Neoplatonic philosophy. Between 
A.D. 800 and 860 the tide of Greek learning, then at its height, 


streamed into Islam from the Christian monasteries of Syria 
from the Persian Academy of Jundeshapur in Khuzistan 
and from the Sabians of H.arran in Mesopotamia. The so-calle< 
" Theology of Aristotle," which was translated into Arabic abou 
A. D. 840, is full of Neoplatonic theories, and the mystical writing 
of the pseudo-Dionysius were widely known throughout western 
Asia. It is not mere coincidence that the doctrine of Gnosi 
was first worked out in detail by the Egyptian Sufi, Dhu 1-Nun 
(d. A.D. 859), who is described as an alchemist and theurgist 
Sufiism on its theosophical side was largely a product of Alex 
andrian speculation. 

By the end of the 3rd century the main lines of the Suf 
mysticism were already fixed. It was now fast becoming an 
organized system, a school for saints, with rules of discipline anc 
devotion which the novice was bound to learn from his spiritua 
director, to whose guidance he submitted himself absolutely 
These directors regarded themselves as being in the most intimate 
communion with God, who bestowed on them miraculous gifts 
(karamat). At their head stood a mysterious personage callec 
the Qutb (Axis) : on the hierarchy of saints over which he pre 
sided the whole order of the universe was believed to depend 
During the next two hundred years (A.D. 900-1100), various 
manuals of theory and practice were compiled: the Kitab 
al Luma by Abu Nasr al-Sarraj, the Qut al-Qulub by Abu Talib 
al-Makki, the Risala of Qushairi, the Persian Kashf al-Mahjub 
by AH ibn Uthman al-Hujwiri, and the famous Ihya by Ghazall 
Inasmuch as all these works are founded on the same materials, 
viz., the Koran, the Traditions of the Prophet and the sayings 
of well-known Sufi teachers, they necessarily have much in 
common, although the subject is treated by each writer from his 
own standpoint. They all expatiate on the discipline of the soul 
and describe the process of purgation which it must undergo 
before entering on the contemplative life. The traveller 
journeying towards God passes through a series of ascending 
" stations " (maqamat) : in the oldest extant treatise these are 
(i) repentance, (2) abstinence, (3) renunciation, (4) poverty, 
(5) patience, (6) trust in God, (7) acquiescence in the will of 
God. After the " stations " comes a parallel scale of " states " 
of spiritual feeling (ahwdl), such as fear, hope, love, &c., leading 
up to contemplation (mushahadat) and intuition (yaqln). It 
only remained to provide Sufiism with a metaphysical basis, 
and to reconcile it with orthodox Islam. The double task was 
finally accomplished by Ghazall (q.v.). He made Islamic 
theology mystical, and since his time the revelation (kashf) 
of the mystic has taken its place beside tradition (naql) and 
reason ( aql) as a source and fundamental principle of the faith. 
Protests have been and are still raised by theologians, but Moslem 
sentiment will usually tolerate whatever is written in sufficiently 
abstruse philosophical language or spoken in manifest ecstasy. 

The Sufis do not form a sect with definite dogmas. Like the 
monastic orders of Christendom, they comprise many shades of 
opinion, many schools of thought, many divergent tendencies from 
asceticism and quietism_to the wildest extravagances of pantheism. 
European students of Sufiism are apt to identify it with the panthe 
istic type which prevails in Persia. This, although more interesting 
and attractive than any other, throws the transcendental and vision 
ary aspects of Sufiism into undue relief. Nevertheless some account 
must be given here of the Persian theosophy which has fascinated 
the noblest minds of that subtle race and has inspired the most 
beautiful religious poetry in the world. Some of its characteristic 
features occur in the sayings attributed to Bayezld (d. A.D. 874), 
whom Buddhistic ideas unquestionably influenced. He said, for 
example, " I am the winedrinker and the wine and the cup-bearer," 
and again, " I went from God to God, until they cried from me in 
me, O Thou I. " The peculiar imagery which distinguishes the 
poetry of the Persian Sufis was more fully developed by a native 
of Khorasan, Abu Sa id ibn Abi l-Khair (d. A.D. 1049) in his mystical 
quatrains which express the relation between God and the soul 
by glowing and fantastic allegories of earthly love, beauty and 
intoxication. Henceforward, the great poets of Persia, with few 
exceptions, adopt this symbolic language either seriously or as a 
convenient mask. The majority are Sufis by profession or conviction. 
" The real basis of their poetry," says A. von Kremer, " is a loftily 
inculcated ethical system, which recognizes in purity of heart, 
charity, self-renunciation and bridling of the passions the neces 
sary conditions of eternal happiness. Attached to this we find a 
pantheistic theory of the emanation of all things from God and their 

ultimate reunion with him. Although on the surface Islam is not 
directly assailed, it sustains many indirect attacks, and frequently 
the thought flashes out, that all religions and revelations are only 
the rays of a single eternal sun; that all prophets have only delivered 
and proclaimed in different tongues the same principles of eternal 
goodness and eternal truth which flow from the divine soul of the 
world." The whole doctrine of Persian Sufiism is expounded 
in the celebrated Mathnaw of Jalaluddin Rumi (q.v.), but in such 
a discursive and unscientific manner that its leading principles are 
not easily grasped. They may be stated briefly as follows: 

God is the sole reality (al-Haqq) and is above all names and 
definitions. He is not only absolute Being, but also absolute Good, 
and therefore absolute Beauty. It is the nature of beauty to desire 
manifestation ; the phenomenal universe is the result of this desire, 
according to the famous Tradition in which God says, " I was a 
hidden treasure, and I desired to be known, so I created the creatures 
In order that I might be known." Hence the Sufis, influenced by 
Neoplatonic theories of emanation, postulate a number of inter 
mediate worlds or descending planes of existence, from the primal 
Intelligence and the primal Soul, through which " the Truth " 
(al-Haqq) diffuses itself. As things can be known only through 
their opposites, Being can only be known through Not-being, 
wherein as in a mirror Being is reflected; and this reflection is 
the phenomenal universe, which accordingly has no more reality 
than a shadow cast by the sun. Its central point is Man, 
the microcosm, who reflects in himself all the Divine attributes. 
Blackened on one side with the darkness of Not-being, he 
bears within him a spark of pure Being. The human soul 
belongs to the spiritual world and is ever seeking to be 
re-united to its source. Such union is hindered by the bodily 
senses, but though not permanently attainable until death, it can 
be enjoyed at times in the state called ecstasy (hal), when the veil of 
sensual perception is rent asunder and the soul is merged in God. 
This cannot be achieved without destroying the illusion of self, and 
self-annihilation is wrought by means of that divine love, to which 
human love is merely a stepping-stone. The true lover feels himself 
one with God, the only real being and agent in the universe; he is 
above all law, since whatever he does proceeds directly from God, 
just as a flute produces harmonies or discords at the will of the 
musician ; he is indifferent to outward forms and rites, preferring 
a sincere idolaterto an orthodox hypocrite and deemingthe ways to 
God as many in number as the souls of men. Such in outline is 
the Sufi theosophy as it appears in Persian and Turkish poetry. Its 
perilous consequences are plain. It tends to abolish the distinction 
between good and evil the latter is nothing but an aspect 
of Not-being and has no real existence and it leads to the deifica 
tion of the hierophant who can say, like Husain b. Mansur al-Hallaj, 
I am the Truth." ufi fraternities, living in a convent under the 
direction of a sheikh, became widely spread before A.D. 1 100 and gave 
rise to Dervish orders, most of which indulge in the practice of 
exciting ecstasy by music, dancing, drugs and various kinds of 
hypnotic suggestion (see DERVISH). 

BIBLIOGRA PHY. Tholuck, Sufismus sive theosophia Persarum pan- 
theistica (Berlin, 1821); Bluthensammlung cms der morgenldndischen 
Mystik (Berlin, 1825) ; E. H. Palmer, Oriental Mysticism (Cambridge, 
1867); Von Kremer, Geschichte der herrschenden Ideen des Islams 
(Leipzig, 1868) ; Goldziher, "MaterialienzurEntwickelungsgeschichte 
des Sufismus " in W.Z.K.M. xiii. 35 sqq. " Die Heiligenverehrung im 
Islam in Muhammedanische Studien, ii. 277 sqq. (Halle, 1890), 
" The Influence of Buddhism on Islam " in J.R.A.S. (1904), 125 sqq. ; 
and Vorlesungen iiber den Islam, 139 sqq. (Heidelberg, 1910); 
E. H. Whinfield, the Gulshan-i-Raz of Mahmud Shabistari, 
edited with translation and notes (London, 1880), and Abridged 
translation of the Masnavi (London, 1898); E. G. Browne, A 
Year amongst the Persians (London, 1893) ; Merx, Ideen und Grund- 
linien einer attgemeinen Geschichte der Mystik (Heidelberg, 
1893); H. Ethe, " Die mystische und didaktische Poesie " in Geiger 
and Kuhn s Grundriss der iranischen Philologie, ii. 271 sqq. (Strass- 
)urg, 1896-1904); Gibb, History of Ottoman Poetry, especially i. 
33 sqq. (London, 1900-1907) ; D. B. Macdonald, " Emotional religion 
n Islam," in J.R.A.S. (1901-1902); Development of Muslim theology 
New York, 1903) and The religious attitude and life in Islam (Chicago, 
909) ; R. A. Nicholson, Selected poems from the Divani Shamsi 
r abriz (Cambridge, 1898). " Enquiry concerning the origin and 
development of Sufiism " in J.R.A.S. (1906), 303 sqq., and Transla- 
lon of the Kashf al-Mahjub (London, 1910) ; Sheikh Muhammad Iqbal, 
The Development of Metaphysics in Persia (London, 1908). (R.A.N.) 

SUGAR, in chemistry, the generic name for a certain series 
>f carbohydrates, i.e. substances of the general formula C n (H 2 O) m . 
r ormerly the name was given to compounds having a sweet 
aste, e.g. sugar of lead, but it is now restricted to certain oxy- 
Idehydes and oxy-ketones, which occur in the vegetable and 
nimal kingdoms either free or in combination as glucosides 
q.v.) and to artificial preparations of similar chemical structure. 
Cane sugar has been known for many centuries; milk sugar was 
btained by Fabrizio Bartoletti in 1615; and in the middle of 
he 1 8th century Marggraf found that the sugars yielded by the 



beet, carrot and other roots were identical with cane sugar. 
The sugars obtained from honey were investigated by Lowitz 
and Proust, and the latter decided on three species: (i) cane 
sugar, (2) grape sugar, and (3) fruit sugar; the first has the 
formula CisHzjOii, the others C 6 H 12 O 6 . This list has been con 
siderably developed by the discovery of natural as well as of 
synthetic sugars. 

It is convenient to divide the sugars into two main groups: 
monosaccharoses (formerly glucoses) and disaccharoses (formerly 
saccharoses). The first term includes simple sugars containing 
two to nine atoms of carbon, which are known severally as bioses, 
trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, &c. ; whilst those of the second 
group have the formula Cizr^On and are characterized by yielding 
two monosaccharose molecules on hydrolysis. In addition tri- 
saccharoses are known of the formula CisHaiAe ; these on hydrolysis 
yield one molecule of a monosaccharose and one of a disaccharose, 
or three of a monosaccharose. It is found also that some mono- 
saccharoses behave as aldehydes whilst others contain a keto group ; 
those having the first character are called aldoses, and the others 
ketoses. All sugars are colourless solids or syrups, which char on 
strong heating; they are soluble in water, forming sweet solutions 
but difficultly soluble in alcohol. Their solutions are optically 
active, i.e. they rotate the plane of polarized light; the amount of 
the rotation being dependent upon the concentration, temperature, 
and, in some cases, on the age of the solution (cf. GLUCOSE). The 
rotation serves for the estimation of sugar solutions (saccharimetry). 
They are neutral to litmus and do not combine with dilute acids 
or bases; strong bases, such as lime and baryta, yield saccharates, 
whilst, under certain conditions, acids and acid anhydrides may 
yield esters. Sugars are also liable to fermentation. 1 Our knowledge 
of the chemical structure of the monosaccharoses may be regarded 
as dating from 1880, when Zincke suspected some to be ketone 
alcohols, for it was known that glucose and fructose, for example, 
yielded penta-acetates, and on reduction gave hexahydric alcohols, 
which, when reduced by hydriodic acid, gave normal and secondary 
hexyliodide. The facts suggested that the six carbon atoms 
formed a chain, and that a hydroxy group was attached to five 
of them, for it is very rare for two hydroxy groups to be attached 
to the same carbon atom. The remaining oxygen atom is aldehydic 
or ketonic, for the sugars combine with hydrocyanic acid, hydroxy- 
lamine and phenylhydrazine. The correctness of this view was 
settled by Kiliani in 1885. He prepared the cyanhydrins of glucose 
and fruotose, hydrolysed them to the corresponding oxy-acids, 
from which the hydroxy groups were split out by reduction; it 
was found that glucose yielded normal heptylic acid and fructose 
methylbutylacetic acid; hence glucose is an aldehyde alcohol, 
CH 2 OH-(CH-OH) 4 -CHO, whilst fructose is a ketone alcohol 
CH 2 OH-(CH-OH) 3 -CO-CH 2 OH. 2 Kiliani also showed that arabinose, 
CjHuO 6 , a sugar found in cherry gum, was an aldopentose, and thus 
indicated an extension of the idea of a " sugar." 

Before proceeding to the actual synthesis of the sugars, it is 
advisable to discuss their decompositions and transformations. 

I. Cyanhydrins. The cyanhydrins on hydrolysis give mono- 
carboxylic acids, which yield lactones; these compounds when 
reduced by sodium amalgam in sulphuric acid solution yield a sugar 
containing one more carbon atom. This permits the formation 
of a higher from a lower sugar (E. Fischer) 

CH 2 OH 


*/ (CH-OH) 2 
"\ CH-OH 


- Lactone 

CH 2 OH 
(CH-OH) 2 

CH 2 OH CH 2 OH 


(CH-OH) 2 - (CH-OH) 2 

Pentose > Cyanhydrin 

2. Oximes. The oximes permit the reverse change, i.e. the 
passage from a higher to a lower sugar. Wohl forms the oxime 
and converts it into an acetylated nitrile by means of acetic anhydride 
and sodium acetate; ammoniacal silver nitrate solution removes 
hydrocyanic acid and the resulting acetate is hydrolysed by acting 
with ammonia to form an amide, which is finally decomposed with 
sulphuric acid. 

CH 2 OH 

CH 2 OH 





CH 2 OH 

(CH-OH) 3 




CH 2 OH 
(CH-OH) S 


Ruff effects the same change by oxidizing the sugar to the oxy-acid, 

See FERMENTATION; and for the relation of this property to 
structure see STEREOISOMERISM. 

These formulae, however, require modification in accordance 
with the views of Lowry and E. F. Armstrong, which postulate a 
7 oxidic structure (see GLUCOSE). This, however, does not disturb 
the tenor of the following arguments. 

XXVT. 2 

and then further oxidizing this with Fenton s reagent, i.e. hydrogen 
peroxide and a trace of a ferrous salt : 

C 4 H 9 O 4 (CH-OH)-CHO->C 4 H 9 O 4 (CH-OH)-CO 2 H-C 4 H 9 O 4 -CHO 
Hexose > Acid > Pentose. 

3. Phenylhydrazine Derivatives. Fischer found that if one mole 
cule of phenylhydrazine acted upon_one molecule of an aldose or 
ketose a hydrazone resulted which in most cases was very soluble 
in water, but if three molecules of the hydra/ine reacted (one of 
which is reduced to ammonia and aniline) insoluble crystalline 
substances resulted, termed osazpnes, which readily characterized* 
the sugar from which it was obtained. 

R R R 



Aldose > Hydrazone > Osazone; 

R R R 

CO - C:N-NHPh. - C:N-NHPh 


Ketose * Hydrazone > Osazone. 

On warming the osazone with hydrochloric acid the phenylhydra 
zine residues are removed and an osone results, which on reduction 
with zinc and acetic acid gives a ketose. 

R R R 

C:N-NHPh. - CO - CO 


Osazone > Osone > Ketose. 

A ketose may also be obtained by reducing the osazone with zinc 
and acetic to an osamine, which with nitrous acid gives the ketose : 




CH 2 NH 2 


CH 2 OH. 

These reactions permit the transformation of an aldose into a 
ketose; the reverse change can only be brought about by reducing 
the ketose to an alcohol, and oxidizing this compound to an aldehyde. 
It is seen that aldoses and ketoses which differ stereochemically 
in only the two final carbon atoms must yield the same osazone; 
and since (i-mannose, d-glucose, and d-fructose do form the same 
osazone (d-glucosazone) differences either structural or stereochemical 
must be placed in the two final carbon atoms. 3 

It may here be noticed that in the sugars there are asymmetric 
carbon atoms, and consequently optical isomers are to be expected. 
Thus glucose, containing four such atoms, can exist in 1 6 forms; 
and the realization of many of these isomers by E. Fischer may be 
regarded as one of the most brilliant achievements in modern chem 
istry. The general principles of stereochemistry being discussed 
in Stereoisomerism (q.v.), we proceed to the synthesis of glucose 
and fructose and then to the derivation of their configurations. 

In 1861 Butlerow obtained a sugar-like substance, methylenitan, 
by digesting trioxymethylene, the solid polymer of formaldehyde, 
with lime. The work was repeated by O. Loew, who prepared in 
1885 a sweet, unfermentable syrup, which he named formose, 
C 6 Hi 2 Oe and, later, by using magnesia instead of lime, he obtained 
the fermentable methose. Fischer showed that methose was 
identical with the a-acrose obtained by himself and Tafel in 1887 
by decomposing acrolein dibromide with baryta, and subsequently 
prepared by oxidizing glycerin with bromine in alkaline solution, 
and treating the product with dilute alkali at o. Glycerin appears 
to yield, on mild oxidation, an aldehyde, CH 2 OH-CH(OH)-CHO, 
and a ketone, CH 2 OH-CO-CH 2 OH, and these condense as shown 
in the equation: 


CH 2 OH-CH(OH)-CH(OH)-CH(OH)-CO.CH 2 OH-|-H 2 O. 

The osazone prepared from o-acrose resembled most closely the 
glucosazone yielded by glucose, mannose, and fructose, but it was 
optically inactive; also the ketose which it gave after treatment 
with hydrochloric acid and reduction of the osone was like ordinary 
fructose except that it was inactive. It was surmised that a-acrose 
was a mixture of dextro and laevo fructose, a supposition 
which was proved correct by an indirect method. The starting 
point was ordinary(d)mannite (mannitol),C f Hi 4 O 6 ,a naturally occur 
ring hexahydric alcohcrt, which only differed from a-acntol, the 
alcohol obtained by reducing o-acrose, with regard to optical activity. 
Mannite on oxidation yields an aldose, mannose, C 6 Hi 2 O 6 , which 

* To distinguish the isomeridcs of opposite optical activity, it is 
usual to prefix the letters d- and 1-, but these are used only to indicate 
the genetic relationship, and not the character of the optical activity, 
ordinary fructose, for example, being represented as d-fructose 
although it exercises a laevorotatory power because it is derived 
from d-glucose. 



on further oxidation gives a mannonic acid, CjH 6 (OH)6-CO 2 H; this 
acid readily yields a lactone. Also Kiliani found that the lactone 
derived from the cyanhydrin of natural arabinose (laevo) was 
identical with the previous lactone except that its rotation was 
equal and opposite. On mixing the eslactones and reducing 
(a -+- /)-mnanitol was obtained, identical with a-acritol. A separation 
of o-acrose was made by acting with beer yeast, which destroyed 
the ordinary fructose and left /-fructose which was isolated as its 
osazone. Also (d + 1) mannonic acid can be split into the d and / 
acids by fractional crystallization of the strychnine or brucine salts. 
The acid yields, on appropriate treatment, d-mannose and d-mannite. 
Similarly the / acid yields the laevo derivatives. 

The next step was to prepare glucose. This was effected in 
directly. The identity of the formulae and osazones of d-mannose 
and d-glucose showed that the stereochemical differences were 
situated at the carbon atom adjacent to the aldehyde group. 
Fischer applied a method indicated by Pasteur in converting dextro 
into laeyo-tartaric acid; he found that both d-mannpnic and 
d-gluconic acids (the latter is yielded by glucose on oxidation) were 
mutually convertible by heating with quinoline under pressure at 
140. It was then found that on reducing the lactone of the acid 
obtained from d-mannonic acid, ordinary glucose resulted. 

Fischer s a-acrose therefore led to the synthesis of the dextro 
and laevo forms of mannose, glucose and fructose; and these 
substances have been connected synthetically with many other 
sugars by means of his cyanhydrin process, leading to higher 
sugars, and Wohl and Ruff s processes, leading to lower sugars. 
Certain of these relations are here summarized (the starting substance 
is in italics) : 

/-Glucose < \-arabinose > /-mannose > /-mannoheptose; 
glucononose < a-gluco-octose < a-glucoheptose < d-glucose > 

/3-glucoheptose $ /S-gluco-octose ; 

d-mannose >d- mannoheptose ^manno-octose ->mannononose; 
d-glucose > d-arabinose > d-erythrose. 
\-glucose $ J-arabinose ^ /-erythrose. 

Their number is further increased by spatial inversion of the dicarb- 
oxylic acids formed on oxidation, followed by reduction; for 
example : d- and /-glucose yield d-and /-gulose ; and also by Lobry de 
Bruyn and Van Ekenstein s discovery that hexoses are transformed 
into mixtures of their isomers when treated with alkalis, alkaline 
earths, lead oxide, &c. 


Biose. The only possible biose is glycollic aldehyde, CKO-CH 2 OH, 
obtained impure by Fischer from bromacetaldehyde and baryta 
water, and crystalline by Fenton by heating dihydroxymaleic 
acid with water to 60. It polymerizes to a tetrose under the action 
of sodium hydroxide. 

Triases. The trioses are the aldehyde and ketone mentioned 
above as oxidation products of glycerin. Glyceric aldehyde 
CH 2 OH-CH(OH)-CHO, was obtained pure by Wohlon oxidizing 
acrolein acetal, CH 2 -CH(OC 2 H 6 ) 2 , and hydrolysing. Although 
containing an asymmetric carbon atom it has not been resolved. 
The ketone, dihydroxyacetone, CH 2 OH-CO-CH 2 OH, was obtained 
by Piloty by condensing formaldehyde with nitromethane, reducing 
to a hydroxylamino compound, which is oxidized to the oxime of 
dihydroxyacetone ; the ketone is liberated by oxidation with bromine 
water : 

3H-CHO + CH a N0 2 -> (CH 2 OH) 3 C-NO 2 -> (CH 2 OH),C-NH OH 
-> (CH 2 OH) 2 C:NOH->(CH 2 OH) 2 CO. 

The ketone is also obtained when Bertrand s sorbose bacterium acts 
on glycerol ; this medium also acts on other alcohols to yield ketoses; 
for example: erythrite gives erythrulose, arabite arabinulose, 
mannitol fructose, &c. 

Tetroses. Four active tetroses are possible, and three have been 
obtained by Ruff and Wohl from the pentoses. Thus Wohl pre 
pared /-threose from /-xylose and /-erythrose from /-arabinose, and 
Ruff obtained d- and /-erythrose from d- and /-arabonic acids, the 
oxidation products of d- and /-arabinoses. Impure inactive forms 
result on the polymerization of glycollic aldehyde and also on the 
oxidation of erythrite, a tetrahydric alcohol found in some lichens. 
d-Erythrulose is a ketose of this series. 

Pentoses. Eight stereoisomeric pentaldoses are possible, and six 
are known: d- and /-arabinose, d- and /-xylose, /-ribose, and 
<i-lyxose. Scheibler discovered /-arabinose in 1869, and regarded it 
as a glucose; in 1887 Kiliani proved it to be a pentose. (/-Arabinose 
is obtained from d-glucose by Wohl s method. /-Xylose was dis 
covered by Koch in 1886; its enantiomorph is prepared from 
d-gulose by Wohl s method. /-Ribose and <4-lyxose are prepared by 
inversion from /-arabinose and /-xylose; the latter has also been 
obtained from d-galactose. We may notice that the pentoses differ 
from other sugars by yielding furfurol when boiled with hydrochloric 
acid. Rhamnose or isodulcite, a component of certain glucosides, 
fucose, found combined in seaweeds and chinovose, present as its 
ethyl ester, chinovite, in varieties of quina-bark, are methyl pentoses. 
/-Arabinulose obtained from arabite and Bertrand s sorbium 
bacterium is a ketose. 

Hexoses. The hexoses may be regarded as the most important 

sub-division of the monosaccharoses. The reader is referred to 
GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE for an account of these substances. The 
next important aldose is mannose. d-Mannose, first prepared by 
oxidizing d-mannite, found in plants and manna-ash (Fraxinus 
ornus), was obtained by Tollens and Cans on hydrolysing cellulose 
and by Reis from seminine (reserve cellulose), found in certain 
plant seeds, e.g. vegetable ivory. /-Mannose is obtained from 
/-mannonic acid. Other forms are: d- and /-gulose, prepared from 
the lactones of the corresponding gulonic acids, which are obtained 
from d- and /-glucose by oxidation and inversion; d- and /-idose, 
obtained by inverting with pyridine d- and /-gulonic acids, and 
reducing the resulting idionic acids; d- and /-galactose, the first 
being obtained by hydrolysing milk sugar with dilute sulphuric 
acid, and the second by fermenting inactive galactose (from the 
reduction of the lactone of d, /-galactonic acid) with yeast; and 
d- and /-talose obtained by inverting the galactonic acids by pyridine 
into d- and /-talonic acids and reduction. Of the ketoses, we notice 
d-sorbose, found in the berries of mountain-ash, and d-tagatose, 
obtained by Lobry de Bruyn and van Ekenstein on treating galactose 
with dilute alkalis, talose and /-sorbose being formed at the same 
time. The higher sugars call for no special notice. 

Configuration ofthellexaldosesJ The plane projection of molecular 
structures which differ stereochemically is discussed under STEREO- 
ISOMERISM; in this place it suffices to say that, since the terminal 
groups of the hexaldose molecule are different and four asymmetric 
carbon atoms are present, sixteen hexaldoses are possible; and for 
the hexahydric alcohols which they yield on reduction, and the 
tetrahydric dicarboxylic acids which they give on oxidation, only 
ten forms are possible. Employing the notation in which the 
molecule is represented vertically with the aldehyde group at the 
bottom, and calling a carbon atom+or according as the hydrogen 
atom is to the left or right, the possible configurations are shown in 
the diagram. The grouping of the forms 5 to 10 with n to 16 is 
designed to show that the pairs 5, 1 1 for example become identical 
when the terminal groups are the same. 

12 13 



15 i6 

We can now proceed to the derivation of the structure of glucose. 
Since both d-glucose and d-gulose yield the same active (d) saccharic 
acid on oxidation, the configuration of this and the corresponding 
/-acid must be sought from among those numbered 5-10 in the above 
table. Nos. 7 and 8 can be at once ruled out, however, as acids 
so constituted would be optically inactive and the saccharic acids 
are active. If the configuration of d-saccharic acid were given by 
either 6 or 10, bearing in mind the relation of mannose to glucose, 
it would then be necessary to represent d-mannosaccharic acid 
by either 7 or 8 as the forms 6 and 10 pass into 7 and 8 on changing 
the sign of a terminal group; but this cannot be done as mannosac- 
charic acid is optically active. Nos. 6 and 10 must, in consequence, 
also be ruled out. No. 5, therefore, represents the configuration 
of one of the saccharic acids, and No. 9 that of the isomeride of 
equal opposite rotatory power. As there is no means of distinguish 
ing between the configuration of a dextro- and laevo-modification, 
an arbitrary assumption must be made. No. 5 may therefore be 
assigned to the d- and No. 9 to the /-acid. It then follows that 
d-mannose is represented by No. I, and /-mannose by No. 4, as man 
nose is produced by reversing the sign of the asymmetric system 
adjoining the terminal COH group. 

It remains to distinguish between 5 and 11,9 and 15 as representing 
glucose and gulose. To settle this point it is necessary to consider 
the configuration of the isomeric pentoses arabinose and xylose 
from which they may be prepared. Arabinose being convertible 
into /-glucose and xylose into /-gulose, the alternative formulae to be 
considered are 

CH 2 (OH) +COH 

CH 2 (OH) + + + -COH. 

1 The following account is mainly from H. E. Armstrong s article 
CHEMISTRY in the loth edition of this Encyclopaedia ; the representa 
tion differs from the projection of Meyer and Jacobsen. 



If the asymmetric system adjoining the COH group, which is that 
introduced in synthesizing the hexose from the pentose, be eliminated , 
the formulae at disposal for the two pentoses are 

CH 2 (OH) COH 

CH 2 (OH)H COH. 

When such compounds are converted into corresponding dibasic 
acids, CO 2 H.[CH(OH)] 3 .CO 2 H, the number of asymmetric carbon 
atoms becomes reduced from three to two, as the central carbon 
atom is then no longer associated with four, but with only three 
different radicles. Hence it follows that the " optical " formulae 
of the acids derived from two pentoses having the configuration 
given above will be 

CO 2 H-0-CO 2 H 
CO 2 H + 0-CO 2 H, 

and that consequently only one of the acids will be optically active. 
As a matter of fact, only arabinose gives an active product on oxida 
tion; it is therefore to be supposed that arabinose is the 

compound, and consequently 

CH 2 (OH) + COH = /-glucose 

CH 2 (OH) + COH = /-gulose. 

When xylose is combined with hydrocyanic acid and the cyanide 
is hydrolysed, together with /-gulonic acid, a second isomeric acid, 
/-idonic acid, is produced, which on reduction yields the hexaldose 
/-idose. When /-gulonic acid is heated with pyridine, it is converted 
into /-idonic acid, and vice versa; and d-gulonic acid may in a 
similar manner be converted into d-idonic acid, from which it is 
possible to prepare (f-idpse. It follows from the manner in which 
/-idose is produced that its configuration is CH 2 (OH) H (-COH. 

The remaining aldohexoses discovered by Fischer are derived 
from d-galactose from milk-sugar. When oxidized this aldohexose 
is first converted into the monobasic galactonic acid, and then into 
dibasic mucic acid; the latter is optically inactive, so that its 
configuration must be one of those given in the sixth and seventh 
columns of the table. On reduction it yields an inactive mixture 
of galactonic acids, some molecules being attacked at one end, as 
it were, and an equal number of others at the other. On reducing 
the lactone prepared from the inactive acid an inactive galactose is 
obtained from which /-galactose may be separated by fermentation. 
Lastly, when d-galactonic acid is heated with pyridine, it is con 
verted into talonic acid, which is reducible to talose, an isomeride 
bearing to galactose the same relation that mannose bears to 

glucose. It can be shown that d-galactose is CH 2 (OH) H h COH, 

and hence d-talose is CH 2 (OH)-| 1-+ COH. 

The configurations of the penta-and tetra-aldoses have been 
determined by similar arguments; and those of the ketoses can be 
deduced from the aldoses. 


The disaccharoses have the formula C^H^On and are character 
ized by yielding under suitable conditions two molecules of a hexose : 
C I2 H 22 Oii+H 2 O = C 6 Hi 2 Os+C6Hi 2 O6. The hexpses so obtained 
are not necessarily identical: thus cane sugar yields d-glucose and 
<f-fructose (invert sugar) ; milk sugar and melibiose give d-glucose 
and d-galactose, whilst maltose yields only glucose. Chemically 
they appear to be ether anhydrides of the hexoses, the union being 
effected by the aldehyde or alcohol groups, and in consequence 
they are related to the ethers of glucose and other hexoses, i.e. to 
the alkyl glucosides. Cane sugar has no reducing power and does 
not form an hydrazone or osazone; the other varieties, however, 
reduce Fehling s solution and form hydrazones and osazones, 
behaving as aldoses, i.e. as containing the group -CH(OH)-CHO. 
The relation of the disaccharoses to the o- and ^-glucosides was 
established by E. F. Armstrong (Journ. Chem. Soc., 1903, 85, 1305), 
who showed that cane sugar and maltose were o-glucosides, and 
raffinose an a-glucoside of melibiose. These and other considera 
tions have led to the proposal of an alkylen oxide formula for glucose, 
first proposed by Tollens; this view, which has been mainly developed 
by Armstrong and Fischer, has attained general acceptance (see 
GLUCOSE and GLUCOSJDE). Fischer has proposed formulae for 
the important disaccharoses, and in conjunction with Armstrong 
devised a method for determining how the molecule was built up, 
by forming the osone of the sugar and hydrolysing, whereupon 
the hexosone obtained indicates the aldose part of the molecule. 
Lactose is thus found to be glucosido-galactose and melibiose a 

Several disaccharoses have been synthesized. By acting with 
hydrochloric acid on glucose Fischer obtained isomaltose, a disac- 
charose very similar to maltose but differing in being amorphous 
and unfermentable by yeast. Also Marchlewski (in 1899) synthe 
sized cane sugar from potassium fructosate and acetochloro- 
glucpse; and after Fischer discovered that acetochlorohexoses 
readily resulted from the interaction of the hexose penta-acetates 
and liquid hydrogen chloride, several others have been obtained. 

Cane sugar, saccharose or saccharobiose, is the most important 
sugar; its manufacture is treated below. When slowly crystallized 
it forms large monoclinic prisms which are readily soluble in water 
but difficultly soluble in alcohol. It melts at 160, and on cooling 
solidifies to a glassy mass, which on standing gradually becomes 

opaque and crystalline. When heated to about 200" it yields a 
brown amorphous substance, named caramel, used in colouring 
liquors, &c. Concentrated sulphuric acid gives a black carbon 
aceous mass; boiling nitric acid oxidizes it to d-saccharic, tartaric 
and oxalic acids; and when heated to 160 with acetic anhydride 
an octa-acetyl ester is produced. Like glucose it gives saccharates 
with lime, baryta and strontia. 

Milk sugar, lactose, lactobiose, C^H^On, found in the milk of 
mammals, in the amniotic liquid of cows, and as a pathological 
secretion, is prepared by evaporating whey and purifying the 
sugar which separates by crystallization. It forms hard white 
rhombic prisms (with 1H 2 O), which become anhydrous at 140 
and melt with decomposition at 205. It reduces ammoniacal 
silver solutions in the cold, and alkaline copper solutions on boiling. 
Its aqueous solution has a faint sweet taste, and is dextro-rotatory, 
the rotation of a fresh solution being about twice that of an old one. 
It is difficultly fermented by yeast, but readily by the lactic acid 
bacillus. It is oxidized by nitric acid to d-saccharic and mucic 
acids; and acetic anhydride gives an octa-acetate. 

Maltose, malt-sugar, maltobiose, C^H^Ou, is formed, together 
with dextrine, by the action of malt diastase on starch, and as an 
intermediate product in the decomposition of starch by sulphuric 
acid, and of glycogen by ferments. It forms hard crystalline 
crusts (with 1H 2 0) made up of hard white needles. 

Less important disaccharoses are: Trehalose or mycose, 
CnHzjOu^HjO, found in various fungi, e.g. Boletus edulis, in the 
Oriental Trehala and in ergot of rye; melibiose, C^H^On, formed, 
with fructose, on hydrolysing the trisaccharose melitose (or raffinose), 
Ci8H3 2 Oi6 5H 2 O, which occurs in Australian manna and in the 
molasses of sugar manufacture; touranose, CizHaOu, formed with 
<f-glucose and galactose on hydrolysing another trisaccharose, 
melizitose, C! 8 H 32 Oi6-2H 2 O, which occurs in Pinus larix and in 
Persian manna; and agavose, C^H^On, found in the stalks of 
Agave americana. (X.) 


Sugar-cane is a member of the grass family, known botani- 
cally as Saccharum officinarum, the succulent stems of which 
are the source of cane sugar. It is a tall perennial grass-like 
plant, giving off numerous erect stems 6 to 12 ft. or more in 
height from a thick solid jointed root-stock. The stems are 
solid and marked with numerous shining, polished, yellow, 
purple or striped joints, 3 in. or less in length, and about if in. 
thick. They are unbranched and bear in the upper portion 
numerous long narrow grass-like leaves arranged in two rows; 
the leaf springs from a large sheath and has a more or less 
spreading blade 3 ft. in length or longer, and 3 in. or more wide. 
The small flowers or spikelets are borne in pairs on the ultimate 
branches of a much branched feathery plume-like terminal 
grey inflorescence, 2 ft. or more long. Production of flowers 
is uncertain under cultivation and seed is formed very rarely. 
The plant is readily propagated by cuttings, a piece of the 
stem bearing buds at its nodes will root rapidly when placed 
in sufficiently moist ground. The sugar-cane is widely cul 
tivated in the tropics and some sub-tropical countries, but is 
not known as a wild plant. Its native country is unknown, 
but it probably originated in India or some parts of eastern 
tropical Asia where it has been cultivated from great antiquity 
and whence its cultivation spread westwards and eastwards. 
Alphonse de Candolle (Origin of Cultivated Plants, p. 158) points 
out that the epoch of its introduction into different countries 
agrees with the idea that its origin was in India, Cochin-China 
or the Malay Archipelago, and regards it as most probable that 
its primitive range extended from Bengal to Cochin-China. 
The sugar-cane was introduced by the Arabs in the middle 
ages into Egypt, Sicily and the south of Spain where it 
flourished until the abundance of sugar in the colonies caused 
its cultivation to be abandoned. Dom Enrique, Infante of 
Portugal, surnamed the Navigator (1394-1460) transported it 
about 1420, from Cyprus and Sicily to Madeira, whence it was 
taken to the Canaries in 1503, and thence to Brazil and Hayti 
early in the i6th century, whence it spread to Mexico, Cuba, 
Guadeloupe and Martinique, and later to Bourbon. It was 
introduced into Barbadoes from Brazil in 1641, and was dis 
tributed from there to other West Indian islands. Though 
cultivated in sub-tropical countries such as Natal and the 
Southern states of the Union, it is essentially tropical in its 
requirements and succeeds best in warm damp climates such as 


Cuba, British Guiana and Hawaii, and in India and Java in 
the Old World. The numerous cultivated varieties are dis 
tinguished mainly by the colour of the internodes, whether yellow, 
red or purple, or striped, and by the height of the culm. Apart 
from the sugar-cane and the beet, which are dealt with in detail 
below, a brief reference need only be made here to maple sugar, 
palm sugar and sorghum sugar. 

Maple Sugar. This is derived from the sap of the rock or sugar 
maple (Acer saccharinum) , a large tree growing in Canada and the 
United States. 

The sap is collected in spring, just before the foliage develops, 
and is procured by making a notch or boring a hole in the stem of 
the tree about 3 ft. from the ground. A tree may yield 3 gallons 
of juice a day and continue flowing for six weeks; but on an average 
only about 4 Ib of sugar are obtained from each tree, 4 to 6 gallons 
of sap giving I Ib of sugar. The sap is purified and concentrated 
in a simple manner, the whole work being carried on by farmers, 
who themselves use much of the product for domestic and culinary 

Palm Sugar. That which comes into the European market as 
jaggery or khaur is obtained from the sap of several palms, the 
wild date (Phoenix sylvestris), the palmyra (Borassus flabettifer) , 
the coco-nut (Cocos nucifera), the gomuti (Arenga saccharifera) 
and others. The principal source is Phoenix sylvestris, which is 
cultivated in a portion of the Ganges valley to the north of Calcutta. 
The trees are ready to yield sap when five years old ; at eight years 
they are mature, and continue to give an annual supply till they 
reach thirty years. The collection of the sap (toddy) begins about 
the end of October and continues, during the cool season, till the 
middle of February. The sap is drawn off from the upper growing 
portion of the stem, and altogether an average tree will run in a 
season 350 Ib of toddy, from which about 35 Ib of raw sugar jaggery 
is made by simple and rude processes. Jaggery production is 
entirely in native hands, and the greater part of the amount made is 
consumed locally ; it only occasionally reaches the European market. 

Sorghum Sugar. The stem of the Guinea corn or sorghum 
(Sorghum saccharatum) has long been known in China as a source 
of sugar. The sorghum is hardier than the sugar-cane; it comes 
to maturity in a season; and it retains its maximum sugar content 
a considerable time, giving opportunity for leisurely harvesting. 
The sugar is obtained by the same method as cane sugar. 

Cane Sugar Manufacture. The value of sugar-canes at a 
given plantation or central factory would at first sight appear 
Commercial to vary directly as the amount of saccharine con- 
Vaiues of tained in the juice expressed from them varies, 
Sugar-canes. anc j jf canes w jth juice indicating 9 Beaume be 
made a basis of value or worth, say at IDS. per ton, then canes 
with juice indicating 

in degrees Beaume 10 9 8 7 6 

and containing in 

sugar. . . . 18-05 %1 16-23% l4-42% 12-61 % I0-8o% 
would be worth per 

ton .... ii/ij io/- 8/ioJ 7/9^ 6/8 

Degrees Beaume 1 . 






Tons of canes 

crushed per day 






Tons of juice ex 







Tons of water 







Tons of 1st Mas- 







Tons sugar of all 

classes recovered 






Total output of 

sugar in 100 

days. Tons 






Total value of all 

sugars per day 

at 8 per ton 

497, 6/- 

594- 4/- 

693, 6/- 



Less factory ex 

penses per day . 






Leaves for canes 

crushed . 

i97, 6/- 

294, 4/~ 

393- 6/- 



Real value of 

canes per ton 






Apparent value 

(see preceding 

Table) . . . 






But this is not an accurate statement of the commercial value 
of sugar-canes that is, of their value for the production of 
sugar to the planter or manufacturer because a properly 
equipped and balanced factory, capable of making 100 tons of 
sugar per day, for 100 days crop, from canes giving juice of 
9 B., or say 10,000 tons of sugar, at an aggregate expenditure 
for manufacture (i.e. the annual cost of running the factory) 
f 3 P er t n ! or is , 000 P er annum, will not be able to make 
as much sugar per day with canes giving juice of 8 B., and will 
make still less if they yield juice of only 6 B. In practice, 
the expenses of upkeep for the year and of manufacturing the 
crop remain the same whether the canes are rich or poor and 
whether the crop is good or bad, the power of the factory being 
limited by its power of evaporation. For example, a factory 
able to evaporate 622 tons of water in 24 hours could treat 
looo tons of canes yielding juice of 9 B., and make therefrom 
100 tons of sugar in that time; but this same factory, if supplied 
with canes giving juice of 6 B., could not treat more than 935 
tons of canes in 24 hours, and would only make therefrom 62-2 
tons of sugar. 

The following table may be useful to planters and central factory 
owners. It shows the comparative results of working with juice 
of the degrees of density mentioned above, under the conditions 
described, for one day of 24 hours, and the real value, as raw material 
for manufacture, of cane giving juice of 6 B. to 10 B., with their 
apparent value based solely on the percentage of sugar in the juice. 

The canes in each case are assumed to contain 88 % of juice and 12 % 
of fibre, and the extraction by milling to be 75% of the weight of 
canes the evaporative power of the factory being equal to 622 
tons per 24 hours. The factory expenses are taken at 30,000 per 
annum, or 3 per ton on a crop of 10,000 tons (the sugar to cost 
8 per ton all told at the factory) equivalent to 300 per day for 
the 100 working days of crop time. 

But it is obvious that it would not pay a planter to sell canes at 
43. 2fd. a ton instead of at los. a ton, any more than it would pay 
a factory to make only 62-2 tons of sugar in 24 hours, or 6220 tons 
in the crop of 100 days, instead of 10,000 tons. Hence arises the 
imperative necessity of good cultivation by the planter, and of 
circumspection in the purchase and acceptance of canes on the part 
of the manufacturer. 

The details of manufacture of sugar from canes and of sugar 
from beetroots differ, but there are five operations in the production 
of the sugar of commerce from either material which are common 
to both processes. These are: 

1. The extraction of the juice. 

2. The purification or defecation of the juice. 

3. The evaporation of the juice to syrup point. 

4. The concentration and crystallization of the syrup. 

5. The curing or preparation of the crystals for the market by 

separating the molasses from them. 

Extraction of Juice. The juice is extracted from canes by squeezing 
them between rollers. In India at the present day there are thou 
sands of small mills worked by hand, through which _ tractlon 
the peasant cultivators pass their canes two or three 
at a time, squeezing them a little, and extracting per- y 
haps a fourth of their weight in juice, from which they make a 
substance resembling a dirty sweetmeat rather than sugar. In 
Barbadoes there are still many estates making good Mascabado 
sugar; but as the juice is extracted from the canes by windmills, 
and then concentrated in open kettles heated by direct fire, the 
financial results are disastrous, since nearly half the yield obtainable 
from the canes is lost. In the best organized modern cane sugar 
estates as much as 12 1 % of the weight of the canes treated is obtained 
in crystal sugar of high polarizing power, although in Louisiana, 
where cultivation and manufacture are alike most carefully and 
admirably carried out, the yield in sugar is only about 7% of the 
weight of the canes, and sometimes, but seldom, as much as 9%. 
This is due to conditions of climate, which are much less favourable 
for the formation of saccharine in the canes than in Cuba. The 
protection afforded to the planters by their government, however, 
enables them to pursue the industry with considerable profit, 
notwithstanding the poor return for their labour in saleable produce. 
As an instance of the influence of climatic conditions combined 
with high cultivation the cane lands of the Sandwich Islands may 
be cited. Here the tropical heat is tempered by constant trade 
winds, there is perfect immunity from hurricanes, the soil is peculi 
arly suited for cane-growing, and by the use of specially-prepared 
fertilizers and an ample supply of water a t command for irrigation 
the land yields from 50 to 90 tons of canes per acre, from which 
from 12 to 14% of sugar is produced. To secure this marvellous 
return, with an annual rainfall of 26 in., as much as 52,000,000 
gallons of water are pumped per 24 hours from artesian wells on 
one estate alone. With an inexhaustible supply of irrigation water 
obtainable, there is no reason why the lands in Upper Egypt, if 
scientifically cultivated and managed, should not yield as abundantly 
as those in the Sandwich Islands. 



In the Paris Exhibition of 1900 a cane-crushing mill was shown 
with three rollers 32 in. in diameter by 60 in. long. It is 
driven by a powerful engine through triple gearing of 42 to I, and 
speeded to have a surface velocity of rollers of 15 ft. 9 in. per 
minute. This mill is guaranteed to crush thoroughly and efficiently 
from 250 to 300 tons of canes in 24 hours. In Louisiana two mills, 
set one behind the other, each with three rollers 32 in. in diameter 
by 78 in. long, and driven by one engine through gearing of 15 
to I, are speeded to have a surface velocity of rollers of 25 ft. 6 in. 
per minute (or 60% more than that of the French mill described 
above), and they are efficiently crushing 900 to 1200 tons of 
canes in 24 hours. In Australia, Demerara, Cuba, Java and Peru 
double crushing and maceration (first used on a commercial scale in 
Demerara by the late Hon. William Russell) have been generally 
adopted; and in many places, especially in the Hawaiian Islands, 
triple crushing (i.e. passing the canes through three consecutive 
sets of rollers, in order to extract everything possible of extraction 
by pressure) is employed. In the south of Spain, in some favoured 
spots where sugar-canes can be grown, they are submitted even to 
four successive crushings. 

It has been found in practice advantageous to prepare the canes 
for crushing in the mills, as above described, by passing them 
through a pair of preparing rolls which are grooved or indented 
in such manner as to draw in and flatten down the canes, no 
matter in which way they are thrown or heaped upon the cane- 
carrier, and thus prepare them for feeding the first mill of the series; 
thus the work of crushing is carried on uninterruptedly and without 
constant stoppages from the mills choking, as is often the case when 
the feed is heavy and the canes are not prepared. 

Although it cannot be said that any one system of extraction is 
the best for all places, yet the following considerations are of general 
application : 

a. Whatever pressure be brought to bear upon it, the vegetable 
or woody fibre of crushed sugar-canes will hold and retain for the 
Yield tro moment a quantity of moisture equal to its own weight, 
Crushing an< ^ * n P ract; ice IO % more than its own weight; or in 
other words, 100 ft of the best crushed megass will 
consist of 47-62 Ib of fibre and 52-38 ft of moisture that is, water 
with sugar in solution, or juice. 

6. Canes vary very much in respect of the quality and also as 
to the quantity of the juice they contain. The quantity of the 
juice is the test to which recourse must be had in judging the effi 
ciency of the extraction, while the quality is the main factor to 
be taken into account with regard to the results of subsequent 

For the application of the foregoing considerations to practice, 
the subjoined table has been prepared. It shows the greatest 
quantity of juice that may be expressed from canes, according to 
the different proportions of fibre they contain, but without employing 
maceration or imbibition, to which processes reference is made 
hereafter. The percentages are percentages of the original weight 
of the uncrushed canes. 







Percentage of fibre 

in canes . 




! 3 



Percentage of juice 

in canes . 







Percentage of juice 

retained in me 

gass .... 







Percentage of maxi 

mum expression . 
Percentage of best 







average expres 

sion, in practice. 
Percentage of juice 







left in megass, in 

practice . 







The British Guiana Planters Association appointed a sub-com 
mittee to report to the West India Commission on the manufacture 
of sugar, who stated the following: 

With canes containing 12 % fibre the following percentages of 
sugar are extracted from the canes in the form of juice: 

Single crushing 76 % 

Double crushing 85 % 

Double crushing with 12% dilution 88% 

Triple crushing with 10% dilution 90% 

Diffusion with 25% dilution 94% 

These results are equivalent to 

66-88% extraction for single crushing. 

74-80 % double crushing. 

77 44% ., ,, double crushing with 12% dilution. 

79-20% triple ,, 10% 

82-72% diffusion with 25% 

or Imbibi 

... ... 

. w 


To prevent the serious loss of juice left in the megass by even 
the best double and triple crushing, maceration or imbibition was 
introduced. The megass coming from the first mill 
was saturated with steam and water, in weight equal 
to between 20 % and 30 % and up to 40 % of the original 
weight of the uncrushed canes. Consequently, after 
the last crushing the mixture retained by the residual megass was 
not juice, as was the case when crushing was employed without 
maceration, but juice mixed with water; and it was found that the* 
loss in juice was reduced by one-half. A further saving of juice 
was sometimes possible if the market prices of sugar were such as 
to compensate for the cost of evaporating an increased quantity 
of added water, but a limit was imposed by the fact that water 
might be used in excess. Hence in the latest designs for large 
factories it has been proposed that as much normal juice as can be 
extracted by double crushing only shall be treated by itself, and that 
the megass shall then be soused with twice as much water as there 
is juice remaining in it; after which, on being subjected to a third 
crushing, it will yield a degraded juice, which would also be treated 
by itself. It is found that in reducing the juice of these two qualities 
to syrup, fit to pass to the vacuum pans for cooking to crystals, 
the total amount of evaporation from the degraded juice is about 
half that required from the normal juice produced by double 

Great improvements have been made in the means of feeding the 
mills with canes by doing away with hand labour and substituting 
mechanical feeders or rakes, which by means of a 
simple steam-driven mechanism will rake the canes 
from the cane waggons on to the cane-carriers. By 
the adoption of this system in one large plantation 
in the West Indies, crushing upwards of 1200 tons of canes per day, 
the labour of sixty-four hands was dispensed with, and was thus 
made available for employment in the fields. In Louisiana the 
use of mechanical feeders is almost universal. 

With a view of safeguarding themselves from breakdowns caused 
by the inequality of feeding, or by the action of malicious persons 
introducing foreign substances, such as crowbars, bolts, &c., among 
the canes, and so into the mills, many planters have adopted so- 
called hydraulic attachments, applied either to the megass roll 
or the top roll bearings. These attachments, first invented by 
Jeremiah Howard, and described in the United States Patent Journal 
in 1858, are simply hydraulic rams fitted into the side or top caps 
of the mill, and pressing against the side or top brasses in such 
a manner as to allow the side or top roll to move away from the 
other rolls, while an accumulator, weighted to any desired extent, 
keeps a constant pressure on each of the rams. An objection to 
the top cap arrangement is, that if the volume or feed is large enough 
to lift the top roll from the cane roll, it will simultaneously lift it 
from the megass roll, so that the megass will not be as well pressed 
as it ought to be; and an objection to the side cap arrangement 
on the megass roll as well as to the top cap arrangement is, that in 
case more canes are fed in at one end of the rolls than at the other, 
the roll will be pushed out farther at one end than at the other; 
and though it may thus avoid a breakdown of the rolls, it is apt, 
in so doing, to break the ends off the teeth of the crown wheels 
by putting them out of line with one another. The toggle-joint 
attachment, which is an extremely ingenious way of attaining 
the same end as the hydraulic attachments, is open to the same 

Extraction of cane juice by diffusion (a process more fully de 
scribed under the head of beetroot sugar manufacture) is adopted 
in a few plantations in Java and Cuba, in Louisiana . .. 
and the Hawaiian Islands, and in one or two factories ^ %%} 
in Egypt; but hitherto, except under exceptional y 
conditions (as at Aska, in the Madras Presidency, where the 
local price for sugar is three or four times the London price), it 
would not seem to offer any substantial advantage over double or 
triple crushing. With the latter system practically as much sugar 
is obtained^ from the canes as by diffusion, and the resulting megass 
furnishes, in a well-appointed factory, sufficient fuel for the crop. 
With diffusion, however, in addition to the strict scientific control 
necessary to secure the benefits of the process, fuel that is, coal or 
wood has to be provided for the working off of the crop, since the 
spent chips or slices from the diffusers are useless for this purpose; 
although it is true that in some plantations the spent chips have 
to a certain extent been utilized as fuel by mixing them with a 
portion of the molasses, which otherwise would have been sold or 
converted into rum. The best results from extraction by diffusion 
have been obtained in Java, where there is an abundance of clear, 
good water; but in the Hawaiian Islands, and in Cuba and Demerara, 
diffusion has been abandoned on several well mounted estates and 
replaced by double and triple crushing; and it is not likely to be 
resorted to again, as the extra cost of working is not compensated 
by the slight increase of sugar produced. In Louisiana diffusion 
is successfully worked on two or three large estates; but the general 
body of planters are shy of using it, although there is no lack of 
water, the Mississippi being near at hand. 

Purification. The second operation is the coagulation of the 
albumen, and the separation of it with other impurities from the 


juice which holds them in suspension or solution. The moment 
the juice is expelled from the cells of the canes chemical inversion 
commences, and the sooner it is stopped the better. This is effected 
by the addition of lime to neutralize the free acid. As cold juice 
has a greater affinity for lime than hot juice, it is best to treat the 
juice with lime when cold. This is easily done in liming or measuring 
tanks of known capacity, into which the juice is run from the mill. 
The requisite amount of milk of lime set up at 10 Beaume is then 
added. Cream of lime of 17 Beaume is sometimes used, but the 
weaker solution is preferable, since the proper proportion is more 
easily adjusted. In Demerara and other places the juice is then 
heated under pressure up to 220 F. to 250 F. for a few moments, 
on its way to a steam and juice separator, where the steam due to 
the superheated juice flashes off, and is either utilized for aiding 
Subsldlaz t ie steam supplied to the multiple effect evaporators, 
Tanks or ^. or neat mg co d juice on its way to the main heater, 
or it is allowed to escape into the atmosphere. The 
boiling juice is run down into subsiding tanks, where it cools, and 
at the same time the albumen, which has been suddenly coagulated 
by momentary exposure to high temperature, falls to the bottom 
of the tank, carrying with it the vegetable and other matters which 
were in suspension in the juice. After reposing some time, the 
clear juice is carefully decanted by means of a pipe fixed by a swivel 
joint to an outlet in the bottom of the tank, the upper end of the 
pipe being always kept at the surface of the liquor by a float attached 
to it. Thus clear liquor alone is run off, and the mud and cloudy 
liquor at the bottom of the tank are left undisturbed, and discharged 
separately as required. 

In Australia a continuous juice separator is generally used, and 
preferred to ordinary subsiding or filtering tanks. It is a cylin- 
. drical vessel about 6 ft. deep, fitted with a conical 

i/V S bottom of about the same depth. Such a vessel is 
Separator conven j ent y made of a diameter which will give the 
cylindrical portion sufficient capacity to hold the juice 
expressed from the cane-mill in one hour. The hot liquor is con 
ducted downwards in a continuous steady stream by a central pipe 
to eight horizontal branches, from which it issues into the separator 
at the level of the junction of the cylindrical and conical portions 
of the vessel. Since the specific gravity of hot liquor is less than 
that of cold liquor and since the specific gravity of the scum and 
particles of solid matter in suspension varies so slightly with the 
temperature that practically it remains constant, the hot liquor 
rises to the top of the vessel, and the scums and particles of solid 
matter in suspension separate themselves from it and fall to the 
bottom. By the mode of admission the hot liquor at its entry is 
distributed over a large area relatively to its volume, and while 
this is necessarily effected with but little disturbance to the contents 
of the vessel, a very slow velocity is ensured for the current of 
ascending juice. In a continuous separator of which the cylindrical 
portion measures 13 ft. in diameter and 6 ft. deep (a suitable 
size for treating a juice supply of 4000 to 4500 gallons per hour), 
the upward current will have a velocity of about I inch per minute, 
and it is found that all the impurities have thus ample time to 
separate themselves. The clear juice when it arrives at the top 
of the separator flows slowly over the level edges of ^a cross canal 
and passes in a continuous stream to the service tanks of the evapo 
rators or vacuum pan. The sloping sides of the conical bottom 
can be freed from the coating of scum which forms upon them every 
two or three hours by two rotatory scrapers, formed of L-irons, 
which can be slowly turned by an attendant by means of a central 
shaft provided with a suitable handle. The scums then settle 
down to the bottom of the cone, whence they are run off to the 
scum tank. Every twenty-four hours or so the flow of juice may 
be conveniently stopped, and, after all the impurities have subsided, 
the superincumbent clear liquor may be decanted by a cock placed 
at the side of the cone for the purpose, and the vessel may be washed 
out. These separators are carefully protected by non-conducting 
cement and wood lagging, and are closed at the top to prevent loss 
of heat ; and they will run for many hours without requiring to be 
changed, the duration of the run depending on the quality of the 
liquor treated and amount of impurities therein. Smaller separators 
of the same construction are used for the treatment of syrup. 

In Cuba, Martinique, Peru and elsewhere the old-fashioned 

double-bottomed defecator is used, into which the juice is run 

direct, and there limed and heated. This defecator is 

e " made with a hemispherical copper bottom, placed in 

o otned an outer cas t-iron casing, which forms a steam jacket, 

" and is fitted with a cylindrical curb or breast above 

the bottom. If double-bottomed defecators are used in sufficient 

number to allow an hour and a half to two hours for making each 

defecation, and if they are of a size which permits any one of them 

to be filled up by the cane-mill with juice in ten to twelve minutes, 

they will make as perfect a defecation as is obtainable by any known 

system ; but their employment involves the expenditure of much 

high-pressure steam (as exhaust steam will not heat the juice quickly 

enough through the small surface of the hemispherical inner bottom), 

and also the use of filter presses for treating the scums. A great 

deal of skilled superintendence is also required, and first cost is 

comparatively large. When a sufficient number are not available 

for a two hours defecation, it is the practice in some factories to 

skim off the scums that rise to the top, and then boil up the juice 
for a few minutes and skim again, and, after repeating the operation 
once or twice, to run off the juice to separators or subsiders of any 
of the kinds previously described. In Java and Mauritius, where 
very clean canes are grown, double-bottomed defecators are generally 
used, and to them, perhaps as much as to the quality of the canes, 
may be attributed the very strong, fine sugars made in those islands. 
They are also employed in Egypt, being remnants of the plant 
used in the days when the juice passed through bone-black before 
going to the evaporators. 

A modification of the system of double-bottom defecators has 
lately been introduced with considerable success in San Domingo 
and in Cuba, by which a continuous and steady discharge _ 
of clear defecated juice is obtained on the one hand, and ~ D . "*""" 
on the other a comparatively hard dry cake of scum or 
cachaza, and without the use of filter presses. These results 
are brought about by adding to the cold juice as it comes 
from the mill the proper proportion of milk of lime set 
up at 8 B., and then delivering the limed juice in a constant 
steady stream as near the bottom of the defecator as possible; it 
is thus brought into immediate contact with the heating surface 
and heated once for all before it ascends, with the result of avoid 
ing the disturbance caused in the ordinary defecator by pouring 
cold juice from above on to the surface of the heated juice, and so 
establishing down-currents of cold juice and up-currents of hot juice. 
In the centre of the defecator an open-topped cylindrical vessel is 
placed, with its bottom about 6 in. above the bottom of the 
defecator and its top about 12 in. below the top of the defecator. 
In this vessel is placed the short leg of a draw-off siphon, reaching 
to nearly the bottom. The action of the moderate heat, 210 F., 
on the limed juice causes the albumen in it to coagulate; this rising 
to the surface collects the cachazas, which form and float thereon. 
The clear juice in the meantime flows over the edge of the cylindri 
cal vessel without disturbance and finds its way out by the short 
leg of the siphon, and so passes to the canal for collecting the 
defecated juice. The admission of steam must be regulated with 
the greatest nicety, so as to maintain an equable temperature, 
208 to 210 F., hot enough to act upon the albumen and yet not 
enough to cause ebullition or disturbance in the juice, and so prevent 
a proper separation of the cachazas. This is attained by the aid 
of a copper pipe, 4 in. in diameter, which follows the curve of the 
hemispherical bottom, and is fitted from one side to the other of 
the defecator; one end is entirely closed, and the other is connected 
by a small pipe to a shallow circular vessel outside the defecator, 
covered with an india-rubber diaphragm, to the centre of which 
is attached a light rod actuating a steam throttle-valve, and capable 
of being adjusted as to length, &c. The copper pipe and circular 
vessel are filled with cold water, which on becoming heated by the sur 
rounding juice expands, and so forces up the india-rubber diaphragm 
and shuts off the steam. By adjusting the length of the connecting 
rod and the amount of water in the vessel, the amount of steam 
admitted can be regulated to a nicety. To make this apparatus 
more perfectly automatic, an arrangement for continually adding 
to and mixing with the juice the proper proportion of milk of lime 
has been adapted to it; and although it may be objected that once 
the proportion has been determined no allowance is made for the 
variation in the quality of the juice coming from the mill owing 
to the variations that may occur in the canes fed into the mills, 
it is obviously as easy to vary the proportion with the automatic 
arrangement from time to time as it is to vary in each separate 
direction, if the man in charge will take the trouble to do so, which 
he very seldom does with the ordinary defecators, satisfying himself 
with testing the juice once or twice in a watch. The scums forming 
on the top of the continuous defecator become so hard and dry 
that they have to be removed from time to time with a specially 
constructed instrument like a flat spade with three flat prongs in 
front. These scums are not worth passing through the filter presses, 
and are sent to the fields direct as manure. 

The scums separated from the juice by ordinary defecation 
entangle and carry away with them a certain amount of the juice 
with its contained saccharine. In some factories they _ 
are collected in suitable tanks, and steam is blown into fff a 
them, which further coagulates the albuminous par- s cun ^ s 
tides. These in their upward passage to the top, 
where they float, free themselves from the juice, which they leave 
below them comparatively clear. The juice is then drawn off 
and pumped up to one of the double-bottomed defecators and 
redefecated, or, where juice-heaters have been used instead of 
defecators, the scums from the separators or subsiders are heated 
and forced through filter presses, the juice expressed going to the 
evaporators and the scum cakes formed in the filter presses to the 
fields as manure. 

In diffusion plants the milk of lime is added, in proper propor 
tion, in the cells of the diffusion battery, and the chips or slices 
themselves act as a mechanical filter for the juice; while in the 
Sandwich Islands coral-sand filters have been employed^ for some 
years, in addition to the chips, to free the juice from impurities 
held in mechanical suspension. In Germany very similar filters 
have also been used, pearl-quartz gravel taking the place of coral 
sand, which it closely resembles. In Mexico filters filled with dry 



powdered megass have been found very efficient for removing the 
large quantity of impurities contained in the juice expressed from 
the very vigorous but rank canes grown in that wonderfully fertile 
country, but unless constant care is taken in managing them, and 
in changing them at the proper time, there is great risk of inversion 
taking place, with consequent loss of sugar. 

After the juice has been defecated or purified by any of the 
means above mentioned it is sent to the evaporating apparatus, 
hereinafter described, where it is concentrated to 26 or 28 Beaum6, 
and is then conducted in a continuous stream either into the service 
tanks of the vacuum pan, if dark sugars are required, or, if a 
better colour is wanted, into clarifiers. The latter are circular 
or rectangular vessels, holding from 500 to 1500 gallons each, accord 
ing to the capacity of the factory, and fitted with steam coils at 
the bottom and skimming troughs at the top. In them the syrup 
is quickly brought up to the boil and skimmed for about five minutes, 
when it is run off to the service tanks of the vacuum pans. The 
heat at which the syrup boils in the clarifiers, 220 F., has the 
property of separating a great deal of the gum still remaining in 
it, and thus cleansing the solution of sugar and water for crystalliza 
tion in the vacuum pans; and if after skimming the syrup is run into 
separators or subsiders of any description, and allowed to settle 
down and cool before being drawn into the vacuum pan for crystalli 
zation, this cleansing process will be more thorough and the quality 
of the final product will be improved. Whether the improvement 
will be profitable or not to the planter or manufacturer depends on 
the market for the sugar, and on the conditions of foreign tariffs, 
which are not infrequently hostile. 

Evaporation of the Juice to Syrup. The third operation is the 
concentration of the approximately pure, but thin and watery, juice 
to syrup point, by driving off a portion of the water in vapour 
through some system of heating and evaporation. Since on an 
average 70% by measurement of the normal defecated cane juice 
has to be evaporated in order to reduce it to syrup ready for final 
concentration and crystallization in the vacuum pan, and since to 
attain the same end as much as 90 to 95 % of the volume of mixed 
juices has to be evaporated when maceration or imbibition is 
employed, it is clear that some more economical mode of evapora 
tion is necessary in large estates than the open-fire batteries still 
common in Barbados and some of the West Indian islands, and in 
small haciendas in Central America and Brazil, but seldom seen 
elsewhere. With open-fire batteries for making the syrup, which 
was afterwards finished in the vacuum pan, very good sugar was 
produced, but at a cost that would be ruinous in to-day s markets. 

In the best days of the so-called Jamaica Trains in Demerara, 
three-quarters of a ton of coal in addition to the megass was burned 
per ton of sugar made, and with this for many years planters were 
content, because they pointed to the fact that in the central factories, 
then working in Martinique and Guadeloupe, with charcoal filters and 
triple-effect evaporation, 750 kilos of coal in addition to the megass 
were consumed to make 1000 kilos of sugar. All this has now been 
changed. It is unquestionably better and easier to evaporate 
in vacua than in an open pan, and with a better system of firing, 
a more liberal provision of steam generators, and multiple-effect 
evaporators of improved construction, a far larger yield of sugar is 
obtained from the juice than was possible of attainment in those 
days, and the megass often suffices as fuel for the crop. 

The multiple-effect evaporator, originally invented and con 
structed by Norberto Rilleux in New Orleans in 1840, has under 
gone many changes in design and construction since 
Multiple- that year. The growing demand for this system of 
evaporation for application in many other industries 
Evaporators. Asides that of sugar has brought to the front a large 
number of inventors. Forgetful or ignorant of the great prin 
ciple announced and established by Rilleux, they have mostly 
devoted their energies and ingenuity to contriving all sorts of 
complicated arrangements to give the juice the density required, 
by passing and repassing it over the heating surface of the apparatus, 
the saving of a few square feet of which would seem to have been 
their main object. In some instances the result has been an addi 
tional and unnecessary expenditure of high-pressure steam, and in all 
the weH-known fact of the highest importance in this connexion 
appears to have been disregarded, that the shorter the time the 
juice is exposed to heat the less inversion will take place in it, and 
therefore the less will be the loss of sugar. But this competition 
among inventors, whatever the incentive, has not been without 
benefit, because to-day, by means of very simple improvements 
in details, such as the addition of circulators and increased area 
of connexions, what may be taken to be the standard type of 
multiple-effect evaporator (that is to say, vertical vacuum pans 
fitted with vertical heating tubes, through which passes the liquor 
to be treated, and outside of which the steam or vapour circu 
lates) evaporates nearly double the quantity of water per square 
foot of heating surface per hour which was evaporated by 
apparatus in use so recently as 1885 and this without any 
increase in the steam pressure. That evaporation in vacuo, in a 
multiple-effect evaporator, is advantageous by reason of the 
increased amount of sugar obtained from a given quantity of 
juice, and by reason of economy of fuel, there is no doubt, but 

whether such an apparatus should be of double, triple, quadruple 
or quintuple effect will depend very much on the amount of juice 
to be treated per day, and the cost of fuel. Thus, supposing that 
1000 ft of coal were required to work a single vacuum pan, evaporat 
ing, say, 6000 Ib of water in a given time, then 500 Ib of coal would 
be required for a double-effect apparatus to do the same work, 
333 Ib for a triple effect, 250 for a quadruple effect, and 200 Ib 
for a quintuple effect. In some places where coal costs 6os. a ton, 
and where steam is raised by coal, as in a beetroot factory, it might 
pay to adopt a quintuple-effect apparatus, but on a cane-sugar 
estate, where the steam necessary for the evaporator is raised by 
burning the megass as fuel, and is first used in the engines working 
the mills, the exhaust alone passing to the evaporator, there would 
be very little, if any, advantage in employing a quadruple effect 
instead of a triple effect, and practically none at all in having a 
quintuple-effect apparatus, for the interest and sinking fund on the 
extra cost would more than counterbalance the saving in fuel. 

With the juice of some canes considerable difficulty is encountered 
in keeping the heating surfaces of the evaporators clean and free 
from incrustations, and cleaning by the use of acid has to be resorted 
to. In places where work is carried on day and night throughout 
the week, the standard type of evaporator lends itself more readily 
to cleaning operations than any other. It is obviously easier to 
brush out and clean vertical tubes open at both ends, and about 
6 ft. long, on which the scale has already been loosened by the aid 
of boiling with dilute muriatic acid or a weak solution of caustic 
soda in water, than it is to clean either the inside or the outside of 
horizontal tuoes more than double the length. This consideration 
should be carefully remembered in the future by the planter who may 
require an evaporator and by the engineer who may be called upon 
to design or construct it, and more especially by a constructor 
without practical experience of the working of his constructions. 

Concentration and Crystallization. The defecated cane juice, 
having lost about 70% of its bulk by evaporation in the multiple- 
effect evaporator, is now syrup, and ready to enter the 
vacuum pan for further concentration and crystalliza- Howard a 
tion. In a patent (No. 3607, 1812) granted to E. C. ^ 
Howard it is stated, among other things, that " water 
dissolves the most uncrystallizable in preference to that which is 
most crystallizable sugar," and the patentee speaks of " a discovery 
I have made that no solution, unless highly concentrated, of sugar 
in water can without material injury to its colouring and crystalliz 
ing power, or to both, be exposed to its boiling temperature during 
the period required to evaporate such solution to the crystallizing 
point." He stated that " he had made a magma of sugar and water 
at atmospheric temperature, and heated the same to 190 or 200 F. 
in a water or steam bath, and then added more sugar or a thinner 
magma, and the whole being then in a state of imperfect fluidity, 
but so as to close readily behind the stirrer, was filled into moulds 
and purged " (drained). " I do further declare," he added, " that 
although in the application of heat to the refining of sugar in my 
said invention or process I have stated and mentioned the tempera 
ture of about 200 F. scale as the heat most proper to be used! and 
applied in order to secure and preserve the colour and crystalliz- 
ability of the sugars, and most easily to be obtained with precision 
and uniformity by means of the water bath and steam bath, yet when 
circumstances or choice may render the same desirable I do make 
use of higher temperatures, although less beneficial." Howard 
at any rate saw clearly what was one of the indispensable requisites 
for the economical manufacture of fine crystal sugar of good colour 
the treatment of saccharine solutions at temperatures very con 
siderably lower than 212 F., which is the temperature of water boil 
ing at normal atmospheric pressure. Nor was he long in providing 
means for securing these lower temperatures. His patent (No. 
3754 of 1813) describes the closed vacuum pan and the air pump 
with condenser for steam by injection, the use of a thermometer 
immersed in the solution in the pan, and a method of ascertaining 
the density of the solution with a proof stick, and by observations 
of the temperature at which, while fluid and not containing grain, 
it could be kept boiling under different pressures shown by a vacuum 
gauge. A table is also given of boiling points from 115 F. to 
175 F., corresponding to decimal parts of an inch of mercury of 
the vacuum gauge. Since Howard published his invention the 
vacuum pan has been greartly improved and altered in shape and 
power, and especially of recent years, and the advantages of concen 
trating in vacuo having been acknowledged, the system has been 
adopted in many other industries, and crowds of inventors have 
turned their attention to the principle. In endeavouring to make 
a pan of less power do as much and as good work as one of greater 
power, they have imagined many ingenious mechanical contrivances, 
such as currents produced mechanically to promote evaporation 
and crystallization, feeding the pan from many points in order 
to spread the feed equally throughout the mass of sugar being 
cooked, and so on. All their endeavours have obtained at best 
but a doubtful success, for they have overlooked the fact that to 
evaporate a given weight of water from the syrup in a vacuum 
pan at least an equal weight (or in practice about 15% more) of 
steam must be condensed, and the first cost of mechanical agitators, 
together with the expenditure they involve for motive power and 

4 o 


maintenance, must be put against the slight saving in the heating 
surface effected by their employment. On the other hand, the 
advocates of admitting the feed into a vacuum pan in many minute 
streams appeal rather to the ignorant and incompetent sugar- 
boiler than to a man who, knowing his business thoroughly, will 
boil 150 tons of hot raw sugar in a pan in a few hours, feeding it 
through a single pipe and valve 10 in. in diameter. Nevertheless, 
it has been found in practice, when syrups with low quotient of 
purity and high quotient of impurity are being treated, injecting 
the feed at a number of different points in the pan does reduce the 
time required to boil the pan, though of no practical advantage 
with syrups of high quotient of purity and free from the viscosity 
which impedes circulation and therefore quick boiling. Watt, when 
he invented the steam engine, laid down the principles on which it 
is based, and they hold good to the present day. So also the prin 
ciples laid down by Howard with respect to the vacuum pan hold 
good to-day : larger pans have been made and their heating surface 
has been increased, but it has been found by practice now, as it was 
found then, that an ordinary worm or coil 4 in. in diameter and 
50 ft. long will be far more efficient per square foot of surface than 
a similar coil 100 ft. long. Thus the most efficient vacuum pans 
of the present day are those which have their coils so arranged that 
no portion of them exceeds 50 or 60 ft. in length ; with such coils, 
and a sufficient annular space in the pan free from obstruction, in 
order to allow a natural down-current of the cooking mass, while an 
up-current all round is also naturally produced by the action of 
the heated worms or coils, rapid evaporation and crystallization 
can be obtained, without any mechanical adjuncts to require 
attention or afford excuse for negligence. 

