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Full text of "Encyclopedia of biography of New York, a life record of men and women whose sterling character and energy and industry have made them preëminent in their own and many other states"

M.C 



GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



IIIIIIHlfl'iiffillSWlTiK PUBLIC LIBRARY 

3 1833 01105 6220 




££j-_ ./2fc/e- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



NEW YORK 

A Life Record of Men and Women of the Past 



Whose Sterling Character and Energy and Industry Have Made 
Them Preeminent in Their Own and Many Other States 



BY 



CHARLES ELLIOTT FITCH , L. H. D. 

Lawyer, Journalist, Educator; Editor and Contributor to Many Newspapers 

and Magazines; ex-Regent New York University; Supervisor 

Federal Census (N. Y.) 1880; Secretary New 

York Constitutional Convention, 1894 



ILLUSTRATED 



THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

INCORPORATED 

BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO 

1916 



Both justice and decency require that we should bestow on our forefathers 
an honorable remembrance — Thucydides 



1233355 



BIOGRAPHICAL 




R^^e^JL^ 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



SAGE, Russell, 

Man of Large Affairs. 

The Sage family was without doubt of 
Scandinavian origin, and the name at 
first was Saga. When the Norsemen 
conquered Normandy, in France, they 
generally softened the final "a" tone, 
thus making Saga, Sage, and added a 
French suffix to denote landed occupa- 
tion. To the first Norman Saga or Sage 
was added ville or town, thus making it 
Sageville, or Sagetown, or land. As these 
spread to other countries the name was 
subjected to other changes. In Germany 
it was Saige or Sauge, the same in Swit- 
zerland, while in France it was Le Sage. 
The name is first found in England on 
the Battle Abbey Roll, in 1066. This 
roll was prepared by the monks of Battle 
Abbey at the command of William the 
Conqueror, to perpetuate the names of 
those who took part in the battle of Hast- 
ings, which gave him the English throne. 
It is there recorded Sageville. All of 
the name in England, Scotland and 
Wales originated in this way. The fam- 
ily was granted a coat-of-arms, which is 
used by the American family. 

David Sage, American ancestor of the 
family in New York, was born in 1639, a 
native of Wales. He was one of the first 
settlers of Middletown, Connecticut, 
where he is of record in 1652. He settled 
upon a tract of land now part of the town 
of Cromwell, upon the banks of the Con- 
necticut river, where some of his de- 
scendants yet reside. His will, dated 
March 27, 1703, is in the probate office 
at Hartford, Connecticut. The stone 
marking his grave is still standing in the 



Riverside cemetery, on the bank of the 
Connecticut river, at the north end of 
Main street, Middletown, and gave the 
date of his death as March, 1703, o. s., 
and his age as sixty-four years. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of John Kirby, 
in February, 1664. He married (second) 
in 1673, Mary Wilcox. His grandson, 
Elisha, was a Revolutionary soldier, and 
was father of Elisha Sage, who came to 
New York, settled in Oneida county, and 
married Prudence Risley, probably in 
Connecticut. 

Russell Sage, son of Elisha (2) and 
Prudence (Risley) Sage, was born in the 
little settlement of Shenandoah, in 
Verona township, Oneida county, New 
York, August 4, 1816, and died at Law- 
rence, Long Island, July 22, 1906. Two 
years after his birth his father re- 
moved to a farm near Durhamville, in 
the same county, and there remained 
until his death in 1854. There young 
Russell lived and attended the district 
schools in winter and worked upon the 
farm the remainder of the year until he 
was fourteen years of age, when he was 
sent to his brother, Henry Risley Sage, 
who had a store in Troy, New York. 
The work was hard, but he had his earn- 
ings to himself and improved himself by 
diligent study. Before he was twenty- 
one he had paid off a mortgage on his 
father's farm, and was the owner of sev 
eral city lots, and of a sloop which he 
navigated from Troy to New York. 
Later he abandoned his clerkship and 
entered into partnership with his brother, 
whom he was able to buy out in two 
years. In 1839 he sold out his store at a 
profit, and entered into the wholesale 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



grocery and commission business with 
John W. Bates as partner. The firm in 
a short time controlled several branches 
of the trade, not only in Troy but in 
Albany. He became one of the directors 
of the Troy & Schenectady railroad, and 
afterwards president of the same, and 
held office when the railroad was united 
with the general system between Albany, 
Troy, and Buffalo. At that time, in 1853, 
Mr. Sage was elected a director in the 
consolidated company in the New York 
Central and served six years. A little 
later he became a large owner in the La 
Crosse railroad. 

In his earlier years Mr. Sage was 
deeply interested in public affairs, and 
took a prominent part in political mat- 
ters in the State of New York. When a 
resident of Troy in 1845 he was elected 
to the board of aldermen. While hold- 
ing this office he was also made treas- 
urer of Rensselaer county, the finances 
of which were in a tangled condition. He 
speedily straightened them out and held 
the office for seven years. In 184S he 
was a delegate to the National Conven- 
tion of the Whig party. He controlled 
twenty-eight out of thirty-two New York 
delegates, and took a leading part in the 
nomination of General Zachary Taylor 
for the presidency. It was at his sug- 
gestion that the convention nominated 
Millard Fillmore for Vice-President, 
which selection made him President, for 
General Taylor died while in office and 
Fillmore succeeded him. In 1850 Mr. 
Sage was nominated for Congress by the 
Troy Whigs, but owing to the defection 
of a faction of the party he was defeated. 
He was again nominated in 1852, and 
was elected by a small majority. Two 
years later he was returned to Congress 
by the unprecedented majority of 7,000 
votes. During his four years in Con- 
gress the great talents of Mr. Sage in 



financial matters found recognition in 
his appointment as a member of the ways 
and means committee, the most impor- 
tant committee of the house. He served 
also on the invalid pension committee 
which had charge of the pensions in- 
curred by the Mexican War, and took 
part in the five weeks' struggle which 
finally resulted in the election of Na- 
thaniel Banks as speaker. But the incident 
in his professional career which brought 
him most reputation was the appointment 
of a committee through his efforts to in- 
quire into the condition of Washington's 
old estate at Mount Vernon, Virginia. 
The committee's report bore fruit in the 
formation of the Mount Vernon Asso- 
ciation, the purchase of the estate, and 
its dedication as a permanent memorial 
to the father of his country. 

The panic of 1857 which ruined so 
many while it left him comparatively un- 
scathed, had an important effect on his 
business career. He had advanced con- 
siderable money in the La Cross railroad. 
To protect his loans he found himself 
compelled to advance still larger amounts, 
and finally engaged in three legal pro- 
ceedings to become owner of the railroad, 
which ultimately extended into the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul system. 
During his career he achieved the presi- 
dency of no less than twenty transporta- 
tion corporations. He was connected in 
an official capacity, at one time or an- 
other, with the Iowa Central, Union 
Pacific, Missouri Pacific, St. Louis, Iron 
Mountain & Southern ; Wabash, Texas 
& Pacific; Troy & Bennington; Troy & 
Boston ; Delaware, Lackawanna & West- 
ern ; Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul : 
Manhattan Elevated, and other railroads. 
He was one of the largest stockholders 
in the Manhattan Elevated, and took an 
active part in its management. Other 
enterprises with which he had been active 




A 7 anted Sr. 27. Effrana/t^ 



aana/ian 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



are the Pacific Mail Steamship Company ; 
the Mercantile Trust Company; the Im- 
porters and Traders National Bank ; 
Western Union Telegraph ; International 
Ocean Telegraph; American Telegraph 
and Cable Company; the Standard Gas 
Light Company, and the Fifth Avenue 
Bank, of which bank he was one of the 
founders and the only one living at the 
time of his death. 

In 1863 Mr. Sage gave up his Troy 
business altogether and removed to New 
York to devote himself to the promotion 
of his own and other railroads and to 
operations in stocks. He opened an office 
in William street, and gave his first at- 
tention to Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
securities. Later he extended his inter- 
est to other railroads, and gradually en- 
larged his field of operations until it cov- 
ered nearly the whole range of stocks 
listed on the Exchange. One of the fea- 
tures of Mr. Sage's financial career was 
his friendship with Jay Gould. They had 
come together as promoters of the At- 
lantic & Pacific Telegraph Company, 
which was later merged into the West- 
ern Union. 

On December 4, 1901, Mr. Sage, while 
in his office, escaped instant death as by 
a miracle. An insane crank, Henry W. 
Norcross, of Somerville, Massachusetts, 
entered the office, carrying a bag loaded 
with dynamite, and demanded that the 
sum of $1,200,000 be given to him imme- 
diately or he would blow up the build- 
ing. Mr. Sage, seeing that he was in the 
presence of a madman, rose and retreated 
from him ; whereupon the maniac ex- 
claimed: "Well then here goes," and 
lifting the bag high in the air dashed it 
violently on the floor. The explosion 
which followed blew off the dynamiter's 
head, killed a clerk, injured others, and 
wrecked the office. Mr. Sage received 
wounds, but was able to return to the 
office in a few days. 



Mr. Sage was a man of remarkable and 
varied powers. He could have succeed- 
ed in almost any field of action that he 
might have chosen. He chose rather the 
largest, hardest and most dangerous field 
of all — the development of the transpor- 
tation system of the country, for he was 
above all else, and from first to last, a 
promoter and manager of railroads. That 
he was also a lender of money, particu- 
larly in his old age, was merely an inci- 
dent in his long and useful life. "He was 
an American and loved his country," said 
Henry Clews on hearing of his death. 
"My aim in life," so he confessed in an 
interview which was published Decem- 
ber 19, 1897, in th e "New York Herald," 
"has been to do my share in developing 
the material resources of the country. I 
have spent millions on the railroad sys- 
tem of the United States, and am now 
connected with more than twenty thou- 
sand miles of railroad and with twenty- 
seven different corporations." 

Russell Sage was twice married, but 
had no children. He married (first) in 
1841, Marie, daughter of Moses I. 
Wynne, of Troy, New York; she died in 
1867. He married (second) November 
24, 1869, Margaret Olivia Slocum, born 
September 8, 1828, daughter of Hon. 
Joseph Slocum, of Syracuse, New York. 



STRANAHAN, James S. T., 

Remarkable for Public Spirit. 

The life record of James S. T. Strana- 
han began April 25, 1808, at the old fam- 
ily homestead in Madison county, New 
York, near Peterboro, his parents being 
Samuel and Lynda (Josselyn) Strana- 
han. He traced his lineage to Scotch- 
Irish ancestry, of Presbyterian faith — 
men of strong, rugged, determined char- 
acter, and women of virtue, diligence and 
culture. The first of the name of whom 
record is left was James Stranahan, who 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



was born in the North of Ireland in 1699. 
The orthography of the name has under- 
gone many changes, having been in the 
following forms: Stranahan, Stracham 
and Strahan. The name, however, is de- 
rived from the parish of Strachan, Kin- 
cardineshire, Scotland. James Strana- 
han, the grandfather of him whose name 
forms the caption of this review, crossed 
the Atlantic to the New World in 1725, 
locating in Scituate, Rhode Island, where 
he became a prosperous farmer. He 
afterward removed to Plainfield, Connec- 
ticut, where he died in 1792, at the ad- 
vanced age of ninety-three years. His 
namesake and eldest son served as a 
Revolutionary soldier in the war which 
brought independence to the nation, and 
lived and died in Plainfield, Connecticut. 

James S. T. Stranahan lost his father 
when eight years of age, and his boyhood 
days were soon transformed into a period 
of labor, for his stepfather needed his 
assistance in the development of the farm 
and the care of the stock. However, 
when the work of the farm was ended for 
the season, he entered the district schools 
and there acquired his early education, 
which was later supplemented by several 
terms of study in an academy. From 
the age of seventeen he depended entirely 
upon his own resources. After complet- 
ing his academical work he engaged in 
teaching school, with the intention of 
later fitting himself for the profession of 
civil engineer ; but the occupation of trad- 
ing with the Indians in the northwest 
seemed to offer greater inducements, and 
in 1829 he visited the upper lake region. 
He made several trips into the wilder- 
ness and these, together with the advice 
cf General Lewis Cass, then governor of 
the territory of Michigan, led him to 
abandon that plan, and he returned to his 
home. 

The elemental strength of his character 
was first clearly demonstrated by his 



work in building the town of Florence, 
New York. From his boyhood he had 
known Gerrit Smith, the eminent capital- 
ist and philanthropist, who in 1832 made 
him a proposition according to the terms 
of which he was to go to Oneida county, 
New York, where Mr. Smith owned large 
tracts of land, and found a manufactur- 
ing town. He was then a young man of 
only twenty-four years, but the work 
was successfully accomplished, and the 
village of Florence, New York, was 
transformed into a thriving little city of 
between two and three thousand. His 
active identification with things political 
began during the period of his residence 
in Florence, for in 1838 he was elected to 
the State Legislature on the Whig ticket 
in a Democratic district. 

A broader field of labor soon engaged 
the attention and energies of Mr. Stran- 
ahan, who in 1840 removed to Newark, 
New Jersey, and became an active factor 
in railroad building. In 1844 he came to 
Brooklyn, and from that time until his 
death he was a most potent factor in the 
commercial life, the political interests 
and the general upbuilding of the city. 
His first official service was as alderman, 
10 which position he was elected in 1848, 
and in 1850 he was nominated for mayor, 
but his party was in the minority and he 
was defeated. His personal attributes at 
that time were not so well known as they 
were in later years, and thus he could not 
overcome the party strength of his op- 
ponent. However, his nomination served 
the purpose of bringing him before the 
public, and in 1854, when the country- 
was intensely excited over the slavery 
question, he became a candidate for Con- 
gress, and although he was a strong anti- 
slavery man and the district was Demo- 
cratic, he was triumphantly elected. In 
1857, when the Metropolitan Police Com- 
mission was organized, he was appointed 
a commissioner, and he was one of the 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



most active members of the board dur- 
ing the struggle between the new forces 
and the old New York municipal police 
force of New York, Brooklyn and Staten 
Island, who revolted under the new 
leadership of Fernando Wood, then 
mayor. Mr. Stranahan had joined the 
ranks of the new Republican party on its 
organization, and in 1864 he was a presi- 
dential elector on the Lincoln and John- 
son ticket. In i860, and again in 1864, 
he had been sent as a delegate to the Re- 
publican National Convention, and at 
both times supported the Illinois states- 
man, Lincoln, for the presidency. Dur- 
ing the Civil War he was president of the 
War Fund Committee, an organization 
formed of over one hundred leading men 
of Brooklyn, whose patriotic sentiment 
gave rise to the "Brooklyn Union," a 
paper which was in full accord with the 
governmental policy, and upheld the 
hands of the President in every possible 
way. Its purpose was to encourage en- 
listments and to further the efforts of the 
government in prosecuting the war. Mr. 
Stranahan had an unshaken confidence 
in the ultimate triumph of the Union 
cause, and his splendid executive ability 
and unfaltering determination were of 
incalculable benefit in promoting the effi- 
ciency of the committee. His labors, too, 
were the potent element in carrying for- 
ward a work in which this committee 
was associated with the Woman's Re- 
lief Association, of which Mrs. Strana- 
han was president. This work was the 
establishment of a great sanitary fair, 
which has become historical and which 
was the means of raising four hundred 
thousand dollars to carry on the work of 
the sanitary commission in connection 
with the war. Mr. Stranahan never 
sought public office for himself except 
in the few instances mentioned, and then 
his nomination came as a tribute to his 



ability. T n 1888, however, he was an 
elector for Benjamin Harrison, and being 
ihe oldest member of the electoral col- 
lege, was honored by being appointed 
the messenger to carry the electoral vote 
from the State of New York to Washing- 
ton. 

It is almost impossible to give in a 
brief biographical sketch an accurate rec- 
ord of the great work which Mr. Strana- 
han did in connection with the upbuild- 
ing of Brooklyn. His name is a familiar 
one on account of his labors in behalf of 
the park system. Under the legislative 
act of i860 he became president of the 
Brooklyn Park Commission, and he re- 
mained in office for twenty-two years, a 
period in which the growth of the city 
made demands for a park system that 
under his guidance was developed and 
carried forward to a splendid completion. 
Prospect Park is an everlasting monu- 
ment to him. He was also the originator 
of the splendid system of boulevards, the 
Ocean Parkway and the Eastern Park- 
way, which has provided in Brooklyn a 
connection of the city with the sea in a 
system of drives unsurpassed by any in 
the world. The concourse on Coney 
Island also resulted from his instrumen- 
tality. The element which made Mr. 
Stranahan's work different from that of 
all others, was that he could foresee possi- 
bilities. It was this which led to the de- 
velopment of Coney Island, for to him it 
seemed that the natural boundary of 
Brooklyn on the southwest was the At- 
lantic Ocean, and he took steps to secure 
the rare advantage of an attractive high- 
way from the city to the sea. It seems 
that every work with which he was con- 
nected proved of the greatest value to the 
city. 

The enterprises which he managed 
were gigantic in volume and far-reach- 
ing in effect. For more than forty years 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



he was a director of the Union Ferry 
Company, and under his guidance were 
developed the great Atlantic docks. 
Erooklyn had no warehouse on its water- 
front and the region which is now the 
Atlantic docks was shallow water at the 
edge of the bay when he came to the city. 
He foresaw the possibilities of commerce 
by establishing docks at this point, and 
he labored with a courage and patience 
that has scarcely been equaled in the his- 
tory of material improvements in the 
world. It was twenty-six years from the 
time he advanced his plans for the dock 
system before the Atlantic Dock Com- 
pany made a dividend to its stockholders, 
and yet to-day its shipping returns are 
greater than those of almost any other 
port in the world. Only to the civil engi- 
neer is the scope of this wonderful under- 
taking familiar. One who has not stud- 
ied the science cannot conceive of the 
amplitude of this work. Mr. Stranahan 
was also connected with the Brooklyn 
Bridge Company from its organization, 
and was one of the first subscribers to its 
stock; he was a member of the Board of 
Directors of the New York Bridge Com- 
pany, and he served continuously as trus- 
tee from the time the work came under 
the control of the two cities until June 
8, 1885. At the meeting of the trustees 
on that date, he occupied the chair as 
president of the board, and at that time 
his term expired. He also served con- 
tinuously as a member of the executive 
committee, and upon nearly all of the im- 
portant committees appointed during 
construction. He foresaw the immense 
volume of traffic that would be conduct- 
ed over this mammoth span, and insisted 
that the original plans should be altered 
to insure to the giant structure sufficient 
strength to enable it to carry a train of 
Pullman cars. Mr. Stranahan consulted 
with Commodore Vanderbilt, who agreed 



with him in the opinion that the time 
would arrive when solid Pullman trains 
would run in and out of Brooklyn from 
and to far western points. 

Mr. Stranahan was twice married. In 
early manhood he wedded Marianne 
Fitch, who was born in Westmoreland, 
Oneida county, New York, and was a 
daughter of Ebenezer R. Fitch. For 
three years, from 1837 until 1840, they 
resided in Florence, New York, and dur- 
ing their four years' residence in New- 
ark, New Jersey, their two children were 
born. Mrs. Stranahan died in Manches- 
ter, Vermont, in August, 1866, after 
twenty-two years' residence in Brooklyn. 
Mr. Stranahan afterwards married Miss 
Clara C. Harrison, a native of Massachu- 
setts. Before her marriage she was one 
of the leaders in educational circles in 
Brooklyn, and for a number of years was 
principal of a private seminary for the 
higher education of young ladies, which 
had an enrollment of two hundred pupils, 
and fourteen teachers and professors in 
its various departments. 

Mr. Stranahan passed away in Sara- 
toga, September 3, 1898, and his funeral 
cortege was the first that ever took its 
way to the cemetery through Prospect 
Park, Brooklyn. 



BARNES, Alfred S., 

Publisher, Philanthropist. 

Alfred Smith Barnes, son of Eli and 
Susan (Morris) (Bradley) Barnes, was 
born in New Haven, Connecticut, Janu- 
ary 28, 1817. He attended a Lancastrian 
school at Wethersfield, Connecticut, but 
upon the death of his father, in 1S27, re- 
turned home. At twelve years of age he 
was placed under the care of his uncle, 
Deacon Norman Smith, residing near 
Hartford. Here he worked upon the 
farm during the summer, and during the 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



winter attended school under the instruc- 
tion of Professor Jesse Olney. In 1830 
his uncle opened a shoe store and in- 
stalled him as his clerk, but after serv- 
ing in that capacity for about a year he 
became restless, desiring to engage in 
the book business, which he did as soon 
as an opportunity offered, entering the 
book store of D. F. Robinson, where his 
duties were those of youngest clerk. His 
remuneration was thirty dollars a year 
and his board, his home being with Mrs. 
Robinson, who displayed for him the 
love and solicitude of a mother. In 1835 
the firm of D. F. Robinson & Company 
moved to New York, where he com- 
pleted his clerkship. In 1838 Professor 
Charles Davies, the mathematician, called 
upon him with a letter from Hiram F. 
Sumner, of Hartford, and this introduc- 
tion led to an arrangement for the publi- 
cation of his mathematical books. Mr. 
Barnes was to be the nominal publisher 
at six hundred dollars per year, and at- 
tended to the introduction of the books 
among the schools, and Professor Davies 
was to be the literary and office partner. 
They located in the city of Hartford, and 
then and there was founded what became 
the widely known house of A. S. Barnes 
& Company. Soon afterward they agreed 
on equal terms as partners, Professor 
Davies reserving a copyright 

Mr. Barnes at once set out to canvass 
the country for Professor Davies' books, 
traveling by boat or stage, visiting the 
scattered schools, and the small stores 
of his own and adjacent states, and be- 
came quite versatile in advocating the 
Davies' Arithmetics, which were then in 
their infancy, but came to be studied by 
millions of school children. His efforts 
from the outset were successful, he 
always making a favorable impression by 
his frank and winning manner and un- 
mistakable sense of honor. In 1840 the 



little concern moved to Philadelphia and 
took quarters in a modest store in Minor 
street, but remained there only four years 
when it was finally removed to New 
York, occupying a building on the corner 
of John and Dutch streets. The business 
steadily increased, and with an enlarged 
list of publications, soon required the 
two adjacent buildings on John street in 
addition. In 1867 Mr. Barnes purchased 
the large building on the corner of Wil- 
liam and John streets, to which the busi- 
ness was again transferred, using the for- 
mer buildings in part for the printing 
office and bindery. These latter soon be- 
came inadequate, however, and necessi- 
tated the building of the factory, occu- 
pied by the firm in Brooklyn, erected by 
Mr. Barnes in 1880 on the site of the old 
First Baptist Church. 

In 1848 Professor Davies retired from 
business connection with Mr. Barnes, 
and Edmund Dwight became partner the 
same year, retiring the following year, 
when Mr. Barnes took into partnership 
his brother-in-law, Henry L. Burr, who 
continued with him until his death in 
1865. S. A. Rollo, a clerk, was admitted 
in 1850. Following Mr. Burr's decease, 
Alfred C. Barnes, eldest son of Mr. 
Barnes, became associated with him, and 
also his brother, John C. Barnes. In 
1867 Henry W. Curtiss, cousin of Mr. 
Barnes, was admitted, and shortly after- 
ward Mr. Barnes took into the firm his 
son Henry, and later on his nephew, 
Charles J. Barnes, in 1879 his son Edwin, 
and in 1883-84 his two youngest sons, 
Richard and William, were admitted. At 
the death of Mr. Barnes his five sons 
and nephew were left to carry on the 
business, which they did until 1890, when 
with several other school book houses it 
was merged into the American Book 
Company. The name of A. S. Barnes & 
Company is still extant and is associated 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



with the publication of miscellaneous 
books, church hymnals, etc. 

Mr. Barnes was in a remarkable degree 
a man of affairs, active, interested and 
devoted to all his duties, whether im- 
posed or assumed. Aside from his large 
book publishing interests, he was at the 
time of his death a director of the Han- 
over National Bank, the Home Fire In- 
surance Company, the Fidelity and Cas- 
ualty Company, the Provident Life In- 
surance Company, Rochester Gas Com- 
pany, a trustee in the Brooklyn Dime 
Savings Bank, Cornell University, Ithaca, 
the Polytechnic Institute and Packer In- 
stitute, both in Brooklyn, a trustee of the 
Long Island Historical Society, presi- 
dent of the Automatic Fire Alarm Com- 
pany, New York, and was associated 
with railroads and other institutions. In 
benevolent work he was president of the 
Brooklyn City Mission and Tract Soci- 
ety, connected with the American Board 
of Foreign Missions, with the American 
Missionary Society as one of its execu- 
tive committee, with the Home Mission- 
ary Society, trustee of the American 
Tract Society, vice-president of the Soci- 
ety for the Supression of Vice, and also 
of the Association for Improving the 
Condition of the Poor of Brooklyn, trus- 
tee of the Faith Home for Incurables, 
and also of the Aged Men's Home, both 
of Brooklyn. 

Mr. Barnes was always active and 
heartily interested in religious affairs. 
In Philadelphia he was connected with 
Dr. Albert Barnes' church and in New 
York with Dr. Spring's church. On com- 
ing to Brooklyn he was made one of the 
deacons of the Church of the Pilgrims 
(Congregational), to which he brought 
his letters soon after the late Rev. Dr. 
Richard S. Storrs had been called to its 
pastorate. Later, in view of changing 
his residence, he became a member of the 



Clinton Avenue Church, and was one of 
the callers of Rev. Dr. William I. Bud- 
ington to its pastorate, and still later of 
Rev. Thomas B. McLeod to the same 
church upon the decease of Dr. Buding- 
ton. He served the church as deacon 
and trustee, and was at different times 
superintendent of the Sunday school. 

Aside from his official positions, he 
was most liberal in advancing material 
needs of the church and its various char- 
ities, and responded to every call liber- 
ally and ungrudgingly. With Albert 
Woodruff, of Brooklyn, he inaugurated 
the Mission Sunday school, as the off- 
shoot of an established church, and his 
connection with the Warren Street Mis- 
sion of Brooklyn, as the pioneer of the 
undertaking, was always a pleasure to 
him. He was its first superintendent, 
and accomplished much for its growth 
and prosperity thereafter. A very note- 
worthy incident in connection with his 
Christian work was the acquirement of 
the church building on Classon avenue, 
near Butler street. A mortgage was 
about to be foreclosed on the property 
and several persons were interested in 
buying it in. It became a question of 
sectarianism, the parties to the purchase 
representing distinct creeds, and Mr. 
Barnes, believing the section where it 
stood was in need of the church of his 
own faith, and not finding any one to co- 
operate with him, bought it in himself, 
and for years kept it in his possession, 
although giving its use to a company of 
worshipers and helping to support the 
minister in charge. 

The uppermost desire of his heart was 
unquestionably to do good, "that the 
world might be better for his having 
lived in it." His benefactions will never 
be fully known ; he gave liberally and 
often. The $25,000 to the Faith Home 
in Brooklyn, which enjoys its present 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



quarters mainly through his gift and 
efforts, and the $45,000 to the Young 
Men's Christian Association of Cornell 
University, which resulted in the erec- 
tion of Barnes Hall, evidenced some of 
his larger benefactions. The Young 
Men's Christian Association of Brooklyn, 
the Long Island Historical Society, and 
many of the benevolent and educational 
objects of the city and elsewhere, also 
enjoyed his munificence through his life- 
time, and were as well the recipients of 
considerable sums at his death. 

In politics he took an active interest, 
though he never filled office, or desired 
to do so; he was satisfied to support good 
and able men, and was assiduous in influ- 
encing others to perform their duty. He 
was a Republican as to party, but saw 
fit at times to support one of an opposite 
faction, but never, it is believed, where 
national issues were involved. He was a 
temperance advocate, but thought it not 
essential to encourage a temperance 
party. He argued, "raise the standard 
of one of the dominant parties, and tem- 
perance and ail good results will surely 
follow." 

Mr. Barnes married (first) November 
10, 1841, Harriet Elizabeth Burr, born at 
Henderson Harbor, New York, Septem- 
ber 27, 1820, eleventh child of General 
Timothy and Mary (Chapin) Burr, of 
Hartford, Connecticut. Her father re- 
moved with his family in early life to 
Western New York, and was stationed 
at Henderson Harbor, on Lake Ontario, 
during the war of 1812, and later at the 
head of the commissary department of 
the United States army, and while in 
Hartford, Connecticut, was colonel of 
the Connecticut regiment. General Burr 
was a descendant of Benjamin Burr (or 
Burre, as he spelled the name) the 
founder of the Hartford branch, who first 
appeared as one of the original settlers 



of Hartford in 1635. His name, which 
appears in the land division of Hartford 
in 1630 as an original proprietor and set- 
tler, is the first evidence we have of his 
presence in America, but as the first set- 
tlers there were from Watertown, New- 
town and other places near Boston, it is 
certain that he was in Massachusetts 
some time before his appearance in Hart- 
ford, and he may have been one of the 
eight hundred who came to America with 
Winthrop's fleet in June, 1630. He seems 
to have been an active, energetic, thor- 
ough business man, and mingled but 
little in public affairs, hence but brief 
mention is made of him in the records 
of the colony. He was the first of his 
name in Connecticut, and was admitted 
a freeman in 1658. His allotment in the 
land division of Hartford in 1639 was six 
acres, and he also drew eighteen acres in 
the land division of East Hartford, in 
1666. He died in Hartford, March 31, 
1681, and was buried probably in one of 
the hillside cemeteries, long since oblit- 
erated. He gave his name to Burr street, 
Hartford, which runs west from Main 
street. Mary (Chapin) Burr was a 
daughter of Deacon Aaron Chapin, of a 
prominent family of Massachusetts. Mrs. 
Barnes was interested in many charities, 
especially in the Home for the Friend- 
less, and during the civil war greatly 
assisted the Union army through the san- 
itary commission. 

Mr. and Mrs. Barnes first located in 
Philadelphia, from whence they removed 
to New York, then to Brooklyn, and in 
1853 began the occupancy of a commo- 
dious house on Clinton avenue. Two 
children were born to them in Philadel- 
phia, one in New York, three in Garden 
street, and four in Clinton avenue, mak- 
ing in all a family of ten children, five 
sons and five daughters. In 1866 Mr. 
and Mrs. Barnes celebrated their silver 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



wedding. From 1875 to 1881 their sum- 
mer home was the attractive cottage at 
Martha's Vineyard, and the time he was 
able to be there gave Mr. Barnes perfect 
relaxation and contentment. On Octo- 
ber 27, 1 881, only a few weeks prior to 
the fortieth anniversary of their mar- 
riage, Mrs. Barnes died, this being the 
first severe blow Mr. Barnes had experi- 
enced. 

Mr. Barnes married (second) Novem- 
ber 7, 1883, Mrs. Mary M. Smith. In the 
spring of 1884 they went on a European 
tour, being absent some thirteen months, 
and a few months after their return 
moved into their new home on St. Marks 
avenue, Brooklyn. Early in the year of 
1887 Mr. and Mrs. Barnes went on a 
tour west, extending as far as Alaska. 
This they carried out, but owing to the 
excessive heat they encountered and the 
fatigue incident to so long a journey, 
together with some anxiety over certain 
matters forced upon his mind, Mr. Barnes 
was much prostrated, and on their return 
to Chicago quite succumbed, being 
obliged to remain a week at a hotel, and 
was then brought home, with barely suffi- 
cient strength to move about. Through 
all the trying months which followed, no 
more devoted care and loving ministra- 
tions, coupled with great self-sacrifice, 
were possible than those shown by his 
patient wife. His death occurred Febru- 
ary 17, 1888. 

One of the best and truest tributes to 
Mr. Barnes as a man and a citizen was 
paid by the late Rev. Dr. T. DeWitt Tal- 
mage at one of the meetings in his 
church : 

The number of men who built Brooklyn and 
who have gone into eternal absenteeism is rap- 
idly increasing. Pausing a moment to-day on 
the New York and Brooklyn Bridge, I read on 
a stone pillar the names of those who had been 
influential in the building of that suspended 
wonder of the centuries. The president. Mr. 



Murphy, gone. The vice-president, Mr. Kings- 
ley, gone. The treasurer, Mr. Prentice, gone. 
The engineer, Mr. Roebling, gone. So our 
useful and important citizens from all depart- 
ments are passing off. And now, within a few 
days, Alfred S. Barnes departed. And yet he 
has not disappeared. When our Historical Hall, 
and Academy of Music, and Mercantile Library, 
and our great asylums of mercy, and our 
churches of all denominations shall have crum- 
bled — then, and not until then, will our splendid 
citizen, Mr. Barnes, have disappeared; for his 
brain and heart and head planned them, and 
his munificent hand helped support them. 
When, at n o'clock last Friday night, this noble 
and gracious soul flashed into the bosom of 
God, we lost as good a citizen as Brooklyn ever 
had. If the queenly wifehood that hovered over 
his suffering pillow for four months, until the 
fatigue and the devotion became almost a mar- 
tyrdom, and the prayers and the love and the 
devotion of his children, and the anxieties of 
hundreds of thousands of fellow citizens could 
have hindered his departure, he would again 
have taken his old place at his family table, and 
on our philanthropic platforms, and in the pews 
of our churches. But his work was done. No 
power could keep him down out of the supernal 
light or back from the rewards awaiting him. 
What a bulwark of credit was his name to the 
financial institutions he trusteed or presidented! 
What an honor to the universities on whose 
scrolls of directors his name was permitted to 
appear! And what a reinforcement to the great 
benevolence of the day was his patronage. Out 
of a warm personal friendship of many years, I 
must speak my gratitude and my admiration. In 
business circles, for many a long day, his name 
will be quoted as a synonym for everything 
honorable and righteous, but my thought of him 
is chiefly of being the highest style of Christian 
gentleman. He was one of the few successful 
men who maintained complete simplicity of char- 
acter. After gaining the highest position where 
he could afford to decline the Mayoralty and 
Congressional honors, and all political prefer- 
ment, as he did again and again, he was as art- 
less in his manner as on the day when he earned 
his first dollar. His illumined face was an index 
to an illumined soul. I have known many lovely 
and honorable and inspiring and glorious Chris- 
tian men, but a more lovely or more honorable 
or more inspiring or more glorious Christian 
man than Alfred S. Barnes, I never did know. 
He entered the Kingdom of God himself and all 
his family followed him, and upon them may the 







/A^y/^ 



,OCVM. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



mantle of their consecrated and glorified father 
fall, as I believe it has already fallen. What a 
magnificent inheritance of prayers and good 
advice and Christian example! Well may they 
cry out as Elisha did when Elijah went up in 
fiery equipage, "My Father, my Father, the 
chariots of Israel and the horsemen thereof!" 



MELVILLE, Herman, 

Author. 

Herman Melville, a favorite author of 
a generation ago, was born in New York 
City, August i, 1819, son of Allan and 
Catharine (Gansevoort) Melville; grand- 
son of Major Thomas Melville, a mem- 
ber of the "Boston Tea Party," and of 
General Peter Gansevoort. Allan Mel- 
ville was a man of wealth, a prominent 
merchant, of literary tastes, and an in- 
dustrious traveler; he died in 1832. 

Herman Melville passed his youth in 
the families of relatives at Albany and 
Greenbush, New York. He was of an 
adventurous disposition and at the age 
of eighteen went on a whaling cruise in 
the South Pacific ocean. He had a sad 
awakening from his dream of a romantic 
sea life, for he was subjected to such in- 
human treatment that in the second year 
of his voyage he deserted his ship at 
Nukahiva, in the Marquesas group of 
islands. With a companion he was taken 
by a band of cannibals, from whom he 
was rescued four months later by an 
Australian whaling vessel after a bloody 
encounter. For a year he served on board 
the rescuing ship, then, having reached 
the Hawaiian islands, he joined the crew 
of the United States frigate "United 
States," and reached Boston in 1844. His 
experiences and observations on these 
voyages gave him much material which 
he utilized in subsequent volumes, to the 
great delight of the youth of that day. 

He now took up his residence in Lans- 
ingburg, New York, where he wrote his 
first volume, "Typee," which he sold to 



John Murray, the English publisher, in 
1845, and which as "Melville's Marquesas 
Islands" passed through several editions. 
In 1850 he removed to Pittsfield, Massa- 
chusetts, where he formed an enduring 
friendship with Nathaniel Hawthorne. 
In i860 he voyaged around the world, 
and after his return in 1863 made his 
home in New York City. There, three 
years later, he was appointed to a posi- 
tion in the United States custom house, 
but his health began to give way and in 
1886 he resigned. Besides the volume 
mentioned above, he was author of vari- 
ous works : "Omoo : a Narrative of Ad- 
ventures in the South Seas" (1847) > 
"Mardi, and a Voyage Thither" (1849) '> 
"Redburn" (1849); "White Jacket; or 
The World in a Man-of-War" (1850) ; 
"Moby Dick; or the White Whale" 
(1851) ; "Pierre; or The Ambiguities" 
(1852); "Israel Potter: His Fifty Years 
of Exile" (1855) ; "Piazza Tales" (1856) ; 
"The Confidence Man" (1858) ; "Battle 
Pieces, and Aspects of the War" (poems, 
1866) ; "Clarel ; a Pilgrimage in the Holy 
Land" (a poem, 1876) ; "John Marr and 
Other Sailors" (1888) ; "Timoleon" 
(1891). In 1892 Arthur Stedman edited 
a four-volume edition of "Typee," 
"Omoo," "Moby" and "White Jacket," 
prefacing the set with a critical biog- 
raphy. Melville died in New York City, 
September 28, 1891. 



SLOCUM, Henry W., 

Soldier, Civil Officer, Legislator. 

General Henry Warner Slocum, a dis- 
tinguished soldier of the Civil War, was 
born in Delphi, New York, September 
24, 1827. Graduated from the United 
States Military Academy at West Point 
in 1842, as second lieutenant in the First 
Artillery, he served in Florida against 
the Seminole Indians in 1852-53, and was 
on garrison duty at Fort Moultrie, 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, from 
1853 to J 856, when he resigned from the 
army, having then the rank of first lieu- 
tenant. He practiced law at Syracuse, 
New York, and sat in the State Assembly 
in 1859. From 1859 to 1861 he was also 
an instructor of the State militia, with 
the rank of colonel. At the outbreak of 
the Civil War he was appointed to the 
colonelcy of the Twenty-seventh Regi- 
ment New York Volunteers, and partici- 
pated in the battle of Bull Run, where he 
was wounded. In August, 1861, he was 
commissioned brigadier-general of vol- 
unteers, and until the summer of 1862 
was on duty in the defenses of the 
national capital. In June he was assigned 
to the command of the First Division, 
Sixth Corps, and took part in the Seven 
Days' battles under General McClellan. 
On July 4 he was promoted to major- 
general, and commanded his division in 
the Maryland campaign. Under General 
Hooker, he had command of the Twelfth 
Corps in the Chancellorsville campaign, 
and under General Meade at Gettysburg, 
he commanded the right wing of the 
army during a portion of the battle, and 
distinguished himself by saving Culp's 
Hill at a critical moment. After the end 
of the pursuit of the Confederates into 
Virginia, General Slocum was sent west 
and from April to August, 1864, com- 
manded the District of Vicksburg, Mis- 
sissippi. In the Atlanta campaign, from 
May to September, 1864, he commanded 
the Twentieth Corps, under General 
Sherman. In the March to the Sea, he 
commanded the combined Fourteenth 
and Twentieth Corps, under the desig- 
nation of the Army of Georgia, and also 
in the subsequent campaign in the Caro- 
linas. After the close of the war, he re- 
signed from the service, declining a com- 
mission as colonel in the regular army, 
and took up his residence in Brooklyn, 



New York, where he engaged in the prac- 
tice of his profession. In 1865 he was 
the unsuccessful Democratic candidate 
for Secretary of State. He was a presi- 
dential elector from New York in 1868. 
He was elected to the Forty-first and 
Forty-second Congresses (1869-73), an< i 
was a member of the Forty-eighth Con- 
gress, elected from the State-at-large. 
From 1876 to 1884 he was president of 
the Brooklyn Board of Public Works, 
and a member of the East River Bridge 
Commission. He died in Brooklyn, April 
14, 1894. A fine bronze heroic equestrian 
statue of General Slocum stands near 
Prospect Park, Brooklyn, and receives 
special honors each Memorial Day from 
the military and Grand Army bodies 
making up the procession. 



BROOKS, Arthur, 

Prominent Divine. 

Arthur Brooks, clergyman, was born 
in Boston, Massachusetts, July 11, 1845, 
the fifth son of William Gray and Mary 
Ann (Phillips) Brooks, and a brother of 
Phillips Brooks. 

He was educated at the Boston Latin 
School and at Harvard College, from 
which he was graduated in 1867. He 
pursued his theological course at An- 
dover for one year, and at the Divinity 
School at Philadelphia for two years, 
when he was ordained deacon at Trinity 
Protestant Episcopal Church, Boston, in 
1870. He accepted the rectorship of 
Trinity Church, Williamsport, Pennsyl- 
vania, and was there advanced to the 
priesthood by Bishop Stevens. In 1872 
he accepted a call to St. James parish, 
Chicago, Illinois, where he rebuilt the 
church destroyed in the great fire, and 
greatly advanced the growth of the par- 
ish. In the summer of 1874 he accom- 
panied his brother, Phillips, on a visit to 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Europe, and during the next winter de- 
livered a lecture before the Anonymous 
Club in Chicago, on stained glass, the 
result of his observations in the English 
cathedrals. In the spring of 1875 he 
accepted a call from the Church of the 
Incarnation in New York City. The 
obligations amounting to $54,500 resting 
upon the church property were liqui- 
dated, missions were instituted, and nu- 
merous charities aided. In the spring 
of 1882, when the prosperity of the parish 
seemed assured, the church was de- 
stroyed by fire, involving a loss of $75,- 
000. In this emergency he accepted the 
use of Temple Emmanuel Synagogue, 
proffered by Rabbi Gottheil, and there he 
celebrated the festival of Easter. The 
Church of the Incarnation was rapidly 
rebuilt, and a magnificent bronze bas- 
relief of Bishop Brooks was one of the 
works of art added to its adornments. 
In 1886, when the work of rebuilding 
was completed, Mr. Brooks, accompanied 
by his wife, visited Italy, Greece, Arabia, 
Palestine, Asia Minor and Egypt, and he 
preached on Christmas Day of that year 
in the American church in Rome. He 
also traversed the desert of Arabia on 
camel and horseback, and visited Mount 
Sinai. He returned to his parish in 1887. 
He took an active interest in the found- 
ing of Barnard College for women, lend- 
ing to it his countenance and support. 
He was present at the church congresses 
from their institution, and his addresses 
were listened to with great interest. His 
last prominent public appearance was the 
eighty-second anniversary meeting of 
the Virginia Bible Society, where he 
made the annual address. In 1891 he 
was selected to conduct a retreat for the 
clergy in the pre-lenten season at New 
Rochelle, New York. The death of 
Bishop Brooks in 1893 was a severe be- 
reavement, and it fell upon him to pre- 



pare such biographies of his brother as 
were needed for immediate publication. 
Meditating the accomplishment of a more 
considerable work, he labored upon it in- 
cessantly until his last illness, when it 
had neared its completion. A volume of 
his sermons, entitled "The Life of Christ 
in the World," was published in 1893. 
The University of the City of New York 
conferred upon him the honorary degree 
of Doctor of Divinity in 1891, and he was 
elected to membership in the Victoria 
Institute. On June 26, 1895, ne em_ 
barked on a voyage to England, hoping 
thereby to recuperate his health, but 
growing worse, he sailed for home on the 
same steamer, July 9, and died July 10, 
1895. 

On October 17, 1872, he was married 
to Elizabeth M. P. Willard, of Williams- 
port, Pennsylvania. 



CARR, Joseph B., 

Soldier, Man of Affairs. 

The name of Carr is illustrious in the 
military annals of the State of New York, 
made so by the life and distinguished 
services of Brevet Major-General Joseph 
B. Carr, a rank and title conferred "for 
gallant and meritorious services during 
the war." He was of the second genera- 
tion of his family in the United States; 
his parents being natives of Ireland. 
They came to this country in 1824. 

Joseph Bradford Carr, son of William 
and Ann Carr, was born in the city of 
Albany, New York, August 16, 1828, died 
at Troy, February 24, 1895. He grew 
up in Albany and Troy, in which latter 
city he was in the tobacco business from 
1842 until 1 861. He early displayed his 
love of a military life. On arriving at 
the age of twenty-one he joined the Troy 
Guards, served in the ranks one year, 
and was commissioned second lieutenant. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



He rose rapidly through successive ranks 
until he was colonel of the Twenty- 
fourth Regiment New York State Militia, 
assuming command July 10, 1859, con- 
tinuing until the firing upon Fort Sum- 
ter, when he at once offered his services 
to his country. April 15, 1861, the Sec- 
ond Regiment New York Volunteers was 
organized in Troy; on May 10, he was 
elected colonel ; four days later the regi- 
ment was mustered into the United 
States service for a term of two years. 
On May 24 the regiment camped near 
Hampton, being the first regiment to en- 
camp on the "sacred soil of Virginia." 
Their first battle was "Big Bethel," 
where they were forced to retreat; they 
were at Newport News until May 10, 
1862, when Colonel Carr removed his 
command to Portsmouth, where he was 
assigned to the command of a provisional 
brigade consisting of the Second and 
Tenth New York regiments and How- 
ard's light battery. June 10 he was 
ordered with the Second Regiment to 
report to General McClellan at Fair 
Oaks. He proceeded to the extreme 
front, where he was assigned to General 
Frank Patterson's brigade, Hooker's divi- 
sion, Third Army Corps of the Army of 
the Potomac. Owing to absence of its 
regular commander, Colonel Carr was 
temporarily assigned to the Third Bri- 
gade, familiarly known as the Jersey 
Brigade, which he led throughout the 
battle of the Orchards, June 25, and 
through the historical "Seven Days" 
fighting. On General Patterson's return 
Colonel Carr resumed command of his 
regiment at Harrison's Landing. On 
July 2, by order of General Hooker, he 
superseded General Patterson ; remain- 
ing at the head of the brigade until pro- 
moted by President Lincoln upon the 
personal recommendation of General 
Hooker "for gallant and meritorious serv- 



ices in the field" to be a Brigadier-Gen- 
eral of Volunteers, commission dating 
from September 7, 1862. His courage 
and coolness under fire was illustrated at 
the battle of Bristoe Station ; with a mur- 
derous storm of shot and shell that burst 
upon his men, General Carr moved about, 
cheering them on and encouraging them 
by his own daring. His horse was shot 
under him ; he coolly mounted an order- 
ly's horse and successfully charged the 
enemy. He gained on that day the title 
of "Hero of Bristoe," which ever after- 
ward clung to him. He took part in the 
battle of Bull Run, August 30 and 31, 
and at Chantilly, September 3, when the 
gallant Kearny fell. In these battles he 
fully sustained his reputation for cour- 
ageous, daring conduct. September 17, 
he was transferred to the First Brigade, 
composed of troops from Pennsylvania, 
Massachusetts and New Hampshire; De- 
cember 13 and 14. participated in the 
bloody fight at Fredericksburg, where he 
lost heavily in officers and men. Janu- 
ary 12, 1863, he commanded an expedi- 
tion to Rappahannock Bridge. March 30, 
he was officially notified by the Secretary 
of War that the Senate having failed to 
act upon his nomination, he had ceased 
to be an officer of the army. General 
Hooker, then in command of the Army 
of the Potomac, proceeded at once to 
Washington, and on the following day 
telegraphed General Carr that President 
Lincoln had reappointed him, to date 
from March 3, 1863. At Chancellorsville, 
May 3, after the death of General Berry, 
he succeeded to the command of Hook- 
er's old division, the white-patched 
heroes. He sustained the reputation he 
had made on other hard-fought fields, 
and was made the subject of special, 
laudatory mention in the official report 
by Major-General Sickles, the Corps 
commander. July 1, 1863, Major-General 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Humphreys assumed command of the 
division and General Carr returned to his 
brigade. June 15 he moved with the 
Army of the Potomac to Gettysburg, 
where on July 2 and 3 he participated in 
that memorable battle. During that fight 
he was mounted upon a valuable horse, 
presented him by friends in Troy, until 
the noble animal fell, pierced by five bul- 
lets, in the fall injuring the general's leg. 
Exhausted and lame as he was, General 
Carr refused to retire, but mounted an- 
other horse, and continued directing the 
movements of his brigade. He lost 
heavily in this battle — nearly two-thirds 
of his force — while not one of his staff, 
orderlies or headquarters horses escaped 
injury. After the battle the division gen- 
eral and officers of the brigade assembled 
at headquarters and complimented him 
upon his gallantry. Major-General U. A. 
Humphreys, in his official report of the 
battle, spoke of him and said : "I wish 
particularly to commend to notice the 
cool courage, determination and skillful 
handling of their troops of the two bri- 
gade commanders, Brigadier-General Jo- 
seph B. Carr and Colonel William R. 
Brewster, and to ask attention to the 
officers mentioned by them, as distin- 
guished by their conduct." After Gettys- 
burg he was at the battle of Wapping, 
and in temporary camp at Warrenton, 
Virginia. October 5 he was assigned to 
the head of the Third Division, Third 
Corps, advanced to Warrenton Junction, 
and participated in the battles at Brandy 
Station and Kelly's Ford. In November 
he was one of the principal actors in the 
battles of Locust Grove, Robinson's Tav- 
ern, and Mine Run. In April, 1864, on 
the reorganization of the army, he was 
assigned to the command of the Fourth 
Division, Second Corps (Hancock's), re- 
taining command until ordered by Gen- 
eral Grant to report to General Butler, 
commanding the Army of the James, who 
NY-voiin-2 17 



placed him in command of the exterior 
line of defense on the Peninsula, head- 
quarters at Yorktown. Early in July, 

1864, he was ordered by General Butler 
to evacuate Yorktown and report to him 
at the front for assignment. Obeying his 
order, he was sent to Major-General E. 
O. C. Ord, who placed him in command 
of the First and Third Division of the 
Eighteenth Corps. August 4, he was 
given command of the First Division of 
the same corps and occupied the right of 
the line in front of Petersburg. He re- 
tained this command until October I, 
when he was placed in command of the 
defense of the James river, headquarters 
at Wilson's Landing. Here he remained 
seven months, during which he built two 
important forts and strengthened the de- 
fenses. May 20, 1865, he was transferred 
to City Point, where he remained until 
the close of the war. June 1, 1865, he 
was brevetted major-general, "for gal- 
lant and meritorious services during the 
war," to rank as such from March 13, 

1865. On being relieved of command, he 
returned to Troy, where he was mustered 
out of the service. 

January 25, 1867, he was appointed by 
the Governor of New York, major-gen- 
eral of the Third Division New York 
State Militia, where he rendered valuable 
service during railroad riots of 1877, at 
Albany, dispersing the mob and restor- 
ing peace and order without the sacrifice 
of life or property. He remained in this 
command until his death at Troy in 1895. 
He was given an imposing military 
funeral on February 27 from St. Peter's 
Roman Catholic Church, Troy. The 
body lay in state and was viewed by 
thousands, officers of the army, gov- 
ernors, statesmen, representatives of 
every department of the service, and a 
vast concourse of his fellow citizens at- 
tended. He had won distinction by real 
work and gallant performance amid the 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



danger of bloody contests, and all "de- 
lighted to do his memory honor." 

General Carr entered the manufactur- 
ing field as the senior partner of J. B. 
Carr & Company, operating the exten- 
sive chain manufacturing works estab- 
lished in 1866, located between Troy and 
Lansingburg, and continued at the head 
of the concern until his death. He be- 
came a factor in the development of other 
business enterprises of Troy. He was a 
director of the Mutual National Bank; 
second vice-president and director of the 
Troy City Railway Company. He was 
reared in the Catholic church, and never 
departed from that faith. He was a Re- 
publican, and received the unanimous 
nomination of his party in convention at 
Saratoga, September 3, 1879, for Secre- 
tary of State. He was elected by a large 
majority; reelected in 1881, and again in 
1883. In 1885 he was the Republican 
candidate for Lieutenant-Governor of the 
State, but was defeated at the polls. He 
was highly esteemed at home and abroad, 
many organizations bestowing honorary 
membership upon him. He was a com- 
panion of the Loyal Legion, and a com- 
rade of Williard Post, Grand Army of 
the Republic ; member of the Second Reg- 
iment Association; Third Army Corps 
Association; the Old Guard of New 
York ; the Ninth Regiment Troy Citi- 
zens' Corps; Burgess Corps of Albany; 
vice-president Renssalaer County Sol- 
diers and Sailors Monument Association ; 
trustee of New York State Gettysburg 
Monument Association ; the Troy and 
Ionic Clubs of Troy. He married Mary 
Gould, born in Canada in 1837. 



HUN, Thomas, M. D., 

Practitioner, Instructor. 

Thomas Hun, M. D., son of Abraham 
and Maria (Gansevoort) Hun, was born 
in Albany, New York, September 14, 



1808, and died at his residence, No. 31 
Elk street, Albany, June 23, 1896. His 
father graduated from Columbia College, 
immediately afterward took up the study 
of law, and forming a partnership with 
Rensselaer Westerlo, half brother of the 
Patroon of the Van Rensselaer Manor, 
acted as agent for Stephen Van Rens- 
selaer until his death; He resided in his 
house on the east side of Market street 
(later Broadway), which was situated 
about fifty feet south of Maiden Lane, 
which site was later built upon when the 
Stanwix Hall Hotel was erected, and he 
also owned a well cultivated farm of 
about three hundred and seventy-five 
acres extending along and northward 
back from the Normanskill creek (at the 
end of Delaware avenue in 1900), which 
place he called "Buena Vista," after the 
battle in which General Taylor figured. 
On the brow of the hill, he built a summer 
residence, which his son Thomas recon- 
structed in 1852, at about the same time 
the farm was reduced to about twenty- 
five acres. He married, in Albany, Sep- 
tember 22, 1796, Rev. John Bassett offi- 
ciating, Maria, daughter of Judge 
Leonard and Maria (Van Rensselaer) 
Gansevoort. 

Losing both parents at an early age, 
Thomas Hun and his sister Elizabeth 
were brought up by their maternal grand- 
parents, Judge and Mrs. Leonard Ganse- 
voort, Jr. He received his earliest educa- 
tion as a lad at a private school conducted 
by an Englishman and his wife, Mr. and 
Mrs. Upfold, and in 1818 entered the 
Albany Boys' Academy, where he re- 
mained until graduation, following a 
complete course which fitted him for col- 
lege. He was intelligent and studious, 
possessing a decided character, which 
accounted for his always standing high in 
his various classes. Because of his more 
than customary preparation and industry, 
when only sixteen years of age, he was 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



able to enter the junior class of Union 
College, in the fall of 1824, following his 
graduation from the academy, and while 
there his "chum" was the popular Pro- 
fessor Isaac W. Jackson. He graduated 
with honors in 1826, taking the degree of 
A. B. After leaving college, he began the 
study of medicine, for which he had a 
decided leaning, and entered the office of 
Dr. Piatt Williams, a practitioner of 
eminence in Albany. After serving thus 
as a student, he entered the medical 
department of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1827, and completing the full 
course, graduated in 1830 with the degree 
of Doctor of Medicine. He returned to 
Albany and commenced to practice with 
his former instructor, Dr. Williams. 

When the cholera epidemic broke out in 
the summer of 1832, a cholera hospital 
was instituted in Albany, and he was 
appointed one of the physicians. The 
death rate was alarmingly high, with 
more funerals each day than could be 
arranged for, and everyone afraid to mix 
with his neighbors. Burning barrels of 
tar filled the atmosphere with a heavy 
smoke, calculated to purify the air. Dr. 
Hun's position was unenviable and heroic. 
He discharged his duties with fortitude 
and skill, until the closing of the hospital 
in the cold weather, when the scourge 
was stamped out. In the spring of 1833 
he went to Europe to prosecute his 
studies further, and excepting two brief 
visits to his home, remained there, resid- 
ing chiefly in Paris, until 1839. The six 
years of foreign study afforded him a 
liberal range of experience, attending the 
large hospitals, and he gradually limited 
his wider range of the sciences to a 
knowledge of practice. 

During his last year abroad, the Albany 
Medical College was organized and incor- 
porated, and before his return home in 
1839, ne was invited to accept the profes- 
sorship of the Institutes of Medicine. He 



accepted, and his inaugural address excited 
considerable interest and admiration from 
its large grasp of principles as well as by 
reason of its lucid style and forcible illus- 
trations. The students came to regard 
his lectures as the most interesting and 
instructive, which ability on his part 
greatly increased the reputation of the 
young college. He continued these lec- 
tures until 1858, when he resigned to de- 
vote all his time to his practice, which 
had grown to be the best in Albany, and 
demanded this attention. 

When the Albany Hospital was incor- 
porated in 1848, Dr. Hun became one of 
the board of consulting physicians, and 
had subsequently held the same position 
with St. Peter's Hospital, Albany. He 
was made president of the New York 
State Medical Society in 1862, and his 
inaugural address attracted much favor- 
able comment, despite his theories in 
opposition to the traditional ideas of 
medical theory and practice. He main- 
tained that neither medicine nor the phy- 
sician, although both were of importance 
in their place, ever cured disease ; that the 
curative power rested in nature alone, and 
the function of the physician not to 
"cure;" but to preside over, watch and 
aid the efforts of nature to cure, by recog- 
nizing the true character of the disease, 
its course, its processes and effects, also 
the accidents and dangers to which it is 
liable, and thus to be able to secure, as 
far as possible, such favorable circum- 
stances, aids and conditions as may be 
most contributory to the restorative 
powers of nature. He was unanimously 
called to be dean of faculty of the Albany 
Medical College. He was especially 
noted as a practitioner for his sagacity 
and accuracy in the diagnosis of disease, 
and also for his calm, far-sighted compre- 
hension of the constitutional tendencies 
affecting the case called to his attention. 
He was always studiously inclined, con- 



19 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



templative and given to thought along 
philosophical and metaphysical lines, for 
ethical investigation was a delight for 
him. No physician in Albany ever stood 
higher in the confidence of both the pro- 
fession and the public. He was a devout 
Christian, worshipping at the Episcopal 
Cathedral of All Saints, a man possessing 
the warmest of hearts for the distressed. 
He had been an alderman, and at his 
death was president of the Albany Acad- 
emy board of trustees. 

Dr. Thomas Hun married, in Albany, 
New York, April 29, 1841. the Rev. 
Horatio Potter, rector of St. Peter's 
Church officiating, Lydia Louisa, daugh- 
ter of Hon. Marcus Tullius and his (first) 
wife, Cynthia (Herrick) Reynolds. She 
was born in Amsterdam, New York, Sep- 
tember 11, 1817, died at her residence, No. 
31 Elk street, Albany, January 26, 1876, 
and was buried in the Albany Rural 
cemetery. Her father, Marcus T. Rey- 
nolds, an attorney of Albany and one of 
the ablest of his times, was born in 
Minaville, Montgomery county, New 
York, December 29, 1788, son of Dr. 
Stephen Reynolds, of Amsterdam, and 
died at No. 25 North Pearl street, Albany, 
July 11, 1864. Her mother, Cynthia 
(Herrick) Reynolds, was daughter of 
Benjamin and Cynthia (Brush) Herrick, 
the latter a daughter of Richard Brush ; 
she was born at Amenia, New York, De- 
cember 26, 1794, died at Amsterdam, New 
York, November 25, 1820. Benjamin 
Herrick was the son of Benjamin and 
Sarah (Denton) Herrick. Mrs. Thomas 
Hun was widely known through her en- 
deavors to alleviate the condition of the 
poor and ignorant, as well as in her own 
circle, where she was welcomed as one 
whose mind had been enriched by a liberal 
education and by life-long habits of good 
reading and reflection, which gave her a 
graciousness of character and brilliancy of 
conversation. Her chief interest lay in 



planning to reform what was evil and to 
aid those oppressed by undue hardships, 
in which aim she was always practical in 
the carrying out of her admirable ideas. 
She felt that the poor needed, even more 
than money, sound advice and cordial 
encouragement. She purchased and 
fitted up a sort of model tenement house, 
to occupy which became an esteemed 
privilege, and here she watched over 
them, inculcating habits of neatness and 
saving. She also sought to establish in 
the neighborhood of the poor reading 
rooms and a place of cheerful resort. In 
many other similar ways she led a worthy 
life. 



HALL, John, 

Divine, Author. 

The Rev. John Hall was born in County 
Armagh, Ireland, July 31, 1829, son of 
William and Rachel (Magowan) Hall. 
His ancestors were natives of Scotland. 

He was graduated in arts from Belfast 
(Ireland) College in 1846, and in theology 
in 1849, having been matriculated in 
1842, and won repeated prizes in profi- 
ciency in church history and Hebrew 
scholarship. He was licensed to preach 
in 1849, an d was a missionary in the 
province of Connaught, Ireland, 1849-52 ; 
pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, 
Armagh, 1852-58; and of the Collegiate 
Church of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, 
1858-67, where he edited the "Evangelical 
Witness," built the Rutland Square 
Church, and under appointment by the 
Viceroy of Ireland was made Commis- 
sioner of National Education, and re- 
ceived from Queen Victoria the honorary 
appointment of Commissioner of Educa- 
tion for Ireland. 

He visited America in 1867 as delegate 
to the Old School Presbyterian Assembly 
of the United States at Cincinnati, Ohio. 
During his visit he preached for the con- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



gregation of the Fifth Avenue Presby- 
terian Church, New York City, then wor- 
shipping on Nineteenth street, and 
received a call as pastor which he 
accepted after his return to Ireland. His 
work in this church resulted in a new 
church edifice erected in 1873 at a cost of 
over $1,000,000, the largest Presbyterian 
church in New York City; the Romeyn 
chapel on Seventy-fourth street; a mis- 
sion on Sixty-third street ; a Chinese 
mission on East Fifty-ninth street, and 
numerous other missions and charitable 
institutions supported by annual contri- 
butions from the parent church of over 
$100,000. In January, 1898, he resigned 
the pastorate on account of increasing 
age, but withdrew his resignation upon 
the earnest demand of the congregation, 
which promised him such assistance as 
might be required. He was chancellor of 
the University of the City of New York, 
1881-91 ; a member of the council, 1875- 
98; a trustee of Princeton Seminary, 
1859-83 ; of the College of New Jersey, 
1868-98; of Wells College, Aurora, New 
York, and of Wellesley College, Massa- 
chusetts. He was a member of the Pres- 
byterian Board of Church Erection ; 
chairman of the Presbyterian Board of 
Home Missions, and chairman of the 
committee on church extension, New 
York Presbytery. He was a member of 
the New York Historical Society. He 
received the degree of A. B. from Belfast 
in 1846; of D. D. from Washington and 
Jefferson College in 1865 ; of LL. D. from 
Washington and Lee University, and 
from the College of New Jersey, Prince- 
ton, in 1885, and from Trinity College, 
Dublin, in 1890; and of S. T. D. from 
Columbia in 1886. 

His published works include "Family 
Prayers for Four Weeks" (1868) ; 
"Prayers for Home Reading" (1873) ; 
"God's Word Through Preaching" 
(1875) ; "Familiar Talks to Boys" (1876) ; 



and "A Christian Home" (1883). Dr. 
Hall died at Bangor, County Down, 
Ireland, September 17, 1898, and the 
remains were returned to America and 
buried in Woodlawn Cemetery, New 
York City. 

He was married, June 15, 1852, to 
Emily, daughter of Lyndon Bolton, of 
Dublin, Ireland, and of their children, 
Robert William became Professor of 
Analytical Chemistry in the University 
of the City of New York; Richard John, 
Professor of Surgery in the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, New York City, 
died in Santa Barbara, California, Janu- 
ary 23, 1897 ; Thomas Cuming, became 
Professor of Theology in Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, New York City ; Bolton, 
was graduated at Princeton in 1875 ; 
Emily C. was the only daughter. 



MARVIN, Selden E., 

Soldier, Man of Affairs. 

General Selden Erastus Marvin, son of 
Hon. Richard Pratt and Isabella (New- 
land) Marvin, was born August 20, 1835, 
in Jamestown, Chautauqua county, New 
York, and died January 19, 1899, in New 
York City. His father was a well known 
lawyer, jurist, and antiquarian. Selden 
Erastus Marvin received his education in 
the public schools and academy of James- 
town, and at Professor Russell's private 
school in New Haven, Connecticut. While 
residing in Jamestown he became inter- 
ested in military affairs and was quarter- 
master of the Sixty-eighth Regiment, 
National Guard. At the beginning of the 
Civil War he tendered his services to the 
government. On July 21, 1862, he was 
commissioned adjutant of the One Hun- 
dred and Twelfth Regiment New York 
Volunteers and mustered into the United 
States service, and served until detailed 
as assistant adjutant-general of Foster's 
brigade, with the army of Southern Vir- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ginia, through the Peninsula and Charles- 
town campaigns, until August 2.7, 1863, 
when he was appointed additional pay- 
master of United States volunteers, and 
was assigned to duty in the Army of the 
Potomac ; he resigned December 27, 1864, 
to become paymaster-general of the State 
of New York on the staff of Governor 
Fenton. On January 1, 1867, he was 
appointed adjutant-general of the State 
of New York. As paymaster-general he 
disbursed upwards of twenty-seven mil- 
lion dollars. As adjutant-general he 
inaugurated and carried into practical 
effect reforms in the national guard which 
were greatly needed. 

After his term of adjutant-general 
expired, he engaged in banking in New 
York City as a member of the firm of 
Morgan, Keene & Marvin , until the 
spring of 1873, when they dissolved. On 
January 1, 1874, he went to Troy, New 
York, as the representative of Erastus 
Coming's interests in the iron and steel 
business carried on by the firm of John A. 
Griswold & Company, and while there 
organized the Albany & Rensselaer Iron 
and Steel Company, March 1, 1875. This 
corporation was a consolidation of the 
establishment of John A. Griswold & 
Company and the Albany Iron Works, 
and General Marvin was elected a direc- 
tor, secretary and treasurer. On Septem- 
ber 1. 1885. this concern was succeeded 
by the Troy Steel and Iron Company, 
which went into the hands of a receiver 
in 1893. General Marvin continued as 
director, secretary and treasurer of the 
company until its business was closed up, 
November 1, 1895. He was for several 
years a trustee and vice-president of the 
Albany City Savings Institution, and on 
June 1, 1891, became its president. He 
was a director and in 1894 was made 
president of the Hudson River Telephone 
Company, and was the principal organizer 
and promoter of the Albany District 



Telegraph Company, of which he became 
president in 1895. He was always active 
in religious matters, and soon after the 
formation of the Diocese of Albany, was 
elected its treasurer and treasurer of its 
board of missions, serving until his death. 
He was vestryman of St. Luke's Church, 
Jamestown, and later of St. Peter's 
Church, Albany, and was also a member 
of the Cathedral Chapter. He was a 
member of the State Board of Charities, 
having been appointed by Governor 
Morton, March 27, 1895. He was a mem- 
ber and trustee of the Corning foundation, 
on which is built St. Agnes' School, the 
Child's Hospital, St. Margaret's House, 
Graduate Hall and the Sister House in 
Albany. He was also a member of the 
board of managers of the Domestic and 
Foreign Missionary Society of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal church in the United 
States, a member of the Fort Orange 
Club, and actively connected with several 
other institutions of Albany. 

He married, September 24, 1868, Kath- 
arine Langdon, daughter of Judge Amasa 
J. and Harriet (Langdon) Parker, of 
Albany, New York, born August 28, 1846, 
died July 1, 1907. Children: 1. Selden 
Erastus, who succeeded to the charge of 
his father's estate. 2. Grace Parker, born 
September, 1872, married, June 6, 1901, 
Rupert C. King, of New York City ; chil- 
dren : i. Catherine Marvin, deceased ; ii. 
Rupert Cochrane, Jr., born July 29, 1908. 
3. Langdon Parker, September 16, 1876, 
graduated from Harvard University, 1898, 
and LL. B., Harvard Law School, 1901 ; 
private secretary for Hon. Elihu Root on 
Alaska boundary commission in London, 
1903 ; resides in New York City. 4. 
Edmund Roberts, August 10, 1878, gradu- 
ated from Harvard University, 1899. 5. 
Richard Pratt, August 18, 1882, died Sep- 
tember 6, 1883. 6. Katharine Langdon, 
August 6, 1889. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



DEAN, Amos, 

Lawyer, Jurist, Author. 

Than Hon. Amos Dean, LL. D., no one 
in the city of Albany ever gained a higher 
position of respect and merited popu- 
larity. He was born in Barnard, Ver- 
mont, January 16, 1803, and died in 
Albany, New York, at his residence, No. 
31 Elk street, January 26, 1868. His 
father was Nathaniel Dean, and his 
mother was Rhoda (Hammond) Dean. 

Like many other prominent lawyers 
and jurists who found prominence in New 
York State, Amos Dean acquired his early 
education in the common schools, at 
which he fitted himself with the idea of 
teaching. He supported himself while 
pursuing his academic course preparatory 
to entering college, and went to Union 
College in 1823, from which he was 
graduated in 1826. His uncle, Jabez D 
Hammond, was at this time a distin- 
guished lawyer and writer, in partner- 
ship with Judge Alfred Conkling. It was 
in their office that he began studying law, 
where he was most diligent, and enjoyed 
the nice distinctions and philosophy of 
law as a science. To him the study had a 
fascination, and he was remarkably well 
prepared when admitted in 1829. During 
the early years of his practice he was asso- 
ciated with Azor Tabor, then an eminent 
counsellor. He never assumed to attain 
celebrity as an advocate before juries, 
where, in those days, a lawyer usually 
made his mark in the world at large by 
publicity, although he possessed marked 
abilities as an orator. His amiability of 
disposition, his natural reserve, his 
kindly nature, his guilelessness and his 
overflowing charity, repelled him from the 
theatre of professional strife and conflict, 
and he was particularly adapted to the 
duties of the office and the counsel room. 
It was there he displayed fine traits of 
wisdom, prudence and sagacity. Having 

23 



a character of unimpeachable integrity, 
he readily won clients, success and fame. 

The great benefit he had obtained by 
his own endeavors to pursue courses of 
study when young, caused him to appre- 
ciate the necessity for furnishing advan- 
tages for others, and, impelled by this 
idea, he conceived the plan of establishing 
associations for the mental improvement 
of young men. On December 10, 1833, 
he gachered about him a few of his young 
friends and expounded to them his 
project. No sooner was the matter made 
public than seven hundred and fifty young 
men enrolled, and on December 13 he was 
elected president of the organization 
which had assumed the title "Young 
Men's Association for Mutual Improve- 
ment in the City of Albany." It was 
incorporated March 12, 1835, for the pur- 
pose of establishing and maintaining a 
library, reading-room, literary and scien- 
tific lectures, and other means of promot- 
ing both moral and intellectual improve- 
ment. It continued a debating society 
many years, and acquired a collection of 
paintings. From this beginning hun- 
dreds of kindred institutions have started 
and have been a blessing to the country. 
Mr. Pean was associated with Doctors 
March and />rmsby in 1833, in establish- 
ing the Albany Medical College, which 
later was to be a department of Union 
University. From the day of opening 
until 1859 he was its Professor of Medical 
Jurisprudence, and when the Law Depart- 
ment of the university was established, 
he was appropriately chosen one of its 
professors, in which sphere his talents 
shone most brightly. 

He became even better known as an 
author, and in that field wielded a wide 
influence. He took a keen interest in the 
developing science of phrenology, when 
little had been done in that line, deliver- 
ing a series of lectures which were after 
incorporated in a book and made him 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



known as an authority on that interesting 
subject. He was, when young-, the 
author of a "Manual of Law," which was 
of great service to business men ; but he 
never lived to see the publication of his 
chief literary undertaking, "A History of 
Civilization," which consisted of seven 
large volumes of about six hundred pages 
each, printed by Joel Munsell in 1868. 
His "Philosophy of Human Life" was 
published by Marsh, Capen, Lyon & 
Webb, of Boston, in 1839, and "Dean's 
Lectures on Phrenology," by the same 
house in 1835. He spoke frequently 
before public gatherings on occasions 
other than his lectures, delivering the 
annual address before the Albany Insti- 
tute in 1833, the annual address before 
the Senate of Union College, and a eulogy 
upon the death of Jesse Buel before the 
State Agricultural Society. His indus- 
trious research and native ability were 
abundant reason to attract attention to 
whatever he undertook. For his virtues 
in private life that eminent journalist, 
Thurlow Weed, spoke in warmly glowing 
terms on his demise, saying: "Herein, if 
possible, his character was higher and 
nobler than in any other walk of life. To 
the qualities which we have described, he 
united a pleasing address, a quiet de- 
meanor, a generosity of sentiment and an 
absence of guile that endeared him 
strongly to the circle of his companion- 
ship." 



WILLIAMS, Chauncey P., 

Financier. 

Chauncey Pratt Williams, son of Josiah 
and Charity (Shailer) Williams, was born 
at Upper Middletown (Cromwell), Con- 
necticut, March 5, 1817, died May 30, 
1894, at Jerseyfield Lake, Hamilton 
county, New York. 

Mr. Williams spent the last sixty-nine 
years of his life in Albany, and became 



through his own activities identified with 
every progressive public movement in 
that city. He was proud of the rugged 
character of his ancestor immigrant from 
whom, he declared, had sprung a race of 
hardy, industrious farmers of the Revo- 
lutionary period, reflecting advantage- 
ously in himself. That they were of 
robust constitutions and lived longer than 
the average life is evidenced by the fact 
that the combined lives of the first five 
generations in America covered a period 
of nearly two and a half centuries. Al- 
though none had become very wealthy, 
by their industry and frugality they were 
able to live well and none of them knew 
want. It is known that they were greatly 
respected as business men of integrity. 
There are no records which do not reflect 
credit upon the successive generations. 
Invariably the earlier branches of this 
family reared large families, and their 
children were always well trained. 

When Mr. Williams was but sixteen 
years old he had made such excellent use 
of the advantages within his reach that he 
was fitted to take a clerkship in the em- 
ploy of T. S. Williams & Brothers, who 
were carrying on an extensive commer- 
cial business in Ithaca. He was transferred 
to the Albany branch of this firm in 1835, 
where they conducted a large lumber 
business in Albany's famous "Lumber 
District," when it was in its greatest 
business glory, and four years later suc- 
ceeded to the business with Henry W. 
Sage as a partner. 

It was in banking circles that Mr. 
Williams made his life record and 
achieved a standing as the Nestor of 
Albany bankers. He took charge of the 
Albany Exchange Bank in 1861, when 
the outlook was disastrous in financial 
circles, the capital of the institution 
largely impaired, and the duty of upbuild- 
ing looked insurmountable. Instead of 
continuing to dissolution, as was con- 



24 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



templated, he extricated the bank and 
placed it in the front rank. He suc- 
ceeded in making it a loan agent of the 
United States Treasury, and throughout 
the Civil War made his bank a center of 
distribution for the government loans 
issued to carry on gigantic military oper- 
ations necessary to save the country. In 
fact, his bank was regarded as a rallying 
point of cheer in the darkest hours of the 
Republic. He practiced the principles of 
sound finance so successfully that when 
in 1865 the bank terminated its existence 
as a State institution to reorganize under 
the national banking law, it returned not 
alone all its capital, but upwards of fifty- 
four per cent, in surplus earnings, besides 
paying its regular dividends from the be- 
ginning of 1863. Under his wise manage- 
ment it repaid to its stockholders in 
dividends more than one and a half times 
the amount of its capital beyond accumu- 
lating a reserve amounting to about 
seventy-five per cent, of the capital. As 
the president of this bank, his reputation 
became so widely known that he was 
frequently called upon to address gather- 
ings, and his advice on large matters was 
often sought. He withdrew from this 
institution in 1887; but continued as 
president of the Albany Exchange Sav- 
ings Bank up to the time of his death. 

Mr. Williams exerted his great influence 
against the greenback theory of an un- 
limited paper issue which threatened to 
demoralize the currency and degrade the 
country's credit, speaking on the plat- 
form and through the medium of his pen, 
so that his influence was widely spread to 
good effect. He gained a reputation by 
his successful resistance of the illegal 
taxation of the shareholders of national 
banks, believing that they were taxed at a 
greater rate than other monied capital in 
the hands of citizens. Not desiring to 
involve his bank in this matter, he took 
up the fight individually, and bringing the 



issue to a test in 1874, by refusing to pay 
the tax on the shares which he owned, so 
that his household effects were levied 
upon and sold by the authorities ; but at 
the end of seven years of litigation the 
United States Supreme Court sustained 
his position. 

He was a strong opponent of slavery, 
and as the treasurer of the Kansas Aid 
Society founded in Albany in 1854, sent 
out to Kansas one of the first invoices of 
Sharpe's rifles with which to arm settlers. 
Although exempt by age, he sent a sub- 
stitute who fought in the Civil War. He 
had also a political career, broadly inter- 
ested as he was in affairs of his city, and 
was elected alderman in 1849. From 
1842 to 1857 he was repeatedly the candi- 
date of the Liberal party for Congress. 
He was a founder of the Congregational 
church of Albany, and every good cause 
found in him a staunch friend. One of 
the reasons for the success attained by 
Mr Williams was his wonderful thor- 
oughness and his determination to stand 
by his principles. He had a fine con- 
stitution which enabled him to accom- 
plish a great amount of work without 
tiring. His love for study as a means of 
gathering more knowledge kept him ever 
young and concerned in public mercan- 
tile affairs. 

Chauncey Pratt Williams married at 
Whitesboro, New York, September 13, 
1842, Martha Andrews, born in Bristol, 
Connecticut, daughter of Reuben and 
Ruth (Parmelee) Hough. 



FARRELL, John H., 

Journalist. 

John Henry Farrell, son of James and 
Winifred (McGoewey) Farrell, was born 
on the Abbey farm on the west bank of 
the Hudson, just south of the city of 
Albany, in Bethlehem township, Septem- 
ber 1, 18m 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



He received his education in a private 
school, and later went to St. Charles Col- 
lege, Baltimore, Maryland. He was 
hardly more than a lad, however, when 
he commenced his association with news- 
papers, which career was to be so won- 
derfully successful, even if the result were 
the outcome of much worriment and 
requiring great acumen when embarking 
for himself. In 1855 he entered the em- 
ploy of the late Luther Tucker, who was 
both proprietor and editor of "The Culti- 
vator and Country Gentleman," remain- 
ing associated with that publication for 
fifteen years. During this period he fre- 
quently contributed to the columns of 
"The Argus." "Express" and the "Albany 
Evening Journal," and also at the same 
time editing the telegraphic matter com- 
ing from the front, for in 1863 he had 
accepted the appointment of editor of 
telegraph for the Associated Press, which 
supplied reports to all the Albany papers. 
Throughout the Civil War he found this 
work much to his liking, and it inciden- 
tally broadened his mind. On January 1, 
1870, he became city editor of "The 
Argus," succeeding Hon. Daniel Shaw. 
About this time he considered forming 
the "Sunday Press" in conjunction with 
the publication of "The Knickerbocker." 
On May 1, 1870, the first issue of the 
"Sunday Press" appeared, published by 
Myron H. Rooker, James Macfarlane, E. 
H. Gregory, John T. Maguire and James 
H. Mulligan, who were severally city 
editors of local dailies ; but in September 
the last three sold their interests to Mr. 
Farrell. On June 1, 1871, he retired from 
"The Argus" to devote himself to the 
"Sunday Press," and to secure the free- 
dom to publish a daily in connection 
therewith. When Messrs. Farrell, 
Rooker and Macfarlane failed to secure 
"The Knickerbocker," they organized the 
"Daily Press," and its first issue appeared 
February 26, 1877. Mr. Farrell, however, 



26 



was able on August 11, 1877, to purchase 
"The Knickerbocker" and consolidated it 
with the "Daily Press." In March, 1891, 
after twenty-one years of partnership, Mr. 
Farrell sold his half interest in the papers 
to his partners for $50,000, and he forth- 
with purchased the "Evening Union," as 
also, that same summer, "The Evening 
Times," and the "Albany Daily Sun," 
combining all three under the title "The 
Times-Union," perceiving a great oppor- 
tunity and field for a penny evening news- 
paper which could present the best news 
in more attractive style than before, deal- 
ing with interests of all classes impar- 
tially, and conducted on independent lines 
in politics. His plant at the starting was 
on the south side of Beaver street, about 
midway between Broadway and Green 
street ; but the quarters were exceedingly 
cramped even for a paper beginning its 
career, and leaving no room for expansion. 
His paper commenced growing in popu- 
larity from the very first, for unquestion- 
ably he published the most satisfactory 
newspaper in the city and section, and 
shortly he acquired the property at the 
southwest corner of Green and Beaver 
streets, formerly used by the "Albany 
Morning Express," at that time secured 
by the "Albany Evening Journal" and 
once occupied as lodge rooms. 

Mr. Farrell's ability as an editor who 
perceived what the public wanted and 
understood just how to present it in most 
modern, attractive dress without lowering 
the standard, was only surpassed as a 
proprietor who could so plan his campaign 
in all its details as to bring as well as 
merit success, was indicated more and 
more as each year passed, by its rapidly 
increasing circulation. His success was 
all acquired, not given to him by inheri- 
tance, by dint of close, persistent applica- 
tion to practical principles which he was 
capable of evolving. He was known to 
give as much attention to all the details, 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



whether a matter concerning the press 
or engine room, with the compositors, or 
affecting the editing of news, taking a 
hand in the work of almost every depart- 
ment daily. Thus he knew his tools, 
which were his men, most thoroughly, 
which was accomplishing its full intent. 
For twenty years his name appeared in 
the legislative red book as the Senate 
reporter for the New York Associated 
Press, back in the days of the Old Capitol 
(removed in 1883), and during all that 
period he never missed doing his duty, 
except when sickness prevented attend- 
ance. 

He was one of the founders of the 
United Press, and for many years its vice- 
president. During its first year of exist- 
ence he and Mr. Jenkins, of the "Syracuse 
Herald," managed its affairs. He was 
elected president of the New York State 
Press Association at its annual conven- 
tion held at Lake George in 1895, by the 
unanimous vote of over three hundred 
editors. He was a Democrat, ever anxious 
to see his party win, and both his sup- 
port and counsel were matters much to 
be desired. Mayor Swinburne appointed 
him, a park commissioner, at the time 
when its affairs were controlled by a 
board of citizens instead of by a city 
department. In financial circles he was 
an active associate on a number of 
boards, as director of the Albany City 
National Bank, vice-president of the 
Home Savings Bank and director of the 
Commerce Insurance Company. He was 
a trustee of St. Agnes' Cemetery Asso- 
ciation, and invaluable as such, taking the 
work of its larger affairs upon his shoul- 
ders and bringing about an increase in its 
size, value and beauty. As a trustee of 
the Albany Hospital for Incurables he 
rendered service never to be forgotten, 
and served also as trustee of the Cathedral 
of the Immaculate Conception. He was a 
charter member of the Fort Orange Club, 



and a life member of the Catholic Sum- 
mer School at Cliff Haven, on the shore 
of Lake Champlain, an institution whose 
interests he advanced materially on its 
inauguration. He was a trustee of St. 
Vincent's Orphan Asylum of Albany and 
of the Mohawk & Hudson River Humane 
Society, and member of the Chamber of 
Commerce, the Albany Institute and of 
the Eastern New York Fish and Game 
Protective Association. St. John's Col- 
lege, Fordham, conferred on him the de- 
gree of A. M., in 1891. 

He was a man of unbounded energy, 
resourceful and progressive in spirit. No 
man was more companionable, and per- 
sons found him ready to discuss topics 
of the day with rare perspicuity and 
acumen, especially as concerned great 
policies. He was kind to a fault in others 
who were weak, zealous in safeguarding 
interests committed to his care. As he 
was beloved and held as an idol by his 
immediate family, it is little wonder that 
others spoke well of him. His acts of 
charity were conducted unostentatiously, 
with frequency and humane kindliness, 
by a hand which never seemed closed to 
the worthy in distress. It is a fact to be 
recalled by those who knew him. best, that 
he frequently made it a point in his daily 
life to seek ways in which to bring joy 
to those in need of cheer, regardless of 
whether such appealed or not, and in this 
way he is remembered by many of the 
hundreds who worked under him. His 
success was abundant, and due to con- 
sistency of method and steadfastness of 
purpose which he ever kept in view. If 
he was ever guilty of the natural indis- 
cretion of losing his temper or being 
ruffled by unpleasant contact with any- 
one, he concealed the fact with a self- 
control which never prevented him from 
continuing the work in hand under low 
pressure and avoiding all hindrance by 
friction. Naturally warm-hearted and 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



polished in his manner, his suavity and 
kindly word counted much in preserving 
each acquaintance as a friend. 

About a month before his death, a sud- 
den and not entirely unexpected sickness 
occurring at his office obliged him to 
abandon attending to business at his 
establishment, and alarmed by the serious 
nature of his illness, for several weeks his 
family had the best physicians constantly 
in attendance ; but on the evening of Feb- 
ruary 2, 1901, the long and fruitful life 
was ended. He was buried from his resi- 
dence, No. 598 Madison avenue, with a 
public service held in the Cathedral of the 
Immaculate Conception, and laid to rest 
in St. Agnes' Cemetery. 

John Henry Farrell married Mary 
Veronica Gibbons, at Fordham, New 
York, June 3, 1869. She was born in New 
York City, November 10, 1840. Her 
father was John Gibbons, born in Ireland, 
a prominent contractor in New York 
City, concerned in the erection of the old 
reservoir on Forty-second street and 
Fifth avenue, and died in that city. Her 
mother was Mary McLoughlin, born in 
Ireland, died at Fordham, New York. 



SHEARMAN, Thomas G., 

Lawyer, Author. 

The city of Brooklyn is known through- 
out the world as the "City of Churches," 
not so much because of the number of its 
religious institutions as because of their 
influence on the community. That Ply- 
mouth Church has been the most potent 
factor in the accomplishment of these 
wonderful results goes without saying. 
Next to Mr. Beecher, the man who 
exercised the greatest influence and 
probably did more than any other man 
to shape its policy, was Thomas G. 
Shearman. He was a man of broad and 
liberal views, of cool judgment, calm, 
deliberate and dispassionate in his utter- 



28 



ances, and withal intensely earnest, sel- 
dom failing to carry conviction except to 
the most prejudiced minds. At the 
weekly prayer-meeting his voice was 
always heard, and his sayings as well as 
Mr. Beecher's were quoted by the press 
and echoed and re-echoed from one end of 
the country to the other. 

Thomas Gaskill Shearman, who might 
be termed one of the "Old Guard" of 
Plymouth Church, was born in Birming- 
ham, England, November 25, 1834. He 
came to New York at the age of nine 
years with his father, who was a phy- 
sician, his mother coming later. Early 
overtaken by misfortune through his 
father's invalidism, he was thrown on his 
own resources, and was self-educated and 
self-made ; his intellect was hammered 
out upon the anvil of adversity. At the 
age of twelve he was out in the world for 
himself, his school days ended forever. 
At fourteen he entered an office where he 
received one dollar per week for the first 
year, and two dollars for the second. Out 
of his little store of wealth he allowed 
himself three cents each day for luncheon ; 
but when he heard of Macaulay's "His- 
tory of England" he reduced his allow- 
ance to two cents, and after two months 
bought the first volume. 

In 1857 he removed from New York to 
Brooklyn, and two years later he was 
admitted to the bar. The ensuing seven 
years were spent in writing law books, 
editing journals, and in other work of this 
character. He earned for himself even at 
that early period a reputation for accur- 
acy and thoroughness, and was known to 
the members of the profession as a pains- 
taking student. His work attracted the 
attention of that eminent jurist, David 
Dudley Field, and in i860 Mr. Field 
employed him as secretary to the Code 
Commission. In 1868 Mr. Field and his 
son Dudley took Mr. Shearman into co- 
partnership. This was regarded as a high 




f t//h?77i <xs / *VCeo4£i4CjM^ 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



honor for so young a professional man, 
Mr. Shearman being then only thirty-four 
years of age. Five years later in 1873, 
the firm of Field & Shearman dissolved, 
and Messrs. Shearman and Sterling 
(John W. Sterling), both members of the 
firm of Field & Shearman, entered into 
close professional relations under the 
name of Shearman & Sterling. 

It was about this time that Mr. Shear- 
man figured largely in proceedings in 
which the Erie Railroad Company was 
made a conspicuous litigant. Injunctions 
were the order of the day, and Mr. Shear- 
man earned even from those who opposed 
him the name of being one of the ablest 
legal strategists as well as one of the best 
informed railroad lawyers in the country. 
His originality in devising new and more 
effective methods in litigation subjected 
him to much criticism, but these methods 
were literally copied by his opponents and 
critics. His practice of serving injunc- 
tions by telegraph, which was the most 
severely criticised at the time, has since 
been sanctioned by the highest courts in 
England, as well as by some of the most 
prominent American judges. After the 
close of the Henry Ward Beecher trial, 
resulting in the acquittal of Mr. Beecher, 
mainly through the efforts of Mr. Shear- 
man, Shearman & Sterling were retained 
in numerous litigations arising out of the 
famous gold speculations of 1869, in all 
of which they were successful. They were 
also largely employed in the foreclosure 
of railway companies, the organization 
and administration of various corpora- 
tions, etc. 

Mr. Shearman always took an active 
interest in public questions. From his 
youth up an advocate of the total aboli- 
tion of slavery, he worked vigorously 
with the Republican party from 1856 to 
1868, but was never a candidate for office. 
In respect to tariff, prior to i860, he was 
a "protectionist," but he then became a 



convert to free trade. From 1880 during 
the remainder of his life he devoted much 
time to the promotion of absolute free 
trade and the abolition of all indirect 
taxation. He made numerous addresses 
and published several pamphlets upon 
these subjects, which awakened much 
interest in different parts of the country. 
Mr. Shearman was probably as well 
known as a public economist as for his 
great legal attainments. Among his 
most important works, all of which are 
recognized as standard publications, are 
"Tillinghast & Shearman's Practice" 
(1861-1865); "Shearman & Redfield on 
Negligence" (1869-8S) ; "Talks on Free 
Trade" (1881); "Pauper Labor of Eu- 
rope" (1885) ; "Distribution of Wealth" 
(1887); "Owners of the United States" 
(1889) ; "The Coming Billionaire" (1890) ; 
and "Crooked Taxation" (1891). 

Mr. Shearman married, January 29, 
1859, Miss Elmira Partridge, a daughter 
of James Partridge, of Brooklyn. He 
died September 30. 1900. 



FITZPATRICK, James C, 

Civil War Correspondent. 

James Charles Fitzpatrick, son of John 
Fitzpatrick, a dry goods merchant of 
Eighth avenue, New York City, and his 
wife, Johanna Tracy, was born November 
14, 1841, in New York City. He was 
educated in the public schools of that 
city, and in 1859 was graduated from the 
College of the City of New York, receiv- 
ing the degree of A. B., attaining high 
honors and standing at the head of his 
class in both Latin and Greek. The fol- 
lowing year he received the degree of A. 
M. from the same institution. He was a 
member of the Greek letter fraternity 
Theta Delta Chi, and was one of the most 
popular. 

Mr. Fitzpatrick began his professional 
career as a writer of short stories, the 



29 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



major part of his earlier efforts being con- 
tributions which he sold to the "New 
York Ledger." In 1861 he became one 
of the staff of the "New York Herald," 
which was a line which suited his inclina- 
tion since the time he received his earliest 
training, and in which he in time was 
well known as he advanced. Upon the 
breaking out of the Civil War he was 
assigned to field duty as a war corre- 
spondent, and during most of that serious 
conflict was. attached to the Ninth Army 
Corps. For a time he was an aide-de- 
camp, with the rank of captain, to 
General Burnside, who commanded the 
Ninth Corps. He reported, among other 
campaigns, the sieges of Vicksburg and 
Knoxville, the battle of Fredericksburg, 
both attacks on Fort Fisher, and the en- 
gagements in the Wilderness. In the 
latter campaign he was for a short time a 
prisoner in the hands of the Confeder- 
ates. During the war he also contributed 
drawings of incidents in the field to 
"Leslie's Weekly," which made a 
specialty of illustrating the entire conflict 
as thoroughly as possible, and these draw- 
ings by him have recently been repro- 
duced in a set of two large volumes be- 
cause of their great historical value to 
students of the Civil War. He was thus, 
it may easily be seen, one of the most 
versatile and useful of those who recorded 
the incidents of the war, and practically 
were making history. 

In 1867 he was sent to Albany to report 
the proceedings of the Constitutional 
Convention of that year, held in the State 
Capitol. He likewise represented "The 
Herald" in the Legislatures of 1867-68. 
In 1870 he was made financial editor and 
subsequently city editor, manager of the 
newly founded New York "Evening Tele- 
gram," and correspondent in charge of 
the "Herald" Bureau in the city of Wash- 
ington. In 1881 ill health caused him to 
resign from the "Herald" staff, and 



although for two short periods he was 
financial editor of the "New York Star" 
and of the "Brooklyn Citizen," the greater 
part of his writings in later life consisted 
of contributions of a miscellaneous nature 
to many periodicals and newspapers. In 
politics he was a Republican. He died in 
Brooklyn, New York, July 18, 1901. 

Mr. Fitzpatrick married, at Albany, 
August 4, 1869, Marion Aurelia Mattoon. 
Children: 1. Mary Ransom, born in 
Brooklyn, New York, May I, 1870; gradu- 
ated at Cornell University; in 1910, 
principal of public school No. 34, Brook- 
lyn. 2. David Mattoon, born at Brook- 
lyn, New York, July 6, 1874; by act of 
Legislature changed name to David Mat- 
toon ; married, at Albany, December 22, 
1906, Jennie E. Beckford. 3. John Tracy, 
born at Washington, D. C, January 6, 
1878; graduated from Cornell Univer- 
sity ; admitted to bar of New York State, 
1903; assistant legislative reference libra- 
rian at State Capitol, Albany. 4. James 
Stoddard, born at Washington, D. C, 
April 4, 1879; married, at Albany, June 
25, 1900, Laura P. Hefferman. 5. Jesse 
Arnette, born at Brooklyn, New York, 
August 5, 1881 ; married, January 1, 1901, 
Florence Broderick ; civil engineer. 6. 
Marion Aurelia, born at Brooklyn, New 
York, December 28, 1884; graduate of 
Cornell University, 1907; teacher in high 
school, Hornell, New York. 7. Sarah 
Hungerford, born at Brooklyn, New 
York, September 7, 1887. 



MORTON, Henry, 

Scientist, Educator. 

Henry Morton was born in New York 
City, December 11, 1836, son of the Rev. 
Henry Jackson and Helen (McFarlan) 
Morton, and grandson of General Jacob 
and Catherine (Ludlow) Morton. He at- 
tended the Episcopal Academy at Phila- 
delphia, and was graduated from the 



30 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



University of Pennsylvania, A. B., 1857, 
A. M., i860, and took a post-graduate 
course in chemistry. With his fellow stu- 
dents, Charles R. Hale and Samuel H. 
Jones, he translated the Hieroglyphic, 
Demotic and Greek texts on the Rosetta 
Stone, and prepared the report on the 
same published by the Philomatheon So- 
ciety in 1859, for which he made all the 
chromo-lithographic drawings. He studied 
law, 1857-59, an d was instructor in chem- 
istry and physics at the Academy of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in Philadel- 
phia, 1859-69. He was lecturer on me- 
chanics at the Franklin Institute in Phila- 
delphia ; was professor of chemistry in the 
Philadelphia Dental College in 1863; was 
appointed professor pro tempore of chem- 
istry and physics in the University of 
Pennsylvania during the absence abroad 
of Professor John E. Frazer in 1867-68, 
and in 1869, when the professorship was 
divided, he filled the chair of chemistry. 
He was appointed resident secretary of 
the Franklin Institute in 1864, delivering 
many lectures on light in the Academy of 
Music and Opera House, Philadelphia, 
which attracted much notice in Europe 
and America, and was made editor of the 
"Journal" of the Franklin Institute in 1867. 
He became president of Stevens Institute 
of Technology at Hoboken, New Jersey, 
founded from a bequest of Edwin A. 
Stevens in 1870. The building was then 
being constructed, and President Morton 
selected the faculty and arranged the 
course of instruction. He was in charge 
of a party under the auspices of the 
United States Nautical Almanac office, 
which made photographs of the total 
eclipse of the sun in Iowa, August 7, 
1869, securing many successful plates. In 
this connection he discovered the true 
cause of the "bright line" seen on photo- 
graphs of "partial phases" during solar 
eclipses. His paper on this subject was 
presented by M. Fay to the French Acad- 



emy. (See Comptes Rendus, Volume 69, 
page 1234). He was a member of a 
private expedition to observe the total 
solar eclipse, July 29, 1878, at Rawlins, 
Wyoming Territory. He was appointed 
a member of the lighthouse board in 1878, 
to succeed Joseph Henry, deceased, held 
the office until 1885, and conducted inves- 
tigations on fog signals, electric lighting, 
fire extinguishers and illuminating buoys. 
The honorary degree of Ph. D. was con- 
ferred on him by Dickinson College in 
1869 and by the College of New Jersey in 
1871 ; also the degree of Sc. D. by the 
University of Pennsylvania and LL. D. 
by Princeton University, both in 1897. 
He was elected a member of the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society in 1867; the 
National Academy of Science ; the Amer- 
ican Chemical Society and the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1873. 
He is the author of many articles on 
chemistry and physics, published in 
scientific journals of America and Europe. 
He was one of the ninety-seven judges 
who served as a board of electors in Octo- 
ber, 1900, in determining the names 
entitled to a place in the Hall of Fame, 
New York University. He served as a 
scientific expert in numerous important 
cases of patent litigation, and by reason 
of the revenue so derived was enabled to 
contribute to the endowment and enlarge- 
ment of the Stevens Institute, to an aggre- 
gate amount of $140,000 up to 1901. This 
includes, besides a workshop fitted up in 
1880, contributions to the fund for the 
erection of a chemical building and an 
endowment fund for the same of $80,000, 
as well as a new boilerhouse and boilers 
to supply the entire group of buildings, 
costing over $15,000. In 1901 he took a 
lively interest in the expedition to ex- 
cavate the ruins of Ur of the Chaldees, 
and to secure the early setting out of the 
same he guaranteed the expenses for the 
first year. On February 6, 1902, the 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



institute was further enriched through the 
efforts of President Morton by the Car- 
negie Laboratory of Engineering erected 
at a cost of $65,000 by Andrew Carnegie. 
He was married, in 1863, to Clara Whit- 
ing Dodge, of New York City. She died 
September 20, 1901, at his country resi- 
dence, Pine Hill, Ulster county, New 
York. Dr. Morton died in New York 
City, May 8, 1902. 



MURRAY, David, 

Educator, Litterateur. 

This distinguished scholar and teacher 
was born at Bovina, Delaware county, 
New York, October 15, 1830. His parents 
were Scotch, of the old Murray clan of 
Perthshire. They came to America in 
1818 and joined the Scotch colony settled 
near Delhi. His mother's name was Jean 
Black. 

With his elder brother, the late Judge 
Mur r ay, David Murray, attended the 
Delaware Academy, at Delhi, New York. 
He prepared for college at the Ferguson- 
ville Academy, and entered the sophomore 
class of Union College, graduating in 
1852, being one of the orators. His class- 
mates speak of his personal influence for 
good during his student life, as well as 
his perfect standing in all of his recita- 
tions. He was president of the literary 
and debating societies, and of his class at 
its meetings and other functions. 

On his graduation, he commenced his 
lifework as an educator in the Albany 
Academy, first as assistant, then as Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics, and in 1857 he was 
appointed principal of the institution, 
which under his charge attained a high 
reputation for efficiency, also becoming 
financially prosperous. The trustees 
gave him the most flattering testimonials 
in 1863, when he resigned to become Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics and Astronomy in 
Rutgers College. Here he built up a dis- 



tinguished reputation as a successful 
organizer and administrator. He was 
always interested in ways beyond his 
professorship, and was instrumental in 
establishing the Phi Beta Kappa, His- 
torical, and Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation societies, being elected the first 
president of these several societies. Also 
in both Albany and New Brunswick he 
was active in church and Sunday school 
work. There is abundant testimony from 
his old students of the lasting impression 
for good upon their characters. One of 
them writes: "What astonished us most 
was the ease and habitual courtesy with 
which he made us understand that order 
and close attention to work were neces- 
sities in his classroom, and how many 
secrets still undiscovered waited for our 
search. His approval became our stand- 
ard. We felt it a privilege to be his 
student, and we grew to glory in him." 

In 1873 ne was called to the great work 
of guiding the Japanese to establish their 
system of education upon western 
methods. The embassy from Japan, con- 
sisting of Prime Minister Iwakura and 
his associates, who visited America in 
1871, invited David Murray to become 
superintendent of educational affairs in 
Japan, and adviser to the Imperial Minis- 
ter of Education. This position he filled, 
according to the testimony of the officials 
in Japan, in the most satisfactory and 
faithful manner from 1873 to I &79- 
Kindergarten and public schools, un- 
known under the old empire, were estab- 
lished throughout the country ; normal 
schools for the male and female teachers ; 
the Imperial University in Tokio was 
reorganized on modern methods ; and 
schools for higher education, museums 
and libraries, were planned and organized. 
On leaving Japan, the Emperor gave him 
the following letter: "It is now many 
years since you accepted the invitation of 
my government to enter its service. You 



32 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



have performed your duty with the ut- 
most fidelity, and given most important 
aid to my subjects in the administration 
of educational affairs. I am, therefore, 
greatly pleased with your services and 
highly appreciate your zeal and ability." 
The Emperor also decorated him with 
the "Order of the Rising Sun" in recog- 
nition of his work, December, 1878. 

Since his death, his memory has been 
honored in Japan by a sketch of his life 
and work, published in the Japanese 
"Educational Magazine," by Viscount 
Tanaka, who was vice-minister of educa- 
tion, associated with Dr. Murray through- 
out his connection with Japan. Also the 
Japanese Minister and Peace Commis- 
sioner Takahira, in public speeches, said 
David Murray was the man who laid the 
foundation of their modern system of 
education. Prime Minister Iwakura said 
at an official dinner, "you have opened to 
us a pathway to the world of knowledge. 
No longer shall we wander from the true 
way." The Japanese Minister at Wash- 
ington and Consul-General in New York 
were represented at his funeral. The 
"Tokyo Times" in a notice of his depart- 
ure in 1879 said: "During his extended 
residence here, Dr. Murray enjoyed a 
degree of regard and held a position of 
influence surpassed by no foreigner of any 
nationality." 

Dr. Murray arrived in America, Sep- 
tember, 1879, an d in December was called 
to Albany as secretary of the Regents of 
the University of the State of New York. 
It is said that he established this office 
on a firm and valuable business working 
foundation, which it lacked when he 
undertook it. Unhappily, when his office 
was moved to the new capitol, the ven- 
tilation being imperfect, his room became 
impregnated with sewer gas. His health 
and physique being most perfect, it was 
not until 1886 that he broke down with a 
N Y-Vol III — 3 1 



severe attack of pachy-meningitis. A 
long rest and voyage to Europe restored 
him, however, and he resumed and car- 
ried on his work until the spring of 1889, 
when he resigned and took up his resi- 
dence in New Brunswick. Here he 
devoted himself to literary work, writing 
for the Putnam series the "Story of 
Japan." At the time of his death he was 
preparing to bring this work down to the 
present time. Baron Kentaro Kaneko, 
LL. D., in recognition of Dr. Murray's 
services to Japan, has made a valuable 
addition to the book. 

About 1896 Dr. Murray wrote for the 
United States Educational Bureau at 
Washington the "History of Education in 
New Jersey." For the extensive book on 
"The Public Service of the State of New 
York" he contributed that portion relat- 
ing to the organization and work of the 
regents. While in Rutgers he published 
a "Manual on Land Surveying;" also in 
"Scribner's Magazine," in 1873, a popular 
exposition of the transit of Venus ; and 
in 1874 he was with Professor Davidson 
and party at Nagasaki at the time of the 
transit. 

He contributed to and edited the "His- 
tory of Delaware County," New York. 
For the Philadelphia Centennial he pre- 
pared the volume on "Japanese Educa- 
tion ;" and for the American Historical 
Association an article on "The Anti-Rent 
Episode." He gave lectures on Japan at 
Union University and Johns Hopkins 
University. In 1876 he prepared and 
published a pamphlet and open letter to 
Congress, urging the restoration of the 
Japanese indemnity fund, $750,000. Later 
this indemnity was returned to Japan. 

He was called upon for numerous 
addresses and monographs. He was a 
trustee of Union and Rutgers colleges, 
the Albany Academy; secretary of the 
trustees of Rutgers College; treasurer of 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



John Wells Hospital for ten years ; and 
secretary and treasurer of the special 
committee of the New Brunswick Theo- 
logical Seminary. He held and executed 
his duties of these later institutions up 
to March i, 1905, and died March 6 of 
that year, ending a life of more than fifty 
years af almost ceaseless activity. 

He was a member of the Fort Orange 
Club, Albany ; University Club, New 
York City ; City Club, New Brunswick ; 
vice-president and councillor of the 
Asiatic Society, Japan ; honorary member 
of the Imperial Educational Society, 
Tokyo, Japan ; the New Jersey Historical 
Society ; and the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science. He re- 
ceived the degree of Ph. D. from the 
University of the State of New York, 
and that of LL. D. from Union and 
Rutgers colleges. 

Dr. Murray was a man who, wherever 
his residence might be, made himself felt 
in the community for good. He was not 
a great talker, but the word fitly spoken 
where it was needed, of appreciation of 
work well done, of counsel to the student, 
was never wanting, as the numerous 
testimonies since his death give evidence 
with a most pathetic tenderness. He was 
a wise and calm and self-reliant man, 
eminently modest, not elated by success 
or disturbed by failure. He gave time 
and thought more than he could well 
s^are to the tasks which others devolved 
upon him, and the days were not long 
enough for the services which he was 
ready to undertake in behalf of objects 
dear to his heart. His motto was 
"Charity beareth all things, believeth all 
things, hopeth all things, endureth all 
things." 

He married, in 1867, Martha A. Neilson, 
granddaughter of Dr. John Neilson, of 
New York City. 



HUNTINGTON, Frederic D., 

Prelate, Author. 

The Right Rev. Frederic Dan Hunting- 
ton, first bishop of Central New York, 
and ninety-third in succession in the 
American episcopate, was born at Had- 
ley, Massachusetts, May 28, 1819, the 
youngest of seven sons of the Rev. Dan 
and Elizabeth Whiting (Phelps) Hunt- 
ington, grandson of William and Bethia 
(Throop) Huntington and of Charles and 
Elizabeth (Porter) Phelps, and a de- 
scendant of Simon Huntington, who was 
born in England in 1629, settled with his 
mother in Massachusetts Bay Colony in 
1633, and was one of the founders of Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, 1660. His father, born 
October 11, 1774, was a graduate of Yale 
College, Bachelor of Arts, 1794, Master of 
Arts, 1797, and Williams College, Master 
of Arts, 1798; tutor at Yale, 1796-98; 
Congregational minister, subsequently 
Unitarian ; published "Personal Memoirs" 
(1857), and died m 1864. 

Frederic Dan Huntington was gradu- 
ated at Amherst College as valedictorian 
in 1839, and received his Master of Arts 
degree in 1842. He was graduated from 
Harvard Divinity School in 1842, and the 
same year became pastor of the South 
Congregational (Unitarian) Church, Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts, which he served until 
1855. He was the first preacher to Har- 
vard University and Plummer professor 
of Christian morals, on the Plummer 
foundations, 1855-60. He was also chap- 
lain and preacher to the Massachusetts 
Legislature for one year. In i860 he re- 
tired from the Harvard University and in 
March of that year was confirmed in the 
Protestant Episcopal church at Cam- 
bridge, was ordained deacon in Boston in 
September, i860, and priest in March, 
1861. He was called as rector of Em- 



1233355 

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



manuel Parish, Boston, on its organiza- 
tion in 1861, and was rector there until 
consecrated bishop of Central New York, 
April 8, 1869, by Bishops Smith, East- 
burn, Potter, Clark, Coxe, Neely, Morris, 
Littlejohn and Doane, after having de- 
clined the bishopric of Maine in 1866. He 
organized the "Church Monthly" with 
the aid of Dr. George M. Randall, in 1861, 
and became president of St. Andrew's 
Divinity School, Syracuse, New York, in 
1877. Amherst College conferred upon 
him the honorary degrees of Doctor of 
Divinity and Doctor of Laws, in 1855 and 
1887, respectively, and Columbia Univer- 
sity gave him that of S. T. D. in 1887. 
Bishop Huntington was the first presi- 
dent of the Church Association for the 
Advancement of the Interests of Labor. 
He was the author of: "Sermons for the 
People" (1836; ninth edition, 1869); 
"Christian Living and Believing" (i860) ; 
"Lectures on Human Society as Illustrat- 
ing the Power, Wisdom and Goodness of 
God" (i860) ; "Elim, or Hymns of Holy 
Refreshment" (1865) ; "Lessons for the 
Instruction of Children in the Divine 
Life" (1868); "Helps to a Holy Lent" 
(1872) ; "Steps to a Living Faith" (1873) '> 
"Introduction to Memorials of a Quiet 
Life" (1873) ; "The Pastoral Letter of the 
House of Bishops at the General Conven- 
tion of 1883" (1883) ; "Forty Days with 
the Master" (1891), and of occasional 
contributions to church periodicals ot. 
timely topics affecting the interests of 
the working class. 

He was married, in 1843, to Hannah 
Dane, daughter of Epes Sargent, and sis- 
ter of Epes Sargent, the poet. Their son, 
James O. S. Huntington, founded the 
Order of the Holy Cross in New York 
City in 1881, and became known as 
"Father Huntington." He was rector of 
the Church of the Holy Cross, New York, 
and was a missioner and conductor of re- 
treats in various parts of the country. 



The headquarters of the order were re- 
moved to Westminster, Maryland, in 
1892. Another son, the Rev. George P. 
Huntington, D. D., was rector of St. 
Paul's Church, Maiden, Massachusetts, 
and St. Thomas' Church, Hanover, New 
Hampshire, and professor of Hebrew in 
Dartmouth College, also joint author of 
"The Treasury of the Psalter." Bishop 
Huntington died in Hadley, Massachu- 
setts, September 11, 1904. 



LANDON, Judson S., 

Lawyer, Jurist, Author. 

Judson Stuart Landon, third son of 
William and Phoebe (Berry) Landon, 
was born in Salisbury, Connecticut, De- 
cember 16, 1832, died in Schenectady, 
New York, September 7, 1905 He was 
born in that part of the town known as 
"Lime Rock," and while an infant was 
removed to the homestead on "Tory Hill," 
where his father, grandfather and great- 
grandfather had lived, and where he 
passed his early life, attending the little 
old schoolhouse that stands on the slope 
of the hill. 

He was educated in the Amenia Semi- 
nary, Dutchess county, New York, and 
New York Conference Seminary, and in 
1853 was a teacher of Latin and mathe- 
matics in Princetown Academy, south of 
Schenectady. He spent a year attending 
Yale Law School in 1854, was principal 
of Princetown Academy in 1855, and in 
1856 was admitted to the bar and began 
the practice of his profession in Schenec- 
tady, where he subsequently resided. In 
1855 Union College conferred upon him 
the degree of Master of Arts, and Rutgers 
College that of Doctor of Laws in 1885. 
He was a supporter of Republican princi- 
ples, and in 1856 was elected district attor- 
ney of Schenectady county, and reelected 
in 1859. In 1865 he was appointed county 
judge, and in the same year was elected 



35 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



for a term of four years, which he served ; 
in the meantime was elected a delegate to 
the Constitutional Convention of 1867 in 
the Fifteenth Senatorial District. 

His public-spirited liberality as a citi- 
zen brought his influence to bear in favor 
of every popular advance. The improve- 
ment of the water and sewer service of his 
city owed much to his support, as did 
also its hospital and public school sys- 
tems. In 1872-73 he was city attorney, 
and in the latter year was elected justice 
of the supreme court of the State of New 
York, for the fourth district, and on the 
expiration of his term of fourteen years 
in 1887, was unanimously and without op- 
position nominated and reelected for a 
second term, of fourteen years, which ex- 
pired in 1901. From 1884 he served as 
one of the justices of the general term of 
the third department, designated by Gov- 
ernors Cleveland and Hill, until desig- 
nated by the latter to act as associate 
judge in the second division of the Court 
of Appeals in 1891, where he served dur- 
ing the existence of that division, when 
he returned to the Supreme Court, where 
he was assigned to the appellate division 
of the third department of the Supreme 
Court by Governor Morton in 1895. In 
1889 he was designated an associate judge 
of the Court of Appeals by Governor 
Roosevelt, where he served until the ex- 
piration of the term for which he was 
elected. In 1902 Governor Odell ap- 
pointed him a member of a committee of 
fifteen to report to the next Legislature 
concerning the condition of the statutes 
and laws of the State, and in 1904 he was 
appointed by the legislature a member of 
the board of statutory consolidation: 
Among other public services undertaken 
by him were efforts to arouse the world 
to secure universal peace and inter- 
national arbitration. His judicial career 
was marked by fairness and industry. As 
a criminal judge, his conscientious, pains- 



taking and conspicuous fairness, com- 
bined with a sympathy for the accused 
which tempered justice with mercy, as 
judicial discretion allowed, won the ap- 
proval and admiration of the people, the 
bar and the bench. When his second 
term of office expired, his counsel and 
advice were sought in important and in- 
teresting business and litigation, chiefly 
in the court of appeals. 

He early took an active and efficient in- 
terest in public affairs and in politics. He 
attended the Chicago convention of i860 
that nominated Abraham Lincoln for 
President, and was firm and unwavering 
in his support of the government during 
the rebellion. Judge Landon gave twen- 
ty-seven years' service on the board of 
trustees of Union College, and four years 
of that period was president ad interim, 
administering the college, advising and 
leading the faculty, giving lectures to the 
senior classes, and doing all this gratui- 
tously and continuously for four years. 
His lectures to the senior class on the 
Constitution of the United States, and his 
lectures before the Albany Law School, 
were valuable contributions to public edu- 
cation. As an author he produced a 
widely celebrated work entitled "The 
Constitutional History and Government 
of the United States," the fruitage of long 
and patient study of the principles under- 
lying American political institutions. He 
was deeply interested in local history, col- 
lected many original documents, and pre- 
pared addresses and monographs such as 
his "The Burning of Schenectady in 1690." 
For "Historic Cities of America" he pre- 
pared the chapter on the old Dutch town 
of Schenectady. He prepared, delivered 
and printed many addresses and lectures, 
and was ever ready to serve the call of the 
people for instruction or entertainment. 
It was said of him that he had a faculty 
for friendship. He married, April 26, 
1856, Emily Augusta Pierce. 



36 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



WELLS, William, 

Educator, Lecturer, Writer. 

