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Full text of "Encyclopedia of Connecticut biography, genealogical-memorial; representative citizens;"

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THE NEW YORK 
PUBLIC OB^AHY 



ASTOR, Ltr^x 

TILDCN fOUiNDATIONS 





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ENCYCLOPEDIA 



OF 



CONNECTICUT BIOGRAPHY 

GENEALOGICAL— MEMORIAL 



REPRESENTATIVE CITIZENS 



Compiled with assistance of the following 

ADVISORY COMMITTEE 



SAMUEL HART, D.D., D.C.L. 

Dean of Berkeley Divinity School; President of 
Connecticut Historical Society. 

THOMAS SNELL WEAVER 

Superintendent of City Schools, Hartford; 
Journalist, former Editor Willimantic Jour- 
nal, and associated with Xew Haven Register, 
Boston Globe, Hartford Post and Hartford 
Courant. Member of Library Committee Con- 
necticut Historical Society. 

JOSEPH ANDERSON, D.D. 

President of Mattatuck Historical Society; 
forty years pastor of First Congregational 
Church. Waterbury; Editor Ander.son's His- 
tory of Waterbury. 

WALTER RALPH STEINER, M.D. 

Member of State Historical Society; Member 
of State Medical Society; Fellow of American 
Medical Association; Secretary Congress of 
American Physicians and Surgeons; Librarian 
Hartford Medical Society. 

HADLAI AUSTIN HULL, LL.B. 

Attorney, New London; Major in Spanish- 
American War. 

STORRS OZIAS SEYMOUR, D.D. 

President of Litchfield Historical Society; 
President of Wolcott and Litchfield Library 
Association; Rector Emeritus of St. Michael's 
(P. E.) Church, Litchfield (23 years active 
rector). 



JOHN GAYLORD DAVENPORT, D.D. ' ' 

Pastor Emeritus Second Church of Waterbury 
(30 years active); Member of Connecticut His- 
torical Society; Member of Mattatuck Histori- 
cal Society; ex-Governor and Chaplain of Con- 
necticut Society, Son.s of Founders and Pa- 
triots; ex-Deputy Governor National Society, 
■same order. 

GEORGE CURTIS WALDO, A.M., LITT.D. 

Editor of Bridgeport Standard 49 years; one 
of Founders of Bridgeport Scientific Society; 
ex-Vice-Pre.'-ident of Fairfield County Histori- 
cal Society; Author of History of Bridgeport. 

FREDERICK BOSTWICK 

Librarian New Haven Colony Historical Soci- 
ety; Register S. A, R., ConnecticMt; Honorary 
Member of National Genealogical Society; 
Member of Connecticut Historical Society, 
Connecticut Library Association, Mississippi 
Valley Historical Association: Associate Edi- 
tor Genealogical History of Connecticut; ex- 
President New Haven-Chautauqua Union. 

GUILFORD SMITH 

President of Windham National Bank; Mem- 
ber of Connecticut Society, Mayflower De- 
scendants. 

LEWIS ELIOT STANTON, A.B. 

(Yale. 1855). Member of American Bar Asso- 
ciation and State Bar Association; Assistant 
United States Attorney 1870-1885; United 
States Attorney District of Connecticut 1885- 
1888 (resigned); Representative Hartford, 1880. 



ILLUSTRATED 



THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



BOSTON 



INCORPORATED 
NEW YORK 



V.^i kliiClAC/:) 



1917 



PIJBL : LIBRARY 

ASTOP. LLNOX AND 
Tli-DCN FOUNDATIONS 
R to. 3 L 



Jfareuiorit 



EACH one of us is "the heir of all the 
ages, in the foremost files of time.'' 
We build upon the solid foundations 
laid by the strenuous efforts of the fathers 
who have gone before us. Nothing is 
more fitting, and indeed more important, 
than that we should familiarize ourselves 
with their work and personality ; for it is 
they who have lifted us up to the lofty 
positions from which we are working out 
our separate careers. "Lest we forget," 
it is important that we gather up the 
fleeting memories of the past and give 
them permanent record in well-chosen 
words of biography, and in such repro- 
duction of the long lost faces as modern 
science makes possible. 

Samuel Hart. 



T. ■ NEW ^'ul K 
Pj:..iC LIBRARY 



A-IOR, LENOX f 

TILDLN FOUNDATIONS i 



THE Krv ■• r.y 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 



PUBLISHERS' MOTE 




HE historic spirit, faithful to the record, the discerning judgment, 
unmoved by prejudice and uncolored by undue enthusiasm, are as 
essential in giving the life of the individual person as in writing 
the history of a people. The world to-day is what the leading men 
of the last generation have made it. From the past has come the 
legacy of the present. Art, science, statesmanship, government, 
as well as advanced industrial and commercial prosperity, are accumulations. They 
constitute an inheritance upon which the present generation has entered, and the 
advantages secured from so vast a bequeathment depend entirely upon the fidelity 
with which is conducted the study of the lives of those who have transmitted the 
legacy. 

In every community there have been found men who were leaders in thought 
and action, and who have marked the passing years with large and worthy achieve- 
ment. They have left definite impress in public, professional, industrial, commer- 
cial, and other lines of endeavor that touch the general welfare. They have 
wrought well and have left a valuable heritage to posterity. 

The men and women who are making history to-day are also entitled to specific 
mention in a work whose province is to perpetuate for later generations the record 
of the present. History is constantly making, and that of yesterday and to-day is as 
important in its place as that of centuries past. 

The State of Connecticut affords a peculiarly interesting field for such research. 
Her soil has been the scene of events of importance and the home of some of the 
most illustrious men of the nation. Her sons have shed luster upon her name in 
every profession, and wherever they have dispersed they have been a power for ideal 
citizenship and good government. The province of the present publication is that of 
according due recognition to these leading and representative citizens, both living 
and dead, who have thus honored their State or community. Its preparation has 
enlisted the active interest and earnest effort of some of the most capable men of the 
State — clerics, educators, litterateurs — familiar with the history of the Common- 
wealth, and intimately familiar with its people. Among these are two of lofty 
character and high attainments who passed away, their labors upon this work prac- 
tically completed, but who did not live to see the results in the perfected form pre- 
sented in these volumes — the Rev. Samuel Hart, D. D., D. C. L., Dean of the 
Berkeley Divinity School, and President of the Connecticut Historical Society; and 
Lewis Eliot Stanton, A. B.. of Hartford, accomplished scholar and lawyer. Others 



who have given valuable assistance are : Thomas Snell Weaver, journalist and edu- 
cator, of Hartford; Rev. Joseph Anderson, D. D., clergyman and author, of Water- 
bury ; Dr. Walter Ralph Steiner, of Hartford, of high standing in the medical pro- 
fession; Hadlai Austin Hull, of New London, lawyer and Spanish-American War 
veteran; Rev. Storrs Ozias Seymour, D. D., clergyman and litterateur, of Litch- 
field; Rev. John Gaylord Davenport, D. D., of Waterbury, clergyman, member of 
various historical societies; George Curtis Waldo, A. M., Litt. D., of Bridgeport, 
journalist and author; Frederick Bostwick, historian, member of various historical 
societies, of New Haven; Guilford Smith, of Windham, member of leading patri- 
otic and historical bodies. 

It is believed that the present work will prove a real addition to the mass of 
annals concerning the historic families of Connecticut, and that, without it, much 
valuable information would be inaccessible to the general reader, or irretrievably 
lost, owing to the passing away of custodians of family records, and the consequent 
disappearance of material in their possession. 

THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 




BIOGRAPHICAL 




^Ay^^^- 



t4J^C 



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ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



PUTNAM, General Israel, 

Distingruislied Revolutionary 0£BLcer. 

General Israel Putnam, who excelled 
both in war and peace, will ever live in 
the history of this nation, and his memory 
is especially dear to the people of Con- 
necticut, where his active life was passed. 
From a multitude of New England ances- 
tors he inherited those qualities which 
made him preeminent, qualities which 
have made the New Englander preemi- 
nent in the settlement and development 
of the United States, qualities which have 
established everywhere the school, the 
church and the printing press, the leading 
instruments in the progress of civiliza- 
tion. 

The ancestry of the American family of 
Putnam has been traced to a very remote 
period in England, the first being Simon 
de Puttenham, who lived in 1199 and was 
probably a lineal descendant of Roger, 
who held the manor of Puttenham under 
the Bishop of Baieux. The parish of Put- 
tenham is in Hertfordshire, close to the 
border of Bedfordshire and Buckingham- 
shire. The first American ancestor. John 
Putnam, of the seventeenth generation 
was baptized at Wingrove, County Bucks, 
England, January 17, 1579. He was an 
early settler at Salem, Massachusetts, 
and in that vicinity the family has been 
conspicuous down to the present day. 
His son, Lieutenant Thomas Putnam, 
baptized in England, 1615, resided in 
Salem Village, now Danvers, and was 
father of Joseph Putnam, born there. 
The sound sense of the latter is indicated 
by his opposition to the witchcraft trials 
of Salem. This was a source of peril to 
him, and for six months one of his fleetest 



horses was kept saddled, ready at a 
moment's notice to bear him from the 
wrath of his contemporaries. He married 
Elizabeth Porter, and Israel Putnam was 
their fourth son, born January 7, 1718, in 
Danvers. He died after an illness of two 
days in Brooklyn, Connecticut, May 29, 
1790. The house in which he was born 
was built by his grandfather, and is still 
standing. 

Israel Putnam had a rather meagre 
education in the common schools of his 
native town, and he was very early ac- 
customed to the arduous labors of the 
farm. When he attained his majority, a 
portion of the paternal farm was set off 
to him, and on it he built a small house, 
but soon after removed to Pomfret, Con- 
necticut, where, in association with his 
brother-in-law, John Pope, he purchased 
a tract of five hundred acres of land. He 
became sole owner of this in 1741, and 
there he built as his second residence a 
large frame house, which is still stand- 
ing, and one of the points of interest to 
all tourists and patriotic Americans. This 
was in the district known as Mortlake 
Manor, which was incorporated as the 
town of Brooklyn in 1786. He cleared 
his farm of the native forest and planted 
fine orchards ; the great shade trees of 
Brooklyn were planted largely through 
his initiative and influence. He was not 
only a thrifty and prosperous farmer, but 
from first to last an earnest and helpful 
friend of the town and colony in which 
he lived. The story of his killing of the 
wolf which had annoyed the neighbor- 
hood is well known to every schoolboy, 
and the cave into which he crawled on his 
hands and knees to shoot the wolf is 
sought by many visitors. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



His military career began in the French 
and Indian War. He was commissioned 
captain in Colonel Lyman's regiment of 
General Johnson's command, and partici- 
pated in the engagements at Fort Edward 
and Lake George in 1755- I" the cam- 
paign of the following year he again 
served with distinction in the same regi- 
ment. At Fort Edward, in 1757, he was 
commissioned major, and in the following 
year he and Major Rogers, the famous 
ranger, were taken prisoners. He was 
tied to a tree and a fire lighted at his feet, 
but before it had inflicted any serious in- 
jury upon the intended victim, he was 
released by the timely arrival of a chief 
of the tribe whom he had previously 
treated with kindness while a prisoner. 
The wounds inflicted upon him during 
the torture before the burning left scars 
that time never erased. He was taken to 
Montreal, suffering further indignities 
and torture on the way, and was relieved 
through the intercession of General Peter 
Schuyler, who was also a prisioner. 
Major Putnam was promoted to lieuten- 
ant-colonel in 1759, and served that year 
under General Amherst at Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point, and in the following 
year in the expedition against Montreal, 
which capitulated without resistance. He 
commanded a regiment in the West 
Indies afterward, and in 1764 under Colo- 
nel Bradstreet marched against the In- 
dians with a Connecticut regiment to 
Detroit. Before the close of that year he 
returned to the farm, and for a period of 
years following this, his spacious dwelling 
served as an inn. He was honored with 
various civil offices of trust and responsi- 
bility, served on important committees, 
and was often moderator ; was thrice 
selectman of Pomfret, and served as 
deputy to the General Assembly. In the 
winter of 1772-73, he went with General 
Lyman and others to examine a tract of 



land on the Mississippi river, near Nat- 
chez, given by the British government 
to the soldiers who fought in the West 
Indies. A diary kept by him on this trip, 
during which he visited Jamaica and the 
harbor of Pensacola, has been preserved. 
In the trying days before the Revolu- 
tion, Colonel Putnam was among the 
most active in resisting the obnoxious 
measures of the home government. In 
1774 an exaggerated rumor concerning 
depredations of the British in the neigh- 
borhood of Boston came to the ears of 
Putnam, and he immediately addressed 
the citizens of his State and aroused 
a determination to avenge the imposi- 
tions. Thousands were recruited and 
immediately started for Massachusetts, 
but it was learned that the rumor had 
little foundation and they returned. The 
news of the battle of Lexington reached 
Pomfret April 20, 1775, the day succeed- 
ing the engagement. With his sixteen- 
year-old son, Daniel, Putnam was en- 
gaged in plowing when the news arrived. 
The son afterward wrote : "He loitered 
not, but left me, the driver of his team, 
to unyoke it in the furrow, and not many 
days after to follow him to camp." On 
the afternoon of April 20, Putnam was on 
his way on horseback, and arrived in 
Cambridge on the following morning. On 
that day he wrote at Concord a report of 
the situation to Colonel Ebenezer Wil- 
liams, calling for six thousand troops 
from his State, and he soon returned to 
recruit and organize this force. The 
provincial congress of Connecticut ap- 
pointed him brigadier-general, and in one 
week he was again on his way to the 
scene of action. During the temporary 
absence of General Ward, he served some 
time as commander-in-chief, and on an- 
other occasion led a force of twenty-two 
hundred men from Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire on a reconnoissance to 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Charlestown. He commanded a party of 
provincials sent to Chelsea on May 2j, 
1775, and captured a British schooner, 
which attacked his force, with American 
loss of one killed and four wounded, 
while of the British force twenty were 
killed and fifty wounded. With Dr. 
Joseph Warren, Putnam represented the 
Americans in an exchange of prisoners 
on June 6, and on the 19th of that month, 
the Continental Congress raised him to 
the rank of major-general. This was two 
days after the battle of Bunker Hill, but 
the news had not yet reached the Congress. 
General Putnam was the officer in com- 
mand at the battle of Bunker Hill, whose 
story is so well known to every patriotic 
American. General Putnam's commis- 
sion was brought by Washington, when 
he came to Cambridge to take command, 
and by him Putnam was given command 
of the centre at Cambridge. When Bos- 
ton was evacuated, Putnam's command 
was sent to New York, and he took part 
in the battle of Long Island After the 
retreat, Washington assigned Putnam to 
the command of the city of New York 
north of Fifteenth street, and he partici- 
pated in the battles of Harlem Heights 
and White Plains, taking a prominent 
part. In 1777 he commanded at Philadel- 
phia, and was later stationed on the Hud- 
son river. In 1778 he was at West Point, 
and in the following winter was posted 
at Danbury, Connecticut, with three bri- 
gades. In this region he made his famous 
dash on horseback down a precipice to 
escape capture by a superior force of the 
British under General Tryon. In the 
campaign of 1779, General Putnam was 
active and superintended the completion 
of the defences at West Point. During 
the following winter he visited his family, 
and on his return to the front he suffered 
a stroke of paralysis, which closed his 
military career. Though he lived ten 
years afterward, and witnessed the birth 



of the new nation, he was never able to 
return to the army. 

He was buried with military and Ma- 
sonic honors, and his epitaph written by 
Rev. Dr. Timothy Dwight, president of 
Yale College, says: "He dared to lead 
where any dared to follow," and "his 
generosity was singular and his honesty 
was proverbial. * * * He raised him- 
self to universal esteem and offices of 
eminent distinction by personal worth 
and a useful life." He is described in 
person as of middle height, "very erect, 
muscular and firm in body. His coun- 
tenance was open, strong and animated ; 
the features of his face large, well-propor- 
tioned to each other and to his whole 
frame; his teeth fair and sound till death. 
His hearing was quick, his sight strong 
and of long range. Though facetious and 
dispassionate in private, when animated 
in the heat of battle his countenance was 
fierce and terrible, and his voice like 
thunder. His whole manner was admir- 
ably adapted to inspire his soldiers with 
courage and confidence, and his enemies 
with terror. The faculties of his mind 
were not inferior to those of his body ; 
his penetration was acute ; decision rapid, 
yet remarkably correct ; and the more 
desperate the situation the more col- 
lected and undaunted. With the cour- 
age of a lion, he had a heart that melted 
at the sight of distress ; he could never 
witness suffering in any human being 
without becoming a sufferer himself. 
Martial music roused him to the highest 
pitch, while solemn, sacred music rent 
him into tears. In his disposition he was 
open and generous almost to a fault, and 
in his social relations he was never ex- 
celled." 

He married (first) at Danvers, July 19, 
1739, Hannah Pope, who died September 
6, 1765, and (second) June 3, 1767, Mrs. 
Deborah (Lothrop) Gardner, daughter of 
Samuel Lothrop, of Norwich. She died 



5 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



at his headquarters on the Hudson in 
1777. The first wife was the mother of 
ten children. He died May 29, 1790. 



SHERMAN, Roger, 

Signer of Declaration of Independence. 

Roger Sherman was born in Newton, 
Massachusetts, April 19, 1721, son of Wil- 
liam and Mehetabel (Wellington) Sher- 
man, grandson of Joseph and Elizabeth 
(Winship) Sherman and of Benjamin and 
Elizabeth Wellington, and great-grand- 
son of Captain John and Martha (Pal- 
mer) Sherman (or Shearman), who emi- 
grated from Dedham, Essex county, Eng- 
land, and settled in \¥atertown, Massa- 
chusetts, about 1634. 

The parents of Roger Sherman re- 
moved to Stoughton (now Canton), Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1723, and he worked on the 
farm and learned the shoemaker's trade 
under his father. He gained a fair knowl- 
edge in various branches of science by 
studying while at work, doubtless being 
assisted by the Rev. Samuel Dunbar, 
pastor of the church at Stoughton. His 
father died in 1741, leaving him the sole 
support of his mother and the younger 
children, and in 1743 they removed to 
New Milford, Connecticut, where he fol- 
lowed his trade and conducted a store 
with his brothers. The General Assem- 
bly appointed him surveyor of lands for 
the County of New Haven in 1745, and 
of Litchfield county in 1752. and was also 
employed in surveying land for private 
individuals in New Milford. In 1752, 
when the New England colonies were 
flooded with irredeemable currency, he 
wrote and issued a pamphlet in which he 
pointed out the dangers attending this 
issue of paper money, and subsequently, 
when a member of the Constitutional 
Convention, he introduced and moved the 
adoption of the clause that "no State can 
make anything but gold and silver a legal 



tender." He became one of the largest 
investors in real estate in his town, filled 
various town offices, and was admitted 
to the Litchfield county bar in February, 
1754. He represented New Milford in 
the General Assembly in 1755 and 1758- 
61, was justice of the peace, i755-59> and 
a justice of the quorum and of the Court 
of Common Pleas, 1759-61. 

Roger Sherman removed to New 
Haven, Connecticut, in June, 1761, from 
whence he was a representative in the 
Legislature, 1764-66, a member of the 
Senate, 1766-85, justice of the peace and 
of the quorum, and judge of the Superior 
Court, 1766-89. His activity as a patriot 
began with the efforts of the crown to 
enforce the Stamp Act. He was a mem- 
ber of the committee to consider the 
claims of the settlers near the Susque- 
hanna river in 1774. He was a delegate 
from Connecticut to the Continental Con- 
gress, 1774-81, and 1783-84, serving on 
the most important committees, including 
that of June 11, 1776, to draft the Declara- 
tion of Independence, of which he was a 
signer; that of June 12, 1776, to prepare 
the Articles of Confederation ; that of the 
Connecticut Council of Safety, 1777-79 
and 1782, and that of the convention of 
1787 that reported the Connecticut Com- 
promise. In the controversy that arose 
in the Continental Congress regarding 
the rights of States to vote irrespective 
of population, Mr. Sherman proposed that 
the vote should be taken once in propor- 
tion to population, and once by States, 
and that every measure should have a ma- 
jority. This principle, eleven years after- 
ward, Mr. Sherman, then a member of 
the Constitutional Convention, presented 
to that body, and it was framed into the 
Federal Constitution, and was known as 
the Connecticut Compromise. It was not 
until he had made several speeches in its 
favor that he gained any attention, w^hen 
a long and bitter debate followed, and it 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



was finally referred to a committee of 
which he was made a member. After the 
adoption of the compromise, he moved 
the provision that no amendment be made 
that would deprive any State of its equal 
vote without its consent. It is agreed by 
all historians that this compromise, for 
which Mr. Sherman is solely responsible, 
saved the Constitutional Convention from 
breaking up without accomplishing any- 
thing, and made possible a union of the 
States and a national government. Roger 
Sherman was the only delegate in the 
Continental Congress who signed all four 
of the great State papers which were 
signed by all the delegates of all the colo- 
nies, namely : The Declaration of 1774, the 
Articles of Confederation, the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and the Federal 
Constitution. He revised the statute laws 
of Connecticut with Judge Richard Law 
in 1783. He was chosen the first mayor 
of New Haven in 1784, to prevent a Tory 
from being chosen, and the Legislature 
then provided that the mayor should hold 
his office during the pleasure of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, and under this act Mr. 
Sherman remained mayor until his death. 
He was a delegate from Connecticut to 
the Constitutional Convention at Phila- 
delphia in May, 1787. He was also active 
in the State Convention in procuring the 
ratification of the constitution, and wrote 
a series of papers on that subject which 
materially influenced the public mind in 
its favor, signed "A Citizen of New 
Haven." He was a representative in the 
First Congress, 1789-91, where he favored 
an address introduced by the Quakers 
against the slave trade. He was elected 
to the United States Senate to fill the 
vacancy caused by the resignation of Wil- 
liam S. Johnson and served from October 
24, 1791, until his death. He was treas- 
urer of Yale College, 1765-76, and re- 
ceived the honorary degree of Master of 



Arts from that college in 1768. He fur- 
nished the astronomical calculations for 
a series of almanacs, published in New 
York and New England, which bore his 
name. 

He was married, November 17, 1749, 
to Elizabeth, daughter of Deacon Joseph 
Hartwell, of Stoughton, and (second) 
May 12, 1763, at Danvers, to Rebecca, 
daughter of Benjamin Prescott, of Salem, 
Massachusetts. He died in New Haven, 
Connecticut, July 23, 1793. 



HUNTINGTON, Samuel, 

Signer of Declaration of Independence. 

Samuel Huntington was born in Wind- 
ham, Scotland county, Connecticut, July 
3, 1731, son of Nathaniel and Mehetabel 
(Thurston) Huntington, grandson of 
Deacon Joseph and Rebecca (Adgate) 
Huntington, great-grandson of Deacon 
Simon and Sarah (Clark) Huntington, 
and great-great-grandson of Simon and 
Margaret (Baret) Huntington, who left 
Norwich, England, for Massachusetts 
Bay, in 1633, with their sons, William, 
Thomas, Christopher and Simon, and the 
father dying of smallpox at sea, the 
mother settled in Roxborough, Massa- 
chusetts Bay Colony, and married Thomas 
Stoughton, of Dorchester, in 1735-36. 

His father being a farmer in moderate 
circumstances, Samuel Huntington had 
but a limited education, his youthful years 
being principally occupied with farm 
work and learning the trade of cooper. 
He did not begin serious study until he 
was twenty-two years old, when he 
learned to read the Latin language and 
also studied law. He settled as a lawyer 
in Norwich, Connecticut, about 1758. He 
represented the town of Norwich in the 
General Assembly in 1764, where he op- 
posed the Stamp Act. He was, however, 
appointed king's attorney in 1765, and 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



held the office for several years. He was 
appointed associate judge of the Superior 
Court of Connecticut, and was a member 
of the upper house of the General Assem- 
bly in 1775. He was a delegate to the 
Continental Congress, 1776-82, signed the 
Declaration of Independence of July 4, 
1776, and was president of the body from 
September 28, 1779, to July 6, 1781. On 
retiring he received a vote of thanks "in 
testimony of appreciation of his conduct 
in the chair and in execution of public 
business." In August, 1781, he resumed 
his seat as justice of the Superior Court of 
Connecticut and as a member of the coun- 
cil, or upper house of the General Assem- 
bly. He was reelected a delegate to Con- 
gress in May, 1782, but did not take his 
seat owing to the condition of his health. 
He was again elected in 1783 and took his 
seat while the Congress was assembled at 
Princeton, New Jersey, serving from June 
30 to November 4, and when the Con- 
gress adjourned he gave formal notice of 
his resignation on account of continued 
illness. He was elected Chief Justice of 
the Superior Court of Connecticut in 1784 ; 
Deputy Governor in 1785. and Governor 
in 1786, and was continuously reelected 
to the latter office at the succeeding an- 
nual elections up to the time of his death. 
He received the honorary degree of Mas- 
ter of Arts from Yale in 1779 and that 
of Doctor of Laws from the College of 
New Jersey in 1780 and from Yale in 
1787. 

He married, April 17, 1761, Martha, 
daughter of Rev. Ebenezer Devotion, pas- 
tor of the church at Windham. They had 
no children, and adopted those of Judge 
Huntington's brother Joseph — Samuel, 
who became Governor of Ohio ; and Fran- 
ces, who became the wife of Rev. Edward 
Dorr, president of Williams College. 
Judge Pluntington died in Norwich, Con- 
necticut, January 6, 1796. 



DEANE, Silas, 

Diplomatist of tlie Revolution. 

Silas Deane was born in that part of 
Groton, Connecticut, now called Led- 
yard, December 24, 1737, son of Silas and 
Sarah (Barker) Deane. He was gradu- 
ated from Yale College in 1758; studied 
law; was admitted to the bar in 1761, 
and settled at Wethersfield, Connecticut, 
in the practice of his profession. 

He served in the State Legislature for 
several terms, and, with Roger Sherman 
and Eliphalet Dyer, represented Connec- 
ticut in the first and second Continental 
Congresses (1774-75), acting on the com- 
mittees to devise means for supplying the 
colonies with military stores, and to esti- 
mate the cost of equipping the army. 
He formulated naval regulations, and 
selected, purchased and outfitted the first 
vessel commissioned for service in the 
Revolutionary War. The capture of Ti- 
conderoga was planned in Hartford, and 
Deane was one of the organizers of the 
force sent to accomplish it, and superin- 
tended its equipment. Congress having 
appointed him secret agent to France to 
purchase supplies and munitions of war 
and to secure a political and commercial 
alliance, he sailed by way of Bermuda, 
arriving there May 4, 1776, in the guise 
of a merchant buying goods for the West 
India trade. Through Baron de Beau- 
marchais, who was secretly in the con- 
fidence of the French government in the 
transaction, he obtained supplies, arms, 
and a loan of money, purchased a number 
of ships, and enlisted the aid of Lafayette, 
DeKalb, and other French officers. He 
was unwearying in his efforts to convince 
Vergennes, the French Minister of For- 
eign Aflfairs, of the advantages to France 
of the proposed alliance with the United 
States, and eventually induced him to 
send a fleet to America. Being unfortu- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



nately beset by a horde of speculators and 
adventurers, Deane was inveigled into 
making various unauthorized arrange- 
ments — contracts for supplies, employ- 
ment of incompetent officers, and other 
errors of judgment which ultimately 
caused his downfall. Accusations of ex- 
travagance and of use of public moneys 
in private trade were preferred against 
him by Arthur Lee and by Ralph Izard, 
and in November, 1777, Congress in- 
structed him to return as soon as pos- 
sible, in order that it might learn the 
state of affairs in Europe. In December, 
1776, he had been joined by Benjamin 
Franklin and Arthur Lee, and on February 
6, 1778, the three signed a treaty of com- 
merce and friendship with France. Bear- 
ing letters of commendation from Frank- 
lin and Vergennes, he sailed on one of 
the vessels of D'Estaing's fleet in June, 
1778, and arrived in August, when he 
made an oral report to Congress, after 
which he was dismissed to await its 
action. Some time having passed with- 
out his hearing further of the matter he 
addressed letter after letter to Congress 
without avail, begging for permission to 
vindicate himself from the charge of dis- 
honesty, that he might obtain release and 
return to France to finish his business. 
At length his patience, as well as his 
purse, was exhausted, and on December 
5, 1778, he published in the Philadelphia 
"Packet" an "Address to the Free and 
Virtuous Citizens of the United States," 
complaining of the ingratitude of Con- 
gress, and attacking Arthur, William, 
and Richard Henry Lee, for circulating 
reports to his discredit. These seemed 
to have originated with his late colleague, 
Lee, who had quarreled with him in 
Paris. A controversy which divided 
Congress resulted, and raged in the pub- 
lic prints. Deane was summoned to give 
a final report in writing, and on Decem- 
ber 31st he was again dismissed to await 



further orders. These he did not receive 
until August 6, 1779, when he was in- 
formed that his accounts would be 
audited when ready for presentation, with 
vouchers, and he was offered the sum of 
$10,000 (in depreciated currency) for his 
time and expenses during attendance on 
Congress, which offer he refused. In 
June, 1780, in order to procure the neces- 
sary papers to make his report, he re- 
turned to France, but found no one em- 
powered to verify his accounts, though 
they were finally submitted to Barclay, 
the financial agent of the United States 
in Europe. Embittered by his treatment 
at home and by the loss of property sold 
to pay his debts, when, as he claimed. 
Congress owed him over $12,000 for per- 
sonal outlay in its behalf, he eventually 
took a despairing view of the political 
situation in America, and in letters to 
various friends expressed his conviction 
that the Declaration of Independence was 
a mista:ke, and that a reunion with Great 
Britain was desirable, that nation being 
a more sincere friend than France, which 
had changed her policy toward the 
United States, now "mortgaged to her." 
Some of these letters were intercepted by 
the British government and were pub- 
lished in the New York "Royal Gazette" 
in the same year (1781) and republished 
in a volume in March, 1782, as "Paris 
Papers, or Mr. Silas Deane's Late Inter- 
cepted Letters to his Brothers and Other 
Intimate Friends in America." Many of 
his own countrymen denounced him as a 
traitor ; he was also obnoxious to the 
French ministry; and in the fall of 1781 
he was compelled to retire to Ghent, 
where he became a naturalized citizen in 
order to carry on private trade to better 
advantage. In April, 1783, he removed to 
London, and his last years were spent in 
poverty, harassed by creditors. He wrote 
vn "Address to the Free and Independent 
Citizens of the United States of North 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



America," defending himself against the 
charges of fraud and peculation, and en- 
deavoring to explain his letters, which 
appeared in print in London in 1784, and 
in New London and Hartford, Connecti- 
cut. Illness was added to his misfortunes 
in 1788, and while helpless he was robbed 
of many of his papers, which were sold 
to Jefferson, at that time Minister to 
France. Upon recovery, Deane became 
interested in a plan for connecting the 
St. Lawrence river and Lake Champlain 
by a ship canal, and his prospects were so 
encouraging that he determined to return 
to America. Before leaving he appealed 
to Washington to have his conduct ex- 
amined and his accounts settled. Con- 
gress having ignored numerous letters he 
sent to that body. Not receiving a reply, 
he embarked at Gravesend for Quebec, 
Canada, on September 23, 1789; but was 
almost immediately stricken by paralysis, 
and died four hours later. 

In 1842, Congress, after an examination 
of Deane's papers, decided that the audit 
made by Arthur Lee, as commissioner 
of accounts was "ex parte, erroneous and 
a gross injustice," and directed that his 
heirs be paid the sum of $37,000. "The 
Deane Papers," a mass of material, in- 
cluding a biography, constitute volumes 
XIX-XXIII of the New York Historical 
Society Collections. A very full account 
of the diplomat's life and services is 
given in Wharton's "Revolutionary 
Diplomatic Correspondence." 

Silas Deane married (first) in August, 
1763, Mehetabel (Nott) Webb, widow of 
Joseph Webb, Sr., a storekeeper and 
West Indian trader, to whose business he 
succeeded. He married (second) in June, 
1777. Elizabeth, daughter of Governor 
Gurdon Saltonstall, of New London, and 
widow of John Ebbetts or Evarts. His 
only child, Jesse, child of the first mar- 
riage, became a merchant in Hartford. 



TREAT, Robert, 



The origin of the name Treat is not 
known, but it is probably a place name, 
and in its present form dates back as 
early as 1572. The family was one of 
title and had a coat-of-arms. The family 
is numerous in County Somerset, Eng- 
land, and was found also in other parts of 
England. The spelling has varied, some 
of its forms being, Trat, Trate, Tret, 
Treet, Treete, Trot, Troot, Treat, and 
others. The name is rare in England to- 
day, however. 

John Treat, or Trott, was of Staple- 
grove, near Taunton, County Somerset, 
England. His name occurs often in the 
Taunton Manor Rolls. 

William Trott was probably a son 
of John Trott, and his name is found in 
the calendars as of the same parish and 
hundred of Staplegrove. The following 
are supposed to be his children : Wil- 
liam ; Richard, mentioned below ; Joanna, 
of Staplegrove, in 1542 ; Lucy, Alice, 
John, probably died 1584 in Bishop's 
Compton. 

Richard Trott, a son of William Trott, 
died about 1571. He married Joanna 

, who w^as probably buried at 

Otterford. August 14, 1577. He lived 
at Staplegrove, Poundisford and Otter- 
ford. Children: John, buried, October 
16, 1544, in Pitminster; John, died about 
1595; Robert, mentioned below; Wil- 
liam, buried March 19, 1596; Tamsen. 

Robert Trott, a son of Richard Trott, 
was baptized probably in the hamlet 
of Trendle, now Trull, parish of Pit- 
minster, England, and was buried in Pit- 
minster, February 16, 1599. He married 

Honora or Plonour , who was 

buried September 17, 1627, in Pitminster. 
His will was dated in 1598-99, and was 
proved in Taunton. Children : Alice, 



EXXYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



baptized February 4, 1564; John, bap- 
tized September 10, 1570; buried May 7, 
1633; Mary, baptized February 6, 1575; 
Agnes, baptized February 18, 1577; Tam- 
sen, baptized May 26, 15S1; Richard, 
mentioned below. 

Richard Treat, son of Robert Trott, or 
Treat, was baptized August 28, 16S4, in Pit- 
minster, in the hamlet of Trendle, County 
Somerset, England. He was the immi- 
grant ancestor of the American family, 
and spelled his name in several ways, 
Trott, Trett, Treat, etc. He settled at 
Wethersfield, Connecticut, and was one 
of the four pioneers that were honored 
with the titles of Mr. He was a deputy to 
the General Court in 1644, perhaps earlier, 
and held that office until 1657-58. He 
was a juror in 1643 ! was assistant or 
magistrate eight times, from March 11, 
1657-58 to 1665 ; in 1660 a townsman ; 
member of Governor Winthrop's council 
in 1663-64, and served on many important 
committees of the town and church. He 
owned much land and other real estate 
in Wethersfield. His will is dated Febru- 
ary 13, 1668, and the inventory was dated 
March 3, 1669-70, soon after his death. 
Children, born and baptized in Pitmin- 
ster, England: Honor, born 1616; Joan- 
na, baptized May 24, 1618, died 1694; 
Sarah, baptized December 3, 1620 ; Rich- 
ard, baptized January 9, 1622-23 5 Robert, 
mentioned below ; Elizabeth, baptized 
October 8, 1629. died 1706; Alice, bap- 
tized February 16, 1631-32, buried August 
2. 1633 ; James, baptized July 20, 1634, 
died February 12, 1709; Katherine, bap- 
tized June 29, 1637. 

Governor Robert Treat, son of Richard 
Treat, was born in Pitminster, England, 
about 1624, baptized February 25, 1624- 
25, died July 12, 1710 (gravestone at Mil- 
ford, Connecticut). He married (first) 
Jane Tapp, who died the last of October, 
"^7^3' aged seventy-five, daughter of Ed- 
mund Tapp. He married (second) Octo- 



ber 24. 1705, Mrs. Elizabeth (Plollings- 
worth) Bryan, born June 16, 1641, died 
January 10, 1706, aged sixty-eight, a 
daughter of Elder Michael and Abigail 
Powell, of Boston, and had married 
(first) August 23, 1659, Richard Hol- 
lingsworth and (second) Richard Bryan. 
Children : Samuel, baptized September 3, 
164S; John, baptized October 20, 1650; 
Mary, born May i, 1652; Robert, born 
August 14, 1654, mentioned below ; Sarah, 
October 9, 1656; Abigail, died December 
25, 1727; Hannah, born January i, 1660- 
61 ; Joseph, September 17, 1662. 

Robert Treat was among the early 
settlers of Milford, Connecticut, coming 
from Wethersfield, and at the first meet- 
ing of the planters, November 20, 1639, 
was one of nine appointed to survey and 
lay out lands. He subsequently returned 
to Wethersfield and was elected rate- 
maker there in 1647. Returning soon 
afterward to Milford, he joined the 
church there with his wife, April 19, 
1649. In 1653 l"*^ was chosen deputy 
to the General Court, and the follow- 
ing year was elected lieutenant of the 
Milford militia company. He became 
a large landholder and a strong and in- 
fluential factor in the development of the 
colony. He was often chosen to purchase 
and divide public lands. He was early a 
prominent member of the church, and in 
1660 was one of the laymen chosen to 
perform the ceremony of laying on of 
hands at the installation of Rev. Roger 
Newton. He held the post of deputy 
until 1659, with the exception of one year, 
and then being elected magistrate, he 
served for five years on the governor's 
council, and was reelected, but declined 
further service. In 1663 he was again 
chosen magistrate for Milford, and he 
was also captain of the military forces. 
In May, 1664, he and William Jones were 
appointed to meet a committee from Mas- 
sachusetts to consider various matters of 



EXCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



common interest. He was again elected 
magistrate, but declined. He was active 
in the consummation of the union of the 
New Haven and Connecticut colonies 
under one government. In 1665 he was 
a deputy to the General Court, and the 
following year was nominated for the 
office of assistant and defeated. He was 
a delegate to go to New Jersey in the 
interests of those dissatisfied with con- 
ditions in Connecticut and desiring to 
settle there. The movement resulted in 
the establishment of the town of Newark, 
and Treat and ten others were appointed 
to have charge of the government, and 
he was the foremost citizen. From 1667 
to 1672 he was deputy to the New Jersey 
General Assembly. 

In 1672 he returned to his old home in 
Connecticut though a son and daughter 
remained. Upon his return he was placed 
second in command of the forces in prepa- 
ration to fight the Dutch in New York, 
and at the next election was chosen as- 
sistant and continued for three years, 
serving also on the Committee of Safety, 
which acted when the General Court was 
not in session. He had many important 
public duties on committees of the Gen- 
eral Court, and held many private trusts. 
When King Philip's War broke out he 
was commissioned major in command of 
the Connecticut quota. He saved Spring- 
field from destruction, and took active 
part in the campaign in western Massa- 
chusetts and the Connecticut valley. He 
defeated the Indians at Hadley in Octo- 
ber. He took a leading part in the 
famous Swamp Fight, when the Narra- 
gansctts were defeated. Four of his five 
captains were slain, but he escaped with 
a bullet hole in his hat. After the death 
of King Philip. Major Treat returned 
home, and was elected Deputy-Governor, 
continuing in this ofifice seven years. He 
also served as judge of committee, especi- 
ally in Indian afifairs, now at the request 



of Northampton to mediate with the In- 
dians for the return of captives and a 
treaty of peace, now on the Committee 
of Safety and twice as commissioner for 
the United Colonies and twice also as 
substitute for other commissioners. In 
1683 he was elected Governor, to succeed 
Governor Leete, who died in April. He 
had to deal with many exceedingly trying 
problems of state in his administration. 
There was friction with other colonies 
and encroachments on all sides. Then 
came the crushing blow inflicted by King 
James in revoking the colonial charter 
and the assumption of power by the in- 
famous Andros. When James fell and 
Andros was overthrown, Governor Treat 
and the colonial officers resumed their 
stations. After the custom of the times, 
he served as Deputy Governor after he 
was Governor, and he was in this impor- 
tant post from the age of seventy-six to 
eighty-six, then declined and retired. 
"Few men," says Trumbull, "have sus- 
tained a fairer character or rendered the 
public more important services. He was 
an excellent military officer ; a man of 
singular courage and resolution, tempered 
with caution and prudence. His adminis- 
tration of government was with wisdom, 
firmness and integrity. He was esteemed 
courageous, wise and pious. He was ex- 
ceedingly loved and venerated by the 
people in general." 



TRUMBULL, Jonathan, 

Head of Distingnislied. Family. 

The Governors Trumbull, father and 
son, were descended from John Trum- 
bull, a cooper, who came from Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, England, and settled at Rowley, 
Massachusetts, in 1640. He filled the 
positions of town clerk and schoolmaster. 
His wife, Elinor Chandler, he married in 
England. From them the line of descent 
to the elder Governor Jonathan Trumbull 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



is through John, son of the emigrant 
John, and Joseph, who removed from 
Massachusetts to Lebanon, Connecticut, 
and married Hannah Higley. Joseph 
Trumbull was a merchant. 

Governor Jonathan Trumbull, son of 
Joseph and Hannah (Higley) Trumbull, 
was born October 12. 1710. He was 
graduated with honor from Harvard Col- 
lege at the age of seventeen, having ac- 
quired an especial proficiency in the 
Hebrew language. He commenced the 
study of theology- under the Rev. Solo- 
mon Williams, of Lebanon. Connecticut, 
became a duly licensed minister, and had 
charge of the church at Colchester. The 
death of his brother Joseph, however, 
changed the direction of his life, it being 
necessary for him to aid his father in 
the conduct of his mercantile business. 
His efficiency in his new calling was 
manifest from the outset; he extended 
the trade of the house to Halifax, Lon- 
don, Amsterdam and the West Indies ; 
but ruin came later by reason of financial 
depression and losses at sea, meantime 
the young man had studied law, but was 
soon called to official positions. In 1733 
he was first elected to the General As- 
sembly, and in 1739 he became speaker 
of that body. In 1740 he became an as- 
sistant to the Governor, and was re- 
elected twenty-two times. He was a de- 
voted friend of education, and in 1743 he 
established in his native town an acad- 
emy where his own children were edu- 
cated, and which was of so superior char- 
acter that it drew students from prac- 
tically all the colonies, and from the 
West Indies also. W^hen twenty-nine he 
was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of 
militia, but saw no field service. His 
patriotism became pronounced in 1765. 
when, as a member of the council, he left 
the chamber rather than witness Govern- 
or Fitch subscribe to the oath to carry out 
the provisions of the Stamp Act. He was 



Lieutenant-Governor, 1766-69, and was 
elected Governor in the latter year, over 
a number of prominent competitors. It 
was said of him that he was the only one 
of the colonial Governors to stand out 
against encroachments upon the rights 
of the people ; at the same time he dis- 
countenanced violent opposition, believ- 
ing that redress would rather follow 
gentle methods than it would power and 
force. But when war came, he was quick 
to act ; and, under his inspiring influence, 
Connecticut furnished to the patriot 
cause a greater number of troops than 
did any other State except Massachu- 
setts. In addition to his arduous duties 
as Governor and in the council chamber, 
he conducted a voluminous and impor- 
tant correspondence with the other pa- 
triot colonies, and his relations with 
Washington were of so confidential a 
nature, and his counsels and assistance 
were of such great value to that eminent 
man, that he is credited with having said 
at times, when in universal need of ad- 
vice or supplies. "We must consult 
Brother Jonathan" — a sobriquet which 
has come down through all the years, 
"Brother Jonathan" having come to be 
regarded as the personification of the 
United States. Trumbull encountered 
many and great difficulties ; desertions 
from the army were many, as were also 
the calls of Washington for additional 
troops. At one time, in the midst of the 
harvest of 1776. on the urgent appeal of 
Washington. Trumbull called for nine 
more regiments, with the appeal. "May 
the God of the armies of Israel be your 
leader." On account of his advanced age 
and approaching feebleness incident to 
the great burdens he had carried, Trum- 
bull resigned his gubernatorial office in 
1783. after occupying it for fourteen 
years, and having been a prime figure in 
all the events of the period covering the 
inception of the Revolution, the long war. 



13 



EXCYCLOrEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



aiul the firm cstablislimcnt of the new 
government. 

The aged patriot now engaged in busi- 
ness, but for only a short time, and his 
remaining years Avere passed in pleasant 
retirement, in devotional reading and cor- 
respondence, lie wrote a "Dissertation 
Upon the Revolutionary War," which 
was incorporated in the "Collections of 
the Historical Society of Connecticut.'' 
He received many visitors, among them 
the Marquis de Chastellux, who had come 
witli Count Rochambeau. to aid in the 
Revolution, who wrote of Trumbull as 
"a little old man in the antique dress 
of the tirst settlers, possessing all the 
importance and all the pedantry becom- 
ing the great magistrate of a small re- 
public." He received the degree of LL. 
D. from Yale College in 1779, and from 
the University of Edinburgh in 17S7. 

Governor Trumbull married, in 1735. 
Faith, daughter of the Rev. John Robin- 
son, and a descendant of the John Alden 
immortalized in Longfellow's "Courtship 
of jMiles Standish." She was a woman of 
strong character and sturdy patriotism. 
They reared a remarkable family of four 
sons and two daughters. Joseph was a 
member of the Continental Congress, and 
the first commissary-general of the army ; 
Jonathan is to be further mentioned in 
this narrative ; David was commissary of 
the Connecticut, and assistant to his 
brother Joseph in the army ; John served 
as an aide to Washington, and after the 
war became a historical painter. Of the 
daughters. Faith became the wnfe of Gen- 
eral Jcdidiah Huntington; and ^lary the 
wife of William \\"illiams. a Georgia 
signer of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence. 

Governor Trumbull died at Lebanon, 
Connecticut. August 17. 1785, being with- 
in a few months of seventy-five years of 
age. The inscription upon his monument 
records that "he died full of honors, rich 



in benevolence, and firm in the faith and 
hopes of Christianity." The Connecticut 
Society of Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion in 1806 placed on the chimney above 
the t'lrcplace in the old war office at 
Lebanon, a bronze slab bearing the fol- 
lowing inscription : 

LEBANON WAR OFFICE. 
During the War of the Revolution, Governor 
Jonathan Trumbull and the Council of Safety 
held more than eleven hundred meetings in this 
building; and here also came many distinguished 
officers of the Continental .\rmv and French 
Allies. 

Their Monument is More Enduring than 
Bronze 

Governor Jonathan Trumbull (2), son 
of Governor Jonathan Trumbull (i), was 
born March 26, 1740, and died August 7, 
1809. He was graduated from Harvard 
College with honors in 1759. At the 
time of the beginning of the Revolution- 
ary War he was serving as a deputy from 
Lebanon to the General Assembly of 
Connecticut, in which he was for a time 
speaker of the house. In 1775 he was 
appointed deputy paymaster-general for 
the northern department of the army, an 
office he filled until the close of the north- 
ern campaign. He was obliged to retire 
from the army for a time on the death of 
his brother Joseph, in order to settle up 
the latter's estate, and during this time 
was reelected as a deputy to the General 
Assembly. While presenting his brother's 
accounts to the Continental Congress at 
Philadelphia, his financial ability was 
conceded to be so remarkable that he 
was appointed comptroller of the treas- 
ury, a position which placed him at the 
head of the treasury department. The 
department was reorganized the follow- 
ing year and he was made one of a com- 
mittee of five to control it. In 1780 he 
was appointed secretary and first aide to 
General Washington, a position which 
kept him in close and constant touch 
with that eminent man. whose warm 



14 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



friendship he ever enjoyed, and he was 
present at the surrender of Cornwallis. 
He was again elected as a deputy to the 
General Assembly in 1788, and became 
speaker of the House of Representatives. 
In 1789 he represented Connecticut in the 
first Congress of the United States under 
the constitution; in 1791 was made 
speaker of the House of Representatives 
of that body; and in 1794 was elected a 
Senator in the Congress of the United 
States. He resigned his seat in the Sen- 
ate when he was elected Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor of his native State, in 1796; and 
was elected Governor in 1798, upon the 
death of Governor Oliver Wolcott, an 
office he filled by successive reelections 
until his death. Few men of his day 
studied more closely the public questions 
of the hour, and his perfect mastery of 
the subjects under his consideration en- 
abled him to give a clear and decisive 
expression to his views. In manner he 
was simple and unaffected, and even dur- 
ing the most heated political campaign 
his private character was never subjected 
to attack, but the criticism was always 
directed against the measures he cham- 
pioned. Governor Trumbull married, 
March 26, 1767, Eunice Backus. Chil- 
dren : Jonathan, born December 24, 1767, 
died young; Faith, February i, 1769, 
married Daniel Wadsworth, of Hartford ; 
Mary, December 27, 1777, died young; 
Harriet, became the wife of Professor 
Silliman, of Yale College ; Maria, Febru- 
ary 14, 1785, married Henry Hudson, of 
Hartford. The mother of these children 
long survived her husband, dying in New 
Haven, in 1826. 



WOLCOTT, Oliver, 

Father and Son, GoTernori. 

Governors Oliver Wolcott, father and 
son, were descendants of Henry Wolcott, 
originally of Golden Manor, Tolland, 



Somersetshire, England, who was a Puri- 
tan of good family and estate. Henry 
Wolcott came to this country and settled 
in Massachusetts in 1630, removing three 
years later to Windsor, Connecticut, 
where he ranked as one of the most 
distinguished men of the colony, for 
years representing his town in the upper 
house of the General Assembly. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth Saunders. Their son, 
Simon Wolcott, followed his father to 
America about 1640, was made a free- 
man of Windsor in 1654, and in 1680 re- 
moved to East Windsor, where he mar- 
ried as his second wife Martha Pitkin. 

Roger Wolcott, son of Simon and Mar- 
tha (Pitkin) Wolcott, was born January 
4, 1679, at Windsor, Connecticut. He 
rose to distinction, serving as selectman, 
assemblyman, and on the bench, and also 
acting as commissary of the Connecticut 
forces in the expedition against Canada. 
He was afterward a member of various 
courts and Deputy Governor; and in his 
sixty-seventh year, with the rank of 
major-general and second in command to 
Sir W^illiam Pepperell, headed the Con- 
necticut troops in the Louisburg ex- 
pedition. He succeeded Law as Gov- 
ernor in 1750 and served until 1754, 
being defeated for reelection through 
charges of malfeasance, and which, al- 
though they were disproved, ended his 
public career. In his retirement he wrote 
a volume of "Poetical Meditations," and 
some semi-political pamphlets. He mar- 
ried a distant relative, Sarah, daughter of 
Job and Mary (Wolcott) Drake. He died 
at what is now South Windsor, May 17, 
1767. No portrait of him is extant. 

Governor Oliver Wolcott (ist), son of 
Governor Roger Wolcott, was born No- 
vember 20, 1726, at Windsor, Connecticut. 
He graduated from Yale College in 1747. 
and the same year was commissioned cap- 
tain by Governor Clinton, of New York, 
and recruited a company which he com- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



manded in the war against the French in 
Canada in 1748. Returning, he studied 
medicine under hisbrother Alexander, but 
does not seem to have engaged in practice. 
In 175 1 he removed to Litchfield, and be- 
came sheriff, holding the office for a period 
of fourteen years. In August, 1774, at a 
town meeting held to take action upon the 
resolutions of the Legislature with refer- 
ence to the Boston port bill, he drew up a 
preamble and resolutions remarkable for 
their independent tone. In the same year 
he was commissioned colonel of militia, 
and was made a m,ember of the Gov- 
ernor's Council, a place in which he was 
continued by annual reappointment until 
1786, during a considerable portion of this 
time also serving as judge of probate and 
common pleas. In July, 1775, under au- 
thority of Congress, he was one of the 
commissioners charged with securing the 
neutrality of the Iroquois Indians. He 
was also one of the boundary commis- 
sioners, and it was largely through his 
efforts that the longstanding Vermont- 
New York boundary controversy was set- 
tled, and that the dispute between Con- 
necticut and Pennsylvania over the Wyo- 
ming tract was satisfactorily compro- 
mised. He took his seat in the Conti- 
nental Congress in January, 1776, and 
was from the outset one of its most de- 
termined members, and was one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. When the statue of King George, 
in Bowling Green, New York City, was 
thrown down, Wolcott got possession 
of the headless trunk, and conveyed 
it to his home in Litchfield, where it was 
converted into bullets (forty-two thou- 
sand in number) by his daughters and 
neighbors. 

His military record begins with his ap- 
pointment as brigadier-general on August 
15, 1776, his command embracing fourteen 
regiments of militia, about five thousand 
men. With nine of these regiments he 



was in New York at the time of the battle 
of Long Island, and he then resumed his 
seat in Congress. In the summer of 1777 
he was busied with organizing Connecti- 
cut troops and despatching them to the 
field — to Putnam, on the Hudson river; 
to the northern army of General Gates; 
and elsewhere. In 1778 he was again in 
Congress. In the summer of 1779 he was 
active against the British who were mov- 
ing to the invasion of Connecticut ; and 
when Tryon's forces ravaged Fairfield 
and Danbury, he, now being a major- 
general, took the field against them. 
Later, as a commissioner to the Indians, 
he was mainly instrumental in effecting 
peace negotiations with the Six Nations, 
and in procuring from the Wyandottes 
and other tribes a clear title to lands in 
Ohio claimed by Connecticut. In 1786 he 
was elected Lieutenant-Governor, and 
was reelected two times successively, his 
last term being followed by his election 
as Governor. In 1796 he was a presi- 
dential elector and voted for Adams and 
Pinckney. A biographer says of Wolcott 
that he was remarkable for intrepidity, 
integrity, strong and bold conceptions, 
and a peculiar decision of character. His 
sensibility was acute, and no one could 
have a finer sense of honor. Though firm 
in his own opinion, he manifested defer- 
ence for the opinions of others. He was 
distinguished for his love of order and re- 
ligion. 

Governor Wolcott married, in 1755, 
Laura (or Lorana) Collins, daughter of 
Captain Daniel and Lois (Cornwall) Col- 
lins, of Guilford, Connecticut. She was a 
woman of great strength of mind and de- 
termination, and a master manager. In 
the frequent and protracted absences of 
Governor Wolcott she conducted the 
farm and superintended the education of 
the younger children at home ; as patriotic 
as her illustrious husband, during the 
Revolutionary War she exercised the ut- 



16 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



years, and died there August 9, 1678. He 
married Abigail, daughter of Rev. John 
Wheelwright, of Lincolnshire, England, 
who came to New Hampshire. 

The Rev. Abraham Pierson, son of Rev. 
Abraham Pierson named above, was born 
at Lynn, Massachusetts, in 1641. He was 
graduated from Harvard College in 1668, 
and was ordained as colleague in the min- 
istry of his father at Newark, New Jer- 
sey, March 4, 1672. He was minister of 
Killingworth, Connecticut, from 1694. 
After James Pierpont he was the most 
active of the founders of the collegiate 
school at Saybrook. The founders of 
New Haven had cherished the idea of the 
establishment of a college of their own 
from the beginning of their settlement in 
1638, but the project languished, and 
fourteen years later (1652) it was not un- 
reasonably judged to be "too great a 
charge for us of this jurisdiction." The 
plan seems to have been revived in 1698, 
and was certainly taken up with great 
zeal by the two ministers, James Pier- 
pont, of New Haven, and Abraham Pier- 
son, both graduates of Harvard College, 
but was apparently without result until 
in September, 1701, when a meeting was 
held at Branford, at the house of the Rev. 
Samuel Russell, and some books were 
donated for a library. Pierpont had sent 
suggestions to Governor Isaac Addington 
and Plon. S. Sewall, of Boston, who pre- 
pared a draft for a charter. The Legisla- 
ture met October 9th, and some days 
later, probably on the i6th, passed "An 
Act for Liberty to erect a Collegiate 
School." In the next month seven trus- 
tees met at Saybrook, and voted to estab- 
lish the school there, with Mr. Pierson 
as rector. This office he discharged from 
his parish, nine miles distant, and its 
, duties can hardly have been arduous. 
J Jacob Heminway, the first student, en- 
ptered in March, 1702, and in September 
iT;>even more were added. A tutor was 



now chosen, and a commencement held 
at Saybrook Point, when N. Lynde gave 
the use of a house for the newly fledged 
"Collegiate School." On this occasion 
the degree of Master of Arts was con- 
ferred upon Nathaniel Chauncey, of 
Stratford, who had been privately taught, 
and on four graduates of Harvard. At 
this time the entire revenue of the school, 
apart from the fees for tuition, was a 
grant from the Legislature of ii20 yearly 
in "country pay," equal to about i8o in 
cash. While Pierson was rector, the col- 
lege was at the beginning of its existence, 
and there were few graduates. One of 
them was Jonathan Dickinson (1706), 
who became president of the College of 
New Jersey. His statue stands on the 
college campus. Abraham Pierson was 
much respected as a scholar and adminis- 
trator. He wrote a text book on "Na- 
tural Philosophy," which was used for 
twenty-five years. Rector Pierson died 
in New Haven, Connecticut, March 5, 
1707. 



DOUGLAS, William, 

Soldier of the Revolution. 

Deacon William Douglas, immigrant 
ancestor, was born in 1610, without doubt 
in Scotland, though in what part there is 
no means of knowing. His wife lived in 
Ringstead, England. His father, whose 
name was very likely Robert Douglas, 
was born about 1588. How and where 
William Douglas became acquainted with 
his wife, Ann Mattle, or Motley, is un- 
known, but their marriage must have 
taken place at his parish church, probably 
in 1636, when they were both twenty-six 
years old, as their daughter Ann was born 
in 1637. Ann Mattle or Motley was the 
only daughter of Thomas Mattle or Mot- 
ley, of Ringstead, where she was born in 
1 610. She had two brothers, one of whom 
probably died young, and the other was 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



unmarried and died without descendant, 
so Ann was the sole heir. William Doug- 
las came to New England with his wife 
and two children, Ann and Robert, in 
1640, though the exact time of their ar- 
rival is unknown. The very common 
tradition is that they landed at Cape Ann. 
He settled in Gloucester, nearby, but re- 
moved to Boston the same year. The first 
mention of him in the Boston records is 
June 31, 1640, when he was made a free- 
man or voter. He did not remain in Bos- 
ton, but removed the next year to Ips- 
wich, where he was entitled to a share 
of the public land, February 28, 1641. He 
remained at Ipswich for about four years, 
returning to Boston in 1645. He was a 
cooper in Boston, and May i, 1646, he pur- 
chased of Walter Merry and Thomas An- 
chor, a dwelling house, shop, and land. 

He removed to New London, Connec- 
ticut, and obtained considerable property 
through purchase and grants from the 
town. One of his farms was inherited by 
his son William, and has remained in the 
hands of the family for over two centuries. 
In 1662-63 he was appointed one of the 
appraisers of property for the town of 
New London. The appraisal was deliv- 
ered to the general court at Hartford, but 
the court was not satisfied, for it fined 
him and the others. The town was very 
indignant and objected, so that the court 
withdrew the fine. He was one of a com- 
mittee to consider about a new minister. 
The land for a new church was purchased 
from Mr. Douglas, and the graveyard still 
remains on that place. He was chosen 
one of the two deacons of the church in 
1670. He and Mr. Willerby were ap- 
pointed to deliver provisions to Commis- 
sary Tracy at Norwich, during King 
Philip's War. He was one of the most 
prominent citizens of New London. His 
education, for the times, was liberal. He 
held many important offices in the town 
at diflferent times. He was deputy to the 



General Court in 1672, and once or twice 
later. He took an active part in town and 
church affairs until the time of his death, 
which occurred in 1682. In May, 1670, 
his wife, then sixty years old, made a 
journey to Boston to establish her claim 
as heir to her father's property. She died 
in New London about 1685. Children : 
Ann, born in Scotland, 1637; Robert, in 
Scotland, 1639; Elizabeth, in Ipswich, 
Massachusetts, August 26, 1641 ; Sarah, 
in Ipswich, April 8, 1643 > W^illiam, men- 
tioned below. 

Deacon William (2) Douglas, son of 
Deacon William (i) Douglas, was born 
in Boston, Massachusetts, April i, 1645. 
He came to New London with his par- 
ents in 1660. He received lands in 
Voluntown, March 29, 1706, which he 
afterward sold to his son William. He 
inherited land from his father, which he 
gave to his grandson William, son of 
Richard, on condition that his grandson 
live with him and take care of him till 
death. He and his wife Abiah were re- 
ceived into the Congregational church in 
1670. His three sons were also admitted 
into the church at different times. After 
the death of his father in 1682, he was 
chosen deacon, an office which he held 
for upward of fifty years, until his death. 
In the ancient burial ground at New Lon- 
don may be seen a moss-covered tablet, 
with the inscription : "Here Lyeth ye 
body of Deacon William Douglas who 
died Mar ye 9th 1724-5, Aged 80 years." 
He married (first) Abiah, daughter of 
William Hough, of New London, and 
granddaughter of Edward Hough, of 
Westchester, Cheshire, England. She was 
born September 15, 1648, died February 
21, 1715. He married (second) July, 1715, 
the Widow Mary Bushnell, who survived 
him. Children, all born in New London 
by first wife : Elizabeth, February 25, 
1668-69; Sarah, April 2, 1671 ; W^illiam, 
February 19, 1672-73, mentioned below ; 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Abiah, August i8, 1675 ; Rebecca, June 14, 
1678; Ann, May 24, 1680; Richard, July 
19, 1682 ; Samuel, about 1684. 

Deacon William (3) Douglas, son of 
Deacon William (2) Douglas, was born in 
New London, Connecticut, February 19, 
1672-73. He was admitted to the church, 
July 24. 1698. The next year he removed 
with his wife and two children to '"the 
new plantation on the Quinnebaug, which 
was afterward named Plainfield." Here 
lands were set off for him "on the east 
side of the river." He also owned lands 
in Voluntown, which he purchased of his 
father, August 18, 1715, for thirteen 
pounds. He was of the little company 
that covenanted together and formed a 
church in Plainfield, in 1705. He was 
chosen first deacon. He was buried in 
the old burial ground in Plainfield. He 
died in the prime of life and was greatly 
mourned. All the church and town rec- 
ords, and all but a few of the probate 
records, were burned at the time Arnold 
burned the town of New London in 1781. 
His will was among the records saved. 
It was dated July 6. 1717, and proved 
September 25, 1717. In it he provides for 
his wife Sarah, and eleven children, all the 
latter under twenty-one years of age. His 
wife was Sarah Procter, but no date of 
marriage can be found in the New Lon- 
don records. His two eldest children 
were born in New London, all the others 
in Plainfield. His widow Sarah was liv- 
ing in 1729, but no record of her death has 
been found. Children : Hannah, born 
September 7, 1696; William, February 19, 
1697-98; Samuel, April 13. 1699; Abiah, 
February 26, 1701-02 ; John, July 28, 1703, 
mentioned below ; Sarah, December 7, 
1704 ; Jerusha, April 26, 1706 ; Samuel, De- 
cember 3, 1707; Benajah, September 17, 
1710; James, May 20, 171 1 ; Thomas, No- 
vember 26, 1712; Asa, December 11. 1715. 

John, son of Deacon William, (3) Doug- 
las, was born in Plainfield, Connecticut, 



July 28, 1703. He married, January 13, 
1724-25, Olive, born January 17, 1709, 
daughter of Benjamin and Olive (Hall) 
Spaulding, of Plainfield. He was a man 
of no little importance in his town. Two 
of his sons, General John and Colonel 
William, acted with bravery in the Revo- 
lutionary War ; a third, Benjamin, a grad- 
uate of Yale College, would have un- 
doubtedly gained distinction in the legal 
profession, but for his untimely death at 
the age of thirty-six years. Olive, John's 
wife, died February 21, 1752. He died 
April 20, 1766. Children, all born in Plain- 
field : William, born April 26, 1729, died 
young; Olive, November 4, 1731 ; John, 
April 12, 1734; Benjamin, August 29, 
1739; W'illiam, January 27, 1742-43, men- 
tioned below ; Sarah, April 18, 1744 ; Olive, 
October 14, 1749. 

Colonel William (4) Douglas, son of 
John Douglas, was born in Plainfield, 
January 27, 1742-43. At the age of six- 
teen years he was engaged in the old 
French and Indian War. He was chosen 
orderly sergeant in a company under 
Israel Putnam, and was in the expedition 
which resulted in the surrender of Quebec 
in 1759, and the speedy termination of the 
war. He soon afterward removed from 
Plainfield to New Haven, where he en- 
gaged in the seafaring business, and soon 
became commander of a merchant ship 
sailing between New Haven and the W^est 
Indies. In this he was very successful 
and accumulated a fortune considered in 
those days very large. At the beginning 
of the Revolutionary War he took part 
in Ethan Allen's expedition to Ticon- 
deroga. and raised a military company in 
New Haven, receiving a captain's com- 
mission. May 16. 1775. and immediately 
proceeded to the north with provisions 
and supplies for the troops under IMont- 
gomery. When he reported, Montgom- 
ery, finding he was a good seaman, re- 
quested him to take command of the 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



flotilla on Lake Champlain. He was made 
commodore of this fleet, and in the fall 
of 1775 rendered important service in the 
siege and capture of St. Johns, at the head 
of the lake, taking large quantities of pro- 
visions, arms and other military stores, 
together with cannon which were carried 
across the country and used in the de- 
fense of Boston. Early in 1776 he raised 
and equipped out of his private purse a 
regiment of soldiers in the vicinity of New 
Haven, of which he was commissioned 
colonel by Governor Jonathan Trumbull, 
June 20, 1776. As soon as the regiment 
was equipped he marched to New York 
and joined the continental army under 
General Washington. He was in the dis- 
astrous campaign of Long Island. He 
took part at Harlem Heights, White 
Plains, Philips Manor, Croton River and 
New York. In the battle of September 
16, 1776, his clothes were perforated with 
bullets and his horse shot from under 
him. He became so exhausted that, in 
connection with subsequent exposure, he 
lost his voice, and was never able after- 
ward to speak a loud word. From the day 
of this battle until toward the middle of 
December, he was so constantly on duty 
that he rarely slept beneath a roof. To 
save his young wife and children from the 
British soldiers, he purchased a farm of 
one hundred and fifty acres about eight 
miles from New Haven, in Northford, and 
moved his family there. After the battles 
about New York, being disabled, he re- 
turned to his family at Northford, where 
he died May 28, 1777, at the age of thirty- 
five years. His regiment was retained as 
the Sixth Connecticut Continental Line, 
and it rendered good service through the 
remainder of the war under Colonel Re- 
turn Jonathan Meigs. On his dying bed, 
he sold his New Haven property to specu- 
lators, and was paid in continental money, 
which became almost worthless, so that 



his family lost all their large wealth. Colo- 
nel Douglas literally sacrificed his life and 
fortune for his country. A modest brown 
stone monument in the old burial ground 
at Northford marks the resting place of 
this patriot of the Revolution. 

He married, July 5, 1767, Hannah, 
daughter of Stephen Mansfield, of New 
Haven, where she was born November 
17, 1747. She was sister of Colonel Jared 
Mansfield, who was at the head of West 
Point Military Academy, and surveyor- 
general of the United States. She sur- 
vived her husband forty-eight years, and 
died in Northford, May 22, 1825. Chil- 
dren, all born in New Haven : Olive, 
March 25. 1768; William, February 23, 
1770 ; Hannah, April 12, 1772 ; John, March 
24. 1775- 



WOOSTER, General David, 

Revolutienary Soldier. 

Edward Wooster, immigrant ancestor, 
was born in England in 1622 and was 
among the first settlers of Milford, Con- 
necticut, in 1642. He was also the first 
settler of Derby, Connecticut, in 1654, and 
went there for the special purpose of rais- 
ing hops on the bottom land now a little 
way below Ansonia. He married (sec- 
ond) Tabitha, daughter of Henry Tomlin- 
son, in 1669. He died July 8, 1680. 

His son Abraham married, November 
22, 1699, Mary, daughter of Jacob Walker 
and Elizabeth, widow of Samuel Blake- 
man. Jacob Walker was the son of Rob- 
ert Walker, of Boston, and brother of the 
Rev. Zechariah Walker, and came to 
Stratford about 1667. He is said to have 
been a weaver by trade and accumulated 
considerable property. Abraham Wooster 
was also a weaver and settled at Farmill 
river in Stratford soon after his marriage. 
His name appears in a list of the pro- 
prietors of Stratford, October 3, 1738, 




Pravincial Xmrf trait^rt^ (^tTE n ■ 



ISNOixvaNnoa Jr'i^ 
IBLig, LIBRARY 

• ASTOR, LENOX 
ILDEN tOUr-:D..TION'S 



E>:CYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



with the title of captain. About 1719 he 
removed to Quaker's Farm, in Derby, 
now Oxford, Connecticut. 

General David Wooster, son of Abra- 
ham Wooster, was born at Oronoque, in 
Stratford, March 2, 1710-11. He gradu- 
ated from Yale College in 1738. Much 
more would doubtless have been known 
of his early life but for the burning of all 
his family papers by the British when 
they pillaged New Haven in 1779. When 
the Spanish war broke out in 1739, he was 
employed as first lieutenant, and in 1745 
as captain of a coast guard. In the same 
year he was captain in Colonel Burr's 
regiment, which formed a part of the 
troops sent by the State of Connecticut in 
the expedition against Louisburg. For a 
time he was retained among the colonial 
troops to keep possession of Louisburg. 
but was soon after elected among the 
American officers to take charge of a car- 
tel ship for France and England. He was 
not permitted to land in France, but was 
received in England with distinguished 
honor. There he was presented to the 
king and became a favorite of the court 
and people. The king admitted him to 
the regular service, and presented him 
with a captaincy in Sir William Pep- 
perell's regiment, with half-pay for life. 
His likeness at full length was taken, and 
transferred to the periodicals of the day. 
After the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748, 
he returned to America. In the French 
war of 1756 he was appointed colonel of 
a regiment raised in Connecticut, and 
afterwards to the command of a brigade, 
in which station he remained until the 
peace of 1763. He then engaged in mer- 
cantile business in New Haven, and held 
the office of his majesty's collector of cus- 
toms of that port. 

When the Revolution broke out, he im,- 
mediately resigned his position and took 
sides with his native country. After the 
battle of Lexington, he and a few others. 



in the General Assembly of May, 1775, 
planned the expedition from Connecticut 
to seize and retain the fort at Ticonderoga, 
and to enable them to carry their plans 
into execution they privately obtained a 
loan of eighteen hundred dollars from the 
State treasury, for which they became 
personally responsible. The result was 
that on May 10, the fort was surprised 
and delivered up to Allen and Arnold. 
June 22, 1775, he was among the- eight 
brigadier-generals appointed by Congress, 
and was third in rank. Notwithstanding 
his age (sixty-five years) he had a com- 
mand under Montgomery in the expedi- 
tion against Quebec, and succeeded to the 
command of the army on the death of 
^Montgomery. He was acquitted by a 
court of inquiry of blame for the disas- 
trous termination of that campaign and 
resigned his commission in the Conti- 
nental arm.y. On his return to Connecti- 
cut he was appointed major-general of 
militia. During the winter of 1776-77 he 
was employed in protecting Connecticut 
against the enemy, especially in the neigh- 
borhood of Danbury, where large stores 
of provisions and other articles had been 
collected. He had just returned to New 
Haven from one of his tours, when he 
heard, April 15, 1777, that a body of two 
thousand men from New York had affect- 
ed a landing at Norwalk and Fairfield for 
the purpose of destroying the magazines 
at Danbury, which object they accom- 
plished the following day. He imme- 
diately set out with General Arnold and 
joined the militia hastily collected by 
General Silliman, which numbered about 
six hundred and with this small force de- 
termined to attack the enemy in their re- 
treat. Part of the men were put under 
General Arnold, and part under General 
Wooster. General Wooster's division 
pursued the enemy the next morning, but 
being inexperienced militia, were after a 
time put to flight. General Wooster was 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



rallying them when he received a mortal 
wound. A musket ball broke his back- 
bone, lodged within and could not be ex- 
tracted. He was removed to Danbury, 
where he died May 2, 1777. On June 17, 
1777, a resolution was passed by Con- 
gress that a monument be erected to his 
memory, but the sum voted, five hundred 
dollars, was never paid. A granite monu- 
ment was erected to his memory in Dan- 
bury, Connecticut, in 1854. 

He married Mary Clap, a beautiful 
and accomplished woman, daughter of 
President Thomas Clap, of Yale College. 



ELIOT, Jared, 

Distingnished Clergyman. 

Rev. Jared Eliot, son of Rev. Joseph 
Eliot, was born November 7, 1685, died 
April 22, 1763. He was a grandson of 
Rev. John Eliot, "Apostle to the Indians ; 
and his father. Rev. Joseph Eliot, was an 
almost equally distinguished divine. 

He graduated at Yale College in 1706, 
and became a famous minister. He was 
enrolled among the earliest pupils of the 
Collegiate School of Connecticut (after- 
ward Yale College). Before his gradua- 
tion he had won the affection and esteem 
of Rector Abraham Pierson, and when the 
venerable man lay on his death bed, he 
earnestly advised his parishioners of Kill- 
ingworth (now Clinton) to call as his 
successor his favorite pupil, young Eliot. 
They did so, and Eliot began his duties 
June I, 1707, although he was not formally 
ordained until October 26, 1709. To ac- 
cept this call he withdrew as schoolmas- 
ter in his native town, but he maintained 
through life a strong interest in educa- 
tional matters. In 1730 he was elected a 
trustee of Yale College, the first graduate 
of that institution to be so honored, and 
he filled the position till his death, with 
interest and energy, and in his will left 
the first bequest for the development of 



the library of that institution. He was 
an indefatigable student and acquired a 
broad culture in science and letters, at- 
tainments which Harvard recognized with 
an honorary Master of Arts, the second 
on her list, and which brought him into 
interesting correspondence with President 
Stiles, Bishop Berkeley, and Benjamin 
Franklin. Eliot's ministry in Killing- 
worth covered a period of fifty-six years, 
full of service. Ruggles, in his discourse 
at his funeral, says : "For more than forty 
years of the latter part of his life he never 
missed preaching some part of every Sab- 
bath either at home or abroad." Also, 
"He was sound in the faith, according to 
the true character of orthodoxy, so he 
was of a truly catholic and Christian spirit 
in the exercise of it. Difference in opinion 
as to religious principles was no obstruc- 
tion to a hearty practice of the great law 
of love, benevolence, and true goodness 
to man, to every man ; nor of Christian 
charity to the whole household of faith. 
Them he received whom he hoped the 
Lord had received ; abhorring narrow- 
ness, and the mean contractedness of a 
party spirit, but heartily loved and freely 
practiced, in word and behavior, the great 
law of true liberty." This broad minded- 
ness at one time nearly led him into Epis- 
copacy. He was not only a divine, but 
was a physician as well. It has been said 
of him : "Of all those who combined the 
offices of clergyman and physician, not 
one, from the foundation of the American 
colonies, attained so high distinction as a 
physician as Jared Eliot." In chronic 
complaints "he appears to have been more 
extensively consulted than any other phy- 
sician in New England, frequently visiting 
every county of Connecticut, and being 
often called in Boston and Newport." He 
trained so many students in medicine who 
subsequently attained distinction that he 
was commonly called "the father of regu- 
lar medical practice in Connecticut." He 



24 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



was scarcely less famous in scientific in- 
vestigation. He discovered the existence 
of iron in the dark red seasand, and as a 
result of successful experiments made 
America's first contribution to the science 
of metallurgy in a tract entitled : "The 
Art of making very good if not the best 
Iron from black sea Sand." These investi- 
gations won for him by unanimous vote 
the gold medal of the London Society of 
Arts, in 1762. Some six years before he 
was unanimously elected a member of the 
Royal Society. He also published a vol- 
ume called "Field Husbandry in New 
England." 

Jared Eliot was distinctly practical, and 
a man of affairs, and he utilized his knowl- 
edge. He had large and profitable invest- 
ments in the ore-fields of northwestern 
Connecticut. He had extensive farming 
tracts, which were better cultivated than 
most of his neighbors. Ruggles says : 
"Idleness was his abhorrence ; but every 
portion of time was filled with action by 
him. Perhaps no man, in this day, has 
slept so little, and done so much, in so 
great variety." He had a rare charm of 
person and manner. Well proportioned 
and of commanding presence, with a coun- 
tenance from which a grave dignity did 
not altogether banish a gentle kindliness, 
he merits Ruggles' characterization: "He 
had a turn of mind peculiarly adapted for 
conversation, and happily accommodated 
to the pleasures of social life. * * * 
No less agreeable charming and engaging 
was his company, accommodated to every 
person under every circumstance. Noth- 
ing affected, nothing assuming; it is all 
nature, and shined with wisdom., so that 
perhaps no person ever left his company 
dissatisfied, or without being pleased with 
it." Benjamin Franklin, in one of his let- 
ters to him, says: "I remember with pleas- 
ure the cheerful hours I enjoyed last win- 
ter in your company, and I would with 



all my heart give any ten of the thick old 
folios that stand on the shelves before me, 
for a little book of the stories you then 
told with so much propriety and humor." 
His effectiveness and accomplishment, as 
well as his charm of manner, remained 
with him to the end of his long life. His 
pastorate was the longest in the history 
of the church. In addition to the publi- 
cations mentioned, he published : "The 
Right Hand of Fellowship," 1730; "The 
Two Witnesses, or Religion Supported by 
Reason and Divine Revelation," 1736; 
"Give Caesar His Due ; or the Obligations 
that Subjects are under to their Civil 
Rulers are shewed in a Sermon Preached 
before the General Assembly of the 
Colony," 1738; "The Blessings Bestowed 
on Them that Fear God," 1739; "God's 
Marvellous Kindness," 1745 ; "Repeated 
Bereavements Considered and Improved," 
1748; "Discourse on the Death of Rev. 
Wm. Worthington," 1757. He married, 
October 26, 1710, Elizabeth Smithson, 
died February 18, 1761, aged sixty-eight, 
daughter of Samuel Smithson, of Guil- 
ford. 



CUTLER, Timothy, 

Clergyman, Rector of Yale College. 

The Rev. Timothy Cutler, clergyman, 
third rector of Yale College, traced his 
ancestry to Robert Cutler, the emigrant, 
who settled at Charlestown, Massachu- 
setts, about 1636. His son, John Cutler, 
married Anna Woodmansey. and their 
son. Major John Cutler, married Martha 
Wiswall, and they were the parents of 
Timothy Cutler, of this review. 

Timothy Cutler was born at Charles- 
town, Massachusetts, May 31, 1684, and 
died in Boston, Massachusetts, August 
i7> 1765- He was graduated from Har- 
vard College in 1701, studied theology, 
and was ordained a Congregational min- 



25 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ister on January ii, 1709. Immediately 
after his ordination he entered upon the 
pastorate of the church at Stratford, Con- 
necticut, where he preached in a most 
acceptable manner for ten years, resign- 
ing his pastorate at the expiration of that 
period of time in order to accept the rec- 
torship of Yale College at New Haven, 
Connecticut, to succeed Samuel Andrew, 
rector pro tempore, 1707-19. He entered 
upon the duties of his office, March 24, 
1719, and retired from the rectorship on 
October 17, 1722, having become a con- 
vert to the Episcopal faith. The chief 
event during his brief rectorship was the 
building of a house for him, which was 
completed in 1722, and was used by his 
successors until the end of the century ; 
about one-half of the cost was supplied by 
the Assembly from the tax on rum, and 
the remainder came from subscriptions, 
collections in the churches, and a gift by 
Governor Yale. Shortly after his retire- 
ment, about two months later, he sailed 
for England, accompanied by his friends, 
Messrs. Johnson and Browne, and re- 
ceived Episcopal orders in March, 1723, 
was honored with the degrees of Doctor 
of Divinity and Doctor of Sacred The- 
ology by Oxford and Cambridge univer- 
sities, and made missionary of the S. P. 
G., and returned to become rector of the 
new Christ Church, Boston, Massachu- 
setts, where he remained until his death, 
a period of nearly forty-two years. His 
defection, as that of the head of a school 
founded chiefly to defend and promote the 
Congregational system, caused much dis- 
may, and had influence in inducing others 
to follow his example. Its immediate re- 
sults in the college were an "additional 
act" of October, 1723, making the rector 
a trustee, and requiring a test of sound- 
ness in doctrines to be signed by all its 
teachers, and this in some form was in 
force for a century. Dr. Cutler married 



Elizabeth, daughter of President Samuel 
Andrews, his successor at Yale College. 



CLAP, Thomas, 

President of Yale College. 

Thomas Clap was born in Scituate, 
Massachusetts, June 26, 1703, son of Dea- 
con Stephen and Temperance Clap, grand- 
son of Samuel and Hannah (Gill) Clap, 
and great-grandson of Thomas and Abi- 
gail Clap. 

Thomas Clap was graduated from Har- 
vard College in 1722. He then studied 
theology, and in August, 1726, succeeded 
the Rev. Samuel Whiting as pastor of the 
church at Windham., Connecticut. He 
was especially learned in philosophy, 
mathematics and astronomy, and con- 
structed the first orrery or planetarium 
made in America. In 1739, when he was 
chosen president of Yale College as suc- 
cessor to the Rev. Elisha Williams, his 
people in Windham were so unwilling to 
part with him that the matter was re- 
ferred to an ecclesiastical council who ad- 
vocated the change, and on April 2, 1740, 
he was formally installed in the presi- 
dency. The State Legislature voted to 
pay an indemnity of £53 to the people of 
Windham for the deprivation of their min- 
ister. On entering upon the duties of his 
collegiate office, Mr. Clap at once drew up 
a code of laws to supersede the laws of 
Harvard College, which had until then 
been in use at Yale. These were pub- 
lished in 1748 in Latin, the first book pub- 
lished in New Haven. In 1745 he ob- 
tained a new charter for the college from 
the State Legislature, and in 1752 a new 
building was erected. He next called for 
a new chapel, which was completed in 
1763, and many marked improvements 
were made under his administration. 
Whitefield's visit to New England brought 
some unpopularity upon President Clap, 



26 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



who had no sympathy with the revivalist, 
and reprobated his methods, if he did not 
absolutely antagonize them. After sev- 
eral unsuccessful attempts by the trustees 
to secure a Professor of Divinit}-, ]\Ir. 
Clap was invited in 1753 to preach to the 
students in College Hall, a course which 
was strongly objected to by the New 
Haven church, which claimed the college 
as within its parish boundaries. Other 
controversies increased his unpopularity, 
and a memorial was sent to the Legisla- 
ture petitioning for an examination into 
the college afifairs. A written denial of the 
charges made was prepared by him and 
the memorial was dismissed by the Legis- 
lature. In 1765 he called for the resigna- 
tion of two of the tutors who had em- 
braced the opinions of the Sandemanians. 
The remaining tutor then resigned, as did 
the successors shortly afterward. Presi- 
dent Clap offered his resignation in July, 
1766, and after conferring the degrees in 
September he retired from office. Among 
his publications were : "An Introduction 
to the Study of Philosophy" (1743) ; "The 
Religious Constitution of Colleges, espe- 
cially of Yale College, New Haven" 
(1754) ; "A Brief History and Vindica- 
tion of the Doctrines received and estab- 
lished in the Churches of New England, 
with a specimen of the New Scheme of 
Religion beginning to prevail" (1755) ; 
"An Essay on the Nature and Foundation 
of Moral Virtue and Obligation" (1765); 
"Annals of History of Yale College" 
(1766) ; and "Conjectures upon the Na- 
ture and Motions of Meteors, which are 
above the Atmosphere" (1781). 

He was married, in 1727, to Mary, 
daughter of the Rev. Samuel Whitney, 
by whom he had two daughters : Mary, 
who became the wife of David Wooster, 
afterward major-general in the Revolu- 
tionary army; and Temperance, who be- 
came the wife of the Rev. Timothy Pit- 
kin, son of Governor William Pitkin, of 



Connecticut. I\Ir. Clap died in New 
Haven, Connecticut, January 7, 1767. 



DAVENPORT, Abram, 

Hero of "The Dark Day." 

Abram Davenport is famous in history 
for an act of courage which has been 
immortalized in one of John G. Whittier's 
most stirring poems. 

The family from which he came is of 
ancient French lineage, dating in Eng- 
land as far back as 1086, in Chester. 
From him came the Rev. John Daven- 
port, born in Coventry, County Warwick, 
England, baptized there April 9, 1597, in 
the Church of the Holy Trinity. In 1637 
he arrived in Boston in the ship "Llec- 
tor," and in April, of the following year, 
settled in New Haven, where he was in- 
stalled as pastor of the First Church. 
His wife, Elizabeth Wooley, died in Sep- 
tember, 1676, having outlived her hus- 
band, who died March 15, 1669. 

Their son, John Davenport, born in 
London, England, in 1635, came to New 
Haven with his parents. In 1666 he re- 
moved to Boston, where he engaged in 
mercantile business, and was register of 
probate in 1675-76, dying in the latter 
year. He married Abigail, daughter of 
Abraham Pierson. 

Their son. Rev. John Davenport, was 
born in Boston, and removed to Stam- 
ford, Connecticut, where he was ordained 
to the ministry. He was married twice — 
to Martha Gould Selleck, and to Eliza- 
beth Morris Maltby. 

Abram Davenport, son of the Rev. John 
Davenport by his second marriage, 
was born in Stamford. Connecticut, in 
1715. He graduated from Yale College 
in his seventeenth year. Connected with 
the militia, he was generally known as 
Colonel Davenport. He was one of the 
formost men of his day in public life ; was 
called to the bench, and in his later years 



V 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



sat in the legislative assembly. On the 
memorable "dark day" of May 17, 1780, 
he held his seat apparently undisturbed, 
while most of his associates were filled 
with terror. To a proposition to adjourn, 
he replied: "I am against adjournment. 
The Day of Judgment is either approach- 
ing, or it is not. If it is not, there is no 
reason for adjournment; if it is, I choose 
to be found doing my duty. I wish there- 
fore that candles may be brought." Whit- 
tier's line poem well expresses the moral 
of the lesson in the concluding lines: 

And there he stands in memory to this day — 
Erect, self-poised, a rugged face half seen 
Against the background of unnatural dark — 
A witness to the ages as they pass. 
That simple duty has no place for fear. 

When the story of Sir Philip Sidney is 
told as an illustration of sublime self- 
abnegation, and his generosity to a poor 
suffering soldier as stronger than the 
pangs of a mortal wound, this story of 
Abram Davenport may be well told as a 
companion piece, illustrating for all time 
the simple but lofty principle that the 
post of duty is the best place to live and 
the best place to die. 

Abram Davenport married, in 1750, 
Elizabeth Huntington, who died in 1773, 
after which he married Mrs. Martha 
Fitch. Their son, Hon. John Davenport, 
was born in 1752 and died in 1830. He 
was a man of importance, and was a 
member of Congress from 1799 to 181 7. 
In 1824 he entertained as his guest, at 
the Davenport mansion in Stamford, Con- 
necticut, the distinguished Lafayette, a 
hero of the Revolution and friend of 
Washington. 



SPENCER, Joseph, 

Revolutionary Soldier. 

Joseph Spencer was born in East Had- 
dam, Connecticut, in 1714, died there. 
January 13, 1789. He was reared and 



educated in his native town, and there 
spent his entire lifetime. In 1758, he en- 
tered the northern army with the rank of 
major, serving in three campaigns with 
such conspicuous bravery and skill that 
he was promoted to the rank of colonel. 
On June 22, 1775, upon General Wash- 
ington's recommendation, he was com- 
missioned brigadier-general in the Con- 
tinental army. He was stationed at Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts, until after its evacu- 
ation, after which he participated in the 
defence of New York City, the surrender 
of which to the British he strenuously 
opposed. He was advanced to the rank 
of major-general on August 9, 1776, and 
two years later was assigned to the com- 
mand of the patriot forces in Rhode 
Island. In order to expel the British 
from Newport, Rhode Island, he as- 
sembled a considerable army at Provi- 
dence, but owing to a delay of several 
weeks' duration he was forced to dismiss 
his troops without accomplishing the 
desired end, not having an opportunity to 
advance against the enemy. For this 
failure he was tried by a court of inquiry, 
which absolved him from all blame in the 
premises. Congress, however, was not 
satisfied with the decision of the court of 
inquiry, and insisted that the case be re- 
opened, and rather than again undergo 
the ordeal, General Spencer tendered his 
resignation on June 14, 1778, which was 
accepted, and from that time until his 
decease, a period of almost eleven years, 
he lived in retirement from active pur- 
suits. 



28 



CHAMPION, General Henry, 

Revolutionary Soldier. 

Henry Champion, the immigrant ances- 
tor, came from England and settled in 
Saybrook, Connecticut, as early as 1647. 
He had various parcels of land in Say- 
brook, and about 1670 removed to Lyme, 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



where he was one of the first and most 
active founders. He was admitted a free- 
man there May 12, 1670, and owned land. 
He died February 17, 1708-09, aged about 
ninety-eight years. He married (second) 
March 21, 1697-98, Deborah Jones, of 
Lyme. 

Thomas Champion, son of Henry Cham- 
pion, was born in April, 1656, in Say- 
brook, and died April 5, 1705, in Lyme. 
He resided on land given him by his 
father in Lyme. He also had grants there. 
His will was dated April 4, 1705, the day 
before his death. He married in Lyme, 
August 23, 1682, Hannah Brockway, born 
September 14, 1664, died March 2, 1750, 
daughter of Wolston and Hannah 
(Briggs) Brockway. 

Lieutenant Henry Champion, son of 
Thomas Champion, was born May 2, 1695, 
in Lyme, and died at East Haddam, No- 
vember 26, 1779. When he became of age 
he made an agreement with his brother 
Thomas to divide the homestead, and in 
1716, settled in East Haddam, where he 
bought fifty acres of land in the first divi- 
sion. He lived about a mile east of the 
meeting house, and his house is still 
standing. He was "a man of more than 
medium height, square and compactly 
built, all his joints seemed to be double, 
and he was possessed of great strength. 
His face was handsome, his eyes dark and 
his complexion florid." His will was 
dated June 29, 1764, and proved February 
7, 1780. He married, in East Haddam, 
January 16, 1717, Mehitable Rowley, bap- 
tized December, 1704, died October 5, 
1775, daughter of Moses and Mary Row- 
ley. 

Colonel Henry Champion, son of Lieu- 
tenant Henry Champion, was born in East 
Haddam, January 19, 1723, and died July 
23, 1797- At the age of eighteen he was 
appointed ensign of the East Haddam 
South company. In 1758 he was elected 
captain of a company to serve in the 



French War. The company left Colches- 
ter, where he had settled, on June 8, 1658, 
and marched to join the main army at 
Lake George. He left a diary with an 
account of the trip and campaign. He 
returned home November 15 and on 
March 8, 1759, was elected captain of the 
fifth company of the second regiment, and 
was transferred to the command of the 
twelfth or Westchester company in May, 
1760. On May 14, 1772, he was appointed 
major of the twelfth regiment of colonial 
militia. On April 26, 1775, he served as 
one of the commissioners to supply the 
troops with provisions and stores, and 
when General Washington took command 
of the army he recommended that he be 
one of the commissaries. He served in 
that position until the evacuation of Bos- 
ton in March, 1776. In 1775 he was ap- 
pointed colonel of the Twenty-fifth regi- 
ment. When the army began to assem- 
ble at New York, Colonel Champion acted 
as commissary, and from that time the 
army was supplied almost wholly by him. 
He also provided for the troops ordered 
to Rhode Island. He received the ap- 
pointment of sole commissary-general of 
the eastern department of the Continental 
army in April, 1780. In that spring he 
was placed in command of a train, largely 
supplied from his own resources, to re- 
lieve the distress of the army at Morris- 
town. In a very short time he reached 
the Hudson, was ferried across at New- 
burgh, and delivered the provisions. In 
May, 1780, he resigned his commission 
and returned to his home in Westchester. 
He was deputy to the general assembly 
in 1761, from 1765 to 1779, and in 1781-83- 
90-91-92. He was deacon of the West- 
chester church from 1775 until his death. 
He married (first) in East liaddam, 
December 25, 1746, Deborah Brainard, 
born June 20, 1724. died March 17, 1789, 
daughter of Captain Joshua and Mehit- 
able (Dudley) Brainard. He married (sec- 



29 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ond) in Westchester, November 24, 1791, 
Mrs. Sarah (Brainard) Lewis, born April 
30, 1744, died January 17, 1818, widow of 
Judah Lewis, and daughter of Stephen 
and Susannah (Gates) Brainard. 

General Henry Champion, son of Colonel 
Henry Champion, was born in Westches- 
ter, Connecticut, March 16, 1751, and died 
there July 13, 1836. He served in the Rev- 
olution as ensign at the Lexington Alarm. 
On April 26, 1775, he was appointed sec- 
ond lieutenant of the Eighth Company, 
Second Regiment, and on May i promoted 
to first lieutenant. He was on duty at 
Roxbury until December 10. He was in 
the battle of Bunker Hill. On January 
I, 1776, he was promoted adjutant on the 
staft of Colonel Samuel Wyllys, and after 
the evacuation of Boston, marched to New 
York, and assisted in fortifying that city. 
He took part in the battle of Long Island, 
August 27, 1776, and was with the army 
at White Plains, October 28, remaining 
until December, 1776. On January i, 
1777, he was promoted captain of the 
First Connecticut Line, remaining until 
the regiment was reorganized as the 
Third. On July 15, 1779, ^"^^ ^^^ appoint- 
ed acting major of the First Battalion, 
Light Brigade. This corps was composed 
of picked men from all the regiments 
under Washington's immediate command, 
and was organized especially to attempt 
the capture of Stony Point, which was 
successfully done. Major Champion re- 
mained in the army until the close of the 
Revolution. He was a member of the 
Order of the Cincinnati in Connecticut. 

Major Champion was deputy to the 
General Assembly in 1789, 1793-98, 1800- 
05, and from 1806 to 1817 was assistant. 
He was a deacon in the Westchester 
church from 1813 to 1828. General Cham- 
pion always celebrated July 16, "Stony 
Point Day," at his home in Westchester. 
He obtained the charter for the Phoenix 
Bank of Hartford, because the State Bank 



had refused him the accommodation of a 
loan. He was largely interested in the 
Connecticut Land Company, to which he 
subscribed over eighty-five thousand dol- 
lars. The towns of Champion, New York, 
and Champion, Ohio, w^ere named in his 
honor. He was instrumental in obtaining 
the school fund for Connecticut, and was 
chairman of the committee of the legis- 
lature appointed to arrange for the hold- 
ing of the Hartford Convention in 1814. 
His epitaph reads as follows : 

The patriotism of General Champion early led 
him to join the army of the Revolution. He 
was a brave and efficient subaltern officer at the 
battle of Bunker Hill. He shared in the perilous 
retreat of the American troops from Long 
Island. He rendered essential services under 
Kosciusko in constructing the defences at West 
Point. He led the first battalion of Connecticut 
Light Infantry at the capture of Stony Point. 
Subsequently he filled many offices of honor and 
trust in his native State. By his talents and 
influence he promoted the vi^elfare of the com- 
munity where he resided. He died cheered by 
the hope and sustained by the promises of the 
Gospel, leaving a memory respected by his 
friends, cherished by his family and honorable 
to the place of his birth. 

He married, in East Haddam, October 
10, 1781, Abigail Tinker, born March 24, 
1758, died April 19, 1818, daughter of 
Sylvanus and Abigail (Olmstead) Tinker. 



ANDREW, Samuel, 

Clergyman, Educator. 

The Rev. Samuel Andrew was a native 
of Massachusetts, born at Cambridge, in 
1696, and died January 24, 1738. He was 
graduated from Harvard College in 1675, 
and was afterward tutor there for several 
years, performing his duties in a most 
creditable manner. He meantime pur- 
sued a course in theology, and in 1685 was 
ordained pastor at Milford, Connecticut, 
and during his ministry certain divisions 
among his people were healed. 



30 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



In association with Messrs. Pierpont 
and Pierson, he founded the collegiate 
school at Saybrook, was one of its first 
trustees, and attended the first meeting 
of the corporation, November ii, 1701, 
and after the death of Mr. Pierson, which 
occurred in March, 1707, he was chosen 
rector pro tern., and taught the senior class 
at his house at Alilford, the other classes 
being instructed at Saybrook. The rector 
exercised somewhat of a general super- 
vision by means of correspondence, and 
went annually to act as moderator at the 
commencement. The Saybrook council 
was called by the Assembly, urged by 
Governor Saltonstall, and met at the com- 
mencement in September, 1708. Mr. An- 
drew was one of its twelve members, 
eight more of whom were trustees of the 
college. They framed, and the Assembly 
at its next session adopted, the "Say- 
brook Platform," which at once became 
the constitution of the Connecticut 
churches. A gift of books from England 
in 1714-15 was followed in 1715 by a 
grant of £500 from the Assembly for a 
building. Very serious difficulties arose 
as to location, and which were settled in 
October, 1716, in favor of New Haven, 
which offered larger inducements than its 
rivals. A college building was begun in 
the fall of 1717 at New Haven, where 
eight acres had been given, and it was 
completed and occupied in October, 1718, 
on ground which is now the college 
campus. Following after a plan of Gov- 
ernor Saltonstall, it had three stories and 
an attic, with a length of about one hun- 
dred and seventy feet and a depth of 
twenty-two feet, and contained a library, 
a- chapel and dining hall in one, and 
twenty-two sets of rooms, which could 
hold three students each. The first com- 
mencement at New Haven was held in 
October, 1717, and five students gradu- 
ated, and in September, 1718, ten students 
were graduated. The property at Say- 



brook, after several vain efforts to secure 
it, was removed under much violent oppo- 
sition and by the aid of the sheriff, with 
the loss of all the records and some three 
hundred of the thirteen thousand volumes 
in the library. Through all these years 
Mr. Andrew's rectorship had been re- 
garded as merely temporary, and his care 
for the college as secondary to his duties 
as pastor of the church at Milford. Its 
interests now plainly demanded the elec- 
tion of a resident rector, and in March, 
1719, the place was taken by his son-in- 
law, Timothy Cutler. Three years later 
J\Ir. Andrew again took nominal charge 
for a brief period. Mr. Andrew married 
a daughter of George R. Treat, one of the 
parishioners of the church at Milford. 



WILLIAMS, William, 

Clergyman, Author. 

Rev. William Williams, son of Captain 
Isaac and Martha (Park) Williams, was 
born February 2, 1665. He was grandson 
of Robert Williams, who came from Eng- 
land, and was made a freeman at Rox- 
bury, Massachusetts, in 1638, and son of 
Captain Isaac Williams, who sat in the 
General Court, and was an officer of 
militia. 

He graduated at Harvard College in 
1683, and settled at Hatfield, Massachu- 
setts, in 1685, as a minister. After a long 
ministry he died suddenly at an advanced 
age, about 1746. He published several 
sermons, one on the ordination of Stephen 
Williams in 1716; "The Great Salvation 
Explained in Several Sermons," 1717; 
"Election Sermon," 1719; a "Sermon on 
the Ordination of Rev. Warham Wil- 
liams," 1733; "On the Ordination of Ne- 
hemiah Bull, of Westfield ;" "Convention 
Sermon," 1729; "The Duty and Interest 
of a Christian People to be Steadfast;" 
"Directions to Obtain a True Conver- 
sion," 1736; and a sermon on the death of 



31 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



his wife, 1745. President Edwards, in de- 
scribing his character at his funeral, said 
in part : "He was a person of unnatural 
common abilities, and distinguished learn- 
ing, a great divine, of very comprehensive 
knowledge, and of a solid, accurate judg- 
ment ; judiciousness and wisdom, were 
eminently his character. He was one of 
eminent gifts, qualifying himself for all 
parts of the work of the ministry ; and 
there followed a savor of holiness in the 
exercise of those gifts in public and pri- 
vate. In his public ministry, he mainly 
insisted on the most weighty and impor- 
tant things in religion. Christ was the 
great subject of his preaching; and he 
much insisted on those things, that nearly 
concern the essence and power of religion. 
His subject was always weighty, and his 
manner of teaching peculiarly happy, 
showing the strength and accuracy of his 
judgm.ent, and ever breathing forth the 
spirit of piety, and a deep sense on his 
heart of the things he delivered. His ser- 
mons were some of them vain, but were 
all weighty. His presence and conversa- 
tion, did peculiarly command awe, and 
respect, yet it was at the same time hum- 
ble and condescending." 

He married (first) Eliza, daughter of 
Rev. Dr. Cotton. He married (second) 
Christian, daughter of Rev. Solomon 
Stoddard, of Northampton, one of the 
greatest divines of New England. Chil- 
dren of first wife: i. Rev. William, of 
Weston, born May 11, 1688. 2. Martha, 
born October 10, 1690, married Edward 
Partridge. 3. Rector Elisha, born August 
26, 1694. Children of second wife : 4. Rev. 
Solomon, born June 4, 1701, who was a 
graduate of Harvard College, and a dis- 
tinguished clergyman and author. 5. 
Daughter, bom January i, 1707, married 

Barnard, of Salem. 6. Colonel 

Israel, of Hartford, born November 30, 
1709. 7. Elizabeth. 8. Dorothy, born 



June 20, 1713, married Rev. Jonathan 
Ashley, of Deerfield. 

Rev. Solomon Williams, son of Rev. 
William and Christian (Stoddard) Wil- 
liams, was born June 4, 1701. He gradu- 
ated at Harvard College in 1719. He was 
ordained December 5, 1722, and was a 
distinguished minister at Lebanon, Con- 
necticut. He published "A Sermon at the 
Ordination of Jacob Elliot at Goshen," in 
1730; "A Sermon on the Day of Prayer," 
on the occasion of the visit of Eunice 
Williams, daughter of Rev. John Wil- 
liams, who was carried captive by the In- 
dians to Canada, preached at Mansfield, 
August 4, 1741. He also preached an 
"Election Sermon," which was published ; 
one "On the Death of Eleazer Williams," 
in 1743; "Christ, the Living Witness of 
the Truth," 1744; "A Vindication of the 
Scripture Doctrine of Justifying Faith," 
in answer to Andrew Croswell, 1746; 
"The True State of the Question Con- 
cerning the Qualifications for Com- 
munion," in answer to Jonathan Edwards. 
He died in 1769, or, according to another 
authority, in 1776. He married Mary 
Porter. 



WILLIAMS, Elisha, 

Clerg^yman, Educator. 

The Rev. Elisha Williams was born in 
Hatfield, Hampshire county, Massachu- 
setts, August 24, 1694, and died at Weth- 
ersfield, Connecticut, July 24, 1755. He 
was a son of William Williams, born 
1665, died 1741, pastor at Hatfield from 
1685 until his death; grandson of Isaac 
Williams, born 1638, died 1708, who was 
the second son of Robert Williams, who 
came from Norwich to Roxbury, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1638. 

Elisha Williams graduated from Har- 
vard College in 171 1, having previously 
acquired a practical education in the 



32 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



schools of Hatfield. He then turned his 
attention to the study of law, and later 
accepted a clerkship in the Connecticut 
Assembly. In 1716, on the removal of the 
school from Saybrook to New Haven, he 
gave his assistance to the tutor who had 
taken some fourteen malcontent students 
to Wethersfield, and received the chief 
credit for their instruction, until 1719. 
Two years later, in 1721, he was ordained 
minister of Newington, near Wethers- 
field and Hartford, and in September, 
1725, he became rector, or more properly, 
president of Yale College, which he "re- 
formed very much, and advanced useful 
and polite literature." Further grants 
were made by the Legislature, a second 
tutor was added in 1728, and in 1737 the 
trustees appointed from their own num- 
ber a standing committee, out of which 
grew the prudential committee some sixty 
years later. When he resigned in Octo- 
ber, 1739, the number of graduates was 
three hundred and eighty-six, and the col- 
lege was firmly established and fairly 
prosperous. Among the graduates during 
his presidency were a number who be- 
came divines who were famous in their 
time, principally Aaron Burr (1735), presi- 
dent of New Jersey College, and Rev. 
Chauncey Whittlesey (1738) ; and among 
the civilians was David Ogden, Supreme 
Court Judge in New Jersey. After his 
retirement from Yale, President Williams 
served frequently in the Assembly, and 
became a judge of the Superior Court. 
He published in 1744 a tract on the 
"Rights and Liberties of Protestants." 
He was chaplain of Connecticut forces in 
the expedition which took Louisburg in 
1745, and the following year was colonel 
of a regiment intended to act against Can- 
ada, but which proceeded no further than 
New London. In 1749 he went to Eng- 
land and returned to America in April, 
1752. 

In 1751 he married Elizabeth Scott, 

CONN— Vol 1—3 



born in 1708, died 1776, the hymn-writer, 
daughter of the Rev. T. Scott, of Nor- 
wich. Dr. Doddridge said of President 
Williams : "He was one of the most valu- 
able men on earth," and credited him with 
"solid learning, consummate prudence, 
great candor and sweetness of temper, 
and a certain nobleness of soul, capable 
of conceiving and acting the greatest 
things, without seeming to be conscious 
of having done them." 



DICKERMAN, Isaac, 

Benefactor of Yale College. 

Thomas Dickerman, immigrant ances- 
tor, came over with his wife Ellen, and 
settled in Dorchester, Massachusetts, as 
early as 1636. He owned land there in 
that year, and bought more the following 
year. He also owned a house and land 
in Boston Neck in 1652, to which he 
added in 1656. He was a tailor by trade, 
and also cultivated a farm. The inventory 
of his estate was two hundred and thirty- 
five pounds, eleven shillings, four pence. 
He died June 11, 1657, in Dorchester. His 
widow married (second) John Bullard, 
and went to live in Medfield before July 
14, 1663. Children: Thomas, 1623, died 
before 1691 ; Abraham, born about 1634, 
mentioned below ; Isaac, December, 1637 ; 
John, baptized October 29, 1644, died 
young. 

Abraham Dickerman, son of Thomas 
Dickerman, was born about 1634. He 
married, January 2, 1658-59, Mary Cooper, 
born about 1636, England, died January 
4, 1705-06, daughter of John Cooper. Her 
father had been with the New Haven 
colony from the first, and was a planter, 
freeman and signer of the "fundamental 
agreement." He was constantly engaged 
in public affairs, and held many positions 
of dignity and honor, attorney, appraiser 
of estates, deputy to the general court, 
selectman, etc. Soon after his marriage. 



33 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Abraham Dickerman removed to New 
Haven, and received as his wife's dowry 
a considerable amount of real estate. 
April 17, 1668, he bought a house and lot 
on the corner of Church and Elm streets, 
and made his home there. April 26, 1669, 
he was chosen townsman, or selectman, 
and with the exception of four years was 
annually chosen to this ofifice for thirty- 
one years, until 1699. In 1683 he was 
chosen deputy to the General Court, and 
was reelected until 1696. In October, 
1683, he was confirmed and approved to 
be lieutenant of the New Haven train 
band. When the town of Wallingford 
was settled, he was on a committee of 
thirteen, including his father-in-law, to 
lay out the boundaries, which were agreed 
upon, January 28, 1673-74. In 1669 he 
was one of a committee of seven, vested 
with power to manage the affairs of the 
new settlement. June 19, 1685, he was 
again on a committee "to procure a patent 
for the town bounds" of New Haven. 
June 26, 1671, he "was by vote appointed 
to keep the ordinary," and continued to 
do so until 1680. He lived for fifty-three 
years in New Haven, and devoted most 
of that time to the public good. He was 
moderately prosperous, and added to the 
property given him by his father-in-law. 
He also shared with the other citizens in 
the various allotments of land, and re- 
ceived in this way at least fifty acres. He 
died November 2, 171 1, aged seventy- 
seven. His will was dated April 20, 1710, 
and mentions his sons, Abraham and 
Isaac ; daughters, Mary Bassett, Sarah 
Sperry, Ruth Bradley, Abigail Sperry and 
Rebecca Foot, and four grandchildren, the 
children of Hannah, who married Caleb 
Chidsey. Children : Mary, born about 
1659; Sarah, July 25, 1663; Hannah, No- 
vember 16, 1665 ; Ruth, April 5, 1668 ; Abi- 
gail, September 26, 1670 ; Abraham, Janu- 
ary 14, 1673-74 ; Isaac, November 7, 1677 ; 
Rebecca, February 27, 1679. 

Isaac Dickerman, son of Abraham 



Dickerman, was born November 7, 1677. 
He married (first) June 30, 1709, Mary, 
born December 31, 1686, daughter of Jon- 
athan and Ruth (Peck) Atwater. Jona- 
than was the son of David Atwater. He 
married (second) Elizabeth Ailing, born 
November, 1691, died April, 1767, widow 
of John Morris, and daughter of Samuel 
and Sarah (Chidsey) Ailing. Samuel was 
the son of Roger Ailing, the immigrant. 

Isaac Dickerman appears to have had 
unusual aptitude for public afifairs, and 
held many positions of trust and honor. 
He was appointed constable, October, 
1710; in October, 1713, he was ensign of 
militia, and in 1722, captain. December 
15, 1712, he was chosen selectman, and 
afterward continuously until 1719, then 
from 1722 till 1725. and from 1730 till 
1732. He was deputy to the General 
Court for fifty-nine terms between 1718 
and 1757, and was appointed justice of the 
peace for New Haven in May, 1735, and 
every year afterward as long as he lived, 
for twenty-four years. In church affairs 
he was as prominent as in civil matters. 
He was chosen deacon of the First Church 
in 1727, and held the office until 1754, 
when he resigned. He then transferred 
his membership to the White Haven 
church, and was at the same time chosen 
a deacon there, and retained the office 
until his death. December 24, 1716, when 
Yale College was about to be removed 
from Saybrook to New Haven, and the 
latter town had made it a grant of eight 
acres of land, he was one of a committee 
to make the transfer, and in 1718 was one 
of a number of proprietors who made a 
gift of land for the support of the institu- 
tion. In that same year he was first sent 
to the General Assembly, and seems to 
have been regarded from the first as the 
special representative of Yale interests. 
During the religious upheaval which fol- 
lowed the visit of Rev. George Whitefield 
to America (1739), and the controversy 
which took place between the original 



34 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



church in New Haven and the Separatists, 
Isaac Dickerman, as a magistrate and an 
officer in the church, for many years pre- 
served a neutral attitude. In 1754, how- 
ever, he joined the White Haven church 
and thus united with the Separatists. He 
showed throughout his life the traits of 
a good citizen and many qualities of the 
statesman. He was energetic, of judicial 
temper, and tirelessly devoted to public 
interests. He died September 7, 1758. 
His will was dated May 11, 1756. Before 
his death he had transferred large por- 
tions of his real estate to his sons. The 
estate was appraised at seven hundred 
and eleven pounds, four shillings, nine 
pence. Children : Isaac, born March 3, 

1711, died young; Samuel, January 12, 

1712, died young; Ruth, December 13, 
1712; Isaac, January 31, 1714, graduate of 
Yale College, 1736; Samuel, March 4, 
1716; Jonathan, July 4, 1719; Stephen, 
October 14, 1721 ; Mary, December 16, 
1723; Rebekah, July 2, 1726; Abigail, Au- 
gust 4, 1728. 



DAVENPORT, James, 

Member of Congress. 

James Davenport was born in Stam- 
ford, Connecticut, October 12, 1758, died 
there, August 3, 1797. He traced his an- 
cestry to John Davenport, the celebrated 
English Non-conformist, who settled in 
Boston, Massachusetts, in the year 1637. 

After completing his preparatory edu- 
cation, James Davenport entered Yale 
College, from which institution he was 
graduated in the class of 1777, after which 
he enrolled as a soldier in the Revolution- 
ary army, serving in the commissary de- 
partment. After the close of hostilities, 
having decided to follow the legal pro- 
fession, he pursued a course of study 
along that line, was admitted to the bar 
of his native State, and gained renown 
and a high reputation among his profes- 
sional brethren. He took an active part 



in public affairs, serving as a judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas, and as repre- 
sentative in Congress from Connecticut 
for one year, from 1796 to 1797. He was 
also a member of the corporation of Yale 
College from 1793 until his decease. 



ADAMS, Andrew, 

Legislator, Jurist. 

Andrew Adams was born at Stratford, 
Fairfield county, Connecticut, December 
II, 1736, son of Samuel and Mary (Fair- 
child) Adams. He was graduated at 
Yale College in 1760; adopted the profes- 
sion of the law, and for a time practiced 
at Stamford, finally removing to Litch- 
field in 1774, where he became king's at- 
torney. He was major of militia at the 
outbreak of the Revolutionary War, and 
later, but for a short time only, lieutenant- 
colonel. He was one of the Governor's 
assistants ; a member of the Legislature 
from 1776 to 1781, and several times 
speaker; a member of the Council of 
Safety ; a delegate from Connecticut to 
the Continental Congress in 1777-78, 
1779-80, and again in 1781-82. In 1789 
he was appointed a judge of the Supreme 
Court of Connecticut, and in 1793 Chief 
Justice of that court, and held his seat 
until his death. His judicial career is 
mentioned as "remarkable" in the "Bio- 
graphical Congressional Directory." He 
received from Yale College the degree of 
Doctor of Laws. Judge Adams died at 
Litchfield, November 26. 1799. 



HUNTINGTON, Benjamin, 

Lawyer, Jurist. 

Benjamin Huntington was born in Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, April 19, 1736, son of 
Daniel and Rachel (Wolcott) Hunting- 
ton, grandson of Deacon Simon and Sarah 
(Clark) Huntington, and great-grandson 
of Simon and Margaret (Baret) Hunting- 
ton, the immigrants and first of the fam- 



35 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ily in America, coming from the vicinity 
of Norwich, England, in 1632-33. Simon 
Huntington died of smallpox on the voy- 
age, 1633, and his widow with her chil- 
dren arrived at Dorchester, Massachu- 
setts, where she became the wife of 
Thomas Stoughton. 

Benjamin Huntington was graduated 
at Yale College in 1761 ; studied law ; was 
admitted to the bar, and practiced his 
profession in Norwich, Connecticut. He 
early attained eminence at the bar, and 
devoted himself to its duties with an un- 
usual amount of energy and concentra- 
tion. In 1779 he was appointed a mem- 
ber of the convention held at New Haven 
for the regulation of the army, by the 
recommendation of General Washington, 
having previously been made a member 
of the Committee of Safety appointed to 
advise with the Governor during a recess 
of the Legislature. He was a delegate 
from Connecticut to the Continental Con- 
gress, 1780-84 and 1787-88; and was 
mayor of Norwich, 1784-96. He was a 
representative in the first United States 
Congress, 1789-91 ; State Senator, 1781- 
90 and 1791-93, and judge of the Superior 
Court of the State, 1793-98. He received 
the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws 
from Dartmouth in 1782, and that of Mas- 
ter of Arts from Yale in 1787. 

He was married. May 5, 1765, to Anna, 
daughter of Colonel Jabez and Sarah 
(Wetmore) Huntington, and their son, 
Benjamin, Jr., born 1777, died 1850, mar- 
ried Faith Trumbull, daughter of Gen- 
eral Jedediah Huntington. Benjamin 
Huntington, Sr., died in Rome, New York, 
October 16, 1800, and the interment was 
at Norwich, Connecticut. 



HOPKINS, Lemuel, 

Physician, Author. 

Lemuel Hopkins was born in Water- 
bury, Connecticut, June 19, 1750, grand- 



son of Stephen Hopkins, great-grandson 
of John Hopkins, great-grandson of Ste- 
phen and Dorcas (Bronson) Hopkins, and 
great-great-grandson of John Hopkins, of 
Hartford (1636). 

Although a farmer's son, he was liber- 
ally educated, and after completing the 
study of medicine at Wallingford in 1776, 
practiced his profession in Litchfield, Con- 
necticut, and for a time served as sur- 
geon in the Revolutionary army. In 1784 
he removed to Hartford, where he resided 
until his death. He gained considerable 
reputation as a poet, and in association 
with Trumbull, Alsop, Joel Barlow and 
Timothy Dwight, the "Hartford wits," 
prepared the "Anarchiad." a series of 
essays in verse after the style of the Eng- 
lish "Rolliad," and which had for an ob- 
ject the advocacy of an effective federal 
constitution. The idea of this production 
was a clever one. It purports to consist 
of extracts from an ancient English epic 
poem, somehow deposited in the interior 
of the American continent, and there dis- 
covered by some friend of Hopkins. 
Charles W. Everest, in his "Poets of Con- 
necticut" (1843) says: "Public curiosity 
had been awakened by the discovery of 
ancient Indian fortifications, with their 
singular relics ; the story of the early emi- 
gration of a body of Britons and Welsh 
to this country, and of an existing tribe of 
their descendants in the interior of the 
continent, was revived and circulated ; 
and our writers assumed that in digging 
among the ruins of one of these fortifica- 
tions, an ancient heroic poem in the Eng- 
lish language had been discovered. This 
was the 'Anarchiad,' and the essays were 
supposed extracts from it." He was after- 
ward a coadjutor in writing "The Echo," 
"The Political Greenhouse," "The Guillo- 
tine," and other famous satirical papers, 
especially on political subjects. He was 
first an infidel and afterward a student of 
the Bible, writing in defence of Christian 



36 




/KiJ'Ul^^^^^^y^ 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



theology. Noticeable among these apolo- 
getic pieces are his famous lines on Gen- 
eral Ethan Allen. Among his other poems 
may be mentioned his famous version of 
the 137th Psalm, beginning: "Along the 
banks where Babel's current flows ;" his 
"The Hypocrite's Hope," a clever satire, 
and an elegy on "The Victims of a Can- 
cer Quack." No separate collection of 
his writings has ever appeared, but many 
of them were included in Elisha Smith's 
collection, "American Poems" (1793). He 
received the honorary degree of Master 
of Arts from Yale in 1784. He died in 
Hartford, Connecticut, April 14, 1801. 



ELLSWORTH, Oliver, 

Distiuguished Jurist. 

The surname Ellsworth is derived from 
that of a small village a few miles from 
Cambridge, England. The village is on 
a small stream once remarkable for its 
eels, hence the name of the village place 
of eels. The name is spelled in various ways 
— Elswort, Elesworth, Elsworth, Elles- 
worth and Aylesworth. 