The choice of the size of the crystals to be produced in a given 
pan depends upon the market for which they are intended. It is 
of course presupposed that the juice has been properly defecated, 
because without this no amount of skill and knowledge in cooking 
in the pan will avail; the sugar resulting must be bad, either in 
colour or grain, or both, and certainly in polarizing power. If a 
very large firm grain like sugar-candy is required the syrup when 
first brought into the pan must be of low density, say 20 to 21 
Beaum<i, but if a smaller grain be wanted it can easily be obtained 
from syrup of 27 to 28 Beaume. On some plantations making 
sugar for particular markets and use in refineries it is the custom 
to make only one class of sugar, by boiling the molasses produced 
by the purging of one strike with the sugar in the next strike. 
On other estates the second sugars, or sugars produced from boil 
ing molasses alone, are not purged to dryness, but when sufficiently 
separated from their mother-liquor are mixed with the defecated 
juice, thereby increasing its saccharine richness, and after being 
converted into syrup in the usual manner are treated in the vacuum 
pan as first sugars, which in fact they really are. 

In certain districts, notably in the Straits Settlements, syrup is 
prepared as described above for crystallization in a vacuum pan, 
but instead of being cooked in vacua it is slowly boiled up in open 
double-bottom pans. These pans are sometimes heated by boiling 
oil, with the idea that under such conditions the sugar which is 
kept stirred all the time as it thickens cannot be burnt or caramel 
ized ; but the same object can be attained more economically 
with steam of a given pressure by utilizing its latent heat. The 
sugar thus produced, by constant stirring and evaporation almost 
to dryness, forms a species of small-grained concrete. It is called 
" basket sugar," and meets with a brisk sale, at remunerative 
prices, among the Chinese coolies; and as the sugar as soon as 
cooled is packed ready for market, without losing any weight by 
draining, this branch of sugar-making is a most lucrative one where- 
ever there is sufficient local demand. Very similar kinds of sugar 
are also produced for local consumption in Central America and in 
Mexico, under the names of ," Panela " and " Chancaca," but in 
those countries the sugar is generally boiled in pans placed over 
special fire-places, and the factories making it are on a comparatively 
small scale, whereas in the Straits Settlements the " basket sugar " 
factories are of considerable importance, and are fitted with the most 
approved machinery. 

Curing or Preparation of Crystals for the Market. The crystal 
lized sugar from the vacuum pan has now to be separated from the 
molasses or mother-liquor surrounding the crystals. In some 
parts of Mexico and Central America this separation is still effected 
by running the sugar into conical moulds, and placiag on the top 
a layer of moist clay or earth which has been kneaded in a mill 
into a stiff paste. The moisture from the clay, percolating through 
the mass of sugar, washes away the adhering molasses and leaves 
the crystals comparatively free and clear. It may be noted that 
sugar that will not purge easily and freely with clay will not purge 
easily and freely in centrifugals. But for all practical purposes 
the system of claying sugar is a thing of the past, and the bulk of 
the sugar of commerce is now purged in centrifugals, as indeed 
it has been for many years. The reason is obvious. The claying 
system involved the expense of large curing houses and the em 
ployment of many hands, and forty days at least were required for 
completing the operation and making the sugar fit for the market, 
whereas with centrifugals sugar cooked to-day can go to market 
to-morrow, and the labour employed is reduced to a minimum. 

When Cuba was the chief sugar-producing country making clayed 
sugars it was the custom (followed in refineries and found advan 
tageous in general practice) to discharge the strike of crystallized 
sugar from the vacuum pan into a receiver heated below by steam, 
and to stir the mass for a certain time, and then distribute it into 
the moulds in which it was afterwards clayed. When centrifugals 
were adopted for purging the whole crop (they had long been used 
for curing the second or third sugars), the system then obtaining 
of running the sugar into wagons or coolers, which was necessary 
for the second and third sugars cooked only to string point, was 
continued, but latterly " crystallization in movement," a develop 
ment of the system which forty years ago or more existed in refineries 
and in Cuba, has come into general use, and with great advantage, 
especially where proprietors have been able to erect appropriate 
buildings and machinery for carrying out the system efficiently. 
The vacuum pan is erected at a height which commands the crystal- 
lizers, each of which will, as in days gone by in Cuba, hold the con 
tents of the pan, and these in their turn are set high enough to allow 
the charge to fall into the feeding-trough of the centrifugals, thus 
obviating the necessity of any labour to remove the raw sugar from 
the time it leaves the vacuum pan to the time it falls into the 
centrifugals. For this reason alone, and without taking into 
consideration any increase in the yield of sugar brought about by 
" crystallization in movement," the system is worthy of adoption 
in all sugar factories making crystal sugar. 

The crystallizers are long, horizontal, cylindrical or semi-cylin 
drical vessels, fitted with a strong horizontal shaft running from 
end to end, which is kept slowly revolving. The shaft ., 

carries arms and blades fixed in such a manner that ur*t*l- 
the mass of sugar is quietly but thoroughly moved, 
while at the same time a gentle but sustained evaporation is pro 
duced by the continuous exposure of successive portions of the mass 
to the action of the atmosphere. Thus also the crystals already 
formed come in contact with fresh mother-liquor, and so go on 
adding to their size. Some crystallizers are made entirely cylin 
drical, and are connected to the condenser of the vacuum pan; in 
order to maintain a partial vacuum in them, some are fitted with 
cold-water pipes to cool them and with steam pipes to heat them, 
and some are left open to the atmosphere at the top. But the 
efficiency of all depends on the process of almost imperceptible 
yet continuous evaporation and the methodical addition of syrup, 
and not on the idiosyncrasies of the experts who manage them; 
and there is no doubt that in large commercial processes of manu 
facture the simpler the apparatus used for obtaining a desired 
result, and the more easily it is understood, the better it will be 
for the manufacturer. The sugar made from the first syrups does 
not require a crystallizer in movement to prepare it for purging in 
the centrifugals, but it is convenient to run the strike into the 
crystallizer and so empty the pan at once and leave it ready to 
commence another strike, while the second sugars will be better 
for twenty-four hours stirring and the third sugars for forty-eight 
hours stirring before going to the centrifugals. To drive these 
machines electricity has been applied, with indifferent success, but 
they have been very efficiently driven, each independently of the 
others in the set, by means of a modification of a Pelton wheel, 
supplied with water under pressure from a pumping engine. A 
comparatively small stream strikes the wheel with a pressure 
equivalent to a great head, say 300 ft., and as the quantity of 
water and number of jets striking the wheel can be regulated with 
the greatest ease and nicety, each machine can without danger be 
quickly brought up to its full speed when purging high-class sugars, 
or allowed to run slowly when purging low-class sugars, until the 
heavy, gummy molasses have been expelled ; and it can then be 
brought up to its full speed for finally drying the sugar in the basket, 
a boon which all practical sugar-makers will appreciate. The 
water forced by the force-pump against the Pelton wheels returns 
by a waste-pipe to the tank, from which the force-pump takes 
it again. 

Recent Progress. The manufacture of cane sugar has largely 
increased in volume since the year 1901-1902. This, apart from 
the effect of the abolition of the sugar bounties, has been mainly the 
result of the increased employment of improved processes, carried 
on in improved apparatus, under skilled supervision, and with due 
regard to the importance of the chemical aspects of the work. 

Numerous central factories have been erected in several countries 
with plant of large capacity, and many of them work day and night 
for six days in the week. There were 173 of these central 
factories working in Cuba in 1908-1909, among which factories. 
the "Chaparra," in the province of Oriente, turned 
out upwards of 69,000 tons of sugar in the crop of about 
20 weeks, and the " Boston " had an output of about 61,000 tons 
in the same time. Of the 178 factories at work in Java in 1908- 
1909, nearly all had most efficient plant for treating the excellent 
canes grown in that favoured island. (See Jaarboek voor suiker- 
fabrikanten op Java, 13 Jaargang 1908-1909, pp. 22-61, Amster 
dam, J. H. de Bussy.) The severance of the agricultural work, 
i.e. cane-growing, from the manufacturing work, sugar-making, 
must obviously conduce to better and more profitable work of 
both kinds. 



The use of multiple-effect evaporation made it possible to raise 
the steam for all the work required to be done in a well-equipped 
^^ factory, making crystals, under skilful management, 

by means of the bagasse alone proceeding from the 
lagasse as canes ground, without the aid of other fuel. The bagasse 
"" so used is now commonly taken straight from the cane 

mill to furnaces specially designed for burning it, in its moist 
state and without previous drying, and delivering the hot gases 
from it to suitable boilers, such as those of the multitubular type 
or of the water-tube type. The value of fresh bagasse, or as it 
is often called " green bagasse, as fuel varies with the kind of 
canes from which it comes, with their treatment in the mill, and 
with the skill used in firing; but it may be stated broadly that 
i Ib of fresh bagasse will produce from ij Ib to 2j ft of steam, 
according to the conditions. 

The use of preparing rolls with corrugations, to crush and equalize 
the feed of canes to the mill, or to the first of a series of mills, has 
become general. The Krajewski crusher has two such 
steel rolls, with V-shaped corrugations extending longi 
tudinally across them. These rolls run at a speed 
about 30% greater than the speed of the first mill, to which they 
deliver the canes well crushed and flattened, forming a close mat of 
pieces of cane 5 to 6 in. long, so that the subsequent grinding can 
be carried on without the stoppages occasioned by the mill choking 
with a heavy and irregular feed. The crusher is preferably driven 
by an independent engine, but with suitable gearing it can be driven 
by the mill engine. The Krajewski crusher was invented some years 
ago by a Polish engineer resident in Cuba, who took out a patent 
for it and gave it his name. The patent has expired. The increase 
in the output for a given time obtained by the use of the Krajewski 
crusher has been estimated at 20 to 25 % and varies with the quality 
of the canes; while the yield of juice or extraction is increased by 
I or 2%. 

The process of continuous defecation which was introduced into 
Cuba from Santo Domingo about 1900 had by 1910 borne the 
Purities test ^ some ten ye ar . s> use with notable success. The 
Hatton defecator, which is employed for working it, 
has been already described, but it may be mentioned 
that the regulation of the admission of steam is now simplified 
and secured by a patent thermostat a selt-acting apparatus 
in which the unequal expansion of different metals by heat actuates, 
through compressed air, a diaphragm which controls the steam 
stcp-valve-^-and by this means a constant temperature of 210" F. 
(98-8 C.) is maintained in the juice within the defecator during 
the whole time it is at work. 

Earthy matter and other matter precipitated and fallen on the 
copper double bottom may be dislodged by a slowly revolving 
scraper say every twelve hours and ejected through the bottom 
discharge cock; and thus the heating surface of the copper bottom 
will be kept in full efficiency. With ordinary care on the part of 
the men in charge Hatton defecators will work continuously 
for several days and nights, and the number required to deal with 
a given volume of juice is half the number of ordinary defecators 
of equal capacity which would do the same work; for it must be 
borne in mind that an ordinary double-bottomed defecator takes 
two hours to deliver its charge and be in readiness to receive a 
fresh charge, i.e. 20 minutes for filling and washing out after empty 
ing; 60 minutes for heating up and subsiding; and 40 minutes 
for drawing off the defecated juice, without agitating it. Apart 
from increased yield in sugar of good quality, we may sum up the 
advantages procurable from the use of Hatton defecators as follows: 
cold liming; heating gently to the temperature required to coagulate 
the albumen and not beyond it, whereby disturbance would ensue; 
the continuous separation of the scums; the gradual drying of the 
scums so as to make them ready for the fields, without carrying 
away juice or requiring treatment in filter presses; and the con 
tinuous supply of hot defecated juice to the evaporators, without 
the use of subsiding tanks or eliminators; and, finally, the saving 
in expenditure on plant, such as filter presses, &c., and wages. 

Beetroot Sugar Manufacture. The sugar beet is a cultivated 
variety of Beta maritima (nat. ord. Chenopodiaceae), other 
varieties of which, under the name of mangold or mangel-wurzel, 
are grown as feeding roots for cattle. 

About 1760 the Berlin apothecary Marggraff obtained in his 
laboratory, by means of alcohol, 6-2% of sugar from a white 
variety of beet and 4-5% from a red variety. At the present 
day, thanks to the careful study of many years, the improve 
ments of cultivation, the careful selection of seed and suitable 
manuring, especially with nitrate of soda, the average beet 
worked up contains 7% of fibre and 93% of juice, and yields 
in Germany 12-79% and in France n-6% of its weight in sugar. 
In Great Britain in 1910 the cultivation of beet for sugar was 
being seriously undertaken in Essex, as the result of careful 
consideration during several years. The pioneer experi 
ments on Lord Denbigh s estates at Newnham Paddox, in 

Warwickshire, in 1900, had produced excellent results, both in 
respect of the weight of the beets per acre and of the saccharine 
value and purity of the juice. The average weight per acre 
was over 25! tons, and the mean percentage of pure sugar in the 
juice exceeded 155. The roots were grown under exactly the 
same cultivation and conditions as a crop of mangel-wurzel 
that is to say, they had the ordinary cultivation and manuring 
of the usual root crops. The weight per acre, the saccharine 
contents of the juice, and the quotient of purity compared 
favourably with the best results obtained in Germany or France, 
and with those achieved by the Suffolk farmers, who between 
1868 and 1872 supplied Mr Duncan s beetroot sugar factory at 
Lavenham; for the weight of their roots rarely reached 15 tons 
per acre, and the percentage of sugar in the juice appears to have 
varied between 10 and 12. On the best-equipped and most 
skilfully managed cane sugar estates, where the climate is 
favourable for maturing the cane, a similar return is obtained. 
Therefore, roughly speaking, one ton of beetroot may be con 
sidered to-day as of the same value as one ton of canes; the 
value of the refuse chips in one case, as food for cattle, being 
put against the value of the refuse bagasse, as fuel, in the other. 
Before beetroot had been brought to its present state of per 
fection, and while the factories for its manipulation were worked 
with hydraulic presses for squeezing the juice out of the pulp 
produced in the raperies, the cane sugar planter in the West 
Indies could easily hold his own, notwithstanding the artificial 
competition created and maintained by sugar bounties. But 
the degree of perfection attained in the cultivation of the roots 
and their subsequent manipulation entirely altered this situa 
tion and brought about the crisis in the sugar trade referred 
to in connexion with the bounties (see History below) and 
dealt with in the Brussels convention of 1902. 

In beetroot sugar manufacture the operations are washing, 
slicing, diffusing, saturating, sulphuring, evaporation, concentration 
and curing. 

Slicing. The roots are brought from the fields by carts, canals 
and railways. They are weighed and then dumped into a washing 
machine, consisting of a large horizontal cage, submerged in water, 
in which revolves a horizontal shaft carrying arms. The arms are 
set in a spiral form, so that in revolving they not only stir the 
roots, causing them to rub against each other, but also force them 
forward from the receiving end.of the cage to the other end. Here 
they are discharged (washed and freed from any adherent soil) 
into an elevator, which carries them up to the top of the building 
and delivers them into a hopper feeding the slicer. Slicers used 
to be constructed with iron disks about 33 to 40 in. diameter, 
which were fitted with knives and made 140 to 150 revolutions 
per minute, under the hopper which received the roots. This 
hopper was divided into two parts by vertical division plates, 
against the bottom edge of which the knives in the disk forced 
the roots and sliced and pulped them. Such machines were good 
enough when the juice was expelled from the small and, so to 
speak, chopped slices and pulp by means of hydraulic presses. 
But hydraulic presses have now been abandoned, for the juice is 
universally obtained by diffusion, and the small slicers have gone 
out of use, because the large amount of pulp they produced in 
proportion to slices is not suitable for the diffusion process, in 
which evenly cut slices are required, which present a much greater 
surface with far less resistance to the diffusion water. Instead 
of the small slicers, machines made on the same principle, but 
with disks 7 ft. and upwards in diameter, are used. Knives are 
arranged around their circumference in such a way that the hopper 
feeding them presents an annular opening to the disk, say 7 ft. 
outside diameter and 5 ft. inside, with the necessary division plates 
for the knives to cut against, and instead of making 140 to 150 
revolutions the disks revolve only 60 to 70 times per minute. 
Such a slicer is capable of efficiently slicing 300,000 kilos of roots 
in twenty-four hours, the knives being changed four times in that 
period, or oftener if required, for it is necessary to change them 
the moment the slices show by their rough appearance that the 
knives are losing their cutting edges. 

Diffusion. The diffusion cells are closed, vertical, cylindrical 
vessels, holding generally 60 hectolitres, or 1320 gallons, and are 
arranged in batteries of 12 to 14. Sometimes the cells are erected 
in a circle, so that the spout below the slicing machine revolving 
above them with a corresponding radius can discharge the slices 
into the centre of any of the cells. In other factories the cells 
are arranged in lines and are charged from the slicer by suitable 
telescopic pipes or other convenient means. A circular disposition 
of the cells facilitates charging by the use of a pipe rotating above 
them, but it renders the disposal of the hot spent slices somewhat 


difficult and inconvenient. The erection of the cells in straight 
lines may cause some little complication in charging, but it allows 
the hot spent slices to be discharged upon a travelling band which 
takes them to an elevator, an arrangement simpler than any which 
is practicable when the cells are disposed in a circle. Recently, 
however, a well-known sugar maker in Germany has altered his 
battery in such manner that instead of having to open a large door 
below the cells in order to discharge them promptly, he opens a 
comparatively small valve and, applying compressed air at the top 
of the cell, blows the whole contents of spent slices up a pipe to 
the drying apparatus, thus saving not only a great deal of time 
but also a great deal of labour of a kind which is both arduous 
and painful, especially during cold weather. The slices so blown 
up, or elevated, are passed through a mill which expels the surplus 
water, and are then pressed into cakes and dried until they hold 
about 12% of water and 88% of beet fibre. These cakes, sold 
as food for cattle, fetch as much as 4 per ton in Rumania, where 
four or five beetroot factories are now at work. A cell when filled 
with fresh slices becomes the head of the battery, and where skilled 
scientific control can be relied upon to regulate the process, the best 
and most economical way of heating the slices, previous to admitting 
the hot liquor from the next cell, is by direct steam; but as the 
slightest inattention or carelessness in the admission of direct steam 
might have the effect of inverting sugar and thereby causing the 
loss of some portion of saccharine in the slices, water heaters are 
generally used, through which water is passed and heated up 
previous to admission to the freshly-filled cell. When once a cell 
is filled up and the slices are warmed through, the liquor from the 
adjoining cell, which hitherto has been running out of it to the 
saturators, is turned into the new cell, and beginning to displace 
the juice from the fresh slices, runs thence to the saturators. When 
the new cell comes into operation and becomes the head of the 
battery, the first or tail cell is thrown out, and number two be 
comes the tail cell, and so the rounds are repeated; one cell isalways 
being emptied and one filled or charged with slices and heated 
up, the latter becoming the head of the battery as soon as it is 

Saturation. The juice, previously treated with lime in the 
diffusion battery, flows thence into a saturator. This is a closed 
vessel, into which carbonic acid gas (produced as described here 
after) is forced, and combining with the lime in the juice forms 
carbonate of lime. The whole is then passed through filter presses, 
the clear juice being run off for further treatment, while the carbon 
ate of lime is obtained in cakes which are taken to the fields as 
manure. The principal improvement made of recent years in this 
portion of the process has been the construction of pipes through 
which the carbonic acid gas is injected into the juice in such a manner 
that they can be easily withdrawn and a clean set substituted. The 
filter presses remain substantially unchanged, although many 
ingenious but slight alterations have been made in their details. 
The juice, which has now become comparatively clear, is again 
treated with lime, and again passed through a saturator and filter 
presses, and comes out still clearer than before. It is then treated 
with sulphurous acid gas, for the purpose of decolorization, again 
limed to neutralize the acid, and then passed through a third 
saturator wherein all traces of lime and sulphur are removed. 

A process for purifying and decolorizing the juice expressed 
from beetroots by the addition of a small quantity of manganate 
of lime (20 to 50 grammes per hectolitre of juice), under the influence 
of an electric current, was worked with considerable success in 
a sugar factory in the department of Seine-et-Marne in the year 
1900-1901. A saving of 40% is stated to be effected in lime. 
The use of sulphurous acid gas is entirely abandoned, and instead 
of three carbonatations with corresponding labour and plant only 
one is required. The coefficient of purity is increased and the 
viscosity of the juice diminished. The total saving effected is 
stated to be equivalent to 3 francs per ton of beetroot worked up. 
This system is also being tried on a small scale with sugar-cane 
juice in the West Indies. If by this process a more perfect defeca 
tion and purification of the juice is obtained, it will no doubt be 
highly beneficial to the cane planter, though no great economy in 
lime can be effected, because but very little is used in a cane factory 
in comparison with the amount used in a beet factory. 

Evaporation and Crystallization. The clear juice thus obtained 
is evaporated in a multiple-effect evaporator and crystallized in 
a vacuum pan, and the sugar is purged in centrifugals. From the 
centrifugal the sugar is either turned out without washing as raw 
sugar, only fit for the refinery, or else it is well washed with a 
spray of water and air until white and dry, and it is then offered 
in the market as refined sugar, although it has never passed through 
animal charcoal (bone-black). The processes of evaporation and 
concentration are carried on as they are in a cane sugar factory, 
but with this advantage, that the beet solutions are freer from gum 
and glucose than those obtained from sugar-canes, and are therefore 
easier to cook. 

Curing. There are various systems of purging refined, or so- 
called refined, sugar in centrifugals, all designed with a view of 
obtaining the sugar in lumps or tablets, so as to appear as if it had 
been turned out from moulds and not from centrifugals, and great 

ingenuity and large sums of money have been spent in perfecting 
these different systems, with more or less happy results. But the 
great achievement of recent manufacture is the production, without 
the use of animal charcoal, of a cheaper, but good and wholesome 
article, in appearance equal to refined sugar for all intents and 
purposes, except for making preserves of fruits in the old-fashioned 
way. The wholesale jam manufacturers of the present day use 
this sugar; they boil the jam in vacua and secure a product that 
will last a long time without deteriorating, but it lacks the delicacy 
and distinctive flavour of fruit preserved by a careful housekeeper, 
who boils it in an open pan with cane sugar to a less density, though 
exposed for a short time to a greater heat. 

Carbonatation.The carbonic acid gas injected into the highly 
limed juice in the saturators is made by the calcination of limestone 
in a kiln provided with three cleaning doors, so arranged as to 
allow the lime to be removed simultaneously from them every six 
hours. The gas generated in the kiln is taken off at the top by 
a pipe to a gas-washer. In this it passes through four sheets of 
water, by which it is not only freed from any dust and dirt that 
may have come over with it from the kiln, but is also cooled to 
a temperature which permits an air-pump to withdraw the gas 
from the kiln, through the gas- washer, and force it into the saturators, 
without overheating. In some factories for refining sugar made 
from beet or canes this system of carbonatation is used, and en 
ables the refiner to work with syrups distinctly alkaline and to 
economize a notable amount of animal charcoal. 

Refining. Briefly, sugar-refining consists of melting raw or 
unrefined sugar with water into a syrup of 27 to 28 Beaume, 
or 1230 specific gravity, passing it through filtering cloth to 
remove the sand and other matters in mechanical suspension, 
and then through animal charcoal to remove all traces of colour 
ing matter and lime, thus producing a perfectly clear white 
syrup, which, cooked in the vacuum pan and crystallized, 
becomes the refined sugar of commerce. 

Melting Pans. The melting pans are generally circular vessels> 
fitted with a perforated false bottom, on which the sugar to be 
melted is dumped. The pans are provided with steam worms to 
keep the mass hot as required, and with mechanical stirrers to 
keep it in movement and thoroughly mixed with the water and 
sweet water which are added to the sugar to obtain a solution 
of the specific gravity desired. Any sand or heavy matter in 
suspension is allowed to fall to the bottom of the pan into the 
" sandbox " before the melted sugar is run off to the cloth filters. 
In a process employed with great success in some refineries the 
raw sugars are washed before being melted, and thus a purer 
article is obtained for subsequent treatment. In this process the 
raw sugar is mixed with a small amount of syrup so as to form a 
suitable magma, and is then run into a continuous centrifugal, 
where it is sufficiently washed, and from which it runs out, com 
paratively clean, into the melting pans described above. 

Filters. Taylor bag filters are generally used for clearing the 
melted liquor of its mechanical impurities. They were introduced 
years ago by the man whose name they still retain, but they are 
very different in construction to-day from what they were when 
first employed. They consist of tanks or cisterns fitted with 
" heads " from which a number of bags of specially woven cloth 
are suspended in a suitable manner, and into which the melted 
sugar or liquor to be filtered flows from the melting pans. The 
bags, though 60 in. or more in circumference, are folded up in 
such a way that a sheath about 15 in. in circumference can be 
passed over them. Thus a maximum of filtering surface with a 
minimum of liquor in each bag is obtained, and a far greater 
number of bags are got into a given area that would otherwise 
be possible, while the danger of bursting the bags by leaving them 
unsupported is avoided. As the liquor goes on filtering through 
the bags they gradually get filled up with slime and sludge, and 
the clear liquor ceases to run. Steam is then turned on to the 
outside of the bags and sheaths, and hot water is run through 
them to wash out all the sweets they contain. Large doors at 
the side of the cistern are then opened, and as soon as the bags 
are cool enough they are removed at the expense of very exacting 
labour and considerable time, and fresh bags and sheaths are fixed 
in their places ready for filtering fresh liquor. The dirty bags and 
sheaths are then washed, mangled and dried, and made ready 
for use again. In a refinery in Nova Scotia a system has been 
introduced by which a travelling crane above the bag filters lifts 
up any head bodily with all its bags attached, and runs it to the 
mud and washing tanks at the end of the battery, while another 
similar crane drops another head, fitted with fresh bags, into the 
place of the one just removed. The whole operation of thus 
changing a filter occupies about ten minutes, and there is no need 
for anyone to enter the hot cistern to detach the bags, which are 
removed in the open air above the mud tank. By this arrangement 
the work of a refinery can be carried on with about one-half the 
cisterns otherwise required, because, although it does not reduce 
the number of bags required per day for a given amount of 
work, it enables the refiner to use one cistern twice a day with 



fresh bags, instead of only once as heretofore. In some refineries 
the travelling cranes are now run by electricity, which still further 
facilitates the work. Another method of enabling more work to 
be done in a given time in a given cistern is the use of a bag twice 
the ordinary length, open at both ends. This, being folded and 
placed in its sheath, is attached by both ends to the head, so that 
the melted liquor runs into both openings at the same time. The 
mud collects at the bottom of the Qi an( i allows the upper part of 
the bag to filter for a longer time than would be the case if the 
bottom end were closed and if the bag hung straight like the letter |. 

The clear, bright syrup coming from the bag filters passes to 
the charcoal cisterns or filters. These are large cylindrical vessels 
from 20 to 50 ft. high, and of such diameter as to hold a given 
quantity of animal charcoal (also called " bone-black " and " char ") 
in proportion to the contemplated output of the refinery. A very 
usual size of cistern forming a convenient unit is one that will 
hold 20 tons of char. Each cistern is fitted with a perforated 
false bottom, on which a blanket or specially woven cloth is placed, 
to receive the char which is poured in from the top, and packed as 
evenly as possible until the cistern is filled. _ The char is then 
" settled " by water being slowly run on to it, in order to prevent 
the syrup making channels for itself and not permeating the 
whole mass evenly. The cistern being thus packed and settled 
is closed, and the syrup from the bag filters, heated up to nearly 
boiling point, is admitted at the top until the cistern is quite full. 
A small pipe entering below the false bottom allows the air in the 
cistern to escape as it is displaced by the water or syrup. In some 
refineries this pipe, which is carried up to a higher level than the 
top of the cistern, is fitted with a whistle which sounds as long as 
the air escapes. When the sound ceases the cistern is known to 
be full, and the entrance of further water or syrup is stopped. 
The syrup in the cistern is allowed to remain for about twelve 
hours, by which time the char will have absorbed all the colouring 
matter in it, as well as the lime. A cistern well packed with 20 
tons of char will hold, in addition, about 10 tons of syrup, and 
after settling, this can be pressed out by allowing second quality 
syrup, also heated to nearly boiling point, to enter the cistern 
slowly from the top, or it may be pressed out by boiling water. 
By carefully watching the flow from the discharge cock of the 
cistern the change from the first liquor to the next is easily de 
tected, and the discharge is diverted from the canal for the first 
liquor to the canal for the second liquor, and, when required, to 
the canals for the third and fourth liquors. Finally, boiling water 
is admitted and forces out all the last liquor, and then continues 
to run and wash out the sweets until only a trace remains. This 
weak solution, called " sweet water," is sometimes used for melt 
ing the raw sugar, or it is evaporated in a multiple-effect apparatus 
to 27" BeaumC density, passed through the char filter, and cooked 
in the vacuum pan like the other liquors. After the sweets have 
come away, cold water is passed through the char until no trace 
of lime or sulphate of lime is found in it; then a large manhole 
at the bottom of the cistern is opened, and the washed and spent 
char is removed. In most modern refineries the cisterns are so 
arranged that the spent char falls on to a travelling band and is 
conducted to an elevator which carries it up to the drying floor of 
the charcoal kiln. 

Retorts for Reburning Char. The kilns are made with either fixed 
or revolving retorts. The former perhaps produce a little better 
char, but the latter, working almost automatically, require less 
labour and attention for an equal amount of work, and on the whole 
have proved very satisfactory. From the drying floor on which 
the spent char is heaped up it falls by gravitation into the retorts. 
These are set in a kiln or oven, and are kept at as even a tempera 
ture as possible, corresponding to a dull cherry-red. Below each 
retort, and attached to it, is a cooler formed of thin sheet-iron, 
which receives the hot char as it passes from the retort, and at the 
bottom of the cooler is an arrangement of valves which permits 
a certain amount of char to drop out and no more. With the 
fixed retorts these valves are worked from time to time by the 
attendant, but with revolving retorts they are worked continuously 
and automatically and allow from sixteen to twenty-four ounces 
of char to escape per minute from each cooler, and so make room 
in the retort above for a corresponding quantity to enter from the 
drying floor. The reburnt and cooled char is collected and sent 
back to the char cisterns. In the best-appointed refineries the 
whole of the work in connexion with the char is performed mechani 
cally, with the exception of packing the filter cisterns with fresh 
char and emptying the spent and washed char on to the carrying 
bands. In former days, when refining sugar or " sugar baking " 
was supposed to be a mystery only understood by a few of the 
initiated, there was a place in the refinery called the " secret 
room," and this name is still used in some refineries, where, how 
ever, it applies not to any room, but to a small copper cistern, 
constructed with five or six or more divisions or small canals, 
into which all the charcoal cisterns discharge their liquors by 
pipes led up from them to the top of the cistern. E^ch pipe is 
fitted with a cock and swivel, in such a manner that the Hquor 
from the cistern can be turned into the proper division according 
to its quality. 

Vacuum Pans and Receivers. The filtered liquors, being collected 
in the various service tanks according to their qualities, are drawn 
up into the vacuum pans and boiled to crystals. These are then 
discharged into large receivers, which are generally fitted with 
stirrers, and from the receivers the cooked mass passes to the 
centrifugal machines. As in the beetroot factories, these machines 
work on different systems, but nearly all are arranged to turn out 
sugar in lumps or tablets presenting an appearance similar to that 
of loaf sugar made in moulds, as this kind of sugar meets with 
the greatest demand. Granulated sugar, so called, is made by 
passing the crystals, after leaving the centrifugals, through a large 
and slightly inclined revolving cylinder with a smaller one inside 
heated by steam. The sugar fed into the upper end of the cylinder 
gradually works its way down to the lower, showering itself upon 
the heated central cylinder. A fan blast enters the lower end, and, 
passing out at the upper end, carries off the vapour produced by 
the drying of the sugar, and at the same time assists the evapora 
tion. The dry sugar then passes into a rotating screen fitted with 
two meshes, so that three grades of sugar are obtained, the coarsest 
being that which falls out at the lower end of the revolving screen. 

Recent Improvements. Systematic feeding for the vacuum pan 
and systematic washing of the massecuite have been recently 
introduced not only into refineries, but also into sugar houses 
or factories on plantations of both cane and beetroot, and great 
advantages have resulted from their employment. The first- 
mentioned process consists of charging and feeding the vacuum 
pan with the richest syrup, and then as the crystals form and this 
syrup becomes thereby less rich the pan is fed with syrup of lower 
richness, but still of a richness equal to that of the mother-liquor 
to which it is added, and so on until but little mother-liquor is 
left, and that of the poorest quality. The systematic washing of 
the massecuite is the reverse of this process. When the massecuite, 
well pugged and prepared for purging, is in the centrifugals, it 
is first washed with syrup of low density, to assist the separation 
of mother-liquor of similar quality, this_ washing being supple 
mented by the injection of pure syrup of high density, or " clairce," 
when very white sugar is required. The manufacturers who have 
adopted this system assert that, as compared with other methods, 
not only do they obtain an increased yield of sugar of better quality, 
but that they do so at a less cost for running their machines and 
with a reduced expenditure in sugar and " clairce." " Clairce " is 
the French term for syrup of 27 to 30 Beaum6 specially prepared 
from the purest sugar. 

Apart from modifications in the details of sugar refining which 
have come into use in late years, it should be mentioned that loaf 
sugar made in conical moulds, and sugars made otherwise, to re 
semble loaf sugar, have practically disappeared from the trade, 
having been replaced by cube sugar, which is found to be more 
economical as subject to less waste by grocers and housekeepers, 
and also less troublesome to buy and sell. Its manufacture was 
introduced into England many years ago by Messrs Henry Tate & 
Sons, and they subsequently adopted and use now the improved 
process and apparatus patented in March 1890 by M Gustave 
Adant, a foreman sugar refiner of Brussels. 

The following is a brief description of the process and apparatus, 
as communicated by the courtesy of Messrs Henry Tate & Sons, Ltd. : 
Groups of cells or moulds are built within and against a cylindrical 
iron casing, by means of vertical plates inserted in grooves and 
set radially to the axis of the casing. Each cell is of suitable dimen 
sions to turn out a slab of sugar about 14 in. long this being 
about the height of the cell and about 8 in. wide and about 
in. to I in. thick. By means of a travelling crane the casing is 
placed within an iron drum, to which it is secured, and is then 
brought under an overhead vacuum pan, from which the cells are 
filled with massecuite. After cooling, the casing is lifted out of 
the drum by a crane, assisted by compressed air, and is then con 
veyed by a travelling crane to a vertical centrifugal, inside of which 
it is made fast. Suitable provision is made for the egress of syrup 
from the massecuite in the cells when undergoing purging in the 
centrifugal ; and the washing of the crystals can be aided by the 
injection of refined syrup and completed by that of " clairce." 
When this is done, the casing is hoisted out of the centrifugal and 
the vertical plates and the slabs of sugar are extracted. The slabs 
are sent by a conveyor to a drying stove, whence they issue to pass 
through a cutting machine, provided with knives so arranged 
that the cutting takes place both downwards and upwards, and here 
the slabs are cut into cubes. The cubes fall from the cutting machine 
on to a riddling machine, which separates those which are defective 
in size from the rest. These latter pass to automatic weighing 
machines, which drop them, in quantities of I cwt., into wooden 
boxes of uniform measurement, made to contain that weight; 
and the boxes are then conveyed to the storehouse, ready for sale. 

History and Statistics. Strabo xv. i. 20, has an inaccurate 
notice from Nearchus of the Indian honey-bearing reed, and 
various classical writers of the first century of our era notice 
the sweet sap of the Indian reed or even the granulated salt- 
like product which was imported from India, or from Arabia 



and Opone (these being entrepots of Indian trade), 1 under the 
name of saccharum or <ra.Kx.api (from Skr. sarkara, gravel, 
sugar), and used in medicine. The art of boiling sugar 
was known in Gangetic India, from which it was carried to 
China in the first half of the 7th century; but sugar refining 
cannot have then been known, for the Chinese learned the use 
of ashes for this purpose only in the Mongol period, from 
Egyptian visitors. 2 The cultivation of the cane in the West 
spread from Khuzistan in Persia. At Gunde-Shapur in this region 
" sugar was prepared with art " about the time of the Arab 
conquest, 3 and manufacture on a large scale was carried on at 
Shuster, Sus and Askar-Mokram throughout the middle ages. 4 
It has been plausibly conjectured that the art of sugar refining, 
which the farther East learned from the Arabs, was developed 
by the famous physicians of this region, in whose pharmacopoeia 
sugar had an important place. Under the Arabs the growth 
and manufacture of the cane spread far and wide, from India 
to Sus in Morocco (Edrisi, ed. Dozy, p. 62), and were also 
introduced into Sicily and Andalusia. 

In the age of discovery the Portuguese and Spaniards 
became the great disseminators of the cultivation of sugar; 
the cane was planted in Madeira in 1420; it was carried 
to San Domingo in 1494; and it spread over the occupied 
portions of the West Indies and South America early in 
the i6th century. Within the first twenty years of the 
i6th century the sugar trade of San Domingo expanded with 
great rapidity, and it was from the dues levied on the 
imports brought thence to Spain that Charles V. obtained 
funds for his palace-building at Madrid and Toledo. In the 
middle ages Venice was the great European centre of the sugar 
trade, and towards the end of the isth century a Venetian 
citizen received a reward of 100,000 crowns for the invention of 
the art of making loaf sugar. One of the earliest references to 
sugar in Great Britain is that of 100,000 Ib of sugar being shipped 
to London in 1319 by Tomasso Loredano, merchant of Venice, 
to be exchanged for wool. In the same year there appears in the 
accounts of the chamberlain of Scotland a payment at the rate 
of is. 9d. per Ib for sugar. Throughout Europe it continued 
to be a costly luxury and article of medicine only, till the 
increasing use of tea and coffee in the i8th century brought 
it into the list of principal food staples. The increase in the 
consumption is exemplified by the fact that, while in 1700 the 
amount used in Great Britain was 10,000 tons, in 1800 it had 
risen to 150,000 tons, and in 1885 the total quantity used was 
almost 1,100,000 tons. 

In 1747 Andreas Sigismund Marggraf, director of the physical 
classes in the Academy of Sciences, Berlin, discovered the 
existence of common sugar in beetroot and in numerous other 
fleshy roots which grow in temperate regions. But no practical 
use was made of the discovery during his lifetime. The first 
to establish a beet-sugar factory was his pupil and successor, 
Franz Carl Achard, at Cunern (near Breslau) in Silesia in 1801. 
The processes used were at first very imperfect, but the extra 
ordinary increase in the price of sugar on the Continent caused 
by the Napoleonic policy gave an impetus to the industry, 

1 Lucan iii. 237; Seneca, Epist. 84; Pliny, H. N. xii. 8 (who 
supposes that sugar was produced in Arabia as well as in India) ; 
Peripl. mar, Eryth. 14; Dioscorides ii. 104. The view, often 
repeated, that the saccharum of the ancients is the hydrate of 
silica, sometimes found in bamboos and known in Arabian medicine 
as tabashir, is refuted by Yule, Anglo-Indian Glossary, p. 654; see 
also Not. et extr. des MSS. de la bibl, nat. xxv. 267 seq. 

2 Marco Polo, ed. Yule, ii. 208, 212. In the middle ages the best 
sugar came from Egypt (Kazwini i. 262), and in India coarse sugar 
is still called Chinese and fine sugar Cairene or Egyptian. 

3 So the Armenian Geography ascribed to Moses of Chorene 
(<?.. for the date of the work) ; St Martin, Mem. sur I Armenie, 
" 372- 

4 Istakhri p. 91 ; Yakut ii. 497. Tha alibl, a writer of the I ith 
century, says that Askar-Mokram had no equal for the quality 
and quantity of its sugar, " notwithstanding the great production 
of Irak, Jorjan and India." It used to pay 50,000 ft of sugar 
to the sultan in annual tribute (Lafaif, p. 107). The names of 
sugar in modern European languages are derived through the 
Arabic from the Persian shakar. 

and beetroot factories were established at many centres both 
in Germany and in France. In Germany the enterprise came 
to an end almost entirely with the downfall of Napoleon I.; 
but in France, where at first more scientific and economical 
methods of working were introduced, the manufacturers were 
able to keep the industry alive. It was not, however, till after 
1830 that it secured a firm footing; but from 1840 onwards it 
advanced with giant strides. 

Under the bounty system, by which the protectionist countries 
of Europe stimulated the beet sugar industry by bounties on 
exports, the production of sugar in bounty-paying countries 
was encouraged and pushed far beyond the limits it could 
have reached without state aid. At the same time the con 
sumption of sugar was greatly restricted owing to the 
heavy excise duties imposed mainly to provide for the payment 
of the bounties. The very large quantity of output made 
available for export under these exceptional conditions 
brought about the flooding of the British and other markets 
with sugars at depressed prices, not unfrequently below the prime 
cost of production, to the harassment of important industries 
carried on by British refiners and sugar-growing colonies. In 
these circumstances, the British government sent out invita 
tions on the 2nd of July 1887 for an international conference to 
meet in London. The conference met, and on the 3oth of August 
1888 a convention was signed by all the powers represented 
except France namely, by Austria, Belgium, Germany, Great 
Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Russia and Spain. France 
withdrew because the United States was not a party to it. The 
first article declared that " The high contracting parties engage 
to take such measures as shall constitute an absolute and com 
plete guarantee that no open or disguised bounty shall be granted 
on the manufacture or exportation of sugar." The seventh 
article provided that bountied sugars (sucres primes) must be 
excluded from import into the territories of the signatory powers, 
by absolute prohibition of entry or by levying thereon a special 
duty in excess of the amount of the bounties, from which duty 
sugars coming from the contracting countries, and not bounty- 
fed, must be free. The convention was to be ratified on the 
ist of August 1890, and was to be put in force on the ist of 
September 1891. 

The convention of 1888 was never ratified, and it is doubtful 
whether its ratification was urged, for a bill introduced by the 
British government in 1889 to give it effect was not pressed, 
and it was manifest that there was hesitation which presently 
became refusal to uphold the policy of the penalties on the 
importation of bountied sugar imposed by the seventh article, 
without which the convention would be so much waste paper. 

Eight years later, on the ist of August 1896, the bounties 
offered by the governments of Germany and Austria-Hungary 
were approximately doubled, and France had a bill in prepara 
tion to increase hers correspondingly, although it was computed 
that they were even then equivalent to a grant of 3, 55. per ton. 
So wrote Mr Chamberlain, the colonial secretary, on the 9th 
of November following, to the treasury. The minute plainly 
stated that it had become a question whether the continued 
enjoyment of advantages resulting from the importation of 
cheap bounty-fed sugar to some British industries did not 
involve the ruin of the British sugar-producing colonies; and 
that he was not prepared, as secretary of state for the colonies, 
to accept the responsibility of allowing matters to take their 
course and to acquiesce in the policy of non-intervention hitherto 
pursued in regard to the bounties without having satisfied 
himself as to what such a policy might entail as regarded both 
the colonies and the exchequer. Mr Chamberlain concluded 
by asking whether the treasury would consent to sending a 
royal commission to the West Indies to inquire into the effect 
of the foreign sugar bounties on their principal industry. 

The treasury accepted the proposal, and a royal commission 
proceeded to the West Indies in December 1896, and reported a 
few months later in 1897. Only one commissioner, however, 
denounced the bounties as the real cause of the utter breakdown 
of trade and of the grievous distress which all three had witnessed 



and fully acknowledged. But the minute and commission were 
not barren of result. A fresh conference of the powers assembled 
at Brussels, on the invitation of the Belgian government, on the 
7th of June 1898; and although the British delegates were not 
empowered to consent to a penal clause imposing counter 
vailing duties on bountied sugar, the Belgian premier, who pre 
sided, was able to assure them that if Great Britain would agree 
to such a clause, he could guarantee the accession of the govern 
ments of Germany, Austria, Holland and his own. Of all the 
countries represented Germany, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, 
Spain, France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Russia and 
Sweden only one, namely France, was opposed to the com 
plete suppression of all export bounties, direct or indirect; 
and Russia declined to discuss the question of her internal 
legislation, contending that her system did not amount to a 
bounty on exportation. 

Apart from the proceedings at the sittings, much of the actual 
work of the conference was done by informal discussion, under 
taken to discover some means of arriving at a common under 
standing. Was a compromise possible which would bring about 
a satisfactory settlement? The British delegates wrote that 
it appeared that there were at that time but two methods of 
securing the suppression of the bounty system an arrangement 
for limitation of the French and Russian bounties acceptable 
to the other sugar-producing states, in return for the total 
abolition of their bounties; or, a convention between a certain 
number of these states, providing for the total suppression of 
their bounties, and for the prohibition of entry into their terri 
tory of bounty-fed sugars, or countervailing duties prohibiting 

The Belgian government thought a compromise might be 
possible. A proposal was annexed to the proces-verbal of the 
final sitting, and the president closed the first session of 
the conference on the 25th of June 1898 with the expression 
of a hope that the delegates would soon reassemble. 

The annual aggregate output of cane and date sugar in India 
was short of 4,000.000 tons. Exportation had long ceased, 
partly owing to the bountied competition of beet sugar, and 
partly because the people had become able to afford the con 
sumption of a greater quantity than they produced; and German 
and Austrian sugars were pouring into the country to supply the 
deficiency. But the importation of foreign sugar, cheapened 
by foreign state aid to a price which materially reduced the 
fair and reasonable profit of native cultivators, was a state of 
things the Indian government could not accept. On the 2oth 
of March 1899 an act, authorizing the imposition of countervail 
ing duties on bounty-fed articles at the port of importation, 
was passed by the Council of India, and received the assent of 
the governor-general. 

This decisive step was not long in making itself felt in the 
chanceries of Europe. In October 1900 a conditional agree 
ment for the reduction of the bounties was made in Paris 
between France, Germany and Austria-Hungary; in February 
1901 the Belgian government proposed a new session of the Con 
ference of 1898, and on the i6th of December following Brussels 
welcomed once more the delegates of all the powers, with the 
exception of Russia, to the eighth European Sugar Bounty Con 
ference since that of Paris in 1862. The discussion lasted over 
eight sittings, but the conference, to which the British delegates 
had come with powers to assent to a penal clause, arrived at an 
understanding, and a convention was signed in March 1902. 
This was ratified on the ist of February 1903, subject to a 
declaration by Great Britain that she did not consent to 
penalize bounty-fed sugar from the British colonies. 

It was agreed " to suppress the direct and indirect bounties 
which might benefit the production or export of sugar, and not to 
establish bounties of this kind during the whole duration of the 
convention," which was to come into force on the 1st of September 
1903, and to remain in force five years, and thenceforward from 
year to year, in case no state denounced it twelve months before 
the ist of September in any year. A permanent commission was 
established to watch its execution. 

Sugars polarizing 

From . 
To . . 








93 98 

99i 99z 





Bounties (per 


s. d. 


s d. 

s. d. 

i H 

s. d. 

s. d. 

s. d. 

Russia . 
France . 


I 2 

4 4f 

i 3 

2 II 


[ 6 

4 65 



Sugars classed as 

(per cwt.) 



Refined Sugar. 




s. d. 
2 at 

Sugars analysing in pure sugar (per cwt.) 

Hard Dry Refined. 

Less than . 
Holland . . 

98 % 98 % and over 
s. d. s. d. 
i 10-8 i 6 

s. d. 

The full text in French, with an English translation, of the 
Sugar Convention, signed at Brussels on the 5th of March 1902 
by the plenipotentiaries of the governments of Germany, Austria- 
Hungary, Belgium, Spain, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Nether 
lands and Sweden, will be found in a return presented to parliament 
in April 1902 (Miscellaneous, No. 5, 1902, Cd. 1013). 

TABLE I. Amounts (reduced to English money per cwt. avoir 
dupois) of the total net sugar bounties granted by European powers, 
according to the computation issued by the secretary of the United 
States treasury on the I2th of December 1898. 

Sir H. Bergne reported on the 27th of July 1907 to Sir Edward 
Grey that 

" The permanent session had met in special session on the 25th 
of July, to consider the suggestion of His Britannic Majesty s 
government to the effect that, if Great Britain could be relieved 
from the obligation to enforce the penal provisions of the conven 
tion, they would be prepared not to give notice on the 1st of Sep 
tember next of their intention to withdraw on the 1st of September 
1908 a notice which they would otherwise feel bound to give at 
the appointed time ; and he added that " At this meeting, a very 
general desire was expressed that, in these circumstances, arrange 
ments should, if possible, be made which would permit Great 
Britain to remain a party to the Sugar Convention." 

On the ist of August 1907 the Belgian minister in London 
transmitted to Sir Edward Grey a draft, additional act pre 
pared by the commission for carrying out the proposal of His 
Britannic Majesty s government, and on the 28th of August 
following an additional act was signed at Brussels by the 
plenipotentiaries of the contracting parties, by which they 
undertook to maintain the convention of the 5th of March 
1902 in force for a fresh period of five years. 

On the 2nd of December 1907 Sir H. Bergne wrote to the 
foreign office from Brussels, reporting that a special session 
of the permanent commission, established under the sugar 
bounties convention, had opened on the i8th of November, and 
the principal matter for its consideration had been the applica 
tion of Russia to become a party to the convention on special 
terms. A protocol admitting Russia to the sugar convention 
was signed at Brussels on the igth of December 1907. 

Sir A. H. Hardinge on behalf of Great Britain made the 
following declaration : 

" The assent of His Majesty s government to the present protocol 
is limited to the provisions enabling Russia to adhere to the con 
vention, and does not imply assent to the stipulation tending to 
restrict the importation of Russian sugar." 

When, in April 1908, Mr Asquith became premier, and Mr 
Lloyd George chancellor of the exchequer, the sugar convention 

4 6 



The world s trade in cane and beet sugar in tons avoirdupois at decennial periods from 1840 to 1870, inclusive, and yearly from 1871 to 
1901 inclusive, with the percentage of beet sugar and the average price per cwt. in shillings and pence. Tons avoirdupois 
of 2240 Ib = loi6 kilogrammes. 





Per cent. 

per cwt. 





Per cent. 

per cwt. 

s. d. 

s. d. 






48 o 






12 4 






40 o 






13 i 






35 o 






n 9 






32 o 






12 9 






24 9 






14 10 






24 8 






15 i 






22 IO 






14 o 






20 I 






13 6 






18 I 






14 3 






22 8 






13 5 






23 o 






9 ii 






19 2 






10 7 






19 3 






9 3 






20 4 






ii 9 






20 4 






ii 9 






2O 2 






ii 6 






16 8 






ii 6 

The quantities of cane sugar are based on the trade circulars of Messrs Willett & Gray of New York; those of beet sugar on the 
trade circulars of Messrs F. O. Licht of Magdeburg; and the prices are obtained from statements supplied by importers into the 
United States of the cost in foreign countries of the sugars which they import. The table has been adapted from the Monthly 
Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States, January 1902, prepared in the Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department, 
Washington Government Printing Office, 1902. 


Quantities of raw and refined cane and beet sugar in tons avoirdupois imported into the United Kingdom in 1870 and in 1875, and 
yearly from 1880 to 1901 inclusive, with the consumption per head of the population in ft and the price per cwt. of raw 
and refined sugar. 


Raw Cane. 

Raw Beet. 

Refined Cane. 

Refined Beet. 


Consumption per head. 


Price per cwt. 













s. d. 

s. d. 
















21 2 

30 4 




1 1 ,000 






21 9 

29 5 










21 9 

28 ii 










21 I 

28 8 










20 I 

27 2 










15 6 

28 II 










13 10 

18 2 










13 o 

16 8 










12 I 

15 8 










13 5 

17 8 










15 5 

19 8 










12 6 

16 4 










12 10 

16 6 










13 o 

I" i 










14 2 

18 4 










ii 5 

15 6 










9 7 

13 4 










10 5 

13 7 










9 o 

12 3 










9 8 

12 5 










10 6 

12 7 










10 5 

12 IO 










10 6 

12 O 

of 1 902 had thus been renewed in a modified form. Great 
Britain, instead of agreeing to prohibit the importation of 
bounty-fed sugar, was allowed to permit it under certain limits. 
Russia, which gave bounties, was to be allowed to send into 
European markets not more than 1,000,000 tons within the 
next five years, and Great Britain undertook to give certificates 
guaranteeing that sugar refined in the United Kingdom and 
exported had not been bounty-fed. The renewal of the con 
vention was disapproved by certain Liberal politicians, who in 
sisted that the price of sugar had been raised by the convention; 
and Sir Edward Grey said that the government had intended 
to denounce the convention, but other countries had urged that 
Great Britain had induced them to enter into it, and to alter 
their fiscal system for that purpose, and it would be unfair to 
upset the arrangement. Besides, denunciation would not have 
meant a return to prior conditions; for other countries would 

have continued the convention, and probably with success, 
and would have proposed prohibitive or retaliatory duties in 
respect of British sugar, with bad results politically. Still the 
British government had been prepared to denounce the con 
vention in view of the penal clause which had ensured the ex 
clusion of bounty-fed sugar, either directly or through the 
imposition of an extra duty. But this had been removed, and 
it was now unreasonable to insist on denunciation. Russia 
would have made the same arrangement she had obtained 
had we seceded from the convention. She had formerly sent 
to England about 40,000 tons of sugar yearly; she might now 
send 200,000 tons. Was this limitation a reason for sacrificing 
the advantages we had gained? Under the original terms 
of the convention Great Britain might have been asked to close 
her ports to sugar proceeding from one country or another. 
This was now impossible. 




The cane and beet sugar crops of the world fer 1909-1910, with the average of the crops for the seven preceding years from 1902-1903, 

in tons of 2240 ft. 

A Cane sugar (compiled from the Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal of Messrs Willett & Gray of New York, and books and reports 

published under the authority of the government of India). 



Average crop 
for 7 years end 
ing 1908-1909. 



Average crop 
for 7 years end 
ing 1908-1909. 


Tons avoirdupois. 

Tons avoirdupois. 


Tons avoirdupois. 

Tons avoirdupois. 




Total in America . 








Total in Africa . . . 




America . 



British India and Depen 




British Colonies 



Dutch Colony 
Java and Madoera 





Japan and Formosa . 



Antigua and St Kitts . 



United States possession 
Philippine Islands 









Lesser Antilles 



Total in Asia .... 



Total in British Colonies 



Costa Rica 






Danish Colony, St Croix 



Dutch Colony, Surinam 



Fiji Islands . ... 



French Colonies- 



Queensland .... 
New South Wales . 



Guadeloupe .... 



Total in Australia and 

Total in French Colonies 



Polynesia .... 










Haiti and Santo Domingo . 









Total in Europe . 















United States 



I W-^O^ 





280 ooo 





Hawaiian Islands . 



Total production of cane 

Total in United States . 



sugar in the world 



Beet sugar (compiled from data furnished by the Statistisches Bureau fur die Rubenzucker Industrie des Deutschen Reiches, of 

Mr F. O. Licht, Magdeburg). 










Average of 7 
years 1902-1903 
to 1908-1909. 

Austria-Hungary . 
Belgium .... 
Denmark ... 












794,3! 2 




Germany .... 
Holland .... 
Italy . ... 
United States . 
Other countries 














Total crop of the world 










The matter temporarily dropped, but certain Liberal members 
of parliament continued to press for the withdrawal of Great 
Britain from the convention, it being stated that a promise had 
been privately given by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman that 
the government would withdraw as soon as practicable. On 
the i^th of July 1008, Mr Asquith said that Sir Edward Grey 
had announced in the House of Commons on the 6th of June 
1907 that the British government intended to negotiate with 
the powers for the renewal of the convention, on condition that 
they would relinquish the penal clause, and that none of 

the obligations in the convention as renewed were penal or 
required statutory authority. 

Tables II., III. (p. 773) and IV. (p. 774) give statistics of cane 
and beet sugar production. 

The quantities for India have been computed from information fur 
nished by the India office, and publications made under authority 
of the secretary of state and the commercial intelligence department 
of the Indian government. 

The whole of the sugar produced in India is consumed in the 
country and sugar is imported, the bulk of it being cane sugar coming 
from Mauritius and Java, and about 85 % of the import is of high 
quality resembling refined sugar. 


It would appear that the purchasing power of the inhabitants 
of India has increased of late years, and there is a growing demand 
for refined sugar, fostered by the circumstance that modern pro 
cesses of manufacture can make a quality of sugar, broadly speaking, 
equal to sugar refined by animal charcoal, without using charcoal, 
and so the religious objections to the refined sugars of old days 
have been overcome. (A. CH. ; V. W. CH.) 

SUGAR-BIRD, the English name commonly given in the West 
India Islands to the various members of the genus Certhiola 
(belonging to the Passerine family Coerebidae 1 ) for their habit 
of frequenting the curing-houses where sugar is kept, apparently 
attracted thither by the swarms of flies. They often come into 
dwelling-houses, hopping from one piece of furniture to another 
and carefully exploring the surrounding objects with intent to 
find a spider or insect. In their figure and motions they remind 
a northern naturalist of a nuthatch, while their coloration 
black, yellow, olive, grey and white recalls to him a titmouse. 
They generally keep in pairs and build a domed but untidy nest, 
laying therein three eggs, white, blotched with rusty-red. 
Many species are recognized, some of them with a very limited 
range; three are continental, with a joint range extending from 
southern Mexico to Peru, Bolivia and south-eastern Brazil, 
while others are peculiar to certain of the Antilles, and several 
of them to one island only. Thus C. caboli is limited, so far 
as is known, to Cozumel (off Yucatan), C. tricolor to Old Provi 
dence, C. flaveola (the type of the genus) to Jamaica, and so 
on, while islands that are in sight of one another are often 
inhabited by different " species." The genus furnishes an ex 
cellent example of the effects of isolation in breaking up an 
original form, while there is comparatively little differentiation 
among the individuals which inhabit a large and continuous 
area. The non-appearance of this genus in Cuba is very 
remarkable. (A. N.) 

SUGER (c. 1081-1151), French ecclesiastic, statesman and 
historian, was born of poor parents either in Flanders, at St 
Denis near Paris or at Toury in Beauce. About 1091 he 
entered the abbey of St Denis. Until about 1104 he was educated 
at the priory of St Denis de 1 Estree, and there first met his 
pupil King Louis VI. From 1104 to 1106 Suger attended 
another school, perhaps that attached to t the abbey of St 
Benoit-sur-Loire. In 1106 he became secretary to the abbot of 
St Denis. In the following year he was made provost of Berneval 
in Normandy, and in 1109 of Toury. In 1118 he was sent 
by Louis VI. to the court of Pope Gelasius II. at Maguelonne, 
and lived from 1121 to 1122 at the court of his successor, 
Calixtus II. On his return from Italy Suger was appointed 
abbot of St Denis. Until 1127 he occupied himself at court 
mainly with the temporal affairs of the kingdom, while during 
the following decade he devoted himself to the reorganization 
and reform of St Denis. In 1137 he accompanied the future 
king, Louis VII., into Aquitaine on the occasion of that prince s 
marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, and during the second 
crusade was one of the regents of the kingdom (1147-1149). 
He was bitterly opposed to the king s divorce, having himself 
advised the marriage. Although he disapproved of the second 
crusade, he himself, at the time of his death, on the 3ist of 
January 1151, was preaching a new crusade. 

Suger was the friend and counsellor both of Louis VI. 
and Louis VII. He urged the king to destroy the feudal 
bandits, was responsible for the royal tactics in dealing with 
the communal movements, and endeavoured to regularize the 
administration of justice. He left his abbey, which possessed 
considerable property, enriched and embellished by the con 
struction of a new church built in the nascent Gothic style. 

Suger was the foremost historian of his time. He was the 

1 Known in French as Guitguits, a name used for them also by 
some English writers. The Guitguit of Hernandez (Rer. medic. N. 
hisp. thesaurus, p. 56), a name said by him to be of native 
origin, can hardly be determined, though thought by Montbeillard 
(Hist. nat. oiseaux, v. 529) to be what is now known as Coereba 
caerulea, but that of later writers is C. cyanea. The name is probably 
pnomatopoetic, and very likely analogous to the " quit applied 
in Jamaica to several small birds. 

author of a panegyric on Louis VI. (Vila Ludovici regis), and 
part-author of the perhaps more impartial history of Louis VII. 
(Historia gloriosi regis Ludovici). In his Liber de rebus in 
administratione sua gestis, and its supplement Libellus de con- 
secratione ecclesiae S. Dionysii, he treats of the improvements he 
had made to St Denis, describes the treasure of the church, and 
gives an account of the rebuilding. Suger s works served to 
imbue the monks of St Denis with a taste for history, and 
called forth a long series of quasi-official chronicles. 

See O. Cartellieri, Abt Suger von Saint-Denis (Berlin, 1898); A. 
Luchaire, Louis le Gros (Paris, 1890); F. A. Gervaise, Histoire de 
Suger (Paris, 1721). 

SUGGESTION. By the older British writers on psychology 
the words " suggest " and " suggestion " were used in senses very 
close to those which they have in common speech; one idea was 
said to suggest another when it recalled that other to mind or 
(in the modern phrase) reproduced it. Modern studies in mental 
pathology and hypnotism (q.v.) have led to the use of these 
words by psychologists in a special and technical sense. The 
hypnotists of the Nancy school rediscovered and gave general 
currency to the doctrine that the most essential feature of the 
hypnotic state is the unquestioning obedience and docility with 
which the hypnotized subject accepts, believes, and acts in 
accordance with every command or proposition of the hypno- 
tizer. Commands or propositions made to the subject (they 
may be merely implied by a gesture, a glance, or a chance 
remark to a third person) and accepted with this peculiarly 
uncritical and intense belief were called " suggestions "; and 
the subject that accepted them in this fashion was said to be 
" suggestible." It has also been made abundantly clear, chiefly 
by the labours of French physicians, that a high degree of 
" suggestibility " is a leading feature of hysteria, and that this 
fact is the key to the understanding of very many of its protean 

It is also becoming widely recognized that the suggestibility 
of hypnosis and of hysteria is conditioned by a peculiar state of 
the brain, namely a cerebral or mental dissociation, which in 
hypnosis is temporarily induced by the operations of the 
hypnotist, and in hysteria arises from some deficiency of energy 
in the whole psycho-physical system. In respect to these points 
there is now a wide consensus of opinion among the leading 
authorities; but as to the range and scope of suggestion in our 
mental life great differences of opinion still obtain. We may 
distinguish three principal views. Firstly, it is maintained by 
a number of physicians (notably by Professor Pierre Janet, 
whose profound studies of hysterical patients are justly cele 
brated) that all hypnotizable persons are hysterical and that 
suggestibility is a condition peculiar to hysterical subjects. 
In view of the assertions in recent years of several physicians 
of high repute to the effect that they find more than 90% 
of all subjects hypnotizable, it would seem that this view can 
not be maintained, and that this restriction of suggestion to 
hysterical subjects only, and the stigmatization of suggestibility 
as in every case a morbid symptom, are errors arising from too 
exclusive occupation with its manifestations in this field. A 
second group consists of writers who admit that suggestion may 
operate in normal minds, but who, while recognizing that it is 
not an essentially pathological process, maintain that it is a 
process of very peculiar and exceptional nature that has little 
or no affinity with normal mental operations. They hold that 
suggestion, whether it occurs in morbid or in healthy subjects, 
always implies the coming into operation of some obscurely 
conceived faculty or region of the mind which is present in all 
men, but which usually lies hidden or submerged beneath the 
flow of our more commonplace mental activities. This sub 
merged faculty or system of faculties, which is held by these 
authors to be operative in all processes of suggestion, is variously 
designated by them the secondary or submerged stratum of con 
sciousness, the subconscious or subliminal self (see SUBLIMINAL 
SELF). The writers of this group insist upon the more start 
ing of the effects producible by suggestion, the more pro- 
iound changes of bodily and mental processes, such as paralysis, 



contracture, hyperaesthesia, increased power of recollection, 
hallucinations (q.,.), &c.; and they regard dissociation as the 
process by which the submerged and supernormal faculty (or 
faculties) that they postulate is liberated from the dominance 
of the normal waking self. 

A third view has been rapidly gaining ground and is now 
predominant. It connects itself with, and bases itself upon, 
the view of Professor Bernheim and his colleagues of the Nancy 
school of hypnotism. According to this view all men are normally 
suggestible under favourable conditions, and the hypnotic 
subject and the hysteric patient differ from the normal human 
being chiefly in that their normal suggestibility is more or less 
(sometimes very greatly) increased, owing to the prevalence of 
the state of cerebral dissociation. 

According to this third view, suggestion may be defined as the 
communication of any proposition from one person (or persons) 
to another in such a way as to secure its acceptance with 
conviction, in the absence of adequate logical grounds for its 
acceptance. The idea or belief so introduced to the mind of 
the recipient is held to operate powerfully upon his bodily and 
mental processes in proportion to the degree of its dominance 
over all other ideas or mental processes; and the extraordinary 
character of the effects, both bodily and mental, of suggestion 
in hypnotic and hysterical subjects is held to be due to the fact 
that, in these conditions of mental dissociation, the dominance 
of the suggested idea is complete and absolute; whereas in^the 
absence of such dissociation the operation of the suggested idea 
is always subject to some weakening or inhibition through the 
influence of many opposed or incompatible tendencies and ideas, 
even if these do not rise into explicit consciousness. 

This third view seems justified by the facts that no sharp line 
can be drawn between the suggestibility of normal men and 
that of hypnotized or hysterical subjects, and that under favour 
able conditions many of the most striking results of suggestion 
(e.g. hallucinations, contractures, inability to move, insensibility 
of various sense-organs, and so forth) may be produced in 
subjects who present at the time no other symptom of the 
hypnotic or hysterical condition. 

If, then, we recognize, as we must, that the alogical produc 
tion of conviction is the essence of suggestion, and that this 
frequently occurs in normal minds as well as in those suffering 
from various degrees of dissociation, it becomes necessary to 
define the conditions that favour the operation of suggestion in 
normal minds. 

These conditions are resident, on the one hand, in the recipient 
of the suggestion, and, on the other hand, in the source from 
which the suggestion comes. Of the conditions of the former 
class three seem to be of principal importance. 

(a) Defect of knowledge: the defect may be quantitative or 
qualitative, i.e. it may consist in the lack of knowledge or of 
firmly established beliefs about the subject of the proposition, 
or it may consist in the lack of systematic organization of such 
knowledge as the mind possesses. The well-trained mind is 
relatively insuggestible, firstly because it possesses large stores 
of knowledge and belief; secondly, because this mass of know 
ledge and belief is systematically organized in such a way that 
all its parts hang together and mutually support one another. 
On the other hand, the young child, the uncultured adult, and 
especially the savage, are apt to be suggestible in regard to 
very many topics, first, because they have relatively little know 
ledge; secondly, because what little they have is of a low degree 
of organization; i.e. it does not form a logically coherent system 
whose parts reciprocally support one another. Suggestion in 
such cases may be said to be conditioned by primitive credulity 
or the suggestibility of ignorance, (b) But the same person 
will not be found to be equally suggestible at all times under 
similar external conditions. There are changes of mental state 
which, without overstepping the limits of the normal, condition 
varying degrees of increased suggestibility. A man is least 
suggestible when his mind works most efficiently, when he is 
most vigorous and most wide awake; every departure from this 
state, due to fatigue, bodily ill-health, emotional perturbation, 

drugs or any other cause, favours suggestibility, (c) Persons 
of equal degrees of knowledge or ignorance will be found, even 
at their times of greatest mental efficiency, to be unequally 
suggestible owing to differences of native disposition; one person 
is by nature more open than another to personal influence, more 
easily swayed by others, more ready to accept their dicta and 
adopt their opinions for his own. Differences of this kind are 
probably the expression of differences in the native strength 
of one of the fundamental instinctive dispositions of the human 
mind, an instinct which is called into play by the presence of 
persons of superior powers and the excitement of which throws 
the subject into an attitude of submission or subjection towards 
the impressive personality. 

Considered from the side of the agent, suggestion is favoured 
by whatever tends to render him impressive to the subject or 
patient great bodily strength or stature, fine clothes, a con 
fident manner, superior abilities of any kind, age and experience, 
any reputation for special capacities, high social position or the 
occupation of any position of acknowledged authority; in short, 
all that is summed up by the term " personality," all that 
contributes to make a personality " magnetic " or to give it 
prestige renders it capable of evoking on the part of others the 
submissive suggestible attitude. A group of persons in agreement 
is capable of evoking the suggestible attitude far more effectively 
than any single member of the group, and the larger the group 
the more strongly does it exert this influence. Hence the 
suggestive force of the popularly accepted maxims and well- 
established social conventions; such propositions are collective 
suggestions which carry with them all the immense collective 
prestige of organized society, both of the present and the past; 
they embody the wisdom of the ages. It is in the main through the 
suggestive power of moral maxims, endowed with all the prestige 
of great moral teachers and of the collective voice of society, that 
the child is led to accept with but little questioning the code of 
morals of his age and country; and the propagation of all religious 
and other dogma rests on the same basis. The normal suggesti 
bility of the child is thus a principal condition of its docility, 
and it is in the main by the operation of normal suggestion that 
society moulds the characters, sentiments, and beliefs of i 
members, and renders the mass of its elements harmonious and 
homogeneous to the degree that is a necessary condition of il 
collective mental life. Normal suggestion produces its most 
striking effects in the form of mass-suggestion, i.e. when i 
operates in large assemblies or crowds, especially if the members 
have but little positive knowledge and culture. For, when a 
belief is propagated by collective suggestion through the large 
mass of men, each falls under the suggestive sway of the whole 
mass; and under these conditions the operation of suggestion is 
further aided by the universal tendency of mankind to imitation 
and sympathy, the tendency to imitate the actions of, and to 
experience the emotions expressed by, those about one. 

Conditions very favourable to mass-suggestion prevailed 
during the middle ages of European history; for these "dark 
ages " were characterized by the existence of dense populations, 
among whom there was free intercourse but very little positive 
knowledge of nature, and who were dominated by a church 
wielding immense prestige. Hence the frequent and powerful 
operations of suggestion on a large scale. From time to time 
fantastic beliefs, giving rise to most extravagant behaviour, 
swept over large areas of Europe like virulent epidemics epi 
demics of dancing, of flagellation, of hallucination, of belief in 
the miraculous powers of relics or of individuals, and so forth. In 
these epidemics all the conditions favourable to normal sugges 
tion were generally present in the highest degree, with the result 
that in great numbers of persons there were produced the more 
extreme effects of suggestion, such as are usually associated with 
the hysterical or hypnotic state. At the present time simila 
manifestations occur in a modified form, as e.g. the popular 
pilgrimages to Lourdes, Holywell and other places that from 
time to time acquire reputations for miraculous curative powers. 
A uto-suggeslion Although auto-suggestion does not strictly 
fall under the definition of suggestion given above, its usage to 


denote a mental process which produces effects very similar to 
those producible by suggestion is now so well established that it 
must be accepted. In auto-suggestion a proposition is formulatec 
in the mind of the subject rather than communicated from another 
mind, and is accepted with conviction in the absence of adequat 
logical grounds. Generally the belief is initiated by some external 
event or some bodily change, or through some interpretation ol 
the behaviour of other persons; e.g. a man falls on the road and a 
wagon very nearly passes over his legs, perhaps grazing them 
merely; when he is picked up, his legs are found to be paralysed. 
The event has induced the conviction that his legs are seriously 
injured, and this conviction operates so effectively as to realize 
itself. Or a savage, suffering some slight indisposition, interprets 
the behaviour of some person in a way which leads him to the 
conviction that this person is compassing his death by means 
magical practices; accordingly he lies down in deep despondency 
and, in the course of some days or weeks, dies, unless his friends 
succeed in buying off, or in some way counteracting, the malign 
influence. Or, as a more familiar and trivial instance of auto 
suggestion, we may cite the case of a man who, having taken a 
bread pill in the belief that it contains a strong purgative or 
emetic, realizes the results that he expects. 