Professor William Wells, Ph. D, LL. 
D., was born in New York City, 1820, 
died at Schenectady, New York, Decem- 
ber 12, 1907. His boyhood and youth 
were passed in Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, where his parents removed when 
he was nine years of age. His academic 
education was obtained in Philadelphia, 
where he made good progress toward that 
mastery of foreign tongues which later 
made him famous. In 1846 he made his 
first visit to Europe. He spent a year in 
Vienna, as an unofficial attachee of the 
American legation, also pursuing studies 
at the University. Then he went to Ber- 
lin, where he matriculated at the univer- 
sity and entered upon a course of study 
which led in due time to the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy in 1848. Those 
were the days of revolution in Europe, 
when Louis Phillipe was driven from the 
throne of France, when the Crown Prince 
of Prussia, afterwards the Emperor of 
Germany, William I., was compelled by 
popular hatred to leave his country for a 
time ; when Hungary was in open revolt 
against Austria, and when the Chartist 
agitation threatened revolution even in 
England. Professor Wells was deeply 
interested in these great events happen- 
ing around him. He had an interesting 
experience in the Berlin riots that taught 
him that he was not able to cope with 
the Prussian cavalry. He next went to 
the German parliament at Frankfort-on- 
the-Main, as secretary to the special 
American Embassy to that body. He re- 
mained during the entire session as corre- 
spondent of the "New York Herald," then 
went to Paris, where he spent a college 
year as a student at the Sarbonne and the 
College de France. Afterwards he trav- 
eled over a large part of Europe, return- 



ing to the United States in 185 1. He 
spent a year in Cincinnati, Ohio, where 
he had the honor and pleasure of making 
the address of welcome to Louis Kossuth, 
on the occasion of the Hungarian patriot's 
visit to that city. 

In 1852 he was elected Professor of 
Modern Languages in Genesee College, 
Lima, New York. There he remained 
twelve years, during part of the time act- 
ing also as principal of the Genesee Wes- 
leyan Seminary. In 1865 he was called 
to the Chair of Modern Languages and 
Literature at Union College, Schenectady, 
New York, thus beginning the connec- 
tion that was maintained unbroken for 
over forty years. In 1872 he received the 
degree of Doctor of Laws from the Indi- 
ana Asbury University, now known as 
De Pauw University. In 1887 the pro- 
fessorship at Union College was enlarged 
by the addition of the lectureship on cur- 
rent history. In the interest of that work 
he visited the southern States of the 
Union, the West Indies, Mexico, Central 
America, Alaska, California, the Rocky 
Mountain region, and later made an ex- 
tended tour comprising every country of 
Europe from the North Cape, with its 
strange vision of the midnight sun, to 
Greece and Constantinople, Asia Minor, 
Egypt, to the Cataracts of the Nile and 
the other countries of Northern Africa. 
On his return from this, his fourth visit 
to the Old World, he was welcomed home 
by the alumni of Union College with a 
hearty demonstration in New York har- 
bor, which attested the deep respect and 
affectioa with which he was regarded by 
Union College men. The results of his 
observations and reflection during his 
tours were embodied in a series of lec- 
tures, delivered annually to the senior 
class and the general public. 

In the spring of 1890 Dr. Wells cele- 
brated his seventieth birthday and the 



37 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



fiftieth anniversary of his entrance upon 
the profession of teaching, the same year 
marking the completion of a quarter cen- 
tury's work at Union College. Fifteen 
years longer he continued his connection, 
when the burden of years proved too 
heavy and he was retired professor emeri- 
tus. His beautiful home was on the col- 
lege grounds and there he celebrated his 
eighty-seventh birthday, April 4, 1907. 
He was beloved of the students, to whom 
he had endearingly become "Uncle Billy." 
At a meeting of the Chicago Alumni As- 
sociation twenty-five alumni of the col- 
lege banqueting at Chicago sent him this 
telegram : "Twenty-five nephews from 
Chicago and the Northwest extend heart- 
iest greeting, and best wishes for many 
years more with Old Union." His activ- 
ities were not confined by college walls. 
By voice and pen he was long known as 
one of the foremost educators. He lec- 
tured in all the great cities of the United 
States from Boston to San Francisco. He 
was the first European correspondent of 
the "New York Herald," and during his 
last great tour abroad was special corre- 
spondent of the "New York Mail and Ex- 
press." For over twenty years he was 
in charge of the foreign department of 
the "Methodist Review," and was a fre- 
quent editorial and general contributor to 
all the leading papers of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. Able articles from his 
pen also appeared in the "Independent," 
"Scribner's Monthly" and the "Century 
Magazine." He was associated with Dr. 
Taylor Lewis in the preparation of the 
"Book of Genesis for Lange's Commen- 
tary," and translated the Book of Ecclesi- 
astes for the same work. When the phil- 
anthropist, Daniel Drew, had in contem- 
plation the founding of Drew Theological 
Seminary, Professor Wells was one of the 
men who were called upon for advice and 
assistance. He took an active part in the 



foundation of the seminary and was ever 
after on the board of trustees. He was a 
devoted Methodist and for twenty-five 
years superintendent of the Sunday 
school of State Street Methodist Episco- 
pal Church at Schenectady. He was 
elected and served as lay delegate to the 
general conference of his church in 1872, 
the first year laymen were admitted as 
delegates. He was again elected to the 
general conference of 1876 and served as 
one of the secretaries of that conference. 
At his death fitting memorials were 
passed by different bodies, from which we 
quote the faculty in part : 

He was not only immensely useful to the col- 
lege by his scholarship and attainment, but made 
for himself a place in the hearts of the students, 
which he kept long after graduation. For nearly 
half a century he has been closely and affec- 
tionately connected with every one's thought of 
the college. As a personal friend Professor 
Wells was loved and honored, not only by the 
faculty, students and alumni of Union, but far 
more widely; for his sympathy and interests had 
brought him into connection with many per- 
sons and many institutions, and he came to no 
work or occupation where he did not attain the 
affection as well as the respect of those with 
whom he was associated. 

The passing years but added to the kindliness 
of his nature, to his devotion to the College, and 
to his love for his pupils of the past and pres- 
ent. Not inappropriately was he called "The 
Grand Old Man of Union College." 

Professor Wells married, July, 1854, 
Alice Yeckley, born at Gorham, Ontario 
county, New York, March 15, 1836, died 
at Schenectady, April 26, 1906. She was 
educated at Genesee Wesleyan Seminary 
and Genesee College (afterwards Syra- 
cuse University). They removed to 
Schenectady in 1865, and there resided 
until death. Like her husband, Mrs. 
Wells was a devoted Christian worker in 
the Methodist Episcopal church, espe- 
cially in missions and work among the 
young. She was for many years presi- 



38 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



dent of the Woman's Foreign Missionary 
Society of the First (State Street) Church 
and for twelve years president of the 
Woman's Auxiliary of the Young Men's 
Christian Association. She organized 
and was president of the Mother's Club 
connected with the Young Women's 
Christian Association. She was closely 
identified with the social life of the col- 
lege, and in all respects was a worthy 
helpmeet and companion. One child, 
Alice M. Wells, survived her parents, re- 
siding in Schenectady. New York. 



TILLINGHAST, Charles Whitney, 

Man of Affairs. 

Charles Whitney Tillinghast, second 
son of Benjamin Allen and Julia Ann 
(Whitney) Tillinghast, was born in East 
Greenwich, Rhode Island, May 23, 1824. 
He obtained his early education in pri- 
vate schools and then entered Kent Acad- 
emy in East Greenwich, Rhode Island. 
His educational progress was brilliant 
and he frequently earned many honors by 
his intellectuality. Subsequently he be- 
came a student at Talcot's private school 
at Lanesboro, Massachusetts, and his pur- 
suits there were crowned with many 
achievements. 

He accompanied his parents to Troy, 
New York, in 1830, and from that time 
on to his death his interests were centered 
in that city. In 1840 he entered the hard- 
ware and iron business as a clerk for 
Warren, Hart & Lesley, which firm was 
succeeded by J. M. Warren and C. W. 
Tillinghast, under the name of J. M. War- 
ren & Company. In 1864 Thomas Allen 
Tillinghast became a member of the firm, 
and June 10, 1879, he died; February 10, 
1887, the firm was incorporated as J. M. 
Warren & Company, with Joseph M. 
Warren, president ; Charles Whitney 
Tillinghast, vice-president; H. S. Darby, 
treasurer ; and Joseph J. Tillinghast, sec- 



retary. Other incorporators were Charles 
Whitney Tillinghast, 2nd., son of Thomas 
Allen Tillinghast, F. A. Leeds and H. 
Frank Wood. September 9, 1896, Joseph 
M. Warren died and Charles Whitney 
Tillinghast succeeded to the presidency 
of the company, November 30, 1897. 
Joseph Joslin Tillinghast, who had suc- 
ceeded to the vice-presidency when his 
brother, Charles W., was elected presi- 
dent, died and was succeeded by his 
nephew, Charles Whitney Tillinghast, 
2nd. The original house of J. M. Warren 
& Company was inaugurated in 1809, 
when Jacob Hart and Henry Mazro estab- 
lished a hardware business in Troy. 
There were firm changes and in 1836 Wil- 
liam H. Warren became a member of the 
firm that has ever since been in the War- 
ren name. When Mr. Tillinghast first be- 
came connected with the business, the 
books were kept in pounds, shillings and 
pence, postage between New York and 
Troy was eighteen and three-quarter 
cents. A private firm started an express 
that delivered letters for ten cents, which 
rate continued until the government re- 
duced the postage to five cents. The firm 
of J. M. Warren & Company carry on a 
large hardware jobbing business, and in 
their one hundred years of business life 
have made but three changes in location, 
all of which were within a few hundred 
feet of the original. The rapid growth of 
the business was largely due to the per- 
sonal efforts of Mr. Tillinghast. Follow- 
ing his advent into the firm the business 
increased to such a volume that addi- 
tional space was demanded, and they 
erected the warehouse on Front street 
connecting by a bridge with the main 
store situated on the corner of Broadway 
and River streets, and in 1870 the large 
and spacious building on the same corner 
was constructed and has since been the 
home of the concern. In the early days 
of this house nearly all the hardware sold 



39 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



was imported from England and Ger- 
many, orders had to be placed from four 
to six months in advance and all goods 
were manufactured to order, no stock 
being carried by manufacturers. A num- 
ber of employees have been with the firm 
for over a quarter of a century; Samuel 
Kendrick, their first traveling salesman, 
was with them thirty-five years, and Wil- 
liam Bennett was in charge of the iron de- 
partment fifty years. In 1872 the com- 
pany purchased the Troy Stamping Com- 
pany's plant in South Troy and manufac- 
ture there tin and sheet iron ware. 

Mr. Tillinghast's activity in the com- 
mercial life of Troy was marked by un- 
flagging industry, intelligent application 
to business, and the highest probity and 
integrity, which characterized his entire 
life. He helped to foster and develop the 
financial and business enterprises that 
are now the city's pride. He was vice- 
president of the United National Bank 
of Troy and the Troy Savings Bank; 
director of the Security Trust Company ; 
director of the Rensselaer & Saratoga 
Railroad Company, which was the first 
railroad to enter Troy, and on his retire- 
ment from the directorate in 1908 the 
board of directors passed resolutions of 
appreciation and regret. He was one of 
the first trustees of the Fuller & Warren 
Company which was incorporated De- 
cember 31, 1881, and was also most in- 
strumental in the establishment and ad- 
vancement of the Walter A. Wood Com- 
pany, of Hoosick Falls, New York. He 
was a member of the Troy Citizens' 
Corps prior to the war of the rebellion, 
and when the Old Guard was organized, 
July 25, 1879, as an auxiliary body, Mr. 
Tillinghast was chosen president and 
participated in 1878 with the company 
in the public escort at the funeral of 
Colonel James R. Hitchcock in New 
York. He was an honorary member of 
the corps at the time of his death. 



Mr. Tillinghast was one of the first to 
start the project for a new post-office 
building in Troy, obtaining the petitions 
and statistics for the same, and he was 
one of the five citizens named as a com- 
mission to select a site for the govern- 
ment building. His only connection with 
municipal life was for a short period 
when he served as president of the pub- 
lic improvement commission. He was 
deeply interested in Troy's volunteer fire 
department, and was one of the charter 
members of the old Washington volun- 
teer steamer company, having served as 
its secretary and later as its captain. In 
subsequent years he directed his atten- 
tion to the Arba Read steamer company, 
and was one of the citizens who pur- 
chased the first engine for the company 
from private funds. He was instrumen- 
tal in the establishment and organization 
of the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion in 1895 and was one of the first trus- 
tees. He was also one of the organizers 
and trustee of the Public Library of 
Troy, trustee of Marshall Infirmary, 
trustee of the Episcopal Church Home, 
and for several years president of the 
Emma Willard Seminary. In June, 1896, 
when the movement was inaugurated to 
construct the Samaritan Hospital, Mr. 
Tillinghast was one of the first citizens 
to respond and pledge his support, and 
his interest in the development and prog- 
ress of the institution never abated. He 
was a close friend of the late Rev. John 
Ireland Tucker, D. D., who for more than 
half a century was rector of the Church 
of the Holy Cross, and an intimate friend 
of Bishop William Croswell Doane, of 
this diocese. 

Aside from his business activity and 
remarkable record, the work in which 
Mr. Tillinghast found most pleasure and 
gratification was his connection with the 
Troy Orphan Asylum. He served as 
vice-president of the institution from 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



1872 to 1876, and was then made presi- 
dent, which office he occupied at the time 
of his death. It was his life work and 
for it he was honored and esteemed. In 
his forty years' interest in the welfare of 
the orphans he never missed visiting the 
asylum every Sunday afternoon unless 
detained by illness or absence from the 
city. Each of those visits was eagerly 
looked forward to by the little ones, who 
recognized in him a protector and guar- 
dian of the true Christian type. He sel- 
dom journeyed to the asylum without 
carrying a large package of candy for 
the children who always surrounded him. 
His interest in the institution grew from 
the time the asylum was housed in its 
first building on Eighth street, and it 
was principally through his labors that 
the present beautiful home was erected 
on Spring avenue. His philanthropic 
acts carried the institution through many 
storms. In addition to being unwearied 
in his devotion to the interests of the 
asylum, he was marvelously successful 
in enlisting the interests of others in its 
behalf. On May 10, 1892, when the 
corner-stone of the new building was laid. 
Mr. Tillinghast delivered an address. Mr. 
Tillinghast was a member of St. John's 
Episcopal Church ; he was elected ves- 
tryman July 13, 1879, elected warden 
March 29, 1880, and was senior warden 
at the time of his death. He was one of 
the founders of St. Luke's Episcopal 
Church and a member of its first vestry; 
the first services were held at that church, 
May 17, 1868. He was a member of the 
standing committee of the Albany dio- 
cese and was chairman of the general 
committee of the Church Congress. He 
was a Republican all through the exist- 
ence of that party. 

Mr. Tillinghast was by nature an able 
and far-seeing business man, of indomit- 
able perseverance and energy, he never 



considered such a word as failure when 
beginning the accomplishment of any 
task he had set himself to perform. Many 
of the best enterprises of Troy have been 
aided by his wise counsel and means. 
His beneficences have been large and nu- 
merous, his acts of philanthropy per- 
formed in an unostentatious manner, he 
was an earnest humanitarian and spent 
much of his busy life in unselfish devo- 
tion to the welfare of his fellowmen. 
Many of those who knew Mr. Tilling- 
hast had but slight knowledge of the im- 
portant positions he came to fill, and the 
weighty responsibilities he carried for 
himself and others. He was quiet in 
manner and a pleasing conversationalist. 
Progressive in his ideas, still his nature 
was so tempered that he was successful 
in every undertaking he began. He was 
a man of unquestioned integrity and his 
career was marked by deeds of kindness 
that will live while memory lasts. The 
magnitude of the operations of the com- 
mercial house of which he was at the 
head are alike monumental to the genius 
of the eminent citizen who has finally 
answered the Master's call. Mr. Tilling- 
hast married, December 1, 1852, Mary 
Bowers Southwick, of Troy. He died 
April 27, 1910. 



BLESSING, James H., 

Manufacturer, Inventor, Public Official. 

For fully fifty years Mr. Blessing was 
actively engaged in business in Albany, 
although not born there, and he was 
known more or less intimately by busi- 
ness men and others from the South End, 
where his plant had been and thrived for 
a great many years, to the North End, 
where later was his establishment with 
office, and from the river to the Pine 
Hills section, for his political life had 
brought him into contact with people 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



outside the business centers of the city. 
To all of these people he was much more 
than a common friend, for they regarded 
him as a man of sterling integrity and 
business principles, as one possessing 
uprightness of character and actuated by 
the noblest purposes. Frequently they 
sought him for his sound advice, often 
for genial and generous encouragement, 
and at times for charitable help. They 
never went to him in vain. It was not 
uncommon for him to offer. 

James Henry Blessing was born at 
French's Mills, near Sloan's, in Albany 
county, September 14, 1837. His father 
was Frederick I. Blessing, and his 
mother was Lucinda (Smith) Blessing. 
When he was about five years of age his 
parents moved into Albany, and he was 
able thus to attend the city's schools 
near where they lived. At the age of 
twelve he secured a position as a clerk 
in a grocery store, but this did not prove 
to his liking. It was so uncongenial that 
he cast about for something else to do, 
in which, with his heart in his work, he 
might the better count upon success to 
reward patient effort. He abandoned the 
position in 1853 and became an appren- 
tice in the machinist trade, which evi- 
dently well suited his natural inclination 
and accounts for his success all through 
life. The new position was with the large 
firm of F. & T. Townsend, and there he 
completed his term of instruction in 1857, 
but remained with this firm until 1861. 
This was at the time when Albany was 
cast into excitement over the outbreak 
of the Civil War. It was a place where 
recruiting was going on beneath tents 
erected in the broad streets, and a drum- 
mer upon the outside kept people's 
patriotism at a glow. With the late Gen- 
eral Frederick Townsend, he worked 
hard over the invention of a novel form 
of a breech-loading rifle intended for 



army use. From its improvement over 
older mechanical devices they contem- 
plated great results, and their endeavors 
were induced largely through patriotic 
motives, for General Townsend shortly 
recruited a regiment in Albany with 
which he departed for the front, while 
Mr. Blessing likewise entered the serv- 
ice in defense of the Union, but applying 
his ability in his individual field. Mr. 
Blessing entered the United States navy 
as an acting assistant engineer. He was 
very acceptable, for he was an expert 
and thoroughly interested in his line. He 
participated in both battles of Fort Fish- 
er. His enlistment dated under Commo- 
dore Porter, March 29, 1864, and he 
served continuously, receiving promo- 
tions. From 1862 to 1864 he was con- 
nected with the construction department 
of the New York Navy Yard at Brook- 
lyn. No matter what honors came to 
him afterward, he cited that period of 
his life with greatest pride, for its scope 
was the nation's existence, the later honor 
a city's advancement. Following the 
close of the war, he was engineer in 
charge of the steam machinery of the 
Brooklyn City Railroad Company. 

He returned to Albany in 1866 to ac- 
cept the position of superintendent of 
the extensive foundry and machine works 
of Townsend & Jackson, in the southern 
part of the city and upon the Hudson 
river front. It was in its day the most 
important works of this character for 
many miles around, having succeeded to 
the firm with which he had served his ap- 
prenticeship, and the management had 
fullest confidence in his ability. In the 
year 1870 Mr. Blessing invented the "re- 
turn steam trap," which has become well 
known and is used generally in nearly all 
parts of the globe. It was regarded as a 
great step in advance, and his friends, 
perceiving this, were willing to back him 



42 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



financially. Leaving the Townsend & 
Jackson firm in 1872 he, with General 
Frederick Townsend, engaged in the 
business of manufacturing and selling 
steam traps under the firm name of 
Townsend & Blessing. The business 
proved a success, and in 1875 the Albany- 
Steam Trap Company was formed, with 
three stockholders — General Townsend, 
the late Henry H. Martin and Mr. Bless- 
ing. 

Mr. Blessing's mechanical training had 
developed many novel and useful inven- 
tions, among them steam engines, steam 
pumps, steam traps, steam boilers, valves, 
steam packing, pump governors, steam 
and oil separators, friction clutches, boiler 
purifiers, water filters and many other 
useful contrivances which the firm manu- 
factured. The breadth of his training 
and experience led many persons busily 
engaged upon inventions to come to him, 
and it was often the case that his assist- 
ance, freely given, helped to bring about 
the perfection of a mechanical appliance 
which had failed to work until he gave 
it his attention. Often people came to 
him, that at his word credence would be 
placed in their work. 

Before his election as mayor of Albany, 
he had held but one public office, that of 
supervisor. He represented the Fifth 
Ward on the board in the years 1894-95, 
and during the latter year was the presi- 
dent of that body. After the mayoralty 
term he retained an interest in politics ; 
but having declined to accept a second 
nomination, because of the time demand- 
ed from his business and through im- 
paired health, he sought no other office, 
yet continued as vice-president of the 
Fifth Ward Republican organization, 
and was a delegate from his ward to the 
convention nominating Mayor McEwan. 
He was elected the sixty-first mayor at 
the election held November 7, 1899, head- 



ing the Republican ticket, and was the 
first man of that party to be elected 
mayor for a period of some twenty years. 
The significance of this is that he ac- 
complished what a dozen other leading 
Albany Republicans had failed to achieve. 
Out of the total of 22,848 votes cast, he 
received 12,364, and Judge Thomas J. 
Van Alstyne, Democrat, 9,995 votes. He 
had turned a continuous Democratic ma- 
jority into a handsome Republican vic- 
tory, and took office on January 1, 1900, 
officiating through two full years. He 
was the first mayor to serve under the 
new charter granted to cities of the sec- 
ond class, and, while experimental in 
some ways, his administration has gone 
into municipal history as one of the most 
successful and satisfactory. During his 
term, among many important civic 
events, were the city's endeavor to cope 
with the serious strike of the traction 
line; Public School No. 12 was com- 
pleted ; the first public bath was opened ; 
the city was draped in mourning for Mc- 
Kinley ; reconstruction of the Central 
railroad's bridge across the Hudson was 
completed ; the Chamber of Commerce 
was organized ; an enormous ice gorge 
at Cedar Hill threatened the business in- 
terests, the freshet being the greatest in 
forty-three years, and being twenty feet 
above the normal required city relief by 
the police navigating the streets in boats ; 
the Pruyn Library was given to the city 
and accepted in a speech by him ; the 
Albany Institute united with the Albany 
Historical and Art Society ; a children's 
playground was inaugurated in Beaver 
Park ; the cruiser "Albany" was placed in 
commission ; reconstruction of the Cen- 
tral railroad's viaduct crossing Broad- 
way; coal famine because of the strike 
in Pennsylvania fields; Albany County 
Bar Association incorporated ; curfew 
law advocated at common council hear- 



43 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ings ; the new and costly Union Railway 
station opened; Albany connected with 
Hudson by an electric line ; Chinese Min- 
ister Wu Ting-fang, LL. D., a guest of 
the city; the John Marshall centennial 
ceremonies held in the assembly cham- 
ber; annexation of Bath to Rensselaer; 
Dana Park opened and dedicated by Mr. 
Blessing; the Schenectady railway run- 
ning its first electric cars into Albany; 
statistical record at the filtration plant 
inaugurated ; completion of the resurfac- 
ing of Madison avenue with asphalt; the 
Humane Society acquired its own build- 
ing, and improvements instituted in 
many of the schools. These constitute 
the affairs with which he was directly 
concerned, either because of his advocacy 
and consideration in some form as the 
city's executive, or through his personal 
solicitude; and they go to show the ad- 
vancement of the city's interests in vari- 
ous directions as affected by his connec- 
tion therewith, while in many minor ways 
there was a steady improvement in which 
all citizens benefited. In these ways his 
term will remain memorable. Mr. Bless- 
ing was a member of the American Soci- 
ety of Mechanical Engineers, of the Al- 
bany Institute, and the Capital City Re- 
publican Club. He was an attendant of 
the Baptist church, and resided at No. 
107 Eagle street. 

Mr. Blessing married (first) at Albany, 
September 15, 1857, Martha Hutson, who 
died July 17, 1866 ; children : Martha, mar- 
ried Charles W. Backus, and died in New 
York City, January 5, 1907; Lucinda, 
died in infancy. Mr. Blessing married 
(second) at Pittsfield, Massachusetts, 
November 9, 1870, Mrs. Mary (Gilson) 
Judd. residing in Albany in 1910. County 
Treasurer John W. Wheelock married 
Miss Judd, a daughter of his second wife, 
and both residents of Albany. Mr. Bless- 
ing had also two sisters living in Albany 



— Miss Lucretia Blessing and Mrs. Sarah 
J. Laning. 

Mr. Blessing was not a man of robust 
health, although active in attention to 
business, and after suffering for a little 
more than a week with an attack of 
grippe, at the end sank rapidly and died 
early in the morning of February 21, 
1910. Having always lived a quiet, 
domestic life, the funeral was held at his 
home to avoid public demonstration, the 
Rev. Creighton R. Storey, pastor of the 
First Baptist Church, officiating, and 
Mayor James B. McEwan issued a proc- 
lamation, ordering: "As a mark of ap- 
preciation of the impress made by him 
upon the life of our city, it is ordered that 
the flags be placed at half staff upon all 
the city's public buildings, until after his 
funeral, and that the heads of city depart- 
ments and members of the Common 
Council attend his funeral with the 
Mayor, in a body." 



CUYLER, Theodore L., 

Distinguished Divine. 

From early manhood the Rev. Theo- 
dore Ledyard Cuyler, D. D., LL. D., de- 
voted his labor, his thought and his en- 
ergy to the uplifting of his fellow men, 
and his name and work formed the most 
important chapter in the history of the 
Lafayette Avenue Presbyterian Church 
of Brooklyn, New York. 

He was born in Aurora, New York, 
January 10, 1822, and traced his descent 
from Huguenots and Hollanders who 
came to the shores of the new world at 
an early day. Members of the family 
were particularly prominent at the bar. 
His grandfather practiced with success 
in Aurora for many years, and his father, 
B. Ledyard Cuyler, also attained to an 
eminent position in the legal profession, 
but died at the early age of twenty-eight 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



years. The care of the son fell to the 
mother, a woman of strong Christian 
character, who had marked influence 
upon the life of her son. She always 
cherished the hope that he might enter 
the ministry, and a little pocket Bible 
which she gave him he learned to read 
when four years of age. Others of the 
family hoped that he would become a 
lawyer, believing that he could attain dis- 
tinction in that profession, and, while he 
had the mental ability to become eminent 
therein, he determined to enter a calling 
that led him into close contact with his 
fellow men. At the age of sixteen he be- 
came a student in Princeton College, and 
three years later was graduated with 
high honors. The following year was 
spent in Europe, where he formed the 
acquaintance of Thomas Carlyle, Wil- 
liam Wordsworth and Charles Dickens, 
and his visits to those celebrated English 
writers were among the most pleasant 
memories of his life. Travel broadened 
his knowledge, and his mind was stored 
with many interesting reminscences of 
the sights and scenes which he viewed 
when abroad. Upon his return, his 
father's family again urged him to be- 
come a member of the bar, but his 
mother's influence and other agencies in 
his life were stronger. When a young 
man he was asked to address a meeting 
in a neighboring village. Several in- 
quirers professed a religious belief that 
evening, saying that the young man had 
made the way plain to them. This 
brought to him a recognition of his influ- 
ence and power, and he resolved to de- 
vote his activities to the cause of the 
Master. His preparatory studies for the 
ministry were pursued in the Princeton 
Theological Seminary, where, on the 
completion of a three-years' course, he 
was graduated in May, 1846. 

His first ministerial services after being 



licensed to preach was as supply to the 
church at Kingston, Pennsylvania, where 
he remained for six months. Not long 
afterward he accepted the charge of the 
Presbyterian church in Burlington, New 
Jersey, where his labors were so success- 
ful that it was felt he should be employed 
in a broader field. Accordingly, he left 
Burlington to take pastoral charge of the 
newly organized Third Presbyterian 
Church in Trenton, New Jersey, where 
he remained until the summer of 1853. 
In May of that year he received a call 
from the Shawmut Congregational 
Church in Boston, but declined it, and 
accepted a call from the Market Street 
Reformed Dutch Church in New York 
City, where he felt his field would be 
broader and more congenial by reason 
of the greater demands it would make 
upon him. His work there at once at- 
tracted public attention. His earnest- 
ness, his clear reasoning, his logical argu- 
ments and his brilliant gifts of oratory, 
attracted large audiences, and his work 
among young men was particularly suc- 
cessful. For seven years he continued 
as pastor of that congregation, and in 
i860 entered upon his important work 
in connection with the Lafayette Avenue 
Presbyterian Church of Brooklyn, New 
York. The exodus from New York to 
Brooklyn was beginning to be felt about 
this time, and the need for better church 
accommodations in the latter city had 
long been so pressing as to engross the 
attention of many earnest Christians. A 
conference on the subject was held May 
16, 1857, by a number of gentlemen con- 
nected with Dr. Spear's "South" Church, 
and it was decided to form a "new- 
school" church. Soon after its organiza- 
tion, Professor Roswell D. Hitchcock, of 
the Union Theological Seminary of New 
York, supplied the pulpit, and during his 
ministry there the church society, first 



45 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



numbering but forty-eight souls, in- 
creased so rapidly that the little brick 
chapel was found inadequate to contain 
the audiences. It was a season of 
spiritual awakening all over the land, — 
the revival of 1858, — and Park Church 
(as it was then known) shared in the 
general improvement and met the de- 
mand upon its accommodations by build- 
ing an addition. In January of the fol- 
lowing year (1859) Professor Hitchcock 
resigned, and was succeeded as pulpit 
supply by the Rev. Lyman Whiting, ot 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, who six 
months later also resigned, and for an 
additional six months the congregation 
was without a regular minister. 

About this time Dr. Cuyler was offered 
the pastorate, but the outlook of his own 
church was then so promising that he 
declined the call. Shortly afterward, 
however, the Dutch church began to fal- 
ter in its project of planting its new edi- 
fice in the new and growing part of the 
city. With keen foresight. Dr. Cuyler 
anticipated the rapid change that was 
soon to transform unpopulated districts 
of Brooklyn, and believed that it would 
prove a splendid field for Christian labor. 
It was then he took into consideration 
the offer of the pastorate of the Park 
Church. He visited the Fort Greene sec- 
tion of Brooklyn, and then informed the 
committee which waited on him that if 
their congregation would purchase the 
plot at the corner of Lafayette avenue 
and Oxford street and erect thereon a 
plain edifice large enough to accommo- 
date about two thousand people, he 
would accept the call. It seemed a great 
undertaking for the little congregation, 
with its membership of only one hundred 
and forty people, but the committee 
agreed to the proposition, and within ten 
days the purchase of the land was effect- 
ed, at a cost of $12,000. At an additional 



cost of $42,000 there was erected a splen- 
did stone structure, modeled after Rev. 
Henry Ward Beecher's church, and hav- 
ing also the same seating capacity. Work 
began on the new edifice in the fall of 
i860, and on March 12, 1862, the com- 
pleted church was dedicated. This was 
practically the work of Dr. Cuyler, who 
in April, i860, was formally installed as 
pastor. 

He entered upon his work with an en- 
thusiasm born of strong determination, 
firm convictions and noble purpose. His 
brilliant oratory soon attracted the atten- 
tion of Brooklyn citizens, and his forceful 
utterances, showing forth the divine pur- 
pose, appealed to the understanding of 
thinking people. The church grew with 
marvelous rapidity, and as rapidly as pos- 
sible Dr. Cuyler extended the field of his 
labors. In 1866 there were more than 
three hundred additions, and he felt that 
its growing strength justified the estab- 
lishment of a mission. Accordingly, in 
Warren street, the Memorial Mission 
School was organized, the direct outcome 
of which was the Memorial Presbyterian 
Church, which became one of the strong- 
est and most prosperous in that section 
of the city. The Fort Greene Presby- 
terian Church also had its origin in one 
of Dr. Cuyler's mission schools which 
was established in 1861, with a member- 
ship of one hundred and twelve. The 
Classon Avenue Church was also another 
direct branch of the Lafayette Avenue 
Presbyterian Church. In the twenty-five 
years following its incorporation, Dr. 
Cuyler's congregation contributed $70,- 
000 to city missions, and its gifts as re- 
ported for the year 1888 exceeded $53,000. 
The Sunday school, the Young People's 
Association and the various charitable 
and benevolent organizations became im- 
portant adjuncts of the church work. 
The church membership in 1890 was 



46 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



nearly 2,400, and the Sunday school num- 
bered 1,600 ranking the third largest in 
the General Assembly. 

With all these extensive and important 
undertakings under his supervision, Dr. 
Cuyler also did the work of pastor as well 
as of teacher and leader, and perhaps no 
man in the Christian ministry ever more 
endeared himself through the ties of love 
and friendship to his parishioners. For 
thirty years he remained pastor of the 
Lafayette Avenue Presbyterian Church, 
and then voluntarily severed his relations 
therewith. He addressed his people in 
the following words on Sunday, Febru- 
ary 2, 1890: 

Nearly thirty years have elapsed since I 
assumed the pastoral charge of the Lafayette 
Avenue Church. In April, i860, it was a small 
band of one hundred and forty members. By 
the continual blessing of Heaven upon us, that 
little flock has grown into one of the largest and 
most useful and powerful churches, in the Pres- 
byterian denomination; it is the third in point 
of numbers in the United States. This church 
has now 2,330 members; it maintains two mis- 
sion chapels; has 1,600 in its Sunday school, and 
is paying the salaries of three ministers in this 
city, and of two missionaries in the South. For 
several years it has led all the churches of 
Brooklyn in its contributions to foreign, home 
and city missions, and it is surpassed by none 
other in wide and varied Christian work. Every 
sitting in this spacious house has its occupant. 
Our morning audiences have never been larger 
than they have this winter. This church has 
always been to me like a beloved child. I have 
given to it thirty years of hard and happy labor, 
and it is my foremost desire that its harmony 
may remain undisturbed and its prosperity may 
remain unbroken. For a long time I have in- 
tended that my thirtieth anniversary should be 
the terminal point of my present pastorate. I 
shall then have served this beloved flock for an 
ordinary human generation, and the time has 
come for me to transfer this sacred trust to 
some one who, in God's good providence, may 
have thirty years of vigorous work before him 
and not behind him. If God spares my life to 
the first Sabbath of April it is my purpose to 
surrender this pulpit back into your hands, and 
I shall endeavor to cooperate with you in the 



search and selection of the right man to stand 
in it. I will not trust myself to-day to speak of 
the sharp pang it will cost me to sever a con- 
nection that has been to me one of unalloyed 
harmony and happiness. When the proper time 
comes we can speak of all such things, and in 
the meanwhile let us continue on in the blessed 
Master's work and leave our future entirely to 
His all-wise and ever loving care. On the walls 
of this dear church the eyes of the angels have 
always seen it written, "I, the Lord, do keep it, 
and I will keep it night and day." It only re- 
mains for me to say that after forty-four years 
of uninterrupted ministerial labor it is but rea- 
sonable for me to ask for relief from a strain 
that may soon become too heavy for me to bear. 

A feeling of the greatest sorrow was 
manifest throughout the congregation, 
many of whom had grown up under his 
active pastorate. On April 16, in the 
church parlors, a farewell reception was 
held, on which occasion a purse of $30,- 
000 was presented to Dr. Cuyler — one 
thousand dollars for each year of his 
service as pastor, the gift indicating in 
unmistakable manner the love which his 
congregation bore for him. 

However, his friends were not limited 
to his own congregation, for through his 
writings he had become known through- 
out the civilized world, and he had many 
admirers among those who have been 
helped by his earnest and inspiring 
words. He was a constant contributor 
to the religious journals of the country, 
including the "Christian Intelligencer," 
"Christian Work," "The Watchman," 
"Christian Endeavor World," "Evangel- 
ist" and "Independent." He prepared 
about four thousand articles for the 
press, and wrote seventy-five tracts, 
many of which were republished in Eng- 
lish, German and Australian newspapers. 
In 1852 he published a volume entitled 
"Stray Arrows," containing selections of 
his newspaper writings. He was the 
author of eighteen published volumes, of 
which "Cedar Christian," "Heart Life," 



47 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



"Empty Crib," "Thought Hives," "Point- 
ed Papers for the Christian Life," "God's 
Light on Dark Clouds" and "Newly En- 
listed" were reprinted in England, where 
they had a large sale. The "Empty Crib" 
was published after the death of a be- 
loved boy, nearly five years of age, and 
the subsequent loss of a beautiful and 
accomplished daughter was the occasion 
of his writing a marvelously touching 
production entitled "God's Light on Dark 
Clouds." In addition to the works men- 
tioned, he was author of the following: 
"How to be a Pastor," "The Young 
Preacher," "Christianity in the Home," 
"Stirring the Eagle's Nest" and other 
sermons, and "Beulah Land." A selec- 
tion from his writings, entitled "Right to 
the Point," was published in Boston. 
Six of his books were translated into 
Swedish and two into Dutch. 

To a man of Dr. Cuyler's nature the 
needs of the world were ever manifest and 
elicited his most hearty, earnest and de- 
voted cooperation. The great benevolent 
movements and reform measures re- 
ceived his aid, and he labored earnestly 
in behalf of the Young Men's Christian 
Association mission schools, the Chil- 
dren's Aid Association, the Five Points 
Mission, and the Freedmen; while his 
work in the National Temperance Soci- 
ety was a most potent influence in pro- 
moting temperance sentiment among 
those with whom he came in contact as 
teacher and preacher. He served as presi- 
dent of the National Temperance Society 
of American. In 1872 he went abroad as 
a delegate to the Presbyterian Assembly 
in Edinburgh, Scotland, on which occa- 
sion he won the warm friendship of many 
eminent Presbyterian divines of Great 
Britain. His friends were drawn from 
the most cultured and intelligent, and 
these included Spurgeon, Gladstone, 
Dean Stanley, Dickens, Carlyle, Neal 



Dow, Lincoln, Horace Greeley and John 
G. Whittier. 

In 1853 Dr. Cuyler was united in mar- 
riage to Annie E. Mathiot, a daughter of 
the Hon. Joshua Mathiot, a member of 
Congress from Ohio. Her labors ably 
supplemented and rounded out those of 
her husband. She was in hearty sym- 
pathy with him in all of his church work 
and in his efforts for the upbuilding of 
man, and in a no less forceful, but in a 
more quiet way, her influence was ex- 
erted for the benefit of God's children. 
From the time of his retirement from 
the ministry until near the close of his 
life Dr. Cuyler devoted his time to 
preaching and lecturing in colleges and 
to literary work. A monument to his 
splendid accomplishments is found in the 
Cuyler Chapel of the Lafayette Avenue 
Presbyterian Church, which was named 
in his honor by the Young People's As- 
sociation of that organization in 1892. 
A large mission church, seating one thou- 
sand people and erected in 1900 by the 
Lafayette Avenue Church, in Canton, 
China, was named the Theodore L. Cuy- 
ler Church. He died February 26, 1909. 



DUTCHER, Silas B., 

Man of Affairs, Philanthropist. 

Silas B. Dutcher was born July 12, 
1829, on his father's farm on the shore 
of Otsego Lake, in the town of Spring- 
field, Otsego county, New York, son of 
Parcefor Carr and Johanna Low (Frink) 
Dutcher, grandson of John and Silvey 
(Beardsley) Dutcher, great-grandson of 
Gabriel and Elizabeth (Knickerbocker) 
Dutcher, and great-great-grandson of 
Ruloff and Janettie (Bressie) Dutcher, 
who were married at Kingston, New 
York, in 1700, and in 1720 removed to 
Litchfield county, Connecticut. Ruloff 
Dutcher is believed to have been a grand- 



48 




t/Yf, Jh<^fc^>J? 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



son of Dierck Cornelison Duyster, under- 
commissary at Fort Orange in 1630, 
whose name appears in deeds of two 
large tracts of land to Killian Van Rens- 
selaer. His maternal grandparents were 
Stephen and Ann (Low) Frink, and his 
maternal great-grandparents were Cap- 
tain Peter and Johanna (Ten Eyck) Low, 
and his great-grandfather was an officer 
in the Continental army. Johanna Ten 
Eyck was a descendant of Conrad Ten 
Eyck, who came from Amsterdam, Hol- 
land, to New York in 1650, and owned 
what is now known as Coenties Slip, New 
York City. Another of his ancestors was 
William Beardsley, who was born at 
Stratford, England, in 1605, came to 
America in 1635, settling at Stratford, 
Connecticut, four years later, and an- 
other one was Harman Janse Van Wye 
Knickerbocker, of Dutchess county, New 
York. 

Silas B. Dutcher attended the public 
schools near his father's farm each sum- 
mer and winter from the age of four 
until the age of seven years, and after 
that he had a little more schooling in the 
winter season, and one term at Cazenovia 
Seminary. He began teaching winter 
schools at the age of sixteen, and taught 
every winter until he was twenty-two, 
working on his father's farm during the 
remainder of each year. In the fall of 
185 1, owing to a temporary loss of his 
voice which prevented him from teach- 
ing, he found employment at railroad 
construction, but soon became a station 
agent and subsequently a conductor, and 
for more than three years was employed 
on the old Erie Railway from Elmira to 
Niagara Falls, New York. He then went 
to New York and entered mercantile 
business, to which he devoted his ener- 
gies through the terrible panics of 1857 
and i860 without severe misfortune. In 
1868 he was appointed Supervisor of In- 
n Y-Voi in— « 49 



ternal Revenue, a position which he at 
first declined, but was urged by his 
friends to accept. Against his own judg- 
ment, and, as events proved, greatly to 
the detriment of his financial interests, 
he took the office. He was unable to give 
attention to his own business, his partner 
was not equal to its management, and he 
soon discovered that all he had accumu- 
lated by twelve years of hard work was 
scattered and gone, and he was obliged 
to sell the real estate he owned to meet 
his liabilities. 

Even as a boy he had been more or 
less interested in politics. His grand- 
father was a Democrat, and Silas B. 
Dutcher was often called upon to read 
his Democratic newspaper to him; his 
father was a Whig, and the result was 
that he had an opportunity at an early 
age to learn something of the claims of 
both parties. Before he was twenty-one 
he became interested in the question of 
freedom, or the extension of slavery in 
the territories — the most vital question 
of that day — and while yet little more 
than a boy, in 1848, did some effective 
campaign speaking for General Taylor. 

When he went to New York Mr. 
Dutcher resolved to have nothing to do 
with active politics, but the breaking up 
of a Republican meeting in the Bleecker 
building in the Ninth Ward brought him 
out most decisively, and he was quite 
active politically from 1856 to 1861. In 
1857 he was president of the Ninth Ward 
Republican Association ; in 1858-59 he 
was chairman of the Young Men's Repub- 
lican Committee; and in i860 he was 
president of the Wide-Awake Associa- 
tion. During the last year mentioned he 
became a member of the Board of Super- 
visors of the county of New York. His 
business demanded his attention, and 
there were other reasons why, in the fall 
of 1861, he moved to Brooklyn in order 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



to sever his relations with that body. 
William M. Tweed was a member of the 
board at that time, and began to develop 
some of the schemes which eventually 
caused his downfall. Mr. Dutcher was 
not willing to vote ignorantly on any 
question or to act upon the representa- 
tions of other members, who he believed 
held their personal interests above the 
interests of the county. As a resident of 
Brooklyn he again resolved to keep out 
of politics, but the riots of 1863 brought 
him in close relations with active Repub- 
licans, and he found himself again in the 
political harness. He held the office of 
Supervisor of Internal Revenue from 
1868 until 1872, a period of four years, 
at first under appointment of Hugh Mc- 
Cullough, the Secretary of the Treasury, 
and later under appointment of President 
Grant. In November, 1872, he was ap- 
pointed United States Pension Agent, re- 
signing that office in 1875 to accept a 
position in the employ of the Metropoli- 
tan Life Insurance Company, which he 
held until appointed United States Ap- 
praiser of the Port of New York by 
President Grant, which latter position he 
held until 1880. He was Superintendent 
of Public Works of the State of New 
York from 1880 until 1883, appointed by 
Governor Cornell. At the close of his 
term in the last named office, President 
Arthur requested him to accept the office 
of Commissioner of Internal Revenue, to 
which he replied that he had held office 
fourteen years, and that all he had to 
show for that service was a few old 
clothes ; that if he accepted the position 
tendered him and held it one or more 
years, he would retire with about the 
same quantity of old clothes as he had at 
the beginning, and so much older and less 
available for other business, and that the 
remainder of his life must be devoted to 
making some provision for his wife and 



children, and consequently he must de- 
cline further office-holding. 

He was a member of the charter com- 
mission which framed the charter of 
Greater New York, appointed by Gov- 
ernor Morton, and was appointed a man- 
ager of the Long Island State Hospital 
by Governor Black, and reappointed by 
Governor Roosevelt. He was a Whig 
from 1850 to 1855, and became a Repub- 
lican at the organization of that party. 
After locating in Brooklyn he was the 
chairman of the Kings County Repub- 
lican Committee for four years, a mem- 
ber of the Republican State Committee 
for many years, and was the chairman of 
the Republican Executive Committee of 
the State in 1876. He served as a dele- 
gate to several Republican national con- 
ventions, and was on the stump in every 
presidential campaign from 1848 to 1888. 

From the time he became a resident of 
Brooklyn until the consolidation was 
consummated, Mr. Dutcher was an ad- 
vocate of the consolidation of Brooklyn 
and New York. As a member for four 
years of the Brooklyn Board of Educa- 
tion, he exerted all his influence for the 
advancement of the public schools. As 
a member of the Charter Commission for 
Greater New York, he labored earnestly 
to secure equal taxation and home rule 
for the public schools, believing that the 
system and management were better than 
in Manhattan, and better than any other 
submitted to the community. No work 
of his life gave him more satisfaction 
than the results in the charter on these 
two points. He also took an active in- 
terest in Sunday school affairs, and was 
superintendent for ten years of the 
Twelfth Street Reformed Church Sun- 
day school, at a time when it was one of 
the largest schools in the State. 

Mr. Dutcher resumed business to some 
extent in 1885, when he formed a copart- 



50 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



nership with W. E. Edminster in a fire 
and marine insurance agency, which ex- 
isted for a number of years. He was one 
of the charter trustees of the Union Dime 
Savings Institution of New York City, 
organized in 1859, and became its presi- 
dent in 1885. In the spring of 1901 he 
was invited to and accepted the presi- 
dency of the Hamilton Trust Company. 
He was for twenty years a director in the 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 
and was a director in the Garfield Safe 
Deposit Company and the Goodwin Car 
Company. He was a member of the 
Dutch Reformed Church, treasurer of the 
Brooklyn Bible Society, one of the man- 
agers of the Society for Improving the 
Condition of the Poor, a member of the 
Brooklyn and Hamilton clubs and of the 
Masonic fraternity, and president of the 
Association of the Brooklyn Masonic 
Veterans in 1896. 

When Mr. Dutcher took up his resi- 
dence in Brooklyn the population of the 
city was about 275,000. What is now the 
Park Slope was then open fields. The 
small settlement known as Gowanus was 
all there was south of Flatbush avenue. 
He witnessed the city grow from a little 
more than a quarter of a million souls to 
more than a million and a quarter, the 
Park Slope transformed into one of the 
finest residential sections of the city, and 
the three or four churches in that part of 
Brooklyn increase in large measure. He 
knew every one of Brooklyn's mayors 
from George Hall, the first executive, 
down to the time of his death, and also 
knew personally every Governor of the 
State of New York, from William H. 
Seward to Benjamin B. Odell, except 
Governor William C. Bouch and Gov- 
ernor Silas Wright. His political career 
was one to note with respect. He was 
never an applicant for any office that he 
filled, and he never became a dependent 



on a political office. Every public em- 
ployment to which he was called was a 
business employment and he fulfilled its 
duties in a way to prove his fitness for 
private employment and his life exhibited 
a union of public and private service 
which was creditable citizenship. 

Mr. Dutcher married, February 10, 
1859, Rebecca J. Alwaise, a descendant 
of John Alwaise, a French Huguenot, 
who came to Philadelphia in 1740. Her 
grandmother was a descendant of John 
Bishop, who came from England in 1645, 
and settled at Woodbridge, New Jersey. 
The children of Mr. and Mrs. Dutcher 
were : DeWitt P., Edith May, Elsie Re- 
becca, Malcomb B., Jessie Ruth and Eva 
Olive. Mr. Dutcher died February 10, 
1909. 



DE VINNE, Theodore L., 

Art Printer, Author. 

Theodore Low De Vinne, one of the 
most accomplished printers of his day, 
and a founder of the New York Typothe- 
tse, was born in Stamford, Connecticut, 
December 25, 1828, son of the Rev. Dan- 
iel and Joanna Augusta (Low) De Vinne. 

He acquired a common school educa- 
tion, and at an early age entered the 
office of "The Gazette," at Newburgh, 
New York, and learned the printer's 
trade, remaining there four years. In 
1849 he came to New York City and took 
employment in the printing house of 
Francis Hart, and ten years later he be- 
came junior partner in the firm of Fran- 
cis Hart & Company. At the time of the 
death of Mr. Hart in 1877, Mr. De Vinne 
became manager of the business, and in 
1883 it was incorporated by Theodore L. 
De Vinne & Company. Mr. De Vinne 
became world-wide known as a most ac- 
complished printer, and recognized as a 
foremost leader in improvement in the 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



art of typography. He printed the "St. 
Nicholas" magazine from 1873, and "The 
Century" from 1874. He was one of the 
founders and the first secretary of the 
New York Typothetse, and president of 
the United Typothetae of America, 1887- 
88; a president of the Grolier Club, and 
a prominent member of the Aldine Asso- 
ciation, and of numerous art and literary 
clubs both in the United States and in 
Europe. He was a frequent contributor 
to leading art journals and other period- 
icals, and was author of the following 
published volumes: "Printer's Price 
List" (1869) ; "Invention of Printing" 
(1876) ; "Historic Types" (1884) ; "Chris- 
topher Plantin" (1888) ; "Plain Printing 
Types" (1900) ; "Correct Composition" 
(1901); "Title Pages" (1902); "Book 
Composition" (1904) ; "Notable Printers 
of Italy During the Fifteenth Century" 
(1910). Columbia and Yale Universities 
conferred upon him the honorary degree 
of Master of Arts. 

He married, in 1850, Grace Brockbank, 
daughter of Joseph Brockbank, of Wil- 
limantic, Connecticut; she died May 7, 
1905. Mr. De Vinne died February 16, 
1914. 



JAMES, Henry, 

Prolific Author. 

Henry James was by common consent 
one of the leading American writers of 
his day, yet one of the least frequently 
read by the masses. 

He was born in New York City on 
April 15, 1843, son of the Rev. Henry 
James, a noted clergyman and Sweden- 
borgian. His brother, the late William 
James, attained world-wide fame as a 
psychologist. 

Henry James's education gave wide 
latitude to his inclinations. After spend- 
ing many years in the schools of Switzer- 



land and France, he returned to Amer- 
ica and entered the Law School of Har- 
vard University. In 191 1 Harvard hon- 
ored him with the Degree of Humane 
Letters. Even before crossing the ocean 
for the first time as a youth, Mr. James 
had been deeply interested in the society 
of other lands. He himself relates how 
he spent many boyhood hours pouring 
over the pages of "Punch," absorbing 
English traditions and atmosphere, for 
which he held the greatest admiration. 
While a student at Harvard his literary 
inclinations were disclosed. It was his 
wont to shut himself up in his room for 
several days at a time, refusing food, ex- 
cept what was brought to him, and de- 
voting himself entirely to the task of 
evolving plots, characters, skillful de- 
scription and dialogue. While at that 
institution he came under the influence 
of James Russell Lowell. 

In 1869 he went abroad for the second 
time, on this occasion to make his home 
in Paris. He soon found, however, that 
London and nearby spots in England 
fitted his temperament better. He pur- 
chased a fine estate at Rye, on the sea- 
coast of Sussex, about seventy miles from 
London. He returned to this country 
but once since, and then after an absence 
of twenty-five years. The European war, 
beginning in 1914, seemed to have 
touched his heart harder than did the 
American struggle of half a century be- 
fore. He was deeply disappointed when 
he realized the United States did not in- 
tend throwing its armed forces to the as- 
sistance of the allies and the succor of 
Belgium. 

In 1915 Mr. James became a British 
subject. In a statement he gave the fol- 
lowing reasons for changing his allegi- 
ance : "Because having lived and work- 
ed in England the best part of forty 
years; because of my attachment to the 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



country, my sympathy with it and its 
people ; because of long friendships, asso- 
ciations and interests formed here, all 
have brought to a head a desire to throw 
my moral weight and personal allegiance, 
for whatever it may be worth, into the 
scale of the contending nations in the 
present and future fortune." 

Mr. James was made welcome by the 
English. The King bestowed upon him 
the Order of Merit, through the medium 
of Lord Bryce. There are only eleven 
civilian members of this order, which was 
instituted as a mark of special distinc- 
tion for naval or military service, or for 
work in art, literature and science. 

Not long afterwards Mr. James was 
taken seriously ill. While his malady 
was not of an acute nature, he was told 
by his physicians that it would prove 
fatal within a few months. He was one 
of the few novelists said to have never 
been interviewed. He always refrained 
from answering critics and from explain- 
ing passages in his books. In his works 
published since 1908 Mr. James wrote a 
special preface to each, giving its history 
and certain autobiographical notes which 
he knew would be appreciated by his 
many admirers. His use of language 
was masterly. He was so conscientious 
of detail that he sacrificed simplicity to 
such an extent that his long, involved 
sentences became a tradition. He was 
noted for his unfailing flow of words, and 
his subtle blendings and shadings of 
thought. Throughout his many works 
were cryptograms of a type most puz- 
zling to his readers. 

Among his works were: "Watch and 
Ward," 1871 ; "A Passionate Pilgrim," 
1875 ; "Doderick Hudson," 1875 ; "Trans- 
atlantic Sketches," 1875 ; "The Amer- 
ican," 1877; "French Poets and Novel- 
ists," 1878; "The Europeans," 1878; 
"Daisy Miller," 1878; "An International 



Episode," 1879; "Life of Hawthorne," 
1879; "A Bundle of Letters," 1879; "Con- 
fidence," 1879; "Diary of a Man of Fifty," 
1880; "Washington Square," 1880; "The 
Portrait of a Lady," 1881 ; "Siege of Lon- 
don," 1883; "Portraits of Places," 1884; 
"Tales of Three Cities," 1884; "A Little 
Tour of France," 1884; "Author of Bell- 
traffic," 1884; "The Bostonians," 1886; 
"Princess Casamassima," 1886; "Partial 
Portraits," 1888; "The Aspern Papers," 
1888; "The Reverberator," 1888; "A Lon- 
don Life," 1889; "The Tragic Muse," 
1890; "Terminations," 1896; "The Spoils 
of Poynton," 1897; "WhatMaisie Knew," 
1897; "In the Cage," 1898; "The Two 
Magiis," 1898; "The Awkward Age," 
1899; "The Soft Side," 1900; "A Little 
Tour in France," 1900; "The Sacred 
Fount," 1901 ; "The Wings of the Dove," 
1902; "The Better Sort," 1903; "The 
Question of Our Speech and the Lesson 
of Balzas (lectures), 1905; "American 
Scene," 1906; "Italian Hours," 1909; 
"Julia Bride," 1909; "Novels and Tales" 
(24 vols), 1909; "Finer Grain," 1910; 
"The Outcry," 191 1, and "Small Boys 
and Others," 1913. 

When in 191 5 Mr. James took up his 
permanent residence in England, and be- 
came a British subject, his health was 
failing, and his death occurred on Febru- 
ary 28, 1916, at his residence in Chelsea. 



HARRIMAN, Edward Henry, 
Capitalist, Financier. 

Edward Henry Harriman was born at 
Hempstead, Long Island, February 25, 
1848, son of Rev. Orlando and Cornelia 
(Neilson) Harriman, grandson of Or- 
lando and Anna (Ingland) Harriman, and 
great-grandson of William Harriman, a 
native of Nottingham, England, and a 
member of the Worshipful Company of 
Stationers in London, who came to Amer- 



53 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ica in 1795 and settled in New York City. 
His father was a man of broad education, 
and as a young man served as junior prin- 
cipal of the academy at Ossining, New 
York. He took orders in the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, was assistant rector at 
Tarrytown, New York, and for five years 
was rector of old St. George's Church, at 
Hempstead, Long Island ; his later years 
were passed in Jersey City, New Jersey. 
Edward H. Harriman was educated at 
Trinity School, New York City, and in 
Jersey City, New Jersey. He began his 
business career as a clerk in a broker's 
office in Wall street, New York City. He 
manifested great aptitude for the details 
of the business, and soon realized the 
possibilities of large financiering. At the 
age of twenty-two he opened a brokerage 
office in his own name and made his ap- 
pearance on the floor of the Stock Ex- 
change as a member and trader. In 1872, 
two years later, he founded the banking 
firm of Harriman & Company, with James 
and Lewis Livingston as partners, and 
his younger brother, William M. Harri- 
man, subsequently became identified with 
the firm. Shortly after the year 1890 Mr. 
Harriman began to give his entire time 
and abilities to railroad interests, com- 
mitting the banking business to his 
brother, William M. Harriman, with 
Nicholas Fish and Oliver Harriman (a 
cousin) as partners. From the outset, 
Edward H. Harriman was successful in 
his enterprises, and was recognized as an 
operator of remarkable foresight and 
judgment. His first active interest in 
railways grew out of his acquisition of 
stock in the Sodus Bay & Southern and 
the Ogdensburg & Lake Champlain rail- 
roads, two small lines in northern New 
York, in both of which he became direc- 
tor. In 1883 he was elected a director of 
the Illinois Central Railroad Company, 
and with which his service continued 
until his death. He was elected vice- 



president of the company in 1887, but re- 
signed the position in 1890. In 1893 he 
participated in a reorganization of the 
Erie Railroad Company, undertaken by 
J. Pierpont Morgan, and his signal suc- 
cess in this transaction led him to devote 
his activities toward the constructive re- 
organization of other lines. Having made 
a thorough study of railways and railway 
management, he came to the conclusion 
that there was urgent necessity for their 
expansion and improvement — an enlarge- 
ment of their capacity to serve the public. 
Many important roads were then in a 
demoralized financial condition, and some 
of them practically bankrupt. They were 
poorly equipped, and various western 
roads particularly were without adequate 
traffic on account of crop failures and a 
general paralysis of business. Mr. Harri- 
man was made a director of the Union 
Pacific Railroad Company in December, 
1897, was elected chairman of its execu- 
tive committee, May 23, 1898, and presi- 
dent, June 7, 1904, which offices he held 
until his death. The Union Pacific sys- 
tem, was soon brought to comprise the 
Union Pacific, the Oregon Short Line, 
and the Oregon Railway & Navigation 
roads. After the death of Collis P. Hunt- 
ington in 1900, the Union Pacific re- 
sources were used to secure the controll- 
ing interest in the Southern Pacific Com- 
pany, this carrying control of the Central 
Pacific railway, the Oregon & California 
railroad, the Southern Pacific railroad, 
the South Pacific Coast railway, and Mor- 
gan's Louisiana & Texas Railroad & 
Steamship Company, as well as many 
short feeder roads. Mr. Harriman be- 
came a director and chairman of the exec- 
utive committee of the Southern Pacific 
Company in April, 1901, and president on 
September 6, offices he also held until his 
death. The Southern Pacific Company 
also operated a line of boats from Galves- 
ton and New Orleans to New York. The 



54 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



services rendered by Mr. Harriman to 
the great region served by the Union 
Pacific and Southern Pacific systems 
directly, and indirectly to the entire coun- 
try, are incalculable. While managing 
the immense interests of his systems so 
as to make them profitable, Mr. Harriman 
also devoted them to the service of the 
public, frequently without compensation. 
When San Francisco was visited by an 
earthquake and conflagration, he at once 
realized that the sufferers could be re- 
moved from hunger and suffering more 
quickly than they could be relieved by 
gathering and carrying supplies to them, 
and accordingly he removed two hundred 
thousand people and their belongings to 
the surrounding country. Besides a gen- 
erous personal contribution, he ordered 
his railways to transport without cost the 
gifts of food and supplies which the 
American people sent to the stricken city, 
and in this way his railroads gave prob- 
ably about a million dollars in free freight 
service. 

In 1899, while planning an outing to 
Alaska for his family, Mr. Harriman con- 
ceived the idea of making it a scientific 
expedition. After consultation with the 
officers of the Washington Academy of 
Sciences, a number of noted scientists 
were made members of the party, among 
them five biologists and zoologists, three 
ornithologists, five botanists, three geolo- 
gists, a glaciologist, an anthropologist, 
an entomologist, three artists, two physi- 
cians, a mining engineer, a forester, a 
geographer, two taxidermists and two 
photographers. Mr. Harriman bore the 
entire expense of the expedition, and pub- 
lished a record of its results in three 
sumptuous volumes. In 1903-04 Mr. 
Harriman was president of the New York 
State Commission appointed by Governor 
Odell to participate in the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition, and in that capacity 
delivered one of the opening addresses. 



He was very fond of children, and the 
most conspicuous illustration of the prac- 
tical character of this interest is the Boys' 
Club of New York, the oldest and largest 
club of its kind in the world, of which he 
was president from the time he organized 
it in 1876 until his death. He erected a 
club house at a cost of nearly $250,000, 
and habitually paid its financial deficits, 
at times amounting to more than a thou- 
sand dollars a month. In the club rooms 
ten thousand boys from the so-called 
slums of New York find free facilities for 
giving expression to their talents and am- 
bitions, absolutely without any formal 
attempt at religious or moral instruction. 

Unquestionably Mr. Harriman will be 
remembered as one of the most notable 
financiers and railroad men of the world. 
In boldness, broadness and accuracy of 
conception and in vigor and success of 
execution, he had no equal in contempo- 
rary business, and in the short span of 
years that his activities covered, no single 
individual in the world's financial and in- 
dustrial history ever accomplished greater 
results or rendered more substantial pub- 
lic service in the development and admin- 
istration of private enterprise. His bril- 
liant achievements brought great honor 
to his name, but their price to him was 
death, for in the fulness of his success he 
died a martyr to labor and responsibility. 
No man of such character and accom- 
plishments could escape opposition and 
criticism, but these to Mr. Harriman were 
but spurs to greater and better endeavors, 
and the great good he did in the promo- 
tion of commerce and the development of 
the resources of the West will be the 
measure by which his life's work will be 
tested. Personally Mr. Harriman was a 
congenial companion, a great favorite 
among his associates, and always a leader 
in whatever was going on in the club and 
social life of New York City. 

Mr. Harriman married, at Ogdensburg, 



55 



EXCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



New York, September 10, 1879, Mary W., 
daughter of William J. Averell, who bore 
him six children. He had an intense love 
for the family circle, and he inculcated in 
his children a proper regard for the con- 
ventionalities of fine breeding, a due ob- 
servance of their responsibilities towards 
the various charitable institutions of the 
metropolis. To carry out one of the plana 
initiated by him, Mrs. Harriman, within 
a few months after his death, conveyed 
to the State of New York from the Harri- 
man estate ten thousand acres and the 
sum of $1,000,000 for the extension and 
development of a State park, which was 
designed through the assistance of other 
large gifts to preserve as a public park 
along the west bank of the Hudson river, 
one of the most picturesque landscapes in 
the world, extending from Fort Lee to 
Newburgh, over a distance of sixty miles. 
While Mr. Harriman maintained a city 
residence in New York, his country home 
was on an estate of 25,000 acres at Arden, 
in the Ramapo Hills, Orange county. New 
York, where his death occurred, Septem- 
ber 9, 1909. 



POTTER, Henry C, 
Prelate of Protestant Episcopal Church. 

Henry Codman Potter was born in 
Schenectady, New York, May 25, 1834, 
son of Alonzo and Maria (Nott) Potter, 
his mother being a daughter of the famous 
Eliphalet Nott, for sixty-five years presi- 
dent of Union College. His father was 
Bishop of Pennsylvania ; his uncle, Hora- 
tio Potter, Bishop of New York ; of his 
brothers, Clarkson Nott Potter was a 
Congressman from New York for sev- 
eral terms ; Robert B. Potter was a briga- 
dier-general in the Civil War; Howard 
Potter was a distinguished banker: Ed- 
ward T. Potter was a well-known archi- 
tect, and Eliphalet Nott Potter was presi- 



dent of Union and afterward of Hobart 
College. 

Henry Codman Potter was educated at 
the Episcopal Academy in Philadelphia, 
and graduated from the Theological Sem- 
inary of Virginia in 1857. He was or- 
dained to the priesthood October 15, 1858, 
and was at once called to be rector of 
Christ Church, Greensburg, Pennsyl- 
vania. In 1859 ne was called to St. John's 
Church, Troy, New York, and seven 
years later went to Boston as assistant 
minister on the Green foundation of Trin- 
ity Church, which position he held for 
two years. In May, 1868, he was called 
to the rectorship of Grace Church, New 
York City, where for fifteen years he 
labored unceasingly, not only in the serv- 
ice of the church, but as a citizen devot- 
ing himself freely to the betterment of 
the City of New York along social and 
educational lines. During this period his 
uncle, Bishop Horatio Potter, of New 
York, was advanced in years, and, having 
asked for an assistant, in 1883 Henry C. 
Potter was elected Assistant Bishop, and 
was consecrated at Grace Church, Octo- 
ber 20, 1883. He at once entered upon 
episcopal duties, Bishop Horatio Potter 
almost immediately withdrawing from 
active administration, leaving the burden 
of the work upon the nephew, and who 
from the beginning manifested his emi- 
nent fitness for the task. Bishop Horatio 
Potter dying in 1887, Henry C. Potter 
entered upon the bishopric of a diocese 
the largest in point of population of his 
church in America, and having, at the 
time of his death, 405 clergymen, 257 
church edifices, 256 parishes and mis- 
sions, 81,388 communicants, 3,820 Sun- 
day school teachers, and 41,835 Sunday 
school scholars. 

Bishop Potter's labors in Grace Church, 
while he was yet a rector, formed an 
epoch in church history, and, it may also 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



be said, made a new chapter in sociology. 
Here he defined the mission of the church 
as one that should meet man's human as 
well as his spiritual needs. The tide of 
population had been rapidly sweeping 
northward and away from Grace Church. 
The question of removal was mooted, but 
the young rector resolutely turned his 
face toward the poor, the lowly, the hum- 
ble, and the needy of the neighborhood, 
and wrought out a quality of Christian 
socialism that promoted sociability and 
drew the neighborhood together in a com- 
mon interest. Under his rectorship the 
influence of Grace Church extended itself 
in many directions. The chapel in East 
Fourteenth street was continued as a suc- 
cessful mission. Grace House, Grace 
Church Day Nursery and the chantry 
were added to the group of church build- 
ings, while the beauty of the edifice itself 
was much enhanced, increased by the ad- 
dition of the graceful marble spire, the 
chimes, a new chancel, and new windows. 
Mr. Potter, while yet a rector, was secre- 
tary of the State Charities Aid Associa- 
tion, and one of the founders of the Char- 
ity Organization Society ; and he was 
also secretary of the house of bishops for 
fifteen years, a service which was of great 
value to him and when he himself came to 
be a bishop. He passed part of one sum- 
mer at the pro-cathedral in Stanton street, 
in order to observe for himself the condi- 
tions under which the poor dwell in one 
of the most crowded districts of New 
York. As a member of the National Civic 
Federation, he was frequently called upon 
as an arbitrator in controversies between 
employers and employees. As bishop he 
administered the diocesan affairs with 
wisdom and great breadth of view, and 
his time and strength were spent unceas- 
ingly to build up, to vitalize and to ex- 
tend the work of his church. His inter- 
est extended throughout the entire do- 
main of conscientious citizenship. On 



various public occasions his voice was 
raised at moments when it found an echo 
throughout the land, three instances being 
especially notable. The first was on the 
occasion of the Washington centennial 
celebration, of which President Nicholas 
Murray Butler, of Columbia University, 
said : "I like to remember the service 
Bishop Potter did — and it was a bold 
service — -when he stood on a historic occa- 
sion in the pulpit of old St. Paul's and in 
the presence of a President of the United 
States said what was in his heart about 
corruption in our public life and the cor- 
roding influence of the spoils system in 
politics. The whole nation, east and 
west, north and south, rose to its feet in 
splendid appreciation, not only of his 
courage, but of the sure instinct which 
led him to seize that dramatic moment 
to say to every American what under 
other circumstances perhaps but few 
Americans would have heard." Again, 
in 1895, there was a movement for the re- 
form of city politics, and an effort to 
throw off the yoke of Tammany, but the 
men to whom the city should have been 
able to turn in her hour of need had no 
better remedy to suggest than an alliance 
with the machine of the opposing political 
party. Only a group of citizens, members 
of the comparatively unimportant good 
government clubs, had the courage to 
protest against such a sacrifice of princi- 
ple. In vain they appealed to the leading 
men of New York to aid them in their 
effort, but only Bishop Potter clearly saw 
the issue and made it plain in a letter 
which was posted on the boardbills all 
over the city as a campaign appeal. The 
third occasion was when the alliance be- 
tween the city police and criminals had 
been forced upon his knowledge by the 
neglect and insolence with which the pro- 
tests of the vicar of the pro-cathedral in 
Stanton street were received by the local 
police captain, and where the conditions 



57 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



were such that the young girls of the 
neighborhood were not safe in the streets. 
His public letter to Mayor Van Wyck 
opened the eyes of the people to the ex- 
istent frightful conditions, and caused a 
real moral awakening, if not the defeat 
of the Tammany candidate at the ensuing 
election. Characteristic of his entire 
career was his activity in public affairs, 
and he valued such extra-clerical oppor- 
tunities as a part of the prophetic func- 
tion of his ministry. At the same time 
he was never too remote a Christian to 
be out of reach of human relations, nor 
too much a man of the world to forget 
the sacredness of his calling. 

The project of building the magnifi- 
cent Cathedral of St. John the Divine, 
though conceived in the mind of Bishop 
Horatio Potter, would have ended in 
failure but for the unceasing efforts of 
his bishop-nephew, Henry C. Potter. In- 
corporated in 1873, the work progressed 
slowly with no great degree of public in- 
terest, but, after many vicissitudes during 
a period of eight years, the cornerstone 
was laid in 1892, and at the time of his 
death about $3,500,000 had been contrib- 
uted for its erection. The honorary de- 
grees conferred upon Bishop Potter were: 
Doctor of Divinity by Harvard, Union 
and Oxford (England) ; Doctor of Laws 
by Union, University of Pennsylvania, 
Yale, Cambridge (England), and St. An- 
drews (Scotland), and Doctor of Civil 
Law, Bishops College (Canada). He was 
the author of "Sisterhoods and Deacon- 
esses" (1873); "The Gates of the East" 
(1877) ; "Sermons of the City" (1881) ; 
"Waymarks" (1892); "The Scholar and 
the State" (1897) ; "Addresses to Women 
Engaged in Church Work" (1898) ; "God 
and the City" (1900) ; "The Industrial 
Situation" (1902) ; "Man, Men and Their 
Masters" (1902) ; "The East of To-Day 
and To-morrow" (1902) ; "Law and 
Loyalty" (1903) ; "The Drink Problem" 



(1905) ; "Reminiscences of Bishops and 
Archbishops" (1906). Bishop Potter was 
married first, in 1857, to Eliza Rogers 
Jacobs, of Spring Grove, Lancaster, Penn- 
sylvania ; and (second) in 1902, to Mrs. 
Elizabeth Scriven Clark, widow of Alfred 
Corning Clark, of Cooperstown, New 
York. Bishop Potter died at Coopers- 
town on July 21, 1908, and on October 20, 
the twenty-fifth anniversary of his conse- 
cration, his body was placed beneath the 
floor of the altar in the crypt of the great 
cathedral which owed so much to his 
effort. 



ALVORD, Thomas G., 

Lawyer, Legislator. 

Thomas Gold Alvord was born at 
Onondaga, New York, December 20, 1810, 
of English and Dutch antecedents. His 
paternal ancestor, Alexander Alvord, emi- 
grated to this country from Somerset- 
shire, England, in 1634, and settled in 
East Windsor, Connecticut. His mater- 
nal ancestor, Abram Jacob Lansing, came 
from Holland in 1630 and located at Fort 
Orange (now Albany), New York. He 
became the patroon of Lansingburgh, 
which place is named after him. A num- 
ber of his ancestors were soldiers in the 
Revolution, and his paternal grandfather 
served also in the French and Indian 
wars. His father, Elisha Alvord, mar- 
ried Helen Lansing, at Lansingburgh. 

Thomas Gold Alvord received his early 
education at the academy at Lansing- 
burgh, New York, and afterward matri- 
culated at Yale College, from which he 
was graduated at the age of eighteen. 
He subsequently studied law, and in 
October. 1832, was admitted to the bar. 
In January. 1833, he entered upon the 
practice of his profession at Salina, now a 
portion of Syracuse, New York. In 1846 
he gave up his law practice and engaged 
in the manufacture of lumber and salt, in 



58 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



which he attained a high degree of suc- 
cess. In i860 Mr. Alvord gave up the 
lumber part of his business and there- 
after devoted himself entirely to the 
manufacture of salt. He held various 
local offices at Salina, and in November, 
1843, was elected to the New York As- 
sembly, and from that time forward his 
name was prominently connected with 
the history of his native State. From 
1864 to 1866 he was Lieutenant-Governor 
of New York, and from 1867 to 1868 was 
a member and vice-president of the State 
Constitutional Convention. In 1861 Mr. 
Alvord was made permanent presiding 
officer of the Union Convention which 
met in Syracuse in that year. He rend- 
ered valuable service to New York as a 
legislator, displaying great ability in the 
formulating of salutary laws and the tact 
to secure their adoption ; his cogent logic, 
directness of speech, acute discernment, 
and ready grasp of every point at issue, 
together with his untiring industry, im- 
posing presence and commanding man- 
ner, making him a power in the New 
York Assembly. Mr. Alvord was speaker 
in 1858 and 1864, and was the first 
speaker of the Assembly when it met in 
1879 m the new capitol at Albany, and 
occupied the new chamber for the first 
time. He died in Syracuse, New York, 
October 25, 1897. 



PIERREPONT, Edwards, 

Lawyer, Jurist, Diplomat. 

Edwards Pierrepont, a distinguished 
New York lawyer and jurist, was a 
native of Connecticut, born at North 
Haven, March 4, 1817, son of Giles Pier- 
repont and Eunice, daughter of Jonathan 
Munson, and great-grandson of Joseph 
Pierrepont, who settled in North Haven, 
his father having given a valuable prop- 
erty to the town for public use. The pro- 
genitor of the family in this country, John 



Pierrepont, was the younger son of a 
great family in Nottingham, England, 
and came to the United States in 1650, 
settling at Roxbury, now a suburb of 
Boston, Massachusetts. Six years after 
coming to America, he purchased three 
hundred acres of land in Roxbury, and 
there married Miss Stow, of Kent, Eng- 
land, who was the mother of his son 
James, one of the chief founders and 
promoters of Yale College. 

Edwards Pierrepont was prepared for 
college by the Rev. Noah Porter (after- 
ward president of Yale College), and 
entered that institution and graduated 
with the class of 1837, receiving one of 
the highest class honors, that of class 
orator. In 1840 he was graduated from 
the New Haven Law School. He entered 
upon the practice of his profession at 
Columbus, Ohio, in partnership with P. 
C. Wilcox of that city. In 1846 he per- 
manently located in New York City, 
where he had resided for some time. In 
1857 he was elected judge of the Superior 
Court of that city, and resigned in i860 
in order to resume his practice. Judge 
Pierrepont took a deep and patriotic 
interest in the Civil War. His first 
speech, and which brought him promi- 
nently before the public, was made a year 
and a half before the outbreak of hos- 
tilities, in which he forecast the dread- 
ful struggle. He was one of the most 
active members of the noted Union De- 
fence Committee, and, when the Massa- 
chusetts troops were attacked in Balti- 
more, in April, 1861, and all communica- 
tion with the national capital cut off, 
Judge Pierrepont was selected as one of 
a committee of three to make their way 
as best they could to Washington, his 
associates being William M. Evarts and 
Thurlow Weed. In 1862 he was appointed 
by President Lincoln, in connection with 
General John A. Dix, to act as a conv 
missioner to try the prisoners of state 



50 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



that were confined in the different forts 
of the United States. In 1864 he took a 
prominent part in the effective alignment 
of the War Democrats who favored the 
reelection of Abraham Lincoln. 

In 1867, Judge Pierrepont was elected 
a member of the convention for framing 
a new constitution for the State of New 
York, and served on the judiciary com- 
mittee with great efficiency. He was 
also in the same year employed by Hon. 
W. H. Seward, Secretary of State, and 
Henry Stanbury, Attorney-General, to 
conduct the government prosecution 
against John H. Surratt, indicted for 
being a party to the murder of President 
Lincoln. In 1868, President Grant ap- 
pointed Judge Pierrepont to the position 
of United States Attorney for the District 
of New York, which he occupied until 
1870, when he resigned. He at once be- 
came one of the most active members of 
the Committee of Seventy, formed to take 
action against the "ring frauds" in the 
New York City municipal government. 
In 1871, when the Texas & Pacific rail- 
road was organized under charter by the 
United States, he was made a director, 
counsel, and treasurer of the road, and the 
following year visited Frankfort and 
London on business for the company. 
Judge Pierrepont was proffered the ap- 
pointment of Minister to the Court of 
Russia by President Grant in May, 1873, 
but declined the honor. In 1875 he 
accepted the portfolio of Attorney-Gen- 
eral of the United States in President 
Grant's cabinet. While filling this posi- 
tion he argued for the government all the 
more important cases, among which were 
the noted Arkansas Hot Spring case, and 
the Pacific railway case. He was also 
called upon by Hamilton Fish, Secretary 
of State, to give an opinion upon a great 
question of international law in which 
were discussed the questions of nation- 
ality and acquired nationality, and his 



opinion gave him a wide reputation both 
in Europe and America. In 1876 he was 
appointed Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of 
St. James. When President Grant 
visited Europe during the second year of 
Judge Pierrepont's mission, the latter 
named urged upon the Queen's ministers 
the propriety of according the same pre- 
cedence to the former President of the 
United States that had been given to the 
ex-ruler of France. This was gracefully 
acceded to, and other countries followed 
the precedent set by Great Britain. 
While abroad, Judge Pierrepont devoted 
much attention to the financial system of 
England. He returned to the United 
States in 1878, and at once resumed the 
practice of his profession, at the same 
time taking an active interest in financial 
questions, and writing considerably upon 
the subject. In 1887 he wrote an article 
advocating an international treaty, claim- 
ing that by convention the commercial 
value of the silver dollar might be 
restored. He also published various 
orations and addresses. Judge Pierre- 
pont was awarded the honorary degree of 
LL. D. from Columbian College, Wash- 
ington, D. C, in June, 1871, and in 1873 
Yale College conferred upon him the 
same degree. During his residence in 
London, Oxford bestowed upon him the 
degree of D. C. L., the highest honor the 
university confers. He died in New York 
City, March 6, 1892. 



SWINBURNE, John, 

Sanitationist. 

Dr. John Swinburne, whose fame prin- 
cipally rests upon the creation of the 
quarantine station in New York Harbor, 
was born at Deer River, Lewis county, 
New York, May 20, 1820. His father 
dying when he was only twelve years 
old, at that early age he was called upon 



60 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



to face the realities of life by not only 
self-support, but by contributing to the 
maintenance of his mother and her other 
children. He labored upon a farm during 
the summer, and attended the public 
schools in winter. His meager educa- 
tional advantages were supplemented by 
a two years' course at the Fairfield Acad- 
emy, and in 1842 he entered the Albany 
Medical College, from which he was 
graduated in 1846, first in his class, hav- 
ing entirely maintained himself during 
his years of study. He had mastered a 
thorough knowledge of anatomy, and 
was at once appointed college demon- 
strator in that department, and occupied 
the position for four years. He then 
established a private school of anatomy, 
which he afterwards closed in order to 
attend to the demands of a very exacting 
personal practice. In 1859 and 1861 he 
read papers before the New York State 
Medical Society that were published in 
the society reports. In the latter year, 
the first of the Civil War period, General 
John F. Rathbone appointed him chief 
medical officer in charge of the sick at the 
depot for the sick at Albany, New York. 
In April, 1862, the need of surgeons on 
the battle-field having become most 
urgent, he tendered his services to Gov- 
ernor Morgan as volunteer surgeon with- 
out compensation, and he was at once 
commissioned, and ordered by General 
McClellan to repair to Savage Station, 
which was about to become an important 
point in the opening military campaign. 
There he established a depot, having 
been given full powers and command so 
far as pertained to a surgeon in charge 
of sick and wounded. When the Army 
of the Potomac retreated from Savage 
Station on June 29th, thousands of 
wounded soldiers were necessarily left on 
the battle-field, and although Surgeon 
Swinburne was free to retire with the 
army, as did the majority of the surgeons, 



he remained to care for the sick and 
wounded, braving capture rather than 
desert his post, remaining for a month, 
and until all the wounded had been re- 
moved. His humane conduct and pro- 
fessional ability won the esteem of the 
Confederate authorities, who appreci- 
atively recognized the fact that he had 
paid the same attention to their own 
wounded soldiers as he did to those of the 
Federal army. Dr. Swinburne applied to 
General Stonewall Jackson for a pass to 
visit the various hospitals in the vicinity 
where the wounded Federal prisoners 
were confined, and the general, in grant- 
ing the pass, in a very complimentary 
note informed him that he was not to be 
considered a prisoner of war, and that 
the pass would safeguard him through the 
lines wherever he desired to go. 

In 1864, Governor Seymour appointed 
Dr. Swinburne to the position of Health 
Officer of the Port of New York, and the 
Republican Legislature at once confirmed 
the appointment. He was reappointed 
by Governor Fenton in 1867. When he 
assumed control of quarantine duties, 
there were absolutely no provisions for 
effectually carrying out its purpose ; the 
only means was a floating hospital, and 
this vessel in a leaky condition. During 
his administration, continuing from 1864 
to 1870, Dr. Swinburne succeeded in con- 
structing, at a minimum cost of $750,000, 
and in face of the greatest opposition, the 
docks and buildings in the lower bay, 
known as Swinburne Island and Hoffman 
Island, both built on banks that were near 
the surface at low tide, and which to-day 
constitute the best quarantine in the 
world. 

After his retirement from his position, 
and while traveling in Europe, in 1870, 
Dr. Swinburne was invited to form the 
American Ambulance Corps for service 
during the Franco-Prussian War. From 
his arrival in Paris, September 7, 1870, to 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



his departure, March 18, 1871, his efforts 
and those of his assistants were such as to 
excite the astonishment of the people and 
the admiration of the medical profession. 
The ambulance service was conducted on 
the most extensive scale, with results that 
far surpassed those obtained by the 
French surgeons, and the entire expense 
was defrayed by Americans residing in 
Paris. The French government decorated 
Dr. Swinburne a chevalier of the Legion 
of Honor and with the Red Cross of 
Geneva in acknowledgement of his 
services. After he returned from Europe 
he settled at Albany, New York, where 
he soon had an extensive practice. He 
was elected mayor of that city in 1882, 
but his election was contested, and he 
obtained his seat only after fourteen 
months litigation. As a Republican, he 
was elected to Congress in 1884. He 
established the Swinburne Dispensary, 
wherein ten thousand persons were 
annually treated, entirely at his own 
expense. As a medical and surgical 
expert, he was perhaps more frequently 
called to the witness stand, in the most 
important medico-legal cases, than any 
other member of the medical profession 
in the State. 

Dr. Swinburne's biographer has writ- 
ten that "There is something phenome- 
nally grand in the active, self-denying 
and busy life of John Swinburne as a 
surgeon on the battle-field; as a health 
officer contending with the terrible dis- 
eases of cholera, small-pox and yellow 
fever, saving the people from their de- 
structive ravages for years, and finding 
the means not only to check but to sup- 
press these diseases ; as a philanthropist, 
establishing sanitariums, hospitals and 
dispensaries for the care and treatment 
of the poor. His quiet benevolence, yet 
bold aggressiveness in fighting error and 
corruption in high places, both in profes- 
sional and official stations, gave his life a 



charm unequaled in the past, and has won 
for him the admiration of the masses of 
the people." Dr. Swinburne died at 
Albany, New York, March 28, 1889. His 
biography was compiled and published by 
the Citizens' Association of Albany, New 
York. 



AUGUR, Christopher C, 

Soldier of Mexican and Civil Wars. 

General Christopher Colon Augur was 
born in New York in 1821. He entered 
the United States Military Academy at 
West Point, was graduated in 1843, and 
during the next two years served on 
frontier duty. In 1845 he was brevetted 
second lieutenant of the Fourth Infantry, 
and, joining with his command the Army 
of Occupation in Texas under General 
Taylor, took part in the advance to the 
Rio Grande in 1846. He was promoted 
to first lieutenant February 16, 1847, an< i 
served through the remainder of the 
Mexican War as aide-de-camp to General 
Hopping, after whose death he was called 
to the staff of General Caleb Cushing, and 
was engaged in the battles of Palo Alto 
and Resaca de la Palma. On August 1, 
1852, he was promoted to captain, and 
acquitted himself with great courage and 
judgment in the Indian troubles in 
Oregon during 1855-56. 

The threatening conditions in the south 
caused his recall to the east early in 1861. 
On May 14th he was commissioned major 
of the Thirteenth Infantry, and placed in 
command of the cadets at West Point. 
On November 12th following he was com- 
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers, 
and given command of a brigade in Mc- 
Dowell's corps in the defences about 
Washington. In July, 1862, he was trans- 
ferred to the command of a division under 
General Banks in the Army of Virginia, 
and served through the Rappahannock 
campaign, receiving a severe wound in 



62 




&. <£ 




I 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the battle of Cedar Mountain, Virginia. 
For distinguished and meritorious serv- 
ice in that battle he was appointed major- 
general of volunteers August 9, 1862, and 
brevetted colonel in the regular army. 
General Augur was relieved from active 
service shortly after the fall of Harper's 
Ferry, upon being appointed by Congress 
a member of the military commission 
charged with investigation of the sur- 
render of that important post. He re- 
joined his command in November, and 
accompanied General Banks through the 
Louisiana campaign in 1862. In 1863 he 
was placed in command of the district of 
Baton Rouge, Louisiana; was promoted 
to lieutenant-colonel of the First Infantry, 
July 1, 1863, and commanded the left wing 
of the army besieging Port Hudson, Mis- 
sissippi, which surrendered July 9th. He 
received the brevet of brigadier-general 
March 13, 1865, for gallant service at the 
capture of Port Hudson, and the brevet 
of major-general at the same date for gal- 
lant and meritorious service in the field 
during the war. Thereafter General 
Augur continued in service as com- 
mander of various military departments, 
commanding at Washington, 1863-66. He 
received promotion to the colonelcy of the 
Twelfth United States Infantry, March 
15, 1866, and was mustered out of the 
volunteer service September 1st. He 
commanded the Department of the 
Platte until 1871, having been commis- 
sioned brigadier-general of the United 
States army March 4, 1869; and com- 
manded other departments — of Texas, 

until 1875 ; °f the Gul f until l8 7 8 ; and °f 

the South and of Missouri until 1885, 
when he was retired. 

On August 15, 1886, General Augur 
was dangerously wounded by a negro 
ruffian whom he attempted to chastise for 
using foul language in front of his house 
in Washington. General Augur died in 



COLFAX, Schuyler, 

Statesman, Vice-President. 

Schuyler Colfax was born in the city 
of New York, March 23, 1823, being a 
posthumous child. He was a grandson 
of General William Colfax, who was born 
in Connecticut in 1760, and was captain 
commandant of Washington's guards. At 
the close of the Revolutionary War Cap- 
tain Colfax married Hester Schuyler, a 
daughter of General Philip Schuyler, and 
their third son was named Schuyler. He 
occupied the position of teller in the Me- 
chanics' Bank of New York City, and 
died while he was still a young man. 

Schuyler Colfax, son of Schuyler Col- 
fax above mentioned, attended common 
schools in New York, but before he was 
eleven years of age went into employment 
in a store. His mother married again 
and with her family, including Schuyler, 
went to Indiana, settling in New Carlisle. 
Young Schuyler's stepfather, Mr. Mat- 
thews, having been elected auditor of St. 
Joseph county, made his stepson his 
deputy, and took him to South Bend, 
which, from that time forward, became 
the home of Mr. Colfax. Here, while dis- 
charging his regular clerical duties, young 
Colfax took an interest in journalism, and 
during two winters was in Indianapolis 
as senate reporter for the "State Journal." 
In 1845 Mr. Colfax became editor and 
proprietor of the St. Joseph "Valley 
Register," and the new paper soon came 
to be considered one of the very best in 
the State, and achieved a wide circulation. 
As a Whig, Mr. Colfax was a very ardent 
admirer of Henry Clay. He was a 
member and one of the secretaries of the 
Whig National Convention of 1848, which 
nominated General Taylor for the presi- 
dency. In 1851 Mr. Colfax was nomi- 
nated by the Whigs of his district as their 
candidate for Congress, and lacked few 
votes of being elected, although the dis- 



63 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



trict was normally strongly Democratic. 
In 1852 he was a delegate to the National 
Convention which nominated General 
Scott for the presidency. General Scott 
was, however, defeated, and the begin- 
ning of the last days of the old Whig 
party had come. In 1854 Mr. Colfax was 
nominated for Congress by the People's 
Convention, called in opposition to the 
principles of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, 
and was elected by a very large majority. 
He entered the memorable Thirty-fourth 
Congress on the first Monday of Decem- 
ber, 1855, and was prominent in the excit- 
ing struggle which resulted in the elec- 
tion of Nathaniel P. Banks of Massachu- 
setts as speaker, upon the one hundred 
and thirty-fourth ballot. Mr. Colfax soon 
came into prominence in Congress, and 
was recognized as one of the most effec- 
tive orators in the newly formed Republi- 
can party. He was continued in Congress 
by successive reflections until 1869. He 
had by this time become prominently 
known through the country for his strong 
anti-slavery sentiments, and his temper- 
ance principles and practice. He was one 
of the acknowledged leaders of the oppo- 
sition to the Lecompton constitution, and 
generally to the admission of Kansas as 
a slave State. When the great political 
conflict broke out, Mr. Colfax was in the 
thick of it. "He held that success was a 
duty, due not only to Republican prin- 
ciples, but to the age and the country, 
and that any concession, short of prin- 
ciple, necessary to insure that success, 
was not only wise and expedient, but also 
patriotic and obligatory." In the Thirty- 
sixth Congress Mr. Colfax was made 
chairman of the committee on the post 
office and post roads, and to him is given 
the credit for the establishment by Con- 
gress of the daily overland mail from the 
western boundary of Missouri to San 
Francisco. 
After the election of Mr. Lincoln to the 



Presidency, great pressure was brought 
to bear upon him for the appointment of 
Mr. Colfax to a place in his cabinet as 
Postmaster-General, but the President 
appointed Montgomery Blair to that 
office. During the Civil War, Mr. Colfax, 
in his place in Congress, continued to 
actively sustain by voice and vote the 
principles which he had always held. On 
the organization of the Thirty-eighth 
Congress he was elected speaker upon the 
first ballot, being the first newspaper 
editor ever elected to the speaker's chair. 
In this position Mr. Colfax made a most 
favorable impression upon both parties 
by his courtesy, and by his thorough 
knowledge of parliamentary law. A 
notable incident of his career as speaker 
occurred in April, 1864. Mr. Long, of 
Ohio, made a speech from his place in the 
House of Representatives, in which he 
practically abandoned the Union to its 
fate, declaring the rebellion to be in the 
right, and the war organized by the north 
to be unjust and wrong. Under the 
excitement produced by this speech, Mr. 
Colfax left the speaker's chair, calling for 
another member of the House to preside, 
and went upon the floor of the House to 
move the expulsion of Mr. Long, and 
supporting the motion with a stirring and 
aggressive speech. He afterward, how- 
ever, modified his resolution of expulsion 
by changing it to one of censure, in which 
form it was passed by a large majority. 
On May 7, 1864, Mr. Colfax was pre- 
sented by citizens of his own State with 
a set of silver of beautiful design and 
artistic execution, as a testimonial of their 
regard for his public services. Mr. Col- 
fax was twice reelected as speaker, each 
time by an increased majority. On April 
14, 1865, Congress having adjourned, as 
he was about to start on an overland 
journey to California and Oregon, he 
visited the White House in the early 
evening and bade President Lincoln 



64 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



good-bye. The President invited him to 
accept a seat in his box at Ford's Theatre, 
for that evening, but the invitation was 
declined on account of Mr. Colfax's prior 
engagements. On that night Mr. Lincoln 
was shot by the assassin, J. Wilkes Booth. 
After his return from Washington to 
South Bend, Indiana, Mr. Colfax deliv- 
ered one of the most eloquent of all the 
eulogies on the Martyred President, and 
repeated it by request on April 30th, in 
Chicago. 

In May, 1868, Mr. Colfax was nomi- 
nated by the Republican National Con- 
vention at Chicago for Vice-President on 
the ticket with General Ulysses S. Grant, 
and entered upon the position of president 
of the Senate on March 4, 1869. In 1871 
General Grant offered him the position of 
Secretary of State in his cabinet, but the 
offer was declined. In 1872, although his 
name was mentioned for renomination for 
Vice-President, he was defeated in the 
convention. In December of the same 
year, he declined the position of editor- 
in-chief of the New York "Tribune." In 
1872 and 1873 the character of Mr. Col- 
fax, as was the case with several other 
of the most prominent men in Congress 
and out of it, was attacked on account of 
the Credit Mobilier scandal. It was 
charged against persons thus accused that 
they had accepted certificates of stock or 
money from the officials of the Union 
Pacific Railway Company, as compen- 
sation for their influence in Congress in 
behalf of the company's schemes. An 
investigation by the judiciary committee 
of the House resulted in a report, which, 
while it technically acquitted Mr. Colfax 
of having committed any offense after he 
became Vice-President, nevertheless did 
not entirely relieve him from public 
suspicion on this point. As a conse- 
quence, Mr. Colfax suffered during the 
remainder of his life from what he and 



his friends asserted were unjust and un- 
reasonable charges. 

Mr. Colfax passed the latter part of his 
life at his home in South Bend, Indiana, 
frequently delivering public lectures in 
his own and other States. He died in 
Mankato, Minnesota, January 13, 1885. 



STANFORD, Leland, 

Man of Large Affairs, Philanthropist. 

Leland Stanford was born in Albany 
county, New York, March 9, 1824, son of 
Josiah Stanford, a prosperous farmer, 
who also took contracts for the building 
of roads and bridges and aided in the 
construction of the Albany & Schenectady 
railroad (now a part of the New York 
Central system), one of the earliest in 
America. 

Leland Stanford, fourth of Josiah Stan- 
ford's seven sons, passed his early life 
on his father's farm, "Elm Grove," and 
at school nearby. At the age of twenty 
he took up the study of law, and in 1845 
entered the office of Wheaton, Doolittle 
& Hadley in Albany. A few years later 
he moved to Port Washington, Wiscon- 
sin, on Lake Michigan, where he prac- 
ticed law four years with moderate suc- 
cess. In 1852 the loss by fire of all his 
property, his library included, wrecked 
his plans; and he determined to push 
further west. In the summer of that year 
he reached California, where three of his 
brothers were established in business in 
the mining towns. Receiving him into 
partnership, he was placed in charge of a 
branch establishment at Michigan Bluff, 
in Placer county. In this new occupation 
he developed business qualities of which 
he had been unconscious, and four years 
later he established himself in San Fran- 
cisco, where he founded an independent 
mercantile house which soon became 
known as one of the most substantial on 
the Pacific coast. 



Y-Vol III — s 



65 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



On the formation of the Republican 
party, Mr. Stanford became interested in 
politics, and in i860 was made a delegate 
to the national convention at Chicago 
which nominated Abraham Lincoln for 
the Presidency. On Lincoln's inaugura- 
tion in 1861, Mr. Stanford spent some 
time in Washington, and the President 
repeatedly advised with him in regard to 
the political attitude of the Pacific coast. 
In the autumn of the same year he was 
elected by an overwhelming majority to 
the governorship of California, an office 
which he occupied with such conspicu- 
ous success and such general popular 
approval, that on his retirement from 
office a joint resolution was voted by both 
parties in both branches of the Legisla- 
ture tendering to him "the thanks of the 
people of California for the able, upright 
and faithful manner in which he has dis- 
charged the duties of Governor for the 
past two years." Prior to his election as 
Governor Mr. Stanford had been chosen 
president of the newly organized Central 
Pacific Railroad Company, and after 
leaving the executive -chair he devoted all 
his energies to the execution of the great 
task of building the Pacific slope section 
of the transcontinental railway. The 
apparently insuperable difficulties en- 
countered and overcome in laying the 
track from Ogden to San Francisco, par- 
ticularly through the passes of the Sierra 
Nevadas, have often been described. The 
cost of construction of this portion of the 
line alone, a hundred miles in length, was 
more than $20,000,000. On May 10, 1869, 
Mr. Stanford drove the last spike of the 
Central Pacific road, thus completing 
the route across the continent. The 
entire Central Pacific system, with its 
leased lines, eventually embraced a mile- 
age of 4,303 miles. It also operated the 
Sacramento & Colorado River Steamship 
line, making a total mileage of 4,793 miles. 
Mr. Stanford was also president of the 



Occidental & Oriental Steamship Com- 
pany, the Japan & China line running in 
connection with the Central Pacific 
system. 

He married, in 1848, the daughter of the 
late Dyer Lathrop, sheriff of Albany 
county, whose father was an officer in the 
Revolutionary War. It was many years 
after the marriage before a child was 
born to them — a son, who was given his 
father's name, and to whose future the 
parents became entirely devoted. The 
child grew to be sixteen years of age, and 
was remarkably bright, intelligent and 
affectionate. In 1884, while the family 
was sojourning at Florence, Italy, the lad 
was taken ill with typhoid fever, and 
soon passed away. A most remarkable 
occurrence is told in this connection. 
While Governor Stanford was watching 
by his boy's bedside, wearied with the 
prolonged care, he dropped asleep, and 
in that sleep he dreamt that his son said 
to him: "Father, don't say you have 
nothing to live for ; you have a great deal 
to live for; live for humanity, father." 
While this dream was passing through 
the brain of the father, death took the 
child. So utterly prostrated by his Joss 
was Mr. Stanford that but for the impres- 
sion of his dream, and the reflections upon 
it, the most serious consequences might 
have occurred to himself. Determined to 
carry out the idea suggested, he made up 
his mind to found the great university 
which bears his son's name — the Leland 
Stanford Junior University. This institu- 
tion, to which he gave 83,000 acres of 
land, valued at $8,000,000, is located 
twenty-eight miles from San Francisco, 
is entirely unsectarian, and affords equal 
facilities to both sexes. The entire endow- 
ment of the institution is estimated at 
$20,000,000. The estate, called "Palo 
Alto," contains a lot of about ten acres 
which is used as a burial place by the 
Stanford family and for persons con- 



66 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



nected with the university. In 1885 Mr. 
Stanford was elected as a Republican to 
the United States Senate from California, 
to succeed J. T. Farley, Democrat. In 
1891 he was reelected. As a Senator, 
Mr. Stanford took a prominent part in 
legislation, and was an earnest advocate 
of plans for the relief of the people from 
financial burdens. 

Mr. Stanford was a liberal patron of 
art, and possessed a valuable collection of 
paintings at his elegant residence in San 
Francisco. "Stanford Farm," his favorite 
country seat, is situated at Menlo Park, in 
the Santa Clara valley, about forty miles 
from San Francisco. A magnificent villa 
stands in the center of four hundred and 
fifty acres of park and lawn. Thousands 
of superb trees make this estate one of 
the most remarkable arboreta in the 
world, the owner's aim having been to 
gather there a sample of every tree which 
can be made to grow in the soil of Cali- 
fornia. At one time Mr. Stanford also 
had a residence in New York City. After 
his election to the Senatorship he took a 
house in Farragut Square, Washington, 
close by the residence of Baron de Struve, 
Minister from Germany. He died at his 
home, "Palo Alto," California, June 20, 
1893- 



CROSBY, Howard, 

Clergyman, Educator. 

The Rev. Howard Crosby was born in 
New York City, February 27, 1826, a 
great-grandson of William Floyd, one of 
the signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and a grandson of Dr. Ebenezer 
Crosby, who was surgeon to Washing- 
ton's Life Guard during the Revolution- 
ary War, and subsequently a professor 
in Columbia College. His father, Wil- 
liam B. Crosby, inherited from Colonel 
Henry Rutgers nearly all of the present 
seventh ward of New York, and, until 



John Jacob Astor accumulated his vast 
landed property, was one of the largest 
real estate owners of his time. He de- 
voted himself to the care of his property, 
and to deeds of public benevolence and 
private charity. 

Howard Crosby, son of William B. 
Crosby, entered the University of the 
City of New York at the age of fourteen, 
graduated when eighteen, and at twenty- 
five was appointed to the professorship of 
Greek in that institution. In the follow- 
ing year he was elected president of the 
Young Men's Christian Association of 
New York. In 1859 he was made Pro- 
fessor of Greek in Rutgers College, New 
Brunswick, New Jersey, then under the 
presidency of Theodore Frelinghuysen, 
to which institution his great-uncle, 
Colonel Henry Rutgers, of the Revolu- 
tionary army, had given his name and 
liberal donations. Meantime Professor 
Crosby was also a theological student, 
and in 1861 he was duly ordained in the 
ministry and became pastor of the First 
Presbyterian Church of New Brunswick, 
also retaining his professorship. In 1863 
he resigned both positions to accept the 
pastorate of the Fourth Avenue Presby- 
terian Church of New York. In the fol- 
lowing year he was elected one of the 
council of the University of the City of 
New York, and not long afterward was 
chosen its vice-president, a position he 
held until the time of his death. In 1870 
he was elected chancellor of the univer- 
sity, and, still retaining his pastorate, he 
served in that capacity until 1881. From 

1872 to 1881 he was one of the American 
company of revisers of the Bible. In 

1873 he was chosen moderator of the 
General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
church, and in 1877 was its delegate to 
the Pan-Presbyterian Council in Edin- 
burgh, Scotland. In addition to his 
clerical and educational work, Dr. Crosby 
was active in benevolent and reformative 



67 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



affairs of a public character. In 1877 he 
founded and acted as president of the 
Society for the Prevention of Crime, an 
organization seeking by means of 'state 
and municipal legislation, to restrict the 
use of spirituous liquors, and his labors 
in that direction received such general 
approval that in 1888 he was appointed 
by the Legislature a member of the State 
commission to revise the excise laws. 

Dr. Crosby wrote commentaries on the 
Books of Joshua and Nehemiah, and on 
the entire New Testament, a volume of 
Yale lectures, as well as ten other works 
of a religious or semi-religious character, 
besides scores of pamphlets, and almost 
innumerable articles for the reviews. He 
took an active part in the advancement of 
the international copyright law, and was 
a member of the American committee to 
revise the New Testament. The degree 
of D. D. was awarded him by Harvard 
College in 1859, that of LL. D. by Co- 
lumbia University in 1871. Dr. Crosby 
died of pneumonia, in New York City, 
March 29, 1891. 



BELKNAP, William W., 

Civil War Soldier, Cabinet Official. 

General William Worth Belknap was 
born in Newburg, New York, September 
22, 1829, son of General William Gold- 
smith Belknap, who was prominent in the 
Mexican War, and was brevetted briga- 
dier-general for services at the battle of 
Buena Vista. 

William, W. Belknap entered Princeton 
College in 1848, and after his graduation 
became a student in the law office of 
Hugh Caperton, of Georgetown, D. C. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1851, and 
removed to Keokuk, Iowa, where he 
opened a law office, and formed a part- 
nership with R. P. Lowe, afterward Gov- 
ernor of the State. He became prominent 
as a lawyer and as a Democratic politi- 



cian, and in 1857 was elected a member of 
the State Legislature. On the outbreak 
of the Civil War, he was commissioned 
major of the Fifteenth Regiment Iowa 
Volunteers, and at the battle of Shiloh 
covered himself with honor. Here he was 
severely wounded, but remained on the 
field until the close of the first day's 
fighting. Throughout the war the fullest 
confidence was reposed in Belknap by 
Grant, Sherman, McPherson, and every 
other general under whom he served. 
Every promotion which he received he 
won on the battlefield. In 1864, after 
the battle of Atlanta, he was promoted to 
the rank of brigadier-general, and placed 
in command of the Iowa Brigade, at the 
head of which he marched to the sea 
under Sherman, and at the close of the 
war he was in command of the Fourth 
Division of the Seventeenth Army Corps. 
General Belknap was offered a field 
officer's commission in the regular army, 
but declined it. In 1865 he was appointed 
collector of internal revenue in Iowa, and 
he held that position until October 13, 
1869, when General Grant appointed him 
Secretary of War. He held this place 
until March 7, 1876, when he was charged 
with official corruption, and was permit- 
ted to resign. He was afterward im- 
peached by the House of Representatives 
before the Senate, on the accusation that 
he promised to appoint Caleb P. Marsh 
to the charge of a trading department at 
Fort Sill, in consideration of a sum of 
money to be paid quarterly to Belknap or 
his agent. The impeachment proceedings 
were quashed in the Senate on the ground 
of lack of jurisdiction, but, on the ques- 
tion of guilty or not guilty, thirty-seven 
voted guilty, and twenty-three not guilty. 
It was generally believed among those 
best informed regarding the details of this 
scandal, that General Belknap was inno- 
cent of complicity as to the improper acts 
charged against him, and that he was 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



even ignorant of the facts of the case. 
After his retirement from public life, 
General Belknap resided for some time in 
Philadelphia, but from 1876 until the time 
of his death he lived in Washington, and 
carried on the practice of law success- 
fully. He was found dead in his bed on 
October 13, 1890, and is supposed to have 
died some time on the previous day, 
which was Sunday, October 12th. Gen- 
eral Belknap was three times married ; 
his first wife was a sister of General Hugh 
T. Reid ; after her death he married Miss 
Carita Tomlinson, and after her death, 
in 1870, he married her sister, Mrs. John 
Bower, of Cincinnati. 

AGNEW, Cornelius Rea, 

Physician, Sanitationist. 

Cornelius Rea Agnew was born in New 
York City, August 8, 1830, son of William 
and Elizabeth (Thomson) Agnew. His 
early ancestors were Huguenots, who in 
consequence of persecutions fled to Ire- 
land, and settled near Belfast, where they 
intermarried with Scotch-Irish families 
and became identified with the Reformed 
Presbyterian church. The first of the 
family in America was John, grandfather 
of Dr. Agnew, who established a large 
commission and shipping business in 
New York City. 

Dr. Cornelius Rea Agnew received his 
early education in private schools, and 
entered Columbia College in his six- 
teenth year, and from which he was 
graduated in 1849. He began the study 
of medicine under Dr. J. Kearney Rogers, 
a surgeon and eye specialist, and con- 
tinued his studies in the College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons, New York City, 
from which he was graduated in 1852, and 
in the New York Hospital. He practiced 
medicine for a year in what is now 
Houghton, on Lake Superior, and then, 
having been offered an appointment as 



surgeon of the Eye and Ear Infirmary of 
New York City, he went to Europe to 
further prepare himself for the duties of 
that position. After studying in the hos- 
pitals of Dublin, London and Paris, he 
returned to New York City, where in 
addition to his position in the Eye and 
Ear Infirmary, he also cared for a large 
general practice, and acquired great 
experience in eye and ear diseases. In 
1858 he was appointed Surgeon General 
of the State of New York. During the 
Civil War he served for a time as medical 
director of the State Volunteer Hospital 
in New York ; and was subsequently head 
of the society to obtain medical supplies 
for regiments passing through New k'ork 
to the seat of war. In 1864 he indus- 
triously aided in organizing the United 
States Sanitary Commission, on which 
he served with unremitting zeal. Dr. 
Charles J. Stille says, in his "History of 
the United States Sanitary Commission :" 
"Dr. Agnew exhibited a practical skill, 
executive ability, and at all times a per- 
fect generosity of personal toil and 
trouble in carrying on the commission's 
work, which gave him during its whole 
progress a commanding influence on its 
councils. It is not too much to say that 
the life-saving work of the commission at 
Antietam, the relief which it afforded on 
so vast a scale after the battles of the 
Wilderness, and the succor which it was 
able to minister to the thousands of our 
soldiers returning to us from rebel 
prisons, diseased, naked and famishing, 
owed much of their efficiency and success 
to plans arranged by Dr. Agnew, and 
carried out at personal risk and incon- 
venience under his immediate superin- 
tendence." With Drs. Wolcott Gibbs and 
William H. Van Buren, Dr. Agnew drew 
for the United States Quartermaster's 
Department plans which were subse- 
quently carried out in the Judiciary 
Square Hospital at Washington, and par- 



69 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



tially followed in the pavilion hospital 
system of the war. He was one of four 
who founded the Union League Club in 
New York City in aid of the national 
cause at the outbreak of the rebellion. 
In 1868 he founded the Brooklyn Eye and 
Ear Hospital, and in 1869 the Manhattan 
Eye and Ear Hospital of New York. He 
was for many years a manager of the New 
York State Hospital for the Insane at 
Poughkeepsie, and he served as trustee 
and subsequently as president of the New 
York school board. He served as secre- 
tary of the first society organized in New 
York for sanitary reform, and aided in 
preparing the first draft of the city health 
laws. 

Dr. Agnew was a member of the 
Medico Chirurgical Society of Edinburgh, 
Scotland; the New York Academy of 
Medicine, Pathological Society and Medi- 
cal and Surgical Society ; the American 
Ophthalmological Society, of which he 
was also president, and the New York 
Academy of Sciences, and president of 
the Medical Society of the State of New 
York. He wrote voluminously on medical 
subjects for many scientific journals, and 
also published several short works in 
pamphlet form. He died in New York 
City, April 18, 1888. 



BUTTERFIELD, Daniel, 

Volunteer Soldier of the Civil 'War. 

General Daniel Butterfield was born at 
Utica, New York, October 31, 1831. He 
was graduated from Union College in his 
eighteenth year, and afterward for a time 
was engaged in the service of the Mohawk 
division of the New York Central rail- 
road. He subsequently became general 
superintendent of the eastern division of 
the American Express Company. 

From his youth he had an ambition for 
military life. He served in the New York 
militia in the Seventy-first and Twelfth 



regiments from 185 1 to 1861, and was 
colonel of the latter regiment at the 
breaking out of the rebellion, when he led 
it to the front, and was with the advance 
into Virginia. He was soon commis- 
sioned lieutenant-colonel in the United 
States regular army, and brigadier- 
general of volunteers. He served through 
the Peninsular campaign, was wounded 
at Gaines's Mills, and covered the retreat 
to and from Harrison's Landing. He 
took part in all the battles of August and 
September, 1862, and was promoted to 
major-general of volunteers November 
29th, and commissioned colonel of the 
Fifth United States Infantry, July 1, 1863. 
He commanded the Fifth Corps at Fred- 
ericksburg, Virginia, and was chief-of- 
staff of the Army of the Potomac in the 
Chancellorsville and Gettysburg cam- 
paigns, and was wounded in the battle 
of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. In 1863 he 
was transferred to the Army of the Cum- 
berland, and became chief-of-staff of the 
consolidated Eleventh and Twelfth 
corps under General Hooker at Lookout 
Mountain, Tennessee, Missionary Ridge, 
and several subsequent actions. He 
commanded a division of the Twentieth 
Corps in the Georgia campaign under 
General Sherman, and was brevetted 
brigadier-general and major-general in 
the regular army for gallant and meritor- 
ious services. He was the originator and 
author of the system of army corps 
badges, flags, and other identifying de- 
vices adopted in the Army of the Poto- 
mac, and after followed in other armies. 
He was the author of a standard work on 
"Camp and Outpost Duty for Armies in 
the Field." After the war General But- 
terfield had charge of the recruiting 
service, and of the forces in New York 
harbor, commanding Governor's Island, 
David's Island, and Bedloe'-s Island, 1865- 
69. 

Resigning from the army, General But- 



70 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



terfield became Assistant United States 
Treasurer in New York City and after- 
wards organized and built a railway in 
Central America. He planned, organized 
and commanded the civic parade on the 
third day of the Washington Centennial 
celebration in New York, May i, 1889, 
the largest movement of civilians in a 
public demonstration ever known on this 
continent or in modern history also. He 
organized and moved the great demon- 
stration at the funeral of General Sher- 
man, as the representative of Generals 
Howard and Slocum. In 1891 he was 
elected president of the Society of the 
Army of the Potomac, of which body he 
was the principal founder. He was for 
thirty years a trustee of the Citizens' 
Savings Bank in New York City, and 
was in 1893 the only living member of 
that board who had been with the bank 
from its foundation. He was president 
of the National Bank of Cold Spring, hi9 
country home. He declined the Republi- 
can nomination for Congress in the Tenth 
Congressional District of New York City 
in 1891. 

In September, 1886, at St. Margaret's, 
Westminster, England, General Butter- 
field married Mrs. Julia L. James, of 
New York, the Bishop of Bedford and 
Canon Farrar performing the ceremony. 
He died in 1901. 



GRACE, William R., 

Financier, Mayor of New York. 

Hon. William Russell Grace, eldest son 
of James and Ellen Mary (Russell) 
Grace, was born at Riverstown, Cove of 
Cork, County Queens, Ireland, May 10, 
1832. He early displayed that bold, deter- 
mined, and self-reliant spirit which char- 
acterized his ancestors. At the age of 
fourteen, believing that the rural districts 
of Ireland held no future for him, he left 
school and home, and, working his way 



on a sailing vessel, came to New York 
City. There he obtained employment, 
but two years later returned to his home 
in Ireland. His father, in the hope of 
finding opportunities in South America 
for repairing his shattered fortunes, em- 
barked in 1850 for Peru, and the son ac- 
companied him to that distant land. 
Entering the shipping house of Bryce & 
Company, at Callao, as a clerk, William 
at once demonstrated a marked capacity 
for business, and two years later was 
admitted to partnership in the firm, 
which thereupon became Bryce, Grace & 
Company, and subsequently Grace Broth- 
ers & Company (Michael P. Grace, Wil- 
liam's younger brother, being admitted as 
a partner). The only American house of 
consequence in Callao, and having agen- 
cies in all the principal ports of Peru and 
Chili, with excellent connections in the 
United States and England, the firm 
rapidly rose to distinction, and for many 
years acted as representative for Baring 
Brothers. During our Civil War it 
rendered important services to the United 
States government. Callao was then the 
principal basis for naval supplies on the 
west coast of South America, and vessels 
of the United States navy frequently 
called there. All the native and English 
commercial houses decided to refuse 
them credit for supplies ; whereupon Mr. 
Grace's firm promptly placed its entire 
resources at their disposal. 

In 1865, his health having become 
seriously impaired, he left Peru, being 
succeeded in the management of the busi- 
ness by his brother. After a brief stay 
in the United States he revisited Ireland, 
purchasing a large estate in the northern 
part of Queens county. Finding that the 
surrounding landlords had entered into a 
very unjust combination against the 
working people in the matter of wages, he 
declined to become a party to their selfish 
arrangement, paid the highest rates pre- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



vailing elsewhere, and in the end com- 
pelled the other proprietors to join in the 
same course of fair dealing. With the 
full recovery of his health Mr. Grace felt 
an impatience to resume active business 
life, and, placing the Irish property in the 
charge of his brother, John, he located 
in New York and in 1868 established the 
house of W. R. Grace & Company. In 
this venture his abilities secured for him 
a high degree of success from the begin- 
ning, and his firm has long been one of 
the most eminent in the shipping trade in 
the American metropolis, and one of the 
most widely known throughout the 
world. At the same time the original 
Peruvian concern continued its career 
with increasing prosperity. In 1886 it 
became the agent of various foreign 
creditors of Peru for the settlement of 
claims ; and under this arrangement, 
through the management of Michael P. 
Grace, an adjustment was effected in 1890 
which involved the payment of the enor- 
mous sum of $290,000,000 in gold. 