(I) Sergeant Josias Ellsworth, the im- 
migrant ancestor, was the son of John 
Ellsworth, and said to have been a de- 
scendant of Sir John Ellsworth, in the 
time of Edward III., who resided in Cam- 
bridgeshire, England. This conjecture is 
derived from "Mr. John Ellsworth, who 
was a respectable merchant in London, 
early in the nineteenth century, who 
stated that it was a tradition in his fam- 
ily which had long resided in Yorkshire, 
that a member of it had formerly removed 
to foreign parts ; that he was a young man 
when he left, and never returned." He 
was born in 1629. He was in Connecti- 
cut as early as 1646. In 1654 he bought 
a house and lot in Windsor south of the 
Rivulet, near the old mill, on what was 
afterwards known as the Gillett place. 
In 1655 he bought the property after- 



wards known as the Chief Justice Ells- 
worth place. He was a juror in 1664; ad- 
mitted a freeman May 21, 1657. His wife 
was admitted to the church in Windsor 
about 1663, and he contributed three shil- 
lings to the Connecticut relief fund for 
the poor of other colonies. He died Au- 
gust 20, 1689, leaving an estate valued at 
six hundred and fifty-five pounds. He 
married, November 16, 1654, Elizabeth 
Holcomb, who died September 18, 1712. 
Children: Josias, born December 5, 1655 ; 
Elizabeth, November 11, 1657; Mary, 
May 7, 1660; Martha, December 7, 1662; 
Sergeant Thomas, September 2, 1665 ; 
Jonathan, June 28, 1669, mentioned be- 
low; Lieutenant John, October 7, 1671 ; 
Captain Job, April 13, 1674; Benjamin, 
January 16, 1676, died April 14, 1690. 

(II) Captain Jonathan Ellsworth, son 
of Sergeant Josias Ellsworth, was born in 
Windsor, June 28. 1669, according to the 
family record. He resided in Windsor, 
where he kept a tavern and a small store 
of West India goods, and was engaged in 
many small business ventures. He was 
a man of sterling good sense, but was of 
such wit and humor that he went by the 
name of "Hector Ellsworth." He was tall 
and strong. His death was caused by his 
being thrown from a horse. September 13, 
1749, when he was eighty-one years old. 
He married, October 26, 1693, Sarah, born 
September 19, 1675, ^^^^ November 9. 
1755, daughter of Tahan Grant. Chil- 
dren: Jonathan, born March 11, 1695-96; 
Sarah, January 8, 1698; John, 1701 ; Giles, 
August 6, 1703; Mary, March i, 1706; 
Esther, March 9, 1708; David, August 3, 
1709, mentioned below; Hannah, Septem- 
ber 10, 1713; Jonathan, August 22. 1716; 
Ann. August 12, 1719. 

(Ill) Captain David Ellsworth, son of 
Captain Jonathan Ellsworth, was born in 
Windsor, August 3 (June 17, according 
to the family Bible), 1709. He inherited 
from his father a hundred pounds, and 
37 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



acquired a handsome estate through his 
own industry. He was a farmer. "He 
had much cunning, or quick wit, and very 
sound judgment ; was a selectman nearly 
all his active life, and commanded a com- 
pany of Connecticut men at the Siege of 
Louisburg, hence his title of Captain." 
He died March 5, 1782. He married, July 
8, 1740, Jemima Leavitt, of Suffield, born 
July 9, 1721, "a lady of excellent mind, 
good character, and pious principles," 
daughter of Joshua and Hannah Leavitt. 
She married (second) June 4, 1784, Cap- 
tain Ebenezer Grant, and died February 
I, 1790. Children : David, born March 27, 
1741 ; Oliver, April 29, 1745, mentioned 
below; Martin, January 12, 1750; Jemima, 
March 13, 1751. 

(IV) Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth, 
son of Captain David Ellsworth, was born 
in Windsor, April 29, 1745. At an early 
age he was placed under the instruction 
of Rev. Dr. Bellamy, and in 1762 entered 
Yale College, remaining there two years. 
At Nassau Hall, now Princeton, New Jer- 
sey, he attained high rank as a scholar, 
and there received the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts in 1766. After his graduation, his 
father placed him under the instruction 
of Rev. Dr. Smalley, to educate him for 
the ministry. After a year's study, how- 
ever, he abandoned that calling for the 
law, and studied first with the first Gov- 
ernor Griswold of Connecticut. He com- 
pleted his course of reading with Judge 
Root, of Coventry, and was admitted to 
the bar of Hartford county, in 1771. The 
debts which he incurred while studying 
he paid by cutting and selling wood from 
land which he owned, not being able to 
sell the land. His father gave him a 
house and farm in Bloomfield (then Win- 
tonbury), and for about three years he 
divided his time between farming and the 
law, the income from his practice being 
very small. His skill in handling an im- 
portant case given him by a neighbor se- 



38 



cured a verdict for his client and won him 
at once a high reputation. His practice 
rapidly, increased, and in 1775 he was ap- 
pointed attorney for the State. He sold 
his farm and removed to Hartford, and 
his practice soon became larger and more 
remunerative than any of his contempo- 
raries in the State. His resolute will, and 
power of concentration, together with the 
concise statements of his cases, and his 
lucid and forcible arguments, gained for 
him a commanding position at the head 
of his profession. 

He was a Whig in politics, and at the 
beginning of the Revolution represented 
Windsor in the General Assembly of Con- 
necticut. While in that body he served 
actively in the militia, and was one of a 
committee of four called the "Pay Table." 
This committee attended to the military 
expenditures. In October, 1777, he was 
elected a delegate to the Continental Con- 
gress, and served as a member of the 
marine committee, acting as a board of 
admiralty, and also on the committee of 
appeals, and took a prominent part in all 
discussions and political measures. From 
1780 to 1784, by yearly elections, he was 
a member of the Governor's Council. In 
June, 1783, he left his seat in Congress, 
and although reelected, declined to serve. 
In 1784 he declined the appointment of 
Commissioner of the Treasury to take the 
position of judge of the Superior Court 
of Connecticut. He conducted the duties 
of this office with rare ability and great 
reputation until he was a member of the 
Federal Convention at Philadelphia in 
May, 1877. In this body he bore a dis- 
tinguished part, and became conspicuous 
as one of the ablest advocates of the rights 
of the individual States. To him we are 
largely indebted for the Federal element 
of our constitution "by which so many 
sovereign States are kept in distant activ- 
ity, while included under a higher sov- 
ereignty." He moved in the convention 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



to expunge the word "National" from the 
constitution, and substitute the words 
"Government of the United States," and 
this was finally agreed to without a dis- 
senting vote. Upon the organization of 
the new government at New York in 1789, 
Mr. Ellsworth was one of the Senators 
from Connecticut, and was appointed 
chairman of the committee to organize 
the judiciary of the United States. The 
original bill, in his handwriting, passed 
with but slight alteration, and its provi- 
sions are still in force. He was particu- 
larly watchful over the treasury, and was 
called the "Cerberus of the Treasury." 
He was spoken of by John Adams as "the 
firmest pillar of Washington's whole ad- 
ministration." By common consent he 
was yielded precedence in the Federal 
ranks in the Senate, then composed of the 
elite of the Republic. The mission of 
John Jay to England in 1794 was due to 
his suggestion. March 4, 1796, he was 
made the successor of Mr. Jay as Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, and by an extensive course 
of study, freshened his memory on points 
of law in which he felt himself deficient. 
His dignified bearing, courteous imparti- 
ality and acknowledged ability won for 
him everywhere the confidence and es- 
teem of the bar. In 1799 President Adams 
appointed him one of a committee to 
negotiate with France as an extraordinary 
commission to avert a war between the 
two countries, if possible. Of the other 
members of the commission, Mr. Henry 
declined to act, on account of age, and 
Mr. Ellsworth did so reluctantly, but 
went to France, reaching there March 2, 
1800, accompanied by two other members 
of the commission. A treaty was con- 
cluded which met with much opposition 
from Congress, but which time has proved 
was wise. Judge Ellsworth's health had 
been seriously impaired, and travel only 
increased his malady. He was carried to 



England on the "Portsmouth," and there 
took the mineral waters at Bath, with 
some benefit. His son Oliver, who had 
accompanied him as secretary, returned 
home with his father's resignation of the 
office of chief justice. Judge Ellsworth 
sailed from Bristol in April, 1801, and 
after a painful voyage was landed at Bos- 
ton. In 1802 he was again elected a mem- 
ber of the Governor's Council which acted 
as a Superior Court of Errors in Connec- 
ticut, being the final court of appeals from 
all inferior State jurisdictions. Here his 
influence was controlling. In May, 1807, 
he was appointed Chief Justice of the Su- 
preme Court of Connecticut, but he re- 
signed the office soon. He died Novem- 
ber 26, 1807, and was buried in the Wind- 
sor cemetery. A monument marks his 
grave. Judge Ellsworth was tall and 
erect. His eyes were blue, large, fine and 
penetrating, and his brows were arched 
and heavy. His expression was pleasant. 
His manners were simple and unaffected, 
and his bearing was dignified and courtly. 
He was particular about his personal ap- 
pearance, and never hurried his toilet. In 
public he always appeared in black silk 
stockings, with silver knee buckles, and 
wore a fine ruffied shirt. His silk justice's 
robe and powdered hair greatly height- 
ened his natural advantages. His life was 
regular and strictly temperate. Daniel 
Webster once in the senate referred to 
Ellsworth as "a gentleman who had left 
behind him., on the records of the govern- 
ment of his country, proofs of the clearest 
intelligence and of the utmost purity and 
integrity of character." In 1790 he re- 
ceived the degree of Doctor of Laws from 
Yale College, and in 1797 the same degree 
from Dartmouth and Princeton. 

Judge Ellsworth married, December 10, 
1772, Abigail Wolcott, born February 8. 
1755, died August 4, 1818, daughter of 
William, Esq., and Abigail Wolcott. Chil- 
dren, born in Windsor: Abigail, born Au- 



39 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



gust i6, 1774; Oliver, October 22, 1776, 
died May 20, 1778; Oliver, April t.'], 1781 ; 
Major Martin, April 17, 1783; William, 
June 25, died July 24, 1785 ; Frances, Au- 
gust 31, 1786; Delia, July 23, 1789; Wil- 
liam Wolcott, November 10, 1791 (q. v.) ; 
Hon. Henry Leavitt (twin), born Novem- 
ber 10. 1791. 



ELLSWORTH, William W., 

Lawyer, Governor. 

Governor William Wolcott Ellsworth, 
son of Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth, was 
born in Windsor, November 10, 1791. He 
graduated at Yale College in the class of 
1810. He studied law at the then cele- 
brated law school at Litchfield, Connecti- 
cut, under Judges Reeves and Gould, and 
in the office of his brother-in-law. Chief 
Justice Williams. He was drawn to the 
profession of law by a natural taste and 
hereditary predilection and prosecuted the 
study with great energy and high pur- 
pose. His text books, which have been 
preserved, give evidence of his thorough- 
ness in the marginal and interleaved notes 
of decisions in both English and Ameri- 
can courts bearing upon the subject of the 
text. Throughout his life he kept pace 
with the decisions of the courts, the pro- 
gress and changes in the law of the land. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1813, and 
in a city where the progress of a young 
lawyer is seldom rapid his success was so 
great that, in 1817, when Judge Williams, 
whose practice at that time was second to 
none at the Connecticut bar, was elected 
to Congress, Mr. Ellsworth was taken 
into partnership with him and was for 
two years in charge of his extensive busi- 
ness. By this time Mr. Ellsworth had an 
extensive practice of his own and he con- 
tinued successfully to practice in Hart- 
ford for sixteen years. 

He was a Whig in politics, and was 
elected to Congress in 1827, and served 



five years, resigning at the end of the 
Twenty-third Congress. His legislative 
record was highly honorable to himself 
and satisfactory to his constituents. As 
a member of the judiciary committee he 
was active in preparing measures to carry 
into effect President Jackson's "Procla- 
mation against the Nullification Act of 
South Carolina." He was on the com- 
mittee to investigate the affairs of the 
United States Bank at Philadelphia. To 
him, more than to any other man, is due 
the extension of the copyright law. He 
was a persistent and consistent advocate 
of a moderate protective tariff to protect 
home industries and develop manufac- 
tures, as well as furnish revenue for the 
government. Returning to Hartford in 
1834, he resum,ed the practice of law, and 
it was against his inclination that in 1838 
he was persuaded to become a candidate 
for Governor of the State. He was elect- 
ed by a large majority, however, and 
thrice reelected, serving the State four 
years as chief executive with conspicu- 
ous ability and success. During this 
period he was twice offered and declined 
an election to the United States Senate. 
From 1842 to 1847 ^^ was again in active 
practice of his profession. Then he was 
elected by the legislature a judge of the 
Superior Court and of the Supreme Court 
of Errors. He remained on the bench as 
an associate judge of the Supreme Court 
until 1861, when he retired by age limita- 
tion. Then, full of honors and still pos- 
sessed of his great intellectual powers, he 
retired to private life, though he never 
ceased to take a keen interest in public 
affairs. He received the honorary degree 
of Doctor of Laws from Yale College in 
1838. He was professor of law in Trinity 
College, Hartford. He was one of the 
original incorporators and at the time of 
his death president of the board of direc- 
tors of the American Asylum for the Edu- 
cation and Instruction of the Deaf and 



40 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Dumb, at Hartford. He was president of 
the board of directors of the Hartford Re- 
treat for the Insane. He died in Windsor, 
Connecticut, January 15, 1868. 

The following estimate of his character 
and delineation of his personality is from 
a sermon by Rev. George H. Gould, pas- 
tor of the Centre Church of Hartford, 
preached at the funeral of Governor Ells- 
worth : 

He was a Puritan of the best stock. His 
honesty was of perfect whiteness. Rufus Choate 
once spoke of him, in a speech before a legis- 
lative committee of Massachusetts, as "a man of 
hereditary capacity, purity, learning and love of 
the law," adding, "If the land of the Shermans, 
and Griswolds, and Daggetts, and Williams, rich 
as she is in learning and virtue, has a sounder 
lawyer, a more upright magistrate or an hon- 
ester man in her public service, I know not his 
name." In Judge Ellsworth were hereditary 
qualities of great mental and moral worth. Like 
his father, the Chief Justice, he was remarkable 
for the simplicity of his tastes and habits. In 
manner he was dignified; in person he was tall 
and finely proportioned with as fine a personal 
presence and bearing as any man of his time; 
he was a good speaker and had a fine voice; in 
conversation he was earnest and sincere, and all 
his intercourse was marked by kindness and 
integrity of nature. The crown of his enduring 
character was his Christian walk and conversa- 
tion. He early professed Christ and ever after, 
through all his membership in the old Centre 
Church of Hartford, was an humble and faithful 
follower of his Lord. 

He delighted in theological studies and dis- 
cussions and took a very active part in religious 
movements. He was a prominent friend of the 
great charitable and missionary enterprises; was 
much interested in Sunday schools and even 
after he had attained a high official position, he 
continued his duties as a teacher in the school 
connected with his church. From 1821 until his 
death, a period of forty-seven years, he held the 
office of Deacon in the Centre Church. In all 
things he was an admirable representative of 
New England, a man of old-time integrity, sin- 
cerity, solidity of character. 

Governor Ellsworth married, Septem- 
ber 14, 1813, Emily Webster, born August 
4, 1790, died August 23, 1861, daughter of 



Noah Webster, the lexicographer. Chil- 
dren, born in Hartford: i. Dr. Pinckney 
Webster, December 5, 1814. 2. Emily, Sep- 
tember 27, 1816; married, April 27, 1841, 
Rev. Abner Jackson, president of Trinity 
College. 3. Harriet, July 4, 1818; mar- 
ried, December 23, 1845, Rev. Russell S. 
Cook, secretary of the American Tract 
Society ; she died February 24, 1848. 4. 
Oliver, September 13, 1820. 5. Elizabeth, 
November 17, 1822 ; died January 20, 1823. 
6. Elizabeth, June 8, 1824; married, De- 
cember 14, 1853, Hon. Waldo Hutchins, 
Congressman from Twelfth New York 
district, lawyer of New York City. 



DYER, Eliphalet, 

Legislator, Jurist. 

Eliphalet Dyer was born in Windham 
county, Connecticut, September 28, 1721. 
He was graduated from Yale College in 
1740, and received his Master of Arts de- 
gree in 1744. He studied law and was 
admitted to the practice of law in 1746. 
He was a representative in the General 
Court by repeated elections between 1743 
and 1762. In 1753-55 he projected and 
promoted the establishment of a Connec- 
ticut colony in Pennsylvania. He served 
as lieutenant-colonel of a regiment of vol- 
unteers sent from Connecticut to reduce 
Crown Point, New York, in August, 1755, 
and was colonel of a regiment in the ex- 
pedition against Canada in 1758. He was 
an assistant to the Governors of Connecti- 
cut at times between 1762 and 1784, and 
went to England in 1763 to procure from 
the crown confirmation of title to lands 
selected by the Connecticut colony in the 
W^yoming region. He was the first of the 
commissioners sent to the Stamp Act 
Congress from Connecticut, in 1765. In 
1784 he withdrew from the Governor's 
Council rather than aid in enforcing the 
stamp act. He was Associate Judge of 
the Superior Court, 1766-89, and Chief 



41 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Justice, 1789-93. He was a delegate to 
Congress from Connecticut, 1774-79 and 
1780-83; a member of the State Commit- 
tee of Safety, 1775-76; and declined an 
appointment as brigadier-general of 
militia in December, 1776. Plarvard Col- 
lege conferred upon him the honorary de- 
gree of Master of Arts in 1744, and Yale 
College gave him that of Doctor of Laws 
in 1787. He died in Windham, Connec- 
ticut, May 13, 1807. 



TRACY, Uriah, 

Ijaiiryer, Legislator. 

Uriah Tracy was born in Franklin, Con- 
necticut, February 2, 1755, and died in 
Washington, D. C, July 19, 1807, his 
being the first body interred in the Con- 
gressional burying ground. He was grad- 
uated from Yale College with the degree 
of Bachelor of Arts in 1778 and received 
the degree of Master of Arts in 1781. He 
then turned his attention to the profes- 
sion of law and after a thorough course 
of study was admitted to the bar in 1781. 
Immediately afterward he entered upon 
practice in Litchfield, Connecticut, and 
rose to eminence by his ability and tal- 
ents. He was a representative in the State 
Legislature, 1788-93, serving as speaker 
in the latter named year, and was a Fed- 
eralist representative from Connecticut in 
the Third and Fourth Congresses, serving 
from December 2, 1793, to December 6, 
1796, when he was elected United States 
Senator to complete the unexpired term 
of Jonathan Trumbull, resigned, officiat- 
ing for a short time as president pro tern. 
of the Senate, and serving in that body 
until his death, when he was succeeded by 
Samuel Whittlesey Dana. He served at 
one time as major-general of militia. Sen- 
ator Tracy had a reputation for wit, was 
an able orator, graceful in his mode of de- 
livery, and lucid in argument. He was an 
ardent debater, his ideas coming rapidly 



and being eloquently set forth, and he was 
greatly admired and esteemed by his 
friends and respected by his opponents. 
His three daughters married, respectively, 
Judge Gould, of Litchfield ; Judge Howe, 
of Northampton, Massachusetts; and 
Judge Metcalfe, of Dedham, Massachu- 
setts. 



HOSMER, Titus, 

Jurist, Delegate. 

Titus Hosmer was born in Middle- 
town, Connecticut, in 1736, died there, 
August 4, 1780. He was a descendant on 
the paternal side of Thomas Hosmer, of 
Kent, England, who came to America 
with his brother, James Hosmer, in 1635, 
was one of those who accompanied 
Hooker, June, 1636, to settle Hartford, 
Connecticut, and died there in 1637. His 
son, Stephen Hosmer, who married Han- 
nah Bushnell. Their son, Captain Thom- 
as Hosmer, who married Ann Prentiss. 
Their son, Stephen Hosmer, who married 
Deliverance Graves, and they were the 
parents of Titus and Timothy, the latter 
named serving as surgeon on the staff of 
General Washington in the War of the 
American Revolution, and judge of On- 
tario county, New York, in 1798. Thom- 
as Titus, another ancestor of Titus Hos- 
mer, was a resident of Hawkhurst, Eng- 
land, an officer in Cromwell's army, came 
to America after the accession of Charles 
II., settled in Boston, Massachusetts, and 
subsequently removed to Middletown. 
Connecticut. 

Titus Hosmer was graduated at Yale 
College with the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts in 1757, and received that of Master 
of Arts in 1760. He studied law, was 
admitted to the bar, and settled for the 
practice of his profession in his native 
town, Middletown. in 1760. He served in 
the State Council : was elected a repre- 
sentative to the General Assembly in 



42 



EXXYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



October, 1773. and was reelected at every 
ensuing election until May, 1778, when he 
was elected an assistant, and was annu- 
ally reelected to that office to his death. 
He was speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives in 1777; a member of the Com- 
mittee of Safety during a portion of the 
Revolutionary War ; and a member of 
the Continental Congress in 1778-79, 
where he signed the articles of confedera- 
tion. He was a judge of the Court of 
Appeals then established by Congress 
principally for the revision of maritime 
and admiralty cases in the United States. 
elected in January, 1780. He was a man 
of deep and extensive learning, particu- 
larly interesting himself in the study of 
national law and universal history, and 
Dr. Noah Webster bracketed him with 
William Samuel Johnson, LL. D., of 
Stratford, and Oliver Ellsworth, of Wind- 
sor, and called the trio "the three 
mighties." 



DAGGETT, Naphtali, 

President of Yale College. 

Naphtali Daggett was born in Attle- 
boro, Massachusetts, September 8, 1727, 
son of Ebenezer Daggett, and grandson 
of Deacon John Daggett, who removed in 
1707 from Martha's Vineyard to Attle- 
boro and built a "garrison house" for pro- 
tection against the Indians. His first an- 
cestor in America, John Daggett, came 
with Winthrop's company in 1630 and 
settled in Watertown, Massachusetts. 
John Daggett's son, Thomas Daggett, 
father of Deacon John Daggett, resided 
in Edgartown, Martha's Vineyard, re- 
moving thither probably with Governor 
Mayhew when he settled the island in 
1644, and he was married to Governor 
Mayhew's eldest daughter, Hannah. 

Naphtali Daggett was graduated from 
Yale College in 1748, and became a Pres- 
byterian clergyman, preaching at Smith- 



town, New York, 1751-55. In the latter 
year he was called to the first chair in- 
stituted in Yale College, that of divinity, 
which he held until his death. He was 
elected president of the college, pro tem- 
pore of Yale, October 22, 1766, to succeed 
President Thomas Clap, who had re- 
signed, and remained in office until March 
25, 1777, when he devoted himself to the 
chair of divinity alone. During his presi- 
dency he abolished the aristocratic cus- 
tom of listing the students in the order 
of their social and financial importance, 
and introduced the alphabetical system. 
Under his presidency the Brothers of 
Unity, literary society, was formed ; and a 
second chair was established, that of 
mathematics. He graduated a number of 
persons who became distinguished, among 
them President Timothy Dwight, Rev. 
Joseph Buckminster, Rev. Nathaniel Em- 
mons, Governor John Treadwell, and 
Abraham Baldwin, Senator from Georgia, 
and president of the university of that 
State. In 1779 he aided in defending 
New Haven against the British, was cap- 
tured by the enemy, and was forced by 
repeated pricks of the bayonet to guide 
them. The injuries thus received hastened 
his death. Harvard College conferred 
upon him the degree of A. M. in 1771- 
and the College of New Jersey that of 
D. D in 1774. He published several of 
his sermons and, an account of "The 
Dark Day in New England, May 19, 1780." 
He died in New Haven, Connecticut, No- 



CANFIELD, John, 

Revolutionary Soldier, Jurist. 

Jeremiah Canfield, grandfather of Hon. 
John Canfield, resided in Milford, Con- 
necticut, until 1727, when he settled in 
New Milford; he died March 18, 1739-40- 
and his wife died January 4, 1739-40. His 
son, Samuel Canfield, father of Hon. John 
Canfield, was one of the judges of the 



43 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



County Court for Litchfield county, and 
a deacon in the church at New Milford ; 
he married Abigail Peck; he died De- 
cember 14, 1754, and his wife died Sep- 
tember 14, 1764. 

Hon. John Canfield, son of Samuel 
Canfield, was born at New Milford in 
1740, and graduated at Yale College in 
1762. He studied law, and began practice 
in Sharon in 1765, the first lawyer who 
lived there. He married Dorcas, daugh- 
ter of Solomon Buell. of Litchfield, Octo- 
ber 2, 1765 ; Solomon Buell married 
Eunice Griswold ; he was son of John 
Buell, son of Samuel Buell, son of Wil- 
liam Buel, the immigrant ancestor. In 
1777 John Canfield joined Major Shel- 
don's troop of Light Horse ; in this com- 
pany each man supplied his own horse 
and equipment, and they joined the army 
in General Wolcott's brigade. When 
General Wolcott called for volunteers to 
go to the aid of the troops in the colony 
of New York against Burgoyne, John 
Canfield was made adjutant of Connecti- 
cut volunteers and went to Saratoga. 
Before the battle of Saratoga he was 
made brigade major and held that office 
for the rest of the campaign. After the 
war he began again his profession and 
held the office of judge for several years. 
He established a law school which had a 
fine reputation. Judge Ambrose Spencer 
studied with him there, and married his 
daughter, Laura, in 1784; their daughter, 
Abba, married John Townsend. "Mr. 
Canfield enjoyed an enviable reputation 
and was holden in high estimation by his 
fellow citizens. He represented the town 
in the legislature at ten different sessions. 
He was a professor of religion and en- 
joyed the reputation of a sincere and 
humble Christian. In 1786 he was elected 
a member of the continental congress and 
had he lived to take a seat in that body 
would probably have been a distinguished 
member. He died however on 26th day 
of October, 1786." 



STILES, Ezra, 

Educator, Liitteratenr. 

Rev. Dr. Ezra Stiles was born in North 
Haven, Connecticut, November 29, 1727, 
son of Rev. Isaac (Yale, A. B., 1722) and 
Keziah (Taylor) Stiles, and grandson of 
John and Ruth (Bancroft) Stiles, and of 
Edward (Harvard, A. B., 1671 ; A. M., 
1720) and Ruth (Wyllys) Taylor, and 
a descendant of John Stiles, who settled 
in Windsor, Connecticut, in 1635. 

He was graduated from Yale College, 
A. B., in 1746; received the A. M. degree 
in 1749; and was employed there as a 
tutor from that year until 1853. He had 
met Franklin prior to this, and conducted 
some experiments in electricity, which 
helped to draw the two men into a life- 
long friendship, an evidence of which 
was witnessed in 1755, when Franklin 
visited New Haven, and Stiles delivered 
an oration in Latin in his honor. In the 
summer of 1749 Mr. Stiles was licensed to 
preach, and, besides his regular college 
work, did some missionary work among 
the Indians, but because of "certain scru- 
ples respecting the truth of revelation" he 
decided to leave the ministry, and in 1753 
he took the attorney's oath. He was a 
natural student, and law did not give him 
the leisure that he desired for study, and 
in 1755, when he received a unanimous 
call to the Second Congregational Church 
at Newport, he accepted it, serving until 
1777. During his pastorate there he 
studied mathematics and astronomy, and 
upon receiving the D. D. degree began 
the study of Hebrew, in which he became 
very proficient. In addition, he acquired a 
knowledge of other Oriental languages, 
and corresponded with Greek bishops, 
Spanish Jesuits and travelers and savants 
in nearly all parts of the world. He also 
continued his astronomical studies, and 
his observations upon the comet of 1759 
were such as to attract attention to him. 

The idea of founding a college in Rhode 



44 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Island originated with Dr. Stiles, and he 
drafted the first charter for what was 
later Brown University, but because of 
the sectarian nature of the college at first 
he never identified himself with it. Dr. 
Stiles was an ardent patriot, and at the 
outbreak of the Revolution he was ad- 
vised to leave Newport. He removed 
first to Bristol, then in March, 1776, to 
Dighton, and in April, 1777, to Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire. At this time 
Dr. Stiles was known in all New England 
as an Orientalist, a Hebraist, a student 
of the classics, of mathematics and of as- 
tronomy, a friend of Benjamin Franklin, 
and one of the very few American scien- 
tists. In 1778 he was offered the presi- 
dency of Yale College, which he accepted. 
He removed to New Haven in June, 1778, 
assumed charge of the college, and dis- 
charged his duties with great judgment 
and efficiency until his death, bringing to 
the college no little increase of strength 
and honor. Abundantly able to teach in 
any department, he soon had nearly all 
the work to do, except such as could be 
carried on by the tutors. He did con- 
siderable of the preaching, eked out the 
course in theology, lectured statedly on 
mathematics, natural philosophy and as- 
tronomy, instructed the seniors in mental 
and moral philosophy, and filled his own 
chair of ecclesiastical history, which had 
been created at his desire. In 1792 a 
close alliance was made between the col- 
lege and State, and in the same year the 
Legislature made a grant, which was in- 
creased in 1796 to $40,000, the largest sum 
bestowed up to that time, and the Gov- 
ernor, Lieutenant-Governor and the six 
senior members of the council or upper 
house became ex-officio members of the 
corporation. 

Dr. Stiles received the following de- 
grees: A. M. from Harvard in 1754, D. D. 
from Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1765, and 
from Dartmouth in 1780, and D. D. and 



LL. D. from the College of New Jersey, 
Princeton, in 1784. He wrote: "Dis- 
course on the Christian Union" (1761) ; 
"Discourse on Saving Knowledge" 
(1770) ; "The United States Elevated to 
Glory and Honor" (1783) ; "An Account 
of the Settlement of Bristol, Rhode 
Island" (1785); "The History of Three 
of the Judges of Charles I" (1794), and 
the "Ecclesiastical History of New Eng- 
land." which he left unfinished at his 
death. Yale College has forty-five vol- 
umes of his manuscripts, including a 
diary. His biography was written by his 
son-in-law, Abiel Holmes, in 1798. 

Dr. Stiles married (first) in February, 
1757, Elizabeth, daughter of Colonel John 
Hubbard, of New Haven, Connecticut. 
She died May 29, 1775. He married (sec- 
ond) in 1783, Mary, widow of William 
Checkley, of Providence, Rhode Island. 



TIFFANY, Consider, 

Royalist Daring the Revolution. 

The exact origin of the Tiffany family 
is difficult to ascertain, but it is believed 
the name and family originated in Italy, 
about the time of the early crusades, and 
that some member of the house, return- 
ing, settled in Brittany, France. From 
the time of the Norman Conquest in 1730 
the English left Brittany at different 
periods, and it is from some of these Eng- 
lish Tiffanys that the Americans of that 
name are descended. Squire Humphrey 
Tiffany, immigrant ancestor, came from 
Yorkshire, England, it is supposed, and 
was in Massachusetts Bay Colony about 
the year 1660. Later he was a resident 
of Swansea, and he was killed by a stroke 
of lightning while on his way from Swan- 
sea to Boston. His son. Consider Tiffany, 
was a landholder and farmer, and he was 
the father of Consider Tiffany, of this re- 
view. 

Consider Tiffany, son of Consider Tif- 



45 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OE BIOGRAPHY 



fany, was born March 15, 1730, in Lyme, 
died at Hartland, June 19, 1796. He mar- 
ried, in Lym,e, Sarah Wilder, born Au- 
gust 13, 1738, in Lyme, died November 7, 
1818, in Hartland, Connecticut. He lived 
in Lyme until after the birth of his first 
three children. Here he was a farmer and 
carried on a small business as storeketper. 
At Hartland, where his other children 
were born, he was engaged in the same 
business, but on a much larger scale. He 
transacted a great amount of business and 
was always careful to enforce his rights. 
At one time he was a school teacher, and 
it is said that when he entered upon this 
work it was the first time he had ever 
been in school. It is further stated that 
he was a good teacher and a close stu- 
dent. He was something of an astrono- 
mer, and is said to have calculated an 
almanac, but no copy of it has been found. 
He was also a writer of prose and poetry, 
and kept diaries in which he recorded his 
daily adventures. One of these covers 
the period of the French and Indian War, 
in 1756, and another the Revolution. On 
his death he left the latter to his eldest 
son, with instructions that it was to be 
transmitted from eldest son to eldest son, 
as an heirloom. It is now in possession 
of Henry Tiffany, of Clyde, Ohio, and 
forms a valuable addition to the Revolu- 
tionary history of the country, written 
from the Tory standpoint. He was a 
m,ember of the Church of England and 
had little patience with the dissenting 
sects. During the Revolution he was loyal 
not only to the English church, but also 
to the English crown. In 1778 he was 
confined to his farm in Hartland because 
of his outspoken Toryism and remained 
there for fifteen months. At the end of 
that time, hearing that he was about to 
be released he wrote to the chairman of 
the committee, asking that he might be 
allowed to remain where he was, as he 
still retained the same sentiments and had 



no intention of being drafted for the Con- 
tinental army. During the French and 
Indian campaign in 1756 he was sergeant 
of Captain William Lamson's company, 
and after his return joined another mili- 
tary company, which probably had its 
headquarters in Boston. He had an ex- 
tensive library for those times. A list of 
the books contained in it in 1788 has been 
found in a book of sermons in his own 
handwriting. His will, dated February 
7, 1778, is a characteristic document and 
has been preserved. 



GRISWOLD, Roger, 

Governor, Jurist. 

Governor Roger Griswold was born at 
Lyme, New London county, Connecticut, 
May 21, 1762, youngest son of Governor 
Matthew and Ursula (Wolcott) Gris- 
wold ; nephew of Governor Oliver Wol- 
cott, Sr. ; and grandson of Governor 
Roger Wolcott. 

He entered Yale College, where he ex- 
celled as a scholar, and graduated in his 
eighteenth year. He at once began the 
study of law with his father; was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1783, and practiced in 
Lyme until 1785, when he removed to 
Norwich. When only twenty-six years of 
age he argued an important case before 
the Supreme Court, and with such signal 
ability that a colleague, an eminent 
lawyer, declared that no observations 
from him could improve but might in- 
jure his client's cause. In 1794 he re- 
turned to Lyme, and the same year was 
elected by the Federalists to Congress. 
At the time he entered it was said of him : 
"There is no duty he will not be found 
equal to, nor any one from which he will 
shrink," and a later biographer wrote, 
"he was the fearless yet always courte- 
ous, the uncompromising though cauti- 
ous champion, of the political principles 
of the school of Washington." Among 



46 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



his Democratic opponents was Matthew 
Lyon, of Vermont. In January, 1798, 
during a warm debate, Griswold revived 
an old story to the effect that Lyon, when 
serving as a lieutenant in 1776 had been 
court-martialled for cowardice and pre- 
sented with a wooden sword. Lyon replied 
with an insult, and Griswold was with 
difficulty restrained from assaulting him. 
The house by a strict party vote refusing 
to expel Lyon, Griswold felt that he must 
either resign his seat with disgrace to his 
State as well as himself, or administer 
punishment. Taking the latter course, he 
caned Lyon a few days later. A motion 
to expel Griswold from Congress was 
made, but was lost by a strictly party 
vote. During the years 1802-03 Griswold 
delivered speeches on the call for papers 
relative to the Louisiana treaty : on a 
proposed amendment to the constitution 
respecting the election of President; and 
on the constitutional right of Congress to 
unseat judges by repealing the law re- 
garding their appointment. The last 
mentioned has been called "one of the 
very ablest ever made in congress." 
President Adams, a few days before the 
end of his term, offered Griswold the 
portfolio of the Secretary of War, but 
this was declined, probably because a 
dismissal was inevitable when Jefferson 
became chief magistrate. Griswold, after 
five successive terms in Congress retired 
to his home at Lyme. For two years be- 
ginning in 1807 he sat on the bench of 
the Supreme Court of the State. In 1809 
he was an elector on the Pinckney and 
King presidential ticket. In 1809 he was 
elected Lieutenant-Governor ; and on the 
expiration of his term in 181 1 was elected 
Governor in opposition to John Tread- 
well, and was occupying the latter office 
at the time of his death. On the break- 
ing out of the War of 1812, General Dear- 
born, Secretary of War, made a requisi- 
tion for four companies of Connecticut 



troops to be ordered into the service of 
the United States, but Governor Gris- 
wold returned a flat refusal. His chief 
reasons were : First, that the expression 
"imminent danger of invasion" used in 
Dearborn's letter was not in that part of 
the constitution authorizing the Presi- 
dent to make use of State militia ; and, 
second, that the fact that war had begun 
and a hostile fleet was off the coast did 
not constitute "invasion." In a series of 
articles on the Griswold family ("Maga- 
zine of American History," Vol. XL), 
Professor E. E. Salisbury makes the fol- 
lowing interesting statement respecting 
the Governor: "Some of the leading 
Federalists, who met after his death, in 
the Hartford convention, had had their 
attention called to him as a candidate for 
President, in the possible contingency of 
a separation of the New England States 
from the rest of the Union." 

Governor Griswold received the degree 
of LL. D. from Harvard College in 181 1, 
and the same honor from Yale College in 
the following year. He died at Lyme, 
October 5, 1812, A public eulogy was 
delivered by Judge Daggett, of New- 
Haven, in which the speaker said: "He 
sought no elevation. No man enjoyed a 
more enviable and honorable a popular- 
ity, for no man coveted it less. He 
wished for popularity, for no good man 
is insensible to it ; but it was that popu- 
larity which follows — not that which is 
run after. * * * As a judge, that 
sincerity, that incorruptible integrity 
which adorned his life eminently ap- 
peared. All the vehemence and ardor of 
the advocate were left at the bar and can- 
dor, patience and deliberation governed 
his conduct." Governor Griswold was 
gracious in his manners, genial in society, 
and in his own home dispensed hospital- 
ity lavishly, following an example set by 
his ancestors. The only portrait of him 
existing is a written one. He was ahand- 



47 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



some man; tall and muscular, as were 
many of the Griswolds and Wolcotts, 
with the dark, expressive eyes character- 
istic of the latter, instead of the blue eyes 
of his own family. He was married, 
October 2-/, 1788, to Fannie, daughter of 
Colonel Zabdial Rogers, of Connecticut, 
a prominent Revolutionary patriot, by 
his first wife, Elizabeth Tracy. She bore 
him seven sons and three daughters, and 
died December 26, 1863, aged ninety-six. 
Their son Matthew inherited the house 
at Blackball, built by his father. 



GOODRICH, Chauncey, 

Lawyer, Senator. 

Chauncey Goodrich was born in Dur- 
ham, Connecticut, October 20, 1759, the 
son of the Rev. Elizur Goodrich, a dis- 
tinguished clergyman and scholar. He 
was graduated from Yale College in 1776 
with honors, and was subsequently tutor 
there for several years. He studied 
law; was admitted to the bar and estab- 
lished himself in the practice of his 
profession at Hartford in 1781, and soon 
attained eminence at the bar. In 1793 he 
was a member of the State Legislature, 
and a representative in Congress from 
Connecticut from 1795 until 1801. He 
was a member of the State Executive 
Council from 1802 until 1807, when he 
was elected to the United States Senate 
to succeed Uriah Tracy, deceased, serv- 
ing until 1812, when he resigned to be- 
come mayor of Hartford. In 1813 he was 
elected Lieutenant-Governor of Connecti- 
cut, and in 1814 he was a delegate to the 
famous Hartford Convention. He died 
in Hartford, August 18, 1815. 



HILLHOUSE, William, 

Jurist, Liegislator. 

William Hillhouse was born in that 
part of New London, Connecticut, after- 
ward the town of Montville, August 25, 



1728, son of the Rev. James and Mary 
(Fitch) Hillhouse, grandson of John Hill- 
house, of Free Hall, Londonderry, Ire- 
land, and of Daniel Fitch, of Connecticut; 
great-grandson of Abraham Hillhouse, of 
Artikill, Londonderry, Ireland, who was 
among the signers of an address to King 
William and Queen Mary on the occasion 
of the relief of the siege of Londonderry, 
dated July 29, 1669; great-great-grand- 
son of the Rev. James and Priscilla Ma- 
son, of Norwich, Connecticut ; and great- 
great-great-grandson of Captain John 
Mason, the hero of the Pequot War of 
1637. His father, the Rev. James Hill- 
house, was graduated in arts and theology 
at the University of Glasgow, Scotland ; 
was ordained by the Presbytery of Lon- 
donderry, Ireland, about 1700; immi- 
grated to America in 171 7; and was pas- 
tor at Derry and Londonderry, New 
Hampshire, 1719-22; and had charge of 
the second parish. New London, Con- 
necticut, 1722-40. Cotton Mather spoke 
of him as "a valuable minister" and as 
"a worthy, hopeful young minister lately 
arrived in America." He was born about 
1687, and died December 15, 1740. James 
Abraham Hillhouse, brother of William 
Hillhouse, born 1730, graduate of Yale, 
1749, lawyer in New Haven, "assistant" 
or senator, 1772-75, died childless in 1775. 
Judge William Hillhouse was educated 
for the law and practiced in his native 
town, Montville, where he lived all his 
life. He was a leading patriot in the 
Revolution and prominent in the town. 
He was a representative in the Colonial 
Legislature by semi-annual elections 
from 1755 to 1784, and in the latter was 
called as an assistant of the Council, in 
which capacity he served until 1808. In 
the meantime he was judge of the county 
court for many years. He was a delegate 
to the Continental Congress, 1783-86, 
and major in the Second Regiment of 
Cavalry raised by the State for the Revo- 
lutionary War. In 1808, when eighty 



48 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



years of age, he declined a renomination 
to the Council and withdrew from public 
life. He maintained his vigor and activity 
to that great age. He was tall and spare 
in figure, with a dark complexion and 
overhanging eyebrows, very simple in his 
manners, and quaint in speech. He was 
very dignified and impressive. He mar- 
ried (first) November i, 1750, Sarah Gris- 
wold, born December 2, 1728, died March 
10, 1777, daughter of John Griswold, and 
sister of jMatthew Griswold, the first Gov- 
ernor of Connecticut, 1784-86. He mar- 
ried (second) May 24, 1778, Delia Hos- 
mer. Six of his seven sons and two of his 
three daughters lived to maturity and 
most of them to old age. Judge Hill- 
house died in Alontville, Connecticut, 
January 12, 1816. 



DWIGHT, Timothy, 

Educator, Author. 

Timothy Dwight was born in North- 
ampton, Massachusetts, May 14, 1752, son 
of Major Timothy and Mary (Edwards) 
Dwight ; grandson of Colonel Timothy 
and Experience (King) Dwight, and of 
Jonathan and Sarah (Pierpont) Edwards; 
great-grandson of Nathaniel and Mehit- 
able (Partridge) Dwight; great-great- 
grandson of Captain Timothy and Anna 
(Flint) Dwight, and great-great-great- 
grandson of John and Hannah Dwight, of 
Dedham, the immigrants, 1634-35. 

He was graduated at Yale College in 
1769, sharing the honors of the class with 
the noted Nathan Strong. He was prin- 
cipal of the Hopkins Grammar School, 
1769-71, and tutor at Yale, 1771-77, during 
which time he studied law. He was licens- 
ed to preach in 1777, and served as chap- 
lain in Parson's brigade of the Connecti- 
cut line, 1777-78. The death of his father 
called him home and he took charge of 
the farm, occasionally preaching in the 



neighborhood churches from 1778 to 
1783. At the same time he conducted a 
day school, and while New Haven was 
in the hands of the British, he had under 
his care several of the refugee Yale stu- 
dents. Pie was a representative in the 
Massachusetts Legislature in 1782, and 
refused a nomination as representative in 
Congress. He was pastor of the church 
at Greenfield Hill, Fairfield, Connecticut, 
from 1783 to 1795, and established there 
his celebrated academy, and became the 
pioneer of higher education of women, 
placing both sexes on an equal footing in 
his school. During this period he secured 
the union of the Congregational and Pres- 
byterian churches in New England. He 
was president of Yale College from Sep- 
tember 8, 179s, to January 11, 181 7, and 
Livingston Professor of Divinity pro tem- 
pore, 1795-1805, and by election, 1805-17. 
He found the college with a narrow and 
pedantic curriculum, with the bitterest of 
feeling existing between the freshmen and 
the upper-class men, and between the stu- 
dents and the faculty, and with the burden 
of a primary system. These he reformed, 
and at his death the one hundred and odd 
students had increased to upwards of 
three hundred, and the college had taken 
rank as one of the model university 
schools in America. 

Dr. Dwight received from the College 
of New Jersey the degree of S. T. D. in 
1787, and from Harvard College that of 
LL. D. in 1810. His master dissertation 
was : "History, Eloquence and Poetry 
of the Bible," and his most ambitious 
work was his epic "The Conquest of Can- 
aan" and his most popular pastoral poem 
was "Greenfield Hill" (1794). While a 
chaplain in the army, he wrote the patri- 
otic song "Columbia." He revised Watt's 
Psalms, with additions of his own, and 
made a selection of hymns, introduced in 
the worship of the Presbyterian churches 



49 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



by the General Assembly. His published 
books include: "Travels in New Eng- 
land and New York" (four volumes, 
1821); "Theology Explained and Defend- 
ed in a Course of 173 Sermons" (five vol- 
umes, 1818) ; "The Genuineness and Au- 
thenticity of the New Testament" (1793) ; 
"Discourse on the Character of Washing- 
ton" (1800) ; "Observations on Language" 
(1816); "Essay on Light" (1816). See 
"Memoir" by the Rev. Sereno Edwards 
Dwight (1846). 

He was married, in March, 1777, to 
Mary, daughter of Benjamin Woolsey, of 
Long Island, and they had eight sons, the 
eldest of whom, Timothy (1778-1884), 
was a merchant in New Haven, and gave 
$5,000 to endow the Dwight Professor- 
ship of Didactic Theology at Yale. Timo- 
thy Dwight died in New Haven, Connec- 
ticut, January 11, 1817. 



BURROUGHS, Stephen, 

Scientist. 

It is believed that the Connecticut 
family of Burroughs is descended from 
the distinguished family of the same name 
which from an early period was seated 
near Barnstable, in the County of Devon, 
England. A noted representative of that 
ancient house was Captain Stephen Bur- 
roughs, the navigator, who in 1553 com- 
manded one of the vessels in tne expedi- 
tion sent from England by the Muscovy 
Company to attempt the passage to China 
by the Nova Zembla route. All the ships 
except that of Burroughs were lost on 
the coast of Lapland, but he arrived 
safely in the White Sea, and from this 
event dates the beginning of commercial 
relations with Russia. In 1556 he dis- 
covered the straits separating Nova 
Zembla from the then supposed conti- 
nent. Another member of the Devon- 
shire family, William Burroughs, Esq., 
"clerk and comptroller of the queen's 



navy," received in 1586 a grant of a coat- 
of-arms, described as azure, a bend wavy 
argent between two fleurs-de-lis ermine — 
a blazonry of much beauty. 

For the early records of the Burroughs 
family in Connecticut we are indebted to 
Orcutt, the historian of Bridgeport and 
Stratford. (See also the paper by Mr. 
Orcutt, "Captain Stephen Burroughs and 
His Times," in the Annual Reports of the 
Fairfield County Historical Society for 
1887.) 

(I) Robert Burroughs, of Wethers- 
field, Connecticut, married Mary, widow 
of Samuel Ireland, and removed to New 
London, Connecticut; had (with perhaps 
other children) a son (see forward). 

(II) John Burroughs, son of Robert 
Burroughs, was born in New London, 
Connecticut. He married there Mary, 
daughter of John Culver. Children : 
John, see forward ; Mary, born Decem- 
ber 14, 1672; Hannah, October 9, 1674; 
Margaret, October 5, 1677; Samuel, Octo- 
ber 5, 1679; Robert, September 9, 1681 ; 
Abigail, August 10, 1682. 

(III) John Burroughs, eldest child of 
John Burroughs, was born in New Lon- 
don, Connecticut, September 2, 1671. Re- 
moving in early manhood to Stratford, 
Fairfield county, Connecticut, he became 
a prominent citizen of that community 
and one of its most enterprising men. In 
1707 he purchased a half proprietorship 
in a grist mill, with a dwelling and several 
acres of land, from John Seeley, who 
had built the mill — the first on the Pe- 
quonnock river — in 1697; and in 1710 
he bought Seeley's remaining interest. 
Throughout the remainder of his life he 
was a prosperous farmer and miller. He 
married Patience, daughter of Edward 
Hinnian, of Stratford. Children : Stephen, 
see forward ; Edward, born March 14, 
1696; Hannah, November 23, 1697, mar- 
ried Eliphalet Curtis ; Eunice, September, 
1699, married Joseph Curtis; Joseph, No- 



50 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



vember 23, 1701 ; Bathsheba, September 
26, 1703, married a Mr. Lewis ; John, Au- 
gust 31, 1705; Eden, July 10, 1707; Eph- 
raim, 1708; Patience, January 2, 1710, 
married (first) John Hubbell, (second) 
Benjamin Beach. 

(IV) Stephen Burroughs, eldest child 
of John Burroughs, was born in Strat- 
ford, February 25, 1695. He inherited the 
paternal homestead, and also received a 
"double portion" of the estate. Subse- 
quently, by purchase from his sisters, he 
became the sole owner of the mill prop- 
erty. In addition to his possessions in 
Stratford he had lands "in Rocky Hill, 
in the mountains of Cornwall, and on the 
plains of Wallingford." He married, 
March 3, 1720, Ruth, daughter of Abra- 
ham Nichols, a leading citizen and mem- 
ber of a wealthy family of Stratford. 
Children : Patience, born January, 1721 ; 
Eunice, July 4, 1723; Edward, 1727, died 
November 29, 1733 ; Stephen, see for- 
ward ; Ruth, born April, 1731 ; Edward, 
April, 1735; Eden, January, 1738; Eph- 
raim, April, 1740; John, July i, 1745. 

(V) Stephen Burroughs, known as Cap- 
tain Stephen Burroughs and also as Ste- 
phen Burroughs the astronomer, fourth child 
of Stephen (i) Burroughs, was born in 
Rocky Hill, now North Bridgeport, Octo- 
ber 4, 1729. He was a man of extraordi- 
nary mathematical attainments, which, 
apparently, were acquired without the 
advantage of any formal educational 
training. Among his literary remains, 
possessed by his descendants, is his 
"Navigation Book," bearing date 1749 
(when he was only twenty), which con- 
tains intricate trigonometrical problems, 
worked out by logarithms, for use in 
trigonometry. He continued his astro- 
nomical studies with great zest to the 
end of his life, made numerous calcula- 
tions for almanacs, and was engaged in 
the compilation of an extended work on 
astronomy, which he was obliged to sus- 



pend by the loss of his eyesight when 
about seventy years old. To him has 
been attributed the invention of the deci- 
mal monetary system of the United 
States. According to Isaac Sherman, 
Burroughs made the original proposal in 
that direction and submitted it to Hon. 
William Samuel Johnson, "who after un- 
derstanding its simplicity and great con- 
venience, caused it to be brought before 
congress in 1784, when he was a member 
of that body." He possessed an unusually 
large and varied library for those times, 
a portion of which is now preserved in 
the Burroughs Public Library of Bridge- 
port. The scientific and scholarly pur- 
suits of Stephen Burroughs were, how- 
ever, only incidental to a life of great 
activity and success in practical affairs. 
He was the principal merchant of the 
locality, and his establishment at the 
Burroughs Landing at Rocky Hill was 
the center of the shipping business of the 
Pequonnock river. The manuscript rec- 
ords of his transactions, kept with scru- 
pulous care, are of great historical value 
for the information which they afford 
about the circumstances and usages of 
life and society in Connecticut during the 
later half of the eighteenth century. In 
the Revolution he was an earnest patriot 
and raised a military company, known as 
the "Householders," of which he was cap- 
tain. He was twice a representative in 
the General Assembly, and for many 
years was justice of the peace. He died 
August 2, 1817, in his eighty-eighth year. 
He married (first) May 22, 1760, Eliza- 
beth Browne, who died December 4, 1764, 
of a "very excellent family" of Stratford, 
daughter of Joseph Browne and sister of 
Anne Browne, who married Wolcott 
Chauncey and was the mother of the fa- 
mous Commodore Isaac Chauncey of the 
United States navy. Captain Stephen 
Burroughs married (second) December 
II, 1765, Huldah, daughter of Peter Pix- 



51 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



lee and widow of Jeremiah Judson. Chil- 
dren by first marriage: i. Eunice, born 
April 30, 1761, married William Pendle- 
ton and had three daughters, one of 
whom, Abigail Pendleton, married Cap- 
tain Loudy Lafield, of Maryland. 2. Ste- 
phen, born March 5, 1763; a ship captain 
in domestic and foreign trade. 3. David, 
born October 28, 1764, died March 25, 
1765. Children by second marriage: 4. 
Elizabeth, born September 4, 1767, mar- 
ried Sterling Edwards. 5. Huldah, born 
March 26, 1769, married Joseph Backus, 
of Bridgeport, grandson of Rev. Timothy 
Edwards, of East Windsor, and had 
several children. 6. Abijah, born Janu- 
ary 17, 1771, merchant captain, sailing to 
the East Indies, lost at sea, September 
24, 1795. 7. David, born October 31, 
1773, lost at sea, September 25, 1795. 8. 
Isaac, born October 15, 1775, sea captain 
and successful merchant, married Rebec- 
ca, daughter of Andrew Hurd, and had 
several children, one of whom, Catherine 
A. Burroughs, married Allison A. Pet- 
tingill, the editor then of the "Bridgeport 
Standard," and she gave the building for 
the Public Library (known as the Bur- 
roughs Library) to the city of Bridge- 
port, and also donated thirty thousand 
dollars to St. John's Church of Bridge- 
port, Burroughs Memorial Chapel, and 
founded Burroughs Home for unmarried 
women at Black Rock. 



WADSWORTH, James, 

Soldier of the Revolution, Liegislator. 

General James Wadsworth was born 
in Durham, Connecticut, July 6, 1730, son 
of James and Abigail (Penfield) Wads- 
worth; grandson of Colonel James and 
Ruth (Noyes) Wadsworth, and great- 
grandson of John Wadsworth, who came 
from England with his father, William, 
in 1632. Colonel James Wadsworth 
served as the first justice of the peace of 



Durham ; commanded the first artillery 
company of volunteers, and then the Tenth 
Regiment ; was speaker of the house, 1717 ; 
assistant, 1718-52; justice of the Su- 
perior Court, 1725-52, and with several 
others a grantee of "Esquire's Farm." He 
died in 1756. 

General James Wadsworth was gradu- 
ated from Yale College, A. B., at the age 
of eighteen, and received the M. A. de- 
gree three years later. He served as lieu- 
tenant in the militia in 1753; took part 
in the Ticonderoga campaign, 1758, and 
was commissioned captain, 1759. He suc- 
ceeded his grandfather as town clerk in 
1756, serving until 1786. He was a repre- 
sentative in the General Assembly, 1759- 
85, being for two sessions a colleague of 
his father, and serving as speaker of the 
house, 1784-85; justice of the peace, 1762; 
assistant judge of the New Haven county 
court, 1775-78, and subsequently pre- 
siding justice. He made a distinguished 
record during the ELevolution. He was a 
member of the Committee of Safety in 
1775; and the same year was commis- 
sioned colonel of the Tenth Connecticut 
Regiment of militia; being promoted to 
brigadier-general in June, 1776, over the 
Connecticut regiments raised to reinforce 
Washington at New York. In the latter 
year he also served as a member of the 
committee appointed to revise the militia 
laws of the State. In May, 1777, he suc- 
ceeded David Wooster as second major- 
general, serving on the defence of coast 
towns until his resignation in May, 1779. 
He was a delegate to the Continental 
Congress, 1783-86; a member of the Ex- 
ecutive Council of the State, 1786-88, 
serving at the same time as Controller of 
the State and a member of the conven- 
tion of 1788 that ratified the United States 
constitution. He was the author of a 
map of New Haven, taken in 1748, and 
engraved and published in 1806. His 
nephews, James and William, founded 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the town of Genesee, New York ; the 
latter was brigadier-general of New York 
militia in the War of 1812. He died in 
Durham, Connecticut, September 22, 
181;. 

He was married, January 13, 1757, to 
Katharine, daughter of Ebenezer and 
Rhoda Guernsey, of Durham. 



HUNTINGTON, Jedidiah, 

Revolutionary Officer, Government Official. 

Simon Huntington, the first of the line 
here under consideration of whom there 
is record, was a native of England, from 
which country he emigrated to America, 
accompanied by his wife, Margaret 
(Baret) Huntington, and children, but he 
died of smallpox during the journey, his 
body being consigned to the ocean. Their 
son, Deacon Simon Huntington, was born 
in England about 1629, died in Norwich, 
Connecticut, June 28, 1706. He was a 
large land-owner, a man of enterprise, 
and represented Norwich at the General 
Court in 1674 and 1685. He married 
Sarah Clark. Their son, Deacon Simon 
Huntington, was born in Saybrook, Feb- 
ruary 6, 1659, <iied November 2, 1736. He 
filled many of the important offices of the 
town of Norwich. He married Lydia 
Gager. Their son, Joshua Huntington, 
was born in Norwich, December 30, 1698, 
died August 26, 1745. He was a man of 
enterprise and ability, and laid the foun- 
dation for the future wealth of the family. 
He married Hannah Perkins. Their son. 
General Jabez Huntington, born August 
7, 1719, graduated from Yale College in 
1741 ; was elected a member of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of Connecticut in 1750; 
represented his native town in that body 
for many years, and frequently acted as 
presiding officer of the lower house ; he 
engaged in the West India trade and 
amassed a large fortune. He was a mem- 



ber of the Committee of gaiety during 
the Revolutionary War; was appointed 
one of the two major-generals of Connec- 
ticut militia in 1776; and upon the death 
of David Wooster, the other appointee, 
was appointed major-general over the 
entire militia of Connecticut. He mar- 
ried (first) Elizabeth Backus, and (sec- 
ond) Hannah Williams. 

General Jedidiah Huntington, son of 
General Jabez and Elizabeth (Backus) 
Huntington, was born at Norwich, Con- 
necticut, August 4, 1743, and died Sep- 
tember 25, 1818, at New London, where 
his remains were at first interred, but 
later removed to the family tomb at Nor- 
wich. He was graduated from Harvard 
College with honor in 1763, and Yale Col- 
lege conferred the degree of Master of 
Arts upon him in 1770. Upon the conclu- 
sion of his studies, he became associated 
with his father in the latter's mercantile 
enterprises until the beginning of the 
Revolutionary War. His military record 
is so closely and so brilliantly interwoven 
with the history of this struggle that a 
record of one is practically a record of 
the other. In April, 1775, he entered the 
army with the rank of captain. He was 
especially recommended for promotion 
by General Washington, and was com- 
missioned brigadier-general in May, 1777; 
his military service was in Pennsylvania 
and New York. In 1778 he was a mem- 
ber of the court-martial that tried Gen- 
eral Charles Lee; and in 1780 of the 
court that tried and sentenced to death 
the illfated Major Andre he was 
brevetted major-general in 1783. He was 
a member of the committee which drafted 
a plan of organization resulting in the 
constitution of the Society of the Cin- 
cinnati. Upon his return to Norwich, 
General Huntington resumed his busi- 
ness operations, was chosen sheriflf of the 
county, treasurer of the State, and dele- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



gate to the convention which adopted the 
constitution of the United States. In 
1789 he was appointed by President 
Washington Collector of Customs of 
New London, retained this office under 
four administrations, and resigned a short 
time prior to his death. He made a pub- 
lic profession of religion when twenty- 
three years of age, and throughout his life 
was a most active supporter of the in- 
terests of the church. 

General Huntington married (first) 
Faith, daughter of Governor Jonathan 
and Faith (Robinson) Trumbull. She 
died at Dedham, Massachusetts, on her 
way to camp, December, 1775, leaving 
one son. He married (second) Ann, 
daughter of Thomas Moore, who was the 
mother of seven children, and survived 
her husband. 



JOHNSON, William S., 

Lawyer, Strong Public Character. 

William Samuel Johnson was born at 
Stratford, Connecticut, October 7, 1727, 
son of the Rev. Samuel and Charity Floyd 
(Nicoll) Johnson, and grandson of Colo- 
nel Richard Floyd, of Brookhaven, Long 
Island. He was prepared for college by 
his illustrious father, entered Yale Col- 
lege and was graduated therefrom with 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts in the 
class of 1744, and though but seventeen 
years old at the time of his graduation, 
he was elected a "scholar of the house" 
under the bounty of Dean Berkeley. In 
1747 he received the degree of Master of 
Arts from the same institution. After his 
graduation he pursued his theological 
studies at home, but deciding to become 
a lawyer, he became a student at Harvard 
College, where he pursued a course of lec- 
tures, and from which institution he re- 
ceived the degree of Master of Arts. He 
continued his studies on a large and 



liberal scale of his own devising, and in 
due course of time became an eminent 
lawyer, being frequently chosen as coun- 
sel in the religious controversies which 
were at that time unfortunately forced 
upon churchmen in different parts of the 
colony. He was elected in 1761 to repre- 
sent the town of Stratford, in the Lower 
House of the General Assembly, and four 
years later was reelected for two sessions, 
and took his seat in the Upper House. 
He was also appointed a delegate from 
Connecticut to the stamp act congress, 
which convened in New York City in 
October, 1765. He was elected to the 
Upper House again in 1766, and ap- 
pointed a special envoy to the court of 
Great Britain to present the claims of 
Connecticut to the title of a large tract of 
land in possession of the Mohican Indians, 
which was claimed by the heirs of Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Mason for services he 
had rendered to the Indians as their 
agent. Dr. Johnson accepted the mis- 
sion, but met with innumerable delays, 
and not until June ii, 1771, was he able 
to finally settle the case, which was done 
in favor of the colony. Upon his return 
to this country in 1771, he resumed his 
seat in the House the following year. In 
October, 1772, he was appointed one of 
the judges of the Superior Court of Con- 
necticut, but resigned after occupying the 
position for a few months. At the ter- 
mination of the Revolutionary War he 
resumed his law practice, and soon after 
peace was concluded, was reinstated in 
his position as a member of the Upper 
House of the General Assembly. In 1774 
he was a delegate to the Continental Con- 
gress to assemble at Philadelphia, but he 
was excused from service in Congress, 
having been chosen an arbitrator of the 
Van Rensselaer estate dispute. He was 
a member of the State Council, 1780-82, 
and was counsel for the State in the con- 



54 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



troversy with Pennsylvania relative to 
the Ohio lands ; a delegate to the Conti- 
nental Congress, 1784-87; a delegate to 
the Constitutional Convention of 1787; 
member of the committee of five which 
was appointed to frame a federal consti- 
tution and "to devise such further pro- 
visions as were necessary to make the 
constitution of the Federal government 
adequate to the demands of the United 
States ; he served as chairman of the com- 
mittee, and among other measures he 
proposed was that of forming the Senate 
into a separate body; in 1788 was one of 
the three counsellors for Connecticut in 
the celebrated trial known as the Sus- 
quehanna case ; and a United States sen- 
ator from Connecticut, 1789-91, resigning 
his seat in March, 1791, and being suc- 
ceeded by Roger Sherman. 

Dr. Johnson was appointed president 
of Columbia College, New York City, 
May 21. 1787, and thus became the first 
head of the institution under the new 
charter, as his father had been of King's 
under the royal charter. The college had 
tallen into decay during the Revolution- 
ary War, the regular course of instruc- 
tion had been suspended, and its reorgani- 
zation demanded the energies of a thor- 
oughly efficient man, a man of Dr. John- 
son's calibre. When he assumed the 
office there were thirty-nine students in 
the college, nearly half of whom were 
freshmen. There were no faculties of 
law and divinity, and the faculties of arts 
and medicine consisted of three profes- 
sors each. In 1792, the medical school 
was established on a broader basis, and 
other improvements subsequently made. 
Dr. Johnson resigned this office, July 16, 
1800, and returned to his home at Strat- 
ford, where he lived in retirement. He 
was a trustee of Columbia College, 1788- 
1800, and received the honorary degree 
of A. M. from Columbia and Harvard in 



1747. J- C. D. from Oxford in 1766, and 
LL. D. from Yale in 1788, being the first 
graduate of the last named college to re- 
ceive the honorary degree in laws, as his 
father was first to receive the honorary 
degree in divinity. With Oliver Ells- 
worth he framed the judiciary system ot 
the United States, as adopted by Con- 
gress, and his letters from England were 
published by the Massachusetts Histori- 
cal Society in the '"Trumbull Papers." 
He left some valuable contributions to 
literature. The following letter from 
Governor Huntington, in accepting the 
letter of resignation of Dr. Johnson from 
the Senate, shows the esteem in which he 
was held: "I am sorry that Connecticut 
and the Union should be deprived of so 
able a councillor in that honorable body ; 
but must believe on due deliberation you 
have discovered reasons sufficient to jus- 
tify the measure you have adopted, and 
am satisfied that you will not fail, as 
opportunities shall offer to promote the 
happiness and prosperity of this State." 
The following is also among the tributes 
paid to him: "He had a keen perception 
of what he dwelt upon in his public ad- 
dresses to the graduating classes of Col- 
umbia College, that the first duty of man 
is owed to heaven, to his Creator, and 
Redeemer, and he practiced that duty in 
all the posts of honor and responsibility 
which he was called to fill. He was on 
this account more noble. For a Christian 
statesman is the glory of the age, and the 
memory of his deeds and virtues will re- 
flect a light coming from a source which 
neither clouds can dim, nor shadows ob- 
scure." Dr. Johnson died in Stratford. 
Connecticut, November 14, 1819. 



ROOT, Jesse, 



Patriot, Jurist. 



Jesse Root was born in Coventry. Con- 
necticut, December 28. 1737 (or January, 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



172)7), son of Ebenezer and Sarah 
(Strong) Root, and grandson of Thomas 
Root, of Northampton. 

He was graduated from the College of 
New Jersey, A. B., in 1756, and received 
the A. M. degree in 1759. He studied 
theology under Rev. Dr. Samuel Lock- 
wood, of Andover, and preached for two 
or three years, then leaving the ministry 
for financial reasons. He then studied 
law, and was admitted to the Connecticut 
bar in 1763, and established himself in 
practice at Hartford, Connecticut. He 
was an ardent patriot, and by his in- 
dividual notes, aided to secure funds for 
the expedition against Ticonderoga. In 
1776 he organized a company of volun- 
teers at Hartford, receiving commission 
as captain dated December 31 ; was made 
lieutenant-colonel, shortly after joined 
General Washington's army at Peekskill, 
New York, and was subsequently made 
adjutant-general. He was a delegate to 
the Continental Congress, 1778-83; a 
representative in the State Legislature ; 
State Attorney, 1785-89; judge of the 
Superior Court in 1789; and was Chief 
Justice of Connecticut from 1796 until 
his resignation in 1807. While occupying 
this position he received the degree of 
LL. D. from Yale College. Pie delivered 
the address of welcome when General 
Washington visited Plartford in 1790. 
For many years he was a member of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences 
and of the Connecticut Academy of Arts 
and Sciences. The honorary degree of 
A. M. was conferred upon him by Yale 
College in 1766. He was the author of: 
"Reports of Cases, Adjudged in the 
Courts of Errors of Connecticut (2 vols.. 
1 798- 1 802). 



Pie was married, in 



to Mary 



Banks, of Newark, New Jersey. lie died 
in Coventry, Connecticut, March 29, 1822. 



WALDO, Daniel, 

Chaplain, Centenarian. 

Daniel Waldo, nearly the last if not the 
very last survivor of the soldiers of the 
Revolution, and remarkable for his activ- 
ities as a centenarian, was the ninth in 
a family of twelve children of Zacheus 
Waldo, and grandson of Deacon Edward 
Waldo. He was born in Scotland Parish, 
Windham, Connecticut, September 10, 
1762. His mother was Tabitha, daughter 
of Joseph Kingsbury, of Norwich. He 
was brought up on his father's farm and 
obtained his early schooling in his native 
town. In April, 1779, ^^ "^^^ drafted into 
a company of Connecticut militia and, 
being taken prisoner in December follow- 
ing, was detained for two months in the 
"Sugar House" in New York City. After 
his release he returned to his father's 
place and labored diligently thereon until 
he was about twenty years old, when he 
determined to become a minister, and as 
preliminary thereto to compass a liberal 
education. He was prepared for college 
by Rev. Dr. Charles Backus, of Somers, 
and was graduated from Yale in 1788. He 
then studied theology with the Rev. Dr. 
Levi Hart, of Preston, and was licensed 
to preach by the Windham Association of 
Ministers, October 13, 1789. 

After preaching for brief periods in sev- 
eral Connecticut pulpits and pursuing fur- 
ther theological studies with the Rev. Dr. 
Nathan Perkins, of West Hartford, he 
was ordained. May 23, 1792, as pastor of 
the Congregational church in West Suf- 
field, where he remained in charge until 
December, 1809, although for a portion of 
the time absent in missionary service. 
Withdrawing from West Sufifield he en- 
gaged in various clerical labors for the 
ensuing two years at Westminster and 
Salem,. Connecticut, and Cambridgeport. 



.S6 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



jNlassachusetts. xie next went, under the 
patronag^e of the Evangelical Missionary 
Society, to Rhode Island, wherein he 
served until 1820. In September, 1823, 
h=^ became the pastor of the Congrega- 
tional church in Exeter, a parish of Leb- 
anon, Connecticut, where he continued 
until 1834, when he resigned mainly on 
account of the inability of the parish to 
support him. Although, as a preacher, 
"Father" Waldo, as he was called, many 
years, was not especially eloquent, he was 
luminous, direct and eminently practical, 
as he was greatly beloved in every place 
Avhere he was stationed. 

In 1835 he followed one of his sons to a 
farm in Wayne county, New York, and 
his residence continued in this State until 
his death, nearly thirty years later. He 
was not again settled over a church, but 
was employed as supply in various places, 
and from 1843 ""^il 1846 acted as a mis- 
sionary in connection with the Presby- 
terian communion in Cayuga county. 
Late in 1846 he removed to Geddes, then 
a suburb of Syracuse, but now incorpor- 
ated therein, and ten years later settled in 
the city. In December, 1856, at the in- 
stance of the Hon. Amos P. Granger, then 
representing the twenty-fourth district, 
he was at the age of ninety-four chosen 
chaplain of the House of Representatives 
at Washington and was reelected the en- 
suing year. Even at his advanced age he 
performed his duties earnestly and effi- 
ciently, and was highly regarded by the 
House. It is not on record that any legis- 
lative body has been served spiritually by 
one whose years numbered nearly a cen- 
tury, and who still retained his faculties 
unimpaired, and about whom lingered the 
respect for one who had fought for the in- 
dependence of the republic. He preached 
the Word after he had entered his one 
hundred and second year, delivering a 
notable sermon in Jordan. He was a 



familiar figure in the streets of Syracuse, 
frail but not feeble, with eyes still bright, 
with agile step and cheery greeting, and 
enjoyed comiortable health until early in 
July, 1864, he fell down stairs at his home 
and died from the shock on the thirtieth 
day of the month, being one hundred and 
one years ten months and twenty days 
old. An engraving in the "Waldo Gene- 
alogy" represents him in extreme old age. 
He married, September 14, 1795, in Suf- 
field, Connecticut, Nancy, daughter of 
Captain Oliver and Rachel (Gilbert) Han- 
chett, who died in Syracuse in 1855, hav- 
ing been afflicted with derangement of the 
mind for nearly fifty years. Their chil- 
dren were five sons, the eldest of whom 
was graduated from Harvard College in 
1818, and died while studying theology. 
The other sons survived their father. 



SMITH, Nathaniel, 

Member of Congress and Jurist. 

Richard Smith settled in Judea Society, 
Woodbury, Connecticut, about 1750. The 
"History of Woodbury" says he probably 
came from Lyme. Connecticut. A con- 
siderable family of Smiths was located in 
the adjoining town of Haddam and judg- 
ing from the similarity of the personal 
names he belonged to that branch. He 
was born in 1731, and died January 20, 
1807, aged seventy-six, in Roxbury Soci- 
ety, Woodbury. He married Annis, 
daughter of Nathan Hurd, and grand- 
daughter of Benjamin Hinman, of Wood- 
bury ; she died April 18, 1808, aged sev- 
enty-five years. Many of their descend- 
ants have been distinguished men. 

Hon. Nathaniel Smith, son of Richard 
Smith, was born at Woodbury, Connecti- 
cut. January 6, 1762. His father was poor 
and frequently moved ; his opportunities 
for schooling were few, and at an early 
asre he had to work for his living. Both 



57 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



he and his brother became traveling mer- 
chants, peddling their wares all the way 
from Philadelphia to Northern Vermont. 
On one occasion, it is related, they started 
from Philadelphia by different routes, 
agreeing to meet at the court house at 
Rutland, Vermont, on a certain day. Na- 
thaniel arrived first, and while he waited 
listened to the trial of a case in court. On 
meeting his brother he told him about the 
case, saying that it was not well man- 
aged by either lawyer, and declaring his 
intention to study law. This was the 
turning point of his life. He applied to 
Judge Reeve for admission to his office as 
a law student. Notwithstanding his lack 
of education he made such rapid progress 
in reading law that within a period short 
of what was allowed by the rules of the 
bar, in consequence of the representations 
of his instructor and the favorable opinion 
in which he was held by lawyers whom 
he had met, he was admitted to the bar, 
in 1787. He immediately began to prac- 
ti e in Woodbury and continued to reside 
there until his death, March 9, 1822. 

Almost immediately after entering upon the 
practice of his profession, he rose to eminence 
in it. Some of his first arguments were masterly 
forensic efforts. At that period the bar of 
Litchfield was second to none in the State. It 
was furnished with a large number of men of 
distinguished ability. Notwithstanding this com- 
petition he soon found himself favored with a 
large and successful practice, and rose more 
rapidly to the higher grades of his profession 
tlian perhaps any other man before him. His 
powers of thought and elocution gave him almost 
unlimited dominion over his audience. When- 
ever he spoke there was a breathless silence. 
All eyes were upon him and all ears heard. In 
October, 1789, less than two years after his 
removal to this town, he was elected a member 
of the General Assembly, and was reelected four 
times previous to 1795. By this means an oppor- 
tunity was afforded him of becoming more gen- 
erally and widely known. In the house he was 
a distinguished member and took a leading part 
in the deliberations. To him this State is in- 
debted in no inconsiderable degree, for some of 



58 



the leading measures of those times. Among 
these may be mentioned the gradual extinction 
of slavery, and the permanent system of common 
school education, connected with the disposal 
of public lands belonging to the State. In the 
year 1795 Yale College bestowed upon him the 
honorary degree of master of arts. In the same 
year he was elected a member of the Congress 
of the United States, in which office he served 
four years, when he declined a second reelection. 
* * * He particularly distinguished himself 
in the discussions in the house, relating to the 
ratification of the British treaty. 

On his making known his intention to decline 
a third election to Congress, in the fall of 1798, 
he was elected to the council, or upper house of 
the state legislature, and served in that body 
from his return from Philadelphia, in 1800, until 
May, 1805. He was elected a judge of the 
Supreme Court in October, 1806, and filled that 
great judicial office with distinguished ability 
and impartiality. He left the bench in 1819 with 
a high and unsullied reputation, followed by the 
regrets of his fellow-citizens, even of those 
whose political opinions did not accord with his 
own. Together with Chancellor Kent and a 
distinguished divine of New Hampshire, he 
served on the committee to establish a new site 
for Williams College. He died March 9, 1822. 

He married Ruth Benedict, born Janu- 
ary 20, 1767, daughter of Rev. Noah Bene- 
dict. She died June 30, 1845. 

Hon. Nathan Smith, brother of Hon. 
Nathaniel Smith, was born January 8, 
1769, in Roxbury Parish, Woodbury, 
Connecticut, in an old house that for- 
merly stood nearly opposite the dwelling 
house of Ezekiel Beardsley. During his 
youth he worked at farming and various 
other occupations, and had but little 
schooling. After his brother Nathaniel 
had begun to practice, he was naturally 
ambitious also to study law, and he be- 
gan to read in his brother's office, com- 
pleting his legal education in the office of 
Judge Reeve. In due time he was admit- 
ted to the bar of Litchfield count3^ and 
immediately afterward began to practice 
at New Haven. Slowly but surely he 
won his way to the highest professional 
eminence. He mastered the subjects 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



which he investigated and was most 
thorough and painstaking in studying his 
cases. It has been said that no practi- 
tioner of his day in Connecticut better 
understood the law in all its intricacies 
and none could more effectually impress 
the minds of a jury with his own views 
and feelings on any case than he. 

The critical and practical, the profound and 
witty, were so happily blended in his arguments, 
that while they attracted the admiration of the 
listener, they were almost certain of securing 
the wished for verdict. His wonderful success 
at the bar, however (wrote Kilbourne), must not 
be attributed solely to his talents and ingenuity. 
His strict regard for justice and right, would not 
permit him to plead a case which he knew to be 
grossly unrighteous. Before enlisting his serv- 
ice in any cause, he was wont to examine min- 
utely the main facts and circumstances con- 
nected with it, and if convinced of its justice, he 
entered upon the discharge of his duties to his 
client with his whole soul, and rarely failed of 
coming ofT victorious. It was his own manifest 
confidence in the goodness of the cause he advo- 
cated, united to a knowledge of his uniform 
integrity of purpose, which so surely won from 
every jury a favorable verdict. Mr. Smith was 
not a politician, and had the utmost contempt 
for the office-seeking propensity of many of his 
legal brethren. And even if his own ambition 
had been turned into that channel, it is by no 
means certain he would have been successful. 
The political party with which he acted was for 
a long series of years in the minority in the 
region in which he lived. In 1825 he was can- 
didate for governor of Connecticut, and was 
defeated by Oliver Wolcott. He was for many 
years State's attorney for the county of New 
Haven, and subsequently United States attorney 
for the district of Connecticut. In May, 1832. he 
was elected United States Senator from Con- 
necticut, to succeed Hon. Samuel A. Foote, 
whose term of office expired on March 3, fol- 
lowing. He was reelected and died in office, 
December 6, 1835. He was one of the most 
prominent Whig leaders of his' day. In 1808 he 
received the honorary degree of master of arts 
from Yale College. He built the large brick 
colonial house on Elm street. New Haven, the 
home of the family for many years, and it stood 
until it was demolished in 1910 to make way for 



a new building. He was a communicant and 
vestryman of Trinity Protestant Episcopal 
Church, and an incorporator of Trinity College 
at Hartford. Mr. Smith entertained General 
Lafayette upon the occasion of his visit to the 
city of New Haven, March 23, 1825. That was 
one of the great events of years and in some 
ways of the generation. 



TREADWELL, John, 

Congressman, Governor. 

John Treadwell was born at Farming- 
ton, Hartford county, Connecticut, No- 
vember 23, 1745, only son of Ephraim and 
Alary Treadwell, and descendant of Ed- 
ward Treadwell, who in 1637 settled at 
Ipswich, Massachusetts, whence he re- 
moved to Connecticut. His parents, who 
were highly respected for their piety, 
brought him up according to Puritan prin- 
ciples. 

He was graduated from Yale College 
in 1767, and then studied law, but ap- 
pears to have had a decided aversion to 
the profession, and never offered himself 
for examination. In 1776 he was sent to 
the General Assembly, and, with the ex- 
ception of one session, kept his seat until 
1785, when he became an assistant or 
member of the Governor's Council, serv- 
ing until 1798, when he was elected Lieu- 
tenant-Governor. In 1785-86 he was a 
member of the Continental Congress ; and 
in 1788 was a delegate to the State Con- 
vention which ratified the constitution of 
the United States. In the autumn of 1809 
Governor Trumbull died, and Treadwell 
became his successor, and by a renewal of 
the appointment of the next session (May, 
1810) continued in office for a year. At 
this time he had been judge of probate 
for twenty years, judge of the county 
court for three years, and judge of the 
Supreme Court of Errors for twenty 
years. He was a member of the famous 
Hartford Convention, and was a delegate 



59 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



to the convention that framed the new 
constitution of Connecticut in 1817. He 
aided in negotiating the sale in 1795 of 
the Western Reserve tract in Ohio, by 
which the school fund in Connecticut was 
created ; drew the bill for the application 
of the fund, and, with justice, has been 
termed "the father of the system of com- 
mon school education." He was one of 
the board of managers of this fund from 
1800 until 18 ID. In 1 790- 1 809 he was a 
member of the corporation of Yale, and 
for a long time was one of the prudential 
committee of the corporation, receiving 
in 1800 the degree of Doctor of Laws in 
recognition of his services. For more 
than twenty years he was a deacon of the 
historic Congregational church at Farm- 
ington, with which he united at the age 
of twenty-six, and he was one of the 
founders of the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions, being 
chosen its first president and remaining in 
office until his death. His interest in re- 
ligion was profound ; he gave liberally of 
the large fortune he inherited to societies 
for its promotion, and in his later years 
wrote a series of theological essays, which 
were never printed. President Porter, of 
Yale, wrote of him as follows : "He was 
not, in the common import of the term, 
a popular man ; yet he had moral and in- 
tellectual greatness which carried him 
superior to all obstacles in the path to 
eminence. * * * No magistrate in New 
England, probably since the times of 
Playnes and Winthrop, enjoyed a greater 
measure of confidence in the church, was 
more useful in it or more venerated by its 
ministers." 

Governor Treadwell was married to a 
daughter of Joseph Pomeroy, of North- 
ampton, Massachusetts, who bore him 
one or more children. Governor Tread- 
well died at Farmington, Connecticut, 
August 19, 1823. 



REEVE, Tapping, 

La\iryer, Jurist, Author. 

Tapping Reeve was born in Brook- 
haven, Long Island, New York, in Octo- 
ber, 1744, son of the Rev. Abner Reeve, a 
minister of Long Island, and afterward of 
Vermont, who lived to be one hundred and 
four years old, preaching his last sermon 
when one hundred and two years of age. 

Tapping Reeve was graduated from the 
College of New Jersey, Bachelor of Arts 
1763, Master of Arts 1766. After his 
graduation he taught school at Elizabeth, 
New Jersey, being joint headmaster of a 
flourishing institution, 1763-67, and at the 
same time was a tutor to Aaron and 
Sarah, children of the Rev. Aaron Burr. 
He was a tutor at the College of New Jer- 
sey, 1767-70; meantime studied law with 
Judge Root, and in 1772 established him- 
self in practice in Litchfield, Connecticut. 
Owing to his wife's invalidism he could 
not enter upon active service in the Revo- 
lutionary War, although an ardent patriot. 
In December, 1776, however, he was ap- 
pointed by the Connecticut Assembly a 
member of the committee (as was Oliver 
Ellsworth, his classmate at college) to 
travel through the State and rouse the 
people to aid the desperate Continental 
army by much needed enlistments. He 
himself accepted a commission as an ofifi- 
cer, and had reached New York with the 
new volunteers, when the news of the 
battles of Trenton and Princeton and 
Washington's improved military fortunes 
reached him ; so, deeming the emergency 
passed, he immediately returned to his 
invalid wife. In 1784 he founded a law 
school in Litchfield, in which he was the 
only instructor until 1798, when James 
Gould became associated with him, the 
school of Reeve & Gould becoming the 
most prominent of its kind in the country. 
He was a judge of the Superior Court of 



60 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Connecticut, 1798-1814; chief justice of 
the Supreme Court, 1814, and a Federalist 
representative in the State Legislature 
for several years. The honorary degree 
of Doctor of Laws was conferred upon 
him by Middlebury College, Vermont, in 
1808, and by the College of New Jersey in 
1813. He was the author of: "The Law 
of Baron and Femme" (1816; second edi- 
tion, 1846; third edition, 1S62) ; "Law of 
Parent and Child" (1816) ; "Law of Guar- 
dian and Ward" (1816) ; "Law of Master 
and Servant" (1816; second edition, 1862) ; 
"Treatise on the Law of Descents in the 
United States of America" (1825) ; and 
"Essays on the Legal Import of the Terms 
— Heirs, Heirs of the Body Issue, Etc." 
The best biographical sketch of him is 
found in the funeral sermon preached 
over him by his pastor, the Rev. Lyman 
Beecher, and published in the "Christian 
Spectator" for 1887, pages 62-71. Judge 
Reeve married, in 1771, his former pupil, 
Sarah Burr, daughter of the Rev. Aaron 
Burr, when she was seventeen years of 
age. She died March 30, 1797, leaving 
one son, Aaron Burr Reeve, born October 
3, 1780, graduated at Yale, 1802, married 
Annabella Sheldon, of New York, No- 
vember 21, 1808; he settled as a lawyer at 
Troy, New York, and died there Septem- 
ber I, 1809, leaving a son. Tapping Burr 
Reeve, who died at Litchfield, August 28. 
1829, aged twenty years, while a student 
at Yale. Annabella Reeve, after the 
death of her first husband, married David 
T. Burr, of New Haven, and removed to 
Richmond, Virginia. Judge Tapping 
Reeve was married a second time in 1799, 
and this wife, who survived him, had no 
children. He died in Litchfield, Connec- 
ticut, December 13, 1823. 



GROSVENOR, Thomas, 

Revolutionary Soldier, Jurist. 

The surname Grosvenor is of ancient 
Norman origin and means "great hunter." 



The ancestry of the English family is 
traced to Gilbert Le Grosvenor, who was 
related to William the Conqueror, and 
came with him to England. Grosvenor 
in time became the family name. The 
family has held a leading place since the 
days of the Conquest and many of the 
branches have produced men of wealth, 
title and distinction. The Grosvenors of 
Chester have been particularly conspicu- 
ous. The coat-of-arms, the same that is 
inscribed on the tombstone of the Ameri- 
can immigrant, is : Azure, a garb or. 

John Grosvenor, immigrant ancestor of 
the American family, first of the Ameri- 
can lineage and fifteenth of the English, 
was son of Sir Richard (3) Grosvenor and 
the Grosvenor arms, quartered with 
others, were inscribed on his tombstone. 
Lie was born in England in 1641, and 
came from Cheshire to New England 
when a young man. The family Bible of 
General Lemuel Grosvenor, owned by his 
granddaughter, Mrs. Clarissa Thompson, 
of Pomfret, Connecticut, states that John 
Grosvenor and Esther, his wife, came 
from Cheshire, England, in 1680, and set- 
tled in Roxbury, Massachusetts. The 
records, however, prove that he was there 
as early as 1673, when he was one of the 
proprietors of the town of Roxbury. He 
was one of the original purchasers of the 
Mashamoquet grant in 1686, which in- 
cluded fifteen thousand acres embracing 
the present towns of Pomfret, Brooklyn 
and Putnam, and the parish of Abington, 
Connecticut. In the division of this pur- 
chase, to the twelve Roxbury proprietors 
who bought it, there was allotted to the 
widow and sons of John Grosvenor all the 
land where the village of Pomfret is now 
located and the hills which surround it, 
including Prospect hill, which faces the 
east, and the commanding eminences 
called Sharp's hill and Spaulding's hill on 
the west. Here he settled. He married, 
in England, Esther Clarke, born in 1642, 



61 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



died June i6, 1728 (gravestone). He died 
at Roxbury, September 27, 1691, in his 
forty-seventh year, and his gravestone 
may still be seen in the old Roxbury bury- 
ing ground. 

Ebenezer Grosvenor, son of John Gros- 
venor, was born October 9, 1684. He 
shared in the division of his father's estate 
at Pomfret. His first house vs^as on the 
road from Worcester to Norwich on the 
western declivity of Prospect hill, not 
far from the mansion house of Colonel 
Thomas Grosvenor, where an ancient well 
is still to be seen evidently dug for the 
accommodation of the Widow Esther and 
her children. Ebenezer lived at Pomfret 
and died there September 3, 1730. He 
married Ann Marcy, born 1687, died July 

30. 1743- 

Captain John Grosvenor, son of Eben- 
ezer Grosvenor, was born at Pomfret, 
May 22, 171 1, died there in 1808. He was 
captain of a Pomfret company in the 
Crown Point expedition under Lieutenant 
Dyer, Lieutenant-Colonel Nathaniel Ty- 
ler's regiment, of which Israel Putnam 
was then second lieutenant. He married 
Hannah Dresser, of Thompson, Connecti- 
cut, for his second wife. 

Colonel Thomas Grosvenor, son of Cap- 
tain John Grosvenor, was born at Pom- 
fret, September 20, 1744, died in 1825. He 
graduated at Yale in 1765. Judge Theo- 
dore Sedgwick, of Massachusetts, was a 
classmate. Grosvenor established him- 
self in the practice of law at Pomfret. 

When Connecticut raised and officered 
the first seven regiments for the relief of 
Massachusetts in the Revolution, Gros- 
venor was commissioned second lieuten- 
ant of the Third Regiment, under Colonel 
Israel Putnam and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Experience Storrs, of Mansfield. The 
minute-men follovv^ed Putnam to Cam- 
bridge and the old red house where the 
company assembled on the morning of 



their departure, April 23, 1775, is still 
standing. On the evening of June 16, 
1775, Lieutenant Grosvenor was detailed 
with thirty-one men drafted from his 
company to march to Charlestown under 
Captain Thomas Knowlton, of Ashford, 
and with about a hundred others of the 
same regiment were stationed before noon 
next day at the rail fence on the left of 
the breastworks on Breed's Hill (com- 
monly known as Bunker Hill) and ex- 
tending thence to Mystic river. The 
whole force was under the command of 
Knowlton. When the British attack was 
made, a column under General Pigott was 
directed against the redoubt and another 
vmder General Howe advanced against 
the rail fence. Captain Dana relates that 
he, Sergeant Fuller and Lieutenant Gros- 
venor were the first to fire. When at the 
third attack the British burst through the 
American line at the left of the redoubt, 
Captain Knowlton, Chester and Clark, 
clung persistently to the position near the 
Mystic, though separated from, the main 
body of provincials, and eventually pro- 
tected the retreat of the men who were 
in the redoubt, fighting, according to the 
report of the Massachusetts Committee 
of Safety, with the utmost bravery, and 
keeping the British from advancing fur- 
ther than the breach until the main body 
had left the hill. Colonel Grosvenor re- 
lated in a letter to Daniel Putnam, April 
30, 1818, respecting General Dearborn's 
charges against the behavior of General 
Putnam at Bunker Hill, that his com- 
mand of thirty men and one subaltern lost 
eleven killed or wounded. "Among the 
latter was myself, though not so severely 
as to prevent my retiring." At Winter 
Hill, where intrenchments had been 
thrown up by the Connecticut troops, the 
Provincials made their last stand. Colo- 
nel Grosvenor carried a musket and used 
to relate that he fired his nine cartridges 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



with the same precision of aim as if fox- 
luinting and saw a man fall after each 
shot. His wound was caused by a musket 
ball through the hand. Before striking 
his hand it had passed through the rail 
and it passed through the butt of his 
musket after piercing his hand and finally 
bruised his breast. He bound up his 
hand with a white cravat and remained on 
duty until after the battle. This incident 
is immortalized in Trumbull's painting of 
the battle of Bunker Hill. The command- 
ing figure in the foreground was intended 
to represent Lieutenant Grosvenor ac- 
companied by his colored servant. 

On the arrival of the American army in 
New York, May, 1776, General Washing- 
ton organized a battalion of light troops 
from the volunteer regiments of New 
England and Thomas Grosvenor com- 
manded one of the companies under Colo- 
nel Thomas Knowlton. The Knowlton 
Rangers, as they were called, took part in 
the battle of Long Island, in the fight at 
Harlem, in that near McGowan's Pass, 
where Knowlton was killed. The silk 
sash of Colonel Knowlton, which had 
been presented to him by the town of 
Boston, is preserved in the family of the 
youngest daughter of Colonel Grosvenor, 
Hannah. Captain Brown, who succeeded 
Knowlton, fell in the defense of Fort Mif- 
flin in November, 1777. Colonel Gros- 
venor was in the battle of White Plains, 
October 28, 1776, and was captain in Dur- 
kee's regiment in the battles of Trenton, 
Trenton Bridge and Princeton, and win- 
tered at Valley Forge. He was captain 
in Colonel Wyllis's regiment and was 
with him at the capture of Ticonderoga, 
May 10, 1776. He was commissioned 
February 6, 1777, major in that regiment. 
During the winter at Valley Forge he 
belonged to Huntington's brigade, which 
took part in the battles of Germantown, 
Brandvwine and in the movements at 



White Marsh and Chestnut Hill, from 
November 23 to December 22, 1777, and 
down to the encampment at Valley Forge. 
He was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, 
March 13, 1778, in Colonel Durkee's regi- 
ment, and marched to Monmouth, where 
June 28, 1778, a battle was fought that 
decided the fate of Washington. His 
regiment was in the advance under Lafa- 
yette and was ranged upon the heights 
behind the causeway after Lee's retreat. 
Colonel Grosvenor was also in General 
Sullivan's expedition against the Seneca 
Indians in the summer and autumn of 
1779. On May 22, 1779, ^^ was appointed, 
and July 11 following was commissioned 
as sub-inspector of the army under Baron 
Steuben. He was commissioned an in- 
spector, January i, 1781. On the death 
of Colonel Durkee, May 29, 1782, he was 
appointed lieutenant-colonel of the First 
Connecticut Regiment and continued in 
that command until January i, 1783, when 
the Connecticut regiments were consoli- 
dated under act of Congress of August 7, 

1782. He was also assistant adjutant- 
general of the Connecticut Line, as his 
orderly books show. After January i, 

1783, Colonel Grosvenor returned to Pom- 
fret and resumed the practice of law. 

He married Ann, youngest daughter of 
Captain Peter and Abigail (Martin) 
Mumford. Abigail Martin, born January 
II, 1728, died June 30, 1809, daughter of 
Captain John Martin, R. A., who came 
from County Armagh, Ireland, to this 
country, and was shot during the Revolu- 
tion by a British captain, Wallace. Cap- 
tain Martin married Mrs. (Remington) 
Gardner, a widow. Captain Peter Mum- 
ford, born March 16, 1728, died May 3, 
1798; married, June 2, 1756, Abigail Mar- 
tin ; was son of Benjamin Mumford, born 
April 10, 1696, at South Kingston, mar- 
ried, 1720, Ann, daughter of John and 
Peace (Perry) Mumford and granddaugh- 



63 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ter of Rev. Stephen and Anne Mumford. 
Rev. Stephen Mumford was born in 1638, 
died July i, 1707; married, 1665, came 
from London to Rhode Island and settled 
at Newport. Benjamin Mumford was a 
son of Thomas and Abigail Mumford, of 
South Kingston, and grandson of Thomas 
Mumford, born in England, high sheriff, 
settled in Portsmouth, Rhode Island, 
where he died February 12, 1692. Thomas 
Mumiord married Sarah, daughter of 
Philip and Sarah (Odding) Sherman, 
granddaughter of Henry and Susan 
(Hills) Sherman, and great-granddaugh- 
ter of Henry and Agnes Sherman, of Ded- 
ham, England. 

For more than twenty years after his 
marriage Colonel Grosvenor was a mem- 
ber of the Governor's Council in Connec- 
ticut, and for a still longer period chief 
justice of the Court of Common Pleas for 
Windham county and judge of probate 
for his district. The diploma signed by 
Washington constituting him a member 
of the Order of Cincinnati, now in the 
possession of Bertram G. Goodhue, hung 
until 1891 in the hall of the mansion 
house which he built at Pomfret and in 
which he died. The raising of the frame 
of that house was an occasion of festivity 
and many were the recipients of his 
bounty at that time. It is said that a 
young Mohegan Indian danced upon the 
ridge pole as part of the celebration. The 
house was always open to the chance 
visitor and for many years was a refuge 
for the remnants of Indian tribes that 
still lingered in Connecticut, as well as 
other unfortunates. Among them were 
the venerable Indians, Joshua Sense- 
man and his wife, and brother Isaac. 
Soon after the death of his second son, 
Colonel Grosvenor joined the Congrega- 
tional church at Pomfret. No man was 
more venerated and respected by his 
townsmen. He refused a pension. He 



died July 11, 1825. His wife died June 11, 
1820, and both are buried in the little 
burying ground in Pomfret, where monu- 
ments have been erected to their memory. 
Children : Thomas Mumford, married 
Charlotte Lee ; Ann, married Henry King ; 
Peter, died young; Major Peter, was in 
the war of 1812, married Ann Chase, had 
four sons, who with five sons of his 
brother, Thomas Mumford, fought in the 
Civil War and of the nine five were killed-; 
John H., was consul of the United States 
at Canton, China, died unmarried in New 
York City, January 3, 1848; Hannah, mar- 
ried Edward Eldredge. 



EDWARDS, Pierrepont, 

Soldier of the Revolution, Jurist. 

William Edwards, the immigrant an- 
cestor of Pierrepont Edwards, was a 
native of Whales, from whence he was 
brought by his parents to Oxford, Eng- 
land, and later to London, and after the 
death of his father and second marriage 
of his mother to a Mr. Coles, he accom- 
panied his step-father and mother to this 
country, arriving in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, about 1630, and six years later was 
apparently a resident of Hartford, Con- 
necticut. He married Anne Spencer. 
Their son, Richard Edwards, was a mer- 
chant in Hartford, and married Elizabeth 
Tuthill. Their son. Rev. Timothy Ed- 
wards, was born in 1669, died in 1758; he 
graduated from Harvard College in 1691, 
was pastor of the Windsor church in 
1694, and chaplain of the Connecticut 
troops with Arnold's expedition to Can- 
ada in 171 1. He married Esther Stod- 
dard. Their son, Rev. Jonathan Edwards, 
was born in Windsor in 1703, and died in 
Princeton, New Jersey, 1758; he gradu- 
ated from Yale College in 1720, was pas- 
tor at Northampton and Stockbridge, and 
president of Princeton College in 1757. 



64 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



He married Sarah Pierrepont, and they 
were the parents of Pierrepont Edwards. 
Pierrepont Edwards was born in North- 
ampton, Massachusetts, April 8, 1750, 
died in Bridgeport, Connecticut, April 5, 
1826. He was graduated at the College 
of New Jersey in 1768, and three years 
later settled in New Haven, Connecticut, 
as a practicing lawyer. He was elected to 
the State Legislature, was a soldier in the 
patriot army during the Revolution, and 
when Benedict Arnold was found to be 
guilty of treason he was made adminis- 
trator of his estate. He was a delegate 
from Connecticut to the Continental Con- 
gress, 1787-88, and in the convention 
called to ratify the Federal constitution, 
January 9, 1788, he ably advocated the 
adoption of the instrument. He opposed 
the Calvinists and helped to found the 
Toleration party in Connecticut. He was 
made a judge of the United States Dis- 
trict Court and held the office at the time 
of his death. He married, May, 1769, 
Frances, daughter of Colonel Matthias 
and Mary (Cozzens) Ogden. 



SMITH, Nathan, 

Physician and Educator. 

Nathan Smith was born at Rehoboth, 
Massachusetts, September 30, 1762, died 
in New Haven, Connecticut, July 26, 1829. 
At an early age he removed with his par- 
ents to Chester, Vermont, where he at- 
tended school during the winter months, 
assisting with the work on his father's 
farm during the remainder of the year. 
He entered the militia service, and dur- 
ing the last half of the Revolutionary 
War was engaged in repulsing the Indian 
raids on the northern frontier of Vermont. 

At the age of twenty-two, while en- 
gaged in teaching school, he witnessed 
with intense interest and great steadiness 
of nerve Dr. Josiah Goodhue- of Putney, 
CONN— Vol 1—5 



Vermont, perform the difficult operation 
of amputating the thigh of a patient at 
Chester. He then decided to study medi- 
cine, and from 1784 to 1787 was under the 
instruction of Dr. Goodhue, who became 
his lifelong friend. He practiced in Corn- 
ish, New Hampshire, for two years, 1787- 
89, then attended medical lectures at Har- 
vard Medical School, under Drs. Warren, 
Dexter and Waterhouse, and at the close 
of the first term his dissertation on the 
"Circulation of the Blood" was published 
by authority of the faculty. He was 
graduated from that institution in 1790 
with the degree of Doctor of Medicine, 
being the only graduate that year, and the 
fourth of the medical department. In the 
same year he returned to Cornish, where 
he practiced until 1906, and during that 
time he attained eminence and became 
widely known. In 1796 he went to Scot- 
land and attended lectures in Edinburgh 
under the celebrated Drs. Monro and 
Black, and then spent several months in 
the hospitals of London with eminent 
physicians, who elected him a member of 
the medical society of that city. He re- 
turned to his native country in 1797, and 
in the following year went to Dartmouth 
College, where he established the chair of 
anatomy and surgery and occupied it 
from 1798 to 1810, and also established 
the chair of theory and practice of medi- 
cine, which he held from 1798 to 1813, at 
the same time conducting an extensive 
private practice. Dr. Smith removed to 
New Haven in 1813, and was professor of 
theory and practice of physic, surgery and 
obstetrics at Yale College for the follow- 
ing sixteen years, and was largely influ- 
ential in the establishment of a medical 
building, library and museum. In 1819 
he was consulted by President William 
Allen, of Bowdoin College, in regard to 
establishing medical instruction in that 
State, and on June 2y, 1820, he was made 



65 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



professor of theory and practice of medi- 
cine in Bowdoin, which position he held 
until 1825. He was also lecturer on medi- 
cine and surgery at the University of Ver- 
mont, 1822-25. In the meantime he re- 
tained his position at the head of the medi- 
cal department of Yale College until his 
death. He possessed wonderful sagacity 
in diagnosis and prognosis. He was the 
originator of various methods of surgical 
operation, invented apparatus for the re- 
duction of fractures, and was the author 
of "Practical Essays on Typhus Fever" 
(1824), and "Medical and Surgical 
Memoirs," edited, with addenda, by his 
son, Nathan Ryno Smith (1831). He re- 
ceived from Dartmouth the honorary de- 
gree of Master of Arts in 1798, and that 
of Doctor of Medicine in 1801, and from 
Harvard that of Doctor of Medicine, 181 1. 



HILLHOUSE, James, 
Revolutionary Soldier, Strong Character. 

James Hillhouse was born in Montville, 
Connecticut, October 20, 1754, second son 
of Judge William and Sarah (Griswold) 
Hillhouse. He was adopted into the fam- 
ily of his uncle, James Abraham Hill- 
house, of New Haven, in 1761 ; and was 
graduated from Yale College, Bachelor of 
Arts, 1773, receiving the degree of Mas- 
ter of Arts in 1776. 

He commanded the Governor's Foot- 
guards, was entrusted by Governor Trum- 
bull with promoting enlistments, and on 
July 5, 1779, when Tryon invaded Con- 
necticut and attacked New Haven, his 
company stoutly resisted the advance. 
He was a State representative, 1780-89; a 
member of the first city council of New 
Haven, 1784; was elected, but did not 
serve as delegate to the Continental Con- 
gress, 1786-87 ; was a member of the coun- 
cil, 1789-91 ; a representative in the Sec- 
ond, Third and Fourth United States 



Congresses, 1791-96; and United States 
Senator as successor to Oliver Ellsworth, 
resigned, 1796-97, and by election, 1797- 
1815. He was president pro tempore of 
the Senate from February 28 to March 3, 
1801. In the Senate he acted with the 
Federalist party, but in 1808 proposed 
amendments to the constitution intended 
to check the growing tendency toward 
presidential power and patronage, and to 
protect the independent self-government 
of the States within their separate sov- 
ereignties. He resigned his seat in the 
Senate in May, 1810, to accept the ap- 
pointment of first commissioner of the 
school fund of Connecticut. This fund 
was acquired by the sale of land on the 
southern shore of Lake Erie, of the same 
length and between the same parallels of 
latitude as old Connecticut, and known as 
New Connecticut, or the Western Re- 
serve, which Connecticut reserved when 
she ceded to the United States all her 
right and title in the land which she 
claimed under the charter which made the 
"South Sea," or Pacific ocean, her west- 
ern boundary. This fund, amounting to 
$1,200,000, consisted chiefly of the debts 
due from the original purchasers of the 
Western Reserve, and those substituted 
securities which had been accepted in 
their stead by a board of managers. Re- 
ports in 1801 showed a large amount of 
interest unpaid and portions of the capital 
in danger of being lost by the failure 
of collateral securities. Mr. Hillhouse 
straightened these aflfairs; and in fifteen 
years added to the fund by careful invest- 
ment, and on his resignation in 1825, had 
increased it by $500,000. Donations made 
to him by several of the original pur- 
chasers of the Western Reserve amount- 
ing to $9,982.02, and earned by extra offi- 
cial labor to which the State had no claim 
or right, was by him turned over to the 
Connecticut school fund through a "high 



66 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



sense oi honor" not often exhibited in 
fiduciary history. Senator Hillhouse was 
an early counsellor of Yale College, and 
his advice largely insured its continuance 
at the critical period of its history, 1791- 
92. He was treasurer of Yale 1 782-1832, 
and received the honorary degree of Doc- 
tor of Laws from there in 1823. He died 
in New London, Connecticut, December 
29, 1832. 

He was married, January i, 1779, to 
Sarah, daughter of John Lloyd, of Stam- 
ford, Connecticut, who died in the same 
year; and (second) in 1782, to Rebecca, 
daughter of Melancthon Woolsey, of Do- 
soris, Rhode Island. His second wife died 
December 29, 1813. Of their sons, James 
Abraham, was the well known poet, and 
Augustus L. became a resident of Paris, 
France. 



HINSDALE, Theodore, 

Manufacturer, Public Official. 

The family of Hinsdale had its origin 
in the district of Loos, in the county of 
Liege, now in Belgium, and various spell- 
ings are found, namely : Hinisdal, Hinis- 
dael, Henisdael, Hinesdale, Henesdale, 
Hinisdale, Hinnisdale, Hynsdale, Hins- 
dael and Hinnisdal. The only coat-of- 
arms granted to the family is: De Sable, 
au chef D'argent, charge de trois m,erles 
de sable. Crest : Couronne de Comte. 
Supports: Deux Levriers. Motto: Mod- 
erata durant. Deacon Robert Hinsdale, 
immigrant ancestor, came to Dedham, 
Massachusetts, from England, rnd was a 
proprietor of that town in 1637. He held 
various public offices. His son, Barnabas 
Hinsdale, was born November 13, 1639; 
he was a resident of Dedham, Hadley, 
Hatfield and Deerfield. His son, Barna- 
bas (2) Hinsdale, was born at Hatfield, 
February 20, 1668, and died in Hartford, 
January 25, 1725. His son. Captain John 



Hinsdale, was in Hartford, Connecticut, 
August 13, 1706, and died December 2, 
1792. He removed to Berlin, Connecti- 
cut. He served as ensign, lieutenant and 
captain. His son. Rev. Theodore Hins- 
dale, was born in Berlin, Connecticut, 
November 25, 1738, and died at Hinsdale, 
December 29, 1818. He taught for sev- 
eral years after his graduation from Yale, 
and was ordained a minister at North 
Windsor, Connecticut, April 30, 1766, dis- 
missed March 4, 1795. He served the 
church at North Windsor for twenty- 
eight years. His son, Josiah Bissell Hins- 
dale, was born in Windsor, Connecticut, 
November 15, 1774, died at Rochester, 
New York, February 6, 1866, whither he 
removed in 1842. He married Temper- 
ance Pitkin and they were the parents of 
Theodore Hinsdale, of this review. 

Theodore (2) Hinsdale, son of Josiah 
Bissell Hinsdale, was born at Colebrook, 
December 27, 1800, died November 27, 
1841. He married, April 26, 1826, Jerusha, 
daughter of Solomon and Sarah (Mc- 
Ewen) Rockwell. She married (second) 
December 10, 1843, John Boyd, widower, 
of West Winsted. He was born at Win- 
sted, March 17, 1799, son of James and 
Mary (Monro) Boyd, and he died Decem- 
ber I, 1881, at Winsted. He compiled the 
annals of W^inchester, a work of six hun- 
dred and forty pages. Theodore Hins- 
dale graduated from Yale College in 1821, 
and read law for a short time with Seth 
P. Staples, Esq., of New Haven, after- 
ward studied at Andover for one or two 
years. In 1827 he went into the manu- 
facturing business with his father-in-law, 
in the firm name of Rockwell & Hinsdale. 
After the death of Mr. Rockwell, in 1837, 
he was associated in the same business 
(scythe making) with Elliot Beardsley, 
under the firm name of Hinsdale & 
Beardsley, until his death. He had charge 
of the school funds of the town. He was 



67 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



a prominent and energetic citizen and 
business man. He was a commanding 
person, with a fascinating personality and 
a native oratory which made him widely 
known and admired. He was constantly 
sought as a presiding officer or speaker 
at large public gatherings, and was noted 
for his zeal in advocating a cause. Mr. 
Hinsdale's profound interest in the indus- 
trial development of this country was far- 
reaching in its effect, and as a member of 
the Connecticut legislature in 1837 he 
framed and secured the passage of the 
"Connecticut Joint Stock Act." In an ad- 
dress delivered by the late Edward Ever- 
ett Hale, D. D., before the Phi Beta 
Kappa Society of Brown University, and 
repeated before the Adelphi Union of 
Williams College, Dr. Hale refers to the 
above-mentioned act as follows : 

The whole history of government in America 
from 1620 to this time is one ilUistration of the 
people's success in doing what no statesman or 
theorist, though he were John Locke or John 
Adams, could do single-handed. You start with 
the charter of a trading company. You come 
out at the end of a hundred and thirty years 
with organized, constitutional government. In 
that one hundred and thirty years you have not 
one Numa, or Solon, or Lycurgus, but you have 
the people. One experiment is tried, and fails. 
Another experiment is tried and succeeds. Fail- 
ure produces nothing, but success produces suc- 
cess. And the end comes, better than the begin- 
ning, because you relied on this simple law. 

I had better take one simple instance. Here 
is our modern system of associated work, organ- 
ized in our several States under what we call 
the general corporation acts, what is called in 
England the limited liability act. Now that the 
thing is in easy running order every one says 
that it is a perfectly simple contrivance. It gives 
you almost all the advantages claimed for social- 
ism, and you pay none of the penalties. Three 
men, six, ten or a hundred men, who want to 
work together, can combine as much as they 
want to, and their corporation moves as one 
person, with law and freedom. Who invented 
this system? Did Robert Owen? or Charles 
Fourier? or the Count St. Simon? Not they. 
They did not know enough. They tried and they 
failed. Look in the books for its history. You 



will have better success that I have had if you 
find it there. For we gentlemen scholars who 
write the books are a little apt to pass such 
trifles by. It came to life; it uttered its first 
cry in the State of Connecticut in 1837. If it 
lived — well; if it died — no matter. It chose to 
live. It lived and grew strong. It came to stay. 
"I attribute to it," said one of the first author- 
ities in that State, "much of our manufacturing 
success. It has always been a useful law." It 
lived. It did not die. So it was copied here. 
It was copied there. It is now in force, in some 
form or other, in almost every State of the 
LTnion. It is in force, in principle, in the English 
limited liability law of 1855, which is confessedly 
taken from it. Now, what scholar or statesman 
invented it? Did you find it in Adam Smith? 
Did you learn in from Say or from William 
Cobbett? "I never heard who got it up," this 
was the answer made to me by the same accom- 
plished writer in Connecticut, when I asked him 
for anything about its origin." I had the same 
answer from one of the veteran statesmen of 
that day, who was in public life the year in 
which it was passed and lives to an honored old 
age. This is what happened: A pure democracy 
like the State of Connecticut needed such an 
arrangement. This pure democracy was intel- 
ligent enough to know what it needed, and it 
had the power in its hands to fill the need. 
Your grand questions about the history and 
genesis of such a statute are answered as Topsy 
answered Miss Ophelia's theological question: 
"I 'specks it growed." 

Since the delivery of this address in 
Providence a very interesting letter has 
com,e from Mr. Abijah Catlin, a member 
of the Connecticut Legislature of 1837, 
and gives the full detail of the origin of 
the act : 

Theodore Hinsdale, a representative from the 
town of Winchester, introduced and advocated 
the bill, and, so far as I know, was the author 
thereof. Mr. Hinsdale was a graduate of Yale, 
as I believe, and was in the business of manu- 
facturing scythes in Winsted, Connecticut, with 
his father-in-law, Solomon Rockwell. 

The manufactory still exists, under the name 
of the Beardsley Scythe Company. Mr. Hins- 
dale was a gentleman of fine appearance, of 
pleasing manners and of fluent speech. He was 
an ardent advocate of manufactures and of their 
encouragement. In advocating the bill he had 
no personal interest, as he and his father-in- 



68 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



law were able to carry on their manufactory 
without the aid of additional capital. 

In 1837 the dominant policical parity was 
strongly opposed to the chartering of corpora- 
tions unless a provision was made for the liabil- 
ity of individual stockholders for the debts of 
the corporation. The joint stock law of 1837 
was intended to enable men of small means to 
combine together for the efficient execution of 
their project, and has been, as you know, acted 
upon very extensively in this State. 

This letter shows that to Mr. Theodore 
Hinsdale the thanks of half the working 
people of the world are due for an act of 
great simplicity, which sooner or later is 
a help to so many of them. 

The following paragraph in reference to 
the Connecticut Joint Stock Act is from 
Johnston's "American Commonwealths," 
edited by the late Horace E. Scudder: 

Apart from the peculiarly State features of 
the industrial development, at least one feature 
of it has had a national and international influ- 
ence, as Mr. E. E. Hale has pointed out. The 
Connecticut Joint Stock Act of 1837, framed by 
Mr. Theodore Hinsdale, a manufacturer of the 
Commonwealth, introduced the corporation in 
the form under which we now generally know it. 
Its principle was copied by almost every State of 
the Union, and by the English limited liability 
act of 1855, and the effects of its simple principle 
upon the industrial development of the whole 
modern world are quite beyond calculation. All 
that can be done here is to notice the wide influ- 
ence of a single Connecticut manufacturer's idea, 
and to call attention to this as another instance 
of the close connection of democracy with 
modern industrial development. 

In the midst of Mr. Hinsdale's career of 
usefulness he was struck down by typhoid 
fever, and died November 27, 1841, aged 
forty. Children : Sarah McEwen, born 
April 2, 1827, died August 17, 1833; Mary 
Pitkin, born December 11, 1828; Solomon 
Rockwell, August 25, 1835, died Novem- 
ber, 1908 ; he was in the treasury depart- 
ment, Washington, D. C, and married 
Julia Merritt Jackson, and had one son, 
Theodore Rockwell Hinsdale, of Seattle. 



WEBSTER, Noah, 

Lezicograplier. 

Noah Webster was born in West Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, October 16, 1758, son 
of Noah and Mercy (Steele) Webster, 
grandson of Daniel and Miriam (Kellogg) 
Webster, and a descendant of John Web- 
ster, one of the first settlers in Hartford 
and colonial governor of Connecticut, and 
on his mother's side, of William Brad- 
ford, of Plymouth. 

He matriculated at Yale in 1774, joined 
his father's company to aid in repelling 
Burgoyne's invasion in the summer of 
1777, and was graduated from. Yale, Bach- 
elor of Arts, 1778; Master of Arts, 1781. 
He taught school in Hartford, Connecti- 
cut, was admitted to the bar in 1780, 
established a school at Sharon, and re- 
moved to Goshen, Orange county. New 
York, in 1782. While there he compiled 
two small elementary books for teaching 
the English language, which were the be- 
ginning of his "Grammatical Institute of 
the English Language," which comprised, 
when completed, a speller, a grammar and 
a reader. Prior to this time all the school 
books were by English authors, and Web- 
ster felt that the pedantry of the English 
educator would not please the American 
farmers' sons, and that a young independ- 
ent nation needed new, sympathetic text- 
books. Accordingly in his "Grammatical 
Institute," quotations from the American 
patriots were as numerous as those from 
the classics. After compiling his speller, 
Webster, realizing the necessity of ade- 
quate copyright laws, traveled from State 
to State, importuning legislators to enact 
such laws, and in 1790 his efforts bore 
fruit in the passage by Congress of its 
first copyright legislation. From that 
time until 1832 Webster worked tirelessly 
for the extension of authors' rights. After 
the law was passed in 1790, Webster got 
a Hartford firm to print five thousand 



69 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



copies of his spelling book as a venture, 
and it is worthy of note that throughout 
the rest of Webster's life, whenever he 
was in need of funds he fell back on the 
proceeds of the spelling book sales. He 
resumed school teaching, started the 
"American Magazine," lectured, practiced 
law and did almost anything to turn a 
penny. He took a lively interest in poli- 
tics, showing the greatest confidence in 
the young republic that many regarded as 
a doubtful experiment in government. He 
delivered an address on "The Effects of 
Slavery on Morals and Industry" in 1793, 
and the same year, during the French 
Revolution, became editor of the newly 
established "American Minerva," an anti- 
French paper. He favored Jay's treaty, 
and together with Chancellor Kent wrote 
a series of twelve papers defending it, the 
first of which Jefferson ascribed to Hamil- 
ton. Webster was a strong Federalist, 
thoroughly loyal to Washington, and 
after abandoning the "Minerva" in 1798 
as unprofitable he continued his interest 
in public affairs, writing "Essays on the 
Rights of Neutral Nations," attacking the 
spoils system at the time of its inception 
under Jefferson, and publishing a reply to 
Jefferson's inaugural address. But dur- 
ing all his interest in other matters he 
never lost his grasp on his speller. Its 
large sales necessitated many new edi- 
tions, and each edition was thoroughly 
revised, new spellings being adopted and 
definitions altered. Webster was strongly 
in favor of phonetic spelling, carrying it 
to an extreme in his essays, and introduc- 
ing it judiciously in his speller and dic- 
tionary. It is probable that his first im- 
pulse in this line was given him by Benja- 
min Franklin, with whom he was intimate. 
Franklin first projected the dictionary, 
but thinking himself too old to undertake 
the work, presented Webster with what 
manuscript and type he had. Webster 



named his book the "American Diction- 
ary of the English Language," and al- 
though his first aim was to be correct, 
his book differed from the others in his 
class in that it was intended to go into 
the American household, and foreign 
words, foreign spelling of English words, 
and pedantic words, so common in John- 
son, were dealt with harshly. Webster 
maintained that the language spoken in 
America was not a dialect of the English, 
but a separate, legitimate branch of the 
parent stock ; that Americans were better 
authority on good use in America than 
were Englishmen, and that simply be- 
cause a word was confined to America, it 
was not a provincialism. On the whole, 
Webster's dictionary was decidedly patri- 
otic. Etymology was the branch that at- 
tracted him most, and although it was the 
weakest point in his dictionary, his work 
in that line was remarkable. He traced 
words where they could be traced, and 
guessed at them when they could not, but 
his genius served him well, and modern 
comparative philology, of which he laid 
the foundation, shows some of his long- 
est shots to have been surprisingly near 
the mark. Webster began work in 1806; 
in 1812 he removed from New Haven to 
Amherst, Massachusetts, as a matter of 
economy, but in 1822, having exhausted 
his own library, he returned to New 
Haven, and in 1824, realizing the lack of 
material in America, he went to Cam- 
bridge, England, to use the university 
library. He finished the dictionary in 
January, 1825, and in 1828 the first edi- 
tion was published. It was the first 
American dictionary, and long after Web- 
ster's death was the standard in this coun- 
try. It is of especial interest to note that 
during the revision of the Bible (1870-80) 
there were several points of difference be- 
tween the English and American scholars, 
and on many of these points the Ameri- 



70 



ENXYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



can company agreed with Webster's 
views as expressed in a revision of the 
Bible which he had made long before he 
compiled his dictionary. Webster revised 
his dictionary in 1840, and was engaged 
in another revision at the time of his 
death. He was married, October 26, 1789, 
to Rebecca, daughter of William Green- 
leaf, of Boston, and they had one son and 
six daughters. He served in the legisla- 
tures of Massachusetts and of Connecti- 
cut, was one of the founders of the Con- 
necticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
and during his residence in Amherst was 
actively interested in founding Amherst 
College, serving as first president of the 
board of trustees of Amherst Academy at 
the time Amherst College was founded. 
He received from the College of New Jer- 
sey the honorary degree of Master of 
Arts in 1795, from Yale that of Doctor of 
Laws in 1823, and from Middlebury that 
of Doctor of Laws in 1830. Besides many 
pamphlets and monographs, Webster's 
books published during his life include : 
"A Grammatical Institute of the English 
Language" (three parts. 1783-85); "The 
New York Directory" (1786; reprinted 
1886) ; "Dissertations on the English Lan- 
guage" (1789) ; "A Collection of Essays 
and Fugitive Writings on Moral, His- 
torical, Political and Literary Subjects" 

(1790) ; "The Promptor, or a Commen- 
tary on Common Sayings and Subjects" 

(1791) ; reprinted as "The English Ship 
Righting Herself after 20 Years of Hard 
Fighting" (1806) ; "The Revolution in 
France" (1794) ; "Collection of Papers on 
Bilious Fevers" (1796) ; "A Brief History 
of Epidemic and Pestilential Diseases" 
(two volumes, 1799) ; "Miscellaneous 
Papers on Political and Comanercial Sub- 
jects" (1802; containing "Rights of Neu- 
tral Nations," "An Address to the Presi- 
dent of the United States on the Subject 
of His Address," and "The Origin and 



State of Banking Institutions and Insur- 
ance Offices") ; "A Philosophical and 
Practical Grammar of the English Lan- 
guage" (1807) ; "A Compendious Dic- 
tionary of the English Language" (1806) ; 
"Elements of Useful Knowledge" (two 
volumes, 1809) ; "History of Anirnals" 
(1812) ; "Letters to a Young Gentleman 
Commencing His Education" (1823) ; 
"An American Dictionary of the English 
Language" (1828) ; "Biography for the 
Use of Schools" (1830) ; "The Holy Bible, 
containing Old and New Testaments in 
the Common Version, with Amendments 
of the Language" (1833) ; "History of the 
United States" (1835); "Family of John 
Webster" (1836) ; "Manual of Useful 
Studies" (1839). See also "Websteriana, 
a Catalogue of books by Noah Webster, 
collected from the Library of Gordon L. 
Ford, by Paul Leicester Ford and Emily 
Ellsworth Ford" (1882). A good life of 
Webster, by Horace E. Scudder was pub- 
lished in "American Men of Letters" 
series (1881). He died in New Haven, 
Connecticut, May 28, 1843. 