LITERATURE. H. Bernheim, De la Suggestion, et de ses applications 
A la therapeutique (2nd ed., Paris, 1887); Pierre Janet, The Major 
Symptoms of Hysteria (London, 1907) ; Otto Stoll, Suggestion und 
Hypnotismus in der Volkerpsychologie (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1904); 
Boris Sidis, The Psychology of Suggestion (New York, 1898); W. M. 
Keatinge, Suggestion in Education (London, 1907) ; F. W. H. Myers, 
Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death (London, 1903; 
2nd ed., abridged, 1907); A. Binet, La Suggestibility (Paris, 1906). 
See also literature under HYPNOTISM. (W. McD.) 

SUHL, a town of Germany, in the province of Prussian Saxony, 
picturesquely situated on the Lauter, on the southern slope of the 
Thuringian Forest, 6| m. N.E. of Meiningen and 29 m. S.W. of 
Erfurt by rail. Pop. (1905), 13,814. The armourers of Suhl are 
mentioned as early as the gth century, but they enjoyed their 
highest vogue from 1550 to 1634. The knights of south Germany 
especially prized the swords and armour of this town, and many 
of the weapons used in campaigns against the Turks and in the 
Seven Years War are said to have been manufactured at 
Suhl. It has suffered considerably in modern times from the 
competition of other towns in this industry, especially since 
the introduction of the breech-loading rifle. It still contains, 
however, large factories for firearms military and sporting, and 
side arms, besides ironworks, machine-works, potteries and 
tanneries. The once considerable manufacture of fustian has 
declined. A brine spring (Soolquelle) at the foot of the neigh 
bouring Domberg is said to have given name t& the town. 

Suhl, which obtained civic rights in 1527, belonged to the 
principality of Henneberg, and formed part of the possessions of 
the kingdom of Saxony assigned to Prussia by the Congress of 
Vienna in 1815. 

See Werther, Chronik der Stadt Suhl_(2 vols., Suhl, 1846-1847). 

SUICIDE (from Lat. siti, of oneself, and cidium, from caedere, 
to kill), the act of intentionally destroying one s own life. The 
phenomenon of suicide has at all times attracted a large amount 
of attention from moralists and social investigators. Its 
existence is looked upon, in Western civilization, as a sign of the 
presence of maladies in the body politic which, whether remediable 
or not, deserve careful examination. It is, of course, impossible 
to compare Western civilization in this respect with, say, Japan, 
where suicide in certain circumstances is part of a distinct moral 
creed. In Christian ethics and Christian law it is wrong, indeed 
illegal, as a felo de se, self-murder. It is within comparatively 
recent years that the study of suicide by means of the vital 
statistics of various European countries has demonstrated that 
while the act may be regarded as a purely voluntary one, yet 
that suicide as a whole conforms there to certain general laws, 
and is influenced by conditions other than mere individual 
circumstances or surroundings. Thus it can be shown that each 
country has a different suicide-rate, and that while the rate for 
each country may fluctuate from year to year, yet it maintains 
practically the same relative proportions to the rates of other 












countries. The following table shows the suicide-rate for 
various European countries (Bertillon): 



Period of 

Annual Number 
of Suicides 
per Million 





1 80 
1 66 






Prussia .... 


Sweden .... 

England and Wales 

Ireland .... 

In addition to furnishing materials for an approximately 
accurate estimate of the number of suicides which will occur in 
any country in a year, statistics have demonstrated that the 
proportion of male to female suicides is practically the same from 
year to year, viz. 3 or 4 males to i female; that it is possible to 
predict the month of greatest prevalence, the modes of death 
adopted by men on the one hand and women on the other, and 
even the relative frequency of suicide amongst persons following 
different professions and employments; and that in most of the 
countries of Europe the suicide-rate is increasing. In England 
and Wales the annual death-rate per million from suicide has 
steadily advanced, as is shown by the following figures for 
quinquennial periods: 


65 per million living. 







The next table illustrates the continued increase in recent 
years, and at the same time shows the total number and the 
number of male and female suicides each year from 1886 to 


Total Suicides Male and Female in England and Wales, 
1886-1905, together with the annual rate per million living 
(Registrar-General s Reports). 

Suicide- rate 





per Million 







































































The reason of the high suicide-rate in some countries as com- 
)ared with others, and the causes of its progressive increase, are 
not easily determined. Various explanations have been offered, 
such as the influence of climate, the comparative prevalence of 
nsanity, and the proportionate consumption of alcoholic drinks, 
mt none satisfactorily accounts for the facts. It may, however, 
>e remarked that suicide is much more common amongst 


Protestant than amongst Roman Catholic communities, while 
Jews have a smaller suicide-rate than Roman Catholics. A point 
of considerable interest is the increase of suicide in relation to the 
advance of elementary education. Ogle states that suicide is 
more common among the educated than the illiterate classes. It 
is also more prevalent in urban than in rural districts. A curious 
feature in large towns is the sudden outbreak of self-destruction 
which sometimes occurs, and which has led to its being described 
as epidemic. In such cases force of example and imitation 
undoubtedly play a considerable part, as it is well recognized that 
both these forces exert an influence not only in causing suicide, 
but also in suggesting the method, time and place for the act. 
No age above five years is exempted from furnishing its quota of 
suicidal deaths, although self-destruction between five and ten 
years is very rare. Above this age the proportion of suicides 
increases at each period, the maximum being reached between 
fifty-five and sixty-five. Among females there is a greater 
relative prevalence at earlier age periods than among males. 
The modes of suicide are found to vary very slightly in different 
countries. Hanging is most common amongst males; then 
drowning, injuries from fire-arms, stabs and cuts, poison and 
precipitation from heights. Amongst females, drowning comes 
first, while poison and hanging are more frequent than other 
methods entailing effusion of blood and disfigurement of the 
person. The methods used in England and Wales by suicides 
during 1888-1897, and in Scotland during the years 1881-1897, 
are given in the following table : 

Modes of Suicide in England and Wales, 1888-1897. 




Both Sexes. 

of Fre 













































Modes of Suicide in Scotland, 1881-1897. 




Both Sexes. 

of Fre 

















































The season of the year influences suicide practically uniformly 
in all European countries, the number increasing from the com 
mencement of the year to a maximum in May or June, and then 
declining again to a minimum in winter. Morselli attempts to 
account for this greater prevalence during what may well be 
called the most beautiful months of the year by attributing it to 
the influence of increased temperature upon the organism, while 
Durkheim suggests that the determining factor is more probably 
to be found in the length of the day and the effect of a longer 
period of daily activity. The suicide-rate is higher in certain 
male occupations and professions than in others (Ogle). Thus 
it is high amongst soldiers, doctors, innkeepers and chemists 
and low for clergy, bargemen, railway drivers and stokers 
The suicide-rate is twice as great for unoccupied males as for 
occupied males. 

AUTHORITIES. Morselli, // Suicidio (Milan, 1879); Legoyt, L 
Suicide ancien et modern (Paris, 1881) ; Westcott, Suicide: its History 

Literature, &c. (London, 1885); Ogle, "Suicides in England and 
Wales, in relation to Age, Sex, Season, and Occupation," Journal 
if the Statistical Society (1886), vol. xlix. ; Strahan, Suicide and 
nsanity (London, 1893); Mayr, " Selbstmord statistik," in Hand- 
worterbuch der Staatswissenschaften (Jena, 1895); Durkheim, Le 
Suicide (Paris, 1897). (H. H. L.) 

SUIDAS, Greek lexicographer. Nothing is known of him, 
except that he must have lived before Eustathius (i2th-i3th 
century), who frequently quotes him. Under the heading 
Adam " the author of the lexicon (which a prefatory note states 
;o be " by Suidas ") gives a brief chronology .of the world, ending 
with the death of the emperor John Zimisces (975), and under 

Constantinople " his successors Basil and Constantino are 
mentioned. It would thus appear that Suidas lived in the latter 
jart of the loth century. The passages in which Michael 
Psellus (end of the nth century) is referred to are considered later 
nterpolations. The lexicon of Sui das is arranged alphabetically 
with some slight deviations, letters and combinations of letters 
having the same sound being placed together; thus, at ande follow 
5, and ei, t\, i follow f . It partakes of the nature of a dictionary 
and encyclopaedia. It includes numerous quotations from ancient 
writers; the scholiasts on Aristophanes, Homer, Sophocles and 
Thucydides are also much used. The biographical notices, the 
author tells us, are condensed from the Onomatologion or Pinax 
of Hesychius of Miletus; other sources were the excerpts of Con- 
stantine Porphyrogenitus, the chronicle of Georgius Monachus, 
the biographies of Diogenes Laertius and the works of Athenaeus 
and Philostratus. The work deals with scriptural as well as 
pagan subjects, from which it is inferred that the writer was a 
Christian. A prefatory note gives a list of dictionaries from which 
the lexical portion was compiled, together with the names of 
their authors. Although the work is uncritical and probably 
much interpolated, and the value of the articles is very unequal, 
it contains much information on ancient history and life. 

Editio princeps, by Demetrius Chalcondyles (1499) ; later editions 
by L. Kuster (1705), T. Gaisford (1834), G. Bernhardy (1834-1853) 
and I. Bekker (1854); see A. Daub, De S. Biographicorum engine 
et fide (1880) and Studien zu den Biographika des S. (1882); and 
J. E. Sandys, Hist, of Cassical Scholarship (1906), p. 407. 

SUIDUN (Chinese, Sui-din-chen), a town of China, capital of 
the province of Kulja. It is the residence of the governor- 
general, and was founded in 1762 during the Mussulman rising, 
and rebuilt in 1883. It is a military town, with provision stores, 
an arsenal and an arms workshop. Its walls are armed with 
steel guns. 

SUINA, a group of non-ruminating artiodactyle ungulate 
mammals typified by the swine (Suidae), but also including the 
hippopotamus (Hippopotamidae), and certain extinct forms. 

SUITE (Suite de pieces; Ordre; Partita), in music, a group of 
dance tunes, mostly in binary form, of a type which may be 
described as "decorative" (see SONATA FORMS); constituting 
that classical form of early 18th-century instrumental music 
which most nearly foreshadows the later sonata. As understood 
by Bach, it consists essentially of four principal movements with 
the insertion of one or more lighter movements between the third 
and the last. The first movement is the allemande, of solid and 
intricate texture, in slow comrflon time and rich flowing rhythm, 
beginning with one or three short notes before the first full bar. 
The second movement is the courante, of which there are two 
kinds. The French courante is again an intricate movement, also 
beginning with one or three notes before the main beat, and in a 
triple time (\) which, invariably at the cadences and sometimes 
elsewhere, drops into a crossing triple rhythm of twice the pace 
(|). The effect is restless and confused, and was supposed to 
form a contrast to the allemande; but it seldom did so effectively. 
Bach s study of Couperin led him to use the French courante 
frequently, but he was happier with the Italian type of corrente, 
which did not owe its name, like the French type, to the use of 
spasmodic runs, but was a brilliant continuously running piece 
in quick triple time (f or |), forming a clear and lively contrast 
both to the allemande and to the third movement, which is 
generally a sarabande. 


The sarabands is a slow movement in triple time beginning on 
the full bar, and with at least a tendency to the rhythm 

of which Handel s aria Lascia 


ch io pianga is a familiar example. 
Bach s sarabandes are among the 
most simply eloquent and characteristic of his smaller com 
positions. Then come the galanteries, from one to three in 
number. These are the only suite-movements which ever have 
an alternative section and a da capo (with the exception of 
Couperin s courantes and the courante in Bach s first English 
suite). The commonest galanteries are: (i) the minuet, often 
with a second minuet which is called " trio" only when it 
is in real three-part writing. It is a little faster than the stately 
minuet in Mozart s Don Giovanni, but it is never so quick as the 
lively minuets of Haydn s quartets and symphonies which led 
to the Beethoven scherzo; and it invariably begins, unlike 
many later minuets, on the full bar; (2) the gavotte, a lively 
dance in a not too rapid alia breve time (the textbooks say 
| time, but there is no case in Bach which could possibly be 
played so slowly, whatever the time signature may be). The 
gavotte always begins on the half-bar. A second alternating 
gavotte is frequently founded on a pedal or drone-bass, and is 
then called musette; (3) the bourree, which is not unlike the 
gavotte, but quicker, and beginning on the last quarter of the 
bar; (4) the passepied, a lively dance in quick triple time, 
beginning on the third beat. These dances are not always cast 
in binary form, and there are famous examples of gavottes 
and passepieds en rondeau. Other less common galanteries 
are (5) the loure, 1 a slow dance in \ time and dotted rhythm 
(dactylic in accent and amphimacer in quantity); (6) the 
polonaise, a leisurely triple-time piece, either a shade quicker or 
(as in the exquisite unattached examples of Friedemann Bach) 
much slower than the modern dance-rhythm of that name, with 
cadences on the second instead of the third beat of the bar; (7) 
the air, a short movement, quietly flowing, in a more florid style 
than its name would suggest. It sometimes precedes the sara- 
bande. The suite concludes with a gigue, in the finest examples of 
which the decorative binary form is combined with a light fugue 
style of the utmost liveliness and brilliance. The gigue is gener 
ally in some triplet rhythm, e.g. f, {j, , J 8 2 ; but examples in a 
graver style may be found in slow square time with dotted rhythms, 
as in Bach s first French suite and the sixth Partita of the Klavier- 
iibung. In gigues in the typical fugato style Bach is fond of 
making the second part either invert the theme of the first, or 
else begin with a new subject to be combined with the first in 
double counterpoint. The device of inversion is also prominent 
in many of his allemandes and French courantes. 

All suites on a large scale, with the exception of Bach s second 
and fourth solo violin sonatas, begin with a great prelude in 
some larger form. Bach s French Suites are small suites without 
prelude. His English Suites all have a great first movement 
which, except in the first suite, is in full da capo concerto form. 
His clavier Partitas show a greater variety of style in the 
dance movements and are preceded by preludes, in each case of a 
different type and title. Some large suites have finales after the 
gigue; the great chaconne for violin solo being the finale of a 
partita (see VARIATIONS). 

Handel s suites are characteristically nondescript in form, but, 
in the probably earlier sets published after what is called his first 
set, there is a most interesting tendency to make several of the 
movements free variations of the first. Earlier composers had 
already shown the converse tendency to make variations take 
the forms of suite movements. In general Handel s suites are 
effective groups of movements of various lengths, with a tendency 
to use recognizable suite movements of a Franco-Italian type. 

In modern times the term " suite " is used for almost any group 
of movements of which the last is in the same key as the first, 
and of which a fair proportion show traces of dance-rhythm, or at 
least use dance titles. It is often said that the suite-forms have 
shown more vitality under modern conditions than the classical 

1 The loure of Bach s fifth French suite has in some editions been 
called the second bourree, to the utter mystification of musicians. 

sonata forms. But this only means that when composers do not 
feel inclined to write symphonies or sonatas they give their 
groups of movements the name of suite. Certainly there is no 
such thing as a definite modern suite-form distinguishable from 
the selection composers make, for use in concert rooms, of 
incidental music written for plays, such as Grieg s Peer Gynt 
suites. (D. F. T.) 

SUKHUM-KALEH, a seaport of Russian Caucasia in the 
government of Kutais. Pop. (1900), about 16,000. It is situated 
106 m. N. of Batum, and has the best roadstead on the east coast 
of the Black Sea, being sheltered by mountains on three sides and 
never freezing. In spite of the difficulties of communication 
with the jnterior, and the malarial marshes which surround the 
town, it has become important for the export of grain (chiefly 
maize). There is also a trade in tobacco. It stands on the site 
of the ancient Greek colony of Dioskurias. The annual mean 
temperature is 59 F. There are here a cathedral and a 
botanical garden. The town was captured by the Russians in 
1809, but not formally relinquished by Turkey until 1829. In 
1854 and again in 1877 it was occupied by the Turks. 

SUKKUR, or SAJCHAR, a town and district of British India, in 
Sind, Bombay. The town is situated on the right bank of the 
Indus, 24 m. N.W. of Skikarpur. Pop. (1901), 31,316. Sukkur 
has always commanded the trade of Sind, and the river is now 
crossed by a cantilever bridge carrying the North-Western 
railway to Kotri. The town was ceded to the Khairpur mirs 
between 1809 and 1824. In 1833 Shah Shuja defeated the 
Talpurs here with great loss. In 1842 it came under British 

The DISTRICT OF SUKKUR was created in igoi out of part of 
Shikarpur district, the remainder of which was formed into the 
district of Larkana. Area, 5403 sq. m. It is chiefly alluvial 
plain, but there are slight hills at Sukkur and Rohri. In the 
higher-lying parts are salt lands (Kalar), or even desert in the 
area known as the Registan. The climate is hot, dry and ener 
vating. The annual rainfall at Sukkur town averages only 45 in. 
The population in 1901 was 523,345, showing an increase of 10% 
in the decade. A considerable part of the district is irrigated, 
the principal crops being wheat, millets, rice, pulses and oil seeds. 
Earthen, leathern and metal ware, cotton cloth and tussore 
silk are manufactured, also pipe-bowls, snuff-boxes and scissors. 
Lines of the North-Western railway serve the district, and there 
is a branch from Sukkur towards Quetta. 

SULA ISLANDS (Sulla, Xuila; Dutch Soela), a chain of islands 
forming a prolongation of the eastern peninsula of Celebes and 
the Banggai Islands, Dutch East Indies. The three main islands 
are long and narrow (Taliabu, 68 m. long, Mangoli or Mangala, 
63 m. and Besi, 30 m.). The two first lie inline, separated by 
the narrow Chapalulu Strait; Besi extends at right angles to the 
south coast of Mangoli. The natives of Taliabu are allied to those 
of the Banggai Islands and the eastern peninsula of Celebes; but 
immigrant Malays are the principal inhabitants. Economically, 
Besi is the most important island. A Dutch commissioner 
resides at Sanana, at its northern extremity. It is fertile, and 
produces wax and honey, and coal has been found. 

SULCI, an ancient town (mod. S. Antioco), situated on the east 
coast of an island on the south-west of Sardinia. The date of its 
foundationis not known, but it is certainly of Carthaginian origin. 
The assumption that it was originally an Egyptian colony is not 
justified. Its walls, of large rectangular blocks of stone, can be 
traced for a circuit of upwards of a mile: it extended to the low 
ground on the shore near the modern cemetery, where a dedica 
tory inscription set up by the people of Sulci in honour of Hadrian 
in A.D. 128 was found (F. Vivanet in Notizie degli Scam, 1897, 
407). Various discoveries have been made within the circuit, 
both of Phoenician and of Roman antiquities, including several 
statues 2 and inscriptions and many smaller objects, gems, &c., 
but at present few traces of ancient buildings are left, owing to 
their continued destruction in medieval and modern times. A 
cistern of fine masonry, perhaps dating from the Punic period, 

2 A statue of Drusus, the brother of Tiberius (?) was found in 



in the low ground below the modern town, may be mentioned. 
Close to it, among the houses of the modern town, a solid base 
about 25 ft. square, belonging possibly to a lighthouse or a tomb, 
records the existence of a temple of Isis and Serapis during the 
imperial period. A bilingual inscription of the ist century B.C. (?) 
in Latin and in neo-Punic records the erection of a statue to 
Himilkat, who had carried out a decree of the local senatus for 
the erection of a temple to a goddess (described in the Punic 
version as domino, dea possibly Tanit herself) by his son 
Himilkat (T. Mommsen in Corp. inscr. lat. x. 75131 75*4)- 
The Phoenician tombs consist of a chamber cut in the rock, 
measuring about 14 ft. square and 8 ft. high, and approached by 
a staircase: some of these have been converted into dwellings 
in modern times. Many of the curious sculptured stelae found 
in these tombs are now in the museum of Cagliari. On many of 
them the goddessTanit is represented, often in a form resembling 
Isis, which gave rise to the unfounded belief of the Egyptian 
origin of Sulci. The Roman tombs, on the other hand, are 
simply trenches excavated in the rock. 

There are also several catacombs: a group still exists under 
the church, in which was discovered the body of the martyr 
St Antiochus, from whom the modern town takes its name. 
The church is cruciform, with heavy pillars between nave and 
aisles, and a dome over the crossing: it belongs to the Byzantine 
period, and contains an inscription of Torcotorius, protospatarius 
and Salusius, apxcoc, dating from the loth century A.D. (A. 
Taramelli in Archwsio storko sardo, 1907, 83 sqq.). Others 
farther south-west were Jewish; they have inscriptions in red 
painted on the plaster with which they are lined, and the seven- 
branched candlestick occurs several times. The fort which 
occupies the highest point no doubt the acropolis of the 
Punic period is quite modern. The long, low isthmus which, 
with the help of bridges, connects the island with the mainland, 
is very likely in part or entirely of artificial origin; but neither 
it nor the bridges show any definite traces of Roman date. On 
either side of it ships could find shelter then as nowadays. 

The origin of Sulci is attributed by Pausanias to the Cartha 
ginians, and the Punic antiquities found there go to indicate 
the correctness of his account. It is mentioned in the account 
of the First Punic War as the place at which the Carthaginian 
admiral Hannibal took refuge after his defeat by C. Sulpicius, 
but was crucified. In 46 B.C. the city was severely punished by 
Caesar for the assistance given to Pompey s admiral Nasidius. 
Under the empire it was one of the most flourishing cities of 
Sardinia. It was attacked by the Vandals and Saracens, but 
ceased to exist before the i3th century. Previously to this it 
had been one of the four episcopal sees into which Sardinia was 
divided. A castle in the low ground, attributed to the index 
Torcotorius, to the south of the modern town, was destroyed in 

modern times. 

See A. Tarawelli in. Notizie degli scam. (1906), 135; (1908), 145, 192. 

SULEIMAN I. 1 the "Magnificent" (1494-1566), sultan of 
Turkey, succeeded his father Selim I. in 1520. His birth coin 
cided with the opening year of the loth century of Mussulman 
chronology (A.H. 900), the most glorious period in the history 
of Islam. Eventful as the age was both in Europe, where the 
Renaissance was in full growth, and in India, where the splen 
dour of the emperor Akbar s reign exceeded alike that of his pre 
decessors and his successors, Suleiman s conquests overshadowed 
all these. It is noteworthy that though in Turkey he is dis 
tinguished only as the law-giver (kanuni) , in European history 
he is known by such titles as the Magnificent. He was the most 
fortunate of the sultans. He had no rival worthy of the name. 
From his father he inherited a well-organized country, a dis 
ciplined army and a full treasury. He united in his person the 
best qualities of his predecessors, and possessed the gift of taking 
full advantage of the talents of the able generals, admirals and 

Suleiman, eldest son of Bayazid I., who maintained himself as 
sultan at Adrianople from 1402 to 1410, is not reckoned as legiti 
mate by the Ottoman historiographers, who reckon Suleiman the 
Magnificent as the first of the name. By others, however, the latter 
is sometimes styled Suleiman II. 

viziers who illustrated his reign. If his campaigns were not 
always so wisely and prudently planned as those of some of his 
>redecessors, they were in the main eminently fortunate, and 
esulted in adding to his dominions Belgrade, Budapest, 
Temesvar, Rhodes, Tabriz, Bagdad, Nakshivan and Rivan, 
Aden and Algiers, and in his days Turkey attained the 
culminating point of her glory. 

The alliance concluded by him with France reveals him at 
once as rising superior to the narrow prejudices of his race and 
aith, which rejected with scorn any union with the unbeliever, 
and as gifted with sufficient political insight to appreciate 
the advantage of combining with Francis I. against Charles V. 
His Persian campaign was doubtless an error, but was due in 
sart to a desire to find occupation, distant if possible, for his 
ianissaries, who were always prone to turbulence while inactive 
at the capital. He was perhaps wanting in firmness of character, 
and the undue influence exercised over him by unscrupulous 
ministers, or by the seductions of fairer but no less ambitious 
votaries of statecraft, led him to make concessions which 
tarnished the glory of his reign, and were followed by baneful 
results for the welfare of his empire. It is from Suleiman s 
time that historians date the rise of that occult influence of the 
larem which has so often thwarted the best efforts of Turkey s 
most enlightened statesmen. 

Suleiman s claims to renown as a legislator rest mainly on 
lis organization of the Ulema, or clerical class, in its hierarchical 
order from the Sheikh-ul-Islam downwards. He reformed and 
improved the administration of the country both civil and mili- 
;ary, inaugurated a new and improved system for the feudal 
tenures of limitary fiefs, and his amelioration of the lot of his 
Christian subjects is not his least title to fame. He was also not 
unknown to fame as a poet, under the pseudonym of < Muhibbr " 
(see Hammer-Purgstall, Gesch. d. Osman. Reichs, ii. 331; and 
further TURKEY: History). 

Suleiman died on the 5th of September 1566, at the age of 
72, while conducting the siege of Szigetvar. 

SULEIMAN II. (1641-1691), sultan of Turkey, was a son of 
Sultan Ibrahim, and succeeded his brother Mahommed IV. in 
1687. Forty-six years of enforced retirement had qualified him 
for the cloister rather than for the throne, and his first feeling 
when notified of his accession was one of terror for his brother s 
vengeance. Nor were the circumstances following on his 
elevation to the throne of a nature to reassure him, as one of 
the most violent of the revolts of the janissaries ended in the 
murder of the grand vizier and the brutal mutilation of his 
family, with general massacre and pillage throughout Con 
stantinople. The war with Austria was for Turkey a suc 
cession of disasters. At this time, fortunately for the Ottoman 
Empire, a third great kuprili (Mustafa) arose and re-estab 
lished order in the sorely-tried state (see KUPRILI). In the 
reforms which followed, whereby the situation of the Christian 
subjects of the Porte was greatly improved, Suleiman is at least 
to be given the credit of having allowed Mustafa Kuprili a free 
hand. With an improved administration Turkey s fortunes in 
the war began to revive, and the reconquest of Belgrade late in 
1690 was the last important event of the reign, which ended 
in 1691 by Suleiman s death. (See also TURKEY: History.) 

SULEIMANIEH, or SULEIMANIA, the chief town of a sanjak of 
the same name in Asiatic Turkey, in the vilayet of Mosul, situated 
on a treeless plain in the Kurdistan Mountains, in the region 
known as Shehrizor, some 40 or 50 m. from the Persian frontier, 
at an elevation of 2895 ft. It i s a military station, and was 
founded towards the close of the nth century. The estimated 
population is about 12,000, of whom n,ooo are Kurds, and the 
majority of the remaining 1000 Jews. 

SULIMAN HILLS, a mountain system on the Dera Ismail 
Khan border of the north-west frontier of India. From the 
Gomal river southward commences the true Suliman system, 
presenting an impenetrable barrier between the plains of the 
Indus and Afghanistan. The Suliman Mountains finally merge 
into the hills of Baluchistan, which are inhabited by the Marri 
and Bugti tribes. The chief mass of the range is known as 


Takht-i-Suliman or Solomon s throne. It may be seen on the 
western horizon from Dera Ismail Khan, a grey, flat-looking 
rampart rising from the lower line of mountains north and south 
of it, slightly saddle-backed in the middle, but culminating in a 
very well-defined peak at its northern extremity. The legend of 
the mountain is that Solomon visited Hindostan to marry Balkis, 
and that as they were returning through the air, on a throne 
supported by genii, the bride implored the bridegroom to let her 
look back for a few moments on her beloved land. Solomon 
directed the genii to scoop out a hollow for the throne on the 
summit of the mountain. The hollow is a cavity some 30 ft. 
square cut out of the solid rock, at the southern extremity of the 
mountain and is a place of pilgrimage for both Hindus and 
Mahommedans. The actual shrine is about two m. south of the 
highest peak. The whole mountain was traversed and surveyed 
by the Takht-i-Suliman Survey Expedition of 1883 (see SHERANI) 
and was found to consist of two parallel ridges running roughly 
north and south, the southern end of the eastern ridge culminating 
in a point 1 1 ,070 ft. high, which is the Takht proper on which the 
shrine is situated, and the western ridge culminating at its north 
ern end in a point 1 1 ,300 ft. high known as Kaisargarh. Between 
these two ridges is a connecting tableland about 9000 ft. high. 
This plateau and the interior slopes of the ridges are covered 
with chilghosa (edible pine) forests. The mass of the mountain 
is composed of nummulitic limestone. No water is to be found 
on the summit. 

SULINA, a town in Rumania, at the mouth of the Sulina branch 
of the Danube. Pop. (1900), 5611. Sulina is the only free port 
on the Danube, and is much used for the transhipment into sea 
going vessels of grain which is brought down the river in large 
lighters from Rumania, Russia, Bulgaria, Servia and Austria- 
Hungary. No agricultural produce is grown in its neighbour 
hood, owing to the reed-covered swamps with which it is sur 
rounded. Sulina is the headquarters of the technical depart 
ment of the European Commission of the Danube (q.v.). Large 
steamers navigate up to Galatz and Braila. In 1901, 141 1 steamers 
and sailing craft aggregating 1,830,000 tons register cleared from 
Sulina for European ports carrying, besides other merchandise, 
nearly 13,000,000 quarters of grain. Owing to the improvements 
effected by the European Commission, there is a depth of 
24 ft. of water on the bar, and of 18 to 22 ft. in the fairway. A 
lighthouse overlooks the estuary. The town contains the only 
English church in Rumania. 

SULITELMA, a mountain on the frontier between Norway and 
Sweden, forming a salient (6158 ft.) of the Kjol or " keel " of the 
Scandinavian peninsula. The mass, composed of three peaks, 
is situated in 67 10 N., and covered with a snow-field from which 
many glaciers descend. In these rise feeders of the Swedish 
rivers Lilla Lule and Pite, flowing south-east. Westward, the 
foothills descend upon the Skjerstad Fjord, above which are two 
lakes, Nedre and Ovre Vand. From Sjonstaa steamers on the 
Langvand and a light railway give communication between the 
sea and Furulund, the headquarters of the Swedish Sulitelma 
Mining Company. A mountain track descends from Sulitelma 
to Kvickjock (or Kvikkjokk), a considerable village magnificently 
situated on the Tarrajock, a head-stream of the Lilla Lule. This 
is distant three days journey on foot from Furulund. 

SULLA, LUCIUS CORNELIUS (138-78 B.C.), surnamed Felix, 
Roman general, politician and dictator, belonged to a minor 
and impoverished branch of the famous patrician Cornelian gens. 
He received a careful education, and was a devoted student of 
literature and art. His political advancement was slow, and 
he did not obtain the quaestorship until 107, when he served in 
the Jugurthine war under Marius in Africa. In this he greatly 
distinguished himself, and claimed the credit of having terminated 
the war by capturing Jugurtha himself. In these African 
campaigns Sulla showed that he knew how to win the confidence 
of his soldiers, and throughout his career the secret of his success 
seems to have been the enthusiastic devotion of his troops, 
whom he continued to hold well in hand, while allowing them to 
indulge in plundering and all kinds of excess. From 104 to 101 
he served again under Marius in the war with the Cimbri and 

Teutones and fought in the last great battle in the Raudian 
plains near Verona. It was at this time that Marius s jealousy 
of his legate laid the foundations of their future rivalry and mutual 
hatred. When the war was over, Sulla, on his return to Rome, 
lived quietly for some years and took no part in politics. In 
93 he was elected praetor after a lavish squandering of money, 
and he delighted the populace with an exhibition of a hundred 
lions from Africa. Next year (92) he went as propraetor of 
Cilicia with special authority from the senate to make Mithra- 
dates VI. of Pontus restore Cappadocia to Ariobarzanes, one of 
Rome s dependants in Asia. Sulla with a small army soon won a 
victory over the general of Mithradates, and Rome s client-king 
was restored. An embassy from the Parthians now came to 
solicit alliance with Rome, and Sulla was the first Roman who 
held diplomatic intercourse with that remote people. In the 
year 91, which brought with it the imminent prospect of sweeping 
political change, with the enfranchisement of the Italian peoples, 
Sulla returned to Rome, and it was generally felt that he was the 
man to lead the conservative and aristocratic party. 

Meanwhile Mithradates and the East were forgotten in the 
crisis of the Social or Italic War, which broke out in 91 and 
threatened Rome s very existence. The services of both Marius 
and Sulla were given; but Sulla was the more successful, or, at any 
rate, the more fortunate. Of the Italian peoples Rome s old 
foes the Samnites were the most formidable; these Sulla van 
quished, and took their chief town, Bovianum. In recognition 
of this and other brilliant services, he was elected consul in 88, 
and brought the revolt to an end by the capture of Nola in 
Campania. The question of the command of the army against 
Mithradates again came to the front. The senate had already 
chosen Sulla; but the tribune Publius Sulpicius Rufus moved 
that Marius should have the command. Rioting took place 
at Rome at the prompting of the popular leaders, Sulla narrowly 
escaping to his legions in Campania, whence he marched on 
Rome, being the first Roman who entered the city at the head of 
a Roman army. Sulpicius was put to death, and Marius fled; 
and he and his party were crushed for the time. 

Sulla, leaving things quiet at Rome, quitted Italy in 87, and 
for the next four years he was winning victory after victory 
against the armies of Mithradates and accumulating boundless 
plunder. Athens, the headquarters of the Mithradatic cause, 
was taken and sacked in 86; and in the same year, at Chaeroneia, 
the scene of Philip II. of Macedon s victory more than two and a 
half centuries before, and in the year following, at the neighbour 
ing Orchomenus, he scattered immense hosts of the enemy with 
trifling loss to himself. Crossing the Hellespont in 84 into Asia, 
he was joined by the troops of C. Flavius Fimbria, who soon 
deserted their general, a man sent out by the Marian party, now 
again in the ascendant at Rome. The same year peace was 
concluded with Mithradates on condition that he should be put 
back to the position he held before the war; but, as he raised 
objections, he had in the end to content himself with being simply 
a vassal of Rome. 

Sulla returned to Italy in 83, landing at Brundisium, having 
previously informed the senate of the result of his campaigns in 
Greece and Asia, and announced his presence on Italian ground. 
He further complained of the ill-treatment to which his friends 
and partisans had been subjected during his absence. Marius 
had died in 86, and the revolutionary party, specially represented 
by L. Cornelius Cinna, Cn. Papirius Carbo and the younger 
Marius, had massacred Sulla s supporters wholesale, confiscated 
his property, and declared him a public enemy. They felt they 
must resist him to the death, and with the troops scattered 
throughout Italy, and the newly eniranchised Italians, to whom it 
was understood that Sulla was bitterly hostile, they counted confi 
dently on success. But on Sulla s advance at the head of his 
40,000 veterans many of them lost heart and deserted their 
leaders, while the Italians themselves, who/n he confirmed in 
their new privileges, were won over to his side. Only the Sam 
nites, who were as yet without the Roman franchise, remained 
his enemies, and it seemed as if the old war between Rome and 
Samnium had to be fought once again. Several Roman nobles, 



among them Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey the Great), Q. Caecilius 
Metellus Pius, Marcus LiciniusCrassus, Marcus LiciniusLucullus, 
joined Sulla, and in the following year (82) he won a decisive 
victory over the younger Marius near Praeneste (mod. Palestrina) 
and then marched upon Rome, where again, just before his defeat 
of Marius, there had been a great massacre of his adherents, in 
which the learned jurist Q. Mucius Scaevola perished. Rome 
was at the same time in extreme peril from the advance of a 
Samnite army, and was barely saved by Sulla, who, after a hard- 
fought battle, routed the enemy under Pontius Telesinus at the 
Colline gate of Rome. With the death of the younger Marius, 
who killed himself after the surrender of Praeneste, the civil war 
was at an end, and Sulla was master of Rome and of the Roman 
world. Then came the memorable " proscription," when for 
the first time in Roman history a list of men declared to be 
outlaws and public enemies was exhibited in the forum, and a 
reign of terror began throughout Rome and Italy. The title of 
" dictator " was revived and Sulla was in fact emperor of Rome. 
After celebrating a splendid triumph for the Mithradatic War, 
and assuming the surname of " Felix " (" Epaphroditus," 
" Venus s favourite," 1 he styled himself in addressing Greeks), he 
carried in 80 and 79 his great political reforms (see ROME: History, 
II. " The Republic"). The main object of these was to invest the 
senate, which he recruited with a number of his own party, with full 
control over the state, over every magistrate and every province: 
and the mainstay of his political system was to be the military 
colonies which he had established with grants of land throughout 
every part of Italy, to the ruin of the old Italian freeholders 
and farmers, who from this time dwindled away, leaving whole 
districts waste and desolate. 

In 79 Sulla resigned his dictatorship and retired to Puteoli 
(mod. Pozzuoli), where he died in the following year, probably 
from the bursting of a blood-vessel. The story that he fell a 
victim to a disease similar to that which cut off one of the Herods 
(Acts xii. 23) is probably an invention of his enemies. The 
" half lion, half fox," as his enemies called him, the " Don Juan 
of politics " (Mommsen), the man who carried out a policy of 
" blood and iron " with a grim humour, amused himself in his 
last days with actors and actresses, with dabbling in poetry, and 
completing the Memoirs (commentarii, inronvri^aTa) of his event 
ful life (see H. Peter, Historicomm romanorum reliquiae, 1870). 
Even then he did not give up his interest in state and local affairs, 
and his end is said to have been hastened by a fit of passion 
brought on by a remark of the quaestor Granius, who openly 
asserted that he would escape payment of a sum of money due 
to the Romans, since Sulla was on his death-bed. Sulla sent 
for him and had him strangled in his presence; in his excitement 
he broke a blood-vessel and died on the following day. He was 
accorded a magnificent public funeral, his body being removed to 
Rome and buried in the Campus Martius. His monument bore 
an inscription written by himself, to the effect that he had always 
fully repaid the kindnesses of his friends and the wrongs done him 
by his enemies. His military genius was displayed in the Social 
War and the campaigns against Mithradates; while his constitu 
tional reforms, although doomed to failure from the lack of suc 
cessors to carry them out, were a triumph of organization. But 
he massacred his enemies in cold blood, and exacted vengeance 
with pitiless and calculated cruelty; he sacrificed everything to 
his own ambition and the triumph of his party. 

The ancient authorities for Sulla and his time are his Life by 
Plutarch (who made use of the Memoirs); Appian, Bell, civ.; for 
the references in Cicero see Orelli s Onomasticon Tullianum. Modern 
treatises by C. S. Zacharia, L. Cornelius S. als Ordner des romiscken 
Freystaates (1834); T. Lau, Lucius Cornelius Sulla (1855); E. 
Linden, De betto civili Sullano (1896); P. Cantalupi, La Guerra 
civile Sultana in Italia (1892) ; C. W. Oman, Seven Roman Statesmen 
(1902) ; F. D. Gerlach, Marius und Sulla (1856) ; J. M. Sunden, " De 
tribunicia potentate a Lucio Sulla imminuta" in Skrifter utgifna 
af k. humanistika Vetenskapssamfundet i Upsala, v., 1897, in which 
it is argued against Mommsen that Sulla did not deprive the tribunes 
of the right of proposing rogations. See also Mommsen s History 
of Rome, vol. iii., bk. iv., ch., 8, 9; Drumann, Ceschichte Roms 

1 A short epigram on Aphrodite in the Greek Anthology (Anth 
Pal., Appendix, \. 153) is ascribed to him. 

2nd ed. by Groebe, ii. 364-432; Pauly-Wissowa, Realencydopddie, 
v. 1522-1566 (Frohlich). 

His nephew (as some say, though the degree of relationship 
cannot be clearly established), PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SULLA was 
consul in 66 B.C. with P. Autronius Paetus. Both were convicted 
of bribery, and Paetus subsequently joined Catiline in his first 
conspiracy. There is little doubt that Sulla also was implicated; 
Sallustdoes not mention it, but other authorities definitely assert 
iis guilt. After the second conspiracy he was accused of having 
taken part in both conspiracies. Sulla was defended by Cicero 
and Hortensius, and acquitted. There is no doubt that, after his 
irst conviction, Sulla remained very quiet, and, whatever his 
sympathies may have been, took no active part in the conspiracy. 
When the civil war broke out, Sulla took the side of Caesar, and 
commanded the right wing at the battle of Pharsalus. He died 

n 45- 

See Cicero, Pro Sulla, passim^ (ed. J. S. Reid, 1882); Ad Fam. 
ix. 10, xv. 17; Dio Cassius xxxvi. 44, xxxvii. 25; Suetonius, Caesar, 
9; Caesar, Bell, civ., iii. 51, 89; Appian, Bell. civ. ii. 76. 

SULLIVAN, SIR ARTHUR SEYMOUR (1842-1900), English 
musical composer, was born in London on the i3th of May 1842, 
being the younger of the two sons of Thomas Sullivan, a culti 
vated Irish musician who was bandmaster at the Royal Military 
College, Sandhurst, from 1845 to 1856, and taught at the Military 
School of Music at Kneller Hall from 1857 till his death in 1866. 
His mother, nee Mary Coghlan (1811-1882), had Italian blood in 
her veins. Arthur Sullivan was brought up to music from boy 
hood, and he had learnt to play every wind instrument in his 
father s band by the age of eight. He was sent to school at 
Bayswater till he was twelve, and then, through Sir George 
Smart, he was, at his own persistent request, made a Chapel 
Royal chorister, and, entered Mr Helmore s school for Chapel 
Royal boys in Cheyne Walk. He had a fine treble voice, and 
sang with exceptional taste. In 1856 the Mendelssohn Scholar 
ship at the Royal Academy of Music was thrown open for the 
first time for competition, and was won by Sullivan, his nearest 
rival being Joseph Barnby. At the Academy he studied under 
Sterndale Bennett, Arthur O Leary and John Goss, and did so 
well that he was given an extension of his scholarship for two 
years in succession. In 1858, his voice having broken, he was 
enabled by means of his scholarship to go to study at the con- 
servatorium of Leipzig. There he had for teachers Moscheles 
and Plaidy for pianoforte, Hauptmann for counterpoint, Rietz 
and Reinecke for composition, and F. David for orchestral playing 
and conducting. Among his fellow-students were Grieg, Carl 
Rosa, Walter Bache, J. F. Barnett and Edward Dannreuther. 
Instead of the Mendelssohn cullus which represented orthodoxy 
in London, German musical interest at this period centred in 
Schumann, Schubert and the growing reputation of Wagner, 
whilst Liszt and Von Billow were the celebrities of the day. 
Sullivan thus became acquainted for the first time with master 
pieces which were then practically ignored in England. He 
entered enthusiastically into the spirit of the place, and after two 
years hard study returned to London in April 1861. Before 
doing so, however, he had composed his incidental music for 
The Tempest, which he had begun as a sort of diploma work. 
Sullivan set himself to find converts in London to the enthusiasms 
he had imbibed at Leipzig. He became acquainted with 
George Grove) then secretary of the Crystal Palace, and August 
Manns, the conductor there; and at his instigation Schumann s 
First Symphony was introduced at one of the winter concerts. 
Early in 1862 Sullivan showed Grove and Manns his Tempest 
music, and on the sth of April it was performed at the Crystal 
Palace. The production was an unmixed triumph, and Sullivan s 
exceptional gifts as a composer were generally recognized from 
that moment. He had hitherto been occupying himself with 
teaching, and he continued for some years to act as organist at 
St Michael s, Chester Square, but henceforth he devoted most of 
his time to composition. By 1864 he had produced his " Kenil- 
worth " cantata (remembered chiefly for the lovely duet, " How 
sweet the Moonlight "), the " Sapphire Necklace " overture, and 
the five beautiful songs from Shakespeare, which include 


" Orpheus with his Lute," " Oh Mistress Mine " and " The Willow 
Song." His attractive personality, combined with his un 
doubted genius and brilliant promise, brought him many friends. 
Costa, who was conductor at Covent Garden, gave him the post 
of organist, and in 1864 he produced there his L lle Enchantee 
ballet. Some of his spare time was spent in Ireland, where in 
1863 he began the composition of his (" Irish ") Symphony in E, 
which was produced at the Crystal Palace in 1866. The most 
important event, however, at this period, as bearing upon his 
later successes, was his co-operation with F. C. Burnand in the 
musical extravaganza Cox and Box, which first showed his 
capacity for musical drollery. This was acted privately in 1866, 
and was completed for public performance in 1867, in which year 
Sullivan again co-operated with Burnand in Contrabandist!!. 
Meanwhile he was in request as a conductor, and was made 
professor of composition at the Academy. His father s sudden 
death in 1866 inspired him to write the fine " In Memoriam " 
overture, which was produced at the Norwich Festival. In 
1867, besides producing his " Marmion " overture, he and Grove 
did a great service to their art by bringing to light at Vienna a 
number of lost Schubert MSS., including the Rosamunde music. 
About this time Sullivan induced Tennyson to write his song- 
cycle "The Window," to be illustrated by Millais, with music 
by himself. But Millais abandoned the task, and Tennyson 
was not happy about his share; and the series, published in 1871, 
never became popular, in spite of Sullivan s dainty setting. 
In 1869 he brought out his oratorio The Prodigal Son at 
Worcester, and in 1870 his overture " Di Ballo " at Birmingham. 
In 1871 Sullivan had become acquainted with W. S. Gilbert 
(q.v.), and in 1872 they collaborated in a piece for the Gaiety 
Theatre, called Thespis; or, The Gods Grown Old, which was a 
great success in spite of the limited vocal resources of the per 
formers. In 1875 R. D Oyly Carte, then acting as manager for 
Selina Dolaro at the Royalty, approached Gilbert with a view 
to his collaborating with Sullivan in a piece for that theatre. 
Gilbert had already suggested to Sullivan an operetta with its 
scene in a law court, and within three weeks of his completing 
the libretto of Trial by Jury the music was written. The piece 
succeeded beyond all expectation; and on the strength of its 
promise of further successes D Oyly Carte formed his Comedy 
Opera Company and took the Opera Comique Theatre. There in 
1877 The Sorcerer was produced, George Grossmith and Rutland 
Barrington being in the cast. In 1878 H.M.S. Pinafore, was 
brought out at the Opera Comique. At first it did not attract 
large audiences, but eventually it became a popular success, and 
ran for 700 nights. In America it was enthusiastically received, 
and the two authors, with D Oyly Carte, went over to the States 
in 1879, with a company of their own, in order to produce it in 
New York. To secure the American rights for their next opera, 
they brought out The Pirates of Penzance first at New York in 
1879. In 1880, in London, it ran for nearly 400 nights. In 
1 88 1 Patience was produced at the Opera Comique, and was 
transferred later in the year to the Savoy Theatre. There all the 
later operas came out: lolanthe (1882), Princess Ida (1884), The 
Mikado perhaps the most charming of all (1885), Ruddigore 
(1887), The Yeomen of the Guard (1888), The Gondoliers (1889). 
This succession of pieces by Gilbert and Sullivan had made their 
united names stand for a new type of light opera. Its vogue 
owed something to such admirable performers as George Gros 
smith famous for his " patter songs "Rutland Barrington, 
Miss Jessie Bond, Miss Brandram, and later W. H. Denny and 
Walter Passmore; but these artistes only took advantage of the 
opportunities provided by the two authors. In place of the old 
adaptations of French opera bou/e they had substituted a 
genuinely English product, humorous and delightful, without 
a tinge of vulgarity or the commonplace. But disagreements 
now arose between them which caused a dissolution of partner 
ship. Sullivan s next Savoy opera, Haddon Hall (1892), had 
a libretto by Sydney Grundy; and the resumption of Gilbert s 
collaboration in 1893 in Utopia, Limited, and again in 1896 in 
The Grand Duke, was not as successful as before. Sullivan s 
music, however, still showed its characteristic qualities in The 

Chieftain (1894) largely an adaptation of Contrabandista; The 
Beauty Stone (1898), with a libretto by A. W. Pinero and 
J. Comyns Carr; and particularly in The Rose of Persia (1900), 
with Captain Basil Hood. 

In the public mind Sir Arthur Sullivan (who was knighted in 
1883) had during these years become principally associated with 
the enormous success of the Savoy operas; but these by no means 
exhausted his musical energies. In 1872 his Te Deum for 
the recovery of the prince of Wales was performed at the Crystal 
Palace. In 1873 he produced at the BirminghamlMusical Festival 
his oratorio The Light of the World, in 1877 he wrote his 
incidental music to Henry VIII., in 1880 his sacred cantata 
The Martyr of Antioch, and in 1886 his masterpiece, The 
Golden Legend, was brought out at the Leeds Festival. The 
Golden Legend satisfied the most exacting critics that for 
originality of conception and grandeur of execution English 
music possessed in Sullivan a composer of the highest calibre. 
In 1891, for the opening of D Oyly Carte s new English opera- 
house in Shaftesbury Avenue he -wrote his " grand opera" 
Ivanhoe to a libretto by Julian Sturgis. The attempt to put an 
English opera on the stage for a long run was doomed to failure, 
but Ivanhoe was full of fine things. In 1892 he composed inci 
dental music to Tennyson s Foresters. In 1897 he wrote a ballet 
for the Alhambra, called Victoria and Merrie England. Among 
his numerous songs, a conspicuous merit of which is their admir 
able vocal quality, the best known are " If Doughty Deeds " 
(1866), " The Sailor s Grave " (1872), " Thou rt Passing Hence " 
(1875), " I would I were a King " (1878), " King Henry s Song " 
(1878) and " The Lost Chord " (1877). This last, hackneyed as 
it became, was probably the most successful English song of the 
1 9th century. It was written in 1877, during the fatal illness of 
Sullivan s brother Frederic, who, originally an architect, had 
become an actor, and by means of his fine voice and powers as a 
comedian (best shown as the Judge in Trial by Jury) had won 
considerable success. Among Sullivan s many hymn tunes, the 
stirring " Onward, Christian Soldiers! " (1872) is a permanent 
addition to Church music. In 1876 he accepted the principalship 
of the National Training School of Music, which he held for six 
years; this was the germ of the subsequent Royal College. He 
received the honorary degree of Mus. Doc. from Cambridge (1876) 
and Oxford (1879). In 1878 he was a member of the royal com 
mission for the Paris Exhibition. He was conductor of the Leeds 
Festivals from 1879 to 1898, besides being conductor of the 
Philharmonic Society in 1885. Apart from his broad sympathy 
and his practical knowledge of instruments, his work as a con 
ductor must always be associated with his efforts to raise the 
standard of orchestral playing in England and his unwearying 
exertions on behalf of British music and British musicians. 
Sullivan liked to be associated in the public mind with patriotic 
objects, and his setting of Rudyard Kipling s " Absent-minded 
Beggar" song, at the opening of the Boer War in 1899, was, with 
the exception of The Rose of Persia, the last of his compositions 
brought out in his lifetime. He died somewhat suddenly of 
heart failure on the 22nd of November 1900, and his burial in 
St Paul s Cathedral was the occasion of a remarkable demon 
stration of public sorrow. He left unpublished a Te Deum 
written for performance at the end of the Boer War, and an 
unfinished Savoy opera for a libretto by Captain Hood, which, 
completed by Edward German, was produced in 1901 as The 
Emerald Isle. 

Sullivan was the one really popular English composer of any 
artistic standing in his time; and his celebrity as a public man 
las somewhat interfered with a definite judgment as to his place 
n the history of English music. In his own time, English 
musical taste developed in a very remarkable degree; and musical 
criticism in serious quarters was a little disinclined to do justice 
:o what was " popular." One of the most agreeable companions, 
jroad-minded, and free from all affectation, he was intensely 
admired and loved in all circles of society; and though his health 
was not robust, for he suffered during many years at intervals 
rom a painful ailment, he was a man of the world who enjoyed 
the life which his success opened out to him without being spoilt 


by it He was always a devoted and an industrious musician, 
and from the day he left Leipzig his influence was powerfully 
exerted in favour of a wider and fuller recognition of musical 
culture He was accused in some quarters of being unsympathetic 
towards Wagner and the post-Wagnerians, yet he had been 
one of the first to introduce Wagner s music to English audiences. 
He was keenly appreciative of new talent, but his tastes were too 
eclectic to satisfy the enthusiasts for any particular school; he 
certainly had no liking for what he considered uninspired 
academic writing. Serious critics deplored, with more justifica 
tion, that he should have devoted so much of his great natural gifl 
not merely to light comic opera, but to the production of a number 
of songs which, though always musicianly, were really of the 
nature of " pot-boiling." Sullivan was an extremely rapid worker, 
and his fertility in melody made it easy for him to produce what 
would please a large public. Moreover, it must be admitted that 
his great social success, so early achieved, was not calculated to 
nourish a rigidly artistic ideal. But when all is said, his genius 
remains undisputed; and it was a genius essentially English. 
His church music alone would entitle him to a high place 
among composers; and The Golden Legend, lmnhoe i the In 
Memoriam overture, the " Irish " symphony and the charming 
" incidental music " to The Tempest and to Henry VIII. form 
a splendid legacy of creative effort, characterized by the highest 
scholarly qualities in addition to those beauties which appeal to 
every ear. Whether his memory will be chiefly associated with 
these works, or rather with the world-wide popularity of some of 
his songs and comic operas, time alone can tell. The Savoy 
operas did not aim at intellectual or emotional grandeur, but at 
providing innocent and wholesome pleasure; and in giving 
musical form to Gilbert s witty librettos Sullivan showed once 
for all what light opera may be when treated by the hand Of a 
master. His scores are as humorous and fanciful qu& music as 
Gilbert s verses are qud dramatic literature. Bubbling melody, 
consummate orchestration, lovely songs and concerted pieces 
(notably the famous vocal quintets) flowed from his pen in un 
exhausted and inimitable profusion. If he had written nothing 
else, his unique success in this field would have been a solid title 
to fame. As it was, it is Sir Arthur Sullivan s special distinction 
not only to have been prolific in music which went straight to the 
hearts of the people, but to have enriched the English repertoire 
with acknowledged masterpieces, which are no less remarkable 
for their technical accomplishment. 

See also Sir Arthur Sullivan: Life-story, Letters, and Reminiscences, 
by Arthur Lawrence (London: Bowden, 1899). Besides being 
lareelv autobiographical, this volume contains a complete list ot 
Sullivan s works, compiled by Mr Wilfrid Bendall, who for many 
years acted as Sir Arthur s private secretary. 

SULLIVAN, JOHN (1740-1795), American soldier and politi 
cal leader, was born in Somersworth, New Hampshire, on the 
i8th of February 1740. He studied law in Portsmouth, N.H., 
and practised at Berwick, Maine, and at Durham, N.H. He was 
a member of the New Hampshire Provincial Assembly in 1774, 
and in 1774-1775 was a delegate to the Continental Congress. 
In 1772 he had been commissioned a major of New Hampshire 
militia, and on the isth of December 1774 he and John Langdon 
led an expedition which captured Fort William and Mary at 
New Castle. Sullivan was appointed a brigadier-general in 
the Continental army in June 1775 and. a major-general in 
August 1776. He commanded a brigade in the siege of Boston. 
In June 1776 he took command of the American army in Canada 
and after an unsuccessful skirmish with the British at Three 
Rivers (June 8) retreated to Crown Point. Rejoining Washing 
ton s army, he served under General Israel Putnam in the battle 
of Long Island (August 27) and was taken prisoner. Released 
on parole, he bore a verbal message from Lord Howe to the 
Continental Congress, which led to the fruitless conference on 
Staten Island. In December he was exchanged, succeeded 
General Charles Lee in command of the right wing of Wash 
ington s army, in the battle of Trenton led an attack on the 
Hessians, and led a night attack against British and Loyalists on 
Staten Island, on the 22nd of August 1777. In the battle of 


Brandywine (Sept. n, 177?) he again commanded the American 
right; he took part in the battle of Germantown (Oct. 4, 1777); 
in March 1778 he was placed in command in Rhode Island, and 
in the following summer plans were made for his co-operation 
with the French fleet under Count d Estaing in an attack on 
Newport, which came to nothing. Sullivan after a brief engage 
ment (Aug. 29) at Quaker Hill, at the N. end of the island of 
Rhode Island, was obliged toretreat. In 17 79 Sullivan, with about 
4000 men, defeated the Iroquois and their Loyalist allies at New- 
town (now Elmira), New York, on the 2 9 th of August, burned 
their villages, and destroyed their orchards and crops. Although 
severely criticised for his conduct of the expedition, he received, 
in October 1779, the thanks of Congress. In November he 
resigned from the army. Sullivan was again a delegate to the 
Continental Congress in 1780-1781 and, having accepted a loan 
from the French minister, Chevalier de la Luzerne, he was 
charged with being influenced by the French in voting not to 
make the right to the north-east fisheries a condition of peace. 
From 1782 to 1785 he was attorney -general of New Hampshire. 
He was president of the state in 1786-1787 and in 1789, and 
in 1786 suppressed an insurrection at Exeter immediately pre 
ceding the Shays Rebellion in Massachusetts. He presided 
over the New Hampshire convention which ratified the Federal 
constitution in June 1788. From 1789 until his death at 
Durham, on the 23rd of January 1795, he was United States 
District Judge for New Hampshire. 

See O. W. B. Peabody, " Life of John Sullivan " in Jared Sparks^ 
Library of American Biography, vol. iii. (Boston, 1844); T. C. 
Amory General John Sullivan, A Vindication of his Character as 
a Soldier and a Patriot (Morrisania, N.Y., 1867); John Scales, 
" Master John Sullivan of Somersworth and Berwick and his 
Family " in the Proceedings of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society vol. iv. (Concord, 1906); and Journals of the Military 
Expedition of Major-General John Sullivan against the Six Nations 
of Indians (Auburn, N. Y., 1887). 

SULLIVAN, THOMAS BARRY (1824-1891), Irish actor, was 
born at Birmingham, and made his first stage appearance at 
Cork about 1840. His earliest successes were in romantic 
drama, for which his graceful figure and youthful enthusiasm 
fitted him. His first London appearance was in 1852 in Hamlet, 
and he was also successful as Angiolo in Miss Vandenhoff s 
Woman s Heart, Evelyn in Money and Hardman in Lord 
Lytton s Not so Bad as we Seem. Claude Melnotte with Helen 
Faucit as Pauline was also a notable performance. A tour 
of America in 1857 preceded his going to Australia (1861) for 
six years, as actor and manager. He completed a trip round 
the world in 1866. From 1868-1870 he managed the Holborn 
theatre, where Beverley in The Gamester was one of his most 
powerful impersonations. Afterwards he travelled over the 
United States, Canada, Australia and England. Among his 
later London performances were several Shakespearian parts, 
his best, perhaps, being Richard III. He was the Benedick 
of the cast of Much Ado About Nothing with which the Shake 
speare Memorial was opened at Stratford-on-Avon. He died 
on the 3rd of May 1891. 

SULLY, JAMES (1842- ), English psychologist, was born 
on the 3rd of March 1842 at Bridgwater, and was educated at 
the Independent College, Taunton, the Regent s Park College, 
Gottingen and Berlin. He was originally destined for the 
Nonconformist ministry, but in 1871 adopted a literary and 
philosophic career. He was Grote professor of the philosophy 
of mind logic at University College, London, from 1892 to 
1903, when he was succeeded by Carveth "Read. An adherent 
of the associationist school of psychology, his views had great 
affinity with those of Alexander Bain. His monographs, as 
that on pessimism, are ably and readably written, and his text 
books, of which The Human Mind (1892) is the most important, 
are models of sound exposition. 

WORKS Sensation and Intuition (1874), Pessimism (1877), 
Illusions (1881; 4th ed., 1895), Outlines- of Psychology (1884; 
many editions), Teacher s Handbook of Psychology (1886), Studies 
of Childhood (1895), Children s Ways (1897), and An Essay on 
Laughter (1902). 


French statesman, was born at the chateau of Rosny near 
Mantes, on the i3th of December 1 560, of a noble family of Flemish 
descent. His father, Francois de Bethune, baron de Rosny 
(1532-1575), was the son of Jean de Bethune, to whom in 1529 
his wife Anne de Melun brought as part of her dowry a seigneurie 
at Rosny-sur-Seine, which later (1601) was made a marquisate. 
Brought up in the Reformed faith, Maximilien was presented to 
Henry of Navarre in 1571 and was thenceforth attached to the 
future king of France. The young baron de Rosny was taken 
to Paris by his patron and was studying at the college of Bour- 
gogne at the time of the massacre of St Bartholomew s Day, 
from which he escaped by discreetly carrying a book of hours 
under his arm. He then studied mathematics and history at 
the court of Henry of Navarre, and on the outbreak of civil 
war in 1575 he enlisted in the Protestant army. In 1576 he 
accompanied the duke of Anjou on an expedition into the 
Netherlands in order to regain the former Rosny estates, but 
being unsuccessful he attached himself for a time to the prince of 
Orange. Later rejoining Henry of Navarre in Guienne, he dis 
played bravery in the field and particular ability as an engineer. 
In 1583 he was Henry s special agent in Paris. In 1584 
he married Anne de Courtenay, a wealthy heiress, who died, 
however, in 1589. On the renewal of civil war Rosny again 
joined Henry of Navarre, and at the battle of Ivry (1590) 
was seriously wounded. He counselled Henry IV. s conversion 
to Roman Catholicism, but steadfastly refused himself to become 
a Roman Catholic. As soon as Henry s power was established, 
the faithful and trusted Rosny received his reward in the shape 
of numerous estates and dignities. On the death of D O, the 
superintendent of finances, in 1594, the king had appointed a 
finance commission of nine members, to which he added Rosny 
in 1 596. The latter at once made a tour of inspection through 
the generalities, and introduced some order into the country s 
affairs. He was probably made sole superintendent of finances 
in 1 598, although this title does not appear in official documents 
until the close of 1601. He authorized the free exportation of 
grain and wine, reduced legal interest from 83 to 6j%, estab 
lished a special court for the trial of cases of peculation, forbade 
provincial governors to raise money on their own authority, 
and otherwise removed many abuses of tax-collecting, abolished 
several offices, and by his honest, rigorous conduct of the country s 
finances was able to save between 1600 and 1610 an average of 
a million livres a year. His achievements were by no means 
solely financial. In 1 599 he was appointed grand commissioner 
of highways and public works, superintendent of fortifications 
and grand master of artillery; in 1662 governor of Mantes and 
of Jargeau, captain-general of the queen s gens d armes and 
governor of the Bastille; in 1604 governor of Poitou; and in 
1606 duke and peer of Sully, ranking next to princes of the 
blood. He declined the office of constable because he would 
not become a Roman Catholic. Sully encouraged agriculture, 
urged the free circulation of produce, promoted stock-raising, 
forbade the destruction of the forests, drained swamps, built 
roads and bridges, planned a vast system of canals and 
actually began the canal of Briare. He strengthened the French 
military establishment; under his direction Evrard began the 
construction of a great line of defences on the frontiers. Sully 
opposed the king s colonial policy as inconsistent with the French 
genius, and likewise showed little favour to industrial pursuits, 
although on the urgent solicitation of the king he established 
a few silk factories* He fought in company with Henry IV. 
in Savoy (1600-1601) and negotiated the treaty of peace in 
1602; in 1603 he represented Henry at the court of James I. 
of England; and throughout the reign he helped the king to 
put down insurrections of the nobles, whether Roman Catholic 
or Protestant. It was Sully, too, who arranged the marriage 
between Henry IV. and Marie de Medicis. 

The political r61e of Sully practically ended with the assassi 
nation of Henry IV. on the i4th of May 1610. Although a 
member of the council of regency, his colleagues were not dis 
posed to brook his domineering leadership, and after a stormy 

debate he resigned as superintendent of finances on the 26th 
of January 1611, and retired to private life. The queen- 
mother gave him 300,000 livres for his services and confirmed him 
in possession of his estates. He attended the estates-general 
in 1614, and on the whole was in sympathy with the policy and 
government of Richelieu. He disavowed the plots at La 
Rochelle, in 1621, but in the following year was arrested at 
Moulins, though soon released. The baton of marshal of 
France was conferred on him on the i8th of September 1634. 
The last years of his life were spent chiefly at Villebon, Rosny 
and Sully. He died at Villebon, on the 22nd of December 
1641. By his first wife Sully had one son, Maximilien, 
marquis de Rosny (1587-1634), who led a life of dissipation 
and debauchery. By his second wife, Rachel de Cochefilet, 
widow of the lord of Chateaupers, whom he married in 1592 
and who turned Protestant to please him, he had nine children, 
of whom six died young, and one daughter married in 1605 
Henri de Rohan. 

Sully was not popular. He was hated by most Roman 
Catholics because he was a Protestant, by most Protestants 
because he was faithful to the king, and by all because he was 
a favourite, and selfish, obstinate and rude. He amassed a large 
personal fortune, and his jealousy of all other ministers and 
favourites was extravagant. Nevertheless he was an excellent 
man of business, inexorable in punishing malversation and 
dishonesty on the part of others, and opposed to the ruinous 
court expenditure which was the bane of almost all European 
monarchies in his day. He was gifted with executive ability, 
with confidence and resolution, with fondness for work, and 
above all with deep devotion to his master. He was implicitly 
trusted by Henry IV. and proved himself the most able 
assistant of the king in dispelling the chaos into which the 
religious and civil wars had plunged France. To Sully, next 
to Henry IV., belongs the credit for the happy transformation 
in France between 1598 and 1610 by which agriculture and 
commerce were benefited and foreign peace and internal order 
were maintained. 

Sully left a curious collection of memoirs written in the second 
person and bearing the quaint title, Memoires des sages et royales 
(Economies ^d estat, domestiques, politiques, et militaires de Henry 
le Grand, I exemplaire des roys, le prince des vertus, des armes, et des 
loix, et le pere en effet de ses peuples franQois; et des servitudes utiles, 
obissances^ convenables, et administrations loyales de Maxim, de 
Bethune, I un des plus confidens, familiers, et utiles soldats et serviteurs 
du grand Mars des Francois: dediees a la France, a tons les bans 
soldats, et tons peuples frangois. The memoirs are very valuable 
for the history of the time and as an autobiography cf Sully, in spite 
of the fact that they contain many fictions, such as a mission under 
taken by Sully to Queen Elizabeth in 1601, and the famous " Grand 
Design," a plan for a Christian republic, which some historians 
have taken seriously. Two folio volumes of the memoirs were 
splendidly printed, nominally at Amsterdam, but really under 
Sully s own eye, at his chatrau in 1638; two other volumes appeared 
posthumously in Paris in 1662. The abb6 de 1 Ecluse rewrote the 
memoirs in ordinary narrative form and edited them in 1745. The 
best edition of the original is that in J. F. Michaud and J. J. F. 
Poujoulat, Nouvelle collection des memoires relatifs a I histoire de 
France (1854), vols. xvi.-xvii. An English translation by Charlotte 
Lennox appeared in 1756 and was later revised and republished 
(4 vols., London, 1856). 

See E. Lavisse, Sully (Paris, 1880); L. Dussieux, tude bio- 
graphique sur Sully (Paris, 1887) ; G. Fagniez, Economie sociale de la 
France sous Henri IV. (Paris, 1897); B. L. H. Martin, Trois grands 
ministres. Sully, Richelieu et Colbert (Paris, 1898); E. Lavisse, ed. 
Histoire de France (Paris, 1905), vol. vi. ; P. Robiquet, Histoire muni- 
cipale de Paris, vol. iii. Histoire de Henri IV. (Paris, 1904) ; E. Bonnal, 
L Economie polilique au XVI siecle: Sully economiste (Paris, 1872) ; 
\. Gourdault, Sully et son temps (Tours, 1873); T. Kukelhaus, Der 
Ursprung des Planes vom ewigen Frieden in den Memoiren des 
Herzogs von Sully (Berlin, 1892); C. Pfister, "Les CEconomies 
oyales de Sully et le grand dessein de Henri IV." in Revue 
historique (1894), vols. liv.-lvi. ; Desclozeaux, " Gabrielle d Estre es et 
Sully " in Revue historique (1887), vol. xxxiii. (C. H. HA). 

SULLY, THOMAS (1783-1872), American artist, was born at 
Horncastle, England, on the 8th of June 1 783. His parents, who 
were actors, took him to America when he was nine years old, 
settling at Charleston, South Carolina, and he was first instructed 
n art by a French miniature painter. Afterwards he was a 



pupil of Gilbert Stuart in Boston, and in 1809 he went to London 
and entered the studio of Benjamin West. He returned in 
1810, and made Philadelphia his home, but in 1837 again visited 
London, where he painted a full length portrait of Queen 
Victoria for the St George s Society of Philadelphia. Sully 
was one of the best of the early American painters. He died 
in Philadelphia on the 5th of November 1872. Among his por 
traits are those of Commodore Decatur (City Hall, New York) ; 
the actor George Frederick Cooke, as Richard III. (Pennsylvania 
Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadephia); Lafayette (Indepen 
dence Hall); Thomas Jefferson (U.S. Military Academy, West 
Point, New York); Charles and Frances Anne Kemble, and 
Reverdy Johnson. His son ALFRED SULLY (1821-1879) an officer 
in the United States army, was a brigade-commander in the 
Army of the Potomac in 1862-63, and after 1863 commanded 
the department of Dakota and conducted several campaigns 
against hostile Indians in the north-west. In 1865 he was 
breveted brigadier-general in the regular army and major- 
general of volunteers. 

HOMME (1839-1907), French poet, was born in Paris on the 
i6th of March 1839. He was educated at the Lycee Bonaparte, 
where after a time he took his degree as Bachelier es Sciences. 
An attack of ophthalmia then interrupted his studies and 
necessitated an entire change in the course of his career. The 
scientific habit of mind, however, which he had derived from 
these years of technical study never left him; and it is in the 
combination of this scientific bent, with a soul aspiring towards 
what lies above and beyond science, and a conscience per 
petually in agitation, that the striking originality of Sully- 
Prudhomme s character is to be found. He found employment 
for a time in the Schneider factory at Creuzot, but he soon 
abandoned an occupation to which he was eminently unsuited. 
He subsequently decided to read law, and entered a notary s 
office at Paris. It was during this period that he composed 
those early poems which were not long in acquiring celebrity 
among an ever-widening circle of friends. In 1865 he pub 
lished his first volume of poems, which had for sub-title Stances 
et poemes. This volume was favourably reviewed by Sainte- 
Beuve, to whose notice it had been brought by Gaston Paris. 
It was at this moment that the small circle of which Leconte de 
Lisle was the centre were preparing the Parnasse, to which 
Sully-Prudhomme contributed several pieces. In 1866 Lemerre 
published a new edition of the Stances et poemes and a collection 
of sonnets entitled Les Epreuves (1866). From this time 
forward Sully-Prudhomme devoted his life entirely to poetry. 
It was in the volume of Les Epreuves that the note of melancholy 
which was to dominate through the whole work of his life was 
first clearly discernible. In 1869 he published a translation of 
the first book of Lucretius with a preface, and Les Solitudes. 
In 1870 a scries of domestic bereavements and a serious paralytic 
illness resulting from the strain and fatigue of the winter of 
1870, during which he served in the Garde Mobile, shattered 
his health. In 1872 he published Les Ecuries d augias, Croquis 
italiens, Impressions de la guerre (1866-72) and Les Destins, 
La Revolte des heurs in 1874, in 1875 Les Values tendresses, 
in 1878 La Justice, in 1886 Le Prisme, and in 1888 Le Bonheur. All 
these poems were collected and republished under the title of 
Poesies, occupying four volumes of his (Euirres (6 vols., 1883- 
1904). After the publication of Le Bonheur he practically ceased 
to produce verse, and devoted himself almost entirely to philo 
sophy. He published two volumes of prose criticism L expression 
dans les beaux arts (1884) and Reflexions sur I art des vers 
(1892). Various monographs by him appeared from time to 
time in the philosophical reviews, and among them a remarkable 
series of essays (Revue des deux mondes, Oct. 15th, Nov. isth, 
1890) on Pascal, and a valuable study on the " Psychologic 
du libre arbitre " in the Revue de metaphysique et de morale (1906). 
He was elected to the Academy on the 8th of December 1881. 
On the loth of December 1901 he was awarded the Nobel prize 
for literature, and devoted most of the money to the foundation 
of a prize for poetry to be awarded by the Societe de gens de 

lettres. He was one of the earliest champions of Captain 
Dreyfus. In 1902 he wrote, in collaboration with Charles Richet, 
Le Probleme des causes finales. During his later years he lived 
at Chatenay in great isolation, a victim of perpetual ill-health, 
and mainly occupied with his Vraie religion selon Pascal (1905). 
He had been partially paralysed for some time when he died 
suddenly on the 6th of September 1907. He left a volume of 
unpublished verse and a prose work, Le Lien social, which was 
a revision of an introduction which he had contributed to 
Michelet s La Bible de I humanite. 