In 1891 Mr. Grace organized and estab- 
lished the New York & Pacific Steamship 
Company, Limited, with seven large 
steamships, constructed specially for the 
requirements of the trade of his house, 
plying between New York and Guaya- 
quil, Ecuador, by way of the Straits of 
Magellan. Incidental to his business in- 
terests, he acquired valuable nitrate of 
soda properties in Chili, and sugar estates 
and cotton mills in Peru, besides taking a 
leading part in railway development in 
both countries. In New York City, aside 
from his immediate interests, he was 
identified with many other large business 
enterprises. He was president of the 
Export Lumber Company, the Ingersoll 
Sergeant Drill Company, and the Hamil- 
ton Banknote Company, vice-president of 
the Fernbrook Carpet Company, director 
of the Lincoln National Bank, the Lin- 
coln Safe Deposit Company, and the 



Terminal Warehouse Company, and re- 
ceiver of the Continental Life Insurance 
Company, whose affairs he wound up 
satisfactorily. 

As a citizen of New York, he was 
actuated at all times by an earnest and 
conscientious public spirit. A Democrat 
in political belief and national affiliations 
he represented that section of his party 
which was opposed to the domination of 
Tammany in the metropolis. In 1880 
and again in 1884 he was elected mayor of 
the city as the candidate of the anti-Tam- 
many element of the Democracy. Both 
his administrations were characterized by 
a thorough and vigorous application of 
the principles of municipal government 
for which he stood, reform of corrupt 
abuses, and elevation of the standards of 
public service. His name will always be 
remembered in the history of the city as 
that of one of its best mayors. In the 
sphere of national affairs also he exer- 
cised a commanding influence, being de- 
voted heart and soul to the ideas and 
policies represented by Grover Cleveland, 
and contributing powerfully to the elec- 
tion of Mr. Cleveland in 1884 and 1892. 
The movement to erect a monument to 
General Grant at Riverside Park began 
during his administration, and the Grant 
Monument Association was organized 
with Mayor Grace as president. He bent 
his whole energies to accomplish the 
object, and over half a million dollars 
was raised. The association subsequently 
came under the management of the 
Grand Army of the Republic, General 
Horace Porter being the leading spirit, 
the remainder of the money was raised, 
and the monument was completed. 

In his private character Mr. Grace was 
a man most loyal to obligations and 
friendships, and of forceful but genial and 
charming personality. His charities were 
extensive, and were distinguished by a 
particularly practical tendency. In 1879, 



-J2 





Brevel Major < 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the year of the great famine in Ireland, he 
contributed half of the relief cargo of the 
United States warship "Constellation," 
besides paying incidental expenses. 
Many of his benevolences, in times of 
public distress, in New York City and 
elsewhere, were given in large checks to 
religious organizations, which, however, 
were not sent in his own name, and the 
source of which was never known, except 
to a very few. In conjunction with his 
wife and his son, Joseph P. Grace, he 
gave, in 1897, the sum of $200,000 for the 
establishment of the Grace Institute, a 
training school for young women and 
girls, in the interest of making them self- 
supporting; and to this institute he left 
an additional amount of $100,000 in his 
will. He was president for many years 
of the Sevilla Home for Children, whose 
property, under his care, was increased 
more than three times in value. 

He purchased a beautiful property at 
Great Neck, Long Island, for a summer 
home, which he named "Gracefield," for 
his ancestral home in Ireland. Here he 
found peace and recreation from the cares 
of business life, and with his family, en- 
joyment in the society of friends who 
partook of his hospitality. 

He married, September 11, 1859, Lilius 
Gilchrist, daughter of George W. and 
Mary Jane (Smalley) Gilchrist. He died 
in New York City, March 21, 1904. 



AVERELL, William W., 

Cavalry Leader in Civil 'War. 

General William Woods Averell, a bril- 
liant cavalry officer in the Civil War, was 
born at Cameron, Steuben county, New 
York, November 5, 1832, the place of his 
birth being not far from the location of 
the Soldiers' Home at Bath, New York. 
His grandfather was a captain in the 
Revolutionary War. 

He was appointed to the United States 



Military Academy at West Point on July 
1, 1851, and graduated from that institu- 
tion in 1855 with the rank of brevet 
second lieutenant of Mounted Rifles. In 
the following May he was commissioned 
full second lieutenant, with which rank 
he was engaged on the Indian frontier, 
and was severely wounded. He declined 
promotion as first lieutenant of the Sixth 
United States Cavalry, May 14, 1861, 
accepting the same rank in the Third 
Cavalry (mounted rifles), the same 
date, and with which he took part in the 
battle of Bull Run, and in the defences of 
Washington City. In August, 1861, he was 
commissioned colonel of the Third Penn- 
sylvania Volunteer Cavalry Regiment. 
His regiment was assigned to the Army 
of the Potomac, and he was actively en- 
gaged in its various engagements, notably 
at Kelly's Ford, Virginia, for which he 
was brevetted major, March 17, 1863 ; and 
at Droop Mountain, Virginia, where he 
was brevetted lieutenant-colonel ; on the 
Salem expedition in Virginia, where he 
won the brevet of colonel, December 15, 
1863, for gallant and meritorious services, 
and that of brigadier-general, March 13, 
1865, and for gallant and meritorious 
services at the battle of Moorfield, Vir- 
ginia, that of major-general. In the 
regular service General Averell was pro- 
moted to captain July 17, 1862, and he 
resigned May 18, 1865. The character of 
the services rendered by General Averell 
may be illustrated by one of his 
despatches to the War Department: "My 
column has climbed, slid and swam 340 
miles since December 8th." 

After the war, in 1868 President John- 
son appointed General Averell to be 
Consul-General of the United States to 
the British provinces. In 1869 he re- 
turned to the United States and engaged 
in business, becoming president of the 
Asphalt Pavement Company. He was 
the inventor of a system of electric con- 



73 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



duits, and a process by which ore is con- 
verted into steel at a single operation. He 
was placed on the retired list of the army 
with the rank of captain and brevet 
major-general. He was assistant inspec- 
tor-general of the Soldiers' Home of the 
United States. He died in 1900. 



SMALLEY, George W., 

Newspaper Correspondent. 

George Washburn Smalley, familiarly 
known in England as "the Dean of Amer- 
ican Correspondents," was born at 
Franklin, Massachusetts, June 2, 1833, 
and died in London, England, April 4, 
1916. He was graduated from Yale Col- 
lege in 1853, read law at Worcester, Mas- 
sachusetts, in the office of George F. 
Hoar, and after a course of study at the 
Harvard Law School was admitted to 
the bar in 1856, and practiced in Boston, 
Massachusetts, until 1861. By conviction 
a radical in affairs public, political and 
social, he had been actively affiliated with 
Garrison, Phillips, and their associates. 

At the opening of the Civil War he 
entered the service of the New York 
"Tribune" as correspondent in the field, 
going to South Carolina, and thence to 
Virginia, and was with the Union army 
in the campaigns of the Shenandoah and 
the Potomac. After the battle of Antie- 
tam (September 17, 1862), in which he 
served as a volunteer aide to General 
Joseph Hooker, Mr. Smalley rode horse- 
back thirty miles to a railroad train for 
the north, hastened as fast as it would 
carry him to New York City, wrote his 
famous account of that battle on the cars 
while en route, and furnished it to his 
journal in season to enable the "Tribune" 
to publish his accounts of the engagement 
in advance of all its contemporaries. The 
letter was worthy to make his reputation 
as a war correspondent, for, written at 
the speed with which it was produced, it 



was unsurpassed, perhaps unequaled, by 
any effort of the kind made during the 
whole four years of the conflict. It 
fixed his place in journalism, if he chose 
to have one. The same year he was mar- 
ried to Phoebe Gamant, of Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, adopted daughter of Wendell 
Phillips, and was attached to the editorial 
staff of the New York "Tribune." Dur- 
ing the draft riots in the summer of 1863 
in the city of New York, he was one of 
four members of the editorial corps who 
were associated in organizing and con- 
ducting the defence of the "Tribune" 
building against the rioters. The build- 
ing is spoken of by one of their number 
as having been a perfect arsenal of ex- 
plosives after the Monday night in July 
when an attack was made upon it and 
repelled by the police. 

In 1866 Mr. Smalley went to Europe at 
a day's notice, to observe and report for 
"The Tribune" the war between Prussia 
and Austria. In May, 1867, he went to 
England with power to organize "The 
Tribune's" European bureau, and estab- 
lished himself in that city permanently 
as its manager. In the Franco-Prussian 
War (1870) he went to the field, and his 
letters and dispatches to "The Tribune" 
from the seat of that struggle were all 
received at London, where they were 
edited by the bureau established under 
Mr. Smalley's supervision, and then 
transmitted by cable to New York. The 
partnership between the London "Tele- 
graph" and the New York "Tribune" in 
the collection and issue of this news, thus 
executed by Mr. Smalley, was pronounced 
by the English war-historian Kinglake 
"an era in the journalism of Europe." 
Since that time, while holding a continu- 
ous residence in London as the represen- 
tative of "The Tribune," Mr. Smalley left 
England from time to time for profes- 
sional visits to Paris, Berlin, and other 
political centers. Upon occasions of in- 



74 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



terest and through his letters to the 
"Tribune," the American public was kept 
apprised of the events of European and 
especially of English affairs and society, 
in what has been doubtless the best for- 
eign correspondence of any American 
journal. In 1878 Mr. Smalley was ap- 
pointed special commissioner from the 
United States to the Paris Exposition. 
In 1890 he published "London Letters 
and Some Others," in two volumes. In 
191 1 he published his "Anglo-American 
Memories," followed in 1912 by a second, 
which contained intimate accounts of the 
many prominent men he had met and 
great events he had observed and re- 
ported, and which attracted much atten- 



BRIGGS, Charles A., 

Theologian. 

The Rev. Charles Augustus Briggs, one 
of the most scholarly theologians and 
independent thinkers of his day, was born 
in New York City, January 15, 1841, son 
of Alanson and Sarah Mead (Berrian) 
Briggs. 

He was a student at the University of 
Virginia from 1857 t0 i860. In 1861, at 
the outbreak of the rebellion, he served 
for three months with the army, then 
entered the Union Theological Semi- 
nary of New York, remaining until 1863. 
For three years he was engaged in mer- 
cantile pursuits in New York City, then 
going to Germany, where he studied at 
the University of Berlin until 1869. Re- 
turning home, he was ordained by the 
Presbytery of Elizabeth, New Jersey, 
June 30, 1870, and the same year became 
pastor of the church in Roselle, New 
Jersey, which he served until 1874, when 
he was called to the Union Theological 
Seminary, and where he occupied the 
chair of Hebrew and Cognate Languages 
until 1890. In 1891, by the munificence 



of Mr. Charles Butler, a chair of Biblical 
Theology was endowed, and Dr. Briggs 
was installed therein until 1904, and leav- 
ing it to become Professor of Theology 
and Symbolics, and so serving the re- 
mainder of his life. From 1880 to 1890 
he was editor of the "Presbyterian Re- 
view." In 1892 he was brought to trial 
for heresy before the Presbytery of New 
York, and was acquitted ; but the fol- 
lowing year was suspended by the 
General Assembly. He later connected 
himself with the Protestant Episcopal 
church, and became deacon in 1899, and 
priest in 1900. 

His brilliant scholarship, exactness in 
investigation, enthusiasm and courage 
brought him world-wide fame. At the 
centenary celebration of the University 
of Edinburgh in 1884, the degree of Doc- 
tor of Divinity was conferred upon him — 
a distinguished honor, granted to only 
three Americans besides himself, a recog- 
nition not only of the rank he had attained 
in his own seminary, but of the estima- 
tion in which he was held abroad as a 
profound theologian. Yet, he was fallen 
upon troublous times. His investiture as 
Professor of Biblical Theology in Union 
Theological Seminary brought upon him 
condemnation by the Presbyterian Gen- 
eral Assembly. For some time he had 
provoked the criticism of his fellow-pres- 
byters by his utterances with reference 
to the verbal inspiration of the Bible. 
Before the action of the General Assem- 
bly there had been indications of conflict. 
Dr. Briggs was a recognized power, an 
exponent of opinions widely held among 
Presbyterians, but also widely denounced 
by others of the same sect. Respected as 
an original thinker and conscientious stu- 
dent, some were disinclined to reject his 
utterances ; others were more cautious in 
their acceptance of his judgment. Dr. 
Briggs, with a dignified self-respect not 
inconsistent with entire modesty, in reply 



75 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



to strictures made upon him, by Dr. 
Shedd, prior to the meeting of the Pres- 
bytery of New York, before which he had 
been summoned, said: "There are two 
things in which I may claim to be a spe- 
cialist ; one of them is in the theology of 
the Old Testament, and the other, the 
Westminster Confession. I have studied 
the Westminster documents repeatedly 
in all the great libraries of Great Britain. 
I have gathered in the library of the 
Union Theological Seminary, the best 
library of the Westminster divines out- 
side the British Museum. I have studied 
these divines with enthusiastic devotion 
for many years." On the basis of such 
preparation he asserted his right to speak 
with authority, claiming that new doc- 
trines had come into the field, new ques- 
tions had arisen, of which the West- 
minster Confession could not have had 
knowledge, and that the thoughts of men 
had widened. Dr. Briggs had published 
several works in which he presented his 
views without hesitation and with intense 
vigor. His lectures before his classes 
made a profound impression, but for some 
years no vigorous outspoken protest was 
made. In January, 1891, in an elaborate 
address before the Union Theological 
Seminary, he declared that "there are his- 
torically three great fountains of divine 
authority — the Bible, the church and the 
reason." He contended that "the major- 
ity of Christians from the Apostolic age 
have found God through the church." He 
declared reason to be "The Holy of Holies 
of human nature," in which "God pre- 
sents himself to those who seek him." 
He cited Newman as "finding God in the 
church," and Martineau as "one who 
could not find God in the church or in the 
Bible, but did find him enthroned in his 
own soul ;" and Spurgeon who "assails 
the church and reason in the interests of 
the authority of scripture." Upon these 
utterances were founded the charges 



made against him ; he was summoned be- 
fore the New York Presbytery, which 
dismissed the case; but in the General 
Assembly in May, 1893, the decision of 
the Presbytery was reversed, and he was 
suspended from the ministry, but he con- 
tinued his labors at the Union Theolog- 
ical Seminary. 

Among his published works are : "Bib- 
lical Study, its Methods and History" 
(1883) ; "American Presbyterianism, its 
Origin and Growth" (1885) ; "Messianic 
Prophecy" (1886); "Study of Higher 
Criticism with special reference to the 
Pentateuch" (1883) ; "Hebrew Poems of 
the Creation" (1884) ; "Poem of the Fall 
of Man ; Series of articles of Hebrew 
Poetry" (1886); "Opening Address on 
Biblical History" (1889) ; "Schaff-Lange 
Commentary on Ezra" (1876) ; "Address 
on Exegetical Theology" (1876) ; article 
in Encyclopedia Brittannica on "Presby- 
terianism in the United States ;" the 
"Right, Duty and Limits of Biblical Criti- 
cism" (1881) ; "Whither? A Theological 
Question for the Times" (1889) ; "How? 
A Series of Essays on the Revision Ques- 
tion" (1890) ; "Authority of the Holy 
Scripture" (1891) ; "The Bible, the 
Church, and the Reason" (1892) ; "The 
Higher Criticism of the Hexateuch" 
(1893); "The Messiah of the Gospels" 
(1894); "The Messiah of the Apostles" 
(1895); "General Introduction to the 
Study of the Holy Scripture" (1899). He 
died June 8, 1913. 



DI CESNOLA, Emmanuele, 

Distinguished Archaeologist. 

Emmanuele Pietro Paolo Maria Luigi 
Palma Di Cesnola was born in Rivarolo, 
near Turin, June 29, 1832. His family 
originally came from Spain in 1190, but 
resided in Piedmont after 1282, and as 
early as the fourteenth century. The Pal- 
mas were immensely rich and invested 



76 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



with feudal power over twenty-two towns 
and villages in Naples, in Sicily, and in 
the region near Turin. 

Cesnola received a collegiate educa- 
tion with a view to his preparation for 
the priesthood, but the war which in 
1848 broke out between Austria and Sar- 
dinia changed the direction of his life. 
Leaving college he volunteered as a pri- 
vate soldier in the Sardinian army. In 
February, 1849, for military valor he was 
promoted to a lieutenancy in the Ninth 
Regiment of the Queen's Royal Brigade, 
on the battle-field at Novara. He was 
then the youngest commissioned officer in 
the Sardinian regular army. After the 
close of the war he was sent to the Royal 
Military Academy at Cherasco, from 
which he was graduated in 1851. He 
served in the army several years, took 
part in the Crimean war, and at the end 
of i860 came to America, landing in New 
York. On the outbreak of the Civil War 
in 1861, he entered the volunteer service 
as lieutenant-colonel of the Eleventh New 
York Cavalry Regiment. In 1862 he was 
commissioned colonel of the Fourth New 
York Cavalry Regiment; led his brigade, 
attached to the Eleventh Army Corps, for 
several months, and for his heroic con- 
duct on the battle-field in a charge on 
June 17, 1863, he was complimented by 
General Kilpatrick, and at the same time 
was presented with the sword of that 
officer. In leading the fifth charge on that 
day he was severely wounded, was made 
prisoner, and was confined for over nine 
months in Libby Prison, Richmond, Vir- 
ginia. He planned an escape of the Union 
prisoners with the provision that a 
cavalry force under Kilpatrick, Custer and 
Dahlgren should create a diversion by a 
swift movement about the city of Rich- 
mond. However, Secretary of War Stan- 
ton declined to give his consent, and the 
plan was not carried out. Cesnola was 



with Sheridan throughout the campaign 
in the Shenandoah Valley, and when the 
term of service of his regiment expired 
he remained at the head of Devin's bri- 
gade, at the written request of General 
Wesley Merritt, his division commander. 
President Lincoln in 1865, in the presence 
of Senator Ira Harris and the Hon. Wil- 
liam H. Seward, conferred upon him the 
brevet rank of brigadier-general, and ap- 
pointed him the American Consul at 
Cyprus, and he became an American 
citizen. He remained in Cyprus until 
1877, when the consulate was abolished. 
While holding this office, he rendered 
such inestimable service that it is char- 
acterized by Sir Henry Layard as "adding 
a new chapter to the history of art and 
archaeology," by making archaeological ex- 
plorations in that island and collecting a 
large number of antiquities, afterward dis- 
played in the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, and which furnished the long missing 
link connecting Egyptian and Assyrian 
art with that of Greece. Many literary 
and scientific societies of Europe and 
America conferred upon General Cesnola 
honorary membership. King Victor Em- 
manuel and Humbert of Italy bestowed 
upon him several knightly orders, as did 
the King of Bavaria. In 1882, King Hum r 
bert of Italy caused a large gold medal to 
be struck in his honor, and sent him as a 
New Year's gift. In 1897, through the 
Secretary of War, he received the con- 
gressional medal of honor for which he 
had neither applied nor authorized anyone 
to do so in his name, and which was be- 
stowed upon him for his brilliant cavalry 
charges on June 17, 1863. In 1878 he was 
elected a trustee and secretary of the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, and when 
the museum was transferred from Four- 
teenth street to Central Park, the trustees 
unanimously made him chief director, 
Columbia University and Princeton Col- 



77 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



lege conferred upon him the honorary de- 
gree of LL. D. in 1880. He was the 
author of several works relating to his 
discoveries in Cyprus. 

In June, 1861, he was married to Mary 
Isabel, daughter of Captain Samuel Ches- 
ter Reid, of the United States navy, the 
heroic commander of the privateer "Gen- 
eral Armstrong." General Cesnola died 
November 21, 1904. 



SCHURZ, General Carl, 

Soldier, Statesman, Litterateur. 

Carl Schurz was born March 2, 1829, 
near Liblar, Prussia, Germany. He re- 
ceived instruction under his father and 
at eleven years of age was sent to the 
Gymnasium at Cologne, where he gradu- 
ated in 1847. He matriculated at Bonn 
University in 1847; m J 849 his connec- 
tion with the revolution caused him to 
discontinue study there. While there he 
fell under the spell of Professor Johann 
Gottfried Kinkel, an orator, poet, and 
idealist. In Bremen, Kinkel established 
the "Bonner Zeitung", and Schurz became 
his assistant editor and reporter; for a 
time Schurz edited the paper alone. Later 
Schurz went to Bavaria, joined the revo- 
lutionary forces, was appointed a lieuten- 
ant, and was made prisoner, but escaped 
to Switzerland. Later he went back to 
Germany incognito, and effected the res- 
cue of Kinkel, and they took refuge in 
Paris. In 1851 Schurz went to London; 
he there married and came to New York. 
Shortly afterward, Schurz settled in Phil- 
adelphia, where he studied English and 
law. In 1855 he traveled through several 
western States, and in 1856 returned to 
Europe with his family. He returned to 
this country again late that summer and 
made his residence at Watertown, Wis- 
consin. 

The newly formed Republican party 



had nominated Fremont for president, 
and the issues of anti-slavery enlisted the 
sympathies of Schurz, who made speeches 
in his native language to the Germans of 
Wisconsin. In 1857 he was nominated 
over his own protest for Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor of Wisconsin, and was defeated ; 
the other candidates on the Republican 
ticket were elected. During that cam- 
paign, Schurz spoke in the English lan- 
guage. In 1858 he enlisted in the Lincoln- 
Douglas contest in Illinois, in which he 
met Lincoln. In the Republican State 
Convention of 1859, Schurz was again 
nominated for Lieutenant-Governor of 
Wisconsin, but declined. Early in 1859 
he was admitted to the Wisconsin bar, 
and settled to practice at Milwaukee. As 
a speaker he was in constant demand, and 
the law was practically abandoned. 

Schurz was a member of the National 
Republican Convention of i860 at Chi- 
cago, and chairman of the Wisconsin 
delegation. He secured the adoption of 
a plank in the national platform, which 
declared against the impairment of poli- 
tical rights of foreign-born citizens, and 
pledged the party to oppose natavistic 
legislation then pending. The convention 
nominated Lincoln for President, and 
Schurz was made the Wisconsin repre- 
sentative on the committee to inform Lin- 
coln of his nomination. Schurz made a 
strenuous campaign, and soon after Lin- 
coln was inaugurated he was made Min- 
ister to Spain. Schurz presented his cre- 
dentials in Madrid, July 16. 1861, but the 
war impelled him to return to acquaint 
the President with the situation abroad ; 
so he resigned as Minister. He was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general of volunteers by 
President Lincoln, and on June 10, 1862, 
received command of the Third Division 
of Sigel's corps at Harrisonburg, Vir- 
ginia. Shortly afterward he participated 
in the Second Battle of Bull Run. and was 




C^ <yo<AsiA^K 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



among the officers commended by the 
Secretary of War. On March 14, 1863, 
he was made major-general of volunteers. 
Later, in the movements that eventuated 
in the battle of Chancellorsville, he com- 
manded a division, and participated in the 
battle of Gettysburg, July 1, 2 and 3, 1863, 
where for a time on July 1st he com- 
manded the Eleventh Corps. With his 
division he was sent to the relief of Chat- 
tanooga, Tennessee, late in 1863, partici- 
pated in the movements in and around 
Chattanooga that eventuated in the battles 
of Lookout Mountain and Missionary 
Ridge, and also went to the relief of 
Knoxville, in December, 1863. In March, 
1864, he commanded a recruiting camp at 
Edgefield, Tennessee. During the presi- 
dential campaign of 1864 he was a speaker 
for Lincoln. In the winter and spring of 
1864-65 he served in various military ca- 
pacities, and rejoined General Sherman 
in North Carolina and was present at the 
surrender of General Joseph E. Johnston, 
April 26, 1865, whereupon he resigned his 
commission. 

After the war, the question arose as to 
the legal status of the States that had 
seceded. Schurz contended that they 
should not be readmitted to full privileges 
until guarantees were given of their ac- 
ceptance of the emancipation of the slaves. 
President Johnson commissioned Schurz 
to visit the Southern States, and report 
to him their physical condition and the 
state of sentiment. His report, recom- 
mending a fuller investigation by Con- 
gress, was made the basis of subsequent 
legislation by Congress during the "Re- 
construction" period. 

Soon after, he became Washington cor- 
respondent of the "New York Tribune." 
In May, 1866, he became editor of the 
"Detroit Michigan Post," and in 1867 he 
became co-editor and joint owner of the 
"Westliche Post," St. Louis, Missouri. 



He visited Germany in 1868, and was 
granted an audience with Prince Bis- 
marck, who showed him special courtesy. 

Schurz was a member of the Missouri 
delegation to the National Republican 
Convention in 1868, of which he was tem- 
porary chairman, and he secured the adop- 
tion of a provision in the platform recom- 
mending general amnesty for most of the 
Confederate soldiers. In 1869 the Legis- 
lature of Missouri elected him United 
States Senator, the first German born 
citizen to attain that distinction in the 
United States. His career in the Senate 
was noted for his signal ability as a de- 
bater and parliamentarian ; and clearness 
and precision in argument. He opposed 
Grant's San Domingo annexation policy, 
which he virtually defeated. He opposed 
the "carpet-bag" rule of the South, but 
when the States accepted the abolition of 
slavery, he was the first to taken positive 
measures to restore the disfranchised citi- 
zens to full citizenship. To accomplish 
that end he secured the election of Ben- 
jamin Gratz Brown as Liberal Demo- 
cratic Governor. His speeches in the Sen- 
ate on the currency question and resump- 
tion of specie payments were models of 
sound financial doctrine. He began the 
agitation for tariff reform, and made the 
first effort to secure civil service reform. 
These efforts brought him into conflict 
with men then in power, and in 1872 he 
headed a movement to force the nomina- 
tion of a Reform candidate. The conven- 
tion called by Schurz and held in 1872, 
at Cincinnati, however, nominated Gree- 
ley for President on the Democratic 
ticket, whom in the end he reluctantly 
supported in preference to Grant, on re- 
form issues alone. 

When Schurz's term in the Senate ex- 
pired, he was given a complimentary din- 
ner in New York on April 27, 1875. He 
visited Europe again in 1875, and was 



79 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



banquetted in Berlin by admiring Ameri- 
cans then abroad, which was attended by 
many Germans of distinction. As soon 
as he returned he was appealed to by the 
Ohio Republicans to speak for Hayes and 
sound money, and enlisted in the cam- 
paign, which resulted in the election of 
Hayes as Governor. The following year 
he launched a movement to secure an un- 
biased expression of non-partisan senti- 
ment similar to that of his campaign of 
1872, but when Hayes was nominated for 
President on the Republican ticket, he 
cast his lot with the latter in preference 
to Tilden on the Democratic ticket. Hayes 
pledged himself to inaugurate Civil Serv- 
ice Reform, if elected, and Schurz made a 
strenuous campaign for him, who was 
finally declared to be elected, and Schurz 
was made Secretary of the Interior. He 
organized a system of promotion based 
upon merit, and was the first high official 
of the government to inaugurate serious 
reforms in the Civil Service. He also 
gave personally the same attention to his 
official duties that he was accustomed to 
employ in his own private business, re- 
formed abuses, and reorganized the In- 
terior Department on a more efficient 
basis. 

In 1881 he accepted the joint editorship 
of the New York "Evening Post", with 
E. L. Godkin, and Horace White ; how- 
ever, he withdrew in December, 1883, 
with the intention of taking up his per- 
sonal memoirs and other historical work. 
He was not pleased with the attitude 
of the Garfield-Arthur administration on 
civil service and other reform movements, 
and endorsed Cleveland for President, 
who was elected. Meanwhile he had be- 
come a foremost character in the Na- 
tional Civil Service Reform Association, 
organized by his friend, George William 
Curtis; and, after the death of Curtis, 
Mr. Schurz became president of the As- 



sociation, being reelected annually from 
1892 to 1901. He opposed ihe "imperial- 
ism" of the McKinley administration, 
after the Spanish-American War of 1898, 
and continued to advocate the principles 
of democracy as he conceived them, until 
his death. He was a forceful orator and 
an eloquent speaker, with complete com- 
mand of both the English language and 
his native German. 

Carl Schurz edited his speeches, pub- 
lished by J. B. Lippincott & Co. in 1885. 
He was the author of a "Life of Henry 
Clay," which was published in 1887, by 
Houghton, Mifflin & Company ; and 
wrote an "Essay on Abraham Lincoln" 
published in 1887. He was contributing 
editor to "Harper's Weekly" from 1892 to 
1898, and prepared "Carl Schurz's Rem- 
iniscences," in three volumes, published 
in 1909 by Doubleday, Page & Co. "The 
Life of Henry Clay" has been pronounced 
to be the best history of Henry Clay and 
his times ever written, while "Schurz's 
Reminiscences," prepared during the last 
three years of his lifetime, sparkle with a 
pleasant wit, interwoven with a beautiful 
Addisonian style. 

Death came to Carl Schurz on May 14, 
1906, in New York, after a winter's so- 
journ in the South. It cut short the story 
of his life in those reminiscences, and 
with his passing there appeared many 
eloquent tributes to his memory in the 
current literature of the day. Since that 
time a memorial fund was raised, which 
was expended in the erection of a statue 
of Carl Schurz on Morningside Heights, 
New York, where it now stands as a per- 
petual memorial of America's first great 
political reformer. 

Carl Schurz married, July 6, 1852, in 
London, England, Margaretha, daughter 
of Heinrich Christian and Agathe Marga- 
rethe (Ahlf) Meyer, of Hamburg, Ger- 
many. After Schurz and his wife estab- 



80 




:/. Au 



H 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



lished their home at Watertown, Wiscon- 
sin, she devoted herself to literary and 
educational work, establishing a Froebel 
Kindergarten there in 1856, which was 
the first of its kind in America. Her 
school was followed by another in 1858, 
at Columbia, Ohio, and in 1859 by a third 
at Boston, Massachusetts. Afterward, 
such schools became fixed in the educa- 
tional systems of many cities of this 
country. Mrs. Schurz died March 15, 
1876, in New York. 



SIGEL, General Franz, 

Educator, Soldier, Journalist. 

General Franz Sigel was born in the 
Grand Duchy of Baden, Germany, No- 
vember 24, 1824, third child and eldest 
son of Moritz and Anna Marie Pauline 
(Lichtenauer) Sigel. 

Young Sigel was at Carlsruhe, a cadet 
in the Military Academy, where he gradu- 
ated in 1843, and was commissioned lieu- 
tenant. After a duel with an adjutant of 
his battalion, he resigned and went to 
Heidelburg to study law, when news of 
the proclamation of the Republic in Paris 
came in February, 1848, and which inau- 
gurated the revolutionary movement that 
swept over Germany, Austria and Italy. 
Sigel organized an independent battalion 
at Mannheim. He joined in the uprising 
of 1848, which proved a failure, and he 
fled to Switzerland. In the spring of 1849 
the revolutionary movement broke out 
anew. Sigel returned to Carlsruhe and 
became Minister of War under the revo- 
lutionary government. On May 25 he 
was given command of the army on the 
Neckar, and led his troops in an engage- 
ment at Heppenheim. The plan of cross- 
ing the border into Wiirtemberg had to 
be abandoned on account of the objec- 
tions to entering a foreign state. Sigel 
resumed his duties as Minister of War, 
11 v-voi m-6 8 



and was again placed in command of the 
army. Shortly afterwards the revolution- 
ary government enlisted the services of 
General Ludwig Mieroslawski, the Polish 
revolutionist, who appointed Sigel adju- 
tant and second in command. Sigel took 
part in several engagements, but the revo- 
lution failed, and Sigel took refuge in 
Switzerland, where he wrote revolution- 
ary articles for the newspapers. In April, 
185 1, the Swiss government decided that 
his presence was no longer desirable, and 
General Sigel was escorted by gendarmes 
through Switzerland and France, and 
there permitted to take a boat to Eng- 
land. It was at a cafe in Paris, which he 
was permitted to visit, that he made the 
personal acquaintance of Carl Schurz. 
The two revolutionary officers were 
introduced by General Shimmelpfennig, 
who later commanded a brigade of vol- 
unteers in the Civil War in the United 
States. 

General Sigel landed at Southampton 
in 1851, and went to London, where he 
supported himself by playing the piano 
in the Chinese Exhibit at the Crystal 
Palace. The next year he came to New 
York and kept a cigar store. He gave 
lessons in Italian, mathematics and fenc- 
ing, and corresponded for German and 
English papers. For a time he was a 
surveyor and draftsman, and assisted 
with the plans of the projected Crystal 
Palace in New York. In 1854, he married 
Elise Dulon, the eldest daughter of Dr. 
Rudolph Dulon, and for several years 
taught mathematics, mechanics, transla- 
tion, and American history, in the Ger- 
man-American school of his father-in-law. 
Three time a week he drilled the pupils 
and gave instructions in tactics. In the 
evening he taught English in a night 
school. He also conducted a German- 
American Sunday school at the Turn 
Hall, was teacher of fencing, and for a 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



time was president of the Turn-Verein, 
wrote for the "School of the People," 
wrote for the Turn-Verein a manual of 
gymnastics and fencing, and translated 
Scott's tactics for the Turners. From 
1855-57 he was instructor in tactics of 
the Fifth New York Regiment of Militia. 
For about a year he edited and published 
"The Review," a military, technical and 
literary monthly magazine for the militia, 
Turners and other societies. In 1857 he 
accepted a position as teacher in the Ger- 
man Institution of St. Louis, with a yearly 
salary of $800. In April, i860, he received 
his final citizenship papers, on the eve of 
his election as a director of the School 
Board of St. Louis. 

At no time did Sigel have any sympa- 
thy for the principle of slavery and the 
doctrine of secession, and he was an ardent 
supporter of Lincoln. After the secession 
of South Carolina he engaged in organiz- 
ing and drilling a company to meet the 
preparations made by Governor Jackson, 
of Missouri, who sympathized with the 
South. The secessionists established a 
camp with the intention of taking the 
arsenal in St. Louis, with its military 
stores. The United States government 
sent Captain Nathaniel Lyon to command 
the Union troops at St. Louis, and when 
Lincoln's first call for volunteers came, it 
found citizens in St. Louis prepared. 
Under the leadership of Lyon, Blair and 
Sigel, Camp Jackson was taken, and the 
United States Arsenal saved. General 
Sigel organized the Third Missouri Regi- 
ment, made up entirely of German-Ameri- 
cans, and became its colonel. In com- 
mand of a brigade he marched against 
the secessionists at Carthage, in South- 
west Missouri, and attacked them vigor- 
ously with fifteen hundred men, July 5, 
1861 ; but was obliged to fall back to 
Deep River, where he reorganized his 
force and became attached to the army of 



General Nathaniel Lyon. In the battle of 
Wilson's Creek, where Lyon fell, he gained 
the rear of the Confederates, but the 
death of Lyon created confusion, and 
Sigel was overwhelmed and obliged to re- 
treat. 

Sigel, promoted to brigadier-general, 
was by General Fremont given command 
of a division, and later of two divisions, 
and ordered to join the army of General 
S. R. Curtis, and took part in the battle of 
Pea Ridge, Arkansas. Soon after he was 
commissioned major-general, and on June 
1, 1862, he was given command of the 
forces at Harper's Ferry and Maryland 
Heights, and followed "Stonewall" Jack- 
son to Winchester, Virginia. On June 
25, 1862, he was given command of the 
First Corps, Army of Virginia, and was 
present at the battle of Cedar Mountain. 
He commanded the forces along the Rap- 
pahannock river, having in addition to 
his own corps a division of General Banks, 
and a division of the Ninth Corps. At the 
Second Battle of Bull Run he opened the 
battle by attacking "Stonewall'' Jackson, 
near Groveton. In the beginning he 
gained decided advantage, and it was his 
corps that covered the retreat to Wash- 
ington, which ended the conflict. 

In September, 1862, Sigel commanded 
the Eleventh Corps and the Grand Re- 
serve Division, which was present but did 
not participate in the battle of Fredericks- 
burg. In the disputes resulting from the 
Second Battle of Bull Run, Sigel was in- 
volved, and personal relations became so 
difficult that he deemed it wise to resign 
his command of the Eleventh Corps, just 
prior to Chancellorsville, and he accepted 
a command in the Department of the Le- 
high, with headquarters at Reading, Penn- 
sylvania, and was stationed there when 
the battle of Gettysburg was fought. 
Soon afterward, owing to illness, he was 
obliged to accept a leave of absence. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Returning to duty in February, 1864, 
he was given command of the Depart- 
ment of West Virginia, and was defeated 
by a superior force under General John C. 
Breckinridge, near Newmarket. In con- 
sequence, he was relieved and placed in 
charge of the division guarding Harper's 
Ferry. In July, 1864, he successfully de- 
fended Maryland Heights against Gen- 
eral Early, giving time for the Sixth and 
Nineteenth army corps to reach the na- 
tional capital and save it from capture. 
The administration, however, had lost 
confidence in Sigel, and he was relieved 
of his command and ordered to Baltimore, 
and he resigned in May, 1865. 

While a resident of Baltimore, he edited 
the "Baltimore Wecker," a German news- 
paper. He took an active part as a 
speaker in promoting the reelection of 
President Lincoln. In 1866 he removed 
to New York City. President Grant ap- 
pointed him Collector of Internal Reve- 
nue, and in 1869 he was the Republican 
candidate for Secretary of State, but the 
Democratic ticket was elected. President 
Grant appointed him a special member of 
the commission which visited Santo Do- 
mingo, and reported to Congress in favor 
of annexation. The same year he was 
elected Register of the City of New York, 
the Reform Democratic party joining the 
Republicans in giving him a majority of 
the votes cast, and he served to January, 
1875. For President in 1880, General 
Sigel warmly supported Hancock, and 
thereafter was known as a Democrat up 
to 1896, when he supported McKinley, 
having no sympathy with the monetary 
teachings advocated by Bryan. He served 
the city of New York as equity clerk in 
the office of the county clerk, and in 1885 
President Cleveland appointed him Pen- 
sion Agent at New York, and he filled 
that office with credit, 1885-1888. After 
his retirement he continued to reside in 



New York City, lecturing throughout the 
country on military and historical sub- 
jects, in advertising business, and for 
several years published the "New York 
Monthly," a journal printed part in Ger- 
man and part in English, devoted to the 
interests of German-American citizens. 
By special act of Congress he was granted 
a pension of $1,200 per annum. 

He died at his home in New York City, 
August 21, 1902. A full length portrait 
in oil of General Sigel occupies a place in 
the court house in Carthage, Missouri, 
the scene of one of his early battles. An 
equestrian statue in Forest Park, St. 
Louis, was unveiled in 1906. Franz Sigel 
Park in the Bronx, New York City, was 
named for him. In 1908 a statue was 
placed on Riverside Drive, New York 
City, and at the unveiling of the statue, 
prominent in the marching procession 
were noted Grand Army posts, with 
members being German-American soldiers 
who had served under General Sigel in 
Missouri and Arkansas, and others who 
were in his Virginia campaign. 

General Franz Sigel married, in Janu- 
ary, 1854, Elise Dulon, sister of Rudolph 
Dulon, who was born in the city of 
Bremen, Germany, and died in New 
York, December 18, 1905. 



WOODFORD, Stewart L., 

Soldier, Diplomatist. 

General Stewart Lyndon Woodford 
was born in New York City, September 
3, 1835, son of Josiah Curtis and Susan 
(Terry) Woodford, and eighth in descent 
from Thomas Woodford, a native of Bos- 
ton, Lincolnshire, England, who settled 
at Dorchester, Massachusetts, in 1635, 
and became one of the founders of Hart- 
ford, Connecticut. His great-grandfather, 
William Woodford, of Farmington, Con- 
necticut, was a soldier in the Revolution, 



83 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



and his grandfather, Chandler Woodford, 
of Avon, was in the War of 1812. Through 
his mother, General Woodford descends 
from one of the original settlers of South- 
old, Long Island. 

Steward L. Woodford was prepared for 
college at the Columbia Grammar School, 
New York City, and was graduated from 
Columbia University in 1854. He studied 
law in 1858, was admitted to the bar, and 
became a member of the law firm of 
Woodford & Ritch. For more than half 
a century he continued in active practice, 
and among other firms was a partner in 
1870 of the firm of Arnoux, Ritch & 
Woodford, and in 1910 became senior 
member of Woodford, Bovee & Butcher. 
Early in life he began to take an active 
interest in public affairs. He was a dele- 
gate to the Republican National Conven- 
tion of i860, which nominated Lincoln 
for the presidency, and was messenger of 
the Electoral College of New York to 
Washington, bearing the votes of his 
State for Lincoln. Early in 1861 he was 
appointed Assistant United States Dis- 
trict Attorney for the Southern District 
of New York, and as such had charge of 
the bureau which conducted all the block- 
ade cases and such litigation as grew of 
the war. He resigned in 1862 to enter 
the army, enlisting in the One Hundred 
and Twenty-seventh Regiment New York 
Volunteers, in which he was made captain, 
and later was promoted to lieutenant- 
colonel. He was judge advocate-general 
of the Department of the South, provost 
marshal-general and later chief-of-staff to 
General Ouincy A. Gilmore, commanding 
that department. He was the first mili- 
tary governor of Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, after its capture by the Federal 
forces, and was then transferred to the 
command of Savannah, having been pre- 
viously promoted to colonel and brevetted 
brigadier-general for gallantry in action. 



At the close of the war General Wood- 
ford returned to law practice, but was 
again drawn into public life. In 1866 he 
was elected on the Republican ticket Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of the State of New 
York. In 1870 he was the Republican 
candidate for Governor, and was defeated 
by John T. Hoffman ; his friends always 
insisted that he been elected and counted 
out, a contention which was confirmed by 
the ante mortem confessions of William 
M. Tweed and A. Oakly Hall. In 1872 
he was elector-at-large and president of 
the Electoral College of New York, and 
in the same year was elected to Congress 
from the Third Brooklyn District. In 
1877 he was appointed United States Dis- 
trict Attorney for the Southern District 
of New York by President Grant, and 
was appointed in 1881 by President Gar- 
field, who also offered him his choice 
between three foreign missions, which 
General Woodford declined, preferring to 
remain in the practice of his profession. 
He was delegate to the Republican Na- 
tional Conventions of 1872, 1876 and 1880, 
and was prominent in the last two as a 
candidate for the vice-presidential nomi- 
nation, withdrawing in 1876 in favor of 
William A. Wheeler, and in 1880 himself 
placing Chester A. Arthur in nomination. 
In 1875, although a New Yorker, he par- 
ticipated in the Ohio gubernatorial cam- 
paign, conducting a series of joint debates 
with General Thomas Ewing, the leader 
of the Ohio Democracy, on the question 
of the resumption of specie payment. 
Rutherford B. Hayes was elected Gov- 
ernor upon this issue, and this decision 
in favor of sound money fixed the attitude 
of the parties and restored the financial 
credit of the nation. Meanwhile General 
Woodford had resumed his law practice, 
his firm becoming Arnoux, Ritch &Wood- 
ford. In 1896 he was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Morton one of the commissioners 



84 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



to frame the charter of the Greater New- 
York. In 1896, during the sound money 
campaign, he again came forward as an 
ardent advocate of safe and honest cur- 
rency. As permanent chairman of the 
Republican State Convention at Saratoga 
he delivered the keynote speech, and later 
took part in the campaign, speaking 
throughout the country in advocacy of 
sound money. In 1897 President McKin- 
ley appointed him United States Minister 
to Spain, a post which, owing to the com- 
plications regarding Cuba, was the most 
responsible in the entire diplomatic serv- 
ice. Among his earliest communications 
to the Spanish government was one ten- 
dering the good offices of the United 
States toward establishing permanent 
peace in Cuba, an offer which was not 
accepted. General Woodford distin- 
guished himself by the coolness, firmness 
and tact with which he met the delicate 
and complicated situation growing out of 
the unfortunate letter of Senor Polo y 
Bernabe, and the closely following de- 
struction of the battleship "Maine," 
events which greatly inflamed public 
opinion in America. General Woodford's 
policy of authorizing the Spanish govern- 
ment to publish in full all negotiations 
conducted by him, excited the surprise of 
the ministers, and became famous as the 
"new American diplomacy." He remained 
in Madrid until April 21, 1898, when he 
was informed that diplomatic relations 
were severed, and received his passports 
before he had an opportunity to present 
the ultimatum of the United States, re- 
quiring that within forty-eight hours 
Spain should relinquish all claims to 
sovereignty in Cuba. Returning home, 
he declined a commission as major-gen- 
eral tendered by President McKinley, and 
continued titular minister to Spain until 
September, 1898, when he resigned. He 
was a member of the New York State Re- 



publican Convention of 1898, which nomi- 
nated Roosevelt for Governor, and as 
chairman of the committee on resolutions 
reported the platform announcing the 
position of the party in New York on the 
Cuban question. He was active in the 
succeeding campaign of Governor Hughes, 
whom he placed in nomination for the 
presidency at the Republican convention 
in Chicago. He was president of the Hud- 
son-Fulton Commission in 1909, and after 
the celebration in New York was sent by 
the government to Europe to present 
gold medals to the rulers whose countries 
sent battleships to the celebration. He 
was decorated by the German Emperor 
with the Prussian Order of the Crown of 
the first class, and was granted audiences 
by the Queen of Holland, the President of 
France, the King of Italy, and the King 
of England. He was also decorated with 
the Order of the Rising Sun, second class, 
by the Emperor of Japan, the highest 
decoration conferred upon foreigners. 

General Woodford was married in 1857 
to Julia E. Capen, daughter of Henry T. 
Capen, of New York. She died in June, 
1899 ; he married (second) September 26, 
1900, Isabel, daughter of James S. Han- 
son, who survived him. At the time of 
his decease he was commander-in-chief 
of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion, 
and a member of the Grand Army of the 
Republic, the Sons of the Revolution, the 
Society of Colonial Wars, the New York 
Chamber of Commerce, the Pilgrim So- 
ciety, the Lawyers' Club, the University 
Club, the Century Club, the Lotos Club, 
and the Republican Club of New York, 
the Union League and Hamilton clubs of 
Brooklyn, and the New England Society 
of both New York and Brooklyn. He 
was for many years a trustee of Cornell 
University: was a director in the City 
Savings Bank of Brooklyn ; and general 
counsel and director in the Metropolitan 



85 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Life Insurance Company. The degree of 
A. M. was conferred upon him by Colum- 
bia, Trinity and Yale colleges ; that of 
LL. D. by Trinity, Dickinson and Mari- 
etta colleges ; and that of D. C. L. by 
Syracuse University. He was a member 
of the Delta Psi and D. K. E. fraternities. 
General Woodford died at his home in 
New York, February 14, 1913. 



SIBLEY, Hiram, 

Loader Among Men. 

Great leaders are few. The mass of 
men seem content to remain in the posi- 
tions in which they are placed by birth, 
experience or environment. Laudable am- 
bition, ready adaptability and a capacity 
for hard work are essential elements of 
success, and in none of these require- 
ments was Hiram Sibley ever found lack- 
ing. It is not a matter of marvel, there- 
fore, that he occupied a preeminent posi- 
tion among the builders of Rochester and 
the promoters of progress and develop- 
ment in various sections of the country. 
In fact, his interests were so wide, that 
he was a man not of one locality, but of 
the nation. The eminence to which he 
attained was due also to the fact that he 
had the ability to recognize the opportune 
moment and to correctly appraise the 
value of a situation and determine its pos- 
sible outcome. It was these qualities that 
enabled him to enter upon his first great 
work in amalgamating and coordinating 
the forces that led to the establishment 
of the Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany. The history of the invention of the 
telegraph is too well known to need re- 
iteration here. The great majority of the 
members of Congress and the men promi- 
nent in the country doubted the worth of 
the ideas which found birth in the fertile 
brain of Samuel F. B. Morse. Not so 
with Mr. Sibley, and with wonderful pre- 



science he recognized what this might 
mean to the country and his executive 
ability was brought to play in the organ- 
ization of what is now one of the most 
useful and powerful corporations of the 
world. 

No special advantages aided him at the 
outset of his career. On the contrary, he 
was deprived of many advantages which 
most boys enjoy. A native of North 
Adams, Massachusetts, he was born Feb- 
ruary 6, 1807, and was the second son of 
Benjamin and Zilpha (Davis) Sibley, 
who were representatives of old New 
England families that had been founded 
on American soil at an early epoch in the 
history of our country. He had com- 
paratively little hope of acquiring an 
education, but nature endowed him with 
a strong mind and keen discernment. He 
possessed, also, much mechanical genius, 
used every chance which he had for its 
development, and before he had attained 
his majority was master of five trades. 
His mechanical knowledge and his skill 
proved an important factor in the sub- 
stantial development of Monroe county. 
Years later, in an address made to the 
students of Sibley College, on a visit to 
Ithaca, he gave utterance to words which 
were typical of his own life, saying: 
"There are two most valuable posses- 
sions, which no search warrant can get 
at, which no execution can take away, 
and which no reverse of fortune can 
destroy; they are what a man puts into 
his head — knowledge ; and into his hands 
—skill." 

Mr. Sibley used every opportunity to 
acquire both, and therein lay the founda- 
tion of his wonderfully successful career. 
At the age of sixteen he became a resi- 
dent of Western New York, locating 
first in Livingston county, where for sev- 
eral years he carried on business as a 
wool carder, machinist and iron founder. 




'"'"" y/,/7,. 



% 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



In 1829 he came to Monroe county and 
the following year entered into partner- 
ship with D. A. Watson, in the building 
and operation of a saw mill and factory 
for the construction of wool carding ma- 
chines. They also began the manufacture 
of agricultural implements, having the 
first blast furnace and machine shop in 
Monroe county. Around the new enter- 
prise there sprang up a flourishing vil- 
lage which was called Sibleyville. In 
his business Mr. Sibley gave employment 
to eighty men, but later he and his part- 
ner were called elsewhere by more exten- 
sive business interests, and the town 
gradually sank into decadence, so that 
only the mill and the shop mark its site 
at the present time. 

Having been elected sheriff of Mon- 
roe county in 1843, Mr. Sibley removed 
to Rochester, where he afterward con- 
tinued to reside. Previous to this time 
he had become deeply interested in the 
experiments of Professor S. F. B. Morse 
and Stephen Vail in telegraphy, and in 
1840 had gone to Washington with Pro- 
fessor Morse and Ezra Cornell to secur 
an appropriation of forty thousand dol- 
lars from Congress to build a telegraph 
line from Washington to Baltimore. 
They were successful in their mission, 
and the success of the line and the sub- 
sequent development of telegraphic com- 
munication is now a matter of history. 
Quickly following on the successful estab- 
lishment of this pioneer line, several tele- 
graph companies were organized but they 
met with financial disaster. With firm 
faith in the invention and with a keen 
foresight which recognized possibilities 
and the influence it would have on the 
world's progress, Mr. Sibley bought the 
house patents and with other Rochester 
capitalists organized the New York & 
Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph 
Company on April 1, 1851. The first 
hundred miles of the line were finished 



that year. Three years later the company 
leased the lines of the Lake Erie Tele- 
graph Company. At this time Ezra Cor- 
nell was in possession of valuable grants 
under the Morse patent and controlled 
the Erie & Michigan Telegraph Com- 
pany. Mr. Sibley then opened negoti- 
ations with Mr. Cornell, and in 1856 the 
companies controlled by them were 
united by acts of the Wisconsin and New 
York legislatures under the name of the 
Western Union Telegraph Company. 
For ten years Mr. Sibley was president 
of the new company and for sixteen years 
a leading member of its board of directors. 
During the first six years of his presi- 
dency the number of telegraph offices 
was increased from one hundred ar ' 
thirty-two to four thousand and the prop- 
erty rose in value from two hundred and 
twenty thousand to forty-eight million 
dollars. 

It was Hiram Sibley who projected the 
Atlantic and Pacific line to California, ar ' 
it was built under his direction and con- 
trol. His associates of the Western 
Union were unwilling to undertake the 
enterprise as a company and Cyrus W. 
Field, Wilson G. Hunt, Peter Cooper, and 
others, engaged in large undertakings at 
the time, whom he strove to interest in 
the matter, also deemed the project pre- 
mature. With a persistence and confi- 
dence in the soundness of his judgment 
which were characteristics of the man, 
he then presented his project to Congress 
and was heartily supported by Howell 
Cobb, Secretary of the Treasury. June 
16, i860, an act was passed encouraging 
the project and granting an annual su 1 
sidy of forty thousand dollars for ten 
years, and on September 22, his offer to 
construct the lines was officially accepted. 
The Overland Telegraph Company was 
organized in San Francisco, and, the two 
companies uniting their interests, the 
Pacific Telegraph Company came into 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



existence. Five months later the line was 
opened from ocean to ocean — ten years 
in advance of the completion of a trans- 
continental railroad ! A profitable invest- 
ment from the start, this line, March 17, 
1864, was merged into the Western Union 
Telegraph system. Before the success of 
the Atlantic cable was assured Mr. Sibley 
was interested in a project to unite the 
old and the new world electrically by way 
of Behring Strait. In the furtherance of 
that enterprise he made a visit to Russia 
in 1864-65, and was received most cor- 
dially by the Czar, who assigned to his 
American guest the second place of honor 
at state functions, the French ambassador 
alone taking precedence of him. The 
Russian government entered into hearty 
cooperation with the American projectors 
for the establishment of the line, which 
would undoubtedly have been built had 
not the Atlantic cable been put into suc- 
cessful operation about that time. 

The purchase of Alaska by the United 
States government was first suggested 
during an interview Mr. Sibley was hav- 
ing with regard to the projected Behring 
Strait telegraph line with Prime Minister 
Gortschcoff. Mr. Sibley was asked how 
the American company proposed to ac- 
quire right-of-way across the territories 
of British America and the Hudson Bay 
Company. He replied that he thought 
there would be little difficulty in securing 
a right-of-way over the territory referred 
to, except in the case of the Hudson Bay 
Company ; that while in London he had 
submitted the matter to the directors of 
the Hudson Bay Company, who did not 
welcome the proposition with enthusiasm 
and as a consequence he thought it might 
be necessary to acquire a considerable 
interest in the Hudson Bay Company. 

The minister asked him what would be 
the probable cost to the American com- 
pany, to which Mr. Sibley replied stating 



a considerable sum which drew from the 
minister the remark that it was not worth 
any such sum ; that Russia would sell the 
whole of Alaska for a sum not much 
bigger. At the end of the interview Mr. 
Sibley asked the minister whether he 
intended his remark in regard to Alaska 
to be taken seriously and whether he 
might bring it to the attention of the 
United States government. To which 
the minister replied that he was quite 
serious and had no objection to the sug- 
gestion being made to the United States 
government. Mr. Sibley lost no time in 
communicating this suggestion to Gen- 
eral Cassius M. Clay, at that time minister 
of the United States at the Court of 
Russia, who in turn at once communi- 
cated the information to Secretary Se- 
ward at Washington. The result, of 
course, is known to everybody. 

In addition to his labors for the intro- 
duction of the telegraph, Mr. Sibley was 
largely instrumental in promoting other 
enterprises, for with wonderful foresight 
he believed in the rapid development of 
the western country. After the war, 
prompted more by the desire of restor- 
ing amicable relations than by the pros- 
pect of gain, he made large and varied 
investments in railroads in the south and 
did much to promote renewed business 
activity. He became extensively inter- 
ested in lumber and salt manufacturing 
in the west and was the owner of nearly 
three hundred and fifty farms in Ford 
and Livingston counties, Illinois. At one 
time he possessed forty-seven thousand 
acres in Ford county alone, and on his 
land he made splendid improvements of 
a substantial and extensive character. He 
also established a large seed-raising busi- 
ness in Rochester, with warehouses in 
this city and Chicago, and undertook to 
supply seeds of his own importation and 
raising and others' growth, under a per- 




ut> 



^-«-»-l 



^M -a-^JL ^ 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



sonal knowledge of their vitality and 
comparative value. He instituted many 
experiments for the improvement of 
plants, with reference to their seed-bear- 
ing qualities, and built up a business as 
unique in its character as it was unprt 
cedented in amount. He was president 
of the Bank of Monroe and connectc 
with many other Rochester institutions 
that led to the upbuilding of the city. 

His broad, humanitarian spirit, how- 
ever, was manifest in many other ways. 
His deep appreciation of the value of 
education and his desire for the mental 
improvement of America was substantial- 
ly manifested in a most practical way. 
He endowed a number of institutions for 
the promotion of learning and established 
Sibley Hall for the use of the library of 
the University of Rochester, at a cost of 
one hundred thousand dollars. He gave 
to it many valuable volumes and provided 
for the free use of the library by the 
public. He was one of the trustees to 
incorporate the Reynolds Library. He 
also endowed the Sibley College of Me- 
chanical Arts at Cornell University at a 
cost of two hundred thousand dollars, and 
thus set in motion a movement of intel- 
lectual advancement, the influence of 
which is incalculable. 

Mr. Sibley was particularly happy in 
his home life. He married Elizabeth M. 
Tinker, a daughter of Giles and Zilphia 
(Knight) Tinker, who were natives of 
Connecticut. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Sibley 
were born the following named children : 
Louise, who became the wife of Hobart 
F. Atkinson, and died in 1868, at the age 
of thirty-four, leaving two children — 
Elizabeth, wife of Arthur Smith, and 
Marie L., who married Harry H. Perkins ; 
Giles B., who died at the age of two 
years; Hiram Watson, of Rochester; and 
Emily, the wife of James S. Watson. 
Like her husband, Mrs. Sibley delighted 



in doing good, and was long actively con- 
nected with the Church Home of Roches- 
ter, to which she was a generous con- 
tributor. Mrs. Sibley also erected St. 
John's Episcopal Church, in North 
Adams, Massachusetts, her native village, 
at a cost of twenty-five thousand dollars, 
and a few years later she added a chancel 
at a cost of twenty-five thousand dollars 
more. Her private charities and benefac- 
tions were many, for her heart was most 
sympathetic, and the worthy poor never 
sought her aid in vain. She has passed 
away, and Mr. Sibley died July 12, 1888, 
after reaching the eighty-first milestone 
on life's journey, but as long as the his- 
tory of America and its progress shall be 
recorded his name will be closely inter- 
woven therewith, for what he did in the 
promotion of its telegraphic and railroad 
interests and also by reason of his efforts 
for educational advancement. Of him a 
contemporary biographer has said: "He 
amassed wealth, but was most generous 
and helpful in his use of it. His asso- 
ciation with one of the most important 
inventions the world has ever known, 
would of itself class him among the fore- 
most men of the nineteenth century, but 
his nature was so broad, his resources so 
great and his mentality so strong, that 
his efforts in that line were but the initial 
step in a most active and useful career, 
whereby the world has been enriched 
materially, mentally and morally." 



JONES, W. Martin, 

Lawyer, Humanitarian. 

At the head of the legal profession are 
some of the finest characters and the most 
undoubted talents produced by twentieth 
century civilization, and the honor of a 
place in this list was the just due of the 
late W. Martin Jones, of Rochester, New 
York. There is no career that offers 



89 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



greater opportunities for a man of the 
incisive type of mind than the practice of 
the law. Here the man whose mental 
gifts are of the highest order finds scope 
for their use and opportunity for con- 
tinual improvement in the contact with 
others that are pitted against him. But 
it was not in his legal practice alone that 
Mr. Jones earned the commendation and 
won the admiration of all right thinking 
men ; he was a well known leader in the 
cause of temperance, and it is owing 
largely to his efforts that that cause has 
made the forward strides it has achieved 
in recent years. As a statesman Mr. 
Jones also proved his worth, as a perusal 
of the following lines will show. He was 
a son of Thomas P. Jones, born in Builth, 
Wales, and Lodoiska (Butler) Jones, wno 
was born at Crown Point, New York, 
and who was related to Benjamin F. 
Butler. She was a woman of brilliant 
mind and strong character, traits which 
she transmitted in rich measure to her 
son, the subject of this sketch. 

W. Martin Jones was born in Manlius, 
Onondaga county, New York, July 24, 
1841, and died after a year's illness, May 
3, 1906. He was a child of tender years 
when his parents removed to Knowles- 
ville, New York, and there obtained his 
elementary education. He prepared for 
college at Albion Academy, from which 
he was graduated, and was about to 
matriculate at Yale College when the out- 
break of the Civil War caused him to 
change his plans. He had formed the 
acquaintance of Edwin D. Morgan, the 
War Governor of New York, and when this 
gentleman became a United States Sen- 
ator, Mr. Jones was selected to act as his 
private secretary, an office he filled two 
years. He became the private secretary 
of Secretary of State William H. Seward 
in 1864, acted in the same capacity to his 
son, Frederick W. Seward, and so capable 



did he prove himself in this responsible 
post, that he was advanced to the post 
of chief clerk of the Consular Bureau in 
the State Department. Almost morbidly 
conscientious in looking after all the 
details of this office personally, the close 
application this necessitated frequently 
kept him at work until long after mid- 
night in order to prepare the necessary 
instructions to United States representa- 
tives in all parts of the world, watching 
Confederate blockade runners, and guard- 
ing the interests of the republic in foreign 
countries. During this time he was in 
close touch with everything that con- 
cerned the President and his cabinet, and 
was frequently made aware of plots 
against the government or those high in 
office, and took the necessary steps to 
counteract all such plans. He was 
present in Ford's Theatre, not twenty 
feet away from President Lincoln when 
the latter was assassinated. At the close 
of the war Mr. Jones was appointed 
United States Consul at Clifton, Canada, 
his resignation from the Consular Bureau 
being very regretfully accepted by Mr. 
Seward. He was in Clifton five years, 
and while giving faithful attention to the 
discharge of his consular duties, utilized 
his spare time in the study of law, and 
upon his return to the United States in 
1871 took up his residence in Rochester, 
New York. In due course of time he 
was admitted to the bar, and it was not 
long before he had climbed the legal 
ladder, achieving a position of such 
prominence that some of his cases are 
quoted as authoritative all over the 
country. 

The cause of temperance engaged the 
attention of Mr. Jones at a very early 
age. He was but ten years of age when 
he became a Cadet of Temperance, and 
some years later became a member of the 
order of Sons of Temperance. He affili- 



90 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ated with the Order of Good Templars 
in 1867, and soon became a leading spirit 
in that organization ; he was elected 
Grand Chief Templar of New York State 
in 1879, was the incumbent of this office 
for four consecutive years, and served as 
treasurer of the International Body of 
Good Templars for a period of seven 
years. Politically a Republican for many 
years, he yet regarded the Prohibition 
movement as the most important issue 
of the time, and when the Republican 
party failed to redeem its temperance 
pledges, made at the Richfield Springs 
Convention of 1882, he gave his entire 
support to the Prohibition party, and was 
a pioneer candidate on its tickets, at a 
time when he knew he would only invite 
ridicule and persecution, but he had the 
courage of his convictions and remained 
true to his principles. He was a candi- 
date for Attorney-General in 1885, and 
for Governor in 1888, of the State of 
New York, upon the Prohibition ticket, 
and in the following campaign he received 
the largest Prohibition vote ever cast in 
the State of New York, running ahead of 
the National ticket. In the Free Silver 
campaign of 1896, Mr. Jones took a posi- 
tion in favor of the gold standard, and 
as the Prohibition party failed to recog- 
nize any issue except the cause of temper- 
ance, and as the Republican party ap- 
peared to recognize the merit of this 
cause, Mr. Jones again gave his support 
to the Republican party, and stumped the 
State of Michigan against the Hon. John 
P. St. John, who had been the Prohibition 
candidate for President of the United 
States in 1883, and who was then advo- 
cating free silver. 

Mr. Jones entertained most decided 
opinions on the question of international 
peace and was a decided supporter of 
international arbitration. In 1896, when 
the Venezuela boundary question was the 
subject of heated discussion, Mr. Jones' 



opinions were well known, and at a meet- 
ing of the New York State Bar Asso- 
ciation he was chosen as a member of a 
committee of nine, appointed for the 
purpose of considering the question of 
arbitration between Great Britain and the 
United States. Hon. Chauncey M. Depew 
and Professor John Bassett Moore, of 
Columbia University, were appointed 
advisory members of this committee. 
Mr. Jones set forth his views at the first 
meeting of this committee, and called 
attention to the difficulties attending 
arbitration where only the litigants are 
the arbiters, and forcibly advocated the 
establishment of a "permanent interna- 
tional court of arbitration" composed of 
representatives of several nations. At 
this meeting he and Hon. Walter S. 
Logan, of New York, were appointed a 
sub-committee, and had in charge the 
duty of devising and presenting to che 
full committee a plan for such a court ; the 
duty of drafting the desired resolutions 
fell upon Mr. Jones, and the report which 
he prepared was successively approved, 
without alteration or amendment, by the 
sub-committee, the whole committee and 
the Bar Association itself, at a special 
meeting called to consider the matter, 
and a committee was then appointed to 
present the memorial to the President of 
the United States. Hon. Edward G. 
Whitaker, president of the Bar Associ- 
ation, Judge William D. Veeder, chair- 
man of the committee, and Mr. Jones 
made this presentation, April 21, 1896, 
and the ablest journals of the day com- 
mented favorably on both the memorial 
and the report, and the Albany Law Jour- 
nal, having published both in full, closed 
an approving editorial as follows : "We 
believe the plan of the Bar Association 
is well devised and properly considered 
and it should be, if nothing more, at least 
a step toward some practical result." The 
memorial is here given in full : 



9' 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



To the President: 

The Petition of the New York State Bar 
Association respectfully shows: 

That impelled by a sense of duty to the State 
and Nation and a purpose to serve the cause of 
humanity everywhere, your Petitioner at its 
annual session held in the City of Albany on the 
22nd day of January, 1896, appointed a commit- 
tee to consider the subject of International 
Arbitration, and to devise and submit to it a plan 
for the organization of a tribunal to which may 
hereafter be submitted controverted inter- 
national questions between the governments of 
Great Britain and the United States. 

That said committee entered upon the per- 
formance of its duty at once, and after long 
and careful deliberation reached the conclusion 
that it is impracticable, if not impossible, to form 
a satisfactory Anglo-American Tribunal, for the 
adjustment of grave International controversies, 
that shall be composed only of representatives 
of the two governments of Great Britain and 
the United States. 

That in order that the subject might receive 
more mature and careful consideration, the mat- 
ter was referred to a sub-committee, by whom an 
extended report was made to the full committee. 
This report was adopted as the report of the 
full committee, and at a special meeting of the 
State Bar Association called to consider the 
matter and held at the State Capitol in the City 
of Albany, on the 16th day of April, 1896, the 
action of the committee was affirmed and the 
plan submitted fully endorsed. As the report 
referred to contains the argument in brief, both 
in support of the contention that it is imprac- 
ticable to organize a court composed only of 
representatives of the governments of Great 
Britain and the United States, and in support 
of the plan outlined in it, a copy of the report 
is hereto appended and your Petitioner asks that 
it be made and considered a part of this Peti- 
tion. 

That your Petitioner cordially endorses the 
principle of arbitration for the settlement of all 
controversies between civilized nations and it 
believes that it is quite within the possibility 
of the educated intellects of the leading Powers 
of the world to agree upon a plan for a great 
central World's Court, that, by the common 
consent of nations, shall eventually have juris- 
diction of all disputes arising between Independ- 
ent Powers that cannot be adjusted by friendly 
diplomatic negotiations. Holding tenaciously to 
this opinion, and conscious that there must be a 
first step in every good work, else there will 



never be a second, your Petitioner respectfully 
but earnestly urges your early consideration of 
the subject that ultimately, — at least during the 
early years of the coming century — the honest 
purpose of good men of every nation may be 
realized in devising means for the peaceful solu- 
tion of menacing disputes between civilized 
nations. Your Petitioner therefore submits to 
you the following recommendations: 

First: The establishment of a permanent 
International Tribunal to be known as "The 
International Court of Arbitration." 

Second: Such court to be composed of nine 
members, one each from nine independent 
states or nations, such representative to be a 
member of the Supreme or Highest Court of 
the nation he shall represent, chosen by a major- 
ity vote of his associates, because of his high 
character as a publicist and judge and his 
recognized ability and irreproachable integrity. 
Each judge thus selected to hold office during 
life, or the will of the Court selecting him. 

Third: The court thus constituted to make 
its own rules of procedure, to have power to 
fix its place of sessions and to change the same 
from time to time as circumstances and the 
convenience of litigants may suggest and to 
appoint such clerks and attendants as the Court 
may require. 

Fourth: Controverted questions arising be- 
tween any two or more Independent Powers, 
whether represented in said "International Court 
of Arbitration" or not, at the option of said 
Powers, to be submitted by treaty between said 
Powers to said Court, providing only that said 
treaty shall contain a stipulation to the effect 
that all parties thereto shall respect and abide 
by the rules and regulations of said Court and 
conform to whatever determination it shall 
make of said controversy. 

Fifth: Said Court to be opened at all times 
for the filing of cases and counter cases under 
treaty stipulations by any nation, whether rep- 
resented in the Court or not, and such orderly 
proceedings in the interim between sessions of 
the Court in preparation for argument and sub- 
mission of the controversy as may seem neces- 
sary, to be taken as the rules of the Court pro- 
vide for and may be agreed upon between the 
litigants. 

Sixth: Independent Powers not represented 
in said Court, but which may have become 
parties litigant in a controversy before it, and 
by treaty stipulation have agreed to submit to 
its adjudication, to comply with the rules of the 
Court, and to contribute such stipulated amount 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



to its expenses as may be provided for by its 
rules or determined by the Court. 

Your Petitioner also recommends that you 
enter at once into correspondence and nego- 
tiation, through the proper diplomatic channels 
with representatives of the governments of 
Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia, The 
Netherlands, Mexico, Brazil and the Argentine 
Republic for a union with the government of 
the United States in the laudable undertaking 
of forming an International Court, substantially 
on the basis herein outlined. 

Your Petitioner presumes it is unnecessary 
to enter into further argument in support of the 
foregoing propositions than is contained in the 
report of its committee, which is appended 
hereto, and which your Petitioner has already 
asked to have considered a part of this petition. 
Your Petitioner will be pardoned, however, if 
it invite especial attention to that part of the 
report emphasizing the fact that the plan herein 
outlined is intended, if adopted, at once to meet 
the universal demand among English-speaking 
people for a permanent tribunal to settle con- 
tested international questions that may here- 
after arise between the governments of Great 
Britain and the United States. 

While it is contended that it is wholly im- 
practicable to form such a tribunal without the 
friendly interposition of other nations on the 
joint invitation of the Powers who united in its 
organization, it is very evident that a most 
acceptable permanent International Court may 
be speedily secured by the united and harmoni- 
ous action of said Powers as already suggested. 
Should obstacles be interposed to the accept- 
ance by any of the Powers named by your Peti- 
tioner, of the invitation to name a representa- 
tive for such a Court, on the plan herein gen- 
erally outlined, some other equally satisfactory 
Power could be solicited to unite in the creation 
of such a Court. 

Believing that in the fulfillment of its destiny 
among the civilized nations of the world, 
it has devolved upon the younger of the two 
Anglo-Saxon Powers, now happily in the en- 
joyment of nothing but future peaceful pros- 
pects, to take the first step looking to the 
permanency of peace among nations, your Peti- 
tioner, representing the Bar of the Empire 
State, earnestly appeals to you as the Chief 
Executive officer of the government of the 
United States, to take such timely action as 
shall lead eventually to the organization of such 
a tribunal as has been outlined in the foregoing 
recommendations. While ominous sounds of 



martial preparation are in the air, the ship 
builder's hammer is industriously welding the 
bolt, and arsenals are testing armor plates, your 
Petitioner, apprehensive for the future, feels 
that delays are dangerous, and it urgently 
recommends that action be taken at once by 
you to compass the realization of the dream of 
good men in every period of the world's history, 
when nations shall learn war no more and en- 
lightened reason shall fight the only battle 
fought among the children of men. 

And Your Petitioner Will Ever Pray. 
Attested in behalf of the New York State Bar 
Association at the Capitol in the City of Albany, 
N. Y., April 16th, 1896. 

Ed. G. Whitaker, President. 

L. B. Proctor, Secretary. 

Copies of this memorial were sent to a 
number of foreign governments and to 
prominent people throughout the world, 
including the Czar of Russia. In 1899, 
when the Czar of Russia issued his call 
for a disarmament conference, to be held 
at The Hague, the New York State Bar 
Association called another meeting, and 
Mr. Jones, as chairman of a special com- 
mittee, was appointed to draw up resolu- 
tions relative to the subjects to be dis- 
cussed by the proposed conference. The 
fact was at once recognized that dis- 
armament alone was an impracticable 
course, and that the first step toward 
universal peace must be the establish- 
ment of an international court to which 
all nations might turn. The memorial 
which was drawn up in pursuance of this 
idea was substantially the same as that 
prepared in 1896, above referred to. 
Copies of it were sent by the State De- 
partment of the United States govern- 
ment to the delegates at the first Hague 
Conference, where it became known as 
the "American Plan." The organization 
of the Hague Court was largely the result 
of the influence of this memorial upon 
that conference. At first there was much 
opposition to any such scheme, particu- 
larly on the part of Germany, but the 
plan won and so the first step was taken 



93 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



toward the ultimate goal of universal 
peace. Numerous nations have taken 
their disputes to this court for settlement. 
Mr. Jones joined the Masonic order while 
residing in Washington, was a member 
of Valley Lodge, Free and Accepted 
Masons, and of Monroe Commandery, 
Knights Templar, of Rochester ; the 
American, New York State and Roches- 
ter Bar associations ; Mohonk Lake Peace 
Conference ; Bibliophile Society of Bos- 
ton ; Society of the Genesee; American 
Peace Society, and Independent Order of 
Good Templars. He was a delegate, in 
1904, from the New York State Bar Asso- 
ciation to the International Congress of 
Lawyers and Jurists, at St. Louis. 

Mr. Jones married, July 5, 1871, Ger- 
trude M. Nicholls, at Buffalo, New York, 
a woman of fine mental caliber, which 
proved of great worth to her gifted hus- 
band. One of their children died in 
infancy, the others are: Gertrude Min- 
nie, W. Martin, Jr., and Abram Nicholls. 
W. Martin, Jr., born December 20, 1874, 
attended School No. 15, Professor Hale's 
preparatory school, Mechanics' Institute 
and University of Rochester, receiving 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1899. 
He studied law with his father, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1901. He practiced 
law and engaged in mining business. He 
is a member of Rochester, New York 
State, and American Bar associations ; 
Company A (Eighth Separate Company), 
Third Infantry, National Guard, State of 
New York ; American Society for Judicial 
Settlement of International Disputes. 
Abram Nicholls, born January II, 1886, 
attended schools Nos. 11 and 15, East 
High, University of Rochester, receiving 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1909. 
He studied law with his brother, and was 
admitted to the bar in 191 1, and has prac- 
ticed ever since. He is a member of the 
Rochester Bar Association, Young Men's 
Christian Association and Dante Alighieri. 



HARRIS, James, 

Representative Citizen, Public Official. 

Honored and respected by all, there 
was no man who occupied a more enviable 
position in all circles than the late James 
Harris, of Fairport, Monroe county, New 
York. Success is determined by one's 
ability to recognize opportunity and to 
pursue it with a resolute, unflagging 
energy. Success results from continued 
labor, and the man who accomplishes his 
purpose usually becomes an important 
factor in the business circles of the com- 
munity with which he is identified. 
Through his energy, progressiveness and 
executive ability, the late James Harris 
attained a leading place among the repre- 
sentative men of his community and his 
well spent and honorable life commanded 
the admiration of all who knew him, 
either personally or by reputation. 

William Harris, Sr., his grandfather, 
descended from an honorable Scotch an- 
cestry, whose sterling characteristics 
have been transmitted to their descend- 
ants in rich measure, became a leader in 
public thought and action in the com- 
munity in which he lived. He emigrated 
to America in 1802, and established his 
first home in Montgomery county, in a 
Scotch settlement founded by Sir Wil- 
liam Johnson. He married Mary Kil- 
patrick, a native of the highlands of Scot- 
land, whose ancestry can be traced to the 
days of Wallace and Bruce. 

William Harris, Jr., eldest son of Wil- 
liam and Mary (Kilpatrick) Harris, was 
eighteen years of age when he came to 
this country with his parents. A very 
short time after his marriage he removed 
to the Genesee country, his wife's father 
and family coming with them. They 
were leaders in this community from its 
earliest days. Mr. Harris organized the 
first school in that section and taught it 
in 1810, and the early intellectual develop- 



94 




VtA^ut^^O 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ment of the country rested chiefly on his 
shoulders. Later he removed to a farm 
in Penfield, on which he resided until his 
death in December, 1842. He was a Pres- 
byterian in religious faith, a Whig in 
political opinion, and was considered a 
wise counselor by all who knew him. A 
contemporary biographer has said of 
him: 

Endowed with the attributes of a fine nature 
and gifted with an unusual amount of intellec- 
tual ability, he was a man of rare judgment, of 
deep penetration and of great energy. 

Mr. Harris married, in April, 1806, 
Sallie Shoecraft, eldest daughter of John 
Shoecraft, a patriot of the Revolutionary 
War, who enlisted from Ulster county, 
New York, and served under General 
Washington. At the conclusion of this 
struggle he married, in Washington 
county, New York, Betsey McKee, of 
Scotch parentage, whose family had been 
prominent in the settlement of that part 
of the State, but who later removed to 
Fulton county. When they removed 
with Mr. Harris, they all settled at what 
is now Webster, Monroe county. Mr. 
Shoecraft and his two sons were members 
of the State militia during the War of 
1812. Mr. and Mrs. Harris had eleven 
children, of whom the eldest, a son, died 
in early manhood, and the youngest, a 
daughter, died in infancy. The others 
were: Mary K., married Abner O. 
Osborn ; Betsey M., married John M. 
Watson ; Sallie, married Albert Ray- 
mond ; William, a farmer, became the 
owner of the old homestead, and died 
there in September, 1886; Martha, mar- 
ried Hiram W. Allen ; George F. ; Robert ; 
James, of whom further; Peter, also an 
agriculturist. 

James Harris, son of William and Sallie 
(Shoecraft) Harris, was born in Webster, 
New York, July 7, 1821, and died at 
Fairport, New York, March 6, 1911, after 



a gradual failing of about a year. He 
was an apt pupil at the district schools 
in the vicinity of his home, and for two 
terms attended the sessions of a select 
school in the village of Penfield. Under 
the able guidance of his father his educa- 
tion was continued at home, after leaving 
school, by means of well selected reading 
and diversified study. At the age of 
nineteen years, Mr. Harris was well 
fitted to enter upon the profession of 
teaching, and during the next seven years 
he taught in a district school during the 
winter months, his summers being spent 
in assisting his father in the cultivation 
of the latter's farm. That he was re- 
garded as a man of understanding and 
ability even in his earlier years is evi- 
denced by the fact of his being chosen i 
fill the office of justice of the peace whc 
he was but twenty-one years of age, and 
was the incumbent of this office four 
years. The cause of education had ever 
appealed to him very strongly, and he 
was subsequently chosen as town super- 
intendent of schools, and as town clerk. 
He was one of the incorporators of the 
old Penfield Seminary in 1857, and served 
as one of its trustees during the entire 
period of its existence. When this insti- 
tution had outlived its usefulness, he was 
appointed a member of the committee to 
procure the passage of a legislative act 
authorizing the sale of the property to 
the Penfield graded school. In 1843 Gov- 
ernor William C. Bouck appointed Mr. 
Harris as captain of a uniformed company 
of militia, attached to the Fifty-second 
Regiment, later being advanced to the 
rank of major. With all the demands 
which these public offices made upon Mr. 
Harris, he yet found time, in 1850, to 
establish a general mercantile business, 
which he conducted with a large amount 
of success until 1857. At not infrequent 
intervals he was called upon to act as 
administrator of numerous estates, and 



95 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



he was a commissioner in the distribu- 
tion of lands. As an agriculturist Mr. 
Harris was eminently successful, and 
was the owner of valuable farm property 
in various sections. He took up his resi- 
dence on the old homestead farm, east 
of the village of Penfield, April I, 1866, 
and resided there until his removal to 
Fairport in 1904. Even after taking up 
his residence there he was accustomed to 
superintend the management of his farms, 
his son, Charles L., having the active 
management of them. 

In the political life of the town Mr. 
Harris was also a prominent figure. 
Originally a Whig, he affiliated with the 
Republican party upon its formation, and 
always took a keen interest in the public 
affairs of the community. In 1853 he was 
elected supervisor of Penfield by one of 
the largest majorities ever accorded a 
candidate, and was honored by reelection 
to this office fifteen times during the fol- 
lowing twenty-two years, an enviable 
record. While the office was at no time 
a sinecure, during the Civil War period it 
brought with it additional responsibilities 
for its incumbent, which were met by Mr. 
Harris in a masterly manner. Firm in his 
support of the Union, he did all he could 
to promote its interests. Not long after 
the fall of Fort Sumter a special tow 
meeting was called for the purpose of 
adopting suitable measures and appoint- 
ing a Committee of Public Safety, Mr. 
Harris being chosen as one of the three 
members of this committee. He served 
in this capacity until again elected to the 
office of supervisor in the spring of 1864, 
when the business of the committee was 
entrusted entirely to his discretion and 
so continued until the end of the recon- 
struction period which followed the close 
of the war. In the discharge of these 
important and arduous duties he mani- 
fested executive ability of a high order, 



keen foresight, a thorough understanding 
of the situation, and an intense loyalty 
to the best interests of the county. With 
the cooperation of many of the leading 
citizens of the community, he filled the 
town's quota without a single inhabitant 
being drafted, save a few who were 
drafted early in the war during the act 
conferring option of service or a pay- 
ment of three hundred dollars each. His 
method was a purely business transaction. 
The call had been for one-year men and 
the town offered a bounty of five hundred 
dollars to each volunteer. Realizing that 
men could be had for three years without 
increasing the bounties if the bonds were 
converted into cash, he wisely discrimi- 
nated in favor of the longer term of en- 
listment, raised the necessary money and 
filled the quota with three-year men to 
the number of sixty-three, and bonds 
were issued to the amount of thirty-one 
thousand five hundred dollars, and when 
the war closed the State of New York, 
under the law equalizing bounties, paid 
back nearly two-thirds of this sum, or 
about twenty thousand dollars to the 
town. As a member of the board and 
chairman of its finance committee he was 
largely instrumental in promoting the law 
which changed the system formerly pur- 
sued in the county treasurer's office to 
its present status, involving not only the 
disposition of public moneys but of 
returned taxes as well. As he was the 
first treasurer elected after the passage 
of this law, he put it into operation during 
his three years' term, which commenced, 
October 1, 1876. After the close of this 
term of office he never again consented 
to hold public office, although frequently 
solicited to do so. For many years he 
was a member of the Baptist church, and 
a regular attendant at its services. He 
was a member of the Monroe County 
Historical Societv, and a charter member 



96 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



of the Association of Supervisors and Ex- 
Supervisors of Monroe County, and was 
unanimously elected as its president, Au- 
gust 7, 1895. 

Mr. Harris married (first) December 
I, 1847, Martha M. Pope, who died Janu- 
ary 1, 1880, a daughter of William Pope, 
of Penfield. He married (second) Feb- 
ruary 21, 1883, Mrs. Horace P. Lewis, a 
widow, and daughter of Charles Lacey, 
formerly of Poughkeepsie, New York. 
Children by first marriage: James Dar- 
win, a farmer at Fairport; Robert, born 
in 1856, died in 1887; Mary K. ; George 
H., junior member of the law firm of 
Werner & Harris, of Rochester, and w 
married Hattie Higbie, of Penfield, and 
has children: Donald, Duncan, and Adair. 
By the second marriage there were chil- 
dren : Charles Lacey, who was gradu- 
ated from the University of Rochester, 
now resides on home farm in Penfield ; 
Angie K., who was graduated from the 
Fairport High School in the training class, 
taught in the Honeoye Falls schools, and 
then in a Fairport school; became the 
wife of L. Waynebaumer. 



O'CONNOR, Joseph, 

Journalist, Essayist, Poet. 

American journalism has attained the 
dignity of a profession, the "fourth 
estate," recognized, by the talent and 
consecration enlisted in its service, as on 
a par with the other three known as "the 
learned professions." It is safe to say 
that there are scores of writers on the 
press to-day who in style and substance 
will not suffer by comparison with the dis- 
tinguished English essayists of the eight- 
eenth century; but their multiplicity 
diminishes their eminence. The plain has 
been lifted to the peaks; the individual is 
lost in the crowd. Ego rex, dominant in 
journalism for three-quarters of a cen- 

N Y-Vol IH-7 97 



tury, has abdicated his throne, whether 
for good or for ill, it is not presumed here 
to determine. It is the paper now that 
speaks, not the man behind it. Freneau, 
Leggett, Bryant and Webb, Croswell, 
Weed and Prentice, Greeley, Raymond, 
Dana, Curtis and their compeers have dis- 
appeared and few are they who have suc- 
ceeded to their chairs. These few, it 
were, perhaps, invidious to mention; but 
in their circle Joseph O'Connor unques- 
tionably belongs, although the large part 
of his work was done on the provincial, 
rather than the metropolitan press. 

Joseph O'Connor, of Celtic lineage, of 
the sept of the O'Connors of Offaly, the 
son of Joseph and Mary (Finlay) O'Con- 
nor, was born at Tribes Hill, Montgomery 
county, New York, December 17, 1841. 
His father was a man of scholarly tastes, 
but endowed with only a small portion 
of worldly wealth. He died at West Ber 
gen in 1854 from injuries received in 
saving a friend from being thrown before 
a locomotive by a frightened horse. The 
family then moved to Rochester, where 
Joseph entered school, and having pre- 
pared for college and received a scholar- 
ship, studied at the University of Roches- 
ter and was graduated in 1863. 

Some desultory newspaper work was 
followed by a short term in a stone-yard, 
where he learned his father's trade, stone- 
cutting, probably in uncertainty as to his 
future course. It was a mere episode, but 
one to which he afterward looked back as 
a valuable experience. This was followed 
by a year or two of service as teacher of 
Latin in the high school, during which 
time he studied law and was admitted to 
the bar. He had just opened an office, 
however, when to oblige a friend he acted 
as reporter on the Rochester "Democrat" 
in his friend's absence ; and thus began 
what proved to be his life-work. Shortly 
after he was made editor-in-chief ; but his 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



fundamental proclivities were of the Jef- 
fersonian school, and he was therefore 
restive on the staff of a Republican sheet. 
He remained, however, with the "Demo- 
crat" until 1873. In that year he became 
editor of the Indianapolis "Sentinel," a 
noteworthy Democratic journal of large 
State influence, with which he remained 
until 1875, when he became associate 
editor of the New York "World" under 
Manton Marble, forming one of the bril- 
liant group that made the "World" 
famous, acting, for a time, as the 
"World's" Washington correspondent. 
In 1879 he left the "World," going as 
associate editor to the Buffalo "Courier" 
when David Gray, that accomplished 
writer, of poetic soul, was editor-in-chief. 
Three years later, upon the retirement of 
David Gray, he was promoted to the 
editor's chair, resigning in 1885. It is an 
open secret that his resignation was 
induced by his inability to approve the 
administration or the personality of 
Grover Cleveland, his judgment of whom, 
whether well or ill-conceived, was an 
honest one. In 1886 he was called to edit 
the Rochester "Post-Express," then an 
independent journal, and for ten years 
filled the position with power and bril- 
liancy. In 1896 the paper was resolved 
into a Republican organ, and Mr. O'Con- 
nor at once severed his connection there- 
with, refusing as always to become the 
protagonist of any party, reserving his 
privilege to write as he believed. On his 
retirement from this editorship it was 
said of him that he had done more than 
any other man to elevate the tone of 
Rochester journalism. That was true ; he 
was courteous, sympathetic, just, con- 
scientious, cultured ; he uniformly aimed 
to do the best for the community; he 
always sought to recommend to the atten- 
tion of his readers whatsoever made for 
purity and goodness, and he put into the 
work of the day as much literary finish 



and original thought as great capacity 
and great effort might furnish ; his profes- 
sional motives squared with his upright 
character. 

After a year as editor of the Buffalo 
"Enquirer," Mr. O'Connor returned to 
Rochester and in 1898 began writing for 
the "Post-Express" a column under the 
title "The Rochesterian," which he con- 
tinued until his death. It was signed 
with his initials, being understood, there- 
fore, as the expression of his own opin- 
ions, for which he alone was responsible. 
During this time he wrote also extended 
reviews of important books for the same 
paper and for the New York "Times." 
Two volumes of selections from his news- 
paper work and his other writings were 
published in 191 1 with the title of "The 
Rochesterian." 

Beside his newspaper work Mr. O'Con- 
nor was an occasional contributor to 
magazines on any subject that interested 
him. He was an undisputed authority 
on Civil War history and contributed to 
Appleton's "Encyclopedia of Amer- 
ican Biography." During the first Mc- 
Kinley administration, he was urged by 
his friends for the post of minister to the 
Netherlands, but did not press the ap- 
pointment. 

As a poet, he had an unusual gift of 
sympathetic expression, and at the earn- 
est solicitation of his friends published a 
volume of his verse. He wrote the "Ode," 
at the celebration of New York Day at 
the World's Columbian Exposition, and 
the "Commemorative Ode" read on the 
occasion of the hundredth anniversary of 
the British evacuation of Fort Niagara, 
this being one of his most charming com- 
positions. 

He had a genius for helpfulness and in 
no way did he express it more than toward 
the younger members of his profession. 
He was ever ready to respond to a plea 
for help, and from the vast storehouse 



98 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



of knowledge was ready and even eager 
to give. Yet he was so modest that he 
would again and again excuse himself 
from speaking in public, though all were 
eager to hear the man with whose written 
speech they were so familiar. He lived 
most unostentatiously and made no effort 
to impress the public with his attain- 
ments, loving scholarship for scholar- 
ship's sake. His last appearance in public 
was at the annual roastfest of the Roches- 
ter Newswriter's Club at which he was 
the guest of honor. His speech, the event 
of the evening, was one in which he spoke 
clearly, forcibly and feelingly of what he 
thought a newspaper should be. One of 
his marked characteristics was a keen 
sense of humor. He possessed an in- 
exhaustible fund of anecdotes and was a 
charming story teller. His humor was 
without sting, free from sarcasm, but 
sparkling and always spontaneous. He 
died suddenly, as he would have wished, 
while sitting in his chair, at his home in 
Frank street, Rochester, October 9, 1908. 

He married, November 26, 1877, Evan- 
geline, daughter of Reuben and Almira 
(Alexander) Johnson, and sister of Ros- 
siter Johnson, the encyclopedist and his 
lifelong friend. She survives him with 
one daughter. Mrs. O'Connor graduated 
at the Rochester Free Academy, and pur- 
sued literary studies in conjunction with 
her husband. She has translated Flamini's 
"History of Italian Literature," also other 
books from the German and Italian, and 
is the author of "Index to Hawthorne's 
Works (with sketch of his life) ;" "Index 
to Works of Shakespeare," "Famous 
Names in Fiction," and has contributed 
largely to encyclopedias. 

Mr. O'Connor was a member of the 
Delta Upsilon, Greek letter fraternity, 
and one of the original board of trustees 
that erected the chapter house in Strat- 
hallan Park. He was also a member of 
the Genesee Valley and Rochester Whist, 



social clubs, and of the Fortnightly, Pun- 
dit and Browning, literary clubs, before 
whom he read many papers. At the risk 
of something of repetition, the present 
writer ventures to append the personal 
note that he wrote in the "Post-Express" 
at the time of Mr. O'Connor's death : 

In the death of Joseph O'Connor, a brilliant 
light in letters has been extinguished For 
many years it has been radiant in verse, in scho- 
larship, and in journalism. Many gifts were his. 
He had the soul of a poet, receptive of all that 
was best in art and literature, expressive in his 
fair and stately measures. His memory was 
singularly acute, retentive and serviceable — a 
mine of wealth from which he freely drew. He 
ranged the entire field of letters, familiar alike 
with the masters of the Elizabethan and Vic- 
torian ages. He knew the bye-ways, as well as 
the broad ways, of English thought, and was 
well acquainted with the paths which the classic 
and the later European authors pursued, and 
was an accomplished linguist. His knowledge 
was wide, various and precise. Choosing jour- 
nalism as his profession, he dedicated to it exact 
information of his country's history, its states- 
men and heroes, a keen perception of its political 
and social needs, a constant sympathy with 
purity and wisdom in the conduct of its affairs, 
and a style in writing remarkable for lucidity, 
coherence and strength. He emphasized his 
abhorrence of all that was mean and debasing 
in words that stung and slew. Cleaving to all 
that was upright and true, his words were brave 
and inspiring — exalting journalism. More than 
all, was his absolute fealty to his convictions, 
from which neither flattery nor menace could 
deflect him and which, more than once, cost 
him position and apparently preferment His 
sincerity was rock-ribbed in his nature and 
commanded a respect and wielded an influ- 
ence rarely accorded to one of his calling. 
Thus equipped he became one of the lead- 
ing journalists of the land, to whom his asso- 
ciates deferred and whom the community ac- 
claimed. His literary essays were of the most 
charming character. His appreciations and 
criticisms were erudite, searching and exhaus- 
tive. In them were gems that sparkled and an 
exquisite finish that revealed his artistic quality. 
Had he confined himself to literature, it is possi- 
ble that he might have had larger repute, but 
he could not have had larger usefulness. In 
conversation, with his copious stores of learning, 



99 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



he was essentially fascinating. Nights with him 
were ambrosial; I recall many such. It is some- 
times hard to reflect that a journalist writes as 
in sand, and that the advancing waves obliterate 
his tracings, but Joseph O'Connor did so much 
to enlighten and elevate his day that one may 
hope that much which he said may endure, that 
his grace and skill and force may still abide. 
We, who knew him well, grieve that he has 
gone, that hand-clasp and heart-talk with him 
have ceased, but we rejoice that he labored so 
earnestly and achieved so greatly, and led us 
along so many ways that were instructful, 
delightful and ennobling. 



SHERWOOD, Hon. George, 

Clergyman, Legislator. 

In the life of the late Hon. George 
Sherwood, of Binghamton, New York, 
there were elements of greatness because 
of the use he made of his talents and 
opportunities, and because of his fulfill- 
ment of his duty as a man in relation to 
his fellowmen, and as a citizen in relation 
to his State and country, and last, but not 
least, as a minister of the Gospel. Place 
and preferment were never solicited by 
him, and partisan connections were con- 
sistently avoided, yet honors were con- 
ferred upon him by his fellow citizens 
which have eluded the covetous grasp of 
those who have formed parties to attain 
them. The space he filled in the com- 
munity in which he lived was wide and 
influential. His family was an ancient 
and honorable one. 

Thomas Sherwood, of "Sherwood For- 
est," England, was born in 1586, and died 
at Fairfield, Fairfield county, Connecticut, 
in October, 1655. He came from Ipswich, 
England, in April, 1634, in the ship 
"Francis," with his wife, Alice, and four 
children — Ann, Rose, Thomas and Re- 
becca. He is first heard of here as a 
resident of Massachusetts, but he was in 
Fairfield county as early as 1645. He is 
mentioned in the first volume of the Colo- 
nial Records as having: bought land in 



Fairfield county in 1653. By his first wife, 
Alice, he had eight children, and by his 
second wife, Mary Fitch, he had four, 
the names of all being (not in order of 
birth) : Jane Thomasine, Margaret Sarah, 
Hannah, Rose, Thomas, Rebecca, Ste- 
phen, Matthew, Mary, Ruth, Abigail and 
Isaac. 

Isaac Sherwood, son of Thomas and 
Mary (Fitch) Sherwood, was born in 
1655, and died in 1739. He had land 
grants at Eastchester, New York. In 
1678 he was of Rye, New York, and in 
1687, of Westport, Connecticut. He 
married Elizabeth Jackson, and had chil- 
dren: Daniel, Isaac, John, David, Abigail, 
Thomas and Elizabeth. 

Thomas Sherwood, son of Isaac and 
Elizabeth (Jackson) Sherwood, died at 
Albany, New York, August 5, 1756, in 
the French and Indian War, in which he 
was captain of Whitney's company. He 
married Eleanor Churchill, of Green 
Farms, Connecticut, who died October 1, 
1754- 

John Sherwood, son of Thomas and 
Eleanor (Churchill) Sherwood, married, 
March 24, 1761, Mary Gorham. Chil- 
dren : Asa, of further mention ; Levi, 
born June 17, 1764; Ellen, February 23, 
1766; Abigail, November 18, 1770; John, 
September 10, 1773; Hezekiah, twin of 
John ; Hannah, July 28, 1776. 

Asa Sherwood, son of John and Mary 
(Gorham) Sherwood, was born July 4, 
1762. He was a soldier in the Revolu- 
tion, enlisting at Fairfield, Connecticut, 
February 1, 1777; was also in the Second 
Connecticut Regiment, under Colonel 
Swift, and in the Fourth Connecticut, 
under Colonel Meigs. He married Molly 
Phillips, daughter of a New York City 
merchant, who had also a son in the Con- 
tinental army, captured by the British 
and confined in one of the prison ships, 
but finally released through the influence 
of the father. Children : Isaac, William, 




iJcotcio ©lictwoo3 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Asa, David, Gorham, John, Sally and 
Nabby. 

Isaac Sherwood, son of Asa and Molly 
(Phillips) Sherwood, was born probably 
at Guilford, New York; married Amy 
Budlong, of Cassville, New York. Chil- 
dren: Johanna, married Frank Ursley, 
and lived at Waverly ; Ira, married Mary 
Wallace, and lived at Genegantslet, New 
York; Asa, died young; Mary, married 
William Thomas, and lived at Pontoosuc, 
Illinois ; Eliza, married David Leach, and 
lived at Webster, Illinois ; Stephen, mar- 
ried Clara Babcock, and lived at Greene ; 
Sarah, married Albert Sprague, and lived 
at Binghamton ; George, whose name 
is at the head of this sketch ; Amy, mar- 
ried Myron Stanton, and lived at Greene ; 
Lucy, married Joseph Bixby, and lived at 
Waverly; Sophronia, married Thomas 
Cowan, and lived at Port Crane ; Daniel, 
died in infancy ; Mandana, married Edwin 
Adams, and lived at Binghamton ; David, 
married Rosanna Warner, and lived at 
Greene. 

Hon. George Sherwood, son of Isaac 
and Amy (Budlong) Sherwood, was born 
in McDonough, Chenango county, New 
York, January 18, 1821, and died in Bing- 
hamton, New York, May 24, 1903. He 
was the owner of a quantity of land in 
Binghamton, where he was a farmer and 
prominent citizen. Prior to the Civil War 
he was a sincere Abolitionist. He was 
for many years a leading member and 
local preacher of the First Baptist 
Church. He was baptized by the late 
Rev. R. A. Washburn into the fellow- 
ship of the Baptist church, at Genegant- 
slet Corners (now extinct or merged into 
other Baptist churches), and later was a 
member of the church at Upper Lisle. 
He removed to the town of Windsor, 
Broome county, in 1857, and was a 
member of the Baptist church in that 
place. In 1865 he came to Binghamton 



and became a member of the First Bap- 
tist Church, where he served faithfully 
and was an honored and valued member. 
In 1894, on the organization of the Park 
Avenue Church, he became a constituent 
member of it. In all of his church life, 
of more than three score years, he was 
an earnest and faithful laborer in the 
Master's service, and was ever ready to 
do any work that he could to promote the 
interest of the church and to advance 
the cause of Christ. To this end he con- 
tributed liberally of his money, time and 
talents, of which he was abundantly re- 
sourceful. In him his pastor always 
found a true, wise and helpful counselor, 
and he was ever ready to render all the 
assistance that lay in his power. He was 
a fluent and earnest speaker, and very 
often occupied the pulpits of the pastor- 
less churches in a very acceptable man- 
ner. He was kind and good to the aged 
and infirm, and often conducted religious 
services in the homes of those who were 
unable to attend church. He was a man 
of strong and deep convictions, ever 
battling for the right, and yet he always 
did this in a quiet and unassuming, yet 
firm and impressive manner. His Chris- 
tian home life in the family was delight- 
ful and winning, and his children now 
look back upon it with sweet pleasure 
and the kindliest remembrances. 

In public life he was most highly 
respected and admired, and his integrity 
was never questioned in any manner, for 
he always lived above reproach, and was 
as consistent, firm and true in all his 
public duties and the matters entrusted 
to him as he was in his private and church 
life. He held the office of supervisor of 
his town when the present County Poor 
House was erected, and was one of the 
committee in charge of that work. He 
represented his county in the State Legis- 
lature for the years 1873-74-75. There 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



was the crowning work of his life, for 
in that body, through his earnest, heroic 
and indefatigable efforts, he secured the 
passage of the bill, and the appropriation 
from the State, that gave to this section 
of New York State the Susquehanna 
Valley Home, of Binghamton, for orphan 
and destitute children, one of the 
worthiest institutions of its kind in the 
country. When others said to him he 
could never succeed in accomplishing 
these measures, he only worked the 
harder and adopted other methods, and 
was untiring in his efforts to carry out 
his long cherished plans, and he left no 
stone unturned, but from the Governor 
and the leading politicians of both parties, 
down to the individual members, he con- 
tinued his persistent and unceasing 
efforts until they were crowned with ab- 
solute success. In this matter, as in all 
others in which he was interested, he had 
the respect and confidence of the leaders 
in the Legislature. They felt that he was 
right, and they admired his perseverance, 
his courtesy, his energy and his integrity 
of character. He succeeded in his efforts, 
and was one of the trustees of the home 
from that time until his death. He was a 
recognized leader in the temperance 
cause, and was much sought for to make 
addresses to the public on this subject 
far and wide. He was always very 
earnest, entertaining and interesting in 
his addresses, and it was a pleasure to 
listen to him. 

Mr. Sherwood married, April 8, 1849, 
Mary Ann Jeffords, born February ij, 
1828, died November 28, 1906, a daughter 
of Allen Cleveland and Ann Eliza (Robin- 
son) Jeffords; granddaughter of Amasa 
Jeffords, born at Woodstock, Connecti- 
cut, in 1748, married (first) Sally Cleve- 
land, (second) Sarah Clifford ; and great- 
granddaughter of John Jeffords, a soldier 
at the battle of Bunker Hill, in 1775, and 
whose father was killed in the French and 



Indian War. Children: 1. Florence, who 
married, June 25, 1874, Charles Emery 
Bliss (see Bliss line forward), and has a 
son, George C. S., born April 18, 1877, at 
Towanda, Pennsylvania, who is engaged 
in the wholesale dry goods business at 
Binghamton, and married, June 25, 1902, 
Katherine Shieder, and has children : 
Emery, Robert Leon and Barbara Ruth. 
2. Viola, who was for twenty years a 
teacher in the grammar schools of Bing- 
hamton, being at the time of her death 
principal of the Main Street Grammar 
School. She was an earnest worker in 
the First Baptist Church. For years and 
up to the time of her death she taught one 
of the largest classes in the Sunday school 
and exerted a marked influence on the 
young people with whom she came in 
contact. She died July 1, 1903. 3. Judge 
Carl G., a resident of South Dakota, where 
he has been prominent in political affairs, 
serving as State Senator and member of 
the first constitutional convention, and is 
now a judge of the Circuit Court; mar- 
ried, February 10, 1885, Nellie Fountain, 
and has had children : George Fountain, 
Harry Allen (deceased), Mary Carlton 
and Dolly Viola. 4. William J., married, 
October 31, 1902, Iona May Bills, and has 
had: Nellie, Mason William (deceased), 
and Harold. 5. Grace Eliza, born in 
Binghamton, married September 1, 1898, 
Charles F. Parker, born September 11, 
1871, and has children: Harry Sherwood 
and Carl Sherwood. 



The Bliss family is believed to be the 
same as the Blois family of Normandy, 
gradually modified in spelling to Bloys, 
Blysse, Blisse, and in America to Bliss. 
The family has been in England, how- 
ever, since the Norman Conquest, but is 
not numerous and never has been. The 
coat-of-arms borne by the Bliss and Bloys 
families is the same: Sable, a bend vaire, 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



between two fleurs-de-lis or. Crest: A 
hand holding a bundle of arrows. Motto : 
Semper sursam. The ancient family 
tradition represents the seat of the Bliss 
family in the south of England, and be- 
longing to the yeomanry, though at 
various times some of the family were 
knighted. 

Thomas Bliss, progenitor of the Amer- 
ican family, lived at Belstone Parish, 
Devonshire, England. He is supposed to 
have been born about 1555-60, and he 
died about 1636. Little is known of him 
except that he was a wealthy landowner, 
and was a Puritan, perscuted on account 
of his faith by civil and religious author- 
ities, under the direction of the infamous 
Archbishop Laud ; that he was mal- 
treated, impoverished and imprisoned. 
When the parliament of 1628 assembled, 
Puritans, or Roundheads, as they were 
called by the Cavaliers, or Tories, accom- 
panied the members to London. Two of 
the sons of Thomas Bliss, Jonathan and 
Thomas, rode from Devonshire on iron- 
grey horses, and remained for some time 
— long enough, anyhow, for the king's 
officers and spies to mark them, and from 
that time they, with others who had gone 
on the same errand to the capital, were 
marked for destruction. The Bliss 
brothers were fined a thousand pounds for 
their nonconformity, and thrown into 
prison, where they lay for weeks. Even 
their venerable father was dragged 
through the streets with the greatest in- 
dignities. On another occasion the offi- 
cers of the high commission seized all 
their horses and all their sheep except one 
poor ewe, that in its fright ran into the 
house and took refuge under a bed. At 
another time the three sons of Thomas 
Bliss, with a dozen Puritans, were led 
through the market place in Okehampton, 
with ropes around their necks, and also 
fined heavily. On another occasion 
Thomas was arrested and thrown into 



prison with his son Jonathan, who even- 
tually died from the hardships and abuse 
of the churchmen. At another time the 
king's officers seized the cattle of the 
family and most of their household goods, 
some of which were highly valued for 
their age and beauty, and as heirlooms, 
having been for centuries in the family. 
In fact, the family being so impoverished 
by constant persecution, was unable to 
pay the fines and secure the release of 
both father and son from prison, so the 
young man remained and the father's 
fine was paid. At Easter the young man 
received thirty-five lashes. After the 
father died, his widow lived with their 
daughter, whose husband. Sir John Cal- 
cliffe, was a communicant of the Church 
of England, in good standing. The rem- 
nant of the estate was divided among the 
three sons, who were advised to go to 
America to escape further persecution. 
Thomas and George feared to wait for 
Jonathan, who was ill in prison, and they 
left England in the fall of 1635 with their 
families. Thomas, son of Jonathan, and 
grandson of Thomas Bliss, remained in 
England until his father died, and then he 
also came to America, settling near his 
uncle of the same name. At various times 
the sister of the immigrants sent to the 
brothers boxes of shoes, clothing and 
articles that could not be procured in the 
colonies, and it is through her letters, long 
preserved in the original but now lost, 
that knowledge of the family was handed 
down from generation to generation. 
Children of Thomas Bliss: Jonathan, 
died in England, 1635-36; Thomas, of 
further mention ; Elizabeth, married Sir 
John Calcliffe, of Belstone ; George, born 
1591, died August 31, 1687, settled in 
Lynn, Massachusetts, and later at Sand- 
wich in that province, and at Newport, 
Rhode Island ; Mary. 

Thomas Bliss, son of Thomas Bliss, the 
immigrant, was born at Belstone, Devon- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



shire, England, about 1585, and died in 
1639. He married in England, about 
1612, Margaret Lawrence, born about 
1594, died August 29, 1684. After the 
death of her husband, she managed the 
affairs of the family with great prudence 
and judgment. Children: Ann, born in 
England, married Robert Chapman, of 
Saybrook, Connecticut; Mary, married 
Joseph Parsons ; Thomas ; Nathaniel ; 
Lawrence ; Samuel, born in 1624 ; Sarah, 
born in Boston, 1635 ; Elizabeth, born in 
Boston in 1637, married Myles Morgan, 
founder of Springfield ; Hannah, born at 
Hartford, 1639; John, of further mention. 

John Bliss, son of Thomas and Mar- 
garet (Lawrence) Bliss, was born at 
Hartford, Connecticut, in 1640, and died 
September 10, 1702. He removed to 
Northampton in 1672, and was there 
through his sister's trial for witchcraft. 
He removed to Springfield in 1685, and 
soon afterward to Longmeadow, where 
he spent the remainder of his life. He 
married, October 7, 1667, Patience Burt, 
born August 18, 1645, died October 25, 
1732, a daughter of Henry Burt, of 
Springfield. Children: John, born Sep- 
tember 7, 1669; Nathaniel, January 26, 
1671 ; Thomas, of further mention ; Jo- 
seph, 1676; Hannah, November 16, 1678; 
Henry, August 15, 1681 ; Ebenezer, 1683. 

Thomas Bliss, son of John and Patience 
(Burt) Bliss, was born at Longmeadow, 
October 29, 1673, died there, August 12, 
1758. He married, May 27, 1714, Mary 
Macranny, born November 2, 1690, died 
March 30, 1761, daughter of William and 
Margaret Macranny. Children, born at 
Longmeadow: Mary, December 4, 1715 ; 
Thomas, May 3, 1719; Henry, December 
5, 1722; Henry, of further mention. The 
first Henry died young. 

Henry Bliss, son of Thomas and Mary 
(Macranny) Bliss, was born August 21, 
1726, died February 7-8, 1761. He was a 
farmer at Longmeadow. He married 



Ruby Brewer, of Lebanon (published 
December 22, 1749). The widow and 
children removed, in 1765, to Lebanon, 
Connecticut, and afterward to Bernards- 
ton, Massachusetts. Children: Thomas, 
born December 7, 1750; Solomon, No- 
vember 8, 1 751; Calvin, of further men- 
tion; Henry, June 7, 1757; Huldah, July 

2. 1759- 

Calvin Bliss, son of Henry and Ruby 
(Brewer) Bliss, was born at Colerain, 
Massachusetts, May 14, 1754, died in Oc- 
tober, 1849. He was a farmer at Bernards- 
ton, and about 1800 removed to Shore- 
ham, Addison county, Vermont. He was 
a soldier in the Revolution in Captain 
Ephraim Chapin's company, Colonel Rug- 
gles Woodbury's regiment, August 17, 
1777, and is said to have held a commis- 
sion in Washington's army. He mar- 
ried, June 26, 1777, Ruth Janes, born 
May 11, 1756-57, daughter of Ebenezer 
and Sarah (Field) Janes, of Northfield, 
Vermont. Children: Ruby, born 1778; 
Philomela, June 11, 1782; Huldah; Solo- 
mon, of further mention ; Martha, Sep- 
tember 15, 1788; Ruth, June 10, 1790; 
Mehitable, May 17, 1792; Calvin, May 
14, 1794; Henry, March 27, 1796; Oliver 
Brewster, July 6, 1799. 

Solomon Bliss, son of Calvin and Ruth 
(Janes) Bliss, was born April 9, 1786, and 
died at Willet, New York, June 6, 1861. 
He settled at Preston, Chenango county, 
New York. He married, January 1, 1808, 
Anna Packer, born at Guilford, Vermont, 
June 30, 1786, died at Henderson, New 
York, January 14, 1866. Children: Eunice 
P., born July 28, 1809; Amanda P., July 
5, 1813, died young; Lydia J., January 
11, 1815; Ruth, January 11, 1817; Joshua 
P., at Preston, April 29, 1818; Ruth C, 
July 17, 1820; Calvin J., of further men- 
tion ; Ira G., July 27, 1824. 

Calvin J. Bliss, son of Solomon and 
Anna (Packer) Bliss, was born at Pres- 
ton, New York, May 22, 1822, and settled 
104 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



in Willet, Cortland county, New York ; 
he married, September 18, 1850, Betsey 
A. Landers, of Willet. Children : Charles 
Emery, of further mention ; Cora L., born 
September 9, 1870, at Binghamton, died 
August 9, 1871. 

Charles Emery Bliss, son of Calvin J. 
and Betsey A. (Landers) Bliss, was born 
at Willet, July 5, 1851, and was educated 
in the public schools of Binghamton and 
in the academy. For a number of years 
he was in the dry goods business, then 
followed a few years on the farm, when 
he again returned to the dry goods busi- 
ness at Binghamton. He was deacon of 
the Baptist church and superintendent of 
the Sunday school for many years. His 
death occurred, July 30, 1900. He mar- 
ried Florence, daughter of the Hon. 
George Sherwood, as previously men- 
tioned. 



FOWLER, Albert Perry, 

Lawyer, Financier, Useful Citizen. 

The story that follows of the life of 
Albert Perry Fowler, lawyer, banker, and 
business man of Syracuse, New York, 
will be told in great part in the words of 
his friends and intimates, for as during 
his lifetime his fellows were ever seeking 
to bestow upon him some new trust and 
responsibility as evidence of their confi- 
dence, so in death he was a man they vied 
in honoring. The forty-seven years of 
his life were marked by achievement in 
quality and in measure such as few men 
attain to in a long lifetime, and he passed 
to his long rest amid the general grief of 
men of high and important station, who 
mourned the death of one upon whom 
they leaned, whose worth they had appre- 
ciated, and whom they had come to hold 
in loving affection. It had been one of 
his strongest characteristics that, con- 
fronted by necessity for action, he pur- 
sued the course he decided upon with 



every nerve and every energy bent upon 
its completion, and when the critical con- 
dition of his health was made clear to 
him, he dropped his work and journeyed 
south in search of new strength. But 
instead of improving his condition became 
worse, and from Southern Pines, North 
Carolina, he hastened to New York for 
medical treatment, and for three weeks 
battled against his unseen foe in a New 
York hospital, resisting defeat with all 
the power of his mind and body until May 
20, 191 5, when he succumbed to his 
disease. There was no department of the 
life of the city of Syracuse that did not 
lose something in his passing, for his 
service was wide and his influence all 
pervasive. 

Albert Perry Fowler was a son of 
Albert and Janette (Perry) Fowler, his 
father a resident of Onondaga Valley, 
New York, well known in business circles 
in Syracuse, where he was long connected 
with the wholesale dry goods firm of D. 
McCarthy & Company. Albert Perry 
Fowler was born at Onondaga Valley, 
November 6, 1867, died in Post-Graduate 
Hospital, New York City, May 20, 1915. 