BRONSON, Bennet, 

Capitalist and Judge. 

John Bronson. the first ancestor of 
whom there is record, was living in Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, in 1639. from whence 
he removed to Tunxis. then to Farming- 
ton, and his death occurred in 1680. His 
son, Isaac Bronson, was baptized Decem- 
ber 7, 1645. resided in Farmington and 
Waterbury. His son. Lieutenant Thomas 
Bronson. was born in Waterbury, Con- 
necticut, January 16, 1685-86. and died 
May 26, 1777. His son, Thomas (2) 
Bronson. was born in Waterbury. Con- 
necticut. January 5. 171 1. and died there. 
June 25, 1759. His son. Deacon Stephen 
Bronson. was born in Waterbury, Con- 
necticut. June 30. 1735. and died Decem- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ber 15, 1809. He married, May 17, 1763, 
Sarah Humaston, and they were the par- 
ents of Judge Bennet Bronson, of whom 
further. 

Judge Bennet Bronson, son of Deacon 
Stephen Bronson, was born November 14, 
1775, died December 11, 1850. He was 
fitted for college in the school of Messrs. 
Badger and Kingsbury, and graduated at 
Yale in 1797. In 1798 he was appointed 
lieutenant in the provisional army of the 
United States, and served about two 
years, when the army was disbanded. 

He then studied law with Hon. Noah 
B. Benedict, of Woodbury, Connecticut, 
and in 1802 was admitted to the bar and 
opened an office in his native town. In 
1812 he became one of the assistant judges 
of the county court, and held the position 
two years ; in 1825 he was one of the first 
burgesses of the town of Waterbury ; he 
was a representative to the Legislature 
in 1829. He inherited a fair estate from 
his father, and soon became one of the 
leading capitalists of the town. For a 
time he was engaged in the business of 
clock-making, and he also invested suc- 
cessfully in other manufacturing. He 
was a large landholder and successful 
farmer. He was the first president of the 
Waterbury Bank, retaining that position 
until his death. On June 10, 1838, he was 
elected deacon of the First Church, and 
on August 31, having considered the mat- 
ter nearly three months, he "signified his 
consent to perform for a time at least the 
duties of that office ;" he remained a dea- 
con until 1843. He was one of the first 
trustees of the Second Academy at Water- 
bury. He took great interest in local his- 
tory and early began to collect material 
for the history of the town. It is largely 
due to his painstaking eflforts that the his- 
tory of Waterbury could be so fully writ- 
ten. He was fond of old ways and estab- 
lished customs. At the time it was pro- 



posed to heat the meeting house with 
stoves, he opposed the project, and when 
the congregation began to sit during the 
prayer and stand during the singing, he 
saw no need of the change, but remained 
loyal to the older forms, notwithstanding 
the change. In person Judge Bronson 
was tall, and in early life straight and 
athletic. He had sunken eyes, shaggy 
eye-brows and a capacious forehead. He 
was a good lawyer, but not a ready 
speaker, and made an admirable counselor 
and conveyancer. His excellent business 
judgment and thorough honesty gained 
for him the entire confidence of the com- 
munity. In his will he left a legacy of 
two hundred dollars for books for a pas- 
tor's library, and in 1857 these books 
were purchased. 

He married, May 11, 1801, Anna, daugh- 
ter of Richard Smith, of Roxbury. She 
died March 4, 1819. He married (second) 
May 6, 1820, Elizabeth Maltby, who died 
June 12, 1840, daughter of Benjamin 
Maltby, of Branford. He married (third) 
May 27, 1841, Nancy Daggett, who died 
at New Haven, August 14, 1867, daugh- 
ter of Jacob Daggett, of New Haven. 

Rev. Thomas Bronson, son of Judge 
Bennet Bronson, was born in Waterbury, 
January 4, 1808, died there April 20, 185 1, 
after a few weeks' illness of a rheumatic 
affection of the heart. He was fitted for 
college partly by his father, and partly in 
Farmington, and graduated at Yale in 
1829. On leaving college he took charge 
of a school in East Windsor, but was 
obliged to give it up on account of a severe 
attack of rheumatic fever. In the spring 
of 1830 he began the study of law with 
Truman Smith, of Litchfield, and then at- 
tended the New Haven Law School ; 
abandoning this, he studied theology at 
New Haven and Andover. He began to 
preach in the autumn of 1835, although he 
did not receive his license until 1838. He 



72 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



was never ordained, but preached in sev- 
eral places in Connecticut and New York. 
Late in the year 1843 he gave up the min- 
istry and removed to the South, where he 
taught school in Smithfield, Virginia. 
Later he removed to Quincy, Illinois, and 
taught school there until after the death 
of his father in 1850. He returned to 
Waterbury in 1851, but died soon after- 
ward. He married, February 13, 1839, 
Cynthia Elizabeth Bartlett, who died Feb- 
ruary 13, 1852; daughter of Cyrus M. 
Bartlett, of Hartford. 



DAGGETT, David, 

Lawyer, Public Official. 

John Doggett, immigrant ancestor, 
came to New England with Governor 
Winthrop in 1630, and settled at Martha's 
Vineyard, where his name often appeared 
on the records. He died in Plymouth, 
Massachusetts, in 1673. His son, Thomas 
Daggett, was born at Watertown, Massa- 
chusetts, about 1630. He changed the 
spelling of the name to Daggett. His son, 
John Daggett, was born in 1662, and his 
house is reported as being used as a gar- 
rison house. His son, Thomas (2) Dag- 
gett, was born about 1692. His son, 
Thomas (3) Daggett, was born in 1731. 
He married Sibulah Stanley, of Attleboro, 
Massachusetts, where his life was spent. 
They were the parents of Hon. David 
Daggett, of whom further. 

Hon. David Daggett, son of Thomas 
(3) and Sibulah (Stanley) Daggett, was 
born at Attleboro, Massachusetts, Decem- 
ber 31. 1764, died in New Haven, Con- 
necticut, April 12, 1851. 

He resided in his native town until the 
fall of 1779. In 1781 he went to New 
Haven and entered the junior class of 
Yale College, graduating in 1783 with 
high honor. He commenced the study of 
law with Charles Chauncey, Esq., of New 



Haven, and was admitted to the bar of 
New Haven county in January, 1786, at 
the age of twenty-one, and immediately 
entered upon practice in the town. While 
pursuing his legal studies under Judge 
Chauncey he supported himself by per- 
forming the duties of butler in college and 
preceptor in the Hopkins Grammar 
School. In 1791 he was chosen to repre- 
sent the town of New Haven in the Gen- 
eral Assembly, and was annually reelected 
for six years until 1797, when he was 
chosen a member of the council or upper 
house. Though one of the youngest mem- 
bers of the House of Representatives, he 
soon became one of its most influential, 
and in 1794 was chosen to preside over it 
as its speaker at the early age of twenty- 
nine. He retained his seat in the council 
for seven years, until his resignation in 
1804. The following year he was again a 
member of the House of Representatives. 
In 1809 he was again chosen a member of 
the upper house and continued to hold a 
place in that body until May, 1813, when 
he was chosen a Senator in the Congress 
of the United States for six years from 
the preceding fourth of March. In June, 
181 1, he was appointed State's Attorney 
for the county of New Haven, and con- 
tinued in that office until his resignation 
when chosen to the Senate in 1813. In 
1826 he was chosen Kent professor of law 
in the Yale Law School. He continued 
in these positions until at a very advanced 
age his infirmities induced him to resign 
them. In the autumn of 1826 he received 
from the corporation of Yale College the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. In 
May, 1826, he was chosen an associate 
judge of the Superior Court of the State 
of Connecticut. During the years 1828 
and 1829 he was mayor of the city of New 
Haven. In May. 1832, he was made chief 
justice of the Supreme Court, and con- 
tinued to perform the duties of that sta- 



73 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



tion until December 31, 1834, when he 
attained the age of seventy years, the 
limit which the State constitution assigns 
to the judicial office. 

Judge Daggett was a true and accom- 
plished gentleman. He was in a very 
extraordinary degree polished in his man- 
ners, gracefully and scrupulously observ- 
ant of all civilities. His courtesy was re- 
markable. The religious life of Judge 
Daggett began with the thorough train- 
ing which he received in his childhood 
and youth. This "nurture and admoni- 
tion of the Lord" under the paternal roof, 
and the memories and records of his pious 
ancestry had a strong influence upon him. 
He commenced his active life with great 
respect for religion and its ordinances. 

Judge Daggett married (first) Wealthy 
Ann, daughter of Dr. Eneas Munson, and 
they were the parents of nineteen chil- 
dren ; she died in 1839. ^^ married (sec- 
ond) Mary, daughter of Major Lines ; she 
died in 1854. 

Dr. Eneas Munson, father of Judge 
Daggett's first wife, was a noted char- 
acter in his day. He was born June 13, 
1734, and graduated at Yale College in 
1753; he became a preacher, though 
never a pastor, for a few years. He be- 
gan practice as a physician in Bedford, 
New York, in 1756, but removed to New 
Haven in 1760, where he continued in 
practice during seventy years. In addi- 
tion to the duties of his profession. Dr. 
Munson was a public-spirited citizen, 
holding many town offices, and was a 
member of the first common council of 
the city in 1784, Roger Sherman being 
mayor. He also represented New Haven 
in the State Legislature seven times. He 
lived to the age of ninety-two years. In 
1 761 he married Susannah Howell, by 
v^^hom he had nine children, Mrs. Daggett 
being the fourth. 

Dr. Eneas Munson was a descendant in 



the fifth generation from Thomas Mun- 
son, one of the founders of New Haven, 
the line being as follows : Thomas Mun- 
son (I), 1612-85, married Joanna . 

Samuel Munson (II), 1643-93, married 
Martha, daughter of William and Alice 
(Pritchard) Bradley. Theophilus Mun- 
son (III), 1675-1747, married Esther, 
daughter of John and Elizabeth (Heaton) 
Mix. Benjamin Munson (IV), born 1711, 
married Abigail, daughter of John and 
Abigail (Ailing) Punderson. Eneas was 
the oldest of their four children. 



BALDWIN, Simeon, 

Lawyer, Congressman, Jndge. 

The name of Baldwin appears in the 
Battle Abbey, and one of the name is 
known as early as 672. The Baldwins of 
the United States came largely from 
County Bucks, England. John Baldwin, 
the founder of the Norwich family of the 
name, appears early in Guilford, Connec- 
ticut, and in 1660 removed to Norwich, 
the year of the settlement of that town. 
His son, Thomas Baldwin, was born in 
Norwich, Connecticut, in 1662. He was 
a farm,er by occupation. His son, Eben- 
ezer Baldwin, was born in Norwich, Con- 
necticut, April 20, 1710. He became a 
leading man of his native town, was 
known as Captain Baldwin, and held nu- 
merous offices of trust and importance. 
He married, October 10, 1738, Bethiah 
Barker, and they were the parents of 
Simeon Baldwin, of whom further. 

Simeon Baldwin, son of Ebenezer and 
Bethiah (Barker) Baldwin, was born in 
Norwich, Connecticut, December 14, 1761. 
He was prepared for college by his 
brother, the Rev. Ebenezer Baldwin, of 
Danbury, Connecticut, and was residing 
with his brother when the rumor of the 
battle of Bunker Hill reached Danbury. 
He was then between thirteen and four- 



74 



ENXYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



teen years of age and was despatched on 
horseback to the house of the minister at 
New Milford, who received the Boston 
newspaper, to obtain, if possible, the copy 
as a loan, in order to give the news to the 
people of Danbury. He accomplished his 
purpose, covering the fifteen miles and 
back in impulsive boy fashion, with but 
little regard to the comfort of his horse, 
and the important news was read to the 
assembled multitude awaiting his return. 
On the death of his brother, in October, 
1776, he completed his preparatory studies 
at Coventry, under tutorship of Rev. Jo- 
seph Huntington, and at Lebanon at Mas- 
ter Tisdale's school. He matriculated at 
Yale College in 1787, and was a student 
in New Haven, when the British attacked 
the place, and he joined a company of 
undergraduates formed to resist the ad- 
vance of the enemy at "Neck Bridge." 
He was graduated at Yale, Bachelor of 
Arts, 1781 ; Master of Arts, 1784. In 1782 
he went to Albany as senior preceptor in 
the Albany Academy, and served as tutor 
at Yale, 1783-86; taught in New Haven 
and studied law with Judge Charles 
Chauncy. In 1786 he was admitted to the 
bar and practiced his profession in New 
Haven, and in 1790 was elected clerk of 
the city court of New Haven, serving 
1790-1800. He also served as clerk of the 
District Circuit Court of the United 
States, and continued an extensive prac- 
tice in the State courts up to 1803, when 
he took his seat in the United States Con- 
gress as a representative from the New 
Haven district. He served throughout 
the Eighth United States Congress, 1803- 
05, and declined a renomination in 1804. 
He was reappointed clerk of the United 
States courts, serving up to 1806. The 
Legislature of Connecticut in 1806 made 
him an associate judge of the Superior 
Court and Supreme Court of Errors of the 
State, and he continued in that high ofifice 



for eleven years, up to May, 181 7, by 
annual reappointment, which was at the 
time the custom. He was made a mem- 
ber of the commission which located the 
Farmington canal, by the General Assem- 
bly, and in 1822 was elected president of 
the board, resigning in 1830, after the canal 
was completed to Northampton. He was 
city councilman of New Haven, 1798-99; 
alderman, 1800-16, and 1820-25. Iri 1826 
he was elected mayor of the city of New 
Haven, and at the expiration of his term 
of office he declined further public duties 
and continued in the practice of the law 
to within a short time of his death, which 
occurred at New Haven, Connecticut, 
May 26, 185 1, in his ninetieth year. 

Judge Simeon Baldwin was the last sur- 
vivor of the class of 1781 of Yale College, 
which class included Chancellor Kent. 
Judge Baldwin published in 1788 "An 
Oration pronounced before the Citizens 
of New Haven, July 4, 1788; in com- 
memoration of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence and Establishment of the Con- 
stitution of the United States of Amer- 
ica," to be found in the principal large 
libraries of the world. In 1848 he pre- 
pared an interesting account of the early 
life of his classmate. Chancellor Kent, 
which was published in Kent's "Memoirs," 
pages 9-18 (1898). 

He married (first) July 29, 1787, Re- 
becca, eldest daughter of Roger Sherman, 
the signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and Rebecca (Prescott) Sher- 
man ; children, born in New Haven: i. 
Rebecca. May 30, 1788, died unmarried in 
1861. 2. Ebenezer, 1790, Yale, Bachelor 
of Arts, 1808, died unmarried in New 
Haven, Connecticut, January 26. 1837 ; 
was a lawyer in Albany, New York, mas- 
ter in chancery, surrogate, recorder and 
military aide to Governor Clinton, of New 
York, author of a "History of Yale Col- 
lege." 3. Roger Sherman, see forward. 



75 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



4. Simeon, 1794-1795. Rebecca (Sher- 
man) Baldwin died in New Haven, Con- 
necticut, September 4, 1795, in her thirty- 
second year. Simeon Baldwin married 
(second) April 22, 1800, Elizabeth, next 
younger sister of his deceased wife and 
widow of Sturgis Burr, of New York 
City, and Fairfield, Connecticut, who died 
in 1796. Children, born in New Haven, 
Connecticut: 5. Simeon, 1801 ; was a ship- 
ping merchant in New York City ; mar- 
ried, October 7, 1830, Ann Mehitable, 
daughter of Lockwood De Forest, and 
had two children: Henry and Simeon, 
born in 1832 and 1836, respectively. 6. 
Elizabeth, 1804-1822, unmarried. 7. 
Charles, 1805-07. 8. Martha, 1808-1809. 
9. Charles, 1810. The mother of these 
children died in New Haven, July 16, 
1850, aged eighty-five years. 

Roger Sherman Baldwin, son of Simeon 
and Rebecca (Sherman) Baldwin, was 
born in New Haven, Connecticut, Janu- 
ary 4, 1793. He was prepared for matric- 
ulation at Yale College in his native city 
and was graduated at Yale, Bachelor of 
Arts, 181 1, with high honors, receiving his 
Master's degree in course. He studied 
law in his father's law office in New 
Haven and at the celebrated law school 
at Litchfield, Connecticut, conducted by 
Judges Reeve and Gould. 

He was admitted to the Connecticut bar 
in 1814, and his law practice in New 
Haven was brilliant and eminently suc- 
cessful. His knowledge of the law was 
unusual in one so young, and his fame as 
a lawyer brought him a large clientage. 
In 1837 and 1838 he was a member of the 
Connecticut State Senate. In 1839 he was 
associated with John Quincy Adams, ex- 
President of the United States, before the 
United States Supreme Court in the de- 
fence of the negroes rescued from the 
slaver "Amistad" by a United States ves- 
sel, after the slaves had overpowered the 



Spanish crew and were drifting on the 
high seas without a navigator. The claim 
of the government of Spain for a return 
of the property so rescued was contested 
by the United States government, and Mr. 
Baldwin conducted the case at the request 
of ex-President Adams. His skill in hand- 
ling questions of international law won 
praise from the bench and bar, and called 
out special praise from the learned Chan- 
cellor Kent. He represented his district 
in the General Assembly of Connecticut, 
1840 and 1841 ; served as Governor of 
Connecticut, 1844-45 ; was United States 
Senator by appointment of the Governor 
to fill the vacancy caused by the death of 
Senator J. W. Huntington, November i, 
1847, ^^^ he was retained in the position 
by the joint Legislature of Connecticut at 
its next annual convening to complete the 
unexpired term of Senator Huntington, 
ending March 4, 185 1. The Republican 
party of Connecticut in i860 elected him a 
presidential elector- at-large for the State, 
and when the electoral college convened 
in 1861, he cast the vote of the State for 
Abraham Lincoln for President and 
Henry Wilson for Vice-President of the 
United States, the successful candidates. 
Governor Buckingham made him a dele- 
gate to the peace congress that convened 
at Philadelphia in 1861. He was cx-officio 
a fellow of Yale College, 1844-45, and he 
received the honorary degree of Doctor of 
Laws from Trinity College in 1844, and 
from Yale in 1845. He married, October, 
1820, Emily, daughter of Enoch Perkins, 
of Hartford, Connecticut. 



TERRY, Eli, 



Famous Clockmaker. 



Eli Terry, son of Samuel Terry, was 
born at South Windsor, Connecticut, 
April 13, 1772. He removed to the north- 
ern part of Waterbury, now Northbury, 



76 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



in 1793. He learned the trade of clock and 
watch making and engraving on metals 
of Daniel Burnap, of Hartford. After- 
ward he worked under Thomas Howland, 
of Norwich, a native of London, England. 
He engaged in business at what is now 
Plymouth, Connecticut, making clocks 
and doing a variety of work in metals. 

He originated the shelf clock thus giv- 
ing to the world a timepiece of reasonable 
size and price. In 1807 he took a con- 
tract for four thousand clocks with the 
seconds pendulum made of wood instead 
of cast brass, at four dollars apiece. Eng- 
lish brass clocks were imported and some 
were made in Connecticut. In 1814 Mr. 
Terry perfected a thirty-hour clock that 
was accurate and reasonable in price, and 
for twenty-five years his clocks held the 
market of the country, and the business 
grew to large proportions. The progress 
in the art of making sheet metal allowed 
the clock-makers to use metal instead of 
wood and to improve the work materially. 
He also manufactured fine clock regu- 
lators for the use of watch-makers and 
tower clocks for churches and public 
buildings. He devised a tower clock of 
which the timepiece could be placed in 
any part of the building. He died at 
Terryville, Plymouth, Connecticut, Feb- 
ruary 24, 1852. He was one of the most 
prominent and successful inventors and 
manufacturers of his day, achieving more 
than a national reputation. Eli Terry set- 
tled in the south part of Plymouth. He 
sold his business there to Silas Hoadley 
and Seth Thomas, the latter also becom- 
ing famous as a clock-maker. The place 
was subsequently named Hoadleyville for 
Mr. Hoadley. Terry built a house with 
a shop in the rear on Plymouth Hill, near 
the center. He built two houses in Terry- 
ville, west of the center, in 1838-39, and 
moved into the one nearest the church, 
where he lived the remainder of his life. 



He married (first) Eunice, daughter of 
James Warner, granddaughter of John 
Warner and David Dutton. He married 
(second) Harriet Peck, widow, Novem- 
ber, 1840. 



WELCH, Archibald, 

Prominent Physician. 

James Welch, the earliest known an- 
cestor of Dr. Archibald Welch, was a 
resident of Maiden, Massachusetts, and 
was a soldier in King Philip's War in 
1676. He went to Mount Hope, Rhode 
Island, later settled in Swansea, Massa- 
chusetts, Rehoboth, Massachusetts, Bris- 
tol, Rhode Island, and Plainfield and Vol- 
untown, Connecticut, his death occurring 
in the latter named place. His son, 
Thomas W^elch, was born March i, 1695, 
and died August 14, 1781. He rem,oved 
from Bristol, Rhode Island, to Plainfield, 
Connecticut, and later near Windham 
Village. Connecticut. His son. the Rev. 
Daniel W^elch, was born in Windham, 
Connecticut, March 20, 1726. and died 
April 29, 1782. He was a graduate of 
Yale College in 1749, and was ordained 
pastor of the church in North Mansfield, 
June 29, 1752, remaining there until his 
death. His son, the Rev. Moses Cook 
Welch, D. D., was born in Windham, 
Connecticut, February 14, 1754, and died 
April 21, 1824. He was a graduate of 
Yale College in 1772, was a teacher for a 
number of years, then studied theology, 
and he succeeded his father as pastor of 
the church at North Mansfield, being or- 
dained June 2, 1784, and he continued in 
the ministry until his death. Dr. Welch 
married (first) Chloe Evans, (second) 
Clarissa Ashley, (third) a daughter of the 
Rev. Noadiah Russell, (fourth) Mrs. 
Mary Leech, who survived him. He was 
the father of Dr. Archibald Welch, of this 
review. 



77 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Dr. Archibald Welch, son of Rev. Dr. 
Moses Cook Welch, was born at Mans- 
field, Connecticut, March 13, 1794. He 
attended the public schools, and then be- 
gan the study of medicine and took two 
courses of lectures in medicine at Yale 
College, and was licensed to practice in 
September, 1816. For sixteen years he 
practiced successfully in his native town, 
then removed to Wethersfield, Connecti- 
cut, in December, 1832, and practiced an- 
other period of sixteen years. From 1848 
to the time of his death he was a promi- 
nent physician of Hartford. For ten years 
he was in charge of the medical depart- 
ment of the Connecticut State prison. In 
1836 he received the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine out of course from Yale College. 
Dr. Welch was prominent in public life 
as well as in his profession. He served his 
district in the General Assembly ; was 
secretary, vice-president and president in 
succession of the State Medical Society. 
He was highly esteemed by all who knew 
him ; amiable, correct and skillful as a 
physician ; hospitable by nature and en- 
tertaining many friends at his fireside and 
table ; lively, witty and entertaining in 
speech, he was an admirable companion 
on every occasion. He was generous with 
his wealth and freely helped those in need. 
He had many friends in all walks of life. 
Though he held strongly to his opinions, 
and was a man of quick temper and earn- 
estness, he was able to control himself 
and win to his views many of his towns- 
men whenever a controversy arose in 
which he had an interest. His sense of 
justice was keen, his kindness and mercy, 
truthfulness and honor, prominent char- 
acteristics. His demeanor was, withal, 
modest, frank, unaffected. He was simple 
and natural in his conduct under all con- 
ditions, and made no pretensions. From 
the very beginning of his practice he re- 
solved never to accept a drink of intoxi- 



cating liquor while calling upon patients, 
and he was the first man in Wethersfield 
to proclaim himself from principle a total 
abstainer. He was a leader in the temper- 
ance movement, and at his instigation the 
first temperance lecture was delivered 
there. His interest in the temperance 
question never flagged, and he earnestly 
supported the premise that the keeping 
and sale of liquor was a nuisance to soci- 
ety and should be suppressed as other 
nuisances recognized in law. On all pub- 
lic questions he was well informed, and a 
formidable antagonist to meet in discus- 
sion or debate. He was a Whig in poli- 
tics. In 1841 he joined the Congrega- 
tional church at Wethersfield, and in his 
own family he maintained the time- 
honored daily family worship of the Puri- 
tans. Though he was not given to talk- 
ing of his religious experience, he lived an 
upright and consistent Christian life. He 
was killed in the disaster at Norwalk in 
1853, when the train on which he was rid- 
ing went through the drawbridge. Other 
prominent physicians were also victims of 
this accident, returning from a meeting 
of the American Medical Association at 
New York. 

He married, March 16, 1818, Cynthia 
Hyde, of Tolland county, daughter of 
Daniel and Mary Hyde, descendant of 
William Hyde, an early settler of Nor- 
wich, Connecticut. 



SMITH, John Cotton, 

Congressman, Governor. 

John Cotton Smith, born at Sharon, 
Litchfield county, Connecticut, February 
12, 1765, was a descendant of Rev. In- 
crease Mather; of Rev. Henry Smith, 
first minister of Wethersfield, and, count- 
ing both sides of the house, of five other 
clergymen. His father, the Rev. Cotton 
Mather Smith, was pastor of the Congre- 



78 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



gational church at Sharon for fifty years, 
and in 1775-76 was chaplain of a Connec- 
ticut regiment which served at Ticon- 
deroga and in Canada. The latter was 
married to Temperance, widow of Dr. 
Moses Gale, of Goshen, New York, and 
daughter of Rev. William Worthington, 
of that part of Saybrook, Connecticut, 
now called Westbrook. All the ancestors 
of John Cotton Smith were men and 
women of eminent virtues and of intellec- 
tual strength, and their best qualities 
were inherited by him. 

He was instructed by his mother until 
he was six years of age, when he began 
his classical studies, and at the age of 
fifteen entered Yale College, from which 
he was graduated in 1783. He studied 
law under John Canfield, of Sharon ; and 
after Iris admission to the bar in 1786, 
practiced in his native town. He was a 
representative in the Legislature in 1793, 
and again in 1796-1800; was clerk of the 
house in 1799, and speaker in 1800. In 
October of the latter year he was elected 
to Congress by the Federalists, to fill a 
vacancy, and held the office for six years, 
serving as chairman of the committee on 
claims in 1802-06, and presiding over the 
committee of the whole in the discussion 
on the judiciary in 1801 ; and under all 
circumstances showing himself a states- 
man of more than ordinary ability and an 
eloquent orator. "His prudence and wis- 
dom," says Trumbull, "doubtless pro- 
tracted for several years the dominion of 
the party with which his political life was 
identified." 

On leaving Congress he returned to 
Sharon to practice and to engage in farm- 
ing and literary pursuits. In 1808-09 he 
was again called upon to serve in the 
State Legislature. In October, 1809, he 
was nominated to the bench of the Su- 
preme Court of Connecticut; but before 
opening the second term of this court he 



was called to fill the office of Lieutenant- 
Governor. On the death of Governor 
Griswold, in October, 1812, he became 
Acting Governor, and then for four suc- 
cessive years was elected to that office. 
On the expiration of his term he with- 
drew from public life and devoted himself 
to the care of his large estate and to study. 
Governor Smith contributed occasion- 
ally to scientific journals, and was a mem- 
ber of the Northern Society of Anti- 
quarians at Copenhagen ; also of the Con- 
necticut and Massachusetts historical so- 
cieties. He was president of the Litch- 
field County Foreign Missionary Society 
and of the Litchfield County Temperance 
Society; first president of the Connecti- 
cut State Bible Society; president of the 
American Bible Society in 1831-45 and of 
the American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions in 1826-41. The de- 
gree of Doctor of Laws was conferred 
upon him by Yale College in 1814. Gov- 
ernor Smith's mother was a beautiful 
woman, and he was a notably handsome 
man, with almost classic features. He 
was dignified, yet courteous, tall, slender 
and graceful. A member of the Legisla- 
ture once said : "I have never seen a man 
who could take a paper from the table 
and lay it back again so handsomely as 
John Cotton Smith." He was married to 
Margaret Evertsen. Their only child, 
William Mather Smith, was married to 
Helen, daughter of Gilbert R. Livingston, 
of Tivoli, New York. Governor Smith's 
"Correspondence and Miscellanies." ed- 
ited by Rev. William W. Andrews, was 
published in 1847. He died at Sharon. 
Connecticut. December 7, 1845. 



PETERS, John S., 

Physician, Governor. 

John Samuel Peters, physician and 
ninth Governor of Connecticut (1831-33), 
was born at Hebron, Tolland county, 



79 



ENXYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Connecticut, September 21, 1772, son of 
Bremslee and Annis (Shipman) Peters 
and descendant of William Peters, who 
emigrated to New England from Old 
England in 1634, settling in Boston. His 
mother was a daughter of Samuel Ship- 
man, M. D., of Hebron. 

In an autobiography left by him he 
says : "My grandparents were among the 
first settlers of Hebron. In February, 
1777, my father left Hebron with many 
other loyalists for New York whence he 
sailed for England, and joined in London 
his brother, who had left his country in 
1774, he expecting that the war would 
soon close, when he would return to his 
family. He obtained a captain's commis- 
sion on half-pay in England, which sup- 
porting him in London until 1794, when 
he drew a large tract of land for himself 
and family, and removed to Little York, 
upper Canada, where he died in 1799. My 
mother died in Hebron in 1819. I re- 
mained with my mother until I was seven 
years old ; then I went to live in the fam- 
ily of Joel Horton to do boy's work and 
tend children, which I did until I was 
fourteen years old. I then worked on a 
farmv for wages in summer and attended 
school in winter until I was eighteen 
years old. I then commenced instructing 
a district school, which I continued for 
five winters. At twenty I commenced the 
study of medicine with Dr. Benjamin 
Peters, of Marbletown, Ulster county, 
New York. I read with him six months, 
then returned to my school in Hebron. 
The succeeding summer I read medicine 
and surgery with Dr. Abner Mosely, of 
Glastonbury. In November, 1796, I went 
to Philadelphia to attend the anatomical 
lectures of Drs. Shippen and Wistar, the 
chemical lectures of Dr. Woodhouse and 
the medical institutes of Dr. Benjamin 
Rush. I returned to Hebron in March, 
1797. In May I traveled up the Connecti- 



cut river to near the Canada line and ex- 
amined locations to find a place to settle." 
The autobiography goes on to say that 
after passing through Vermont to Sara- 
toga county. New York, he returned to 
Hebron discouraged and without means; 
but that in a few days his neighbors began 
to call upon him for advice, and that in a 
short time he had all the professional 
business he could attend to. For forty 
years he continued the practice of his pro- 
fession. In addition, he served as school 
visitor, highway surveyor, selectman, 
judge of probate, town clerk, representa- 
tive to the General Assembly and member 
of the State Senate. His next office was 
that of Lieutenant-Governor. In 1831 he 
was elected Governor by the Republicans, 
and in 1832 was reelected. On leaving 
the chair he retired to private life ; spent 
some time in travel, and more in the culti- 
vation of his farm, and at the age of 
eighty-four was still in good health. Gov- 
ernor Peters died, unmarried, at Hebron, 
March 30, 1858. 



CHAMPION, George, 

Missionary to the Znlns. 

Few families coming to New England 
in its early settlement were of a higher 
order and character than the one bearing 
this name, and few were so conspicuous 
in the War of the Revolution and in pub- 
lic affairs before and after that period. 
The pioneer ancestor was Henry Cham- 
pion, who emigrated from England, set- 
tled at Saybrook, Connecticut, where he 
was found as early as 1647, later removed 
to the east side of the Connecticut river, 
and became one of the first and most 
active founders of the historic town of 
Lyme; he died in February, 1709. His 
son, Thomas Champion, was born in Say- 
brook, Connecticut, in April, 1656, died 
April 5, 1705; he married Hannah Brock- 



80 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OE BIOGRAPHY 



way. Their son, Henry Champion, was 
born in Lyme, Connecticut, May 2, 1695, 
died November 26, 1779, in East Haddam ; 
he married Mehitable Rowley. Their 
son, Colonel Henry (2) Champion, was 
born in East Haddam, Connecticut, Janu- 
ary 19, 1723, died July 2^, I797, in what 
is now Colchester, Connecticut ; he served 
in the Revolutionary War and resigned 
his commission in the army in May, 1780; 
was deputy to the General Assembly 
from Colchester, in 1761, from 1765 to 
1779, in 1781, 1783; he married (first) 
Deborah Brainard, (second) iSIrs. Sarah 
(Brainard) Lewis. His son, General 
Llenry (3) Champion, was born in West- 
chester, Connecticut, JNIarch 16, 1751, died 
there, July 13, 1836; he served in the 
Revolutionary War and continued in that 
service until the close of hostilities ; he 
was deputy to the General Assembly in 
1789, 1793 to 1798, 1800 to 1805, and from 
1806 to 1817 held the office of assistant; 
he married Abigail Tinker. Their son, 
Major Henry (4) Champion, was born in 
Westchester, Connecticut, August 6, 1782, 
died there, December 28. 1823 : he served 
in the regular army, was major of the 
Connecticut militia, and represented Col- 
chester in the State Assembly in 1820; he 
married Ruth Kimberly Robbins. They 
were the parents of the Rev. George 
Champion, of this review. 

Rev. George Champion was born in 
Westchester, Connecticut, June 3, 1810, 
died in St. Croix, West Indies, December 
17, 1841. He was graduated from Yale 
College in 1831, taking then a three-year 
course at the Andover Theological Semi- 
nary, and was ordained at Colchester, 
Connecticut, November 19. 1834, as mis- 
sionary to the Zulus, near Port Natal, in 
South Africa. Of this grandson General 
Henry Champion was very fond and 
proud, and being unwilling that he should 
go out to Africa offered to pay the ex- 

CONN— Vol 1—6 



penses of five missionaries to go as sub- 
stitutes, if he would consent to remain at 
home. George's reply was : "If I stay at 
home it will be said that only the poor go. 
You may send the five, and I will go my- 
self and that will make six missionaries." 
When General Champion found that he 
could not prevail against him he gener- 
ously gave him $60,000 for the expenses 
of himself and party. He was one of the 
first missionaries to South Africa, going 
in 1834, and labored there four years. He 
was one of the three men who reduced 
the Zulu language to writing and pre- 
pared a manuscript copy of the Bible be- 
fore the mission was broken up and the 
missionaries driven away on account of 
the war between the Boers and the Zulus. 
Upon his return to the United States he 
was settled over a small church in Dover, 
Massachusetts, entering upon his pastoral 
duties in 1839. Two years later, owing to 
ill health, he sailed for the West Indies, 
where his death occurred. 



SEDGWICK, John, 

Disting^nislied Soldier. 

General John Sedgwick was born in 
Cornwall, Connecticut, September 13, 
1813. He was graduated from the United 
States Military Academy, July i, 1837, 
was commissioned second lieutenant of 
Second Artillery, and served in the Semi- 
nole War in Florida, 1837-38, and on 
frontier duty in the West and North, 
1838-41. He was promoted first lieuten- 
ant, April 19, 1839; served on garrison 
duty, 1841-46, and took part in the war 
with Mexico, being engaged in the siege 
of Vera Cruz ; the battle of Cerro Gordo ; 
skirmish of Amazoque ; capture of San 
Antonio ; battle of Molino del Rey, and 
in the assault and capture of the City of 
Mexico. He was brevetted captain, Au- 
gust 20, 1841, for gallant and meritorious 



81 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



conduct at Contreras and Churubusco, 
and major, September 13, 1847, ^or gal- 
lantry at Chapultepec. He was on garri- 
son duty, 1848-55 ; was promoted captain, 
January 26, 1849, and major of First 
Cavalry, March 8, 1855, and was sent to 
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where he was 
engaged in quelling the Kansas border 
disturbances, 1855-56; in the Cheyenne 
expedition in 1857; the Utah expedition. 
1857-58 ; was transferred to Fort Riley, 
Kansas, in 1858, and was in command of 
the Leowa and Comanche expedition of 
i860. He was promoted lieutenant-colo- 
nel of Second Cavalry, March 16, 1861 ; 
colonel of First Cavalry, April 25, 1861 ; 
and was transferred to the Fourth Cav- 
alry, August 3, 1861. He served in the 
defences of Washington, D. C, as acting 
inspector-general of the department ; was 
commissioned brigadier-general. United 
States Volunteers, August 31, 1861, and 
commanded a brigade of infantry on 
guard duty at Poolsville, Maryland. He 
commanded the second division of Gen- 
eral Sumner's Second Corps in the 
Peninsular campaign, being engaged at 
the siege of Yorktown, the battle of Fair 
Oaks ; and when McClellan transferred 
his base to the James, Sedgwick took posi- 
tion to defend the supply trains, being 
hotly engaged part of the time ; and on 
June 30, when McCall fell back, Sedg- 
wick supported him, and drove the enemy 
from the field, being wounded in the 
action. He was promoted major-general 
of volunteers, July 4. 1862. His corps did 
not reach Bull Run in time for the general 
engagement, but aided in covering Pope's 
retreat. At Antietam, after Jackson had 
driven Hooker, Sedgwick pushed Hood 
back beyond the line, turned the Con- 
federate left, and held the key of the field 
until General John G. Walker charged his 
flank, and in a fiercely contested combat, 
drove him from his position, Sedgwick 



being severely wounded. After sick leave 
of three months, Sedgwick joined the 
army on December 22, 1862, immediately 
after the disastrous assault on Fredericks- 
burg, and took command of the Ninth 
Corps, but was transferred to the com- 
mand of the Sixth Corps, February 5, 
1863. When Hooker marched around 
Lee's flank to Chancellorsville, he left 
Sedgwick with the First, Third and Sixth 
Corps to conceal the real movement. 
Sedgwick crossed the Rappahannock, 
April 30, and May i, having sent the First 
and Third Corps to reinforce Hooker, was 
left with the Sixth Corps below Fred- 
ericksburg. At about midnight. May 2, 
he received orders to attack the enemy on 
his front. He marched twelve miles, in a 
dark wood, opposed by an enemy, reached 
Fredericksburg at daybreak, prepared for 
the attack, and at n a. m. had possession 
of the heights. Sedgwick pursued the 
enemy three miles to Salem Church, and 
there being met by a fresh and superior 
force, was held in check. The following 
day Lee brought the body of his army 
against Sedgwick, and compelled him to 
relinquish Marye's Heights and Fred- 
ericksburg, and on the evening of May 4, 
in accordance with his orders, Sedgwick 
fell back, closely pursued, crossed the 
river and joined Hooker. Sedgwick ar- 
rived at Gettysburg during the second 
day, July 2, 1863, after a forced march 
from Manchester, and took position in the 
rear of the left flank. During the battle 
he worked into the line at the right of 
Sykes, and after the battle pursued Lee 
with the First and Sixth Corps, but had 
no engagement. On November 7, 1863, 
after Lee reached the Rappahannock, 
Sedgwick was sent forward with the 
Fifth and Sixth Corps to force the enemy 
across the river. He made a brilliant 
attack, captured the Confederate works 
and took many prisoners. When Grant 



82 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



marched around Lee's right flank, crossed 
the Rapidan, and started for Richmond, 
he was attacked on May 5, at the Wilder- 
ness, and when AVarren's corps was at- 
tacked on the morning of May 6. Sedg- 
wick joined him on the right, there en- 
abling him to maintain his position in 
spite of a spirited charge. On May 7 the 
enemy remained behind intrenched lines, 
and Grant moved one corps at a time to 
Spottsylvania, where (ieneral Sedgwick 
met his death while directing the arrange- 
ment of his lines and artillery. His body 
was buried at Cornwall Hollow, Connec- 
ticut, and a bronze statue of him was 
erected at West Point, New York. He 
was killed by a Confederate shar])shooter 
at Spottsylvania, May 9. 1863. 



MANSFIELD, Joseph King Fenno, 

Distingnished Soldier. 

General Joseph K. F. Mansfield traces 
his ancestry to Richard Manslield, a na- 
tive of England, who emigrated to this 
country from Exeter, Devonshire, arriv- 
ing in I'oston, Massachusetts. November 
30, 1634, and five years later removed to 
Ouinnipiack (New liaven), Connecticut, 
and his death occurred there on January 
10, 1655. His son. Major Moses I\Ians- 
field, was born in New Haven. Connecti- 
cut, 1639, ^^■'<^ "^i^d there on October 3, 
1703. He received his title for defeating 
a body of Indians in King Philip's War 
on the site of the present town of Mans- 
field, which was named in his honor. He 
resided in New Haven ; he represented 
the town at forty-eight sessions of the 
General Assembly; w^as judge of probate 
and of the county court, served frequent- 
ly as moderator, and held other offices of 
trust and honor. His son. Deacon Jona- 
than Mansfield, was born in New Haven, 
Connecticut. February 15, 1686. and died 
at an advanced age. He served as select- 
man, ensign, lister, grand juror, modera- 



tor, trustee of the Hopkins Grammar 
School, and presided over the town meet- 
ing when eighty-two years of age. His 
son, Captain Stephen Mansfield, was born 
in New Haven, Connecticut, November 
14. 1716, and died July 15, 1774. He was 
a sea captain and engaged in the West 
India trade; he was vestryman of Trin- 
ity Church in 1765. His son, Flenry 
Mansfield, was born in New Haven, Con- 
necticut, February i, 1762, and died in 
the West Indies in 1805. He was en- 
gaged in the West India trade. He mar- 
ried, August 3, 1785, Mary Fenno, born 
April 3, 1767, daughter of Ephraim Fen- 
no. of Middletown. She died January 14, 
iSj5. aged fifty-eight years. They were 
the parents of Joseph K. F.. of whom fur- 
ther. 

General Joseph King Fenno Mansfield 
was born in New Haven, Connecticut. 
December 22, 1803. In 1817. at the age of 
fourteen years, he was appointed a cadet 
to the United States Military Academy at 
West Point, and was graduated in 1822, 
second in a class of forty, the youngest 
member, and July ist, same year, was 
commissioned brevet second lieutenant of 
engineers. Such was the confidence re- 
I)osed in him by the government as an 
engineer that for twenty years or more 
he was engaged in the construction of 
fortifications and the improvement of 
rivers and harbors, and was universally 
regarded as an ornament to the service. 
In 1822-25 he served as assistant to the 
board of engineers at New York, in the 
construction of Fort Hamilton, 1825-28, 
and in 1828-30 of the defenses of Hamp- 
ton Roads, being detached to survey Pas- 
gustauk river. North Carolina, and to 
take temporary charge of works in 
Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, 1830 
Among the works he planned and con- 
structed as supervising engineer was Fort 
Pulaski, for the defense of the Savannah 
river, Georgia, — considered at the time as 



83 



e:\cyclopedia of biography 



one of the strongest of harbor defenses. 
From 1830 to 1846 he was in charge of 
repairs of Cumberland Roads, Maryland ; 
in 1831-32, of Savannah river improve- 
ment ; 1833-39, of inland navigation be- 
tween the St. Marys and St. Johns rivers, 
Florida ; 1835-39, of Sullivan's Island 
breakwater, South Carolina; 1837-38, of 
repairs of St. Augustine sea wall, Florida ; 
and of improvement of Brunswick Har- 
bor, Georgia, 1838-39. He was a member 
of the board of engineers for Atlantic 
Coast Defenses, May 8, 1842, to Septem- 
ber 8, 1845. He was chief engineer of the 
army under command of Major-General 
Taylor in the campaign of 1846-47, in the 
war with Mexico, being engaged in vari- 
ous reconnaissances in Texas, and was 
the builder and renowned defender of 
]-^ort Brown, ]\Iay 3-9, 1846, and was 
breveted major for distinguished bravery. 
He was engaged in the reconnaissance 
and battle of Monterey, September 21-23, 
1846, where he was severely wounded 
while directing the storming of the Tan- 
nery redoubt, and was breveted lieuten- 
ant-colonel for gallant and meritorious 
conduct in the several conflicts at Mon- 
terey ; in fortifying Monterey and Sal- 
tillo, reconnoitering the mountain passes, 
1846-47; and in the battle of Buena Vista, 
February 22-23, 1847, having the honor, 
it is said, of selecting that renowned 
battlefield, and was breveted colonel. He 
was a member of the board of engineers 
for Atlantic Coast Defenses, May 13, 
1848, to April II, 1853. and for Pacific 
Coast Defenses, April 11 to May 28. 1853 ; 
superintending engineer of construction 
of Fort Winthrop, Boston harbor, 1848- 
53 ; of improvement of the James and 
Appomattox rivers and survey of the 
Rappahannock river, Virginia, 1852-53. 

In 1853 he was still captain of engi- 
neers, third on the list, when he was pro- 
moted into the inspector-general's depart- 
ment with rank of colonel. As one of the 



two inspectors-general of the army, he 
performed the arduous and dangerous 
duties of inspection of our frontier ports, 
at a time when transportation facilities 
were not of the best, and hostile Indian 
tribes were to be met, requiring months 
and even a year's absence upon a single 
tour of inspection. He served on inspec- 
tion duty in the Department of New 
Mexico, 1853 ; of the Department of Cali- 
fornia, 1854; of the Department of Texas, 
1856; of the Utah army, 1857; of the De- 
partments of Oregon and California, 1858- 
59 ; and of the Department of Texas, 
1860-61. While in this last duty he en- 
countered the disloyal sentiment pervad- 
ing the highest army officer commanding 
the district, and he hastened to Washing- 
ton to lay the matter before the highest 
authorities. Civil War being broken out, 
he was the tirst officer appointed to the 
rank of brigadier-general, and was placed 
in command of the defense of \A'ashing- 
ton, which he inaugurated by moving 
troops across the Potomac at night, al- 
most in the presence of the enemy, and 
occupying Arlington Heights, which sub- 
sequently were fortified to render the 
Capitol secure. His Civil War services 
were as follows : 

Mustering volunteers into service, Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, April 19-27, 1861 ; in com- 
mand of Department of Washington, 
April 27 to July 25, 1861 ; of City of 
Washington, D. C, July 25 to October 2. 
1861 ; of Camp Hamilton, now Fortress 
Monroe, Virginia, October 13 to Novem- 
ber 24, 1861 ; of Newport News, Virginia, 
November 24, 1861, to June 12, 1862, be- 
ing engaged in capture of Norfolk, Vir- 
ginia, May 10, 1862, and of Suffolk, Vir- 
ginia, June 27 to September 3, 1862. He 
commanded a corps in the Army of the 
Potomac in the Maryland campaign, Sep- 
tember 10-17, 1862, being engaged in the 
battle of Antietam, September 17, 1862, 
where, while "at the head of his troops. 



84 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



with sword waving over his head, cheer- 
ing on his men to victory," he was mor- 
tally wounded, and died September i8, 
1862, at Antietam, Maryland, aged tifty- 
eight years nine months. 

In neighborly friendship. General Mans- 
field was exemplary and engaging. As a 
husband and parent he was affectionate 
and generous, and fond of social and do- 
mestic life. Being a sincere, influential 
and uniform friend and supporter of the 
Christian religion, he not only believed, 
but he exemplified the religion which he 
jjrofessed. He was always mindful to 
encourage every useful institution by his 
presence, his interest, and his abilities. 
He considered good education as of the 
highest importance to the honor, freedom 
and happiness of his country, and there- 
fore exerted his influence to promote it. 
.Such was his genius and enthusiastic love 
of education that he established a semi- 
nary for the education of young ladies in 
the higher branches of learning, and sus- 
tained it almost wholly with his own 
means, in Middletown, where he was 
married and made his home. 

He married, September 25, 1838, Louisa 
Maria, daughter of Samuel and Catharine 
(Livingston) Mather, at Middletown. 
Children, all except the youngest born at 
Middletown: i. Samuel Mather, Septem- 
ber 23. 1839: married, April 16, 1874, 
Anne Baldwin Wright, of Detroit. Michi- 
gan. 2. Mary Louise, March 23, 1841, 
died June 22. 1863. 3. Joseph Totten, 
October 4. 1843. died July 15. 1844. 4. 
Henry Livingston, March 31, 1845; mar- 
ried. August 29, 1866. Adeline O. Carter. 
5. Katharine Mather. May i. 1850: mar- 
ried Walter Bulkley Hubbard, son of 
Jeremiah Hubbard. June 20. 1890. 



SEABURY, Rt. Rev. Samuel, 

First Protestant Episcopal Bishop. 

Rt. Rev. Samuel Seabury, first bishop 
in the Amerian episcopate and first 



Bishop of Connecticut, was born in Gro- 
ton, Connecticut, November 30, 1729, son 
of the Rev. Samuel and Abigail (Mum- 
ford) Seabury; grandson of John and 
Elizabeth (Alden) Seabury. and of Thom- 
as and Hannah (Remington) Mumford. 
He was descended from John Seabury, 
who emigrated from Porlock, Somerset- 
shire, England, to the Barbadoes, and from 
there in 1639 to Boston, Massachusetts 
Bay Colony. The elder Samuel Seabury, 
father of Bishop Samuel Seabury, after 
being ordained in England, organized the 
parish of St. James at New London, Con- 
necticut, of which he was rector from 
1732 to 1743. In the latter year he re- 
moved to Hempstead, Long Island, New 
York, where he was rector of St. George's 
until his death in 1764. 

Natural disposition and parental train- 
ing marked the son for the ministry, from 
his very youth. He was graduated from 
^'ale. A. !).. fourth in his class, in 1748 
{ .\. M. 1751). and served as a catechist 
while pursuing theological studies under 
the direction of his father until 1751, 
when he received the master's degree 
from his alma niatcr. He was then sent 
to England to receive orders, and before 
crdination studied medicine in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. He was ordained 
deacon by the F)ishop of Lincoln, Dr. 
John Thomas, on December 21, 1753, and 
two days later was advanced to the 
priesthood by the I'.ishop of Carlisle. Dr. 
Richard Osbaldiston. He returned to 
America with the license of Bishop Sher- 
lock, of London, to officiate in New Jer- 
sev. and was called to the rectorate of 
Christ Church. New Brunswick, and 
served that parish from 1754 to 1757. 
meantime being married to Mary, daugh- 
ter of Edward Hicks, of New York. He 
was then called to Grace Church. Jamaica. 
Long Island. New York, of which he was 
rector from 1757 to 1766. the latter year 
being inducted into the rectorship of St. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Peter's Church, West Chester, New York, 
which he held for about ten years. In 
November, 1775, he was taken by a band 
of armed tories to New Haven, where he 
was imprisoned for six weeks, being 
finally released on requisition of the Gov- 
ernor of New York as a citizen taken 
from his province without process of law. 
Returning to his parish, he was unable 
to resume his ministerial duties on ac- 
count of the disorders incident to the war, 
and he closed the church and took refuge 
in New York, where he in part supported 
his family by the practice of medicine, 
and also served through the war as chap- 
lain of the King's American regiment, 
under commission of Sir Henry Clinton. 

The war having ended in the recogni- 
tion of the independence of the Ameri- 
can States by Great Britain, Mr. Seabury 
was elected by the clergy of English ordi- 
nation in Connecticut, at Woodbury, 
March 25, 1783, to be the bishop in that 
State. He at once sailed for England 
with credentials as an applicant for con- 
secration by the English bishops, with in- 
structions that in the event of failure he 
should apply to the bishops of the Scot- 
tish church, whose line of succession 
prior to the time of Charles II. was iden- 
tical with that of the English episcopate, 
but who had lost their civil status by re- 
fusal to swear allegiance to the succes- 
sors of James II. Now arose an awk- 
ward difficulty. The English bishops 
could not legally confer consecration 
without the candidate taking the oath of 
allegiance to the king, and which he 
could not do as a citizen of a foreign 
state. Various other difficulties were 
suggested, but this was the main point. 
The bishops were legally inhibited from 
dispensing with the oath ; nor would the 
king and privy council provide any relief. 
Hoping that Parliament would dispense 
with the requirement that he should take 



the oath of allegiance, Mr. Seabury re- 
mained in England some sixteen months ; 
and then went to Scotland, and at Aber- 
deen, November 14, 1784, he was con- 
secrated by the Scotch Bishops Kilgour, 
Petrie, and Skinner, and returned to 
America as the first Bishop of Connecti- 
cut, as well as of the American church. 
In the General American Convention of 
1789, by action of the House of Bishops, 
by virtue of seniority of consecration, he 
was recognized as the first to hold the 
office of presiding bishop. During thc 
exercise of his episcopate he resided in 
New London, Connecticut, being rector of 
St. James Church from 1785 to 1796. On 
November 18, 1790, he was also made 
bishop of Rhode Island. Plis first and 
only act of consecration was on Septem- 
ber 17, 1792, when he cooperated with 
Bishops Provoost, White and Madison, 
all consecrated by the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, in the consecration of Thomas 
John Claggett, Bishop of Maryland, 
through whom every subsequent bishop 
of the American church traces his episco- 
l)al lineage. 

Bishop Seabury received the degree of 
A. M. from Columbia College in 1761, 
and that of D. D. from the University of 
Oxford in 1777. He was the author of: 
"Free Thoughts on the Proceedings of the 
Continental Congress ;" "The Congress 
Canvassed," and "A View of the Con- 
troversy Between Great Britain and Her 
Colonies," all in 1774. under signature 
"A. W. Farmer"' ; "Sermons'" (2 vols.. 
1791 ; I vol.. 1798). The Rev. Eben E. 
Beardsley, D. D., wrote "Life and Cor- 
respondence of Samuel Seabury" (1881). 
and the Rev. William Jones Seabury. D. 
D.. read a biography of Bishop Seabury 
before the New York Genealogical and 
Biographical Society, December 14, 1888. 
and which was published in its "Record,"' 
April, 1889. being subsequently reprinted 



86 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



in pamphlet form. Bishop Seabury died 
in New London, Connecticut, February 
25, 1796, in the twelfth year of his episco- 
pate, having been in orders nearly fort}- 
three years. 



MUNSON, Aeneas, M. D., 

A Founder of Yale Medical School. 

Aeneas Munson was born in New 
Haven, Connecticut, June 13, 1734, and 
died there, June 16, 1826, a son of Ben- 
jamin and Abigail (Punderson) Munson. 
The former was an excellent mechanic, a 
successful schoolmaster, and a highly re- 
spected citizen. 

Aeneas Munson attended the schools 
in the neighborhood of his home during 
his early years, and then became a stu- 
dent at Yale College, from which he was 
graduated in the class of 1753. In order 
to further continue his studies, he ac- 
cepted a position as school teacher in 
Northampton, ^Massachusetts, thus secur- 
ing the necessary funds to study divinity. 
Having secured his license to preach he 
was recommended by the Litchfield As- 
sociation of Ministers to a vacant parish 
in that county, which he secured and 
where he labored for a short period of 
time, but his health becoming impaired 
he was forced to abandon that line of 
work, and he then turned his attention 
to the study of medicine, placing himself 
under the competent instruction of Dr. 
John Darb3^ of Oyster Ponds, Southold, 
Long Lsland. Becoming thoroughly com- 
petent to practice, he removed to Bed- 
ford, New York, about the year 1756, and 
there opened an office and practiced his 
profession until 1760, when he removed 
to New Haven, Connecticut, and there 
continued along the same lines for many 
years, gaining a high reputation. He 
took an active interest in public affairs in 
New Haven, and in 1776 he became a jus- 
tice of the peace, holding a commission 



for several years, and in 1778 he was 
chosen to represent New Haven in the 
General Assembly of the State, and re- 
mained in office until 1781. He actively 
championed the cause of the Revolution, 
and for a time was chaplain in Washing- 
ton's army on Long Island. He was one 
of the founders of the Connecticut Medi- 
cal Society, incorporated in 1792, and was 
elected its first vice-president. On the 
death of Dr. Leverett Hubbard, the first 
president, he was chosen to succeed him 
in this office, which he filled during 1794- 
1801. On the organization of the medical 
department of Yale College in 1813, Dr. 
Munson's name was placed at the head of 
the list of professors, and although he 
performed no duties, he retained the title 
of Professor of Materia Medica and Bota- 
ny until his death. In addition to medi- 
cine and botany, he also interested him- 
self in chemistry and mineralogy, attain- 
ing considerable proficiency in these 
branches. He published two articles in 
"Cases and Observations by the Medical 
Society of New Haven County'' (1788). 
and "A Letter on the Treatment Most 
Successful in the Cure of the Yellow 
Fever" (1794)- 



GOODRICH, Elizur, 

Clergyman, Educator. 

The Rev. Elizur Goodrich, D. D., was 
born in Wethersfield (now Rocky Hill), 
Connecticut. October 6, 1734. son of 
David and Hepzibah (Boardman) Good- 
rich. The family is of Saxon origin, many 
of its members appearing in the Domes- 
day Book as small holders under Norman 
lords. The American branch traces its 
descent from Dr. Thomas Goodrich. 
Bishop of Ely in 1534. Ensign William 
Goodrich came from Hedgessett, Suffolk 
county, England, and settled in Wethers- 
field, Connecticut, in 1643 > ^^ then mar- 
ried Sarah Marvin, in 1648: was made a 



87 



ilxcyclopedia of biography 



freeman in 1656, and in 1662 and thereafter 
represented Wethersfield in the General 
Court. 

Elizur Goodrich, fourth in descent from 
the original settler in America, was grad- 
uated from Yale College in 1752. and 
upon taking his master's degree was en- 
gaged for two years as tutor in that in- 
stitution, meantime preparing for the 
ministry by theological studies. His first 
and only pastorate was over the Congre- 
gational church at Durham, Connecticut, 
which he retained until his death, a period 
of forty years. Dr. Goodrich soon attained 
prominence in the ministry, and was fre- 
quently sent by the General Association 
of Connecticut as a delegate to conven- 
tions and synods in New York and Phila- 
delphia. He was even more widely 
known as a scholar and an educator. He 
began teaching early in his ministry, pre- 
paring young men for college in order to 
supplement his slender income, and for 
twenty years continued this work with 
great success, more than three hundred 
students passing under his instruction. 
The library which he collected was the 
largest and most complete ever brought 
into the colonies at that time on private 
account. He was for many years of^cially 
connected with Yale College, becoming 
a fellow of the corporation in 1776, and 
retaining a seat on that board until his 
death, serving as secretary from 1777 to 
1788, and was a member of its presidential 
committee for many years. During the 
(id intcrini administration of Dr. Daggett, 
following the retirement of President 
Clap, Dr. Goodrich was a prominent can- 
didate for the presidency of Yale, Dr. 
Stiles receiving the election by a small 
majority of the votes of the corporation. 
In addition to his ministerial duties and 
those in connection with the administra- 
tion of Yale College, he also devoted 
much time to mathematical studies. He 
calculated the eclipses each year, and his 



account of the remarkable display of the 
aurora borealis in 1780 remains the full- 
est and most accurate ever published. At 
one time Dr. Goodrich was a candidate 
for Governor of Connecticut, but was not 
elected. He received the degree of Doc- 
tor of Divinity from Princeton College in 
1783. He married, February i, 1759, 
Katherine, daughter of the Hon. Elihu 
and Mary (Griswold) Chauncey, by 
whom he had seven children. His eldest 
son, Chauncey (Yale, 1776), was a mem- 
ber of Congress, United States Senator 
and Lieutenant-Governor of Connecticut ; 
his second son, Elizur, is further men- 
tioned below. Dr. Elizur Goodrich died 
in Norfolk, Connecticut, November 22, 
1797. His son, 

Elizur Goodrich, LL. D., jurist, was 
born in Durham, Connecticut, March 24, 
1761. He was prepared for college by 
his father and was graduated from Yale 
College in 1779. He then took up the 
study of law, and at the completion of a 
term of two years' service as tutor at 
Yale, in 1783, was admitted to the bar 
and began practice in New Haven. There 
he rose steadily in his profession, display- 
ing judicial qualities of mind which later 
brought about his elevation to the bench, 
on which he served seventeen years as 
judge of probate and twelve years as 
judge of the county court. As a young 
man he took an active interest in public 
affairs, associating himself with the Fed- 
eralist party, and was chosen a presiden- 
tial elector in 1797. He was elected to 
Congress by his party in the following 
year, serving for one term, 1799-1801, 
when he was appointed collector of cus- 
toms at New Haven as one of the last 
acts of President John Adams before re- 
tiring from ofifice. On the accession of 
President Jefiferson, in March of the same 
year, he was promptly removed, this act 
giving rise to the discussion of the ques- 
tion of the propriety of removal on ac- 



88 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



count of political opinion, which brought 
out the notable letter of Jefferson defend- 
ing his course and approving the practice. 
Judge Goodrich held the office of mayor 
of New Haven for nineteen years, 1803- 
1822, and was long connected with Yale 
College in an official capacity, being Pro- 
fessor of Law there from 1801 to 1810, 
secretary of the corporation for thirty 
years, 1816-1846, and ex-officio fellow, and 
receiving the degree of Doctor of Laws 
in 1830. He married, September i, 1785, 
Anne Willard Allen, of Great Barring- 
ton, Massachusetts, and had three chil- 
dren : Elizur Chauncey, Chauncey Allen 
and Nancy Goodrich. Judge Goodrich 
died in New Haven, November i, 1849. 



TRUMBULL, John, 

Famous Historical Painter. 

John Trumbull was born at Lebanon. 
Connecticut, June 6, 1736, son of Gov- 
ernor Jonathan and Faith (Robinson) 
Trumbull. 

He attended Nathan Tisdale's school at 
Lebanon, and then entered Harvard Col- 
lege, from which he was graduated in 
^77Z- During his student days he de- 
voted his leisure to painting, in which art 
he attracted much attention. He taught 
in Tisdale's school after his graduation. 
At the outbreak of the Revolutionary 
War in 1775, he went to Boston, and was 
made adjutant of the First Connecticut 
Regiment, Colonel Joseph Spencer com- 
manding. When Washington assumed 
command of the army before Boston, 
Trumbull, by creeping through the tall 
grass, approached the enemy's works on 
Boston Neck, and drew a plan of the for- 
tification that so pleased W^'lshington 
that he appointed him his second aide-de- 
camp. In June. 1776. he was appointed 
adjutant on the staff of General Gates, 
with the rank of colonel, and took part 
in the advance upon Crown Point, and in 



89 



the subsequent retreat to Ticonderoga. 
In November, 1776, he joined Washing- 
ton in New Jersey, and in 1777 resigned 
from the army on account of a misunder- 
standing regarding his commission. He 
now devoted himself to the study of his 
art in Lebanon, and subsequently in Bos- 
ton, and in 1780 went to London, where 
he became a pupil of Benjamin West. 
In 1780 when the British government 
learned of the execution of Major Andre 
he was arrested and imprisoned, and on 
his release in 1781, set sail for America, 
arriving in Boston in January, 1782. The 
next year he returned to London and con- 
tinued his studies under Benjamin West 
and at the Royal Academy. Conceiving 
the idea of painting historical pictures of 
scenes of the American Revolution, he 
went to Paris, where he painted "The 
Declaration of Independence" and the 
"Sortie from Gibraltar." As private sec- 
retary, he was associated with John Jay. 
special envoy to Great Britain (1794-96). 
in the executive of the Treaty of Peace. 
In the latter year he was appointed com- 
missioner to carry out the treaty negoti- 
ated by Jay between the Ignited States 
and Great Britain. In 1804 he estab- 
lished himself in New York City as a 
portrait painter. In addition to his his- 
torical paintings before mentioned are : 
"The Battle of Bunker Hill;" "Battle of 
Quebec ;" "Surrender of Lord Cornwal- 
lis;" "Surrender of General Burgoyne ;'' 
"Washington Resigning His Commission 
to Congress," and "Peter the ("rreat and 
Narva." His portraits include, besides 
thirty-four of General Washington : Gen- 
erals Putnam, Knox, Schuyler, Gates. 
Stark, Greene, Lafayette, Clinton, Mont- 
gomery, Lee, Moultrie. Pinckney and 
Arnold. He also produced portraits of 
John and Samuel Adams ; Clymer. Frank- 
lin. Patrick Henry. Roger Sherman, John 
Jay. Alexander Hamilton. Timothy 
Dwight. Stephen Van Rensselaer. Jona- 



E.\CYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



than Trumbull, Rufus King, Christopher 
Gore, and a portrait of himself. His re- 
ligious paintings include : "Our Saviour 
with Little Children,'' and ""The Woman 
Accused of Adultery." In 1831, being re- 
duced to poverty, he arranged with Yale 
College to bestow upon the college his 
unsold paintings for an annuity of one 
thousand dollars for the remainder of his 
life. After his death the proceeds of these 
paintings were used for the education of 
poor students at Yale. He died in New 
York City, November 10, 1843. 



PARSONS, Samuel H., 

Revolutionary Soldier, Pioneer in Oliio. 

General Samuel Holden Parsons was 
born at Lyme. Connecticut, May 14, 1737, 
son of Rev. Jonathan Parsons, who was 
one of the founders of the Methodist 
Episcopal church in America. 

Samuel Holden Parscns completed his 
education at Harvard College, from which 
he was graduated in 1756. after which he 
studied law ; was admitted to the bar, 
and practiced for many years in Lyme, 
he was for eighteen years a member of 
the Provincial Assembly, and an active 
leader of the patriot party in the years 
immediately preceding the Revolution. 
In 1773 he removed to New London, 
where in April. 1775. he was commis- 
sioned colonel of the Sixth Connecticut 
Regiment. Two weeks afterward he en- 
tered upon active duty, and planned the 
expedition which under the command of 
Ethan Allen effected the capture of Ti- 
conderoga, and with it a large number of 
prisoners and considerable military stores. 
He was promoted to brigadier-general in 
August, 1776. and after taking part in the 
battles of Long Island. Harlem Heights 
and White Plains, for some time guarded 
the posts on the North River. Subse- 
quently he served under Washington in 
the New Jersey campaign. In 1778 Gen- 



eral Parsons commanded in the New 
York Highlands, and in July, 1779, he 
gave battle to a British force at Norwalk, 
Connecticut, forcing them to retire from 
the State. In 1780 he was a member of 
the court that tried Major Andre, and in 
the same year was promoted to be major-gen- 
eral and assigned to the command of the 
Connecticut Line, in which capacity he 
served until the close of the war. It has 
been charged against General Parsons 
that he, during the Revolution, through 
the medium of William Heron, a member 
of the Connecticut Legislature, held com- 
munication with Sir Henry Clinton and 
supplied him with information of the 
movements and condition of the patriot 
troops ; but this accusation was refuted 
by George B. Loring in a pamphlet en- 
titled "A Vindication of General Par- 
sons," published in 1888. General Par- 
sons was the author of an essay on the 
"Antiquities of the Western States," pub- 
lished in the transactions of the Ameri- 
can Academy. 

General Parsons was primarily instru- 
mental in opening up for settlement the 
region now comprised in the State of 
Ohio. In 1785 Congress appointed him 
as one of the commissioners to treat with 
the Miami Indians for cessions of land in 
the Ohio country. Two years later he 
was made judge for the Northwest Terri- 
tory, and Washington, soon after his in- 
auguration as President, made him chief 
justice of that territory. During his stay 
in that region, he became familiar with 
the land ; and he bought a tract of twenty- 
five thousand acres from the commis- 
sioners appointed by the Legislature of 
Connecticut to sell "Western Reserve" 
lands. This tract, in Trumbull county, 
Ohio, he undoubtedly chose because the 
Indians and traders had cleared land 
in that neighborhood, for the reason 
that the springs found there contained 
brackish water from which he hoped to 



00 



EXXYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



manufacture salt, and for the furthcr 
reason that Pittsburgh was comparative- 
l_v near at hand. However, he never 
occupied his purchase, having come to 
his death by drowning, November 17. 
i/8g. in the Beaver river, while journey- 
ing homeward. He had actually paid 
little if an}- money for the land, and it 
was in controversy for some time. Hie 
Connecticut Land Company ignored the 
transaction, terming the claim by Par- 
son's heirs "a pretended claim ;" but the 
company ultimateh- al)andoned it to liis 
heirs. 



MITCHELL, Stephen Mix, 

Congressman, Jurist. 

Stephen Mix Mitchell was born at 
Wethersfield, Connecticut, December 9, 
1743. He was educated at Yale College, 
from which he was graduated in 1763, 
and taught in his alma mater from 1766 
to 1769. He then studied law, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1772, practicing 
in his native town. 

He was elected a delegate to the Con- 
tinental Congress in 1783, serving by re- 
election until 1787, meantime also serving 
as associate justice of the Hartford 
County Court, of which he was presiding 
judge from 1790 to 1795. He was a 
United States Senator (1793-95), filling 
the seat made vacant by the death of 
Roger Sherman, and as such was instru- 
mental in establishing Connecticut's title 
to the "Western Reserve" tract in Ohio, 
which was subsequently sold for the 
benefit of the school fund. He became 
judge of the Superior Court of the State 
in 1795, and in 1807 was made its Chief 
Justice, holding the office until 1814, 
when age disqualified him. In 1805 he 
was a Whig presidential elector. The de- 
gree of Doctor of Laws was conferred 
upon him by Yale College in 1807. He 
died in his native town, September 30. 
1835. 



IVES, Eli, 

Pliysician of Note. 

The surname Ives is derived from the 
name Iver or Ives, Gaelic, meaning chief 
or leader, and the family in England 
doubtless takes its name from St. Ives, 
County [Juntington. England, or some 
other locality, though it may have been 
adopted from a personal name, as many 
other surnames have been. John Ives, of 
the Manor Woodnos, in Orington, Nor- 
folk, left his estate to his son Thomas, 
then less than twenty years old. The 
father died October 23, 1568. 

Captain William Ives, believed to have 
been of the county of Norfolk family, was 
born in England, and came to Boston in 
the ship "Truelove," in 1635. In 1639 he 
located at New Haven. Connecticut, his 
name appearing in the civil compact, 
dated June 4, 1639, ^^^ in the allotment 
to the first settlers. He and his wife had 
seats in the meeting house at New Haven 
in 1646. His son. Captain Joseph Ives, 
was born about 1660, and married Mary 
Yale. His son, Samuel Ives, was born in 
Wallingford, Connecticut. June 5. 1696. 
He married Mary Gilbert. His son. Dr. 
Levi Ives, was born at New Haven, June 
4, 1750, and died there October 17, 1826. 
He was a physician and surgeon of rare 
qualifications and wide practice. He was 
;■ patriot in the Revolutionary days, served 
in the continental army as surgeon, and 
was at Quebec with General Montgomery. 
He practiced at New Haven from 1773 to 
the time of his death. From 1773 to the 
present day there has been at least one 
Dr. Ives among the leading physicians of 
New Haven, and since 1801 an "Old Dr. 
T\es," as the senior doctor of this remark- 
able family has been called affectionately 
by his patients and the public. Dr. Ives 
was an active, conscientious and success- 
\u\ physician, who won the reputation of 
a public-spirited and patriotic citizen in 
troublous times. During the Revolution 



91 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



he was frequently in active service as sur- 
geon to the forces in the field. Once he 
bore a lieutenant's commission in the line 
during the campaign against General 
Burgoyne. 

When the British made their wearisome 
and futile expedition from Savin Rock to 
New Haven, he was one of the hardy 
guerilla volunteers that maintained a 
waspish resistance to the slow advance of 
tiie enemy, and he was not only a sur- 
geon but a sharpshooter himself. He 
married Lydia Augur. His son. Dr. Eli 
Ives, was born at New Haven, February 
7, 1779. As a youth he was studious and 
earnest. He fitted for college partly 
through his own exertions and partly 
under the tuition of Dr. Aeneas Munson 
and Rev. A. R. Robbins of Norwalk, Con- 
necticut. He entered Yale College and 
was graduated in the class of 1799. Pro- 
fessors J. L. Kingsley and Moses Stuart 
Avere classmates. He was for two years 
rector of the Hopkins Grammar School 
of New Haven. He declined the tutor- 
ship offered to him in Yale College, and 
proceeded to study medicine under the 
instruction of his father and Dr. Aeneas 
Munson, a physician of unusual attain- 
ments in botany and chemistry. He at- 
tended lectures under Drs. Rush and 
Wooster in Philadelphia, and in 1801 
began to practice in New Haven in asso- 
ciation with his honored father. He 
achieved a notable success in practice 
from the outset. He was an influential 
factor in the establishment of the Yale 
Medical School in 1813, and became one 
of the first five instructors, as assistant 
professor of materia medica and botany, 
conducting all the duties of that depart- 
ment for a period of sixteen years. He 
devoted much time and labor to the 
making of a botanic garden, which was 
located on the present site of the Sheffield 
Scientific School. In 1829 he was trans- 
ferred to the department of theory and 



practice of medicine, and continued in 
this chair until he resigned in 1852 on 
account of age and infirmity. During the 
thirty-nine years in which he was a 
teacher in the Yale Medical School he 
had in his classes more than fifteen hun- 
dred students. He had the advantage in 
youth of being the son of a learned and 
able physician, and he began his career 
with a thorough and practical knowledge 
of medicine and a good general education. 
He was versed in Latin and Greek and 
ranked well in college. When he was but 
twenty-three years old he was honored 
l)y his selection as the Phi Beta Kappa 
orator. He spoke on botany and chem- 
istry. He had the additional advantage 
of studying under Rush. Shippen. Wistar 
and Barton, at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, then the best of their profession in 
this country. He was given the degree of 
M. D. coiisa Jwnoris, by the Connecticut 
Medical Society. Though his practice 
was large, he was not strict in his busi- 
ness methods and he was satisfied with 
modest fees when he might have acquired 
wealth. His skill in the use of medicine 
showed a wide acquaintance with drugs 
not then generally known, and he was 
always a leader in study and practice. He 
and his eldest son, Dr. N. B. Ives, in 1832 
applied chloroform, discovered by Samuel 
Guthrie, of Sacketts Harbor, and de- 
scribed in the "Journal of Science" that 
year, but .just failed of discovering its 
properties and usefulness as an anaes- 
thetic. He was a member of the conven- 
tion of physicians that framed the first 
United States Pharmacopeia in 1S20, and 
ten years later at the next meeting of the 
convention he was the presiding officer. 
He was vice-president of the Connecticut 
Medical Society, 1824-27, and in 1861 was 
president of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation. He was a candidate for lieuten- 
ant-governor of Connecticut on the Anti- 
Masonic ticket in 1831. He was simple 



92 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



in his tastes and lived plainly. It has 
been said that his face was a plain index 
of his character, showing a charming com- 
bination of benevolence, shrewdness and 
simplicity and often lighted with mirth- 
fulness. He enjoyed the privilege and 
happiness of a serene and beautiful old 
age, closely surrounded and consulted by 
two sons and one grandson, all engaged 
with conspicuous success in the practice 
of medicine. He was tender and generous 
in disposition and made many friends 
among all ages and classes. 

He was a man of varied interests, lov- 
ing horticulture and agriculture especi- 
ally, and was president of the horticul- 
tural and pomological societies. He 
was an earnest promoter of the Shef- 
field Scientific School. He sought after 
the truth, it has been said, in all its 
fi^)rms, and recognized the common bond 
which connects arts and sciences. He 
received man}^ diplomas and degrees from 
institutions of learning in this country 
;in(l abroad. He possessed a retentive 
memory, clear insight and profound 
knowledge of many things. He had the 
courage to undertake bold treatment in 
desperate cases. In all the walks of life 
he was thoroughly honorable and upright. 
He was one of the founders of the New 
Haven Medical Association, and was 
active in the State Medical Society. 
When an old man, he was president of 
the National Medical Association. He 
was an earnest opponent of slavery, and 
an advocate of total abstinence, when his 
position on both issues was extremely 
unpopular. He joined the North Congre- 
gational Church in 1808 and was a promi- 
nent member for many years. 

Dr. Ives married. September 17, 1805, 
Maria, daughter of Dr. Nathan and Mary 
(Phelps) Beers. Her father was an adju- 
tant in the Revolution, and had charge of 
Major Andre the night before his execu- 



tion. During that time Major Andre 
drew a pen portrait of himself and gave 
it to Mr. Beers. This interesting heir- 
loom is now in the Yale Art Gallery. 
Children of Dr. and Mrs. Ives : Levi and 
Nathan Beers. Dr. Ives died October 8, 
1 861. 



SWIFT, Zephaniah, 

Lawyer, Jurist, Autlior. 

Zephaniah Swift was born in Ware- 
ham, Massachusetts, February 27. 1759. 
and died in Warren, Ohio, September 27, 
1823. He was a son of Roland and Mary 
(Dexter) Swift, grandson of Jireh and 
Abigail (Gibbs) Swift, great-grandson of 
William and Ruth Swift, and a descend- 
ant of William Swyft, born in England, 
who settled at Sandwich in 1638. 

He was graduated from Yale College. 
A. r>.. in 1778, and received the A. M. de- 
gree in 1 781. He studied law, and upon 
his admission to the bar settled at Wind- 
ham. Connecticut, where his thorough 
])rej:)aration for the work and unusual 
al)ility and talent procured him a large 
practice, which steadily increased. He 
was a Federalist representative from Con- 
necticut in the Third and Fourth Con- 
gresses. 1793-97. In 1800 he served as 
secretary to Oliver Ellsworth, United 
States Minister to France, 1800. He was 
judge of the State Supreme Court, 1801- 
06. and Chief Justice, 1806-19. He was 
several times elected to the State Legis- 
lature, and was one of a committee to 
revise the statute laws of the State. He 
was a member of the New England Fed- 
eralist Convention at Hartford, Connecti- 
cut. December 15, 1814. He received the 
honorary degree of LL. D. from Yale 
College in 1817, and from Middlebury 
College. Vermont, in 1821. He was the 
author of and published the following- 
works : "Oration on Domestic Slavery" 



93 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



(1791) ; "System of the Laws of Connec- 
ticut" (1795-96) ; "Digest of the Laws of 
Evidence in Civil and Criminal Cases, 
and a Treatise on Bills of Exchange and 
Promissory Notes" (1810) ; and a "Digest 
of the Laws of Connecticut" (1822-23), 
modeled after Blackstone. The Rev. Dr. 
John L. Blake said : "His rise to emi- 
nence was the result of his own moral 
and intellectual worth." 

Judge Swift was married to Lucretia 
Webb, by whom he had seven children ; 
their daughter, Mary A., was the author 
of "First Lessons on Natural Philosophy," 
which was translated in Karan (1846) 
and Burmese (1848). and continued in 
popular use for many }ears as a text- 
l:>ook. 



BOARDMAN, Elijah, 

Promoter of Ohio Settlement. 

Elijah Boardman was born at New 
Milford, Litchfield county, Connecticut, 
March 7, 1760, son of Daniel Boardman, 
a graduate of Yale. He received a good 
education, and at the age of seventeen 
enlisted in the Revolutionary army. 
After the close of the war he engaged in 
business in his native town, and became 
a successful merchant. He was elected 
to the Legislature for six terms, and was 
for some time a member of the Executive 
Coimcil. He was a United States Sena- 
tes- in Congress from Connecticut from 
iNIarch 4, 1821, to his death. In Septem- 
ber, 1795, he became a member of the 
Connecticut Land Company, and through 
it purchased much land in the northern 
part of Ohio, and founded the town of 
Boardman, Mahoning county, Ohio, and 
with several associates opened two entire 
townships. 

He was married, in September, 1792, to 
Mary Anna, daughter of Dr. William and 
Anna (Mason) Whiting, of Great Bar- 



rington, Massachusetts, and a descend- 
ant through her mother, of Captain John 
Mason, who captured the Pequot fort in 
1637. They were the parents of six chil- 
dren. Mr. Boardman died at Boardman, 
Ohio, October 8, 1823, while on a visit 
there to look after his large landed inter- 
ests. 



MORSE, Jedidiah, 

Clergyman, Geographer. 

The Rev. Jedidiah Morse was born in 
Woodstock, Connecticut, August 23, 1761, 
son of Deacon Jedidiah and Sarah (Child) 
Morse^ and a descendant in the fifth gen- 
eration from Anthony Morse, the immi- 
grant, 1635. His father served in the 
Connecticut Legislature for over fifteen 
years. 

Jedidiah, Jr., son of the Rev. Jedidiah 
Morse, attended the Woodstock Acade- 
my, and entered Yale College in 1779, 
but before the college term commenced 
he was drafted as a soldier in the Con- 
necticut Line. He was, however, ex- 
empted from military duty, and was 
graduated from Yale College, A. B., in 
1783, and received the master's degree in 
1786. He taught a class in singing in 
Guilford, Connecticut, in 1783. Lie 
studied theology under Jonathan Ed- 
wards and Dr. Samuel Whales, and estab- 
lished a school for young girls in New 
Haven. He was licensed to preach, Sep- 
tember 27, 1785, and was pastor at Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, 1785-86. He was tutor 
at Yale College 1786-87, and was pastor 
of the Congregational church in Midway, 
Georgia, in 1787. He preached as a can- 
didate for the Collegiate Presbyterian 
churches of New York, March-August, 
1788; and succeeded the Rev. Joshua 
Paine as pastor of the First Congrega- 
tional Church of Charlestown, Massachu- 
setts, in 1789. In 1820 he resigned that 



94 



ENXYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



charge and returned to New Haven, 
where he resided until his death, and was 
a trustee of Andover Theological Semi- 
nary, 1795-1826. 

He turned his attention to the civiliza- 
tion and christianization of various In- 
dian tribes of North America, and under 
commission of the Secretary of War he 
spent two summers in visiting several 
tribes with a view to improving their con- 
dition. He was elected a member of the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
in 1792, and was its secretary in 1802; a 
member of the Massachusetts Emigrant 
Society, and founded the Charlestown As- 
sociation for the Reformation of Morals in 
1813. He aided in the establishment of the 
navy yard at Charlestown; was appointed 
chaplain and visitor of the State prison 
in Charlestown in 1805 ; was elected a 
member of the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions in 181 1; 
and formed a society for the benefit of 
the Indian tribes within the United States 
at Washington, D. C, in 1822, but failing 
health prevented his personal attendance 
at the meetings of the society, and after 
two or three years it ceased to exist. The 
honorary degree of D. D. was conferred 
upon him by the University of Edinburgh 
in 1794. 

He devoted much of his time to literary 
work, especially in the publication of 
geographies. He established the "Pan- 
opolist" in 1805, and was its sole editor 
for five years ; and was the author of : 
"Geography Made Easy" (1784) ; "Amer- 
ican Geography" (1789) ; "Elements of 
Geography" (1797); "American Univer- 
sal Geography" (2 vols., 1814; 2nd ed.. 
1819) ; "Report on Indian Affairs" (1822) ; 
"Annals of the American Revolution" 
( 1824) ; and, in connection with the Rev. 
Elijah Harris, wrote "History of New 
England" (1808), and with Richard Gary 
Morse a "Universal Gazetteer" (1823). 



He married, May 14, 1789. Elizabeth, 
Ann, daughter of Samuel and Rebecca 
(Finley) Breese, of Shrewsbury. New Jer- 
sey. He died in New Haven, Connecti- 
cut. June 9. 1826. 



MOSELEY, Jonathan Ogden, 
Lawyer, Congressman. 

Jonathan Ogden Moseley v/as born at 
luist Haddam, Connecticut, in 1762, son 
of Dr. Thomas Moseley, a justice of the 
peace, and member of the Connecticut 
iVledical Association, an active and suc- 
cessful physician for many years, hon- 
ored and esteemed in the community. 

Jonathan O. Moseley acquired his pre- 
liminary education in the common schools 
of the neighborhood, after which he be- 
came a student at Yale College, from 
which institution he was graduated with 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts, 1780, and 
three years later received the degree of 
Master of Arts from the same institution. 
He was admitted to the bar of his native 
State, and located in East Haddam, his 
birthplace, for the active practice of his 
chosen profession. He served as State's 
Attorney for Middlesex county, 1797- 
1805, and was a Federalist representative 
in the Ninth to the Sixteenth Congresses, 
inclusive (1805-1821), a period of sixteen 
years, performing the duties of all these 
various offices in a highly commendable 
manner. He also held the rank of colonel 
in the State militia, and was justice of 
the peace of East Haddam for several 
years. He was a noted orator, and de- 
livered the memorial address at East Had- 
dam on the occasion of the death of 
Washington. Subsequently he removed 
to the Northwest Territory and settled in 
Saginaw, Michigan, where his death oc- 
curred September 9, 1839. aged seventy- 
seven vears. 



95 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



BRACE, Jonathan, 

Prominent Jurist. 

Jonathan Brace was born at Harwin- 
ton, Litchfield county, Connecticut, No- 
vember 12, 1/54, and died in Hartford, 
Connecticut, August 26, 1837. He was 
graduated at Yale College in 1779, and 
began his legal studies with Oliver Ells- 
worth, Chief Justice of the United States 
Supreme Court, under whose competent 
instruction he was prepared for admis- 
sion to the bar. 

He began the active practice of his pro- 
fession in Bennington county, Vermont, 
and for the following five years enjoyed 
a lucrative practice, the result of his 
energy and thorough preparation for his 
work. During a portion of that time he 
also served in the capacity of State's 
Attorney for the county. He then re- 
moved to Glastonbury, Connecticut, and 
during his residence there, in addition to 
his private law practice, was a member of 
the State Legislature for five years. In 
1794 he removed to Hartford, Connecti- 
cut, and there passed the remainder of 
his days, honored and esteemed by all 
with whom he was brought in contact. 
He served as judge of probate for fifteen 
years; as chief judge of the Hartford 
County Court for twelve years ; as repre- 
sentative in Congress from 1798 to 1800; 
as a member of the State Legislature, to 
which he was frequently elected ; assist- 
ant in the Council of the State, to which 
office he was chosen in 1801, and by suc- 
cessive elections continued to hold the 
office for eighteen years ; served as State's 
Attorney for Hartford county; member 
of the city common council for a long 
period of years ; subsequently was a mem- 
ber of the board of aldermen, and for 
nine years conscientiously performed the 
duties of mayor of Hartford. 



EDMOND, William, 

Soldier, National Legislator, Jurist. 

William Edmond was born September 
28, 1755, in Woodbury (now South 
Britain), Connecticut, and died at New- 
town, same State, August i, 1838, son of 
Robert and Mary (Marks) Edmond, both 
natives of Londonderry, Ireland, where 
they were married, coming to this coun- 
try the year before the birth of their son. 

William Edmond attended the schools 
of his native town, then entering Yale 
College, from which he was graduated in 
the class of 1777. In the year of his 
graduation, in April, he took part in an 
engagement with the British forces under 
Tryon and fell, severely wounded in the 
leg. He escaped capture by concealing 
himself in the vicinity of the scene of 
action, but remained alone and helpless 
all that night. Taking up the study of 
law. in May, 1782, he settled in New- 
town, and opened an office in the house 
of General John Chandler, and soon drew 
to himself an influential clientele, his 
practice steadily increasing in volume and 
importance. He belonged to the old Fed- 
eralist party, and was elected to the 
House of Representatives of Connecticut. 
In 1797 he was elected to the Fifth United 
States Congress, to fill vacancy occa- 
sioned by the death of James Davenport, 
and was reelected to the Sixth Congress, 
his period of service being nearly four 
years. Subsequently he wa.- repeatedly a 
member of the Governor's Council, which 
then had the powers of a court of errors, 
his last term ending in 1805, when he 
was elevated to the Supreme Court bench 
of the State, in which ofiice he remained 
until 1819. His biographer says of him 
that he was a remarkable man, plain and 
unassuming in his manners, mild and 
amiable in his deportment, just and hon- 



96 



ENXYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



est in his dealings, and honorable and 
magnanimous in his feelings. 

He married (first) Elizabeth, daughter 
of General John and Mary Chandler ; and 
(second) Elizabeth, daughter of Benja- 
min Payne, of Hartford. 



HOSMER, Stephen T., 

Eminent Jurist. 

Stephen Titus Hosmer was born at 
Middletown, Connecticut, January lo, 
1763, son of Titus and Lydia (Lord) Hos- 
mer. After preliminary studies in the 
common schools he entered Yale College, 
])ut his studies there were interrupted by 
the suspension of the college during the 
Revolution, after which he completed his 
course under Dr. Dwight, and was gradu- 
ated in 1782. He read law under Hon. 
Samuel William Johnson, and under Hon. 
Oliver Ellsworth, who on the early death 
of his father became his guardian. He 
settled in practice in his profession at 
Middletown. He had inherited no patri- 
mony, and was dependent entirely upon 
his own exertions, which proved adequate 
to afford him the success he desired, and 
he secured an extensive practice which 
he enjoyed up to the time of his elevation 
to the bench of the Superior Court in 
1815. He studied law continuously in 
the midst of his successful practice, the 
contents of his books becoming so fixed 
in his mind from repeated reading and 
the exercise of such a wonderful gift of 
memory that he could cite at will the au- 
thorities necessary to support his cases. 
He was repeatedly elected one of the State 
Councilors. In 181 5 he was appointed a 
judge of the Superior Court, and, after 
the adoption of the State constitution in 
1818, the Supreme Court was organized, 
and he was appointed Chief Justice, serv- 
ing from 1819 to 1833, when his term 
ceased by virtue of a law of Connecticut. 
He was distinguished for his extraordi- i 
CONN-Voi 1-7 97 



nary legal learning, and was classed with 
Chief Justice Parsons, of Massachusetts, 
and Chancellor Kent, of New York. His 
attainments in theology, history and gen- 
eral literature were also very extensive. 
Judge Hosmer received the degree of 
Doctor of Laws from Yale College in 
1823. 

He was married, January 4, 1785, to 
Lucia, daughter of General Samuel 
Holden Parsons, a distinguished general 
in the American Revolution. He died at 
Middletown, Connecticut, August 6, 1834. 



SHIPMAN, Nathaniel, 

Leader of Men. 

The surname Shipman is derived from 
a trade name, shipman being equivalent 
to sailor. Shipton, as the name of the 
American immigrant was spelled on the 
early records, is a place name, and the 
coat-of-arms of the English family of 
Shipton is described : Argent three pairs 
of bellows sable two and one. The Ship- 
ton crest : An eel naiant proper. But 
Shipton is probably not the correct spell- 
ing. Shipman was an ancient English 
surname and several branches of the fam- 
ily bear coats-of-arms. The Shipman (or 
Shiphan) family of Welby, County Here- 
ford, had these arms granted in 1581 : Or 
a cinquefoil between three crosses cross- 
let gules, and their crest is : A demi- 
ostrich, wings expanded argent, ducally 
gorged and beaked or, holding in the 
beak a key azure and vulned on the breast 
gules. The Shipman family of Sarington, 
County Notts, bears : Gules on a bend ar- 
gent between three estoilles or three pel- 
lets. Crest : A leopard, sejeant argent 
spotted sable, reposing the dexter pav^^ on 
a ship's rudder azure. The Shipman 
family of County Kent bears : Argent a 
bend between six suns gules. 

Edward Shipman, the immigrant an- 
cestor, is said to have come from Eng- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



land, sailing- from Hull in 1639, with 
George Fenwick, but if this is correct he 
must have been a young child. A Wil- 
liam Shipman, aged twenty-two, sailed 
I\Iay 28, 1635, for Virginia. His relation 
to Edward is not known. Edward Ship- 
man's name was spelled Shipton in the 
early records of Saybrook, Connecticut, 
where he first settled, but later the name 
is spelled Shipman and all the family fol- 
low that spelling. Edward married (first) 
January 16, 165 1, Elizabeth Comstock, 
who died about the middle of July, 1659. 
He married (second) July i, 1663, Mary 
Andrews. He was admitted a freeman in 
October, 1667. He died September 15, 
1697. In the will of the sachem Uncas, 
February 29, 1676, Shipman was one of 
the three legatees to whom he gave three 
thousand acres of land within sight of 
Hartford. His son, John Shipman, was 
born in Saybrook, April 5, 1664; married. 
May 5, 1686, Martha Humphries. His 
son, John (2) Shipman, was born at Say- 
brook, January 6, 1687, and died there 
July 7, 1742 He married, January 11, 
1715, Elizabeth Kirtland. A manuscript 
letter in the Hinman's manuscripts of 
Boston states that John came from Eng- 
land with Fenwick, evidently an error, 
for the grandfather of John was the immi- 
grant. This manuscript states that John 
married Willis. His son, Nathan- 
iel Shipman, was born about 1720-25, in 
Saybrook. He removed from Saybrook 
to Norwich, Connecticut, about 1750. He 
was chosen elder of the Sixth or Chelsea 
(now Second) Church at Norwich, De- 
cember 30, 1763. He was a founder of 
this church and one of the leading citi- 
zens of Norwich. He married (first) at 
Norwich, in 1747, Ruth Reynolds, born 
1727-28, died 1755; married (second) July 
18, 1756, Elizabeth Lefifingwell, born at 
Norwich, January 4, 1729-30, died there 
June 8, 1801, daughter of Thomas and 
Elizabeth (Lord) Leffingwell, and they 



98 



were the parents of Nathaniel Shipman, 
of this review. 

Nathaniel Shipman, son of Nathaniel 
Shipman, was born in Norwich, May 17, 
1764, and died there July 14, 1853. Early 
in life he learned the trade of goldsmith, 
and he became a man of large influence 
and importance in the community. A 
natural leader of men, he was oftener 
than any of his contemporaries called to 
preside over public gatherings and town 
meetings. He represented Norwich for 
many years in the general assembly ; was 
judge of probate and county judge. He 
settled many estates and transacted much 
legal business for his neighbors. Miss 
F. M. Caulkins, the historian of Nor- 
wich and New London, thus wrote of 
Judge Shipman : 

Judge Shipman was a man of great simplicity 
of habits, of vigorous common sense, upright, 
honorable and independent, both in his inward 
promptings and in his whole course of action. 
He was almost always in office, serving the town 
and State in a variety of ways — municipal, legis- 
lative and judicial — displaying more than com- 
mon ability, and giving general satisfaction in 
all three departments. Affability and a taste for 
social enjoyment made him a delightful com- 
panion. His readiness to communicate his vivid 
appreciation of character, his richly stored mem- 
ory, and his abundant flow of traditionary and 
historic anecdote held the listening ear bound to 
his voice as by an invisible charm. A sentiment 
of gratitude leads me to speak of another trait — 
his kindness and winning attentions to the 
young. He was indulgent of their presence, of 
their vivacity and their sports; was ready to 
gratify them with some tale of the olden time; 
to make them happy with little gifts of flowers 
or fruit; to compliment their self-respect by 
asking them to read to him or leading them to 
converse on subjects rather above than below 
their standing. This is a rare characteristic in 
this hurrying, impetuous age. Pleasant are all 
the memories connected with this honored and 
exemplary son of Norwich. 

He married Abigail, daughter of Judge 
Benjamin and Mary (Boardman) Coit, 
October 11, 1794; she died July 31, 1800. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



WHITNEY. Eli. 

Inventor of the Cotton Gin. 

The great invention of Eli Whitney, 
giving a vastly increased value to the 
labors of the negroes in the southern cot- 
ton fields, in all probability worked the 
defeat of the slow movement looking to 
the abolition of slavery largely through 
the effort of slaveholders, and established 
■'the institution" so firmly that it was 
ineradicable except through revolution 
and war. 

Eli Whitney was descended from an 
English family which established itself 
in Massachusetts in colonial days, and he 
was born in that State, at Westboro. De- 
cember 8. 1765, son of Eli Whitney, a 
soldier in the Revolutionar}- War. The 
record of Eli (2nd), the inventor, forms 
an important part of Connecticut history, 
for it was there that his principal achieve- 
ments had their inception and fruition. 

When very young he showed his genius 
for practical and scientific invention. He 
Avas prepared for college by an eminent 
scholar, the Rev. Dr. Goodrich, of Dur- 
ham, Connecticut, and entered Yale Col- 
lege in 1789, graduating creditably in the 
class of 1792. In the same year he went 
to Georgia under an engagement as a 
private tutor, but on arriving there found 
that the place had been filled. He then 
accepted the invitation of the widow of 
General Nathaniel Greene to make his 
home at her place at Mulberry Grove, on 
the Savannah river, while he studied law. 
Several articles that he devised for Mrs. 
Greene's convenience gave her great faith 
in his inventive power, and when some 
of her visitors regretted that there could 
be no profit in the cultivation of the green 
seed-cotton, which was considered the 
best variety, owing to the great difficulty 
of separating it from the seed, she advised 
them to apply to Whitney, "who," she 



said, "could make anything." A pound 
of green seed-cotton was all that a negro 
woman could then clean in a day. Mr. 
Whitney up to that time had seen neither 
the raw cotton nor the cotton seed, but 
he at once procured some cotton from 
which the seeds had been removed, 
although with trouble, as it was not the 
season of the year for the cultivation of 
the plant, and began to work out his idea 
of the cotton-gin. He was occupied for 
some months in constructing his machine, 
during which he met with great difficulty, 
being compelled to draw the necessary 
iron v:\re himself, as he could obtain none 
in Savannah, and also to manufacture his 
own iron tools. Near the end of 1792 he 
succeeded in making a gin. of which the 
principle and mechanism were exceedingly 
simple. Its main features were a cylinder 
four feet long and five inches in diameter, 
upon which is set a series of circular saws 
half an inch apart and projecting two 
inches above the surface of the revolvitig 
cylinder. A mass of cotton in the seed, 
separated from the cylinder by a steel 
grating, is brought in contact with the 
numerous teeth in the cylinder. These 
teeth catch the cotton while playing be- 
tween the bars, which allow the lint, but 
not the seed, to pass. Beneath the saws 
is a set of stiff brushes on another cylin- 
der, revolving in an opposite direction, 
which brush off from the saw teeth the 
lint that these have just pulled from the 
seed. Inhere is also a revolving fan for 
{)roducing a current of air to throw the 
light and downy lint that is thus liberated 
to a convenient distance from the revolv- 
ing saws and brushes. Such are the 
essential principles of the cotton-gin as 
invented l)y Whitney, and as still used, 
but in \arious details and workmanship 
it has been the subject of many improve- 
ments, the object of which has been to 
pick the cotton more perfectl}- from the 



9") 



8.1' 






ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



seed, to prevent the teeth from cutting the 
staple, and to give greater regularity to 
the operation of the machine. By its use 
the planter was able to clean for market, 
by the labor of one man, one thousand 
pounds of cotton in place of five or six by 
hand. Mrs. Greene and Phineas Miller 
were the only ones permitted to see the 
machine, but rumors of it had gone 
through the State, and, before it was 
quite finished, the building in which it 
was placed was broken into at night and 
the machine was carried off. Before he 
could complete his model and obtain a 
patent, a number of machines based on 
his invention had been surreptitiously 
made and were in operation. In May, 
1793, he formed a partnership with Mr. 
Miller, who had some property, and went 
to Connecticut to manufacture the ma- 
chines, but he became involved in con- 
tinual trouble by infringement of his 
patent. In Georgia it was boldly asserted 
that he was not the inventor, but that 
something like it had been produced in 
Switzerland, and it was claimed that the 
substitution of teeth cut in an iron plate 
for wire prevented an infringement on his 
invention. He had sixty lawsuits pend- 
ing before he secured a verdict in his 
favor. In South Carolina the legislature 
granted him $50,000, which was finally 
paid after vexatious delays and lawsuits. 
North Carolina allowed him a percentage 
on the use of each saw for five years, 
and collected and paid it over to the pat- 
• entees in good faith, and Tennessee prom- 
ised to do the same thing, but after- 
ward rescinded her contract. For years 
amid accumulated misfortunes, law suits 
wrongfully decided against him, the de- 
struction of his manufactory by fire, the 
industrious circulation of the report that 
his machine injured the fiber of the cot- 
ton, the refusal of congress, on account 
of the southern opposition, to allow the 



patent to be renewed, and the death of 
his partner, Mr. Whitney struggled on 
until he was convinced that he should 
never receive a just compensation for his 
invention. At the time of his invention, 
cotton was exported to the amount of 
only 189,500 pounds, while in 1803, owing 
to the use of his gin, it had risen to more 
than 41,000,000 pounds. 

Despairing of ever gaining a compe- 
tence, Mr. Whitney turned his attention 
in 1798 to the manufacture of firearms 
near New Haven, from which he even- 
tually gained a fortune. He was the first 
manufacturer of firearms to effect the 
division of labor to the extent of making 
it the duty of each workman to make 
interchangeable the parts of the thou- 
sands of arms in process of manufacture 
at the same time. This interchangeable 
system has now extended to the manu- 
facture of watches, sewing machines, etc. 
His first contract was with the United 
States government for ten thousand 
stand of muskets, to be furnished in or 
about two years. For the execution of 
his order he took two years for prepara- 
tion and eight more for completion. He 
gave bonds for $30,000, and was to re- 
ceive $13.40 for each musket, or $134,000 
in ail. Immediately he began to build an 
armory at the foot of East Rock, two 
miles from New Haven, in the village of 
Whitneyville, where through the succes- 
sive administrations from that of John 
Adams, repeated contracts for the supply 
of arms were made and fulfilled to the 
entire approbation of the government. 
The construction of his armory, and even 
of the commonest tools which were de- 
vised by him for the prosecution of the 
business in a manner peculiar to himself, 
evinced the fertility of his genius and the 
precision of his mind. The buildings be- 
came the model by which the national 
armories were afterward arranged, and 

TOO 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



many of his improvements were taken to 
other establishments and have become 
common property. Owing to his un- 
pleasant experience with patent laws, he 
never applied for patents on any of these 
inventions. His improvements in the 
manufacture of arms laid this country 
under permanent obligations by aug- 
menting the means of national defense. 
Several of his inventions have been ap- 
plied to other manufactures of iron and 
steel, and added to his reputation. He 
established a fund of $500 at Yale, the 
interest of which is expended in the pur- 
chase of books on mechanical and physi- 
cal science. Robert Fulton said that 
"Arkwright, Watt and Whitney were the 
three men that did the most for mankind 
of any oi their contemporaries ;" and 
!\lacaulay said, "What Peter the Great 
did to make Russia dominant, Eli Whit- 
ne}'s inventon of the cotton gin has more 
than equalled in its relation to the power 
and progress of the United States." 

In person Mr. Whitney was consider- 
ably above the ordinary size, of a digni- 
fied carriage, and of an open, manly, and 
agreeable countenance. In New Haven 
he was universally esteemed. Many of 
the prominent citizens of the place sup- 
ported him in his undertakings, and he 
inspired all whom he met with a similar 
confidence. Throughout the community 
and in foreign lands, he was known and 
honored as a benefactor of the race. With 
all the Presidents of the United States, 
from the beginning of the government, he 
enjo3"ed a personal acquaintance, and his 
relations with the leading men of the 
country were unimpaired by political rev- 
olutions. His most remarkable trait of 
character was his great power of mechan- 
ical invention. He was reasonably patient. 
His mind wrought with precision rather 
than with rapidity. His aim was steady 
He never abandoned a half-accomplished 



effort in order to make trial of a new and 
foreign idea. He died January 8, 1825. 

In January, 1817, Mr. Whitney was 
married to Henrietta Frances Edwards, 
born in June, 1790, who lived until April, 
1870. She was the daughter of Hon. 
Pierrepont Edwards, who graduated at 
Princeton College in 1768, was a lawyer 
in New Haven, Connecticut, soldier in 
the Revolution, member of the Continen- 
tal Congress, and judge of the United 
States Court for Connecticut at the time 
of his death. Mr. Edwards was fre- 
quently a member of the Connecticut 
Legislature, was the first grand master of 
the Masonic fraternity in Connecticut. 
His father. Rev. Jonathan Edwards, was 
the noted metaphysician and president of 
Princeton College, New Jersey. 

Eli (3rd), son of Eli (2) Whitney, 
the inventor, inherited much of his 
father's inventive genius and mechanical 
skill. Lie was born November 24, 1820, in 
New Haven, where he attended a private 
school, and was prepared for college. He 
attended Yale College one year, and then 
entered Princeton College, from which he 
graduated in 1841. The following year 
he took up his father's business, that of 
the manufacture of firearms for the 
LTnited States government. In 1856 he 
ceased this branch of his manufacturing 
business, but resumed it again at the 
breaking out of the Civil War in 1861, 
and continued it until 1866. The Whit- 
ney Arms Company, of which he was 
j^resident, manufactvired thousands of 
muskets, rifles and revolvers of the most 
improved models, including many thou- 
sands of military arms for foreign govern- 
ments, including muzzle-loading, breech- 
loading, magazine and repeating rifles. 
He was one of the commissioners of the 
English Exposition of 1862. From 1859 
to 1861 he constructed the New Haven 
water works, and much of the work was 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



done on his own credit, though built on 
contract for the New Haven Water Com- 
pany, which organization he created. 
Mr. Whitney made many improvements 
in firearms of all sorts and patented them, 
and made improvements in machinery for 
making arms. He was on the Republican 
electoral ticket in Connecticut as presi- 
dential elector-at-large in the November 
election of 1892. In 1869 he received the 
honorary degree of M. A. from Yale. He 
was one of New Haven's most prominent 
and representative citizens. He embodied 
the best traditions of New England, and 
through a life of dignity and honor bore 
worthily the name of his father, the in- 
ventor of the cotton-gin. His part in the 
life and growth of New Haven was im- 
portant. He was an ardent patriot in 
whatever concerned the rational and wise 
development of his city, his State and his 
country. His public spirit, open-handed 
generosity, quick and wide sympathies, 
dignity of bearing and courtesy person- 
ally endeared him to people of all ages 
and conditions. 

On June 17, 1845, ^^- Whitney was 
married at Utica, New York, to Sarah 
Perkins Dalliba, who died January 12, 
J 909. Her mother was Susannah Hunt- 
ington, granddaughter of Judge Benja- 
min Huntington, of Norwich, Connecti- 
cut. 



PITKIN, Timothy, 

Lawyer, National liegislator. 

Timothy Pitkin was born in Farming- 
ton, Hartford county, Connecticut, Janu- 
ary 21. 1766, and died in New Haven. 
Connecticut, December 18, 1847. He was 
a son of the Rev. Timothy and Temper- 
ance (Claj)) Pitkin, the former named 
having been pastor of the Congregational 
church in Farmington ; grandson of Wil- 
liam and Alary (Woodbridge) J^itkin, the 



former named having been Governor of 
Connecticut from 1766 to 1769, and of the 
Rev. Thomas and Mary (Whiting) Clap, 
and a descendant of William and Hannah 
(Goodwin) Pitkin. 

Timothy Pitkin was liberally educated, 
graduating from Yale College, A. !>., in 
1785, and receiving the A. M. degree in 
1788. During his collegiate course he 
made a specialty of mathematics and 
natural philosophy, and was particularly 
versed in astronomy, calculating and pro- 
jecting all the solar eclipses from 1785 to 
1800. He pursued a course of law study 
under the preceptorship of Oliver Wolcott, 
was admitted to the bar in 1788, after a 
successful competitive examination, and 
at once located for active practice in his 
native town, his clientele increasing year 
l)y year. 

in early manhood he engaged in poli- 
tical afifairs and represented Farmington 
in the Connecticut Assembly almost con- 
tinuously from 1790 to 1805, and was 
speaker of the house for five successive 
sessions. He was a Federalist represen- 
tative from Connecticut in the Ninth and 
six succeeding Congresses, 1805-19, and 
during his term was regarded as a first 
authority on the political history of the 
United States. On retiring from Con- 
gress he was again elected to the State 
Legislature. He received the degree LL. 
D. from Yale College in 1829. He was 
the author of "Statistical View of Com- 
merce of the United States of America" 
(T816, third edition, 1835); and of "A 
Political and Civil History of the United 
States of America from the Year 1763 to 
the Close of Washington's Administra- 
tion" (two vols.. 1828), of which he left 
a continuation in manuscript bringing it 
down to the close of his public career. 

He was married to Elizabeth, daughter 
of the Rev. Bela Hubbard. D. D.. of New 
Haven. Connecticut. 



EXCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



GODDARD, Calvin, 

Member of Congress. 

Calvin Goddard was born in Shrews- 
bury, Massachusetts, July 17, 1768, son of 
Daniel Goddard, grandson of Edward 
Goddard, and great-grandson of William 
Goddard, who came to America from 
Norfolk, England, in 1666. 

He pursued classical studies, and was 
graduated from Dartmouth College m 
1786, then entered the office of Oliver 
Ellsworth, with whom he studied law, 
was admitted to the bar in 1790, and set- 
tled in Plainlield, Connecticut, where he 
practiced law for a number of years. He 
was a member of the Connecticut House 
of Representatives from 1791 to 1801, 
serving in the capacity of speaker during 
the years 1799-1800. He was a repre- 
sentative in the Seventh and Eighth 
United States Congresses from 1801 until 
March 3, 1805, his service being noted for 
efficiency and capability. In 1807 he re- 
moved to Norwich, Connecticut, and for 
the following eight years was a member 
of the State Executive Council. He was 
a presidential elector, on the DeWitt- 
Clinton ticket, in 1812; a delegate to the 
Hartford Convention in 1814; judge of 
the Superior Court of Connecticut from 
1815 to 1818; district attorney for the 
County of New London from 1818 to 
1823 ; and mayor of Norwich from 1823 
to 1840, a period of seventeen years, his 
long term of service in that capacity 
demonstrating his fitness for office. 

He married Alice Hart, daughter of the 
Rev. Levi Hart, and granddaughter of 
Dr. Bellamy. They were the parents of 
six children. Three of their sons fol- 
lowed in the footsteps of their father and 
became members the legal fraternity. 
practicing their profession in the State of 
Ohio and New York City. Judge God- 
dard died in Norwich, Connecticut, May 
2, 1842, aged seventy-five years, honored 
and respected for his many excellent char- 
acteristics. 



LANMAN, James, 

La'wyer, United States Senator. 

James Lanman was born at Norwich, 
Connecticut, June 14, 1769. He pursued 
classical studies and was graduated from 
Yale College in 1788, after which he 
studied law ; was admitted to the bar in 
1791, and began practice in Norwich, 
Connecticut. He was a delegate to the 
convention which framed the first State 
constitution in 1818; was a member of 
the State House of Representatives in 
1817 and 1823, and of the State Senate in 
1819. From 1814 to 1819 he served as 
State's attorney for New London count}-, 
where his abilities won him distinction. 
A notable incident of his career was the 
trial of Rev. Ammi Rogers whose convic- 
tion he secured for an infamous crime 
perpetrated against a parishioner ; the 
clerg3'man subsequently published a large 
volume of retaliative abuse. In 1819 Mr. 
Lanman was elected to the United States 
Senate for a term of six years, taking his 
seat on December 6th, and serving in that 
body as chairman of the committees on 
postoffices and postroads and contingent 
expenses of the Senate. He voted with 
the Southern members on the Missouri 
Compromise. During the Seventeenth 
Congress acted simultaneously on the 
committees of commerce and manufac- 
tures, the militia, the District of Colum- 
bia, and the contingent expenses of the 
.Senate. At a recess of the Legislature 
lie was appointed by the Governor for 
a second term before the first term expired, 
but by a small majority the Senate de- 
cided the appointment to be without au- 
thority of law, and he was not permitted 
to qualify, and retired March 3, 1825. 
I-'rom 1826-29 he was judge of the Su- 
preme and Superior Courts of Connecti- 
cut, and from 1831 to 1834 served as 
mayor of Norwich, Connecticut, where 
his death occurred, August 7, 1841. 

He was twice married, and became the 
father of Charles T^rnes and Tames Henrv 



103 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Lanman, both talented lawyers, the latter 
being also an author. His second wife 
was Mary Judith (Gall) Benjamin, mother 
of Park Benjamin, the poet and editor. 
Charles Lanman, the noted biog-rapher, 
was his grandson. 



DAY, Jeremiah, 

Distinguished Educator. 

Jeremiah Day was born August 3, 1773, 
at New Preston, Litchfield county, Con- 
necticut, where his father, of the same 
name was pastor. He was descended from 
Robert Day, an emigrant of 1634, who 
was one of the first settlers of Hartford. 

Graduating from Yale College in 1795. 
Jeremiah Day served for a time in charge 
of Dr. Dwight's school at Greenfield ; was 
a tutor at Williams College, 1796-98; and 
then returned to his alma mater, where 
he was made Professor of Mathematics 
in 1801. While occupying this position 
he produced an "Introduction to Alge- 
bra" (1814). which was widely used, and 
revised by the author and Professor A. 
D. Stanley in 1852, besides text books on 
mensuration (1814), plane trigonometry 
(1815), and navigation and surveying 
(1817). His theological bent was shown 
in later years in a defence of President 
Edward's doctrine of the will, and a re- 
futation of Cousin on the same subject. 
These, with some contributions to the 
periodical press, were his only publica- 
tions. President Dwight had marked 
him out as his successor in the headship 
of Yale College, but he would not accept 
the place until it had been declined by 
H. Davis, D. D.. of Middlebury College. 
Vermont. A clerical character being then 
considered essential in a college presi- 
dent and he having previously made prep- 
aration for the ministry, was ordained and 
inducted into his new office at the same 
time. His degree of LL. D. came from 
Williams College and Middlebury Col- 



lege in 1817, and that of D. D. from 
Union College in 1818 and from Harvard 
College in 183 1. 

However he might lack the prestige 
and impressiveness of Dr. Dwight, the 
rule of Dr. Day was efficient, and was 
also the longest in the history of the col- 
lege. A quiet man, not strong in health, 
grave, calm and reticent, he won respect 
by his unobtrusive virtues. He carried 
out the plans of his predecessor with cau- 
tious wisdom. With him came an im- 
mediate increase of the faculty, and a 
gradual admission of the all-important 
principle that this body constituted the 
best counsellors and, in eirect, the gov- 
ernors, in all college matters. His former 
chair of mathematics was filled by A. M. 
Fisher, that of divinity by E. T. Fitch ; 
while rhetoric, previously taught by Dr. 
Dwight, was made a new chair under E. 
C. Goodrich. The former was succeeded 
by M. R. Dutton in 1822, and he in 1825 
by D. Olmstead, who, on the division of the 
chair in 1836, retained natural philosophy 
and astronomy, while A. D. Stanley took 
mathematics. Greek was made a separate 
department in 1831, and taken by T. D. 
Woolsey ; Latin being still taught by 
Professor Kingsley, who in 1842, received 
as assistant T. A. Thatcher. In 1839 W. 
A. Earned succeeded Professor Goodrich, 
who was transferred to the Divinity 
School. These additions to the teaching 
force brought with them large improve- 
ments in the curriculum. Subjects belong- 
ing properly to the preparatory schools 
were excluded — grammar and geography 
in 1826, and arithmetic in 1830; French. 
German, political economy and other ad- 
vanced studies were brought in ; and the 
standard of requirements for entrance 
was raised, to keep pace with the better 
and more varied work after admission. 
A most obvious and needed reform was 
made in 1830, at the urgency of Horace 
Bushnell. then one of the tutors, in re- 



104 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



leasing him and his colleagues from the 
drudgery of teaching all subjects, and as- 
signing each to a special department of 
his own. In 1828 it was vainly proposed 
to abandon Latin and Greek. The medi- 
cal faculty was enlarged on the death of 
Dr. N. Smith in 1829. by the appointment 
of three new professors — Drs. T. Hub- 
JKird, W. Tully and T. B. Beers ; the 
two former were succeeded by Dr. C. 
Hooker in 1838, and Dr. 11. Bronson 
in 1841. The Law School, which had 
lapsed since 1810, was revived in 1826, 
by the induction of David Daggett, who, 
with S. J. Hitchcock, had for two pre- 
ceding years conducted a private law- 
school founded by S. P. Staples, and 
which had a nominal connection with 
Yale College. The connection was now- 
avowed ; a third instructor was secured 
in 1842, and the degree of Bachelor of 
Laws first given in 1843. ^ he Divinity 
School, to prepare graduates for the min- 
istry, was begun in 1822 with the famous 
N. W. Taylor as Professor of Didactic 
Theology, whose influence and attractive 
power were great. He was aided for two 
years by Professor Kingsley. and for a 
much longer period by Professors Fitch 
and Goodrich, the latter endowing and 
taking the chair of pastoral theology in 
1839. The chair of Sacred Literature was 
founded in 1826 for J. W. Gibbs, who for 
two years had been lecturer on this 
branch. The formation of this school 
perhaps stimulated that of Washington 
(now Trinity) College, at Llartford. in 
1823, and of Wesleyan University, at 
Middletown, in 1832. During this period 
several new buildings were erected — a 
dining hall in 1818-19, given over to other 
uses in 1842; North College in 1820-21; 
a chapel in 1823-24, the upper stories be- 
ing used for dormitories and the library ; 
the Trumbull gallery, later the Treasury, 



1831-32, to hold the paintings of Colonel 
John Trumbull, first loaned and after- 
wards sold to the college. The first Di- 
vinity Hall was built in 1835-36, and the 
Library, which cost $34,000, in 1842-46. 
For these and other expense the alumni 
gave $100,000 in 1831-36, chiefly through 
the efforts of W. Warner, treasurer from 
1832. The library was much increased 
from Dr. A. E. Perkins's legacy of $10,- 
000 in 1836, and several smaller gifts. 
The State gave $7,000 in 1831. Post- 
graduate and extra-professional instruc- 
tion began in 1841 with Professor E. E. 
Salisbury in the unsalaried chair of 
Arabic and Sanscrit. During these 
twenty-nine years, twenty-five lawyers 
were sent forth, 519 physicians, and from 
the academic department 2,308, a yearly 
average of nearly eighty. President Day 
resigned in 1846, having completed his 
sc^■enty-third year. He was made one of 
the corporation, and as such remained, 
though always in feeble health, until his 
death in New Haven, at the great age of 
ninety-four years, having lived through 
the \\'a.v of Independence and that for 
the preservation of the Union. The num- 
ber of distinguished graduates during 
President Day's administration was so 
great that it is impracticable to mention 
more than a few. In the class of 1820 
alone we find the names of Dr. Leonard 
Bacon, Governor Mason Brown, and 
President Theodore D. Woolsey ; in 1828, 
the names of President F. A. P. Barnard, 
Professor H. N. Day. Governor W. W. 
lloppin, and Judge William Strong, of 
the Supreme Court; in 1837, the names 
of William M. Evarts. Chief Justice Mor- 
rison R. Waite, Judge Edwards Pierre- 
pont. Professor Benjamin Silliman, Jr.. 
Professors C. S. Lyman and B. N. Mar- 
tin, and President A. L. Chapin. Presi- 
dent Day died in New Haven, .\ugust 22. 
1867. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BlOGRAPflY 



BEECHER, Lyman, 

Distinguished Clergyman. 