What strikes the reader of Sully-Prudhomme s poetry first 
and foremost is the fact that he is a thinker; and moreover a 
poet who thinks, and not a thinker who turns to rhyme for 
recreation. The most strikingly original portion of his work 
is to be found in his philosophic and scientific poetry. If he 
has not the scientific genius of Pascal, he has at least the 
scientific habit of mind and a delight in mathematic certainties. 
In attempting to interpret the universe as science reveals it to 
us he has created a new form of poetry which is not lacking 
in a certain grandeur. One of his most beautiful poems, 
L Ideal " (Stances et potmes), is inspired by the thought, which 
is due to scientific calculations, of stars so remote from our 
planet that their light has been on its way to us since thousands 
of centuries and will one day be visible to the eyes of a future 
generation. The second chief characteristic of Sully-Prud 
homme s poetry is the extreme sensibility of soul, the pro 
foundly melancholy note which we find in his love lyrics and 
his meditations. Sully-Prudhomme is above all things intro 
spective; he penetrates into the hidden corners of his heart; 
he lays bare the subtle torments of his conscience, the shifting 
currents of his hopes and fears, belief and disbelief in face of 
the riddle of the universe to an extent so poignant as to be 
sometimes almost painful. And to render the fugitive phases 
and tremulous adventures of his spirit he finds incomparably 
delicate shades of expression, an exquisite and sensitive diction. 
We are struck in reading his poems by the nobility of his ideas, 
by a religious elevation like that of Pascal; for there is in his 
work something both of Lucretius and of Pascal. Yet he is 
far from being either an Epicurean or a Jansenist; he is rather 
a Stoic to whom the deceptions of life have brought pity instead 
of bitterness. 

As an artist Sully-Prudhomme is remarkable for the entire 
absence of oratorical effect; for the extreme simplicity and fas 
tidious precision of his diction. Other poets have been endowed 
with a more glowing imagination; his poetry is neither exuberant 
in colour nor rich in sonorous harmonies of rhyme. The grace 
of his verse is a grace of outline and not of colour, his melody 
one of subtle rhythm ; his verse is as if carved in ivory, his music 
like that of a perfect unison of stringed instruments. His 
imagination is inseparable from his ideas, and this is the reason 
of the extraordinary perspicuity of his poetic style. He extends 
poetry to two extreme limits; on the one hand to the borderland 
of the unreal and the dreamlike, as in a poem such as " Le 
Rendezvous " (Vaines tendresses), in which he seems to express 
the inexpressible in precise language; on the other hand, in his 
scientific poems he encroaches on the province of prose. His 
poetry is plastic in the creation of forms which fittingly express 
his fugitive emotions and his elevated ideas. Both by the 
charm of his pure and perfect phrase, by his consummate art, 
and the dignity which informs all his work, Sully-Prudhomme 
deserves rank among the foremost of modern poets. (E. G.) 

See C. H6mon, La Philosophic de Sully-Prudhomme (1907), Sully- 
Prudhomme by E. Zyromski (Paris 1907). 

SULMONA, or SOLMONA (anc. Sulmo), a city and episcopal 
see of the Abruzzi, Italy, in the province of Aquila, 40 m. by 
rail S.E. by E. of that town, and 107 m. E. by N. of Rome 
(75 m. direct). Pop. (1901), 13,372 (town), 18,247 (commune). 
Sulmona is situated at a height of 1322 ft. above the sea on the 
Gizio, a tributary of the Pescara, which supplies water-power 
to its paper-mills, fulling-mills and copper-works. Its cathedral 
of San Panfilio has a 14th-century portal. The interior has been 
modernized, but in the crypt are some medieval sculptures. 



Sulmona has also in S. Maria della Tomba a good example of 
pure Gothic. S. Francesco d Assisi occupies the site of an 
older and larger church, the Romanesque portal of which still 
stands at the end of the Corso Ovidio, and forms the entrance 
to the meat market. Opposite is a picturesque aqueduct of 
1266 with pointed arches. S. Agostino has a good Gothic portal. 
The Ospedale Civico, next to the church of the Annunziata, 
begun in the first half of the isth century, shows an interesting 
mixture of Gothic and Renaissance styles. The window of 
the Palazzo Tabassi is similar, and both are due to Lombard 
masters. In the court of the grammar school is a fine 15th- 
century statue of Ovid, the most celebrated native of the town, 
whose memory is preserved among the peasants in songs and 
folk-lore. The Porta Napoli is an interesting gate of the early 
I4th century. Innocent VII. was a native of the town. In 
the vicinity of the town is Monte Morrone where Pietro di 
Morone lived (c. 1254) as a hermit and founded a monastery 
for his hermits, who after his elevation to the papacy as Celes- 
tine V. took the name of Celestines; the monastery (S. Spirito) 
remained till 1870, when it was transformed into a prison. 
There are some ruins of the imperial period, attributed, ground- 
lessly, to the house of Ovid near it. The church contains a 
Gothic tomb of 1412 by a German master, in which Renaissance 
influence is, according to Burckhardt, traceable for the first 
time in south Italy in the realistic characterization of the 
portrait figures. 

Sulmo, a city of the Paeligni, is first mentioned during the 
Second Punic War (211 B.C.). It was the second town of the 
Paeligni in importance, Corfinium coming first. It became a 
Roman colony probably in the reign of Augustus, and as a muni- 
cipium it continued to flourish throughout the empire. It was 
situated 7 m. south-east of Corfinium on the road to Aesernia, 
and was famous for its ironsmiths. Hardly any remains of the 
ancient city exist above ground, owing to frequent earth 
quakes. A number of discoveries of tombs (both archaic and of 
the Roman period), &c., have however been made (cf. A. de 
Nino, in Notizie degliScavi, passim). Charles V. erected it into 
a principality, which he bestowed on Charles Lannoy, who had 
captured Francis I. at the battle of Pavia. It ultimately 
passed to the Corno and Borghese families. The bishopric is 
known as that of Valva and Sulmona. 

SULPHONAL, or acetone diethyl sulphone (CH 3 ) 2 C(SO2C2H 6 ) 2 , 
a valuable hypnotic prepared by condensing acetone with 
ethyl mercaptan in the presence of hydrochloric acid, the mer- 
captol (CH3)2C(SC 2 H 6 )2 formed being subsequently oxidized by 
potassium permanganate (E. Baumann, Ber., 1886, 19, p. 2808). 
It is also formed by the action of alcoholic potash and methyl 
iodide on ethylidene diethyl sulphine, CH3-CH(SO 2 C 2 H 5 )2 
(which is formed by the oxidation of dithioacetal with 
potassium permanganate). It crystallizes in prisms melting 
at 125 C., which are practically insoluble in cold water, but 
dissolve in 15 parts of hot and also in alcohol and ether. 

It is the stdphonalum of the B.P., and the sulphomethanum 
of the U.S. P. It produces lengthened sleep in functional 
nervous insomnia, and is also useful in insanity, being given with 
mucilage of acacia or in hot liquids, owing to its insolubility, 
or in large capsules. Its hypnotic power is not equal to that 
of chloral, but as it is not a depressant to the heart or respiration 
it can be used when morphine or chloral are contra-indicated. 
It is, however, very uncertain in its action, often failing to 
produce sleep when taken at bedtime, but producing 
drowsiness and sleep the following day. The drowsiness the 
next day following a medicinal dose can be avoided by a saline 
laxative the morning after its administration. It is unwise to 
use it continuously for more than a few days at a time, as it 
tends to produce the sulphonal habit, which is attended by 
marked toxic effects, disturbances of digestion, giddiness, 
staggering gait and even paralysis of the lower extremities. 
These effects are accompanied by skin eruptions, and the urine 
becomes of a dark red colour (haematoporphinuria). Sulphonal 
is cumulative in its effects. Many fatal cases of sulphonal 
poisoning are on record, both from chronic poisoning and from 

a single large dose. Trional (CH 3 )(C 2 H 6 )C(S0 2 C 2 H 6 )2, and 
tetronal, (C2H 5 ) 2 C(S0 2 C 2 H 6 ) 2 , are also hypnotics. They are 
faster in action than sulphonal, and trional does not disorder 
the digestion. 

SULPHONIC ACIDS, in organic chemistry, a group of com 
pounds of the type R-S0 3 H, where R is an alkyl or an aryl 

Aliphatic Sulphonic Acids. The members of this class may 
be prepared by the direct sulphonation of some paraffins (I. 
Worstali, Amer. Chem. Journ., 1898, 20, p. 664) , by the oxidation 
of mercaptans with concentrated nitric acid (H. Kopp, Ann., 
!840, 35, P- 346) ; in the form of their salts from the alkyl halides 
and alkaline sulphites, and as esters from the alkyl halides and 
silver sulphite. They are colourless oils or crystalline solids 
which are extremely hygroscopic, very soluble in water and 
have a strongly acid reaction. They are unaffected by heating 
with aqueous alkalis or acids and are stable towards concentrated 
nitric acid. Phosphorus pentachloride converts them into the 
corresponding acid chlorides, R-SO 2 C1, which are decomposed 
slowly by water. These chlorides, on reduction by zinc and 
sulphuric acid, pass readily into the mercaptans, whilst if zinc 
dust and alcohol be used they are converted into the sulphinic 
acids, R-SO 2 H. 

Methyl sulphonic acid, CH 3 -SO 3 H, was obtained by H. Kolbe 
{"**:>. I8 r 45. 54. P- 174) by reducing trichloromethyl sulphonic 
chloride (formed from chlorine and carbon bisulphide in the presence 
of water: C&+5C1 2 +2H 2 = CC1 3 .S0 2 C1+4HC1+SC1 2 ) with sodium 
amalgam. o It is a colourless syrup which decomposes when heated 
above 130 C. The corresponding acid chloride is an extremely 
stable solid which melts at 135 C. It is formed by the action of 
carbon bisulphide on potassium bichromate in the presence of 
nitric and hydrochloric acids (Loew, Zeit. f. Chem., 1869, p. 82) 
When heated under pressure it decomposes with the final produc 
tion of carbonyl and thionyl chlorides: CC1 3 -SO 2 C1 = CCU+SO 2 = 
-OC1 2 +SOC1 2 . Ethyl sulphonic acid, C 2 H 6 -SO 3 H, is a crystalline deli 
quescent solid formed by oxidizing ethyl mercaptan or by reducing 
vmyl sulphonic acid, CH 2 :CH-SO 3 H (Kohler, Amer. Chem. Journ 
1898, 20, p. 687). 

Thiosulphonic acids of the type R-SO 2 -SH are formed by the 
action of the sulphochlorides on a concentrated solution of potassium 
sulphide: R-S0 2 C1 + K 2 S = R-SO 2 K+S + KC1=KC1+R-SO 2 -SK- 
or by the action of the salt of a sulphinic acid on an alkaline sulphide 
in the presence of iodine (Otto, Ber., 1891, 24, p. 144). 

_ Aromatic Sulphonic Acids. The acids of this group are very 
similar to the corresponding aliphatic ^sulphonic acids and are 
usually obtained by the direct heating of an aromatic hydro 
carbon with concentrated sulphuric acid, fuming sulphuric acid 
or sulphur chlorhydrin. After the action is completed they 
may frequently be " salted out " by adding common salt to 
the acid solution until no more dissolves, when the sodium salt 
of the acid separates (L. Gattermann, Ber., 1891, 24, p. 2121). 
They are also formed by oxidizing thiophenols or by decompos 
ing diazonium salts with sulphurous acid. The free acids are 
usually hygroscopic, crystalline solids which are readily soluble 
in water. When heated under pressure with concentrated 
hydrochloric acid to about 150 C. they yield hydrocarbons 
and sulphuric acid. The salts usually crystallize well, and 
those of the alkali metals are employed in the preparation of 
phenols, .into which they pass when fused with the caustic 
alkalis. When distilled with potassium cyanide they yield the 
aromatic nitriles. The sulphonic acids with phosphorus penta 
chloride are converted into sulphochlorides which are stable 
to cold water, but with ammonia they yield sulphonamides, 
R-SO 2 NH 2 , and with alcohols esters of the sulphonic acids. 

Benzene sulphonic acid, C 6 H 6 -SO 3 H,liH 2 O, crystallizes in small 
plates and is very deliquescent. Benzene sulphochloride, C 6 H 6 SO 2 C1, 
is a colourless fuming liquid which boils at 120 C. (10 mm ) The 
ammobenzene sulphonic acids, particularly the meta and para 
compounds, are of importance owing to their employment in the 
colour industry. The direct sulphonation of aniline yields the para 
acid, sulphamhc acid, C 6 H 4 (NH 2 )(SO 3 H), which crystallizes in small 
plates and is sparingly soluble in cold water. When fused with 
caustic potash it yields aniline, whilst oxidation with chromic acid 
yields benzoqumone. In constitution it is probably to be regarded 

3 , 

as a cyclic ammonium salt, C 6 H, 

When diazotized in 


acid solution and coupled with dimethyl aniline it yields helianthine, 



the sodium salt of which is used as an indicator (q.v.). Metanilic 
acid C 6 H4(NH 2 ) (SOsH) [1.3], which crystallizes in prisms, is formed 
by the reduction of meta-nitrobenzene sulphonic acid and is used 
in the preparation of various azo dyes. 

Sulphinic acids, R-S0 2 H, are formed by reducing sulpho- 
chlorides with zinc dust; by the action of sulphur dioxide on 
the zinc aikyls (Hobson, Ann, 1857, 102, p. 72; 1858, 106, p. 
287) ; by the action of sulphochlorides on mercaptans in alkaline 
solution; and by the action of the Grignard reagent on sulphur 
dioxide or thionyl chloride (Rosenheim, Ber., 1904, 37, p. 2152; 
Oddo, R. Accad. Lin., 1905 (5), 14 (i.), p. 169). The free acids 
are unstable. They are readily oxidized to sulphonic acids 
and reduced to mercaptans. Their alkali salts on treatment 
with the alkyl halides yield sulphones, R 2 SO 2 . Ethyl sulphinic 
acid, C 2 H 6 -SO 2 H, is a colourless syrup. Benzene sulphinic acid, 
C 6 H 5 -SO 2 H, crystallizes in large prisms and acts as a reducing 
agent. It decomposes when heated with water under pressure: 
3C 6 H 6 -S0 2 H = C6H 6 -S02H+C6H5-S0 2 -S-C 6 H 6 +H 2 0. The potas 
sium salt when fused with caustic potash yields benzene and 
potassium sulphite. 

SULPHUR [symbol S, atomic weight 32-07 (0 = i6)], a 
non-metallic chemical element, known from very remote times 
and regarded by the alchemists, on account of its inflammable 
nature, as the principle of combustion; it is also known as 
brimstone (q.v.). The element occurs widely and abundantly 
distributed in nature both in the free state and in combination. 
Free or native sulphur, known also as " virgin sulphur," occurs 
in connexion with volcanoes and in certain stratified rocks in 
several modes, viz. as crystals, and as stalactitic, encrusting, 
reniform, massive, earthy and occasionally pulverulent forms as 
" sulphur meal." It seems rather doubtful whether the unstable 
monoclinic modification of sulphur (/3-sulphur) is ever found 
in a native state. 

The crystals belong to the orthorhombic system, and have usually 
a pyramidal habit (fig.), but may be sphenoidal or tabular. Twins 
are rare. The cleavage is imperfect, but there is 
a well-marked conchoidal fracture. The hardness 
ranges from about I to 2, and the from I -9 to 2 -I. 
Crystals of sulphur are transparent or translucent and 
highly refractive with strong birefringence; they 
have a resinous or slightly adamantine lustre, and 
present the characteristic sulphur-yellow colour. 
Impurities render the mineral grey, greenish or red 
dish, bituminous matter being often present in the 
massive varieties. Sulphur containing selenium, 
such as occurs in the isle of Vulcano in the Lipari Isles, may be 
orange-red; and a similar colour is seen in sulphur which contains 
arsenic sulphide, such as that from La Solfatara near Naples. The 
presence of tellurium in native sulphur is rare, but is known in 
certain specimens from Japan. 

Volcanic sulphur usually occurs as a sublimate around or on the 
walls of the vents, and has probably been formed in many cases 
by the interaction of sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. Sub 
limed sulphur also results from the spontaneous combustion of 
coal seams containing pyrites. Deposits of sulphur are frequently 
formed by the decomposition of hydrogen sulphide, on exposure 
to the atmosphere: hence natural sulphureous waters, especially 
hot springs, readily deposit sulphur. The reduction of sulphates 
to sulphides by means of organic matter, probably through the 
agency of sulphur-bacteria, may also indirectly furnish sulphur, and 
hence it is frequently found in deposits of gypsum. Free sulphur 
may also result from the decomposition of pyrites, as in pyritic 
shales and lignites, or from the alteration of galena: thus crystals 
of sulphur occur, with anglesite, in cavities in galena at Mpnteponi 
near Iglesias in Sardinia; whilst the pyrites of Rio Tinto in Spain 
sometimes yield sulphur on weathering. It should be noted that 
the oxidation of sulphur itself by atmospheric influence may give 
rise to sulphuric acid, which in the presence of limestone will form 
gypsum: thus the sulphur-deposits of Sicily suffer alteration of this 
kind, and have their outcrop marked by a pale earthy gypseous 
rock called briscale. 

Some of the most important deposits of sulphur in the world 
are worked in Sicily, chiefly in the provinces of Caltanisetta 
and Girgenti, as at Racalmuto and Cattolica; and to a less 
extent in the provinces of Catania, Palermo (Lercara) and 
Trapani (Gibellina). The sulphur occurs in Miocene marls 
and limestone, associated with gypsum, celestine, aragonite 
and calcite. It was formerly believed that the sulphur had a 
volcanic origin, but it is now generally held that it has either 

been reduced from gypsum by organic agencies, or more pro 
bably deposited from sulphur-bearing waters. Liquid occasion 
ally enclosed in the sulphur and gypsum has been found by O. 
Silvestri and by C. A. H. Sjogren to contain salts like those of 
sulphur-springs. An important zone of sulphur-bearing Miocene 
rocks occurs on the east side of the Apennines, constituting a 
great part of the province of Forli and part of Pesaro, Cesena 
and Perticara are well-known localities in this district, the latter 
yielding crystals coated with asphalt. Sulphur is occasionally 
found crystallized in Carrara marble; and the mineral occurs 
also in Calabria. Fine crystals occur at Conil near Cadiz; 
whilst in the province of Teruel in Aragon, sulphur in a compact 
form replaces fresh-water shells and plant-remains, suggesting 
its origin from sulphur-springs. Nodular forms of sulphur 
occur in Miocene marls near Radoboj in Croatia, and near 
Swoszowic, south of Cracow. Russia possesses large deposits 
of sulphur in Daghestan in Transcaucasia, and in the Transcas- 
pian steppes. Important deposits of sulphur are worked at 
several localities in Japan, especially at the Kosaka mine in the 
province of Rikuchiu, and at Yatsukoda-yama, in the province 
of Mutsu. Sulphur is worked in Chile and Peru. A complete 
list of localities for sulphur would include all the volcanic regions 
of the world. In the United States, sulphur occurs in the 
following states, in many of which the mineral has been worked: 
Louisiana (q.v.), Utah, Colorado, California, Nevada, Alaska, Idaho, 
Texas and Wyoming. The Rabbit Hole sulphur-mines are in 
Nevada, and a great deposit in Utah occurs at Cove Creek, 
Beaver county. In the British Islands native sulphur is only 
a mineralogical rarity, but it occurs in the Carboniferous 
Limestone of Oughterard in Co. Galway, Ireland. 1 

In combination the element chiefly occurs as metallic sul 
phides and sulphates. The former are of great commercial 
importance, being, in most cases, valuable ores, e.g. copper 
pyrites (copper), galena (lead), blende (zinc), cinnabar (mer 
cury), &c. Of the sulphates we notice gypsum and anhydrite 
(calcium), barytes (barium) and kieserite (magnesium). Gaseous 
compounds, e.g. sulphur dioxide and sulphuretted hydrogen, 
are present in volcanic exhalations (see VOLCANO) and in many 
mineral waters. The element also occurs in the animal and 
vegetable kingdoms. It is present in hair and wool, and in 
albuminous bodies; and is also a constituent of certain vegetable 
oils, such as the oils of garlic and mustard. There is, in addition, 
a series of bacteria which decompose sulphureous compounds 
and utilize the element thus liberated in their protoplasm (see 

Extraction: As quarried or mined free sulphur is always 
contaminated with limestone, gypsum, clay, &c.; the principle 
underlying its extraction from these impurities K one of simple 
liquation, i.e. the element is melted, either by the heat of its 
own combustion or other means, and runs off from the earthy 

In the simplest and crudest method, as practised in Sicily, a mass 
of the ore is placed in a hole in the ground and fired ; after a time 
.the heat melts a part of the sulphur which runs down to the bottom 
of the hole and is then ladled out. This exceptionally wasteful 
process, in which only one-third of the sulphur is recovered, has been 
improved by conducting the fusion in a sort of kiln. A semicircular 
or semi-elliptical pit (calcarone) about 33 ft. in diameter and 8 ft. deep 
is dug into the slope of a hill, and the sides are coated with a wall 
of stone. The sole consists of two halves slanting against each other, 
the line of intersection forming a descending gutter which runs to 
the outlet. This outlet having been closed by small stones and 
sulphate of lime cement, the pit is filled with sulphur ore, which is 
heaped up considerably beyond the edge of the pit and covered with 
a layer of burnt-out ore. In building up the heap a number of 
narrow vertical passages are left to afford a draught for the fire. 
The ore is kindled from above and the fire so regulated (by making 
or unmaking air-holes in the covering) that, by the heat produced 

1 References. A very full article (" Zolfo ") by G. Aichino, of the 
Geological Survey of Italy, will be found in the Encyclopedia delle 
arte e Industrie (Turin, 1898). This includes a full bibliography. 
See also J. F. Kemp in Rothwell s Mineral Industry (1893), vol. ii. ; 
Jules Brunfaut, De I Exploitation des spufres (2nd ed., 1874) : Georgio 
Spezia, Sull origine del solfo net giacementi solfiferi della Sicilia 
(Turin, 1892). For Japanese sulphur see T. Wada, Minerals of 
Japan (Tokyo, 1904). 



by the combustion of the least sufficient quantity of sulphur, the 
rest is liquefied. The molten sulphur accumulates on the sole, 
whence it is from time to time run out into a square stone receptacle, 
from which it is ladled into damp poplar-wood moulds and so brought 
into the shape of truncated cones weighing no to 130 Ib each. 
These cakes are sent out into commerce. A calcarone with a capacity 
of 28,256 cub. ft. burns for about two months, and yields about 
200 tons of sulphur. The yield is about 50%. The immense 
volumes of sulphurous acid evolved give rise to many complaints; 
all the minor pits suspend work during the summer to avoid destruc 
tion of the crops. A calcarone that is to be used all the year round 
must be at least 220 yds. from any inhabited place and.iio yds. 
from any field under cultivation. 

More efficient is the Gill kiln which uses coke as a fuel. The kiln 
consists of two (or more) connected cells which are both charged 
with the ore. The first cell is heated and the products of combustion 
are led into the second cell where they give up part of their heat 
to the contained ore, so that by the time the first cell is exhausted 
the mass in the second cell is at a sufficiently high temperature to 
ignite spontaneously when air is admitted. Other methods have 
been employed, but with varying commercial success. For example, 
in the Gritti and Orlando processes the ore is charged into retorts 
and the fusion effected by superheated steam, the sulphur being 
run off as usual; or as was suggested by R. E. Bollman in 1867 the 
ore may be extracted by carbon bisulphide. 

Crude sulphur, as obtained from kilns, contains about 3% of 
earthy impurities, and consequently needs refining. The following 
apparatus (invented originally by Michel of Marseilles and improved 
subsequently by others) enables the manufacturer to produce either 
of two forms of " refined " sulphur which commerce demands. It 
consists of a large stone chamber which communicates directly 
with two slightly slanting tubular retorts of iron. The retorts are 
.charged with molten sulphur from an upper reservoir, which is kept 
at the requisite temperature by means of the lost heat of the retort 
fires. The chamber has a safety value at the top of its vault, which 
is so balanced that the least surplus pressure from within sends it 
up. The first puff of sulphur vapour which enters the chamber 
takes fire and converts the air of the chamber into a mixture of nitro 
gen and sulphur dioxide. The next following instalments of vapour, 
getting diffused throughout a large mass of relatively cold gas, 
condense into a kind of " snow," known in commerce and valued 
as " flowers of sulphur " (flares sulphuris). By conducting the 
distillation slowly, so that the temperature within the chamber 
remains at a sufficiently low degree, it is possible to obtain the whole 
of the product in the form of "flowers." If compact ("roll") 
sulphur is wanted the distillation is made to go on at the quickest 
admissible rate. The temperature of the interior of the chamber 
soon rises to more than the fusing-point of sulphur (113 C.), and 
the distillate accumulates at the bottom as a liquid, which is tapped 
off from time to time to be cast into the customary form of rods. 

The Louisiana deposits are worked by a process devised by Herman 
Frasch in 1891. It consists in sinking a bore-hole, after the manner 
of a petroleum well, and letting in four pipes centrally arranged, the 
outer pipe being 10 in. in diameter, the next 6 in., the next 3 in. and 
the innermost I in. The operation consists in forcing down the 3-in. 
pipe superheated steam at 330 F. to melt the sulphur. Compressed 
air is now driven down the i-in. pipe and bubbles into the melted 
sulphur and water ; the specific gravity of which is greatly diminished, 
so that it rises to the surface through the outer pipes; it is then run 
off to settling tanks. The sulphur so obtained is 98 % pure. 

In some places sulphur is extracted from iron pyrites by one of 
two methods. The pyrites is subjected to dry distillation from 
out of iron or fire-clay tubular retorts at a bright red heat. One- 
third of the sulphur is volatilized SFeSj = FesS 4 + 2S and 
obtained as a distillate. The second method is analogous to the 
calcarone method of liquation: the ore is placed in a limekiln-like 
furnace over a mass of kindled fuel to start a partial combustion of 
the mineral, and the process is so regulated that, by the heat gener 
ated, the unburnt part is decomposed with elimination of sulphur, 
which collects in the molten state on an inverted roof-shaped sole 
below the furnace and is thence conducted into a cistern. Such 
pyrites sulphur is usually contaminated with arsenic, and conse 
quently is of less value than Sicilian sulphur, which is characteris 
tically free from this impurity. 

Large quantities are also recovered from alkali waste (see ALKALI 
M ANUFACTURE) ; another source is the spent oxide of gas manufacture 
(see GAS). 

The substance known as " milk of sulphur " (lac sulphuris) is 
very finely divided sulphur produced by the following, or some 
analogous, chemical process. One part of quicklime is slaked with 
6 parts of water, and the paste produced diluted with 24 parts of 
water; 2-3 parts of flowers of sulphur are added; and the whole is 
boiled for about an hour or longer, when the sulphur dissolyes. The 
mixed solution of poiysulphides and thiosulphate of calcium thus 
produced is clarified, diluted largely, and then mixed with enough of 
pure dilute hydrochloric acid to produce a feebly alkaline mixture 
when sulphur is precipitated. The addition of more acid would 
produce an additional supply of sulphur (by the action of the HiS2O3 
on the dissolved H 2 S); but this thiosulphate sulphur is yellow and 
compact, while the polysulphide part has the desired qualities, 

forming an extremely fine, almost white, powder. The precipitate 
is washed, collected, and dried at a very moderate heat. 

Properties. Sulphur exists in several allotropic modifications, 
but before considering these systematically we will deal with the 
properties of ordinary (or rhombic) sulphur. Commercial 
sulphur forms yellow crystals which melt at 113 and boil at 
444-53 C. under ordinary pressure (H. L. Callendar, Chem. 
News, 1891, 63, p. i); just above the boiling point the vapour 
is orange-yellow, but on continued heating it darkens, being 
deep red at 500 ; at higher temperatures it lightens, becoming 
straw-yellow at 650. These colour changes are connected with 
a dissociation of the molecules. At 524 Dumas deduced the 
structure S 6 from vapour-density determinations, whilst for the 
range 860 to 1040, Sainte-Claire Deville and Troost deduced 
the formula S 2 . Biltz (Ber., 1888, 21, p. 2013; 1901, 34, p. 
2490) showed that the vapour density decreased with the tem 
perature, and also depended on the pressure. G. Preuner and 
W. Schupp (Zeit. phys. Chem., 1909, 69, p. 157), in a study of 
the dissociation isotherms over 3oo-85o, detected molecules of 
Sg, SB and 82, whilst Si appears to exist below pressures of 30 mm. 
Boiling and freezing-point determinations of the molecular 
weight in solution indicate the formula S 8 . The density of 
solid sulphur is 2-062 to 2-070, and the specific heat 0-1712; 
it is a bad conductor of electricity and becomes negatively 
electrified on friction. It ignites in air at 363 and in oxygen 
at 275-280 (H. Moissan, Compt. rend., 1903, 137, p. 547), 
burning with a characteristic blue flame and forming much 
sulphur dioxide, recognized by its pungent odour. At the same 
time a little trioxide is formed, and, according to Hempel 
(Ber., 1890, 23, p. 1455), half the sulphur is converted into this 
oxide if the combustion be carried out in oxygen at a pressure 
of 40 to 50 atmospheres. Sulphur also combines directly with 
most of the elements to form sulphides. The atomic weight 
was determined by Berzelius, Erdmann and Marchand, Dumas 
and Stas. Thomsen (Zeit. phys. Chem., 1894, 13, p. 726) 
obtained the value 32-0606. 

Allotropic Modifications. Sulphur assumes crystalline, amor 
phous and (possibly) colloidal forms. Historically the most 
important are the rhombic (S a ) and monoclinic (S/j) forms, 
discussed by E. Mitscherlich in 1822 (see Ann. Mm. phys., 
1823, 24, p. 264). The transformations of these two forms are 
discussed in CHEMISTRY: Physical. Rhombic sulphur may be 
obtained artificially by slowly crystallizing a solution of sulphur 
in carbon bisulphide, or, better, by exposing pyridine saturated 
with sulphuretted hydrogen to atmospheric oxidation (Ahrens, 
Ber., 1890, 23, p. 2708). It is insoluble in water, 1 but readily 
soluble in carbon bisulphide, sulphur chloride and oil of tur 
pentine. The common monoclinic variety is obtained by 
allowing a crust to form over molten sulphur by partially 
cooling it, and then breaking the crust and pouring off the 
still liquid portion, whereupon the interior of the vessel will 
be found coated with long needles of this variety. Like S it 
is soluble in carbon bisulphide. Three other monoclinic forms 
have been described. By acting upon a solution of sodium 
hyposulphite with potassium bisulphate, Gernez (Compt. rend., 
1884, 98, p. 144) obtained a form which he termed nacre (or 
pearly) sulphur; the same modification was obtained by Sabatier 
(ibid., 1885, loo, p. 1346) on shaking hydrogen persulphide 
with alcohol or ether. It is readily transformed into rhombic 
sulphur. Another form, mixed with the variety just described, 
is obtained by adding 3 to 4 volumes of alcohol to a solution 
of ammonium sulphide saturated with sulphur and exposing 
the mixture to air at about 5. EngePs monoclinic form 
(Compt. rend., 1891, 112, p. 866) is obtained by mixing a solution 
of sodium hyposulphite with double its volume of hydrochloric 
acid, filtering and extracting with chloroform; the extract 
yielding the variety on evaporation. A triclinic form is claimed 
to be obtained by Friedel (Bull. soc. chim., 1879, 32, p. 14) on 
subliming ordinary sulphur. 

1 It is a common practice of keepers of dogs to place a piece of roll 
sulphur in the animal s water but this serves no useful purpose 
owing to this property. 


Amorphous sulphur or Sy exists in two forms, one soluble in 
carbon bisulphide, the other insoluble. Milk of sulphur (see 
above), obtained by decomposing a polysulphide with an acid, 
contains both forms. The insoluble variety may also be obtained 
by decomposing sulphur chloride with water and by other re 
actions. It gradually transforms itself into rhombic sulphur. 

The colloidal sulphur, Si, described by Debus as a product 
of the interaction of sulphuretted hydrogen and sulphur dioxide 
in aqueous solution, is regarded by Spring (Rec. trav. chim., 
1906, 25, p. 253) as a hydrate of the formula Ss-HjO. The 
" blue sulphur," described by Orloff, has been investigated 
by Paterno and Mazzucchelli (Abs. Journ. Chem. Soc., 1907, 
ii. 45r). 

Molten Sulphur. Several interesting phenomena are witnessed 
when sulphur is heated above its melting point. The solid 
melts to a pale yellow liquid which on continued heating grad 
ually darkens and becomes more viscous, the maximum vis 
cosity occurring at 180, the product being dark red in colour. 
This change is associated with a change in the spectrum (N. 
Lockyer). On continuing the heating, the viscosity diminishes 
while the colour remains the same. If the viscous variety be 
rapidly cooled, or the more highly heated mass be poured into 
water, an elastic substance is obtained, termed plastic sulphur. 
This substance, however, on standing becomes brittle. The 
character of molten sulphur has been mainly elucidated by the 
researches of A. Smith and his collaborators. Smith (Abs. 
Journ. Client. Soc., 1907, ii. 20, 451, 757) regards molten sulphur 
as a mixture of two isomers Sx and S^ in dynamic equilibrium, 
Sx being light in colour and mobile, and S^ dark and viscous. At 
low temperatures Sx predominates, but as the temperature 
is raised S,* increases; the transformation, however, is retarded 
by some gases, e.g. sulphur dioxide and hydrochloric acid, 
and accelerated by others, e.g. ammonia. The solid derived 
from SA is crystalline and soluble in carbon bisulphide, that 
from S,/. is amorphous and insoluble. As to the formation of 
precipitated sulphur, Smith considers that the element first 
separates in the liquid S,u condition, which is transformed into 
Sx and finally into Sn; the insoluble (in carbon bisulphide) forms 
arise when little of the S^ has been transformed; whilst the 
soluble consist mainly of Sa. Similar views are adoptedjay H. 
Erdmann (Ann., 1908, 362, p. 133), but he regards S* as the 
polymer 83, analogous to ozone O 3 ; Smith, however, regards 
Sn as Sg. 


Sulphuretted hydrogen, H 2 S, a compound first examined by 
C. Scheele, may be obtained by heating sulphur in a current of 
hydrogen, combination taking place between 200 C. and 358 C., 
and being complete at the latter temperature, dissociation taking 
place above this temperature (M. Bodenstein, Zeit. phys. Chem., 
1899, 29, p. 315); by heating some metallic sulphides in a current 
of hydrogen; by the action of acids on various metallic sulphides 
(ferrous sulphide and dilute sulphuric acid being most generally 
employed) ; by the action of sulphur on heated paraffin wax or 
vaseline, or by heating a solution of magnesium sulphydrate. It 
is also produced during the putrefaction of organic substances 
containing sulphur and is found among the products obtained in 
the destructive distillation of coal. To obtain pure sulphuretted 
hydrogen the method generally adopted consists in decomposing 
precipitated antimony sulphide with concentrated hydrochloric 
acid. As an alternative, H. Moissan (Comp. rend., 1903, 137, p. 363) 
condenses the gas by means of liquid air and fractionates the product. 

Sulphuretted hydrogen is a colourless gas possessing an extremely 
offensive odour. It acts as a strong poison. It burns with a pale 
blue flame, forming sulphur dioxide and water. It is moderately 
soluble in water, the solution possessing a faintly acid reaction. 
This solution is not very stable, since on exposure to air it slowly 
oxidizes and becomes turbid owing to the gradual precipitation 
of sulphur. The gas is much more soluble in alcohol. It forms a 
hydrate of composition H 2 S-7H 2 O. (De Forcrand, Compt. rend., 
1888, 106, p. 1357.) The gas may be liquefied by a pressure of about 
17 atmospheres, the liquid so obtained boiling at 61-8 C. ; and 
by further cooling it yields a solid, the melting point of which is 
given by various observers as 82 to 86" C. (see Ladenburg, Ber., 
9OO, 33. P- 637). It is decomposed by the halogens, with liberation 
of sulphur. Concentrated sulphuric acid also decomposes it: 
HjSO 4 +H 2 S = 2H 2 O+SO 2 +S. It combines with many metals 
to form sulphides, and also decomposes many metallic salts with 
consequent production of sulphides, a property which renders it 

extremely useful in chemical analysis. It is frequently used as a 
reducing agent: in acid solutions it reduces ferric to ferrous salts, 
arsenates to arsenites, permanganates to manganpus salts, &c., 
whilst in alkaline solution it converts many organic nitro compounds 
into the corresponding amino derivatives. Oxidizing agents rapidly 
attack sulphuretted hydrogen, the primary products of the reaction 
being water and sulphur. 

By the action of dilute hydrochloric acid on metallic polysulphides, 
an oily product is obtained which C. L. Berthollet considered to 
be H 3 S 6 . L. Thenard, on the other hand, favoured the formula H 2 S2. 
It was also examined by W. Ramsay (Journ. Chem. Soc., 1874, 12, 
p. 857). Hofmann, who obtained it by saturating an alcoholic 
solution of ammonium sulphide with sulphur and mixing the product 
with an alcoholic solution of strychnine, considered the resulting 
product to be H 2 Ss; while P. Sabatier by fractionating the crude 
product in vacuo obtained an oi 1 which boiled between 60 and 
85 C. and possessed the composition H 4 S 5 . 

Several halogen compounds of sulphur are known, the most stable 
of which is sulphur fluoride, SFe, which was first prepared by H. 
Moissan and Lebeau (Compt. rend., 1900, 130, p. 865) by fractionally 
distilling the product formed in the direct action of fluorine on 
sulphur. It is tasteless, colourless and odourless gas, which is 
exceedingly stable and inert. It may be condensed and yields a 
solid which melts at 55 C. Sulphuretted hydrogen decomposes 
it with formation of hydrofluoric acid and liberation of sulphur. 
Sulphur chloride, SjCU, is obtained as a by-product in the manufac 
ture of carbon tetrachloride from carbon bisulphide and chlorine, and 
may also be prepared on the small scale by distilling sulphur in a 
chlorine gas, or by the action of sulphur on sulphuryl chloride in 
the presence of aluminium chloride (O. Ruff). It is an amber- 
coloured, fuming liquid possessing a very unpleasant irritating smell. 
It boils at 139 C. and is solid at 80 C. It is soluble in carbon 
bisulphide and in benzene. It is gradually decomposed by water: 
2S 2 C1 2 + 3H 2 O = 4HC1 + 2S + HjSjOs, the thiosulphuric acid pro 
duced in the primary reaction gradually decomposing into water, 
sulphur and sulphur dioxide. Sulphur chloride dissolves sulphur 
with great readiness and is consequently used largely for vulcanizing 
rubber; it also dissolves chlorine. The chloride SC1 2 according to 
the investigations of O. Ruff and Fischer (Ber., 1903, 36, p. 418) 
did not appear to exist, but E. Beckmann (Zeit. phys. Chem., 
1909, 42, p. 1839) obtained it by distilling the product of the 
interaction of chlorine and S 2 C1 2 at low pressures. The tetrachloride, 
SC1 4 , is formed by saturating S 2 Clz with chlorine at 22 C. (Michaelis, 
Ann., 1873, 170, p. i). It is a yellowish-brown liquid which dissoci 
ates rapidly with rise of temperature. On cooling it solidifies to 
a crystalline mass which fuses at 80 C. (Ruff, ibid.). Water 
decomposes it violently with formation of hydrochloric and sul 
phurous acids. Sulphur bromide, SjB^, is a dark red liquid which 
boils with decomposition at about 200 C. The products obtained 
by the action of iodine on sulphur are probably mixtures, although 
E. Mclvpr (Chem. News, 1902, 86, p. 5) obtained a substance of 
composition SsI 2 (which in all probability is a chemical individual) 
as a reddish-coloured powder by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen 
on a solution of iodine trichloride. 

Four oxides of sulphur are known, namely sulphur dioxide, SOj, 
sulphur trioxide, SO 3 , sulphur sesquioxide, SjOs, and persulphuric 
anhydride, S 2 O7. The dioxide has been known since the earliest 
times and is found as a naturally occurring product in the gaseous 
exhalations of volcanoes and in solution in Eome volcanic springs. 
It was first collected in the pure condition by J. Priestley in 1775 
and its composition determined somewhat later by A. L. Lavoisier. 
It is formed when sulphur is burned in air or in oxygen, or when 
many metallic sulphides are roasted. It may also be obtained 
by heating carbon, sulphur and many metals with concentrated 
sulphuric acid: C + 2H 2 SO 4 = 2SOj -f- CO 2 + 2H 2 O; S + 2H 2 SO,= 
3SO 2 + 2H 2 O; Cu + 2H 2 SO 4 = SO 2 + CuSO 4 + 2H 2 O; and by 
decomposing a sulphite, a thiosulphate or a thionic acid with a dilute 
mineral acid. It is a colourless gas which possesses a characteristic 
suffocating odour. It does not burn, neither does it support com 
bustion. It is readily soluble in alcohol and in water, the solution 
in water possessing a strongly acid reaction. It is easily liquefied, 
the liquid boiling at 8 C., and it becomes crystalline at 72-7 C. 
(Walden, Zeit. phys, Chem., 1902, 43, p. 432). Walden (ibid.) has 
shown that certain salts dissolve in liquid sulphur dioxide forming 
additive compounds, two of which have been prepared in the case 
of potassium iodide: a yellow crystalline solid of composition, 
KI-14-SOj, and a red solid of composition, KI-4SO 2 . It is decom- 

?osed by the influence of strong light or when strongly heated. 
t combines directly with chlorine to form sulphuryl chloride and 
also with many metallic peroxides, converting them into sulphates. 
In the presence of water it frequently acts as a bleaching agent, 
the bleaching process in this case being one of reduction. It is 
frequently used as an " antichlor," since in presence of water it has 
the power of converting chlorine into hydrochloric acid : SOj + C1 2 + 
2H 2 O = 2HC1 + H 2 SO 4 . In many cases it acts as a reducing agent 
(when used in the presence of acids) ; thus, permanganates are reduced 
to manganous salts, iodates are reduced with liberation of iodine, &c., 
2KMnO 4 + 5SO 3 + 2H 2 O = K,SO, + 2MnSO 4 + 2H 2 SO 4 ; 2KIO.+ 
5SO 2 + 4H a O = I, + 2KHSO 4 + 3H,SO 4 . 


It is prepared on the industrial scale for the manufacture of 
sulphuric acid, for the preparation of sodium sulphate by the 
Hargreaves process, and for use as a bleaching-disinfecting agent 
and as a preservative. When compressed it is also used largely 
as a refrigerating agent, and in virtue of its property of neither 
burning nor supporting combustion it is also used as a fire extinctor. 
The solution of the gas in water is used under the name of sulphurous 
acid. The free acid has not been isolated, since on evaporation 
the solution gradually loses sulphur dioxide. This solution possesses re 
ducing properties.and gradually oxidizes to sulphuric acid on exposure. 
When heated in a sealed tube to 180 C. it is transformed into sul 
phuric acid, with liberation of sulphur. Numerous salts, termed 
sulphites, are known. Since the free acid would be dibasic, two 
series of salts exist, namely, the neutral and acid salts. The neutral 
alkaline salts are soluble in water and show an alkaline reaction, 
the other neutral salts being either insoluble or difficultly soluble 
in water. The acid salts have a neutral or slightly acid reaction. 
The sulphites are prepared by the action of sulphur dioxide on the 
oxides, hydroxides or carbonates of the metals, or by processes of 
precipitation. Sulphurous acid may have either of the constitutions 

<H O /OH 
or ;S< , or be an equilibrium mixture of these 
H Qf\H 

two substances. Although the correct formula for the acid is not 
known, sulphites are known of both types. Sodium sulphite is 
almost certainly of the second and unsymmetrical type. Two ethyl 
sulphites are known, the first or symmetrical form being derived 
from sulphuryl chloride and alcohol, and the second and unsym 
metrical from sodium sulphite and ethyl iodide; the junction of 
one ethyl group with a sulphur atom in the second salt follows 
because it yields ethyl sulphpnic acid, also obtainable from ethyl 
mercaptan, C 2 H 5 SH. Two isomeric sodium potassium sulphites 
are known, and may be obtained by neutralizing acid sodium sulphite 
with potassium carbonate, and acid potassium sulphite with sodium 
carbonate; their formulae are: O 2 SK(ONa) and O 2 SNa(OK). 

There are various haloid derivatives of sulphurous acid. Thionyl 
fluoride, SOF 2 , has been obtained as a fuming gas by decomposing 
arsenic fluoride with thionyl chloride (Moissan and Lebeau, Compt. 
rend., 1900, 130, p. 1436). It is decomposed by water into hydro 
fluoric and sulphurous acids. Thionyl chloride, SOC1 2 , may be ob 
tained by the action of phosphorus pentachloride on sodium sulphite ; 
by the action of sulphur trioxide on sulphur dichloride at 75 80 C. 
(Journ. Chem. Soc., 1903, p. 420); and by the action of chlorine 
monoxide on sulphur at low temperature. It is a colourless, highly 
refracting liquid, boiling at 78; it fumes on exposure to moist air. 
Water decomposes it into hydrochloric and sulphurous acids. On 
treatment with potassium bromide it yields thionyl bromide, SOBr 2 , 
an orange-yellow liquid which boils at 68 C. (40 mm.) (Hartoz and 
Sims, Chem. News, 1893, 67, p. 82). 

Sulphur trioxide, SO 3 , mentioned by Basil Valentine in the I5th 
century, was obtained by N. Lemery in 1675 by distilling green 
vitriol. It may be prepared by distilling fuming sulphuric acid, 
or concentrated sulphuric acid over phosphorus pentoxide, or by 
the direct union of sulphur dioxide with oxygen in the presence of 
a catalyst, such as platinized asbestos (see SULPHURIC ACID). This 
oxide exists in two forms. The a- form is readily fusible and melts 
at 14-8 C. It corresponds to the simple molecular complex SO?. 
The 0- variety is infusible, but on heating to 50 C. is transformed 
into the a- form. It corresponds to the molecular complex (SO 3 ) 2 . 
When perfectly dry this oxide has no caustic properties ; it combines 
rapidly, however, with water to form sulphuric acid, with the 
development of much heat. It combines directly with concentrated 
sulphuric acid to form pyrosulphuric acid, H 2 S 2 O?. It reacts most 
energetically with many organic compounds, removing the elements 
of water in many cases and leaving a carbonized mass. It com 
bines directly with many elements and compounds and frequently 
acts as energetic oxidizing agent. It finds considerable application 
in the colour industry. 

Sulphuryl fluoride, SO 2 F 2 , formed by the action of fluorine on sul 
phur dioxide (H. Moissan, Compt. rend. 132, p. 374), is an exceedingly 
stable colourless gas at ordinary temperatures, becoming solid at 
about 120 C. Sulphuryl chloride, SO 2 C1 2 , first obtained in 1838 
by Regnault (Ann. Mm. phys., 1838, (2), 69, p. 170), by the action 
of chlorine on a mixture of ethylene and sulphur dioxide, may also 
be obtained by the direct union of sulphur dioxide and chlorine 
(especially in the presence of a little camphor); and by heating 
chlorsulphonic acid in the presence of a catalyst, such as mercuric 
sulphate (Pawlewski, Ber., 1897, 30, p. 765) : 2SO 2 C1-OH = SO 2 C1 2 + 
H 2 SO 4 . It is a colourless fuming liquid which boils at 69 C. and which 
is readily decomposed by water into sulphuric and hydrochloric 
acids. Fluorsulphonic acid, SO 2 F-OH, is a mobile liquid obtained 
by the action of an excess of hydrofluoric acid on well-cooled sulphur 
trioxide. It boils at 162-6 and is decomposed violently by water. 
Chlorsulphonic acid, SO 2 C1-OH, first prepared by A. Williamson 
(Proc. Roy. Soc., 1856, 7, p. n) by the direct union of sulphur 
trioxide with hydrochloric acid gas, may also be obtained by distill 
ing concentrated sulphuric acid with phosphorus oxychloride: 
2H 2 SO 4 +PqCl 3 =2SO 2 Cl-OH+HCl+HPO 3 . It is a colourless 
fuming liquid which boils at 152-153 C. When heated under 

pressure it decomposes, forming sulphuric acid, sulphuryl chloride, &c. 
(Ruff, Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3509). It is decomposed by water with 
explosive violence. Disulphuryl chloride, S 2 O 5 C1 2 , corresponding 
to pyrosulphuric acid, is obtained by the action of sulphur trioxide 
on sulphur dichloride, phosphorus oxychloride, sulphuryl chloride 
or dry sodium chloride :6SO 3 +2POC1 3 = P 2 O 6 +3S 2 O 6 C1 2 ; S 2 C1 2 + 
5SO 3 = SjO 6 Cls + 5SO 2 ; SO 3 + SO 2 C1 2 = S 2 O 6 C1 2 ; 2NaCl + 3SO 3 = 
S 2 O 6 Cl 2 +Na 2 SO4. It may also be obtained by distilling chlor 
sulphonic acid with phosphorus pentachloride: 2SO 2 C1-OH+PC1 S = 
S 2 O 6 C1 2 + POC1 3 +2HC1. It is a colourless, oily, fuming liquid 
which is decomposed by water into sulphuric and hydrochloric acids. 
An oxychloride of composition S 2 O 3 C1 4 has been described. 

Sulphur sesquioxide, SjOs, is formed by adding well-dried flowers 
of sulphur to melted sulphur trioxide at about 12-15 C. The 
sulphur dissolves in the form of blue drops which sink in the liquid 
and finally solidify in blue-green crystalline crusts. It is unstable 
at ordinary temperatures and rapidly decomposes into its generators 
on warming. It is readily decomposed by water with formation 
of sulphurous, sulphuric and thiosulphuric acids, with simultaneous 
liberation of sulphur. Hyposulphurous acid, H 2 S 2 O4, was first really 
obtained by Berthollet in 1789 when he showed that iron left in 
contact with an aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide dissolved with 
out any evolution of gas, whilst C. F. Schonbein subsequently 
showed the solution possessed reducing properties. P. Schutzen- 
berger (Compt. rend., 1869, 69, p. 169) obtained the sodium salt 
by the action of zinc on a concentrated solution of sodium bisulphite : 
Zn + 4NaHSO 3 = Na 2 S 2 O 4 + ZnSOs + Na 2 SO 3 + 2H 2 O, the salt 
being separated from the sulphites formed by fractional precipita 
tion. A solution of the free acid may be prepared by adding 
oxalic acid to the solution of the sodium salt. This solution is 
yellow in colour, and is very unstable decomposing at ordinary 
temperature into sulphur and sulphur dioxide. A pure zinc salt 
has been prepared by Nabl (Monats., 1899, 20, p. 679) by acting 
with zinc on a solution of sulphur dioxide in absolute alcohol, whilst 
H. Moissan (Compt. rend., 1902, 135, p. 647) has also obtained salts 
by the action of dry sulphur dioxide on various metallic hydrides. 
Considerable controversy arose as to the constitution of the salts 
of this acid, the formula of sodium salt, for example, being written 
as NaHSO 2 and Na&O^ but the investigations of C. Bernthsen 
(Ann., 1881, 208, p. 142; 1882, 211, p. 285; Ber., 1900, 33, p. 126) 
seem to decide definitely in favour of the latter (see also T. S. Price, 
Journ. Chem. Soc.; also Bucherer and Schwalbe, Zeit. ange-w. Chem., 
1904, 17, p. 1447). Although this acid appears to be derived from 
an oxide S 2 O 3 , it is not certain that the known sesquioxide is its 

Persulphuric anhydride, S 2 O7, is a thick viscous liquid obtained 
by the action of the silent discharge upon a mixture of sulphur 
trioxide and oxygen. It solidifies at about o C. to a mass of long 
needles, and is very volatile. It is decomposed readily into sulphur 
trioxide and oxygen when heated. Water decomposes it with forma 
tion of sulphuric acid and oxygen : 2S 2 O 7 + 4H 2 O = 4H 2 SO 4 + Oj. 
Persulphuric acid, HSO 4 , the acid corresponding to S 2 O 7 , has not 
been obtained in the free state, but its salts were first prepared in 
1891 by H.Marshall (Journ. Chem. Soc., 1891, p. 771) by electrolysing 
solutions of the alkaline bisulphates. The potassium salt, after 
recrystallization from warm water, separates in large tabular crystals. 
Its aqueous solution gradually decomposes with evolution of oxygen, 
behaves as a strong oxidant, and liberates iodine from potassium 
iodide. Solutions of persulphates in the cold give no precipitate 
with barium chloride, but when warmed barium sulphate is precipi 
tated with simultaneous liberation of chlorine : K 2 S 2 Os + BaCl 2 = 
BaSO 4 + K 2 SO 4 + C1 2 . The conductivity measurements of G. 
Bredig point to the salt possessing the double formula. 

Thiosulphuric acid, formerly called hyposulphurous acid, H 2 S 2 O 3 , 
cannot be preserved in the free state, since it gradually decomposes 
with evolution of sulphur dioxide and liberation of sulphur : H 2 S 2 O 3 = 
S+SO 2 +H 2 O. The salts of the acid, however, are stable, the 
sodium salt in particular being largely used for photographic purposes 
under the name of " hypo." This salt may be prepared by digesting 
flowers of sulphur with sodium sulphite solution or by boiling sulphur 
with milk of lime. In this latter reaction the deep yellow solution 
obtained is exposed to air when the calcium polysulphide formed 
is gradually converted into thiosulphate by oxidation, and the 
calcium salt thus formed is converted into the sodium salt by sodium 
carbonate or sulphate. The thiosulphates are readily decomposed 
by mineral acids with liberation of sulphur dioxide and precipitation 
of sulphur: Na 2 S 2 O s + 2HC1 = 2NaCl + S + SO 2 + H 2 O. They 
form many double salts and give a dark violet coloration with ferric 
chloride solution, this colour, however, gradually disappearing on 
standing, sulphur being precipitated. The acid is considered to 
possess the structure O 2 S(SH) (OH), since sodium thiosulphate reacts 
with ethyl bromide to give sodium ethyl thiosulphate, which on 
treatment with barium chloride gives presumably barium ethyl 
thiosulphate. This salt, on standing, decomposes into barium 
dithionate, BaS 2 O 6 , and diethyl disulphide, (C 2 H 5 ) 2 S 2 , which points 
to the presence of the SH group in the molecule. 

The thionic acids are a group of sulphur-containing acids of general 
formula H 2 SnO 6 , where TO = 2, 3, 4, 5 and possibly 6. Dithionic 
acid, HzSjOe, prepared by J. Gay-Lussac in 1819, is usually obtained 


in the form of its barium salt by suspending freshly precipitated 
hydrated manganese dioxide in water and passing sulphur dioxide 
into the mixture until all is dissolved; the barium salt is then pre 
cipitated by the careful addition of barium hydroxide. Much 
manganese sulphate is formed during the reaction, and H. C. Car 
penter (Journ. Chem. Soc., 1902, 81, p. i) showed that this can be 
almost entirely avoided by replacing the manganese oxide by hydrated 
ferric oxide, the reaction proceeding according to the equation: 
2Fe(OH) 5 -1- 3SO 2 = FeSjOe + FeSO 3 + 3H 2 O. He points out that 
the available oxygen in the oxides may react either as SOs + H 2 O + 
O = H 2 SO or as 2SO 2 + H 2 O + O = r^SjOe ; and that in the case 
of ferric oxide 96 % of the theoretical yield of dithionate is obtained, 
whilst manganese oxide only gives about 75%. A solution of the 
free acid may be obtained by decomposing the barium salt with 
dilute sulphuric acid and concentrating the solution in vacua until 
it attains a density of about i 35 (approximately), further concentra 
tion leading to its decomposition into sulphur dioxide and sulphuric 
acid. The dithionates are all soluble in water and when boiled with 
hydrochloric acid decompose with evolution of sulphur dioxide and 
formation of a sulphate. Trithionic acid, H 2 S 3 C>6, is obtained in 
the form of its potassium salt by the action of sulphur dioxide on a 
solution of potassium thiosulphate : 2 K 2 S 2 O3 + 3SO 2 = 2K 2 SsO6 + S ; 
or by warming a solution of silver potassium thiosulphate: 
KAgS^Os = Ag 2 S -f- K 2 S 3 O 6 ; whilst the sodium salt may be prepared 
by adding iodine to a mixture of sodium thiosulphate and sulphite : 
Na 2 SO 3 + NaaSsO, + Is = Na 2 S 3 O 6 + 2NaI. The salts are un 
stable; and a solution of the free acid (obtained by the addition of 
hydrofluosilicic acid to the potassium salt) on concentration in vacua 
decomposes rapidly: H 2 S 3 6 = H 2 SO 4 + S + SO 2 . Tetrathionic 
acid, H 2 S.,Oe, is obtained in the form of its barium salt by digesting 
barium thiosulphate with iodine: 2Ba 2 S 2 O 3 + Is = BaS 4 O + 2BaI, 
the barium iodide formed being removed by alcohol; or in the 
form of sodium salt by the action of iodine on sodium thiosulphate. 
The free acid is obtained (in dilute aqueous solution) by the 
addition of dilute sulphuric acid to an aqueous solution of the 
barium salt. It is only stable in dilute aqueous solution, for on 
concentration the acid decomposes with formation of sulphuric acid, 
sulphur dioxide and sulphur. 

Wackenroder s solution (Debus, Journ. Chem. Soc., 1888, 53, p. 278) 
is prepared by passing sulphuretted hydrogen gas into a nearly 
saturated aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide at about o C. The 
solution is then allowed to stand for 48 hours and the process repeated 
many times until the sulphur dioxide is all decomposed. The 
reactions taking place are complicated, and the solution contains 
ultimately small drops of sulphur in suspension, a colloidal sulphur 
(which Spring (Rec. trail, chim., 1906, 25, p. 253) considers to be a 
hydrate of sulphur of composition Ss-H 2 O), sulphuric acid, traces of 
trithionic acid, tetra-and pentathionic acids and probably hexathionic 
acid. The solution obtained may be evaporated in vacua until it 
attains a density of 1-46 when, if partially saturated with potassium 
hydroxide and filtered, it yields crystals of potassium pentathionate, 
K 2 SsOe 3H 2 O. The formation of the pentathionic acid may be 
represented most simply as follows : 5SQ 2 + 5H 2 S = H 2 S 6 O 6 + 5S + 
4H 2 O. The aqueous solution of the acid is fairly stable at ordinary 
temperatures. The pentathionates give a brown colour on the 
addition of ammoniacal solutions of silver nitrate and ultimately 
a black precipitate. Hexathionic acid, H 2 SeO6, is probably present 
in the mother liquors from which potassium pentathionate is prepared. 
The solution on the addition of ammoniacal silver nitrate behaves simi 
larly to that of potassium pentathionate, but differs from it in giving 
an immediate precipitate of sulphur with ammonia, whereas the solu 
tion of the pentathionate only gradually becomes turbid on standing. 

The per-acids of sulphur were first obtained in 1898 by Caro 
(Zeit. angew. Chem., 1898, p. 845) who prepared monopersulphuric 
acid by the action of sulphuric acid on a persulphate. This acid 
may also be prepared by the electrolysis of concentrated sulphuric 
acid, and it is distinguishable from persulphuric acid by the fact 
that it immediately liberates iodine from potassium iodide. It 
behaves as a strong oxidant and in aqueous solution is slowly 
hydrolysed. It most probably corresponds to the formula H 2 SO S . 

See H. E. Armstrong and Lowry, Chem. News (1902), 85, p. 193; 
Lowry and West, Journ. Chem. Soc. (1900), 77, p. 950; H. E. Arm 
strong and Robertson, Proc. Roy. Soc., 50, p. 105; T. S. Price, 
Ber., 1902, 35, p. 291 ; Journ. Chem. Soc. (1906), p. 53; A. v. Baeyer 
and V. Villiger, Ber., passim. 

Pharmacology. The sources of all sulphur preparations used in 
medicine (except calx sulphurata) are native virgin sulphur and the 
sulphides of metals. Those contained in the British Pharmacopoeia 
are the_ following : (i ) Sulphur sublimatum, flowers of sulphur (U.S. P.), 
which !.s insoluble in water. From it are made (a) confectio sulphuris ; 
(b) unguentum sulphuris; (c) sulphur praecipitatum, milk of sulphur 
(U.S. P.) which has a sub-preparation trochiscus sulphuris each 
lozenge containing 5 grs. of precipitated sulphur and I gr. of potassium 
acid tartrate; (d) potassa sulphurata (liver of sulphur), a mixture 
of salts of which the chief are sulphides of potassium; (e) sulphuris 
iodidum (U.S.P.), which has a preparation unguentum sulphuris 
iodidi, strength I in 25. From the heating of native calcium sulphate 
and carbon is obtained calx sulphurata (U.S. and B.P.), or sulphurated 
lime, a greyish-white powder. 

XXVI. 3 

Therapeutics. Externally, sulphur is of use in skin affections. 
Powdered, it has little effect upon the skin, but in ointment or used 
by fumigation it has local therapeutic properties. In scabies (itch) 
it is the best remedy, killing the male parasite, which remains on the 
surface of the skin. To get at the female and the ova prolonged 
soaking in soap and water is necessary, the epiderm being rubbed 
away and the ointment then applied. Precipitated sulphur is also 
useful in the treatment of acne, but sulphurated lime is more power 
ful in acne pustulosa and in the appearance of crops of boils. Inter 
nally, sulphur is a mild laxative, being converted in the intestine into 
sulphides. Milk of sulphur, the confection and the lozenge, is 
used for this purpose. Sulphur and sulphur waters such as those 
of Harrogate, Aix-la-Chapelle and Aix-les-Bains, have a powerful 
effect in congested conditions of the liver and intestines, haemor 
rhoids, gout and gravel. Sulphur is of use in chronic bronchial 
affections, ridding the lungs of mucus and relieving cough. In 
chronic rheumatism sulphur waters taken internally and used as 
baths are effectual. Sulphur in some part escapes unchanged in 
the faeces. 

When sulphur is burned in air or oxygen, sulphur dioxide is 
produced, which is a powerful disinfectant, used to fumigate rooms 
which have been occupied by persons suffering from some infectious 

SULPHURIC ACID, or OIL or VITRIOL, H 2 SO 4 , perhaps the most 
important of all chemicals, both on account of the large quanti 
ties made in all industrial countries and of the multifarious uses 
to which it is put. It is not found in nature in the free state 
to any extent, and although enormous quantities of its salts, 
especially calcium and barium sulphate, are found in many 
localities, the free acid is never prepared from these salts, as 
it is more easily obtainable in another way, viz. by burning 
sulphur or a sulphide, and combining the sulphur dioxide thus 
formed with more oxygen (and water). 

Originally prepared by heating alum, green vitriol and other 
sulphates, and condensing the products of distillation, sulphuric 
acid, or at least an impure substance containing more or less 
sulphur trioxide dissolved in water, received considerable at 
tention at the hands of the alchemists. The acid so obtained 
from ferrous sulphate (green vitriol) fumes strongly in moist 
air, hence its name " fuming sulphuric acid "; another name 
for the same product is " Nordhausen sulphuric acid," on account 
of the long-continued practice of this process at Nordhausen. 

Ordinary sulphuric acid, H 2 SO 4 , may be prepared by dissolv 
ing sulphur trioxide in water, a reaction accompanied by a great 
evolution of heat; by the gradual oxidation of an aqueous 
solution of sulphur dioxide, a fact which probably explains 
the frequent occurrence of sulphuric acid in the natural waters 
rising in volcanic districts; or by deflagrating a mixture of 
sulphur and nitre in large glass bells or jars, absorbing the 
vapours in water and concentrating the solution. The latter 
process, which was known to Basil Valentine, was commercially 
applied by the quack doctor, Joshua Ward (1685-1761), of 
Twickenham, England, to the manufacture of the acid, which 
was known as " oil of vitriol made by the bell " or per campanttm. 
Dr John Roebuck (1718-1794), of Birmingham, replaced the glass 
vessels by leaden ones, thereby laying the foundation of the 
modern method of manufacture (see below). 

Properties. Pure sulphuric acid, H 2 SO 4 , is a colourless, 
odourless liquid of an oily consistency, and having a specific 
gravity of 1-8384 at 15. It boils at 338, and at about 400 
the vapour dissociates into sulphur trioxide and water; at a red 
heat further decomposition ensues, the sulphur trioxide dis 
sociating into the dioxide and water. It freezes to a colourless 
crystalline mass, melting at 10-5. The acid is extremely 
hygroscopic, absorbing moisture from the atmosphere with 
great rapidity; hence it finds considerable application as a 
desiccating agent. The behaviour of aqueous solutions of sul 
phuric acid is very interesting. The pure acid (100% H 2 SO 4 ) 
cannot be prepared by boiling down a weaker acid under any 
pressure (at least between 3 and 300 centimetres of mercury), 
an acid of the composition H 2 S0 4 ,i\H 2 O or 12SOs,13H2O 
being invariably obtained. Neither is there any advantage 
gained by mixing this hydrate with sulphur trioxide; for 
when such a mixture is concentrated by evaporation, sulphur 
trioxide is vaporized until the same hydrate is left. The pure 
acid, however, may be obtained by strongly cooling this hydrate. 



when it separates in the form of white crystals, which melt at 
10-5, and on gentle heating evolve sulphur trioxide and again 
form the same hydrate. When strong sulphuric acid is mixed 
with water there is a great development of heat; the heat 
evolved when four parts of acid are mixed with one of water being 
sufficient to raise the temperature from o to 100 C. (Hence 
the laboratory precaution of always adding the acid to the water 
and not the water to the acid.) In addition to the heat evolu 
tion there is also a diminution in volume, the maximum occurring 
when the components are present in the ratio H 2 SO4:2H 2 O, 
thus pointing to the existence of a hydrate H 2 SO4,2H 2 O. 
A second hydrate, H 2 SO4,H 2 O, may be obtained as rhombic 
crystals, which melt at 7 and boil at 205, by diluting the strong 
acid until it has a specific gravity of 1-78, and cooling the 
mixture; this compound is sometimes known as glacial sulphuric 
acid. Both the mono- and di-hydrates form freeing mixtures 
with snow. Other hydrates have also been described. 

Reactions. Sulphuric acid has the widest commercial application 
of all chemical reagents. Here only reactions of commercial 
utility will be considered, and reference should be made to the article 
SULPHUR for reactions which are more of a purely scientific interest. 
In inorganic chemistry its principal applications are based on its 
solvent power for metals, and its power of expelling other acids 
from their salts. In the first group we have to notice the use of 
iron or zinc and dilute sulphuric acid for the manufacture of hydro 
gen, which may be used directly, as for inflating balloons or for 
purposes of combustion, or in the nascent condition, for reduction 
purposes, as generally is the case in organic chemistry (see ANILINE). 
It is worthy of notice that while many metals dissolve in cold 
dilute sulphuric acid, with the liberation of hydrogen, in accordance 
with the typical equation: M + H 2 SC>4 = MSC>4 + H 2 (M denoting 
one atom of divalent or two atoms of a monovalent metal), there 
are several (copper, mercury, antimony, tin, lead and silver) which 
are insoluble in the cold dilute acid, but dissolve in the hot 
strong acid with evolution of sulphur dioxide, thus : M + 2H 2 2SO 4 = 
MSC>4 + SO 2 + 2HjO. Carbon decomposes hot strong sulphuric 
acid on long continued boiling, with the formation of carbon dioxide 
and sulphur dioxide. The power which sulphuric acid exhibits 
for expelling other acids from their combinations, a power occasioned 
by its comparative involatility and high degree of avidity, forms 
the basis of a considerable number of commercial processes. Hydro 
chloric, hydrobromic, hydriodic, hydrofluoric, nitric, phosphoric 
and many other acids are manufactured by the action of sulphuric 
acid on their salts; the alkali and chlorine industries, and also 
the manufacture of bromine and iodine, employ immense quantities 
of this acid. 

In organic chemistry sulphuric acid is extensively employed. 
Its powerful affinity for the elements of water makes it a valuable 
dehydrating and condensation agent. It extracts the elements 
of water from formic acid, giving carbon monoxide; from oxalic 
acid, giving a mixture of carbon monoxide and dioxide; from alcohol, 
to give ether or ethylene according to the conditions of the experi 
ment; and from many oxygenated compounds (e.g. sugar, tartaric 
acid, &c.), with the production of charred masses. The formation 
of esters and ethers are generally facilitated by the presence of this 
acid. It also acts in an opposite manner in certain cases, adding 
the elements of water to compounds; thus, nitriles are converted 
into acid-amides, and various acetylene derivatives may be caused 
to yield ketonic derivatives. As an oxidizing agent its application 
is limited. The transformation of piperidine into pyridine by 
W. Konigs, and the observation that anthraquinone yielde.d 
oxyanthraquinones when treated in the cold with strong sulphuric 
acid, and the recent introduction of fuming sulphuric acid for the 
oxidation of naphthalene to phthalic acid, a process of great value 
in the manufacture of artificial indigo, may be noted. But its 
chief technical application depends upon the formation of sulphonic 
acids when it reacts with aromatic hydrocarbon residues; these 
compounds being important either as a step towards the preparation 
of hydroxy-compounds, e.g. resorcin, the naphthols, alizarin, &c., 
or for preparing dye-stuffs in a more soluble form. 

Sulphates. Sulphuric acid, being a dibasic acid, forms two series 
of salts with monovalent metals: an acid sulphate, MHSCh, and 
a normal sulphate, M 2 SO4. Acid sodium sulphate, NaHSO<, has 
been employed in the manufacture of sulphur trioxide. When 
heated it loses water to form sodium pyrosulphate, NazSjOy, which 
on treatment with sulphuric acid yields normal sodium sulphate 
and sulphur trioxide. The normal sulphates are the more impor 
tant, and occur widely and abundantly distributed in the mineral 
kingdom; anhydrite, gypsum, anglesite, barytes, celestite and 
kieserite are among .the commonest species. As a general class, 
the sulphates are soluble in water, and exhibit well crystallized 
forms. Of the most insoluble we may notice the salts of the metals 
of the alkaline earths, barium, strontium and calcium, barium 
sulphate being practically insoluble, and calcium sulphate sparingly 
but quite appreciably soluble. Lead sulphate is very slightly 

soluble in water, soluble in strong sulphuric acid, and almost 
insoluble in alcohol. 

Sulphates may be detected by heating the salt mixed with sodium 
carbonate on charcoal in the reducing flame of the blowpipe; 
sodium sulphide is thus formed, and may be identified by the 
black stain produced if the mass be transferred to a silver coin 
and then moistened. In solution, sulphates are always detected 
and estimated by the formation of a white precipitate of barium 
sulphate, insoluble in water and all the common reagents. 

Manufacture. The first step in its manufacture is the com 
bustion of sulphur. Formerly this was employed exclusively in the 
free state as brimstone, and this is still the case to a considerable 
extent in some countries, notably in the United States, but the 
great bulk of sulphuric acid is now made from metallic sulphides, 
especially those of iron and zinc. Most of the brimstone of trade 
comes from Sicily, but in the United States Louisiana sulphur is 
playing an important part, and seems likely to oust the Sicilian 
sulphur. Free sulphur is also contained as " gas sulphur " in the 
" spent oxides " of gasworks, which are actually utilized for the 
manufacture of sulphuric acid. Sulphur is also recovered in a very 
pure state from the " alkali waste " of the Leblanc process, but 
this " recovered sulphur " is too expensive to be burned for the 
purpose in question. In the United Kingdom much gas sulphur 
is used for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, together with a 
limited quantity of Sicilian sulphur for the production of sulphuric 
acid free from arsenic. 