As a youth of seventeen years he was 
graduated from the Onondaga Academy, 
and at that time took the entrance exami- 
nations for Cornell University, deferring 
matriculation, however, until 1887, gradu- 
ating in 1891. His college course was a 
most favorable indication of the useful- 
ness of his later career, for in addition 
to holding satisfactory grade in his classes 
he entered extensively into the many 
branches of college life, winning particu- 
lar honors in literary fields. He was 
elected to membership in the Delta Up- 
silon fraternity, and served as editor of 
the "Cornell Sun," the daily college paper, 
was on the staff of the "Cornellian," the 
annual, and during his senior year was 
editor-in-chief of the "Era," the weekly 
publication. After graduation, with the 



105 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



degree of Bachelor of Arts, he entered 
the law offices of Knapp, Nottingham & 
Andrews, the members of the firm being 
Judge Martin A. Knapp, Edwin Notting- 
ham, and Justice William S. Andrews, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1893. 
Soon afterward he became a partner of 
Alfred W. Wilkinson, under the name of 
Wilkinson & Fowler, Mr. Wilkinson sub- 
sequently moving to New York City, 
where he is a well known and successful 
patent attorney. In 1897 Mr. Fowler 
and Justice Leonard C. Crouch formed 
the firm of Fowler & Crouch, Irving Dil- 
laye Vann, son of Judge Irving G. Vann, 
being later taken into the firm, which 
became Fowler, Crouch & Vann. This 
it remained until Mr. Crouch was elected 
to the bench of the Supreme Court, and 
then, upon the admission of Mr. Crouch's 
brother-in-law, the firm title changed to 
Fowler, Vann & Paine. All through the 
years of his law practice, even while 
handling responsibilities that had no bear- 
ing upon his profession, Mr. Fowler was 
everywhere recognized as a leader of the 
Onondaga county bar. He accepted and 
faithfully administered the trusteeship of 
many large estates and was also the legal 
representative and manager of the estates 
of several of the best known men of the 
region, including the late E. B. Judson, 
Simon D. Paddock, and Myron C. Mer- 
riman. George W. O'Brien, president of 
the Onondaga County Bar Association, 
wrote of Mr. Fowler's legal career: 
"Albert P. Fowler stood high in the legal 
profession in this city and county. He 
was greatly respected, not only among 
the lawyers but in business circles. He 
was democratic, maintained the highest 
ideals, and observed the strictest integ- 
rity. Whatever his task, it was performed 
with enthusiasm and with thoroughness." 
From the time his associates first ob- 
served his innate and unusually brilliant 



business ability his services were in great 
and constant demand. For more than ten 
years he was a director of the First Na- 
tional Bank, serving as vice-president for 
nearly five years, was general counsel for 
the bank, and one of the most active of 
its officers. He was a director of the 
Onondaga Pottery Company, was one of 
the organizers and directors of the Syra- 
cuse Dry Goods Company, which concern 
succeeded D. McCarthy & Company, his 
father's firm, was a director of the Onon- 
daga Hotel Corporation, and was identi- 
fied with the New Process Gear Company 
and the Frazer & Jones Company. He 
was an influential member of the Syra- 
cuse Chamber of Commerce, and of this 
organization was a director, vice-presi- 
dent, and chairman of the executive com- 
mittee. He brought to the work of the 
chamber a resistless enthusiasm and a 
sturdy pride in the commercial standing 
of his city, and his wise discretion and 
sound business judgment were of great 
value in shaping the policy of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce. In an outline of Mr. 
Fowler's notable business accomplish- 
ments there must be mentioned his re- 
ceivership of the American Exchange Na- 
tional Bank, the liquidation of whose 
affairs was a complicated and lengthy 
matter, entailing protracted litigation. 

Mr. Fowler's support and generous aid 
were always at the disposal of those of 
the city's institutions whose aims were 
high and whose existence brought credit 
to the city. He led in the fund raising 
campaign for the Hospital of the Good 
Shepherd, was a loyal friend to the Syra- 
cuse Free Dispensary, and urged the or- 
ganization of the Central Hospital Coun- 
cil until that projected body became a re- 
ality. He was also conspicuously en- 
gaged in the work of the Associated Char- 
ities during its period of reorganization a 
few years before his death. Of his life 




A*&& 



**7 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



and his services to his city Douglas E. 
Petit, treasurer of the Onondaga County 
Savings Bank, wrote : 

I regarded Albert P. Fowler as one of the most 
useful, if not the most useful citizen of Syra- 
cuse during the past decade. We owe the 
Onondaga Hotel to him more than any other 
person. He injected life into the Chamber of 
Commerce when it was moribund and made it 
an effective organization. He was the life of 
the hospital campaign. These are only a few 
of the things that he did. He was always ready 
to help in any public enterprise, provided he 
could keep in the background. He disliked the 
limelight. For that reason the people of Syra- 
cuse do not generally know the debt they owe 
to him. He gave of himself freely — too freely 
for his own good. His private life was without 
reproach. His friendship was something to be 
proud of, because it was not lightly given. He 
will be sincerely mourned. 

Another of his works whose influence 
was felt beyond the confines of his city 
was performed as a member of the board 
of managers of the State Custodial Asy- 
lum for Feeble-Minded Women, at New- 
ark, to which office he was appointed by 
Governor Charles E. Hughes. Misman- 
agement of the affairs of the asylum had 
brought the institution into bad public 
odor, and Mr. Fowler's choice was in ac- 
cordance with the popular demand that 
a man of strong purpose and unimpeach- 
able motives be placed in a position with 
power to act in the reclamation of the 
asylum. To this end he labored with his 
accustomed fidelity and zeal, and when 
the baleful influences had been removed 
and their effects remedied, he resigned his 
trust. 

In the social life of Syracuse he and 
his family held prominent position, their 
home on Oak street being always open in 
the entertainment of their many friends. 
He was an interesting and brilliant con- 
versationalist, a man of wide information, 
broad interests, and liberal views. He 
was a charter member and one of the first 



directors of the University Club, of Syra- 
cuse, also belonging to the University 
Club of New York. Out-of-door life 
always held a strong appeal for him, and 
as opportunity offered he indulged this 
liking, holding membership in several 
athletic and country clubs. Rarely is 
there a man of whom, in all his varied 
relationships, naught but good can be 
spoken when he has left his earthly 
walks, but just such was true of Mr. 
Fowler. The personal tribute of Thomas 
W. Meachen, president of the New Pro- 
cess Gear Corporation, is here worthy of 
repetition as voicing the sentiments of 
Mr. Fowler's many friends : 

The death of Mr. Fowler is a distinct, a seri- 
ous loss to the city of Syracuse. His remarkably 
sound judgement, his genius for close research, 
his high ability as an organizer, his indefatigable 
industry were cheerfully and unreservedly given 
to the promotion of all good causes for which 
our city is and has been striving. How greatly 
his services will be missed by the Chamber of 
Commerce, by our charitable associations, by 
all our hospitals, only those who are in close 
touch with the management of these various 
organizations can know. The loss to his inti- 
mate friends, of whom I am proud to count my- 
self one, is irreparable. "He was faithful." 

Albert P. Fowler married Florence Dil- 
laye Vann, daughter of Judge Irving G. 
Vann, and had children : Catherine, Al- 
bert, Ruth, and Elizabeth. 



WRIGHT, Alfred, 

Manufacturer, Man of Affairs. 

It was a privilege to know Alfred Wright. 
The following summary of his wonderful 
character is from his friends and official 
associates of the Rochester Board of Park 
Commissioners, men who knew him well 
and who deemed his friendship an honor: 

On the passing away of Alfred Wright the 
Park Commissioners of the city of Rochester 
sustain a serious and corporate loss. His heart 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



early enlisted itself in the park project, because 
he saw that it would add to the sum of human 
happiness, and where his heart went his judg- 
ment, energy and generosity followed in unre- 
served consecration. Decidedly a first citizen, 
his presence, counsel and labors were by us in 
constant and appreciative demand; to be de- 
prived of them therefore is a loss most regret- 
table. 

Furthermore, we cannot withhold our willing 
tribute to his personality, so peculiar, so persua- 
sive, so admirable, so generous, and so alto- 
gether irreproachable, a personality it is seldom 
one's good fortune to discover. Affable, ap- 
proachable, sensible, he won universal respect 
and confidence. He abounded in works of un- 
heralded benevolence; his sympathies were 
always alive and ready for exercise under the 
sanction of a wise, business-like judgment. 

In the commercial world, which for him was 
continental in extent, his name and character 
were standards of excellence and probity. 

(Signed) George W. Elliott, 
Richard Curran, 
William C. Berry. 

To receive such a tribute from contem- 
poraries is honorable, to merit it, glorious. 
When life's activities redound only to the 
benefit of the doer, little praise is due, but 
when good results to a community, as did 
from Alfred Wright's life, all honor is 
willingly, abundantly and justly offered. 
Pure and sweet as the perfumes that bore 
his name was his life, and while his fame 
was world-wide as a manufacturer there 
was never a time when the stress of busi- 
ness life caused him to forget his duties 
as citizen or the obligations which he 
owed to his fellow-men, and few of his 
contemporaries were identified with so 
many enterprises of a public and charit- 
able nature. 

Alfred Wright was born at Avon, Liv- 
ingston county, New York, November 6, 
1830, died in Rochester, New York, Janu- 
ary 18, 1891. He was educated in public 
schools and at Genesee Wesleyan Semi- 
nary, Lima, New York, locating in Roch- 
ester at the age of twenty years, continu- 
ing his residence there until his death, 



forty-one years later. He was connected 
with the hardware business until 1866, 
then entered the path of business en- 
deavor that led to fame and fortune. His 
business ventures began in a small way, 
but his disposition to do things well led 
him to delve deep into the study of so 
fascinating a branch of manufacture as 
the distilling and fabrication of perfumes, 
with the result that Alfred Wright's per- 
fumery won popular approval. When in- 
creased demand set in he enlarged his 
quarters, and after becoming firmly estab- 
lished as one of the leading manufacturers 
in this country erected a factory on West 
and Willowbank avenues, the most mod- 
ern and complete plant of its kind in the 
whole world. From city and state he 
passed to national fame, and from na- 
tional to international renown as a manu- 
facturer of perfumery. It is an attempt 
to "paint the lily" to speak of the world- 
wide fame of Alfred Wright's perfumes 
or to speak of the great volume of busi- 
ness he transacted. That is common his- 
tory, but the personality and character of 
the man who won so prominent a position 
in the commercial world is of deepest in- 
terest. His capacity for work was enor- 
mous and in addition to his large private 
concerns he was a trustee of the Me- 
chanics' Savings Bank, a director of the 
Commercial Bank, a trustee of the Roch- 
ester Electric Light Company, and as a 
member of the Chamber of Commerce 
aided in promoting the business interests 
of Rochester. 

He was a Republican in politics, as an 
advisor sought after by the local leaders 
of the party, and had he so desired could 
have secured for himself almost any office 
within the gift of the people, but while 
ever inspired by a sincere desire to be of 
service to his fellow-men, he steadfastly 
refused all offers of political preferment. 
The office that he did accept was that of 
Park Commissioner, for there he saw that 
108 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



he could be of real and definite service. 
He also served for eight years as chair- 
man of the Republican Business Men's 
Committee and rendered hearty service 
in behalf of the candidates of his party. 
How well he performed his duties as 
Park Commissioner the tribute from his 
fellow members of the board tells. He 
served as trustee of the City Hospital, 
trustee of Wesleyan Seminary at Lima, 
vice-president of the Humane Society, 
president of the board of trustees of the 
Brick Church (Presbyterian), and held 
fraternal relations with the Masonic order. 
Time and energy consuming were these 
varied activities, but they show Mr. 
Wright's public spirit, his devotion to 
philanthropy, and his large-hearted in- 
terest in all that concerned the welfare of 
his fellow-men. His benevolences were 
many, but he gave very quietly and with- 
out ostentation, his right hand never 
knowing the doings of his left. Warm of 
impulse and sympathetic, he loved his 
fellow-men ; approachable and companion- 
able, he gave as freely to the social side 
of life as he could, numbering his friends 
among the leading men of the city. His 
life was a blessing to the public, his mem- 
ory is revered, and to those of his immedi- 
ate family he left a name unspotted and 
irreproachable, in honor enduring. 

Mr. Wright married (first) Maria 
Gould, who died about 1869. He married 
(second) Mary J. Hunter, who died in 
1877. He married (third) Mary D. But- 
terfield, who survives him. Child of first 
wife: Alfred. Children of second wife: 
John S., Marian H., Margaret J., wife of 
Roland C. Dryer. 



ADAMS, Mvron, 

Civil War Veteran, Clergyman. 

The life of Myron Adams, "sweet, pure 
and noble," left its impress indelibly not 
only on the lives of those with whom he 



came in contact but upon the trend of 
modern thought. Many through his 
efforts have been brought into a clearer 
understanding not of creed, of dogma, of 
superstition or religion, but of Christi- 
anity. Gifted with wonderful mental 
power, he was a close follower of Him 
who came not to be ministered unto but 
to minister. For almost twenty years he 
occupied the pulpit of the Plymouth 
Church in Rochester. Although his life 
span covered little more than a half cen- 
tury he lived to see the teachings which 
in his early ministry awakened strong 
opposition, in his later life endorsed by 
many who had formerly opposed him. He 
took no pride in this aside from the fact 
the world was drawing nearer to the truth 
and was accepting the spiritual revelations 
of the gospel without attempting to estab- 
lish the historicity or to accept with cre- 
dence the traditional or the figurative. 

Myron Adams, the youngest son of My- 
ron and Sarah (Taylor) Adams, was born 
at East Bloomfield, New York, March 12, 
1841. Following the completion of a pre- 
paratory course in Waterloo Academy he 
matriculated in Hamilton College as a 
member of the class of 1863. Less than 
two years after the beginning of the war 
he put aside his text-books to espouse the 
Union cause, enlisting with many other 
students of Hamilton in 1862 as a member 
of the One Hundred and Twenty-sixth 
New York Infantry, which was immedi- 
ately ordered to the front. Sometime later 
he was promoted to the rank of lieuten- 
ant in the signal corps of the regular army 
and served upon the staff of General Can- 
by at New Orleans. In 1864 he joined 
Farragut and was at the famous battle of 
Mobile Bay, acting as signal officer on 
board the "Lackawanna." In May, 1865, 
he was the bearer of dispatches to the 
war department, conveying the news of 
the surrender of the last Confederate 
troops east of the Mississippi river. He 



109 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



was offered the rank of major but refused 
it. Mere "honors" had no attraction for 
him. He believed in the worth of the 
man and public recognition, as such, pos- 
sessed no value for him. 

After his death he was honored by his 
old army comrades and the following was 
published at that time : 

A new Grand Army post is to be instituted in 
this city to-morrow evening, to be called the 
"Myron Adams Mounted Post, No. 640." It is 
doubtless known to all our readers that all 
Grand Army posts are named after dead com- 
rades. No living soldier is thus honored. It is 
especially appropriate that now the name should 
be chosen of that dear citizen of Rochester 
whom we freshly mourn, whose young life was 
consecrated to his country, and whose whole 
career was dedicated to the truth, as it was 
given him to see the truth. The new post 
honors itself in honoring the name of one so 
noble, so lovely, and of such crystalline purity 
of soul as was Myron Adams. 

When the war was over Mr. Adams 
became a student in the theological semi- 
nary at Auburn, New York, and while 
there formed the acquaintance of Hester 
R., the daughter of Professor S. M. Hop- 
kins, whom he married. One son was 
born of this marriage, Samuel Hopkins 
Adams, who is now well-known as a 
writer and journalist. Myron Adams en- 
tered upon his pastoral work at the Union 
Springs (New York) Presbyterian Church 
in 1868, and a year later accepted a call 
to the Dunkirk Presbyterian Church, 
where he remained until he became pas- 
tor of the Plymouth Congregational 
Church of Rochester in 1876. He con- 
tinued to fill this pulpit throughout his 
remaining days and became a forceful 
factor in the life of the city, albeit one of 
the most modest, unassuming and retiring 
of men. His influence, however, will re- 
main as a moving force *n the lives of 
men long after the great builders of com- 
mercial and industrial enterprises, the 



promoters of great schemes of trade and 
profit will have been forgotten. 

Mr. Adams was what the world has 
been pleased to term an independent 
thinker. When his judgment, resulting 
from close and earnest study, found fal- 
lacy in any teaching or doctrine, he re- 
nounced it and in unmistakable terms. 
When he came to accept the verity of any 
vital idea he proclaimed it. From the be- 
ginning of his pastorate he attracted at- 
tention and from the first displayed what 
the conservative term eccentricities of 
theological opinion. In the Presbyterian 
church of Dunkirk he was observed as an 
independent and vigorous thinker, always 
rewarding the attention of his hearers by 
his forceful, original way of putting 
things. From the beginning of his min- 
istry he was a student, a searcher for 
truth ; and when his investigation brought 
to him some doubts concerning the doc- 
trines of the Presbytery he continued his 
studies and though it brought down upon 
him the criticism of brethren whom he 
dearly loved in the Presbyterian church, 
he fearlessly proclaimed his views. He 
was steadily growing into a dislike of 
ecclesiasticism and rigid orthodoxy. He 
felt more and more hampered as a Pres- 
byterian and it was with a feeling of relief 
that he received and accepted the call 
from the Plymouth Congregational Church 
of Rochester. 

Here Mr. Adams entered upon work in 
a congregation of intelligent and cultured 
men and women who were in hearty sym- 
pathy with him in his positive rejection 
of certain orthodox dogmas. He came to 
reject utterly the dogma of everlasting 
punishment. In explanation of this he 
remarked that his experience on the field 
of battle and amid the carnage of the 
great fight of Mobile Bay, when scores of 
men fighting bravely for their country 
were swept out of life in an instant, made 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the thought that any such men were only 
plunged into "fiercer flames below" im- 
possible to him. Nor did he believe in 
plenary inspiration. Upon these charges 
he was called before the Ontario Associ- 
ation in the closing months of the year 
1880. Upon their charge he stood self- 
confessed. He freely acknowledged that 
he did not know the answer to some ques- 
tions but he did believe firmly and fully in 
the infinite love and goodness of God. 

After this action of the church Mr. 
Adams went on to develop more fully the 
theological ideas which he already held in 
the germ. He believed in evolution, not 
of the materialistic but of the theistic 
kind, that the world from the beginning 
has been going through a process of de- 
velopment that is bringing it nearer to 
truth and to the conception of the pur- 
poses of Christianity. Throughout his 
ministry his preachings set forth the 
truths of the universal Fatherhood of God 
and the duty of man in his relations to 
his fellowmen. 

Mr. Adams was not gifted with that ex- 
ecutive force and power of coordination 
which results in the upbuilding of a large 
church. He was not even an eloquent 
pulpit orator, yet he spoke vigorously, 
earnestly and decisively upon those sub- 
jects which seemed to him of vital in- 
terest to mankind. He never sought to 
upbuild his church by any attempt to make 
himself popular with his parishioners. 
On the contrary he was rather reserved, 
desiring that those who attended his serv- 
ices should come to hear the great truths 
which he uttered rather than because of 
any interest in him. His sermons were 
robust in thought and in expression rather 
unconventional, yet admirable for their 
originality and vigor. 

"He was an advanced thinker," said one 
who knew him intimately, "along ethical 
and sociological lines, who in his absolute 



sincerity and freedom from prejudice in 
search for the truth was almost without 
a peer. His opinions were formed not 
according to rule laid down by theologi- 
cal seminaries or by any other influence 
but by the conclusions which he had 
reached himself after a careful and accu- 
rate survey of the grounds of belief. He 
had an eminently logical, trained mind, 
which looked thoroughly into all sides of 
a question and then went straight to the 
root of the matter, and in forming his 
opinions no fear of consequences deterred 
him in the least." He had an extreme 
dislike of cant and religious affectation of 
all kinds. Simplicity pervaded his whole 
life. He never attached to his name the 
letters indicating the Doctor of Divinity 
degree which was conferred upon him by 
a collegiate institution, nor did he wish 
others to use it. 

At his death Dr. Landsberg said: "In 
nature's realm he received a training 
which neither academy nor college can 
supply, which develops the intuition of 
the prophet and the poet, which expands 
the imagination and which made his ser- 
mons and even his ordinary conversation 
so rich in striking illustrations that none 
ever became tired of listening to him and 
none ever could listen without receiving 
fresh knowledge and noble impulses for 
purity and goodness." Mr. Adams had a 
most hearty love of nature. He rejoiced 
in the beauties of sky, of plain, of wood- 
land, of river and of lake, and his summer 
vacations at Quisisana on the banks of 
Owasco lake were periods of rare happi- 
ness to him. He rejoiced in butterflies 
and beetles, in the tiny manifestations of 
life as well as in the great beauties of 
nature, and found much pleasure in micro- 
scopic investigation, possessing for some 
years a fine instrument which he after- 
ward presented to Hamilton College. He 
was an active member of the Rochester 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Academy of Science and for several years 
its president. He believed in utilizing all 
of his individual forces, his physical as 
well as his mental powers, and in him the 
"dignity of labor" found expression. He 
obtained genuine delight from the use of 
tools and constructive work of that nature 
and could build a house or boat, as well 
as give scientific classification to insect 
life. His reading and investigation covered 
the widest possible range. He spoke be- 
fore the Fortnightly Club, of which he 
was a member from its organization in 
1882, upon the most varied subjects, in- 
cluding "Schopenhauer;" "Henry W. 
Grady's Side of the Southern Question ;" 
"Coleridge and Inspiration ;" "Milton and 
Vondel;" "Hymenopterous and Human 
Society, or Bees, Ants and Humans, So- 
cially Considered;" "The Persecutions of 
the Quakers;" "Theorists;" "Biography, 
Socrates, and Others." His opinions were 
given to the world through two published 
volumes — "Continuous Creation" and 
"Creation of the Bible," and the title of 
the former perhaps is the best exponent 
of his own belief. 

In manner Myron Adams was one of 
the most gentle and most kindly of men. 
In everything he was singularly unselfish 
and no one ever applied to him in vain for 
aid. All who came in contact with him 
had the greatest admiration and respect 
for his wonderful intellectual attainments 
and at the same time were deeply im- 
pressed by the kindly, loving nature 
which he showed to every one. While 
passing far beyond the many in mental 
realms, he retained the spirit of the light- 
hearted boy. Always with ready answer 
and often with quick wit, his replies were 
nevertheless kindly and considerate and 
even when he felt called upon to condemn 
a course of action or of thought he mani- 
fested the utmost spirit of charity and of 
love for those whom he thus opposed. 



One of the Rochester papers at the time 
of his death said editorially: "It is not a 
conventionalism to say that the death of 
Myron Adams is a severe loss to this 
community; it is the exact and feeling 
expression that will come to the lips of 
every person that knew him. The extinc- 
tion of a life that has for a quarter of a 
century been making for liberality of 
thought and righteousness in conduct 
leaves a void that can never be filled in 
the same way. There remains only the 
sweet remembrance of its presence and 
the strong impulse to high thinking and 
doing that it always exerted. But this 
is a most precious heritage — one that will 
be deeply and reverently cherished." 
There was such a unanimity of opinion 
concerning the superior mentality, the 
integrity of purpose and the high ideals 
exemplified in Mr. Adams' life that per- 
haps this review cannot better be closed 
than by quoting from two other editorial 
writers in the Rochester press. One of 
them said: 

Myron Adams' life was singularly true to the 
noblest ideals. As scholar, soldier, minister of 
the gospel, he delved and struck and taught for 
the uplifting of men. He was a soldier of con- 
science who left the halls of learning at Hamil- 
ton College to fight for an idea. He was among 
many who left that institution with the inspira- 
tion of liberty and the faith of true Americans 
in the ideas of the fathers, who broke away from 
all trammels and put trust in the masses of men. 
Myron Adams was honest and just with himself 
as with every man. He claimed for himself 
what he granted to everyone, the right to think, 
to examine in the light of reason, experience 
and research. Early attracted to the observation 
of natural phenomena Mr. Adams had seen 
what he considered a better interpretation of the 
ways and purposes of the all-wise Creator than 
could be gleaned from ancient men who attrib- 
uted to Him human passions and revenge. It 
was in his trust in the great verities of human 
life and of nature that he found strength and 
surpassing peace. 
12 




J p-WL^7^_ 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Following are excerpts from the tribute 
of another writer: 

In attempting to give an idea of him to those 
who knew him not we should say that Mr. 
Adams was the most distinctively American of 
the men we have known. In his way of looking 
at things, in his way of doing things, in his way 
of saying things, in his consideration for the 
rights of others, in his easy maintenance of his 
own rights, in his candor of thought, in his reti- 
cence of emotion, in his quaint fun, in his 
fertility of resource, in his moral strength, in 
his mental alertness and power, he was the 
flower and fruit of the farm life of the north. 
Among the affections of modern city society 
and in the discussion of great controversial 
themes, he seemed to carry with him the sug- 
gestion of the lilac blossom, the orchard and 
the meadow. You felt at once the reality of the 
individual and recognized his opinions as ulti- 
mate human facts, not faint conventional echoes. 
Without knowing it, he was a type of American- 
ism; and, unconscious of the glory, he bore upon 
his forehead the crism of sacrifice with which 
the great Civil war had touched its soldiers. 



ATKINSON, Hobart Ford, 

Financier and Philanthropist. 

A life more full, more useful and more 
blessed than that of Hobart Ford Atkin- 
son is rarely chronicled. Personally one 
of the most lovable of men, his sympathy 
was quickly awakened by any story of 
distress and his was a ready hand to re- 
lieve. The success of his friends pleased 
him and his hand was warmly extended 
in heartfelt congratulation. He preached 
little but he practiced much and men 
loved him for his goodness, his sunny dis- 
position, and his keen sense of humor, 
qualities that age but intensified. For 
nearly three-quarters of a century he had 
been identified with Rochester's banking 
interests, and wherever men value in- 
tegrity, justice, honorable purpose and 
ability, there his memory shines brightly 
and can never be forgotten. He was 
a conservative banker but one whose 

N Y-Vol III-8 I 



methods inspired confidence, the most 
valuable of all bank assets. Lofty was 
his position in the financial world, charm- 
ing his personality, pure and blameless 
his private life, most valuable his work 
for church, charity and philanthropy. 
Financiers sought his counsel in times of 
stress, depositors and friends asked his 
advice, the discouraged came to him for 
the kindly word and sympathy they were 
sure to hear, all trusted, all confided in 
him, and all loved him. The dean of 
Rochester bankers, he won the position he 
held by personal fitness and the wealth 
that came to him he used wisely. 

Hobart Ford Atkinson was born in 
Rochester, October 5, 1825, his birthplace 
a two-story frame house on the north side 
of Main street, just east of St. Paul street. 
He died at his residence in East avenue, 
in his native city, August 14, 1908, after 
an illness of less than a week. He came 
from an old English family, his parents 
being William and Elizabeth (Ford) At- 
kinson. 

He was educated in the best schools 
Rochester then possessed, and after com- 
pleting a course of English study he made 
his entrance into the business world. He 
was then in his sixteenth year and well 
equipped mentally as well as physically 
for life's battle. He spent his first year 
in business as clerk in the grocery store 
of Shepard Garbett on Exchange street, 
the Mechanics' Bank Building now oc- 
cupying the site of the old store. He con- 
tinued in mercantile life until 1843, then 
became an employee of the old Commer- 
cial Bank. Asa Sprague was then presi- 
dent of that bank, George R. Clark, 
cashier, Charles Hubbell, teller. He won 
the attention and the commendation of 
these men by the decided banking ability 
he displayed, by his promptness, his 
cheerful disposition and by his willing- 
ness to perform any task given him. He 
13 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



was rapidly promoted and when Mr. Hub- 
bell resigned his position as teller, young 
Mr. Atkinson was appointed his suc- 
cessor. He rilled that post so capably 
that in course of time he became cashier. 
He occupied the cashier's desk until the 
bank passed out of existence, repaying all 
stockholders in full. 

In 1875 when the new Commercial 
Bank was organized and quartered on the 
site of the old bank, Mr. Atkinson was 
elected its first president. He had then 
acquired honorable standing in Roches- 
ter's financial world and later was elected 
vice-president of the Bank of Monroe. He 
continued executive head of the Commer- 
cial Bank until 1891, then resigned to de- 
vote his entire time to the management 
of the Bank of Monroe of which he was 
vice-president. On November 9, 1900, the 
Bank of Monroe merged with the Alli- 
ance Bank, Mr. Atkinson being chosen 
president of the amalgamated institution, 
a position he held with honor, ability, and 
success until his death. In March, 1871, 
he had been chosen a trustee of the Roch- 
ester Savings Bank, the oldest institution 
of its kind in the city, and upon the death 
of James Brackett in 1904, he was elected 
to succeed him as president, a position 
which he also held the remainder of his 
life. 

As president of these two strong influ- 
ential banks Mr. Atkinson wielded un- 
usual power, but this power he used 
wisely and under his able guidance they 
increased in strength and usefulness. He 
was the last of a group of Rochester's dis- 
tinguished men whose names are closely 
interwoven with the story of the city's 
development and from his entrance into 
official banking circles he was associated 
with all that was best in business and 
social life. Of all that galaxy of stars 
that illumined Rochester's business firma- 
ment, no name shines more brightly than 



that of Hobart F. Atkinson, he whose 
long life of eighty-three years was an 
example the younger generation may 
safely emulate. 

Nothing that tended toward progress, 
or the betterment of a city's life, morally 
or materially, but had his support. He 
was senior warden of St. Andrew's Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church ; for fifteen years 
was president of the Episcopal Church 
Home; was a governor of the Rochester 
Homeopathic Hospital ; was the first 
president of the Genesee Valley Club. In 
church and philanthropic movements he 
was ever active, influential and helpful, 
yet so modest withal that few realized 
the far-reaching effects of his institutional 
labors or the scope of his private benefac- 
tions. He met all issues as presented, 
calmly and fairly, shirked no responsi- 
bility, evaded no duty, and as he lived, so 
he died, unafraid. 



ELSNER, Henry L., M. D., LL. D., 
Eminent Physician. 

A graduate and post-graduate of the 
colleges and universities of two conti- 
nents, a practicing physician of Syracuse, 
New York, for thirty-six years, a member 
of the faculty of the College of Medicine, 
Syracuse University, as Professor of 
Medicine, for thirty-four years, an author 
of standard medical works widely known, 
an ex-president of the Medical Society of 
the State of New York, and for many 
years one of the foremost consulting 
physicians of the State, the late Dr. Eis- 
ner was classed among the great physi- 
cians of his day. He came rightly by his 
love for the medical profession, his father, 
Dr. Leopold Eisner, having been an emi- 
nent physician of Syracuse, and to his son 
transmitted traits upon which foundation 
he built a most successful professional 
edifice. 



114 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Dr. Henry Leopold Eisner was born in 
Syracuse, New York, August 15, 1857, 
son of Dr. Leopold and Hanschen Eisner. 
After acquiring a classical education he 
entered the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons in New York City, whence he 
was graduated M. D., class of 1877. He 
spent a year in post-graduate study in 
Vienna, and in 1879 began general prac- 
tice in Syracuse. In 1881 he became a 
member of the faculty of the College of 
Medicine, Syracuse University, and con- 
tinously, up to the time of his decease, 
filled a chair in that institution, at the 
same time meeting the demands of his 
own private practice, which was an ex- 
tensive one. As the years brought him 
experience, and deep study great learning, 
he was frequently called in consultation 
and his name as a consultant was known 
for beyond local limits. In addition to his 
duties as professor of medicine in the Col- 
lege of Medicine, he was physician to St. 
Joseph's Hospital and president of the 
staff, consulting physician to the Syra- 
cuse Hospital for Women and Children, 
and held a similar relation to the Hospital 
of the Good Shepherd, all this being in 
addition to his duties as private prac- 
titioner and consulting physician. Dur- 
ing the years of his professional life he 
made many trips abroad, spending con- 
siderable time in hospitals and clinics in 
European cities. Dr. Eisner contributed 
largely to the literature of his profession 
and was one of the best known medical 
writers. His contributions to medical 
journals were extensive, while before 
local, state and national medical societies 
he read many carefully prepared papers. 
He was the author of a work on the 
"Prognosis of Disease," upon which he 
spent considerable time, including eight 
months' of European research. This work, 
published early in 1916, was the first work 
devoted exclusively to the science of fore- 
telling the course and event of disease. 



Dr. Eisner was a member of the New 
York State Medical Society, Onondaga 
County Medical Society, Central New 
York Medical Association, Syracuse 
Academy of Medicine, New York Acade- 
my of Medicine, American Climatological 
Association, Nu Sigma Nu, and Alpha 
Omega Alpha. Syracuse University hon- 
ored him with the degree of LL. D., on 
June 9, 1915, Dr. Eisner being the second 
member of the faculty to receive this 
tribute, Dr. Henry Didama, dean of the 
college for many years, being the first. 
Dr. Eisner was unanimously recom- 
mended by the faculty of the College of 
Liberal Arts, was confirmed without dis- 
sent by the University Senate, and elected 
unanimously by the trustees of the uni- 
versity, Chancellor Day paying a high 
tribute to Dr. Eisner as a consultant 
member of the college faculty and friend 
of the university. Dr. Eisner was of the 
Jewish faith, and politically a Republican. 

Dr. Eisner married, January 5, 1881, 
Pauline Rosenberg, born in Rochester, 
New York, January 8, 1859, daughter of 
David and Amalie Rosenberg. She was 
educated in the schools of her native city, 
and after her marriage resided in Syra- 
cuse, their home being known as one of 
the most hospitable in the city. Mrs. Eis- 
ner was in the deepest sympathy with her 
husband's work and allowed nothing to 
stand in the way of its fullest develop- 
ment. Those who knew her well called 
her an ideal physician's wife in that she 
was always ready to subordinate social 
engagements or anything else to her hus- 
band's comfort and convenience. To the 
young students and physicians who as- 
sisted Dr. Eisner in his work she was a 
true and kindly friend and they were 
welcome and familiar guests at her table, 
and it was due to her thoughtfulness that 
many of them were enabled at different 
times to come into personal contact with 
some of the greatest men in their profes- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



DUNN, Col. George W., 

Civil War Veteran, Man of Affairs. 

The characters and deeds of good men 
should be sacredly preserved, not only for 
the happiness and satisfaction which such 
a record will give to all those immediately 
related to them, and to their posterity, but 
also for the good example which the lives 
of such men furnish to the young of our 
land, thus further advancing the true in- 
terests of our country. Such a life was 
that of the late Colonel George W. Dunn, 
of Binghamton, New York, whose bene- 
ficial influence in politics, journalism, 
business affairs, and as a soldier, cannot 
be overestimated, exerted, as it was, 
through these channels on all classes of 
the community. In political affairs he be- 
came noted for his aptitude in grappling 
with details, and for his accurate and 
keen perception and judgment. As a 
business man he was progressive and far- 
sighted. As a soldier, his conduct in- 
spired those in contact with him with the 
same heroism that animated his own 
breast. He inherited these sterling traits 
from honored ancestry and, although the 
limits of this article will not permit going 
into detail, it is not amiss to give a short 
account of the origin of the Dunn family. 

This ancient patronymic is supposed to 
be derived from the Gaelic "dun," meaning 
a heap, hill, mount; and by metonmy, a 
fortress, castle, tower. Another origin 
would be from the Saxon "dunn," signify- 
ing brown, swarthy. The former deriva- 
tion is favored by the coat-of-arms. The 
illustrious family of Dunne have as their 
heraldic blazon : Azure, an eagle dis- 
played, or. Crest: In front of a holly 
bush, a lizard passant, or. Motto : Mul- 
lach abu (The summit forever). The 
name was anciently written O'Duin, 
whence come the forms Doyne, Dun, 
Dunn and Dunne. In England and Ire- 



land there are many people of prominence 
bearing this surname ; among them Albert 
Edward Dunn, member of Parliament; 
Right Rev. A. H. Dunn, Bishop of Que- 
bec ; and some surgeons of eminence and 
officers in the army and navy. Among 
contemporary Americans are : Jesse James 
Dunn, a Democratic politician and asso- 
ciate justice of the Supreme Court of 
Oklahoma ; Mrs. Baker Dunn, the writer, 
of Hallowell, Maine ; Edward Joseph 
Dunne, the Bishop of Dallas, Texas ; and 
Finley Peter Dunne, the immortal "Mr. 
Dooley." The earliest American pioneer 
of the name of Dunn appears to have been 
Richard, who was a freeman at Newport, 
Rhode Island, in 1655, and served as 
deputy in 1681, 1 705-7-8-9-1 1. William 
Dunn, born in the North of Ireland, came 
to Pennsylvania in 1769; served in the 
Revolution, and founded Dunnstown in 
Clinton county ; he left a numerous pos- 
terity. There were many of the name 
in New England by the middle of the 
eighteenth century, for no less than forty- 
nine Dunns are found on the Massachu- 
setts Revolutionary Rolls. A branch of 
the family settled in New York State at 
an early date, the father of Colonel Dunn, 
John Dunn, having been born in Albany 
county, while his mother, Isabella (Black) 
Dunn, was descended from the New Eng- 
land stock. 

Colonel George W. Dunn was born in 
the old town of Chenango, Broome 
county, New York, November 27, 1840, 
and died at his home, No. 62 Carroll 
street, Binghamton, New York, Novem- 
ber 27, 1914. The town of Chenango and 
the village of Binghamton furnished him 
with his early educational advantages, 
and he was then a student at the Susque- 
hanna Seminary, and also pursued a 
course at a business college. He had just 
about completed his thorough prepara- 
tion for a business career, when the ouL- 
17 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



break of the Civil War prevented his en- 
tering upon it at that time. Patriotic and 
enthusiastic to a degree, he enlisted in 
May, 1861, in Company C, Twenty- 
seventh Regiment New York Volunteer 
Infantry, and was later appointed ser- 
geant. He was taken a prisoner at the 
First Battle of Bull Run, and was held 
at Richmond, New Orleans and Salis- 
bury until June 1, 1862, when he was 
paroled. He returned to the Union lines 
and was subsequently exchanged. His 
health had become seriously affected dur- 
ing his detention in the ill-ventilated 
prisons of the South, yet he at once again 
volunteered his services in the army. 
During the summer of 1862 the One 
Hundred and Ninth Regiment of Infantry 
was raised in Broome, Tioga and Tomp- 
kins counties, Broome county furnishing 
the largest number of men. Colonel Dunn 
recruited Company D for this command 
and was elected its captain, his commis- 
sion dating from October 10th, although 
the regiment was mustered into service 
August 27th. The arduous service of the 
One Hundred and Ninth Regiment com- 
menced in May, 1864, in the Campaign of 
the Wilderness, and was continued almost 
without even temporary relief until the 
final surrender in 1865. At Spottsylvania 
Captain Dunn was wounded, although 
not seriously. July 14th he was promoted 
major, and after the terrible mine explo- 
sion at Petersburg, Virginia, July 30th, 
Colonel Catlin having lost a leg and Major 
Stillson also having been wounded, the 
command of the regiment devolved upon 
Major Dunn. For meritorious service as 
line and field officer Major Dunn was sub- 
sequently advanced to the rank of colonel, 
by which title he has ever since been 
known. May 8, 1865, in accordance with 
general orders authorizing the retirement 
of officers who had served continuously 
for three years he was honorably dis- 
charged from service. 



After his return from the war Colonel 
Dunn engaged in business in Elmira, New 
York, but he remained there but one year. 
He then joined a mining expedition to 
Honduras, Central America, but the ill 
effects of the tropical climate necessitated 
his return north in the fall of 1866. In 
1868 he was appointed superintendent of 
Public Documents published by Congress 
at Washington, and retained this position 
until he was elected sheriff of Broome 
county, New York, in the fall of 1875. 
At the expiration of his term of office as 
sheriff he became prominently identified 
with the consolidation of "The Bing- 
hamton Republican" and "Binghamton 
Times," the two leading daily papers of 
the city, and upon the organization of the 
publishing company thus effected, was 
chosen treasurer and business manager of 
the corporation. He remained the efficient 
incumbent of this office until his appoint- 
ment as postmaster, December 20, 1881, 
in which office he served until 1886. Dur- 
ing his term of office he introduced many 
time saving innovations, and the free de- 
livery system was established in the city 
under his supervision. After his retire- 
ment from this office he engaged in the 
real estate business in partnership with 
Peter K. Burhans, and at the same time 
became interested in several manufactur- 
ing enterprises, thus becoming a promi- 
nent factor in the industrial history of 
Binghamton and remaining so for many 
years. He served as president of the 
Binghamton General Electric Company; 
vice-president of the Bundy Manufactur- 
ing Company; director of the Susque- 
hanna Valley Bank ; trustee of the Che- 
nango Valley Savings Bank; director and 
vice-president of the Strong State Bank ; 
director of the Binghamton, Leicester- 
shire & Union Railroad Company, and of 
the Binghamton Wagon Company; was 
at one time manager of the Equitable Ac- 
cident Association ; president of the Board 



iS 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



of Trustees of the now well-known Bing- 
hamton State Hospital and member of the 
City Excise and Police Commission. On 
March 13, 1889, he was reappointed post- 
master, and served until November 6, 
1893; he was clerk of the Assembly in 
1894; and, February 16, 1897, was ap- 
pointed by Governor Black to the office of 
state railroad commissioner, a position 
he filled until 1906. Always a loyal Re- 
publican, his time was unstintedly de- 
voted to the promotion of the party wel- 
fare, and the honors he received from the 
city, county and state appointing powers, 
were but the well deserved reward for 
services and fealty. For many years he 
was annually chosen as a delegate to the 
Republican State conventions, also served 
as a member of the State committee, and 
was county committeeman-at-large. He 
was active in the interests of the Bing- 
hamton Club, of which he was a member 
many years, as he was also of Watrous 
Post, Grand Army of the Republic. 

Colonel Dunn married, November 15, 
1870, Sarah M. Thomas, who survived 
him five weeks. She died January 5, 1915. 
Their daughter, Mrs. Horace Wardner 
Eggleston, and a grandson, George Dunn 
Eggleston, survive him. We cannot 
better testify to the high esteem in which 
Colonel Dunn was universally held, than 
by quoting from an editorial which ap- 
peared in the "Binghamton Republican 
Herald" at the time of his death, and from 
the expressions of regret, so deeply and 
sincerely voiced by men of eminence in 
the community. From the paper we quote 
as follows: 

A very gentle and a very brave spirit passed 
from this world when Colonel George W. Dunn 
answered the Great Roll Call. — A complete biog- 
raphy of Colonel Dunn would be like a history 
of Binghamton in all its phases since Mr. Dunn 
came to the years of manhood. He touched life 
here at so many points, was so active and help- 
ful, that the force of his energy and wisdom was 



felt everywhere. No worthy cause was neg- 
lected by him, whether it was of great or small 
import. His time, his money, his advice, his 
sympathy, were at the service of the community. 
— Of Colonel Dunn's long and impressive career 
in politics the public knows much, for his years 
of political power were passed under the white 
glare of publicity, a glare that showed nothing 
to his discredit Of his secret deeds of good- 
ness the public as a whole, knows little, but 
those he helped do know much of them and his 
passing will bring with it to hundreds the feel- 
ing that their warm-hearted friend is gone, 
never again to hold out to them the eager hand 
of assistance. To his office and to his home 
came many with appeals for assistance. They 
were never denied. — The martial deeds of Colo- 
nel Dunn are written large in the history of the 
Nation he risked so much, in company with his 
devoted comrades, to serve. — Yet when he re- 
turned to civic life he would seldom discuss his 
experiences in the Great Conflict. But recently 
one of his comrades was telling of that terrible 
time, during the Battle of the Wilderness, when 
the fighting 109th Infantry was kept for hours 
under a terrific rebel fire, waiting for the time 
for it to go into action. Company D, said Colo- 
nel Dunn's comrade, was before the salient of 
the rebel position on that part of the field. The 
minie balls came crooning over the field, the 
shells were bursting all along our line, but we 
could not stir. The regiment was crouched 
down, as ordered, waiting for the word to 
charge, but Colonel Dunn walked along back 
of our company, speaking words of encourage- 
ment and resolution. We begged him to cease 
exposing himself, but he refused. His example 
had a powerful effect upon the morals of the 
whole regiment. To a newspaper friend who 
tried to get Colonel Dunn to discuss this inci- 
dent the Colonel said: Oh, I was not as brave as 
the rest. I didn't take any more chances than 
Winfield Stone, who was as tall crouching down 
as the most of us were standing up. The men 
crouching down were worse off than I was, be- 
cause I could relieve my nerves by walking 
about, but they had to be still and take their 
punishment. Let's talk about the weather. The 
bond of friendship thus formed was strong dur- 
ing the following years. The boys of the old 
regiment looked upon Colonel Dunn as their 
true friend and leader and he kept in close touch 
with them to the last. In good times and in bad, 
he was their adviser and helper, when any of 
them needed it. He visited the sick, closed the 
eyes of the dying, aided the widows and orphans, 

19 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



made long journeys over the bleak hills in winter 
to lonely farm houses for their sakes, and was 
present with his boys whenever his presence 
would cheer and bring joy to them and theirs. — 
As a political leader Colonel Dunn's power was 
great. He was the personal friend of Grant, 
Piatt, Depew, Roosevelt, McKinley, Hanna, Can- 
non, and other leading Republicans. — Colonel 
Dunn was always eager to help promote the suc- 
cess of religious and educational efforts. All 
movements for better public service had his ap- 
proval. — Not to see Colonel Dunn's familiar 
figure on the streets, nor to hear his cheery 
words of advice, not to have him as a wise coun- 
sellor in affairs in general, will be a great loss to 
the people of this community. Yet with this sense 
of loss will go the feeling that his long and useful 
life has left behind it influences for good that will 
have their weight through the coming years. 
Death has taken him in a physical sense, but can- 
not rob his friends and co-workers of the mem- 
ories of his manliness, wisdom and tenderness of 
heart. 

Supreme Court Justice George F. Lyon 

said: 

Colonel Dunn was a courageous soldier, modest 
and unassuming, a most entertaining companion, 
a man of more than ordinary foresight and ability, 
sympathetic, tender-hearted, kind to the poor; a 
generous giver in an unpretentious way from 
whom no applicant wearing a Grand Army button 
ever went away empty-handed; a most loving 
and devoted husband and father, a good neighbor, 
a man who did not desert his friends when a 
wave of unpopularity swept over them. The recol- 
lections accompanying intimate acquaintance with 
such a man are to be highly treasured. 

George B. Curtiss said: 

The Colonel was a very modest man, one who 
never boasted of his achievements, in fact he was 
one of the bravest soldiers and best citizens of 
this country during the Civil War period. He 
was one of the best known and most popular men 
of the state. He was recognized as a man whose 
opinion could always be relied upon. Whatever 
position he took on any question, he was known 
to be honest and sincere. He was conspicuous 
among prominent men of the State for his loyalty 
to his country, to his party and to his friends. A 
man of great natural abilities, of good judgment, 
possessed of courage and stamina, of extraordi- 



nary ability to do what he believed in and stood 
for. He was a very rare man, and possessd of un- 
usual and extraordinary qualities and attained his 
position through real work and genuine qualities. 



TEXTOR, Reynolds, 

Representative Citizen. 

Into what Zangwill fitly named the 
"melting pot" of New York flows in a 
constant stream of increasing volume the 
material from which America builds her 
highest type of naturalized citizenship. 
It is of course conceded that in the influx 
one finds the very dregs of humanity, but 
in so small a quantity as to be almost 
negligible. The immigrant to America 
is the man who has felt within him the 
stirrings of an ambition impossible of 
realization in his native land, and under 
the conditions in which he lives and 
works. He is the dissatisfied man, who 
chafes against the bonds of caste, which 
though they may not be aggressively 
proclaimed, are nevertheless too rigid to 
be broken by his mediocre ability. He is 
the thinker, the earnest worker, the man 
with visions and the desire and ability, if 
he is given a chance, to fulfill them. 
America offers him the consummation 
of all that he desires — and not only that — 
offers to teach him the means to secure 
it. Appreciating these gifts only as one 
does who has never had them, he utilizes 
them to the full extent of their value. 
And he offers in return a gratitude almost 
unintelligible to the native American, and 
an eagerness to uphold the traditions and 
customs of his adopted land, to become 
identified and to further the best for 
which is stands. It is of such material, 
the best from all the nations of the globe, 
that America is constructing the future 
of its greatness. The lives of these men 
of foreign birth who become our citizens 
are lives that count. They are men that 
achieve things, and the life so meagerly 





7^y^) 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



sketched here is an example of the work 
and accomplishment of the average Ger- 
man-American. 

Reynolds Textor was born in Prussia, 
June ii, 1836, a son of the sturdy and 
upright middle class. He was educated 
in the excellent Volkeschule of his native 
town, under the system of education 
which Germany has wisely made com- 
pulsory up to the age of fourteen years. 
When he reached fourteen years Mr. Tex- 
tor came to America, dependent for the 
most part on his own resources. He 
entered the upholstery business at first 
as an apprentice, working himself up in 
the course of his twenty-one years con- 
nection with the business to the owner- 
ship of an upholstery store on Sixth 
avenue in New York City. He gave up 
his store in 1867 and entered the employ- 
ment of the Equitable Life Assurance 
Society, with which concern he remained 
for forty-eight years, holding positions of 
gradually increasing importance. At the 
time of his death, which occurred on Feb- 
ruary 7, 191 5, Mr. Textor had been for 
some years a general agent for the com- 
pany. 

Mr. Textor was married on November 
26, 1872, to Laura Bergen, daughter of 
Rudolph and Eva (Heine) Bergen. Mrs. 
Textor, who is his second wife, survives 
Mr. Textor and resides at No. 401 East 
Seventeenth street, Brooklyn. Their son, 
who is the only child, is Rudolph Textor, 
born February 1, 1874. He is married 
to Charlotte C. von Glahn, daughter of 
Theodore and Catherine von Glahn. They 
have one child, Marjorie Textor. The 
children of Mr. Textor's first marriage 
are: Mrs. Lillian Smith, deceased; Mrs. 
Ethel Hull, wife of Dr. Hull, of New 
York City; and Edwin A. Textor, who 
married Bertha Bose, of New York City ; 
his son is Arthur R. Textor. 

Mr. Textor was deeply interested in 



singing, and was an important member 
of the Liederkranz Club of this city, being 
one of that famous organization's charter 
members and trustees. He was for years 
active in its far reaching work. He was 
a member of no other organizations, 
either social or fraternal. He was a man 
of pleasing personality, and possessed a 
large number of friends in whose estima- 
tion he was highly rated. There is no 
truer gauge of the character of a man 
than that of his home life and his rating 
in the eyes of his family. To them all the 
pettiness of his nature, if it includes any, 
is revealed, and to them also are shown 
his highest virtues. In concluding, no 
greater tribute can be paid Mr. Textor 
than the recording here of the devotion 
of his entire family. 



HETHERTON, Edward S., 

Public Official, Civil 'War Veteran. 

Major Edward S. Hetherton, very 
widely known in Grand Army circles, as 
well as in political matters, died at his 
home on Argyle Road, Flatbush, October 
12, 1914. Major Hetherton was of the 
type of men who always inspire confi- 
dence and who are ever ready when duty 
calls. It is such men who, when the 
nation was in danger through secession 
and other baneful influences, prevented 
its destruction. When the integrity of 
the nation was threatened he was among 
the first to respond to the call for 
defenders, and his course throughout the 
Civil War reflected credit upon himself 
and encouraged those about him to fulfill 
to the utmost their dangerous duties. In 
civil life he was equally efficient and 
capable, and was identified with some of 
the leading enterprises of his native city. 
Always just and fair, he was placed in 
positions of responsibility where judg- 
ment was required and prompt action 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



brought results. He was trusted by the 
highest in authority, and never in any 
manner betrayed the confidence reposed 
in him. He was energetic and efficient 
to the end, and continued about his duties 
despite the inroads of a fatal disease, until 
exhausted nature could no longer fulfil 
its functions, and then laid down his 
responsibilities and met his end with the 
fortitude and high courage which had 
characterized his entire career. 

Major Hetherton was born December 
25, 1843, in New York City, the son of 
Irish parents, who met and were married 
in New York City, where all their chil- 
dren were born. At the outbreak of the 
Civil War, soon after the completion of 
his seventeenth year, he enlisted as a 
drummer in the Second Regiment of the 
United States Artillery. Subsequently 
he became principal musician in the 
Second Regiment, United States Volun- 
teers, and was discharged on March 4, 
1866. When only twelve years of age 
he enlisted as a musician in the regular 
army, and received instruction on the 
fife and drum on Governor's Island, in 
New York Harbor. He ran away from 
home to enlist, was enrolled October 1, 
1856, and discharged September 30, 1861, 
at Fort Pickens, Florida. He reenlisted 
May 21, 1862, at Fort Independence, in 
Boston Harbor, and soon after received 
order to report for duty to General 
Daniel Ullman at No. 200 Broadway, 
New York City. After April 6, 1863, he 
joined the Eleventh United States Infan- 
try. His term expired in March, 1865, 
but he continued in the service until the 
following year, as above noted. He 
served under Generals Arnold and Mc- 
Clellan. and was in the Nineteenth 
Army Corps. During the last ten years 
of his life he resided in the Flatbush sec- 
tion of Brooklyn, was a member of St. 
Rose de Lima Church of Parkville, and 



was a member of the Holy Name Society, 
auxiliary of that body. His remains were 
laid to rest in Mount Olivet Cemetery. 
In politics Major Hetherton was an Inde- 
pendent. He was long in the public 
service as mayor's messenger, beginning 
with Mayor Abram S. Hewitt and con- 
tinuing under all his successors to the 
present time, a period of twenty-seven 
years. He thus became acquainted with 
many of New York's most famous men, 
and was a carrier of numerous important 
messages to men in high official life. At 
the time of his death he was commander 
of Phil Kearny Post, No. 8, Grand Army 
of the Republic, and at many times rep- 
resented this post in grand encampments. 
In the early days of the Fifth Avenue 
Stage line he was its first starter. He 
was a member of the Grand Army Mem- 
orial Committee and the Nineteenth 
Army Corps Veteran Association. Major 
Hetherton was a man of excellent qual- 
ities, of sound judgment, warm sym- 
pathies and generous heart, and was high- 
ly esteemed wherever known. He was 
very faithful to every duty which de- 
volved upon him, and will long be 
mourned by all who knew him. 

He was married on Thanksgiving Day, 
1875, to Sarah A. Burnop, daughter of 
Philip and Margaret Burnop, natives of 
England. Major and Mrs. Hetherton 
were the parents of eight children, of 
whom four are now living: Ella; Joseph 
Burnop, married Susan Dolan, and has 
children : Mary, Margaret, Virginia and 
Edward ; William Howard ; Edna, wife of 
George Kimpel, one son, George Edward 
Kimpel. 



GARDNER, John H., 

Medical Investigator. 

Among the many distinguished families 
of Albany, eminent in various fields of 
life, perhaps none have contributed more 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



to the advancement and general enlight- 
enment of the community than the old 
Gardner family of this place, which has 
boasted among its members several who 
have been men of science, and broad in 
their views and sympathies. 

One of the best known scions of this 
family was the late Mr. John H. Gardner 
who, though by the accident of birth was 
a native of New York City, made Albany 
in his after life the scene of his worldly 
activities and the beneficiary of his dis- 
tinguished attributes. Mr. Gardner was 
born at the old Bowery Hotel in New 
York, on October 24, 1840, this hotel 
being famous for its ownership by John 
Jacob Astor, and for many years one of 
the best known landmarks of the great 
metropolis. 

Mr. Gardner's father, John H. Gardner, 
was a very noted man in his time, promi- 
nent along many lines, but identified more 
especially with the "Scientific American," 
of which he was editor for many years. 
His son inherited the scientific bent of 
mind which distinguished the older man 
par excellence, and himself in later days 
contributed abundantly to the world's 
storehouse of knowledge. After he had 
acquired the rudiments of his education, 
Mr. Gardner, then a resident of Brooklyn, 
attended the Brooklyn Polytechnic Insti- 
tute ; he was also a pupil for some time 
of a private academy at White Plains, 
New York. He was quite young at the 
outbreak of the war between the States, 
but hastened to join the colors, and 
enlisted in the service of the Union as a 
regimental commissary, of the Third New 
York Cavalry. He served his country 
loyally and well, and became a commis- 
sioned officer ; in later years, after the 
close of the long and bloody hostilities 
that devastated the country, he was a 
member of the Military Order of the 
Loyal Legion. 



Mr. Gardner devoted many years of his 
life to travel, going abroad several times 
and making extensive tours of the Con- 
tinent. He made a trip around the 
world in company with the late Thomas 
Dickson, president of the Delaware & 
Hudson Canal Company. But his most 
important expedition to foreign lands was 
for the purpose of making a scientific 
investigation of the properties of sulphur 
water for medicinal purposes. Prior to 
this time he had established, in connec- 
tion with his father and brothers, all 
interested as he was in science and the 
properties of matter, a hotel at Sharon 
Springs where he had opportunity to 
pursue his investigations in regard to 
mineral waters. Here he passed the 
greater part of the time in which he was 
not occupied in travel, engaged in scien- 
tific pursuits and experimenting in mineral 
waters. This hotel, founded in 1861, was 
conducted continuously at Sharon Springs 
for many years, and proved of almost 
unlimited benefit to all those who flocked 
to the place on account of the healing 
qualities of the water thereabouts. Mr. 
Gardner himself was its manager, and 
devoted himself to its upkeep with all the 
enthusiasm which marked his character ; 
remaining there all of the time in which 
he was not engaged in foreign travel. 

On November 25, 1873, Mr. Gardner 
was married to Susan E. McClure, a 
daughter of Archibald McClure, whose 
parents came to this country from Scot- 
land and settled in New Scotland, Albany 
county, New York, where he was born, 
founding the family of that name, some 
of whose members have since become 
famous in the history of the country. Mr. 
McClure was a pioneer drug man in 
Albany, settling there when the city was 
considerably less populated than it is at 
the present time. Mrs. Gardner's mother 
was Susan Tracy (Rice) Gardner, daugh- 



123 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ter of Colonel Rice, who distinguished 
himself in the War of 1812. Mr. and 
Mrs. Gardner were the parents of two 
children, Susan and Julia Jacques. The 
last named daughter is the wife of Her- 
bert T. Whitlock, mineralogist for the 
State of New York. 

Mr. Gardner died December 16, 1891, at 
the age of fifty-one years, and was buried 
in the Rural Cemetery at Albany. He 
was a member of the Union League Club 
of New York City for more than twenty 
years, and had an extensive acquaintance 
in that city as well as throughout the 
entire country and in foreign lands. The 
development and advancement of this 
part of the State owed much to his energy 
and enlightened perceptions, and to the 
scientific mentality of a man who 
delighted in research and the knowledge 
of nature. He made many and important 
discoveries along the lines in which he 
was most interested, of which those who 
have come after him have enjoyed the 
benefit. 



BROWN, Alexander John, 

Representative Citizen. 

In sporting circles in Brooklyn for the 
past three decades or so there has appear- 
ed no name that will be longer remem- 
bered than that of Alexander John Brown 
whose death at his home at No. 356 St. 
Mark's avenue, on October 3, 1915, 
removed from the community one of its 
most picturesque figures and a citizen of 
public spirit and energy. 

Born in Brooklyn, December II, 1855, 
Mr. Brown was a lifelong resident of that 
city and had become most closely iden- 
tified with its life. He was educated in 
the parochial school in connection with 
St. Joseph's Catholic Church, and at an 
early age began to take a very practical 
interest in politics. He was a strong 
supporter of the principles and policies 



of the Democratic party, allied himself 
actively with the local organization there- 
of, and soon became an important factor 
in the situation in that part of the city. 
In time he grew to be the leader in his 
ward, and for many years played a promi- 
nent part in Democratic campaigns in 
Brooklyn. But it was in connection with 
the sporting activities of the community 
that he was most active and best known, 
both as a promoter and an active par- 
ticipant in athletic games, especially base- 
ball. As a young man he joined the 
famous old Fulton Market Baseball Nine 
and made a reputation in the national 
game that extended far beyond the limits 
of his home city. Both at this time and 
later he received many offers from the 
managers of professional teams to join 
their ranks but, although some of these 
were tempting enough, he refused to 
abandon his amateur status which he 
valued highly. A little later he became a 
member of the equally celebrated Reso- 
lutes, one of the best teams in the Brook- 
lyn Amateur League, and there continued 
the splendid game which had brought 
him into prominence. In the year 1892 
he became associated with Tom O'Rourke 
and with him took up the management 
of the Coney Island Athletic Club, an 
enterprise that was highly successful and 
under the auspices of which a number of 
the greatest ring encounters of the time 
were held. Among these should be men- 
tioned the much-talked-of, long-heralded 
Jeffries-Sharkey fight and others of equal 
celebrity. Mr. Brown took an active per- 
sonal part in the arrangement of these 
bouts and himself acted as referee in 
many minor battles. Mr. Brown was a 
man of strong religious beliefs and was 
all his life associated with the church, in 
the parochial school of which he studied 
as a boy, St. Joseph's, and was a liberal 
supporter of the work of the parish. 
24 





CCC-t^c^t^t^/ 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



On January 22, 1904, Mr. Brown was 
united in marriage with Margaret E. Gil- 
martin, a native of Brooklyn, and a daugh- 
ter of Thomas and Margaret (Kenny) 
Gilmartin, who came from Ireland. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Brown three children were 
born, one of whom, a charming little 
daughter, Florence Mamie Brown, sur- 
vives her father and now dwells with her 
mother at the residence at No. 356 St. 
Mark's avenue. 

Mr. Brown's devotion to athletic games 
and sports was remarkable, nor did it 
diminish, as is so often the case, with the 
departure of youth. Up to within a very 
few years of his death he was to be seen 
every afternoon taking part in the daily 
games held in the Parade Ground at 
Prospect Park, an occupation of which 
he never tired. He was especially noted 
as a pitcher and his home contains many 
trophies, prizes and tributes won by his 
skill in this particular realm. Besides 
this fondness, however, his tastes were of 
a kind that led him rather away from 
than into very extended social relations. 
He was devoted to his home and family 
and sought his recreation there and in 
that intercourse rather than in clubs or 
organizations of a kindred nature. He 
was a man of broad and democratic views 
and instincts and was extremely popular 
among other men, possessing hosts of 
friends whose sorrow for his loss is a very 
real one. None of the many who came in 
contact with him failed to be attracted to 
him and his name will live in the meitir 
ories of more than it is the lot of the aver- 
age man to do. 



SAMMIS, William Augustus, 
Public Official. 

One of the representative men of 
White Plains was removed from the 
scenes in which he had long been a con- 
spicuous figure when the late William A. 



Sammis passed away. For many years 
Mr. Sammis had been the proprietor of 
the celebrated Sound View Stock Farm, 
and during the long period of his resi- 
dence in the town had filled with credit 
the offices of tax collector and justice of 
the peace. 

William A. Sammis was born June 9, 
1843, m Flushing, New York, where he 
received his education and passed the 
years of his early manhood. To what 
occupations these years were devoted we 
are not precisely informed, but they were 
evidently such as to fit him for the respon- 
sible part in life which he afterward 
played. While still a young man Mr. 
Sammis became a resident of White 
Plains, in the course of time becoming one 
of its best known and most highly re- 
spected citizens. As proprietor of the 
Sound View Stock Farm he exhibited rare 
administrative abilities and held a com- 
manding and influential position in the 
community. From the beginning of his 
residence in the town Mr. Sammis took a 
most lively interest in public affairs, 
identifying himself with the Republicans. 
His personal popularity, together with 
the confidence felt in his ability and 
integrity, caused him to be frequently 
requested to become a candidate for office, 
but to all such appeals he remained for 
some time unresponsive. The affairs of 
the Sound View Stock Farm, which ad- 
joined the Gedney Farm and also the 
large estate of Paul G. Thebaud, absorbed 
his entire attention. At length, however, 
in 1899, he accepted the nomination for 
justice of the peace, filling the office so 
greatly to the satisfaction of his fellow- 
citizens that he was chosen for a second 
term, serving in all until 1903. In 1907 
he was elected town tax collector and 
made a record collection. The secret of 
his popularity was always to be found in 
the implicit trust inspired by his sterling 
qualities. 



[25 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



The personality of Mr. Sammis was 
extremely attractive and we can hardly 
be accused of exaggeration in saying that 
every man, woman and child in White 
Plains was his friend. He was affection- 
ately addressed as "Uncle Billy," and so 
universal was the use of the title that few 
knew him by any other name. He was a 
very familiar figure upon the streets of 
White Plains, driving into town every 
day for the purchase of supplies and 
always sure of meeting hosts of friends. 
His discernment was of the kind which 
sees the best in every one and the kindli- 
ness of his nature led him to speak well 
of all. How greatly he is missed none 
but those who knew and loved him could 
tell. His face, so expressive of the char- 
acter and disposition which endeared 
him to all who were ever brought into 
contact with him, is vividly present in 
their remembrance. 

Mr. Sammis married Elizabeth W. 
Wilkins, daughter of the well known 
proprietor of the Wilkins Stage Coach 
Line in New York City which had its 
starting-point near the site of the present 
Park Avenue Hotel. Mr. and Mrs. Sam- 
mis were the parents of four daughters : 
Emma, now the wife of John L. Coles, of 
Mamaroneck; Jessie, now the wife of 
William S. Verplanck, of White Plains; 
Annie, now the wife of Marvin N. Horl- 
vin, of Mamaroneck avenue; and Mary, 
who resides with her widowed mother. 
Of what Mr. Sammis was in his family 
circle it is impossible for a stranger to 
speak. Only those near and dear to him 
could do justice to his qualities in the 
relations of husband and father. 

On July 14. 1912, his town and county 
were rendered poorer by the death of this 
estimable man and model citizen. Dur- 
ing the thirty-seven years of his residence 
in White Plains, William A. Sammis pre- 
sented in the blameless conduct and even 



tenor of his daily life an example of public 
and private virtue, of the essential qual- 
ities which go to build up a prosperous 
community, to maintain high ideals, to 
strengthen popular faith in them and to 
aid in their realization. To many the 
personal loss was irreparable, as may be 
imagined even from our imperfect effort 
to delineate those features of his char- 
acter which made him so profoundly 
respected and sincerely loved. It is but 
a few years since the bodily presence of 
this good man and useful citizen was 
withdrawn from, our sight, but his work 
lives after him and he has left a record 
which is an encouragement and an inspi- 
ration not only to his contemporaries but 
also to those who shall come after him. 



COSGRIFF, Andrew, 

Civil War Veteran, Mining Expert. 

No man can be called truly successful 
whose success is not the result of his own 
efforts. Regardless of what advantages 
in the way of education, inborn talent or 
genius, or pecuniary resources may or 
may not have been laid open to him, what 
a man has made of himself, per se, is in 
the world's reckoning of his status, his 
success or failure. Therein is manifested 
the spirit of independence upon which our 
nation is founded, for which our fathers 
fought, and counting it dearer than life, 
went to their deaths to preserve unto us, 
a spirit fostered and developed in no other 
way than in actual struggle with life. 
Not the man who has fallen heir to an 
established fortune, but the man whose 
only fortune has been his God-given 
strength and brain, whose only tools his 
indomitable courage and indefatigable 
perseverance, is the ultimate success. 
Success and self go hand-in-hand, and 
from this fact has logically been evolved 
the colloquial "Americanism," of which 



[2<> 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



we may be duly proud, self-made. Truly 
the late Captain Andrew Cosgriff, who 
was president and one of the owners of 
the Haverstraw Electric Light, Heat & 
Power Company until it was sold to the 
Rockland Light & Power Company, about 
1903, was a conspicuous example of this 
high and honorable type of American 
citizenship. He was a representative and 
prominent member of the community, and 
in every way identified himself with its 
best interests and efforts. The Cosgriff 
coat-of-arms is as follows : Or. A chevron 
between three garbs gules. Crest : A 
tiger's head erased, affrontee proper. 

Captain Cosgriff was a native of New 
York City, born May 29, 1831, died Janu- 
ary 29, 1916, son of Philip and Annie 
(Martin) Cosgriff. Captain Cosgriff was 
in every sense of the word a self-made 
man, and a man whose success was all 
the more to be wondered at because of 
the serious disadvantages under which he 
was obliged to labor at the very outset of 
his life. At the early age of six years he 
was left an orphan. Having no relatives 
in New Yurk City, he went to Cattarau- 
gus county, New York, where he spent 
his early life, remaining until nineteen 
years of age with his adopted parents, 
Judge Benjamin Chamberlain and wife, 
the former named having been the county 
judge of Cattaraugus county, New York. 
Andrew Cosgriff assisted in the office, 
and also acquired a very good education, 
attending the public schools and also hav- 
ing private teaching, Dr. Saunders, the 
family physician, having been his teacher. 
Later he had charge of considerable of 
Judge Chamberlain's property. Andrew 
Cosgriff later took up the study of the 
science of practical engineering in Cat- 
taraugus. Upon attaining his majority 
he returned to the metropolis and fol- 
lowed his trade with the Hudson River 
railroad for twelve years. Upon the 



expiration of this time, he assumed the 
responsible and important position of 
superintendent of engineers on the Har- 
lem railroad, which post he held for four 
years. 

During the Civil War he enlisted in 
the engineering department of the United 
States navy, and for four and a half years 
saw active service as master machinist in 
the brilliant campaigns of Admiral Far- 
ragut in the West Gulf Blockading 
Squadron. For the greater part of his 
time he was in charge of the Ship Island 
repair shop and afterwards of the Navy 
Yard at Pensacola, Florida. Upon the 
close of the war he left the service of the 
United States government and took up 
mining. His advance in this field was 
very rapid, though he had never had the 
college or so-called technical training, 
and he soon became an expert, his first 
experience being gained in the oil regions 
of Pennsylvania. Later he was employed 
in a mechanical capacity and sent to Cali- 
fornia, when the mining fever was at its 
height. He subsequently went to the 
gold and silver fields of Nevada, and from 
mechanical expert he gradually broadened 
the scope of his abilities in such a way 
that he became general mining expert. 
In 1868 he was engaged to go to South 
Carolina to assume charge of a gold 
mining venture there and he also engaged 
in the same business in Virginia. In the 
same year he accepted a position as super- 
intendent of the famous Tilly Foster Iron 
Mine in Putnam county, New York, and 
continued in that capacity for twenty-one 
years, or until 1889, when in consequence 
of a slight accident he decided to give up 
mining. 

A man whose life has been one of 
ceaseless and successful activity finds it 
hard to reconcile his restless and eager 
spirit to the inactivity of retirement. 
Captain Cosgriff was no exception to this 



127 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



rule, and finding a life of leisure unsuited 
to his tastes and inclinations, he again 
decided to engage in some pursuit, and 
accordingly entered into partnership with 
Messrs. Conklin and Foss, in the Rock- 
land Lake Trap Rock Company, which 
was conducting an extensive and profit- 
able business at that time. Four years 
later this partnership was dissolved and 
the Cosgriff Trap Rock Company, of 
which Captain Cosgriff was vice-presi- 
dent and general manager, was formed. 
After the death of Messrs. Hedges and 
Smith this was sold to the Clinton Point 
Stone Company in order to close up the 
estate of the aforenamed men. In 1894 
Captain Cosgriff, in conjunction with 
General I. M. Hedges, became an owner 
of the Haverstraw Electric Light, Heat & 
Power Company, which was sold to the 
Rockland Light & Power Company, the 
former named having been the president 
and the later named the secretary and 
treasurer. This company conducted a suc- 
cessful business and gave employment to 
a large number of employees, thus being 
an important and potential factor in the 
development and upbuilding of the com- 
munity. 

Captain Cosgriff, although upholding 
all the responsibilities which fall upon 
the shoulders of an important member of 
any community, kept entirely out of 
politics during his life, although during 
his residence in Tilly Foster, incident to 
his management of the mine, he served in 
the capacity of postmaster, discharging 
his duties in an efficient and capable man- 
ner. During his extensive travels in early 
life he met men of all classes in life, and 
through democratic contact with them he 
became thoroughly versed in the ways 
and means of men and things, was a close 
student of human nature, and a man of 
broad and fair views, was an interesting 
companion and excellent conversation- 



alist. He was a man of public spirit and 
enterprise, active in promoting the wel- 
fare of his community and in bettering 
the conditions of those in his employ, and 
thus ranked among the representative 
men of Haverstraw, men whom it is an 
honor and delight to record. 

On August 22, 1858, Captain Cosgriff 
married Jane Lewis, daughter of Abram 
and Catherine Morris, and widow of 
Henry Lewis. Her parents were resi- 
dents of Hudson, Columbia county, New 
York. She was born May 4, 1824, died 
January 24, 1902. The Morris coat-of- 
arms is as follows : Gules, a lion rampant 
or, charged on the breast with a plate. 
Crest : A demi lion rampant or, holding 
between the paws a plate. Captain and 
Mrs. Cosgriff were the parents of two 
daughters: 1. Annie C, married John M. 
Sloane, deceased, and they had three 
daughters: Sarah H., died April 22, 
1914; Margaret M., and Esther M. 2. 
Lucy J. Both daughters reside at the 
family home on Hudson avenue, Haver- 
straw. 



BUNNY, John, 

Inimitable Actor. 

It is the fashion among the "intellec- 
tuals" of to-day to belittle the value of 
laughter. They can tolerate and even 
indulge in the grim smile that answers a 
certain vein of grim humor, almost as 
acid as grief itself, but with the side- 
shaking, ear-splitting, soul-clearing roars 
of the mob they have little sympathy and 
turn for relief from such sounds to their 
depressing Ibsens and Maeterlinks, in the 
strange belief that to be pessimistic is to 
be wise, that despair is the final phil- 
osophy. The instinct of the man in the 
street is much surer. Were he asked if 
he approved of laughter he might be at a 
loss for an answer, but he pays it the 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



far greater compliment than approval, by 
seeking it at all costs and wherever it is 
to be found. And surely there is as much 
that is good and even sacred in laughter 
as in tears. It is more nearly related to 
the object of all existence, if it be 
admitted that happiness is that object, as 
it certainly must be. Carlyle did indeed 
inquire by what act of parliament was it 
decreed that we should be happy and 
adjured to seek blessedness instead, but 
truly in the best sense of the terms they 
are one and the same thing for it may 
very cogently be urged that as it must 
be that to be blessed is to be happy, so 
also to be happy is to be blessed. And 
if this be so it is not less undeniable that 
one of the large factors of happiness is 
wholesome mirth and laughter. And 
now if it be asked where such wholesome 
mirth and laughter is to be found, it may 
be replied without hesitation in the farces 
and the horse-play of the people. As 
Chesterton remarks the tragedies of the 
people "are of broken hearts, their 
comedies of broken heads." The man 
who supplies food for this healthy human 
craving for fun is a true benefactor and 
deserves to the full the popular honor 
that is showered upon him. Turn not 
up your noses, O you supercilious artists 
and critics, if he wins his applause be- 
cause he is clumsy and always hits the 
wrong man or makes love to the wrong 
woman, or never ascends a stairs with- 
out falling down again; of such stuff is 
our best laughter made, such are the 
jests of Rabelais, the antics of Falstaff, 
while the great comedy of Cervantes is 
but a sort of sublimated music hall farce 
with Don Quixote as the countryman in 
town and the windmill a gigantic police- 
man. Of such also was the fun of John 
Bunny, whose death on March 26, 1915, 
at his Brooklyn home removed from our 
midst one of the most deservedly popular 

NY-VolIII-S 129 



of all those who have made the moving 
picture the medium of success. 

John Bunny was of English ancestry 
on his father's side and of Irish on his 
mother's, but was himself born on the 
Island of Manhattan, September 21, 1863. 
He was the first of nine generations who 
did not follow the sea and the second in 
that same period that was not a member 
of the English navy. The Bunnys came 
from the famous English coast town of 
Penzance and his mother, who was a Miss 
Eleanor O'Sullivan, from County Clare, 
Ireland, where her family was prominent 
and highly respected. After the usual 
schooling obtained by the New York boy, 
Mr. Bunny followed in the steps of the 
millions and secured the position of clerk 
in a store in the city. It does not appear, 
however, that he was particularly suc- 
cessful in this part of his career and he 
used to tell a most amusing story at his 
own expense concerning it. According 
to him he approached his employer after 
a few months' work and tactfully sug- 
gested that an increase of salary would 
be appropriate to be met by that awful 
personage with the remark that he had 
been on the point of discharging the 
young man as worthless. He went on to 
say that as far as he could see, his clerk 
was able to do but two things well, i. e., 
to make faces and talk loud, and he sug- 
gested that he try the stage. Whether or 
not the suggestion was meant in earnest, 
it was taken so and the long career as an 
actor was commenced. At first it was a 
part in a cheap "minstrel show," which 
proved to be an excellent training for him, 
especially his last work, with its oppor- 
tunity for pantomimic action and facial 
expression. Several such engagements 
followed one another until in 1883 he was 
given a part in a play with the happy title 
of "The Stranglers of Paris." The play 
had a short run at the Park Theatre, but 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



it gave Mr. Bunny an opportunity to 
show his talent and gained him an en- 
trance into the realm of legitimate drama. 
From that time onward, for nearly thirty 
years, Mr. Bunny acted almost uninter- 
ruptedly and has taken minor parts in the 
companies of such world famous men as 
Edwin Booth and Lawrence Barrett. It 
was in such an atmosphere that his ideals 
were developed and his abilities trained in 
such parts as Shakespeare's clowns, for 
his gifts from the first were markedly of 
the comic order. As Touchstone, for in- 
stance, he distinguished himself highly, 
and it became easy for him to secure en- 
gagements with the best companies. He 
was given parts by Henry W. Savage, 
William A. Brady, Charles and Daniel 
Frohman and many others, and supported 
at various times Miss Maude Adams, 
Miss Annie Russell and others of the 
great popular favorites. But while he 
did well his great success did not come to 
him except with the entrance of a new 
form of acting and a new stage, a stage 
that has already wrought profound 
changes in the whole theatrical world. 
This was the moving picture which has 
grown to such amazing proportions with- 
in little more than five years. At the 
time of its appearance the moving picture 
was regarded with some contempt by the 
average actor, and they were few indeed 
who entered it as a profession that were 
not driven there by necessity. It was not 
so with Mr. Bunny, who from the first 
perceived the great possibilities in the 
thing, not merely from the commercial 
standpoint, but as a vehicle of wholesome 
amusement and instruction to great 
masses of people who could not other- 
wise come within the healthful influence 
of the theatre. So it was that he did not 
scorn a half-casual proposal made to him 
at that time that he should become a 
"film artist." On the contrary so strong 



was his belief in the new form that he did 
what was considered a most foolish thing 
by the majority of his professional friends 
by declining an excellent engagement on 
the regular stage and accepting what 
seemed far less desirable in moving pic- 
tures. He never had any reason to regret 
his decision, particularly from a business 
point of view, for he rapidly emerged into 
great prominence and ultimately became 
the most popular actor in that form of 
amusement. The accounts of the fabu- 
lous sums earned by him are probably 
exaggerations, but there is no doubt 
whatever that the Vitagraph Company, 
for whose productions he acted consid- 
ered him as one of their most drawing 
artists and it is well known that the con- 
cern does not stint its outlay in securing 
what it requires. And truly it could afford 
to be liberal in this case for Mr. Bunny's 
popularity was simply phenomenal. With 
the last few years moving picture houses 
have sprung up all over the civilized 
world and have even penetrated the un- 
civilized, and wherever the films have 
gone there also has gone John Bunny. 
His face is doubtless one of the best 
known to the world to-day and would 
doubtless be recognized over a larger area 
and in more diverse scenes than most of 
the crowned heads or the great statesmen 
of the times. His death was finally 
brought about by overwork at the head of 
his own company, which was supporting 
him in a play known as John Bunny in 
Funnyland. 

Mr. Bunny was married, January 23, 
1890, to Clara Scallan, of New York, a 
daughter of William and Annie (Merry) 
Scallan, of New York, both of whom were 
on the stage. Mrs. Bunny herself became 
an actress at an early age and it was 
through her work that she met Mr. Bunny. 
To them two children were born, George 
Henry and John, now (1916) aged twen- 



130 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ty-three and twenty-one years, respec- 
tively. 

The personal character of John Bunny 
was a very marked one ; like almost all of 
the men whose function is to make us 
laugh he had a deeply serious side to his 
nature which, however, never eclipsed the 
kindliness and good cheer that seemed to 
radiate from him. It did strongly influ- 
ence his purposes and ambitions, how- 
ever, which were of a high type and very 
serious matters to himself. His ideal of 
his profession and function was extremely 
high and he had already accomplished and 
anticipated taking part in other work 
which should prove of eminent value to 
thousands of people. One of the things 
he enjoyed most was taking the part of 
the immortal Pickwick, the scenes for the 
picture being made upon the very roads 
used by Dickens as the background of his 
great work, and he had an even more am- 
bitious project in view, involving a jour- 
ney to Spain and much elaborate prepara- 
tion for a setting of Don Quixote, and 
other of the great Spanish romances and 
plays. The feeling wellnigh of idolatry 
with which he was regarded by the masses 
of people never altered these ambitions in 
the smallest, nor did it change the essen- 
tial democracy of his nature, which led 
him to treat all whom he came in contact 
with as his friends and brothers. Emi- 
nently characteristic of the sane and 
pleasant view which he took of the world 
and life was his disposal of the wealth 
that came to him. He left, it is said, 
practically nothing at his death, but every 
week of his life he shared equally his sal- 
ary with his wife, thus providing for her 
most amply now that his great earning 
power has ceased entirely. He was the 
kindliest of men and devoted to his fam- 
ily, fulfilling all the relations of private 
life with the same consistency that he did 
the more conspicuous tasks of his public 
career. 



SLOAN, Samuel, 

Prominent Business Man. 

The late Samuel Sloan, of Rochester, 
New York, was one of those men whose 
lives and characters form, the underlying 
structure upon which are built the hopes 
of American institutions. The careers of 
such men as he show the possibilities 
open in a commonwealth like New York 
to those who possess good business abil- 
ities, and the high integrity that informs 
alike the good citizen and the good busi- 
ness man. His ambition along the worth- 
iest lines, his perseverance, his steadfast- 
ness of purpose and tireless industry, all 
furnish lessons to the young business man 
of coming generations, and the well 
earned success and esteem he gained 
j'rove the inevitable result of the practice 
of these virtues. His whole life was de- 
i oted to the highest and best, and all his 
endeavors were for the furtherance of 
those noble ideals he made the rule of his 
daily life. The success he won as a busi- 
ness man never elated him unduly, nor 
caused him to vary from the modest sim- 
plicity of his manner. His was a nature 
of singular sweetness, openness and sin- 
cerity, and he probably never had an 
enemy. Any estimate of his character, 
however, would be unjust did it not point 
to the natural ability and keen mental 
gifts which he improved by daily and 
hourly use. He succeeded better than the 
average business man because he had a 
wider intellectual equipment than the 
ordinary shrewd business man. He had a 
profound knowledge of human nature, his 
judgment was sound and unerring, his 
personality strong and dominating, and 
his power over other men was not the 
result of aggressiveness, but of the mo- 
mentum of character. 

Samuel Sloan, son of Timothy Sloan, 
was born near Belfast, Ireland, in 1828, 
and died in Rochester, New York, Sep- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



tember i, 1903. He was educated in his 
native country, and he soon realized the 
fact that the New World offered better 
opportunities for advancement to a young 
man of energy and ambition, and, imbued 
with this idea, he came to the United 
States in 1848. Upon his arrival here he 
at once set about securing a suitable posi- 
tion, and this he found in the first whole- 
sale dry goods house on Broadway, New 
York City. This house was largely en- 
gaged in the Australian shipping busi- 
ness, and as it became necessary to send 
a representative of the business to Mel- 
bourne, Australia, in 1854, Mr. Sloan was 
selected for this responsible post, and rep- 
resented the interests of the firm in Aus- 
tralia until i860, when he returned to this 
country. Shortly after his return, he took 
up his residence in Rochester, New York, 
where he became associated in a business 
partnership with R. E. Sherlock, in the 
conduct of a steam and gas fitting busi- 
ness, the firm name being Sherlock & 
Sloan. This association was a mutually 
profitable one, the business expanding 
from time to time, until it was broken by 
the death of Mr. Sherlock, when Mr. 
Sloan became the sole proprietor. Gradu- 
ally the sale of plumbers', steamfitters' 
and engineers' supplies had been added, 
until the business had grown to one of 
much importance, and the annual sales 
were correspondingly large. In the mean- 
time Mr. Sloan had become more or less 
closely identified with a number of other 
business interests of varied character and 
scope. In financial circles he was a factor 
to be reckoned with, and was president of 
the Mechanics' Savings Bank, and a mem- 
ber of the board of directors of the Gene- 
see Valley Trust Company. The private 
life of Mr. Sloan was as useful and ex- 
emplary as his public career. In the cause 
of religion he was an active worker, and 
served as elder of the Central Presby- 



terian Church for more than thirty years, 
while his material support of this institu- 
tion was a most generous one. His dona- 
tions to charitable purposes were also 
large, and he was a member of the board 
of directors of the Rochester City Hos- 
pital, and one of the original trustees of 
the Reynolds Library. His personal in- 
terest in both of these institutions never 
abated, and he furthered their advance- 
ment and growth to the best of his ability. 
Mr. Sloan married (first) in 1865, Mary 
Eveline Vosburgh, who died in 1882; he 
married (second) 1885, Mrs. Hanna (Cur- 
tis) Jones, who died in 1897. By his first 
marriage he had one son, William Eyres . 
Sloan, who is now at the head of the large 
establishment founded by his father. It 
may truly be said of Samuel Sloan that 
earnestness and thoroughness were the 
keynotes of his character. The serious 
spirit which marked the commencement 
of his business career remained with him 
throughout his life. He could not do any- 
thing without putting his entire mind and 
heart into the undertaking, and under 
those conditions, it was but natural that 
success should attend his efforts. 



LATUS, George, 

Business Man. 

The due reward of merit, it is often 
claimed, is generally withheld until death 
has rendered its payment vain and a tardy 
honor paid to the memory of him whose 
right was recognition in his lifetime is all 
that can be done to make amends for past 
neglect. It is probable, however, that this 
is less the case in communities where 
truly democratic institutions prevail, such 
as the United States, than of other parts 
of the world, since the peoples of these 
communities are ever on the outlook for 
ability and talent which are recognized as 
the most valuable of marketable commodi- 



132 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ties. It was surely not true in the case of 
George Latus, whose name heads this 
brief article and whose death on April 17, 
1915, was a loss to the whole community, 
for from his youth onward his business 
capacity met with the recognition it de- 
served, and he forged for himself a promi- 
nent place in the business world and 
a position of regard in the hearts of his 
fellow citizens. New York City was the 
scene of his life-long activities and his 
home until within a few years of his 
death, when he removed to Mount Ver- 
non, without, however, giving up the busi- 
ness connections in the city. 

George Latus was born November 6, 
1852, in that part of New York City that, 
perhaps, more than any other, retains its 
old-time atmosphere, Greenwich Village, 
as it is still known. Here he passed many 
years of his life and here it was that he 
engaged in business. After completing 
his education, which he did at the local 
public schools, Mr. Latus entered the 
butcher's business, establishing himself at 
No. 124 Greenwich avenue, where the 
enterprise prospered from the outset. The 
success that he met with was fully de- 
served for he brought to his work the ut- 
most devotion and the soundest of busi- 
ness principles were observed by him in 
all his dealings. It was in the year 1880, 
when Mr. Latus was twenty-eight years 
of age, that he founded the butcher busi- 
ness, and during the thirty-five years in 
which he continued it there was a steady 
increase of trade until it was one of the 
largest houses of the kind in that neigh- 
borhood. In spite of the fact that he re- 
moved to Mount Vernon in 1909, he con- 
tinued to actively manage its affairs until 
his death. 

On December 21, 1872, Mr. Latus was 
united in marriage with Caroline Bender, 
of New York City, a daughter of Theo- 
bold and Caroline (Brown) Bender, of 



that place. To them were born two chil- 
dren, Caroline, now Mrs. F. A. M. Bryant, 
of Mount Vernon, and Julia, now Mrs. A. 
Q. Elgar, of Wakefield. Mr. Latus is sur- 
vived by his wife and two daughters, the 
former at the present time making her 
home at No. 118 South Eighth avenue, 
Mount Vernon. 



KIPP, George Washington, 

Representative Citizen. 

In the death of George W. Kipp the 
city of Ossining lost one of its most 
prominent, influential and useful citizens. 
He was a man of the highest integrity, of 
warm heart and generous impulses, de- 
voted, next to his home and family, to the 
promotion of the public welfare and the 
improvement of the condition of man- 
kind. Mr. Kipp was descended from a 
very early American family, which was a 
very ancient one in Holland. The name 
is of Dutch origin and has been promi- 
nently identified with New York from a 
very early period continuing down to the 
present day. There is some dispute of 
authorities as to the parentage of the im- 
migrant ancestor, who was probably de- 
scended from Rulof Kype, of Holland. 
The name was sometimes written Kype 
after its arrival here. 

Henry Hendricksen Kip came before 
1643 to New Amsterdam with his wife 
(probably Tryntje Droogh) and five chil- 
dren. That he was a man of consequence 
is shown by the fact that his arms were 
painted on one of the stained windows in 
the first Dutch church of New York. He 
was a tailor by occupation and is some- 
times called Henry Snyder Kip. He re- 
ceived a patent, April 28, 1643, °f a ' ot 
east of the fort on the present Bridge 
street near Whitehall, where he built 
house and shop. Being incensed by 
the cruelty of Director-General Kieft, by 



^33 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



whose order more than one hundred In- 
dians, men, women and children, were 
brutally massacred, he boldly opposed the 
director-general and refused to join in any 
recognition of him. The latter was very 
shortly recalled and immediately there- 
after Kip became a leading man in the 
community. He was appointed a member 
of Governor Stuyvesant's council, Sep- 
tember 25, 1647, and again in 1649-50. He 
was appointed schepen, or magistrate, 
February 2, 1656, and admitted to all the 
rights and privileges of a burgher, April 
11, 1657. He subscribed to the oath of 
allegiance to the British government in 
October, 1664, and was assessed with 
others in the following year to pay for the 
maintenance of soldiers in the garrison. 
Both he and his wife were members of 
the Dutch church. He died at Kippen- 
burg, the date being unrecorded and the 
location being unknown. Jacob Kipp, 
second son of Henry H. Kip, was born 
May 16, 1631, in Amsterdam, Holland, 
and died about 1690, in New York. In 
1647, when sixteen years old, he was a 
clerk in the provincial secretary's office at 
New Amsterdam, and in December, 1649, 
was acting clerk in Director Stuyvesant's 
council. He was appointed, January 27, 
1653, the first secretary of the court of 
burgomasters and schepens. He resigned 
this office, June 12, 1657, and engaged in 
brewing and also conducted a store. He 
was a member of the board of schepens in 
1659, ! 662-63-65-75, and was president of 
the board in 1674. Among others he peti- 
tioned for the establishment of a village 
in the Wallabout district, across the East 
river, where he had lands, but probably 
never lived there. He, or his father, se- 
cured a patent of one hundred and fifty 
acres on the East river at what is still 
known as Kipp's Bay, and built a house 
there in 1655. This was rebuilt in 1696 
and was occupied a short time during the 



Revolution as a headquarters by General 
Washington. It stood on East Thirty- 
fifth street and remained until 1851, when 
it was torn down. His city home was on 
what is now Exchange place in 1657, and 
he owned several houses on lots in that 
vicinity, his residence being in 1665 on 
Broad street near Exchange place and 
probably continued there until 1674. In 
1686 his residence was described as "be- 
yond the fresh water," probably meaning 
the farm homestead above described. He 
married, March 8, 1654, Maria, daughter 
of Dr. Johannes and Rachel (Monjour) 
de la Montagne, born January 26, 1637, at 
sea off Madeira, while the parents were 
en route for America. She was living in 
1701. Dr. de la Montagne was born in 
1592, a Huguenot of great learning, and 
served in the governor's council and as 
vice-director at Fort Orange (Albany). 
Johannes Kipp, eldest child of Jacob and 
Maria (de la Montagne) Kipp, was bap- 
tized February 21, 1655, in New York, 
and was a brewer in that town, where he 
died in 1704. He married, September 4, 
1681, Catharine, daughter of Dr. Hans 
and Sara (Roelofs) Kierstede. Benjamin 
Kipp, youngest child of Johannes and 
Catharine (Kierstede) Kipp, was born in 
1703, and settled in Westchester county, 
New York, where he purchased a farm of 
four hundred acres, and died May 24, 
1782. He served as justice of the peace 
under the Colonial government. He mar- 
ried Dorothy Davenport, who died Sep- 
tember 3, 1807. Abraham Kipp, third son 
of Benjamin and Dorothy (Davenport) 
Kipp, was born March 23, 1743, in New 
York City, and married Phebe, daugh- 
ter of Samuel Haight. Samuel Kipp, only 
son of Abraham and Phebe (Haight) 
Kipp, married Elizabeth Cypher, and they 
were the parents of Abram Kipp, born in 
September, 1798, in New York, died at 
Sing Sing, April 30, 1887. He was a use- 

34 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ful citizen, engaged in business in Ossin- 
ing, then called Sing Sing, where he was 
a furniture dealer and undertaker. He 
married, April 10, 1822, Sarah Smith, born 
October 11, 1804, died July 7, 1890, daugh- 
ter of Caleb Smith, born 1753, and his 
wife, Elizabeth (Sherwood) Smith, born 
January 6, 1762, died January 27, 1848. 
Their children were: Samuel C, Leonard 
R., Elizabeth A., Benjamin Franklin, 
Abraham, George Washington and Mary 
Elizabeth. 

George Washington Kipp was born De- 
cember 16, 1842, at Sing Sing, and grew 
up in his native place, enjoying the ex- 
cellent educational advantages afforded 
by the grammar school of that village. 
He was an independent and industrious 
youth, and determined some time before 
attaining his majority to engage in a busi- 
ness career. At the age of eighteen years 
he entered the wholesale dry goods house 
of Haviland, Lindsay & Company of New 
York City. Here his keen business sense 
and devotion to the interest of his em- 
ployers gained him rapid promotion, and 
he became one of the most useful em- 
ployes of the establishment. His leisure 
time was not spent in dissipation, but he 
endeavored to improve his knowledge by 
study and cared for his earnings in a 
shrewd and proper way, so that he was 
soon enabled to engage in business on his 
own account. At the age of twenty-eight 
years he became a partner with his father 
in the furniture and undertaking business 
at Sing Sing, under the title of Abram Kipp 
& Son. At this time the father was more 
than seventy years of age, and he very 
gladly relinquished the responsibilities 
and principal labors of the business to his 
son and partner, and in course of time a 
nephew, S. C. Kipp, Jr., became a partner 
in the business, which was conducted 
under the name of G. W. & S. C. Kipp, Jr. 
The continued success of the business, 



which was long ago founded at Ossining, 
was largely due to the business ability, 
high character and popularity of George 
W. Kipp, who had multitudes of friends 
among the people of Ossining and vicin- 
ity. In the early days of the business the 
facilities and methods now in vogue did 
not prevail, but Mr. Kipp was always 
alert for opportunities to improve his 
business, and every improvement was 
adopted by him among the first. He was 
gifted with a high order of intelligence, 
and his kind and affable manner, his sin- 
cere sympathy with the unfortunate and 
bereaved, and his prompt and careful at- 
tention to every detail gained him great 
popularity, and he continued to prosper 
until his death, which occurred January 
10, 1908. 

Mr. Kipp was ever anxious to aid in 
the development and progress of the com- 
munity and in promoting not only its 
business interests but its moral and social 
betterment and the general welfare of 
humanity. For three years he served as 
a member of the board of trustees of the 
village, and gave to the public business 
the same careful attention and honest 
effort which characterized the conduct of 
his private affairs. He was interested in 
the Ossining National Bank, of which he 
was for some time vice-president, and 
was a member of the Point Sennasqua 
Rod and Reel Club of Ossining. With 
his family he was affiliated with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church of Ossining, 
and was ever a promoter and supporter of 
all efforts of this body toward the emanci- 
pation of humanity from sorrow and deg- 
radation. His influence lent a mighty 
power to the work of the church, and his 
departure to a better home on high was 
very widely and sincerely mourned. In 
him the youth about him found a most 
worthy example for emulation, and his 
noble life and worthy efforts contributed 



r 35 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



to the advancement and moral progress 
of many who knew him. 

He was married, October 8, 1873, in 
Sing Sing, to Alice Sophia Hapgood, 
daughter of Thomas Emerson and Nancy 
Sophia (Brigham.) Hapgood, of that city, 
descendants of an old New England fam- 
ily and among the most useful and ex- 
emplary citizens of Ossining. Mr. and 
Mrs. Kipp were the parents of a son and 
daughter: Howard Hapgood, born Feb- 
ruary 16, 1877; and Dorothy Grace, born 
June 19, 1892. Together with their mother, 
they cherish in loving remembrance the 
virtues and many admirable qualities of a 
most devoted husband and kind father. 

SCULLY, Michael Patrick, 

A Leader Among Men. 

Yonkers, like most American cities, is 
rich in self-made men, many of them of 
foreign birth, but good, loyal citizens, 
nevertheless. Among these must be num- 
bered the late Michael Patrick Scully, 
proprietor of a popular cafe and the pos- 
sessor of much political influence. Mr. 
Scully's career, brief though it was, was 
exceptionally notable and gave much 
promise for the future. 

Michael Patrick Scully was born in Ire- 
land, that land of beauty, wit and valor, 
which has given to the United States 
some of her most useful and influential 
citizens. It was in the country of his 
birth that Michael Patrick Scully received 
his education, and at the age of sixteen, 
filled with the bright anticipations of ad- 
venturous youth, he crossed the sea in 
quest of fame and fortune. To his adopted 
country the young man brought some- 
thing more than ambition, being endowed 
with the sense and industry necessary for 
the attainments of his ends. His first em- 
ployment in Yonkers was that of a driver, 
and from this humble beginning he ad- 



vanced steadily step by step, alert to seize 
opportunity and ready to turn it to the 
best account. His means accumulated, 
his reputation for ability and honesty in- 
creased with them and a bright future 
opened before him. In the course of time 
he became the proprietor of a well known 
and very successful cafe. 

This progressive and open-minded 
young Irishman, while always remaining 
a true son of his native land, identified 
himself, from the day when he set foot 
on American soil, with the life of his 
adopted country. In politics, from the 
outset, he took the keenest interest, and 
in order that he might take part in them 
early proceeded to be naturalized. In 
1904 he had the gratification of becoming 
legally an American citizen and thence- 
forth to the close of his life was actively 
associated with the work of the Demo- 
cratic party. Fitted by nature for leader- 
ship, it was not long ere he came into his 
own. Followers flocked around him, at- 
tracted by his enthusiastic fidelity to what 
he believed to be the right cause, and at 
the time of his death he had been for five 
years the Democratic leader of his ward. 
With all his devotion to politics Mr. 
Scully was no office-seeker. Strongly 
urged to become a candidate for alder- 
man he steadily refused. Place and pref- 
erment had no attractions for him. Legi- 
timate power, domination for worthy 
ends, influence over the minds and thus 
over the actions of men he dearly loved 
and his fellow-citizens were not slow in 
according it to him. For a number of 
years there was no more popular man in 
Yonkers than Michael Patrick Scully. 

Emphatically was he a man of large 
heart, of warm and generous feelings. 
Never could he resist an appeal from the 
unhappy and to a story of "hard luck" none 
ever knew him to turn a deaf ear. His 
cheery countenance, his hearty greeting, 



136 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



his cordial voice in welcome or encourage- 
ment — all these are still fresh and vivid 
in the minds of his hosts of friends. 
Among the organizations to which Mr. 
Scully belonged were the Benevolent and 
Protective Order of Elks, the Moose, the 
Eagles and the Ancient Order of Hiber- 
nians. He was enrolled in the Liquor 
Dealers' Association, and served as treas- 
urer of the Hawthorne Pleasure Club of 
Yonkers. He was a member of the Roman 
Catholic church. 

Mr. Scully married Theresa, one of the 
eight children of Thomas and Catherine 
(Conlon) Keenan, natives of Ireland. In 
his own country Mr. Keenan was a farmer 
on a large scale. Mr. and Mrs. Scully 
were the parents of one child: Theresa 
Marie Scully. Mrs. Scully, a woman of 
charming personality, was ever the pre- 
siding genius of her husband's home and 
his true and helpful comrade, sharing and 
aiding in the accomplishment of his aspi- 
rations and ambitions. Notwithstanding 
his convivial tastes, Mr. Scully was a true 
lover of home and family. In her widow- 
hood Mrs. Scully has become the wise 
and capable manager of her husband's 
business. 

A lover of horses and a fine judge of 
their good points, Mr. Scully was also ex- 
tremely fond of motoring, and it was in 
the enjoyment of this form of recreation 
that he met his untimely death. On Oc- 
tober 5, 191 5, in an accident to the car in 
which he was driving, he suddenly passed 
away, at the early age of thirty-four. 
Grief for his loss was general and sincere. 
All felt that a promising career had been 
abruptly and prematurely cut short. What 
can be added to a record like this? — the 
record of a man of forceful character and 
noble nature. The eulogy of Michael Pat- 
rick Scully is written in the hearts of his 
numberless friends. 



WILLS, Charles John, 

Representative Citizen. 

The talents and abilities of men are as 
varied and numerous as their occupations 
and there is no line of activity that has 
not its great figures who have shown the 
rest of the world how best to engage 
therein. But though this is so, and, from 
an abstract point of view, the world teems 
with brilliant men, yet in any given time 
or place it is a comparatively small group 
of talents that meets with the recognition 
of this same world, which is always per- 
fectly definite in its preferences and, 
while welcoming with ardor the chosen 
type rigorously excludes all others from 
its favors and its rewards. In one age it 
will be courage, in another it may be the 
gift of song, one land may value wood- 
craft, another religious fervor and so on 
up and down the whole gamut of human 
gifts and characters. However this may 
be it is quite obvious that the particular 
quality that this epoch and this people 
desire and demand with no uncertain 
voice is the grasp of practical affairs, the 
insight into material relations that marks 
the successful business man, the financier 
and the organizer of industries. It is per- 
haps equally obvious that of all the civil- 
ized peoples of the present it is the German 
race that exhibits in the largest number of 
its people the highest degree of these par- 
ticular traits in demand in the world to- 
day. If any illustration of this fact were 
needed it might be found in the remark- 
able number of men of that race who 
occupy leading places in the business 
world not only in Europe, but in this 
western republic, of the citizenship of 
which they make up so large and impor- 
tant an element. Typical of the best type 
of his successful countrymen was the late 
Charles John Wills, of New York City, 
whose death there on July 1, 1914, re- 

37 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



moved one of the most capable and suc- 
cessful of the city's hotel men and a citi- 
zen of broad public spirit. 

Born March 28, 1869, in Frankfort-on- 
the Main, Germany, Mr. Wills passed 
four years of his life there, coming to this 
country in 1873 and going to the West, 
where he remained for a number of years. 
He made his home in Minneapolis, 
Minnesota, and it was there that he 
made his entrance into the business of 
hotel management, in which he was so 
successful. This entrance was a humble 
one and consisted of a position on the 
staff of the West Hotel in Minneapolis. 
His talent for business affairs, his clever- 
ness in grasping detail and his industry 
in his work quickly drew upon him, the 
favorable regard of his employers, and 
he was advanced rapidly to more respon- 
sible positions. It was to some extent 
due to this early training, which made it 
necessary for Mr. Wills to become ac- 
quainted with every detail of the business, 
that he later was so capable in the posi- 
tions that he held, when the management 
of some of the greatest hostelries in the 
country devolved in a large degree upon 
his shoulders. The knowledge that comes 
from personal, first-hand experience is the 
most sure, and it was this that Mr. Wills 
possessed. The skill and capacity dis- 
played by Mr. Wills in managing the 
West Hotel were not to remain hidden, 
and his reputation as a practical man 
spread beyond the borders of the western 
city, beyond those of the State and 
reached as far as the great eastern metrop- 
olis, New York. Consequently, it was 
not long after the opening of the Holland 
House in that city that Mr. Wills was 
called thither to take the post of assistant 
manager, in which capacity he was a most 
able lieutenant of the proprietor, Gustav 
Baumann. He remained with this famous 
old hotel for thirteen years as assistant 



manager and the last two years as man- 
ager. At the time of the organization of 
the company which projected the great 
Biltmore Hotel in New York City, Mr. 
Wills became identified with these inter- 
ests and did considerable work in their 
cause in California for one year before 
the actual opening of the hotel in this city. 
The latter event took place on December 
31, 1913, and Mr. Wills was appointed 
manager thereof with the management of 
the office force. A few years preceding 
his installation in his important post Mr. 
Wills had suffered from a severe attack of 
typhoid fever and never recovered his 
health entirely, this probably being due 
to the fact that he resumed hard work be- 
fore entirely regaining his strength. A 
serious affection of the throat glands fol- 
lowed, involving dangerous operations, 
and although he afterwards did a great 
deal of hard work he never experienced 
the same robust health that he had known 
prior to his illness. He was not destined 
to enjoy the prerogatives or labor at the 
tasks of his new office for long, and it was 
but a few brief weeks after the hotel's 
opening that he was obliged to take a rest 
on account of his health. He was never 
to return. For a time he travelled in 
Georgia, seeking to regain his strength, 
and a short time before his death returned 
to his home in New York. Mr. Wills was 
prominent in social circles in New York. 
He was a member of the Minnesota Soci- 
ety which is formed entirely of men in the 
city who have come from the State of 
Minnesota, and he belonged to the Bay 
Head Yacht Club. He had a strong taste 
for outdoor sports and pastimes in gen- 
eral. He attended the All Angels Epis- 
copal Church. 

On October 17, 1892, Mr. Wills was 
united in marriage with Helen Cynthia 
Emory, a daughter of William H. and 
Ada (Herring) Emory. Mr. Emory was 



138 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



a native of Maryland and his wife of 
Gouverneur, St. Lawrence county, New 
York, while Mrs. Wills was born in Una- 
dilla, Otsego county, New York. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Wills was born one child, a 
daughter, Helen Gertrude. Mrs. Wills 
survives her husband and at present 
makes her home at No. 321 West Ninety- 
fourth street, New York City. 

There is always an element of the tragic 
in the visit of death when it occurs in 
youth or in the prime of life, and this is 
but rendered the more acute when the life 
that is thus untimely brought to an end is 
one in which noteworthy achievement 
seems to give promise of an even more 
brilliant future. This was certainly the 
case in the career of Mr. Wills, whose 
powers and faculties were at their prime 
when his days were thus abbreviated. 
This sketch cannot be more fittingly 
closed than by a quotation from a memo- 
rial written of him at the time of his 
death by a warm personal friend who had 
known him ever since his coming to 
America in his youth. This tribute ap- 
peared in the "National Hotel Reporter" 
and read in part as follows: 

There was in the case of the late Charles J. 
Wills that which proves the inscrutability of the 
ways of Providence. Having worked his way up 
by sheer force of personal determination, com- 
pelling respect for his strict probity and unfail- 
ing dependability, he had attained to large meas- 
ured facility in his chosen pursuit and was in line 
for advancement to one of the most responsible 
positions of practical hotel keeping. Then, right 
in the prime of vigorous manhood, he was 
stricken by the hand of disease and, notwith- 
standing he made a long and heroic fight against 
its encroachments, was at last compelled to yield 
and to graduate into an untried field. 

Here follows a brief summary of the 
events in Mr. Wills' life after which the 
article goes on to say : 

Perfect in physical makeup, with no lack of in- 
tellectual endowment, Mr. Wills schooled and 



disciplined his native faculties, expending them 
with energetic loyalty to the interests of his em- 
ployer. More than a half decade ago Mr. Willis 
underwent a siege of typhoid fever. It is prob- 
able that his devotion to duty and his o'er ween- 
ing desire for accomplishment tended to his ulti- 
mate undoing. Against the cautioning of those 
having his best interests at heart, Wills resumed 
his work-a-day harness ere he was in full pos- 
session of normal strength. Poor Wills never 
fully regained his strength, and although he sub- 
sequently accomplished an enormous amount of 
work, very difficult and trying at times, it is 
evident that he kept going, much of the time, on 
sheer force of will. But his work here is done; 
his terrestrial course is completed. He leaves 
an unblemished record, and those called most 
keenly to mourn his early taking off possess the 
consoling memories of an affectionate husband 
and a kind and considerate father. Hoteldom 
has suffered the loss of an energetic and re- 
sourceful factor of a class of which there are 
none too many. 



STANBROUGH, Lyman Truman, 
Lawyer, Public-spirited Citizen. 

Although a graduate in law and duly 
admitted to the bar it was not as a lawyer 
that Lyman T. Stanbrough was known 
and respected, but as a capable, upright 
business man who honorably conducted 
his own private business and faithfully 
administered many important trusts com- 
mitted to him. He was a man of genial, 
generous nature, very companionable and 
neighborly, a fine type of the American 
citizen and business man, whom all de- 
light to honor. From earliest infancy 
until death he was a resident of Owego 
and from the termination of his college 
years in 1888 had been actively engaged 
in business in Owego, a village for which 
he felt all the affection of a "native son". 
He took an active interest in all that 
tended to advance and elevate the com- 
munity and whether in business, church, 
civic improvement or fraternity bore a 
full part. Public spirited and charitable, 
he gave largely of his means but ever 



139 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



refused all offers of political preferment, 
believing he could best serve as a private 
citizen ; and in the language of his breth- 
ren of the Tioga county bar, in resolu- 
tions of respect, "The community has lost 
one of its foremost, strongest, most gener- 
ous and progressive citizens, whose judg- 
ment and advice in matters of public in- 
terest and public improvement, were uni- 
versally sought and appreciated, and 
whose assistance was freely given." 

Lyman Truman Stanbrough was born 
in Newburgh, New York, January n, 
1864, died in Owego, Tioga county, New 
York, early Sunday morning, October 19, 
1913, at his residence on Front street. He 
was the eldest son of John Blake Stan- 
brough, Doctor of Dental Surgery, and 
business man of Newburgh and Owego, 
and his wife, Adeline Truman. At the 
time of his birth his father was practicing 
dentistry in Newburgh, but the following 
May located in Owego where he ended 
his days, proprietor of a prosperous hard- 
ware and plumbing business. Dr. Stan- 
brough died January 20, 1908; his wife, 
Adeline (Truman) Stanbrough, is now a 
resident of Owego. 

Lyman Truman Stanbrough began his 
education in Owego Free Academy and 
after graduation from that institution 
passed to Cornell University. Deciding 
upon the profession of law, he studied 
under Charles A. Clark, and H. Austin 
Clark, of the Tioga County bar, and with 
McFarland, Boardman & Piatt, of the 
New York City bar, being admitted to 
practice in 1887. He then took a course 
at Columbia Law School, receiving his 
degree of LL. B. class of "88". During 
his student years he received appointment 
to a cadetship in the United States Mili- 
tary Academy at West Point, but resigned 
the honor before matriculation. 

Although learned in the law and duly 
qualified Mr. Stanbrough never practiced 



actively, but as counsel and executor of 
large estates, his legal learning was of 
the greatest value to him and the interests 
he represented. After his father's death 
he conducted the hardware and plumbing 
business for the benefit of the J. B. Stan- 
brough estate, during the course of his 
career settled several large estates, was 
executor and trustee of the Lyman Tru- 
man (his maternal grandfather) estate, 
until his death, and completed his legal 
life work in effecting the reorganization 
of the Champion Wagon Company, In- 
corporated, of which he was vice-presi- 
dent. His broad knowledge of the law, 
his high sense of honor, and his strict 
integrity, would have placed him in the 
front rank at the bar, had he used his 
talents and gifts in general practice, but 
even in his limited professional associa- 
tion with his brethren of the bar they 
learned fully to appreciate him most 
highly. 

Public spirited and generous he gave 
freely to church, charity and village. One 
of his gifts made in conjunction with his 
aunt, Mrs. Emily Gere, was the complete 
outfitting of Defiance Hook and Ladder 
Company, with new uniforms. He was a 
vestryman of St. Paul's Protestant Epis- 
copal Church, an office to which he was 
elected to succeed his honored father. He 
consented to serve the village as super- 
visor from 1896 to 1900 and in the man- 
agement of public affairs as well as in his 
private business he demonstrated his busi- 
ness ability and efficiency. 

He entered into close relations with his 
townsmen in the various fraternal orders 
and other organizations, belonging to 
Ahwaga Lodge, No. 587, Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons ; Jerusalem Chapter, No. 
47, Royal Arch Masons ; Sa-sa-na Loft 
Tribe, Imperial Order of Red Men ; De- 
fiance Hook and Ladder Company, of the 
Owego Fire Department ; and was at one 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



time trustee of the local lodge of Elks. 
His out-of-town club was the New York 
Athletic, his college fraternity Kappa Al- 
pha, of Cornell University. 

He had been for years a member of the 
board of directors of the First National 
Bank of Owego, and in that body, as well 
as in the vestry of St. Paul's, his views, 
opinions and propositions were listened 
to with respect, his sound judgment as 
well as his legally trained, acute mind 
rendering him a wise counselor as well 
as a safe leader. He rests in Evergreen 
Cemetery, remembered as the kindly, 
genial friend, the public spirited citizen, 
the loving son, husband and father. 

Mr. Stanbrough married, January 27, 
1904, Jane Barton, daughter of George W. 
and Mary (Watson) Barton, who sur- 
vives him with one daughter, Margaret. 



GATES, John Warne, 

Manufacturer, Man of Affairs. 

With the period in which American in- 
dustries expanded most rapidly, the name 
and fame of John W. Gates are insepara- 
bly associated. He wasn't a product of 
the time ; he was one of the compelling 
forces that created new conditions. No 
captain of industry had a stronger person- 
ality. In many respects he was selfmade 
But his Americanism, his shrewdness, his 
generosity, his grit, he inherited. He 
came from a family that wasn't afraid. 

For nine generations in America the 
Gates family persevered, despite adver- 
sity. Stephen Gates, who came from 
England to Massachusetts on the good 
ship "Diligent" and settled in Hingham 
in 1638, could trace his ancestry back 
ten generations to Thomas Gates, the 
sturdy squire of Higheaster and Thur- 
steubie. The grandson of this Thomas 
Gates was Sir Geoffrey Gates, a knight 
much celebrated in his day. Sir Geoffrey's 



grandson was another Geoffrey, famed as 
a warrior. To the two Sir Geoffreys were 
attached the chiefest titles ornamenting 
the Gates family tree. Yet from Thomas 
Gates onward, the Gates family in Eng- 
land, in each succeeding generation, was 
represented by men of substance and 
standing, men who championed their own 
opinions. 

Tenth in descent from Thomas Gates, 
the squire of Higheaster, a man worthy of 
note in 1323, Stephen Gates, the founder 
of the Gates family in America, receives 
mention in the early history of Massachu- 
setts chiefly because of his force of char- 
acter. 

From Stephen Gates, who first settled 
at Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638, to 
John Warne Gates, who was born in Tur- 
ner Junction, now West Chicago, Illinois, 
on May 18, 1855, the story of the Gates 
family is like unto the annals of other 
pioneers. They migrated always west- 
ward not proceeding great distances, yet 
each generation generaly lived very near 
the edge of civilization. As wilderness 
after wilderness was penetrated to be con- 
quered, a succeeding Gates family was 
with the vanguard. 

From Massachusetts Bay over the Blue 
Hills of Connecticut and from thence 
eventually to Otsego county, New York, 
the Gates family progressed. Warham 
Gates, born and raised in Otsego, moved 
to Ohio so soon as he attained manhood. 
At Parkham, Ohio, his son, Ansel Avery 
Gates, first saw the light. True to family 
tradition when he was grown, Ansel 
Avery went West to assist in subduing 
the wild country. Locating at the edge 
of the "big woods" in North Central Illi- 
nois, he confronted the difficulties that 
beset a farmer in a new region. 