The Rev. Lyman Beecher was born in 
New Haven, Connecticut, October 12, 
1775, son of David Beecher. Joseph 
Beecher came to Connecticut in 1638, 
and settled at (_)uinnipiac, naming it New 
Haven. His son, Nathaniel, was a black- 
smith, whose anvil stood on the stump of 
an old oak from which John Davenport 
delivered the first sermon in Connecticut. 
David, son of Nathaniel Beecher, was 
also a blacksmith and farmer, and served 
in the patriot army near the close of the 
Revolutionary War. His third wife, who 
was the mother of Lyman Beecher, died 
soon after his birth, and the boy was 
adopted by his uncle, Lot Benton, of 
Guilford, Connecticut, with whom he 
lived for sixteen years. 

Lyman entered Yale College in 1793, 
at the age of eighteen. At first he was 
undecided whether to study law or the- 
ology. In his second college year he 
became interested in religion, but was 
greatly depressed in mind, and was long 
undecided as to \vhether he would enter 
the ministry. Lender the influence of 
Rev. Dr. Timothy Dwight. president of 
the college, he finally decided, as he grate- 
fully acknowledged twenty-five years 
later. He did not distinguish himself as 
a student, and had little taste for mathe- 
matics, but he was a fluent speaker, and 
was chosen by his class to deliver the 
valedictory address on j^resentation day, 
six weeks before commencement, in 1797, 
when he was graduated. During his col- 
lege course he met Roxana Foote, who 
became his wife shortly after his ordina- 
tion. Beecher, after being examined and 
licensed. Avas called to the Presbyterian 
church at East Hampton. Long Island. 
NcAv York, at a salary of three hundred 
dollars, with parsonage privileges, and 
after five years his salary was increased to 



four hundred dollars. His first sermon 
to attract public attention was on "Duell- 
ing,"' delivered after the death of Alex- 
ander Hamilton at the hands of Aaron 
Burr, and was reprinted as a campaign 
document during the candidacy of Henr}' 
Clay for the presidency. I5eecher re- 
mained in East Hampton over eleven 
years, and, in addition to ministerial 
duties, conducted a boarding school for 
girls, with his wife as assistant. lie re- 
moved to Litchfield, Connecticut, in iSio. 
and became pastor of the Congregational 
church, with a salary of eight hundred 
dollars. Soon after he was established, 
he became enlisted in the temperance 
cause, being especially moved by what he 
deemed the disgraceful scenes he wit- 
nessed at the meetings of ministerial as- 
sociations, where ministers freely in- 
dulged in the use of intoxicating liquors, 
and from his eftorts come the Massachu- 
setts Temperance Society, formed in 1813. 
About the same time he published his 
volume. "Six Sermons on Intemperance." 
which was popular and efifective. Soon 
after coming to Litchfield, his wife died. 
In the latter part of 1817 he married Har- 
riet Porter, of Portland, Maine, and their 
imion lasted nearly twenty years. After 
lier death, in Cincinnati, in 1835, he mar- 
ried Mrs. Lydia Jackson, of Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, who survived him. At the 
end of sixteen years' labor in Litchfield, 
Mr. Beecher found himself embarrassed 
by pecuniary difficulties, and resigned. 

He now received a call from the Han- 
over Street Church, Boston, Massachusetts, 
where he labored six years, preaching, 
lecturing, and advising in the care of the 
churches. At this time the contest be- 
tween the Puritan theology and C^nitari- 
anism being at its height, he entered into 
it with characteristic zeal, his own church 
sustaining him. and his clerical brethren 
approving and assisting. He claimed that 
Unitarianism had seized Harvard Col- 



106 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



lege ; that funds provided for the promul- 
gation of a Puritan faith were devoted to 
a system of faith that antagonized Puri- 
tanism ; that a fund for maintaining an 
annual sermon on the Trinity, was paid 
for lectures controverting the doctrine of 
the Trinity ; that the Hollis professor- 
ship of divinity at Cambridge was cm- 
ployed for bringing up a class of min- 
isters whose sole distinctive idea was de- 
clared warfare with the ideas and inten- 
tions of the donor. That this controversy 
was most bitter, is evident from an in- 
cident connected with the Hanover Street 
Church, four years after his settlement 
over it. when it is said, the firemen would 
make no efifort to extinguish the flames, 
refusing to work the engines, and, paro- 
dying Watts's hymns, sang : 

"While Beecher's church holds out to Inirn. 
Tlie vilest sinner may return." 

However, from his church sj^rang lour 
others ; members from it founded Salem 
Street Church at the North End. and 
Pine Street Church at the South End. the 
latter afterward becoming the P>erkeley 
Street Church ; and other members helped 
to organize a church at Cambridgeport. 
and after the burning of the stone edifice 
on Hanover street, another of stone was 
built on Bowdoin street, and which was 
purchased later by the Protestant Epis- 
copal church and became the Church of 
the Advent, and now known as the 
Church of St. John the Evangelist. Mr. 
Beecher's labors here were brief, .\fter 
six }-ears successful work in Boston Mr. 
Beecher went to Cincinnati, Ohio, to be- 
come pastor of the Second Presbyterian 
Church in that city, and president of the 
Lane Theological Seminary at Walnut 
Hill, near the city, having previously de- 
clined a call from the Fifth Presbyterian 
Church in Philadelphia. Public interest 
in the establishment of Lane Seminary 
and confidence in Dr. Beecher's abilitv to 



make it a success, brought large con- 
tril)utions, and Arthur Tappan, of New 
^'ork, promised the interest of twenty 
thousand dollars if Dr. Beecher would 
undertake the work. He was active presi- 
dent for twenty years, and nominally 
president to the close of his life. 

At the time Dr. Beecher left Boston, 
his appearance and habits were peculiar. 
Me was careless in dress, shortsighted, 
toothless, and noticeably absentminded. 
if his watch was wound up, it was rarely 
right ; if he had spectacles on his nose, 
another pair would be on his head, and 
he would be "fumbling in his pockets for 
a third.'' If he borrowed a pencil he 
would use it and pocket it, then another 
and another, until someone would inquire 
how many he had. He was also eccentric 
in his home life. He practiced gymnas- 
tic exercises with pole or ladder, sawed 
wood, shovelled sand from one side of 
the cellar to the other, and swung dumb- 
bells. An hour or so before evening serv- 
ice he would return to his study to make 
notes ; and was never ready until the 
church bell tolled and the messenger 
came for him. when he would hurry off 
with cravat awry and coat collar turned 
up. At the same time he was a master in 
the pulpit — a preacher stirring the minds 
of men. and moving their hearts until the 
whole audience responded as one man. 
On his return home, he would be full of 
fire, sparkling with humor, and perhaps 
take his violin and play "Auld Lang 
Svne,'' "Bonny Doon," or a "College 
Hornpipe," with sometimes a double 
shufifle as an accompaniment, and finally 
go to bed. "T must," he said, "let off steam 
gradually, and then T can sleep like a 
child." 

While he was in Ohio there came about 
the great conflict between the "Old 
School" and "New School" parties in the 
Presbvterian church. Dr. Beecher was a 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



representative "New School" man, and 
his views were so pronounced that in 

1835 he was brought before the presby- 
tery for trial. Rev. Dr. J. L. Wilson for- 
mulated charges against him for heresy, 
slander and hypocrisy. Dr. Beecher en- 
tered a general denial, and defended him- 
self on each point, declaring he had 
taught according to the Word of God and 
the Confession of Faith, and that if his 
teachings should differ in any particular 
from the Confession of Faith, they in- 
cluded nothing at variance with its under- 
lying principles. While he was thus de- 
fending himself with the astuteness of a 
skilled lawyer, his wife was dying ; in the 
seminary many cares burdened him ; and 
in the church he was antagonized by 
those whose prejudices had been ex- 
cited against him. After a session of 
many days he finally won his case, and an 
opinion was given by the presbytery that 
the charges were not sustained. In 1850 
Dr. Beecher returned to Boston, hoping 
to revise at his leisure his writings ; but 
under the weight of seventy-five years he 
had lost his intellectual vigor, though his 
physical strength endured. Only now 
and again did the old fire flash up and 
then die away. Professor Calvin E. 
Stowe, his son-in-law, writes : "The day- 
he was eighty-one he was with me in An- 
dover and wished to attend my lecture in 
the seminary. He was not quite ready 
when the bell rang, and I walked on in 
the usual path without him. Presently 
he came skipping across lots, laid his 
hand on the five-barred fence, which he 
cleared at a bound, and was in the lecture 
room before me." Dr. Beecher finally 
took up his residence in Brooklyn, near 
his son, Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, and 
there spent the remnant of his days, los- 
ing slowly the use of his faculties, but his 
face never lost its expression of strength 
and sweetness. His published writings 



are: "Remedy for Duelling"' (1809), "Six 
Sermons on Temperance" (1842J, "Ser- 
mons on Various Occasions," "Views in 
Theology," "Skepticism," "Lectures on 
Various Occasions,'' "Political Atheism," 
etc. He died in Brooklyn, New York, 
January 10, 1863. 



LAW, Lyman, 

La^ryer and Congressman. 

Lyman Law was born in New London, 
Connecticut, August 19, 1770, died there, 
February 3, 1842. Fie was a son of Rich- 
ard and Ann (Prentiss) Law, and on the 
maternal side was a lineal descendant of 
William Brewster, who came to this 
country on the "Mayflower" in 1620. 

After acquiring a rudimentary educa- 
tion in the common schools of New Lon- 
don, he enrolled as a student at Yale Col- 
lege, from which institution of learning 
he graduated in the class of 1791. Hav- 
ing chosen the profession of law as his 
life work, he studied under the preceptor- 
ship of his father, and after a successful 
competitive examination was admitted to 
the bar of his native State. He opened 
an office for the active practice of his pro- 
fession in New London, and became an 
eminent counsellor of that town, honored, 
respected and esteemed. He was equally 
prominent in public affairs, being well 
qualified both by knowledge and experi- 
ence, and he served faithfully and well in 
every capacity. Fle was a representative 
in the State Legislature, and during one 
session was speaker of that body. His 
ability being recognized, he was placed 
on the Federal ticket as a candidate for 
the National Legislature, and was elected, 
serving from 181 1 to 1817 in the Twelfth, 
Thirteenth and Fourteenth Congresses, 
the service he rendered amply proving his 
qualifications for public life. He married 
a daughter of .\masa and Grace (Hal- 
lum) Learned. 



108 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



WILLEY, Calvin, 

Lawyer, Legislator. 

Calvin Willey was born in East Had- 
dam, Connecticut, September 15, 1776, 
died in Stafford, Connecticut, August 23, 
1S38. After completing his studies in the 
institutions of learning in his native 
State, he placed himself under the com- 
petent instruction of John T. Peters, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1798, and 
established himself for active practice in 
Stafford, Connecticut. He was a repre- 
sentative in the State Legislature, lower 
house, serving continuously for nine 
}-ears ; State Senator for two years ; post- 
master at Stafford Springs, 1806-08, and 
at Tolland, whither he removed from 
1808 to 1816; probate judge for the Staf- 
ford district for seven years ; presidential 
elector on the John Quincy Adams ticket 
in 1824, and on December 29, 1825, he 
was elected United States Senator, filling 
the place of James Lanman, whose ap- 
jHtintment was not accepted, and con- 
tinued as a member of the upper house 
initil March 3, 1831, when he retired to 
his private practice at Staft'ord, in which 
place he spent the remainder of his days. 



GOODWIN, James, 

Representative Citizen. 

The surname Goodwin is of ancient 
English origin, derived from the per- 
sonal name, Godwin, meaning good 
friend. Ozias Goodwin, ancestor of the 
line herein followed, was born in Essex 
county, England, in 1596, came to this 
country in 1632, was a resident of Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, and died in the spring 
of 1683. His son, Nathaniel Goodwin. 
was born about 1637, and died January 8, 
1 71 3-14. He resided in Hartford. His 
son, Ozias (2) Goodwin, was born in 
Hartford, Connecticut, June 26, 1689, and 
died January 26. 1776. He held various 



public offices. His son, Jonathan Good- 
win, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, 
and died there, September 2, 181 1. He 
was a farmer and innkeeper, and was cor- 
poral of the Hartford train band which 
for several years performed escort duty 
to the Governor. He married, November 
26, 1761, Eunice Olcott, and they were the 
parents of James Goodwin, of this review. 

James Goodwin, son of Jonathan Good- 
win, was born in Hartford, December 27, 
1777, died September 13, 1844. He inher- 
ited the property on the Albany road, and 
after 1783 spent his whole life on the 
homestead. 

During the War of 1812 the recruiting 
barracks (standing in 1890) were nearly 
opposite his house. He added to his hold- 
ing of real estate in the neighborhood, 
and among other properties bought about 
fifty acres on the south side of the Albany 
road, nearly opposite his place, giving it 
to his son Jonathan for a home. He was 
first lieutenant of the First Company. 
Governor's Foot Guard, in 1807, and be- 
came its captain in 1809, when General 
Nathaniel Terry was made the first major 
of the guard, which then became famous 
as a military organization. 

Following his father, he attended the 
old First (Centre) Church, but wdien the 
present church edifice was built (1807) 
his attendance there became less regular, 
and by 1820 had ceased altogether, thus 
ending the connection of the family with 
the church, which they had attended from 
the settlement of the town. Most of the 
family have since been connected with 
the Episcopal church. Mr. Goodwin was 
physically a larger man than his father — 
the tallest of the family — standing over 
six feet, and weighing over two hundred 
pounds. He was strong and active, in 
youth fond of athletic sports, a deep, clear 
thinker, of kind and tender feelings. Two 
silhouettes, representing Mr. and Mrs. 



109 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Goodwin, were in possession of their 
(laughter, Mrs. Walter Keney, in 1890, the 
profiles furnishing an interesting study in 
the lines of character. 

They and their descendants have been 
prominent and useful citizens of Hartford 
during the whole of this century, quiet, 
conservative people, as a rule, but hold- 
ing firmly to their own convictions, 
thrifty, home-loving, and pul^lic-spirited 
citizens. They have been generally suc- 
cessful in business, and also have used 
their property for the improvement of the 
city, the construction of better buildings, 
for the development of home industries, 
and for Hartford's prosperity as well as 
their own. In politics they have been 
Federalists, then Whigs, and then Rc])ul)- 
licans. 

James (lOodwin married, in Winton- 
Iniry (now Bloomfield), Connecticut, 
March 3, 1799, Eunice Roberts, born there 
August 22, 1774, died of typhus fever. Au- 
gust li;^, 1825, daughter of Captain Lem- 
uel and Ruth (Woodford) Roberts, and a 
descendant of John Roberts, who in 1688 
became a resident of Simsbury, Connecti- 
cut. Children: i. Jonathan, born Decemr 
ber 23. 1799, mentioned below. 2. James, 
March 2, 1803. 3. Mary Jeannette. De- 
cember 6, 1813 ; married Walter Keney. 

Jonathan (2), son of James Goodwin, 
was born on the homestead in Hartford, 
December 23, 1799, died October 8, 1877. 

His education was of the common 
schools and the select private school of 
John J. White, a teacher of considerable 
distinction in Hartford during the early 
years of the nineteenth century. The in- 
fluence of this school he carried through 
life, and he was fond of referring to the 
educational drill and the fundamental 
principles which he mastered there, and 
subsequently taught to others. In early 
manhood he employed his winters in 
teaching, but his principal occupation 



through life was that of a farmer. His 
farm was on Albany avenue, and came to 
him from his father in 1827, and this he 
occupied without change during his en- 
tire married life. When quite young he 
became interested in military affairs, and 
in May, 1818, enlisted as a private in the 
First Company. Governor's Foot Guard, 
with which his family was already identi- 
fied. He was promoted, step by step, to 
be captain in 1828, and major in 1830. He 
resigned in 1832, but was reelected major 
in 1861. and resigned in 1862. He held 
various public offices by the gift of the 
people- — representative to the Legislature 
in 1836; assessor in 1838 and from 1846 to 
1862; member of the board of relief in 
1840-43-44-45; selectman from 1842 to 
1852 and a member of the high school 
committee in 1849. He was one of the 
incorporators of the Hartford Hospital in 
1854, and from August, 1859, until his 
death, a director of the Farmers' and Me- 
chanics' Bank. 

He was a tall man, of large frame and 
commanding presence, and throughout his 
life enjoved the entire confidence and re- 
spect of all who knew him. In politics he 
was a Whig in the times of Webster and 
Clay, and a Republican in the times of 
Buchanan and Lincoln. In religion he 
was a Unitarian, and one of the organ- 
izers of the Unitarian church of Hartford. 
His convictions led him to adopt the 
teachings of Dr. Channing and others of 
the same school, to whose writings he 
gave most careful thought and earnest 
attention. He had an unbounded charity 
for the convictions of others, but made no 
compromises with his own. Of sound 
judgment and economical habits, he ac- 
cumulated a good property. He found his 
chief enjoyment in the quiet of his home, 
the society of his family, and in his books. 

He married, at East Windsor, Connec- 
ticut, lune 7, 1826 (Rev. Thomas Rob- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



bins, D. D., officiating). Clarinda New- 
berry, born January i. 1800, died May 5, 
1866, daughter of John and Elizabeth 
(Ellsworth) Newberr}-, and a descendant 
of John Ellsworth and Benjamin New- 
l)erry, two of the settlers of ancient Wind- 
sor, and also a descendant of Rev. Timo- 
thy Edwards, of East Windsor. 



WILLIAMS, Thomas Scott, 

Lawyer, Public Official. 

The Williams family is of English de- 
scent, and Robert Williams, immigrant 
t;ncestor of the line herein followed, set- 
tled at Roxbury, Massachusetts, after his 
emigration to this country. He died 
there, in September, 1693. ^^is son. Cap- 
lain Isaac Williams, was born in Rox- 
bury. September i, 1638, settled in New- 
ton, Massachusetts, and was deputy to 
the General Court. Mis son, the Rev. 
William Williams, was born February 2. 
1665. He was a graduate of Harvard 
College in 1683. and settled at Hatfield. 
Massachusetts, in 1685, as a minister. He 
died suddenly at an advanced age. about 
1746. His son, the Rev. Solomon Wil- 
liams, was born June 4. 1701, and died in 
1769 or 1776. He was a graduate of Har- 
vard College in 1719; was ordained De- 
cember 5, 1722, and was a distinguished 
minister at Lebanon, Connecticut. His 
son. Ezekiel Williams, was born in Leb- 
anon, Connecticut, May 4, 1729, and died 
February 12. 1818. He resided in 
Wethersfield. Connecticut, lie was ac- 
tive in the service of his country during 
the Revolution. He was from 1774 until 
liis death deacon of the Church of Christ 
in Wethersfield. He married, November 
6, 1760, his second cousin. Prudence Stod- 
dard, daughter of Colonel John Stoddard. 
of Northampton, Massachusetts, and they 
were the parents of Thomas Scott Wil- 
liams, of whom further. 

Thomas Scott Williams, son of Ezekiel 



Williams, was born June 26, 1777, at 
W'ethersfield. He was educated at Yale 
College, from which he graduated in 1794. 
He attended Judge Reeves' lectures at 
Litchfield from March 4, 1797, until the 
summer of 1798; he then read law with 
Zephaniah Swift, Esquire, of Windham 
county, from August, 1798, to I'^-bruary. 
1799, when he was admitted to the bar 
in Windham county. He removed to 
Hartford in December. 1803. In 1809 ho 
was appointed attorney of the board of 
managers of the school fund, and held the 
l)osition about a year, when the board it- 
self was superseded. He represented the 
town of Hartford in the General Assem- 
bly, October. 1813. to October. 181 5. 
when he was appointed clerk in the 
House of Representatives. October, 1816. 
and again clerk in 1819-25-27-29. He rep- 
resented the State in the Fifteenth Congress 
of the Ignited States, from March 4, 181 7. 
to March 4. 1819. In May. 1829, he was 
oppointed associate judge of the Supreme 
Court of Errors, from and after Decem- 
ber 30, 1834. From March. 1831. to April, 
1835. he was mayor of Hartford. In Au- 
gust. 1834, he received from the corpora- 
tion of Yale College the honorary degree 
of LL. D. Soon after he was appointed 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of 
Connecticut, in which office he continued 
until ( 1847) he attained the age at which 
he was no longer eligible. Judge Wil- 
liams was as highly esteemed in his na- 
tive State, and perhaps in New England, 
as any man who was contemporary with 
him. He was closely identified with the 
public life of both city and State and with 
most of Hartford's financial and charit- 
able institutions. 

He married (first) January 7, 1813, 
Delia, youngest daughter of Hon. Chief 
Justice Ellsworth, of the United States 
Supreme Court. She was born January 
'-?<• I7'^9- ''^"'^1 ^vas a sister of the wife of 
his brother Ezekiel. She died June 25. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



1840. He married (second) November i, 
1843, Martha M., daughter of Elisha Coit, 
of New York City. She died April 22, 
1867, in Boston. Judge Williams died 
December 22, 1861. He had no children 
by either marriage. 



SILLIMAN, Benjamin, 

Scientist. 

Benjamin Silliman was born in New 
Stratford (now Trumbull), Connecticut, 
August 8, 1779, was a descendant of a dis- 
tinguished family, presumably of Swiss 
origin. From the early colonial days 
some of its members have been residents 
of Fairfield. Connecticut. Ebenezer Silli- 
man, grandfather of Benjamin Silliman, 
was graduated from Y'ale College in 1727, 
and Gold S. Silliman, the father, in 1752. 
The last named was a lawyer, and during 
the Revolutionary War served efficiently 
as brigadier-general of State militia. He 
enjoyed the confidence of Governor Trum- 
bull, and for a time was charged with the 
protection of the Long Island coast, 
Avhich his residence at Fairfield readily 
enabled him to have in charge. In 1780 
a party of British troops took General 
Silliman prisoner, but he was exchanged 
six months later for Judge Jones, of Long 
Island, who had been taken by the Con- 
tinentals by way of retaliation. The 
mother of Benjamin Silliman -was a 
daughter of the Rev. Joseph Fish, for 
fifty years pastor of the Second Church 
of Stonington. General Silliman had two 
sons, Benjamin being the younger. 

General Silliman dying in 1790, the 
task of educating young Benjamin de- 
veloped upon his mother. He was fitted 
for college, entered Yale and was gradu- 
ated in the same class with his brother, 
at the age of seventeen years. Three 
years later he was appointed a tutor, and 
served in that position five years. After 
his graduation he spent some time in 
studying law, and was admitted to the 



New Haven bar in 1802, but almost im- 
mediately abandoned his intention of fol- 
lowing that profession in order to devote 
himself to the study of chemistry and 
natural history. This radical change in 
his plans came through the influence of 
Dr. Timothy Dwight, president of Yale 
College, who had seen the young man's 
capacity to teach and govern tested dur- 
ing his several years' experience as a 
tutor. After two years spent in Philadel- 
phia as a pupil of Dr. Woodhouse, in 
preparation for his new occupation, he de- 
livered a partial course of lectures on 
chemistry, a science then in its infancy, 
to the students of the college at New 
Haven. In the winter of 1805 he gave 
his first full course of lectures, and then 
visited Europe to further prosecute his 
studies, returning after an absence of 
fourteen months and resuming his pro- 
fessorship. He subsequently published an 
account of his European tour, entitled 
"Journal of Travel in England, Holland 
and Scotland, and Two Passages on the 
Atlantic, in the Years 1805 and 1806." 
Shortly afterward he made a geological 
survey of a part of Connecticut, which is 
believed to have been the first geological 
exploration in the United States. In con- 
junction with Professor Kingsley he pub- 
lished a paper on the famous Weston me- 
teorite. In 1818 he founded the "Ameri- 
can Journal of Science and Arts," of 
which he was sole editor for twenty 
years, and for eight subsequent years 
senior editor. Bowdoin College conferred 
upon him the degree of M. D. in 1818, and 
Middlebury (Vermont) College gave him 
the LL. D. degree in 1826. In the years 
between 1835 and 1840 Professor Silliman 
gave courses of lectures in most of the 
principal cities in the United States, and 
he was also invited to deliver the Lowell 
lectures at about the same time. He made 
a second visit to Europe in 1851. In 1853 
he resigned his professorship, and was 
12 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



made professor emeritus ; but at the re- 
quest of his colleagues he continued to 
lecture on geology until June, 1855, when 
he gave his closing academic course. 

Professor Silliman was an active and 
valued member of numerous American 
and European scientific societies. He was 
preeminent as a teacher, and as a lecturer 
he was almost unsurpassed. A biogra- 
pher said, "Without a severe logical 
method, he threw so much zeal into his 
discourse, expressed himself with such an 
attractive rhetoric, and supported his doc- 
trine by experiments of such almost un- 
failing beauty and success, that all audi- 
ences delighted to hear him ; so that for 
years no lecturer so attractive could ad- 
dress an assembly, whether gathered 
within the walls of a college or from the 
people of crowded cities." Outside of the 
lecture room, by the profound investiga- 
tions given to the world through the 
press, he rendered invaluable service to 
the cause of science, and he was aptly 
styled by Edward Everett, "the Nestor of 
American science." Professor Silliman 
opposed to slavery in all its forms, and 
subscribed to aid in arming the Kansas 
colonists for their contest with the pro- 
slaveryites. He was an earnest advocate 
of the prosecution of the Civil War. Pro- 
fessor Silliman was a finished gentleman, 
and a social favorite. His person was 
commanding, his manner dignified and 
afifable, and his general traits of character 
such as to win universal respect and ad- 
miration. 

He married a daughter of the second 
Governor Jonathan Trumbull, of Con- 
necticut, and had a family of two daugh- 
ters, and one son who afterward rose to 
eminence as a chemist. A bronze statue 
of Professor Silliman stands upon the 
university grounds at New Haven. His 
life in two volumes was written by Pro- 
fessor G. P. Fisher. He died in New 
Haven, November 24, 1864. 

CONN— Vol 1-8 1 1 



EDWARDS, Henry W., 

United States Senator, Governor. 

Henry Waggaman Edwards, tenth, elev- 
enth and twelfth Governor of Connecticut 
( 1 833-34 ; 1 835-38) , was born at New Haven, 
Connecticut, in October, 1779, second son 
of Hon. Pierrepont and Frances (Ogden) 
Edwards, and grandson of Jonathan Ed- 
wards, the great theologian. His father, 
a graduate of Princeton, served in the 
Revolutionary army and in the Conti- 
nental Congress, practiced law in New 
Haven for many years, and at the time 
of his death was a judge of the United 
States District Court. His mother was 
a daughter of Moses Ogden, of Elizabeth, 
New Jersey. 

Henry W. Edwards was graduated 
from Princeton College in 1797, and then 
studied for his chosen profession at the 
Litchfield (Connecticut) Law School, 
after which he settled in New Haven, 
and engaged in practice. He was twice 
elected to Congress as a Democrat, serv- 
ing from December 6, 1819, until March 
3, 1823. He next entered the Senate, ap- 
pointed to fill vacancy caused by the 
death of Elijah Boardman, serving from 
December i, 1823, until March 4, 1827. 
He was a member of the State Senate in 
1827-29, and of the House of Representa- 
tives, of which he was speaker in 1830. 
In 1833, the year of his election as Gov- 
ernor, he received the degree of Doctor 
of Laws from Yale College. During his 
administration he recommended a geo- 
logical and mineralogical survey of the 
State, which was made. "As a man and 
citizen," says the biographer, Blake, 
"Governor Edwards practiced the cardi- 
nal virtues, was true and sincere in his 
professions and attachments — benevolent, 
hospitable and frank. In public life he 
was safe, firm in his principles, yet cour- 
teous, patriotic, attentive and intelligent." 
He was married to Lydia, daughter of 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



John and Lydia Miller, who bore him 
four sons and a daughter. Their son, 
Henry Pierrepont, was judge of the Su- 
preme Court of New York for upwards 
of seven years. Governor Edwards died 
at New Haven, Connecticut, July 2.2., 
1847. 



TOMLINSON, Gideon, 

Governor, United States Senator. 

The earliest ancestor in this country oi 
Governor lomlinson was i homas 1 om- 
linson, who took the freeman's oath at 
New Haven, Connecticut, about 1644, re- 
moved to Milford in 1652, and thence to 
the town of Stratford. Among his de- 
scendants was Gideon Tomiinson, grand- 
father of Governor Tomiinson, who was 
an officer in the Colonial army, and who 
was present at the capture of Ticonder- 
oga, May 10, 1775. He married Hannah, 
daughter of Colonel Jabez Huntington, 
of Windham. His son, Jabez Hunting- 
ton Tomiinson, while a student at Yale, 
in 1779, returned to Stratford to visit the 
family of his betrothed, and while there 
was captured by a party of British or 
Tory raiders and taken to New York. On 
his release he entered the army ; in April, 
1780, was appointed ensign of Colonel 
Samuel B. Webb's Continental regiment, 
and was one of the officers detailed to 
guard Major Andre's quarters during his 
captivity and trial. In return for some 
kindness, he received a pen and ink 
sketch of Major Andre, which is pre- 
served in the library of Yale College. He 
married Rebecca Lewis. 

Gideon Tomiinson, eighth Governor of 
Connecticut, was born at Oronoque, 
Stratford, Fairfield county, Connecticut, 
December 31, 1780, and died at Greenfield 
Hill, October 8, 1854. After completing 
his studies in the schools of his native 
place, he matriculated at Yale College, 
from which institution of learning: he was 



graduated in 1802, with the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts. He th'en turned his 
attention to the study of law, was later 
admitted to the bar, and removed to Fair- 
field, where he engaged in the active 
practice of his profession, making his 
home on Greenfield liill, in that town, 
and there spent the remainder of his days. 
He was elected a representative from 
Connecticut to the Sixteenth and to the 
three succeeding Congresses, 1819-27. He 
was elected Governor of Connecticut in 
1827, and by successive reelections to 
183 1, when he resigned the governorship 
to enter the United States Senate, serv- 
ing from 1831 to 1837, a period of six 
years, and on the expiration of his term 
of office withdrew to private life. In 
politics he was a Whig. Fie received the 
degree of Master of Arts from Yale, 1808, 
and the degree of Doctor of Laws from 
Trinity in 1827 ; and was a trustee of 
Trinity College, 1832-36. He married 
Sarah Bradley, of Greenfield Hill, and 
they were the parents of two sons, both 
of whom died young. 



FOOTE, Samuel A., 

Governor, National Ijegislator. 

Samuel Augustus Foote was born at 
Cheshire, New Haven county, Connecti- 
cut, November 8, 1780, son of Rev. John 
Foote, a graduate of Yale in 1765, and 
pastor of Congregational churches at 
Branford and Cheshire. His first an- 
cestor in this country, Nathaniel Foote, 
of Colchester, England, became a settler 
of Wethersfield, where he married Eliza- 
beth Deming. Samuel A. Foote's mother 
was Abigail, daughter of Rev. Samuel 
Hall, of Wallingford, and granddaughter 
of Governor Jonathan Law. 

Samuel Augustus Foote completed his 
literary education at Yale, graduating in 
1797, in his seventeenth year, having as 
classmates Lyman Beecher and other 



114 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



men who became noted. He then began 
the study of law at Litchfield, under 
Judge Tapping Reeve, but his health, 
which had always been delicate, began to 
fail, and he was obliged to engage in ac- 
tive life. In 1803 he engaged in business 
in New Haven as junior partner with his 
wife's father, in the West India trade, 
occasionally making voyages, and so con- 
tinued until 1813. The crippling of busi- 
ness by the war and the infirmity of his 
father led him to return to Cheshire, and 
there he resided until his death. He was 
in public life continuously from 1817 until 
1835, serving in the legislature repeatedly, 
and was speaker of the house in 1825-26. 
He was elected to Congress as a Whig, 
and served in 1819-21, and again in 1823- 
25. In 1827-33 he served a term in the 
United States Senate, and was renomi- 
nated, but was defeated by Nathan Smith. 
In December, 1829, while in the Senate, 
he introduced a resolution instructing the 
committee on public lands to inquire into 
the expediency of limiting the sale of 
public lands, etc., which aroused the 
Senators of the west, who claimed it to 
be a part of a plan concocted by eastern 
Senators to check migration to the west 
and to hinder the growth of that section. 
The southern Senators joined those of the 
west and added to the motive the charge 
that the eastern Senators desired to limit 
the public revenue and centralize the 
government. This sentiment was voiced 
by Senator Robert T. Hayne, of South 
Carolina, and replied to by Senator Daniel 
Webster, of Massachusetts, which re- 
sulted in their celebrated debate that in- 
volved the constitutional right of seces- 
sion. The controversy thus begun still 
further separated the two sections of the 
Union, and paved the way for the Civil 
War. The "second speech on Foote's 
resolution," generally called the "reply 
to Hayne," delivered January 26-27, 1830, 
has always been regarded as the greatest 



of Webster's oratorical efforts. Foote 
again served in Congress in 1833-34, re- 
signing in the latter year on account of 
having been elected Governor ; while 
chief magistrate he received the degree 
of LL. D. from Yale College. In 1844 he 
was a presidential elector on the Clay and 
PVelinghuysen ticket. His chief char- 
acteristics were integrity, industry, de- 
cision and perseverance. "He was," 
wrote one of his contemporaries, "emi- 
nently in all his aims and views a prac- 
tical statesman. What he decided to be 
right and expedient, he ever firmly ad- 
hered to. What he aimed to accomplish, 
he labored at as a workingman, system- 
atically and perseveringly. He was, at 
least during a portion of his life, a warm 
party man ; but no party drill could ever 
bring him to give his vote for a measure 
which he considered to be unwise and in- 
expedient." 

Governor Foote was married to Eu- 
docia, daughter of General Andrew and 
Elizabeth Mary Ann Hull, of Walling- 
ford, Connecticut. She bore him six chil- 
dren, all sons, the second of whom, An- 
drew Hull Foote. entered the navy, 
gained renown during the Civil War, and 
in 1862 was promoted rear-admiral. Gov- 
ernor Foote died at Cheshire, Connecti- 
cut, September 15, 1846. 



PORTER, Noah, 

Clergyman. 

The Rev. Noah Porter, D. D., was born 
in Farmington, Connecticut, in Decem- 
ber, 1781, where his family had resided 
for nearly a century and a half, descended 
from Robert and Thomas Porter, brothers, 
who came from England and settled in 
Farmington in 1640. 

Noah Porter carried off the highest 
honors in the class of 1803 at Yale, in 
which he was graduated, and after pur- 
suing studies preparatory for the min- 



115 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



istry, he was settled over the Congrega- 
tional church in his native town, remain- 
ing in that charge until his death, a pas- 
torate covering a period of more than 
sixty years. He received the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity from Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1828, and for nearly forty years, 
from 1823 to 1862, he was a Fellow of 
the Corporation of Yale. Dr. Porter was 
the father of distinguished educators. 
His eldest son, Samuel, was one of the 
pioneers in the teaching of the deaf and 
dumb, and for many years professor in 
the National Deaf Mute College at 
Washington. His second son, Noah, for 
many years Professor of Moral Philoso- 
phy at Yale College, succeeded Dr. Wool- 
sey as president of that university in 
1871. His daughter Sarah established 
and conducted the famous school for girls 
at Farmington. Dr. Porter died at Farm- 
ington. Connecticut, September 24, 1866. 



BISSELL, Clark, 

Jurist, Governor. 

Clark Bissell, jurist and seventeenth 
governor of Connecticut (1846-47), was 
born at Lebanon, New London county. 
Connecticut, September 7, 1782, eldest 
son of Joseph William and Betty (Clark) 
Bissell, and seventh in descent from John 
Bissell, chief founder of the family in 
Connecticut. Driven from France, their 
native country, at the time of the mas- 
sacre of St. Bartholomew, some of the 
Bissells who were Huguenots took refuge 
in Holland, later removing to Somerset, 
England. John Bissell, born in Somer- 
set, in 1 591, with his sons, sailed for Bos- 
ton from Plymouth, March 20, 1630, in 
the "Mary and John," which also had 
among her passengers Captain John 
Mason. Windsor, Connecticut, became 
the seat of the American Bissells, whence 
John Bissell, grandson of the emigrant, 
removed to Lebanon, where he founded 



the eastern Connecticut branch of the 
family. Clark Bissell's mother was de- 
scended from another early settler of 
Windsor, Connecticut, Captain Daniel 
Clark, an attorney and magistrate, to 
whom, as befitted his station, was 
assigned "the great pew" in the meeting 
house. 

Brought up upon a farm, Clark Bissell 
had little opportunity for schooling; but 
he was ambitious and determined to obtain 
a liberal education. Therefore he bor- 
rowed various books, including Latin and 
Greek grammars, and with the kindly 
assistance of his pastor, fitted himself for 
Yale. During his college course he 
taught in district schools in the vicinity 
of New Haven. He graduated from col- 
lege with honor in 1806, and then spent 
a year on the eastern shore of Maryland 
as tutor in the family of a Mr. Singleton. 
Returning to Connecticut, he for a time 
had charge of a school at Saugatuck (now 
Westport), and began law studies in the 
office of Hon. Samuel Burr Sherwood, a 
brilliant lawyer and a member of the Fed- 
eral Congress. Subsequently he aban- 
doned teaching, and removed to Fair- 
field, where he continued the study of 
law in the office of Hon. Roger Minot 
Sherman. In 1809 he was admitted to 
the bar and located in Norwalk, where 
nearly fifty years of his life were spent. 
He was judge of the Supreme Court of 
Connecticut in 1829-39, and Professor of 
Law at Yale College in 1847-55, receiv- 
ing from that institution the degree of 
LL. D. the same year he was called to 
his professorship. 

In 1846 as a Whig he was elected Gov- 
ernor, and was reelected for a second 
term. His character and services are well 
set forth in the following estimate of his 
biographer : 

It is not too much to say of him that in every 
department of duty to which he was called, his 
work was well and faithfully done. As chief 



116 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



magistrate of this commonwealth his sound judg- 
ment, his purity of purpose, his unaffected de- 
meanor, won the conhdence and respect of all 
parties * * * As a member of our highest 
court of judicature, his learning, probity, strict 
impartiality, and uniform courtesy, conferred ad- 
ditional lustre upon the dignity of the bench 
* * * In the legislature, though he seldom 
mingled in debate, the breadth and solidity of his 
views, his good sense, his keen wit, sparingly, but 
if needed, effectively used, always placed him in 
the first rank * * * His duties in the law de- 
partment of Yale College were discharged with 
the same fidelity which characterized him in all 
other relations of life. His lectures to the senior 
class were of the highest order of that species of 
intellectual effort. 

Governor Bissell was married, at Saug- 
atitck, Connecticut, April 29, 181 1, to 
Sally, daughter of Hon. Samuel Burr and 
Charity (Hull) Sherwood. They were 
the parents of four sons and two daugh- 
ters. Governor Bissell died at Norwalk, 
Connecticut, September 15, 1857. 



TRUMBULL, Joseph, 

Congressman, Governor. 

John Trumbull, immigrant ancestor of 
this family, was a native of England, 
residing in Newcastle-on-Tyne, from 
whence he emigrated to this country, 
settling in Rowley, Massachusetts, in 
1640, bringing with him his wife, Ellinor 
(Chandler) Trumbull. Their son, John 
Trumbull, was born in 1639, died 1690; 
married Deborah Jackson. Their son, 
Joseph Trumbull, born 1678, removed to 
Lebanon, Connecticut, and died June 16, 
1755; married Hannah Higley. Their 
son. Governor Jonathan Trumbull, born 
October 12, 1710, died August 17, 1785; 
married Faith Robinson, daughter of the 
Rev. John Robinson, of Duxbury, Massa- 
chusetts, and a lineal descendant of John 
Alden, the Pilgrim. Their son, David 
Trumbull, born February 5, 1751-52. died 
January 17, 1822; married Sarah Backus, 
born February 7, 1760, died November 



10, 1843, a^d they were the parents of 
Governor Joseph Trumbull. 

Joseph Trumbull was born at Lebanon, 
Connecticut, December 7, 1782, died in 
Hartford, Connecticut, August 4, 1861. 
He was graduated from Yale in 1801 ; 
admitted to the bar at Windham, Con- 
necticut, in 1803; settled at Hartford in 
1804, practicing until 1828, when he be- 
came president of the Hartford Bank, in 
which capacity he served for eleven years, 
and later he served in a similar capacity 
for the Providence, Hartford & Fishkill 
Railroad Company. He was a represen- 
tative in the State Legislature in 1832 ; 
was elected a Whig representative in the 
Twenty-third Congress to fill a vacancy 
caused by the resignation of William W. 
Ellsworth, serving during the years 1834- 
35, and was reelected to the Twenty-sixth 
and Twenty-seventh Congresses, 1839-43. 
He was returned to the State Legislature 
in 1848, and again in 1851, and was gov- 
ernor of Connecticut, 1849-50. Yale con- 
ferred upon him the degree of Doctor 
of Laws, in 1849. the year in which he 
assumed the duties of Governor. He 
married (first) at Colchester, Connecti- 
cut, in 1820, Harriet, daughter of General 
Henry Champion, who bore him a son. 
Henry Champion Trumbull, and a daugh- 
ter, who died in infancy. He married 
(second) Eliza, daughter of Lemuel and 
Betsey (Champion) Storrs, of Middle- 
town. She bore him one daughter, Eliza 
Storrs, who became the wife of Lucius F. 
Robinson, of Hartford. Connecticut. 



COGSWELL, Jonathan, 

Pbilantliropist. 

Jonathan Cogswell was born in Row- 
ley, Massachusetts. September 3. 1782, 
son of Dr. Nathaniel Cogswell, and a 
direct descendant of John Cogswell, of 
Bristol. England, who settled in Ipswich, 
Massachusetts, in 1635. 



17 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Jonathan Cogswell was graduated at 
Harvard, A. B. in 1806, A. M., 1809; pur- 
sued his theological studies with a tutor 
at Bowdoin, 1807-09, and completed his 
course at Andover Theological Seminary 
in 1810. He was settled over the Con- 
gregational church, Saco, Maine, 1810-28, 
when he resigned, having saved about 
^1,000 which he intended to use in secur- 
ing a home, his health preventing his fur- 
ther pastoral work. An eloquent appeal 
made in his church for aid for foreign 
missions determined him to contribute 
his savings to the cause, and the next 
year he took charge of the New Britain 
church, Berlin, Connecticut, where he 
ministered for five years. The death of 
his brother Nathan in 1832 gave to his 
family a large estate and he was made 
trustee for the heirs. In 1834 he was 
made professor of ecclesiastical history in 
the Theological Institute, East Windsor, 
Connecticut. To this institution he gave 
his services for ten years, large sums of 
money, and the greater part of his ex- 
tensive library. In 1844 he removed to 
New Brunswick, New Jersey, where he 
joined Dr. Janeway and Mr. Ford in 
building the Second Presbyterian Church 
and parsonage, personally bearing a large 
portion of the expense. He was an early 
member of the New York Historical So- 
ciety, a life director of the American 
Bible Society, a life member of the Amer- 
ican Tract Society, and a liberal con- 
tributor to these and other charitable or- 
ganizations. ■ He founded scholarships in 
the College of New Jersey and in Rutgers 
College. He received the degree of A. M. 
from Bowdoin in 1815, and that of D. D. 
from the University of the City of New 
York in 1836. He published sermons : 
"A Treatise on the Necessity of Capi- 
tal Punishment"; "Hebrew Theocracy" 
(1848) ; "Calvary and Sinai" (1852) ; 
"Godliness a Great Mystery" (1857) ; and 
"The Appropriate Work of the Holy 



Spirit" (1859). See "The Cogswells in 
America" (1884) by E. O. Jameson. Mr. 
Cogswell died in New Brunswick, New 
Jersey, August i, 1864. 



BRINSMADE, Daniel Bourbon, 

Prominent Citizen. 

Rev. Daniel Brinsmade was born July 31, 
1718. He graduated at Yale College in 1745, 
and became minister of the parish in Judea 
in 1749. It was then a part of Woodbury, 
Connecticut, but in 1779 it, with the par- 
ish of New Preston, was incorporated into 
the town of Washington. Rev. Mr. 
Brinsmade continued in the same pastor- 
ate until his death, in 1793. He was a 
highly honored and useful minister, and 
both of his sons were prominent citizens. 
He married Rhoda Sherman. His son, 

Daniel Nathaniel Brinsmade, was born 
at Washington, Connecticut, 1750. He 
graduated from Yale College in the class 
of 1772, studied law, and practiced suc- 
cessfully in his native town, where he 
died October 29, 1826. In 1787 he was a 
delegate to the State Convention at Hart- 
ford to ratify the United States Constitu- 
tion. He was judge of the quorum, and 
assistant judge of the county court for 
sixteen years, during ten of which he sat 
on the bench. He represented his town 
in the General Assembly of the State for 
forty-three sessions and was at one time 
clerk of the house. He was one of the 
leading men of his county for many 
years. He married, March 23. 1779, Abi- 
gail Farrand. 

Daniel Bourbon Brinsmade, son of Daniel 
N. Brinsmade, was born at Washington, 
October 15, 1782. He succeeded his 
father as town clerk, and held the office 
for more than forty years. He was a 
leader in public affairs, and deputy to the 
General Assembly in 1816-17-28-33-48. In 
public ofifice he was notably faithful and 
efficient. He was prominent also in mili- 



118 



EXXYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



tary life. In 1817 he was commissioned 
colonel of the Fifth Regiment Connecti- 
cut Cavalry, subsequently general of the 
cavalry. He was president of the day at 
Litchfield Centennial, August 13, 1851, 
and had then in his possession the epau- 
lets worn by General Lafayette in the 
Revolution heirlooms in his family. He 
was a man of sterling integrity and sound 
judgment, a power in town, county and 
state affairs. He died November 3, 1862. 
He married (first) Irene Merwin. Lie 
married (second) Mary Vs'akeman Gold, 
of Cornwall, Connecticut. 



REID, Samuel C, 

Designer of Early American Flag. 

Captain Samuel Chester Reid was born 
in Norwich, Connecticut, August 25, 1783. 
second son of Lieutenant John and Re- 
becca (Chester) Reid, and grandson of 
Lord John Reid, of Glasgow, Scotland, 
and of John Chester, of Norwich. His 
father was an officer in the Royal navy ; 
was taken prisoner at New London, Con- 
necticut, in October, 1778, and afterward 
resigned his commission and espoused 
the American cause. 

Samuel Chester Reid went to sea in 
1794, entering the Linited States navy as 
midshipman on the sloop-of-war "Balti- 
more." under Commodore Truxton. He 
was commissioned captain by President 
Madison, and given command of the brig- 
antine "General Armstrong,"' fitted out 
as a privateer, and on September 9, 1814, 
he ran the blockade of British war ships 
of¥ Sandy Hook, New York harbor. He 
arrived at the island of Fayal, Azores, 
and while there the British brig-of-war 
"Carnation." the frigate "Rosa," and the 
ship-of-the-line "Plantagenet," entered 
the bay. After a fruitless effort to escape, 
Reid cleared his decks for action, and was 
attacked by the British in small boats, 
which he drove back. At midnight a sec- 



ond attack was made, and after a hand- 
to-hand fight, the British were repulsed 
with great slaughter, and retreated in 
their boats. In forty minutes, the British 
loss amounted to over one hundred and 
twenty killed and one hundred and thirty 
wounded. On September 27th, the "Car- 
nation" weighed anchor and stood close 
in for the "General Armstrong," opening 
a heavy fire. This fire was returned with 
wonderful effect, the main top mast of the 
"Carnation" going by the board, the hull 
and rigging being much cut up, and the 
vessel forced to retire. The British fleet 
then determined to use its entire force 
against the "Gen. Armstrong," and finding 
further resistance futile. Captain Reid set 
a fuse to his magazine and with his crew 
went ashore. Captain Lloyd, perceiving 
th.e desertion of the "Gen. Armstrong," sent 
two armed boats to seize her just as she 
blew up. In the three engagements the 
British loss was two hundred and ten 
killed and one hundred and forty 
wounded, while the American loss was 
but two killed and seven wounded. When 
Captain Lloyd demanded the American 
crew from the governor of Fayal as pris- 
oners of war, Reid took refuge in a de- 
serted convent about half a mile in the 
interior, fortified it, ran up the American 
flag, and the British fleet soon left for 
New Orleans. The news of the battle 
reached the United States in November, 
1814. and was received with great demon- 
strations. The battle undoubtedly saved 
the newly acquired territory of Louisiana 
from falling into the hands of the British, 
for at this time the remainder of the 
British naval force was waiting at Ja- 
maica for the arrival of Lloyd's squadron 
to attack New Orleans, Imt the delay 
caused by the encounter with Captain 
Reid enabled General Jackson to prepare 
the city for defense, and resulted in the 
victory of January 8. 1815. The battle of 
Faval was the last naval engaircment of 



119 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the War of 1812, and on November 15, 
1814, Captain Reid, with his officers and 
crew, were landed at St. Mary, Florida. 
He received ovations at every city 
through which he passed from Savannah 
to New York, State legislatures passing 
resolutions of thanks for his gloriously 
maintaining the honor of the American 
flag; New York State voted him a gold 
sword, which was presented November 
25, 1816, by Governor Tompkins; and the 
citizens of New York City presented him 
with a silver service. He declined pro- 
motion to past captain in the navy, but 
accepted the position of harbor master of 
New York. 

Captain Reid invented and erected the 
first marine telegraph between the high- 
lands of the Navesink, New Jersey, and 
the Battery, New York City; reorganiz- 
ed and perfected regulations for govern- 
ing the pilots of New York, designating 
the pilot boats by numerals ; published a 
national code of signals for all vessels be- 
longing to the United States ; and estab- 
lished the lightship off Sandy Hook. In 
1826 he invented a new system of land 
telegraphs by means of which he satis- 
factorily demonstrated that a message 
could be sent from Washington to New 
Orleans in two hours. A bill was before 
Congress for its adoption, when it was 
superseded by Morse's invention. Cap- 
tain Reid also designed the United States 
flag with thirteen stripes to represent the 
thirteen original States, providing that 
the respective States be represented by 
a star in the union of blue, and suggested 
that the stars be formed into one grand 
star symbolizing the national motto — "£ 
Pluribus Uiiiiin." The design was ac- 
cepted in a bill which became a law by 
the signature of President Monroe, April 
4, 1818. The first flag, as designed by 
Captain Reid, was made in silk by Mrs. 
Reid and her young friends, each of 



whom embroidered her name in the 
centre of a star, and on April 13, 1818, it 
was hoisted on the flag staff of the Na- 
tional House of Representatives. Cap- 
tain Reid reentered the United States 
navy in 1842, and was retired in 1856. 

He married, in New York City, Mary, 
daughter of Captain Nathan Jennings, of 
Fairfield, Connecticut. His son was Sam 
Chester Reid. One daughter, Mary Isa- 
bel, married Count Luigi Palma di Ces- 
nola, and another, Louise Gouverneur, 
married John Savage, the journalist. Cap- 
tain Reid died in New York City, January 
28, 1861, his last words being, "Soon I 
shall solve the great mystery of life." 



SMITH, Perry, 

Lawyer, National Legislator. 

Perry Smith was born in Woodbury, 
Connecticut, May 12, 1783, and died in 
New Milford, Connecticut, June 8, 1852. 
He acquired a practical education by at- 
tendance at the common schools of his 
native town, and he prepared for his pro- 
fessional career by a course of study at 
the Litchfield Law School. After a suc- 
cessful competitive examination, he was 
admitted to the bar in 1807, and entered 
upon the practice of his profession at 
New Milford, Connecticut, where he 
passed the remainder of his days. He 
attained considerable prominence in his 
chosen line of work, and he also made a 
name and place for himself in political 
circles. He was a representative in the 
State Legislature, 1822-24; judge of the 
Probate Court of Litchfield county, 1824- 
35 ; and again a representative in the 
State Legislature, 1835-36. In 1837 he 
relinquished the practice of his profession 
to accept an election to the United States 
Senate, elected as a Democrat, and served 
from 1837 to 1843. He was the author 
of "Speech on Bank Depositaries," pub- 
lished by him in 1838. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



CHURCH, Samuel, 

Lawyer, Jurist. 

Samuel Church born in Salisbury, Con- 
necticut, February 4, 1785, traced his an- 
cestry to Richard Church, an original pro- 
prietor of Hartford, Connecticut, in 1637, 
one of whose descendants Nathaniel 
Church, father of Samuel Church, was a 
soldier of the Revolution, from the town 
of Salisbury, and married Lois Ensign, 
daughter of John Ensign, of Canaan, Con- 
necticut. 

Samuel Church attended the schools of 
Salisbury, and supplemented this knowl- 
edge by a course at Yale College, from 
which he was graduated in 1803. He 
studied law with Hon. Judson Canfield, 
of Sharon, and at the Litchfield Law 
School; was admitted to the bar in Sep- 
tember, 1806, and entered upon the prac- 
tice of his profession in his native town. 
He was appointed postmaster of Salis- 
bury in 1810, and justice of the peace in 
1818. In the latter year he was also 
elected a delegate to the convention for 
amending the State constitution. He was 
a representative in the General Assembly 
in 1820, 1821, 1823, 1824, 1829, 1831, and 
was clerk of the house in 1824. He 
served as State Senator for three terms, 
1824-27. He was probate judge for the 
district of Sharon from 1821 to 1832; 
State's attorney for Litchfield county 
from 1825 to 1832 ; judge of the Superior 
Court and of the Supreme Court of Errors 
from 1832 to 1847, and in the latter named 
year was appointed Chief Justice of the 
same, which office he held until the time 
of his death. He removed to Litchfield 
in 1845. He was a devoted antiquarian 
and a painstaking student of local his- 
tory, and his historical addresses de- 
livered at Salisbury in 1841 and at Litch- 
field in 1851 were published, and have 
been the basis of many subsequent writ- 
ings. Trinity College conferred upon 



him the degree of LL. D. in 1847. He 
presided as master of Montgomery Lodge, 
Free and Accepted Masons, for five years. 
On November 26, 1806, he was married 
to Cynthia, daughter of Captain Seth and 
Esther (Landon) Newell. Judge Church 
died at Newtown, Connecticut, Septem- 
ber 13, 1854. 



ANDREWS, Ethan Allen, 

Professor of Languages. 

John Andrews (or Andrus), the immi- 
grant ancestor, was one of the early set- 
tlers, and in 1672 one of the eighty-four 
proprietors of the ancient town of Tunxis 
named afterward "ffarming-town," Tunxis 
being then as much a name of a tribe of 
Indians as it was of the river and lands 
they occupied, and claimed as proprietors. 
He came over in 1645. John Andrews 
was a farmer, and lived on the east side 
of the river, near to where the canal aque- 
duct was made, about two miles north of 
the village of Farmington. His wife's 
name was Mary, and she united with the 
church there, April 2, 1654, with her sons, 
then under the age of thirteen years. 
John joined the Congregational church 
of Farmington, May 9, 1658. In a list of 
forty-two families in full communion of 
the church in 1679, which list seems to 
b*e graded and ranked with reference to 
"dignity and standing," John and Mary 
Andrews are No. 14. 

Joseph, son of John Andrews, was born 
May 26, 165 1, at Farmington, Connecti- 
cut, and baptized April 2, 1654. He mar- 
ried, about 1677, Rebecca . They 

located about the centre of Newington, 
Init at what date is now unknown. He 
had a tax list there in 1693, in Wethers- 
field, of which Newington was a parish. 
The first land of his found on record, was 
given him by vote of the town, March 
19, 1683-84, a small piece near his mill, 
upon which to build a house and barn. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



March 26. 1684, he bought six acres of 
John and Joseph Riley, the ninety-fourth 
lot on "Cow-plane ;" it touches north and 
south on said Joseph's land. He also 
owned much land, and probably rented 
the mill of Phineas Wilson, the merchant 
of Hartford, until after Wilson's decease, 
when he bought it of the widow. He 
died April 27, 1706, aged fifty-four years. 
The widow Rebecca presented his will 
at probate court. May 23, 1706, of which 
she and her eldest son, Joseph, were exec- 
utors. The estate of the father had hardly 
been settled when the mother Rebecca 
died, and administration was granted to 
Joseph, the son, and the same day Caleb 
and Ann, chose their brother Joseph for 
guardian. At the close of the Revolution- 
ary War, it is said that there were sixty- 
two persons of the name of Andrews in 
Newington, but immediately after its 
close they died and dispersed, so that not 
one of the name has resided there for 
many years. 

Benjamin, son of Joseph Andrews, was 
of Newington. He married, December 
19, 1704, Elizabeth , before An- 
thony Stoddard, minister at Woodbury. 
They lived near the centre of Newington ; 
he bought, July 6, 1716, of his brother 
Joseph, one-third of the sawmill that be- 
longed to their father. He died in 1719, 
probably, for the inventory of his estate 
was then taken by Jabez Whittlesey and 
Joseph Andrus, as appraisers. 

Joseph (2), son of Benjamin Andrews, 
was born about 1707, and baptized June 
22, 1707, by Rev. Stephen Mix, of old 
Wethersfield. He married, April 3, 1746, 
Sarah, daughter of Captain Robert and 
Abigail Wells, of Newington. Joseph 
Andrews was a wealthy farmer, and left 
a large estate to his family by will, his 
son Levi being executor. He was chosen 
one of the standing committee of the 
church in Newington, October 29, 1761 ; 
he and his wife were both members of 



that church when Rev. Mr. Belden set- 
tled there, 1747. He died September 14, 
1775, of fever, at the house of his son 
Levi, in New Britain, aged sixty-nine, 
where he went to nurse Levi who was 
sick with fever, but Levi recovered, while 
the father died ; he was carried to New- 
ington, on men's shoulders, on a bier, 
some two or three miles, although it was 
very muddy. This custom was common, 
as the convenience of a hearse was not 
known then in country places. The will 
of widow Sarah Andrews was dated May 
II, 1782. She died June 4, 1793, aged 
seventy-seven years ; her grave is in the 
cemetery near the Congregational church, 
in the parish of Newington, town of 
Wethersfield, where also lie many of the 
Andrews family, descendants of the early 
settlers of that place. Children: i. Levi, 
born February 23, 1747, mentioned below. 
2. Ruth, born 1751 ; died young. 3. Elias, 
February 16, 1753. 4. Sarah, January 12, 
1756. 

Levi, son of Joseph (2) Andrews, was 
born in Wethersfield, February 23, 1747. 
He married, December 20, 1770, Chloe 
Wells, of Newington, daughter of Cap- 
tain Robert and Abigail (Burnham) 
Wells. She was born May 31, 1746, and 
w^as a quiet, unassuming woman, a great 
lover of order and home, a devoted Chris- 
tian. He took the "half-way covenant" 
in Newington, May 8, 1768, and both 
joined Dr. Smalley's church. May 5, 1771, 
in New Britain, he on profession, she by 
letter. He bought a farm in New Britain 
about the time of his marriage, and occu- 
pied it during his life ; it was in the south 
part of Stanley quarter, so called, and 
was one of the best farms in town. In 
1775 he was sick of the fever from which 
he recovered, although his father died. 
He was executor to his father's estate. 
He was clerk and treasurer of the Ecclesi- 
astical Society several years ; he was 
made one of the standing committee of 



EXCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Dr. Smalley's church in 1807. He held 
rank of ensign in the company of militia 
in New Britain, and ever after held this 
title. He was appointed in 17S2 by the 
town of Farmington to provide for sol- 
diers' families. He was a very success- 
ful farmer, of kind, cheerful disposition, 
and a great lover and promoter of peace. 
Ensign Levi Andrews died May 8, 1826, 
aged eighty years. The widow died Jan- 
uary II, 1837, aged ninety-one. 

Professor Ethan Allen Andrews, son 
of Ensign Levi Andrews, was born April 
7, 1787. He graduated at Yale College 
in 1810, and studied law at Farmington. 
He commenced the practice of law in his 
native town in 1812. He married, De- 
cember 19, 1810, Lucy Cowles, who was 
born January 20, 1789. She was daughter 
of Colonel Isaac and Lucina (Hooker) 
Cowles. Solomon Cowles, father of Colo- 
nel Isaac, had four brothers : Ezekiel, 
born November 17, 1721 ; James, Septem- 
ber 25, 1723; Elijah, January 12, 1726; 
Amos. July 29, 1730. Children of Solo- 
mon Cowles were: i. Martha, born June 
29, 1751. ii. Isaac, July 15, 1753. iii. 
Colonel Isaac, born July 31, 1756. iv. 
Solomon, February 20, 1758. v. Zenas, 
February 15, 1761. Professor Ethan 
Allen Andrews was admitted to the 
church at New Britain, August 5, 1821, 
during the great revival of that memora- 
ble year. His wife was admitted August 
6. 1815, by letter from the Farmington 
church. He built on Stanley street, near 
his father's home in 1813. He taught a 
select school in a part of his house with 
good success for several years. He re- 
moved his family in 1829, and his church 
connection in 1832, to New Haven, 
where he had a select school for young 
ladies, and a like school in Boston subse- 
quently. He was a professor of lan- 
guages in the University of North Caro- 
lina for a time. After his return to his 
home, he represented his town in the 



State Legislature for the year 185 1. He 
was a magistrate and judge of probate 
court, but he gained his eminence and 
celebrity from his literary taste and labor 
as a Latin author. In 1848 his alma mater 
(Yale College) gave him the honorable 
degree of Doctor of Laws. He died in 
the midst of his literary labors, March 24, 
1858, aged seventy years. He was gentle- 
manly in deportment, and was eminently 
a literary light of his age and country. 
On ]\Iay 19, 1858, at the request of several 
prominent citizens of the place, Rev. 
Hubbard Winslow, of Boston, delivered a 
eulogy on the life and services of this 
distinguished man, at the Centre Church 
of New Britain, to a very large audience, 
a copy of which was requested and pub- 
lished in Boston soon after. An inven- 
tory of his estate, amounting to $23,- 
314.48, was made and presented to pro- 
bate court, district of Berlin, June 15, 
1858. He built a Gothic house in 1855, 
on the site of his father's old red one. 



NILES, John M., 

Legislator, Cabinet Officer, Journalist. 

John ^lilton Niles was born in Wind- 
sor, Connecticut, August 20, 17S7, son of 
Moses and Naomi (Marshall) Niles, and 
grandson of Benjamin and Lucy (Sill) 
Niles. His father was a native of Groton, 
Connecticut, and removed to Windsor 
prior to the Revolutionary War. The fol- 
lowing account, condensed from Stiles' 
"History of Ancient Windsor," written 
by Hon. Gideon Welles, of Hartford, re- 
veals the outlines of a life of great use- 
fulness. 

Losing his father in early childhood, 
his educational advantages were restricted 
to the opportunities afforded by a com- 
mon district school, such as they were in 
his day. Realizing their defects, he re- 
solved upon further study, and being 
limited in mean and too old for collegiate 



123 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



advantages, he entered upon a course of 
systematic and laborious work, which he 
followed up with such assiduity as for 
a time to impair his health. With an in- 
quisitive and keenly discriminating in- 
tellect, fond of statistics, and a memory 
that retained every incident and event 
that came within his reading and obser- 
vation, his mind became a great store- 
house of facts that were easily at com- 
mand, and made him always formidable 
to political and legislative opponents. 
Few men associated with him in the pub- 
lic councils were more conversant with 
history, better understood the science of 
government, or had more deeply investi- 
gated the political and civil institutions 
of our own and other countries. Madi- 
son's administration covered a time of 
high party excitement, sharpened by the 
commercial restrictions which the Fed- 
eral administration had deemed neces- 
sary to prevent our country from becom- 
ing involved in wars that w^ere then 
sweeping over almost the whole of the 
civilized world. Mr. Niles, while yet a 
student in the ofifice of John Sargeant, 
was a zealous Republican and supporter 
of the administration and policy of Mr. 
Madison. The courts and bar, as well as 
the State authorities, were almost unani- 
mously of the opposite politics. Diffident 
and unassuming in his manners, but 
earnest and firm in his convictions, Mr. 
Niles was frank in the avowal of his 
opinions and principles, and the reasons 
by which he was governed. A portion of 
his leisure he devoted to political essays, 
most of which were published in the 
"American Mercury," at Hartford. Being 
attached, however, to his profession, and 
his circumscribed means rendering it 
necessary that he should attend to some- 
thing else than political controversies for 
a livelihood, he contemplated migrating 
to some other State. With this in view 
he visited Vermont, New York and Penn- 



sylvania, but returned to Connecticut, un- 
decided, and without any definite plan for 
the future. It was while at Harrisburg in 
1815 that he formed his first slight ac- 
quaintance with James Buchanan, Wil- 
liam J. Duane and Joel B. Sutherland, 
then young men of about his own age, 
and each of them for the first time mem- 
bers of the Pennsylvania Legislature. 
This acquaintance was twenty years after 
renewed with each, under widely different 
circumstances. 

The termination of the war and retire- 
ment of Mr. Madison extinguished poli- 
tical issues that had been long in contro- 
versy, and led to a dissolution of the Na- 
tional party ; but during the general an- 
xiety on Federal politics that character- 
ized the Monroe administration, public 
action became concentrated on local dif- 
ferences within the States. In Connecti- 
cut there was a growing disquietude in 
regard to the old order of things, and the 
dynasty in power steadily refused to yield 
to innovations. The times were auspici- 
ous for the reformers to press their views, 
and radical changes were demanded, the 
most prominent of which were an exten- 
sion of the right of suffrage, religious 
equality, and a written constitution de- 
fining and limiting the power of govern- 
ment. Mr. Niles embarked in these re- 
formatory measures with zeal, energy 
and ability, and more than any other 
man, perhaps, contributed to the evolu- 
tion of parties which followed. To for- 
ward his views and give them efficiency, 
with the cooperation of others he estab- 
lished in January, 1817, the Hartford 
"Times," a paper that acquired an im- 
mediate local position and influence. He 
was for several years its editor, and for 
thirty years continued to be a liberal con- 
tributor to its columns. In 1821 the Gen- 
eral Assembly appointed him an associate 
judge of the county court for the County 
of Hartford, an appointment which he 
124 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



filled eight years, then declining to hold 
it longer. In 1826 he was elected from 
the town of Hartford to the General As- 
sembly. The Republicans nominated him 
as their candidate for the Senate in 1827, 
but, being friendly to the election of Gen- 
eral Jackson, a portion of the party re- 
fused to sustain him, and he was conse- 
quently defeated. This proceeding con- 
tributed perhaps to his activity, as it cer- 
tainly gave him prominence in instituting 
and organizing what was subsequently 
known as the Democratic party which 
elected and sustained General Jackson. 

In the spring of 1829 Mr. Niles was ap- 
pointed postmaster at Hartford, which 
place he resigned on receiving from Gov- 
ernor Edwards the appointment of Sen- 
ator in Congress, the post having been 
made vacant by the death of Nathan 
Smith. This appointment was confirmed 
by the Legislature, and he served in the 
Senate until March, 1839. He was the 
Democratic candidate for governor in 
1839, and again in 1840. In the latter 
year President Van Buren tendered him 
the office of postmaster-general, and the 
Senate unanimously confirmed his nomi- 
nation. Retiring with Mr. Van Buren in 
March, 1841, he was again in 1842 elected 
to the Senate of the United States, which 
place he held until the expiration of the 
term in 1849, when he relinquished official 
life, although he retained to the close of 
his days an abiding and lively interest in 
all political subjects. In the Senate he 
took an active part in the proceedings 
and debates. Although not a brilliant 
speaker, he was a ready, interesting and 
instructive debater, one whose accurate 
knowledge, acute and just discrimination, 
and sound common sense, were acknowl- 
edged and appreciated by men of all 
parties. The financial questions which 
called into existence the Whig and Demo- 
cratic parties, generated intense animosi- 
ties, and to some extent affected social 



intercourse. The unyielding firmness and 
uncompromising character of Senator 
Niles, particularly when principles were in- 
volved, led many to misunderstand and 
misapprehend his genial and kindly na- 
ture. There was less partisan bitterness 
in his last than in his first senatorial term, 
in consequence of the adjustment and 
final disposition of the exciting financial 
questions that had agitated and con- 
vulsed the country, and he was not one 
who desired to perpetuate differences 
when the causes which led to them ceased 
to exist. 

No man more fully recognized the 
utility and necessity of party organiza- 
tion to accomplish and carry into effect 
important measures based on funda- 
mental principles, but under no circum- 
stances would he abandon or surrender 
those principles to the mandates of or- 
ganization. This was in his view a per- 
version and abuse of party to which he 
would not submit. It was an axiom with 
him that party and organization must be 
subordinate and subsidiary to principles, 
and principles should never be secondary 
or sacrifice to party. Hence, on repeated 
occasions when the party with which he 
acted took a new position, he was brought 
into conflict with valued friends, eventu- 
ating to some extent in a change of asso- 
ciates but not of principles. This was the 
case in 1820, when the party which revo- 
lutionized the State neglected, as he con- 
ceived, to carry to -their fulfillment re- 
forms with which they commenced. 
Again, in the election of Jackson, and the 
bank controversy at a later period, he dis- 
regarded the old organization with which 
he had been connected because he deemed 
it faithless to the principles which origi- 
nated it. The bank and kindred measures 
he denounced as centralizing, as an inva- 
sion of the reserved rights of the States, 
and an unwarrantable assumption of 
power by the Federal government. 

125 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Though assailed with unsparing viru- 
lence, he ably vindicated his adherence 
to principles which he deemed funda- 
mental and essential. The acquisition of 
large additional territory from Mexico 
near the close of his senatorial service 
brought the subject of extending and na- 
tionalizing slavery prominently before the 
country. Incidental to and connected 
with this subject was the territorial policy 
of the government, which it was proposed 
to change in order to strengthen the or- 
ganization on these new issues. Prompt- 
ly, and at the threshold, Senator Niles 
met the question, and denounced the 
scheme as a perversion of the objects, 
purposes and principles of the Demo- 
cratic party, whose mission was of a dif- 
ferent character. Adhering to the primi- 
tive doctrine of strictly construing the 
constitution, and limiting the authority of 
the Federal government to the powers 
granted, he deemed that Congress could 
not legislate slavery into the territories 
or delegate that power or permission to 
others. No obligation of party or allegi- 
ance to organizations could swerve him 
or induce him to sacrifice his conscienti- 
ous convictions on this subject, for his 
opinions were deliberately formed, and 
essential principles were involved. With 
all the ardor and sincerity of his earlier 
years he opposed what in his view were 
the centralizing tendencies of the admin- 
istration. As the controversy progressed, 
his opinions became more decided and his 
feelings more interested, and, believing 
the emergency required extraordinary 
efforts he, at the age of sixty-eight, pro- 
jected the establishment of a new daily 
paper and the organization of a distinct 
Republican party, to act in concert with 
others in the different States who were 
commencing a similar movement. While 
earnestly engaged in the prosecution of 
these labors a cancerous affection de- 
veloped itself in his system. Undeterred 



by this affliction, he persevered in what 
he considered to be his duty to its con- 
summation. Through his instrumentality, 
the Hartford "Press" was established, 
being first published in February, 1856. 
A Republican State Convention was held 
in March of the same year, and the Re- 
publican party was forthwith organized, 
but his disease in the meantime had made 
such progress as to compel him to discon- 
tinue his labors. His last public effort 
and his last appearance among his fellow 
citizens was at the Republican Conven- 
tion in March. He breathed his last on 
the 31st of May, 1856, in the sixty-ninth 
year of his age. 

Senator Niles, besides his political 
labors, employed his pen in other fields 
as an author. His first undertaking was 
that of editing the republication of an Eng- 
lish work, entitled "The Independent 
Whig," a large quarto of over five hun- 
dred pages, published in 1816. This was 
followed in 1819 by a "Gazetteer of Con- 
necticut and Rhode Island," in the com- 
jiilation of which he was assisted by his 
brother-in-law. Dr. John C. Pease. He 
also prepared a very useful and service- 
able book, called "The Civil Officer," of 
which several editions were published. 
"A History of Mexico and the South 
American Republics," written by him, 
ran through many editions. He also 
wrote a biography of Oliver H. Perry, a 
quarto volume of about four hundred 
pages, as well as numerous pamphlets, 
orations and addresses on political, agri- 
cultural, financial and miscellaneous sub- 
jects, which during a period of forty years 
emanated from his prolific pen, and which 
had extensive circulation and influence. 

His speeches in the Senate were many, 
and on almost every important question 
before that body while he was a member; 
some were very effective and distin- 
guished for great research and argumen- 
tation. Those on the bank, the deposits, 
26 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the expunging resolutions, the independ- 
ent treasury, the tariff, the Alexican War 
and the Jeft'erson Ordinance as applicable 
to the newly acquired Louisiana terri- 
tory, may be specified as among his ablest 
efforts. Air. Calhoun, with whom he 
often and widely differed, awarded him 
the possession of the most ready and accu- 
rately discriminate mind of any member 
of the Senate. Thomas H. Benton said 
that not only were his opinions eminently 
sound and correct, but that his political 
and moral courage exceeded that of his 
associates. Silas Wright declared he al- 
ways distrusted the accuracy of his own 
conclusions when he diff'ered from Sen- 
ator Xiles. Such were the estimates of 
some of the master minds of the Senate, 
men with whom he was associated in 
daily, social and official intercourse for 
years. The remark publicly made by Mr. 
Van Buren, that "Senator Niles spoke as 
Franklin wrote,'' conveys a correct im- 
pression of the matter and manner of the 
man. Indeed, his marked traits were 
good, practical common sense, without 
pretension, unassumingly but honestly 
and fearlessly expressed. 

President Van Buren showed his high 
appreciation of the qualities and abilities 
of Senator Niles by tendering him un- 
solicited a seat in his cabinet, and that, 
too, when the department was laboring 
under serious embarrassments. The re- 
forms which he introduced into the de- 
partment not only contributed to its im- 
mediate relief, but constituted the basis 
of future action in the administration. He 
promptly discontinued the transportation 
of mails on Sundays except on the princi- 
pal routes, and advised another great re- 
form which was soon carried into effect, 
the reduction of the rates of postage, as 
a means of promoting mail facilities and 
thereby increasing the revenue, a propo- 
sition that was to many a seeming para- 
dox. 



Senator Niles was twice married, but 
left no children. In the fall of 1824 he 
married Airs. Sarah Howe, a native of 
Worcester county, Alassachusetts, who 
died in the autumn of 1842. His second 
marriage was with Aliss Jane H. Pratt, 
of Columbia county, New York, ni the 
latter part of 1845; she died in the sum- 
mer of 1850. A considerable portion of 
the years 1851 and 1852 he spent in visit- 
ing the various countries of Europe. Un- 
ostentatious, plain and frugal, Air. Niles 
acquired by industry and economy a 
handsome estate. Humane and benevo- 
lent, he exercised active charity during 
life, and dying desired to alleviate suffer- 
ing humanity. Besides numerous lega- 
cies to individuals, he bequeathed twenty 
thousand dollars in trust to the city of 
Hartford as a charity fund, the income 
from which he directed to be annually 
distributed to the poor. This noble bene- 
faction to the city of his adoption was the 
crowning act of a useful and well-spent 
life. 



HUNTINGTON, Jabez W., 

Jurist, Senator. 

Jabez Williams Huntington was born 
at Norwich, Connecticut, November 8, 
1788, son of Zachariah Huntington and 
grandson of Jabez Huntington (1719-86), 
who served for several years as speaker 
of the Connecticut Legislature, was active 
during the Revolution as a member of 
the Committee of Safety, and from Sep- 
tember, 1776, held the rank of major- 
general of militia. 

Jabez W. Huntington, after pursuing 
an academical course, was graduated 
from Yale College in 1806. He studied 
law at the celebrated Litchfield Law 
School, was admitted to the bar, and con- 
ducted a successful practice in Litchfield 
for many years. In 1828 he was elected 
to the State Legislature, and in 1829 to 

27 



ENXYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Congress, where by two successive re- 
elections, he represented Connecticut 
until 1834, when he resigned to accept an 
appointment as a judge of the State Su- 
preme Court of Errors. He was also a 
judge of the Connecticut Superior Court. 
Later he was elected to the United States 
Senate as a Whig, filling the vacancy 
made by the death of Senator Thaddeus 
Betts, and continued a member of that 
body from 1840 until his death, on No- 
vember I, 1847, at Norwich, Connecti- 
cut, which had been his home since 1834. 



BEACH, George, 

Business Man, Financier. 

There were three immigrants of the 
name of Beach under Colony records of 
1639 among the settlers of the New Haven 
colony, Richard, John and Thomas, who 
was the immigrant ancestor of the Hart- 
ford branch of the family. He resided in 
New Haven, Milford and Wallingford, 
but returned to Milford before his death 
in 1662. His son, John Beach, was born 
in Milford, October 19, 1655, and died in 
1709. He removed to Wallingford. His 
son, John (2) Beach, was born in Wall- 
ingford, October 15, 1690, and died May 
9, 1775. He was one of the founders of 
the town of Goshen, and erected one of 
the largest houses in the town in the sec- 
tion now known as East Goshen. His 
son, Adnah Beach, was born January 11, 
1718, and died March 10, 1783. He repre- 
sented the town of Goshen in the General 
Assembly. His son, Ebenezer Beach, was 
born May 30, 1766, died May 3, 1793, and 
was buried at Sheffield, Massachusetts. 
He appears to have been in business in 
Hartford, Connecticut, and later was en- 
gaged in business in Litchfield, Connecti- 
cut. He married Lucy Steele, and after 
the death of her husband she returned to 
Hartford. She ma/ried (second) Dr. Wil- 



liam Whitman. Ebenezer and Lucy 
(Steele) Beach were the parents of George 
Beach, of whom further. 

George Beach, eldest child of Ebenezer 
and Lucy (Steele) Beach, was born in 
Litchfield, November 29, 1788, died at his 
house on Farmington avenue, Hartford, 
May 3, i860. Upon the death of his 
mother he probably returned to live with 
his Grandfather Steele until 1806; his sis- 
ter, Lucy, was taken by his father's sister, 
Susannah, wife of John Reed, of Canaan, 
Connecticut ; his sister, Julia, being taken 
by his mother's sister, Mittie (Mehitable), 
wife of George Benton, Front street, Hart- 
ford. He began his business life as a 
clerk for John Pierce, a West India mer- 
chant, State street, Hartford, and lived for 
a time w^ith the family of his employer. 
A few years later Mr. Beach became 
junior partner, the firm name becoming 
Pierce & Beach. The trade of the firm 
was ruined by the war of 1812, and Mr. 
Pierce withdrew and left the city. George 
Beach, Jr., used to tell a story of one of 
his father's merchant vessels which had 
been given up as lost or captured by the 
British. But early one Sunday morning, 
before daylight, he was awakened by a 
knock at the front door, opened his win- 
dow, and found a messenger from New 
London who announced the safe arrival 
of the ship, which had sailed under the 
French flag by a roundabout way to 
escape the British. In 1814 Mr. Beach 
closed up the West India business and, 
upon the organization of the Phoenix 
Bank of Hartford, was elected its cashier, 
an office he filled until September 6. 1837, 
when he was elected president, and con- 
tinued at the head of this institution until 
his last illness, resigning April 5, i860. 
At the outset the disturbance of the cur- 
rency of the country caused by the war 
with England, led the bank to issue a 
quantity of bills for fractional parts of a 
28 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



dollar, which the vice-president and direc- 
tors of the bank were authorized to sign. 
With the exception of these bills Mr. 
Beach signed all the notes and bills issued 
by the bank, and its circulation some- 
times rose above a million dollars. At 
the time of his death he had undoubtedly 
signed more bills than any other man in 
this section. In 1836 Mr. Beach became 
a partner in the firm of Phelps, Beach & 
Company, formerly Hungerford, Phelps 
& Beach, George Beach, Jr., being a part- 
ner of the original firm and continuing 
with his father and Mr. Phelps. When 
Mr. Phelps retired in 1839, the firm be- 
came Beach & Company, and George 
Beach became its head. For a number of 
years he lived in the house which is still 
standing, but somewhat altered in appear- 
ance, on the north side of Church street, 
and there most of his children were born. 
Later he removed to the house on Farm- 
ington avenue, and his son George lived 
in the next house to the west. Both 
houses w^ere built by Cyprian Nichols, 
his father-in-law. Upon the visit to this 
country of General Lafayette, about 1825, 
it was the duty of Mr. Beach, as captain 
of the Governor's Foot Guard, to meet the 
general and with his company escort him 
to a raised platform in front of the 
Phoenix National Bank, where the State 
reception was held. He was generous 
with his wealth and always favored the 
young men just starting in business. He 
favored the small loans which are usually 
so hard to negotiate. He contributed 
largely to charity, but preferred to give 
anonymously. He donated the land for 
St. Paul's Church. The Widows' Home, 
which he built and maintained, was a 
most sensible and worthy benevolence, 
consisting of a number of small apart- 
ments let gratuitously to deserving 
widows who had no home. From early 
life he was an active member of Christ 
Church and a faithful churchman. 



Mr. Beach married (first) in Christ 
Church, Hartford, April 15, 1808, Harriet, 
born June 27, 1792, died July 16, 1826, 
daughter of Aaron Bradley. He married 
(second) 1827, Maria, born May 10, 1799, 
died November 15, 1845, daughter of 
Cyprian Nichols. He married (third) 
Sophia (Buckland) Bull, widow of E. \\\ 
Bull, who survived him many years. 



BETTS, Thaddeus, 

Lawyer, National Legislator. 

Thaddeus Betts was born in Norwalk, 
Fairfield county, Connecticut, February 
4, 1789, son of Judge William Maltby and 
Lucretia (Gregory) Betts. His father 
was a soldier in the Revolution, postmas- 
ter, judge of probate, and member of the 
Legislature. He was descended from 
Thomas Betts, who came from England 
in 1639, settling at Guilford, Connecticut. 

After acquiring a practical elementary 
education in the schools of his native 
town, he entered Yale College, from 
which institution he w^as graduated in the 
class of 1807. He then took up the study 
of law, was admitted to the bar, entered 
upon practice at Norwalk, and won great 
distinction in his profession. He came to 
prominence in political life, and was a 
staunch adherent of the Whig party. He 
was a member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives of Connecticut from 181 5 to 
1828, and in the latter year was elected 
to the State Senate, in which body he 
served until 183 1. In the following year 
he was elected Lieutenant-Governor, and 
served as such until the close of the year 
1834. He was elected to the United 
States Senate, taking his seat March 4, 

1839. He wielded a powerful influence 
among his associates in that body during 
his brief term of service, his death occur- 
ring shortly after the expiration of his 
first year, in Washington City, April 7, 

1840. His standing was feelingly referred 



129 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



to by Hon. Thomas B. Osborne, at the 
funeral obsequies in the State House of 
Connecticut. He said : "Mr. Betts was 
distinguished for acuteness of intellect, 
vigor of understanding, and the sound- 
ness and probity of his life. He was early 
brought in contact with the most eminent 
men that ever adorned the bar of New 
England. It is sufficient to say that 
he sustained and distinguished himself 
among such men as Daggett, Sherman, 
Smith and Sherwood." Like all his fam- 
ily, he took a deep interest in religious 
matters, and for years was a leading 
member of the Congregational church in 
Norwalk. He was highly honored and 
esteemed by all who knew him, for his 
many excellent traits of personal char- 
acter. 

Mr. Betts married Antoinette Cannon, 
daughter of John Cannon, Jr., of a family 
of French descent. 



KNIGHT, Jonathan, 

Physician and Surgeon. 

Jonathan Knight was born in Norwalk, 
Connecticut, September 4, 1789, died in 
New Haven, Connecticut, August 25, 
1864. He was a son of Jonathan and 
Anne (Fitch) Knight, the former named 
a surgeon in the Revolutionary army, 
and a practicing physician in Norwalk for 
nearly half a century. Jonathan Knight, 
Jr., attended the schools of his native 
town, supplementing the knowledge thus 
obtained by a course at Yale College, 
from which he was graduated with the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1808, and 
of Master of Arts in 181 1. He taught 
school in Norwalk and New London, 
Connecticut, from 1808 to 1810, then re- 
turned to Yale College and tutored dur- 
ing the years 1810-11, while pursuing pre- 
liminary medical studies. He attended 
medical lectures at the University of 
Pennsylvania from 181 1 to 1813, and was 



a pupil of Dr. Rush, having been chosen 
by the Medical Society of Connecticut 
and Corporation of Yale College to be 
associated in the work of commencing 
and carrying on a system of medical in- 
struction with Dr. Nathan Smith, Dr. Eli 
Ives and Professor Silliman. He was 
licensed to practice medicine by the Con- 
necticut Medical Society in August, 1813, 
and received the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine from Yale College in 1818. Pie 
occupied the chair of anatomy and physi- 
ology at the Yale Medical School from 
1813 to 1838, and after the death of Dr. 
Thomas Hubbard, he was professor of 
surgery from 1838 to 1864, retiring in the 
latter named year as professor emeritus. 
Dr. Knight was only twenty-four years 
of age when he delivered his first course 
of lectures, and even after taking the 
chair of surgery he annually delivered a 
course of lectures on his subjects to the 
senior academical class. He also lectured 
on obstetrics at Yale College from 1820 
to 1829, and was a prominent lecturer on 
surgery. He was president of the Ameri- 
can Medical Society, 1853-54, and was a 
director and president of the board of the 
General Hospital of Connecticut. He was 
influential in establishing the Knight 
Military Hospital at New Haven, Con- 
necticut, in 1862, which was named in his 
honor, and which, during the last year of 
the Civil War, sheltered hundreds of 
wounded soldiers. After the death of Dr. 
Hubbard, Dr. Knight was unquestion- 
ably the leading surgeon in the State of 
Connecticut. He was the first surgeon to 
cure aneurisms by compression (1848). 



GOODRICH, Chauncey A., 

Clergyman, Iiexicograplier. 

Chauncey Allen Goodrich, D. D., was 
born in New Haven, Connecticut, Octo- 
ber 23, 1790, the second son of the Hon. 
Elizur Goodrich, LL. D. (Yale, 1779), 



130 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



and Anne Willard (Allen) Goodrich. He 
was a descendant in the sixth generation 
from Ensign William Goodrich, settler 
at Wethersfield, Connecticut, in 1634. 
His grandfather was the Rev. Dr. Elizur 
Goodrich (Yale, 1752), for many years a 
Fellow of the Yale Corporation, a narra- 
tive of whose life appears in this work. 

Chauncey Allen Goodrich completed 
his education at Yale College, from which 
he was graduated in 1810, receiving his 
Master's degree in course. He served 
his alma mater as tutor, 1812-14, and 
afterwards studied theology. The bur- 
dens of pastoral work, however, which he 
undertook in connection with the Con- 
gregational church at Middletown, Con- 
necticut, proved too exacting for his 
health, and in 1817 he accepted the chair 
of rhetoric and English literature at Yale 
College, and the connection thus formed 
continued without interruption through- 
out his life, a period of forty-three years. 
He held the professorship of rhetoric and 
literature until 1839, and thereafter that 
of the pastoral charge, receiving the de- 
gree of Doctor of Divinity from Brown 
University in 1835. Dr. Goodrich was 
elected president of Williams College in 
1820, but declined the office, preferrmg to 
remain in New Haven, where he was en- 
gaged in literary work in addition to his 
academic duties. He established and con- 
ducted for a good many years the "Chris- 
tian Quarterly Spectator," published sev- 
eral text books on Greek, and contributed 
extensively to periodical literature. His 
most extensive work, however, was in the 
field of lexicography, in the revision and 
abridgment of the "American Diction- 
ary" of his father-in-law, Noah W^ebster. 
This edition, in the preparation of which 
Dr. Goodrich labored a number of years 
with the assistance of Benjamin Silliman, 
Davison Olmstead and others, was pub- 
lished in 1847. He brought out the Uni- 
versal edition in 1856. and a supplement 



in 1859, and at the time of his death was 
engaged on a radical revision of the dic- 
tionary, which was later issued under th'e 
supervision of Dr. Noah Porter in 1864. 

Dr. Goodrich married, October i, 1816, 
Julia Frances, daughter of Noah Web- 
ster, by whom he had four children. He 
died in New Haven, Connecticut, Febru- 
ary 25, i860. 



ROATH, Asa, 

Veteran of W^ar of 1812. 

This name is one of the oldest in the 
town of Norwich, Connecticut, and those 
bearing it have ever held place among the 
respected citizens of the community. 
Robert Roath, a native of England, was 
the first of the name to settle in Norwich, 
and he received a grant of a large tract 
of land from the original town proprie- 
tors. His son, John Roath, was born in 
Norwich, Connecticut, in November, 1669, 
and his farm was at the Little Fort. His 
son, Stephen Roath, was born in Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, July 30, 1710, and he 
died in 1808. His son, Eleazer Roath, was 
born in Norwich, Connecticut, February 
20, 1754, and died in 1835, leaving a large 
and valuable estate. He married, March 
26, 1777, Hannah Killam and they were 
the parents of Colonel Asa Roath, of 
whom further. 

Colonel Asa Roath, son of Eleazer 
Roath, was born March 3, 1790, died 
March 11, 1846. He received a sound 
education for the times, proving an apt 
scholar, learning quickly and retaining 
his knowledge. Being intellectually in- 
clined, he became very accomplished, and 
turned his acquirements to good use. 
During the earlier years of his manhood 
he was engaged as a teacher, and met 
with excellent success in that profession, 
giving instruction in the higher branches, 
especially mathematics, in which he was 
exceedingly proficient. He was a very 



131 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



fine penman, the master of an art much 
appreciated in those days. Following his 
experience as a teacher, he took up sur- 
veying, doing a great deal of work in that 
line in Norwich and vicinity, and he 
served many years as county surveyor. 
Other ofifices of public trust were also 
tendered him, and he became one of the 
leading and influential citizens of his day, 
active in every movement for the welfare 
and future good of the town. He served 
many years as probate judge for the Nor- 
wich district. He was colonel of the 
Third Regiment of State Militia, and was 
at the defense of New London during the 
War of 1812. In religious connection he 
was an active member of Trinity Epis- 
copal Church, and he and the late Colonel 
George L. Perkins, who lived to pass the 
century mark, were mainly instrumental 
in the organization of the first Sunday 
school in Norwich. Fraternally Colonel 
Roath was a Free Mason. He was a 
staunch Democrat in politics. In person 
he presented a striking figure. He was 
nearly six feet tall, and in his prime 
weighed about two hundred and ninety 
pounds, and he had a most commanding 
presence, especially in his military uni- 
form. He was possessed of immense 
physical strength, and had a powerful 
voice, which he used to good advantage 
in his military service. He was quite a 
singer, having a bass voice. 

Colonel Roath married Elizabeth Allyn, 
of North Groton (now Ledyard), Con- 
necticut, where she was born July 2, 1799, 
daughter of General Stephen Billings Al- 
lyn. She died May 20, 1859, aged sixty 
years. 



HALLECK, Fitz-Greene, 

Poet, Author. 

Fitz-Greene Halleck was born in Guil- 
ford, Connecticut, July 8, 1790. son of 
Israel and Mary (Eliot) Halleck, and a 



direct descendant from Peter Halleck, 
who landed in New Haven colony in 1640, 
and with other English families crossed 
the sound to Long Island and settled in 
Southold ; and also a descendant of John 
Eliot, the apostle to the Indians. His 
father was a native of Dutchess county. 
New York, and during the American 
Revolution was a Royalist, and served in 
the British army under Colonel Tarleton. 
Fitz-Greene Halleck received a com- 
mon school training, and became a clerk 
and bookkeeper in the store of Andrew 
Eliot, in Guilford, in his fifteenth year, 
making his home with his employer and 
remaining until he came of age. It was 
during this time that his first poem ap- 
peared in print, in a New Haven news- 
paper. He was a clerk and bookkeeper in 
the banking house of Jacob Barker, in 
New York City, 1811-31. In 1812 he 
formed a business partnership with a 
relative of Mr. Barker as Halleck & Bar- 
ker, which was shortlived by reason of 
conditions incident to the war with Great 
Britain. In 1819 he formed a literary 
partnership with Joseph Rodman Drake, 
and the arrangement resulted in the 
"Croaker" papers, quaint, satirical chroni- 
cles of New York life, published anony- 
mously in the New York "Evening Post," 
Drake writing under the name "Croaker," 
and Halleck under that of "Croaker, Jr." 
It was during the latter part of this year 
that he wrote "Fanny," an amusing satire, 
that received unqualified praise from John 
Randolph, of Virginia, and which he en- 
larged by fifty stanzas and republished in 
1821. He visited Europe in 1822, and in 
1827 published anonymously a collection 
of his poems which included "Burns" and 
"Alnwick Castle," and the famous lyric 
"Marco Bozzaris," familiar to every 
schoolboy of that day. He was a clerk 
for John Jacob Astor, 1832-49; was a 
trustee of the Astor library, and received 
from the millionaire at his death an annu- 



[32 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ity of forty pounds per annum, supple- 
mented by a gift of $10,000 from his son, 
William B. Astor, upon which he retired 
and lived with a maiden sister in the 
mansion of the Shelley estate at Guilford, 
Connecticut, and while there he wrote 
"Connecticut," "Lines to Lewis Gaylord 
Clark," and "Young America." He visit- 
ed New York City, which had been his 
residence for nearly fifty years, for the 
last time, in October, 1867. His memory 
is perpetuated by his poems ; by a monu- 
ment over his grave in Alderbrook Ceme- 
tery, Guilford, Connecticut, erected by 
Bryant, Longfellow, Sumner, Whittier 
and numerous other friends, the first pub- 
lic monument raised to an American 
poet ; by a full-length bronze statue, the 
first set up in the New World to a poet, 
erected in Central Park, New York City, 
and unveiled in May, 1877. by President 
Hayes, his cabinet, the general of the 
army and the leading literary men of the 
nation ; and by protraits painted by Jar- 
vis. Morse, Inman, Waldo, Elliott and 
Hicks. His published works, from which 
he received during his lifetime $17,500, 
include: "Fanny" (1819, new ed., 1821) ; 
"Alnwick Castle, With Other Poems" 
(1827; 2d ed., 1836; 3d ed., 1845) > "Fanny 
and Other Poems" (1839) ; "The Poetical 
Works of Fitz-Greene Halleck Now First 
Collected" (8 vols., 1847) '■> "The Croakers" 
(1860) ; "Young America. A Poem" 
(1865) ; and "The Poetical Writings of 
Fitz-Greene Halleck" (1869). He died at 
Guilford, Connecticut, November 19, 1867. 



WHEATON, Nathaniel Sheldon, 

President of Trinity ColleKe. 

Nathaniel Sheldon Wheaton, educator, 
was born in Washington, Connecticut, 
August 20, 1792, died in Marbledale, Con- 
necticut, March 18, 1862. He was gradu- 
ated from Yale, A. B., 1814: A. M., 1817; 
removed to Maryland, in 1814, where he 



studied theology, and was ordained to the 
priesthood by Bishop Kemp, of Mary- 
land, continuing a resident there until 
1818, in which year he was chosen rector 
of Christ Church, Hartford, Connecticut. 
He became interested in the establish- 
ment of a second college in Connecticut, 
and was one of the original board of 
trustees of Washington (Trinity) Col- 
lege, Hartford, in 1823, in which year he 
was sent to England to procure books 
and philosophical apparatus for that in- 
stitution, and he retained his membership 
in the board until 1858. W^hile abroad, 
he made a study of architecture, and on 
his return to his native land prepared the 
plan for the new Christ Church at Hart- 
ford. The earnest interest he exhibited 
in the founding of the college was recog- 
nized by his election, in 1831, to the presi- 
dency of the same, to succeed Bishop 
Brownell. The college campus was laid 
out under his direction, and planted with 
elm trees ; the endowment of two profes- 
sorships was secured ; the general funds 
were increased, and Dr. Wheaton gave 
liberally from his own purse. He re- 
signed as president of the college in 1837 
and became rector of Christ Church, New 
Orleans. Louisiana, remaining in that ca- 
pacity until 1844. showing great devotion 
and courage by attending to his duties 
during the scourge of yellow fever. After 
resigning his rectorship, he retired from 
active work, and again visited Europe, 
and upon his return he resided for a time 
in Hartford, removing, on account of 
feeble health, to Washington. Connecti- 
cut, where he spent the remainder of his 
days, serving, as occasion demanded, dif- 
ferent parishes in that and neighboring 
towns. He bequeathed to Trinity Col- 
lege his valuable library, and a sum of 
money to form the nucleus of a chapel 
fund. The present edifice of Trinity 
Church was built after plans obtained in 
England by Dr. Wheaton, and a me- 

133 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



morial window in the chancel commemo- 
rates his labors in behalf of religion and 
education. The honorary degree of D. D. 
was conferred on him by Waterville Col- 
lege in 1832 and by Yale in 1833. His 
journal of foreign travels was published 
in 1830, and he is also the author of: 
"Remarks on Washington College" and 
a "Discourse on the Epistle to Philemon." 



BALDWIN, Roger S., 

Governor, Statesman. 

Roger Sherman Baldwin was born at 
New Haven, Connecticut, January 4, 1793. 
He was a son of Judge Simeon Baldwin, of 
the Supreme Court of Errors of Connecti- 
cut, and Rebecca (Sherman) Baldwin, 
daughter of Hon. Roger Sherman, signer 
of the Declaration of Independence, and 
one of the committee of five by which it 
was framed. 

He graduated from Yale College in 
181 1 ; studied law under his father and at 
the Litchfield Law School ; was admitted to 
the bar at Litchfield in 1814, and entered 
upon practice at New Haven, continuing 
it there until his death, February 19, 1863. 
He rose to distinction in his profession, 
and as a citizen was distinguished for 
ability and broad mindedness. When it 
was proposed to establish a school for 
colored children in New Haven there was 
strenuous objection. At a town meeting 
called to consider the expediency of pro- 
hibiting it, Mr. Baldwin took the unpopu- 
lar side as leader of the few who advo- 
cated the right of the teacher to teach 
whom and where she pleased. In 1839 a 
ship load of native Africans, in the Span- 
ish schooner "Amistad," was brought 
into New London harbor by a govern- 
ment cutter. The negroes had been taken 
to Cuba in a slaver, and while in transit, 
under the charge of a purchaser between 
two of the ports of the island, had cap- 
tured the schooner and brought it to the 



United States. The Spanish government 
demanded their surrender, and Mr. Bald- 
win became their counsel. A long litiga- 
tion ensued in the United States courts, 
resulting at last in a decision which 
secured their liberation under a decision 
of the Supreme Court. In that court John 
Quincy Adams was associated with Mr. 
Baldwin, but the latter had the main re- 
sponsibility of the cause. This profes- 
sional triumph, secured in a field of law 
where there were few precedents, secured 
Mr. Baldwin at once a national reputa- 
tion. Mr. Baldwin served in both houses 
of the State Legislature (1837-1841), and 
as a Whig was elected Governor in 1844, 
and reelected the next year. While he 
was Governor a bill was passed requiring 
the Washington Bridge Company, which 
had built a bridge across the Housatonic 
river many years before on a plan ap- 
proved by the General Assembly, to in- 
sert a new draw of greater width. The 
charter authorized it to perpetually main- 
tain the structure as erected under its 
provisions, and to charge tolls to those 
who traveled over it. The bill took away 
these rights without providing for any 
compensation. Governor Baldwin vetoed 
it in a message which was a clear and 
convincig statement of the inviolability 
of charter contracts and the importance 
of preserving the public faith in every 
particular. The bill was passed over his 
veto, but the Supreme Court on quo zvar- 
ranto proceedings, decided without a dis- 
senting voice that it was void, as an at- 
tempt to impair the obligation of a con- 
tract in violation of the constitution of 
the United States. 

In 1847, Governor Baldwin was elected to 
the United States Senate to fill a vacancy 
occasioned by death, and served until 185'.!, 
failing of a reelection by reason of a tem- 
porary coalition of the Democrats and 
Abolitionists. In the Senate he opposed 
the Compromise bill of 1850, maintaining 



134 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



that the fugitive slave laws then in force 
exceeded the requirements of the national 
constitution. His addresses in the Senate 
were always forcible and effective. One 
which attracted much attention at the 
time was an off-hand reply to Senator 
Mason, of Virginia, who, in urging a bill 
to discharge the warrants for land scrip 
issued by his State for bounties oft'ered 
during the Revolutionary War, drew an 
unfavorable contrast between the sur- 
render by Virginia of all title to her 
western lands, and the reservation of 
millions of acres by Connecticut. Sen- 
ator Baldwin replied that Connecticut, 
small as she was in territory and popula- 
tion, had more troops in the field during 
the Revolution than the great State of 
Virginia, and her citizens, instead of 
holding back waiting for bounties, had 
taken the field before the Continental 
Congress had met in 1775, and under 
Ethan Allen had captured Ticonderoga 
almost before the bloodshed at Lexing- 
ton had grown cold. In i860, Governor 
Baldwin was a Republican presidential 
elector-at-large, and in 1861 he was a 
member of the National Peace Conven- 
tion at Washington, where he advocated 
the convocation of a national convention 
of delegates from all the States to revise 
the constitution of the United States as 
the best way of averting civil war. At 
the time of his death, two years later, he 
was still in active practice at the bar, in 
v/hich he had been long a leader. Yale 
?nd Trinitv had each given him the de- 
gree of LL. D. In an obituary notice in 
the Connecticut reports, written by Gov- 
ernor Harrison, it is said of him: 

In any form, anywhere — in the Supreme 
Court at Washington, or in Westminster Hall, 
or at any other bar, where our system of juris- 
prucknce is understood and practiced — Governor 
Baldwin would have been regarded, not merely 
as a skillful practitioner, but as a man entitled 
to rank among the great lawyers of his day. He 



possessed a comprehensive and thorough ac- 
quaintance with the science of his profession. 
He was master of its learning. He understood 
it in its great doctrines and in its details. In 
short, he had that legal scholarship, that legal 
acumen, that legal knowledge, which no intellect 
but a high one can attain at all, and which even 
a great intellect cannot fully acquire without 
long, thorough and conscientious labor. 

Governor Baldwin was married, in 
1820, to Emily, daughter of Enoch Per- 
kins, of Hartford; they had nine children. 
Governor Baldwin died at New Haven, 
February 19, 1863. 



STORKS, William Lucius, 

Jurist and Chief Justice. 

William Lucius Storrs, jurist, repre- 
sentative, and Chief Justice of Connecti- 
cut, was born at Middletown, Middlesex 
county, Connecticut, March 25, 1795, and 
died in Hartford, Connecticut, June 25, 
1S61. 

He was graduated from Yale College 
in the class of 1814, receiving at that time 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and three 
years later the degree of Master of Arts 
was conferred upon him by the same in- 
stitution. He studied law at Whitestone, 
New York, and was admitted to the New 
York bar in 1817. but soon returned to 
his native city to practice, acquiring a 
large and remunerative practice. He was 
elected a representative to the Connecti- 
cut State Legislature. 1827-29. and also 
in 1834, being speaker of the house the 
last term. He was a Whig representa- 
tive from Connecticut in the Twenty-first 
and Twenty-second Congresses, 1829-33, 
and in the Twenty-sixth Congress, until 
June, 1840, when he resigned to accept 
the appointment of judge of the Supreme 
Court of Connecticut, serving up to 1856, 
and he was Chief Justice of that court 
from i8s6 until his death, a period of six 
vears. He was also Professor of Law at 



T35 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Wesleyan University, Middletown, Con- 
necticut, 1841-46, and at Yale College, 
1846-47, and the degree of LL. D. was 
conferred upon him by Western Reserve 
University in 1846. His legal decisions, 
which are considered remarkably able, 
are published in the "Connecticut Re- 
ports." 



GREENE, William Parkinson, 

Prominent Manufacturer. 

John Greene, pioneer ancestor of Wil- 
liam P. Greene, was a resident of Salis- 
bury, County Wilts, England, and sailed 
from Southampton, England, in the ship 
"James" to Boston, Massachusetts, in 
1635, bringing with him his family. He 
was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts, 
for a short time, and in 1637 removed to 
Providence, Rhode Island, and was one 
of the twelve persons to whom Roger 
Williams deeded land bought of the In- 
dians in 1638. He was one of the twelve 
original members of the First Baptist 
Church. He was commissioner from 
1654 to 1657, and was made a freeman in 
1655. His son, Thomas Greene, born 
June 4. 1628. died June 5, 1717. He was 
made a freeman in 1655, and served as 
commissioner, deputy and assistant. His 
son, Nathaniel Greene, was born April 
10, 1679, and died in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, where he was engaged in mercan- 
tile pursuits. His son. Benjamin Greene, 
was a prominent merchant of Boston, 
Massachusetts, in which city he spent the 
greater part of his active life. His son, 
Gardiner Greene, was the merchant 
prince of Boston, and one of the foremost 
men of New England of his time, both in 
business and social life. He resided in 
Demerara for many years after 1774, and 
laid there the foundation of a large for- 
tune. He married (first) in 1775, Ann 
Reading, who died in 1786. He married 
(second) in 1788, Elizabeth Hubbard, 



who died in 1797. He married (third) in 
July, 1800, while in London, Elizabeth 
Clark, daughter of Copley, the painter, 
and soon took up his permanent resi- 
dence in Boston, and died there Decem- 
ber 19, 1832. He was the father of Wil- 
liam Parkinson Greene, of whom further. 
William Parkinson Greene, son of Gar- 
diner Greene, was late of Norwich. In 
Miss Caulkins' "History of Norwich" 
(1866) appears the following notice of 
Mr. Greene, who was mayor of the city 
in 1842 : "Mr. Greene was a native of 
Boston, but an inhabitant of Norwich for 
more than forty years. He was the sec- 
ond son of Gardiner and Elizabeth (Hub- 
bard) Greene, and born September 7, 
1795. He graduated at Harvard College 
in 1814, and afterward studied law, but 
his health not being equal to the require- 
ments of the legal profession, he removed 
in 1824 to Norwich, and engaged at once 
in business, as a partner and agent of the 
Thames Manufacturing Company, which 
had invested a large capital in the pur- 
chase of mill privileges at the Falls. In 
this city he soon acquired and retained 
during life the esteem and respect of the 
community. He was an energetic and 
large-hearted man ; literary in his tastes, 
but with profound sagacity in financial 
and business concerns. These qualities 
were united with a pure life and an entire 
absence of ostentation. As a beautiful 
result of his unobtrusive life and liberal 
disposition, he seemed to have no ene- 
mies. Slander never made him its mark, 
and his name was never mentioned with 
disrespect. He was never possessed of 
robust health, and therefore seldom able 
to give his personal services in aid of 
public measures, but all charitable and 
noble undertakings having for their ob- 
ject the welfare of man and the honor of 
God were sure of his liberal aid and cor- 
dial sympathy. In 1825 he was chosen 
the president of the Thames Bank, and 
136 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



held the office for sixteen years. With 
this exception, and that of the single year 
in which he was mayor of the city, he 
steadfastly declined, on account of his 
health, all appointments to public office. 
He died June i8, 1864, aged sixty-eight. 
Seldom had the death of a citizen excited 
in the place so deep an interest and such 
profound regret. It was a loss that was 
felt in the circles of business and of pub- 
lic improvement ; in the departments of 
education and philanthropy." 

Mr. Greene was one of the incorpora- 
tors of the Norwich Free Academy in 
1854. He was the second president of the 
board of trustees of that institution, serv- 
ing from 1857 until his death in 1864. His 
wife, in 1859, gave to the academy a 
house and grounds for the use of the 
principal. At various times the gifts of 
Mr. and Mrs. Greene to the academy 
amounted to $40,000. After Mr. Greene's 
removal to Norwich in the early twenties, 
he was wholly identified with the place, 
and by his enterprise and liberal and en- 
lightened course as a citizen, contributed 
largely to its prosperity. He was one of 
the founders of the Thames Manufactur- 
ing Company in 1823. The company pur- 
chased the mill of the Ouinebaug Com- 
pany, which in 1826 built a mill on the 
Shetucket river for the manufacture of 
cotton and woolen goods, before it went 
into operation. The Thames Company 
likewise purchased the mill at Bozrah- 
ville, and in its best days had the three 
large mills in successful operation. Two 
new companies were formed and went 
into operation between 1838 and 1842. 
under the auspices of Mr. Greene — the 
Shetucket Company and the Norwich 
Falls Company. The later company pur- 
chased the mill at the Falls, which had 
formerly belonged to the Thames Com- 
pany. These companies were established 
by Mr. Greene chiefly upon his own 
credit, and were kept, while he lived, 



under his management and direction ; 
each mill had 1,500 spindles in operation. 
Mr. Greene was the prime mover and 
the largest subscriber to the stock of the 
Water Power Company, incorporated in 
1828 "for building a dam and canal in 
order to bring the waters of the She- 
tucket river into manufacturing use." He 
had previously purchased land on the 
Quinebaug above the union with the She- 
tucket and on the latter river from Sa- 
chem's Plain downward, nearly three 
miles in extent on either side of the river, 
in Norwich and Preston. The Shetucket 
dam was built, a canal dug, and a village 
was laid out by this company, and prop- 
erly named Greeneville in honor of W^il- 
liam P. Greene, who had been the active 
promoter of the enterprise. On July 14, 
1819, Mr. Greene married Elizabeth Au- 
gusta Borland, of Boston. 



BUTTON, Henry, 

Jurist, Governor. 

Henry Button, LL. D., was born in 
Plymouth, Connecticut. February 12, 
1796. His grandfather was a captain in 
the Revolutionary army. 

His early years were passed upon a farm, 
and it was with difficulty that he prepared 
himself for a collegiate course. He was 
able, however, to enter Yale College as a 
junior in 1816, and was graduated with 
honors in the class of 1818. Supporting 
himself by teaching in Fairfield, Connec- 
ticut, and by two years of service as tutor 
at Yale College while studying law, he 
was admitted to the bar in 1824. and 
established himself in practice at New- 
town. He was twice elected to represent 
that town in the Legislature, and re- 
mained there fourteen years, then remov- 
ing to Bridgeport, where he attained emi- 
nence at the bar. was again sent to the 
Legislature, and became State's attorney. 
In 1847 he became Kent Professor of 

37 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Law at Yale College, and took up his resi- 
dence in New Haven, where he remained 
for the remainder of his life. Professor 
Button was called upon to perform high 
public service in addition to his academic 
duties, being elected to the State Senate 
in 1849, '^"d again to the lower house of 
the Legislature, and serving on the commis- 
sions to revise and recompile the statutes 
of the State. In 1854 he was elected 
Governor of Connecticut, thus becoming 
cx-officio a fellow of the Yale corporation 
during the term of his office, and in the 
same year received the degree of Doctor 
of Laws from that university. He was 
also a judge of the Superior Court, and 
was appointed to the Supreme Bench in 
1861, retaining that seat until retired by 
reason of reaching the age limit of sev- 
enty years. 

In his long connection with public 
affairs, as legislator, judge and executive, 
Governor Dutton displayed a liberal and 
progressive spirit, and left his mark upon 
the statutory and judicial system of Con- 
necticut. Among the reforms brought 
about largely through his efforts are the 
passage of the law allowing parties to a 
suit to testify in civil cases, the transfer 
of all divorce cases to the Superior Court, 
and acts securing more effectively the 
rights of married women. After leaving 
the bench, Judge Dutton continued in 
private practice until failing health for- 
bade, and retained his professorship at 
Yale until his death, April 12, 1869. 



TOUCEY, Isaac, 

Cabinet Official. 

Isaac Toucey was born in Newtown, 
Connecticut, November 5, 1796. He was 
descended from the Rev. Thomas Toucey, 
the first Congregational minister in New- 
town, and many members of the family 
in the generations following were liber- 
all}^ educated and held prominent positions 
in the section. 



Isaac Toucey received a liberal educa- 
tion, and studied law in Newtown with 
Judge Chapman. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1818, and practiced his profes- 
sion in Hartford. He early became a 
Democratic political leader, and was 
elected State Attorney for the county in 
1821. serving for four years. He was a 
representative from the First Connecti- 
cut District in the Twenty-fourth and 
Twenty-fifth Congresses (1825-39), and 
was defeated for reelection in 1838 by 
Joseph Trumbull, the Whig candidate. 
He served as State Attorney for Hart- 
ford county, 1842-44. In 1845 ^^ "^^^ 
the unsuccessful Democratic candidate 
against Roger S. Baldwin for Governor ; 
and in 1846 was defeated for the same 
office by popular vote, but was elected 
by the Legislature ; and he was again de- 
feated for the governorship in 1847 ^y 
Clark Bissell. In 1848 he was appointed 
to the cabinet of President Polk as at- 
torney-general, to succeed Nathan Clif- 
ford, of Maine. Later he was sent as 
United States commissioner to Mexico, 
and held the position from June 21, 1848, 
until the close of President Polk's admin- 
istration, March 3, 1849. He was a mem- 
ber of the State Senate in 1850, and a 
representative in the lower house of the 
State Legislature in 1852. He was elected 
United States Senator as successor to 
Roger S. Baldwin and took his seat May 
14, 1852, completing the term March 3. 
1857. He was Secretary of the Navy in 
President Buchanan's cabinet for the full 
term of Buchanan's administration, ex- 
piring March 3, 1861. His official con- 
duct as Secretary of the Navy during the 
trying times incident to the outbreak of 
the Civil War has been severely and gen- 
erally criticised by the Republicans and 
War Democrats ; but his political and 
personal friends claimed that he was gov- 
erned entirely by his judgment as to his 
constitutional line of duty, and the policy 



138 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



of the administration of which he was a 
member. He was a trustee of Trinity 
College, Hartford, 1830-1869, and receiv- 
ed from that institution the honorary de- 
gree of LL. D. in 1846. He also estab- 
lished two scholarships in the college and 
left to the institution a large share of his 
estate. He died in Hartford, Connecti- 
cut. July 30, 1869. 



WARREN, Alanson, 

Prominent Manufacturer. 