A much larger percentage of the sulphuric acid is made from 
pyrites, i.e. more or less pure disulphide of iron which occurs in 
large quantities in many countries. Great Britain produces very 
little of it, Ireland a little more, but of poor quality. Most of the 

y rites consumed in the United Kingdom come from Spain; this 
panish pyrites generally (not always) contains enough copper 
(say 3 or 4 %) to make its extraction from the residues (" cinders ") 
a paying process, and this of course cheapens the price of the sulphur 
to the acid manufacturer. Spain also supplies much pyrites to 
Germany, France and America, all of which countries are them 
selves producers of this ore. Sweden and Norway are exporters 
of it to all these countries. Good pyrites contains from 48 to 50%, 
exceptionally up to 52 % of sulphur, of which all but from I to 
4% is utilized when burning the ore. Another metallic sulphide, 
blende, ZnS, is of importance for Germany, Belgium and the United 
States, much less so for the United Kingdom, as a source of sulphur. 
Blende contains only about half as much sulphur as good pyrites, 
and this cannot be burned off as easily as from pyrites, but this 
" roasting " has to be done somehow in any case in order to prepare 
the ore for the extraction of the zinc. 

Brimstone is easily burned without any extraneous help; indeed 
the only precaution required is to take care lest the heat produced 
by the burning sulphur should not volatilize part of it in the un- 
burned state. This can never be entirely avoided, and sometimes 
causes trouble in the succeeding apparatus. 

The roasting of pyrites always takes place without using any 
extraneous fuel, the heat given off by the oxidation of the sulphur 
and the iron being quite sufficient to carry on the process. If the 
ore is in pieces of the size of a walnut or upwards, it is roasted in 
plain " kilns " or " burners," provided with a grating of suitable 
construction for the removal of the cinders, with a side door in the 
upper part for charging in the fresh ore on the top of the partially 
burned ore, and with an arch-shaped roof, from which the burner- 
gas is carried away in a flue common to a whole set of kilns. The 
latter are always set in a row of twelve or more, and are one after 
another charged once or twice a day at appropriate intervals, 
so that a regular evolution of gas takes place all the day round. By 
employing suitable precautions, a gas of approximately uniform 
composition is obtained, containing from 6 to 8% sulphur dioxide, 
SO 2 , with a little trioxide, SO 3 , and about 12% of oxygen, which 
is more than sufficient for converting later all the SO S into SO S or 
H 2 SO 4 . The burning of " smalls " or " dust " was formerly considered 
much more difficult and incomplete than that of pieces, but this 
difficulty has been entirely overcome in various ways, principally 
by the " shelf-burner," originally constructed by E. Maletra, and 
mechanical burners, which were formerly almost entirely confined 
to America, where the saving of labour is a primary consideration. 
The first really successful mechanical pyrites-burner was constructed 
many years ago by MacDougall Bros, of Liverpool. The drawbacks 
still present in this burner caused it to be abandoned after a few 
years, but they have since been overcome by several recent 
inventors, principally American. The Hereshoff burner has been 
most widely introduced, both in America and in European countries. 
The roasting of blende is nothing like so easy as that of pyrites, 
since the heat developed by the oxidation of the zinc sulphide itself 
is not sufficient for carrying on the process, and external heat must 
be applied. It is now usually performed by a series of muffles, super 
posed one over another, so that the whole forms a kind of shelf- 
burner, with internally heated shelves (the " Rhenania " furnace). 
This operation is both more costly and more delicate than the 
roasting of pyrites, but it is now perfectly well understood, and gas 
is obtained from blende furnaces hardly inferior in quality to that 
yielded by pyrites kilns. In America, and quite exceptionally also 
in Europe, mechanical furnaces are used for the roasting of blende. 



The gas produced in the burning of sulphur ores, when issuing 
from the burner, holds in mechanical suspension a considerable 
quantity of " flue-dust," which must be removed as far as is practic 
able before the gas is subjected to further treatment. Flue-dust 
contains principally ferric oxide, zinc oxide, arsenious and sulphuric 
acids, and small quantities of the various metals occurring in the 
raw ore. All the thallium and selenium on the market is obtained 
from this source. Sometimes the burner-gas is employed directly 
for the sake of the SO 2 which it contains, principally in the manu 
facture of " sulphite cellulose " from wood. When the gas is to 
be utilized for the manufacture of sulphuric acid the SO 2 must be 
combined with more oxygen, for which purpose an " oxygen carrier " 
must be employed. Until recently the only agent practically used 
for this purpose was furnished by the oxides of nitrogen; more 
recently other oxygen carriers, acting by " contact processes," have 
also come into use (see below). 

The production of sulphuric acid by the assistance of the oxides 
of the nitrogen is carried out in the " vitriol chambers." These 
are immense receptacles, mostly from 100 to 200 ft. long, 20 to 30 
ft. wide, and 15 to 25 ft. high, constructed of sheet-lead, the joints 
of the sheets being made by " burning " or autogenous soldering, 
i.e. fusing them together by a blow-pipe without the aid of solder 
(which would be quickly destroyed by the acid). The vitriol 
chambers must be supported on all sides by suitable wooden or 
iron framework, and they are always erected at a certain height 
over the ground, so that any leaks occurring can be easily detected. 
In nearly all cases several of these chambers are connected so as to 
form a set of a cubic capacity of from 100,000 to 200,000 cub. ft. 
The burner gas is introduced at one end, the waste gases issue from 
the other, the movement of the gases being impelled partly by their 
own chemical reactions, partly by the draught produced by a 
chimney (or tower), or by mechanical means. At the same time 
water is introduced in a number of places in the shape of steam 
or finely divided as a spray, to furnish the material for the reaction : 
SOj + O + HjO = H 2 SO 4 . As this reaction of its own accord takes 
place only to a very small extent, an " oxygen carrier " is always 
introduced in the shape of the vapours of nitric acid or the lower 
oxides of nitrogen. By the play of reactions induced in this way 
practically the whole of the SO 2 is ultimately converted into 
sulphuric acid, and at the same time the nitrogen oxides are always 
recovered with comparatively very slight losses and made to serve 
over again. 

The reactions taking place in the vitriol chambers are very 
complicated, and have been explained in many different ways. 
The view hitherto accepted by most chemists is that developed 
by G. Lunge, according to which there are two principal reactions 
succeeding each other, it may be in quite contiguous places, but 
under different conditions. Where the nitrous fumes prevail and 
there is less water present, sulphur dioxide combines with nitrous 
acid and oxygen to form nitroso-sulphuric acid, a crystalline sub 
stance of the formula SO 2 (OH)(ONO). The reaction is therefore: 
SO, + O -f HNOj = SO 6 NH. The solid substance is, however, 
only exceptionally met with, as it at once dissolves in the mist 
of sulphuric acid floating in the chamber and forms " nitrous 
vitriol." Wherever this nitrous vitriol comes into contact with 
liquid water (not steam), which is also present in the chamber in 
the shape of mist, and practically as dilute sulphuric acid, it is 
decomposed into sulphuric and nitrous acid, thus: SO 2 (OH)(ONO) + 
H 2 O = HjSO 4 + HNO 2 . The re-formed nitrous acid, although not 
stable, any more than is its anhydride, N 2 Oa, is nevertheless the 
" oxygen carrier " in question, as the products of its spontaneous 
decomposition, when meeting with other compounds, always react 
like nitrous acid itself and thus may transfer an indefinite quantity 
of oxygen to the corresponding quantities of SO 2 and H 2 O, with 
the corresponding formation of H 2 SC>4. This theory at once explains, 
among other things, why the acid formed in the vitriol chambers 
always contains an excess of water (the second of the above-quoted 
reactions requiring the " mass action " of this excess), and why the 
external cooling produced by the contact of the chamber sides 
with the air is of great importance (liquid water in the shape of 
a mist of dilute sulphuric acid being necessary for the process). 

In 1906 Lunge (in a paper published with Bert) to some extent 
modified his views, by introducing an intermediate compound, 
sulphpnitronic acid, SO6NH 2 , which had been noticed by various 
chemists for some time through its property of imparting a deep 
blue colour to sulphuric acid. It is evident that the nitrous 
gases " present in the vitriol chamber consist essentially of a mixture 
of NO and NO 2 , the latter being formed from NO by the excess 
of oxygen present. The NO 2 (or NO + O) reacts upon SO 2 + H 2 O, 
forming SO S NH 2 , which, being extremely unstable, is at once oxidized 
to SO 5 NH (nitroso-sulphuric acid). The latter is now either con 
verted by hydrolysis into sulphuric acid and nitrogen oxides: 
2SO S NH + H 2 O = 2H 2 SO 4 + NO + NO 2 , the latter acting as 
before: or it reacts with more SO 2 , forming again sulphonitronic 
acid: 2SO>NH + SO 2 + 2H 2 O = H 2 SO, + 2S0 6 NH 2 . The latter 
can also split up directly into NO and SO 4 H 2 . 

Whatever be the true theory of the vitriol-chamber process, 
there is no doubt about the way in which the reactions have to be 
carried out in practice. Since the reactions occur among gases 

and liquids in the nebulous state, vast spaces have to be provided 
in which the process may be carried out as completely as possible 
before the waste gases are allowed to escape into the outer air. 
These spaces cannot be constructed in any other way than is actu 
ally done in the shape of the lead chambers; neither iron nor brick 
work can be employed for this purpose, - as they would be quickly 
destroyed by the acid liquids and gases. 

When issuing from the chambers, the gases still contain the whole 
of the free nitrogen contained in the air which had entered into the 
burners, together with about a third, or at least a fourth, of the 
oxygen originally present therein, such excess of oxygen being re 
quired in order to carry out the conversion of the sulphur dioxide 
into sulphuric acid as completely as possible. For similar reasons 
it is necessary to employ much more water than is required to form 
H 2 SO; and this is all the more necessary as strong sulphuric acid 
dissolves the nitrous compounds in the shape of nitroso-sulphuric 
acid, and thus withdraws these oxygen carriers from the gas-space 
of the chambers where the necessary reactions take place. It 
follows from this that the acid collecting at the bottom of the 
chambers must never exceed a certain concentration, say 70%, 
H 2 SO4 having a specific gravity of 1-615, but it is preferable to make 
it only 66 to 67%, having a specific gravity of 1-57 to 1-58. On 
the other hand, it should never go down below 60 % H 2 SO<, equivalent 
to a specific gravity of 1-50. 

The commercial production of sulphuric acid imperatively 
requires that the nitrogen oxides (which originally were always 
introduced in the shape of nitric acid) should be available as long 
as possible, before being lost mechanically or by reduction to the 
inactive forms of nitrous oxide or elementary nitrogen. The 
first step towards securing this requirement was taken as early 
as 1827 by Gay-Lussac, who discovered that the nitrous fumes, 
otherwise carried away from the lead chambers by the waste atmo 
spheric nitrogen and oxygen, could be retained by bringing the 
gases into contact with moderately strong sulphuric acid, the result 
being the formation of nitroso-sulphuric acid: 2H 2 SO4 + N 2 Oj = 
2SO 2 (OH)(ONO) + H 2 O, and the latter remaining dissolved in 
sulphuric acid as " nitrous vitriol." But this important invention 
was of little use until John Glover, about 1866, found that the 
nitrous vitriol could be most easily reintroduced into the process by 
subjecting it to the action of burner-gas before this enters into 
the lead chambers, preferably after diluting it with chamber 
acid, that is, acid of from 65 to 70%, H 2 SO4, as formed in the lead 
chambers. The reaction is then: 2SO 2 (OH)(ONO) +SO 2 + 2H 2 O = 
3H 2 SO 4 + 2NO; that is to say, all the "nitre" is returned to 
the chambers in the shape of NO; the sulphuric acid employed in 
the Gay-Lussac process is not merely recovered, but an additional 
quantity is formed from fresh SO 2 ; as the heat of the burner-gases 
also comes into play, much water is evaporated, which supplies part 
of the steam required for the working of the chambers; and the 
acid issues from the apparatus in a " denitrated " and sufficiently 
concentrated state (78 to 80% H 2 SO4) to be used over again for 
absorbing nitrous vapours or any other purpose desired. Since 
that time, in every properly appointed sulphuric acid manufactory, 
the following cycle of operations is carried out. To begin with, 
in the burners pyrites (or, as the case may be, brimstone or blende) 
is made to yield hot burner-gas containing about 7% (in the case 
of brimstone 10 or II %) of SO 2 . This, after having been deprived 
of most of the flue-dust, is passed through the " Glover tower," 
i.e. an upright cylindrical or square tower, consisting of a leaden 
shell lined with heat- and acid-proof stone or brick, and loosely 
filled or " packed " with the same material, over which a mixture 
of acid from the Gay-Lussac tower and from the chambers trickles 
down in such proportions that it arrives at the bottom as denitrated 
acid of from 78 to 80% H 2 SO4. The gases now pass on to the lead 
chambers, described above, where they meet with more nitrous 
vapours, and with steam, or with water, converted into a fine dust 
or spray. Here the reactions sketched above take place, so that 
" chamber-acid " as already described is formed, while a mixture 
of gases escapes containing all the atmospheric nitrogen, some 
oxygen in excess, about 0-5% of the total SO 2 , and some oxides 
of nitrogen. This gas is now passed through the Gay-Lussac tower, 
which somewhat resembles the Glover tower, but is usually filled 
with coke, over which sulphuric acid of about 80% H 2 SO< trickles 
down in sufficient quantity to retain the nitrous vapours. Ulti 
mately the waste gas is drawn off by a chimney, or sometimes by 
mechanical means. 

Of course a great many special improvements have been made 
in the plant and the working of chamber systems ; of these we mention 
only some of the most important. By judiciously watching all 
stages of the process, by observing the draught, the strength of 
the acid produced, the temperature, and especially by frequent 
analyses of the gases, the yield of acid has been brought up to 
98% of the theoretical maximum, with a loss of nitre sometimes 
as low as two parts to 100 of sulphur burned. The supply of the 
nitric acid required to make up this loss is obtained in England 
by " potting that is, by decomposing solid nitrate of soda by 
sulphuric acid in a flue between the pyrites burners and the chambers. 
On the continent of Europe makers generally prefer to employ 
liquid nitric acid, which is run through the Glover tower together 



with the nitrous vitriol. Although this method appears more 
troublesome, it allows the amount of nitre to be more easily and more 
accurately regulated. The size of the Glover towers, and more 
especially that of the Gay-Lussac towers, has been progressively 
increased, and thereby the cube of the lead chambers themselves 
has been diminished to a much greater extent. By improved 

(From Thorpe s Inorganic Chemistry.) 

Sulphuric Acid Plant. 

A, Pyrites burners. 

B, Nitre oven. 

C, Glover tower, 

D, Gay-Lussac tower. 

E, Cooling pipes for Glover- 

tower acid. 

F, F, F, Vitriol chambers. 

G, Steam boiler. 

H, Acid eggs or reservoirs for 
pumping the acid to top of 

I, Steam engine and stone- 
breaker for breaking up 

J, Chimney. 

K, Engine for compressing air. 

" packing " the towers have been rendered more durable, and in the 
case of the Gay-Lussac tower the loss of nitre has been diminished 
by avoiding the use of a coke packing, which acts upon that 
substance as a reducing agent. Many attempts have been made 
to reduce the chamber space by apparatus intended to bring about 
a better mixture of the gases, and to facilitate the interaction of 
the misty particles of nitrous vitriol and dilute acid floating in 
the chamber with each other and with the chamber atmosphere. 
The earliest really successful, and still the most generally applied 
apparatus of this kind, is the Lunge- Rohrmann " plate columns " 
or " reaction towers " placed between the chambers, but though 
this and similar apparatus has proved to be very useful in the later 
stages of the process, it has not been found practicable to do away 
with the lead chambers entirely. The pumping of the acids up 
to the top of the towers is now always performed by means of com 
pressed air, either in the old " acid eggs," or more economically 
in " pulsometers." 

Most of the sulphuric acid manufactured is not required to be of 
higher strength than is furnished by the vitriol chambers, either 
directly (65 to 70%), or after a passage through the Glover tower 
(78 to 80 %). This, for instance, holds good of the acid employed 
in the manufacture of sulphate of soda and hydrochloric acid from 
common salt, and in the manufacture of superphosphates. But 
for many purposes more highly concentrated acid is required. 
Formerly all such acid was made by boiling down the dilute acid, 
for which purpose a great variety of apparatus was invented. The 
first question is always that of material. Lead can be used for 
the purpose only when the boiling-point of the acid is reduced by 
means of a vacuum a plan which has not met with much success. 
Formerly glass vessels were generally employed and they still sur 
vive in England, but elsewhere they are not much used. Porcelain, 
enamelled iron, for high concentrations even cast-iron without any 
protection, are also in use. On the continent of Europe platinum 
vessels have been for a long time almost universal, and they have 
been greatly improved by an internal lining of gold. The second 

consideration is the form of the vessels; these may be open pans 
or dishes, or closed retorts, or combinations of both. We also note 
the Faure and Kessler apparatus, which consists of a platinum 
pan, surmounted by a double-walled leaden hood, in such a manner 
that, while the hood is constantly cooled from the outside by water, 
the thin acid condensing on its inside is carried away without being 
allowed to flow back into the pan. The majority of acid makers, 
however, prefer retorts made entirely of platinum, preferably pro 
vided by the Heraeus process with a dense, closely adherent coating 
of gold, including the top or " dome." The new Kessler furnace is 
a very ingenious apparatus, in which the fire from a gas-producer 
travels over the sulphuric acid contained in a trough made of 
Volvic lava, and surmounted by a number of perforated plates, 
over which fresh acid is constantly running down ; the temperature 
is kept down by the production of a partial vacuum, which greatly 
promotes the volatilization of the water, whilst retarding that of 
the acid. This furnace is also very well adapted for impure acids, 
unsuitable for platinum or platinum-gold stills on account of the 
crusts forming at the bottom of the retorts ; and it is more and more 
coming into use both in Great Britain and on the Continent. A third 
consideration is the condensation of the vapours formed in the con 
centrating process; the further the concentration proceeds the more 
sulphuric acid they contain. Condensation is a comparatively easy 
task in the case of platinum apparatus, but with glass or porcelain 
beakers or retorts it presents great difficulties. In this respect 
the Kessler furnace has also proved to be very efficacious, so that 
it is at the present time considered the best apparatus for the 
concentration of sulphuric acid found in the trade. 

The highest strength of sulphuric acid practically attainable by 
boiling down is 98 % HaSOj, and this is only exceptionally reached, 
since it involves much expenditure of fuel, loss of acid and wear and 
tear of apparatus. The usual strength of the O.V. cf commerce, 
mostly designated by its specific gravity as 168 Twaddell, is from 
93 to 95, or at most 96% HzSO^ When attempts are made to push 
the process beyond 98 % it is found that the acid which distils over 
is as strong as that which remains behind. Real " monohydrate " 
or acid approaching 100 % can be made by Lunge s process of cooling 
strong O.V. down to 16 C. when H 2 SO4 crystallizes out, or by the 
addition of anhydrous SOs in the shape of fuming acid. 

Since the development of the contact processes the fuming acid 
has become so cheap that it is now exclusively used for the prepara 
tion of the acids approaching the composition of " monohydrate." 

Fuming or Nordhausen Oil of Vitriol, a mixture or chemical com 
pound of HzSOi, with more or less SOs, has been made for centuries 
by exposing pyritic schist to the influence of atmospheric agents, 
collecting the solution of ferrous and ferric sulphate thus formed, 
boiling it down into a hard mass (" vitriolstein ") and heating this 
to a low red heat in small earthenware retorts. Since about 1800 
this industry had been confined to the north-west of Bohemia, and 
it survived just till 1900, when it was entirely abandoned not 
because its product had become any less necessary, but, quite on 
the contrary, because the enormously increasing demand for fuming 
sulphuric acid, arising through the discovery of artificial alizarine 
and other coal-tar colours, could not possibly be supplied by the 
clumsy Bohemian process. Other sources of supply had accordingly 
to be sought, and they were found by going back to a reaction known 
since the first quarter of the igth century, when J. W. Dobereiner 
discovered the combination of SO 2 and O into SOs by means of 
spongy platinum. This reaction, now known by the name of the 
catalytic or contact process, was made the subject of a patent by 
Peregrine Phillips, in 1831, and was tried later in many ways, but 
had been always considered as useless for practical purposes until 
1875, when it was simultaneously and independently taken up by 
Clemens Winkler in Freiberg, and by W. S. Squire and R. Messol in 
London. Both these inventors began in the same way, viz. by 
decomposing ordinary sulphuric acid by a high temperature into 
SO 2 , O, and H 2 O (the last of course being in the shape of steam), 
absorbing the water by sulphuric acid, and causing the SO; and O 
to combine to SOs by means of moderately heated platinum in a fine 
state of division. Winkler showed that this division was best 
obtained by soaking asbestos with a solution of platinum chloride 
and reducing the platinum to the metallic state, and he described 
later a specially active kind of " contact substance," prepared from 
platinum chloride at a low temperature. This revival of the 
synthetical production of SO 3 , at a period when this article 
had suddenly become of great importance, caused the greatest 
excitement among chemists and led to numerous attempts in the 
same direction, some of which were at once sufficiently successful 
to compete with the Bohemian process. It was soon found that the 
production of a mixture of SO 2 and O from sulphuric acid, as above 
described, was both too troublesome and costly, and after a number 
of experiments in other directions inventors went back to the use 
of ordinary burner-gas from pyrites and sulphur burners. For a 
good many years the further development of this industry was 
surrounded by great mystery, but it is now known that a satisfac 
tory solution of the difficulties existing in the above respect was 
attained in several places, for instance, at Freiberg and in London, 
by the labours of the original inventors, Professor Winkler and Dr 
Messel. These difficulties were mostly caused by the solid impurities 



contained in the burner-gases in the shape of flue-dust, especially the 
arsenic, which after a short time rendered the contact substance 
inactive, in a manner not as yet entirely understood. Another 
difficulty arose from the fact that the reaction SO 2 -fO = SOs is 
reversible, the opposite reaction, SO 3 = SO 2 4O setting in but 
little above the temperature required for the synthesis of SOs. As 
far as is known (so much secrecy having been observed), the best 
results obtained in various places, save one, did not exceed 67 % of 
the theoretical quantity, the remaining 33 % of SOs having to be 
converted into sulphuric acid in the ordinary lead chambers. As is 
now known, the exception (undoubtedly the only one until 1899) 
was the process discovered as early as 1889 by Dr R. T. J. Knietsch, 
of the Badische Anilin-und Soda-Fabrik, at Ludwigshafen, but kept 
strictly secret until 1899, when the patents were published. The 
principal features of this invention are, first, a much more thorough 
purification of the burner-gas than had been practised up to that 
time, both in a chemical and a mechanical sense, and second, the 
prevention of superheating of the contact substance, which iormerly 
always occurred by the heat generated in the process itself. As the 
Badische process effects this prevention by cooling the contact 
apparatus by means of the gaseous mixture to be later submitted 
to the catalytic action, the mixture is at the time heated up to the 
requisite temperature, and a considerable saving of fuel is the conse 
quence. Altogether this process has been brought to such a pitch of 
simplicity and perfection, that it is cheap enough, not merely for 
the manufacture of fuming oil of vitriol of all strengths, but even for 
that of ordinary sulphuric acid of chamber-acid strength, while 
it is decidedly cheaper than the old process in the case of stronger 
acids, otherwise obtained by concentration by fire. It should be 
noted that these are not the results ot a few years working with an 
experimental plant, but of many years work with large plant, now 
equal to a capacity of 120,000 tons of pyrites per annum. It is 
therefore not too much to say that, in all probability, the contact 
process will ultimately be employed generally for concentrated 
acids. Still, for the reasons given in the beginning of this article, 
the revolution thus impending will require a certain time for its 
accomplishment. Since the Badische process has become known 
several other new contact processes have come into the field, in some 
of which ferric oxide is employed as contact substance, but we must 
refrain from describing these in detail. (G. L.) 

Medicine. Sulphuric acid or oil of vitriol is a colourless oily- 
looking liquid incompatible with alkalis and their carbonates, lead 
and calcium. There are two medicinal preparations: (i) Acidum 
sulphuricum dilutum, containing 13-65% of hydrogen sulphate, (2) 
acidum sulphuricum aromaticum (elixir of vitriol) , containing alcohol , 
spirit of cinnamon and ginger and I3 8 % of hydrogen sulphate. 

Therapeutics For external use, sulphuric acid is a powerful 
irritant and caustic, acting by its powerful affinity for water and 
therefore dehydrating the tissues and causing them to turn black. 
It coagulates the albumen. Strong sulphuric acid is occasionally 
used as a caustic to venereal sores, warts and malignant growths. 
It is difficult, however, to limit its action, and glacial acetic and nitric 
acids are preferable for this purpose. Considerable burns on the 
face or body may result from the application of sulphuric acid in the 
practice known as " vitriol-throwing," a brownish black eschar 
serving to distinguish the burns produced by this acid from those of 
other corrosive fluids. Internally, dilute sulphuric acid is used in 
poisoning by alkalis as a neutralizing agent. Both it and the 
aromatic solution are powerful intestinal astringents, and are there 
fore useful in diarrhoea of a serious type, being strongly recom 
mended both as a prophylactic and as a treatment during epidemics 
of Asiatic cholera. Small doses of the aromatic acid also serve as 
a prophylactic to those artisans who work in lead and as a treatment 
in lead poisoning in order to form an insoluble sulphate of lead. 
Sponging the body with very dilute solutions of sulphuric acid is 
useful to diminish the night-sweats of phthisis. 

Toxicology. Given in toxic doses or in strong solution, sulphuric 
acid is a severe gastro-intestinal irritant, causing intense burning 
pain, extending from the mouth to the stomach, and vomiting of 
mucous and coffee-coloured material. The effects of the ingestion 
of large quantities may be so rapid that death may take place in a 
couple of hours, owing to collapse, consequent on perforation of the 
walls of the oesophagus or stomach, or from asphyxia due to swelling 
of the glottis consequent on some of the acid having entered the 
larynx. Should the patient survive the first twenty-four hours 
death generally results later from stricture of the oesophagus or 
intestine, from destruction of the glands of the stomach or from 
exhaustion. Death has occurred in a child from the ingestion of 
half a teaspoonful of the strong acid, but recovery is recorded after 
half an ounce had been swallowed. The treatment consists in the 
prompt neutralization of the acid, by chalk, magnesia, whiting, 
plaster, soap or any alkaline substance at hand; emetics or the 
stomach pump should not be used. Morphine may be given 
hypodermically to mitigate the pain. Should the patient survive 
he will probably have to be fed by rectal enemata. The prognosis 
of sulphuric acid poisoning is bad, 60 to 70% of the cases proving 
fatal. The post-mortem appearances will be those of corrosive 
poisoning. The buccal mucous membrane will be greyish, brown 
or black in colour, due to the corrosive effects of the acid. 

SULPICIA, the name of two Roman poets. The earlier lived 
in the reign of Augustus, and was a niece of Messalla, the patron 
of literature. Her verses, which were preserved with those of 
Tibullus and were for long attributed to him, are elegiac poems 
addressed to a lover called Cerinthus, possibly the Cornutus 
addressed by Tibullus in two of his Elegies (bk. ii., 2 and 3; see 
Schanz, Gesch. d. rotn. Lift. 284; F. Plessis, La Poisie laline, 
PP- 376-377 and references there given). The younger Sulpicia 
lived during the reign of Domitian. She is praised by Martial 
(x. 35, 38), who compares her to Sappho, as a model of wifely 
devotion, and wrote a volume of poems, describing with consider 
able freedom of language the methods adopted to retain her 
husband Calenus s affection. An extant poem (70 hexameters) 
also bears her name. It is in the form of a dialogue between 
Sulpicia and the muse Calliope, and is chiefly a protest against 
the banishment of the philosophers by the edict of Domitian 
(A.D. 94), as likely to throw Rome back into a state of barbarism. 
At the same time Sulpicia expresses the hope that no harm will 
befall Calenus. The muse reassures her, and prophesies the 
downfall of the tyrant. It is now generally agreed that the 
poem (the MS. of which was discovered in the monastery of 
Bobbio in 1493, but has long been lost) is not by Sulpicia, but 
is of much later date, probably the 5th century; according to 
some it is a i^th-century production, and not identical with 
the Bobbio poem. 

Editions by O. Jahn (with Juvenal and Persius, revised by F. 
Biicheler, 1893) and in E. Bahrens, De Sulpidae quae vocatur satira 
(1873) ; see also monograph by J. C. Boot (1868) ; R. Ellis in Academy, 
(Dec. ii, 1869) and Journal of Philology (1874), vol. v. ; O. Ribbeck, 
Geschichte der romischen Dichtung (1892), vol. iii.; H. E. Butler, 
Post-Augustan Poetry (1909), pp. 174-176; M. Schanz, Geschichte der 
romischen Litteratur (1900), iii. 2; Teuffel, Hist, of Roman Literature 
(Eng. trans., 1900), p. 233, 6. There are English translations by L. 
Evans in Bonn s Classical Library (prose, with Juvenal and Persius) 
and by J. Grainger (verse, 1759). 

SULPICIUS RUFUS, PUBLIUS (c. 121-88 B.C.), Roman 
orator and statesman, legate in 89 to Cn. Pompeius Strabo in 
the Social War, and in 88 tribune of the plebs. Soon afterwards 
Sulpicius, hitherto an aristocrat, declared in favour of Marius 
and the popular party. He was deeply in debt, and it seems 
that Marius had promised him financial assistance in the event 
of his being appointed to the command in the Mithradatic War. 
To secure the appointment for Marius, Sulpicius brought in a 
franchise bill by which the newly enfranchised Italian allies 
and freedmen would have swamped the old electors (see further 
ROME, History, II. "The Republic"). The majority of the 
senate were strongly opposed to the proposals; a justilium 
(cessation of public business) was proclaimed by the consuls, 
but Marius and Sulpicius got up a riot, and the consuls, in fear 
of their lives, withdrew thejitstitium. The proposals of Sulpicius 
became law, and, with the assistance of the new voters, the 
command was bestowed upon Marius, then a mere privatus. 
Sulla, who was then at Nola, immediately marched upon Rome. 
Marius and Sulpicius, unable to resist him, fled from the city. 
Marius managed to escape to Africa, but Sulpicius was discovered 
in a villa at Laurentum and put to death; his head was sent to 
Sulla and exposed in the forum. Sulpicius appears to have 
been originally a moderate reformer, who by force of circum 
stances became one of the leaders of a democratic revolt. Al 
though he had impeached the turbulent tribune C. Norbanus 
(q.v.), and resisted the proposal to repeal judicial sentences by 
popular decree, he did not hesitate to incur the displeasure of 
the Julian family by opposing the candidature for the consulship 
of C. Julius Caesar (Strabo Vopiscus), who had never been praetor 
and was consequently ineligible. His franchise proposals, 
as far as the Italians were concerned, were a necessary measure 
of justice; but they had been carried by violence. Of Sulpicius 
as an orator, Cicero says (Brutus, 55): " He was by far the most 
dignified of all the orators I have heard, and, so to speak, the 
most tragic; his voice was loud, but at the same time sweet and 
clear; his gestures were full of grace; his language was rapid 
and voluble, but not redundant or diffuse; he tried to imitate 
rassus, but lacked his charm." Sulpicius left no written 


speeches, those that bore his name being written by a certain 
P. Canutius (or Cannutius). He is one of the interlocutors in 
Cicero s De oratore. 

See Appian, Bell. civ. i. 55-60; Plutarch, Sulla and Marius; 
Veil. Pat. ii. 18; Livy, Epit. 77; E. A. Ahrens, Die drei Volkstribunen 
(Leipzig, 1836); Mommsen, Hist, of Rome, bk. iv. ch. 7; Long, 
Decline of the Roman Republic, vol. ii. ch. 17. 

SULPICIUS RUFUS, SERVIUS (c. 106-43 B.C.), surnamed 
Lemonia from the tribe to which he belonged, Roman orator 
and jurist. He studied rhetoric with Cicero, and accompanied 
him to Rhodes in 78 B.C. Finding that he would never be able 
to rival his teacher he gave up rhetoric for law (Cic. Brut. 41). 
In 63 he was a candidate for the consulship, but was defeated 
by L. Licinius Murena (q.v.), whom he subsequently accused 
of bribery; in 51 he was successful. In the Civil War, after 
considerable hesitation, he threw in his lot with Caesar, who 
made him proconsul of Achaea in 46. He died in 43 while on 
a mission from the senate to Antony at Mutina. He was ac 
corded a public funeral, and a statue was erected to his memory 
in front of the Rostra. Two excellent specimens of Sulpicius s 
style are preserved in Cicero (Ad. Fam. iv. 5 and 1 2). Quintilian 
(Instil, x. i, 1 1 6) speaks of three orations by Sulpicius as still 
in existence ; one of these was the speech against Murena, another 
Pro or Contra Aufidium, of whom nothing is known. He is 
also said to have been a writer of erotic poems. It is as a jurist, 
however, that Sulpicius was chiefly distinguished. He left 
behind him a large number of treatises, and he is often quoted 
in the Digest, although direct extracts are not found (for titles 
see Teuffel-Schwabe, Hist, of Roman Lit. 174, 4). His chief 
characteristics were lucidity, an intimate acquaintance with 
the principles of civil and natural law, and an unrivalled power 
of expression. 

See R. Schneider, De Seniio Snlpicio Rufo (Leipzig, 1834); 
O. Karlowa, Romische Rechtsgeschichte, vol. i. (Leipzig, 1885); the 
chief ancient authority is Cicero. 

SULTAN (an Arabic word meaning " victorious " or " a ruler," 
sultat, dominion), a title of honour borne by a great variety 
of rulers of very varying powers and importance in Mahom- 
medan Africa and the East. The word has thus no exact 
equivalent in English, and was early imported into the language 
in the Middle English form of soudan (from old Fr. soudan, 
souldan). This title is that conventionally applied by foreigners 
to the ruler of the Ottoman Empire, the sultan par excellence, 
whose proper styles are, however, padishah (emperor) and 
" commander of the faithful " (see AMIR). The feminine 
form " sultana " is derived from the Italian (fern, of sultano). 

SULTANPUR, a town and district of British India, in the 
Fyzabad division of the United Provinces. The town is on the 
right bank of the river Gumti, midway between Benares and 
Lucknow, on the Oudh & Rohilkhand railway. Pop. (1901), 


The DISTRICT OF SULTANPUR has an area of 1713 sq. m. 
The surface is generally level, being broken only by ravines 
in the neighbourhood of the rivers. The central portion is 
highly cultivated, while in the south are widespread arid plains 
and swampy jhils or marshes. The principal river is the Gumti, 
which passes through the centre of the district and affords a 
valuable highway for commerce. Minor streams are the Kandu, 
Pili, Tengha and Nandhia, the last two being of some importance, 
as their channels form the outlet for the superfluous water of 
the jhils, draining into the Sai. There are no forests in the 
district, only stunted dh&k jungles used for fuel. In 1901 the 
population was 1,083,904, showing an increase of less than 
i % in the decade. Sultanpur is a purely agricultural district 
with a very dense population. The principal crops are rice, 
pulses, wheat, barley, sugar-cane and a little poppy. The main 
line of the Oudh & Rohilkhand railway from Lucknow to Rae 
Bareli and Mogul Serai serves the south-western portion. 

The only incident worthy of note in the history of the district 
since the British annexation of Oudh is the revolt of the native 
troops stationed at Sultanpur during the Mutiny. The troops 
rose in rebellion on the gth of June 1857, and, after murdering 

two of their officers, sacked the station. Upon the restoration 
of order Sultanpur cantonment was strengthened by a detach 
ment of British troops; but in 1861 it was entirely abandoned 
as a military station. 

See Sultanpur District Gazetteer (Allahabad, 1903). 

SUMACH. The Sumach of commerce is the finely ground 
leaves of Rhus coriaria, a native of the North Mediterranean 
region from Portugal to Asia Minor; it is a shrub or low tree 
with hairy leaves composed of n to 15 elliptical leaflets with 
large blunt teeth, and large loose panicles of whitish-green flowers. 
Another species, Rhus cotinus, known as Venetian Sumach, 

Sumach, Rhus coriaria. (J nat. size.) 

i. Flower (i| nat. size). 2. Cluster of fruit. 3. One fruit. 
4. A seed. (2, 3, 4, i nat. size.) 

also" a native of southern Europe and Asia Minor, yields the 
yellow dye-wood known as young fustic; it is also known as the 
Smoke-plant or Wig-tree, from the feathery or hairy appearance 
of the flower-stalks, which become elongated and hairy after 
the flowering. The genus Rhus is a member of the natural 
order Anacardiaceae and contains about 120 species of trees 
or shrubs mostly native in the temperature regions of both hemi 
spheres. The leaves are alternate and simple or compound, 
with few to many entire-margined or serrated leaflets, and 
terminal or axillary panicles of small flowers with parts in fours 
or sixes. The species are mostly poisonous, some being especially 
noxious. Such are Rhus toxicodendron, the North American 
poison ivy, a shrub climbing on rocks and trees by means of 
rootlets, and poisonous to the touch. R. venenata, the North 
American poison elder sumach or dogwood, also contains an 
extremely irritant poison. R. vermicifera is the Japan lacquer 
or varnish-tree. Several species are cultivated in the British 
Isles as store, greenhouse or hardy trees. 

SUMATRA, the westernmost and, next to Borneo, the largest 
of the Great Sunda Islands in the Malay Archipelago. It 
stretches N.W. to S.E. from Malacca Passage to Sunda Strait, 
between 5 40 N. and 5 59 S., and 95 16 and 106 3 45* E. 
Its length is about noo m., its extreme breadth 250 m., and its 
area, including the neighbouring islands, except Banka and 
Billiton, is 178,338 sq. m. The northern half runs roughly 
parallel to the Malay Peninsula, from which it is separated by 
the Strait of Malacca, and the southern end is separated by the 


narrow Sunda Strait from Java. Unlike Java, Sumatra has 
a series of considerable islands (Nias Islands, Mentawi Islands, 
&c.) arranged like outworks in front of the west coast, which 
faces the open Indian Ocean. The general physical features 
of the island are simple: a chain of lofty mountain ranges 
extends throughout its length, the western slopes descending 
rapidly towards the ocean and the eastern looking out over a 
vast alluvial tract of unusual uniformity. 

Towards the north end of the island the spurs of the main 
chain sometimes extend towards the neighbourhood of the east 
coast and the eastern plain widens from north to south. Owing 
to this configuration of the island the watercourses of the western 

""" ? ^?^>f^J !L mm ,P,. ^ P^an 



I 11 U I H 



side are comparatively short: only very few of them are large 
enough to be navigable. Those of the eastern slope, on the 
other hand, such as the Musi, Jambi, Indragiri, Kampar, Siak, 
Rokan, Panei, Bila and Asahan, are longer, and with many 
of their affluents are navigable in their middle and lower courses 
over considerable stretches for craft drawing 6 to 10 ft. The 
Musi and Jambi are navigable for 372 and 497 m. respectively. 
As waterways all the rivers labour under the drawbacks of rapids, 
mud-banks at their mouths, banks overgrown with forest, 
sparse population, and currents liable to serious variations due 
to irregularity of supply from the mountains and sudden rain 
falls. In their lower courses some of them form enormous 
intercommunicating deltas. The mountainous regions contain 
numerous lakes, many evidently occupying the craters of extinct 
volcanoes. When, as sometimes happens, two or three of these 
craters have merged into one, the lake attains a great size. 
Among the larger lakes may be mentioned Toba; Maninyu, 
west of Fort de Kock; Singkara, south-east of Fort de Kock; 
Korinchi, inland from Indrapura; and Ranua, in the south 

Orography. In order to appreciate the orography of the island 
the following sections of Sumatra should be discriminated one from 
another: (i) The valley of the Achin or Atjeh River. (2) The plains 

around the lake of Toba, which are of varied level and physical 
character. Those on the south and north lie at an elevation of 
4000 ft., having the character of steppes, with scanty forest-cover, 
and, save in the narrow valleys and river-courses, are suitable for 
cattle-rearing. The plains on the east and west lie at a lower level 
and are eroded by larger rivers, clothed with forest, showing more 
sawahs and ladangs, or dry ricefields, and, near the rivers, planted 
with jagong (maize), coffee and fruits. Except on the south-east, 
where the Asahan flows away to the east coast, Toba Lake is sur 
rounded by steep shores. According to R. D. M. Verbeek, P. van 
Dyk, B. Hagen and W. Volz, the lake had its origin in the collapse of 
a volcano. (3) The valley of the Batang Toru, with the plateau of 
Sipirok in the east and the mountain chain of Tapanuli in the west. 
On the south and south-east the valley is bounded by two volcanoes, 
Lubuk Raja and Si Buwal Buwali, whence were derived the volcanic 
tuffs of the valley and of the plateau of 
Sipirok, with their lakes, which are drained 
by the Batang Toru and its affluents. The 
valley varies in breadth from 55 m. to half 
a mile and less. Flowing in a deep bed cut 
in the tuff strata, the river is not navi 
gable. (4) The longitudinal valley of the 
Batang Gadis, with its affluent the Angkola, 
and in the south the valley of the Sumpur, 
the upper course of the Rokan, between 
Lubuk Raja in the north and Mt Merapi 
in the south. This valley is 64 m. long, with 
a mean breadth of 4 to 5 m. All the rivers 
of this valley, flowing in deep beds of 
eroded diluvial tuffs, with a fall as much 
sometimes as 330 to 660 ft. a mile, are 
unnavigable. The valley is bounded east 
and west by chains of slate and Palaeozoic 
rocks. The bottom is in many parts the 
diluvium of lakes drained by the rivers. 
(5) The section of middle Sumatra between 
the line of the three volcanoes, Singalang- 
Tandikat, Merapi and Sago on the north, 
and that of the three mountains Patah 
Sembilan, Korinchi and Tujuh on the 
south. This section is divided by the 
Middengebergte or middle chain into a 
northern half watered by the Ombilin or 
upper Indragiri with its affluents, and a 
southern half traversed by the Batang Hari 
or upper Jambi. To the north of the 
volcanoes, which rise to 9500 ft. or more, 
there is a high plateau of volcanic forma 
tion, whose elevation declines in a direction 
from west to east from 2950 to 1640 ft., 
with the lake of Maninyu (about 40 sq. m. 
in area) filling the hollow of an old volcano, 
and with rivers which have eroded their 
beds in the tuffs to a depth of 300 ft. and 
more. South of the volcanoes the northern 
affluents of the Ombilin Sumpur, Sello 
and Sinamar flow through valleys parallel 
to one another in a north-west to south-east 
direction. Here, too, are found fertile tuffs, 
and the valleys are densely populated. The 
rivers, like those already characterized, and 
Em " r v " 1 " * for the same reason, are not available as 
waterways. Singkara Lake (44 sq. m.) is of origin similar to that of 
Maninyu. The Ombilin, issuing out of the lake on the east side and 
flowing through a plateau of Eocene sandstone, has on its banks the 
coalfields of Sungei Durian, &c., but is not serviceable as a waterway 
for that part of Sumatra. The coal has to be transported by railway 
via Solok to Padang (Emmahaven), a seaport on the west coast. 
Solok lies on the Sumami, which, flowing from the south to the lake 
of Singkara, prolongs the valley of the Surnpur to the Midden 
gebergte. Unlike the northern, the southern affluents of the Ombilin 
do not follow longitudinal valleys hemmed in by the Barisan range 
and ranges of slate, limestone and sandstone. Here prevailing 
granite and diabase give rise to a complicated mountain system 
through which the rivers cleave theirway in a curved and irregular 
course. South of the Middengebergte, however, the northern 
affluents of the Batang Hari, the Seliti, Gumanti, Si Potar, Mamun 
and Pangean, at least those in the west, again run in longitudinal 
valleys. These affluents and the Batang Hari itself (except the part 
at the mouth, Mamun-Simalidu) are navigable only by praus drawing 
not more than 12 in. (6) South Sumatra, so far as known, presents 
everywhere in its valleys the same character as that of the Batang 
Toru, Batang Gadis, Sumpur, &c. They also are closed in on the 
north and south by volcanoes which have here produced similar 
masses of tuff, with lakes and rivers of the same formation as in the 
north. Such are the valley of Korinchi, with the river of the same 
name, between the peak of Korinchi and Mt Raja; the valleys 
of Serampei and Sungei Tenang (as imperfectly known as that of 
the Korinchi), in which are to be sought the sources of the Tambesi 
and Asei, both affluents of the Jambi; the longitudinal valley of 


Ketaun, in Lebong, flowing to the west coast, and of the upper 
Musi, flowing to the east coast ; the valleys of Makakau and Selabung 
or the upper Komering, an affluent of the Musi, between Sebelat 
and Kaba. The Makakau and Selabung drain into Lake Ranau, 
which on the south side is dammed by the volcano Seminung. The 
southernmost longitudinal valley of Sumatra is that of the Semangka, 
which flows into the bay of the same name. Generally the lower 
valleys of the rivers lie at elevations of 600 to 1000 ft.; higher up 
they rise to 2500 or 3000 ft. ; the mountain chains rise to 5500 ft. ; 
the volcanoes tower up from 6500 to nearly 10,000 ft. (7) The 
section of south Sumatra between the eastern chain of old rocks 
and the east coast with its numerous river mouths is formed of the 
alluvium of sea and rivers. In the river-beds, however, and at some 
distance from the sea, older strata and eruptive rocks underlie the 
alluvium. The strata near the mountain chains and volcanoes 
consist of diluvial tuffs. 

Geology. The oldest rocks are gneiss, schist and quartzite, the 
schist often containing gold. They probably belong to several 
geological periods, but all were folded and denuded before the 
Carboniferous beds were deposited. They form the backbone of the 
island, and crop out on the surface at intervals along the mountain 
chain which runs parallel to the west coast. Here and there they 
are penetrated by granitic intrusions which are also Pre-Carboni- 
ferous. The next series of rocks consists of slates below and lime 
stones above. It lies unconformably upon the older rocks; and the 
limestone contains Fusulina, Phillipsia and Productus, indicating 
that it belongs to the Upper Carboniferous. These beds are found 
only in northern Sumatra. They are accompanied by intrusions 
of diabase and gabbro, and they are sometimes folded, sometimes 
but little disturbed. No Permian beds are known, and for many 
years Mesozoic deposits were supposed to be entirely absent, but 
Triassic clays and sandstones with Daonella have been found in 
the upper part of the basin of the Kwalu (East Sumatra). They 
rest unconformably upon the Carboniferous beds, and have them 
selves been tilted to a steep angle. Cretaceous beds also have been 
recorded by Bucking. Tertiary deposits are very widely spread 
over the plains and low-lying country. They consist of breccias, 
conglomerates, sandstones, marls, and limestones, with seams of 
coal and lignite. The most valuable coal occurs in the Eocene beds. 
At the close of the Eocene period great eruptions of augite-andesite 
took place from two fissures which ran along the west coast. The 
Miocene consists chiefly of marls, with occasional beds of lignite and 
limestone. On the east coast it sometimes yields petroleum. The 
Pliocene occurs chiefly in the low-lying land and is generally covered 
by drift and alluvium. Sometimes it contains thick seams of lignite 
or brown coal. 

The present volcanoes lie along a line (with offshoots) which runs 
parallel to the west coast, but some distance to the east of the fissures 
from which the early Tertiary lavas were poured. Lava streams are 
seldom emitted from these volcanoes, the material erupted consisting 
chiefly of ash and scoriae, which are spread over a very wide extent 
of country. Augite-andesite predominates, but basalt and rhyolite 
also occur. 

Climate. As throughout the whole of the Malayan Archipelago, 
so in Sumatra, which lies about equally balanced on both sides 
of the equator, the temperature stands at a high level subject to 
but slight variations. The monthly temperature mounts only 
from 77 F. in February to 80-6 in May, August and November. 
In the distribution of the rainfall, as dependent on the direction of 
the winds, the following parts of Sumatra must be distinguished: 

(1) south-east Sumatra, on which, as on Banka and Billiton, the 
heaviest rainfall occurs during the north-west monsoon, the 
annual volume of rainfall increasing from 98-4 in. in the east to 
139 in. in the west. Of the 139 in. of yearly rainfall, 91-7 in. are 
brought by the north-west and 47 3 in. by the south-east monsoon. 

(2) The west coast. Here the rainfall for the year increases from 
the southern and northern extremities towards the middle. Ben- 
kulen, e.g. gets 126 in.; Singkel (2 15 N.), 172 in.; and Padang 
184 in. in the year. Here, too, the prevailing rainfall is brought 
by the north-west monsoon, but in this belt its prevalence is not so 
pronounced, Padang getting 94 in. of rain during the north-west 
monsoon, against 90 in. during the south-east. The mountain chain 
immediately overhanging it, the high temperature of the sea wash 
ing it, the frequent thunderstorms to which it is subject, the moist 
atmosphere of its equatorial situation, and the shorter regime of the 
dry south-east wind are the principal causes of the heavier rainfall 
on the west coast. The higher stations of middle Sumatra, on the 
lee side of the western mountain chain, have a yearly rainfall of only 
78-7 in. (3) The northern and north-eastern parts of Sumatra 
are swept by a variety of winds. The south-east wind, however, 
predominates. Blowing over land and in the direction of the 
longitudinal valleys, the south-east wind is comparatively dry, and 
thus favours the formation of steppes in the north such as the Toba 
plains. The north-east and south-west winds, on the other hand, 
being laden with the moisture of the sea, bring rain if they blow for 
any length of time. 

Fauna. Though Sumatra is separated from Java by so narrow a 
strait, both the zoologist and the botanist at once find that they have 
broken new ground on crossing to the northern island. The Pachy- 

dermata are strongly characteristic of the Sumatran fauna : not only 
are the rhinoceros (Rh. sumatranus), the Sus vittatus, and the tapir 
common, but the elephant, altogether absent from Java, is repre 
sented in Sumatra by a species considered by some to be peculiar. 
The Sumatran rhinoceros differs from the Javanese in having two 
horns, like the African variety. It is commonest in the marshy 
lowlands, but extends to some 6500 ft. above sea-level. The 
range of the elephant does not extend above 4900 ft. The wild 
Bos sundaicus does not appear to exist in the island. An antelope 
(kambing-utan) occurs in the loneliest parts of the uplands. The 
common Malay deer is widely distributed, Cervus muntjac less so. The 
orang-utang occurs, rarely, in the north-east. The siamang (Siamanga 
syndactyla) is a great ape peculiar to the island. The ungko (Hylo- 
bates agilis) is not so common. A fairly familiar form is the simpei 
(Semnopithecus melalophus) . The chigah (Cercocebus cynomolgus) is 
the only ape found in central Sumatra in a tame state. The pig 
tail ape (Macacus nemestrinus) as Raffles described it in his 
" Descriptive Catalogue of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra," 
Trans. Linn. Soc. (1820), xiii. 243 is trained by the natives of 
Benkulen to ascend coco-nut trees to gather nuts. The Caleo- 
pithecus volans (kubin, flying cat or flying lemur) is fairly common. 
Bats of some twenty-five species have been registered; in central 
Sumatra they dwell in thousands in the limestone caves. The 
Pteropus edulis (kalong, flying fox) is to be met with almost every 
where, especially in the durian trees. The tiger frequently makes 
his presence felt, but is seldom seen; he prefers to prowl in what the 
Malays call tiger weather, that is, dark, starless, misty nights. 
The clouded tiger or rimau bulu (Felis macroscclis) is also known, 
as well as the Malay bear and wild dog. Paradoxurus musanga 
(" coffee-rat " of the Europeans) is only too abundant. The 
Sumatran hare (Lepus netscheri), discovered in 1880, adds a second 
species to the Lepus nigricollis, the only hare previously known in 
the Malay Archipelago. The Manis javanicus is the only repre 
sentative of the Edentata. Some 350 species of birds are known, 
and the avifauna closely resembles that of the Malay Peninsula 
and Borneo, including few peculiar species. 

Flora. Rank grasses (lalang, glaga), which cover great areas 
in Java, have an even wider range in Sumatra, descending to within 
700 or 800 ft. of sea-level; wherever a space in the forest is cleared 
these aggressive grasses begin to take possession of the soil, and 
if once they are fully rooted the woodland has great difficulty in 
re-establishing itself. Among the orders more strongly represented 
in Sumatra than in Java are the Dipterocarpaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, 
sclerocarp Myrtaceae, Melastomaceae, Begonias, Nepenthes, Oxali- 
daceae, Myristicaceae, Ternstromiaceae, Connaraceae, Amyridaceae, 
Cy rtandraceae, Epacridaceae and Eriocaulaceae. Many of the 
Sumatran forms which do not occur in Java are found in the Malay 
Peninsula. In the north the pine tree (Pinus Merkusii) has 
advanced almost to the equator, and in the south are a variety of 
species characteristic of the Australian region. The distribution 
of species does not depend on elevation to the same extent as 
in Java, where the horizontal zones are clearly marked; and there 
appears to be a tendency of all forms to grow at lower altitudes 
than in that island. A remarkable feature of the Sumatran 
flora is the great variety of trees that vie with each other in 
stature and beauty, and as a timber-producing country the 
island ranks high even among the richly wooded lands of the 
archipelago. Forest products gums and resins of various sorts, 
such as gutta-percha are valuable articles of export. The pro 
cess of reckless deforestation is perceptible in certain districts, 
the natives often destroying a whole tree for a plank or rafter. 
The principal cultivated plants, apart from sugar-cane and coffee, 
are rice (in great variety of kinds), the coco-nut palm, the areng palm, 
the areca and the sago palms, maize, yams, and sweet potatoes; and 
among the fruit trees are the Indian tamarind, pomegranate, guava, 
papaw, orange and lemon. Even before the arrival of Europeans 
Sumatra was known for its pepper plantations ; and these still form 
the most conspicuous feature of the south of the island. For the 
foreign market coffee is the most important of all the crops, the Padang 
districts being the chief seat of its cultivation. Benzoin was formerly 
obtained almost exclusively from Sumatra from the Styrax benzoin. 

Population. The following table gives the area and estimated 
population of the several political divisions of Sumatra and of 
the island as a whole (excluding the small part belonging to 
the Riouw-Lingga residency) : 


Area in sq. m. 


Sumatra, West Coast .... 
Sumatra, East Coast .... 
Lampong Districts 
Achin (Atjeh) 



42 1 ,090 
1 10,804 





Of the total population, about 5000 are Europeans, 93,000 
Chinese, 2 500 Arabs, 7000 foreigners of other nations, and the rest 
natives. In 1905 the total population was given as 4,029,505. 

The natives of the mainland of Sumatra are all of Malay stock 
(those of the north being the most hybrid), but it is doubtful 
to what extent Malay has here absorbed pre-Malay blood. The 
different tribes vary in language, customs and civilization. 
No race of true Negrito type has been found. The Kubus (q.v.), 
a savage forest people of the highlands, were believed by some 
to be Negrito owing to the frizzled character of their hair, but 
it appears certain that they are Malayan. The north of Sumatra 
is occupied by the Achinese (see ACHIN). South of Achin and 
west of Lake Toba is the country of the Battas (q.v.) or Battaks. 
In the hill-country south of the lake are two forest tribes, 
Orang-ulu and Orang-lubu, pure savages of whom practically 
nothing is known, affiliated by most authorities to the Battas. 
The plains east of this territory are occupied by the Siaks, and 
farther south on the east coast are the Jambis, both Malays. 
Above Padang are the several tribes of the prosperous and com 
paratively civilized Menangkabos (q.v.). The Korinchis live 
among the mountains south of Padang. and farther south on 
the borders of Palembang and Benkulen are the Rejangers, a 
peculiar tribe who employ a distinctive written character which 
they cut with a kris on bamboo or lontar. The same character 
is employed by their immediate neighbours to the south, the 
Pasumas, who bear traces of Javanese influence. In the extreme 
south are the Lampong people, who claim descent from the 
Menangkabos, but have also an admixture of Javanese blood. 
The inhabitants of the islands west of Sumatra are of mixed 
origin. Simalu is peopled partly by Achinese and partly by 
Menangkabo settlers. They profess Mahommedanism but are 
practically savages. Nias (q.v.) has an interesting native 
population, apparently of pre-Malayan origin; and the Mentawi 
islands (q.v.) are inhabited by a race generally held to be a 
Polynesian settlement which has escaped fusion with Malayan 
stock. As regards education and the spread of Christianity 
among the natives, the west coast division is far in advance 
of the rest of the island. Here about 32,000 natives profess 
Christianity and there are about 300 schools; elsewhere schools 
are comparatively few and the adhesion to Christianity very 

Administrative Divisions and Towns. In the west coast lands 
European influence, fertile soil, comparatively good roads, agricul 
ture, timber, and coalfields have created populous settlements on 
the coast at Padang (the capital of the west coast, with 35,158 inhabi 
tants in 1897, of whom 1640 were Europeans), Priaman, Natal, 
Ayer Bangis, Siboga, Singkel, and also on the plateaus at Fort de 
Kock, Payokombo, &c. In the east coast lands it is only at the 
mouths of rivers Palembang at the mouth of the Musi, with 53,000 
inhabitants, and Medan in Deli, the residence of the highest civil 
and military officials of the east coast, in which a fine government 
house has been erected that considerable centres of population arc 
to be found. Nine-tenths of the natives of Sumatra live by agri 
culture, the rest by cattle-rearing, fishing, navigation, and, last but 
not least, from the products of the forests; they are therefore 
little concentrated in towns. 

The Dutch government of the west coast, extending along the shore 
of the Indian Ocean from 2 53 N. to 2 25 S., comprises the 
residencies of the Padang lowlands, Tapanuli and the Padang 
highlands. The governor has his residence at Padang, which 
is also the capital of the lowlands residency. Padang Sidempuan, 
the chief town of Tapanuli, lies inland, south of Mt Lubu Raja. The 
town of Siboga has considerable commercial importance, the bay 
on which it stands being one of the finest in all Sumatra. Bukit 
Tinggi, or, as it is commonly called, Fort de Kock, is the capital 
of the residency of the Padang highlands. To the government of 
the west Coast belong the following islands: Simalu; Banyak 
Islands, a small limestone group, well wooded and sparsely peopled ; 
Nias; Batu Islands (Pulu Pini, Tana Masa, Tana Bala, &c.); 
Mentawi and Pegeh or Nassau Islands. The residency of Bankuk-n 
(i.e. Bang Kulon, " west coast ") lies along the west coast from the 
southern extremity of the west coast government to the south 
western end of the island. The capital, Benkulen, is on the coast 
near Pulu Tiku, or Rat Island, in a low and swampy locality, and 
on an open roadstead. This was the chief establishment possessed 
by the British East India Company in Sumatra. Among other 
noteworthy places are Mokko-Mokko, with the old British fort 
Anna; Pasar Bintuhan, and Lais (Laye), the former seat of the 
British resident. 

1 1 


The residency of the Lampong districts is the southernmost 
in the island, being separated from Palembang by the Masuji River. 
It is partly mountainous, partly so flat as to be under water in the 
rainy season. The more important places are Telok Belong, chief 
town of the residency, Menggala (with a good trade), Gunung Sugi, 
Sukadana, Tanjong Karang, and Kota Agung. 

The residency of Palembang consists of the former kingdom of 
this name and various districts more or less dependent on that 
monarchy. Between the mainland dependency of the Ripuw- 
Lingga residency and the residency of Palembang lies Jambi, an 
extensive sultanate, of which a portion belongs to the residency of 
Palembang as a protectorate, the sultan having in his capital (also 
called Jambi) a Dutch " comptroller," who represents the resident 
of Palembang; another portion is claimed by a quasi-independent 
sultan who reigns in the interior. Of this interior very little was 
known until the scientific expedition despatched by the Dutch 
Royal Geographical Society towards the end of the seventies, but 
in 1901 an armed Dutch expedition, necessitated by frequent dis 
turbances, penetrated right into the Jambi hinterland, the Gajo 
districts, where until then no European had ever trod. The town of 
Palembang is a large place on the river Musi, with 50,000 inhabitants 
(2500 Chinese), extensive barracks, hospitals, &c., a mosque (1740), 
considered the finest in the Dutch Indies, and a traditional tomb 
of Alexander the Great. The residency of Riouw, which embraces 
many hundreds of islands, great and small, also includes a portion 
of the Sumatra mainland, between the residencies of Palembang to 
the south and the east coast of Sumatra to the north. This is the 
old kingdom of Indragiri, and lies on either hand of the river 
of that name. 

The residency of the east coast was formed in 1873 of the territory 
of Siak and its dependencies and the state of Kampar. In includes 
perhaps the richest and best-developed districts of northern Sumatra, 
namely, Deli (with an assistant-resident), Langkat, Serdang, &c. 
districts little known in 1873, but by the beginning of the 2Oth 
century famous among the chief tobacco-producing countries in the 
world. Belawan is the harbour to Deli, but the capital is Medan, 
where the sultan and the Dutch resident reside. Belawan is 
connected with Medan by a railway, constructed before 1890 by a 
private company, almost entirely dependent for its earnings upon 
the numerous tobacco plantations, several of which belong to 
British corporations. The plantation labourers are almost entirely 
alien coolies, largely Chinese, and the Malays are comparatively few 
in number. The tobacco plantations of British North Borneo were 
nearly all started by planters from Deli. 

The government of Achin (q.v.) occupies the northern part of the 
island. No little progress has been made by the Dutch even in this 
war-ridden territory. There is a railway in the lower valley of the 
Achin River, connecting the capital, Kotaraja, and neighbourhood 
with Olehleh, a good, free port, with an active trade, carried on by 
numerous steamers, both Dutch and foreign. Edi on the north-east 
coast, with another harbour, is capital of a sultanate which formerly 
owed allegiance to the sultan of Achin. but has formed a political 
division of the government of Achin since 1889, when an armed 
expedition restored order. Edi is a centre^ of the still extensive 
pepper trade, carried on mainly with the Chinese at Singapore and 
Penang, which island faces Edi. 

Products and Industry. Forests and natural vegetation cover 
a much larger part of Sumatra than of Java. Whereas in Java 
tall timber on the mountains keeps to altitudes of not less than 
3000 ft., the tall timber on the mountains of Sumatra commonly 
descends below 1000 ft., and in many cases right down to the coast. 
In Sumatra, as in Java, the vegetation of the lowlands up to nearly 
looo ft. is distinct from the vegetation of the mountain slopes and 
plateaus from that elevation up to 4000 ft. and over. The principal 
exports from all the regencies alike are black and white pepper, 
bamboo (rotan), gums, caoutchouc, copra, nutmegs, mace and 
gambir. From the west coast and Palembang coffee is also 
exported, and from Deli, tobacco. The system of compulsory 
cultivation of coffee was abolished in Sumatra in 1908. 

Sumatra possesses various kinds of mineral wealth. Gold occurs 
in the central region, where it is worked at a profit, and it has also 
been worked in the Menangkabo district and the interior of Padang. 
Tin is known, especially in Siak. Copper has been worked in 
the Padang highlands (most largely in the district of Lake Singkara) 
and at Muki in Achin. Iron is not infrequent. The most important 
mineral economically, however, is coal. Coal seams exist in the 
Malabuh valley (Achin), in the Sinamu valley, and on both sides of 
the Ombilin River; the Ombilin field was brought into especial 
notice by D. D. Veth of the 1877-79 expedition. The production 
of this field increased from 1730 tons in 1892 to 78,500 metric tons 
in 1899. The profit on the working, which is carried on by the state, 
is slight. Lignite of good quality is found in several localities. 
The production of petroleum began to be strongly developed towards 
the close of the igth century: on the Lepan River in Langkat 
it mounted from 362,880 gallons in 1891 to 20,141,000 gallons in 
1899. Muara Enim in Palembang also produces petroleum. Perlak, 
formerly a tributary state of Achin and now a political division of 
the Achin government, has become one of the chief centres of the 
petroleum industry. The crude oil is conveyed in pipes to Aru Bay, 



on the east coast, and refined in the island of Sembilan. Arsenic, 
saltpetre, alum, naphtha and sulphur may be collected in the volcanic 
districts. A systematic mineralogical survey has been undertaken 
in central Sumatra. 

Roads and Railways. In the west, with its long line of coast and 
numerous valleys, the transport of coffee has induced the construc 
tion of very good roads as far as the Lake of Toba, owing to the 
want of navigable rivers. There is a railway connecting not only 
the coalfields of the Ombilin valley with Padang, but also the 
Ombilin river and the Lake of Singkara with the most productive 
and densely populated plateaus and valleys, north and south of 
the line of the volcanoes Singalang, Merapi and Sago. A second 
railway in the district of Deli connects the inland plantations with 
the coast; and there is another, as already indicated, in the lower 
Achin valley. Good roads traverse the broad plains of Benkulen, 
Palembang and the Lampong districts. 

History. As far as is known, Sumatran civilization and culture 
are of Hindu origin; and it is not improbable that the island 
was the first of all the archipelago to receive the Indian immi 
grants who played so important a part in the history of the 
region. Certain inscriptions discovered in the Padang high 
lands seem to certify the existence in the 7th century of a power 
ful Hindu kingdom in Tanah Datar, not far from the site of 
the later capital of Menangkabo. In these inscriptions Sumatra 
is called the " first Java." The traces of Hindu influence still 
to be found in the island are extremely numerous, though far 
from being so important as those of Java. There are ruins of 
Hindu temples at Butar in Deli, near Pertibi, on the Panbi 
river at Jambi, in the interior of Palembang above Lahat, and 
in numerous other localities. One of the principal Hindu ruins 
is at Muara Takus on the Kampar river. The buildings (includ 
ing a stupa 40 ft. high) may possibly date from the nth century. 
At Pagar Rujung are several stones with inscriptions in Sanskrit 
and Menangkabo Malay. Sanskrit words occur in the various 
languages spoken in the island; and the Ficus religiosa, the sacred 
tree of the Hindu, is also the sacred tree of the Battas. At a 
later period the Hindu influence in Sumatra was strengthened 
by an influx of Hindus from Java, who settled in Palembang, 
Jambi and Indragiri, but their attachment to Sivaism prevented 
them from coalescing with their Buddhist brethren in the north. 
In the 1 3th century Mahommedanism began to make itself felt, 
and in course of time took a firm hold upon some of the most 
important states. In Menangkabo, for instance, the Arabic 
alphabet displaced the Kavi (ancient Javanese) character 
previously employed. Native chronicles derive the Menangkabo 
princes from Alexander the Great; and the Achinese dynasty 
boasts its origin from a missionary of Islam. The town of 
Samudera was at that period the seat of an important principality 
in the north of the island, whose current name is probably a 
corruption of this word. There is a village called Samudra 
near Pasei which possibly indicates the site. 

Sumatra first became known to Europeans through the 
Portuguese, Diogo Lopes de Sequeira, in 1508. The Portuguese 
were the first to establish trading posts on the island, but at 
the end of the century they were driven out by the Dutch. At 
this time the most powerful native state in the island was Achin 
(q.v .) . Elsewhere Dutch sovereignty was gradually extended in 
1664 over Indrapura; in 1666 over Padang, until by 1803 it 
was established over much of the southern part of the eastern 
lands, including Palembang. Meanwhile, in 1685 the British 
had acquired a footing in Benkulen, and between them and the 
Dutch there was always much jealousy and friction until in 
1824 a treaty was made under which the British vacated Sumatra 
in favour of the Dutch, who reciprocated by giving up Malacca. 
In May 1825 Benkulen was taken over from the British. In 
the second half of the ipth century the Dutch found a succession 
of armed expeditions necessary to consolidate their power. 
Thus in 1851 a revolt was suppressed in Palembang, and an 
expedition was sent to the Lampong districts. In 1853 Raja 
Tiang Alam, ringleader of the revolt in Palembang, surrendered. 
In 1858 an expedition was sent against Jambi; the sultan was 
dethroned and a treaty made with his successor. In 1860 
Re jang was added to the Palembang residency. In 1863 there 
was an expedition against Nias, and in 1865 another against 
Asahan and Serdang (east coast). In 1873 war was declared 

against Achin. In 1876 there was an expedition against Kota 
Jutan (east coast) and the emancipation of slaves was carried 
out on the west coast. In 1878 Benkulen was made a residency, 
and the civil administration of Achin and dependencies was 
entrusted to a governor. From 1883 to 1894 the government, 
with the help of missionaries, extended its authority over the 
south-east and south-west of the island, and also over some of 
the lands to the east and north of Toba lake, including the 
districts of Toba, Silindong and Tanah Jawa, and in 1895 over 
the southern part of the peninsula of Samosir in Toba lake. 
Its jurisdiction was also extended over Tamiang, till then the 
northern frontier of the Dutch east coast of Sumatra. By 
military expeditions (1890-95) the Dutch influence on the 
Batang Hari, or Upper Jambi, was increased; as also in 1899 in 
the Lima Kotas l in central Sumatra, included within the territory 
of Siak. The war in Achin did not materially retard the develop 
ment of Sumatra, and although the titular sultan of Achin 
continued a desultory guerrilla warfare against the Dutch in 
the mountainous woodlands of the interior, the almost inacces 
sible Pasei country, really active warfare has long ceased. All 
along the main coasts of the former sultanate of Achin military 
posts have been established and military roads constructed; 
even in Pedir, on the north coast, until 1899 the most actively 
turbulent centre of resistance of the sultan s party, and still 
later only pacified in parts, Dutch engineers were able to build 
a highway to connect the west with the east coast, and other 
works have been successfully carried out. Practically the whole 
of the island is now more or less explored and under control. 

The literature dealing with Sumatra is very extensive. Of the 
older works the best known is W. Marsden, History of Sumatra 
(London, 1811). A full list of other older authorities will be found 
in P. J. Veth s Aardrijkskundig Woordenboek van Nederl. Indie 
(1869). Among later works one of great importance is Midden- 
Sumatra; Reizen en Onderzoekingen der Sumatra Expeditie, 1877- 
1879 (Leiden, 1881, sqq.), edited by P. J. Veth. See also Brau de 
Saint-Pol Lias, lie de Sumatra (Paris, 1884) ; E. B. Kielstra, Beschrij- 
ving van der Atjeh Oprlog (1885-1886), and " Sumatras West-Kust van 
1819-1825," in Bijd. tot Land-,&c., Kunde (1887); on the history of 
Palembang, west coast and the war in Achin, in Indisch militair 
Tijdschrift (1886-1889); Tijdschr. bat. Gen. (1887-1892). For topo 
graphy and geology, see R. Fennema, " Topographische en geolo- 
gische Beschrijving van het Noordelijk gedeelte . . . Westkust, &c.," 
Jaarb. v. het Mijnwezen (1887); R. D. M. Verbeek, Topographische 
en geologische Beschrijving van een Deel van Sumatra s Westkust, 
with atlas (Batavia, 1883) ; similar work dealing with south Sumatra, 
Jaarb. v. het Mijnwezen (1881), and Supplement (1887). W. Volz, 
" Beitrage zur geolpgischen Kenntniss von Nord-Sumatra," Zeitschr. 
deutsch. geol. Gesell. (1899), vol. li. ; H. Bucking, " Zur Geologic 
von Nord- und Ost-Sumatra," Samml. geol. Reichs-Mus. 1st series, vol. 
viii., with map and five plates (Leiden, 1904); D. J. Erb, " Beitrage 
zur Geologic und Morphologic der siidlichen West-Kuste von 
Sumatra," Z. Ges. E. Berlin (1905); J. F. Hoekstra, Die Oro- und 
Hydrographie Sumatras (Groningen, 1893); J. W. Ijzerman, &c., 
Dwars door Sumatra, Tocht van Padang naar Siak (Haarlem, 1895); 
A. Maas, Quer durch Sumatra (Berlin, 1904) ; E. Otto, Pflanzen- und 
Jdgerleben auf Sumatra (Berlin.Ugoj) ; B. Hagen, " Die Gajo-Lander," 
Jahresb. Frankfurter V.G., lxvi.,lxvii. (1901-1903); Climate: J. P. van 
der Stok, Regenwaarnemingen and Atlas of Wind and Weather 
(Batavia, 1897). Consult further Tijd. Aardr. Gen., Tijd. Batav. 
Gen., Jaarb. van het Mijnwezen, and Koloniale Verslagen, passim. 

SUMBA (TJENDANA, or SANDALWOOD), one of the Lesser Sunda 
Islands in the Dutch East Indies, lying south of Flores, from 
which it is separated by Sumba strait, about 10 S., 120 E. 
It has an area of about 4600 sq. m., consists of a plateau with 
an extreme elevation of about 3300 ft., and appears to be 
composed mainly of sedimentary rocks. It has a large Malay 
population (estimated at 200,000). Some trade is carried on 
in cotton, ponies, edible birds nests, tortoiseshell, &c., mainly 
by Bugis and Arabs, the chief centre for which is Waingapu or 
Nangamessi on the north-east coast. Sumba is included in 
the Dutch residency of Timor, together with the lesser island 
of Savu, to the east. From this last island the sea is enclosed 
by Timor, Sumba and the islands between them, and Flores 
and the chain of islands east of it is called the Savu Sea. 

1 " Kota " means settlement or township, and a great many 
districts have been named from the number of kotas they contain; 
e.g. the VII. Kotas, the VIII. Kotas, &c. 