Ansel Avery Gates married into a 
family of American antecedents almost 
equal to his own. He wedded Mary 



141 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Warne, the descendant of Thomas Warne 
who, arriving in America in 1682, was one 
of the twenty-four proprietors of the 
Eastern Division of New Jersey. Thomas 
Warne, the New Jersey proprietor, though 
coming from Dublin, could count among 
his ancestors many noblemen and others 
that performed important service for Eng- 
land in the battle of Agincourt and else- 
where, inasmuch as the written genealogy 
of the Warnes begins with a bold-hearted 
hero who was made sheriff of Shropshire 
in 1066. 

Mary Warne, who had a twin sister 
named Susan, was born in Warren county, 
New Jersey, on March 22, 1826. Through 
life she was distinguished for piety, kind- 
ness, and good deeds. Particularly, with 
the utmost truth, it could be said of her 
that she was all that a wife and mother 
should be. Members of the Gates family 
were bound together by ties of unusual 
affection. The wife of Ansel Avery Gates 
was best known as the mother of John 
W. Gates. The magnificent hospital at 
Port Arthur, Texas, which he richly en- 
dowed is her enduring memorial. 

Ansel Avery Gates had four sons; the 
eldest, George W., was a volunteer in the 
Union army during the Civil War and 
gave his life for his country before he 
attained the age of twenty ; the next two, 
Gilford and Gilbert W., were twins. Gil- 
ford died in infancy ; Gilbert W., at the 
age of nineteen, met a more tragic fate. 
Adventurous, self-reliant, keen to do busi- 
ness, Gilbert W. Gates had gone to Kan- 
sas. Returning, he had for a traveling 
companion an older man named Alex- 
ander Jester. To secure the team, wagon, 
goods and what money the young man 
had, Jester murdered Gates. Caught, tried, 
convicted and sentenced to be hung, Jes- 
ter managed to escape from the prison in 
Missouri where he was confined. For 
more than thirty years he remained at 



liberty. Eventually he was met by his 
sister who recognized him, denounced 
him as a murderer and caused his arrest. 
Retried for the murder of Gilbert W. 
Gates, he again escaped punishment; this 
time because Jester was eighty-one years 
old, the jury allowed him the benefit of a 
possible doubt as to his identity. 

Youngest of the sons of Ansel Avery 
Gates, John W., was destined to be the 
most important, best known member of 
the Gates family. At Turner Junction, 
where his boyhood days were passed and 
where he went to the public school, he 
first attracted attention as a diligent 
youth ; at the Naperville Academy he 
made excellent progress in his studies, 
and always he was commended as a duti- 
ful son. Even at the age when most boys 
are described as thoughtless, he was busi- 
ness-like, purposeful. He arrived at ma- 
turity early. Before he was nineteen, he 
not only had engaged in business for him- 
self, but also he had courted and married 
Dellora Roxana, daughter of Edward and 
Martha E. Baker. In the selection of a 
life partner he was wise and fortunate. 
He realized it. In choosing associates, 
not many have been more discerning than 
John W. Gates. Nor did he ever forget 
to make adequate return for assistance 
rendered at any time during his eventful 
career. 

Gifted with ability to see ahead, willing 
to take risks because he trusted his own 
judgment, a worker, a strategist, a finan- 
cier, John W. Gates outclimbed others to 
the heights of success, chiefly because he 
had the larger vision and the greater cour- 
age. He showed how competent he could 
be, while he was yet a boy. Money, 
earned by performing laborious tasks on 
neighboring farms, enabled him to buy a 
half interest in a threshing outfit. Suc- 
cessful in his first investment, he quickly 
availed himself of the next opportunity. 



[42 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



At the age of eighteen, he sold his interest 
in the threshing machine and bought a 
small hardware business at Turner Junc- 
tion. The shrewd young store-keeper, 
brought in contact with barbed wire, at 
once saw possibilities that others then 
failed to see. Acquaintance with Isaac L. 
Ellwood, who, with Joseph F. Glidden, 
had just begun to manufacture barbed 
wire presented a chance that John W. 
Gates eagerly grasped. Realizing almost 
before anyone else did how useful barbed 
wire fencing would be to the cattlemen of 
the West and Southwest, he traveled 
through the country introducing and sell- 
ing the new fence material. 

Success, such as he achieved as a sales- 
man would have satisfied most men. But 
he wasn't content to be a salesman, 
merely. The manufacturing end of the 
barbed wire business now appealed to 
him. He commenced to make barbed 
wire in St. Louis and made good from the 
very outset. He progressed so prosper- 
ously that, in a short time, a consolidation 
was effected with Clifford & Edenborn 
and the big plant resulting was known as 
the St. Louis Wire Mill. One big factory, 
however busy, failed to keep him oc- 
cupied. He bought and built more wire 
mills. These properties and their acces- 
sories were comprised in the Consolidated 
Steel & Wire Company. Previously re- 
stricted to the manufacture of barbed 
wire he enlarged his enterprises and in- 
cluded in the industries he and his associ- 
ates controlled all kinds of wire and wire 
products. The merger of these great in- 
terests became the American Steel and 
Wire Company. Mr. Gates was chairman 
of the executive committee of the Ameri- 
can Steel & Wire Company. When the 
company that controlled the bulk of 
American wire production was acquired 
by the United States Steel Corporation, Mr. 
Gates exchanged many of his steel secur- 
ities for cash and employed his money 



elsewhere. As a special partner in his 
son's banking and commission house 
(Harris, Gates & Company, 1902-04, and 
Charles G. Gates & Company, 1904-07, 
called the "House of Twelve Partners") 
he was regarded as one of the most power- 
ful men who contended for the mastery of 
the stock market. Those that heretofore 
had been supreme, couldn't intimidate 
him. He fought financial battles success- 
fully with the best of them. His ability 
as a speculator and his command of mil- 
lions prevented him from ever being over- 
come. One exploit of his that Wall street 
never will forget, was the coup by which 
he obtained control of the Louisville & 
Nashville Railroad in 1902. Yet withal 
his great achievements were constructive 
rather than speculative. He was the 
prime mover in the organization of the 
United States Realty and Improvement 
Company. The assistance of Mr. Gates 
made possible the construction of the 
Plaza Hotel and the great Hippodrome, 
New York's most capacious and spectacu- 
lar playhouse. He organized the Texas 
Company and created in the petroleum 
districts of the Southwest a competing 
company able to withstand Standard Oil. 
Interested in the Kansas City Southern 
Railroad, he studied the development of 
Southeastern Texas. He was instrumen- 
tal in having Port Arthur made a port of 
entry. His representations, despite the 
fiercest opposition, brought about the im- 
provement of the harbor and other water- 
ways adjacent to Port Arthur. He rein- 
vested millions in the Tennessee Coal 
Iron and Railroad Company and in the 
Republic Iron & Steel Company, two con- 
cerns that were strong competitors of the 
Steel Trust. He sold his holdings in 
Tennessee Coal & Iron when that big 
company was purchased by the United 
States Steel Corporation. His interest in 
Republic Iron & Steel he held firmly until 
his death. Stricken with a complication 
43 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



of ailments, in Paris, where he had gone 
for his annual vacation, Mr. Gates died on 
August 9, 191 1. 

Judged according to his achievements 
and character, John W. Gates was one of 
the great men produced in an epoch of 
millionairs. Few of his contemporaries 
had his breadth of view. Independent, 
strong, quick to act, audacious, tenacious, 
generous, he never feared to meet a 
mighty opponent nor sought to crush the 
weak. When he first became prosperous, 
his first thought was to make suitable 
provision for the comfort of his parents. 
At St. Charles, Illinois, he erected for 
them a beautiful home, supplied with 
every luxury they might desire. 

His affection for his brother, Gilbert 
W., caused him to have the search for 
Alexander Jester persistently continued 
for over thirty years. For his only son, 
Charles Gilbert, he entertained great 
hopes and some of his hardest financial 
battles were fought to ensure the young 
man's prestige. His virtues were of a 
rugged order, his charities, large, numer- 
ous and unadvertised. Of his many benefi- 
cences, only two were accorded publicity 
with the consent of Mr. Gates. They 
were the Port Arthur College and the 
Mary Gates Hospital founded in memory 
of his mother. Politically, Mr. Gates 
was always affiliated with the Republi- 
can party; his church connections were 
Methodist; the clubs to which he be- 
longed were: Lawyer's Club, Railroad 
Club of New York, Auto Club of America, 
Chicago Athletic Association, Whitehall 
Club, Whist Club, Tolleston Club of Chi- 
cago, The Chicago Club, Manhattan Club, 
New York Club, Boston Club of New 
Orleans, Atlantic Yacht Club, Country 
Club of Westchester County, Columbia 
Yacht Club, Calumet Club, Chicago, 
Coney Island Jockey Club, Brooklyn 
Jockey Club. 



NEARING, Lucius Alexander, 

Eminent Dentist. 

Although a man nearing life's prime 
when he located in Syracuse, Dr. Nearing 
practiced his profession in that city for 
nearly half a century of his eighty-five 
years. He came of a long lived race, his 
father living to be eighty-four, his brother 
and sisters also living to advanced ages. 
His early life was spent on the home farm 
at Pompey Hill, but he found he pos- 
sessed a natural aptitude for working 
with tools and abandoned the farm for a 
trade, then from a trade advanced to a 
profession. His magnificent constitution 
and invariable good health which carried 
him far into the ranks of octegenarians 
he attributed to the years spent in out-of- 
door work on the farm, and in the build- 
ing operations with which he was con- 
nected. He was deeply interested in the 
welfare of his adopted city, ranked high 
in his profession, was honorable and loyal 
in his citizenship and was held in high 
esteem in his community. The Nearings 
came to Onondaga county, New York, 
from Connecticut, Dr. Nearing's father 
coming in 1800, and locating with his 
brother on a two hundred acre tract at 
Pompey Hill, which they personally 
cleared of timber and brought under cul- 
tivation. 

Lucius Alexander Nearing was born at 
Pompey, Onondaga county, New York, 
December 10, 1824, died in Syracuse, New 
York, April 6, 1910. He attended the 
public schools in winter months, but from 
an early age worked as his father's farm 
assistant until attaining his majority. He 
was a natural mechanic and fond of work- 
ing with most any kind of tools. As soon 
as he was legally free from parental re- 
straint he abandoned farm work and 
learned the carpenter's trade with a 
Pompey builder. He worked for several 









VU^^JLm^AI^J^ 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



years at this trade during the summer 
months, becoming a skilled workman and 
eventually a contractor and builder. Dur- 
ing the winter months, when outside 
building operations were discontinued, he 
worked at cabinet and joiner work with 
Mr. Morley, the village undertaker and 
cabinet maker. In 185 1 he married and 
moved to Rochester, New York, there 
entering the employ of C. J. Hayden, 
cabinet maker and furniture dealer and 
mayor of Rochester, who was a brother of 
Dr. Nearing's wife. 

He did not long continue at his trade 
in Rochester for after deciding he was 
better qualified for other things he deter- 
mined to become a dentist. He studied 
with Dr. A. J. Morgan, of Rochester, and 
after attaining a sufficient degree of pro- 
ficiency returned to Pompey and began 
practicing dentistry among his old friends. 
He continued in Pompey until 1863, when 
he decided his skill and knowledge could 
be employed to better advantage in a 
larger place. He selected Syracuse as a 
location, rented and fitted up offices and 
in 1863 began practice. He won public 
favor and for forty-seven years continu- 
ously practiced his profession in that city. 
He enjoyed perfect health, and in full 
possession of all his faculties he min- 
istered to the needs of his clientele until 
his last illness, three weeks prior to his 
death. For several years his son, Dr. 
George Edward Nearing, had been asso- 
ciated with him in practice. His half a 
century in the dental profession began 
when dentistry was hardly regarded as a 
profession, the medical profession doing 
extracting and little other dental work be- 
ing attempted outside of the great cities. 
Dr. Nearing's natural deftness with tools 
made him easily master of the dentist's 
instruments and as the demand for better 
dental work spread, the mechanical part 
of his profession was quickly acquired. 
He grew with the years, kept pace with 

N Y-Vol III— 10 I 



all dental advance and was always in the 
van of professional progress. 

Dr. Nearing was one of the founders of 
Central Church Disciples of Christ and for 
many years was one of its honored elders. 
He met every demand made upon him 
as a professional man, citizen, or neigh- 
bor, and held the unvarying respect of all 
who knew him. He devoted himself 
closely to his profession, mingling little 
in political affairs, but was deeply in- 
terested in all public questions and keenly 
alive to his responsibilities as a citizen. 

Dr. Nearing married, in 185 1, Mary A. 
Hayden, sister of Mr. Hayden, for many 
years a leading furniture dealer of Syra- 
cuse. He left two children : George Ed- 
ward Nearing, D. D. S., associated with 
his father in practice and his successor, 
and a daughter, Mrs. Jennie E. Mosher. 
Mrs. Nearing survived her husband but a 
short time, her death occurring October 
24, 191 1, aged eighty-four years. 



SMITH, Franklin, 

Journalist and Editorial 'Writer. 

For many years a worker in the jour- 
nalistic field and an editorial writer of 
national fame, the late Franklin Smith, 
of Rochester, was above and beyond the 
general conception of a journalist. From 
early manhood he was a deep student of 
economics and sociology and the strongest 
of American writers on these subjects, his 
articles being eagerly sought for by the 
leading reviews, many of them also ap- 
pearing in pamphlet form. In his early 
career he became a devoted student of 
Herbert Spencer, and he was soon one of 
the most intelligent and lucid expounders 
of Mr. Spencer's philosophy. But he was 
an evolutionist of the advanced school 
and scorned the misinterpretation of his 
master which made brutality the main 
element in development and left the al- 
truistic forces out of account. In a re- 



45 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



view of "First Principles." some two 
years prior to his death, Mr. Smith gave 
a popular exposition of what evolution 
really is. In an autograph letter to him, 
the aged and distinguished philosopher 
pronounced it the best popular exposition 
of the principles of evolution that had 
appeared in the press of England or 
America since the first publication of his 
works, half a century ago. 

The most striking thing about Mr. 
Smith was the intensity of his individual- 
ity. He was an advocate of "individual- 
ism in philosophy" and his overmastering 
impulse was loyalty to his mission as a 
man. He felt that he was put on earth 
to think out great problems conscienti- 
ously, make his thought known, act on 
it, and abide by what he conceived to be 
the truth, no matter how the current of 
popular opinion ran. He believed his 
personality to be in the nature of a divine 
trust, not to be betrayed by surrender to 
mere conventionalities, but to be asserted 
as an influence in the life about him. No 
man took more to heart any tendency in 
society or the nation toward what he be- 
lieved folly or wrong. Public evil touched 
him as it touches few men. As a jour- 
nalist his inclination was toward that 
school that sets opinions above news and 
that considers it the mission of the news- 
paper to instruct rather than to amuse. 
He studied a great theme carefully and he 
sought to lead rather than to follow the 
impulses of a community. He was a man 
of high ideals, and of a serious cast of 
mind, although there were many flashes 
of humor in his conversation. He re- 
spected the opinions of others and in his 
discussions sought truth not controversy. 
The welfare of his fellow-men was ever 
nearest his heart, and through education 
and moral training he ceaselessly strove 
for the uplift of humanity. 

He believed in the practical application 
of the Golden Rule. Strict integrity, 



146 



absolute fairness and unselfishness were 
to him simple and common-place rules of 
conduct, whether of the individual or the 
nation. His political system had for its 
basis the maxim that the least possible 
government is the best possible govern- 
ment ; he believed that the more the fol- 
lowers of industrial pursuits were left to 
themselves the more they contributed to 
the welfare of their fellows. The chief, 
if not the only functions of government, 
were the preservation of order and en- 
forcement of justice. He believed that 
benefit to the individual should be in pro- 
portion to individual merit. He insisted, 
therefore, that every man should have a 
free field for his activities, and that the 
government should not interfere with this 
principle by conferring special favors 
upon anyone. It pained him to see the 
strong and powerful commit aggressions 
upon the weak and helpless. Against 
such aggressions he waged a relentless 
war during his entire life. His supreme 
faith in humanity led him to appeal to 
the better natures of his readers and 
hearers, and he hopefully looked forward 
to the time when war should be no more 
and mankind should dwell together in 
peace, all energies being devoted, not to 
the destruction but to the upbuilding of 
the entire race. His cheerful confidence 
in the ultimate triumph of all that was 
good was a constant inspiration. In his 
private life he was kind, loyal, lovable, 
tender-hearted, and honest-minded, a 
sincere friend of humanity, a real lover 
and benefactor of the race, and modestly, 
devotedly, conscientiously, he spent his 
entire life usefully in behalf of his fellow- 
men. 

Franklin Smith was born in South 
Granville, Washington county, New York, 
October 3, 1853, the son of Pascal C. and 
Ann P. Smith, and was a grandson of Dr. 
Horace Smith, who practiced medicine 
during the middle of the last century for 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



nearly fifty years in South Granville and 
the neighboring country. Franklin Smith 
obtained his early education in the dis- 
trict school of South Granville, the Union 
school in West Pawlet and the academy 
at Poultney, Vermont. Before he was 
ten years of age he discovered in his 
grandfather's library an edition of Rol- 
lin's "History of Greece" that he devoured 
with avidity. From that time he became 
an indefatigable reader and student of 
history, political economy, sociology and 
philosophy. Until the age of sixteen years 
he worked upon a farm in the summer 
and attended school in the winter. In the 
summer of 1871, while at work in South 
Granville, he conceived the idea of attend- 
ing Cornell University at Ithaca, New 
York, and through the assistance of 
friends, Mr. Ezra Bullock and Mr. John 
Baker, he went to Ithaca in September of 
that year, and entered the university in 
the class of 1875. ^ n order to obtain the 
money for his college course, he worked 
upon the university farm the first year, 
and the two succeeding years he worked 
in the university printing office, having 
previously learned the art of setting type 
in Granville. While at college he devoted 
as many hours as possible aside from his 
regular studies and work to reading in 
the university library. During his senior 
year he became the secretary of President 
White, a position he occupied until he 
graduated, and during that time he de- 
veloped a taste for literary work, in which 
in later years he so distinguished himself. 
Also during his senior year he did a large 
amount of special work, and was awarded 
a prize for an essay that he prepared on 
"The Vernacular Literature of the Middle 
Ages in its Relation to Romanism." Al- 
though poorly prepared when he entered 
the university, handicapped by the lack of 
funds, and compelled as he was to main- 
tain himself by his own exertions, he was 
graduated with high honors. He was 



chosen as one of the commencement ora- 
tors, the subject of his oration being 
"Rousseau as a Philosopher of the French 
Revolution." He had the novel distinc- 
tion of having expended the least amount 
for his college course of any member of 
his class. He then threw himself into 
literary work with all the energy and 
perseverance he possessed, and to his 
wonderful energy and indomitable per- 
severance was due his rapid and perma- 
nent advancement in the field of journal- 
ism. The helpful mind of President White 
stimulated his researches and in the 
latter's private library many were the 
hours of delightful reading and conversa- 
tion by master and pupil. The friendship 
thus founded ever endured. 

After his graduation from Cornell, Mr. 
Smith went to Rochester, New York, and 
became a reporter on the "Democrat and 
Chronicle," and shortly afterward was 
promoted to the position of night editor 
and then associate editor. For ten years 
he remained with that paper, writing 
editorials that challenged the attention 
not only of the Rochester community 
but also of the press throughout the 
country, much of his work being attrib- 
uted to the editor-in-chief of that paper. 
In 1886 he became the first editor-in-chief 
of the "Cosmopolitan Magazine," and re- 
mained with it until the change in owner- 
ship two years later. He then became 
one of the editorial writers on the New 
York "Evening Post," and remained 
there several years, and in 1892 returned 
to Rochester to accept the managing 
editorship of the "Union and Advertiser." 
He remained in that city from that time 
until his death, being connected as editor 
with the Rochester "Herald" and "Post- 
Express." As a writer, he may have had 
many equals, but he surely had few 
superiors. His sentences were never in- 
volved ; they were short, crisp and in- 
cisive. The editorials that he prepared 
47 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



from day to day were well considered, 
and were written with the utmost care 
and precision. During this period he 
wrote a vast amount touching upon cur- 
rent events, and upon political, financial, 
economic and sociological questions. For 
a number of years prior to his death he 
wrote for a number of monthly maga- 
zines, and among his essays, many of 
which were published in the "Popular 
Science Monthly," are the following: "A 
Fiction of Political Metaphysics;" "An 
Object Lesson in Social Reform;" "The 
Despotism of Democracy;" "The Real 
Problems of Democracy;" "Signs of De- 
cadence in the United States ;" "An Apos- 
tate Democracy;" "A State Official on 
Excessive Taxation ;" "Reversions in 
Modern Industrial Life;" "Politics as a 
Form of Civil War;" and "Peace as a 
Factor in Social and Political Reform." 
These essays are models of a clear, accur- 
ate, and vigorous literary style. He was 
himself his most severe critic, and his 
published articles, therefore, did not 
reach the press until they had undergone, 
at his hands, a most painstaking revision. 
Mr. Smith intended to publish his essays 
in book form, but the work was inter- 
rupted by his untimely death. Singular 
as it may seem Mr. Smith developed no 
marked taste or aptitude for literary 
work until his senior year in college. His 
early ambition was to study medicine. 
His grandfather and an uncle on his 
father's side had been physicians, and it 
seemed to him that by heredity and 
natural tastes, he was adapted to per- 
petuate that profession in his family. 
But circumstances prevented the realiza- 
tion of this ambition. 

Mr. Smith possessed a striking and 
attractive personality. He impressed one 
as a profound student and scholar. His 
presence commanded attention in any 
assemblage of men, and he made friends 
wherever he went, who became firmly 



attached to him by reason of his strong 
personality, and his kind, generous and 
sympathetic disposition. He was a 
most entertaining conversationalist, pos- 
sessing a vast fund of information that 
he had acquired in his newspaper work 
and by constant and careful reading and 
investigation. But what was of more 
importance, he had thoroughly digested 
all the information that he had thus 
acquired. He was slow in reaching con- 
clusions, and reached them only after 
thorough investigation and profound 
thought; he was at all times prepared to 
defend the opinions that he had thus 
formed against the attacks of anyone. 
Nevertheless, he had great respect for the 
opinions of others, but he insisted that 
those opinions should be based upon 
something that appealed to reason. 

Mr. Smith married, in 1884, Emma E. 
Home, of Rochester, a woman of marked 
ability, who survives him. Mr. Smith 
died at his home in Rochester, Novem- 
ber 5, 1903. His work was well done 
and unselfish. His reputation was un- 
tarnished. He died highly respected and 
esteemed by all who knew him, and his 
friends missed his personality and his 
master mind. The community in which 
he lived and made his influence for good 
felt sustained an irreparable loss. What 
better tribute can a man have, and what 
better record can he leave behind? 



PARKER, Charles Edward, LL. D., 

Lawyer. Eminent Jurist. 

There are but few members of the 
present New York bar who practiced be- 
fore Judge John Mason Parker and but 
few who have not practiced before his 
son, Judge Charles Edward Parker. 
There were many points of similarity in 
the careers of these two illustrious sons of 
the Empire State. Both achieved great 
fame as able jurists; both were justices 



148 






ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



of the Supreme Court of the State of New 
York; both had long experiences as trial 
and law judges ; both had fine legal minds 
stored with a wealth of legal knowledge 
and both were devoted to the scrupulous 
discharge of their exalted duties. The 
elder Parker sat on the bench of the Su- 
preme Court for a period of sixteen years, 
six of which he was a justice of the gen- 
eral term of the Supreme Court, a position 
practically identified with that held by his 
son, except that the latter had been the 
presiding judge of the Appellate Court. 

Judge John Mason Parker died in 1873, 
aged sixty-eight years, being a justice of 
the general term at the time of his death. 
He was a member of the Chemung county 
bar for several years, and from 1858 until 
1859 represented his district in Congress. 
In the fall of 1859 he was elected a justice 
of the Supreme Court and after several 
years on the circuit was designated by 
Governor Hoffman a justice of the gen- 
eral term. He served for six years on the 
appeal bench, until his death. 

Charles Edward Parker, the son, for 
nearly a score of years was a justice of 
the Supreme Court of New York and for 
more than half of that time the presiding 
justice of the Appellate division, third 
department. He reached the constitu- 
tional age limit of seventy years, and in 
1906 retired, leaving the bench with a 
record as a jurist unsurpassed for judg- 
ment, fairness and legal learning. He 
retired to his beautiful home in Owego 
enjoying the confidence and respect of 
his associates on the bench, his brethren 
of the bar, and of litigants whose cases 
he heard. The farewell proceedings at 
Albany exemplified the affection and 
honor in which he was held by his breth- 
ren of the bench. At that time the 
judges of the Appellate division paid him 
affectionate and well deserved tribute and 
all hearts were touched at the official 
parting. A former member of the court, 



Justice D. Cady Herrick, acted as spokes- 
man for the judiciary, and David Bennett 
Hill, ex-governor, ex-United States Sen- 
ator and sage, expressed to the retiring 
judge his high estimate of his eminence 
at the bar and on the bench. Governor 
Hill's speech was a gracious and graceful 
tribute from one of the State's greatest 
men to a wise and upright judge, before 
whom he had practiced as a lawyer. 
Three years after his retirement, Judge 
Parker closed his earthly career full of 
years and honor. 

Charles Edward Parker was born in 
Owego, New York, August 25, 1836, and 
after a long and eminent service as lawyer 
and jurist died in the city of his birth, 
March 2, 1909. He was the son of John 
Mason Parker, congressman and jurist. 
He prepared at Owego Academy, then 
entered Hobart College, whence he was 
graduated, Bachelor of Arts, class of 
1857. At Hobart he affiliated with Alpha 
Delta Phi and throughout his long life 
cherished a high regard for that frater- 
nity. It was also Hobart, his well-beloved 
alma mater, that, forty-three years later, 
in 1900, conferred upon him the degree of 
Doctor of Laws. 

After graduation he began the study of 
law under the direction of his honored 
father, then a member of Congress, but 
a practitioner at the Tioga county bar, 
later a justice of the Supreme Court of 
the United States. In 1858 he was admit- 
ted to the Tioga county bar and quickly 
forged to the front as an able lawyer and 
advocate. He gained the confidence of 
the public as well and in 1867 was chosen 
a member of the New York Constitu- 
tional Convention and with one exception 
was the youngest member of that body. 
He continued in successful practice until 
1883, then forever retired from the ranks 
of practicing lawyers to don judicial 
ermine. He was elected judge of Tioga 
county in 1883, but was not allowed to 



149 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



serve out his term as on November 8, 
1887, he was chosen by the voters of his 
State to the high office of Supreme Court 
Judge. His first years on the Supreme 
Bench were devoted to circuit work, but 
on the creation of the Appellate division 
of the Supreme Court under the consti- 
tution of 1895, he became a member of 
that body, Third Judicial Department, 
and its presiding justice. The Appellate 
Court consists of five members of the 
Supreme Court and in dignity and im- 
portance ranks next to the State Court of 
Appeals. He continued on the Supreme 
Bench until December, 1906, then, in the 
fullness of his intellectual power, but 
physically on the wane, retired having 
reached the constitutional limit of age. 
The remaining three years were spent at 
Owego, amid the scenes of his youth and 
earlier legal triumphs, well preserved in 
all but power of walking. He was held 
in high esteem by his townsmen as friend 
and neighbor, while his death was mourn- 
ed by an entire State. Letters of con- 
dolence came from men of eminence from 
all parts of the State, the press without 
an exception vieing in their expressions 
of respect for the dead jurist. His funeral 
was attended by men of high official and 
professional positions and by a large con- 
course of citizens. 

Judge Parker married, in 1865, Mary, 
daughter of Judge Thomas Farrington, 
of Owego. 



RUSSELL, Archimedes, 

Expert Architect. 

Archimedes Russell, architect, late of 
Syracuse, New York, was not a man who 
led an exalted or pretentious life, but one 
which was true to itself and its pos- 
sibilities, and one to which the biographer 
may revert with respect and satisfaction. 
He was a man of strong intellectual force 
and mature judgment, of absolute integ- 



rity and high motives, and was strong in 
his support of the ethics of his profession. 
Secure in his own ability, he was inclined 
to assist rather than to retard the prog- 
ress of his competitors. Kind of heart 
and of a cheerful disposition, he was also 
firm and fearless in his defence of the 
right at all times, and would never lend 
himself to anything that in his opinion 
would not bear the light, dealing fairly 
with both clients and contractors. These 
noble qualities he inherited from an hon- 
ored ancestry. 

The name of Russell is compounded 
of two Norman and French words — Roz, 
meaning castle, and El, a synonym for 
Eau, meaning water. The name was first 
given to a castle in Lower Normandy in 
1045, ar, d implied a tower or castle by 
the water. Hugh, son of William Bert- 
rand, was invested with this stronghold 
and took its name, calling himself Hugh 
Rozel, from which came Rosel, Rousel, 
and the present orthography. The Bert- 
rand ancestry is traceable as far back as 
the seventh century, to the Norwegian 
Zarls, to Rerick, the first King of Nor- 
mandy, down through King Harold, who 
reigned there in 885. William Bertrand 
and his sons — Roger, Hugh, Theobold 
and Richard — accompanied William on 
his first expedition to England, and re- 
ceived large grants of the public domain 
confiscated from the subjugated Saxons. 
They were the founders of the English 
Russells. John Russel, who lived in the 
sixteenth century, was of this descent, a 
son of James, in the west of England. 
He rose in favor with Henry VIII., held 
many offices, and was one of Henry's 
executors. Upon the accession of Ed- 
ward VI. he continued near to the throne, 
and distinguished himself at St. Mary's 
Cyst, and was created Earl of Bedford. 
The fourth Earl of Bedford was a 
Georgian statesman, and Lord John Rus- 
sell was Premier of England in 1846 and 



150 




CMf(lAi^Lt^^^cL^j d\U^t-<^l_. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



again in 1865. William H. Russell, the 
famed war correspondent, known as 
"Bull Run" Russell, is another of the 
name and lineage. In this country we 
have had the Hon. John E. Russell and 
William A. Russell, Massachusetts con- 
gressmen, and Governor William E. Rus- 
sell. The armorial bearings of the Rus- 
sells was : Crest : A demi lion, rampant, 
collared sable, studded or, holding a cross 
of the shield. 

Moody Russell, father of Archimedes 
Russell, was born in Alfred, Maine, Sep- 
tember 1, 1808, and died in Andover, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1904. His ancestors were 
members of the Plymouth Colony, Mas- 
sachusetts, and the greater part of his 
life was spent in Andover, where he was 
a noted contractor and builder. He mar- 
ried Fannie Wardwell, also a descendant 
of members of the Plymouth Colony, who 
was born in Andover, Massachusetts, No- 
vember 5, 1802, and died October 22, 1892. 

Archimedes Russell was born in An- 
dover, Massachusetts, June 13, 1840, and 
died in his beautiful home, No. 617 Gene- 
see street, Syracuse, New York, Aprii 3, 
1915. He acquired his education in the 
public schools of his native town, and at 
the early age of thirteen years was ap- 
prenticed to Charles S. Parker, a carriage 
and sign painter, and was thus occupied 
for a period of two years, after which he 
again attended the schools of his native 
town, and also assisted his father in the 
extensive building and contracting busi- 
ness he controlled. He had almost attain- 
ed his majority when he entered the office 
of John Stevens, a well known architect 
of Boston, and remained with him two 
years. December 4, 1862, he came to 
Syracuse, and from that time until his 
death he was identified with the interests 
of that city. He became associated with 
Horatio N. White, an architect, in whose 
employ he remained until he established 
himself in the practice of his profession 



independently, January 1, 1868, and prac- 
ticed it alone until January 1, 1906, when 
he formed a partnership with Melvin L. 
King which continued until his death. 
His talent as an able and gifted architect, 
of rarely original ideas was undisputed, 
and earned much commendation far and 
wide. Among the numerous buildings he 
designed some of the most notable are 
as follows: Onondaga County Clerk's, 
Onondaga County Court House, and 
Snow and Greyhound buildings ; Con- 
gress Hall ; Church of Assumption School 
House, of Providence ; Crouse Memorial 
College ; Third National Bank ; Crouse 
Stable ; dwellings for Jacob Amos, H. S. 
White, Dr. G. D. Whedon, J. S. Crouse, 
L. D. Denison, and many others in Syra- 
cuse ; the Sibley and McGraw buildings 
of Cornell University ; Presbyterian 
church and D. H. Burrell residence, at 
Little Falls ; Warren Miller mansion and 
Herkimer Second National Bank, at 
Oswego ; Otsego County Court House ; 
Cortland House, at Cortland; and others 
innumerable. From 1881 to 1885 he 
served as a fire commissioner, and was 
president of the Board of Fire Commis- 
sioners, 1884-85. He served as supervisor 
from the Seventh Ward in 1884, 1886-87, 
always giving his political support to the 
Republican party. He was chairman of 
a commission composed of the late Stan- 
ford White and others to investigate the 
Assembly Ceiling scandal, when Dennis 
McCarthy was senator. When ex-Vice- 
President Levi P. Morton was Governor 
of the State of New York, he appointed 
Mr. Russell as a member of a commission 
to complete the State Capitol. The indi- 
vidual members of this commission 
were: Lieutenant-Governor Saxon, Su- 
perintendent of Public Works ; State En- 
gineer, Ira N. Hedges, s civilian ; Archi- 
medes Russell, architect. About three 
years after the appointment of this com- 
mission the capitol was completed. 



J 5i 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Mr. Russell married, June 30, 1864, in 
Boston, Massachusetts, Susan M. Bart- 
lett, of that city. She survives her hus- 
band, and still lives in Syracuse. Mr. 
Russell was always ready with a friendly 
greeting, a cheery smile, or a word of 
encouragement, and these qualities en- 
deared him to those with whom he was 
associated, while the strength of his char- 
acter, his laudable ambition, and his 
earnest purpose gained him a place of 
prominence among the leading business 
men of the city. 



FOWLER, Thomas Powell, 

Lawyer. Railroad Official. 

A lawyer by profession but for a 
quarter of a century, 1888-1912, president 
of the New York, Ontario & Western 
railroad, Mr. Fowler was better known 
to the business than the professional 
world, in fact he was one of the most 
widely known railroad executives in the 
United States. To a great executive 
ability, fully demonstrated in many fields, 
he added a wisdom in the management of 
men that was most remarkable. He drew 
men to him by his pleasing personality, 
and held them by fair treatment and a 
consideration for their welfare that made 
every employee a friend. When in 1912 
he retired from active management of the 
New York, Ontario & Western he carried 
with him the esteem of all his subordi- 
nates, who as a testimonial of this esteem 
presented him with a handsome loving 
cup. 

Mr. Fowler was a descendant of Revo- 
lutionary and Colonial ancestors, son of 
Isaac Sebring and Mary (Ludlow) Fow- 
ler, who at the time of his birth were 
residing in Newburgh, New York. 

Thomas Powell Fowler was born Oc- 
tober 26, 1851, died at his summer home 
"Belair," Warwick, New York, October 
11, 1915. After completing courses at 



College Hill, Poughkeepsie, he studied in 
Germany and then entered Columbia Law 
School whence he was graduated Bach- 
elor of Law, class of "74." After gradu- 
ation he was admitted to practice at the 
New York bar, practiced actively in New 
York City for several years, but gradually 
became absorbed in railroad management 
that took him from the professional field, 
although he always retained his connec- 
tion with the New York bar. 

In 1879 he became a director of the 
Shenango & Allegheny railroad, and 
from that time forward his services were 
in demand, his trained legal mind and 
keen business ability rendering him a 
valuable addition to the directorates of 
many transportation companies. In 1881 
he was elected a director of the Lehigh & 
Hudson River railroad; of the Western 
Pennsylvania & Shenango Connecting 
railroad in 1883 ; the New York, Ontario 
& Western railroad in 1884; appointed 
receiver of the Shenango & Allegheny 
railroad, March 31, 1884; and in succes- 
sion became associated with the director- 
ates of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
railway ; Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe rail- 
way ; Lehigh & Hudson river railroad ; 
Santa Fe, Prescott & Phoenix railway; 
California Eastern railroad; Randsburg 
Railway Company ; Santa Fe Pacific rail- 
road; Southern California Railway Com- 
pany; English Association of American 
Bond & Share Holders, Limited. 

His connection with the New York, 
Ontario & Western railroad began in 
1884 as a director. Four years later he 
was elected president, a position he filled 
with highest honor and efficiency until 
1912 when he retired leaving the system 
in greatly improved physical and financial 
condition, with a loyal working force 
thoroughly organized and capable. To 
follow Mr. Fowler's career through its 
many avenues of activity would be to 
write a history of many of the great 
52 




J£rtirrirlj pfrwritig* 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



railroad systems of the United States for 
he held no sinecures, but gave himself 
unreservedly to the duties of any position 
he accepted during his business life. His 
greatest work, however, is manifest in the 
executive management of the New York, 
Ontario & Western, a road, once a re- 
proach, that he left an important part 
of a great railroad system. 

While emphatically a man of affairs 
Mr. Fowler was not unmindful of his 
obligations as a citizen, meeting these 
honorably and in all things measuring up 
to the full stature of American manhood. 
He was senior warden of St. James' 
Protestant Episcopal Church, Seventy- 
first street and Madison avenue, New 
York, and met his fellowmen in social 
intercourse in the Metropolitan, Grolier, 
Down Town and Tuxedo clubs. His 
patriotic ancestry opened wide the doors 
of the orders based on Revolutionary 
ancestry, and he was a member of the 
Sons of the Revolution. 

Mr. Fowler married, April 20, 1876, in 
the Brick Presbyterian Church, Fifth 
avenue and Thirty-seventh street, New 
York, Isabelle, daughter of Benjamin 
Franklin and Ruth (Seely) Dunning. 
Children: Ruth Dunning, Louisa Orso, 
Isabel Wilson, Alice Dunning, Katherine 
Sebring, Eleanor Rumsey, Franklin Dun- 
ning, Thomas Powell, Jr., and Ludlow 
Sebring Fowler. 



LEVERICH, William, 

Clergyman. 

The crest of the Leverich-Leveridge 
family is thus described: Argent. A 
chevron between three matchlocks, sable. 
Crest: A leopard's face, proper. Motto: 
Virtute et opera. 

"The learned and Rev. William Lev- 
erich than whom his descendants need 
wish no better ancestry" appears on the 
pages of Colonial history as a man of 



singular piety and learning, and as a true 
soldier in the Christian warfare. 

Like the great Apostle he was a man 
of many journeys, the founder of many 
churches, the friend, counsellor and 
pastor of his people. Or we can see him 
with Bible in hand, telling the Indians 
in their native tongue of One who loved 
them, and gave Himself for them. We 
find the following in Freeman's "History 
of Cape Cod," "He who does not think 
of his ancestors will be negligent of his 
posterity" and signed William Leverich. 
So we, his descendants in this distant 
day, love to honor his reverend name in 
this the land of his adoption. 

The Rev. William Leverich was born 
in England in 1605, and was a son of Sir 
Sabille Leverich, of Drawlington Hall, 
Warwickshire. The name originated 
with a Baron Liebrich who came with 
William the Conqueror in 1066 and the 
family is mentioned on the Doomsday 
Book. John Sabille Leverich was knight- 
ed by Queen Elizabeth in 1562. The 
name has been variously spelled, but 
Leverich, or Leveridge are both used in 
the Colonial records, and signifies, "Rich 
in love." 

The Rev. William Leverich was a 
graduate of Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, England, taking A. B. in 1625 and 
A. M. in 1629. 

Though born and educated in the 
Church of England, his sympathies were 
early enlisted on the side of the Non- 
conformists. So he left the bosom of 
Motherchurch to arrange himself with 
the band of seventy Puritan ministers 
who fled over the seas for "freedom to 
worship God." Some merchants from 
Bristol, England, had settled at Dover, 
New Hampshire, of which Captain 
Thomas Wiggins was superintendent. In 
1632 he went to England in the interests 
of the colony, and on October 10, 1633, 
returned on the ship "James" with thirty 
S3 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



others, "and among them," says the 
record of Winthrop "was the Rev. Wil- 
liam Leverich, a godly minister." They 
landed at Salem, and reached Dover on 
the last Sunday of October and the tree 
was still standing a few years ago under 
which the Rev. William Leverich de- 
livered the first sermon ever preached by 
an ordained minister in the State of New 
Hampshire. The Church of Dover cele- 
brated in October, 1883, t^ e two hundred 
and fiftieth anniversary of its existence, 
and on that occasion many paid their 
graceful tribute to the memory of the 
saintly scholar and apostle, William 
Leverich, the first pastor of the church at 
Dover. 

In 1635 he moved southward to Boston, 
forming the friendship of the two most 
noted divines of the day, viz, the Rev. 
John Cotton and Rev. John Eliot. It was 
the latter who first suggested to him the 
study of the Indian tongue for which he 
afterwards became so noted, and of whose 
labors Palfrey, Hubbard, Marten and 
others bare record. He was also placed by 
Dr. Cotton Mather in his classis "among 
the first great men." After a short asso- 
ciation with the Rev. Ralph Partridge at 
Duxbury, Massachusetts, in 1637, Mr. 
Leverich, with ten others, came to Sand- 
wich, Cape Cod. They were soon joined 
by fifty more from Duxbury and 
Plymouth, and a church was formed with 
William Leverich as pastor. By the 
theoretic principles of Puritanism, no one 
was allowed to sell lands without the 
consent of the minister, so here at Sand- 
wich a church was built by this influence 
whose power was felt throughout the 
colony. The Indians were numerous 
about Cape Cod, and William Leverich 
accordingly acquired their language, and 
they were ever his devoted followers, 
while their orderly and peaceful lives 
throughout his pastorate attested to his 
faithfulness among them. The early 



years of his pastorate at Cape Cod were 
peacefully passed, but as the town grew 
refractory spirits found entrance, "in- 
veighing against the minister and magis- 
trates to the dishonor of God." Captain 
Miles Standish and Thomas Prince tried 
to throw oil on the troubled waters. To 
prevent the entrance of those whose fit- 
ness was questioned, the law more 
emphatically enforced that none be ad- 
mitted to town rights without the consent 
of Mr. Leverich, and the town authorities. 
This offended many, and they turned 
their animosity toward the minister, 
accusing him of novelties in religion, of 
using the services of the English Church 
in Holy Communion and baptism, which 
was often practiced during the first years 
of the church in Salem. 

In 1647 we nn d William Leverich em- 
ployed by the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel in New England for work 
among the Indians, extending his labors 
to the Plymouth Colony, and be it said 
to the eternal honor of John Eliot, Wil- 
liam Leverich and many others, that dur- 
ing their ministries never was peace 
broken by the horrors of Indian warfare. 

In view of Mr. Leverich's success 
among the natives, the society approved 
and directed that he should turn his atten- 
tion to the Indians of Long Island. So in 
1652, with a dozen or more of his parish- 
ioners, he explored the country about 
Oyster Bay, Long Island, and in 1653 
with these friends of Sandwich, he left 
Cape Cod for the shores of Long Island, 
"The Isle of Shells." Mr. Leverich de- 
sired to form a colony on Long Island, so 
with Peter Wright and Samuel Mayo, 
they purchased a tract of land of the 
Indians at Oyster Bay and Huntington. 
It is curious to see the consideration 
given for these lands, viz. Indian coats, 
kettles, hatchets, awlblades, shovels, and 
as much wampum as would make four 
pounds sterling. This was signed by the 



•54 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



mark of Assiapum, the sachem, and a 
paper was given to the rest of the com- 
pany admitting them to equal rights, and 
in ten years there were fifty landholders. 

During five years Mr. Leverich labored 
at Oyster Bay among the Indians, but 
with never a conspiracy among them. 
But we could have seen him teaching in 
the Indian wigwams amid the terrors 
of pestilence, giving them bread, or even 
a cup of cold water in the name of the 
Master. "The salaries," says Mr. Wood, 
"of these first ministers were raised as 
other taxes, and the amount fixed in 
money was really paid in produce or 
cattle." 

Mr. Leverich built the first grist mill 
at Huntington, and the writer has a re- 
ceipt of forty pounds for it from one 
Henry Whitney. 

On the records at Albany in 1660, Gov- 
ernor Stuyvesant writing to the directors 
of the West India Company at Amster- 
dam, Holland, says : That the Rev. Wil- 
liam Leverich was to sail on the first out- 
going vessel for the purpose of obtaining 
medicines for the colonies. It was the 
following year before he sailed, and in 
1663 the medicines were sent to "the Eng- 
lish clergyman versed in the art of 
physic," for it was a common thing 
among the university educated theo- 
logues to attend the lectures of the 
medical professors. 

On Mr. Leverich's return to Hunting- 
ton in 1662, from Holland, his congrega- 
tion gave him a quantity of land, and 
also built a parsonage for him. The first 
church was erected in 1665, the congre- 
gation prior to that worshipping in the 
Town Hall. In 1662 William Leverich 
went to Newtown, Long Island, to pur- 
chase lands for his sons, Caleb and 
Eleazar, and as Newtown at that time 
was destitute of spiritual guidance he 
remained and ministered to them for a 
while, but still keeping oversight of the 



church at Huntington. In 1665 he re- 
turned to the last place, and we find the 
name of William Leverich on the Nicoll 
patent, both at Newtown and Hunting- 
ton. 

In 1669 the people of Newtown having 
been for nearly ten years without any 
minister, except for Mr. Leverich's so- 
journ among them, now turned their 
attention to him, and with the leading 
citizens, constables and overseers pre- 
sented their proposals, but he did not 
leave the pastorate of Huntington until 
1670. Says Mr. Davenport, "Some have 
wondered why he left a place so endeared 
to him, by the ties of friends and fortune, 
but he was getting in the decline of life, 
and it was no doubt the desire to pass the 
evening of it in the bosom of his family 
that decided the change." There was 
perfect harmony on either side, and re- 
gret at his loss for Huntington. 

The first church edifice at Newtown 
(that is the Puritan Church) was erected 
in 1671. In 1675 the Indian wars in New 
England caused great apprehension of an 
outbreak on Long Island, and Newtown 
was placed in a state of siege. But not 
so had the red man learned of William 
Leverich and others, and the fearful tide 
of savage warfare never passed over its 
peaceful towns. 

The closing years of the Rev. William 
Leverich's life were rest and peace — until 
early in 1677 he fell asleep, "he was not 
for God took him." 

The Rev. William Leverich left two 
sons, Caleb and Eleazar, the former tak- 
ing out letters of administration on his 
father's estate, June, 1777, bearing the 
signature of Governor Andros. Caleb 
was born during his father's settlement 
at Cape Cod. and he married Martha, 
widow of Francis Swain. His name 
appears among the freeholders of New- 
town, December 4, 1666, and he enjoyed 
the esteem of his townsmen, and was one 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



of the original members of the Presby- 
terian church. His children were John, 
Mary and Eleanor. Eleazar died child- 
less. 

John Leverich, St., and grandson of 
Rev. William Leverich, left a widow 
Hannah, and four children: John, Wil- 
liam, Elnathan and Samuel. John, Jr., 
died before his father. 

Prior to the Revolution, by the Eng- 
lish law, the eldest son was the heir. But 
John Leverich, Sr., divided his estate 
equally among his four sons: John, Jr., 
William, Samuel and Elnathan. 

In 1781, by an indenture in the pos- 
session of the writer, Sacket Leverich, 
son of John, Jr., deceased, for the 
sum of twelve hundred pounds, lawful 
money of the colony, receives three- 
fourths of his three uncles undivided 
estate. John Leverich, Jr., was born in 
1696, and married (first) Amy Moore, 
(second) Susannah, widow of John 
Sacket, and (third) Sarah, daughter of 

Sil as . He died in 1780, leaving 

four children. His eldest son, John, mar- 
ried his stepsister, Elizabeth Sacket, and 
left three children: Sacket, Amy and 
Richard. In their day commenced the 
stormy times of the Revolution. The old 
farm, bought by Caleb Leverich for his 
sons, was during the bitter strife for in- 
dependence, truly the scene of great 
activity. For some part of the time there 
was stationed on it 1168 men, viz. "The 
Royal Highland Forty-second Regi- 
ment," the celebrated Black Watch, 
Thomas Sterling, commandant. Many 
were the stories told about his honorable 
■treatment of all, forbidding his soldiers 
to commit any depredation, and several 
times when they transgressed his rules 
they received no sympathy if met with 
disaster. Cholera carried away quite a 
number, they were buried in a corner of 
the farm, and the burial place was marked 
by a pile of stones called a cairn, every 



soldier passing was required to -hrow a 
stone upon it. Some years ago the spot 
was excavated for a railway and human 
remains were found, great wonder was 
caused as to whom they belonged to, 
until the family was consulted and the 
secret explained. One workm-m received 
twenty-five dollars for a skull with every 
tooth perfect in it. Colonel Sterling, 
Lady Sterling, and two of the officers of 
the Royal Highland Forty-second oc- 
cupied a portion of the house. 

On the occasion of his leaving, the 
inhabitants of Newtown drew up an 
address to Colonel Sterling, and his 
officers, thanking them "for their very 
equitable polite, and friendly conduct dur- 
ing their winter's stay "at the Leverich 
home. It was returned by Colonel Ster- 
ling in the same spirit and courtesy. 

John Leverich, son of John Leverich, 
Jr., as aforesaid, left three children: 
Sacket, Amy and Richard, of whom the 
first two died single. Amy was be- 
trothed to a British officer, but he died in 
England whither he had gone to settle 
his affairs. John Leverich died at New- 
town, September 18, 1780. Richard, his 
son, "best known as Deacon Leverich 
was highly esteemed in his time." He 
was a great reader, theologian, mathe- 
matician, and deacon of the Presbyterian 
church at Newtown for nearly fifty years. 
In his lifetime the Colonial customs were 
still retained. The crops were planted, 
and harvested by his staff of blacks, who 
were in return schooled and treated al- 
most as one of the family ; the girls were 
also sent to school, taught needlework, 
sewing, etc. Deacon Leverich was a 
strict Calvinist like his Puritan ancestor, 
and would quote for his youthful blacks 
the couplet: 

You must not work, you must not play 
Upon God's Holy Sabbath Day. 




•fir ^Hhtvryvdbt 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Deacon Richard Leverich married 
(first) Amy Titus, with whom he lived 
nearly fifty years. At her death he mar- 
ried Nancy Lane, by whom he had two 
daughters, Amy E. Leverich, and Susan 
M. Leverich. He died at a ripe old age 
in 1836, at his residence in Trains 
Meadow, Newtown, Long Island. His 
widow died in New York in 1874. 

Amy E. Leverich married Charles E. 
Cannon, of New York, to whom were 
born two daughters : Ada Cannon, and 
Elizabeth Leverich Cannon. She died 
September 27, 1911. 

Ada Cannon married Henry W. Lyon, 
of Bridgeport, Connecticut. They have 
one daughter, Ada Willis Lyon, who 
married Harold C. Rood, of Hartford, 
Connecticut. They also have one daugh- 
ter, Henrietta Lyon Rood, born Septem- 
ber 6, 1913. 



BARNETT, George F., 

Strong and Useful Character. 

It sometimes happens that true great- 
ness lies fully as much in living a clean, 
sturdy life, performing well each day's 
duties, and lending a helping hand to a 
fellow traveler on the road, as it does in 
mighty deeds of valor. The man who 
can live through more than the allotted 
three score years and ten of the wear and 
tear of everyday life, and when the final 
summons comes can go before his Maker 
with a clear conscience and perfect faith, 
to receive his reward, leaving a memory 
cherished and beloved for all that goes to 
make life worth living for those around 
us, is a truly great man. Such an one was 
George F. Barnett, who died in Brock- 
port, at the age of ninety-three, having 
spent nearly all of his long, busy life in 
that place since attaining his majority. 
He was called "one of the strongest and 
most useful characters in the com- 
munity," and from the time he arrived in 



Brockport, in 1826, until his death in 
1897 he was classed among its most 
respected and worthy residents, his in- 
fluence increasing as his opportunities 
widened. 

George F. Barnett was born in Bridge- 
water, Oneida county, New York, in the 
year 1804, and it was there he spent his 
boyhood and received his educational 
training, attaining early manhood. He 
came to Brockport, as stated above, in 
1826, and his first occupation was as 
architect and builder. In 1840 he formed 
business relations with the McCormick 
Harvester Company, and was largely in- 
strumental in making the reaper manu- 
factured by that firm a success. After 
five years he severed his connection with 
that company and entered the employ of 
Seymour & Morgan, with whom he re- 
mained until the dissolution of the firm. 
He then entered the business field on his 
own account, and in 1850 established 
agricultural works in Brockport, and 
from that time until his retirement in 
1886 he was an active factor in the com- 
mercial life of the city, earning a well de- 
served and much needed rest, which he 
enjoyed the remaining years of his life. 

Mr. Barnett was at first a Whig in his 
political inclination, and later a Repub- 
lican, being a staunch supporter of the 
principles of his party. He never sought 
nor held public office, preferring to help 
fill the rank and file of good citizen- 
ship, of which there is always so much 
need, his life conforming at all times to 
a true Christian standard. A friend of 
long standing, and therefore well able to 
speak, said of him : 

As a man he was a representative of that ster- 
ling class of early settlers whose uprightness, 
truth and honesty, whose appreciation of educa- 
tional and church privileges and devotion to our 
free institutions have imparted special and distin- 
guished character to Western New York and 
made it a great factor in the history of our coun- 



157 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



try during a most eventful period Mr. Barnett, 
while of a genial, kindly disposition, was level- 
headed, true and sturdy, and had the happy fac- 
ulty of getting on the right side of questions and 
issues that demanded his decision and quietly but 
firmly maintaining the ground he had taken. He 
was a man who trained his children to love and 
honor the principles he maintained and exempli- 
fied. He had a sympathetic eye for struggling 
integrity and merit, and there are many hearts 
that have warmed with gratitude at the remem- 
brance of his helping hand. 

Another has said of him : 

No man had wielded a more powerful influence 
for good in this whole region than he. Simple 
honesty, unvarying gentleness, combined with ex- 
ecutive ability of a high order, were especially 
prominent traits in his character and gave him 
such a standing among business men of Western 
New York that his advice was constantly sought 
by them. It was in his home, however, that the 
brightness and cheerfulness of his disposition par- 
ticularly shone. 

Mr. Barnett was married in 1828 to 
Catherine Lyell Thorpe, of Montgomery 
county, New York. Mr. Barnett pur- 
chased land on which he built the house 
which was their pleasant abode for so 
many years, Mrs. Barnett proving a true 
helpmate to her husband and a faithful 
and loving mother to her children, of 
whom there were five, two surviving: 
Mary H. and Frances C, who made their 
home with their father through his de- 
clining years. James M. Barnett, one 
of their children, now deceased, was a 
resident of Grand Rapids, Michigan, 
president of the Old National Bank. Mrs. 
Barnett passed away in 1883, beloved and 
mourned by all who had ever had the 
privilege of her acquaintance. 

Mr. Barnett was one who participated 
in life with a sincere enjoyment, and had 
a peculiarly reciprocative nature, appre- 
ciating to the fullest extent a favor shown 
him. As the evening of his days gradu- 
ally closed around him his mind became 
more firmly fixed on spiritual things and 



he experienced a great spirit of thankful- 
ness to his Maker for the many hours of 
happiness and the blessings bestowed 
upon him, evidencing it by a fondness for 
the comforting, old-fashioned hymns of 
his earlier days, which he was often 
heard softly singing to himself in the 
twilight. His was never a solemn 
religion, for he shed around him the sun- 
shine of a hopeful spirit, a kindly con- 
sideration, and the desire that everyone 
should have the most advancement pos- 
sible for them to attain. Well may his 
friends sum up his eulogy in these few 
words— "He was one of nature's noble- 



JONES, Frank Adelbert, 

Prominent Physician. 

In presenting to the public sketches of 
the lives of our prominent citizens, we 
have endeavored to choose those men 
who, by their superior attainments in 
some particular walk of life, have risen 
to prominence among their fellows, and 
whose characteristics and individuality 
have raised them above the ordinary run 
of mortals. In every profession and in 
every line of business it is the few and 
not the many who rise to eminence, and 
it is these few who give tone and char- 
acter to our society, and shape the destiny 
of the communities in which they reside. 
The late Dr. Frank Adelbert Jones, of 
Rochester, New York, was a representa- 
tive of a family distinguished both in 
public service and in the learned profes- 
sions. A close student of his profession, 
thoroughness was, perhaps, his most dis- 
tinguishing characteristic, and while he 
was ever on the alert for any improve- 
ment of a scientific nature that would 
advance the cause of medicine or surgery, 
before adopting it he made himself master 
of every detail connected with the subject, 
and his comments and conclusions were 



[58 





-r^LU/ 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



in consequence interesting and illumina- 
tive. Dignified in appearance, and at the 
same time intensely active, quick and 
sure in movement, his face and mam: 
while giving assurance of strong will and 
inflexible purpose, indicated also that 
sincere geniality which never failed to 
inspire cheerfulness and courage. Above 
all, he may truly be said to have radiated 
optimism, a quality indispensable to the 
successful physician. His father, Dr. 
Ambrose Jones, was a physician in Char- 
lotte, New York, as was also a brother, 
who is now deceased. 

Dr. Frank Adelbert Jones was born in 
Charlotte, New York, October 23, 1849, 
and died at his home, No. 309 Lake ave- 
nue, Rochester, New York, March 9, 1913, 
after an illness of one week's duration. 
His elementary education was acquired 
in the public schools in the vicinity of his 
home, after which he attended the local 
academies, from which he was graduated, 
and then matriculated at the Buffalo 
Medical College, from which he was 
graduated in the class of 1869, the degree 
of Doctor of Medicine being conferred 
upon him. He at once established him- 
self in the practice of his profession, his 
first location being on Buffalo street, now 
Main street west, Rochester; he next 
went to Charlotte, New York, where he 
was associated in practice with his father 
for a time, leaving there to go to Grand 
Rapids. Michigan, which town had just 
had a "boom," and remained there for a 
period of three years. In 1874 he re- 
turned to Charlotte, New York, where 
he practiced until 1893, when he returned 
to Rochester, which was the scene of his 
medical practice until he passed away. 
So conscientious was Dr. Jones in the 
discharge of the duties connected with 
his professional work, that it may in truth 
be said that it brought about his death, 
for the attending physicians were all 
agreed that he might readily have thrown 



off the attack of pneumonia to which he 
succumbed had not his vitality been 
sapped by overwork and overstudy. Al- 
though naturally of a fine constitution, he 
made greater demands upon it than 
nature would permit. He excelled in 
surgical work, although the larger part 
of his practice was a general one. 
Throughout his career he followed the 
rule of paying as great and undivided 
attention to the calls of the poor as he 
did to those of his wealthy class of 
patients, and in attending the former 
class, it was frequently done without a 
fee being demanded or accepted. None 
but those who now feel the loss of his 
charitable ministrations are aware of the 
extent of his benevolence, for he was un- 
ostentatious in the extreme. He was 
president of the Monroe County Medical 
Society; a member of the Rochester 
Academy of Medicine; New York State 
Medical Society; American Medical As- 
sociation; Rochester Pathological Soci- 
ety and Central New York Medical As- 
sociation, and of the Masonic fraternity. 
His religious affiliation was with the 
Central Presbyterian Church of Roches- 
ter, of which he was a member. He was 
a charter member of the One Dozen and 
One Club, an organization composed of 
physicians and their wives, and formed in 
defiance of the old superstition ascribing 
ill luck to the number thirteen. Dr. 
Jones was the first member of this asso- 
ciation to be called to the hereafter, after 
meeting for twenty-six years. His per- 
sonal appearance was far more youthful 
than the number of his years would war- 
rant, but this was probably the result of 
his optimistic disposition, and of his fond- 
ness for the society of the young, with all 
of whom, big and small, he was a favorite. 
"A man of deeds and not of words" was 
one of the comments made concerning 
him by Dr. Albertson, pastor of the 
Central Presbyterian Church. 
59 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Dr. Jones married, November 25, 1869, 
Elizabeth R. Welles, daughter of Ran- 
dolph and Mary E. (Vandemark) Welles, 
of Seneca county, New York, formerly of 
Connecticut. Mrs. Jones survives him 
with their only daughter, Grace L. There 
was a son, Welles, born in 1875, who died 
in 1876. 



BROWNING, John Hull, 

Financier, Manufacturer. 

John Hull Browning was descended 
from Anglo-Saxon ancestors through a 
long line, resident in New England, and 
typified those qualities of industrious 
application, sound judgment and energy 
which conquered a wilderness upon our 
New England coast, at the same time 
conquering savage foes, and established 
firmly a modern civilization. The oldest 
form of the name bears the German spell- 
ing Bruning, and it later came to be 
rendered in various ways. According to 
the poet, Robert Browning, the earliest 
form of the name was de Bruni, which 
was the Norman-French name of one of 
the ancient German tribes which in- 
habited the shores of the Baltic Sea, in 
Northern Germany. In high German the 
form of the name is Brauning. The 
Brunings are supposed to have migrated 
from Germany to England, where the 
Anglo-Saxons changed the spelling to 
Browning, to suit their own tongue. The 
termination "ing" in the German lan- 
guage means a meadow or low pasture- 
land, and hence the origin of the name as 
applied to inhabitants of the low 
•meadows. 

Nathaniel Browning, son of Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Browning, was born in London 
about 1618, and died at Portsmouth, 
Rhode Island, when about fifty-two years 
old. Mrs. Browning and her husband 
appear to have been non-Conformists, 
and the persecution that followed them 



was probably the cause which led Na- 
thaniel Browning to embark for America 
soon after he came of age, in the year 
1640. Landing at Boston he proceeded 
to Portsmouth, where he was made a 
freeman in 1654. This means that he was 
of good standing in the church, and that 
he was eligible to participate in the 
councils and government of the colony. 
He married, about 1650, Sarah, second 
daughter of William and Mary Freeborn, 
who sailed from Ipswich, England, in 
1634. 

Their son, William Browning, born 
about 1651, at Portsmouth, lived to be 
nearly eighty years of age, a farmer at 
North Kingstown, Rhode Island. He 
was made freeman in 1684, and was twice 
married, (first) in 1687 to Rebecca, 
daughter of Samuel and Hannah (Porter) 
Wilbur, granddaughter of Samuel Wilbur 
and John Porter, both of whom were 
original settlers at Portsmouth. His 
second wife's name was Sarah. 

John Browning, youngest son of Wil- 
liam and Rebecca (Wilbur) Browning, 
was born March 4, 1696, at South Kings- 
town, Rhode Island, and died in 1777, at 
Exeter, same state, in his eighty-first year. 
He was made a freeman in 1744, and was 
a farmer, residing near the coast in South 
Kingstown, where he had large landed 
possessions. He married, April 21, 1721, 
Ann, daughter of Jeremiah and Sarah 
(Smith) Hazard, granddaughter of Thom- 
as Hazard, the immigrant progenitor of a 
notable American family. 

Thomas Browning, the eldest son of 
this marriage, born in 1722, in Kings- 
town, died there in 1770. During his ac- 
tive life he was a farmer in Hopkinton, 
Rhode Island, and was made a freeman 
in 1742. Like his parents, he was a 
Quaker, served as justice of the peace at 
Little Compton, and was captain of the 
local militia company. His first wife, 
Mary, was a daughter of William and 



160 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Mary (Wilkinson) Browning, and they 
were the parents of William Thomas. 

William Thomas Browning, born May 
ii, 1765, in South Kingstown, was a 
farmer in Preston, Connecticut, where he 
built a farm house, standing half in Pres- 
ton and half in North Stonington, which 
is still standing in good preservation. He 
married Catherine, daughter of Robert and 
Catherine (Guinedeau) Morey, of New- 
port, Rhode Island. 

Their fifth son, John Hazard Browning, 
was born July 28, 1801, at the Browning 
homestead in Preston, where he was 
reared. He became a merchant in Mill- 
town, Connecticut, and later in New Lon- 
don. In 1833 he moved to New York 
City, and engaged in the dry goods busi- 
ness, at the corner of Fulton and Water 
streets, as senior member of the firm of 
Browning & Hull. This business was 
greatly extended, and in 1849 was closed 
out, and in association with two others, 
Mr. Browning engaged in the general 
merchandise trade in California, his part- 
ners removing thither. Mr. Browning re- 
mained in New York, where he manu- 
factured and purchased goods which were 
shipped to California for sale. Three 
times the store was burned, without in- 
surance, resulting in a total loss. In 
1857 Mr. Browning withdrew from all 
activity, except as a special partner 
with his son, who conducted a clothing 
store under the firm name of Hanford & 
Browning. This subsequently became 
Browning, King & Company, which now 
has stores in the principal cities of 
the United States. Mr. Browning mar- 
ried, September 21, 1829, Eliza Smith 
Hull, of Stonington, daughter of Colo- 
nel John W. and Elizabeth (Smith) 
Hull, and they were the parents of four 
sons and a daughter. The Hull family is 
also of ancient origin, and springs from 
Rev. Joseph Hull, who was born in Somer- 
setshire, England, about 1594, and was 
N Y-Vol iii-n 161 



rector of Northleigh, Devonshire, Eng- 
land, about fourteen years. With his wife, 
Agnes, he embarked for America in 1635, 
and shortly afterward became pastor of 
the church at Weymouth, Masachusetts. 
He was prominent in local affairs, and 
presided over several churches in Massa- 
chusetts, and subsequently, for nine years, 
at York, Maine. After ten years in Europe 
he became pastor at Dover, New Hamp- 
shire, where he died. He was the father 
of Captain Tristram Hull, born in Eng- 
land, in 1626, who joined the Society of 
Friends, and resided at Yarmouth and 
Barnstable, Massachusetts. His son, 
Joseph Hull, born at Barnstable, 1652, 
was governor's assistant in Rhode Island 
four years, and suffered much persecution 
because of his affiliation with the Friends, 
in which society he became a minister. 
His son, Tristram Hull, lived in Westerly, 
Rhode Island, and was the father of Ste- 
phen Hull, whose son, Latham Hull, died 
in North Stonington, Connecticut. His 
son, John W. Hull, resided in that town, 
and was a colonel of the local militia. He 
married Elizabeth Smith, of Waterford, 
Connecticut, and they were the parents of 
Eliza Smith Hull, born May 26, 1812, died 
April 21, 1875. She was married, Septem- 
ber 21, 1829, to John Hazard Browning, 
and became the mother of John Hull 
Browning, of further mention. 

John Hull Browning, youngest child of 
John Hazard and Eliza Smith (Hull) 
Browning, was born December 25, 1842, 
in Orange, New Jersey, where the family 
has been for some time established. After 
pursuing a course in the New York 
Academy, he embarked upon a business 
career in his twentieth year, entering the 
wholesale clothing firm of William C. 
Browning & Company, which business 
was very successful, and John H. Brown- 
ing ultimately became interested in vari- 
ous financial and business enterprises. 
Soon after 1883 he succeeded the late 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Charles G. Sisson as president of the 
Northern Railroad of New Jersey, which 
position he occupied twenty-two years. 
He was secretary and treasurer of the 
East & West Railroad of Alabama, and 
for twenty years was president of the 
Richmond County Gas Company, in what 
is now Greater New York. For some time 
he was treasurer of the Cherokee Iron 
Company of Cedartown, Georgia, and he 
was a director in the Citizens' National 
Bank of Englewood, New Jersey. Mr. 
Browning made his home in New York 
City, but maintained an attractive sum- 
mer home at Tenafly, New Jersey. He 
was deeply interested in organized char- 
itable work, both in New York and New 
Jersey, and in association with his wife 
erected a fresh air children's home at 
Tenafly. While he was essentially a busi- 
ness man, a director in many profitable 
enterprises, Mr. Browning always had 
time for a reasonable amount of recrea- 
tion, and devoted much thought and care 
to benevolent work in the interest of man- 
kind in general. He died suddenly in the 
Erie ferry-house at the foot of Chambers 
street, New York, October 26, 1914. He 
married, October 19, 1871, Eva B. Sisson, 
daughter of Charles Grandison and Mary 
Elizabeth (Garrabrant) Sisson. Mr. Sis- 
son was a projector, contractor and rail- 
road president, one of the most useful 
citizens of New Jersey during more than 
a quarter of a century's residence in that 
State. He was a grandson of William 
Sisson, one of five brothers, from Sois- 
sons, in Normandy, France, all of whom 
settled in Rhode Island, a majority of 
them participating in the American Revo- 
lution. One, Nathan Sisson, endured 
terrible hardships on board British prison 
ships in New York Harbor. Major Gilbert 
Sisson, son of William Sisson, was a 
native of North Stonington, Connecticut, 
where he was a merchant, and married 
Desire Maine, a woman of unusual talent, 



the seventh daughter of a large family, of 
French descent. They were the parents 
of Charles G. Sisson. Mr. and Mrs. John 
Hull Browning were the parents of a son, 
John Hull Browning, born October 6, 
1874. 



SEYMOUR, William H., 

Manufacturer, Inventor. 

The town of Brockport, Monroe county, 
New York, is justly noted for its manu- 
facturing interests, and not the least noted 
of these is the one with which the late 
William H. Seymour was connected for 
so many years, greatly to the advance- 
ment and development of the interests of 
the town. It is not often given to man to 
attain the age of more than a century, and 
to have had during the greater portion of 
his life an important place in the business 
life of the community, yet this was the 
case with Mr. Seymour, whose mental- 
ity was apparently unaffected and un- 
weakened almost to the last. The history 
of business in the United States is full of 
instances of men who, by dint of their 
peculiarly constructive ability as born 
leaders of men, have out of modest begin- 
nings built up colossal fortunes, and have 
put into operation enterprises that have 
furnished work to many others. These 
are generally men whose native resource- 
fulness and indomitable energy would in 
any circumstances inevitably have brought 
them into the leadership of civic growth 
and development. An invaluable example 
of a man of this type was the late Mr. 
Seymour. The admirable traits possessed 
by him were inherited from a long line of 
distinguished ancestry, the family being 
one of great antiquity in England, and 
among the earliest settlers in New Eng- 
land. 

Richard Seymour, the American pro- 
genitor of the family, was one of the early 
settlers of Hartford, Connecticut. The 



162 




Vr xs 



2 >v b %J~\*^^ 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



seal on the will of Thomas Seymour, 
eldest son of Richard Seymour, bears the 
impress of two wings conjoined in lure, 
the device of the English Seymours from 
the time of William de St. Maur of Pen- 
how. A "Bishop's Bible," printed in 1584, 
in the possession of Hon. Morris Wood- 
ruff Seymour, has on one of the fly-leaves 
a drawing of the arms of the Seymours of 
Berry Pomeroy, viz. : Two wings con- 
joined in lure, quartered with the Royal 
Arms as granted by Henry VIII. to Edward 
Seymour, Duke of Somerset, and the leg- 
end: "Richard Seymour, of Berry Pom- 
ery, heytor hund. in ye Com. Devon, his 
Booke, Hartford, in ye Collony of Con- 
necticut in Newe England, Annoque 
Domini 1640." Among the many distin- 
guished descendants of Richard Seymour 
may be mentioned: Major Moses Sey- 
mour, of Litchfield, a Revolutionary 
officer of distinction, and Sheriff Ozias 
Seymour, his son ; the Hon. Thomas 
Seymour, first mayor of Hartford; Cap- 
tain Thomas Youngs Seymour, a gallant 
soldier of the Revolutionary War; Gen- 
eral Truman Seymour, who served with 
distinction in the Mexican War ("Hero 
of Chapultepec") ; Thomas H. Seymour, 
grandson of Mayor Seymour, was United 
States minister to Russia, and governor 
of Connecticut ; Judge Origen Storrs 
Seymour, of Litchfield, chief justice of 
Connecticut, son of Sheriff Ozias Sey- 
mour; Hon. Edward W., Hon. Morris 
W. and Rev. Dr. Storrs O. Seymour, sons 
of Chief Justice Seymour; Hon. Henry 
Seymour, of Pompey, New York, one of 
the commissioners who built the first 
Erie Canal ; his son, Governor Horatio 
Seymour, of New York, and his sisters: 
Julia Chenevard Seymour, who married 
Roscoe Conkling, and Helen Clarissa 
Seymour, who married Ledyard Link- 
laen ; Major-General Truman Seymour, 
United States army; Hon. Horatio Sey- 
mour, for many years United States sen- 



ator from Vermont, and a great friend of 
Daniel Webster, who considered him the 
best lawyer in New England in his day; 
Rt. Rev. George Franklin Seymour, late 
Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Spring- 
field, Illinois; and the late Professor 
Thomas Day Seymour, of Yale. William 
H. Seymour's ancestors on both sides of 
the family have been noted for their lon- 
gevity for some generations. Major 
Moses Seymour, uncle of Mr. Seymour, 
was honored for gallant service in the 
War of the Revolution. 

John Seymour, born about 1640, son of 
Richard Seymour, the immigrant, married 
Mary, daughter of John and Margaret 
(Smith) Watson, and their eldest child 
was John Seymour, born June 12, 1666, in 
Norwalk. He was a distinguished man, 
member of the General Assembly, and 
held various town offices. He married, 
December 19, 1693, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Lieutenant Robert and Susanna (Treat) 
Webster, the latter a daughter of Hon. 
Richard Treat, of Wethersfield. Robert 
Webster was a son of Governor John 
Webster, of Connecticut. The seventh 
son of John (2) and Elizabeth (Webster) 
Seymour, was Moses Seymour, born Feb- 
ruary 17, 171 1, in Hartford, where he 
passed his life, and died September 24, 
1795. He married Rachel Goodwin, bap- 
tized January 22, 1716, in Hartford, died 
July 23, 1763, daughter of Nathaniel and 
Sarah (Coles) Goodwin, great-grand- 
daughter of Ozias Goodwin, ancestor of 
the large family of that name. Ozias 
Goodwin was born in 1596, in Essex 
county, England, and married there Mary, 
daughter of Robert Woodward, of Brain- 
tree, Essex. Ozias Goodwin's house, in 
February, 1640, was on the highway lead- 
ing from Seth Grant's to Centinal Hill, 
on what is now Trumbull street, near 
Church street, Hartford. Later he re- 
moved to the lot on the highway from the 
mill to the old ox pasture. He was one of 



163 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the company that signed an agreement, in 
1659, to remove to Hadley, Massachu- 
setts, but did not go. He died in the 
spring of 1683. His second son, Nathaniel 
Goodwin, born about 1637, was admitted 
freeman in 1662, and was one of the 
townsmen of Hartford in 1682. He mar- 
ried (first) Sarah Coles, of Hatfield, Mas- 
sachusetts, formerly of Farmington, Con- 
necticut. Their eldest child was Na- 
thaniel Goodwin, born July, 1665, ensign 
of the North Company, of Hartford, 
weaver by occupation, died March 12, 
1746. He married (second) September 
14, 1699, Sarah, daughter of John Easton, 
born November 15, 1675, died January 2, 
1740. One of their fourteen children was 
Rachel Goodwin, wife of Moses Seymour. 
She was the mother of Major Moses and 
Captain Samuel Seymour, of the Revolu- 
tionary War. 

Captain Samuel Seymour, son of Moses 
and Rachel (Goodwin) Seymour, was 
born January 21, 1754, in Hartford, and 
died November 14, 1837, at Lichfield, Con- 
necticut. After the Revolution he settled 
at Litchfield, where he was associated 
with his brother, Major Moses Seymour, 
in the manufacture of hats. He married, 
in Litchfield, June 20, 1788, Rebecca 
Osborn, born October 11, 1763, died July 
17, 1843, daughter of John and Lois 
(Peck) Osborn. They had children: Har- 
riet, born March 24, 1789; James, April 
20, 1791; Charles, March 13, 1793; a son, 
born March 13, died September 30, 1794, 
unnamed ; Clarissa, January 23, 1800 ; and 
William H., mentioned below. 

William H. Seymour was born in Litch- 
field, Connecticut, July 15, 1802, and died 
at Brockport, New York, October 6, 1903, 
having lived for almost one hundred and 
one and a quarter years. Until the age of 
sixteen years he lived in his native town, 
and there acquired his education, and the 
commencement of his business training. 
He then went to Clarkson, Genesee 



county, New York, to become a clerk in 
the store which had been established there 
by his brother, James. The business was 
removed to Brockport, in 1823, and after 
James Seymour, who was the first sheriff 
of Monroe county, had removed to Roch- 
ester, William H. Seymour remained as 
proprietor of the store at Brockport, a 
general mercantile establishment, and to 
it added the purchase and shipment of 
grain. During the administration of 
President Jackson, the post office was 
located in his store and he had charge of 
it. The manifold duties of these combined 
enterprises requiring expert assistance, 
Mr. Seymour had at various times as 
partners, Joseph Ganson and then Hol- 
lister Lathrop. D. S. Morgan was ad- 
mited to partnership prior to 1844, and 
about one year after the association with 
Mr. Morgan was formed, these two 
gentlemen and Thomas Roby, a brother- 
in-law of Mr. Seymour, established a 
foundry for the manufacture of stoves 
and other castings. This was the nucleus 
of a business which later achieved inter- 
national reputation. In 1847, while still 
a member of the firm, Mr. Roby died, and 
the business was then carried on by Mr. 
Seymour and Mr. Morgan. Since the 
beginning of the nineteenth century reap- 
ing machines had been manufactured in 
a desultory fashion, but there had been no 
regular production of this intensely useful 
and practical machine until 1846, when 
the first one hundred machines of this 
kind were constructed by Seymour, Mor- 
gan & Company for Cyrus H. McCor- 
mick. Shortly before this time Mr. Sey- 
mour had been told that when Mr. Mc- 
Cormick was in Washington getting a 
patent on the seat on his machines, he 
was informed by D. Burroughs that his 
brother-in-law, Mr. Backus, of Backus, 
Fitch & Company, of Brockport, would 
most likely manufacture his reaper for 
him. In the preceding fall, he also 
64 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



learned Mr. McCormick had brought his be necessary in the manufacture of self- 



reaper to Backus, Fitch & Company and 
had it tried in cutting wheat. It had no 
seat for the raker, who walked behind 
and raked off the sheaf. In the succeed- 
ing winter Mr. McCormick brought his 
patterns for castings to Backus, Fitch & 
Company, but as they could only make 
a small number he called on Seymour, 
Morgan & Company, then engaged in the 
manufacture of stoves, and they agreed 
to make for the harvest of 1846 one hun- 
dred of these reapers, which had a seat 
for the raker. Mr. Jenner made the 
patterns for the castings, Mr. McCormick 
directing in the construction of his first 
machine, as he brought no machine to 
the firm to serve as a pattern. During 
the next year they made two hundred 
reapers for Mr. McCormick, but feeling 
that they could not agree to pay his 
patent fee of thirty dollars on each ma- 
chine, they subsequently began the manu- 
facture of a reaper brought out by George 
F. Barnett, which they believed did not 
infringe on Mr. Cormick's patent. They 
built three hundred that year and were 
sued by Mr. McCormick, so they aban- 
doned that invention and commenced the 
manufacture of reapers after plans per- 
fected by Mr. Seymour, the new machine 
being know as The New Yorker. Mr. 
Seymour obtained a patent on this and 
had manufactured five hundred of them 
when he was restrained by an injunction 
granted to Mr. McCormick by Judge 
Nelson, of the United States Court, Mr. 
McCormick contesting the right of any 
other manufacturer to place reapers upon 
the market. However, it is an indisputa- 
ble fact that the firm of Seymour, Morgan 
& Company was the first to manufacture 
reapers reguarly in this country. In Feb- 
ruary, 1857, Mr. Seymour disposed of his 
interests in his patents on his reaper, yet 
reserved his rights as far as they might 



raking reapers, to D. S. Morgan for his 
interest in a farm in Hamlin. Until 1875 
he remained at the head of the iron 
foundry enterprise, then withdrew and 
devoted his time and attention to the 
manufacture and sale of lumber, in asso- 
ciation with his son Henry W., until 1882, 
when he withdrew from all active share 
in business enterprises. 

From that time he lived retired at 
Brockport, the only interruptions being 
occasional journeys with one or the other 
of his children. In 1883, accompanied by 
his children, he traveled for a period of 
five months, the countries visited being 
Great Britain, Germany, Italy and France. 
In 1888 he paid another visit to England, 
this time in the company of a daughter 
and son-in-law. In 1893 ne spent a con- 
siderable time at the World's Exposition 
at Chicago, but after 1895 he preferred 
the quiet and rest of his own home, and 
no longer took any trips of note. In 
recognition of the importance of his work 
in establishing one of the great industries 
of this country, the National Association 
of Agricultural Implement and Vehicle 
Manufacturers elected him as an honorary 
member of their organization in 1900. 
Upon the occasion of the one hundredth 
anniversary of his birth the whole town 
of Brockport made holiday. The church 
bells pealed a greeting in strokes of ten 
from each tower thus numbering the hun- 
dred years ; the flag was raised on the 
town hall in his honor, and neighbors and 
friends decorated their homes in honor of 
the event ; friends came from far and near 
to offer their heartfelt congratulations, 
and a delegation was sent from his native 
town, Litchfield, which he had been in the 
habit of visiting from time to time. A 
century plant was one of the choice and 
appropriate gifts among the many which 
were tendered, and a centerpiece for the 



165 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



table was composed of one hundred Sweet 
Williams, bordered with Rosemary "for 
remembrance." At the reception held in 
the afternoon all classes and all ages were 
represented, for during his long and use- 
ful life he had ever had a warm heart for 
the poor, the infirm and for children, and 
all were accounted his friends. One of 
his old workmen said on that occasion: 
"I worked for you steady, Sir, for forty 
years, and I always got my pay;" while 
a friend and neighbor said: "In all the 
years Mr. Seymour has lived here no one 
ever could say a word against him. His 
name stood for absolute integrity." A 
remarkable feature was the trustworthi- 
ness of the memory of Mr. Seymour. Al- 
though he was but ten years of age at 
the time of the outbreak of the War of 
1812, he remembered incidents and scenes 
of that time vividly, and his powers of 
description made his reminiscences very 
entertaining. For many years he had 
spent considerable time in reading, and 
his apt and correct quotations aroused 
the comments of all who heard him. 
Billiards and whist were also favorite 
forms of entertainment with Mr. Sey- 
mour. 

Mr. Seymour married, April 16, 1833, 
Narcissa Pixley, of Columbia county, 
New York, and of their five children, the 
following named attained maturity: Hon. 
Henry W., who died in Washington, Dis- 
trict of Columbia, leaving a widow and 
one daughter, Helen ; Helen, who mar- 
ried W. B. Sylvester; James H., unmar- 
ried, whose home is at Sault de Sainte 
Marie, Michigan. Mr. Seymour kept fully 
abreast of the times and in touch with 
the best thoughts of the day, down to his 
latest years. To whatever he undertook 
he gave his whole attention, and he was 
a loyal friend and a genial, kindly gentle- 



JUDSON, Edward B., Hon., 

Authority on Banking Matters. 

To acquire distinction or great pros- 
perity in the business pursuits which give 
to the country its financial strength and 
credit requires ability of the highest order. 
This fact is apparent to all who tread the 
busy thoroughfares of the business world. 
Ordinarily merit may attain a respectable 
position and enjoy a moderate compe- 
tence, but to rise to one of the first places 
of monetary credit and power can only be 
the fortune of a rarely gifted personage. 
Eminent business talent is a combination 
of high mental and moral attributes. It is 
not simple energy and industry; there 
must be sound judgment, breadth of ca- 
pacity, rapidity of thought, justice and 
firmness, the foresight to perceive the 
course of the drifting tides of business 
and the will and ability to control them, 
and, withal, a collection of minor but im- 
portant qualities to regulate the details of 
the pursuits which engage attention. The 
subject of this memoir, the Hon. Edward 
B. Judson, late of Syracuse, affords an 
exemplificaton of this talent and in the 
theater of his operations he achieved a 
reputation which placed him among the 
first of the distinguished business men of 
New York State. 

Hon. Edward B. Judson, of Connecticut 
parentage and old New England ancestry, 
was born in Coxsackie, New York, Janu- 
ary 11, 1813, and died at his home in Syra- 
cuse, New York, January 15, 1902. He 
had celebrated his eighty-ninth birthday 
the Saturday prior to his death, and the 
day before his death was at his desk in 
the bank, which he had served so faith- 
fully as its president for almost thirty- 
nine years. His education was an excel- 
lent one, both in his refined home and in 
the schools which he attended, and he be- 
came well equipped for the active busi- 



[66 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ness of life. His first position in business 
life was as a clerk in the banking house 
of his uncle, Ralph Barker, in Coxsackie, 
and there he gained the valuable experi- 
ence which so well fitted him to cope with 
the responsibilities of his later life. About 
the year 1835 he decided to establish him- 
self in business independently, and ac- 
cordingly associated himself with his 
brother, W. A. Judson, in the manufac- 
ture of lumber at Constantia, Oswego 
county, New York ; later they conducted 
a lumber commission business in Albany, 
New York, for a period of twenty years. 
This one interest was not, however, suf- 
ficient for the energy and ambition of Mr. 
Judson, so that he also engaged in the 
manufacture of iron at Constantia, and 
while he was a resident of that town, at 
the age of twenty-six years, represented 
his district in the General Assembly dur- 
ing the sessions of 1839-41, the commu- 
nity having honored him with election to 
this office, and during his incumbency of 
it he served as chairman of the committee 
on cities and villages and the State Luna- 
tic Asylum. 

In 1849 Mr. Judson took up his resi- 
dence in the city of Syracuse, and from 
that time until his death that city felt the 
beneficial influence of his varied activities. 
He had been living in it but a year 
when he became one of the organizers 
and the first vice-president of the Mer- 
chants' Bank, and was ever afterward an 
authority in banking matters. When the 
Salt Spring Bank was organized in 1852, 
Mr. Judson was elected a member of its 
first board of directors, was the first 
cashier of the institution, and was actively 
identified with its control until 1857. In 
that year he resigned from these respon- 
sibilities in order to lend his assistance to 
the organization of the Lake Ontario 
Bank of Oswego, of which he became 
cashier and chief executive officer. This 
institution was remarkable for the char- 



acter and high position of its stockholders, 
among whom were: John A. Stevens, 
president; C. H. Russell, vice-president; 
Henry F. Vail, cashier of the Bank of 
Commerce, New York City; Erastus 
Corning and H. H. Martin, president and 
cashier of the Albany City Bank; Rufus 
H. King and J. H. Van Antwerp, presi- 
dent and cashier of the State Bank of 
Albany; J. B. Plumb, president of the 
Bank of Interior, Albany; Hamilton 
White, Horace White, John D. Norton 
and Thomas B. Fitch, presidents respec- 
tively of the Onondaga County Bank, 
the Bank of Syracuse, the Merchants' 
Bank and the Mechanics' Bank, all of 
Syracuse ; G. B. Rich, president of the 
Bank of Attica, Buffalo; Luther Wright, 
president of Luther Wright's Bank, 
Oswego; and Thurlow Weed, John 
L. Schoolcraft, David Hamilton, John 
Knower, Frederick T. Carrington, George 
Geddes and William A. Judson. 

In 1863, during the troublous times of 
the Civil War, Mr. Judson was called to 
Washington by the Hon. Salmon P. 
Chase, then secretary of the treasury, 
who sought his counsel as to what might 
be best accomplished in making necessary 
changes and regulations in the banking 
laws of the country. When Mr. Judson 
returned to Syracuse, at the request of 
Mr. Chase, he organized the First Na- 
tional Bank of Syracuse, which is re- 
corded as No. 6 in the archives at Wash- 
ington. So safe and conservative was the 
policy on which this institution was or- 
ganized that it remained firm and stead- 
fast during financial panics which innu- 
merable other banks were unable to with- 
stand. Mr. Judson was chosen chairman 
of the executive committee of the Na- 
tional Banking Association in 1864, and 
was the incumbent of this office eleven 
consecutive years ; he was one of the first 
two vice-presidents of the Trust and De- 
posit Company of Onondaga, a corpora- 



167 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



tion founded in 1869. He was one of the 
organizers of the Metropolitan Trust 
Company of New York City, and became 
a member of its first board of trustees. 
He was one of the organizers of the 
American Express Company, and was a 
member of its board of directors and of 
its finance committee until his son, Ed- 
ward B. Judson, Jr., took his place about 
the year 1890. He was actively connected 
with a number of other business enter- 
prises of equal importance, one of which 
was the Syracuse Glass Company, of 
which he was president for a time, and 
with which he was connected for a period 
of eighteen years. Another field of his 
activity was in railroad matters. He was 
one of the incorporators in 1870, and be- 
came the first treasurer of the Syracuse 
Northern Railroad Company; for some 
years was a member of the board of di- 
rectors of the Syracuse & Oswego Rail- 
road Company, and for a time was a 
member of the directorates of the New 
York Central Railroad Company and the 
Bank of Syracuse. He assisted in the 
organization of the Salt Springs Solar 
Coarse Salt Company, and was one of its 
directors from that time until his death. 
He gave his consistent and unvarying 
support to the Republican party, but was 
never desirous, after coming to Syracuse, 
of holding public office; the only excep- 
tion he made to this rule was in 1868, 
when he allowed his name to be used as 
a nominee for the office of presidential 
elector. Charitable and philanthropic to 
a degree, Mr. Judson was identified with 
every project in the city which had for its 
object the assistance of those less fortu- 
nately circumstanced. He was a trustee 
of the Old Ladies' Home, and treasurer 
of St. Joseph's Hospital. His religious 
affiliation was with the May Memorial 
Church, in which he served as president 
of the board of trustees. As a trustee 
and vice-president of Wells College, at 



Aurora, New York, he greatly furthered 
the interests of that institution, and he 
held official position in a number of other 
organizations. 

Mr. Judson married, October 15, 1846, 
Sarah Williams, a daughter of Codding- 
ton B. Williams, of Syracuse. They had 
only one child who lived beyond infancy, 
Edward B., of whom further. 

Edward B. Judson, Jr., was born in 
Syracuse, New York, December 21, 1854, 
died in that city, January 16, 1910, from 
an attack of pneumonia after an illness 
of but two days. As a youth he attended 
the school conducted by Dr. Isaac Bridg- 
man, in Syracuse, and after being gradu- 
ated from this institution of learning, en- 
tered the employ of the Syracuse Glass 
Company, of which his father was presi- 
dent. Three years later he became the 
senior partner in the firm of Judson & 
Ryder, engaged in the manufacture of 
matches, in West Water street. When 
they sold this concern to the Diamond 
Match Company Mr. Judson became asso- 
ciated with his father in the Salt Springs 
Solar Coarse Salt Company, and also de- 
voted a portion of his time and attention 
to the building of the Grape Street Car 
Line, which was being constructed by the 
Seventh and Eleventh Ward Railroad 
Company. Mr. Judson was elected a 
member of the board of directors of the 
First National Bank in 1881, and upon 
the retirement of Mr. John Crouse in 
1888, was elected to the vice-presidency, 
and thereafter devoted the greater part of 
his time to the interests of the bank, and 
upon the death of his father in 1902, he 
succeeded to the presidency of this insti- 
tution. He was also from 1890 to the 
time of his death a member of the board 
of directors of the American Express 
Company and of the Metropolitan Trust 
Company of New York. In addition to 
this position he was, at the time of his 
sudden death, president of the Onondaga 



n,S 




ARTHUR JENKINS 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Pottery Company and the Salt Springs 
Solar Coarse Salt Company, and vice- 
president of Pass & Seymour. During 
the twenty-nine years that Mr. Judson 
was identified with the First National 
Bank of Syracuse he had come to be 
widely recognized as a sound, progressive 
banker, a business man of unswerving in- 
tegrity, good judgment and enterprising 
spirit, and, like his father, as generous as 
he was modest in his benefactions. 

Mr. Judson married, May 27, 1886, Har- 
riet, daughter of Rev. Joachim Elmendorf, 
D. D., and Sarah Bull, his wife, and they 
were the parents of one child, Esther 
Judson, who married, February 8, 191 1, 
James Douglas Morgan, M. D., of Mon- 
treal, Canada. 



JENKINS, Arthur, 

Prominent in Journalistic Work. 

Not too often can be repeated the life 
history of one who lived so honorable and 
useful a life and who attained to such dis- 
tinction as did the late Arthur Jenkins, 
president and general manager of "The 
Syracuse Herald," Syracuse, New York. 
His character was one of signal strength 
of purpose and lofty aim. To him noth- 
ing was hard or impossible. Well dis- 
ciplined in mind, maintaining a vantage 
point from which life presented itself in 
correct proportions, judicial in his attitude 
toward both men and measures, guided 
and guarded by the most inviolable prin- 
ciples of integrity and honesty, simple and 
unostentatious in his self-respecting and 
tolerant individuality, such a man could 
not prove other than a force for good in 
whatever relation of life he might have 
been placed. His character was the posi- 
tive expression of a strong nature and 
his strength was as his number of days. 
The record of his life finds a place in the 
generic history of the State, and in this 
compilation it is necessary only to note 



briefly the salient points of his life's his- 
tory. It is useless to add that both the 
community and the State were honored 
by his active life and splendid achieve- 
ments, and that he stood as an honored 
member of a group of men whose in- 
fluence in civil and economic affairs was of 
a most beneficent order. 

David Jenkins, father of Arthur Jen- 
kins, came from Coventry, England, in 
the early part of the decade beginning 
with the year 1840. He married Emma 
Brearley, an English girl, then living in 
Canada. 

Arthur Jenkins was born in Buffalo, 
New York, in 185 1, and died at West 
Baden, Indiana, November 8, 1903, in the 
prime of life. He was a very young child 
when his family removed to Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin, and in the public schools of 
that city he was educated until he had 
reached the age of fourteen years. This 
brief education was, however, supple- 
mented throughout his life by unusually 
keen powers of observation and a remark- 
ably retentive memory. His first business 
position was that of messenger for a firm 
of commission merchants in Milwaukee, 
but the ambitious lad was not satisfied 
with a position of this kind, and it was 
not long before he became identified in a 
business capacity with the First National 
Bank of Milwaukee, a position he left in 
order to enter the employ of the whole- 
sale drug house of Bosworth & Sons. He 
was but little more than sixteen years of 
age when he entered into the profession 
with which he was so successfully identi- 
fied until his early death. He obtained a 
position in the press room of Starr & 
Sons, Printers, and felt then that he had 
formed a connection with what was to be- 
come his life work. It was not long be- 
fore he found employment in the com- 
posing room of "The Milwaukee Daily 
News," and there he not only completed 
his training as a practical printer, but 



169 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



gained an insight into the details con- 
nected with newspaper work. For several 
years Mr. Jenkins then worked as a jour- 
neyman printer, but as he was very desir- 
ous of seeing something of the world, he 
followed his chosen vocation in various 
places, and in the course of following this 
mode of life was employed at Chicago, 
Illinois ; Madison, Wisconsin ; and work- 
ed his way through Illinois and the Ohio 
Valley to Pittsburgh, and the oil regions, 
finally locating in Syracuse, New York, 
early in the year 1871. Although so 
young, he had so well utilized his time 
that the desire for change and novelty 
had worn off, and he felt ready to make a 
permanent home for himself. This he 
proceeded to do in Syracuse, where he 
was engaged for some years in journal- 
istic work, notably with the editorial end 
and also with the managerial department 
of a newspaper, and having made many 
friends, felt emboldened to establish him- 
self independently in the newspaper world. 
January 15, 1877, saw the practical com- 
mencement of this plan, in the first issue 
of "The Evening Herald," which, as Mr. 
Jenkins was destitute of capital, but de- 
termined in purpose, he borrowed on 
mortgage and the newspaper was begun 
with the sum of two hundred and sixty- 
five dollars. So successful was the begin- 
ning of this enterprise that in June of 
the following year Mr. Jenkins organized 
the Herald Company, of which he became 
the president and general manager. Bold 
though this step appeared to be, proofs 
were soon forthcoming that it had not 
been a rash one, for the sound business 
judgment and strong executive ability of 
Mr. Jenkins overcame all difficulties and 
placed the enterprise on a firm basis from 
the start. The course of "The Evening 
Herald" has been a steadily upward one, 
and it is the leading daily newspaper of 
Syracuse and Central New York and is an 



invaluable power in molding the public 
opinion of Middle New York. So popular 
did it become that in May, 1880, a Sun- 
day edition of the paper was commenced, 
which has met with as continuous a 
support as that accorded to the evening 
edition. 

Endowed with foresight of a remark- 
ably high order, Mr. Jenkins was one of 
the first to recognize the benefits to be 
achieved by newspaper publishers from 
cooperative action. Consulting with 
others in the same line of endeavor, Mr. 
Jenkins was one of the charter members 
of the National Associated Press, organ- 
ized in 1878, and was chosen as a member 
of the board of directors. Continuing his 
activities in the same direction, he be- 
came one of the chief organizers of The 
United Press, was a member of its board 
of directors, and served as its business 
manager during a part of the year 1882. 
He was also the chief organizer of the 
present Associated Press, as he was the 
one to suggest the idea of its formation. 

The entire career of Mr. Jenkins was 
one to excite the admiration and commen- 
dation of those familiar with his history, 
for by a straightforward and commend- 
able course he had made his way from a 
somewhat humble environment to an ex- 
alted position in the business world, win- 
ning the hearty admiration of the people 
of his adopted city and earning a reputa- 
tion as an enterprising, progressive man 
of affairs and a broad-minded, charitable 
and upright citizen, which the public was 
not slow to recognize and appreciate. He 
was one of those solid men of brain and 
substance so essential to the material 
growth and prosperity of a community, 
and one whose influence was willingly 
extended in behalf of every deserving en- 
terprise that had for its object the ad- 
vancement of the best interests of the 
community. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ELY, Samuel Mills, 

Highly Useful Citizen. 

Although he was of Connecticut birth, 
the long and useful life of Samuel Mills 
Ely from its fifteenth year was spent in 
Binghamton, New York, where he built 
up one of the important wholesale houses 
of the city and won enviable reputation 
as a man of the highest standing and 
righteous life. To those of his day and 
generation, his memory is fresh and fra- 
grant, to those who follow him his life 
is an example worthy of emulation. His 
life was an open book to be read by all 
men, modesty and simplicity marking its 
daily course. His thoughtfulness, be- 
nevolence and generosity were ever dis- 
played in his intercourse with his fellow- 
men. In the church he was a ceaseless 
worker and his interest continued until 
his last hours. He gave wisely, his giving 
covering a wide field. He was a success- 
ful business man, citizen, and a loyal 
friend. He did not use tobacco in any 
form, believing it injurious to health and 
a habit to be avoided ; therefore he barred 
it from his store, although he was a 
wholesale grocer, and tobacco was a large 
item in such a business. 

Samuel Mills Ely was born in Chester, 
Connecticut, at the Ely homestead, Octo- 
ber 24, 1837, son of Richard and Mary 
Caroline (Buck) Ely, who were married 
in Rome, New York, September 12, 1829. 
His sister, Mary C. Ely, now resides in the 
Ely homestead at Chester, Connecticut. 
Their father, Richard Ely, was born in 
Essex, Connecticut, August 6, 1798, fol- 
lowed the occupation of farming, and held 
various town offices. His wife was born 
May 5, 1799. The forebears of the Ely 
family were from England and were early 
settlers of Lyme, Connecticut, and the 
history of the family is one of honor and 
usefulness. 

Samuel Mills Ely attended private 



schools in Chester and later a grammar 
school at Deep River, Connecticut. His 
entire business life was spent in Bing- 
hamton, New York, where he began his 
active career in the employ of his uncle, 
Hon. Charles McKinney. In 1865 he 
formed a partnership with S. & E. P. Mc- 
Kinney in the grocery business in Bing- 
hamton. In 1873 he withdrew and estab- 
lished the wholesale grocery and import- 
ing house of S. Mills Ely & Company, of 
which he was president at the time of his 
death. In 1876 he formed a partnership 
with E. F. Leighton that continued un- 
broken for thirty-two years, terminating 
on Mr. Leighton's death in 1908. Their 
business was very prosperous and was 
conducted according to the highest stand- 
ards of fair dealing. Mr. Ely organized 
with Roswell J. Bump and Mr. Leighton, 
the Binghamton Chair Company, one of 
Binghamton's most successful manufac- 
turing corporations. He was a member 
of the Board of Education of Bingham- 
ton, of Binghamton Club, and of the 
First Presbyterian Church of Bingham- 
ton, in which he was an office holder for 
many years, up to the time of his death, 
which occurred in Binghamton, May 5, 
1909. Over half a century had been spent 
in good works and in all that time there 
were few movements tending to the ex- 
pansion or moral unlift of his adopted city 
that he did not heartily lead in and sup- 
port. Consistent in all things, his home 
life, his business affairs and his church 
life were ordered along the same lines of 
uprightness, he never sanctioned or en- 
gaged in any business deal not in accord- 
ance with his religious convictions. No 
greater work in the name of charity was 
ever carried on by a private individual in 
Binghamton. If he had a greater interest 
in one form of benevolence over another, 
it was in the Fresh Air Movement and the 
Humane Society, but the Presbyterian 
church and the Young Men's Christian 



171 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Association also found in him a friend 
that never failed. He gave a library- 
building to Chester, Connecticut, in mem- 
ory of his father and mother. His sum- 
mer home on Mt. Prospect, Binghamton, 
he gave to the city for a public park prior 
to his death, which beautiful park bears 
his name, and although he did not live to 
see the realization of his dream for a com- 
plete park system, his generosity and 
public spirit will inspire those who follow 
him. 

Mr. Ely married at Binghamton, New 
York, October 10, 1867, Mary Hart Haw- 
ley, of Binghamton, daughter of Elias 
and Adaline Hawley. They had one son 
and one daughter: Richard Hawley Ely, 
born July 29, 1868, died October 8, 1869. 
Clara May Ely, born December 19, 1876, 
lives in Binghamton, and was one of the 
executors of Mr. Ely's estate, with Mr. 
John R. Clements, general manager of S. 
Mills Ely Company. 

In his last will and testament, one of 
the most public-spirited documents and 
one of the finest examples of practical be- 
nevolence ever probated in the county, Mr. 
Ely remembered nearly every public char- 
ity in his city and left to the First Presby- 
terian Church trust funds for carrying on 
two benevolent enterprises, the care for 
the poor of Binghamton and home mis- 
sionary work among the foreign-born ele- 
ment of the city. The following other 
institutions, remembered generously in 
his will, indicate the wide extent of his 
interest : Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation, Young Women's Christian As- 
sociation, Susquehanna Valley Home, 
Binghamton City Hospital, Broome 
County Humane Society, Home for Aged 
Women, all of Binghamton ; Robert Hun- 
gerford Institute of Eatonville, Flordia ; 
Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, 
Presbyterian Board of Home Missions, 
Auburn Theological Seminary. Not the 
least praiseworthy feature of Mr. Ely's 



will was the generosity with which he 
remembered his employees. His recom- 
mendation that they take the value of 
their bequests in stock of the business he 
developed from a small beginning into a 
strong enterprise was another thought 
for the future that deserves recognition. 
To weld his employees thus into one com- 
mercial whole demonstrates his practical 
wisdom. When, at the age of seventy- 
two years he died, he left behind the 
record of a life unsullied by any unworthy 
deed. 



POTTER, Alfred Benedict, 

Public Benefactor. 

The record of the life of Alfred Bene- 
dict Potter, late of Fairport, New York, 
is in the main uneventful as far as stir- 
ring incidents or startling adventures are 
concerned, yet it was distinguished by 
the most substantial qualities of char- 
acter. His life history exhibits a career 
of unswerving integrity, indefatigable 
private industry, and wholesome home 
and social relations — a most commend- 
able career crowned with success. It is 
the record of a well balanced mental and 
moral makeup, strongly marked by those 
traits of character which are of special 
value in such a state of society as exists 
in this country. A community depends 
upon business activity. Its welfare is due 
to this, and its promoters of legitimate 
enterprises may well be termed its bene- 
factors. Such a man was Alfred B. Pot- 
ter. He belonged to a family which is one 
of the most ancient and numerous in 
America. No less than eleven different 
immigrants of the name came to New 
England during the seventeenth century. 
So far as is known none of these immi- 
grants was related to any other. The 
family has included many noted ecclesi- 
astics and other professional men, as well 
as men eminent in statesmanship and 
72 




C^CZ^/^ — :> 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



other walks of life. The name is sup- 
posed to be of French origin. 

Alfred Benedict Potter, youngest son 
of the late Henry S. Potter, of Pittsford 
and Rochester, New York, was born in 
Pittsford, February 16, 1833, and died at 
his home in Potter place, Fairport, New 
York, August 11, 1896. He was still a 
young lad when his parents removed with 
their family to Rochester, and there he 
lived until his marriage, when he removed 
to Fairport, which remained his place of 
residence until his lamented death. A 
memorial tablet to his memory has been 
placed in the Methodist Episcopal church 
and is a fitting and appropriate remem- 
brance of his quiet, noble life. Mr. Pot- 
ter married, in 1864, Hulda A. Thayer, 
of Lakeside, New York, a woman of un- 
usual qualities of mind and heart, and 
possessed of those graces which com- 
mend her to the love and kindly regard 
of all who know her. Mr. and Mrs. Pot- 
ter had children: Mrs. Alice Potter 
Howard, of Rochester; Bertha L. ; Mrs. 
Frank D. Rusling, of Indianapolis, Indi- 
ana; and Frederick T., of Fairport. Mr. 
Potter was essentially a home man, and 
although very busy all the time, he never 
permitted other things to detract his 
attention from home, where he found his 
greatest enjoyment. At the time of his 
death it was repeatedly said: "Fairport 
has lost a man she could ill afford to 
lose," and among those with whom he 
had been associated there came a deep 
sense of personal bereavement, for he 
was a man who tied other men to him by 
the strongest cords of respect, confidence 
and friendship. It was a great privilege 
to have enjoyed his friendship, and even 
his companionship, for he was an inspira- 
tion to others, and his influence on those 
with whom he came in contact was 
always uplifting. He held to a high stand- 
ard of business ethics and had no use for 
trickery or anything savoring of dishon- 



esty. Painstaking and thorough in every- 
thing he did, he demanded of others that 
their work should be well done, and he 
never deviated from this high standard 
for himself and others. This fundamental 
element of his character probably had as 
much to do with his success as anything 
else, for it commanded the respect and 
confidence of the business world. He was 
an active factor in all church work, much 
of his time and influence being used in 
that direction. Personally, he was genial 
and unassuming, and he enjoyed a wide 
circle of friends. 



MERRELL, Gaius Lewis, 

Manufacturer, Representative Citizen. 

To record simply the happy fulfillment of hon- 
orable ambition, suggests more adequately than 
anything else the final estimate of Mr. Merrell's 
character. His life was guided by high conceptions 
of personal honor and he exemplified through 
many years their actual realization both in the 
active world of business and the intimate life of 
his home. His controlling motives were single 
in purpose. Though his business career began 
modestly it rested from its inception upon the 
basic principle of fair dealing, whether in open 
cooperation or friendly competition with others. 

Forty years of successful and honorable busi- 
ness bear their own faithful witness. To have 
established a reputation unquestioned for honor- 
able dealing and financial trustworthiness is to 
accomplish the utmost possible. This Mr. Merrell 
and his associates did. The corporation bearing 
his name to-day is rated second to none for its 
high reputation. The splendid standing of such a 
corporation means ultimately the steadfast honor 
and moral probity of its founders. 

Mr. Merrell was a man who wove the fabric of 
his life out of a clear conscience. He followed 
patiently and undeviatingly the clear path laid down 
by his ideals of honor. In his presence and in his 
practice right and wrong parted company. To 
know him intimately in his home life was a privi- 
lege shared by few. There his genuineness ex- 
pressed itself most completely. He was faithful 
and affectionate to the utmost to her who shared 
his life and upon those who bear his name he has 
bestowed an inheritance passing the accumulated 
fortune of a successful business career. 



173 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



As a man of quiet tastes Mr. Merrell sur- 
rounded himself with modest enjoyments. His 
sympathies were broadly expressed and his gener- 
ous nature knew no bounds. His active interest 
in large matters of public welfare was no less 
known than his sustaining participation in all 
humane and philanthropic work. For many years 
he found satisfaction in the faith of the Unitarian 
church and embodied in his life the fundamental 
spirit of its teachings. 

Those who admire simplicity find satisfaction in 
his character. Upon his city and his business he 
conferred distinction; upon his family and his 
friends he bestowed the strength and charm of a 
well rounded life. Though passed away, he still 
lives as a potent influence for all that is good in 
the memory and life of his loved ones and his 
friends. — Rev. Albert Willard Clark. 

Gaius Lewis Merrell was born in 
Greene, New York, May 14, 1843, died in 
Syracuse, New York, February 7, 1909. 
He was the son of Oliver Dunbar Merrell, 
and a descendant of Nathaniel Merrell, 
who came from England in 1634 and set- 
tled in Newbury, Massachusetts. 

When a youth of sixteen years he came 
to Syracuse and from the year of his 
coming (1859) that city was his home and 
the scene of his activity. His first posi- 
tion was with Bowen's Grocery and Can- 
ning Establishment and there he gained 
an intimate knowledge of a business that 
he was destined to follow with such 
marked success. In 1869 he formed a 
partnership with Oscar F. Soule and 
began the manufacture of canned goods 
under the firm name of Merrell & Soule. 
At that time all canning was done by 
hand, a slow and expensive method that 
did not commend itself to Mr. Merrell's 
business ideas. After a great deal of 
experiment he finally perfected the proc- 
ess of canning now in use in large plants 
and is also the inventor of many of the 
machines now used in the canning of 
vegetables. The business prospered and 
was conducted under the original firm 
name for several years. After the admis- 
sion of Frank C. Soule this was changed 



and the partnership became the Merrell- 
Soule Company. With this change and 
addition to the managing heads, other 
lines were added and food products of 
many kinds became important lines in 
the company's output. After incorpora- 
tion the large plant on the salt reserva- 
tion was erected and with the constant 
additions and improvements that have 
been made is one of the best equipped 
and modernly conducted plants in the 
State. 

Mr. Merrell continued as executive 
head of the Merrell-Soule Company until 
his death, guiding its affairs with wisdom 
and in accord with his own progressive 
ideas. He had few interests in the busi- 
ness world outside his own company but 
aided in all the movements tending to 
promote the welfare of Syracuse and her 
institutions. He was an active member 
of the Chamber of Commerce and at one 
time served as its vice-president. He was 
a member of the Historical Association 
and of the patriotic societies to which the 
military service and early colonial records 
of his ancestors entitled him, membership. 

Mr. Merrell married, January 28, 1874, 
Mary A., daughter of Dr. Stephen and 
Dolly Ann (Smith) Seward, who died 
November 3, 191 1. The children : Irving 
Seward, born October 12, 1875 ; Lewis 
Charles, born October 25, 1877; Oliver 
Edward, born March 12, 1880; all resid- 
ing in Syracuse ; and Arthur Howard, 
born June 17, 1886, died January 21, 1887. 



CLARK, Bracket! H., 

Prominent in Kodak Industry. 

History is no longer a record of wars, 
conquests and strife between man and 
man as in former years, but is the account 
of business and intellectual development, 
and the real upbuilders of a community 
are they who found and conduct success- 
ful commercial and industrial interests. 
74 




^H^S^. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



In this connection Brackett H. Clark was 
widely known, being one of the directors 
and secretary of the Eastman Kodak 
Company from its organization in 1884 
until his death. He was also financially 
connected with the Clark Paint & Oil 
Company, but not active in its manage- 
ment. 

Mr. Clark was born in Salem, Massa- 
chusetts, January 17, 1821. His youth 
was passed in that locality, and for some 
time he resided in Virginia and in New 
York City prior to his arrival in Roches- 
ter in 1857, and from that time forward 
he was connected with the business inter- 
ests of that city. In the year of his ar- 
rival he began operating a stave factory 
at the corner of the Erie canal and Lyell 
avenue and engaged in the manufacture 
of staves until 1884. The length of his 
continuation with this enterprise proves 
its success. The business gradually de- 
veloped along healthful lines and he en- 
joyed a liberal patronage. Each forward 
step he took in his career brought him a 
broader outlook and wider view, and hav- 
ing demonstrated his power and capacity 
in the business world, his cooperation 
was sought by the Eastman Kodak Com- 
pany, which he joined upon its organiza- 
tion in 1884, becoming a director and sec- 
retary. To know the history of Roches- 
ter in the last three decades is to know the 
history of the Kodak Company. It has 
become the leader in this line of business 
in the world and one of the most impor- 
tant enterprises of the city, contributing 
not only to individual success, but also 
to the growth and development of Roches- 
ter through the employment which it fur- 
nishes to many hundred people. Mr. 
Clark brought to his new work keen dis- 
cernment and native intellectual strength, 
and as the years passed by he aided in no 
small measure in the marvelous develop- 
ment of this enterprise, which has now 
reached mammoth proportions. 



Mr. Clark was a Republican in politics. 
He held membership in Plymouth Church, 
in the work of which he was much inter- 
ested, contributing generously to its sup- 
port and doing all in his power for its 
development. He served as a trustee and 
deacon and the value of his labor in be- 
half of the church was widely recognized 
by all who were associated with him in 
that organization. He was benevolent 
and kindly, liberal in his views, and 
possessed a charity that reached out 
to all humanity. His efforts toward 
advancing the interests of Rochester are 
so widely recognized that they can be 
considered as being no secondary part of 
his career of signal usefulness. His death 
occurred March 22, 1900, and thus passed 
away one who enjoyed to the fullest ex- 
tent the confidence and respect of all 
classes of people. 

Mr. Clark was married to Lucretia 
Bowker, of Salem, Massachusetts, a 
daughter of Joel Bowker, one of the old 
Salem merchants. She died April 8, 
1912. Two sons: 1. Daniel R., married 
Helen J. Ross, of Wiscoy, New York, Jan- 
uary 6, 1876; two daughters: Helene 
Rogers and Mary Lucretia. 2. George H., 
married Adele Hathaway, of Rochester, 
December 11, 1900; three sons: Brackett 
H., Halford Rogers, and Donald Richard- 
son. 



TRACY, Osgood V., 

Ciril 'War Veteran, Man of Affairs. 

Not all men order their lives to their lik- 
ing; nor yet are all men true to their 
own selves in living as nearly to their 
ideals as possible, and attaining to such 
heighths as their opportunities and tal- 
ents render readily accessible. The late 
Colonel Osgood V. Tracy, of Syracuse, 
New York, did not lead a pretentious or 
exalted life, but one which was true to 
itself and its possibilities, and one to 
75 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



which the biographer may revert with 
respect and satisfaction. A man of strong 
intellectual force and mature judgment, 
his character found its deeper values in 
the wellsprings of absolute integrity and 
most exalted motives. The surname of 
Tracy is a very ancient one. It is taken 
from the castle and barony of Tracie, 
near Vire Arrondissement, of Caen, 
France. The first of the name of whom 
there is record is Turgis de Tracie, who, 
with William de la Ferte, was defeated 
and driven out of Main by the Count of 
Anjou, in 1078, and was in all probability 
the Sire de Tracie mentioned in the battle 
of Hastings. The coat-of-arms of the 
family was borne in the twelfth century, 
and is: Or, an escallop in the chief dex- 
ter, between two bendlets gules. Crest: 
On a chapeau gules turned up ermine en 
escallop sable, between two wings ex- 
panded or. The parents of Colonel Tracy 
were James Grant and Sarah (Osgood) 
Tracy, the former named died in 1850, 
and one of his great-grandfathers, Joseph 
Vose, was a colonel in the First Massa- 
chusetts Regiment, the greater part of his 
service being with the Lafayette Division 
during the War of the Revolution. 