The first of this name in England was 
William de Warrenne, a nobleman, who 
rendered distinguished services in the 
conquest of England by William the Con- 
queror and was created Earl of Surrey. 
An ancient genealogy of the family traces 
the lineage of this W^illiam de Warrenne 
back to the year 900 A. D., the year in 
which his Scandinavian forbears are said 
to have settled in Normandy. The War- 
rens of America have won distinction 
both as civilians and soldiers. Their rec- 
ord in the struggle for national independ- 
ence is an exceedingly honorable one, and 
the valiant services of General Joseph 
Warren, who fell at Bunker Hill, are too 
well known to need further comment. 
Richard W^arren, the American progeni- 
tor, born in England, came to New Eng- 
land from Greenwich, England, in the 
historic "Mayflower" company which 
founded Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 
1620, and was one of the nineteen signers 
of the famous compact who survived the 
first winter. The register at the end of 
Bradford's folio manuscript gives him the 
honorable prefix of Mr. He was men- 
tioned by a contemporary as "grave Rich- 
ard Warren, a man of integrity, justice 
and uprightness, of piety and serious re- 
ligion ;" and also "as a useful instrument 
during the short time he lived, bearing a 
deep share in the difficulties and troubles 



of the plantation." He received land 
grants in common with his associates and 
one of these grants was at Warren's Cove. 
He was one of the influential members o^ 
the company and as such was selected 
with nine others to cruise along the coast 
from Cape Cod Harbor, in a shallop, for 
the purpose of deciding on a place of set- 
tlement. His death occurred at Plymouth 
in 1628. His son, Nathaniel Warren, was 
born in Plymouth in 1624, died in 1667. 
As he was among the first children born 
in the colony he received a special grant 
of land. He became a large real estate 
owner and was a man of prominence, 
serving as selectman, highway surveyor, 
representative to the General Court and 
also in the local militia. His son, Rich- 
ard (2) Warren, was born in Plymouth 
in 1646, died in Middleboro, Massachu- 
setts, January 23, 1697. He settled in 
Middleboro shortly after the close of King 
Philip's War. His son, John Warren, 
was born in Middleboro in 1690, died in 
that town in 1768. He was residing at 
Scituate in 171 1, and returned to Middle- 
boro about 1737. His son, James War- 
ren, was born in Scituate. December 4, 
1714. He settled in Connecticut, going 
first to Woodbridge and subsequently re- 
moving to New Haven. His son, Edward 
Warren, was born in Woodbridge, Sep- 
tember 18, 1761. He went from Wood- 
bridge to Watertown, Litchfield county, 
Connecticut, and resided there the re- 
mainder of his life. He was accidentally 
drowned in the Naugatuck river, Decem- 
ber 10. 1814. At the age of eighteen years 
he entered the Continental army for serv- 
ice in the Revolutionary War, and was 
almost immediately called into action, ac- 
companying General Anthony Wayne on 
the silent march through the mountain 
passes to Stony Point, New York, and 
participating in the capture of the fortress 
on the morning of July 16. 1779. Accord- 



139 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ing to his own account of this daring 
enterprise his company was the first to 
reach the works in the gallant charge of 
the American forces, which proved a com- 
plete surprise to the British, and he was 
the third man to enter the fort. After his 
death his widow received a pension from 
the federal government. Edward War- 
ren owned and occupied a farm located 
about three and one-half miles from 
Watertown Centre, and long known as 
the Warren place. The residence was 
built in the most substantial manner and 
is still in a good state of preservation. 
Edward Warren married Mary Steele, 
born in 1764, died February 24, 1849. Her 
parents were Captain Bradford and Mary 
(Perkins) Steele, and she was a descend- 
ant in the sixth generation of George 
Steele (i) through James (2), John (3), 
Ebenezer (4) and Captain Bradford (5). 
Their son, Alanson Warren, born in 
Watertown, May 16, 1796, when sixteen 
years old began to serve an apprentice- 
ship at the hatter's trade with Joel P. 
Richards in Watertown, and upon attain- 
ing his majority he became sole proprietor 
of the establishment, inaugurating his 
business career with a capital of six hun- 
dred dollars and employing from ten to 
twenty journeymen and apprentices. This 
enterprise he carried on for a number of 
years in connection with farming, but he 
was eventually obliged to place his agri- 
cultural interests in the hands of his sons, 
in order to devote his entire time and 
energies to his business aflfairs. In 1838 
Mr. Warren entered into partnership with 
William H. Merriman and the latter's 
son, C. H. Merriman, merchants, and the 
two concerns became united under the 
firm name of Merriman & Warren, but 
three years later Mr. Warren found it ad- 
visable to withdraw, and he resumed busi- 
ness alone. About this time he engaged 
in the manufacture of cloth and fur goods 



in connection with his hat business, and 
these productions sold readily to country 
merchants in Connecticut, Massachusetts 
and New York, to whom they were trans- 
ported in a large two-horse wagon espe- 
cially constructed for this purpose. In 
1843 he admitted to partnership his son, 
Truman A., and R. S. Beers, thus organ- 
izing the firm of Warren & Beers, and 
having placed the business upon a firm 
foundation he withdrew in 1847 ^o^ the 
purpose of giving more attention to an- 
other business enterprise, in which he had 
embarked. In 1843 ^^ became associated 
with his son-in-law, George P. Woodruff, 
in the production of buckles, buttons, 
slides and metal trimmings for hats and 
caps, and in 1848 they consolidated with 
Nathaniel Wheeler, who had been their 
competitor in the same line of goods, and 
the firm became Warren, Wheeler & 
Woodrufif. Suspender buckles were 
added to their list of products and their 
business developed so rapidly that in 
1849 it was found necessary to improve 
their facilities for production. They ac- 
cordingly purchased the water power site 
formerly owned by the Leverett, Condee 
satinet factory in Watertown, and were 
thus enabled to expand their business into 
much larger proportions. At this period 
the idea of applying machinery to the 
domestic art of sewing was agitating the 
minds and stimulating the energies of 
mechanical experts, and among the inven- 
tors who succeeded in producing a prac- 
tical machine for this purpose was Allen 
Benjamin Wilson, then a cabinetmaker of 
Pittsfield, Massachusetts. In 1850 the 
Warren Company entered into a contract 
to construct some two thousand of the 
Wilson first patent shuttle machines, and 
these were followed in 1852 by an im- 
provement based upon an entirely differ- 
ent principle, known as the rotary hook 
machine. Steps were immediately taken 
140 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



for placing the new machine upon the 
market, and a company was formed con- 
sisting of Alanson Warren, Nathaniel 
Wheeler, George P. Woodruff and A. B. 
Wilson, and known as Wheeler, Wilson 
& Company. From this parent organiza- 
tion was subsequently developed the 
famous Wheeler & Wilson Manufactur- 
ing Company, with Alanson Warren as 
president, George P. Woodruff', secretary 
and treasurer, and Nathaniel Wheeler as 
general manager. The capital of this con- 
cern, which consisted mainly of real 
estate, machinery and patents, valued at 
about sixty thousand dollars, was after- 
ward increased to one hundred and sixty 
thousand by the sale of stock, and it ulti- 
mately reached one million dollars. Mr. 
Warren having resigned the presidency in 
1855, he was succeeded by Mr. Wheeler, 
and in the following year the factory was 
removed to Bridgeport. It is, at the pres- 
ent day, both interesting and surprising 
to observe how utterly unable were the 
promoters of the Wheeler & Wilson Com- 
pany to properly estimate its future mag- 
nitude. Mr. Warren once stated that he 
expected to witness the production of 
twenty-five machines per day. He never 
even dreamed that the daily capacity 
would reach six hundred, which was 
actually the case. 

Mr. Warren's business career was an 
exceedingly busy one, and embraced 
many different enterprises. He was presi- 
dent of the Warren & Newton Manufac- 
turing Company, a concern established in 
1846 for the production of suspenders and 
afterward absorbed by the American Sus- 
pender Company of Waterbury ; was also 
president of the Phoenix Company, an- 
other industrial company, and was con- 
nected with the American Knife Com- 
pany, Plymouth ; the Waterbury Brass 
Company ; Oakville Pin Company ; Union 
Leather Company ; the Beers & Woodruff 



Company, manufacturers of shirts and 
linen goods, and was one of the incorpor- 
ators of Evergreen Cemetery, Watertown. 
In politics he was a Whig and in 1841 he 
served in the General Assembly. For 
many years he was senior warden of 
Christ Church (Episcopal), and contrib- 
uted liberally to the fund raised for the 
erection of the new church edifice com- 
pleted in 1855. His death occurred in 
Watertown, October 20, 1858. 

Mr. Warren married. December 25, 1818, 
Sarah M., daughter of Caleb and Ruth 
Hickox, of Watertown. She died April 
20, 1866. Their children were : Belinda 
M.. Truman A., David Hard, Sarah, 
Charles A., Henry, Mary, Alanson. 



RIPLEY, George Burbank, 

eminent Jurist. 

The Ripley family trace their descent 
through various lines to the earliest set- 
tlers in this country, notably in a direct 
line to Governor William Bradford, of 
"Mayflower" fame. William Ripley, im- 
migrant ancestor, came from England in 
1638 and settled in Hingham, Massachu- 
setts, where he died July 20, 1656. His 
son, John Ripley, was born in England, 
died in 1684; married Elizabeth Hobart. 
Their son, Joshua Ripley, was born May 
9, 1658, died May 18, 1739; he removed 
from Hingham, Massachusetts, to Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, and later to Wind- 
ham, same State ; he married Hannah 
Bradford. Their son, Joshua (2) Ripley, 
was born May 13, 1688, died November 
18, 1773; he married Mary Backus. Their 
son, ribenezer Ripley, was born June 22, 
1729, died at Windham, June 11, 1811; 
he married Mehetabel Burbank. Their 
son, Major Dwight Ripley, was born Au- 
gust 7, 1764, died in Norwich, Connecti- 
cut, November 18, 1835 ; he was engaged 
for almost half a century in Norwich as 



141 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



a merchant and druggist ; he married 
Eliza Coit, who died July 30, 1846, and 
they were the parents of Hon. George 
Burbank Ripley, of this review. 

Hon. George Burbank Ripley, son of 
Major Dwight and Eliza (Coit) Ripley, 
was born in Norwich, March 13, 1801, 
died in that town, July 9, 1858. He was 
graduated from Yale College with the 
class of 1822, which contained a number 
of other distinguished members, studied 
law under the preceptorship of Judge 
Swift, at Windham, Connecticut, until 
the latter's death, when he continued his 
studies in the office of Judge Staples in 
New Haven. He was admitted to the bar 
in 1824, and for a time was engaged in 
the practice of his profession (with a 
very satisfactory amount of success). His 
love of nature and an outdoor life ap- 
pealed to him too strongly, however, to 
be resisted, and he turned his attention to 
farming, in which he was also successful. 
His intellectual attainments were of an 
unusually high order, and his ability as 
a conversationalist won him many friends 
and admirers. He was not permitted to 
live a life of retirement, as he was elected 
to a number of public offices by his fel- 
low townsmen, who felt their interests 
could be in no safer hands. He served as 
judge of the probate court for the Nor- 
wich district for a number of years be- 
tween 1850 and his death. Judge Ripley 
married, October 19, 1825, Hannah Gardi- 
ner Lathrop, born March 9, 1806, died 
September 17, 1897, daughter of Thomas 
and Hannah (Bill) Lathrop. She was 
a woman strikingly beautiful in person 
and character. One of their sons, Wil- 
liam Lathrop, born April 30, 1827, died at 
Saugatuck, Michigan, April 8, 1878; he 
was engaged in mercantile business in 
Michigan, and during the Civil War was 
in the commissary department and held 
the rank of major in a Michigan regi- 
ment; he married, 1854, Jerusha Gilchrist. 



BUSHNELL, Horace, 

Theologian. 

Horace Bushnell was born in New 
Preston, Litchfield county, Connecticut, 
April 14, 1802. In boyhood he worked on 
his father's farm and in a fulling and 
carding mill. When he was nineteen 
years old he first began to devote himself 
to study, and he was graduated from 
Yale College with honor in 1827. He 
then taught school in Norwich, Connec- 
ticut, and afterward engaged as literary 
editor of the New York "Journal of Com- 
merce." He returned to Yale College in 
1829 to take a course in law. and accepted 
a tutorship in the college. 

In 1831, when about to be admitted to 
the bar, a religious revival in the college 
led him to enter the Yale Divinity School, 
and upon completing his course and ob- 
taining his license, he was unanimously 
chosen as pastor of the North Congrega- 
tional Church at Hartford, in May, 1833. 
In 1839 he delivered an address on 
"Revelation," before the Society of In- 
quiry, at Andover Theological Seminary, 
and his views on the doctrine of the Trin- 
ity awakened suspicions as to his ortho- 
doxy, as they again did in 1849, upon the 
publication of his "God in Christ," and 
he was called before a committee ap- 
pointed by the Hartford Central Associ- 
ation, of which he was a member, to an- 
swer to a charge of heresy. Among his 
accusers were the leading theological au- 
thorities, but they did not agree as to 
what the heresy was. Dr. Bushnell made 
a spirited defence, and the committee re- 
ported through its chairman. Dr. Noah 
Porter, that "though there were, in the 
views presented, variations from the his- 
toric formulas of faith, the errors were 
not fundamental." This report was ac- 
cepted with but three dissenting votes, 
and although the Central Association was 
again appealed to in 1850 and also in 
142 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



1852, it refused to render any further 
judgment in the case, and the agitation 
gradually subsided. His defence, "Christ 
in Theology," was published after the 
trial. For twenty-six years he remained 
at Hartford, his only pastorate, and when 
in 1859 ill health compelled him to resign, 
the great sorrow manifested by his par- 
ishioners bore eloquent testimony to the 
strong hold he had upon their hearts. Dr. 
Bushnell, outside of his church, fostered 
every influence which tended to the im- 
provement of the minds, habits, manners 
and principles, as well as the surround- 
ings of the people. He advocated setting 
aside the land surrounding the State 
House in Hartford for a public park, and 
his aggressive persistence overcame the 
opposition, afterward the park being 
named in his honor, "Bushnell Park." 
His principal works are: "Christian Na- 
ture" (1847); "God in Christ" (1849); 
"Christ in Theology" (1851) ; "Nature 
and the Supernatural" (185S) ; "Sermons 
for the New Life" (1858) ; "Character of 
Jesus" (1861) ; "'Work and Play," a col- 
lection of addresses (1864) ; "The Vicari- 
ous Sacrifice" (1865); "Moral Uses of 
Dark Things" (1868) ; "Woman Suffrage, 
the Reform Against Nature" (1869); 
"Sermons on Living Subjects" (1872) ; 
and "Forgiveness and Law" (1874). He 
received the degree of D. D. from Wes- 
leyan University in 1842, and from Har- 
vard in 1852, and Yale gave him the de- 
gree of LL. D. in 1871. 

He married, September 13, 1833, Mary 
Apthorp, of New Haven, Connecticut. 
He died at Hartford. Connecticut, Febru- 
ary 17, 1876; and a mural tablet was 
erected to his memory in the church in 
which he had so long served. His daugh- 
ter, Mary Bushnell Cheney, published 
"Life and Letters of Horace Bushnell" 
(1880). 



WELLES, Gideon, 

Civil War Secretary of Navy. 

Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy 
in the cabinet of President Lincoln, was 
born in Glastonbury, Connecticut, July i,- 
1802, and died in Hartford, Connecticut, 
February 11, 1873. He was a son of 
Samuel and Ann (Hale) Welles, and was 
descended from Thomas Welles, a native 
of England, who was one of the original 
settlers of Connecticut, treasurer of the 
colony, commissioner and governor. 

Gideon Welles was prepared for col- 
lege at the Episcopal Academy of Connec- 
ticut, at Cheshire, and entered the Nor- 
wich (Vermont) Academy (now univer- 
sity) in 1823, and was graduated in 1826, 
and receiving the Master of Arts degree 
from the same institution in 1836. In 
1826, the year in which he graduated, he 
becam,e part owner and editor- of the 
"Hartford (Connecticut) Times," and re- 
mained in connection with that journal 
until 1854, although he vacated the edi- 
torial chair in 1836. The paper was for 
many years the chief Democratic organ 
in the State ; it stoutly supported Andrew 
Jackson in his presidential candidacy, and 
sustained his administration. Mr. Welles 
was a member of the State Legislature 
from 1827 to 1835, and in that body and 
also in his editorial columns severely at- 
tacked a legislative measure intended to 
exclude from the courts witnesses whe 
did not believe in a future state of re- 
wards and punishments. He also labored 
for years for the repeal of laws providing 
for the imprisonment of debtors, oppose 
special and private legislation, and bega;-' 
an agitation for a low postage law before 
the subject had attracted much public at- 
tention. He also secured the passage of 
a law for the efficient organization of 
financial corporations. He was elected 



M' 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OE lUOGRAl'UY 



Slate Comptroller in 1835 by the Legis- 
lature, and in 1842 and 1843 ^^V vote of 
the people, during the intervening years 
serving as postmaster of Hartford. Erom 
1846 to 1849 l^c ^^^ chief of the bureau 
of provisions and clothing in the Navy 
Department. 

Mr. Welles had always been an earnest 
opponent of slavery, and was particularly 
opposed to its extension into free terri- 
tory. In 1856 he was one of the organiz- 
ing mem,bcrs of the Republican party, and 
was its unsuccessful candidate for (iov- 
ernor. In the Republican National Con- 
vention of i860, which nominated Abra- 
ham Lincoln for the presidency. Mr. 
Welles was chairman of the C'onnecticut 
delegation. Immediately after his in- 
auguration. President Lincoln called Mr. 
Welles to his cal)inet as Secretary of tin' 
Navy, and he remained in that post until 
the close of President Johnson's adminis 
tration, March 3, 1869. Mr. Welles's ad- 
ministration of his department was en- 
tirely acce])table to the navy, and to the 
country at large. In his first re])()rt, of 
July 4, 1861, he annoiniccd an increase of 
naval vessels from forty to eighty-two ; 
this and the subsequent increase from 
lime to time during the Civil War period 
to a total of more than live hundred was 
mainly due to his energy and persistency. 
He also introduced the iron-clad type of 
war ship, and which rendered all others 
obsolete throughout the world. In cabi- 
net councils he always opposed arbi- 
trary measures, and objected to the block- 
ade of southern ports, holding that 
such a declaration was equivalent to an 
acknowledgment of belligerent rights, and 
that the preferable course would be to 
close American ports to foreign com- 
m,erce. He presented these views in writ- 
ing, at the request of President Lincoln, 
but the cabinet held to the views of Sec- 
retary of Slate .Seward, who sustained the 



blockade. In the first year of the war, 
Secretary Welles (jrdered that negro refu- 
gees should be enlisted in the navy. 

In 1872 Mr. Welles allied himself with 
the Liberal Republicans. In 1876 he sup- 
ported Mr. Tilden for the presidency, and 
he afterward took strong ground against 
the findings of the Electoral Commission 
in the seating of Mr. Hayes. In 1872 he 
published a paper claiming that the cap- 
ture of New Orleans was entirely due to 
naval operations; and in 1873 was pub- 
lished his volume, "Lincoln and Seward." 
He made many contributions on Civil 
War events to the principal magazines ; 
and his "Diary," which first appeared in 
the ";\llanlic Monthly," and later was 
I)ut into book form, was a most valuable 
contribution to the political and Civil 
War history of the country. Mr. W^elles 
was a man of commanding figure, and of 
a strong personality. He married Mary 
Jane Hale, of Lewistown, Pennsylvania. 



BUCKINGHAM, William A., 

Civil "War Governor of Connecticut. 

William Alfred Buckingham was born 
at Lebanon, New London county, Connec- 
ticut, May 28, 1804, eldest son of Samuel 
Buckingham and Joanna Matson,of Lyme, 
Connecticut. His father was a prosperous 
farmer in Lebanon, and owned a shad 
fishery at the mouth of the Connecticut 
river. The town of Saybrook had been 
the residence of his family since the im- 
migration of their ancestor, Thomas 
Buckingham, who left luigland in 1637. 
His youngest son. Thomas, direct an- 
cestor of Governor Buckingham, was 
born in Milford, Connecticut, in 1646, and 
became pastor of the church in Saybrook. 
He was one of the ten ministers who 
founded Yale College, which for fourteen 
years was located in Saybrook ; and was 
also moderator of the synod which 



144 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



founded the system of doctrine and gov- 
ernment under which the churches of Con- 
necticut were organized, historically 
known as the "Saybrook Platform." 
Governor Buckingham was sixth in de- 
scent from this ancestor, whose inter- 
mediate descendants resided in Saybrook 
until 1803, when his father removed to 
Lebanon. 

Young Buckingham attended the local 
schools and Bacon Academy, Colchester, 
Connecticut. He taught in a district 
school for one winter, and worked on his 
father's farm three years, and at the age 
of eighteen took a clerkship in a store in 
Norwich, followed by a short service as 
clerk in New York, then returning and 
engaging in the drygoods business on his 
own account. In 1830 he added the manu- 
facture of ingrain carpets, and carried his 
l)usiness successfully through the great 
crisis of 1837. In 1848 with two or three 
associates he began the manufacture of 
rubber shoes and was connected with 
that industry the remainder of his life. 

His public career began in 1849 when 
he was elected mayor of Norwich, to 
which ofifice he was reelected in 1850, 
1856 and 1857. He was a Republican 
presidential elector in 1856. In 1858 he 
was elected Governor, to which office he 
was chosen for eight consecutive terms, 
receiving in the last a majority unpre- 
cedented in the history of the State, and 
no one in Connecticut since Oliver Wol- 
cott (1818-27) having held the office so 
long. 

At the outset of the Civil War, his lofty 
character and large credit was a potent 
airl toward the promptness of Connecti- 
cut in forwarding the first completely 
equipped regiment furnished by any 
State. The legislature not being in ses- 
sion at the opening of the war, he pledged 
his private means at the banks to provide 
funds for the equipment of his troops, 
and the banks showed their patriotism 

CONN-Vol I-IO I 



and confidence in him by prompt and full 
response. The successive quotas of Con- 
necticut, under calls of the President for 
volunteers, were always more than fdled, 
and her troops equipped with wonderful 
promptness. Directed by the "War Gov- 
ernor," as he was and is still called, fifty- 
three thousand sons of Connecticut went 
to the field — almost one-half of her able- 
bodied men fit to bear arms — and in a 
state of such complete preparedness as to 
elicit the rei)eated commendation of the 
national authorities. President Lincoln 
said of him : "We always like to see Gov- 
ernor lluckingham in Washington. He 
takes up no superfluous time. He knows 
exactly what he needs, and makes no un- 
reasonable demands." Such remarks 
were frequently emphasized by Secretary 
Stanton, of the War Department. The 
correspondence of Governor Buckingham 
with the President and Secretary further 
demonstrates the source of his influence 
through the afTectionate respect in which 
they held him. In response to a letter 
sent him during one of the darkest 
periods of the war Secretary Stanton 
wrote: "In the midst of toil and care 
that wearies my spirit and exhausts my 
strength, such words of comfort revive 
and strengthen me greatly." During 
those fateful four years Governor Buck- 
ingham never for a moment wavered in 
his belief that the government must and 
would succeed. His personal relations 
with the officers and men who entered 
the service from Connecticut were most 
cordial. When the regiments left the 
State he was, if possible, always present 
with an encouraging farewell. When 
they returned, he received from their 
hands, with words of fervent emotion, 
those tattered flags, which to-day, in the 
"battle flag vestibule" of the State capi- 
tol, fittingly surround his statue. 

The war ended and the affairs of Con- 
necticut with the general government 

45 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



well adjusted, Governor Buckingham de- 
clined further reelection. In 1868 he was 
elected to the United States Senate, and 
although never before in Congress, his 
record as "War Governor'' insured at once 
a flattering recognition by his colleagues, 
and a wide influence. He was made 
chairman of the committee on Indian 
affairs during a period when public atten- 
tion was earnestly fixed upon the respon- 
sibilities of our government toward its 
wards, and threw himself with great in- 
tensity into the work. Those who would 
make the necessities of the Indian their 
own greedy opportunity found in him no 
friend. As a member of the committee 
on commerce his extensive and practical 
experience gave weight and authority to 
his opinions. He was not an orator; but 
his speeches were marked by clearness, 
force and great earnestness. 

He was a corporate member of the 
American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions ; president of the Amer- 
ican Missionary Association, the Western 
College and Education Society, and mod- 
erator of the first national council of Con- 
gregational churches, at Boston, in 1865. 
He was a prominent member of the Sec- 
ond Congregational Church, and one of 
the founders of the Broadway Church of 
Norwich, in which he was an officer until 
his death. He was one of the founders 
of the Norwich Free Academy and presi- 
dent of its board of trustees. He gave 
generously to Yale College, and a chair 
was named in his honor in the Divinity 
School of that institution. The secret of 
Governor Buckingham's influence lay in 
the wonderful balance of his powers, 
physical, intellectual and moral. He was 
everywhere and always the impersona- 
tion of courtesy. His power of reaching 
the core of a difficult question was almost 
intuitive ; and his tact in dealing with 
men under trying circumstances was ex- 
traordinary. His love for children was 



very strong; he would sometimes leave 
the writing of an important state paper 
to frolic in his library with an interrupt- 
ing grandchild. The gentleness of his 
manner would have led a superficial ob- 
server to underrate his strength of char- 
acter. It was in the fervid expresssion 
of his intensest convictions or in an occa- 
sional burst of his righteous indignation 
that the full man was revealed. 

Governor Buckingham was married, at 
Norwich, September 2j, 1830, to Eliza, 
daughter of Dr. Dwight and Eliza (Coit) 
Ripley, by whom he had two children : 
William, born October, 1836, died De- 
cember, 1838; Eliza Coit, born December 
8, 1838. She married General William A. 
Aiken, one of Governor Buckingham's 
stafif during the Civil W^ar, and who was 
the first to reach the seat of government 
with dispatches from the North, when 
Washington was beset with enemies, and 
the approaches to the capital were ob- 
structed. He delivered these dispatches 
in person to President Lincoln. Mrs. 
Buckingham died April 19, 1868. The 
family life of Governor Buckingham was 
most attractive, the spirit of the house- 
hold being one of cheerfulness, kindness 
and boundless hospitality. He died at his 
home in Norwich, Connecticut, February 
5. 1875, a short time before his senatorial 
term was completed. The day of his 
funeral was observed throughout the 
State, and was one of general mourning 
in the city of his residence. His hospit- 
able home, with had included among its 
guests Lincoln, Grant, Garfield, and many 
other notable men, was thronged for 
hours by a ceaseless procession of the 
high and the lowly, to take a last look at 
the face they had loved and reverenced. 
Upon his monument in Yantic Cemetery 
in Norwich is this inscription : "William 
Alfred Buckingham. Governor of Connec- 
ticut (1858-1866), United States Senator 
(1869-1875). His courage was dauntless. 



146 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



His will inflexible. His devotion to duty 
supreme. His faith in God absolute." In 
1898, the home of the "War Governor" 
was bought by Sedgwick Post, No. i, 
Grand Army of the Republic, to be 
known as the "Buckingham Memorial." 
Previously the Connecticut branch, Sons 
of the American Revolution, had bought, 
as a memorial of the "War Governor of 
the Revolution," Trumbull's "war office" 
at Lebanon. 



BUNCE, James Marvin, 

Honored Citizen of Hartford. 

Thomas Bunce, immigrant ancestor, 
was born in 1612 in England and was of 
English or Scotch ancestry. He died be- 
fore August, 1682. In 1639 he was a pro- 
prietor of the town of Hartford, Connec- 
ticut, "by courtesie of the town." His house 
lot was near the site of the State capitol. 
He served in the Pequot war and was 
granted sixty acres of land for his serv- 
ices by the general court in 1671 and fifty 
acres more in 1672. He and his wife were 
members of the South Church in 1670. 
His son, John Bunce, was born about 
1650, died about 1734. He inherited the 
house and barn and the homestead bounded 
by land of Thomas Gridley and others in 
Hartford. He was admitted to the South 
Church in 1686 with his wife, Mary (Bar- 
nard) Bunce. His son, John (2) Bunce, 
was born about 1690, in Hartford, died 
in 1743. He married Abigail Sanford. 
His son, John (3) Bunce, was born 1718. 
He married Ann, daughter of Joseph 
Bunce, of Hartford, who died in 1750, as 
he and his wife are mentioned among the 
heirs of Joseph Bunce. Among his chil- 
dren was John Bunce, born 1750. He 
married Susannah, daughter of Captain 
Nathaniel and Abigail (Jones) Kilbourne. 
Children : Russell, mentioned below ; Na- 
thaniel. Russell Bunce was born in Hart- 
ford, October 10, 1776. He became a 



leading merchant and substantial citizen 
of Hartford, and for many years was dea- 
con of the First (Centre) Congregational 
Church. He married Lucinda Marvin, of 
Lyme, Connecticut, a descendant of 
Thomas Lee, of Saybrook (1641J. His 
son, 

James Marvin Bunce, was born Oc- 
tober 13, 1806, in Hartford, died there 
July 25, 1859. He was educated in the 
public schools, and in 1825 began his 
career as clerk in the Phoenix Bank and 
later was teller. He went into business 
on his own account as member of the 
firm of T. K, Brace & Company, Febru- 
ary I, 1830. The firm carried on an ex- 
tensive commission business. At that 
time Hartford was an important center of 
this line of business. After a time the 
name of the firm was changed to Brace 
& Bunce and when the senior partner re- 
tired, V. A. Bailey entered the firm, the 
name becoming J. M. Bunce & Company. 
Mr. Bailey died suddenly and was suc- 
ceeded by Drayton Hillyer. Mr. Bunce 
continued at the head of the business 
until his death. For some time the firm 
dealt chiefly in wool and cotton. Mr. 
Bunce was also a member of the firm of 
Hillyer, Munyan & Company, dealers in 
groceries, and located in the same build- 
ing with J. M. Bunce & Company. He 
had large interests outside his firm. He 
was one of the active agents of Hartford 
in opposing the construction of the Air 
Line railroad bridge over the Connecti- 
cut river at Middletown. The contro- 
versy over this bridge lasted from 1847 to 
1849 and during its progress Mr. Bunce 
became well-known throughout the State 
for a sturdy and able fighter. He was 
chosen president of the Hartford Provi- 
dence & Fishkill Railroad Company and 
devoted all his energies to the construc- 
tion and development of this road. He 
was a prime mover in the effort to have 
an adequate and fitting high school build- 
147 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ing in Hartford and forwarded the agita- 
tion by circulating documents, publishing 
newspaper articles, and, as a member of 
the building committee afterward, he 
contributed liberally toward the comple- 
tion of the edifice in accordance with the 
ambitious ideas he himself held. Need- 
less to say, Hartford has been grateful to 
him for the foresight and persistence he 
showed. He was originally a Whig in 
politics. He was in sympathy with the 
anti-slavery movement, but continued 
with the Whig party to the end, assisting 
to organize the new Republican party. 
He was a delegate to the first Republi- 
can National Convention at Pittsburg 
His pledge that Connecticut would give 
a plurality for the Republican candidate 
was received with incredulity. "We 
doubt if any man in the State gave more 
generously to the cause (of the new 
party) here or in Kansas, or rejoiced 
more heartily over the splendid vote of 
Connecticut in 1856." His temper was 
naturally most ardent and impetuous, im- 
patient of obstacles, leading him straight 
towards his object. But he was exceed- 
ingly generous and his warm affections 
were easily touched by distress or the de- 
mands of any good cause. He left a 
goodly estate, but he gave away more 
than he left, for his benefactions began 
early, increased as his means allowed and 
continued to the time of his death. 

Many years he was a member of the 
Centre Church, but he joined the colony 
from that church to establish the now 
flourishing Pearl Street Church. Pie was 
an active and earnest Christian, taking 
every opportunity to do good to others 
and to lead them to the faith in which he 
believed. Plis death was caused by a run- 
away accident, while he was yet active in 
business and social life. His great force 
of character, his zeal for the public wel- 
fare and determination to do all in his 
power to promote the public good, his in- 



flexible integrity, strong will and high 
purposes, placed him among the foremost 
and most useful and honored citizens of 
Hartford and made his death lamented as 
that of few men have ever been in that 
city. 

He married (first) March 15, 1830, 
Frances A. Brace, born April 8, 1808, died 
September 9, 1838. He married (second) 
October 9, 1839, Elizabeth H. Chester, 
born October 31, 1807, died March 6, 
1861. 



FOOTE, Andrew H., 

Brilliant Naval Commander. 

Admiral Andrew Hull Foote was born 
in New Haven, Connecticut, September 
12, 1806, second son of Samuel Augustus 
and Eudora (Hull) Foote. His father 
was Governor of Connecticut, and his 
mother a daughter of General Andrew 
Hull. 

Andrew Hull Foote was a cadet in the 
United States Military Academy which 
he left in 1822, a youth of sixteen, to 
enter the navy as a midshipman ; as- 
signed to the United States schooner 
"Grampus,'' of the West Indian squad- 
ron, engaged against piratical craft an- 
noying American commerce. In Decem- 
ber, 1823, he was transferred to the "Pea- 
cock," and sailed to the Pacific, and soon 
being transferred to the frigate "United 
States." In 1827 he was again in the 
West Indies on the "Natchez," from 
which he was soon transferred to the 
"Hornet." He was married in June. 1828, 
to Caroline Flagg, of Cheshire, Connecti- 
cut, and in February of the next year 
was on the "St. Louis," in the Pacific 
squadron. He was promoted to lieuten- 
ant December 9, 1831, and was ordered 
to the "Delaware" July 30, 1833, sailing- 
her to the Mediterranean. He was with 
the East Indian squadron, 1837-41. and 
while absent circumnavigated the globe.. 
148 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



He was on duty as instructor of midship- 
men at the Marine Hospital, Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania, 1841-43; and was 
again with the Mediterranean squadron, 
1843-47, on board the flagship "Cumber- 
land." He was then ordered to the Bos- 
ton Navy Yard, and in 1849-50 com- 
manded the brig "Perry" engaged in slave 
trade suppression on the African coast. 
He was made commander in 1856, and 
with the sloop-of-war "Plymouth" sailed 
up the Canton river. Being fired upon 
by the Chinese forts, he obtained permis- 
sion from Captain Armstrong to obtain 
an apology or silence the forts, and 
carried the forts by storm after breaching 
the largest of the works, losing forty men 
in the engagement, while the Chinese 
lost four hundred. His action com- 
manded respect for the American flag, 
and paved the way for friendly treaties. 

He Vv^as in command of the Brooklyn 
Navy Yard, 1858-61, and at the outbreak of 
the Civil War was sent to the Mississippi 
river, where he took a prominent part in 
building and equipping light draft gun- 
boats. Part of his flotilla under Com- 
mander Walke assisted General Grant in 
landing his troops at Belmont, Missouri, 
November 7, 1861, and protected the Fed- 
eral troops in their retreat when Con- 
federate reinforcements arrived. At 
Fort Henry, Tennessee, February 6, 1862, 
he led the gunboat attack, and captured 
the works. On February 14. he took 
part in the reduction of Fort Donelson. 
The "Carondelet," Captain Walke, made 
demonstrations on the river front Febru- 
ary 12, and on the 13th shelled the fort 
at close range while General Grant landed 
his troops and gained the rear. On the 
14th, Flag-Oflicer Foote arrived with six 
other gunboats, but was so effectively 
answered that he was obliged to retire 
to long range. Meanwhile Grant sur- 
rounded the fort, cut oflF retreat, and re- 
ceived the capitulation of the fort, on the 



evening of February 15, 1862. Flag- 
Officer Foote was wounded on the 14th, 
and returned to Cairo on the morning of 
the 15th, where he received the news of 
the surrender of Fort Donelson, and at 
once issued congratulatory orders to the 
officers and crews of the gunboats. After 
repairing damages to the flotilla he de- 
scended the river on March 4 to Hick- 
man, Kentucky, to cooperate with Gen- 
eral Pope in the capture of Island No. 10. 
Flag-Officer Foote opened a bombard- 
ment of the river batteries and forts en 
route, and this continued from March 17 
to 25th. On April 4, he ordered the 
"Carondelet," Commander Walke, to 
undertake the passage of the batteries, 
and this was accomplished on the nights 
of the 4th and 5th during a thunder 
storm, with material damage to the "Ca- 
rondelet," which, however, silenced the 
Confederate batteries below Island No. 
10 and enabled Pope's army to get into 
position to continue the bombardment at 
the island. On the morning of the 8th 
the remainder of the fleet arrived, and 
found the batteries deserted, the guns 
spiked, and the Confederate army wait- 
ing to surrender. 

Flag-Officer Foote, suffering from his 
wound and exposure, was now relieved 
from active duty and was made chief of 
equipments and recruiting July 22, 1862, 
and on the 30th of the same month was 
raised to the rank of rear-admiral. He 
received the thanks of Congress and of 
State Legislatures, and was presented 
with a sword by the citizens of Brooklyn. 
New York. On June 4, 1863, he was as- 
signed to the command of the South At- 
lantic blockading squadron to succeed 
Rear-Admiral Dupont, but died while en 
route to his post. He was a devout Chris- 
tian, and among his good works was the 
establishment of a regular system of re- 
ligious instruction among the workmen 
in the Brooklyn Navy Yard, extending 
149 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the mission to the inhabitants of the out- 
lying city district. He instituted nightly 
prayer meetings on the receiving ship 
"North Carolina;" lectured on temper- 
ance and kindred subjects; and conducted 
religious services at Cairo, Illinois, in 
1861-62. He published "Africa and the 
American Flag" (1854). See his biog- 
raphy by Professor J. M. Hoppin (1874). 
He died at the Astor House, New York 
City, June 26, 1863. 



SEYMOUR, Major Thomas Henry, 

Soldier, Governor, Diplomatist. 

Major Thomas Henry Seymour was 
born at Hartford, Connecticut, Septem- 
ber 29, 1807, second child of Major Henry 
Seymour and Jane EUery, daughter of 
Captain William and Susan (Keith) El- 
lery, and a descendant of Richard Sey- 
mour, of Hartford (1635), and later of 
Norwalk. 

He was educated in the schools of 
Hartford and at Captain Partridge's mili- 
tary school at Middletown, and on his 
graduation returned to Hartford, studied 
law, and in 1833 was admitted to the bar. 
He had a taste for military affairs, and 
for some time he was commanding ofificer 
of the Governor's Foot-guard. In 1837- 
38 he edited a Democratic newspaper, 
"The Jefifersonian," and about the same 
time was judge of probate for the dis- 
trict. In 1843 he was elected to Congress 
from the Hartford district, and on the 
expiration of his term was renominated, 
but declined. In March, 1846, he was 
commissioned major of the Ninth (New 
England) Regiment of Volunteers for 
service in the Mexican War. In the as- 
sault on Chapultepec, Colonel Ransom, 
the regimental commander fell, and Ma- 
jor Seymour led the men, and with his 
command was the first to enter the for- 
tress. He was promoted to the command 
of the regiment, and took part in the cap- 



ture of the City of Mexico. In 1845 he 
was nominated for Governor, and ac- 
cepted, but suffered defeat; in 1849 he 
was again defeated, though the majority 
of the successful candidate was small ; in 
1850 he was elected by a handsome ma- 
jority, and was reelected in the three suc- 
ceeding years. In 1852 he was a Demo- 
cratic presidential elector. In June, 1853, 
President Pierce appointed him Minister 
to Russia, and he resigned the governor- 
ship, serving in his new official capacity 
for four years, and forming a close friend- 
ship with the czar and his son. After a 
year spent in travel in Europe, Mr. Sey- 
mour returned to Hartford in 1859, and 
was accorded a military reception. He 
was the leader of the Connecticut Peace 
Democrats during the Civil War, and in 
1862 the opposition to his opinions was 
so strong that the State Senate voted to 
have his portrait removed from the coun- 
cil chamber, not to be replaced until the 
comptroller was convinced of his loyalty. 
In 1863 Seymour was again nominated 
for Governor, but after an exciting con- 
test was defeated by William A. Buck- 
ingham. He was a member of Washing- 
ton Commandery, Knights Templar, at 
Hartford, and for many years eminent 
commander. 

Governor Seymour died at Hartford, 
Connecticut, September 3, 1868, and was 
buried with military and Masonic honors. 
Charles H. Pond, Lieutenant-Governor, 
served as Acting Governor in 1853-54. 



ELTON, John Prince, 

Banker and Public Official. 

The surname Elton is of ancient Eng- 
lish origin, taken from some place name. 
As early as 1500 the family of this name 
was well known in Wiltshire, England. 
One of the early settlers of Southold, 
Long Island, was an Elton, and was ad- 
mitted a freeman of Connecticut in 1662. 



150 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



John Elton, the progenitor of the line 
here under consideration, came from Bris- 
tol, England, and settled finally in Mid- 
dletown, Connecticut. His son, Ebenezer 
Elton, was born in Middletown, May ii, 
1686, and was lost at sea when a young 
man ; his home was in Branford, Con- 
necticut. His son, Ebenezer (2) Elton, 
was born in Branford in 1712, removed 
from there to Middletown, and later to 
Harwinton, Connecticut. His son, Dr. 
John (2) Elton, was born in Harwinton 
or Waterbury, October 6, 1755, died at 
Watertown, October 9, 1800. He was a 
leading physician and surgeon, and served 
in the latter capacity in the Revolutionary 
War, a member of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Baldwin's regiment. His son, Dr. Samuel 
Elton, was born at Watertown, Septem- 
ber 6, 1780, died December 8, 1858. For 
sixty years he practiced the profession of 
medicine, beloved by all with whom he 
was brought in contact. He married Bet- 
sey Merriman, of Watertown, and they 
were the parents of John Prince Elton, of 
this review. 

John Prince Elton, son of Dr. Samuel 
Elton, was born in Watertown, April 24, 
1809. He attended the district schools 
of his native town, and when about fifteen 
years old became a pupil in the school of 
Simeon Hart, of Farmington. He after- 
ward worked on his father's farm until 
1832, when he came to Waterbury, Con- 
necticut, to become a partner in the firm 
of Holmes & Hotchkiss. He had become 
used to hard labor on the farm and at 
once took his place in the mill and made 
himself thoroughly familiar with all the 
practical details of the business. It was 
his practice for many years not only to 
share in the manual labor in the mill, but 
to walk to and from business, a distance 
of two miles. The firm of Holmes & 
Hotchkiss v/as organized with a number 
of partners in 1830 and began the manu- 
facture of brass at Waterbury. Mr. Elton 



came into the firm two years later with 
a thousand dollars in capital, making the 
total investment nine thousand dollars. 
The factory was on Mad river. The firm 
made sheet brass chiefly at first. Mr. 
Elton and Philo Brown, who had been 
special partners, became general partners, 
January 30, 1833, and the name was 
changed to Holmes, Hotchkiss, Brown & 
Elton. In January, 1837, the name be- 
came Hotchkiss, Brown & Elton, and a 
year later. Brown & Elton, continuing 
thus until the partnership was dissolved. 
The capital was at this time $40,000, all 
derived from earnings except the $12,000 
invested by the partners. In February, 
1838, the firm became a limited partner- 
ship and the stock was raised to $75,000, 
afterward to $100,000. The company was 
never incorporated, however. From time 
to time brass wire, brass and copper 
tubing and other articles were added to 
the output of the concern and this firm 
may be considered the pioneer of the 
brass wire industry in the United States. 
The manufacture of tubing, although at- 
tended with many difficulties and discour- 
agements at first, became a very impor- 
tant and profitable branch of the business. 
In April, 1842. the firm bought a third- 
interest in the business of Slocum, Jillson 
8z Company, the pioneers in making solid- 
headed pins in this country, and in Sep- 
tember acquired the ownership of the 
Fowler pin machine. In 1846 the pin- 
making business of Brown & Elton was 
incorporated with that of Benedict & 
Burnham Manufacturing Company under 
the name of the American Pin Company, 
with a capital of $50,000, making one of 
the staple industries of Waterbury. Mr. 
Elton retired from the firm in 1850, on 
account of ill health, and the firm was 
dissolved in 1856, half the business going 
to the firm of Brown & Brothers, the 
other half to Holmes, Booth & Haydens. 
In 1845 Mr. Elton had become inter- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ested in the Waterbury Brass Company, 
was one of the first directors, and in 1855 
was elected its president, an office he held 
until his death. After the dissolution of 
Brown & Elton in 1856 Mr. Elton was not 
actively engaged in manufacturing, but he 
devoted much time to the various cor- 
porations, industrial and financial, in 
which he was interested. He was elected 
president of the Waterbury Bank, De- 
cember II, 1850, to succeed Judge Bron- 
son, and he held this office until his death. 
In i860 he established a private banking 
house called at first the Elton Trust Com- 
pany and later the Elton Banking Com- 
pany, organized under the joint-stock law 
and continued after the death of Mr. El- 
ton by his son-in-law, C. N. Wayland, 
until 1877. 

He was elected to the General Assem- 
bly of Connecticut in 1840-49-50 as a can- 
didate of the Whig party. He was one 
of the founders of the Republican party 
and was elected as a Republican to the 
General Assembly again in 1863. He was 
a presidential elector in 1864, but he died 
two days after he was elected. He was a 
member of the Episcopal church and 
throughout his life contributed liberally 
to the expenses and benevolence of St. 
John's parish. On the day of his funeral, 
which took place on Sunday afternoon at 
the house at which public worship was 
then usually held, all the Protestant 
churches of the city were closed as by a 
common impulse, to give the members of 
the congregations opportunity to pay 
their last respects to Mr. Elton. In early 
manhood he enjoyed a vigorous constitu- 
tion and for many years performed a large 
amount of physical and mental labor. He 
was, however, twice prostrated by illness 
which partly unfitted him for continuous 
work. His final illness lasted but ten 
days and he died in the zenith of his 
career, full of plans and hopes for the 



future. He was kindly, earnest and sym- 
pathetic by nature. While always bear- 
ing heavy cares and responsibilities of his 
own, men came to him constantly for aid 
and advice in their private affairs and 
they never came in vain, for he was always 
ready to give to others the benefit of his 
experience and judgment, and to help the 
unfortunate. He often used to say that 
he was troubled in mind more by the 
affairs of those in whom he had no more 
than a friendly interest than with his own 
extensive business. He gave evidence 
often of his large public spirit and fond- 
ness for the city of his home. He was 
one of the greatest of the captains of in- 
dustry in his day, having a large part in 
creating the great manufacturing city of 
W^aterbury. A public memorial service 
was held after his death to give expres- 
sion to the feeling of appreciation of his 
usefulness and service and of regret at his 
loss. He was a generous benefactor of 
Trinity College. 

He married, May 18, 1835, Olive Mar- 
garet, born June 25, 1816, died November 
2, 1892, daughter of Captain Moses Hall. 
Children, born at Waterbury : Lucy Eliz- 
abeth, April 16, 1837, married C. N. Way- 
land ; James Samuel, November 7, 1838 ; 
Charles Prince, August 17, 1840. died 
April 12, 1845; John Moses. March 19, 
1845, died aged eighteen years. 



BURRITT, Elihu, 

Accomplished Linguist, Philanthropist. 

Elihu Burritt was born in New Britain, 
Connecticut, December 8, 1810, son of 
Elihu Burritt. and grandson of Elihu Bur- 
ritt, both soldiers in the Revolution. 

He was brought up on the home farm, 
and upon the death of his father in 1828 
he apprenticed himself to a blacksmith. 
He was extremely studious, and was as- 
sisted by his brother, who conducted a 



152 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



small academy which Elihu attended for 
a time. With his brother's help he mas- 
tered Greek, Latin and mathematics, and 
the modern languages. He became a 
grocer, but the financial crisis of 1837 
wrecked his business, whereupon he 
removed to Worcester, Massachusetts, 
where he resumed his work at the anvil, 
and his study of the languages in the libra- 
ry of the Antiquarian Society. In 1839 he 
commenced the publication of the ''Liter- 
ary Geminae,'' a monthly periodical print- 
ed in French and English, and designed 
principally as a guide to students of the 
French language. His translation of the 
Icelandic sagas relating to the discovery 
of America, drew attention to his scho- 
lastic achievements and he acquired the 
sobriquet of "The Learned Blacksmith." 
During the season of 1841-42 he delivered 
his lecture on "Application and Genius," 
in not less than sixty cities and towns, 
and always attracting unusually large 
audiences. He argued that all attain- 
ment was the natural result ol persistent 
application, of the possibilities of which 
he was himself an exponent, since he had 
mastered some thirty-two languages dur- 
ing the course of his busy life. His next 
lectuure on "Universal Peace," was de- 
livered before a large audience at Boston. 
He was warmly welcomed as an able co- 
worker by the prominent little band of 
peace advocates at Boston, and, upon his 
return to Worcester, established and 
edited "The Christian Citizen," a journal 
advocating among other reforms the 
peaceable settlement of international dis- 
agreements. In 1846 he sailed for Eng- 
land, where he accomplished much good 
in conjunction with the peace advocates 
of that country, and while there he laid 
the foundation for the international asso- 
ciation called "The League of Universal 
Brotherhood," with which his name is in- 
dissolubly linked. He edited and pub- 
lished for many years "The Bond of 



Brotherhood," a periodical which he 
established while in England, and he was 
prominently instrumental in organizing 
the first Peace Congress, held in 1848, 
and also those held in 1849 and 1850. In 
the latter year he returned to America, 
lecturing on peace, temperance, anti- 
slavery, and self-culture. In 1852 he as- 
sumed editorial charge of the "Citizen of 
the World," a Philadelphia paper, and in 
its columns he strenuously advocated the 
emancipation of the slaves by purchase, 
the failure of which project caused him 
bitter disappointment. He was success- 
ful in his efforts to secure cheap ocean 
postage. In 1865 he was appointed 
United States Consul at Birmingham, 
England, retaining that office until the 
inauguration of President Grant. The 
later years of his life were spent in retire- 
ment on his farm at New Britain, Con- 
necticut, where he devoted himself to 
study, to literary work, and to the moral, 
religious and educational development of 
his fellow citizens. 

A list of his books includes some 
thirty-two volumes, among the more not- 
able of which are : "Sparks from the 
Anvil" (1847); "Peace Papers for the 
People" (1848); 'Olive Leaves" (1850- 
53) ; "Thoughts and Things at Home and 
Abroad" (1854) ; "Year Book of Nations" 
(1856) ; "Walk from London to John 
O'Groat's, with Notes by the Way" 
(1864); "Walk from London to Land's 
End and Back" (1865): "Lectures and 
Speeches" (1866) ; "The Mission of Great 
Sufferings" (1867) ; "Walks in the Black 
Country and its Green Borderland" 
(1868) ; "Ten-Minute Talks on All Sorts 
of Subjects; with Autobiography" (1873) ; 
"Why I Left the Anvil" (1877) ; and 
"Chips from Many Blocks" (1878). See 
"Elihu Burritt ; A Sketch of His Life and 
Labors." by Charles Northend (1879). 
He died in New Britain, Connecticut, 
March 9, 1879. 
S3 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



COLT, Samuel, 

Inventor. 

Samuel Colt, inventor, was born in 
Hartford, Connecticut, July 19, 1814, son 
of Christopher and Sarah (Caldwell) 
Colt, grandson of Colonel Benjamin and 
Lucretia (Ely) Colt, great-grandson of 
John Colt, and great-great-grandson of 
John Colt, who came to America with 
the Rev. Thomas Hooker in 1636. 

In 1824 Samuel Colt was sent to his 
father's factory at Ware, Massachusetts, 
where he remained until he went to Am- 
herst to school. In 1830 he was sent by 
his father to sea, sailing from Boston for 
Calcutta in August, 1830. During his 
voyage he conceived his first idea of 
"Colt's revolver," and constructed a little 
wooden model, which combined a number 
of long barrels, so as to rotate upon a 
spindle by the act of cocking the lock. 
Though discarding this as too heavy to 
be practicable, Mr. Colt was convinced 
that his invention would ultimately be 
successful. In 1831 he returned from the 
sea and entered the dyeing and bleach- 
ing department of his father's factory, 
there acquiring a practical knowledge of 
chemistry. In order to carry on his ex- 
periments with" firearms, he determined 
in 1832 to go on a lecture tour, and assum- 
ing the name of "Dr. Coult," he visited 
every town of two thousand or more in- 
habitants in the United States, Canada, 
and Nova Scotia, illustrating his experi- 
ments by administering laughing-gas. He 
paid all his expenses and saved sufficient 
money to continue his work. In 1835 he 
went to Europe, secured his patents there, 
and returning early in 1836 began to manu- 
facture arms at Paterson, New Jersey, 
with the "Patent Arms Manufacturing 
Company," with a capital stock of $300,000. 
The first rude model had been changed 
into a pistol with a rotating cylinder con- 



taining six chambers discharging through 
a single barrel. Mr. Colt used every effort 
to prevail upon the United States govern- 
ment to adopt the arm, and after an ex- 
amination the committee reported "that 
from its complicated character, its liabil- 
ity to accident, and other reasons, this 
arm was entirely unsuited to the general 
purposes of the service." In October, 
1837, Mr. Colt received a gold medal from 
the American Institute, and was elected 
a member. The opposition of the govern- 
ment greatly injured the sale of the arms, 
but many were sold to the Texan rangers. 
Soon after the breaking out of the Semi- 
nole War in 1838, he went South, carry- 
ing some of his arms, which met with ap- 
probation. Fifty were purchased and 
General Harney reported, "1 honestly be- 
lieve that but for these arms the Indians 
would now be luxuriating in the ever- 
glades of Florida." In 1839 a second 
patent was taken out covering several im- 
provements, chiefly the loading lever. In 
March. 1840, a board of naval officers 
tried the arms and made an unfavorable 
report, recommending them, however, for 
arming boat expeditions, and acknowledg- 
ing the great superiority of the percussion 
to the flint lock. A subsequent examina- 
tion resulted in the purchase by the gov- 
ernment, in 1841, of one hundred and 
sixty carbines. In 1842 the company 
failed, and until 1847 ^^^ manufacture of 
arm,s was suspended. Meanwhile. Mr. 
Colt became interested in the offing tele- 
graph, and in 1842-43 laid submarine tele- 
graph lines from New York City to Coney 
Island, and to the Fire Island light, the 
first submarine cables ever successfully 
operated. At the beginning of the Mexi- 
can War in 1847. ^^ received an order 
from the government for one thousand 
pistols, which marked the beginning of 
his success. In 1848 he returned to Hart- 
ford, his native city, and began the manu- 



[54 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPPIY 



ture of arms on Pearl street. In 1852 the 
business had so greatly increased as to 
warrant the erection of a new armory, 
and he bought up a large tract of land in 
the south meadows, enclosing it by a dyke 
one and three-fourths miles long, and 
from ten to thirt3'-two feet in height, for 
protection from inundation. The armory 
consisted of three large buildings, to 
which a fourth was added in 1861. As 
early as 1854 he had sold to the viceroy 
of Egpyt five thousand, and to the British 
government two hundred thousand revol- 
vers. 

Mr. Colt was married, June 5, 1856, to 
Elizabeth Hart, daughter of the Rev. Wil- 
liam Jarvis, of Middletown, Connecticut. 
He died in Hartford, Connecticut, Janu- 
ary 10, 1862. 



LYON, General Nathaniel, 

Soldier of Two Wars. 

General Nathaniel Lyon, hero of Wil- 
son's Creek, Missouri, in the first year of 
the Civil War, was born at Ashford, Con- 
necticut, July 14, 1818, son of Amasa 
Lyon, a farmer. The lad early formed 
the idea of a military career, and bent his 
energies in that direction by diligent 
study, especially of mathematics. His 
mother, Kezia (Knowlton) Lyon, also in- 
fluenced his career by narrating to him 
the story of the privations and achieve- 
ments of the men of the American Revo- 
lution. 

He was a student at the Brooklyn 
(Connecticut) Academy, and in 1837 was 
appointed to the West Point Military 
Academy by Orrin Holt, member of Con- 
gress from Connecticut. He was eleventh 
in a class of fifty-two at graduation, June 
30, 1841, and was appointed second lieu- 
tenant in the Second Regiment United 
States Infantry. In November of that 
year he joined his regim,ent in Florida, 



engaged in the war against the Seminole 
Indians, and in which he distinguished 
himself. From May 2^, 1842, until the 
summer of 1846 he was stationed at Sack- 
ett's Harbor, New York. After the Mexi- 
can War began in June, 1845, with his 
regiment he was ordered to the front, and 
left Comargo, Mexico, for the interior, 
December 8, 1846. Thence General 
Twigg's division, to which Lyon's regi- 
ment belonged, proceeded to take part in 
the attack upon Vera Cruz. February 26, 
1847, it reached Lobos Island, one hun- 
dred and twenty-five miles north of that 
stronghold. On March 9th it landed, 
with other United States troops, in front 
of the city. In the operations that fol- 
lowed, Lyon's regiment bore a full part, 
and after the surrender (March 27) the 
division to which it belonged left Vera 
Cruz for the City of Mexico. February 
16, 1847, he was promoted to first lieu- 
tenant. His regiment was sharply en- 
gaged at Cerro Gordo (April 17), and the 
army then rested for a month at Jalapa. 
Another took place at Puebla, until Au- 
gust 8th, when renewed advance toward 
the capital began. For gallant and meri- 
torious conduct at the battles of Contreras 
and Churubusco, Lyon was made brevet 
captain August 20, 1847, ^^^ ^^^^ captain, 
June II. 1 85 1. When the Americans en- 
tered the City of Mexico (September 14) 
he was wounded in the leg by a musket 
ball. At the close of the war his regi- 
ment was stationed at Jefferson Barracks, 
St. Louis, Missouri, and thence trans- 
ferred to California, reaching Monterey, 
April 6, 1849. The gold excitement was 
at its height, and troops were needed to 
protect the frontier against the incursions 
of Indians. April i6th Captain Lyon's 
company sailed for San Diego. His serv- 
ice in California continued for several 
years. In the second year (1850) he con- 
ducted a brilliant enterprise against In- 



155 



ENXYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



dians among the fastnesses of northern 
California. In the autumn of 185 1 he took 
command of Fort Miller, in the San Joa- 
quin valley, at the base of the Sierra Ne- 
vada mountains. In the spring and sum- 
mer of 1852 he was in the east, on leave 
of absence on account of the fatal illness 
of his mother, but returned to California 
in the fall, and was employed during the 
winter in laborious and fatiguing service. 
In February and March, 1853, he was at 
Washington, D. C, his regiment having 
been ordered east. During the following 
summer he was posted at Fort Riley, 
Kansas, and his observation of events in 
that State, with the Congressional debates 
with regard to the extension of slavery, 
led him to espouse the cause of the Free 
State party with earnestness. His biog- 
rapher says that for the next few years 
the question of liberty or slavery en- 
grossed his thoughts and offered a fruit- 
ful them,e for his pen. In the summer of 
1855 he served in an expedition under 
General Harney against the Sioux In- 
dians. In 1856 he was stationed at Fort 
Lookout, two hundred miles from Sioux 
City. He was in the east in 1857, mak- 
ing what proved to be his last visit to the 
region of his birth. Returning he was 
stationed at Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis, 
Missouri, and then at Fort Randall, Ne- 
braska territory, until July, 1859, whence 
he was ordered to Fort Kearney, and 
thence to Prairie Dog Creek, Kansas, to 
protect emigrants on their way to the 
mines. 

On January 31, 1861, Captain Lyon was 
ordered to St. Louis, Missouri, and after 
Mr. Lincoln became President he was 
made commandant at the St. Louis Ar- 
senal. Here he gained a thorough under- 
standing of political conditions, and of 
the machinations of the secessionists. His 
force was small, but, to make it appear 
the stronger, he often sent out squads of 



soldiers in disguise during the night, 
while others slept, with orders to rendez- 
vous at a distant point, and march back 
to the arsenal the next morning in uni- 
form, with drums beating and flags flying. 
Union men in the city were organized into 
companies, armed and carefully drilled. 
Every precaution was taken to insure the 
security of the post, for an immense 
amount of public property, arms and 
ordnance was stored in the arsenal, and 
Governor Claiborne F. Jackson, of Mis- 
souri, had established a camp of State 
militia near St. Louis, ostensibly for in- 
struction, but really to subvert the na- 
tional authority in the State. On May 10, 
1861, Captain Lyon surrounded this camp 
with his troops, and gave General Frost, 
its commander, thirty minutes in which 
to surrender. At the end of that time 
he took possession of the camp. The 
night following General Harney reached 
St. Louis, and took command of the 
United States troops ; but a few days 
later Captain Lyon was elected brigadier- 
general of a brigade of volunteers, and 
May 17 President Lincoln commissioned 
him to that rank, relieved General Har- 
ney and gave the command to General 
Lyon. In a personal interview with Gen- 
eral Lyon in June, Governor Jackson 
offered to pledge the State of Missouri to 
strict neutrality in the event of civil war, 
on condition that the United States gov- 
ernment should disband the home guards 
organized and armed throughout the 
State, and agree not to occupy with its 
troops any localities in the State not then 
occupied by them. This proposition 
Lyon indignantly rejected, demanding the 
disbanding of the State militia, the nulli- 
fication of the act of the Legislature by 
which it was created, and admission of 
the right of the United States government 
to march and station its troops as it 
pleased, either for the protection of loyal 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



subjects, or to repel invasion. He also 
asserted his determination to protect all 
Unionists to the extent of his power. The 
same evening Governor Jac'kson and Gen- 
eral Price returned to Jefferson City, and 
issued a proclamation asserting that the 
State of Missouri had been invaded by 
United States forces, and calling into 
service fifty thousand State militia to re- 
pel them. On June 13th General Lyon 
left St. Louis for Jefferson City with 
one thousand five hundred troops, and 
Jackson fell back forty miles to Boone- 
ville. At Jefferson City General Lyon 
issued a proclamation counter to that of 
Jackson, and pushing on to Booneville, 
issued a second proclamation, defining the 
issues and counseling Missourians in 
arms against the United States to lay 
them down and return to their homes. 
On July 3rd he set out for Springfield, 
Missouri, with two thousand seven hun- 
dred men, four pieces of artillery and a 
baggage train. The Confederate army of 
General Ben McCulloch, marching from 
the south and west, had made a junction 
with the scattered Missouri militia troops, 
and was advancing against the Federal 
forces in numbers far greater than Lyon's. 
General Lyon had called upon the govern- 
ment for additional troops in vain, and 
now, learning that McCulloch's forces 
were marching upon Springfield in two 
divisions, he determined to make a forced 
march and attack them separately. Au- 
gust 4th, after moving from the city for 
this purpose, by the advice of a council 
of officers it was decided to return, and 
on the 6th the Federals were restationed 
at Springfield and on the adjacent roads. 
On August loth, at Wilson's Creek, Mis- 
souri, twelve miles southwest of Spring- 
field, twenty-three thousand Confederates 
and Missourians were encamped, while to 
oppose them Lyon had but five thousand 
effectives. He determined, however, upon 



a night march, and to make a surprise 
attack upon their camp in two places. 
The surprise seems to have been conir 
plete, McCulloch having, by a strange 
coincidence, determined to throw his 
forces upon Springfield the same night, 
then having countermanded his orders on 
account of threatened rain, and drawn in 
his advanced pickets. In the engagement 
that ensued, Lyon moved along the Fed- 
eral lines encouraging his men by ex- 
ample and by words. His horse was shot 
under him, and he received three wounds 
— one near the ankle, one in his thigh, 
and another which cut his scalp to the 
bone. Mounting another horse, and with 
face pale from loss of blood, he rode to the 
head of a column, and ordered a bayonet 
charge. As his men rushed forward, he 
fell from a ball which entered his left side 
near his heart. His orderly received him 
in his arms, as he died on the field with- 
out a struggle. Major Sturgis, succeed- 
ing to the command, ordered a retreat to 
Springfield after continuing the battle for 
three hours longer, and thence the Fed- 
eral forces fell back to Rolla without pur- 
suit from ^McCulloch. General Lyon's 
operations had enabled the loyal men of 
Missouri to organize a State government 
and hold the commonwealth in the Union. 
After his death his body remained in pos- 
session of the Confederates, but was given 
up on application, and was interred at 
Eastford, Connecticut, September 5, 
1861, after receiving appropriate honors 
on the way from west to east, in the vari- 
ous larger cities and towns of the north- 
ern States. The General Assembly of 
Connecticut at its session in October that 
year mourned his sudden death as that of 
"a beloved son who bore so distinguished 
a part in defense of the constitution and 
the suppression of rebellion," and the 
State received his sword, belt and chapeau 
for safe keeping. In December the United 



'57 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



States Senate adopted appropriate resolu- 
tions in recognition of his "eminent and 
patriotic services." General Lyon left 
nearly the whole of his fortune, some $30,- 
000, to the Federal government to assist 
in the prosecution of the war. "The last 
Political Writings of General Nathaniel 
Lyon" was published in New York in 
1862. The "Memoir," by N. A. Wood- 
ward (Hartford, Conn., 1862), is the basis 
of this sketch. 



BURPEE, Thomas Francis, 

Colonel of Twenty-first Regiment, Connec- 
ticut Volunteers. 

Thomas Burpee, immigrant ancestor, 
came from England to Massachusetts 
about 1644. He was settled in Rowley 
in 165 1. There his first wife, Martha 
(Cheney) Burpee, was buried June 24, 
1658. His second wife was Sarah, daugh- 
ter of John Kelly, of Newbury, Massa- 
chusetts, who was born February 12. 
1641, married, April 15, 1659. Thomas 
Burpee died in Rowley, June i, 1701, and 
his wife Sarah, December 25, 1713. His 
son, Thomas (2) Burpee, was born in 
Rowley, December 25, 1663; married 
there, December 3, 1690, Hester, daugh- 
ter of Jonathan Hopkinson. He died 
June 24, 1709, and she died October 3, 
1722, in her fifty-fifth year. His son, 
Ebenezer Burpee, was born in Rowley, 
January 8, 1697-98, died there, September 
II, 1771. He married Miriam, daughter 
of Jeremiah Pearson, of Newbury, Mas- 
sachusetts, December 15, 1721. She died 
January 15, 1782. His son, Jeremiah Bur- 
pee, was born in Rowley, September 10, 
1724. He had settled in Lancaster before 
1753, and died in Sterling in 1817. His 
son, 

Moses Burpee, was born in Lancas- 
ter (Sterling), August 11, 1750. He mar- 
ried there, Elizabeth Kendall, of Leomin- 
ster, about January 2, 1775. He was a 



soldier in the American Revolution, and 
served in Captain Thomas Gates' com- 
pany, from Lancaster, on the Lexing- 
ton Alarm, April 19, 1775, and in Cap- 
tain Solomon Stuart's company. Colo- 
nel Josiah Whitney's regiment, on the 
Bennington Alarm, August 21. 1777. 
He died in November, 1827. His son, 
Thomas (3) Burpee, was born June 20, 
1780, in Sterling. He married (first) 
Polly Haskell, October 5, 1804, in Lan- 
caster. She died there, April 6, 1816. His 
second wife, whom he married in Staf- 
ford, Connecticut, January 8, 1817, was 
Betsey Temple, who was born at West 
Boylston, Massachusetts, February 4, 
1793. He died in Somers, Connecticut, 
August 8, 1840; his wife died in the 
same place, August 20, 1843. ^^^ son, 
Thomas Francis Burpee, was born in 
Stafford, Connecticut, February 17, 1830. 
After a common school education and a 
term in the Ellington Academy, he en- 
gaged in the manufacture of woolen 
cloths in Rockville, Connecticut, and was 
so employed at the outbreak of the Civil 
War. He had already shown a liking 
and aptitude for military affairs. At the 
age of nineteen he was a corporal in the 
active militia company in Rockville, a 
year later a sergeant, and afterward lieu- 
tenant, adjutant, and at twenty-five cap- 
tain of a company in the old Fifth Regi- 
ment of State Militia. In response to 
Governor Buckingham's call for volun- 
teers on April 16, 1861, he offered his 
company, which was accepted and as- 
signed to the Fifth Connecticut Volun- 
teers. But three regiments more than 
filled the quota of this State, and the 
President of the United States declined 
the services of the Fourth and Fifth 
Regiments, and they were discharged. In 
July, 1862, Captain Burpee recruited a 
company which became Company D, 
Fourteenth Connecticut Volunteers, and 
he was mustered into service as its cap- 

58 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



tain. In September following he was ap- 
pointed major and within a few days 
lieutenant-colonel of the Twenty-fiirst 
Regiment, Connecticut Volunteers, of 
which he was afterward commissioned 
colonel, and which he commanded almost 
continuously until his death. He was a 
well-read and skillful tactician and a 
strict disciplinarian, and always zealous 
for the welfare and comfort of his men, 
who regarded him with unusual respect 
and affection. In the battle of Drury's 
Bluff, May i6, 1864, his skillful handling 
of his command and stubborn resistance 
to an unexpected attack by the enemy 
saved the right wing of the Federal army 
under Butler from destruction. He led 
his men coolly into the murderous as- 
saults at Cold Harbor, and came out un- 
scathed, but a week later, while doing his 
duties as field officer of the day in the 
trenches close up to the enemy's works, 
he was singled out by a Confederate 
sharpshooter and mortally wounded, 
Thursday morning, June 9, 1864. He 
was carried to White House, Virginia, 
where he died Saturday evening, June 
II, 1864. Just before his death, he di- 
rected that his sword be given to his 
older son. His remains were sent to his 
home in Rockville, where they were 
buried with military honors. 

In his nature Colonel Burpee was sin- 
cerely religious and intensely patriotic. 
To his sister, whose oldest son was then 
serving in the Fourteenth Connecticut 
Volunteers, he sent this message: "Tell 
Louise not to be over anxious about Wil- 
liam. I should rather see him sacrificed 
for a holy principle than to see him remain 
in inglorious waiting at a time like this. 
The Lord has said, 'Whosoever would 
save his life shall lose it,' and this has 
often been the case in this accursed re- 
bellion. If any one lacks enthusiasm in 
this cause, let him go to work, and if that 
doesn't awaken him, then he is a coward. 



The lofty inspiration of this cause is 
worth living a life-time to feel ; and if I 
had a thousand lives I would not with- 
hold one of them. * * * Should I be 
laid in the grave, remember our Heavenly 
Father doeth all things well. Look on 
the bright side, and the bright side only." 

To the same sister, after her son had 
fallen at Gettysburg, he wrote : "Nothing 
can be untimely which is ordered by an 
all-wise God. The blow which laid him 
low welded our hearts to our country's 
cause. The sacrifice of suffering and 
blood which he poured out sanctified to 
us its soil." 

After the battle of Fredericksburg, he 
wrote to his wife : "I am thankful that it 
has pleased God to protect me from all 
harm and bring me safe to the present 
time. '" * * But do not ever forget 
that we are always safe in the hands of 
our Heavenly Father." 

A day or two after the battle of Drury's 
Bluff, above referred to, he says: "We 
lay at rest after reaching Drury's Bluff 
on the 15th, until four o'clock P. M., when 
we took position in front of the rebel 
works, which position we were ordered 
to hold at all hazards. On the next morn- 
ing we had a battle. The night had been 
foggy and wet, and at four o'clock the fog 
was so thick that nothing could be seen 
two rods off. * * * I had just sent 
out skirmishers in front of the Twenty- 
first, when a tremendous fire was poured 
en the right of my brigade, which was 
the right of the whole line occupied by 
our troops. The enemy had turned our 
right flank, and were in our rear. * * * 
I will not attempt to describe the whole 
fight now ; suffice it to say, that in an 
hour and a half I was left alone with the 
Twenty-first to cope with the enemy, who 
were in front and on both flanks, and a 
thick swampy wood was in our rear. The 
men fought well, in some instances hand 
to hand with the rebels. We changed 



159 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



our front to rear, and fought for five 
hours through the swamp and timber, 
gradually falling back but often charging 
upon them when they pressed too hard 
on us. * * * We lost io6 men, and 
four commissioned officers. As for my- 
self, I received no scratch. A bullet 
struck the spur upon my heel, and 
glanced off. God covered my head in the 
hour of danger and brought me safely 
through." 

Colonel Burpee's last letter was written 
in the trenches in front of Cold Harbor 
only a few days before he was shot. In 
it he writes: "It is appointed unto men 
once to die ; and it matters little when or 
where, if we are prepared and engaged in 
duty." 

In a letter written after Colonel Bur- 
pee's death, Connecticut's great war Gov- 
ernor said : 

Make my kindest regards to Mrs. Burpee, and 
say that from the time her honored husband en- 
tered the service to this hour I have never en- 
tertained any other than a high respect for his 
ability and fidelity as an officer, as well as for his 
personal character. That he is one of the few 
ofificers against whom I never heard a com- 
plaint. I sympathize with her in her affliction, 
but doubt not that so pure an offering, presented 
in the name of human liberty upon the altar of 
our country, is accepted by Him who said "That 
inasmuch as ye have done it for one of the least 
of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me." 
I give below a sentence which is as brief as I 
can write one and express my views of the char- 
acter of Colonel Burpee, and which in my judg- 
ment may with propriety be placed upon his 
monument. Acknowledge the receipt of this and 

Believe, I am, with great respect, your obedi- 
ent servant, 

Wm. a. Buckingham. 

The sentence, which was accepted as 
Colonel Burpee's epitaph, is as follows : 
"In the hour of National peril he gave 
his life to his country, leaving this testi- 
mony that he was a pure patriot, a faith- 
ful soldier, and a sincere Christian." 



Colonel Burpee married, November 28, 
1852, Adaline M., born in Stafford, Con- 
necticut, July 29, 1829, daughter of Eb- 
enezer Harwood, a lineal descendant in 
the fifth generation from Henry Har- 
wood, who came to Boston with John 
Winthrop in 1630 and settled in Salem, 



IVES, George White, 

Man of Enterprise. 

The surname Ives is of Norman origin 
and Ives, spelled Yves, are numerous in 
the north of France to the present time. 
The English branches of the family trace 
their descent from one, Guilbert Yves, 
who crossed the channel from Normandy 
among the followers of the Conqueror. 
The first of the name to reach these 
shores, so far as known, was William 
Ives, who sailed from London in 1637 
in the ship "Truelove" for Boston and 
thence came to the New Haven colony 
in 1638 and was one of the sixty-three 
original "free planters" of the settlement 
of Ouinnipiack, his name being on the 
list of first signers. His two sons, John 
and Joseph, pushed on northward into 
the wilderness in 1670 and were among 
the first signers of the Wallingford Plan- 
tation. In the records of that period the 
name is sometimes spelled Fives. 

(I) Captain William Ives, immigrant 
ancestor, is believed to have come from 
a Norfolkshire family in England. One 
John Ives, of Orington, Norfolk, left his 
estate to his son Thomas, then less than 
twenty years old; died October 23, 1568. 
Tradition has it, however, that the family 
was from Northamptonshire. Captain 
Ives and wife had seats in the meeting 
house at New Haven in 1646. His will 
was dated April 3, 1648. bequeathing to 
his eldest son John "when he becomes of 
age" and to wife who was executrix and 
to whom he gave the care of the "small 



160 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



children" not named, until they should 
come of age. Children : John, mentioned 
below; Captain Joseph, married, January 
3, 1672, Mary Yale. Probably daughters. 

(II) John, son of Captain William 
Ives, was born about 1640, married, in 
1667, Hannah Merriam. The history of 
Wallingford indicates that he had a wife 
Mary. Children, born at Wallingford : 
John, mentioned below ; Hannah, married 
Joseph Dunham ; Deacon Joseph, Octo- 
ber 14, 1674; Gideon, married, February 
20, 1706, Mary Royce ; Nathaniel, born 
May 3, 1677; Ebenezer; Samuel, June 5, 
1696; Benjamin, November 22, 1699; 
Ebenezer. 

(III) John (2), son of John (i) Ives, 
was born at Wallingford, November 16, 
1669, died in 1738. He married, Decem- 
ber 6, 1693, Mary Gillette. Children, born 
at Wallingford: John, mentioned below; 
Samuel, January 5, 1696; Benjamin, No- 
vember 22, 1699; Elijah, March 14, 1701 ; 
Mary, March 10, 1702; Lazarus, Febru- 
ary 5, 1703; Daniel, February 19, 1706; 
Hannah, February 10, 1708; Abraham. 
September 2, 1709; Bezaleel, July 4, 1712; 
Bezaleel, 1714; Bezaleel, 1716. 

(IV) John (3), son of John (2) Ives, 
was born at Wallingford, September 28, 
1694, died August 4, 1745. He married 
Hannah Royce, who died November i, 
1770, daughter of Samuel and Hannah 
Royce. 

(V) John (4), only child of John (3) 
Ives, was born July 4, 1729, at Walling- 
ford, died February, 1816. He married 
(first) July 4, 1749, Mary, daughter of 
Dr. Isaac Hall. He married (second) 
Sarah Atkins, who died November 24, 
1814. Children of first wife born at Wal- 
lingford : Lucretia M., married Captain 
Samuel Ives; John, married Martha Mer- 
riman ; Isaac, mentioned below ; Levi, 
married, June 18, 1789, Fanny Silliman ; 
Joseph, married Clara, daughter of Ben- 
jamin Hall ; Joel, married Lucy Hart ; 

CONN-Vol I-ll I 



Othniel, born August 17, 1779, married 

(first) Sarah ; (second) Rosetta 

Yale ; Titus, married Lodema Yale ; Eli ; 
Anna, married Noah Foster; Polly, mar- 
ried John Hooker; Meril, married 

Clark, settled in Canada. 

(VI) Isaac, son of John (4) Ives, was 
born at Wallingford, January 13, 1764, 
died June 10, 1845. He graduated from 
Yale College with the degree of A. B. 
in 1788 and studied law at Yale and 
Litchfield, Connecticut. He lived in New 
York City several yea,rs and came to 
Danbury, Connecticut, in 1829. He and 
his wife joined the Congregational church 
at Danbury by letter from the church in 
New York. He married (first) March 
14, 1792, Jerusha Benedict, born 1772, 
died August 18, 1794, daughter of Zadock 
and Jerusha (Russell) Benedict. He mar- 
ried (second) December 20, 1796, Sarah 
Amelia White, born May 17, 1773, died 
185 1, daughter of Joseph Moss and 
Rachel (Booth) White. The only child 
of first wife was Jerusha Russell, born 
May 18, 1793, married Lemuel W. Bene- 
dict; children: i. Mary Ann Benedict, 
born November 28, 1816, died January 30, 
1889. married (first) September 27, 1837, 
John Augustus Rogers, who died Janu- 
ary 2, 1857, married (second) May 5, 
1862, Harvey S. Weld, who died March 
21, 1884, aged eighty years; ii. Frederick 
Wolcott Benedict, September 19, 1821, 
died October 9, 1900, married, January 
17, 1842, Susan De Forest Squires. Chil- 
dren of second wife : Mary Ann Amelia, 
born October 6, 1797, died June 15, 1800; 
George White, mentioned below. 

(VII) George White, son of Isaac Ives, 
was born February 28, 1799, died Decem- 
ber II, 1862. He was a prominent citizen 
of Danbury. He was instrumental in 
laying out the Danbury cemetery and one 
of the organizers of the Wooster Ceme- 
tery Association in 1850. He was the 
prime mover in organizing the first sav- 



61 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ings bank in Danbury, and provided 
quarters for it in his own house and 
afterward it occupied a small building 
which he built in front of his house ; this 
building in still standing. He was treas- 
urer of the first railroad company that 
came to Danbury and was active in or- 
ganizing it and served as its director for 
twenty-five years. He was one of the 
founders of the Danbury Gas Company 
and of the Danbury National Bank. A 
monument was erected by the citizens of 
Danbury to his memory in the Wooster 
cemetery. He was an exceedingly useful 
and public-spirited citizen. He married, 
December 2^, 1831, Sarah Hotchkiss, 
daughter of Edward and Sarina (Taylor) 
Wilcox. Sarina Taylor was born Sep- 
tember 12, 1774, in Danbury, died May 
30, 1827, daughter of Major and Eliz- 
abeth (Mitchell) Taylor, who were 
married April 26, 1771. Major Taylor 
was born April 17, 1742, died October 
3, 1806; his wife died May 30, 1827. He 
was a son of Daniel and grandson of 
Thomas Taylor. Children of George White 
Ives: Joseph Moss, born December 20, 
1832, died September 24, 1908; Isaac Wil- 
cox, born May 6, 1835, died December 11, 
1910; Sarah Amelia, born July 17, 1837, 
married Judge Lyman D. Brewster; Sari- 
na Elizabeth, born June 24, 1843, died 
January 10, 1845 '■> George Edward, born 
August 31, 1845. died November 5, 1894. 



PHELPS, Guy Rowland, 

Physician and Pioneer in Life Insurance. 

Guy Rowland Phelps, deceased, of 
Simsbury and Hartford, was a man of 
varied attainments and prominently iden- 
tified with insurance interests. Prior to 
the reign of Edward VI. the Phelps 
family patronymic was spelled Phel- 
lyppes. Dr. Phelps belonged to the 
Guelph family, tracing his ancestry to 
George I., of England. He was a de- 



scendant in the seventh generation of 
William Phelps, who was born at Tewkes- 
bury, England, in 1599, emigrated to 
America about 1630, first making his 
home at Dorchester, Massachusetts, and 
became one of the first settlers of Wind- 
sor, Connecticut, in 1635. From him the 
chain of descent is as follows: Joseph, 
born in England, died at Simsbury in 
1684; Joseph (2), born August 27, 1667; 
David, a lieutenant in the militia, born 
May 7, 1710; Major-General Noah 
Phelps, born January 22, 1740; and Colo- 
nel Noah A., the father of Guy Rowland, 
born May 3, 1762. 

Dr. Guy R. Phelps was born at Sims- 
bury, April I, 1802. His mother's maiden 
name was Charlotte Wilcox. His early 
schooling was received at Simsbury and 
Suffield, and he graduated from Yale in 
1825. He was a close student, an apt 
and facile learner, and qualified himself 
for the profession of teacher while yet a 
mere youth, and in fact successfully man- 
aged an exceedingly disorderly school, 
where other — and more experienced — 
pedagogues had failed. For several win- 
ters he taught with marked success, de- 
voting his summers to the study of medi- 
cine, for which profession he felt a strong 
vocation early in youth. His first medi- 
cal preceptor was Dr. Coggswell, a noted 
and successful practitioner of those days, 
who in accordance with the custom of his 
times gave instruction to three or four 
embryo physicians. Going to New York, 
young Phelps pursued his studies under 
the tutelage of those eminent physicians 
and surgeons, Dr. Alexander and. Dr 
Valentine Mott. 

After being licensed to practice Dr. 
Phelps opened an office in New York 
City, where he met with most gratifying 
success for three years. However, his 
health became impaired, and he felt that 
change of scene and fresh country air 
were necessary to restore his physical 



162 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



condition to its wonted strength. He 
therefore returned to Simsbury, where he 
entered upon the tiresome but active 
round of duties incident to a country- 
practice. After four years of this life he 
felt well enough to resume city practice 
and accordingly returned to New York. 
Once more he found the metropolis a field 
of success, and it was with poignant re- 
gret that he realized that an extensive 
city practice (during the epidemic he was 
at one time treating forty cases of small- 
pox) might prove the means of shorten- 
ing his life. Again he returned to Sims- 
bury, but the long rides and uncertain 
hours of the country practitioner were 
not to his liking, and in April, 1837, he 
opened a drug store on North Main 
street, Hartford. As a druggist Dr. 
Phelps ranked among the first, while his 
financial success exceeded his expecta- 
tions, and he was recognized as the lead- 
ing pharmacist of his day and section. It 
was he who devised the formula for the 
"Phelps Tomato Pill," a preparation 
which had a wonderful sale in its day, 
and which, together with the profits aris- 
ing from his drug business, laid the foun- 
dation of his fortune. He always re- 
tained his membership in the County and 
State Medical societies, with both of 
which he had for many years been ac- 
tively and prominently identified. 

Perhaps, however. Dr. Phelps' most 
enduring claim to fame rests upon his 
connection with the insurance business, 
to which the latter years of his life were 
devoted almost exclusively. His atten- 
tion was first directed to the subject of 
life insurance in 1846, when he took out 
a policy upon his own life. In the United 
States the field was a terra incognita, and 
the scheme was regarded with disfavor, 
if not with positive distrust. Dr. Phelps 
was quick to perceive the possibilities of 
the situation, and his keen, well-trained 
mind was of a cast especially well qualified 



to grapple with the intricate and perplex- 
ing problems which presented them- 
selves. Evidently the first task to be 
accomplished was the education of the 
American people as to the theory of life 
insurance and the fundamental principles 
upon which it is based. At that time the 
business was conducted generally in an 
expensive manner, while the spirit of spec- 
ulation was rife among managements 
which knew comparatively nothing of the 
practical value of risks. His ideas were 
so far in advance of his time that, while 
some pitied what they termed his "folly," 
others doubted whether his mental bal- 
ance was in correct equipoise. Yet what 
were then called his "fanciful" and "ab- 
surd" theories are to-day recognized (with 
necessary modifications) as among the 
underlying principles of every sound and 
well-managed company. 

The great work of Dr. Phelps' life was 
the organizing, establishing and nurtur- 
ing of the Connecticut Mutual Life In- 
surance Company, and it was he who 
conceived the plan under which the great 
success of this company was achieved. 
In 1846 the company was organized. Dr. 
Phelps becoming the first secretary, and 
while that great corporation was struggl- 
ing in the swaddling bands of infancy he 
even swept out his own office to save ex- 
pense. He had carefully studied the 
matter in all its phases, and not long 
afterward made a special trip to Europe 
to investigate the workings of the Old 
World companies, on his return to Amer- 
ica incorporating with his own plans all 
the features of value he had found. He 
wrote the charter of the company, which 
was adopted practically word for word as 
composed by him, and fought for two 
sessions in the legislature to have it 
granted. As the company was a "mu- 
tual" one it was necessary to obtain a 
guaranty fund of $50,000 — to guarantee 
the payment of policies during the in- 



163 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



fancy of the company — a task of far 
greater magnitude, but at length ten of 
his friends in Hartford, Simsbury and 
New York came to his relief by signing 
notes aggregating that amount, Thomas 
K. Brace, three of Dr. Phelps' brothers, 
two of his cousins and an uncle being of 
the number. Dr. Phelps was ever a tire- 
less worker for the success of the con- 
cern, and the "Insurance Monitor" of 
September, 1868, said : "It is not too 
much to say, for it is a well-known and 
conceded fact that the Connecticut Mu- 
tual owes its eminent success and pros- 
perity, in a very large measure to the 
skill and labor of Dr. Phelps, its principal 
manager from its organization to the 
present time." He regulated and man- 
aged its aftairs in a most able manner, 
serving as secretary for a time, and later, 
for a number of years, as president. 
Though not the originator of the "mutu- 
al" system used in insurance he did more 
than any other man to "elucidate and 
popularize" it. Just before his death he 
told his daughter that the company was 
on such staple footing that without any 
management it would continue to run for 
twenty-five years. After his demise the 
Life Underwriters of Hartford passed 
resolutions of sympathy and regret, etc., 
and among other things said: "In the 
death of Dr. Guy R. Phelps the Life 
Underwriters of the United States have 
met with an irreparable loss." The "In- 
surance Times" of March, 1869, said of 
him : "A great and good man has left us 
forever. A practical, laborious and emi- 
nent philanthropist, who not only loved 
his fellow men, but spent the energies of 
his life, the gifts of his intellect and the 
goodness of his heart in their behalf, is 
gone to his haven of eternal peace and 
reward. His comfort giving and abun- 
dant works remain, and the spirit with 
which he espoused and promoted a sacred 
cause, and built up a great benevolent 



institution, having inspired many others 
with its kindling sympathy, will be per- 
petuated and multiply on the earth for 
ages to come." 

Dr. Phelps was a reflective reader and 
a profound student, particularly fond of 
the study of history and the languages, in 
both of which he was proficient. He was 
a man fully abreast of the times, thor- 
oughly posted on the current events of 
the day, and well-informed on general 
subjects. Until 1856 he was a Democrat, 
but after that date voted with the Re- 
publican party, though it was his wont 
to say that he had "never left his party, 
its name simply changed." His fellow 
citizens showed their appreciation of his 
worth by early choosing hira a member 
of the city council, and later electing him 
an alderman, as well as by sending him 
to represent them in the legislature. For 
years he attended Dr. Horace Bushnell's 
church, and was a liberal contributor to 
its support and to the prosecution of its 
work ; he became a member during his 
later years. Dr. Phelps was too old to 
enlist for service in the rebellion, but was 
much interested in the cause of liberty, 
and he volunteered to double the pay of 
a man who would go to the front as he 
had no son to send. His grandfather 
served in the Revolution, his father in 
the war of 1812, and he desired to have 
representation ; accordingly he sent 
Charles Tennant, who soon became sec- 
ond lieutenant, was wounded at Antie- 
tam, recovered, was promoted to captain, 
and was afterward killed. Dr. Phelps 
ever after took a deep interest in his fam- 
ily. 

On April 17, 1833, at Simsbury, Dr. 
Phelps married Hannah Latimer, born in 
that town June 23, 1801, daughter of 
Waite and Hannah (Pettibone) Latimer. 
Children : Antoinette Randolph, Maria 
Augusta, Guy Carleton and Guyana Row- 
land, the first named being the only one 
64 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



that attained maturity. Antoinette R. 
Phelps was a resident of Hartford, her 
home being at No. 72 Washington street, 
in that city. She enjoys the dual distinc- 
tion of being a member of two of the 
most honored orders in America, the 
Daughters of the American Revolution 
and the Colonial Dames. 

Dr. Phelps was both a Free Mason and 
an Odd Fellow, and was held in high re- 
gard by all who knew him, receiving the 
highest esteem from those who knew him 
best. As a physician he was careful, re- 
flective and conscientious, as a citizen 
patriotic, as a husband and father gentle, 
loving and true, as a man honest and 
fearless. He died March 18, 1869, after 
a short attack of typhoid pneumonia. 
Until within a few days of his passing 
away his activity was unimpaired, but a 
cold contracted through sitting near an 
open window at a directors' meeting 
proved the indirect cause of his demise. 
His wife survived until May 28, 1873, 
when she, too, fell asleep. Both rest in 
the cemetery at Simsbury, where also 
sleep five generations of both families. 



WAITE, Henry M., 

liCgisIator, Jurist. 

Henry Matson Waite was born in 
Lyme, Connecticut, February 9, 1787, 
son of Remick and Susannah (Matson) 
Waite, and a descendant of Thomas 
Waite, who immigrated from England 
to Massachusetts about 1663. ^^ was 
graduated from Yale, A. B., 1809; studied 
law with Judge Matthews and Governor 
Roger Griswold; was admitted to the 
bar in 1812, and was engaged in the ac- 
tive practice of his profession in Middle- 
town and in Lyme. He took an active 
interest in public aiTairs ; he served as 
representative in the State Legislature in 
1815 and for many years following; was 
State Senator, 1832-33 ; judge of the Su- 



preme Court of Errors of Connecticut, 
1834-54, and chief justice of the State, 
1854-57. The honorary degree of LL. D. 
was conferred upon him by Yale in 1855. 
He was married, in 1816, to Maria, daugh- 
ter of Colonel Richard Selden, of Lyme, 
Connecticut, and granddaughter of Colo- 
nel Samuel Selden. Judge Waite died 
in Lyme, Connecticut, December 14, 1869. 
His son, 

Morrison Remick Waite, was born at 
Lyme, Connecticut, November 29, 1816, 
and died in Washington City, March 23, 
1888. He graduated from Yale College, 
in the same class with William M. Evarts, 
Benjamin Silliman, Edwards Pierrepont 
and Samuel J. Tilden. He studied law 
and located for practice in Toledo, Ohio, 
and served in the Legislature of that 
State. He succeeded Salmon P. Chase as 
Chief Justice of the United States, under 
appointment by President Ulysses S. 
Grant in which capacity he was called 
upon to deal with many important ques- 
tions growing out of the Civil War and 
the constitutional amendments incident 
thereto. He proved himself a most able 
and conscientious jurist, holding an even 
balance between the rights of the States 
and those of the Federal government, 
protecting the former from encroach- 
ment, and checking the centralizing ten- 
dencies of the latter. 



IVES, Nathan Beers, 

Prominent Physician. 

Dr. Nathan Beers Ives, son of Dr. Eli 
Ives (q. v.), was born at New Haven, 
June 26, 1806, died there, June 18, 1869. 
He was educated at Yale College, receiv- 
ing the degree of A. B. in 1825 and M. D. 
in 1828. He began to practice medicine 
in 1828 at the age of twenty-two years, 
and continued until disabled by ill health 
during his last years. As the fruit of his 
lifetime of industry and a token of his 



165 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ability in his profession he left an ample 
estate, much larger than had ever before 
been accumulated in the practice of medi- 
cine in New Haven. For a good many 
years it was admitted that he took the 
cream of the business in his profession, 
and although he was naturally envied by 
his younger or less fortunate fellow prac- 
titioners, none said or felt that his suc- 
cess was unmerited. "His perceptive 
faculties were naturally keen and his 
management of his resources showed un- 
usual tact. He devoted himself to his 
professional duties and to the welfare of 
his patients with a singleness of purpose 
which can spring only from the genuine 
fitness of a man for his calling. Rarely 
did he enter a household as a physician 
without becoming permanently bound to 
it as a friend. He had a vivid enjoyment 
of good company and bright conversa- 
tion, in which with his natural vivacity of 
temperament he always bore an active 
part. There always seemed a certain fit- 
ness in it that these gifts should be 
lodged in a short, slight, alert figure." 
"His soul," as old Fuller says, "had but 
a small diocese to visit." "It was related 
of him as a child that he climbed the 
branches of a great stramonium weed 
among the herbs of his father's wonder- 
ful garden." For many years he gave 
private instruction to medical students, 
but never consented to become an in- 
structor in the medical school. He mar- 
ried Sarah Badger. 

Their son, Dr. Charles Linneus Ives, 
followed in the footsteps of his father and 
grandfather, and became an accomplished 
physician. 



HALLOCK, Zephaniah, 

Famous Shipbuilder. 

The name Hallock has been variously 
spelled Holyeake, Holliok, Halliock, Hal- 
leck, Hallioak, Hallick and Hallack. The 



signature of William Hallock, of Long 
Island, dated at Southold (township) 
February lo, 1682, and on record at 
Riverhead, is written Hollyoake by the 
copyist, and it is quite evident that it 
was used interchangeably with that of 
Holyoke. The latter name has been 
known in England for centuries, and 
there is a family coat-of-arms. One Ed- 
ward Holyoke emigrated from Stafford 
county in 1639 and was afterwards presi- 
dent of Harvard College. His son, Eli- 
zur Holyoke, became well known in 
northwestern Massachusetts from having 
received a grant of land near Northamp- 
ton in 1654; also from the fact that Mt. 
Holyoke was named for him because he 
camped at its base while looking for 
land. The family arms appear in his will, 
171 1, as follows: Azure, a chevron argent, 
cotised, or, between three crescents of 
the second. Crest: A crescent, argent. 

Peter Hallock, the first of the family 
to come to America, and one of the New 
Haven Colony, landed at Hallock's Neck, 
Southold, Long Island, in 1640, and set- 
tled near Mattituck. He came over with 
a company of Puritans with the Rev. Mr. 
John Youngs. According to a tradition 
in the family, Peter Hallock was the first 
of the thirteen men who composed the 
company, to set foot on the shore among 
the Indians at Southold. For this reason 
that part of the village was named Hal- 
lock's Neck, and the beach extending 
from it Hallock's Beach, names which 
are still retained. He purchased from 
the Indians the tract of land since called 
Oyster Ponds, now Orient, and then re- 
turned to England for his wife and on 
coming back with her found that the 
Indians had resold his property. He then 
bought about ten miles west of Matti- 
tuck. His wife was a widow when he 
married her, and had a son by her former 
husband, Mr. Howell. The only child of 
[66 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the second marriage was William, men- 
tioned below. 

William, son of Peter Hallock, was 
born, lived and died at Alattituck. His 
wife was Margaret . He died Sep- 
tember 28, 1684, leaving a will dated 
Southold (township), February 10, 1682, 
and proved October 21, 1684, which is 
preserved in the ancient records both of 
SulTolk county at Riverhead and of New 
York City. He left his property to his 
wife, four sons, Thomas, Peter, William 
and John, and his five daughters, Marga- 
ret, Martha, Sarah, Elizabeth and Abigail. 

John Hallock, married Abigail Swazey. 
He removed to Setauket in Brookhaven, 
and died there, in 1737. His wife died in 
the same years, January 23, '"both very 
ancient and in unity with Friends." 
Deeds in Riverhead, Long Island, men- 
tion four of his sons, John, Peter, Benja- 
min, mentioned below, and William, who 
settled near him, as did also his son Jona- 
than. His dwelling house in Setauket, 
covered with cedar, is still standing. 

William Hallock, son of John Hallock, 
was born about 1722, died about 1782. 
He lived many years at Stony Brook, but 
was in Greenwich, Connecticut, during 
most of the Revolutionary War, in which 
he suffered much in the command of 
picket boats on the sound. He married 
Sarah Saxton, of Huntington, Long 
Island, sister of Harriet Saxton, who 
married Zephaniah Piatt, the founder of 
Plattsburg, New York. After Mr. Hal- 
lock died his widow lived with her 
youngest daughter Anne, wife of Lodo- 
wick FlackstafT, in Sing Sing and New 
York City, and was buried in St. Paul's 
church yard. New York, in 1806, aged 
eighty-three years. 

Their son, William Hallock, was born 
about 1755. He was a soldier in the Revo- 
lution and a prisoner of the British one 
year in the old sugar-house of infamous 



memory in New York City. He was 
taken prisoner at the battle of Long 
Island. His widow was one of the last 
of the Revolutionary War pensioners. 
He married Ruth Hawkins. Her last 
days were spent in Derby, Connecticut. 
Their son, Zephaniah Hallock, was born 
on Long Island at Stony Brook, 1792, 
died at Derby, Connecticut, January 11, 
1870. He came to Derby in 1816 and 
engaged in shipbuilding, first at Sugar 
street, and then at Derby Narrows, where 
he built many vessels. He was in part- 
nership with his brother Israel. Few, if 
any, men ever lived in town more uni- 
versally respected than Zephaniah. He 
was a zealous Congregationalist, joining 
the church in youth and manifesting his 
faith in daily good works through a long 
and useful life. His high standards of 
morality and business and the daily ex- 
ample of integrity made him a powerful 
influence for good in the community. He 
was of cheerful disposition and socially 
attractive. He was active in the church 
and seldom absent from meetings. As 
ship builders the Hallocks always bore 
an enviable reputation, both at home and 
abroad. He was affectionately called 
"Uncle Zeph" in later years and the town 
history pays him the compliment of be- 
ing one of "the most honest men that 
ever lived." "There was no duplicity or 
double dealing in his character and rather 
than shirk his contracts by putting in 
shoddy timber or practicing any dodge 
upon his employees, he would sooner 
suffer loss in dollars." Therefore, any 
vessel labeled with the name of Hallock 
whether in port or on the ocean always 
bore the palm of great merit. He took 
part in the War of 1812. He married 
Sarah Hall, a native of Cairo, New York. 
Children: William Henry; Franklin; 
FVederick H., died in infancy; Ann Au- 
gusta ; Edwin. 



167 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ELIOT, Ely A., 

Merchant and Public Official. 

Bennett Eliot, the first known ancestor 
of the line herein followed, was a resi- 
dent of Widford, County Hertford, Eng- 
land, and married there Letteye Aggar. 
His remains were interred in Nazing, 
County Essex, England, November 21, 
1621. Their son, the Rev. John Eliot, was 
baptized at Widford, August 5, 1604, and 
died May 21, 1690. He was a student at 
Jesus College, Cambridge University. He 
embarked about the middle of August, 
163 1, in the ship "Lion" for Boston, arriv- 
ing November 2. He immediately took 
charge of the church at Boston in the ab- 
sence of the pastor, Rev. John Wilson. 
In 1632 he became teacher of the church 
at Roxbury. He began to preach to the 
Indians, September 14, 1646; in 1650 he 
selected Natick, Massachusetts, as a place 
for an Indian town and the foundations 
were made the following year; in 1653 he 
had so far progressed in his knowledge of 
the Indian language that he had devised 
and translated the Book of Psalms ; in 
1654 he printed a catechism in the Indian 
tongue ; in 1657 he preached to the Po- 
dunk Indians at Hartford in their own 
language ; in December, 1658, he had com- 
pleted his translation of the whole Bible 
into the Massachusetts dialect; in 1660 
he was first called "The Indian Apostle," 
a title by which he has since been distin- 
guished ; the publication of the Bible was 
completed in 1663; the translation of the 
Psalter was published in 1664, and in 1666 
the Indian grammar; in 1686, after much 
revision and delay, a second edition of 
the Bible was printed and distributed 
among the Indians. When he was eighty- 
four years old he continued to preach 
from time to time to the Indians. He died 
May 21, 1690. 

His son, the Rev. Joseph Eliot, was 
born December 20, 1638, and died May 



24, 1694. He graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege in 1658, and became the minister at 
Northampton, Massachusetts, and Guil- 
ford, Connecticut. He worked with his 
father teaching the Indians, and was one 
of those who signed the covenant of the 
church at Northampton. His son, the 
Rev. Jared Eliot, was born November 7, 
1685, and died April 22, 1763. He gradu- 
ated at Yale College in 1706 and became 
a famous minister. He served as school- 
master in his native town, and resigned 
from that position to accept the call as 
pastor of the church at Killingworth, now 
Clinton, and there served for a period of 
fifty-six years. He was a physician as 
well as clergyman, and he trained so 
many students in medicine who subse- 
quently attained distinction that he was 
commonly called "the father of regular 
medical practice in Connecticut." He 
was scarcely less famous in scientific in- 
vestigation. He discovered the existence 
of iron in the dark red sea sand, and as a 
result of successful experiments made 
America's first contribution to the science 
of metallurgy in a tract entitled : "The 
Art of Making very good if not the best 
Iron from Black Sea Sand." These in- 
vestigations won for him by unanimous 
vote the gold medal of the London Soci- 
ety of Arts in 1762. His son, George 
Eliot, was born March 9, 1736, and died 
May I, 1810. He was a farmer by occu- 
pation. 

His son, George Eliot, was born Janu- 
ary 27, 1767, and died October 3. 1828, in 
Killingworth, where he conducted agri- 
cultural pursuits. He was a man of im- 
portance in the community, filled many 
public offices and represented his town in 
the Legislature. He was courtly and dig- 
nified in manner and was known by the 
title "Esquire George." He married, De- 
cember 23, 1790, Patience, daughter of 
Noah Lane, of Killingworth. They were 
the parents of Ely Augustus Eliot. 
68 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Ely Augustus Eliot was born Septem- 
ber i8, 1791, at Clinton, Connecticut, and 
died January 7, 1870. He married, July 
14, 1818, Susan Maria, daughter of Hum- 
phrey Pratt, of Saybrook. She died Janu- 
ary 9, 1870. He was a merchant in Clin- 
ton, 1815-50, but later retired from, busi- 
ness and devoted himself to more leisurely 
pursuits. He was active in originating 
and carrying on the construction of the 
New Haven & New London railroad, and 
was president of the road for the years 
1854-57. He was elected by the Legis- 
lature judge of the county court of Mid- 
dlesex county, 1842-44, 1846-47, and in 
1839 was elected a member of the State 
Senate. He was lieutenant of coast artil- 
lery in 1814 and brigadier-general of artil- 
lery after the war. As such, he was a 
popular and efficient officer. He collected 
a considerable library, and devoted also 
much time and attention to the cause of 
agriculture. An address which he deliv- 
ered before the Agricultural Society of 
Middlesex County, 1849, ^^^ published 
at the time and is now a rare pamphlet. 
He was courtly and dignified in manner 
and refined and scholarlv in all his tastes. 



HOTCHKISS, Henry, 

Business Man and Financier. 

Samuel Hotchkiss, founder of the fam- 
ily in America, who is supposed to have 
come from Essex, England, was a resi- 
dent of New Haven, Connecticut, in 
1641, being among the first to locate there, 
and remaining there until his death, De- 
cember 28, 1663. He married, in the New 
Haven Colony, September 7, 1642, Eliza- 
beth Cleverly, who died in 1681. Their 
son, Daniel Hotchkiss, was born June 8, 
1657, died March 10, 1712. He married, 
June 21, 1683, Esther Sperry. Their son, 
Daniel (2) Hotchkiss, was born in Au- 
gust, 1687. He married Susannah Brad- 



ley. Their son, Obadiah Hotchkiss, was 
born in 1731, died in 1S05. He married 
Alary (Mercy on tombstone) Perkins, of 
Bethany. Among their children was Jus- 
tus Hotchkiss, baptized December 6, 1772, 
died May 6, 1812, aged thirty-nine years. 
He was married twice, his wives being 
sisters, descendants in the sixth genera- 
tion from Samuel Hotchkiss. His second 
wife and the mother of his two children 
was Susannah Hotchkiss. Their oldest 
son was Henry, see forward. 

Henry Hotchkiss was born April 29, 
1801, died December 15, 1871. He and 
his brother Lucius, only children of their 
parents, attended the academy at Fair- 
field, Connecticut. Henry, at the age of 
eighteen, returned to New Haven and be- 
came a clerk for his uncle, Russell Hotch- 
kiss, who was at one time associated with 
his father in the lumber business, and 
served in that capacity three years, and 
upon attaining his majority became asso- 
ciated in the business as a partner. In 
1828 the uncle retired from business, be- 
ing succeeded by his two nephews, and 
under the name of H. & L. Hotchkiss 
they continued the same until 1850. The 
two brothers were also interested in other 
enterprises. From 1842 to 1852 they were 
private partners in the business of L. 
Candee & Company, manufacturers of 
rubber shoes, Leverett Candee having ac- 
quired the right to manufacture under the 
Goodyear patents. In this business they 
were among the pioneers, and from a 
small beginning the rubber shoe indus- 
try has grown to vast proportions. The 
corporation known as L. Candee & Com- 
pany was organized as a stock company 
in 1852, with a capital stock of $200,000, 
Mr. Candee being the first president. In 
1863 Henry Hotchkiss became president 
and treasurer, retiring from the latter 
office in 1869, when his son. Henry L. 
Hotchkiss, succeeded him as treasurer. 



169 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



The office of president, Henry Hotchkiss 
retained until his death in 1871, when 
Henry L. Hotchkiss was elected to the 
position, which he has since retained. 
L. Candee & Company manufacture 
twenty thousand pairs of boots and shoes 
each day, or over six million per year. 
Henry Hotchkiss was one of the original 
corporators of and a director in the large 
Waterbury brass manufactory of Holmes, 
Booth & Haydens ; an original corporator 
of the New Haven & New London rail- 
road, now the Shore Line Railroad Com- 
pany, and later a trustee and manager for 
several years. He served in the capacity 
of president of the New Haven County 
Bank for almost two decades, and was the 
first president of the Union Trust Com,- 
pany of New Haven, holding the office 
from its organization in 1871 until his 
death, when he was succeeded by his son, 
Henry L. Hotchkiss. He was a director 
in the Colonial Historical Society of New 
Haven, and during his early life was 
active in military afifairs and in the New 
Haven fire department. 

Henry Hotchkiss married, May 22, 
1823, Elizabeth Daggett, born May 3, 
1803, died in September, 1882, daughter 
of Benjamin Prescott. of the shipping 
firm of Prescott & Sherman, of New 
Haven. Children: i. Elizabeth S., died 
January 26, 1896. 2. Mary A. P., died 
October 3, 1839. 3- Martha, married Dr. 
John O. Bronson, died February 22, 1898. 
4. Susan V. 5. Mary A., married Captain 
Charles H. Townshend, formerly in com- 
mand of the steamer "Fulton," plying be- 
tween New York and Havre. 6. Henry 
Lucius. Mrs. Hotchkiss traced her ances- 
try to John Prescott, who emigrated from 
England to Boston and Watertown in 
1640, and who was the first settler of 
Worcester county and the founder of 
Lancaster. The next in descent was Cap- 
tain Jonathan Prescott, who had a son. 



Rev. Benjamin, who had a son, Benjamin, 
who had a son, Benjamin, born October 
27, 1757, in Salem, Massachusetts, died 
October 23, 1839. I" 1783 he married 
Hannah, daughter of Tilly and Thankful 
(Allen) Blakeslie, who died May 10, 1824, 
and they were the parents of Mrs. Hotch- 
kiss. 



HUBBERD, John Henry, 

"La-wyeT and Public Official. 

John Hubberd, immigrant ancestor, was 
probably born in England, though he may 
be related to the Hingham family of this 
name. He was an inhabitant of Boston, 
Massachusetts, as early as 1670. He re- 
moved to Roxbury and served in King 
Philip's war in Captain Isaac Johnson's 
company, 1675-76. He married Rebecca 
Wells. She joined the church February 
17, 1683. He went to Woodstock, Con- 
necticut (New Roxbury or Mashemequit), 
settled by forty Roxbury families who 
left Roxbury, July 21, 1686. John Hub- 
berd was an original proprietor. Their 
son, John Hubberd, was born at Wood- 
stock, May 3, 1689, died after 1731. He 
was one of the petitioners for the charter 
of the town of Pomfret, set off from 
Woodstock, dated in 1713. He bought 
the homestead of John Adams in 1710. 
It is located between Canterbury and 

Mortlake. He married Elizabeth . 

Their son, Joseph Hubberd, was born at 
Pomfret, Connecticut, about 1720. He 
removed to Salisbury, Connecticut, and 
located at Tory Hill. He bought a farm 
of one hundred and forty-five acres, four- 
teenth lot, near Middle Pond in Salisbury 
of John and Experience Palmer for three 
hundred pounds sterling, June 18. 1774, 
by warrantee deed (see Salisbury land 
records, volume 7, page 102). He was a 
Loyalist during the Revolution, though 
a personal friend of General Israel Put- 



170 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



nam, his neighbor. He married at Pom- 
fret, July 5, 1744, Deborah, daughter of 
Joseph Cleveland. Their son, Parley 
Hubbard, was born in Pomfret about 
1767, died in 1848. He removed to Salis- 
bury with his parents in 1781. He was a 
large and successful farmer, owning the 
land where the Hotchkiss School is 
located at Lakeville, Connecticut. He 
was captain in the State militia. He mar- 
ried Anna, daughter of John and Sarah 
(Landon) Catlin, of Salisbury. Children: 

1. Hiram Bosworth, born 1796, died March 
21, 1869; married Polly Dean, of Canaan. 

2. Joseph Augustus, born 1800, died 1877, 
at Honesdale, Wayne county, Pennsyl- 
vania ; married Daphne Bushnell. 3. John 
Henry, mentioned below. 4. Alexander, 
born 1806, died June, 1881 ; married Man- 
dane Van Deusen ; children : Jane, James, 
John Henry, Edwin, Anna. 

Hon. John Plenry Hubberd was born 
in Salisbury, March 24, 1804, died July 
30, 1872, in Litchfield. He received a 
good education in the district schools and 
became especially proficient in mathe- 
matics and Latin. He was qualified to 
teach school at the age of fifteen years. 
He was a lifelong student, however, and 
a man of many attainments. He began 
to study law in the office of Hon. Elisha 
Sterling, of Salisbury, and was admitted 
to the bar before he was twenty-two years 
old. He established himself in the prac- 
tice of his profession at Lakeville, Con- 
necticut, and resided there for thirty 
years. In 1847-49 he was a State Senator 
from the seventeenth district. He was 
appointed State Attorney for Litchfield 
county in 1849 ^"d held the office four 
years. In politics he was originally a 
Whig, afterward a Republican and a 
leader of his party. He gave earnest sup- 
port to the government during the Civil 
War and helped to recruit the Thirteenth 
and Nineteenth regiments. In 1863 he 
was elected to the Thirty-eighth Con- 



gress and reelected to Congress in 1865 
from the fourth district. He served his 
district with ability and distinction'. He 
was an able and successful lawyer and 
continued in practice until shortly before 
his death. The following tribute by his 
neighbor and friend, Hon. Henry B. 
Graves, was published in a Litchfield 
newspaper at the time of his death : "The 
Hon. John H. Hubberd died in this vil- 
lage on the 30th of July, 1872. The de- 
ceased was born in Salisbury in Novem- 
ber, 1804, and was therefore at his death 
past sixty-seven years of age. He was 
admitted to the Litchfield county bar in 
April, 1826, and soon after commenced 
practicing law in his native town, in the 
village of Lakeville, where he continued 
in a very successful business until about 
seventeen years since, when he removed 
to Litchfield. Here he was constantly 
occupied in his profession, being engaged 
in most of the important cases tried in 
our higher courts until his election to 
Congress in 1863 from this district. He 
was again returned to Congress in 1865. 
Having served his four years in Congress, 
he again returned to the practice of law 
and continued it till within a few weeks 
of his death. He was very industrious, 
energetic and persevering ; never discour- 
aged by an adverse decision, where there 
was an opportunity to pursue the cause 
of his client further, and was often vic- 
torious in the court of review, where he 
had been overruled in the inferior courts. 
In the course of his professional career 
he had a lucrative practice and for many 
years was one of the more prominent law- 
yers in this county. He served five years 
as State Attorney of the county, in which 
position he gave general satisfaction ; he 
was also State Senator from the 17th dis- 
trict two terms and served in various 
other public relations and in all of them 
acquitted himself with honor. He was a 
good citizen ; liberal, kind and generous 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



to the poor, and always ready to con- 
tribute his full share to all objects of 
worthy charity. As a husband and par- 
ent he could not do enough for those so 
nearly connected to him and his affections 
knew no bounds or limit. The deceased 
leaves a widow, three sons and a daugh- 
ter surviving him, to mourn his loss. 
Though his death had been expected for 
several days, owing to the character of 
his disease, yet our community was not 
prepared to meet with so great an afflic- 
tion and deeply sympathize with the 
stricken family in their great sorrow." 

He married (first) Julia A. Dodge. He 
married (second) September i8, 1855, 
Abby Jane Wells, born at Litchfield, in 
1826, died September 30, 1908, daughter 
of Tomlinson and Electa (Smith) Wells, 
granddaughter of Philip and Elizabeth 
(Tomlinson) Wells. Hezekiah Wells, 
father of Philip, was son of Thomas, 
grandson of John, and great-grandson of 
John Wells, of Stratford, Connecticut. 
John, last mentioned, was son of Gov- 
ernor Thomas Wells. Children: i. John 
Tomlinson, born November 3, 1856. 2. 
Philip Parley (twin), June 9, 1859, cashier 
of the Litchfield National Bank ; married, 
May 9, 1896, Harriet A. Cook, of Lowell, 
Massachusetts ; children : Miriam, born 
February 21, 1897; Harriet, May 13, 1902. 
3. Anna Electa (twin), died December 11, 
1909. 4. Frank Wells, August 2, 1865 ; 
attorney, legal adviser of the New York 
Street Railway; married, November 18, 
1891, Grace W. Keese, of Brooklyn, New 
York. Children : Grace Louise, born 
March 18, 1893; Waldron Wells, July 10, 
1896. 



BULKELEY, Eliphalet Adams, 

Promiuent Citizen and Public Official. 

This surname is a place name of ancient 
English origin, and was originally spelled 
Buclough in the time of King John, in 



1 199, and fater. It signifies "a large 
mountain." There have been and still 
are many variations in spelling. Bulkeley 
is the one most commonly used, other 
forms being Bulkle, Bulkley and Buckley. 

Rev. Peter Bulkeley, the immigrant an- 
cestor, was born at Odell, Bedfordshire, 
England, January 31, 1582-83, and died 
at Concord, March 9, 1658-59. He sailed 
for New England in 1635 ; settled first in 
Cambridge and the following year with 
twelve others began the settlement of 
Concord. He was teacher of the church 
at Concord, and is always spoken of as 
the first minister of Concord. He was 
among the first to instruct the Indians, 
and the singular immunity of Concord 
from Indian attack was largely credited, 
by tradition, to his sanctity and influence. 
He wrote several Latin poems, and he 
also published a volume in London in 
1646 entitled "The Gospel Covenant," and 
an elegy on his friend, Rev. Mr. Hooker. 

His son, the Rev. Gershom Bulkeley, 
was born at Concord, December 6, 1636, 
and died December 2, 1713. He gradu- 
ated at Harvard College in 1655, and in 
1661 he became the minister of the second 
church at New London, Connecticut, and 
in 1666-67 removed to Wethersfield, 
where he was installed as pastor. In 1676 
he asked for dismissal on account of im- 
paired health, and thereafter devoted him- 
self to the practice of medicine and sur- 
gery, in which he achieved much success 
and reputation. In 1675, during his pas- 
torate, he was appointed surgeon to the 
Connecticut troops in King Philip's War, 
and placed on the council of war. 

His son, the Rev. John Bulkeley, was 
born in 1679. ^^ graduated from Har- 
vard College in 1699, studied divinity and 
was ordained as minister of the church 
at Colchester, Connecticut, December 20, 
1703. He was classed by the Rev. Dr. 
Chauncey in 1768 am,ong the three most 
•2 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



eminent for strength of genius and power 
of mind which New England produced. 
He was regarded by men of his time as a 
famous casuist and sage counselor. 

His son, Hon. John Bulkeley, was born 
April 19, 1705, and died July 21, 1753. He 
graduated from Yale College in 1725, 
studied law, and became eminent in his 
profession. For eleven years he was one 
of the assistants of the province, was 
judge of probate and held other offices of 
trust, and was colonel of his regiment. 

His son, Colonel Eliphalet Bulkeley, 
was born at Colchester, Connecticut, Au- 
gust 8, 1746. He was a prominent officer 
in the Connecticut troops in the Revolu- 
tion, a captain of the Colchester company 
that responded to the Lexington Alarm, 
April 19, 1775, and promoted lieutenant- 
colonel in May, 1780. His son, John 
Charles Bulkeley, was born in Colches- 
ter, Connecticut, August 8, 1772. He 
married Sally Taintor and they were the 
parents of three sons : Charles Edwin, 
born October 16, 1799; John Taintor, 
born October 3, 1801 ; and Eliphalet 
Adams, of whom further. 

Eliphalet Adams Bulkeley was born 
June 20, 1803; died in 1872. He was 
graduated from Yale College in the 
class of 1824 and began the study of 
law in the office of William P. Wil- 
liams, of Lebanon, Connecticut, and be- 
gan to practice at East Haddam, where 
he became a prominent citizen. He be- 
came president of the East Haddam 
Bank ; representative to the General As- 
sembly and twice State Senator from the 
nineteenth district. In 1847 he removed 
to Hartford, where he was already known 
and where he enjoyed a large practice. 
He was for a number of years one of the 
school fund commissioners, leader in poli- 
tics and town affairs and held various 
positions of trust and honor. He was 
elected in 1857 to the Legislature from 



Hartford with Nathaniel Shipman and 
was chosen speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Union Republicans. 
He was originally a Whig, but joined the 
Republican party at its organization. For 
some years he was in partnership with 
Judge Henry Perkins under the firm name 
of Bulkeley & Perkins, a well known law 
firm, but his later years were devoted to 
the business of life insurance. He was 
the first president of the Connecticut Mu- 
tual Company and assisted in its organi- 
zation. In 1850 he organized the .<^tna 
Life Insurance Company, serving as pres- 
ident until his death. He was interested 
in all the ^tna companies, banking and 
insurance, fire and life. He was a direc- 
tor of the Willimantic Linen Company 
and other corporations, and was a lead- 
ing stockholder in many profitable enter- 
prises. Through his own enterprise, good 
judgment and sagacity in investment and 
development of business he accumulated 
a fortune and was rated as a millionaire 
at his death. His habits of life were most 
regular and methodical. He was prompt 
in keeping his engagements and was pres- 
ent at all meetings where he was expect- 
ed. In eighteen years he never failed 
until his last illness to preside at the meet- 
ings of the Pearl Street Ecclesiastical So- 
ciety, to which he belonged. When he 
lived on Church street he regularly at- 
tended the school meetings in the first 
district, and after he removed to Wash- 
'ington street he was equally punctual in 
the south district. At all gatherings, re- 
ligious, political or otherwise, in which he 
took an interest, he was never tardy. His 
regularity and promptness were never ex- 
ceeded by any other citizen, probably. He 
was especially faithful in his political ob- 
ligations and he not only voted himself, 
but urged others never to neglect the 
duties of citizenship. One marked char- 
acteristic was his wonderfully retentive 

7^ 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



memory regarding people and events. 
His wonderful knowledge in this respect 
enabled him to give with surprising accu- 
racy many general facts relating to fam- 
ilies of which their own members were in 
ignorance. Few men have lived in this 
State possessed of such general informa- 
tion with regard to individual associa- 
tions. In other respects his knowledge 
was extensive, accurate and valuable. He 
may be said to have died at the post of 
duty for he was stricken while at his desk 
in the office of the ^tna Insurance Com- 
pany, though he was almost blind during 
his last years. He died February 13, 
1872. 

He married, January 31, 1830, Lydia 
Smith Morgan, of Colchester. Children : 
I. Mary Morgan, born October 21, 1833, 
died June 30, 1835. 2. Charles Edwin, 
born December 16, 1835 ; graduate of Yale 
College in 1856; lawyer of Hartford; cap- 
tain of company of artillery in Civil War ; 
died December, 1864, in command of Fort 
Garesche, near Washington, D. C. 3. 
Morgan Gardner, born December 26, 1837. 

4. William Henry, born March 2, 1840. 

5. Mary Jerusha, born September 27, 
1843 ; married Leverett Brainard ; director 
and president of the Union for Home 
Work and in 1904 president of the Or- 
phans' Asylum of Hartford. 6. Eliphalet 
Adams, born July 11, 1847, died Decem- 
ber 17, 1848. 



HOWE, Edmund Grant, 

Representative Citizen. 