SUMBAWA (Dutch Soembawa), one of the Little Sunda islands 
in the Dutch East Indies, east of Lombok, from which it is 
separated by the narrow Alas Strait. It has an area of 4300 
sq. m., or, including the neighbouring islands, 5240 sq. m. The 
deep bay of Sale or Sumbawa on the north divides the island 
into two peninsulas, and the isthmus is further reduced by the 
narrower Bay of Chempi on the south. The eastern peninsula 
is deeply indented on the north by the Bay of Bima. Four 
mountain chains cross the island in a west to east direction. 
The northern, as in Bali and Lombok, is of volcanic origin. 
Tambora, forming a minor peninsula east of Sumbawa Bay, 
is said to have lost a third of its elevation in the eruption of 
1815, but is still 9055 ft. high. In the southern chain is found 
a limestone formation analogous to that in Bali, Lombok and 
Java. Between these two chains are round hills consisting of 
lavas or sometimes of volcanic tuffs, covered with the long silvery 
grass which also clothes vast prairies in Java and Sumatra. 
There are no navigable streams. The climate and productions 
are not unlike those of Java, though the rains are heavier, the 
drought more severe, and the fertility less. Sulphur, arsenic, 
asphalt and petroleum exist. The natives live solely by agri 
culture. But out of a total population of about 75,000 there 
are 11,000 foreigners, living mostly by trade and navigation. 
The natives consist of Sumbawans proper, a people of Malayan 
stock; of Buginese and Macassar immigrants, and of wild tribes 
of the mountains of whom nothing is known. Mahommedanism 
prevails throughout the island, except among the mountain 

Politically Sumbawa, with its four independent states, belongs 
to the confederated states of the government of Celebes and its 
dependencies, a situation to be explained by the fact of the old 
supremacy of the Macassaresi over Sumbawa, Floras and Sumba. 
The independent states are Sumbawa proper, Dompo, Sangar and 
Bima. Two other states on the northern extremity of the island 
were so far devastated by the Tambora eruption of 1815 that their 
territory, after lying for long uninhabited, was in 1866 divided 
between Dompo and Sangar. Sumbawa proper occupies the 
western peninsula. The residence of the sultan is Sumbawa on the 
north coast. It is surrounded with a palisade and ditches. The 
inhabitants of this state employ sometimes the Malay and sometimes 
the Macassar character in writing. A considerable trade is carried 
on in the export of horses, buffaloes, goats, dinding (dried flesh), 
skins, birds nests, wax, rice, katyang, sappanwood, &c. Sumbawa 
entered into treaty relations with the Dutch East India Company 
in 1674. Dompo is the western half of the eastern peninsula. The 
capital of the state, Dompo, lies in the heart of the country, on a 
stream that falls into Chempi Bay. Bada, the sultan s residence, 
is farther west. Sangar occupies the north-western promontory 
of the island, and Bima the extreme east. Bima or Bodjo, the chief 
town of the latter state, lies on the east side of the Bay of Bima ; it 
has a stone-walled palace and a mosque, as well as a Dutch fort. 

See Zollinger, " Soembawa," in Verhandelingen van het Batav. 
Genootschap, xxiii.; Ligtvoet, " Anteekeningen betreffende den 
economischen Toestand en de Ethnographic van Soembawa," in 
Tijdschr. Bat. Gen. xxiii. 

SUMBUL, or SUMBAL, also called Musk Root, a drug occasion 
ally employed in European medical practice. It consists of 
the root of Ferula sumbul, Hook., a tall Umbelliferous plant 
found in the north of Bokhara, its range apparently 
extending beyond the Amur. It was first brought to Russia 
in 1835 as a substitute for musk; and in 1867 was introduced 
into the British pharmacopoeia. The root as found in com 
merce consists of transverse sections an inch or more in 
thickness and from i to 3 or more inches in diameter. It has 
a dark thin papery bark, a spongy texture, and the cut surface 
is marbled with white and blackish or pale brown; it has a 
musky odour and a bitter aromatic taste. The action and 
uses of the drug are the same as those of asafetida (q.v.) It 
owes its medicinal properties to a resin and an essential oil. 
Of the former it contains about 9% and of the latter J %. 
The resin is soluble in ether and has a musky smell, which is 
not fully developed until after contact with water. 

Under the name of East Indian sumbul, the root of Dorema 
ammoniacum, Don., has occasionally been offered in English com 
merce. It is of a browner hue, has the taste of ammoniacum, and 
gives a much darker tincture than the genuine drug; it is thus 
easily detected. The name " sumbal " (a word of Arabic origin, 

signifying a spike or ear) is applied to several fragrant roots in the 
East, the principal being Nardostachys jaia.rn.ansi, D.C. (see SPIKE 
NARD). West African sumbul is the root of a species of Cyperus. 

SUMER and SUMERIAN. The Babylonian name Shumer 
was used in the cuneiform inscriptions together with Akkad, 
viz. mat Shumeri u Akkadi, " land of S. and A.," to denote 
Babylonia in general (see AKKAD). In the non-Semitic ideo 
graphic documents the equivalent for Shumer is Kengi, which 
seems to be a combination of ken, " land " + gi, " reed," 
i.e. " land of reeds," and appropriate designation for Babylonia, 
which is essentially a district of reedy marshes formed by the 
Tigris and Euphrates. It was formerly thought that Shumer 
was employed especially to denote the south of Babylonia, 
while Akkad was used only of the north, but this view is no 
longer regarded as tenable. It is more probable that the expres 
sion Shumer designated the whole of Babylonia in much the 
same manner as did Akkad, and that the two words " Shumer 
and Akkad " were used together as a comprehensive term. 
That Shumer actually did mean all Babylonia appears evident 
from the biblical use of Shinar = Shumer to describe the district 
which contained the four chief Babylonian cities, viz. Babel, 
Erech, Accad and Calneh (Gen. x. 10), which, according to the 
Old Testament account, constituted the beginnings of Nimrod s 
kingdom. The identity of Shinar and Shumer is also demon 
strated by the Septuagint rendering.of Shinar in Isaiah xi. n by 
" Babylonia." In short, there can be no doubt that the biblical 
name Shinar was practically equivalent to the mat Shumeri u 
Akkadi = non-Semitic Kengi-Uri of the Babylonian inscriptions. 
Furthermore, the fact that the Syriac Sen ar = Shinar was 
later used to denote the region about Bagdad (northern Baby 
lonia) does not necessarily prove that Shinar-Shumer rreant 
only northern Babylonia, because, when the term Sen ar was 
applied to the Bagdad district the great southern Babylonian 
civilization had long been forgotten and " Babylonia " really 
meant only what we now know as northern Babylonia. 

The actual meaning of the word Shumer is uncertain. Dr 
T. G. Pinches has pointed out 1 that Shumer may be a dialectic 
form of an as yet unestablished non-Semitic form, Shenger, 
just as the non-Semitic word dimmer, " god," is equivalent to 
another form, dingir. Others have seen in the ancient Baby 
lonian place-name Gir-su an inversion of Su-gir=Su-figir, 
which has also been identified with Shumer. In this connexion 
Hommel s theory 2 should be mentioned, that the word Shumer 
was a later palatalization of Ki-imgir, " land of Imgir " = Shi- 
imgir, subsequently Shingi with palatalized k = sh and elision 
of the final r. The form imgir (imgur), however, as a place-name 
for Babylonia is uncertain. All that can be said at present about 
this difficult etymology is that in the non-Semitic Babylonian 
the medial m represented quite evidently an indeterminate nasal 
which could also be indicated by the combination ng. Hence 
we find Shumer, probably pronounced Shuwer, with a sound 
similar to that heard to-day in the Scottish Gaelic word lamh, 
" hand "; viz. a sort of nasalized w. This gave rise to the later 
inaccurate forms: Greek, Senaar; Syriac, Sen ar; and biblical 
Hebrew, Shinar = Shingar. 

The so-called " Sumerian problem," which has perplexed 
Assyriologists for many years, may be briefly stated as follows. 
In a great number of Babylonian inscriptions an idiom has long 
been recognized which is clearly not ordinary Semitic in character. 
This non-Semitic system, which is found, in many instances, 
on alternate lines with a regular Semitic translation, in other 
cases in opposite columns to a Semitic rendering, and again 
without any Semitic equivalent at all, has been held by one 
school, founded and still vigorously defended by the distinguished 
French Assyriologist, Joseph Halevy, to be nothing more than 
a priestly system of cryptography based, of course, on the then 
current Semitic speech. This cryptography, according to some 
of the Halevyans, was read aloud in Semitic, but, according to 
other expositors, the system was read as an " ideophonic," 
secret, and purely artificial language. 

The opposing school (the Sumerists) insists that these 
1 Hastings s Diet. Bible, iv. 503. * Ibid. i. 224b. 

7 6 


non-Semitic documents were evidently in an agglutinative 
language, naturally not uninfluenced by Semitic elements, but 
none the less essentially non-Semitic in origin and fundamental 
character. Scholars of this opinion believe that this language, 
which has been arbitrarily called " Akkadian " in England and 
" Sumerian " on the European continent and in America, was 
primitively the speech of the pre-Semitic inhabitants of the 
Euphratean region who were conquered by the invading Semites. 
These invaders, according to this latter view, adopted the religion 
and culture of the conquered Sumerians; and, consequently, 
the Sumerian idiom at a comparatively early date began to 
be used exclusively in the Semitic temples as the written vehicles 
of religious thought in much the same way as was the medieval 
Latin of the Roman Church. The solution of this problem is 
of vital importance in connexion with the early history of 
man s development in the Babylonian region. 

The study of the Sumerian vocabulary falls logically into three 
divisions. These are (i) the origin of the cuneiform signs, 
(2) the etymology of the phonetic values, and (3) the elucidation 
of the many and varied primitive sign-meanings. 

Previous to Professor Friedrich Delitzsch s masterly work on 
the origin of the most ancient Babylonian system of writing, 1 
no one had correctly understood the facts regarding the be 
ginnings of the cuneiform system, which is now generally recog 
nized as having been originally a pure picture writing which 
later developed into a conventionalized ideographic and syllabic 
sign-list. In order to comprehend the mysteries of the Sumerian 
problem a thorough examination of the beginning of every one 
of these signs is, of course, imperative, but it is equally necessary 
that every phonetic Sumerian value and word-combination 
be also studied, both in connexion with the equivalent signs and 
with other allied phonetic values. This etymological study 
of Sumerian is attended with incalculable difficulties, because 
nearly all the Sumerian texts which we possess are written in 
an idiom which is quite evidently under the influence of Semitic. 
With the exception of some very ancient texts, the Sumerian 
literature, consisting largely of religious material such as hymns 
and incantations, shows a number of Semitic loanwords and 
grammatical Semitisms, and in many cases, although not always, 
is quite patently a translation of Semitic ideas by Semitic priests 
into the formal religious Sumerian language. Professor Paul 
Haupt may be termed the father of Sumerian etymology, as 
he was really the first to place this study on a scientific basis 
in his Sumerian Family Laws and Akkadian and Sumerian 
Cuneiform Texts? It is significant that all phonetic and gram 
matical work in Sumerian tends to confirm nearly every one 
of Haupt s views. Professors Peter Jensen and Zimmern have 
also done excellent work in the same field and, together with 
Haupt, have established the correct method of investigating 
the Sumerian vocables, which should be studied only in relation 
to the Sumerian literature. Sumerian words should by no means 
be compared with words in the idioms of more recent peoples, 
such as Turkish, in spite of many tempting resemblances. 3 
Until further light has been thrown on the nature of Sumerian, 
this language should be regarded as standing quite alone, a 
prehistoric philological remnant, and its etymology should be 
studied only with reference to the Sumerian inscriptions them 
selves. On the other hand, grammatical and constructional 
examples may be cited from other more modern agglutinative 
idioms, in order to establish the truly linguistic character of 
the Sumerian peculiarities and to disprove the Halevyan 
contentions that Sumerian is really not a language at all. 4 

It is not surprising that Halevy s view as to the cryptographic 
nature of Sumerian should have arisen. In fact, the first 
impression given by the bewildering labyrinth of the Sumerian 

1 Die Entstehung des dltesten Schriftsystems oder der Ursprung der 
Keilschriftzeichen (Leipzig, 1897). 

2 Die sumerischen Familiengesetze (1879). Die akkadische Sprache 
(Berlin, 1883). Akkadische und sumerische Keilschrifttexte (Leipzig, 
1881). See especially his Sumerian grammar in this latter work, 
PP- I33-147- 

3 Cf. A. H. Sayce s interesting article in Philological Society 

(1877-1878), pp. 1-20. 

4 Prince, Materials for a Sumerian Lexicon, pp. 18, 21. 

word-list is the conclusion that such a vocabulary could never 
have arisen in a regularly developed language. For example, 
anyone studying Briinnow s List 1 " will find the same sign denot 
ing pages of meanings, many of which have apparently no con 
nexion with any other meaning belonging to the sign in question. 
A great multiplicity of meanings is also attributed, apparently 
quite arbitrarily, to the same sign, sound-value or word. In 
these instances, however, we can explain the difficulty away 
by applying that great fundamental principle followed by the 
Semitic priests and scribes who played with and on the Sumerian 
idiom, and in the course of many centuries turned what was 
originally an agglutinative language into what has almost 
justified Halevy and his followers in calling Sumerian a crypto 
graphy. This principle is that of popular etymology, i.e. of 
sound-association and idea-association which has brought 
together in the word-lists many apparently quite distinct 
meanings, probably primarily for purposes of mnemonic aid. 
The present writer in his Materials for a Sumerian Lexicon has 
mentioned this ruling phenomenon again and again. A very 
few examples, however, will suffice here. Thus the word 
og=the sign RAM = rdmu, "love" (proper meaning) is 
associated with ramdmu, " to roar," for phonetic reasons only. 
The word a= the sign A= "water" (original meaning) can 
indicate anything whatever connected with the idea moisture. 
Thus, a = " water, moisture, weep, tears, inundate, irrigate," &c. 
The word a can also mean " shining, glistening," an idea 
evidently developed from the shining rippling of water. Note that 
in Turkish su means both " water " and " the lustre of a jewel," 
while in English we speak of " gems of the first water." The 
combination a-md-tu, literally " water enter ship," means abubu, 
" deluge," ordinarily, but in one passage a-md-tu is made the 
equivalent of shabubu, " flame," a pure pun on abubu, " deluge." 
Examples of this, the leading principle which was followed by 
the framers of the Sumerian system, might be cited almost 
ad infinitum. 

Facts of this character taken by themselves would perhaps 
be sufficient to convince most philologists that in Sumerian we 
have an arbitrarily compounded cryptography just as Halevy 
believes, but these facts cannot be taken by themselves, as the 
evidences of the purely linguistic basis of Sumerian are stronger 
than these apparent proofs of its artificial character. 

Briefly considered there are six most striking proofs that the 
Sumerian was based on a primitive agglutinative language. 
These may be tabulated concisely as follows: 

i. Sumerian presents a significant list of internal phonetic 
variations which would not have been possible in an arbitrarily 
invented language. Thus, taking the vowels alone; e=a by 
the principle of umlaut. Hence, we find the words ga and ge, 
a and e for the same idea respectively. The vowel i could 
become e as de di, &c. Consonantal variation is most 
common. Thus, b m, as barun = marun. Compare the 
modern Arabic pronunciation Maalbek for Baalbek. Perhaps 
the most interesting of these consonantal interchanges is that 
occurring between n and the sibilants sh and z; ner = sher; 
na=za, which by some scholars has been declared to be pho 
netically impossible, but its existence is well established between 
the modern Chinese colloquial idioms. For example, Pekingese 
zhen, Hakka nyin, Fuchow nong, Ningpo zhing and nying, 
Wonchow zang and nang all ="man." This demonstrates 
beyond a doubt the possibility of a strongly palatalized n 
becoming a palatal sibilant or vice versa, between which 
utterances there is but a very slight tongue movement. 

The discussion of these phenomena brings us to another point 
which precludes the possibility of Sumerian having been merely 
an artificial system, and that is the undoubted existence in this 
language of at least two dialects, which have been named, 
following the inscriptions, the Eme-ku, " the noble or male 
speech," and the Erne-sal, " the woman s language." The 
existence and general phonetic character of the " woman s 
.anguage " were first pointed out by Professor Paul Haupt, 

6 R. E. Briinnow, A Classified List of all Simple and Compound 
Ideographs (1889). 



who cited, for example, the following very common interdia- 
lectic variations: Eme-ku g- = Eme-sal meri, " foot "; Eme-ku 
wer = Eme-sal sher, "ruler"; Eme-ku duga = Erne-sal zeba, 
" knee," &c. Such phonetic and dialectic changes, so different 
from any of the Semitic linguistic phenomena, are all the more 
valuable because they are set before us only by means of Semitic 
equivalents. Certainly no cryptography based exclusively on 
Semitic could exhibit this sort of interchange. 

It should be added here in passing that the geographical 
or tribal significance of these two Sumerian dialects has never 
been established. There can be no doubt that Eme-sal means 
" woman s language," and it was perhaps thus designated 
because it was a softer idiom phonetically than the other dialect. 
In it were written most of the penitential hymns, which were 
possibly thought to require a more euphonious idiom than, for 
example, hymns of praise. It is doubtful whether the Eme-sal 
was ever really a woman s language similar in character to that 
of the Carib women of the Antilles, or that of the Eskimo women 
of Greenland. It is much more likely that the two dialects were 
thus designated because of their respectively harsh and soft 
phonetics. 1 

2. Sumerian has a system of vowel harmony strikingly like 
that seen in all modern agglutinative languages, and it has also 
vocalic dissimilation similar to that found in modern P innish 
and Esthonian. Vocalic harmony is the internal bringing 
together of vowels of the same class for the sake of greater 
euphony, while vocalic dissimilation is the deliberate insertion 
of anoth er class of vowels, in order to prevent the disagreeable 
monotony arising from too prolonged a vowel harmony. Thus, 
in Sumerian we find such forms as numunnib-bi, " he speaks 
not to him," where the negative prefix nu and the verbal prefix 
mun are in harmony, but in dissimilation to the infix nib, " to 
him," and to the root bi, " speak," which are also in harmony. 
Compare also an-sud-dam, " like the heavens," where the ending 
dam stands for a usual dim, being changed to a hard dam under 
the influence of the hard vowels in an-sud. 

3. Sumerian has only postpositions instead of prepositions, 
which occur exclusively in Semitic. In this point also Sumerian 
is in accord with all other agglutinative idioms. Note Sumerian 
e-da, " in the house " (e, " house," +da, " in," by dissimilation), 
and compare Turkish ev, " house," de, " in," and evde, " in the 

4. The method of word formation in Sumerian is entirely non- 
Semitic in character. For example, an indeterminative vowel, 
a, e, i or u, may be prefixed to any root to form an abstract; 
thus, from me, "speak," we get e-me, "speech"; from ra, 
" to go," we get a-ra, " the act of going," &c. In connexion 
with the very complicated Sumerian verbal system 2 it will 
be sufficient to note here the practice of infixing the verbal 
object which is, of course, absolutely alien to Semitic. This 
phenomenon appears also in Basque and in many North 
American languages. 

5. Sumerian is quite devoid of grammatical gender. Semitic, 
on the other hand, has grammatical gender as one of its basic 

6. Furthermore, in a real cryptography or secret language, 
of which English has several, we find only phenomena based 
on the language from which the artificial idiom is derived. 
Thus, in the English " Backslang," which is nothing more than 
ordinary English deliberately inverted, in the similar Arabic 
jargon used among school children in Syria and in the Spanish 
thieves dialect, the principles of inversion and substitution 
play the chief part. Also in the curious tinker s " Thary " 
spoken still on the English roads and lanes, we find merely 
an often inaccurately inverted Irish Gaelic. But in none of 
these nor in any other artificial jargons can any grammatical 
development be found other than that of the language on which 
they are based. 

7. All this is to the point with regard to Sumerian, because 
these very principles of inversion and substitution have been 

Prince, Materials for a Sumerian Lexicon, p. 14. 
2 Ibid. pp. 20-34. 

cited as being the basis of many of the Sumerian combinations. 
Deliberate inversion certainly occurs in the Sumerian documents, 
and it is highly probable that this was a priestly mode of writing, 
but never of speaking; at any rate, not when the language was 
in common use. It is not necessary to imagine, however, that 
these devices originated with the Semitic priesthood. It is 
quite conceivable that the still earlier Sumerian priesthood 
invented the method of orthographic inversion, which after 
all is the very first device which suggests itself to the primitive 
mind when endeavouring to express itself in a manner out of the 
ordinary. For example, evident Sumerian inversions are Cibil, 
" the fire god," for Bil-gi; ushar for Sem. sharru, " king," &c. 

It is, moreover, highly probable that Sumerian had primitively 
a system of voice- tones similar to that now extant in Chinese. 
Thus, we find Sumerian ab, "dwelling," "sea"; ab, "road," 
and -ab, a grammatical suffix, which words, with many others of 
a similar character, were perhaps originally uttered with different 
voice-tones. In Sumerian, the number of conjectural voice- 
tones never exceeds the possible number eight. 

It is also clear that Sumerian was actually read aloud, probably 
as a ritual language, until a very late period, because we have 
a number of pure Sumerian words reproduced in Greek trans 
literation; for example, Dclephat = Dilbat, "the Venus-star"; 
lllinos = the god Illil = Bel; aidd = itu, " month," &c. 

In view of the many evidences of the linguistic character of 
Sumerian as opposed to the one fact that the language had 
engrafted upon it a great number of evident Semitisms, the 
opinion of the present writer is that the Sumerian, as we have 
it, is fundamentally an agglutinative, almost polysynthetic, 
language, upon which a more or less deliberately constructed 
pot-pourri of Semitic inventions was superimposed in the course 
of many centuries of accretion under Semitic influences. This 
view stands as a connecting link between the extreme idea of 
the Halevyan school and the extreme idea of the opposing 
Sumerist school. 

LITERATURE. Radau, Early Babylonian History; Lenormant, 
Etudes accadiennes, ii. 3, p. 70; Eberhardt Schrader, Keilinschriften 
u. das Alte Testament, ii. 118 sqq., Keilinschriften u. Geschichts- 
forschung, pp. 290, 5331 Weissbach, Zur Losung der sumerischen 
Frage; T. G. Pinches, " Language of the Early Inhabitants of 
Mesopotamia," in Journ. Roy. Asiatic Soc. (1884), pp. 301 sqq.; 
" Sumerian or Cryptography," ibid. (1900), pp. 75 sqq., 343, 344, 
55 i 55 2 ; article Shinar " in Hastincs s Diet. Bible, iv. 503-505; 
Hal6vy, Journal asiatique (1874), 3rd series, vol. iv. pp. 461 sqq.; 
Comptes rendus, 3rd series, vol. iv. p. 477; 3rd series, vol. iv. pp. 128, 
130; Journal asiatique, 7th series, vol. viii. pp. 201 sqq.; Recherches 
critiques sur Vorigine de la civilisation babylonienne (Paris, 1876); 
J. D. Prince, Journal of the American Oriental Society, xxv. 49 
67; American Journal of Semitic Languages, xix. 203 sqq.; 
Materials for a Sumerian Lexicon, with grammatic introduction 
(Leipzig, 1905-1907). Compare also the material cited in the foot 
notes above, and note the correspondence between Brilnnow and 
Hal6vy in the Revue semitigue (1906). (J. D. PR.) 

SUMMANUS, according to some, an old Sabine or Etruscan 
deity; the name, however, is Latin, formed by assimilation 
from sub-manus (cf. mane, M alula), signifying the god of the 
time " before the morning." His sphere of influence was the 
nocturnal heavens, thunderstorms at night being attributed 
to him, those by day to Jupiter. Summanus had a temple at 
Rome near the Circus Maximus, dedicated at the time of the 
invasion of Italy by Pyrrhus, king of Epirus (278), when a terra 
cotta image of the god (or of Jupiter himself) on the pediment 
of the Capitoline temple was struck by lightning and hurled 
into the river Tiber. Here sacrifice was offered every year to 
Summanus on the zoth of June, together with cakes called 
summanalia baked in the form of a wheel, supposed to be sym 
bolical of the car of the god of the thunderbolt. In Plautus 
(Bacchides iv. 8, 54) Summanus and the verb summanare 
are used for the god of thieves and the act of stealing, with 
obvious reference to Summanus as a god of night, a time 
favourable to thieves and their business. The later explanation 
that Summanus is a contraction from Summus Manium (the 
greatest of the Manes), and that he is to be identified with Dis 
Pater, is now generally rejected. 

See Augustine, De civitate dei, iv. 23; Ovid. Fasti, vi. 729; Festus, 

7 8 


s.v. Provorsum fulgor; G. Wissowa, Religion und Kultus der Romer 
(1902); W. W. Fowler, The Roman Festivals (1899). 

SUMMARY JURISDICTION. In the widest sense this phrase 
in English law includes the power asserted by courts of record 
to deal brevi manu with contempts of court without the interven 
tion of a jury. Probably the power was originally exercisable 
only when the fact was notorious, i.e. done in presence of the 
court. But it has long been exercised as to extra curial contempts 
(see CONTEMPT OF COURT). . The term is also applied to the 
special powers given by statute or rules to the High Court of 
Justice and to county courts for dealing with certain classes 
of causes or matters by methods more simple and expeditious 
than the ordinary procedure of an action (see SUMMONS). But 
the phrase in modern times is applied almost exclusively to 
certain forms of jurisdiction exercised by justices of the peace 
out of general or quarter sessions, and without the assistance 
of a jury. 

Ever since the creation of the office of justice of the peace (q.v.) 
the tendency of English legislation has been to enable them to 
deal with minor offences without a jury. Legislation was 
necessary because, as Blackstone says, except in the case of 
contempts the common law is a stranger to trial without a jury, 
and because even when an offence is created by statute the 
procedure for trying must be by indictment and trial before 
a jury, unless by the statute creating the offence or some other 
statute another mode of trial is provided. In one remarkable 
instance power is given by an act of 1725 (12 Geo. I. c. 29, s. 4) 
to judges of the superior courts summarily to sentence to trans 
portation (penal servitude) a solicitor practising after conviction 
of barratry, forgery or perjury (Stephen, Dig. Crim. Law, 6th ed., 
113). In other words all the summary jurisdiction of justices of 
the peace is the creation of statute. The history of the gradual 
development of the summary jurisdiction of justices of the peace 
is stated in Stephen s Hist. Crim. Law, vol. i. ch. 4. The result 
of legislation is that summary jurisdiction has been conferred 
by statutes and by-laws as to innumerable petty offences of 
a criminal or quasi-criminal character (most of which in French 
law would be described as contraventions) , ranging through every 
letter of the alphabet. The most important perhaps are those 
under the Army, Game, Highway, Licensing, Merchant Shipping, 
Post Office, Public Health, Revenue and Vagrancy Acts. 

A court of summary jurisdiction is defined in the Inter 
pretation Act 1889 as " any justice or justices of the peace or 
other magistrate, by whatever name called, to whom jurisdiction 
is given by, or who is authorized to act under, the Summary 
Jurisdiction Acts, whether in England, Wales or Ireland, and 
whether acting under the Summary Jurisdiction Acts or any 
of them or any other act or by virtue of his commission or under 
the common law " (52 & 53 Viet. c. 63, s. 13 [n]). This defini 
tion does not apply to justices of the peace sitting to hold a 
preliminary inquiry as to indictable offences, or in the discharge 
of their quasi-administrative functions as licensing authority. 
The expression " Summary Jurisdiction Acts " means as to 
England and Wales the Summary Jurisdiction Acts of 1848 
(n & 12 Viet. c. 42) and 1879 (42 & 43 Viet. c. 49) and any act 
amending these acts or either of them. These acts define the 
procedure to be followed by justices in those cases in which they 
are empowered by statute to hear and determine civil or criminal 
cases without the intervention of a jury or the forms of an 
action or indictment at law or a suit in equity. Besides these 
two acts the procedure as to the exercise of summary jurisdiction 
is also regulated by acts of 1857 (20 & 21 Viet. c. i, c. 43), 1884 
(47 & 48 Viet. c. 43) and 1899 (62 & 63 Viet. c. 22), and by the 
Summary Jurisdiction Process Act 1881 (44 & 45 Viet. c. 24). 

The act of 1848 repealed and consolidated the provisions 
of a large number of earlier acts. The act of 1857 provided a 
mode of appeal to the High Court by case stated as to questions 
of law raised in summary proceedings. The act of 1879 amended 
the procedure in many details with the view of uniformity, and 
enlarged the powers of justices to deal summarily with certain 
classes of offences ordinarily punishable on indictment. The 
act gives power to make rules regulating details of procedure. 

The rules now in force were made in r886, but have since been 
amended in certain details. The act of 1884 swept away special 
forms of procedure contained in a large number of statutes, 
and substituted the procedure of the Summary Jurisdiction 
Acts. The act of 1899 added the obtaining of property by false 
pretences to the list of indictable offences which could sub moda 
be summarily dealt with. The statutes above mentioned form 
a kind of code as to procedure and to some extent also as to 

As already stated, to enable a justice to deal summarily with an 
offence, whether created by statute or by-law, some statutory 
authority must be shown. A very large number of petty offences 
(contraventions) have been created (e.g. poaching, minor forms of 
theft, malicious damage and assault), and are annually being 
created (i) by legislation, or (2) by the by-laws of corporations made 
under statutory authority, or (3) by departments of state acting 
under such authority. The two latter classes differ from the first 
in the necessity of proving by evidence the existence of the by-law 
or statutory rule, and if need be that it is intra vires. 

In the case of offences which are primarily made punishable only 
on summary conviction, the accused, if the maximum punishment 
is imprisonment for over three months, can elect to be tried by a 
jury (act of 1879,8. 17). 

In the case of offences which are primarily punishable only on 
indictment, power to convict summarily is given in the following 
cases : 

1. All indictable offences (except homicide) committed by children 
over seven and under twelve, if the court thinks it expedient and the 
parent or guardian does not object (1879, s. 10). 

2. All indictable offences (except homicide) committed by young 
persons of twelve and under sixteen, if the young person consents 
after being told of his right to be tried by a jury (1879,3. II ; 

3. The indictable offences specified in sched. i, col. 2 of the act 
of 1879 and in the act of 1899, if committed by adults, if they consent 
to summary trial after being told of their right to be tried by a jury 

4. The indictable offences specified in sched. I, col. I of the act 
of 1879 and the act of 1899, if committed by an adult who pleads 
guilty after due caution that if he does so he will be summarily 
convicted (1879, s. 13). 

Adults cannot be summarily dealt with under 3 or 4 if the offence 
is punishable by law with penal servitude owing to previous convic 
tion or indictment of the accused (1879,3. 14). 

It will be observed that as to all the indictable offences falling 
under heads I to 4, the summary jurisdiction depends on the consent 
of the accused or a person having authority over him after receiving 
due information as to the right to go to a jury, and that the punish 
ments on summary conviction in such cases are not those which 
could be imposed after conviction or indictment, but are limited as 
follows : 

Case i. Imprisonment for not more than one month or fine not 
exceeding 405. and (or) whipping of male children (not more than 
six strokes with a birch) ; sending to an industrial school or reforma 

Case 2. Imprisonment with or without hard labour for not more 
than three months or fine not exceeding 10 and (or) whipping of 
males (not more than twelve strokes with a birch) ; sending to an 
industrial school or reformatory. 

Case 3. Imprisonment for not more than three months with or 
without hard labour or fine not exceeding 20. 

Case 4. Imprisonment with or without hard labour for not over 
six months. 

These limitations of punishment have had a potent effect in 
inducing culprits to avoid the greater risks involved in a jury trial. 

Where the offence is indictable the accused is brought before the 
justices either on arrest without warrant or on warrant or summons 
under the Indictable Offences Act 1848. and the summary juris 
diction procedure does not apply till the necessary option has been 

Where the offence is indictable only at the election of the accused 
the summary jurisdiction procedure applies until on being informed 
of his option the accused elects for jury trial (act of 1879, s. 17). 

In the case of an offence punishable on summary conviction the 
procedure is ordinarily as follows : 

Information, usually oral, is laid before one or more justices of 
the peace alleging the commission of the offence. An information 
must not state more than a single offence, but great latitude is 
given as to amending at the hearing any defects in the mode of 
stating an offence. Upon receipt of the information the justice 
may issue his summons for the attendance of the accused at a time 
and place named to answer the charge. It is usual to summon 
to a petty sessional court (i.e. two justices or a stipendiary magistrate, 
or, in the city of London, an alderman). The summons is usually 
served by a constable. If the accused does not attend in obedience 
to the summons, after proof of service the court may either issue 
a warrant for his arrest or may deal with the charge in his absence. 


Occasionally a warrant is issued in place of a summons in the first 
instance, in which case the information must be laid in writing and 
be verified by oath. The proceedings must be begun, i.e. by laying 
the information, not later than six months after the commission 
of the offence, unless by some particular statute another period 
is named or unless the offence is what is called a continuing offence. 

In a certain number of summary cases the accused is arrested 
under statutory authority without application to a justice, e.g. 
in the case of rogues and vagabonds and certain classes of offences 
committed in the street in view of a constable or by night. Whether 
the accused is brought before the court on arrest with or without 
warrant or attends in obedience to summons, the procedure at the 
hearing is the same. The hearing is ordinarily before a petty ses 
sional court, i.e. before two or more justices sitting at their regular 
place of meeting or some place temporarily appointed as the sub 
stitute for the regular court-house, or before a stipendiary magis 
trate, or in the city of London an alderman, sitting at a place where 
he may by law do alone what in other places may be done by two 
justices (1879, s. 20; 1889, s. 13). A single justice sitting alone 
in the ordinary court-house or two or more justices sitting together 
at an occasional court-house have certain jurisdiction to hear and 
determine the case, but cannot order a fine of more than 2os. or 
imprisonment for more than fourteen days (1879, s. 20 [7]). The 
hearing must be in open court, and parties may appear by counsel 
or solicitor. If both parties appear, the justices must hear and 
determine the case. If the defendant does not appear, the court 
may hear and determine in his absence, or may issue a warrant 
and adjourn the hearing until his apprehension. Where the defen 
dant is represented by solicitor or counsel but is not himself present 
it is usual, except in serious cases, to proceed in his absence. If 
the defendant is present the substance of the information is stated 
to him and he is asked whether he is guilty or not guilty. If he 
pleads guilty the court may proceed to conviction. If he does not 
the court hears the case, and witnesses for the prosecution and 
defence are examined and cross-examined. If the complainant 
does not appear, the justices may dismiss the complaint or adjourn 
the hearing. 

If necessary rebutting evidence may be called. The prosecutor 
is not allowed to reply in the case of the defendant. On the com 
pletion of the evidence the court proceeds to convict or acquit. 
Where the case is proved but is trifling the court may, without 
proceeding to conviction, make an order dismissing the information 
subject to payment of damages for injury or compensation for loss 
up to 10 or any higher limit fixed by statute as to the offence, and 
costs, or discharging the accused conditionally on his giving security 
for good behaviour and on paying damages and costs (1907, c. 17,8. l). 
To this order probationary conditions may be attached (s. 2). Subject 
to this provision the punishment which may be enforced depends 
as a general rale on the statute or by-law defining the offence, and 
consists in imprisonment and (or) fine, except in cases where a 
minimum fine is stipulated for by a treaty, &c., with a foreign 
state, e.g. in sea fishery conventions. The court may mitigate the 
fine in the case of a first offence, even in a revenue case, or may 
reduce the period of imprisonment and impose it without hard 
labour, or substitute a fine not exceeding 25 for imprisonment. A 
scale is prescribed for imprisonment on failure to pay money, 
fines, or costs, adjudged to be paid on a conviction, or in default 
of a sufficient distress to satisfy the sum adjudged (1879, s. 5). 
Instead of sending the defendant to prison for not paying fine and 
costs the court may direct its levy by distress warrant, or may 
accept payment by instalments. In the case of distress the wearing 
apparel and bedding of the defendant and his family, and to the 
value of 5 the tools and implements of his trade, may not be taken 
(act of 1879, s. 21). If the defendant after going to prison can pay 
part of the money his imprisonment is reduced proportionally 
(Prison Act 1898, s. 9). The imprisonment is without hard labour 
unless hard labour is specially authorized by the act on which the 
conviction is founded. The maximum term of imprisonment 
without the option of a fine is in most cases six months, but depends 
on the particular statute. Imprisonment under order of a court 
of summary jurisdiction is in the common gaol (5 Hen. IV. c. 10), 
i.e. in a local prison declared by the home secretary to be the common 
gaol for the county, &c., for which the court acts. The place of 
imprisonment during remands or in the case of youthful offenders 
may in certain cases be elsewhere than in a prison. 

The court has power to order costs to be paid by the prosecutor 
or the defendant. Where the order is made on a conviction it 
is enforceable by imprisonment in default of payment or sufficient 

The extent of the local jurisdiction of justices exercising summary 
jurisdiction is defined by s. 46 of the act of 1879 with reference to 
offences committed on the boundaries of two jurisdictions or during 
journeys or on the sea or rivers or in harbours. 

Proceedings under the Bastardy Acts are regulated by special 
legislation, but as to proof of service and the enforcement of orders 
and appeals are assimilated to convictions under the Summary 
Jurisdiction Acts. The same rule applies (except as to appeals) 
to orders made under the Summary Jurisdiction (Married Women) 
Act 1895, as amended by the Licensing Act 1902. 


A warrant of arrest is executed by the constable or person to 
whom it is directed within the local jurisdiction of the issuing 
court; or a fresh pursuit within seven miles of its boundaries, with 
out endorsement, in the rest of England and Wales, and in Scotland, 
the Channel Islands and Isle of Man after endorsement by a com 
petent magistrate of the place where the accused is, and in Ireland 
by a justice of the peace or an inspector of constabulary. An English 
summons to a defendant or witness, except in respect of civil 
debts, is served in Scotland after endorsement by a competent 
magistrate there (Summary Jurisdiction Process Act 1881, 44 and 
45 Viet. c. 24). The attendance of a witness who is in prison 
is obtained by writ of habeas corpus or by a secretary of state s 
order under the Prison Act 1898. If a witness will not attend on 
summons he can be brought to the court by warrant, and if he 
will not answer questions lawfully put to him may be sent to prison 
for seven days or until he sooner consents to answer. 

Civil Jurisdiction. In cases where justices have a summary 
civil jurisdiction, e.g. as to certain civil debts recoverable summarily, 
or to make orders to do or to abstain from doing certain acts, e.g. 
with reference to nuisances and building, the procedure differs in 
certain details from that in criminal cases. 

1. The summons is issued on a complaint which need not be in 
writing nor on path, and not on an information, and warrants of 
arrest cannot be issued. 

2. The rules as to the evidence of the defendant and his or her 
spouse are the same as in civil actions. 

3. The court s decision is by order and not by conviction. 

4. The order if for payment of a civil debt or costs in connexion 
therewith is enforceable by distress and sale of the defendant s 
effects or by imprisonment, but only on proof that the defendant 
has had since the order means of paying and has refused or neglected 
to pay (1879,8. 35). 

Proceedings for the enforcement of local rates are not affected 
by the Summary Jurisdiction Acts except as to the power of sub 
mitting to the High Court questions of law arising on a summons to 
enforce rates (re Allen, 1894, 2 Q.B., 924). The functions of justices 
as to such rates are sometimes but not quite accurately described 
as ministerial, for their powers of inquiry though limited are judicial 
and of a quasi-criminal character. 

Appeal. The orders and convictions of a court of summary 
jurisdiction are in many cases appealable to quarter sessions. The 
right to appeal is always dependent on the specific provisions of a 
statute. The Summary Jurisdiction Act 1879 gives a general power 
of appeal against an adjudication on conviction (but not on plea 
of guilty) to imprisonment without the option of a fine, whether 
as punishment for an offence or for failure to do or abstaining from 
doing any act, other than compliance with an order to pay money 
or find security or enter into recognizances or to find sureties 
(1879, s. 19). The procedure on the appeals is regulated and made 
uniform by the acts of 1879, ss - 3 > 3 2 ! an d 1884. These provisions 
are supplementary of the particular provisions of many statutes 
authorizing an appeal. 

The decisions of courts of summary jurisdiction on points of 
law are generally reviewed by a casa stated for the opinion of the 
High Court under the acts of 1857 and 1879, but are occasionally 
corrected by the common law remedies of mandamus, prohibition 
or certiorari. The application of the last-named remedy is restricted 
by many statutes. The court of appeal has jurisdiction to review 
judgments and orders of the High Court dealing with appeals, &c., 
from the decisions of justices in the exercise of their civil juris 
diction; but not when the subject-matter is a criminal cause or 

In proceedings between husband and wife for separation orders 
there is a special form of appeal on facts as well as law to the probate, 
divorce and admiralty division of the High Court (Summary 
Jurisdiction [Married Women] Act 1895; Licensing Act 1902, 


SCOTLAND. Civil. In the Court of Session there are certain 
forms of summary civil proceedings by petition, e.g.with reference 
to entails, custody of children, guardians and factors of minors and 
lunatics, which are applications for exercise of the nobile officium or 
extraordinary jurisdiction of the court (see Mackay, Court of Session 
Practice, i. 209, ii. 353). Summary jurisdiction is given to justices 
of the peace as to the recovery of small debts. 

Criminal and Quasi-criminal. The only act relating to summary 
jurisdiction procedure common to England and Scotland is the 
Summary Jurisdiction Process Act 1881. Summary jurisdiction 
in Scotland depends chiefly upon the Summary Jurisdiction (Scot 
land) Acts 1864 and 1881. The acts follow, to some extent, the lines 
of English legislation, but the sheriff and his deputies and substitutes 
are included in the definition of the court, as are stipendiary magis 
trates (1897, c. 48). The acts also apply to proceedings before 
burgh courts, or burgh magistrates, and to justices of the peace 
where they have by other statutes power to try offences or enforce 
penalties. All proceedings for summary conviction or for recovery 
of a penalty must be by way of complaint according to one of the 
forms in the schedule to the act of 1864. The English summons and 
warrant are represented in Scotland by the warrant of citation and 
the warrant of apprehension. Where no punishment is fixed for a 



statutory offence, the court cannot sentence to more than a fine o 
5 or sixty days imprisonment, in addition to ordering caution t 
keep the peace. The act of 1 88 1 adopts certain of the provision 
of the English act of 1879 as to mitigation of fines, terms of imprison 
ment, &c., and also gives a discretion as to punishment to a. sheril 
trying by jury in cases where the prosecution might have beei 
by complaint under the acts. By the Youthful Offenders Act 1901 
Scottish courts of summary jurisdiction have acquired the sam 
jurisdiction as to offences by children as was conferred on Englis] 
justices in 1879. Appeals from courts of summary jurisdiction 
are now mainly regulated by the act of 1875 (38 and 39 Viet. c. 62) 
and proceed on case stated by the inferior judge. A bill was sub 
mitted to parliament in 1907 for consolidating and amending th 
Scottish summary procedure. 

IRELAND. In Ireland the High Court has the same summary 
powers in cases of contempt, and the term " court of summary 
jurisdiction " has the same meaning as in England (Interpretation 
Act 1889, s. 13 [11]), subject to the definition of the Summary 
Jurisdiction (Ireland) Acts, which are, as regards the Dublin metro 
politan police district, the acts regulating the powers and duties 
of justices of the peace or of the police of that district, and as respects 
any other part of Ireland the Petty Sessions (Ireland) Act 1851 
(14 and 15 Viet. c. 93) and any act amending the same. The acts 
are more extensive in their purview than the English acts, as they 
form in a great degree a code of substantive law as well as of pro 
cedure. By an act of 1884 the same jurisdiction was given as to 
offences by children as by the act of 1879 in England. Stipendiary 
or resident magistrates may be appointed in the place of unpaid 
justices under an act of 1836 (6 & 7 W. IV. c. 13). The exceptional 
political circumstances of Ireland have led to the conferring at 
different times on courts of summary jurisdiction of an authority, 
generally temporary, greater than that which they can exercise 
in Great Britain. Recent instances are the Peace Preservation 
Act 1 88 1, and the Prevention of Crimes Act 1882, both expired, 
and the Criminal Law and Procedure (Ireland) Act 1887. 

British possessions as to summary jurisdiction follows the lines of 
English legislation, but, and especially in crown colonies, there 
is a disposition to dispense with the jury more than under English 
procedure, and in most colonies stipendiary magistrates are more 
freely employed than unpaid justices of the peace (see British 
Guiana, Ord. No. 10 of 1893). Many of the colonial criminal 
codes include a number of offences punishable on summary convic 
tion. The procedure closely follows English models, but has in 
many cases been consolidated and simplified (e.g. Victoria, Justices 
Act 1890, No. 1105; British Guiana, Ord. No. 12 of 1893). In 
many colonies stipendiaries and justices of the peace exercise civil 
jurisdiction as to matters dealt with in England by the county 
court (e.g. British Guiana, Ord. No. II of 1893). 

UNITED STATES. By art. iii. s. 2 of the constitution, the trial 
of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, is to be by jury. By 
art. v. of the amendments no person can be held to answer for a. 
capital or otherwise infamous crime unless on a presentment or 
indictment of a grand jury. Considerable changes have been made 
by state legislation in the direction of enlarging the powers ot courts 
of summary jurisdiction. 

EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. On the continent of Europe trial of 
criminal cases by a bench of judges without a jury is the original 
and normal method, and continues except in those cases as to 
which under the penal and procedure codes jury trial is made 
necessary. In France the place of courts of summary jurisdiction 
is filled by tribunaux correctionels. (\V. F. C.) 

SUMMIT, a city of Union county, New Jersey, U.S.A., in 
the north-east of the state, about 21 m. W. of New York City. 
Pop. (1900) 5302, of whom 1397 were foreign-born; (1905) 6845; 
(1910) 7500. It is served by the Morris & Essex and the 
Passaic & Delaware divisions of Delaware, Lackawanna & 
Western railroad, and by the Railway Valley railroad extending 
to Roselle, 9 m. distant. Summit is picturesquely situated on 
the crest of a ridge called Second Mountain, with a mean eleva 
tion of 450 ft. It is a residential suburb of New York, and 
attracts a number of summer residents. Among its institu 
tions are a public library (1874), a home for blind children, 
the Overlook hospital and the Kent Place school (1894) for 
girls. On Hobart Hill there is a monument marking the 
site of a beacon light and a signal gun used during the War 
of Independence. Summit was incorporated as a township in 
1869 from parts of the townships at Springfield and New 
Providence, and was chartered as a city in 1899. 

SUMMONS (Fr. semonce, from semonner or semondre, Lat. 
summonere, summonitio), in English law (i) a command by a 
superior authority to attend at a given time or place or to do 
some public duty; (2) a document containing such command, 
and not infrequently also expressing the consequences entailed 

by neglect to obey. The oral summons or citation seems to 
have preceded the written summons in England, just as in 
Roman law in jus vocatio existed for centuries before the libellus 
conventionis. The antiquity and importance of the summons 
as a legal form in England is shown by the presence of the 
" sompnour," or summoner of the ecclesiastical court, as one 
of the characters in the Canterbury Tales, and in The History 
of Sir John Oldcastle, where the sumner is made to eat a citation 
issued from the bishop of Rochester s court. The term is used 
with reference to a demand for the attendance of a person in 
the high court of parliament. As regards English courts of 
justice it is equivalent to what in the civil and canon law and 
in Scots law, and in English courts deriving their procedure 
from those sources, is known as " citation." That term is still 
preserved in English ecclesiastical courts and in matrimonial 

It is an essential principle of justice that a court should not 
adjudicate upon any question without giving the parties to 
be affected or bound by the adjudication the opportunity of 
being heard and of bringing their witnesses before the court. 
The most usual term in English law for the process by which 
attendance is commanded or required is the " summons." 

Civil Proceedings. In the High Court of Justice, civil actions 
are begun by obtaining from the officers of the court a document 
known as a " writ of summons." In this document are stated 
the names of the parties and the nature of the claim made (which 
m the case of liquidated sums of money must be precise and particu 
lar). It is sealed and issued to the party suing it out, and served 
on the opposing party, not by an officer of the court but by an agent 
of the plaintiff. The tenor of the writ is to require the defendant 
to appear and answer the claim, and to indicate the consequences 
of non-appearance, viz. adjudication in default. 

Many proceedings in the High Court and some in the county 
court are initiated by forms of summons different from the writ 
of summons. Of those issued in the High Court three classes merit 
mention : 

1. For determining interlocutory matters of practice and pro 
cedure arising in " a pending cause or matter." These are now 
limited as far as possible to a general summons for directions, intro 
duced in 1883 so as to discourage frequent and expensive applica 
tions to the masters or judges of the High Court on questions of 
detail. These summonses are sealed and issued on application at 
the offices of the High Court. The matters raised are dealt with by 
a master or judge in chambers summarily. In matters of practice 
and procedure there is no appeal from a judge at chambers without 

eave from him or from the court of appeal. 

2. For determining certain classes of questions with more 
lespatch and less cost than is entailed by action or petition. This 
cmd of summons is known as an " originating summons," because 
ander it proceedings may be originated without writ for certain 
ands of relief specified in the rules (R. S. C., O. 55, r. 3). The 
originating summons may be used in all divisions of the High Court, 
5ut is chiefly employed in the chancery division, where it to a great 

extent supersedes actions for the administration of trusts or ot the 

estates of deceased persons; 1 and for the foreclosure of mortgages 

a similar but not identical procedure was created by the Vendor 

and Purchaser Act 1874, and the Conveyancing Act 1881, with 

eference to questions of title, &c., to real property. In the king s 

>ench and probate divisions the originating summons is used for 

determining summarily questions as to property between husband 

and wife, or the right to custody of children, and many other matters 

O. 54, rr. 4 6-4 F). The proceedings on an originating summons 

are conducted summarily at chambers without pleadings, and the 

evidence is usually written. In the chancery division where the 

questions raised are important the summons is adjourned into 

^ourt. An appeal lies to the court of appeal from decisions on 

>riginating summonses. 

The forms of summonses and the procedure thereon in civil cases 
n the High Court are regulated by the Rules of the Supreme Court 
883 to 1907. 

3. Certain proceedings on the crown side of the king s bench 
ivision are begun by summons, e.g. applications for bail; and in 
acation writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition and certiorari 
re asked for by summons as the full court is not in session. (See 
Trown Office Rules, 1906). 

In the county courts an action is begun by plaint and summons, 
wo kinds of summons are in use the ordinary summons used for 
very form of county court action, and the default summons, which is 
n optional remedy of the plaintiff in actions for debts or liquidated 
emands exceeding 5, and in all actions for the price or hire of goods 

1 A similar practice existed before 1883 under the powers given by 
5 & 16 Viet. c. 86, but was very limited in its operation, as it applied 
mply to the personal estate of a deceased person. 



sold or let to the defendant to be used in the way of his calling. It 
may also issue by leave of the judge or registrar in other cases, with 
the single exception that no leave can be given in claims under 5 
where the claim is not for the price or hire of goods sold or let as 
above, if the affidavit of debt discloses that the defendant is a servant 
or person engaged in manual labour. The advantage of a default 
summons is that judgment is entered for the plaintiff without hearing 
unless the defendant gives notice of defence within a limited time. 
A default summons must as a rule be served personally on the 
defendant; an ordinary summons need not be served personally, 
but may in most cases be delivered to a person at the defendant s 
house or place of business. A summons is also issued to a witness 
in the county court. Forms of summons are given in the County 
Court Rules 1903. These include certain special forms used in 
admiralty and interpleader actions and in proceedings under the 
Friendly Societies Acts and the Married Women s Property Acts. 
Summonses issued from county courts are usually served by a 
bailiff of the court and not by the party suing them out. 

Justices of the peace have power to issue summonses to persons 
accused of indictable offences, or of offences summarily punishable, 
for their attendance, for preliminary inquiry or summary trial 
according to the nature of the charge, and also to persons against 
whom a complaint of a civil nature within the justices jurisdiction 
is made. On failure to attend on summons, attendance may be 
enforced by warrant; and in the case of indictable offences this is 
the course always adopted. The forms in use for indictable offences 
are scheduled to the Indictable Offences Act 1848, and those for 
other purposes to the Summary Jurisdiction Rules 1886 (see 
SUMMARY JURISDICTION). The attendance of witnesses before 
justices of the peace may be required by witness summons, enforced 
in the event of disobedience by arrest under warrant (see WITNESS). 

The attendance of jurors in civil or criminal trials is required by 
jury summons sent by registered post. 

In courts for the trial of indictable offences the attendance of 
the accused and of the witnesses is not secured by summons. Both 
ordinarily attend in obedience to recognizances entered into before 
justices for their attendance. In the absence of recognizances the 
attendance of the accused is enforced by bench warrant of the 
court of trial, or by justices warrant, and that of the witnesses by 
writ of subpoena issued from the crown office of the High Court. 
Disobedience to the writ is punished as contempt of court. 

Scotland. Summons is a term confined in strictness to the 
beginning of an action in the Court of Session. The summons is a 
writ in the sovereign s name, signed by a writer to the signet, citing 
the defender to appear and answer the claim. The " will of the 
summons " is the conclusion of a writ containing the will of the 
sovereign or judge, charging the executive officer to cite the party 
whose attendance is required. It is regulated by several acts, e.g. 
The Debtors (Scotland^ Act 1838 (i & 2 Viet. c. 114) and the 
Court of Session <Vociand) Act 1868 (31 & 32 Viet. c. loo). A 
privileged summons is one where the induciae are shortened to six 
days against defenders within Scotland (Court of Session [Scotland] 
Act 1825, s. 53). Defects in the summons are cured by amendment 
or by a supplementary summons. The summons goes more into detail 
than the English writ of summons, though it no longer states, as it 
once did, the grounds of action, now stated in the condescendence 
and pursuer s pleas in law annexed to the summons. The form of 
the summons is regulated by the Court of Session (Scotland) Act 
1850, s. I and schedule A. After the action has been set on foot by 
summons, the attendance of the parties and witnesses is obtained by 
citation. The Citation Amendment Acts 1871 and 1882 give 
additional facilities for the execution of citations in civil cases by 
means of registered letters, instead of by the old process known as 
" lock hole citation." In the act of 1871 the term " summons " 
is used to denote part of the process of inferior civil courts. 

In the sheriff court an action is now begun by writ (Sheriff Courts 
[Scotland] Act 1907), and not as formerly by petition or summons. 

In criminal cases the summons of the accused, or of witnesses, is 
by warrant of citation, and of jurors by citation sent by registered 
post (1868, c. 95, s. 10). 

Ireland. In Ireland summonses are used substantially for the 
same purposes and in the same manner as in England, but generally 
speaking under statutes and rules applying only to the Irish courts. 

(W. F. C.) 

SDMMUM BONUM (Lat. for "highest good "), in ethics, the 
ideal of human attainment. The significance of the term depends 
upon the character of the ethical system in which it occurs. It 
may be viewed as a perfect moral state: as pleasure or happiness 
(see HEDONISM; EUDAEMONISM) ; as physical perfection; as 
wealth, and so forth. If, however, we abandon intuitional 
ethics, it is reasonable to argue that the term summum bonum 
ceases to have any real significance inasmuch as actions are 
not intrinsically good or bad, while the complete sceptic strives 
after no systematic ideal. 

SUMNER, CHARLES (1811-1874), American statesman, was 
born in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 6th of January 1811. 

He graduated in 1830 at Harvard College, and in 1834 graduated 
at the Harvard Law School. Here, in closest intimacy with 
Joseph Story, he became an enthusiast in the study of juris 
prudence: at the age of twenty-three he was admitted to the 
bar, and was contributing to the American Jurist, and editing 
law texts and Story s court decisions. What he saw of Congress 
during a month s visit to Washington in 1834 filled him with 
loathing for politics as a career, and he returned to Boston 
resolved to devote himself to the practice of law. The three 
years (1837-1840) spent in Europe were years of fruitful study 
and experience. He secured a ready command of French, 
German and Italian, equalled by no American then in public 
life. He formed the acquaintance of many of the leading 
statesmen and publicists, and secured a deep insight into 
continental systems of government and of jurisprudence. In 
England (1838) his omnivorous reading in literature, history 
and jurisprudence made him persona grata to leaders of thought. 
Lord Brougham declared that he " had never met with any man 
of Sumner s age of such extensive legal knowledge and natural 
legal intellect." Not till many years after Sumner s death 
was any other American received so intimately into the best 
English circles, social, political and intellectual. 

In his thirtieth year, a broadly cultured cosmopolitan, Sumner 
returned to Boston, resolved to settle down to the practice of 
his profession. But gradually he devoted less of his time to 
practice and more to lecturing in the Harvard Law School, to 
editing court reports and to contributions to law journals, especi 
ally on historical and biographical lines, in which his erudition 
was unsurpassed. In his law practice he had disappointed 
himself and his friends, and he became despondent as to his 
future. It was in a 4th of July oration on " The True 
Grandeur of Nations," delivered in Boston in 1845, that he first 
found himself. His oration was a tremendous arraignment 
of war, and an impassioned appeal for freedom and for peace, 
and proved him an orator of the first rank. He immediately 
became one of the most eagerly sought orators for the lyceum 
and college platform. His lofty themes and stately eloquence 
made a profound impression, especially upon young men; his 
platform presence was imposing, for he was six feet and four 
inches in height and of massive frame; his voice was clear and 
of great power; his gestures unconventional and individual, 
but vigorous and impressive. His literary style was somewhat 
florid. Many of his speeches were monuments of erudition, 
but the wealth of detail, of allusion, and of quotation, often 
from the Greek and Latin, sometimes detracted from their 

Sumner co-operated effectively with Horace Mann for the 
improvement of the system of public education in Massachusetts. 
Prison reform and peace were other causes to which he gave 
ardent support. In 1847 the vigour with which Sumner de 
nounced a Boston congressman s vote in favour of the Mexican 
War Bill made him the logical leader of the " Conscience Whigs," 
but he declined to accept their nomination for Congress. He 
took an active part in the organizing of the Free Soil party, in 
revolt at the Whigs nomination of a slave-holding southerner 
for the presidency; and in 1848 was defeated as a candidate for 
the national House of Representatives. In 1851 control of 
the Massachusetts legislature was secured by the Democrats 
in coalition with the Free Soilers, but after filling the state 
offices with their own men, the Democrats refused to vote for 
Sumner, the Free Soilers choice for United States senator, and 
urged the selection of some less radical candidate. A deadlock 
of more than three months ensued, finally resulting in the election 
(April 24) of Sumner by a majority of a single vote. 

Sumner thus stepped from the lecture platform to the Senate, 
with no preliminary training. At first he prudently abstained 
from trying to force the issues in which he was interested, while 
he studied the temper and procedure of the Senate. In the 
closing hours of his first session, in spite of strenuous efforts to 
prevent it, Sumner delivered (Aug. 26, 1852) a speech, " Free 
dom national; Slavery sectional," which it was immediately 
felt marked a new era in American history. The conventions 


of both the great parties had just affirmed the finality of every 
provision of the Compromise of 1850. Reckless of political 
expediency, Sumner moved that the Fugitive Slave Act be 
forthwith repealed; and for more than three hours he denounced 
it as a violation of the constitution, an affront to the public 
conscience, and an offence against the divine law. The speech 
provoked a storm of anger in the South, but the North was 
heartened to find at last a leader whose courage matched his 
conscience. In 1856, at the very time when " border ruffians " 
were drawing their lines closer about the doomed town of Law 
rence, Kansas, Sumner in the Senate (May 19-20) laid bare the 
" Crime against Kansas." He denounced the Kansas-Nebraska 
Bill as in every respect a swindle, and held its authors, Stephen 
A. Douglas and Andrew P. Butler, up to the scorn of the world 
as the Don Quixote and Sancho Panza of " the harlot, Slavery." 
Two days later (May 22) Preston S. Brooks (1819-1857), a 
congressman from South Carolina, suddenly confronted Sumner 
as he sat writing at his desk in the Senate chamber, denounced 
his speech as a libel upon his state and upon Butler, his relative, 
and before Sumner, pinioned by his desk, could make the slight 
est resistance, rained blow after blow upon his head, till his 
victim sank bleeding and unconscious upon the floor. That 
brutal assault cost Sumner three years of heroic struggle to 
restore his shattered health years during which Massachusetts 
loyally re-elected him, in the belief that in the Senate chamber 
his vacant chair was the most eloquent pleader for free speech 
and resistance to slavery. Upon returning to his post, in 1859, 
the approaching presidential campaign of 1860 did not deter 
him from delivering a speech, entirely free from personal rancour, 
on " The Barbarism of Slavery " to this day one of the most 
comprehensive and scathing indictments of American slavery 
ever presented. 

In the critical months following Lincoln s election Sumner was 
an unyielding foe to every scheme of compromise. After the 
withdrawal of the Southern senators, Sumner was made chair 
man of the committee on foreign relations (March 8, 1861), a 
position for which he was pre-eminently fitted by his years of 
intimate acquaintance with European politics and statesmen. 
While the war was in progress his letters from Cobden and 
Bright, from Gladstone and the duke of Argyll, at Lincoln s 
request were read by Sumner to the cabinet, and formed a chief 
source of light as to political thought in England. In the turmoil 
over the " Trent affair," it was Sumner s word that convinced 
Lincoln that Mason and Slidell must be given up, and that 
reconciled the public to that inevitable step. Again and 
again Sumner used the power incident to his chairmanship to 
block action which threatened to embroil the United States in 
war with England and France. Sumner openly and boldly 
advocated the policy of emancipation. Lincoln described 
Sumner as " my idea of a bishop," and used to consult him as 
an embodiment of the conscience of the American people. 

The war had hardly begun when Sumner put forward his 
theory of reconstruction: that the seceded states by their own 
act had " become felo de se," had " committed state suicide," 
and that their status and the conditions of their readmission 
to membership in the Union lay absolutely at the determination 
of Congress, as if they were Territories and had never been 
states. He resented the initiative in Reconstruction taken by 
Lincoln, and later by Johnson, as an encroachment upon the 
powers of Congress. Throughout the war Sumner had con 
stituted himself the special champion of the negro, being the 
most vigorous advocate of emancipation, of enlisting the blacks 
in the Union army, and of the establishment of the Freedmen s 
Bureau. The credit or the blame for imposing equal suffrage rights 
for negroes upon the Southern states as a condition of Reconstruc 
tion must rest with Charles Sumner more than with any other one 
man Heedless of the teachings of science as to the slow evolu 
tion of any race s capacity for self-government, he insisted on 
putting the ballot forthwith into the hands of even the most 
ignorant blacks, lest their rights be taken from them by their 
former masters and the fruits of the war be lost. But it 
must be remembered that in Sumner s plan equal suffrage was 

to be accompanied by free homesteads and free schools for 

In the impeachment proceedings against Johnson, Sumner 
was one of the president s most implacable assailants. Sumner s 
opposition to Grant s pet scheme for the annexation of San 
Domingo (1870), after the president mistakenly supposed 
that he had secured a pledge of support, brought upon him the 
president s bitter resentment. Sumner had always prized 
highly his popularity in England, but he unhesitatingly sacri 
ficed it in taking his stand as to the adjustment of claims against 
England for breaches of neutrality during the war. Sumner 
laid great stress upon " national claims." He held that 
England s according the rights of belligerents to the Confederate 
states had doubled the duration of the war, entailing inestimable 
loss. He therefore insisted that England should be required 
not merely to pay damages for the havoc wrought by the 
" Alabama " and other cruisers fitted out for Confederate service 
in her ports, but that, for " that other damage, immense and 
infinite, caused by the prolongation of the war," the withdrawal 
of the British flag from this hemisphere could " not be abandoned 
as a condition or preliminary of such a settlement as is now 
proposed." (At the Geneva arbitration conference these 
" national claims " were abandoned.) Under pressure from the 
president, on the ground that Sumner was no longer on speaking 
terms with the secretary of state, he was deposed on the loth 
of March 1871 from the chairmanship of the committee on 
foreign relations, in which he had served with great distinc 
tion and effectiveness throughout the critical years since 1861. 
Whether the chief cause of this humiliation was Grant s vin- 
dictiveness at Sumner s opposition to his San Domingo project 
or a genuine fear that the impossible demand, which he insisted 
should be made upon England, would wreck the prospect of a 
speedy and honourable adjustment with that country, cannot 
be determined. In any case it was a cruel blow to a man already 
broken by racking illness and domestic sorrows. Sumner s 
last years were further saddened by the misconstruction put 
upon one of his most magnanimous acts. In 1872 he introduced 
in the Senate a resolution providing that the names of battles 
with fellow citizens should not be placed on the regimental 
colours of the United States. The Massachusetts legislature 
denounced this battle-flag resolution as an insult to the loyal 
soldiery of the nation " and as " meeting the unqualified con 
demnation of the people of the Commonwealth." For more 
than a year all efforts headed by the poet Whittier to rescind 
that censure were without avail, but early in 1874 it was annulled. 
On the loth of March, against the advice of his physician, 
Sumner went to the Senate it was the day on which his 
colleague was to present the rescinding resolution. With those 
grateful words of vindication from Massachusetts in his ears 
Charles Sumner left the Senate chamber for the last time. That 
night he was stricken with an acute attack of angina pectoris, 
and on the following day he died. 

Sumner was the scholar in politics. He could never be in 
duced to suit his action to the political expediency of the moment. 
" The slave of principles, I call no party master," was the proud 
avowal with which he began his service in the Senate. For the 
tasks of Reconstruction he showed little aptitude. He was less 
a builder than a prophet. His was the first clear programme 
proposed in Congress for the reform of the civil service. It was 
his dauntless courage in denouncing compromise, in demanding 
the repeal of the Fugitive Slave Act, and in insisting upon 
emancipation, that made him the chief initiating force in the 
struggle that put an end to slavery. 

See Sumner s Works (15 vols., Boston, 1870-1883), and Edward 
L. Pierce s Memoir and Letters of Charles Sumner (4 vols., Boston, 
1877-1893). Briefer biographies have been written by Anna L. 
Dawes (New York, 1892); Mporfield Storey (Boston, 1900); and 
George H. Haynes (Philadelphia, 1909). 

SUMNER, CHARLES RICHARD (1790-1874), English bishop, 
was born at Kenilworth on the 22nd of November 1790, and 
was educated at Eton and at Trinity College, Cambridge. He 
graduated B.A. in 1814, M.A. in 1817, and was ordained deacon 


and priest. In the two winters of 1814-1816 he ministered to 
the English congregation at Geneva, and from 1816 to 1821 was 
curate of Highclere, Hampshire. In 1820 George IV. wished to 
appoint him canon of Windsor, but the prime minister, Lord 
Liverpool, objected; Sumner received instead a royal chaplaincy 
and librarianship, and other preferments quickly followed, 
till in 1826 he was consecrated bishop of Llandaff and in 1827 
bishop of Winchester. In his long administration of his latter 
diocese he was most energetic, tactful and munificent. Though 
evangelical in his views he by no means confined his patronage 
to that school. In 1869 he resigned his see, but continued to 
live at the official residence at Farnham until his death on the 
1 5th of August 1874. He published a number of charges and 
sermons, and The Ministerial Character of Christ Practically 
Considered (London, 1824). He also edited and translated 
John Milton s De doctrina Christiana, which was found in the 
State Paper office in 1823, and formed the text of Macaulay s 
famous essay on Milton. 

See the Life, by his son, G. H. Sumner (1876). 

SUMNER, EDWIN VOSE (1797-1863), American soldier, 
was born at Boston, Massachusetts, and entered the United States 
army in 1819. He served in the Black Hawk War and in 
various Indian campaigns. In 1838 he commanded the cavalry 
instructional establishment at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. He took 
part in the Mexican War as a major, and for his bravery at 
Molino del Rey he received the brevet rank of colonel. In 1837 
he commanded an expedition against the Cheyenne Indians. 
At the outbreak of the Civil War, four years later, Sumner had 
just been promoted brigadier-general U.S.A. and sent to replace 
Sidney Johnston in command on the Pacific coast. He thus 
took no part in the first campaign of the Civil War. But in the 
autumn he was brought back to the East to command a division, 
and soon afterwards, as a major-general U.S.V., a corps in the 
army that was being organized by McClellan. This corps, 
numbered II., retained its independent existence throughout 
the war, and under the command of Sumner, Couch,. Han 
cock and Humphreys it had the deserved reputation of being the 
best in the Union army. Sumner, who was by far the oldest 
of the generals in the army of the Potomac, led his corps through 
out the peninsular campaign, was wounded during the Seven 
Days Battle, and received the brevet of major-general U.S.A., 
and was again wounded in the battle of Antietam. When 
Burnside succeeded to the command of the army of the Potomac 
he grouped the corps in " grand divisions," and appointed 
Sumner to command the right grand division. In this capacity 
the old cavalry soldier took part in the disastrous battle of 
Fredericksburg, in which the II. corps suffered most severely. 
Soon afterwards, on Hooker s appointment to command the 
army, Sumner was relieved at his own request. He died 
suddenly, on the 2ist of March 1863, while on his way to 
assume supreme command in Missouri. 

SUMNER, JOHN BIRD (1780-1862), English archbishop, 
elder brother of Bishop Charles Sumner, was born at Kenil worth, 
Warwickshire, and educated at Eton and Cambridge. In 
1802 he became a master at Eton, and in the following year he 
took orders. He was elected a fellow of Eton in 1817, and in 
1818 the college presented him to the living of Maple Durham, 
Oxfordshire. After holding a prebendaryship of Durham for 
some years, he was consecrated bishop of Chester in 1828. 
During his episcopate many churches and schools were built 
in the diocese. His numerous writings were much esteemed, 
especially by the evangelical party, to which he belonged; the 
best known are his Treatise on the Records of Creation and the 
Moral Attributes of the Creator (London, 1816) and The Evidence 
of Christianity derived from its Nature and Reception (London, 
1821). In 1848 he was consecrated archbishop of Canterbury, 
in which capacity he dealt impartially with the different church 
parties. In the well-known " Gorham case" 1 he came into 

1 George Cornelius Gorham (1787-1857) was refused institution 
by Bishop Phillpotts because of his Calvimstic views on baptismal 
regeneration. The court of arches upheld the bishop, but its 
decision was reversed by the privy council. 

conflict with Bishop Henry Phillpotts of Exeter (1778-1869), 
who accused him of supporting heresy and refused to com 
municate with him. He supported the Divorce Bill in parlia 
ment, but opposed the Deceased Wife s Sister Bill and the bill 
for removing Jewish disabilities. 

SUMNER, WILLIAM GRAHAM (1840-1910), American 
economist, was born, of English parentage, in Paterson, New 
Jersey, on the 3oth of October 1840. He was brought up in 
Hartford, Connecticut, graduated at Yale College in 1863, 
studied French and Hebrew in Geneva in 1863-1864 and divinity 
and history at Gottingen in 1864-1866, and in 1866-1869 was 
a tutor at Yale. He was ordained a priest of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in 1869, was assistant rector of Calvary 
Church, New York City, and in 1870-1872 was rector of the 
Church of the Redeemer, Morristown, New Jersey. From 1872 
to 1909, when he became professor emeritus, he was professor 
of political and social science at Yale. In 1909 he was president 
of ths American Sociological Society. He died at Englewood, 
New Jersey, on the I2th of April 1910. 

He was notable especially as an opponent of protectionism, and 
was a great teacher. He wrote: History of American Currency 
(1874); Lectures on the History of Protection in the United States 
( 875) ; Life of Andrew Jackson (1882), in the " American Statesmen 
Series"; What Social Classes Owe to Each Other (1883); Collected 
Essays in Political and Social Sciences (1885); Protectionism (1885) ; 
Alexander Hamilton (1891), and Robert Morris (1891), in the" Makers 
of America Series"; The Financier and Finances of the American 
Revolution (2 vols., 1891); A History of Banking in the United States 
(1896); and Folkways: a Study of the Sociological Importance of 
Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores and Morals (1907), a valuable 
sociological summary. 

SUMPTER, a pack-horse or mule, a beast for carrying burdens, 
particularly for military purposes. There were two words once 
in use, which in sense, if not in form, have coalesced. These are 
" sommer " or " summer " and " sumpter." The first comes 
through the Old French sommier, a pack-horse, the other 
through sommetier, a pack-horse driver. Both come ultimately 
from Late Lat. salma, from sagma, a pack, burden, Old French 
somme, saume; Greek aay^a, burden, aarrtiv, to load. 
" Sumpter " in the sense of a driver of a pack-horse is rare, and 
the word is always joined with another explanatory word. 