Colonel Osgood V. Tracy was born in 
Syracuse, New York, June 25, 1840, died 
in Syracuse, New York, January 31, 1909, 
and interment was in Oakwood Cemetery. 
He attended the public and high schools 
of his native city, being graduated from 
the last named institution at the age of 
sixteen years, a member of the first class 
that had been graduated from it. One 
year was spent in a finishing course at 
the Albany Academy, and, thus well 
equipped, he entered upon his business 
career. He found his first position in 
the general offices of the Binghamton 
Railroad Company of Syracuse, resigning 
the duties of this post for a clerkship in 
the coal offices of E. R. Holden. 

Intensely patriotic by nature, Colonel 



Tracy enlisted, August 28, 1862, in Com- 
pany I, One Hundred and Twenty-sec- 
ond Regiment, New York Volunteer In- 
fantry, leaving Syracuse with the rank 
of sergeant-major. His brave and meri- 
torious conduct soon earned him advance- 
ment, and he was successively second 
lieutenant, first lieutenant, adjutant and 
captain. In the Shenandoah Valley he 
displayed exceptional bravery, and for 
this was breveted major of the United 
States Volunteers ; for gallant service 
during the closing campaign of the war 
and before Petersburg, he was breveted 
lieutenant-colonel of the United States 
Volunteers. He was inspector-general of 
the Third Division, Sixth Army Corps, 
Army of the Potomac, during the last 
year of the war. At the battle of the 
Wilderness he was taken prisoner, and 
with General Shaler and many other offi- 
cers was taken to Lynchburg, Virginia. 
While there he met Colonel Mortimer B. 
Birdseye, of the Second New York Cav- 
alry, who had arranged to escape. Colonel 
Tracy joined him and they walked from 
Lynchburg to Harpers Ferry, having 
many narrow escapes from capture be- 
fore reaching the Union lines. He was 
honorably discharged from the United 
States government in July, 1865. 

When the close of the war left Colonel 
Tracy free to pursue the more peaceful 
occupations of his usual life, he accepted 
a position with C. C. Loomis & Company, 
wholesale dealers in coffees and spices, 
and two years later became a member of 
the firm, the name under which they 
operated being changed to read : Ostran- 
der, Loomis & Company. Colonel Tracy 
became the sole proprietor of this exten- 
sive business in 1886, and in 1893 admit- 
ted as partners, Charles Sedgwick Tracy 
and John Hurst, the firm operating under 
the style of O. V. Tracy & Company. 
The conduct of this business, however, 
was not sufficient occupation for the 
/6 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



active mind of Colonel Tracy, and he be- 
came identified with a number of other 
enterprises. When the Solvay Process 
Company was organized in 1884, Colonel 
Tracy became a member of its board of 
directors, and served in this office until 
the time of his death. He was the first 
secretary of this company, and later be- 
came treasurer of the corporation. He 
was a director and secretary of the First 
National Bank of Syracuse, and was for 
a long period of time a member of the 
board of trustees of the Onondaga County 
Savings Bank. Upon the creation of the 
Intercepting Sewer Commission by the 
State Legislature, Colonel Tracy was ap- 
pointed as one of the three members by 
Mayor Alan C. Fobes. He was at once 
chosen as chairman, and in this position 
his wise counsel was of inestimable ad- 
vantage. His social affiliation was with 
Root Post, Grand Army of the Republic, 
and the Military Order of the Loyal 
Legion of the United States. He was one 
of the original directors of the Historical 
Society. 

Colonel Tracy married, June 19, 1867, 
Ellen Sedgwick, a daughter of Charles B. 
Sedgwick, and they had children: Charles 
Sedgwick, James Grant, Lyndon San- 
ford and Frank Sedgwick. 

The men who served by Colonel Tracy's 
side in the war say that he was a brave 
soldier and was always most considerate 
to his men, whose esteem he held. His 
associates in business say that he was 
most thorough and untiring and pos- 
sessed rare ability in that line. He was 
always public-spirited, and was ever 
ready to aid in public matters. 



TRACY, William G., 

Veteran of Civil War, Lawyer. 
William G. Tracy, brother of Colonel 
Osgood V. Tracy, was born at Syracuse, 
New York, April 7, 1843. He graduated 

N Y-Vol HI-12 



from the Syracuse High School in the fall 
of 1858. In the following spring he en- 
tered the Bank of Salina, and was book- 
keeper of that bank when the war be- 
tween the North and South broke out. 
He was a member of Butler's Zouaves 
and enlisted in the Third New York 
Regiment, where he was made fourth cor- 
poral. He served in that regiment until 
September, 1861, when he was promoted 
to be a first lieutenant in the Twelfth 
New York Volunteers. He served as such 
until February, 1862, when the regiment 
was consolidated with the Twelfth New 
York Volunteers from New York City, 
and he was mustered out as a super- 
numerary officer. He then west West 
and enlisted in the Tenth Indiana Regi- 
ment. He served in that regiment as a 
private soldier, marching twice across the 
states of Kentucky and Tennessee. On 
October 1, 1862, he received his discharge 
to accept a commission in a New York 
regiment. He became a second lieuten- 
ant in the One Hundred and Twenty- 
second New York; was appointed aide- 
de-camp on the staff of Major-General 
Henry W. Slocum, and served in that 
capacity during the remainder of the war. 
He was severely wounded at the battle 
of Chancellorsville, May 2, 1863, his right 
arm resected and three and one-half 
inches of bone removed therefrom. He 
returned to duty in August, 1863, and 
thereafter served on the staff of Major- 
General H. W. Slocum in the East and 
the West until the end of the war. He 
was brevetted major towards the close 
of the war, and afterwards given a medal 
of honor for gallantry at the battle of 
Chancellorsville. At the battle of Ben- 
tonville, North Carolina, March 19, 1865, 
he was slightly wounded in the right leg. 
After the war he entered a bank in 
Syracuse, and in the spring of 1866 com- 
menced the study of law in the office of 
Sedgwick, Andrews & Kennedy. About 
177 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



a year after his admission to the bar, 
when Judge Andrews became a member 
of the Court of Appeals, 1875, he was 
succeeded in that firm by Charles H. 
Sedgwick and Mr. Tracy. The firm be- 
came Sedgwicks, Kennedy & Tracy, and 
so remained until 1877, when the Sedg- 
wicks having retired the firm became 
Kennedy & Tracy, and so remained until 
1884, when Mr. Kennedy was made a 
judge of the Supreme Court. He was 
succeeded by G. A. Forbes and Wilbur 
M. Brown, the firm becoming Forbes, 
Brown & Tracy. In the year 1890 Mr. 
Forbes was elected a judge of the Su- 
preme Court, and Mr. Brown retired from 
the practice of the law. The firm of 
Tracy, McLennan & Ayling was then 
formed, composed of Mr. Tracy, Peter B. 
McLennan and Charles F. Ayling. In 
1892 Mr. McLennan was elected justice 
of the Supreme Court in place of Judge 
Kennedy, retired by the age limit, who 
resumed the practice of the law, and the 
firm of Kennedy, Tracy, Mills & Ayling 
was formed, composed of Judge Kennedy, 
Mr. Tracy, Albert M. Mills and Mr. 
Ayling. This firm was succeeded in 1901 
by the present firm of Tracy, Chapman 
& Tracy, composed of William G. Tracy, 
George D. Chapman and James G. Tracy. 
William G. Tracy is a member of the 
Military Order of the Loyal Legion of 
the United States, the Onondaga Golf 
and Country Club, the Sedgwick Farm 
Club and Root Post, Grand Army of the 
Republic. 

He married, September 24, 1903, Marion 
Gill, daughter of Daniel F. Gill, of Syra- 
cuse ; no children. 



KNOWLTON, Mark Dean, 

Business Man and Inventor. 

The late Mark Dean Knowlton, who 
for many years was one of the prominent 
and influential business men of Roches- 



ter, gaining not only success, but also 
an honored name as the result of the 
straightforward business principles which 
he ever followed, was a man of marked 
strength of character and intellectual abil- 
ity, the architect of his own fortune, a 
man whose mind was ever occupied with 
mighty projects for the advancement and 
welfare of the city of his adoption. He 
was born at Milford, New Hampshire, 
October 5, 1840, son of Samuel Dean and 
Nancy J. (Shattuck) Knowlton, the for- 
mer named a shoemaker and retail dealer 
in shoes. 

Mark D. Knowlton attended the com- 
mon schools of Milford and the Milford 
Academy, completing his studies at the 
age of sixteen years. He then went to 
Nashua, New Hampshire, and served an 
apprenticeship at the trade of blacksmith- 
ing and carriage manufacturing, but he 
did not follow this for any length of time, 
having an opportunity to purchase a paper 
box manufactory, which he operated suc- 
cessfully, although at the time of pur- 
chase he was totally unacquainted with 
that line of work, but soon made himself 
master of every detail by persistent appli- 
cation thereto. For a time he was located 
in Nashua, New Hampshire, removing 
from that city in 1866 to Chicago, Illinois, 
where he continued in the paper box 
manufacturing business until the great 
Chicago conflagration, the greater part of 
his capital being swept away by that 
calamity. Being a man of great strength 
and force of character, he overcame these 
obstacles which to many others seemed 
unsurmountable, and not only retrieved 
his own lost possessions, but assisted 
others in regaining a footing. He was 
not in such terrible straits as many of his 
friends, as his home was not destroyed, 
this being in South Evanston, where, by 
the way, he held the only public office 
in his career, that of justice of the peace. 
Shortly afterward he located on the west 



178 




An -XVy litr**™-^. 




[^NOWLTON 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



side of the city of Chicago, where he re- 
sumed operations, but again was burned 
out and once more practically lost all his 
possessions, and subsequently he joined 
the W. C. Ritchie Company. While associ- 
ated with that firm he devoted consider- 
able time to completing the invention of 
his machine for paper box manufacture, 
on which he had been working for some 
time, and when completed and placed on 
the market it revolutionized the entire 
trade. In March, 1891, Mr. Knowlton 
disposed of his business interests in Chi- 
cago and removed to Rochester, New 
York, where under the style of Knowlton 
& Beace he started the manufacture of 
machinery for making paper boxes. This 
connection continued until May, 1904, 
when Mr. Knowlton purchased his part- 
ner's interest and continued business 
under the name of M. D. Knowlton Com- 
pany. Later he patented a number of 
appliances and machinery, all used in 
box-making, and became widely known 
as an inventor of great ability, largely 
giving his time to the business, which was 
subsequently organized as a stock com- 
pany, the officers being Mark D. Knowl- 
ton, president; Fred K. Knowlton, vice- 
president ; Annie D. Knowlton, treasurer, 
and Mrs. Fred K. Knowlton, secretary. 
From the beginning it proved a profitable 
enterprise, developing steadily and great- 
ly, giving employment to over one hun- 
dred operatives in the factory, thus con- 
tributing to the prosperity of that section 
of Rochester. The business has not de- 
clined since the death of Mr. Knowlton, 
owing to the fact that his son and daugh- 
ter are still in office, both of whom pos- 
sess in marked degree the executive abil- 
ity and keen business discernment of their 
father, with whom they were so closely 
associated in business. Mr. Knowlton 
was also the principal owner of the stock 
of the Auburn Ball Bearing Company. 
This still constitutes a part of the estate 



and the business is practically managed 
by Miss Annie D. Knowlton, with her 
brother's assistance, these two being the 
executor and executrix of their father's 
large estate. 

Mr. Knowlton married, October 5, 1864, 
Abbie E. Currier, daughter of Alfred and 
Abbie (Worcester) Currier, of Massachu- 
setts, her father being a railroad man. 
Children: 1. Annie Dean, above referred 
to, who greatly resembles her father in 
personal appearance as well as in the 
splendid business qualities which he dis- 
played. 2. Grace E. 3. Hattie Gertrude. 
4. Fred Kirk, above referred to, ob- 
tained his education at Purdue Univer- 
sity and Columbia College ; married Eliz- 
abeth Kent Stone. 5. Ola. The family 
are members of the Central Presbyterian 
Church, of Rochester. The mother and 
daughters reside at No. 6 Granger place, 
where they have a fine residence. Mr. 
Knowlton was a dutiful son, a devoted 
husband, a loving father, ever mindful of 
the welfare and comfort of those near and 
dear to him, and his death was felt most 
severely in the home, where he spent the 
greater part of his leisure time and to 
which he was so devoted. It was also felt 
in business, church and social circles. 



BACON, Byron H., 

Proprietary Medicine Manufacturer. 

Byron H. Bacon, who established and 
conducted a substantial productive indus- 
try of Rochester and continued an active 
and honored factor in business life in the 
city until his death, was a native of Leroy, 
New York, and after acquiring a good 
education was engaged in the furniture 
business in his native town for a number 
of years. In 1891 he began the manu- 
facture of medicines which were placed 
upon the market under the name of the 
Byron H. Bacon medicines. His output 
included as the principal remedies, the 



179 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Celery King and Dr. Otto's Cough medi- 
cines, which were sold by agents and ad- 
vertising wagons all over the country, 
covering nearly every State in the Union, 
with main offices at No. 187 West ave- 
nue in Rochester. Mr. Bacon gave nine 
years of his life to the conduct of this 
business, which grew in volume until it 
had reached extensive and profitable pro- 
portions. 

Mr. Bacon was married to Amelia Ech- 
lin, of Leroy, New York, who was born 
in Canada, and they became the parents 
of three sons : Harold A., Goodell Weles 
and Ronald Henry. Mr. Bacon was a 
man of domestic tastes, devoted to his 
family, and found his greatest pleasure at 
his own fireside. He considered no per- 
sonal sacrifice on his part too great if it 
would promote the welfare and happiness 
of his wife and children and he was a 
man who was well liked and respected by 
all. His widow has since become Mrs. 
Van Dusen and she resides at No. 4 Alli- 
ance street. 



DAVIDGE, Sherwood B., 

Manufacturer, Financier. 

The prosperity of any community, town 
or city depends upon its commercial activ- 
ity, its industrial interests and its trade 
relations, and therefore among the build- 
ers of a town are those who stand at the 
head of the business enterprises. Promi- 
nent among the leading business men of 
Binghamton, New York, was the late 
Sherwood B. Davidge, whose intense 
activity and energy yet enabled him to 
find time for club life and social duties. 
He was alert and enterprising, possessing 
the progressive spirit of the times, accom- 
plishing in business circles what he 
undertook, while his geniality and defer- 
ence for the opinions of others made his 
circle of friends almost co-extensive with 
the circle of his acquaintances. 



James Davidge, his grandfather, was 
born in Somersetshire, England, in 1786, 
and married there. He came to America 
with his family in 1818, settled at Liberty, 
Sullivan county, New York, and died 
there at an advanced age, being the oldest 
resident of the town at that time. 

John Davidge, son of James Davidge, 
was born in Somersetshire, England, 
about 1810, and died at Newark Valley, 
Tioga county, New York, in 1880. His 
earlier years were spent at Liberty, New 
York, from whence he removed to Lake 
Como, Wayne county, Pennsylvania, 
from that town to Hancock, Delaware 
county, New York, and then to Newark 
Valley. In the last mentioned place he 
engaged in the tanning business as a 
member of the firm of Allison, Davidge 
& Company, and Davidge, Landfield & 
Company, and became very prosperous. 
He married Eunice Burr, who died in 
Newark Valley in 1898. Of this mar- 
riage there were children: Edson Greg- 
ory, James, Sherwood B., whose name 
heads this sketch ; Harriet Elizabeth, 
George Gifford, Samuel Philip, Mary D., 
John, and William Munson. 

Sherwood B. Davidge, son of John and 
Eunice (Burr) Davidge, was born at 
Liberty, Sullivan county, New York, Oc- 
tober 17, 1843, a °d died at his home, No. 
31 Front street, Binghamton, New York, 
December 10, 191 1. His death was as 
beautiful and peaceful as his life had 
been, coming calmly on Sunday morn- 
ing just as he was preparing to go to 
church. His education was commenced 
in his native town, and continued and 
completed in Poughkeepsie, New York. 
Upon its completion he entered upon his 
business career, his first independent step 
in this direction being when he engaged 
in the mercantile business in Hancock, 
New York. In 1866 he was admitted as 
a partner of the firm of Davidge, Land- 
field & Company, mentiond above, and 
80 




y/^j^^ 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



later he became actively identified with 
tanning interests at Berkshire, New 
York ; English Center, Pennsylvania ; and 
Torpedo, Pennsylvania. His executive 
ability in business affairs was soon the 
subject of comment in the circles in 
which he was engaged, and he was an 
important factor to be reckoned with. 
In 1894 he sold his tanning interests to 
the United States Leather Company. He 
removed to Binghamton about 1901, and 
there purchased the Jones property, in 
which he resided until his death. His 
connection with business enterprises was 
an extensive and varied one, a partial list 
of the companies with which he was 
identified officially and otherwise being 
as follows : With T. B. Crary and Robert 
H. Rose, of Binghamton, in the Alden- 
Batavia Natural Gas Company; he was 
the president of this, and a vice-president 
of the Akron Natural Gas Company ; 
vice-president and a director of the Cot- 
ton State Lumber Company of Meehan 
Junction, Mississippi ; a director of the 
Bayless Pulp and Paper Company; a 
director in the Dare Lumber Company, 
of Elizabeth City, North Carolina ; a 
director of the People's Bank and the 
Chenango Valley Savings Bank of Bing- 
hamton. His religious affiliation was with 
the First Congregational Church of Bing- 
hamton. Fraternally he was a member 
of Newark Valley Lodge, Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons; Owego Chapter, Royal 
Arch Masons; Utica Commandery, 
Knights Templar; Kalurah Temple, An- 
cient Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic 
Shrine. He was also a member of the 
Binghamton City and Country clubs. 

Mr. Davidge married, in 1877, M. Ella 
Ayer, of Newburgh, New York, who sur- 
vives him with two sons: S. Richard, of 
Binghamton ; and Warren A., a resident 
of Denver, Colorado. Mr. Davidge was 
the center of a large circle of friends, and 
the high esteem in which he was held was 



expressed in editorials which appeared in 
various papers at the time of his death. 
The limits of this article will permit the 
reprint of only one, as follows : 

The death of Sherwood B. Davidge removes a 
man who was, in the broadest and truest sense, a 
representative of all that is best in the commer- 
cial, social and religious life of Binghamton. It 
is the custom to speak of the wealth of a city in 
terms of its commercial and industrial greatness. 
But this is a mistake. The real wealth of any 
community is found in the character of the men 
and women whose energy and intelligence place 
them in positions of leadership in its enduring 
activities. Mr. Davidge was such a leader. Com- 
ing to Binghamton with his reputation already 
established as a business man of unquestioned in- 
tegrity and of remarkable discernment and force, 
he took at once a prominent place in the life of 
the community. During his residence here he was 
actively identified with the business growth of the 
city, but his influence extended far beyond his 
merely commercial interests. Countless friends 
feel in his death a keen personal loss. And in the 
religious and philanthropic activities of Bingham- 
ton his personality was an unfailing power for 
good. The city is the poorer for the death of one 
who devoted himself to what was highest and best 
in the life of the community. 



DAVIS, Henry W., 

Financier, Legislator. 

The true measure of a man's success is 
what lives after him, the things that out- 
live the transitory existence, for we are 
only remembered "by what we have 
done." It may be only sowing in the 
heart of some unknown and obscure per- 
son a seed of helpfulness and good cheer, 
which grew and developed into a sturdy 
tree bearing good fruit, which in due time 
rendered a like service to countless others, 
a service so far-reaching that from one 
kindly act it is as impossible to estimate 
the good done as it is to gather up the 
perfume spread royally around them by 
the fragrant flowers. We might say of 
the life of Henry W. Davis it could not 
be measured by the standard of business 



181 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



success, for there are men who have 
attained greater power in that line, nor 
by the prosperity which he was able to 
surround himself with, to a certain extent, 
for there have been wealthier men, but 
he possessed the lovable characteristics 
that are not the accompaniment of gold 
always, and the respect and esteem of his 
neighbors and friends were his as a man, 
an individual, a personality, not as a 
figurehead in the community, and through 
such qualities came his popularity. 

Henry W. Davis was born in 1807, in 
the State of New York. When he was 
nine years of age his father removed with 
his family to Galway, New York, where 
he remained until 1827. In that year 
Henry W. Davis made his advent in Mon- 
roe county, which was still to a consid- 
erable degree in the pioneer stage. He 
settled in Pittsford, where he found em- 
ployment with Henry S. Potter, a mer- 
chant, as clerk, and remained at this occu- 
pation for several years, which might be 
regarded as the beginning of his subse- 
quent successful career. He was about 
twenty-five or thirty years of age when he 
became identified with the old Rochester 
Bank, his first connection with that insti- 
tution being as exchange cashier and for 
a quarter of a century he ably and effi- 
ciently filled that office and occupied a 
position of prominence in financial circles 
in the community. After retiring from 
the active work in the bank he removed 
to Churchville, where he bought a farm 
on which he made his home until his de- 
mise, which occurred in 1884. He re- 
moved to his country home about 1852 
and was ever afterward actively inter- 
ested in agricultural matters, and ener- 
getic in his promotion of all kindred in- 
terests. His prudent and conservative 
measures won him success in business 
affairs and he was recognized as one of 
the leading agriculturalists of his section 
of the country. 



Mr. Davis was also a man of influence 
in public life, doing his most effective 
work in the ranks of the Democratic 
party, in which he closely adhered to the 
principles of the early leaders. He served 
on the Board of Supervisors and also rep- 
resented his district in the General As- 
sembly, in both of these bodies his work 
was characterized by strictest fidelity and 
conscientious regard for what he con- 
sidered his duty. He never considered 
public office as a means of personal 
emolument, but rather as a most sacred 
trust and evidence of confidence placed in 
one by his fellowmen. a confidence that 
should never be abused. 

Henry W. Davis married Sarah Louise 
Selkirk, and they became the parents of 
six children, who are all deceased. 

Mr. Davis died February 26, 1884, and 
was buried in the Churchville Cemetery. 
Mrs. Davis died December 12, 1907. Mr. 
and Mrs. Davis were both affiliated with 
the First Presbyterian Church and active 
workers in that organization. Mr. Davis 
had a personality that called forth words 
of praise and appreciation from his many 
friends, for although a man of much deci- 
sion of character and strong opinions, un- 
faltering in his defense of what he deemed 
to be right, he was just and generous in 
spirit, and a gentleman in every thought 
and action. His residence of almost sixty 
years in the county was during the time 
of development, so that in truth he might 
be called one of the "Early Builders," and 
among those who built wisely and well 
for the succeeding generations to emu- 
late. 

Henry W. Davis, Jr., son of Henry W. 
Davis, Sr., was born in Churchville, New 
York. During his early life he attended 
the local schools and assisted with the 
work on his father's large farm. Later 
he became a breeder of fine cattle, having 
splendid herds of registered Galloway 
cattle, and after his father's death he 



182 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



conducted the operations on the home- 
stead farm in a successful manner up to 
the time of his death, May 5, 1904. He 
was a man of character and integrity, 
took an active interest in community 
affairs, and was honored and esteemed by 
all with whom he came in contact. He 
was a member of Churchville Lodge, Free 
and Accepted Masons, and also held 
membership in the Ancient Arabic Order 
Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, of Roches- 
ter. He married Emma Bell Scott, of 
Churchville. Children: 1. Samuel, owner 
of and interested in fine riding and driv- 
ing horses; married Edith Walker, of 
Virgil, New York ; he makes his home in 
Churchville, as does also his mother. 2. 
Marabelle, who became the wife of Ray- 
mond G. Carroll ; they reside in Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania, Mr. Carroll being 
connected with the Curtis Publishing 
Company. 






MANDEVILLE, Wilber J., 

Prominent Seedsman. 

Wilber J. Mandeville, deceased, was 
born in Webster, Monroe county, New 
York, February 9, 1852, and was a son 
of Edward Mandeville. He was reared 
in Rochester and completed his education 
in De Graff Military School. Through- 
out his entire life he was connected with 
the seed business, Rochester largely 
being a center for that line of commer- 
cial activity in the United States. He 
bought out the business of John Board- 
man in 1875 and admitted in 1879 his 
brother-in-law, Herbert S. King, to a 
partnership under the firm style of Man- 
deville & King. This relation was main- 
tained until the death of Mr. King in 1890, 
when he formed a partnership with Fred 
A. King under the same firm name. A 
few months before his death, in 1902, the 
business was incorporated under the 
name of the Mandeville & King Company, 



which still continues. Mr. Mandeville 
secured a very liberal patronage and pros- 
pered in his undertakings, using every 
energy to enlarge his business and make 
it a prosperous concern. He was only a 
child at the time of his father's death and 
was early thrown upon his own resources, 
so that he deserved much credit for what 
he accomplished. 

In his political views Mr. Mandeville 
was a Republican, and he belonged to St. 
Luke's Church at Rochester, in which he 
served as a vestryman. His life was in 
many respects exemplary and he enjoyed 
in large measure the confidence and esteem 
of those with whom he came in contact. 
In his business career he was found thor- 
oughly reliable and trustworthy and all 
who knew him recognized in him the in- 
herent force of character and capability 
which enabled him to advance from a 
humble financial position to one of afflu- 
ence. 

Mr^Mandeyille married, June 14, 1876, 
Harriet King, a daughter of Jonathan 
King, who came to Rochester in 1825 
from Massachusetts. Her mother was 
Sarah Sibley King, of Brighton. Her 
father settled on Sophia street in Roches- 
ter and cleared the land there, for at that 
time it was swampy. He continued to 
make his home upon that place through- 
out his remaining days and contributed 
in large measure to the substantial up- 
building of the city. His daughter, Mrs. 
Mandeville, is the only member of the 
family now living. By her marriage she 
became the mother of three children, 
Edna King, Lois Sibley and Arthur Wil- 
ber. 



COBB, Amos Hubbell, 

Pioneer in Canning Industry. 

Typical of the successful business man 
and the useful citizen was the late Amos 
Hubbell Cobb, of Fairport, New York, 
83 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



who was one of the pioneers in the can- 
ning industry, which is one of such great 
importance in the State of New York. 
He was progressive and farseeing in busi- 
ness and private life, and could look back 
with pride and pleasure upon the work 
which he had accomplished, and which 
earned him the commendation of all. 

Amos Hubbell Cobb, son of Tyler 
Perry and Catherine (Hubbell) Cobb, 
was born in Greenville, Greene county, 
New York, September 28, 1840, and died 
in Fairport, Monroe county, New York, 
August 27, 1891. Until the age of ten 
years he lived with his parents, and 
attended the district schools in the vicin- 
ity of his home, then went to Camden, 
Oneida county, New York, and there 
made his home with his cousin, Ezra A. 
Edgett, later of Newark, Wayne county, 
New York, and assisted him in planting 
the first field of sweet corn ever used for 
canning in the State of New York. Thus 
was started the canning industry in this 
State, which has grown to such impor- 
tance, and has added so greatly to its 
prosperity. Mr. Edgett subsequently 
founded the Wayne County Preserving 
Company, which is now the oldest estab- 
lished cannery in the State. Until he had 
attained young manhood Mr. Cobb re- 
mained with his cousin, and during this 
time acquired a full and accurate knowl- 
edge of the canning industry, in all its 
branches. He then went to the City of 
New York, where he was employed by 
the firm of Kemp, Day & Company, and 
formed a partnership with U. H. Dud- 
ley & Company in 1863, both important 
houses in the canned foods business. In 
1868 he severed his connection with these 
firms and became associated with the 
paper commission business of Goodwin, 
Cobb & Company, as a member of the 
firm. This was an importing house, with 
connecting offices in Liverpool, England, 
and was the first firm to import soda ash 



to this country by steamer. Mr. Cobb 
removed to Fairport in 1881, having pur- 
chased of Ezra A. Edgett the canning fac- 
tory which the latter had estabished 
there in 1873, as a branch of the Wayne 
County Preserving Company, of Newark, 
New York. Mr. Cobb was at the head of 
this industry for a period of ten years, 
during which he managed it with skill 
and ability, and earned the respect and 
commendation of his fellow citizens. It 
was known as the Cobb Preserving Com- 
pany, was incorporated, and is now con- 
ducted along the lines inaugurated by 
Mr. Cobb by his widow and two sons, 
with the following official board : Mrs. 
Cobb, president; Amos H. Cobb, of 
Rochester, vice-president; and Clarence 
S. Cobb, of Fairport, secretary and treas- 
urer. 

Mr. Cobb married, in 1864, Angie M. 
Hodgeman, who is still a resident of 
Fairport. In addition to the sons men- 
tioned above, Mr. and Mrs. Cobb were 
blessed with a daughter : Angie, who mar- 
ried Stanley Shepard, of Rochester ; 
Frederick D. H. Cobb, of Rochester, who 
died February 11, 1914, formerly secre- 
tary of the Cobb Preserving Company; 
and George Watson Cobb, of Montclair, 
New Jersey, vice-president and general 
manager of the Sanitary Can Company, 
also assistant general manager of sales 
American Can Company. 



TRUESDALE, George, 

Attorney and Public Official. 

Rich indeed is the man who at the end 
of a life of eighty-two years can leave 
behind him so wonderful a record as to 
call forth from friends and men with 
whom he had often been in legal combat 
such an expression as contained in the 
following resolutions adopted by the 
Monroe County Bar Association in honor 
of their dead comrade. 



184 




O^^ir^^^^ifTK 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Ripe in years and rich in experience, George 
Truesdale, for more than fifty years a familiar 
figure among us, has passed on to the great 
beyond. As we pay our affectionate tribute to 
his memory, we need not, as we often must, pause 
to wonder at Providence's mysterious ways, for 
he was well past the goal of four-score years; 
and those who knew him best can in their mind's 
eye see him, as he passed out of this life, do so 
with a cheery wave of the hand, simply because 
his work was done. In his career at the bar, 
covering the unusual span of fifty-eight years, he 
not only won for himself an enviable record for 
industry, ability and integrity, but performed 
some very distinguished services. In his conduct 
of the famous Standard Oil conspiracy cases, 
tried at Buffalo while he was in the prime of his 
strength, he greatly enhanced his reputation and 
few lawyers have received such a tribute to their 
ability and learning as is found in the reports of 
these cases with regard to Mr. Truesdale. Kind, 
genial and honorable, full of sunshine and good 
humor, no one ever came from his presence with- 
out having felt the radiance of these splendid 
qualities, and by them he endeared himself to all 
who knew him in an unusual degree. Complete 
as his life was, he will be greatly missed by his 
brethren of the profession. 

George Truesdale was of the third 
generation of his family in the United 
States, his grandfather coming from 
Ireland with his son Samuel and settling 
in Monroe county, New York, about 1822, 
the Erie Canal then being in course of 
construction. Samuel Truesdale, born in 
Ireland, was a young boy when his 
parents came to Monroe county, and 
there lived the long years of his after 
life. He became one of the substantial 
farmers of the town of Greece and took 
an active part in public affairs, serving 
his community as assessor and commis- 
sioner of highways. He married Charity 
Cummings, born in Pennsylvania, who 
bore him seven sons and two daughters. 
Samuel Truesdale died in 1886, his wife 
in 1884. 

George Truesdale was born at the home 
farm in the town of Greece, Monroe 
county, New York, November 19, 1833, 



died at his home, No. 135 Fulton avenue, 
Rochester, New York, May 14, 1916. He 
spent his early life on the farm and in the 
intervals of school life aided in its culti- 
vation. He attended the Podunk district 
school and after exhausting its advan- 
tages continued his education at Geneseo 
Academy and Benedict's Academy, there 
completing his preparation for college. 
He then entered the classical department 
of the University of Rochester, whence 
he was graduated class of 1857. He 
chose the profession of law and after 
adequate study passed the required ex- 
amination and in 1858 was admitted to 
practice at the Monroe county bar. For 
fifty-eight years from his admission Mr. 
Truesdale continued in active practice 
only surrendering to the grim enemy. 
But whether in youthful manhood, vigor- 
ous middle age, or in the "sere and yellow 
leaf," he was devoted to his clients' inter- 
ests, transacted a large general practice, 
presented his carefully prepared cases 
with force and vigor, with close reasoning 
and logical deduction which won and 
retained for him position among the 
ablest members of the Rochester bar. 
His clients were among the prominent 
men of his city and he was connected 
with many of the important cases tried 
in the Monroe county courts, as well as 
being called as counsel outside his own 
bar. In 1861 he was elected justice of the 
peace, at that time there being but two 
or three men in the entire city holding 
that office. He acted as justice for three 
years, then resigned and formed a part- 
nership with Frederick DeLano, the law 
firm of DeLano & Truesdale continuing 
in successful practice for several years. 
Mr. Truesdale, after serving a term as 
State Commissioner of the United States 
Deposit Fund, was elected police justice 
of Rochester, holding that office four 
years, 1877-81. Later he formed a part- 



185 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



nership with his son, Stephen C. Trues- 
dale, and as G. & S. C. Truesdale they 
were associated in practice with offices at 
No. 448 Powers Building until death re- 
moved the senior partner. 

He was a member of the Monroe 
County Bar Association for over half a 
century, and was a member of lodge, 
chapter and commandery of the Masonic 
order, the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows and the Improved Order of Red 
Men. He was president of the board of 
trustees of the North Presbyterian 
Church, his associates of the board serv- 
ing as pall bearers at his funeral. He is 
buried in Mt. Hope Cemetery. 

Mr. Truesdale married (first) in 1861, 
Sarah Cole, of Greece, New York, who 
died in 1889. He married (second) in 
1899, Mary A. Todd, who survives him. 
By his first marriage Mr. Truesdale had 
two sons and four daughters: 1. Stephen 
C, born May 3, 1862, admitted to the bar 
in 1887, practiced with his father until 
his death, and is now his successor in the 
business of G. & S. C. Truesdale; he is 
attorney for and actively interested in the 
Profit Loan Association ; is a well known 
clubman ; member of the Masonic order, 
and interested in the sports of the out-of- 
doors; he married, in December, 1887, 
Agnes B. Huther, of Rochester. 2. 
Samuel M., a machinist. 3. Fannie G., 
married Warren B. Huther, and has a 
son, George T. Huther. 4. Jessie A., 
residing in Rochester. 5. Mary F., mar- 
ried Sidney R. Clark, of New York City, 
and has a son Truesdale. 6. Alice C, died 
in infancy. 



NORTON, A. Tiffany, 

Journalist. 

From youth "Colonel" Norton, as he 
was universally known, was identified 
with newspaper work as his father's 



assistant, as reporter, correspondent, 
editor and publisher of his own journal 
for twenty years, and from 1894 until his 
death as court reporter, assistant tele- 
graph editor, assistant editor and editor 
of the "Democrat and Chronicle," Roches- 
ter, New York. He was one of the best 
known newspaper men of Western New 
York and was also author of historical 
works of value. His "History of Living- 
ston County" is a most valuable work 
and his history of "General Sullivan's 
Campaign in Western New York" is a 
most intersting presentation of that won- 
derful campaign recognized as accurate 
in all its detail. He wrote all his articles 
with the greatest care and pains and was 
a most zealous, industrious worker for his 
employer's interest. While he ever made 
the paper's interest paramount, he was 
loyal to the reporters under his control 
and held the unvarying friendship and 
respect of the entire staff. Many men 
won their reportorial reputation under 
Colonel Norton and to them his passing 
was a matter of genuine personal regret. 
They admired his upright, manly char- 
acter, appreciated his editorial ability and 
knew that fair treatment would always 
be accorded them. Years have passed 
since he laid down his pen, but his name 
is interwoven with many of the best 
traditions of the "Democrat and Chron- 
icle," and his memory is yet lovingly 
cherished by those who were privileged 
to work under the unassuming man 
whom they called "Chief." 

A. Tiffany Norton was born at Mount 
Morris, Livingston county, New York, 
September 5, 1844, died at his home No. 
74 Manhattan street, Rochester, New 
York, October 11, 1901. Not long after 
his birth his parents moved to Geneseo, 
New York, where his father, James T. 
Norton, a pioneer newspaper publisher of 
Livingston county, founded and edited 




o.cclcj O, ^£^lf& 



V- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the "Livingston Republican," he also at 
one time being county treasurer. After 
the death of his father, the son succeeded 
him as editor and publisher of the "Re- 
publican," but later sold the paper and 
became special correspondent for Cincin- 
nati papers. About 1870 he moved to 
Lima, New York, there purchasing the 
"Lima Recorder," a paper he edited and 
published for nearly twenty years. Those 
were years of great development for Mr. 
Norton and he became widely known in 
newspaperdom as a conscientious, able, 
fearless editorial writer. While in Lima 
he wrote his history of the Sullivan cam- 
paign previously referred to. That was 
not his first historical work, he having 
previously, while a resident of Geneseo, 
written a history of Livingston county, 
a work which was begun by Lockwood 
L. Doty, of Geneseo. In 1890 Colonel 
Norton sold the "Lima Recorder" which 
he had owned and published for about 
twenty years, and for a full year gave 
himself a much needed rest. In 1891 he 
located in Rochester, where for a time he 
was engaged in the printing business. In 
1894 he became a member of the re- 
portorial staff of the "Democrat and 
Chronicle" as court reporter, soon after- 
ward becoming assistant telegraph editor, 
later city editor. In 1897 he became 
editor-in-chief, a position he most capably 
filled until his lifework ended, when he 
was called to the just man's reward. 

While most unassuming in manner, 
Colonel Norton was a man of determined 
character and great firmness where a 
principle was involved. He was eminent- 
ly fairminded and in his editorial work 
never allowed himself to deviate from a 
most careful and just presentation of his 
argument or comment. He was respected 
by all who knew him and he made the 
editorial department of his paper a forum 
for full, free and high-minded discussion 



of live issues. In early manhood he be- 
came a member of the Presbyterian 
church. At Lima he was superintendent 
of the Sunday school for several years 
and a pillar of strength to the church, his 
pastor feeling sure of his willing aid in 
every form of church work. In Roches- 
ter he was an attendant at St. Peter's 
Church, was faithful in every sense, was 
a Christian and a gentleman. In his 
social relations he was most kindly and 
cordial, delighting in the society of his 
friends, but was happiest and at his best 
in his own home circle. He is buried in 
Temple Hill Cemetery in Geneseo, New 
York, the village in which he spent his 
childhood and early manhood. 

Mr. Norton married, January 26, 1871, 
Matilda E., daughter of V. P. Whitbeck, 
who survives him with her only son, 
Herbert E. Norton, a grocer in business 
at No. 200 Saratoga avenue, Rochester. 



ROBSON, James Adam, 

Lawyer, Jurist. 

Standing well over six feet in height, 
and well proportioned, Judge Robson 
was as commanding in his personal ap- 
pearance as he was lofty in intellect and 
culture. He was a polished gentleman, a 
profound thinker, conservative, but not 
narrow, warmly genial, even charming in 
his manner, the best beloved and highly 
respected of Ontario county's famous 
sons. 

Judge Robson was of the third Amer- 
ican generation of his family. His father, 
James Robson, an Englishman, came to 
this country in 1820. He took up a large 
tract of land in the center of the town of 
Gorham, Ontario county, New York, and 
left three sons to perpetuate his name. 
These sons, William, James and John, 
were all large land owners, prosperous 
farmers and successful business men. 



187 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



William, the eldest son, inherited the 
homestead farm originally containing 
eight hundred acres ; James Robson, the 
second son, owned three hundred and 
•fifty acres in lot nineteen ; while John, the 
third son, owned two hundred and 
seventy acres in lot twenty-seven. John 
Robson married Isabella Telfer, and had 
seven children : James A., the dead 
jurist whom a State mourns; Jane I.; 
Anne; Mary, deceased; Nellie, deceased; 
Phoebe I. and Frances ; four of the sisters 
with their honored brother constituted 
the home group at "Spring Farm" until 
the circle was broken by death. 

James A. Robson was born in Gorham, 
Ontario county, New York, January I, 
185 1, died at his home, "Spring Farm," 
Stanley, New York, near Canandaigua, 
February 1, 1916, son of John and Isabella 
(Telfer) Robson. Until he was fourteen 
years of age he attended the district 
public school ; then for a year was a 
student at Haveling High School, Bath, 
New York. After another year as 
student at Canandaigua Academy, he 
entered Yale University, whence he was 
graduated Bachelor of Arts, class of 1873. 
Choosing the law as his profession he 
entered Columbia Law School, New 
York City, there continuing a student 
until 1876, when he was awarded his 
diploma and degree of Bachelor of Laws. 
After graduation he located in Canan- 
daigua, was admitted to the Ontario 
county bar and began practice. From 
1876 until 1903 he continued in practice 
there, absolutely devoted to his work, 
winning the highest respect of his 
brethren and conducting an extensive 
practice in all State and Federal courts 
of the district. On October 19, 1903, he 
was appointed a justice of the Supreme 
Court of the State of New York to suc- 
ceed William H. Adams, deceased. In 
November, 1904, he was elected for a full 



term of fourteen years. On January 8, 
1907, he was appointed associate justice 
of the fourth department of the Appellate 
Division which meets at Rochester, and 
in January, 1912, was redesignated for 
the same position. He was a Republican 
in politics, and a bachelor. 

Numerous were the expressions of 
regret and sorrow which followed the an- 
nouncement of the eminent jurist's death. 

Justice Arthur E. Sutherland said: 
"The death of Justice Robson is a great 
loss to the State and a deep bereavement 
to a host of friends. He had a thoroughly 
trained and legal mind and the judicial 
temperament and was absolutely devoted 
to his work. His brethren of the bench 
and bar were greatly attached to him. 
He was a gentleman in the truest sense 
of the word, and we share a common 
sorrow in his passing from among us." 

Justice Nathaniel Foote who sat with 
Justice Robson on the Appellate Bench 
was so overcome by the news of the death 
of his associate with whom his relations 
were most intimate that he could hardly 
express himself. "Justice Robson was a 
tower of strength in the courts of the 
State" he said. "His death is a personal 
loss to all who knew him. His was a 
great mind. His sympathies were broad 
and his personal charm endeared him to 
all his friends and associates." 

Philetus Chamberlain, speaking from a 
long acquaintanceship with Justice Rob- 
son said: "His was one of the grandest 
characters I have ever had the privilege 
of knowing. He had one of the best legal 
minds and he was the strongest man in 
equity cases who has ever sat on the 
bench of this district." 

At a meeting of the Rochester Bar As- 
sociation high tribute was paid Judge 
Robson, and a memorial adopted. Judge 
Stephens, county judge, after sketching 
the life of the dead jurist, said : "He had 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the ideal qualities of the judge. Perhaps 
the most notable of these was the atmos- 
phere of dignified serenity and calm 
strength which ever pervaded his mind; 
a mind active and resolute, yet detached 
from the worries and strain of every day 
work, which so often overcome weaker 
men. Master of keen analytic powers, 
he paid a courteous defence to all opin- 
ions honestly held. Absorbed in the 
human aspects of every litigated dispute, 
he yet did not allow any theory of social 
justice to form or modify his judicial 
opinion on the law as it was. Preposses- 
sions and prejudices were ruthlessly cast 
aside. From such equipment could pro- 
ceed only sound, impartial, reasoned 
judgments. These great qualities gave 
to his commonwealth a judge who 
achieved justice in accordance with the 
forms of law. An enduring monument to 
his splendid judicial career is found in 
his opinions published in the reports. As 
his thinking was clear, direct and virile, 
so also was the expression of those 
thoughts. His opinions will live to in- 
struct and inspire future generations of 
lawyers. We falter in the expression of 
our appreciation of him in his personal 
relations to those who came within the 
charmed circle of his companionship lest, 
though we speak in impartial phrase, so 
modest was he, we should offend our sure 
conviction of what he would have us 
do at this hour; he would not have us 
praise nor tarry long where he has fallen, 
but rather that each in his place should 
go forward with quickened step toward 
the realization of better ideals; but yet 
he would not deny to us the contempla- 
tion of those simple virtues that moulded 
a heroic personality in a frame of heroic 
proportions. Doing kindly things was 
his habit ; he knew no other way ; he was 
charitable in his thought of others and 
reticent in blame; reserved, well poised, 



self controlled, firm in his friendships, 
unyielding except to the right, hating 
nothing but hypocrisy, loving all that is 
true; he was quiet with the quietness of 
the strong, and gentle with the gentle- 
ness of the great. Conscious of our own 
sense of loss we remember in generous 
sympathy the keener bereavement of his 
kindred whose comfort can be assured 
in the wealth of cherished memories that 
is theirs." 



HOYT, David, 

Prominent Financier. 

During the long business life of David 
Hoyt he developed a love for the banking 
business which amounted almost to a 
passion and he was known throughout 
the State as one of the most enthusiastic 
members of the State Savings Bank Asso- 
ciation, and of the Savings Bank Branch 
of the American Bankers' Association. 
In his own city he had risen to the front 
rank among the financiers of Rochester, 
was dean of the banking fraternity, his 
active connection extending over a period 
of half a century. One of the most inter- 
esting events of the Rochester business 
world in 191 5 was the celebration of the 
fiftieth anniversary of his connection with 
the Monroe County Savings Bank, and 
at the dinner given to Mr. Hoyt a large 
silver vase was presented him on which 
was engraved his name, dates of service, 
also the names of the bank's trustees and 
officers. 

His years, seventy, were spent in his 
native city and he was a party to the 
wonderful development of Rochester for 
half a century. When he entered the 
employ of the Monroe County Savings 
Bank, the deposits were $1,523,000. When 
he laid down the burden half a century 
later they were $25,000,000. He was one 
of the founders of the first trust company 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



in Rochester in 1868 and was equally 
interested in church, political and social 
organizations, manifesting intense public 
spirit and a high order of citizenship. Of 
genial disposition, he had many warm 
personal friends and in the business world 
his name stood for all that was manly, 
upright and honorable. 

The name Hoyt under a variety of 
spellings such as Hoit, Hoyte, Hoyet, 
Hayte, Haight or Hite, is found in New 
England records at an early date. The 
American founder, Simon Hoit, landed at 
Salem in 1629, was one of the first settlers 
of Charlestown and later moved to Dor- 
chester, thence to Scituate, Massachu- 
setts. About 1639 he located at Windsor, 
Connecticut, where he was granted land 
in 1640. He seems to have been pos- 
sessed of a spirit of unrest, for notwith- 
standing his already frequent changes of 
residence he moved to Fairfield, Connec- 
ticut, and was granted land there in 1649, 
later settling at Stamford, Connecticut, 
where he died according to Stamford 
records, September 1, 1657. He had six 
sons and three daughters by his two 
wives, they seemingly inheriting their 
father's restless, adventurous spirit, and 
twenty years after their father's death 
there was not a Hoyt living in any of the 
towns named except Stamford. The 
branch to which David Hoyt belongs 
located in Danbury, Connecticut, and his 
grandfather and his father David Hoyt 
were both born there. David Hoyt, Sr., 
early in life came to Rochester with his 
father who was one of the pioneer busi- 
ness men, successfully conducting a 
cooperage plant. David Hoyt was promi- 
nently engaged in business as a stationer. 
He married Mary M. Bullen. 

David Hoyt, son of David and Mary M. 
(Bullen) Hoyt, was born in Rochester, 
February 18, 1846, died in his native city 
at his home, No. 493 University avenue, 
February 16, 1916, lacking but two days 

190 



of completing his seventieth year. Al- 
though his father was head of a large and 
prosperous stationery business, that line 
of activity did not appeal to the son, and 
after completing his public school course 
of study he entered the employ of Ward 
& Brother, private bankers on State 
street, with whom he remained about five 
years. He was fifteen years of age when 
he first engaged with Ward & Brother, 
and from that time until his death, fifty- 
five years later, he was continuously en- 
gaged in banking in Rochester. With 
the exception of the five years noted, 
those years were spent in the service of 
the Monroe County Savings Bank, an 
institution he helped to develop from a 
stripling to a giant. In 1865, being then 
twenty years of age, he first entered the 
employ of that bank, beginning as head 
bookkeeper. He continued in trusted 
confidential, clerical capacity for eighteen 
years, then became an official of the bank 
by election in 1883 to the office of secre- 
tary-treasurer, a position of responsibility 
he held for thirty-two years. He gave to 
the Monroe County Savings Bank all of 
his energy and business ability, confining 
himself to that institution and its inter- 
ests, the only exception being in 1868 
when he aided in the organization of 
Rochester's first trust company and be- 
came a member of its first board of direc- 
tors. That institution was originally 
called the Rochester Safe Deposit Com- 
pany, and for twenty years occupied 
quarters in the Monroe County Savings 
Bank but in 1888 changed its title to the 
Rochester Trust & Safe Deposit Com- 
pany, moving then to its own building at 
Main, West and Exchange streets. 

Mr. Hoyt's hobby or ruling passion, 
however, was for savings banks and 
everywhere he preached their value. He 
was one of the most active members of 
the New York Savings Banks Association, 
and as a member of the executive council 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



of the American Bankers' Association, 
was particularly devoted to the savings 
banks branch. He was widely known 
throughout the State for his insistent 
championship of the savings banks' prin- 
ciple and was an authority, frequently 
consulted on their organization and man- 
agement. The years brought him valu- 
able experience, wisdom and ripened 
judgment, while the reputation he held 
from youth for uprightness but grew in 
strength, no blot marring his record as a 
financier. 

A Democrat in politics and interested in 
public affairs, National, State and local, 
Mr. Hoyt took no part in party affairs 
except in an advisory capacity, nor did he 
ever accept public office. He was a mem- 
ber of Christ Protestant Episcopal 
Church from its organization and for 
many years served as vestryman. Social, 
genial and public-spirited, he entered 
heartily into the social and philanthropic 
organizations of his city ; was a governor 
of the Homoeopathic Hospital and the 
well-known clubs, Rochester, Genesee 
Valley, Rochester Country and Roches- 
ter Athletic, claimed him as an active and 
interested member. Mr. Hoyt continued 
in good health until a short time previous 
to his death, which occurred on February 
16, 1916. 

Mr. Hoyt married, in 1868, Elizabeth 
R., daughter of Martin B. and Susan 
(Watts) Breck, her parents also early 
settlers in Rochester. Mrs. Hoyt sur- 
vives her husband with two sons: Martin 
B., member of the firm of C. P. Ford & 
Company, shoe manufacturers, and Burr C. 



KNOX, Seymour Horace, 

Representative Business Man. 

Seymour Horace Knox, who was re- 
garded as one of the nation's captains of 
industry, and who originated the Five and 



Ten Cent Store, died at his home, No. 
1045 Delaware avenue, Buffalo, New 
York, May 16, 191 5. He was descended 
from William Knox, who, according to 
the history of Blandford, Massachusetts, 
came to that town from Belfast, Ireland, 
m I 737- There was a large settlement of 
Scotch-Irish in this town. John Knox, 
son of William Knox, was born about 
1730, and probably came with his father 
to Blandford, where he lived, evidently 
following farming, as did his father. Cap- 
tain James Knox, son of John Knox, was 
born as early as 1750, and was a private in 
Captain John Ferguson's company, Colo- 
nel Timothy Danielson's regiment, from 
Blandford, from April 20, 1775, to August, 
and later in the year. He was sergeant 
in 1777, from Blandford, in Captain Aaron 
Coe's company, Lieutenant-Colonel Tim- 
othy Robinson's regiment. Oliver and 
John, sons of Adam Knox, were also 
soldiers from Blandford. Afterward, 
James Knox was known as captain, and 
doubtless held a commission in the militia 
as captain. In 1790 he appears to be a 
resident of Hillside, Massachusetts, ac- 
cording to the first Federal census, but 
he must have removed soon to Broome 
county, New York, as the history states 
that he came there in 1786, or a little later. 
The same authority states that he was an 
officer in the Revolution, and we have 
given his record as sergeant. He is said 
to have been one of Washington's life- 
guards. James Knox, son of Captain 
James Knox, was born September 25, 
1788, and died February 10, 1865, at Rus- 
sell, New York, where he followed farm- 
ing most of his active life. He held the 
rank of captain. His son, James Horace 
Knox, was born November 21, 1824, at 
Russell, New York, where he died March 
12, 1894. He was a farmer all his active 
life, and with his family was a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal church. He 



191 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



married, February 6, 1855, Jane E. Mc- 
Brier, born February 19, 1837, died Janu- 
ary 27, 1891, daughter of Henry McBrier. 

Seymour Horace Knox, son of James 
Horace and Jane E. (McBrier) Knox, was 
born April n, 1861, in the village of Rus- 
sell, St. Lawrence county, New York. He 
received his early education in the district 
school. At the age of fifteen he taught a 
country school, though he himself never 
attended a high school. When seventeen 
years old Mr. Knox went to Hart, Michi- 
gan, where he found employment as a 
clerk. After working there two or three 
years he moved to Reading, Pennsylvania, 
in which place the first five and ten cent 
store was started. Mr. Knox's cousin, 
F. W. Woolworth, went into partnership 
with him. The store was a success from 
the start, and it was the beginning of the 
chain of more than eight hundred five and 
ten cent stores, now under the manage- 
ment of F. W. Woolworth & Company, 
of which Mr. Knox was vice-president. 
Messrs. Knox and Woolworth conducted 
the store for a year, at the end of that 
time selling it to a local man. They went 
to Newark, New Jersey, and opened an- 
other store of the same nature. This store 
also was sold out, and Mr. Knox and his 
cousin went to Erie, Pennsylvania, where 
they continued in business for several 
years. The store there was conducted by 
Woolworth & Knox. After buying out 
his cousin's interest Mr. Knox left the 
place in charge of a subordinate and came 
to Buffalo. At that time he was twenty- 
nine years of age, and he opened his first 
store in this city in the Old Palace Ar- 
cade, in Lafayette Square, in the early 
'8o's. While he was getting his business 
under way here, he met Grace Millard, of 
Detroit, Michigan, whom he later mar- 
ried. 

The Buffalo store was opened and Mr. 
Knox laid the foundation for the syndi- 
cate of five and ten cent stores that were 



to be opened in different parts of the 
country. The S. H. Knox & Company 
syndicate was formed, and this grew until 
it had control of about one hundred stores. 
In 1912 there was a merger of the F. W. 
Woolworth Company, S. H. Knox & Com- 
pany, F. M. Kirby & Company, E. P. 
Charlton & Company, C. S. Woolworth 
and W. H. Moore. The new corporation 
was styled the F. W. Woolworth Com- 
pany, was capitalized at $65,000,000, and 
Mr. Knox, in addition to having a heavy 
interest, was made vice-president. He 
continued in that position until the time 
of his death. His wonderful genius for 
organization contributed in no small 
measure to the success of the great com- 
bination, which controlled about eight 
hundred stores. That he and the other 
officers were wide awake to all opportun- 
ities is indicated by the fact that in the 
last two years since the time of the 
merger fifty new stores were opened in 
England. These were conducted by a 
separate company, but were under the 
management of the F. W. Woolworth 
Company. Mr. Knox also was a member 
of the executive committee of this com- 
pany. 

The business activities of Mr. Knox 
were not, however, limited to the five and 
ten cent stores. For years he had been 
connected with many of the leading finan- 
cial and industrial interests of the city. 
In 1897 Mr. Knox first became identified 
with the Columbia National Bank, which 
then was located at the corner of Pearl 
and Church streets. He was vice-presi- 
dent of this bank until he brought about 
the merger of the Marine National and 
Columbia National banks, the business 
being combined under the name of the 
Marine National Bank. At the time of 
the union he was president of the new 
bank, but resigned that place and con- 
tinued as chairman of the board of direc- 
tors. He was active in the formation of 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the Bankers' Trust Company, occupying 
the office of vice-president, and he also 
was interested in the Central National 
Bank. Among the large industries which 
he helped to manage as director are the 
following: Rogers-Brown Iron Company, 
Jacob Dold Packing Company, Missis- 
sippi Central Railroad, United States 
Lumber Company, Great Southern Lum- 
ber Company, the Clawsen & Wilson 
Company, and the Henz-Kelley Company. 

Mr. Knox was a liberal patron of art 
and music. Numerous valuable paintings 
were presented to the Albright Art Gal- 
lery by him, and for a time he was a 
director of the Philharmonic Society. His 
private collection of paintings in his home 
was one of the finest in the city. Mr. 
Knox always had a fondness for the farm, 
and this liking manifested itself when he 
devoted much time to breeding horses, 
and to the development of what is now 
the Ideal Stock Farm at East Aurora. 
On this farm of about five hundred acres 
Mr. Knox built a beautiful house and 
spent his summers there. He had large 
racing stables and raised some fast horses. 

For more than twenty-five years Mr. 
Knox was identified with almost every 
interest which had to do with the develop- 
ment of Buffalo. His sagacity and judg- 
ment were keenly valued, and for a long 
time no enterprise of importance was 
launched before he was consulted. In all 
his business activity he always main- 
tained an enviable reputation for fairness 
and integrity. He always remembered 
his boyhood days, and in memory of them 
several years ago he endowed a school 
building at Russell. He went back and 
laid the cornerstone of the building. Mr. 
Knox was a thirty-second degree Mason, 
and held membership in Hugh de Payens 
Commandery, Knights Templar; Ancient 
Landmarks Lodge, Free and Accepted 
Masons ; the Buffalo Club ; the Country 
Club ; the Town and Country Club of 
n Y— vol in— 13 193 



Lockport ; the Elma Country Club, and 
the Hardware Country Club of New York. 
He was an independent Democrat, and a 
trustee of the Delaware Avenue Baptist 
Church, but not a member. 

Mr. Knox married, June 11, 1890, Grace, 
daughter of Charles and Sarah (Avery) 
Millard, of Detroit, Michigan, and had 
children : Gracis Millard, born March 7, 
1893, died July 30, 1895 ; Dorothy Vir- 
ginia; Seymour Horace, born September 
1, 1898; Marjorie. 

In November, 1915, Mr. Knox went 
South for his health, but this not proving 
beneficial he resorted to the more bracing 
climate of Atlantic City, New Jersey. He 
did not receive the benefit he expected, 
and returned home on the advice of his 
physician, his condition at the time of de- 
parture being serious. On his return 
home he was able to sit up, though only 
members of his family and close friends 
were permitted to converse with him. On 
Saturday night, May 15, 1915, at 9 o'clock, 
Mr. Knox lost consciousness, and failed 
gradually until the end came. His body 
was interred in Forest Lawn Cemetery. 
The Rev. Dr. Andrew V. V. Raymond, 
pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, 
and the Rev. Dr. S. V. V. Holmes, pastor 
of the Westminster Presbyterian Church, 
officiated. Mr. Knox was survived by his 
wife, a son and two daughters. 



SHUART, William Dean, 

Lawyer and Jurist. 

By birth and residence Judge Shuart 
was a lifelong citizen of Monroe county, 
New York. No man was more widely 
known and every acquaintance was a 
friend. He was surrogate of Monroe 
county, 1868-84, ar >d of polished courtesy, 
winsome manner, sympathetic, yet strong, 
he so realized the ideal surrogate that his 
administration of that office became the 
model and the emulation of his successors. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



As a lawyer he keenly appreciated the re- 
lation of trust which should exist between 
attorney and client and served with an 
eye single to the rights and interests of 
those who were so fortunate as to secure 
his professional services. A faithful coun- 
sellor, a loyal soldier and a just judge, he 
filled every station and discharged every 
duty, rounding out more than half a cen- 
tury of usefulness and service. Viewing 
his character and his life in its complete- 
ness, his work in its variety, his relations 
with his fellow-men in their complexity 
the verdict "well done good and faithful 
servant" must be rendered. The world 
was better for his life and the influence 
of that life did not end with his death. 

William Dean Shuart was born August 
ii, 1827, at Mendon, Monroe county, New 
York, and he died in Rochester, April 22, 
1900, death coming very suddenly without 
previous illness. He was educated at 
Genesee Wesleyan Seminary at Lima, 
New York, an institution of high merit 
conducted under the auspices of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church. He decided upon 
the profession of law and began study 
under the direction of his uncle, Denton 
G. Shuart, an eminent member of the 
Monroe county bar, surrogate of the 
county, 1852-56. He also studied under 
the preceptorship of Smith & Cornwall, 
lawyers of Lyons, New York, and in May, 
1850, was admitted to the Monroe county 
bar. He at once began practice in Roches- 
ter and in course of time took rank among 
the foremost men of the Rochester bar. 
He practiced without interruption until 
1862 ; then enlisted in the Union army and 
until the close of the war in 1865 he 
served as paymaster with the rank of 
major. 

After the war ended he returned to 
Rochester, resumed law practice until No- 
vember, 1867, when he was elected surro- 
gate of Monroe county, having previously 
served a term as city attorney of Roches- 



ter. He was twice reelected surrogate, 
serving continuously in that important 
and responsible office for sixteen years, 
1S68-84. His learning and ability richly 
qualified him for the office he held, but it 
was as well his kindliness of heart, cour- 
teous bearing and sympathy which im- 
parted to his court that atmosphere of 
serenity so grateful to the widows and 
orphans whose rights were there pre- 
served and safeguarded. He retired from 
the office with the highest respect of the 
attorneys who had appeared as counsel 
before his court and with the best wishes 
of every person whose interests had been 
the subject of that court's concern. He 
was absolutely just and impartial, his sole 
desire being to carry out in a legal way 
the provision of all wills and where the 
law was charged with the distribution to 
see that every form was complied with, 
the rights of minors and widows fully sus- 
tained, and no one wittingly wronged. 

On his retirement from the surrogate's 
office Judge Shuart formed a partnership 
with William A. Sutherland, and together 
they practiced in Rochester until death 
dissolved the connection. Many young 
men studied under Judge Shuart, among 
them Arthur E. Sutherland, who also be- 
came a partner, continuing until appointed 
county judge in 1896. As a lawyer Judge 
Shuart was learned and highly capable, a 
safe counsellor, a careful and conscien- 
tious adviser. He was honorable in the 
extreme in all his relations with his 
clients, and in the management of their 
interests was most scrupulous and exact. 
His private character was without stain 
or flaw, his entire life uplifting and en- 
nobling and an inspiration to his friends. 
His domestic life was most happy and in 
his home his many virtues shone the 
brightest. He was one of the manliest of 
men, yet possessed of the courtesy, gentle- 
ness and consideration of a woman, and 
was the friend of all who were weak or 



194 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



in need of a helping hand. He was espe- 
cially interested in young men and con- 
stantly aided them to success. 

He was an honored member of the Ma- 
sonic order, belonging to Frank H. Law- 
rence Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons ; 
Ionic Chapter, Royal Arch Masons ; Cy- 
rene Commandery, Knights Templar, and 
in Scottish Rite Masonry held the thirty- 
second degree; affiliated with Rochester 
Consistory. He ever retained a lively in- 
terest in his army comrades and until his 
death was a member of George H. Thomas 
Post, No. 4, Grand Army of the Republic. 

Judge Shuart married, September 22, 
1852, Hannah S., daughter of Peter and 
Mary (Ross) Shoecroft, of New York. 

Mrs. Shuart survives her husband, re- 
siding at No. 360 East avenue, Rochester. 
Two daughters were born to Judge and 
Mrs. Shuart: Stella, who resides with 
her mother, and Gertrude, wife of Wil- 
liam N. Tubbs, of Syracuse, New York. 

A striking evidence of the great respect 
and esteem in which Judge Shuart was 
held by the Monroe county bar was seen 
by the large gathering held in the trial 
term room of the court house on April 23, 
1900, for the purpose of taking action on 
his death. Justice John M. Davy, of the 
Supreme Court (now also deceased), was 
chairman of the meeting. Judge Davy 
appointed a committee to prepare a suit- 
able memorial, the committee consisting 
of George A. Benton, W. F. Coggswell, 
Charles A. Baker, S. D. Bentley, H. M. 
Hill and C. M. Williams. When the 
memorial was presented and adopted 
Judge Benton was appointed to present 
it to the appellate division and the trial 
and equity terms of the Supreme Court, 
and Judge Sutherland was named to pre- 
sent it to the Surrogate Court. Addresses 
of eulogy were delivered by John Van 
Vorhis, George Raines, P. B. Hatch and 
O. H. Stevens, after which Judge Davy 
appointed John Van Vorhis, J. A. Adding- 



ton, P. B. Hulett, F. B. Fanner, Charles 
B. King, H. W. Morris, H. W. Conklin, 
Nathaniel Foote and Adelbert Cronise to 
represent the bar at the funeral of their 
departed comrade and friend. 



GARDINER, Richard, 

City and County Official. 

Although a comparatively young man 
Mr. Gardiner had been so very active in 
public life that the achievement of seem- 
ingly a longer life was apparent. Death 
came to him suddenly at the ball park 
while watching a game between Roches- 
ter and Newark teams. Could he have 
ordered the manner of his going out, one 
cannot but believe he would have so 
ordered it, for he was so active, so ener- 
getic and so full of life, vigor and useful 
planning, that a period of helpless in- 
action would have been a sore trial. He 
was a native son of Rochester and there 
engaged in business, but it was as city 
and county official that he was widely and 
favorably known. 

Richard Gardiner was born in the ninth 
ward of the city of Rochester, November 
6, 1867, died May 10, 1910. He was edu- 
cated in public and parochial schools, dis- 
playing even in early life promise of 
future usefulness. He conducted a cloth- 
ing store on State street until shortly be- 
fore his death and was successful as a 
business man. At the age of twenty-five 
years he made his entrance into public 
official life, his first office that of school 
commissioner, to which he was elected in 
1892, serving from the second ward. 
Later he resigned from the board to 
accept appointment as overseer of the 
poor, an office he held most creditably for 
six years. During his term of office there 
was much distress in the city, caused 
by the panic of 1893, and in alleviating 
this distress Mr. Gardiner displayed his 
promptness and ability to deal with an 



195 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



emergency. He established a city stone- 
yard and there gave employment to hun- 
dreds of men in need of work. He was 
also instrumental in bringing about a re- 
form in the manner of transporting the 
injured to the hospitals, abolishing the 
system of taking them in police patrol 
wagons and establishing the present am- 
bulance system. When elected to repre- 
sent Rochester in the New York House 
of Assembly Mr. Gardiner proved a most 
valuable member. He served on impor- 
tant committees and was very helpful in 
securing appropriations for much needed 
improvements. One hundred thousand 
dollars was obtained for school purposes, 
a new West avenue lift bridge for which 
five' thousand dollars was appropriated 
by the Armstrong bill and other improve- 
ments for Rochester were secured with 
his aid. On April 8, 1902, he was ap- 
pointed county purchasing agent, the new 
law creating that office having gone into 
effect a few days prior to his appointment. 
He filled the office most acceptably until 
the next county election, then was chosen 
by ballot to fill the same office. He con- 
tinued in that office until his death, each 
succeeding reelection showing increased 
pluralities. He possessed rare executive 
ability and in no office he ever held was 
he found wanting. Patience, upright- 
ness, clear, farsighted vision distinguished 
him and marked him a superior man. His 
associates of the Board of Supervisors 
expressed their regret at his death by offi- 
cial action and attended his funeral in a 
body. His fellow members of the Second 
Ward Republican Committee also adopted 
resolutions of respect. He was a mem- 
ber of the Rochester Club, the Country 
Club, the Rochester Whist Club, Benevo- 
lent and Protective Order of Elks, Knights 
of Columbus and Cathedral Church (Cath- 
olic). 

Mr. Gardiner married Edith Scoles, 



daughter of John and Elizabeth (Thomas) 
Scoles, of Rochester. Mrs. Gardiner sur- 
vives him with a daughter, Edith Eliza- 
beth. 



ELWOOD, Frank Worcester, 
Lawyer, Banker. 

Frank Worcester Elwood was born in 
Rochester, New York, April 4, 1850, the 
son of Isaac R. and Anna Elizabeth 
(Gold) Elwood. His father was promi- 
nent both in business and politics, clerk 
of the State Senate from 1843 t0 l &47 
inclusive and accumulated a handsome 
estate. 

Frank Worcester Elwood obtained his 
preliminary education in the schools of 
his native city and in 1869 he entered 
Hobart College, remaining there about a 
year, where he joined the Sigma Phi fra- 
ternity to which he was always devotedly 
attached, did much to advance its inter- 
ests and was greatly beloved by its mem- 
bership. He subsequently matriculated at 
Harvard University, where his associa- 
tions were of the most desirable and re- 
fined character, being affiliated with the 
Hasty Pudding Club, A. D. Club, Delta 
Kappa Epsilon (honorary) "Der Verein" 
and the Glee Club. He was graduated 
Bachelor of Arts with the class of 1874. 
After graduation he attended the Har- 
vard Law School until May 1, 1876, when 
he was obliged to intermit his studies be- 
cause of a serious accident. He resumed 
them in the fall, joining the second year 
class at the law department of Columbia 
University, attaining his Bachelor of Laws 
degree in May, 1877. He continued his 
preparation for the profession in the office 
of the Hon. George F. Danforth in 
Rochester, and in June, 1878, was admit- 
ted to the bar of New York State. The 
care of his estate and other business mat- 
ters obviated from engaging actively in 
96 




g^^uwao W^L^-^^^ 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the practice of the law, and from Septem- 
ber, 1881, until July, 1883, he was in part- 
nership with A. S. Hodges, of New York 
City, in banking and stock brokerage in 
Rochester, under the firm name of F. W. 
Elwood & Company, and continued in the 
same business in partnership with T. L. 
Scovill, under the same firm name for 
about a year and a half. He was also a 
member of the Chicago Board of Trade 
and of the National Petroleum and Min- 
ing Exchange of New York. He be- 
stowed much of his time, energies and 
loving thought to the erection and super- 
vision of the Elwood Memorial Building, 
which stands at and notably adorns the 
famous "Four Corners," a splendid speci- 
men of architecture, at once a testimony 
to his business sagacity and artistic taste 
and a monument of his filial affection. 

Never seeking or even desiring political 
preferment he was ever ready to give a 
helping hand to all associations for the 
welfare of the community and the promo- 
tion of good government. Thus he served 
as vice-president of the Rochester His- 
torical Society, was a member of the Sons 
of the American Revolution, member of 
the Board of Park Commissions, the 
Chamber of Commerce, the Municipal 
Reform League and the Forestry Asso- 
ciation. He was also president of the 
Rochester Club, a member of the Genesee 
Valley Club and of the University Club 
of New York City. He was the founder 
of the Men's Club of St. Paul's Church. 
He attended French School, near Paris, 
for two years, and was a linquist of note, 
a great scholar. Of fascinating address 
and gracious hospitality he was an orna- 
ment of social and of scholarly inclination 
at home and in intellectual circles. He 
was an honorable, high-minded gentle- 
man, whose memory is precious in many 
hearts. 

He married, April 4, 1885, at Rochester, 
Frederica (Pumpelly) Raymond, who 



survives him, with a daughter, born Feb- 
ruary 8, 1890. He died June 8, 1899, at 
his residence in East avenue, still the 
home of his wife and daughter. By her 
previous marriage his wife has a daugh- 
ter, Victoria Raymond, now Mrs. Walter 
W. Powers. 



MAHON, Patrick, 

Active Business Man and Churchman. 

Although hardly yet in the prime of his 
splendid manhood at the time of his 
death, Mr. Mahon had for years been 
prominent and probably accomplished 
more active work in the short time allot- 
ted him than others in double the years. 
He was a pillar of support not only to his 
own church, the Cathedral of Rochester, 
but to all the other churches and charities 
in the city and diocese. No matter what 
the call or how laborious the work per- 
taining to the numerous charities attached 
to his beloved church, his support was 
never found wanting. As a church man 
he was most devoted, but he was best 
known from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
as an Irish patriot of the noblest type, 
and when the history of Ireland's struggle 
for freedom is written his place therein 
will not be less than the most illustrious 
of his time. He was a patriot in the 
double sense that while he loved the land 
of his adoption, he still revered the 
memory of the land which gave him birth. 

He was a man of peculiar parts, he had 
the courage of his convictions and if he 
considered any action proper no amount 
of labor and expense prevented him from 
carrying it out. He had a wonderful 
faculty for enlisting others in support of 
his plans, his magnetism and sound com- 
mon sense inspiring all who came within 
the radius of his influence. He was the 
founder, father and one of the most active 
members of the Monroe County Land 
League, an organization for which he 



197 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



labored unceasingly, for on the success 
of the American Land League he felt the 
future success of the Irish people de- 
pended. As a business man he was just, 
honorable and correct in all his dealings 
and of such extraordinary ability that his 
high qualities were universally recog- 
nized. As a citizen he was keenly sen- 
sible of his duty and ever ready to assume 
and perform any service imposed upon 
him. He was constant and true in his 
friendships and in his home circle loving, 
kind and indulgent. 

Patrick Mahon, son of John Mahon, 
was born in County Cavan, Ireland, in 
1S38, died in Rochester, New York, Feb- 
ruary 1, 1881. He was brought to the 
United States in 1842, his parents locating 
in Newark, New Jersey. The lad was 
educated in parochial schools. He began 
business life with a New York City com- 
mercial house, but in 1853, through the 
influence of Mr. Fitz Simmons, he came 
to Rochester with that gentleman who 
was then a member of the firm of Owen 
Gaffney & Company, later Burke, Fitz 
Simmons, Hone & Company. He began 
as errand boy, soon was made entry clerk, 
finally becoming head bookkeeper. He 
was tried out in many difficult positions 
and so satisfactorily did he meet every 
test of his powers that in 1866 he was 
admitted a partner. He developed a 
strong business ability and was recog- 
nized as a man of high principles, sterling 
worth and strict integrity. He continued 
a partner in the dry goods house of Burke, 
Fitz Simmons, Hone & Company until 
his death, winning the truest regard of 
his business associates and attaining en- 
viable prominence in the business world. 

Great as were the energies he devoted 
to his business, he had other important 
interests. He was a friend to every good 
work and to the church and her charities, 
he gave not only of his substance but of 
his business and executive ability. 



Prompt, fiery, tireless, patient, painstak- 
ing and indomitable, he could endure no 
failure. What he undertook must suc- 
ceed, and once enlisted in a cause, who- 
ever failed or flagged, he was reliable. He 
was devoted to Ireland, her cause was his 
cause and her friends his friends. He was 
a prominent member of the Fenian 
Brotherhood and was treasurer of the 
fund that equipped the ship "Catalpa" 
(of which he was part owner) which 
rescued from penal servitude in Australia 
six members of the brotherhood who had 
been in the British army and were under 
conviction and sentence for treason. He 
was founder of the Monroe County Land 
League, a member of the Celtic Club and 
in constant communication with friends 
of Ireland at home and abroad. He was 
a close reader of the Irish press and no 
significant event or drift of opinion 
escaped his quick intelligence. Had he 
devoted his talents and energies in the 
same degree to American politics, he 
would have gone high in public life. He 
was one of the chief organizers of the 
Catholic Times Publishing Company in 
Rochester, and at the time of his death 
was a director and treasurer of that com- 
pany. In politics he was a Republican, 
and in religious faith a Roman Catholic, 
a devoted and prominent member of St. 
Patrick's Cathedral for many years. He 
was also a leading member of the Young 
Men's Catholic Association. He passed 
from life with mind unclouded, fortified 
by the strengthening sacraments and 
ministrations of the church, the tender 
devotion of his wife and family, the 
genuine respect of the community, at 
peace with God and the world. 

Patrick Mahon married (first) Mary 
McQuillan, who died in 1864, leaving a 
daughter, Mary Evelyn. He married 
(second) February 14, 1871, Kate C. Mc- 
Roden, who survives him, daughter of 
Michael McRoden, who was born in 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Monaghan, Ireland, in 1817, died in 
Rochester in 1844; became one of the best 
known clothing merchants of the city ; he 
was a man of high character, most scru- 
pulous in his integrity, greatly esteemed 
by all who knew him. His wife, Julia 
McRoden, died aged fifty-six years, a 
woman of lovely disposition, leaving two 
daughters, Mrs. Patrick Mahon, and Mrs. 
James Mooney, of Buffalo. Mr. and Mrs. 
Mahon were the parents of five children : 
Patrick Vincent, Corinne L., Arthur J., 
Julia D. (Mrs. George P. Gilman), Alex- 
ander. 



CORTHELL, Elmer Lawrence, D. Sc, 
Civil Engineer, Author. 

"Coming events cast their shadows be- 
fore." At the age of twelve Dr. Corthell 
was librarian at the village library, and 
at that age had read all of the two hun- 
dred volumes in that library, a collection 
ranging from "Confessions of an Opium 
Eater" to "Dwight's Theology." At six 
teen the walls of his bedroom were plas- 
tered with Latin and Greek mottoes, such 
as "Improbus Labor Omnia Vincit" (Per- 
severing Labor Overcomes Everything"), 
"Gnothi Sauton" ("Know Thyself"), who 
later ranked as one of the great civil engi- 
neers of the world. 

Bibliography of his own publications 
reads like the catalogue of a library, and 
at the time of his decease, May 17, 1916, 
he was in the full prime of his intellectual 
and professional strength. After com- 
pleting a record of most distinguished 
achievement the opinion of Dr. Corthell 
as to the value of college training was 
valuable, as valuable as his opinions, 
which great corporations, governments 
and municipalities sought and paid liber- 
ally for when contemplating engineering 
projects of magnitude. He said in his 
argument for the affirmative : "I say here 



advisedly, and as a result of experience, 
that I was enabled to attack and to solve 
the problems (engineering) solely by this 
discipline of a classical education at Ab- 
ington, Exeter and Brown University. 
There is no opinion about this matter. 
It is a fact that has appeared plainly at 
many times of my life. The education 
outlined has enabled me to do things that 
I never could have done without it. It 
has given me power in my professional 
work during the past forty-seven years 
(1914) — more than that it has carried me 
far afield of engineering, and given me 
world-wide interests along many lines of 
human activity. What I have said about 
the real value of a classical education in 
my own case I can say from personal 
knowledge about engineers all over the 
world where my business and my inter- 
ests have taken me." 

In view of the strong position Dr. 
Corthell took in favor of a classical edu- 
cation, and the importance he gave it as 
a vital force in his own success, the course 
of preparatory and college study he pur- 
sued is of deep interest. He was born 
at South Abington (now Whitman), 
Massachusetts, September 30, 1840, son 
of James Lawrence and Mary Ellis (Gur- 
ney) Corthell, of Scotland, the founder of 
the family in America. His ancestor on 
his father's side, six generations ago, was 
Robert Corthell. His mother's family 
was French and came to England with 
William of Normandy. The French name 
was Gurne — anglicized to Gurney. John 
Gurney, the noted Quaker, was a member 
of the family. His father, a man of little 
school education, craved it for his chil- 
dren, and at the age of three years sent 
his son, Elmer L., to the village school. 
At twelve he was librarian of the village 
library and familiar with the contents of 
every book it contained. Rollin's "An- 
cient History," Grote's "History of 



199 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Greece," Gibbon's "Decline and Fall of 
the Roman Empire," Hume's "History 
of England," Cooper's and Irving's works, 
were part only of his reading at that age, 
and the contents of those books remained 
in his memory, although read at so early 
an age. At sixteen he entered enthusias- 
tically into the study of Latin, Greek and 
higher mathematics, one of a class of ten 
boys and girls studying under the village 
school master, a young man fresh from 
Bowdoin College. 

Early in 1858 he was prepared for en- 
trance to Phillips Exeter Academy as a 
senior, but disappointed in not receiving 
$1,000 for his education promised by his 
grandfather, and his father not having the 
means to send him, he borrowed $15.00 
from him, for which he gave his note, and 
with a small shoe-mending kit of tools, a 
little leather, and a flat iron, which his 
mother gave him, he entered Exeter, 
where the door of his room was adorned 
with the announcement, "boots and shoes 
mended" and "washing done here." He 
literally "worked" his way through the 
first year, won a scholarship, and was 
graduated with honors. In 1859 he en- 
tered Brown University, and as at Exeter 
earned the money to meet expenses, doing 
the most menial work if honorable. He 
also found some private pupils to "tutor," 
yet stood second in his class at the close 
of his freshman year. During the ensu- 
ing vacation he obtained through the 
kindness of Professor Cilley, of Exeter, 
the position of "coach" in Latin, Greek 
and mathematics to the two sons of Gov- 
ernor Anderson, of Ohio, who had been 
"conditioned" at Harvard, for which serv- 
ice he received a "professional fee" of 
eighty dollars, a sum which he testifies 
amounted to more, to him, than later the 
two thousand gold pesos did when handed 
him for one month's services as consult- 
ing engineer of the Argentine Republic. 



Before the close of his sophomore year 
he enlisted in May, 1861, for "three years 
or the war" as a private in Battery A, 
First Regiment Rhode Island Light Ar- 
tillery, was at first battle of Rull Run and 
saw four years and two months of active 
service, principally with the Army of the 
Potomac in Virginia, and in North Caro- 
lina. He was promoted, corporal, ser- 
geant, second lieutenant, first lieutenant, 
and in the last year of the war in the 
Shenondoah valley, captain of Battery D 
of his own regiment. 

Following his return from the army 
was his return to Brown University, 
whence he was graduated as Bachelor of 
Arts, third in his class of 1867, and the 
following year won the degree of Master 
of Arts. In 1894 the degree of Doctor of 
Science was conferred upon him by 
Brown for distinguished engineering serv- 
ices to the country and for his contribu- 
tions to engineering literature. His work 
in the earlier years of his course won him 
the Phi Beta Kappa key, and his later 
work the Sigma Xi, and in 1894 his alma 
mater conferred the degree "Scicntae Doc- 
toris pro Mcritis." He applied himself so 
closely to his studies that before the close 
of his senior year he was advised that to 
escape a permanent breakdown he should 
secure out-of-doors occupation. This neces- 
sitated a change in his plans, but he met 
the situation squarely, abandoned his 
original intentions, and selected civil engi- 
neering, a profession he was prepared for 
only as every liberally educated boy is 
prepared for anything. Almost imme- 
diately after graduation he was called to 
Hannibal, Missouri, as assistant on the 
construction of the railway line, now a 
part of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas 
railway system. His work demanded a 
knowledge of railway and bridge con- 
struction which he did not possess, but in 
place of experience and practice he had a 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



fund of knowledge stored up and the dis- 
cipline from his college study which en- 
abled him, with a night's special study, to 
solve engineering and construction prob- 
lems submitted to him during the day. 

Thus with but the little time devoted to 
special technical study in the offices of 
Cushing & DeWitt, civil engineers, Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island, he was able to satis- 
factorily fill the position of assistant engi- 
neer. His equipment was largely the 
regular college classical course. It is on 
this fact that he based his argument in 
favor of a classical college education no 
matter what profession is to be followed. 
In less than a year he was made division 
engineer of forty-five miles of the Hanni- 
bal & Central Missouri lailroad and so 
rapid was his rise that in 1870 he was ap- 
pointed chief assistant engineer on the 
construction of a bridge across the Mis- 
sissippi river at Hannibal. 

During the years 1871-1874 he was chief 
engineer of the Sny Island levee on the 
Mississippi river in Illinois, and in 1873 
chief engineer of the Chicago & Alton 
railroad bridge over the Mississippi at 
Louisiana, Missouri, with a draw four 
hundred and forty-four feet long, the 
longest draw in the world at that time. 
He had in the meantime attracted the 
favorable regard of the great engineer, 
James B. Eads, and at his request Mr. 
Corthell, furnished a statement and gave 
an opinion regarding the proposed jetty 
construction for improving the South 
Pass of the Mississippi river. This state- 
ment was used before Congress, and when 
Mr. Eads was awarded the contract he 
chose Mr. Corthell to take charge of the 
construction of the now famous jetties at 
the South Pass mouth of the Mississippi. 
He was engaged in this work for four 
years, the results obtained in deepening 
the pass amply justifying the confidence 
and faith in the success of the project held 



by both Mr. Eads and Mr. Corthell. These 
jetties increased the depth on the South 
Pass Bar from nine to over thirty feet, 
and have maintained that depth of chan- 
nel until the present time. As a result the 
ocean commerce of New Orleans has 
vastly increased, as has the importance 
of the city as a railroad terminus in the 
development of the "Mississippi Valley 
Route." One of the interesting and valu- 
able books emanating from Mr. Corthell's 
pen, "History of the Mississippi Jetties," 
was published in 1880. But a little over 
a decade had passed since with some mis- 
givings he accepted his first engineer's 
position. His reputation had in that time 
become national and he was rated with 
the brightest lights of his profession. 

In the winter of 1880 he went to the 
Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico, to make 
surveys for the ship railway, associated 
with Mr. Eads. He made a survey of the 
mouth of the Coatzacoalcos river, on the 
gulf of Mexico, and an examination of the 
Pacific coast for a harbor for the ship 
railway. In 1881-1884 he was chief engi- 
neer on the construction of the New York, 
West Shore & Buffalo, and the New York- 
Ontario & Western railways and their 
terminal at New York City, being in 
charge of the work "in the field." He was 
in charge at the same time as chief engi- 
neer of the extensive surveys on the 
Isthmus of Tehuantepec for the ship rail- 
way. From 1885 to 1887 he gave nearly 
his entire attention to this important 
project and the inter-oceanic question, 
studying and writing upon its engineer- 
ing and commercial features. He ad- 
dressed the commerce committee of the 
House of Representatives, United States 
Congress, which had before it the bill to 
charter the ship railway. He delivered 
addresses in several cities of the United 
States, particularly at Ann Arbor, Michi- 
gan, before' the American Association for 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the Advancement of Science ; the Lowell 
Institute, Boston; the Academy of 
Science, New York; the Franklin Insti- 
tute, Philadelphia ; a Commercial Con- 
vention at Pensacola, Florida ; at the Ex- 
position, New Orleans; and in the Acad- 
emy of Music, Galveston, Texas. Sev- 
eral of these addresses were printed and 
widely distributed. He wrote a complete 
illustrated exposition of the subject, treat- 
ing fully its historical, engineering, con- 
structive and commercial features. The 
pamphlet, with others written by him, 
was sent to every civilized country, and 
did much to enlighten the world upon the 
method proposed and the great value to 
commerce of an inter-ocean route. 

In 1887-18S8 he was associated in an 
engineering partnership in New York and 
Chicago with George S. Morison, en- 
gaged in the design and construction of 
railroads, bridges, harbor works and water 
works. During this partnership there 
were constructed : The Cairo bridge over 
the Ohio river for the Illinois Central 
railroad, the longest steel bridge in the 
world; Nebraska City bridge over the 
Missouri river for the Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy railway; the Sioux City 
bridge over the same river for the Chi- 
cago & Northwestern railway; two 
bridges in Oregon ; the railroad bridge 
over the St. John's river at Jacksonville, 
Florida, and several other large bridges 
and viaducts. Mr. Corthell made at that 
time several expert examinations of rail- 
road properties for bankers in London 
and New York. 

In 1889-1890 he was chief engineer of 
the construction of the St. Louis Mer- 
chants' bridge over the Mississippi river ; 
chief engineer of the improvements at the 
mouth of the Brazos river, Texas, con- 
sisting of jetties built into the gulf of 
Mexico, increasing the depth of water 
from five feet to twenty feet. In 1890- 



1893 ne was m charge, as consulting engi- 
neer, of important railroad constructions 
in Chicago for the Illinois Central & Atch- 
ison, Topeka & Santa Fe railways, called 
the "Independent Entrance" of these 
roads. This work comprised the construc- 
tion of a six-track railroad, where only 
one had existed, and a rearrangement of 
the tracks at one of the most complicated 
track situations in the United States, if 
not in the world. 

In 1889 he made examinations, plans 
and report on the proposed improvement 
of the harbor of Tampico, Mexico, for the 
Mexican Central railroad, and had charge 
of the construction of the jetties as chief 
engineer during /1890-91-92. They in- 
creased the depth from about eight feet, 
which existed at the mouth of the Panuco 
river, over a changeable and dangerous 
bar, to a wide navigable channel with a 
least depth of twenty-eight feet. They 
raised the port of Tampico from one of 
little importance to be second entrepot of 
Mexico, and reduced freight rates from 
all United States and European ports to 
the entire interior of the Mexican Repub- 
lic. In 1895 Mr. Corthell wrote a descrip- 
tive and illustrated paper upon these 
works for the Institute of Civil Engineers, 
London, for which he was awarded the 
Telford premium and the Watt medal. The 
deep channel was practically produced by 
the works alone without resort to dredg- 
ing, except to remove some hard material 
which had formed around a large num- 
ber of wrecks sunken into the bar. The 
channel was maintained without any 
dredging whatever. In 1890 Mr. Corthell 
made a thorough personal examination 
between the Great Lakes and Quebec, 
Canada, of the question of an enlarged 
waterway between Chicago, Duluth and 
other ports of the Great Lakes, and the 
Atlantic seaboard, and wrote a paper on 
this subject for the Canadian Society of 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Civil Engineers, and the Western Society 
of Engineers at Chicago. He was presi- 
dent and chief engineer of the Southern 
Bridge and Railway Company, incorpor- 
ated in 1889 to build a bridge over the 
Mississippi river at New Orleans, and 
completed the plans and specifications for 
construction. 

In 1891 Mr. Corthell visited Europe 
with several important objects in view. 
As trustee of the University of Chicago 
he examined six of the leading universi- 
ties and technical schools of Europe to 
obtain information for the university in 
carrying out its purpose of establishing 
in connection with it a great school of 
engineering and architecture. As a mem- 
ber of a committee of the Western Soci- 
ety of Engineers, engaged in solving the 
difficult railroad problem of Chicago, he 
examined in Europe thirty-five railroad 
terminals and complicated situations. He 
examined twenty-six harbors of Europe 
to get special information to use in con- 
nection with his work at Tampico, Mex- 
ico, and elsewhere. He examined nearly 
all the subways of the world from Buda- 
pest to Glasgow. 

In 1892, under a contract with the Mex- 
ican government, he was engaged with 
two associates (Messrs. Stanhope and 
Hampson) on the completion of the Na- 
tional railroad of Tehuantepec, Mexico, 
which opens up a new and important 
inter-oceanic route across the Mexican 
Isthmus. He had charge of the surveys, 
plans and estimates for the harbors for 
the route, and made a report upon them 
to the Mexican government. He was 
chairman of the executive committee of 
sixteen engineering societies, which or- 
ganized an International Engineering 
Congress, held at Chicago, at the World's 
Exposition in 1893, and was chairman of 
the general committee of the Congress. 
In November, 1895, Mr. Corthell deliv- 



ered a lecture before the National Geo- 
graphic Society, at Washington, D. C, on 
the Tehuantepec Inter-oceanic Route. 
This lecture was considered by the United 
States Senate of sufficient value to the 
general subject of inter-oceanic transit to 
authorize the printing of about 1,850 
copies. 

In 1897 Mr. Corthell undertook an ex- 
tensive tour of Europe to examine a great 
variety of engineering works — harbors, 
terminals, railroads, mountain railways, 
methods of building and maintaining ship 
canals, methods of dredging, the protec- 
tion of sandy coasts against encroach- 
ments of the sea, ship building, under- 
ground rapid transit, and particularly to 
learn the present methods of engineering 
education with the view of presenting the 
subject to President Harper of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. His report on this 
subject was exhaustive, after examining 
nearly all the best schools of Great Britain 
and Continental Europe. This report was 
published by the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology. 

Many of the results of his various ex- 
aminations and investigations were pub- 
lished in the Engineering Magazine in 
New York and London. The most ex- 
tensive work done by him, however, in 
the two years' time in Europe was upon 
the subject of maritime commerce, its 
past, present and future. In August, 
1898, he presented the results of his work 
to the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, which held its fif- 
tieth anniversary at Boston, Massachu- 
setts. The object of the paper was to 
show the development of commerce in the 
half century past and probable develop- 
ment in the half century to come. 

In the spring of 1898 the Secretary of 
State, Mr. Sherman, commissioned Mr. 
Corthell as delegate to the seventh Inter- 
national Congress of Navigation held at 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Brussels in July of that year. He was 
elected vice-president of the congress, and 
placed upon the bureau of the congress 
to arrange for a permanent organization 
to be adopted at its next meeting at Paris 
in 1900. He wrote a report upon the Brus- 
sels Congress of two hundred and forty- 
five printed pages and one hundred and 
fifteen illustrations, which was printed as 
a United States Senate document by the 
suggestion of Secretary John Hay, one 
thousand copies being bound and distrib- 
uted by the State Department to all parts 
of the world. 

Mr. Corthell, upon his return to the 
United States, was engaged as expert on 
several important works in the United 
States and Mexico. He was for eleven 
years engaged as engineer upon the pro- 
ject of the "Boston Cape Cod and New 
York Ship Canal" across the Isthmus of 
Cape Cod to shorten the distance between 
points south and points north of the 
peninsula, around which now pass annu- 
ally over 28,000,000 tons of commerce. 

In 1899 the Argentine government re- 
quested the United States government to 
recommend an engineer of large experi- 
ence upon river and harbor works who 
would undertake to act as its consulting 
engineer for two years upon the impor- 
tant problems connected with the great 
rivers and harbors of that country. Mr. 
Corthell was recommended for this posi- 
tion, the contract for which was signed 
in New York on March 23, 1900, and on 
the 26th of the same month he left for 
Buenos Aires, where for over two years 
he was engaged in solving problems for 
commerce, and reporting to the minister 
of public works. Thirty-six different sub- 
jects were referred to him for investiga- 
tion and report. 

He presented to the International Navi- 
gation Congress, Paris, 1900, a paper on 
"The Ports of the World," in which he 



compiled important information relating to 
one hundred and thirty-one principal ports 
and ship canals of the world. The object 
of this paper, the tables of which were 
made up after an extended correspond- 
ence, was to show the necessity of making 
deep channels for sea-going vessels and 
the paper was really supplementary to 
that upon maritime commerce noted 
above, presented to the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science in 
1898. 

In 1902 Mr. Corthell was elected presi- 
dent of the government board of the port 
of Rosario, Argentine. The propositions 
and plans from Europe, presented to the 
government, were examined by the board 
during two months. It decided upon the 
plans and made its report to the govern- 
ment. The works were inaugurated by 
the president of the Republic on October 
26, 1902. They cost $12,000,000 gold. Mr. 
Corthell represented the Argentine gov- 
ernment as a delegate to the International 
Navigation Congress held at Dusseldorf 
in the summer of 1902. He was also ap- 
pointed by the United States upon the 
permanent international commission of 
Navigation Congresses, which has its 
domicile in Brussels, and which position 
he held up to the time of his death. He 
was commissioned by the United States 
State Department delegate to the Inter- 
national Navigation Congress, convened 
at Milan, Italy, September 24, 1905, which 
he attended and where he presented a 
paper on the dimensions of vessels and 
ports of the world, the result of five years 
of investigations of two hundred and 
twenty ports from Aberdeen to Yoko- 
homa. During the winter of 1902 and the 
spring of 1903 Mr. Corthell delivered 
thirty-six lectures in thirty cities of the 
United States and Mexico upon "Two 
Years in Argentine as Consulting Engi- 
neer of National Public Works." These 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



were delivered before universities, com- 
mercial bodies, engineering societies, etc., 
at the request of the Argentine govern- 
ment. 

He was appointed in February, 1904, 
by Governor Odell of New York State 
upon the advisory board of consulting 
engineers, to build the barge canals of 
that State, to cost over $100,000,000, from 
which he resigned later to give all his 
time to Brazilian works. During 1904-05 
he was engaged in making examinations, 
plans and estimates for extensive works 
in Brazil, at Para, in St. Catharina, and 
Rio Grande do Sul, and was engaged in 
the construction of the Para and Rio 
Grande works, consulting engineer of the 
former and chief engineer of the latter. 
He was engaged as consulting engineer 
on commercial works in other countries, 
and in hydraulic works of the United 
States. 

In 1904 he presented a paper to the 
International Engineering Congress held 
at St. Louis on "Railroad Terminals, Re- 
view of General Practice." In the same 
year he wrote an illustrated article for the 
Encyclopedia Americana on "Large Pas- 
senger Stations of the World." In 1906 
he presented a paper to the Institution of 
Civil Engineers, London, on "Pressures 
on Deep Foundations," and to the French 
Society of Civil Engineers on "Currents 
in the Navigable Waterways of the 
World." All four papers were the results 
of very extended investigations covering 
several years. 

The cost of the works of which Mr. 
Corthell had responsible charge exceeded 
$140,000,000. In 1912 he presented a re- 
port on the required dimensions of mari- 
time canals to the International Naviga- 
tion Congress at Philadelphia. In 1915 
he presented a paper on the improvement 
of mouths of rivers, etc., to the second Pan 
American Scientific Congress, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 



After forty-eight years of exceedingly 
active and laborious work Mr. Corthell 
found his chief source of satisfaction in 
the fact that his works were conducive 
to the benefit of commerce by sea, river, 
canal and rail, and he could point with 
pride to the results which, in a measure, 
aided in reducing the cost of transporta- 
tion on land and water, and so have bene- 
fited mankind. 

Mr. Corthell was a member of the fol- 
lowing societies: The American Society 
of Civil Engineers, of which he was presi- 
dent in 1916; the Canadian Society of 
Civil Engineers; the Institution of Civil 
Engineers of Great Britain ; the Royal 
Society of Arts of Great Britain ; membre 
d'honneur of the French Society of Civil 
Engineers, and corresponding member 
of that society ; the Mexican Association 
of Civil Engineers and Architects ; honor- 
ary member of the Geographical and Sta : 
tistical Society of Mexico ; member of the 
American Geographical Society ; the Na- 
tional Geographic Society, Washington, 
D. C. ; fellow of the Royal Geographical 
Society, London ; the Boston Society of 
Civil Engineers; the Western Society of 
Engineers, Chicago; fellow of the Amer- 
ican Association for the Advancement of 
Science, vice-president and member of the 
council ; second vice-president of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, in 
1888, first vice-president in 1893; presi- 
dent of the Western Society of Engineers 
in 1889; honorary member of the Engi- 
neering Society of Portugal, the Institu- 
tion of Engineers of the River Plate, of 
the Centro de Navigacion Transatlantica, 
and Sociedad Cientifica of Argentine, and 
a life member of the Engineers' Club of 
Rio de Janeiro ; member of the American 
Railway Engineering Association ; Amer- 
ican Institute Consulting Engineers, pres- 
ident in 1915, reelected in 1916; Franklin 
Institute of Philadelphia ; American High- 
way Association ; Pan American Society 



205 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



of the United States; a founder of the 
Pan American Chamber of Commerce ; 
chairman (1916) of Section D, American 
Association for the Advancement of 
Science, and a member of the council ; 
Chamber of Commerce United States of 
America, and member of committee on 
merchant marine. 

He was a member of several military 
and patriotic societies : Grand Army of 
the Republic; Military Order of the Loyal 
Legion of the United States ; Sons of the 
American Revolution ; the New England 
Society ; Society of the Army of the Po- 
tomac, and of academical societies and 
clubs, including the University Club of 
New York City, and of honorary college 
societies — Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi. 

Bibliography of publications of Dr. E. 
L. Corthell : "Leveeing on the Upper Mis- 
sissippi," 1874 (Civil Engineers' Club of 
the Northwest). "Sny Island Levee Com- 
pared with Levees on the Lower Missis- 
sippi," Louisiana, Missouri, 1874. "Im- 
provement of the Mouth of the Missis- 
sippi River," New York (American Soci- 
ety of Civil Engineers, Eighth Annual 
Convention, 1876. "History of the Mis- 
sissippi Jetties — -The South Pass Jetties," 
1880. "The Overflow of the Mississippi 
River," presented to American Society of 
Civil Engineers, 1882. "Tehuantepec 
Ship Railway ; its Practicability and Com- 
mercial Features," from the "Mexican 
Financier," December, 1884. "South Pass 
Jetties : Ten Years' Practical Teachings in 
River and Harbor Hydraulics," American 
Society of Civil Engineers' Transactions, 
vol. 13, 1884. "Tehuantepec Railway," 
1885, reprinted from "Journal of Franklin 
Institute," June, 1885. "Inter-oceanic Prob- 
lem and its Scientific Solution," (Amer- 
ican Association for Advancement of 
Science), Ann Arbor, 1885. "The Radi- 
cal Enlargement of the Erie Canal," pre- 
sented to American Society of Civil Engi- 



neers, 1885. "Isthmian Ship Railway," 
address before New York Academy of 
Science, December 20, 18S6. "Statement 
before Committee United States House 
of Representatives on Commercial Ad- 
vantages of Tehuantepec Ship Railway," 

1886. "Atlantic and Pacific Ship Railway 
across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in 
Mexico," considered commercially, prac- 
tically and constructively, 1886. Exposi- 
tion of the Errors and Fallacies of Rear- 
Admiral Ammen's Pamphlet entitled : 
"The Certainty of the Nicaragua Canal 
Contrasted with the Uncertainties of the 
Eads Ship Railway," Washington, 1886. 
"Levees," Johnson's "Universal Cyclo- 
pedia," vol. iv., 1886. "Ship Canals," 
Johnson's "Universal Cyclopedia," vol. 
vii., 1886. "Venetian Ship Railway," read 
June 18, reprinted from Proceedings of 
Engineers' Club of Philadelphia, vol. 6, 

1887. Remarks at a meeting of the West- 
ern Society of Engineers, June 4th, on the 
resolution to cooperate in erecting a 
monument to the late James B. Eads, 
1S90. "New Orleans Belt Railway, Union 
Depot and Bridge," with other papers, 
New Orleans, 1890. Articles in Johnson's 
"New Cyclopedia" on "Jetties, Levees, 
Ship Canals and Ship Railways," 1890. 
"An Enlarged Waterway between the 
Great Lakes and the Atlantic Seaboard." 
presented to the Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers, 1891. "Improvement of River 
Mouths," presented to International Con- 
gress of Maritime Navigation, Paris, 
1892. "Tehuantepec Isthmus Railway," 
by Matias Romero and E. L. Corthell, 
Washington, 1894. By Gustav W. Triest, 
"New Waterway — Rotterdam to the Sea" 
(sixth International Inland Navigation 
Congress, Hague, 1S94), a paper based on 
notes and observation by Mr. Corthell and 
revised by him, 1894. "Literary Product 
of the International Engineering Con- 
gress of 1893," rea d June 21, 1895 (re- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



printed from Proceedings of American 
Society of Civil Engineers, vol. 21, 1895). 
Lecture before the National Geographic 
Society, Washington, D. C, on the "Te- 
huantepec Route," 1895. "Growth of 
Population of Great Cities," American 
Association Advancement of Science, 
1895. Resume of correspondence from 
Engineering Societies, relating to estab- 
lishing closer international relations, 
(American Society of Civil Engineers, 
Proceedings, vol. 21, 1895). "Proposed 
International Railroad Bridge over the 
Detroit River," 1896. "Civil Engineer of 
the Twentieth Century," reprinted from 
Society for Promotion of Engineering 
Education, 1896. "Some Notes Physical 
and Commercial upon the Delta of the 
Mississippi River," read before Section 
D, American Association for Advance- 
ment of Science, Buffalo, August 26, 1896. 
"Tampico Harbor Works," Mexico-Lon- 
don, 1896, Institution of Civil Engineers, 
minutes of Proceedings, 1896. Remarks 
before committee on rivers and harbors 
United States House of Representatives, 
upon closing Crevasse of Pass a Loutre, 
Mississippi River, 1898. Report to Secre- 
tary of State, United States of America, 
upon seventh International Congress of 
Navigation, Brussels, 1898. "Maritime 
Commerce, Past, Present and Future," 
Berne, 1898 (American Association for 
Advancement of Science), Boston, 1898. 
International Congress of Navigation 
held at Brussels, July, 1898 (American 
Society of Civil Engineers), Annual Con- 
vention, Cape May, New Jersey, June 27, 
1899. "The Approaches and Transporta- 
tion Facilities of the Paris Exposition of 
1900," presented to American Society of 
Civil Engineers, 1899. Articles in "Engi- 
neering Magazine" on "Rock Railways," 
1897. "Protection of Sandy Shores," 
1897. "Large Sea-going Dredgers," 1898. 
"Ship Canals," 1899. "The Harbors of 



the World." "Their Present and Re- 
quired Conditions of Navigability and 
Facilities," presented to International 
Congress of Navigation, Paris, 1900. Epi- 
tome of lecture delivered in Buenos Aires, 
April 22. "Mexico, Tableland to Gulf, 
Canyons, Waterfalls, Railroads, Panuco 
River, Harbor Works," 1901. Lecture on 
"Argentine, past, present, future," 1903. 
"Report upon Engineering Education," 
reprinted from Technology Quarterly, vol. 
16, n. 3, 1903. "Population of Great 
Cities," presented to American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, 
1903. "The Tampico Harbor Works, 
Mexico," monograph to accompany 
models at Louisiana Purchase Exposi- 
tion, St. Louis, 1904. "Railroad Termi- 
nals," Review of General Practice, Inter- 
national Engineering Congress, 1904, re- 
printed from Transactions of American. 
Society of Civil Engineering, Vol. 54, 
1905. Article in Encyclopedia Americana 
on "Large Passenger Stations of the 
World," 1905. "Rapid Increase in the 
Dimensions of Steamers and Sailing 
Vessels," presented to International Navi- 
gation Congress, Milan, 1905. "Allow- 
able Pressures on Deep Foundations," 
presented to the Institution of Civil Engi- 
neers, 1906. "Conditions hydrauliques 
des grandes voies navigables du globe," 
presented to the Societe des Ingenieurs 
Civils, Paris, 1906. "Port of Para, Bra- 
zil," presented to the International Asso- 
ciation of Navigation Congresses, Brus- 
sels, 1907. "The Port of Para," article 
in "Engineering Supplement, London 
Times," September 4, 1907. "Results of 
Investigations into Cost of Ports and of 
Their Operation," presented to Interna- 
tional Association Navigation Congresses, 
Brussels, 1907. "Port and Barra Works 
of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil," article 
in "Engineering Supplement, London 
Times," July 15, 1908. "Report Upon the 



207 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Second International Road Congress, 
Brussels," July 31-August 6, 1910, "Engi- 
neering News," September 1, 1910. "The 
Wetterhorn Lift," "Engineering Record," 
1910. "The Loetschberg Tunnel," "Engi- 
neering News," 1910. "Dimensions of 
Maritime Canal for International Navi- 
gation," Congress, Philadelphia, 1912. 
"Proper Methods of Improving Mouths 
of Rivers," Second Pan-American So- 
ciety Congress, 1915. 

Dr. Corthell married (first) in July, 1867, 
Emilie Theodate Davis, who died in 1884, 
daughter of William S. and Betsey A. 
(Wood) Davis, of Providence, Rhode 
Island. They were the parents of a 
daughter, Alice E., and a son, Howard L. 
Corthell. He married (second) April 21, 
1900, Marie Kuechler, of Bern, Switzer- 
land. Their only child, a daughter, Kath- 
leen Mary, died in 1901. 



YATES, Arthur Gould, 

Man of Affairs. 

One of the most versatile business men 
the City of Rochester, New York, has 
ever known was the late Arthur Gould 
Yates, who left the impress of his indi- 
viduality so indelibly upon the develop- 
ment of the city and upon the public life 
and thought of the State, that a history of 
that section would be incomplete were no 
mention made of him. But it was not the 
possession of excellent business qualifica- 
tions alone that gained him eminence ; as 
a man and a citizen he displayed a per- 
sonal worth and an excellence of char- 
acter that not only commanded the re- 
spect of those with whom he was associ- 
ated but won him the warmest personal 
admiration and the stanchest friendships. 
Aside from his business affairs he found 
time for the championship of many pro- 
gressive measures, recognized the oppor- 
tunities for reform, advancement and im- 
provement, and labored effectively and 



earnestly for the general good. With him 
success was reached through his sterling 
qualities of mind, and a heart true to 
every manly principle. He never devi- 
ated from what his judgment indicated to 
be right and honorable between his fel- 
low men and himself, never swerved from 
the path of duty, and his abilities were 
such as to gain him distinction in every 
field of labor to which he directed his 
energies. 

Dr. William Yates, grandfather of 
Arthur Gould Yates, was born in Sapper- 
ton, England, in 1757, and immigrated to 
Philadelphia in 1792. He was a physician 
of note in his day, and was one of the first 
to introduce the practice of vaccination in 
America. Later he took up his residence 
in New York State, and there married 
Hannah Palmer, of Unadilla, New York. 

Arthur Yates, eldest son of Dr. William 
and Hannah (Palmer) Yates, was born in 
Morris, Otsego county, New York, Feb- 
ruary 7, 1807. He commenced the prac- 
tice of law in Tioga county, New York, 
and while county judge there married 
Jerusha Washburn. 

Arthur Gould Yates, son of Arthur and 
Jerusha (Washburn) Yates, was born at 
Factoryville, now East Waverly, New 
York, December 18, 1843, and died at the 
Waldorf-Astoria, New York, February 9, 
1909. He was the recipient of a liberal 
education, attending various academies 
in the southern tier, and later came to 
Rochester. Immediately after attaining 
his majority he became associated with 
the Anthracite Coal Association, which is 
no longer in existence, and subsequently 
was engaged in this business independ- 
ently for a number of years. A man of 
great foresight, Mr. Yates early recog- 
nized the possibilities of Charlotte and 
entertained the idea of making it one of 
the most important ports on the Great 
Lakes. He constructed the first of the 
Genesee docks, generally known as the 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Yates Docks, shortly after engaged in the 
coal business, and the advance he made in 
the anthracite business had never betore 
been known in that section. In every 
direction markets were developed and 
vessels that were carriers of coal shipped 
by Mr. Yates were practically on every 
lake. In 1876 the coal firm of Bell, Lewis & 
Yateswas organized, and became one of the 
most important coal firms in the country, 
having large docks at Charlotte, Buffalo, 
Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago and Duluth. 

The Rochester and State Line Railroad 
Company had been in existence for sev- 
eral years with one terminal in Rochester 
and the other in Salamanca ; it was not a 
road of great importance and there were 
but few shareholders. Bell, Lewis & Yates, 
miners and shippers of large quantities of 
bituminous coal, saw the State Line rail- 
road, as it was popularly termed, taken 
over by men of great wealth who made of 
it the Rochester & Pittsburgh, and later by 
building into Buffalo the Buffalo, Roches- 
ter & Pittsburgh. They had organized 
a subsidiary company, the Rochester & 
Pittsburgh Coal & Iron Company. The 
Bell, Lewis & Yates Coal Mining Com- 
pany was incorporated as the Jefferson & 
Clearfield Coal & Iron Company. Mr. 
Yates saw perhaps more clearly than the 
owners the possibilities in the Buffalo, 
Rochester & Pittsburgh Railway, and on 
April 11, 1889, the company he was in- 
terested in purchased a large block of 
the company's stock. The immediate re- 
sult was that, on April 24, 1889, eight of 
the directors of the company retired and 
seven others were elected. On the same 
day Arthur Iselin, retired from the presi- 
dency of the company, and was succeeded 
by Arthur Gould Yates, who remained 
the incumbent of this office until his 
death. Mr. Yates was elected to the 
board of directors to represent the firm of 
Bell, Lewis & Yates, and subsequently, 



when the other members of the firm 
wished to withdraw from the railroad 
business, Mr. Yates purchased their in- 
terest in the railway stock and became 
his own representative in the board. 

The Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh 
railway was at first, and when Mr. Yates 
became associated with it, a single track 
trunk line between Rochester and Punx- 
sutawney with a branch from Ashford to 
Buffalo. During Mr. Yates' occupation 
of the presidency the road was extended 
to Pittsburgh and the Clearfield branch 
was built. Foreseeing the demand for 
bituminous coal that would come with 
the twentieth century, Mr. Yates, as soon 
as he became president of the company, 
planned to enable his road to care for its 
share of the increased business which 
would surely come. He secured new coal 
land and mines were opened by the two 
mining companies controlled by the rail- 
way company, and where there had 
hitherto been a wilderness, long trains of 
coal laden cars commenced to appear. 
Iron properties were developed in the 
same manner, and the guiding and pro- 
gressive spirit of Mr. Yates was felt 
everywhere. 

The possibilities of Canada now began 
to play a part in the calculations of Mr. 
Yates, and he considered the best means 
of supplying the growing cities, towns 
and villages of that country at the least 
expense. Transportation by water ap- 
peared to be the best and cheapest 
method, and he at once considered the 
advisability of constructing a ferry boat, 
running between Charlotte and some 
suitable point in Canada, and capable of 
carrying a train of cars loaded with coal. 
When he advocated the building and 
operation of such a boat his project was 
laughed at and derided, but nothing 
daunted he persisted and the result was 
the Ontario Car Ferry Company, Limited, 



NY-VolIII-14 



20<) 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



composed of officials from the Buffalo, 
Rochester & Pittsburgh and the Grand 
Trunk railways. The success of the ven- 
ture more than realized the predictions of 
Mr. Yates. 

Mr. Yates was identified with many 
lines of business, a director in many com- 
panies, and interested in many others in 
which his name appeared only as a stock- 
holder. He was a director in the Buffalo, 
Rochester & Pittsburgh Railway Com- 
pany, the Reynoldsville & Falls Creek 
Railroad Company, the Silver Lake Rail- 
way Company, the American Fruit Pro- 
duct Company, the Duffy-Mclnnerney 
Company, the Pittsburgh Gas Coal Com- 
pany, the General Railway Signal Com- 
pany, the Ontario Car Ferry Company, 
Limited ; the Rochester & Pittsburgh 
Coal & Iron Company ; the Mahoning In- 
vestment Company ; the Columbia Trust 
Company of New York ; the Cowanshan- 
nock Coal & Coke Company. He was a 
large stockholder in the National Bank of 
Rochester, the New York & Kentucky 
Company, and the National Hotel Com- 
pany. 

Mr. Yates was an ardent supporter of 
the Wilgus plan to have a Rochester sta- 
tion adopted by the New York Central. 
He became a leader of the supporters of 
these plans when they were proposed, 
and practically his final act as a citizen 
of Rochester was to go as chairman of a 
sub-committee from the Chamber of 
Commerce to New York to confer with 
President W. C. Brown, of the New York 
Central, and President Horace E. An- 
drews, of the Rochester Railway Com- 
pany, relative to the adoption of those 
plans. Those who were present at this 
conference say that Mr. Yates talked with 
greater enthusiasm and pleaded with 
more earnestness than he had probably 
done at any time in his life. This con- 
ference took place on the Saturday pre- 
ceding the death of Mr. Yates, and im- 



mediately after it, and several times in 
the course of the day, he was heard to 
remark that his trip had been an emi- 
nently successful one, that it was the 
greatest day of his life, and that he was 
as happy as a boy. During the afternoon 
he took a short nap, then attended the 
dinner of the Society of the Genesee in 
the evening. At its conclusion he was 
chatting with some friends when he com- 
plained of feeling ill and at once went to 
his apartments in the Waldorf-Astoria, 
which he considered his New York home. 
Unconsciousness ensued almost immedi- 
ately, and he never regained conscious- 
ness. While his recovery was not ex- 
pected at any time, he lingered until the 
following Tuesday afternoon. With him 
at the last were his wife, his eldest son, 
his daughter, Mrs. Ward, Miss Daintry 
Yates, of New York, a cousin, and Dr. 
Carlton Yates, another cousin. The re- 
mains of Mr. Yates were taken to Roches- 
ter in his private car, the "Virginia," and 
were immediately removed to the Yates 
home at No. 130 South Fitzhugh street. 
The "Virginia" was attached to the Fast 
Mail on the New York Central. In the 
car Mr. Yates had made many trips, 
usually accompanied by Mrs. Yates, who 
was Miss Virginia L. Holden, for whom 
his car was named. When traveling Mr. 
Yates most enjoyed sitting in the obser- 
vation end of the car, looking at the coun- 
try and conversing with his guests. Here, 
where he had passed many happy hours, 
the casket was placed for the journey to 
Rochester. Mr. Yates had been a com- 
municant of St. Paul's Protestant Epis- 
copal Church, and a warden in it for more 
than thirty years, and it was there that 
the funeral services, attended by innumer- 
able men eminent in every walk of life, 
were held; the interment, in the family 
lot in Mount Hope Cemetery, was pri- 
vate. 