Abraham Howe, immigrant ancestor, 
was born in England, and settled in 
Watertown, Massachusetts, where he be- 
came a proprietor. He removed to Marl- 
borough, Massachusetts Bay Colony, in 
the records of which his name first appears 
in 1660. His house stood near School No. 
2. He died in Marlborough, Massachu- 



setts Bay Colony, June 30, 1695. His re- 
lationship to the other pioneer of the 
same town, John Howe, and to the family 
of Abraham Howe, of Roxbury, Massa- 
chusets Bay Colony, is still to be deter- 
mined. There is every reason to believe 
them closely related, however. He mar- 
ried, May 6, 1657, Hannah, daughter of 
William Ward, ancestor of General Ar- 
temus Ward. She survived him and died 
November 3, 171 7. Their son, Captain 
Daniel Howe, was born in 1658, died at 
Marlborough, Massachusetts Bay Colony, 
April 13, 1718. He iived at Marlborough, 
Massachusetts Bay Colony, and owned 
large tracts of land there and at Lancas- 
ter and Westborough, Massachusetts Bay 
Colony. His estate was inventoried at 
one thousand two hundred and sixty-four 
pounds. His widow was administratrix. 
She died in 1735. Their son, Jonathan 
Howe, was called Jr. in the records to dis- 
tinguish him from an older Jonathan in 
the same town. He was born April 23, 
1695, died July 25, 1738. He lived at 
Marlborough, Massachusetts. He mar- 
ried Sarah Hapgood, descendant of Shad- 
rach Hapgood, of Sudbury, Massachu- 
setts. Their son, Solomon Howe, was 
born at Marlborough, Massachusetts, De- 
cember II, 1718, died October 13, 1762. 
He was a farmer in Marlborough, Massa- 
chusetts, until about 1760, when he set- 
tled in Mansfield, Connecticut. He had 
baptized a son Solomon, July 6, 1760, and 
Mary, October 13, 1761. The family Bible 
containing the births of his children is 
now owned by Daniel R. Howe, of Hart- 
ford, Connecticut. He married Mary 
Howe, of Marlborough, Massachusetts, 
about 1738. She was born November 18, 
1719, died November 16, 1792. She was 
doubtless closely related to the Howe 
family that owned the Wayside Inn of 
Sudbury, made famous by Longfellow. 
Their son, Daniel Howe, was born in 



174 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Marlborough, Massachusetts, June 13, 
1740, died at Mansfield, Connecticut, De- 
cember 8, 1807. He married, August 26, 
1761, Bridget Smith, who died March 20, 
1815, aged seventy-one years. The Bible 
gives the year of death only. In 1790, 
according to the first federal census, Dan- 
iel had four males over sixteen, one under 
that age and two females in his family. 
Their son, Edmund Howe, was born in 
Mansfield, Connecticut, April 25, 1780, 
was baptized there June 24, 1781, died 
December 10, 1834, aged fifty-four. He 
married, March 3, 1807, Eunice Grant, 
born 1781, died October 12, 1844, aged 
sixty-three, sixth in descent from, Mathew 
Grant, the progenitor of the Connecticut 
Grants, and of the same family as Gen- 
eral Grant. His home was in Mansfield 
Center on Spring Hill, Connecticut. He 
was a general merchant and farmer. His 
wife's family lived at Mount Hope, Con- 
necticut, near Mansfield Center and Ash- 
ford, Connecticut, and descendants are 
living on the old place at the present 
time. Children, born at Mansfield: Ed- 
mund Grant, November 8, 1807, men- 
tioned below; Daniel Miner, born 1808, 
died March 21, 1814, aged six; Eunice 
Minerva, July 5, 1815 ; Harriet Smith, Oc- 
tober 4, 1817. 

Edmund Grant Howe was born in 
Mansfield, Connecticut, November 8, 1807, 
died April 23, 1872. He was educated in 
the public schools and followed in the 
footsteps of his father as a dry goods mer- 
chant. He was captain in the State militia 
of Connecticut and represented his dis- 
trict in the General Assembly of that 
State, He came to Hartford, Connecti- 
cut, in 1829 and established the firm of 
Pratt, Howe & Company in 1831. He 
continued in this firm, which was emj- 
ently successful until dissolved in 1857. 
He became a partner in the banking firm 
of Ketchum, Howe & Company, 26 Ex- 



change place, New York City. In i860 he 
returned to Hartford and became a part- 
ner in Howe, Mather & Company and 
continued until his death in 1872 in active 
business. He was one of the organizers 
of the Hartford Carpet Company and 
Greenwoods Company. He was first pres- 
ident of the City Bank of Hartford from 
1851 to 1857, president of the Exchange 
Bank from 1866 to 1872, vice-president of 
the Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance 
Company, director of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad Company 
and first president of the Hartford & 
Wethersfield Horse Railway Company. 
Junius S. Morgan, father of the late J. 
Pierpont Morgan, was for fifteen years 
in partnership with Mr. Howe. He mar- 
ried Frances, born at Charlton, Massachu- 
setts, March 28, 1817, daughter of Samuel 
and Pamela Kies. 



DEMING, Henry Champion, 
Soldier, Public Official. 

John Deming, the immigrant ancestor, 
was one of the early settlers of Wethers- 
field, Connecticut. The first mention of 
him on the public records after his house 
is recorded was March 2, 1642, when he 
was one of the jury of the "particular 
court." He was one of those named in 
the famous charter of Connecticut in 
which King Charles granted to them and 
to those who should afterwards become 
associated with them the lands of Con- 
necticut, "in free and common socage," 
and established a colonial government 
with unusual privileges. He held many 
public offices and was prominent in com- 
munity affairs. He signed a codicil to his 
will, February 3. 1692, and this is the last 
recorded act of his life, and he very likely 
died soon after this year, though his will 
was not proved until November 21, 1705. 

His son, David Deming, was born in 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Wethersfield, Connecticut, about 1652, 
and died in Boston, Massachusetts, May 
4, 1725. He removed from Wethersfield 
to Cambridge, from there to Boston, and 
in the conveyance of some land he is 
called a "Knacker," which has been de- 
fined as "a maker of small work, a rope- 
maker." His son, Rev. David Deming, 
was born in Wethersfield, Connecticut, 
July 20, 1681, and died in North Lyme, 
Connecticut, February 6, 1745-46. He 
was graduated from Harvard College in 
1700; he was ordained minister of the 
church at Medway, Massachusetts, No- 
vember 17, 1715, but resigned his charge 
seven years later, and later he settled in 
North Lyme, Connecticut. His son, 
David Deming, was born in Middletown, 
August 24, 1709, and died in North Lyme, 
Connecticut, May 30, 1781. He seems to 
have been a man of quiet habits, and little 
is to be found of him in the records of the 
town. His son, Major Jonathan Deming, 
was born in North Lyme, Connecticut, 
February 29, 1743, and died in Colchester, 
Connecticut, March i, 1788. He was a 
prosperous merchant and accumulated 
considerable property. He served in the 
Revolution as an officer in the Conti- 
nental army. It is said that he instituted 
the first commandery of Knights Tem- 
plar in America. His son, David Demr 
ing, was born in Colchester, Connecticut, 
August 23, 1781, and died there, June 6, 
1827. He was for many years a success- 
ful and prominent merchant in Colches- 
ter; he was frequently a member of the 
State Legislature, was a delegate to the 
convention to form the State constitution 
in 1818, was active in military afifairs, and 
received honorary degrees from Yale and 
Williams colleges. He married, Septem- 
ber 17, 1804, in Westchester, Connecti- 
cut, Abigail, daughter of Henry and Abi- 
gail (Tinker) Champion, born in West- 
chester, January 17, 1787, died in Hart- 



ford, March 31, 1853. Among their chil- 
dren was Henry Champion Deming, of 
this review. 

Colonel Henry Champion Deming, son 
of David Deming, was born May 23, 1815, 
at Colchester, Connecticut, died in Hart- 
ford, October 9, 1872. He was graduated 
from Yale College in the class of 1836 and 
from Harvard Law School in 1839. He 
then opened a law office in New York 
City, but devoted more attention to litera- 
ture and to journalism than to his profes- 
sion. With Park Benjamin he edited the 
"New World," a literary monthly. In 
1847 he came to Hartford, Connecticut, 
and made another start in the practice of 
law, but finding politics more attractive, 
he entered upon a public career. He rep- 
resented the city in the General Assem- 
bly of the State in 1849-50, and from 1859 
to 1861. In 185 1 he was a State Senator, 
He was mayor of the city of Hartford 
from 1854 to 1858 and from i860 to 1862. 
He was a Democrat of the old school and 
before the Civil War earnestly opposed 
coercion of the Southern States. After 
the attack on Fort Sumter, he gave his 
support to the federal government, but 
opposed a war of aggression or invasion. 
But the course of events finally brought 
him into accord with the federal policy of 
preserving the Union. Although the Leg- 
islature was Republican, he was elected 
speaker pro tern., October 9, 1861, such 
was the confidence in his ability and good 
judgment. In September, 1861, he was 
commissioned colonel of the Charter Oak 
Regiment, the Twelfth Connecticut, re- 
cruited especially for the New Orleans 
expedition under General Benjamin F. 
Butler. After the passage of the forts, 
his regiment was the first to reach New 
Orleans and it was assigned by General 
Butler the post of honor at the Custom 
House. He was appointed provisional 
major of the city and detached from his 



176 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



regiment for that duty. From October, 
1862, to February, 1863, he administered 
the affairs of the city under the most diffi- 
cult and trying circumstances. He was 
elected to Congress by the Republican 
party in 1863, and served two terms, win- 
ning distinction by his rhetorical ability 
and force of character. His military ex- 
perience made him an exceedingly use- 
ful member of the committee on military 
affairs and he was also chairman of the 
committee on expenditures in the war de- 
partment. In 1866 he was delegate to the 
Loyalist Convention at Philadelphia. He 
was appointed collector of internal reve- 
nue in 1869 and to the duties of that office 
he devoted the remainder of his life. He 
was conceded to be one of the most elo- 
quent and convincing public speakers in 
New England in his day, and as an orator 
he won a national reputation. He trans- 
lated Eugene Sue's "Wandering Jew" 
(published in 1840) and "The Mysteries 
of Paris." He delivered before the Con- 
necticut Legislature in 1865 a eulogy on 
Abraham Lincoln, and was the author of 
the "Life of Ulysses S. Grant," published 
in 1868, and also of various other publi- 
cations. A man of culture and refinement, 
of excellent literary taste and discrimina- 
tion, he was also a gifted and prolific 
writer. 

He married (first) February 12, 1850, 
in Hartford, Sarah B. Clerc, born August 
12, 1828, in Hartford, died June 26, 1869, 
in that city, daughter of Laurent and 
Eliza C. (Boardman) Clerc. He married 
(second) June 29, 1871, in East Hartford, 
Annie Putnam (Wilson) Jillson, born 
January 7, 1849, i" Hartford, died in the 
city of New York, October 27, 1905, with- 
out issue, daughter of Myron W. and 
Elizabeth (Putnam) Wilson, widow of 
Sherman L. Jillson, and great-great- 
granddaughter of Israel Putnam^ Chil- 
dren born of first wife at Hartford: i. 



Henry Champion, born November 25, 
1850; graduated in 1872 at Yale College 
with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and 
was a member of the Psi Upsilon and 
Skull and Bones societies ; was president 
of the Mercantile Trust Company of New 
York City, from which office he resigned 
in 1908, since which time he has not been 
actively engaged in business ; a member 
of the Union, University, Lawyers', 
Larchmont Yacht and Yale clubs ; resides 
at 114 East Twenty-seventh street. New 
York. 2. Charles Clerc, born May 22, 
1852. 3. Mary Shipman, died in her sev- 
enth year. 4. Laurent Clerc, born No- 
vember 21, i860; graduated in 1883 from 
Yale College, where he was a member of 
Psi Upsilon and Skull and Bones soci- 
eties; he is assistant secretary of the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad 
Company; resides at 114 East Twenty- 
seventh street. New York City ; is a mem- 
ber of the University, Yale and New York 
Yacht clubs. 



PLATT, Alfred, 

Manufacturer. 

The surname Piatt has been early found 
in many countries, the word meaning an 
open, level piece of land. Coats-of-arms 
were granted to half a dozen different 
branches of the family in England as 
early as the reign of Elizabeth, and some 
as early as 1326. Deacon Richard Piatt, 
the immigrant ancestor of the line herein 
described, settled in New Haven, Con- 
necticut, as early as 1638, and was one of 
a party of sixty-one who formed a church 
settlement at Milford being the first set- 
tler in that place ; his will is dated Janu- 
ary 24, 1683-84. His son, Josiah Piatt, 
was born in Milford, 1645; married Sarah 
Camfield. Their son, Josiah (2) Piatt, 
was born in Milford, January 12, 1679; 
married Sarah Burwell. Their son, Josiah 



CONN— Vol 1-12 



177 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



(3) Piatt, was born October 13, 1707, and 
his will was dated, at New Haven, Octo- 
ber 26, 1758; married Sarah . Their 

son, Josiah (4) Piatt, was born 1730-35; 
married (first) Sarah Sanford, (second) 

Lydia . His son, Nathan Piatt, 

was born at Newtown, March 3, 1761, 
died in Wallingford, 1845; was a soldier 
in the Revolution; married (first) Ruby 
Smith, (second) Charlotte Dickerman. 
Alfred Piatt, of this article, was a son of 
the first wife. 

Alfred Piatt, son of Nathan Piatt, was 
born in Newtown, April 2, 1789. When 
ten years of age he came to Waterbury 
with his father and settled at a point on 
the river about three miles below the 
center, afterwards known as Platts Mills, 
or Plattsville. He studied at the school 
in Litchfield, quite famous in its day, of 
which James Morris was the master, for 
whom the town of Morris was afterwards 
named. At the age of nineteen he em- 
barked in business for himself. He oper- 
ated a saw mill, which he had built near 
his father's flour mill, and afterward was 
a travelling salesman for the celebrated 
Waterbury wooden clocks. He was one 
of the earliest members of the firm known 
as A. Benedict, afterward the Benedict 
&: Burnham Manufacturing Company, 
and he was the first to manufacture brass 
and copper wire in Waterbury. For sev- 
eral years he made all the wire used by 
the Scovill and the Benedict & Burnham 
Manufacturing Companies in making but- 
ton eyes. After a time he sold out his 
interests in the firm of Benedict & Burn- 
ham., and bought of his father and Gideon 
Piatt the mill and water power at Platts 
Mill. After running the old mill several 
years he built a new one in its place near 
the old site, and continued actively in 
business to the end of his life. In build- 
ing his mill he devised an improved 
method of making buckwheat flour, built 



special machinery, and patented both 
process and machines. He was the first 
to produce buckwheat flour white in color 
and free from grit. His business devel- 
oped into the present concern known as 
the Piatt Brothers & Company. He was 
a prominent member and for many years 
deacon of the Baptist church, and was 
one of three men who gave obligations to 
the full amount of their property as secur- 
ity for the debt incurred in building the 
first Baptist meeting house at the center 
of the town. He died December 29, 1872. 
He married, June 8, 1814, Irene, daughter 
of Nirom Blackman, of Brookfield, Con- 
necticut. Children, born at Waterbury: 
I. Nirom Blackman, born September i, 
1818; a merchant of Waterbury; died Oc- 
tober 14, 1863; married, September 17, 
1840, Eliza Kirtland, daughter of Wheeler, 
of Woodbury ; children : i. Frances Eu- 
genia, born March 28, 1842, married 
Charles H. Russell ; ii. Margaret Phoebe, 
born September 5, 1843, married Wilson 
N. Osborn, of Brunswick, New York ; iii. 
Charles Kirtland, born October i, 1846; 
iv-v., died young; vi. Ida Kirtland, mar- 
ried Lewis Elmer Perkins, of Naugatuck; 
vii. William Wheeler, of California. 2. 
Charles Sanford, born July 30, 1820, re- 
moved to western Massachusetts ; died in 
Great Barrington, Massachusetts, Febru- 
ary 5, 1896; married Mary M. Tobey, 
September 4, 1861 ; children : Mary, 
Charles, Frederick Charles, Jeannette. 3 
William Smith, born January 27, 1822. 4 
Clark Murray, born January i, 1824. 5 
Alfred Legrand. 6. Seabury Blackman^ 
born October 5, 1828; entered Yale, class 
of 1852, but on account of ill health left 
in his junior year; studied law in the 
office of J. W. Webster and was admitted 
to the bar May 18, 1864; began practice 
at Birmingham, where he was appointed 
judge of the borough court; died at 
Derby, August 12, 1895. 

78 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



BUTLER, Thomas Belden, 
Jurist, Legislator. 

Thomas Belden Butler was born in 
Wethersfield, Connecticut, August 22, 
1806, died in Norwalk, Connecticut, June 
8, 1873. He received an excellent class- 
ical education, attending the schools of 
his native State, and having decided to 
follow the profession of medicine he be- 
came a pupil in the Yale Medical School, 
receiving his degree of Doctor of Medi- 
cine therefrom in 1828. For the follow- 
ing eight years he practiced his profes- 
sion in Norwalk, gaining an excellent 
reputation. He then took up the study 
of law under the preceptorship of Clark 
Bissell, was admitted to the bar after a 
successful competitive examination in 
1837, and opened a law office in Norwalk, 
being equally successful in that profes- 
sion. He served in the State Legislature 
from 1832 to 1846, was a member of the 
State Senate from 1848 to 1853 ; was 
elected a representative to the Thirty- 
first Congress in 1848; was made judge of 
the Superior Court of Connecticut in 1855, 
of the Supreme Court in 1861, and Chief 
Justice in 1870, his terms of service being 
noted for efficiency and capability. 

Aside from his professions and public 
life, he was interested in mechanics, agri- 
culture and meteorology. A speech de- 
livered by him in the House of Repre- 
sentatives on the "Slave Question" in 
1850 was printed by order of Congress. 
He published "The Philosophy of the 
Weather and a Guide to its Changes" 
(1856). 



TUTTLE, Eben Clark, 

Prominent Manufacturer. 

The word Tuthill, meaning a conical 
hill, is a common place name in England, 
of remote antiquity. From one or more 
places named Tuthill, the surname Tut- 



hill or Tuttle is derived, after a prevalent 
custom in the twelfth century, and later, 
when surnames came into use in Eng- 
land. The family has been especially 
prominent in Devonshire, England. There 
came to America, in 1635, in the ship 
"Planter," three families of this name 
from the parish of St. Albans, Hertford- 
shire, England. John, Richard and Wil- 
liam Tuttle, the heads of these families, 
were doubtless brothers. John Tuttle, 
mercer, aged thirty-nine, according to the 
passenger list, in 1635, settled in Ipswich, 
Massachusetts; he was in Ireland in 1654, 
and probably fell sick there, for his wife 
went to Carrickfergus, Ireland, and wrote, 
April 6, 1657, that he died there, Decem- 
ber 30, 1656. Richard Tuttle, aged forty- 
two, settled in Boston, where he died, 
May 8, 1640. William Tuttle is men- 
tioned below. Henry Tuttle was in Hing- 
ham, Massachusetts, in 1635, coming with 
his brother John, about 1635; Henry re- 
moved to Southold, Long Island, John 
returned to England, and settled at Wey- 
bread, Suffolk county. Still another John 
Tuttle came in the ship "Angel Gabriel," 
and settled in Dover, New Hampshire. 

William Tuttle, the immigrant ances- 
tor, came from St. Albans parish, Hert- 
fordshire, England, on the ship "Planter," 
in April, 1635, with his brothers, John and 
Richard, and their families. He stated 
his age as twenty-six. His wife, Eliza- 
beth, aged twenty-three, and children, 
John, aged three and a half, and Thomas, 
aged three months, came at the same 
time. His occupation was given as hus- 
bandman. His wife joined the church at 
Boston, August 14, 1636. As early as 
1636, he was granted liberty to build a 
windmill at Charlestown, and was a pro- 
prietor of that town in 1636. His wife 
was dismissed to the church in Ipswich, 
September 8, 1639, and they doubtless 
were there for a time. He was part owner 



179 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



of a ketch, "Zebulon," of Ipswich, and 
was associated to some extent in busi- 
ness with John Tuttle, of Ipswich. He 
and John owned land deeded them by 
George Griggs for debt, and the same 
George Griggs gave him a mortgage of 
house and land on Beacon street, Boston, 
October 8, 1650, after Tuttle had moved 
to New Haven. About 1639 Tuttle moved 
to Quinnipiack, later called New Haven. 
In 1641 he was the owner of the home lot 
of Edward Hopkins, who had removed to 
Hartford. This lot was on the square 
bounded by Grove, State, Elm and Church 
streets. In 1656 Tuttle bought of Joshua 
Atwater his original allotment, mansion 
house and barn, with other lands. He 
made his home there until his death, and 
his widow after him until her death, a 
period of twenty-eight years. At the 
time of his death it was appraised at one 
hundred and twenty pounds. He shared 
in the division of common lands in 1640 
and afterwards. William Tuttle and Mr. 
Gregson were the first owners of land in 
East Haven, Connecticut, and Mr. Tut- 
tle surveyed and laid out the road from 
the ferry at Red Rock to Stony River. 
His land there was bounded by a line 
running from the old ferry (where the 
new bridge over the Quinnipiack now is) 
eastvvard to a spring where issues the 
small stream called Tuttle's Brook, thence 
south along this brook to Gregson's land 
at Solitary Cove, thence west to a point 
on the New Haven harbor near the chem- 
ical works and Fort Hale, thence north 
along the harbor to the point of begin- 
ning. It included Tuttle's Hill. In 1659 
he became owner of land at North Haven. 
He sold or conveyed to his children most 
of his property before he died. Judging 
from the seat he was assigned in the 
meeting house, he was among the fore- 
most men of New Haven as early as 1646- 
47. He was interested in the projected 



settlement from New Haven on the Del- 
aware, which failed on account of the op- 
position of the Dutch in New Nether- 
lands. He filled many positions of trust 
and responsibility in the colony ; was com- 
missioner to decide on an equivalent to 
those who received inferior meadow lands 
in the first allotment ; was fence viewer, 
1644; road commissioner, 1646; commis- 
sioner to settle the dispute as to bound- 
ary between New Haven and Branford, 
1669, and to fix the bounds of New Haven, 
Milford, Branford and Wallingford, 1672. 
He was often a juror and arbitrator; was 
constable, 1666. He died early in June, 
1673, his inventory being dated June 6, 
1673. His wife died December 30, 1684, 
aged seventy-two years. She had been 
living with her youngest son, Nathaniel, 
who presented her will, but the other 
children objected and it was not allowed. 
The inventory of her estate is dated Feb- 
ruary 3, 1685. Her gravestone was re- 
moved with the others from the old Green 
to the Grove Street Cemetery, 1821, and 
it now stands in a row along the north 
wall of the cemetery, but part of the in- 
scription is gone. Their son, Jonathan 
Tuttle, was baptized in Charlestown, 
Massachusetts, July 8, 1637, and died in 
1705. About 1670 he began a settlement 
in what is now the southern part of the 
town of North Haven. He built a bridge 
over the Quinnipiac river, which was long 
known as Tuttle's bridge, and was allowed 
by the general court to collect toll, and 
also to take compensation for refreshment 
of travellers. He died intestate, and his 
estate was administered by Simon Tuttle. 
He married Rebecca, born August, 1643, 
died May 2, 1676, daughter of Lieutenant 
Francis Bell, of Stamford, one of the first 
settlers. Their son, William Tuttle, was 
born May 25, 1673, and joined the church 
in 1707. He married Mary, sister of his 
brother Sim,on's wife, born March 2^^ 
80 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



1679-80, daughter of William Abernatha, 
of Wallingford. About 1696 he received 
by deed from his father forty acres of 
land. He died in 1727 and his will was 
proved November 6, of the same year. 
The inventory of his estate was nine hun- 
dred and thirty-eight pounds. Their son, 
Ezekiel Tuttle, was born about 1705. He 
married (first) April 21, 1729, Susannah, 
born July 20, 1709, daughter of John and 
Elizabeth (Peck) Merriman and grand- 
daughter of Captain Nathaniel, an early 
settler in Wallingford and prominent in 
New Haven. He married (second) January 
16, 1760, Sarah Rexford, of New Haven. 
His son, Reuben Tuttle, was born March 
3, 1739. He was married by Rev. Mr. 
Robbins, January 20, 1766, to Hannah 
Tyler, of Branford, Connecticut, who died 
September i, 1783. They lived at New 
Haven. Their son, Obed Tuttle, was born 
June 26, 1776, at North Haven, whence 
he removed to Prospect, in that State, and 
followed farming and blacksmithing. He 
made scythes and axes. He died at Pros- 
pect, January 12, 1856. He married Lu- 
cretia Clark, of West Haven, who died 
August 19, 1862. They were the parents 
of Eben Clark, of whom further. 

Eben Clark Tuttle was born at Pros- 
pect, April 27. 1806. His youth was spent 
at home, helping his father, chopping tim- 
ber, clearing land, burning and carting 
charcoal and working at his father's forge. 
His time for schooling was very limited, 
and his lessons were studied mostly at 
the bellows or in the coal hut on the 
mountains while tending the coal pits. 
At the age of twenty he went to Straits- 
ville, Connecticut, to work at making 
forks. Three years later he returned to 
Prospect and began making solid cast 
steel hoes, of the "goose-neck" pattern, 
of which he was the inventor, and which 
wholly supplanted the old "eye" hoe then 
and previously in general use. At first 



his hoes were made by hand work en- 
tirely in the shop on Prospect Hill, and 
eight men made but twenty-five hoes a 
day ; but afterwards machinery came into 
use and the product increased a hundred- 
fold. The first machine used by Mr. Tut- 
tle was a crude trip-hammer, which was 
located five miles distant at Union City, 
in Naugatuck, and available for his use 
only at night. For several years all the 
hoe blanks were carted to this place, the 
hoes plotted during the night and carted 
back to Prospect the next morning. The 
business grew rapidly. In 1846 he re- 
moved to Union City, erected a small 
shop and began to make use of the water 
power to operate machinery. From time 
to time he added to his business the manu- 
facture of other agriculture implements, 
such as forks. The business was at length 
incorporated. In 1856 the founder re- 
signed the ofifice of president, built a fac- 
tory near the railroad station at Union 
City and for about two years did a large 
business under the name of the E. C. 
Tuttle Manufacturing Company, which 
promised to become as successful as the 
original concern, but in 1858 he lost the 
plant by fire. In i860 he went to Oshawa, 
Canada, and established one of the most 
important industries of the country. The 
severe strain of clearing the ground, 
building dams, factories, and installing 
machinery taxed his physical endurance 
and doubtless laid the foundation of the 
disease that caused his death. He went 
to Auburn. New York, 1864, organized a 
company under the name of E. C. Tuttle 
Manufacturing Company, now the Au- 
burn Manufacturing Company, built a 
factory, and for four years operated a 
thriving industry. Then, 1868, he went 
to Canada again and established the well 
known Welland Vale Works, in which 
he had the misfortune to lose the larger 
part of his fortune. He continued to live 
181 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



at St. Catherines until a short time be- 
fore his death. He died December 5, 
1873, of paralysis while visiting his son at 
Union City, Connecticut. "His reputa- 
tion as a manufacturer was almost world- 
wide and when the history of the manu- 
facturing founders of the Naugatuck Val- 
ley shall be written, his name will be 
among the foremost. He lived to see the 
business he commenced in a small way 
grow to almost gigantic proportions, and 
the little hamlet of Union City which, 
when he went there, contained scarce half 
a dozen houses, by his enterprise became 
one of the first manufacturing villages of 
the Naugatuck Valley." He married (first) 
April 27, 1829, Temperance Beecher, who 
died October 3, 1863, daughter of Hezekiah 
Beecher. He married (second) Charlotte 
Bentz. Children of first wife: i. Juliet 
Augusta, born at Prospect, August 16, 
1832, died September 2^, 1835. 2. Bron- 
son Beecher, born at Prospect, December 
28, 1835, died at Middlebury, September 
12, 1903. 3. Adelbert C, born March 19, 
1847; married, June 13, 1872, Margaret 
Carlisle, of St. Catherines, Canada. 



DIXON, James, 

Attorney-at-L.aw, Public Official. 

Nearly all the families in America bear- 
ing the name Dixon are descended from 
Scottish ancestors who were members of 
Clan Dickson, in early times one of the 
principal clans of the East Marches of 
Scotland. The name has been variously 
spelled Dicson, Dycson, Dicksone, and in 
many other ways. Dickson is now the 
common form in Scotland, but in Eng- 
land the name is invariably written Dixon. 
The clan was known in Scotland as "the 
famous Dicksons," and the progenitor 
was Richard, son of Hervey de Keith, 
who lived in the twelfth century and was 
the first Earl-Marischal, or Great Marshal 



of Scotland. In 1380 the family moved to 
the border county of Berwick, and lived 
at Bughtrig. The arms: Azure, three 
mullets, argent, on a chief, or, as many 
pallets, gules. Crest : A dexter hand 
grasping a sword in bend proper. Motto : 
Fortes fortuna juvat. 

John Dicksone, or Dixon, was a de- 
scendant of the Bughtrig family men- 
tioned above, and was a wealthy mer- 
chant in the Trongate of Glasgow, and 
lived during the reign of King James VI. 
of Scotland, 1567-1625. He bought an 
estate in Busby, Lanarkshire, and dispos- 
ing of his business, lived there until his 
death. His son, David Dixon, was born 
in Glasgow, in 1583. He studied at the 
University of Glasgow, and on taking his 
degree of Master of Arts was appointed 
instructor of philosophy in the Univer- 
sity. In 1618 he was ordained minister in 
the parish of Irvine, Ayrshire. On ac- 
count of his belief he was sentenced to a 
deprivation of his ministry and ordered 
to proceed to Turriff, in Aberdeenshire. 
He was about to comply, when at the 
earnest request of the Earl of Elingtoun 
he was permitted to remain in Ayrshire, 
and there preached weekly for about two 
months in the hall and courtyard of Eling- 
toun Castle to large congregations of his 
parishioners. He was then ordered to set 
out for his place of banishment, which he 
did. In July, 1623, he was allowed with- 
out any conditions to return to his charge 
at Irvine, where he remained unmolested 
until 1637, when he was again appre- 
hended for having harbored certain per- 
sons at odds with the church. Anderson, 
in his "Scottish Nation," says: "To the 
establishment of the Second Reformation 
in Scotland, the Rev. David Dickson was 
in a great degree instrumental. It was 
he who prevailed on the Presbytery of 
Irvine to apply in 1637 for the suspension 
of the service book." He was a member 



182 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



of the General Assembly at Glasgow in 
1638, when the covenant was ratified, de- 
posing the whole Episcopal hierarchy, 
and there delivered a speech of great tact. 
In 1639 he was chaplain to a regiment of 
Ayrshire men in the short and successful 
campaign against King Charles, and after 
the disbanding of the army in 1639 was 
almost unanimously chosen moderator of 
the General Assembly at Edinburgh. He 
received the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
about this time, and in 1640 was given the 
professorship of divinity in the Univer- 
sity of Glasgow. In 1643 ^^ helped draw 
up a "Directory of Public Worship" and 
was joint author of "The Sum of Saving 
Knowledge." In 1650 he was elected to 
the divinity chair at the University of 
Edinburgh, where he delivered the in- 
augural address in Latin, translated into 
English by George Sinclair, and under 
the name of "Truth's Victory over Error," 
and published as the translator's own in 
1684, Dr. Dixon then being dead. In 1650 
he was one of the deputation to congratu- 
late Charles II. on his arrival at Scotland. 
He was moderator of the General As- 
sembly in 1653, when it was broken up 
by Cromwell's orders. He wrote various 
discourses, and some hymns and psalms 
which were published. In 1660, for de- 
clining to take the oath of supremacy, he 
was ejected from his professorship at 
Edinburgh and retired to his old home in 
Irvine, and died early in 1663, aged eighty 
years. He married Margaret, daughter 
of Archibald Roberton, of Stonehall, who 
was a younger brother of the house of 
Ernock, Lanarkshire. His son, Robert 
Dixon, was born at Irvine, about 1630. 
He early identified himself with the 
Presbyterians, and when his father was 
cast out of the University of Edinburgh 
he cast his lot with the Covenanters. He 
was a fugitive from the battle of Pentland 
Hills, November 28, 1666, and with others 



fled through Lanarkshire into Ayr, across 
to the north of Ireland, and settled in the 
province of Ulster, probably in Antrim. 
About 1670, according to family tradi- 
tion, he there married Priscilla, daughter 
of Hugh Kennedy. He died before 1700. 
His son, John Dixon, was born in 1679, 
and died May 6, 1759. Early in 1719, 
with his brothers, Robert and Archibald, 
and others, he cam^e with his family to 
Boston, Alassachusetts. After a few 
months he went to New London, Con- 
necticut, where he settled in the north 
parish of that town. About 1724 he re- 
moved to Colchester, where his brother 
Robert was living, and in February, 1726, 
bought twenty-five acres of land with a 
house in the north parish of New London, 
and returned there. He married (first) 
in 1700, in Ireland, Agnes ; (sec- 
ond) May 3, 1726, Anna Lester, born July 
5, 1693. daughter of Joseph and Katherine 
Lester, of New London, and granddaugh- 
ter of Andrew and Ann Lester. He mar- 
ried (third) August 7, 1741, Janet Ken- 
nedy, of Voluntown. He was one of the 
early settlers of Voluntown, Connecticut, 
removing there in 1727, and was select- 
man in 1727-28. He provided all the glass 
for the meeting house. He was select- 
man also in 1729-31, and served in other 
town offices. In 1735 he bought a hun- 
dred acres of land in Killingly and more 
later. In 1737 he was the attorney for 
the town of Voluntown, and on his peti- 
tion the next year was granted a hundred 
acres of land for his services. He was 
deputy to the General Assembly in 1740 
and other years. In 1747 he and his fam- 
ily removed to Killingly, where he died. 
His son, James Dixon, was born April 12, 
1746, and died February 8, 1825. He re- 
sided at South Killingly, Connecticut. 

He married, about 1775, Sarah 

(probably Slack), born 1753, died Decem- 
ber 20, 1820. His son, William Dixon, 



183 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



was born in 1780, and died November 19, 
1839. He was educated at Plainfield 
Academy, and about 1799 went to Enfield 
county, where he taught school. He 
studied law and was admitted to the bar 
at about twenty-one years of age, located 
in Enfield, and practiced his profession 
until his death. He was a member of the 
General Assembly nine years between 
1816 and 1831. He was town clerk twelve 
years, and from 1832 to 1839 inclusive was 
judge of probate for the Enfield district. 
In 1832, by the aid of a lottery, he built 
the wooden bridge which now spans the 
Connecticut river at Enfield. He mar- 
ried, October 15, 1801, Mary Field, who 
died October 23, 1845, daughter of Dr. 
Simeon Field, of Enfield, granddaughter 
of Rev. Peter Reynolds, and a lineal de- 
scendant of Rev. Henry Whitfield, the 
historic founder of Guilford, 1639-40. 
They were the parents of James Dixon, of 
this review. 

Hon. James Dixon was born at En- 
field, August 5, 1814, and died March 
27, 1873. He graduated from Williams 
College in 1834 with high honors with 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and then 
studied law in his father's office. He was 
soon admitted to the bar and began the 
practice of law at Enfield. In 1839 he 
removed to Hartford and opened an office 
in partnership with Judge William W. 
Ellsworth. He was elected to the State 
Legislature in 1837-38-44. He became 
early a recognized leader of the Whig 
party, and in 1845 was elected representa- 
tive to Congress from the Hartford dis- 
trict, and reelected in 1847, and "was dis- 
tinguished in that difficult arena for his 
power as a debater and for an amenity of 
bearing that extorted the respect of politi- 
cal opponents, even in the turbulent times 
following the Mexican War and the ex- 
asperations of the sectional debate pre- 
cipitated by the Wilmot proviso. In 



1849 lie was elected to the Connecticut 
Senate, reelected in 1854, and was chosen 
president of that body, but declined the 
honor. He was elected to the United 
States Senate in 1857 for a six years' term 
and participated in all the parliamentary 
debates of the period before the Civil 
War." "He was remarkable among his 
colleagues in the Senate for the tenacity 
with which he adhered to his principles, 
and for the clear presage with which he 
grasped the drift of events." He became 
a Republican with the formation of that 
party, and was in 1863 elected as a Sena- 
tor, serving on the committee of manu- 
factures, as chairman of the committee on 
contingent expenses of the Senate, of the 
committee on the District of Columbia, 
and of the committee on post offices and 
post roads. He was a m,ember of the na- 
tional committee appointed to accompany 
the remains of President Lincoln to Illi- 
nois in April, 1865. "While making his 
residence in Washington the seat of an 
elegant hospitality. Senator Dixon was 
remarkable for the assiduity with which 
he followed the public business of the 
Senate, and for the eloquence that he 
brought to the discussion of grave public 
question." A speech which he delivered 
June 25, 1862, on the constitutional status 
created by the so-called acts of secession, 
was known to have commanded the ex- 
press admiration of President Lincoln. 
To the principles set forth in that speech 
he steadily adhered. He was a delegate 
from Connecticut to the national conven- 
tion which met at Philadelphia, August 
14, 1866, at the call of those who favored 
the policy of President Johnson, and op- 
posed that of a majority of both houses 
of Congress. In the impeachment trial 
of President Johnson, Senator Dixon was 
one of the Republican Senators who voted 
against the sufficiency of the articles of 
impeachment, and afterwards took no 



184 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



part in the councils of the Republican 
party. At the close of his Senatorial 
term in 1869 he was urged to accept the 
mission to Russia, but declined. He spent 
much of his time in European travel, and 
literary studies. "While yet a student at 
college he was the recognized poet of his 
class, and even his graduation thesis was 
written in verse. His poems, struck off 
as the leisure labors of a busy life, occupy 
a conspicuous place in Everest's "Poets 
of Connecticut," while five of his sonnets, 
exquisite for refinement of thought and 
felicity of execution, are preserved side 
by side with those of Bryant, Percival and 
Lowell, in Leigh Hunt's "Book of the 
Sonnet." He was also a frequent con- 
tributor to the "New England Magazine," 
and to other periodicals. He received the 
degree of Master of Arts from Williams 
College, and in 1862 Trinity College made 
him Doctor of Laws. 

He married, at East Windsor Hill, Oc- 
tober I, 1840, Elizabeth Lord Cogswell, 
born July I, 1819, died June 16. 1871, 
daughter of Rev. Jonathan and Elizabeth 
(Abbott) Cogswells Children : James 
Wyllys ; Henry Whitfield ; Elizabeth ; 
Clementine Louise, married James C. 
Welling. 



BENEDICT, Aaron, 

Manufacturer. 

The surname Benedict is derived from 
the Latin bcncdictus, meaning blessed, 
used as a personal or baptismal name in 
Latin countries and in fact throughout 
all Europe. St. Benedict founded the 
Roman Catholic order of Benedictines in 
A. D. 520; fourteen Popes took this 
name between 574 and 1740. 

Thomas Benedict, immigrant ancestor, 
was born in Nottinghamshire, England, 
in 1617. According to family tradition, 
apparently verified, he was the only repre- 



sentative of his family when he came to 
America. His ancestors were originally 
from the silk districts of France and of 
Latin ancestry ; fled to Germany on account 
of religious persecution, thence to Holland 
and finally settled in England. He married 
Mary Brigum or Bridgham, who came to 
New England in 1638 on the same ship. 
The family history was written in 1755 
by Deacon James Benedict, who had his 
facts from the wife of the immigrant, 
viz.: "Be it remembered that one Wil- 
liam Benedict about the beginning of the 
fifteenth century (doubtless meaning 
about the year 1500) who lived in Not- 
tinghamshire, England, had a son born 
unto him whom he called William after 
his own name (an only son), and this 
William — the second of that name — had 
also an only son whom he called Wil- 
liam ; and this third William had in the 
year 1617 one only child whom he called 
Thomas and this Thomas married the 
Widow Brigum. Now this Thomas was 
put out an apprentice to a weaver who 
afterwards in his twenty-first year came 
over to New England. Afterwards said 
Thomas was joined in marriage with 
Mary Brigum. After they had lived 
some time in the Bay parts (Massachu- 
setts) they removed to Southold, Long 
Island, where were born unto them five 
sons and four daughters, whose names 
were Thomas, John, Samuel, James, 
Daniel, Betty, Mary, Sarah and Rebecca. 
From thence they removed to a farm be- 
longing to the town called Hassamanac, 
where they lived some time. Then they 
removed to Jamaica on said island, where 
Thomas, their eldest son, took to wife 
Mary Messenger of that town. And last 
of all they removed to Norwalk. Fair- 
field county, Connecticut, with all their 
family, where they all married." The 
generations are given down to the time 



185 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



of writing, March 14, 1755, by James 
Benedict, of Ridgefield, Connecticut. 

Traces of Thomas Benedict are found 
on the records at Jamaica, December 12, 

1662, when he was appointed with others 
to lay out the south meadow and was 
voted a home lot. He served on other 
committees and held various offices. He 
was appointed magistrate, March 20. 

1663, by Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch 
governor of New Amsterdam. In the 
same year he signed the petition for an- 
nexation to Connecticut. He was lieu- 
tenant of the military company, Decem- 
ber 3, 1663 ; was a grantee of Elizabeth- 
town, New Jersey. After coming to Con- 
necticut he was town clerk of Norwalk, 
1664-74-77 and later, and often a select- 
man, serving seventeen years, ending in 
1688; was a freeman as early as 1669; 
representative in the Connecticut General 
Assembly 1670-75. In 1684 he was ap- 
pointed by the General Court to plant a 
town, called Danbury, in 1687. "His 
good sense and general intelligence, some 
scientific knowledge and his skill as a 
penman made him their recourse when 
papers were to be drafted, lands to be 
surveyed and apportioned and disputes to 
be arbitrated. It is evident that very 
general respect for his judgment pre- 
vailed and that trust in his integrity was 
equally general and implicit." He was 
concerned in establishing the church at 
Southold and at Huntington and also 
helped to found the First Presbyterian 
Church at Jamaica in 1662. He was dea- 
con of the Norwalk church the last years 
of his life. His will was dated February 
28, 1689-90. Of his household, James 
Benedict wrote: "They walked in the 
midst of their house with a perfect heart. 
They were strict observers of the Lord's 
Day from even to even." Many of his 
descendants followed him in the office of 
deacon of the church. "The savor of his 
piety as well as his venerable name has 



been transmitted through a long line of 
deacons and other godly descendants to 
the seventh generation." His son, Lieu- 
tenant Daniel Benedict, was born in 
Southold, Long Island, about 1650. He 
removed to Norwalk with the family; 
served in the Swamp fight in King 
Philip's War, December 19, 1675; had a 
grant of twelve acres as one who took 
part in that fight ; sold his property at 
Norwalk, March 25, 1690, and removed 
to Danbury. His date of death is un- 
known ; he was alive February 15, 1722- 
23. He married Mary, daughter of Ma- 
thew Marvin, of Norwalk. Their son, 
Daniel Benedict, was born in Norwalk. 
He married Rebecca, daughter of Thom- 
as Taylor, an original settler of Danbury. 
His will was dated March 26, 1762, and 
proved August 5, 1776, soon after his 
death. Their son. Captain Daniel Bene- 
dict, was born in 1705, died November 9, 
1773. He married, October. 1728, Sarah 
Hickok, born 1709, died May 6, 1784. 
Following is her epitaph: "Here lies 
buried the body of Mrs. Sarah Benedict 
the meek, benevolent and virtuous con- 
sort of Captain Daniel Benedict." His 
epitaph : "He was for many years Dea- 
con of this town (Danbury) and by an 
exemplary life and conversation endorsed 
the sincerity of his Christian profession." 
Their son, Aaron Benedict, was born in 
Danbury, January 17, 1745. In 1770 he 
removed to Waterbury and settled in 
what is now Middlebury. He was a 
soldier in the French and Indian War, a 
lieutenant in the Revolution, and took 
part in the Quebec expedition. He was a 
pensioner of the United States late in 
life. For some years he was the leading 
citizen of the town. In 1809-10 he repre- 
sented his town in the General Assembly 
of the State and was delegate to the 
State Constitutional Convention in Au- 
gust, i8t8. He died December 16, 1841. 
He was a remarkable and very superior 



[86 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



type of the founders of the Republic, of 
strong mind, straightforward, earnest, 
capable and patriotic. He married, De- 
cember 13, 1769, Esther Trowbridge, 
born November 6, 1748, died March 16, 
1833. Their son Aaron is of further men- 
tion. 

Deacon Aaron Benedict was born in 
that part of Waterbury which is now 
Middlebury, August 9, 1785, in a house 
that is still standing. He attended the 
public schools and entered Yale College, 
but ill-health caused him to leave in the 
middle of his sophomore year. At the 
age of nineteen he became a partner of 
Joseph Burton in a mercantile business. 
In 1812 he began at Waterbury in a small 
way to manufacture bone and ivory but- 
tons and thus laid the real foundation of 
the present Benedict & Burnham Manu- 
facturing Company. This business, after 
several years, proved unsatisfactory and 
Mr. Benedict began to manufacture gilt 
buttons under the name of A. Benedict, 
associated with Bennet Bronson, of 
Waterbury, and Nathan Smith, William 
Bristol and David C. De Forest, of New 
Haven. Mr. Benedict was the general 
partner and had exclusive management 
of the concern, which began with a capi- 
tal of $6,500. The prosperity of Water- 
bury as a manufacturing center may be 
dated from the formation of this com- 
pany, although the gilt button business 
had been carried on for some years be- 
fore that. The enterprise met with many 
discouragements, but the energy, enter- 
prise and industry of Mr. Benedict finally 
won success. Skillful artisans were 
brought from England and the factory 
produced an excellent grade of goods. 
During the year 1824 the sales amounted 
to $5,000. .Soon afterward Benjamin De 
Forest, of Watertown, and Alfred Piatt 
were admitted to the firm, and Mr. De 
Forest, who bought out his brother, 
proved an excellent salesman and greatly 



increased the volume of business. In 
1827 the partnership was renewed and 
the capital increased to $13,000. The 
firm name was changed February 2, 1829, 
to Benedict & Coe and the capital raised 
to $20,000. Mr. Benedict's partners were 
Israel Coe, Bennet Bronson, Benjamin 
De Forest, Alfred Piatt and James Croft. 
The plant was enlarged and a rolling mill 
added. The name was changed again 
February 10, 1834, to Benedict & Burn- 
ham and the capital raised to $40,000. 
The partners were Mr. Benedict, Gordon 
W. Burnham, Bennet Bronson, Alfred 
Piatt, Henry Bronson, Samuel S. De 
Forest and John De Forest. The first 
two were general partners and agents of 
the concern. The copartnership was re- 
newed March 16, 1838, and the capital 
fixed at $71,000, and again, March 11, 
1840, at $100,000. The business was in- 
corporated. January 14, 1843, under the 
title of Benedict & Burnham Manufactur- 
ing Company, the first joint stock corpo- 
ration in Waterbury, with a capital of 
$100,000, increased in 1848 to twice that 
amount, and in 1856 to $400,000. From 
time to time the plant was enlarged, and 
now the buildings cover several acres. 
The business has grown constantly. The 
company manufactures copper and all the 
alloys of copper, brass, gilding metal and 
German silver in sheets, in wire of all 
sizes, brazed and seamless tubing of 
brass and copper, brass and German 
silver headings, drop-handles and knobs 
for furniture, also safety pins, rivets, bars, 
butt hinges, roller bushings, printers' 
lules and galleys, lamp burners and trim- 
mings, insulated electric wire and hard- 
drawn copper for telegraph purposes. 
The Benedict c^ Burnham Company has 
from time to time become the founder of 
new corporations for conducting branches 
of the business. In 1846 the American 
Pin Company was established and the 
pin business transferred to it; in 1849 



187 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the Waterbury Button Company was 
formed ; in 1852 the Benedict & Scoville 
Company, a mercantile corporation; and 
in 1857 the Waterbury Clock Company. 
The Waterbury Watch Company also 
was formed largely by the owners of the 
parent corporation. Aaron Benedict was 
succeeded in 1873, after being president 
of the company thirty years, by Charles 
Benedict. Mr. Benedict was also treas- 
urer from 1843 to 1854. 

He continued at the head of the great 
business that he founded to the time of 
his death. He was a director in the 
Waterbury Bank from its organization 
until his death. He represented the town 
in the legislature in 1826 and 1841 and 
was State Senator in 1858 and 1859. He 
was an active member of the First Con- 
gregational Church and in 1823 was 
chosen deacon, an office he filled faith- 
fully for fifty years. He contributed gen- 
erously to many charitable, benevolent 
and religious causes and institutions and 
was one of the principal benefactors of 
the State Industrial School for Girls. He 
gave ten thousand dollars toward the 
fund for Divinity Hall in New Haven, 
a like amount to endow the Benedict Pro- 
fessorship of Latin in Iowa College, and 
thirty thousand dollars to the building 
fund of the First Congregational Church. 

He married, September 17, 1808, Char- 
lotte Porter, born October 29, 1789, at 
Middletown, Connecticut, daughter of 
Abel and Hannah (Eliot) Porter. The 
sixtieth anniversary of their wedding was 
celebrated most happily. Mrs. Benedict 
died May 9, 1870; he died February 9, 
1873. He left the largest estate that had 
up to that time passed through the pro- 
bate court. He was naturally quiet, re- 
served and deliberate. Events proved 
that his wisdom was remarkable, his 
judgment most sound. He was faithful, 
punctual and conscientious. He was cer- 
tainly the most important figure in the 



history of the city during his life, though 
by no means the most conspicuous. 
Shortly after his death a volume entitled 
"Aaron Benedict; a Memorial," was pub- 
lished. It contained the address given at 
his funeral, resolutions passed by vari- 
ous corporations of which he had been an 
officer, obituary notices from various 
newspapers, and a full account of the 
wedding anniversary. Children, born at 
Waterbury : Charlotte Ann, March 27, 
1810, married. May 18, 1838, Scoville M. 
Buckingham, of Waterbury ; Frances 
Jeannette, November 22, 1812, died Feb- 
ruary 13, 1830; George William, Novem- 
ber 26, 1814; Charles, September 23, 1817; 
Mary Lyman, September 24, 1819, mar- 
ried, July 3, 1838, John S. Mitchell. 



TOTTEN, Silas, 

President of Trinity College. 

Silas Totten was born in Schoharie 
county. New York, March 26, 1804, and 
died in Lexington, Kentucky, October 7, 
1873. He was of New England ancestry. 
He was graduated from Union College in 
1830; was tutor in mathematics at Union, 
1831-33; appointed professor of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy in Wash- 
ington (Trinity) College in April, 1833. 

Having studied theology under Profes- 
sor Alonzo Potter (afterward bishop of 
Pennsylvania) he was ordained dfeacon in 
St. Paul's Church, Wallingford, Connec- 
ticut, 1833, by Bishop Brownell,by whom 
he was also advanced to the priesthood in 
June, 1836. He was president of Wash- 
ington (Trinity) College, and Hobart 
professor of belles lettres and oratory, 
from May 4, 1837, to August 3, 1848, and 
during his incumbency of office the name 
of the college was changed to Trinity, 
Brownell Hall was added ; the House of 
Convocation, a graduate organization, 
was established, and also the Phi Beta 
Kappa Society, of which he served as first 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



president ; the scholarship fund was in- 
creased, and a library fund was estab- 
lished. He was professor of rhetoric and 
mental philosophy in the College of Wil- 
liam and Mary, Virginia, 1849-59; was a 
rector of Trinity parish, Iowa City, Iowa, 
November 12, 1859-July i, i860, on which 
latter date he entered upon his duties as 
president of the University of Iowa, 
which position he resigned, August 22,, 
1862. During the winter of 1862-63 he 
was engaged in raising funds to dis- 
charge the indebtedness of Griswold Col- 
lege, Iowa. In 1863 he became rector of 
St. John's Church, Decatur, Illinois, 
where he established a school for young 
ladies, and in 1866 removed to Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky, where, with his three 
daughters, he founded Christ Church 
Seminary. In addition to his educational 
duties he was also missionary-at-large 
for the diocese of Kentucky. He re- 
ceived the honorary degree of D. D. from 
Union College, 1838, and LL. D. from 
William and Mary College, i860. Dr. 
Totten published : "A New Introduction 
to the Science of Algebra" (1836) ; "The 
Analogy of Truth" (1848), and also "A 
Letter about Jubilee College." He was 
married, August 24, 1833, to Mary Isham. 



JACKSON, Abner, 

Educator. 

Abner Jackson, eighth president of 
Trinity College, Hartford, was born near 
Washington, Pennsylvania, November 4, 
181 1, son of David and Sarah (Brown- 
lee) Jackson. 

He entered Washington and Jefiferson 
College at Washington, Pennsylvania, in 
1832, leaving at the close of the freshman 
year to enter Washington (Trinity) Col- 
lege, Hartford, Connecticut, where he 
was graduated in 1837, at the head of 
his class. He served as a tutor at Trinity, 
1837-38; librarian in the college, 1837- 



49; adjunct professor of ancient lan- 
guages, 1838-40; instructor in chemistry, 
1839-52, and was the first to occupy the 
chair of ethics and metaphysics, 1840-58. 
He was ordained to the Protestant Epis- 
copal ministry by Bishop Brownell, Sep- 
tember 2, 1838. In 1858 he was elected 
president of Hobart College, New York, 
and professor of Evidences of Christi- 
anity in that institution in the same year, 
serving until 1867, in which year he re- 
signed to accept the presidency of Trin- 
ity College, which ofBce he held, together 
with his former chair of ethics and meta- 
physics, until his death. In 1872 the col- 
lege grounds were sold to the State, as a 
site for a new capitol, the college reserv- 
ing the right to use the land, Jarvis and 
Seabury Halls, and a part of Brownell 
Hall (if possible) for five or six years 
longer. President Jackson spent the 
summers of 1872-73 in Europe, studying 
architecture and preparing plans for the 
proposed new college buildings. In 1873 
a new site for the college was purchased, 
about eighty acres in extent and situated 
about a mile south of the old location. 
President Jackson, in addition to his col- 
lege work, officiated for a time as rector 
of the Episcopal church at West Hart- 
ford. He received the degree of S. T. D. 
from Trinity College in 1858, and from 
Hobart College in 1859, and that of LL. 
D. from Columbia College in 1866. A 
posthumous volume of sermons appeared 
in 1875. President Jackson married (first) 
Emily, daughter of Governor William W. 
Ellsworth, and (second) Mary Wray 
Cobb, of Schenectady, New York. He 
died at Hartford, Connecticut. April 19, 
1874. 



FERRY, Orris Sanford, 

Soldier, Senator. 



Orris Sanford Ferry was born in 
Bethel, Fairfield county, Connecticut, 



189 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



August 15, 1823, died in Norwalk, Con- 
necticut, November 21, 1875. ^^s father 
was a hat manufacturer, and intended his 
son to succeed to the business, and ac- 
cordingly he began an apprenticeship at 
the trade of hat making, but a trial 
proved this course inexpedient, and he 
was prepared for college and was gradu- 
ated from Yale in 1844. He pursued the 
study of law under eminent members of 
the profession in his native county, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1846, immedi- 
ately beginning the practice of his pro- 
fession in Norwalk, and at an early age 
had made a name for himself among his 
professional brethren. He was made lieu- 
tenant-colonel in the State militia in 
1847; ^ judge of probate in 1849, which 
position he held until 1856; he was 
elected by the party then known as 
American a State Senator in 1855 and 
1856, and his talents gave him a con- 
spicuous position among its leaders. He 
was district attorney for Fairfield county, 
1857-59; an unsuccessful candidate for 
representative in the Thirty-fifth and 
Thirty-seventh Congresses, a representa- 
tive in the Thirty-sixth Congress, and a 
member of the committee of thirty-three 
on the relations of the seceding states. 
He entered the volunteer army as colo- 
nel of the Fifth Connecticut Regiment, 
served with General Banks in Maryland, 
and on March 17, 1862, was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general in Shields' di- 
vision, and afterward in Peck's, and 
served throughout the Civil War. In 
1866 he was elected to the Senate of the 
United States, and was reelected in 1872 
by a coalition of the Democrats and 
liberal Republicans. His speeches in the 
Senate were marked with great clearness 
of expression and force of. argument, and 
always demanded attention. He voted 
against the civil rights bill, for the im- 
peachment of President Johnson. May 16, 
1868, and supported General Grant for 



the presidency in 1872. He had great 
influence both as a public man and soci- 
ally, and in the church of which he was 
a devoted member he taught a Bible 
class, and delivered lectures in behalf of 
Christianity. 



ELDRIDGE, Joseph, 

Eminent Clergyman. 

William Eldridge, immigrant ancestor, 
was born in England. His surname is 
also spelled Eldredge and Eldred, and is 
of Saxon origin. Eldred was the name of 
several Saxon kings in the eighth and 
ninth centuries. Eldred was king of 
Chester in 105 1. At the time of the 
Domesday survey (A. D. 1085) the name 
was in common use in Wilts, Dorset, 
Somerset, Devon, Gloucester, Shropshire, 
York, and other counties in England. 
John Eldred, of Great Saxham, County 
Suffolk, descended from an ancient family 
claiming Saxon origin. Tradition says 
that he purchased the Great Saxham 
estate because of his belief that his an- 
cestors in remote ages as Saxon kings 
had held Saxham as their seat. He was 
born in 1552 and died in 1632; he was a 
great traveler, and his ships and mer- 
chandise went to all parts of the world 
of commerce ; was a founder of Virginia, 
and from 1609 to 1624 a member of His 
Majesty's Council for the Virginia Com- 
pany of London. Settlers of this sur- 
name were relatives of this John Eldred, 
it is believed. 

William Eldridge had brothers, Robert, 
of Yarmouth and Monomoy, Massachu- 
setts, and Samuel, of Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, and Stonington, Connecticut. 
William Eldridge was appointed con- 
stable of Yarmouth, Massachusetts, in 
1657-62-74-75-77; was also surveyor of 
highways in that town. As the records 
of the town were destroyed by fire it is 
difficult to trace the family. He married 



190 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Anne, daughter of William and Tamesin 
Lumpkin, of Yarmouth. William Lump- 
kin came over in 1637; was deputy to the 
General Court and held many town of- 
fices; bequeathes in his will to Elisha 
and Bethia Eldred and others. Anne 
Eldridge was buried November i, 1676. 
Their son, Samuel Eldridge, was born at 
Yarmouth, about 1655. He married Ke- 
ziah Taylor. Their son, Jehosaphat El- 
dridge, was born at Yarmouth, October 
12, 1683, died in 1732. He married Eliza- 
beth . Their son, Barnabas El- 
dridge, was born at Chatham or Yar- 
mouth, about 1715. He married Mary 

. Their son, Barnabas Eldridge, 

was born at Yarmouth, October 7, 1743. 

He married Patience . Their son, 

Captain Joseph Eldridge, was born at 
Yarmouth, September 10 (or 20), 1775. 
He was a sea captain and lived and died 
in Yarmouth. He married, in 1802, De- 
borah Hamlin, of Yarmouth, born Octo- 
ber II, 1778. Among their children was 
Joseph, of this review. 

Rev. Joseph Eldridge was born in Yar- 
mouth, July 8, 1804, died in Norfolk, Con- 
necticut, March 21, 1875. An admirable 
account of his life and character was 
given by President Noah Porter, of Yale 
College, May 25, 1875, ^^ the request of 
the North Association of Litchfield coun- 
ty, and from this the following is taken : 

His father was a sea captain in easy circum- 
stances, who provided generously for the com- 
fort and culture of his family, without sacrificing 
the simplicity of their tastes or the claims of 
duty and of God. His mother was a superior 
woman of ardent piety, of large intelligence, and 
an enterprising spirit. By the nature of her 
husband's occupation she was forced to assume 
the chief responsibility of training her children 
and ordering the household. Of these four chil- 
dren our friend was the eldest, and all of the 
family have brought honor upon their parents 
and their name. 

He prepared for college at Phillips Academy 
in Andover, and in September, 1825, became a 



member of Yale College, in the freshman year, 
at the age of twenty-one years. He graduated 
with second honors of his class, and immediately 
entered upon his professional studies in the 
Theological Seminary of Yale College. 

On April 25, 1832, he was ordained as a Chris- 
tian minister and installed pastor of the Norfolk 
Church, and here continued to discharge the 
duties of his ofTice till, having resigned his 
charge, he preached his farewell sermon, No- 
vember I, 1874. At the time of his resignation 
he was the oldest of pastors in active service 
in the State of Connecticut. He had hoped and 
expected to spend many years of tranquility and 
love among them and the neighboring churches. 
He died March 31, 1875. 

Dr. Eldridge was a member of Yale Corpora- 
tion from 1847 until his death. He had a strong 
and solid intellect. He looked every subject and 
question squarely in the face, and his judgments 
were sagacious and penetrating. His mind was 
eminently comprehensive. In biography and 
the higher order of fiction he found constant 
delight and inspiration, and everything which he 
read in either department left a strong and 
delightful impression upon his mind and mem- 
ory. He was a constant and absorbed reader, 
and his range of reading was very wide. But 
whatever he wrote or spoke came from himself, 
and bore the unmistakable stamp of his own 
being, in thought, in diction, in illustration, and 
preeminently in an indescribable manner which 
he borrowed from no other man, and which no 
man could borrow from him. 

In a similar way did he apply his mind to the 
public relations of neighboring parishes and 
churches, and subsequently to the more general 
interests of the kingdom of Christ. On many 
occasions of greater or less importance on which 
he was called to think and to decide, he uni- 
formly approved himself a wise and safe coun- 
sellor who was patient in hearing, comprehensive 
and fair-minded in deliberation, and independent 
and fixed in his conclusions. His statesmanlike 
and judicial intellect became more manifest as it 
was disciplined and developed by the opportuni- 
ties of later years. 

He was a truly generous man. He was espe- 
cially generous and enterprising in the cause of 
education. There are not a few young men now 
in the ministry and other professions, whom he 
has assisted by his counsel and sympathy and 
contributions to begin and persevere in a course 
of study. This has been his favorite department 
of Christian benevolence in which he has labored 



191 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



abundantly himself, and into which he has incited 
others to enter and to continue wirh generous 
sympathy and ample liberality. 

His Christian faith and earnestness were in 
harmony with his intellectual and emotional 
habits. I should rather say that a consistent and 
earnest Christian faith, working upon a strong 
and generous nature, can alone explain, as it 
could alone produce such a character and such a 
life. His religious life was not eminently emo- 
tional — it could not be in consistency with the 
constitution of the man. Obedience to the will 
of the Heavenly Father, trust in His wisdom, 
confidence in His goodness, the honest confes- 
sion of sin and short-comings, loving trust in 
Christ as the only Redeemer, and a practical 
sympathy with His life and spirit in all the char- 
acteristically Christian virtues — above all, con- 
stant fidelity to the spirit and aims of his profes- 
sion as a Christian pastor — these were the mani- 
festations and fruits of the inner life by which 
he was controlled and cheered. As life went on 
and its varied experiences taught each its lesson, 
he became more mature in his faith, more ele- 
vated in his feelings, more ardent in his prayers, 
more sympathizing and effective in his ministra- 
tions, and more spiritual in his desires and 
hopes. 

His own health, which had been so uniform 
and vigorous, began to fail. Sharp attacks of 
suffering made him feel his dependence, and 
many deaths among his kindred and relations, 
brought the other world very near and made 
the present world seem very uncertain. His re- 
turn to his pulpit and parish work was welcomed 
with a thankful heart, and he preached and 
labored with unwonted solemnity and earnest- 
ness. His retirement from the ministry, in the 
anticipation and realization, connected as it was 
with the death of the honored head and coun- 
sellor of his own kindred, foreshadowed in some 
sort the winding up of his life. Each of these 
events made him look more distinctly upon the 
things which are not seen, and caused him to 
apprehend these as the only things which cannot 
be moved. They brought him nearer to God, 
elevating his faith, kindling his hopes. 

What Dr. Eldridge was to his people, they do 
not need to be told. What he had desired and 
labored to do for them, he has left on record in 
his farewell sermon — a sermon to which, for 
simplicity and truthfulness and transparent ten- 
derness, it were difificult to find the superior 
among the many which are to be found in the 
annals of the churches of England. Though 
nothing was farther from the writer's intent, yet 



the reader cannot fail to interpose between the 
lines this appeal to the people: "Ye are wit- 
nesses, and God also, how holily and justly and 
unblamably we behaved ourselves among you 
who believe, as you know how we exhorted, and 
comforted, and charged every one of you, as a 
father does his children, that you would walk 
worthy of God, who hath called you unto His 
kingdom and glory." He did say, and say truly, 
with all the simplicity of his heart: "I am con- 
fident that I have not an enemy nor an ill-wisher 
in the church, in the parish, or in the town, nor 
in the region — indeed, not in all the world; and 
I know that I am an enemy to no human being, 
and that this church, this society, the people of 
this town, and many in this region, have a warm 
and permanent place in my heart." 

He found this parish one of the most united 
and well-ordered of the parishes in New Eng- 
land. And he has not labored in vain. The forty 
years and more which he has given to this parish 
have not been without abundant blessings. The 
influence of this long and successful pastorate 
will remain for another generation, as the name 
of this honored and beloved servant of Christ 
shall be repeated with love and thankfulness. 

I cannot but allude to the tender and touching 
conclusion of his farewell sermon, in which he 
anticipates the time when he must yield the first 
place in the affections of his people to his suc- 
cessor in office, and to the magnanimous wis- 
dom with which he charges them beforehand to 
transfer their confidence and love to another. 
That he knew that this event would bring some 
trial to his feelings, bespeaks the largeness of 
his heart. His people cannot doubt that a heart 
so true and tender in its affection remembers 
them still, even in the heavenly temple, and will 
continue to speak peace to the flock on whom 
he has expended such constant and warm affec- 
tion. Let the peace and harmony and elevated 
Christian living which you will exemplify, be a 
perpetual testimony to the affection which you 
cherish for his name. 

After his resignation of his pastoral charge 
he did not desire to renounce the privileges and 
obligations of fellowship to his brethren and 
their churches, but formally and affectionately 
renewed his original covenant of love and hospi- 
tality with them so long as he should live. His 
interest in education and his loyal affection for 
his alma mater made him a zealous and most 
useful friend of Yale College, of whose corpora- 
tion he was for more than twenty years an 
honored member. 

The anticipated evening of his earthly life has 



192 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



been exchanged for the bright morning dawn of 
that life which is immortal. The quiet rest and 
sweet repose of the earthly twilight has given 
place to the serene and perfected boon of the 
heavenly rest. The enjoyment of the earthly 
friends who remain has been exchanged for the 
society of the just made perfect, among who are 
numbered many who were known and loved by 
him on earth. From the home which he had 
built and had blessed so long he has passed into 
the building of God — the house not made with 
hands, eternal in the heavens. 

In the "Independent" of July ii, 1878, 
is a tribute to Mrs. Eldridge from Presi- 
dent Porter, of Yale College, as follows : 

Died in Norfolk, Connecticut, June 6, 1878, 
Sarah Battell, wife of the late Joseph Eldridge, 
D. D. Mrs. Eldridge was born March 19, 1810. 
She was the eldest daughter of the late Joseph 
Battell, of Norfolk. She inherited the striking 
traits of both father and mother, and from her 
earliest years entered fully into the active and 
sympathetic kindness and active influence for 
which both were distinguished. When by her 
marriage with Dr. Eldridge, October 12, 1836, 
she became the wife of the only pastor in town, 
she had only to broaden the sphere of activity 
in which she had already been trained in order, 
in an eminent sense, to become the mistress and 
mother of the parish, the sympathizing friend 
and active counsellor of young and old. All the 
people had known her either from her or their 
childhood as a generous and faithful friend, abun- 
dant in sympathy and humor. Her labors were 
increasing, her sympathy and patience were ex- 
haustless, and her generosity was unstinted. 
Her animal spirits never flagged, and her in- 
terest in everything which concerned the welfare 
of her family, her parish, her friends far and 
near, or the Kingdom of God, was always ready, 
sincere and efihcient. Her humor and buoyancy 
of spirits were literally indomitable and irrepres- 
sible, and they rendered excellent service to her- 
self and her friends in the dark hours of life. 
Her voice was singularly sweet and gentle, 
and she delighted in sacred songs. From her 
earliest years her voice had been heard in the 
service of the Lord's Day in the prayer meeting 
and her own household. 

Her activity in Sunday school work began 
early in life, being first given to a class of young 
ladies, but later and for many years to a class 
of boys, the successive members of which re- 
Conn— 1—13 



membered her with gratitude as they became 
young men and continued to share in her coun- 
sels and sympathy. 

It is not often that there goes from any house- 
hold a mother bearing so genuinely the New Eng- 
land stamp of another generation, combined with 
such marked individuality, sense and thought, 
sympathy and humor, tenderness and strength, 
charity toward all mankind, and devout rever- 
ence before God, as she, who, on the loth of 
June, sons and daughters, brothers and sisters, 
kindred and friends, parishioners and the poor 
followed to the grave, to lay her by the side of 
her honored husband, neither of whom will soon 
be forgotten by any who knew them. 

Children: i. Sarah, died January 10, 
1898. 2. Irene, married Edward Y. Swift, 
attorney, Detroit, Michigan ; children : 
Edward Eldridge ; Irene Battell, married 
Dr. William Moffatt, of Utica ; Mary El- 
dridge, married Frederick M. Alger, of 
Detroit. 3. Mary. 4. Joseph Battell, 
died November 19, 1901. 5. Isabella. 6 
Alice Bradford, married Henry H. Bridg- 
man : children : Eldridge Lebaron and 
Isabella Battell. 



McNeill, Edwin, 

Railroad Promoter. 

Alexander McNeill, of an ancient Scotch 
family, came from County Antrim, Ulster. 
Ireland, with his brothers, Archibald and 
Adam McNeill, and was one of the early 
settlers in Litchfield, Connecticut, where 
he died, April 16, 1795, at the age of 
seventy-two years. He married, October 
28, 1747, Deborah Phelps, who died at 
Litchfield, December 16, 1808, aged 
eighty-two years. Their son. Roswell 
McNeill, was born September 21. 1748, 
died September 11, 1813. He was a 
farmer in Litchfield. He married, Sep- 
tember 13, 1769, Elizabeth Marsh, born 
in 1747, died March 20, 1791. Their son. 
Isaac McNeill, was born in 1781, died 
March 21, 1832. He was a lifelong resi- 
dent of Litchfield. He married Mabel 



193 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Clark, born in 1792, died April 28, 1864. 
She married (second) Joel Bostwick. 
Child of Isaac McNeill : Edwin, men- 
tioned below. 

Edwin McNeill was born in Litchfield, 
September 10, 1822, died at West Point, 
New York, September 13, 1875. He at- 
tended the public schools and graduated 
from Norwich University, Connecticut. 
He taught mathematics in a boys' school 
at Ellicott's Mills, Maryland, for two 
years, then engaged in civil engineering 
for a profession, becoming one of the best 
known and eminent engineers during the 
construction of the early railroads of the 
country. His first work was the con- 
struction of a viaduct crossing Starrucca 
Valley, the finest piece of work on the 
Erie railroad. He was then engaged on 
the New Jersey Central railroad and the 
Cayuga and Susquehanna. In 1849 he 
was made chief engineer of the Delaware, 
Lackawanna and Western railroad, the 
northern division from Scranton to Great 
Bent being first built, then the southern 
through Delaware Water Gap to Hamp- 
ton, New Jersey. At the same time he 
built the Lackawanna and Bloom rail- 
road, extending from Scranton through 
the Wyoming coal fields to Northumber- 
land. These roads being completed, in 
1856, he went to Georgia for his health. 
Here he located the Macon and Bruns- 
wick railroad, but before its completion, 
as consulting engineer, he returned north 
in 1869 and became president of the 
Lackawanna and Bloom railroad, con- 
tinuing until 1865, when he left the Wyo- 
ming Valley, returning to his native 
town. Here he organized and became 
president of the First National Bank, a 
position he held until his death. He also 
projected the Shepaug Valley railroad 
and was engaged in every enterprise that 
would promote the development of his 
native town. 



He married, in 1856, Emily Dottern, 
born in Reading, Pennsylvania, daughter 
of Davis H. and Ann Emlen (Warner) 
Dottern. Her father was an extensive 
builder of stationary and locomotive en- 
gines at Reading, Pennsylvania. His an- 
cestors came from Saxony, Germany. 
Children of Edwin McNeill: i. Edwin, 
born in Macon, Georgia, December 31, 
1856, died January 23, 1901 ; graduated 
at the United States Military Academy 
at West Point, served on General Han- 
cock's staff at Governor's Island. In 1880 
he resigned from the army, taking the 
management of the Shepaug Valley rail- 
road, after which he took the manage- 
ment of the Hartford and Connecticut 
Western, St. Joseph and Grand Island; 
Oregon Rail and Navigation Company 
division of the Union Pacific, and was 
vice-president and general manager of 
the Iowa Central railway. When the 
Union Pacific went into a receiver's hands 
he was called back and made sole re- 
ceiver of the Oregon Rail and Navigation 
Company, one of the divisions of the 
Union Pacific. After successfully brmg- 
ing the road out of bankruptcy, he was 
made president, but resigned his office 
after a short incumbency. From that 
time until his death he was not active in 
the management of railroads, but re- 
tained his connections with several com- 
panies. 2. Mabel, born in Kingston, 
Pennsylvania. January 2, 1859, died Jan- 
uary 24, i860. 3. Elmore Bostwick, born 
at Kingston, Pennsylvania, September 4, 
i860, died November 20, 1894; graduated 
from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 
1881, following his profession as a civil 
engineer for some time, then engaged in 
contract work, and it was while construct- 
ing section 3, Chicago Drainage Canal, 
that he died. 4. Anne Emlen, born 1862, 
married Thomas H. Langford, a cotton 
broker of New York City, now deceased 



194 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Children : Alexander and Ruth Langford. 
5. Alexander, born 1864; graduate of 
Lafayette College, a broker in Wall 
street, New York City. He married 
Eliza, daughter of George M. Woodruff, 
of Litchfield ; children : Mildred, Eliza- 
beth and Ruth Woodrufif. 6. George 
Scranton, born July 3, 1865 ; graduate of 
Phillips Academy ; married Grace Web- 
ber. 



CHENEY, Seth W., 

Artist. 

Seth Wells Cheney, one of the most 
accomplished artists of his day, was born 
at South Manchester, Connecticut, No- 
vember 28, 1810, son of George and Electa 
(Woodbridge) Cheney. In both parental 
lines he was descended from English fam- 
ilies which had been established in New 
England for a century previous to his 
birth. He was one of eight brothers, all 
men of unusual intellectual power, but he 
and his brother, John Cheney, were the 
only ones who developed artistic talent. 

Unlike his brothers, Seth Wells Cheney 
was delicate from his earliest childhood. 
Gentle and retiring in company, he was 
devotedly attached to his relatives ; he 
was ardently fond of nature, and pos- 
sessed mechanical as well as artistic gifts. 
He was brought up on his father's farm, 
first attending the village school and later 
studying at an advanced school, where he 
learned Latin and French. When he was 
nineteen years old his father died and he 
left school and went to Boston, where he 
joined his brother John, an engraver, and 
began to study that profession. There he 
remained after his brother left to study in 
England, and subsequently he worked for 
a year for a publishing house in Brat- 
tleboro, Vermont. In 1833 he and his 
brother went to Paris, and there studied 
under Isabey, De la Roche and other 



artists, supporting themselves by making 
engravings, both worked laboriously with 
but a scanty income. Seth thought that 
fasting enabled him to do better work, 
and he would often work all day after eat- 
ing only a light breakfast. This priva- 
tion, however, impaired his health, and 
after remaining at Fontainebleau for some 
weeks, he returned home in May, 1834. 
The voyage in a sailing vessel restored 
his health to some degree, and he subse- 
quently passed several months in domes- 
tic and farm labors at the family home- 
stead. During their stay in Paris, he and 
his brother had sent home some engrav- 
ings without their individual names and 
which were published as by Cheney, but 
it was soon ascertained that the best of 
the work had been executed by the 
younger artist, Seth. Mr. Grossman wrote 
of this part of his work : "All his engrav- 
ings, like his drawings, whether portraits 
or landscapes in crayons, have a charm- 
ing sweetness and beauty of expression 
very rarely met with even in the best 
productions of the best artists. The effect 
of his work is to produce the same 
pleasurable thrill, or something nearly 
akin to it, we experience in the best ex- 
amples of Grecian art — an emanation of 
beauty, which almost entrances the be- 
holder, that makes 'the senses ache'." 
Seth W. Cheney's engravings were few 
in number, the subjects usually simple 
genre pictures. In 1835 he accompanied 
his brother Charles to Ohio, settling near 
the home of x\lice and Phoebe Gary, 
where they engaged in farming, growing 
mulberry trees and rearing silk worms. 
Others of the brothers afterwards joined 
in the business of growing mulberry trees, 
which became a remunerative industry. 
In 1837 Seth and his brother Frank went 
to Europe to purchase mulberry trees 
for the firm, and Seth resumed his artistic 
studies in France, Italy and Germany. 

195 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



While thus engaged, he learned that the 
mulberry enterprise at home had failed, 
and his brothers took up silk manufac- 
ture, in which they retrieved their for- 
tunes, but Seth never returned to busi- 
ness life. In 1S40 he went to Manches- 
ter, Connecticut, and there began to pro- 
duce crayon portraits, which afterwards 
became the most celebrated of all his 
artistic work. In 1841 he opened a studio 
in Boston, and there, as the work became 
known, he was gradually relieved from 
all pecuniary difficulties. In 1841 and 
1842 he drew over one hundred and fifty 
portraits in crayons, among them heads 
of many of the leading families in Boston, 
such as Lowell, Jackson, Gray, Putnam, 
Appleton, Bowditch, Winthrop, Goddard, 
Higginson, etc. At the same time he be- 
came deeply interested in transcenden- 
talism, and it has been said that his pic- 
tures at that time, especially his heads of 
women, seemed to express the very spirit 
of this epoch. In 1843 ^^ again visited 
Europe, traveling and studying in Eng- 
land, Germany, Switzerland and Italy. 
In Rome he studied anatomical drawing 
under Ferrero, and while there he drew 
his celebrated head of an old beggarman. 
In 1844 he returned to America, and re- 
sumed his artistic work at intervals, as 
his now feeble health permitted. In 1847 
he again opened a studio in Boston, and 
that year married a Miss Pitkin, who died 
three years later. Mr, Cheney was dan- 
gerously ill for some time after her death, 
but recovering he once more returned to 
his work in Boston. In 1854, having 
married again, he made a last visit to 
Europe. In France he visited the ateliers 
of the Sheffers and of Millet, and his was 
a familiar face to the American artists of 
Paris. While abroad he suffered more 
and more from ill health, and this finally 
necessitated his return home, where he 
spent the few remaining months of his 



life. Mr. Cheney's great talent was in 
the expression of character in individual 
heads. He left a few paintings and 
some few attempts at sculpture. His best 
known works are the crayon heads, "A 
Roman Girl," "Rosalie," and portraits of 
Theodore Parker, Mrs. Parker, W. C. 
Bryant and Ephraim Peabody. 

He was twice married, in 1847, to his 
cousin, Emily Pitkin, and, in 1853, to Ed- 
nah Dow Littlehale. He left one daugh- 
ter, Margaret Swan Cheney. He died 
in Boston, Massachusetts, September 10, 
1856. 



HUBBARD, Joseph S., 

Astronomer. 

Joseph Stiles Hubbard was born in New 
Haven, Connecticut, September 7, 1823, 
son of Ezra Stiles and Eliza (Church) 
Hubbard, and ninth in descent from Wil- 
liam Hubbard, of Ipswich, Massachu- 
setts, who emigrated to Massachusetts in 
1635. President Stiles, of Yale College, 
was a great-uncle, and he had ancestors 
of note in Rev. William Hubbard, of Ips- 
wich, one of New England's historians, 
and Governor Leverett, of Massachusetts. 
As a child he began to take an interest 
in mechanics, and at the age of eight 
made a clock, and while fitting for col- 
lege he made a telescope. About this 
time he accidentally met Professor Eben- 
ezer P. Mason, of Yale College, an en- 
thusiastic astronomer, who aided him in 
his experiments. He was graduated from 
Yale College at the age of twenty, and for 
a time taught in a classical school. For 
several months of the next year he as- 
sisted Walker, the astronomer, in Phila- 
delphia. In the same year he was offered 
by Lieutenant Fremont a position in 
Washington as computer of the observa- 
tions for latitude and longitude made dur- 
ing that explorer's western expeditions ; 
196 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



and in 1845, through the influence of the 
same officer, was appointed a professor of 
mathematics in the navy, and was as- 
signed to duty at the Naval Observatory 
in Washington City, of which he con- 
tinued an officer during his life. Pro- 
fessor Walker became convinced that 
Neptune was identical with one of the 
stars observed by Lalande on May 10, 
1795, and on February 4, 1847, the two 
confirmed the prediction, the discovery 
being made almost simultaneously by 
Petersen in Altona. At the Naval Ob- 
servatory Hubbard was first occupied 
with the transit instrument, with which 
he made nearly nine hundred observa- 
tions ; and next with the meridian circle, 
with which he made nearly one thousand 
observations in the year 1846. Early that 
year a system of zone observations was 
begun by Professor J. W. C. Coffin and 
Professor Hubbard, and which were con- 
tinued until 1851 and even later. Two- 
thirds of the good work done was ascribed 
to Professor Hubbard by his biographer, 
Benjamin A. Gould. His most valuable 
observations were made with the prime 
vertical transit instrument, beginning in 
1846, the year he was assigned to the 
charge of that instrument. They were 
continued at intervals during his lifetime, 
and an especially cherished problem was 
the attainment of some definite result 
concerning the long-mooted annual paral- 
lax of Alpha Lyrse. The observations 
were continued after his death by Pro- 
fessors Harkness and Newcomb. 

Professor Hubbard's first extended com- 
putations were in determining the zodiacs 
of all the known asteroids, except the four 
previously published in Germany. In 
November, 1848, he presented to the 
Smithsonian Institution the zodiacs of 
Vesta, Astrea, Hebe, Flora and Metis, 
and in the first volume of the "Astro- 
nomical Journal" he contributed those of 



Hygeia, Parthenope and Clio, making the 
list complete up to that time. That of 
Egeria followed, and he intended to pre- 
pare the zodiac for each successively dis- 
covered asteroid. In December, 1849, ^^ 
published in the "Astronomical Journal," 
of which Professor Gould was editor, the 
first paper in a discussion of the orbit of 
the great comet of 1843, and which he 
continued in eight papers, the last ap- 
pearing in 1852. "It seems to me safe to 
say," said Professor Gould, "that the orbit 
of no comet of long period has been more 
thoroughly and exhaustively treated." 
Three quarto volumes, containing the 
actual numerical computations, in most 
beautiful penmanship, are preserved in 
the library of Yale College. Professor 
Hubbard next undertook an equally thor- 
ough investigation of Biela's comet, which 
had attracted his attention in 1846 and 
was to return in 1852, to insure its dis- 
covery at as early a date as possible. He 
obtained an orbit superior to Santini's, 
the best existing at that time ; but the 
discovery of the comet rendered unneces- 
sary the publication of his calculations. 
He published three memoirs on this sub- 
ject: "On the Orbit of Biela's Comet in 
1845-46" (1853); "Results of Additional 
Investigation, Respecting the Two Nuclei 
of Biela's Comet" (1854) ; and "On Biela's 
Comet" (i860), the last comprising all 
then known of this comet, and an elab- 
orate discussion of the observations and 
orbit for every recorded appearance. In 
addition, briefer communications on spe- 
cial points were issued. He made another 
exhaustive investigation on the fourth 
comet of 1825, and which was printed in 
1859. One of his latest investigations 
was of the magnetism of iron vessels and 
its effect upon the compass. His contri- 
butions to the "Astronomical Journal," of 
which he was one of the founders, were 
more than two hundred in number. His 



197 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



accuracy and conscientiousness are ex- 
hibited in his tables appended to several 
volumes of the "Washington Observa- 
tions," while unpublished treatises on re- 
ligious and theological subjects show the 
same earnestness in research that char- 
acterized his scientific labors. Professor 
Hubbard was of a sympathetic nature 
that often found expression in ministra- 
tions to the sick and afflicted, as well as 
in efforts to direct the studies and encour- 
age the investigations of younger scien- 
tists. He was a member of the National 
Institution of Washington, of the Con- 
necticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences in Boston, and of the American 
Philosophical Society of Philadelphia. 

He married in Washington, D. C, April 
27, 1848, Sarah E. L. Handy, who died a 
few years before him. Professor Hub- 
bard died in New Haven, Connecticut, 
August 16, 1863. 



HILLHOUSE, James A., 

Poet. 

James Abraham Hillhouse, once a well 
known poet, was born in New Haven, 
Connecticut, September 26, 1789, son of 
James Hillhouse, a member of Congress. 
From his early youth he was noted for 
mental ability and proficiency in athletic 
exercises. In his fifteenth year he was 
matriculated at Yale College. During his 
entire course he distinguished himself 
especially in English composition, in 
which he took high honors at his gradu- 
ation in 1808. Upon receiving the mas- 
ter's degree three years later, he delivered 
an oration on "The Education of a Poet," 
which was so favorably received as to 
bring him an invitation to prepare a poem 
for the Phi Beta Kappa meeting the fol- 
lowing year. He complied by producing 
his impressive composition, "The Judg- 



ment," a highly successful attempt to deal 
with the most solemn of subjects, and 
which has been ranked among the Ameri- 
can classics. 

After leaving college Hillhouse passed 
three years in Boston, engaged in com- 
mercial pursuits, but the business in 
which he was engaged was interrupted 
by the war with Great Britain, and he 
devoted himself thenceforward to literary 
work. He afterward removed to New 
York City, and in 1819 visited England, 
where he made the acquaintance of many 
persons prominent in the world of letters, 
among them being Zachary Macaulay, 
father of the famous historian, who spoke 
of him as the "most accomplished young 
man with whom I am acquainted." Soon 
after his marriage in 1822, he retired to 
his fine country residence, "Sachem's 
Wood," near New Haven, Connecticut, 
where he passed the remainder of his life, 
engaged in literary work. The most im- 
portant of his productions are dramatic 
compositions, all of which are character- 
ized by depth of feeling, strength of 
imagination, and elegance of expression. 
He was a laborious editor, bringing each 
piece of his work to the greatest possible 
perfection ; and by his painstaking indus- 
try has left some of the most polished 
and effective passages in dialogue and 
description in English literature. The 
most memorable of his efforts is "Hadad," 
a tragedy recounting the courtship of 
Tamar, daughter of Absalom, by Hadad, 
a fallen angel, and her final escape by 
divine grace. Duyckinck well says, 
speaking of the dialogues between the 
Hebrew maiden and the assailant: "In 
these passages Hillhouse has displayed 
some of his finest graces. Perfection in 
such a literary undertaking would have 
taxed the powers of a Goethe. As a 
poetical and dramatic sketch of force and 
beauty the author has not failed." Al- 
98 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



though Hillhouse has not in later years 
received the honor due, he commanded 
the highest encomiums of his contempo- 
raries. Halleck writes of him : 

Hillhouse, whose music, like his themes, 
Lifts earth to heaven — whose poet dreams 
Are pure and holy as the hymn 
Echoed from harps of seraphim, 
By bards that drank at Zion's fountains 

When glory, peace and hope were hers, 
And beautiful upon her mountains 

The feet of angel messengers. 

His works, published in two volumes, 
under the title "Dramas, Discourses, and 
Other Pieces" (1839), include: "The Edu- 
cation of a Poet" (1811); "The Judg- 
ment" (1812); "Percy's Masque" (1820) ; 
"Hadad" (1825); "Demetria" (1839); 
"Sachem's Wood" and other poems, be- 
sides discourses on "Some Considerations 
Which Should Influence an Epic or a 
Tragic Writer in the Choice of an Era" 
(1826); and the "Relations of Literature 
to a Republican Government" (1836). 

Mr. Hillhouse was married, in 1822, to 
Cornelia, eldest daughter of Isaac Law- 
rence, of New York City. He died in 
New Haven, Connecticut, January 4, 
1841. 



LINSLEY, James H., 

Clergyman, Naturalist. 

James Harvey Linsley was born May 
5, 1787, at Northfield, New Haven county, 
Connecticut, where his early education 
was obtained in the village school. In 
order to improve his health he journeyed 
to Maine in 181 1, and reached Guilford, 
where for a time he taught in the local 
academy, meantime preparing himself for 
college. He entered Yale College in Sep- 
tember, 1813, and during his collegiate 
course maintained himself by teaching at 
Guilford, Bedford and at the New Town- 
ship Academy in New Haven, keeping up 



with his class at the same time and even 
attending extra lectures on philosophy, 
chemistry, mineralogy and astronomy. 
He was graduated in September, 1817, 
and for a time continued teaching at the 
academy in New Haven. 

He was expecting to enter the ministry, 
but physicians induced him to abandon 
this thought, in the conviction that it 
would most certainly prove fatal to him 
on account of his delicate health. He 
then settled in New Canaan, where he 
conducted a school from 1818 to 1821. 
In April, 1821, he removed to Stratford, 
and there established a boarding school, 
where he prepared young men for college. 
On June 9, 1831, he was ordained to the 
Baptist ministry, and in order to give 
himself entirely to its work dismissed his 
prosperous school. He preached in Mil- 
ford, Stratfield and Bridgeport, and estab- 
lished a Baptist church in the latter town. 
Failing health, however, forbade his con- 
tinuing his ministerial work, and he de- 
voted much of his time to natural his- 
tory, always a favorite study. He col- 
lected a valuable cabinet of ornithological 
specimens, discovering more species of 
birds in Connecticut alone than had previ- 
ously been found in the entire United 
States by Wilson, the distinguished orni- 
thologist. He also found more mammalia 
than had been found elsewhere in New 
England, and double the number of shells 
that were supposed to exist there, among 
them many new species, altogether his 
conchological collection contained more 
than two thousand species. His scientific 
investigations were given in a series of 
papers on the zoology of Connecticut, 
prepared for the Yale Natural History 
Society, of which he had become a mem- 
ber in 1837, and published in the "Ameri- 
can Journal of Science and Art," under 
the title of "Catalogue of the Mammalia 
of Connecticut." He also contributed to 



199 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OE BIOGRAPHY 



that magazine "Catalogues of the Birds, 
Fishes and Reptiles of Connecticut, with 
Notes" (1842-43). 

Mr. Linsley was married, February i, 
1818, to Sophia B., daughter of Colonel 
William Lyon. He died at Stratford, 
Connecticut, December 26, 1843. 



WARNER, Seth, 

Soldier of tlie Revolution. 

Seth Warner, a gallant soldier of the 
Revolution, and whose fame is commemo- 
rated by a statue in his native State, was 
born in Roxbury parish, Woodbury, Con- 
necticut, May 17, 1743. He was a son of 
Dr. Benjamin Warner, and in 1765 re- 
moved with his father to Bennington, 
Vermont, having joined the migration to 
the New Hampshire grants, and became 
well known as a hunter and trapper. In 
1771 he was elected captain of a company 
of Green Mountain Boys organized to re- 
sist New York authority, and was out- 
lawed with their leader, Ethan Allen. 

At the outbreak of the Revolutionary 
War, Seth Warner was appointed second 
in command of the expedition to Ticon- 
deroga. Although he was left with the 
rearguard on the east shore of the lake, 
while Allen and a small detachment took 
Fort Ticonderoga, he successfully led the 
detachment that captured Crown Point. 
He seconded Allen's efforts to obtain au- 
thority to make an invasion of Canada, 
and accompanied him to Philadelphia and 
Albany to urge the plan before the Con- 
tinental Congress. A regiment of native 
Vermonters was recruited, and Warren 
was elected its colonel, but the New York 
Congress withheld commissions from the 
regiment and the Continental Congress 
upheld the action. When the invasion of 
Canada was finally begun in the fall of 
1775. Warner and his Green Mountain 
Boys joined General Montgomery, by 



whom he was appointed colonel and sent 
to Montreal to watch the enemy. He de- 
feated General Carlton in his attempt to 
raise the siege of Quebec, and command- 
ed the troops in an action at Longueil. 
The regiment was discharged November 
20, 1775, but Warner recruited another 
regiment for the relief of the army after 
the repulse at Quebec, and when the re- 
treat was made to Ticonderoga he com- 
manded the rearguard. He was commis- 
sioned colonel of a regiment of regular 
troops for permanent service, and was 
stationed at Ticonderoga throughout the 
campaign of 1776. In 1777 he raised a 
battalion of nine hundred Vermonters, 
and marched them to the relief of St. 
Clair at Ticonderoga, July 5, 1777. On 
the evacuation of the post he again com- 
manded the rearguard, and on being over- 
taken on July 7, 1777, by Fraser, in com- 
mand of the British advance, was defeat- 
ed at the battle at Hubbardston and re- 
treated to Manchester, where he pro- 
tected the stores at Bennington and ar- 
rested Burgoyne's advance by harassing 
his flanks. He aided in planning the at- 
tack on Raum's intrenchment during the 
battle of Bennington, August 16, 1777, 
and led the charge on Breyman's bat- 
talion that gained time for the American 
troops to rally and form a new line of 
battle. He served with General Gates 
throughout the rest of the campaign ; com- 
manded the expedition to Lake George 
landing, and captured the British vessels 
there. He was ordered to Albany in 
April, 1778, and sent by Schuyler on a 
particular command into Yessop's Patent, 
which he executed with skill and address, 
guarding against the Indian attacks, 
watching the Tories, and protecting com- 
munications. He was wounded from an 
ambush of Indians in September, 1780, 
and returned to Bennington. The pro- 
prietors of several towns had voted him 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



land as a reward for his services, but 
most of it was sold for taxes, and in 1777 
Congress granted him two thousand 
acres in Essex county. In 1782 he was a 
member of a committee to protest to Gov- 
ernor Chittenden against the sending of 
prisoners to Canada. 

He died in Roxbury, Connecticut, De- 
cember 26, 1784, and the State of Con- 
necticut caused a granite obelisk, about 
twenty-one feet high, to be erected over 
his grave. 



WADSWORTH, Jeremiah, 

Legislator, Diplomat. 



born in 
1743, son 



Jeremiah Wadsworth was 
Hartford, Connecticut, July 12 
of the Rev. Daniel and Abigail (Talcott) 
Wadsworth, grandson of John and Eliza- 
beth (Stanley) Wadsworth, and of Gov- 
ernor Joseph and Eunice (Howell) Tal- 
cott. His father was graduated from 
Yale College, Bachelor of Arts, 1726; 
Master of Arts, 1729; a fellow of the col- 
lege, 1743-47, and was pastor of the 
First Congregational Church in Hartford, 
1732-47. 

After the death of his father, Jeremiah 
Wadsworth became the ward of his uncle, 
Matthew Talcott, a shipping merchant of 
Middletown, Connecticut, on one of 
whose vessels he went to sea in 1761 for 
the benefit of his health, becoming first 
mate and subsequently master. He mar- 
ried, November 19, 1764, Mehitabel, 
daughter of the Rev. William (Yale, 
Bachelor of Arts, 1709; Master of Arts, 
1712; tutor, 1713-14, and fellow, 1745-61) 
and Mary (Pierpont) Russell, of Middle- 
town, Connecticut, making his home in 
Hartford, Connecticut, after his mother's 
death in 1773. He served as deputy com- 
missary to Colonel Joseph Trumbull, 
1775-1777, and upon Colonel Trumbull's 
resignation in the latter year, was made 



commissary-general. He served as com- 
missary of the French troops until the 
close of the Revolutionary War, visiting 
France in July, 1783, to settle his accounts 
with the French government, and subse- 
quently traveled in England and Ireland, 
purchasing foreign materials, which he 
sold upon his return to the United States 
in 1784. He was a delegate to the Conti- 
nental Congress, 1787-88; a member of 
the State Convention that ratified the 
national constitution, 1788; was a Fed- 
eralist representative from Connecticut in 
the First, Second and Third Congresses, 
1789-95; a member of the State Legisla- 
ture, 1795, and of the Council, 1795-1801. 
He was greatly interested in agricul- 
ture, and introduced many original im- 
provements for its development. The 
honorary degree of Master of Arts was 
conferred upon him by Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1792, and by Yale College in 1796. 
He died in Hartford, April 30, 1804. 



BARLOW, Joel, 

Poet, Diplomatist. 

Joel Barlow was born at Redding. Con- 
necticut, March 24, 1754, the youngest in 
a family of ten children, son of Samuel 
Barlow, a respectable farmer. The father 
died while the lad was in school, leaving 
just about enough property to defray the 
expenses of the son's education. In 1 774 he 
entered Dartmouth College, but remained 
there for only a short time. and went to 
Yale College. While a student there he 
displayed talent in poetical composition, 
attracting the notice of Dr. Dwight, then 
a tutor in the college, whose encourage- 
ment had much to do with fixing the 
character of his after life. The Revolu- 
tionary War was now raging, and young 
Barlow, burning with patriotism, en- 
listed as a volunteer in the State militia 
and went into the field during vacations. 



201 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



He is said to have seen active service on 
several occasions, and to have fought in 
the battle of White Plains. He gradu- 
ated in 1778 from Yale College, when he 
delivered at commencement a poem en- 
titled "Prospect of Peace." 

After leaving college. Barlow engaged 
for a short time in the study of law, but 
which he relinquished after a few months, 
his friends having urged him to qualify 
for the Christian ministry, with a view to 
his entering the army as a chaplain. After 
only six weeks' preparation he was 
licensed to preach, and at once entered 
the Revolutionary army as chaplain, being 
attached to Poor's brigade of Massachu- 
setts. While in camp he continued to cul- 
tivate his taste for poetry, writing patri- 
otic songs, and composing in part his 
"Vision of Columbus," which afterward 
formed the basis of his great epic poem, 
"The Columhiad." He received the de- 
gree of Master of Arts in 1781 from Yale 
College, and about the same time married 
Ruth Baldwin, of New Haven, a sister of 
Abraham Baldwin, who afterward repre- 
sented the State of Georgia in the Senate 
of the United States. Barlow remained 
in the army until the restoration of peace, 
when he abandoned the clerical profes- 
sion and returned to his original inten- 
tion of practicing law. He settled in Hart- 
ford, where he became known with Colo- 
Humphreys, and, with Dr. Dwight and 
others, was recognized among the "Hart- 
ford Wits." Barlow now engaged in the 
publication of a weekly paper in Hartford, 
the "American Mercury," which afforded 
him opportunity to exercise his own satiri- 
cal powers, and give an outlet to that of 
others of the "Hartford Wits." About 
the same time he was employed by an 
association of the clergy of Connecticut 
to revise Dr. Watts' version of the Psalms, 
which he did, besides versifying some of 
the Psalms omitted by Dr. Watts, and 



adding some original hymns of his own 
composition. This volume was published 
in 1785, and was used for many years as 
the authorized version of the Congrega- 
tional churches of New England. Two 
years later. Barlow published his "Vision 
of Columbus," which was dedicated to 
Louis XVI., and editions of which ap- 
peared in London and Paris a few months 
afterward. He now abandoned his news- 
paper venture to open a book store in 
Hartford, where he sold his own produc- 
tions with some success. Having become 
famous as a poet, he abandoned the law, 
in which he had not been at all successful. 
He had something to do with the "An- 
archiad," the principal poem of the "Hart- 
ford Wits," and on July 4, 1787, he de- 
livered an oration in which he showed a 
tendency toward Federalism. In 1788 he 
was appointed agent of the Scioto Land 
Company, which had gained possession 
of several million acres of land in Ohio, 
and which he was desired to sell in 
Europe. After passing a -short time in 
England, Barlow went to France, but 
does not appear to have accomplished 
much in the way of Ohio land sales. He 
took an active part in the French revolu- 
tion, in connection with the Girondists, 
or Moderate party. He wrote his "Ad- 
vice to the Privileged Orders," which he 
took to London in 1791 and there pub- 
lished. He remained in London nearly 
two years, associating with West, Cop- 
ley, Trumbull, and other Americans, be- 
sides Priestley, Home Tooke, and other 
prominent English philosophers and 
writers. In February, 1792, he published 
the "Conspiracy of Kings," and in the 
autumn of the same year wrote an open 
letter to the national convention of 
France, these publications bringing him 
some profit as well as adding to his influ- 
ence. He became a member of the Lon- 
don Constitutional Society, and was after- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ward sent to France with an address to 
the national convention, on which occa- 
sion he was complimented with the be- 
stowal of French citizenship. Meanwhile 
his political work had been attacked by 
Burke, eulogized by Fox, and proscribed 
by the British government, and it thus be- 
came convenient for him to remain in 
France. For a time he was in Savoy, 
where he became a candidate for deputy, 
but was defeated. While there he wrote 
his "Hasty Pudding," which is considered 
one of the happiest of his productions. 
Returning to Paris, he translated Vol- 
ney's "Ruins," and engaged in certain 
speculations which realized for him a 
handsome fortune. 

About the year 1795, Barlow was ap- 
pointed Consul to Algiers by President 
Washington, and proved successful in 
this mission, concluding treaties not only 
with that country, but with Tunis and 
Tripoli, and redeeming and returning to 
their homes about one hundred American 
captives. He resigned this position in 
1797, and for the next eight years resided 
in Paris. He returned to the United 
States in 1805, and built a beautiful man- 
sion near Washington, which he called 
"Kalorama," and where he continued to 
reside while his principal work, "The 
Columbiad," was in process of comple- 
tion. This was published in 1808, in a 
handsome volume, embellished with fine 
engravings, executed in London. It was 
dedicated to Robert Fulton. In 181 1, 
while occupied in making a collection of 
historical documents, with a view of writ- 
ing a history of the Revolution, Barlow 
was nominated by President Madison to 
be Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court 
of France. He accepted the mission and 
exerted all his powers to negotiate with 
Napoleon I. a treaty of commerce and to 
arrange for the settlement of the spoli- 



ation claims, but without success, being 
persistently baffled by the intrigues of the 
French diplomatists. On the invitation 
of the Due de Bassano, in October, 1812, 
to a personal conference with the Emr 
peror at Wilna, in Poland, he began his 
journey, during which, from exposure to 
the inclemency of the season and conse- 
quent privations, he was attacked with 
inflammation of the lungs, from which he 
never recovered. He died on December 
24, 1812, at Zarnavica, in Poland. 



HUMPHREYS, David, 

Soldier, Diplomatist. 

David Humphreys, LL. D.. to whom 
belongs the honor of having been the first 
to secure the rights and privileges of 
freshmen in the social life of Yale Uni- 
versity, was born in Derby, Connecticut, 
July 10, 1752, son of Rev. Daniel Hum- 
phreys, a minister of the Congregational 
denomination. 

He was graduated from Yale College 
in 1771. Entering the Continental army 
as captain under General Samuel H. Par- 
sons at the breaking out of the Revolu- 
tionary War, he served upon the staff of 
General Putnam in 1778, and was ap- 
pointed aide-de-camp to General Wash- 
ington in 1780. After the close of the 
war he was presented, by act of Congress, 
with a handsome sword in recognition of 
his gallantry at the siege of Yorktown. 
He accompanied the commander-in-chief, 
Washington, to Mount Vernon, and re- 
mained there for nearly a year. In 1784 
he was appointed secretary to Benjamin 
Franklin, John Adams and Thomas Jeflfer- 
son, who went abroad for the purpose of 
establishing friendly relations and nego- 
tiating commercial treaties with Euro- 
pean nations. After an absence of two 
years, the greater part of which time was 



203 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



spent in London and Paris, he returned, 
and in 1786 was elected to the Legisla- 
ture from his native town. Being once 
more invited to Mount Vernon, he resided 
there with Washington until 1789, when 
he went to New York with his illustrious 
patron, and in 1790 was appointed Minis- 
ter to Portugal, arriving at his post of 
duty in the following year. While visit- 
ing this country in 1794, he was entrusted 
with the charge of affairs in the Barbary 
States in connection with the Portuguese 
Mission, which he held for seven years 
and until transferred to Madrid as Minis- 
ter Plenipotentiary to the Court of Spain, 
where he remained until the appointment 
of his successor, Charles E. Pinckney, in 
1802. During the War of 1812 he served 
as brigadier-general of Connecticut volun- 
teers, and at the conclusion of hostilities 
he retired to private life. He had previ- 
ously imported one hundred Merino sheep, 
and in his later years he was engaged in 
the manufacture of woolen goods. 

Colonel Humphreys began to compose 
verses while in college, and during the 
Revolution he wrote a number of patriotic 
poems. His poem entitled "An Address 
to the Armies of the United States" be- 
came popular in this country, created a 
favorable impression in England, and 
was translated into French. He was the 
author of: "The Happiness of America," 
a poem on agricultural pursuits ; and the 
translator of "The Widow of Malabac," a 
tragedy from the French of La Lierre. 
He was also concerned in producing the 
"Anarchiad," which appeared at Hartford 
about the year 1786, and an edition of 
which, purporting to be the first ever pub- 
lished in book form, appeared at New 
Haven in 1861. While residing in Lis- 
bon, Colonel Humphreys married Miss 
Bulkly, a wealthy English lady. He died 
in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1818. 



BUSHNELL, David, 

Inventor, Father of Submarine Vessels. 

David Bushnell was born at Saybrook, 
parish of Westbrook, Connecticut, about 
1742. He was a descendant of Francis 
Bushnell, an Englishman, who emigrated 
to the New Haven colony in 1638 and be- 
came one of the founders of Guilford. 
His father was a farmer, and until left an 
orphan, David followed the same occupa- 
tion, and then began preparation for col- 
lege under Rev. John Devotion, pastor of 
the Congregational church at Saybrook. 
He entered Yale College in 1771, and 
stood high in mathematics during his 
course. 

In his freshman year he projected a 
submarine boat, the first capable of loco- 
motion of which there is any authentic 
record, for the purpose of destroying Brit- 
ish vessels, especially those in the harbor 
of Boston. The "American Turtle," or 
"Torpedo," as it was also called, was com- 
pleted in 1775, the year of Bushnell's 
graduation, and was built at Saybrook. 
It was built of oak and bore some resem- 
blance to two upper tortoise shells joined 
together, the entrance being at the open- 
ing made by the swells of the shell at the 
head of the animal. The vessel was capa- 
ble of containing air sufficient to support 
the operator thirty minutes without ris- 
ing to the surface for a new supply. An 
oar, formed on the principle of an old- 
fashioned screw and fixed in the forward 
part, propelled it forward or backward ; 
at the other end was a rudder. An aper- 
ture at the bottom, with a valve, admitted 
water for descending, and two pumps 
served to eject the water when necessary 
for ascending. A second oar placed at the 
top aided the operator to ascend or de- 
scend or to continue at any particular 
depth. A water gauge determined the 
depth of descent, and a compass, marked 



204 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



with phosphorus for night use, directed 
the course of the vessel. The vessel was 
chiefly ballasted with lead fixed to the 
bottom, and was provided with small 
glass windows. The magazine, or tor- 
pedo, which v/as carried outside of the 
boat, above the rudder, consisted of two 
pieces of oak, hollowed so as to hold one 
hundred and fifty pounds of gunpowder, 
with a clockwork percussion apparatus 
for firing it, and was connected by a line 
to a wood screw to be driven into the 
bottom of the hostile ship. The clock- 
work was set in motion by the detach- 
ment of the magazine, and the latter 
would at once float against the ship. Hav- 
ing demonstrated the practicability of 
building the vessel, and after a successful 
trial of the effects of the explosion of gun- 
powder under water, in February, 1776, 
Bushnell called the attention of Governor 
Trumbull and his council to it, and was 
requested to proceed with his experi- 
ments. In the same year he explained his 
project to General Washington, who fur- 
nished him with money and other assist- 
ance, although he thought "too many 
things were necessary to be combined to 
expect much from the issue against an 
enemy who are always on guard." Bush- 
nell m,et with repeated delays in carrying 
out his plans, and his first experiment 
was made not at Boston, but at New 
York, in August, 1776. The vessel se- 
lected was the man-of-war "Eagle" (some 
accounts say the "Asia"), lying off Gov- 
ernor's Island ; and General Putnam, with 
others, standing on the wharf at New 
York, waited with great anxiety for the 
result. Bushnell's brother, who was to 
carry out the project, became ill, and Ser- 
geant Ezra Lee was selected as a substi- 
tute. The latter reached the "Eagle" 
about midnight, but owing to the strength 
of the tide and lack of experience in man- 
aging the "Turtle," failed to attach the 



screw and finally lost the ship. Before 
he sighted her again, day had dawned 
and, believing himself to be discovered, 
he cast off the magazine and put back to 
New York. An hour later the magazine 
blew up with great violence, but nowhere 
near the British fleet. Later two attempts 
were made in the Hudson river, but with- 
out tangible results. Failing to obtain 
further pecuniary assistance, and being 
out of health, Bushnell abandoned the 
"Turtle" temporarily, and began to de- 
vise other means of destroying shipping. 
In April, 1777, the Connecticut Council 
authorized him to continue his experi- 
ments at the public expense, and for two 
years he was thus engaged in different 
places. In August, 1777, he made an at- 
tempt from a whaleboat against the 
frigate "Cerberus." l3ang in Black Point 
bay, near New London, by drawing a 
magazine against her side by means of a 
line. The machine was loaded with pow- 
der to be exploded by a gunlock, which 
was to be unpinioned by an apparatus to 
be turned by being brought alongside of 
the frigate. This machine fell in with a 
schooner astern of the frigate, and de- 
molished it, together with three men who 
were on board. This was the first vessel 
ever destroyed in such a manner. Com- 
modore Symonds, of the "Cerberus," at 
once sailed for New York to give warn- 
ing of the "secret modes of mischief the 
rebels were devising." In December, 
1777, Bushnell charged several kegs with 
powder in such a way that they would 
explode on contact, and set them afloat in 
the Delaware river, above the British 
shipping at Philadelphia. Owing to the 
darkness they were left at too great a dis- 
tance and were obstructed and dispersed 
by the ice. One of them arrived off the 
city on January 5, and blew up a boat 
containing two boys who had attempted 
to take it up. Soon afterward, the ap- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



pearance of other kegs alarmed the Brit- 
ish, and the incident was turned to ac- 
count by Francis Hopkinson in his famous 
ballad, "The Battle of the Kegs." 

Early in May, 1779, Bushnell, with 
others, was captured near Norwalk, Con- 
necticut, by a party of the enemy which 
had landed at night. He was not recog- 
nized, and a few days later was exchanged 
as a civilian. In the summer of that year 
a corps of sappers and miners was organ- 
ized in the Continental army, and Bush- 
nell was appointed one of its captain-lieu- 
tenants, with commission dated August 
2. On June 19, being then at New Wind- 
sor-on-the-Hudson, he was promoted to 
captain, accompanied Washington's force 
to Virginia, and took part in the siege of 
Yorktown. Returning to the camps on 
the Hudson, he served until the last troops 
were disbanded, in December, 1783, being 
then in command at West Point. The 
issue of Bushnell's experiments depressed 
him greatly. His failures were due to a 
series of accidents ; and, while he did not 
receive the support he expected from the 
government, he retained the confidence 
of those who were acquainted with his 
work. After the war he returned to Say- 
brook, but soon sailed for France, and it 
was supposed that he perished during the 
revolution of 1792. On the contrary, after 
some years of travel and business specula- 
tion, he returned to the United States, set- 
tling in Georgia. Through his old fellow- 
soldier, Hon. Abraham Baldwin, about 
1796, he became the head of a school of 
high grade in Columbia county. A few 
years later he settled in Warrenton and 
practiced as a physician. Before going to 
Georgia he had, for unknown reasons, 
dropped the second syllable of his name, 
and no one but Baldwin knew him except 
as "Dr. Bush." He was a member of the 
Connecticut branch of the Society of the 
Cincinnati. He left a handsome property 



which passed to the children of his brother 
Ezra, and the news of his legacy was the 
first information about him his relatives 
had received for forty years. In 1881, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Henry L. Abbot, 
Corps of Engineers, United States Army, 
published an historical compilation treat- 
ing of Bushnell and his work, and con- 
ceded to him the distinction of having 
originated modern submarine warfare, 
Fulton's offensive machines being simply 
a development and improvement of Bush- 
nell's. Captain Bushnell died at Warren- 
ton, Georgia, in 1824. 



BUELL, Abel, 

Pioneer Typefounder. 

Abel Buell was born at Killingworth, 
Connecticut, about 1750. He was a man 
of ability and many resources, and while 
little is known of his life, there is record 
mention found of him as an engraver, 
jeweler, goldsmith, undertaker, military 
bugler, teacher of singing and choir leader 
before he adopted the business of print- 
ing and typefounding. His expert knowl- 
edge of engraving led him into the penal 
offense of altering a colonial note, for 
which he served a term, of imprisonment. 
A special act of the Legislature, in return 
for many honorable services rendered the 
State, restored to him his civil rights. In 
1769, without any other aid than his own 
ingenuity and some little knowledge de- 
rived from books, he began the manufac- 
ture of type, and in the course of a few 
years completed several fonts of long 
primer. One John Baine, who came to 
the United States after the Revolution, 
has claimed the honor of being the first 
typefounder in America, but the "Mas- 
sachusetts Gazette" established Buell's 
right to that honor beyond a peradven- 
ture. Under date of September 4, 1769 
(some years prior to Baine's advent), that 



206 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



journal says: "We learn that Abel Buell, 
of Killingworth, in Connecticut, has made 
himself master of the art of founding 
types for printing." 

Buell was very eccentric and restless, 
and was continually getting into trouble. 
He published a weekly newspaper en- 
titled "The Devil's Club, or Iron Cane," 
in which he advocated the doctrine of 
eternal progression and endless develop- 
ment. The publication of these views 
gave great offence to the Puritans, and 
Buell was condemned to six months' con- 
finement in Symsbury mines, being re- 
leased at the end of his term only on con- 
dition that he publicly renounce his 
heresy, and that he agree to carry an iron 
cane on Sabbath days in token of the sin- 
cerity of his repentance. So subdued did 
he become, to all outward appearances, 
that he was known as "the meek man 
with the iron cane." Disguised as a Kick- 
apoo Indian, he was one of the "Boston 
Tea Party," and at the battle of Lexing- 
ton he heated to a white heat the point of 
his iron cane and with it discharged the 
first cannon fired in the Revolution, and 
he was wounded in the knee at the battle 
of Bunker Hill. He became a govern- 
ment coiner after the Revolution, and de- 
vised new instruments for conducting the 
work. Subsequently he visited England 
for the purpose of studying the machines 
used in the manufacture of cotton cloth, 
and upon his return to America he estab- 
lished at New Haven a cotton factory, 
which was one of the first erected in the 
United States. He died at New Haven, 
Connecticut, about 1825. 



TRUMBULL, John, 

Lawyer, Author. 

Although a lawyer by profession, and 
from which he gained his livelihood, his 
fame rests upon the poorly recompensed 



labors of his pen. He was born at West- 
bury (now Waterbury), Connecticut, 
April 24, 1750, where his father was a 
Congregational minister. He was the 
fifth of this distinguished name in Amer- 
ica, and a cousin of Benjamin and Jona- 
than Trumbull, both distinguished in the 
annals of the country. His mother, a 
highly cultured woman, who was in close 
sympathy with her son, encouraged him 
in his studies. He was a delicate child, 
but precocious and fond of books. His 
father superintended his early training. 
He began Latin at five, and passed the 
entrance examinations for Yale College 
at the phenomenal age of seven, but nec- 
essarily postponed his college course for 
six years more, and was graduated in 
1767. Timothy Dwight was his class- 
mate, and joined him in writing sundry 
essays, in the style of "The Spectator." 
for the New Haven and Boston news- 
papers. The two friends became tutors 
together in the college in 1771, at which 
time Trumbull satirized the educational 
methods of the time in his earliest poem, 
"The Progress of Dullness," the first part 
of which appeared in 1772, the second and 
third in 1773. 

W^hile engaged as a tutor in college, 
Trumbull studied law, and was admitted 
to the bar ; he gained further legal knowl- 
edge and some political experience in the 
office of John Adams, in Boston. Here 
he imbibed early ideas of American inde- 
pendence, and recorded his impressions 
in an "Elegy on the Times," printed in 
1774. a poem in which he advocated the 
port bill, and non-consumption of foreign 
luxuries, and set forth the strength of the 
country and its future glory, contrasted 
with the final downfall of England. He 
practiced his profession in New Haven 
from November, 1774, until his marriage 
in 1776, then at his native place, and 
from 1 781 at Hartford, but was princi- 



207 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



pally concerned with literary work. The 
poem of "McFingal," the work upon 
which his lasting fame rests, had been 
undertaken at the instigation of some 
leading members of the First Congress. 
He aimed "to express in a poetical man- 
ner a general account of the American 
contest, with a particular description of 
the characters and manners of the tim,e, 
interspersed with anecdotes which no his- 
tory could probably record, and with as 
much impartiality as possible, satirize the 
follies and extravagances of my country- 
men, as well as their enemies." It was 
modeled upon "Hudibras," but it was so 
thoroughly American that it ceased to 
be regarded as an imitation, and was 
recognized as an original product of the 
times. The humor is exquisite, and re- 
fined by the truthful force and occasion- 
ally elevated treatment of the subject. 
"McFingal," of which the first and second 
cantos were written in 1775, was com- 
pleted and published in 1782, and gained 
wide popularity as a satire on the foes of 
freedom. It was pirated over thirty 
times, and circulated in cheap forms by 
newsmongers and hawkers. Dwight 
thought it superior to "Hudibras," and 
Jo"hn Adams ventured the prediction that 
it would live as long. It appeared again 
in 1826, and again in 1864, with notes by 
B. G. Lossing. One or two of its epi- 
grams have been attributed to Butler, of 
"Hudibras" fame. Trumbull was now 
the "most conspicuous literary character" 
of his day. With Lemuel Barlow, David 
Humphrey and Joel Hopkins there was 
formed a literary quartet which produced 
a series of newspaper essays, political and 
satirical, called "The Anarchiad," a col- 
lection of satirical poems, leveled at the 
political disruption preceding the estab- 
lishment of the Federal constitution. The 
writers gave out a story of early emi- 
gration by a body of Britons and Welsh, 



whose descendants still existed in the 
interior of the continent, and that in dig- 
ging among the ruins of one of their an- 
cient fortifications an old heroic poem in 
the English language had been discov- 
ered. This was the "Anarchiad," and the 
essays were supposed to be extracts from 
it. His poetical works, collected in two 
volumes, and published by subscription 
(Hartford, 1820), were a dead loss to the 
publisher, S. G. Goodrich, who paid one 
thousand dollars for the copyright, but 
who considered the sum a contribution 
to the diffusion of American literature. 