SUMPTUARY LAWS (from Lat. sumptuarius, belonging to 
cost or expense, sumptus}, those laws intended to limit or 
regulate the private expenditure of the citizens of a community. 
They may be dictated by political, or economic, or moral con 
siderations. They have existed both in ancient and in modern 
states. In Greece, it was amongst the Dorian races, whose 
temper was austere and rigid, that they most prevailed. All 
the inhabitants of Laconia were forbidden to attend drinking 
entertainments, nor could a Lacedaemonian possess a house or 
furniture which was the work of more elaborate implements 
than the axe and saw. Among the Spartans proper simple and 
frugal habits of life were secured rather by the institution of the 
pheiditia (public meals) than by special enactments. The 
possession of gold or silver was interdicted to the citizens of 
Sparta, and the use of iron money alone was permitted by the 
Lycurgean legislation. " Even in the cities which had early 
departed from the Doric customs," says K. O. Muller, " there 
were frequent and strict prohibitions against expensiveness of 
female attire, prostitutes alone being wisely excepted." In the 
Locrian code of Zaleucus citizens were forbidden to drink 
undiluted wine. The Solonian sumptuary enactments were 
directed principally against the extravagance of female apparel 
and dowries of excessive amount; costly banquets also were 
forbidden, and expensive funeral solemnities. The Pytha 
goreans in Magna Graecia not only protested against the luxury of 
their time but encouraged legislation with a view to restraining it. 

At Rome the system of sumptuary edicts and enactments 
was largely developed, whilst the objects of such legislation 
were concurrently sought to be attained through the exercise 
of the censorial power. The code of the Twelve Tables con 
tained provisions limiting the expenditure on funerals. The 
most important sumptuary laws of the Roman commonwealth 
are the following: 


(i) The Oppian law, 215 B.C., provided that no woman should 
possess more than half an ounce of gold, or wear a dress of differen 
colours, or ride in a carriage in the city or within a mile of it excep 
on occasions of public religious ceremonies. This law, which had 
been partly dictated by the financial necessities of the conflict with 
Hannibal_, was repealed twenty years later, against the advice o 
Cato. Livy (xxxiv. 1-8) gives an interesting account of the com 
motion excited by the proposal of the repeal, and of the exertion, 
of the Roman women against the law, which almost amounted to a 
female emeute. (2) The Orchian law, 187 B.C., limited the number 
of guests at entertainments. An attempt being made to repea 
this law, Cato offered strong opposition and delivered a speech on 
the subject, of which some fragments have been preserved. (3) 
The Fannian law, 161 B.C., limited the sums to be spent on enter 
tainments; it provided amongst other things that no fowl should 
be served but a single hen, and that not fattened. (4) The Didian 
law, 143 B.C., extended to the whole of Italy the provisions of the 
Fannian law, and made the guests as well as the givers of entertain 
ments at which the law was violated liable to the penalties. After 
a considerable interval, Sulla anew directed legislation against the 
luxury of the table and also limited the cost of funerals and of 
sepulchral monuments. We are told that he violated his own law 
as to funerals when burying his wife Metella, and also his law on 
entertainments when seeking to forget his grief for her loss in 
extravagant drinking and feasting (Plut. Sull. 35). Julius Caesar, 
in the capacity of praefectus moribus, after the African War re- 
enacted some of the sumptuary laws which had fallen into neglect ; 
Cicero implies (Ep. ad Alt. xiii. 7) that in Caesar s absence his legis 
lation of this kind was not attended to. Suetonius tells us that 
Caesar had officers stationed in the market-places to seize such 
provisions as were forbidden by law, and sent lictors and soldiers 
to feasts to remove all illegal eatables (Jul. 43). Augustus fixed 
anew the expense to be incurred in entertainments on ordinary and 
festal days. Tiberius also sought to check inordinate expense on 
banquets, and a decree of the senate was passed in his reign forbid 
ding the use of gold vases except in sacred rites, and prohibiting the 
wearing of silk garments by men. But it appears from Tacitus 
(Ann. ni. 5, where a speech is put into his mouth very much in 
the spirit of Horace s" Quid leges sine moribus vanae proficiunt? ") 
that he looked more to the improvement of manners than to direct 
legislative action for the restriction of luxury. Suetonius mentions 
some regulations made by Nero, and we hear of further legislation 
of this kind by Hadrian and later emperors. In the time of 
Tertullian the sumptuary laws appear to have been things of the past 
(Apol. c. vi.). 

In modern times the first important sumptuary legislation 
was: in Italy that of Frederick II.; in Aragon that of James I., 
in 1234; in France that of Philip IV.; in England that of 
Edward II. and Edward III. In 1 294 Philip IV. made provisions 
as to the dress and the table expenditure of the several orders of 
men in his kingdom. Charles V. of France forbade the use of 
long-pointed shoes, a fashion against which popes and councils 
had protested in vain. Under later kings the use of gold and 
silver embroidery, silk stuffs and fine linen wares was restricted 
at first moral and afterwards economic motives being put 
forward, the latter especially from the rise of the mercantile 
theory. In England we hear much from the writers of the I4th 
century of the extravagance of dress at that period. They 
remark both on the great splendour and expensiveness of the 
apparel of the higher orders and on the fantastic and deforming 
fashions adopted by persons of all ranks. The parliament held 
at Westminster in 1363 made laws (37 Edw. III. c. 8-14) to 
restrain this undue expenditure and to regulate the dress of the 
several classes of the people. These statutes were repealed in 
the following year, but similar ones were passed again in the 
same reign. They seem, however, to have had little effect, for in 
the reign of Richard II. the same excesses prevailed, apparently 
in a still greater degree. Another statute was passed in the 
year 1463 (3 Edw. IV. c. 5) for the regulation of the dress of 
persons of all ranks. In this it was stated that " the commons 
of the realm, as well men as women, wear excessive and inordi 
nate apparel to the great displeasure of God, the enriching of 
strange realms, and the destruction of this realm." An act of 
1444 had previously regulated the clothing, when it formed part 
of the wages, of servants employed in husbandry: a bailiff or 
overseer was to have an allowance of 55. a year for his clothing, 
a hind or principal servant 45., and an ordinary servant 35. 4d. 
sums equivalent respectively to 505., 405. and 335. 4d. of our 
money (Henry). Already in the reign of Edward II. a proclama 
tion had been issued against the " outrageous and excessive 

multitude of meats and dishes which the great men of the king 
dom had used, and still used, in their castles," as well as " per 
sons of inferior rank imitating their example, beyond what their 
stations required and their circumstances could afford"; and 
the rule was laid down that the great men should have but two 
courses of flesh meat served up to their tables, and on fish days 
two courses of fish, each course consisting of but two kinds. In 
1336 Edward III. attempted also to legislate against luxurious 
living, and in 1363, at the same time when costumes were 
regulated, it was enacted that the servants of gentlemen, 
merchants and artificers should have only one meal of flesh or 
fish in the day, and that their other food should consist of milk, 
butter arid cheese. Similar acts to those above mentioned were 
passed in Scotland also. In 1433 (temp. James I.), by an act 
of a parliament which sat at Perth, the manner of living of all 
orders in Scotland was prescribed, and in particular the use of 
pies and baked meats, which had been only lately introduced 
into the country, was forbidden to all under the rank of 
baron. In 1457 (temp. James II.) an act was passed against 
"sumptuous cleithing." A Scottish sumptuary law of 1621 
was the last of the kind in Great Britain. 

In Japan sumptuary laws have been passed with a frequency 
and minuteness of scope such as has no parallel in the history 
of the western world. At the beginning of the nth century we 
find an Imperial edict regulating the size of a house and even 
imposing restrictions as to the materials of which it is to be 
built. But it was during the Tokugawa period that sumptuary 
laws and regulations were passed in the most bewildering 
profusion; every detail of a man s life was regulated down to 
the least particular from the wearing of a beard or the dressing 
of the hair down to the cost of his wife s hairpins or the price of 
his child s doll. 1 

A. Ferguson and others have pointed out that " luxury " is a term 
of relative import and that all luxuries do not deserve to be dis 
couraged. Roscher has called attention to the fact that the nature 
of the prevalent luxury changes with the stage of social develop 
ment. He endeavours to show that there are three periods in the 
history of luxury one in which it is coarse and profuse ; a second 
in which it aims mainly at comfort and elegance; and a third, 
proper to periods of decadence, in which it is perverted to vicious 
and unnatural ends. The second of these began, in modern times, 
with the emergence of the Western nations from the medieval 
period, and in the ancient communities at epochs of similar transi 
tion. Roscher holds that the sumptuary legislation which regularly 
appears at the opening of this stage was then useful as promoting 
the reformation of habits. He remarks that the contemporary 
tormation of strong governments, disposed from the consciousness 
of their strength to interfere with the lives of their subjects, tended 
to encourage such legislation, as did also the jealousy felt by the 
hitherto dominant ranks of the rising wealth of the citizen classes, 
who are apt to imitate the conduct of their superiors. It is certainly 
desirable that habits of wasteful expenditure and frequent and 
wanton changes of fashion should be discouraged. But such action 
aelongs more properly to the spiritual than to the temporal power. 
In ancient, especially Roman, life, when there was a confusion of 
the two powers in the state system, sumptuary legislation was more 
natural than in the modern world, in which those powers have been 
in general really, though imperfectly, separated. Political econo 
mists are practically unanimous in their reprobation of the policy 
of legislative compulsion in these matters. In a well-known passage 
Adam Smith protests against the " impertinence and presumption 
of kings and ministers in pretending to watch over the economy of 
Driyate people and to restrain their expense, being themselves always 
and without any exception the greatest spendthrifts in the society." 
\ et he does not seem to have been averse from all attempts to influ 
ence through taxation the expenditure of the humbler classes. The 
modern taxes on carriages, coats of arms, male servants, playing 
cards, &c., ought perhaps not to be regarded as resting on the 
principle of sumptuary laws, but only as means of proportioning 
taxation to the capacity of bearing the burden. 

The loci class-id on Roman sumptuary laws are Gellius, Noctes 
atticae, n. 24, and Macrobius, Saturn, iii. 17. For Great Britain 
see Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum (" Rolls Series," ed. T. 
Arnold, 1879); W. Cunningham, Growth oj English Industry and 

See Captain F. Brinkley s Japan, its History, Arts and Litera- 
ure (1904), i. 138, 205, 140-144, ii. 98, 99, iv. 157-162; Trans, 
f the Asiatic Soc. of Japan, vol. xix., " Notes on Land Tenure and 
-.oca! Institutions in Old Japan," ed. by Professor J.H.Wigmore; 
-ol. xx., " Materials for the Study of Private Law in Old Japan," 
l Professor Wigmore. 


Commerce; W. J. Ashley, Introduction to English Economic History 
and Theory (1893); VV. Denton, England in the Fifteenth Century 
(1888). One of the best extant.treatments of the whole subject is 
that by Roscher, in his essay, Uber den Luxus, republished in his 
Ansichten der Volkswirthschaft auf dem geschichtlichen Standpunkte 
(3rd ed., 1878). a- K. I.) 

SUMTER, THOMAS (1736-1832), American soldier, was born 
in Hanover county, Virginia, on the i4th of July 1736. He 
served in the Virginia militia during the French and Indian War 
and was present at Braddock s defeat (1755)- Some time after 
1762 he removed to South Carolina. He is best known for his 
service during the War of Independence, but he saw little 
active service until after the fall of Charleston in May 1780. 
In July 1780 he became a brigadier-general of state troops. 
During the remainder of the war he carried on a partisan cam 
paign, and earned the sobriquet of the " Gamecock." He failed 
in an attack upon Rocky Mount (Chester county) on the ist of 
August 1780, but on the 6th defeated 500 Loyalists and regulars 
at Hanging Rock (Lancaster county), and on the isth inter 
cepted and defeated a convoy with stores between Charleston 
and Camden. His own regiment, however, was almost annihilated 
by Lieut. -Colonel Banastre Tarleton (1754-1833) at Fishing 
Creek (Chester county) on the i8th. A new force was soon 
recruited, with which he defeated Major James Wemys at 
Fishdam (Union county) on the night of the Sth-gth of Novem 
ber, and repulsed Tarleton s attack at Blackstock (Union coujity) 
on the 2oth, when he was wounded. In January 1781 Congress 
formally thanked him for his services. He was a member of 
the state convention which ratified the Federal constitution 
for South Carolina in 1788, he himself opposing that instrument; 
of the national House of Representatives in 1780-1793 and again 
in 1797-1801, and of the United States Senate from 1801 to 1810. 
At the time of his death at South Mount, South Carolina, on the 
ist of June 1832, he was the last surviving general officer of the 
War of Independence. 

See Edward McCrady, The History of South Carolina in the Revolu 
tion (2 vols., New York, 1901-1902). 

SUMTER, a city and the county-seat of Sumter county, 
South Carolina, U.S.A., 42 m. by rail E. by S. of Columbia. 
Pop. (1900) 5673 (3160 negroes); (1910) 8109. Sumter is 
served by several divisions of the Atlantic Coast line and by the 
Southern railways. It is the seat of St Joseph s Academy 
(Roman Catholic) for girls. The region produces tobacco, 
vegetables and cotton, and there are various manufactories in 
the city. Sumter was founded in 1800 and was named in honour 
of General Thomas Sumter; it was first chartered as a city 
in 1887. 

SUMY, a town of Little Russia, in the government of 
Kharkov, 122 m. by rail N.W. of the city of Kharkov, founded 
in 1658. Pop. (1900), 28,519. It is an important centre for the 
trade of Great Russia with Little Russia cattle and.corn being 
sent to the north in exchange for manufactured and grocery 
wares. It has important sugar manufacture, and a technical 

SUN (O. Eng. sunne, Ger. sonne. Fr. soldi, Lat. sol, Gr. 
77X105, from which comes helio- in various English compounds), 
the name of the central body of the solar system, the luminous 
orb from which the earth receives light and heat; (see SUNSHINE); 
hence by analogy other heavenly bodies which form the centre 
of systems are called suns. 

To understand the phenomena of the sun, we should reproduce 
them upon the earth; but this is clearly impossible since they 
take place at temperatures which volatilize all known substances. 
Hence our only guides are such general laws of mechanics and 
physics as we can hardly believe any circumstances will falsify. 
But it must be remembered that these require extrapolation 
from experience sometimes sufficiently remote, and it is possible 
they may lead to statements that are obscure, if not contra 
dictory. The body of the sun must consist of uncombined gases; 
at the surface the temperature is some 2000 C. above the boiling 
point of carbon, and a little way within the body it may probably 
exceed the critical point at which increase of pressure can produce 
the liquid state in any substance. But as the mean density 

exceeds that of water, and probably falls but little from the centre 
to the surface, these gases are gases only in the sense that if the 
pressure of neighbouring and outward parts gravitating to 
wards the centre were relaxed, they would expand explosively, 
as we see happening in the eruptive prominences. They have 
lost completely the gaseous characteristic of producing a line 
spectrum, and radiate like incandescent solids. The surface 
region which yields a continuous spectrum is called the photo 
sphere; it possesses optically a sharp boundary, which is gener 
ally a perfect sphere, but shows occasionally at the rim slight 
depressions or more rarely elevations. Enclosing the photo 
sphere is a truly gaseous envelope which is called the chromo 
sphere, and which shows a spectrum of bright lines when we can 
isolate its emission from that of the photosphere. This envelope 
is also sharply defined, but its normal appearance is compared 
to the serrations which blades of grass show on the skyline of a 
hill, and it is disturbed by the outbursts, called prominences, of 
which details are given below. Outside this again is an envelope 
of matter of enormous extent and extreme tenuity, whether 
gaseous or partly minute liquid or solid drops, which is called the 
corona. It has no sharp boundary, its brightness diminishes 
rapidly as we recede from the limb, and such structure as it 
shows consists of long streaks or filaments extending outwards 
from the limb in broad curved sweeps. Finally there is the 
envelope of still vaster extent and of unknown constitution which 
gives the zodiacal light (q.v.); its greatest extent is along the 
ecliptic, but it can also be certainly traced for 35 in a perpen 
dicular direction. The lower gaseous cloaks absorb a large part 
of the light admitted by the photosphere, and especially at the 
limb and for the more refrangible rays the loss of intensity is 
very marked. 

In the instants when a sharp image of the photosphere is seen 
or photographed, it shows a granulated appearance like white 
flakes strewed fairly evenly upon a dark ground. The figs, 
i, 2, 3, 4 (plate) show enlargements from photo- General 
graphs by Hansky at Pulkowa (June 25, 1905); Appearance 
they are separated by intervals from 25 to 80 of Photo- 
seconds, and he has succeeded in showing identity sp ere 
in many of the granules, or more properly, clouds represented. 
Thus they exhibit at once general appearance and its changes. 
The diameters range from 400 m. or less up to 1200 m., and the 
speeds relative to the spot range up to 2 or 3 m. per second. 
M. Hansky believes these motions may be the consequences 
of matter rising from below and thrusting the surface groups 
aside. Usually the changes are such that it is impossible even 
to recognize the formations in successive photographs. Besides 
granulations the sun s disk shows, as a rule, one or more spots or 
groups of spots. Each spot shows with more or less completeness 
a ring-shaped penumbra enclosing a darker umbra; the umbra, 
which looks black beside the photosphere, is actually about as 
brilliant as limelight. In the neighbourhood surrounding the 
penumbra the granules appear to be packed more closely, forming 
brilliant patches called faculae. In the shape of a spot there is 
neither rule nor permanence, though those that are nearly circular 
seem to resist change better than the others. They arise from 
combinations of smaller spots, or from nothing, in a short period, 
say a day. They are never wholly quiescent. Bridges, more 
brilliant than the rest of the photosphere, form across them, and 
they may divide into two parts which separate from one another 
with great velocity. The largest spots are easily seen by the 
naked eye, if the brilliancy of the disk is veiled; the umbra may 
be many ten or more diameters of the earth in breadth. 
The length of their life is difficult to assign, because there is 
some tendency for a new group to arise where an old one has 
disappeared; but one is recorded which appeared in the same 
place for eighteen months; the average is perhaps two months. 
They are carried across the disk by the sun s rotation, partaking 
in the equatorial acceleration; they also show marked dis 
placements of their own, whether with, or relative to, the neigh 
bouring photosphere does not appear; at the beginning of their 
life they usually outrun the average daily rotation appropriate 
to their latitude. Spots are rarely found on the equator, or 



more than 35 N. or S. of it, and at 45 are practically 
unknown. Their occurrence within these zones follows statisti 
cally a uniform law (see AURORA). Other information about 
the spots is given below, in connexion with their spectra. It 
may be said that nothing definite has been established as to 
what they are. The statement known as A. Wilson s theory 
(1774), that they are hollows in the photosphere, long supposed 
to be proved by perspective effects as the spot approached the 
limb, is discredited by F. Hewlett s careful drawings, which, 
however, do not establish the contrary. To draw a trustworthy 
conclusion it is necessary that the spot should be quiescent, 
show a well-developed and fairly symmetrical penumbra, and be 
observed near the limb and also near the centre, and these 
conditions are satisfied in so few cases as to withdraw all 
statistical force from the conclusion. Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8 (plate) 
are reproductions of the Greenwich photographs of the sun 
from the 3<Dth of January to the 8th of February 1905. 
The first, taken alone, might seem to bear out Wilson s 
theory, but the others show that the penumbra is really 
very unsymmetrical and much broader on the side towards 
the limb, apart from anything which perspective may have 
to say. The photosphere does not rotate in one piece, lower 
latitudes outrunning higher. This was discovered by R. C. 
Carrington from observations of the spots, extending from 1853 
Rotation of to 1 86 1, from which he determined also the position 
the Photo- of the sun s axis. But conclusions from the spots 
sphere. are fu y of anoma ii es E w Maunder and Mrs 
Maunder found that different spots in the same zone differ more 
than do the means for different zones, while a long-lived spot 
settles down to give more consistent results than are furnished 
by spots of one apparition. In the span of two complete sun- 
spot periods no evidence was found of periodic or other change 
with lapse of time. The problem still awaits complete discussion. 
The irregularities incidental to use of the spots are escaped by 
comparing the relative Doppler displacements of the same 
spectral line as given by the receding and advancing limbs of 
the sun. The observation is a delicate one, and was first success 
fully handled by N. C. Duner in 1890. But his determinations, 
repeated recently (Ada upsal. IV. vol. i., 1907) as well as those 
of J. Halm at Edinburgh (Ast. Nach. vol. 173, 1907), are super 
seded by a photographic treatment of the problem by W. S. 
Adams (Astrophys. Journ., xxvi., 1907). 

The diagram (fig. 9) shows Adams s value for the angular velocity 
for different latitudes <f>, the dots representing the actual observa 
tions. Fig. 10 shows the consequent distortion of a set of meridians 
after one revolution (at lat. 30). An important feature added to 
the discussion by Adams is the different behaviour of spectral lines 




10 20 30 40 SO 60 70 80" 90 

FIG. 9. 

which are believed to originate at different levels. The data given 
above refer to the mean reversing layer. Lines of lanthanum and 
carbon which art believed to belong to a low level showed system 
atically smaller angular velocity than the average. This promises 
to be a fertile field for future inquiry. Pending more conclusive 
evidence from the spectroscope, the interpretation of the peculiar 
surface rotation of the sun appears to be that the central parts 
of the body are rotating faster than those outside them ; for if 
such were the case the observed phenomenon would arise. For 

consider first a frictionless fluid. The equations of surfaces of equal 
angular motion would be of the form r = R (itcosV), where 
f is proportional to the square of the angular motion, supposed 
small, and R increases as e diminishes. Consider the traces these 
surfaces cut on any sphere r = a: we have </eAf0 = 2esin0cos0/!cos 2 
aR-^R/ffe}, which is positive and has a maximum in the middle 
latitudes; so that, proceeding 
from the pole to the equator 
along any meridian, the angular 
velocity would continually in 
crease, at a rate which was 
greatest in the middle latitudes. 
This is exactly what the ob 
servations show. Now if this 
state be supposed established in 
a frictionless fluid, the con 
sideration of internal friction 
would simply extend the char 
acteristics found at any spot to 
the neighbourhood, and there 
fore if the boundary were a 
sphere and so for a frictionless 
fluid an exception, it would 

cease to be an exception when FIG. 10. 

we allow for viscosity. But this 

theory gives no clue to the results relating to hydrogen, which 
belongs to a high level, and which Adams has shown to move with 
an angular velocity decidedly greater than the equatorial angular 
velocity below it, and not to show any sign of falling off towards 
the poles. 

It is useful to form a conception of the mechanical state within 
the sun s body. Its temperature must be dominated directly 
or indirectly by the surface radiation, and since the Mechanical 
matter is gaseous and so open to redistribution, the State 
same is true of density and pressure. It is true that totema/fr. 
within the body radiations must be stifled within a short 
distance of their source; none the less, they will determine 
a temperature gradient, falling from the centre to the borders, 
though for the most part falling very slowly, and we may ask 
what relative temperatures in different parts would maintain 
themselves if once established. Stefan s law of radiation ac 
cording to the fourth power of the temperature is too difficult 
to pursue, but if we are content with cognate results we can 
follow them out mathematically in a hypothetical law of the 
first power. We then find that the density would increase 
as we go outwards, at first slowly, but finally with extreme 
rapidity, the last tenth of the radius comprising half the mass. 
The radiation from such a body would be practically nil, no 
matter how hot the centre was. Of course such a state would 
be statically unstable. It would never get established because 
currents would arise to exchange the positions of the hotter, 
less dense, inner parts and the cooler, more dense, outer ones. 
By this interchange the inner parts would be opened out and the 
total radiation raised. Since the only cause for these convection 
currents is the statical instability produced by radiation, and 
the rapid Stifling of radiations within the body produces there 
a temperature gradient falling very slowly, they would be for the 
most part extremely slight. Only near the surface would they 
become violent, and only there would there be a rapid fall of 
temperature and density. Through the main body these would 
remain nearly constant. Indeed it seems that, in the final 
distribution of density throughout the part which is not subject 
to violent convection currents, it must increase slightly from 
the centre outwards, since the currents would cease altogether 
as soon as a uniform state was restored. In the outer strata 
a different state must prevail. Rapidly falling temperature 
must (and visibly does) produce furious motions which wholly 
outrun mere restoration of statical balance. Portions change 
places so rapidly and so continually, that we may take it, where 
any average is reached, the energy is so distributed that there is 
neither gain nor loss when such a change occurs. This is the 
law of convective equilibrium. But in the sun s atmosphere 
gravitation alone is a misleading guide. Convective equilibrium, 
which depends upon it, gives far too steep a temperature 
gradient, for it yields a temperature of 6000 only 200 m. 
within the free surface, whereas the chromosphere is of an average 
:hickness of 5000 m., and attains that temperature only at its 
base. Probably the factor which thus diminishes the effective 



(l) 1905, June 25d. 4.h. i6m. 155. 

(2) 1905, June 25d. 4h. i;m. 155. 

(3) 1905, June 25d. 4h. 1701. 403. 

(4) 1905. 

- 19. s- 

XXVI. 86. 

ENLARGED PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE SOLAR SURFACE. Taken by M. A. Hansky at the Observatory of Pulkowa 

(1905, June 25), at intervals from 255. to 8os. 



I 95. J an - 3d- I2h. 8m. 273. 

1905, Jan. 3id. nh. l/m. 273. 

1905, Feb. 2d. loh. 5om. 28s. 

1905, Feb. 8d. 1311. 3m. 50. 

Observer: E. \V. Maunder. Instrument, Thompson Photoheliograph. Focallength, 9 t._ Aperture, 9 in. 


The Black 

condensing power of gravitation at the sun s borders is the 
pressure of radiation. 

The radiations from the sun must be considered in two parts, 
corresponding respectively to the continuous spectrum and the 
line-spectrum. The latter is considered below; 
it is indicative of the chemical elements from which 
the lines can proceed, and its state at the time of 
emission; the former is indicative only of the rate of loss of 
energy from the sun by radiation, and is inwoven with a remark 
able group of physical theory and experiment, known as 
the theory of the black body, or as black radiation. The 
" black body " is an ideal body with surface so constituted 
as to reflect no part of any radiations that fall upon it; in the 
case of such a body Kirchhoff and Balfour Stewart showed that 
unless energy were to be lost the rate of emission and absorption 
must be in fixed ratio for each specific wave-length. 

The name has no reference to the appearance of the body to the 
eye; when emitting energy, its radiations will be of all wave-lengths, 
and if intense enough will appeal to the eye as luminous between 
about wave-lengths 7600 and 4000 tenth-metres; this intensity is 
a question of temperature, and as it is exquisitely inappropriate to 
speak of the bulk of the solar radiations as black, the writer will 
speak instead of amorphous radiations from an ideal radiator. The 
ideal radiator is realized within any closed cavity, the walls of which 
are maintained at a definite temperature. The space within is 
filled with radiations corresponding to this temperature, and these 
attain a certain equilibrium which permits the energy of radiation 
to be spoken of as a whole, as a scalar quantity, without express 
reference to the propagation or interference of the waves of which it 
is composed. It is then found both by experiment and by thermo- 
dynamic theory that in these amorphous radiations there is for each 
temperature a definite distribution of the energy over the spectrum 
according to a law which may be expressed by 5 i(0X)<iX, between the 
wave-lengths X, X+dX; and as to the form of the function <t>, Planck 
has shown (Sitzungsber. Berlin A had. 544) that an intelligible theory 
can be given which leads to the form <j>(8\) = Cij{exp(cil>S) ij, 
a form which agrees in a satisfactory way with all the experi 
ments. Fig. II shows the resulting 
distribution of energy. The enclosed 
area for each temperature represents the 
total emission of energy for that tem 
perature, the abscissae are the wave 
lengths, and the ordinates the corre 
sponding intensities of emission for that 
wave-length. It will be seen that the 
maximum ordinates lie upon the curve 
\B = constant dotted in the figure, and 
so, as the temperature of the ideal body 
rises, the wave-length of most intense 
radiation shifts from the infra-red 
towards the luminous part of the 
spectrum. When we speak of the sun s 
radiation as a whole, it is assumed that 

p IG 


it is of the character of the radiations from an ideal radiator at an 
appropriate temperature. 

The first adequate determination of the character as well 
as amount of solar radiation was made by S. P. Langley in 
1893 at Mount Whitney in California (14,000 ft.), with the 
bolometer, an exceedingly sensitive instrument which he in- 
vented, and which enabled him to feel his way 
Constant, thermally over the whole spectrum, noting all the 
chief Fraunhofer lines and bands, which were shown 
by sharp serrations, or more prolonged depressions of the 
curve which gave the emissions, and discovering the lines 
and bands of the invisible ultra-red portion. The holograph 
thus obtained must be cleared of the absorption of the earth s 
atmosphere, and that of the transmitting apparatus a spectro 
scope and siderostat. The first in itself requires an elaborate 
study. The first essential is an elevated observatory; the next 
is a long series of holographs taken at different times of the year 
and of the day, to examine the effect of interposing different 
thicknesses of air and its variation in transparency (chiefly 
due to water vapour). It is found that atmospheric absorption 
is generally greater in summer than in winter, a difference of 
20% being found between March and August; morning hours 
show a rapid and often irregular increase of transparency, 
culminating shortly after noon, after which the diminution is 
slow and comparatively regular. 

The resulting allowances and conclusion are illustrated in fig. 12, 

taken from an article by Langley in the Astrophysicol Journal 
(1903), xvii. 2. The integrated emission of energy is given by the 
area of the outer smoothed curve (4), and the conclusion from this 
one holograph is that the " solar constant " is 2-54 calories. The 
meaning of this statement is that, arguing away the earth s atmo 
sphere, which wastes about one-half what is received, a square 

(From Astrophysicat Journal, xvii. 2, by permission of the 
University of Chicago Press.) 

FIG. 12. 

centimetre, exposed perpendicularly to the sun s rays, would receive 
sufficient energy per minute to raise 2-54 grams of water i C. 
Langley s general determination of the constant was greater than 
this 3 O to 3-5 calories; more recently C. G. Abbot at Mount 
Wilson, with instruments and methods in which Langley s expe 
rience is embodied, has reduced it greatly, having proved that one 
of Langley s corrections was erroneously applied. The results 
vary between 1-89 and 2-22, and the variation appears to be solar, 
not terrestrial. Taking the value at 2-1 the earth is therefore 
receiving energy at the rate of 1-47 kilowatts per square metre, or 
1-70 horse-power per square yard. The corresponding intensity 
at the sun s surface is 4-62 Xio 4 as great, or 6-79 Xio 4 kilowatts per 
square metre = 7-88 Xio 4 horse-power per square yard enough to 
melt a thickness of 13-3 metres (=39-6 ft.) of ice, or to vaporize 
1-81 metres (=5-92 ft.) of water per minute. 

If we assume that the holograph of solar energy is simply a graph 
of amorphous radiation from an ideal radiator, so that the con- 
_ slants Ci, Cj, of Planck s formula determined terrestrially 

re apply to it, the hyperbola of maximum intensity is X0 = 
*"* 2-921 Xio 7 ; and as the sun s maximum intensity occurs 
for about X = 4900, we find the absolute temperature to be 5960 abs. 
If we calculate from the total energy emitted, and not from the 
position of maximum intensity, the same result is obtained within 
a few degrees. But to call this the temperature of the sun s surface 
is a convention, which sets aside some material factors. We may 
ask first whether the matter of which the surface is composed is 
such as to give an ideal radiator; it is impossible to answer this, 
but even if we admit a departure as great as the greatest known 
terrestrial exception, the estimated temperature is diminished only 
some 10%. A second question relates to the boundaries. The 
theory refers to radiation homogeneous at all points within a single 
closed boundary maintained at uniform temperature; in the actual 
case we have a double boundary, one the sun s surface, and the other 
infinitely remote, or say, non-existent, and at zero temperature; 
and it is assumed that the density of radiation in the free space 
varies inversely as the squares of the distance from the sun. 
Though there is no experiment behind this assumption it can hardly 
lead to error. 

A third question is more difficult. The temperature gradient at 
the confines of the photosphere must certainly ascend sharply at 
first. When we say the sun s temperature is 6000, of what level 
are we speaking ? The fact is that radiation is not a superficial 
phenomenon but a molar one, and Stefan s law, exact though it be, 
is not an ultimate theory but only a convenient halting-place, and the 
radiations of two bodies can only be compared by it when their surfaces 
are similar in a specific way. One characteristic of such surfaces 
is fixity, which has no trace of parallel in the sun. The confines 
of the sun are visibly in a state of turmoil, for which a sufficient 
cause can be assigned in the relative readiness with which the outer 
portions part with heat to space, and so condensing produce a 
state of static instability, so that the outer surface of the sun in place 
of being fixed is continually circulating, portions at high tempera 
tures rising rapidly from the depths to positions where they will 
part rapidly with their heat, and then, whether perceived or not, 
descending again. It is clear that at least a considerable part of 
the solar radiations comes from a more or less diffuse atmosphere. 
With the help of theory and observation the part played by this 
atmosphere is tolerably precise. Its absorptive effects upon the 
radiations of the inner photosphere can be readily traced progres 
sively from the centre to the rim of the sun s disk, and it has 
been measured as a whole by Langley, W. E. Wilson and others, and 
for each separate wave-length by F. W. Very (Astrophys. Journ., 
vol. xvi.). The entries in the table on following page express the 
reduction of intensity for different wave-lengths X, when the slit is set 
at distances y X radius from the centre of the disk. 

Building upon these results A. Schuster has shown (Astrophys. 
Journ., vol. xvi.) that, if for the sake of argument the solar atmo 
sphere be taken as homogeneous in temperature and quality, forming 
a sheet which itself radiates as well as absorbs, the radiation which an 
unshielded ideal radiator at 6000 would give is represented well, 
both in sum and in the distribution of intensity with respect to 
wave-length, by another ideal radiator now the actual body of 



the sun at about 6700, shielded by an atmosphere at an average 
temperature of 5500, and that such an atmosphere itself provides 
about 0-3 of the total radiations that reach us. 

In connexion with this subject it may be mentioned that the highest 
measured temperature produced terrestrially, that of the arc, i~ 
about 3500 to 4000 abs. 


































The energy which the sun pours out into space is, so far as we 
know, and except for the minute fraction intercepted by the disks 
Are of the of tne P lanets (unreimnp)) absolutely lost for the pur- 
Son. P oses of furt her mechanical effect. The amount is such 
_ that, supposing the average specific heat of the sun s 
body as high as that of water, there would result a general fall of 
temperature of 2-0 to 2-5 C. in the lapse of each year. Hence, 
if no other agency is invoked, at an epoch say xXlooo years 
ago, the sun s heat would have been greater than now by the 
factor i+x/$n, where nX6ooo is taken for the sun s present mean 
temperature. It seems possible that n is not a large number, and 
if we take x equal, say, to 200, we come to the most recent estimate 
the astronomical of the date of the earth s glacial epoch, when the 
sun s radiation was certainly not much more than it is now, while this 
factor would differ materially from unity. Hence loss does not go on 
without regeneration, and we are apparently at a stage when there 
is an approximate balance between them. It is in fact an impossi 
bility that loss should go on without regeneration, for if any part of 
the sun s body loses heat, it will be unable to support the pressure 
of neighbouring parts upon it; it will therefore be compressed, in 
a general sense towards the sun s centre, the velocities of its mole 
cules will rise, and its temperature will again tend upwards. In 
consequence of the radiation of heat the whole body will be more 
condensed than before, but whether it is hotter or colder than before 
will depend on whether the contraction set up is more or less than 
enough to restore an exact balance. If we are dealing with com- 

Caratively recent periods there is no evidence of progressive change, 
ut if we go to remote epochs and suppose the sun to have once been 
diffused in a nebulous state, it is clear that its shrinkage, in spite 
of radiation, has left it hotter, so that the shrinkage has outrun 
what would suffice to maintain its radiation. It is equally clear 
that there is a point beyond which contraction cannot go, and 
thereafter, if not before, the body will begin to grow colder. There 
is thus a turning-point in the life of every star. The movement 
towards contraction and consequent rise of temperature which 
radiation sets up, like other motions, overruns the equilibrium- 
point, only however by a minute amount ; the accumulated excesses 
from all past time now stored in the sun would maintain its radia 
tions at their present rate for 72X3000 years, that is, for a few 
thousand years only. 

There is a superior limit to the quantity of energy which can be 
derived from contraction. If we suppose the sun s mass once 
existed in a state of extreme diffusion, the energy yielded by collect 
ing it into its present compass would not suffice to maintain its 
present rate of radiation for more than 17,000,000 years in the past; 
nor if its mean density were ultimately to rise to eight times its 
present amount, for more than the same period in the future. This 
supposes the present density nearly uniform; if it is not uniform, 
any amount added to the former period is subtracted from the 
latter. _ A contraction of 0-2" or 90 m, in the sun s radius would 
maintain the present emission for 3500 years. Such a rate of 
change would be quite insensible, and we can affirm that for recent 
times there is no reason to look for any other factor than contraction ; 
but if we consider the remote past it is a different matter. We know 
nothing quantitatively of the radiations from a nebulous body: 
and it is quite possible that the loss of radiant energy in this early 
stage was very small ; but it is at least as certain as any other physical 
inference that 17,000,000 years ago the earth itself was of its present 
dimensions, a comparatively old body with sea and living creatures 
upon it, and it is impossible to believe that the sun s radiations were 
wholly different; but, if they were not, they have been maintained 
from some other source than contraction. 

The fall of meteoric matter into the sun must be a certain source 
of energy; if considerable, this external supply would retard the 
sun s contraction and so increase its estimated age, but tt> bring 
about a reconciliation with geological theory, very nearly the whole 
amount must be thus supplied. It is easy to calculate that this 
would be produced by an annual fall of matter equal to one nineteen 
millionth of the sun s mass, which would make an envelope eight 
metres thick, at the sun s mean density; this would be collected 

during the year from a spherical space extending beyond the orbit 
of Jupiter. The earth would intercept an amount of it proportional 
to the solid angle it subtends at the sun; that is to say, it would 
receive a deposit of meteoric matter about one-tenth of a millimetre 
of density say 2, over its whole surface in the course of the year! 
So far there is nothing impossible in the theory. But there are two 
fatal objections. The sun is a small target for a meteorite 
coming from infinity to hit, and if this considerable quantity 
reaches its mark, a much greater amount will circulate round the 
sun in parabolas, and there is no evidence of it where it would 
certainly make itself felt, in perturbations of the planets. A second 
objection is that it fails in its purpose, because 20,000,000 years ago 
it would give a sun quite as much changed as the contraction 
theory gave. If we examine chemical sources for maintenance of 
the sun s heat, combustion and other forms of combination are 
out of the question, because no combinations of different elements 
are known to exist at a temperature of 6000. A source which 
seems plausible, perhaps only because it is less easy to test is 
rearrangement of the structure of the elements atoms. An atom 
is no longer figured as indivisible, it is made up of more or less 
complex, and more or less permanent, systems in internal circulation 
Now under the law of attraction according to the inverse square 
of the distance, or any other inverse power beyond the first, the 
energy of even a single pair of material points is unlimited, if their 
possible closeness of approach to one another is unlimited. If the 
sources of energy within the atom can be drawn upon, and the 
phenomena of radio-activity leave no doubt about this, there is 
here an incalculable source of heat which takes the cogency out of 
any other calculation respecting the sources maintaining the sun s 
radiation. An equivalent statement of the same conclusion may 
be put thus: supposing a gaseous nebula is destined to condense 
into a sun, the elementary matter of which it is composed will develop 
in the process into our known terrestrial and solar elements, parting 
with energy as it does so. 

The continuous spectrum leads to no inference, except that of the 
temperature of the central globe; but the multitude of dark lines 
by which it is crossed reveal the elements composing 
the truly gaseous cloaks which enclose it. A table of * e nUD 0/ 
these lines is a physical document as exact as it is *" e - s>0 " > 
intricate. The visual portion extends from about w.l.37oo to 7200 
tenth-metres; the ultra-violet begins about 2970, beyond which 
point our atmosphere is almost perfectly opaque to it; the infra 
red can be traced for more than ten times the visual length, but 
the gaps which indicate absorption-lines have not been mapped 
beyond 9870. The ultra-violet and the visual portion are re 
corded photographically; Rowland s classical work shows some 
5700 lines m the former, and 14,200 in the latter, on a graduated 
scale of intensities from loop to o, or oooo, for the faintest lines; 
between a quarter and a third of these lines have been identified, 
fully 2000 belonging to iron, and several hundred to water vapour 
and other atmospheric absorption. The infra-red requires special 
appliances; it has been examined visually by the help of phosphor- 
Ascent plates (Becquerel), and with special photographic plates 
(Abney); but the most efficient way is to use the bolometer or 
radtomicrometer; by this means some 500 or 600 lines have been 

The first problem of the spectrum is to identify the effects of 
atmospheric absorption, especially oxygen, carbonic acid and 
water vapour; this is done generally by comparing the spectra of the 
sun at great and small zenith-distances, or by reducing the atmo 
spheric effect by observing from a great elevation, as did P. J. C. 
Janssen from the summit of Mont Blanc, but the only unquestion 
able test is to find those lines which are not touched by Doppler 
effect when the receding and advancing limbs of the sun are com 
pared (Cornu) ; by this method H. F. Newall has verified the presence 
of cyanogen in the photosphere, and it had previously served to 
disprove the solar origin of certain ox_ygen lines. In fact, doubt long 
surrounded the presence of oxygen in the sun, and was not set at 
rest until K. D. T. Runge and F. Paschen in 1896 identified an 
unmistakable oxygen triplet in the infra-red, which is shown terres 
trially only in the vacuum tube, where the spectrum is very different 
from that of atmospheric absorptions. The absence of lines of the 
spectrum of any element from the solar spectrum is no proof that 
the element is absent from the sun; apart from the possibility that 
the high temperature and other circumstances may show it trans- 
Formed into some unknown mode, which is perhaps the explanation 
of the absence of nitrogen, chlorine and other non-metals; if the 
element is of high atomic weight we should expect it to be found 
only in the lowest strata of the sun s atmosphere, where its tempera- 
Lure was nearly equal to that of the central globe, and so any absorp 
tion line which it showed would be weak. This is undoubtedly the 
case with lead and silver, and probably with mercury also. In 
Rowland s table lines from the arc-spectra of the following are 
dentified. _ The order is approximately that of the numbers of 
dentified lines. Excepting strontium, those which are low upon 
the list are represented also by lines of small intensity. The chromo 
sphere adds the three last of the list. The strongest lines are 
those due to calcium, iron, hydrogen, sodium, nickel, in the order 





Bismuth (?) 
Mercury (?) 















The spectrum taken near the limb of the sun shows increased 
general absorption, but also definite peculiarities of great interest in 
connexion with the spectra of the spots, which it will be convenient 
to describe first. 

When the slit of the spectroscope is set across a spot, it shows, as 
might be expected, a general reduction of brightness as we pass from 
the photosphere to the penumbra ; and a still greater one 
as we pass to the umbra. This is not a uniform shade 
over the whole length of the spectrum, but shows in 
bands or flutings of greater or less darkness, which in places and at 
intervals have been resolved by Young, Duner and other unques 
tionable observers into hosts of dark lines. Besides this the 
spectrum shows very many differences from the mean spectrum 
of the disk, the interpretation of which is at present far from clear. 
Generally speaking, the same absorption lines are present, but with 
altered intensities, which differ from one spot to another. Some 
lines of certain elements are always seen fainter or thinner than on 
the photosphere, or even wholly obliterated ; others sometimes show 
the same features, but not always; other lines of the same elements, 
perhaps originating at a level above the spot, are not affected ; there 
are also bright streaks where even the general absorption of the spot 
is absent, and sometimes such a bright line will correspond to a dark 
line on the photosphere; most generally the lines are intensified, 
generally in breadth, sometimes in darkness, sometimes in both 
together, sometimes in one at the expense of the other; certain lines 
not seen in the photosphere show only across the umbra, others 
cross umbra and penumbra, others reach a short distance over the 
photosphere. A few of the lines show a double reversal, the dark 
absorption line being greatly increased in breadth and showing a 
bright emission line in its centre. The umbra of a spot is generally 
not tormented by rapid line-of -sight motions; where any motion has 
been found G. E. Hale and W. S. Adams make its direction down 
wards ; but round the rim and on bridges the characteristic distortions 
due to eruptive prominences are often observed. There appears to 
be some connexion between prominences and spots; quiescent promi 
nences are sometimes found above the spots, and W. M. Mitchell 
records an eruptive prominence followed next day in the same place 
by the appearance of a small spot. It does not appear that the 
affected lines follow in any way the sun-spot cycle. The radiation 
from a spot changes little as it approaches the sun s limb; in fact 
Hale and Adams find that the absorption from the limb itself differs 
from that of the centre of the disk in a manner exactly resembling 
that from a spot, the same lines being strengthened or weakened 
in the same way, though in much less degree, with, however, one 
material exception : if a line is winged in the photosphere the wings 
are generally increased in the spot, but on the limb they are weakened 
or obliterated. If the spot spectrum is compared with that of the 
chromosphere it appears that the lines of most frequent occurrence 
in the latter are those least affected in the spot, and the high level 
chromospheric lines not at all; the natural interpretation is that the 
spot is below the chromosphere. As to whether the spots are regions 
of higher or lower temperature than the photosphere, the best 
qualified judges are reserved or discordant, but recent evidence seems 
to point very definitely to a lower temperature. Hale and Adams 
have shown that the spectrum contains, besides a strong line- 
spectrum of titanium, a faint banded spectrum which is that of 
titanium oxide, and a second banded part remarked by Newall has 
been identified by A. L. Fowler as manganese hydride. The band 
spectrum, which corresponds to the compound or at least to the 
molecule of titanium, certainly belongs to a lower temperature than 
the line spectrum of the same metal. Hence above the spots there 
are vapours of temperature low enough to give the banded spectra 
of this refractory metal, while only line spectra of sodium, iron and 
others fusible at more moderate temperatures are found (see also 

The chromosphere, which surrounds the photosphere, is a cloak 
of gases of an average depth of 5000 m., in a state of luminescence 
less intense than that of the photosphere. Hence when 
cnron t j le photosphere ; s viewed through it an absorption 

spectrum is shown, but when it can be viewed separately 
a bright line spectrum appears. Most of the metallic vapours that 
produce this lie too close to the photosphere for the separation to be 
made except during eclipses, when a flash spectrum of bright lines 
shines out for, say, five seconds after the continuous spectrum has 
disappeared, and again before it reappears (see ECLIPSE). F. W. 
Dyson has measured some eight hundred lines in the lower chromo 
sphere and identified them with emission spectra of the following 

elements: hydrogen, helium, carbon with the cyanogen band, 
sodium, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, calcium, scandium, tita 
nium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, zinc, strontium, 
yttrium, zirconium, barium, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, 
ytterbium, lead, europium, besides a few doubtful identifications; 
it is a curious fact that the agreement is with the spark spectra of 
these elements, where the photosphere shows exclusively or more 
definitely the arc lines, which are generally attributed to a lower 
temperature. In the higher chromosphere the following were 
recognized: helium and parhelium, hydrogen, strontium, calcium, 
iron, chromium, magnesium, scandium and titanium. 

In the higher chromosphere on occasions metallic gases are carried 
up to such a level that without an eclipse a bright line spectrum of 
many elements may be seen, but it is always possible to see those 
of hydrogen and helium, and by opening the slit of the spectroscope 
so as to weaken still further the continuous spectrum from the 
photosphere (now a mere reflection) the actual forms of the gaseous 
structures called prominences round the sun s rim may be seen. 
In the visual spectrum there are four hydrogen lines and one helium 
line in which the actual shapes may be examined. The features seen 
differ according to the line used, as the circumstances prevailing at 
different levels of the chromosphere call out one line or another with 
greater intensity. The helium formations do not reach the sun s 
limb, and it is another puzzling detail that the spectrum of the disk 
shows no absorption line of anything like an intensity to correspond 
with the emission line of helium in the chromosphere. The promi 
nences are of two kinds, quiescent and eruptive. Some of the former 
are to be seen at the limb on most occasions ; they may hang for days 
about the same place; they reach altitudes of which the average is 
perhaps 20,000 m., and show the spectral lines of hydrogen and 
helium. Sometimes they float above the surface, sometimes they 
are connected with it by stems or branches, and they show delicate 
striated detail like cirrus cloud. The eruptive prominences, called 
also metallic, because it is they which show at their bases a complete 
bright line spectrum of the metallic elements, rush upwards at speeds 
which it is difficult to associate with transfers of matter; the velocity 
often exceeds 100 m. a second; W. M. Mitchell watched one rise at 
250 m. a second to the height of 70,000 m., and in five minutes after 
it had faded away and the region was quiet. This is remarkable 
only in point of velocity. Much greater heights occur. Young 
records one which reached an elevation of 350,000 m., or more than 
three-quarters of the sun s radius. Since identification of spectral 
lines is a matter of extreme refinement, any cause which may displace 
lines from their normal places, or otherwise change their features, 
must be examined scrupulously. We have seen above numerous 
applications of the Doppler effect. Two other causes of displace 
ment call for mention in their bearing on the solar spectrum 
pressure and anomalous dispersion. The pressure which produces 
a continuous spectrum in gases at a temperature of 6000 must be 
very great. Recent experiments on arc spectra at pressures up to 
loo atmospheres by W. J. Humphreys and by W. C. ..... . 

Duffield show several suggestive peculiarities, though * * 
their bearing on solar phenomena is not yet determined. s ~ tral 
The lines are broadened (as was ^already known), the ^ines. 
intensity of emission is much increased, but some 
are weakened and some strengthened, nor is the amount of 
broadening the same for all lines, nor is it always symmetrical, 
being sometimes greater on the red side; but besides the effect of 
unsymmetrical broadening, every line is displaced towards the red; 
different lines again behave differently, and they may be arranged 
somewhat roughly in a few groups according to their behaviour; 
reversals are also effected, and the reversed line does not always 
correspond with the most intense part of the emission line. For 
example, in the iron spectrum three groups about wave-length 
4500 are found by Duffield to be displaced respectively 0-17, 0-34, 
0-66 tenth-metres, at 100 atmospheres. This shift towards the 
red J. Larmor suggests is due to relaxation of the spring of the sur 
rounding ether by reason of the crowding of the molecules; a shift of 
0-17 tenth-metres would, if interpreted by Doppler s principle, have 
been read as a receding velocity of it km. per second. It is clear 
that these results may give a simple key to some puzzling anomalies, 
and on the other hand, they may throw a measure of uncertainty 
over absolute determinations of line-of-sight velocities. 

The possible applications of anomalous dispersion are varied 
and interesting, and have recently had much attention given to 
them. W. H. Julius holds that this sole fact robs of Aaon .,, oa . 
objective reality almost all the features of the sun, Dlsperslon . 
including prominences, spots, faculae and flocculi, and 
even the eleven-year period. Though few follow him so far, an ex 
planation of the principle will make it clear that there are numerous 
possible opportunities for anomalous dispersion to qualify inferences 
from the spectrum. Theoretically anomalous dispersion is insepar 
able from absorption. When a system vibrating in a free period 
of its own encounters, say through the medium of an enveloping 
aether, a second system having a different free period, and sets it in 
vibration, the amplitude of the second vibration is inconsiderable, 
except when the periods approach equality. In such a case the 
two systems must be regarded as a single more complex one, the 
absorbed vibration becomes large, though remaining always finite, 
and the transmitted vibration undergoes a remarkable change in 

9 o 


its period. This is illustrated in fig. 13, where the effect of a single 
absorbing system upon vibrations of all wave-lengths is shown. 

The line 17 shows the factor by 
which the index of refraction of 
the transmitted vibration is 
multiplied, and the curve p the 
intensity of the absorbed vibra 
tion for that wave-length. The 
relative increase of index takes 
place on the side where the wave 
length is greater than that of the 
^ absorbing system. The effect of 
., " such a change may be to bend 

back the coloured ribbon of the 

spectrum upon itself, but just where this is done all its light will be 
robbed to maintain the absorbing system in vibration. Theory is here 
much less intricate than fact, but it seems to cover the most important 
features and to be well confirmed. Omitting extreme examples, 
like fuchsin, where the spectrum is actually cut in two, it is of more 
general importance to detect the phenomenon in the ordinary 
absorption lines of the metallic elements. This has been done most 
completely by L. Puccianti, who measured it by the interferometer 
in the case of more than a hundred lines of different metals; he found 
its degree to differ much in different lines of the same spectrum. 

Differences of refractive index produce their greatest dispersive 
effects when incidence on the refracting surface is nearly tangential. 
W. H. Julius has used this fact in an admirable experiment to make 
the effects visible in the case of the D lines of sodium. A burner 
was constructed which gave a sheet of flame 750 mm. long and 
I mm. thick and to which sodium could be supplied in measured 
quantity. Light from an arc lamp was so directed that only that 
part reached the spectroscope which fell upon the flame of the 
burner at grazing incidence, and was thereby refracted. As the 
supply of sodium was increased, the lines, besides becoming broader, 
did so unsymmetrically, and a shaded wing or band appeared on 
one side or the other according as the beam impinged on one side 
or the other of the flame. These bands Julius calls dispersion 
bands, and then, assuming that a species of tubular structure pre 
vails within a large part of the sun (such as the filaments of the 
corona suggest for that region), he applies the weakening of the light 
to explain, for instance, the broad dark H and K calcium lines, 
and the sun-spots, besides many remoter applications. But it 
should be noted that the bands of his experiment are not due to 
anomalous dispersion in a strict sense. They are formed now on one 
side, now on the other, of the absorption line; but the rapid increase 
of refractive index which accompanies true anomalous dispersion, 
and might be expected to produce similar bands by scattering the 
light, appears both from theory and experiment to belong to the 
side of greater wave-length exclusively. Julius s phenomenon 
seems inseparable from grazing incidence, and hence any explanation 
it supplies depends upon his hypothetical tubular structure for layers 
of equal density. There are other difficulties. In calcium, for 
instance, the g line shows in the laboratory much stronger anomalous 
dispersion than H and K; but in the solar spectrum H and K are 
broad out of all comparison to g. Hale has pointed out other 
respects in which the explanation fails to fit facts. In connexion 
with the question whether the phenomena of the sun are actually 
very different from what they superficially appear, A. Schmidt s 
theory of the photosphere deserves mention; it explains how the 
appearance of a sharp boundary might be due to a species of mirage. 
Consider the rays which meet the eye (at unit distance) 
at an angle d from the centre of the sun s disk; in their 
previous passage through the partially translucent por 
tions of this body we have the equation sin d = r/i sin i 
(fig. 14). Now generally M will decrease as r increases, 
but the initial value of ft is not likely to be more than, say, twice 
its final value of unity, while r increases manifold in the same range, 
hence in general r/j. will increase with r, and therefore for a given 
value of d, i will continually increase as we go inwards up to 90, 
which it will attain for a certain value of r, and this will be the deepest 

Schmidt s 
Theory of 
the Photo 

FlG. 14. 

level of the sun s body from which rays will reach the eye at the 
given angle d. But if there is a region, say from r to r" throughout 
which rti decreases as r increases, any ray which cuts the outer 
envelope r at an acute angle will cut the inner one r" also, and can 
be traced still further inwards before the angle i amounts to 90. 

Apart then from absorption there will be a discontinuous change 
in brightness in the apparent disk at that value of the angular 
radius d which corresponds to tangential emission from the upper 
lever r of this mirage-forming region. Of course we are unable to 
say whether such a region is an actuality in the sun, on the earth 
it is an exception and transient, but the greater the dimensions of 
the body the more probable is its occurrence. The theory can be 
put to a certain test by considering its implications with respect to 
colour. The greater p. is, the greater would be the value of d, the 
apparent angular radius, corresponding to horizontal emission from 
a given level r, and that whether we accept Schmidt s theory or not. 
Hence if the sun s diameter were measured through differently 
coloured screens, the violet disk must appear greater than the red. 
Now measures made by Auwers with the Cape heliometer showed 
no difference, amounting to o-l*, and so far negative the idea that 
the rays reach us after issuing from a level where ju is sensibly differ 
ent from unity. Presumably, then, the inner emissions are absorbed 
and those which reach us start from very near the surface. 

The sun s distance is the indispensable link which connects 
terrestrial measures with all celestial ones, those of the moon alone 
excepted; hence the exceptional pains taken to deter 
mine it. The transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882 were 
observed by expeditions trained for the purpose before- Distance. 
hand with every possible foresight, and sent out by the British, 
French and German governments to occupy suitable stations 
distributed over the world, but they served only to demonstrate 
that no high degree of accuracy can ever be expected from this 
method. It is the atmosphere of Venus that spoils the observation. 
Whatever be the subsequent method of reduction, the instant is 
required when the planet s disk is in internal contact with that of the 
sun ; but after contact has plainly passed it still remains connected 
with the sun s rim by a " black drop," with the result that trained 
observers using similar instruments set up a few feet from one another 
sometimes differed by half a minute of time in their record. It is 
little wonder, then, that the several reductions of the collected results 
were internally discordant so as to leave outstanding a considerable 
" probable error," but showed themselves able to yield very different 
conclusions when the same set was discussed by different persons. 
Thus from the British observations of 1874 Sir G. B. Airy deduced 
a parallax of 8-76" and E. J. Stone 8-88"; from the French observa 
tions of the same date Stone deduced 8-88" and V. Puiseux 8-91*. 
The first really adequate determinations of solar parallax were those 
of Sir David Gill, measured by inference from the apparent diurnal 
shift of Mars among the stars as the earth turned diurnally upon its 
axis; the observations were made at the island of Ascension in 1878. 
The disk of Mars and his colour are certain disadvantages, and Gill 
afterwards superseded his own work by treating in the same way 
the three minor planets Victoria, Iris and Sappho the last was 
observed by W. L. Elkin. These planets are more remote than Mars, 
but that loss is more than outweighed by the fact that they are 
indistinguishable in appearance from stars. The measures were 
made with the Cape heliometer and have never been superseded, 
for the latest results with the minor planet Eros exactly confirm 
Gill s result 8-80" while they decidedly diminish the associated 
probable error. The planet Eros was discovered in 1899, and 
proved to have an orbit between the earth and Mars, while every 
one of the other five or six hundred known asteroids lies between 
Mars and Jupiter. Its mean distance from the sun is 1-46 times 
that of the earth; but, besides, the eccentricity of its orbit is 
large (0-22), so that at the most favourable opportunity it can 
come within one-seventh of the distance of the sun. This favour 
able case is not realized at every opposition, but in 1900 the distance 
was as little as one-third of that of the sun, and it was observed trom 
October 1900 to January 1901 photographically upon a concerted 
but not absolutely uniform plan by many observatories, of which 
the chief were the French national observatories, Greenwich, 
Cambridge, Washington and Mount Hamilton. The planet showed 
a stellar disk varying in magnitude from 9 to 12. On some plates 
the stars were allowed to trail and the planet was followed, in others 
the reverse procedure was taken; in either case the planet s position 
is measured by referring it to " comparison stars " of approximately 
its own magnitude situated within 25 to 30 of the centre of the 
plate, while these stars are themselves fixed by measurement from 
brighter " reference stars," the positions of which are found by 
meridian observations if absolute places are desired. The best 
results seem to be obtained by comparing an evening s observations 
with those of the following morning at the same observatory; the 
reference can then be made to the same stars and errors in their 
position are therefore virtually eliminated ; even if the observations 
of a morning with those of the following evening are used the prob 
able error is doubled. The observations at Greenwich thus reduced 
gave errors 0-0036* and 0-0080* respectively. The general 
result is 8-8op" 0-0044*. To collate the whole of the material accu 
mulated at different parts of the world is a much more difficult task; 
it requires first of all a most carefully constructed star-catalogue, 
upon which the further discussion may be built. The discussion 
was completed in 1909 by A. R. Hinks, and includes the material from 
some hundreds of plates taken at twelve observatories; in general 
it may be said the discussion proves that the material is distinctly 


9 r 

heterogeneous, and that in places where it would hardly be expected. 
The result is nearly the same as found at Greenwich alone, 8-806" 
0-0026", or a mean distance of 92,830,000 m. I 493X10" cm. 
wfth an error which is as probably below as above 30,000 miles. 

The sun s distance enters into other relations, three of which 
permit of its determination, viz. the equation of light, the constant 
of aberration, and the parallactic inequality of the moon; the value 
of the velocity of propagation of light enters in the reduction of the 
two first, but as this is better known than the sun s parallax, no 
disadvantage results. The equation of light is the time taken by 
light to traverse the sun s mean distance from the earth ; it can be 
found by the acceleration or retardation of the eclipses of Jupiter s 
satellites according as Jupiter is approaching opposition or conjunc 
tion with the sun; a recent analysis shows that its value is 498-6", 
which leads to the same value of the parallax as above, but the 
internal discrepancies of the material put its authority upon a 
much lower level. The constant of aberration introduces the sun s 
distance by a comparison between the velocity of the earth in its 
orbit and the velocity of light. Its determination is difficult, be 
cause it is involved with questions of the changing orientation of the 
earth s axis of rotation. S. C. Chandler considers the value 20-52" 
is well established; this would give a parallax of 8-78". The chief 
term in the lunar longitude which introduces the ratio of the 
distances of the sun and moon from the earth explicitly is 
known as the parallactic inequality; by analysis of the observations 
P. H. Cowell finds that its coefficient is 124-75", which according to 
E. W. Brown s lunar theory would imply a parallax 8-778". 

The best discussion of the sun s apparent diameter has been 
made by G. F. J. A. Auwers, in connexion with his reduction of 
, the German observations of the transit of Venus of 
". s 1874 and 1882. It was found that personality played 
Dlmensioas. an i mportant part; t h e average effect might be l", 
but frequently it reached 3", 4", 5* or even 10", with the same 
instrument and method, nor was it fixed for the same observer. 
Some 15,000 observations, from 1851 to 1883, taken by one hundred 
observers at Greenwich, Washington, Oxford and Neuchatcl, 
cleared as far as possible of personal equation, showed no sign of 
change that could with probability be called progressive or periodic, 
particularly there was no sign of adhesion to the sun-spot period. 
Better determinations of the actual value came from the heliometer, 
and gave an angular diameter of 31 59-26" 0-10", and the value 
of the polar diameter exceeded the equatorial by 0-038" 0-023". 
The conclusion is that the photosphere is very sharply defined and 
shows no definite departure from a truly spherical shape. Using 
the parallax 8-80", the resulting diameter of the sun is 864,000 m. 
= 1-390X10" cm. 

If we regard the sun as one of the stars, the first four questions 

we should seek to answer are its distance from its neighbours, 

proper motion, magnitude and spectral type. In some 

s respects the systematic prosecution of these inquiries 

ar has only begun, and properly considered they involve 

vast researches into the whole stellar system. It would take us 

too far to treat them at any length, but it may be convenient to 

summarize some of the results. The sun s nearest neighbour is 

Centauri, which is separated from it by 270,000 times the earth s 
distance, a space which it would take light four years to traverse. 
It is fairly certain that not more than six stars lie within twice this 
distance. No certain guide has been found to tell which stars are 
nearest to us; both brightness and large proper motion, though of 
course increased by proximity, are apparently without systematic 
average relation to parallax. 

The sun s proper motion among the stars has been sought in the 
past as the assumption that the universe of stars showed as a whole 
no definite displacement of its parts, and, on this assumption, 
different methods of reduction which attributed apparent relative 
displacement of parts to real relative displacement of the sun agreed 
fairly well in concluding that the " apex of the sun s way " was 
directed to a point in right ascension 275, declination + 37 (F. W. 
Dyson and W. G. Thackeray), that is to say, not far from the star 
Vega in the constellation Lyra, and was moving thither at a rate of 
twelve miles per second. But recent researches by J. C. Kapteyn and 
A. S. Eddington, confirmed by Dyson, show that there is better 
ground for believing that the universe is composed mainly of two 
streams of stars, the members of each stream actuated by proper 
motions of the same sense and magnitude on the average, than that 
the relative motions of the stars with one another are fortuitous 
(see STAR). This removes completely the ground upon which the 
direction of the sun s way has hitherto been calculated, and leaves 
the question wholly without answer. 

A star is said to rise one unit in magnitude when the logarithm of 
its brightness diminishes by 0-4. Taking as a star of magnitude 

1 a Tauri or o Aquilae, where would the sun stand in this scale ? 
Several estimates have been made which agree well together; 
whether direct use is made of known parallaxes, or comparison is 
made with binaries of well-determined orbits of the same spectral 
type as the sun, in which therefore it may be assumed there is the 
same relation between mass and brilliancy (Gore), the result is found 
that the sun s magnitude is 26-5, or the sun is io 11 times as brilliant 
as a first magnitude star; it would follow that the sun viewed from 

o Centauri would appear as of magnitude 0-7, and from a star of 
average distance which has a parallax certainly less than o-i", it 
would be at least fainter than the fifth magnitude, or, say, upon the 
border-line for naked-eye visibility. We cannot here do more than 
refer to the spectral type of the sun. It is virtually identical with 
a group known as the " yellow stars," of which the most prominent 
examples are Capella, Pollux and Arcturus; this is not the most 
numerous group, however; more than one half of all the stars whose 
spectra are known belong to a simpler type in which the metallic 
lines are faint or absent, excepting hydrogen and sometimes helium, 
which declare themselves with increased prominence. These are 
the white stars, and the most prominent examples are Sirius. Vega 
and Procyon. It is commonly though not universally held that the 
difference between the white and yellow stars arises from their 
stages of development merely, and that the former represent the 
earlier stage. This again is disputed, and there is indeed as yet 
slight material for a decisive statement. 

Summary of Numerical Data. 
Parallax : 8-806" 0-003". 
Mean distance from earth: 92,830,000 m. = I -493 X IO 1S cm. 

(Time taken by light to traverse this distance: 498-6"). 
Diameter: Angular, at mean distance, 1919-3". 

Linear, logXearth s equatorial diameter = 864,000 

m. = 1-390X10" cm. 
Mass: 332,oooXmass of the earth. 
Mean density: -256Xmean density of earth = 1-415. 
Equator; inclination to ecliptic: 7 15 . 

Longitude of ascending node (1908-0), 74* 28-6 . 
Rotation period; latitude o :24 4& d 
30: 26-4311 

Solar constant, or units of energy received per minute per square 
centimetre at earth s mean distance: 2-1 calories. 

Effective temperature, as an ideal radiator or "black body": 
6000 abs. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Nearly all the chief data respecting the sun have 
lately been and still are under active revision, so that publications 
have tended to fall rapidly out of date. The most important series 
is the Astrophysical Journal, which is indispensable, and in itself 
almost sufficient ; among other matter it contains all the publications 
of Mount Wilson Solar Observatory (Professor G. E. Hale), H. A. 
Rowland s Tables of Wave-Lengths, many theoretical papers, and some 
reproductions of important papers issued elsewhere. But there are also 
papers which cannot be disregarded in Monthly Notices and Memoirs 
of the Royal Astronomical Society, and in A stronomische Nachrichteji. 
S. P. Langley s Researches on Solar Heat are published by the War 
Department (Signal Service, xv.) (Washington, 1884), and Gill s 
parallax researches in Cape Annals, vols. vi., vii. Auwer s discussion 
of the sun s diameter is in the discussion of the transit of Venus 
observations for 1874 and 1882. The best single volume upon the 
whole subject is C. A. Young s The Sun, 2nd ed. (Inter. Sci. Series), and 
an excellent summary of solar spectroscopy, as far as rapid progress 
permits, is in Frost s translation of Scheiner, Astronomical Spectro 
scopy (1894). Scheiner s volume, Strahlung u. Temperatur d. Sonne 
(1899), contains a great quantity of interesting matter carefully 
collected and discussed. For authoritative declarations upon the 
latest moot points the Transactions of the International Union for 
Solar Research (Manchester) may be consulted, vol. i. having been 
issued in 1906, and vol. ii. in 1908. (R. A. SA.) 

SUN-BIRD, a name more or less in use for many years, 1 and 
now generally accepted as that of a group of over too species 
of small birds, but when or by whom it was first applied is un 
certain. Those known to the older naturalists were for a long 
while referred to the genus Certhia (TREE-CREEPER, q.v.) or 
some other group, but they are now fully recognized as forming 
a valid Passerine family Nectariniidae, from the name Nec- 
tarinia invented in 1881 by Illiger. They inhabit the Ethiopian, 
Indian, and Australian regions, 2 and, with some notable 
exceptions, the species mostly have but a limited range. They 
are considered to have their nearest allies in the Meliphagidae 
(see HONEY-EATER) and the members of the genus Zosterops; 

1 Certainly since 1826 (cf. Stephens, Gen. Zoology, vol. xiv. pt. I, 
p. 292). W. Swainson (Nat. Hist, and Classif. Birds, i. 145) says 
they are " so called by the natives of Asia in allusion to their splendid 
and shining plumage," but gives no hint as to the nation or language 
wherein the name originated. By the French they have been much 
longer known as " Spuimangas," from the Madagascar name of one 
of the species given in 1658 by Flacourt as Soumangha. 

1 One species occurs in Baluchistan, which is perhaps outside of 
the Indian region, but the fact of its being found there may be a 
reason for including that country within the region, just as the 
presence of another species in the Jordan valley induces zoographers 
to regard the Ghor as an outlier of the Ethiopian region. 


but their relations to the last require further investigation. 
Some of them are called " humming-birds " by Anglo-Indians 
and colonists, but with that group, which, as before indicated 
(see HUMMING-BIRD), belongs to the Picariae, the sun-birds, 
being true Passeres, have nothing to do. Though part of the 
plumage in many sun-birds gleams with metallic lustre, they 
owe much of their beauty to feathers which are 
not lustrous, though almost as vivid, 1 and the 
most wonderful combination of the brightest 
colours scarlet, purple, blue, green and yellow 
is often seen in one and the same bird. One 
group, however, is dull in hue, and but for the 
presence in some of its members of yellow or 
flame-coloured precostal tufts, which are very 
characteristic of the family, might at first sight 
be thought not to belong here. Graceful in form 
and active in motion, sun-birds flit from flower to 
flower, feeding on small insects which are attracted 
by the nectar and on the nectar itself; but this 
is usually done while perched and rarely on the 
wing as is the habit of humming-birds. The 
extensible tongue, though practically serving the same end in 
both groups, is essentially different in its quasi-tubular 
structure, and there is also considerable difference between 
this organ in the Nectariniidae and the Meliphagidae. 2 The 
nests of the sun-birds, domed with a penthouse porch, and 
pensile from the end of a bough or leaf, are very neatly built. 
The eggs are generally three in number, of a dull white covered 
with confluent specks of greenish grey. 

The Nectariniidae form the subject of a sumptuous Monograph 
by G. E. Shelley (410, London, 1876-1880), in the coloured plates of 
which full justice is done to the varied beauties which these gloriously 
arrayed little beings display, while almost every available source of 
information has been consulted and the results embodied. This 
author divides the family into three sub-families: Neodrepaninae, 
consisting of a single genus and species peculiar to Madagascar; 
Nectariniinae, containing 9 genera, one of which, Cinnyns, has more 
than half the number of species in the whole group; and Arachno- 
therinae (sometimes known as " spider-hunters "), with 2 genera 
including II species all large in size and plain in hue. To these he 
also adds the genus Promerops, 3 composed of 2 species of South 
African birds, of very different appearance, whose affinity to the rest 
can as yet hardly be taken as proved. According to E. L. Layard, 
the habits of the Cape Promerops, its mode of nidification, and the 
character of its eggs are verv unlike those of the ordinary Nectari 
niidae. In the British IVfuseum Catalogue of Birds (ix. 1-126 
and 291) H. J. Gadow has more recently treated of this family, 
reducing the number of both genera and species, though adding a 
new genus discovered since the publication of Shelley s work. 

(A. N.) 

SUN-BITTERN, the Eurypyga hdias of ornithology, a bird 
that has long exercised systematists, and one whose proper 
place can scarcely yet be said to have been determined to 
everybody s satisfaction. 

According to Pallas, who in 1781 gave (N. nordl. Beytrdge, vol.ii. 
pp. 48-54, pi. 3) a good description and fair figure of it, calling it the 
" Surinarnische Sonnenreyger," Ardea helias, the first author to 
notice this form was Fermin, whose account of it, under the name of 
" Sonnenvogel," was published at Amsterdam in 1759 (Descr., 
&c., de Surinam, ii. 192), but was vague and meagre. In 1772, 
however, it was satisfactorily figured and described in Rozier s 
Observations sur la physique, &c. (vol. v. pt. I, p. 212, pi. i), as the Petit 
paon des roseaux by which name it was known in French Guiana. 4 
A few years later D Aubenton figured it in his well-known series (PL 
Enl., p. 782), and then in 1781 came Buffon (H.N., Oiseaux, vol. viii. 
pp. 169, 170, pi. xiv.), who, calling it " Le Caurla ou petit paon des 
roses," announced it as hitherto undescribed and placed it among the 
Rails. In the same year appeared the above-cited paper by Pallas, 
who, notwithstanding his remote abode, was better informed as to 
its history than his great contemporary, whose ignorance, real or 
affected, of his fellow-countryman s priority in the field is inexplic 
able; and it must have been by inadvertence that, writing " roses " 

1 Cf. H. J. Gadow, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1882), pp. 409-421, pis. 
xxvii., xxviii. 

2 Ibid. (1883), pp. 62-69, pi. xvi. 

3 According to M. J. Brisson (Ornithologie, ii. 460), this name was 
the invention of Reaumur. It seems to have become Anglicized. 