Mr. Yates married, December 25, 1866, 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Virginia L. Holden, a daughter of Ros- 
well Holden, of Watkins. Of the six 
children of this union there are now liv- 
ing: Mrs. Levi S. Ward, Frederick W., 
Harry and Russell P. Mr. Yates had been 
a trustee of the University of Rochester 
for some years ; and was a member of the 
Genesee Valley Club of Rochester, the 
Ellicott Club of Buffalo, the Duquesne 
Club of Pittsburgh, and the Transporta- 
tion and Midday clubs of New York. 

All the newspapers along the line of the 
Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh Railroad 
contained long sketches of the career of 
Mr. Yates. The "DuBois Daily Express" 
said in part: 

The name of Arthur G. Yates is inseparably 
connected with the development of the coal 
business in Central Pennsylvania, and he was 
one of the first alert minds to grasp the possi- 
bilities of the region. He was the last of the 
trio of capitalists who opened the Rochester 
mine in Du Bois in 1875, and launched the first 
gigantic coal operations in this region. In 1890 
the firm of Bell, Lewis & Yates bought out all 
of the smaller mines in the vicinity of Reynolds- 
ville, together with considerable adjoining ter- 
ritory. They also secured other workings at 
*Du Bois and Falls Creek. In all these trans- 
actions Mr. Yates was the pusher and planner. 
He was also the selling agent and sometimes 
came home from his trips with contracts for half 
a million tons of coal. 

Among the many resolutions by vari- 
ous social, religious and commercial 
bodies are the following: The special 
Committee of Fifteen of the Chamber of 
Commerce which had the work of push- 
ing the plans for the new Central Station, 
met February nth, and took action on 
the death of President Arthur G. Yates, 
who was a member. The following 
minutes were adopted : 

The members of the Committee of Fifteen 
recognize in the death of their friend and asso- 
ciate, Arthur Gould Yates, an irreparable loss to 
the City of Rochester, of which he was so loyal 
and valuable a citizen. From the organization 
of the Committee up to the time of his demise, 



he rendered conspicuous service to promote the 
movement for which the Committee was formed. 
Possessed of a truly patriotic and public spirit, 
he gave freely of his time, experience and counsel 
for the public good, and his remarkable executive 
ability in the organization and management of 
affairs rendered his cooperation of the greatest 
value in any position to which he was called. 

Generous, charitable, sympathetic, he was in 
both private and public life a man who endeared 
himself to his associates, winning their affection, 
commanding their loyal support in every under- 
taking in which they were engaged. He possessed 
to a remarkable degree the qualities of courage, 
foresight, energy and enthusiasm, which won for 
him a commanding position among his fellow 
men. 

We regard his death not only a public, but a 
personal loss. We extend to his bereaved family 
our sincere sympathy in their great sorrow, and 
we desire that this brief minute in affectionate 
expression of his worth be transmitted to them 
by the secretary of the Committee. 

The vestrymen of St. Paul's Church, of 
which Arthur G. Yates was senior warden 
for many years, have adopted a memorial 
in which a tribute is paid to Mr. Yates, 
and his long service in the church organi- 
zation is recounted. It is set forth that in 
his death the church has suffered a great 
loss and each member of the vestry a per- 
sonal bereavement. The memorial was 
spread upon the minutes and a copy was 
sent to Mrs. Yates. 



WHITBECK, John Fonda Ward, 

Physician and Surgeon. 

Dean of the medical fraternity of 
Rochester and one of the leading sur- 
geons of the State of New York, Dr. 
Whitbeck, whose passing came to his 
city as a public calamity, was one of the 
most modest of professional men, and 
while secure in the knowledge of his own 
great skill, was slow to recommend a sur- 
gical operation, saying: "All operations 
are dangerous." 

For many years his name stood for 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



leadership of the best type in the medical 
profession, and his reputation as a sur- 
geon was wide. Following in the foot- 
steps of his father, he began the study of 
medicine and surgery because he loved 
them and felt the call of his ability in 
their direction. He became a most diligent 
student, showing a fine aptitude for his 
chosen work, and after receiving his de- 
grees he rose rapidly as a thorough and 
skillful practitioner. In a little time his 
reputation had extended until his advice 
and counsel, as well as his surgical skill, 
were sought from many sections of the 
State. In the city he had a clientele 
which constantly grew and which re- 
ceived his ministrations with confidence 
and gratitude. He belonged to the old 
school of practitioners which held rigidly 
to the ethics of the profession, and he 
would not tolerate sham of any kind. 

As a citizen he was deeply interested in 
the intellectual and cultural development 
of Rochester, having a fine appreciation 
of good literature as well as a keen in- 
terest in art. He was also interested in 
public improvements, especially those 
that were in any way related to his pro- 
fessional work. At the time of his death 
he was president of the staff of the Gen- 
eral Hospital and president of the board 
of directors of Iola, having given gener- 
ously of his time and ability to the work 
of these institutions, and having labored 
diligently to make their influence felt for 
good among all classes of people. And it 
has been largely owing to his inspiration 
and untiring labors that they have grown 
and flourished. 

Dr. Whitbeck carried into his practice 
the fine instincts of a gentleman and a 
conscientious regard for his responsibility 
to those under his care. In his home, and 
within the circle of a large number of per- 
sonal friends, his relationships were ideal. 
His life has been one of immense useful- 
ness, and in all his endeavors he bore the 



stamp of sincerity and truth. He served 
his day and generation nobly and well. 

If the years spent in preparatory study 
at home and abroad be counted, Dr. 
Whitbeck had been connected with the 
medical profession for a half a century, 
his years of actual practice in the city of 
Rochester, New York, numbering forty- 
three, 1873-1916. He was a graduate of 
the old Rochester High School, class of 
1863, and of the University of Rochester, 
class of "67." For over thirty years his 
father, Dr. John F. Whitbeck, practiced 
in Rochester, father and son being con- 
temporaries from 1873 unt il tne death of 
the senior doctor in December, 1880, at 
the age of sixty-eight years. Both were 
graduates of the medical department of 
the University of Pennsylvania, Philadel- 
phia, and it was from the noble life and 
example of his honored father that Dr. 
John F. W. Whitbeck gained the inspira- 
tion which culminated in his own en- 
trance to the oldest of all professions. 

During the forty-three years Dr. Whit- 
beck had been engaged in practice he 
gave special attention to surgery and 
gynecology, although he did not confine 
himself strictly to those branches until 
several years had been passed in general 
practice. For twelve years, 1892-1904, he 
conducted a private hospital on Park ave- 
nue, and under Governor Flower's admin- 
istration was a member of the State 
Board of Health. The literature of his 
profession is enriched by many contribu- 
tions from his able pen. He was an 
honored member of many professional so- 
cieties, and fairly won State reputation as 
a highly successful surgeon and gyne- 
cologist. Even when past the meridian 
and in the full evening of life he gave 
little evidence of the years he carried save 
in the depth of his wisdom and his cool, 
calm, deliberate manner and the sound- 
ness of his judgment. His practice was 
always large, and his friends were legion. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Dr. John F. Whitbeck, the elder, was 
born in Herkimer county, New York, but 
after graduation from Fairfield Medical 
School and the medical department of 
the University of Pennsylvania, located 
at Lima, Livingston county, New York, 
where his son, John F. W. Whitbeck, was 
born. He only practiced at Lima a few 
years, then located in Rochester, New 
York, where he conducted a successful 
practice until his death in 1880, full of 
years and honors. His wife, Elizabeth 
(Ward) Whitbeck, was also born in New 
York State, and was the mother of five 
children. 

Dr. John F. W. Whitbeck, son of Dr. 
John F. and Elizabeth (Ward) Whit- 
beck, was born at Lima, New York, No- 
vember, 1844, his parents soon afterward 
moving to Rochester. He died at his 
home, No. 800 East avenue, July 3, 1916. 
He was educated in the public schools, 
the University of Rochester and the L'ni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, gaining his A. B. 
from the University of Rochester, class of 
1867, his M. D. from the University of 
Pennsylvania, class of 1870. He then 
spent three years abroad, studying in the 
hospitals and universities of Berlin, Vien- 
na, Breslau, Heidelberg and London, pur- 
suing special courses in surgery and 
gynecology, his instructors being men 
highly renowned in those special branches 
of the profession. 

In 1873 Dr. Whitbeck returned to 
Rochester and began the practice of his 
profession. Father and son were closely 
associated for the following seven years, 
then the elder Doctor Whitbeck jour- 
neyed to that land "from which no 
traveler ever returns," leaving his son the 
inspiration of his valuable life, the benefit 
of his example and the legacy of an 
honored name. The "good doctor" stead- 
fastly followed his professional career in 
the years which followed and turned not 
aside to engage in other pursuits, nor was 



he lured by the enticements of political 
life. He pursued his healing art to the 
great benefit of a large clientele, and most 
honorably bore the name transmitted to 
him through several generations of Amer- 
can ancestors, paternal and maternal. He 
served for many years and was president 
of the surgical staff of Rochester City 
Hospital ; in 1893 was appointed a mem- 
ber of the State Board of Health by Gov- 
ernor Roswell P. Flower ; established and 
conducted a private hospital, 1892-1904, 
freely gave to the service of the poor, 
without the hope of fee or reward. His 
life was one of usefulness and blessing, 
his labor severe, but his reward abundant 
in the consciousness of duty well per- 
formed. 

Dr. Whitbeck was a member of the 
American Association, New York State 
Medical Society, an ex-president of the 
American Association of Obstetricians 
and Gynecologists, Monroe County Medi- 
cal Society, Rochester Academy of Medi- 
cine, ex-president and honorary member 
of the Rochester Pathological Society, and 
a fellow of the American College of Sur- 
geons. He contributed many papers to 
the proceedings of these societies and 
had for many years been a frequent and 
valued writer on his specialties for the 
medical journals. At the time of his 
death he was president of the board of 
managers of Iola Sanatorium, an institu- 
tion which lay very near his heart. Said 
Dr. Montgomery E. Leary, superintend- 
ent of the sanatorium, "Whatever was 
done at Iola was not the spirit of the 
Sanatorium, but the spirit of Dr. Whit- 
beck. I know of no one who can fill his 
place." Socially inclined but so devoted 
to his profession as to preclude his taking 
more than passing interest, he was a 
member of the Genesee Valley and 
Rochester Country clubs, and of Delta 
Kappa Epsilon. 

Dr. Whitbeck married Fannie A. Van 



213 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Husan, of Detroit, Michigan, and had two 
sons: Dr. Brainerd H., a graduate of Har- 
vard College, and of the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 
New York City, now practicing his profes- 
sion in that city; Caleb Van Husan, a 
graduate of Harvard, a newspaper editor 
and publisher, died March 2, 1914. Dr. 
Whitbeck erected a beautiful house on East 
avenue, Rochester, and there a charming 
hospitality had ever been dispensed by a 
most gracious host and hostess, the latter 
surviving her honored husband. 

Dr. Whitbeck sleeps in Mount Hope 
Cemetery near his eminent father and 
other members of his family. At the 
final services there were representatives 
present from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, the city government, the medical 
societies, the various institutions he 
served and from the social organizations 
to which he had belonged. The pall 
bearers, active and honorary, were the 
leading physicians of the city, the active 
bearers professional brethren who had 
long known, loved and honored him. 



JENNINGS, George E., 

Banker. 

At the age of nineteen years, Mr. 
Jennings in 1853 entered the employ of 
the old Union Bank of Rochester and 
from that year until his death in 1884 
was closely associated with banking in 
Rochester, his native city. His irre- 
proachable character and Christian graces 
secured for him the confidence of the 
public, and in all he was a plain dependa- 
ble man with that indefatigable personal 
magnetism which drew men to him. His 
high personal qualities which gained him 
public confidence, the esteem and warm 
affection of a host of friends were com- 
bined with a business ability and sagacity 
of a high order. Kind-hearted to a fault, 
he yet demanded the strictest attention 



to duty from his subordinates, who were 
devoted to him, in fact one of the ele- 
ments of his success was his ability to 
surround himself with assistants and as- 
sociates who were able, loyal and de- 
voted. As a business man he was one of 
the foremost of his time, cautious, con- 
servative and careful, yet possessing a 
will to decide and the courage to venture 
when opportunity led the way. Until the 
time of his death he was actively engaged 
in private banking and was a factor in 
the successful management of other en- 
terprises. His reputation for integrity 
and fair mindedness was of the highest 
and he left a record without a stain. 

George E. Jennings was born in Roches- 
ter, New York, February 19, 1834, son of 
Peter W. Jennings, a leather merchant, 
member of the firm of Jennings & Keeler, 
of Rochester. George E. Jennings passed 
his entire life in his native city and his 
death occurred on April 8, 1884. He was 
educated in the public schools of Roches- 
ter and Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, 
Lima, New York. He began business life 
at the age of nineteen as clerk in the old 
Union Bank. He displayed great apti- 
tude for banking and at the time the 
Union Bank passed out of existence was 
its cashier, having been successively 
bookkeeper, teller, assistant cashier and 
cashier. In 1867 the Union Bank went 
out of business, the charter and such 
assets as it possessed being purchased by 
Aaron Erickson and George E. Jennings 
and they conducted the private banking 
house of Erickson & Jennings. For a 
time George E. Mumford was admitted 
as a partner and the firm was then known 
as Erickson, Jennings & Mumford. Mr. 
Mumford retired in 1879. Then the house 
continued as Erickson & Jennings until 
the death of the senior partner when Gil- 
man H. Perkins was admitted to the busi- 
ness and it was continued under the name 
and title of Erickson, Jennings & Com- 




^ 




ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



pany. Mr. Jennings continued in busi- 
ness for many years, was a director of the 
Rochester Savings Bank, was interested 
in other corporations of the city and was 
uniformly successful in all his undertak- 
ings. He was a Republican in politics, a 
member of the First Presbyterian Church, 
and of the Rochester Club, twice serving 
as president of the club. 

Mr. Jennings married, October 14, 1858, 
Nancy B. Granger, of a prominent Troy, 
New York, family, who survives her hus- 
band, residing at No. 1005 East avenue. 
Mr. and Mrs. Jennings were the parents 
of two sons : Edward R. Jennings, now 
engaged in the real estate business with 
offices in the Chamber of Commerce 
Building, Rochester, and Emmet H. Jen- 
nings, of Avon, New York. 



REAM, Norman Bruce, 

Man of Affairs. 

The preparation of a review of the lives 
of men whose careers have been of signal 
usefulness and honor to their country, 
and especially to certain localities, would 
be incomplete if mention were not made 
of the late Norman Bruce Ream, one of 
America's greatest financiers, and his 
connection with the great Empire State. 
Mr. Ream was one of the men who 
essentially belonged to the active class, 
wherever his residence might have been 
located, and few achieved greater results 
or enjoyed a higher standing. His was a 
personality that lives in the memory of 
his friends as that of the highest type of 
loyal citizen and progressive business 
man. From the humble beginning of a 
farmer boy, progressing through the 
grades of country school teacher to still 
higher fields of endeavor, becoming fi- 
nally one of the country's recognized au- 
thorities on all matters financial, all by 
sheer force of intellect and innate busi- 
nes ability, combined with unusual pluck 



and perseverance, without which the 
greatest of talent might remain unde- 
veloped, he attained prominence and its 
consequent affluence. 

Norman Bruce Ream was born in Som- 
erset county, Pennsylvania, November 5, 
1844, a son ot Levi and Highly (King) 
Ream. His family is of historical lineage 
and in this country dates back to the colo- 
nial epoch, in which important period of 
our country's history his ancestors played 
an important part, both in business and 
civic affairs. His paternal great-grand- 
father, John Ream, fought as a private in 
the War for Independence of the colonies, 
and his descendants have shown them- 
selves of no less importance by being 
identified with the upbuilding and de- 
velopment of the country in the succeed- 
ing years. The earliest emigrants of the 
name were of German extraction, arriv- 
ing in this country at an early day, and 
were here engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits. Mr. Ream himself was brought up 
on a farm, where he acquired the very 
useful habits of industry and thrift, the 
discipline and environment being a valu- 
able one to him, as well as to anyone, no 
matter what their subsequent station in 
life, for the formative period of one's ex- 
istence. His early opportunities in the 
educational line were those of the com- 
mon school, followed by a course in the 
Normal Institute. But a scholar, as well 
as a poet, being "born and not made," he 
naturally improved those opportunities, 
and so well that at the age of fourteen 
years we find him serving in the capacity 
of teacher, a true evidence that he had 
succeeded so far beyond his fellows. His 
particular bent, however, was more in a 
business line, and with the aid of the 
photographic branch of business en- 
deavor he was enabled to procure the 
means for his course in the Normal Insti- 
tute at Somerset. In spite of the effort 
it had cost him, and his evident love of 



215 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRArHY 



study, his sense of patriotism was 
stronger, and like the true American that 
he was he put aside his text books, after 
a brief attendance at the school, and on 
September i, 1861, he enlisted in answer 
to the call of President Lincoln for troops 
to suppress the Rebellion, and as his an- 
cestor had fought in the cause of Free- 
dom, he also added his quota of patriot- 
ism to make that Freedom universal 
throughout this land. He assisted in or- 
ganizing, and became a member of Com- 
pany H, Eighty-fifth Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers, as private, although tendered a com- 
mission. It seems that no matter what was 
his endeavor the same spirit of thorough- 
ness was exhibited in all his enterprises, 
and in military affairs it was recognized by 
promotion to first lieutenant for gallantry 
on the battlefield He was wounded at 
Whitmarsh Island, Georgia, February 24, 
1864, and again at Wearbottom Church, 
Virginia, on June 17, following, this time 
so badly that he was incapacitated for 
further military duty and resigned in Au- 
gust, 1864. 

Desiring to make his business education 
more complete, on his return from the 
war, Mr. Ream attended a commercial 
college at Pittsburgh, and followed this 
with a position of clerk in Harnedsville, 
where he remained until September, 1866. 
Like so many others he became ambitious 
to try his fortune in the West, and found 
his next employment at Princeton, Illi- 
nois, where he secured a position as clerk 
in the general store of C. A. Stoner. His 
first independent business venture was 
when, early in 1867, C. H. Mosshart and 
he purchased Mr. Stoner's interests and 
continued to run the store under the firm 
name of Ream & Mosshart until Novem- 
ber of that year when the concern was 
annihilated by fire, along with thirty-five 
of Princeton's business houses. His next 
move was considerably farther into the 
West, for in 1868 he removed to Osceola, 



Iowa, and engaged in the grain, live stock 
and farm implement business, which also 
suffered disaster through the failure of 
crops. Mr. Ream, having given credit to 
the farmers, and being unable to realize 
on his assets, was forced out of business 
in 1870. Notwithstanding these reverses 
there was never at any moment a shadow 
of doubt cast on his integrity or honesty, 
and this fact at this critical period of his 
career was of inestimable value. In 1871 
he went to Chicago and formed a partner- 
ship with Mr. Coffman, under the firm 
name of Coffman & Ream, and carried on 
a live stock commission business. Hav- 
ing an extensive acquaintance with stock- 
raisers, he succeeded in having their con- 
signments made to him and it was not 
long before he had regained his former 
position, and to his great honor be it re- 
corded that he applied the first money 
earned toward settling the indebtedness 
of $15,000 caused by his failure This he 
continued to do until he had paid the en- 
tire principal and interest, the latter at 
the unusually generous rate of ten per 
cent. 

From the beginning of his Chicago en- 
terprise Mr. Ream was singularly fortu- 
nate, or rather should we say — his honesty 
and ability met with a deserved reward, 
and he laid the foundation of his later 
and more complete success. In 1875 he 
retired from active participation with the 
firm of Coffman & Ream, but continued a 
connection with the company until 1878. 
He became a member of the Board of 
Trade in 1875, entering with George C. 
Ball & Company, of which his name was 
the "Company." In 1877 he withdrew 
from that firm also, and carried on an in- 
dependent commission business under the 
style of N. B. Ream & Company. In 1880 
R. W. Clark purchased an interest in his 
business, but the firm name remained un- 
changed until 1884, when Mr. Ream with- 
drew from active business connections. 



216 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



The firm then became R. W. Clark & 
Company, with Mr. Ream as special part- 
ner, and he was likewise connected with 
the commission house of H. H. Carr & 
Company. Upon becoming a member of 
the Board of Trade, Mr. Ream's very first 
venture was crowned with success, and 
marked him as a man of keen perception 
and excellent judgment. He conducted 
some of the largest operations on the 
board, and so successful was his career 
that he was numbered among the most 
extensive operators, and ranked finan- 
cially among the millionaires He served 
as vice-president of the Call-Board, but 
his numerous business interests pre- 
vented him from accepting other posi- 
tions of a like nature. In 1883 he assisted 
in the reorganization of the Western Fire 
Insurance Company of Chicago, of which 
he was vice-president until he disposed of 
his interests. In 1888 Mr. Ream retired 
from the board and invested his means in 
various enterprises, the management of 
which engrossed his attention thereafter. 
As organizer, stockholder and director he 
was connected with numerous enterprises 
which have been great factors in the de- 
velopment of the business of the country. 
Later Mr. Ream became a resident of 
the City of New York and from that time 
until his death he was identified to a 
greater or lesser degree in various enter- 
prises connected with the Metropolis, in 
all of them proving his worth and desira- 
bility as a citizen. He was the owner of 
considerable real estate, which he im- 
proved and developed, a proceeding 
which is not one of personal aggrandize- 
ment alone but adds materially to muni- 
cipal advancement as well. He was not 
a speculator, but his work was rather that 
of a constructor and creator, and one of 
vast industrial force, an operation that 
proves of great benefit to all classes of a 
community He was one of the most un- 



assuming of men but withal of mighty 
force in the realm of industry, a veritable 
commander-in-chief. In this brief review 
it would be impossible to do justice to his 
many and varied accomplishments in the 
financial and industrial realm, for his ca- 
reer touched the immense field of the busi- 
ness world at so many points that a re- 
cital would be wearying, but he touched 
nothing in any line of endeavor that was 
not the better for his having been con- 
nected with it, and his special field of 
effort was one of magnitude and impor- 
tance. 

Mr. Ream married, at Madison, New 
York, February 17, 1876, Caroline T. Put- 
nam, a woman of charming personality 
and many fine traits of character, greatly 
beloved by all with whom she was ever 
thrown in contact. She was a daughter 
of the late Dr. John Putnam, of Madison, 
New York, and a descendant of Henry 
Putnam, a near relative of General Put- 
nam, of Revolutionary War fame. Mr 
and Mrs. Ream were the parents of nine 
children, six of whom are living: Marion 
B., wife of Redmond D. Stephens, of 
Chicago ; Frances M., wife of John L. 
Kemmerer, of Short Hills, New Jersey; 
Norman P. and Robert C, of New York; 
Edward K., of Johnstown, Pennsylvania, 
and Louis M., of Worcester, Massachu- 
setts. 

Mr. Ream Was prominent in social 
circles in New York, as he had been in 
Chicago. He was a member of the Chica- 
go, Chicago Athletic and Commercial 
clubs, and in their day of the Calumet 
and Washington Park clubs. In New 
York he belonged to the Metropolitan 
and Union clubs. He was also affiliated 
with the time honored Masonic frater- 
nity, was a Knight Templar, an Odd 
Fellow, and a member of the Stock Ex- 
change in both cities. Before he took up 
his residence in New York he was the 



217 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



advisor and associate of many of the emi- 
nent figures in the financial world of the 
middle west, and here in the Metropolis 
he was on still greater and closer terms of 
intimacy with the mighty factors in the 
realm of finance in that for fifteen years 
he was a close and personal friend of J. 
Pierpont Morgan, as well as James J. Hill 
and Elbert H. Gary. His death came as 
a loss to countless numbers of friends and 
acquaintances, and brought a sense of 
desolation not alone to the immediate 
family, to whom the loss was of course 
heaviest, but caused a profound feeling 
of sorrow to many the world over, re- 
moving as it did one of America's most 
brilliant financiers, and a highly respected 
citizen, one who was beloved as well as 
admired for his eminent qualities. 

Mr. Ream had a summer home at 
Thompson, Connecticut, but maintained 
an office in New York, and made this 
city his winter residence, although he had 
varied interests outside the municipality. 
In business life, to sum up the many ex- 
cellent qualities he possessed would be 
well nigh impossible, but suffice it to say 
he was alert, reliable and sagacious, as 
well as successful; as a citizen he was 
honorable, prompt and true to every en- 
gagement, while in private life he was 
genial, wholesouled, and a delightful 
host, and, needless to say, a welcome 
guest. In fact under all circumstances 
he measured up to the highest standards 
of manhood, a well rounded character, 
and a useful and valuable factor in the 
world's work for advancement and prog- 
ress. He died in February, 1915, peace- 
fully and honorably, and more, generously 
had he met and discharged all life's 
duties, and honored and beloved he passed 
away, sincerely mourned, but leaving a 
memory that will long be cherished for 
the good he had done as well as the great 
deeds he accomplished. 



PHELPS, George Roswell, 

Agriculturist. 

Energy, self-confidence and a strict ad- 
herence to the moral law and those prin- 
ciples of human conduct that play so vital 
a part in the moulding of society, were 
the traits which lay at the base of the 
character of George Roswell Phelps, late 
of Gloversville, New York, acting as the 
mainspring of his life, shaping and guid- 
ing its whole development. His business 
success, as must all true success, de- 
pended first upon his highly moral char- 
acter and then upon the special knowl- 
edge of his subject, a later and acquired 
power. In all that he did for himself Mr. 
Phelps kept the interests of those about 
him ever in sight and made no step, how- 
ever conducive to his own advantage it 
might seem, if in his candid judgment it 
appeared inimical to theirs. It was in 
line with this — it should not be called 
policy, for it was too spontaneous for that 
— but in line with this instinct that all 
his relations with his fellows were carried 
out. He would not allow, for instance, 
his extremely exacting occupation to in- 
terfere with what he considered to be 
due his family any more than he erred 
in the opposite direction and allowed 
domestic ties to interfere with the dis- 
charge of his obligations to the outside 
world. Indeed, the only person whose 
inclinations and comfort he consistently 
sacrificed to the rest of the world was 
himself, for he rose early and retired late 
to fulfill his engagements with others and 
minister to their wants. His death at his 
home in Gloversville, May 19, 1903, was 
a loss to the entire community. George 
Roswell Phelps was typical of that fine 
class of rural manhood which is char- 
acteristic of New York State and upon 
which, as upon a sure foundation, its 
wealth and prosperity rests. It was for 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



him and such as he to illustrate so clearly 
that all might discern that agriculture is 
not an occupation to be relegated to men 
without a due share of ambition and en- 
terprise, or even those who are content 
to remain without pecuniary reward, but 
that rather is it full of manifold un- 
suspected opportunities for any bright 
young man who, with a strong love of 
nature, withdraws from the more com- 
plex urban life and gives up his time and 
attention to this, the primitive, basic in- 
dustry. For this life, indeed, certain posi- 
tive virtues are necessary in order that 
success shall crown effort and these Mr. 
Phelps possessed in large measure. But 
to such as do possess them nature will 
make a bounteous return, even as it did 
in his case. It is to the presence of such 
men, progressive, wide awake and full of 
enterprise, that communities owe their 
prosperity. 

Mr. Phelps was born in Johnstown, 
Fulton county, New York, June 2, 1830, 
a son of Chester and Sally A. (Powell) 
Phelps, old and highly honored residents 
of that region. The Phelps family had 
lived for many years in Fulton county, 
the first of the name to appear there be- 
ing Oliver Phelps, the grandfather of 
George Roswell Phelps, who came to 
New York State from Hartford county, 
Connecticut, where he was born some- 
time after the middle of the eighteenth 
century, and settled first in Montgomery 
county and later in Fulton, in both of 
which he continued to follow the occupa- 
tion of farming to which he had been bred 
and trained The original Phelps farm 
became later the town site of the prosper- 
ous community of Johnstown. Chester 
Phelps, son of Oliver and Abigail 
(Brown) Phelps, and father of George 
Roswell Phelps, was born June 15, 1792, 
and died March 13, 1870. To him de- 
scended the farm his father had pur- 
chased and which was at that time 



rapidly increasing in value as the commu- 
nity was developing and it was found to 
be the most available location for the town. 
He became a man of considerable sub- 
stance and added largely to his property, 
buying a number of farms adjacent or in 
the near neighborhood of his original 
possession and carrying on farming opera- 
tions on a very extensive scale Besides 
the general farming, he also devoted 
special attention to fruit raising and dairy 
farming and was successful in all of these 
branches, being known as one of the 
largest agriculturists in the region. As 
Johnstown continued to grow much of 
the original property was disposed of, 
but, nevertheless, a considerable portion 
of town property remained in the hands 
of the Phelps family, Phelps street being 
at one time owned and occupied by thir- 
teen families of the name. Chester Phelps 
was married to Sally A. Powell, born 
March 4, 1796, in Johnstown, and died 
September 11, 1857. To them were born 
nine children as follows: Charles A., born 
August 22, 1817, died September 28, 1847 ; 
Gilbert, born February 9, 1819, died No- 
vember 16, 1900, married Anna C. Van 
Nostrand, of Johnstown, who bore him 
one daughter, Margaret ; Lucius A., born 
March 20, 1821, died February 16, 1837; 
Eliza Ann, born February 24, 1823, died 
October 12, 1908, married Hart A. Mas- 
sey, of Kingston, Ontario, to whom she 
bore six children : Charles, George, Ches- 
ter, Lillian, Walter Hart and Fred Vic- 
tor; Sylvia Adelia, born February 24, 
1825, died November 3, 1901, married 
Horace W. Porter, of Johnstown, and 
they had one child, Mervin A. ; William 
Henry, born October 8, 1827, died Janu- 
ary 24, 1899, married Louisa Deming, of 
Perth, New York, by whom he had four 
children : Charles Edwin, Clara, Albert 
and Nettie ; George Roswell, of whom 
further; Chester Powell, born December 
16, 1832, married Alice Brown, of Johns- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



town, by whom he had two children: 
David and Arthur; Sarah Jane, born 
July 6, 1835, died April 29, 1890, married 
Lehman Edwards, of Johnstown, and 
they had no children. 

The early life of George Roswell Phelps 
was passed in the old Phelps homestead 
where he was born, in his native town of 
Johnstown. He received his education in 
the public schools there, and was brought 
up in the occupation so long followed by 
his father until he became an expert 
farmer. He succeeded his father in the 
ownership of the old place and in its 
operation, which he conducted with great 
success for the remainder of his life. In 
the year 1899 he purchased a residence 
in the city of Gloversville, and there made 
his permanent home, travelling back and 
forth each day between his dwelling and 
his farm. Mr. Phelps was particularly 
interested in the question of fruit culture 
and made a specialty in that line on his 
farm, which he rapidly converted into one 
of the show places of the district. Small 
fruits and berries were the chief product 
and these he raised in very large quanti- 
ties. He was wholly devoted to his work 
and the greatest success crowned his 
efforts, and he was regarded as an au- 
thority on agricultural matters through- 
out the neighborhood. 

Besides his very successful farming, 
Mr. Phelps had large business interests 
in Gloversville and here as elsewhere his 
affairs prospered. He was always strong- 
ly interested in the welfare of the com- 
munity and gave a great deal of his time 
and energies to that cause. His political 
affiliations were with the Prohibition 
party, and this cause was one of those 
which made the deepest appeal to him. He 
was very outspoken in the matter and did 
much to advance the interests of the 
party in the city. He was a life-long 
Methodist and for many years a member 
of the church of that denomination at 



Gloversville, holding the office of steward 
for a considerable period. Mrs. Phelps is 
a member of the same church and has 
been connected for many years with the 
Sabbath school work as well as many 
other departments of the church activity, 
being a Sunday school teacher for forty- 
rive years. 

Mr. Phelps was married on March 17, 
1858, to Josephine Matilda Whitney, 
born April 18, 1838, a daughter of Asa 
Hervey and Almira Matilda (Wait) 
Whitney. To Mr. and Mrs. Phelps were 
born six children, whose births occurred 
in Johnstown, as follows : 1. Inez Marian, 
born July 15, 1859, died June 10, 1887. 2. 
William Edwin, born November 12, i860; 
married (first) December 27, 1882, Emily 
Ann Banks, by whom he had two chil- 
dren, Jessie Marian and Harry Chester; 
married (second) April 6, 1898, Jane 
Munns, by whom he had one child, Ray- 
mond Chester. 3. Warren Whitney, 
born August 23, 1863 ; married, August 
30, 1884, Abbie Lansing, by whom he had 
one child, Florence Catherine. 4. Emma 
Belle, born December 28, 1865 ; married, 
February 15, 1884, Elmer J. Staley, by 
whom she has had one child, Harold 
Phelps. 5. Lillian Almira, born January 
11, 1870; married, April 7, 1899, John M. 
Smith. 6. Alma Leona, born October 26, 
1877; married, September, 1910, Clifton 
Elliot Sanborn, and they have one son, 
Clifton Elliot. 



POTTS, George Cumming, 

Man of Affairs. 

The prominence men bearing the name 
Potts have attained in the business world 
is not confined to one, two or three gen- 
erations, but from the coming of David 
Potts from Wales the name has been one 
of the most familiar ones in Pennsylvania 
coal and iron annals. There it is forever 
preserved in the nomenclature of the 




J?. 



J <7c 



<Z S7^r 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



towns of the anthracite region, Pottstown 
and Pottsville ranking high in commercial 
importance. While this branch of the 
family has attained high rank in New 
York City and State, both George dim- 
ming Potts and his father, George Alex- 
ander Henry Potts, were born in New 
Jersey, as were all preceding generations. 

The family name was Pott in ancient 
times; in 1278 it appears among parlia- 
mentary writ: "Robertus atte Potte, of 
county Surrey," as serving in military 
duty. At that period it was not infre- 
quently written Potte. Regarding the 
arms of the Potts family, the earliest rec- 
ord in the Herald's College of Arms 
granted to one of the name bears date 
1583; given to John Potts, an eminent 
barrister of Lincoln's Inn. It is de- 
scribed: Azure, two bars or, over all a 
band of the second, that is, on a shield of 
blue are two bands of gold, making in all 
five horizontal bands of equal width, with 
the blue showing at top and bottom, and 
from upper left to lower right a band of 
same width of gold. Crest : On a mount 
vert, an ounce sejant ppr. collared and 
chained. 

(I) The line of descent of the Potts 
family here to be set forth was instituted 
by David Potts, who was born about 1670, 
in Montgomeryshire, Wales. He was a 
Friend, and settled in Bristol township, 
Philadelphia county, Pennsylvania, where 
he died in 1730. It is thought he came 
when a youth, the first notice of his resi- 
dence in America being 7 mo. 24, 1692, 
when signing as a bondsman for Eliza- 
beth Bennett, as executor of Edmund, her 
late husband, and his signature may be 
seen on file in the register's office in Phil- 
adelphia, Pennsylvania. As a Friend he 
first belonged to the Philadelphia Monthly 
Meeting. He purchased in 1695 a tract 
of one hundred and fifty acres of land in 
Bristol township, Philadelphia county, 



Pennsylvania, near Germantown ; subse- 
quently selling fifty acres, settling on the 
balance, and there resided the remainder 
of his life. The deed for this first pur- 
chase in the Potts family reads as follows : 
"The Commiss'rs by Patent dated 26th 9 
mo., 1685, Granted 500 acres to Rob't 
Longshore, Purchaser in Bristol Town- 
ship, in the County of Philad'a, joyning 
in Germantown, Irenia Land, and Will'm 
Wilkins, of which deed dated 1st 4 mo., 
1686, he sold to Samuel Bennett 200 acres, 
who by Deed dated 2. 4. 1695, sold 150 
thereof to David Potts, who sold to Wm. 
Harman 50 acres now in Possession of 
Peter Clever." And further: "The said 
David Potts requests a Warr't of Resur- 
vey on the said 150 acres according to the 
True bounds of the Tract and to Cutt off 
50 a's to said Harman or Clever. Ordered 
that a Warr't be accordingly granted for 
the said 50 acres to be cutt off as by 
agreement made between them and a Pat- 
ent on the Return if required, they paying 
the Overplus, if any." In 1716 he had a 
grant of one hundred acres of land in the 
Manor of Springfield, for which he was to 
pay £80. When the Friends established 
a Meeting in Germantown, he was trans- 
ferred to it, and under date of October 11, 
171 1, he bought land there, the sellers 
being trustees of the Germantown Meet- 
ing there, and he was entrusted with im- 
portant matters relating thereto. He was 
a man of good standing in the community 
where he resided for so long a time, and 
represented Philadelphia county in the 
Provincial Assembly for 1728-29-30. His 
death occurred November 16, 1730. He 
made his will, November 13, 1730, which 
was probated November 26, 1730, and is 
on file in the register's office at Philadel- 
phia, in Will Book E, page 142. In it he 
wrote : "I Give & Bequeath to my son, 
John, the sum of Twenty Shillings money 
af'd he having likewise received his por- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



tion in my life time w'ch s'd money is to 
be paid to him in two years after my De- 
cease." 

David Potts married Alice Croasdale, 
who was born 8 mo. 3, 1673, and whose 
parents came as passengers with William 
Penn in the ship "Welcome," Robert 
Greenway, master, in 1682. Although the 
records of the Meeting are far from per- 
fect, many matters relating to this couple 
are ascertainable. She was the youngest 
daughter of Thomas and Agnes (Hathern- 
waite) Croasdale. They declared their in- 
tention of marriage with each other be- 
fore the Philadelphia Monthly Meeting, 
10 mo. 29, 1693 (December, 1693) ; passed 
the Meeting the second time on 11 mo. 
26, 1693-94 (January, 1694), and were 
granted a certificate to marry under the 
care of Middletown Monthly Meeting in 
Bucks county. The following is a copy 
of the entry in the minutes of the latter 
Meeting: "David Potts and Alice Croas- 
^dale have requested to solemnize their 
marriage within this Meeting, because her 
relations mostly dwell here, and they be- 
longing to Philadelphia have brought a 
Certificate from that Monthly Meeting 
that testifies they have proceeded there 
orderly, and nothing is found against 
them, and also requested that they may 
accomplish their marriage here, which 
they have granted them ; so this Meeting 
is satisfied and grants their requests." A 
subsequent record shows that they were 
married in an orderly manner on 1 mo. 22, 
1693. This date, according to the modern 
system of reckoning, would correspond to 
March 22, 1694. The following is a copy 
of the marriage certificate as it is recorded 
by the Monthly Meeting: "Whereas, 
David Potts and Alice Croasdale, both of 
Philadelphia, in the Province of Pennsyl- 
vania, having declared their intentions of 
taking each other in marriage, before sev- 
eral public meetings of the People of God 



called Quakers, in Philadelphia, in the 
Province of Pennsylvania aforesaid, in 
America, according to the good order used 
amongst them, whose proceedings there- 
in, after deliberate consideration thereof, 
were approved by the said meetings ; they 
appearing clear of all others." 

(II) John Potts, son of David and Alice 
(Croasdale) Potts, was born 8 mo. 8, 1696, 
and died in September, 1766. He learned 
the trade of a millwright. When grown 
up he settled in Upper Dublin township, 
later on included within the limits of 
Montgomery county, where he purchased 
a tract of land from Isaac and John 
Phipps, about 1748, the deed for which is 
recorded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
showing title back to the original grant 
by William Penn, in 1681 ; still owned 
(1900) by his descendants. It is located 
about two miles east of Fort Washington 
village. His will, made September 28, 
1766, in many respects is quaint and reads 
in part as follows : 

Be it remembered that I, John Potts of the 
Township of Upper Dublin, in the County of 
Philad'a and province of Pensilvania, Mill 
Wright, being now far advanced in Years, but 
yet of Sound and Disposing Mind and Memory, 
for which mercy and favour May I ever prais 
the great author of my being, and at times feel- 
ing the Simtoms of Mortality through the 
Decay of nature, but relying on the merits of 
my Redeemer, hope for a happy change from 
this life to that which is to come of Eternal 
Peace, and rest in Daily Expectation of such 
a Change. And in as much as God in his 
Mercy has blessed me with some worldly estate, 
do think Proper to make this my last will and 
testament in the manner following, that is to 
say, first of all I will that all my Just Debts 
and funeral Expenses be well and truly paid 
and Discharged. 

Item, I will Devise and Bequeath unto my 
Dear and Loving wife Elizabeth all my Real 
and Personal Estate whatsoever during her 
natural life, giving her full Privilege to will or 
dispose of as much household goods as she shall 
see proper in her life time to either her Chil- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



dren or grand Children and after her decease. 
I will devise and Bequeath unto my son John 
the Plantation & Tract of land I now live on 
containing one hundred and fifty acres of land, 
be it more or less with all the Buildings and 
appurtenances thereon or any wise thereunto 
belonging unto him his heirs and Assigns for- 
ever and the remainder of my Personal estate 
except what is hereafter Excepted he paying 
the several legacies hereafter mentioned that 
is to say, — I will and Bequeath unto my son 
Thomas my Chamber Clock and fifty Pound 
Lawful money of Pensilvania to be delivered 
and paid unto him by my Executors hereafter 
named within one year after my wife's Decease. 

John Potts married, in July, 1726, Eliza- 
beth McVaugh (or McVeagh), daughter 
of Edmond and Alice (Dickinson) Mc- 
Veagh. She was born in 1699 and died 
1 mo. 5, 1791. 

(Ill) Thomas Potts, son of John and 
Elizabeth (McVeagh) Potts, was born in 
1729, died July 29, 1776. He was a mill- 
wright, and resided in Moreland township 
for some time. Walter Moore and his 
wife, Sarah, on June 22, 1753, conveyed to 
him, as millwright of the Manor of More- 
land, one-half of a certain corn mill and 
two parcels of land there. Later on he 
removed to Sussex county, New Jersey, 
settling in Chelsea Forge, where he pos- 
sessed much property, became high sheriff 
of Sussex county in 1772, and a member 
of Provincial Assembly in 1775 and 1776. 
Thomas Potts was a member of the Con- 
tinental Congress which convened in Phil- 
adelphia in 1776; he was in all respects a 
patriot, but being a member of the Society 
of Friends he refused to sign the Declara- 
tion of Independence, not wishing to co- 
operate in an act that meant war and 
bloodshed for the colonies. Thomas Potts 
married, January 16, 1753, Elizabeth Lu- 
kens, daughter of William and Elizabeth 
(Tyson) Lukens, who, when a widow, 
married Dr. John Rockhill, a widower 
(born March 22, 1726, died April 7, 1798), 



whose descendants (by their previous 
marriages) intermarried. 

The Lukens family was one of the most 
notable of the early Pennsylvania fam- 
ilies, and was of Holland descent. Joseph 
and John Lukens were brothers-in-law 
of Thomas Potts. The first mentioned 
was a lifelong resident of the Lukens 
estate, at Sandy Run, a man of wealth, 
held in high esteem for many good 
qualities. The latter was appointed to 
the responsible position of surveyor-gen- 
eral of Pennsylvania, under the king. 
Upon the agitation of the momentous 
question which prepared the way for 
American independence, he espoused the 
cause of the patriots and so closely was 
he identified with the leaders in the Revo- 
lutionary movement that it was in one of 
the apartments of his residence, in Phila- 
delphia, that the Declaration of Independ- 
ence was drawn up by Thomas Jefferson. 
His granddaughter, the celebrated beauty, 
Sally McKean, became the wife of the ^ 
Marquis D'Yrugo, the first minister from 
Spain to the United States under the con- 
stitution. Elizabeth, the eldest child of 
Thomas and Elizabeth (Lukens) Potts, 
married Robert Barnhill, and among their 
children was a daughter Margaret, who 
married Cornelius V. S. Roosevelt, and 
had a son Theodore Roosevelt, who was 
the father of Theodore Roosevelt, former 
President of the United States. 

(IV) Hugh Henry Potts, son of Thomas 
and Elizabeth (Lukens) Potts, was born 
in 1773, and died in 1842. One gains an 
excellent idea regarding him from a de- 
scription in a letter written to Thomas 
Maxwell Potts, the skilled and intelligent 
genealogist of the Potts family, by the 
late William John Potts. It reads: "This 
summer I have renewed my acquaintance 
with Mr. George H. Potts, of the City of 
New York. He is, as you are aware, first 
cousin to my father, and is now seventy- 



223 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



four years old, — a tall, distinguished and 
elegant looking man of at least six feet 
high, not inclined to stoutness, which 
characterizes two of his sons. Among 
Mr. George H. Potts' traditions of his 
father, uncles and grandfather, were sev- 
eral which are confirmed in part by my 
aunt, (Hannah) Elizabeth Potts and my 
uncle, Charles Clay Potts, both aged 
above seventy years. Hugh Potts, as he 
was commonly called, though his full 
name was Alexander Hugh, father of the 
said George, and brother to my grand- 
father, was a remarkably handsome man. 
One of the Robesons who had known him 
in his youth, possibly an old sweetheart 
of his, said he was the handsomest man 
she ever knew. The said Mary Robeson 
died in Philadelphia, aged about seventy 
years, ten or more years ago. Hugh Potts 
was six feet one inch high ; weighed 220 
pounds, and was a most powerful man. 
On one occasion he lifted with one hand 
fourteen 56-pound weights to above the 
knee. He held on his outstretched hand 
one Ramsay, sheriff of Hunterdon coun- 
ty, in a standing position, he being 
steadied by a man on each side ; took him 
entirely across the room. He also car- 
ried said Ramsay, standing on his (Mr. 
Potts') knee, the back part of it turned 
up, across the room. Mrs. Rockhill, sis- 
ter of Hugh Potts, was also of large 
frame. She was six feet in height. 
Thomas Potts, high sheriff of Sussex 
county, New Jersey, father of Hugh Potts, 
on one occasion had to arrest Edward 
Marshall, the hero of the famous Indian 
walk, who lived on an island in the Dela- 
ware, out of his jurisdiction, and was be- 
side no mean adversary. My great-grand- 
father, Thomas Potts, a large and power- 
ful man, took a boat and crossing over to 
the island where Marshall lived, bound 
him hand and foot, and when he landed 
his prisoner on the Jersey shore, served 
his warrant on him." 



Hugh Henry Potts married Elizabeth 
Hughes, about the year 1800, at Carlisle, 
Pennsylvania. She was the daughter of 
Captain John Hughes, a distinguished 
officer of the Revolution, who enlisted as 
a sergeant in the Sixth Pennsylvania Bat- 
talion, January 29, 1776, and served in 
various capacities to the close of the war. 
His position of brigade quartermaster 
during the years 1778 and 1779 brought 
him in close personal companionship with 
General George Washington. Hugh 
Henry Potts also inclined to a military 
career and near the close of the War of 
1812 was appointed to a captaincy in the 
United States army. 

(V ) George Alexander Henry Potts, son 
of Hugh Henry and Elizabeth (Hughes) 
Potts, was born September 22, 181 1, died 
in New York City, on April 28, 1888. He 
was born on his father's estate on the 
Delaware river in Bucks county, Penn- 
sylvania. Bereft of his mother by death 
in 1813, he found a home in Pittstown, 
Hunterdon county, New Jersey, in the 
family of his father's sister, Mrs. Judge 
Rockhill. In 1829 he removed to Potts- 
ville, Pennsylvania, and at once engaged 
in mining operations, and from 1834 to 
1845 was tne most extensive individual 
coal operator in the region. He erected 
the first engine for mining coal below the 
water level ever set up in Pennsylvania; 
he also built the first boat which was em- 
ployed to convey coal from the Schuylkill 
region direct to New York City. In 1853 
George A. H. Potts removed to New York 
City and became the head of the New 
York branch of the wholesale coal and 
iron firm of Lewis Audenried & Com- 
pany. On the death of Mr. Audenried in 
1874 this firm, was dissolved, Mr. Potts 
retiring, and the business has since been 
continued by his sons, Frederic A. Potts 
and William Rockhill Potts, and still later 
by his grandson, Frederic A. Potts. 
George A. H. Potts was one of the origi- 
224 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



nal incorporators of the National Park 
Bank, and its president from September, 
1879, to the time of his death in 1888. In 
person he was above the medium height 
and of striking personal appearance. 

On September 19, 1832, he married 
(first) Emily Dilworth Cumming, at 
Pottsville, Pennsylvania. She was the 
daughter of George M. Cumming, who 
was born March 15, 1813, and died in 
1857. On July 2, 1863, he married (sec- 
ond) Helen Blendina Hard. She was 
born at Albion, New York, October 17, 
1837, and was the daughter of Judge 
Gideon Hard. George A. H. Potts re- 
sided on Madison avenue, New York City, 
and had a summer home and farm at Som- 
erville, New Jersey. 

(VI) George Cumming Potts, eldest 
son of George Alexander Henry and 
Emily Dilworth (Cumming) Potts, was 
born at Pottsville, Pennsylvania, August 
3, 1834, died at his home in Culver Road, 
Rochester, New York, Sunday, May 7, 
1916. George C. Potts, after obtaining a 
good education, was taught the detail of 
coal production and mine operation at his 
father's mines, was engaged in coal min- 
ing at Locustdale, Schuylkill county, 
Pennsylvania, operating the Potts Col- 
liery, in 1852, but later withdrew to be- 
come a member of the stock brokerage 
firm, R. Ellis & Company, of Philadel- 
phia. He spent many years in business 
prior to becoming general northern coal 
salesagent for the Philadelphia & Read- 
ing Coal and Iron Company, his territory 
Northern New York and Canada. In 
1893 he moved to Rochester as represent- 
ative of that company and until 1912 was 
engaged in the duties pertaining to the re- 
sponsible position he held. In 1912 he 
retired, the best known coal and iron 
agent in the northern tier of States. He 
was a man of strong mind and body, had 
been connected with coal business almost 

NY-VolIII-15 225 



from boyhood and inherited a capacity for 
business operation from his distinguished 
father, who had also guided his first ven- 
tures. His acquaintance was widely scat- 
tered and he was a well known figure on 
the Philadelphia and New York Ex- 
changes, he being a member of both. He 
was bold in his operations, yet always 
kept within the bounds of his judgment 
and accurate knowledge. He was rated a 
wise and honorable man of business, one 
whose word it was always safe to rely 
upon. 

Mr. Potts was a Democrat in politics, 
but took little active part in public affairs. 
In Rochester he was a member of the 
Chamber of Commerce, the Genesee Val- 
ley, the Rochester and the Rochester 
Whist clubs. His Philadelphia club was 
the Philadelphia, his New York City club, 
the Union. Before locating in Rochester, 
he had been an active member of the 
Lighthouse Club of Currituck, North Car- 
olina. He was ever fond of sport, and 
particularly partial to horses and hunting, 
taking active part in such out-of-doors 
recreation even after the years warned 
him to desist. He was in his eighty-sec- 
ond year when he died and until within 
six months of his last illness could have 
been considered a man hale and hearty. 

Mr. Potts married (first) in 1852, Mary 
Dallas, daughter of Judge Dallas, who 
died the same year. He married (sec- 
ond) December 4, 1863, Mary Laurette 
Eustis, born at Milton, Massachusetts, 
January 14, 1845, died at Pottsville, Penn- 
sylvania, November 4, 1868, daughter of 
Alexander Brook and Aurore (Grelaud) 
Eustis. He married (third) Nancy 
(Wheaton) Phillips, who survives him. 
She is a daughter of David R. and Mary 
(Galusha) Wheaton, of Western New 
York, the former named born 1817, a pio- 
neer in that section of the State, and the 
latter named in Exeter, Otsego county, 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



New York, 1830. Children all born to Mr. 
Potts and his second wife, Mary Laurette 
(Eustis) Potts: Maude Eustis, married at 
Bellefonte, Pennsylvania, April 8, 1890, 
Augustus C. Paine, Jr., and resides in 
New York City; George Eustis, born 
April 15, 1866, married at Marquette, 
Michigan, September 14, 1898, Sarah 
White Call, and resides at Short Hills, 
New Jersey ; Hugh Eustis, born October 
14, 1867, married Grace Paine, and re- 
sides in Willsborough, New York ; Lau- 
rette Eustis, born at Pottsville, Pennsyl- 
vania, October 12, 1868, married at Ger- 
mantown, Pennsylvania, January 24, 1905, 
L. Frederick Pease, and resides in New 
York City. 



WARD, Henry Augustus, 

Scientist, Traveler, Explorer. 

There have been great scientists, great 
travelers, and great explorers, each a spe- 
cialist, but rare indeed is it to find such a 
character as Professor Ward, scientist, 
traveler and explorer, yet in no sense a 
specialist. His quest was for all that was 
wonderful in natural science ; his field, the 
world. With all his attainments he was 
a man of singular modesty and simplicity 
of character, yet in every seat of scientific 
learning in his own and other lands his 
name is honored and will live when the 
names of more self assertive scientists 
shall have long been forgotten. The great 
Museum of Natural Science in Sibley 
Hall, University of Rochester, a priceless 
heritage, perhaps best represents his high- 
est work, while Ward's Natural Science 
Establishment, which he founded in 
Rochester, is still the Mecca of scientists 
in search of rare and valuable specimens 
illustrating the various branches of nat- 
ural science. His collection of meteorites, 
known as the Ward-Coonley Collection, 
is now a part of the Field Museum of 



Chicago, and is the largest private collec- 
tion in the world. To it he devoted about 
nine years of his life. Professor Ward 
often said, "This collection will be my 
monument." One of his recent trips was 
to Teheran, Persia, to secure a piece of 
the Veramin meteorite owned by the Shah 
and jealously guarded in his palace. He 
was successful and a specimen is on ex- 
hibition with the collection in New York. 

Professor L. P. Gratacap, of the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History, in his 
article in the "Popular Science Monthly" 
entitled "The Largest American Collec- 
tion of Meteorites," says : "No one in the 
United States has exhibited greater perse- 
verance or more boundless, almost reck- 
less, enthusiasm in the work of collecting 
meteorites than Professor Henry A. 
Ward. His audacity and zeal have gone 
hand in hand with a very keen scientific 
sense of the meaning of meteorites and 
an admirable acquaintance with the litera- 
ture and the results that have developed 
in their study. He has himself been an 
explorer in this field and it would be safe 
to predict that he would to-day be the 
first arrival at the scene should a meteorite 
fall." Professor Carl Klein, State Coun- 
selor and Director of the Royal Mineral 
Collection at Berlin, referred to the Ward- 
Coonley Collection as "one of the finest 
and richest meteorite collections in the 
entire world." 

As a traveler in search of the rare and 
wonderful in nature he established a rec- 
ord unsurpassed, carrying the name and 
fame of Rochester literally into the far 
corners of the earth. He was known to 
all of the older scientists of the world, and 
for many years the highways of the earth 
converged at Rochester. He made at 
least thirty-five trips to Europe, circum- 
navigated the globe, and visited every 
continent and almost every country the 
sun shines upon, as well as all the impor- 



226 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



tant islands of all the seas. He spoke 
many languages a famous Frenchman 
saying, "He is an American who speaks 
French like a Parisian." His command of 
German was equally good, and he spoke 
Spanish fluently. 

This knowledge of the languages of the 
world was not obtained through a desire 
for linguistic attainment but through 
necessity, for he literally ransacked the 
earth in his quest for specimens and often 
he was the only member of his party who 
could converse with the natives. He knew 
South America as well as he did the high- 
ways of his native city. His first collect- 
ing tour was made in 1854, prior to receiv- 
ing his degree from Harvard University, 
and was made at the expense of the elder 
General Wadsworth, of New York, who 
sent him to Europe as tutor to his son, 
Charles Wadsworth, now deceased. The 
young men traveled all over Continental 
Europe, then crossed to Egypt, visited 
Alexandria and Cairo and ascended the 
Nile to the second cataract, a notable 
journey in those days. While this jour- 
ney was undertaken solely for the benefit 
to be gained through foreign travel it was 
at this time that Professor Ward col- 
lected his first specimens. It was also at 
General Wadsworth's expense that the 
"Wadsworth Collection" of rocks, min- 
erals and fossils, donated by General 
Wadsworth to the Buffalo Natural His- 
tory Society and yet on exhibition, was 
made by Professor Ward when a young 
man. 

His next journey of note was made 
while he was still a student at the School 
of Mines in Paris, France. This journey 
carried him to Joppa, Jerusalem, the Dead 
Sea, and other points of scientific interest 
in Palestine, Arabia, Nubia, and Egypt; 
up the Nile to the fifth cataract; across 
the desert to Abyssinia, Somaliland, Zan- 
zibar, Mozambique, Portugese East 



Africa, Zululand, Natal, Cape Colony; 
then one thousand miles northeasterly 
from Cape Town through the interior to 
Griqualand, visiting the diamond fields; 
thence again to Cape Town. He next pro- 
ceeded up the West Coast to the mouth 
of the Niger, where he left the ship and 
ascended the river four hundred miles, 
that being the record trip into the interior 
of Africa for an American. On his return 
to the coast he continued his northward 
journey, visiting Liberia, Sierra Leone, 
Senegambia, Senegal, and Morocco, re- 
turning to Marseilles, the point also of 
his departure. It was on this journey 
that he visited the island of Fernando 
Po, in the Bight of Biafra, off the Came- 
roons, West Africa, where he was 
stricken with yellow fever and narrowly 
escaped death. Professor Ward's travels 
in South America were very extensive, 
for he visited every country at least once, 
and was familiar with trails leading over 
the Andes. His last trip there was made 
at the age of sixty-nine years and was 
completed the year of his death, 1906. 
He crossed the continent several times 
from Valparaiso to Buenos Ayres, ex- 
plored the Magdalena river for hundreds 
of miles from its mouth, and traveled for 
days over tortuous, dangerous mountain 
trails to Santa Rosa and Bogota. On his 
last trip, in order to reach home, he 
crossed the Atlantic from Rio de Janeiro 
to Senegal, Africa, thence to Lisbon and 
Bordeaux, there intending to meet Judge 
Albion W. Tourgee, who had been a 
student at the University of Rochester 
while Professor Ward was a member of 
the faculty and who was then United 
States Consul at Bordeaux. The morn- 
ing after his arrival he called at the con- 
sulate and was informed that Judge 
Tourgee had died during the previous 
night. 

Professor Ward visited Australia sev- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



eral times, living in gold camps and 
camping on the border of the great 
interior desert. His last trip there was 
at the request of the younger Professor 
Agassiz, of Harvard University, to obtain 
a collection of Australian corals, the jour- 
ney resulting in his securing the largest 
and finest collection of corals character- 
istic of a given locality, ever made. The 
ship chartered for the expedition made 
the passage inside the Great Barrier Reef 
that skirts Australia on the east from 
Torres Strait almost to Brisbane. 

In North America he had visited every 
State and territory within the borders of 
the United States except Alaska, had 
crossed British America from the Pacific 
to Newfoundland, and had traveled 
thousands of miles in Mexico and Central 
American States. While traveling in 
Colombia, South America, in 1905, he 
was captured by the insurgent General 
Uribe, but was held prisoner only a short 
time. 

In 1871 he was appointed by President 
Grant as naturalist to accompany the 
expedition he was sending to Santo Do- 
mingo, the purchase of that island of the 
West Indies being then contemplated and 
further information regarding its re- 
sources being desired. Professor Ward's 
duties were especially of a geological and 
zoological nature. The vessel carrying 
the expedition was wrecked, but all lives 
were saved and no material injury was 
sustained to thwart their mission. 

A summary of the countries he ex- 
plored and searched shows the earth 
circumnavigated and every country in 
Europe and every large city visited. In 
Asia, all countries of the Indian and 
Pacific littorals, as well as the large 
islands of those oceans, including Java, 
Borneo, New Zealand, Tasmania, New 
Guinea, New Caledonia, Hawaii, and 
Japan ; Africa, coastal and interior ; South, 



Central, and North America; all laid 
under contribution, for these journeys 
were not for pleasure but to secure speci- 
mens for Ward's Natural Science Estab- 
lishment in Rochester, to be distributed 
among museums, college collections, and 
private collectors. The last eight or nine 
years of his life were spent in search for 
meteorites, but prior to that all specimens 
of value to natural history students were 
collected. Professor Ward was not a 
voluminous writer and it was almost im- 
possible to prevail upon him to face an 
audience. He did, however, publish 
"Notice of the Megatherium Auveri" and 
"Descriptions of the Most Celebrated 
Fossils in the Royal Museums of Eu- 
rope," and had in preparation at the time 
of his death a great work on meteorites, 
upon which he had worked with his secre- 
tary at his summer home at Wyoming, 
New York, for about three years. In his 
last years he consented to deliver lectures, 
very few in number, before the Rochester 
Academy of Science and the Buffalo So- 
ciety of Natural History. Although 
Ward's Natural Science Establishment is 
a commercial enterprise, its business is 
carried on through an extensive corps of 
assistants at home and personally trained 
collectors whom he sent to all points of 
the world for materials for "Ward's 
Cabinets." Professor Ward, the founder, 
during the years of his management 
subordinated the commercial to the 
scientific. Hence, while the institution 
is in no sense a school, many men whose 
names are high upon the scientific roll of 
fame received their early practical train- 
ing under him. Among those going out 
from under his instruction the more 
notable are : G. K. Gilbert, of the United 
States Geological Survey; Edwin E. 
Howell, the most skilled maker of relief 
maps in the world, who came to Roches- 
ter an untaught country boy ; Dr. Wil- 



228 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



liam T. Hornaday, director of the Bronx 
Park Zoological Garden, one of the larg- 
est in the world ; Curator Frank C. Baker, 
of Chicago, a leading natural scientist; 
Charles A. Townsend, of the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey, the 
most successful collector of deep sea 
specimens known ; A. B. Baker, assistant 
superintendent but practical head of the 
Natural Zoological Garden at Washing- 
ton ; Frederick A. Lucas, curator-in-chief 
of the museum of Brooklyn Institute of 
Arts and Sciences; George Turner, a 
native of Rochester, now chief taxider- 
mist of the United States Natural 
Museum, Washington; Walter C. Bar- 
rows, professor of zoology in Michigan 
Agricultural College; Rufus H. Pettit, 
professor of entomology in the same insti- 
tution ; and Carl Akley, chief taxidermist 
of the American Museum of Natural 
Science, New York City. 

The tribute Dr. Hornaday lays at the 
feet of his master and friend expresses 
the feelings of all. Dr. Hornaday came 
to Rochester in 1873 from an Iowa agri- 
cultural college. He did such excellent 
work that in 1874 he was sent to Florida 
in the interests of the establishment and 
was so successful that in 1876 he was sent 
by Professor Ward around the world on 
a collecting tour, a journey described in 
"Two Years in the Jungle" by Dr. Horn- 
aday (New York, 1885). The esteem in 
which he held Professor Ward he thus 
expressed : "In my estimation he has 
done more towards the creation and ex- 
pansion of the scientific museums of the 
world than any other twenty men I could 
name. The value of his work as a scien- 
tific educator can never be estimated in 
dollars and cents. He deliberately chose 
as his sphere of usefulness the gathering 
and distribution of specimens and collec- 
tions for the promotion of scientific study. 
The work of his life has been to place in 



the hands of scientific students and inves- 
tigators the objects they could not obtain 
for themselves." 

In his philanthropy Professor Ward 
was particularly generous to institutions 
and collectors of small means, frequently 
adding to their orders useful specimens 
without charge, reducing his profit to 
nothing and in some cases not receiving 
enough even to cover the original cost. 
Many young men of this country and 
some in Europe owe their education and 
opportunities to him, nor was it neces- 
sary that they should be scientific 
students, as he was equally ready to help 
any ambitious young man to a business 
education. Money meant nothing to him ; 
his work was everything. The zoological, 
geological, and mineralogical collection 
installed by him in the Lewis Brooks 
Museum of Natural Science at the 
University of Virginia in Richmond at a 
cost to Mr. Brooks of eighty-eight thou- 
sand dollars netted Professor Ward a 
profit of but one hundred dollars, and this 
did not pay for the time he spent in plac- 
ing the collection in position in the 
museum. 

Professor Ward met death by accident 
in Buffalo, after escaping the perils of 
explorer and traveler in wild and un- 
frequented regions during the greater 
part of a life of seventy years. He him- 
self planned and placed his tomb in 
Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester, 
several years prior to his death. It is an 
immense boulder of crystalline quartz 
with jasper inclusion brought from the 
north shore of Lake Superior, the only 
region in the entire world known to 
produce such a rock. A niche in the 
center contains the urn that holds his 
ashes. 

Henry Augustus Ward was born in 
Rochester, March 9, 1834, died in Buffalo, 
July 4, 1906, son of Henry M. and Eliza 



229 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



(Chapin) Ward. He attended Rochester 
schools for a time, but in early life spent 
several years on a farm in Wyoming 
county. He then became a student at 
Temple Hall Academy, Geneseo, New 
York, Marshal Oyama, the famous 
Japanese warrior, being a classmate. He 
next entered Williams College, where for 
about a year Charles E. Fitch, of Roches- 
ter, was a classmate. It was while a 
student at Williams that he walked 
twenty-eight miles to hear Professor 
Agassiz's lecture and was then introduced 
to him. This resulted in the abandon- 
ment of his college course and his going 
to Cambridge as Professor Agassiz's 
assistant. After a number of years of this 
congenial work which resulted in his 
lifelong friendship with his great master, 
he went on the tour with General Wads- 
worth. This was followed by five years 
at the Jardin des Plantes, the Sorbonne, 
and the School of Mines, shorter courses 
following at Munich in Bavaria, and 
Freiburg in Saxony. He then threw his 
books aside and made the African jour- 
ney previously described. During his 
travels he studied the zoological and geo- 
logical features of the country through 
which he passed, while at the same time 
he made a vast collection of minerals, 
geological specimens and fossils. During 
his student life in Paris he supported him- 
self by the collection of fossils and other 
geological specimens found in Paris, 
which he either sold in London or ex- 
changed for scientific material that he 
could convert into cash. The result of 
his African journey, that valuable col- 
lection now owned by the University of 
Rochester, was made with the assistance 
of his uncle, Levi Ward. This collection 
of mineral rocks and fossils was shipped 
to the United States and on its arrival 
he exhibited it in Washington Hall, at the 
corner of what is now West Main and 



Washington streets. The collection at- 
tracted widespread attention, being the 
largest and most complete of its kind ever 
made. It was the center of so much 
interest that it was purchased by popular 
subscription for the University of 
Rochester, where, greatly enlarged, it 
occupies an important place in Sibley 
Hall. Shortly after his return from 
Paris he was elected professor of natural 
science, filling that chair for five years, 
i860 to 1865. 

His knowledge of minerals, his experi- 
ence abroad, and the dearth of mining 
engineers brought Professor Ward flat- 
tering proposals from several mining 
companies. He accepted one of these, 
from the Midas Gold Mining Company, 
of Midasburg, Montana, that company 
being largely owned by Rochester capital- 
ists. In 1865 he severed his connection 
with the university and became super- 
intendent of the Midas Company. He 
procured for his mine the first stamp mill 
used in treating free milling gold ore 
ever used in the Rocky Mountains. This 
mill, which crushed the ore to a fineness 
allowing the greatest economy in hauling 
from the mine, was brought from Sacra- 
mento, California, over the mountains to 
Midasburg, through a hostile wilderness, 
ten months being consumed in the jour- 
ney. From Midasburg Professor Ward 
went to Southern California as superin- 
tendent of a gold mine owned largely by 
his friend, Cyrus McCormick, inventor of 
the reaping machine. After a year there 
the call of science won him and he re- 
turned to Rochester to complete the col- 
lection made by himself and owned by 
the University of Rochester. The serious 
gaps in that collection, especially in the 
fossil department, were comparatively 
easy to fill, there being excellent examples 
of the large extinct animals to be found 
in the museums of Europe. To fill these 



230 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



gaps required the making of accurate 
moulds to the number of several thousand 
and to that work he addressed himself. 
When the moulds were ready to be 
shipped to Rochester three frame build- 
ings were erected on the campus to re- 
ceive them and there the casts now to be 
seen in the museum halls of the Univer- 
sity of Rochester and many other similar 
institutions were made, the work attract- 
ing the attention of colleges and univer- 
sities all over the United States, many 
requests for duplicates being received. 
This was the inaugural work of "Ward's 
Natural Science Establishment," that is 
one of Rochester's notable enterprises, 
with a member of the Ward family still 
its executive head. The establishment 
grew with the years until every branch 
of natural science is represented. In its 
early years Professor Ward was its 
directing head and until his death was a 
large stockholder though not actively 
identified with its management. He ran- 
sacked the earth for specimens, as told 
heretofore, his natural history work under 
the elder Agassiz, his geological work 
under D'Aubigny and De Beaumont, his 
private explorations and travels, all qual- 
ifying him for leadership in such an 
enterprise. His interest in meteorites 
developed during the last decade of his 
life and he became as famous in that 
field as in others longer cultivated. His 
business in Buffalo on the day of his 
death was partly to talk over with his 
friend, Dr. Roswell Park, an expedition 
which he proposed to lead into Africa, 
although then in his seventy-second year 
and not then three months returned from 
a South American expedition. 

Professor Ward's remarkable restor- 
ations or facsimiles range in size from a 
shell to an ichthyosaurus and a mastodon, 
and are remarkable in the minuteness and 
exactness of their detail. He formed and 



installed museums costing many thou- 
sands of dollars each for Allegheny Col- 
lege, Cornell, Syracuse, Vanderbilt, Yale 
and other universities, in all over one 
hundred institutions throughout the 
United States. 

Professor Ward's scholarly degrees 
earned through work in the class room 
were those of Bachelor of Arts, Williams 
College, i860, and Master of Arts, Univer- 
sity of Rochester, 1862. The University 
of Rochester conferred on him the degree 
of Doctor of Laws in 1896, and Doctor of 
Science, Albertus Magnus, in 1902, and 
he was a fellow of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science 
and of the American Society of Natural- 
ists. 

He married (first) in i860, Phoebe A. 
Howell, of York, New York, whom he 
met while both were students at Geneseo. 
Alice, their daughter, died in 1901 ; 
Charles H., the eldest son, lives in 
Rochester; while Henry L., is director 
of the Milwaukee Public Museum. Both 
sons received their business and technical 
training in Ward's Natural Science Estab- 
lishment. On March 18, 1897, Professor 
Ward married (second) Mrs. Lydia 
Avery Coonley, of Chicago, where they 
afterwards resided in winter, making 
their summer home at Wyoming, New 
York. It was on his way to this country 
home, associated with his boyhood as well 
as with his later years, that on July 4, 
1906, Professor Ward fell a victim to the 
reckless driving of an automobile. 



DRAPER, Andrew S., 

Lawyer. Educator, Administrator. 

Dr. Andrew Sloan Draper was not a 
genius, nor did he possess great original- 
ity, but he was an administrator of re- 
markable ability. In that respect he has 
not been equalled by anyone in this coun- 



■231 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



try who has had to do with public educa- 
tion. His mind was always open to sug- 
gestions from any source, and he was at 
all times ready to act upon such sugges- 
tions as to him seemed worthy and likely 
to succeed. He had none of that pride of 
opinion that is the weakness of small 
minds. When he decided that a thing 
should be done, the matter was perma- 
nently settled in his mind, and rebuff and 
temporary failure did not dishearten him. 
He had the ability to bide his time and 
seize the favorable moment for action 
when it arose. 

His career shows clearly that men suc- 
ceed or fail in life not primarily because 
of the opportunities that they may have 
had, but because of what they are. Dr. 
Draper was not what is generally con- 
sidered an educated man; at least his 
schooling was somewhat meager. Al- 
though he was the successful president of 
a great university, he was not a college 
graduate, nor had he ever attended any 
college, if his course at the Albany Law 
School be excepted. Why then should 
he achieve the great success that he did? 
How did he fit himself for his work? He 
knew men. He was a masterful man. He 
saw clearly and clung to his purposes 
persistently. He prepared himself care- 
fully for every event that he thought was 
likely to arise. He had not that fear of 
failure that so often prevents action. 
Added to these characteristics was what 
after all is a good training for life. He 
was born in the country. When a mere 
boy he began to be self-supporting. 

Andrew Sloan Draper was the son of a 
farmer, Sylvester Bigelow Draper, and of 
Jane Sloan Draper, was born at West- 
ford, Otsego county, New York, on June 
21, 1848, and died at his home in Albany, 
April 27, 1913. He came from good stock. 
On his father's side he was descended in 
a direct line from James Draper, "The 



Puritan," who settled at Roxbury, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1646. Through his paternal 
great-grandmother he was descended 
Degory Priest, one of the "Mayflower" 
Pilgrims. His mother was Scotch-Irish. 
Two of his great-grandfathers were offi- 
cers in the early French wars ; one of 
them was killed in King Philip's War. 
Two of his ancestors were soldiers in the 
Revolution. 

His first occupation was that of a news- 
boy at Albany, New York, for which he 
received two dollars and fifty cents a 
week. His experience in teaching was 
meager. He began teaching in a private 
school in his native county at the age of 
eighteen, and at the age of twenty was 
principal of a small village school in the 
county of Otsego. For three or four 
years he taught in the Albany Academy 
and other institutions. He attended the 
Albany public schools, and graduated 
from the Albany Academy in 1866, and 
from the Albany Law School in 1871. He 
became a member of the law firm of 
Draper & Chester in 1871. He married 
Abbie Louise Bryan, of New Britain, 
Connecticut, May 8, 1872. He was a 
member of the Albany Board of Educa- 
tion, 1879-81 and 1890-92, and was a 
member of the Legislature in 1881. He 
was a member of the board of trustees of 
the State Normal College, and was made 
Judge of the United States Court of Ala- 
bama Claims. 

Dr. Draper was a strong temperance 
man, and was at one time grand worthy 
chief templar of the Independent Order 
of Good Templars of the State of New 
York. He was frequently heard on the 
temperance question from the same plat- 
form as Horace Greeley, Neal Dow and 
John B. Gough. He was for years an 
active politician, and came to see a side 
of human nature that is not usually well 
known to those who are not in politics. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



He was for several years the head of the 
Republican organization in Albany. One 
might say that this was no preparation 
for educational work, yet with him it 
proved to be the best possible prepara- 
tion — it made him the master of men ; it 
trained him to understand the public; it 
led him to appreciate the value of organi- 
zation, without which no great work can 
be successfully carried on. Because of 
this training he became an untiring 
worker, and quick to see danger signals 
and to prepare to meet opposition. 

Dr. Draper was elected State Superin- 
tendent of Schools in 1886, serving until 
1892, his choice being almost universally 
opposed by school men on the ground 
that he was a politician. He was, and he 
remained one until the day of his death, 
but partisan politics never entered into 
the great department over which he pre- 
sided. After two terms of service as 
State Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion he was succeeded by a Democrat, 
but he had cast his lot permanently with 
educational workers. He was then elected 
superintendent of schools at Cleveland, 
Ohio, which office he held from 1892 to 
1894. In the latter year he was chosen 
president of the University of Illinois. In 
both of these positions he made an envia- 
ble record. In 1898 he was elected first 
superintendent of schools in Greater New 
York, but declined. When the unifica- 
tion of the school systems of New York 
took place he was called back to his 
native State to administer educational 
affairs, and spent the remainder of his 
life at this work. He was elected by the 
Legislature in 1904, and in 1910 was re- 
elected for life by the Board of Regents. 
While engaged in educational work Dr. 
Draper spoke on many educational prob- 
lems and in many States, and he wrote 
largely and effectively. Beyond question 
he was the ablest educational adminis- 
trator of his time, and probablv the ablest 



our country has produced. He held many 
official educational offices. He was presi- 
dent of the superintendents' section of the 
National Educational Association from 
1889 to 1891, and presided at these meet- 
ings with rare skill and efficiency. He 
was president of the North Central Asso- 
ciation of Colleges and Secondary Schools 
in 1903-04. In 1898 he was made a mem- 
ber of the Board of United States Indian 
Commissioners, and was chairman at the 
time of his death. Dr. Draper loved his 
State intensely, as he loved his country, 
and he had the greatest faith in the char- 
acter and the endurance of both. He was 
an optimist, and had small patience with 
a man who was disposed to look upon the 
dark side of things. He was interested in 
history, and was a member and a trustee 
of the New York State Historical Asso- 
ciation, and read several papers at its 
meetings. He was also a member of the 
State Historical societies of Illinois and 
of Wisconsin, as well as of the Chicago 
Historical Society. He loved, respected 
and honored his State, and felt it was 
without an equal among the Common- 
wealths of our Union. In the course of a 
controversy with Mr. Martin, of Massa- 
chusetts, in regard to the matter of pri- 
macy in educational work, he made use of 
this expression: "New York made his- 
tory, but Massachusetts wrote it." 

It is a matter of interest to know that 
the magnificent educational building 
stands on the same site as that occupied 
by the humble boyhood home of Dr. 
Draper. 

Dr. Draper was a speaker with no spe- 
cial graces, yet one who held and influ- 
enced his audiences because of his hon- 
esty, his earnestness, and his clearness of 
thought and expression. His educational 
work may be summarized as follows : He 
removed the public schools of the State 
from the influence of partisan politics. He 
provided uniform examinations for teach- 



233 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ers' licenses. He secured the recognition 
of the fact that the schools were State and 
not local institutions. He secured the 
enactment of laws designed to insure the 
appointment of efficient supervising offi- 
cers for rural schools. He secured the 
passage of a law providing for three thou- 
sand State scholarships in the approved 
colleges of the State. It was chiefly 
through his influence and efforts that the 
Educational Department is housed in the 
finest building in the world devoted to 
that purpose. He received the degree of 
Doctor of Laws from Colgate (1889), Co- 
lumbia (1903), and the University of Illi- 
nois (1905). He received an award at the 
Paris Exposition (1900) for a monograph 
on the "Organization and Administration 
of the American School System," and a 
gold medal and one of two grand prizes 
given at the St. Louis Exposition (1904) 
for collaborating two or more exhibits and 
for unusual services in educational ad- 
ministration. 

The life of Dr. Draper should be an in- 
spiration to all boys and young men who 
have ideals and ambitions. He was a 
poor boy. He had no special educational 
opportunities. He had good native abil- 
ity, but was in no sense a genius. He 
made his way through persistent hard 
work. He earned his success. He was 
not vacillating. He stood for the right as 
he saw it, let the result be what it might. 
He detested dishonest, mean, cowardly 
men, and men who were always yielding 
to difficulties. On one occasion when 
talking to a school official who was mak- 
ing excuses for not doing his duty he 
said : "I have no faith in a man who is 
always seeing a lion in the way. I pin 
my faith to the man who, when he meets 
an obstacle will find a way over it, around 
it, through it or under it." This was Dr. 
Draper's own spirit, the spirit that con- 
tributed so largely to his success. 



The magnificent educational building at 
Albany will be a lasting monument to Dr. 
Draper. The State scholarships that he 
was successful in securing will for all 
time secure to thousands of boys and 
girls a college education, and many of 
these could never have hoped for a lib- 
eral education but for these scholarships. 
Not only will thousands secure these 
scholarships, but many more thousands 
will accomplish much more in life than 
they otherwise would have done, because 
of these scholarships. They will cause a 
general uplift in the educational work of 
the State. In this act alone Dr. Draper 
has rendered the State he loved so dearly 
an invaluable service. 

Sherman Williams. 



CULVER, Oliver, 

Pioneer of Brighton. 

Coming from the town of Orwell, Ver- 
mont, a section rich in historical associa- 
tions, Oliver Culver made local history in 
the town of Brighton, now a part of the 
city of Rochester. John Lusk, the pio- 
neer settler, came to Brighton first in 1787 
and then returned to his Massachusetts 
home, carrying wonderful stories of the 
resources of the Genesee valley. Through 
his influence and the favorable reports he 
took back to New England, several fam- 
ilies followed his example when he re 
turned and became a permanent settlei 
in Brighton, among them Oliver Culver, 
who came in 1791. 

He at once secured land and began 
clearing a farm, he and Solomon Hatch 
having a saw mill running on Allyn's 
creek as early as 1806. His farm was 
just east of Brighton village, and when 
in 1810 the population of the afterward 
created town of Brighton had reached 
two thousand eight hundred, he, in ad- 
dition to his farm and saw mill, engaged 



234 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



in business with Judge Tryon and trans- 
ported many boatloads of goods to the 
infant settlements in the then "Far West." 
He operated perhaps the first distillery in 
the town, having one located near his 
tavern west of Brighton village, and one 
north of his residence. 

When the Erie canal was completed 
through the eastern part of the county in 
1822, Oliver Culver built and put in the 
canal at Brighton the first packet boat of 
that region, and the fourth to operate on 
the canal anywhere. When the old town- 
ship of Smallwood was divided on March 
25, 1814, and its territory organized into 
two distinct towns, Brighton and Pitts- 
ford, he was elected at the first town 
meeting held in Brighton in 1814, the first 
supervisor of the new town, serving two 
years. He was again elected in 1838, serv- 
ing three years, and again elected in 1844. 
He continued his boat building for sev- 
eral years, with two others being the 
leaders in that industry, and during their 
earlier years (1812-1815) the little settle- 
ment was a busy locality, much lake navi- 
gation having its beginning there. 

Oliver Culver was well born, and was 
one of the important men of the new set- 
tlement. He was a son of William Cul- 
ver, who was a soldier of the Revolution, 
and was a brother of John Culver, whom 
he persuaded to come to Monroe county 
and purchase a tract of one hundred and 
fifty acres, now included within the cor- 
porate limits of Rochester, between Good- 
man and Barrington streets on East ave- 
nue. John Culver made a horseback jour- 
ney to see his purchase in 1810, but soon 
returned to Vermont. In 1812 he again 
came to Rochester and permanently 
located on his farm. 



McQUAID, Bernard J., 

Prelate, Educator, Philanthropist. 

To have achieved fame in one direction 
is conceded to be an enviable condition by 



the majority of human beings, but in the 
late Rt. Rev. Bernard J. McQuaid, first 
bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of 
Rochester, New York, we had a man who 
attained eminence as minister, educator 
and philanthropist. In every one of these 
fields he was undoubtedly successful, and 
in every instance he labored for the best 
interests of humanity, with never a 
thought of self-aggrandizement. His 
courage and fearlessness, his personal 
self-sacrifice, his executive ability and 
foresight, are well-nigh unparalleled. It 
is difficult to estimate the value of such 
services as Bishop McQuaid rendered the 
cause of religion and humanity. It is not 
alone by what he did that results must be 
measured, but by the influence his ad- 
mirable life has had upon others. Many 
of the younger clergy who were his asso- 
ciates sought his counsel, which never 
failed them, and his sympathetic and 
fatherly advice helped to spread the noble 
doctrine which his entire life exemplified. 
Tender and loving, his heart was filled 
with good will toward all humanity. 

Bishop Bernard John McQuaid was 
born in New York City, December 15, 1823, 
and died at the Episcopal residence on 
Frank street, Rochester, New York, Janu- 
ary 18, 1909. His last illness had been of 
a number of weeks' duration, and yet the 
announcement of his death was an un- 
expected shock to the thousands of peo- 
ple who had learned to love and appre- 
ciate him, and who had hoped against 
hope for his recovery. The early years 
of his life were spent in New Jersey, and 
it was at the home of his father that the 
Catholics of that State held their first re- 
ligious service. At the age of fourteen 
years he was sent to Canada, and for 
some years was a student in a classical 
school at Chambly. Upon his return to 
New York he commenced the study of 
theology at St. John's College, Fordham, 
from which he was graduated in due 



235 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



course of time. He was ordained to the 
priesthood in the old Mott Street Cathe- 
dral, New York City, January 16, 1848. 
He was at once assigned to the Parish of 
Madison, New Jersey, which covered 
many square miles, some of them closely 
settled. Energetic and conscientious, he 
made a point of visiting personally every 
family in his parish, and as many of these 
journeys were made on foot and the dis- 
tances great, he was obliged to stay at 
the houses of his parishioners overnight, 
and thus gained an insight into the family 
life of those under his charge which he 
could have obtained in no other manner. 
It was through his efforts that the Roman 
Catholic churches at Morristown, Mend- 
ham and Springfield, New Jersey, now 
among the most prosperous in the State, 
were organized. The results he achieved 
were of so satisfactory a nature that, when 
the Diocese of Newark was created and 
James Roosevelt Bayley, D. D., was made 
Roman Catholic bishop of New Jersey, 
young Father McQuaid was called to the 
rectorship of the cathedral, before six 
years had expired after his ordination. The 
energy of the man, his interest and abil- 
ity, and his faith in education, are clearly 
shown by what he accomplished while 
attached to St. Patrick's Cathedral, New- 
ark. He planned, and saw that his plans 
were properly carried out, a college for 
young men, a college for young women, a 
society for young men and an Order of 
Sisters. These are respectively: Seton 
Hall College, St. Elizabeth's College, the 
Young Men's Catholic Association of 
Newark and the Order of Sisters of St. 
Joseph. In 1866 Father McQuaid was 
made vicar-general of the Newark cathe- 
dral and performed the duties of this office 
in addition to those of president of and 
professor in Seton Hall College. 

When the creation of the Diocese of 
Rochester was announced Father Mc- 



Quaid was nominated the first bishop, 
and was consecrated to the episcopate in 
St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York City, 
July 12, 1868, by Archbishop McCloskey, 
later the first American cardinal, assisted 
by Bishop Bayley, of Newark. He found 
the parochial schools and orphanages of 
his diocese in a very unsatisfactory state 
and at once sent for some of the sisters of 
the Order of St. Joseph, the educational 
order which he had established. It was 
his aim to have a parochial school in 
every parish, and he accomplished this. 
Feeling the need for still better equip- 
ment for the teachers, he founded the 
Nazareth Normal School, which holds a 
charter given by the University of the 
State of New York. He delivered many 
lectures at this institution on the question 
of the education of the masses from the 
Roman Catholic point of view, these arti- 
cles being later collected and published 
in a volume entitled "Christian Free 
Schools." The importance of this work 
was recognized throughout church. In 
the letter of Pope Pius X. to Bishop Mc- 
Quaid, dated June 25, 1908, the Holy 
Father said: "We know that while you 
diligently discharge the duties of a good 
pastor, you have always given special 
care to the education of the young and 
especially those intended for the priest- 
hood. And this, assuredly, is a thing so 
great that there is nothing of more im- 
portance to the State." Bishop McQuaid 
desired to have about him a considerable 
number of priests who were natives of his 
diocese, men who had been trained in 
accordance with his own ideas of the 
priesthood, because he believed that hav- 
ing breathed from their birth the atmos- 
phere in which they were working for the 
glory of God, they would be able to 
accomplish results impossible to priests 
reared in other environments. To this 
end, in September, 1870, within the 



236 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



shadow of the cathedral, St. Andrew's 
Preparatory Seminary was opened. Bishop 
McQuaid's educational ambitions culmi- 
nated in the founding of St. Bernard's 
Seminary in Rochester. This project had 
been on his mind when he first entered 
upon diocesan work. He commenced to 
husband his resources as early as 1875, 
and was so well prepared when he 
broached this project to the priests of the 
diocese that their enthusiastic support 
was at once secured. He personally 
superintended the construction of this in- 
stitution from the laying of the corner- 
stone in March, 1891, to the dedication of 
the new Hall of Theology in August, 
1908. It is a fitting monument to his 
memory. 

The circle of personal friends and ap- 
preciative and admiring acquaintances of 
Bishop McQuaid was an exceptionally 
wide one. He was somewhat retiring in 
his disposition, but his uniformly agree- 
able manner, his keen appreciation of 
character and motive, his abiding and in- 
tense interest in the welfare of the people 
of the city in which he was prominent for 
so many years, endeared him to tens of 
thousands of his fellow citizens. Strict in 
his ecclesiasticism, he was yet charitable 
regarding the views of others, and his 
circle of friends and acquaintances was 
not bound by lines of creed, party or sta- 
tion in life. He was one of the few promi- 
nent men of whom it could be said that 
his acquaintances were invariably his 
friends. His charity, while not obtrusive, 
was broad and far-reaching, and it took 
the form of mentally and morally uplift- 
ing its objects, while not neglecting their 
immediate physical necessities. Whoever 
experienced the pleasure of meeting 
Bishop McQuaid at his home will never 
forget his unvarying courtesy. He was 
ever ready with useful advice, and guests 
never departed from his presence without 



the sense of having come within a strong, 
uplifting influence. It is not alone as a 
distinguished prelate, a faithful pastor 
and a broad-minded citizen, that Bishop 
McQuaid will long be remembered, for 
not only throughout the city, but in the 
remotest corner of the Diocese of Roches- 
ter, his memory will be cherished as that 
of a personal friend. 

The last public occasion on which 
Bishop McQuaid was present was at the 
dedication of the Hall of Theology of St. 
Bernard's Seminary. His physical condi- 
tion would not permit participation in the 
exercises until the close of the banquet, 
when he was brought into the banquet 
hall in a wheeled chair. On behalf of the 
priests of the diocese, Bishop Hickey pre- 
sented a check to be used in founding a 
professorship at St. Bernard's. As Bishop 
McQuaid rose to respond, his voice failed 
for a moment, but he soon regained his 
self-possession, spoke for about fifteen 
minutes, and then suddenly collapsed and 
fell back in his chair unconscious. So 
critical was his condition that it was not 
until the late fall that it was possible to 
remove him to his home on Frank street, 
the Episcopal residence. He never re- 
covered from this illness. The funeral of 
Bishop McQuaid attracted the largest 
crowd that had ever assembled in the city 
on such an occasion. The people com- 
menced to gather early in the morning at 
the doors of the cathedral, although the 
services did not take place until ten 
o'clock. Archbishop Farley, of New 
York, celebrated the mass and chanted 
the prayers for the dead, assisted by 
Father McQuaid, of Philadelphia, a cousin 
of Bishop McQuaid, and Rev. M.J. Nolan, 
of St. Bernard's Seminary. The funeral 
sermon was preached by Rev. Phillips B. 
McDevitt, superintendent of the parochial 
schools of the Archdiocese of Philadel- 
phia. 



237 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Bishop McQuaid's work in Rochester 
covered a period of more than forty years, 
and during those years he was identified 
with all of the great civic movements 
which have made for the betterment of 
the city. At an early date he became, in 
association with the late Dr. E. M. Moore, 
an advocate of a great park system for 
Rochester. At the time of his death he 
was an active member of the park board, 
with which he had been connected sev- 
eral years. In many other vital civic mat- 
ters Bishop McQuaid's influence was con- 
stantly, although unostentatiously, ex- 
erted for the benefit of the people among 
whom he lived and labored for the greater 
part of a half century. 

A special meeting of the park board 
was held for the purpose of acting on the 
death of Bishop McQuaid, who had been 
a member of the board twenty-one years. 
It was decided that the board attend the 
funeral in a body, and that it also visit the 
cathedral in a body while the remains 
were lying there in state. A tribute was 
paid to the memory of the bishop and the 
following resolutions adopted : 

Resolved, That in the death of Right Rev- 
erend Bernard J. McQuaid, D. D., Bishop of 
Rochester, the Board of Park Commissioners 
has lost a member who, from the date of his 
appointment by Act of Legislature, in 1888, has 
steadily shown an active interest in the creation, 
maintenance and development of our Park Sys- 
tem. 

From the first he favored the purchase of all 
the lands that were acquired for park purposes, 
and boldly stood for what he deemed the best 
interests of the city when any citizens were 
greatly opposed to the creation of public parks. 
Without his powerful influence for the park 
project, the City of Rochester to-day might be 
without its great Park System. During all the 
twenty-one years that he held the office of park 
commissioner, he was a constant attendant at 
the meetings of the Board and took a strong 
interest in the consideration of all its policies. 
It would be difficult to estimate the immense 
value of the Bishop's services rendered in the 



interest of our system of parks. We are sure 
that his rare business ability and the great 
respect and admiration in which he was held, 
added greatly to the dignity and efficiency of 
the Park Commission. 

Resolved, That a page of our records be set 
apart on which shall be recorded the above 
expressed sentiments, and that a copy of the 
same be sent to the Episcopal residence. 



SCRANTOM, Hamlet, 

First Permanent Settler of Rochester. 

In the days when Rochester existed 
only in the optimistic mind of Colonel 
Nathaniel Rochester, Hamlet Scrantom, 
who had come from Durham, Connecti- 
cut, and settled at Geneseo, and seemed a 
desirable citizen, was persuaded by Henry 
Skinner, also of Geneseo, to settle on the 
lot Mr. Skinner had purchased from Colo- 
nel Rochester. That lot, now the site of 
the Powers Block, the third lot sold by 
Colonel Rochester, to whom the title 
finally passed November 20, 181 1, was 
sold to Mr. Skinner for two hundred dol- 
lars — a much higher price than the first 
two lots brought. This was due to the 
fact that it was on the "new State road," 
and on the corner of Buffalo street — as 
that part of the new road was called — 
(now Main street) and Carroll (now State 
street). In order to induce Mr. Scrantom 
to come to Rochester, Mr. Skinner offered 
to build him a house, an offer which was 
accepted. The house, more properly a 
log cabin, was well built and roofed with 
slabs from the Enos Stone saw mill on 
the east side of the river, and was suffi- 
ciently large to accommodate the Scran- 
tom family. The building was com- 
pleted in May, 1812, and was at once 
occupied by its intended tenants, Hamlet 
Scrantom thus becoming the first perma- 
nent settler and the house the first erected 
in Rochester, that name having been de- 
cided upon by the proprietors. 

Hamlet Scrantom had a large family. 



238 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



One of the sons of this first family, Ed- 
win Scrantom, a prolific writer for the 
press in adult life, preserved through his 
writings much of the history of those 
early times. Another son, Hamlet D. 
Scrantom, was mayor of Rochester in 
i860. Another member of the family, 
who came in 1812, became a prominent 
miller, and was the father of I. Gridley 
Scrantom, of Rochester, vice-president of 
the Hayden Company. Many of the name 
still reside in the city, to which came in 
its earliest days their honored grandsire 
and great-grandsire, Hamlet Scrantom, 
the first permanent settler of the city. 



PECK, Everard, 

Representative Citizen. 

Everard Peck was born at Berlin, Con- 
necticut, November 6, 1791, and died at 
Rochester, New York, February 9, 1854. 
Having gone to Hartford, Connecticut, at 
the age of seventeen, he learned there the 
book binder's trade, and, having com- 
pleted his apprenticeship, went from 
there to Albany, New York, where he 
plied his vocation for a few years. Not 
succeeding as well as he had hoped, he 
came to Rochester in 1816, bringing with 
him the implements of his calling and a 
small stock of books. Many of the in- 
cidents of his life are given in the follow- 
ing extract from an article in one of the 
daily papers at the time of his death : 

Seeing, through the discomforts and rudeness 
of the settlement, indications which promised a 
prosperous future, he set up the double business 
of book selling and book binding. Being pros- 
perous in business he enlarged his facilities by 
opening a printing office and commencing, in 
1S18, the publication of the "Rochester Tele- 
graph," a weekly journal. He afterward erected 
a paper mill, which he operated with great suc- 
cess until it was burned. Mr. Peck left the book 
business in 1831. After three or four years, in 
which he was out of health — so that, for recov- 
ery, he was obliged to spend one or two win- 
ters in Florida and Cuba — he engaged in the 



banking business and was connected successively 
with the Bank of Orleans, the Rochester City 
Bank and the Commercial Bank of Rochester, 
being the vice-president of the last named insti- 
tution at the time of his death. Immediately on 
taking up his residence here Mr. Peck gave his 
warm support to the infant charitable and reli- 
gious enterprises of the place, and from that 
time to this has been the devoted friend of all 
such institutions. To public office he did not 
aspire, but labors for the poor, the suffering and 
the orphan he never shunned. The successful 
establishment of the University of Rochester 
was in a large measure owing to his exertions 
in its behalf. The friends of the institution 
accorded to him merited praise, and they will 
ever respect his memory. Up to the time of 
his death he was a member of its board of trus- 
tees. He was one of the zealous promoters and 
founders of the Rochester Orphan Asylum. Our 
citizens have been accustomed to rely upon his 
judgment in all matters of moment pertaining 
to the common weal, and he always exhibited a 
sagacity and solicitude for the welfare of the 
people which entitled him to the public confi- 
dence. 

He was thrice married — in 1820, to Chloe Por- 
ter, who died in 1830; in 1836, to Martha Farley, 
who died in 1851; in 1852, to Mrs. Alice Bacon 
Walker, who survives him.* 

For more than two years past Mr. Peck has 
been suffering from a pulmonary complaint, and 
he spent the winter of 1852-53 in the Bermudas, 
but without obtaining relief from the disease. 
He has, since his return, been secluded in the 
sick room, gradually declining until he expired, 
surrounded by his wife and all his surviving 
children. 

It may be not inappropriate to give as 
a reminiscence the following extract from 
an article in the "Albany Evening Jour- 
nal" of February 21, 1854, by the pen of 
Thurlow Weed, then at the head of that 
paper, in which, after copying a long 
biographical sketch of Mr. Peck from the 
columns of the "New Haven Daily Pal- 
ladium" of a few days before, Mr. Weed 
remarks: 

This deserved tribute to the memory of "a 
just man made perfect" comes from one who 

•Mrs. Alice B. Peck died December 2, 1881. 
knew the deceased well. The editor of the 
"Palladium" grew up under Mr. Peck's teach- 



239 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ings and was long a member of his household, 
a household whose memory is hallowed in many 
grateful hearts. In another paragraph the edi- 
tor of the "Palladium" alludes to our own rela- 
tions to Mr. Peck, but in a spirit of kindness 
which excludes all but the following from these 
columns: 

Mr. Weed, of the "Albany Evening Journal," 
began his career in the "Rochester Telegraph" 
office. He was a young man wholly without 
means when he applied for employment. We 
remember Mr. Weed's application as though it 
were but yesterday. Mr. Peck at first declined 
his offer, but there was something in Mr. 
Weed's manner that touched a sympathetic 
chord in Mr. Peck's bosom and he called him 
back and gave him the post of assistant editor, 
where he soon made the "Telegraph" one of 
the most popular journals in western New 
York. 

The heart upon which the memory of its early 
benefactor is engraven will glow with gratitude 
until its pulsations cease. We were, indeed, 
wholly without means and with a young family 
dependent upon our labor, when, thirty-two 
years ago we applied to Everard Peck for 
employment. He did not really want a journey- 
man, but his kindly nature prompted him to an 
effort in our behalf. It was agreed that in addi- 
tion to the ordinary labor as a journeyman in 
the office we should assist Mr. Peck, who had 
the charge of his book store and paper mill, in 
editing the "Telegraph." But our friend did not 
content himself with giving employment. We 
enjoyed, with our family, the hospitality of his 
mansion until a humble tenement (tenements 
were scarce in Rochester in those days) could be 
rented. The compensation agreed upon was 
four hundred dollars per annum. That year 
glided pleasantly and peacefully away, teaching 
lessons to which memory recurs with pleasure 
and in forming ties that have linked us in after 
life to dear and cherished friends. At the close 
of the year Mr. Peck added one hundred dol- 
lars to our salary, with expressions of confi- 
dence and regard which enhanced the value of 
his gratuity. And ever after, through whatever 
of vicissitudes and change we have passed, that 
good man's counsels and friendship have helped 
to smooth and cheer our pathway. 



PECK, William Farley, 

Lawyer, Journalist. 

With a virile intellect that made him a 
power in the community, and with a 
gentleness of spirit that made him appre- 



ciate the tiniest beauty in this wonderful 
world, the late William Farley Peck, of 
Rochester, New York, was a man, who, 
once known, could never be forgotten. 
Of Revolutionary descent on his father's 
side, and of Pilgrim ancestry on his 
mother's, he was reared amid the refining 
influences of a home of Christian culture, 
where were nurtured all those tendencies 
that later became strongly developed 
traits of manly character. He left the 
impress of his splendid nature upon all 
with whom he came in contact, and his 
influence was a vital force. 

William Farley Peck, son of Everard 
and Martha (Farley) Peck, was born at 
Rochester, New York, February 4, 1840, 
and died December 6, 1908. His educa- 
tional training was commenced in private 
schools of his native city, was continued 
at a boarding school in Connecticut, 
where he was prepared for entrance to 
college. He matriculated at the Univer- 
sity of Rochester in 1857, but at the end 
of one year was transferred to Williams 
College, from which he was graduated in 
the class of 1861 with the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts. He commenced read- 
ing law in the office of Danforth & Terry, 
of Rochester, remained with this firm 
one year, then became a student in the 
State Law School, in Albany, and was 
graduated in 1863 with the degree of 
Bachelor of Laws. Not long afterward 
he was admitted to practice at the bar of 
Monroe county, New York. The legal 
profession did not, however, appeal to 
him very strongly, and he accordingly 
devoted his time and attention to the field 
of literature for which he had shown 
marked ability for many years. Journal- 
istic work was the particular field to 
which he devoted himself, and for some 
time he was connected with "The Ex- 
press," now "The Post Express," and in 
1867 became the city editor of "The 
Democrat." He then became associated 



240 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



with "The Chronicle," remaining tele- 
graph editor of this journal during its 
entire existence — from November, 1868, 
to December, 1870. It then became 
merged into what was published as "The 
Democrat and Chronicle," and Mr. Peck's 
connection with this publication was 
severed. As editor of "The Sunday Trib- 
une," a post upon which he soon entered, 
he maintained the popularity of that 
paper, of which he was a part proprietor 
for a portion of the time he was con- 
nected with it, until his retirement from 
direct journalistic work more than thirty 
years ago. At this time he engaged in 
writing of a desultory character — club 
papers, articles for the magazines, and 
more particularly for encyclopaedias and 
biographical dictionaries, and prepared 
a number of works concerning local his- 
tory. The best known of these are as 
follows : "Semi-Centennial History of 
Rochester," 1884; "Landmarks of Mon- 
roe County," 1895 ; "A History of the 
Police Department of Rochester," 1903; 
and "History of Rochester and Monroe 
County," 1907. For a period of thirty- 
five years Mr. Peck was a consistent 
member and liberal supporter of the Uni- 
tarian church, and his connection with 
other institutions and organizations of a 
varied character is as follows : The Fort- 
nightly, a literary club of which he was 
one of the organizers ; board of directors 
of the Rochester Athenaeum and Me- 
chanics Institute, of which he was the 
corresponding secretary from the time of 
its inception ; board of managers of the 
Rochester Historical Society, of which he 
had always been the recording secretary ; 
board of trustees of the Reynolds Library, 
of which he was the secretary ; Society 
for the Organization of Charity, of which 
he was one of the vice-presidents ; Gene- 
see Valley Club, of which he was a char- 
ter member: Rochester Whist Club; 



Genesee Whist Club ; Society of May- 
flower Descendants in the State of New 
York; Society of the Genesee, in New 
York City; and corresponding member 
of the New York Genealogical and Bio- 
graphical Society. Mr. Peck was sur- 
vived by his brother, Edward W. Peck, 
of No. 121 Troup street, and by three 
nieces : Mrs. Gurney T. Curtis, Mrs. Ed- 
ward Harris, Jr., and Edith W. Peck. 
Expressions of sincere sorrow at the 
death of Mr. Peck were numerous, and 
varied in form and character, but the 
limits of this space will only permit the 
reproduction of one of them. This is as 
follows : 

At a special meeting of the board of directors 
of the Mechanics Institute, Monday afternoon, 
the following resolutions were adopted : 

The death of William Farley Peck removes 
from our Board one who has been with us from 
the organization of our Institute, and as cor- 
responding secretary for the entire period of 
our existence, and as a trustee for the same 
period, he has cheerfully given us his best 
thought and constant effort, and we have had 
no more devoted friend. He was especially 
gifted in writing, and his thoughts, always 
lucidly expressed, in pure and correct English, 
in all his communications to, and for, our Board, 
were a source of keen pleasure and great con- 
stant value to us. The uncomplaining bravery 
with which he bore his misfortune, and the wealth 
of information, especially in regard to literature, 
which he possessed, his great knowledge of local 
history and his intelligent observation of current 
events, made him a most delightful companion, 
and endeared him to all who knew and came in 
contact with him. His published works are well 
known and have given him an excellent reputa- 
tion as an intelligent and truthful historian. We 
shall miss his thoughtful counsel and his genial 
personality, and we feel deeply grateful for the 
life which has been passed with, and among, us, 
and for the intelligent work which has been so 
freely and generously given to the upbuilding of 
the Mechanics Institute, in token of which we 
direct that this minute be inscribed on our rec- 
ords, and a copy sent to his family and the daily 
press. The Directors of the Mechanics Insti- 
tute will attend the funeral in a body. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



RICKETTS, Jonathan, 

Manufacturer, Railroad and Bank Director. 

Leaving his home in Yeovil, Somerset- 
shire, England, in the same year as that in 
which Victoria the Good ascended to the 
English throne — in 1837 — Jonathan Rick- 
etts sailed for the United States, landed at 
New York, and immediately proceeded to 
Aurora, Erie county, New York, where 
for a year he obtained employment. In 
1838 he removed to Rochester, New York, 
and a year later settled permanently in 
Johnstown, Fulton county, New York. 
In the community and business life of 
Johnstown, for a period extending over 
sixty years, Jonathan Ricketts became 
well known and highly regarded. 

The name Ricketts is one frequently 
encountered in England, and many of 
that patronymic have held high office in 
British national affairs, but records are 
not available by which the connection of 
the Jonathan Ricketts branch with the 
main family can be established. Amer- 
ican records trace no farther back than 
to Thomas Ricketts, father of Jonathan 
Ricketts, who was of the ancient town of 
Yeovil, Somersetshire, England, where he 
reared his family of seven children : 
George, Jonathan, David, Edmund, Har- 
riet, Eliza and Amelia. 

Jonathan Ricketts, second child of 
Thomas and Melinda Ricketts, was born 
at Yeovil, Somersetshire, England, Feb- 
ruary 11, 1819. That Jonathan Ricketts 
had within him that quality of courageous 
enterprise and dogged perseverence by 
which America has forged for herself so 
securely and rapidly a leading place 
among the nations of the world is evident 
in the bare record of his early years and 
his ultimate success. He was only 
eighteen years of age when he left a com- 
fortable, even if humble, home and ven- 
tured alone into what, to him, was a 



strange country. He landed in New York 
poor in all save courage and a determina- 
tion to win a place for himself in the new 
world. When he arrived at Johnstown, 
he was still in his minority. Two years 
he passed in the glove factories of Johns- 
town and then, although only twenty- 
two years of age, he ventured with con- 
fidence into the independent manufacture 
of gloves at Johnstown, under the firm 
name of Jonathan Ricketts, and quickly 
established his right to a place among the 
nation's manufacturers. He was a re- 
sponsible manufacturer at a time of life 
when most young men are more con- 
cerned in pursuits of folly rather than in 
serious business. Jonathan Ricketts was 
a man of sound judgment and logical rea- 
soning; consequently he built steadily 
and firmly, rather than rapidly and pre- 
cariously ; and from his first entrance into 
independent business never received a 
serious check, the volume of business 
steadily increasing year by year. His fac- 
tory continued in successful operation for 
fifty years, until 1889, when he was per- 
suaded to retire. During that period he, 
in addition to the accumulation of more 
than a sufficiency of monetary wealth, 
gathered a wealth of respect among those 
with whom he had associated. His initia- 
tive and adaptability produced many 
changes of importance in the glove-mak- 
ing industry. It is claimed that he was 
the first manufacturer in the county — 
which at that time was an important 
glove-making centre — to dress sheep skins 
within the county, and employ them in 
the manufacture of gloves. Hitherto, 
manufacturers had been dependent for 
their supply upon foreign tanners, who 
controlled the market, and the initiative 
of Jonathan Ricketts in this respect re- 
sulted in a considerable advantage to him- 
self, and to those of the home manufac- 
turers who later emulated him. 



242 




JOIlCllll 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



In the course of his useful life, Jona- 
than Ricketts entered whole-heartedly 
into the affairs of the community and be- 
came a factor of much influence in Johns- 
town. He was largely interested in the 
Johnstown, Gloversville & Kingsboro 
Horse Railroad Company, of which he 
became a director after it passed under 
the control of the Fonda, Johnstown & 
Gloversville Railroad Company on De- 
cember 15, 1890. He was further honored 
by election to a seat on the board of direc- 
tors of the People's Bank of Johnstown. 
His standing not only as a capitalist, but 
as a man of whom the community thought 
highly, can be appreciated by the fact 
that he was elected by the people to the 
town's highest office — the mayoralty. He 
was a staunch Democrat, but never 
sought office, having no desire for that 
which might draw him away from his 
business duties, but in the affairs of the 
church he was ever ready to give of his 
time and wealth ; in fact, his activities and 
interest in the charitable work of the 
church were considerable and substan- 
tial. He was directly associated with the 
Episcopal church, and was a member of 
the St. John's Vestry, but his interest and 
support were at the disposal of all Chris- 
tian churches of the community. A con- 
temporary biographer wrote of Mr. Rick- 
etts : "He was a good citizen and always 
arrayed with the progressive, enterpris- 
ing element of the village," and his high 
standing in the county and town was all 
the more meritorious because of the fact 
that it was absolutely all earned by him- 
self; that his start was at the very bot- 
tom of the ladder. 

He married, November 4, 1846, Mary, 
daughter of James and Isabella (McClel- 
lan) Pierson, and granddaughter of James 
and Mary (Veghte) Pierson. Their chil- 
dren were: 1. Mary Eliza, born February 
13, 1848 ; married William Van Voast, May 



25, 1870; children: i. William, born July 
17, 1871, died July 10, 1882; ii. Herbert, 
born May I, 1874, married Luella Anibel, 
and has three children : William, Marian 
and Robert; iii. Mary, born April 1, 1876, 
died November, 1878 ; iv. James, born No- 
vember 10, 1880; v. Katherine Adams, 
born January 13, 1883; vi. Isabella, born 
April 24, 1886. 2. Isabella, born January 
2, 1850, deceased ; married Horace Gree- 
ley, of Syracuse, New York ; children : i. 
Earl, married Bertha Hanson, and has 
two children : Helen and Mary ; ii. Flor- 
ence, married Daniel Cheney. 3. George, 
born April 24, 1852, deceased; married 
Celia Steele ; children : Jonathan, Ed- 
mund, Nannie, Josephine. 4. Emma, born 
April 9, 1854; married Willis E. Diefen- 
dorf. 5. Katherine, born July 11, 1857, 
deceased. 6. Esther, see further. 7. James 
Pierson, born October 13, 1862, deceased. 
Esther Ricketts, daughter of Jonathan 
and Mary (Pierson) Ricketts, was born 
in Johnstown, New York, December 26, 
1859; married Charles S. Shults, who was 
a well known glove manufacturer in 
Johnstown, partner of the firm of Wade, 
Shults & Company. Mrs. Esther (Rick- 
etts) Shults still resides in Johnstown, 
having survived both her father and hus- 
band. Mr. and Mrs. Shults had one child, 
Ethel, who married Frank L. Rogers. 



CHILD, Jonathan, 

First Mayor of Rochester. 

On April 28, 1834, the New York Leg- 
islature passed the act incorporating the 
city of Rochester, the act also containing 
the charter of the city. Rochester at that 
time contained twelve thousand inhabi- 
tants, thirteen hundred houses, nine 
hotels, ten newspapers (including all 
grades) and two banks. 

At the election held after the passage of 
the act, Jonathan Child was elected first 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



mayor of the city. He was inaugurated 
June 10. 1834, but did hold the office for 
the full term of a year and a half which 
had been made a provision of the charter 
in order that the executive and the com- 
mon council should not enter upon office 
at the same time. During the first year 
there had been differences of opinion be- 
tween Mayor Child and the council on 
the subject of licenses, the mayor being a 
consistent temperance man, but he had 
waived his objections and allowed the 
council to grant licenses to which he was 
opposed. 

In June, 1835, a new council was elected 
and it soon became evident that even 
greater laxity was to prevail in the issu- 
ing of licenses. Mayor Child quickly de- 
cided upon his course of action. In a 
message to the council, after reciting the 
fact that the new board had issued numer- 
ous licenses, he concluded by saying: "It 
becomes incumbent on me in my official 
character to sanction and sign these 
papers. Under these circumstances it 
seems to me equally the claim of moral 
duty and self-respect, of a consistent re- 
gard for my former associates, of just 
deference to the present board and of sub- 
mission to the supposed will of the peo- 
ple, that I should no longer retain the re- 
sponsible situation with which I have 
been honored. I therefore now most re- 
spectfully resign into your hands the 
office of mayor of Rochester." His resig- 
nation was accepted and General Jacob 
Gould, who was elected to succeed him, 
proved more complaisant. In this inci- 
dent the nature of the man shines forth. 
He would not surrender principle for per- 
sonal gain ; and throughout a long life he 
never deviated from a strict observance 
of that rule of conduct. 

Mayor Jonathan Child was one of the 
strong business men of his day, the asso- 
ciate of Judges Samuel Lee Selden and 



Roger Lee Selden, and at the time Pro- 
fessor Morse was beseeching capital to in- 
vest in his telegraphic invention he joined 
with the Seldens and a few others in 
organizing a company to construct a tele- 
graph line forty miles in length between 
Harrisburg and Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 
This company, formed in 1845, to whose 
capital stock he subscribed, the Atlantic, 
Lake & Mississippi Valley Telegraph 
Company, was the forerunner of the 
Western Union Telegraph Company, and 
with the Seldens he could claim to have 
been among the pioneers of telegraphy in 
the world. Mr. Child was also among 
the pioneers in the application of steam 
as a motive power, a system first em- 
ployed in this country by the Baltimore & 
Ohio railroad early in 1831. Its applica- 
tion to any road running out of Roches- 
ter was in April 4, 1837, when a mixed 
train of freight and passenger cars, in 
charge of L. B. Van Dyke as conductor, 
was run out on the Tonawanda railroad. 
This road was chartered in 1832 for 
fifty years, with a capital of $500,000, 
with Daniel Evans as the first president 
and Jonathan Child as the first vice-presi- 
dent. He was interested in other early 
railroad enterprises, his sound judgment 
and upright character being sought for 
in that day of new enterprises. 

He was equally interested in educa- 
tional matters, and when in 1835 the 
Rochester Female Academy on South 
Fitzhugh street was organized, he sub- 
scribed liberally to the stock and was a 
member of its first board of trustees. 
Jonathan Child is one of the men to whom 
Rochester is indebted for her present 
proud commercial position, and the world 
owes him the debt it owes to all men of 
public spirit who risked their fortunes in 
the establishment of those then unknown 
and untried innovations — the telegraph 
and the railroad. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



HOOKER, Charles M., 

Prominent Horticulturist and Nurseryman. 