Trumbull served as State's Attorney 
for Hartford county from 1789 to 1795, 
and was elected a member of the Legis- 
lature in 1792 and 1800. He was judge 
of the Connecticut Superior Court from 
1801 to 1819; and of the Court of Errors, 
1808-1819. Yale College, of which he 
was for some time treasurer, gave him 
the degree of Doctor of Laws in 1818. 
His daughter had married W. Wood- 
bridge, of Michigan, afterward judge. 
Governor and Senator, and resided in De- 
troit, where Judge Trumbull joined her 
in 1825. His health gradually declined, 
and he died there, May 10, 1831. 



CHAUNCEY, Isaac, 

Naval Officer. 

Commodore Isaac Chauncey was born 
at Black Rock, Fairfield county, Connec- 
ticut, February 20, 1772. As a boy he 
began a seafaring life in the merchant 
service, advanced rapidly, and was placed 
in command of a vessel before his nine- 
teenth year, and made several successful 
voyages to the West Indies in the employ 
of John Jacob Astor. 

At the age of twenty-six he was ap- 
pointed a lieutenant in the newly organ- 
ized United States Navy, and served with 
distinction under Commodores Truxtun 



208 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 

and Preble. Early in 1802 he was ap- while he had delegated Lieutenant Jesse 
pointed acting captain of the frigate D. Elliott to superintend the construc- 
"Chesapeake," and was attached to the tion of vessels on Lake Erie. This officer 
squadron sent against Tripoli under com- began the campaign there by the capture 
mand of Commodore Richard V. Morris, of the British ships, "Caledonia" and "De- 
He distinguished himself for skill and troit," which were afterward effective 
bravery in a severe engagement with a under American colors. In a short time 
flotilla of Tripolitan gunboats, and se- Chauncey had added to his fleet the 
verely handled both them and a troop of frigate "Mohawk," forty-two guns, and 
cavalry on shore. Commodore Morris the corvette "Madison," twenty-four, cap- 
was adjudged by a court of inquiry not turing York (now Toronto) in April, 
to have "discovered due diligence and 1813, Fort George on May ^J, and hold- 
activity in annoying the enemy," and was ing the enemy from the entire Niagara 
dismissed from the service, while Chaun- frontier. At the battle of York, in the 
cey was publicly thanked by Congress, midst of a simultaneous attack of seven- 
and was also voted a sword, which, how- teen hundred troops and a continual 
ever, he never received. He was pro- shower of grapeshot from Chauncey's 
moted to master, May 23, 1804, and to fleet, the British blew up a magazine near 
captain, April 24, 1806. About this time the lake shore, killing forty of their own 
he was placed in command of the New men and fifty-two of the Americans, in- 
York navy yard, where he remained until eluding the brave Pike himself. In the 
the opening of the War of 1812, when he meantime the British had constructed a 
was commissioned commander-in-chief of powerful fleet on Lake Ontario, under 
the navy on all the lakes except Cham- command of Sir James Yeo, which al- 
plain. With the aid of Henry Eckford, though for some time used to blockade 
an eminent shipbuilder, he at once began Sackett's Harbor, could not be brought 
building a squadron for Lake Ontario at to action. Finally on September 27, 1813, 
Sackett's Harbor. The work progressed the Americans made an assault which re- 
with remarkable rapidity, and on Novem- suited in a complete rout, and additional 
ber 8, scarcely ten weeks from the date of honors to their redoubtable commander, 
his appointment, Chauncey had a fleet of Only a heavy gale prevented the complete 
seven armed schooners in active service, destruction of the British fleet, which 
His first movement was upon Kingston, later, during August and September. 1814, 
and resulted in the defeat of the enemy was kept in a state of blockade for over 
and the blockading of the harbor. Al- six weeks. On October 5, 1813, Chaun- 
though his entire fleet mounted only forty cey captured five of the enemy's ships and 
guns and carried only four hundred and part of a regiment of soldiers, 
thirty men, he greatly harassed the Brit- At the close of the war. Commodore 
ish forces of nearly double his strength, Chauncey resumed command of the New 
disabled their flagship, the "Royal York navy yard, but was soon after as- 
George," and captured three merchant signed to the command of the Mediter- 
vessels. Continuing operations in con- ranean squadron, consisting of the flag- 
junction with the land forces under Gen- ship "Washington." seventy-four guns, 
erals Zebulon M. Pike and Jacob Brown, three sloops-of-war. one brig and one 
he soon had the entire Ontario region schooner. His actions in this post were 
under American control. In the mean- fearless and decisive, jealously guarding 

Conn— 1—14 209 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the dignity of his government on all occa- 
sions. In the latter part of 1815, with 
William Shaler, United States Consul- 
General at Algiers, he succeeded in nego- 
tiating a treaty with that power which 
served to effectually and finally check the 
depredations upon American shipping. 
He returned home in 1818, and in 1820 
was appointed Navy Commissioner, with 
headquarters in Washington. He con- 
tinued in this office until 1824, and then 
resumed his old post in the New York 
navy yard, and held it continuously for 
nine years. From 1833 until his death he 
was again on the Board of Navy Com- 
missioners. Commodore Chauncey en- 
joyed the well deserved reputation of 
being one of the bravest, m,ost energetic 
and skillful officers in the service. His 
remains were interred in the Congres- 
sional Cemetery, Washington, where a 
monument was erected to his memory. 
He died in Washington, January 27, 1840. 



JEROME, Chauncey, 

Manufacturer. 

Chauncey Jerome was born at Plym- 
outh, Connecticut, June 10, 1793, the son 
of a blacksmith and nailmaker, who also 
was a farmer. The boy worked on the 
farm until he was ten years old, excepting 
three months in the winter, when he at- 
tended a district school. In his eleventh 
year he began work in his father's shop, 
and when the latter died, young Chaun- 
cey hired out to a neighboring farmer, 
with whom he remained until he was 
fourteen, poorly cared for and over- 
worked. Having reached the apprentice 
age, in accordance with the New Eng- 
land custom, he was bound out to a car- 
penter until he was twenty-one, during 
which time he was to give his entire labor 
for board and clothes. His industry and 
perseverance made him an excellent car- 



penter in a short time, and though con- 
stantly at work, walking frequently many 
miles to the job, and having only two 
holidays in the year — the Fourth of July 
and Thanksgiving Day — his lot was pleas- 
ant, due to his living with a family which 
treated him kindly. 

Before he had left his father's home, his 
childish imagination had been excited by 
the mysterious work of a neighbor — Eli 
Terry, the famous wooden clockmaker. 
During the winter months it was Terry's 
custom to cut out with a saw and jack- 
knife the works for twenty-five clocks, 
which he sold during the following sum- 
mer, the village carpenter making the tall 
cases under his direction. Every one who 
could aft'ord it, supplied himself with one, 
but they were expensive in those days, 
the case often costing fifteen dollars and 
the works twenty-five dollars. Chauncey 
Jerome decided that he would be a clock- 
maker, and when he was eighteen years 
old, in consideration of furnishing his own 
clothes, his master released him for four 
months in the winter, which time he 
improved by learning clockmaking at 
Waterbury, Connecticut. His ideas of 
business and of the world in general, and 
New York in particular, were greatly en- 
larged during a trip to New Jersey, in 
company with two Yankee clock ped- 
dlers, in order to make the cases for their 
clockworks. As soon as his apprentice- 
ship was ended he began to make clocks, 
putting the works together, and installing 
them in mahogany cases. His first order 
was from the South, and for twelve clocks 
at twelve dollars each, and these he de- 
livered himself, involving a journey very 
considerable for those days. With the 
money thus secured he continued his 
manufacturing business, which expanded 
rapidly. Meantime he made many im- 
provements, the most important of which 
was the use of brass instead of wood for 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the works, and making possible the trans- 
portation of his clocks to any distance 
without injury. He then introduced the 
use of machinery in clockmaking, and ex- 
perimented until he could make a good 
brass clock for two dollars, and a fairly 
good one for half that amount. In his 
early days the people about him thought 
it impossible for him to make two hun- 
dred clocks for a delivery, but he lived to 
turn out of his factory in New Haven 
six hundred a day, and his annual manu- 
facture reached the immense number of 
two hundred thousand. He retired from 
active business a very rich man, but lost 
his fortune through the mismanagement 
of his partners. Though feeling his mis- 
fortunes acutely, with characteristic en- 
ergy, at the age of seventy years he began 
life over again as a superintendent in a 
Chicago clock factory. The integrity 
which he had displayed through a long 
life, and the courage with which he en- 
dured the destruction of his great busi- 
ness, won him the esteem and respect of 
all who knew him. 



GRISWOLD, Alexander V., 

Episcopal Prelate. 

Alexander V. Griswold, first Protestant 
Episcopal bishop of the eastern diocese of 
the United States, and twelfth in succes- 
sion in the American episcopate, was 
born in Simsbury, Connecticut, April 22, 
1766. It was claimed for him that at the 
age of three years he could read fluently. 
His precocity was regarded as phenome- 
nal ; but the Revolutionary War interven- 
ing, also the fact that he married at the 
age of nineteen, prevented him from 
going to college. He was obliged to 
work on his father's farm, but managed 
to study law and was admitted to the 
bar. On the first visit of Bishop Seabury 



(at that time the only Episcopal bishop in 
the country) to the town where young 
Griswold lived, he was received into the 
church by confirmation. 

The practice of the law not proving to 
his liking, Griswold determined to study 
for the ministry, entered upon his pre- 
paratory course in 1794, and during the 
prosecution of his studies officiated in 
neighboring towns as a lay reader. He 
received deacon's orders on June 3, 1795, 
from Bishop Seabury, and on October i 
following was ordained a presbyter. Dur- 
ing the following ten years he had charge 
of three parishes — Plymouth, Harwinton 
and Litchfield, in all of which he had 
served as lay reader before his ordination. 
His parishes were not financially strong, 
and he not only labored at the usual em- 
ployment on the farm, but taught school 
in the winters. In 1804 he accepted the 
rectorship of St. Michael's Church, in 
Bristol, Rhode Island, and filled the posi- 
tion for the following six years. He was 
then called to the rectorship of the church 
in Litchfield, the scene of earlier labors, 
when in 1810, at the comparatively early 
age of forty-four years, he was elected to 
the episcopate for the eastern diocese, 
comprising the territory embraced by the 
States of Maine, New Hampshire, Ver- 
mont, Massachusetts and Rhode Island. 
His modesty prevented an immediate 
answer, but his friends urged his accept- 
ance, and he at length yielded, and he 
was consecrated as bishop in Trinity 
Church, New York City, May 29, 181 1. 
In 1810 Brown University conferred upon 
him the degree of Doctor of Divinity, and 
he received the same from Princeton Col- 
lege in 181 1, and from Harvard College 
in 1812. 

Bishop Griswold did not immediately 
leave his parochial work, but remained at 
Bristol in charge of his parish until 1830, 



211 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



a period of eighteen years, when he re- 
moved to Salem, Massachusetts, and be- 
came rector of St. Peter's Church. His 
episcopal duties increasing, he resigned 
his parish work in 1835, and thencefor- 
ward devoted himself exclusively to the 
requirements of the higher office. In 
1838, having reached his seventy-second 
year, and feeling the infirmities incident 
to advancing age, he suggested to the 
convention of that year the need of an 
assistant. An eminent presbyter was 
elected, but preemptorily declined. Four 
years passed, and on December 29, 1842, 
Rev. Manton Eastburn, of New York, 
was chosen. He accepted the position, 
and his consecration to the bishopric was 
the last ordaining act of the venerable 
diocesan. The services were held in Trin- 
ity Church, Boston, December 29, 1842. 
In the order of the succession in seniority 
of the bishops of the Episcopal church. 
Bishop Seabury, the first bishop, had pre- 
sided from November 14, 1784, the date 
of his consecration, until his death, Feb- 
ruary 25, 1796. His successor was Bishop 
White, and on his death, July 17, 1836, 
Bishop Griswold became the presiding 
bishop in the Episcopal church in the 
United States. He labored assiduously 
to the last. In later years his health be- 
came greatly impaired, but he refused to 
yield, and by sheer will power continued 
his duties. On February 15, 1843, a- ^^w 
weeks after the services which had given 
him a coadjutor, he went to confer with 
Bishop Eastburn, when, as he was enter- 
ing the door, he fell on the threshold and 
suddenly expired of heart disease. 

Bishop Griswold published : "Dis- 
courses on the Most Important Doc- 
trines and Duties of the Christian Re- 
ligion" (1830) ; "The Reformation and 
the Apostolic Office" (1843), and "Re- 
marks on Social Prayer Meetings" (1858). 
He died February 15, 1843. 



KINGSLEY, James L., 

Educator, Author. 

James Luce Kingsley was born in Scot- 
land, Windham county, Connecticut, Au- 
gust 28, 1778, eldest child of Jonathan 
Kingsley, a well-to-do farmer, and a de- 
scendant of John Kingsley, an English- 
man and a Puritan, who was an original 
settler of Dorchester, Massachusetts, and 
one of the founders of its first church. 

His parents had a strong appreciation 
of culture, and, as he was precocious and 
even in early childhood preferred books 
to play, he was sent to school as soon as 
possible. After receiving special instruc- 
tion at Plainfield and Windham, and 
finally under Rev. Lewis Weld, of Hamp- 
ton, in 1795 he entered Williams College. 
In May, 1797, he was transferred to Yale 
College, from which he graduated in 
1799. He then spent a year at Wethers- 
field, Connecticut, as principal of a select 
school. In October, 1801, he became a 
tutor in Yale, and in 1805 was appointed 
professor of the Hebrew, Greek and Latin 
languages and of ecclesiastical history, 
being the first professor of any language 
in the college, instruction in that depart- 
ment having been previously given by the 
tutors, aided by the president. In addi- 
tion, and until about 1812, he performed 
a tutor's service in taking a division of a 
class and carrying it through the pre- 
scribed course up to the senior year. In 
183 1 a separate professorship of Greek 
was established, Theodore D. Woolsey 
taking the chair, and in 1835 instruction 
in Hebrew was transferred to the Theo- 
logical Seminary ; but for several years 
he continued to instruct in Hebrew and 
history, though his only proper depart- 
ment was the Latin language and litera- 
ture. 

For nineteen years he filled the office of 
librarian, and in 1845, at his own expense, 
12 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



went to Europe to purchase books for the 
college library. In 185 1 Professor Kings- 
ley resigned, but became professor emeri- 
tus. "No man," said Professor Thacher, 
"had been m,ore concerned in the internal 
progress of the college, step by step, from 
the comparatively low degree at which 
he found it, to the height at which he left 
it." The "Iliad" and the "Graeca Monora" 
and "Majora" were introduced as text- 
books by him, the last named being first 
used in this country at Yale ; he broad- 
ened also the list of Latin authors studied, 
and he was the first person who in Yale 
ever heard a class recite fluxions. In 
every branch of learning pursued in the 
college, chemistry excepted, he was a 
master. "In variety of acquirements," 
said Professor Woolsey, in an address at 
Professor Kingsley's funeral, "he has 
rarely been equaled by American scholars. 
In the Hebrew and Greek languages his 
attainments were highly respectable. In 
Latin he had that rare maturity that his 
criticisms and his elegant selection of 
words in Latin composition alike showed 
him to be a master. I doubt if any Amer- 
ican scholar has ever surpassed him in 
Latin style." On another occasion Pro- 
fessor Thacher said : "As a writer of 
English, Professor Kingsley enjoyed a 
high reputation. * * * Few writers 
have equaled him in the faultlessness of 
his classical diction or the finish of his 
periods ; you are reminded of the quiet 
charm of the pen of Addison." 

Besides many contributions, often anon- 
ym,ous, to the "North American Review," 
"Christian Spectator," "New Englander," 
"Biblical Repository," "American Journal 
of Science," and other periodicals, he was 
the author of a "Eulogy on Professor 
Fisher" (1822) ; a "History of Yale Col- 
lege," printed in the "American Quar- 
terly Register" (1835) ; "Life of President 
Stiles," in "Sparks' American Biography," 



and a discourse on the two hundredth 
anniversary of the settlement of New 
Haven (1838). He superintended the 
publication of the "Triennial Catalogue" 
for fifty years, and wrote the necrologies 
of the graduates for a number of years. 
He also prepared editions of Tacitus and 
Cicero for the press for the use of the 
students. He was married at Norwich, 
Connecticut, September 23, 181 1, to Lydia, 
daughter of Daniel Coit, who bore him 
three sons and a daughter. She, with two 
sons and the daughter, survived him. Pro- 
fessor Kingsley died at New Haven, Con- 
necticut, August 31, 1852. 



MORRIS, Charles, 

Naval Officer. 

Commodore Charles Morris was born 
at Woodstock, Connecticut, July 26, 1784. 
His father, at the age of sixteen, had en- 
listed in the Continental army in Rhode 
Island, under General Lafayette; after- 
ward shipped on board a privateer; was 
made prisoner and confined in the prison 
hulks in New York. After the war, the 
elder Morris acquired a half interest in a 
merchant vessel, which he commanded 
for many years in the South African 
trade. Finally he and his crew were cap- 
tured by pirates and held as prisoners for 
two years, when they escaped to an Eng- 
lish cruiser in the Orinoco river. On Feb- 
ruary 4, 1799, he was appointed purser in 
the navy, and assigned to the "Baltimore," 
then lying at Norfolk, Virginia, and while 
so engaged procured for his son an ap- 
pointment as acting midshipman on his 
own ship. 

Charles Morris entered upon his duties 
July I, 1799, thus entering upon what was 
destined to be one of the most brilliant 
and honorable careers in the history of 
the American navy. He was assigned to 
the "Congress" in 1799. under Captain J. 



213 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Sever. He saw his first actual war serv- 
ice in Commodore Preble's squadron, on 
board the "Constitution," during the war 
with Tripoli (1801-05). He was one of 
the midshipmen who volunteered in the 
perilous undertaking to destroy the cap- 
tured "Philadelphia" in the harbor of 
Tripoli, and when Decatur slowly drifted 
into the harbor on the "Intrepid," dis- 
guised as a merchantman, on the night 
of February 16, 1804, young Morris was 
the first to reach the deck of the "Phila- 
delphia." On the night of August 5, 
1804, while in a boat guarding the harbor 
of Tripoli, he suddenly found himself in 
the presence of a strange vessel which 
proved to be a French privateer. With- 
out waiting to learn her force, he boarded 
her and carried her by surprise. He was 
promoted lieutenant in 1807. I" ^^^ War 
of 1812 he was first lieutenant on the 
"Constitution" under Captain Isaac Hull. 
In Hull's famous escape from the British 
squadron under Captain Brooke, it was 
Morris who suggested the feasibility of 
kedging as a means of escape. Says his 
autobiography : "With our minds excited 
to the utmost to devise means for escape, 
I happened to recollect that, when obliged 
by the timidity of my old commander to 
warp the "President" in and out of har- 
bors, where others depended on sails, our 
practice had enabled us to give her a 
speed of nearly three miles an hour." 
Accordingly, all available rope was spliced 
into a line nearly a mile long, one end of 
which being attached to a kedge or small 
anchor, was carried ahead of the "Con- 
stitution" the full length of the rope, and 
then dropped into the water. The men of 
the vessel seized the other end, and by 
hauling slowly soon had the "Constitu- 
tion" under way. In all probability the 
Yankee ingenuity of Lieutenant Morris 
in applying this means of escape saved 
the "Constitution" from certain capture. 



He took part in the famous conflict be- 
tween the "Constitution" and the "Guer- 
riere," August 19, 1812, and in the hottest 
of the battle, as the two ships approached, 
he personally assisted in lashing them to- 
gether. At that moment he was shot 
through the body by one of the enemy's 
sharpshooters, and fell near the quarter- 
deck, badly stunned, but regained con- 
sciousness in a few minutes and returned 
to his post. 

The records of the Navy Department 
mention in detail the brilliant services of 
"this distinguished officer," to use its own 
phrasing, and in March, 1813, he was pro- 
moted to captain. In 1814, the corvette 
"Adams," which was blockaded in the 
Potomac river, was altered to a sloop-of- 
war, twenty-six guns, and Morris was 
given command. On the night of Janu- 
ary 18, 1814, during a snowstorm, he ran 
the blockade and put to sea. On March 
25 he captured the Indiaman "Wood- 
bridge," but two British frigates hove in 
sight and he was obliged to abandon his 
prize. During a cruise of seven months, 
Morris captured ten merchantmen, carry- 
ing in all one hundred and sixty-one guns. 
While returning to America his vessel 
ran ashore in a fog, and after floating ofif 
at high tide he was pursued by a British 
squadron, and was finally followed into 
the Penobscot river, in Maine, and his 
ship, the "Adams," was destroyed near 
Hampden. Morris, however, with his 
officers and crew, escaped to the shore, 
and. breaking up into small parties, finally 
reached New York. Morris had no other 
important command during the remain- 
der of the war. In 1816-17 he was in com- 
mand of the United States squadron in 
the Gulf of Mexico, and in 1819-20, in 
Brazilian waters. Late in 1825 he com- 
manded the frigate "Brandywine," which 
conveyed General Lafayette to France, 
and meantime (1823-27) was a member of 



214 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the Board of Navy Commissioners, a dig- 
nity again held by him during 1832-41. 
He had command of the Mediterranean 
squadron three years (1841-44), and then, 
practically retiring from sea duty, became 
director of the United States Naval Acad- 
emy, at Annapolis, Maryland. In the last 
five years of his life he was chief of the 
Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography. 

Commodore Morris was reputed the 
best informed officer in the navy, and his 
opinions on all subjects, both practical 
and executive, were highly valued by the 
department. Secretary of the Navy Dob- 
bin, in making to the navy announcement 
of the death of Commodore Morris, said : 
"Rarely, indeed, has a nation to mourn 
the loss of so distinguished, so useful, 
so good a citizen. His name is associ- 
ated with the most brilliant achieve- 
ments which have illustrated the Ameri- 
can navy." 

He was married, February 4, 181 5. to 
Harriet, daughter of William Bowen, of 
Providence, Rhode Island, and had nine 
children. He died in Washington. D. C, 
January 27, 1856. 



REDFIELD, William C, 

Scientist, Meteorologist. 

William C. Redfield was born at Mid- 
dletown, Connecticut, March 25, 1789, 
both his paternal and maternal ancestors 
being of English stock. His father dying 
when he was thirteen years of age, the 
youth was apprenticed to a mechanic at 
Upper Middletown (Cromwell), as his 
mother had not the means to support 
him after his father's death. The suc- 
ceeding years were years of hard work, 
offering almost no opportunities for read- 
ing or study. However, such opportuni- 
ties for obtaining knowledge as came to 
him, he seized upon with ardor. A de- 
bating society, with a small library be- 



longing to it, was formed when he had 
almost arrived at his majority, and to 
this he owed much of the foundation for 
his future studies. He also found a friend 
in Dr. William Tulley, who lent him 
books and was a sympathetic adviser. 
Before he had reached the end of his ap- 
prenticeship, Redfield made a tramping 
excursion to Ohio to visit his mother, 
who had remarried. He took a northern 
route through New York in going west, 
and a southern route through Virginia, 
Maryland and Pennsylvania, in returning 
again to the east. He then began his in- 
dependent life work as a mechanic and 
trader in a small way ; and was very 
active in all affairs connected with the 
educational and religious interests of the 
com.munity in which he lived. 

An accident determined his future and 
led him into the field of science. On Sep- 
tember 3, 1821, a most violent storm oc- 
curred in New England. Shortly after- 
ward. Redfield passed over the devastated 
region, and noticed that the trees that 
had fallen in his own neighborhood lay 
with their tops towards the northwest ; 
while further inland, towards the Massa- 
chusetts line, they lay with their tops 
towards the southeast. He also found 
that at the same time, while the wind at 
one place was blowing violently from the 
southeast, at a distance of less than sev- 
enty miles it was blowing from the north- 
west. In comparing the directions from 
which the wind came, and the time when 
the storm reached various points, the 
idea suddenly came to him that this storm 
must have been a progressive whirlwind. 
He confided this idea to his son, and 
probably others; but as he then knew 
nothing about meteorology as a science, 
there was no publication of the discovery 
until ten years later, when he wrote out 
his views for "Silliman's Journal." From 
1831 to 1857 Redfield published a great 

15 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



many papers and investigations on storms 
in this same journal and other periodicals. 
He studied not only American storms, 
but also those occurring elsewhere, and 
particularly upon the ocean. His views, 
which may be briefly designated as "the 
rotary theory of storms," were received 
with great respect even in Europe. How- 
ever, there were objectors, the most prom- 
inent being Robert Hare, of Philadelphia, 
and the controversy that arose between 
the two was one of the most spirited in 
the annals of American science. Redfield 
was also much interested in and wrote 
upon geographical and geological mat- 
ters. He demonstrated that the New Jer- 
sey sandstones, and the fossils of the 
Connecticut river valley, were of the 
lower Jurassic period, and gave them the 
name of the Newark group. In all he 
published about sixty papers, some of 
them being of considerable length. Be- 
sides this scientific work, Redfield also 
achieved great success as a naval engi- 
neer. Removing in 1827 to New York, 
he there devised the plan of safety barges 
for passenger transportation, to minimize 
the danger to human life from boiler ex- 
plosions ; and he also applied the same 
idea to the construction of two boats for 
freight, in which one tug can convey a 
number of barges. In a pamphlet, pub- 
lished in 1829, he outlined the plan for a 
system of railroads connecting the Hud- 
son with the Mississippi river, the route 
being substantially that covered by the 
New York & Erie railroad, and predicted 
the great networth of railways that now 
traverse the country. He was also the 
first to advocate the construction of a rail- 
road from New York to Albany, along the 
Hudson river. He was the pioneer of 
street railways in cities, and he applied 
to the common council of New York for 
leave to build one along Canal street. He 
surveyed the proposed route of the Har- 



lem railroad, and was active in securing 
its charter, and was also a prime mover 
in the construction of the Hartford & 
New Haven railroad. In matters con- 
nected with steam navigation, there was 
probably no one whose advice was more 
eagerly sought, and he continually sug- 
gested improvements in methods and 
means. His life, as a whole, furnishes 
one of the best examples of an American 
self-made man. He died in New York 
City, February 12, 1857. 



BARTHOLOMEW, Edward S., 

Sculptor. 

Edward Sheffield Bartholomew was 
born at Colchester, Connecticut, in 1822. 
As a boy at school he was accustomed to 
amuse himself making drawings with 
chalk, and found his greatest pleasure in 
looking at pictures, thus developing a 
love for art and a desire to follow it that 
made it doubly distasteful for him when 
he was apprenticed by his friends to learn 
the trade of bookbinding. From this he 
turned in disgust, and through the per- 
suasion of his friends was induced after- 
wards to take up the study of dentistry, 
resulting in his entering vipon a practice 
which he abandoned after four years as 
uncongenial to him as his favorite occu- 
pation. The autobiography of Benvenuto 
Cellini, which he happened to read, en- 
couraged him thus to run counter to the 
wishes of those whose ambition it was to 
make a successful business man of him, 
and his artistic longings were encouraged 
and shared by his favorite companion, 
Frederick Church. 

Going to New York, he spent a year 
studying in the life school of the Art 
Academy, after which he returned to 
Hartford, and from 1845 to 1848 held the 
position of curator of the Wadsworth 
Gallery. During these years he continued 
[6 



EXXYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



his studies with the facilities his position 
afforded, copying carefully the Raphael 
cartoons, in particular. He discovered, 
however, when he began to work in oils, 
that he was color blind, and consequently 
changing the direction of his efforts, he 
made about 1847 ^is first essays in sculp- 
ture. After completing a bust of "Flora," 
he was preparing, with the assistance of 
various patrons, to go to Italy, in order to 
prosecute his studies, but on the eve of 
his departure he was taken with small- 
pox, which left him lame for life and gen- 
erally enfeebled in health. When he was 
convalescent, he took passage on an 
Italian vessel, but the hardships of life on 
board so enfeebled him that he was 
obliged to land on the coast of France. 
When at last he reached Rome, he did 
not lose a week before setting to work at 
modeling a group, taking for his subject 
"Blind Homer led by His Daughter." 
The greatest of all his works is his "Eve 
Repentant," which was purchased by Mr. 
Joseph Harrison, of Philadelphia. It was 
greatly admired in Europe as well as in 
America, and while working on it he 
wrote, in a letter of March, 1855 : "Every- 
where I go I hear of the 'Eve;' it im- 
presses every one with its originality, and 
so far has been well received by all the 
foreign artists." Among his other works 
are a monument to Charles Carroll ; fig- 
ures and busts entitled : "Calypso," "Sap- 
pho," "Eve," "Campagna Shepherd Boy," 
"Infant Pan and Wizards," "Genius of 
Painting," "Genius of Music," "Belisarius 
at the Porta Pincio," "Hagar and Ish- 
mael," "Ruth," "Naomi," "Or," "Youth 
and Old Age," "Ganymede and the Infant 
Jupiter," "Genevieve," "The Evening 
"Star," "Homer," and a statue of Wash- 
ington, full length. 

Bartholomew made two visits to Amer- 
ica, once to superintend the erection of 
his monument to Carroll, and the second 



time paying a visit to his home in Hart- 
ford, where the now famous sculptor was 
received with honors and applause that 
made up for his early struggles against 
opposition and obscurity. He was still 
young when his physical constitution, 
worn by his many difficulties and by the 
lingering effects of disease, gave way, 
and he died in Naples, Italy, May 2, 1858. 
A number of his works are preserved in 
the Wadsworth gallery at Hartford. 



TAYLOR, Nathaniel W., 

Clergyman, Author. 

Rev. Nathaniel William Taylor was 
born June 23, 1786, at New Milford, Con- 
necticut, where his father was pastor for 
fifty-two years. After graduating from 
Yale College in 1807, he lived for some 
years with Dr. Dwight, acting as his sec- 
retary and reading divinity under his 
directions. As pastor of the First Church 
of New Haven, 1812-22, he gained great 
reputation as a preacher, and actively 
favored revivals. Dr. Bacon described 
his sermons as "solid and massive, full of 
linked and twisted logic, yet giving out 
at every point sharp flashes of electric 
fire." From November, 1822, he was 
Dwight professor of didactic theology at 
Yale College. He was the father and 
chief apostle of "the New Haven theol- 
ogy," which was the liberalism of his 
time and communion — a modified Calvin- 
ism, developed from Edwards, harmon- 
izing the "exercise scheme" of Buxton, 
and insisting on the freedom, of the will. 
These views as set forth in the "Christian 
Spectator" (1819-39), in his class lectures, 
and especially in an address to the clergy 
in 1828, were strenuously opposed by 
Bennet Tyler, Leonard Woods, and 
others. Despite these contradictions. Dr. 
Taylor was perhaps the leading and most 
influential divine of his day in New Eng- 



217 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



land, though his modesty, which had de- 
layed his entrance to the ministry, also 
prevented him from publishing. He re- 
ceived the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
from Union College in 1823. He died at 
New Haven, March 10, 1858. 

His works, edited in 1858-59, by his 
son-in-law. Dr. Noah Porter, include 
"Practical Sermons ;" "Lectures on the 
Moral Government of God," two volumes, 
and "Essays and Lectures." A memorial 
by Drs. Baker, Fisher and Dutton was 
printed in 1858, and Kingsley's "Yale Col- 
lege" (1878) contains a sketch of him by 
Professor B. N. Martin. 



SPENCER, Hon. Elihu, 

Lawyer, Legislator. 

Hon. Elihu Spencer, whose death pro- 
duced a profound impression, had won by 
his gifted mind and unblemished charac- 
ter an enviable distinction among his fel- 
low citizens. To those who knew him 
intimately his early departure had a 
touching and impressive significance. He 
was born in Warren, Trumbull county, 
Ohio, February 26, 1820, son of Elihu 
Spencer, who was a son of the Hon. Isaac 
Spencer, for many years treasurer of the 
State of Connecticut, and grandson of 
General Joseph Spencer, of East Had- 
dam, who was a distinguished officer in 
the Revolutionary army. 

The elder Elihu Spencer was a lawyer 
by profession, and a man of strong mind 
and spotless integrity. He died of pul- 
monary disease at Warren, a few months 
before the birth of his only son, the sub- 
ject of this article. The latter was thus 
in one sense an orphan from his birth ; 
but, although never enjoying the aid and 
counsel of a father, he was by no means 
an orphan in that desolate sense in which 
we so often use that term to designate 
children who are bereft of all those de- 



lightful and blessed experiences which 
spring from parental love, protection and 
nurture. It was his good fortune to en- 
joy almost uninterruptedly through life 
the society of his mother, who in her 
maidenhood was Sarah Sage, daughter of 
Abner and Ruth (Ellsworth) Sage. Ab- 
ner Sage was one of the prominent men 
of Portland (then Chatham) in his day. 
Sarah (Sage) Spencer possessed superior 
endowments and rare excellencies of char- 
acter, and by her unwearied assiduity and 
her scrupulous care for his education, 
both moral and intellectual, she contrib- 
uted powerfully to unfold and develop 
that character in her son which won re- 
spect wherever he was known. Soon after 
the birth of her son, Mrs. Spencer re- 
turned to Connecticut, her native State, 
and after a few years settled in Middle- 
town. 

Elihu Spencer entered Wesleyan Uni- 
versity when he was but fourteen years 
of age, and graduated in 1838, after com- 
pleting the usual course of study, with the 
reputation of a good scholar, and with the 
dawn of a brilliant future apparently 
opening upon him. He afterward spent 
one year in Rochester, New York, read- 
ing law in the office of Orlando Hastings, 
and residing with the family of Judge 
Selden. He subsequently entered the 
office of Judge Storrs ; and after complet- 
ing the usual course of legal studies, was 
admitted to the bar of Middlesex county, 
Connecticut, when he was twenty-one. 
He soon acquired a high reputation as a 
lawyer, and was retained in important 
causes, and became one of the eminent 
men in his profession. For several years 
he held the office of clerk of the courts for 
Middlesex county. This position brought 
him into intimate relations with the 
judges of all the courts, and in a very 
remarkable degree he enjoyed their con- 
fidence as a lawyer and as a man. He 



218 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



served as town clerk, and judge of pro- 
bate, and several tim,es represented Mid- 
dletown in the State Legislature, filling 
these places with usefulness and distinc- 
tion, discharging their duties with that 
thoroughness and scrupulousness which 
distinguished all his labors. In 1855 he 
was a prominent member of the House, 
where he used his influence in favor of 
the new judiciary bill, and would un- 
doubtedly have been appointed one of the 
Superior Court judges provided for in 
the bill had not his already failing health 
warned him that the severe duties and 
sedentary habits incident to a seat on the 
bench would accelerate his decline. Mr. 
Spencer's brilliant legal attainments gave 
him such a position at this session as re- 
quired untiring labor, which exhausted 
his strength in investigation and debate. 
It was while thus engaged that an insidi- 
ous disease which had long been tamper- 
ing with his constitution, struck the fatal 
blow and marked him for the grave. Had 
he been permitted to live he would doubt- 
less have enjoyed positions of eminence 
in the State. 

In his early life Mr. Spencer was an ad- 
herent of Democratic principles, but he 
separated from the Democratic party and 
was chosen a presidential elector in 1856 
on the Fremont ticket, and he was nomi- 
nated in 1857 by the Republican party for 
the office of Lieutenant-Governor, but de- 
clined. For the last two or three years 
preceding his death he withdrew from 
practice, and spent the remainder of his 
days in comparative seclusion, solacing 
his hours in the society of his gifted 
mother and in the companionship of 
books, of which he was an extensive and 
discriminating reader. His final depar- 
ture, although it was long expected, fell 
with the weight of a sudden calamity on 
his friends and on the community in 
which he lived. 



Mr. Spencer was an ardent and con- 
sistent friend of temperance, but chose to 
enforce his principles by a quiet and uni- 
form example rather than by vehement 
assertion. Although never formally con- 
nected with any denominative church 
order, his life afiforded a brilliant example 
of that true charity and benevolence which 
are peculiar to the Christian character. 
Possessed of high intellectual qualities, 
extensive information, superior social ex- 
cellencies and a heart pure and generous, 
he was beloved by all denominations of 
Christians, for all were embraced in the 
abundant charity and kindness of his own 
heart. That he was gifted with extra- 
ordinary powers no one who knew him 
well could doubt. His mind was acute, 
critical and vigorous, pursuing whatever 
subject he took up, with a clear vision and 
steady step, to the very limit of investi- 
gation. He was comparatively destitute 
of imagination, and consequently never 
gave color and splendor to his diction. 
He rarely indulged in figurative expres- 
sion, and never sought to captivate the 
fancy, and thus carry the judgment of a 
jury by specious analogies or brilliant 
illustrations, but his fluent thought flamed 
forth in lucid and copious language. His 
manner was courteous and unpretending, 
as his argument was severe and logical. 
His good taste always preserved the pur- 
ity of his style, and his gentle heart would 
have shrunk from the least display of vio- 
lence. He cherished an honorable ambi- 
tion for that distinction in the profession 
of which he was a member which is 
founded upon solid merit, and had his 
physical constitution been as robust as his 
mind he would soon have been regarded 
as one of its brightest ornaments. His 
culture was not confined to the law, but 
he was familiar with the best depart- 
ments of literature, always delighting in 
those works which belong to a high range 



219 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



of thoug-ht. He carried into his literary 
and philosophical reading the same clear 
and exacting judgment which guided him 
in his legal investigations, and that judg- 
ment was never confused by poetical con- 
ceits, nor bewildered by eloquent decla- 
mation. His power to abstract ideas was 
very great, sometimes leading him, to in- 
sist, too rigidly, on their practical appli- 
cation, while the very abundance of his 
mental resources, by which he was able 
to fortify his own ideas, together with his 
capacity for philosophical speculation, too 
often led him to underrate the value and 
force of great authorities. Principle was 
more cogent than precedent, and he was 
occasionally impatient to break up and 
relay foundations, and adapt them to the 
support of superstructures which his rea- 
son could more fully .approve. He never 
worshipped at the fallen shrine of an- 
tiquity, nor indulged in poetical reveries 
among moss-covered stones, or "ivy- 
mantled ruins." With him Time could 
never make error venerable, nor conse- 
crate a wrong. But his moral character 
surpassed, in beauty and symmetry, his 
intellect. He was kind-hearted, gentle 
and affectionate, always careful not to 
wound the sensinilities of any one. To 
his seniors at the bar he was respectful, 
and to his juniors he was courteous, ever 
ready to aid them by his enlightened 
council. Just to others, he rarely failed 
to acknowledge merit wherever it existed. 
No jealous feeling ever darkened his 
countenance, or shot a pang through his 
heart. Owing to his feeble health, he 
never had the opportunity of displaying 
his abilities on an extended and conspicu- 
ous stage, yet he did not repine, but dili- 
gently employed his talents within the 
narrow compass allowed by his physical 
strength, and the thoroughness and finish 
of all his productions attest his scrupu- 
lous fidelity, and the just sense he enter- 



tained of the dignity and responsibility of 
his profession. Though without the 
ostentatious generosity which often se- 
cures ephemeral applause, he was equally 
destitute of that intense selfishness which, 
like a cankerworm, consumes the bloom 
and verdure of life. Upon all subjects 
Elihu Spencer entertained very decided 
opinions, but never intruded his views 
upon others. Frank, independent and un- 
equivocal in the expression of what he 
thought just and true, he was never dog- 
matical, over-confident, or intolerant of 
the opinions of others. He was upright 
and honorable in his professional conduct, 
ever addressing the reason and under- 
standing of the court and jury, and, dis- 
daining to appeal to personal or party 
prejudices, he rested his causes upon their 
own independent merits. He was singu- 
larly modest and unobtrusive, never 
crowding himself on the notice of others, 
nor securing position by art and manage- 
ment. 

Like all who occupy a tenement of 
flesh, Mr. Spencer had imperfections. 
These he acknowledged with the deepest 
humility, and constantly strove to im- 
prove his character. He was cut off in 
the prime of life and in the midst of his 
usefulness. He struggled against the 
stern but certain progress of his malady, 
the termination of which was accom- 
panied with much suffering. His wish, 
however, was justified in having his con- 
sciousness continue to the last, when, 
with an expression or resignation, his 
spirit quietly passed away. His business 
transactions were carefully arranged, and 
he spoke freely of his approaching disso- 
lution, begging those around him. not to 
encourage an expectation of his recovery. 
For every attention he was considerate 
and grateful. Of his cousin. Miss Emily 
A. Selden, who from infancy had been as 
a sister, and was a constant and devoted 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



nurse with his mother, he said that she 
was to him like an angel of mercy. 

He never married, but continued to re- 
side with his mother; to whom he was 
devotedly attached. His tastes and habits 
were simple, and the whole conduct of his 
life was distinguished for its unpretend- 
ing dignity. His integrity was not only 
without a stain, but without suspicion. 
He was a pure, single-hearted, just man, 
and his best eulogy was to be found in 
the deep sense of personal bereavement 
felt in every heart that knew him well. 
The death of Elihu Spencer occurred April 
II, 1858. 



REMINGTON, Eliphalet, 

Founder of Gun Manufacturing. 

Eliphalet Remington was born at Suf- 
field, Connecticut, October 28, 1793, son 
of Eliphalet and Elizabeth (Kilbourn) 
Remington. His father, a mechanic, 
bought a large tract of land in Herkimer 
county, New York, then almost a wilder- 
ness, to which he removed in 1799. set- 
tling at Crane's Corners. He subse- 
quently acquired other real estate, includ- 
ing land on Steele's creek, about three 
miles south of the present town of Ilion, 
and removing there set up a forge with 
water-wheel power. He carried on the 
manufacture of the rude agricultural im- 
plem,ents used by the farmers of those 
days, and also did horseshoeing and gen- 
eral repair work for farmers, his business 
increasing steadily, and chiefly as acci- 
dental occurrence. 

The introduction of Eliphalet Reming- 
ton, Jr., to gunmaking was accidental. As 
the story goes, his father refused him 
money with which to buy a gun, where- 
upon the youth forged a gun barrel for 
himself from some scraps of iron, and 
took it to a gunsmith at Utica to be rifled. 
The gunsmith praised the barrel so highly 



that young Remington was encouraged 
to make others, which he from time to 
time took to Utica, going afoot and carry- 
ing them on his back. The knowledge 
of his skill spread throughout the neigh- 
borhood, and orders came in until the 
forge was taxed to the utmost. The 
Remingtons soon set up a rifling machine 
of their own, the son giving his time ex- 
clusively to this feature of the work, 
gradually extending the work to stocking 
and lock-fitting. It is said that the de- 
mand for these gun barrels so far ex- 
ceeded the supply that customers at times 
resorted to the works and remained there 
until their goods were ready. ]\leanwhile 
the Erie canal had been built, and in 1828 
the works were removed to their present 
situation at Ilion, where, in the following 
year, other buildings were erected and 
equipped with water-wheels and trip- 
hammers, to be used especially for weld- 
ing and forging gun barrels. A shipping 
department was organized, and for a num- 
ber of years was in charge of A. C. Sea- 
mans, father of C. W. Seamans, of type- 
writer fame. Eliphalet Remington, Sr., 
died in 1828. 

In 1839 Eliphalet Remington, Jr., 
formed a partnership with Benjamin Har- 
rington in a separate enterprise for the 
purpose of manufacturing iron and such 
articles as were not properly connected 
with the gun business, an industry which 
was abandoned after a number of years. 
Mr. Remington confining himself to the 
manufacture of firearms. His sons, Philo 
and Samuel, entered the factory about 
the time they attained their majority, the 
former becoming master of all branches 
of the mechanical work, and finally super- 
intendent of the manufacturing depart- 
ment, and the latter acting as general 
salesagent, negotiator of contracts with 
the government, and purchaser of ma- 
chinery. Eliphalet, the youngest son, ad- 



221 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



mitted some years later, had general office 
supervision. In 1845, the national gov- 
ernment contracted with Ames & Co., of 
Springfield, Massachusetts, for the con- 
struction of several thousand carbines for 
the army. Learning that they were 
anxious to withdraw from the undertak- 
ing, Mr. Remington bought the contract 
and a quantity of machinery from the 
firm and, adding another building to his 
works at Ilion, finished the work to the 
satisfaction of the government. During 
the years 1857-58, orders for twelve thou- 
hand five hundred rifles and five thousand 
Maynard self-priming musket locks were 
received from the government, and a new 
branch was added — the manufacture of 
pistols. Meantime, Samuel Remington 
had engaged in the manufacture of broom 
handles and brooms, Yale patent locks, 
safes and vault doors for banks, and to a 
small extent in breech-loading guns ; but 
in 1856 he gave up his separate enterprise, 
and the three brothers and their father 
formed the firm of E. Remington & Sons. 
ATDOUt that time they began the manu- 
facture of a cultivator tooth, thus laying 
the foundation of agricultural works 
which grew to large proportions. On the 
outbreak of the Civil War, government 
orders for revolvers and Springfield mus- 
kets were received, necessitating the erec- 
tion of several buildings and the purchase 
of new and special machines. The health 
of the elder Remington broke down under 
the pressure of these new demands, and 
he never recovered. 

Eliphalet Remington was a man of 
great will-power ; firm in his dealings 
with his employes, yet kindly in his man- 
ners. His memory was so remarkably 
retentive that he carried in his head many 
business details that are ordinarily kept 
in ledgers. He took much pride in the 
village that grew up around his works, 
and contributed generously toward the 



building of a union church, to be free for 
the use of all denominations. The post- 
office, established at that place in 1845, 
was named after him, but at his request 
was changed to Ilion, a name suggested 
by the first postmaster. In August, 1852, 
soon after the village was incorporated, 
the Ilion Bank began business, with Mr. 
Remington as president, and this position 
he held until his death. In politics he 
was an old-line Whig, but joined the Re- 
publican party on its organization in 
1854. 

Mr. Remington was married, at Litch- 
field, May 12, 1814, to Abigail, daughter 
of William and Lucy Paddock, who died 
in 1841. Besides the sons — Philo, Samuel 
and Eliphalet — she bore him two daugh- 
ters : Mary Ann, who was married to 
Rev. Charles Austin ; and Maria, who 
was married to Lawrence L. Merry. Mr. 
Remington died at Ilion, New York, Au- 
gust 12, 1 861. 



WARD, James H., 

Naval Officer, Author. 

James Harman Ward was born in 
Hartford, Connecticut, September 25, 
1806. He was graduated from the Nor- 
wich Military Academy (Norwich Uni- 
versity), Vermont, in 1823, and was com- 
missioned midshipman, March 4, 1823, 
remaining for a time under instruction 
at the academy. He cruised in the "Con- 
stitution," 1824-28; was promoted passed 
midshipman, March 23, 1829, and lieu- 
tenant, March 3, 1831. He delivered a 
course of lectures on "Gunnery" in Phil- 
adelphia, Pennsylvania, 1842 and 1843, 
with the object of the founding of a naval 
academy by the government, and upon 
the establishment of the United States 
Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, 
was elected to a professorship, serving 
from 1845 to 1847. He was attached to 
222 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the Gulf fleet during the Mexican war; 
commanded the "Vixen," 1849-50; and 
was promoted commander, September 9, 
1853- 

He organized the Potomac flotilla 
in May, 1861, for Civil War service. 
This originally comprised the steamers 
"Thomas," "Freeborn" and the tugs, 
"Anacostia" and "Resolute." He partici- 
pated in the engagement against the bat- 
teries at Aquia Creek, May 31 and June 
I, 1861, clearing the Virginia banks of ob- 
structions, and opening the river. In the 
bombardment of Mathias Point, June 2.J, 
as he was sighting a gun on the shore, he 
was struck by a minie ball and died with-* 
in an hour, being the first naval officer 
killed in the Civil War. He published : 
"Elementary Instructions on Naval Ord- 
nance and Gunnery" (1845, enlarged edi- 
tion, 1861) ; "Manual of Naval Tactics" 
(1859), and "Steam for the Millions" 
(i860). The date of his death at Mathias 
Point, Virginia, is June 27, 1861. 



HERRICK, Edward C, 

Scientist. 

Edward Claudius Herrick was born in 
New Haven, Connecticut, February 24, 
181 1, son of Rev. Claudius and Hannah 
(Pierpont) Herrick. The father was a 
noted teacher in New Haven, and the son 
received a good classical education, 
though he did not attend college. 

His first employment was as clerk in 
the book-shop of General Hezekiah 
Howe, an employment which was con- 
genial to the studious, bookish lad. For 
a time afterward he was in business for 
himself as a bookseller. In 1843 ^^ "^^^ 
appointed librarian of Yale College, and 
this position he held until 1858, and he 
was also treasurer of the college from 
1852 until his decease. His labors in be- 
half of the college were various, and he 
ever had its interests at heart and fur- 



thered them earnestly so far as lay with- 
in his ability. In 1842 Professor James 
Kingsley prepared the initial annual obit- 
uary of the graduates of Yale College. In 
1844-45 Mr. Herrick became associated 
with Professor Kingsley in this work, and 
after 1851-52 he had sole charge of the 
necrology, his own obituary record being 
incorporated in that on which he was emr 
ployed at the time of his death. After the 
death of Professor Kingsley, he edited the 
triennial catalogue ; he collected much 
biographical matter concerning the early 
graduates; and was assiduous and perse- 
vering in his researches for data apper- 
taining to the college history. He was 
throughout life eminently a student, and 
acquired a vast amount of erudition on 
those subjects which he made his spe- 
ialty. Entomology was one of these sub- 
jects, and he had a comprehensive knowl- 
edge of its literature, and made some 
original investigations of undoubted 
value, though he published little. Pie 
early became an enthusiastic student of 
astronomy and meteorology, and in the 
latter science made important observa- 
tions concerning the periodicity of mete- 
oric showers. He himself discovered the 
return of the August shower, and for sev- 
eral years kept an accurate record of the 
recurrence of the aurora borealis ; his 
communications on these and other sub- 
jects are to be found in the "American 
Journal of Science," to which he was a 
frequent contributor. Mr. Herrick's 
knowledge of bibliography, local history, 
American biography and kindred subjects 
was varied and extensive ; he was re- 
garded as an authority, and his knowl- 
edge was ever at the command of those 
who sought it. He was an honorary 
graduate of Yale College. He was never 
married. He died in New Haven. Con- 
necticut, June II, 1862. A memorial win- 
dow in Battcll Chapel, Yale University, 
bears his name. 



223 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



THORBURN, Grant, 

Merchant, Author. 

Grant Thorbtirn was born at Dalkeith, 
Scotland, February i8, 1773. His father 
was a nailmaker, whom he assisted in his 
business. In 1792 young Thorburn be- 
came connected with a movement to se- 
cure parliamentary reforms, and was ar- 
rested on a charge of treason, but was 
released on bail. In 1794 he emigrated 
to New York, where he continued in his 
trade until 1801, when he took up the 
grocery business. As this did not prove 
lucrative, he removed to Newark, New 
Jersey, and endeavored to make a living 
by selling seeds, a venture which also 
proved unsuccessful. Returning to New 
York in 1802, he continued the business 
and accumulated a handsome property, 
which he lost not many years later by en- 
gaging in mulberry culture, expecting to 
make a fortune through the rearing of 
silkworms and the production of raw silk. 
His first store was on Cedar street, in a 
building once occupied as a Friends' 
meeting house. Some years later he 
located on John street, near Broadway, 
where his descendants continued to carry 
on the business, and in connection with 
the store had a free gallery of engravings. 
Mr. Thorburn was a Friend, and, while 
in some ways eccentric, was universally 
esteemed, and noted for his charity. Dur- 
ing the yellow fever epidemics of 1798, 
and succeeeding years, he and his wife 
endeared themselves to the citizens by 
their devotion to the sick. Among those 
whom they saved from death was Rob- 
ert Hoe, father of the inventor of the 
rotary printing press, whom they had be- 
friended on his arrival in this country. 

After Mr. Thorburn had retired from 
active trade, he had a position in the cus- 
tom house that barely supported him. In 
1854 he removed to Astoria, Long Island, 



and then to Winsted, Connecticut. He 
was a voluminous contributor to the 
newspapers of New York, under the as- 
sumed name of "Lawrie Todd," writing 
on topics of the day, or furnishing remin- 
iscences of his early days in the city. 
He published a number of works, includ- 
ing "Forty Years' Residence in America" 
(1834) ; "Men and Manners in Great 
Britain" (1834) ; "Fifty Years' Reminis- 
cences of New York" (1845) J "Lawrie 
Todd's Hints to Merchants, Married Men 
and Bachelors" (1847) ; "Lawrie Todd's 
Notes on Virginia, with a Chapter on 
Puritans, Witches, and Friends" (1848); 
"Flowers from the Garden of Lawrie 
Todd ;" "Life and Writings of Grant 
Thorburn" (1852) ; and "Supplement to 
the Life of Grant Thorburn" (1853). He 
died in New Haven, Connecticut, January 
21, 1863. 



was 

Au- 



TOTTEN, Joseph G., 

Soldier, Author. 

General Joseph Gilbert Totten 
born at New Haven, Connecticut 
gust 23, 1788. He was a protege of his 
uncle. Colonel Jared Mansfield, whom he 
accompanied to West Point in 1802. 
After his graduation there in 1805 he 
went to Ohio, where he served as secre- 
tary of the national survey. He left the 
army in 1806, but was reinstated in 1808 
and employed in the construction of Fort 
Clinton and Castle Williams in New 
York harbor. In the war of 1812 he was 
chief engineer on the Niagara frontier 
and on Lake Champlain ; was engaged at 
Queenstown and Plattsburg, and won the 
rank of captain and the brevets of major 
and lieutenant-colonel. He became a 
member of the board of engineers in 1816, 
and did not withdraw with his col- 
leagues when General Bernard was in- 
vited from France to advise them. These 



224 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



two were associated from 1819 to 1831 in 
improving our coast defences. Totten 
had charge of the construction of Fort 
Adams on Narragansett Bay, and in gen- 
eral of the work east of New York. He 
became a major in 1818, lieutenant-colo- 
nel in 1828, and in December, 1838, colo- 
nel and chief engineer of the army. His 
headquarters, hitherto at Newport, were 
now at Washington, whence, every two 
years, he made a tour of inspection of the 
entire range of coast defences, examining 
every detail, and giving special attention 
to casements and their embrasures. Most 
of our forts on the coast were built under 
his directions, and his work was of the 
highest order known to the science of the 
time. He was also an inspector of the 
Military Academy at West Point until 
his death. In 1847 he accompanied Gen- 
eral Scott to Vera Cruz, directed the en- 
gineering operations of the siege, and was 
brevetted brigadier-general. He was a 
regent of the Smithsonian Institution 
from its organization in 1846, a harbor 
commissioner for New York and Boston 
some ten years later, and one of the light- 
house board from its inception in 1852. 
In 1859 his cares were extended to the 
Pacific coast. 

At the outbreak of the Civil War, Gen- 
eral Scott wished Totten to be his suc- 
cessor in the chief command of the army, 
but he felt himself too old for so great a 
task. However, he remained at the head 
of the engineer bureau, acting on sundry 
commissions, receiving the rank of briga- 
dier-general in March, 1863, and the 
brevet of major-general, April 21, 1864. 
The more notable of his writings are sev- 
eral treatises, chiefly translations from 
the French : "Essays on Hydraulic and 
Other Cements" (1838-42) ; "Report of 
National Defences" (1851), and "Essays 
on Ordnance" (1857). His papers on 
conchology, mineralogy, etc., appeared in 

Conn-l-15 22_ 



the proceedings of learned bodies of 
which he was a member; two shells, the 
Gemma and succinea Tottenii, were named 
from him. A sketch of him by General 
J. G. Barnard appeared (1877) in the 
"Memoirs" of the National Academy of 
Sciences, of which he was a corporate 
member. He died at Washington, D. C, 
April 22, 1864. 



BROWNELL, Thomas C, 

Clergyman, Author. 

The Rev. Thomas Church Brownell, 
third bishop of Connecticut and nine- 
teenth in succession in the American epis- 
copate, was born at Westfield, Massachu- 
setts, October 19, 1779. He taught in a 
common school at the age of twelve years, 
but was not able to complete his prepara- 
tion for college until he was twenty-one. 
In 1800 he entered the College of Rhode 
Island, from which he removed with Pres- 
ident Maxcy to Union College in 1802, 
and was graduated there in 1804 with the 
highest honors of his class. While in col- 
lege he studied theology under Rev. Dr. 
Eliphalet Nott, who became president of 
Union College in 1804 and made young 
Brownell tutor in the classics, and a year 
later professor of logic and belles lettres 
in the college. After this he spent a year 
in Great Britain and Ireland in the study 
of the natural sciences, and returned to 
teach chemistry at Union College, at first 
as lecturer and in 1814 as professor. 

About this time he changed his reli- 
gious belief from the Calvinistic creed to 
that of the historical episcopacy, and was 
ordained a deacon of the Protestant Epis- 
copal church, April 11, 1816. Two years 
later he was elevated to the priesthood, 
and accepted the position of assistant 
minister in Trinity Church, New York, 
and in June, 1819, he was elected to the 
episcopate of the diocese of Connecticut, 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



which had been vacant for six years, and 
was consecrated October 27, 1819. He re- 
newed the efforts to secure a charter for 
a college in the State, which should be 
free from Congregational control ; and in 
1823 the charter of Washington College, 
afterward Trinity, was granted, with full 
academic prerogatives. It was located at 
Hartford, and scholastic work was begun 
on October 24, with nine students. Bishop 
Brownell had been chosen president, and 
with him was associated a full faculty, in- 
cluding men of no little ability. Two 
buildings of freestone were erected on a 
sightly campus southeast of the centre of 
the city. The number of undergraduates 
rapidly increased, partly on account of 
the provision made for practical work and 
for special courses, and one of the best 
libraries in the country was soon within 
its walls. For seven years Bishop Brow- 
nell guided the plans and the actual work 
of the college. In 183 1, at the request of 
the convention of the diocese, he resigned 
his position as president of Trinity Col- 
lege and was elected to the honorary 
office of chancellor. Before this date, 
however, the bishop had three times paid 
a visit to the Southern States in the inter- 
est of the advancement of the Episcopal 
church. For twenty years longer he ad- 
ministered the diocese alone, and in 185 1 
the Rev. Dr. John Williams, president of 
Trinity College, was elected his assistant. 
Bishop Brownell, though suffering much 
from infirmity, officiated from time to 
time as late as i860. For twelve years he 
was presiding bishop of the Protestant 
Episcopal church on account of his seni- 
ority. During the closing years of his 
life, on each commencement day, the pro- 
cession on its way from the college build- 
ings to the public hall stopped before his 
house to salute him, and all stood with 
uncovered heads while the band played 
"Auld Lang Syne." A colossal bronze 



statue of the bishop stands on the college 
campus. His published writings, besides 
a lecture on the theology of agriculture, 
are sermons, addresses, and charges, a 
"Commentary on the Prayer Book," a 
"Compilation on the Religion of the Heart 
and Life," and an edition of "Holden's 
Commentary on the New Testament." 
He died at Hartford, Connecticut, Janu- 
ary 13, 1865. 



BREWSTER, James, 

Manufacturer, Philantliropist. 

James Brewster was born at Preston, 
New London county, Connecticut, Au- 
gust 6, 1788, son of Joseph and Hannah 
(Tucker) Brewster, and of the seventh 
generation in direct descent from Elder 
Brewster, of the "Mayflower," through 
Jonathan, Benjamin, Jonathan, Joseph, 
Simon, and Joseph, the father of James. 

Owing to the early death of his father 
and the limited means of the family, it 
became necessary for young Brewster to 
learn a trade, and in 1804 he was appren- 
ticed to a carriagemaker at Northampton, 
Massachusetts. After attaining his ma- 
jority, he was offered an interest in his 
employer's business, but preferring inde- 
pendence, went to New Haven, Connecti- 
cut, and began business in a small one- 
story building situated on the corner of 
Elm and High streets. The general ex- 
cellence of Mr. Brewster's workmanship 
from the first, brought him reputation, 
and he then took up the manufacture of 
carriages of various kinds, and became 
eminently successful. For the benefit of 
his employes he founded an orphan asy- 
lum, and organized an institute, furnish- 
ing a room, for meetings, and later erected 
a hall in which professors from Yale Col- 
lege were accustomed to lecture at his 
expense. His philanthropic efforts were 
amply rewarded, and to the intelligence 



226 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



of his workmen was due in considerable 
measure the high quaHty of the products 
of the factory. In 1827 Mr. Brewster 
established a branch of his business on 
Broad street, New York City, forming the 
firm of Brewster & Lawrence, and which 
had a prosperous existence for some 
years. In 1835 he gave up business to 
promote the construction of the railroad 
from New Haven to Hartford, was elected 
first president of the company, and be- 
came personally responsible for payment 
for the rails, which were imported from 
England at an expense of $250,000. In 
1838 he reestablished himself as a car- 
riage manufacturer in New York City, 
associating with him his son, James B. 
Brewster, and later his son Henry, the 
firm name being James Brewster & Sons. 
In July, 1856, the firm dissolved, the sales 
department being taken by James B. 
Brewster, and the manufacturing depart- 
ment by Henry Brewster, in association 
with John W. Britton and James W. Law- 
rence. 

James Brewster was married, in 1810, 
to Miss Mary Hequembourg, of Hartford, 
a lady of French descent, who bore him 
three sons and two daughters. He died 
in New Haven, Connecticut, November 
22, 1866. 



SCRANTON, Erastus C, 

Legislator, Railixray Manager. 

Hon. Erastus Clark Scranton, late of 
Madison and New Haven, long promi- 
nent by being connected with marine 
commerce and the banking interests of 
New Haven, State Senator and member 
of the lower house from his native town; 
and whose memory has been perpetuated 
in the erection of a substantial library 
building at Madison by his only surviv- 
ing child. Miss Mary Eliza Scranton, of 
New Haven, was one of the eminently 
successful men of his period. 



Born November 16, 1807, in Madison, 
New Haven county, Connecticut, Mr. 
Scranton was the son of Jonathan and 
Roxanna (Crampton) Scranton, of Madi- 
son, and a descendant in the seventh gen- 
eration from Captain John Scranton, one 
of the about twenty-five heads of families 
who made a settlement in Guilford, Con- 
necticut, in October, 1639. These fami- 
lies came from Kent and Surrey, Eng- 
land, and in general were pious, intelli- 
gent and industrious men, most of them 
farmers. Captain Scranton was twice 
married, the first time probably in Eng- 
land, and this wife, Joanna, died in 1661. 
His second marriage, in 1666, was to Ada 
(or Adaline), widow of Robert Hill, she 
died in 1685. Captain Scranton was a 
farmer, and was honored with a seat in 
the General Court in 1669 and 1670. His 
death occurred in 1671. His male de- 
scendants to a great extent have been 
farmers, and, in general, useful, indus- 
trious and respected citizens of the com- 
munities in which they settled. From 
this Captain John Scranton the late Hon. 
Erastus C. Scranton's line is through 
Captain John (2), Captain John (3), Cap- 
tain Ichabod, Theophilus and Jonathan 
Scranton. 

Captain John (2) Scranton, son of Cap- 
tain John (i) Scranton, the settler, was 
born as early as 1641, the first of the name 
in East Guilford, now Madison. He mar- 
ried (first) March 12, 1674, Mary Seward, 
who was born February 28, 1652, daugh- 
ter of William Seward. His second mar- 
riage, December 10, 1691, was to a widow, 
Elizabeth Clark, daughter of John Bishop. 
Captain Scranton died September 2, 1703. 

Captain John (3) Scranton, son of Cap- 
tain John (2) Scranton, born about 1676 
in Hammonassett, was a farmer, and re- 
sided in what is now the town of Madi- 
son, where he died March 21, 1758. He 
married (first) December 12, 1699, Mary 



227 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Norton ; his second wife was Mary or 
Sarah Everts, daughter of John ; she died 
in October, 1749, and he married (third) 
Mary, daughter of Deacon Francis Bush- 
nell. 

Captain Ichabod Scranton, son of Cap- 
tain John (3) Scranton, born February 
19, 1717, married Chloe Fowler, who was 
born March 3, 1723, daughter of Abra- 
ham Fowler, of Guilford. Captain Scran- 
ton was a soldier, and held his rank in the 
French and Indian war; he was at Louis- 
bourg and at Ticonderoga. He is de- 
scribed as a man of patriotism, strong, 
brave and enterprising. His death oc- 
curred December i, 1760, while he was en 
route home from military service. His 
wife, Chloe, died December 3, 1791. 

Theophilus Scranton, son of Captain 
Ichabod Scranton, born December i, 1751, 
married Abigail Lee, who was born July 
II, 1754, daughter, of Jonathan Lee, of 
Madison. Mr. Scranton was a farmer in 
Madison, where he died February 16, 
1827, and his wife passed away December 
23, 1840. 

Jonathan Scranton, son of Theophilus 
Scranton, born October 10, 1781, married 
(first) January 27, 1805, Roxanna Cramp- 
ton, who was born May 30, 1789, a daugh- 
ter of Ashbel Crampton, of Madison. She 
died December 27, 1833, and in 1844 Mr. 
Scranton married (second) Jemima, 
daughter of Daniel Piatt. Mr. Scranton 
was a prominent member of the church 
in Madison. He was engaged in farm- 
ing, and was also a contractor of break- 
waters and wharfs. His death occurred 
July 27, 1847. 

Erastus Clark Scranton, son of Jona- 
than Scranton, received a common school 
education in his native town. He began 
his career as a cabin boy on board a ves- 
sel, and first began m,ercantile pursuits at 
Georgetown, D. C, where, however, he 
remained but a short time. Soon he 



owned a vessel and was a master. His 
advancement in commercial channels was 
rapid and attended with great success. 
In 1835 he became established as a whole- 
sale grocer at Augusta, Georgia, where 
until 1842 he conducted an extensive busi- 
ness. Later, for a short period, he en- 
gaged in a banking business at Apalachi- 
cola, Florida. 

Returning about 1844 to his native 
State and town with a handsome fortune, 
Mr. Scranton entered into a business 
partnership with several gentlemen in 
New York who were interested in the 
trade with South America. He became 
largely engaged in commerce, doing an 
extensive coasting trade as far south as 
Florida, and was largely interested in a 
line of packets running between New 
York and Liverpool, England, also in 
ships making voyages to other ports. He 
also became identified with the business 
life of New Haven and its vicinity, being 
among the active promoters of the Shore 
Line railroad. In 1854 the business ties 
which had bound him to New York were 
severed, and in 1855 he was elected presi- 
dent of the Elm City Bank, afterward the 
Second National Bank of New Haven. 
The bank was then a new institution, and 
under his management its business ex- 
panded beyond expectation. New Haven 
was Mr. Scranton's business home for 
years prior to 1864, when it became his 
permanent dwelling place. In 1865 he 
was honored with the presidency of the 
New York & New Haven railroad, and 
was that year elected mayor of the city. 
Not long after his return to his na- 
tive town, in the early forties, Mr. Scran- 
ton became interested and active in the 
town's welfare, and his old friends and 
fellow townsmen repeatedly honored him 
with positions of public trust and respon- 
sibility. He was elected to the State Leg- 
islature as a Democrat in 1845, 1846 and 
28 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



1850; as an American in 1856; and as a 
Republican in 1862 to the State Senate. 
Throughout the Civil War he was promi- 
nent among the supporters of the national 
government, and was generously active 
in the organization for sending contribu- 
tions to the support of the Union cause. 
In both Madison and New Haven, Mr. 
Scranton's diligence, ability and gener- 
osity won for him wide recognition and 
made him many warm friends, and the 
people intrusted to him the laboring oar 
in many public affairs and improvements. 
At the head of many public trusts Mr. 
Scranton remained until his sudden death 
by accident, December 29, 1866, while 
stepping upon a moving train at South 
Norwalk. In his death the commercial 
life of New Haven was deprived of a 
chief support, and the community lost a 
sagacious, public-spirited and beloved 
citizen. The erection of a public library 
building at Madison, the home of his 
youth, middle and later life, as well as the 
home for generations of his ancestors, is 
a fitting tribute to his memory by a lov- 
ing daughter. 

On November 4. 1829, Mr. Scranton 
was married to Lydia Stannard, who was 
born October 8, 1808, daughter of Job 
Stannard, of Westbrook, and to this union 
came children, as follows : Ezra Erastus, 
born September 3, 1831, died May 19, 
1855 ; Mary Eliza, born September 2'j, 
1837, died December 16, 1839; Mary Eliza 
(2), born September 2'}^, 1840; and Fran- 
cis Rathbone, born March 14, 185 1, died 
November 7, 1853. 



GRISWOLD, Matthew, 

Governor. 

Matthew Griswold was born at Lyme, 
New London county, Connecticut, March 
25, 1714, eldest son of John and Hannah 
(Lee) Griswold, and descendant of Mat- 
thew Griswold, of Kenilworth, Warwick, 



England. The last named, one of the 
early settlers of Windsor (1636), was 
married to Anne, daughter of Henry 
Wolcott, and in 1639 removed to Say- 
brook, Connecticut. In 1645 he took up 
land in the eastern part of the township, 
called the Blackball quarter, being the 
first settler in what is now Lyme; was 
prominent in the public affairs of his time, 
and became the richest man in the com- 
munity, his estate being baronial in ex- 
tent. His grandson, John Griswold, 
father of Governor Griswold, increased 
the wealth of the family, and was a man 
greatly esteemed for his wisdom and in- 
tegrity. 

Governor Matthew Griswold, the third 
to bear this name, was admitted to the bar 
in 1743, and soon after appeared as coun- 
sel for John Winthrop, son of Wait Still 
Winthrop, who sued the colony for serv- 
ices of his ancestors and moneys owed 
them. In 1751 he was elected to the Gen- 
eral Assembly. In 1757 he was authorized 
by the general government to sue for, 
levy and recover debts in its name and 
behalf. In 1759 he entered the Governor's 
Council. Previously (1739) he had been 
rewarded by Governor Talcott for his 
"loyalty, courage and good conduct." hav- 
ing served as chaplain of the south train 
band of Lyme, while in 1766 by appoint- 
ment of Governor Pitkin, he became ma- 
jor of the Third Regiment of Horse and 
Foot in the service of the Colony. He re- 
entered the council in 1765, and was one 
of its members who refused to conte- 
nance Governor Fitch in taking oath to 
support the requirements of the Stamp 
Act. 

Griswold was raised to the bench of the 
Superior Court in 1766, and three years 
later was made Chief Justice, serving for 
fifteen years. In 1770 he was one of the 
commissioner of the Society for the Prop- 
agation of the Gospel in New England 
and parts adjacent in America. In 1771- 



229 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



84 the office of Deputy Governor was held 
by him, and during that period (in 1775) 
he was head of the Council of Safety. As 
chief magistrate, in 1784-86, "Griswold 
took part in establishing the so-called 
continental policy in the State, by con- 
ceding to Congress the power of impost." 
He presided over the convention which 
ratified the constitution of the United 
States, and this was perhaps his last 
appearance in an official capacity. Farm- 
ing now occupied much of his time. His 
library, the best in New England, if 
President Stiles is to be believed, again 
afiforded him resources of recreation, and 
one result of study and meditation was a 
treatise entitled "Remarks on Liberty and 
the African Trade," which, though in- 
tended for publication, was never printed. 
The degree of LL. D. was conferred upon 
him by Yale in 1779. 

Governor Griswold was married, No- 
vember 10, 1743, to his second cousin, 
Ursula, daughter of Governor Roger and 
Sarah (Drake) Wolcott, who bore him 
three sons and four daughters. Matthew, 
the second son, became chief judge of 
the court of New London county ; Roger, 
the third and youngest son, was Govern- 
or of the State in 1811-13. A descendant 
of Ursula (Wolcott) Griswold has com- 
piled a list of the eminent men descended 
from her or connected with her family 
circle, and it comprises sixteen governors 
and forty-six judges, the names of Ells- 
worth, Pitkin, Huntington, Trumbull, 
Ely, Diodate, Gardiner, Waite, Lynde 
and McCurdy appearing among the many. 
Mrs. Griswold died April 5, 1788. Gov- 
ernor Griswold died at Lyme, Connecti- 
cut, April 28, 1799. 



DANA, Samuel W., 

Governor, Senator. 

Samuel Whittlesey Dana, a Representa- 
tive and Senator from Connecticut, was 



born in Wallingford, Connecticut, Febru- 
ary 13, 1760, a son of James Dana, the 
celebrated Connecticut clergyman and 
antagonist of Jonathan Edwards. 

He was a student at Yale College, from 
which institution he was graduated in 
1775, then entered a law office, where he 
continued his studies along that line, and 
after passing a successful examination 
was admitted to the Connecticut bar in 
1778, and in due course of time became an 
eminent and able lawyer. He opened an 
office in Middletown, Connecticut, for the 
active practice of his profession, and his 
clientele became both extensive and re- 
munerative. He was a Federalist in poli- 
tics, and was elected by that party to the 
Fourth Congress to fill a vacancy caused 
by the resignation of Uriah Tracy ; he 
was reelected to the Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, 
Eighth, Ninth and Tenth Congresses, and 
served from January 3, 1797, to March 3, 
1809; and was reelected to the Eleventh 
Congress, but before taking his seat was 
elected as a Federalist to the United 
States Senate to fill vacancy caused by 
the resignation of James Hillhouse ; was 
reelected in 1815, and served from May 
10, 1810, to March 3, 1821. In the latter 
named year he settled in Middletown. 
Connecticut, and was elected mayor, an 
office which he continued to hold for a 
number of years, discharging the duties 
thereof to the satisfaction of all con- 
cerned. His death occurred in that city, 
July 21, 1830. 



HINMAN, Joel, 



Jurist. 



Joel Hinman was born at Southbury, 
Connecticut, January 2^, 1802, son of 
Colonel Joel and Sarah (Curtiss) Hin- 
man, and grandson of Colonel Benjamin 
Hinman. He studied for the profession 
of law after completing his preliminary 
education, was admitted to the New 



230 



THE HLV' ^'ORK i 
PU3::: L:3:iARY'i 







IN, IK ' IlLRCH, HARTFORD, 
ruLiiidcd by Rev. Thomas Hooker. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Haven county bar about 1827, and while 
practicing his profession at Cheshire, 
Connecticut, was elected a judge of the 
Superior Court in 1842, as a jurist he 
rapidly rose to eminence ; his decisions 
were noted for their clear, practical com- 
mon sense. He was a judge of the Su- 
preme Court, 1851-61, and became Chief 
Justice in the latter year. Twenty vol- 
umes of the Connecticut reports contain 
decisions rendered by Judge Hinman. 

He was married to a Miss Scovill, of 
Waterbury, Connecticut. He died at 
Cheshire, Connecticut, February 21, 1870. 



HOOKER, Rev. Thomas, 

Noted Divine. 

One can scarcely turn a page of Con- 
necticut Colonial history without finding 
the name Hooker. Rev. Thomas Hooker 
was really the father of Democracy on 
this Continent, for it is to be remem- 
bered that the government of the Massa- 
chusetts Colony was theocratic. To quote 
from a biographical sketch of Rev. Thom- 
as Hooker written by Walter Seth Logan : 
"No man could vote unless he was a 
church member. Out of more than three 
thousand inhabitants, two-thirds of them 
men of mature age, there was only about 
three hundred qualified electors. The 
church was dominant in the state, and 
the dominancy of the church is always 
despotism. Hooker was not at all in ac- 
cord with the theocratic idea. It has been 
said that he removed his congregation to 
Connecticut because he and they differed 
with the majority of the inhabitants of 
Massachusetts upon religious questions. 
It is a mistake. He moved from Massa- 
chusetts to Connecticut for the same 
reason that he had moved from England 
to Holland and from Holland to America, 
to find a place not so much where he 
could worship God as he chose as where 



he could be a free citizen, with the right 
and the power to work out his own des- 
tiny for himself and to found a real de- 
mocracy for himself and for his devoted 
followers. He moved from the Valley of 
the Charles to the Valley of the Connec- 
ticut in order to escape from a govern- 
ment theocratic in its origin and inevit- 
ably aristocratic in its nature, to a place 
where a real democratic government 
could be established — where the people 
could rule. It was a political rather than 
a religious migration." 

When the General Court convened at 
Hartford on May 31, 1638, to frame a 
constitution for the new Comiuonwealth, 
Rev. Thomas Hooker preached the open- 
ing sermon from the text, Deuteronomy L, 
13 : "Take you wise men and understand- 
ing, and known among your tribes, and 1 
will make them rulers over you." Rev. 
Thomas Hooker said: "The choice of 
public magistrates belongs unto the 
people by (lod's own allowance," and he 
laid down as his second principle : "The 
privilege of election which belongs to the 
people, therefore must not be exercised 
according to their human, but according 
to the blessed will and law of God." His 
third principle of doctrine is thus stated : 
"They who have power to appoint officers 
and magistrates, it is in their power, also, 
to set the bounds and limitations of the 
power and place unto which they call 
them." 

The biographer already (pioted goes on 
to say: "For the first time in the world's 
history, the suggestion of a written con- 
stitution made by the people themselves 
to establish a government and to limit 
the power and authority of their officers 
and magistrates is here made. The sug- 
gestion found its fruition seven months 
later, in 1639. in the Constitution adopted 
by the Colony of Connecticut, and a hun- 
dred and fifty vears later still, in the Con- 



23] 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



stitution of the United States under which 
our government went into operation in 
1789." Thomas liooker was not only the 
first American Democrat but he was the 
father of the Constitution of the United 
States. Later on in his sermon he says : 
"The foundation of authority is laid in 
the free consent of the people," and his 
final exhortation is : "As God has given 
us liberty let us take it." 

The origin of the Hooker family in 
England has not been definitely estab- 
lished, yet evidence has been adduced 
which satisfied the family genealogist, 
the late Edward Hooker, commander, 
United States Navy, that the Rev. Thom- 
as Hooker came from the Devonshire 
family of that name. His cousin, Roger 
Hooker, left a definite statement in the 
family Bible that the Rev. Thomas 
Hooker and the Rev. Richard Hooker, 
author "Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical 
Polity," were cousins. Other records 
were made by different members of the 
Hooker family at a date sufficiently early 
to be reliable, all to the effect that the 
Rev. Thomas Hooker belonged to the 
Devonshire family. The evidence is 
strong, if not conclusive, that Thomas 
Hooker, father of the clergyman, was the 
son of John Hooker, member of Parlia- 
ment. The latter was mayor of Exeter, 
an office also held by his father, Robert 
Hooker, and his grandfather, John 
Hooker. If this be true, the Rev. Thom 
as Hooker belonged to a family of wealth, 
rank and social position, and it would 
account for his having an estate which 
inventoried at £1,136-158, an amount of 
wealth he could hardly have acquired 
while a resident of New England. 

The Rev. Thomas Hooker was born in 
England, about 1586. On third month, 
27, 1604, he matriculated at Emanuel Col- 
lege, Cambridge, which was regarded as 
a Puritan institution, from which he re- 



ceived the degree of B. A. four years 
later and the degree of M. A. in 161 1. He 
held one of the two Walstan Dixie fel- 
lowship foundations. Following his clas- 
sical course he took up the study of the- 
ology there, but did not remain to com- 
plete the course, but was given the degree 
of B. D. There is evidence that Mr. 
Hooker continued at the university as 
catechist and lecturer, and that while at 
the university and in its vicinity "he be- 
gan the systematic development into ser- 
monic form of those essays on experi- 
mental religion which constituted always 
the main bulk of his preaching." His min- 
isterial work in England covered a period 
beginning about 161 8 or 1620 until his 
flight into Holland. His first rectorship 
was over the small parish of Esher in 
Surrey. At a later time he was described 
as follows : 

"One, Mr. Hooker, then at Cambridge, 
now in New England : A great Scholar, 
an acute Disputant, a strong learned, a 
wise modest man, every way rarely quali- 
fied ; who being a Non-Conformitan in 
judgment, not willing to trouble himself 
with Presentative Livings, was contented 
and persuaded by Mr. Dod to accept of 
that poor Living of 40 £ per annum. This 
worthy man accepted of the place, having 
withal his dyet and lodging at E^sher, Mr. 
Drake's house." While there he married 
Mrs. Drake's waiting-woman Susanna. 
In 1626 he accepted an invitation to be- 
come lecturer in connection with the Church 
of St. Mary at Chelmsford, Essex. These 
lectureships, supported by private gifts 
of wealthy Puritans, were established in 
order to have a more efficient preaching 
service than could often be had from 
the "dumb ministers," as the legally 
appointed clergy were called by the Puri- 
tans. These lectureships were immensely 
popular with the masses and correspond- 
ingly obnoxious to the clergy, who, 



232 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



headed by the narrow-minded and bigoted 
Archbishop Laud, sought through injunc- 
tions issued against preaching on a range 
of doctrinal topics that were foundations 
of the Puritan behef, to silence the lec- 
turers. 

The persecution of the Puritans was 
continued with increasing severity. In 
the spring of 1629 Thomas Hooker gave 
a bond of £50 for his appearance before 
the Bishop of London. On July 10, 1630, 
he was cited to appear before the High 
Commission Court, but he fled to Hol- 
land, forfeiting his bond which was made 
good to his bondsman by his Chelmsford 
friends. He remained in Holland about 
three years, engaged in ministerial work, 
and all the while under surveillance by 
order of the archbishop. Mr. Hooker 
then returned to England, but shortly 
afterM^ard, learning of efforts to arrest 
him, he and his family secretly boarded 
the ship "Griffin" and sailed for New 
England. The voyage occupied eight 
weeks, the vessel arriving in Boston, 
Massachusetts, on September 4, 1633. 
Mr. Hooker located in Newtown and his 
church prospered. The difference be- 
tween the political and religious ideals 
of the Massachusetts Colony and those 
held by Mr. Hooker and his adherents 
has already been described. It was finally 
decided that the company would remove 
to Connecticut. Some of them must have 
located in Connecticut before September, 
1635, but the 31st of the following May 
saw the main body of the Plooker com- 
pany on their way. 

Save for the signs of Indian trails, it 
was an almost trackless forest into which 
the Pilgrims plunged. In the party were 
many women of refinement and delicate 
breeding, who showed their pluck and 
courage as well as steadfastness to their 
faith by undertaking willingly a journey 
such as would tax the endurance of a 



hardy explorer. After much hardship 
and suffering, including the loss of a 
large proportion of their cattle, goats and 
swine, Mr. Hooker's company finally 
ended their journey on the site of the 
present city of Hartford. From this 
point on the story is the history of the 
first church and of the Connecticut 
Colony. 

Rev. Thomas Hooker lived in a day of 
much theological disputation, as has 
already been noted. Mr. Hooker was a 
quick thinker, a keen debater, and an able 
conversationalist. Most of his published 
writings, of which some thirty letters 
are still extant, were first delivered as 
discourses. He did not cultivate the 
graces of oratory but drove his points 
home with a directness and vigor of state- 
ment that remind one of the style of 
Abraham Lincoln, with which everyone 
is acquainted. He fell a victim to an 
epidemic that overran the country at that 
time, his death occurring on seventh 
month, 19. 1647. 



KIRTLAND, Jared P., 

Naturalise, Author. 

Jared Potter Kirtland was born at 
Wallingford, New Haven county. Con- 
necticut, November 10, 1793. son of Tur- 
hand and Mary (Potter) Kirtland, and 
grandson of Dr. Jared Potter, a distin- 
guished physician of Wallingford. His 
father, who became general agent of the 
Connecticut Land Conii)any, removed in 
1803 to Ohio, where the lands of the com- 
pany lay, but the son remained with his 
grandfather, who had adopted him. He 
received his early education at the acade- 
mies of Wallingford and Cheshire. 

Scientific tastes early developed them- 
selves in Kirtland while he was yet a boy. 
He devoted much time to the cultivation 
of fruits and flowers; took up the study 



233 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



of botany, and while aiding his cousins in 
rearing silkworms, discovered that the 
female silkworm secluded from the male 
could lay fertile eggs, and thus antici- 
pated by half a century the experiments 
of Siebold and Steenstrup, which resulted 
in the demonstration of parthenogenesis 
in insects. In 1810 he went to his father's 
home at Poland, Ohio, and on the way, 
at Buffalo, made a careful study of the 
fish fauna of Lake Erie, there laying the 
groundwork of a monograph of the fresh 
water fishes of the west, published not 
long afterward. He remained for a year 
at Poland, teaching school, studying the 
fauna and flora of that section, and rais- 
ing and experimenting upon bees, an oc- 
cupation which he pursued for sixty-five 
years, becoming one of the great author- 
ities in the theory and an important con- 
tributor to the practice of this industry. 
Returning to Connecticut, he continued 
his studies at Wallingford and at Hart- 
ford, giving particular attention to chem- 
istry. It was his grandfather's desire 
that he should enter the medical school 
of the University of Edinburgh, but 
owing to the breaking out of the war with 
Great Britain he was unable to do so. and 
instead, he entered the Medical Depart- 
ment of Yale College. At the end of a 
year he abandoned his books for a time 
for the sake of his health, and then en- 
tered the Medical School of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia ; but 
in 181 5 returned to Yale College, from 
which he was graduated. After practic- 
ing at Wallingford, Connecticut, for two 
years and a half, in 1818 he determined 
to remove to Ohio, but was induced to 
settle in Durham, Connecticut, and there 
spent five years, continuing the cultiva- 
tion of the natural sciences while practic- 
ing medicine. 

In 1823 Dr. Kirtland became a resident 
of Poland, Ohio, where he found a wider 



field open to him. In 1828 he was elected 
to the Legislature to represent Trumbull 
county, and served three terms, securing 
the adoption of important measures, espe- 
cially the substitution of active labor for 
solitary confinement to which inmates of 
penitentiaries were condemned. He prac- 
ticed at Poland until 1837, and then be- 
came Professor of the Theory and Prac- 
tice of Medicine in the Ohio Medical Col- 
lege at Cincinnati. In 1837, also, he was 
appointed an assistant on the Geological 
Survey of Ohio, under Professor William 
W. Mather, and prepared a report on the 
geology of the State which was published 
in the second annual report of the survey. 
An elaborate exposition of the geology of 
Ohio had been projected by him, and to 
this end the fishes and moUusks had re- 
ceived particular attention ; his descrip- 
tions and drawings of the fishes were sub- 
sequently published in the journal of the 
Boston Society of Natural History. In 
1829, in studying the naiades, he dis- 
covered sexual differences in them, and 
showed that the male and female coulct 
be distinguished by the forms of the 
shells, as well as by their internal anat- 
omy. The truth of his statements was 
confirmed by Agassiz in 185 1, and is now 
universally accepted. In 1837 he pur- 
chased a fruit farm at Rockport, a little 
west of Cleveland, Ohio, and here built 
a handsome residence. In 1842 he re- 
signed his position at Cincinnati, and in 
1843 became one of the founders of the 
Cleveland Medical College, in which he 
occupied the chair of theory and practice 
for twenty years. During the Civil War, 
when sixty-nine years of age, he offered 
his services to the Governor of his State, 
and for several months acted as examin- 
ing surgeon for recruits at Columbus and 
Cleveland. The compensation received 
was patriotically given to the bounty fund 
and the Soldier's Aid Society of Northern 



234 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Ohio. He was the first and only presi- 
dent of the Cleveland Academy of Sci- 
ences, formed in 1845, and held office un- 
til 1865, when, in compliment to his part 
in founding- it and to his services, its 
name was changed to that of Kirtland So- 
ciety of Natural History. To it he do- 
nated his collections, including one of 
birds, mounted by himself, the finest in 
the State. He was at one time president 
of the State Medical Society ; was an 
officer of several organizations of agri- 
culturists and fruit growers ; and a mem- 
ber of many learned societies. The de- 
gree of LL. D. was conferred upon him 
by Williams College in 1861. 

Dr. Kirtland's contributions to period- 
ical literature were numerous, and many 
of them appeared in the "American Jour- 
nal of Science" and the "Journal of the 
Boston Society of Natural History." The 
value of his work in promoting agricul- 
ture, especially pomology and horticul- 
ture, and in extending an interest in na- 
tural history in Ohio, is inestimable. He 
imparted his own enthuiasm in the pur- 
suit of knowledge to every one who heard 
him lecture or converse, and attached to 
himself the young as well as the old by 
personal magnetism and a captivating 
cheerfulness of disposition. 

Dr. Kirtland was twice married ; first, 
at Wallingford, Connecticut, in 1815. to 
Caroline Atwater, who died in 1823, leav- 
ing a daughter. His second marriage, in 
1825, was to Hannah F. Toucey, who died 
in 1837. He died in Cleveland, Ohio, De- 
cember 10, 1877. 



COIT, Charles M., 

Soldier, Financier. 

Colonel Charles Morgan Coit was born 
in Norwich, Connecticut, March 28, 1838. 
His father, Colonel Charles Coit, born 
February 19, 1793. was a soldier of the 



War of 1812, and a prominent business 
man of Norwich for thirty-eight years. 
He was thrice married, Charles M. being 
a child of the third marriage. 

Charles M. Coit was thrown on his own 
resources at the age of seventeen by the 
death of his father. This event changed 
his life plans to a considerable extent, in 
that he was compelled to abandon a col- 
lege course for business. He first en- 
tered the Uncas Bank, but at the age of 
twenty-one was made treasurer of the 
Chelsea Savings Bank, which responsible 
position he occupied at the breaking out 
of the war of the rebellion. Although 
ardently desirous of enlisting under the 
first call for troops, the claims of his family, 
of which he was the oldest male member, 
seemed to render imperative for him the 
duty of remaining at home. But as rt- 
verses occurred to our armies and Presi- 
dent Lincoln's second call for troops was 
made, young Coit, after mature and 
prayerful deliberation, decided that the 
claim of his country was paramount to all 
others, and entered the service as adju- 
tant of the Eighth Connecticut Volunteer 
Infantry, then being organized under 
Colonel Edward Harland. His military 
record in brief is as follows : Enlisted 
September 18, 1861, mustered into serv- 
ice October 5, 1861 ; promoted from adju- 
tant of Eighth Connecticut Volunteer In- 
fantry to captain of Company B of that 
regiment, March 27, 1862 ; wounded Oc- 
tober 28. 1864, at Fair Oaks. Virginia; 
brevetted lieutenant-colonel, March 13, 
1865 ; discharged May 2.-], 1865. But to 
give more in detail the operations of the 
Eighth Regiment and Colonel Coit's 
identity with it, the following is appended, 
taken from a sketch of Colonel Coit in the 
chapter on the military history of Con- 
necticut published in the "History of New 
London Countv," bv Ilurd : 



235 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



This regiment left the State on October 17, 
1861, joining the Burnside expedition to North 
Carolina, and on the 8th of January following 
had its first experience of actual battle at the 
capture of Roanoke Island, when by their cool- 
ness and good discipline the men won the hearty 
approval of Generals Burnside and Foster. From 
this time onward until the close of the war, the 
career of this gallant regiment was one of un- 
usual hardship and honor. Almost uninterrupt- 
edly in the front and in active service, its en- 
gagements were many, its losses, both from the 
casualties of the field and from exposures inci- 
dent to the service, terribly severe, and the rec- 
ord always of work well and bravely done. After 
its North Carolina campaign, in which the regi- 
ment had borne a prominent part at the siege 
of Fort Macon and the capture of Newberne, 
and during which Adjutant Coit had been pro- 
moted to a captaincy, the Ninth Army Corps, to 
which the regiment was attached, was ordered 
north to join General McClellan, and partici- 
pated in the fiercely contested battles of South 
Mountain and Antietam. Especially in the lat- 
ter action was the gallantry of the Eighth Regi- 
ment conspicuous and of the highest service to 
the whole corps. Nine color bearers were struck 
down, yet another always stood ready to fill the 
vacant place and uphold the flag. The entire 
list of casualties included more than one-half of 
those who entered the battle. The regiment 
was in front of Burnside's advance with the 
Army of the Potomac, helping to lay the pon- 
toon bridge at Fredericksburg, and after the 
battle serving on the picket line beyond the city, 
and being among the last to recross the river. 
In the spring of 1863 the Eighth saw active serv- 
ice at the siege of Suffolk and the brilliant storm- 
ing of Fort Huger. During the following fall 
and winter, while the regiment was enjoying its 
longest experience of the comparative comfort 
of quiet camp life. Captain Coit was ordered to 
duty at the conscript camp at New Haven, a 
service which, though in some respects an ex- 
ceedingly agreeable change from field service, 
was in other respects most unpleasant and diffi- 
cult. Returning to the regiment before the com- 
mencement of active operations in the spring of 
1864, he was constantly on duty with his com- 
mand through the terrible campaign on the 
James, commencing with the severe engagement 
at Walthall Junction, in which the regiment lost 
seventy-four men, and immediately followed by 
the four days' battle at Drury's Blufif, with fur- 
ther heavy loss. During the "battle summer" 



that followed, in the absence of the field officers, 
the regiment was commanded by Captain Coit. 
Its history and his is a record of marches and 
battles almost daily, until the latter part of 
June, when it was ordered to the front of the 
line investing Petersburg. From June 21 to Au- 
gust 27, under the scorching summer sun, the 
men lay in their rifle pits, rarely by day or night 
beyond the range of the enemy's cannon. In 
one of the regiment's charges on the enemy's 
works so gallantly did the men do their work 
that their commander, General "Baldy" Smith, 
said that he "felt like giving a commission to 
the whole regiment that had done that gallant 
deed." The last severe fighting of the regiment, 
at Fort Harrison, September 29, was another of 
its most gallant achievements. Charging across 
nearly a mile of open field, still commanded by 
Captain Coit, the men stormed the fort, driving 
the gunners from their places and planting their 
flag on its ramparts. The regiment lay in the 
trenches about the fort nearly a month, repuls- 
ing in the meantime all attempts of the enemy 
to regain their lost ground. When at the end 
of the month the men were relieved and assigned 
to lighter duty, the regiment had become so 
thoroughly reduced by the casualties of the 
field, "fatigue duty, watching, picketing, storms, 
and lack of even shelter tents, which were not 
then allowed at the front," that but ninety mus- 
kets could be mustered. 

Soon after the capture of Fort Harrison, Cap- 
tain Coit was assigned to duty as assistant adju- 
tant-general on the brigade staff, and while here 
received a commission as major of his regiment, 
which he declined. He had been with his regi- 
ment in every action in which it had taken part 
without receiving a wound; but October 28, 
while on staff duty at Fair Oaks, in one of the 
latest engagements of the army before Rich- 
mond, he was wounded, it was supposed mor- 
tally. He was removed to Chesapeake Hos- 
pital, Fortress Monroe, where he remained four 
months, lying for many weeks with the scales 
trembling between life and death, suffering not 
only from his wound but from the almost fatal 
effects of the severe service of the past summer. 
But skilled treatment and the tender care of lov- 
ing friends, aided by his naturally strong consti- 
tution and good habits, were finally blessed to 
his recovery. As soon as health would permit 
he returned to his regiment, but the war being 
over, army life had no charms for him and he 
resigned May 30, 1865. He was brevtted lieu- 
tenant-colonel from March 13, 1865. 



236 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



Soon after his return to Norwich from the 
war, Colonel Coit was chosen to his former posi- 
tion as treasurer of the Chelsea Savings Bank, 
and filled the position with marked ability and 
to the entire satisfaction of all interested. He 
served one term as postmaster of Norwich. He 
was an aide on the staff of General Joseph R. 
Hawley, when that gentleman was Governor of 
Connecticut. Colonel Coit was prominent among 
the founders of the Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic, and was a member of the Boston Com- 
mandery of the Loyal Legion of the United 
States. 

Colonel Coit was a consistent and active mem- 
ber of the Second Congregational Church, hold- 
ing the offices of deacon and treasurer of the 
church, and librarian of the Sunday school. 
Colonel Coit lost his life on July 3, 1878, by 
drowning in New London Harbor; his little son 
had fallen overboard from a yacht, and in an 
effort of the father to rescue him, in which he 
was successful, he lost his own life. 

On June 18, 1872, Colonel Coit was 
married to Miss Mary B. Hillard, and to 
them were born two children : Charles, 
March 28, 1873, and Augustus, April 29, 
1876. At a meeting of the directors of 
the Chelsea Savings Bank, held July 5, 
1878, the following resolutions were unan- 
imously passed : 

Resolved, That in the recent sudden death of 
Colonel Charles M. Coit, our secretary and 
treasurer, this bank has suffered the greatest 
loss which it has ever been called upon to bear. 
We have lost one who has been identified with 
the bank for nearly twenty years, in whose 
sound judgment and business capacity we have 
always had the greatest confidence, one whose 
integrity both in thought and deed, was such 
that it seems impossible to replace him. 

Resolved, That in Colonel Coit's death this 
community suffers a loss of one who, having 
passed his entire life among them, except that 
portion given to his country, had gained their 
confidence, respect and love to a very unusual 
degree. As a citizen, a patriot soldier, and a 
public officer, he has always shown those quali- 
ties of mind and heart, which endeared him to 
all who were brought in contact with him. 
Though cut off in his prime, the example of 
such a life is of incalculable value to the com- 
munity. 



Early professing his love for Christ, Colonel 
Coit exhibited through the pleasures of youth, 
the trials and temptations of army life, and the 
cares of business, such a sincere, unostentatious, 
but decided Christian spirit as left no room for 
question or cavil. His unswerving allegiance to 
his God controlled ail his life, and has, we be- 
lieve, won for him at the judgment on high the 
same verdict so heartily given by all who knew 
him here: — "Weil done, good and faithful serv- 
ant." 



DWIGHT, Dr. Timothy, 

Educator, Author, Theologian. 

Dr. Timothy Dwight, for half a century 
a member of the Yale faculty and the 
twelfth president of Yale University, from 
1886 to 1899, was born at Norwich, Con- 
necticut, November 16, 1828, his grand- 
father of the sam,e name having been the 
eighth president. He was a son of James 
and Susan (Breed) Dwight, the former 
named having been a son of President 
Timothy Dwight, who was a son of Major 
Timothy Dwight, who was a son of Colo- 
nel Timothy Dwight, who was a son of 
Nathaniel Dwight, who was a son of Cap- 
tain Timothy Dwight, who was a son 
John Dwight, the immigrant ancestor. 

After preparatory school work at Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, he entered Yale Col- 
lege and was graduated in 1849 ^s salu- 
tatorian of his class. In 185 1 he returned 
to New Haven and remained four years 
tutoring in the college and studying the- 
ology in the New Haven Theological 
School. In 1856 he went abroad to study 
at the universities of Bonn and Berlin, 
and remained for two years, and upon his 
return to his native land, in 1858, was 
appointed assistant professor of sacred 
literature in the Yale Divinity School. He 
became a professor in 1861, and in the 
same year was ordained a Congregational 
minister. He was elected president of 
Yale in 1886, and, as it was stipulated 
that he should not be required to take an 



237 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



academic chair, he speedily set on foot 
the movement to transform the college 
into a university, and w^ithin seven 
months the Legislature authorized the 
use of the name Yale University. Under 
the administration of President Dwight 
many new buildings were erected, en- 
dowments were increased, and the num- 
ber of students steadily grew and the 
work of the university was carried into 
seven departments. Nearly two thou- 
sand five hundred students were gradu- 
ated during his incumbency. The degree 
of Doctor of Divinity was conferred on 
President Dwight by the Chicago Theo- 
logical Seminary and by Yale, and that 
of Doctor of Laws by Harvard and Prince- 
ton. He was a member of the committee 
for the revision of the English Bible from 
1872 until its completion in 1885. He 
preached frequently in the college pulpit 
and elsewhere throughout his connection 
with the college. He was the editor of 
several volumes of the American edition 
of Meyers' "Commentary on the New 
Testament," to which he added extended 
notes ; was for some years editor of the 
"New Englander," and in 1870-71 pub- 
lished in that magazine a notable series of 
articles on "The True Ideal of an Ameri- 
can University," afterward published in 
book form ; he published a translation of 
"Godet's Commentary on John's Gospel," 
with additional notes ; a volume of twenty 
of his sermons entitled "Thoughts Of and 
For the Inner Life ;" "Memories of Yale 
Life and Men ;" also various articles and 
addresses on educational and other sub- 
jects. At the celebration of the bicentennial 
of Yale in 1901, Dr. Dwight was president 
of the general bicentennial committee. 

Dr. Dwight married, December 31, 
1866, Jane Wakeman Skinner, daughter 
of Roger Sherman and Mary Lockwood 
(De Forest) Skinner, of New Haven. 
Children: Helen Rood, born December 



8, 1868, died October 20, 1909 ; Winthrop 
Edwards, born December 23, 1872, grad- 
uate of Yale, 1893, s" attorney-at-law in 
New York City. 

Dr. Dwight died May 26, 1916. The 
tributes to his long and useful life were 
fervent and many : "Dr. Dwight," said 
Chauncey M. Depew, "had a wonderful 
fund of humor and was one of the most 
charming men I ever met. When he pro- 
posed resigning I went to his house to 
ask him to remain. He told me then that 
the Dwights died at seventy, and he felt 
that if he remained in harness he wouldn't 
be able to break the record. He did break 
it by seventeen years." 

Henry W. Taft said : "He lived up to 
the best traditions of a line of eminent 
presidents of Yale. He was a man of the 
highest character and ability — a classic 
figure in the history of the university." 

Payson Merrill's comment was : "He 
was one of the best presidents Yale ever 
had." 

George Adee said of him : "No man 
was ever more respected and loved than 
Dr. Dwight. Every Yale man holds him 
in abiding love and affection." 

"The most conspicuous thing about Dr. 
Dwight was his lovable character and his 
universal kindness," was the tribute of 
Frederick C. Walcott. 

Voicing the university sentiment. Dean 
Jones said : "He was everywhere recog- 
nized as one of the great presidents of 
Yale. He was famous as a scholar, a wit 
and a divine, but his great life work was, 
as the president of Yale, in creating it a 
genuine university." 

Dean Brown, of the Divinity School, 
said: "Dr. Dwight's thorough scholar- 
ship, administrative ability and noble 
Christian character have enabled him to 
render a conspicuous and memorable serv- 
ice to Yale and to the Kingdom of God." 



238 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



COAN, Titus, 

Missionary. 

Titus Coan was born in Killingworth, 
Connecticut, February i, 1801. He was 
educated by private tutors, and at the 
age of eighteen began to teach a country 
school, continued the business of instruc- 
tion for about ten years, and then entered 
the Theological Seminary at Auburn, 
New York. Being graduated in 1833, he 
undertook for the Boston Board of Mis- 
sions an exploration of southern Pata- 
gonia, for the purpose of establishing a 
mission there. Narrowly escaping with 
his life, he returned home the following 
year, and was sent as missionary to the 
Sandwich Islands, where he served for 
forty-eight years. He was regarded by 
the natives of the islands with an affec- 
tion that was well-nigh veneration, and 
his work among them was attended with 
most important results. In his interest- 
ing account of a visit to the Sandwich 
Islands in 1873, Charles Nordhoff gives 
the following sketch of his life and work : 

In Hilo, when you go to visit the volcano, you 
will find Dr. Coan, one of the brightest and love- 
liest spirits of them all, the story of whose life in 
the Umato Island, whose apostle he was, is as 
wonderful and as touching as that of any of the 
earlier apostles, and shows what great works un- 
yielding faith and love can do in redeeming a 
savage people. When Dr. and Mrs. Coan came to 
the island of Hawaii its shores and woods were 
populous, and through their labors thousands of 
men and women were instructed in the truths of 
Christianity, inducted into civilized habits of life, 
and finally brought into the church. As you sail 
along the green coast of Hawaii from its northern 
point to Hilo, you will be surprised at the number 
of quaint little white churches which mark the dis- 
tances almost with the regularity of milestones; 
if, later, you ride through this district or the one 
south of Hilo, you will see that for every church 
there is also a school house; you will see native 
children reading and writing as well as our own 
at home; you may hear them singing tunes fa- 
miliar to our own Sunday schools ; you will see 
the native man and woman sitting down to read 



their newspaper at the close of the day; and if 
you could talk with them, you would find they 
knew almost as much about our late war as you 
do, for they took an intense interest in the war 
of the rebellion. And you must remember that 
when, less than forty years ago. Dr. and Mrs. 
Coan came to Hilo, the people were naked 
savages with no church and but one school house 
in the district; without printed books or knowl- 
edge of reading. They flocked to hear the 
Gospel. Thousands removed from a distance to 
Hilo, where, in their rapid way, they built up a 
large town, and kept up surely the strangest 
"protracted meeting" ever held ; and going back 
to their homes after many months they took with 
them knowledge and zeal to build up Christian 
churches and schools of their own. Over these 
Dr. Coan had presided many years, not only 
preaching regularly on Sundays and during the 
week in the large native church at Hilo, and in 
two or three neighboring churches, but visiting 
the more distant churches at intervals to examine 
and instruct the members and keep them all on 
the right track. He had seen a great population 
turned from darkness to light, a great part of it 
following his own blameless and loving life as an 
example, and very many living to old age stead- 
fast and zealous Christians. 

He wrote books on "Patagonia" and 
"Life in Hawaii," and numerous contri- 
butions to periodicals. He continued to 
reside in the Sandwich Islands until his 
death in Hilo, Hawaii, December i. 1882. 



CLEVELAND, Chauncey Fitch, 

Governor. 

Chauncey Fitch Cleveland was born at 
Hampton, Windham county, Connecticut, 
February 16, 1799, youngest son of Silas 
and Lois (Sharpe) Cleveland. He was 
sixth in descent from Moses Cleveland, of 
Ipswich, England, who emigrated to Mas- 
sachusetts about 1635, and in 1640 became 
a resident of Woburn, where he married 
Ann Winn. Edward, son of Moses, re- 
moved to Kingston, Rhode Island, and 
thence, in 1816, to Canterbury, Windham 
county, Connecticut, where he founded a 
large family. 

Chauncey F. Cleveland was educated in 



239 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the public schools, and at the age of fif- 
teen began teaching, which occupation he 
followed until he was twenty. At the age 
of seventeen he began the study of law ; 
in August, 1819, was admitted to the bar 
of Windham county, and in September 
began practice, being yet under age. "He 
won," says a contemporary, "immediate 
success by his intuitive skill in seizing 
upon the salient points in a case. * * * 
He rarely failed to convince a jury." Be- 
fore many years he was made prosecuting 
attorney for the county, and next State's 
Attorney. For about twenty years he was 
in the military service of the State, hold- 
ing office from the lowest to the highest. 
In 1837 he served as a bank commissioner. 
His political ardor as a Democrat brought 
him election to the Legislature in 1826, 
and he was frequently reelected to that 
body, and was speaker in 1836, 1838 and 
1863. In 1849 an attempt was made to 
form a new town called Putnam, out of 
parts of Windham and other towns, and 
which met with bitter opposition, both 
sides employing counsel, and the case be- 
ing argued before the Legislature, Cleve- 
land appearing in behalf of the applicants, 
while Hon. Charles Chapman, of Hart- 
ford, made an eloquent argument against 
the division, the result being that Cleve- 
land carried the Legislature and audience 
with him. The popular votes for Gov- 
ernor being indecisive in 1842 and 1843, 
he was chosen Governor by the Legisla- 
ture. In 1849 and 1851 he was elected to 
Congress, where he opposed slavery, and 
thus alienated many of his constituents ; 
but was supported by the Free Soil party. 
He aided in organizing the Republican 
party in the State, and headed the elec- 
toral ticket in i860. He was a delegate to 
the Peace Congress in February, 1861, 
being appointed by Governor Bucking- 
ham, and made every exertion to prevent 
the threatened collision. On April 22 he 



presided at a mass meeting at which the 
inhabitants of Windham county pledged 
their money and services to support the 
government, and throughout the war his 
patriotism was fervid. He retained his 
interest in public affairs through life, al- 
though the last twenty years were spent 
in retirement. The degree of Doctor of 
Laws was conferred upon him by Trinity 
College. 

He was married at Hampton, Decem- 
ber 13, 1821, to Diantha, daughter of Dr. 
Jacob and Olive (Scott) Hovey, and 
cousin of Hon. Galusha Grow. She bore 
him a son, John Jacob (Trinity, 1845) ^^^ 
a daughter, Diantha Delia, who was mar- 
ried to Hon. Alfred A. Brenham. Mrs. 
Cleveland died October 29, 1867. Gov- 
ernor Cleveland was again married, Janu- 
ary 2y, 1869, to Helen Cornelia, daughter 
of Dr. Eleaser and Marina (Hovey) Litch- 
field, of Hampton. His brother Mason 
was a State Senator, comptroller and com- 
missioner of the school fund. A nephew, 
Edward Spicer Cleveland, was the Demo- 
cratic candidate for Governor in 1886. 
Governor Cleveland died at Hampton, 
Connecticut, June 6, 1887. 



HART, Samuel, D. D., 

Clergyman, Educator, Author. 

The Rev. Dr. Samuel Hart, dean of the 
Berkeley Divinity School, whose death 
occurred at Middletown, Connecticut, 
P'ebruary 25, 1917, from pneumonia, after 
an illness of only a few days, was one of 
the most scholarly and influential divines 
and theologians of his day. 

He was born in Old Saybrook, June 4, 
1845, the son of Henry and Mary Wit- 
ter Hart, his father being a prosperous 
farmer, who was also justice of the peace 
and judge of probate. He was descended 
from Stephen Hart, who came from Eng- 
land to Cambridge in 1637 and later mi- 



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grated to Hartford and finally to Farm- 
ington. Among his ancestors were also 
Captain Thomas Hart, and John Hart, 
who graduated from Yale College in 1703, 
its second graduate, and who later became 
a tutor at the college. 

Young Hart was reared on his father's 
farm in Old Saybrook, and when not in 
school was busy in farm work. His father 
was well-to-do, and his son, after his edu- 
cation in the district schools, was sent 
to the Episcopal Academy at Cheshire, 
where he prepared for college. He en- 
tered Trinity College, from which he re- 
ceived his B. A. degree in 1866. Before 
this date he had decided to enter the 
ministry, and upon completing his aca- 
demic course he entered the Berkeley Di- 
vinity School in Middletown, where he 
was graduated in 1869, receiving his Mas- 
ter's degree at Trinity the same year. He 
was ordained deacon by Bishop Williams 
on June 2, 1869, and to the priesthood the 
following year. At the time of his death 
he had been a pri&st for forty-seven years 
and in orders for nearly forty-eight, was 
seventh among the priests of the diocese 
in order of canonical residence. During 
the last year of his course in Berkeley 
Divinity School he was a tutor in Trinity 
College. 

The work of an instructor appealed to 
the young priest, more than did the rou- 
tine of a parish, and shortly after his or- 
dination he was made Assistant Profes- 
sor of Mathematics and in 1873 he be- 
came professor of that subject. Ten years 
later he became Professor of Latin at 
Trinity College, and he held that post 
until he left in 1899 to become vice-dean 
of Berkeley Divinity School, and removed 
from Hartford to Middletown and became 
leader and chaplain in 1908. 

He had already become well known in 
the church outside the diocese of Connec- 
ticut, and in 1886 was made custodian of 

Conn-l— 16 24I 



the Book of Common Prayer, an office 
which he held until the time of his death. 
An intimate friend of Bishop Williams, 
his name was used as one of the candi- 
dates when the failing health of Bishop 
Williams led to the election of a bishop 
coadjutor in 1897, ^"d at that time he had 
already declined an election to the bishop- 
ric of the diocese of Vermont to take the 
place later filled by Bishop A. C. A. Hall. 
His name was again used as a candidate 
when Bishop-Coadjutor Brewster became 
sole bishop of the diocese. In 1892, at the 
general convention of the Protestant Epis- 
copal church, he was secretary of the 
House of Bishops, which honor he held 
until his death, officiating at the recent 
triennial convention held in St. Louis, 
Missouri. In 1898 he was made histori- 
ographer of the Protestant Episcopal 
church. He had been a senator of the 
Phi Beta Kappa fraternity since 1892. 

In 1885 he received the honorary degree 
of Doctor of Divinity from Trinity Col- 
lege, and the same title was conferred 
upon him by Yale University. In 1899 
Trinity gave him the degree of Doctor of 
Canon Law, while Wesleyan University 
later gave him the degree of LL. D. 

There were few churches in the diocese 
in which he had not preached, for prob- 
ably no other priest in the diocese pos- 
sessed such knowledge of the church in 
Connecticut as did he, and few equalled 
him in his knowledge of the history of 
his native State. He was often heard in 
the church in his native town. Old Say- 
brook, and during the pastorate of the 
late Rev. Dr. W. G. Andrews, of Guilford, 
he was frequently heard in Christ Church 
in that town, where his ancestors once 
lived. He was one of the speakers there 
when the town celebrated the two hun- 
dredth and fiftieth anniversary of its set- 
tlement in September, 1889. Whenever 
a Hartford parish observed an anniver- 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



sary, he was invariably called upon to 
give the historical address, his last appear- 
ance in that capacity there being at the 
Church of the Good Shepherd last Decem- 
ber. He gave the historical address at the 
seventy-fifth anniversary of St. John's 
parish, and a few years ago he was heard 
at Christ Church, when that venerable 
parish observed an anniversary. His mas- 
tery of historical data, the purity of his 
English and the charm of his delivery, 
made him invariably the choice when an 
address of the sort was called for. For 
some years Trinity College depended upon 
him for its necrology and it was he who 
collected the data and who read the list 
at Alumni Day. 

Dr. Hart was president of the Connec- 
ticut Historical Society from 1900 to the 
time of his death. He was vice-president 
of the Wadsworth Atheneum, and presi- 
dent of the trustees of the Good Will 
Club, in which he was always keenly in- 
terested. From 1873 to 1888 he was sec- 
retary of the American Philological As- 
sociation, and was its president in 1892- 
93. He was president of the Connecticut 
Library Association from 1894 to 1896. 
He was prominent in other societies and 
organizations, including the American Ori- 
ental Society of Biblical Literature and 
Exegesis, the American Historical Associ- 
ation, the New Haven Historical Society, 
the Society of Colonial Wars, the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of 
Science, and the Psi Upsilon fraternity. 
He was also one of those chosen by his 
cousin, the late Mrs. Elizabeth Hart Colt, 
as executors to administer certain be- 
quests left by her, and for more than 
thirty years he had been practically a 
weekly visitor at the Hartford Hospital, 
where he conducted services. 

He was known as a writer, appearing 
in 1873 as the editor of the "Satires of 



Juvenal," and in 1875 he issued the "Sat- 
ires of Persius," and, shortly after, he 
published "Bishop Seabury's Communion 
Office, With Notes." In 1895 he edited 
"Maclear's Manual For Confirmation and 
Holy Communion," and in 1901 he wrote 
the "History of the American Prayer 
Book," a topic upon which he gave a 
series of lectures in Christ Church. For 
fifty years he was a voluntary and irregu- 
lar contributor to the "Hartford Courant." 
Among his last labors was that upon the 
present work, "Encyclopedia of Connecti- 
cut Biography." 

At the annual convention of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church held in St. Paul's 
Church, New Haven, in 1904, a committee 
of three clergymen and five laymen was 
appointed to prepare a memorial on the 
occasion of the completion of Rev. Dr. 
Hart's thirtieth year as registrar, and 
which concluded with the following fer- 
vent tribute : 

He has virtually given his life to Connecticut; 
and the gift has included a wealth not only of 
intellectual and moral, but of spiritual power, put 
forth in priestly ministries such as the best of 
parish priests might have been thankful to be 
equal to. And the modest office of registrar, in 
which he has for almost a generation wrought so 
untiringly and unselfishly, would seem furnished 
in him with an instrument far too costly for such 
uses, were it not that he has wrought so fruitfully 
as to make uses seem worth the cost. 

This is saying much, for though the cost to us is 
nothing, it may easily have been to him the sacri- 
fice of laurels, to be green for generations, which 
he could have won in Christian literature. But he 
has the consciousness of having served his own 
generation by the will of God. And we, seek- 
ing to offer an appreciation not only of his great 
service, but of his great sacrifice, can take pleasure 
in the thought that he is still in his intellectual 
prime, and while continuing, as we desire, the 
services so valuable to us, may yet accomplish 
some other work, sure to be invaluable to us 
because worthy of him; possibly erecting his 
monument out of the very stones that he has 
quarried. 



242 



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ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



STANTON, Lewis Eliot, 

Lawyer, Litterateur. 

That name alone is sufficient for con- 
temporaries, representing as it does one 
of the older members of the Hartford 
county bar, and one of the oldest practic- 
ing lawyers in Connecticut. The late Mr. 
Stanton's long and active professional ca- 
reer and his enviable record as a political 
speaker and lecturer, made his name fa- 
miliar in regions distant from the part 
of New England with which it is most 
closely identified. 

Thomas Stanton, founder of the Ameri- 
can branch of the family, was a scion of a 
house of ancient English origin. He is 
on record as a magistrate in Boston as 
early as 1636, and served as Indian inter- 
preter for Governor Winthrop. During 
the Pequot War he rendered valuable as- 
sistance in the same capacity, and special 
mention is made of his bravery in the 
battle of Fairfield Swamp, in which he 
nearly lost his life. At the close of the 
war he must have returned to Boston, for 
he appears as one of the magistrates in 
the trial of John Wainwright, which took 
place October 3, 1637. In 1639 we find 
him settled in Hartford, where he was 
appointed official interpreter for the Gen- 
eral Court, and it is worthy of note that 
throughout his life he served on many 
important occasions as a medium of com- 
munication between the English and the 
Indians. Thomas Stanton was widely 
known as an Indian trader, his operations 
covering an extensive territory. He was 
granted a monopoly of trading with the 
Indians at Pawkatuck, where he built a 
trading house. About 165 1 this enter- 
prising pioneer removed to Pequot, and 
seven years later took up his permanent 
residence at Stonington, or rather at We- 
quetequock Cove, two and one-half miles 
east of that town, which was then con- 
sidered a part of Suffolk county, Massa- 



chusetts. Thomas Stanton was the third 
settler, and in 1658 was appointed one of 
the managers. He received several grants 
of land and on May 15, 1651, was elected 
a deputy magistrate by the General Court. 
In 1664 he was a commissioner to try 
small cases, and in 1665 he had authority 
to hold a semi-annual court at New Lon- 
don. In 1666 he was reelected commis- 
sioner, and overseer-general of the Coas- 
satuck Indians, a commissioner of appeals 
in Indian affairs, and was successively re- 
elected commissioner during the remain- 
der of his life. In 1666 he was a member 
of the General Assembly and was regu- 
larly reelected until 1674. During King 
Philip's War Thomas Stanton took an ac- 
tive part, his sons also participating. On 
June 3, 1674, he aided in founding the 
church at Stonington, and his name stands 
first on its roll of membership. 

Thomas Stanton married Ann, born in 
1621, in England, daughter of Dr. Thom- 
as and Dorothy Lord. On June 30, 1652, 
Dr. Lord was licensed by the General 
Court to practice in Connecticut, being 
the first physician to whom this privilege 
was accorded. The site of the original 
home of Thomas Stanton at Hartford is 
now occupied by the factory of the Jewell 
Belting Company. 