4 This figure and description were repeated in the later issue of 
this work in 1777 (vol. i. pp. 679-781, pi. l). 

for " roseaux," Buffon turned the colonial name from one that had 
a good meaning into nonsense. In 1783 Boddaert, equally ignorant 
of what Pallas had done, called it Scolopax Solaris, 6 and in referring 
it to that genus he was followed by Latham (Synopsis, iii. 156), by 
whom it was introduced to English readers as the " Caurale Snipe." 
Thus within a dozen years this bird was referred to three perfectly 
distinct genera, and in those days genera meant much more than 

(From Cambridge Natural History, vol. ix., " Birds. by permission of 
Macmilian & Co., Ltd.) 

FIG. I. Sun-Bittern (Eurypyga helias). 

they do now. Not until 1811 was it recognized as forming a genus 
of its own. This was done by Illiger, whose appellation, Eurypyga 
has been generally accepted. 

The sun-bittern is about as big as a small curlew, but with 
much shorter legs and a rather slender, straight bill. The 
wings are moderate, broad, and rounded, the tail rather long 
and broad. The head is black with a white stripe over and 
another under each eye, the chin and throat being also white. 
The rest of the plumage is not to be described in a limited space 
otherwise than generally, being variegated with black, brown, 
chestnut, bay, buff, grey and white so mottled, speckled and 
belted either in wave like or zigzag forms as somewhat to 
resemble certain moths. The bay colour forms two conspicu 
ous patches on each wing, and also an antepenultimate bar 
on the tail, behind which is a subterminal band of black. The 
irides are red; the bill is greenish olive; and the legs are pale 
yellow. As in the case of most South American birds, very 
little is recorded of its habits in freedom, except that it fre 
quents the muddy and wooded banks of rivers, feeding on small 
fishes and insects. In captivity it soon becomes tame, and has 
several times made its nest and reared its young (which, when 
hatched, are clothed with mottled down; Proc. Zool. Soc., 
1866, p. 76, pi. ix. fig. i) in the Zoological Gardens (London), 
where examples are generally to be seen and their plaintive 
piping heard. It ordinarily walks with slow and precise steps, 
keeping its body in a horizontal position, but at times, when 
excited, it will go through a series of fantastic performances, 
spreading its broad wings and tail so as to display their beauti 
ful markings. This species inhabits Guiana and the interior of 
Brazil; but in Colombia and Central America occurs a larger 
and somewhat differently coloured form which is known as 
E. major. 

For a long while it seemed as if Eurypyga had no near ally, but on 
the colonization of New Caledonia by the French, an extremely 
curious bird was found inhabiting most parts of that island, to 
which it is peculiar. This the natives called the Kagu, and it is 
the Rhinochetus jubatus of ornithology. Its original describers, 
MM. Jules Verreaux and Des Murs, regarded it first as a heron and 
then as a crane (Rev. et Mag. de Zoologie, 1860, pp. 439-441, pi. 21 ; 
1862, pp. 142-144); but, on Mr George Bennett sending two live 
examples to the Zoological Gardens, Mr Bartlett quickly detected 
in them an affinity to Eurypyga (Proc. Zool. Soc., 1862, pp. 218, 
219, pi. xxx.), and in due time anatomical investigation showed 
him to be right. The kagu, however, would not strike the ordi 
nary observer as having much outward resemblance to the sun- 
bittern, of which it has neither the figure nor posture. It is rather a 
long-legged bird, about as large as an ordinary fowl, walking quickly 

5 Possibly he saw in the bird s variegated plumage a resemblance 
to the painted snipes, Rhynchaea. His specific name shows that he 
must have known how the Dutch in Surinam called it. 



and then standing almost motionless, with bright red bill and legs, 
large eyes, a full pendent crest, and is generally of a light slate-colour, 
paler beneath, and obscurely barred on its longer wing-coverts and 
tail with a darker shade. It is only when it spreads its wings that 
these are seen to be marked and spotted with white, rust-colour, and 

FIG. 2. Kagu (Rhinochetus jubatus). 

black, somewhat after the pattern of those of the sun-bittern. Like 
that bird, too, the kagu will, in moments of excitement, give up its 
ordinary placid behaviour and execute a variety of violent gesticu 
lations, some of them even of a more extraordinary kind, for it will 
dance round, holding the tip of its tail or one of its wings in a way 
that no other bird is known to do. Its habits in its own country 
were described at some length in 1863 by M. Jouan (Mem. Soc. Sc. 
Nat. Cherbourg, ix. 97 and 235), and in 1870 by M. Marie (Actes Soc. 
Linn. Bordeaux, xxvii. 323-326), the last of whom predicts the speedy 
extinction of this interesting form, a fate foreboded also by the 
statement of Messrs Layard (Ibis, 1882, pp. 534, 535) that it has 
nearly disappeared from the neighbourhood of the more settled and 
inhabited parts. 

The internal and external structure of both these remarkable 
forms is now fully known and it appears that they, though separable 
as distinct families, Eurypygidae and Rhinochetidae, must be deemed 
the relics of very ancient and generalized types more or less related 
to the Rallidae (see RAIL), and Psophiidae (see TRUMPETER). It is 
only to be remarked that the eggs of both Eurypyga and Rhinochetus 
have a very strong ralline appearance stronger even than the 
figures published (Proc. Zool. Soc., 1868, pi. 12) would indicate. 

(A. N.) 

SUNBURY, a borough and the county seat of Northumber 
land county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on the Susquehanna river 
about 53 m. by rail N. by E. of Harrisburg. Pop. (1900), 9810, 
of whom 197 were foreign-born; (1910 U.S. census) 13,770. It 
is served by the Pennsylvania, the Northern Central (controlled 
by the Pennsylvania) and the Philadelphia & Reading railways. 
Sunbury s principal industry is the manufacture of silk; the 
Pennsylvania railway has repair shops here. The total value 
of the borough s factory products increased from $1,868,157 
in 1900 to $2,592,829 in 1905, or 38-8%. The borough stands 
on the site of the old Indian village, Shamokin, which was 
occupied by Delawares, Senecas and Tutelos, and was long the 
most prominent Indian village in the province; in 1747-1755 
there was a Moravian mission here. Owing to the strategic 
importance of the place the provincial government erected 
Fort Augusta here in 1756; during the War of Independence 
many of the fugitives from the Wyoming Massacre tame to this 
fort. Sunbury was first surveyed in 1772 and was incorporated 
as a borough in 1797. 

SUNBURY-ON-THAMES, an urban district in the Uxbridge 
parliamentary division of Middlesex, England, 17 m. S.W. of 
St Paul s Cathedral, London, on a branch of the London & 
South Western railway. Pop. (1901), 4544. It is a favourite 
riverside resort and has grown considerably as a residential 
district. The church of St Mary, Byzantine in style, dates 
from 1752. There are pumping works and filtration beds for 
the water-supply of London. To the north-east is Kempton 

Park, the manor-house of which was a royal residence early 
in the i4th century. The park is famous for its race-meetings, 
the principal fixture being the Jubilee Handicap, established 
in 1887. The manor was granted by Edward the Confessor to 
Westminster Abbey, and passed in the i3th century to the see of 
London and in the i6th to the Crown; but was not so held later 
than 1603. 

SUN COPYING, or PHOTO COPYING, the name given to that 
branch of photographic contact printing which is carried out 
without the aid of a camera-made negative. It is now used 
very extensively for copying documents, especially the plans 
of architects and engineers. 

The earliest discovered process, the ferroprussiate, is still 
the one most largely used, on account of its economy and per 
manence, combined with a simplicity of manipulation that 
renders it highly suitable for office use; it was invented in 1840 
by Sir John Herschel. This method has the disadvantage that 
the copies are blue in colour, and, as it is a negative process, the 
black lines of the original become the white lines of the print; 
the development is by washing in water, so that the important 
feature of accuracy of scale is lost. The next step of importance 
was in 1864, when William Willis of Birmingham, the father 
of the inventor of t^ie platinotype system of photographic 
printing, invented the aniline process. In this method a paper 
sensitized with bichromate of potassium is exposed to light, 
with the document (generally a tracing) in front of it; the un 
protected lines are bleached out, but the protected ones remain 
and are developed by contact with vapour of aniline, a sub 
sequent washing for the removal of chemicals completing the 
print. For twenty years this process was successfully used 
with little opposition other than that of the blue prints pre 
viously referred to, and of the Pellet process, which gave a blue 
line on a white ground, the inventor being associated throughout 
with the firm of Vincent Brooks, Day & Son; but since that time 
a large number of other methods have come into use, some 
requiring a paper negative in the first instance and some 
not, but all much aided by improved methods of applying 
electric light. The earliest of these improved systems 
utilizing electric light was that invented by Mr B. J. Hall, 
whose photo-copier consists of two semi-circular glasses forming 
a cylinder, which may be revolved, and through which an arc 
lamp travels, while the tracing and sensitized paper are strapped 
to its outer surface. 

Between 1900 and 1908 attention was chiefly directed to 
overcoming the variation of scale that is inevitable in all systems 
that require a final washing in water either for development or 
for the removal of chemicals; and at least four excellent systems 
have arisen. While Mr F. R. Vandyke was perfecting the system 
which he patented in 1901 and which has been adopted by the 
Ordnance Survey Department at Southampton, Messrs Vincent 
Brooks, Day & Son were working along somewhat similar lines, 
the outcome of which was their " True-to-Scale Photo Litho " 
system. In both these methods a reversed positive print is 
secured on zinc, from which copies can be made in printer s 
ink of any colour by the usual lithographic method on almost 
any material that may be desired. The plates prepared by these 
methods are so sensitive to light that excellent results can be 
secured from drawings made even on semi-transparent material 
such as drawing paper, and of course the plates when made are 
capable of alteration or addition and can be stored for reprints. 

An admirable process had since been invented by MM. 
Dorel Freres of Paris, which is even more expeditious, and 
being less in prime cost is more suitable when only a small 
number of prints is required. In this case a large sheet of thin 
zinc is coated with chemically-treated gelatin, with the result 
that when a ferroprussiate print is pressed down on it either 
with the hand or by a roller the protected lines affect the gelatin 
in such a way that the parts that have been in contact with them 
receive a greasy ink while the remainder of the surface rejects 
it, so that a small number (not generally exceeding six) of very 
excellent prints can be secured. The inventors refrained from 
taking out a patent either in France or elsewhere, preferring to 



work their invention as a secret process, but the formula appears 
either to have leaked out or to have been discovered, so that the 
process is, perhaps with slight variations, used under numerous 
names. With the aid of the various systems of rotary copiers, 
by which blue prints of almost any length can be secured, 
Dorel prints identical in scale with the originals have been made 
of the length of 22 feet. An interesting kindred process but 
with well denned variations is known as velography. 

For the technical and chemical details of the various methods 
reference may be made to Ferric and Heliographic Processes by G. E. 
Brown (Dawbarn & Ward). (F. V. B.) 

SUNDA ISLANDS, the collective name of the islands in the 
Malay Archipelago which extend from the Malay Peninsula to 
the Moluccas. They are divided into the Great Sunda Islands 
i.e. Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Banka and Billiton, 
with their adjacent islands and the Little Sunda Islands, 
of which the more important are Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, 
Flores, Sumba and Timor. 

Sunda Strait is the channel separating Sumatra from Java 
and uniting the Indian Ocean with the Java Sea. It is 15 in. 
broad between the south-eastern extremity of Sumatra and 
the town of Anjer in Java. In the middle is the low-lying 
well- wooded island of Dwars-in-den-Weg (" right in the way "), 
otherwise Middle Island or Sungian. In 1883 Sunda Strait was 
the scene of the most terrific results of the eruption of Krakatoa 
(?..), a volcanic island further west in the strait. 

SUNDARBANS, or SUNDERBUNDS, a tract of waste country in 
Bengal, India, forming the seaward fringe of the Gangetic 
delta. It has never been surveyed, nor has the census been 
extended to it. It stretches for about 165 m., from the 
mouth of the Hugli to the mouth of the Meghna, and is bordered 
inland by the three settled districts of the Twenty-four Parganas, 
Khulna and Backergunje. The total area (including water) 
is estimated at 6526 sq. m. It is a water-logged jungle, in which 
tigers and other wild beasts abound. Attempts at reclamation 
have not been very successful. The forest department realizes 
a large revenue, chiefly by tolls on produce removed. The 
characteristic tree is the sundri (Heritiera littoralis), from which 
the name of the tract has probably been derived. It yields a 
hard wood, used for building, and for making boats, furniture, 
&c. The Sundarbans are everywhere intersected by river 
channels and creeks, some of which afford water communication 
between Calcutta and the Brahmaputra valley, both for steamers 
and for native boats. 

SUNDAY, or the LORD S DAY (^ rov fi\Lov f/nepa, dies solis; 
TI KvptaKri finkpa, dies dominica, dies domin icus l ) , in the Chris 
tian world, the first day of the week, celebrated in memory of 
the resurrection of Christ, as the principal day for public worship. 
An additional reason for the sanctity of the day may have been 
found in its association with Pentecost or Whitsun. 2 There is 
no evidence that in the earliest years of Christianity there was 
any formal observance of Sunday as a day of rest or any general 
cessation of work. But it seems to have from the first been 
set apart for worship. Thus according to Acts xx. 7, the 
disciples in Troas met weekly on the first day of the week for 
exhortation and the breaking of bread; i Cor. xvi. 2 implies 
at least some observance of the day; and the solemn com 
memorative character it had very early acquired is strikingly 
indicated by an incidental expression of the writer of the Apoca 
lypse (i. 10), who for the first time gives it that name (" the 
Lord s Day") by which it is almost invariably referred to by 
all writers of the century immediately succeeding apostolic 
times." Indications of the manner of its observance during 
this period are not wanting. Teaching of the Apostles (c. 14) 

1 The Teutonic and Scandinavian nations adopt the former 
designation (Sunday, Sonntag, Sondag, &c.), the Latin nations the 
latter (dimanche, domenica, domin^o, &c.). 

2 From an expression in the Epistle of Barnabas (c. 15), it would 
almost seem as if the Ascension also was believed by some to have 
taken place on a Sunday. 

3 In the Epistle of Barnabas already referred to (c. 15) it is called 
" the eighth day " : " We keep the eighth day with joyful 

day also in which Jesus rose again from the dead." 
Martyr, Dial, c, Tryph. c. 138. 

ness, the 
Cf. Justin 

contains the precept; " And on the Lord s day of the Lord 
(Kara. KVpiaKrjv Kvpiov) come together and break bread and 
give thanks after confessing your transgressions, that your 
sacrifice may be pure." Ignatius (Ad Magn. c. 9) speaks of 
those whom he addresses as " no longer Sabbatizing, but living 
in the observance of the Lord s day (Kara Kvpuwfiv fwvres) on 
which also our life sprang up again." 4 Eusebius (H.E. iv. 23) 
has preserved a letter of Dionysius of Corinth (A.D. 175) to Soter, 
bishop of Rome, in which he says: " To-day we have passed the 
Lord s holy day, in which we have read your epistle ", and the 
same historian (H.E. iv. 26) mentions that Melito of Sardis 
(A.D. 170) had written a treatise on the Lord s day. Pliny s 
letter to Trajan in which he speaks of the meetings of the Chris 
tians " on a stated day " need only be alluded to. The first 
writer who mentions the name of Sunday as applicable to the 
Lord s day is Justin Martyr; this designation of the first day of 
the week, which is of heathen origin (see SABBATH), had come 
into general use in the Roman world shortly before Justin 
wrote. He describes (Apol. i. 67) how " on the day called 
Sunday " town and country Christians alike gathered together 
in one place for instruction and prayer and charitable offerings 
and the distribution of bread and wine; they thus meet together 
on that day, he says, because it is the first day in which God 
made the world, and because Jesus Christ on the same day rose 
from the dead. 

As long as the Jewish Christian element continued to have 
any influence in the Church, a tendency to observe Sabbath as 
well as Sunday naturally persisted. Eusebius (H.E. iii. 27) 
mentions that the Ebionites continued to keep both days, and 
there is abundant evidence from Tertullian onwards that so far 
as public worship and abstention from fasting are concerned 
the practice was widely spread among the Gentile churches. 
Thus we learn from Socrates (H.E. vi. c. 8) that in his time 
public worship was held in the churches of Constantinople on 
both days; the Apostolic Canons (can. 66 [65]) sternly prohibit 
fasting on Sunday or Saturday (except Holy Saturday) ; and the 
injunction of the Apostolic Constitutions (v. 20; cf. ii. 59, vii. 23) 
is to " hold your solemn assemblies and rejoice every Sabbath 
day (excepting one), and every Lord s day." Thus the earliest 
observance of the day was confined to congregational worship, 
either in the early morning or late evening. The social con 
dition of the early Christians naturally forbade any general 
suspension of work. Irenaeus (c. 140-202) is the first of the 
early fathers to refer to a tendency to make Sunday a day of 
rest in his mention that harvesting was forbidden by the Church 
on the day. Tertullian, writing in 202, says " On the Lord s 
day we ought abstain from all habit and labour of anxiety, 
putting off even our business." But the whole matter was 
placed on a new footing when the civil power, by the constitu 
tion of Constantine mentioned below, began to legislate as to 
the Sunday rest. The fourth commandment, holding as it 
does a conspicuous place in the decalogue, the precepts of which 
could not for the most part be regarded as of merely transitory 
obligation, and never of course escaped the attention of the 
fathers of the Church.: but, remembering the liberty given in 
the Pauline writings " in respect of a feast day or a new moon 
or a Sabbath " (Col. ii. 16; cf. Rom. xiv. 5, Gal. iv. 10, n), they 
usually explained the " Sabbath day " of the commandment as 
meaning the new era that had been introduced by the advent 
of Christ, and interpreted the rest enjoined as meaning cessation 
from sin. But when a series of imperial decrees had enjoined 
with increasing stringency an abstinence from labour on Sun 
day, it was inevitable that the Christian conscience should be 
roused on the subject of the Sabbath rest also, and in many 
minds the tendency would be such as finds expression in the 
Apostolic Constitutions (viii. 33): "Let the slaves work five 
days; but on the Sabbath day and the Lord s day let them have 

4 The longer recension runs: " But let every one of you keep the 
Sabbath after a spiritual manner . . . And after the observance of 
the Sabbath let every friend of Christ keep the Lord s day as a fes 
tival, the resurrection day, the queen and chief of all the days. 
The writer finds a reference to the Lord s day in the titles to Ps. vi. 
and xii., which are " set to the eighth." 



leisure to go to church for instruction in piety." There is evi 
dence of the same tendency in the opposite canon (29) of the 
council of Laodicea (363), which forbids Christians from Judaiz- 
ing and resting on the Sabbath day, and actually enjoins them 
to work on that day, preferring the Lord s day and so far as 
possible resting as Christians. About this time accordingly 
we find traces of a disposition in Christian thinkers to distinguish 
between a temporary and a permanent element in the Sabbath 
day precept; thus Chrysostom (loth homily on Genesis) discerns 
the fundamental principle of that precept to be that we should 
dedicate one whole day in the circle of the week and set it apart 
for exercise in spiritual things. The view that the Christian 
Lord s day or Sunday is but the Christian Sabbath transferred 
from the seventh to the first day of the week does not find 
categorical expression till a much later period, Alcuin being 
apparently the first to allege of the Jewish Sabbath that " ejus 
observationem mos Christianus ad diem dominicam compe- 
tentius transtulit " (cf. DECALOGUE). 


The earliest recognition of the observance of Sunday as a 
legal duty is a constitution of Constantine in 321 A.D., enacting 
that all courts of justice, inhabitants of towns, and workshops 
were to be at rest on Sunday (venerabili die solis), with an 
exception in favour of those engaged in agricultural labour. 
This was the first of a long series of imperial constitutions, most 
of which are incorporated in the Code of Justinian, bk. iii. tit. 
12 (De Jeriis). The constitutions comprised in this title of the 
code begin with that of Constantine, and further provide that 
emancipation and manumission were the only legal proceedings 
permissible on the Lord s day (die dominico), though contracts 
and compromises might be made between the parties where no 
intervention of the court was necessary. Pleasure was forbidden 
as well as business. No spectacle was to be exhibited in a 
theatre or circus. If the emperor s birthday fell on a Sunday, 
its celebration was to be postponed. The seven days before 
and after Easter were to be kept as Sundays. In Cod. i. 4, o, 
appears the regulation that prisoners were to be brought up for 
examination and interrogation on Sunday. On the other hand, 
Cod. iii. 12, 10, distinctly directs the torture of robbers and 
pirates, even on Easter Sunday, the divine pardon (says the law) 
being hoped for where the safety of society was thus assured. 
After the time of Justinian the observance of Sunday appears 
to have become stricter. In the West, Charlemagne forbade 
labour of any kind. A century later in the Eastern Empire No. 
liv. of the Leonine constitutions abolished the exemption of 
agricultural labour contained in the constitution of Constantine; 
but this exemption was specially preserved in England by a 
constitution of Archbishop Meopham. The canon law followed 
the lines of Roman law. The decrees of ecclesiastical councils 
on the subject have been numerous. Much of the law is con 
tained in the Decretals of Gregory, bk. ii. tit. 9 (De feriis), c. i 
of which (translated) runs thus: " We decree that all Sundays 
be observed from vespers to vespers (a vespera ad vesperam), 
and that all unlawful work be abstained from, so that in them 
trading or legal proceedings be not carried on, or any one con 
demned to death or punishment, or any oaths be administered, 
except for peace or other necessary reason." Works of necessity 
(especially in the case of perishable materials or where time 
was important, as in fishing) were allowed, on condition that a 
due proportion of the gain made by work so done was given 
to the church and the poor. The consent of parties was in 
sufficient to give jurisdiction to a court of law to proceed on 
Sunday, though it was sufficient in the case of a day sanctified 
by the ecclesiastical authority for a temporary purpose, e.g. 
a thanksgiving for vintage or harvest. 

In England legislation on the subject began early and con 
tinues down to the most modern times. As early as the 7th 
century the laws of Ina, king of the West Saxons, provided that, 
if a " theowman " worked on Sunday by his lord s command, 
he was to be free and the lord to be fined 305.; if a freeman 
worked without his lord s command, the penalty was forfeiture 

of freedom or a fine of 6os., and twice as much in the case of a 
priest. The laws of ^Ethelstan forbade marketing, of ^thelred 
folkmoots and hunting, on the Sunday. In almost all the pre- 
Conquest compilations there are admonitions to keep the day 
holy. The first allusion to Sunday in statute law proper is in 
1354 (28 Edw. III. c. 14 rep.), forbidding the sale of wool at the 
staple on Sunday. The mass of legislation from that date 
downwards may be conveniently, if not scientifically, divided 
into five classes ecclesiastical, constitutional, judicial, social 
and commercial. The terms " Sunday " and " Lord s day " 
are used in the statutes, but the term " Sabbath " occurs only 
in ordinances of the Long Parliament. " Sabbath-breaking " 
is sometimes used to describe a violation of the Sunday obser 
vance acts, but is objected to by Blackstone as legally incorrect. 
Good Friday and Christmas Day are as a rule in the same legal 
position as Sunday. In English law Sunday is reckoned from 
midnight to midnight, not as in canon law a vespera ad vesperam. 

The acts to be mentioned are still law unless the contrary is 

Ecclesiastical. Before the Reformation there appears to be 
little or no statutory recognition of Sunday, except as a day on 
which trade was interdicted or national sports directed to be 
held. Thus the repealed acts of 1388 (12 Ric. II. c. 6) and 1409 
(n Hen. IV. c. 4) enjoined the practice of archery on Sunday. 
The church itself by provincial constitutions and other means 
declared the sanctity of the day, and was strong enough to visit 
with its own censures those who failed to observe Sunday. At 
the Reformation it was thought necessary to enforce the obser 
vance of Sunday by the state in face of the question mooted at 
the time as to the divine or merely human institution of the day 
as a holy day. Sunday observance was directed by injunctions 
as well as by statutes of Edward VI. and Elizabeth. The 
second Act of Uniformity of 1551 (5 & 6 Edw. IV. c. i.) enacted 
that all inhabitants of the realm were to endeavour themselves 
to resort to their parish church or chapel accustomed, or upon 
reasonable let thereof to some usual place where common prayer 
is used every Sunday, upon pain of punishment by the censures 
of the church. The same principle was re-enacted by the Act 
of Uniformity of 1558 (i Eliz. c. 2), with the addition of a tem 
poral punishment, viz. a fine of twelve pence for each offence. 
This section of the act is, however, no longer law, and it appears 
that the only penalty now incurred by non-attendance at church 
is the shadowy one of ecclesiastical censure. Protestant dis 
senters, Jews and Roman Catholics were in 1846 (9 & 10, 
Viet. c. 59) exempted from the act, and the pecuniary penalties 
were abrogated as to all persons; but the acts as to Sundays 
and holy days are still binding on members of the Church of 
England [Marshall v. Graham, 1907, 2 K.B. 112]. 

An act of 1551 (5 & 6 Edw. VI. c. 3) directed the keeping of all 
Sundays as holy days, with an exception in favour of husbandmen, 
labourers, fishermen and other persons in harvest or other time of 
necessity. Canon 13 of the canons of 1603 provides that " all 
manner of persons within the Church of England shall celebrate 
and keep the Lord s day, commonly called Sunday, according to 
God s holy will and pleasure and the orders of the Church of England 
prescribed in that behalf, that is, in hearing the word of God read 
and taught, in private and public prayers, in acknowledging their 
offences to God and amendment of the same, in reconciling them 
selves charitably to their neighbours where displeasure hath been, 
in oftentimes receiving the communion of the body and blood of 
Christ, in visiting the poor and sick, using all godly and sober con 
versation." The Lone Parliament, by an ordinance of 1644, c. 51, 
directed the Lord s day to be celebrated as holy, as being the 
Christian Sabbath. Ordinances of 1650, c. 9, and 1656, c. 15, con 
tained various minute descriptions of crimes against the sanctity of 
the Lord s day, including travelling and " vainly and profanely 
walking." These ordinances lapsed at the Restoration. The 
Act of Uniformity of 1661 (13 & 14 Car. II. c. 4) enforced the reading 
on every Lord s day of the morning and evening prayer according 
to the form in the Book of Common Prayer a duty which had been 
previously enjoined by canon 14 of 1603. By the Church Building 
Act 1818, the bishop may direct a third service, morning or evening, 
where necessary, in any church built under the act (s. 65). By the 
Church Building Act 1838, he may order the performance of two 
full services, each if he so direct to include a sermon (s. 8). The 
Burial Laws Amendment Act 1880, which authorizes burials in 
churchyards of the Church of England without the use of the funeral 

9 6 


office of that church, does not allow such burials to take place on 
Sunday, Good Friday or Christmas Day if the parson of the church 
objects. Under the Metropolitan Police and Streets Acts, the 
Town Police Clauses Act 1841 and the Public Health Acts, street 
traffic may be regulated during the hours of divine service. 

Constitutional. Parliament has occasionally sat on Sunday 
in cases of great emergency, as on the demise of the Crown 
Occasionally divisions in the House of Commons have taken 
place early on Sunday morning. The Ballot Act 1872 enacts 
that in reckoning time for election proceedings Sundays are to 
be excluded. A similar provision is contained in the Municipal 
Corporations Act 1882, as to proceedings under that act. 

Judicial. As a general rule Sunday for the purpose of judicial 
proceedings is a dies non juridicus on which courts of justice do 
not sit (9 Co. Rep. 666). By s. 6 of the Sunday Observance Act 
1677 legal process cannot be served or executed on Sunday, except 
in cases of treason, felony or breach of the peace. Proceed 
ings which do not need the intervention of the court are good, 
e.g. service of a citation or notice to quit or claim to vote. By 
s. 4 of the Indictable Offences Act 1848 justice may issue a 
warrant of apprehension or a search warrant on Sunday. The 
rules of the Supreme Court provide that the offices of the 
Supreme Court shall be closed on Sundays, that Sunday is not 
to be reckoned in the computation of any limited time less than 
six days allowed for doing any act or taking any proceeding, 
and that, where the time for doing any act or taking any 
proceeding expires on Sunday, such act or proceeding is good 
if done or taken on the next day. In the divorce rules Sundays 
are excluded from compilation. In the county court rules 
they are excluded if the time limited is less than forty-eight 
hours, and the only county court process which can be 
executed on Sunday is a warrant of arrest in an Admiralty 
action. Where a time is fixed by statute, the Sundays are 
counted in. Where a term of imprisonment expires on Sunday, 
Christmas Day or Good Friday, the prisoner is entitled to 
discharge on the day next preceding (Prison Act 1898, s. 1 1). 

Social. Under this head may be grouped the enactments 
having for their object the regulation of Sunday travelling and 
amusements. The earliest example of non-ecclesiastical inter 
ference with recreation appears to be the Book of Sports issued 
by James I. in 1618. Royal authority was given to all but 
recusants to exercise themselves after evening service in dancing, 
archery, leaping, vaulting, May-games, Whitsun-ales, morris- 
dances and setting up of Maypoles; but bear and bull-baiting, 
interludes and bowling by the meaner sort were prohibited. 
The Sunday Observance Act 1625 (i Car. I. c. i), following the 
lines of the Book of Sports, inhibited meetings, assemblies or 
concourse of people out of their own parishes on the Lord s day 
for any sports and pastimes whatsoever, and any bear-baiting, 
bull-baiting, interludes, common plays or other unlawful exer 
cises and pastimes used by any person or persons within their 
own parishes, under a penalty of 33. 4d. for every offence. The 
right to enforce ecclesiastical censures is left untouched by the 
act. The act impliedly allows sports other than the excepted 
ones as long as only parishioners take part in them. In 1897 
some lads were prosecuted at Streatley under this act for 
playing football in an adjoining parish, but the justices dismissed 
the charge, treating the act as obsolete. But in 1906 the Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals instituted a prosecu 
tion under the act with the object of preventing extra-parochial 
rabbit-coursing on Sundays. The Game Act 1831 (i & 2 
Will. IV. c. 32, s. 3) makes it punishable to kill or take game, 
or to use a dog, net or other instrument (e.g. a snare), for that 
purpose on Sunday. The prohibition only applies to game proper 
and does not extend to rabbits. 

There is no law in England against fishing on Sunday except 
as to salmon. Fishing for salmon on Sunday by any means 
other than a rod and line is prohibited by the Salmon Fishery 
Act 1861, and free passage for salmon through all cribs, &c., 
used for fishery is to be left during the whole of Sunday. 

The Sunday Observance Act 1781 (21 Geo. III. c. 49), drawn 
by Dr Porteus, bishop of London, enacts that any place opened 
or used for public entertainment and amusement or for public 

debate upon any part of the Lord s day called Sunday, to which 
persons are admitted by payment of money or by tickets sold 
for money, is to be deemed a disorderly house. The keeper is 
to forfeit 200 for every day on which it is opened or used as 
aforesaid on the Lord s day, the manager or master of the cere 
monies 100 and every doorkeeper or servant 50. The adver 
tising or publishing any advertisement of such an entertainment 
is made subject to a penalty of 50. Proceedings under this 
act for penalties may be instituted by a common informer 
within six months of the offence. It was held in 1868 that a 
meeting the object of \vhich was not pecuniary gain (though 
there was a charge for admission), but an honest intention to 
introduce religious worship, though not according to any estab 
lished or usual form, was not within the act. The hall used 
was registered for religious worship. On this principle, forms 
of worship such as Mormonism or Mahommedanism are pro 
tected. In 1875 actions were brought against the Brighton 
Aquarium Company and penalties recovered under the act. 
As doubts were felt as to the power of the Crown to remit the 
penalties in such a case, an act was passed in 1875 to remove 
such doubts and to enable the sovereign to remit in whole or 
in part penalties recovered for offences against the act of 1781. 

The substantive effect of the act is to hit all Sunday exhibitions 
or performances where money is charged for admission. In 1895 
it was decided that the chairman of a meeting held to hear a lecture 
was not liable as manager of the meeting, and the solicitor of the 
liquidator of a company was held not to be liable for merely letting 
the hall for the meeting. In 1906 an attempt was unsuccessfully 
made to apply the act of 1781 to open-air meetings for rabbit- 
coursing. The rules for the government of theatres and places of 
public entertainment, and the terms of the licences issued, usually 
prohibit performances on Sundays. The lessees of certain places 
of public resort in London have in some cases obtained their licences 
from the London County Council on condition that they do not hold 
Sunday concerts, but the recent policy of the Council has been not 
to interfere with or restrict the giving of Sunday concerts unless they 
are given for private gain or by way of trade. The Council has no 
legal authority to dispense with the Sunday Observance Act 1781, 
which enforces penalties on giving entertainments to which persons 
are admitted by payment of money or by tickets sold for money. 
The law has been judicially interpreted, however, to mean that 
charges for reserved seats are not incompatible with free admission. 
In consequence of this ruling Sunday concerts have been regularly 
given at the Albert Hall, which is not under the licensing jurisdiction 
of the London County Council, and at the Queen s Hall and other 
places within that jurisdiction. No charge is made for admission, 
but those who wish for seats must pay for them, and the proceeds 
of the concerts are not made the subject of profit. At the licensing 
sessions conflicts have annually arisen on this subject between the 
advocates and opponents of Sunday music. 

Bands play on Sundays in most of the parks in London, whether 
royal or under municipal control ; and it is said that local authorities 
cannot make bylaws forbidding bands of music in the streets on 
Sunday (Johnson v. Croydon (Corporation, 1886, 16 Q.B.D. 708). 
Libraries, museums and gymnasiums maintained by local authorities 
may, it would seem, be lawfully opened on Sundays, and the national 
galleries and museums are now so open for part of Sunday. 

Commercial. At common law a contract made on Sunday is 
not void, nor is Sunday trading or labour unlawful, and enlist 
ment of a soldier on a Sunday has been held valid. At an early 
period, however, the legislature began to impose restrictions, 
at first by making Sunday trade impossible by closing the 
slaces of ordinary business, later by declaring certain kinds 
of trade and labour illegal, still later by attempting to prohibit 
all trade and labour. 28 Edw. III. c. 14 (1354, now repealed) 
closed the wool market on Sunday. An act of 1448 (27 
Flen. VI. c. 5) prohibits fairs and markets on Sunday (necessary 
victual only excepted), unless on the four Sundays in harvest . 
an exemption repealed in 1850 (by 13 & 14 Viet. c. 23) 4 
Edw. IV. c. 7 (1464 rep.) restrained the shoemakers of London 
rom carrying on their business on Sunday. An act of 1627 (3 
"ar. I. c. 2) imposes a penalty of 205. on any carrier, wagoner 
or drover travelling on the Lord s day, and a penalty of 6s. 8d. 
on any butcher killing or selling on that day. The act does not 
apply to stage coaches. Both this and the act of 1625 were 
originally passed only for a limited period, but by subsequent 
egislation they have become perpetual. Next in order is the 
Sunday Observance Act 1677 (29 Car. II. c. 7), " An act for 



the better observance of the Lord s day, commonly called 

After an exhortation to the observation of the Lord s day by exer 
cises in the duties of piety and true religion, publicly and privately, 
the act provides as follows: No tradesman, artificer, workman, 
labourer or other person (ejusdem generis) whatsoever shall do or 
exercise any worldly labour, business or work of their ordinary 
callings upon the Lord s day or any part thereof (works of necessity 
and charity only excepted) ; and every person being of the age of 
fourteen years or upwards offending in the premises shall for every 
such offence forfeit the sum of 55. ; and no person or persons what 
soever shall publicly cry, show forth or expose to sale any wares, 
merchandises, fruit, herbs, goods or chattels whatsoever upon the 
Lord s day or any part thereof upon pain that every person so 
offending shall forfeit the same goods so cried, or showed forth, or 
exposed to sale (s. i). A barber was held in 1900 not to be a trades 
man, artificer, &c. within the act, and to be free to shave customers 
on Sunday 1 ; nor is a farmer. No drover, horse-courser, wagoner, 
butcher, higgler or any of their servants, shall travel or come into 
his or their lodging upon the Lord s day or any part thereof, upon 
pain that each and every such offender shall forfeit 2Os. for every 
such offence; and no person or persons shall use, employ or travel 
upon the Lord s day with any boat, wherry, lighter or barge, except 
it be upon extraordinary occasion to be allowed by some justice of 
the peace, &c., upon pain that every person so offending shall forfeit 
and lose the sum of 5s. for every such offence. In default of distress 
or non-payment of forfeiture or penalty the offender may be set 
publicly in the stocks for two hours (s. 2), a punishment now obsolete. 
Nothing in the act is to prohibit the dressing of meat in families, 
or the dressing or selling of meat in inns, cooks shops which in 
clude fried fish shops (Bullen v. Ward, 1905, 74 L.J.K.B. 916) 
or victualling houses for such as cannot be otherwise provided, nor 
the crying or selling of milk before nine in the morning or after four 
in the afternoon (s. 3). Prosecutions must be within ten days 
after the offence (s. 4). The hundred is not responsible for robbery 
of persons travelling upon the Lord s day (s. 5). This act has fre 
quently received judicial construction. The use of the word 
" ordinary " in section I has led to the establishment by a series of 
decisions of the principle that work done out of the course of the 
ordinary calling of the person doing it is not within the act. Thus 
the sale of a horse on Sunday by a horse-dealer would not be en 
forceable by him and he would be liable to the penalty, but these 
results would not follow in the case of a sale by a person not a horse- 
dealer. Certain acts have been held to fall within the exception as 
to works of necessity and charity, e.g. baking provisions for customers 
(but not baking bread in the ordinary course of business), running 
stage-coaches, or hiring farm-labourers. The legislature also inter 
vened to obviate some of the inconveniences caused by the act. 
By 10 Will. III. c. 13 (1698) mackerel was allowed to be sold before 
and after service. By II Will. III. c. 21 (1699), forty watermen 
were allowed to ply on the Thames on Sunday. By 9 Anne, c. 23 
(1710), licensed coachmen or chairmen might be hired on Sunday. 
By an act of 1794 (34 Geo. III. c. 61), bakers were allowed to bake 
and sell bread at certain hours. These acts are all repealed. Still 
law are the acts of 1762 (2 Geo. III. c. 15 s. 7), allowing fish carriages 
to travel on Sunday in London and Westminster; 1827 (8 Geo. IV. 
c - 75)i repealing s. 2 of the act of 1677 as far as regards Thames 
boatmen. The Bread Acts of 1822 (3 Geo. IV. c. 106) allow bakers 
in London, and of 1836 (6 & 7 Will. IV. c. 37) allow bakers out of 
London, to carry on their trade up to 1.30 p.m. Since 1871, by an 
act annually continued (34 & 35 Viet. c. 87), no prosecution or 
proceeding for penalties under the act of 1677 can be instituted 
except with the consent in writing of the chief officer of a police dis 
trict or the consent of two justices or a stipendiary magistrate, 
which must be obtained before beginning the prosecution, i.e. before 
applying for a summons (Thorpe v. Priestnall, 1897, I, Q.B. 159). 

The act of 1871 does not apply to breaches of the Bread Acts 
(R. v. Mead, 1902, 2 K.B. 212). 

A good many bills have been introduced with respect to Sun 
day trading. Most have been directed to the closing of public- 
houses on that day; but the Shop Hours Bill introduced in 1907 
contained clauses for closing shops on Sundays, with the excep 
tion of certain specified trades. The result of the act of 1871 
in London has been in substance to make the Lord s Day acts 
a dead letter as to Sunday trading. The commissioner of police 
rarely if ever allows a prosecution for Sunday trading. Sunday 
markets are usual in all the poorer districts, and shopkeepers 
and hawkers are allowed freely to ply their trades for the sale 
of eatables, temperance drinks and tobacco. But the conditions 

1 It is curious that by an order in council of Hen. VI. to regulate 
the sanctuary of St Martin-le-Grand it was provided that all artificers 
dwelling within the said sanctuary (as well barbers as others) keep 
holy the Sundays and other great festival days without breach or 
exercising their craft as do the citizens of London (Gomme, Govern 
ance of London, 1907, p. 329). 

XXVI. 4 

of licences for the sale of intoxicants and for refreshment houses 
are strictly enforced with respect to Sunday. In districts 
where the town councils have control of the police, prosecutions 
for Sunday trading are not infrequent; but they seem to be 
instituted rather from objection to the annoyance caused by 
street traders than from religious scruples. The limitation of the 
time for prosecution to ten days, and the necessity of the previous 
consent of the chief constable, have a great effect in restricting 
prosecutions. In most districts there is a distinct disposition 
to refrain from enforcing the strict letter of the older law, and 
to permit the latitude of what is described as the " Continental 
Sunday," except in the case of businesses carried on so as to 
interfere with the public comfort. In most districts liberality 
in administration has progressed pari passu with a change in 
public opinion as to the uses to which Sunday may properly 
be put; it is becoming less of a holy day and more of a holiday. 

There is great activity among those interested in different 
theories as to the proper use of Sundays. On the one side, 
Lord s day observance societies and the organizations concerned 
in the promotion of " temperance " (i.e. of abstinence from 
alcoholic drinks) have been extremely anxious to enforce the 
existing law against Sunday trading and against the sale of 
intoxicants to persons other than bona fide travellers, and to 
obtain legislation against the sale of any alcohol on Sundays. 
On the other side, the Sunday League and other like organiza 
tions have been active to organize lectures and concerts and 
excursions on Sundays, and to promote so far as possible every 
variety of recreation other than attendance at the exercises of 
any religious body. Travelling and boating on Sunday arc 
now freely resorted to, regardless of any restrictions in the old 
acts, and railway companies run their trains at all hours, the 
power to run them being given by their special acts. Tram- 
cars and omnibuses run freely on Sundays, subject only to 
certain restrictions. Hackney carriages may in London ply 
for hire on Sundays (i & 2 Will. IV. c. 22). 

Besides the general act of 16^7, there are various acts dealing 
with special trades; of these the Licensing Acts and the Factory and 
Workshop Acts are the most important. By the Licensing Acts, 
1872 and 1874, premises licensed for the sale of intoxicating liquors 
by retail are to be open on Sunday only at certain hours, varying 
according as the premises are situate in the metropolitan district, 
a town or populous place, or elsewhere. The hours may be varied 
to fit in with the hours of religious worship in the district. An 
exception is made in favour of a person lodging in the house or a 
bona fide traveller, who may be served with refreshment during 
prohibited hours, unless in a house with a six-day licence. In the 
case of six-day licences, no sale of liquor may be made except to 
persons lodging in the house. Attempts have often been made 
to induce the legislature to adopt the principle of complete Sunday 
closing in England as a whole, or in particular counties. 2 In the 
session of 1886 a bill for Sunday closing in Durham was passed by the 
Commons but rejected by the Lords. The advocates of Sunday 
closing in Wales have been more successful. The Sunday Closing 
(Wales) Act 1881 contains no exceptions of towns and the only 
exemption is the sale of intoxicating liquors at railway stations. 
Public billiard tables may not be used on Sunday (8 & 9 Viet. c. 109). 
The Factory and Workshop Act (1901) forbids the employment of 
women, young persons or children on Sunday in a factory or work 
shop (s. 34). But a woman or young person of the Jewish religion 
may be employed on Sunday by a Jewish manufacturer if he keeps 
his factory or workshop closed throughout Saturday, and does not 
open it for traffic on Sunday, and does not avail himself of the 
exceptions authorizing employment of women or young persons on 
Saturday evening or for an additional hour on other weekdays 
(ss. 47, 48). There are a few other legislative provisions of less 
importance which may be noticed. Carrying on the business of a 
pawnbroker on Sunday is an offence within the Pawnbrokers Act 
1872. Distilling and rectifying spirits on Sunday is forbidden by 
the Spirits Act 1880. The effect of Sunday upon bills of exchange 
is declared by the Bills of Exchange Act 1882. A bill is not invalid 
by reason only of its bearing date on a Sunday (s. 13). Where the 
last day of grace falls on a Sunday, the bill is payable on the pre 
ceding business day (s. 14). Sunday is a " non-business day " for 
the purposes Of the act (s. 92). 

Scotland. The two earliest acts which dealt with Sunday 
are somewhat out of harmony with the general legislation on 

a The act I James I. c. 9 (now repealed) appears, however, to have 
provided for closing ale-houses in most cases, except on usual working 

9 8 


the subject. That of 1457, c. 6, ordered the practice of archery 
on Sunday; that of 1526, c. 3, allowed markets for the sale of 
flesh to be held on Sunday at Edinburgh. Then came a long 
series of acts forbidding the profanation of the day, especially 
by salmon-fishing, holding fairs and markets, and working in 
mills and salt-pans. The act of 1579, c. 70, and 1661, c. 18, 
prohibit handy labouring and working, and trading on the Sab 
bath. Under the act of 1579 the House of Lords in 1837 held 
that it was illegal for barbers to shave their customers on Sun 
days, although the deprivation of a shave might prevent decently 
disposed men from attending religious worship, or associating 
in a becoming mariner with their families and friends through 
want of personal cleanliness. The later legislation introduced 
an exception in favour of duties of necessity and mercy, in accord 
ance with ch. 21 of the Confession of Faith (1690,0. 5). 

In more modern times the exigencies of travelling have led to a 
still further extension of the exception. In these acts the word 
Sabbath is generally used as in the Commonwealth ordinances. 
The Sabbath Observance Acts were frequently confirmed, the last 
time by the Scots parliament in 1696. The Scottish Episcopalians 
Act 1711 (10 Anne, c. 10) contains a proviso that all the laws made 
for the frequenting of divine service on the Lord s day commonly 
called Sunday shall be still in force and executed against all persons 
who shall not resort either to some church or to some congregation or 
assembly of religious worship allowed and permitted by this act. 
The Scots acts were held by the High Court of Justiciary in 1870 to 
be still subsisting, as far as they declare the keeping open shop 
on Sunday to be an offence by the law of Scotland (Bute s Case, 
I Couper s Reports, 495), but all except those of 1579 and 1661 above 
specified were repealed in 1906. The Licensing (Scotland) Act 1903 
provides by the scheduled forms of certificate for the closing on 
Sunday of public-houses, and places licensed for the sale of excisable 
liquor, and in the case of inns and hotels forbids the sale of intoxicants 
except for the accommodation of lodgers or travellers. There has 
been litigation as to the legality of running tram-cars on the Sabbath. 

By the Herring Fishery (Scotland) Act 1815, s. II, herring nets 
set or hauled on the coast or within two leagues thereof on Sundays 
are forfeited. By the Salmon Fisheries (Scotland) Act 1868, s. 15, 
fishing for salmon on Sunday, even with a. rod and line, is an offence, 
as is taking or attempting to take or assisting in fishing for salmon. 

As to contracts and legal process, the law is in general accordance 
with that of England. Contracts are not void, apart from statute, 
simply because they are made on Sunday. Diligence cannot be 
executed but a warrant of imprisonment or meditatio fugae is 
" exercisable." 

Ireland. In Ireland an act of 1695 (7 Will. III. c. 17) covers 
the same ground as the English act of 1677, but the acts referred 
to under England do not apply. An act of 1851 (14 & 15 V. 
c. 93, s. n) provides for the issue and execution of warrants 
for indictable offences and search-warrants on Sundays. But 
proceedings to obtain sureties for the peace taken on Sunday are 
void. The Irish act of 1787 against killing game on Sunday 
(27 Geo. III. c. 35, s. 4) includes rabbits and quail, landrail or 
other wild fowl. The Sunday closing of public-houses with 
exemptions as to certain cities and as to railway stations, 
packet-boats and canteens, is enforced by legislation of 1878, 
continued annually until 1906 and then made perpetual with 
certain modifications (1906, c. 39, s. i), and in the case of six- 
day licences by acts of 1876, 1877 and 1880. 

In 1899 a race-course used for Sunday racing was closed by 
injunction as causing a nuisance to the Sunday peace and quiet 
of the neighbourhood and the services of the adjacent churches. 

Where railway trains are run on Sundays one cheap train 
each way is to be provided (7 & 8 Viet. c. 85, s. 10; repealed 
in 1883 as to Great Britain). 

British Colonies. The English law as to Sunday observance 
was the original law of the colonies acquired by settlement, 
and in many of them so much of it as does not relate to the 
Church of England is left to operate without colonial legislation. 
In other colonies it is supplemented or superseded by colonial 
acts. Canada has an act (No. 27 of 1906) prohibiting all buying 
and selling and all exercise by a man of his ordinary vocations 
or business, either by himself or his employees on the Lord s 
day, except in case of works of necessity or mercy. In New 
Zealand an act of 1884 (c. 24, s. 16; amended 1906, c. 36) pro 
hibits the carrying on on Sunday of any trade or calling, but 
the exceptions are numerous, and, besides works of necessity 

or charity, include driving live stock, sale of medicines, sale 
or delivery of milk, hairdressing or shaving before 9 a. m., 
driving public or private carriages, keeping livery stables, 
working railways, ships and boats, and letting boats for hire, 
and work in connexion with post offices and telegraphs and 
with daily newspapers. (W. F. C.) 

Foreign Countries. Consequent on the introduction of a 
Weekly Rest Day Bill (which obtained a second reading) in 
the English House of Lords in 1908, a parliamentary paper was 
published in 1909 (cd. 4468) containing " Reports from His 
Majesty s Representatives Abroad as to Legislation in Foreign 
Countries Respecting a Weekly Rest Day." The principal 
points are summarized below: 

Austria. Legislation is embodied in laws of 1895 and 1905, 
which prohibit any industrial work on Sunday, rest on that day 
beginning not later than 6 a.m., and lasting for not less than twenty- 
four hours. Permission is given for absolutely necessary work, 
provided the employer submits to the authorities a list giving the 
names of the persons employed, and the place, duration and nature 
of their employment. Sunday work is permitted in certain indus 
tries. As to buying and selling, Sunday trading is permitted for 
not more than four hours, local authorities being the power for 
arranging the time; they may also forbid Sunday trading altogether, 
if they think it necessary. Traders who do not employ workmen 
may not work for themselves unless the doors by which the public 
may enter are closed. On feast-days, employees must, according 
to their respective religious beliefs, be allowed the necessary time for 
attendance at morning service. Offences are punishable by fine; 
a warning, however, is given on the first offence, and the fine (45. 2d. 
for the first offence) rises for each subsequent offence. 

Belgium. Laws of 1905 and 1907 forbid work on Sunday to per 
sons engaged in industrial and commercial enterprises, with certain 
exceptions, such for example, as industries which exist only at 
certain periods of the year, or which have a press of work at certain 
times, or open-air industries which depend on the weather. 

Denmark. The only legislation is a law of 1904 concerning the 
public peace on the National Church holidays and Constitution Day. 
It forbids all kinds of occupations, which, on account of noise, might 
disturb the holiday s peace. In the large towns carriage traffic for 
business purposes is also forbidden after 10 a.m. 

France. A law of the I3th of July 1906 established a weekly day 
of rest, for every workman or employee of not less than twenty- 
four consecutive hours. The weekly day of rest must be Sunday. 
The law applies irrespective of the duration or character of the work 
done, and to employees in all establishments of a commercial or 
industrial character. There are certain necessary exceptions, such 
as shops for retailing food, occupations in which place, season, the 
habits of the public, &c., make observance impossible, and in such 
the weekly day of rest must be given in rotation to the employees 
or a compensating holiday instead. 

Germany. Regulations as to Sunday rest are contained in the 
Trade Regulations (Gewerbeordnung) of the 26th of July 1900, accord 
ing to which manufacturers cannot compel workmen to work on 
Sundays or holidays, except in certain cases of necessity. Nor in 
trading businesses may assistants, apprentices or workmen be em 
ployed at all on Christmas Day, Easter Sunday and Whitsunday, 
or on other Sundays and holidays more than five hours. The regula 
tions do not apply to hotels, caffis, &c., or to theatres or other places 
of amusement, or to means of communication. Infringement of the 
regulations is punishable by a fine, not exceeding 600 marks or by 

Hungary. By a law of 1891 and others of 1903 and 1908 all 
industrial work is prohibited on Sundays and St Stephen s Day (the 
patron saint of Hungary). Certain categories of industries are 
exempted on account of necessity or the needs of the consuming 
public; independent small craftsmen who work at home without 
assistants are also exempted. The law is enforced by the police 
authorities and infringement is punished by fine. 

Italy. A weekly rest day has been enacted by a law of the 7th 
of July 1907. Exceptions to the law are river, lake and maritime 
navigation; agricultural, hunting and fishing industries; state rail 
ways and tramways and state public services and industrial under 

Other European countries which have legislation are the Nether 
lands (law of 1889, as amended by a law of 1906; Spain (law of 
March 1904, Regulations of April 1905) ; and Switzerland (1906). 

United States. In the United States there is no Federal law, 
the question of a rest day being left entirely to the state legis 
latures, consequently " there exists considerable diversity of 
legislation on the subject, ranging from the old Quaker laws of 
the state of Pennsylvania of the beginning of the i8th century 
to the modern regulations of the Far Western agricultural and 
mining states . . . There is no state, however, where it is 
specifically laid down that an employee who is forced to work 


on Sunday shall receive another equivalent day of rest." (Report 
of H.M. Ambassador to the U.S. vide supra). In Massachusetts, 
which may be fairly taken as representing the Eastern states, 
public service corporations, such as railway, street railway, 
steamboat, telegraph, telephone, electric lighting, water and gas 
companies, are permitted to serve the public in the usual manner. 
Public parks and baths are open. Tobacco may be sold by 
licensed innholders, common victuallers, druggists and news 
dealers. Bake shops may, be open during certain hours. All 
other shops must be closed. Saloons are closed, and liquor can 
be served only to the guests of licensed innholders. Horses, 
carriages, boats and yachts may be let for hire. All games and 
entertainments, except licensed sacred concerts, are prohibited. 
In Connecticut Sunday recreation is still prohibited, but electric 
and steam cars are allowed to run. Sunday is a close time for 
game and birds (1899). In many of the Western states base-ball, 
games and various entertainments for pay are permitted, and 
in some saloons are open. In many but not all the states such 
persons as by their religion are accustomed to observe Saturday 
are allowed to pursue their ordinary business on Sunday. In 
Delaware and Illinois barbers may not shave customers on Sun 
days; and in Georgia guns and pistols may not be fired (1898). 
In North Dakota the fines for Sabbath-breaking have been 

1722), English statesman, was the second son of the 2nd earl, 
but on the death of his elder brother Henry in Paris in Septem 
ber 1688 he became heir to the peerage. Called by John Evelyn 
" a youth of extraordinary hopes," he completed his education 
at Utrecht, and in 1695 entered the House of Commons as mem 
ber for Tiverton. In the same year he married Arabella, 
daughter of Henry Cavendish, 2nd duke of Newcastle; she died 
in 1698 and in 1700 he married Anne Churchill, daughter of the 
famous duke of Marlborough. This was an important alliance 
for Sunderland and for his descendants; through it he was 
introduced to political life and later the dukedom of Marl- 
borough came to the Spencers. Having succeeded to the 
peerage in 1702, the earl was one of the commissioners for the 
union between England and Scotland, and in 1705 he was sent 
to Vienna as envoy extraordinary. Although he was tinged 
with republican ideas and had rendered himself obnoxious to 
Queen Anne by opposing the grant to her husband, Prince 
George, through the influence of Marlborough he was foisted 
into the ministry as secretary of state for the southern depart 
ment, taking office in December 1706. From 1708 to 1710 he 
was one of the five whigs, called the Junta, who dominated the 
government, but he had many enemies, the queen still disliked 
him, and in June 1710 he was dismissed. Anne offered him 
a pension of 3000 a year, but this he refused, saying " if he 
could not have the honour to serve his country he would not 
plunder it." 

Sunderland continued to take part in public life, and was 
active in communicating with the court of Hanover abeut 
the steps to be taken in view of the approaching death of 
the queen. He made the acquaintance of George I. in 1706, 
but when the elector became king the office which he secured 
was the comparatively unimportant one of lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland. In August 1715 he joined the cabinet as lord keeper 
of the privy seal, and after a visit to George I. in Hanover he 
secured in April 1717 the position of secretary of state for the 
northern department. This he retained until March 1718, when 
he became first lord of the treasury, holding also the post of 
lord president of the council. He was now prime minister. 
Sunderland was especially interested in the proposed peerage 
bill, a measure designed to limit the number of members of the 
House of Lords, but this was defeated owing partly to the opposi 
tion of Sir Robert Walpole. He was still at the head of affairs 
when the South Sea bubble burst and this led to his political 
ruin. He had taken some part in launching the scheme of 1720, 
but he had not profited financially by it ; however, public opinion 
was roused against him and it was only through the efforts 
of Sir Robert Walpole that he was acquitted by the House of 

Commons, when the matter was investigated. In April 1721 he 
resigned his offices, but he retained his influence with George I. 
until his death on the igth of April 1722. 

Sunderland inherited his father s passion for intrigue, while his 
manners were repelling, but he stands high among his associates 
for disinterestedness and had an alert and discerning mind. From 
his early years he had a great love of books, and he spent his leisure 
and his wealth in forming the library at Althorp, which in 1703 was 
described as " the finest in Europe." In 1749 part of it was removed 
to Blenheim. 

The earl s second wife having died in April 1716, after a career 
of considerable influence on the political life of her time, in 1717 he 
married an Irish lady of fortune, Judith Tichborne (d. 1749). By 
Lady Anne Churchill he had three sons and two daughters. Robert 
(17011729), the eldest son, succeeded as 4th earl, and Charles 
(1706-1758), the second son, became the 5th earl. In 1733 Charles 
inherited the dukedom of Marlborough and he then transferred the 
Sunderland estates to his brother John, father of the 1st Earl Spencer 

For the career of Sunderland see W. Coxe, Memoirs of Marlborough 
(1847-1848); Earl Stanhope, History of England (1853), and I. S. 
Leadam, Political History of England, 7702-7760 (1909). 

English politician, was the only son of Henry Spencer (1620- 
1643), wno succeeded his father, William, as 3rd Baron Spencer 
of Wormleighton in 1636. This barony had been bestowed in 
1603 upon Sir Robert Spencer (d. 1627), the only son of Sir John 
Spencer (d. 1600) of Althorp, Northamptonshire, who claimed 
descent from the baronial family of Despenser. The fortunes 
of the family were founded by Sir John Spencer (d. 1522) of 
Snitterfield, Warwickshire, a wealthy grazier. His descendant, 
Sir Robert Spencer, the ist baron, was in 1603, " reputed to 
have by him the most money of any person in the kingdom." 
Sir Robert s grandson, Henry, the 3rd baron, was created earl 
of Sunderland in June 1643, an d was killed at the battle of 
Newbury when fighting for the king a little later in the same year. 
He married Dorothy (1617-1684), daughter of Robert Sidney, 
2nd earl of Leicester. She was the Sacharissa of the poems 
of her admirer, Edmund Waller, and for her second husband 
she married Sir Robert Smythe. Their son Robert, the 2nd earl, 
was educated abroad and at Christ Church, Oxford, and in 
1665 married Anne (d. 1715), daughter of John Digby, 3rd earl 
of Bristol; she was both a beauty and an heiress, and is also 
famous for her knowledge and love of intrigue. Having passed 
some time in the court circle, Sunderland was successively 
ambassador at Madrid, at Paris and at Cologne; in 1678 he was 
again ambassador at Paris. In February 1679, when the country 
was agitated by real or fancied dangers to the Protestant religion, 
the earl entered political life as secretary of state for the northern 
department and became at once a member of the small clique 
responsible for the government of the country. He voted for 
the exclusion of James, duke of York, from the throne, and 
made overtures to William, prince of Orange, and consequently 
in 1681 he lost both his secretaryship and his seat on the privy 
council. Early in 1683, however, through the influence of the 
king s mistress, the duchess of Portsmouth, Sunderland regained 
his place as secretary for the northern department, the chief 
feature of his term of office being his rivalry with his brother- 
in-law, George Savile, marquess of Halifax. By this time he 
had made his peace with the duke of York, and when in February 
1685 James became king, he retained his position of secretary, 
to which was soon added that of lord president of the council. 
He carried out the wishes of the new sovereign and after the 
intrigues of a few months he had the satisfaction of securing 
the dismissal of Lawrence Hyde, earl of Rochester, from his 
post as lord treasurer. He was a member of the commission 
for ecclesiastical causes, and although afterwards he claimed that 
he had used all his influence to dissuade James from removing 
the tests, and in other ways illegally favouring the Roman 
Catholics, he signed the warrant for the committal of the seven 
bishops, and appeared as a witness against them. It should be 
mentioned that while Sunderland was thus serving James II., 
he was receiving a pension from France, and through his wife s 
lover, Henry Sidney, afterwards earl of Romney, he was furnish 
ing William of Orange with particulars about affairs in England. 



In the last months of James s reign he was obviously uncomfort 
able. Although he had in 1687 openly embraced the Roman 
Catholic faith, he hesitated to commit himself entirely to the 
acts of the fierce devotees who surrounded the king, whom he 
advised to reverse the arbitrary acts of the last year or two, and 
in October 1688 he was dismissed by James with the remark 
" I hope you will be more faithful to your next master than you 
have been to me." 

Sunderland now took refuge in Holland, and from Utrecht 
he sought to justify his recent actions in A letter to a friend in the 
country. He had been too deeply involved in the arbitrary 
acts of James II. to find a place at once among the advisers of 
William and Mary, and he was excepted from the act of indemnity 
of 1690. However, in 1691, he was permitted to return to Eng 
land, and he declared himself a Protestant and began to attend 
the sittings of parliament. But his experience was invaluable 
and soon he became prominent in public affairs, a visit which 
William III. paid him at Althorp, his Northamptonshire seat, 
in 1691, being the prelude to his recall into the royal counsels. 
It was his advice which Jed the king to choose all his ministers 
from one political party, to adopt the modern system, and he 
managed to effect a reconciliation between William and his 
sister-in-law, the princess Anne. From April to December 1697 
he discharged the duties of lord chamberlain, and for part of 
this time he was one of the lords justices, but the general suspicion 
with which he was regarded terrified him, and in December he 
resigned. The rest of his life was passed in seclusion at Althorp, 
where he died on the 28th of September 1702. The earl was a 
great gambler, but he was wealthy enough also to spend money 
on improving his house at Althorp, which he beautified both 
within and without. His only surviving son was Charles Spencer, 
3rd earl of Sunderland (q.v.). 

Lord Sunderland possessed a keen intellect and was consumed 
by intense restlessness; but his character was wanting in stead 
fastness, and he yielded too easily to opposition. His adroitness 
in intrigue and his fascinating manners were exceptional even in 
an age when such qualities formed part of every statesman s 
education; but the characteristics which ensured him success 
in the House of Lords and in the royal closet led to failure in 
his attempts to understand the feelings of the mass of his country 
men. Consistency of conduct was not among the objects which 
he aimed at, nor did he shrink from thwarting in secret a policy 
which he supported in public. A large share of the discredit 
attaching to the measures of James II. must be assigned to the 
earl of Sunderland. 

The best account of Sunderland is the article by T. Seccombe in 
the Diet. Nat. Biog., which gives a full bibliography. 

SUNDERLAND, a seaport and municipal, county and parlia 
mentary borough of Durham, England, at the mouth of the 
river Wear, on the North-Eastern railway, 261 m. N. by W. 
from London. Pop. (1891), 131,686; (1901) 146,077- The 
borough includes the township of Bishopwearmouth, to the south 
of Sunderland proper, which lies on the south bank of the 
river; and that of Monkwearmouth, on the north bank. 
Adjacent to Monkwearmouth on the north-west is the exten 
sive urban district of Southwick, within the parliamentary 
borough. A great cast-iron bridge crosses the river with a 
single span of 236 ft. and a height of 100 ft. above low water. 
It was designed by Rowland Burden, opened in 1796, and 
widened under the direction of Robert Stephenson in 1858. 
The only building of antiquarian interest is the church of St 
Peter, Monkwearmouth, in which part of the tower and other 
portions belong to the Saxon building attached to the 
monastery founded by Benedict Biscop in 674. The church of 
St Michael, Bishopwearmouth, is on an ancient site, but is a 
rebuilding of the igth century. There is a large park at 
Roker on the north-east of the town, a favourite seaside 
resort, and (among other parks) that at Bishopwearmouth 
contains a bronze statue of Sir Henry Havelock, who was born 
(1795) at Ford Hall in the neighbourhood. 

The prosperity of Sunderland rests on the coalfields of the neigh 

bourhood, the existence of which gave rise to an export trade in the 
reign of Henry VII., which has grown to great importance. Manu 
facturing industries include shipbuilding, iron and steel works, 
engineering, anchor and chain cable, glass and bottle and chemical 
works and paper mills. Limestone is largely worked. For 5 m. 
above its mouth the Wear resembles on a reduced scale the Tyne 
in its lower course. The harbour is constantly undergoing improve 
ment. The docks cover an area of upwards of 200 acres, and there 
are several graving docks up to 441 ft. in length. The parliamentary 
borough returns two members. The municipal borough is under a 
mayor, 16 aldermen and 42 councillors, and has an area of 3357 

The history of Sunderland is complicated by the name Wear- 
mouth (Wiramuth, Wermuth) being applied impartially to the 
Monk s town on the north bank of the Wear; the Bishop s 
town on the south and the neighbouring port now known as 
Sunderland. In both Monk s and Bishop s Wearmouth the 
settlement was connected with the church. Benedict Biscop 
in 674 obtained from Ecgfrith king of Northumbria seventy 
hides of land on the north bank of the river, on which he founded 
the Benedictine monastery of St Peter. Not more than a year 
after the foundation Benedict brought over skilled masons and 
glass-workers from Gaul who wrought his church in the Roman 
fashion, the work being so speedily done that Mass was celebrated 
there within the year. A subsequent visit to Rome resulted 
in a letter from Pope Agatho exempting his monastery from all 
external control. Later Benedict acquired three hides on the 
south side of the river. The abbey, where Bede was educated, 
was destroyed by the Danes and probably not rebuilt until 
Bishop Walcher (1071-1081) settled Aldwin and his companions 
there. They found the walls in ruins from the neglect of 208 
years, but the church was soon rebuilt. Bishop William of 
St Carileph (1081-1099), desiring to acquire the possessions of 
the house for his new foundation of Durham, transferred the 
monks there, Wearmouth becoming henceforward a cell of the 
larger house. Meanwhile Bishop s Wearmouth was becoming 
important, having been granted to the bishops by ^Ethelstan 
in 930. As a possession of the see it is mentioned in Boldon 
Book in conjunction with Tunstall as an ordinary rural vill 
rendering one milch cow to the bishop, while the demesne 
and its mill rendered 20, the fisheries 6 and the borough of 
Wearmouth 205. There seems no doubt but that the borough, 
identical with that to which Bishop Robert de Pinset granted 
his charter, was in reality Sunderland, the name Wearmouth 
beirig used to cover Bishop s and Monk s Wearmouth and the 
modern Sunderland. It was from Wearmouth that Edgar 
Jitheling set sail for Scotland, the account implying that this 
was^a frequented port. In 1 197 the town of Wearmouth rendered 
375. 4d. tallage during the vacancy of the see, and in 1306-1307 
the assessment of a tenth for Bishop s Wearmouth was 5, 53. 4d., 
while that of Monk s Wearmouth was i, 6s. 8d. Probably the 
northern town remained entirely agricultural, while the shipping 
trade of Bishop s Wearmouth was steadily increasing. In 1382 
what was probably a dock there rendered 2s., and in 1385 the 
issues of the town were worth 45, 95. 2d. annually. In 1431 
the rent of assize from the demesne lands of Monk s Wearmouth 
was 5, is. od. A further contrast is shown by the number of 
houseling persons, or those who received the sacrament, returned 
in 1548: Bishop s Wearmouth had 700 and Monk s Wearmouth 
300. From this time, at least, Bishop s Wearmouth seems to 
have been completely identified with Sunderland: in 1567 
Wearmouth was one of the three ports in Durham where pre 
cautions were to be taken against pirates, while no mention is 
made of Sunderland. Monk s Wearmouth remained purely 
agricultural until 1775, when a shipbuilding yard was estab 
lished and prospered to such an extent that by 1795 five 
similar yards were at work. 

The Boldon Book states that Sunderland was at farm in 1183 
and rendered 100 shillings and the town of Sunderland rendered 
58 shillings tallage in 1197 during the vacancy of the see. In 
1382 Thomas Menvill held the borough, which with its yearly 
free rent, courts and tolls was worth i, 125. 8d. Edward IV. in 
1464, sede vacante, granted a lease of the borough, and in 1507, 
Cardinal Bainbridge granted it by copyhold at a rent of 6, 


which dropped to 4 in 1590. Bishop Morton incorporated 
Sunderland in 1634, stating that it had been a borough from 
time immemorial under the name of the New Borough of Wear- 
mouth. This charter lapsed during the Civil Wars, when the 
borough was sold with the manor of Houghton-le-Spring for 
2851, gs. 6d. Nevertheless the inhabitants retained their 
rights. Sunderland became a parliamentary borough returning 
two members in 1834. The charter of 1634 granted a market 
and annual fair which are still held. The charter of Bishop 
Hugh provided for pleas between burgesses and foreign mer 
chants, and directed that merchandise brought by sea should 
be landed before sale, except in the case of salt and herrings. 
Bishop Hatfield gave a lease of the fisheries in 1358. In the 
1 5th century commissions were held touching salmon-fisheries 
and obstructions in the Wear, while Bishop Barnes (1577-1587) 
appointed a water-bailiff for the port, and licensed the building 
of wharves for the sale of coal. During the i7th century 
Sunderland was the seat of a vice-admiralty court for the county 
palatine and in 1669 letters patent permitted the erection of a 
pier and lighthouse as the harbour was " very commodiously 
situate for the shipping of vast quantities of sea-coles plentifully 
gotten and wrought there." 

See William Hutchinson, History and Antiquities of the County 
Palatine of Durham (Newcastle, 1785-1794) ; J. W. Summers, History 
and Antiquities of Sunderland (Sunderland, 1858); Victoria County 
History: Durham. 

SUNDEW, in botany, the popular name for a genus of plants 
known as Drosera (Gr. 6p<xros,dew; Fr. rossolis, Ger. Sonnenthau) 
so called from the drops of viscid transparent glittering secretion 
borne by the tentacles which cover the leaf-surface. It is a 
cosmopolitan genus of slender glandular herbs, with leaves 
arranged in a basal rosette or alternately on an elongated stem, 
and is represented in Britain by three species, which are found 
in spongy bogs and heaths. 

The common sundew (D. rotundifolid) has extremely small roots, 
and bears five or six radical leaves horizontally extended in a rosette 
around the flower-stalk. The upper surface of each leaf is 
covered with gland-bearing filaments or " tentacles," of which 
there are on an average about two hundred. Each gland is 
surrounded by a large dew-like drop of the viscid secretion. A 
small fibre-vascular bundle (b, fig. 3, B), consisting mainly of spiral 

{After Darwin.) 

FIG. I. Leaf of Sundew (Drosera rotundi folia}. (X 4.) 

vessels, runs up through the stalk of the tentacle and is surrounded 
by a layer of elongated parenchyma cells outside of which is the 
epidermis filled with a homogeneous fluid tinted purple by a 
derivative of chlorophyll (eryhrophyll). The epidermis bears small 
multicellular prominences. The glandular head of the tentacle 
contains a central mass of spirally thickened cells (tracheids) in 
immediate contact with the upper end of the fibrovascular bundle. 
Around these is a layer of large colourless thin walled cells which 


reaches the surface at the base of the head and acts as absorbing 
cells. Outside these are two layers 
(the outer one the epidermis) filled 
with purple fluid. 

Insects are attracted by the leaves ; 
a fly alighting on the disk, or even 
only touching one or two of the 
exterior tentacles, is immediately 
entangled by the viscid secretion; 
the tentacles to which it is adhering 
begin to bend, and thus pass on their 
prey to the tentacles next succeed 
ing them inwards, and the insect 
is thus carried by a curious rolling 
movement to the centre of the leaf. 
The tentacles on all sides become 
similarly inflected; the blade or the 
leaf may even become almost cup- 
shaped; and the insect, bathed in 
the abundant secretion which soon 
closes up its tracheae, is drowned 
in about a quarter of an hour. The 
leaves clasp also, but for a much 
shorter time, over inorganic bodies. 
The bending of the tentacle takes 
place near its base, and may be 
excited (l) by repeated touches, 

although not by gusts of wind or on , one ? lde mflect ed over 
drops of rain, thus saving the plant a , "f. , of meat P laced on 
from much useless movement; (2) by 

contact with any solid, even though insoluble and of far greater 
minuteness than could be appreciated by our sense of touch 
a morsel of human hair weighing only ^^ of a grain, and this 

After Darwin. 

FIG. 2. Leaf of Sundew, en 
larged, with the tentacles 
on one side inflected over 

(After Dodel-Port.) 

FIG. 3. Glands of Sundew magnified. 
A, External aspect