In 1820 Horace Hooker, father of 
Charles M. Hooker, the well known nurs- 
eryman, came to Rochester, New York, 
from Windsor, Connecticut. He settled 
first on St. Paul street and there engaged 
in the nursery business, which was re- 
moved to Brighton in 1856. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Charles M. Hooker, 
who in turn admitted his sons in the man- 
agement of the Rochester Fruit Farm and 
Nurseries. Three generations of the fam- 
ily have successfully conducted the nurs- 
ery business in Brighton, the present 
farm of one hundred and thirty acres on 
Clover street, Brighton, having been pur- 
chased by Charles M. Hooker in 1877 
from his former partners. For over fifty 
years Charles M. Hooker was a member 
of the Western New York Horticultural 
Society, and represented the society in 
national convention, being instrumental 
in securing State legislation which has 
been efficacious in many ways, especially 
in fighting insect life which preys upon 
the business of the farmer, nurseryman, 
fruit grower and florist. He was one of 
the oldest of Rochester's nurserymen, 
having been in business since 1853, when 
he reached the age of twenty-one years. 

Mr. Hooker was a descendant of Rev. 
Thomas Hooker, whose colony founded 
the city of Hartford, Connecticut, and 
whose statue adorns the State capitol in 
that city. The first of the family in his 
direct line to come to Western New York 
was his father, Horace Hooker, in 1820. 
He came by stage and team from Wind- 
sor, Connecticut, and on his arrival in 
Rochester found little to indicate the pros- 
perous city which was to arise on the site. 
But he was gifted with prophetic vision, 
for he believed in the future of the town 
and invested largely in lands on St. Paul 
street and in the Carthage district just 



north of the city. He engaged in milling at 
Rochester and Ogdensburg, also owned 
storehouses at the head of Genesee river 
navigation, and for a number of years all 
the goods exported to Canada passed 
through his warehouses. He was senior 
partner of the firm of Hooker, Farley & 
Company until 1861, then retired with his 
son, Horace B. Hooker, and later resumed 
the nursery business in the town of Chili, 
Monroe county. He died at the home of 
his son, Henry E. Hooker, on East ave- 
nue, Rochester, November 3, 1865. He 
married Helen, daughter of Erastus Wol- 
cott, of Windsor, Connecticut, of the dis- 
tinguished Connecticut family which 
numbered a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence among its members. Hor- 
ace and Helen (Wolcott) Hooker were 
the parents of eight children : Henry E. ; 
Julia Wolcott, wife of Josiah W. Bissell ; 
James Wolcott ; Fannie ; Horace B. ; 
Charles M., of further mention; and two 
who died in infancy. 

Charles M. Hooker was born at the 
family home on St. Paul street, Roches- 
ter, New York, November 9, 1832, and 
spent his life in the city of his birth, 
Brighton now being a part of the city. 
He was educated in the public schools, 
finishing at high school. He early began 
the business which he never abandoned 
until his death, working first for the firm 
of Bissell & Hooker on East avenue, later 
known as Bissell, Hooker & Sloan. In 
1853 he became a partner of the firm of 
Hooker, Farley & Company, then on 
North St. Paul street, his father then being 
senior member of the firm, and his broth- 
ers, Horace B., now deceased, and Henry 
E., also partners. In 1856 the firm pur- 
chased the Roswell Hart farm on Clover 
street, Brighton, and removed the busi- 
ness there. In 1861 Horace and Horace 
B. Hooker retired, the firm continuing 
under the old name for a time, but in 1867 



245 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



became H. E. Hooker & Brother, H. E. 
Hooker purchasing the interest of Joseph 
Farley. In 1887 Charles M. Hooker re- 
tired from the firm of H. E. Hooker & 
Brother and purchased the property on 
Clover street, Brighton, continuing the 
nursery and fruit growing business under 
the name of C. M. Hooker & Sons. Fruit 
growing is an important part of the busi- 
ness of the Rochester Fruit Farm and 
Nurseries, the nursery stock handled 
being partly grown on the farm and 
partly grown for the farm under rigid 
contract. A retail department of large 
proportions is also conducted at No. 57 
Trust Building, Rochester, under the 
firm name Hooker Brothers (Horace, 
Charles G. and Lewis). While the father 
had surrendered the heavier burdens to 
his sons his was a potent voice, and he 
was in the management of the business 
until his death. 

A long time member of the Western 
New York Horticultural Society, he was 
an efficient representative of the nursery 
and horticultural interests in securing the 
passage of laws which were to their great 
benefit. He was a delegate from the Hor- 
ticultural Society at the convention in 
Washington, D. C, called to formulate 
plans for combating the destructive San 
Jose scale and other destructive pests 
which afflict the growers of nursery stock, 
fruit growers and horticulturists. He 
labored diligently and effectively for the 
passage of the present New York State 
laws concerning San Jose scale and other 
insect enemies. He was also an honored 
member of the New York State Fruit 
Growers Association and of the Eastern 
Nurserymen's Association. In politics he 
was a Republican, but never sought pub- 
lic office, his business being his chief in- 
terest and ambition. An octogenarian at 
the time of his death, he reviewed a well 
spent, exceedingly useful life, and his 



heart was gladdened by three sons to 
carry forward the work under the name 
their father had transmitted to them with- 
out blemish, as he had received it from his 
honored father. 

Mr. Hooker married, November 13, 
1861, in Penfield, New York, Kate, daugh- 
ter of Daniel E. Lewis, an early settler of 
Penfield, from Lynn, Massachusetts. She 
died July 16, 1907. She was connected 
with the Penfields after whom, the town 
is named, and was a descendant of Gen- 
eral Henry Fellows, an officer of the Rev- 
olution, serving on General Washington's 
staff. Mr. and Mrs. Hooker were the 
parents of Horace, Charles G. and Lewis 
Hooker, of C. M. Hooker & Sons, and 
Hooker Brothers ; and of daughters, 
Mary, Kate and Edith. For over fifty 
years the farm on Clover street has been 
the family home, and there is no better 
known locality to fruit growers, horticul- 
turists and nurserymen than the Roches- 
ter Fruit Farm and Nurseries. Charles 
M. Hooker died August 18, 1913. 



GATES, Charles Gilbert, 

Financier, Promoter. 

Charles Gilbert Gates, son of John 
Warne and Dellora R. (Baker) Gates, 
was born at Turner Junction, now known 
as West Chicago, Illinois, on May 21, 
1876. His early education was received 
at Smith Academy, St. Louis, and later 
he attended Harvard School, Chicago, and 
Lake Forest College. At the age of 
seventeen he entered the employ of the 
Consolidated Steel & Wire Company. In 
1897 he became a partner in the firm of 
Baldwin, Gurney & Company, stock com- 
mission brokers of Chicago, and in 1902 
formed with John F. Harris the broker- 
age firm of Harris, Gates & Company 
with headquarters in New York and 
branch offices in the principal cities 



246 




^vlA^ 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



throughout the country. This firm, was 
dissolved in 1904 to be reorganized as 
Charles G. Gates & Company, which con- 
tinued until 1907. In these five years the 
Gates house was one of the most active 
factors in the security and commodity 
markets and it has been estimated that 
during this period ten per cent, of the 
business of the New York Stock Ex- 
change originated with this organization. 
Charles G. Gates was usually intrusted 
with the details of his father's activities 
and developed able methods of stock ex- 
change operation that can be fully appre- 
ciated only by those who were intimately 
acquainted with the Gates house. In 
June, 1907, the brokerage business was 
dissolved and Mr. Gates gave his atten- 
tion to industrial affairs. Mr. Gates was 
actively interested in the various enter- 
prises with which his father was con- 
nected and took part in many new busi- 
ness ventures in Southeast Texas, includ- 
ing the development of the city of Port 
Arthur, all of which proved to be of last- 
ing benefit to that section of the country. 
As the son of a world famous financier, 
associated with immense possessions, ac- 
customed from youth to transactions of 
tremendous magnitude. Mr. Gates fol- 
lowed in his father's footsteps, developing 
forcefulness. ability, shrewdness and 
allied qualities. His ability was akin to 
that of his father, but fairly he won suc- 
cess in a great measure through his own 
efforts. Between father and son there 
was unusual sympathy ; they were com- 
rades and partners as well. Among his 
business associates he was known for his 
remarkably retentive memory and rapid- 
ity of action, both mental and physical. 
The president of one of the largest rail- 
roads in the country said in reply to a 
statement that Mr. Gates had a quick and 
brilliant mind: "I should say it was; as 
quick as a chain of lightning." In his 



office Mr. Gates was known as an inde- 
fatigable worker. When his business 
affairs did not require his presence, he 
travelled extensively and was a great 
lover of all outdoor sports, his favorite 
diversion being big game hunting. 

He was generous and kind and took his 
greatest pleasure in helping those in need. 
His numerous kindly deeds will cause him 
to be most gratefully remembered by 
many. One of his characteristics that will 
ever be remembered by his associates was 
a peculiar high order of honesty. Both in 
his business and in the daily happenings 
of a busy and active career he was dis- 
tinctly frank and outspoken. He abhorred 
all manner of sham, pretense and hypoc- 
racy and governed his actions accord- 
ingly. 

Charles G. Gates was twice married. 
His first wife was Mary W. Edgar, of St. 
Louis, Missouri, whom he married in 1898. 
In 191 1 he married Florence Hopwood, 
of Minneapolis, Minnesota. His untimely 
death occurred at Cody, Wyoming, on 
October 28, 1913, at the age of thirty- 
seven years, from a stroke of apoplexy 
while on his return from a hunting expe- 
dition in the Thoroughfare mountains, 
near Yellowstone National Park. 

Mr. Gates had been a member of the 
principal exchanges throughout the coun- 
try, including the New York Stock Ex- 
change, the New York Cotton Exchange 
and the Chicago Board of Trade. At the 
time of his death Mr. Gates was president 
and director of Moose Mountain, Limited, 
and of the Port Arthur Rice Milling Com- 
pany ; he was a director and member of 
the executive committee of The Texas 
Company and United States Realty and 
Improvement Company ; he was a direc- 
tor in the Plaza Operating Company ; the 
First National Bank of Port Arthur, 
Texas ; Home Trust Company of Port 
Arthur, Texas ; Port Arthur Realtv Com.- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



pany ; Heisig & Norvell, Incorporated ; 
Griffing Brothers Company; and East 
Texas Electric Company. Among the 
clubs of which he was a member were 
the New York Athletic Club, Automobile 
Club of America, Atlantic Yacht Club, 
Westchester Country Club, Columbia 
Yacht Club, Chicago Athletic Club and 
the Calumet Club of Chicago. 



HOTCHKISS, Hiram Gilbert, 

Merchant, Manufacturer, 

In 1839, Mr. Hotchkiss manufactured a 
quantity of pure oil of peppermint at 
Phelps, Ontario county, New York, which 
he shipped to the New York City dealers 
in essential oils. They had no use for the 
pure oil, the adulterated oil having pos- 
session of the market. Mr. Hotchkiss 
then sent the entire shipment to London, 
England, and Rotterdam, Holland, these 
markets quickly absorbing it and de- 
manding more. That was in 1839 and 
the beginning of the large business 
built up by Hiram G. Hotchkiss, which 
made the name of "Hotchkiss" a standard 
of purity wherever essential oils were 
used. For many years he supplied the 
markets, domestic and foreign, with pure 
peppermint and other oils, the business 
he founded still being conducted by his 
sons, Calvin and Hiram, who are the con- 
trolling mediums in ruling the pure es- 
sential oil market so far as their particu- 
lar lines of manufacture extend. World's 
exposition committees have placed the 
seal of approval upon "Hotchkiss" oils, 
and in those held in England, German)-, 
America, France and Austria, since 1851, 
they were awarded first prize medals. On 
his way to the Paris Exposition of 1878, 
Mr. Hotchkiss stopped in London, and 
while there received the congratulations 
of prominent London wholesale dealers on 
the excellence of his oils. Each case of oil 



he packed contained a pamphlet reciting 
the story of the honors awarded the 
"Hotchkiss" brand of oils, and before he 
died he had the pleasure of knowing that 
his own country recognized his merit and 
that of his oils by an award of the highest 
merit at the Columbian Exposition held in 
Chicago in 1893. During his trips abroad, 
especially to Germany, he became con- 
vinced of the importance of transplanting 
the sugar beet to the United States and 
made strong efforts to do so, but neither 
the farmers nor the refiners were ready 
for it then, and the honor of introducing 
that important industry to the farmers of 
the United States goes largely to another. 

Mr. Hotchkiss was of English ancestry, 
his father, Ephilet Hotchkiss, moving to 
Phelps, Ontario county, New York, in 
181 1. He was a pioneer merchant, built 
up a large business, which at his death 
in 1828 was continued by his sons. His 
store was largely patronized by the 
Oneida and Mohawk Indians with whom 
he had many personal fights at the 
Oneida Castle store, but they were his 
friends generally and he was a very suc- 
cessful Indian trader. He married Chloe 
Gilbert who bore him several children in- 
cluding two sons, Lliram G. and Leman 
B. 

Hiram Gilbert Hotchkiss was born at 
Oneida Castle, Oneida county, New York, 
June 19, 1810, died at Lyons, New York, 
October 27, 1897. His parents moved to 
Phelps, Ontario county, in 181 1, and in 
his father's store there he obtained his 
business training as well as some public 
school education in a log schoolhouse, 
but it was sufficient for a foundation and 
as the years progressed he read and 
studied, becoming a well informed man. 
His father was also a partner with James 
F. Bartle, Morton & Company, who were 
pioneer merchants of the town of Arca- 
dia, and the village of Newark. The sons 



248 




/i^#&czi£r^ 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



of Ephilet Hotchkiss also working in that 
store. His father died when Hiram G. 
Hotchkiss was eighteen years of age, and 
he, with his brother, Leman B., con- 
tinued the general store at Phelps until 
1837 when he engaged heavily in milling 
operations, shipping his flour to New 
York City. In 1839 he took advantage 
of the not large quantity of peppermint 
grown in the neighborhood of Phelps, ex- 
tracted the oil, and shipped to New York 
City dealers with the result previously 
outlined. The success of the oil in the 
foreign market encouraged him to con- 
tinue and he ran his small plant at times 
until 1843, finding a ready market abroad. 
In 1843, finding the lowlands around 
Lyons, Wayne county, admirably adapted 
to the culture of the peppermint plant, 
he purchased a large tract there and be- 
gan cultivating it on a large scale. In 
1844 he moved his extracting plant to 
Lyons and gradually built up a large ex- 
port business, the domestic market re- 
sponding later after the name "Hotch- 
kiss" became the last word in the perfec- 
tion of manufacture of essential oils, and 
a household word with the consumers. He 
prospered abundantly and at the time of 
his death he was a large owner of farm 
lands and village real estate. 

Mr. Hotchkiss took little part in poli- 
tics and although his sympathies and 
vote were usually Democratic, he was a 
warm personal friend of the eminent Re- 
publican statesman, William H. Seward. 
He belonged to no fraternity, club or so- 
ciety, but was the soul of hospitality, 
delighting in filling his home with guests, 
and made it the social center of Lyons. 
His home was a mansion in the village, 
containing twenty-seven rooms, and he 
was never happier than when it was 
taxed to its fullest capacity. In religious 
belief he was an Episcopalian, very help- 
ful and generous to the church and to all 
good causes. He made trips abroad in 



the interest of his business and was well 
informed on all matters of national and 
international importance. He made many 
friends at home and abroad and was par- 
ticuarly proud that he had won so high 
a reputation as a manufacturer of oil free 
from even a suspicion of adulteration. 

Mr. Hotchkiss married, January 3, 
1833, at Lyons, New York, Mary, daugh- 
ter of Dr. Robert and Polly (Jones) Ash- 
ley, her father being one of the first physi- 
cians to settle in Lyons. Mrs. Hotchkiss 
died leaving the following children : Ellen, 
married Colonel A. D. Adams ; Mary, 
married Thomas F. Attix; Emma, mar- 
ried the Rev. Charles H. Piatt, of New 
York City ; Lesette, married Henry Par- 
shall, of Lyons ; Anne, married Charles 
K. Dickinson, of Detroit; Leman, now 
deceased ; Adrianna, married the Rev. 
W. H. Williams, of Lyons ; Calvin and 
Hiram Gilbert, their father's successors ; 
Alice, married William G. David. 



BUCKNER, Franklin Fernando, D. D., 

Well Known Divine. 

An exceptionally eloquent preacher, a 
devoted pastor, and an exemplary citizen. 
Rev. Franklin F. Buckner for the last 
four years of his life pastor of the Uni- 
versalist Church of Newark, New York, 
exerted a strong influence upon that com- 
munity. He fought vigorously the forces 
of evil, and although he made many ene- 
mies among them no man in the village 
exerted a more powerful influence for 
good. His idea of religion extended far 
beyond his parish into the community-at- 
large, and wherever he found a man or a 
woman or a condition needing an uplift, 
and he was able to help, he was always 
ready, eager, strong and confident. He 
was not only a theological student 
and a preacher, but a great lover of liter- 
ature, and was familiar with every vol- 
ume in his library, one of the finest in 



249 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the county. He took a deep interest in 
national politics and was well informed 
on all great public questions. He was in- 
terested in community work, in the 
charges he filled, and at Bristol, Middle- 
port and Newark, New York, instituted 
community lecture courses, also at Bris- 
tol organizing a free library. He wrote 
of himself not long before his death : "On 
August 3, 191 3, I completed twenty-five 
years of unbroken ministry, during which 
period only three Sundays have been lost 
by any manner of illness. To-day I en- 
joy as good health and soundness of body 
as at any time previous to date. I have 
lived quietly, studiously, industriously, 
effectively, without creating any pro- 
found impression or gaining much fame 
beyond the respect and good will of my 
fellows. Late in 1908 I published a vol- 
ume of poems entitled 'A Wreath of 
Song,' which has been so well spoken of 
as to lead me to hope for other adven- 
tures in a literary way." These words 
bespeak the modesty of the man, and 
give little idea of the influence he exerted 
for good. At the time of his death he had 
another book of poems almost ready for 
publication. He was a son of Josiah and 
Lorana (Henry) Buckner, his father a 
farmer. 

Franklin Fernando Buckner was born 
on a farm two miles northeast of Mason, 
Illinois, May 20, 1866, died at his home in 
Newark, New York, August 4, 1916, after 
an illness of but two weeks. He attended 
the district public school, one-half mile 
away, until he was thirteen years of age, 
his parents then moving from the farm 
upon which he was born to Effingham, 
Illinois, where he attended school for the 
three following years. In 1884 he taught 
a brief term of school in Moccasin town- 
ship, and in September, 1886, he entered 
the Lombard Divinity School of Gales- 
burg, Illinois. He completed his studies 
at that institution in June, 1889. became 



a minister of the Universalist church, and 
began his ministry at Le Roy, Ohio. In 
connection with his pastorate of that 
church he served one year at Huntington 
and one year at Attica, Ohio. He was 
ordained in the Le Roy church, January 
25, 1890, and a little more than a year 
later was married in the same church. 
In March, 1893, he moved from the 
church at Le Roy to the pastorate of the 
church at Urbana, Illinois, and in March, 
1895, to Macomb, Illinois, serving the 
church at Urbana until April, 1899. From 
April to July, 1899, he supplied the pulpit 
of Bradley Memorial Church at Peoria, 
Illinois, and in August, 1899, was settled 
over the church at Bristol, New York, 
serving that congregation until Septem- 
ber, 1903. The next seven years he was 
pastor of the church at Middleport, New 
York, also preaching at Ridgway Sunday 
afternoons during three years of that 
period. He left Middleport in Septem- 
ber, 1910, was in Medina, New York, 
until March, 1912, then became pastor of 
the church at Newark, so continuing until 
his death. 

He married in Le Roy, Ohio, May 14. 
1891, Lillian May, daughter of Erastus 
and Eliza Simmons, of Le Roy. They 
were the parents of four children : Marian 
Lorana, married Dr. James Sanford, of 
Newark, New York, and has two daugh- 
ters, Anne Elizabeth, born August 9. 
1913, and Damaris Buckner. born Febru- 
ary 27. 1916; Orella Simmons, a gradu- 
ate of the University of Illinois, class of 
iqi6; Dorothea Aurora, a graduate of 
Newark High School; and Henry Ed- 
ward, educated in the same school. 



NORTON, Luther M., 

Lawyer and Jurist. 

Although a native son of Livingston 
county, New York, Judge Norton's entire 
professional life was passed in Wayne 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



county, where he was held in the highest 
esteem by his brethren of the county bar, 
and by the public-at-large. He was a 
lawyer of ability, and his service as coun- 
ty judge demonstrated that he possessed 
the high qualities of the jurist. He was 
of calm, unruffled demeanor, fair and im- 
partial in his decisions, serving only the 
cause of justice as revealed by the evi- 
dence presented to him. He was learned 
in the law, but did not rely upon his own 
construction of its technicalities, never 
deciding an intricate point without close 
study of previous published decisions and 
all law bearing upon the controverted 
point. From 1855 until his death he was 
a member of the Wayne county bar, and 
a resident of Newark. 

Luther M. Norton was born at Grove- 
land, Livingston county, New York, Feb- 
ruary 26, 1832, died at his home in New- 
ark, Wayne county, New York, October 
25, 1908. He obtained his education in 
the public schools and Genesee-Wyoming 
Seminary at Alexander, New York, and 
after graduation began teaching, a pro- 
fession which he sucessfully followed for 
eight years. During those years he 
studied law and was a regularly regis- 
tered student in a Mount Morris law 
office. In December, 1855, he was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and the same year 
moved to Newark, New York, there 
spending his entire after life. For one 
vear he was a partner with Judge George 
H. Middleton, and rapidly rose in public 
favor as a general practitioner. He was 
a Republican in politics, and took an ac- 
tive interest in public affairs, gaining a 
county-wide acquaintance and winning a 
host of friends. He was made a justice 
of sessions, and in November, 1869, was 
elected county judge, serving one term 
of five years, the office of surrogate at 
that time being coupled with that of 
county judge in Wayne county. In No- 
vember, 1891, he was again elected coun- 



ty judge, the term having been extended 
to six years. 

As a lawyer Judge Norton practiced in 
all State and Federal courts of his dis- 
trict, and ever conducted a large practice. 
He was one of the organizers of the 
Wayne County Bar Association, Novem- 
ber 10, 1890, and a member of its first 
executive committee. He was a power- 
ful advocate for the cause he espoused, 
strong in his presentation, submitted the 
clearest and most logical briefs, and was 
an orator of eloquence and force. Few 
of his decisions as judge but which stood 
the test if appealed to a higher court, and 
none ever questioned the purity of his 
motives nor the fairness of his decisions. 
He was a life-long member of the Baptist 
church, interested in all good works, his 
private character beyond reproach, his 
public spirit ever displayed in all that 
tended to elevate the moral tone or im- 
prove the temporal condition of his village. 

Judge Norton married, in 1853, Sarah 
M. Stilson, of Mt. Morris, Livingston 
county, New York, daughter of Edwin 
and Hulda (Lake) Stilson. Judge and 
Mrs. Norton were the parents of two 
daughters and a son : Flora A., now Mrs. 
F. E. Brown, of Newark. New York; 
Grace I., a graduate of Elmira Female 
College, a teacher; Willis I., married 
Maud Hicks, of Phelps, New York. 



WINSPEAR, Charles W., 
Public Official. 

The life history of Charles W. Win- 
spear, for seventeen years superintendent 
of the New York State Custodial Asylum 
at Newark, is the record of a self-made 
man who by ability and exertion made 
his way upward and succeeded in his ca- 
reer by reason of individual merit, guided 
by sound judgment and common sense. 
He came to Newark in 1893 when he was 
appointed to the responsible position of 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



superintendent of the New York State 
Custodial Asylum. The institution re- 
ceived for seventeen years the benefit of 
his magnificent intellect, unerring judg- 
ment and his unwavering fidelity. It be- 
came the leading State institution of its 
kind with the lowest per capita cost and 
the highest record for efficiency of man- 
agement. Its plans of development under 
which it has made its great growth was 
to a large extent the product of his mas- 
ter mind. Its successful private water 
works system was exclusively an achieve- 
ment of his and accomplished against 
many difficulties, and the plans of its 
buildings and its general improvements 
were developed under his direction. 

Leaving the institution, which he had 
served so faithfully, Mr. Winspear se- 
lected a site of land of several acres in 
extent on West Maple avenue in Newark 
and developed its natural resources by 
hemming in Military Brook between high 
banks and making a beautiful spring 
water lake, on the banks of which he 
built his pleasant home, where he passed 
in merited enjoyment the recent years of 
his life, surrounded by his family and en- 
joying the comforts of a delightful domes- 
tic life. He was a man of unusual poise 
and dignity and approached every sub- 
ject with calmness and impartiality. He 
was gracious and courtly in manner, con- 
siderate of others, particularly those of 
his own household, respected and hon- 
ored by all who knew him. 

Charles W. Winspear was born at El- 
ma, Erie county, New York, July 6, 1854, 
died at his beautiful home in Newark, 
New York, August 8, 1916, son of Wil- 
liam and Hannah (Richardson) Win- 
spear, his father born in England, a 
lawyer by profession and a farmer. 
Charles W. Winspear spent his early life 
on the farm, attended the public schools 
of the district and remained his father's 
assistant until the age of twenty-three 



years. On January 1, 1877, he was ap- 
pointed clerk in the Erie County Alms- 
house and Insane Asylum, serving in that 
position one year. He then was pro- 
moted to the position of deputy keeper, 
a post he faithfully filled for sixteen 
years. During the last ten years of his 
term he also served as special agent of 
the State board of charities in the city of 
Buffalo, and became well skilled and pro- 
ficient in the line he had chosen as his 
life work. 

During his long term he had become 
well known for his interest in this phase 
of State philanthropy and a vacancy oc- 
curring, he was appointed on July 1, 1893, 
superintendent of the New York State 
Custodial Asylum at Newark, an institu- 
tion devoted to the care of feeble minded 
women. This choice of a superintendent 
by the board of trustees was a most 
fortunate one for the institution and for 
seventeen years he devoted himself ex- 
clusively to the care of those unfortunate 
wards of the State committed to his wise 
government. He resigned his position as 
superintendent October 1, 1909. 

Mr. Winspear was a most capable busi- 
ness man, an interesting worker, apply- 
ing himself to every task with concentra- 
tion, energy and force. After resigning 
his position, he spent much time in 
Buffalo, where he was a partner in the 
real estate firm of Winspear & Northrup. 
there conducting a large and successful 
business, two streets in Buffalo being de- 
veloped entirely through the efforts of 
the firm. He also manifested his public 
spirited interest in Newark, his adopted 
home, investing his resources in various 
village enterprises, was a director and 
vice-president of the First National Bank, 
president of the board of trade and an 
active working member of that organiza- 
tion. 

He was fond of sports of the out-of- 
doors, a member of the Audubon Shoot- 



252 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ing Club of Buffalo, and an ardent fisher- 
man. The artificial pond on his estate 
stocked with game fish was to him a 
source of much pleasure and not infre- 
quently he devoted an hour to luring a 
trout to his fly and hook. He was very 
successful in his business enterprises and 
was frequently sought in counsel in 
matters important to the village. He was 
a Democrat in politics, a member of 
Washington Lodge, No. 240, Free and 
Accepted Masons, of Buffalo, later be- 
coming a member of the Newark lodge, 
also belonging to the Acacia Club of that 
city. In religious faith he was a Presby- 
terian, serving as trustee and elder for 
many years. 

Mr. Winspear married, in Buffalo, New 
York, June 18, 1893, Gertrude E., daugh- 
ter of George F. and Harriet Winspear, 
of Lancaster, Erie county, New York. 
Mrs. Winspear survives her husband 
with three children: Alta Grace, born 
September 28, 1897; Ethel G., June 14, 
1899; Harriet, September 18, 1906. 

Judge McLouth, of Palmyra, writes 
the following appreciation of the char- 
acter and achievements of Charles W. 
Winspear: 

Much has been said, and properly so, of Mr. 
Winspear, yet as much left unsaid. When at the 
instance of the Managers of the State Custodial 
Asylum for Feeble-minded Women he came to 
Newark he resigned the position he had long 
and under different political administrations held, 
of Deputy Superintendent of the Poor of Erie 
county, which was one of great responsibility. 
To some extent it had fitted him for the new 
duties he was to undertake, yet there was largely 
more. He had as an officer of the State a more 
difficult position, which involved the care and 
management of larger property as well as many 
persons, and either case was not more varied 
than the other. His work was as largely humane 
as it was constructive, and it required that he 
should constantly look ahead. He saw largely 
increasing needs of a growing population. Per- 
haps his value to the State and its defective 
wards was nowhere more largely manifest. No 



need was more so than the procuring of an 
ample supply of pure water. There were some 
difficulties in obtaining sufficient from the vil- 
lage water works, as then existing, both as to 
quantity and quality, and the State was not 
swift to respond to demands made upon it. 
After much deliberation Mr. Winspear believed 
that in the springs near Marbletown the suffi- 
cient supply might be found, and that gravity 
would bring it to the doors. With untiring 
energy, but no noise, he secured the options of 
the springs and rights of way, and then sub- 
mitted to the Managers his project. He had not 
much support. The conservatism of the board 
thought it visionary, or, if not, hardly practical. 
But they had learned to defer so largely to his 
judgment that they and the State acquiesced. 
It was a great and permanent success. It led to 
another as important — the removal of the power 
house from the center of the group of buildings 
to the foot and rear of the hill — and so the 
danger of fire was almost totally minimized. 
The water was and has been all of the time 
abundant and satisfactory, insomuch that when 
the village supply threatened deficiency its auxil- 
iary was obtained from the hill with less fric- 
tion and more composure than its supply to the 
hill had formerly been furnished. 

A little later Mr. Winspear proposed to place 
on the extreme elevation of the hill a storage 
tank of suitable dimensions and store there a 
supply of water for emergency. That was not 
much believed in, but it was allowed, and he 
succeeded beyond expectations. The question of 
proper sewage disposition was always largely 
considered by him, and he was as successful as 
was possible, until the present combination was 
worked out, and in large degree he was respon- 
sible for that. 

The largest achievement of Mr. Winspear, and 
by far the most valuable, was found in the car- 
rying out of the purposes of the Institution. 
Mental deficiencies were and are largely misun- 
derstood. Susceptible improvements are much 
underrated. And to this his thought never 
ceased to be directed, with the result that, with 
time, patience, thoughtfulness and such changes 
as from time to time became apparent, very 
marked improvement in reading, writing, figures, 
music, dancing, dress and general appearance 
appeared, so that he made his Institution known 
in this and all countries where similar efforts 
have been directed. 

The location and construction of buildings; 
the supply to each of proper heat, water and 
light; the classification of inmates; the refusal 



253 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



to build and the depopulation of floors above the 
second; the embellishment of grounds; the suc- 
cess of greenhouses; the building oi roads; the 
systematizing of the office and help; and the 
organization of the entire administrative work 
and force, was the marvel of the man. He was 
of infinite detail and larger patience, and, with 
the latter, he bore the platitudes of success as 
calmly as he did undeserved, malicious, wicked 
and absolutely groundless assaults. The latter 
is not an unusual accompaniment of success. 



WILSON, Jacob, 

Journalist and Litterateur. 

From January, 1869, until 1906, Mr. 
Wilson was proprietor, editor and pub- 
lisher of the 'Newark Courier," one of 
the most popular country weeklies in 
New York, bringing to his work the cul- 
ture of college, foreign travel and long 
experience as an educator. The "Couri- 
er," established in 1838 as the '"Wayne 
Standard," an organ of the old Whig 
party, had a varied and checkered ex- 
istence under different names and pub- 
lishers until its purchase by Mr. Wilson, 
who a little later changed its politics to 
Democratic, and being constantly on the 
alert for improvements and being himself 
an accomplished writer, he gave the 
paper an interest it had never possesed. 
His work in journalism was such as to 
class him with the great county editors 
of the State and brought him prominently 
into the public eye. He was unfortu- 
nately located politically, as his congres- 
sional district, composed of Wayne, Ca- 
yuga and Seneca counties, was normally 
from 6,000 to 7,000 Republican. He. 
however, made the attempt in 1874 and 
although pitted against the popular Gen- 
eral MacDougall as his opponent and 
confronted with the huge majority which 
the district usually gave, he came within 
a few hundred votes of an election to 
Congress, although he gave little atten- 
tion to the campaign waged in his favor. 
Aside from his journalism he was a well 



known litterateur, the author of educa- 
tional works and books of general thought 
in which he discussed religious and eco- 
nomic questions, works commended by 
the leading men of the country and en- 
titling him to high rank and literary fame. 
Jacob Wilson, or as he wrote his name, 
J. Wilson, was born in St. Johnsville, 
Montgomery county, New York, May 12. 
1831, died in Newark, New York, March 
16, 1914. At the age of twenty years he 
was graduated from Union College, now 
University, read law and in 1852, as soon 
as legally eligible, was admitted to the 
bar. He practiced but little, however, 
but turned to teaching as a profession 
and for nearly twenty years was an edu- 
cator, attaining high rank as principal of 
some of the best academies in the State. 
When the Civil War broke out he warm- 
ly espoused the Union cause, gave up his 
profession, recruited a company of one 
hundred and seven men at his own expense 
and served as their captain during part 
of 1861 and 1862. He continued in edu- 
cational work of a high class until Janu- 
ary, 1872. then purchased the "Newark 
Courier" and devoted himself to journal- 
ism and literature until his death. He 
was a pronounced Democrat, and on Oc- 
tober 23. 1874, received the unanimous 
nomination of the Democratic conven- 
tion for Congress from the Twenty-Sixth 
Congressional District. The district was 
hopelessly Republican and he took little 
personal part in the campaign, but so 
great was his popularity and so favor- 
ably had he made the "Courier" known 
throughout the district that he narrowly 
escaped election. In 1880 he was on the 
New York Democratic electoral ticket, 
but he was not an aspirant for political 
honors at any time, much preferring the 
independent position he held as editor of 
a prosperous newspaper. In 1868 and 
again in 1888 he toured Europe, and later 
made two other trips, his cultured mind 



254 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



reveling in the artistic beauties and won- 
ders of the Old World. 

Mr. Wilson began his literary work 
while engaged as an educator and in 1858 
published "Errors of Grammar, - ' fol- 
lowed in 1864 by "Phrases," "A Treatise 
on the History and Structure of the Dif- 
ferent Languages of the World." In 
1870 his "Practical Grammar of the Eng- 
lish Language" appeared, and in 1874 
"The Bible as Seen by the Light of the 
Nineteenth Century" was published, a 
work which created intense interest and 
much discussion. "Practical Life and 
Study of Man" was published in 1882, 
"Radical Wrongs" in 1892. These works 
won him literary fame and brought him 
into personal contact with the best men 
of the literary world. They showed the 
depth of his research and the strength of 
his intellectual power, those relating to 
educational work having become stand- 
ard. He was the most scholarly writer 
Newark ever had. His skill lay in his 
clear thinking and writing, his work at- 
tracting the attention of men of letters in 
Germany, where he was perhaps as well 
known as in his own country. He was 
not a popular writer ; he was a philoso- 
pher and his name will go down in honor. 



AVERILL, Edward Samuel, 

Journalist. 

At the time of his death in 1910 Mr. 
Averill was the oldest newspaper man in 
New York State in point of years of serv- 
ice, his connection with Wayne county 
journalism having begun in August, 1856, 
with the purchase of the "Palmyra Amer- 
ican" which he restored to its former 
name the "Palmyra Courier.'' From that 
year until his death, fifty-four years later, 
he continued in the editorial manage- 
ment of the "Courier." making it one 
of the largest and ablest journals in 
Western New York. The "Courier" was 



founded in 1838 by Frederick Morley, 
who continued its publication until 1852 
when it passed to the ownership of J. C. 
Benedict, and in January, 1853, to B. C. 
Beebe, who renamed it the "Palmyra 
Democrat." and a little later the "Pal- 
myra American." In August, 1856. Mr. 
Averill purchased the paper, renamed it 
the "Palmyra Courier," and dedicated it 
to the newly formed Republican party, 
a party whose faithful and valuable ally 
it has been until the present date, now- 
being owned and edited by Ralph E. and 
Harry L. Averill. sons of Edward S. 
Averill. 

The history of the "Courier," under the 
Averill management, was one of progress 
in every department. When the senior 
Averill obtained control local happenings 
received but scant attention in the press 
of the county, a condition he at once set 
out to correct, enlarging the paper to 
make room for a department of local 
news. The innovation was greatly ap- 
preciated and was rewarded by a greatly 
enlarged subscription list which encour- 
aged the editor to again enlarge. In 
April, 1857. the "Courier" appeared in an 
entire new dress and greatly improved. 
In 1S58 it was again enlarged and again 
in 1865. The paper became a tower of 
strength to the Republican party in 
Western New York, and became a source 
of honor and profit to the man who, in 
his youth, devoted himself and his paper 
to the support of a then young and un- 
tried party. As the years progressed the 
"Courier" kept pace with the march of 
progress in printing and publishing and 
retained its place as a power in the party. 
Himself a man of clean mind and soul he 
kept the "Courier" equally clean and its 
columns free from a suspicion of sub- 
servience to evil influences. He was de- 
voted to his paper, cared little for money 
making, but was ambitious that it should 
be a welcome and esteemed visitor to 



255 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



every home. All who knew him held him 
in the highest esteem and although he 
lived for over half a century in the fierce 
light of publicity no taint of dishonor 
ever attached itself to his name. He was 
an able editorial writer and made that 
page of the "Courier" one from which 
the State press often quoted. He hon- 
ored the profession he embraced and the 
present policy of the paper under the sons 
he trained in journalism is as he would 
have had it. 

Edward Samuel Averill, son of Erastus 
and Hannah Averill, was born in Albany, 
New York, in 1835, died in Palmyra, 
Wayne county. New York, September 5, 
1910. He was educated in the public 
schools of Medina, New York, learned 
the printer's trade in Medina when very 
> oung and for a time was connected with 
"'The Spirit of the Times," a paper pub- 
lished in Batavia, New York. Prior to 
reaching his twentieth year he had been 
editorially connected with that paper and 
with Albany and Geneva papers. He 
located in Palmyra in 1855 as editor of 
the "Palmyra Democrat and American." 
On coming of legal age in 1856 he pur- 
chased the paper from B. C. Beebe, re- 
named it the "Palmyra Courier" and 
henceforth was its owner, publisher and 
presiding genius. 

The "Courier" represented the personal 
politics of its editor and was always a 
reflection of his own opinions, and al- 
though always a stalwart follower of 
party doctrines was never a subservient 
organ. His fidelity was rewarded not 
only in public confidence, but in substan- 
tial recognition so far as he would allow. 
From 1863 until 1868 he was the collector 
of canal tolls at Palmyra, and in 1871 
and 1872 he was postmaster of the vil- 
lage. He was a warm friend of public 
education, and for several years was an 
efficient member of the Palmyra Board of 
Education. In 1868 he was chosen cor- 



responding secretary of the Palmyra 
Union Agricultural Society, an office he 
held for thirty years. He was very liberal 
and broad minded in his religious views 
and while not a regular attendant him- 
self his family were Episcopalians. 

Mr. Averill married, in 1859, at Geneva, 
New York, Mary, daughter of Maurice 
and Mary (Mason) Caulkins. They were 
the parents of three sons and a daughter: 
Ralph E., who succeeded his father as 
editor and publisher of the "Courier" in 
association with his brother Harry L. ; 
Annie, residing in Palmyra ; Robert, an 
attorney of Rochester, New York; Harry 
L., associated with his brother Ralph E. 
as joint editors and publishers of the 
"Courier." 



ROCHESTER, John Henry, 

Financier, Man of Affairs. 

The mention of the name of John Henry 
Rochester recalls the presence of a man 
who is not remembered solely for his 
great business ability, public service and 
consistent enterprise, but of one who also 
lives in the hearts of his many sincere 
friends as a genial, warm-hearted, social 
and hospitable man, gracious as a host, 
charming as a guest, who esteemed the 
companionship and regard of friends more 
highly than business success. Courte- 
ous and courtly, a Chesterfield in deport- 
ment, he was of the old school, never for- 
getful of even the smallest detail that 
marks the true gentleman. Seventy-four 
years marked his span of life and from the 
age of eighteen he was continually en- 
gaged in the banking business, being at 
the time of his death the oldest banker in 
active service in the city of Rochester. 
He was the organizer of the Mechanics' 
Savings Bank and for nearly thirty years 
its secretary and treasurer. His sympa- 
thetic heart responded freely to the call 
of charity and philanthropy. His public 



256 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



official service was mainly as park com- 
missioner, his membership of the board 
extending over a period of many years, 
terminating only with his death. He was 
keenly alive to his responsibilities as a 
citizen, had well defined political convic- 
tions ; was an earnest Republican, with a 
deep interest in public affairs, manly inde- 
pendence, abhorrent of all political abuses, 
but never seeking nor accepting political 
office. He traveled extensively at home 
and abroad, was extremely well read, with 
refined taste in literature and was a well 
known patron of the fine arts. His social 
nature and love of the companionship of 
friends led him into clubs, societies and 
fraternities, in fact he was interested in 
all that affected the civic, business, social 
or religious life of his city. All of his 
mature life he was a devoted churchman 
and when death erased his name from 
the roll of St. Luke's parish, was its oldest 
communicant in point of years of mem- 
bership. In his long-time home, his 
widow, with whom he spent nearly half a 
century of wedded bliss, survives him 
aged eighty-two years, charming in her 
personality, mentally keen and bright as 
of yore, a true type of the Southern gen- 
tlewoman, remarkable in the victory she 
has won over her weight of years. 

The lineage of the Rochester family is 
traced to the year 1582, and to the County 
of Essex, England. The American an- 
cestor, Nicholas Rochester, came in 1689, 
settling in Westmoreland county, Vir- 
ginia, on an estate in Cople parish, upon 
which his grandson, Nathaniel Rochester, 
founder of the city of Rochester, was born 
February 21, 1752. With Nathaniel 
Rochester, whose life story is also told in 
this work, the family residence in Roches- 
ter, first called Fallstown, began. 

Thomas Hart Rochester, son of Colonel 
Nathaniel Rochester, settled in Western 
New York with his father and with his 
N Y-3-17 257 



brother-in-law, William Montgomery, 
built the "Old Red Mill" at the Middle 
Falls. In 1834 he superintended the con- 
struction of the Tonowanda Railroad ; 
was the first cashier of the Commercial 
Bank and president of the Rochester City 
Bank; was a member of the board of 
trustees of the Rochester Orphan Asylum 
in 1838; was mayor of Rochester in 1839; 
was a member of the board of trustees of 
Rochester City Hospital in 1847 and was 
one of the most highly esteemed men of 
his day. He married Elizabeth Cuming, 
daughter of a one-time governor of one of 
the English West Indies. She bore him 
children, all of whom have now passed 
away: Thomas Fortescue, M. D. ; Na- 
thaniel, died in California while in quest 
of gold in 1849; John Henry; Caroline 
Louise, who never married ; Montgomery ; 
Phoebe Elizabeth, who died in 1859. 

John Henry Rochester, third son of 
Thomas Hart and Elizabeth (Cuming) 
Rochester, was born in Rochester, April 
20, 1828, died in his native city after an 
illness of two years, October 23, 1902. 
He was educated in the select schools of 
Rochester, and at the age of eighteen en- 
tered the banking business, a line of ac- 
tivity with which he was connected for 
fifty-six years. His first position was as 
clerk in the Rochester City Bank, of 
which his honored father was president, 
there obtaining an intimate knowledge of 
banking methods and of the laws gov- 
erning finance. In 1849 ne caught the 
"gold fever" and with his brother Na- 
thaniel joined a party bound for Califor- 
nia, Nathaniel being one of the party who 
never returned, dying in California the 
same year. After returning from his gold 
quest John H. Rochester formed a part- 
nership with his brother Montgomery 
and established the private banking 
house of J. H. Rochester & Brother. 
After several years as a private banker 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



he retired from association with his 
brother to become cashier of the Flower 
City Bank, a position he held for three 
years. During the years 1852 to 1855 
Mr. Rochester was a resident of Vicks- 
burg, Mississippi, and during that period 
occurred his marriage. 

He organized the Mechanics' Savings 
Bank, a successful financial institution of 
which he was secretary and treasurer for 
nearly thirty years. His fifty-six years 
as a banker brought him rich experience, 
rare wisdom and ripened judgment, his 
rank as a financier being with the ablest. 
His business capacity was of the highest 
order and in his display of public spirit 
and enterprise his was an example worthy 
of emulation. He held his honor and 
promise sacred and was most punctilious 
in his observance of the strictest code 
governing business men. His friends 
were "legion," attracted not more by the 
sterling business qualities of the banker 
than by the winning personality of the 
man. Courtesy and consideration marked 
his daily intercourse with the world and 
there was neither blot nor stain upon his 
business or private character. 

Mr. Rochester was one of the first 
members appointed on the city board of 
park commissioners and for many years 
he so served, leaving a record of efficiency 
and faithfulness unsurpassed. He was 
vice-president of the board at the time 
of his death in 1902 and during his whole 
term of membership rarely missed a 
board meeting. For twenty-seven years 
he served St. Luke's parish as treasurer 
of the church and of the Church Home ; 
was treasurer of the Red Cross Society 
and of the Yellow Fever Fund ; organized 
the local chapter, Sons of the American 
Revolution, and was its president ; was 
president of the Rochester Historical So- 
ciety for two years ; was prominent in 
the commemoration of the semi-centen- 
nial of the city's birth ; was charter mem- 



ber of Rochester Lodge, No. 660, Free 
and Accepted Masons, and for many years 
its treasurer; belonged for many years 
to the Genesee Valley Club, the Roches- 
ter Club, the Rochester Whist Club, and 
in all these organizations was prominent 
in their activities. So a long and useful 
life was passed and the flowers that 
bloom at his grave are not more fragrant 
than his memory. 

In 1853, Mr. Rochester married Eliza- 
beth L., daughter of Dr. George Moore, 
of Vicksburg, Mississippi, a lady of rare 
charm and gentleness, who survives him. 
Two sons were born to Mr. and Mrs. 
John H. Rochester: Dr. Thomas Moore 
Rochester, born November 12, 1854, died 
leaving five children — Haydon, Thomas 
A., John C, Edward F. and Katherine ; 
Paul Affordby Rochester, born August 
21, 1857, now general traffic manager of 
the Catskill Evening Lines, with offices 
in New York City. 



VAN CAMP, William, 

Journalist. 

In September, 1841, the name Van 
Camp became associated with journalism 
in Wayne county, New York, William 
Van Camp then becoming owner of the 
paper established in May, 1822, by Hiram 
T. Day, under the name of "The Lyons 
Advertiser." The paper had passed 
through various experiences during those 
first nineteen years, had many owners 
and policies, but at the time of Mr. Van 
Camp's purchase was a six column paper 
known as "The Western Argus." One 
year sufficed the new owner, and in 1842 
he transferred it to Charles Poucher. who 
sold it in 1849 to S. W. Russell, he chang- 
ing the name to the "Lyons Gazette." 
In 1852 William Van Camp again entered 
the journalistic field, purchased the paper 
he had sold in 1842 and from that date 
Van Camp has been a name honored in 



258 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Western New York journalism. The 
paper was run as the "Lyons Gazette" 
until June, 1856, when Mr. Van Camp 
purchased from Pomeroy Tucker, of 
Palmyra, a new printing establishment 
from which had been issued five numbers 
of "The Wayne Democratic Press." He 
brought the paper to Lyons, consolidated 
it with the 'Gazette," but retained the 
name of the new purchase "The Wayne 
Democratic Press." With the consolida- 
tion an era of prosperity began which 
has never been checked and the "Press" 
has long been recognized as a leading 
organ of the Democracy of Western New 
York. Until 1884 the veteran journalist 
dictated the policy of the paper, and his 
able pen furnished the editorial page with 
many articles, inspiring, logical and con- 
vincing. Then when that hand was for- 
ever motionless and the active brain for- 
ever at rest, the capable sons whom he 
had trained, William and Harry T. Van 
Camp, conducted the "Press" from 1884 
to 1890, then William Van Camp became 
sole owner and until his death, Novem- 
ber 24, 191 1, continued the "Press," add- 
ing to its physical equipment all modern 
improvements possible in a country print- 
ing office, building up a large circulation 
yearly and extending its influence. With 
William (2) Van Camp's death the owner- 
ship again reverted to Harry T. Van 
Camp, the present editor and publisher. 
Thus for seventy-five years, minus the 
ten years the senior Van Camp was out 
of the publishing business, Van Camps 
have been potent in Wayne county jour- 
nalism, and for sixty years their paper 
"The Wayne Democratic Press" has been 
a leader of Democratic thought in West- 
ern New York. But is it not as party 
agents alone that William Van Camp, 
senior and junior, shine in journalism, 
they persistently worked for a greater 
Lyons and a greater Wayne county, and 
through the columns of the "Press" 



rendered yeoman service in many move- 
ments, moral and temporal, furthering 
that end. The paper has grown as Wayne 
county has grown and no single influence 
has been more strenuously exerted for 
the benefit of Wayne county as a whole 
than that of the "Press." 

The members of the Van Camp family 
in this branch date in America from 1750. 
William Van Camp was born in Madison 
county, New York, in 1820, but in early 
life went with his parents, William and 
Sarah Van Camp, to Seneca county, New 
York, where his father operated a farm. 
The family were of Dutch ancestry, and 
in religious faith members of the Society 
of Friends, William Van Camp being 
reared in the austere tenets of that sect. 
He obtained a good English education, 
and early in life learned the printer's 
trade in Palmyra, Wayne county, New 
York. While working at the printing 
trade he also acted as clerk in his em- 
ployer's book store, his evenings being 
devoted to that work. He became an ex- 
pert compositor, and at the age of twenty- 
one years had sufficient means and con- 
fidence in himself to purchase the "West- 
ern Argus," which must have proved a 
disappointing venture for he sold it a 
year later. He continued working at his 
trade during the next ten years, and in 
1852 again became a newspaper owner 
by purchasing his old paper, but enlarged 
and known as the "Lyons Gazette." He 
continued owner, editor and publisher 
of the consolidated papers as previously 
told until his death thirty-two years later 
in Michigan, March 24, 1884, and left to 
his sons that valuable newspaper prop- 
erty "The Wayne Democratic Press" of 
which his son William (2) was editor 
and publisher from 1890 to 191 1, being 
succeeded by Harry T. Van Camp. The 
"Press" was not made a Democratic 
paper through any idea of expediency or 
gain, but reflected the personal politics 



259 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



of its owner and publisher who was stal- 
wart in his Democracy. During the try- 
ing period of the Civil War the "Press" 
was the only Democratic newspaper in 
Wayne county, but Mr. Van Camp re- 
mained steadfast and made the county 
recognize the fact that in spite of his 
quiet retiring nature he had the courage 
of his convictions. All men respected 
him and when the rancor and hate en- 
gendered by war had died away in men's 
hearts the most cordial relations were 
established between those whose political 
views so widely diverged. His courage 
was admirably blended with tact and 
there never was a time his influence was 
not felt in county affairs, and he was held 
in high esteem. He was devoted to his 
paper, and had few outside interests or 
affiliations, his home circle drawing him 
in hours off duty. 

He was an early member of Humanity 
Lodge, No. 406, Free and Accepted Ma- 
sons, was a supporter of the Episcopal 
church, but broad minded and liberal in 
his religious views. He was a useful 
man to his community and was ever to 
be depended on to further all good causes 
and to give personal service. Long years 
have elapsed since he retired from earthly 
scenes, but his influence lives and the 
"Press" now edited by his son is but the 
"Press" founded by the father, enlarged, 
improved and adapted to modern con- 
ditions. 

Mr. Van Camp married, in Lyons, New 
York, in 1854, Mary Wood Terry, daugh- 
ter of Captain Horace G. and Emily 
Terry, of Sodus Bay, New York, her 
father a captain of lake vessels. Mr. 
and Mrs. Van Camp had three children : 
William,, born September 18, 1856, died 
November 24, 191 1, a journalist and long 
time editor of "The Wayne Democratic 
Press," succeeding his father; Harry T., 
born December 20, 1859, journalist, now 
editor of the paper with which the family 



has so long been identified ; Mary W., 
born August 3, 1862, married, in 1889, 
Edson W. Hamm, an eminent lawyer of 
Lyons. 



VEEDER, Major Albert, M. D., 
Scientist, Physician. 

The leading scientist of Wayne county, 
New York, and an eminent physician, Dr. 
Veeder lived a busy life, one not devoted 
to worldly gain but rather to the better- 
ment of humanity, a life void of reproach, 
a life filled with good work. His con- 
tributions to medical science were many 
and valuable, but his activities were not 
confined alone to medical research but 
along other branches of science in which he 
became equally proficient and his ability 
duly recognized. In the branches of sci- 
ence to which he devoted himself, he 
stood as one of the leaders and by some 
of his co-workers his opinions were fre- 
quently sought. His life was not the 
result of fortunate circumstances but was 
rather due to the intrinsic merit of the 
man himself. He chose deliberately to 
make the most of his gifts and he spared 
no effort by which these gifts could be 
developed to the highest point of ef- 
ficiency. He was apparently unambitious 
for earthly honors but was content with 
the consciousness of work well done, for 
which he merits the respect and love of 
his co-laborers and fellow workmen. 

Dr. Veeder was a descendant of Simon 
Volkertse Veeder, born in 1624, who is 
first mentioned in 1644, belonging to the 
ship "Prince Maurice" plying between 
Holland and New Amsterdam, New 
York. In 1652 he bought land in New 
Amsterdam, selling it in 1654 for thirty 
beaver skins ; moved to Beverwych (Al- 
bany) ; and in 1662 located at Schenec- 
tady, New York, where he owned lands. 
His son, Gerrit Veeder, owned the land 
about "Veeder's Mills," and had a lease 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



from the church granting him the mill 
privileges and water power in 1718. 
From Gerrit Veeder sprang Dr. Major 
Albert Veeder, his branch of the family 
settling in Ohio. Dr. Veeder was a son 
of Captain Gerrit W. and Martha Anna 
(Williams) Veeder, his father master of 
deep sea and lake vessels ; his mother of 
English descent. 

Major Albert Veeder was born in Ashta- 
bula, Ohio, November 2, 1848, died at his 
home at Lyons, New York, November 
16, 191 5. His boyhood days were spent 
in Ashtabula, his education beginning in 
the public school. In early life he re- 
turned to the home of his ancestors, 
Schenectady, New York, there entered 
Union College, whence he was graduated 
A. B., class of 1870, A. M., 1871, having 
prepared for the collegiate course in the 
preparatory department of the same col- 
lege, finishing that course in 1866. From 
1871 he was for several years principal 
of Ives's Seminary, at Antwerp, New 
York; then during the years of 1878-79 
was a student at Leipzig University, Ger- 
many. In 1879 he returned to the United 
States, began the study of medicine and 
in 1883 was graduated M. D. from Buffalo 
Medical College, Buffalo, New York. In 
1883 he located in Lyons, New York, and 
there continued in active practice until 
his death, thirty-two years later. 

Dr. Veeder became a member of the 
Wayne County Medical Society, July 10, 
1883, and until his death was an active 
member and frequent contributor of valu- 
able papers. He was president of the 
society from July 14, 1903, until Decem- 
ber 10, 1913; was its treasurer and from 
the latter date until his death both secre- 
tary and treasurer. In the agreeable con- 
troversy between the American Medical 
Association and the New York State 
Medical Society, which resulted in the 
formation of the New York State Medical 
Association, and which controversy af- 



fected the Wayne County Medical So- 
ciety, he took no part, but the final result 
of that controversy was in accordance 
with his view and sympathy. The con- 
troversy he ignored, but the pursuit of 
medical knowledge he continued regard- 
less of schism. 

The records show that he contributed 
a most valuable paper, probably his first 
written paper to the society, October 
14, 1884, entitled "Practical Points as to 
Prophylaxis," contributed at a time when 
the "drug cure" of disease was promi- 
nent and prophylaxis largely in the fu- 
ture, the morning light of which was 
just beginning to appear. This paper 
was prophetic of what he should and did 
accomplish in after years and for which 
he became well known both at home and 
abroad. 

Dr. Veeder began and continued his 
investigations as must be done in all re- 
search work along true scientific lines, 
not in establishing a pre-conclusion and 
the distorting and omitting of data that 
such a pre-conclusion might be proven, 
but rather collecting, arranging and clas- 
sifying data and from such classification 
arriving at a conclusion, be that conclu- 
sion what it may. For his conclusions he 
stood steadfast, without regarding the 
opinions of others, opinions expressed 
without proof, but he was ever ready to 
present to others his evidence on which 
his conclusions were based, presenting 
such evidence in the spirit of fairness and 
in their defense, though steadfast, he was 
a non-combatant ; he waited for time to 
adjust differences and nowhere was this 
spirit more manifest than in his home 
town. 

Of Dr. Veeder's contributions to medi- 
cal literature, which are numerous, it is 
only possible at this time to mention a 
few of the more prominent and advanced 
ones which have been published, viz: 
"Chorea ;" "Drinking Water and its Puri- 



261 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



fication ;'" 'Atmospheric Changes Rela- 
tive to the Diseases of Central New 
York;" "Practical Use of the Micro- 
scope;" "Questions in Regard to the 
Diphtheria Bacillus;" "Diphtheria, its 
Disinfection Within and Without the 
Body;" "Roentgen Radiations;" "Flies 
as Spreaders of Sickness in Camps ;" 
"The Relative Importance of Flies and 
Water Supply in Spreading Disease;" 
"The Spread of Typhoid and Dysenteric 
Diseases by Flies." Paper entitled "Flies 
as Spreaders of Sickness in Camps" is 
the first article ever published showing 
or demonstrating clearly the agency of 
flies in the spread of disease. This paper 
was published in the "Medical Record" 
in 1898, and in it he stated his belief that 
flies were carriers of typhoid germs. 
Other papers relative to public health 
should be mentioned, viz: "Public Water 
Supply for Small Towns," "Typhoid 
Fever from Sources Other than Water 
Supply," "The Human Being as a Ty- 
phoid Carrier," "Why the Open Air 
Treatment of Consumption Succeeds," 
"Garbage Reduction by Steam," "Dan- 
gers of Hypnotism," "Faculties of the 
Mind Not Understood and Not Used, 
with Special Reference to the Curability 
of Epilepsy," "Defective Development 
and Disease, with Special Reference to 
the Curability of Consumption and Can- 
cer." 

These are not all of Dr. Veeder's con- 
tributions to medical science but enough 
has been cited to demonstrate the trend 
of his thoughts and the depth of his re- 
search. In other branches of science he 
also delved deep and among his pub- 
lished papers may well be named, viz: 
"Ice Jams and What They Accomplished." 
"Geology of the Erie Canal," "Geology 
of Wayne County," "Magne-Crystallic 
Action and the Aurora," "Solar Electro- 
Magnetic Induction," "Solar Electrical 
Energy Not Transmitted by Radiation," 



"The Relation Between Solar and Ter- 
restrial Phenomena," "Forces Concerned 
in the Development of Storms," "Thun- 
der Storms," "Why Barns are More De- 
stroyed by Lightning than Houses," "The 
Zodiacal Light," etc. He also worked 
in connection with Peary, the Arctic ex- 
plorer, in regard to the meteorological 
phenomenon known as the "Aurora Bore- 
alis." 

Dr. Veeder acted as health officer for 
Lyons, New York, for over a quarter of 
a century, during which term of service 
some intricate problems relative to sani- 
tation were solved. His services along 
this line were valuable to the health serv- 
ice of the State and as such were duly 
recognized. He held membership in sev- 
eral distinguished organizations and in 
their transactions he assumed an active 
part. He became a fellow of the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of 
Science ; member of the American Public 
Health Association ; American Micro- 
scopical Society, of which organization he 
was at one time vice-president ; London 
Society of Arts ; International Conference 
of Charities and Corrections ; New York 
State Medical Society ; Rochester Acade- 
my of Science, and other organizations 
of note. He was a Democrat in politics, 
and a member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal church. He belonged in addition to 
his professional and scientific societies to 
the Wayne County Grange, Patrons of 
Husbandry, and to the Holland Society 
of New York. 

Dr. Veeder married, in Schenectady, 
New York, in 1871, Mary Eleanor, daugh- 
ter of Peleg and Eleanor Wood. They 
were the parents of four children: 1. 
Sarah Eleanor, born June 10, 1872; a 
graduate of Syracuse University. 1896, 
in painting course; twice studied art in 
Paris; taught in the Frances Shimer 
School for Girls; was in charge of the 
art department of the Ohio Wesleyan 



262 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



University, and is now teacher of draw- 
ing in the Lyons High School. 2. Martha 
Anna, born September 22, 1873 ; graduate 
of Cornell University, 1895 > taught at 
Huguenot College, South Africa, for five 
years, now an instructor in the Western 
College for Women, Oxford, Ohio. 3. 
Albert Foster, born January 28, 1875 ; 
Ph. G., Columbia; Rochester State Hos- 
pital. 4. Willard Hall, born February 17, 
1879; graduated M. D. from Buffalo 
University, class of 1903 ; now senior 
assistant physician at the Rochester State 
Hospital. 



KEENER, Stephen Nicholas, 

Architect, Builder. 

A native son of New York, Mr. Keener 
did a great deal toward the architectural 
adornment of his State, and all over 
Western New York stand buildings 
planned and in many cases erected by 
him, for to his profession of architect he 
added contracting and building. Al- 
though a man of seventy-four, he con- 
tinued active until the last, death coming 
to him suddenly through the medium of 
an apoplectic stroke. He was a son of 
John Keener, born in Germany, a wheel- 
wright, who located at Lowville, New 
York. 

Stephen N. Keener was born in Low- 
ville, Lewis county, New York, January 
31, 1841, died at his home in Newark, 
Wayne county, New York, December 23, 
1915. He was educated in the public 
schools, and before he had attained his 
twenty-first year had served an appren- 
ticeship at the trade of carpenter, and 
was an expert workman. He came of 
age in January, 1862, and the following 
June settled in Newark, that village ever 
afterward being his home. On July 25. 
1862, he enlisted in Company A, One 
Hundred and Sixtieth Regiment, New 



York Volunteer Infantry, served until 
the close of the war, and received an hon- 
orable discharge. He saw hard service, 
but escaped wounds, although he was 
captured and served a term of confine- 
ment in Southern prisons. 

After the war Mr. Keener returned to 
Newark, and resumed business, becom- 
ing the leading architect of his section of 
the State, and conducting a large per- 
sonal contracting and building business, 
as well as superintending the construc- 
tion of many buildings for which he had 
furnished plans and specifications. He 
continued active in business until his 
death, being well known in Western New 
York as a reliable builder and skilled 
architect. He was for over a quarter of 
a century a trustee of the Cemetery Asso- 
ciation, and served the village as trustee 
for two terms, as president of the village 
one term and as a member of the school 
board for many. He was an official mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal church of 
Newark for more than twenty-five years. 
He was a prominent Grand Army man 
and served on the staff of the State com- 
mander and as chaplain of Vosburg Post, 
of Newark. He was highly regarded in 
his community and was deserving of the 
universal esteem in which he was held. 
He was a man of quiet domestic tastes, 
devoted to his home, not seeking public 
office, but when called upon faithfully 
performing every duty connected with 
the offices he held. 

Mr. Keener married, in Lyons, New 
York, January 21, 1868, Catherine E. 
Espenscheid, daughter of John Espen- 
scheid, born in Germany, February 17, 
1813. He came to the United States 
when a boy, located at Sodus, New York, 
afterward in Clyde, finally in Lyons, New 
York. He married Helen Derich, also 
born in Germany, who bore him six chil- 
dren : John M., Catherine E., Philip J., 
■■63 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Mary E., William H. and Helen E. John 
Espenscheid died October 5, 1888, sur- 
vived by his wife, who died in 1897. Mrs. 
Keener died in 1904. She had no chil- 
dren. 



RAINES, George, 

Lawyer, Legislator. 

For forty-one years George Raines was 
a member of the Monroe county bar, 
practicing in Rochester. At the age of 
twenty-four he was elected district attor- 
ney for Monroe county, and in that office 
he made his remarkable personality felt. 
As the years passed he grew in strength 
as a lawyer, finally closing his career 
with a reputation second to no criminal 
lawyer of the State of New York. As 
prosecutor or for defendant he appeared 
in over forty murder trials in which the 
indictment specified a crime the punish- 
ment for which is death. Of those he 
prosecuted none escaped, and of those he 
defended none suffered the extreme pen- 
alty. The only exception to the first 
statement was the case of the three Sodus 
murderers who were sentenced to life 
imprisonment, the growing sentiment 
against the infliction of the death penalty 
alone saving them from the electric chair. 
Besides a large private practice Mr. 
Raines was deeply interested in public 
affairs, sat as State Senator, elected as a 
Democrat in a Republican district, in the 
New York Legislature and was high in 
the councils of the Democratic party- As 
an orator he had few equals and was 
often chosen to deliver important ad- 
dresses. He was the orator of the day 
at the semi-centennial celebration of the 
city of Rochester, at the laying of the 
cornerstone of the new Court House, and 
by joint resolution of the New York Leg- 
islature was designated and invited to de- 
liver before that body on May 23, 1887, 
a memorial upon the life and public serv- 



ices of Samuel J. Tilden. That memorial 
was delivered before an audience remark- 
able for the many men it contained who 
were high in public life. The orator out- 
did himself and the occasion was one 
long to be remembered. 

Mr. Raines was of English lineage the 
ancient family seat in Yorkshire. The 
homestead, Ryton Grange, entailed for 
many generations, is held by representa- 
tives of the family to-day. John Raines, 
grandfather of George Raines, was a ship 
owner, and in 1817 gathered the remnant 
of his fortune which, invested in the 
shipping industry, had been sadly de- 
pleted by the Napoleonic wars and 
sought a new field of investment. He 
resided for a time at Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania, and about the year 1830 moved 
to a farm near Canandaigua, New York, 
his property near that of Colonel Thad- 
deus Remington who settled there in 
1798, coming from Vermont. John 
Raines had a son, Rev. John Raines, who 
was a minister of the Methodist Episco- 
pal church. He married Mary Reming- 
ton and they were the parents of George 
Raines, to whose memory this tribute of 
respect is dedicated. 

George Raines was born November 10, 
1846, at Pultneyville, Wayne county, 
New York, died at his residence on East 
avenue, Rochester, New York, Novem- 
ber 2~, 1908. His education, begun in 
public schools, was continued in similar 
schools wherever his father was stationed 
under the rule of the itinerancy govern- 
ing the location of ministers of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. In 1856- 
1858 he attended public schools Nos. 14 
and 10 in Rochester, and until 1862 was 
a student at Elmira Free Academy. In 
that year he entered Genesee Wesleyan 
Seminary at Lima, New York, but a few 
weeks later his father was again assigned 
to a Rochester church the family moving 
to that city. There he entered the Uni- 



264 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



versity of Rochester, won high honors, 
taking the first prizes in Latin and Greek, 
won the prize for the senior essay and 
also several in oratory, was a graduate of 
the class of 1866, receiving the customary- 
Bachelor's degree. 

He at once began the study of law 
under the instruction of John and Quincy 
Van Voorhis, and in December, 1867, was 
admitted to the Monroe county bar, hav- 
ing just passed his twenty-first birthday. 
He began his legal career as clerk in the 
law office of H. C. Ives, his salary five 
dollars weekly. That arrangement con- 
tinued for one year when a partnership 
was offered the young man by his em- 
ployer. Ives & Raines practiced until 
1871, when Mr. Raines was elected dis- 
trict attorney of Monroe county. In that 
office he demonstrated his quality as a 
lawyer, his courage and the depth of his 
devotion to his oath of office. The Ste- 
phen Coleman case, one of receiving 
stolen property, aroused a great deal of 
interest at the time. Coleman was strong- 
ly defended but Mr. Raines secured his 
conviction. Then followed his successful 
attack upon the political ring dominating 
Rochester, a crusade in which he was 
strongly supported by the "Democrat and 
Chronicle," J. A. Hockstra then being the 
city editor. Mr. Raines was successful in 
breaking the power of the "Ring," writing 
out a resignation which the chief of police 
signed. In 1874 he was again elected 
district attorney and during that term 
tried the Clark, Ghaul, Stellman and 
Fairbanks murder cases, securing convic- 
tion in all. The most famous of these 
was that of John Clark, the gun fighting 
burglar who was defended by Howe & 
Hummel, the then great law firm of New 
York City. 

After the expiration of his term Mr. 
Raines returned to private office practice 
and in his professional capacity was con- 
nected with many famous criminal cases. 



These included the Pontius-Hoster trials 
in Seneca county, the Boyce-Hamm, 
Heyland and Hulsey murder cases in 
Monroe county and the Williams murder 
trial in Wayne county. In 1881 he be- 
came associated with his three brothers 
in practice under the firm name of Raines 
Brothers. In 1883 he secured the ac- 
quittal of Higham in Watertown, a case 
celebrated in Northern New York law 
annals. His practice became very ex- 
tensive and at different times he appeared 
in most of the celebrated criminal cases 
of his day and section. He was desig- 
nated by Governor Flower to conduct the 
trial of Bat Shea and John McGough for 
murder, growing out of the election riots 
in Troy, New York, securing a convic- 
tion. He tried the George A. Smith and 
Leland D. Kent homicide cases and many 
others. 

His practice was not confined to crimi- 
nal cases, quite the contrary, he acted as 
counsel for many large corporations and 
had a large clientele whose civil law busi- 
ness he conducted. He was noted for his 
wonderful memory, the careful prepara- 
tion of his cases and a thorough knowl- 
edge of the rules of evidence. His last 
appearance in court was in the George 
Ellwanger will case, which he won for the 
contestants, his fee being placed by the 
surrogate at $25,000. He was a great 
lawyer and was so rated by his brethren 
of the bench and bar. Court records of 
various counties testify to the importance 
of his clientele and to many victories he 
won. He reached the front rank in his 
profession and was accorded high civic 
distinction. 

Mr. Raines began life a Republican and 
as such was first elected district attorney. 
He, however, joined in the Liberal move- 
ment which culminated in the nomina- 
tion of Horace Greeley for the presidency 
and thereafter acted with the Democracy, 
his last election as district attorney in 






265 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



1874 being as a Democrat, in a Republi- 
can county. In 1878 he was the candi- 
date of the Democracy for State Senator, 
from the district then composed of Mon- 
roe county alone. He was elected and 
served with honor, but in 1881, when 
again a candidate at the personal request 
of Samuel J. Tilden, Orleans county hav- 
ing been added to the district, he was de- 
feated by a very small plurality. He car- 
ried his home county and ran far ahead of 
his ticket, but Orleans county reversed 
Monroe and decided the contest in favor 
of the Republican candidate. In 1880 he 
was a delegate from New York State to 
the Democratic National Convention. 
served in similar capacity in 1888, and in 
1904 was elected as delegate-at-large. He 
presided as chairman of seven State 
Democratic conventions and was an ac- 
knowledged leader of his party. Yet he 
was not a bitter partisan^ numbered his 
friends in both parties, and all respected 
him. 

He was a strong supporter of Governor 
Samuel J. Tilden, a leader of the sup- 
porters of the reform policy of Governor 
Robinson, and of Governor and President 
Cleveland. Many honors were conferred 
upon him in connection with events of 
public importance and as orator of the 
occasion he was in great demand. He 
was a most eloquent speaker and could 
sway a large gathering with his impas- 
sioned words, and was a strong advocate 
for any cause he espoused. He was a 
trustee of Rochester State Hospital from 
1891 to 1907 and a commissioner of 
Niagara Falls State Reservation from 
1893 to I 9°7- He served for seven years, 
1875-82, on the staff of Major-General 
Henry Brinkner, New York National 
Guard, as judge advocate with the rank 
of colonel. He was a member of the vari- 
ous bar associations, and when the fact 
of his death became known, although 
there were no courts of record in session. 



a special meeting of the Rochester Bar 
Association was called and glowing reso- 
lutions of respect and eulogy were passed. 
He was a member of St. Paul's Episcopal 
Church and interested in many charities. 



KENT, John H., 

Photographic Artist. 

Eighty-three years was the span of 
John H. Kent's earthly career and few 
men wrought more diligently or accom- 
plished more abundantly than he. He 
was among the first photographers, if not 
the first, in either Europe or America to 
appreciate the artistic value of the camera 
and the first to avail himself of its won- 
derful capacity. He was a man of most 
lovable character, his friends were with- 
out number, and until a few days prior to 
his death his kindly face and erect form 
were a familiar sight upon the streets of 
Rochester, notwithstanding the weight 
of his years. 

John H. Kent was born in Plattsburg. 
New York, March 4, 1827, son of John 
Kent, a prominent citizen of that place. 
He died at his home on South Washing- 
ton street, Rochester, November 25, 1910. 
He inherited from old New England an- 
cestors a keen mind and intellectual and 
executive force. His first known ances- 
tor in this country in the paternal line 
was Thomas Kent, who came from Eng- 
land, and received, in 1643, from the town 
of Gloucester, Massachusetts, a title to 
land which he had early occupied. His 
house and land were in the West Parish 
of Gloucester, where he died April 1, 
1658. His wife's name is not recorded, 
but her death is noted October 16, 1671. 
Their second son was Samuel Kent, who 
was in Brookfield, Massachusetts, soon 
after 1667, but returned to Gloucester, 
where he was made a freeman, May 11, 
1681. He married, January 17, 1654, 
Frances Woodall, who died August 10, 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



1683. They were the parents of John 
Kent, born 1664, who was in Suffield, 
Connecticut, as early as 1680, and died 
there, April 11, 1721. He married, May 
9, 1686, in Suffield, Abigail, daughter of 
William and Mary (Roe) Dudley, born 
May 24, 1657. Their eldest son, John 
Kent, was born January 26, 1688, in Suf- 
field, where he made his home, was cap- 
tain of the militia, and represented the 
town from 1724 to 1732. He married, 
May 27, 1709, Mary Smith. Cephas Kent, 
third son of John and Mary (Smith) 
Kent, was born April 13, 1725, in Suf- 
field, and removed, in 1773, to Dorset, 
Vermont, where he kept an inn, and died 
December 5, 1809. He was first select- 
man of the town, served on the com- 
mittee of safety during the Revolution, 
was the town's first representative to the 
State Legislature in 1778, and a deacon 
of the church. A convention for the pur- 
pose of forming a State organization was 
held at his house in Dorset, September 
25, 1776, and as a result the organization 
was formed January 15, 1777. He mar- 
ried, May 20, 1747, in Suffield, Hannah 
Spencer, born July II, 1728, in that town, 
daughter of Thomas and Mary (Trum- 
bull) Spencer, died November 5, 1821, in 
Dorset. The eldest son of this marriage, 
John Kent, born October 31, 1749, in 
Suffield, married Lucy Sikes, and their 
eldest son, John Kent, settled in Platts- 
burg, New York, where he had recorded. 
December 25, 1799, a deed of one hundred 
acres in lot No. 42 of the old patent of 
Plattsburg. Later he became a Metho- 
dist exhorter, and removed to Ellenburg, 
Clinton county, New York. He had two 
sons, Benjamin Beach and John. The 
last named, John Kent, married Lodoski 
Howe, resided in Plattsburg, and they 
were the parents of John H. Kent, of 
Rochester, New York, lately deceased. 

John H. Kent early developed artistic 
talent, studied under capable teachers, 



and while yet a young man became in- 
structor in oil painting at Brockport Nor- 
mal School. In 1868, shortly after his 
marriage, he moved to Rochester and 
there began his long and successful ca- 
reer as a photographic artist. He ven- 
tured successfully into new fields and 
obtained results deemed marvelous. His 
exhibit at the Centennial Exposition in 
1876 was a revelation to photographers 
and won him fame ; his exhibits were 
the largest as well as the finest ever 
produced by direct contact printing and 
were a puzzle as well as a revelation to 
photographic artists the world over and 
ushered in a new era in art. He won five 
awards at that exposition, but that was 
but a small victory compared with the 
international fame he won as a wonder 
working photographic artist. He was no 
mechanical maker of pictures but a mas- 
ter of the art of pose, color, light and 
shadow. He was recognized as the lead- 
ing photographic artist of the country, 
a reputation he enjoyed as long as he 
continued his studio work. He later 
turned from picture making to picture 
taking machines, and associated with 
George Eastman in developing the 
modern camera, known as the Kodak. 
He was closely connected with the great 
industry built up by Mr. Eastman in 
Rochester, was one of the incorporators 
of the Eastman Kodak Company, and 
until his retirement was a director and 
vice-president of the company. In 1884 
he was elected president of the Photo- 
graphers' Association of America, and in 
1903 was elected a life member of the 
order. Few men were so well known in 
Rochester as Mr. Kent, none were more 
universally or more highly esteemed. He 
was a member of the Society of the 
Genesee, and an honorary member of the 
Rochester Art Club and the Mechanics' 
Institute. He gave largely to public and 
private charities, but so quietly and un- 



267 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ostentatiously that few of the benefici- 
aries knew from whom their help came. 
He was an attendant of the Plymouth 
Congregational Church at the time of 
Rev. Myron Adam's pastorate, and in his 
private life was actuated by purest mo- 
tives. 

Mr. Kent married, January 16, 1865, 
Julia Ainsworth, of Canandaigua, New 
York, who died September 16, 1916. One 
daughter, Ada Howe Kent, is the sole 
surviving member of the family. She is 
a notable artist in water colors, her work 
taking first rank in many important ex- 
hibits. She is also very active along 
social and philanthropic lines, being a 
charter member of the Century Club, one 
of the managers of the Industrial School 
of Rochester, and is also a member of 
the board of the Young Women's Chris- 
tian Association, to which she has given 
the valuable property at No. 57 South 
Washington street. 



ERICKSON, Aaron, 

Man of Enterprise. 

All honor to the builders, not necessarily 
those whose work is the erection of build- 
ings of brick, wood and stone, their work 
is also estimable, but to the great con- 
structive minds that erect the extensive 
business enterprises of a community, a 
labor fully as arduous, just as enduring 
and vastly more far reaching in its effect. 
Among the names which stand out with 
prominence on the pages of Rochester's 
history is that of Aaron Erickson, who 
contributed in so large a degree to the 
upbuilding of the city of his adoption. 
He located in Rochester in pioneer times 
and his life record extends over a period 
of seventy-four years — a long period de- 
voted to successful accomplishment and 
fraught with good deeds, for which he re- 
ceived a gracious meed of honor and re- 
spect. 



Aaron Erickson was born February 25, 
1806, in Freehold, New Jersey, a place 
made famous by its proximity to the 
historic battlefield of Monmouth. The 
Erickson family was one of the oldest 
and most prominent in the State; his 
father served with the American army 
during the war for independence, and 
though his birth occurred after that mo- 
mentous conflict the participators therein 
were the early friends of his youth and 
must have influenced him in some degree 
by giving him direct knowledge of the 
times through eye witnesses, more forci- 
ble than any written page could ever be. 
He was the youngest of ten children and 
passed a comfortable childhood and 
youth in the home of his parents. How- 
ever, when he had reached the age of 
seventeen years he felt that to test his 
strength and develop whatever latent 
powers nature had endowed him with it 
would be necessary to venture for him- 
self, and consequently the year 1823 wit- 
nessed him as a resident of Rochester, 
at that time a small town. His first at- 
tempt at business life was as a worker at 
the machinist's trade in the manufacture 
of axes and similar commodities, making 
his home with C. H. Bicknell. From the 
start he evinced those basic qualities of 
success and prosperity, industry, close 
application and determination, and even 
in this first undertaking he could through 
all his later life point with pride to his 
accomplishment of the work attempted, 
among which was the fact that he made 
with his own hands the iron yoke from 
which swung the bell in the old St. 
Luke's Church. 

A few years after his coming to Roches- 
ter Mr. Erickson deemed a change of 
occupation to his betterment and began 
the manufacture of potash at Frankfort, 
an article then in great demand. He 
made a decided success of this venture 
and rapidly increasing patronage soon 



■*Wi 







ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



put him in control of what for the time 
must be considered a very extensive busi- 
ness. He still felt, however, that there 
were wider fields to conquer, with broad- 
er opportunities and greater scope for 
his business perspicuity and industry, hia 
predominating qualities. He therefore 
became a dealer in wool and morocco on 
Water street in Rochester, having as a 
partner in the enterprise Ezra M. Par- 
sons. This business rapidly developed 
and on a thoroughly substantial basis, 
until the firm became the largest buyers 
of wool in this section, warranting, as 
Mr. Erickson wisely prophesied, the 
establishment of a branch, and in 1850 
he founded the famous wool house of 
Erickson, Livermore & Company, at Bos- 
ton, which soon became the leading en- 
terprise of this character in this country, 
doing a mammoth business. 

Every step in his career was a forward 
one and brought him a wider outlook, 
and every opportunity was quickly taken 
advantage of, this being one of the 
strongest elements in his business success. 
Some three years after embarking in the 
wool business he organized and opened 
the Union Bank, capitalized for five hun- 
dred thousand dollars. He was president 
from the beginning and the institution 
enjoyed a prosperous existence under 
that name until the spring of 1865, when 
it became the National Union Bank. A 
year later, however, Mr. Erickson pur- 
chased the bank and established in its 
stead a private banking house under the 
firm name of Erickson & Jennings. Upon 
the admission of George E. Mumford to 
a partnership the firm name became 
Erickson, Jennings & Mumford, and 
under this style the business continued 
for twelve years. Mr. Mumford with- 
drew in May, 1879, and was succeeded by 
A. Erickson Perkins, a grandson of Mr. 
Erickson. which partnership continued 
until the death of the founder on January 



27, 1880. Mr. Erickson's strict integrity, 
business conservatism and excellent judg- 
ment were always so uniformly recog- 
nized that he enjoyed public confidence 
to an enviable degree. For many years 
he was a director in the Park Bank of 
New York City, and was a member of the 
board at the time of his death. 

Mr. Erickson was married, in 1827, to 
Hannah Bockoven, of Lyons, New York, 
and soon after erected a dwelling on Clin- 
ton street, which remained his home for 
many years. Mr. Erickson left no son 
to carry on his work, his last surviving 
son, Aaron Erickson, having passed away 
at Revere, Massachusetts, in August, 
1871. There were eight children in the 
family but only three daughters survived 
the father: Mrs. W. S. Nichols, of Staten 
Island; Mrs. Gilman H. Perkins, of 
Rochester; and Mrs. W. D. Powell, of 
New York. In 1842 he built his home on 
East avenue, and during his lifetime saw 
this thoroughfare transformed into one 
of the most beautiful in the city. His 
home was ever the seat of a most gracious 
hospitality, and the name of Erickson 
figured prominently in the social circles 
of Rochester for over half a century. 

Mr. Erickson had a keen realization of 
the obligations and responsibilities of 
wealth, and therefore as his success in- 
creased so did his charities and benefac- 
tions expand. Not that he believed in 
the indiscriminate liberality which does 
not help but rather fosters vagrancy and 
idleness, on the contrary he made careful 
distribution of his gifts and where real 
need was apparent the aid was most spon- 
taneously given, the poor and unfortu- 
nate being his direct beneficiaries. A 
man may be admired but is not loved for 
his attainments ; but he is beloved for 
the good he does, and it was the kindly 
spirit, the ready sympathy and extreme 
helpfulness of Aaron Erickson that so 
enshrined him in the hearts of his fellow- 



269 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



men and caused his memory to still be 
fresh in their hearts although a quarter 
of a century has come and gone since he 
was an active factor in the world. He 
found especial pleasure in assisting young 
men to make a start in business life. His 
employes were well aware that faithful- 
ness and capability meant promotion as 
opportunity offered, and when their busi- 
ness relations were severed he was al- 
ways ready to speak a good word of com- 
mendation and encouragement that 
should speed them on their way to take 
a forward step in business life. 

He was particularly friendly to charit- 
able organizations, which received his ac- 
tive assistance. He was president of the 
board of directors of the City Hospital 
for years and occupied that position at 
the time of his demise. He not only gave 
freely to the different benevolent organi- 
zations of Rochester but also to many 
other institutions situated elsewhere. His 
deeds of charity, unknown save to him- 
self and the recipient, were innumerable. 
Few other men have found as much 
pleasure in unostentatious giving, and 
in the reward that comes solely from 
helping a fellow traveler along the jour- 
ney of life. 

He did not neglect his duties of citizen- 
ship, and in return for the protection of 
government and the mutual benefit of 
municipal interests, he gave cooperation 
of a generous nature to all movements 
and plans tending to promote local ad- 
vancement and national progress. He 
was never an officeseeker for the personal 
emoluments gained thereby, yet he filled 
some local offices, as a matter of princi- 
ple, regarding it as his duty towards his 
fellow citizens. He served one term as 
alderman from the old Fifth Ward, and 
also represented the Seventh Ward at 
various times as both alderman and su- 
pervisor. He was one of the commission, 
with the late Amon Bronson, in i860, to 



erect bridges at Clarissa and Andrew 
streets over the Genesee river, and these 
municipal improvements stand as a 
monument to the manner in which the 
work was accomplished, being an excel- 
lent example of the thoroughness in which 
he carried out the trusts imposed upon 
him. He never relinquished his interest 
in his home city and in those things 
which are a cause for civic virtue and 
pride. Though in his later years he lived 
retired to a considerable extent from ac- 
tive participation in business, still his 
nature was such that want of occupation 
could have no attraction for him ; and 
his later years were largely spent in the 
development of those strong intellectual 
tastes which were ever with him a 
marked characteristic. In fact at all 
times during his entire life he was a stu- 
dent of the issues of the day, the great 
sociological problems, the governmental 
questions and of the sciences, especially 
in the adaptation of the latter to the prac- 
tical benefit of mankind. He was an 
earnest student of horticulture, pomology, 
floriculture and the natural sciences, and 
took great delight in the society of men 
of intellect, with whom he was regarded 
as a peer and often a superior. He had 
greatly enriched his mind by travel and 
extensive reading. In 1869 he visited 
Palestine and ascended the Nile. He also 
visited many other European countries 
and spent the last summer of his life 
abroad. It must be acceded, in an an- 
alyzation of his character to ascertain the 
motive springs of conduct, that in all 
things he accomplished he was prompted 
by the true spirit of Christianity. He 
was an Episcopalian in his religious pref- 
erence, having first been a member of St. 
Paul's Church and when that building 
was destroyed by fire in 1846 he joined 
St. Luke's Church, with which he was 
identified to the end of his life. How- 
ever, his was not a religion expressed by 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



dogmas and creeds, but rather one which 
found expression in the faithful perform- 
ance of every duty, winning over the 
wrong by the force of right and overcom- 
ing the false by the true. He was truly 
one of nature's noblemen, standing 
staunch and true whate'er befell, and 
leaving a memory that is a blessing as 
well as an inspiration to all who had the 
good fortune to have known him. 



PERKINS, Gilman Hill, 

Business Man. 

To write the personal record of men 
who have raised themselves from humble 
circumstances to positions of honor and 
respect in a community is no ordinary 
pleasure. Self-made men, men who have 
achieved success by reason of their per- 
sonal qualities and left the impress of 
their individuality upon the business and 
growth of their places of residence, and 
who have affected for good such institu- 
tions as were embraced within the sphere 
of their usefulness, build monuments more 
enduring than marble obelisk or granite 
shaft. To this class of men we have the 
unquestioned right to say belonged the 
late Gilman Hill Perkins, of Rochester, 
New York, one of the early business men 
of the city, whose name for many years 
was well and favorably known through- 
out the community, and although he is 
now numbered among those who are 
sleeping in "God's acre," his influence is 
still potent for good, for he was a broad- 
minded, obliging, kindly, whole-souled 
man, who used his influence in every man- 
ner possible to advance the prosperity and 
general good of Rochester. A public- 
spirited citizen, he was ready at all times 
to use his means and influence for the 
promotion of such public improvements 
as were conducive to the comfort and 
happiness of his fellow-men, and there 



was probably not another man in the 
community so long honored by his resi- 
dence who was held in higher esteem by 
the population, regardless of sects, poli- 
tics or professions. He was especially 
distinguished by his honesty, firmness of 
character, piety and intelligence. He was 
one of the most unostentatious of men, 
open-hearted and candid in manner, al- 
ways retaining in his demeanor the sim- 
plicity and candor of the old-time gentle- 
man, and his records stands as an endur- 
ing monument, although his labors have 
ended and his name is become but a 
memory. 

Gilman Hill Perkins was born in Gene- 
seo, Livingston county, New York, March 
4, 1827, and died at his home in Roches- 
ter, New York, November 16, 1898. He 
was but four years of age when his 
mother died, and early in 1832 he was 
sent to Bethlehem, Connecticut, to make 
his home with his grandmother. In 1834 
his father remarried, and he again went 
to live with him. His education had been 
commenced in the schools of Connecti- 
cut, and was continued in the district 
school in Geneseo for a period of three 
years. From 1837 to 1842 he was a pupil 
in the Temple Hill Academy, but left 
school finally at the age of fourteen years, 
when he entered upon his business career. 
Prior to leaving school, however, he had 
already commenced to partially earn his 
own living. During the vacation periods 
he was employed in the office of the 
county clerk, comparing mortgages and 
deeds for Samuel P. Allen, who subse- 
quently became a resident of Rochester. 
Mr. Allen was the editor of the "Geneseo 
Republican," and for almost a year young 
Perkins folded this paper every Saturday 
afternoon, this being prior to the time 
when folders were attached to newspaper 
presses, and for this work he received 
twenty-five cents per week. The natural 



271 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



energy and ambition of the lad was ap- employment which would necessitate his 



parent at the very outset of his career. 
When he finally left school and was able 
to devote his entire time to business 
affairs, he did so with the zeal which had 
been one of his chief characteristics al- 
ways. He lost no time in looking about 
for a suitable position, and found one in 
the book store of John Turner, where he 
was employed six months at a compensa- 
tion of twelve shillings per week. A few 
weeks after entering upon the duties of 
this position, Mr. Turner died, and al- 
though Oilman H. Perkins was but fifteen 
years of age at this time he showed such 
marked executive ability that he assumed 
the management of the store and was 
given entire charge for half a year. He 
longed, however, for a wider sphere in 
which there would be more opportunity 
for advancement than the position in the 
book store offered, and he determined to 
go to Rochester, where he arrived at eight 
o'clock in the morning of March 19, 1844, 
having left Geneseo as the only passen- 
ger on a stage coach at nine o'clock the 
previous evening. His worldly posses- 
sions consisted of three dollars in money 
and two suits of clothes, and with these 
he felt amply provided to conquer the 
world. Compared with present condi- 
tions, Rochester was a small, unimportant 
town, but Mr. Perkins, with keen fore- 
sight, recognized the possibilities of the 
town and saw here the opportunities he 
was seeking. 

He looked about carefully for a busi- 
ness which- showed growing possibilities, 
and found employment in the wholesale 
grocery house of E. F. Smith & Com- 
pany, where he remained three years. He 
had worked with such unremitting zeal 
that the close confinement of his indoor 
work made serious inroads upon his 
health, and he considered it better to leave 
the concern for a time and take up an 



being outdoors at least a part of each day. 
He found a position of this kind at the 
"Old Red Mill," owned by Harry B. Wil- 
liams, where the labor he was called upon 
to perform was of a much lighter char- 
acter, a part of his duties being the driv- 
ing about the country to purchase wheat. 
In the short course of one year his health 
had improved to such an extent that he 
resumed his employment with E. F. Smith 
& Company, becoming a clerk there, and 
ascending, step by step, until he became 
a member of the firm, January 1, 1852, his 
business ability being amply recognized 
and appreciated by the other members. 
Later the name of the firm read Smith & 
Perkins, and still later the firm was incor- 
porated, the style being Smith, Perkins 
& Company, and for many years prior to 
his death Mr. Perkins had been president 
of this corporation. In this office his ex- 
ecutive ability was felt in the continued 
progress and growth of the concern. 
While progressive in his methods, and 
ready to take prompt advantage of every 
opportunity that presented itself, yet the 
proceedings of Mr. Perkins was tempered 
with a certain amount of conservatism 
which always enabled him to steer clear 
of danger. The grocery business, how- 
ever, was not the only business interest 
with which Mr. Perkins was prominently 
identified. He was connected with many 
leading enterprises of the city, a partial 
list being as follows : Became trustee of 
the Rochester Savings Bank in 1879. ar >d 
was the incumbent of this office at the 
time of his death ; officer and director of 
the Rochester Union Bank from 1858. and 
president at the time of his death ; trus- 
tee of the Rochester Trust and Safe De- 
posit Company from 1888 ; when the Se- 
curity Trust Company was organized in 
1891, he became one of its trustees ; was a 
director of the Genesee Valley Railroad 



272 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Company, and of the Rochester Gas and 
Electric Company. 

Mr. Perkins married, July 17, 1856, 
Caroline Erickson, a daughter of Aaron 
Erickson. Four sons and four daughters 
blessed this union, of whom there are 
now living: Erickson, Gilman N.; Caro- 
lyn, who married Thornton Jeffress ; 
Berenice, who married H. V. W. Wickes ; 
and Gertrude, who married John Craig 
• Powers. 

During the first seven or eight years of 
the residence of Mr. Perkins in Rochester, 
he attended the First Presbyterian 
Church and was a member of the choir 
during a part of this time. He then, in 
1852, in association with John Roches- 
ter, William Pitkin, Edward Smith and 
Frederick Whittlesey, took one of the old 
box pews at one end of the choir of St. 
Luke's, and retained this seat until his 
marriage. He served as vestryman of St. 
Luke's from 1858 to 1869, with the ex- 
ception of 1864-65 ; in 1869 he was chosen 
a warden of the church, and held this 
office until his death ; was trustee of the 
Episcopate Fund of the Diocese of West- 
ern New York from 1870; a member of 
the standing committee ; and manager of 
the Church Home from 1869. Charitable 
and benevolent work, whether connected 
directly with the church or not, was ever 
sure of his hearty and active support. He 
served as a member of the board of trus- 
tees, and was at one time president, of 
the State Industrial School ; was a trustee 
of the Rochester City Hospital ; treasurer 
of the Deaf Mute Institution from the 
time of its organization ; and a trustee of 
the Reynolds Library. He was a leading 
spirit in furthering the interests of a num- 
ber of projects for the public welfare ; 
was a member of the Hemlock Water 
Works Commission, which furnished the 
city with its first pure water supply ; and 
in 1892 was chosen a presidential elector 



on the Republican ticket. His social 
membership was with the Genesee Val- 
ley Club, of which he was one of the 
founders and at one time its president. 



ROCHESTER, Colonel Montgomery, 
Man of Affairs, Veteran of Civil War. 

The late Colonel Montgomery Roches- 
ter, distinguished member of the famous 
Rochester family which settled and gave 
its name to the city now known as 
Rochester, New York, was a lineal de- 
scendant in the sixth generation of Nich- 
olas Rochester, the first of the name in 
America up to the year 1689. The fam- 
ily, an old and honorable one in Eng- 
land, had its principal seat in the county 
of Essex, was of the gentry class and 
entitled by royal patent to bear arms. 
It is proved by the Herald's Visitations of 
1558, that the family was in Essex at that 
time, when the coat-of-arms was con- 
firmed and allowed to the family. The 
arms are : Or, a fesse between three cres- 
cents sable. 

(I) Nicholas Rochester, progenitor of 
the family in America, was born in Kent 
county, England, about 1640, and was 
married there, previous to his emigration 
to America. He left England and came 
to the colony of Virginia in 1689. On De- 
cember 26, of the same year he purchased 
one hundred acres of land (which shows 
him to have been a man of at least mod- 
erate means) in Westmoreland county, 
from John Jenkins, planter, who by pat- 
ent from Governor Richard Bennett, had 
obtained one thousand acres of land "in 
consideration of importing twenty per- 
sons into the Colony." Little more is 
known of Nicholas Rochester than that 
the following order concerning him,, made 
on May 25, 1719, by the county court of 
Westmoreland, then in session : "Nich- 
olas Rochester, an ancient person is upon 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



his mocon acquitt from future payment 
of liens in this county." Nicholas Roches- 
ter died soon after this date. 

(II) William Rochester, son of the pro- 
genitor, Nicholas Rochester, was born in 
England, and came to America with his 
father in 1689, settling in Westmoreland 
county, where he grew to manhood on 
the plantation which his father purchased 
from John Jenkins. Upon reaching his 
majority he purchased the lands adjoin- 
ing those of his father. On these lands 
he built a homestead which is one of the 
oldest in the country, stands in good con- 
dition, and bears in the chimney corner 
the legend, "W. R. 1746," cut in a broad 
brick near the coping stone. This planta- 
tion, comprising four hundred acres, was 
located partly in Richmond and partly in 
Westmoreland county. William Roches- 
ter married Frances, widow of William 
McKinney. He died between the 23rd 
and 30th of October, 1750. His children 
were : John, mentioned below ; William. 

(III) John Rochester, son of William 
and Frances (McKinney) Rochester, was 
born about 1708, and died in November, 
1754. He married Hester or Esther 
Thrift, daughter of William Thrift, of 
Richmond county, Virginia. After his 
death, she married Thomas Critcher, and 
with her entire family moved about 1763 
to Granville county. North Carolina. The 
children of John and Hester (Thrift) 
Rochester were: William, John, Ann, 
Phillis, Nathaniel, mentioned below ; 
Esther. 

(IV) Nathaniel Rochester, son of John 
and Hester (Thrift) Rochester, was born 
in Cople parish, Westmoreland county, 
Virginia, February 21, 1752, on the place 
which came into the possession of the 
Rochester family in 1689. He was taken 
by his stepfather to Granville county, 
North Carolina, where he became a prom- 
inent merchant and public man, serving 



in high political and official positions and 
taking a leading part in public affairs. 
During the Revolutionary War he served 
in the American army with the rank of 
major, lieutenant-colonel and deputy com- 
missioner general of military stores. He 
was a member of the first provincial con- 
vention, and a member of the State Legis- 
lature. In 1783, in association with Colo- 
nel Thomas Hart, father-in-law of Henry 
Clay, he began the manufacture of flour, 
rope and nails. In 180S he was the first 
president of the Hagerstown Bank, and 
successfully filled the offices of member 
of the Assembly, postmaster, judge of the 
county court and presidential elector. In 
1800 he first visited the "Genesee Coun- 
try," where he had previously purchased 
six hundred and forty acres of land, and 
the same year made large purchases of 
land in Livingston county, New York, 
near Dansville. In 1802, with Colonel 
Fitz-Hugh and Major Carroll, he pur- 
chased the "one hundred or Allen Mill 
Tract" on what is now the city of Roches- 
ter, then called Fallstown. In May, 1S10, 
having closed up his business in Mary- 
land, he became a resident of Western 
New York, settling at Dansville, where 
he remained five years, during which time 
he erected a large paper mill, and made 
many improvements. In 1815, having 
disposed of his interests in Dansville, he 
removed to a large and well-improved 
farm in Bloomfield, Ontario county, New 
York. After staying there for three years, 
during which time he constantly visited 
the Falls of the Genesee and his property 
there, laying it out in lots, in April, 1818, 
he took up his residence there, the town 
in the interim having been named after 
him, Rochester. In 1816 he was presi- 
dential elector. He was the first clerk of 
the county of Monroe, and its first repre- 
sentative in the State Legislature in 1821- 
22. In 1824 he was one of the organizers 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



of the Bank of Rochester, and was unani- 
mously chosen its first president, a posi- 
tion which he soon resigned on account of 
impaired health and the infirmities of age. 
He was a lifelong member of the Protes- 
tant Episcopal church, and one of the 
founders of St. Luke's Church of Roches- 
ter. He died May 17, 1831, the first citi- 
zen of the town of Rochester, a man gen- 
erally beloved and revered for the integ- 
rity of his principles and the magnetism 
of his personality. Nathaniel Rochester 
married Sophia Beatty, great-grand- 
daughter of John Beatty, immigrant an- 
cestor of the Beatty family in America. 
She was the daughter of William and 
Dorotha (Grosh) Beatty. Colonel Na- 
thaniel Rochester and his wife Sophia 
(Beatty) Rochester were the parents of 
twelve children. 

(V) Thomas Hart Rochester, son of 
Colonel Nathaniel and Sophia (Beatty) 
Rochester, was born September 23, 1797, 
in Hagerstown, Maryland. He came 
North with his father and settled in 
Rochester. He married Phoebe Elizabeth 
Cuming, September 26, 1822. Among 
their children were the late Colonel Mont- 
gomery Rochester, mentioned below ; Dr. 
Thomas Fortescue Rochester, at the time 
of his decease the most prominent physi- 
cian and surgeon of Buffalo, New York, 
and the greatest medical authority in 
Western New York; Nathaniel, died in 
California in 1849; J onn Henry; Caroline 
Louise ; Phoebe Elizabeth, who died in 
1859. 

(VI) Colonel Montgomery Rochester, 
son of Thomas Hart and Phoebe Eliza- 
beth (Cuming) Rochester, was born in 
the family homestead in Rochester, New 
York, August 24, 1832. He received his 
education in the public schools of Roches- 
ter, and was engaged in business in that 
city at the time of the outbreak of the 
Civil War. He served throughout the 



entire war, bringing honor and distinction 
on himself for bravery and daring in the 
service. He held the rank of colonel 
under General Sherman. His commis- 
sion as quartermaster-general, bearing the 
signature of President Abraham Lincoln, 
with the sword which he used during the 
war, is in possession of the family. He 
was mustered out of the service on May 

1, 1865, as lieutenant-colonel. He had 
held the rank of assistant adjutant-gen- 
eral of United States Volunteers. 

Colonel Rochester was throughout his 
entire life a man of deep literary and ar- 
tistic tastes. After the war he was elected 
treasurer of the Art Museum of Cincin- 
nati, and devoted a large part of his life 
to his work in this capacity, purely for 
the love of it. He was a quiet, scholarly 
man, of dignified demeanor, possessed of 
a wonderful fund of dry humor. He was 
a member of the Loyal Legion, the Grand 
Army of the Republic, and numerous 
other literary, military, fraternal, art, and 
civic societies. Colonel Rochester was 
always active in church work, and was a 
member of St. Luke's Church in Roches- 
ter, and St. Peter's in Albany, in which 
city he resided. He married, January 15, 
1857, Mary Hewson Pruyn, daughter of 
Casparus Francis Pruyn, and a member 
of one of the oldest families in the State 
of New York. Mrs. Rochester survives 
her husband and resides at No. 435 State 
street, Albany, New York. The child of 
this marriage was : Montgomery Hewson 
Rochester. Colonel Montgomery Roches- 
ter died in Albany, New York, February 

2, 1909. 

(The Pruyn Line). 

(I) Johannes Pruyn, progenitor of the 
Pruyn family in America, was a Hol- 
lander. He had two sons, Francis and 
Jacob. Jacob Pruyn was enrolled among 
the "Small Burghers" of New Amster- 
dam, April 18, 1657; and purchased a 



2/5 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



house and lot "outside of the Gate of this 
city," February 19, 1659, from Sybout 
Classen. 

(II) Francis Pruyn, son of Johannes 
Pruyn, was in Albany, New York, as 
early as 1665, with his wife, where he 
was a tailor. It is recorded that in 1668, 
representing Jacques Cornelise Van Slyck, 
he conveyed a piece of property in the 
Colony of Rensselaerswyck (later Al- 
bany) to one Jan Labatie, and later in the 
same year bought for himself a lot at the 
northwest corner of Maiden lane and 
James street, in that city. On February 
19, 1686-87, he bought from Johannes 
Clute and wife, Bata, a lot on Broadway, 
Albany, about the third south from Steu- 
ben street, running through to James 
street, for which he paid the sum of 
twenty-two beavers. His son, Johannes, 
afterward occupied the same house built 
thereon. Being a Papist, in January, 
1669, he refused to take the oath of allegi- 
ance to King William, but expressed him- 
self willing to swear fidelity. However, 
his son, Johannes Pruyn, subscribed. His 
wife, Alida, joined the Reformed Protes- 
tant Dutch church in 1683. She died Sep- 
tember 20, 1704, and he died May 6, 1712. 

(III) Samuel Pruyn, son of Francis 
and Alida Pruyn, was born December 2, 
1677, and buried January 27, 1752. In 
1703 he was one of those "who furnished 
labor and materials for the Dominie's 
house." In 1720 his name appears on the 
list of freeholders in the old third ward 
of Albany. He lived, between 1703 and 
1727, at the northeast corner of Maiden 
lane and James street, Albany. He mar- 
ried, January 15, 1704, Maria Bogart, born 
June 14, 1681, the daughter of Jacob Cor- 
nelise and Jeanette (Quackenbush) Bo- 
gart. 

(IV) Francis Samuelse Pruyn, son of 
Samuel and Maria (Bogart) Pruyn, was 
born in Albany, and baptized there on 



March 15, 1705. He died August 27, 1767. 
He was a prominent man in Albany and 
held the following public offices: Fire- 
master, 1731-32; assistant alderman, 1745- 
46 ; alderman from the second ward, Al- 
bany, 1761-62. He was twice married. 
On the death of his first wife, Anna, he 
married Alida van Yveren, daughter of 
Warner and Anna (Pruyn) van Yveren. 

(V) Casparus Pruyn, son of Francis 
Samuelse and Alida (van Yveren) Pruyn, 
was born May 10, 1734. His name ap- 
pears as lieutenant on the roll of the First 
Albany County Regiment; in 1785 he was 
an assessor of the second ward of the 
city. He was for some years an elder of 
the Reformed Dutch church. The follow- 
ing memorandum, refers to his aid of the 
United States government : "This is to 
certify that Casparus Pruyn has due to 
him from the United States the sum of 
Seventy-one pounds four shillings specie, 
for work done for the use of the Indians, 
by the request of the Commissioners of 
Indian affairs, in 1779-1780. P. Van 
Rennsselaer." He married, December 19, 
1762, Catherine Groesbeck, born May 8, 
1737, died February 17, 1788, the daugh- 
ter of David and Maria (Van Poel) 
Groesbeck. Casparus Pruyn died Octo- 
ber 7, 1817. 

(VI) Francis Casparus Prupn, son of 
Casparus and Catherine (Groesbeck) 
Pruyn, was born at Albany, New York, 
July 19, 1769, and died June 14, 1847. He 
married, August 30, 1791, Cornelia Dun- 
bar, born January n, 1770, and died July 
12, 1844, the daughter of Levinus and 
Margaret (Hansen) Dunbar. 

(VII) Casparus Francis Pruyn, son of 
Francis Casparus and Cornelia (Dunbar) 
Pruyn, was born May 26, 1792. At the 
age of thirteen years he entered the office 
of the Van Rensselaer estate, of which 
vast property his uncle, Robert Dunbar, 
was the agent. In 1835 Mr. Dunbar re- 



276 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



signed and Casparus F. Pruyn was ap- 
pointed the agent for the manor, which 
position he filled very satisfactorily. 
Upon the death of General Stephen Van 
Rensselaer, the Patroon, on January 26, 
1839, the estate was divided, the portion 
on the east shore of the Hudson river 
going to William Paterson Van Rensse- 
laer. To be in the vicinity of this prop- 
erty, of which he still continued to be the 
agent, he removed to the other side of the 
river to Bath, Rensselaer county. He 
held the position of agent for "East 
Manor," as it became known, until he 
resigned in 1844. He died two years later, 
February 11, 1846. Mr. Pruyn married, 
April 19, 1814, Ann Hewson, born Janu- 
ary 27, 1794, died February 12, 1841, the 
daughter of Robert and Elizabeth (Fryer) 
Hewson, of Albany. 

(VIII) Mary Hewson Pruyn, daugh- 
ter of Casparus Francis and Ann (Hew- 
son) Pruyn, was born April 13, 1834, in 
Albany, New York. She married, Janu- 
ary 15, 1857, Montgomery Rochester, son 
of Thomas Hart and Phoebe Elizabeth 
(Cuming) Rochester. 



TRACY, Benjamin Franklin, 

Lawyer, Soldier, Statesman, Diplomat. 

To few men has it been given to bear 
the master part in so many lines of en- 
deavor for the advancement of the race as 
fell to the lot of General Benjamin F. 
Tracy, and few were able at the age of 
eighty-five years, as was he, to continue 
in active participation in the affairs of 
life. Cradled in Central New York, he 
was reared under conditions calculated 
to bring out the best that was in him. 
From a multitude of worthy ancestors he 
inherited those qualities of courage, forti- 
tude and adherence to principle which 
have made the New Englander and his 
descendants the leaders in directing the 



affairs of a mighty nation. It is interest- 
ing to give a few moment's attention to 
the character of the men who preceded 
him in a long line of strong and efficient 
ancestors. 

The name of Tracy was taken by a 
Norman family from Traci-Boccage, in 
the Arrondisement of Caen, France, called 
in the documents of the eleventh century, 
Traceium. At the time of the Conquest, 
members of this family went to England 
and were subsequently Lords of Barn- 
staple, in Devonshire, where several par- 
ishes bear the word Tracy as a portion of 
their name. Beginning with Ecgbert, 
first Saxon King of England, who reigned 
from 800 to 839, the history of this family 
has been brought down to the twenty- 
seventh generation, represented in this 
country by Stephen Tracy, the Pilgrim 
ancestor, who came to Plymouth, Massa- 
chusetts, in the ship "Ann," in 1623. He 
was the father of John Tracy, born at 
Plymouth, 1633, died at Windham, Con- 
necticut, 1718. His wife Mary was a 
daughter of Governor Thomas Prince, of 
the Plymouth Colony. Their son, John 
Tracy, was born about 1663, in Duxbury, 
Massachusetts, and was the father of 
John Tracy, a resident of Providence, 
Rhode Island. John (4) Tracy, son of 
John of Providence, lived in Scituate, 
Rhode Island, and was the father of 
Thomas Tracy, the pioneer of Western 
New York. He lived for some time in 
North Adams, Massachusetts, and trav- 
eled thence with his wife and infant son 
to the headwaters of the Susquehanna 
River, in Otsego county, New York, 
where he built a raft, and on it conveyed 
his family down the stream in the year 
1790. He landed at the mouth of what 
has since been known as Tracy creek, in 
the present Broome county, New York, 
then a part of Tioga county. He was the 
father of two sons, of whom the junior, 



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ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Benjamin Tracy, born 1795, in Tioga 
county, resided at Owego, where he was 
a highly respected citizen, and died Janu- 
ary 31, 1882, in his eighty-eighth year. 
He was a soldier of the War of 1812, and 
was an industrious pioneer in clearing the 
forests along the Susquehanna, and in the 
cultivation of crops. He had four sons, 
of whom the third is the subject of this 
biography. 

General Benjamin Franklin Tracy was 
born April 26, 1830, at Owego, and began 
attendance at the district school at the 
early age of five years, and continued 
through both summer and winter terms 
until the age of thirteen years, after which 
his summers were occupied by such farm 
labor as he was competent to perform. 
At the age of sixteen years his last win- 
ter term of the district school was com- 
pleted, and during the following winter 
he taught a school in the suburb of 
Owego, with success. Because of his own 
youth, he was advised against under- 
taking this work, since the school was one 
of the largest and most unruly in the 
town. For his efficient service in this 
school he received an emolument of six- 
teen dollars per month, with board. His 
father was long a justice of the peace, 
and the attention of the son was early 
attracted to legal matters through trials 
conducted before his father, and he re- 
solved to take up the law as a profession. 
As a means of preparation, he joined a 
debating club at the age of fifteen years, 
and soon attracted attention therein by 
his power and skill in public addresses. 
At the age of nineteen years he began the 
study of law with a firm in Owego, and 
was admitted to the bar in May, 185 1. In 
the meantime he had conducted several 
trials in justice's courts, had gained 
thereby some practical experience, and 
clients came to him rapidly after his ad- 
mission as an attorney. 



His active mind grasped readily many 
of the subjects attracting public interest 
at this time, and at a very early age he be- 
gan to take part in the political move- 
ments of his section. When only twenty- 
three years old he was nominated by the 
Whig party as candidate for district at- 
torney for Tioga county, and was the 
only candidate on the ticket who did not 
suffer defeat. It is probable that he was 
the youngest district attorney ever elected 
in this State. He was again a candidate 
in 1856, and defeated his personal friend, 
Gilbert C. Walker, the Democratic candi- 
date, with whom young Tracy soon after 
formed a law partnership. It is worthy 
of note in connection with the beginning 
of practice by General Tracy, that in his 
first eight years he never lost a jury trial 
in a court of record in which he was at- 
torney. His civil practice in this time 
exceeded that of any other attorney in 
the county, and it is a matter of record 
that the court was forced to adjourn at 
one time because of his illness, as there 
was no case on the calendar in which he 
was not engaged on one side or the other. 
His active practice was temporarily aban- 
doned soon after this, and his attention 
was given to aiding in suppression of the 
rebellion of 1861-65 in his native country. 
At various intervals since, he resumed 
practice, and actively engaged in the pro- 
fession of law, and occupied a most com- 
manding position at the bar of the State 
down to the time of his death. 

The formation of the Free Soil party 
occurred when he was still a young man, 
and he was a representative of this party 
in various conventions, and was among 
the leaders in the formation of the Repub- 
lican party, which began simultaneously 
in New York, and in other States, east 
and west. His home county was one of 
the first in the State to take action in this 
direction, and Mr. Tracy was a delegate 



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ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



in the joint convention of Republicans 
and Whigs held at Auburn in September, 
1855. His guiding hand was most potent 
in directing the destinies of the nation at 
this and subsequent periods, and to him 
has been given credit for great achieve- 
ments in the establishment of safe gov- 
ernment, based upon sound principles. 
He was a member of the committee at the 
Auburn convention in 1855, to prepare 
the address issued to the people of the 
State, and in the same year was made 
chairman of the Republican committee of 
Tioga county. In 1861, immediately after 
his party came into governmental control 
of the nation, he began his legislative 
career as a member of the State Assenv 
bly, elected by a combination of Repub- 
licans and War Democrats. Here he be- 
came the acknowledged leader of his 
party, an unprecedented accomplishment 
in a member's first term. With patriotic 
ardor he engaged not only in civil affairs, 
but also in the military movements which 
ultimately resulted in the downfall of 
secession. Between July 21 and August 
21, 1861, young Tracy raised and equipped 
two regiments, as chairman of a district 
embracing the counties of Broome, Tioga 
and Tompkins. 

He proceeded to Washington as colo- 
nel of the One Hundred and Ninth Regi- 
ment New York Volunteers, and was 
assigned to the protection of the railroad 
leading into Washington. In the spring 
of 1864 he was attached to the Army of 
the Potomac, and especially distinguished 
himself in the battle of the Wilderness, 
during which he suffered a complete 
breakdown from over-exertion. For his 
gallantry in this action he received the 
Congressional medal of honor. Return- 
ing to the north for a short time after 
recuperation, he was commissioned colo- 
nel of the One Hundred and Twenty- 
seventh Regiment United States Volun- 



teers. Before the close of that year he 
was appointed commander of the military 
post at Elmira, New York, which included 
a prison camp where ten thousand pris- 
oners had been held by the United States, 
and also a volunteer camp for the organ- 
ization of Union soldiers to be sent to the 
front. Colonel Tracy was brevetted brig- 
adier-general, March 13, 1865, "for gal- 
lant and meritorious services during the 
war," and three months later he tendered 
his resignation, receiving an honorable 
discharge