On December 2, 1677, this brave soldier, 
just magistrate and wise interpreter be- 
tween two races, passed away. His rec- 
ord forms part of the early annals of New 
England, and one historian says of him : 
"Never, perhaps, did the acquisition of a 
barbarous language give to a man such 
immediate, widespread and lasting impor- 
tance. From the year 1636, when he was 
Winthrop's interpreter with the Nahantic 
sachem, to 1670, when Uncas visited him 
with a train of warriors and captains to 
get him to write his will, his name is con- 
nected with almost every Indian trans- 
action on record." 



243 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



(II) Joseph, son of Thomas and Ann 
(Lord) Stanton, was born in 1646, and 
resided in Stonington. In 1699 he was 
appointed assistant magistrate to hold 
court in New London. Later he removed 
to Charlestown, Rhode Island, where we 
find him in 1685 affixing his signature to 
a lease. He was four times married, and 
his death occurred in 1714. 

(III) Daniel, son of Joseph Stanton by 
his second marriage, was born April i, 
1694, and has come down in history as 
"Captain," probably from the fact that he 
served with that rank in the colonial 
forces. He was several times married, 
and died December 28, 1773. 

(IV) John, son of Daniel Stanton, was 
born in February, 1722, in Charlestown, 
Rhode Island, and married Dorothy, born 
in 1724, daughter of Jonathan and Ann 
(Treat) Richardson. John Stanton died 
September i, 1814, in Paris, Oneida coun- 
ty. New York, long surviving his wife, 
who passed away in 1790. 

(V) Adam, son of John and Dorothy 
(Richardson) Stanton, was born in 1749, 
in Westerly, Rhode Island, and in 1775 
moved thence to Killingworth, now Clin- 
ton, Connecticut. He there built a house 
on the site formerly occupied by the 
dwelling of Abraham Pierson, the first 
rector of Yale College. The first business 
in which Adam Stanton engaged was the 
making of salt from the water of Long 
Island Sound. His product was trans- 
ported by ox teams to Boston, where he 
sold it for two dollars a bushel. He mar- 
ried, December 4, 1777, Elizabeth, born 
May 28, 1754, daughter of the Rev. Sam- 
uel Treat, of Preston, Connecticut. Mrs. 
Stanton died May 23, 1805, and her hus- 
band lived to the age of eighty-five, pass- 
ing away at Clinton on October 15, 1834. 

(VI) John, son of Adam and Elizabeth 
(Treat) Stanton, was born April 5, 1783, 
in Clinton, and was a farmer and general 



merchant. His political affiliations were 
with the Whigs, and he was a member of 
the Baptist church. Mr. Stanton mar- 
ried, March 29, 1825, Caroline Elizabeth 
Eliot, who was born March 17, 1796, and 
was a descendant in the sixth generation 
of John Eliot, Apostle to the Indians. Mr. 
and Mrs. Stanton were the parents of 
three children : Jonathan Adam ; Eliza- 
beth ; and Lewis Eliot, mentioned below. 
Mr. Stanton died September 9, 1864, and 
the death of his widow occurred May 29, 
1866. 

(VII) Lewis Eliot Stanton, son of 
John and Caroline Elizabeth (Eliot) Stan- 
ton, was born July 19, 1833, and died Au- 
gust 2y, 1916, in Clinton, Connecticut, 
both birth and death occurring in the 
Stanton homestead, built in 1789, by his 
grandfather, Adam Stanton, on the site of 
Rector Pierson's residence, where the first 
president of Yale College gave instruc- 
tion to the first students of that renowned 
educational institution. 

Lewis Eliot Stanton received his early 
education at the village school of his 
birthplace, in the schools of Norwich, and 
later prepared for college at Bacon Acade- 
my in Colchester. He entered Yale in 
1851, and at once applied himself with 
diligence to his studies, proving an apt 
and conscientious student, and taking 
various prizes for ability in debate, and 
was subsequently graduated with honor 
in a distinguished class. But his course 
of study did not end with the four years 
at the university. After leaving college 
he returned to his books with determina- 
tion, having decided to make the law his 
profession. But while preparing for the 
bar he accepted the position of teacher at 
Shaw Academy in East Cleveland, Ohio, 
where he remained for nearly a year. In 
July, 1856, his health became impaired 
and he was forced to relinquish his school, 
which he did with much regret. But his 



244 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



own studies were not interrupted, and a 
year later, in May, 1857, he entered Yale 
Law School and received legal instruction 
under Governor Henry Button and Pro- 
fessor Thomas B. Osborne. Classmates 
of Mr. Stanton at Yale included Professor 
Charles F. Johnson, of Trinity College ; 
P. H. Woodward and Theodore Lyman, 
and the late Major Francis Parsons. 

In February, 1859, Mr. Stanton entered 
the law office of John S. Beach, of New 
Haven, where he remained until his ad- 
mission to the bar in April, 1859, not re- 
turning to his home until November of 
the same year, and then locating in Nor- 
wich. Mr. Stanton remained in Norwich 
until September 9, 1865, being assistant 
clerk of the Superior Court of New Lon- 
don county from June, 1863, to July, 1864, 
and recorder of the city of Norwich from 
July, 1864, to the time of his departure. 

Mr. Stanton came to Hartford in 1865 
and formed a law partnership with John 
C. Day, which was maintained for six 
years, when the firm was dissolved and 
Mr. Stanton continued practice in his own 
name. In 1870 he was appointed assistant 
to United States Attorney Calvin G. 
Child, and attended to the federal busi- 
ness of Hartford county, serving under 
Attorney Child and Daniel Chadwick. On 
the death of Mr. Chadwick in 1884, he 
was appointed United States attorney for 
the district of Connecticut, his commis- 
sion, dated December 19, being signed by 
President Chester A. Arthur. Until April, 
1888, he continued in that office, serving 
the government in all for a period of 
seventeen years, and being engaged in 
trying criminal and civil cases for the 
United States, wherein he gained more 
than ordinary experience. Since that 
time Mr. Stanton had devoted his time 
to civil cases and the law of corporations. 
He was at one time president of the Hart- 
ford County Bar Association and for a 



considerable period a member of the local 
council of the American Bar Association. 
Mr. Stanton inherited a strong memory 
and a natural gift for public speaking, and 
much of his success was due to his facil- 
ity of expression, coupled with hard work 
and a remarkable scholarship. During 
the early years of his practice he was 
fond of stump speaking and did a great 
deal of it in eastern Connecticut, making 
speeches in all campaigns, both State and 
national, from i860 to 1870. One of the 
memorable events of his early career in 
Norwich was when Abraham Lincoln 
came there and made his great speech, 
soon after the famous contest with Doug- 
las for the Illinois Senatorship. The next 
morning Mr. Stanton sought a long inter- 
view, which, to his great delight, Lin- 
coln gave him. In that conversation the 
Illinois statesman repeated what he had 
said in public : "Young man, this country 
cannot remain half slave and half free. 
Slavery will be abolished or it will ex- 
tend over the country." Soon after that 
Mr. Stanton said on the stump that Abra- 
ham Lincoln exhibited such undoubted 
genius that it would not be at all surpris- 
ing to see him President of the United 
States. Lincoln was nominated at the 
next convention. 

In politics Mr. Stanton was always 
a staunch Republican. He never ran 
for office but once, and had no fondness 
for it, though taking a great interest in 
the welfare of his party. In the fall of 
1880 he was nominated for the House of 
Representatives, and was elected and 
made house chairman of the Judiciary 
Committee, with his classmate, Lyman 
D. Brewster, Senate chairman. 

In 1871 the Morgan School was estab- 
lished in Clinton. Afterward the grounds 
were decorated with statues, and Mr. 
Stanton was called upon for a speech. 
His subject was upon the wealth of Con- 



245 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



necticut, and he gave facts and statistics 
at great length, asserting that this won- 
derful advance was due really to the edu- 
cation of the people, and that if any State 
desired to be rich it must first educate the 
young. The latter remark is significant 
and characteristic of the man, who was 
a constant reader and student. 

Mr. Stanton was a member of the Cen- 
ter church and deeply interested in its 
prosperity. He had delivered many lec- 
tures upon literary and historical subjects 
and was altogether a man of unusual 
gifts and peculiar sagacity. His personal 
character, and the eminence he won in 
his profession, placed him in the front 
rank of the men worth knowing, and he 
was esteemed and honored as a man of 
of strict integrity and sterling scholar- 
ship. 

Mr. Stanton, being without family, had 
lived in bachelor quarters practically all 
his life in Hartford. For several years 
he occupied an apartment in the Hartford 
Fire building and more recently had lived 
in the Goodwin building, corner Asylum 
and Haynes streets. The house in which 
he died in Clinton is ancestral property 
and was, until Mr. Stanton's ownership, 
immediately preceding owned and occu- 
pied by John Stanton, his brother, de- 
ceased. In its fittings and furnishings it 
is a museum of early New England life 
and has been visited by thousands of 
lovers of the colonial and antique. Mr. 
Stanton took great pride in it and em- 
ployed a family to live in it and care for 
it the year 'round. He spent much of his 
time summers there and at Watch Hill. 
The house is on the site of Rector Pier- 
son's school, claimed to have been the 
inspiration for the founding of Yale Col- 
lege, and some of the timbers of the 
school help form the frame of the Stan- 
ton homestead. It was built in 1789 by 
Adam Stanton, grandfather of Lewis E. 
Stanton. 



Mr. Stanton's law office in Hartford 
had for many years been on the second 
floor of the building on State street (No. 
16) for nearly three-quarters of a century 
occupied in part by the Geers, printers 
and city directory publishers. He had 
not engaged in active practice of the law 
for two or three years. Mr. Stanton 
leaves no near relatives. 



BOLANDE, Frank W., 

Jonrnalist, Artist. 

"An institution that should always fight 
for progress and reform, never tolerate 
injustice or corruption, always fight dem- 
agogues of all parties, never belong to any 
party, always oppose privileged classes 
and public plunderers, never lack sym- 
pathy with the poor, always remain de- 
voted to the public welfare, never be satis- 
fied with merely printing news, always be 
drastically independent, never be afraid 
to attack wrong, whether by predatory 
plutocracy or predatory poverty" — the 
ideal, expressing the best and highest in 
the field of journalism, of the late Joseph 
Pulitzer, founder of "The World" and 
one of the greatest journalists the age has 
produced. 

New England has just lost one of the 
greatest and most honored of her journal- 
ists, the late Frank Wesley Bolande, edi- 
tor of the "Post," the Bridgeport "Tele- 
gram," the Bridgeport "Standard" and 
the "Sunday Post," and one of the fairest, 
most unprejudiced, capable and gifted 
men of the newspaper world of New Eng- 
land. A man who literally sacrificed his 
life to the work which he loved. "We 
must draw a circle about ourselves, and 
outside this circle we must keep every 
partisan and special pleader. We can 
thus support what is right and good, and 
condemn what is bad and wrong; we can 
champion whatever is for the best inter- 
ests of the city without committing our- 



246 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



selves to any party or persons, so that we 
shall be always free to point out a mis- 
take or condemn a bad action, * * * "the 
editorial policy and principle of Mr. Bo- 
lande, identical with the great ideal which 
heads this tribute to his memory, the 
only ideal which can express the true mis- 
sion of journalism ! 

The arms of the Bolande family are as 
follows : Azure, three birdbolts or. Crest : 
Out of a ducal coronet or, an arm from 
the elbow, holding a bunch of three arrows 
in bend sinister, all proper. 

Frank Wesley Bolande was born in 
Plymouth, Connecticut, on March 28, 
1865, the son of Wesley F. and Angeline 
Bolande, both of whom were members of 
prominent and long established New 
England families. In 1872, at the age of 
seven years, he came to Bridgeport, Con- 
necticut, with his father and mother, and 
entered the old Barnum school where 
he received his early education and 
formed childhood friendships which last- 
ed throughout his life. He later attended 
the Bridgeport High School, but left be- 
fore the completion of his course to take 
up the study of architecture in the office 
of the late Henry A. Lambert. He was 
talented artistically, and forged ahead 
rapidly in his work in this line, giving 
much attention to sketching. He also 
gave much of his time to the study of the 
fine arts, music and literature, merely for 
the love, not thinking yet to make any 
one of them his life work. Mr. Bolande 
remained for scarcely three years at archi- 
tecture, quitting the office of Mr. Lam- 
bert to give his entire attention to literary 
work. At this time he was making steady 
contributions to the Bridgeport "Post." 

The "Post," the paper of which Mr. Bo- 
lande later became chief executive and 
editor, was founded in 1883, by George 
W. Hills, the first newspaper in Bridge- 
port of independent policy and also the 



first penny sheet. His first connection 
with it was solely in the capacity of an 
intermittent contributor, during the early 
days of the great paper's struggle for 
existence on a policy never before at- 
tempted in the city, and which did not in 
the beginning meet with sympathy in 
the conservative cities of New England. 
Shortly after leaving Mr. Lambert, Mr. 
Bolande entered the employ of the Bridge- 
port "Farmer," and while working for 
this publication received an offer from 
Mr. Hill, of the "Post." The two con- 
sidered the possibility of publishing in 
Bridgeport a new morning newspaper, 
but found the idea impractical at the time 
and the proposition was abandoned. Mr. 
Bolande then entered the employ of the 
New Haven "Palladium," and was as- 
signed to the work of developing support 
for the newspaper in the city of Bridge- 
port. From this position he went on the 
Bridgeport "Post," known then as the 
"Evening Post," this was in 1885. From 
this position he went to Meriden, Con- 
necticut, to assume the post of former 
Congressman Thomas L. Reilly, on the 
Meriden "Republican," who had just re- 
signed. After a period spent in Meriden, 
he returned to Bridgeport, and took a 
position as reporter on the "Standard," 
then under the control of men who later 
became figures of importance and influ- 
ence in the history of Connecticut, among 
them John D. Candee, editor of the paper, 
and Alexander Wheeler, its business man- 
ager. During his connection with the 
"Standard" this time, Mr. Bolande did 
much of its cartoon work, which brought 
him notice through the city, and in which 
he showed evidence of an originality, 
depth of judgment, and freshness, which 
are invaluable factors in journalistic 
work. He was city editor of the "Stand- 
ard" in 1890. It was these things which 
brought forcibly to the mind of George 



247 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



W. Hills, of the then comparatively in- 
significant "Post," the value of a man of 
Mr. Bolande's type to his publication. 
Shortly afterward the Post Publishing 
Company was formed by Mr. Hills, in 
partnership with Mr. Bolande and Mr. 
Robert N. Blakeslee, and at the same time 
was initiated "a period of phenomenal 
growth for the "Post." during which it 
became the greatest newspaper of Bridge- 
port, and assumed its place among the 
well-known sheets of New England. The 
continued prosperity of the "Post" was 
remarkable, and it gradually received 
strong public support. It was later de- 
cided to start a morning daily, and the 
Bridgeport "Telegram" was established, 
proving an immediate success, and soon 
gaining control of its only rival in the 
morning field, "The Bridgeport Union." 
The partnership between Mr. Hills and 
his associates ended in the year 1905, 
when the "Post" remained in control of 
Messrs. Bolande and Blakeslee, Mr. Hills 
assuming charge of the Bridgeport "Tele- 
gram." The need for a Sunday publica- 
tion was answered in 191 1, when the 
"Sunday Post" made its initial appear- 
ance and scored a great success. 

Upon the retirement in 1914 of Mr. 
Blakeslee, Mr. Bolande became associated 
with Kenneth W. McNeil, and Archibald 
McNeil, Jr., who had purchased the "Tele- 
gram" from Mr. Hills. The "Post," "Tele- 
gram" and "Sunday Post" were then once 
again united. In 191 5 the combination 
of the greatest newspaper of the city was 
consummated, when the Post Publishing 
Company secured a controlling interest in 
the "Bridgeport Standard," and Mr. Bo- 
lande became editor of the four principal 
publications of the city. 

Freedom from entangling alliances, fair- 
ness, independence, championship of the 
rights and interests of the city and of the 
people, the presentation of news on a fair 



unbiased basis — these were the principles 
on which the papers were governed, and 
on which Mr. Bolande reared a lasting 
monument to himself. 

Among the most important of the 
causes which Mr. Bolande championed in 
the interests of the public are the harbor 
lines fight, the car-barn location, the vari- 
ous public improvements, the new high 
school, and improved civic government in 
all departments. In many cases the 
"Post" was strongly opposed in its efforts, 
but in no case was it swerved by any of 
the influences brought strongly to bear 
upon it from the issue for which it had 
declared. His latest efforts were directed 
toward securing a commission form of 
government as a means to give the people 
a more business-like conduct of their 
affairs. In this he had the support of 
most of the thinking minds of the city of 
Bridgeport. His work in the line of pub- 
lic affairs was not confined to local issues, 
however. He came to the front forcibly 
again and again in great State questions, 
and will long be remembered for the part 
he played individually and through the 
columns of the "Post" in bringing about 
the public utilities commission legisla- 
tion. As a member of the executive board 
of the State Business Men's Association, 
Mr. Bolande was active in support of the 
measures ; and at a time when the major- 
ity of the papers of the State maintained 
a discreet silence on the subject or treat- 
ed ineffectually, the "Post" exerted a 
powerful influence in its behalf. Mr. Bo- 
lande more recently supported the great 
home rule law for cities which was passed 
at the last session of the Legislature, and 
also through the "Post" urged taxation 
reform, one of the greatest achievements 
of the last Legislature. Public affairs, 
however, were not his sole interest. He 
gave freely of his time, attention and sup- 
port to other worthy causes. He cham- 



248 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



pioned and supported excursions for news- 
boys, lent the aid of the paper in promot- 
ing philanthropic, charitable and social 
work. Annually he conducted a cam- 
paign to raise money for the poor at 
Christmas time. 

Independent of any political affiliation, 
Mr. Bolande was nevertheless in touch 
with all political issues of the day, the 
firm friend and confidante of men high in 
the councils of the great parties. He was 
throughly catholic in his tastes, a man of 
broad culture, wide sympathies and a 
deep human understanding. He drew his 
friends, whose name was legion, from all 
walks in life. He was unaggressive pri- 
vately as he was aggressive in pursuit of 
public interests, and was of a retiring 
nature. 

Mr. Bolande was a member of the Busi- 
ness Men's Associations of the city and 
State, the Bridgeport Board of Trade, and 
the Bridgeport Chamber of Commerce. 
He was also a member of the General 
Silliman Chapter, Sons of the American 
Revolution, the Brooklawn County Club, 
the Automobile Club. He was deeply in- 
terested in automobiles, and in the growth 
of the industry which he had watched 
closely from its infancy, and was able to 
discuss its every phase from the days 
of the old steamers to the sumptuously 
constructed cars of to-day. 

Frank Wesley Bolande died at the 
Stratfield Hotel in Bridgeport, Connecti- 
cut, on Sunday, October 15,1916. Nothing 
can more adequately express the depth of 
the community's grief, and the sense of 
personal loss felt by the numerous friends 
of the man, than the tributes paid by the 
public press to his life and work, and 
character. 

The following is taken from the Bridge- 
port "Telegram :" 

To build up a powerful, independent newspaper, 
dealing with all kinds of vast concerns, meeting 



and resisting all sorts of attempted influences, 
and warranting and retaining the confidence of 
its thousands of readers, is a task calling for 
tremendous energy, but something else as well. 
"Fair play" is this something, as nearly as it can 
be described in two words. With Frank Bolande, 
"fair play" meant putting the interests of the city, 
the community, the whole collectively, over and 
above any personal, selfish or special interests 
that might attempt to intervene. The full meas- 
ure of his success in doing this, the pressure 
which he resisted in keeping his paper clean and 
straight, the sacrifices he made — can be realized 
only by those who worked with him. It was a 
fetich with him to parry undue influences, to 
avoid partisanship, and to seek and find the wel- 
fare of his community as the sole guide for his 
paper's policy. 

The Hartford "Courant" pays the fol- 
lowing tribute to Mr. Bolande, the more 
valuable because of the fact that the 
"Courant" was in many important issues 
strongly opposed to the principles Mr. 
Bolande advocated : 

In the death reported yesterday of Frank W. 
Bolande, of Bridgeport, a distinct force goes out 
of the newspaper field in this State, goes out, 
that is, so far as the individual counts, though, 
very probably, his influence will long remain in 
the paper which has for so many years felt his 
directing hand. It was the province of "The 
Courant" often to differ diametrically with the 
"Bridgeport Post," which he conducted with such 
vigor, but it was always evident that an earnest 
purpose guided the "Post" and its virile direct- 
ness has been one of its commanding qualities. 
Mr. Bolande was what is commonly called "a 
good fighter" and, indeed, seemed rather to enjoy 
the diversion, but he was capable of praise, too, 
and kept his paper up nearer the boasted level of 
"independence" than any other we can recall. 
Most of the independents stand up so straight 
that they can lean backwards and devote their 
time to fault-finding. Often the "Post" was en- 
thusiastically laudatory • * *. 

The Bridgeport Chamber of Commerce 
and the City of Bridgeport passed the 
following resolution : 

Whereas, The Bridgeport Chamber of Com- 
merce and the City of Bridgeport, through the 



249 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



death of Frank Wesley Bolande, has sustained 
irreparable loss; and 

Whereas, Throughout his entire life as a citi- 
zen of Bridgeport he consistently labored to ad- 
vance the interests of this community, giving vifill- 
ing service to every movement for the public wel- 
fare ; and 

Whereas, With able assistance and counsel in 
the inception and growth of this organization of 
which he has continuously served as a director he 
has unstintedly given of his labors. 

Be It Resolved, That the directors of the 
Bridgeport Chamber of Commerce do give public 
expression of a deep personal loss which is felt 
by the members of this organization, and by the 
citizens of Bridgeport in the passing of one who 
served his city well. 

By Judge Robert Carey, of Jersey City, 
New Jersey : 

Bridgeport and the State of Connecticut suflFer 
a big loss in the death of Mr. Bolande. He was 
one of the finest and most courageous men I ever 
had the pleasure to meet. His death must be an 
occasion for deep regret to every man who has 
any love for the city of Bridgeport. His life was 
an inspiration. His unselfish devotion to principle 
made him a man amongst men. The people of 
Bridgeport should perpetuate his memory by put- 
ting into operation the things for which he has 
been fighting for years. 

Justice George W. Wheeler said of Mr. 
Bolande : 

Mr. Bolande was a warm personal friend and 
I am indebted to him for very many courtesies 
extending over long years. I feel his loss deeply 
and so must this community, for he had ever been 
devoted to its best interests and been its ardent 
admirer and lover. As time has gone on Mr. 
Bolande has, as it seems to me, broadened in his 
viewpoint, deepened in patriotism and become 
more and more attached to the public welfare 
and the things that made for it, and less and less 
mindful of the little and selfish considerations of 
locality. He put into his newspaper work the best 
that was in him and found happiness in his work. 
His work bore fruit. Personal reward came to 
him as a result and that richer reward that comes 
from noble endeavor and high public service. 

Frank Wesley Bolande married, Janu- 
ary I, 1890, Medora C. Beach, daughter 



of John H. and Emma L. (Keeler) Beach, 
of Trumbull, Fairfield county, Connecti- 
cut. He is survived by his wife and by his 
mother, Mrs. Angeline Wooster, widow 
of the late David Wooster, of Bridgeport. 



FLAGG, Charles Noel, 

Distinguished Artist. 

Son of an artistic father and a gentle 
mother, whose influence over their son 
was strong and good, the early life of 
Charles Noel Flagg, who was a repre- 
sentative citizen of Hartford, recognized 
as one of the foremost portrait painters 
in America, and whose work has been 
appreciated in the art centers of Europe, 
was spent amid environment most favor- 
able for a boy whose chief interests were 
books and painting. With inherited tal- 
ent and personal love for the beautiful in 
art and nature, he began at the age of six- 
teen years to develop that talent, and as 
the years progressed he won fame as a 
painter of portraits, as an art teacher, and 
as a public-spirited citizen whose talents 
wei;e at the service of the State and his 
fellow-men. 

No nobler monument could a man erect 
to perpetuate his own nam,e than the 
society Mr. Flagg founded, the Connecti- 
cut League of Art Students, even had it 
been so intended. But that the Art League 
would even survive birth was a problem 
time only could solve, for it was a free 
night school for men wishing to become 
professional artists. Mr. Flagg was its 
first art instructor, and although a period 
of over a quarter of a century elapsed be- 
tween that time and his death he still con- 
tinued one of the instructors and a direc- 
tor, and was very much gratified that the 
institution he founded and fostered was 
of immense practical value to many de- 
serving art students, raised the standard 
of art in the State, and more than fulfilled 



250 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the hopes of its founder. As Mr. Flagg 
ranked as one of the foremost portrait 
painters of New England, his own esti- 
mate of the influences and rules of life he 
followed is of value as a watchword for 
others who would succeed as he succeed- 
ed. The strongest influences of his youth 
were exerted at home by his father and 
mother, and by his friend, Dr. Horace 
Bushnell. Such influences many are 
denied. But next to that, he valued his 
private study, for he was always a real 
worker, believing "laziness the curse of 
art and art students." As watchwords he 
advised: "Be prompt to do the thing to 
be done yourself." Above all — for suc- 
cess — "To thine own self be true — thou 
canst not then be false to any man." 

Charles Noel Flagg traced his ancestry 
to John Flagg, who came from England 
to Rhode Island early in the seventeenth 
century. Henry Collins Flagg, great- 
grandfather of Charles Noel Flagg, was 
surgeon-general in General Washington's 
army, and in another line he traced to 
General Francis Marion, the "Swamp 
Fox" of the Revolution. Rev. Jared 
Bradley Flagg, M. A., S. T. D., father of 
Charles Noel Flagg, was a talented artist, 
a clergyman, an author, writing the life 
and letters of Washington Allston, the 
greatest figure painter of his day, among 
other articles ; a man of gentle disposition, 
a lover of everything beautiful in life. His 
mother, Louisa (Hart) Flagg, was pos- 
sessed of every womanly grace, a queen, 
ruling over the home life of loving sub- 
jects. His brother, Ernest Flagg, is a 
prominent New York architect. 

Charles Noel Flagg was born in Brook- 
lyn, New York, December 25, 1848. His 
youth was spent in New York, where he 
attended public schools, and in New 
Haven, Connecticut, where he was a stu- 
dent in the Hopkins Grammar School. He 
was rather delicate in his youth, fond of 



books, and painting being his chief joy. 
The books he then valued above all others 
were the Bible, Shakespeare's plays and 
Don Quixote, and these were his favorites 
throughout his life and his greatest source 
of help. To give himself needed exercise 
and build up a stronger physique, he took 
up carpentering work that proved bene- 
ficial and later a source of pleasure and in- 
tellectual stimulus. At the age of sixteen 
years he began portrait painting in New 
Haven, continuing also a student during 
the succeeding eight years. In 1872 he 
was able to carry out a long cherished 
ambition. He went to Paris, France, and 
there spent ten years in art study. His 
instructor in drawing and painting was 
the famous Louis Jacquesson de la Chev- 
ereuse, and to private instruction he added 
the lecture courses at L'Ecole des Beaux 
Arts in Paris. 

In 1882 Mr. Flagg returned to the 
United States. He located in Hartford, 
Connecticut, and began his career as a 
portrait artist and art instructor, which 
career he could review with satisfaction, 
not more from the position he came to 
occupy as one of the leading portrait 
painters of his period than for the help 
he was able to extend to others. In 1888 
he founded the Connecticut League of 
Art Students, previously referred to, of 
which he was at the time of his death in- 
structing director. He taught the class 
of the league for twenty-eight years, three 
nights a week, without recompense,, 
purely because he wanted to work for his 
art, and at the time of his death the art 
class was just preparing to begin its fall 
work. He was a man of hope, as well as 
of genius, and saw in every student a new 
Raphael. While the income from his por- 
trait work was always large, he gave lav- 
ishly of his means toward advancing the 
best interests of the highest standards of 
art in the city of Hartford and through- 



251 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



out the State. In Hartford he had special 
interest. It was to his efforts, largely, 
that the old State house exterior was re- 
stored. He strove unceasingly to have 
the State capitol work kept up to the 
highest art level. While his work has 
already been recognized, the presumption 
is that appreciation of his efforts will un- 
doubtedly increase with the years. 

In 1889 Mr. Flagg was appointed by 
the Governor of Connecticut to fill out 
the unexpired term of A. E. Burr, a mem- 
ber of the Connecticut State Capitol Com- 
mission of Sculpture, in 1901 was reap- 
pointed for a term of six years, and at 
the time of his death (1916) was serving 
his fourth term. During his career he 
painted several hundred portraits, many 
of them distinguished men and women of 
their day. At the exhibit of the National 
Academy of Design in 1908, Mr. Flagg 
was awarded the Thomas R. Proctor 
prize for the portrait of his friend, Paul 
Wayland Bartlett, the sculptor. He had 
some notable work in the State library 
and Supreme Court building. In Memo- 
rial Hall, State library, are portraits of 
Governors Morgan G. Bulkeley, O. Vin- 
cent Coffin, Lorrin B. Cooke, George E. 
Lounsbury, George P. McLean and 
Frank B. Weeks, all the work of Mr. 
Plagg. Two paintings, the work of Mr. 
Flagg, hang in the Elizabeth Jarvis Colt 
gallery at the Morgan memorial in Hart- 
ford. One is of Caldwell Hart Colt, done 
in 1894, and Mrs. Elizabeth Hunt Jarvis 
Colt, done in 1915. The last portrait he 
completed before his death was of the 
late Frederick L. Bunce, which is now 
lianging in the Phoenix National Bank, 
of which the late Mr. Bunce was the pres- 
ident until his death. At the time of his 
death Mr. Flagg was working on the por- 
trait of Mrs. C. D. Talcott, Jr., of Talcott- 
ville, which was almost completed. 

Mr. Flagg was the first president of the 



Municipal Art Society of Hartford and 
for the last three years of his life served 
in the same capacity. He was president 
of the Connecticut Academy of Fine Arts, 
and held membership in the National 
Academy of Design, American National 
Academy, American Civic Association, 
American Federation of Arts of Wash- 
ington, the Arts Club of Washington, D. 
C, La Societe Internationale des Beaux 
Arts et des Lettres of Paris, Le Cercle 
Francais of Hartford, the Playlovers' 
Club of Hartford, the Hartford Club, of 
which he was chairman of the art com- 
mittee ; the Nantucket Historical Asso- 
ciation, the Salmagundi Club of New 
York, and the Jeremiah Wadsworth 
Chapter, Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion. Yachting was his favorite out-of- 
doors recreation, and he was also a mem- 
ber of the Hartford Yacht Club, of which 
he was vice-commodore. In addition to 
being the author of "The Evolution of an 
Equestrian Statue," published in 1909, he 
contributed largely to magazines and art 
periodicals. "Art Education for Men," an 
article written by him for the "Atlantic 
Monthly" a few years ago attracted wide 
attention. Mr. Flagg was a communi- 
cant of the Protestant Episcopal church, 
and in politics was a Republican. 

Mr. Flagg married, April 24, 1874, 
Ellen Fannie Earle, daughter of Morris 
Earle, of New York. Children : Ellen 
Earle, a resident of Hartford ; Charles 
Noel, Jr., a resident of Meriden, Connec- 
ticut ; Montague, an architect of New 
York ; Marion, wife of Harry Irl Maxson, 
of Dallas, Texas. 

Mr. Flagg died suddenly of heart trou- 
ble at his late home, No. 234 Washing- 
ton street, Hartford, November 10, 1916. 
It was a great shock to his friends and to 
Hartford people in general. The funeral 
services were conducted by the Rev. Dr. 
Irving H. Berg, pastor of the South Con- 



252 



ASTOR, LEIn'OX 
.DEN fOU'jN DA riONS 




^__^^^^^^ 




ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



gregational Church, assisted by the Rev. 
Edmund C. Thomas, of St. James Church. 
Interment was in Zion Hill Cemetery. 

The following tribute, which appeared 
in the issue of November 17, 1916, of the 
"Hartford Times," was paid to the late 
Charles Noel Flagg by the Connecticut 
Academy of Fine Arts, which held a spe- 
cial meeting for the purpose of paying 
proper honor to the memories of William 
Gedney Bunce and Charles Noel Flagg. 
William G. Bunce and Charles N. Flagg 
had been friends for years and were mu- 
tually interested in everything that per- 
tained to their art: 

In the death of Charles Noel Flagg, its presi- 
dent, the Connecticut Academy of Fine Arts has 
suffered an irreparable loss. He did more, by his 
interest and enthusiasm, his constant and untiring 
efforts and industry, and the generous and un- 
stinted gifts of his time and means, to found, to 
organize, to develop and carry to success this so- 
ciety than any other individual. 

In the city of Hartford, from its various muni- 
cipal and other art interests, from the art stu- 
dents, and from all with whom he has been asso- 
ciated and whose privilege it has been to work 
with him for high ends, come tributes to his zeal 
and devotion to the cause of art; but by none 
have his efforts and achievements in that cause 
been better known and appreciated than by those 
of us who have been so near him in the work of 
this society. 

It is impossible in this brief testimonial of our 
regard and respect to more than touch upon his 
fine character, his genius, his broad culture and 
his wide sympathies and interests. 

He was most fortunate as a young man and art 
student, at a period in the history of this country 
when the fine arts were but faintly foreshadowed, 
to have gone to Paris to the famous school of 
Jacquesson de la Chevreuse, the birthplace in art 
of so many of our most prominent painters. 

The severity and thoroughness of training in 
drawing in that atelier laid broad and deep the 
foundations of success of a now world-famous 
group of artists; and the influence of that dis- 
cipline may be traced through the life work of 
Mr. Flagg, scholarly, sound, wholesome and mas- 
terly, in its knowledge of the science of drawing, 
modeling, anatomy and color, by which qualities 



the French have so long taught and led the world 
in the technique of painting. 

Added to this exceptional education, his natural 
endowment of a fine artistic temperament and 
taste and constant industry and application carried 
him far in the practice of his profession; while 
his engaging personality and generous and im- 
pulsive nature and his great social gifts made him 
a central figure and a most influential factor in 
the art life and interests of our city and state. 

We are confronted on every hand by monu- 
ments to his untiring labors in the cause of art 
in Hartford, in the preservation of what was 
good in the old, and the procuring of the best 
that is new, for the adornment of the city, its 
parks, its buildings and its public places. 

How much of discouragement and disappoint- 
ment he sometimes encountered and suffered in 
his efforts to these ends, and how bravely he still 
worked on, despite them, none but those near him 
will ever know ; nor how much of happiness and 
gratification were his when he succeeded, as he 
so often did. 

The stimulus of his personality and enthusiasm, 
the value of his judgment and his wide knowledge 
of men and affairs, made him invaluable as a co- 
worker in all matters pertaining to art; and he 
will be sorely missed by the many art students 
he so kindly and so generously helped, giving of 
himself and his time unreservedly and of whom 
he was so proud when they, too, succeeded in the 
field of art. 

The Connecticut Academy of Fine Arts, and we, 
his associates, in its council, cannot adequately 
express our debt to Mr. Flagg; we can but say 
that his life and example and his work have been 
of the greatest help and the highest inspiration, 
and have made possible most of good and of suc- 
cess that we now enjoy in this society. 

It is with the greatest sorrow, with tenderness, 
with reverence and most grateful memory that 
we take our leave of him ; and we hereby extend 
our sincerest sympathy to his family. 

It is resolved by us that this resolution be en- 
tered upon our records; and that an engrossed 
copy of the same be sent to the family of Mr. 
Flagg. 



GOODWIN, Rev. James, LL. D., 

Clergyman, Devoted Citizen. 

A distinguished representative in the 
eighth generation of a family prominently 
identified with Hartford, Connecticut, 



253 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



-from its earliest foundation, Dr. Goodwin 
was worthy of that inheritance of a g^ood 
name "rather to be chosen than great 
riches," and was in himself an illustra- 
tion of the Horatian line. "Whole of life 
and clean from wrong." He was a true 
scholar of genuine culture; a scholar but 
not a bookworm or recluse ; a good citi- 
zen, public spirited, taking keen interest 
and bearing a part in the affairs of city 
and State. A pronounced churchman, he 
was neither hard nor narrow, but was 
loyal to that conception of the social 
character and solidarity of Christianity 
described as the church idea. As a preacher 
he was thoughtful, direct and eloquent in 
his discourse, and as a pastor came very 
near to the hearts of his people. His tact, 
genuine friendliness, quick sympathy and 
democratic ways, and his enthusiasm for 
parish work were qualities and attributes 
which drew to him. the love and respect of 
all who knew him. 

The family name Goodwin is of very 
ancient origin, and is to be found in most 
of the northern countries of Europe. The 
derivation of the name is not clear, but it 
evidently signifies "good friend" or God's 
friend. The name is of record in England 
as early as 1238, and researches that have 
teen made indicate that the ancestors of 
the first American Goodwins belonged to 
the Essex family, whose history is traced 
to about the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. 

(I) The American ancestor, Ozias 
Goodwin, was born in England in 1596, 
and married Mary, daughter of Robert 
Woodward, of Braintree, county of Es- 
sex. It is not known whether or not he 
accompanied his brother. Elder William 
Goodwin, who arrived at Boston in the 
ship "Lion," September 16, 1632. The 
first record of him is as a landowner at 
Hartford, Connecticut, in February, 1639- 
40. His house lot was located on what is 



now Trumbull street, near Church street, 
and he acquired by purchase a number of 
parcels of land in Hartford. In 1659 he, 
with others, signed an agreement to re- 
move to Hadley, Massachusetts, in con- 
sideration of which they were to receive 
grants of land, but there is no evidence 
that he ever became a resident of Hadley. 
His name appears on a list compiled Oc- 
tober 13, 1669, comprising the names of 
those who on that date were freemen of 
the colony of Connecticut. He died in the 
spring of 1683. 

(II) His son, Nathaniel Goodwin, born 
about 1637, died January 8, 1713-14. He 
was admitted a freeman in October, 1662, 
and is named as one of the "townsmen" 
of Hartford in 1669, 1678 and 1682. He 
married (first) Sarah, daughter of John 
and Hannah Coles, of Hatfield, Massa- 
chusetts, but formerly of Farmington, 
Connecticut. She died in 1676. He mar- 
ried (second) Elizabeth, daughter of Dan- 
iel Pratt, of Hartford. She died subse- 
quent to July, 1724. 

(III) Their son, Ozias (2) Goodwin, 
was born in Hartford, June 26, 1683, died 
January 26, 1776. He held many public 
offices; was hayward 1714, 1717, 1734, 
1735, 1739; fenceviewer 1720, 1724; grand 
juror 1727, 1731, 1742, 1750; selectman 
1738, 1746; deacon of the First Church 
from January i, 1756, until his death, 
twenty years later. He married, June 6, 
1723, Martha, daughter of Captain Caleb 
and Mary (Cobb) Williamson, a lineal 
descendant of Timothy Williamson, who 
was a resident of Marshfield, Massachu- 
setts, in 1649. She died February 8, 1777. 

(IV) Their son, Jonathan Goodwin, 
was baptized in Hartford, March 17, 
1733-34. He lived for a few years on the 
west side of Trumbull street near Allyn, 
and from 1762 to 1764 with his father at 
the homestead on Village street. In 1764 the 
homestead was sold. Jonathan Goodwin 



254 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



inherited through his mother an interest 
in his Grandfather Williamson's home- 
stead on the east side of Main street, 
bounded on the north by State House 
Square. He was a corporal of the Hart- 
ford "train band," out of which was devel- 
oped the "Governor's Guard," incorpo- 
rated in 1771, and afterwards designated 
the Third Company, Governor's Foot 
Guard. He suffered severe financial re- 
verses through lending his credit to a rel- 
ative and to retrieve his fortunes pur- 
chased, in 1783, eight and one-half acres 
on the north side of the Albany road, a 
property which still remains in the family. 
He was of^cially appointed "inn keeper" 
and there spent the remainder of his days, 
ministering to the entertainment of trav- 
elers and in tilling his few acres. He 
died September 2, 181 1. His wife, Eunice 
(Wolcott) Goodwin, died March 23, 1807. 

(V) Their third child and only son, 
James Goodwin, born in Hartford, De- 
cember 12, 1777, died September 13, 1844. 
He inherited the Albany road property 
from his father, and there spent his life 
after 1783, adding considerably to his 
real estate holdings in that neighborhood 
through purchase. He was first lieuten- 
ant of the First Company, Governor's 
Foot Guard, in 1807, and in 1809 "^^'^s 
elected captain. He was of fine physical 
proportions, stood over six feet in height, 
weighed over two hundred pounds, very 
strong and active. He was a deep, clear 
thinker, most kindly in disposition, and 
very popular. He married, March 3, 
1799, Eunice, daughter of Captain Lemuel 
and Ruth (Woodford) Roberts, a de- 
scendant of John Roberts, who in 1688 
located in Simsbury, Connecticut. She 
was born in Wintonbury (now Bloom- 
field), Connecticut, August 22, 1774, died 
August 13, 1825. 

(VI) Their son, James (2) Goodwin, 
was born in Hartford, March 3, 1803, died 



there March 15, 1878. He attended the 
private school kept by John J. White un- 
til he was sixteen years of age, then began 
his remarkably successful business career. 
His first employment was as clerk in the 
olifice of the stage lines running east from 
Hartford. He quickly developed natural 
business capacity and aptitude, soon win- 
ning the full confidence of his employer. 
After a time the owner of the lines be- 
came ill and suggested to the young man 
that he purchase the business. Mr. Good- 
win replied that he had not sufficient cash, 
and to the suggestion that he give notes 
for the purchase price, answered that as 
he was not of legal age, his notes would 
be worthless. Even that fact was not 
allowed to stand in the way, and he be- 
came owner of the stage lines while yet 
a minor. The Hartford starting point for 
these lines was at Joseph Morgan's coffee 
house, and Mr. Goodwin, through his 
earnest, aggressive and progressive meth- 
ods developed a business requiring forty 
coaches and a stable of four hundred 
horses. He ran coaches to Worcester 
and Boston, Massachusetts, and to Prov- 
idence, Rhode Island, also established a 
system of fast expresses which carried 
important news at a speed hitherto un- 
known. 

In the Boston "Traveler" of December 
II, 1829, there appeared an article de- 
scribing the transmission of the Presi- 
dent's message from Washington to Bos- 
ton, a distance of about live hundred miles 
in thirty-one hours and twenty-three min- 
utes. "The express left Hartford at fif- 
teen minutes past one o'clock p. m. and 
performed the distance of one hundred 
miles to this city in six hours and eight 
minutes. This is a degree of speed with- 
out a parallel, we presume, in the records 
of rapid traveling in this country." 

Mr. Goodwin early became interested 
in railroad development and manage- 



255 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ment. He was a director of the Hartford 
and New Haven Railroad Company, 
1837-41, and it was the success of that 
enterprise that led him to abandon his 
stage business. Broad in his vision, he 
quickly saw the possibilities of the life 
insurance business, and became one of the 
organizers and incorporators of the Con- 
necticut Mutual Life Insurance Company, 
of which he was a director until his death. 
In 1848 he was elected president of the 
company, and except for a period of three 
years, 1866-69, when he retired on account 
of the demands of his private business, 
he was chief executive of the company 
until his death in 1878. Broad as were 
his activities, it was to the upbuilding of 
the Connecticut Mutual that he gave the 
best of his ability, and for the last thirty 
years of his life that company was his 
chief interest. 

He was also vice-president of the Gat- 
ling Gun Company, and a director of the 
Hartford Carpet Company, the Collins 
Manufacturing Company, the Greenwood 
Company (cotton mills), the Holyoke 
Water Power Company, the Farmers & 
Mechanics Bank, the Hartford Fire In- 
surance Company, vice-president of Hart- 
ford Hospital and a trustee of Trinity Col- 
lege. He took a keen interest in military 
affairs, and at the age of sixteen years 
became a member of the First Company, 
Governor's Foot Guard. He rose through 
various ranks and was major of the com- 
pany, 1829-33. He became a communicant 
of Christ Protestant Episcopal Church 
about the year 1820, and as long as he 
lived took a deep and active interest in 
parish affairs. He served as vestryman 
for many years, and many times declined 
the office of warden. 

James Goodwin married, July 30, 1832, 
Lucy, daughter of Joseph and Sally 
(Spencer) Morgan. She was born in 
what is now Holyoke, Massachusetts, 



February 4, 181 1, and six years later was 
brought by her parents to Hartford. She 
was educated at the famous Emma Wil- 
lard School, Troy, New York, where, 
under the teachings and example of that 
noble woman. Miss Willard, she devel- 
oped qualities and character well de- 1 
scribed in the language of one who knew {] 
her well : 

She knew and was interested in the best thought 
and action of her time for bettering all men and 
especially alive to all affecting her own country. 
She was concerned in every good work. She was 
a lifelong communicant of Christ Protestant 
Episcopal Church, prominent in all its charitable 
work and agencies. With her daughter Mary she 
gave to it the chapel and parish building. She 
was one of the managers of the Hartford Orphan 
Asylum, and its treasurer for more than thirty 
years. The Hartford Hospital, the Union for 
Home Work, and indeed every charitable institu- 
tion of Hartford had her lively sympathy and her 
constant support. Her charities, begun at home, 
went into all the world of need, spiritual, mental 
and physical. Her public benefactions were many 
and well known, among the latest of which was 
the munificent gift to the Wadsworth Athenaeum. 

James and Lucy (Morgan) Goodwin 
were the parents of seven children : Sarah 
Morgan, died in infancy; James Junius, 
whose life story is told in this work; 
Sarah Morgan, who married Dr. William 
R. Brownell, medical director of the 
Nineteenth Army Corps, during the Civil 
War ; Francis, who is of further mention ; 
Lucy, died in infancy ; Mary, who died in 
1880, unmarried, at the age of thirty-six 
years ; Walter, died in infancy. 

(VII) Rev. Francis Goodwin, son of 
James (2) Goodwin, was born in Hart- 
ford, September 25, 1839. His early edu- 
cation was acquired in private schools and 
Hartford High School. In 1854 he en- 
tered the employ of the dry goods firm of 
Howe, Mather & Company, remaining 
two years, going thence to New York 
City with Morton & Grinnell. But such 



256 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



was his maternal training and the reli- 
gious environment of his early years that 
it is not surprising his mind later turned 
to the holy calling of a minister of the 
Gospel. Having decided, he resumed his 
studies under private tutors, and after 
completing preparatory studies, he pur- 
sued a course of theological study at 
Berkeley Divinity School, Middletown, 
Connecticut. 

He was ordained deacon, May 27, 1863, 
in the Church of the Holy Trinity, Right 
Rev. John D. Williams, D. D., bishop of 
the diocese, officiating. He vi^as appointed 
chaplain to the bishop and placed in 
charge of the missions at Durham. North 
Guilford, North Killingworth and Ponset, 
his residence at this time being at Middle- 
town. In July, 1863, he received from 
Trinity College the degree of Master of 
Arts, honoris causa. On December 19, 
1863, he was ordained priest. Bishop Wil- 
liams again officiating. He was elected 
rector of Trinity Protestant Episcopal 
Church, Hartford, May 14, 1865, continu- 
ing as such until November, 1871. From 
April until December, 1872, he was in 
charge of St. John's Church at Hartford, 
and from April, 1874, until May, 1875, 'v^as 
rector of Trinity Church, Wethersfield, 
Connecticut. He was in charge of the 
Church of The Good Shepherd, Hartford, 
from November, 1876, until June, 1877. 
In 1878, when the diocese was divided 
into archdeaconries, he was elected the 
first archdeacon of Hartford, an office he 
filled until February, 1888, when he re- 
signed. After the death of his father, 
Francis Goodwin, and his brother, the 
late James Junius Goodwin, found it nec- 
essary to devote a good share of their 
time to the management of the family 
estate. 

He has always been interested in art, 
especially that branch of art which has to 
do with architecture. Perhaps the most 



notable example of his work in this line 
was the beautiful residence of his father, 
which he designed and the construction 
of which he superintended. He is a 
director of the Aetna Fire Insurance Com- 
pany, the Holyoke Water Power Com- 
pany, and a member of its executive com- 
mittee. Since 1875 he has been a trustee 
of Berkeley Divinity School at Middle- 
town ; was made treasurer of the Bishop's 
Fund ; since 1884 has been a trustee of 
Trinity College ; since 1875 ^ trustee of 
Watkinson Library. In 1877 he was 
elected a trustee of the Watkinson Farm 
School and Juvenile Asylum ; two years 
later he was elected president of the 
board, an office he has held continuously 
for twenty-five years, and is a trustee and 
director of Hartford Public Library. 

Nor has he been unmindful of the duties 
of citizenship, but in the midst of a busy 
life has found time to serve most effi- 
ciently in many public positions of trust. 
He was a member of the board of street 
commissioners in 1879 and 1880; member 
of the board of park commissioners for 
nearly thirty years, beginning with 1880; 
has been a trustee of Hartford Grammar 
School from 1879 until the present time ; 
was long member of the board of school 
visitors, and director of Hartford Re- 
treat. In 1886 he was elected vice-presi- 
dent of Wadsworth Athenaeum, and since 
1890 has been its president. He is a mem- 
ber of the Century Club of New York 
City, chaplain of the Society of Colonial 
Wars, and member of the Society of the 
Sons of the American Revolution. 

Rev. Francis Goodwin married, June 3, 
1863, Mary Alsop Jackson, born July 14, 
1842, daughter of Commodore Charles 
Hunter Jackson, United States Navy, and 
his wife, Martha Lawrence (Willard) 
Jackson. She is a descendant of Edward 
Jackson, who was a resident of Newton, 
Massachusetts, in 1643. Their children 



Conn— 1—17 



257 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



are: i. James, to whose memory this 
sketch is dedicated. 2. William Brownell, 
born October 7, 1866; educated at St. 
Paul's School, 1878-84, Trinity Colleg-e, 
1884-85, Yale University, 1885-88; now 
special agent for the Aetna Insurance 
Company, with headquarters at Colum- 
bus, Ohio. 3. Sarah Morgan, born May 7, 
1868, now deceased ; married Henry S. 
Robinson. 4. Alice Fenwick. born March 
30, 1871 ; married Benjamin Wister Mor- 
ris. 5. Lucy Morgan, born January 11, 
1873, ^ied M^y 9> 1S84. 6. Charles Archi- 
bald, born November 18, 1876; educated 
at St. Paul's School, Yale University, 
Harvard Law School, now a practicing 
lawyer of Hartford ; married Ruth 
Cheney. 7. Francis Spencer, born Octo- 
ber 19, 1878; educated at St. Paul's 
School, Yale University, now associated 
with his father. 8. Jeannette, born July 
2, 1884; married Harold J. Davison, who 
was first officer on a White Star Line 
steamship, and a m,ember of the British 
Naval Reserve, now second in command 
of a war vessel of the Royal Navy. 

(VIII) Rev. James Goodwin, son of 
Rev. Francis Goodwin, LL. D., was born 
in Middletown, Connecticut, February 10, 
1865, died in Hartford, Connecticut, Jan- 
uary 3, 1917. He prepared for college in 
the public schools of Hartford, and at St. 
Paul's School in Concord, New Hamp- 
shire, entering Trinity College, Hartford, 
in 1882, whence he was graduated with 
honors, A. B., class of 1886. Literature 
was a favorite pursuit from youth, and 
his grace of expression in verse led to his 
choice as poet of his class. In 1890 he 
received from Trinity the degree of M. A., 
and at the annual commencement, June 
28, 191 1, he was awarded LL. D. Fol- 
lowing graduation he studied in Paris, 
1886-87, entering the General Theological 
Seminary in New York City in the latter 
year, graduating Bachelor of Sacred The- 



ology, class of 1890, one of the three 
graduates to publicly read their essays. 

He was ordained a deacon by Rt. Rev. 
John Williams, Bishop of Connecticut, 
June 4, 1890, in the Church of the Holy 
Trinity, Middletown, Connecticut ; took 
a post-graduate course at Oxford Univer- 
sity (England) the same year, and spent 
two years in further preparation for his 
holy calling. In 1892 he was appointed 
assistant pastor of Calvary Protestant 
Episcopal Church, New York City, there 
continuing until appointed priest in 
charge of St. Barnabas Mission in Ber- 
lin, New Hampshire. In 1895 he was in- 
stalled rector of the Church of The Good 
Shepherd, Nashua, New Hampshire, con- 
tinuing in charge of that parish until 
called to Christ Church, Hartford, in 1902, 
his work in Nashua greatly blessed. 

Christ Church, one of the oldest and 
strongest Episcopal churches in New 
England, and one of the few remaining 
"down town," steadily maintained its im- 
portance as one of the religious centers of 
the town under Dr. Goodwin's charge and 
during his nearly fifteen years' pastorate 
prospered abundantly, both in a material 
and a spiritual sense. He was a man of 
deep learning, an accomplished linguist, 
possessed that fine polish acquired 
through study and travel abroad, while 
his mind had the poetic element which 
made him delicately vsensitive to the 
wonder and bloom of the world, giving 
him insight and vision to see afar. He 
was kindly and courteous to all, bore him- 
self with dignity, and from his pure inner 
life flowed a gracious, blessed influence. 

From the time of his first pastorate in 
Berlin, Dr. Goodwin manifested his deep 
interest in public afifairs, a dominant trait 
of his character which made his residence 
in Hartford so useful and productive of 
good. His service in Berlin was as a 
member of the Board of Education, but 



258 



THE r-.r 
PUB.-: L:Br ARY 



ASTOR. L,jrr"OX 
■ LGEi-i r c J :. D AiroNS ! 



%i 



i. » 



1^'*^' ;^ 





ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



in Hartford his public service was mainly 
in behalf of the park system. He was 
elected a member of the Board of Park 
Commissioners, May 2, 1910, for a term 
of ten years, his first duty being in con- 
nection with the ancient burying ground 
in Sigourney Park and with Village street 
green. Later he was assigned commis- 
sioner for Riverside Park, his particular 
charge until death. He was president of 
the board, May, 1913, until May, 1914, 
and ever gave generously of his time to 
the advancement of park interests, and 
took great pride as well as pleasure in the 
all that pertained to that department. For 
several years he was chaplain of the Gov- 
ernor's Foot Guard ; was a trustee of 
Watkinson Farm School, the Watkinson 
Library and the Open Hearth Associa- 
tion ; was an ex-president of Trinity Col- 
lege Alumni Association ; member of 
many societies of the diocese and church ; 
member of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science ; Alpha Delta 
Phi ; Century Association of New York ; 
Hartford Yacht and University clubs of 
Hartford. 

Dr. Goodwin married, June 13, 1894, 
Frances Whittelsey Brown, of Hartford, 
who survives him with four children : 
Francis, born April 30, 1895, a junior at 
Yale University; Helen, born April 26, 
1898; Mary, March 24, 1901 ; and Lucy 
Morgan, January 7, 1907. Mrs. Goodwin 
is a daughter of Roswell and Fanny 
Hunt (Noyes) Brown, descendant of old 
and influential New England families, 
through whom she has gained admission 
to the Society of Colonial Dames of 
America. 



SMITH, Friend William, 

Inventor, Manufacturer. 

Friend W. Smith was a true captain of 



industry and one of Bridgeport's "Grand 



Old Men," and he deserves well at the 
hands of the historian who would aspire 
to compile an enduring record of the men 
who have by their genius created new in- 
dustries and developed new sources of 
wealth which have brought prosperity to 
their city. By heredity, Mr. Smith should 
have been a professional man ; his tastes 
were of a decided literary bent, but cir- 
cumstances seem to have determined his 
pathway in life and what the professional 
world lost the business world gained. His 
father, also Friend William Smith, was 
a minister of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, in active service for half a cen- 
tury, filling many Connecticut and New 
York pulpits. His grandfather. Rev. Eben 
Smith, was one of the leading Methodist 
ministers of his day, and with his brother, 
Rev. James Matthews Smith, rode circuits 
in Connecticut and Massachusetts. Rev. 
Eben Smith was a delegate to four con- 
secutive general conferences of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church, and one of the 
founders of the Wesleyan University, 
Middletown, Connecticut. From these 
scholarly divines Friend W. Smith, of 
Bridgeport, inherited the pronounced lit- 
erary tastes which in youth was displayed 
in an inordinate love for historical, poetic 
and scientific books, and in mature years 
in poetic composition and historical writ- 
ings. To a fourth generation and a third 
Friend W. Smith the same traits have de- 
scended, and in patent law practice the 
professional prominence of the family has 
been restored. 

Friend W. Smith, grandson of Rev. 
Eben Smith, son of Rev. Friend W. and 
Mary (Esmond) Smith, was born in Kort- 
right, Delaware county. New York, May 
II, 1829. He attended public schools in 
New York City and completed his studies 
at Amenia Seminary, Dutchess county. 
New York. At an early age, he obtained 
his first position in the business world, 



259 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



becoming clerk in a New York City- 
hosiery house, his remuneration being ten 
dollars monthly. He remained in clerical 
positions in New York City and New 
Haven, Connecticut, until 1849, when he 
located in Bridgeport, Connecticut. From 
that year until his death in 1917 with the 
exception of the years 1871-73 he was a 
resident of Bridgeport and there won 
fame as business man, postmaster, in- 
ventor, manufacturer and citizen. 

From 1849 until 185 1 he was proprietor 
of a dry goods store; from 1851 until 
i860 a clerk in the employ of E. Birdseye, 
then a leading dry goods merchant of 
Bridgeport, one of his fellow clerks being 
David Read, founder of the dry goods 
house of D. M. Read & Company. From 
i860 until 1869 Mr. Smith was postmaster 
of Bridgeport, the new post office being 
erected during his tenure of office. Dur- 
ing this period, which covered the entire 
Lincoln and Johnson administrations, he 
took an active part in political affairs, 
was a member of the Republican State 
committee, chairman of the executive 
committee of the city committee and a 
potent force in party management. Mr. 
Smith organized the Forester Manufac- 
turing Company, but in 1871 retired and 
went to Nevada in the interest of the 
Connecticut Silver Mining Company, a 
corporation in which a large amount of 
Bridgeport capital was invested. He re- 
turned to Bridgeport in 1873, ^"^ became 
at once interested in the invention of an 
improved letter-box lock for which the 
government was asking proposals. In 
association with Frederick Egge a letter 
box and lock was invented for which Mr. 
Smith devised a key and after securing 
patents they submitted their joint in- 
ventions to the post office department and 
were awarded a large contract. To manu- 
facture their patents the firm of Smith & 
Egge was organized in 1874. They con- 



tinued as such until 1877, when the busi- 
ness was incorporated as the Smith & 
Egge Manufacturing Company, Friend 
W. Smith, president; Warren H. Way, 
secretary-treasurer; Frederick Egge, 
whose stock had been purchased by the 
company, serving as superintendent. In 
later years Oliver C. Smith, son of Friend 
W. Smith, became secretary-treasurer. 

For several years the Smith & Egge 
Manufacturing Company had the con- 
tract for furnishing locks for all mail bags 
used by the post office department of the 
government and also furnished the gov- 
ernments of Mexico, Hayti, Santo Do- 
mingo and Chili with large quantities of 
locks and keys. Mr. Smith also invented 
the chain used by the mail carriers and 
clerks to secure the keys to their persons, 
and in addition to the immense orders 
from the United States postal department 
sold largely of their goods to the navy and 
war departments. The demand from the 
other governments mentioned was also 
heavy for locks and keys. Other articles 
used by the postal department, cord 
fasteners, label cases and punchers, were 
also contracted for and to furnish these 
various articles the resources of the Smith 
Si Egge Company were taxed to the ut- 
most notwithstanding the great expansion 
of their plant and the large number of 
hands employed. For many years the 
company were the largest contractors in 
the country for the furnishing of supplies 
to the mail equipment division of the post 
office department, and with the foreign 
business added the total was very large. 
As head of the great business he created 
and to which he contributed several valu- 
able inventions, Mr. Smith came into his 
own and was accorded recognition as one 
of the foremost manufacturers of a city 
noted for its industrial greatness. To the 
original lines a variety of chains, padlocks, 
sewing machine hardware, and attach- 



260 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ments have been added as the years have 
passed. The substitution of chains for 
cord in hanging sash weights was an idea 
conceived in Mr. Smith's fertile brain, and 
the "Giant" sash chain introduced to the 
trade by the Smith & Egge Manufactur- 
ing Company is now a standard in general 
use. In 1891 he visited England and in 
Birmingham organized the Automatic 
Chain Company to manufacture under his 
patents in England and made a similar 
arrangement in Germany. He also or- 
ganized and for many years was president 
of the Bridgeport Deoxydized Bronze & 
Metal Company. 

To create, develop and manage so vast 
a business called for executive ability of 
the highest order, and this quality Mr. 
Smith possessed. The lot of the inventor 
usually is to see his patents pass to and 
enrich others, but Mr. Smith reaped the 
practical benefit of his genius and as a 
business man and executive he grandly 
succeeded. A feature of his life as a 
manufacturer was the complete harmony 
that existed between the factory force and 
the executive department of the company. 
When there was a demand for a nine- 
hour day, Mr. Smith was the first manu- 
facturer to recognize the justice of the 
demand and to make it the law in his 
plant. Many of his employes were with 
him for a quarter of a century and so 
great was his popularity that he was sev- 
eral times solicited to be the Labor can- 
didate for mayor. At a Labor Day parade 
in Bridgeport, an oil painting of Mr. 
Smith was carried in the procession and 
for his services as grand marshal of the 
Grand Army parade, June 5, 1903, he was 
presented with a memorial commemora- 
tive of the occasion. His standing with 
all classes was unique ; in the manufactur- 
ing world to possess the confidence of 
both capital and labor requires an honesty 
of purpose and a loyalty to both, which 
few men possess. 



He was a member of the reception com- 
mittee which welcomed President Lincoln 
to Bridgeport, and his "History of the 
Bridgeport Post Office" is one of the 
classics of local history. It first appeared 
in the "Municipal Register" in 1876 and 
was republished in Orcutt's "History of 
Bridgeport" in 1887. He evidenced his 
public spirit in many ways, and in ad- 
dition to his own company served the 
City National Bank as director and the 
Mechanics' and Farmers' Savings Bank 
as trustee. He was a member of St. 
John's Lodge, No. 3, Free and Accepted 
Masons, and in Scottish Rite Masonry 
was a thirty-second degree Mason. 
Though of Methodist training he was a 
member and vestryman of Christ Episco- 
pal Church. His clubs were the Seaside, 
Seaside Outing, and Algonquin. He was 
a member of the National Manufacturers' 
Association and the Bridgeport Historical 
and Scientific societies. 

Mr. Smith married, February 23, 1853, 
in old First Methodist Church, his father 
assisted by Rev. Edmund S. Jaynes per- 
forming the ceremony, Angeline Amelia 
Weed. She was born in Bethel, Connec- 
ticut, May 3, 1833, died in Bridgeport, 
January 21, 191 1, daughter of Zerah and 
Zilpah (Northrop) Weed, her father a 
substantial farmer and manufacturer. Mrs. 
Smith was a woman of intelligence and 
abounded in good works. She was a 
member of the Ladies' Charitable Society 
and long its president, and after retiring 
from that office through infirmity retained 
her interest and served as a member of 
the board of managers until her death. 
She visited the poor, dispensed her char- 
ities with a liberal hand, and after being 
confirmed with her husband served the 
dififerent societies of Christ Episcopal 
Church with great zeal. For nearly fifty- 
eight years she leaned upon her husband's 
strong arm and with him trod life's path- 
way ere the bond was broken. On the 



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fifty-seventh anniversary of their wedding 
day, Mr. Smith composed the following 
lines : 

To My Wife. 
Yes, 'tis a long time from "Now" — 
Fifty and seven years all told — 
Since we were pledge by marriage vow, 
And sealed that pledge with ring of gold. 

'Twas early Spring when we were wed, 
The birds were seeking out their mates, 
The flowers were waking from their beds, 
New Life was opening wide its gates. 

Ah well, the many years have passed. 
The hour with us is past eleven. 
The happiest day must end at last — 
God grant that ours may end in Heaven. 

We're living in the twilight now, 
The brilliant colors of the day — 
The gold and crimson — graceful bow 
And yield themselves to sober gray. 

The evening of the day has come, 
And weary labor greets its close, 
And in the peaceful, quiet home, 
Awaits the hour of sweet repose. 

Thankful for blessings we have had, 
For health and comfort all along, 
So many things to make us glad — 
Hopeful, we'll sing our evening song. 

And blended with that evening song. 
Forgiveness for each seeming wrong. 
And when that evening song shall cease, 
Both sink to rest in perfect peace. 

The stream that borders "Better-Land" 
Is near, and we can almost toss 
A pebble to its waters clear — 
And soon we'll gently step across. 

But when the border stream is crossed. 
And we have reached the farther shore. 
It cannot be, we are not lost 
To all our loved ones — evermore. 

Death cannot conquer in the strife, 
For God is love, and Love has planned 
That death shall yield to Life, 
Love finds its own in "Better-Land." 



And ere we leave this world so fair. 
The last sweet effort of the mind 
Shall be an earnest, ardent prayer, 
God bless the loved ones left behind. 

Mr. and Mrs. Smith were the parents 
of three sons and a daughter: Friend 
William (3), a graduate of Yale Law 
School and a member of the Fairfield 
county bar, specializing in the law of 
patents ; Oliver Cromwell, secretary- 
treasurer of the Smith & Egge Manufac- 
turing Company ; Charles Esmond, super- 
intendent of the Smith & Egge Manufac- 
turing Company ; Maybelle, married Hor- 
ace H. Jackson, of Bridgeport. Friend 
W. Smith died March 3, 1917. 



CANFIELD, Henry O., 

Manufacturer. 

The late Henry O. Canfield was a son 
of Jared H. Canfield, inventor and rubber 
manufacturer, well known in France and 
the United States. After extended service 
in other lines, Henry O. Canfield adopted 
his father's business, and in 1889 became 
a manufacturer of rubber goods under his 
own name. He was a man of high char- 
acter and versatile genius, and won high 
reputation as a business man. He was a 
grandson of Captain Ira B. Canfield, a 
master mariner, who was finally lost with 
his ship in one of the catastrophies of the 
sea. Jared H. Canfield was born at Say- 
brook, and early became identified with 
the rubber manufacturing industry. He 
became thoroughly familiar with the 
chemistry of rubber as well as an adept 
in its manufacture, was the father of sev- 
eral inventions relating thereto, and spent 
several years in France introducing these 
patents. On his return to the United 
States he secured a patent for a rubber 
dress shield of superior value and to its 
manufacture the Canfield Rubber Com- 
pany of Bridgeport devoted its four-story 



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factory, the output reaching five million 
pairs annually. He married Mary A. An- 
drews, daughter of Benaja Andrews, of 
Meriden, Connecticut. They were the 
parents of Isaac A., Elizabeth C, and 
Henry O. 

Henry O. Canfield was born in Nauga- 
tuck, Connecticut, November 9, 1847, died 
July 25, 1910. He began his education in 
the Naugatuck public schools, but when 
his father went to France in the interest 
of his patents his son accompanied him 
and during his years of foreign residence 
completed his education in French and 
German institutions of learning. Upon 
his return to the United States he spent 
a few years in the dry goods business, but 
in 1871 he went west and entered the 
employ of the Peoria, Pekin & Jackson- 
ville Railroad Company, becoming station 
agent at Pekin, Illinois. In 1876 he was 
promoted general freight agent of the 
company, continuing until 1880 when the 
Wabash obtained control. From that 
time until November, 1885, he was com- 
missioner for the railroads in the various 
pools they formed to equalize freight 
business and rates, a position requiring 
great tact as well as knowledge of the 
freight business. In November, 1885, he 
resigned his post to become secretary and 
general superintendent of the Campbell 
Rubber Company of Bridgeport, Connec- 
ticut, continuing in that position until 
January i, 1889. when he resigned to en- 
gage in the rubber business under his own 
name. A man of social, genial nature, 
Mr. Canfield affiliated with his fellowmen 
in many business, fraternal and social or- 
ganizations. He held all degrees of Scot- 
tish Rite Masonry up to and including the 
thirty-second and was a past officer of the 
rite. He belonged to the Seaside, Algon- 
quin and Brooklyn Country clubs, was a 
Republican in politics, and a member of 
the South Congregational Church. 



Air. Canfield married Immogene C. 
Freshour. They were the parents of three 
sons : I. Joseph B., born January 21, 1874, 
died February 20, 1904. 2. Albert H., 
born in Pekin, Illinois, September 19, 
1875 '' he was educated at the Peekskill 
Military Academy and the Cascadella 
School, Ithaca, New York, and was two 
years at Cornell University; in 1898 he 
engaged in the rubber business with his 
father and is now the president of the H. 
O. Canfield Company of Bridgeport ; Mr. 
Canfield married Ann Frances Stewart, a 
native of New York City, and they have 
had two children : Jared Odgen, born 
April 10, 1901, died May 19, 1910, and 
Jean, born August 5, 1914; Mr. Canfield 
is a thirty-second degree Mason, a mem- 
ber of the Elks, University, Cornell, Al- 
gonquin, Brookline, and Black Rock 
Yacht clubs. 3. Henry B., born April 21, 
1877, in Pekin, Illinois; obtained his early 
schooling at the University School, 
Bridgeport; the Cascadella School at 
Ithaca, New York ; studied art in New 
York and Paris, and is now following that 
profession. 



HOWE, Harmon George, M. D., 

Practitioner, Hospital Official. 

The spirit which inspired the life of Dr. 
Harmon G. Howe was one of helpfulness, 
and when minutes only were left him, as 
he well knew, his thought was for the 
other sufiferers from the accident which 
had brought him low, and he left these 
words, "Look after the others first" as his 
last spoken message. That had ever been 
his slogan, "others first," and every waking 
hour of every day of his life had been 
filled with thoughts and deeds for others. 
He was a man of singularly happy, loving 
disposition, genial and sincere, never los- 
ing the enthusiasm of youth, as eager to 
attend clinics as any young man of the 



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profession, and untiring in his efforts to 
gain more light and deeper surgical 
knowledge. His profession to him was 
not a career but a ministry. He joined to 
the cure of bodies, in an unobtrusive 
fashion, the healing of human hearts, and 
the most tender, personal feeling existed 
between him and his patients. He adorned 
the profession he loved and won eminent 
success. 

There was a side to Dr. Howe's nature 
rarely found in a professional man with 
the heavy responsibilities he carried. With 
his hours fully occupied, he was one of 
the most faithful of worshipers at Sun- 
day morning and evening services and 
rarely absent from Thursday evening 
prayer meeting. His faith shone forth in 
his works, and on the official board, in 
choir organization or men's class, he 
labored for the good of the Fourth Church 
and made his influence felt in every de- 
partment of its work. His purpose was 
high and the beauty of his spirit shone in 
his countenance, the sunshine of his na- 
ture and his friendliness toward all men 
mirrored in his face that cleanliness and 
manliness of soul which drew all men to 
him. 

Dr. Howe was descended from an an- 
cient and honorable English family, his 
American ancestors settling in Vermont. 
In paternal and maternal line his connec- 
tions were distinguished men of their lo- 
calities, including the Bliss family of Con- 
necticut and Vermont, Captain Thomas 
Chittenden, of Chester, Connecticut, and 
the first Governor of Vermont, Governor 
Martin Chittenden, and the Galusha fam- 
ily of Vermont. This ancestry included 
men of eminence in every walk, particu- 
larly in public official life, and in the wars 
of the Colonial and Revolutionary period. 
Social position, education, patriotism, 
piety and moral worth distinguished them, 
and in his own life and achievement this 



twentieth century representative main- 
tained the high standards of the race from 
which he sprang. Dr. Howe was a son of 
Lucian B. and Clarissa J. (Galusha) Howe, 
of Jericho, Vermont, his father a mer- 
chant and manufacturer. 

Harmon George Howe was born in 
Jericho, Vermont, September 3, 1850, died 
at Stamford, Connecticut, June 13, 1913, 
a victim of the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford railroad wreck at Stamford, on 
that date. With the exception of a winter 
spent in Canada and another at an Ohio 
school, his youth was spent in Vermont. 
After completing the courses of Essex 
Classical Institute at Essex, Vermont, and 
Underbill Academy, in 1870 he entered 
the University of Vermont, taking a spe- 
cial course in chemistry prior to entering 
the medical department, whence he was 
graduated M. D., June 30, 1873. The two 
years following were spent as interne at 
Hartford Hospital (Connecticut), as as- 
sistant superintendent at Sanford Hall 
(Flushing, Long Island), and at the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons, Colum- 
bia University, there completing post- 
graduate studies in 1875 and receiving an 
additional M. D. He permanently located 
in Hartford, in May, 1876, and began the 
private practice of his profession, his first 
office in the city being at No. 4 Village 
street. Later he located at No. 44 Pratt 
street, where he remained one year ; then 
moved to No. 103 Trumbull street, then 
to No. 51 Church street, where he resided 
twelve years, then purchased the property 
at No. 137 High street. His early experi- 
ences were encouraging, and he was soon 
made to feel that Hartford had adopted 
him and was showing deep appreciation 
of the merits of the young physician who 
had settled in the city. His practice con- 
stantly increased, and ere long he had at- 
tained his rightful position not only as a 
physician and surgeon but as a man and 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



citizen. The conndence he won as a 
young man deepened as the years went 
by, and he continued high in public re- 
gard until the end of his thirty-seven 
years' service in Hartford as a healer of 
human ills. 

Along with a large private practice and 
constant service as a consultant, Dr. 
Howe maintained intimate relations with 
Hartford Hospital, Dispensary and Re- 
treat. 

The year between graduation from the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons and 
May, 1876, when he began private medical 
and surgical practice, Dr. Howe spent as 
assistant to Dr. H. P. Stearns at the Hart- 
ford Retreat for the Insane, a position he 
resigned. Soon after beginning practice 
he was appointed a member of the Hart- 
ford Dispensary staff, and from 1878 he 
was continuously a member of the stafif 
of the Hartford Hospital, and for years 
was also a member of the executive 
committee. In 1903 he was elected a 
member of the board of directors and 
chairman of the medical and surgical staff. 
He was thus intimately connected with 
the hospital for thirty-five years, and 
was the senior surgeon for whom the 
entire staff had the greatest respect and 
admiration. His was a potent voice in 
the councils of the institution, and his 
official connection carried him to its presi- 
dency. He was also visiting physician 
to the Hartford Retreat, and medical ref- 
eree in the service of several of the lead- 
ing insurance companies. He wrote many 
valuable papers which were read before 
medical societies of which he was a mem- 
ber, and demands for his services as a 
consultant came from all over the State, 
and in certain lines of surgical operations 
he was considered an authority. 

He held membership in the city and 
county medical societies, serving both as 
president; the Connecticut State and the 



American Medical associations, also in 
societies devoted to surgery, a branch 
which he made his special interest dur- 
ing the last decade of his life. When a 
young man of eighteen he served in the 
First Regiment, Vermont Militia, as pri- 
vate and hospital steward, and in Hart- 
ford as medical officer of the First Regi- 
ment. Connecticut National Guard, from 
1879 until 1890. Later he was assistant 
surgeon with rank of major, and then 
surgeon of the First Company, Governor's 
Foot Guard, which post he ever afterward 
filled. He was an enthusiastic student of 
art. and adorned the walls of his home 
with beautiful and valuable paintings. His 
medical and literary library was one of 
the finest in the State, and he keenly en- 
joyed the hours he was privileged to 
spend with his books. 

As a physician Dr. Howe realized the 
benefit to be derived from out-of-door 
exercise, and as he was fond of the sports 
of forest and stream, a great part of his 
recreation periods were spent on the pre- 
serves of St. Bernard's Fishing and Hunt- 
ing Club, in the Province of Quebec, he 
being one of the five Hartford men who 
were members of that club. He was also 
a member of the Country Club of Farm- 
ington, the Automobile, Republican and 
Hartford clubs of Hartford, and of the 
Connecticut Historical Society. His sum- 
mer home "Windhart" was at Lake Suna- 
pee. New Hampshire, and in practice he 
proved his theory : "A sound body is a 
fine foundation for a fine mind, and the 
modern method of training the body as 
well as the mind should be advocated and 
followed by all of us." 

As a member of the Fourth Congrega- 
tional Church of Hartford, Dr. Howe 
gave liberally of his time to its work and 
interests. His engagements were so timed 
that he might attend the regular preach- 
ing services on Sunday. He was presi- 



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ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



dent of the board of trustees and gave due 
attention to the by no means light burdens 
of that office. He was also president of 
the Fourth Church choir organization, 
and president of the men's class. He 
bore his full share of the responsibilities 
of church membership, and actively par- 
ticipated in Christian work. 

So his life was spent, and were aught 
needed as testimony as to the extent of 
his influence and the esteem in which he 
was held the scene at the Fourth Church 
on the day of his funeral would supply it. 
There were the staff of the First Com- 
pany, Governor's Foot Guard ; the board 
of directors of the Hartford Hospital ; 
the internes of the hospital ; the training 
school classes of the hospital ; the Sunday 
school class of men which he taught : 
Hartford Medical Society, in a body, and 
a throng of his friends from every walk 
of life who came to honor the memory of 
the beloved physician. 

Dr. Howe married, April 12, 1876, Har- 
riet M. Stevens, daughter of Luther M. 
and Mary Ann (Catlin) Stevens, of Jeri- 
cho, Vermont. Mrs. Howe survives her 
husband. Their children : i. Frances Bliss, 
who died in 191 1, some time previous to 
her father, was the wife of Alfred W. 
Muchlow, and mother of Brereton H., 
Lucien H., and Frances A. Muchlow. 2. 
Horace Stevens, born September 19. 1878, 
y graduate of Hartford High School, 1898, 
student of Hotchkiss School, Lakeville. 
end of Sheffield Scientific School, Yale 
University ; he decided upon a business 
career, and in 1903 established a general 
insurance business in Hartford which he 
still successfully continues. 3. Lucia, died 
in infancy. 



GRIPPIN, William Avery, 

Manufacturer. 

With the passing of William Avery 
Grippin, of Bridgeport, the pioneer man- 



ufacturer of malleable iron and head of a 
great corporation, a wave of genuine re- 
gret swept over the community in which 
he was so well known. To his associates 
in the many interests he served his loss 
seemed an irreparable one, for they had 
leaned heavily upon his clear vision, sound 
judgment and great executive ability. 
His standard of commercial integrity was 
high, his conception of duty very exact- 
ing and to the trusts committed to him h< 
was loyally devoted. Above all was < 
spirit of pure Christianity which embraced 
every department of life, holding him true 
to every obligation of manhood and citi- 
zenship. 

Mr. Grippin was of Welsh-English ar 
cestry, his progenitors first settling in 
Vermont, later in Corinth, New York. 
He was a great-grandson of Elijah Grip- 
pin, a soldier of the Revolution. His 
father, Alonzo J. Grippin, was a farmer of 
Corinth, New York, a man of character 
and worth, highly esteemed. Alonzo J. 
Grippin married Mary Burritt, a woman 
of deep spirituality, and under the influ- 
ence of these Christian parents their son 
imbibed the principles that were a com- 
pelling force in his after life. 

William Avery Grippin was born at the 
homestead in Corinth, Saratoga county. 
New York, February 23, 185 1, died at 
Grand Canyon, Arizona, February 28, 
191 1, just past his sixtieth birthday. He 
passed the first fifteen years of his life at 
the homestead, attended public schools 
and assisted his father. The spring and 
summer of 1869 was spent at Eastman's 
Business College at Poughkeepsie, New 
York, and in the September following he 
began his business career by entering the 
office employ of a Troy, New York, firm 
engaged in the iron manufacturing busi- 
ness. This was in accordance with his 
own preferences, his ambition being for 
a business life. He began with the motto : 
"If anything is worth doing at all it is 



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DATIONS 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



worth doing well" and rapid advance- 
ment rewarded him. Fifteen years after 
his entrance into the business world, a 
lad of sixteen, he was elected president of 
the Troy Malleable Iron Company, and 
from 1884 until his death continued its 
able executive head. The same year 
(1884) he was elected treasurer of the 
Bridgeport Malleable Iron Company. In 
November, 1890, he was elected presi- 
dent of the Vulcan Iron Works of New 
Britain, Connecticut, holding all of these 
executive positions until his death as well 
as serving as a director of several other 
industrial manufacturing corporations. 

After his Bridgeport interests became 
important he made that city his residence 
and became very influential. In addition 
to his manufacturing interests, which be- 
came very large, he served the Pequon- 
nock National Bank of Bridgeport and 
the Century Bank of the City of New 
York as a director. He was one of the 
pioneers in the malleable iron industry 
and the corporations whose destinies he 
guided were all prosperous, their expan- 
sion and success largely due to his won- 
derful executive ability, and he will ever 
stand as one of the "great iron masters" 
of his day. His eminently successful 
business life had as its foundation stones 
industry, promptness and integrity, and 
at the height of his career, speaking to 
young men, he advocated a close adher- 
ence to the foregoing traits and in addi- 
tion said : "Stand firmly for principle, 
avoid debt and keep expenditures well 
within income. If you do not find just 
what you would like to do, take what you 
can find and do it so well that something 
more desirable will follow as a natural 
result." 

A Republican in national politics, Mr. 
Grippin exercised the greatest independ- 
ence in local affairs, supporting the man 
he deemed the best fitted for the office 



aspired to, regardless of party. Between 
1894 and 1904 he served two unexpired 
terms and one full term of three years on 
the Board of Apportionment and Taxa- 
tion of the City of Bridgeport. A Baptist 
in religious preference he took a deep 
interest in church work. From October, 
1896, until October, 1900, he was presi- 
dent of the Connecticut Baptist Conven- 
tion, and from April, 1904, was a member 
of the executive committee of the Ameri- 
can Baptist Home Mission .Society of 
New York. During 1901-02 he was pres- 
ident of the Connecticut Baptist Social 
Union and ever thereafter a member. He 
loyally and generously supported the 
local church, and in his private life ex- 
emplified the virtues of the Christian 
faith. He enjoyed the society of his fel- 
lowmen in his hours "off duty," was very 
hospitable, genial and friendly, a member 
of the Seaside, Yacht and Contemporary 
clubs of Bridgeport, and of the Historical 
and Scientific Society. He generously 
supported all good causes and was ever 
ready to lend a helping hand to the de- 
serving. 

Mr. Grippin married (first) November 
10, 1875, Adell Jackson, of Ballston Spa, 
New York, who died in April, 1907. They 
were the parents of a son, William Jack- 
son, and a daughter, Edna Adell, who 
married Dudley M. Morris, of Bridge- 
port. William Jackson Grippin was born 
in Troy, New York, was brought to 
Bridgeport by his parents in 1884; pre- 
pared in Bridgeport High School, entered 
Yale University, whence he was gradu- 
ated class of "97." He then entered the 
ofifice employ of the Bridgeport Malleable 
Iron Company, advancing through vari- 
ous promotions to his present office of 
treasurer. He is a capable man of affairs, 
and in his citizenship aspires to the best 
things. He is a member of the Brook- 
lawn, University and Yale clubs. He mar- 



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ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



ried, April lo, 1907, Ethel Kimber, of 
Bridgeport, and has a son Kenneth and a 
daughter Rosalind. Mr. Grippin married 
(second) Minnie L. Tillou, who survives 
him, and is living at Marina Park street, 
Bridgeport. She is the daughter of Wal- 
ter G. and Louise (Smith) Tillou, of New- 
Haven, Connecticut. 



HALL, Seth Jacob, 

Tinancier, Public Official, Philanthropist. 

In the year 1857, Seth Jacob Hall be- 
came a resident of the city of Meriden, 
Connecticut, and for over half a century 
his business ability, his public spirit, and 
€very attribute of his great nature, were 
freely employed in the development of his 
adopted city. His ability as a business 
man brought him prominently among the 
leading men of the commercial and finan- 
cial world of his city, while his public- 
spirited interest in affairs political, phil- 
anthropic and religious, brought him the 
esteem, and confidence of the public. His 
life of nearly eighty years was one of 
ceaseless activity, and until its very close 
Tie retained his interest in business and in 
the various organizations with which he 
Iiad been officially connected for so long. 

Mr. Hall was of the seventh generation 
of the family founded in Connecticut by 
John Hall, born in England in 1605, died 
in Wallingford, Connecticut, in 1676. He 
was one of the early settlers of Hartford, 
where he was granted six acres in a divi- 
sion of land. He married, in 1641, Jane 
Wollen, who died November 14, 1690, the 
mother of his nine children. The line of 
descent to Seth J. Hall was through 
Thomas Hall, fifth son of John Hall, the 
founder, who was born in New Haven, 
March 25, 1649, married June 5, 1673, 
Grace Watson, this being the first mar- 
riage appearing in the records of Walling- 
ford, Connecticut. Their son, Joseph 



Hall, born July 8, 1681, died November 
3, 1748, married, November 13, 1706, 
Bethiah Terrell. 

Ephraim Hall, son of Joseph and Be- 
thiah (Terrell) Hall, was born April 25, 
1723, and resided at North Farms, Wall- 
ingford. He married (second) October 
13, 1763, Chloe Moss, daughter of David 
and Mindwell (Doolittle) Moss. They 
were the parents of nine children, the line 
of descent following through their son 
Comfort. 

Comfort Hall was born February 25, 
1773, and lived in Wallingford until about 
1797, when he moved to Middletown, 
Westfield Society, and later bought a 
farm upon which he resided until his 
death, November 20, 1855. He was an 
earnest devoted Methodist, and an orig- 
inal trustee of the Middlefield church, and 
at his home kept "open house" for the 
entertainment of the traveling ministers 
of the early church. He married, Feb- 
ruary I, 1796, Jemima Bacon, born Feb- 
ruary 2, 1775, died February 24, 1847, 
daughter of Phineas and Sarah (Atkins) 
Bacon. 

Sylvester Hall, son of Comfort and 
Jemima (Bacon) Hall, was born Novem- 
ber 22, 1796, and died October 3, 1875. 
He was a farmer of Middletown, a man 
of good education, filled many town 
offices, and by appointment of Governor 
Foot, made April 25, 1834, was captain of 
the First Company, Fourth Regiment of 
Cavalry, State Militia. He, too, was a 
Methodist, and in politics a Democrat. 
He married (second) November 30, 1825, 
Rosetta Johnson, born October 15, 1806, 
died October 30, 1869, daughter of Com- 
fort and Sarah (Bacon) Johnson. 

Seth Jacob Hall, eldest son of Sylvester 
Hall and his second wife, Rosetta John- 
son, was born at the homestead in Mid- 
dletown, Connecticut, September 4, 1829, 
died in Meriden, Connecticut, May 27, 



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1909. He was educated in the public 
schools and Moore's Select School, and 
until reaching legal age remained at the 
home farm as his father's assistant. 
During these years he had pursued 
courses of self study, and with a sound 
body also developed a strong intellectu- 
ality. On arriving at the age of twenty- 
one he began teaching during the winter 
months in a school near Middletown, and 
for nine years taught the winter term, 
and spent the summer months as a bur- 
nisher in the factories of Jesse G. Bald- 
win and the Charles Parker Company. In 
1857 he began his residence in Meriden, 
and there continued until his useful life 
ended. 

On first coming to Meriden, Mr. Hall 
entered the employ of Harrison W. Cur- 
tis, a crockery and hardware merchant, 
remaining with him four years. There 
were intervals during this period when, 
business being dull, he obtained leave of 
absence and again taught a winter school. 
In 1861 he established in business for 
himself as a flour dealer. Later, he added 
grain, feed and coal to his lines, and a 
period of prosperity began which ever 
continued. For a time he was a member 
of the firm of I. C. Lewis & Company, 
but that association existed for only about 
two years, and for well over forty years 
the business was conducted under his 
own name. 

As prosperity came, Mr. Hall added to 
his activities a line of real estate invest- 
ment, became a large property owner, and 
did much for the development of the city. 
As he came more and more into the pub- 
lic eye he was sought for by other cor- 
porations. He was a director and vice- 
president of the Meriden National Bank ; 
president and treasurer of the Meriden 
and Middletown Turnpike Company ; 
member of the board of appraisal of the 
City Savings Bank of Meriden ; and to 
these corporations gave the same careful. 



devoted attention as to his private con- 
cerns. 

In public afifairs he took a deep interest, 
and was one of the leaders of the Demo- 
cratic party of his city. He served his 
city and town as councilman, alderman, 
town treasurer, member of the boards of 
relief, apportionment and taxation. His 
reputation as an ofificial brought him the 
nomination for State Senator, and for 
four years (1891-95) he represented the 
Sixth District with honor and distinction 
in the State Senate. He aided in the 
establishment of Meriden Hospital, being 
one of the incorporators, and was long a 
trustee and treasurer of that institution, 
and held a like relation to the State Re- 
form School for Boys. He was a member 
of the building committee of the Young 
Men's Christian Association, and for 
years was a trustee and treasurer of the 
local association. He was for many years 
a deacon of the First Baptist Church of 
Meriden and active in his support of the 
various societies and benevolences of the 
church. He was a vice-president and a 
trustee of the Baptist Seaside Resort As- 
sociation at Niantic, Connecticut. 

Mr. Hall married, October 14, i860, 
Lois Blakeslee, born in Wallingford, Con- 
necticut, January 24, 1833, daughter of 
Silas and Esther (Buel) Blakeslee. Mrs. 
Hall survives her husband, and continues 
her residence at the handsome home on 
East Main street, erected in 1891. Mr. 
and Mrs. Hall were the parents of four 
children : John Blakeslee Hall, married 
Jennie Holcombe Yale , Judson Sylvester 
Hall ; Silas Blakeslee Hall, married Aleda 
Baker; Esther Rosetta Hall. 



CHAMBERLAIN, Abiram, 

Banker, State Comptroller, Governor. 

The death of ex-Governor Abiram 
Chamberlain, of Meriden, Connecticut, on 
Alay 15, 191 1, was a loss keenly felt by 



269 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the whole community, removing as it did 
from the scene of his busy life one of the 
foremost and best beloved citizens of the 
State. He was descended from distin- 
guished .Colonial ancestry. His father 
was Deacon Abiram Chamberlain, a man 
of much prominence in Litchfield county, 
Connecticut, where he enjoyed an envi- 
able reputation for integrity and sagacity. 
He was a civil engineer of great ability, 
and known far and wide for his engaging 
personality. Mr. Chamberlain, Sr., was 
married to Sophronia Ruth Burt, a de- 
scendant of Henry and Eulalia Burt. 

Abiram Chamberlain, the younger, was 
born December 7, 1837, in Colebrook 
River, Litchfield county, Connecticut, and 
there received the elementary portion of 
his education. He then matriculated at 
Williston Seminary at Easthampton, 
Massachusetts, where he studied civil 
engineering, the profession of his father. 
It was shortly after completing his course 
that his family removed to New Britain, 
Connecticut, where Mr. Chamberlain 
practiced civil engineering with his father, 
and learned the trade of rule making. His 
real career in business may only be said 
to have commenced, when, abandoning 
this line of activity, he entered the employ 
of the New Britain National Bank in the 
capacity of teller. His unusual ability in 
the field of banking caused him to turn 
from the profession of engineering and 
devote his entire attention to his new call- 
ing. 

In the year 1867, eleven years after his 
arrival in New Britain, he removed to 
Meriden, Connecticut, to accept the posi- 
tion of cashier of the Home National 
Bank of that city. In 1881, he was elected 
president of this institution to succeed 
Mr. Eli Butler, upon the latter's death. 
In this important and responsible posi- 
tion Mr. Chamberlain's exceptional gifts 
w^ere emphasized, and his management of 



the bank was of such a nature that the 
institution enjoyed a long period of sub- 
stantial and marked development. He 
became a recognized authority on matters 
of finance and banking, and broadened his 
business associations to include a number 
of important concerns. He was one of 
the promoters of the Meriden, Waterbury 
& Connecticut River railroad, and presi- 
dent of the Winthrop Hotel Company. 
He was also president of the Meriden Fire 
Insurance Company, and vice-president of 
the Meriden Savings Bank, and a director 
of the Meriden Hospital, Meriden Cut- 
lery Company, Edward Miller & Com- 
pany, and the Stanley Works, of New 
Britain. His prestige in banking circles 
continued to grow not only in his home 
State but throughout the country, and 
he was chosen president of the Connecti- 
cut Bankers' Association, and a vice-pres- 
ident of the American Bankers' Associa- 
tion. But in spite of his prominence in 
this department of the community's life, 
it was not in that connection that Mr. 
Chamberlain was best known in his State, 
but in that of more popular politics. 

Mr. Chamberlain had always been a 
member of the Republican party, and a 
man of his influence and popularity could 
not fail to take some part in political 
affairs. He represented Meriden in the 
State Legislature in 1877 and 1878, and 
at the close of his term withdrew to 
private life with the simplicity character- 
istic of him, and did not seek further ad- 
vancements. His creditable legislative 
record, his State-wide acquaintance and 
great personal popularity, however, again 
brought him into the political arena. In 
1901 he was nominated by acclamation 
and elected comptroller of the State, serv- 
ing in that office for two years. Under 
his direction many important changes and 
improvements were made in the State 
capitol building — electric lighting in- 



270 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



stalled, dome illuminated, and the original 
charter and other valuable State records 
properly protected against fire. In 1902 
he was nominated for Governor of Con- 
necticut. His campaign for this high 
office was a memorable one and his vic- 
tory complete, his election being carried 
by a large majority. Governor Chamber- 
lain's administration was one reflecting 
great credit upon his home city, his party 
and his State. His prompt and decisive 
action in the Waterbury trolley strike was 
commended by the press throughout the 
country ; his notable veto of the bill to 
divide the town of Norwalk into two 
towns, and his ruling upon the interpre- 
tation of the constitution relative to the 
Governor's veto power (which was up- 
held by the Supreme Court), were among 
the important events of his administra- 
tion. The magnificent State Library, 
Memorial Hall and Supreme Court build- 
ing, and the fireproofing of the State cap- 
itol building and construction of the new 
senate chamber, were the results of legis- 
lation recommended in his inaugural mes- 
sage. Connecticut was ably represented 
at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at 
St. Louis by Governor Chamberlain and 
his official party; the dedication of the 
monument to the Fifth and Twentieth 
Connecticut Volunteers on Orchard Knob, 
Chattanooga, Tennessee ; the occasion of 
the launching of the battleship "Connecti- 
cut," at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, and the 
dedication of the monument to Sir Wil- 
liam Johnson and William Hendricks at 
Lake George, New York, were notable 
events in an eventful administration. 

Governor Chamberlain was a man of 
natural executive ability and a keen judge 
of human nature. He had a wide knowl- 
edge of business affairs, a quiet dignity, 
force of character, and, above all, a won- 
derful personal charm which won for him 
a host of loyal and devoted friends. All 



of his official as well as his acts in private 
and business life, were tempered with 
consideration for the feelings of others, 
and his name is honored and held in 
affectionate remembrance throughout the 
State. In 1903 Wesleyan University con- 
ferred upon him the degree of LL. D. in 
recognition of his services to the State of 
Connecticut. 

He was a member of the Piatt Memo- 
rial Commission, the Chamberlain Associ- 
ation of America, and was a prominent 
figure in social and club circles of Meri- 
den ; he was a member of the Home and 
Colonial clubs of Meriden, the Union 
League of New Haven, the Hartford 
Club, and the Metabetchouan Fishing and 
Game Club of Canada. He possessed a 
strong love for outdoor life, and the 
sports associated therewith, particularly 
fishing, golf and baseball. 

Governor Chamberlain's religious affil- 
iation was with the Congregational 
church, and he was for many years a 
faithful attendant at the First Church of 
that denomination in Meriden. 

Governor Chamberlain was married, 
November 21, 1872, to Miss Charlotte E. 
Roberts, who with their two sons, Albert 
Roberts and Harold Burt, survives her 
husband. The elder son, Albert Roberts, 
is a graduate of Sheffield Scientific School 
of Yale University and of the Yale Law 
School, and was executive secretar}^ 
during- his father's administration. 



BALDWIN, Samuel Wheeler, 

Merdiant, Financier. 

A review of the life of Samuel Wheeler 
Baldwin reveals the fact that it was one 
of activity from boyhood to old age, and 
that when but eighteen he began under 
his own name a business career that only 
terminated with his last illness. He was 
connected with many business corpora- 



271 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



tions of Bridgeport, but will be longest 
remembered for the great length and 
value of his service with the Connecticut 
National Bank, his connection with that 
institution as director covering a period of 
fifty-eight years, 1858-1916, and as presi- 
dent thirty-six years, 1880-1916. He was 
the oldest bank president in Bridgeport, 
and it is doubtful if in the entire State his 
record was equalled, although President 
Talcott of the Rockville National Bank 
recently celebrated his ninetieth birth- 
day. Mr. Baldwin was ninety-two years 
old at his death, and was one of the re- 
markable men of a city which has ever 
been noted for men of ability and promi- 
nence. That he was vouchsafed such a 
long life is not his claim to remembrance, 
but the fact that every year of that life 
was well accounted for and that it was 
not lived for his own glory and advance- 
ment. He served his city as an official, 
philanthropy and charity benefited by his 
personal interest and generosity, and to 
the church he gave her due. His char- 
acter broadened and deepened as the years 
progressed, and there was that about him 
which inspired confidence and commanded 
respect. History teems with the deeds of 
Baldwins from the year 778, A. D., and 
there have been mighty men of valor who 
have borne the name, but none have lived 
more useful lives or deserved better of their 
fellowmen than Samuel Wheeler Baldwin, 
of Bridgeport, of the eighth generation of 
the family founded in Connecticut by John 
Baldwin. 

John Baldwin, born in England, was an 
early settler of New Haven, and one of 
the first planters of Milford, Connecticut. 
The line of descent is through his son. 
Josiah Baldwin, baptized at Milford, 
March 20, 1648, being then about six 
years of age; his son, Samuel Baldwin, 
called "Sr" in the Milford records; his 
son, Caleb Baldwin, of Milford ; his son. 



Jared Baldwin, a soldier of the Revolu- 
tion, who after the war moved to the 
Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania ; his 
son, John Baldwin, of Weston, Connecti- 
cut ; his son, Nathan Baldwin, of Bridge- 
port, Connecticut ; his son, Samuel 
Wheeler Baldwin, the central figure of 
this review. 

Samuel Wheeler Baldwin, son of Na- 
than and Julia Ann (Wheeler) Baldwin, 
was born in Bridgeport, Connecticut, June 
I, 1823, died in his native city, December 
25, 1914. After attendance at public and 
private school, he was for a time in the 
employ of his uncle, Josiah Baldwin, a 
book publisher ; then was in Newark, 
New Jersey, with Benjamin Olds in his 
book store on Broad street. He was 
eighteen years of age when he returned 
to Bridgeport from Newark, and began 
business for himself as a bookbinder in a 
small plant on Wall street. He did not 
long continue there, but opened a book 
store which he conducted until 1852. In 
that year he entered the partnership of 
Thomas Hawley & Company, hardware 
dealers of Bridgeport, continuing until his 
death. The business of T. Hawley & 
Company was Samuel W. Baldwin's chief 
concern for many years, and as a mer- 
chant he was very successful. In 1858 he 
was elected a member of the bank which 
later incorporated as the Connecticut Na- 
tional Bank, that association continuing 
until terminated by death fifty-eight years 
later. In 1880 he was elected president 
of the bank and to the duties of that re- 
sponsible office he devoted himself dur- 
ing the following thirty-six years. He 
was also president of the People's Savings 
Bank, of Bridgeport. He developed finan- 
cial ability of a high order, and as a bank 
executive gained high rank among the 
financiers of his State. He was also a 
director of the Bridgeport Hydraulic 
Company, a corporation supplying the 



272 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



city with its water supply, and for over 
tifty years was a sinking fund commis- 
sioner. He was one of the trustees under 
the Burroughs will ; was one of the in- 
corporators and builders of the Burroughs 
Home ; a life trustee named in the be- 
quest founding Bridgeport Hospital and 
ever afterward served as such ; served his 
city as fire commissioner for twenty-five 
years, and was long a member of the 
South Congregational Church. His club 
was the Seaside. Thus in honor and use- 
fulness his long life was passed and at no 
time, even when years were heaviest, did 
he seek to evade the responsibilities of 
life. The personal business obligations 
of this "grand old man" of Bridgeport 
were met in full until the last. Age 
shortened his step and dimmed his eye, 
but with clear mind and brain he met the 
"Arch Enemy." 

Mr. Baldwin married ( first) November 
ly, 1846, Mary Waterman Bussey, who 
died August 18, 1855, aged twenty-six 
years, daughter of Enos and Mary 
(Waterman) Bussey. Her mother, Mary 
(Waterman) Bussey, was a daughter of 
the Rev. Elijah Waterman, for twenty 
years pastor of the First Congregational 
Church of Bridgeport. Mr. Baldwin mar- 
ried (second) June i, 1858, Catherine 
Jane Nichols, born April 4, 1830, died Au- 
gust 14, 1902. Samuel and Mary W. 
(Bussey) Baldwin were the parents of a 
daughter, Mary Waterman Baldwin, who 
married Frederick Trubee ; a son, George 
Millard Baldwin, born February i, 1854, 
purchasing agent for the city of Bridge- 
port, married Clara B. Nichols, and re- 
sides in Bridgeport. 



CALHOUN, Philo Clark, 

Business Man, Financier. 

In this period of wonderful growth and 
expansion it is often hard to realize that 

Conn— 1—18 273 



it is within the memory of man when 
many of the now great corporations of the 
city were in their infancy and needed a 
great deal of careful nurturing to get 
them through childhood. This brings up 
c|uite naturally those men of other days 
and the part they bore in developing the 
city. About 1826 a young lad, Philo 
Clark Calhoun, came to Bridgeport. He 
was sixteen years of age then, delicate in 
health, but destined during the next half 
century to play a most important part in 
commercial, financial and official life. He 
was a son of Philo Calhoun, of Danbury, 
Connecticut, and grandson of Dr. Cal- 
houn, a physician of Washington, Con- 
necticut. His mother, Sally J. (McLean) 
Calhoun, was a daughter of John McLean, 
a government official during the War of 
the Revolution, who lost so heavily when 
Danbury was burned by the British that 
the Government granted him a large tract 
in the Western Reserve of Ohio. This 
Connecticut Calhoun family was con- 
nected with the Carolina Calhoun family 
from which sprang the great ''Nullifier,'' 
John C. Calhoun. 

Philo Clark Calhoun was born in Dan- 
bury, Connecticut, December 4, 1810, died 
in Bridgeport, ^larch 14, 1882. He at- 
tended Danbury schools until sixteen 
years of age, then came to Bridgeport to 
learn saddlery and the harness business 
with Lyons, Wright & Company. Later, 
his health failing, he was sent South with 
Lemuel Coleman to assist in the Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, store. There he re- 
mained until 1833 or 1834, when he re- 
turned to Bridgeport and became an as- 
sistant to Hanford Lyon in his saddlery 
business, also having an interest in the 
profits of the business. From this grew 
the firm of Lyon, Calhoun t^- Company, 
formed in 1838, which in 1843 gave way 
tc Harral & Calhoun, Mr. Harral having 
previously been head of the Charleston 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



branch. In 1853, Harral & Calhoun was 
succeeded by Harral, Calhoun & Com- 
pany, the additional partner being R. B. 
Lacey. Five years later, in 1858, that 
form was changed to Calhoun, Lacey & 
Company, and so continued until 1863. 
During the greater part of this period Mr. 
Calhoun was very active in the business, 
but he gradually withdrew from the de- 
tails of management, becoming more 
and more immersed in the management 
of the Connecticut Bank of which he 
had been elected president in March, 
1847. That bank was incorporated as 
a National Bank in 1864, and the same 
year Mr. Calhoun resigned to become 
vice-president of the newly formed 
Fourth National Bank of New York 
City. Mr. Calhoun succeeded Morris 
Ketcham as president of the Fourth Na- 
tional, and under his executive manage- 
ment the bank became one of the largest 
banks of deposit in the United States. 
During his presidency the bank was con- 
cerned in several large financial transac- 
tions, and at one time purchased in a 
block $5,000,000 worth of United States 
government bonds. During the panic of 
1872 and the excitement and ruin caused 
by the failure of Jay Cooke & Company, 
the Fourth National paid out in the regu- 
lar way in a little more than two days, 
more than $13,000,000 to withdrawing de- 
positors. This was one of the greatest 
financial operations with which Mr. Cal- 
houn was connected, and the bank was 
saved through his wisdom and ability to 
meet the situation. Mr. Calhoun also 
owned a controlling interest in a stock 
company manufacturing saddlery in New- 
ark, New Jersey, the company having 
formed as a stock concern after the dis- 
solution of the firm of Hoover, Calhoun 
& Company of Newark. He continued 
most active in business until the last, be- 
ing at the time of his death president of 



the Fourth National Bank, director of the 
Connecticut United Bank, director of the 
Farragut Insurance Company, treasurer 
01 the New Central Coal Company, and 
trustee of the mortgage issues of several 
railroads. He was a man of wonderful 
business ability, straightforward and hon- 
orable, had the courage of his convictions 
and with broad vision saw clearly the 
trend of events. He was true to every en- 
gagement and bore a character free from 
stain or reproach. He was exceedingly 
public-spirited, and when the Bridgeport 
Gas Light Company was formed he was 
one of the original stockholders. He also 
took a prominent part in the Common 
Council in securing a water supply, and 
was one of the first to come forward with 
a liberal subscription towards the estab- 
lishment of a public library. 

Originally a Whig, he did not go to 
the Republican party when the Whig 
party went out of existence, but became 
a Democrat, and few men in his city were 
more influential. He was elected to the 
Bridgeport Common Council in 1845 and 
served continuously for five years. In 
1852 he was elected alderman and in 1853 
mayor of the city, an office he held three 
years. He bent his energy to giving the 
city a needed business administration and 
fully succeeded. He inaugurated the town 
and city sinking funds, and for several 
years was their manager. He was elected 
to the foregoing office as a Democrat, and 
later represented the city in the State 
Legislature both as representative and 
Senator. 

Socially, Mr. Calhoun was charming 
and none came in contact with him, 
whether of high or low degree, but loved 
him and valued his friendship. He had a 
remarkable memory, remarkable not alone 
for the ability to commit lengthy poems 
and speeches but for its practical working 
value ready with item, page and book to 



274 






i^^fe" 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



decide financial, mercantile or political 
questions. Seventy-two were the years of 
his life, and right worthily were they 
spent, Bridgeport being a gainer through 
the life of her adopted son who for over 
half a century was identified with her 
business and political affairs. 

Mr. Calhoun married Sarah Caroline 
Sterling, daughter of Jesse Sterling, who 
was a prominent dry goods merchant of 
Bridgeport for many years, and postmas- 
ter during four administrations. Mr. and 
Mrs. Calhoun had five children: i. Ed- 
ward S., married Alice Hersey ; died 1889 ; 
left a daughter, Edith, who became the 
wife of Robert W. Harkness, of Salt Eake 
City, and they have three children. 2. 
Charles M., married Julia B. Sanford ; 
died 1916; left two sons, Philo C. and 
John C, and a daughter, Katherine. who 
became the wife of John C. Sterling, of 
Bridgeport, and they have one child. 3. 
Louise C, became the wife of G. W. 
Latham, of Lynchburg, Virginia ; she 
died 1916; left one son, Calhoun Latham. 
4. Julia E., became the wife of William 
B. Cragin. of New York City, and their 
children are as follows : Louise, became 
the wife of Dr. Lansing Lippincott, of 
Metuchen, New Jersey, and they have 
three children ; Calhoun, married Mary 
Harper, and they have two children ; Ells- 
worth, married, and is the father of two 
children ; William B., Jr., married, and is 
the father of two children ; Charles C, 
Arthur and Adele, unmarried. 5. Mary 
S.. became the wife of J. S. Burke, of 
Brooklyn, New York; she died 1909; left 
one child, Florence C, who became the 
wife of John Sherwood, of Madison, New 
Jersey. 



CURTIS, George Munson, 

Manufacturer, Publicist, Public Benefactor. 



No country can ever be too democratic 
to object to the aristocracy of merit. In- 



deed, it may well be held that one of the 
most important raison d'etre of democracy 
is that it causes this aristocracy to prevail 
and take the place of a more artificial 
order. That such an aristocracy may have 
many of the appearances of the older and 
more formal types, that it may, for ex- 
ample, retain wealth, position, influence 
within the grasp of a family ; that these 
things, together with the powers upon 
which they depend, may descend gener- 
ation after generation from father to son, 
is amply shown by the records of such a 
family as that of Curtis, whose representa- 
tives throughout the history of Meriden, 
Connecticut, and before, have distin- 
guished themselves in connection with 
the affairs of that State. Perhaps the 
most successful and capable scion of this 
important family of recent years was 
George Munson Curtis, whose name 
beads this brief sketch, and whose death 
on August 28, 191 5, at Meriden, deprived 
that city of a leading participant in many 
departments of its life. 

George Munson Curtis was the eldest 
of the three children of George Redfield 
and Augusta (Munson) Curtis. He was 
born May 2y, 1857, at Meriden, in what 
was then the Curtis home at No. 86 West 
Main street, and his entire career was 
identified with the various interests of his 
native city. As a child he played there, 
and when he reached the age for school 
attended what was known as the Old 
Corner School, where he displayed the 
quickness of intellect and the scholarly 
tastes that so strongly characterized him 
in after life. A little later he attended the 
Episcopal Military Academy at Cheshire, 
Connecticut, where he prepared himself 
for the college course which it was both 
his own and his father's desire he should 
take. Graduated from this institution, he 
matriculated at Trinity College, Hartford, 
and here he once more made a name for 
himself as a brilliant student. He had 



275 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



been the valedictorian of his class in 
Cheshire, and at Trinity he gained a high 
standing among the professors and in- 
structors and his fellow undergraduates. 
Unfortunately, however, this promising 
scholastic career was brought to sudden 
close by a failure of health which made it 
advisable to withdraw him from college 
altogether and send him for a tour of 
Europe. Although this tour was under- 
taken with no other purpose than com- 
plete rest and recreation, Mr. Curtis, with 
his usual habit of absorbing all that oc- 
curred about him, managed to make it 
an educational trip, and profited greatly 
mentally as well as physically therefrom. 
Upon his return, his health restored, he 
entered at once the employ of the Meriden 
Britannia Company, of which at that time 
bis father was treasurer. The position of 
the younger man was simply clerical for 
a time, it being his father's intention that 
he should learn the business in all its de- 
tail. This the young man set himself to 
do with such good success, and made him- 
self so valuable to the company in the 
meantime that he was appointed assistant 
treasurer, his father occupying the oflice 
of treasurer at that time. In 1893 his 
father died, and he was chosen treasurer 
in his stead. Five years later the merger 
occurred which consolidated the silver 
and britannia interests of that region, and 
from which rose the International Silver 
Company. Mr. Curtis was chosen first 
assistant treasurer of this great concern, 
and two years later became treasurer, an 
office that he held until the time of his 
death. Some idea of the immense respon- 
sibilities that were involved in the duties 
of this office may be had when it is known 
that there were thirteen factories in oper- 
ation, seven in Meriden and six in other 
cities, to say nothing of the stores and 
other selling agencies. 

But although the duties of such a post 



were sufficiently exacting to seem a task 
for any man, Mr. Curtis did not limit his 
interests to any single concern, but was 
active in many of the industrial and finan- 
cial concerns of Meriden, such as the 
Home National Bank, of which he was 
vice-president; the Meriden Gas Light 
Company and the Meriden Electric Light 
Company, of both of which he was sec- 
retary and treasurer; the Meriden Trust 
and Safe Deposit Company and the Aler- 
iden Savings Bank, of both of which he 
was director ; and the Meriden Cemetery 
Association, of which he was president. 

Any account of Mr. Curtis, however, 
which took into account only his business 
activities would be inadequate indeed, for, 
important as these were, they were per- 
haps second to his achievements in other 
lines. As a philanthropist and man of 
letters, as a connoisseur of art and a his- 
torian, Mr. Curtis was equally well 
known. He was one of those men who 
seem to possess the power of multiplying 
time, to say nothing of their own strength, 
so that they can successfully undertake any 
number of tasks and carry them through 
to a conclusion. In the department of 
philanthropy he was tireless, giving the 
most amazing amount of energy and time 
to the effort to better the unfortunate 
members of the community, and to raise 
the general enlightenment and culture. 
His mother, Augusta (Munson) Curtis, 
had given to the city the handsome mar- 
ble structure which now houses the Meri- 
den Public Library Collection as a memo- 
rial to her husband and daughter, and to 
Mr. Curtis fell the task of overseeing its 
construction. He never lost interest in 
this institution, but proved himself one 
of its greatest friends, contributing most 
generously both books and money to the 
advancement of its usefulness in the com- 
munity. For many years he served as its 
president, and he was also president of 



276 



liXCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



the Meriden Hospital. One of his chief 
interests, indeed, was the cause of public 
health, and he was active in many ways 
to aid in its conservation. As treasurer of 
the ]\Ieriden Public Health Association, 
and as a leader in the organizations which 
preceded it, he took a large part in the 
campaign that is being waged against 
tuberculosis in this country. As secretary 
he aided greatly in the successful man- 
agement of the Curtis Home, established 
by Lemuel J. Curtis for the care of 
orphans and aged women. 

In the matter of the history of his city 
and State. Mr. Curtis was an authority. 
A strong interest had possessed him from 
his youth in the doings of the men who 
made New England what it is, and urged 
him to make a profound study of the sub- 
ject of early colonial history, including 
much original research into this some- 
what complex subject. He was the author 
of a monumental work on the early his- 
tory of Aleriden, published in "A Century 
of Meriden," which was brought out in 
connection with the one hundredth anni- 
versary of the city. He was associated 
with many clubs and organizations for the 
preservation of the historic records and 
tradition of the country in general, and of 
New England in particular. Among these 
should be mentioned the American His- 
torical Society, the Connecticut Historical 
Society, the New Haven Colony Histor- 
ical Society, the Biblophile vSociety of 
Boston, the Walpole Society, and the 
semi-historical and semi-patriotic socie- 
ties, such as the Society of Colonial Wars, 
the Mayflower Society, and the Sons of 
the American Revolution, of the John 
Couch Branch, of which he was secretary 
and treasurer for many years. He was 
also a member of such foreign societies as 
the Royal Societies Club of London, and 
the Egyptian Exploration Fund of Lon- 
don ; while nearer home he belonged to 



the Grolier Club and St. Anthony Club of 
New York, and the Home Club and High- 
land Country Club of Meriden. Mr. Cur- 
tis was an authority on the subject of sil- 
verware, ancient and modern, and spent 
much of his time in collecting valuable 
antiques until his beautiful home became 
a veritaljle museum. He prepared the in- 
teresting history of the silversmiths of his 
native State which appeared in the cata- 
logue of the exhibition of silver in the 
Museum of Fine Arts in Boston in 1911. 
He also wrote a most informing work en- 
titled "The Early Silver of Connecticut 
and Its ^Makers." For this labor in the 
field of historical research. Trinity Col- 
lege conferred on him in 191 1 the degree 
of ]\Iaster of Arts. His fondness for 
antiques was not, indeed, confined to sil- 
ver, for he possessed a splendid collection 
of old furniture as well as miscellaneous 
objects of virtu. In the general social life 
of the community Mr. Curtis was a con- 
spicuous figure, and took a part much 
more active than it would seem possible 
for so busy a man. 

One of the chief interests of Mr. Curtis 
was his religion and church. He was an 
Episcopalian both by conviction and 
training, his family having for many years 
})layed a chief part in the advancement of 
the cause of that church in Connecticut. 
'Sir. Curtis's parents were for many years 
prominently identified with the parish of 
St. Andrew's in Meriden, and IMr. Curtis 
himself was a lifelong member and held 
the office of junior warden during the lat- 
ter part of his life. 

]\lr. Curtis married, November 30, 1886, 
Sophie Phillips Mansfield, of Meriden. a 
daughter of Thomas Trowbridge and 
Katherine (Hurlburt) Mansfield, old and 
highly honored residents of that city. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Curtis was born one daugh- 
ter, Agnes Mansfield, who married, June 
I, 1910, William Bowen Church, of Mer- 



277 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY 



iden, and they have two children : George 
Curtis, born March 29, 191 1 ; and William 
Bowen, Jr., born May 16, 1914. 

The influence of such a man as Mr. Cur- 
tis upon a community is one of the most 
difficult things in the world to gauge, for 
many reasons. In the first place, it is 
directed in so many different channels 
and operates in so many distinct ways 
that there is no common standard by 
which to measure it; and, in the second 
place, many of these ways are of that in- 
tangible kind which we classify as 
aesthetic and spiritual, for which we have 
no standard of measurement at all. As a 
business man, we can see in something 
like concrete form the industries and 
financial institutions that are in a degree 
at least the fruit of his efforts and acumen, 
and even in the more altruistic sphere of 
philanthropy we can see such things as 
hospitals and homes that have been called 
into existence or fostered by him. Such, 
for instance, in the case of his work 
against tuberculosis, are the various soci- 
eties that have grown up in that region, 
with this end in view, and of which he 
was for many years an officer, though 
even here what has actually been accomr 
plished in the way of relieving suffering 
and promoting health and happiness is 
beyond our ken. Still more so is this the 
case in such matters as his scientific and 
artistic researches, his work, for example, 
as an Egyptologist, or as a collector of 
rare books, not only cannot be measured, 
but, without an effort of the imagination, 
cannot even be apprehended. Yet of such 
things we know that, although their value 
cannot be expressed, it is a very real one, 
and that the indebtedness of a community 
to one who has given to its members 
knowledge and culture is profound in- 
deed, for what are these things but new 
glimpses into the beauties and wonders 
of the universe and fresh occasions for 
tasting of new joys. 



PLUMB, David Wells, 

Manufacturer, Financier. 

David Wells Plumb was a member of 
one of the oldest New England families, 
a family representative of the best type 
which came from the "Mother Country" 
and established the English people as the 
foundation of the social structure in the 
United States. Dominant and persistent 
in character and blood, it has given the 
prevailing traits to the population of this 
country, which no subsequent inroads of 
foreign races has sufficed to submerge, 
and has formed a base for our citizenship 
upon which the whole vast and composite 
fabric of this growing people is being 
erected in safety. The Plumb arms are 
as follows : x\rgent. A bend vaire, or and 
gules, between two bendlets vert. Crest : 
Out of a ducal coronet, a plume of ostrich 
feathers, proper. 

It was sometime prior to the year 1634 
when the founder of the Plumb family in 
this country came to the then scarcely 
established Colony of New London and 
settled there. This enterprising voyager 
was George Plumb, of Taworth, Essex, 
England. From him David Wells Plumb 
of this sketch traced his descent directly 
to George Plumb, of Essex, being seven 
generations removed from this ancestor. 
The steps in this descent were as follows : 
George Plumb, already mentioned ; John 
Plumb, born in New London, in 1634, 
married Miss Elizabeth Green about 1662 ; 
Jos